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Full text of "New methods of grafting and budding, as applied to reconstitution with American vines"

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



VITIGULTURAL STATION, BUTHERGLEN, VICTOEIA. 



NEW METHODS 



GRAFTING AND BUDDING, 



AS APPLIED TO 



RECONSTITUTE WITH AMERICAN VINES. 



Compiled and Translated from Ft "nek ^nthoriti 



RAYMOND DUBOIS, B.Sc. (Paris), 

Diplome E.A,M.; D>. n\<... r of th ^iticultural Station; Chief Inspector of 
Yin&yo. rds for Victoria ; 



W. PERCY WILKINSON, 

Consulting Analyst to the Board of Public Health and the M. u,id Af. Hoard of 
Works ; Private Assistant to the Government Analyst. 



8168. 



ROBT. S. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, MELBOURNE. 
I9O1. 



GIFT OF 




DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



VITICULTURAL STATION, RTJTHBEGLEN, VICTORIA. 



NEW METHODS 



GRAFTING AND BUDDING, 



AS APPLIED TO 



EECONSTITUTION WITH AMERICAN VINES. 



Compiled and Translated from French Authorities 

BV 

RAYMOND DUBOIS, B.Sc. (Paris), 

Diploma E.A.M.; Director of Hie Viticultnral Station; Chief Inspector 
Vineyards for Victoria ; 

AND 

W. PERCY WILKINSON, 

Consulting Analyst to the Board of Public Health and the M. and M. Board of 
Work.* ; Private Axsixfant to the Government Analyst. 



8168. 



iSg ftutfjoritg: 

ROBT. S. BRAIN, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, MELBOURNE. 
19OI. 



INTRODUCTION. 

When two branches or stems of closely related plants, 
growing side by side in a forest, overlap and touch each 
other, the bark becomes bruised and abraded. In such cases 
it has been frequently observed that the sap exuding from 
the alburnum produces pads (callus) by which incorporation 
or knitting of the tissues takes place and the parts become 
one. Thus the usual method of grafting may have origi- 
nated. 

Grafting above ground and budding as applied to vines is 
not a new invention ; it was a common practice with the 
Romans, while grafting underground was the exception. 

This method is considered by many to be a discovery of 
the end of the nineteenth century, yet it was described by 
Palladius,* Columella,t Varro,J and Cato, the only Latin 

* Hutili.ua Taurus Emilianus Palladius, who lived sometime between 140 
and 380 A.D. loc. cit. (De Institutiomt>us Lib. XIV.) : 
" Primus Echionii palmes se jungere Bacchi 

Novit et externo tenditur uva mero. 
Nexilibus gemmis foecundos implicat artus 

Vitis et amplexum pascit adulta genus 
Degenerisque comae vestigia mitis inumbrat 

Pampinus et pingui curvat onusta deo." 

t Lucius Juni us Muderatus Columella, (2 B.C. 65 A D. ) loc. cit. ( De Arbori- 
fus Lib. XXVI.) : "Ex qua arbore inserere voles, in ea quoerito novellos 
et nitidos ramos. In his deinde observato gemmam quce bene apparebit 
certamque spem germinis habebit ; earn duobis digitis quadratis circum- 
signato ut in medio gemma sit et ita acuto scalpello circumcidito, delibra- 
toque diligenter ne gemmam kedas. Deinde in qua arbore inserere voles, in 
ea nitidissimum ramum diligito et ejusdem spatio corticem circumdito et 
materiam delibrato et in earn partem quam nudaveras gemmam hanc quam 
ex altera arbore sumpseras aptato ita ut emplastrum circumcisce parti con- 
veniat. Ubi hsec feceris, circa gemmam bene vincito ita ne laedas ; deinde 
commissuras et vincula luto oblinito, spatio relicto quo gemma libere ger- 
minet. Post unum et vigesinium diem, solvito emplastrum " 

J Marcus Terentius Varro, born at Fan in 118 B.C. loc. cit. (De Agri- 
cultura Lib. XL' I. ) : " Itaque vitem, triduo antequam inserunt, desecantut 
qui in ea nimius est humor diffluat antequam inseratur. Aut in qua in- 
serunt, in ea, paulo infra quam insitum est, incidunt unde humor adven- 
ticius affluere possit." 

Marcus Portias Cato, born at Tusculum 234 B.C. loc. cit. (De re 
rustica Lib. XLII.) : " Quod genus aut ficum, aut oleum esse voles, inde 
librum scalpro eximito, alterum librum cum gemma de eo fico quod genus 
esse voles, eximito ; apponito in eum locum unde exsecaveris in alterum 
genus, facitoque uti conveniat. Librum longum facito digitos III. S. latum 
digitos tres. Ad cundem nodum ob linito, integito uti ccetera " 



30285 



4 NEW METHODS OF QKAFTING AND BUDDING. 

agriculturists whose works we possess. Some of these 
authors even acknowledge that they drew their information 
largely from Magon of Carthage, who wrote an encyclo- 
pedia of agriculture in 22 volumes, 540 B.C., and Varro 
declares with remarkable honesty that he only abridged 
Magon's works. 

After ten years' persistent efforts and successful experi- 
mentation in Europe, several new methods of grafting and 
budding above ground, applied to vines, seem to have almost 
reached perfection, and their use tends to become general, 
although they were at first condemned by viticultural 
authorities.* 

It is interesting to note that all the efforts made during 
the last ten years to perfect these methods tend, as they 
become successful, to identify themselves with methods 
already known to the ancients. 

So far as our ignorance permits us to judge, budding and 
grafting methods as we know them were not invented in 
one day, but have simply reached their present stage, which 
has yet to be improved, by careful and reasoned observation 
and perseverance. It is only by consulting and studying the 
accumulated evidence of successes and failures of past genera- 
tions, that more perfect systems will be found. In order to 
try and forward this final result, and induce vine-growers 
to experiment themselves, the different methods of grafting 
above ground (as described by their authors when pos- 
sible) known and practised in Europe, have been collected 
and brought together under the present form, the object 
being to enable growers to study, combine and perfect them, 
and by making use of knowledge already acquired, discover 
or improve existing methods, or verify under varied condi- 
tions the results obtained by others. 

RAYMOND DUBOIS. 

W. PERCY WILKINSON. 

Viticultural Station, 
Rutherglen, January, 1901. 

* G. Foex, Cours Complet de Viticulture, 3rd edit. 1891, p. W3. 



GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND. 



GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND.* 

BY CH. TALLAVIGNES, 

Director of the School of Agriculture, Ondes, 
Haut- Garonne. 

The results (satisfactory in most cases) of the methods of 
grafting vines underground have prevented, viticulturists 
from devoting attention to the grafting of the vine above 
ground ; it may also be stated that the methods so far known 
oi this manner of grafting, even when placed in experienced 
hands, frequently resulted in failures. 

This is so true that in 1886, Foex stated in his lectures at 
the School of Agriculture, Montpellier, " Grafting above 
ground, which theoretically realizes the most favorable con- 
ditions (as a principle, the younger the stock the greater 
the proportion of strikes, and the better the knitting) has 
been abandoned on account of the rapidity with which the 
scions become dry. The latter, as a matter of fact, lose 
their vitality before knitting takes place unless kept in a 
hothouse." t 

In recent years the idea of grafting above ground has 
been revived, and new practical methods of easy execution, 
giving almost certain strikes, have been devised. We will 
study these rapidly, leaving aside purely fancy grafts too 
difficult to perform, or those resembling the methods we are 
going to describe. 

INARCHING, OR GRAFTING BY APPROACH. 

Until quite lately the only recommendable graft above 
ground was the graft by approach, which we will not 



* Revue de Viticulture, vol. I., 1894. 

t G. Foex. Cours complet de Viticulture. 3rd edit. 1891, p. 293. 



NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 



describe, for it does not differ from 
the ordinary inarching, of which 
Hardy's opinion is "An artistic 
method, but of little use." 

The graft by approach is used to 
replace the occasional misses on the 
frame wood of cordons or spaliers. It 
consists in splitting the shoot along 
its axis, at the point where the scion 
is to be placed ; a cut is made, varying 
in depth, reaching the pith, and some- 
times the opposite side of the shoot. 
The scion is an elongated wedge, 
carrying one eye, cut in such a manner 
as to fit the slit exactly (Figs. 1, 2, 
3). 



Fig. 1. Preparation of Stock 
for the Graft by Approach. 



Fig. 2. Graft by Approach. Fig. 3. Graft by Approach. 
Front view of scion. Side view of scion. 



OTHER GRAFTS. 

The Boisselot graft is an ordinary cleft-graft, in which the 
scion is placed in a slit made at the bifurcation of two shoots 
which are pinched. This graft may also be made at the 
axil of the spurs of a cordon. 

The Baltet graft is a cleft-graft made at the axil of the 
eye of a shoot. 

The Allies graft is an ordinary whip-tongue graft, made 
on a green shoot, and prevented from drying by a cork liga- 
ture similar in every respect to the underground graft. 
Allies has, at St. Antonin (Tarn-et-Garonne), successful in- 
stances of this method. We must acknowledge that we 
have had many failures with it. Even by protecting the 
joint with lead-foil, as recommended by Julien Daumas, we 
did not obtain better results. 



GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND. 



HUNGARIAN GRAFTS. 

In Hungary the system of grafting vines above ground is 
' current practice ; the two methods used are the herbaceous 
cleft-graft, and \\& flute-grafting due to Professor Horvath.* 

These two methods are very well described by 
Jouzier, who was commissioned by the French Govern- 
ment to study and report on the viticulture in 
Hungary.! His report appeared in the Annales de 
rinstitut National Agronomique, vol. 12, 1887. We cannot 
do better than reproduce his descriptions : 

" The herbaceous cleft-graft is one of the oldest systems 
used in Hungary. Tschudy used this method, and recom- 
mended it. In a word, it is an ordinary cleft-graft made on 
the green shoots of very young vines. The shoot used as 
stock is cut between the second and third leaf (a a' Fig. 5) 
counting from the apex, and 1^ to 2 inches above the third 
leaf. The latter is pinched at b b' . The scion is a similar 




Fig. 5. 




Professor at the School of Viticulture, at Tarczal, Hungary. 
t Late Professor at the School of Agriculture, Ondes ; now Professor at the 
National School of Grand-Jouan. 



8 



NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 



shoot, the leaves of which are pinched (Figs. 6, 7, 8, and 9). 
The ligature used is wool or raffia.* Knitting takes place 
rapidly. The ligature is removed directly it begins to cramp 

the joint. We will not 
describe it in further 
detail, as Figs. 4 to 10 
explain it clearly." 
Jouzier saw at Tarczal 
a whole vineyard 
grafted in this man- 
ner, which had a very 
satisfactory growth ; 
but the danger of this 
graft drying, the ne- 
cessity of decapitating 
the stock, and conse- 
quently the impossi- 
bility of making more 
than one graft on one 
shoot prevents us from 
recommending it. 

The flute-graft re- 
commended by Pro- 
fessor Horvath is more 
interesting. It con- 
sists in inserting a 
bud (scion) in place 
of an eye of the stock. 
It is very commonly used 




Fig. 10. 

This mode of grafting is not new. 
for fruit trees. 



Jouzier describes it as follows :< 

" To excise the bud one cannot proceed as in the case of 
apple or pear trees, the shoots of which are almost regularly 
cylindrical. The considerable protuberance which corresponds 
to each node in the vine necessitates the adoption of the fol- 
lowing procedure : A circular incision, penetrating the whole 
depth of the bark, is made ^ inch above the bud, and another 
the same distance below (a a! b b' Fig. 1 1), then right and left 



* Raphia or Raffia is the thin strong cuticle of the leaf of Saqus Raphia, 
a palm, native of Madagascar ; Raphia Tcedigera, a Brazilian species, is 
also exported to Europe and helps to make up the bulk of the raffia of 
commerce. [Transl.] 



GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND. 



9 



of the bud two longitudinal parallel incisions are made, bi- 
secting the circumference (if anything towards the eye) and 
joining the annular incisions (x y Fig. 11). 

" The bud so prepared, the next thing is to choose the posi- 
tion where it is to be placed. It should be placed on a shoot 
of the same diameter, as nearly as possible, as that from 
which it was taken. But the indispensable point which 
makes the difference between ordinary budding and Professor 
Horvath's flute-grafting is that the bud must be placed or 
inserted in place of another bud on a node. 

"The green shoot to be 
used as stock having been 
chosen (Fig. 12), and on 
the latter the bud where the 
graft is to be made (A, Fig. 
12), the leaf on that node is 
removed. Above and below 
the bud, at distances corre- 
sponding to the length of 
the scion, two semi-annular 
incisions are made (a a f b U 
Fig. 12), penetrating the 
whole depth of the bark, 
without, however, cutting 
into the wood. A longitudi- 
nal cut (x y Fig. 12) is then 
made parallel to the axis of 
the shoot, passing through 
the whole bark, dividing the 
petiole in two without cut- 
ting into the wood. Then, 
with the haft or spatula of 
the grafting-knife, the bark is lifted on both sides of the cut so 
as to form, as in the ordinary budding, two flaps. These two 
flaps being open (Fig. 13), the wood is left bare, exposing a 
place the shape of which is arranged so as to be exactly 
adapted to the shape of the scion. The scion is inserted, the 
two flaps brought over it, and the joint ligatured (Fig. 14). 
The tie is made with wool or raffia, and a fortnight or 
twenty days later it should be undone." 

According to Professor Horvath, 80 per cent, of strikes 
have been obtained with this process. But the minutiae of 
this lengthy and delicate operation militate against its use 




Fig. 11. Horvath method. Preparation of 
scion. 



10 



NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 



on a large scale.* We are going to point out how much 
more easy, rapid, and practical are the following methods. 

SALGUES GRAFT. 

This graft was originated by a carpenter, Mr. Salgues, of 
the village of Betaille (Lot), whose first trials were made 
on the 27th June, 1887. It is an ordinary budding, but 




Fijf. 12. Fig. 13. 

