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Full text of "The new national dictionary, encyclopedia and atlas rev. to date .."

THE 

NEW NATIONAL 

DICTIONARY, ENCYCLOPEDIA 

AND ATLAS 

REVISED TO DATE 

A NEW, ORIGINAL AND EXHAUSTIVE LEXICON OF THE ENGLISH 
LANGUAGE, EXHIBITING THE ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT, 
ORTHOGRAPHY, PRONUNCIATION, MEAN- 
ING, AND LEGITIMATE OR 
CUSTOMARY USE 
OF ITS 

2 50,000 WORDS 

BEING ALSO 

A COMPREHENSIVE ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES, WITH CONDENSED 

ENCYCLOPEDIC DEFINITIONS OF FIFTY THOUSAND IMPORTANT WORDS AND 

TOPICS, WITH NUMEROUS FULL-PAGE AND OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS 

AND EIGHTY NEW FULL-PAGE COLORED MAPS 

EDITED BY 

ROBERT HUNTER, A.M., F.G.S. AND PROF. CHARLES MORRIS 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING EMINENT SPECIALISTS 

PROF. THOMAS H. HUXLEY, F.R.S.; PROF. RICHARD A. PROCTOR; PROF. A. ESTOCLET; JOHN A. WILLIAMS, A. B. 

TRINITY COLLEGE, OXFORD; SIR JOHN STAINER.MUS.DOC.; JOHN FRANCIS WALKER, A. M., F.C. S.; 

T. DA VIES, F. G. S.; PROF. SENECA EGBERT, M. D., MEDICO-CHIRURGICAL COLLEGE, 

PHILADELPHIA; WILLIAM HARKNESS, F.I.C., F.R.M.S.; MARCUS BENJAMIN, 

PH. D., SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, WASHINGTON, D. C., 

AND ONE HUNDRED OTHERS 

VOLUME X 




CHICAGO 

BELFORD, MIDDLEBROOK & COMPANY 
MDCCCXCVIII 

cN 



Copyright 1894 by Syndicate Publishing Company. 
Copyright 1896 by Syndicate Publishing Company, 
Copyright 1897 by K. S. Peale and J. A. Hill. 
Copyright 1898 by Belford, Middlebrook & Co, 



ludiflcatory lugger 



2975 



* lu-di-fi-ca'-tor-y, a. [Lat. ludificatorius. 
from ludificatus, pa. par. of ludificor = to make 
sport ; FT. ludificatoire.] Making sport ; ex- 
citing ridicule or derision. 

"There la nothing empty (or rain), nothing ludifl 
calory. "Karroo: : Vermont, vol. iii.. Mr. 39. 

lud'-lam-ite, s. [Named by Field after 
H. Liidlam, of London; suff. -ite (3fin.).J- 

Min. : A monoclinic mineral found only in 
crystals. Hardness, 3-4; sp. gr. 3 - 12; lustre, 
brilliant ; colour, bright green ; streak, green- 
ish-white, transparent. The mean of several 
analyses gave phosphoric acid, 30*11 ; prot- 
oxide of iron, 52'76 ; water, 16'98, which cor- 
responds to the formula FeyP.!^, 9HjO. 
Occurs with chalyhite, vivianite, pyrites, and 
pyrrholite at Wheal Jane, Truro, Cornwall. 



-low, s. [See def.] 
Oeog. : A corporate town and parliamentary 
borough in Shropshire, 138 miles N.W. by W. 
from London. 

Ludlow formation, *. 

Geol. : The highest part of the Upper Si- 
lurian rocks, consisting of (a) Upper Ludlow 
and (6) Lower Ludlow beds (q.v.X The Lud- 
low formation is found near Ludlow, Eng- 
land, and at other places in Shropshire 
and Herefordshire. Of the fossils, only five 
per cent, pass into the overlying Devonian. 

If (1) Upper Ludlow : These beds are 780 feet 
thick. At the top and ranking with them is 
the Downton sandstone, found at Downton 
Castle, near Ludlow, where it is quarried 
for building purposes, and at Kington in 
Herefordshire. It was called by Sir Roderick 
Hurchison Tilestones, and referred to the Old 
Red Sandstone, but the fossils are Upper 
Silurian. Among them are the fine crusta- 
ceans, Pterygotus and Euryptenis. The next 
bed in the descending order is the bone-bed. 
Near Ludlow it is three or four inches thick ; 
at other places it varies from an inch to a foot ; 
the bones nro those of (ish. Beneath the bone- 
bed are Gray Sandstones and Mudstones. 
Most of the two-valved molluscs are brachio- 
pods, though lamellibranchiata also occur. 
Some of the sandstones are ripple-marked. 

(2) Lower Ludlow : Thickness, 1,050 feet It 
consists chiefly of a dark gray argillaceous 
shale, with calcareous concretions sometimes, 
as at Aymestry, tipped by a crystalline and 
argillaceous limestone abounding in remains 
of Pentamerus Knightii. Other genera are 
Lingula, Rhynconella, brachiopods, and 
Lituites, a cephalopod. Up till 1859 no fish 
remains had been found lower than the bone- 
bed of the Upper Ludlow rocks ; but in that 
year they were found in a Lower Ludlow 
bed. No vertebrates have been found in any 
older rocks. (M urchison : Siluria ; Lyell : 
Student's Manual.) 

Ludlow-rocks, s. pi. 
Geol. : The same as LUDLOW-FORMATION 
(q.v.). 

lu dus Hel-mon'-ti-i (t as sh), lu'- 
dus Par-a-ceT-Sl, s. [For etym. see def.] 
Med. Phar. : A calcareous stone, the pre- 
cise nature of which is not known, used by 
the ancients in calculous affections. The 
terra was also applied to every species of cal- 
culous concretion occurring in the human 
body. (Dunglison.) Paracelsus gave the name 
ludus to a kind of cubical pyrites, from their 
resemblance in shape to a die, and held them 
in high esteem as a remedy in calculous affec- 
tions. Hence the Latin name. Van Helmont 
was of the same opinion, though he was mis- 
taken as to what really was the ludus of Para- 
celsus. 

lu dus Par-a-cel'-sl, *. [Luous HEL- 

MONTII.] 

liid-wlg'-I-a, s. [Named after C. Q. Ludwig, 

professor of Dotany at Leipsic.] 

Hot. : A genus of Onagraceae, tribe Jussiaeeae. 
Ludwig <ia palustr is is a procumbent or floating 
perennial with four angled stems, two, four 
or no petals, four stamens. Found in boggy 
pools in Hants, Sussex, and Jersey. Better 
known as Isnardia palustris. 

lud -wig : ite, s. [Named byTschermak after 
K Ludwig ; suff. -ite (Afin).J 

Min. : A mineral occurring in finely fibrous 
masses, with a silky lustre. Hardness, 5 ; 
sp. gr. 3-907-4-016; colour, blackish-green, 
and almost black with a violet tinge ; tough ; 
streak, somewhat lighter in colour than the 



mineral. Compos., a borate of magnesia, 
sesqui and protoxide of iron, the formula, 
deduced from the mean of several analyses, 
being 2MgOBO 3 + FeOFejOs- Found em- 
bedded in a crystalline limestone with mag- 
netite (q.v.) at Morawicza, Hungary. 

luen'-burg-ite, s. [Named after Luenburg, 
where found ; suff. -ite (Min.)."} 

Min. : A salt, having the composition phos- 
phoric acid, 29 8 ; boracic acid, 12-7 ; mag- 
nesia, 25-3 ; water, 32-2. Mollner, who analysed 
it, gave the formula as (2MgOHO)PO B + 
MgOBO 3 + 7HO. 

lu'-es, s. [Lat.] A plague, a pestilence, a 
poison. 

lues venerea, . The venereal disease ; 
syphilis. 

liiff (1), * loof (1), * loofe, love, * luve, 

t. [Goth. W/a.] The palm of the hand. 
" In the holl luffls of his hand, quhare he stucle 
Dewly the wattir hynt he fra the nude." 

Douglas: rijpil ; jEneid vlii. 242. 

luff (2), * lOOf (2), s. [But. loef= a weather- 
gage ; O. Dut loef = a thole-pin ; Dan. luv 
= weather-gage ; luve = to luff ; Sw. lof = 
weather-gage.] 

Nautical : 

* 1. The air, the wind. 

2. The weather-gauge, or part of a ship 
toward the wind. 

3. The sailing of a ship close to the wind. 

4. The weather part of a fore-and-aft sail, 
on the side next the mast or stay to which 
it is attached. 

5. The loof; the fullest and broadest part 
of a ship's bow. 

6. A luff-tackle (q.v.). 
T (1) Luff upon luff: 

Naut. : One luff-tackle applied to the fall 
of another. 

(2) To spring her luff: 

Naut. : To luff up ; to yield to the helm by 
sailing near the wind. 

" The Portsmouth standing out ahead of the bigger 
man-of-war, after the other of eight guns, he Imme- 
diately sprung hit luffc, whereupon the Antelope like- 
wise tprung Mi luffe after him." London dazettt 
(1672), No. 717. 

luff-tackle, s. 

Naut. : A purchase composed of a double 
and a single block. The standing end of the 
rope is fast to the single block and the fall 
comes from the double. 

liiff, * loof, v.i. [LUFF, $.] 

Naut. : To bring the head of a vessel nearer 
to the wind ; to sail nearer the wind ; to put 
the tiller on the lee side, so as to make the 
vessel sail near the wind. 

" Suddenly the wind began to rise 
And then we luffed and tacked. * 

Jfarlove: Jew of Malta, ii. S. 

luf-fa, *. [Arab. louff= Lit/a cegyptiaca,] 

Bot. : A genus of Cucurbitaceae, tribe Cu- 
curbiteae. They are yellow-flowered plants ; 
the males panicled with a hemispherical calyx, 
with the segments longer than the tube ; 
females solitary, with the segments shorter 
than the tube ; fruit, an ovate, fibrous, three- 
celled gourd. Lv/a acutangula is used as a 
pot-herb by the natives cf India ; L. amara 
and L. Bindaal of India are strongly purga- 
tive, as are L. purgans and L. drastica of 
Brazil. L. oigyptiaca has an offensive odour, 
but is cultivated in Egypt, Arabia, India, 
and China, the fruit being eaten by natives 
in curry. The seeds are used in India as a 
cooling medicine. It furnishes an oil, as 
does L. acutangula. The pounded leaves of 
the last-named species are used in India 
locally in splenitis, haemorrhoids, and leprosy. 
The seeds are purgative and emetic. 

luf '-for, s. [LOUVRE.] 

lug, * lugge, r.t. & i. [Sw. lugga = to pull by 
the hair, from lugg = the forelock ; lock = a 
lock of hair ; Norw. lugga = to pull by the 
hair ; lugg = the hair ; cf. Prov. Eng. louk = 
to pull up weeds ; Icel. lok = a weed ; A.S. 
lyccan to pull ; Dan. luge = to weed.] 
A. Transitive : 

1. To haul or drag along ; to pull along, as 
something heavy. 

" Whose pleasure is to ee a strumpet tear 
A cynic s beard, and luy him by the hair." 

Dryden : fertiut. sat. L 



2. To seize by the ears ; to worry. 

" [They] though whelps, shall lug their hogrn. 
Till they make their ears to bleed." 

Drayton: Shepturfif 

3. To carry with difficulty. 

"To lug off every one his share." Jerimy Collier. 

4. To include or insert unnecessarily or un- 
expectedly. (Usually followed by in.) 

" Physic and divinity, . . . 
Are lugged in by the head and shoulders." 

Churchill: The Ohott, bk. IT. 

* B. Intrant. : To drag ; to move heavily 
or slowly. 

" My soul . . . tugt along, 
As if she were a body in a body." 

Dryden : Don Sebaaian, IT. L 

IT To lug out: To draw a sword, in bur 
lesque. 

" They will be heard, or they lug out and cat." 

Dryden : Juvenal, sat. xvL 

lug (1), * lugge, . [Sw. lugg = the forelock.1 
[Luo, t>.] 

1. A projecting part of anything : as 

(1) A projecting stud or ear by which an 
object is grasped or supported, or which 
affords a bearing or point of attachment ; as, 
the lugs on the parts of a flask by which they 
are united ; the lugs by which a kettle is sup- 
ported in a furnace, &c. 

(2) The lobe of the ear ; the ear. 

" Dare you think your clumsy lugt to proper to decid*, is 
The delicate ears of Justice Midas?* 

Lyly : Midat, ii. &. 

(3) A projecting piece in machinery to com- 
municate motion ; a short flange to which 
something is fastened. 

(4) A projecting piece upon a founder*! 
flask or mould. 

2. A pliable rod or twig. 

3. A measure of land, a pole or perch. 

" The large leap which Delwn did compel 
Ceaulin to make, being eight luys of ground." ' 
Spenter : F ., II. x. O. 

* 4. A heavy, strong bow. 

" The other [bowe] is a lugge, slow of caste, following 
the stringe, more sure for to last then pleasant for ta 
use." A tcham : Toxophilut, bk. i. 

lug-sail, s. 

Naut. : A four-cornered sail bent to a yard, 
which is slung at a point two-thirds of ite 
length from the peak. 

lug (2), . [LuowoRM.] 

lug 1 -gage (age as ig), s. [Eng. lug, v. ; -ogv.) 

1. Anything heavy and cumbersome to bis 
carried ; anything of more weight than value. 

"What do you mean, 
To dote thus on such luggagel " 

Shahetp. : Tempett, IT. t, 

2. The baggage of an army. 

" That cumbersome 

Luggage of war there shewn me, argument 
Of human weakness." Milton : P. J!., Hi. tot. 

3. A traveller's baggage. (British.) 

" I am gathering up my luggage, and preparing for 
Journey.' Svtft to Pope. 

luggage-saddle, s. 

Manege : A pad on a led horse for carrying 
luggage. 

luggage-van, . 

1. Railway: A baggage-car. (British.) 

2. Vehicle: A fourgon or van containing 
personal luggage, attending on a traveling- 
carriage. (British.) 

liig'-ger, s. [From the verb to lug (q.v.)J 
Dut. logger; Dan. lugger; cf. also ItaL 




felucca.] A small vessel, carrying two < 
three masts with a lug-sail on each, and 
running bowsprit, on which are set two c 
three jibs. 



boil, boj>-; pout, jowl; cat, fell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, eylst. -Ing. 
-dan. - tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -sion = zhun. -clous, -tious, -sious = shus. -ble. -die, &c. = bfl, del. 



2976 



lugget lumachel 



-get, s. [Eng. lug (1), s. ; -et = -ed.] 
ving a handle. 
" O rare ! to nee thee fizz and freath 
Iu the lugget caup ! " Burnt : Scotch Drink. 

luff gie, s. [Eng lug (1), s. ; -ie; -y.] A 
small wooden dish with a handle. 

" In order on the clean hearthstone 

The luyyiei three are ranged." 
, Burnt : ffullomen. 

lug / -gur, *. [JuoouR,] 

l&g'-mark, s. [Eng. lug (1), s., and mark.] 
A mark of identification cut in the ear of a 
BOW, sheep, dog, &c. 

lu-gu-brf-os'-i-t& s. [As if from a Lat. In- 
gubriositas, from lugubris = lugubrious (q.v.). J 
The same as LUOUBRIOUSNESS (q.v.). 

lu-gu -bri ous, *lu-gu brous, a. [Lat. 
lugubris, from lugeo =. to grieve ; Jr. lugubre ; 
cogn. with Or. Xvypot (lugros) = sad ; Sp. & 
1 Ital. lugubre.] Mournful, sad, dismal. 

" Moat of them represent devout luyubrioitt events." 
Swinburne : Spain, let. 41. 

lu-gu'-bii-ous-ly, adv. [Eng. lugubrious; 
-ly.] In a lugubrious manner : sadly, mourn- 
fully, dismally. 

lu-gu -bri-ous-ness, *. [Eng. lugubrious; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being lugu- 
brious. 

* lu-gu-brons, . [LUGUBRIOUS.] 

lug'-worm, a. [Eng. lug (1), and worm.] 

Zool. : Arenicola piscatorum, an annelid of 
the family Teletlmsidae, sub-order Tubicolse. 
sometimes classed with the Errantia. The 
body is composed of a number of segments, 
thirteen of them furnished with red or purple 
arborescent branchial tufts, said by Gosse to 
be protrusile. The first six segments are fur- 
nished with setse only. It attains an extreme 
length of ten inches, and is found on various 
parts of the coast, near low-water mark, bur- 
rowing in the sand or in a muddy bottom. Its 
locality is t easily detected from the spiral coils 
of sandy excrement near the aperture of the 
burrow. On some parts of the English coast 
the Lugworm is esteemed by fishermen as an 
excellent bait. Called also Lobworm. 

in'-he-a, s. [Named after Charles Luhe, a 
German botanist.] 

Bot. : A genus of Tiliacese, family Grewidse. 
It consists of Mexican and South American 
trees or shrubs. The Brazilians use the bark 
of Luhea grandiflora for tanning leather, and 
the wood of L. divaricans, which is light and 
white, but very close-grained, for wooden 
ahoes and musket stocks. 

fluke, lewk. *lewke, *leuke, o. [An 

extension of Mid. Eng. Inn (q.v.).J Luke- 
, warm ; neither hot nor cold. [LUKEWARM.] 

" Let me have nine penn'orth o' brandy and water 
lake." Dickent: Pidaeick, ch. xxxiii. 

Koike, s. [Gr. Aov<a<;(Loukas). Kot connected 
with the name Lucius (Acts xiii. 1 ; Rom. xvi. 
21), but contracted from Lat. Lucanus, as 
Bilas is from Silvanus, or Apollos from Apol- 
lonius. Possibly from Lucania, in the south 
Of Italy.] 

Scrip. Biog. : A New Testament evangelist, 
Whose name was not a common one, but in its 
nncontracted form [see etym.] was immorta- 
lized by Lucan, author of the celebrated 
Human poem, Pharsalia. It has been sup- 
posed that the poet, who was born at Cordova, 
In Spain, may have been connected with St. 
Luke, who is mentioned three times in the New 
Testament. In Col. iv. 14, he is called " Luke 
the beloved physician." In Philemon he is 
called Lucas, and described as one of St. 
Paul's fellow-labourers, and when " Paul was 
ready to be offered " (2 Tim. iv. 6), he adds, 
'Only Luke is with me." Identifying him 
with the writer of the Acts of the Apostles, 
his use of the pronoun "we," commencing 
with xvi. 10, shows that he joined Paul at 
Troas and accompanied him to Philippi (11-1 7). 
The resumption of the pronouns "he" and 
*' they " (xvi. 19, xvii. 1, 17, &c.) shows that he 
remained at Philippi till the return of the 
Apostle thither (xx. 6). He accompanied him 
on his subsequent missionary journeys (xx. 
1S-15, xxi. 1, &c.), was with him in his ship- 
wreck (xxvii. S, 27, xxviii. 2, 10), and his sub- 
aequent voyage to Rome (13-16). There is no 
trustworthy information as to the remainder 
Of St. Luke's life. 

IF The Gospel according to St. Luke : 

New Testament Canon: The third gospel. 



The writer had his information from those 
who " from the beginning were eyewitnesses 
and ministers of the word " (Luke i. 2), imply- 
ing that he was not himself an eyewitness of 
the events that he records. It has been sug- 
gested that he may have got many details, as, 
e.g., of the birth of Jesus, from the "certain 
women " (Luke viii. 2, S). When speaking 
of diseases, there is a technical accuracy, 
greater than that exhibited by the other 
evangelists, and in describing the failure of 
the physicians in the case of the woman with 
the issue of blood, he uses mild language 
(yiii. 43), forcibly contrasting with that of 
St. Mark, written probably on information 
given by St. Peter (Mark v. 26). Universal 
tradition considers that the gospel was penned 
under divine inspiration by St Luke, "the 
beloved physician." 

There exists, or, rather, is recoverable from 
the writings of Justin Martyr, Irenseus, Ter- 
tullian, and Epiphanius, a gospel issued by 
the celebrated Gnostic, Marcion, so related to 
that of St. Luke, that Marcion's gospel must 
have been an abridgement of St. Luke's, or 
Luke's an expansion of Marcion's. They can- 
not have been independent shoots from the 
root of evangelical tradition, for of fifty- three 
sections peculiar to St. Luke, from iv. 16 
onwards, all but eight are found in Marcion's 
Gospel, and in the same order. The foregoing 
fathers charged Marcion with mutilating, for 
dogmatic ends, St. Luke's Gospel and the 
Epistles to the Galatians and Ephesians. This 
view has been generally accepted. But 
Ritschl, Baur, Schwleger, and the author of 
Supernatural Religion, held Marcion's to be 
the original document. Volkmar and Hilgen- 
feld, though rationalistic writers, reconverted 
Ritschl, and partially Baur, to the traditionary 
view. More recently, Mr. Sanday has minutely 
compared the language of the parts of St. 
Luke's Gospel common to him and Marcion 
with those which Marcion has not, and has 
found that in the 309 verses not in Marcion 
there are 111 distinct peculiarities of St. 
Luke's style, numbering in all 185 separate 
instances and 138 words, with 224 instances 
peculiar to, or specially characteristic of, the 
third evangelist. The inference to be drawn 
from such evidence is irresistible St. Luke's 
was the original work and Marcion's the 
abridgement. 

Marcion is believed to have begun to teach 
in Rome about A.D. 139 to 142 (Sanday), or 138 
(Volkmar), or 130 (Tischendorf). "At that time 
St. Luke's Gospel had been so long published 
that various readings of it had alreadyarisen." 
(Fortnightly Review, xvii. (1875), pp. 885 to 
875). 

The incidents recorded are not in chronolo- 
gical order. There is a marked superiority to 
Jewish caste-prejudice or to ceremonial bond- 
age. It is the gospel that tells of the Prodigal 
Son (xv. 11-32), the Good Samaritan (x. 30-371 
the Pharisee and the Publican (xviii. 10-14). 
The third gospel is exactly such a work as, 
under Divine inspiration, might be supposed 
to emanate from the companion of St. Paul. 

* luke -ness, . [Eng. luke, a. ; -ness.] Luke- 
warmness. 

luke warm, a. [A.S. wlcec = tepid ; cf. 
I eel. hldka a thaw ; hlana = to thaw ; hlcer, 
hltfr = warm, mild ; hlyja, hlua = to shelter ; 
A.S. hleo, hleow = a shelter ; Dut. leukwarm; 
Ger. lauwarm; O. H. Ger. Mo.] 

1. Lit. : Moderately hot or warm ; tepid ; 
neither too hot nor too cold. 

" With lukewarm water wash the gore away." 

Pope : Homer ; Iliad xi. 964. 

2. Fig. : Not ardent, zealous, or enthusi-i 
astic ; indifferent, cool. 

" In that island existed feuds, compared with which 
the hottest animosity of English i<oliticiau> were 
lukewarm." Macaulay : Hitt. Eng., ch. it 

luke'-warm-ly, adv. [Eng. lukewarm; -ly.] 

1. In lukewarm manner or degree ; with 
moderate warmth. 

2. With indifference ; without ardour, zeal, 
or enthusiasm. 

luke'- warm-ness, s. [Eng. lukewarm ; -ness.] 

1. The quality or state of being lukewarm or 
moderately warm ; a mild or moderate heat. 

" The many degrees of coldness, that may be conceived 
to be intermediate, betwixt lukemirmnett and the 
freezing degree of cold." Boyle : Workt, ii. 490. 

2. Want of ardour, zeal, or enthusiasm ; in- 
difference, coolness. 

" Lukevarmnett, or a cold, tame, indifferent, unac- 
tlve religion." Bp. Taylor : Of Repentance, ch. v., i 4. 



* luke'- warmth, s. [Eng. lukewarm; suit. 
-th, as in breadto, &c.] LukewarmneM. 

Luksh-meo, s. [LAKSHMI.] 
Lukshmee fruit, s. 
Bot. : Mangifera sylvatica. 

lull, * lull -en, v.t. & i. [Sw. lulla, = to hum, 
to lull ; Dan. lulle = to lull ; O. Dut. lullen - 
to hum.] 

A. Transitive: 

1. To compose to sleep by a pleasing sound]; 
to soothe to sleep. 

"And in hire barme this litel child she leid, 
With lul sad face, and gan the childe to blisse, 
And lulled it, and after gan it kisse." 

Chaucer: C. T., 8.4* 

2. To calm, to assuage. 

" Stay but a little, till the tempest cease, . ' 

Ana the loud winds are hM'd into a peace." 

Dryden : Ovid ; Herdidet vfl. ' 

B. Intrans. : To subside, to calm down, to 
cease, to become quiet : as, The wind lulls. 

lull, *. [LULL, v. ; for term, -aby, cf. hushaby.) 
* 1. The quality or power of lulling ; a lull- 
aby. 

" My lord, your stay was long, and yonder lull 
Of falling waters tempted me to rest." 

young : Revenge, v. 1 

2. A temporary calming down or quiet after 
a storm, tumult, or confusion. (Lit. Fig.) 

lull'-a-by, s. [LULL, .] 

1. A song to lull or compose children to 
sleep. 

" And now you thought you heard the lullaby which 
a fairy might sing to some fretful changeling;." Lut- 
ton : Zanoni, bk. 1, ch. a 

2. Anything sung or done to quiet or calm. 

"Rest thee : for the bittern's cry 
" Sings us the lake's wild lullaby." 
Scott : Lady of the Lake, iv. SL ' 

lull'-er, . [Eng. lull, v. ; -er.] One who or 
that which lulls ; one who fondles. 

LuT-li-an, a. [For etym. see def.] Pertaining 
to or characteristic of the teaching of Ray- 
mundus Lully (1234-1354). [LULLIST.] 

" Leibniz was acquainted with this so-called Lutllutt 
art." Jtfert: Leibniz, p. 107. 

Lul'-list, s. [LULLIAN.] 

Hist. & Philos, : A follower of Lully, the 
author of an art of invention which depended 
on the placing in different circles of various 
concepts, some formal, others material, so 
that, when the circles were turned, every pos- 
sible combination was easily produced by me- 
chanical means, presenting a motley conglom- 
erate of sense and nonsense. He blamed 
Thomas of Aquinas for holding the doctrinea 
of the Trinity and the Incarnation to be in- 
demonstrable ; and said that with his own 
way of conducting proofs and convincing 
unbelievers, he found the demonstration of 
these dogmas not difficult. Lully's inven- 
tion probably gave rise to Swift's picture of 
the Laputan professor " employed in a pro- 
ject for improving speculative knowledge by 
practical mechanical operations." (Gulliver "t 
Travels, pt. iii., ch. v. ; cf. Rabelais, bk. v., 
Ch. xxiii.) 

" Lullus . . . found for bis fanciful theory of th* 
combination of concepts, with a view to the conversion 
of the unbelieving and the reformation of the science*, 
and great number of partisans (LullUtt}."Uvberma: 
Bitt. Phttot., i. 467. 

Lul -worth, *. [See def.] 

Geog. & Geol. : A village in Dorsetshire near 
which is a cove celebrated geologically and 
palseontologicallv for a Dirt bed (q.v.) of the 
same age as that of Portland. At Lulworth 
the old horizontal soil is now slanted 46% 
with the stumps of the trees at right angles to 
it, just as they were when they grew. 

Lulworth skipper, . 

Entom. : Pamphila AcUeon, a butterfly found 
chiefly at Lulworth Cove. 

lum, s. [Wei. Hum = that projects or shoot*' 
up to a point ; llumon a chimney.] 

1. A chimney. 

" Till, fuff! he started up the lum, 
An' Jean had e'en a sair heart." 

Jiurm : Hallovetn, 

2. A woody valley. 

3. A deep pool. 

lum-head, s. A chimney top. (.Scotch.) ' 

"Reek that came out of the lum-head," Scott: 
Start of Midlothian, ch. xxvii. 

lum a chcl, lum - a - chelle', lum a- 
cheT-la, *. [Fr. lumachelte, from Sp. lumn* 



Ifcte, f&t, fare, amidst, what, fall, lather; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, p8 
r, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian. , ce - e : ey = a. qu = kw. 



lumbaginous lump 



2977 



tktlla, from lumaca = a snail, from Lat. Umax. 
So named because the marble is full of snail- 
like shells.] 

Petrol. : Fire marble ; a dark-brown shell- 
marble, with brilliant iridescence. 

lum-bag -in-ous, a. [Lat lumbago (genit. 
lumbaginis) = lumbago ; Eng. adj. suff. -ous.] 
Of or pertaining to lumbago ; of the nature of 
lumbago. 

lum-ba'-go, s. [Lat., from lumbus = the loin.] 

Pathol. : Rheumatism of the muscles of the 

loins, with sudden and severe pain, sometimes 

extending to the ligaments underneath the 

muscles. 

lum'-bal, . [LUMBAR.] 

liim'-bar, a. [Lat. lumbaris, from lumbus = 
the lorn; Sp. lombar, lumbar; Ital. lombare, 
lombah; Fr. lomboire.] Pertaining to the loins : 
as, lumbi.tr muscles, lumbar nerves, tic. 

lumbar region, *. 

Anat. : The two lateral portions of the mid- 
dle zone of the abdomen. They are called the 
right and the left lumbar regions, and are 
separated by the umbilical region. 

lum-barde, . [LOMBARD.] A Lombard, A 
money-lender, a money-changer, a banker. 

lum'-ber, * lum'-bar, s. [LOMBARD.) 

* 1. The Lombard-room, where the Lom- 
bards, who were the bankers and pawn- 
brokers of the middle ages, stored their un- 
redeemed pledges 

' They put up all the little plate they had In the 
lumbers, which is pawning it, till the ships came." 
Lady Murray : Livei of George Hail lie t of Lady Ori- 
till Baillie. 

* 2. The pledges in that room. 

V And by an action falsely laid of trover 
The lumber for their proper goods recover." 

Butter: Upon Critict. 

3. Pledges out of date, and therefore of 
little value ; hence, goods uselessly accumu- 
lated rubbish. 

" From the glad walls inglorious lumber torn." 

Pop*.' Homer; Odyltey xiz. 12. 

4. Rubbish of any kind ; anything good for 
nothing or useless ; refuse. 

" Ye gods, what dastards would our host command 
Swept to the war, the lumber of the land." 

Pope: Burner; Iliad ii. MO. 

6. Harm, mischief. (Provincial English.) 

6. Foolish or obscene talk or language; 
ribaldry. (Provincial English.) 

7. Marketable timber. (U.S.) 

lumber - dryer, *. A shed or closed 
Chamber in which sawed lumber is subjected 
to an artificially heated and dried atmosphere. 

lumber-house, . A house, shed, or 
foom for storing lumber. 

lumber-kiln, s. A heated chamber for 

art ilically drying lumber. 

lumber-man, . A lumberer (q.v.> 

lumber-measure, s. An apparatus by 
Which the number of superficial feet contained 
In boards of different lengths can be estimated. 

lumber-room, *. A room for the storage 

Of lumber. 

"That El Dorado called by the grown-up folks a 
lumber-room." Lytton; Jfigktt Morning, bk. i., CO. i. 

lumber-wagon, *. A heavy wagon, 
long coupled, and having standards to the 
bolsters, for hauling sawn timber. 

lum'-ber, v.t. & i. [LUMBER, .} 

A. Transitive : 

L To keep together in confusion. 

"Deep in the darkness of dull authors bred. 
With all their refuse lumber'd in his head.' 

Mallet: Verbal Critieiim. 

2. To fill with lumber : as, To lumber a room. 

B. Intransitive: 

* 1. To move heavily. 

Let them not leap the ditch, or swim the flood. 
Or lumber o'er the meads, or cross the wood." 

Dryden : Virgil ; deorgiv Hi. 2S. 

2. To make a heavy rumbling noise. 

" The postboy's horse right glad to miss 
The lumbering of the wheels." 

Cotter : John Qilpin. 

5. To cut forest timber and prepare it for 
the market. (American.) 

lum-ber-dar', s. [Hind.] The headman of 
a village. (Anglo-Indian.) 

lum'-ber-er, s. [Eng. lumber, s. ; -tr.] A 
person employed to cut forest timber and pre- 



pare it for the market ; a woodcutter. (Ameri- 
can.) 

lum-bd-, pref. [Lat. lumbut = the loin.] Of 
or belonging to the loin. 

lumbo-ingninal, a. Connecting the 
loin and the groin. There is a lumbo- inguinal 
nerve. 

lumbo-sacral, a. Connecting the loin 
and the sacral bone. There is a lumbo-sacral 
nerve. 

* lum'-bric, s. [Lat. lumbricus ; Fr. lombric ; 
Ital. lombrico ; Port, lombriga ; Sp. lombriz.] 
A worm. 

lum'-bric-al, a. & . [Eng. lumbric; -al.] 

A. As adjective : 

1. Anat. : Pertaining to or resembling a 
worm : as, the lumbrical muscles of the fingers 
and toes. 

2. Bot. : A term applied to the worm-like 
lobes of the fronds in some algals. 

B. As substantive : 

Anat. (PI.) : Four muscles, two of the foot 
and two of the hand, in their superficial aspect 
somewhat resembling worms. 

lum-bric'-i-dae, s. pi. [Lat lumbric(us); 
fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.} 

Zool. : A family of Annelids, order Oligo- 
chajta, tribe Terricolse. It contains the earth- 
worms. They have a long, cylindrical body, 
tapering at both ends, are destitute of feet, 
but have bristles which aid them in their 
serpentine progression. They are nocturnal, 
and do not possess eyes, but can distin- 
guish between light and darkness. They are 
completely deaf, but have some intelligence. 
They are omnivorous, their favourite food is 
leaves. Most of them live in burrows. By 
passing vegetable soil through their bodies 
they effect important changes in nature. 

* lum-brig'-i-form, o. [Lat. lumbricus = a 
worm, and forma= form, shape.] Resembling 
a worm in form or appearance. 

lum-brI-91-na, . pL [Lat. lumbric(us) 
(q.v.) ; fern. pi. adj. suff. -ina.] 

Zool. : A tribe of Annelids, consisting of 
animals without eyes or antennae, having the 
body setigerous for locomotion, and the articu- 
lations distinct. 

lum-bn -cus, . [Lat. = an intestinal worm, 
a maw-worm, a stomach worm. Not the 
modem use of the word.] 

Zool. : The typical genus of the family 
Lumbficidae (q.v.). Lumbricus terrestrit is the 
Common Earthworm. [EARTHWORM.] There 
are a number of species, widely distributed in 
the United States, Europe,and elsewhere. There 
are eight in Scandinavia ; but two of them 
rarely burrow in the ground, and one inhabits 
very wet places, or even lives under water. 

lu' men, . A tube or passage way ; spec, in 
anatomy, the cavity of a tubular member or 
organ. 

lu'-min-anoe, . [Eng. luminan(t); -.] 
The quality or state of being lumiuant ; lu- 
famousness. 

* lu'-min-ant, o. [Lat. luminans, pr. par. 
of lumino = to give light ; lumen (genit. lu- 
minis) = light.] Giving or emitting light ; 
luminous. 

lu'-min-a-ry, . [O. Fr. luminarie; Fr. lu- 
minaire ~= a light, a candle, from Lat. lu- 
minare, neut. sing, of luminaris = giving 
light ; lumen, for litcimen (genit. luminis) = 
light ; luceo = to shine ; lux (genit. lucis) = 
light.] 

L Lit. : Any body which gives or emits 
light, espec. one of the heavenly bodies. 
IL Figuratively: 

* 1. Anything which affords light or intel- 
ligence. 

2. Any person who illustrates any subject 
or enlightens mankind. 

" Thus perished Pythagoras, the Samlan philosopher, 
founder of the Italian school, and the great luminary 
of the heathen world." Observer, No. 9. 

lu-min-a'-tlon, *. [Lat. luminatus, pa. 
par. of lumino to lighten.] The emission 
of light. 

* lu'-mine, * lu-myne, v.t. [Lat. lumino, 
from lumen (genit. lumin is) = light] [ILLU- 



MINE.] To illumine, to illuminate, to en- 
lighten, 

" Blinding the eyes, and lumining the spright." 

Spenur : Hymn of Heavenly Love, 230. 

lu-min-If -er-ous, a. [Lat. lumen (genit. 
luminis) = light ; fero to bring, to produce, 
and Eng. adj. suff. -ous.] 

1. Producing or yielding light 

" The best possible reasons for rejecting the idea at 
luminiferout particles." Tyndatt : frag, of Science, 
eb. L, p, 3. 

2. Serving as a medium for the transmission 
of light : as, the luminiferous ether. 

* lu-min 6s -I-ty, s. [As if from a Lat 
luminositas, from luminosus = luininous(q. v.).] 
The same as LUMINOUSNESS (q.v.). 

" These must give the earth a certain appearance of 
luminosity to an inhabitant of the muon."Poe: 
Bant Pfall. 

lu' -nun-oils, o. [Lat. luminosus, from lumen 
(genit luminis) = light ; Fr. lumineia ; 8p., 
Port., & Ital. luminoso.] 

1. Shining ; emitting light, whether original 
or reflected. 

T Certain plants and animals are luminous. 
[PHOSPHORESCENCE.] 

2. Bright, brilliant 

" A desert land, where the mountains 
Lift, through perpetual snows, their lofty and lumtn. 
out heads." Longfellow : JEvanyeline, ii. i, 

3. Enlightened ; made bright 

" [Earth's] other part 
~ Still luminous by his ray.'* UUton : P. L., riii. 144 

4. Piercing, sharp. 

" Could you, though luminous your eye, 
By looking on the bud, descry . . . 
The future splendour of the flower." 

Camper : Political Spittle to Lady Autten. ' 

B. Perspicuous, clear. 

"His State papers ... are models of terse, 
luminous, and dignified eloquence. "Macaulay : Uitt. 
Eng., ch. xx. 

luminous-jar, *. 

Elect. : A Leyden-jar having the outer side. 
coated with varnish, strewed over with me- 
tallic powder, and the upper part with a. 
hooked piece of metal terminated in a knob, 
the lower part with a strip of tin connecting 
it with the ground. If suspended to an elec- 
trical machine and the latter put in action, 
large and brilliant sparks will be found out- 
side the jar, illuminating it all around. 

luminous paint, . A pigment whict 
absorbs light when exposed to it, and emits ii 
again when in darkness. 

luminous-pencil, s. 

Optics : A collection of rays emanating from 
a luminous body. 

luminous-ray, *. 

Optics : The ray in which, light is propagated. 



, adv. [Eng. luminous; -ly.} 
In a luminous manner ; with brightness or 
clearness. 

lu'-min-ous-ness, s. [Eng. luminous; -nest.] 
The quality or state dl being luminous; 
brightness, clearness, perspicuity. 

" The contact of the air, though it were not free, did 
In a few days destroy the luminoumest of a good phos- 
phorus." Boyle : World, iv. 870. 

lum'-mox, s. [Perhaps connected with lump 
(q.v.).l A fat, unwieldy, stupid person. 
(Prow.) 

lump, * lompe, * lumpe, . [Of Scandin- 
avian origin : cf. Sw. dial, lump = a piece 
hewn off, a log ; Norw. lump a block, a 
stump ; Dut. lamp ; O. Dut lompe = a rag, a 
tatter, a lump. Lump is a nasalized form 
from the same root as lubber (q.v.).] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. A small mass of matter of no ("efinito 
shape ; an irregular mass. 

" A loot other half a loot, other a lompe of chese." 
fieri Plauhman, p. 15*. 

2. A shapeless mass. 

3. A mass of things heaped or thrown to- 
gether, without order or regularity. 

4. A mass, a body. 

"A little leauen of new distaste doth commonly 
soure the whole lumpe of former meritea." Bacon : 
Benry VII., p. 13. 

II. Technically: 

1. Founding : A bloom or loop of malleable 
iron. 

2. Gun. : The nipple-seat on a gun-barreL 
U (1) A lump sum : A sum of money paid 



boil, bo^; pout, jowl; cat, fell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph = L 
cian, -tlan = shan. -tton, -sion = shun; -tion, -sion = zhun. -clous, -tious, -ious = shus. -Me, -die, &c. = Del, del. 



2978 



lump luncheon 



at one time, and intended to cover several 
charges or items. 

"The amounts naked for ... should be granted in 

lump turn to the Imperial Government." Daily 

Telegraph, Feb. IS, 1885. 

(2) In tht lump: In gross; the whole to- 
gether. 

lump-sugar, i. Loaf-sugar broken up 
into small lumps. 

lump, v.t. & i. [LUMP, s.] 

A. Transitive : 

1. To throw or form into a lump or mass, 
without order or regularity ; to form into a 
shapeless heap ; to throw or heap together. 

" In life so fatally distinguished, why 
Cut in one lot, confounded, lump'd in death ? ' 
i'ouny: Night Thought!, vii. 749. 

2. To take or regard as a whole or in the 
gross ; to count or speak of collectively. 

"The expenses ought to be lumped together." 
Ayliffe: Parergon. 

B. Intrant. : To be sulky. (Prov.) 

^ If he does not like it, he may lump it : If 
he is not satisfied with what is offered or 
given, he may please himself. 

* lump'-er, . [Eng. lump; -er.] 

1. A labourer employed to load or unload 
vessels in harbour. 

2. A militia-man. 



lamp fish, s. [Eng. lump, and. fish.] 

Ichthy : Cyclopterus lumpus. [CVCLOPTEBTJS.] 

lump' -Ing, a. [Eng. lump; -ing.] Large, 
heavy, bulky. 

* lump Ish, * lomp-ish, a. [Eng. lump; 
-ish.] 

1. Like a lump ; heavy, bulky. 

"Little terrestrial particles swimming in it after 
the grossest were sunk down, which by their heaviness 
and lumpiih figure, made their way more speedily." 
Burnet : Theory of tht Earth. 

2. Slow, lazy. 

"The oxe with lumpiih pace." 
TurbervUe : That all Thing* haw Jteleate, *c. 

8. Dull, spiritless, stupid. 

" The punch goes round, and they are doll 
And lumpiih still as ever." 

Cowper : Yearly Diitrat. 

* lump'-ish-l^, adv. [Eng. lumpish; -ly.] 
In a lumpish manner : heavily, dully. 

* lump ish ness, * lump Ish nesse, s. 

[Eng. lumpish ; -ness.] The quality or state 
of being lumpish ; heaviness, dulness, stupi- 
dity. 

" I dwell In a kind of disconsolate darkness, and a 

ead lum/riihneue of unbelief ."Bp. Hall: Tht Com- 

fon.tr. 

lump'-suck-er, . [Eng. lump, and sucker.] 
Ichthy. : The lumpftsh (q.v.). 

lump' -y, a. [Eng. lump; -y.] Full of lumps 
or small compact masses. 

" One of the best spades to dig bard lumpy clays, 
but too small for light garden mould." Mortimer: 
Huibandry. 

lu na, . [Lat.] 

1. onl. Lang. : The moon. (Usually in 
poetry.) 

* 2. Chem. : Silver. 
luna cornea, s. 
Chem. : AgCL Chloride of Silver. 

lu'-na-cy, s. & a. [Lat. luna(ticus) = lunatic 
(q.v} ; Eng. suff. -cy.] 

A. As substantive : 

Mental Pathol. <t Law: Unsoundness of 
mind. A distinction exists in nature between 
a person who, born sane, has from some cause 
or other fallen into temporary or permanent 
aberration of intellect, and one born idiotic, 
and with a brain of so limited a circumference 
that he is never capable of exercising proper 
reason. In strictness, only the former is a 
lunatic. The distinction is not now legally 
regarded as much as formerly. 

B. As adj. : Of or pertaining to lunacy or 
lunatics. 

"He warned them against allowing their verdict to 
be in any way influenced by a dislike of the lunacy 
Uw." Daily Telegraph, Dec. 1, 1884. 

f Commission of lunacy : [COMMISSION, *.]. 

Commissioner in lunacy : A public official 
appointed to visit and examine lunatic asy- 
lums, public or private, periodically, and to 



grant licences to persons qualified to open 
houses for the reception of the insane. 

lunacy-law, s. 

Eng. Law: Certain laws, or the body of 
English law, affecting lunatics. The lunacy 
laws were consolidated and amended by 
16 and 17 Vic., c. 70. 

lu'-nar, a. & s. [Lat. lunaris, from luna (for 
lucna) = the moon ; luceo = to shine ; lux 
(genit. lucis) = light ; Fr. lunaire ; Sp. & 
Port, lunar; Ital. lunare.] 

A. As adjective : 

1. Of or pertaining to the moon : as, lunar 
observations. 



2. Measured or regulated by the moon : as, 
lunar years. 

3. Resembling the moon ; round. 

* \. Under the influence of the moon. 

" They have denominated some herbs solar and some 
lunar, and such like toys put into great words." 
Bacon : Jfat. Hat. 

B. As substantive : 

Naut. : The same as LUNAR-DISTANCE (q.v.). 

lunar-bone, s. 

Anat. : Os lunare, os semilunare. The second 
bone in the upper row of the human carpus. 

lunar-caustic, *. 

Chem. : AgNOs. Nitrate of silver fused at 
a low heat. The common form in which this 
salt is used in surgery. 

lunar-cycle, s. 

Astron. : [CYCLE, *., T (1)]. 
lunar-distance, s. 

Naut. Astron. : The distance of the moon 
from the sun or from a fixed star or planet 
lying nearly in the line of its path, by means of 
which the longitude of a ship at sea is deter- 
mined. 

lunar hornet-moth, s. 

Entom. : A hawk-moth, Sphecia bembeci- 
formis, with the head and thorax dark, the 
latter with a yellow collar. It is British. 

lunar-method, s. 

Naut. Astron. : One method of determining 
the longitude of a ship at sea by observation 
of the lunar distances. 

lunar-month, s. [MONTH.] 

lunar -observations, s.;)!. Observations 
of the distance of the moon from the sun or 
a star for the purpose of determining the 
longitude. 

lunar-tables, s. pi. 

1. Astron. : Tables of the moon's motion, 
&c. , arranged for computing her true place at 
any given period, past or future. They are 
used in the calculation of eclipses. 

2. Navig. : Logarithmic tables for correct- 
ing the apparent distance of the moon from 
the sun, or from a fixed star on account of re- 
fraction and parallax. 

lunar-theory, s. 

Astron. : The deduction of the moon's 
motion from the law of gravitation. 

lunar- under wing, s. 

Entom. : Anchocelis lunosa, one of the Ortho- 
sidse. It is of brown, black, and white, and 
expands its wings about an inch and a quarter. 
The larvae feed on grass. 

lunar-year, s. [YEAR.] 

lu-nar'-i-a, s. [From Lat. luna = the moon, so 
called from the broad, round, silvery silicules.] 
Hot. : Honesty ; a genus of Cruciferse, family 
Alyssidse. It consists of large hairy plants, 
with alternate or opposite cordate leaves, and 
large lilac flowers. They are from Southern 
and Central Europe. Lunaria biennis is the 
garden plant called Honesty. 

* lu-nar'-i-an, s. [Lat. lunaris = pertaining 
to the moon'.] An inhabitant of the moon. 

lu'-na-ry\ * lu-na-rie, a. & . [Fr. lunain, 
from* Lat. lunaris = lunar (q.v.).J 

A. As adj. : The same as LUNAR (q.v.). 

"The Greeks observed the (unary year, that Is, 
twelve revolution of the moon, 364 days." flrowne: 
Vulgar Irrourt, bk. iv., ch. xii. 

B. As subst. : A plant, moonwort (q.v.). 



* lu'-nate, * lu'-nat-ed, a. [Lat. lunatus 
crescent-shaped ; luna = the moon ; Ital. 
lunato; Sp. lunado.] Formed or shaped like 
a half-moon ; crescent-shaped. 

* A sort of cross, which our heralds do not dream of : 
which is a cross lunated after this manner." Brown: 
Travel* (1685), p. 64. 

lunated broad-bill, s. 

Ornith. : Serilophus lunatus. [EURYLAI- 
MIN/E.] 

lu na tic. * lu na tik, * lu na tick, 
' luh a tyke, a. &". [Fr. lunatique, from 
Lat. lunaticus = affected by the moon, which 
was supposed to cause insanity, insane, from 
lunatus = moon-like ; luna = the moon ; Sp^ 
Port., & Ital. lunatico.] 

A. As adjective: 

1. Affected with lunacy ; mad, insane. 

" Dispute not with her, she is lunatic.* 

Shaketp. : Richard III., I 1 

1 2. Exhibiting or characterized by madness 
or insanity. 

" Bedlam beggars, who, with roaring voices . . . 
Sometimes with lunatic bans, sometimes with prayers. 
Enforce their charity." Shaketp. : Lear, li. 3. 

3. Intended for the reception of lunatics : 
as, a lunatic asylum. 

B. As subst. : An insane person ; one who 
is affected with lunacy. 

"The unhappy prisoner was a lunatic, within my 
own definition of lunacy." Ertkine : Speech for Jamu 
Badfield. 

lunatic-asylum, s. An institution or 
hospital for the reception and treatment of 
lunatics. There are state and county asy- 
lums supported by taxes, asylums with en- 
dowments, and asylums kept for private profit. 
All are now visited and inspected by, and are 
subject to the control of public officers ap- 
pointed for the purpose. Formerly lunatics 
were treated with great severity in asylums; 
now as much liberty is accorded them as is 
consistent with the safety of themselves and 
others, and the results have been most bene- 
ficial. The non-restraint system was intro- 
duced by Pinel when in charge of the Bicfetre 
at Paris, in 1792, and his plan was adopted 
by W. Tuke, in 1813, at the Friends' Retreat 
in York, England. It has been widely adopted 
in the United States, and is the only system 
employed in Britain, its results having proved 
highly beneficial. Before any lunatic can be 
taken to an asylum, in this country or England, 
medical certificates and a magistrate's order 
must be obtained, the former abuses in this 
respect being no longer permitted. 

If About one person in 600 in Britain it 
either a lunatic or affected by insanity. A 
lunatic may inherit property whether real or 
personal, or can obtain it by a decree or a 
bequest ; but he cannot act as an executor or 
make a will of his own. He is not criminally 
responsible for his actions, nor is he quite free 
as to contracts, though, like an infant, he 
can be made to pay for necessaries. By 15 
and 16 Geo. II., c. 30, passed in 1742, the 
marriage of a lunatic was declared to be 
illegal. 

lu na tion, s. [Low Lat. lunatio, from Lat. 
lunatus = moon-like ; luna = the moon.] 

Astron. : A revolution of the moon ; the 
time from one new moon to another. 

" If the lunations be observed for a cycle of nineteen 
years, which is the cycle of the moon, the sauie oh. 
servations will be verified for succeeding cycles for 
ever." Holder : On Time. 

lunch, s. [A variant of lump; cf. bunch and 
bump, hunch and hump.] 

1. A lump, a slice, a large piece, as of bread. 
(Prov.) 

"An' cheese, an' bread, free women's laps, 
W as dealt about in lunchei." 

Burnt: Boty Fair. 

2. A luncheon (q.v.). 

lunch counter, . A restaurant 
counter at which people sit or stand while 
taking a lunch. ( ('. S.) 

lunch, r.i. [LUNCH, s.] To take a lunch or 
luncheon. 

lunch' -eon, * lunch -ion, * lunch -In, 

* lunsh-in, 5. [For lunching, from lunch, s. 
(q.v.).] 

* 1. A lump, a big piece, as of bread or 
other edible. 

2. A slight meal between breakfast and 
dinner. 

luncheon-bar, s. A bar or counter in 
an inn or eating-house where meals can be 
taken. 



fftte, fat, tare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot* 
or, wore, wolf, wbrk, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur. rule, lull; try, Syrian. , 09 = 0; ey = a, qu = ltw. 



luncheon 



2979 




liinch'-edn, v.i. [LUNCHEON, s.] To take 
lunch or luncheon. 

lun -drSss, s. [From London (?), the city.] 

Coinage: A sterling silver penny formerly 
coined in London. (Lownd : Essay on Coins.) 

lune (IV, . [Lat. luna = the moon.] 
* I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : Anything in the shape of a half- 
moon or crescent. 

"A troop of Janizaries strewed the field, 
Fallen in just ranks or wedges. lunet or squares, 
Finn ai they stood." tt'attt : Lyric Poems, 11. 

2. Fig. : A fit of lunacy or frenzy ; a mad 
freak, a crotchet. 

" Why, woman, your husband is In his old luna 
g*in.-Shakeip. : Merry Wives of Windsor. IT. 3. 

II. Geom. : The area included between the 
res of two circles which intersect each other. 

If Lunes of Hippocrates : 

Math. : The name given to the two semi- 
circular figures A E c o A and c F B H c, re- 
markable for their employment by Hippocrates 
in his celebrated 
theorem. A c B is a 
right-angled tri- 
angle, right-angled 
at c ; A o H B, A E c, 
and c F B are semi- 
circles, with the dia- 
meters A B, AC, and 
CB respectively. By 

Euclid vt 31, AEC + CFB = AOHB. By 
taking away the common areas A o c and c H B, 
it is clear that lime A E c o A + lune c F B H c 
= triangle A c B. This was the first time that 
a curvilinear area was proved equal to a recti- 
linear one. 

