DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
VITIGULTURAL STATION, BUTHERGLEN, VICTOEIA.
GRAFTING AND BUDDING,
AS APPLIED TO
RECONSTITUTE WITH AMERICAN VINES.
Compiled and Translated from Ft "nek ^nthoriti
RAYMOND DUBOIS, B.Sc. (Paris),
Diplome E.A,M.; D>. n\<... r of th ^iticultural Station; Chief Inspector of
Yin&yo. rds for Victoria ;
W. PERCY WILKINSON,
Consulting Analyst to the Board of Public Health and the M. u,id Af. Hoard of
Works ; Private Assistant to the Government Analyst.
ROBT. S. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, MELBOURNE.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
VITICULTURAL STATION, RTJTHBEGLEN, VICTORIA.
GRAFTING AND BUDDING,
AS APPLIED TO
EECONSTITUTION WITH AMERICAN VINES.
Compiled and Translated from French Authorities
RAYMOND DUBOIS, B.Sc. (Paris),
Diploma E.A.M.; Director of Hie Viticultnral Station; Chief Inspector
Vineyards for Victoria ;
W. PERCY WILKINSON,
Consulting Analyst to the Board of Public Health and the M. and M. Board of
Work.* ; Private Axsixfant to the Government Analyst.
ROBT. S. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, MELBOURNE.
When two branches or stems of closely related plants,
growing side by side in a forest, overlap and touch each
other, the bark becomes bruised and abraded. In such cases
it has been frequently observed that the sap exuding from
the alburnum produces pads (callus) by which incorporation
or knitting of the tissues takes place and the parts become
one. Thus the usual method of grafting may have origi-
Grafting above ground and budding as applied to vines is
not a new invention ; it was a common practice with the
Romans, while grafting underground was the exception.
This method is considered by many to be a discovery of
the end of the nineteenth century, yet it was described by
Palladius,* Columella,t Varro,J and Cato, the only Latin
* Hutili.ua Taurus Emilianus Palladius, who lived sometime between 140
and 380 A.D. loc. cit. (De Institutiomt>us Lib. XIV.) :
" Primus Echionii palmes se jungere Bacchi
Novit et externo tenditur uva mero.
Nexilibus gemmis foecundos implicat artus
Vitis et amplexum pascit adulta genus
Degenerisque comae vestigia mitis inumbrat
Pampinus et pingui curvat onusta deo."
t Lucius Juni us Muderatus Columella, (2 B.C. 65 A D. ) loc. cit. ( De Arbori-
fus Lib. XXVI.) : "Ex qua arbore inserere voles, in ea quoerito novellos
et nitidos ramos. In his deinde observato gemmam quce bene apparebit
certamque spem germinis habebit ; earn duobis digitis quadratis circum-
signato ut in medio gemma sit et ita acuto scalpello circumcidito, delibra-
toque diligenter ne gemmam kedas. Deinde in qua arbore inserere voles, in
ea nitidissimum ramum diligito et ejusdem spatio corticem circumdito et
materiam delibrato et in earn partem quam nudaveras gemmam hanc quam
ex altera arbore sumpseras aptato ita ut emplastrum circumcisce parti con-
veniat. Ubi hsec feceris, circa gemmam bene vincito ita ne laedas ; deinde
commissuras et vincula luto oblinito, spatio relicto quo gemma libere ger-
minet. Post unum et vigesinium diem, solvito emplastrum "
J Marcus Terentius Varro, born at Fan in 118 B.C. loc. cit. (De Agri-
cultura Lib. XL' I. ) : " Itaque vitem, triduo antequam inserunt, desecantut
qui in ea nimius est humor diffluat antequam inseratur. Aut in qua in-
serunt, in ea, paulo infra quam insitum est, incidunt unde humor adven-
ticius affluere possit."
Marcus Portias Cato, born at Tusculum 234 B.C. loc. cit. (De re
rustica Lib. XLII.) : " Quod genus aut ficum, aut oleum esse voles, inde
librum scalpro eximito, alterum librum cum gemma de eo fico quod genus
esse voles, eximito ; apponito in eum locum unde exsecaveris in alterum
genus, facitoque uti conveniat. Librum longum facito digitos III. S. latum
digitos tres. Ad cundem nodum ob linito, integito uti ccetera "
4 NEW METHODS OF QKAFTING AND BUDDING.
agriculturists whose works we possess. Some of these
authors even acknowledge that they drew their information
largely from Magon of Carthage, who wrote an encyclo-
pedia of agriculture in 22 volumes, 540 B.C., and Varro
declares with remarkable honesty that he only abridged
After ten years' persistent efforts and successful experi-
mentation in Europe, several new methods of grafting and
budding above ground, applied to vines, seem to have almost
reached perfection, and their use tends to become general,
although they were at first condemned by viticultural
It is interesting to note that all the efforts made during
the last ten years to perfect these methods tend, as they
become successful, to identify themselves with methods
already known to the ancients.
So far as our ignorance permits us to judge, budding and
grafting methods as we know them were not invented in
one day, but have simply reached their present stage, which
has yet to be improved, by careful and reasoned observation
and perseverance. It is only by consulting and studying the
accumulated evidence of successes and failures of past genera-
tions, that more perfect systems will be found. In order to
try and forward this final result, and induce vine-growers
to experiment themselves, the different methods of grafting
above ground (as described by their authors when pos-
sible) known and practised in Europe, have been collected
and brought together under the present form, the object
being to enable growers to study, combine and perfect them,
and by making use of knowledge already acquired, discover
or improve existing methods, or verify under varied condi-
tions the results obtained by others.
W. PERCY WILKINSON.
Rutherglen, January, 1901.
* G. Foex, Cours Complet de Viticulture, 3rd edit. 1891, p. W3.
GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND.
GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND.*
BY CH. TALLAVIGNES,
Director of the School of Agriculture, Ondes,
The results (satisfactory in most cases) of the methods of
grafting vines underground have prevented, viticulturists
from devoting attention to the grafting of the vine above
ground ; it may also be stated that the methods so far known
oi this manner of grafting, even when placed in experienced
hands, frequently resulted in failures.
This is so true that in 1886, Foex stated in his lectures at
the School of Agriculture, Montpellier, " Grafting above
ground, which theoretically realizes the most favorable con-
ditions (as a principle, the younger the stock the greater
the proportion of strikes, and the better the knitting) has
been abandoned on account of the rapidity with which the
scions become dry. The latter, as a matter of fact, lose
their vitality before knitting takes place unless kept in a
In recent years the idea of grafting above ground has
been revived, and new practical methods of easy execution,
giving almost certain strikes, have been devised. We will
study these rapidly, leaving aside purely fancy grafts too
difficult to perform, or those resembling the methods we are
going to describe.
INARCHING, OR GRAFTING BY APPROACH.
Until quite lately the only recommendable graft above
ground was the graft by approach, which we will not
* Revue de Viticulture, vol. I., 1894.
t G. Foex. Cours complet de Viticulture. 3rd edit. 1891, p. 293.
NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
describe, for it does not differ from
the ordinary inarching, of which
Hardy's opinion is "An artistic
method, but of little use."
The graft by approach is used to
replace the occasional misses on the
frame wood of cordons or spaliers. It
consists in splitting the shoot along
its axis, at the point where the scion
is to be placed ; a cut is made, varying
in depth, reaching the pith, and some-
times the opposite side of the shoot.
The scion is an elongated wedge,
carrying one eye, cut in such a manner
as to fit the slit exactly (Figs. 1, 2,
Fig. 1. Preparation of Stock
for the Graft by Approach.
Fig. 2. Graft by Approach. Fig. 3. Graft by Approach.
Front view of scion. Side view of scion.
The Boisselot graft is an ordinary cleft-graft, in which the
scion is placed in a slit made at the bifurcation of two shoots
which are pinched. This graft may also be made at the
axil of the spurs of a cordon.
The Baltet graft is a cleft-graft made at the axil of the
eye of a shoot.
The Allies graft is an ordinary whip-tongue graft, made
on a green shoot, and prevented from drying by a cork liga-
ture similar in every respect to the underground graft.
Allies has, at St. Antonin (Tarn-et-Garonne), successful in-
stances of this method. We must acknowledge that we
have had many failures with it. Even by protecting the
joint with lead-foil, as recommended by Julien Daumas, we
did not obtain better results.
GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND.
In Hungary the system of grafting vines above ground is
' current practice ; the two methods used are the herbaceous
cleft-graft, and \\& flute-grafting due to Professor Horvath.*
These two methods are very well described by
Jouzier, who was commissioned by the French Govern-
ment to study and report on the viticulture in
Hungary.! His report appeared in the Annales de
rinstitut National Agronomique, vol. 12, 1887. We cannot
do better than reproduce his descriptions :
" The herbaceous cleft-graft is one of the oldest systems
used in Hungary. Tschudy used this method, and recom-
mended it. In a word, it is an ordinary cleft-graft made on
the green shoots of very young vines. The shoot used as
stock is cut between the second and third leaf (a a' Fig. 5)
counting from the apex, and 1^ to 2 inches above the third
leaf. The latter is pinched at b b' . The scion is a similar
Professor at the School of Viticulture, at Tarczal, Hungary.
t Late Professor at the School of Agriculture, Ondes ; now Professor at the
National School of Grand-Jouan.
NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
shoot, the leaves of which are pinched (Figs. 6, 7, 8, and 9).
The ligature used is wool or raffia.* Knitting takes place
rapidly. The ligature is removed directly it begins to cramp
the joint. We will not
describe it in further
detail, as Figs. 4 to 10
explain it clearly."
Jouzier saw at Tarczal
a whole vineyard
grafted in this man-
ner, which had a very
satisfactory growth ;
but the danger of this
graft drying, the ne-
cessity of decapitating
the stock, and conse-
quently the impossi-
bility of making more
than one graft on one
shoot prevents us from
The flute-graft re-
commended by Pro-
fessor Horvath is more
interesting. It con-
sists in inserting a
bud (scion) in place
of an eye of the stock.
It is very commonly used
This mode of grafting is not new.
for fruit trees.
Jouzier describes it as follows :<
" To excise the bud one cannot proceed as in the case of
apple or pear trees, the shoots of which are almost regularly
cylindrical. The considerable protuberance which corresponds
to each node in the vine necessitates the adoption of the fol-
lowing procedure : A circular incision, penetrating the whole
depth of the bark, is made ^ inch above the bud, and another
the same distance below (a a! b b' Fig. 1 1), then right and left
* Raphia or Raffia is the thin strong cuticle of the leaf of Saqus Raphia,
a palm, native of Madagascar ; Raphia Tcedigera, a Brazilian species, is
also exported to Europe and helps to make up the bulk of the raffia of
GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND.
of the bud two longitudinal parallel incisions are made, bi-
secting the circumference (if anything towards the eye) and
joining the annular incisions (x y Fig. 11).
" The bud so prepared, the next thing is to choose the posi-
tion where it is to be placed. It should be placed on a shoot
of the same diameter, as nearly as possible, as that from
which it was taken. But the indispensable point which
makes the difference between ordinary budding and Professor
Horvath's flute-grafting is that the bud must be placed or
inserted in place of another bud on a node.
"The green shoot to be
used as stock having been
chosen (Fig. 12), and on
the latter the bud where the
graft is to be made (A, Fig.
12), the leaf on that node is
removed. Above and below
the bud, at distances corre-
sponding to the length of
the scion, two semi-annular
incisions are made (a a f b U
Fig. 12), penetrating the
whole depth of the bark,
without, however, cutting
into the wood. A longitudi-
nal cut (x y Fig. 12) is then
made parallel to the axis of
the shoot, passing through
the whole bark, dividing the
petiole in two without cut-
ting into the wood. Then,
with the haft or spatula of
the grafting-knife, the bark is lifted on both sides of the cut so
as to form, as in the ordinary budding, two flaps. These two
flaps being open (Fig. 13), the wood is left bare, exposing a
place the shape of which is arranged so as to be exactly
adapted to the shape of the scion. The scion is inserted, the
two flaps brought over it, and the joint ligatured (Fig. 14).
The tie is made with wool or raffia, and a fortnight or
twenty days later it should be undone."
According to Professor Horvath, 80 per cent, of strikes
have been obtained with this process. But the minutiae of
this lengthy and delicate operation militate against its use
Fig. 11. Horvath method. Preparation of
NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
on a large scale.* We are going to point out how much
more easy, rapid, and practical are the following methods.
This graft was originated by a carpenter, Mr. Salgues, of
the village of Betaille (Lot), whose first trials were made
on the 27th June, 1887. It is an ordinary budding, but
Fijf. 12. Fig. 13.
Horvath method. Preparation of stock.
so profoundly modified as to be entitled to be considered as
a new method. We have seen the results of this method in a
vineyard of four to five years old ; the grafts were fine, the
joint invisible, and could only be detected by a slight
swelling at the point where the graft had been made.