Horvath method. Preparation of stock. 

so profoundly modified as to be entitled to be considered as 
a new method. We have seen the results of this method in a 
vineyard of four to five years old ; the grafts were fine, the 
joint invisible, and could only be detected by a slight 
swelling at the point where the graft had been made. 

On the other hand, many viticulturists have obtained 
unsatisfactory results with this method ; this is due to the 
insufficient quantity of sap at the moment of operating, or 
to the bad selection of the scion-bud, or, again, through not 

* The Horvath method might be simplified by utilizing the simple 
longitudinal slit invented by Salgues. The bark on the side of the slit 
being lifted by bending the shoot inwards, the bud being introduced into 
the opening thus formed. Trials of this simplified Horvath method have 
been made at Ondes by Clarac. 



GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND. 



11 



observing certain precautions which are necessary, as we 
ascertained last year in the experiments carried out at the 
School of Agriculture, Ondes. Salgues' graft consists in fixing 
on a green shoot of the year an elliptic scion or shield carry- 
ing a bud at its centre (Figs. 17 and 18). On any internode 
of the shoot to be grafted, a longitudinal incision is made 
with the grafting-knife, penetrating the whole depth of the 
bark and of about the length of the shield (Fig. 15) ; with the 
haft of the grafting-knife the bark is raised on both sides 
of the slit ; the shoot is then bent inwards and the lips of 
the slit open easily (Fig. 16), the scion bud is inserted in 
the opening, and the shoot left to spring up in its former 
position. The scion bud is then compressed by the bark, and 
the operation is completed by tying with wool, cotton, or 
raffia. The 'ligature should be removed a fortnight or 
twenty days after. This method, as may be readily seen, is 
much simpler than the Horvath process. 




Fig. 14. Horvath's graft finished. 

For the Salgues graft to be a success it is necessary, 
firstly, that the stock should be in full sap, so that the lips of 



12 



NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 



Fig. 17. 

Salgues Graft. 

Front view of 

scion -bud. 



the slit may be .easily raised; secondly, that the scion-bud 
should be carefully selected. All the buds of a shoot cannot be 
used indiscriminately. When a green shoot is cut longitudi- 
nally on all its length different colorations may be noticed on 
the section ; towards the apex, the shoot has not yet begun to 
lignify and the section is almost uniformly green in colour, 
only slightly deeper above or below each node, the diaphragm 
of which can only be detected at the second or third node 

(counting from the top), 
\V\ A by a slightly lighter 

colour. If we examine 
the nodes downwards 
we see the diaphragms 
becoming more distinct ; 
finally, still lower, the 
pith begins to be indi- 
cated by. a whitish tint. 
At first, Salgues recom- 
mended the scions to be 
taken only from very 
tender buds in which 
the diaphragm was just 
beginning to show ; he 
has found since, that it 
is preferable to choose 
riper eyes, in which the 
diaphragm is already 
well apparent. We are of opinion that we may safely 
choose all buds where the diaphragm is apparent, but 
taken on the part of the shoot where the white pith is 
not yet noticeable. Each shoot can, under these condi- 
tions, furnish two or three sound eyes for budding. . We 
must evidently bring some attention to bear on the selection 
of the scion; however, one quickly learns to choose the right 
ones. This is a question of practice, difficult to explain with- 
out actual demonstration in the vineyard. Salgues used 
formerly to show my students a simple means for selecting 
these buds. When one tries to bend a young vine-shoot, the 
resistance is nil towards the top ; the further we get from the 
apex the greater the resistance becomes, till we reach a point- 
where the shoot, almost lignified, does not bend, but breaks. 
When the fingers can easily bend the shoot and feel a slight 
resistance, one is sure that the bud in that region, together 
with one above or one below, are suitable for the Salgues graft. 



Fig. 15. Stock 

of Salgues Graft 

prepared. 



Fig. 16. Same, 
bent inward^. 



Fig. 18. Salgues 

Graft. Side view 

of scion-bud. 



GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND. 13 

The necessity, in order to make a success of the Salgues 
method, of choosing stocks well in sap, and young shoots for 
selecting the buds, indicates the time at which this opera- 
tion should be performed ; and May, June, and July are the 
most favorable months.* 

The Salgues graft may be performed on mother-stocks of 
American vines throughout the summer, as the shoots develop. 

The graft is then made with what is known as a dormant 
eye. If we desire the graft to throw a shoot right off we 
should pinch the stem over it ; but it has been proved in 
practice that grafts made with growing eyes are inferior to 
those with dormant eyes. 

It is necessary to tie the grafted shoots to a stake, as re- 
sults from our experiments last year. We used the Salgues 
method and budded dormant eyes, 16 inches apart, on Riparia 
canes, with the object of obtaining grafted cuttings, which 
would have been eligible for planting out during the follow- 
ing spring. We made a contract for this operation with 
a very skilful horticulturist, Mr. Alazard, of Montauban, at 
the rate of 24s. per 1,000 grafts knitted. Mr. Alazard had 
previously undertaken, with great success, a similar contract 
with Mr. Cangardel, of Lot, on American vines trained on 
wire. At Ondes, the shoots of our Riparias were spreading 
on the ground ; the result was a failure. Notwithstanding 
the late season, the same grafts made on the Riparia, but 
tied up on stakes, had, on the contrary, a much higher pro- 
portion of takes. The grafts placed too close to the soil dried 
up on account of the heat rising from it. 

Salgues' method of budding is one of the most interest- 
ing known it gives perfect knitting, and is at present very 
generally used. Now viticulturists are not content with the 
application of this method for green shoots, and they graft 
green buds on- old wood ; they have even gone further, and 
grafted on old wood, buds taken from canes stratified in sand 
for many months, and even then the grafts succeeded. Last 
year, when on a visit of inspection, we saw remarkable 
instances of this at Chateau de Croze, belonging to Mr. 
de Verninac, Member of the Senate. 

BESSON GRAFT. 

As we have seen, the Salgues scion is grafted on the 
internode of the shoot. The Besson graft, like that of 
Horvath, is inserted on the node itself. But, while the method 

" About November, December, January, in Victoria. 



14 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 

of the Hungarian viticulturist is a true budding, that of 
Besson is an inlaying. Moreover, in the Horvath method, 
the graft is always made on green shoots ; while, in the 
Besson system, it is performed with lignified wood. 

The Besson graft, which was performed for the first time 
in the spring of 1893, has been described at length in 
this Revue by M. Mazacle.* We, therefore, reproduce his 
description in full : 

" The budding of vines by the Salgues system has often given 
satisfactory results, and even, under certain conditions, ren- 
dered real services. It has been used to graft afresh shoots 
grown from American vines on which the spring graft had 
missed. In this case, if the budding is done in June,t it 
gives birth to a strong shoot the same year. It is possible 
to graft the canes or shoots of American stocks during the 
whole summer with a series of buds distant from each other 
the length of an ordinary cutting. In winter, when 
pruning, the canes are cut above each graft, and by this 
means grafted cuttings ,are obtained. They simply require 
to be placed in the nursery the following spring. This graft 
is also used for the propagation of rare varieties. 

" Summer budding is not always a success. The pro- 
portion of takes is very variable, and, what is more the 
operation is difficult. This is to be regretted, for this mode 
of grafting, almost the only one used for fruit-trees by 
nurserymen, presents very great advantages. It is very 
rapid, and the wounds are reduced to a minimum. It will, 
perhaps, be possible to facilitate and generalize this form of 
grafting for vines by the inlaid budding on lignified wood. 

"The Besson graft was tried in the spring of 1893 at the 
School of Agriculture, Montpellier, in order to make grafted 
cuttings; it gave good results, the proportion of takes being 
50 per cent, in a soil not favorable for a nursery, and which 
was only watered once during the summer. 

" This graft was made at the same time as the ordinary 
bench grafts, in spring. It is performed in the following 
way with Besson's grafting appliance : This appliance 
(Fig. 19) is a kind of secateur, with carved blades perpendicu- 
lar to the handles, and is used to make the cut and also to 
lift the bud. These two operations are practically identical, 
for when the cut is made a bud is lifted, and vice versa. 

* Revue de Viticulture, vol. L, 1894. 
t About December in Victoria. 



GEAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GKOUND. 



15 



The blades of the secateur are placed parallel with the axis 
of a shoot, at its middle and level with the bud. The lateral 
portion detached, must be a little under half the thickness 
of the shoot. The two handles of Besson's shears are 
brought together, and the cut thus made. This cut (Fig. 20 A) 
is regularly curved and concave ; its length varies according 
to the size of the cane it is about one inch long. 

" To prepare the scion we operate in exactly the same 
way as with the stock, only, while in this case the cut is 
made on the second eye, counting from the top of the cut- 
ting, the scion is taken anywhere from the cane used as 
scion bearer. The scion-bud thus prepared (Fig. 20 B, C) 





Fig. 19. Besson's Grafting Shears. 



Fii?. 20. Besson Graft. 

A, stock ; B and C. scion - 
bud. 



fits marvellously well, on account of its convexity corres- 
ponding exactly to the concavity of the stock. As it is the 
same blade which makes the two cuts, and as this blade is 
placed in the same way in both cases, the juxtaposition of 



16 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 

stock and scion is perfect. To attain this result one only 
requires to choose shoots of equal diameters, 

" The cuttings to be grafted should be 16 inches in length ; 
their top end should be limited by a bud cut half through. 
The graft is performed, as already said, on the bud imme- 
diately below the top internodej tied with raffia, and the 

grafted cuttings thus obtained 
placed in the nursery. They should 
be carefully earthed up so as to 
cover the scion with about f inch of 
soil. The only operations necessary 
after this are a few waterings 
between the lines in summer, and 
frequent hoeing, being careful, how- 
ever, not to uncover the grafts. Two 
mouths after planting the mound is 
brought down, and the roots grow- 
ing from the bud removed. The 
mound is then reformed to prevent 
desiccation. In September* the 
grafts are left bare to induce the 
knitting tissue to lignify. Finally, 
the care to be given to a nursery of 
Besson grafts is exactly similar to 
that required for any other nursery 
of grafted cuttings. 

"This graft gives very good joints 
(Fig. 21), and is certainly a very 
interesting application of inlaid 
budding to vines. If it were possible 
to make this graft in August or 
September t on lignified canes of 
American stocks, by surrounding the 
ted - joint with rubber lacing, one might 
place buds all along the canes, and obtain, by this means, 
at the pruning season, cuttings bearing buds of European 
varieties. The Besson budding tried in this way has not 
given satisfactory results. If the budding made in August 
or September! gave a good proportion of strikes, it might, 
on account of the facility of its execution enter into current 
practice, and constitute an excellent method of grafting 



* About March in Victoria. 

t About February or March in Victoria. 




GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND. 1 / 

CLARAC GRAFTS. 

While Besson was experimenting upon the inlaid budding 
of vines, Clarac, the Demonstrator of Horticulture at the 
School of Agriculture, Ondes, was applying the same idea ; 
but, like Besson, whose work he was unaware of, stopped by 
the difficulty in excising the bud, he resolved the problem in 
a different manner. Although the Clarac grafts have a point 
in common with that of Besson, that is to say, the substitu- 
tion of one bud by another, by inlaid budding, they differ 
from it in so many details, that they constitute a new method 
of grafting vines, and by no means the least interesting. 

Clarac' s First Method. Slock. A bud is removed from 
the stock and replaced by a scion-bud. An incision is 
made on the cane -^ to ^ inch above the bud to be removed 
with an ordinary grafting-knife, or one with a curved blade 
for preference (Fig. 22), the incision is continued in a 
straight section parallel to the axis of the cane, penetrating 
only one-third of the diameter. To operate with success the 
first finger of the left hand is placed under the eye of the 
bud. The cut is stopped when its length is a little over the 
width of the blade, under the base of the bud (Fig. 23). 




Fig. 22. Clarac's First Method, 
of Stock. 



Preparation 



Fig. 23. Preparation of Stock. 



The blade is then removed from the incision, and laid 
flat on the cane immediately under the base of the bud 
(Fig. 24), the width of the blade indicating the point 



8168. 



18 



NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 



where the new incision is to be made (Fig. 28) trans- 
verse and oblique to prevent the first section from spreading, 

and to make a strong 
notch for the scion to 
rest upon. 

Scion. To excise the 
scion-bud, one operates 
exactly as above de- 
scribed (Figs. 25, 26, 
and 27). It is then in- 
laid in place of the bud 
removed from the stock 
and ligatured with wool, 
raffia, or string. Fig. 
29 shows the graft when 

Fig. 24. Preparation of Stock. finished. 

Ctarac's Second Method. Stock. Instead of removing 
the bud, a cut is made parallel to the axis of the shoot at 
about one-third of its diameter in depth, the cut starting 
about T Vth inch above the bud, and ending 4 in. below 
(Fig. 31). 

Scion. The scion-bud is excised in the same manner 
as for the above method, with this difference only, that 




Fig. 25. 
Scion, Front View. 



Fig. 26. 
Scion, Side View. 



Fig. 27. 
Scion, Back View. 



the bevel formed by the transversal and oblique section 
must be longer than in the first method (Fig. 30). This 
scion-bud is inserted in the slit prepared on the stock. It is 
to facilitate the insertion of the scion that a longer bevel is 
advocated. 

A ligature of raffia or string is made, being careful to 
begin above the eye or bud. 

The bud A (Fig. 32) constitutes a sap-drawer, which 
facilitates the knitting of the bud B. When knitting has 
taken place A is disbudded. 



GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND. 



19 



The second method is more rapid than the first. In both 
cases the ligature must be cut away three weeks after being 
made. Waxing these grafts is not indispensable, but is 
useful, and should be done 
when possible. The success 
obtained by Clarac is perfect. 
Of all the methods above 
described, the two due to 
Clarac are certainly those 
which seem most worthy of 
the attention of viticulturists 
wishing to perform aerial 
grafts on vines. They are 
easily executed and may be 
applied to herbaceous, lig- 
nified, young or old shoots. 

Herbaceous grafts made 
with dormant buds last July* 
are already forming many 
leaves. 