* lune (2), *. [Perhaps a corrupt, of line (q. v.). J 
A leash : as, the lune of a hawk. 

*lu-net', s. [Li'SETTE.] A little moon; a 
small half-moon. 

"Our predecessors could never have believed that 
there were such lunrti about some of the planets, as 
our late perspectives have deserved." Bp. Ilall : 
Pence-Makers, \ 10. 

lu-nette', s. [Fr., dimin. of lune; Lat. luna 
= the moon ; Ital. lunetta.] A term applied 
to various objects of a half-moon shape : as 

1. Archceol. : A crescent-shaped penannular 
concave plate of metal, apparently worn as 
an ornament about the neck. 

2. Architecture : 

(1) An arched aperture in the side of a long 
vault, and having a less height than the pitch. 

(2) A semicircular aperture in a concave 
ceiling. 

(3) An opening in the roof of a house. 

3. Farriery : A horseshoe having only the 
iront, curved portion, lacking the branches. 

4. Glassmakino : The flue connecting the 
fire-chamber with the pot-chamber of a glass- 
furnace. 

5. Fort. : A half-moon ; a detached work 
presenting a salient angle towards the enemy, 




nd flanks open at the gorge. With the flanks 
it has the character of a detached bastion ; 
without the flanks, it would be a redan or 
fleche ; with the gorge closed, it would be- 
come a redoubt. 

6. Harness : A blinder for the eyes of an 
intractable horse. 

7. Optics: 

(1) A perifocal spectacle-glass; concavo- 
convex, its curve approximating the shape of 
the eye and affording more distinct oblique 
vision. 



(2; A flattened watch-crystal or glass, to 
avoid adding to the thickness of the watch. 

8. Ordn. : A forked iron plate into which 
the stock of a field-gun carriage is inserted. 

lung, * longe, * lunge, s. [A.S. lunge ; cogn. 
with Dut. long = lungs, lights ; Icel. lunga 
(pi. lungu); Dan. hingre (pi. lunger); Sw. 
lunga; Ger. lunge lungs.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. In the same sense as II. 

2. (PI) : A person having a strong voice. 
*3. (PI.): A servant who blew the flre for 

an alchemist. 

" That is his fire-drake, 
His lunyt. his zepliyrus, he that puffs his coals." 

Ben Jotison : Alchemist, 1L 

H. Anatomy (PI.) : 

1. Human: The organs of respiration, on 
each side of the chest, conical, and separated 
from each other by the heart in front and 
a membranous partition, the Mediastinum. 
Externally they are convex, to correspond 
with the chest walls, and internally concave 
to receive the heart ; above they terminate 
in a tapering cone and below in a broad 
concavity resting on the diaphragm. In 
colour they are mottled, pinkish-gray, speckled 
with black. Each is divided into two lobes, 




ANATOMY OF THE LUNQS AKD HEABT. 
1. The right ventricle ; the vessels to the left of the 
number are the middle coronary artery and veins, 
and those to its right the anterior coronary artery 
and veins. 2. The left ventricle. 3. The right au- 
ricle. 4. The left auricle. 5. The pulmonary artery. 
. The right pulmonary artery. 7. The left nulinou- 
aryartery. 8. The remains of the ductus arteriosus. 
. The arch of the aortn. 10. The superior vena cava. 
11. The arteria innominate, aud in front of it the 
right vena inuomiuata. 12. The right subclaviau 
vein, and, behind it, ita corresponding artery. 13. 
The right common carotid artery and vein. 14. The 
left vena iuiiomiuata. 15. The left carotid artery 
and vein. 16. The left subclavian vein and artery. 
17. The trachea. 18. The right bronchus. 19. The 
left bronchus. 20, 20. The pulmonary veins ; 18, 20, 
form the root of the right lung, aud 7, 19, 20, the root 
of the left. 21. The superior lobe of the right lung. 
22. Its middle lolie. 2S. Its inferior lobe. 24. The 
superior lobe of the left Umg. 25. Its inferior lobe. 

separated by a deep fissure, and the right 
lung has a third loV above of triangular 
shape ; the right is also larger on account 
of the heart lying towards the left side. 
The lungs are kept in position by their roots, 
composed of the bronchi, pulmonary artery, 
and pulmonary veins ; the right side presents 
the bronchus above, then the artery, then 
the veins ; but on the left side we find tlie 
bronchus between the artery and the veins. 
Each lung is enclosed in a serous membrane, 
the pleura, which extends to its root, and is 
then expanded on the chest wall. The lungs 
are composed of minute ramifications of the 
bronchial tubes, terminating in intercellular 
passages and quadrilateral or hexagonal air- 
cells, along with ramifications of the pulmonary 
artery and veins, bronchial arteries and veins, 
lymphatics and nerves, the whole bound to- 
gether by areolo-librous tissue constituting 
the parenchyma of the lungs. [PHYSIOLOGY, 
RESPIRATION.] 

2. Compar. Anat. : In the lowest and sim- 
plest forms of animal life (aquatic), we find no 
trace of respiratory organs, the interchange 
between the layer of water with the aerating 
surface being effected by the general move- 
ment of the body, or by cilia (q.v.). In most 
of the Mollusca we find gills in the place of 
lungs, except in the terrestrial species, as the 
snail or slug, where we have a lung which is 
a simple cavity in the back communicating 
directly with tlie air, and covered with minute 
blood-vessels ; in bivalve molluscs again, as 
in the oyster, it is the internal surface of the 
mantle or skin-lining which is the special 



organ, with the same essential structure ai 
gills. In the Artiuulata, as tapeworm, marine 
worms, Crustacea, as the crab tribe, we find a 
somewhat similar arrangement to that of tho 
Mollusca, but in insects, and other proper air- 
breathing Articulata, we have a regular series 
of air-sacs along each side of the body, open- 
ing by pores, called spiracles or stigmata, so 
in the spider-tribe, but in a more concentrated 
form, and more resembling the lung of the 
Vertebrata. The gills of fishes come next in 
the scale, accompanied in many cases with an 
air-bladder, especially in those approaching 
the Reptilia in their organization, and in some 
of these it is a double sac, the analogue of the 
double lung. The lungs of the Reptiles are, 
for the most part, capacious sacs occupying 
a good deal of the tmnk cavity, but not filled, 
like those of the Mammalia, by an act of in- 
spiration, but chiefly by the process of swal- 
lowing. In Birds we have the connecting link 
between the types of structure in the two 
classes. 

3. Pathol. : There are various diseases of 
the lungs : two of the most important are to- 
bercular phthisis and pneumonia. 

T (1) Lungs of London : The parks. Brewer 
considers that the first use of tlie term was by 
Windham, in a parliamentary debate on Jan. 
30, 1308, regarding encroachments on Hyde 
Park. 

(2) Lungs of the Oak: 

Sot. : [LUNGWORT]. 

lung-flower, s. 

Bot. : Gentiana Pneumonanthe. 

lung-grown, a. 

Med. : Having the lungs adhering to the 
pleura. 

" The lungs sometimes grow fast to the skin that 
lines the breast within ; whence such as are detained 
with that accident are lung-grown." Harvey : On 
Consumption, 

lung-worm, .*. 

Zool. : Strongylus micrurus, a nematoid, 
parasitic in calves, to which it is often fatal. 

lunge, s. (A corrupt, of Fr. allonge, alonge = 
a lengthening, from allonger = to lengthen.] 

[LONQE.] 

Fencing: A sudden thrust or pass with a 
sword. 

lunge (1), v.i. [LUNGE, s.] 

1. To make a sudden thrust or pass with a 
sword. 

"I lunged out and gaffed one of them." /Wd, 
June 24, 1882. 

2. To reach or stretch out. 

lunge (2), v.t. [Etym. doubtful.] To exercise 
a horse by causing him to run round in a ring 
while held by a rein. 

"The coachman was lunglny Georgy round tbo 
lawn." Thackeray : Vanity Fair, ch. xlvi. 

lunged, a. [Eng. lung ; -ed.] 
1. Having lungs. 

* 2. Drawing in and expelling air like the 
lungs. 

" The smith prepares his hammer for the stroke, 
Which ttielunyed bellows hissing fire provoke." 
Dryden : Juvenal, sat. r. 

lung'-eous, a. [O. Fr. longis = a lout, from 
long = long.] Awkward, rough, cruel, quarrel- 
some. (Prov.) 

lung'-er, *. [Eng. lung(e); -#r.] One who 

lunges. 

"To do him justice ... a swifter lunger never 
crossed a sword." Lyt ton : Zanoni, bk. ii.. ch. L 

lungie, . [Etym. doubtful ; prob. O. Fr. 

longis.] [Luxe is.] The guillemot (q.v.). 

lun'-gis, s. [O. Fr. longis.] A dull, stupid, 
drowsy fellow ; a lout. [LUNOEOUS.] 

lung-less, a. [Eng. lung; -less.] Having 
no lungs ; destitute of lungs. 

" A body heartlesse, lung/else, tongnclesse too." 
Sylvester : Trophies, 760. 

* lung'-striick, o. [Eng. lung, and struck.} 
Suffering from any affection of the lungs. 

" Hints about its sanitary condition circulate freely 
through Aix.U-s-Bains and Hatlock, where the lung, 
struck world passes July and August." Pall Malt 
Gazette, Oct. 13, 1882. 

lung'-wort, s. [Eng. lung, and wort.] 

1. Sticta pulmonacea, a lichen growing on 
the trunks of trees in moist, sub-alpine 
countries. It is sometimes prescribed in dis- 
eases of the lungs, like Iceland moss. la 



boil, bo^; pout, jowl; cat, 9011, chorus, chin, bench; go. gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-dan, -tlan = shan. -tion, -aion = shun ; -tion, -sion - zhun. -clous, -tious, -sious = shus. -ble. -die, &c. - bel, doL 



2980 



lunicurrent lurcher 



Siberia it is used as a substitute for hops. 
Called also Lungs of the Oak. 

2. The boraginaceous genus Pulmonaria. 
The Narrow-leaved Lungwort, is Pulmonaria 
angustifolia, and the Common Lungwort, P. 
officlnalis ; the former is wild, and the latter 
only naturalized in Britain. 

3. Hieracium pulmonarium. 

^f Bullock's Lungwort is Verbascum Thap- 
ms; Tree Lungwort [LUNGWORT (1)]. 

*lu'-ni-cur-rent, a. [Lat. Zttna=the moon ; 
and Eng. current.] Having relation to changes 
in currents ; depending on the changes of the 
moon. 

* lu'-nf-fonn, a. [Lat. luna = the moon, 
and forma form.] Resembling the moon 
in form. 

*lu'-ni-sdl-ar, a. [Lat. luna = the moon, 
and Eug. solar' (q.v.); Fr. lunisolaire.] Com- 
pounded of the revolutions of the sun and 
moon ; resulting from the united action of 
the sun and moon. 

lunisolar-period, s." [LUNISOLAR-YEAR.] 

lunisolar precession, s. 

Astron. : That part of the precession of the 
equinoxes which depends on the joint action 
of the sun and moon. 

lunisolar year, lunisolar period, s. 

Astron. : A period found by multiplying the 
cycle of the sun by that of the moon. It = 
632 years. When it returns, the eclipses re- 
turn again in the same order. 

lu ni Sti9e, s. [Lat. luna = the moon, and 
tto (pa. t. steti) = to stand.] 

Astron. : The farthest point of the moon's 
northing and southing on her monthly revolu- 
tion about the earth. 

lu'-ni-tid-al, a. [Lat. fana=the moon, and 
Eng. tidal (q'.v.).] Relating to tidal motions 
dependent on the moon. 

" Tables giving the mean lunitidal interval." Sme 
American Cyclopaedia, xv. 474. 

limn'-ite, *. [Named by Bernhardi after the 
Bev. P. Lunn ; sutf. -tie (Min.) ; Ger. lunnit.] 
Min. : Until recently regarded as a synonym 
of phosphorochalcite (q.v.) ; but Schrauf uses 
this name for the group of minerals included 
by Dana under pseudomalachite (q.v.), and 
divides them thus : for the pseudo-monoclinic 
(triclinic), sp. gr. 4'4, and corresponding to 
CujPaHiOu, the name dihydrite ; for the 
compound, Cu^HgOis, the name ehlite ; 
and for CngPgHgOu, that of phosphorocalcite. 
He regards the massive forms as mixtures of 
the three crystalline varieties. 

lunt, . [Dut. lont ; Dan. & Ger. lunte = a 
match.] Flame ; a match-cord for firing 
cannon ; a column of flame and smoke. 

lunt, v.i. [LUNT, .] To flame, to burn, to 
emit smoke. 

"Od, if they burn the custom-house it will catch 
here, and we'll lunt like a tir-barrel a'thegither." 
Scott : GUI/ bannering, eh. xlviii, 

lu'-nu-la, s. [Lat., dimin. of luna = the 
moon*.] Anything in the shape of a half-moon 
or crescent ; specif., in anat, the small white 
semilunar mark at the base of the nails. 

lu'-nu-lar, a. [LUNULA.] Formed or shaped 
like the "new moon ; crescent-shaped. 

lu nu-late, lu -nu-lat ed, a. [LUNULA.] 
Resembling a small crescent ; crescent-shaped. 
" At the base of cup-shaped or lunulale receptacle*.'' 
Berkeley : Vryptogamic Botany, | 476. 

lu nule, s. [Fr., from Lat. lunula, dimin. of 
luna = the moon.] Anything shaped like a 
half-moon or crescent, as 

1. Conchol. : A crescent-shaped mark on some 
bivalve shells. 

2. Geom. : A lune (q.v.). 

lu-ntl-let, s. [Dimin. of Eng. lune.] [LUNULE.] 
Entom. : A small semicircular spot in some 
insects, which differs from the colour of the 
other parts. 

lu' nu-llte, s. [Li-Nri.n K>.] 

ZooL : A bryozoan of the genus Lunulites 
(q.v.). 

lu nu-ll t&S, s. [Lat. lunula, and suff. -ites.] 
Palceont. : A genus of Bryozoa, genus Es- 



charidse. Morris enumerates several species, 
the genus ranging from the Upper Chalk to 
the Coralline Crag. 

Lu per cal (pL Lu-per-cal'-I-a), s. & a. 

[Lat. lupercalis, from lupercal = a grotto on 
the Palatine, sacred to Lupercus or Pan.] 

A. As subst. : One of the most ancient of 
the Roman festivals, celebrated in February 
of every year in honour of Lupercus or Pan. 

"Yon kuow. it is the feast of Lupercal." 

Shakesti. : Julius Caesar, i. 1. 

B. As adj. : Of or pertaining to the Luper- 
calia. 

IiU-per-cal'-i-an, a. [LUPERCAL.] Of or 
pertaining to the Lupercalia. 

" The Salian and I.upercalian dances being named." 
Spenser : Bist. of Progress, p. 25. 

lu'-pin-as-ter, s. [Lat. lupinus = a lupine, 
and aster = (I) a star ; (2) a starwort.] 

Bot. : A sub-genus or section of Trifolium 
(q.v.). It has large red, white, or yellow 
flowers as heads, persistent petals, and three 
to seven coriaceous leaflets. 

lu -pine, a. & s. [Lat., as subst. = the plant 
[B.] ; as adj. = pertaining to. a wolf; from lu- 
pus = a wolf. The plant is so called because it 
penetrates the soil with wolfish eagerness and 
exhausts it.] 

* A. As adj. : Like a wolf ; wolfish. 
B. As subst. : [LUPINUS]. 

lu '-pill-In, s. [Eng. lupin; suff. -in (Chem.).'} 
Chem. : A bitter non-nitrogenous substance, 
obtained from lupine seeds. 

lu-pi'-niis, s. [LUPINE.] 

1. Sot. : Agenus of papilionaceous plants, tribe 
Lotese, sub-tribe Genistese ; section or family, 
Crotolarieae. Calyx deeply bilabiate ; vexil- 
lum of the corolla with reflexed sides, the keel 
acuminated ; the legume coriaceous, com- 
pressed, obliquely torulose ; leaves digitate, 
with from five to fifteen leaflets, rarely simple. 
The genus is extensive. The species inhabit 
the north temperate zones, both in the Old 
and New Worlds. Lupinus albus is the White 
Lupine of gardens, and L. Thermit, the Egyp- 
tian White Lupine ; L. varius, the Small Blue ; 
L. hirsutus, the Large Blue Lupine, and L. 
luteus, the Yellow Lupine. 

2. Pharm. : According to Baden Powell, 
L. albus is brought to India from Egypt, and 
used as a carminative, also in leprosy and 
internal heat. 

IT Bastard Lupine is Trifolium lupinaster ; 
Small Lupine, Psoraslea lupinclla. 

* lu'-poid, a. [Lat. lupus = a wolf, and Gr. 

elSos (eidos) = form.] 
Pathol. : Resembling lupus (q.v.). 

* lupoid-cancer, s. The same as RO- 
DENT-ULCER. Dr. Tanner contends that the 
term should be abolished as liable to mislead. 

* lu' poU3, a. [Lat. lupus = a wolf.] Like s 
wolf; wolfish. 

lu'- pu - 1'", *. [Lat. lupul(us) ; suff. -in 
(Chem.).] 

Chem. : The yellow granular aromatic powder 
situated at the base of the cones of the hop, 
nnd forming from 8 to 18 per cent, of the cones. 
It contains a volatile oil, a resin, a nitrogen- 
ous substance, and a bitter principle. The oil 
and resin give to beer its aromatic odour. 

lu-pu'-lin-OUS, s. [Mod. Lat. lupulus; Eng. 
sutf. -inous = -ine + -cms.] [LUPULITE.] 
Sot. : Resembling a head of hops. 

lu'-pu-lite, s. [Mod. Lat. lupulus, the specific 
Dune of the hop (Humulus lupulus).] 

Chem. : The bitter principle of hops. It is 
soluble in alcohol, slightly so in water, but is 
insoluble in ether. (Garrod.) 

lu'-pus, s. [Lat., from Gr. AU'KOS (lukos) = a 
wolf; Fr. loup; Ital. & Sp. lupo.] 
1. Zoology: 

(1) A genus established by Buffon, to include 
the true wolves and the jackals, now generally 
considered as forming part of the genus Canis 
(q.v.) [CANIS, WOLF.] 

(2) The first section of Col. Hamilton Smith's 
sub-genus Cluion. In this nomenclature, 
Lupus vitlgaris is the Common Wolf, L. Lycaon 
the Black Wolf, L. nubilus the Dusky Wolf, 
and L. mexicanus the Mexican Wolf. 



2. Path. : A spreading tuberculous inflamma- 
tion of the skin, generally of the face, tending 
to great destructive ulceration, often from 
syphilis. There are two forms, chronic Iupu9 
and lupus exedens, the latter characterized by 
the rapid eating away of the parts affected. 

3. Astron. : The Wolf: one of the fifteen 
ancient Southern constellations. It is situated 
between Centaurus and Ara, just under Scor- 
pio. It contains no stars larger than the 
third magnitude. 

lupus-disease, *. 

Path. : The same as LUPUS (q.v.). 

* lur-ca'-tion, s. [Lat. Inrcatus, pa. par. of 
lurco = to devour greedily.] Gormandizing, 
gluttony. 

lurgh (1), * lurche, s. [O. Fr. lourche, ourche, 
prob. from orce, ource, ourcel = a vase ; Lat. 
urceus = a pitcher.] 

* 1. A game at tables. 

2. A term in cribbage to denote the posi- 
tion of a player who has not passed the 
thirtieth hole when his opponent reaches the 
sixty-first. The loser is then said to be left 
in the lurch. Hence the phrases To leave in 
the lurch. To be left in, the lurch, are used to 
express the position of a person abandoned or 
left without help by another. 

"She's an odious creature to leave me thus ( !h 
lurch." Duke of Buckingham: Chances, p. 167. 

3. A bird-net. 

* 4. A swindle, a trick. 

IT (1) At lurch : Hidden or secreted for a 
purpose, especially to pilfer. 

(2) To give a lurch : To tell a falsehood ; to 
deceive. 

lurch-line, s. The line which draws the 
bird-net ovet the prey. 

(2), s. [LURCH (2), v.] 

1. A sudden roll sideways, as of a ship in 
a heavy sea ; a rolling from side to side. 

2. An inclination, a disposition, a desire. 
(American.) 

" She has a natural lurch for it, and it comes easy to 
her." Jtiss Cummins : Lamplighter. 

If Lee lurch : 

Naut. : A roll to leeward, as when a heavy 
sea strikes the ship on the weather side. 

* lurgh (1), v.i. & t. [A variant of lurk (q.v. )."] 

A. Intransitive: 

1. To lie in wait ; to lurk about ; to lie in 
ambush. 

2. To pilfer, to steal, to rob. 

3. To play tricks ; to shift. 

"I myself, sometimes leaving goodness on my left 
hand, and hiding uiiue honour in my necessity, am 
laiu to shuffle, to hedge, and to lurch." Shakesp. : 
Merry Wives of Windsor, ii. 2. 

B. Transitive: 

1. To seize, to snatch ; to intercept booty J 
to anticipate another in seizing anything. 

" I speak not of many more [discommodities of s> 
residence) too far from great cities which may hinder 
business ; or too near them, which lurcheth its pro. 
visions mid maketh everything dear." Bacon : Etsayi; 
Of Building. 

2. To appropriate, to steal, to take or gain 
privily. 

3. To leave in the lurch ; to deceive ; to 
forsake treacherously ; to disappoint. 

luT9h (2), v.i. [Etym. doubtful ; perhaps the 
same as LURCH (1), v.] 

1. To roll suddenly to one side, as a ship in 
a heavy sea. 

"The screw laboured violently amid the lurching." 
Tynda.ll : Fragments of Science, ch. vi. 

2. To roll about ; to run or walk awkwardly 
or unsteadily, as a drunken man. 

"Here a big lurching customer is viewed by aa 
amateur who gives a holloa" FielA, Jan. 28, 1882. 

lurgh'-er, . [Eng. lurch (i), v. , er.] 

*1. One who lurks about to steal, betray, 
or entrap ; a poacher. 

'* Our Lord may choose the rack should teach 
To this young lurcher use of speech." 

Scott : Lord of the Isles, v. 22. 

2. Specif. : A variety of dog, a cross between 
a shepherd's dog and a greyhound, commonly 
used by poachers, as it hunts both by sigh* 
and scent. 

" On the drawbridge, the warders stout 
Haw a terrier ana lurcher passing out." 

tteott : Lay of the Last Minstrel, lit U. 

* 3. A glutton, a gormandizer. 



late, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf; work, whd, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian, ae, ce = e; ey = a. qu = kw. 



lurdan lust 



2981 



lur'-dan, lur-dane, a. & s. [O. Fr. 

lourdin, lourdein, from lourd = heavy, dull, 
stupid.] 

A. As adj. : Dull, stupid, blockish, clown- 
iah ; lazy and useless ; vagabond. 

B. As subst. : A dull, stupid fellow ; a 
blockhead, a good-for-nothing fellow. 

"A lurdane : voi a thefe." Cathol. Anglicum, 

* lur'-dan-r^, . [Eng. lurdan; -ry.] Thiev- 
ing, rob'bery, crime. 

" Leyls, lurdanry and lust are oure laid sterue." 
Douglai: Virgil; .Gneid viii., prol. 9. 

lure (1), s. [Fr. velours = velvet] A velvet 
brush or smoothing-pad used by hat-makers. 

lure (2), s. [O. Fr. loevre, lovire; Fr. leuvre, 
from M. H. Ger. lurder; Ger. Ivder = a bait, 
t a decoy.] 

1. Lit. & Falconry : Any object, more or less 
resembling a fowl, thrown into the air to 
recall a hawk from its flight. It is also whirled 
round in the hand of the falconer. 

" Yes, everything is wanting, gallant bird, 
The master seized thee without further word, 
Like thine own lure, he whirled thee round." 

Longfellow: Student' t Tale. 

2. Fig. : That which lures ; an enticement, 
an allurement ; that which invites or allures 
by the prospect of advantage or pleasure. 

"The lure of novelty and thirst of gain." 

Brooke: Conttantia. 

*liire (3), . [leei.] 

Mus. : An ancient Scandinavian trumpet. 
Some specimens discovered in Denmark would, 
if straightened, have been six feet in length. 

lure, v.i. & t. [LURE, s.] 

* A. Intrans. : To call an animal ; specif., 
to call back a hawk. 

" Standing near one that lured loud and shrill, I had 
udclenly an offence, as if somewhat had broken, or 
been dislocated in my ear, and immediately after a 
loud ringing." Bacon : Nat. Hiit., f 128. 

B. Transitive : 

1. Lit. & Falconry : To attract or bring back 
by a lure, as a hawk. 

" O for a falconer's voice 
To lure this tassel-gentle back again." 

Shakesp. : Romeo & Juliet, ii. t. 

2. Fig. : To entice, to allure, to attract by 
the prospect of advantage or pleasure. 

"Whose scent hath lured them over the summer 
flood." Moore : Veiled Prophet. 

lurg, a. [Etym. doubtful ; cf. lug, lob, &c.] 

Zool. : Nephthys ca-ca, the White-rag Worm, 
an errant Annelid, common on the British 
coasts. Of beautiful pearly lustre, from six to 
ten inches long, and about three-tenths of an 
inch wide. It lives in the sand, into which it 
burrows by means of its strong proboscis, and 
fixes itself by its setigerous feet. 

*lur'-gu-lar-$f, s. [Etym. doubtful.] 

Law : The act of casting anything corrupt 
or poisonous into the water. 

liir'-id, a. [Lat. luridus.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Of a pale yellow colour, as 
flame ; wan, gloomy, dismal. 

"The right-hand horseman, young and fair. 

His smile was like the mum of May; 
The left, from eye of tawny glare, 
Shot midnight lightning s lurid ray." 

Scott.- The Chase. 

2. Bot. : Of a dirty brown colour ; some- 
what clouded ; a mixture of purple, yellow, 
and gray. 

* lur'-I-dsB, s. pi. [Fern. pi. of Lat. luridus = 
lurid (q.v.).] 

Bot. : The thirty-third order in Linnseus's 
Natural System of plants. He included under 
it the genera Solanuia, Celsia, Digitalis, &c. 

lurk, lork en, ' lurke, * lurk en, v.i. 
[By the common corruption of s to r from 
Sw. dial, luska = to lurk, to sneak about ; 
Dan. luske = to sneak, to skulk about ; Ger. 
lauschtn = to listen, to lurk ; O. Dut. luschen 
= to lurk. Cf. also Sw. lura ; Dan. lure = 

to lurk ; Ger. lauern ; Icel. hlera, hlb'ra = to 
stand eavesdropping.] 

1. To lie hid, to lie close, to lie in wait. 

" They lurked among the rock and thickets which 
overhang the Garry." Macaulay : Hitt. Eng., ch. xiii. 

2. To hide, to conceal one's self. 

" After about three years of wandering and lurking." 
'-Macaulay : Hitt. Eng., ch. xviii. 

3. To lie or remain unperceived or secret. 

" Sorrow lurking at the heart." 

Scott : Rokeoy, vi. 24. 

*^ To steal away secretly. 

" Vlyxes the lord, that lurkyd hy nyght 
Fro the cite to the see." Dettruct. of Troy, 1,167. 



lurk-er, s. [Eng. lurk; -er.} One who hides 
or sneaks about. 

" If this lawlesse lurker had ever had any taute of 
the civill or canon law." Bp. Hall: Honour of Married 
Clergy, bk. i., 24. 

lurk -ing, pr. par., a., & s. [LCRK.] 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective : 

1. Lying hid ; lying in wait. 

" It waked the lurkiny ambuscade." 

Scott : Lord of the Jtltt, v. 47. 

2. Secret, retired. 

"Why tell of mossy rock or tree, 
By lurkint rjernbrook's pathless side?" 

Wordsworth : White Doe of Rylttone, vii. 

C. As subst. : The act of lying in wait or 
hidden. 

lurking -hole, s. A hiding-place; a 
place where one can lie hid ; a secret place. 

lurking-place, s. The same as LURK- 
ING-HOLE (q.v.). 

"(They] came forth from their lurking-placet, and 
demanded possession of their old apartments in the 
palace." Macaulay: Hiit. Eng., ch. x. 

lur'-ry (1), s. [LORRY.] 

* lur'-rir (2), a. [Wei. llwry = precipitant.] 

1. A confused throng ; a crowd, a heap, a 
mass. 



2. A confused or inarticulate sound or utter- 
ance : as, a lurry of words. (Milton.) 

t lus-9in'-i-a, s. [Lat. = a nightingale.] 

Ornith.: A genus of Turdiclse (Thrushes). 
Luscinia philomelo, is the Nightingale ; called 
also Philomela luscinia, and more recently 
Daulias luscinia. [NIGHTINGALE.] 

lus'-cious (lus as lush), *lush'-ious, 
lus syouse, a. [Eng. lusty; -ous.] 

1. Very sweet; sweet in a great degree; 
delightful to the taste. 

" The luscious wiiie the obedient herald brought." 
Pope: Homer; Odyssey xiii. 6. 

2. Sweet to a nauseating degree ; sweet to 
excess. 

*3. Fulsome, nauseating. 
*4. Obscene, smutty. 

" The liucioui tale was not forgot" 

Somerrille : The Inquisitive Bridegroom. 

lus'- Clous- ly (lUS as lush), adv. [Eng. 
luscious; -ly.] In a luscious manner or degree. 

lus cious ness (lus as lush), s. [Eng. 
luscious; -ness.} The quality or state of being 
luscious ; deliciousness ; excessive sweetness. 

"Can there be greater Indulgence in God, than to 
imbitter sensualities whose lutcioumeu intoxicates 
us ? "Decay of Piety. 

* lu-serne', s. [Fr. loup-cervier, from Lat. 
lupus-cervarius = a deer- wolf ; lupus = a wolf ; 
cervus = a stag.] A lynx. 

lush, s. [Said to be from the name of Lushing- 
ton, aoncewell-known London brewer.] Drink, 
liquor. (Slang.) 

" He gave us a thundering supper ; lots of luth." 
Keade : It't Never Too Late To Mend, ch. ii. 

* lush, a. [A shortened form of lushious = 
luscious (q.v.).] Luxuriant in growth ; suc- 
culent, juicy. 

"And let a luth laburnum oversweep them." 

Keati : I Stood Tiptoe, 8L 

lush, v.t. & t. [LUSH, s.] 

A. Trans. : To drink. 

" The richest sort you ever lathed." Dickent : Oliver 
Twitt, ch. xxvi. 

B. Intrans. : To drink ; to be a drinker. 

* lush-burg, * lushe'-burgh, s. [See def.] 
A counterfeit coin, made at Luxemburg dur- 
ing the reign of Edward III., in imitation of 
English coins. 

" iMthburgi, al. Luxfnburght. was a base sort of 
money coyned beyond seas, to the likeness of English 
money.iu thedaysof Edward III.,andbroughtintode- 
oeive the king and his people." Blount : ffoino-lcxicon. 

lash' -ing-ton, s. [Lcsn, s.] A drunkard ; a 
heavy drinker. 

lush -y, a. [Eng. lush, s. ; -y.] Drunk, in- 
toxicated, tipsy. (Slang.) 

" I was so uncommon luthi/ I couldn't find the place 
where the latch key went in." Dickent: Pickwick, 
ch. xx. 

In -si-ad, s. [Port. Os Lusiados = the Lusi- 
tanians or Portuguese.] A celebrated Portu- 
guese epic poem, by Camoens, on the estab- 



lishment of the Portuguese empire in India; 
first published in 1571. 

Lu-si-ta -ni-an, a. [Lat. Lusitania = what 
now is Portugal ; Eng. suff. -an.] Of or be- 
longing to ancient Portugal. (For its use in 
a more extended sense, see the compounds.) 

Lusitaiiian province, s. 

Zool. it Geol. : A marine province compre- 
hending the shores of the Bay of Biscay (Por- 
tugal), the Mediterranean, "and North-west 
Africa as far as Cape Juby. 

Lusitanian region, s. 

Zool. & Geog. : The name given by Prof. 
Edward Forbes to a region extending from 
the countries bordering the Mediterranean, 
through Hungary and the Crimea, to the- 
Caucasus. 

If The name "province" is given by zoolo- 
gists to a division of water ; ""region " and 

sub-region " to divisions of land. 

* lusk, * luske, a. & s. [Icel. loskr = weak, 
idle.] 

A. .4s adj. : Idle, lazy. 

B. As subit. : An idle, lazy fellow. 

" A vaunt, idle lusk as thou art, and get thee gonv 
for thou art not so good of deed as a woman." P. J/oI> 
land : Plutarch, p. 395. 

* lusk, v.i. [LusK, a.] To be idle- or lazy ; to 
laze about. 

" He is my foe, friend thou not him, 
Nor forge him arms, but let 
Him luske at home vnhouored." 

Warner : Albiont England, ch. 80. 

* lusk'-ish, * lusk-ishe, a. [Eng. lusk ; -isfc.| 
Inclined to be lazy or indolent ; lazy. 

" They loue no idle bench whistlers, nor luskith fii. 
tors." Holinthed : JJetc. of Ireland, ch. iii. 

* lusk'-ish-ly, adv. [Eng. luskish ; -ly.} In. 
a lazy, indolent manner ; lazily. 

* lusk'-ish-ness, s. [Eng. luskish ; -nes.\ 
A disposition to laziness ; indolence. 

* lu-sb'r'-I-OUS, a. [Lat. lusorius, from ??(or 
r= a player ; lusum, sup. of ludo = to play.) 
Used in 'games or sports. 

" Many too nicely take exceptions at cardes and diot 
and such mixt lutorlma lots, whom Gataker well con. 
futes," Burton: Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 271. 

* lu'-sor-y, a. [Lat. lusorius. ] Used in play 
or games. 

" How bitter have some been against all lusory loti, 
or any play with chance." ftp. Taylor : ArtlJuAat 
Handtomenea, p. 120. 

lust, s. [A.S. lust = pleasure ; cogn. with Dut. 
lust delight ; Icel. lyst, losti; Dan. lyst ; Sw.. 
lust; Goth, lustus; Ger. lust. From the sam 
root as Lat. luo, Gr. Auw (luo) = to loose ; Eiig. 
loose.] [Lisr, v.] 

* 1. Pleasure. 

" If Jacob take a wyfe of the daughters of Heth 
suclie one as these are, or of the daughters of the land, 
what lutt shoulde I haue to lyueV" Qenetit xxvil. 
(1551.) 

* 2. Desire. 

" One breast laid open were a school 
Which would uuteach mankind the lust to shine or 
rule." Byron : Childe Harold, iii. il. 

*3. Any longing or earnest desire to gain or 
have something. 

"The enemy said, I will pursue, I will overtake, I 
will divide the spoil, my lull shall be satisfied nponr 
them." Exodut xv. 9. 

4. An evil propensity ; depraved affection*. 
or desires ; specif., carnal appetite ; unlawful, 
desire of sexual pleasure ; concupiscence ; in-- 
dulgence of sensual desire. 

* 5. Vigour, strength ; active power. 

" Increasing the lutt or spirit of the root." Bacon. 

* lust-fired, a. Excited or instigated bf- 
lust. (Browne : Pastorals, bk. ii., s. 3.) 

* lust-stained, a. Polluted by lust. 

* lust-stung, a. Excited by lust. 

" What if some Shoreditch fu should incite 
Some luit-ttuiKj lecher." 

Up. Hall : Satiret, bk. i., sat fc 

lust, v.i. [A.S. lystan.] [Lusr, ., LIST *.J 

* 1. To please, to list, to like. 

"Whom I lutt [I I do heape with glory and renowns.* 
Spenter: F. Q., II. vil. 11. 

* 2. To desire or long eagerly. (Followed, 
by after.) 

"Thou mayest eat fleah, whatsoever t!ij soul lutteth 
after." Deut. xii. 20. 

* 3. To have irregular, inordinate, or unlaw* 
ful desires. 

" We should not lust after evil things, as BOOM at 
them also tutted." I Cor. x. s. 



Mil, b6y ; pout, J6%1; oat, cell, chorus, 9hin, bench; go, gem; thin, this, sin, as; expect, Xcnophon, eyist. ph = C. 
-clan, -tian = shan. tion, sion = shun; tion. sion = >"", -tious. -clous, -sious = shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel, del. 



2982 



luster lutariouB 



4. To have carnal desire ; to desire the grati- 
fication of carnal appetite. 

" Thou hotly luttett to use her in that kind." 

Sliakesp. : Lear. iv. . 

liistf-er (1), *. [Eng. lust; -er.] One ex- 
cited or inflamed with lust. 

* lus'-ter (2), *. [Lat. lustrum.] The den or 
abode of a wild beast. (Chapman: Homer; 
Odyssey xvii.) , 

lus ter (3), . [LUSTRE (1).] 

lus'- ter- ing, . [Eng. lustre (1) ; -ing.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : A polish ; as black-lustre for 
stoves, <fec. 

2. Metall. : The brightening of metal in the 
rucible at the moment of reaching its point 
of purity, as in the cupellation of silver, 
when the last traces of lead pass off; brighten- 
ing, lightening. 

lust ful. * lust-foil, a. [Eng. lust; -full] 

1. Having lust or irregular desires ; inflamed 
by lust ; libidinous ; full of carnal desire ; 
voluptuous, lecherous. 

" Here, with brute fury, Itatful Nessus try'd 
To violate the hero's beauteous bride." 

Kowe : Lucan, vi. 642. 

2. Causing or exciting lust ; provoking to 
ensuality. 

" Or, wilt thou sleep ! We'll have thee to a couch. 
Softer and sweeter than the lustful bed 
Oil purpose trimmed up for Semiramis." 

SHaketp. : Taming of the Shrew. (Indue. 11.) 

8. Attended or characterized by sensuality. 

" Yet thence his lustful orgies he enlarged 
Even to that hill of scandal, by the grove 
Of Moloch homicide." Milton : P. L., 1. 415. 

* 4, Vigorous, lusty, stout, robust, strong. 

tfist'-ful-ly, adv. [Eng. lustful ; -ly.] In a 
lustful manner ; with lust. 

viist f ul-ness, s. [Eng. lustful ; -ness.] The 
quality or state of being lustful ; lust. 

* lust'-ick, a. [LUSTY.] Lusty, strong, active. 

lust'-i-hood, * lust-yhed, * lust'-i- 

hoad, s. [Eng. lusty ; -hood, -head.] The 
quality or state of being lusty ; lustiness, 
Strength, vigour. 

" I lie] grew at last a knight of muchel fame, 
Of active mind and vigorous lustyhed." 

Thornton : Cattle of Indolence, 11. 7. 

lust'-I ly, adv. [Eng. lusty; -ly.] In a lusty 
manner ; strongly, vigorously ; with vigour. 

" I do not desire he should answer for me, and yet I 
determine to fight luttily for him." Shaketp. : Henry 
F., iv. 1. 

lust i ness, . [Eng. lusty; -ness.] The 
quality or state of being lusty ; strength, 
vigour, robustness. 

" For now the frame no more Is girt with strength 
Masculine, nor in luttineu of heart 
Laughs at the winter stonu nnd summer-beam.'' 
Dyer : Ruins of Rome. 

*lU3t'-l3ss, * lust lease, . [Eng. lust; -less.] 

1. Free from lust or desire. 

" Is none so wise, that shnld asterte, 
But he were lust leu in his herte." 

Gower: C. A., VL 

2. Indolent, weak, listless. 

" In Ills lustleae limbs, through evill guise, 
A shaking fever rained continually." 

Spenser : F. Q., I. iv. 20. 

* lus'-tral, a. [Lat. lustralis, from lustro = to 
purify.] 

L Of or pertaining to purification. 

2. Used in purification. 

" He moov'd around, and purify'd the bands, 
Slow as he past, the luitrjl waters shed." 

Pitt : Viryil ; .fneid vL 

3. Of or pertaining to a lustrum (q.v.) ; col- 
lected every fourth year. 

" As this general tax upon industry was collected 
very fourth year, it was styled the lustral contribu- 
tion." Oibbon : Roman Empire, ch. xvii. 

*lus'-trate, v.t. & i. [Lat. luntratus, pa. par. 
of lustro = to purify.] [LUSTRUM.] 

A. Trans. : To purify, to clear, to cleanse. 
" Attend and favour : as our sires ordain, 

The fields we luttrun, and the rising grain." 

Grainger : Tibullui, 11. 1. 

B. Intrans. : To go about inspecting or ex- 
amining for the purpose of purification or 
cleansing. 

Ins tra'-tion, s. [Lat. lustratio, from lus- 
tratus, pa. par. of lustro = to purify ; Fr. 
lustration; Ital. lustrazione ; Sp. lustrac'on.] 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : The act of cleansing or 
purifying liy water ; purification. 

" Hereby he established the doctrine of lustrations. 
amulets, and charms." Brovne: Vulgar Errours, 
bk. xl., ch. 1. 



2. Comp. Religions : It is scarcely too much 
to say that lustration or symbolical purifica- 
tion is to be found in every known form of 
faith. Tylor (Prim. Cult., ch. xviii.) says 
that the thought which underlies these cere- 
monies is the " transition from removal of 
bodily impurity to deliverance from invisible, 
spiritual, and at last moral evil." The ancient 
Romans had reached this point when Ovid 
(Fast, ii., 45, 46) uttered the scathing reproof: 
"Ah ! mini inn faciles, qui tristia criruiua ctedis 
Fluminea toll! posse putetis aqua ! " 

Lustration by sprinkling with water is the 
most common form, but it was also effected 
by fumigation, and by passing through fire ; 
and Mahomet, failing water, commanded his 
followers to use fine sand (Chapter of the 
Table). Among the Jews ceremonial wash- 
ings and purifications were prescribed for the 
consecration of priests (Lev. viii., 1-13) ; they 
appear to have been practised as a prepara- 
tion for private prayer (Judith xii. 7-9) ; and 
the importance attached to ablutions before 
ordinary actions gave rise to some of the re- 
proaches levelled by the Scribes and Phari- 
sees against Jesus (Matt, xv., 2, 20 : Mark 
yii., 1-5). From Judaism lustration passed 
into Christianity ; all branches of the Church 
retain it in baptism, and the Roman and 
Greek communions in the additional form of 
holy-water (q.v.). It has given rise to some 
of the most beautiful imagery in the Old and 
in the New Testament (cf. Ezek. xxxyi. 25 ; 
Zech. xiii. 1; Matt, xxvii. 24: Rev. vii. 14), 
and thousands have used the prayer, " Wash 
me, and I shall be whiter than snow"(Ps. li. 7), 
without so much as a thought of the univer- 
sality of a rite that seems to unite mankind 
in a bond of common brotherhood. (See 
Smith: Diet. Greek & Rom. Ant., s. v. Lustra- 
tion, and Tylor : Prim. Cult., ch. xviii., where 
a copious bibliography will be found.) 

lus tre (tre as ter) (1), lus'-ter, . [Fr. 
lustre, from Low Lat. lustrum a window, 
from Lat. lustro = to enlighten, to illumine ; 
Ital. lustro; Sp. lustre, lustro.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Literally : 

(1) Brightness, splendour, brilliancy, gloss. 

" The unambiguous footsteps of the God, 
Who gives its lustre to an insect's wing." 

Cowper: Task, i. 813. 

(2) A bright light, the reflection of a light. 

"Like some tall castle given to flame. 
O'er half the land the lustre came. 

Scott : Lord of the Isles, v. 18. 

2. Fig. : The splendour or brilliancy of 
fame, deeds, birth, &c. ; fame, renown. 

" Not greatly willing to cast any popular luttre upon 
them. "-Bacon.- Jfenry Y1L, p. 241. 
II. Technically : 

1. Domest. : A sconce with lights ; a chande- 
lier ornamented with drops or pendants of 
cut glass. 

2. Fabrics: A kind of dress-goods with a 
cotton chain, woollen filling, plain or self 
colour, and highly-finished surface. 

3. Min. : A physical character dependent 
upon the refractive power and manner of re- 
flecting light. The lustre of crystal faces 
often differs from that of the cleavage planes 
of the same crystal, and sometimes different 
faces of a crystal are characterized by a dif- 
ferent lustre. The kinds are : (1) metallic, the 
lustre of metals ; (2) adamantine, that of the 
diamond ; (3) resinous, that of the fracture of 
amber ; (4) vitreous, that of a glass free from 
lead ; (5) waxy, (6) pearly, (7) silky. These 
are further distinguished by their intensity, 
as sub-metallic, sub-adamantine, sub-resinous, 
sub-vitreous, splendent, shining, glistening, 
and glimmering. A total absence of lustre 
is designated as dull. 

lustre-ware, s. A stone ware on whose 
surface are burnt metallic oxides of brilliant 
colours. It is made of a mixture of clay, 
flint, China-stone, and felspar, coated with a 
peculiar glaze on which is applied, by means 
of camel-hair brushes, a pigment prepared 
from metallic oxides, simulating the lustre 
of various metals, <fec. Platinum produces a 
lustre like that of polished steel ; gold and 
silver, those of the precious metals. Iron 
and copper lustres may also be produced. 
A beautifully-iridescent appearance is derived 
from chloride of silver in combination with 
other substances. The lustre is brought out 
by the heat of the oven iu the process of 
baking. 

* lus' -tre (tre as ter), (2), * lus'-ter (2), *. 



[Lat. lustrum = a lustration, a period of flv 
years; Fr. lustre.] A period of five years; 
lustrum (q.v.). 

" As yet three lusters were not quite expir'd. 
Since I had bene a partner of the light." 

Stirling: Aurora, ion. 1 

lus tre less (tre as ter), a. [Eng. lustrt 
(1); -less.] Destitute of lustre, having no 
lustre ; dull. 

*lus'-tric-al, a. [Lat. lustricus = pertaining 
to purification ; h<stro=to purify.] Pertaining 
to purification ; used in purification. 

" Imposed with ceremonies somewhat analogous to 
it on the ninth .1 iy. called the luttrical, or day of 
purification." Jtidaleton : Life of Cicero, vol. L J. 1. 

lus'-tring, s. [Fr. lustrine, from Ital. lustrino, 
from lustrare = to shine.] A species of 
lustrous, glossy silk. (Commonly corrupted 
into lutestring.) 

"An Act was passed which gave to a Joint stock 
company an absolute monopoly of lustrings for a term 
of fourteen years." Macaulay : Hitt. Eng., ch. xxiii. 

lus'-trous, a. [Eng. lustr(e) (1) ; -ous.] 

1. Lit. : Having a lustre ; bright, glossy, 
shining, luminous. 

' ' Drawn from the deep we own their [pearls] surface 

bright, 

But dark within, they drink no lustrous light." 
Collint: Oriental Ecloguet, eel. 1. 

* 2. Fig. : Brilliant, bright. 

" For the more lustrous the imagination Is, it fllleth 
and nxeth the better." Bacon : If at. Hist., f 956. 

lus'-troiis-l^, adv. [Eng. lustrous; -ly.] In 
a lustrous manner or degree; brilliantly, 
luminously. 

lus'-trum, s. [Lat., prob. connected with 
lavo = to wash.] 

*1. A lustration, a purification, a purifying 
or expiatory offering made by the censors 
every five years at the close of their office tor 
the whole people. 

2. A period of five years ; also used for a 
period of four years. 

* lust' siim, a. [Eng. lust ; -sum = -some.} 
Lustful. 

lUSt'-WOrt, s. [Eng. lust, and wort.] 
Bot. : The genus Drosera (q.v.). 

liist'-y, a. [Eng. lust; -y; cf. But. & Ger. 

lustig.] 

*1. Pleasing, pleasant. 
*2. Full of lust or desire; lustful. (Milton.) 

3. Strong, vigorous, robust ; full of life and 
vigour ; healthful. 

"Suddenly the door 

Opening, with eager haste two lusty boys 
Appear d." Wordsworth : Excursion, bk. viiL 

*4. Full of sap, succulent, juicy, of lux- 
uriant growth. 

" How lush and lusty the grass looks." 

shakes)}. : Tempest, 11. L 

* 5. Strong, loud, noisy. 

" What lusty trumpet thus doth summon us ! " 

Shakesp. : King John, r. S. 
*6. Gallant, noble. 

" And furbish new the name of John of Gaunt, 
Eveu in the lusts/ 'haviour of his son." 

Shakesp. : Richard II., U. S. 

* 7. Bulky, large, of great size, fat. 

"If thine hurse be too lusty, Hlerme advises thM 
to take away some of his provender." Burton : An at. 
of Melancholy, pt. Hi.. 2. 

8. Full-bodied, stout through pregnancy. 
(Colloquial.) 

* 9. Beautiful, handsome, pleasing. 

" With leaves engrained in lusty greene." 

Spenser : fthepheards Calender ; nt, 

* lus'-ty-hed, s. [LUSTIHOOD.] 

lu sus na-tu'-rsB, *. [Lat.= a sport or 
play of nature.] A term applied to any de- 
formed or unnatural production of nature ; 
freak of nature. 

* lut'-an-ist, lut'-en-ist, * lut'-fci-Ist, 

8. [Low Lat. Ititana, lutena = a lute ; Eng. 
sulf. -ist.] A player on the lute ; a lutist. 

"The office of lutenist still exists In the Chapel 
Royal, but it has been a sinecure since the disuse of 
the instrument. The revival of the office was made 
in favour of Dr. Naret in 1780." Stainer i Jiarrett: 
Diet, of Music. 

* In -tar'- 1 -ous, o. [Lat. lutarius, from 

lutum = mud.] 

1. Of or pertaining to mud ; muddy; living 
tn mud. 



2, Of the colour of mud. 



ftte, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pf t 
r. wore, wolf, work, whd, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian. , ce - e ; ey = a. qu = kw. 



lutation lutra 



2983 




* lu-ta'-tion, s. [LUTE (2), v.] The act, pro- 
cess, or method of luting vessels. 

lute (1), s. [O. FT. luz, lots, lut; Fr. lutli; 
Sp. laud ; Port, alaude ; Ital. liuto, leuto ; 
O. Dut. luyte; Dut. lu.it; Dan. Ivt; Ger. laute. 
All from Arab, al ud the wood, staff, stick, 
lute, or harp.] 

Music : An instrument of the guitar family, 
formerly very popular in Europe. It wag 
used for accompaniments and the performance 
of solos, duets, &c. It had five 
to six pairs of strings, each pair 
toned in unisons or octaves. The 
several frets of the lute were distin- 
guished by the letters of the alphabet, 
"one for each fret as many as there 
may be." The frets divided the strings 
into semitones. The Orpharion lute 
had a larger number of strings than 
the common lute, and its strings were 
of wire, instead of gut. The lute 
consists of four parts : the table ; 
the body, which has nine or ten 
sides; the neck, which has as 
many stops or divisions ; and the 
head or cross, in which the screws 
for tuning it are inserted. The per- 
former strikes the string with the 
fingers of the right hand, and regu- 
lates the sounds with those of the 
left. Simply constructed, it is called 
the French lute. With two necks one for the 
bass notes it is called a theorbo. If the 
strings of the theorlio are doubled, it is called 
an arch-lute. 

" Where is the song of Troubadour t 
Where are the lute and guy tambour?" 
Longfellow : Coftlcu de Manrique. (Transl.) 

* lute-backed, a. Having a curved 
Ipine. 

lute-ease, s. A case or frame in which 
a lute is kept. 

lute-string, s. A string of a. lute. 

"* He, like to a hitrh-stretched lute-string squeaked, 
Tis sweet to talk of kings." Donne : Natires, sat. 4. 

lute (2), s. [O. Fr. lut = clay, mould, loam, 
from Lat. lutum = mud, dirt.] 

1. A composition to secure the joints of 
chemical vessels and tubes, or as a covering 
to protect them from the fire. 

" Part would get through the lute, or commissures 
in the form of fumes." Boyle : Work*, i. 604. 

2. A packing-ring of india-rubber placed 
between the lid and the lip of a jar, to pre- 
vent the access of air to the contents. 

3.' A coating of clay, sand, or other material 
applied to glass retorts, to enable them to 
support a high temperature without fusing or 
cracking. 

4. A straight-edge employed to strike off 
the surplus clay from a brick mould. 

* lute (1), v.t. & i. [LUTE (1), *.] 

A. Trans. : To play on or as on the lute. 

" Knaves are men 
That lute and flute fantastic tenderness." 

Tennyton: Princeu, iv. 111. 

B. Intrant. : To sound sweetly like a lute. 

" And in the air her new voice luting soft 
Cried ' Lycius 1 ' " Keatt : Lamia. 

lute (2), v.t. [LcTE (2), *.] To stop with clay; 
as the cover of a furnace, or a muffle to resist 
the passage of fumes, or of a charged retort 
to prevent the escape of gas around the cover ; 
to close or coat with lute or luting. 