On the other hand, many viticulturists have obtained
unsatisfactory results with this method ; this is due to the
insufficient quantity of sap at the moment of operating, or
to the bad selection of the scion-bud, or, again, through not
* The Horvath method might be simplified by utilizing the simple
longitudinal slit invented by Salgues. The bark on the side of the slit
being lifted by bending the shoot inwards, the bud being introduced into
the opening thus formed. Trials of this simplified Horvath method have
been made at Ondes by Clarac.
GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND.
observing certain precautions which are necessary, as we
ascertained last year in the experiments carried out at the
School of Agriculture, Ondes. Salgues' graft consists in fixing
on a green shoot of the year an elliptic scion or shield carry-
ing a bud at its centre (Figs. 17 and 18). On any internode
of the shoot to be grafted, a longitudinal incision is made
with the grafting-knife, penetrating the whole depth of the
bark and of about the length of the shield (Fig. 15) ; with the
haft of the grafting-knife the bark is raised on both sides
of the slit ; the shoot is then bent inwards and the lips of
the slit open easily (Fig. 16), the scion bud is inserted in
the opening, and the shoot left to spring up in its former
position. The scion bud is then compressed by the bark, and
the operation is completed by tying with wool, cotton, or
raffia. The 'ligature should be removed a fortnight or
twenty days after. This method, as may be readily seen, is
much simpler than the Horvath process.
Fig. 14. Horvath's graft finished.
For the Salgues graft to be a success it is necessary,
firstly, that the stock should be in full sap, so that the lips of
NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
Front view of
the slit may be .easily raised; secondly, that the scion-bud
should be carefully selected. All the buds of a shoot cannot be
used indiscriminately. When a green shoot is cut longitudi-
nally on all its length different colorations may be noticed on
the section ; towards the apex, the shoot has not yet begun to
lignify and the section is almost uniformly green in colour,
only slightly deeper above or below each node, the diaphragm
of which can only be detected at the second or third node
(counting from the top),
\V\ A by a slightly lighter
colour. If we examine
the nodes downwards
we see the diaphragms
becoming more distinct ;
finally, still lower, the
pith begins to be indi-
cated by. a whitish tint.
At first, Salgues recom-
mended the scions to be
taken only from very
tender buds in which
the diaphragm was just
beginning to show ; he
has found since, that it
is preferable to choose
riper eyes, in which the
diaphragm is already
well apparent. We are of opinion that we may safely
choose all buds where the diaphragm is apparent, but
taken on the part of the shoot where the white pith is
not yet noticeable. Each shoot can, under these condi-
tions, furnish two or three sound eyes for budding. . We
must evidently bring some attention to bear on the selection
of the scion; however, one quickly learns to choose the right
ones. This is a question of practice, difficult to explain with-
out actual demonstration in the vineyard. Salgues used
formerly to show my students a simple means for selecting
these buds. When one tries to bend a young vine-shoot, the
resistance is nil towards the top ; the further we get from the
apex the greater the resistance becomes, till we reach a point-
where the shoot, almost lignified, does not bend, but breaks.
When the fingers can easily bend the shoot and feel a slight
resistance, one is sure that the bud in that region, together
with one above or one below, are suitable for the Salgues graft.
Fig. 15. Stock
of Salgues Graft
Fig. 16. Same,
Fig. 18. Salgues
Graft. Side view
GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND. 13
The necessity, in order to make a success of the Salgues
method, of choosing stocks well in sap, and young shoots for
selecting the buds, indicates the time at which this opera-
tion should be performed ; and May, June, and July are the
most favorable months.*
The Salgues graft may be performed on mother-stocks of
American vines throughout the summer, as the shoots develop.
The graft is then made with what is known as a dormant
eye. If we desire the graft to throw a shoot right off we
should pinch the stem over it ; but it has been proved in
practice that grafts made with growing eyes are inferior to
those with dormant eyes.
It is necessary to tie the grafted shoots to a stake, as re-
sults from our experiments last year. We used the Salgues
method and budded dormant eyes, 16 inches apart, on Riparia
canes, with the object of obtaining grafted cuttings, which
would have been eligible for planting out during the follow-
ing spring. We made a contract for this operation with
a very skilful horticulturist, Mr. Alazard, of Montauban, at
the rate of 24s. per 1,000 grafts knitted. Mr. Alazard had
previously undertaken, with great success, a similar contract
with Mr. Cangardel, of Lot, on American vines trained on
wire. At Ondes, the shoots of our Riparias were spreading
on the ground ; the result was a failure. Notwithstanding
the late season, the same grafts made on the Riparia, but
tied up on stakes, had, on the contrary, a much higher pro-
portion of takes. The grafts placed too close to the soil dried
up on account of the heat rising from it.
Salgues' method of budding is one of the most interest-
ing known it gives perfect knitting, and is at present very
generally used. Now viticulturists are not content with the
application of this method for green shoots, and they graft
green buds on- old wood ; they have even gone further, and
grafted on old wood, buds taken from canes stratified in sand
for many months, and even then the grafts succeeded. Last
year, when on a visit of inspection, we saw remarkable
instances of this at Chateau de Croze, belonging to Mr.
de Verninac, Member of the Senate.
As we have seen, the Salgues scion is grafted on the
internode of the shoot. The Besson graft, like that of
Horvath, is inserted on the node itself. But, while the method
" About November, December, January, in Victoria.
14 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
of the Hungarian viticulturist is a true budding, that of
Besson is an inlaying. Moreover, in the Horvath method,
the graft is always made on green shoots ; while, in the
Besson system, it is performed with lignified wood.
The Besson graft, which was performed for the first time
in the spring of 1893, has been described at length in
this Revue by M. Mazacle.* We, therefore, reproduce his
description in full :
" The budding of vines by the Salgues system has often given
satisfactory results, and even, under certain conditions, ren-
dered real services. It has been used to graft afresh shoots
grown from American vines on which the spring graft had
missed. In this case, if the budding is done in June,t it
gives birth to a strong shoot the same year. It is possible
to graft the canes or shoots of American stocks during the
whole summer with a series of buds distant from each other
the length of an ordinary cutting. In winter, when
pruning, the canes are cut above each graft, and by this
means grafted cuttings ,are obtained. They simply require
to be placed in the nursery the following spring. This graft
is also used for the propagation of rare varieties.
" Summer budding is not always a success. The pro-
portion of takes is very variable, and, what is more the
operation is difficult. This is to be regretted, for this mode
of grafting, almost the only one used for fruit-trees by
nurserymen, presents very great advantages. It is very
rapid, and the wounds are reduced to a minimum. It will,
perhaps, be possible to facilitate and generalize this form of
grafting for vines by the inlaid budding on lignified wood.
"The Besson graft was tried in the spring of 1893 at the
School of Agriculture, Montpellier, in order to make grafted
cuttings; it gave good results, the proportion of takes being
50 per cent, in a soil not favorable for a nursery, and which
was only watered once during the summer.
" This graft was made at the same time as the ordinary
bench grafts, in spring. It is performed in the following
way with Besson's grafting appliance : This appliance
(Fig. 19) is a kind of secateur, with carved blades perpendicu-
lar to the handles, and is used to make the cut and also to
lift the bud. These two operations are practically identical,
for when the cut is made a bud is lifted, and vice versa.
* Revue de Viticulture, vol. L, 1894.
t About December in Victoria.
GEAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GKOUND.
The blades of the secateur are placed parallel with the axis
of a shoot, at its middle and level with the bud. The lateral
portion detached, must be a little under half the thickness
of the shoot. The two handles of Besson's shears are
brought together, and the cut thus made. This cut (Fig. 20 A)
is regularly curved and concave ; its length varies according
to the size of the cane it is about one inch long.
" To prepare the scion we operate in exactly the same
way as with the stock, only, while in this case the cut is
made on the second eye, counting from the top of the cut-
ting, the scion is taken anywhere from the cane used as
scion bearer. The scion-bud thus prepared (Fig. 20 B, C)
Fig. 19. Besson's Grafting Shears.
Fii?. 20. Besson Graft.
A, stock ; B and C. scion -
fits marvellously well, on account of its convexity corres-
ponding exactly to the concavity of the stock. As it is the
same blade which makes the two cuts, and as this blade is
placed in the same way in both cases, the juxtaposition of
16 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
stock and scion is perfect. To attain this result one only
requires to choose shoots of equal diameters,
" The cuttings to be grafted should be 16 inches in length ;
their top end should be limited by a bud cut half through.
The graft is performed, as already said, on the bud imme-
diately below the top internodej tied with raffia, and the
grafted cuttings thus obtained
placed in the nursery. They should
be carefully earthed up so as to
cover the scion with about f inch of
soil. The only operations necessary
after this are a few waterings
between the lines in summer, and
frequent hoeing, being careful, how-
ever, not to uncover the grafts. Two
mouths after planting the mound is
brought down, and the roots grow-
ing from the bud removed. The
mound is then reformed to prevent
desiccation. In September* the
grafts are left bare to induce the
knitting tissue to lignify. Finally,
the care to be given to a nursery of
Besson grafts is exactly similar to
that required for any other nursery
of grafted cuttings.
"This graft gives very good joints
(Fig. 21), and is certainly a very
interesting application of inlaid
budding to vines. If it were possible
to make this graft in August or
September t on lignified canes of
American stocks, by surrounding the
ted - joint with rubber lacing, one might
place buds all along the canes, and obtain, by this means,
at the pruning season, cuttings bearing buds of European
varieties. The Besson budding tried in this way has not
given satisfactory results. If the budding made in August
or September! gave a good proportion of strikes, it might,
on account of the facility of its execution enter into current
practice, and constitute an excellent method of grafting
* About March in Victoria.
t About February or March in Victoria.
GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND. 1 /
While Besson was experimenting upon the inlaid budding
of vines, Clarac, the Demonstrator of Horticulture at the
School of Agriculture, Ondes, was applying the same idea ;
but, like Besson, whose work he was unaware of, stopped by
the difficulty in excising the bud, he resolved the problem in
a different manner. Although the Clarac grafts have a point
in common with that of Besson, that is to say, the substitu-
tion of one bud by another, by inlaid budding, they differ
from it in so many details, that they constitute a new method
of grafting vines, and by no means the least interesting.
Clarac' s First Method. Slock. A bud is removed from
the stock and replaced by a scion-bud. An incision is
made on the cane -^ to ^ inch above the bud to be removed
with an ordinary grafting-knife, or one with a curved blade
for preference (Fig. 22), the incision is continued in a
straight section parallel to the axis of the cane, penetrating
only one-third of the diameter. To operate with success the
first finger of the left hand is placed under the eye of the
bud. The cut is stopped when its length is a little over the
width of the blade, under the base of the bud (Fig. 23).
Fig. 22. Clarac's First Method,
Fig. 23. Preparation of Stock.
The blade is then removed from the incision, and laid
flat on the cane immediately under the base of the bud
(Fig. 24), the width of the blade indicating the point
NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
where the new incision is to be made (Fig. 28) trans-
verse and oblique to prevent the first section from spreading,
and to make a strong
notch for the scion to
Scion. To excise the
scion-bud, one operates
exactly as above de-
scribed (Figs. 25, 26,
and 27). It is then in-
laid in place of the bud
removed from the stock
and ligatured with wool,
raffia, or string. Fig.
29 shows the graft when
Fig. 24. Preparation of Stock. finished.
Ctarac's Second Method. Stock. Instead of removing
the bud, a cut is made parallel to the axis of the shoot at
about one-third of its diameter in depth, the cut starting
about T Vth inch above the bud, and ending 4 in. below
Scion. The scion-bud is excised in the same manner
as for the above method, with this difference only, that
Scion, Front View.
Scion, Side View.
Scion, Back View.
the bevel formed by the transversal and oblique section
must be longer than in the first method (Fig. 30). This
scion-bud is inserted in the slit prepared on the stock. It is
to facilitate the insertion of the scion that a longer bevel is
A ligature of raffia or string is made, being careful to
begin above the eye or bud.
The bud A (Fig. 32) constitutes a sap-drawer, which
facilitates the knitting of the bud B. When knitting has
taken place A is disbudded.
GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND.
The second method is more rapid than the first. In both
cases the ligature must be cut away three weeks after being
made. Waxing these grafts is not indispensable, but is
useful, and should be done
when possible. The success
obtained by Clarac is perfect.
Of all the methods above
described, the two due to
Clarac are certainly those
which seem most worthy of
the attention of viticulturists
wishing to perform aerial
grafts on vines. They are
easily executed and may be
applied to herbaceous, lig-
nified, young or old shoots.
Herbaceous grafts made
with dormant buds last July*
are already forming many
Grafting above ground for
vines may render great ser-
vices, for changing the
nature of the vines in a
vineyard, to produce grafted
cuttings, and even to per-
form the ordinary grafting
of rooted stocks. It also
renders the training of vines
in cordons easier, as it allows
us to replace a bud which,
dying off, might ruin the
foundation of the future cor-
don, or form interruptions.