Grafting above ground for 
vines may render great ser- 
vices, for changing the 
nature of the vines in a 
vineyard, to produce grafted 
cuttings, and even to per- 
form the ordinary grafting 
of rooted stocks. It also 
renders the training of vines 
in cordons easier, as it allows 
us to replace a bud which, 
dying off, might ruin the 
foundation of the future cor- 
don, or form interruptions. 

Changing the nature of a 
vineyard without losing a 
crop becomes very easy with 
the Clarac grafts. If the vine 
is trained in the gooseberry- 
bush method, buds are grafted Fi g . 28 . Fig. 29. 

011 two Or three Spurs, aCCOrd- Clarac's First Method. Clarac's Graft 

ing to the strength of the stoc ^a f a d. to be 

* About January in Victoria. 
B 2 




20 



NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING. 




stock, while the other spurs continue to produce 
fruit. If the grafts knit well, the following year 
the spurs of the stock are removed, and the 
grafted spurs alone preserved. If the vine is 
trained according to the Guyot method,* a hud is 

f rafted on the two eyes spur ; if the grafted bud 
nits, the other is disbudded ; if it does not, the 

same operation is begun again the following Method. 

year, or the Clarac graft may be performed on the green 

shoot springing from 
the second bud of 
that spur. However, 
the shape of the vine 
need not be injured. 
Bench grafting, in 
view of obtaining 
knitted rootlings, is 
very rapid with the 
Clarac method. One 
may also, as in the 
case of the Salgues 
method, bud on canes 
of a stock nursery, 
1 6 inches apart, with 
dormant eyes. 

Cuttings made 
from these canes, 
planted out the fol- 
lowing spring, will 
furnish excellent 
grafted cuttings. 

Finally, the Clarac 
method is used for 
the so difficult mul- 
tiplication of Berlan- 
dieris ; for this we 
make a one-eyed 
cutting of Riparia 
or liupestris, but 
replacing the eye 
with that of a Ber- 
landieri. 




ig. 31. 

Method. Stock ready to be 
grafted. 



Fig. 32. Clarac' s Graft 
finished. 



* Spur and long rod system. 



GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND. 



21 



Fig. 33 shows one of these one-eyed grafts ; the success 
with this method of multiplying Berlandieris is excellent ; 
shortly after planting 
out, the Berlandieri 
throws roots from the 
joint of the graft, and, 
after having been 
nourished by the frag- 
ment of Riparia or 
Rupestris, soon feeds 
with its own roots. 
This application of the Clarac graft will render great 
services in the Charentes and Champagne, for it will 
enable vine-growers to obtain Berlandieri cuttings at 
moderate prices. 




Fig. 33. Berlandieri Bud on Riparia one-eyed 
cutting. 



22 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 



VOUZOU GRAFT. 



BY B. DROUHAULT, 
Departmental Professor of Agriculture, Lot. 

The grafting of vines is such an important question, from 
the point of view of the vitality and the durability of our 
vineyards, that one cannot seek for too great perfection as 
well as facility of execution. 

We know, as a matter of fact, that apart from the 
question of affinity between stock on scion, it is the perfec- 
tion of the joint which insures the longevity of the grafted 
vine. A badly knitted graft may give vigorous shoots during 
the first years, but soon after, when the non-adherent parts 
develop, the plant becomes sickly and quickly dies. The 
dying off of many grafted vines is generally attributed to 
more or less defined phenomena, while it is simply due to 
bad knitting. The English cleft graft and the whip-tongue, 
which are almost alone used nowadays, possess the 
peculiarity that many joints which at first seem good, are 
incompletely knitted, and later on give sickly plants. The 
favour with which the Salgues graft was welcomed by many 
viticulturists showed how much we were impressed with the 
defects of all the systems so far applied, and how urgent it 
was to find a better method. Unfortunately, the Salgues 
method, which consists of grafting a green bud on a green 
shoot, excellent in theory, of easy execution, and upon 
which great hopes were founded, has against it two great 
causes of non-success which have limited its application. 

The choice of the point where the graft is to be made on 
the green shoot is one of these causes, but by far the most 
important is the choice of the scion-bud. For success to be 
assured, it is necessary for this scion-bud to be in a peculiar 
state of development difficult to characterize theoretically. 
It is only after long experience and many failures that one 
acquires exact notions of that state of development. Salgues, 
it is true, tried to fix it by saying that the bud must be 
" two-thirds green," that is to say, one-third of the wood 

* Revue de Viticulture, vol. IV., 1895. 



VOUZOU GRAFT. 



23 



only being formed, but these indications are not precise 
enough, or, better, do not convey any sufficiently definite 
meaning to the majority of viticulturists. 

It is easy to explain, under these circumstances, the 
numerous failures which followed its application in inex- 
perienced hands, and why it was discarded by many viticul- 
turists. That is why this method, which, however, gave 
good results in the hands of its inventor and a few skilful 
operators, has not been so generally applied as would have 
been thought from its inherent qualities. Salgnes, after four 
years' experimenting, in 1891, hoping to render his method 
of grafting more readily utilizable, and also to study one of 
the causes of its failures, attempted to graft green buds on 
wood from one to three years old. The success which he 
personally obtained was again very satisfactory, and con- 
tinues to be so in his own vineyard and those of a few other 
vignerons, particularly at that of Lemarchand, of Pradet 
( Var), where M. Cahuzac, who began the application of this 
system in 1892, obtained excellent results, which he lately 
published. 

Notwithstanding the modi- 
fication which allows us to 
graft on young or old wood, 
according to. circumstances, 
the use of the herbaceous graft 
has not much extended. This 
is due to the main cause of 
failure subsisting, the diffi- 
culty of choosing the scion- 
bud. 

Another vigneron of the Lot 
overcame this difficulty, and 
rendered this method of graft- 
ing essentially practical for 
everybody, with the same 
chances of success, by prac- 
tising lignified budding, which 
he named " normal budding of 
the vine" In 1891, Vouzou, 
a vineyard labourer at the 
Chateau of Crozes (Lot), tried 
successfully to replace the 
herbaceous bud by a com- Fig. 34.-vouzou Graft:- A. stock 

^1^4-,-vl K ^'fi^A ^A 4- 1 ^ ready to be budded ; B. Front, side, and 

pletely lignined one taken back ? view of shield. 





24 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 

from a cane of the previous year preserved in sand. This 
graft does not differ much from that generally adopted for 
fruit trees, hence its name. 

On a part of the stump (stock) above ground, and on a 
part deprived of nodosities, where the liber fibres are almost 
straight, a T-shaped incision is made through the bark, the 
sides of which are raised with the haft of the grafting- 
knife (Fig. 34 A). 

The scion is taken from a cane of the previous year's 
growth, of medium size (Fig. 34 B), cut before the eyes start 
to burst, and preserved in sand in the same way as is done 
for the scions of 'the whip-tongue grafts, until the time of 
grafting. One has not, therefore, to be pre-occupied in this 
case by the peculiar state of development of the bud, as is 
the case for the herbaceous graft. It is necessary, however, 
to use only well-constituted and well-preserved eyes of 
healthy appearance. 

The scion-bud is excised in the same way as is done for 
fruit trees, with the only difference that under the eye a 
thickness of wood is left reaching the pith. One should even 
leave some pith under the eye. This does not seem to present 
much difficulty. It may, perhaps, be more clearly under- 
stood when we say that the scion should be at least 1 inch 
in length, and that the section opposite the eye must be 
flat. 

After inserting the bud thus prepared in the incision 
under the bark of the stock, it is bound firmly with raffia 
(Figs. 35 and 36), wrapping as close as possible to the eye, 
without, however, crushing it. Wool has been tried for this 
purpose, as in the case of the herbaceous graft, but has not 
been found superior to raffia. 

To insure knitting, the shoots of the stock must be pinched 
very short. The scion then knits quickly and gives a vigorous 
shoot, lignifying easily before winter, and upon which the 
pruning system is started the following spring. A fortnight 
to twenty days after the execution of the graft, it is easy 
to ascertain whether it is knitted, but the tie should only be 
cut one month later, and on the side opposite the scion. 

This graft may be made during the whole period that the 
sap is circulating, during which the bark is easily detachable 
from the wood. In our region (Lot) this lies between the 
15th May and 15th July.* After that date, even admitting 

* November to January in Victoria. 



VOUZOU GEAFT. 



25 



the possibility of making this graft, it is to be feared that 
the shoot would not have time to lignify, and the trials of 
this method with dormant eyes have not been successful. 




Fig. 35. Vouzou Graft, 
before tying. 



Fig. 36. Same, after 
tying. 



26 



NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 



Performed under the above-mentioned conditions, the 
normal budding gave excellent results to its inventor 
and all the vignerons (quite numerous) who, following his 
example, have applied it during the last two years. The 
proportion of takes reached between 75 and 100 per cent, in 
1893, during which year the drought was of intense and long 
duration, causing failures with all the herbaceous and 
ordinary grafts. Youzou obtained 90 per cent, in a lot of 
1,000 grafts. We must add that last year at the State 
nursery, where the above-mentioned workman (Vouzou) 
publically demonstrated his system, the strikes reached 95 
per cent, on twelve years' old stumps of Cynthiana ; this year 
these grafts (Fig. 37) are simply excellent, vigorous, and 
bearing a few grapes. 




Fig. 37. Vouzou Graft : A. Knitted Bud; B. Stock. 

This graft is not only remarkable for the simplicity of its 
execution, and the great proportion of strikes resulting, but 
also from the point of view of the knitting. The examination 



VOUZOU GKAFT. 2i 

of sections, made perpendicular to the axis of the joint, 
shows that the knitting is generally perfect, the adherence 
of the ligneous part is almost as complete as in the her- 
baceous graft, and much more complete than in the ordinary 
cleft or whip-tongue graft. 

The Vouzou method possesses, therefore, every advantage. 
It satisfies all the conditions of a good strike, and, at the 
same time, embraces the long recognised value of budding ; it 
avoids the majority of causes of failures pertaining to the 
methods previously used. And, moreover, we cannot too 
strongly emphasize the practical facility of its execution for 
the layman. 

Its qualities and principal advantages may be recapitu- 
lated as follows : 1st. Extremely simple execution, easy of 
performance by any workman. 2nd. Almost absolute cer- 
tainty of a high percentage of strikes, for there is no danger 
of desiccation of the bud by hot dry winds. 3rd. Perfect 
knitting and complete adherence of wood. &h. It is the 
only method of grafting vines of from one to twelve years 
old or more without decapitating the stock, or damaging its 
base. bth. In case of failure it is easy to begin again during 
the same or the following year, and it enables us to preserve 
a part of the crop of the stock during the year of grafting. 
Qtk. It allows us to graft several buds on a given vine 
without interfering with . the shape, which increases the 
chances of success. 

On account of the facility with which it can be performed 
on stocks of one to two years of age, or even on canes of the 
previous year's growth, preserved on the mother-vine with 
the object of obtaining grafted cuttings, we cannot too 
strongly recommend it, for trial at least, to all viticulturists. 
Without assuming that it will be substituted in every case 
for the methods in actual use, we are convinced that it is 
called upon to considerable expansion in the grafting of 
established vineyards and nurseries, and that it will render 
very great service to viticulture. 



28 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 



MEANS OF INCREASING THE STRIKE OF 
HERBACEOUS GRAFTS.* 



BY CH. TALLAVIGNES, 

Director of the School of Agriculture, Glides. 

In a series of articles published in the Revue de Viticulture 
of 1894 we described the principal herbaceous grafts of the 
vine. Since that time we have pursued our studies at the 
Agricultural School, Ondes, with the object of ascertaining 
the causes influenciog the strike of herbaceous grafts. We 
now intend giving the results of experiments made by 
Clarac, the manager of the school. 

1st. Herbaceous Graf ting . Selection of shoots bearing buds 
best fitted for scions. Among all the shoots growing on a 
vine stump some are better suited than others to furnish 
scion-buds. We should always choose branches growing 
from eyes which would have normally remained dormant 
till the following year, in preference to branches growing 
from buds bursting normally. Shoots of medium or rather 
small diameter are to be preferred. These shoots will furnish 
the scion-buds, which are to be grafted on to the old wood. 
The diameter of the shoots from which the scion-buds are 
excised must always be less than those upon which it is to 
be grafted. The best shoot to use is that developed in the 
shade, that is to say, sheltered by other shoots. Branches 
exposed to direct sunlight must always be rejected. The 
colour of the shoot is also of certain importance ; it should 
be light green, but not yellow. 

The petioles of the leaves of the shoot should be of a 
whitish green, even a little pinkish, slightly transparent at 
the point of junction with the limb. Shoots bearing leaves 
with deep green, or red petioles, and non-transparent, must 
be rejected. The eyes of the extremity and base of the shoot, 
together with those placed at the base of leaves having a 
petiole too slender or too long, should not be used. 

* Revue de Viticulture, vol. V., 1896. 



INCREASING STEIKE OF HERBACEOUS GRAFTS. 



29 



2nd. Preparation of scion-bud. Many operators, before 
cutting the scion-bud, begin by cutting the petiole of the leaf 
F, as close as possible to the bud B, placed at its base 
in a a! (Fig. 38). Many failures in herbaceous grafting 
are simply due to this defective method. Clarac has made 
a whole series of interesting experiments on this subject. In 
the first group of experiments, the petiole of the leaf was 
cut as close as possible to the bud B, at a a'; success 
middling. 

In the second group the petiole was cut at b b', at about 
half its length ; numerous failures. In the third group, the 
petioles and the limb of the leaf F were left intact ; com- 
plete failure. Finally, in a fourth group the whole of the 
petiole was preserved and a part of the limb c c , only left 
attached to it. It was about J inch in diameter ; almost 
complete success (Fig. 38). 

These curious re- 
sults may easily be 
explained. In the 
first series the sec- 
tion of the petiole 
a a, determines the 
surface evaporation 
very close to the 
scion-bud B. 