" If not luted with care. 
The spirit will work tlirou-h the bottle." 

Dryden : lane in a iiunnery. i. \. 

* lute (3), v.i. [A.S. lutan.] To bend, to bow. 
[Lour, v.] 

" His head lutede adoim." 

Hubert of Gloucetter, p. 115. 

* lute (4), v.i. [A.S. lutian; O. H. Ger. lazzen.] 
To lie hid. 

" The hare luttlh al dal." Owl t Jfiyhtingale, 878. 
lU-te'-ic, a. [Lat lute(us) = yellow ; Eng. 
adj. suff. -ic (Chem.)."] (See the compound.) 

luteic-acid, .--. 

Chem. : A yellow colouring matter extracted 
from the flowers of Euphorbia cyparissias by 
means of alcohol. It is a pure yellow, and 
crystallizes in slender needles or more rarely 
in six-sided prisms. It has a bitterish, some- 
what astringent taste, is very slightly soluble 
in water, more so in alcohol and ether, and 
melts at 274. Like luteoline it yields proto- 
eatechuic acid when fused with potash. Its 
solutions have an acid reaction, and it exhibits 
generally the characters of an acid. 



lu'-te-In, $. [Lat. lute(us) = yellow ; suff. -in 
(Chem^] 

Chem.. : The name given by Thudicum to a 
yellow substance obtained by Piccoli and 
Lieben from the ovary of the cow, and called 
by them hsemolutein. 

* lut'-en-ist, s. [LuTANisr.] 

lu-te-o-fus'-cous, a. [Lat. luteus = yellow, 
and /UA-CHS = brown.] 
Bot., <tc. : Between fuscous and yellow. 

lu-te-6-lin, s. [Lat. luteoUfl); suff. -in 
(Chem.).'} 

Chem. : CaoHwOg. A crystalline body, ob- 
tained by boiling weld. Reseda luteola, with 
water, mixed with one-eighth part proof-spirit. 
It crystallizes in yellow four-sided needles, 
which are inodorous, slightly bitter, and melt 
at 320. It dissolves with a deep yellow colour 
in caustic alkalis, and when fused with potash 
it is resolved, with evolution of carbon di- 
oxide, into phloroglucin and proto-catechuic 
acid. It unites with metallic oxides, and 
forms a green precipitate, with dilute solu- 
tion of ferric chloride. 

* lu'-te-ous, a. [Lat. luteus, from lutum = 
mud, mire.) Of a clayey colour ; of a brownish 
yellow colour. 

* lut'-er, *. [Eng. lutff) ; -er.] One who plays 
on the lute ; a lutist. 

* lu-tes'-fent, a. [Lat. luteus = yellowish, 
from lutum = mud.] Of a yellowish colour ; 
luteous. 

lute-string, s. [LUSTRINO.] 

Fabric : The same as LCSTRINO (q.v.). 

* If Ta speak in lutestring : To speak in an 
affected manner. 

Lu te'-ti-a (ti as shi), s. [The Latin name 
of Paris.] " 
Astron. : [ASTEROID, 21]. 

* lu'-ther, * ly-ther, * le-ther, a. [A.8. 
lydher.] Wicked, bad, base, good-for-nothing. 

Lu'-ther-an, a. & s. [See def.] 

A. As adj. : Of or belonging to Martin 
Luther or the church he founded. 

B. Assubst. (PL): A name said to have been 
first applied in contempt by Dr. Eck, or 
Eckius, to the followers of Martin Luther 
Ludir, or Lother. Luther was born at Eisleben, 
in Saxony, sixteen miles N.W. of Halle, his 
father Hans Luther being a miner and worker 
in metals. Martin lost an intimate companion 
by sudden death in 1505 ; he was deeply im- 
pressed with the importance of religion, and 
became an Augustine eremite, at Erfurth. In 
1508 he was made Professor of Philosophy in 
the University of Wittenberg, recently founded 
by the Elector, Frederick the Wise, and which 
ultimately was incorporated in 1817 with that 
of Halle. In 1510 he had to visit Rome on the 
business of his order. In 1512 he became 
Doctor of Divinity. In 1517, Pope Leo X. 
having followed the example of his predecessor 
in sanctioning the sale of indulgences with the 
view of raising money nominally for the re- 
building of St. Peter's, Rome, and for sup- 
porting a league of the Christian powers 
against the Turks, Luther fame into colli- 
sion with Tetzel, the a^'.-nt for the traffic at 
Wittenberg and the adjacent regions. [IN- 
DULGENCES.] On October 31, 1517, a day so 
important that with it the middle ages are 
generally held to have closed and modern 
times begun, he affixed ninety-five theses 
against indulgences to the cathedral church 
of Wittenberg. [REFORMATION.] At first 
Luther's variance was only with the subordin- 
ate agents, but gradually it passed into hos- 
tility to Leo, and when, in reply to a bull 
issued against him on June 15, 1520, he, on 
December 10, burnt the Papal bull with the 
decretals and canons, his breach with the 
papacy was complete. More than one pre- 
vious effort had been made to reconcile him to 
the Church, but in vain ; and finally Charles 
V. was exhorted to make an example of him 
as an obstinate heretic. He was therefore 
summoned to appear before the Diet of Worms, 
and did so on April 17, 1521. When in the 
face of the assembled dignitaries, civil and 
ecclesiastical, of the empire, he refused to re- 
tract his views unless first convinced that 
they were erroneous, it was the sublimest 
moment in his history. On returning from 



the Diet his friends carried him off and con- 
cealed him for some months in the Castle of 
Wartburg, on a mountain near Eisenach. In 
1522 he ventured to return to Wittenberg to 
restrain some of his more extreme followers. 
Believing that monastic vows should not bo 
imposed, and were not binding, he, in 1524. 
threw off his monastic dress, and next year.. 
though pledged in his youth to celibacy, mar- 
ried, some of his followers following his ex- 
ample. Notwithstanding all the perils so 
long confronting him, he died at Eisleben in 
1546, not by violence but by disease. 

From the time that Luther broke with 
Catholicism, he required to think out a schema 
of doctrine and discipline for his followers. 
The demands of both friends and opponent* 
compelled Luther, his amiable coadjutor. 
Melanchthon, and others in 1530 to formulate 
its statements. [AUOSBURO CONFESSION.] A 
year previously the Lutherans, protesting 
against the decisions of the second Diet of 
Spires, for the first time were called Protest- 
ants (q.v.). 

The Elector John of Saxony, succeeding his 
brother, Frederick the Wise, organized Lu- 
theran churches throughout his dominions. 
Hitherto there had been considerable unity 
between all the Teutonic opponents of th 
Papacy, but differences of opinion which aros 
between Luther and Carlstadt at Wittenberg, 
led to alienation of feeling between them, and 
then to a schism between the German and 
Swiss Churches. Both rejected Transubstantia- 
tion, but Luther and his followers formulated 
the view called Consubstantiatiou (q.v.), which 
the Zwinglians rejected. [ZWINGLIANS. ] From 
the commencement of controversy on the sub- 
ject, in 1524, the term Lutherans became con- 
fined to the former. In 1521 Lutheranism 
spread to Denmark under the auspices of th 
king, Christian II. ; in 1523 Olaus Petri, 
aided by Ring Gustavus Vasa, introduced it 
into Sweden. With the exception of some) 
parts of Upper Germany, the continental sec- 
tions of the Teutonic race, whether German or 
Scandinavian, have remained Lutheran. About 
the middle of the eighteenth century, Ration- 
alism (q.v.) became a potent factor in the lira 
of the Lutheran as of other continental 
churches. 

In this country the Lutheran Church consist* 
of four general independent organization* 
governed respectively by the General Synod. 
the General Council, the United Synod of th 
South, and the Synodical Conference. It stand* 
third, in point of membership, among our 
Protestant denominations. 

Lu ther-an- ism, s. [Eng., 4c. Lutheran; 
-ism.] 

Ecclesiol. A Church Hist. : The tenets at 
Martin Luther. [LUTHERAN, B.] 

lu'-ti-dine, . [Prob. from Eng. tol-uidint 
reversed.] 

Chem. : CyHgN. An organic base, isomeric 
with tpluidline, discovered by Anderson in 
bone-oil. It has a sp. gr. of -9467 at 0, and 
boils at 154. It has a most characteristic 
smell, approaching the aromatic, and dissolve* 
readily in three to four times its bulk of water. 
It unites with acids and with salts, forming 
crystalline compounds, most of which are 
very soluble. It forms substitution deriva- 
tives, of which the iodide of ethyl lutidine i* 
a type, Cr 



lut'-Ing, s. [Eng. lut(e) (2), v. ; -ing.] A com. 
position, of clay or other substance, used to 
stop the joints of vessels so as to make them. 
air-tight; lute. 

* lut 1st, s. [Eng. lute (1), e. ; -itt.] One who 
plays on the lute. 

"A controversy between a lut itt and a nlghtingal*.' 
BakneM : Apologie, l.k. in., { i 

* lu'-tose, a. [Lat. lutosus, from lutum 
mud, mire.) Miry, muddy ; covered with. 
clay or mud. 

lu tra, s. [Lat ; Fr. loutre; Sp. lutra, nutraf 
Ital.]" 

Zool. : Otter ; the typical genus of the, ub 
family Lutridse (q.v.). Body long, legs short, 
feet webbed ; tail long, stout, and horizontally- 
flattened. Lutra vulgaris, the Common Otter. 
is a native of Europe, frequenting the bank* 
of streams and lakes. It lives upon fish, and 
is highly destructive to salmon. L. cana- 
densis, a closely-allied species, is the American. 
Otter. [OTTER.] 



boll, b6y; pout, jo%l; cat, cell, chorus, 9h1n, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-dan. -tian = shan. -t ion, -sion = shun ; -fton, -tion - chua. -tious, -sious , -clou* - anus, -ble, -die, fcc. = bel, 



2984 



lutraria lycaena 



Ju - trar'- i - a, . [Fern. sing, of Mod. Lat. 
lutrariua = of or belonging to an otter, from 
Lat lutra = an otter.] [LuTRA.] 

1. Zool. : Otter's shell ; a genus of conchifer- 
ous molluscs, family Mactrida. Ihe shell, 
which is oblong, gapes at both ends ; the car- 
tilnge-plate prominent, with one or two teeth 
In front of it in each valve ; animal with the 
mantle-lobes closed ; foot rather large. The 
species burrow vertically in sand or mud, 
especially of streams, from low water to 
twelve fathoms. Eighteen recent species are 
inown, from America, Britain, Africa, India, 
New Zealand, &c. 

2. Paheont. : Twenty-five fossil species, from 
the Carboniferous onward. (Woodward.) 

1ft -trie '-tis, *. [Lat lutr(a) = an otter, and 
ictis & weasel.] 

Palceont, : A flssiped genus from the Miocene, 
having structural affinities both with the 
Civets and the Otters. 

* lu'-trin, . [LECTERN.] A lectern. (Carlyle.) 

In-tri'-naa, . pi. [Lat. lutr(a) (q.v.) ; fern. pi. 
adj. suff. -inae.] 

Zool. : A sub-family of Mustelidse, with two 
genera, Lutra and Enhydris. [LUTRICTIS.] 

t&'-trine, a. [Mod. Lat. lutr(a); Eng. -ine.] 
Belonging to or resembling the sub-family 
LutriniB or the genus Lutra. (See example 
under PINNIPED.) 

* lut'-u-lence, . [Eng. lutukn(t) ; -ce.] The 
quality or state of being lutulent; muddi- 
ness. 

* lut'-u-lent, a. [Lat. lutulentus, from lutum 
= mu'd, mire.] Muddy, turbid, thick. 

" The lutulent, spumy, macul&tory waters of sin." 
Adams : Workt, i. 166. 

* lii wack', * la wack , i. [Javanese.] 

Zool. : Paradoxurus typus. (Griffith : Cu- 
vier.) [PARADOXURUS.] 

*liix, v.t. [Lat. Ivxo; Pr. luxer ; Sp. Ivxar; 
Ital. luxare.] The same as LUXATE (q.v.). 

" Staggering I reeled, and u I reeled I fell, 
IttSi the neck Joint." 

Pope: Homer ; Odyssey xi. 80. 

Iftx'-ate, * lux, v.t. [Lat luxatus, pa. par. 
of luxo = to put out of joint ; luxus = dislo- 
cated ; Gr. Aofos (loxos) slanting, oblique.] 
To put out of joint, to dislocate, to disjoint. 

"The bone luxated maketh compression on the 
neighbouring parts." Witeman : Surgery, bit. Til., 
. ch.li. 

* lux ate, a. [LUXATE, v.] Out of joint 

" Deformed and luxate with the prosecution of 
f Tnitie." Adams : Work*, i. 399. 

* lux a tion, s. [Mod. Lat. hixatio, from Lat. 
luxatus, pa. par. of luxo = to put out of joint ; 

' FT. luxation ; Sp. luxation ; Ital. lussazione.] 

1. The act of luxating or dislocating a 
Joint ; dislocation. 

"If the straining or luxation of one joint can so 
fflict Ui."llp. Hall : Heaven Upon Earth, 16. 

2. The state of being dislocated ; a joint 
dislocated ; a dislocation. 

, "When two bones, which, being naturally united, 

,' make up a Joint, are separated from one another, we 

call it Mutation." Wiieman : Surgery, bk. viL, ch. li 

liixe, s. [Fr., from Lat. Zwsus = pomp, ex- 
cess, luxury; Sp. lujo; Ital. lusso.] Luxury. 

"The pow'r of wealth I try'd, 
And all the various luxe of costly pride." 

friar : Solomon. 11. T57. 

If Edition de luxe: An edition of exceptional 
excellence and beauty in printing, binding, 
mnd artistic illustration. 

lux ul II a mte, *. [Named from Luxul- 
i lian, in Cornwall, where boulders of the rock 
occur.] 

Petrol. : A granitoid rock, composed of 
chist in patches, a flesh-coloured orthoclase, 
and quartz. Not known in position. The sar- 
cophagus in which the Duke of Wellington 
was buried was made from it (Rutley.) 

* ItLx'-ure, $. [Fr.] Luxury. 

" He the forfet* of luxure shall tempte." 

Qcwtr: C. A., bk. Til. 

lux iir'-I-ance, Itix-ur'-I-an-cy, . [Eng. 
luxuriant ; -ce, -cy.] The qua'lity or state of 
being luxuriant ; abundant or exuberant 
growth ; exuberance. 

"Till the whole leafy forest stands display'd, 
In full luxuriance to the sighing gales. 

Thornton : Spring, M, 



lux-iir -i-ant, a. [Lat luxuriant, pr. par. 
of luxurio = to indulge in luxury (q.v.) ; Fr. 
luxuriant; Sp. lujuriante; Ital. lussuriantt.] 
L Ordinary Language: 

1. Abundant or luxuriant in growth ; exu- 
berant in plenty. 

" Whose stately steeds luxuriant pastures bless. 

Pope: Homer; Odyssey lii. 32T. 

2. Abundant, copious. 

"A fluent and luxuriant speech, which becomes 
youth well." Bacon : Essays : Of Youth t Age. 

IL Bot. : Rank ; of exuberant growth. 

lUX-ur'-i'-ant-ljf, adv. [Eng. luxuriant; -ly.] 
In a luxuriant manner or degree ; in abund- 
ance ; exuberantly. 

" In wildr array luxuriantly he pours 
A crowd of words, and opens all his stores." 

Pitt : Vida; Art of Poetry, ill. 

lux-iir'-i-ate, v.i. [Lat. luxuriatus, pa. par. 
of luxurio = to indulge in luxury (q.v.); Fr. 
luxurier ; Sp. lujurmr; Ital. lussuriare.\ 

1. Literally : 

* 1. To grow luxuriantly or exuberantly ; 
to grow to superfluous abundance. 

2. To feed or live luxuriously. 

" It was a most slavish thing to luxuriate, and a 
most royal thing to labour." Barrow : Sermoni, vol. 
ill., ser. 19. 

IL Fig. : To indulge to excess ; to revel 
without restraint. 

* lux u-ri a -tion, *. [LUXURIATE.] The 
act or state of luxuriating ; luxuriant or exu- 
berant growth. 

* lux'-u-rie, *. [LUXURY.] 

* liix-u-ri'-S-tif, s. [LUXURY.] Luxuriance. 

' One may observe a kind of luxuriety iu the de- 
scription which the holy historian gives of the trans- 
port of the men of Judan." Sterne: Workt, iv. IL 

lux-iir'-I-ous, a. [Fr. luxurietuc, from Lat. 
luxuriosus, from luxuria = luxury (q.v.) ; Port. 
luxurioso ; Sp. lujurioso ; Ital. lussurioso.] 

* 1. Indulging the sins of the flesh. 

" That many of their popes be such as I have said, 
naughty, wicked, luxurious men, they openly confess." 
Jackson : Elem. Truth of Scriptures, bk. U., ch. xiv. 

* 2. Lavish, free, extravagant. 

" But as they were luxurious in the price." Hakt- 
vriU : Apologie, bk. iv., 10. 

3. Indulging in or given to luxury ; charac- 
terized by indulgence in luxury ; indulging to 
excess in the pleasures of the table, with 
dress, or mode of life generally ; voluptuous. 

"Though poor, luxurious; though submissive, vain." 
Goldsmith: Traveller. 

4. Contributing or administering to luxury 
or extravagant and excessive indulgence in 
living, dress, &c. 

" Those whom hut thon saw'st 
In triumph, and luxurious wealth, are they 
First seen in acts of prowess eminent." 

Jfilton : P. L., xi. 788. 

5. Attended with luxury ; effeminate, volup- 
tuous. (Cowper: Task, i. 625.) 

6. Dainty, delicate. 

" Luxurious dainties, destined to the gulf 
Immense of gluttony, were known. 

Cowper : To His father. (Transl.) 

7. Furnished with luxuries, dainties, or 
delicacies : as, a luxurious table. 

* 8. Lustful, libidinous, unchaste, lasci- 
vious. 

*' She knows the heat of a luxurious bed." 

ShtJaup. : Much Ado About Nothing. IT. 1. 

* 9. Luxuriant, exuberant. 

" O'rded it round about with a belt of luxurious blos- 
soms." Longfellow : Evangeline, li. 3. 

lux-iir'-I-ous-ly, adv. [Eng. luxurious ; -ly.] 
1. In a luxurious manner or fashion ; deli- 
cately, voluptuously, effeminately. 

" To spend the time luxuriously." 

Daniel: Ulysses t the Srn*. 
*2. Lasciviously. 

" Hotter hours yon hare 
Luxuriously pick'd out." 

Shakesp. : Antony i Cleopatra, ill. IS. 

liix - iir I - oils ness, s. [Eng. luxurious; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being luxu- 
rious ; the state of being given to indulgence 
in luxury. 

"The exceeding luxuriaumets of this gluttonous 
ge." Raleigh : Sitt. World, bk. i., ch. v., f 5. 

* lux'-U-rfst, s. [Eng. luxur(y); -ist.] One 
who indulges in luxury. 

lux'-u-r*, * lux'-u-riS, . [O. Fr. luxure, 
luxure, from Lat. luxuria, from luxus = pomp, 
excess, luxury ; Port, luxuria ; Sp. lujuria ; 
Ital. lussuria.] 



L Ordinary Language: 

* 1. Indulgence in sins of the flesh. (This 
meaning was derived from the media; val ethics.) 

" O ! foule lust of luxurie, to thine eude 
But only that those faintest maunes mind. 
But veraily thou wolt his body shende." 

Chaucer: C. T., 6,347. 

2. Extravagant or excessive indulgence in 
the gratification of the appetites or in the 

Sleasures of the table ; rich and expensive 
iet, or costly dress and equipage. 

" Praises bestowed on luxury for which elegant* 
and taste are but another name." Goldsmith : Tht 
Bee, No. 5. 

3. A life of delicacy, effeminacy, or voluptu- 
ousness ; luxurious living. 

"When this impostor was thrown into prison for 
bis fraud, his followers maintained him in luxury.". 
Macaulay : Hist. Eng., ch. v. 

4. That which is delightful pr especially 
gratifying to the senses or feelings : espec., 
that which gratifies the appetite ; a dainty, a 
delicacy ; delicioue food or diet. 

5. Anything indulged in for pleasure or 
gratification, not from necessity. 

" Or press the bashful stranger to his food, 
And Irani the luxury of doing good." 

Goldsmith: Traveller. 

* 6. Luxuriance, exuberance ; luxuriant 
growth. 

IL Law: Luxury was formerly deemed a 
punishable offence. The statute making it so 
was repealed by 19 & 20 Viet. c. 64. Pre- 
viously it had fallen into disuse. 

luz, s. [Heb. -rf) (luz) = (1) a hazel tree, or, 
much more probably, the almond-tree ; (2) 
the bone described below.] In Rabbinical 
legends , an unidentified bone in the human 
body, destined to be the germ of the glorified 
body at the resurrection. According to Bux- 
torf (Lex. Tabn.), it was the os wccygis, or 
one of the lumbar vertebra. 

"Hadrian (whos 
his name blotted 
Chauania, ' From what shall the human frame b 
reconstructed when it rises again T ' From Luz in th* 
backbone,' was the answer. ' Prove this to me,' said 
Hadrian. Then the Rabbi took luz, a small bone of 
the spine, and immersed it iu water, hut it was not 
softened ; he put it into the fire, but it was not con- 
sumed ; he put it into a mill, but it could not bi 
pouuUed ; he placed it upon an anvil and struck 1\ 
with a hammer, but the anvil split and the haininu 
was broken." Midrath Kohelet (lo. in, 3) in Hershon: 
Talm. Missel., p. 25. 

lu'-zon-ite, s. [Named after the place whera 
found, Luzon ; suff. -ite (Min.).'} 

M in. : A massive mineral, with slight traces 
of cleavage. Hardness, 3'5 ; sp. gr. 4'42; 
colour, dark reddish steel-gray, on exposure 
turning violet. Lustre, black and metallic ; 
streak, black; brittle. Comp. : sulphur, 33'14; 
antimony, 2'15 ; arsenic-, 16'52 ; copper, 47'51. 
Closely related to Enargite (q.v.). Found at 
Luzon, Philippine Islands. 

Iu zu la, * lu'-ci-o-l?,, s. [From Ital. lue- 
ciold = a glowworm, which the heads of flowers, 
wet with dew and sparkling by moonlight, 
feebly resemble. (Sir J. E. Smith.)] 

Bot. : Wood-rush ; a genus of Juneacese 
(Rushes). It has soft, plane, generally hairy 
leaves, a glumaceous perianth of six leaves, 
and a one-celled, three-valved capsule with 
three seeds. About forty are known, all from 
temperate or cold climates. They grow in 
woods, pastures, and on mountain elevations. 
Those which grow under the shade of trees 
'preserve their verdure in winter. The Field 
Rush, L. campettris, ig very common. 

-Ijf, suff. [See def. O. H. G. Uh; Goth. Itiks; 
Ger. lich ; Dut. lijk ; Icel. likr, legr.] [LIKE, a.] 
A common adjectival and adverbial ending in 
English. As an adjectival ending, as in 
man-fy, it represents the A.S. -lie = like; as 
an adverbial ending, as in splendid-^, the 
A.S. lice. 

* ly am, s. [LEAM.] A leash for holding 
houmls. 

" In a pyde lyam leading forth bis hound." 

Drayton : Poems, p. fi. 

ly'-art, * ly-arde, a. [O. Fr. Hard.} [LIART.J 
Of'a mixed colour ; gray, gray-haired. 
" Tva had manteeles o' dolefu' black, 

But ane wi' lyart lining." Burns: Holy Fair. 

" tfb'-icke, *llb'-^ck f a. [Lat Libycus.] Of 
or pertaining to Libya ; Libyan. 

ly-cae'-na, s. [Gr. Auxtupa (lukaina) = a she- 
wolf.] 

Entom. : Copper-Butterfly, so called because 
a bright coppery-red prevails in the wing- 



ttte, At, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or, wore, woli; work, who, sin; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian, w, ce - e; ey = a. qu - kw. 



lycsenidse lycopodal 



2986 



colouring, the typical genus of the family 
Lycaenidae (q. v.). Lyccena phlceas is the Small 
Copper, and L. dispar, the largest species of 
the genus, formerly common in the fens of 
the Eastern counties, is the Large Copper. 
In L. gordius the metallic hue is strongly 
glossed with blue or purple. All Continental. 

ly 9aen i-dse, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. lycom(a); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.} 

Entom. : A family of Butterflies, nearly 
world-wide in distribution. The individuals 
are small, the wing-expanse seldom exceeding 
an inch and a half or two inches. The pre- 
vailing colours .are blue, copper-red, or brown. 
Chief genera : Miletus, Zentis, Lycseua, Poly- 
ommatus, Hypochrysops, Thecla, Zephyrus, 
Amblypodia, and Eunueus. 

ly can thrope, s. [Gr. Av*ai/0p<om>? (lukan- 
thrdpos), from AVKOS (lukos) = a wolf, and 
ivQptairos (anthropos) a man.] 

* 1. A man supposed to have been trans- 
formed into the form of a wolf, and endowed 
with a wolfs nature and propensities ; a were- 
wolf (q.v.). 

2. A person suffering from lycanthropy 
(q.v.). 

ly-can thro -pl-a, *. [Mod. Lat.] [LYCAN- 

THROPE.] 

Path. : A species of insanity in which the 
patient believes himself transformed into a 
wolf. 

" Many examples of lycanthropia an on record, 
although an extremely rare disease at the present 
day. 7 Those labouring under lycanthropia,' says 
Paulus jEgineta, 'go out during the night, imitating 
wolves in all things, and lingering about sepulchres 
until morning. You may recognise such persons by 
these marks ; they are pale, their vision feeble, their 
eyes dry, tongue very dry. and the flow of saliva 
flopped ; but they are thirsty, and they have Incur- 
able ulceratious from frequent falls.'" BucknUl i 
Tuke: Piychological Medicine, p. 202. 

Iy : can-thr6p'-ic, a. [Eng. lycanthrop(y) ; 
-ic. ] Afflicted with lycanthropy. 

" In a lit of lycanthropic madness, she came upon 
two children." & B. Gould : Were- Wolvet. ch. vi. 

ly-can throp-ist, . [Eng. lycanthropy); 
ist.] The same as LYCANTHROPE (q.v.). 

" Forestus pronounces the man to be a lycunthrop. 
ut. but he does not say that the poor fellow believed 
himself to be transformed into a wolf." S. B. Gould : 
Were-Wolvet, ch. v. 

ly-can throp-ous, a. [Eng. lycanthrop(y) 
-oi<s.] Belonging to, or in any way connected 
with, lycanthropy (q.v.). 

" There are two unfailing characteristics of lycan- 
thropout belief : (1) There can nowhere be a living 
belief in contemporary metamorphosis into any 
animal which has ceased \r exist in the particular 
locality ; (2) Belief in metamorphosis into the animal 
most prominent in any locality itself acquires a special 
prominence." J. R. F. McLennan, in Jmcyc. Brit. 
fed. 9th), xv. 89. 

ly-can'- throp-y, Hy-kan -throp-y, *. 

[LYCANTHROPE.] 

Anthrop. : In a wide sense, the term lycan- 
thropy is used for what Tylor calls the Doc- 
trine of Werewolves " That certain men by 
natural gift or magic art can turn, for a time, 
into ravening wild beasts." Less widely, it 
denotes a belief in the temporary change of a 
man into a wolf. Such belief was once widely 
spread. The dominant Aryans in India in 
long-past ages described the rude indigenes 
by an epithet signifying "changing their 
shape at will." In classic times we lind the 
belief in Herodotus (iv. 105), in Pliny (H. N. 
viii. 34), in Petronius Arbiter (Sat. 62, ad Jin.), 
and in Virgil (Eel. viii. 95-99). It is mentioned 
by Augustine (de Civ. Dei, xviii. 17) ; it 
flourished in the Middle Ages, when it was 
viewed as a form of demoniacal possession. 
Lycanthropy seems to have been first viewed 
rationally in 1(503, when, in the case of Jean 
Grenier, the judge declared that it was "an 
insane delusion, not a crime." Strange to 
say, in France, where this just conclusion 
was come to nearly three centuries ago, the 
belief in werewolves still lingers, and within 
the last twenty years Mr. Baring-Gould found 
it impossible to get a guide after dark across 
a wild place said to be haunted by a loupgarou. 
(Tylnr: Prim. Cult. (18T3), ch. viii., where a 
copious bibliography will be found ; see also 
Baring-Gould : Book of Were-wolvcs.) 

" Lykanthropy 

I comprehend ; for, without transformation. 
Men become wolves." Byron : Dm Juan, ix. JO. 

ly-ca'-on, s. [Gr. \vxaiav (Lukaon), a king of 

. Arcadia, father of Callisto. Said to have 

been turned into a wolf because he offered 

human sacrifices to Jupiter ; or, according to 



Ovid (Met. i. 163-239), because he tried to 
murder Jupiter, who was his guest.] 

Zool. : An aberrant genus of Canidue, con- 
taining but one species, Lycaonpictus (venati- 
cus), the Hunting-dog. The head resembles 
that of a hyaena, and there are but four toes 
on each foot. It is gregarious, and commits 
great depredations on flocks of sheep. Habi- 
tat, Africa, from the Cape to the valley of the 
Nile. 

ly-9e'-um, s. [Lat. , from Gr. \vxetov (lukeion), 
so named from the neighbouring temple of 
Apollo Avxcto? (Lukeios), or the wolf-slayer; 
AvKeio; (lukeios) = pertaining to a wolf; AVKOS 
(lukos) = a wolf.] 

1. A gymnasium or public palaestra with 
covered walks in the eastern suburb of 
Athens, in which Aristotle taught philosophy. 

2. A house, room, or apartment set apart 
for instruction, lectures, or discourses. 

3. An association or society for literary 
improvement and study. 

4. A school for higher education preparatory 
to the universities. 

Iy9h -gate, s. [LICHGATE.] 

lych nis, s. [Lat., from Gr. Ai/giu; (luehnis) 
= a plant with a bright scarlet flower, used 
for garlands. Hooker and Arnott derive it 
from Aux^os (luchnos) = a light ; because the 
thick, cottony substance on the leaves of 
some species, or of a similar plant, have been 
employed as wicks for lamps.] 

Bot. : Campion, a genus of Caryophyllaceae, 
sub-order Sileneae. The corolla is monophyl- 
lous, tubular, five-toothed ; the petals five- 
clawed, sometimes divided on the limb ; 
stamens, ten ; styles, usually five, capsule 
opening by five or ten teeth. About thirty 
species are known, all from the northern 
hemisphere. L. dinrna and L. chalcedonica 
are saponaceous. The latter, a native of Asia 
Minor, forms a frequent and brilliant border 
for flower beds. 

If Rock Lychnis : 

Bot. : The genus Viscaria. 

* lych'-mte, s. [Gr. Auxvi'njs (luchnites) = of 
or like a lamp ; M\vos (luchnos) = a lamp, a 
light.] An old name for Parian marble, from 
its being quarried by lamplight. 

* lych'-no-bite, s. [Gr. AVYI/O/SIOS (luehnolios) 
= living by lamplight ; AVXPOS (luchnos) = a 
lamp, and jSi'os (bios) = life.] One who labours 
or transacts his business by night, sleeping by 
day. 

lych -no-scope, s. [Gr. Mvvos (luchnos) = 
a lamp, a light, and tricoireia (skoped) = to see.] 
Arch. : A small narrow window near the 
ground in the chancel of a church, so dis- 
posed that through it a person outside may 
see the priest at the altar during the act of 
consecration. 

Iy9' me, s. [Mod. Lat. Lyc(ium barbarum); 
Eng. suff. -inc.] 

Chem. : A base contained in the Box Thorn 
(Lycium barbarum). The base obtained from 
the hydrochlorate is a white radio-crystalline 
mass, which has a sharp taste, dissolves easily 
in water and alcohol, and sparingly in ether. 
Most of its salts are crystallizable, and easily 
soluble in water. 

Iy9 -I-iim, s. [Gr. AUKIOV (lukion) = a kind of 
Lycian thorny shrub.] 

Bot. : Boxthorn : a genus of Solanaceae, tribe 
Atropese. It consists of trees or shrubs, usually 
spinose, with white, yellow, rose-coloured, 
purple, or scarlet flowers. About thirty are 
known. Lycium europceum is used for hedges 
in the Greek Islands, though, perhaps, not wild 
there. The young shoots are eaten in Spain 
with oil and vinegar. They are also eaten in 
India, where goats browse on the plant. The 
berries are reputed aphrodisiac. L. barbarum 
is sometimes found in cottage gardens in 
Britain, as are other species in gardens gener- 
ally. 

ly-coc'-to-nine, s. [Mod. Lat. (Aconitnm), 
Lycocton(um) ; Eng. suff. -ine.] 

Chem. : A base extracted, together with 
acolyctine, from wolfsbane (Aconitum Lycoc- 
tonum) by means of alcohol, and separated 
from the latter by its solubility in ether. It 
crystallizes in warty groups of crystals, very 



soluble in alcohol and ether, and slightly 
soluble in water. It has an alkaline reaction, 
a strong bitter taste, and is coloured bright 
red with concentrated sulphuric acid. 

ly-CO'-des, s. [Gr. Av<c<io'ijs (lukodes), con- 
tracted from AvKoeiSijs (lukoeides), wolf-like: 
Au<ccw(Ufcos)=a wolf, and eZ<5os (eidos)= form.} 
Ichthy. : The typical genus of the family 
Lycodidae. Nine species are known from the 
Arctic Ocean ; four from the southern ex- 
tremity of the American continent. Lycodet 
mucosus is from Northumberland Sound. 

ly-co -di-dse, . pi. [Mod. Lat. lycod(ts); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.} 

Ichthy. : A family of Fishes of the order 
Anacathini, division Anacanthini Gadoidei. 
Marine littoral fishes of small size, resembling 
Blennies, chiefly represented in high latitudes, 
a few living within the tropical zone. There 
is one rare British species, Gymnelis imberbis, 
the Beardless Ophidium. Length, about three 
inches ; depth, about a quarter of an inch. 

ly'-ci-don, s. [Gr. AUKOS (lukos) = a wolf, 
and oSous (odous), genit. oSoiros (odontos) = a 
tooth.] 

Zool. : The typical genus of the family 
Lycodontidse (q.v.). Lycodon capensis, a 
South African snake, is shining greenish-brown 
above, head with variations, and the scales 
along the middle of the back less distinctly 
marked with white specks than those of the 
side. Length about fourteen inches. It 
affects damp situations, near localities favour- 
able fof concealment. Like most of the In- 
nncua of South Africa, its movements are 
slow. 

* ly'-co-dSnt, . [LYCODON.] 

Palceont. (PI) : Teeth like those of a wolf-fish. 

Iy-c6-don'-ti-d, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. lyco- 
don, genit. lycodont^is) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. sun*. 
-idee.] 

Zool. : A family of Innocuous colubriform 
snakes, from India and Africa. Body of 
moderate length, muzzle flat, pupil vertical. 
They are ground snakes. Those of India live 
on skinks, while the African species devours 
mice and other small nocturnal mammals. 

ly-COg'-a-la, s. [Gr. AVKOS (lukos) = a wolf, 
and yd\a. (gala) = milk. So named because, 
when the plants are young, they resemble a 
mass of thick cream.] 

Bot. : A genus of myxogastrous fungals. 
Lycogala epidendron has heads almost the size 
of a nut, with only yellow, yellowish, or 
pinkish-white spores. One species has a 
blood-like pulp. 

ly-c<S-per-da'-ce-, > pi- [Mod. Lat. lyco- 
perd(on); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -acece.] 

Bot. : The same as GASTEROMYCETES. [Lr 
COPERDON.] 

ly-co-per'-do'n, s. [Gr. AVKO? (lukos) = 
wolf, and irepSo/iai (perdomai) = to break winii 
backwards.] 

Bot. : Puff-ball ; a genus of fungals, order 
Gasteromycetes or Lycoperdacese, sub-ordef 
Trichogastres. It has a double peridium, the 
outer coat breaking into warts, spines, -scales, 
&c. Lycoperdon Bovista is eatable. The dry 
mass of threads and spores may be used as a 
styptic. L. giganteum, a large, indehiscent 
species, has also been used as a styptic and 
for tinder ; the fumes produce the effect 01 
chloroform. L. gemmatum is the Common 
Puff-balL 

lycoperdon nuts, $. pi. The com 
cial name of t lie underground fungals ol 
genus Elaphomyces. 

ly-ci-peV-sI-con, ly-co-per'-si-cuin, *. 

[Gr. Awcos (lukos) = a wolf, and irepo-cicor 
(persicon) = (as adj.) Persian ; (as subst.) 
= pearl.] 

Bot. : A genus of Solanacese, closely akin to 
Solanum. Ten species are known, chiefly 
from South America. Lycopersicon esculentuM 
is the Tomato or Love-apple [TOMATO.] 

ly'-co-pod, s. [LYCOPODIUM.] 

Bot.: A plant of the genus Lycopodiunt 
(q.v.). 

ly-cop'-o-dal, o. [Mod. Lat. lycopodaltt 
(q.v.).] 
Bot. : Of or belonging to the genus Lyco* 



mer- 
of the 



boil, bo"y: pout, jo%l; cat, 9ell, chorus, 9hin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xcnophon, exist, ph f 
-clan, -tlan = shan. -tion,-fiion=shun;-tion,-sion = zhun. -cious, -tious. -sious - shiis. -We, -die, &c. = bei, df L 



2986 



lycopodales lying 



podium, or the order Lycopodiaceae, as the 
Lycopodal Alliance. (Lindley.) 

ly-ci-pd-da'-les, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. lycopo- 
d(ium); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -ales.] 

Sot. : An alliance of Acrogens, consisting of 
vascular flowerless plants with axillary or 
radical, one or many-celled spore cases, and 
spores of two sorts. Orders Lycopodiacese 
and Marsileaceae (q.v.). 

ly'-co pode, s. [LYCOPODIDM.] 

Bot., Comm., Ac. : The powder contained in 
the spore-cases of Lycopodium clavatum and 
L. Selago. It is highly inflammable, and is 
used iu the manufacture of fireworks, for 
theatrical lightning, also to roll up pills, 
which, when coated with it, may be put into 
water without being moistened. (Lindley.) 

ly co po di a -ce 88, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. lyco- 
fodi(um); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -acece.] 

1. Bot. : Clubmosses. An order of Acrogens, 
alliance Lycopodales. It consists of moss- 
like plants, the rootstock running, creeping, 
constituting a conn, or wanting. Stem dicho- 
tomously branched ; leaves imbricate, all 
round or in two to six rows ; capsules, called 
sporangia, sessile in the axis of the leaves, or 
in that of the scales of a terminal or axillary 
sessile or stalked cone ; one to three-celled, 
with macrospores and microspores, the former 
marked at the top with two radiating lines. 
Distribution world-wide. Known genera, four 
or five; species numerous, including the 
genus Lycopodium, which contains about 100 
species. 

2. Palasobot. : The Lyooppdiaceae seem to have 
begun in the Upper Silurian, with the Lepido- 
dendroids, Pachytheca and Psilophyton. The 
genus Lepidodendron, to which some species 
of plants from the Devonian, and about forty 
(half of them British) from the Carboniferous, 
with a few from the Permian, have been re- 
ferred, is believed to have been Lycopodia- 
ceous. They were gigantic when compared 
with modern Lycopodiums. Their fruits were 
Lepidostrobi. There are also, in the Devonian 
and Carboniferous, Lepidophloios, Cordaites, 
and Lycopodites, the second of which may, 
perhaps, have been coniferous. Mr. Car- 
ruthers considers Sigillaria to have been Lyco- 
podiaceeus. It is found in the Devonian and 
Carboniferous, being a very marked feature of 
the latter rocks. 

ly co po di a ecoiis (ce as sh), a. [Mod. 
Lat. lycopodiace(ce) ; Eng. adj. suff. -mu.] 
Pertaining or belonging to the Lycopodiacese, 
resembling the Lycopodiacese (q.v.). 

" Upon these grounds Mr. Carruthers decide! against 



. 

the view that Sigillaria is a gymnospermoua exogen, 
and he regards it as cryptogamic an " 

Nicholitm : falaont., li. 460. 



, 
nd lycopodiaceout." 



ly-cop'-o-dite, s. [LYCOPODITES.] 

Palceont. : A fossil plant of the genus 
Lycopodites. 

ly-cop-6-di'-tes,s. [Mod. Lat. lycopod(ium) ; 
Lat. suff. -ites.] 

Paloxnt. : A. genus of fossil plants, akin to 
Lycopodium. The leaves are inserted all 
round the stem or in two opposite rows. 
Morris enumerates species from the Coal 
Measures, from the Oolitic Shale, and from 
the London Clay. It occurs also in the 
Devonian. 

ly co po di um, . [Gr. AvVos (lukos) = 
a wolf, and irovs (pous), genit. rrooos (podus)= 
a foot.] 

Sot. : Clubmoss. The typical genus of the 
order Lycopodiacese (q.v.). It consists of 
perennial plants, with erect, prostrate, or 
creeping stems, small leaves, and reniform 
or one-celled, two-valved capsules. The spores 
of Lycopodium are used for coating pills, 
and the hands when rubbed with them 
may be dipped in water without becoming 
wet. L. clavatum is emetic, and L. Selago 
cathartic, but they are dangerous. They 
can be used externally as counter irri- 
tants. L. cartharticitm (?) or mbrum, a South 
American plant, is violently purgative. It 
has been used in elephantiasis. L. phlegmaria 
and L. squamatum are aphrodisiac. It is said 
that woollen clothes boiled with it become 
blue if afterwards treated with Brazil wood. 

ly-cop'-sls, *. [Lat. lycopsis; Gr. AU'KOI/H? 
(lukopsis), AiicoUiOf (lukopsos), AvKat^o; (lukap- 
sat) = a plant like alkanet] 
Sot. : Formerly regarded as a genus of 



boraginaceous plants, tribe Anchnsese. By 
Sir Joseph Hooker made a sub-genus of An- 
cliusa. The corolla tube is curved, equalling 
or exceeding the oblique limb ; the nutlets 
with the ring equal at the base. Anchusa 
(Lycopsis) arvensis is the Bugloss (q.v.). 

ly'-CO-pUS, s. [Gr. XUKOS (lukos) = a wolf, 
and TTOU'S (pous) = a foot, which the leaves 
faintly resemble.] 

Bet. : A genus of Labiatse, family Menthidse. 
The calyx is five-cleft, the limbs of the corolla 
nearly equal ; stamens only two. Known 
species, fwo. One, Lycojms eitropceus, has 
bluish-white, purple-dotted flowers. 

ly-cd'-sa, *. [Mod. Lat., from Gr. AV'KO 

(lukos) = a wolfT The genus is so named from 
the predatory habits of some of the species. 
(McNlcoll.)] 

Entom. : The typical genus of the family 
Lycosidae (q.v.). Ijycosa piratica is British. 
The most celebrated species is L. tarantula, 
the Tarantula (q.v.). 

ly-ci-sau'-rus, s. [Gr. AUKOS (lukos) = 
a wolf, and eraOpos (sauros), cravpa (saura) = a 
lizard.] 

Palcsont. : A genus of Thecodonts of Trias- 
sic (?) age. 

ly-C'-Sl-cl, *. pi. [Mod. Lat. lycos(a) ; Lat. 
fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 

Entom. : Wolf Spiders. A widely-dis- 
tributed family of wandering predaceous 
Spiders, tribe Dipneumones. Ocelli generally 
in three rows ; cephalothorax robust, but 
narrowed anteriorly ; falces vertical, three 
pairs of spinnerets, legs usually terminated 
by three claws without any scopulae or ad- 
hesive hairs. Many of the species frequent 
woods and dry commons ; others, as Lycosa 
piratica, are aquatic. Chief genera, Lycosa 
and Dolomedes. 

Iy-cot'-r6-pal, a. [Gr. AVKOS (lukos) = a 
wolf, and rpon-os (tropos) =a turn, a direction.] 
Bot. : An orthotropal ovule curved down- 
wards like a horseshoe. 

ly'-da, *. [Gr., fern, of AvSo (Ludos) = a 
Lydlan.] 

Entom. : A genus of hymenopterous insects, 
family Tenthredinidse. The species are many. 
Lyda pratensis and L. campestris feed on 
pine-trees, which they injure, and L. betulce on 
the beech. 

* lyd dern, s. [LYTHER.] An idle fellow. 

" It is better that younge Lyddernef wepe than olde 
men." Vocacyon of John Bale. (150S.) 

lyd i-a,s. [Gr.] 

Astron. : [ASTEROID, 110]. 

Lyd I an, a. [Lat. Lydius, from Gr. AvSi'a 
(Ludia)'= Lydia.] 

1. Geog. : Of or pertaining to Lydia, a 
country of Asia Minor, ruled over by Croesus, 
and afterwards a Persian satrapy. Its in- 
habitants were noted for their effeminacy and 
voluptuousness ; hence, Lydian came to mean 
effeminate, voluptuous, soft. 

" Ever against eating cares 
Lap me in soft Lydian airs." 

Milton: L' Allegro, 1M. 

2. Music: 

(1) One of the ancient Greek modes, the 
highest in pitch ; its music was of a soft, 
pleasing character. 

(2) The fifth of the Ecclesiastical modes, called 
by mediaeval writers, Modus Icetus (the joyful 
mode), from its general j ubilant character. 

Lydian stone, s. 

Min. : The same as BASANITE (q.v.X 

lyd me, *, [Eng. Lyd(ian) (?); -int.] 

Chem. : A violet dye, produced by the 
action of potassium ferricyanide on aniline. 
It is very soluble in alcohol and in the fatty 
acids, sligiitly soluble in ether and benzol, 
but insoluble ia water and in fatty oils. It 
dyes wool, silk, and mordanted cotton, and 
the tissues dyed with it are not altered by 
alkaline carbonates or ammonia. Lydine is a 
poison when taken internally, or when al- 
lowed to come in direct contact with the blood. 

lyd'-lte, s. [Gr. AvSi'a \l9o<; (Ludia lithos) = 
Lydian-stone ; suff. -ite (Min.) (q.v.).] 
Min. : The same as BASANITE (q.v.). 

lye(l), *lee, *leye, 'lie, "ley, . [A.S. 
hah; cogn. with Dut. loog ; Ger. lauge; O. H. 



Ger. louga; Icel. laug.] A solution of an 
alkali ; water impregnated with alkaline salt 
imbibed from the ashes of wood. Used in 
soap-making, in neutralizing an acid, in 
cleansing grease from objects, such as thi 
iron plates in the operation of tinning, &c. 

lye (2), s. [Prob. from lie (2), v.] 

Ra.il.-eng. : A siding, offset, or loop, f/om 
a main line, on to which trucks may be run 
for the purpose of loading and unloading; 
also a siding or set of rails at a terminus used 
for the same purpose. 

lye(3), . [LIE (!),.] 
*lye, v.i. [LiE (!),.] 

ly'-ell-ite, s. [Named after the eminent 
geologist Sir Charles Lyell ; suff. -ite (Min.)."] 
Min. : A variety of langite (q.v.), of a bluish- 
white colour, occurring in fibrous encrusta- 
tions. When named it was regarded as a hy- 
drated sulphate of copper and lime, but sub- 
sequent analyses proved it to be a mixture of 
gypsum and langite. The same substance 
was, about the same time, named Devilline. 
after the chemist St. Claire-Deville. Found 
with langite in Cornwall. 

ly-en-9eph'-a-la, s. pi. [Gr. Avo> (luo) = to 
loose, and ey'<|>aAos (engkepkalos) = the brain.) 
Zool. : Owen's first and lowest group or sub- 
class of Mammalia, characterized by "the 
comparatively loose or disconnected state of 
the cerebral hemispheres. The size of these 
hemispheres is so small that they leave ex- 
posed the olfactory ganglions, the cerebellum, 
and more or less of the optic lobes ; their sur- 
face is generally smooth ; the anfractuosities, 
when present, are few and simple." The Lyen- 
cephala include the orders Marsupialia (with 
four families, Rhizophaga, Poephaga, Carpo- 
phaga, and Entomophaga), and Monotremats! 
(with two genera, Echidna and Ornitho- 
rhyncus). 

ly-en-9ph'-a-lous, a. [Eng., &c. lyen- 
cephal(a); -ous.] Belonging to, or character- 
istic of the Lyencephala (q.v.). 

"The lyencephalout mammalia are uuguiculat*."-' 
Owen : Class. Mammalia, p. 27. 

*lyf,. [LIFE.] 

ly-g'-St-d, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. lyga^us) ; Lat. 
fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 

Entom. : A family of Geocores or Land 
Bugs (q.v.). The scutellum is short and 
triangular ; two ocelli, antennse four-jointed, 
springing from below a straight line drawn 
from the eyes to the base of the rostrum, 
which has four nearly equal joints. The 
membrane of the hemelytra has usually four 
or five longitudinal veins. Chief genera, 
Rhyparochromus, Platygaster, and Lygaeus 
(q.v.). 

ly-& -US, s. [Gr. \vyalos (lugaios) = dark, 
shadowy, gloomy, from its being the habit of 
the insects to secrete themselves.] 

Entom. : The typical genus of the family 
Lygaeidae (q.v.). These insects are generally 
red, banded and spotted with black. Lygceut 
equestris, L. saxatilis, and L. familiaris are 
found on the continent of Europe. 

ly-ge'-um, *. [Gr. Av-yo? (lugos) = a pliant 
twig or rod fit for wickerwork.] 

Bot. : A genus of grasses, tribe Phalaridese, 
Only known species, Lygeum Spartum,.a, rather 
handsome Indian grass with extensive root- 
stocks growing in sand, which it binds to- 
gether. It is the esparto grass (q.v.). 



lyg'-i-a, 

Zool. : A genus of Crustacea, family Onis- 
cidap. Lygia oceanica is the Great Sea-slater 
of the British coasts. 

ly-gd'-di-um, . [Gr. AvyioSr^ (lugodes) = 
like a lily twig ; Auyos (lugos) = a plant, twig, 
or rod.] 

Bot. : A genus of ferns, tribe Schizseese. The 
species are elegant twining plants, which 
bind together the small shrubs among which 
they grow. 

ly'-iog (1), pr. par., a., & . [LiE (!),.] 

A. & B. As pr. par. particip. adj. : (See 

the verb). 
C. As subst. : The act or habit of telling 

lies ; a falsehood, a lie. 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian, w, ce = e; ey = a. qu = kw. 



lying lyonetidse 



2987 



lym-pha-den'-d-ma, a. [Lat. lympha 
[LYMPH]"; Gr. iSriv (aden) = a gland, and sutf. 



ly-Ing (2), pr. par. . a. , & i. [ Li E (_>), v. } 

A. & B. As jir. par. particip. vulj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As subst. : The act or state of being re- 
cumbent or prostrate. 

* lying-down, . A woman's accouche- 
ment, childbirth. 

* lying -house, . A prison for great 
offenders. 

lying-in, a. & $. 

A. As adjective : 

1. Being in childbirth : as, a woman lying- 
in. 

2. Pertaining to or used for childbirth : as, 
a lying-in hospital. 

B. As subst. : The act of bearing a child, 
childbirth. 

lying-panels, s. pi 

Arch. : Panels in which the fibres of the 
wood lie in a horizontal direction. 

lying-to, s. 

Naut. : The state of a ship when the sails 
are so disposed as to counteract each other. 

ly'-mg-ly, adv. [Eng. lying (1); -ly.} In a 
lying manner ; with lies ; falsely. 

lyke'-wake, s. [LICHWAKK.] An assembly 
of persons to watch in the chamber of a 
corpse by night. 

"'Ay. ay dead enough,' said another, 'but here's 
what shall give him a routing lytewakt.'" Scott : 
Guy Manneriiig, ch. xxvii. 

* lym, s. [LEAM.] A lime-hound or limmer. 

" Hound or spaniel, brach or lym." 

Shakeip. : Lear, ill. . 

lyme, *. [Corrupt, from Lat. elymus (q.v.).J 
Hot., &c. : (See the compound), 
lyme grass, s. 
Bot. : The genus Elymus (q.v.). 

ly-mex'-y-lon, *. [Gr. Av/xa (luma) = (1) filth 
or dirt, (2) ruin, and fiiXov (xulon) = fire- 
wood, lumber.] 

Eiitom. : The typical genus of the family 
Lymexylonidse (q.v.) Lymexylon navale in- 
fests oak wood. It is a pest is some con- 
tinental dockyard*. 

ly-mex y lon-i dae, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. 
lymexylon ; Lat. fern. pL adj. suff. -idee.] 

Entom. : A family of Beetles, founded by 
Swainson, and still retained. 