Changing the nature of a
vineyard without losing a
crop becomes very easy with
the Clarac grafts. If the vine
is trained in the gooseberry-
bush method, buds are grafted Fi g . 28 . Fig. 29.
011 two Or three Spurs, aCCOrd- Clarac's First Method. Clarac's Graft
ing to the strength of the stoc ^a f a d. to be
* About January in Victoria.
NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING.
stock, while the other spurs continue to produce
fruit. If the grafts knit well, the following year
the spurs of the stock are removed, and the
grafted spurs alone preserved. If the vine is
trained according to the Guyot method,* a hud is
f rafted on the two eyes spur ; if the grafted bud
nits, the other is disbudded ; if it does not, the
same operation is begun again the following Method.
year, or the Clarac graft may be performed on the green
shoot springing from
the second bud of
that spur. However,
the shape of the vine
need not be injured.
Bench grafting, in
view of obtaining
knitted rootlings, is
very rapid with the
Clarac method. One
may also, as in the
case of the Salgues
method, bud on canes
of a stock nursery,
1 6 inches apart, with
from these canes,
planted out the fol-
lowing spring, will
Finally, the Clarac
method is used for
the so difficult mul-
tiplication of Berlan-
dieris ; for this we
make a one-eyed
cutting of Riparia
or liupestris, but
replacing the eye
with that of a Ber-
Method. Stock ready to be
Fig. 32. Clarac' s Graft
* Spur and long rod system.
GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND.
Fig. 33 shows one of these one-eyed grafts ; the success
with this method of multiplying Berlandieris is excellent ;
shortly after planting
out, the Berlandieri
throws roots from the
joint of the graft, and,
after having been
nourished by the frag-
ment of Riparia or
Rupestris, soon feeds
with its own roots.
This application of the Clarac graft will render great
services in the Charentes and Champagne, for it will
enable vine-growers to obtain Berlandieri cuttings at
Fig. 33. Berlandieri Bud on Riparia one-eyed
22 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
BY B. DROUHAULT,
Departmental Professor of Agriculture, Lot.
The grafting of vines is such an important question, from
the point of view of the vitality and the durability of our
vineyards, that one cannot seek for too great perfection as
well as facility of execution.
We know, as a matter of fact, that apart from the
question of affinity between stock on scion, it is the perfec-
tion of the joint which insures the longevity of the grafted
vine. A badly knitted graft may give vigorous shoots during
the first years, but soon after, when the non-adherent parts
develop, the plant becomes sickly and quickly dies. The
dying off of many grafted vines is generally attributed to
more or less defined phenomena, while it is simply due to
bad knitting. The English cleft graft and the whip-tongue,
which are almost alone used nowadays, possess the
peculiarity that many joints which at first seem good, are
incompletely knitted, and later on give sickly plants. The
favour with which the Salgues graft was welcomed by many
viticulturists showed how much we were impressed with the
defects of all the systems so far applied, and how urgent it
was to find a better method. Unfortunately, the Salgues
method, which consists of grafting a green bud on a green
shoot, excellent in theory, of easy execution, and upon
which great hopes were founded, has against it two great
causes of non-success which have limited its application.
The choice of the point where the graft is to be made on
the green shoot is one of these causes, but by far the most
important is the choice of the scion-bud. For success to be
assured, it is necessary for this scion-bud to be in a peculiar
state of development difficult to characterize theoretically.
It is only after long experience and many failures that one
acquires exact notions of that state of development. Salgues,
it is true, tried to fix it by saying that the bud must be
" two-thirds green," that is to say, one-third of the wood
* Revue de Viticulture, vol. IV., 1895.
only being formed, but these indications are not precise
enough, or, better, do not convey any sufficiently definite
meaning to the majority of viticulturists.
It is easy to explain, under these circumstances, the
numerous failures which followed its application in inex-
perienced hands, and why it was discarded by many viticul-
turists. That is why this method, which, however, gave
good results in the hands of its inventor and a few skilful
operators, has not been so generally applied as would have
been thought from its inherent qualities. Salgnes, after four
years' experimenting, in 1891, hoping to render his method
of grafting more readily utilizable, and also to study one of
the causes of its failures, attempted to graft green buds on
wood from one to three years old. The success which he
personally obtained was again very satisfactory, and con-
tinues to be so in his own vineyard and those of a few other
vignerons, particularly at that of Lemarchand, of Pradet
( Var), where M. Cahuzac, who began the application of this
system in 1892, obtained excellent results, which he lately
Notwithstanding the modi-
fication which allows us to
graft on young or old wood,
according to. circumstances,
the use of the herbaceous graft
has not much extended. This
is due to the main cause of
failure subsisting, the diffi-
culty of choosing the scion-
Another vigneron of the Lot
overcame this difficulty, and
rendered this method of graft-
ing essentially practical for
everybody, with the same
chances of success, by prac-
tising lignified budding, which
he named " normal budding of
the vine" In 1891, Vouzou,
a vineyard labourer at the
Chateau of Crozes (Lot), tried
successfully to replace the
herbaceous bud by a com- Fig. 34.-vouzou Graft:- A. stock
^1^4-,-vl K ^'fi^A ^A 4- 1 ^ ready to be budded ; B. Front, side, and
pletely lignined one taken back ? view of shield.
24 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
from a cane of the previous year preserved in sand. This
graft does not differ much from that generally adopted for
fruit trees, hence its name.
On a part of the stump (stock) above ground, and on a
part deprived of nodosities, where the liber fibres are almost
straight, a T-shaped incision is made through the bark, the
sides of which are raised with the haft of the grafting-
knife (Fig. 34 A).
The scion is taken from a cane of the previous year's
growth, of medium size (Fig. 34 B), cut before the eyes start
to burst, and preserved in sand in the same way as is done
for the scions of 'the whip-tongue grafts, until the time of
grafting. One has not, therefore, to be pre-occupied in this
case by the peculiar state of development of the bud, as is
the case for the herbaceous graft. It is necessary, however,
to use only well-constituted and well-preserved eyes of
The scion-bud is excised in the same way as is done for
fruit trees, with the only difference that under the eye a
thickness of wood is left reaching the pith. One should even
leave some pith under the eye. This does not seem to present
much difficulty. It may, perhaps, be more clearly under-
stood when we say that the scion should be at least 1 inch
in length, and that the section opposite the eye must be
After inserting the bud thus prepared in the incision
under the bark of the stock, it is bound firmly with raffia
(Figs. 35 and 36), wrapping as close as possible to the eye,
without, however, crushing it. Wool has been tried for this
purpose, as in the case of the herbaceous graft, but has not
been found superior to raffia.
To insure knitting, the shoots of the stock must be pinched
very short. The scion then knits quickly and gives a vigorous
shoot, lignifying easily before winter, and upon which the
pruning system is started the following spring. A fortnight
to twenty days after the execution of the graft, it is easy
to ascertain whether it is knitted, but the tie should only be
cut one month later, and on the side opposite the scion.
This graft may be made during the whole period that the
sap is circulating, during which the bark is easily detachable
from the wood. In our region (Lot) this lies between the
15th May and 15th July.* After that date, even admitting
* November to January in Victoria.
the possibility of making this graft, it is to be feared that
the shoot would not have time to lignify, and the trials of
this method with dormant eyes have not been successful.
Fig. 35. Vouzou Graft,
Fig. 36. Same, after
NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
Performed under the above-mentioned conditions, the
normal budding gave excellent results to its inventor
and all the vignerons (quite numerous) who, following his
example, have applied it during the last two years. The
proportion of takes reached between 75 and 100 per cent, in
1893, during which year the drought was of intense and long
duration, causing failures with all the herbaceous and
ordinary grafts. Youzou obtained 90 per cent, in a lot of
1,000 grafts. We must add that last year at the State
nursery, where the above-mentioned workman (Vouzou)
publically demonstrated his system, the strikes reached 95
per cent, on twelve years' old stumps of Cynthiana ; this year
these grafts (Fig. 37) are simply excellent, vigorous, and
bearing a few grapes.
Fig. 37. Vouzou Graft : A. Knitted Bud; B. Stock.
This graft is not only remarkable for the simplicity of its
execution, and the great proportion of strikes resulting, but
also from the point of view of the knitting. The examination
VOUZOU GKAFT. 2i
of sections, made perpendicular to the axis of the joint,
shows that the knitting is generally perfect, the adherence
of the ligneous part is almost as complete as in the her-
baceous graft, and much more complete than in the ordinary
cleft or whip-tongue graft.
The Vouzou method possesses, therefore, every advantage.
It satisfies all the conditions of a good strike, and, at the
same time, embraces the long recognised value of budding ; it
avoids the majority of causes of failures pertaining to the
methods previously used. And, moreover, we cannot too
strongly emphasize the practical facility of its execution for
Its qualities and principal advantages may be recapitu-
lated as follows : 1st. Extremely simple execution, easy of
performance by any workman. 2nd. Almost absolute cer-
tainty of a high percentage of strikes, for there is no danger
of desiccation of the bud by hot dry winds. 3rd. Perfect
knitting and complete adherence of wood. &h. It is the
only method of grafting vines of from one to twelve years
old or more without decapitating the stock, or damaging its
base. bth. In case of failure it is easy to begin again during
the same or the following year, and it enables us to preserve
a part of the crop of the stock during the year of grafting.
Qtk. It allows us to graft several buds on a given vine
without interfering with . the shape, which increases the
chances of success.
On account of the facility with which it can be performed
on stocks of one to two years of age, or even on canes of the
previous year's growth, preserved on the mother-vine with
the object of obtaining grafted cuttings, we cannot too
strongly recommend it, for trial at least, to all viticulturists.
Without assuming that it will be substituted in every case
for the methods in actual use, we are convinced that it is
called upon to considerable expansion in the grafting of
established vineyards and nurseries, and that it will render
very great service to viticulture.
28 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
MEANS OF INCREASING THE STRIKE OF
BY CH. TALLAVIGNES,
Director of the School of Agriculture, Glides.
In a series of articles published in the Revue de Viticulture
of 1894 we described the principal herbaceous grafts of the
vine. Since that time we have pursued our studies at the
Agricultural School, Ondes, with the object of ascertaining
the causes influenciog the strike of herbaceous grafts. We
now intend giving the results of experiments made by
Clarac, the manager of the school.
1st. Herbaceous Graf ting . Selection of shoots bearing buds
best fitted for scions. Among all the shoots growing on a
vine stump some are better suited than others to furnish
scion-buds. We should always choose branches growing
from eyes which would have normally remained dormant
till the following year, in preference to branches growing
from buds bursting normally. Shoots of medium or rather
small diameter are to be preferred. These shoots will furnish
the scion-buds, which are to be grafted on to the old wood.
The diameter of the shoots from which the scion-buds are
excised must always be less than those upon which it is to
be grafted. The best shoot to use is that developed in the
shade, that is to say, sheltered by other shoots. Branches
exposed to direct sunlight must always be rejected. The
colour of the shoot is also of certain importance ; it should
be light green, but not yellow.
The petioles of the leaves of the shoot should be of a
whitish green, even a little pinkish, slightly transparent at
the point of junction with the limb. Shoots bearing leaves
with deep green, or red petioles, and non-transparent, must
be rejected. The eyes of the extremity and base of the shoot,
together with those placed at the base of leaves having a
petiole too slender or too long, should not be used.
* Revue de Viticulture, vol. V., 1896.
INCREASING STEIKE OF HERBACEOUS GRAFTS.
2nd. Preparation of scion-bud. Many operators, before
cutting the scion-bud, begin by cutting the petiole of the leaf
F, as close as possible to the bud B, placed at its base
in a a! (Fig. 38). Many failures in herbaceous grafting
are simply due to this defective method. Clarac has made
a whole series of interesting experiments on this subject. In
the first group of experiments, the petiole of the leaf was
cut as close as possible to the bud B, at a a'; success
In the second group the petiole was cut at b b', at about
half its length ; numerous failures. In the third group, the
petioles and the limb of the leaf F were left intact ; com-
plete failure. Finally, in a fourth group the whole of the
petiole was preserved and a part of the limb c c , only left
attached to it. It was about J inch in diameter ; almost
complete success (Fig. 38).
These curious re-
sults may easily be
explained. In the
first series the sec-
tion of the petiole
a a, determines the
very close to the
The latter there-
fore desiccates be-
fore having had
time to form its
In the second series
of experiments the petiole was cut further away from the bud
B ; but as this petiole is formed of a very vascular tissue, the
desiccation took place rapidly, and communicated itself to
the bud before it had time to knit. In the third series of
experiments the 'limb of the leaf was entirely preserved,
forming a large surface of evaporation and respiration, and
the bud B was destroyed, not being able to furnish the leaf
with the necessary nutritive element before the knitting
took place. In the fourth series of experiments, on the
contrary, the portion of the leaf preserved was not large
enough to cause very great evaporation, and yet was enough
to prevent the immediate desiccation of the petiole, and
therefore that of the bud before the knitting was completed.