The latter there- 
fore desiccates be- 
fore having had 
time to form its 
knitting cambium. 
In the second series 
of experiments the petiole was cut further away from the bud 
B ; but as this petiole is formed of a very vascular tissue, the 
desiccation took place rapidly, and communicated itself to 
the bud before it had time to knit. In the third series of 
experiments the 'limb of the leaf was entirely preserved, 
forming a large surface of evaporation and respiration, and 
the bud B was destroyed, not being able to furnish the leaf 
with the necessary nutritive element before the knitting 
took place. In the fourth series of experiments, on the 
contrary, the portion of the leaf preserved was not large 
enough to cause very great evaporation, and yet was enough 
to prevent the immediate desiccation of the petiole, and 
therefore that of the bud before the knitting was completed. 




. Preparation of scion-bud. 



30 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING". 

Methods of excising the bud. Once the shoot has been 
selected, and those eyes not fulfilling the required conditions 
removed, the scion-bud has to be excised. On this subject 
Olarac has again made interesting experiments. 

First method. Scion-bud with sap-mood (Fig. 39.) This 
graft can only be made by selecting scion-buds on shoots of a 
small diameter, and grafting them on graft-bearing shoots of 
larger diameter. The sap-wood of the shield 
does not knit, therefore it is advisable to 
diminish its surface. To excise the shield, 
the shoot is seized with the left hand, the 
first finger being under the bud ; the cut is 
begun with the base of the grafting-knife 
J inch below the bud, and, while cutting, 
the blade is drawn in such a way that the 
end section (-J- inch above the ibud) corre- 
sponds with the point of the blade. The 
shield detached in this manner will be about 
\\ inch in length ; but the wood being 
generally chipped on the edge, it is advis- 
able to level and smooth the section with a 
39. grafting-knife. By doing so the length of 

shield with sap-wood, foe section is reduced to one inch. The 
scion-bud is then rather thick at its centre, and terminated 
by two pointed bevels. 

If the" diameter of the scion-buds is large (diameter deter- 
mined by the size of the bud) it will not fit well on the 
cylindrical internode of the stock ; the sap-wood of the 
shield is therefore slightly hollowed with the rounded part 
of the grafting-knife, so as to make the concave surface 
fit perfectly round the stock. This method of budding 
can only be used during the first days of June.* Later 
on these grafts apparently knit well ; but the shoots have 
not time to completely lignify, and are then killed by 
frosts. 

Second method. Scion-bud with half sap-wood, with the 
upper portion hollowed out (Fig. 40). This method of pre- 
paring the scion-bud is far superior to that above described. 
The shoot bearing the eye which is to be excised is taken in 
the left hand in such a way that the extremity of the shoot 
faces the body of the operator (Fig. 41). The cut is started 
with the base of the blade ol the grafting-knife \ inch above 
the eye, while the blade is drawn outward as before, so as to 

* About December in Victoria. 




INCREASING STRIKE OF HERBACEOUS GRAFTS. 



31 



reach the extremity of the section -J inch below the bud with 
the point of the blade. The blade is then taken out of the sec- 
tion, and a transversal section, TT' 
(Fig. 42), made level with the longi- 
tudinal section so as to cut through 
the bark only. The bud is then 
seized between the thumb and first 
finger of the right hand near TT' 
(Fig. 43) and lifted. If we con- 
tinued to lift the bud, the sap-wood 
which has been cut in TT 7 is com- 
pletely separated from the bark of 
the bud, and the latter would be 
completely hollowed. It is there- 
fore necessary, when the bark has 
been separated from the sap-wood 
up to the level of the bud, to draw 
the bud slightly towards the oper- 
ator (Fig. 44). The tongue of sap- 
wood MM' breaks level with the *-*w - wt -'-' 
bud ; a part of the sap-wood adheres to the scion-bud, the 
front portion remaining fixed on the shoot in the shape of a 
two-pronged fork (Fig. 45). The scion-bud is flattened, its 
base cut fresh, and the sap-wood smoothed with the rounded 
part of the grafting-knife. This mode of operating, which 
is very difficult to explain in writing, is very easy to perform 
in practice. It certainly is the most rapid way of excising 
the scion-bud. Sometimes, when the shoot is too tender 
and the buds very close together, the sap-wood, instead of 





Fig. 41. 
Preparing the bud. First operation. 



Fig. 42. 
Second operation. 



32 



NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING. 



remaining on the shoot in the shape of a fork, breaks at the 
diaphragm ; in this case the broken part on the scion-bud is 

smoothed and slightly cut 
at a' bevel with the rounded 
part of the grafting-knife, 
being very careful not to 
touch the bark. This scion- 
bud enables one to make 
herbaceous grafts during 
all the time that the vines 
are in sap; it has the 

great advantage of allowing the graft to lignify as quickly 
as the wood of the graft-bearing shoot, and gives perfect 
knittings. 





Fig. 44. 
Drawing the shield towards the operator. 



Fig. 45. 
Fork of sap-wood remaining on the shoot. 



Making the slit on the graft-bearing shoot. This slit may 
be made in the shape of a T, or reversed T ; however, with 
the half sap-wood shields it seems preferable to use the 
ordinary T slits. The T-shaped slit is easier to make than the 
longitudinal one, and facilitates the introduction of the scion. 
The point where the slit is made on the grafting-shoot does 
not seem to have very great importance ; grafts have suc- 
ceeded on all parts of a shoot; however, if we have a scion- 
bud with a little sap-wood attached to it, it is preferable to 
place it on the flat part of a shoot, as in that place the bark 
is thinner. This is not of very great importance if the 
ligature is well done. When the scions are placed on a cane 
one or two years old (these grafts succeed very well on old 
wood), the operator should look for the rounded part of the 
cane, for there the bark is thicker, and, as it is fleshy, desic- 
cation is not to be feared. On old wood the bark is so 
very thin on the flat side that it is almost impossible to 
lift it. 



INCREASING STKIKE HERBACEOUS GRAFTS. 



33 



Ligatures. A ligature must fulfil several conditions; it 
should hold the two flaps of the bark of the shoot upon the 
scion, so as to preserve the latter in a fresh state as long as 
possible, and- should make the scion fit tightly against the 
sap-wood of the shoot and prevent it from being displaced 
during the whole time necessary for the knitting to take place. 

Wool, which has been extensively used, would make a 
good ligature if it did not dry the edge of the flaps ; however, 
it has sometimes given very satisfactory strikes. 

Clarac tried, at Ondes, a ligature which gave him very 
good results, but is perhaps rather complicated. It consists 
of a first binding of rubber tape, over which the ligature is 
made with wool. The rubber is cut in bands 8 inches 
long and inch wide ; the strands of rubber are 
superposed, and the strand of wool wound over **it. The 
rubber breaks in places very easily, and the object of the 
wool is to keep it in place. This ligature is too expensive 
and too complicated to be used on a large scale, and is only 
interesting from an experimental point of view. 

The best ligatures for grafts above ground are those made 
of lead or tinfoil (as already used for grafts underground) 
covering the whole scion, leaving the eye and petiole alone 
free ; raffia is wound over the foil. 
It would be preferable to use 
wool when the graft is made 
on vigorous shoots, increasing 
rapidly in diameter (Fig. 46). 
The lead or tinfoil is "cut in 
lengths of from f to 1 inch wide, 
and 2 to 4 inches long, Clarac 
obtained with this ligature at 
the school of Ondes a strike of 
90 per cent. ! Before making 
the ligature it is necessary to 
ascertain whether the scion 
adheres well to the stock this 
is done by pressing the thumb 
below and above the bud. 

Best Time for Grafting above 
ground. With the half sap-wood ' 
scion-bud, grafts have succeeded Fi s- 46. Ligature. 

in June, July, and August* ; with the first method de- 
scribed between the 15th May and the 1st of June only. 




8168. 



* About December to February in Victoria. 
C 



34 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 

The above experiments show that herbaceous grafting 
and grafting above ground have become very practicable, 
and have rendered very great services. No other system can 
give as fine grafts, or as perfect knittings. It will be in- 
valuable for changing the cepages of a vineyard without 
interrupting the crops. It gives perfect grafted rootlings 
by placing buds on the shoots or mother plants 16 inches 
apart the previous year. 

It allows the replacing of missing or badly-placed eyes in 
the cordons of the Royat method. Finally, it allows better 
than any other system the multiplication of Berlandieri for 
grafted rootlings, and now that this mode of multiplication 
is generally coming into use everywhere and is described by 
viticultural professors, we may be allowed to repeat what 
was said in 1894 : a The success with this method of multi- 
plying Berlandieris is excellent ; shortly after planting 
out, the Berlandieri throws roots from the joint of the graft, 
and, after having been nourished by the fragment of Riparia 
or Rupestris soon feeds with its own roots. This application 
of the Clarac graft will render great services in the Cha- 
rentes and Champagne, for it will enable vine-growers to> 
obtain Berlandieri cuttings at moderate prices." 



BUDDING ON THE VINE. 35 

BUDDING ON THE VINE.* 



BY M. ALAZAKD. 

Budding* on the vine, considered for a very long time as 
impossible or very difficult of execution, has now become a 
very practical system of grafting, owing to a more precise 
knowledge of its mode of execution, and gives perfect knit- 
tings; it is attractive in the extreme, and its only fault is 
that it was discovered too late. Fifteen years ago it would 
have supplanted the English cleft or whip-tongue graft. 
The success of this mode of grafting is mainly due to the 
initiative of a small viticulturist of the Lot (Salgues), who 
was the first to prove its practical utility, and obtained very 
satisfactory results with it. There is not another instance 
in which such a useful innovation has been more vigorously 
criticised or even combated. After Salgues had given several 
demonstrations of this system in many of the viticultural 
regions of France in 1891, numerous trials were made by 
viticulturists, who, not having succeeded the first time, re- 
jected it, without trying to ascertain the causes of their 
non-success. Others deprecated and rejected the system 
without even giving it a trial, which naturally did not 
forward its general practice. When we first tried ourselves 
to practise budding on the vine, we met with many failures y 
and were also very nearly discarding it. All our scions 
during the first days of their grafting seemed to remain 
green, and the buds even seemed to start to swell, as if the 
knitting had already taken place. This was only a delusion, 
and almost invariably resulted in deception. At the tenth or 
twelfth day after the operation the scions suddenly dried up; 
we could not explain the cause of this failure. But at every 
new trial we obtained some strikes, and this fortunately 
induced us to renew our experiments (if 10 per cent, of the 
scions strike, there is no reason why 100 should not succeed), 
and so we were encouraged in continuing our experiments. 
So far we had followed Salgues' directions to the letter, i.e., 
" that the scion must be taken from the most herbaceous 
part of the shoot towards its extremity," and we had seen 
Salgues following this principle at the Government experi- 
mental nursery at Cahors. 

* Revue de Viticulture, vol. VI., 1896. 
C 2 



36 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 

On the 18th of July, 189.1, that is to say, after two 
months of fruitless trials, suspecting that the scions which 
had struck must present some peculiar con- 
ditions of constitution, we decided to place 
100 buds on fine shoots of a Biparia mother 
plant, taking all the buds of a Malbec shoot. 
We labelled each of these scions, mention- 
ing on the label 1st. Its state of lignifi- 
cation ; 2nd. The thickness left under the bud; 
3rd. Its order on the shoot; 4th. If it were or 
were not accompanied by a small latent axillary 
bud. We then waited with great anxiety the 
critical twelfth day; we were unable to visit 
the grafts before the eighteenth day. At last 
we were satisfied that those which were per- 
fectly well knitted belonged to the central 
portion of the scion-bearing shoot, free from 
latent axillary buds, and of a semi-ligneous 
constitution at the time the graft was made ; 
on the contrary, those originating from the 
upper third of the scion-bearing shoot (there- 
fore too herbaceous) had become black, and 
died. Since that time we have not had any 
failures, and have found the truly practical 
conditions for budding, which we have used 
since with great success. As we do not 
desire to make a secret of this method, and 
realizing the services it may render to viti- 
Fig. 47 Knitted culture, we will describe its means of execu- 

Bud (twenty days j. 
after budding). UOn. 

GREEN BUDDING WITH DORMANT EYE. 

/. Time of Budding. Vines may be budded from 
the 1st of May to the 15th of August* according to 
climates. In the warm regions of the south of France the 
early bursting of the buds enables one to obtain good eyes 
for budding at the end of May and the beginning of June ; 
while, in the south-west regions, it is only on the 10th of 
June that the buds show characters, of vegetation retarded 
enough to give good scions. 

77. Stock. The stock may be a shoot growing on the 
American mother-plant, or rootlings one, two, or three years 

. * About November to February in Victoria. 



BUDDING ON THE VINE. 



37 



old. If we have to deal with her- 
baceous shoots, scions may be placed 
at from 12 to 14 inches apart, in such 
a way that from a single shoot of 
Riparia Gloire, for instance, we may, 
when the pruning season comes, 
gather a certain number of cuttings, 
already bearing perfectly-knitted 
scions far superior to the best 
English-cleft graft. Certain Riparia 
mother-plants three years old, dis- 
budded, stripped, and trellised ou 
stakes or wires, gave up to 135 
grafted cuttings, which already have 
almost completely rooted and bear 
shoots from 10 to 14 inches in length. 
This is an important fact considering 
the dry spring we are having this 
year. 

Instead of placing buds on a her- 
baceous shoot, we may also graft 
rooted stocks from one to three years 
old, or even cuttings without check- 
ing their growth in any way, for 
nothing is suppressed when the 
grafting is performed (Fig. 48). 

It is in the latter cases more 
especially that the utility, economy, 
and security of this method is shown. 
We say security, because if the graft- 
ing does not succeed the first time 
(this can be ascertained ten or fifteen 
days after grafting) the operation 
may be repeated on the shoot of the 
stock, a little above or a little below 
the point chosen in the first instance. 

If, in these operations, the neces- 
sary care, as explained bereafter, is 
taken, we will always find in autumn 
a larger percentage of strikes than 
with any other method ; in any case, 
if the grafts have missed, the stock 
remains intact, and may be grafted 



Fi s- 48 - 



38 



NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 



by the English-cleft or Cadillac method, or budded with 
growing eyes or other new methods which we will consider 
later on. 