* lyin'-i-ter, *. [LIMITOUR.] 
lym -nse-a, *. [LIMN.KA.] 

lym nse -a-daa, s. pi. [LIMN^EADJS.] 

lym -nite, s. [Mod. Lat. lymn(aa); suff. -ite 
(Palceont.).] 
Palceont. : A fossil limnaea. 

lymph, * lym'-pha, s. [Lat. lympha= water, 
lymph, prob. allied to limpidus = clear ; Fr. 
lymphe.] 

L Ord. Lung. : Water ; any clear trans- 
parent fluid like water. 

" Thy banks, Cephisus, he again hath trod. 
Thy murmurs neard, and drank the crystal lymph." 

Wordnaorth: Eicurtion, bk. IT. 
IL Technically: 

1. Phys. : The chief difference between chyle 
and lymph is the more complete state of 
preparation for the operations of nutrition in 
lymph, owing to the smaller proportion of 
solid matter, and the almost total absence of 
fat ; it is comparatively transparent, high in 
the scale of nutrition, bearing a strong re- 
semblance to blood without the red corpuscles. 

2. Bot. Phys. : The sap of a plant. 

^ Vaccine Lymph : [VACCINATION, VACCINE]. 

lymph channel, lymph-sinus, s. 

A ii' it. : A channel or sinus for the convey- 
ance of lymph. It is situated in the mesen- 
teric gland. (QiMin.) 

Mym'-phad, s. [Prob. a corrupt, of Gael. 
loiu/phade = a galley.] An ancient vessel with 
one mast, not uncommonly seen in the heral- 
dry of Scotland. It is the feudal ensign of 
the lordship of Lome, and is borne by the 
family of Argyll, and the clan of Campbell. 

" ' Our loch ne'er saw the Cawmill tymphadt,' said 
the bigger Highlander." Score .- Rob Roy, xxix. 



Path. : An important morbid condition of 
the glands, characterized by hypertrophy ; 
Hodgkin's disease. 

lym phae -duct, . [LYMPHODUCT.] 

'.ym-phan-ge-I'-tls, s. [Lat. lympha 
[LYMPH] ; Gr. iyxeioi/ (angcheion) = a vase or 
vessel, and suff. -itis (Path.).] 
Path. : Inflammation of the lymphatics. 

* lym'-phate, * lym'-phat-ed, a. [Lat. 
lymphatus, pa. par. of lympho = to drive out 
of one's senses.] Mad, deranged, insane. 

lym-phat -ic, lym-phaf-Ick, a. & . 

[Lat. lymphatlcus, from lymphatus, pa. par. of 
lympho = to drive out of one's senses ; Fr. 
lymphatique.] 

A, As adjective : 

1. Lit. : Pertaining to, conveying, or con- 
taining lymph. 

"There are lymphatic vessels which come from the 
upper and others which proceed from the lower ex- 
tremities. Numerous glands occur along their course. 
The coata of the lymphatics, three in number, are 
delicate and transparent, so that their contents may 
readily be Ken." Todd & Bowman : Phyt. Anat. (1856), 
ii. 269. 289. 

* 2. Fig. : Mad, frenzied, enthusiastic. 

" Horace either is or feigns himself lymphatic*." 
Shaftetbury : Concerning Enthutiatm, i 6. 

B. As substantive : 

* L Ord. Lang. : A madman, an enthusiast. 

" All nations have their lymphatic! of some kind or 
another." Shaftetbury : Concerning Enthutiatm, i 6. 

IL Technically: 

1. Anat. (PI): A name for the lymphatic 
vessels (q.v.). 

t 2. Bot. (PI.) : The sap vessels of a plant 

T The Lymphatic or Phlegmatic Temperament 
is characterized by light, sandy, or whitish 
hair, light gray eyes, a pallid complexion, the 
skin nearly destitute of hair, much perspira- 
tion, small blood-vessels, a feeble and slow 
pulse, want of energy, both in animal and 
physical functions. Mental powers sometimes 
dull, sometimes the reverse. It is the weak 
temperament of the xanthous variety of 
mankind. 

lymphatic-glands, s. pi 

Anat. : The absorbent system for the trans- 
mission of the lymph, allied to the lacteal 
system, and appearing also first in fishes, then 
reptiles, then mammals. Their chief use is to 
effect a change in the materials absorbed, 
and render them more fitted for introduction 
into the blood. Lymphatics are found in 
most parts of the animal tissue, except the 
brain and spinal cord, the eye, bones, car- 
tilages and tendons, the membranes of the 
ovum, the umbilical cord, and the placenta. 
Lymphatic vessels like arteries and veins 
have three coats, an external, middle, and 
internal ; they are also supplied with valves. 
[THORACIC-DUCT (q.v.).] 

lymphatic-vessels, s. pi 

Anat. : The lymphatic vessels convey In 
solution to the blood matters derived from 
the wear and tear of the vessels or from out- 
side. (Todd * Bowman: Phys. Anat., ii. 290.) 

lym'-pho-duct, lym'-ih-duct, s. [Lat. 

lympha = lymph, and auctiis =. a leading, a 
duct.] 

1. Anat. : A vessel in animal bodies which 
conveys the lymph ; a lymphatic. (Blackmore.) 

2. Bot. (PL): Sap- vessels. 

lym-phog'-ra-phy, s. [Lat. lympha = lymph 
and ypa</xo (grapho) = to describe.] A treatise 
on or description of the lymphatic vessels, 
their origin and uses. 

lymph-old, a. [Lat lympha, and Or. I8os 

(eidos) form.] 

Anat. : Having the form or aspect of lymph 
There are lymphoid - glands and lymphoid - 
tissue. (Q-uain.) 

* lymph'-y, a. [Eng. lymph; -y.] Containing 

or resembling lymph. 

*lym-y-tour, *. [LIMITOUR.] 

* lyn-9e'-an, a. [Lat lynceus, from lynx (genit 

lyncis) = a lynx.] Of or pertaining to the 
lynx ; lynx-like, acute. 

" My eyes are so lyncean as to see yon proudly mlr 
confident." Bp. HaU : Anncer to the Vindication. 



Lynch, v.t. [Said to be derived from the name 
of a Virginian farmer, who took the law into 
his own hands by tying a thief to a tree, and 
then flogging him.] To inflict punishment or 
pain upon, without the forms of law, as by a 
mob, or any unauthorised persons. 

"George was lynched, as he deserved." Emenon: 
Knglith Traitt. ch. ix. 

lynch law, s. The act or practice of 
punishing offenders for a crime without a trial. 
Like the verb "to lynch," this expression 
originated in America, but is now naturalized 
in England. 

lyn'-cus, *. [Mod. Lat] [LYNX.] 

Zool. : A genus proposed by Gray (Annalt 
of Phil, xxvi.), to include the lynxes, which 
are now classed as species (or varieties of a 
species) of the genus Felis. 

lynde, s. [A.S. lind ; Sw. & Dan. lind ; Dot 
& Ger. linde.] The linden-tree (q.v.)t 

lynd'-en, s. [LINDEN.] 
lyne, s. [LINE, *.] Flax. 
1 lynn, . [LINN.] A waterfall. 

lynx, * lince, s. [Lat. from Gr. Avyf (lung*).} 
1. Zool. : A common name for the different 
varieties of Felis lynx, or, as some zoologist* 
think, of the different species of the genus 
Lyncus (q.v.). The Greek Au-yf was probably 
the Caracal (q.v.) (cf. Ovid, Met., xv. 413). 
Lynxes shared with leopards the duty of draw- 
ing the chariot of Bacchus (Pers. i. 101 ; Virg.. 
Georgia i. 264); Pliny (Hist. Nat., xxviii. 32) 
calls them the "most sharp-sighted of all 
quadrupeds," hence the epithet lynx-eyed 
(q.v.). The lynxes are all of moderate size, 
but larger than the true cats ; limbs long, tail 
short and stumpy, ears tipped with a pencil 
of hair, the cheeks bearded, and pads of the 
feet overgrown with hair ; colour, light-brown 
or gray, more or less spotted with a darker 
shade. They are fierce and savage, and prey 
on sheep and poultry. Their skins are valu- 
able as fur. Felis lynx is the Common Lynx, 
found in Scandinavia, Russia, the north of 
Asia, and formerly in the forest regions of 
Central Europe ; F. cervaria is a native of 
Siberia; F. pardina of Turkey, Greece, Sicily, 
Sardinia, and Spain ; and F. isabellina of 
Tibet. The New World has also four lynxes : 
F. canadensis, the Canada Lynx, the most 
northern species ; F. rufa, the Bay or Red 
Lynx, extending nearly over the United States, 
but giving place in Texas and the south of 
California to F. maculata, and in Oregon and 
Washington Territory to F. fasciata. Prot 
Flower is of opinion that, on further investi- 
gation, all these will be found to be varieties 
of a single species. 

" I pass the war that spotted lynzet make 
With their tierce rivals for the female's sake." 

Dryden : Virgil ; (feorgic Iii. tU. 

2. Astron. : A constellation of Hevelius, bo- 
'tween the head of Ursa Major and the star 
Capella. None of the stars are larger than the 
fourth magnitude. 

lynx-eyed, a. Having sharp, acute sight 
ly'-dn, . [LION.] 

lyon-court, s. The Scottish court of tha 
Lyon king-at-arms (q.v.). 

If Lyon king-at (or of) armt : 

Her. : An official in Scotland, deriving his 
title from the lion rampant, the armorial bear- 
ings of the Scottish kings. He has authority 
to inspect the arms and ensigns-armorial of 
all noblemen and gentlemen in the kingdom, 
to distinguish the arms of the younger branches 
of families, and to give proper arms to those 
entitled to bear them, to matriculate such 
arms, and to fine those who bear arms which 
are not matriculated. He also appoints and 
superintends messengers-at-arms. He is as- 
sisted also by heralds and pursuivants. Called 
also Lord Lyon. 

ly-o-net'-i-a, . [Named after Lyonet, the 
entomologist.] 

Entom. : The typical genus of the family 
Lyonetidae. The larvae of Lyonetia, Clerckella 
burrow in the leaves of the apple and cherry- 
trees. 

ly-O-n8f -I-d, s. pi [Mod. Lat. lyonetia, and 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 

Entom. : A family of moths, group or tribe 
Tineina. Head generally smooth ; antennae,, 
with the basal joint expanded into an eye-cap ; 



boll, btfy; pout, J6%1; cat, 90!!, chorus, jnln, bench; go, gem; thin, $his; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-tion. -slon = hun; -tion, -flom=ikua. -*ous, -ttous, -iou = shu*. -We, -die, *a = bel, d?L 



2988 



lypemania lythracese 



the anterior wings narrow; posterior wings 
lanceolate, with loujj n'lia ; larvae with sixteen 
legs, most of them leaf miners. Genera, five. 
British species, mostly leal' miners. 

ly-pe-ma'-ni-a, *. [Fr. lypenuinie, from Gr. 
Avjrrj (lupe) = pain of mind, grief, and i^avia. 
(mania) = madness.] 

Mental Pathol. : The melancholia of the an- 
cients. The term was introduced by Esquirol to 
signify disorder of the faculties with respect to 
pne or a small numl>er of objects, with predom- 
inance of a sorrowful and depressing passion. 
(Bueknill <t Tuke : Psychol. Med., p. 33.) 

ly ra, J. [Lat. = a lyre (q.v.).] 

1. Anat. : A triangular portion of the corpus 
aallosum, marked with transverse longitudinal 
and oblique lines. 

2. Astron. : The Lyre or Harp : one of the 
twenty ancient Northern constellations. It is 
sitnated to the south-east of the head of Draco, 
having Hercules on the west and south and 
Cyguus on the east. Though a small constella- 
tion, it contains the large star Vega (q.v.), 
with nearly twenty others visible to the naked 
eye, and, according to Bode, 166 in all, in- 
cluding telescopic stars. 

3. Ziiol. : A sub-genus of Brachiopoda, genus 
Terabratella. 

ly'-rate, ly'-rat-ed, o. [Lat. lyra = a lyre.] 

1. Ord. I/ing. : In a lyratc manner, so as to 
fcintly resemble a lyre. 

2. Bot. : Lyre-shaped ; a kind of pinnatilo- 
bate leaf, having the lobes divided into an un- 
certain depth ; panduriform, but with several 
sinuses on each side, which gradually diminish 
in size to the base ; as the leaves of Geum 
urbanum, Raphanus Raphanistrum. (Lindley.) 

lyre (yasi) (i), Mere, "lire, *luke, 

. [A.S. hleor; Icel. hlyr; O. L. Ger. hleor.] 
The face, the countenance, the complexion. 

" Hire lufum leor." St. Marherete, 8. 

lyre (y as i) (2), . [Fr., from lyra; Gr. Avpa 
(lura) = & lyre.] 

1. Mus. : One of the most ancient 
stringed instruments. 
The word lyre (Avpa) does 
not occur in Homer ; he 
speaks only of the citharis 
(xtdaptc) and phorminx 
(4>op/xfy). The distinction 
between a citharis (or gui- 
tar), and a lyre, is that the neck 
of the former runs behind the 
upper part of the strings, while 
the strings of the latter are free 
on both sides. The lyre origin- 
ally had but three strings, to 
which four were added by the 
Greeks to form a heptachord. 
The number was afterwards in-, 
creised to eleven and finally to 
sixteen. LYRE. 

" Taught his warlike hands to wind 
The silver strings of his melodious lyre." 

Drydtn : Orid ; MttamarphasM L 
8. Astron: [LYRA]. 

lyre-bat, *. 

Zool. : Megaderma lyra, a bat of the family 
Rhinolophidae (Nycteridae). Habitat, conti- 
nental India and Ceylon ; length, three-and-a- 
half inches ; slaty-blue in colour, paler be- 
neath ; ears about half the length of the head 
and body. It is carnivorous, and, in addition 
to insects, feeds on frogs, fish, and even 
smaller bats. 

lyre-bird, . 

Ornith. : Menura superba (or novas-hollan- 
dias), an insectivorous Australian bird, placed 
by Professor Huxley in his Coracomorphse. 
(In this connection see a paper by Mr. Bartlett, 
in Proc. Zool. Soc., 1867, pp. 688, 689.) Habitat, 
New South Wales, the southern part of Queens- 
land, and perhaps some parts of the colony 
of Victoria. The lyre-bird is not so large as 
hen-pheasant; plumage, sooty-brown, re- 
lieved by rufous on the chin, throat, some of 
the wing-feathers, and the tail-coverts. The 
sixteen rectrices are developed in the male in 
the extraordinary fashion that gives the bird 
its English name. The two exterior have the 
outer web very narrow, and the inner very 
broad, and they curve at first outwards, then 
somewhat inwards, and near the tip outwards 
again, bending round so as to present a lyre- 
like form. The middle pair of feathers have 
the outer web broad, and the inner web very 




narrow ; they cross near their base, and then 
divers 1 ', bending round forwards near the 
tip. The remaining twelve feathers are thinly 




LYRE-BIRD 



furnished with barbs, and present a hair-like 
appearance. The lyre-bird is becoming rare ; 
and though specimens have been brought to 
Europe, none has long survived in captivity. 
(Prof. Newton.) Called also Lyre-pheasant, 

lyre-flower, s. 

Bot. : Dielytra spectabilis. 
lyre-pheasant, . [LYRE-BIRD.] 
lyre-shaped, a. [LYRATE, 2.] 
lyre-tall, s. 

Ornith. : The genus Menura (q.v.). 

lyr en 9eph a la (yr as IT), s. pi. [Gr. 

Aupa (lura) = a lyre, and cwce'^aAoi/ (engkepha- 
lon) = the brain, so named because the brain 
of reptiles somewhat resembles the loose brain 
of birds.] 

Zool: A name given by Owen to Reptiles 
(q.v.). 

lyr'-lc, * lir icke, * lyr'-ick, a. & s. [Lat. 

lyrieus ; from Gr. Aupi/cds (lurikos) = pertaining 
to the lyre ; \vpa.(lura) a lyre ; Fr. lyrique; 
Ital. & Sp. lirico.] 

A. As adj. : Pertaining or relating to a lyre 
or harp ; intended or suited for the lyre. 

" Hi [^EachyluflJ versification with the intermixture 
of lyric composition Is more various than that of 
Shafcspeare." Observer, No. 70. 

B. As substantive : 

* 1. A composer or writer of lyric poems. 

"The greatest conqueror in this nation, after the 
manner of the old Grecian lyriclts, did not only com- 
pose the words of his divine odes, but set them to 
music himself." Additon. 

2, A lyric poem or composition. 

" Or else at wakes with Joan and Hodge reloice. 
Where D'Urfey's lyrici swell in every voice." 

Gay : Shepherds Week ; Wednesday. 

3. A verse of the kind commonly used in 
lyric poetry. 

lyric-poetry, s. Originally poems in- 
tended to be sung to the accompaniment of 
the harp or lyre ; now poems intended for 
musical recitation, and especially poems ex- 
pressing or referring to the poet's Individual 
thoughts and emotions, as distinguished from 
epic or dramatic poetry, which is concerned 
with external circumstances and events. 

lyric-stage, s. A term applied to operatic 
representations. 

* lyr'-Ic, v.t. [LYRIC, a.] To sing in a lyrical 
manner. 

"Parson Punch . . . lyrici over his part in an 
anthem very handsomely." -T. Brawn: Works, ii. 248. 

* lyr'-ic-al, a. [Eng. lyric ; -al.] The same 
as LYRIC (q.v.). 

" Lyrical emotion of every kind, which (to merit 
the name of li/rimil) must be in the state of flux and 
reflux, or, generally, of agitation, also require* the 
Saxon element of our language." It ^ninety, in 
Trench's English, Past * 1'rcsent. p. 21. 

* lyr'-I-chord, . [Eng. lyre, and chord.] 

Music : An old name for a vertical harpsi- 
chord. 

* lyr'-i-cifm, . [Eng. lyric; -ism.] A lyric 
poem or composition ; lyrical form of lan- 
guage. 

lyr-ie, *. [Icel. hlyri.] A name given in Scot- 
land to the fish known more generally as the 
armed bull-head. 

lyr'-i-form, a. [Fr. lyrijbrme, from Lat. lyra 
= a lyre, and forma = shape.] Having the 



shape of a lyre ; more or less closely resem- 
bling a lyre in conformation. [LYRE-BIRD.] 

" In the nrUe of Menura. nlberti, the tail is not only 
lyriform, but the exterior rectrices are shorter than 
the res',. Prof. Newton, in Encyc. Brit. (th ed.). xv. 
117. 

* lyr'- Ism (yr as ir), s. [Eng. lyr(e); -ism.} 
A musical performance. 

'The lyritm . . . had gradually assumed a rather 
doafeuiug and complex character." O. Uiut : Adam 
Bade. ch. liii. 

* Itfr'-ist, s. [Lat. lyristes, from Gr. AvpicrnJ9 
(luristes), from \vpa(lura) a lyre ; Fr. lyriste.} 
One who plays on the lyre or harp. 

" From her wilds lerne sent 
The sweetest lyrist of her saddest wrong." 

Shelley : Adonals. xxx. 

ly-sl-16'-ma, *. [Gr. Auo-is (lusis), loosing, 
setting free,* and Au/xa (10 mu) = a hem, fringe, 
or border.] 

But. : A genus of Mimosese, akin to Acacia. 
An unknown species from China furnished 
the excellent Sabicu wood of which the stairs 
were made in the first Great Exhibition, that 
of 1851. (Treas. of Bot.). 

lys 1 ma'-chi-a, s. [Lat. lysimachia; Gr. 
\va-ifidxov (lusimaclutn) = loosestrife.] 

Bot. : Loosestrife, a genus of Priruulacese, 
family Primulidae. The calyx is five-partite, 
the corolla rotate, the stamens glabrous or 
glandular, the capsule opening at the summit, 
with five to ten teeth or valves. Known 
species, forty, chiefly from the temperate 
zone. Four (Lytrimachia vulgaris, L. iifmorum, 
L. Nummularia, and L. thyrxiflora) are European. 
The first and second are the most common ; 
they have yellow flowers. Prof. Watt says 
that L. Candida is eaten by the inhabitants 
of Munipoor as a pot-herb with fish. 

ly' -sis, s. [Gr. Auo-is (lusii) = a loosing ; AVK 
(Jwd) = to loose.) 

1. Arch. A plinth or step above the comic* 
of the podium which surrounds the stylobatB. 

2. Med. : The gradual cooling down and de- 
fervescence in fever slowly and regularly for 
several days without any marked increase of 
excreta. 

* lys' -sa, . [Gr.] Madness of a dog ; hydro* 
phobia. 

lys sa ki me, lys-sa ki na, s. pi. [Gr. 

Aliens (lusis) = a loosing, setting free ; <ucif 
(ake) = a point, an edge, and Lat. fern. pi. adj. 
suff. -inas, or neut. -ina.] 

Zool. : A subfamily of hexactinellid sponges, 
having the spicules loosely arranged into a 
fibrous skeleton. 

lys'-sa-klne, a. & s. [LYSSAKINA.] 

A. As adj. : A term applied to sponges 
having the spicules loosely arranged. 

B. As subst. : A sponge having this struc- 
ture. 

"It is a Lyssakint with spicules BO arranged 
crossing one another, as to weave together a thin* 
walled vase of delicate lattice-work with square 
meshes. 1 ' CasseU'sJiat. Hist., vi. 330. 

lyssakinc hexactinellids, lyssa- 
kine sponges, s. pi. 
Zool. : Sponges of the Hexactinellid type. 

* lyst, i. [LIST, s.] 

lys iir'-iis, s. [Gr. Av<r (lusis) = a loosing, 
setting free, and oipop (ouron) = urine.] 

Bot. : A genus of gasteromycetous fungals 
sub-order Phalloidei (q.v.). Lysurui mokusin 
is prescribed by the Chinese in gangrenous 
ulcers. It is also eaten, but is often poisonous. 

* ly-ter'-i-an, o. [Gr. Aunjpio? (luterios) = 
loosing, delivering ; Au-njp (luter) = a looser ; 
Avo> (luo) = to loose, to free.] 

Med. : Terminating a disease ; indicating 
the end of a disease. 

* lythe, o. [LITHE, a.] 

* lythe, *. [Etym. doubtful.] A fish ; the 
coal-fish or whiting pollack in its fourth year. 

" There is no need for good fishing when you catch 
lythe." Black : Princess of Thule, ch. ii. 

*lyth'-er, s. [LUTHER.] 

ly-thra'-ee-w, . pi. [Lat. lythr(um); fern, 
pi. adj. suff. -acece.] 

Bot. : Loosestrifes or Lythrads, an order of 
perigynous exogens, alliance Saxifragales. 
It consists of herbs, or rarely shrubs, fre- 



Ate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
r, wore, wolf, work, who. son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur. rule, full; try, Syrian. , ce = e ; ey = a. qu = kw. 



lytiirece macaronian 



2989 



qnently with four-cornered branches, gene- 
rmTly opposite, entire, aiul solitary, or clustered 
regular or irregular, axillary or terminal, 
pikes or racemes ; calyx tubular, ribbed 
petals inserted between the outer lobes of the 
calyx, very deciduous or wanting. Stamens 
equal in number to the petals, or two or three 
times as many, inserted into the calyx below 
them; ovary, superior, generally two- to six- 
celled, rarely one-celled ; seeds, numerous, 
small ; capsule, membranous and dehiscent. 
Known genera, thirty ; species, 260, chiefly 
from the tropics, though some are found in 
more northern localities. 

Ijrth -re-89, . pi. [Mod. Lat. lythrum, and 
fuin. pi. adj. suit', -tee.] 

Bot. : A tribe of L> thracese (q.v.), having 
the seeds wingless. 

ly thro -des, . [Named by Karsten from Or. 

kv6put$ris (lythrodcs) = soiled by blood.] 

Af in. : A variety of Nephelite (q.v.), having 
ft peculiar greasy lustre, hence Ger. fettstein 
= fatstone. Colours yellow, flesh-red, or as 
the original was described, red spotted, like 
streaming blood. Found in the Zircon-syenite 
of Frederiksvarn and other places in Norway. 

ly- -thrum, x. [Gr. \vpof (luthron) = filth, 
defilement, especially of blood, referring to 
the purple colour of some of the genus.] 

Bot. : Loosestrife, the typical genus of the 
tribe Lythreae. Calyx, inferior, tubular, with 
ei^ht to twelve small teeth ; petals, four to 
ix ; stamens, the same number or twice as 
many ; capsule, two-celled. Twelve species 
we known. They are generally tropical in 
habitat, though a few species are found further 
north. 

lyt ta, i. [Lat. lytta = a worm under a dog's 
t</ngue, said to produce madness.] 

Entom. : A genus of beetles, tribe Hetero- 
nifra, sub-tribe Trachelia. Lytta vesicatoria is 
the Blister-fly. It exists iu the south of Europe, 
feeding chiefly on the ash. L. assamensis, L. 
giy, and L. violacea are used in India as blis- 
tering agents. (1'rof, Watt.) 



M. 

K, the thirteenth letter and the tenth con- 
sonant of the English alphabet, is classed 
amongst the liquids. It has a labial and a 
nasal articulation, the lips being compressed 
ml the uvula lowered, so as to form a hum- 
ming noise through the nose. M has but one 
Bound in English, as in man, much, time. It is 
always sounded in native English words, but 
is silent iu some few words, as mnemonic, de- 
rived from other languages. M has been lost 
from some of the oldest English words, as, 
Jive = A.S. //, Goth, fimf ; soft ~ A.S. softe, 
Ger. sanft =. sumft. It has been weakened to 
n, as in ant = A.S. cemete = emmet ; count = 
O. Fr. cumte, Lat. comes; noun FT. nom, 
Lat. now*; ransom = O. Fr. raancon, Lilt. 
redemptio, M. Eng. ramson. In sonife cases 
m represents an original n, as in hemp = A.S. 
Jkenep, hcenep ; tempt = O. Fr. tenter, Lat. 
Unto; comfort = O. Fr. confort, Lat. conforto ; 
vellum Fr. velin ; megrim Fr. migraine. 

L As a initial M it used : For master (Lat. 
magister), as M.A. (niagister artiitm) = Master 
of Arts ; for medicine, as M.D. = Doctor of 
Medicine ; for mundi (Lat. = of the world), as 
in A.M. (anno mundi) = in the year of the 
world ; for member, as M.P. = Member of 
Parliament. 

II. An a symbol M is used : 

In numer. : For 1,000 ; with a dash over it 

(H) for 1,000,000. 

* 1f 7V> have an if under (or by) the girdle : To 
have the courtesy to address persons as Mr., 
liiss, Mrs., or Madame. 

la, conj. [Hal.] 

Music : But ; as, Allegro, mo non troppo =: 
fast, but not too fast. 

ma, s. [MAMMA.] A child's shortened form 
of mamma. 

ma'am, *. [A contr. of madam (q.v.).] 

ma-ash' -a, . [Native name.] An East Indian 
coin, value rather more than the tenth part 
of a rupee. 



mab, s. [Wei. = child.] 

1. A mythical personage, sometimes de- 
scribed as the queen of the fairies. 

2. A slattern. (Prov.) 

mat), v.i. [MAB, s.] To be slovenly ; to dress 
in a slovenly manner. (Prov.) 

ma'-ba, s. [Native name of the tree on the 
Island of Tongataboo. (Forster.)'] 

Bot. : A genus of Ebenacese, closely akin to 
Diospyros. It is believed to furnish the ebony 
of Ceylon. The berries of Maba buxifolia are 
eaten by the natives of India. The wood is 
dark coloured, very hard and durable. 

* mab'-ble, * ma-ble, v.t. [MOBLE.] To 
wrap up. 

" Their heads anil facet so moiled ill fine linnen." 
Sandy t : Travel*, bk. i. , p. 69. 

mab -by, s. [Native name.] A spirit distilled 
from potatoes in Barbadoes. 

ma bo -la, s. [Native name (?).] (See com- 
pound.) 

mabola fruit, 5. 

Bot. : Diospyros mabola or discolor, a tree wild 
in the Philippine Islands. 

Mac, pref. [Gael. = son.] A prefix used ex- 
tensively in Scotch names ; as, JtfocGregor, 
JtfocDonald, &c. It corresponds with son in 
surnames of Teutonic origin, Fitz in those of 
Romance origin, Ap or Ab in Welsh surnames, 
and in Irish. 

ma -ca'-co(l), ma-cau -co, t. [The native 
name. ] 

Zool. : Buffon's name for I^emur catta, the 
Ring-tailed or Cat-like Lemur. Colour, chin- 
chilla-gray, with a banded tail of black and 
gray rings, under parts white. The hind 
limbs exceed the fore limbs in height, and 
this gives the body an arched appearance. 
They are readily domesticated, and may be 
often seen in captivity. They range along the 
south and west coasts of Madagascar. 

ma-ca'-co (2), . [Native name (?).] (Seethe 
compounds.) 

macaco- wood, *. 

Bot. : Tococa guianensit. 

macaco- worm, 5. 

Entom. : Cuterebra noxialis. 
" A gad-fly found at Cayenne is distinguished by the 
name of the macaco-worm ; it ... usually attacks 
the skin of oxen and dogs in South America. It is 
accidentally found sometimes on man." 1'. J. Van 
Benedtn : Animal ParatUet. p. 175. 

ma-ca'-cus, s. [Latinised from FT. macaque.] 

1. Zool. : A genus of Catarhiue Monkeys, 
nd the section of it having the tail long, gene- 
rally both with cheek pouches and natal cal- 
losities. Macacus Inuuy is the Barbary Ape, 
the species a colony of which is on ttit Rock 
of Gibraltar. This is the only recent monkey 
found in Europe. Macacus Silenus is the 
Wauderoo of India. Called also Inuus (q.v.). 
Several other species are known, which are 
described under their popular names. 

2. PaUeont. : Found in the Upper Miocene 
(?) of the Siwalik Hills, and the Pliocene of 
Italy and the South of England. 

mac ad am i za tion, s. [Eng. macadam- 
iz(e) ; -ation.] The act, art, or process of 
macadamizing a road. The stone is broken 
into angular pieces of a uniform size, and, after 
being laid, is consolidated and levelled by 
means of heavy rollers. A mode of paving 
roads introduced by Macadam, the metal or 
surface stone consisting of pieces of granite, 
whinstone, limestone, or hard freestone, ac- 
cording to the kind of rock which is acces- 
sible. 

" Neither the government nor the inhalltants are 
for a time willing to go to the expense of nacadami- 
tatim."A. TroUopt: Aurtralia. i. 493. 

mac ad am ize, v.t. [Named alter Mac- 
adam, the introducer of the system.] To 
pave, cover, or repair a road by the process of 
macadamization (q.v.). 

mac-ad' -am road, a. [After Macadam, the 
inventor, and rood.] A road formed by mac- 
adamization. 

ma ca -o, *. [MACAW.] 

ma caquo (que as k). , [Fr., from the 
native name.] 



Zoology : 

1. Sing.: Macacus cynomolgus, the Common 
Macaque, which may be taken as the repre- 
sentative of the long-tailed section of this 
genus. Habitat, the islands of the Malayan 
Archipelago. In the adult Macaque, the body 
is large in proportion to the limbs, and the 
shoulders abnormally developed ; the limbs 
are short, as is the fur. Olive-brown, spotted 
with black, on the head and body, gray on the 
limb ; tail blackish. It is quiet and good- 
tempered when young, but becomes savage 
and brutal as it grows older. Albinoes of this 
species sometimes occur. 

2. Pi. : The genus Macacus (q.v.). 

mac-a-ran'-ga, s. [Native name.] 

Bot. : .j. genus of Euphorbiaceae, tribe 
Acalypheae. Macaranga dentata and M. gum- 
mif.ua, trees found in Sikkim, are used for 
fencing or temporary huts. M. indica and Af. 
tomentosa yield gum resins ; that of the latter 
tree is used, according to Gamble, medicinally, 
and for taking impressions. (Calcutta Exhib. 
Report.) 

ma-car'-I-a, s. [Gr. poxopia (makaria) = 



aa-car-i-a. s. 

happiness, bliss.] 



Entom. : The typical genus of the family 
Macaridae (q.v.). Macaria liturata is the 
Tawny-barred Angle found in fir woods. 

Ma-car -i-ans, s. pi. [For etym. see def.] 

Church Hist. : The Monothelites of Antioch, 
so called from Macarius, who was patriarch 
at the time of the second Council of Con- 
stantinople (A.D. 620), at which he defended 
his opinions, but was condemned. [MONOTH- 
ELITES.] 

ma car I dse, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. mocor(ta); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 

Entom. : A family of Moths, group Geome- 
trina. Antennse in the males pubescent, 
rarely pectinated, fore wings running into a 
prolonged tip, hinder ones angular, somewhat 
dentate. Larvae with ten or twelve legs. 

* mac'-a-rize, v.t. [Gr. poxapi^w (macarizol 
= to make happy, to bless ; fioxopot (7na/.'aro) 
= happy, blessed.] To bless, to pronounce 
or consider happy, to congratulate. 

" The word macarize has been adopted by Oxford 
men who are familiar with Aristotle, to supply a word 
wanting iu our language. . . . Men are admired for 
what they are, commended for what they do, aud maca- 
rited for what they have." Whately : Bacon ; Eunj/i, 
p. 473. 

mac ar o ni, mac car-6' ni, s. & o. [O. 

Ital. maccaroni a kind of paste meate boiled 
in broth and drest with butter, cheese, and 
spice (Florio) ; Ital. maccheroni ; cf. Gr. fuuca- 
pt'a (makaria) = a mess of broth and pearl- 
barley, a kind of porridge.] 

A. .4s substantive : 

L Lit. : An article of food composed of the 
dough of fine wheateu flour, made into long, 
slender tubes varying in diameter from one- 
eighth of an inch to an inch. It is a favour- 
ite food in Italy. 

" He doth learn to make strange sauces, to eat an- 
chovies, matcaroni, IK." Ben Jonton : Cynthia't Kt- 
Mil 

* IL Figuratively : 

L A medley, an extravagance, an idle fancy. 

2. A droll, a fool. 

3. A fop, a dandy, an exquisite. They led 
the fashion from 1770 to 1775. They were 
distinguished by the immense knot 

of artificial hair worn by them, a 
very small cocked hat, jacket, waist- 1 
coat, and small-clothes very tight 
to the body, and a walking-stic" 
ornamented with long tassels. 
"This fellow would turn rak 

and macaroni, if he was to stay 

here a week longer." Oarrick: i 

Bon Tan, L 1. 

4. (PI.): A body of soldiers ' 
from Maryland during the War 
of Independence, so called on 
account of their showy uniform. 

* B. As adj. : Foppish, fa- 
shionable, dandy, affected. 

" Ye travell'd tribe, ye macaroni 



Of French friaenn and nosegay* 

Justly vain . . 
Lend me your hands." 

UoldmM: EpUojite. ipoken bn 
J/n. 




MACARONI. 



mac-a ro -ni an, * mac-ca ro -nl an, 
a. & *." [Eng. macaroni ; -an.] 
A. As adj. : The same as MACARONI (q. v.> 



befl. bo^; pout, jwl; cat, cell, chorus, chin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xcnophon, exist, ph t 
-Clan, -tian - - shaii. -tion, -sion = shun ; -(ion. ion = shun, -cious, -tion*. -sious = shus. -ble, -die, &c. - bel, dL 



2990 



macaronic mace 



B. As subst. : Macaronic verse. 

" The macaranian a a kind of burlesque poetry, 
emulating of a jumble of words of different languages, 
with words of the vulgar tongue latinized, aud latin 
words modernized." Cambridge : Scribleriad, bk. ii. 
(NoU 16.) 

mac-a-ron ic, mac ca ron ic, mac 

a ron'-ick. a. & . [Fr. macaronique, from 
iiiacaroni (q.v.).] 

A. As adjective : 

I. Lit. : Of or pertaining to the dish or 
food macaroni. 

II. Figuratively: 

1. Pertaining to or like a macaroni ; empty, 
trifling, vain, afl'ected. 

2. Consisting of a jumble or mixture of ill- 
formed words, or of every-day words to which 
Latin terminations have been added, or of 
Latin or other foreign words Anglicized : as, 
macaronic verse. 

B. As substantive : 

1. A confused heap, medley, or jumble of 
several things. 

2. Macaronic verse. 

U Macaronic verse or poetry : A term first 
employed by Theophilo Folengo (otherwise 
Merlinus Coccaius), in 1509, to designate a 
kind of humorous or ludicrous verses, in which 
words of other languages, with Latin termina- 
tions or inflections are mixed up with Latin 
words. Verses in which foreign words are 
ludicrously distorted and jumbled together. 

mac a roon , * mak-a-ron, s. [Fr., from 
Ital. 'macaroni = macaroni (q.v.).] 

1. A kind of small sweetcake or sweet bis- 
cuit made of flour, almonds, eggs, and sugar. 

" Marchpane and dry sucket, macarooni and diet 
bread." Albumatar, ii. 3. 

* 2. A low, coarse fellow, a finical fellow, 
macaroon. 

" I sigh, and sweat, 
To hear this makaron Ulke, in raine." 

Donne : Satiret, sat. 4. 

Ma-carf -nejr, s. [For etym. see compound.] 

Macartney-cook, *. 

Ornlth. : Euplocomus ignilus, a gallinaceous 
bird, first described in the account of Lord 
Macartney's embassy to China. Length of 
adult male, about two feet. It has a general 
resemblance to the Impeyan-pheasant in its 
rich metallic colouring, but the middle of the 
back is brilliant orange ; the tail bluish-green, 
orange, and white. Habitat, Sumatra and the 
adjacent islands. 

Ma-cas'-sar, . [See def.] The name of a 
d'istrict in the island of Celebes, in the Eastern 
Archipelago. 



T-Oil, s. An oil used for pro- 
moting and strengthening the growth of the 
hair, so named from having l>een originally 
brought from Macassar. The name is now 
commonly given to a prepared mixture of 
castor and olive-oil. 

In earthly virtue nothing could surpass her. 
Save thine incomparable oil. Maciuxttr." 

Byron : Dan Juan, 1. IT. 

ma-cau -co, . [MACACO.] 

ma caw , * ma-ca'-o, * mac-caw', . [The 
native name in the West Indian Islands. 

Ornith. : The popular name for any member 
of the South American family Araidae, and 
more strictly of the genus Ara (Brisson), or 
Macrocercus (Vieillot). The macaws are re- 
markable for their six* and the beauty of their 
plumage. They are less docile than the true 
parrots, can rarely be taught to articulate 
more than a few words, and their cry is liarsh 
and disagreeable. The Scarlet Macaw, Ara 
macao, is a very handsome bird ; the principal 
colour is bright-red, with blue rump, vent, 
tail-coverts, and quills, and greenish-blue and 
yellow wing-coverts, tail, two-thirds of whole 
length blue and crimson. The Red and Blue 
Macaw, A. aracanga, resembles the first 
species, but the middle of the wing-coverts is 
bright yellow. The Green Macaw, A. mili- 
taris, has lively green plumage, lower back, 
upper tail, and wing-coverts blue, the under 
surface orange-yellow. The Blue and Yellow 
Macaw, A. ararauna, is one of the handsomest 
of the genus. Watcrton (Wanderings in Smith 
America (ed. 1879), p. 196) says of it : " The 
flaming scarlet of his body, the lovely variety 
of red, yellow, blue, and green in his wings, 
the extraordinary length of his scarlet tail, all 
seem to join and demand for him the title of 
emperor of the parrots." 



macaw bark, s. 

But. : Solanum mammosum. 
macaw-fat, s. 

Hot. : A West Indian name for the Oil Palm, 
Eltzis guineensis. 

macaw tree, s. 

Bot. : (1) Acrocomia fusiformis, and (2) A. 
lasiospatha; the latter is called the Great 
Macaw-tree. 

Mac-ca be an, a. [Eng. Maccabe(e); -an.] 
Pertaining or'relating to the Maccabees. 

Mac'-ca-bees, s. pi. [Lat. Maccabceus; Gr. 
MaMKoftaitK (Makkabaios) ; from Heb. TfO^p 
(maqqabhoth), or fQgQ (maqqebheth) = a ham- 
mer ; from the last three letters of the names 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, on the banner of 
the tribe of Dan, or from the first letters of 
the Hebrew words HirT tht*l TOtO 'O (Mi 
kamokah baelim Jehovah) (" Who is like unto 
Thee, O Lord, among the gods?") in Exod. 
xv. 11.] 

Jewish Hist. : A name applied to a patriotic 
family whose achievements were most notable. 
Antiochus Epiphanes, a Syrian king, having 
been expelled from Egypt by the Romans, re- 
lieved his vexation by attempting to put down 
the Jewish worship. Palestine then being 
under his sway, the aged Matliathias, priest 
of Modin, was urged to set his people the 
example of sacrificing to the Greek gods. In 
place of doing so, he killed the king's mes- 
senger, and escaped to the mountains, his 
sons being companions of his flight. Their 
names were John called Caddis, Simon called 
Thassi, Judas called Maccabseus, in connec- 
tion with whom the name Maccabees origin- 
ated, Eleazar called Avaran, and Jonathan 
called Apphus. The revolt began B.C. 108, and 
in 165 Judas took Jerusalem, and purified the 
Temple in commemoration of which the winter 
festival called the Feast of Dedication was 
annually kept, aud is alluded to in John 
x. 22. After achieving success, a Maccabeau, 
called also an Asmonsean, dynasty reigned for 
about a century, Herod the Great, slaughterer 
of the infants of Bethlehem, putting to death 
Hyrcanus, the last scion of the house, though 
he was inoffensive, pious, and the high priest. 
T The Books of Maccabees : Four books of our 
present Apocrypha, with a fifth not iu that 
collection. 

1 Maccabees : A work giving an account of 
the Maccabean struggle, with a simplicity 
and candour which render its statements 
eminently credible. It seems to have been 
written originally in Hebrew by a Palestinian 
Jew, probably a Sadducee. It never formed 
part of the Jewish canon or the Christian 
canons of Melito, Origen, the Council of 
Laodicea, Cyril, St. Hilary, Athanasius, 
Jerome, &c. It was first received into the 
canon by the Council of Hippo (A.D. 393) and 
that of Carthage (A.D. 397), the modern Council 
of Trent confirming their decision. The Roman 
Church considers it an inspired production ; 
the Protestant, uninspired but of high his- 
torical value. 

2 Maccabees: A much less valuable pro- 
duction than 1 Maccabees. It was compiled 
by a person whose name is not given, from a 
more extended narrative written by Jason of 
Cyrene. Jason's book seems to have been 
published about B.C. 160 The object of the 
compiler is to exhort the Jews to keep the 
Jewish faith, and especially to venerate the 
temple at Jerusalem. The writer gives an 
incident which he alleges to have occurred 
during the attempts made by Heliodorus to 
plunder the temple. He concludes with the 
victory of Judas Maccabaeus over Nioanor, 
B.c. 161. He has not a critical mind, and 
some of his narratives have a mythic air. 

3 Maccabees : A book narrating events 
earlier than the Maccabean times. It com- 
mences with Ptolemy IV (Philopator), B.C. 217, 
wishing to enter the Holy of Holies, the high 
priest having in vain remonstrated, prayed 
against him, causing him to be struck with 
paralysis. Enraged in consequence, the 
monarch, on reaching Egypt, wreaked his 
vengeance on the Alexandrian Jews. Most of 
them having refused at his bidding to be 
initiated into the orgies of Bacchus, were 
confined to the Hippodrome, to be trampled 
to death by 500 drunken elephants. Through 
divine interposition, the elephants turned on 
the soldiers instead of attacking the Jews. 



game. 

"His uncle i 



The king, relenting at the spectacle, set the 
Jews free. A festival was instituted to com- 
memorate the deliverance. The author seems 
to have been an Alexandrian Jew, who wrote 
in Greek. 

4 Maccabees : A work written to encourage 
the Jews, who lived in the midst of a con- 
temptuous heathen population, to remain 
true to the Jewish faith. Its reasonableness 
is insisted on, and its power to control the 
passions and inspire fortitude. As an illus- 
tration, the author gives the history of the 
Maccabean martyrdoms. It seems to have 
been written A.D. 39 or 40. 

5 Maccabees : This work embraced the 
history of 178 years, from Heliodorus's attempt 
to plunder the treasury at Jerusalem, B.C. 184, 
to B.C. 6, when Herod was on the throne. 
There are many parallelisms with Josephus. 
It is a valuable historical production. It was 
a compilation made by a Jew after the de- 
struction of Jerusalem, from ancient Hebrew 
records. (Ginsburg, in Cycl. Bib. Liter.) 

* mac caw', s. [MACAW.] 

* mac'-co, s. [Etym. doubtful.] A gambling 

till at the macco table." T. Soak : 
Man of many frienati. 

mac'-cou-ba, mac'-co-bo^, mac-cu- 

ban, ma cou-ba, s. [From Maccouba, in 
Martinique, where the tobacco, from which itis 
manufactured, is cultivated.] A kind of snuff 
scented with attar of roses. 

mace (1), *. [O. Fr. mace, mache (Fr. mass<), 
from Lat. * mutea a beetle, formed in the 
dim in. mateola t beetle, a mullet; Ital. 
mazza ; Sp. & Port, maza.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. In the same sense as II. 2. 

2. An ornamented staff of silver or other 
metal, originating in the military mace, borne 
before judges, magistrates, and others in 
authority. It was originally decorated at its 
summit with canopy-work, and is now gene- 
rally surmounted by a crown. 

"It was necessary to put the Fpe;i.kcr ii. tl.e chair 
and the mace on the table for the jjiirjiuiu <,. n.siurlng 
order." Macaulay : Hist. Eng., cu. xix. 

3. A macebearer (q.v.). 

4. A policeman's club. ( U. S.) 

II. Technically : 

1. Leather: A currier's mallet with a 
knobbed face, made by the insertion of ping 
with egg-shaped heads. It is used in leather- 
dressing to soften aud supple the tanned hides, 
and enable them to absorb the oil, &c. It is 
analogous to the fulling-hammer. 

2. Old Armour : A military implement used 
for dealing heavy blows, and constructed so 
as to fracture armour. It was frequently car- 
ried by horse-soldiers at the saddle-bow, 
where it was suspended by a thong which 
passed through the upper part of the handle ; 
this thong was wound round the wrist to pre- 
vent its loss by the force of a blow. It had 
many forms : a simple iron club, a spiked 
club, a pointed hammer. In the times of the 
Plantagenets the mace was used in battles and 
tournaments, and was superseded by the 
pistol in the time of Elizabeth. The mace 
is still retained among the Turkish irregular 
cavalry. 

" Tho heo were thcrg out ymengd with swerdes & with 
mace." Robert of Gloucester, p. 48. 

3. Billiards: A heavy rod or cue, used in 
pushing a ball along the table. 

mace-bearer, s. An officer who carries 
the mace before a judge or other person in 
authority. 

"John. Bishop of Lincoln, with purse-bearer, mac- 
bearer, six boy-augels playing on musical iu .truuieuts, 
and six Latin verses. "Walpol*: Catalogue of En- 
graven, vol. V. 

* mace-proof, a. Secure against arrest. 

maeo (2), s. [Fr. inacis; Ital. mace; Lat. 
macis, macir ; Gr. ^d<cep (maker).] The aril 
of Myristica moschata. [NUTMEG.] 

If Red Mace is the aril of Pyrrhosa tingens, 
and White Mace that of Myristica Otoba. 

" The fruit hereof [nutmeg! consisteth of four parts ; 
the first or outward part is a tbick and carnous cover- 
ing like that of a walnut, the second a dry and floscu 
lous coat, commonly called mace." Broume : Vulgar 
frrouri, bk. ii. ch. vi. 

If Reed mace : 

Bot. : The genus Typha. 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or. wore. wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub. cure, unite, cur, rule, full; ry, Syrian, so, ce-e; ey-a. qu = kw. 



Macedonian machine 



2991 



* mace ale, s. Warm ale in which mace 
has been infused. 

"I prescribed him a draught of mace-ale, with hope* 
to dispose him to rest" Witeman: Surgery. 

M &9-e-do ni an (1), a. & s. [See def.] 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to Macedonia, 
a district iu the north of Greece, or its inhabi- 
tants. 

B. At subit. : A native or inhabitant of 
Macedonia. 

Macedonian-phalanx, s. [PHALANX.] 
Ma9 6 do ni an (2), a. & s. [See def.] 

A. As adj.: Pertaining to, or in any way 
connected with the teaching of Macedonius : 
as, the Macedonian heresy. 

B. As substantive : 

Church Hist. (PI.) : A sect which came into 
existence towards the end of the Arian con- 
troversy, taking its name from Macedonius, 
who become Patriarch of Constantinople in 
841. He taught that the Holy Ghost was 
" subordinate to the Father and to the. Son, 
unlike to them in substance, and a creature." 
Macedonius, who was a semi-Arian, was de- 
posed by the Arians in 360 ; and his special 
tenets were condemned at the Council of 
Constantinople in 381, where thirty-six 
bishops were found to supj>ort them. In 
that Council the clause denning the divinity 
of the Holy Ghost was added to the Nicene 
Creed. The Macedonians were called also 
Pneumatomachi. 

ma-cel'-lo-don, s. [Gr. ^cuceXAa (makella) 
= a pickaxe with one point, a kind of spade, 
and b&ovs (odous), geuit. ooorrot (odontos) = a 
tooth.] 

Palceont. : A genus of Lacertilians, founded 
on portions of upper and lower jaw, with 
teeth, from a slab of Purbeck freshwater 
stone. (Owen.) Nicholson (Palceont., ii. 205) 
says : " These are perhaps the first traces in 
the stratified series of the Jurassic period of 
remains, the affinities of which to the typical 
Lacertidse cannot be disputed." 

mac'-ene, s. [Eng. mac(e) ; -ene.] 

Chem. : Ci H ]6 . A hydrocarbon present in 
the volatile oil of mace. It boils at 160, and 
is distinguished from oil of turpentine by not 
forming a crystalline hydrate when mixed 
with alcohol and nitric acid. 

-er (1), . [Eng. mace (1) ; -er.} 
Scots Law : Officers attending the Supreme 
Courts in Scotland, appointed by the Crown. 
Their duty is to keep silence in the court, 
and execute the orders of the courts, if ad- 
dressed to them. They hold their office for 
life, and are paid by salary. (Chambers.) 

"The jury . . . retired, preceded by a macer of 
court," Scott : Heart of Midlothian, oh. xxiii. 

* mac -er (2), s. [Eng. MACE (2), s.] A medi- 
cinal bark, said to be useful in dysentery. 

ma9'-er-ate, v.t. [Lat. maceratus, pa. par. 
of mace.ro = to steep ; macer = lean ; Gr. 
fid<ro-<o (nuisso) = to knead, to wipe.] 

* 1. To make lean ; to wear away. 

"Philip, Earl of Arundel, macerated himself in a 
triot coarse of religion." Baker : Queen Elitabeth 
(an. l.v.'SI. 

* 2. To mortify ; to harass with hardships ; 
to worry. 

" Sad cares, as wont to macerate 
And rend the greedie uimdea of covetous uieu." 
Spenser : Viryil'i limit. M. 

3. To steep almost to solution ; to soften 
by steeping ; to soak ; to separate the parts 
of by the digestive process. 

"The saliva, distilling continually, serves well to 
macerate and temper our meat." Ray : On the Crea- 
tion, pt ii. 

nac-er-a'-tlon, s. [Lat. maceratio, from 
maceratus, pa. par. of macero = to macerate ; 
Fr. maceration; Sp. maceracion ; Ital. maceru- 
zione.] 

* 1. The act or process of wasting or making 
lean. 

* 2. The state of becoming lean or wasted. 

3. The act of harassing or mortifying. 

" A true and serious maceration of our bodies by an 
absolute and totall refraining from sustenance." 
Buho/> Ball : Sermon to Hit Hajetty, March 30, 1628. 

4. The act, process, or o|>eration of soften- 
ing by steeping, or by the digestive process. 

" Eaten In excess [onions! are said to offend the head 
and eyes, unless edulcomted with a gentle maceration." 
Sfelyn : Acetaria. 



mac-far" lan-ite, *. [Named after T. Mac- 
farlane ; sutf. -Ue (Min.).] 

Min. : A name given to a granular mixture 
of reddish-coloured grains with other minerals, 
occurring at Silver Islet, Lake Superior, with 
metallic silver. This ore appears to contain 
several supposed new minerals, two of which 
have been named huntilite (after Dr. T. 
Sterry Hunt), and animikite (from animikie, 
the native name for thunder), respectively. 
The former is assumed from analyses to be an 
arsenide of silver, with the formula AgsAs ; 
the latter, an antimonide of silver, having the 
formula AggSb. But Macfarlane, who has well 
investigated these minerals and other mineral 
mixtures contained in this ore, considers that 
further examination is necessary before the 
above can be recognised as mineral species. 

ma-chaa'-ri-um, s. [Gr. fiax<u'pioi< (machai- 
rion.) = a surgeon's knife.] 