. Preparation of scion-bud.
30 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING".
Methods of excising the bud. Once the shoot has been
selected, and those eyes not fulfilling the required conditions
removed, the scion-bud has to be excised. On this subject
Olarac has again made interesting experiments.
First method. Scion-bud with sap-mood (Fig. 39.) This
graft can only be made by selecting scion-buds on shoots of a
small diameter, and grafting them on graft-bearing shoots of
larger diameter. The sap-wood of the shield
does not knit, therefore it is advisable to
diminish its surface. To excise the shield,
the shoot is seized with the left hand, the
first finger being under the bud ; the cut is
begun with the base of the grafting-knife
J inch below the bud, and, while cutting,
the blade is drawn in such a way that the
end section (-J- inch above the ibud) corre-
sponds with the point of the blade. The
shield detached in this manner will be about
\\ inch in length ; but the wood being
generally chipped on the edge, it is advis-
able to level and smooth the section with a
39. grafting-knife. By doing so the length of
shield with sap-wood, foe section is reduced to one inch. The
scion-bud is then rather thick at its centre, and terminated
by two pointed bevels.
If the" diameter of the scion-buds is large (diameter deter-
mined by the size of the bud) it will not fit well on the
cylindrical internode of the stock ; the sap-wood of the
shield is therefore slightly hollowed with the rounded part
of the grafting-knife, so as to make the concave surface
fit perfectly round the stock. This method of budding
can only be used during the first days of June.* Later
on these grafts apparently knit well ; but the shoots have
not time to completely lignify, and are then killed by
Second method. Scion-bud with half sap-wood, with the
upper portion hollowed out (Fig. 40). This method of pre-
paring the scion-bud is far superior to that above described.
The shoot bearing the eye which is to be excised is taken in
the left hand in such a way that the extremity of the shoot
faces the body of the operator (Fig. 41). The cut is started
with the base of the blade ol the grafting-knife \ inch above
the eye, while the blade is drawn outward as before, so as to
* About December in Victoria.
INCREASING STRIKE OF HERBACEOUS GRAFTS.
reach the extremity of the section -J inch below the bud with
the point of the blade. The blade is then taken out of the sec-
tion, and a transversal section, TT'
(Fig. 42), made level with the longi-
tudinal section so as to cut through
the bark only. The bud is then
seized between the thumb and first
finger of the right hand near TT'
(Fig. 43) and lifted. If we con-
tinued to lift the bud, the sap-wood
which has been cut in TT 7 is com-
pletely separated from the bark of
the bud, and the latter would be
completely hollowed. It is there-
fore necessary, when the bark has
been separated from the sap-wood
up to the level of the bud, to draw
the bud slightly towards the oper-
ator (Fig. 44). The tongue of sap-
wood MM' breaks level with the *-*w - wt -'-'
bud ; a part of the sap-wood adheres to the scion-bud, the
front portion remaining fixed on the shoot in the shape of a
two-pronged fork (Fig. 45). The scion-bud is flattened, its
base cut fresh, and the sap-wood smoothed with the rounded
part of the grafting-knife. This mode of operating, which
is very difficult to explain in writing, is very easy to perform
in practice. It certainly is the most rapid way of excising
the scion-bud. Sometimes, when the shoot is too tender
and the buds very close together, the sap-wood, instead of
Preparing the bud. First operation.
NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING.
remaining on the shoot in the shape of a fork, breaks at the
diaphragm ; in this case the broken part on the scion-bud is
smoothed and slightly cut
at a' bevel with the rounded
part of the grafting-knife,
being very careful not to
touch the bark. This scion-
bud enables one to make
herbaceous grafts during
all the time that the vines
are in sap; it has the
great advantage of allowing the graft to lignify as quickly
as the wood of the graft-bearing shoot, and gives perfect
Drawing the shield towards the operator.
Fork of sap-wood remaining on the shoot.
Making the slit on the graft-bearing shoot. This slit may
be made in the shape of a T, or reversed T ; however, with
the half sap-wood shields it seems preferable to use the
ordinary T slits. The T-shaped slit is easier to make than the
longitudinal one, and facilitates the introduction of the scion.
The point where the slit is made on the grafting-shoot does
not seem to have very great importance ; grafts have suc-
ceeded on all parts of a shoot; however, if we have a scion-
bud with a little sap-wood attached to it, it is preferable to
place it on the flat part of a shoot, as in that place the bark
is thinner. This is not of very great importance if the
ligature is well done. When the scions are placed on a cane
one or two years old (these grafts succeed very well on old
wood), the operator should look for the rounded part of the
cane, for there the bark is thicker, and, as it is fleshy, desic-
cation is not to be feared. On old wood the bark is so
very thin on the flat side that it is almost impossible to
INCREASING STKIKE HERBACEOUS GRAFTS.
Ligatures. A ligature must fulfil several conditions; it
should hold the two flaps of the bark of the shoot upon the
scion, so as to preserve the latter in a fresh state as long as
possible, and- should make the scion fit tightly against the
sap-wood of the shoot and prevent it from being displaced
during the whole time necessary for the knitting to take place.
Wool, which has been extensively used, would make a
good ligature if it did not dry the edge of the flaps ; however,
it has sometimes given very satisfactory strikes.
Clarac tried, at Ondes, a ligature which gave him very
good results, but is perhaps rather complicated. It consists
of a first binding of rubber tape, over which the ligature is
made with wool. The rubber is cut in bands 8 inches
long and inch wide ; the strands of rubber are
superposed, and the strand of wool wound over **it. The
rubber breaks in places very easily, and the object of the
wool is to keep it in place. This ligature is too expensive
and too complicated to be used on a large scale, and is only
interesting from an experimental point of view.
The best ligatures for grafts above ground are those made
of lead or tinfoil (as already used for grafts underground)
covering the whole scion, leaving the eye and petiole alone
free ; raffia is wound over the foil.
It would be preferable to use
wool when the graft is made
on vigorous shoots, increasing
rapidly in diameter (Fig. 46).
The lead or tinfoil is "cut in
lengths of from f to 1 inch wide,
and 2 to 4 inches long, Clarac
obtained with this ligature at
the school of Ondes a strike of
90 per cent. ! Before making
the ligature it is necessary to
ascertain whether the scion
adheres well to the stock this
is done by pressing the thumb
below and above the bud.
Best Time for Grafting above
ground. With the half sap-wood '
scion-bud, grafts have succeeded Fi s- 46. Ligature.
in June, July, and August* ; with the first method de-
scribed between the 15th May and the 1st of June only.
* About December to February in Victoria.
34 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
The above experiments show that herbaceous grafting
and grafting above ground have become very practicable,
and have rendered very great services. No other system can
give as fine grafts, or as perfect knittings. It will be in-
valuable for changing the cepages of a vineyard without
interrupting the crops. It gives perfect grafted rootlings
by placing buds on the shoots or mother plants 16 inches
apart the previous year.
It allows the replacing of missing or badly-placed eyes in
the cordons of the Royat method. Finally, it allows better
than any other system the multiplication of Berlandieri for
grafted rootlings, and now that this mode of multiplication
is generally coming into use everywhere and is described by
viticultural professors, we may be allowed to repeat what
was said in 1894 : a The success with this method of multi-
plying Berlandieris is excellent ; shortly after planting
out, the Berlandieri throws roots from the joint of the graft,
and, after having been nourished by the fragment of Riparia
or Rupestris soon feeds with its own roots. This application
of the Clarac graft will render great services in the Cha-
rentes and Champagne, for it will enable vine-growers to>
obtain Berlandieri cuttings at moderate prices."
BUDDING ON THE VINE. 35
BUDDING ON THE VINE.*
BY M. ALAZAKD.
Budding* on the vine, considered for a very long time as
impossible or very difficult of execution, has now become a
very practical system of grafting, owing to a more precise
knowledge of its mode of execution, and gives perfect knit-
tings; it is attractive in the extreme, and its only fault is
that it was discovered too late. Fifteen years ago it would
have supplanted the English cleft or whip-tongue graft.
The success of this mode of grafting is mainly due to the
initiative of a small viticulturist of the Lot (Salgues), who
was the first to prove its practical utility, and obtained very
satisfactory results with it. There is not another instance
in which such a useful innovation has been more vigorously
criticised or even combated. After Salgues had given several
demonstrations of this system in many of the viticultural
regions of France in 1891, numerous trials were made by
viticulturists, who, not having succeeded the first time, re-
jected it, without trying to ascertain the causes of their
non-success. Others deprecated and rejected the system
without even giving it a trial, which naturally did not
forward its general practice. When we first tried ourselves
to practise budding on the vine, we met with many failures y
and were also very nearly discarding it. All our scions
during the first days of their grafting seemed to remain
green, and the buds even seemed to start to swell, as if the
knitting had already taken place. This was only a delusion,
and almost invariably resulted in deception. At the tenth or
twelfth day after the operation the scions suddenly dried up;
we could not explain the cause of this failure. But at every
new trial we obtained some strikes, and this fortunately
induced us to renew our experiments (if 10 per cent, of the
scions strike, there is no reason why 100 should not succeed),
and so we were encouraged in continuing our experiments.
So far we had followed Salgues' directions to the letter, i.e.,
" that the scion must be taken from the most herbaceous
part of the shoot towards its extremity," and we had seen
Salgues following this principle at the Government experi-
mental nursery at Cahors.
* Revue de Viticulture, vol. VI., 1896.
36 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
On the 18th of July, 189.1, that is to say, after two
months of fruitless trials, suspecting that the scions which
had struck must present some peculiar con-
ditions of constitution, we decided to place
100 buds on fine shoots of a Biparia mother
plant, taking all the buds of a Malbec shoot.
We labelled each of these scions, mention-
ing on the label 1st. Its state of lignifi-
cation ; 2nd. The thickness left under the bud;
3rd. Its order on the shoot; 4th. If it were or
were not accompanied by a small latent axillary
bud. We then waited with great anxiety the
critical twelfth day; we were unable to visit
the grafts before the eighteenth day. At last
we were satisfied that those which were per-
fectly well knitted belonged to the central
portion of the scion-bearing shoot, free from
latent axillary buds, and of a semi-ligneous
constitution at the time the graft was made ;
on the contrary, those originating from the
upper third of the scion-bearing shoot (there-
fore too herbaceous) had become black, and
died. Since that time we have not had any
failures, and have found the truly practical
conditions for budding, which we have used
since with great success. As we do not
desire to make a secret of this method, and
realizing the services it may render to viti-
Fig. 47 Knitted culture, we will describe its means of execu-
Bud (twenty days j.
after budding). UOn.
GREEN BUDDING WITH DORMANT EYE.
/. Time of Budding. Vines may be budded from
the 1st of May to the 15th of August* according to
climates. In the warm regions of the south of France the
early bursting of the buds enables one to obtain good eyes
for budding at the end of May and the beginning of June ;
while, in the south-west regions, it is only on the 10th of
June that the buds show characters, of vegetation retarded
enough to give good scions.
77. Stock. The stock may be a shoot growing on the
American mother-plant, or rootlings one, two, or three years
. * About November to February in Victoria.
BUDDING ON THE VINE.
old. If we have to deal with her-
baceous shoots, scions may be placed
at from 12 to 14 inches apart, in such
a way that from a single shoot of
Riparia Gloire, for instance, we may,
when the pruning season comes,
gather a certain number of cuttings,
already bearing perfectly-knitted
scions far superior to the best
English-cleft graft. Certain Riparia
mother-plants three years old, dis-
budded, stripped, and trellised ou
stakes or wires, gave up to 135
grafted cuttings, which already have
almost completely rooted and bear
shoots from 10 to 14 inches in length.
This is an important fact considering
the dry spring we are having this
Instead of placing buds on a her-
baceous shoot, we may also graft
rooted stocks from one to three years
old, or even cuttings without check-
ing their growth in any way, for
nothing is suppressed when the
grafting is performed (Fig. 48).
It is in the latter cases more
especially that the utility, economy,
and security of this method is shown.
We say security, because if the graft-
ing does not succeed the first time
(this can be ascertained ten or fifteen
days after grafting) the operation
may be repeated on the shoot of the
stock, a little above or a little below
the point chosen in the first instance.
If, in these operations, the neces-
sary care, as explained bereafter, is
taken, we will always find in autumn
a larger percentage of strikes than
with any other method ; in any case,
if the grafts have missed, the stock
remains intact, and may be grafted
Fi s- 48 -
NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
by the English-cleft or Cadillac method, or budded with
growing eyes or other new methods which we will consider
III. Selection of Scions. As we- have seen above, the
success of this new method lies almost entirely in the selec-
tion of the scion-bud. There-
fore, we must take from, the
European varieties we desire
to multiply, axillary shoots
in preference, that is to say,
buds which have grown at
the axil of an adult leaf, such
as are found on shoots sub-
mitted to pinching. They
must, as far as possible, have
ceased to grow (which can
easily be ascertained by the
absence of terminal tendrils),
and bear spherical buds well
out of the bark, and free
from latent axillary buds.