III. Selection of Scions. As we- have seen above, the 
success of this new method lies almost entirely in the selec- 
tion of the scion-bud. There- 
fore, we must take from, the 
European varieties we desire 
to multiply, axillary shoots 
in preference, that is to say, 
buds which have grown at 
the axil of an adult leaf, such 
as are found on shoots sub- 
mitted to pinching. They 
must, as far as possible, have 
ceased to grow (which can 
easily be ascertained by the 
absence of terminal tendrils), 
and bear spherical buds well 
out of the bark, and free 
from latent axillary buds. 
The leaves must be cut off at 
about -J inch from their base. 
If the shoot bears from five 
to six eyes, ordinarily from 
two to four of these possess 
the qualities of good forma- 
tion required. 

IV. Excising the Bud. 
The buds are excised with an 
ordinary gardener's grafting- 
knife, with as keen an edge 
as possible, and kept very 
clean ; the section beginning 
at about J inch above the 
eye. The cut is made to a 
third or half the diameter of the shoot, and terminated 
at from to f inch below the fragment of petiole pre- 
served. 

This being done, the operator holds the scion by the petiole, 
and ascertains first if the internal section is well outlined 
by a double line composed of the bark and the first layer of 
sap-wood ; second, that the centre of this double line is well 




Fig. 49. Graft made on old wood. 
A. Callus of the bud. 



BUDDING ON THE VINE. 



filled with a flabby, greenish substance, divided by a trans- 
versal white line opposite the bud ; this is the rudimentary 
diaphragm. At the worst, the lower bevel of the scion may 
be a little more ligneous than the upper, but it is very im- 
portant that the flabby matter be present in the latter. 




Fig. 50. Bud Crafted on the Spur of a Cordon of Jacquez. 
A. Callus formed h} the Bud. 

V. Placing the Bud. The following will apply either to 
green shoots or rootlings in the nursery : 

1st. Make a short longitudinal cut on the bark with 
the blade of the grafting-knife, extending barely f 
inch in length, and reaching the sap-wood. 2nd. 
Press with the thumb of the right hand on this 
cut, and with the left hand bend the shoot towards 
it. 3r<:/. Hold the bent shoot with the left hand, and 
with the haft of the grafting-knife slightly lift the 



40 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 

bark on both sides of the cut. A small opening is thus 
made, in which the shield is introduced, sliding it from 
bottom to top, so as to fit well under the bark. 4tk. When 
the scion is introduced allow the shoot to spring up again 
into its normal position. If the stocks cannot be bent on 
account of their size or age, a T slit must be made, as is 
done for fruit trees ; in this case the budding of the vine 
is performed in a similar way, the only difference lying in 
the method of excising the scion. The latter must be chosen 
as above described. 5tk. Ligature with one or more woollen 
or cotton threads of good quality, so as to be able to tighten 
it above or below the bud. Raffia must be discarded for 
small shoots, as it very often gets loose under the influence of 
heat. It is preferable for the strands not to touch each other. 
6th. Placed in this way the buds require from fourteen to 
eighteen days to knit (Fig. 47). Those which have remained 
green up to that time may be considered as knitted ; the 
others are dried up, and must be replaced if it is not too late, 
and if there is enough sap, or more exactly if there is an 
interval of eighteen days preceding the 15th of August* at 
the latest ; after this period of eighteen to twenty days, the 
ligatures must be untied, cutting all the strands on the side 
opposite the bud. The rest of the ligature gradually falls 
away. 

Such is the manual operation required for this new mode 
of grafting, an operation taking much longer to describe 
than to perform, for in a day of ten hours a trained work- 
man can make from 300 to 400 grafts without any help. 

But it is not sufficient to graft 400 buds in a day. 
Vine-growers will want to know what proportion of strikes 
may be expected with this system. To this we shall answer 
that, as in any other mode of grafting, success depends on 
the attention and skill of the operator. The experience we 
personally have of this kind of work enables us to say that, 
if the bud is well selected, and the stock in full sap, 70 to 
85 per cent, of good strikes may be expected. My workmen 
and myself regularly obtain this percentage every year. 

Preparation of Stocks for Budding with Dormant Eyes. 
With the budding method we may, as previously said, first, 
make grafted rootlings of mother-vines ; second, bud root- 
lings in the nursery ; third, bud stocks several years old, 

* About the middle of February in Victoria. 



BUDDING ON THE VINE. 41 

with the object of changing- the variety. Let us study these 
different modes of grafting and the results obtainable with 
them. 

Arrangement of Mother-vines. All the shoots of American 
graft-bearers may be readily budded that is to say, that- 
one can place on a vigorous shoot from ten to twenty buds, 
and obtain the next season from one single mother- vine 100 
to 150 vine cuttings 10 inches in length, each bearing a 
dormant eye perfectly knitted. Experience has shown that, 
to obtain these results, it is necessary to arrange the stocks 
in the following manner : 

1st. Erect over the line of stocks, stakes 6 to 10 feet high 
and 9 to 15 feet apart, according to whether there is more 
or less wind in the district. 

2nd. Fix upon these stakes four rows of galvanized wire, 
Nos. 14 or 13 at least, the first being 16 inches above the 
ground, and the three others 20 inches apart ; stretch these 
wires with large Walker's patent wire strainers, No. 2. 

3/r/. As soon as the buds of the mother plant are about 
20 inches in length, preserve eight to twelve of the most 
vigorous of these in the best positions and disbud all the 
others. 

t/t. A week to a fortnight after this disbudding, when 
the bases of the shoot begin to harden, tie them up to the 
wires, so that after the operation each mother-plant has 
the shape of a V, or open fan. All axillary buds must be 
removed, as well as all the tendrils. This should be done 
at each tying up, which must be repeated at least three 
times before the 20th of July.* One must endeavour not to 
injure the principal leaves, which, as we know, play a very 
great part in the nutrition of the plant and the formation of 
its cambium. It is necessary to tie up the shoots of even 
number stocks on one side of the wire, and odd numbers on 
the opposite side. By doing so, the shoots are prevented 
from getting entangled ; this greatly facilitates the budding 
operation, and more especially the gathering, of the cuttings, 
the buds of which are very easily injured. The reader may 
think that such an installation, and the operations which it 
necessitates, are rather fanciful and costly. 

The erection of these trellises cost 9s. 6d. per 100 
yards. This amount is not wasted, as the canes become 
well lignified, and the number of buds knitted is greater as 

* Middle of January in Victoria. 



42 NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING. 

compared with canes left spreading on the ground. The 
first year we started budding, we did not have recourse to 
this device, and found great difficulty in separating the 
shoots, which were to be grafted, and, when this was done, 
they generally had no leaves left on them ; the result was 
retardation of the movement of the sap, during which the 
buds suffered, many drying off. The expense of trellising 
is greatly diminished when the tying is performed at inter- 
vals, as the shoots lengthen, and, although they have to be 
tied separately, one skilful workman may, in a day of ten 
hours, tie up the shoots of from 100 to 150 mother-plants. 

One hundred mother-plants will, therefore, require three 
days' work before they are ready for budding ; that is to 
say, cost from 4*. to 5s. 6d. for the three successive trellis- 
ings. We obtained last year with fine Riparia Gloire, four 
years old, from 164 to 197 feet of wood suitable for budding 
on each stock, plus vine cuttings, 3 feet in length, resulting 
from the lengthening of the top of the shoots, after the bud- 
ding had been performed ; while with stocks of the same age, 
left spreading on the ground, we only obtained 49 to 81 feet 
of wood for "budding. With the trellising method we, 
therefore, gained 3,000 yards of wood per 100 mother plants. 

Other American stocks, such as Rupestris du Lot, Aramon 
x Rupestris, Gamay Couderc, produce a little less than the 
Riparia, but still more canes of J inch in diameter with the 
trellising method. The budding of these trellised shoots 
may start as soon as their internodes begin to lignify, which 
may easily be recognised, with a little practice, by feeling, 
or by the aspect of the bark, which passes from a light 
green to a brighter colour, and is divided longitudinally by 
stripes of a more intense green. With tomentose varieties 
this moment corresponds to the time when the internodes 
have become partially glabrous. 

Gathering of the Budded Cuttings. We should wait until 
the leaves have completely fallen from the mother-plant 
before gathering the budded cuttings. In our districts of the 
south-west this generally corresponds to the second half of 
November, and budding may be performed until February.* 

However, we think it advisable to gather earlier those 
which were grafted last, because they are generally placed 
on the upper part of the shoot which is always less lignified, 
or, through having had less time to knit, the joint is weaker, 

* From the 15th May to the middle of August in Victoria. 



BUDDING ON THE VINE. 43 

and they might become detached under the influence of the 
first winter frosts. It is better to gather each cutting 
separately, as the buds would get injured if the whole cane 
was pruned and taken into a shed to be divided into cut- 
tings. 

Stratification of budded cuttings. As the budded cuttings 
are gathered, the eyes of the stock are removed, excising 
them with a grafting knife as close as possible. Those 
where the budding has missed are placed apart, and may be 
used for bench-grafting. The others are placed in cases and 
arranged in layers of two and three cuttings, superposed, 
separated by layers of fresh moss or moist sawdust ; these 
should be about 1 inch in thickness, so that 1,500 to 2,000 
cuttings may be stratified in a case 3 feet in length by 24 
inches in height. When the cases are filled, a lid may be 
placed on the top, or the last layer of moss or sawdust is 
made of double thickness. 

The cases are then placed in a closed, fresh, and dry room, 
so that they may not be affected by frost. 

The budded cuttings may remain in this state till planta- 
tion (February and April).* When the time for plant- 
ing arrives, these cases are taken to the place (nursery 
or open ground) where the planting is to be performed. 
The cuttings are taken out one by one, and their upper 
section freshened with a grafting knife (never with a 
secateur), by cutting f to \ inch below the extremity, and 
coating with tar or grafting wax. The object of this coat- 
ing is to seal the medullary channels in which the air and 
humidity would penetrate, and determine, what is known in 
horticulture as necrosis or desiccation of the cortical tissues, 
reaching the scion and sometimes below. 

Since we have used this method, the vitality of the wood 
has always been preserved up the extremity of the cutting, 
and the greater part of the section was, after one year's 
vegetation, covered with healing tissue. 

Planting Budded Cuttings. The planting of budded 
cuttings is very similar to that of cuttings grafted on the 
bench, with only this difference, that as the knitting is 
already completed, no ear tiling up is required. Each scion 
must, after planting, be level with the surface of the soil, and 
it is advisable to cover it with the sawdust which was used 
for stratification. The other cultural courses are the same as for 

* About August to October in Victoria. 



44 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 

any other grafted cuttings, with this difference, that the roots 
of the scion do not require to be removed, as in this case the 
scion never forms any. The proportion of strikes is almost 
the maximum. We have this year planted out in the vineyard, or 
in nurseries, over 20,000 budded cuttings of Riparia and 
Rupestris du Lot ; 90 per cent, have already shoots 4 to 8 
inches in length ; the growth is very rapid, more so than 
with any other method. We have not budded any Berlan- 
dieri, but we intend doing so this year with mother plants, 
which will be prepared next July. 

Budding of Rootlings from one to three years old. Let 
us consider first a plantation of American rootlings planted 
out last February which would be grafted with the ordinary 
cleft graft in the spring of 1897. Instead of waiting till 
then, they may be budded with dormant eyes at the 
beginning of August with every chance of success, provided 
the plants are well rooted and well in sap. If some of them 
are not well rooted, they may be grafted the following year 
in the same way. At the pruning season in February, all 
the stocks should be pruned with two spurs and two eyes. 
The object in doing so is to draw the sap towards the scion 
till the latter reaches a development of from 13 to 20 inches. 
It might be necessary to pinch the young shoots of the stock 
at 4 inches from their base to send the sap back towards the 
scion. But as soon as the scion has reached a length of 20 
inches, the stock must be severed 1 or \\ inches above 
it. A small stake must be placed at each stock to tie up 
the young shoot of the scion and prevent the latter from 
being disjointed by the spring winds. We have proceeded 
in this manner for the last few years, and we can show 
around Montauban many instances of this mode of grafting, 
where the grafts are loaded with grapes, and which bear 
more than any other system. We must add that when 
budding is performed, the vines grow more regularly, and 
one has not the bother of replacing misses, always occurring 
with other systems. 

With budding, the few misses are easily replaced the 
following year, as the stock has not been injured ; in this 
case the Vouzou method with growing eye may be used. 

As is apparent, the main advantages of budding for the 
reconstitution of vineyards are the following : 

1st. Possibility of grafting the first year, of planting out 
even in dry, pebbly, compact soils, where the method of graft- 
ing by decapitation would always result in failures. 



BUDDING ON THE VINE. 45 

2nd. Easy execution without any special preparation of 
the soil (earthing up), as the budding may be performed 4 
inches above the level of the ground. 

3/y/. No emission of roots from the scion, and severance 
of the stock only after the knitting has taken place. 

kth. Crop-bearing following the year of grafting. 

The only drawback of these grafts is the extreme fragility 
of the scion shoots during the first month of their growth. This 
is due to the extraordinary growth of the single bud, which 
seems so weak when dormant, and often throws three or four 
shoots from this one point, shoots which often reach yards in 
length at the end of summer. 

Budding of old Stocks. With Salgues' green budding, 
we may at any time transform a European variety already 
grafted on an American stock or direct producers, Jacquez, 
Herbemont, &c., without interrupting the crop. These 
ordinarily can only be replaced by decapitating the stock, 
and using a cleft-graft. Every vine-grower knows that this 
system of grafting weakens and generally kills the stock, if 
the graft misses. 