Bot. : A genus of papilionaceous plants, 
tribe Dalbergiese. It furnishes the Itaka- 
wood of Guiana. Machcerium firmum, M. 
incorruptibile, and M. legate are large trees, 
which yield an inferior kind of rosewood. 
They are from Brazil. 

ma-chai'-ro'-dus, s. [Gr. na.x<up<i(machaira) 
= a large knife or dirk, a dagger, a sabre, and 
ofious (odous), genit. bootros (odontos) = a tooth. ] 
Pakeont. : Sabre-toothed tiger, a genus of 
Felidse, having the upper canines extraordi- 
narily developed, trenchant, and sabre-shaped, 
with serrated margins. In it the organization 
reaches the highest power of destruction. 
Range in space : through India, the continent 
of Europe, Britain, and North and South 
America. Range in time from the Miocene 
to the close of the Upper Miocene period. 

ma cha lath, ma ha lath, s. [Heb.] 
This word occurs in the title of Psalms liii. and 
Ixxxyiii. ; the former is inscribed to the "chief 
musician upon Mahalath," the latter to the 
" chief musician upon Mahalath Leanuoth." 
Mahalath is by some authors traced (1 ike Machol) 
to a root meaning pierced or bored ; hence it 
is thought these Psalms were accompanied 
by flutes. It is generally thought that the 
term leannoth refers to antiphonal singing. 
Other writers consider the titles of these and 
several other Psalms to be a reference to well- 
known tunes to which they were to be sung. 

* maghe, s. [MATCH.] 

ma che' te, s. [Sp.] A Spanish implement 
for cutting cane, corn, vines, &c. 

ma-che -tes, s. [Gr. iM\irnjy (machetes) = a 
fighter, a warrior ; ftA\r) (mache) = a fight.] 

Ornith. : A genus of Scolopacidse, contain- 
ing only one species, Machetes pugmx, the 
Ruff (q.v.). The name has reference to the 
pugnacious habits of the bird, and was pro- 
posed by Cuvier in his Regne Animal (el. 
1817). It has been adopted by Gould, Selby, 
and Temminck. Others refer the bird to the 
genus Tringa (q.v.). 

" Thus the Machete! pugnax retains his ruff in the 
spring for barely two months." Dancin : Descent of 
Man (1871), ii. 84. 

Mach-i-a- ve'-U-an, a. & *. [See def.] 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to Nicolo 
Machiavelli, an Italian writer, secretary and 
historiographer to the republic of Florence ; 
following the example or teaching of Machia- 
vel ; politically cunning ; crafty ; using du- 
pliciiiy or bad faith. 

B. As subst. : One who follows the example 
or teaching of Machiavel. 

Mach-I-a-ve'-lI-an-Ism, Mach i a- 
vel - ism, *. [Eng. Machiavelian ; -ism.] 
The principles or system of statesmanship 
taught or carried out by Machiavel : that 
right should be systematically subordinated 
to expediency, and that all means might be 
resorted to, however treacherous or unlawful, 
for the establishment and maintenance of the 
power of the ruler over his subjects ; political 
cunning or duplicity. 

na-chlc'-i-late, v.t. [Low Lat. machicolatus, 
pa. par. of machicolo, machicoUo.] [MACHIC- 
OLATION.] To form or furnish with machic- 
olations. 

ma - 9hic' - 6 - lat - ed, a. [MACRICOLATE.] 
Formed or furnished with machicolations. 
" Glared on a h 




ma-chlc-o-la'-tion, s. [Low Lat. nuwAtco- 
lamentum, from O. l''r. maschecoulis ; Fr. nut- 
checoulis, mdcheeoulis, machicoulis, a word of 
doubtful origin ; perhaps from O. Fr. masche, 
Fr. mache = match, combustible matter, and 
O. Fr. coulis = flowing.] 

1. Arch. Eng. : An aperture between the 
corbels supporting 

a projecting para- 
pet. They were 
much employed in 
castellated architec- 
ture, and were in- 
tended for the pur- 
ppseofallowiug mis- 
siles, molten lead, 
hot pitch, &e., to 
be hurled or poured 
down on assailants 
approaching near MACHICOLATION. 

tile walls. (Toteer oner South (iatrvay at 

2. The act of hurl- *""" CattU - ^^ 
ing missiles, or pouring molten lead, Ac., 
through the apertures described in 1. 

* ma-chi-cot, s. [Fr.] An obsolete term for 
one of the chori ministri minores of a culhe- 
dral, who, in singing, added passing-notes l>e- 
tween intervals of the plain-song; or, accord- 
ing to others, added a part to the plain-song at 
an interval of a third or fourth, thus forming 
a sort of organum or diaphony. The music 
thus sung was called machicotage. 

ma-chi-cou lis (s silent), *. [Fr.] 

Fort. : A projecting gallery with loopholes 
arranged to obtain a downward fire on an 
enemy. [MACHICOLATION.] 

* ma -chi na, s. [Lat.] A machine (q.v.). 

" And the world's machina, 
Upheld so luii L-, rush into atoms rent." 

llenry Mare : On Uodlinesi, p. . 

IT Deus ex machina : A phrase used to de- 
scribe the intervention of a god in the classical 
drama and epic poetry ; iu modern literature 
the unexpected introduction of some important 
personage, or the occurrence of some improb- 
able event to enable a dramatist or novelist to 
escape from an awkward situation. The allu- 
sion is to the machina, a machine by which 
gods and heroes were represented passing 
through or floating in the air. Nineteenth 
century experience has failed to improve on 
the rule for the introduction of supernatural 
beings which Horace laid down two thousand 
years ago: 

" Nee Dens intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus 
Incident." Art Poetica, in, 1A ! 

* ma - Chin' - al, a. [Lat. machinalis, from 
mctcliina a machine ; Fr. machinal ; Sp. ma- 
quinal; Ital. macchinale.] Of or pertaining to 
a machine or machines. 

* mach'-I nate, v.t. & <. [Lat. machinatus, 
pa. j>ar. of machinor = to contrive ; machina 
= a machine.] 

A. Trans. : To contrive, to plan, to form, 
as a plot or scheme. 

B. Intrans. : To plot, to scheme. 

" How long will you machinate! 
Persecute with causeless bate I" 

Kandyt : Ptatm, p. M. 

mich-I-na'-tion, s. [Lat. machitiatio, from 
machinatus, pa. par. of machinor to con- 
trive ; Fr. machination; Sp. muquinacitr* ; 
Ital. macchinazione.] 

1. The act of plotting, scheming, or contriv- 
ing plans or schemes for the accomplishment 
of some object, generally bad. 

" The energy and vigour that is necessary for great 
vil machinationi." Burke: To a Member of the Nat. 
Assembly. 

2. A plot, a plan, a scheme, a contrivance. 
"One Whig historian talks of the machinatinm at 

the republicans, another of the machinations of too 
Jacobites." Macauiay : Hut. Eng., ch. ziv. 

* mach'-i-na-tdr, *. [Lat., from machinatn*, 
pa. par. of machinor; Fr. machinateur ; Sp. 
maqiiinador; Ital. macchinatare.] One who 
machinates, plots, or intrigues with evil de- 
signs ; a plotter, a schemer. 

"The cunning machinator pietends the exaltation 
of the freeness of that grace which he designs to dis- 
honour and defeat." Olanrilt : Sermons, ser. la 

ma -chine', * ma-chune, . [Fr., from Lat. 
machina, from Gr. wxavr) (mechane) = a con- 
trivance, a machine, from /*TJXO (mechos) = 
means, contrivance ; Sp. maquina; Ital. moo* 
china.] 
L Literally: 
L An instrument of a lower grade than an 



boil, b6>>; polit, joltl; cat, 9011, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, e^ist. -ing. 
-clan, tina = sham, -tion, -siou = shun ; - tion, sion - zhun. -cious, -tious. -sious = shus. -ble, -die, ic. = bei. dfL j 



2992 



machine mackerel 



engine, its motor being distinct from the 
operating part, whereas the engine is auto- 
matic as to both. It is also distinct from a 
tool, as it contains within itself its own guide 
.for operation. A contrivance by means of 
which a moving power is made to act upon 
any body, and communicate motion to it. 
Machines are simple and compound, complex 
or complicated. The simple machines are 
the six mechanical powers : viz., the lever, the 
wheel and axle, the pulley, the inclined plane, 
the wedge, and the screw. lu compound ma- 
chines two or more of these powers are com- 
bined for the production of motion, or the 
application or transmission of force. Ma- 
chines employed in the manufacturing arts 
are named according to their products, as lace- 
machines, rope-machines, paper-machines ; or 
to the processes they perform, as spinning- 
machines, printing-machines,sa wing-machines, 
&c. Other machines are classed according to 
the forces by which they are put in motion, as 
hydraulic machines, pneumatic machines, <tc. 
The powers employed to transmit or apply 
force through machines are various, as the 
muscular strength of men or animals, wind, 
water, air, gas, electricity, steam, &c. 

" A neat part of the machine* made use of in those 
manufactures in which labour Is most subdivided, 
were originally the inventions of common workmen." 
--Smith: Wealth of Saturn*, bk. i., ch. i. 

* 2. An engine ; a battering engine. 

* 3. Any complicated body, in which the 
parts have their several duties or offices. 

" We are led to conceive this great machine of the 
world to have been once in a state of greater simpli- 
city." Burntt : Theory of the Earth. 

IL Figuratively: 

1. An engine, a contrivance. 

M With inward arms the dire machine they load." 
Drydrn: Yiryil; Jineid ii. K. 

1 2. In England a public coach ; in Scotland 
light vehicle for travellers. 

" The machine trundled on for a couple of hundred 
yards." Dickeni : Sketchet by Bot ; Mr. Jlinni. 

3. A bicycle or tricycle. (Colloquial.) 

" As we proceeded, the machine became more of an 
encumbrance." field, Dec. 6, 1884. 

4. Any organization by means of which a 
desired effect is produced, or a system carried 
out ; a complex system by which any institu- 
tion is carried on : as, the machine of govern- 
ment. 

5. A term applied in contempt to one who 
acts or is willing to act at the will or bidding 
of another ; a tool ; one whose actions do not 
appear to be voluntary or under his own con- 
trol, but to be directed by some external in- 
fluence or agency ; one who appears to act 
mechanically and without intelligence. 

6. Supernatural agency introduced in a 
poem, play, or plot, to effect some object, or 
to ]>erform some exploit ; machinery. 

"The marvellous fable includes whatever is superna- 
tural, and especially the machine* of the gods." Pope. 

machine head, s. 

Music : An arrangement of rack and pinion 
for the purpose of tightening and keeping in 
tension the strings of the double-bass, and 
the guitar, as the ordinary pegs employed to 
atretch the strings are of unequal leverage. 

machine made, a. Made by machinery, 
as distinguished from hand-made. 

machine man, *. 

Print. : The English name for the operator 
called in tliis country a pressman, even as a 
machine boy ia with us a feeder or press-boy.' 

machine minder, * 
Print. : A man who hoe charge of a printing 
press. (British.) 

" The machine-minder must examine every sheet for 
tome time." J. Gould : Letttrpreu Printer, p. 130. 

machine ruler, s. A machine for ruling 
paper according to pattern. 

machine-shop, s. A workshop in which 
machines are made, and metal-works, Ac., 
prepared for machinery. 

machine-tool, s. A machine in which 
the tool is directed by guides and automatic 
appliances. It is a workshop appliance for 
operating upon materials in the way of shap- 
ing and dressing, having devices for dogging 
the stuff and feeding the tool. Among tools 
of this class for working in metal may be enu- 
merated the lathe and machines for planing, 
slotting, shaping, drilling, punching, and 
shearing. Machine-tools for wood are lathes, 
saws of various kinds, machines for planing, 



moulding, boring, mortising, dovetailing, rab- 
beting, tenoning, shaping, &c. 

machine-work, . Work done by a 
machine or machinery, as distinguished from 
that done by manual labour. 

ma-chine', v.t. & i. [MACHINE, s.] 

A. Trans. : To apply machinery to ; to ef- 
fect by means of machinery ; specif., to print 
by means of a printing-machine. 

B. Intrans. : To be employed in or upon 
machinery. 

mach'-i-neel, . [MANCHINEEL.] 

ma-chin -er, s. [Eng. machin(e) ; -er.] 

1. One who works or attends to a machine ; 
a machinist. 

2. A horse employed in working or driving 
a machine. 

" Commencing with the high-class thoroughbred 
stallion valued at ten thousand pounds or more, and 
coming down to the ordinary roadster, machiner, and 
agricultural drudge." Daily Telegraph, Dec. 6, 1880. 

ma-chin'-er-jr, [Eng. machine ; -ry.] 
"L Literally: 

1. A general term applied to mechanical 
combination of partsfor collecting, controlling, 
and using power, or for producing articles of 
commerce which may otherwise be, more or less 
perfectly, made by hand. The first class of these 
combinations is usually distinguished by the 
name of engines ; tne second, by that of ma- 
chines. 

2. Machines in general ; the machines in 
any place collectively : as, the machinery in a 
mill. 

3. The working parts of a machine, engine, 
or instrument designed and constructed to 
apply and regulate force. 

" Observing the neatness and perfection of the ma- 
chinery, how exactly and constantly every wheel per- 
formed the part to which it was adapted and de- 
signed." Home : Newton A Butchinson. 

IL Figuratively : 

1. Any complex system or combination of 
means and appliances designed to keep any- 
thing in motion or action, or to effect a spe- 
cific purpose or object, or to carry on any in- 
stitution or organization : as, the machinery 
of state. 

2. The agencies, especially supernatural, by 
which the plot of an epic or dramatic poem or 
play is carried out to its catastrophe. 

" The machinery madam, is a term invented by the 
critics, to signify that i art which the deities, angels. 
or demon*, are made to act in a poem." Pope : Rapt 
of tht Lock ; To A. fermor. 

ma-chin -ing, pr. par., a., & . [MACHINE, v.] 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adj. : Acting as a machine, or as a 
supernatural agency for the carrying out of 
the plot of an epic or dramatic poem or play ; 
pertaining to the machinery of a poem. 

"Of Venus and Juno, Jupiter and Mercury, I say 
nothing, for they were all machining work." Drj/den : 
Virgil ; .Vneid. (Dedic.) 

C. As subst. : The act or process of working 
or effecting with a machine ; specif., printing 
by means of a printing-machine. 

ma chin -1st, *. [Eng. machin(e); -ist ; Fr. 
machiniste ; Ital. macchinista.] 

1. One who constructs machines or engines ; 
one versed in the principles of machinery. 

" To give a grant to ... canal-makers, machinist!, or 
manufacturers." Brit. Quart. JieHew, Ivii. 198. 

2. One who works or minds a machine. 
"Good dressmaker, hairdresser, and mnchinitt." 

Time., Nov. 4, 1875. (Advt.) 

* 3. One who devises the machinery of a 
poem or play. 

" Has the insufficiency of machinist* hitherto dis- 
graced the imagery of the poetf" Steveni: General 
Note on Macbeth. 

machinist's hammer, s. A hammer 
which has a flat, round face and an edge-peen 
transversely of the helve. In some branches 
of the business it has two faces ; in others, 
again, it has one face and a pointed peen for 
riveting. 

mach'-In-ize, v.t. [Bug. machine); -i.] 
To fashion. 

"The traveller . . . seems to have machinized the 
net of the world for his occasion." Emerton : Enalith 
Train, ch. iii. 

ma chol , mah-hol', s. [Heb.] A word often 
found in the Old Testament, associated with 
" toph " (timbrel), and almost always rendered 
in the English version by "dances " or "dan- 
cing." But some authorities trace the word to a 



root meaning "pierced " or " bored," and there- 
fore consider it to have been a flute. It is 
not improbable that machol and toph may 
mean "pipe and tabor," but as these two in- 
struments are often associated with dancing, 
our version, and others which follow it, can 
not in any case be said to be incorrect. 

ma-chro -min, s. [Eng. ma(clurin); chrom- 
(atic) (from its many changes in colour), and 



Chem. : C^HiqOsSHjO. A crystalline com- 
pound prepared by boiling a concentrated 
solution of maclurin with sulphuric acid and 
zinc, and separating by menus of ether. It 
forms colourless spangles, wnich, under the 
microscope appear as tufts or stars of slender 
needles, soluble in ether, and slightly soluble* 
in water and alcohol. The solution of machro- 
min in strong sulphuric acid is at first orange- 
red, then yellow ; after warming or dilution 
with water it is emerald-green, and, on adding 
an excess of alkali, is changed to a violet. 

ma-cl'-gno (gn as ny), s. [Ital.] 

Petrol. : A siliceous sandstone, sometime! 
containing calcareous grains, mica, &c. It i> 
about the age of the London Clay. 

* ma9'-i-len-cy, s. [Eng. macilen(t) ; -cy.J 
Leanness, thinness. 

" That paleness and macilency in their looks and 
constitutions." Sandy t : Olid. (Pref.) 

* mac'- 1 - lent, a. [Lat. macilentus, from 
macies = leanness, thinness ; macer = thin, 
lean.] Lean, thin, emaciated. 

" A tall macttettt man of about fifty was shewn into 
the room." Mortimer CoUim: The Ivory Gate, ii. 188. 

mac in-tosh, mack-in-tosh, s. [After 
the name of the inventor.] An overcoat or 
cloak of cloth made waterproof by treatment 
with a solution of india-rubber. 

* mack'-er-el (1), s. [O. Pr. maquerel ; Pr. 
maqutreau = a pander ; Dut. makelaar = a 
broker, a pander ; makelen = to procure.] A 
pander, a pimp. 

mack er el (2), * mack ar el, * mack'- 
rel, * ma-que rel, s. [O. Fr. makerel, from 
the original Latin word (macus or maca), of 
which macula is a dimin. ; cf. Sp. maca = a 
stain, a bruise on fruit. (Skeat.}] 

Ichthy. : Scomber scomber (Linn.), S. sconibnu 
(Cuv.), the Common Atlantic Mackerel. 
Snout pointing, under jaw projecting, gill- 
covers large and smootn, pectoral and ventral 
fins in advance of the dorsal ; five finlets 
above and below the tail, vertically over each 
other ; tail crescent-shaped. Above the lateral 
line the colour is a fine green, varied with 
rich blue, and marked witli broad, dark, de- 
scending lines, straight in the males, undulat- 
ing in the females ; under parts silvery with 
golden tints. The home of the Common 
Mackerel may be broadly described as the 
North Atlantic Ocean ; it is common in the 
waters of the northeastern United States and of 
Canada, and is taken in immense quantities for 
home consumption and export. It is also abun- 
dant in the North Sea and around the British 
coasts. It is an extremely valuable food-fish, 
and the mackerel fishery is only second in im- 
portance to the herring and cod fisheries. 
The first schools appear in January or Feb- 
ruary; they are in the best condition towards 
the end of May, and spawn in the latter half 
of June or the beginning of July. 8. colia*, the 
Spanish Mackerel, is fomd from Nova Scotia to 
Cape Hatteras. It is not much esteemed. 8. 
trachurus is the Horse-mackerel, or Scad (q.v.). 

[ScOMBRIDjE.] 

* mackerel-gale, s. A strong, fresh 
breeze. (Dryden : hind Panther, iii. 456.) 

mackerel-guide, . A name for the 
Gar-fish (q.v.). 

mackerel-gull, s. 

Ornith. : A popular American name for 
Sterna hirundo, the Common Tern, because it 
is supposed to announce the coming of mack- 
erel. (Bartlett.) 

mackerel-midge, s, 

Ichthy. : Couchia glauca, a soft-finned fish, 
family Gadidae. Habitat, the North Atlantic, 
appearing in multitudes in the British Channel 
in May. Length, an inch to an inch and a half. 
Back black or bluish-green ; fins and belly sil- 
very white. Head obtuse, with four project- 
ing barbels, one depending from under jaw. 



late, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, 
or, wore, W9lf, work, whd, son i mute, cub, cure, unite, cur. rule, full : try. Sjfrian. w. 03= o i ey = a. au = kw. 



mackinaw blanket macrophylline 



2993 



mackerel mint, s. 

Bot. : A name for Spearmint (Mentha viridis). 

mackerel sky, s. 

Meteor. : A sky with small roundish masses 
of cirrocumulus disposed with more or less 
irregularity. It is most frequently seen in 
summer. Called also Mackerel-back sky. 

mack' i naw blank et, . The generic 
name of the blankets supplied (originally from 
Fort Mackinaw) to the Indians of the North- 
west by the United States Government. 

jnack' i naw boat, . A flat-bottomed, 
flat-sided boat, originally used at Mackinaw, 
Mich. 

tnack'-in-tdsh, s. [MACINTOSH.] 

mac kle, s. [MACULE.] 

tnac'-le (le as el), s. [Fr. from Lat. macula 
= a spot.] 

1. Her. : The same as MASCLE (q.v.). 

2. Min. : A variety of andalusite (q.v.), oc- 
curring in long tapering crystals in clay-slate. 
They have the axes and angles of a different 
colour from the rest of the crystals, owing to 
a regular arrangement of impurities in the 
interior. In transverse section they exhibit 
a cross or a tesselation, the outlines of which 
are frequently rhombs. (Seo figures in Dana's 
System of Mineralogy, 1875.) The same as 
CHIASTOLITE. 

ma clur a, s. [Named after Wm. Maclure, 
of the United States, a philosopher and 
naturalist.] 

Bot. : A genus of Moracese, consisting of 
trees, sometimes spiny, with entire or serrated 
leaves and unisexual flowers. The males in 
racemes, the females in heads, the fruits con- 
sisting of many achenes within the enlarged 
calyx. Maclura aurantiaca is the Osage 
Orange. It is about as large as the human 
band, orange coloured, and filled with a fetid 
elime, used by the Indian tribes of the United 
States, in which it grows, to smear their faces 
when they go out to war. Maclura tinctoria. 
yields the dyewood called Fustic (q.v.). The 
fruit is pleasant, and used in North America 
as a cathartic and an anthelmintic. 

Bia-clur'-e'-a, s. [Named after Wm. McClure, 
the American geologist.] 

Zool. : An anomalous genus of Nucleobran- 
Chiate Gasteropoda, family Atlantida-. It is 
discoidal, few whorled, with a sinistrally 
Bub-spiral operculum. Found in Lower 
Silurian rocks, in North America, and Scot- 
land. It may be one of the Heteropoda. 

ma-clure' ite, s. [Named after Wm. Maclure ; 
suff. -ite (Min.).] 

Min. : The maclureite named by Nuttall is 
included by Dana in the Fassaite group of 
aluminous pyroxenes (q.v.) ; that named by 
Seybert in the same year is the same as 
chondrodite (q.v.) 

ma-clur'-In, *. [Mod. Lat. maclur(a); -in 
(CA^ro.).] 

Chem. : A crystalline body extracted from 
fustic, Maclura tinctoria. Dried over sul- 
phuric acid, its formula is Cj^HiaOg. Heated 
to 130 it loses one atom of water, its forma- 
tion then l>eing CigHmO^. It is soluble in 
water and alcohol, but insoluble in ether. 

Mac mU'-lan-ite, . [For etym. see def.] 

Eccles. it Church Hist. (PI.) : The followers of 
the Rev. John Macmillan, of Balmaghie, in 
Kirkcudbrightshire, who, in the latter part 
of the seventeenth century, aided in laying 
the foundation of the Reformed Presbyterian 
or Cameronian Church. 

mac'-on, s. [From Macon on the Saone, 
where the grapes are grown.] A celebrated 
red French wine, noted for its strength and 
keeping qualities. 

mac -Sn-ite, s. [Named after its locality, 
Macon Co., North Carolina ; suff. -ite (Afiu.).] 
Min. : A mineral occurring in irregular 
scales associated with corundum (q.v.), at the 
Culsagee mine. Soft ; sp. gr. 2'827 ; colour, 
dark-brown ; lustre, pearly. Compos. : silica, 
84"22; alumina, 2153; sesquioxide of iron, 
12'41 ; magnesia, 14-4(5 ; potash, 5'70 ; loss on 
ignition, 11'85. Exfoliates largely on heating, 
and is apparently the result of an alteration 
of a chlorite. 



mac'-ou-ba, *. (MACCOUBA.) 
macr-, prtf. [MACRO-.] 

mac-ra'-me, s. [From Arab.] (See the com- 
pound.) 

macrame lace, s. An Italian lace, made 
from twine. It is extensively used in church 
decorations, and for the ornamentation of fur- 
niture. The best is that made at Genoa. 

mac' rau chene, s. [MACRAUCHENIA.] Any 
member of the genus Macrauchenia (q.v.). 

" In the Macrauchene the fibula is ludeed entire." 
Eng. Enryc. (,Vat. Hut.), iii. 573. 

mac-rau-chen -i-a, s. [Pref. macr-, and 
Mod. Lat. auchenia (q.v.).] 

Palceont. : The typical and only genus of 
the family Macrauchenid* (q.v.), formerly re- 
ferred to the Camelidse, but now placed among 
the Perissodactyla, all the feet being three-toed. 
The lower molars resemble those of Palaeothe- 
rium in being doubly crescentic. The general 
form of the skull resembles that of the horse. 
(Nicholson : Palceont., ii. 335.) 

mac-rau-chen'-i-da, *. pi. [Mod. Lat. 
macrauchen(io,) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 
Pakeont. : A family established for the re- 
ception of the genus Macrauchenia, from the 
Pliocene or Post-Pliocene of South America. 

mac ren 90 phaT ic, mac ren 9eph 
a lous, a. [Pref. macr-, and Eng. encephalic, 
encephalous.] Having a long or large brain. 

mac-r6-, pref. [Gr. juxicpos (mofcros) = long.] 
(For def. see etym.) 

macro-lepidoptera, s. pi. A collector's 
term for butterflies. It is of no scientific value. 

mac-ro-ba'-sfe, s. [Pref. macro-, and Gr. 
|Sdo-is (basis) = a stepping, a movement.] 

Entom. : A genus of Cantharidse. Macro- 
basis unicohr is an American blister beetle, 
the larva of which feeds on the potato. 

* mac-ro-bi-o't -Ic, a. [Gr. fioucpo/Sio* (ma- 

krobios), /a.ojcpo|3ioTOs (molcrobiotos) = long- 
lived : poxpof (makros) = long ; /St'os (bios) = 
life ; Fr. macrobiotifjue.] Long-lived. 

mac-r6-bi-8t'-i-d, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. mae- 
robiot(us); Lat. fern. pi. adj. sun", -idee.] 

ZooL : A family of spiders, order Tardigrada 
(Bear or Sloth Animalcules). It consists of 
microscopic spiders, found in wet moss, and 
in the gutters of houses, &c. They have 
elongated bodies, with four legs. They are 
hermaphrodite. So low are they in organiza- 
tion, that they have been placed by some with 
the Infusoria, and by others with the Rotifera. 

mac-rd-bi-o'-tus, s. [MACROBIOTIC.] 

Zool. : The typical genus of the family 
Macrobiotidse (q.v.) Species, Macrobiotus 
hu/elandi, M. nberhauseri, &c. 

mac-r6-9eph'-a-lous, a. [Pref. macro-, 
and Eng. cephalous.} 

Bot. : A name applied by Richard to dicoty- 
ledonous embryos, with a certain cohesion 
between the cotyledons. 

inac-ro'-cer'-ciis, s. [Pref. macro-, and Gr. 
Kc'picot (kerkns) = a tail.] 

Ornith. : A genus of Psittacidse, sub-family 
Araiii*. It contains the Macaws. [MACAW.] 

mac-ro-chlo'-a, s. [Pref. macro-, and Gr. 
XAoij (chloe), %\oa. (chloa) = young green corn 
or grass.] 

Bot. : A genus of Grasses, tribe Stipese. 
Macrochloa (Stipu) tenacissima is a rush-like 
grass found on the sandy coasts of the Medi- 
terranean. It is the original Esparto grass. 

mac'-ro-COSln, s. [Pref. macro-, and Gr. 
KWTIUK (kosmos) = the world ; Fr. macrocosme.} 
The great world ; the universe, or the visible 
sys'vem of the world, as distinguished from 
microcosm (q.v.). 

" He calls a man a microcosm, because his body ts 
really made up of all the several kinds of creatures the 
marrwam or greater world consists of. and so is bnt a 
m. del or epitome of the universe." Boyl* : Work*, ii. M. 

* mac-ri-cSs'-mic, a. [Eng. macrocosm ; 
-ic.] Of or pertaining to the macrocosm ; ex- 
ceedingly great and far-reaching; immense, 
comprehensive. 

" It was a period of prodigious ideas. Every literary 
work was marroc^rmc and colossal."-*. Buchanan, 
in Temptt Bar. 1870, p. 87. 



mac-r6-9Jfa'-tlS, s. [Pref. macro-, and Mod. 
Lat., &c. cyst is.] 

Bot. : A genus of Fucacese, family or tribe 
Laminaridae. Maerocystis pyrifera is a giant 
seaweed, with a stem 700 feet long, no thicker 
than the finger. The branches are as slender 
as pack-threads ; the leaves long and narrow, 
each has at its base a vesicle filled with air, 
enabling the plant to float. It is met with in 
the ocean in the south temperate and south 
polar zones. 

m&c-r6-dac'-t^l, s. [MACRODACTYLES.] An 
individual of the family Macrodactyles. 

mac-r6-dac'-t$rl-es, mac-rd-dac'-t^l-I- 

des, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. , from Gr. fiaxpof (makros) 
= long, and SCOCTVAOS (daktuhs)=& finger, atoe.J 
Ornith. : Long-toes ; a sub-order of Gralla- 
tores (q.v.). The feet are furnished with four 
elongated, sometimes lohated, toes, and the 
wings are of moderate size. Beak mostly 
short and compressed, or wedge-shaped. Legs 
robust, not long ; neck not very long ; tail 
very short. The chief memlxjrs of the sub- 
family are the Rails, the Waterhens, the Coots, 
and the Jacana. (Nicholson.) 

mac-ri-dac-t^r-Ic, mac ro dac tyl- 
OUS, a. [Eng. macrodactyl; -ic, -ous.] Having 
long toes ; an epithet applied to birds of the 
sub-order Macrodactyles. 

mac-ro-dac-tyl'-i-des, s. pi. [MACRO- 
DACTYLES.] 

mac-ro-dl ag'-on-al, s. [Pref. macro-, and 
Eng. diagonal (q.v.).J The longer of the dia- 
gonals of a rhombic prism. 

mac'-ro-dome, s. [Pref. macro-, and Or. 
56/u.ot (domos) = a building.] [DOME.] 

Crystallog. : A dome parallel to the longer 
lateral axis in the trimetric system. (Dana.) 

mac'- ro- don, s. [Pref. macro-, and Gr. 

oSov's (odous), genit. b&omos (odentos) = a tooth.) 

Ichthy. : A genus of Fishes, family Chara- 

cinidae. Macrodon traltira and M. aimara are 

from Cayenne. 

mac-rfi-glos -sa, . [Pref. macro-, and Gr. 
yAioo-o-a (glossa) = the tongue.] 

Entom. : A genus of Huwkmoths, family 
Sesiidae. Macroglossa stellatarum is British. 
The forewings are smoky brown, marked with 
black ; the hinder ones dull tawny, with the 
base blackish-brown and the head-margin 
reddish-brown ; the body reddish, with black 
and white on the posterior parts. The larva, 
which is variegated and has a caudal horn, 
feeds on bedstraw (Galium) from July to 
August, the perfect insect appearing from 
May to September. 

mac ro-glos-sus, s. [MACROOLOSSA.] 

Zool. : A genus of Bats, family Pteropidse. 
Macroglossus minimus is a small fruit-eating 
bat, found in the Himalayas, the Eastern 
Peninsula, the Eastern Islands, and the ad- 
jacent parts of Australia. 

mac-rog-nath'-Ic, a. [Pref. macro-, and Gr. 
yvaQo? (gnatlios) = a jaw.] 

Aiithrop. : Long- jawed ; a term applied bf 
Prof. Huxley to skulls of Neolithic age, met 
with in caves and tombs in Belgium, France, 
and Spain. 

" The skulls are broad or round, the supra-occipital 
tuberosity, or 'probole' prominent, the pariet 
often 



cipital region 



, 

flattened, the suj.raciliary ridges 
more strongly marked than in the oval skulls. The 
nstead of 



face, instead of be 
nd the upper 



al, is angular or lozenge-shaped. 



largely de 

and projected so far Iwyond the vertical line dropped 
from the forehead, that the term macrngnathic hai 
been happily applied to them by Prof. Huxley." 
liawkint : Karly Man in Hritain, ch. iz. 



j:i 



; . [Gr. fuucpoAoyt'a (ma- 
kroloc/ia), from /luucpoAoTO? (malcrologos) = talk- 
ing long : fuucpo? (macros) = long, and Aoyos 
(logos) = talk, speech.] Long tedious talk; 
superfluity of words without meaning. 
ma-crttm'-^-ter, . [Pref. macro-, and Eng. 
meter.} An instrument for measuring inacces- 
sible objects by means of two reflectors on a 
common sextant. 

mac'-ron, s. [MACROTONE.] 

mac-ro-ph^r-line, ma-crdph'-Jfl-lous, 

a. [Gr. iLaxp6(t>v\Xos (makrophullos) : pref. 
macro-, and Gr. 4>vAAoi> (phullon)r= a leaf.] 

Bot. : Consisting of elongated extended 
leaflets. 



-clan, 



^; pout, jJr>rl; cat, fell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, $enophon, exist, ph - L 
-tlan = shan. -Hon. -sior = ehun ; (ion, -sion = zhun. -clous, -tious, -sious = shiis. -ble, -die, <fec. = bel, dei. 



7994 



macropiper macula 



lic-ro-pi'-per, s. [Pref. macro-, and Mod. 
Lat. piper (q.v.).J 

Bot. : A genus of Piperaceae, family Piperidae 
(q.v.). Macropiper methisticum is the plant 
which the South-sea Islanders call ava or 
kava. It has a thick woody rugged aromatic 
rhizome, a tincture of which is used in rheu- 
matism. Macerated in water it is said to 
bring on copious perspiration, and produce a 
cure in persons affected with venereal disease. 

mac'-ro-pod, s. [MACROPODAL.] An indi- 
vidual ofthe family Macropodia (q.v.). 

mac rop 6-dal, mac-rSp'-o-dous, a. 

[Pref. macro-, and Gr. irovs (pous), genit. 
jroo'ds (podos) = a foot.] Having large or 
great feet. 



mac ro po di an, s. [MACROPODID*.] 
A macropod (q.v.). 

mac ro pod i dae, ma Top i dse, --. pi. 
[Mod. Lat. macrop(us) ;' Lat. fern. pi. adj. 
suff. -idee.] 

1. Zoology: 

(1) A family of Marsupials, section Phyto- 
pliaga, or in Owen's classification Diprodo- 
dontia. There are six incisors in the upper 
jaw, and two in the lower ; the canines in the 
upper .jaw are small and wanting in the lower 
one ; the molars are five on each side above 
and below. The anterior feet, which are small, 
have five toes, each armed with a claw ; the 
hinder ones, which are very large, powerful, 
and well adapted for leaping, have but four, 
the inner one, or great toe, being absent. 
Found in Australia, Tasmania, and New 
Guinea. Genera : Macropus (Kangaroo), Den- 
drolagus (Tree - kangaroo), Hypsiprymnus 
(Kangaroo-rat), &c. 

(2) The first family of Milne-Edwards's Oxy- 
rhyuchi. They have very long feet, and are 
called in consequence Sea-spiders and Spider- 
crabs. They live in the deep sea. Called also 
Leptopodidse (q.v.). Latreille has termed 
them Macropodia. 

2. Palceont. : Huge Macropi are found in the 
Post-Tertiary of Australia with representatives 
of the other genera. They were found in ossi- 
ferous breccias in the Wellington Valley, about 
210 miles west of Sydney, on the river Bell, 
one of the principal sources of the Macquarie, 
and on the Macquarie itself. Kangaroos seem 
to have been limited to Australia before the 
human period began. The name of the Rhaetic 
genus Hypsiprymnopsis of Prof. Boyd-Daw- 
kins suggests a relation to Hypsiprymnus, 
but Prof. Owen considers it to be a Micro- 
lest.i-s (q.v.). 

mac-ro-po'-ma, *. [Pref. macro-, and Gr. 
jno/xa (porna) = a lid, a cover.] 

Palceont. : A genus of crossopterygious 
Ganoid fishes, family Cctlacanthiui. It is 
found in the Cretaceous rocks. 

mac ro pon 1 dae, s. pi. [Gr. /noxpoirovta 
(makroponia) = long labour ; Lat. fern. pi. 
adj. suff. -idee.] 

Ichthy. : In Prof. Owen's classification, the 
twelfth family of his Lepidoganoidei, a sub- 
order of Ganoidean fishes. 

ma-crop' ter us, . [Pref. macro-, and Gr. 
irrepov (pteron) = a wing, a fin.] Having long 
wings or fins. 

mac ro pus, *. [Pref. macro-, and Gr. wows 
(pous) = a foot.] 

Zool. : The typical genus of the family Ma- 
: cropodidse (q.v.). [KANGAROO.] 



'--a, s. [Pref. macro- (q.v.), 
and Gr. nvyri (puge) = the rump, the buttocks.] 
Ornith. : A genus of Columbidse, containing 
the Cuckoo-doves. They have a very long 
graduated and pointed tail. 

mac ro rhi nus, s. [Gr. fxaxpdppi? (ma- 
krorrhis), genit. jiaicpoppii/os (makrorrhinos) = 
long-nosed.] 

Zool : A genus of Phocidse (Seals). Macro- 
rhinits elephantinus is the Elephant Seal, so 
called from its possessing, when full-grown, a 
short proboscis. It appears to exist both in 
the northern and southern hemispheres, though 
Dr. Gill believes the specimens from the 
former to be specifically distinct, calling 
them M. angustirostra. The Elephant Seal 
is found abundantly on the coasts of Juan 



Fernandez, the Falkland Islands, <fcc. The 
male is fourteen to sixteen or twenty feet 
long, with a proboscis of a foot ; the female 
about nine or ten feet. 

mac-rd-89eT-I-des, *. [Gr. naxpooxAni 
(makroskeltes) = long-legged : pref. macro-, and 
Gr. oxc'Aof (skelos) = the leg.] 

Zool. : The typical genus of the family Ma- 
croscelididae. Macroscelides typicus is the 
Elephant Shrew of South Africa. It is about 
five inches long, with a tail of three inches, 
is diurnal, and resides in burrows. M. Rozeti 
is the Algerian jumping-shrew. 

mac-ro-89e-lid'-i-d8e, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. 
macroscelid(es) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 
Zool. : Jumping-shrews, a sub-family of In- 
sectivorous Mammals, resembling shrews, 
but having very elongated hind legs, enabling 
them to advance by a series of jumps. The 
snout is long, and sometimes prolonged into 
a trunk ; the tail long, covered with hair. 
The species inhabit Africa. 

mac r6" scop'-ic, a. [See MEGASCOPIC.] 

mac ro spo-ran-gi iim (pi. mac r6- 
spo-ran -gi-a), s. [Pref. macro-; Gr. 
(TTropa (spora), or orropos (sporos) = seed, and 
ayyeiof (anggelon) = a vessel, a receptacle.] 

Bot. (PI.) : Sporangia of comparatively large 
size, containing macrospores in the Rhizo- 
carpeae like Salvinia and Marsilea. [MACRO- 
SPORE.] 

mac r6 spore, . [Pref. macro-, and Gr. 
o-Tropa (spora), or o-jropos (sporos) = a seed.] 

Bot. (PI.) : Spores of comparatively large 
size in macrosporangia, as distinguished from 
microspores in microsporangiainthe Rhizocar- 
peae, such as Marsilea, Pilularia, and Salvinia. 

mac-ro-theV-I-um, *. [Pref. macro-, and 
Gr. faipiov (tlierion) - a wild animal.] 

Palceont. : A genus of Edentata founded on 
remains of a large animal, having the hind 
limbs shorter than the fore ones, as for climb- 
ing purposes, rootless teeth, and toes with 
immense claws. It is found in the Miocene 
of France. 

mac ro to -ml-a, s. [Gr. /iaicpoTo/'<o (ma- 
krotomeo) = to prune so as to leave the shoots 
long.] 

Bot. : A genus of Boraginaceae. Macrotomia 
Benthami grows in the Himalayas, and is con- 
sidered useful in diseases of the tongue and 
throat. The bruised roots of M. perennis are 
applied in India to eruptions, and its root 
is used as a dye. 

mac'-ro-tone, s. [Pref. macro-, and Eng. 
tone.] 

Gram. : A horizontal line drawn over vowels 
to show that they are to be pronounced long : 
as, me, fine, tone, etc. 

ma-cro' -toils, a. [MACROTUS.] Having long 
ears ; long-eared. 

ma - ord'- tus, s. [Pref. macro-, and Gr. ofa 
(bus), genit. OIT<X (6tos) = an ear.] 

Zool. : A genus of Pliyllostomidae (Vampires). 
Ears very large, united at the base by a mem- 
brane ; nasal appendage, erect ; interfemoral 
membrane large, beyond which the tail pro- 
jects by its last joint. Macrotus Waterhnusii 
' is the Great-eared Leaf Bat from the West 
Indies ; the length of the head and body is 
two inches and a half ; tail, an inch and one- 
sixth. Fur, mo'ise-colour, paler beneath ; 
nose-leaf, lanceolate. It is mainly insectivor- 
ous, but sometimes feeds on fruit Other 
species are M. californicus and M. mtxicanus, 
the habitat of which is indicated by their 
specific names. 

mac-ro-typ'-ous, a. [Pref. macro-, and Gr. 

TVTTOS (tupos) =. a blow, a type.] 
Numis. : Having a long form. 

ma crour -a, s. [MACRURA.] 

ma crour al, ma crour ous, a. 

[MACROURA.] The same as MACRURAL or 
MACRURUS (q.v.). 

ma-crour'-an, s. [MACRURAN.] 
ma crour ous, a. [MACRURUS.] 

mac r6 za ml a, . [Pref. macro-, and Mod. 
Lat. tamia (q.v.).J 
Bot. : A genus of Cycadaceae. ISacrozamia 



spiralis is believed to be the species of Zarnia 
growing on the west coast of Australia to the 
height of thirty feet. 

ma -crur'-a, ma-crour'-a, s. pi. [MA- 
CRURUS.] 

1. Zool. : Long-tailed Crustaceans ; lobsters, 
a sub-order of Deiapoda, having the abdomen 
greatly developed, cylindrical, the segments 
short, flattened, and expanded laterally ; the 
whole terminated by a broad swimming tail. 
The antennse are usually large. The feet are 
terminated by nipping claws. The young, on 
being hatched, are not very different in form 
from their parents. They abound in both 
salt and fresh water. The sub-order contains 
the families Crangonidas, Astacidae, Thalassi- 
nidae, and Palinuridae. 

2. Palceont. : They came into existence in 
palaeozoic times. 

ma-crur'-al, ma-crur ous, a. [MA- 
CRURA.] Belonging to or having the charac- 
teristics of the family Macrura (q.v.). 

ma-crnr'-an, s. [MACRURA.] An individual 
o'f the family Macrura (q.v.). 

ma-crur'-I-daB, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. macrur(us); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 

Ichthy. : A family of deep-sea Ganoids, dis- 
tributed over all oceans, in great abundance. 
About forty species are known. The body 
terminates in a long, compressed, tapering 
tail, covered with spiny, keeled, or striated 
scales. One short anterior dorsal, the second 
very long, continued to the end of the tail ; 
anal as long as second dorsal ; no caudal. 
Ventrals thoracic or jugular. (Giinther.) 

mac-ru-ro'-nus, s. [MACRURUS.] 

Ichthy.: A genus of Macruridae(q.v.). Snout- 
pointed ; mouth anterior and lateral, with the 
lower jaw projecting. 

ma-crur'-us, s. [Pref. macro-, and Gr. oiipA 
(oura) = a tail.] 

Ichthy. : The typical genus of the family 
Macruridse (q.v.). Snout produced and coni- 
cal ; mouth inferior. 

* mac-ta'-tion, s. [Lat. mactatio, from moo- 

tatus, pa. par. of macto = to sacrifice.] The 

act of killing a victim in sacrifice ; a sacrifice. 

" Here they call Cain's offering, which is described 

and allowed to be the first fruits of the ground only, 

a sacrifice or mactation."Sihul<f<ird: On the Creation. 

(Pref.) 

mac -ta'- tor, *. [Lat., from mactatus, pa. 
par. of macto = to sacrifice, to kill.] A mur- 
derer, a killer. 

mac'-tra, s. [Gr.,= a kneading-trough.] 



sape ; e spons are une an rg 
the shell is nearly equilateral. Habitat, sandy 
coasts, where they burrow just below the 
surface. In the Isle of Arran, Mactra sub~ 
truncata is collected for feeding pigs. One 
hundred and twenty-five recent species are 
known. They are world-wide in their dis- 
tribution, and especially abundant within the 
tropics. 

2. Palceont. : Thirty species are known, from 
the Lias onward. 

mac'- tri - dee, .>. pi. [Mod. Lat., &c. mactr(a) 
(q.v.) ; Lat. fern. pL adj. suff. -idee.] 

Zool. : Trough-shells ; a family of Siphonida, 
subdivision Sinupallialia. Valves, equal, sub- 
triangular, close-fitting; a deep pit for the 
hinge-ligament, triangular in form ; the hinge 
has two diverging teeth ; siplional fold short 
and rounded, epidermis thick. Mostly uia> 
rine, but also found in brackish waters. 

mac'-u-la (pi. mac u lae), s. [Lat.] 

I. Ord. Lang. : A spot, as on the skin, the 
surface of the sun, or other luminous body, &c. 

" And lastly, the body of the sun may contract some, 
spotoor macula greater than usual, and by that mean*' 
be darkened." Burnet : Theory of the Earth. 

II. Technically : 

1. Bot. : A broad, irregular spot or blotch. 

2. Path. (PI.) : Permanent discoloration^ 
of the skin ; spots or stains white, dark, or 
dusky, with occasionally altered structure. 

macula germinativa, s. 

Anat. Physiol. : A dark granular spot, 
about ^^j of an inch in diameter, within the 
germinal vesicle of an ovum. Called also the 
germinal-spot. 



J&te, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or, wore, wpif , work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full ; try, Syrian, ae, ce = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 



maculate - maddish 



2995 



r macula lutea, s. 

' Anat,: A yellow spot, about A of an inch 
in diameter, on the axis of the eyeball ; it has 

depression in its centre. 

Znac'-U-late, v.t. [MACULATE, a.] To spot, 
to stain, to blur. 

" They wold not maculate the honour of theyr people 
wyth suche a reproche." Sir C. lyot : Ooternour, 
bk. L. ch. xivL 

mac u late, * mac'-n-lat-e'd, a. [Lat. 

' ma.cula.iut, "pa. par. of macula = to spot, to 
tain ; macula = a spot, a stain.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Spotted, stained, blurred, 
defiled, impure. 

" Host maculate thought*, muster, are masked under 
uch colours." Shaketp. : Love* Labour'! Lott. i. 2. 

2. Bot. : The same as BLOTCHED (q.v.). 

mftc'-U-la-tor- jr, o. [MACULATE.] De- 
tiling, staining. 



m&C-n-la'-tion, *. [Lat maculatio, from 
macuUitus, pa. par. of maculo to spot, to 
stain; Fr. maculation; Ital. maculazione.] The 
act of spotting or staining ; a spot, a stain. 

" For I will throw my glove to death himself. 
That there's no maculation in thy heart." 

Shaketp. : Trailui i Creuida, iv. 4. 

mac u-la ture, s. [MACULA.] 

1. A sheet blotted or blurred in printing. 

2. Blotting-paper. 

BOac'-ule, . [Fr., from Lat. macula = a spot, 
a stain.] 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : A spot, a stain. 

2. Print. : A blurred impression, causing 
part of a page to appear double ; also called a 
Buckle. 

tnac'-ule, v.t. [MACULE, s.] To spot, to 
stain, "to blur; specif., in printing, to blur or 
double an impression from type. 

* mac'- U - lose, a. [Lat. maculotus, from 
macula = a spot, a stain.] Of or pertaining 
to spots or stains upon a surface ; spotted, 
stained, maculate. 

mad, * maad, * madde, * made, * mod, 

a. [A.S. ge-nuicd, ge-maad ; cogn. with O. S. 
ge-med = foolish ; O. H. Ger. ka-meit, gi-meit 
= vain ; Icel. meiddr (pa. par. of meidha) = 
to maim, to hurt ; Goth, ga-maids = bruised, 
maimed ; A.S. mad, mod = madness.] 

1. Disordered in intellect ; insane, deranged, 
lunatic, crazy. 

"Ii all well? Wherefore came this mad fellow to 
thee?" 2 Kinji iv. 2. 

2. Furious or frantic from disease or other 
cause. (Said of animals : as, a mud bull.) 

3. Under the influence of some overpower- 
ing or uncontrollable emotion ; extravagant 
in feeling or action ; having lost self-control : 
s 

(1) Beside one's self with rage; frantic, 
furious, enraged. 

" Her husband hath the finest mad devil of Jealousy 
in him ... that ever governed frenzy." xhaketp. : 
Merry Wloet of Windtor, v. 1. 

(2) Under the influence of some strong or 
unreasonable passion or desire; infatuated; 
inflamed with desire. 

" He was mad for her." Shakeip. : Altt Well That 
Xndt Well, r. 8. 

(3) Wildly or extravagantly frolicsome. 

"Do you hear, my mad wenches?" Shakeip. : 
Lan't Labour t Lott. ii. 

4. Proceeding from or indicative of mad- 
ness ; exceedingly foolish ; cliarateristic of 
a madman. 

" This Is a way to kill a wife with kindness ; 
And thus I'll curb her mad ami headstrong humour." 
Shakeip. : Taming of the Shrew, Iv. L 

T (1) Like mad : Madly, furiously. (Colloq.) 

(2) Mad as a hatter: Dangerously mad, 
rabid. The expression is a corruption ol 
" Mad as an atter," i.e., adder. (Brewer.) 

(3) Mad as a March hare: [MARCH, . If.] 

(4) To be (go or run) mad after anything : To 
conceive a violent desire for anything. 

"The world is running mad after f.rce, the ex- 
treniity of bad poetry, or rather the jud.rment that is 
fallen upon dramatick writing." Dryden. 

mad-apple, s. [MADAPPLE.] 

* mad-bred, a. Produced or bred by or 
in madness. 

" Until the golden circuit on my head. 
Like to the glorious sun's trausiMirent 'ieams, 
Do calm the fury of this mad-bred flaw." 

Shaketp. : 1 Henry VI., iti. L 



mad-dog, . 

1. Ord. Lang. : A dog suffering from rabies 
(q.v.). 

2. Bot. : ScutMuria lateriflora. It owes its 
popular name to the fact that it was once a 
renowned quack remedy for hydrophobia. 
(Bartlett.) 

mad-spice, i, 

Bot. : Capsicum minimum. 

mad-stone, s. A porous stone reputed 
to be efficacious in hydrophobia. It is applied 
to the wound made by the bite of the rabid 
animal, and is supposed to draw out the virus. 
Its efficacy ia doubtful. 

. * mad-worm, *. Madness, insanity. 

" Surely the mod-worm hath wllded all humanity." 
Feltham : Retolvet, p. 39. 

* mad, * madde, v.i. & t. [MAD, a.] 

A. Intrans. : To be or go mad ; to be 
furious ; to be beside oneself ; to be deranged. 

" Manye of hem seiden, he hath a deuel and mad- 
deth." \Yycliffe : John i. 

B. Trans. : To make mad ; to madden. 

" Had I but seen thy picture in this plight, 
It would have madded me." 

Shaketp. : Titut Andronicut, Hi. 1. 

* mad, * made, * madde, * mathe, s. 

[A.S. madliu = a worm, a maggot ; Goth. 
matha; Ger. made; Icel. madhkr.] 

1. A maggot, a grub. (H. Bett: Farming, 
c., Bootes, p. 6.) 

2. An earthworm. 

Mad a-gas car, s. [See def.] 

Geog. : An island in the Indian Ocean, to 
the south-east of Africa. 

Madagascar-crocodile, s. 

Zool. : Probably a variety of the Nilotic 
Crocodile (Crocodilus vulgaris). It has the 
snout longer, slenderer, and with straighter 
sides than the Nilotic Crocodile. (Duncan.) 

Madagascar nutmeg, s. 

Bot. : The genus Agathophyllum. 

Madagascar-potato, t, 

Bot. : Solanum anguini. 

Madagascar-rat, s. 