The leaves must be cut off at
about -J inch from their base.
If the shoot bears from five
to six eyes, ordinarily from
two to four of these possess
the qualities of good forma-
IV. Excising the Bud.
The buds are excised with an
ordinary gardener's grafting-
knife, with as keen an edge
as possible, and kept very
clean ; the section beginning
at about J inch above the
eye. The cut is made to a
third or half the diameter of the shoot, and terminated
at from to f inch below the fragment of petiole pre-
This being done, the operator holds the scion by the petiole,
and ascertains first if the internal section is well outlined
by a double line composed of the bark and the first layer of
sap-wood ; second, that the centre of this double line is well
Fig. 49. Graft made on old wood.
A. Callus of the bud.
BUDDING ON THE VINE.
filled with a flabby, greenish substance, divided by a trans-
versal white line opposite the bud ; this is the rudimentary
diaphragm. At the worst, the lower bevel of the scion may
be a little more ligneous than the upper, but it is very im-
portant that the flabby matter be present in the latter.
Fig. 50. Bud Crafted on the Spur of a Cordon of Jacquez.
A. Callus formed h} the Bud.
V. Placing the Bud. The following will apply either to
green shoots or rootlings in the nursery :
1st. Make a short longitudinal cut on the bark with
the blade of the grafting-knife, extending barely f
inch in length, and reaching the sap-wood. 2nd.
Press with the thumb of the right hand on this
cut, and with the left hand bend the shoot towards
it. 3r<:/. Hold the bent shoot with the left hand, and
with the haft of the grafting-knife slightly lift the
40 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
bark on both sides of the cut. A small opening is thus
made, in which the shield is introduced, sliding it from
bottom to top, so as to fit well under the bark. 4tk. When
the scion is introduced allow the shoot to spring up again
into its normal position. If the stocks cannot be bent on
account of their size or age, a T slit must be made, as is
done for fruit trees ; in this case the budding of the vine
is performed in a similar way, the only difference lying in
the method of excising the scion. The latter must be chosen
as above described. 5tk. Ligature with one or more woollen
or cotton threads of good quality, so as to be able to tighten
it above or below the bud. Raffia must be discarded for
small shoots, as it very often gets loose under the influence of
heat. It is preferable for the strands not to touch each other.
6th. Placed in this way the buds require from fourteen to
eighteen days to knit (Fig. 47). Those which have remained
green up to that time may be considered as knitted ; the
others are dried up, and must be replaced if it is not too late,
and if there is enough sap, or more exactly if there is an
interval of eighteen days preceding the 15th of August* at
the latest ; after this period of eighteen to twenty days, the
ligatures must be untied, cutting all the strands on the side
opposite the bud. The rest of the ligature gradually falls
Such is the manual operation required for this new mode
of grafting, an operation taking much longer to describe
than to perform, for in a day of ten hours a trained work-
man can make from 300 to 400 grafts without any help.
But it is not sufficient to graft 400 buds in a day.
Vine-growers will want to know what proportion of strikes
may be expected with this system. To this we shall answer
that, as in any other mode of grafting, success depends on
the attention and skill of the operator. The experience we
personally have of this kind of work enables us to say that,
if the bud is well selected, and the stock in full sap, 70 to
85 per cent, of good strikes may be expected. My workmen
and myself regularly obtain this percentage every year.
Preparation of Stocks for Budding with Dormant Eyes.
With the budding method we may, as previously said, first,
make grafted rootlings of mother-vines ; second, bud root-
lings in the nursery ; third, bud stocks several years old,
* About the middle of February in Victoria.
BUDDING ON THE VINE. 41
with the object of changing- the variety. Let us study these
different modes of grafting and the results obtainable with
Arrangement of Mother-vines. All the shoots of American
graft-bearers may be readily budded that is to say, that-
one can place on a vigorous shoot from ten to twenty buds,
and obtain the next season from one single mother- vine 100
to 150 vine cuttings 10 inches in length, each bearing a
dormant eye perfectly knitted. Experience has shown that,
to obtain these results, it is necessary to arrange the stocks
in the following manner :
1st. Erect over the line of stocks, stakes 6 to 10 feet high
and 9 to 15 feet apart, according to whether there is more
or less wind in the district.
2nd. Fix upon these stakes four rows of galvanized wire,
Nos. 14 or 13 at least, the first being 16 inches above the
ground, and the three others 20 inches apart ; stretch these
wires with large Walker's patent wire strainers, No. 2.
3/r/. As soon as the buds of the mother plant are about
20 inches in length, preserve eight to twelve of the most
vigorous of these in the best positions and disbud all the
t/t. A week to a fortnight after this disbudding, when
the bases of the shoot begin to harden, tie them up to the
wires, so that after the operation each mother-plant has
the shape of a V, or open fan. All axillary buds must be
removed, as well as all the tendrils. This should be done
at each tying up, which must be repeated at least three
times before the 20th of July.* One must endeavour not to
injure the principal leaves, which, as we know, play a very
great part in the nutrition of the plant and the formation of
its cambium. It is necessary to tie up the shoots of even
number stocks on one side of the wire, and odd numbers on
the opposite side. By doing so, the shoots are prevented
from getting entangled ; this greatly facilitates the budding
operation, and more especially the gathering, of the cuttings,
the buds of which are very easily injured. The reader may
think that such an installation, and the operations which it
necessitates, are rather fanciful and costly.
The erection of these trellises cost 9s. 6d. per 100
yards. This amount is not wasted, as the canes become
well lignified, and the number of buds knitted is greater as
* Middle of January in Victoria.
42 NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING.
compared with canes left spreading on the ground. The
first year we started budding, we did not have recourse to
this device, and found great difficulty in separating the
shoots, which were to be grafted, and, when this was done,
they generally had no leaves left on them ; the result was
retardation of the movement of the sap, during which the
buds suffered, many drying off. The expense of trellising
is greatly diminished when the tying is performed at inter-
vals, as the shoots lengthen, and, although they have to be
tied separately, one skilful workman may, in a day of ten
hours, tie up the shoots of from 100 to 150 mother-plants.
One hundred mother-plants will, therefore, require three
days' work before they are ready for budding ; that is to
say, cost from 4*. to 5s. 6d. for the three successive trellis-
ings. We obtained last year with fine Riparia Gloire, four
years old, from 164 to 197 feet of wood suitable for budding
on each stock, plus vine cuttings, 3 feet in length, resulting
from the lengthening of the top of the shoots, after the bud-
ding had been performed ; while with stocks of the same age,
left spreading on the ground, we only obtained 49 to 81 feet
of wood for "budding. With the trellising method we,
therefore, gained 3,000 yards of wood per 100 mother plants.
Other American stocks, such as Rupestris du Lot, Aramon
x Rupestris, Gamay Couderc, produce a little less than the
Riparia, but still more canes of J inch in diameter with the
trellising method. The budding of these trellised shoots
may start as soon as their internodes begin to lignify, which
may easily be recognised, with a little practice, by feeling,
or by the aspect of the bark, which passes from a light
green to a brighter colour, and is divided longitudinally by
stripes of a more intense green. With tomentose varieties
this moment corresponds to the time when the internodes
have become partially glabrous.
Gathering of the Budded Cuttings. We should wait until
the leaves have completely fallen from the mother-plant
before gathering the budded cuttings. In our districts of the
south-west this generally corresponds to the second half of
November, and budding may be performed until February.*
However, we think it advisable to gather earlier those
which were grafted last, because they are generally placed
on the upper part of the shoot which is always less lignified,
or, through having had less time to knit, the joint is weaker,
* From the 15th May to the middle of August in Victoria.
BUDDING ON THE VINE. 43
and they might become detached under the influence of the
first winter frosts. It is better to gather each cutting
separately, as the buds would get injured if the whole cane
was pruned and taken into a shed to be divided into cut-
Stratification of budded cuttings. As the budded cuttings
are gathered, the eyes of the stock are removed, excising
them with a grafting knife as close as possible. Those
where the budding has missed are placed apart, and may be
used for bench-grafting. The others are placed in cases and
arranged in layers of two and three cuttings, superposed,
separated by layers of fresh moss or moist sawdust ; these
should be about 1 inch in thickness, so that 1,500 to 2,000
cuttings may be stratified in a case 3 feet in length by 24
inches in height. When the cases are filled, a lid may be
placed on the top, or the last layer of moss or sawdust is
made of double thickness.
The cases are then placed in a closed, fresh, and dry room,
so that they may not be affected by frost.
The budded cuttings may remain in this state till planta-
tion (February and April).* When the time for plant-
ing arrives, these cases are taken to the place (nursery
or open ground) where the planting is to be performed.
The cuttings are taken out one by one, and their upper
section freshened with a grafting knife (never with a
secateur), by cutting f to \ inch below the extremity, and
coating with tar or grafting wax. The object of this coat-
ing is to seal the medullary channels in which the air and
humidity would penetrate, and determine, what is known in
horticulture as necrosis or desiccation of the cortical tissues,
reaching the scion and sometimes below.
Since we have used this method, the vitality of the wood
has always been preserved up the extremity of the cutting,
and the greater part of the section was, after one year's
vegetation, covered with healing tissue.
Planting Budded Cuttings. The planting of budded
cuttings is very similar to that of cuttings grafted on the
bench, with only this difference, that as the knitting is
already completed, no ear tiling up is required. Each scion
must, after planting, be level with the surface of the soil, and
it is advisable to cover it with the sawdust which was used
for stratification. The other cultural courses are the same as for
* About August to October in Victoria.
44 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
any other grafted cuttings, with this difference, that the roots
of the scion do not require to be removed, as in this case the
scion never forms any. The proportion of strikes is almost
the maximum. We have this year planted out in the vineyard, or
in nurseries, over 20,000 budded cuttings of Riparia and
Rupestris du Lot ; 90 per cent, have already shoots 4 to 8
inches in length ; the growth is very rapid, more so than
with any other method. We have not budded any Berlan-
dieri, but we intend doing so this year with mother plants,
which will be prepared next July.
Budding of Rootlings from one to three years old. Let
us consider first a plantation of American rootlings planted
out last February which would be grafted with the ordinary
cleft graft in the spring of 1897. Instead of waiting till
then, they may be budded with dormant eyes at the
beginning of August with every chance of success, provided
the plants are well rooted and well in sap. If some of them
are not well rooted, they may be grafted the following year
in the same way. At the pruning season in February, all
the stocks should be pruned with two spurs and two eyes.
The object in doing so is to draw the sap towards the scion
till the latter reaches a development of from 13 to 20 inches.
It might be necessary to pinch the young shoots of the stock
at 4 inches from their base to send the sap back towards the
scion. But as soon as the scion has reached a length of 20
inches, the stock must be severed 1 or \\ inches above
it. A small stake must be placed at each stock to tie up
the young shoot of the scion and prevent the latter from
being disjointed by the spring winds. We have proceeded
in this manner for the last few years, and we can show
around Montauban many instances of this mode of grafting,
where the grafts are loaded with grapes, and which bear
more than any other system. We must add that when
budding is performed, the vines grow more regularly, and
one has not the bother of replacing misses, always occurring
with other systems.
With budding, the few misses are easily replaced the
following year, as the stock has not been injured ; in this
case the Vouzou method with growing eye may be used.
As is apparent, the main advantages of budding for the
reconstitution of vineyards are the following :
1st. Possibility of grafting the first year, of planting out
even in dry, pebbly, compact soils, where the method of graft-
ing by decapitation would always result in failures.
BUDDING ON THE VINE. 45
2nd. Easy execution without any special preparation of
the soil (earthing up), as the budding may be performed 4
inches above the level of the ground.
3/y/. No emission of roots from the scion, and severance
of the stock only after the knitting has taken place.
kth. Crop-bearing following the year of grafting.
The only drawback of these grafts is the extreme fragility
of the scion shoots during the first month of their growth. This
is due to the extraordinary growth of the single bud, which
seems so weak when dormant, and often throws three or four
shoots from this one point, shoots which often reach yards in
length at the end of summer.
Budding of old Stocks. With Salgues' green budding,
we may at any time transform a European variety already
grafted on an American stock or direct producers, Jacquez,
Herbemont, &c., without interrupting the crop. These
ordinarily can only be replaced by decapitating the stock,
and using a cleft-graft. Every vine-grower knows that this
system of grafting weakens and generally kills the stock, if
the graft misses.