The shoots occupying the best places on the crown of the 
plant must be preserved when disbudding. In June or July * 
one or two buds of the required variety are placed on each 
of these shoots, and the following year, at the pruning season, 
all the canes of the stock are cut at ^ to J inch above the 
bud, immediately above the last scion. This bud is left to 
draw the sap towards the scion, and it must only be cut 
away after the latter has reached a length of 12 to 20 
inches. All shoots growing on the old wood (water 
shoots and suckers) must be disbudded, an operation 
which should be renewed as often as possible ; directly 
the scions have started to grow properly these suckers cease 
to appear on the old wood. All the other operations simply 
consist in erecting a strong stake to fasten the shoots to. 
The above method may be used for old gooseberry-shaped 
bushes. We have tried to apply it to vines trained in other 
ways, such as Cazenave or Royat cordons, or old Jacquez. 
Herbemont, or even old mother-plants of Riparia Rupestris. 

The operation is conducted in the following way: Choose 
the shoots which are most strongly attached to the plant, 
and bud them with dormant eyes of Cabernet-Sauvignon, 

* About December to January in Victoria. 



46 NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING. 

Malbec, Chasselas, or other varieties, placing" the buds 
12 inches apart on the shoot ; the first at 27^ inches from the 
ground, so as to be level with the bottom wire on the cordon 
generally 15^ inches, above the ground. The first bud will 
be 12 inches from the bend and the last will correspond 
with the bend of the next cordon. 

At the next winter pruning, all the shoots of the vine are 
removed ; the budded one alone is left, and is trained on the 
wire straight away. This shoot is pruned at the bud over 
the last scion ; this bud, being left to draw the sap towards 
the scion, is pinched short when the latter are 10 to 12 inches 
in length. They are then fastened with raffia to the top 
wire, and directly they reach to 20 or 23 inches the sap- 
drawer is cut away. We may add, that the canes of all the 
stocks tried so far increase in diameter at the same rate as 
the scions, without producing too large a protuberance at 
the knitting point. 

This graft is so handy and so rational that it may readily 
be used to replace weak spurs on Cazenave, Royat, or 
Thomery cordons. 

Even amateurs may use it to graft different varieties on 
the same stock. 

Vouzou SYSTEM. 

A word remains to be added concerning another kind of 
budding recently invented by Vouzou, vineyard manager for 
de Yerninac, whose property is in the same canton as that 
of Salgues. 

Vouzou, who understood well the modus operand 'i of green 
budding, hit on the idea of excising the buds from canes of the 
previous year's growth, such as those used in bench grafting 
and preserved in sand. The first trial was made in 1892, and 
the judges of the agricultural show of the Lot, which took 
place in June and July, were surprised to see the results. 
Buds grafted towards the end of May on trellised vines, 
varying in age, were already bearing shoots 10 to 30 inches 
in length. 

This method was pointed out originally by Tallavignes, but 
it was only in 1894, at the Agricultural Show of Cahors, 
that we saw for the first time specimens of Vouzou grafts 
made in 1893 which were loaded with grapes, together with 
others, grafted only twenty days before on Jacquez and 
Riparia one year old : these had shoots 2-^ to 4 inches in 
length. 



BUDDING ON THE VINE. 4/ 

We were so taken with the results that we bought two of 
these grafted cuttings, which we dissected, in order to ascer- 
tain what kind of adherence existed between the cambiums 
of stock and scion. 

We were surprised to see that twenty days had been 
sufficient to form a mass of cellular tissue all round the 
periphery of the scion, and extending on ail the parts of 
sap-wood left bare by the bark lifting on account of its 
thickness ; therefore, the knitting was absolutely perfect. 

This being ascertained, we tried to discover in what way 
the section of the bud had been made. On lifting it, it was 
noticed that the operator had made an absolutely plane 
section, taking about one-third of the diameter of the shoot. 
Some of the pith had even been left, and the whole of the 
scion was from 1 to 1J inches in length. 

With these data, we budded, on the 28th of June, ten 
stocks of Herbemont, five years old, placing two buds on 
their trunk at from 4 to 5 inches above the ground, pinch- 
ing all the shoots above the grapes. A fortnight later it 
was noticed that twelve buds had knitted perfectly, and were 
already showing shoots 4 to 5 inches in length. They reached 
3 to 6J- feet before the fall of the leaves, and enormous pads 
of healing tissues had developed at the joint. These shoots 
were pruned very short in February last, and they resemble 
four years Valdiguier's gooseberry bushes, and bear an 
abundant crop. Such results induced us to graft last year 
many hundreds of buds on stocks of all kinds and all 



The results were always splendid on old stocks, but rather 
doubtful on one or two-year-old rootlings. 

The following are some ideas and improvements we 
thought advisable to make in this new mode of grafting: 

1st. It was noticed, in a general way, that buds accom- 
panied by a latent axillary bud did not knit well, as in the 
case of green budding. We attributed this to the fact that 
a bud accompanied by a latent axillary bud had not received 
the quantity of sap required to form a good constitution, or 
that the small wound resulting from the removal of this 
anticipated bud had caused it to dry through the evaporation 
taking place on that section. 

To avoid this inconvenience, one must, when selecting the 
bud-bearing canes, choose those with solitary buds of 
medium diameter. 



48 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 

2nd. A very sharp grafting-knife must be used to excise 
the bud, cutting obliquely and not perpendicular to the axis 
of the bud; this with the object of making a very plane sec- 
tion and to avoid cutting the pith, except on a very small 
surface opposite the bud. We have noticed that all the 
scions which had too much pith attached to them knitted 
badly, and that their upper extremity did not knit at all. 

Another advantage resulting from this is, that the scion 
being thinner, the bark of the stock which is to be opened 
in a T-shaped slit, covers the bud more and shelters it better 
against the action of the air. 

On the other hand, the section being reduced in surface 
fits better, and its libro-cortical periphery rests exactly on 
the cambium of the stock, which is very active at the time 
the graft is performed. This explains the very rapid evolu- 
tion of this bud. 

3rd. We also noticed that many of the grafts had a' 
tendency to disjointing from the top, after the ligature had 
been cat away, although they were perfectly knitted. 

This accident does not seem to have very great import- 
ance, for, in every case, this little tear of the bark cicatrized, 
but it checks for a time the free passage of the sap. 

We have, to a great extent lessened it by making an in- 
cision in the shape of a reversed L. The top aglet is better 
fixed in this narrow angle, and, the knitting taking place on 
the two parts of the bark, it will not become disjointed so 
easily. 

'4ttkt These buds being lignified and grafted on old stocks 
require to have a much better ligature than is the case with 
green buds. Therefore, raffia should be used instead of 
cotton or wool. 

5tk. The Youzou budding, contrary to the Salgues bud- 
ding, is done with a growing-eye as is the case in all vine- 
grafts made in spring, with wood of the previous year. It 
is, therefore, evident that all the sap of the plant must be 
drawn towards that bud. 

Does this mean that a complete ablation of the stock 
must be made, directly after the grafting ? No, for this 
would cause the sap to flow back too suddenly, causing the 
development of underground suckers, and in nine cases out 
of ten provoke the desiccation of the scion. 

With liupestris and Biparias, planted out, we pinched the 
shoots at three different periods : 1st, we suppressed half 



BUDDING ON THE VINE. 49 

the shoot directly after budding ; 2tid 9 pinched it a little 
lower a fortnight later ; 3rd, pruned an inch or two above 
the ground 25 or 30 days later, when the scion was from 20 
to 24 inches in length. 

When the scion has reached this development it is strong 
enough to draw all the sap of the roots towards it, and it 
acquires a vigour equal to that of the best cleft grafts. 

It is absolutely necessary to fasten the shoots of each 
graft to a strong stake after the removal of the top of the 
shoot. Like that of Salgues', this graft is very easily 
disjointed when young. 

Towards the end of July the little knob left above the 
graft is removed by cutting it as close as possible to the 
scion, and very often this wound heals before the fall of the 
leaves. When the scions develop properly, the mother- 
plant never throws suckers even if the mother-plant is a 
Rupestris du Lot, which, as we all know, throws out suckers 
very freely. In 1895, we performed the Vouzou graft on 
Bouschet-hybrids already grafted on Biparia, and they 
succeeded without exception. 

We noticed that the large wound made on the stock by 
the severance of the top part induced necrosis, which injures 
the scions, -and we think it would be preferable in future to 
graft on the spurs of the crown or to place a certain number of 
scions of the same height all round the trunk. With the 
help of these scions the wound becomes quickly covered 
with pads of healing tissue. Later on some of the scions 
may be cut away and the plant formed in the ordinary way. 

Up to the present our own experience leads us to think 
that there is no method of grafting vines cheaper, and offer- 
ing greater security of strikes, than budding. With this 
mode of grafting above ground, the vines may be placed 
under the same conditions of culture and propagation as 
other ligneous species. We must admit that the Salgues 
and Vouzou methods have not up to the present given the 
results one expected from them, but we must remember that 
the same fact occurred at the beginning of reconstitution. 
It required long experiments and many failures before the 
whip-tongue was accepted as one of the best bench-grafts, 
and it required many lectures and practical lessons before 
its use became general. We are convinced that the same 
thing will happen with budding, when practical lessons are 
given as to the mode of operation, and that success will 
quickly generalize its use. 

8168. D 



50 



NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 



NEW BUDDING ON THE VINE, MASSABIE 
GRAFT.* 



BY ARNOLD CHEVALLIER. 

A vine-grower of the Lot, Massabie, has devised a new graft 
for vines, or rather an improvement of the bud grafting, 
which, according to those who have tried it, gives marvellous 
results, as 100 per cent, of strikes were obtained. Eve^- 
body knows the ordinary budding. The Massabie graft is 
made on old wood with a bud taken from a one-year-old cane, 
which has been preserved in dry sand, as is done for ordinary 
grafts. The operator holds the cane by its base, and excises 
the bud, cutting from bottom to top, reaching the pith as 
shown in Fig. 51. This operation is rendered easier by the 




Fig-. 51. Massabie Graft. 
Method of excising the Bud. 




Fig. 52. Stock ready to be 
grafted. 



use of the secateur shown in Fig. 53. It is advisable to leave 
the scion-bearing shoot dipped in water for a few hours before 
excising the bud, as it renders this operation easier. When 
the bud is excised in this way, the whole bark of the shield is 
removed, taking care not to touch the bud. This is the secret 
of this graft, to which its complete success is due. When 
the scion is ready, it is inserted under the bark of the stock, 



* Revue de Viticulture, vol. VIII., 1897. 



NEW BUDDING ON THE VINE, MASSABIE GRAFT. 



51 



which is opened in a T-shaped slit, the same as is done for 
any other budding, the top flat part of the scion must rest 
on the top of the T (Fig. 52). The ligature is made of raffia, 
starting from the top, as if we started from the bottom, we 
would risk pushing the scion out of its place. 

This graft has the enormous advantage of being made at 
any time after the month of March,* when the vine is in full 
vegetation, and without decapitating the stock ; it gives the 




Fig. 53. Grafting Secateur, used for making the Massabie 
Graft. 

first year extremely vigorous shoots and perfect knitting. 
As it may be performed on old stumps, it would be very 
useful for the multiplication of rare cepages, which may be 
grafted on old European vines, and give at once strong 
wood. It would allow the grafting of old American vines, 
which knit with much difficulty (Rupestris). 

* September in Victoria. 



D 2 



52 



NEW METHODS OF GKAFTJNG AND BUDDING. 



CLEFT GRAFT ABOVE GROUND.* 



BY CH. CLAKAC, 
Farm Manager at the School of Agriculture, Saint-Sever. 

Amongst grafts above ground the cleft graft is one of the 
most practical. It is not difficult of execution if one knows 
already how to perform the ordinary cleft graft. The results 
are certain if the following precautions are taken. 

It is preferable to cut the scion-bearing shoot in autumn, 
ior the bursting of the buds of canes cut in spring may take 
place before the graft is knitted. 

We should operate in the following way : At the base of 
the scion an ordinary wedge-shaped section is made, taking 
care to start level with the bud, and even a little above, to 
level the protuberance of the node always existing there. 
The top of the scion is cut J inch above the bud. (Fig. 54.) 




Fig. 54. -Scion. 



Fig. 55. Scion and 
Stock united. 



The graft on the stock is performed, as in the case of the 
English cleft graft, above the node, and the scion is deeply 
inserted in the cleft, so as to obtain as many points of con- 
tact as possible. (Fig. 55.) The graft is bound with strips of 

* Revue de Viticulture, vol. IX., 1898. 



CLEFT GRAFT ABOVE GROUND. 53 

tin or lead foil f inch to 1 inch wide, and 2 inches to 3 inches 
long, leaving only the bnd of the scion showing. The lead 
foil, which in the case of underground grafts may be in- 
jurious, is indispensable in this case if grafting wax is not 
used. A strong raffia ligature is then made. 

It is very important to insert the scion in the cleft level 
with its top section, as it is essential to prevent the action 
of the air on the sections of both stock and scion, for one of 
the main causes of failures in grafts above ground is that the 
scion is left exposed to the air. 

If we proceed in the above-described manner this graft 
will knit as well as that performed underground. We also 
avoid the excess of humidity which may be present in a soil, 
naturally too wet, or so caused by heavy rains. On the other 
hand, if the weather is very warm the scion is not liable to 
desiccate as in the case of underground grafts surrounded 
with dry soil. The knitting takes place very satisfactorily 
when tin-foil is used for binding, and the scions grow 
vigorously. 

With this mode of operating we can perform an ordinary 
cleft, or side cleft graft. The latter should be preferred if 
we have to deal with planted-out stocks ; if the soil is pebbly 
or too wet, it dispenses with the earthing-up. It is also 
useful if we desire to change a variety without losing any 
crop. In this case if we have to deal with vines trained on 
cor.dons, a water shoot is left as low as possible, and, in 
winter, pruned with two eyes. It is grafted, and the cordon 
continued to be pruned in the usual manner, until the graft 
can start bearing a crop. 

If the vines are trained in the gooseberry-bush fashion, 
the bud should be preserved in the centre of the stump, 
pruned with two eyes and grafted; the other spurs are 
pruned as usual and removed when the graft has become 
strong enough to bear fruit. The best time to perform this 
graft is April or May,* after the vine has ceased bleeding. 