Zool. : Cheirogale minor, one of the smallest 
of the Malagasy Lemuroids. It makes a true 
nest of interlaced twigs, with a depressed bed 
in the middle for its young. 

* mad am, v.t. [MADAM, .] To address as 
Madam. 

" I am . . . ma<lamed up perhaps to matrimonial 
perfection." Richardton : Clarissa, viii. 203. 

mad am, ma-dame', s. [Fr. madame, from 
ma (Lat. mea) = my, and dame (Lat. domino) 
= lady, mistress.] My lady. Used 

(1) As a term of compliment in addressing 
a lady of any degree, especially those married 
or elderly. 

" Ther durste no wight clepe hir but madame; 
Was noon so hardy walkyng by the weye." 

Chaucer : C. T., 3.9S4. 

(2) As a term for ladies in general, usually 
with a slight touch of disrespect or sarcasm. 

" To make sport to their madams and their boys." 
Drayton : Battle of Ayincourt. 

Mad-a-pol-lam , s. [See def.] 

Fabric : A kind of fine, long cloth (cotton) 
shipped to the East India market. So named 
from Madapollam, a town in the province of 
Madras, where it was first manufactured. 

mad ap-ple, . [Eng. mad, and apple.] 

Bot. : Solanum insanum, an East Indian 
plant. Called also Jew's-apple. [SOLANUM.] 

mad-a-rd'-sls, s. [Gr. ^ooopo? (madaros) = 
bald.] Loss of the hair, and especially of the 
eyelashes. 

mad brain, a. & $. [Eng. mad, and brain.] 

A. As adj. : Disordered in mind ; mad, in- 
sane, hot-headed. 

B. -4s subst. : A mad, hot-headed person ; 
one who acts madly or extravagantly. 

" A madbrain o' th' first rate." 

MvliHetnn : A Mad World, 1. 

mad brained, a. [Eng. mad, and brained.] 
The same as MADBRAIN (q.v.). 

" Talbot Is taken, whom we wont to fear : 
Keniaineth none but mad-brained Salisbury." 

Shak'tp. : I Uenry IV., L 1. 

mad -cap, a. & i. [Eng. mad, and cap.] 



A. As adj. : Madbrained, mad, eccentric. 

" The nimble-footed madcap prince of Wales, 
And his comrades, that daft the world aside. 
And bid it pass." Hhakaii. : 1 Henry IV., IT. L 

B. As subst. : A mad-brained fellow ; one 
who acts extravagantly ; a person of wild and 
eccentric habits ; a madbrain. 

" Why, what a madcap bath Heaven lent us here ! " 
Shaketp, : King John, 1 L 

* madde, v.i. & t. [MAD, v.] 

* madde, a. [MAD, a.] 

mad -den, v.t. & i. [Eng. mad, a. ; en.'] 

A. Trans. : To make mad, to drive out of 
one's senses ; to enrage, to make furious, to 
excite with furious passion. 

" A rage of pleasure maddened every breast." 

Thornton : Cattle of Indolence, ii. S(. 

* B. Intrans. : To become mad or furious ; 
to act as a madman. 

" Ever he muttered and maddened." 

Tennyton : Jfaud, 1. 1 It. 

mad'-der, 5. [A.8. mceddre, mceddere.] 

1. Bot. : The genus Rubia, and specially 
Rubia tinctorum. (Dyer's Madder.) It is a 
trailing or climbing annual, supporting itself 
by its leaves and prickles. It is supplied 
chiefly from Holland, France, Italy, and 
Turkey. The roots, which are ready the third 
year, are kiln-dried, and then threshed, to 
clear them from earth and dust. They are 
then dried a second time, and afterwards 
pounded and stamped in a mill. A species of 
Madder, Rubia peregrina, is indigenous in 
Britain. It has whorls of four to six elliptic, 
persistent glossy leaves, a yellowish corolla, 
and small black fruit. 

IT Indian Madder, called also Madder of 
Bengal, is Rubia cordifolia ; Madder of Chili, 
Rubia augustissima or Relboum. 

2. Chem. : The root of Rubia Tinctorum, ex- 
tensively used in dyeing for the production of 
a variety of colours, namely, red, pink, purple, 
black, and chocolate. Other species of Rubia 
are also used. It would appear that madder 
contains a colorific principle rubian which, 
under the influence of a peculiar ferment, 
termed erythrozym, breaks up into alizarin, 
pnrpurin, &c. Several of the colouring 
matters of madder appear to exist in the fresh 
root, but it is only when it has been kept for 
some time that the alizarin and purpurin are 
developed in quantity. The colours produced 
from madder are very stable, the well-known 
Turkey-red being one of them ; and the tints 
and shades obtainable, according to the mor- 
dant used, are very numerous. Alizarin, or 
madder red, discovered by Robiquet, may be 
extracted with solvents, or obtained by sub- 
limation in the form of beautiful reddish 
needles. [ALIZARIN.] Madder also contains 
certain yellow colouring matters, but they are 
useless, if not injurious, in the process of 
dyeing. 

" The best of all and most commended is our maddtr 
of Italie." P. Holland: Plinie, bk. xix., ch. iii. 

3. Pharm. : Madder is a tonic, a diuretic, 
and an emmenagogue. 

^f Brown Madder : A rich red-brown pig- 
ment, prepared from the roots of Rubia tino 
torum. [MADDER, ., 1.] 

madder-style, s. 

Calico-print. : A method of calico-printing 
in which the mordants are applied to the 
white cloth, and the colours are brought up 
in the dye-bath. 

* mad'-der, v.t. & i. [MADDER, s.] 

A. Trans. : To dye with madder. 

B. Intrans. : To perform the operation or 
process of dyeing with madder. 

mad'-der -wort, . [Eng. madder, and 
wort (q.v.).] 

1. (Sing.) : The genus Asperugo. 

t 2. (PI-): A name sometimes given to tha 
Galiaceae, called by Lindley, &c., in English, 
Stellates (q.v.). 

* mad' -ding, o. [MAD, v.] Raging, furious, 
mad, wild. (Pope : Homer ; Iliad xvi. 445.) 

* mad'-dlng-ly, adv. [Eng. madding; -ly.} 
Madly ; like one mad. 

" Bun maildingly affrighted through the villages.' 
Beaum. t flet. : Woman Pleated, iv. 1. 

* mad dish, * mad'-ish, a. [Eng. mad, a. ; 
-is/i. J Rather mad ; somewhat deranged. 

- Sent in the other night, a little maddith. ' 

Beaum. i Flet. : The Pilgrim, IT. L 



bo~y; po~ut, J6M; cat, 9011, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as ; expect, Xenophon. exist, -ing. 
-dan, -tlan = shan. -tion, -sion - shun ; -(ion, sion = zhun. -clous, -tious, -clous - shus. -ble, -die. &c. = btl. d*L 



2990 



made madrepore 



made, * malt, mate, a. [MATE, a.] Fa- 
tigued, exhausted. 

made, pret. & pa. par. ofv. [MAKE, v.] 
made-mast, s. 

Naut. : A mast composed of several pieces ; 
a built-mast. [.MAST.] 

mad'-e-cass, mad e cis-sed, a. & s. 

[From Madecasse, the native name of the 
island.] 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to Madagascar. 

B. As subst. : A native or inhabitant of 
Madagascar. 

* mad- e -fac'-tion, s. [Lat. madefactio, from 
madefactus, pa. par. of mad'facio = to make 
wet : madeo = to be wet, and/acio = to make.} 
The act of making wet 

"To all made/action there Is required an Imbibition." 
Bacon : If at. Ilitt., j 8fiS. 

* mad-S-f I-ca'-tion, s. [Lat. madefacio = 
to make wet.] The act of making wet ; made- 
faction. 

*mad'-e'-fy, v.t. [Fr. modifier, from Lat. 
madefacio = to make wet.] To make wet or 
moist ; to moisten. [M ADEFACTION.] 

Ma deir a, s. [See def.] 

1. Geog. : An island in the Atlantic ocean. 

2. A kind of rich wine made in the island 
of Madeira. 

Madeira-cake, . A light cake, made 
of eggs, flour, butter, and sugar, and orna- 
mented with candied peel. 

Madeira mahogany, *. 

Hot. : Laurus f(etens. 

Madeira-nut, s. A kind of walnut with 
thin shell, grown in the island of Madeira. 

Madeira-stock, . 

Dot. : Matthiola maderensis. 
Madeira-wood, s. 

Dot. : Mahogany of the curiously-veined kind 
growing in the Bahama Islands. 

Ma deir an, a. & t. [See def.] 

A. As adj. : Belonging to or connected with 
the Island of Madeira. 

B. As subst. : A native of Madeira. 
Madeiran hake, *. 

Ichfhy. : (See extract). 

" The .Vndciran-hake, or Pescada, Merluciiu vulgarii 
of my Hynop&irt, p. 189, proves, upon better acquaint- 
ance, distinct from the common British-hake. Ret. 
R. T. Lam, in Proc. Zool. Hoc.. 1840, p. 86. 

mad c line, .s. [Fr.] (See the compound.) 

madcline pear, s. A variety of pear, 
called also St. John's pear. 

mad el pa roo wa, *. [Ceylonese.] A kind 
of boat used in Ceylon for fishing close to the 
shore, or on lakes in the interior of the 
island. It is sometimes covered with a bam- 
boo roof. 

made moi selle (pi as wa), i. [Fr., from 
ma = my, and demoiselle = a damsel (q.v.).] 
In France the title given to a young unmarried 
lady, corresponding to the English Miss. For- 
merly Mademoiselle was the distinctive title 
of the eldest daughter of the king's brother ; 
also a title given to all married ladies not of 
noble origin. 

madge'-hOW-lSt, *. [Eng. Madge = Mar- 
garet, and howlet = owlet (q.v.).] An owl. 

" I'll sit In a barn with Jiadgehowlet and catch mice 
first." Ben J onion : Every Man in Bit Humour, 11. 1 

mad head ed, a. [Eng. mad, a. , and headed.] 
Madbrained, liotbrained, mad, foolish. 
" Out, yon m/idhfoded ape I " 

fihakeip. ; 1 Henry IV., ML 8. 

mad house, s. [Eng. mad, a., and house.] 
. A house or asylum for the cure and treatment 
of lunatics ; a lunatic asylum. 

"By statute for regulating private madhouiet." 
Kockttone : Comment., bk. i., ch. 8. 

saa-dhu'-oa, s. [Sansc.] (See the com- 
pound.) 

madhuca tree, s. 

Bot. : Bassia butyracea, the Indian butter- 
tree, which grows in Nepaul and the Almorah 
Hills. The seeds, when bruised and pressed, 
yield a vegetable butter, which may be used 
in the manufacture of soap and candles, or 
with cloves and attar of roses, as an unguent 



for the hair, &c. It is largely employed as 
an illuminating agent, and is said to possess 
curative properties in rheumatism and con- 
traction of the limbs. (Prof. Watt, &c.) 

ma-dx-a, . [Latinised from the Chilian 
name modi.] 

Bot. : A genus of Composites, tribe Spheno- 
gyneae. Only known species, Madia satiiia, 
cultivated for the seeds in its native regions, 
California and Chili. The flowers, which are 
yellow, are in nearly globular heads. 

madia-oil, s. Oil expressed without 
heat from Madia, saliva. It is transparent, 
yellow, and without odour ; it may be used 
for salads or for oil-cake for cattle. 

* mad '-Id, o. [Lat. madidus, from madeo = 
to be wet or moist.] Wet, moist. 

* mad -ish, a. [MADDISH.] 

mad -is ter-i-um, t. [Or. na5i<rnjpw' 
(madisteriori).] 

Surg. : A pair of tweezers ; an instrument 
for extracting hairs. 

madj oun, maj'-oun, s. [Arab, majun = 
an electuary.] A preparation from the hemp- 
plant, used as an intoxicating drug by the 
Turks, Hindoos, and others. 

mad ly, * madde-lye, adv. [Eng. mad, 
a. ; -ly.] 

1. In a mad manner; like a madman or 
lunatic. 

"Wast thou mad that so madly thou didst answer 
me?"--SAa*ep. .' Comedy of Errori, ii. 2. 

2. Franticly, furiously. 

" The crowd that madly heaves and presses." 

Longfellow : Golden Legend, 11. 

3. Like one infatuated ; with extreme folly. 

" He heard, and madly at the motion pleas'd. 
His polished bow with hasty rashness seized." 
Pop* : Homer; Iliad iv. 135. 

mad man, * madde man, . [Eng. mad, a., 
and man.} 

1. A person disordered in the mind ; a 
person of deranged intellect ; a lunatic. 

"This makes the madmen who have made men mad." 
Byron : Childe Harold, ill. 43. 

2. One who is inflamed with extravagant 
or uncontrollable passion ; one who is beside 
himself with passion ; one who acts extrava- 
gantly or without reason. 

mad -ness, s. [Eng. mad, a. ; -ness.} 

1. The quality or state of being mad or dis- 
ordered in mind ; a state of disordered or 
deranged mind or intellect ; lunacy. 

" Madnets laughing in his ireful mood." 

Dryden: Palamon t Arcite, ii. 682. 

2. Extremity of folly ; headstrong or un- 
controllable passion ; ungovernable fury or 
rage. 

"But in him it was not easy to distinguish the mad- 
neu produced by evil passions from the madnrst pro- 
duced by brandy." Jlucaulay : If in. Eng., ch. T. 

3. Foolish actions or conduct. 

" And I gave my heart to know wisdom and to know 
madncu and to]ly."<xletiaitet i. 17. 

If Madness and frenzy are used in the phy- 
sical and moral sense ; rage and fury alone in 
the moral sense : in the first case, madness is 
a confirmed derangement in the organ of 
thought ; frenzy is only a temporary derange- 
ment from the violence of fever. Rage refers 
more immediately to the agitation that exists 
within ; fury refers to that which shows itself 
outwardly : a person contains or stifles his 
rage; but his fury breaks out into some 
external mark of violence. (Crabb: Eng. 
Synon.) 

If Raving madness : 

Pathol. : A popular name for mania (q.v.). 

ma don-na, ma don a, s. [Ital., from 
ma = my, and donna (Lat. domino) = lady.] 
The Italian equivalent for madam. 

" Two faults, madonna, that drink and good counsel 
will amend." Shakesp. : Twelfth Xijht, i. s. 

1[ It is applied specifically to the Virgin 
Mary, as the English "Our Lady;" hence, 
pictures of the Virgin are called Madonnas. 

mad 6 qua, s. [Native name.] 

Zool. : Antilope Saltiana or Neotragus Sal- 
tianus, a diminutive antelope about the size 
of a hare, common in Abyssinia, Legs short 
and slender; the males alone bear horns, 
which are short and conical. The foreparts 
are rufous, but gray is the prevailing hue. 



Ma-dras, s. [See def.] 

Geog. : A city and presidency in India. 
Madras bulbul, s. 

Ornith. : Pycnonotus hatmorrhous, a small 
bird very common in Ceylon, the Neilgherries, 
and some other parts of India. It has an un- 
musical chirp, though it has been called the 
Ceylon nightingale. It is kept in the Car- 
natic for fighting purposes. It tries to puli 
out the red feathers of its antagonist. It 
makes a neat nest of roots, grass, hair, 
spiders' webs, &c., in a low bush ; the eggs 
are reddish-brown, blotched and speckled. 

IF Madras system of Education : The system 
of mutual instruction by means of monitors, 
under the superintendence of a head teaelier. 
It was introduced by Rev. Dr. Andrew Bell 
into the orphan institution of Madras. Dr. 
Bell was born in 1753 at St. Andrews, and 
was English chaplain and clergyman of St. 
Mary's Church, at Madras, when he first tried 
his system. On returning to Britain, he pub- 
lished an account of it in 1797. Next year, 
Mr. Joseph Lancaster, a member of the Society 
of Friends, carried it out in Southwark, and 
subsequently in otherplac.es. English church- 
men, thus stimulated to exertion, employed 
Dr. Bell in 1807 to form church schools on 
his system, the rivalry between Messrs. Bell 
and Lancaster increasing the zeal of both,. 
[LANCASTERIAN.] 

mad'-re-perl, *. [Ital. madreperla, from 
madre = mother, and perla = pearl. ] Mother ot 
pearl. (Longfellow.) 

mad-re per -a, s. [MADREPORE.] 

1. Zool. : The typical genus of the famirt 
Madreporidae (q.v.). The animals are actini- 




MADREPOKA LONOICYATHUS. 

form, rather short, with twelve simple ten- 
tacles ; the cells are irregularly scattered over 
the surface. The corallum, which is arbores- 
cent or frondescent, is very porous. 

2. Palceont. : The genus commences in the 
Eocene. 

mad-re-por'-al, o. [Eng. madrepor(e) ; -al.) 
Pertaining to madrepores ; consisting of mad- 
repores. 

mad-re-pbr-ar'-I-a, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. ma- 
dreporia); Lat. neut. pi. adj. suft'. -aria,.} 

Zool. : White stony corals or madrepores, 
a sub-order of Zoautbaria, class Anthozoa. 
If the animal be simple it resembles a sea 
anemone, having one or more ranges of ten- 
tacles, with an internal disc opening in a 
small mouth. The body may be cup-like, 
flat, bell-shaped, tubular, or compressed like 
a fan. Externally, the body is covered with a 
disc, underneath which are various septa. A 
columella may or may not exist on the axis. 
The interstices and walls of the cells are 4 
always porous. Some corals are simple and 
separate, others are compound, budding from 
the parent. They exist on the floor of the 
sea at all depths, from water level down to 
3,000 fathoms. The sub-order is very nu- 
merous, both in genera and individuals. The 
reef-building corals, among others, belong to 
it. It is divided into three groups: (1) Ma- 
dreporaria aporosa, (2) Madreporaria perforata, 
and (3) Madreporaria rugosa. 

mad'-re-pbre, s. [Fr. madrepore ; itaL mo- 
drepora, from madre = mother, and Gr. nwpot 
(poros) tuffstone(Ltttre); orthe first element 
may be Fr. madre = spotted ; O. Fr. madre, 
m<uTe=akindof knotty wood with brown spots; 



fite, f&t, lore, amidst, what, fall, lather; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or, wore, wol work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian. , = e; ey = a. qu = lew. 



madreporic magazine 



2997 



O. H. Ger. mosar; N. H. Ger. maser = a knot, 
grain, or vein in wood, a speck. (Mahn.)] 

1. Strictly : The English name of the genus 
Madrepora. 

2. loosely : Any coral distinguished by su- 
perficial star-shaped cavities. (Lyell.) 

If The Common Madrepore of the Devon- 
shire coast is Caryopkyllia Smithii. 

mad - re - ptir' - 1C, o. [Eng., &c. nadre- 
por(e); -ic.} 

Zool. : Pierced with minute holes like a 
madrepore ; madreporiform (q.v.). 

"The one nearest tbe madriporie inter-radius." 
Kollatnn : Farm* of Animal Lift, p. 144. 

madroporlc-canals, *. pi. 

Zool. : Canals connecting the ambulacral 
system of starfishes with the openings in the 
surface. (Rossiter.) 

madrcporic plate, . 

Zool. : A rounded, calcareous mass on the 
dorsal surface of a starfish. (Rossiter.) 

madreporic -tubercle, . The same 
as MADBEPORIFORM-TUBERCLE (q.v.). 

"The so-called madreparic-tubercl*." KMelton : 
For mi of Animal Life, p. Hi 

mad-re-poV-i-dae, . pi. [Mod. Lat. ma- 
drepor(a) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. sun", -idas.] 

1. Zool. : The typical family of the Madre- 
poraria. The corallum is much branched, 
the openings of the polype cells constituting 
orbicular, tubercular prominences, with few 
rys. There are usually twelve small, short 
tentacles. 

2. Palceont. : The family commences in the 
Cretaceous rocks. 

nad-rS-por'-l'-form, a. [Eng. madrepor(e) ; 
i connective, aud/orm.] 

Zool. : Perforated with small holes like a 
Coral. 

madreporiform tubercle, . 

Zool. : A spongy tubercle, perforated by 
minute apertures, and rising from a genital 
plate, or from the centre of the apical disc. 
Its function appears to be that of admitting 
water to the body-cavity, excluding injurious 
solid particles. It is found in the Echinoidea, 
the Asteroidea, the Ophiuroidea, and the Ho- 
lothuroidea. (Nicholson.) 

m&d'-re'-pbr-lte.-J. [Eng., &c. madrepore; 
-ite (Palcnont.) ; Fr. madreporite.] 

1. Palceoiit. : A fossil madrepore. 

2. Petrol. : A calcareous rock, marked with 
radiated, prismatic concretions, like the stars 
of madrepores. Found in Norway, in Green- 
land, in Salzburg, &c. Called also Columnar 
Carbonate of Lime, and Anthraconite (q.v.). 

mad-rl-a'-le, ,*. [Ital.] A word derived from 
madrigal, and as, in the early operas, madrigals 
were performed between the acts, without 
necessarily having any connection with them, 
the word came to be applied to any species of 
intermezzo. 

mad rier, mad ri-er, s. [Fr.] 

Military Engineering : 

1. A thick, iron-plated plank, having a 
cavity to leceive the mouth of a petard, 
which is applied to a gate or other obstacle 
to be blown down. 

2. A beam laid in a ditch to support a wall ; 
or in a mine or bomb-proof to support a side 
or roof. 

3. A plank lined with tin and covered with 
earth to form roofs over certain portions of 
military works to afford protection against 
fires in lodgments, Ate. 

mad' -ri gal, . [Ital. madrignle for mandri- 
gale, from 'mandra = a herd ; Lat. maiidra = 
a stall, a stable ; Gr. ^di'Spa (mnndra); Sp. & 
Port, madrigal. Grove's Diet. Music suggests 
the alternative etyms. : (1) Ital. madre = 
mother, as the first madrigals were addressed 
to the Virgin mother ; (2) a corruption of Sp. 
nuulrugada = the dawn, used as =: Ital. mat- 
tinrita = morning song ; (3) from the name in 
Old Castile.] 

1. Poet. : A little amorous poem, sometimes 
also called a pastoral poem, containing some 
delicate and tender though simple thought, 
and consisting of not less than three or four 
sUuzas or strophes. Madrigals were first 
composed in Italy, those of Tasso being ac- 
counted amongst the finest' specimens of 



Italian poetry. In the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries especially, the writing of mad- 
rigals flourished in England, the chief writers 
being buckling, Carew, Lodge, and Withers. 

2. Music : An important species of vocal 
polyphonic composition which reached its 
highest development between the middle of 
the sixteenth and the middle of the seventeenth 
centuries. Madrigals are of various kinds 

(1) Simple melodies accompanied by other 
partsnot containing counterpoint or imitation ; 

(2) Elaborate compositions full of contrapuntal 
devices, sometimes consisting of two or more 
movements. Strictly speaking, madrigals are 
an unaccompanied class of pieces; a few, 
however, have been written with instrumental 
accompaniments. Madrigals are always sung 
by several voices to each part : the number of 
parts in which they were written varies from 
three to ten ; but the favourite number of 
parts during the classical period above-named 
was five or six. 

mad-rl-gal'-i-an, a. [Eng. madrigal; -ion.] 
Of or pertaining to madrigals. 

" The English madrlvalian writer* being represented 
olely by Morley'* 'My bonus" \uss.'"Athnaitm, 
July 8. 1882. 

mad -ri- gal -1st, . [Eng. madrigal; -ist.] 
A writer or composer of madrigals. 

* mad -rl-gal-ler, *. [Eng. madrigal ; -tr.] 
A writer or composer of madrigals. 

"Satyrists, panegyrists, madrijallen."T. Brown: 
Worto, ii. 15i. 

Mad-rl-len'-I an, a. & s. [See def.] 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to Madrid. 

B. As subst. : A native or inhabitant of 
Madrid. 

ma-drls'-sa, s. [MF.DRISSA.] 

mad '-wort, *. [A corruption of Eng. mad- 

derwort.] 
Botany : 

1. Asperugo, and specially, A. procumbent, 
more fully termed German Madwort. 

2. The genus Alyssum. (Loudon.) 

mae, ma, moe, a. [A.S. ma = more.] More. 
(Scotch.) 

maa-an-dri'-na, s. [MEANDRINA.] 

Mra-ce'-nas, s. [Lat., the name of the prime 
minister and intimate friend of Augustus, 
died B.C. 8.] (See extract.) 

" The name of Macenai has been made immortal by 
Horace and Virgil, and is popularly used to designate 
an accomplished statesman, who lives in close inti- 
macy with the greatest poets and wits of his time. 
and heaps benefits on them with the most delicate 
generosity." Macaulay : Bitt. Eng., ch. xxiv. 

* mseg bote, s. [A.S. mceg = kinsman, and 
bate = compensation.] Compensation for the 
murder or killing of a kinsman. 

mael'- strom, s. [Dan.= millstream.] A 
celebrated whirlpool near the island of Moskoe, 
off the coast of Norway. It is especially dan- 
gerous in winter, when it rages so furiously 
as to be heard many miles off, and to swallow 
up small vessels which approach it. 

maen, mane, v.i. [MOAN, .] 

mse na, s. [Lat., from Gr. nai'n; (maine) = a 
small sea-fish which was salted.] 

Ichthy. : The typical genus of the suWamily 
Mienides (q.v.). The common species, Matna 
vulgaris, inhabits the Mediterranean, feeding 
on small fish and naked molluscs. 

mae nad, s. [Gr. H.OAVO.S (main/is), genit. 
/o-au'iicSos (mainados), from ficuVo/uat (mainomai) 
= to be mad. A woman who took part in 
the orgies of Bacchus ; hence, a raving, fren- 
zied woman. 

mse'-ni-des, s. pi. [Lat. mcen(a); masc. or 
fern. adj. suff. -ides.] 

Ichthy. : A sub-family of Sparidae, having 
the mouth protrusible. The species abound 
in the Mediterranean. 

msB-niir'-a, . [MENURA.] 

* maer, * mabr, s. [Gael, moor, maoir = an 
under-bailiff.] A steward of the royal lands 
under the mormaer or great steward. [Moa- 
MAGR.] 

mse'-sa, s. [Latinised from moat, the Arabic 
name of the species.] 



Hot. : The typical genus of the tribe Msesesa. 
It consists of trees or shrubs, with alternate 
entire or toothed leaves, and small flowers 
simple or compound ; generally with axillary 
racemes. They are found in Africa, Asia, and 
Australia. 

maa -se-ae, . pi. [Mod. Lat. roa(a) ; Lat. fern. 
pL adj. suff. -eoE.] 
Bat. : A tribe of Myrsinaceae. 

ma es-to -so, adv. [Ital.] 

Music : A direction in music that the pas- 
sage to which it is appended is to be played 
with dignity, grandeur, and strength. 

Maes tricht. . [See def.] 

Geog. : A town of Holland, on the Maes. 

Maestricht beds, 5. pi. 

Geol. : A series of calcareous beds a hundred 
feet thick, on the banks of the Meuse at 
Maestricht, about the age of the Faxoe beds 
i.e., the highest part of the Upper Cretaceous 
Rocks. Like the chalk immediately below, the 
Maestricht calcareous rock contains BeUmni' 
tt.Ua mucronata, Pecten quadricostatus, Ate., also 
the genera Braculites, Hamites, &c., which are 
only mesozoic. On the other hand, it has the 
univalve molluscs Voluta and Fasciolaria, 
genera not commencing elsewhere till the Ter- 
tiary. It is a connecting link between the 
Secondary and the Tertiary Rocks, but in all 
essential respects belongs to the former. In 
the Maestricht beds of St. Peter's Mount was 
found the huge reptile, Mososaurus(q.v.). 

ma-es'-tro, s. [Ital.] A master in any art ; 
specif., a master in music, a composer. 

ma-feie, adv. [O. Fr. = my faith.] By or on 

my faith. 

* maf '-fle, v.i. [O. Dut. ma/elen, mo/elen = 
to stammer ; Prov. Ger. ma/eln, vaffeln = to 
prattle. It is probably of imitative origin.] 
To stammer. 

" The familiar friends and schollen ... of Aristotl* 
[did imitate him] in his stammering and muffling 
speech."/'. Holland : Plutarch, p. 74. 

*maf"-fler, s. [Eng. maffl(e); -er.] One who 

stammers or stutters ; a stammerer. 
"Who enjoyne stutters, stammerers, and 
ling."/". Holland : Plutarch, p. S3i. 

mag, *. [A contraction for magpie (q.v.).] 

1. A halfpenny. (Slang.) 

" It can't be worth a may to him." Dickeni : BltaM 
Howe. ch. liv. 

2. Talk, chatter. (Slang.) 

"If you have ny mag in yon.* Mad. D'Arblay: 
Diary, 1. 100. 

* mag a dis, *. [Or. nayafa (magadii).'] 

Music: An instrument of twenty strings, 
on which music could be played in octaves. 

* mag -a-dize, r. i. [Gr. nayafafa (magadito), 
from ju.ayo.o'i? (magadis).] 

Music : 

1. To play upon the magadii. 

2. To play in octaves. 

ma-gas', . [Gr.] 

Music: 

1. The bridge of a cithara. 

2. A fret. 

mag-a-zine, 'mag a-zin, . [O. Fr. 

magazin (Fr. magasin), from \{a\.magazzino^ 
a storehouse, from Arab, mukhzan (pi. moJfc- 
hdzin) = a storeliouse, a granary, a cellar ; 
khazn = a laying-up in store ; Sp. magaccn, 
almagacen.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. A storehouse or receptacle in which any 
things are stored ; a warehouse. 

" Stores from the royal magazine I bring ; 
And their own darts shall pierce the prince and 
king." Pope: Homer; Odyssey xxii. 156. 

2. A pamphlet or journal periodically pub- 
lished, and containing miscellaneous essays 
or compositions. The first publication of 
this kind in England was the Gentleman.'* 
Magazine, brought out in 1731 by Edward 
Cave, under the name of Sylvanus Urban, and 
still in existence, though changed in character. 

" We eesayista who are allowed but one subject at 
time are by no means so fortunate at the writers of 
magiainet. Onldtmilh, Esaty . 

n. Technically: 

1. Fort. : A building, vault, or apartment 
designed for the storage of ammunition, gun- 
powder, and other explosive substances. Ma- 



boil, boy; pout, jowl; cat, fell, chorus, 9hin, tench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph = L 
-Oian, tian = shan. -tlon, -slon = shun; -(ion, -f ion = zhua. -clous, -tious, -bious - saus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel, del. 



2998 



magazine magic 



gaziues in field fortifications are constructed 
in the most sheltered parts of the work, partly 
underground where practicable, and are lined 
with timber or with gabions, the ceiling being 
of timber or railway metals. The whole is 
covered with a sufficient thickness of earth to 
render the structure tomb-proof. Permanent 
magazines are usually constructed of brick, 
and should be surrounded by an earthen 
mound, so that in case of explosion the ten- 
dency of the explosive force may be upward. 

" Here, throughout the siege, had been 
The Christians 1 chief est magazine." 

Byron : Siege of Corinth, xxi. 

2. Firearms : A chamber in a gun containing 
a succession of cartridges, which are fed one 
by one automatically, and loaded at the breech 
of the gun. [MAGAZINE-RIFLE.] 

3. Naut. : On shipboard the magazine is an 
apartment placed sufficiently below the water- 
line to be safe, under ordinary contingencies, 
from the enemy's shot. It is lined with sheet- 
copper, and has tiers of shelves on three sides 
and in the middle for the reception of the 
copper canisters, in which the cartridges for 
the heavy guns are contained. 

4. Domestic : A chamber in a stove or fur- 
nace containing a supply of fuel, which falls 
or is fed into the combustion-chamber as the 
fire consumes that previously introduced. 

magazine cartridge-box, s. A car- 
tridge receiver attached to a gun, or to the 
person near the gun, to facilitate loading. 

magazine -day, s. The day on which 
magazines and other serials are published and 
issued to the trade. It varies in different 
publishing offices. 

magazine-rifle, s. 

Firearms : (For def. see extract). 

" By a magazine-rifle is meant a rifle tbt contains 
within iUelf presumably in the butt a magazine or 
reservoir (holding a limited number of cartridges), 
combined with a mechanical action which, by trigger 
pressure only or at all event* with tte aid of one 
other motion performs all the f unctions of loading ; 
10 that, the magazine being filled beforehand, the tirer 
can repeat his shots almost as quickly as he can take 
aim and nre." Saturday lieview, Feb. 16, 1884, p. 209. 

magazine-stove, s. A stove in which 
is a fuel-chamber which supplies coal to the 
fire as that in the grate burns away. 

mag a zine , v.t. & i. [MAGAZINE, *.] 

A. Trans. : To store up, as in a magazine ; 
to accumulate for future use. 

" Being maguzined up in a diary might serve for 
materials." Son h : Examen, p. 222. 

B. Intrans. : To conduct or edit a magazine. 

' Urban or Sylvan, or whatever name 
Delight thce most, thou foremost in the fame 
Of mugiizining chiefs, whose rival page, 
With monthly medley, courts the curious age." 
Byrom : The I'astire Participle t Petition. 

mag-a-zin -er, s. [Eng. magazin(e); -er.] 
One who writes in or for a magazine. 

" If a magatiner be dull upon the Spanish war he 
won has us up again with the ghost in Cock Lane." 
eotdsmith: Euan 

t mag a zin 1st, 5. [Eng. magazin(e); -ist.] 
The same as MAGAZINKR (q.v.). 

" The modern magruinut is a pitiable poetaster." 
Mortimer Collint : Thoughts in my Garden, it loa. 

mag'-bote, s. [M^GGBOTE.] 

Mag -da-la, *. [See def.] 

Geog. : The capital of Abyssinia, stormed 
nd destroyed by the British, April 13, 18(38. 

Magdala red, s. 

Chem. : Naphthaline-red. A beautiful red 
dye discovered in 18C7 by Von Schiendl, at 
Vienna. It is prepared from naphthylamine 
by the elimination of 3 molecules of hydrogen 
from 3 molecules of the base, 3CjoH 9 N 3H 2 = 
CspHjjiNs = azo-dinaphthylamine, and this, on 
being combined with hydrochloric acid, forms 
the Magdala-red of commerce. It is a dark- 
brown, somewhat crystalline powder, possess- 
ing a tinctorial power equal to fuchsine, but 
surpassing it in being a very fast colour. 

mag da iSn, . [After Mary Magdalene 
(Luke vii. 3ti-50), though it is not universally 
accepted that she was the woman referred to 
in the passage.] A reformed prostitute ; an 
inmate of a female penitentiary. 

magdalen - hospital, magdalen - 
asylum, s. An asylum or institution for 
the reception of prostitutes, with a view to 
their reformation ; a female penitentiary. 

If An order of Penitents of St. Magdalen 
was formed at Marseilles in 1272. Similar 



communities followed at Naples and Metz. 
The Magdalen Hospital in London was founded 
in 1758. 

* mag-da -le-on, s. [Or. payooAia (magdalia) 

= the crumb of bread.] 
Medicine : 

1. A pill. 

2. A roll of plaster. 

Mag -de-burg, s. [See def.] 
Geog. : A town on the Elbe. 
Magdeburg Centuries, s. pi. 

Church Hist. : The name given to the first 
comprehensive work by Protestant divines on 
Church history. The name is appropriate 
because it was planned and begun at Magde- 
burg, and because it was divided into cen- 
turies. Baronius wrote his Annales Ecclesias- 
tici in reply to the Centuries. [CENTURIATOR.] 

Magdeburg -hemispheres, s. pi. A 
device for ascertaining the amount of atmo- 
spheric pressure on a given surface, consisting 
of hemispheres of brass whose edges are care- 
fully ground together to make an air-tight 
joint. The experiment originated with Otto 
Guericke, burgomaster of Magdeburg, about 
1654. The edges of the hemispheres, being 
greased with oil or tallow, are brought toge- 
ther, and a stop-cock in one of them screwed 
into the centre of an air-pump plate. The 
cock being opened, and a few strokes of the 
pump made, the sphere is thus exhausted 
of contained air, and, the cock being closed, 
is removed from the plate and affixed to a 
handle, and is ready lor the illustration of the 
atmospheric pressure. Nearly fifteen pounds 
of force to the square inch will be required to 
draw them asunder. To separate them readily, 
it is only necessary to open the stop-cock and 
re-admit air. 

* mage, s. [Lat. magus; Or. payo? (magos) = 
a Magian, one of a Median tribe, an enchanter, 
a magician.] [MAGI.] A magician. 

" The hardy maid ... the dreadful Mag? there found 
Depe busied 'bout worke of wondrous end." 

Spenser: F. ., III. Hi. 14. 

Mag-el-lan'-lC, a. [See def.] Pertaining to 
Magellan, a celebrated Portuguese navigator. 

Magellanic -clouds, s. pi. Three con- 
spicuous whitish nebula, of a cloud-like ap- 
pearance, near the south pole. 

Magellanic province, s. 

Zool. & Geog. : A marine province including 
the coasts of Tierra del Fuego and the Falk- 
land Islands, those of South America from 
Point Melo on the east to Concepcion on the 
west. (Darwin, S. P. Woodvxtrd, &c.). 

Ma-gen -ta,s. [See def.] 

1. Geog. : A city of Italy, 24 miles N.W. of 
Pavia, celebrated for the defeat of the Aus- 
trians by the French and Sardinians, June 4, 
1859. 

2. Chem. : One of the red dyes from aniline. 
[ANILINE-RED.] 

magg, v.t. [Etym. doubtful.] To steal. 

" And loot the carters magg the coals." Scott : 
Heart of Midlothian, ch. xliii. 

magg, s. [Etym. doubtful.] [MAO.] 

1. A halfpenny. (Slang.) 

2. (PI.) A gratuity which servants expect 
from those to whom they drive any goods. 
(ticotch.) 

mag-gi-mon'-i-feet, s. [For Maggy many 
feet.] A centipede. (Scotch.) 

mag-gi-or'-e, a. [ital.] 

Music : Major, as a scale or interval. 

mag got, mag at, ' mag ot, mak-ed, 

s. [Wei. macai, maceiad a maggot ; magiaid 
= worms, grubs, from magiad = breeding ; 
marjad = a brood ; magu = to breed.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : The larva of a fly or other insect ; a 
grub, a worm. 

2. Figuratively: 

(1) A whim, a crotchet, an odd fancy. 
* (2) A careless, idle fellow. 
" You were as great a maygot as any In the world." 
Bailey : raimut, p. 177. 

U. Music : One of the later names given to 
fancies, airs, and pieces of an impromptu 
character. The most celebrated of these fan- 
cies was that by Moteley or Motley. 



* maggot-pie, * maggoty-pie, . The 

magpie. 

" Augurs and understood relations have 
By maggot-pies, and chough*, and rooks brought 
The secrefst man of blood. | forth 

Shakesp. : Macbeth, iii. 4. 

mag'-got-i-ness, s. [Eng. maggoty; -ness.'} 
The quality or state of being maggoty or 
abounding with maggots. 

mag got ish, . [Eng. maggot; -ish.] Mag- 
goty, whimsical. 

mag'-gdt-y, a. [Eng. maggot; -y.] 

1. Full of maggots ; infested or abounding 
with maggots. 

2. Whimsical, capricious. 

"The common saying that a whimsical person Is 
maggoty, or has got maggots in his bead, perhaiis arose 
from the freaks the shei> have been observed to ex- 
hibit when infested by bots." Kirby & Spence : Jntrod. 
to Entomology, p. 86. 

maggot-headed, a. Having a head full 
of whims ; whimsical, capricious. 

Ma'-gl, s. pi. [MAOE.] The caste of priests 
among the ancient Medes and Persians ; holy 
men of the East. 

U The first mention of Magi in history 
seems to be in Jer. xxxix. 3, 13, where one of 
Nabuchaduezzar's officers was called JO-IT 
Rab-Mag = Chief of the Magi. Herodotus 
(i. 101) describes them as one of the six 
Median tribes. Afterwards they became the 
Persian sacred caste. The Greek word in 
Matt. ii. 1, rendered in the A. V. " wise men," 
is fidyoi (magoi), = Magi. Ultimately the 
caste sunk into mere magicians. [MAGIC.] 

* ma'-gl-an, a. & s. [Eng. magi; -an.] 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to the Magi. 

B. As substantive : 

1. One of the Persian Magi ; a priest of the 
Zoroastrian religion. 

2. A magician. 

" Leave her to me, rejoined the magian." 

Keats : Cap 4 Belli, Ix. 

* Ma'-gi-an-ism, s. [Eng. magian ; -ism.] 
The doctrines or philosophic tenets of the 

Magi. [ZOROASTRIANISM.] 

mag ic, * mag-ike, * mag-ick, a. & s. [ Fr. 

magique = magical, from Lat. magicus ; Gr. 
payiKos (magikos), from /xdyos (magos) = one of 
the Magi, an enchanter, a magician ; /ua-yeio 
(mageia) = magic ; Sp., Port., & Ital. magico = 
magical ; Sp. & Ital. magia = magic.] 

A. As adjective : 

1. Of or pertaining to magic ; used in magic : 
as, a magic wand. 

2. Using or having power to use magic. 

" They by the altar stand, while with loose hair 
The magic prophetess begins her prayer." 

Waller: Yirgtt; jEneilll. 

3. Working or worked by or as if by magic : 
as, a magic lantern. 

4. Having extraordinary or supernatural 
power; exercising a preternatural influence. 

*' An epic scarce ten centuries could claim, 
While awe-struck nations hail'd the magic mun." 
Byron : English Bards A Scotch Reviewer*. 

5. Done or produced by or as if by magic. 

"And that dlstlll'd by magic flights, . . . 
Shall draw him on to his confusion." 

Shakesp. : Macbeth, ill. t 

B. As substantive : 

1. The art or pretended art of putting in 
action the power of spirits ; the science or art 
of producing preternatural effects by the 
medium of supernatural means, or the aid of 
departed spirits, or the occult powers of na- 
ture ; sorcery, enchantment, witchcraft. 

2. A power or influence similar to that of 
magic or enchantment : as, the magic of love, 
the magic of a name. 

If A belief in magic is to be reckoned 
among the earliest growths of human thought. 
It is everywhere present, in a greater or less 
degree, in an inverse ratio to the progress of 
civilization. Outlying races, and castes and 
sects, once dominant, but which have now 
lost their supremacy, are credited with the 
possession of supernatural powers by those 
who have succeeded to the lost position. 
Thus gipsies frequently reap a rich harvest 
from the credulity of many who hold in low 
estimation the seers they consult ; and the 
priests of a faith no longer national are 
credited by the vulgar with mysterious powers 
which the ministers of religious sects are 
not supposed to possess. ( Brand : Pop. 
Antiq., iii. 81-83.) It is noteworthy that in 



rate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wit, here, camel, her, thera; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
. or, wore, W9lf, work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian, as, ce-e; ey = . qu = kw. 



magical magma 



2999 



Ireland miraculous power is attributed to 
suspended or, as they are euphemistically 
called "blessed" priests, rather than to the 
ordinary clergy. (Carleton: Traits ; The Lian- 
han Shee.) Tlie practice of magic had its 
origin in the belief in an objective connection 
between two things a man, and a rude draw- 
Ing or image of him, or two events as between 
the birth of a child, and the rising or setting 
of a particular star, when, in truth, the connec- 
tion could only be subjective. (Tylor : Early 
Hist. Mankind, ch. vi. ; Prim. Cult., ch. iv., 
nd Encyc. Brit. (ed. 9th), s.v. Magic.) 

If (1) Black magic : Magic proper, or that 
division of it which in former times fell into 
the hands of unofficial persons, or was practised 
with malefic intentions. 

(2) Celestial magic : A supposed super- 
natural power which gave to spirits a kind of 
dominion over the planets, and to the planets 
an influence over man. 

(3) Natural magic : The art of applying nat- 
ural causes to produce effects apparently 
upernatural. 

(4) Superstitious or geotic magic : The invo- 
cation of devils or demons involving the sup- 
position of some tacit or express agreement 
between them and human beings. 

(5) Wliite magic : 

(a) Magta practised for the benefit of others. 
IWHITE-WITCH.] 

" The practice of wJiite-tnatjic is not contrary to the 
precepts of [the Mahometan] religion." Athenttum, 
Feb. 14. 1885, p. 218. 

(6) The art of performing tricks and exhibit- 
ing illusions by aid of apparatus, excluding 
feats of dexterity in which there is no decep- 
tion, together with the performance of such 
automaton figures as are actuated in a secret 
and mysterious manner. (Encyc. Brit., ed. 9th.) 

magic circle, s. A circle invented by 
Dr. Franklin, founded upon the same princi- 
ples and possessing similar properties with 
the magic square of squares. 

magic-lantern, . An instrument by 
Which the images of objects, usually, but not 
always, transparent, and paintings or diagrams 
drawn upon glass are exhibited, considerably 
magnified, upon a wall or screen. Its inven- 
tion has been attributed to Roger Bacon about 
the year 1261, but it was first generally made 
known by Baptista Porta in his Natural 
Magick, and by Kircher, 1669-70, who de- 
scribed it in his Ars magna Lucis et Umbra:. 
The instrument consists of a case or box to 
confine all scattered rays from some powerful 
light which occupies the centre, and which 
may be aided by a reflector. On one 
side of the box powerful lenses condense the 
diverging rays upon the painting or other ob- 
ject, which slides in a sort of stage. Another 
object-glass, or focussing lens, usually achro- 
matic, throws the image of the highly illumi- 
nated object upon the screen, the focus being 
adjusted by sliding this lens nearer to or far- 
ther from the object, usually by a rack and 
pinion. The magnitude of the image depends 
upon the relative distances of the object from 
the lens, and of the lens from the screen. 
Powerful lanterns give a brilliant picture 
twenty feet in diameter of a slide three inches 
In diameter. 

magic square, s. A square figure formed 
by a series of numbers in mathematical pro- 
portion, so disposed in parallel aud equal rows 
that the sum of the numbers in each row or 
line taken perpendicularly, horizontally, or 
diagonally, are equal. 

magic-tree, s. 

Bot. : Cantua buxifolia, a native of Peru. 
The name Magic-tree is a rendering of the 
native Indian name. 

mag ic al,"mag Ic-alLa. [Eng.magic; -al.] 

1. Of or pertaining to magic. 

2. Having magic or supernatural powers. 
(Said of things.) 

"Some have fancied that envy has a certain magical 
force iu it."Steele : Spectator, No. 19. 

* 3. Having the power of using magic. 
(Said of persons.) 
4. Acting or produced as if by magic. 

"Arkwright bad yet not taught how it might be 
worked up with a speed and precision which seem 
magical" Jlacaulay : Bia. Sng., ch. iii. 

f Magic differs from magical in that the 
former is not used predicatively ; thus we say 
the effect was magical, but we speak of a magic 
lantern. 



mag'-ic-al-ly. adv. [Eng. magical ; -ly.] In 
a magical manner ; by or as if by magic. 

ma- gf-cian/xna-gi-cl-en,s. [Yr.magicien.] 
One skilled in magic ; one who practises magic 
or the black art ; a sorcerer, an enchanter, a 
necromancer. 

" He sent aud called for all the magicians of Egypt, 
and all the wise men thereof Gnterii xli. 8. 

*mag -Ike, s. & a. [MAGIC.] 

ma-gilp', ma gilph , s. [Etym. doubtful.] 

Art: A vehicle for colours, consisting of 
linseed which has been long exposed to the 
oxidising influence of the air mixed with a 
certain proportion of mastic varnish. ( Wea.lt.) 

mag'-Il-us, s. [Latinised from native name.] 
Zool. : A genus of siphonostomatous gas- 
teropods, family Buccinidx. It contains but 
one species, Magilus antiquut, parasitic in live 
corals in t lie Red Sea, and on the coast of Java 
and the Mauritius. When young the shell of 
Magilus is spiral and thus, as the animal eats 
its way horizontally through the living mass 
of coral, it becomes prolonged into an ir- 
regular tube, filled with solid shell-matter, 
the animal residing at the extremity. The 
tube is sometimes fifteen inches long, and 
very heavy. The animal has a concentric 
lamellar operculum, with its nucleus near the 
outer edge. (Woodward.) 

* ma-gis'-ter, . [Lat.] Master, sir ; a mode 
of 'address equivalent to the modern Doctor. 

mag-Is-ter'-I-al, a. [Lat. magisterius = 
belonging to a master ; mugister = a master.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Pertaining to or befitting a master ; suit- 
able to a master. 

2. Domineering, proud, arrogant, insolent, 
despotic, dogmatic, imperious. 

" lie hides behind a magisterial air, 
His own offences." Courier : Charity, 493. 

3. Of or pertaining to a magistrate. 

"The plump convivial parson often bean 
The magisterial sword in vain." 

Camper : Talk, iv. CH. 

* 4. Of the rank of a magistrate. 

* IL Chem. : Pertaining to magistery. 



I'-l-ty, *. [Eng. magis- 
terial; -ity.] Domination. 

"When these statutes were first in the state or 
magisleriality thereof Fuller : Ch. Hist., IX. iv. 11. 

t mg-lS-ter'-I-al-ly, adv. [Eng. magis- 
terial; -ly.] 

1. In a magisterial manner ; with the air 
of- a master ; arrogantly, despotically, dog- 
matically. 

"The claim of Infallibility, or even of authority to 
prescribe magisterially to the opinions and consciences 
of men, whether iu an individual, or in assemblies and 
collections of men, is never to be admitted." Bp. 
fforslfy, vol. it, ser. 15. 

2. As a magistrate ; in the capacity of a 
magistrate. 

" A downright advice may be mistaken, as If it were 
spoken magisterially." Bacon: Advice to V niters. 

* mag-lS-te'r'-i-al-ness, . [Eng. magis- 
terial; -ness.] The quality or state of being 
magisterial ; the air and manner of a master ; 
haughtiness, imperiousness. 

" Peremptoriuess is of two sorts ; the one a may is- 
terialneu iu matters of opinion ; the other a posi- 
tivcncss in relating inatteis of fact: iu the one we 
Impose upon men's understandings, in the other on 
their faith." Government of the Tongue. 

* mag'-Is-ter-y^ s. [Lat. magisterium, neut. 
sing, of mayisterius - pertaining to a master.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. A magisterial injunction ; an order given 
with authority. 

2. A medicine or remedy supposed to be of 
exceptional efficacy ; a magistral. 

IL Chem. : (See extract). 

"Although magistery be a term variously enough 
employed by chymist*. and particularly used by Para- 
celsus to signify very different things : lyet the best 
notion I know of it, aud that which I find authorized 
even by Paracelsus in some passages, where he ex* 
presses himself more distinctly is. that it U a prepara- 
tion whereby there is not an analysis made, of the 
body assigned, nor an extraction of this or that prin- 
ciple, but the whole, or very near the whole body, by 
the help of some additament, greater or less, is turned 
into a body of another kind. 1 ' Boyle : Works, i. 637. 



[Eng. magistra(te) ; -cy.] 
1. The office or dignity of a magistrate. 

" That Indistinct and fluctuating character which 
belongs to the accounts of the origins of the other 
ancient mapitfracies." Lewis : Cred. Early Roman 
Hist. (1859), fi. 36. 



2. The whole body of magistrates collec- 
tively. 

mag -Is-tral, * mag'-fe-trall. a. & $. 

[Lat. magittralis, from magister = a master.] 

* A. At adjective : 

1. Of or pertaining to a magistrate ; suiting 
a magistrate ; magisterial. 

"Your assertion of the origiuall of set forms of 
liturgy, I justly say is mure mayittrall than true, and 
such as your own testimonies confute." Bp. Hall. 
Antver to the Yind. o/ Smectymnuus, ^ 2. 

2. Of or pertaining vo a sovereign remedy 
or medicine ; acting as a sovereign remedy. 

" Let it be some magiitrall opiate. "Bacon : Hilt. 
Of Lift t Death, p. 'i.: 

3. Applied to a preparation prescribed ex- 
temporaneously or for the occasion ; as dis- 
tinguished from an officinal medicine, or one 
kept prepared in the shops. 

B. As substantive : 
1. Fortification : 

(1) The line where the scarp, if prolonged, 
would intersect the top of the coping or 
cordon. 

(2) The guiding line which defines the first 
figure of the works of a fortification. Called 
also magistral line. 

* 2. Med. : A sovereign medicine or remedy. 

" I tinde a vaste chaos of medicines, a coufusiyn of 
receipts and magistrals, amongst writers, appropriated 
to this disease, some of the chiefeat I will rehearse." 
Burton : Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 382. 

* 3. Meta.ll. : A substance obtained from 
copper pyrites (or raw magistral), which is 
found iu many parts of Mexico. These ores, 
according to Napier, contain from 7 '47 to 13 "75 
per cent, of copper. It is reduced to powder 
by dry stamping and grinding. It is used 
especially in the patio process of amalgama- 
tion. Some authorities state that the copper 
pyrites are roasted and ground, but this would 
seem to detract from their activity, which is 
due to the action of their sulphuric acid upon 
the salt, liberating muriatic acid. 