The shoots occupying the best places on the crown of the
plant must be preserved when disbudding. In June or July *
one or two buds of the required variety are placed on each
of these shoots, and the following year, at the pruning season,
all the canes of the stock are cut at ^ to J inch above the
bud, immediately above the last scion. This bud is left to
draw the sap towards the scion, and it must only be cut
away after the latter has reached a length of 12 to 20
inches. All shoots growing on the old wood (water
shoots and suckers) must be disbudded, an operation
which should be renewed as often as possible ; directly
the scions have started to grow properly these suckers cease
to appear on the old wood. All the other operations simply
consist in erecting a strong stake to fasten the shoots to.
The above method may be used for old gooseberry-shaped
bushes. We have tried to apply it to vines trained in other
ways, such as Cazenave or Royat cordons, or old Jacquez.
Herbemont, or even old mother-plants of Riparia Rupestris.
The operation is conducted in the following way: Choose
the shoots which are most strongly attached to the plant,
and bud them with dormant eyes of Cabernet-Sauvignon,
* About December to January in Victoria.
46 NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING.
Malbec, Chasselas, or other varieties, placing" the buds
12 inches apart on the shoot ; the first at 27^ inches from the
ground, so as to be level with the bottom wire on the cordon
generally 15^ inches, above the ground. The first bud will
be 12 inches from the bend and the last will correspond
with the bend of the next cordon.
At the next winter pruning, all the shoots of the vine are
removed ; the budded one alone is left, and is trained on the
wire straight away. This shoot is pruned at the bud over
the last scion ; this bud, being left to draw the sap towards
the scion, is pinched short when the latter are 10 to 12 inches
in length. They are then fastened with raffia to the top
wire, and directly they reach to 20 or 23 inches the sap-
drawer is cut away. We may add, that the canes of all the
stocks tried so far increase in diameter at the same rate as
the scions, without producing too large a protuberance at
the knitting point.
This graft is so handy and so rational that it may readily
be used to replace weak spurs on Cazenave, Royat, or
Even amateurs may use it to graft different varieties on
the same stock.
A word remains to be added concerning another kind of
budding recently invented by Vouzou, vineyard manager for
de Yerninac, whose property is in the same canton as that
Vouzou, who understood well the modus operand 'i of green
budding, hit on the idea of excising the buds from canes of the
previous year's growth, such as those used in bench grafting
and preserved in sand. The first trial was made in 1892, and
the judges of the agricultural show of the Lot, which took
place in June and July, were surprised to see the results.
Buds grafted towards the end of May on trellised vines,
varying in age, were already bearing shoots 10 to 30 inches
This method was pointed out originally by Tallavignes, but
it was only in 1894, at the Agricultural Show of Cahors,
that we saw for the first time specimens of Vouzou grafts
made in 1893 which were loaded with grapes, together with
others, grafted only twenty days before on Jacquez and
Riparia one year old : these had shoots 2-^ to 4 inches in
BUDDING ON THE VINE. 4/
We were so taken with the results that we bought two of
these grafted cuttings, which we dissected, in order to ascer-
tain what kind of adherence existed between the cambiums
of stock and scion.
We were surprised to see that twenty days had been
sufficient to form a mass of cellular tissue all round the
periphery of the scion, and extending on ail the parts of
sap-wood left bare by the bark lifting on account of its
thickness ; therefore, the knitting was absolutely perfect.
This being ascertained, we tried to discover in what way
the section of the bud had been made. On lifting it, it was
noticed that the operator had made an absolutely plane
section, taking about one-third of the diameter of the shoot.
Some of the pith had even been left, and the whole of the
scion was from 1 to 1J inches in length.
With these data, we budded, on the 28th of June, ten
stocks of Herbemont, five years old, placing two buds on
their trunk at from 4 to 5 inches above the ground, pinch-
ing all the shoots above the grapes. A fortnight later it
was noticed that twelve buds had knitted perfectly, and were
already showing shoots 4 to 5 inches in length. They reached
3 to 6J- feet before the fall of the leaves, and enormous pads
of healing tissues had developed at the joint. These shoots
were pruned very short in February last, and they resemble
four years Valdiguier's gooseberry bushes, and bear an
abundant crop. Such results induced us to graft last year
many hundreds of buds on stocks of all kinds and all
The results were always splendid on old stocks, but rather
doubtful on one or two-year-old rootlings.
The following are some ideas and improvements we
thought advisable to make in this new mode of grafting:
1st. It was noticed, in a general way, that buds accom-
panied by a latent axillary bud did not knit well, as in the
case of green budding. We attributed this to the fact that
a bud accompanied by a latent axillary bud had not received
the quantity of sap required to form a good constitution, or
that the small wound resulting from the removal of this
anticipated bud had caused it to dry through the evaporation
taking place on that section.
To avoid this inconvenience, one must, when selecting the
bud-bearing canes, choose those with solitary buds of
48 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
2nd. A very sharp grafting-knife must be used to excise
the bud, cutting obliquely and not perpendicular to the axis
of the bud; this with the object of making a very plane sec-
tion and to avoid cutting the pith, except on a very small
surface opposite the bud. We have noticed that all the
scions which had too much pith attached to them knitted
badly, and that their upper extremity did not knit at all.
Another advantage resulting from this is, that the scion
being thinner, the bark of the stock which is to be opened
in a T-shaped slit, covers the bud more and shelters it better
against the action of the air.
On the other hand, the section being reduced in surface
fits better, and its libro-cortical periphery rests exactly on
the cambium of the stock, which is very active at the time
the graft is performed. This explains the very rapid evolu-
tion of this bud.
3rd. We also noticed that many of the grafts had a'
tendency to disjointing from the top, after the ligature had
been cat away, although they were perfectly knitted.
This accident does not seem to have very great import-
ance, for, in every case, this little tear of the bark cicatrized,
but it checks for a time the free passage of the sap.
We have, to a great extent lessened it by making an in-
cision in the shape of a reversed L. The top aglet is better
fixed in this narrow angle, and, the knitting taking place on
the two parts of the bark, it will not become disjointed so
'4ttkt These buds being lignified and grafted on old stocks
require to have a much better ligature than is the case with
green buds. Therefore, raffia should be used instead of
cotton or wool.
5tk. The Youzou budding, contrary to the Salgues bud-
ding, is done with a growing-eye as is the case in all vine-
grafts made in spring, with wood of the previous year. It
is, therefore, evident that all the sap of the plant must be
drawn towards that bud.
Does this mean that a complete ablation of the stock
must be made, directly after the grafting ? No, for this
would cause the sap to flow back too suddenly, causing the
development of underground suckers, and in nine cases out
of ten provoke the desiccation of the scion.
With liupestris and Biparias, planted out, we pinched the
shoots at three different periods : 1st, we suppressed half
BUDDING ON THE VINE. 49
the shoot directly after budding ; 2tid 9 pinched it a little
lower a fortnight later ; 3rd, pruned an inch or two above
the ground 25 or 30 days later, when the scion was from 20
to 24 inches in length.
When the scion has reached this development it is strong
enough to draw all the sap of the roots towards it, and it
acquires a vigour equal to that of the best cleft grafts.
It is absolutely necessary to fasten the shoots of each
graft to a strong stake after the removal of the top of the
shoot. Like that of Salgues', this graft is very easily
disjointed when young.
Towards the end of July the little knob left above the
graft is removed by cutting it as close as possible to the
scion, and very often this wound heals before the fall of the
leaves. When the scions develop properly, the mother-
plant never throws suckers even if the mother-plant is a
Rupestris du Lot, which, as we all know, throws out suckers
very freely. In 1895, we performed the Vouzou graft on
Bouschet-hybrids already grafted on Biparia, and they
succeeded without exception.
We noticed that the large wound made on the stock by
the severance of the top part induced necrosis, which injures
the scions, -and we think it would be preferable in future to
graft on the spurs of the crown or to place a certain number of
scions of the same height all round the trunk. With the
help of these scions the wound becomes quickly covered
with pads of healing tissue. Later on some of the scions
may be cut away and the plant formed in the ordinary way.
Up to the present our own experience leads us to think
that there is no method of grafting vines cheaper, and offer-
ing greater security of strikes, than budding. With this
mode of grafting above ground, the vines may be placed
under the same conditions of culture and propagation as
other ligneous species. We must admit that the Salgues
and Vouzou methods have not up to the present given the
results one expected from them, but we must remember that
the same fact occurred at the beginning of reconstitution.
It required long experiments and many failures before the
whip-tongue was accepted as one of the best bench-grafts,
and it required many lectures and practical lessons before
its use became general. We are convinced that the same
thing will happen with budding, when practical lessons are
given as to the mode of operation, and that success will
quickly generalize its use.
NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
NEW BUDDING ON THE VINE, MASSABIE
BY ARNOLD CHEVALLIER.
A vine-grower of the Lot, Massabie, has devised a new graft
for vines, or rather an improvement of the bud grafting,
which, according to those who have tried it, gives marvellous
results, as 100 per cent, of strikes were obtained. Eve^-
body knows the ordinary budding. The Massabie graft is
made on old wood with a bud taken from a one-year-old cane,
which has been preserved in dry sand, as is done for ordinary
grafts. The operator holds the cane by its base, and excises
the bud, cutting from bottom to top, reaching the pith as
shown in Fig. 51. This operation is rendered easier by the
Fig-. 51. Massabie Graft.
Method of excising the Bud.
Fig. 52. Stock ready to be
use of the secateur shown in Fig. 53. It is advisable to leave
the scion-bearing shoot dipped in water for a few hours before
excising the bud, as it renders this operation easier. When
the bud is excised in this way, the whole bark of the shield is
removed, taking care not to touch the bud. This is the secret
of this graft, to which its complete success is due. When
the scion is ready, it is inserted under the bark of the stock,
* Revue de Viticulture, vol. VIII., 1897.
NEW BUDDING ON THE VINE, MASSABIE GRAFT.
which is opened in a T-shaped slit, the same as is done for
any other budding, the top flat part of the scion must rest
on the top of the T (Fig. 52). The ligature is made of raffia,
starting from the top, as if we started from the bottom, we
would risk pushing the scion out of its place.
This graft has the enormous advantage of being made at
any time after the month of March,* when the vine is in full
vegetation, and without decapitating the stock ; it gives the
Fig. 53. Grafting Secateur, used for making the Massabie
first year extremely vigorous shoots and perfect knitting.
As it may be performed on old stumps, it would be very
useful for the multiplication of rare cepages, which may be
grafted on old European vines, and give at once strong
wood. It would allow the grafting of old American vines,
which knit with much difficulty (Rupestris).
* September in Victoria.
NEW METHODS OF GKAFTJNG AND BUDDING.
CLEFT GRAFT ABOVE GROUND.*
BY CH. CLAKAC,
Farm Manager at the School of Agriculture, Saint-Sever.
Amongst grafts above ground the cleft graft is one of the
most practical. It is not difficult of execution if one knows
already how to perform the ordinary cleft graft. The results
are certain if the following precautions are taken.
It is preferable to cut the scion-bearing shoot in autumn,
ior the bursting of the buds of canes cut in spring may take
place before the graft is knitted.
We should operate in the following way : At the base of
the scion an ordinary wedge-shaped section is made, taking
care to start level with the bud, and even a little above, to
level the protuberance of the node always existing there.
The top of the scion is cut J inch above the bud. (Fig. 54.)
Fig. 54. -Scion.
Fig. 55. Scion and
The graft on the stock is performed, as in the case of the
English cleft graft, above the node, and the scion is deeply
inserted in the cleft, so as to obtain as many points of con-
tact as possible. (Fig. 55.) The graft is bound with strips of
* Revue de Viticulture, vol. IX., 1898.
CLEFT GRAFT ABOVE GROUND. 53
tin or lead foil f inch to 1 inch wide, and 2 inches to 3 inches
long, leaving only the bnd of the scion showing. The lead
foil, which in the case of underground grafts may be in-
jurious, is indispensable in this case if grafting wax is not
used. A strong raffia ligature is then made.
It is very important to insert the scion in the cleft level
with its top section, as it is essential to prevent the action
of the air on the sections of both stock and scion, for one of
the main causes of failures in grafts above ground is that the
scion is left exposed to the air.
If we proceed in the above-described manner this graft
will knit as well as that performed underground. We also
avoid the excess of humidity which may be present in a soil,
naturally too wet, or so caused by heavy rains. On the other
hand, if the weather is very warm the scion is not liable to
desiccate as in the case of underground grafts surrounded
with dry soil. The knitting takes place very satisfactorily
when tin-foil is used for binding, and the scions grow
With this mode of operating we can perform an ordinary
cleft, or side cleft graft. The latter should be preferred if
we have to deal with planted-out stocks ; if the soil is pebbly
or too wet, it dispenses with the earthing-up. It is also
useful if we desire to change a variety without losing any
crop. In this case if we have to deal with vines trained on
cor.dons, a water shoot is left as low as possible, and, in
winter, pruned with two eyes. It is grafted, and the cordon
continued to be pruned in the usual manner, until the graft
can start bearing a crop.