Other methods for cleft grafting above ground. A cane is 
selected on the stock and cut f inch above the bud upon 
which the graft is to be performed. (Fig. 56.) A cleft is 
made on one side of it starting ^ inch above the bud, being 
careful to split the cane along its axis ; the scion cut wedge 
shape is inserted in the cleft and a strong ligature made as 
before* 

* October or November in Victoria. 



54 



NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 





Certain varieties of vines knit with difficulty when the graft 
is performed at the end of a shoot. To increase the strike, 
a bud is left on the stock above the joint. (Fig. 57.) 

Two buds are thus left 
to draw the sap towards 
the scion, they are natu- 
rally pinched later on. 

Cleft grafting with hol- 
lowed scions. It often 
happens that towards the 
end of the grafting period, 
if the scions have been 
selected to match the 
stocks, the scions remain- 
ing do not correspond witli 
the diameter of the stocks 
remaining. This difference 
may exist in a great num- 
ber of stocks and scions ; 
the work is therefore han- 

Fig. 56. Other Cleft Fig. 57. Same, with ah dicapped and Sometimes 

Graft above ground. eye left to draw the sap. i j 

We would propose the following method, which we have 
used successfully during many years, and which enables 
vine-growers to use scions of any size. 

It consists in slightly modifying the scion used with the 
ordinary cleft graft. The two slanting sections being made, 
a little triangular piece abc 
(Fig. 58) is cut away with the 
point of the grafting knife. 
The size of this triangular 
piece is proportionate to the 
size of the scion. A fork- 
shaped wedge remains (Fig. 
59), the two tongues of which 
can be brought together, 
diminishing the diameter and 
rendering it equal to that of Fig. ss.-scion, 
the stock. (Fig. 60.) 

The scion prepared in this manner is inserted in the cleft, 
which is pressed against the two little tongues by a strong 
ligature. Great care must be taken to make the inner bark 
of both scion and stock coincide throughout their length. 





Fig. 59. Scion, 
after hollowing. 



CLEFT GRAFT ABOVE GROUND. 55 

It is important to ligature with a material 
resisting decomposition so as to hold the 
two little branches of the fork together 
until complete knitting. Sulphated raffia 
washed after sulphating seems to give very 
good results. 

The portion dispensed with in the hollow- 
ing, comprises only the pith and a ligneous 
part which does not influence the knitting. 
The strike is even increased, as the bring- 
ing together of the two branches of the fork 
allows the generative layers of both stock and brought 
scion to coincide over a greater length. showi di g ame^" laller 




56 



NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING. 



FARDES GRAFT/ 




BY AKNOLD CHAVALLIER. 

Pardes discovered two years ago a new and very interest- 
ing* graft above ground. It is rather a new application of 
an old method of grafting. It is, in effect, the ordinary cleft 
graft used for fruit trees which he applied to vines. One 
operates as follows (Figs. 61 and 62) : 

The old stump is cut at the required height, and the 
section cleaned with the grafting knife. A cleft is made, 

keeping it open with a little 
wooden wedge, and the scion 
with one bud deeply inserted 
as in the case of fruit trees. 
Care must be taken not to 
reach the pith on both sides 
when making the wedge, to 
preserve that part of the scion 
as strong as possible. When 
the scion is properly placed, 
the whole section is covered 
with grafting wax and strongly 
ligatured with raffia. 

This graft is made in March. 
It has, therefore, a great ad- 
vantage in case of failures 
(which are rare if it is properly 
one to graft again, using the 




Fig. 62. 



ig. 61. Pardes Graft. 



performed) of allowing 
Massabie method. 

Pardes' method gives in the first year extremely vigorous 
shoots and even fruit. It forms a perfect and remarkably 
strong knitting. If the stock is large enough, two scions 



Revue de Viticulture, vol. ix., 1898. 



PAEDES GEAFT. 



57 



may be inserted opposite each other as shown in Fig. 63. 
Pardes exhibited this year at the general Agricultural Show, 
a graft which had given that same year five shoots, one of 
which was 13 feet in length. 




Fig. 63. Cleft Graft above ground, first year. 



58 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 

BUDDING WITH OR WITHOUT SAP-WOOD.* 

BY CH. CLARAC, 
Farm Manager at the School of Agriculture, Saint-Sever. 

HERBACEOUS BUDDING WITH SAP-WOOD. 

The budding with lignified wood is a very ancient graft, 
although some modern viticulturists think they have invented 
it. This graft has been applied for a very long time, on the 
most diverse stocks, and it has never received any modifica- 
tion except that which consists in scraping the inner bark of 
the scion. We do not know if this modification may [be 
looked upon or regarded as an improvement, for it means a 
complication in the work, which is not compensated by the 
increase of the percentage of strikes. We never had more 
than 50 per cent, strikes at the best seasons, and even then 
the knittings were not always perfect. These unsatisfactory 
results might be due to a defect in the execution ; however 
we think that, under the actual conditions of grafting, this 
improvement must be disregarded. We attribute these 
failures to another cause. From personal researches, it 
results that the non-success of this graft must be accounted 
for by the method used in excising the bud, causing it to 
split in many places. 

This accident cannot be avoided, and always takes place 
at the beginning of the cut. This split wood does not 
knit, and, on account of its desiccation, prevents the knitting 
from being complete when it does not kill the graft alto- 
gether. To insure success in budding with lignified wood 
we must excise the scion, without splitting it. This is the 
only modification we make in the old well-known method 
of budding. 

We operate in the following manner : 1st. Make a slant- 
ing cut, starting at the opposite side of the bud to be excised 
J inch above it and ending \ inch below. This cut is con- 
cave (cut a c b y Fig. 64), the operator will get rid of a 
useless portion of the cane (abd). This part bears the wood, 
bruised by the grafting-knife. 2nd. The cane is reversed end 
to end, its natural extremity pointing towards the body of 

* Revue de Viticulture, vol. X., 1898. 



BUDDING WITH OR WITHOUT SAP-WOOD. 



59 



the operator and the section c e (Fig. 64) made, the first 
finger pressing under the bud in g to hold the scion. It is 
easily seen in this .second cut that it is the point in c which 
will bear the split wood. Finally, if the grafting-knife had 
a tendency to come out too far from the bud, a third section 
f e would be made, leaving the scion neatly cut without any 
bruised edges. 

One must be careful to make the second cut c e, very 
flat, which is easy, as the first cut has been made concave. 

It is easier to start excising the bud from the base of the 
cane. 

We must notice that the scion-bud, excised with a plane 
section, has to fit on a convex surface ; it will fit better 
if we take these buds from small canes, and particularly 
from axillary shoots. In this way the plane section will 
be narrower, and will fit better on the cylindrical surface. 

As this graft is generally 
made on old stocks it will 
always be easier to find on the 
latter, the least convex sur- 
face, upon which the bud is 
placed under more favorable 
conditions. 

If required, we may par- 
tially scoop out the scion, to 
render its internal surface con- 
cave, and therefore the contact 
of the stock more complete, 
and the knitting easier. 

It is preferable to take the 
eyes from canes of very small 
diameter, although this is a 
slight complication. 

The bud being inserted on the stock a strong ligature is 
made with raffia. 

It is important to gather the scion-bearing canes before 
the cold season, to select them well lignified and preserve 
them in dry sand up to the time of grafting, that is to say, 
May, or the beginning of June.* 

Another very important fact which must not be neg- 
lected is, to take only the buds which do not bear any 




Fig. 65. Scion 
with Flat Sec- 
tion. 



the Bud 



ofexci 



November or December in Victoria. 



60 



NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 





wounds or axillary buds. We must avoid wounded scion- 
buds, for it is always from these wounds that desiccation 
starts. 

We have often seen grafts not starting to grow until the 
following spring ; therefore, we must not conclude that the 
graft is lost, simply because it does not start growing the 

year it has been performed. 
All these details must not be 
neglected ; they all are neces- 
sary conditions of success, and 
all operators know how deli- 
cate the grafting above ground 
is, and how many failures 
have been met with. We have 
studied this graft successfully 
for many years, and are con- 
vinced as to its results when 
made under the conditions 
above described. 

After a few trials, the oper- 
ator acquires the way of using 
the grafting knife so as to 
graft well and quickly. 
These modifications also apply to the grafts known as 
inlaid-budding. The bud in this case is excised, starting 
from the opposite side, as previously. If the scion is to 
take the place of another bud it is easy to see that the sec- 
tion must be plane, and that it will easily fit on the stock 
(Figs. 65 and 66). 

If the scion is to be placed on an internode or old stock, 
its section must be slightly curved (Fig. 68). We see that 
the section of the bud (Fig. 67) has to be curved in the same 
way. This graft must be waxed, or ligatured with lead foil. 
The best time to make these grafts is the end of May or 
the beginning of June,* when the vines have ceased to 
bleed. 

HERBACEOUS BUDDING WITHOUT SAP-WOOD. 

The Salgues budding with sap-wood is a very difficult 
mode of multiplication, even notwithstanding all the im- 
provements made upon it by different horticulturists, and 
the causes of its non-success are not well known. The main 



Fig. fl6. Grafr made 
with Flat Scion. 



Fig. t>7. 
Curved Scion for 

grafting 
on old stock. 



* November or December in Victoria, 



BUDDING WITH OR WITHOUT SAP-WOOD. 



61 



causes are always the same. Salgues' scion is excised with a 
flat section forming a large wound ; this flat section does 
not fit well on the cylindrical internode of the stock, and it 
adheres less opposite the bud, where it touches the stock 
only by its centre ; the layer of sap-wood still left under the 
bud is interposed between the stock and the scion and 
partially prevents complete knitting, if the lignification of 
the sap-wood has started. It is therefore important to 
excise the bud with as little sap-wood as possible ; this 
modus operandi is applied with rose-trees or any other 
species, but the great difficulty with vines is that the green 
bark is so extremely delicate, that, if the operator touches 
the inside of it with the point of the grafting-knife, when 
removing the ligneous part, the graft is lost. 

We first tried the half-sap-wood 
budding which gives fairly good re- 
sults, but it must be ligatured with 
rubber or wool. This is a great dis- 
advantage, and, until a cheaper liga- 
ture is found, allowing this graft to 
enter a more practical domain, the 
half-sap-wood budding can only be 
considered as an amateur graft. It is 
very convenient when one only has 
a few stocks to graft as its strike is 
practically assured. 

As we considered the sap-wood in 
Salgues' shield as being the main cause 
of its non-success, we endeavoured to 
bud without any sap-wood at all. The 
idea is not new, but we did not pursue 
it on account of the difficulty found in 
removing, the sap-wood of the shield 
without injuring the bark, and with- 
out completely scooping out the bud. 

Professor Horvath, of Hungary, 
performs this graft as follows: He 
selects the time when the vines are 
well in sap, excises the bud without 
wood, makes a double T or single T 
slit on the stock, the longitudinal cut 
always passing through the centre of the bud of the stock 
without touching the alburnum under it ; he places the bud, 




Fig. 68. -Graft on old 
Stock. 



62 



NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING. 



fitting the concave part under the scion, over the protuber- 
ance of the node on the stock which has remained intact, 
but as the bud and the stock could never fit perfectly 
together a hollow space always remained between them, which, 
in the majority of cases, brings about desiccation. This 
desiccation even occurs after the knitting has taken place. 

It is for this reason that we tried to bud without sap- 
wood, replacing the node of the scion in its natural cavity. 

Method of excising the bud. The cane is held with the 

base towards the body, the bud lifted by making an incision, 

starting under the eye at \ inch from 
it, -J*Q inch in thickness ; this incision 
is continued down to f inch below 
the eye (Fig. 69). A transversal sec- 
tion perpendicular to the first one 
is made, as shown by Fig. 70, 
reaching the sap-wood. Seizing the 
bark of the scion between the thumb 
and the first finger, it is lifted, and 
the part of the sap-wood shown in 
Fig. 73 remains attached to the 
cane. The shield shown in Fig. 72 
is thus obtained. The two angles 
at the bottom are cut to facilitate 
its introduction under the bark of 
the scion. (Fig. 71.) 

Fig. 73 shows a cane from which 
a scion has been removed. The pro- 
tuberance, of the node has not been 

touched. It is cut at d c, and is replaced under the scion 

in the place it first occupied. This little 

operation is done without touching the 

node with the fingers. It is placed in the 

natural cavity on the scion by simply 

turning the cane over. (Fig. 74.) 

The slit on the stock must be T-shaped. 

That used by Salgues, which answers very 

well with sap-wood shields, is impracticable 

for shields without sap-wood. The bud is 

not rigid enough, and cannot be intro- F . 71. Fig. 72. 

duced into the Salgues slit without being shields. 

injured. One must take care not to displace the little pro. 

tuberance. The ligature is also of very great importance 




Fig. 69. Fig. 70. 

Method of excising the Bud 



BUDDING WITH OK WITHOUT SAP-WOOD. 



63 




It must start from the top of the graft, leaving a space of 

2\y to iV f an * ncn between the strands, pressing at the 

same time upon 

the bud with the 

thumb, so as to 

make it coincide 

exactlv with the 

of^lr " H,m nf flio Fi - 73. Cane from which a Scion has been removed, 

|CK - showing the way of cutting the protube ranee -c d. 

strands must pass 

between the petiole and the bud, or over the section of the 
petiole if the latter has been previously cut away. In either 
case the turns should pass as close as possible to the bud, 
so as to secure its adherence in that position. (Fig. 75.) 

The shoot bearing the scion buds must be taken from a 
healthy mother plant in full vegetation. It should be at 
least inch in diameter. 

The petiole of the leaf accom- 
panying the bud to be grafted 
is generally cut at ^ inch above 
its point of insertion. When 
fruit trees are budded this leaf 
is always cut away, and in this 
case it only presents advan- 
tages. The petioles of fruit 
tree leaves are not as spongy 
as those of vine leaves, and 
their section heals quickly ; 
but in the case of vines the 
section of the base of the 
petiole' presents a much larger 
area, and as it contains a great 
quantity of water,- evapora- 
tion from the herbaceous part 
is abundant, and, in the 
majority of cases, will destroy 
the scion. 