T-I-tft s. [Eng. magistral; -ity.] 
Despotic authority, as in matter of opinion ; 
dogmatism. 

"The physician! have frustrated the fruit of tradi- 
tion and experience by their magittralitiet, in adding, 
aud taking out, and changing." Bacon : On Learning, 
bk. U. 

* mag'-is-tral-ly, adv. [Eng. magistral; 
-ly.] In a magistral manner ; magisterially, 
dogmatically, despotically. 

" What a presumption is thin for one, who will not 
allow liberty to others, to assume to himself such a 
licence to coutroul so mayittrally." BramHall : 
Againtt Hobbes. 

mag is trand , s. [Low Lat. magiatrandut, 
gerund of magistro = to make a master of, 
to confer a degree on, from Lat. magister a 
master.] In the University of Aberdeen, a 
student in arts in the last year of his curri- 
culum. 

mag" is trate, * mag e strat, maj es- 
trat, s. [Fr. magistral, from Lat. magistratui 
= (1) a magistracy, (2) a magistrate, from ma- 
gister a master ; Ital. magistrate ; Sp. iiiugis- 
trado. J A public officer invested with authority 
to carry out the executive government or some 
branch of it. Thug in the United States the 
President is the chief magistrate of the nation, 
and the governor of each state is its chief 
magistrate. But the term is commonly con- 
fined to subordinate officials, nominated and 
commissioned to carry out the executive power 
of the law, such as justices of the peace in the 
county, and police magistrates in the cities. 
The term magistrate is given special application 
by the laws of some of the states. [JUSTICE.] 

"He who was the magislrute, after long abusing 
his powers, has at last abdicated them."Macau!ay : 
Silt. Eng., ch. x. 

* mag Is trat-Ic, - mag-is trat-ick, 
* mag-Is- trat-1-cal, a. [Eng. magistrat(e) ; 
-tc, -ical.] Of or pertaining to a magistrate 
or magistrates ; having the authority of a 
magistrate. 

" Not of the Internal and essential glory which Is In 
mayisrratick or ecclesiastick power and order." Bp. 
Taylor: Artificial Handsomeness, p. IN. 

* mag'-Is^tra-ture, . [Fr., from magistral 

a magistrate.]* Magistracy. 

mag" ma, 5. [Gr., from /KIO-O-W (masso) = to 
knead.] * 

* L Ordinary Language : 

1. A crude mixture of mineral or organic 
matter in a thin paste. 



boil, boy; pout, jo%l; cat, cell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-clan, -tlan = shan. -tion. -slon = shun ; -(Ion, -sion = zhun. -tious. -sious, -cious = shus. -ble. -die, &c. - bf L, dfV 



3000 



Magna Charta magnesium 



2. A confection. 
IL Technically : 

1. Phar. : The thick residuum obtained 
after expressing certain substances to extract 
the fluid parts. The grounds which remain 
after treating a substance with water, alcohol, 
.or any other menstruum. (Dunglison.) 

2. Petrol. : The name given by Vogelsang and 
Bosenbusch to homogeneous, amorphous min- 
eral matter which cannot be investigated except 
under high magnifying powers. (Rutley.) 

U Reticulated Magma : 

Anat. : The gelatinaform substance found 
between the chorion and the amniou in the 
early period of embryonic existence. 

Mag na Char ta, Mag na Car -ta, s. 
[Lat., = the Great Charter.] 

1. The Great Charter of the liberties of Eng- 
land (Magna Charta Libertalum), signed and 
sealed by King John at the demand of his 
barons, at Ruuuymede, on June 19, 1215. It 
was several times confirmed by his successors. 
Its most important articles were : 

1. Relating to the Church. That the church should 
possess all its privileged inviolate, especially freedom 
of election to benefices. 

1. Relating to the tlaroru. That reliefs be limited to 
*> fixed sum, according to the rank of the tenant : That 
aids be demanded only in the three cases knighthood 
of the eldest son, marriage of the eldest daughter, and 
the ransom of the king's i-erson ; in every other case 
neither aid nor scutace to be imposed but with the 
consent of the council: That guardians in chivalry 
may not waste the estate, nor marry the heir during 
minority ; nr to their dkpmcmMst, nor compel 
widows to marry : That the forest law be mitigated : 
and that whatever privileges the kinj.- grants las vas- 
sal>, they in like wanner shall grant to theirs. 

8. Relating to Tradert. That London and other 
towns retain their aucieut privileges: That there be 
one weight and measure throughout the realm : and 
that freedom of commerce be granted to foreign mer- 
chants. 

4. Relating to Freemen Generally. That right or 
Justice be not sojd, or refused, or delayed : That no 
freeman be imprisoned, or lose his freehold, or free 
customs, or be outlawed, or otherwise punished, but 
by the j udgment of his i*ers, or by the law of the land : 
That no person be fined to his utter ruin, but only ac- 
cording to his offence, and means of payment, and that 
no man be deprived of his instruments of labour : 
That all men may travel out of the kingdom, and re- 
turn when they please : That a man may make what 
vill he pleases, and, dying without one. the law shall 
make one for him : and that the Court of Common 
Pleas shall no longer follow the king's person, but be 
held in some certain place, and be open to all. 

It will be seen from the following extract that 
Magna Charta no longer exists in the letter 
"Just before the weary Commons adjourned, they 
read a third time, and passed a bill repealing a num- 
ber of obsolete statutes, among which was Magna 
Charta. It was obvious that the spirit of the Great 
Charter bad long since been emliodied in a number of 
Acts of Parliament and legal decisions ranging between 
the time of King John and that of Queen Victoria." 
Daily Telegraph, Aug. 4, 1874. 

2. Any fundamental constitution guarantee- 
Ing rights and i>rivileges. 

* mag-nal'-i-ty, s. [Lat. magnalis = great, 
from magnus - great.) A great deed or feat ; 
something above the common. 

"Although perhaps too greedy of magnalitiet, we are 
apt to make but favourable experiments concerning 
welcome truths, and much desired verities." Browne: 
Vulgar Erroun. bk. IL, ch. iii. 

' mag nan I mate, v.t. [Lat. magnets) = 
great, and Eng. animate.] To cheer; to make 
great-hearted. 

"Present danger magnanimatei them." Sowell : 
Dodona'l drove, p. 4. 



mag na mm i ty, * mag na nim i tee, 
i. [Fr. nuujnanitiiite, from Lat. magnanimita- 
tccus.of magnanimitas, from magnanimus 
gnanimous(q.v.) ; Ital. magnanimita; Sp. 
iniiiudad.} The quality or state of being 
in innms ; that elevation and dignity of 



(em, accus.of magnanimitas, from magnanimus 
= magnanimously.) ; Ital. magnanimita; Sp. 
magnai 
magnai 

soiil, which encounters danger or trouble with 
tranquillity and linnriuss.which raises the pos- 
sessor above revenge, which makes him disdain 
injustice and meanness, which prompt s him to 
act and make sacrifices for noble objects, and 
which makes him delight in acts of benevolence 
and usefulness. 

" But the magnanimity, the dauntless courage, the 
wutempt for riches and for baubles, to which . . . 
Pitt owed his long ascendency, were wanting to Mon- 
tague." Macaulay : Bin. Eng., ch. xxlv. 

mag nan' I -mo us, a. [Lat. magnanim-is = 
great-souled, from magnus = great, and animus 
= the mind ; Fr. magnanime ; Ital. & Sp. mag- 
nanimo.] 

1. Great of mind ; elevated and dignified in 
soul or sentiment ; above what is mean, low, 
or ungenerous ; brave, high-souled. 

"For he was great of heart, magnanimoui, courtly, 
courageous. ' Longfellow : Milet Standith, ill. 

2. Dictated by, characteristic of, or spring- 
ing from magnanimity ; noble, generous : as, 
a magnanimous action. 



mag-nan'-i-mous-ly, ml i: [Eng. magnan i- 
mous ; -iy.] In a magnanimous manner; with 
magnanimity ; with dignity or elevation of 
soul or sentiment ; bravely. 

"With Hannibal at her gates, she [Holland] luul 
nobly and tnagnanitnoutlv refused all separate treaty." 
Burke : Regicide Peace, let. 1. 

mag nate, s. [Fr. magnat, from Lat. magna- 
tem, accus. of magnas = prince, from magnus 
= great ; Sp. & Ital. magnate.] 

1. A person of rank, position, note, or dis- 
tinction in any line or sphere. 

"The lives and estates of the magnate* of the realm 
had been at his mercy." Hacaulan : JIM. Eng., ch. iv. 

2. One of the nobility or certain high officers 
of state forming the House of Magnates in 
the national representation of Hungary, and 
formerly of Poland. 

* mag -nes, s. [Lat., from Gr.] A magnet. 
* magnes stone, s. A magnet. 

" A hideous rocke Is yight 
Of miubtie magiiei^tune." 

Spenter: F. Q., II. xii. 1 

mag ne -si a (s as sh), s. [MAGNESIUM.] 

1. Min. : The same as PERICLASE (q.v.). 

2. Pharm. : If administered in small doses, 
magnesia acts as an antacid ; if in a quantity 
beyond what is necessary to neutralize acids 
in the stomach, it passes undigested into the 
intestines, and may form concretions. The 
salts of magnesia are purgatives. It is given 
as a lithontriptic, from its power of dissolving 
uric acid, and in gouty diseases. (Garrod.) 

magnesia-alba, *. 

Chem. (6 Phar. : A complex mixture of 
various carbonates of magnesia. It is ob- 
tained as a light, bulky white powder by 
precipitating soluble magnesia salt with sodic 
carbonate. 

magnesia-water, s. A kind of aerated 
water produced by impregnating cai-i onate of 
magnesia in solution with ten times its weight 
of carbonic acid. 




magnesian alum, s. 

Min. : The same as PICKERINOITE (q.v.). 

magnesian limestone, s. 

1. Petrol., Geol., & Palceont. : A limestone 
composed of carbonate of lime and carbonate 
of magnesia, the proportion of the latter some- 
times being nearly fifty per cent. It effer- 
vesces much more slowly with aciils than 
common limestone (carbonate of lime). lu 
England it is generally yellowish. It is some- 
times earthy, sometimes hard and compact. 
One variety of it is dolomite (q.v.). This 
Rutley makes a synonym of magnesian-lime- 
stone. The typical kind of magnesian-lime- 
stone, generally associated with marl slate, is 
from the Middle Permian. It is well de- 
veloped in parts of the United States, and 
often contains concretionary balls. Its cha- 
racteristic fossils are Schizodus Schlothsimi, 
Mytilus septifer, &c. (Lyell.) It was originally 
formed in large measure of the remains of 
marine animals. 

2. Building : The Houses of Parliament, the 
Museum of Practical Geology, and York 
Minster are built of magnesian-limestone. 
(Rutley.) 

magnesian pharmacolite, . 

Min. : The same as BEKZKLIITK (q.v.). 

mag-ne'-fic, o. [Eng., &c. magnesi(a); -ic.] 
Contained in or derived from magnesia (q.v.). 

magnesic carbonate, s. 

Chem. : MgO"CO. Occurs native in rhom- 
bohedral crystals, imbedded in talc slate. 

magnesic chloride, s. 

Cliem. : MgCl2. Occurs in sea water or in 
salt deposits, or may lie prepared by dissolv- 
ing magnesia in hydrochloric acid. It is a 
white crystalline powder, having a pearly 
lustre and sharp bitter taste, soluble in water 
and in alcohol. 

magnesic oxide, . 

Chem. : MgO. Produced by burning mag- 
nesium in the air or in oxygen gas, or by 
heating to a red heat magnesia alba. It is a soft 
white powder, almost insoluble in water. It 
is known in commerce as calcined magnesia. 



magnesic phosphate, s. 

Chem.: Mg"HPO47II a O. Crystallizes in small 
colourless prismatic crystals, soluble in about 
l.OjO parts of cold water. Caustic alkalis pre- 
cipitate, from solutions of magnesium salts, 
gelatinous magnesic hydrate, insoluble in an 
excess of the precipitant, but soluble in am- 
inonic chloride. Ammonic phosphate gives 
a white crystalline precipitate, insoluble in 
ammonia. 

magnesic sulphate, s. 

Chem. : MgO'^Og'THjO. Commonly called 
Epsom salts, is found in sea water and in 
many mineral springs. It is now manufac- 
tured in large quantities by dissolving mag- 
nesian limestone in dilute sulphuric acid, and 
filtering from the insoluble calcic sulphate. 
It is soluble in water, has a nauseous bitter 
taste, and possesses purgative properties ; it 
is also used in dressing cotton goods, and in 
aniline dyeing. 

mag-nes i-m-tre (tre as ter), s. [Eng. 
magnesi(a), and nitre.] 
Min. : The same as NITROMAGNESITE (q.v.). 

mag nes in phyll-ite.s. [Eng. magnesi(a)\ 
n connective, and Gr. <j>v\\oi/(phyllon)=\enf.] 
Min. : The same as BRUCITE (q.v.). 

mag-nes-I-6-fer^-rite, s. [Eng.magnesi(a); 

o, and Eng. ferrile.] 

Min. : An isometric mineral occurring in 
simple octahedrons, and in octahedrons with 
planes of the rhombic dodecahedron. Hard- 
ness, 6 to 6'5 ; sp. gr. 4-5C8 to 4-654 ; lustre, 
metallic ; colour and streak, black. Strongly 
magnetic. Compos. : magnesia 20 ; sesqui- 
oxide of iron, 80. Found associated with 
laminar haematite as a sublimation product 
about the fumaroles of Vesuvius. Artificially 
formed by heating together magnesia and 
sesquioxide of iron subjected to the action of 
the vapour of hydrochloric acid. 

mag'-nes-ite, s. [Eng. magnesia); guff, -tie 
(Min.rf 

Min. : A mineral belonging to the group 
of rhombohedral carbonates, consisting essen- 
tially of carbonate of magnesia, having the 
formula MgOCO2, but in the crystallized forms 
having more or less of the magnesia replaced 
by protoxide of iron, forming ferriferous varie- 
ties like breunnerite (q.v.). The crystallized 
varieties present a perfectly rhombohedral 
cleavage ; lustre vitreous ; colour white to 
various shades of brown. The massive and 
purer kinds are white, mostly compact ; lnstie 
dull; fracture resembling unglazed porcelain. 
The Brit. Mus. Cat. reserves this name for the 
pure mineral only, and groups the ferriferous 
carbonates of magnesia under ankerite, breun- 
nerite, and mesitite (q.v.). Used in the manu- 
facture of Epsom salts. 

If Magnesite formerly included meerschaum 
(q.v.). Brongniart, in 1802, and subsequent 
French mineralogists, still used this name for 
the silicate. 

mag ne si um (s as sh), s. [Latinised from 
Magnesia, a city in Asia Minor.] 

Chem. : A diatomic metallic element ; sym- 
bol, Mg; atomic weight, 24 '4 ; sp. gr. l'T43. 
Fuses and volatilizes at a red heat. Magnesic 
sulphate (Epsom salts) was known in the 
middle of the seventeenth century, but the 
metal was first isolated by Davy. The com- 
pounds of magnesium are widely distributed 
in nature, occurring as magnesite, MgO"CO ; 
ophite or serpentine, MgO"gSi2O ; talc, 
MgO'^SisOg ; dolomite, kainite, epsomite, 
&c. It may be -obtained by the electrolysis 
of fused magnesium chloride, or by reduc- 
ing magnesium chloride with metallic sodium. 
It is a brilliant metal, almost as white 
as silver, and preserves its lustre in dry 
air. It is more brittle than silver at or- 
dinary temperature ; but at a higher tem- 
perature it becomes malleable, and may be 
pressed into the form of wire or ribbon. Mag- 
nesium ribbon may be ignited at the flame of 
a candle, and burns with a dazzling bluish- 
white light, rich in chemically active rays, a 
property which has led to its use in photo- 
graphy. When burned in an atmosphere of 
carbonic acid gas, it decomposes the gas, form- 
ing magnesic oxide, and throwing down the 
carbon in powder. Magnesium dissolves in 
dilute acids, with violent evolution of hy- 
drogen, but it does not decompose water even 
at 100. 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or. wore, wolf; work, who. son : mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try* Syrian, so. ce - e ; ey = a. qu = kw. 



magnet magnetician 



3001 



magnesium-chloride, s. 

Min. : A niincrnl said to have occurred In 
the saline encrustations formed during the 
eruption of Vesuvius in 1855. 

magnesium diethyl, s. 

Chan. : Mg< 2 ]| 5 . A volatile liquid, smell- 

tog like garlic, prepared by digesting magne- 
sium filings with ethylic iodide in absence of 
air. It is a colourless liquid, boiling at a 
higher temperature than ethylic iodide ; in- 
flames spontaneously in air, and is decom- 
posed with explosive violence by water. 

magnesium-dimethyl, s. 

Chem. : Mg<^ 3 . A volatile liquid, pro- 

duced by the action of magnesium filings on 
methylic iodide. It is similar in its prepara- 
tion and properties to magnesium diethyl. 

magnesium cthide, s. 

Chem. : Mg^Hs^. A colourless, mobile 
liquid, obtained by heating ethyl iodide with 
magnesium filings to. 130. It possesses an 
alliaceous odour, takes fire when exposed to 
the air, and is violently decomposed by water, 
with the formation of magnesium hydroxide. 

magnesium-lamp, s. A lamp in which 
magnesium is burnt for illuminating purposes. 
They are of two kinds : one for the combustion 
of magnesium in the form of a ribbon ; in the 
other magnesium is used in a state of powder, 
mixed with fine silver sand. 

magnesium-light, s. The light pro- 
duced by the combustion of magnesium. Its 
intensity is almost equal to that of the electric 
arc", but its flickering nature and the large 
quantity of magnesia vapour given off are ob- 
jections to its use. 

magnesium-methyl, s. 

Chem. : Mg(CH 3 )<>. A strongly smelling 
mobile liquid, produced when methyl iodide 
is heated with magnesium filings. It takes 
fire on exposure to the air, and is readily de- 
composed by water, with formation of marsh- 
gas and magnesium hydroxide. 

magnesium-silicate, s. 

Min. : The same as ENSTATITE, PORSTERITE, 
HI-MITE, MEERSCHAUM, SERPENTINE, and 
TAi.c(q.v.). 

magnesium-sulphate, s. 

Min. : The same as EPSOMITE and KIESER- 
ITE Oi.v.). 

If .\Iagnesium-borate = Boraci; Magnesium- 
carbonate = Magnesite ; Magnesium-fluophos- 
phute = \Vagnerlte ; Magnesium-fluosilicate = 
Chondrodite ; Magnesium - hydrate = Brucite ; 
Hague iium-hydroearbonate = H ydromagnesite ; 
and Magnesium-nitrate = Nitramagncsite. 



-net, * mag-nete, . [O. Fr. magnete, 
unmet', from Lat. magnetem, accus. of magnes 
(lapis) = magnesian (stone), from Gr. Mayirjs 
(Magiies), genit. Mayf>jTo (Magnetos) mag- 
nesian ; Hal. & Sp. iniujni'te.] 
L Ordinary Language: 

1. Literally: 

(1) The loadstone (q.v.). 

(2) In the same sense as II. 

2. fig. : Anything which guides ; a guide. 

" Thus safe through waves the sons of Israel trod ; 
Their better magnet was the lump of God." 

Harte Thomat d Kempti ; A futon. 

* II. Magnetism : A body possessing the pro- 
perty of magnetism (q. v. ). Magnets are either 
permanent or temporary. Permanent magnets 
were originally natural pieces of magnetic 
iron-ore. [MAGNETITE.] They now usually 
consist of bars of steel, which are magnetized 
either by rubbing them with another magnet, 
or by coiling a wire round them in a helix, 
and then sending an electric current through 
the wire. The harder the steel the more diffi- 
cult it is to magnetize, but the more com- 
pletely does it retain its magnetism. Perma- 
nent magnets are either straight or are bent 
into the form of a horseshoe. In the latter 
fonn the two poles are close together, and are 
thus able to act simultaneously on the same 
magnetic substance. A magnet consisting of 
only one bar of steel is called a simple magnet ; 
but since thin long magnets are more powerful 
in proportion to their weight, compound mag- 
nets are constructed by fastening together 
several thin steel bars previously magnetized. 
Some of these compound- magnets are very 
powerful Far more powerful than any per- 



manent magnets are electro-magnets, which 
may be either straight or bent into the form 
of a horseshoe, and consist of a bar or core 
of soft iron, round which is coiled insulated 
copper wire. Through this wire an electric 
current is sent, and, so long as the current 
passes, the iron is a powerful magnet. The 
strength of an electro-magnet depends on the 
strength of the current and on the number of 
coils of -wire round the core, and upon various 
other circumstances. Electro-magnets have 
been made capable of supporting more than a 
ton. When used for supporting weights, &c., 
a smooth piece of iron, termed an armature, 
is placed in contact with the poles of the 
magnet, the horseshoe form being generally 
used, and the armature is provided with a 
hook, to which the articles are attached. 

mag-net -ic, a. &s. [Eug. magnet; -ic.] 

A. As adjective : 
L Literally: 

1. Of or pertaining to the magnet or mag- 
netism ; having the qualities of a magnet. 

2. Pertaining to the earth's magnetism : as, 
the magnetic north. 

II. Fig. : Attractive, as if magnetic. 

" Days, months, and yeiro . . . 
Turn swift their various motions, or are turned 
By his magnetic beam," Milton : P. L., lii. 583. 

B. As subst. : Any metal, such as iron, steel, 
nickel, cobalt, &c., which may receive the 
properties of the loadstone. 

" Draw out with credulous desire, ... 
As the magnetic hardest iron draws." 

Milton : P. a.. II Its. 

IT (1) Magnetic points of consequence : The 
points (really the magnetic poles of the earth) 
which occupy the centre of lines of equal dip. 

(2) Magnetic potes of the earth: Two nearly 
opposite points of the earth's surface when 
the dip of the needle is 90. They are at a 
considerable distance from the poles of the 
earth. 

(3) Point of magnetic indifference : A point 
near the centre of a magnet where no effect is 
produced. 

magnetic-amplitude, s. 

Aatron. : The amplitude of a heavenly body 
as measured by the compass. It differs from 
the true amplitude by an amount equal to the 
variation of the compass. 

magnetic-azimuth, *. 

Navig. : The azimuth indicated by the com- 
pass. 

magnetic-battery, A combination 
of several magnets with their poles similarly 
arranged ; a compound magnet. 

magnetic-bearing, s. 

Nuut. : The magnetic bearing of a course 
is the angle included between a course and a 
magnetic meridian, drawn through the first 
extremity of the course. 

magnetic-compensator, s. 

Ordnance . : A contrivance for neutralizing 
the effect of a ship's guns and other iron in 
deranging the bearing of the compass. That 
introduced by Prof. Airy consists of two mag- 
nets placed at right angles to each other below 
the compass, and a box of small iron chain. 
The position is determined by experiment. 
But as the magnetic effects of the ship and 
its contents vary from time to time, so the 
compensator has to be readjusted at frequent 
intervals. 

magnetic-couple, *. [COUPLE.] 

magnetic curves, s. pi. A series of 
lines or directions which may be graphically 
denoted by iron filings scattered upon a card 
or pane of glass placed horizontally upon a 
magnet and gently tapped. The beautiful 
lines into which the tilings are thrown indi- 
cate lines of magnetic force. 

magnetic-declination, s. The variation 
of the magnetic needle at a particular place and 
time, E. or \V. of the geographical meridian of 
the spot. 

magnetic-dip, s. The dip of the mag- 
netic needle. [Dip, s.] 

magnetic-elements, s. pi. Intensity, 
declination, and dip. 

magnetic-equator, t. A line passing 
round the globe near the equator, at every 
point of which the dip of the needle is nothing. 
The general inclination of the magnetic to the 
terrestrial equator is about 12. 



magnetic-field, i The field of a magnet 
is the region affected by it. In one sense it 
may be said to be infinite ; but the law of in- 
verse squares diminishes the intensity so 
rapidly, that practically the term is limited 
to the region sensibly aft'ected by the magnet. 
The amount of for"e exerted at any point is 
the intensity of the field at that point, and is 
measured by the force exerted upon a unit 
pole at the point. 

* magnetic-fluid, . A hypothetical term 
now disused, formerly denoting an hypothesis 
long ago abandoned. 

magnetic-inclination, s. The same as 
MAGNETIC-DIP (q.v.). 

magnetic -induction, *. The effect 
produced by a magnet upon magnetic bodies 
in its neighbourhood. Magnetic bodies are 
rendered magnetic by such neighbourhood, 
and still more by contact, which is called 
induced magnetism. 

magnetic-intensity, . The greater or 
less effect produced by a magnet, usually 
measured by its attractive force. This varies 
inversely as the square of the distance. 

magnetic iron-ore, s. 

Min. : The same as MAGNETITE (q.v.). 
magnetic-ironstone, s. [MAGNETITE.] 

magnetic-limit, s. A limit of tempera- 
ture beyond which iron or any other magnetic 
metal ceases to be affected by the magnet. 

magnetic-meridian, s. If a vertical 
plane be passed through the axis of a magnetic- 
needle, freely suspended at a point, its inter- 
section with the surface of the earth is called 
a magnetic meridian of the point. The angle 
included between this meridian and the true 
meridian through the point, is called the 
variation of the needle. 

magnetic-needle, s. A slender poised 
bar or plate of magnetized steel. The needle 
is suspended by a metallic or jewelled centre 
upon a hardened steel pivot. For other in- 
struments needles are often suspended by fine 
silk threads or even spider-lines. The test of 
delicacy is the number of horizontal vibrations 
which the suspended needle will make before 
coming to rest. 

magnetic-north, . That point of the 
horizon indicated by the direction of the mag- 
netic needle. 

magnetic-poles, *. pi. [MAGNET.] 
magnetic-pyrites, s. 

Min. : The same as PYRRHOTITE (q.v.). 

magnetic-saturation, s. The state of 
a bar or needle when it has received the 
greatest amount of magnetic force which can 
be permanently imparted to it. 

magnetic-storms, . pi. Magnetic dis- 
turbances felt simultaneously at places remote 
from each other. 

magnetic-telegraph, s. [TELEGRAPH.] 

magnetic-units, . pi. In the C. G. 8. 

system, the unit pole is one which repels a 
similar pole distant one centimetre with the 
force of one dyne. The unit moment is the 
moment of a magnet one centimetre long, 
having the unit pole above. 

magnetic-variation, s. [VARIATION.] 

* mag-net -Ic-al, a. & *. [Eng. magnetic; 
-al.l 

A. As adj. : The same as MAGNETIC, . (q.v.). 

"As touching the propertie of the maynettcal needle 
In pointing towards the poles.' Stoie : (jueen Eltiubeth 
(an 1602). 

B. As subst. : The same as MAGNETIC, *. 
(q.v.). 

" Men must presume or discover the like mag- 
netintU in the south." Browne: Vulgar rrvurt, 
bk. ii., cb. ui. 

* mag-net'-ic-al-l^, adv. [Eng. magnetical; 

-/:/.] In a magnetic manner; by means of 
magnetism. [SYMPATHETIC-MEDICINE.] 

" [ We see] many greene wounds by that now so much 
used ttnyuciitum armarium, magnetically cured."' 
Burton : Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 9. 

* mag-nSt'-Jc-al-nSss, . [Eng. magnetical; 

-ness.] The quality or state of being magnetic. 
" It related not to the Instances of the magnetical- 

neuut\ifhtuiug."BiftoryoftheKoyalSocirti/. iv. 253. 

* mig-ne-ti'-cian, *. [Eng. magnetic; -ion.] 

One skilled in magnetism; a magnetist. 



boil, b6y ; pout, J6%1; cat, 90!!, chorus, 9hin, bench; go, gem; thin, this, sin, as; expect, Xcnophon, exist, ph t 
-eUo, -tian = shan. -tion, -ftion = shun; (ion, ion = zhun. -tious, -clous, -sious = shus. -Die, -dl, Ac. bel, dfl. 



3002 



magneticness magnetometer 



* mag-nef -ic-ness, s. [Eng. magnetic ; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being magnetic ; mag- 
netiealness. 

"The maynetickntu of their external succM." 
Water/tome : Comment, on fortttcu, p. 187. 

miig net ics, 5. [MAGNETIC.] The science 
or principles of magnetism. 

mag-nSt-If '-er-OUS, a. [Bug. magnet; 
Lat. fero = to bear, to carry ; and Eng. adj. 
sufT. -ous.J Producing or conducting mag- 
netism. 

mag'-ne't-foh.a. [Eng. magnet ; -ish.] Some- 
what magnetic. 

" Some of these iron-stones are maarutith, and draw 
the iron." Pettui: fUta Minor, pt 1., p. 317. 



-net I^m, s. [Eng. magnet; -ism.] 

1. The property capable of being imparted 
to certain bodies, especially iron, cobalt, and 
nickel, whereby they attract or repel one ano- 
ther according to certain laws. 

2. The branch of science which treats of 
this property and its conditions or laws. 

3. The attractive power itself. 

If The property of magnetism was first dis- 
covered in the natural oxide of iron, called 
Magnetite (q. v.), or the Loadstone. The earth 
itself having magnetic properties, such a 
natural magnet pointed nearly north and south, 
when freely suspended, and also attracted 
small pieces of iron. It was subsequently 
discovered that pieces of steel rubl>ed witli 
natural magnets also became magnets ; and 
these artificial magnets, besides being more 
convenient, may be made much more power- 
ful, so that natural magnets are now only 
sought as curiosities. The attraction of a 
magnet for iron filings is most intense at a 
short distance from the ends, and decreases 
towards the middle ; at the centre there is 
no attraction, and this centre is termed the 
equator of the magnet. The points at which 
the magnetism is most intense are termed the 
poles. It is evident that the magnetism 
at the two poles is different ; and that pole 
which points to the north is termed the 
north-seeking pole, whilst that which points 
to the south is called the south - seeking 
pole. If two magnets are taken, and the 
north-seeking pole of one is brought near the 
north-seeking pole of the other, they repel 
each other ; but if the north-seeking end of 
one is brought near the south-seeking end of 
the other, then they attract each other. There- 
fore simitar poles repel, dissimilar poles attract 
each other. It is impossible to obtain a mag- 
net with only one pole. If a magnetized 
needle is broken into a number of small pieces, 
each little piece is a magnet having a north- 
seeking and a south-seeking pole. Hence it 
would appear that every particle of a magnet- 
ized body is a little magnet, all having their 
south-seeking poles set in one direction, and 
their north-seeking poles in the opposite 
direction. Bodies may be divided into two 
classes : viz., magnetic bodies, which are at- 
tracted by magnets, and non-magnetic bodies, 
which are not attracted. The most magnetic 
bodies are the metals, iron, nickel, and cobalt. 
Some other metals, salts of iron and of other 
metals, porcelain, paper, oxygen gas, and 
ozone, are feebly magnetic. Other substances, 
as, for example, bismuth, antimony, copper, 
silver, gold, lead, sulphur, phosphorus, and 
water, are not only not attracted by a magnet, 
but are actually repelled : these are said to be 
diamagnetic. When a magnetic substance is 
Drought near to or in contact with a magnet, 
it becomes converted into a magnet by mag- 
netic induction (q.v.), just as a charge is in- 
duced in a conductor by an electrified body. 
The nearest pole thus induced is a dissimilar 
pole to the inducing pole, and the attraction 
of the magnet is thus due to the action already 
described of two dissimilar poles. When the 
inducing magnet is removed, most substances 
lose their magnetism, and hence are said to 
fce temporarily magnetic ; the perfection of 
this property in soft iron is of great import- 
ance to magneto-electric and dynamo-electric 
.lachines, which depend entirely for their 
effects upon rapid reversals of magnetic 
polarity. Steel and nickel retain the greater 
part of the induced magnetism, and are said 
to be permanently magnetic. Cast-iron also 
retains a large proportion of the magnetism 
impartfl to it. Even so-called permanent 
magnets, however, lose a portion of their 
power gradually; but by "closing" their 
poles with pieces of soft iron, which thus 



become induced magnets with dissimilar poles 
in contact, the inducing effect of these pieces 
strengthens the magnetism ; such pieces of 
iron are termed armatures. If magnetised 
steel is heated to redness, or is subjected to 
violent blows, it loses its magnetism. That a 
magnetic needle points approximately north 
and south is due to the fact that the earth itself 
is a huge magnet, whose conditions accordingly 
relate to what is called Terrestrial Magnetism. 
Thus, the North magnetic pole is not at present 
identical with the true North pole, but is 
situated within the Arctic circle in latitude 
75 5' N., and long. 96 46' W. The position of 
the South magnetic pole has not yet been 
ascertained. In consequence of the different 
positions of the magnetic North pole and the 
geographical North pole, a magnetic needle 
does not point true north and south, but a 
little to the east or west, according to the 
locality. This is termed the declination of 
the needle, and in the British Isles varies from 
17 to 20" W. The amount of declination 
varies from year to year, and in this country 
is at present diminishing at the rate of about 7' 
per annum. When a needle is balanced on a 
horizontal axle, so that it can turn in a vertical 
plane, and is then magnetized, it is found to 
set itself at an angle depending on the locality, 
with the north-seeking pole pointing down- 
wards if north of the equator, and the south- 
seeking pole pointing downwards if south of 
the equator. This is termed the inclination 
or dip of the needle, and a needle thus ar- 
ranged is termed a dipping needle. The 
amount of the dip varies in different places ; 
in London it is 71 50'. Magnetic charts are 
maps on which are marked lines showing the 
distribution of the earth's magnetism. It is 
found that the three magnetic elements, as 
the declination, dip, and intensity of magnetic 
force are termed, vary not only in different 
places, but also in the same place, from year 
to year, from month to month, and even from 
hour to hour. Those changes which proceed 
gradually for several years are termed secular. 
Frequently disturbances occur which produce 
a temporary irregular effect on all the needles 
over a considerable area : these are termed 
magnetic storms, and are often connected with 
manifestation of electrical phenomena, such 
as the aurora borealis, or a violent thunder- 
storm, and still more generally with those 
solar outbursts known as spots on the sun. 
All such changes in the earth's magnetism are 
now daily recorded at many stations by self- 
registering apparatus. Professor CErsted, of 
Copenhagen, discovered that if an electric 
current were passed along a wire parallel to 
a freely-balanced magnetic needle, the needle 
was deflected to a position at right angles to 
the current. Subsequently it was discovered 
that a current passed at right angles to an iron 
wire magnetized the wire so long as the cur- 
rent passed. This effect was easily multiplied 
by coiling the wire conveying the current 
round the iron rod or wire in the form of a 
helix ; thus producing magnetism enormously 
more powerful than could be contained in 
any permanent magnets. Still later it was 
found that the wire helix alone possessed 
nearly all the properties of a magnet. At a 
subsequent period Faraday discovered the con- 
verse relative phenomena, that the production, 
or cessation, or any variation in the intensity 
of magnetism, caused the production of an 
electric current, the developments of which 
are comprised in the subject of magneto- 
electricity. 

If Animal magnetism: [ANIMAL-MAGNETISM, 
MESMERISM]. 

ma^ net 1st, s. [Eng. magnet ; -ist.] One 
skilled in magnetism ; a magnetician. 

mag'-net-ite, s. [Eng. magnet; suff. -ite 
(Min.).-\ 

Min. : An ore of iron sometimes found well 
crystallized in forms belonging to the iso- 
metric system, the octahedron being the most 
frequent, though the rhombic dodecahedron 
also occurs nncombined with others. Dode- 
cahedral faces striated parallel to the longer 
diagonal ; octahedrons frequently twinned. 
Hardness, 5'5 to 6'5 ; sp. gr. 4'9 to 5'2 ; lustre, 
metallic to submetallic ; colour and streak, 
black, opaque, but when in excessively thin 
films sometimes nearly transparent, and of a 
smoky-brown colour ; fracture subconchoidal 
and shining when pure. Strongly magnetic, 
and sometimes exhibiting polarity. Compos. : 
iron, 72'4 ; oxygen, 27'6, or sesquioxide of 
iron, 68"97 ; protoxide of iron, 31 '03 ; repre- 



sented by the formula FeOFe a O 3 . One of 
the most important of the ores of iron, occurs 
in beds often of immense extent in the Azoic 
rocks ; that from Siberia and the. Hartz dis- 
trict, Germany, afford the most powerfully 
magnetic varieties. Also found abundantly 
as sand, being derived from the weathering of 
crystalline and metamorphic rocks, in which 
it is distributed as minute crystals and grains. 

mag net Iz-a ble, a. [Eng. magnetise); 
-able.] Capable of being magnetised. 

mag net-i-za'-tlon, s. [Eng. magnetise); 
-ation.] The act of magnetizing ; the state of 
being magnetized. 

"The intensity of magnetization of a uniformly 
magnetized body is the quotient of its moment by the 
volume." Everett : C. tt. S. Syttem of Vniti (1875), 
ch. x 

If This may be effected by the action of the 
earth or by currents. 

mag -net ize, v.t. & i. [Eng. magnet; -iit; 
Fr. magnetiser ; Sp. magnetisar ; Ital. mag- 
netizaare.] 

A. Transitive: 

1. To make magnetic ; to communicate 
magnetic properties to. 

" When a magnetic substance (whether paramagnetic 
or diamagnetic) is placed in a magnetic field, it i 
magnetized, hy induction." Everett : C. O. S. S}/itm 
of 0m?(1875), ch. x. 

2. To place under the influence of animal 
magnetism ; to mesmerize. 

3. To attract or draw, as with a magnet ; to 
influence, to move. 

B. Int.rans. : To become magnetic ; to ac- 
quire magnetic properties. 

t mag net iz-ee', s. [Eng magnetise); -te.} 
A person placed under the influence of animal 
magnetism. 

mag'-net-lZ-er, s. [Eng. magnetise); -er.} 
One who or that which magnetizes, or com- 
municates magnetism. 

mag^net-kies, s. [Eng. magnet, and Ger. 
kies = pyrites.] 
Min. : The same as PYRRHOTITE (q.v.). 

mag-ne-to-, pref. [Eng. magnet ; -o connec- 
tive.] (See the compound.) 

magneto electric, a. Pertaining to 

magneto-electricity (q.v.). 

Magneto-electric induction: The production 
of an induced electric current in a metallic 
circuit by means of a magnet. 

Magneto-electric light : An electric light pro- 
duced by means of powerful magnets. [Mag- 
neto-electric machine.] The South Foreland 
Lighthouse was thus illuminated in 1858-9, 
and the Lizard in 1878. 

Magneto - electric machine : A machine in 
which an electric current is generated by the 
revolution of one or more soft iron cores 
surrounded by coils of wire, about the pole* 
of a magnet or magnets ; or an armature 
(keeper) may rotate before the poles of station- 
ary coils. 

If Used medically in uterine haemorrhage, 
asphyxia, &c. In many cases it can be em- 
ployed by the patient without the aid of a 
doctor. [FARADIZATION.] 

magneto-electricity, *. The science 
which treats of the production of electricity 
by means of a magnet. It was discovered in 
1831 by Faraday, who succeeded in generat- 
ing an electric spark by suddenly separating 
a coiled keeper from a permanent magnet. 
He subsequently discovered that an electric 
current existed in a copper disc rotated be- 
tjveen the poles and a magnet. This is not to 
be confounded with electro-magnetism, dis- 
covered by QCrsted, which investigates tl^ 
action of an electric current on a magnet, the 
process being the converse one to that in the 
former case. 

mag net 6-graph, s. [Bug. magnet, and Or. 
ypd<t><a (grapho) = to write, to draw.] An in- 
strument which registers automatically the 
condition and changes of terrestrial magnetism. 

mag-net~6m'-e-ter, s. [Eng. magnet, and 
Gr. fierpov (metron)= a measure.] An instru- 
ment for measuring any of the magnetic ele- 
ments, as the dip, inclination, and intensity. 
A magnetized needle, isolated from all dis- 
turbing influences and suspended by untwisted 
silk, is used to detect the declination, and the 
delicate mode of adjustment permits any 



f&to, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian. , 09 = e ; ey = a. qu kw. 



magnetometric magnolia 



3003 



variation in this element to be observed. For 
observing the dip or inclination, the mag- 
netized needle is balanced by knife-edges upon 
agate plain's. 

m&g-net-o-met'-ric.a. [Pref. magneto-, and 
Eng. metric.] Pertaining to or employed in 
the measurement of magnetic force ; obtained 
by the use of a magnetometer. 

mag-net-O-md'-tor, *. [Pref. magneto-, and 
Lat. motor = a mover ; moveo = to move.] A 
voltaic scries of two or more large plates, 
which produce a great quantity of electricity 
of low intensity, adapted to the exhibition of 
electromagnetic phenomena. 

mag-net-o-pyr'-ite (pyr as pir), *. 

[Pref. magneto-, and Eng. pyrite (q.v.).] 
M In. : The same as PYRRHOTITE (q. v.). 

mag-nl'-fl'-a-ble, a. [Eng. magnify; 
able.] Capable" of being magnified : worthy 
to be extolled or praised. 

"Wonderful in itself, and sufficiently magnifiable 
from its demonstrable affection." Browne : Vulgar 
Errourt, bk. iv., ch. xli. 

m&g - nlf ' - ic, * mag - nlf- Ick, * mag- 

nif'-lC-al, a. [Lat. magnificus = noble, 
splendid, from magnus = great, and faclo = 
to make.] Noble, splendid, grand, illustrious. 

"O parent, these axe thy magnific deeds. 
Thy trophies 1 " Jftiton: P. L., x. W4. 

mag-nif -fc-al-iy, adv. [Eng. magnificat ; 
-ly.\ In a magnificent or splendid manner; 
nobly. 

" He spake ... of the weale-publluke magnifically." 
SavUe : Tacituf ; Bitt., p. 139. 

Mag-nlf ' -i-C&t, *. [Lat. = doth magnify ; 
3rd pers. sing, indie, of magiiifico =to magnify, 
to extol.] 

1. The song of the Virgin Mary (Luke i. 46), 
so called from the first word in the Latin ver- 
sion. 

"[He] ... at vespers, proudly sat 
And heard the priests cliaiit the Mainificat." 

Lonafellov: Hicilian't Tale, i. 

2. A setting of the same to music. 

*mag-nif'-I-cate, v.t. [Lat. magnificatus, 
pa. par. of magnified = to magnify (q.v.).j To 
magnify, to extol. 

t mag-nlf-I-Ca'-tion, s. [Lat. magnificatio, 
from magnificatus. ] [MAGNIFICATION.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : The act of magnifying or ex- 
tolling. 

" Words so often used in Scripture for the magnifica- 
tion of faith." Bishop Taylor: Sermani, vol. iii., ser. S. 

2. Optics : The magnifying power of a tele- 
scope or microscope. (Ganot : Physics, 502.) 

mag-niF-l-9en9e, s. [Fr., from Lat. magni- 
Jiceiitia from magnificens = maguificent (q.v.) ; 
Sp. & Port, mngnificenza.] 

* 1. The act of doing great or noble works ; 
great works of goodness. 

" Then cometh magnificence, that is to say, when a 
man doth and periurmeth gret workes of goodne&a." 
Chaucer : Persones Tale. 

* 2. Large expenditure for others ; munifi- 
cence, generosity, liberality. 

"Bounty and magnificence are virtues very regal; 
but a prodigal king is nearer a tyrant than a parsi- 
monious." Bacon : Essays ; Of a King. 

3. The quality or state of being magnificent ; 
splendour, grandeur of show or state ; pomp. 

" The infinite magnificence of heaven." 

Wordnaorth : Excursion, bk. ix. 
If Magnificence lies not only in the number 
and extent of the objects presented, but in 
th< ir degree of richness as to their colouring 
and quality ; splendour is but a characteristic 
of magnific nee, attached to such objects as 
dazzle the eye by the quantity of light, or the 
beauty and strength of colouring ; pomp is 
the appendage of power, when displayed to 
public view. 

mag-nif '-i-cent, a. [Lat. ma^nf/Ecns=doing 
great things : magnva = great, and faciens, 
pr. par. of/acto to do ; Ital. magnificente.} 

* 1. Doing great or noble deeds or works ; 
munificent, generous. 

2. Grand in appearance ; splendid. 

"Sunk in the quenching gloom, 
Magnificent and vast are heaven and earth, 
Order confounded lies." Thornton : A utumn, 1.139. 

* 3. Fond of splendour, show, or pomp. 

4. Noble, splendid ; exceedingly praise- 
worthy. 

" This was thought and called a magnificent answer, 
down to the last days of Italian servitude." Byron : 
ChUde Harold, Iv. 8. (Note.) 



, adv. [Eng. magnifi- 
cent ; -ly.] tn a magnificent manner or degree ; 
with magnificence ; splendidly, grandly. 
" The beauteous warrior now arrays for fight, 
In gilded arms magnificently bright." 

Pnpe : Homer ; Iliad iii. 410. 

mag-nlf'-I-cd, s. [Ital., from Lat. magnifi- 
cus.} 
* 1. A grandee of Venice. 

" The magnifico is much beloved, 
And hath iu nis effect a voice potential." 

Shaketp. : Otltello, L 2. 

2. A rector of a German university. 

* mag-nif '-i-cous, a. [Lat. magnificus m&g- 

nittcent(q.v.).] Magnificent, grand, pompous. 

* mag-nif -J-cous-1^, adv. [Eng. magnifi- 
cous; -ly.] Magnificently, grandly, pompously. 
(Hooker.) 

mag'-nl-fl-ir, . [Eng. magnify; -er.] 

1. One who or that which magnifies, praises, 
or extols. 

2. That which makes great or increases ; an 
increaser. 

" .Vent hilaris is a great magnifier of honest mirth." 
Burton : Anat. of Melancholy, p. 298. 

3. A magnifying-glass (q.v.). 

"One of our microscopes has been counted by several 
of the curious as good a nttir/nifier as, perhaps, any iu 
theworld.'-floy'e.- Works, ii. 543. 



'-ni-f^-, * mag-ni-fi-en, v.t. & i. [Fr. 
magnifier, from Lat. magnifico = to make great ; 
magnns = great, and facio = to make ; Ital. 
magnificare ; Sp. & Port, magnificar.] 

A. Transitive : 

1. To make great or greater ; to increase the 
apparent size or dimensions of. 

" And mighty warriors sweep along, 

Magnified by the purple mist" 
Longfellow: Taletofa Wayside Inn. (Prelude.) 

t 2. To make or declare great, to extol ; to 
declare the praises of; to glorify. 



* 3. To raise in pride or pretensions. 

" O Lord, behold my affliction : for the enemy hath 
magnified himself." Lamentations i. 9. 

4. To exaggerate ; to represent as greater 
than reality. 

" Each vainly magnifies his own success, 
Resents his feliow's, wishes it were less." 

Camper : Tirocinium, 477. 

B. Intransitive : 

1. To have the power or quality of causing 
things to appear larger than reality ; to in- 
crease the apparent size or dimensions of 
objects : as, This glass magnifies too much. 

* 2. To have effect, to signify, to avail. 

" My governess assured my father I had wanted for 
nothing, but I was almost eaten up with the green- 
sickness ; but this magnified little with my father." 
Steele : Spectator, No. 431. 

mag'-nl-fy-Ing, pr. par., a., & s. [MAGNIFV.] 
A. & B. As pr. par. & particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As subst. : The act of making greater or 
larger in appearance ; the act of praising or 
extolling. 

magnifying glass, s. 

Optics : A popular term for a convex piece 
of glass or a lens which has the property of 
magnifying. 

* mag-nll-o-quence, s. [Lat. magnilo- 
(fu.en.tia, from magnus = great, and loquens, pr. 
par. of loquor = to speak.] Pompous or bom- 
bastic manner of speaking ; a tumid or pomp- 
ous style ; grandiloquence, bombast. 

"All the sects ridiculed this magniloquence of 
Epicurus." Bentley : Remarla, i 44. 

mag-nil -6-quent, a. [MAGNILOQUENCE.] 
Using pompous or bombastic language ; bom- 
bastic, tumid, grandiloquent ; speaking loftily 
or pompously. 

"She was a trifle more magniloquent than usual." 
Thackeray: ffetKomet, ch. xxiii. 

t mag-nlT-O-quent-ltf, adv. [Eng. magni- 
loquently.] In a magniloquent manner ; with 
pompous, tumid, or bombastic language ; 
grandiloquently. 

* mag-nil 6-quous, a. [Lat. magniloquus, 
fcom magnus = great, and loquor = to speak.) 
The same as MAGNILOQUENT (q.v.). 

* mag -ni son -ant, a. [Lat. magnus = 
great, and sonans, pr. par. of sono to sound.] 
Great-sounding, high-sounding. 

" That strange and mugnixonant appellation.** 
Southey : The Doctor ; Cats of Greta Ball. 



mag ni-tude, . [Lat. magnitudo, from 
magniis = great] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. The comparative size, bulk, extent, quan- 
tity, or amount of anything that may be 
measured ; size. 

" I behold this goodly frame, this world. 
Of heiiv'n and earth consisting ; and compute 
Their magnitudes." Milton: P. L., viil. 17. 

2. Anything that can be measured ; any 
quantity that can be expressed in terms of a 
quantity of the same kind taken as a unit. 
[II. 2.] 

* 3. Greatness, with reference to a moral or 
intellectual standard. 

" He with plain heroic magnitude of mind, . . . 
Their armories and magazines contemns." 

Milton : Xamson Agonistes, 1.279. 

4. Importance, consequence, weight. 

" We commonly find in the ambitious man a sup*, 
riority of parti, in some measure proportioned to th 
magnitude of his designs." Bp. Horslty, vol. i., icr. 4. 

II. Technically : 

1. Astron. : A term applied to the apparent 
size of stars viewed from the earth. There 
are six magnitudes. [STAR.] 

2. Geom. : This term was originally ap- 
plied to signify the si ace occupied by a body. 
As thus used, it applied only to those por- 
tions of space which possessed the three attri- 
butes of extension : length, breadth, and 
thickness, or height. By extension of mean- 
ing, it has come to signify anything that can 
be increased, diminished, and measured. 
Thus, a line or a surface, an angle or a num- 
ber, are magnitudes. Time and weight are 
magnitudes ; and, in general, anything of 
which greater or less can be predicated is a 
magnitude. 

3. Physics : The same as EXTENSION (q.v.). 
f Apparent magnitude of an object : 
Optics: The angle which any object sub- 
tends at the eye of an observer. If o B be the 
object, and E the _ 
situation of the 

observer's eye, 
then the appa- 
rent magnitude of the former is the angle E 
i.e., o E B, formed by two visual rays drawn 
from the centre of the pupil to the extremities 
of the object. 

* mag -m um, s. [MAGNESIUM.] 

Cliem. : Davy's name for magnesium. 

mag no chro -mite, s. [Eng. magn(esia); 
o connective, and chromite ; Ger. magno~ 
chromit.] 

Min. : A variety of chromite (q.v.), contain- 
ing a large percentage of magnesia. Physical 
characters the same as chromite, excepting in 
the want of lustre and low density. From an 
analysis of a mixture of the mineral and its 
matrix, Websky deduces the following com- 
position . alumina, 29'92; chromic acid, 40*78; 
protoxide of iron, 15*30 ; magnesia, 14'00 ; 
which agrees with the formula, 4(Al2C>3, Crgps), 
(3PeO, 5MgO). Found in rounded grains in a 
green matrix at Grochau, Silesia. 

mag no for rite, s. [MAGNESIOFERRITE.] 

mag-no'-ll -a, s. [Named after Pierre Magnol 

(1CW8-1715), "profes.sor of medicine at Mont- 
pellier, and author of several botanical works.] 
Bot. : The typical genus of the tribe Magno- 
lirif. and the order Maguoliacese. Sepals three, 
deciduous ; petals six to nine ; stamens and 
pistils many ; carpels compacted in spikes 
or cones ; seeds baccate, somewhat cordate 
pendulous, with a long white umbilical thread 
The species are trees or shrubs, with alternate 
leaves and large, terminal, odoriferous flowers. 
They are found in the United States and Asia. 
Magnolia grandifio'a, the Great-flowered Mng- 
nolia, or Laurel Bay, is a flue evergreen 
tree, found from North Carolina to the Gulf 
States. Ita flowers are very large. The species 
have large, beautiful, fragrant Bowers. Those 
of M. conspicua are snow-white, and those of 
M. pumila brownish-green. De Candolle says 
that those of AT. tripetala produce sickness 
and headache. Barton reports that II. glauca, 
the Dwarf Sassafras, or Beaver-tree, produces 
paroxysms of fever. The bark is intensely 
bitter, but has in it no tannin or gallic 
acid ; it has the properties of Cinchona. Its 
" cones " are employed as a remedy in cases of 
chronic rheumatism. Those of M. Yulan are 
similarly used in China. The "cones" of 
M. Frazeri, called also Af. auriculata, and M. 
acuminatii, called, in the United States, Cu- 



boy; pout, Jo'vVl; cat, cell, chorus, ghln, bench; go, gem; tain, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-clan, -tian - suan. -tion, -sion-sbun; -$lon, -sion = zhun. -tious, -sious. -cious = anus. -bio. -die. &c. = bel, dji. 