If the vines are trained in the gooseberry-bush fashion,
the bud should be preserved in the centre of the stump,
pruned with two eyes and grafted; the other spurs are
pruned as usual and removed when the graft has become
strong enough to bear fruit. The best time to perform this
graft is April or May,* after the vine has ceased bleeding.
Other methods for cleft grafting above ground. A cane is
selected on the stock and cut f inch above the bud upon
which the graft is to be performed. (Fig. 56.) A cleft is
made on one side of it starting ^ inch above the bud, being
careful to split the cane along its axis ; the scion cut wedge
shape is inserted in the cleft and a strong ligature made as
* October or November in Victoria.
NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
Certain varieties of vines knit with difficulty when the graft
is performed at the end of a shoot. To increase the strike,
a bud is left on the stock above the joint. (Fig. 57.)
Two buds are thus left
to draw the sap towards
the scion, they are natu-
rally pinched later on.
Cleft grafting with hol-
lowed scions. It often
happens that towards the
end of the grafting period,
if the scions have been
selected to match the
stocks, the scions remain-
ing do not correspond witli
the diameter of the stocks
remaining. This difference
may exist in a great num-
ber of stocks and scions ;
the work is therefore han-
Fig. 56. Other Cleft Fig. 57. Same, with ah dicapped and Sometimes
Graft above ground. eye left to draw the sap. i j
We would propose the following method, which we have
used successfully during many years, and which enables
vine-growers to use scions of any size.
It consists in slightly modifying the scion used with the
ordinary cleft graft. The two slanting sections being made,
a little triangular piece abc
(Fig. 58) is cut away with the
point of the grafting knife.
The size of this triangular
piece is proportionate to the
size of the scion. A fork-
shaped wedge remains (Fig.
59), the two tongues of which
can be brought together,
diminishing the diameter and
rendering it equal to that of Fig. ss.-scion,
the stock. (Fig. 60.)
The scion prepared in this manner is inserted in the cleft,
which is pressed against the two little tongues by a strong
ligature. Great care must be taken to make the inner bark
of both scion and stock coincide throughout their length.
Fig. 59. Scion,
CLEFT GRAFT ABOVE GROUND. 55
It is important to ligature with a material
resisting decomposition so as to hold the
two little branches of the fork together
until complete knitting. Sulphated raffia
washed after sulphating seems to give very
The portion dispensed with in the hollow-
ing, comprises only the pith and a ligneous
part which does not influence the knitting.
The strike is even increased, as the bring-
ing together of the two branches of the fork
allows the generative layers of both stock and brought
scion to coincide over a greater length. showi di g ame^" laller
NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING.
BY AKNOLD CHAVALLIER.
Pardes discovered two years ago a new and very interest-
ing* graft above ground. It is rather a new application of
an old method of grafting. It is, in effect, the ordinary cleft
graft used for fruit trees which he applied to vines. One
operates as follows (Figs. 61 and 62) :
The old stump is cut at the required height, and the
section cleaned with the grafting knife. A cleft is made,
keeping it open with a little
wooden wedge, and the scion
with one bud deeply inserted
as in the case of fruit trees.
Care must be taken not to
reach the pith on both sides
when making the wedge, to
preserve that part of the scion
as strong as possible. When
the scion is properly placed,
the whole section is covered
with grafting wax and strongly
ligatured with raffia.
This graft is made in March.
It has, therefore, a great ad-
vantage in case of failures
(which are rare if it is properly
one to graft again, using the
ig. 61. Pardes Graft.
performed) of allowing
Pardes' method gives in the first year extremely vigorous
shoots and even fruit. It forms a perfect and remarkably
strong knitting. If the stock is large enough, two scions
Revue de Viticulture, vol. ix., 1898.
may be inserted opposite each other as shown in Fig. 63.
Pardes exhibited this year at the general Agricultural Show,
a graft which had given that same year five shoots, one of
which was 13 feet in length.
Fig. 63. Cleft Graft above ground, first year.
58 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
BUDDING WITH OR WITHOUT SAP-WOOD.*
BY CH. CLARAC,
Farm Manager at the School of Agriculture, Saint-Sever.
HERBACEOUS BUDDING WITH SAP-WOOD.
The budding with lignified wood is a very ancient graft,
although some modern viticulturists think they have invented
it. This graft has been applied for a very long time, on the
most diverse stocks, and it has never received any modifica-
tion except that which consists in scraping the inner bark of
the scion. We do not know if this modification may [be
looked upon or regarded as an improvement, for it means a
complication in the work, which is not compensated by the
increase of the percentage of strikes. We never had more
than 50 per cent, strikes at the best seasons, and even then
the knittings were not always perfect. These unsatisfactory
results might be due to a defect in the execution ; however
we think that, under the actual conditions of grafting, this
improvement must be disregarded. We attribute these
failures to another cause. From personal researches, it
results that the non-success of this graft must be accounted
for by the method used in excising the bud, causing it to
split in many places.
This accident cannot be avoided, and always takes place
at the beginning of the cut. This split wood does not
knit, and, on account of its desiccation, prevents the knitting
from being complete when it does not kill the graft alto-
gether. To insure success in budding with lignified wood
we must excise the scion, without splitting it. This is the
only modification we make in the old well-known method
We operate in the following manner : 1st. Make a slant-
ing cut, starting at the opposite side of the bud to be excised
J inch above it and ending \ inch below. This cut is con-
cave (cut a c b y Fig. 64), the operator will get rid of a
useless portion of the cane (abd). This part bears the wood,
bruised by the grafting-knife. 2nd. The cane is reversed end
to end, its natural extremity pointing towards the body of
* Revue de Viticulture, vol. X., 1898.
BUDDING WITH OR WITHOUT SAP-WOOD.
the operator and the section c e (Fig. 64) made, the first
finger pressing under the bud in g to hold the scion. It is
easily seen in this .second cut that it is the point in c which
will bear the split wood. Finally, if the grafting-knife had
a tendency to come out too far from the bud, a third section
f e would be made, leaving the scion neatly cut without any
One must be careful to make the second cut c e, very
flat, which is easy, as the first cut has been made concave.
It is easier to start excising the bud from the base of the
We must notice that the scion-bud, excised with a plane
section, has to fit on a convex surface ; it will fit better
if we take these buds from small canes, and particularly
from axillary shoots. In this way the plane section will
be narrower, and will fit better on the cylindrical surface.
As this graft is generally
made on old stocks it will
always be easier to find on the
latter, the least convex sur-
face, upon which the bud is
placed under more favorable
If required, we may par-
tially scoop out the scion, to
render its internal surface con-
cave, and therefore the contact
of the stock more complete,
and the knitting easier.
It is preferable to take the
eyes from canes of very small
diameter, although this is a
The bud being inserted on the stock a strong ligature is
made with raffia.
It is important to gather the scion-bearing canes before
the cold season, to select them well lignified and preserve
them in dry sand up to the time of grafting, that is to say,
May, or the beginning of June.*
Another very important fact which must not be neg-
lected is, to take only the buds which do not bear any
Fig. 65. Scion
with Flat Sec-
November or December in Victoria.
NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
wounds or axillary buds. We must avoid wounded scion-
buds, for it is always from these wounds that desiccation
We have often seen grafts not starting to grow until the
following spring ; therefore, we must not conclude that the
graft is lost, simply because it does not start growing the
year it has been performed.
All these details must not be
neglected ; they all are neces-
sary conditions of success, and
all operators know how deli-
cate the grafting above ground
is, and how many failures
have been met with. We have
studied this graft successfully
for many years, and are con-
vinced as to its results when
made under the conditions
After a few trials, the oper-
ator acquires the way of using
the grafting knife so as to
graft well and quickly.
These modifications also apply to the grafts known as
inlaid-budding. The bud in this case is excised, starting
from the opposite side, as previously. If the scion is to
take the place of another bud it is easy to see that the sec-
tion must be plane, and that it will easily fit on the stock
(Figs. 65 and 66).
If the scion is to be placed on an internode or old stock,
its section must be slightly curved (Fig. 68). We see that
the section of the bud (Fig. 67) has to be curved in the same
way. This graft must be waxed, or ligatured with lead foil.
The best time to make these grafts is the end of May or
the beginning of June,* when the vines have ceased to
HERBACEOUS BUDDING WITHOUT SAP-WOOD.
The Salgues budding with sap-wood is a very difficult
mode of multiplication, even notwithstanding all the im-
provements made upon it by different horticulturists, and
the causes of its non-success are not well known. The main
Fig. fl6. Grafr made
with Flat Scion.
Curved Scion for
on old stock.
* November or December in Victoria,
BUDDING WITH OR WITHOUT SAP-WOOD.
causes are always the same. Salgues' scion is excised with a
flat section forming a large wound ; this flat section does
not fit well on the cylindrical internode of the stock, and it
adheres less opposite the bud, where it touches the stock
only by its centre ; the layer of sap-wood still left under the
bud is interposed between the stock and the scion and
partially prevents complete knitting, if the lignification of
the sap-wood has started. It is therefore important to
excise the bud with as little sap-wood as possible ; this
modus operandi is applied with rose-trees or any other
species, but the great difficulty with vines is that the green
bark is so extremely delicate, that, if the operator touches
the inside of it with the point of the grafting-knife, when
removing the ligneous part, the graft is lost.
We first tried the half-sap-wood
budding which gives fairly good re-
sults, but it must be ligatured with
rubber or wool. This is a great dis-
advantage, and, until a cheaper liga-
ture is found, allowing this graft to
enter a more practical domain, the
half-sap-wood budding can only be
considered as an amateur graft. It is
very convenient when one only has
a few stocks to graft as its strike is
As we considered the sap-wood in
Salgues' shield as being the main cause
of its non-success, we endeavoured to
bud without any sap-wood at all. The
idea is not new, but we did not pursue
it on account of the difficulty found in
removing, the sap-wood of the shield
without injuring the bark, and with-
out completely scooping out the bud.
Professor Horvath, of Hungary,
performs this graft as follows: He
selects the time when the vines are
well in sap, excises the bud without
wood, makes a double T or single T
slit on the stock, the longitudinal cut
always passing through the centre of the bud of the stock
without touching the alburnum under it ; he places the bud,
Fig. 68. -Graft on old
NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING.
fitting the concave part under the scion, over the protuber-
ance of the node on the stock which has remained intact,
but as the bud and the stock could never fit perfectly
together a hollow space always remained between them, which,
in the majority of cases, brings about desiccation. This
desiccation even occurs after the knitting has taken place.
It is for this reason that we tried to bud without sap-
wood, replacing the node of the scion in its natural cavity.
Method of excising the bud. The cane is held with the
base towards the body, the bud lifted by making an incision,
starting under the eye at \ inch from
it, -J*Q inch in thickness ; this incision
is continued down to f inch below
the eye (Fig. 69). A transversal sec-
tion perpendicular to the first one
is made, as shown by Fig. 70,
reaching the sap-wood. Seizing the
bark of the scion between the thumb
and the first finger, it is lifted, and
the part of the sap-wood shown in
Fig. 73 remains attached to the
cane. The shield shown in Fig. 72
is thus obtained. The two angles
at the bottom are cut to facilitate
its introduction under the bark of
the scion. (Fig. 71.)
Fig. 73 shows a cane from which
a scion has been removed. The pro-
tuberance, of the node has not been
touched. It is cut at d c, and is replaced under the scion
in the place it first occupied. This little
operation is done without touching the
node with the fingers. It is placed in the
natural cavity on the scion by simply
turning the cane over. (Fig. 74.)
The slit on the stock must be T-shaped.
That used by Salgues, which answers very
well with sap-wood shields, is impracticable
for shields without sap-wood. The bud is
not rigid enough, and cannot be intro- F . 71. Fig. 72.
duced into the Salgues slit without being shields.
injured. One must take care not to displace the little pro.
tuberance. The ligature is also of very great importance
Fig. 69. Fig. 70.
Method of excising the Bud
BUDDING WITH OK WITHOUT SAP-WOOD.
It must start from the top of the graft, leaving a space of
2\y to iV f an * ncn between the strands, pressing at the
same time upon
the bud with the
thumb, so as to
make it coincide
exactlv with the
of^lr " H,m nf flio Fi - 73. Cane from which a Scion has been removed,
|CK - showing the way of cutting the protube ranee -c d.
strands must pass
between the petiole and the bud, or over the section of the
petiole if the latter has been previously cut away. In either
case the turns should pass as close as possible to the bud,
so as to secure its adherence in that position. (Fig. 75.)
The shoot bearing the scion buds must be taken from a
healthy mother plant in full vegetation. It should be at
least inch in diameter.