To diminish these accidents, we tried leaving a few tenths 
of an inch of the limb attached to the petiole. The desic- 
cation in this case did not take place so rapidly, but another 
accident occurred ; after a few days the fall of the petiole 
formed a wound at its base, which in the majority of cases 
compromised the success of the graft. It would be advisable 
to remove the leaf a fortnight before budding. In this case 




Fig. 74. 
Scion showing 
protuberance 
placed in its 
natural cavity. 



Fig. 75. 
Ligature. 



64 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 

the wound would have time to heal on the shoot bearing the 
buds, and the danger of desiccation would be greatly 
diminished. To remove the leaf without tearing the buds of 
the petiole, a sharp downward pull is given ; with varieties 
in which the petiole does not get detached easily it should 
be cut to 1 inch above its point of insertion, and a few days 
later the small piece remaining can be easily removed. The 
section obtained is neater, but it will require another week 
to completely heal. 

We do not recommend the use of scions bearing axillary 
buds. These would have to be removed before they attained 
inch in length, and their development would produce a 
swelling of the node, complicating the operation of grafting. 
The bud being more swollen its adherence to the stock would 
be difficult to obtain. 

Finally, the scion-bearing shoots, being prepared as above 
described, we take all the buds from the middle part, leaving 
the buds of the base, generally too much lignified, and which, 
for this reason, would get completely hollowed, and the buds 
of the extremity, which cannot be hollowed properly. If the 
node at the base of the bud is shining, it shows that the bud 
is not sufficiently ripe. The scion-bearing shoot has reached 
proper lignification when the number of buds whicli can be 
detached (leaving a part of the bark adherent to them, and 
under the eye about -j^ inch of alburnum proceeding from the 
protuberance, which, when excised in this way, presents an 
irregular surface) is greater. 

HERBACEOUS BUDDING WITHOUT ALBURNUM, AND WITHOUT 

COMPLETELY HOLLOWING THE SHIELD. 

Budding without alburnum and without complete hollowing 
of the shield is not new. It has been used for fruit trees, and 
we tried to apply it to vines with all the chances of success 
it presents with other species. The difficulty only resides in 
the method of excising the scion. 

Practical operators will appreciate the advantages of 
allowing the wound at the base of the petiole to heal before 
performing the operation. If we add to this modification 
the following, we think that the maximum chance of success 
will be obtained. This modification is only a simplification 
in the execution of the graft without alburnum and replac- 
ing of the protuberance. It consists in excising the bud 
without alburnum and without completely hollowing the eye. 



BUDDING WITH OB WITHOUT SAP-WOOD. 



65 



Method, of Excising the Bud. 

When the scion-bearing shoot has all its wounds com- 
pletely cicatrized, it is cut from the mother plant and the 
herbaceous extremity removed. 

The cane is then seized with the left hand, its extremity 
pointing towards the body of the grafter. The buds at the 
base are excised first. The length of the shield must be from 
1 to 1 inches. The section is started with 
the base of the grafting knife, allowing it to 
gradually slide, until it reaches the other ex- 
tremity of the section. When the blade reaches 
the level of the cicatrice it should be lifted a 
little, so as to continue the section parallel to 
the axis of the cane and of ^5 to -fa in. The 
transversal section ab (Fig. 76) is made, 
cutting through the bark only. The bud is 
seized between the thumb and tte first finger, 
level with the section ab, and slightly pulled 
away from the alburnum. The scion is then 
seized with the thumb resting on the section 
of the petiole, and the first finger on the bud, 
and to avoid it becoming completely hollowed 
a kind of rocking motion is given, gradually 
drawing the thumb back as the alburnum 
gets detached. By doing so, a part of the 
alburnum is left adherent to the stock in the 
shape of a fork (Fig. 77), and the scion thus 
obtained is a half-alburnum bud. If, in this 
operation, the alburnum breaks without form- 
ing the fork, the bud should be rejected, as 
it means that it is not ripe enough. 

The delicate part of the operation consists now in removing 
the rest of the alburnum without hollowing the eye. We 

can only attain this 
result by operating 
in the following 
manner : 
A small triangle of 

Fig. 77. Alburnum left adherent to the Stock. alburnum obc (Fig. 

80) is removed, using 
the point of the grafting knife as indicated by Fig. 78. 

8168. 




Fig. 76.-Method 
of excising the 
Bud. 




NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 



The point following the line cb Up to the point where the 
alburnum touching the bark gets harder. The point of the 
knife is then lifted, cutting away the part of the alburnum 
opposite the bud. 

To facilitate the operation the thumb rests on the ex- 
tremity of the blade, preventing it from penetrating deeper 
than necessary. This little operation forms a notch, weaken- 
ing the small tongue of alburnum left under the bud, and it 
is at that point that the separation of the alburnum from 
the bark takes place. This is done by seizing the extremity 
of the tongue between the thumb and the point of the graft- 
ing knife and pulling it away from the bark, forcing it to 




Fig. 78. 

describe half a circle (Fig3. 80, 81, and 83), retaining the 
thumb on the wood left under the shield. We obtain in this 
manner a scion which is not hollowed, and the bark of which 
has riot been bruised. (Fig. 83.) 





Fig- 79. 



Fig. 80. 



Ffc. 8.1. 



Fig. 82. 



Fig. 83. 



One must not wait until the swelling of the node is too 
great before cutting the leaves away from the scion-bearing 



BUDDING WITH OK WITHOUT SAP-WOOD. 



67 



shoot, for the swelling would prevent the complete adherence 
of the scion to the stock. If, however, we were forced to 
utilize such -swollen buds, we should re- 
quire to leave a small portion of alburnum 
under the eye, so as to secure complete 
adherence. 

The scion thus prepared is placed either 
in an I or T shaped slit. To facilitate its 
introduction in the I slit, the angles at 
the top of the scion should be cut away. 
The ligature is made with wool, the 
strands passing as close as possible to 
the eye, forcing, with the thumb, the 
scion to rest completely on the stock. 

Although it is preferable to ligature 
with wool, it is sometimes necessary to 
use raffia (Fig. 84). In this case we 
must not forget to turn five or six 
strands more at both extremities of the 
graft. One of the disadvantages of raffia 
is that when the joint increases in dia- 
meter it penetrates into the bark and 
produces swelling, as it is not as elastic 
as wool. It may even produce a new 
wound on the cicatrice of the petiole 
and bring about the death of the scion. 
We also know that raffia shrinks and 
stretches under the influence of humidity, 
and this is another reason for discard- 
ing it. Fi g . 84 . 

ADVANTAGE OF BUDDING WITHOUT ALBURNUM AND WITH 
PARTLY HOLLOWED SHIELDS. 

This graft had been abandoned on account of the difficulty 
of removing the alburnum without bruising the bark and 
without completely hollowing the bud, and above all, because 
when the petiole got detached the wound it produced 
favoured great evaporation, and was one of the main causes 
of failure. 

The method of budding by replacing the protuberance of 
the node did away with the first of these inconveniences. The 
l>;irk \V;IH not bruised, By previously removing the leafj 



68 NEW METHODS OF GKAFTING AND BUDDING. 

this graft gives satisfactory results. However, if the buds 
are not ripe enough when the grafting takes place they will 
not grow. 

The graft in which the eyes are only partly hollowed, 
prevents the second inconvenience, and has also the advantage 
of allowing the use of a much greater number of buds. This 
is the safest green graft, and may be performed during a 
very long period, from June till the end of August.* Its 
shoots are very vigorous. 

These grafts may be performed with dormant or growing 
eyes. It is preferable to use dormant eyes, as lignifying 
takes place under more favorable conditions. If we wish 
to obtain growing eyes, the shoot should be pinched a 
fortnight after the operation. 

These buds can also be placed on old wood. 

The grafting knife used for the whip-tongue graft cannot 
be used for budding. The ordinary gardener's budding knife, 
with Kund's blade, should be preferred. 

Practical grafters who have only been accustomed to cleft- 
grafting will not succeed at first with herbaceous budding, 
but we must remember that the whip-tongue graft was 
found quite as difficult of execution when it was first invented, 
and it was not without great difficulties, experiments, and, 
above all, conviction of its merits, that it became practical, 
arid is now used by every vine-grower. We wish to impress 
upon the reader the necessity of learning the budding of vines 
by practice in the vineyard. However, it will be found to be 
easier of execution than the whip-tongue, and, as all nursery- 
men, and most gardeners know already how to bud fruit trees, 
there is no reason why this method of grafting, with all its 
advantages, should not become generally used. 

* December to February in Victoria. 



CLEFT BUDDING. 



CLEFT BUDDING.* 



BY ARNOLD CHAVALLIEE. 

Plessard-Plane, gardener at Petit-Pressigny (Indre-et- 
Loire), has invented a new graft, which is performed in the 
following way : 

I. Preparation of the Scion. To excise the bud of the 
scion-bearing shoot, the latter is cut at AB (Fig. 85), the top 
section being previously made J inch above the bud, which 
is finally detached by an oblique section CD. 




Fig. 86. 





Fig. 88. 




. 89. 



t Rewft de Viticulture, vol. XII., 1899, 



70 NEW METHODS OF GRAFTING AND BUDDING. 

2. Preparation of the Stock. A vertical cut EF (Figs. 87 
and 88), and an oblique on'e GF, are made, forming the 
lodgment for the scion (Fig. 86), which is inserted, the top 
sections of both scion and stock being covered with grafting 
wax (Fig. 89) made in the following way : 

Beeswax ... ... 100 parts by weight . 

Bottle wax ... ... 100 

Stockholm tar ... 100 

This compound is used warm ; 2 Ibs. is sufficient to wax 
from 1,200 to 1,500 grafts. 

This graft is performed on the bench in spring. It gives 
a percentage of strikes equal to that of the whip-tongue 
graft and far superior knitting. It might be used as graft 
above ground on canes of the preceding year, being careful 
to completely wax and tar the joint and ligature it with 
raffia. 



GENEBAL LttDEX. 7 1 






GENERAL INDP]X. 



Page 

INTRODUCTION ... ... ... ... ... ... .3 

GRAFTING OF THE VINE ABOVE GROUND ... ... ... 5 

Inarching or grafting by approach ... ... ... ... 5 

Other grafts. (Boisselot, Baltet, and Allies) ... ... 6 

Hungarian grafts ... ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Herbaceous cleft graft ' ... ... ... ... ... 7 

Prof. Horvcith flute graft ... ... ... ... 8 

Salgues graft ... ... ... ... ... ... 10 

Besson graft ... ... ... ... ... ... 13 

Clarac's grafts ... ... ... ... ... ... 17 

Clarac's first method Stock ... ... ... ... 17 

Scion ... ... .. ... 18 

Clarac's second method Stock ... ... ... ... 18 

i? n n Scion ... ... ... ... 18 

Vouzou GRAFT (normal budding of the vine) ... ... ..." 22 

MEANS OF INCREASING THE STRIKE OF HERBACEOUS GRAFTS ... 28 

1st. Herbaceous grafting. Selection of shoots bearing buds best 

fitted for scions ... ... ... ... ... 28 

2nd. Preparation of scion-bud ... ... ... ... 29 

Method of exercising the bud ... ... ... ... 30 

First method Scion-bud with sap-wood ... ... ... 30 

Second method Scion-bud with half sap-wood, with the upper 

portion hollowed out ... ... ... ... ... 30 

Making the slit on the graft-bearing shoot ... .. ... 32 



Ligatures 

Best time for grafting above ground 

BUDDING ON THE VINE 

Green budding with dormant eye . . 

I. Time of budding 

II. Stock 

III. Selection of scions , 



33 
33 

35 



36 
36 
38 
38 
39 



IV. Excising the bud 

V. Placing the bud 

Preparation of stocks for budding with dormant eyes... ... 40 

Arrangement of mother-vine .. ... ... ... 41 

Gathering of the budded cuttings ... ... ... ... 42 

Stratification of budded cuttings ... ... ... ... 43 

Planting budded cuttings ... ... ... ... ... 43 

Budding of rootlings from one to three years old ... ... 44 

Budding of old stocks ... ... ... ... ... 45 

Vouzou system ... ... ... ... ... ... 46 

NEW BUDDING ON THE VINE, MASSABIE GRAFT ... . ... 60 



2 GENEKAL INDEX. 

Page 

CLEFT GRAFT ABOVE GROUND ... ..." ... ... ... 52 

Other methods of grafting above ground ... ... ... 53 

Cleft grafting with hollowed scions... ... ... ... 54 

PARDES GRAFT ... ... ... ... ... ... 56 

BUDDING WITH OR WITHOUT SAP-WOOD... ... ... ... 58 

Herbaceous budding with sap-wood .'.. ... ... 58 

Herbaceous budding without sap-wood ... ... ... 60 

Method of excising the bud ... ... ... ... 62 

Herbaceous budding without alburnum and without completely 

hollowing the shield ... ... ... ... ... 64 

Method of excising the bud ... ... ... .- 65 

Advantage of budding without alburnum and with partly 

hollowed shields ... ... ... ... ... 67 

CLEFT BUDDING ... ... ... ... ... ... 69 

1. Preparation of the scion ... ... ... ... 69 

2. Preparation of the stock ... ... ... ... 70 



By Authority : ROUT. S. BRAIN, Government Printer, Melbourne 



BY THE SAME TRANSLATORS. 



WINE -MAKING IN HOT CLIMATES, 

BY 

L. ROOS, 

Director of the (Enological Station of the Herault. 

273 pages, 6 1 illustrations, 5 plates. 1900. 

Cloth-bound. Price 2s. 



FIRST STEPS IN AMPELOGRAPIY : 

A GUIDE TO FACILITATE THE EECOGNITION OF VINES, 

BY 

MARCEL MAZADE, 

Sub-Director of the Laboratory for Viticultural Research, at the National 
School of Agriculture, Montpellier. 

95 P a S es J 43 illustrations. 1900. 
Cloth-bound. Price Is. 



TRENCHING AND SUBSOILING FOR 
AMERICAN VINES. 

(COMPILED AND TRANSLATED FROM EUROPEAN AUTHORITIES.) 

171 pages, 1 10 illustrations, 10 plates. 1901. 



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