The petiole of the leaf accom-
panying the bud to be grafted
is generally cut at ^ inch above
its point of insertion. When
fruit trees are budded this leaf
is always cut away, and in this
case it only presents advan-
tages. The petioles of fruit
tree leaves are not as spongy
as those of vine leaves, and
their section heals quickly ;
but in the case of vines the
section of the base of the
petiole' presents a much larger
area, and as it contains a great
quantity of water,- evapora-
tion from the herbaceous part
is abundant, and, in the
majority of cases, will destroy
To diminish these accidents, we tried leaving a few tenths
of an inch of the limb attached to the petiole. The desic-
cation in this case did not take place so rapidly, but another
accident occurred ; after a few days the fall of the petiole
formed a wound at its base, which in the majority of cases
compromised the success of the graft. It would be advisable
to remove the leaf a fortnight before budding. In this case
placed in its
64 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
the wound would have time to heal on the shoot bearing the
buds, and the danger of desiccation would be greatly
diminished. To remove the leaf without tearing the buds of
the petiole, a sharp downward pull is given ; with varieties
in which the petiole does not get detached easily it should
be cut to 1 inch above its point of insertion, and a few days
later the small piece remaining can be easily removed. The
section obtained is neater, but it will require another week
to completely heal.
We do not recommend the use of scions bearing axillary
buds. These would have to be removed before they attained
inch in length, and their development would produce a
swelling of the node, complicating the operation of grafting.
The bud being more swollen its adherence to the stock would
be difficult to obtain.
Finally, the scion-bearing shoots, being prepared as above
described, we take all the buds from the middle part, leaving
the buds of the base, generally too much lignified, and which,
for this reason, would get completely hollowed, and the buds
of the extremity, which cannot be hollowed properly. If the
node at the base of the bud is shining, it shows that the bud
is not sufficiently ripe. The scion-bearing shoot has reached
proper lignification when the number of buds whicli can be
detached (leaving a part of the bark adherent to them, and
under the eye about -j^ inch of alburnum proceeding from the
protuberance, which, when excised in this way, presents an
irregular surface) is greater.
HERBACEOUS BUDDING WITHOUT ALBURNUM, AND WITHOUT
COMPLETELY HOLLOWING THE SHIELD.
Budding without alburnum and without complete hollowing
of the shield is not new. It has been used for fruit trees, and
we tried to apply it to vines with all the chances of success
it presents with other species. The difficulty only resides in
the method of excising the scion.
Practical operators will appreciate the advantages of
allowing the wound at the base of the petiole to heal before
performing the operation. If we add to this modification
the following, we think that the maximum chance of success
will be obtained. This modification is only a simplification
in the execution of the graft without alburnum and replac-
ing of the protuberance. It consists in excising the bud
without alburnum and without completely hollowing the eye.
BUDDING WITH OB WITHOUT SAP-WOOD.
Method, of Excising the Bud.
When the scion-bearing shoot has all its wounds com-
pletely cicatrized, it is cut from the mother plant and the
herbaceous extremity removed.
The cane is then seized with the left hand, its extremity
pointing towards the body of the grafter. The buds at the
base are excised first. The length of the shield must be from
1 to 1 inches. The section is started with
the base of the grafting knife, allowing it to
gradually slide, until it reaches the other ex-
tremity of the section. When the blade reaches
the level of the cicatrice it should be lifted a
little, so as to continue the section parallel to
the axis of the cane and of ^5 to -fa in. The
transversal section ab (Fig. 76) is made,
cutting through the bark only. The bud is
seized between the thumb and tte first finger,
level with the section ab, and slightly pulled
away from the alburnum. The scion is then
seized with the thumb resting on the section
of the petiole, and the first finger on the bud,
and to avoid it becoming completely hollowed
a kind of rocking motion is given, gradually
drawing the thumb back as the alburnum
gets detached. By doing so, a part of the
alburnum is left adherent to the stock in the
shape of a fork (Fig. 77), and the scion thus
obtained is a half-alburnum bud. If, in this
operation, the alburnum breaks without form-
ing the fork, the bud should be rejected, as
it means that it is not ripe enough.
The delicate part of the operation consists now in removing
the rest of the alburnum without hollowing the eye. We
can only attain this
result by operating
in the following
A small triangle of
Fig. 77. Alburnum left adherent to the Stock. alburnum obc (Fig.
80) is removed, using
the point of the grafting knife as indicated by Fig. 78.
of excising the
NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
The point following the line cb Up to the point where the
alburnum touching the bark gets harder. The point of the
knife is then lifted, cutting away the part of the alburnum
opposite the bud.
To facilitate the operation the thumb rests on the ex-
tremity of the blade, preventing it from penetrating deeper
than necessary. This little operation forms a notch, weaken-
ing the small tongue of alburnum left under the bud, and it
is at that point that the separation of the alburnum from
the bark takes place. This is done by seizing the extremity
of the tongue between the thumb and the point of the graft-
ing knife and pulling it away from the bark, forcing it to
describe half a circle (Fig3. 80, 81, and 83), retaining the
thumb on the wood left under the shield. We obtain in this
manner a scion which is not hollowed, and the bark of which
has riot been bruised. (Fig. 83.)
One must not wait until the swelling of the node is too
great before cutting the leaves away from the scion-bearing
BUDDING WITH OK WITHOUT SAP-WOOD.
shoot, for the swelling would prevent the complete adherence
of the scion to the stock. If, however, we were forced to
utilize such -swollen buds, we should re-
quire to leave a small portion of alburnum
under the eye, so as to secure complete
The scion thus prepared is placed either
in an I or T shaped slit. To facilitate its
introduction in the I slit, the angles at
the top of the scion should be cut away.
The ligature is made with wool, the
strands passing as close as possible to
the eye, forcing, with the thumb, the
scion to rest completely on the stock.
Although it is preferable to ligature
with wool, it is sometimes necessary to
use raffia (Fig. 84). In this case we
must not forget to turn five or six
strands more at both extremities of the
graft. One of the disadvantages of raffia
is that when the joint increases in dia-
meter it penetrates into the bark and
produces swelling, as it is not as elastic
as wool. It may even produce a new
wound on the cicatrice of the petiole
and bring about the death of the scion.
We also know that raffia shrinks and
stretches under the influence of humidity,
and this is another reason for discard-
ing it. Fi g . 84 .
ADVANTAGE OF BUDDING WITHOUT ALBURNUM AND WITH
PARTLY HOLLOWED SHIELDS.
This graft had been abandoned on account of the difficulty
of removing the alburnum without bruising the bark and
without completely hollowing the bud, and above all, because
when the petiole got detached the wound it produced
favoured great evaporation, and was one of the main causes
The method of budding by replacing the protuberance of
the node did away with the first of these inconveniences. The
l>;irk \V;IH not bruised, By previously removing the leafj
68 NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING.
this graft gives satisfactory results. However, if the buds
are not ripe enough when the grafting takes place they will
The graft in which the eyes are only partly hollowed,
prevents the second inconvenience, and has also the advantage
of allowing the use of a much greater number of buds. This
is the safest green graft, and may be performed during a
very long period, from June till the end of August.* Its
shoots are very vigorous.
These grafts may be performed with dormant or growing
eyes. It is preferable to use dormant eyes, as lignifying
takes place under more favorable conditions. If we wish
to obtain growing eyes, the shoot should be pinched a
fortnight after the operation.
These buds can also be placed on old wood.
The grafting knife used for the whip-tongue graft cannot
be used for budding. The ordinary gardener's budding knife,
with Kund's blade, should be preferred.
Practical grafters who have only been accustomed to cleft-
grafting will not succeed at first with herbaceous budding,
but we must remember that the whip-tongue graft was
found quite as difficult of execution when it was first invented,
and it was not without great difficulties, experiments, and,
above all, conviction of its merits, that it became practical,
arid is now used by every vine-grower. We wish to impress
upon the reader the necessity of learning the budding of vines
by practice in the vineyard. However, it will be found to be
easier of execution than the whip-tongue, and, as all nursery-
men, and most gardeners know already how to bud fruit trees,
there is no reason why this method of grafting, with all its
advantages, should not become generally used.
* December to February in Victoria.
BY ARNOLD CHAVALLIEE.
Plessard-Plane, gardener at Petit-Pressigny (Indre-et-
Loire), has invented a new graft, which is performed in the
following way :
I. Preparation of the Scion. To excise the bud of the
scion-bearing shoot, the latter is cut at AB (Fig. 85), the top
section being previously made J inch above the bud, which
is finally detached by an oblique section CD.
t Rewft de Viticulture, vol. XII., 1899,
70 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING.
2. Preparation of the Stock. A vertical cut EF (Figs. 87
and 88), and an oblique on'e GF, are made, forming the
lodgment for the scion (Fig. 86), which is inserted, the top
sections of both scion and stock being covered with grafting
wax (Fig. 89) made in the following way :
Beeswax ... ... 100 parts by weight .
Bottle wax ... ... 100
Stockholm tar ... 100
This compound is used warm ; 2 Ibs. is sufficient to wax
from 1,200 to 1,500 grafts.
This graft is performed on the bench in spring. It gives
a percentage of strikes equal to that of the whip-tongue
graft and far superior knitting. It might be used as graft
above ground on canes of the preceding year, being careful
to completely wax and tar the joint and ligature it with
GENEBAL LttDEX. 7 1
INTRODUCTION ... ... ... ... ... ... .3
GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND ... ... ... 5
Inarching or grafting by approach ... ... ... ... 5
Other grafts. (Boisselot, Baltet, and Allies) ... ... 6
Hungarian grafts ... ... ... ... ... ... 7
Herbaceous cleft graft ' ... ... ... ... ... 7
Prof. Horvcith flute graft ... ... ... ... 8
Salgues graft ... ... ... ... ... ... 10
Besson graft ... ... ... ... ... ... 13
Clarac's grafts ... ... ... ... ... ... 17
Clarac's first method Stock ... ... ... ... 17
Scion ... ... .. ... 18
Clarac's second method Stock ... ... ... ... 18
i? n n Scion ... ... ... ... 18
Vouzou GRAFT (normal budding of the vine) ... ... ..." 22
MEANS OF INCREASING THE STRIKE OF HERBACEOUS GRAFTS ... 28
1st. Herbaceous grafting. Selection of shoots bearing buds best
fitted for scions ... ... ... ... ... 28
2nd. Preparation of scion-bud ... ... ... ... 29
Method of exercising the bud ... ... ... ... 30
First method Scion-bud with sap-wood ... ... ... 30
Second method Scion-bud with half sap-wood, with the upper
portion hollowed out ... ... ... ... ... 30
Making the slit on the graft-bearing shoot ... .. ... 32
Best time for grafting above ground
BUDDING ON THE VINE
Green budding with dormant eye . .
I. Time of budding
III. Selection of scions ,
IV. Excising the bud
V. Placing the bud
Preparation of stocks for budding with dormant eyes... ... 40
Arrangement of mother-vine .. ... ... ... 41
Gathering of the budded cuttings ... ... ... ... 42
Stratification of budded cuttings ... ... ... ... 43
Planting budded cuttings ... ... ... ... ... 43
Budding of rootlings from one to three years old ... ... 44
Budding of old stocks ... ... ... ... ... 45
Vouzou system ... ... ... ... ... ... 46
NEW BUDDING ON THE VINE, MASSABIE GRAFT ... . ... 60
2 GENEKAL INDEX.
CLEFT GRAFT ABOVE GROUND ... ..." ... ... ... 52
Other methods of grafting above ground ... ... ... 53
Cleft grafting with hollowed scions... ... ... ... 54
PARDES GRAFT ... ... ... ... ... ... 56
BUDDING WITH OR WITHOUT SAP-WOOD... ... ... ... 58
Herbaceous budding with sap-wood .'.. ... ... 58
Herbaceous budding without sap-wood ... ... ... 60
Method of excising the bud ... ... ... ... 62
Herbaceous budding without alburnum and without completely
hollowing the shield ... ... ... ... ... 64
Method of excising the bud ... ... ... .- 65
Advantage of budding without alburnum and with partly
hollowed shields ... ... ... ... ... 67
CLEFT BUDDING ... ... ... ... ... ... 69
1. Preparation of the scion ... ... ... ... 69
2. Preparation of the stock ... ... ... ... 70
By Authority : ROUT. S. BRAIN, Government Printer, Melbourne
BY THE SAME TRANSLATORS.
WINE -MAKING IN HOT CLIMATES,
Director of the (Enological Station of the Herault.
273 pages, 6 1 illustrations, 5 plates. 1900.
Cloth-bound. Price 2s.
FIRST STEPS IN AMPELOGRAPIY :
A GUIDE TO FACILITATE THE EECOGNITION OF VINES,
Sub-Director of the Laboratory for Viticultural Research, at the National
School of Agriculture, Montpellier.
95 P a S es J 43 illustrations. 1900.
Cloth-bound. Price Is.
TRENCHING AND SUBSOILING FOR
(COMPILED AND TRANSLATED FROM EUROPEAN AUTHORITIES.)
171 pages, 1 10 illustrations, 10 plates. 1901.
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