3004 



magnoliacese Mahdi 



cumber-trees, are infused in brandy or whisky, 
ajd given in intermittent fevers and rheu- 
matic affections. M. excelsa furnishes a valu- 
able timber of flue texture, first greenish, then 
yellow. 

" Faint was the ir with the odorous breath of mag- 
nolla bludBonis. " Longftttou : JSvangcline. ii. a. 

mag nd-l~a'-ce se, s. [Mod. Lat magna- 
li(a); L*t. fern. pi. adj. suff. -ocece.] 

Bot. : Magnoliads ; an order of hypogynous 
exogens, alliance Ranales. It consists of 
trees or shrubs, having the scales of the leaf- 
bud face to face or rolled up ; alternate, some- 
times dotted, leaves, distinctly articulated 
with the stem, with deciduous stipules ; 
flowers generally hermaphrodite, strongly 
odoriferous ; sepals generally three to six ; 
petals three or more ; stamens indefinite, hy- 
pogynous ; carpels several, on a torus above 
the stamens ; one-celled, one or more seeded. 
Fruit dry or succulent, dehiscent or indehis- 
cent, sometimes collected upon a cone upon a 
lengthened axis ; weds one or snore in each 
carpel of the fruit. They are found chiefly in 
North America, wihence they straggle to 
Japan, China, and India. Known genera, 
eleven ; species, sixty-five. Most have a bitter, 
tonic taste. The or.ler is divided into two 
tribes, Magnoliese and Winterese (q.v.). 

mag-nd'-Il-ads , s. pi. [Mod. Lat. magnoli(a}; 
Eng. pi. suff. -ads.] 

Bot. : The name givan by Lindley to the 
order Magnoliace&e (q.v.). 

mag-no-U-e'-W, s. pi. [MtJ. Lat. magnoli(a) i 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -ece.} 

Hot. : The typical tribe 01? the order Magno- 
liaceae (q.v.). The carpels are arranged in a 
cone ; the leaves scarcely, it at all, dotted. 
(Lindley.) 

mag'-nd-lite, 5. [Named after the Magnolia 
district, Colorado ; suff. -ite (Afiii.).] 

Min. : A white mineral, occurring in silky 
tufts of very minute acicular crystals. Con- 
tains mercury and tellurium, and inferred to 
be a telluride of mercury. Found in the Key- 
tone mine. 

mag'-ntim, s. [Lat., neut. sing. otmagnus = 
great, large.] A bottle holding two English 
quarto. 

" Between every two guf *s a portly magnum reared 
Ita golden head. A. Forbel, in Englitk llliatrated 
Magazine, Dec., 1884, p. 152. 

magnum - bonum, s. [Lat = great- 
good.] 

1. A kind of large-sized barrel pen. 

2. A large-sized oval plum, with a yellow 
kin, covered with a whitish bloom. 

mag'-nus, a. [Lat = great, large.] (See the 
etym.) 

magnus riitch, s. 

Naut. : A kind of knot used on board ship. 

ma-go'-nl-a, s. [Don says that it is named 
after some botanist known to St. Hilaire.] 

Bot. : A genus of Sapindaceae, tribe Melios- 
niiM-. It consists of two trees, Magonia 
alabrata and M. pubescens, covering extensive 
tracts in Brazil. The leaves and an infusion 
of the bark of the roots are used for stupefy- 
ing fish ; the latter is employed also 
as a remedy in old ulcers, the stings 
of insects, &c. ; the seeds are used 
In the manufacture of soap. 

ma -goo tee, s. [Hind.] An in- 
strument used by the Pambatees or 
snake-charmers of the East Indies. 
It is composed of a hollow calabash, 
to one end of which is tilted a mouth- 
piece similar to that of the clarinet. 
To the other extremity is adapted a 
tube perforated with several holes, 
which are successively stopped by 
the fingers, like those of the flute, MAOOOT "- 
while the player blows into the mouthpiece. 
In the middle of the instrument is a small 
mirror, on which the serpents fix their eyes 
while dancing. Sometimes bright beads are 
attached, which serve the same purpose as the 
mirror. 

mag'-dt(l), s. [MAOOOT.] 

magot-pie, s. A magpie (q.v.X 

mag' 6t (2), $. [Fr.] 

Zool : The same as BARBAHY-APE (q.v.X 



mag'-pie, . [Fr. Margot, a familiar form of 
Marguerite = Margaret, from Lat. margarita ; 
Gr. fipyapir)s (margarites) = a pearl. The 
syllable pie = Fr. pie, is from Lat. pica = a 
magpie.] [PiE (2), *.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : In the same sense as II. 1. 

2. Figuratively : 

(1) A halfpenny. (Slang.) 

(2) A bishop, from the mingled black and 
white of his robes. 

" Let not those silkworms and magpiel have do- 
minion over us." T. Brown : Worki, i. 107. 

IL Technically: 

1. Ornith. : A well-known bird of the family 
Corvidse. It is the Corvus pica of Linn., Pica 
caudata, melanoleuca, or rustica of later orni- 
thologists. It was once common throughout 
Great Britain, but its ravages among young 
poultry, the young of hares, rabbits, fea- 
thered game, and lambs have been so great 
that it is now almost exterminated in some 
parts, and is everywhere scarce. It is an ex- 
tremely beautiful bird, the pure white of its 
scapulars and inner web of the flight-feathers 
contrasting vividly with the deep glossy 
black of the body and wings, while the long 
tail is lustrous with green, bronze, and purple 
reflections. It builds an almost impregnable 
nest, with a dome of firmly-interwoven sticks, 
and lays from six to nine bluish-green eggs, 
blotched with ash-colour. 

" In a shady tree 

Nine magplei perch'd lament their alter'd state." 
Maynwaring : Ovid ; Metamorphout v. 

2. Mil. : A shot striking the target in the 
division next to the outermost in a target 
divided into four sections ; so called because 
signalled by the marker with a black and 
white disc. 

magpie-lark, s. 

Ornith. : [LITTLE-MAGPIE], 

magpie-moth, 5. 

Entom. : The Gooseberry-moth, Abraxas 
grossulariata. Its expanded wings are about 
an inch and a half across. They are yellowish- 
white with black spots, and on the anterior 
pair a pale orange-coloured band. The body 
is orange with black spots. The eggs are de- 
posited on gooseberry or currant bushes in 
July or August, and the caterpillars are hatched 
in September. They are yellowish-white, 
spotted with black, and have an orange 
stripe on each side. The chrysalis is black, 
relieved at the lip with orange circles. In 
addition to the September brood there is 
another at beginning of summer. If dusted 
with the powder of white hellebore, they are 
destroyed, but picking them off by hand is 
a more efficient process. [ABRAXAS.] 

magpie-robin, *. 

Ornith. : The name given in Ceylon to the 
Copsychus saularis, kept in cages, and used 
by the natives to fight. 

ma-gre'-pha, . [Heb.] An organ men- 
tioned in the Talmud as having been in exist- 
ence in the second century. It had ten 
ventages, each of which communicated with 
ten pipes, and it was played upon by means 
of a clavier. 

rums, . [Etym. doubtful ; perhaps a 
corruption of megrim (q.v.).] A popular 
name in the State of New York for a singular 
convulsive affection resembling chorea. It 
rarely occurs before the adult age, never ceases 
spontaneously, and when fully developed is 
devoid of any paroxysmal character. (Mayne.) 



man, s. [Eng. magg, v., and nan.] 
A swindler, a thiefc (Slang.) 

mag uay, mag uey (uay, uey as wa), s. 

[Mexican maguei.] 
Bot. : Agave americana. [AQAVE.] 

mag' uey (uey as wa), t. [MAOUAY.] 

*ma' 7 gus,s. [Lat] One of the Magi (q.v.); a 
magian. 

Mag'-yar, t. [Hung.] 

1. One of a race of Asiatic origin, which in- 
vaded or settled in Hungary about the end of 
the ninth century, and is still the predominant 
race there. 

2. The language of Hungary. It belongs to 
the Ugrian family of the Turanian class of 
languages. 



* mag -y dare, * mag-u-dere, t. I Lat 

magydarius, magudarius, from Gr. p.ayuo'apic 
(magudaris).'] Laserwort. [LA.SEKPITIUM.] 

ma -ha, s. [Native name.] 

Zool. : Semnopithixus ursinus, a native of 
the wooded hill-country of Ceylon. Its spe- 
cific name has reference to its general bear-like 
appearance. [WANDEROO.] 

ma-ha-bha'-rat, s. [Sansc. maha, mahat = 
great, and Bharat (see def.).] 

Hindoo Literature : One of the two great 
epic poems of India, the other being the 
Ramayan. Its leading theme is the contest, 
perhaps, in the main, historic, between the 
Kurus and the Pamlus, two dynasties of 
ancient India, both descended from Bharat, 
King of Hustinapoor. Dhritarashtra, the 
father of Duryodhana and the Kurus, was 
the legitimate heir to the throne, but being 
blind, he was supplanted by his cousin Yud- 
histiras, the eldest of the five Pandu princes. 
Ultimately, by the aid of Krishna, the usurp- 

. ing Pandus were firmly established in the 
sovereignty of Northern India. With this 
main theme are interwoven episodes, moral 
reflections, and digressions of all kinds, con- 
stituting about three-fourths of the present 
poem. The discourse between Krishna and 
Urjoon on the eve of a battle constitutes the 
Bhagavat gita (q.v.). The roots of some por- 
tions of modern Hindooism are in the Maha- 
bhar.it.. The worship of Krishna, as one with 
Vishnoo and the universe, has its origin here. 

Mah-a-de-va, Mah-a-de'-o, s. [Sansc. 
maha, mahat = great, and dejia = a god.] 

Hindoo Myth. : One of the many names 
given to Shiva, the third person of the Hindoo 
triad. 

ma-ha-ra'-j ah, s. [Sansc. , from mahat, maha 
= great, and 'rajah prince.] A title assumed 
by some Indian princes. 

ma har'-mah, s. [Turk.] 

Fabric: A muslin wrapper worn over the 
head and across the mouth and chin by Turk- 
ish ladies when out of doors. 

Mah'-di, Mah -dee, Muh -dee (commonly 
pron. Ma'-dl), s. [Arab., as adj. = called 
(Catafago), as subst. = a director or leader 
(Jaffur Shurreef)."} 

1. Miihammadan Theol. : The surname of a 
second Muhammad, the last or twelfth Imaum 
(Head, Chief, or Leader). According to the 
Sheeahs (Muhammadan Scripturalists) of 
Persia, he is alive in the unseen world, and 
will appear with Elias the Prophet at the 
second coming of Jesus Christ. The gene- 
rality of the Soonnees (Muhammadan Tradi- 
tionalists) concur in the belief that the advent 
of the Mahdi is still future, while an Indian 
sect called Gyr Mahdis consider him to have 
already appeared in the person of Syud Mu- 
hammad, of Jounpoor. On the twenty- 
seventh night of the month Ramzan they 
recite the words "God is almighty, Muham- 
med is our prophet, and the Koran and Mahdi 
are just and true;" adding, "Imaum Mahdi 
has come and gone : whoever disbelieves this 
is an infidel." They are Soonnee Pathans, 
but there is a feud, sometimes leading to blood- 
shed, between them and the ordinary Soon- 
nees. Petitions are sometimes written to the 
Imaum Mahdi on Friday, the Muhammadan 
Sunday, and committed to any river in the 
confident expectation that they will reach 
their destination. 

. 2. Hist. : Muhammad Ali, governor of Egypt 
(the murderer of the Mamelukes), commenced, 
about the year 1821, the conquest of the 
Soudan, which was completed about, a half 
century later by General Gordon, who ruled 
it so well as to preserve peace for a time. 
On his departure, the incapacity of his 
Egyptian successors drove the Soudanese 
into revolt At first the rebellion was 
political, but a religious element speedily 
arose, and ultimately asserted its predomi- 
nance. An individual gave out that he was 
the divinely-promised Mahdi [1], the Muham- 
madan Messiah, come for the deliverance of 
the faithful, and to convert all their unbeliev- 
ing foes to Islam ism, or utterly to destroy 
them. At that time the constraining force 
of events had brought Great Britain into 
entanglement with the affairs of Egypt 
A military revolt, headed by an Egyptian, 
Arabi Pasha, had been attended by the mas- 
sacre of many European Christians at Alex- 



fat, fare, .amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
r. wore, wplf, work, whd, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, fall; try, Syrian. , 09 = e. ey = a. qo = kw. 



mahl maiden 



3005 



ndria, and the British fleet had been sent 
out to prevent a fresh outbreak, or, if one 
arose, to bring off as many of the Christians 
as possible. New forts being built to threaten 
the ships, the fleet had bombarded and cap- 
tured them, with the older fortifications, on 
July 11, 1882, whilst an army sent out had 
heavily defeated the Egyptians in a short but 
very bloody fight at Tel-el-Kebir, on Sept. 13, 
1882. The British Government, then directed 
by Mr. Gladstone, advised Egypt to give up all 
attempts to reconquer the Soudan, which was 
about as large as France, Germany, and Spain 
taken together, besides being mostly desert. 
The advice was neglected, an Egyptian army, 
headed by an Englishman, Hicks Pasha, was 
ent out, but was almost immediately de- 
stroyed and its leader killed on Dec. 5, 1883. 
A second, under Baker Pasha (Colonel Valen- 
tine Baker), was put to flight with great 
slaughter on Feb. 4, 1884. The Egyptians were 
now willing to let the Soudan go, and as 
originally advised, include in it Khartoum, 
the capital of Nubia. But the Soudanese, 
not contented to obtain their independence, 
desired also to massacre the Egyptian garri- 
sons, consisting, it was believed, of about 
20,000 men. Humanity shuddered at such a 
resolve, and public opinion urged that General 
Gordon should be sent out on a peaceful mis- 
sion to negotiate for the withdrawal of the 
garrisons. He left for Egypt Jan. 18. 1884. 
He failed in his endeavour, and after defend- 
ing himself with heroic courage and infinite 
fertility of resource in Khartoum for about a 
year, was overcome by treachery on Jan. 26, 
18S5, the Mahdi's troops being admitted 
within the fortifications, and Gordon and 
many others slain, just as a relieving army 
was approaching for his deliverance. Previous 
to this he had completely lost faitli in peace- 
ful negotiations, and declared that there 
would be no peace for Egypt unless the 
Mahdi was " smashed." 

Mah dl an, s. [Eng.. &c. Mahdi; -an.] A 
follower or adherent of the Mahdi (q.v.). 

" No hardy Mahdian got nearer than twenty yard*." 
Daily Telegraph, March 21, 1886. 

Mah-dist, . [Eng., &c. Mahd(i); -wt.] The 
same as MAHDIAN (q.v.). 



' [MAUL.] 
mail lib, ma-ha'-leb, . [Native name.] 

Dot. : The fragrant kernels of Cerasi*s Maha- 
leb, used by the Scindian and other native In- 
dian women as necklaces. The fruit affords a 
violet dye, and can be made also into a fer- 
mented liquor like kirschwasser. 

ma-hqg'-an-iae, v.t. [Eng. mahogan(y); 
-iz'e.] To paint or grain in imitation of maho- 
gany ; to veneer with mahogany. 

ma hog an-y, s. [From mohagoni, its Cen- 
tral American name.] 
Botany Commerce : 

1. The timber of Swietenia Mahagoni. It is 
close-grained and hard, susceptible of a line 
polish, and is largely used for the manufac- 
ture of household furniture. It is flagrant and 
aromatic, and is considered febrifugal. Maho- 
gany is said to have been first brought to Eng- 
land by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1595, but not to 
have come into general use till about 1720. 

2. The timber of Persea indica, a tree which 
grows in Madeira. It is very inferior to the 
genuine mahogany. 

U Spanith mahogany comes from the West 
Indies ; Hondurai mahogany, or bay-wood, from 
Central America; Mexican mahogany from 
Mexico. The grain varies considerably in the 
different species, these variations giving rise to 
such commercial terms as watered, fetiooned, 
bir<ft-tye, caterpillar, velvet cord, and veiny, 
indicating wavy, mottled, and variegated 
markings which make the wood more or legs 
valuable in the manufacture of furniture, Ac. 

mahogany-tree, s. 

Bot. : Swietenia Mahagoni, one of the 
Cedrelace. It is a lofty, branching tree, 
with a large, handsome head, flowers like 
those of Melia, and fruits about the size of a 
turkey's egg. It grows in the warmest parts 
of Central America, in Cuba, Jamaica, Hispa 
niola, and the Bahamas. [MADEIRA-WOOD.] 

* ma-hoitres', s. pi. [Fr.] A term applied to 

the padded and upraised shoulders in fashion 
during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 



ma ho li, . [Native name,] 

Zool. : Galago Maholi, a diminutive African 
Lemuroid, family Lemuridrc. The general 
colouring of the upi>er parts is yellowish or 
brownish gray, with slightly darker brindling 
on the back, broad nose-streak, cheeks and 
throat white, under parts white tinged with 
yellow. The ears are very large, and can be 
contracted at pleasure. 

Ma hom e dan, Ma-hom -e tan, a. & t. 

[MUHAMMADAN.] 

Ma hom -e tan, a. Si $. [MUHAMMADAN.] 
Ma-hom' -e -tan-ism, s. [MUHAMMADANISM.] 
Ma h6m'-e-tan-ize, v.t. [MUHAMMADANIZE.] 

* Ma-h8-met'-i-cal, a. [Eng. Mahomet ; 
-icaL] Muhammadan. 

" The Jlahometical Elysium of libertine*." Gentle- 
man instructed, p. 561. 

* Ma hom ct - Ism, * Ma - hom <5 - trie , 
* Ma-hum-e tisme, s. [Eng. Mahomet ; 
ism, -ry.] Muhammadanism, idolatry. 

" No dumme popetrie or superstitious JfahometrU." 
Tyndall : Worket, p. 287. 

* Ma-hom'-St-Ist, s. [Eng. Mahomet ; -iit.] 
A follower of Muhammad ; a Muhammadan. 

" The king of the Mahometittt sought his friendship." 
Pedro Mexia : Hitt. Roman Emperort, p. 625. 

* Ma -ho-mlte, . [Eng. Mahom(et); -ite.] A 
Muhammadan. 

" The Mahomite 
With hundred thousands in Vienna plaine." 

Sylvetter : Miracle of Peace, sonn. xxxviil. 

ma-ho'-ni-a, s. [Named after Bernard Me 
jifahon, of North America, a lover of botany.] 
Bot. : Ash-barberry ; a genus of Berberidacese 
consisting of elegant evergreen shrubs, and 
with pinnate leaves, and yellow flowers. 
Found in the United States and Nepaul. 
Several are cultivated in gardens. 

* ma- hound', * ma-houn', t. & a. [A cor- 
rupt, of Mohammed" or Mahomet.] 

A. As substantive : 

L An idol ; the image of a god or Mahomet. 

" The y mage of Xahnun, y-med of golde, 
With the axe smot he oppon the molde, 
That al that heued to fleute." 

Sir ferumln-at. 4,M. 

2. The devil. 

B. -4s adj. : A term applied to the devil or 

any very wicked person or spirit. 

ma'-hout, s. [East Indian.] An elephant 
driver or keeper. 

Mah-rat'-ta, a. & s. [Mahratta Maratha, as 
a'dj. = belonging to the Maratha country ; as 
subst. = a man of the cultivator caste. Maha- 
rashtra = the great country, or perhaps Mahar- 
rashtra = the country of the Mahars, now an 
outcast tribe, from Sansc. maha = great, or 
Mahar and rashtra = country.] 

A. As adj. : Of or belonging to the Mahrat- 
tas. [B.] 

B. As substantive : 

1. (PI.): One of the great races who have 
from time immemorial inhabited Western 
India, though they did not come into notice 
till the seventeenth century. They are sup- 
posed to have come from the north. 

2. The language spoken by the Mahrattas. 
It is Aryan, all but a fraction of the roots 
being akin to Sanscrit. 

mah va, mah - wa, ma ho a, s. [Native 
Indian name.] The'same'as MADHUCA (q.v.). 

Ma I a (1), *. [Gr. Mala (Maia), to Greek 
myth." = the daughter of Atlas, and mother of 
Hermes.] 
Astron. : [ASTEROID, 66]. 

ma'-i-a (2), s. [Lat., from Gr. pala. (maia) = 
good mother ; a large kind of crab, supposed 
by Cuvier to be Cancer pagurus (Linn.).] 

Zool. : Spider-crab ; the typical genus of the 
family Maiidse. The type is Maia squinado. 
[SPIDER-CRAB.] 

ma i a dae, s. pi. [M AHI>.*:.] 

ma 1 an, s. [Gr. pala (maia) = a crab.] 

Zool. : An individual of the tribe Maiidse 

(q.v.). 

maid, *mayd, "mayde, . [A corrupt 
of maiden (q.v.), by the loss of final n; A.S. 
mcegdh, mtegedh = a maiden.] 



I. Ordinary Language: 

1. A girl ; a young unmarried woman. 

" The Syrians had . . . brought away captive out *M 
the land of Israel a little maid; and she waited OB 
Viwinau's wife."-2 Kingt v. 2. 

2. A virgin ; an unmarried woman who has 
preserved her chastity. 

3. A female servant. 

" Spinning amongst her maidt."Shaketp. : Rape of 
Lucrece. IKrgum.) 

* 4. Used of a man who has not yet known 
woman. 

" You are betrothed both to a maid and man.' 

Shakesp. : Twelfth fright. T. 

II. Ichthy. : A popular name for a female of 
Raja batis. 

If 1. Maid of honour: [HONOUR, T 6.] 
2. Maids of the Cross : 
Ecclesiol. Church Hist. : 

(1) A sisterhood founded atBoye, In Picardy, 
in 1625, by four young women. They removed 
to Paris in 1640, and were created into a con- 
gregation by the Archbishop in 1640, and con- 
firmed by letters patent in 1642. 

(2) A similar sisterhood founded in 1668 by 
Eleonora de Gonzaga, wife of Leopold I., and 
confirmed the same year by Pope Clement IX. 
and the Emperor. Called also the Order of 
the Cross and Bethlehemites. 

H Maid of all work : A general servant. 

* maid-child, s. A female child ; a girL 

" Bat if she bear a maid-child, then she shall be 
unclean two weeks, as in her separation." Lev. xiL & 

* maid-pale, a. Having the white and 
tender complexion of a virgin. 

" Change the complexion of her maid-pale peace," 
Shaketp. : Richard If., ili S. 

laid s hair, s. 

Bot. : Galium verum. 

maid' -en, * mayd-en, * meid-en, s. & a. 

[A.S. mcegden, marten, maigden, an extension 
of irutg, mdge = a female relation, a maid ; 
nuegden, mcegeden = m(egedhen = a dimin. of 
mcegcdh = a maid. Mdg, or mcege, is the fern, 
of m(kg = a son, a kinsman ; cogn. with Goth. 
magus = a boy, a child ; Icel. moger = a boy, 
a son.] 

A. As substantive : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Literally : 

(1) A maid, a young unmarried woman, a 
virgin. 

" Like a maiden of twenty he trembles and sighs. 
And tears of fifteen have come into his eyes." 

Wordsworth : Farmer of TUibury VaU. 

(2) A female servant. 

" She hath sent forth her maldeiu : she crleth upon 
the highest places of the city." Proterbt U. 8. 

2. Figuratively : 

(1) An instrument or apparatus for washing 
linen. 

(2) A machine for beheading. The Scotch 
maiden was introduced into Scotland by the 
Regent Morton, who died by its axe, 1581. 
The murderers of Rizzio were executed by it 
in 1566 ; and the Marquis of Argyle, 1681. The 
maiden was not so complete an instrument aa 
the guillotine. 

"The rude old guillotine of Scotland called th 
mtiiilcn.~ilacaulay: HM. Bag., ch. v. 
IL Technically: 

1. Cricket : An over in which no runs are 
made ; a maiden over. [OVER, s.] 

2. Racing : A horse which has never won a race. 

" The conditions contain no allowance for maiden*.' 
Daily Telegraph, Jan. 2, 1882. 

B. As adjective : 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Literally: 

(1) Of or pertaining to a maid, young woman, 
or virgin. 

(2) Consisting of maids or young women. 

(3) Like a maiden. 

" Once I encountered him, and thus I said, 
Thou maiden youth, be vauqnish'd by a maid." 

Shaketp- I Henry VI., IT. 7 

2. Figuratively: 

(1) An epithet applied to an effort made foi 
the first time : as, a maiden speech ; a maider 
attempt. 

* (2) Fresh, unpolluted. 

" A maiden and an innocent hand." 

Shaketp. : King John, IT. I 

(3) That has never been taken by siege. 

" Every citizen considered his own honour as bound 
np with the honour of the maiden fortress." Macau- 
lay : Bitt. Eng., ch. xix. 



bSiX b6y ; pint, J6%1; cat, 90!!, chorus, chin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph = t 
-dan, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -sion = zhun. cious, -tious, -aious = shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel, dL 



3006 



maiden mail 



II. Cricket : In which no ruus have been 
made : as, a maiden over. 

maiden-assize, s. An assize at which 
there are no criminal cases to be tried. 



* maiden headed, a. 
device of a maiden's head. 



Bearing the 



maiden-lip, s. 

Bot. : Echinospermum Lappula. 

* maiden-meek, a. Meek as becomes a 
maid. 

maiden-name, . The surname of a 
woman before her marriage. 

" Wake, Maid of Lorn ; the moments fly. 
Which yet that maiden-name allow." 

Scott : Lord, of the liltt, i. 4. 

maiden-pink, s. 

Bot. : Dianthus deltoidei. 
maiden-plum, s. 

Cot. : Omocladia, a genus of Terebinthaceae 
(Anaeardiaceae). 

* maiden-rents, s. pi. 

Feudal law : A noble paid by the tenants of 
some manors on their marriage. 

maiden-speech, s. The first speech 
made by a person. (The expression is espe- 
cially applied to the first speech made by a 
member of Parliament in the House.) 

* maiden tongued, a. Speaking in a 
gentle and insinuating manner. 

" Uis qualities were beauteous as his form, 
For maiden-tongue I he was, and thereof free." 
Khakesp. : Lover' t Complaint, 109. 

* maiden-widowed, o. Having become 
ft widow while still a virgin. 

" But I, a maid, die maiden-widowed." 

Sh;k--ii. : Romeo t Juliet, Hi. 1 

* maiden's-blush, s. The garden rose. 

" Jiaiderii-bltuh commixt with jessimiue." 

llerrkk : Heiperidei, p. 281. 

maid en, * mayd en, v.i. [MAIDEN, s.] 
To speak or act meekly or demurely, like a 
maiden. 

" For had I ma>iderid it, as many me ; 
Loath for to grout, but loather to refuse." 

Hall : Satires, lit . 

maid -en hair, s. [Eng. maiden, and hair.] 
Botany : 

1. Adiantum Capillus Veneris, and the genus 
Adiantum. The former lias many spreading 
capillary branches (whence the English name), 
a three to four pinnate frond, with the pin- 
nules euneate, lobed. crenate, glabrous. It 
occurs in America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and 
Polynesia. A. pedauhim, of the United States, 
liiis a fragrant root-stock. The most common 
and best known species, A. cuneatum, is from 
Brazil. [ADIANTUM.] 

2. Passiflora Adiantum. 

maidenhair-grass, . 

Bot. : Briza media. 
maidenhair-tree, . 

But. : Salisburia adiantifolia, a Japanese 
tree. 

maid -en-head, maid'-en-hood, *meld- 
en-hed, * meid en-hede, maid en- 
hode, s. [A.S. mcegdenhdd.] 

1. The quality or state of being a maiden or 
firgin ; virginity. 

"The misery is, example, that so terrible shews in 
the wreck of maidenhood, cannot for all that dissuade 
succession, but they are limed with the twigs that 
threaten them." Shuketp. : AU'i Well That Ludi 
Well, ill. 5. 

2. The hymen or virginal membrane. 

* 3. Newness, freshness. 

" If that the devil and mischance look big 
Upon the maidenhead of our nil'airs." 

Shakeip. : 1 Henry jr., IT. 1. 

* 4. The head of the Virgin Mary. The word 
in this sense is only found as a tavern-sign. 

maid'-en-like, a. [Eng. maiden; -Wee.] 
Like a maid or virgin ; maidenly, modest. 

maid en li ness, s. [Eng. maidenly; -ness.) 
The quality or state of being maidenly ; that 
behaviour which becomes or befits a maid ; 
modesty. 

maid en ly, * mayd-en-ly, o. & adv. 
[Eng. maiden ; -ly.] 
A. As adjective : 
1. Like a maiden ; modest, meek. 

" Lyke to Aryna maidenly of port." 

Skelton ; Crowne of Laurtll. 



2. Becoming or befitting a maiden. 
" It is not friendly, 'tis not ma'ulenly : 
Our sex, as well as I, may chide you for it." 

Shakeip. : Jfidtummer Night I Dream, ill. 2. 

B. As adv. : Like a maiden ; in a maidenly 
manner. 

* maid' -en-ship, * [Eng. maiden; -ship.] 
Maidenhood. 

* maid' -hood, s. [Eng. maid; -hood.] Vir- 
ginity ; an unmarried state. 

" To spend my prime in maidhood 1 * Joyless state.* 
Tennant: AnO.tr fair, L 15. 

* maid -ly, * mayd-ly, a. [Eng. maid ; -ly.] 
Maidlike, effeminate. 

"O cowards all and maydly men." 

Uooije : Epitaph on Mr. Shelley. 

* maid - mar' - 1 - an, s. [Eng. maid, and 
marian.] 

1. Originally the Queen of the May ; after- 
wards a buffoon. 

2. The name of a dance. 

"A set of morrice-dancers danced a maidmarian 
with a tabor and pipe." Temple. 

maid' ser- vant, s. [Eng. maid, and servant.] 
A female servant, a maid. 

"Thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, 
nor thy daughter, nor thy manservant, nor thy maid- 
iervant."Deut. v. 14. 

* maid'-ship, s. [Eng. maid; -ship.] Maiden- 
hood ; virginity. 

ma ieu' tic, a. & s. [Gr. /natevTi/cos (maieu- 
tikos), from jiaia (maid) = a midwife.] 

A. As adj. : Seeming to accelerate or assist 
childbirth ; hence, fig., helping to bring forth, 
educe, or evolve. 

B. As subst. : The system pursued by 
Socrates in his investigation of truth, in 
which he endeavoured to lead on to the truth 
by continual questioning. 

ma-ieu'-tlc-al, a. [Eng. maieutic; -al] The 
same as MAIEUTIC (q.v.). 

mai'-gre (gre as ger), . [Fr. = lean, thin.] 
A. As adjective: 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : Thin, lean. 

"When he saw the young gentleman so maigre 
and indisposed." Carlyle: Letter! & Speeches of 
Cromwell, lii. 132. 

2. Cook. : Applied to preparations of any 
kind made without butcher's meat, poultry, 
or game, and cooked with butter instead of 
lard or dripping. 

* B. As substantive : 
L Ord. Lang. : A fast. 

2. Ichthy. : Sciana aquila, an acanthoptery- 
gian fish of the family Sciaenidae (q.v.), com- 
mon in the Mediterranean, and a rare visitor 
to the British coasts. Length seldom less 
than three, and sometimes as much as six 
feet. It is highly esteemed for the table. 
Its general appearance resembles that of the 
bass, but the head is shorter and more 
rounded, and the tongue and palate destitute 
of teeth. Fins brown, body bluish-white 
below and greenish-brown above. The maigre 
omits a peculiar sound, described as a purring 
or buzzing. Its otolites are very large, and 
were formerly in great repute as a charm for 
colics, provided they were received as a gift 
or actually removed by the sufferer from the 
head of the fish. 

maigre dishes, s. pi Dishes eaten by 
Roman Catholics on days when flesh-meat 
is forbidden. They include fish, vegetables, 
fruit, eggs, omelets, &c, 

maigre-food, . The same as MAIGRB- 
DISHES (q.v.). 

* mai' hem, s. [MAIM, .] 

ma-i'-i-dse, ma i a-dse, s. pZ. [Mod. Lat., 
&c., mai(a); Lat. fern*, pi. adj. suff. -idee, -adce.] 
Zool. : Sea-spiders. Short-tailed Crustaceans 
of the section Oxyrhynchi of Milne-Edwards. 
The carapace is much longer than it is wide, 
and generally spiny ; the first pair of feet 
in some males much longer than the second 
pair, and twice that of the carapace. 

maik, *. [MAKE (2), .] A companion, an 
equal, a mate. (Scotch.) 

mail (1), s. maille, * mayle, * male, 
* maile, s. [Fr. maille = a mesh of a net, 
mail, from Lat. macula = a spot, a mesh of a 
net, a net ; Ital. maglia.] 



L Lit. Technically : 

1. Armour: A flexible armour of rings or 
scales, covering the body, or body and limbs, 
according to its extent. Chain-mail consisted 
of steel or iron rings interlacing each other ; 
of this sort were the shirts of mail. Plate- 
mail consisted of plates of steel or brass 
overlapping and rivetted together. 

"To have done, is to hang 
Quite out of fashion, like a rusty matt 
lu monumental mockery." 

Shakeip. : Troilut i Crettida, ill. 8. 

2. Naut. : A series of interwoven rings, 
like mail-armour or net-work, fastened on 
some stout substance, as canvas, used for 
rubbing off the loose fibres on cordage. 

3. Weaving : One of the small brass eyes 
through which the end or worsted yarn passes 
in a Brussels carpet-loom, and by which it is 
lifted in order to form the loop which distin- 
guishes the surface of that variety of carpet. 

* II. Fig. : Any defensive covering or pro- 
tection. 

" We strip the lobster of his scarlet mail." Gay. 

mail-clad, a. Clad in a coat of mail. 

" No mail-dad serfs, obedient to their lord. 
In grim array the crimson rr.i.-s demand." 

Byron : Elegy on Xeu'Stead A bby. 

* mail-covered, a. The same as MAIL- 
CLAD (q.v.). 

" The mail-covered barons, who proudly to battle 
Led their vassals." 

Byron: On Leaving Xewttead Abbey. 

mail-net, s. 

Fabric : A form of loom-made net, which ia( 
a combination of common gauze and whip-net 
in the same fabric. The whole is a succession 
of right-angled triangles, of which the woof 
forms the basis, the gauze part the perpen- 
diculars, and the whip part the hypothenuse. 
The gauze and whip parts are stretched on 
separate beams. 

mail-sheathed, a. The same as MAIL- 
CLAD (q.v.). 

mail (2), "male (2), . [O. Fr. male (Fr. 
malle), from O. H. Ger. malaha ; M. H. Ger. 
malhe = a leathern wallet ; Gael. & Ir. -nuila 
= a bag, a sack ; I eel. male = a knapsack.] 

* 1. A bag ; a box for holding goods or lug- 
gage ; a trunk, a portmanteau. 

" But, sires, o word forgate I in my tale : 
I haue relikes and pardon in my male.'* 

Chaucer: C. T., 12,851. 

2. A bag for the conveyance of letters ; a 
mail-bag (q.v.). 

" By the 5 Geo. III. c. 15 and 1 Qeo. III. c. 50 if any 
person shall rob any mail, in which letters are sent 
by the post, of any letter, packet, bag, or mail of 
letters, such offenders shall !>e guilty of felouy, with, 
out benefit of clergy." Mackstone: Comment., bk. iv., 
ch. 17. 

3. The letters, papers, books, &c., conveyed 
by the post. 

" This day [May 20, 17091 a mail arrived from Hoi- 
laud, by which there are advices from Paris." Taller. 
No. 18. 

4. The person or conveyance by whicli tha 
mail is carried. 

mail-bag, s. A letter-bag, usually of 
leather, but sometimes made of canvas, for 
containing letters, newspapers, and other 
printed matter for conveyance through the 
post-office. 

mall -Car, . A railroad car for the con- 
veyance 'of mail. Also called a postal car, 
post-office car. 

mail catcher, . A device attached to 
a mail car by which mail bags, suspended from 
a gallows frame beside the track, are caught 
and deposited in the car while the train is iu 
motion. 

t mail-coach, . A coach which, prior 
to the introduction of railways, carried tha 
mails. 

mail-guard, s. An official in charge of 
a mail-coach. 

mail-master, s. An officer in charge of 
a mail. (American.) 

mail-room, s. A room or apartment in 
which the letters, papers, <fcc., composing a 
mail are sorted. 

mail-route, s. The route by which a 
mail is conveyed. 

mail-Stage, s. A mail-coach. (American.) 

mail-steamer, s. A fast-sailing steamer 
chartered by government for the conveyance 
of mails. 



late, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wplf. work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian. , ce - e ; ey = a. qu = kw. 



mail main 



3007 



mail-train, . A fast train by which the 
mails are conveyed. 

* mall (3), s. (A.S. m&l = a portion, a share ; 
Icel. mdl; Dan. maal.] An old Scotch terra 
for rent. 

1T(1) Grass-mail: Rent paid for cattle sent 
to graze on the pastures of another. 

(2) Black-mail: [BLACK-MAIL]. 

(3) Mails and duties : The rents of an estate, 
whether in money or grain. 

mall-payer, s. One who pays rent. 

ail(l), * mayle, v.t. [MAIL (l), *.] 

L To invest in a coat of mail ; to arm with 
coat of mail ; to arm generally. 

' " He whirls him round, and stands with point addrest 
' To pierce the mailed side or plated breast." 

Bool* : Orlando Furioio, bk. *iv. 

2. To invest with a covering of any kind ; 
to cover up ; to wrap up. 

" Methi-iks I should not thus be led along. 
Mailed up ill shame, with papers on my back." 
Shaketp. : 2 Henry !'/.. il. 4. 

3. To pinion ; to fasten down, as the wings 
of a hawk. (Beaum. Flet. : Philaster, v.) 

mail (2), v.t. [MAIL (2), .] To put into the 
mail ; to send by mail ; to post ; to put into 
a post-office for transmission. 

* mail -a-ble, a. [Eng. mail (2), s. ; -able.] 
That may or can be mailed or carried in the 
mail. 

* maile, . [MAILLE.] 

Ualled (1), a. [Eng. mail (I), s. ; -ed.] 
I. Ordinary Language: 

1. Clad in a coat of mail ; covered with 
armour. 

" Thou beckonest with thy mailed hand. 
And I am strong again.' 

LongfelloK : Light of Start. 

2. Spotted, speckled. 

II. Zool. : Protected by plates, or anything 
similar. (See the compound.) 

mailed-cheeks, s. pi. 

Ichthy. : A popular name for the acanthop- 
terous family Sclerogenidse, of which scientific 
term it is an almost literal translation. The 
name refers to the enlargement in fishes of this 
family of certain bones of the head and gill- 
covers to form a bony armour for the cheeks. 

mailed (2), a, [MELL (1), v. ; FT. meter.] 
Mixed. 

"Mailed wi' the bluid of s bit skirling wean that 
was hurt some gate." Scott : Heart of Mid-Lothian, 
ch. xvii. 

mail in, mail -ing, s. [MAIL (3), s.] A 
farm ; a piece of land for which rent or feu 
duty is paid. 

" A mailing that would be dear o" a pnnd Scots," 
Scott : Antiquary, ch. iv. 

mail -ing, pr. par. or a. [MAIL (2), v.] (See 
the compound.) 

mailing-machine, s. A machine for 
attaching addresses to newspapers, &c., for 
transmission by mail. (American,.) 

* maille (1), . [MAIL (IX .] 

* maille (2), * maile, s. [Fr., from O. Fr. 
meaille, from Lat. metalliim = metal.] A 
name given to several coins of various de- 
nominations and values : (1) a small copper 
coin of the value of half a denier, current in 
France under the kings of the Capetian race ; 
(2) a silver halfpenny current in the reign, of 
Henry V. 

maille noble, s. 

Numis. : The half-noble of Edward I1L, a 




HAILLE-NOBLV. 

gold coin of the value of 3s. 4d. sterling. 

1 mail-man, s. [Eng. mail (2), and man.] A 
man employed to carry the mail. 

"The mailman had ... left a bottle of ram a* he 
*ae by. dentleman'i Magazine, Jan, 1881, p. 60. 



malm, * maime, * mayrn, * may-hem, 
* mey-hem, v.t. [O. Fr. mehaigner = to 
maim; ItaL mayagnare; cf. Bret, maehana 
= to maim.] [MAIM, s.] 

1. Lit. : To deprive of the use of a limb ; to 
disable by mutilation ; to cripple, to mutilate. 

"By the antlent law of England he that maimed 
any man, whereby he lost any part of his body, was 
sentenced to lose the like part, membrum pro membra, 
which U still the law of Sweden. "Blackitone : Com- 
ment., bk. iv., ch. IS. 

2. Fig. : To deprive of any necessary or con- 
atituent'part ; to cripple, to disable. 

"Old disciples may turn away from her maimed 
rites and dismantled temples." Macaulay : Hist. Eng., 
ch.xi. 

* maim, * maime, * mai hem, * may- 
hem, * ma - him, s. IO. Fr. mehaing, a 
word of doubtful origin ; cf. Bret, machan = 
mutilation ; Ital. magagna = a defect, a 
blemish.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. An in,jury done to a man by depriving 
him of the use of some member ; mutilation, 
crippling ; a laming or crippling hurt. 

" Humphrey, duke of Gloster, scarce himself, 
Th.it bears so shrewd a maim." 

Shaketp. : t Henry VI., ii. 3. 

2. The deprivation of some necessary or 
constituent part. 

3. Injury, hurt, damage. 

" Think what a maim you give the noble cause." 
Beaum. * Flet. : Tamer Tamed, ii. 2. 

4. An essential defect. 

"Such was Lucullus' imperfection and maim, either 
by nature or frowardness of fortune, that he lacked 
the chlefest thing a general should have, which was, 
to be beloved." Jfarth : Plutarch, p. 424. 

IL Old Law : An injury done to a man by 
violently depriving him of a member proper 
for his defence in fight, as a means either of 
defence or of offence. 

" A man's limbs (by which for the present we only 
understand those members which may be useful to 
him in fight, and the loss of which alone amounts to 
mayhem l>y the common law) are also the gift of the 
wise Creator to enable him to protect himself from 
external injuries in a state ef nature." Blackuone : 
Comment., bk. i., ch. 1. 

maimed, * maymed, * y-maymed, pa. 

par. or a. [MAIM, v.] 

* maim'-ed-ly, * maym-^d-ly, adv. [Eng. 
maimed; -ly.] In a maimed, crippled, or 
defective manner ; deficiently. 

"I am to crave pardon for that I rather leave it 
out altogether, then presume to doe it maymedly." 
Backtuyt : Voyages, i. 614, 

* maim'-ed-ness, s. [Eng. maimed ; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being maimed. 

" Freedom from . . . infirmities and deformities, 
maimrdness and monstrous shapes. "Bolton ; Loft i 
Learned Work (1633), p. 129. 

main, * maine, a. & s. [O. Fr. maine, magne, 
from Lat magnus = great] , 

A. As adjective : 

* 1. Mighty, great, vast. 

"You may as well go stand upon the beach. 
And bid the main flood bate his usual height" 

Shakes?- Merchant of Venice, iv. 1. 

2. Principal, chief; the first in rank, im- 
portance, size, &c. 

"All perfectly agreeing in the main articles." 
Porteut, vol. i., lee. 2. 

* 3. Important, powerful, large. 

"This young prince, with a train of young noblemen 
and gentlemen, but not with any main army, came 
over to take possession of his new patrimony." Davia: 
On Ireland. 

L Directly applied ; direct, pure, simple. 

"Hollis, who had in the days of the tyranny of 
Charles the First, held down the Speaker in the chair 
by main force." Macaulay : Silt. Eng., ch. xiv. 

5. Absolute, direct, pure: as, a main un- 
truth. (Scotch.) 

B. As substantive : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. That which is chief, principal, or first in 
importance, size, rank, &c. ; the chief part, the 
gross, the bulk. 

2. Specif., the ocean, the high sea, the great 
sea. 

" Then up and spake an old sailor, 
Had sailed the Spanish main." 

Longfellov : Wreck of the Betpena. 

* 3. A continent, the mainland. 

" Swell the curled waters "hove the main." 

Shaba?. ' Lear, iii. 1. 

4. The chief or principal point ; the most 
important point. 

' " Let's make haste away and look unto the main." 

Shakeip. : t Henry 17., L 1. 
IL Technically : 
1. Bank. : A banker's shovel for coin. 



2. Hydraul. : A large or principal water or 
gas pipe. The smaller are termed supply of 
service pipes or branches. 

3. Naut. : The middle or principal mast, 
hatchway, &c., in a three-masted vessel. In 
all two-masted vessels, except the yawl, ga- 
Hot, and ketch, the main is the aftermost 
mast. A brig or schooner has a fore and main 
mast. With a yawl or ketch the forward mast 
is the larger, and is called the main-mast, tho 
other being the mizzen. 

H In the main, * For the main : For the most 
part. 

"These notions concerning coinage have, for tin 
main, been put into writing above twelve mouths." 
Locke. 

main-body, *. 

Mil. : That part of an army which marches 
between the advance and rear guards ; in camp, 
that body which lies between the two wings. 

main-boom, - . 

Naut. : The lower spar of a small vessel on 
which the mainsail is extended. 

main-breadth, s. 

Shipbuild. : The broadest part at any par- 
ticular frame. 

Main-breadth line : 

Shipbuild. : A line on the surface of a vessel 
cutting each of the cross sections at the point 
where its breadth is greatest. In vessels hav- 
ing a " straight of breadth " vertically, there 
are two main-breadth lines, at the upper and 
lower boundary of the straight of breadth re- 
spectively. 

main-centre, . 

Steam-eng. : In side-lever engines, the strong 
shaft upon which the side-levers vibrate. 

main-chance, . ' One's own interest* 
generally ; self-interest. 

" Desire him to have a care of the main-chanc*. 
Howell : Letteri, p. 205. 

main check-valve, s. 

Steam-eng. : A valve belonging to the Gif- 
fard injector, to prevent water running out of 
the boiler, should anything go wrong with the 
injector. 

main-couple, s. 

Carp. : The principal truss in a roof. 

* main-course, s. The main-sail of a 
square-rigged vessel. 

" Down with the topmast : yare, lower, lower ; bring 
her to try with main-count. ^-Shaketp. : Tempeit, i. 1 

main-deck, s. 

Shipbuild. : The deck next above the lowef 
deck. 

main-guard, . 

Mil. : A body of horse posted before a camp 
for the safety of the army. 

main-hatch, s. 

Naut. : The hatch in or near the middle of 
a ship. 

main-hold, . 

Naut. : That part of a ship's hold which 
lies near the main-hatch. 

main inclosure, 5. 

Fortification : The body of the place. 

main-keel, s. 

Shipbuild. : The principal keel, as distin- 
guished from the false keel. 

main-land, s. [MAINLAND.] 

main-links, s-. pL 

Steam-eng. : The links in the parallel motion 
which connect the piston-rod to the beam of 
a steam-engine. 

main-mast, . [MAIN, a., B. II. 3.] 

main-pendant, a. 

Naut. : A short piece of rope fixed on each 
side under the shrouds to the top of the main- 
mast, having an iron thimble spliced into an 
eye at the lower end to receive the hooks of 
the main-tackle. 

main-piece, . 

Shipbuilding : 

1. The principal piece of the head. It if 
stepped into the stem-piece, and is notched 
for the reception of the heel of the bobstay- 
piece. It is also called the lace-piece. [STEM.] 

2. The longest piece of the rudder, to which 
the helm is attached. 



boll, by; pout, J6%1; cat, cell, chorus, chin, bench: go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist. -Ing. 
-dan, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -siou ~ zhun. -cious. -tious, -sious = shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel, del. 



3008 



main maintenance 



main-pin, . 

Vehic. ; A bolster-pin, a king-bolt. 

main-plate, * The principal plate of a 
lock. | 

Main Plot, . 

Hist. : A plot to pnt Arabella Stuart on the 
throne of England, in place of James I., in 
160& Sir Walter Raleigh, for his participation 
In it, was executed on October 29, 1018. 

main-post, *. 

Shipbuild. : The stern-post of a vessel. 
* main-rent, . Vassalage. (Wharton.) 
main-rigging, *. 

Naut. : The stays, shrouds, and ratlines of 
the main-mast. 

main-sail, . 

Navt. : The principal sail of a ship ; the 
ail extended on the main-mast in fore-and-aft 
rigged vessels, and on the main-yard in square- 
rigged vessels. 

"They committed themselves onto the sea; and 
hoisted up the main-tail to the wind, and made to- 
ward shore." Actt xivii. 40. 

main-sheet, . 

Naut. : The sheet of a main-sail ; a rope at 
one or both of the lower corners to keep it 
properly extended. 

" Strike, strike the top-sail ; let the main-Outf fly, 
And furl your sails." lirudtn. (Todd.) 

main-spring, s. 

1. Horol. : The going spring of a watch, 
pring-clock, musical-box, alarm, or other 
spring-driven instrument. In the watch it is 
termed main, because of its major importance, 
and to distinguish it from the pendulum or 
balance-spring, which gives the recoil move- 
ment to the balance. 

2. Fire-arms: The spring in a gun-lock which 
drives the hammer. 

main-tack, 5. 

Naut. : The tack belonging to a main-sail. 
main-tackle, . 

Naut. : A large, strong tackle hooked occa- 
sionally upon the main-pendant, and used 
especially in securing the mast by setting up 
stays, &c. 

main-top, . 

Naut. : A platform over the top of the main- 
mast. 

main-work, . 

Fort. : The enceinte or principal work in- 
Closing the body of the place. 

main-yard, *. 

Naut. : The yard on which the main-sail is 
extended, supported by the main-mast. 

main, * mein, * mayne, s. & adv. [A.8. 
mcegen = strength ; cogn. with Icel. megin. 
From the same root as may, v. (q.v.).] 

A. As subst. : Strength, force, violent effort. 
(Only used now in the phrase, With might 
and main.) 

" With huge force and Insupportable mayne." 

Spemer: F. O.., I. vii. 11. 

B. As adj. : Very, exceedingly, greatly. 
(Compare the similar use of mighty, mightily.) 
(Vulgar.) 

" I must be main cautious." A. Murphy: The Ap- 
prentice, i. 1. 



s. [Fr., from Lat. manus & hand.] 
* 1. A hand at cards. 

2. A match at cock-fighting. 

" He was especially renowned for the dexterity with 
which he. through life, turned conversation away 
from matters of state to a main of cocks or the pedi- 
gree of a racehorse." Macaukiy : But. Eng., ch. xvii. 

3. A hamper. [MAIN-BASKET.] 

main-hamper, s. A hand-basket for 
carrying grapes to the press. 

main, '.!. [MAIN, a. ; cf. Fr. maw = hand, 
as in the Eng. phrase, To hand a stay sail.] 
[HAND, v., A. II.] To fnrL 

"A tempest . . . maketh them main all their sails.' 
J. Stevetit : Englith Farmer, I. 1SX 

* mainc port, s. 

Law : A small duty or tribute, commonly 
of loaves of bread, which in some places the 
parishioners pay to the rector in lieu of small 
tithes. 

Maine, *. [One of the United States of 
America, bordering on Canada and the Atlantic 
Ocean.] (See the compound.) 



Maine Liquor-law, . A law of the 

State of Maine vesting the sale of intoxicat- 
ing liquors in special agents appointed by the 
State, and prohibiting all other persons from 
such sale. The manufacture of intoxicating 
liquor for unlawful sale is also forbidden. If an 
authorised agent violate the law, he is subject 
to a fine not exceeding $30, and imprisonment 
not exceeding three months ; while the penalty 
for a violation of the law by a common seller 
is $100 fine or three months' imprisonment 
for the first, and $250 line and four months' 
imprisonment for the second and every sub- 
sequent offence. Any one injured by an 
intoxicated person may maintain an action 
against the seller of the liquor, and the owner 
or lessee of the building in which the liquor 
was sold is jointly liable if cognizant that the 
building was used for such purpose. (Ripley 
Dana.) 

main'-ly. * main-lie, adv. [Eng. main, a. ; 
ty.] 

1. Principally, chiefly, for the most part. 

"To intend and design his own glory mainly." 
Kay : On the Creation, pt. it 

2. Greatly ; to or in a great degree. 

3. Strongly. 

"Still she eyes him mainlie." 

Beaum. t Flet. : Mad Lover, ill. 1. 

* main'-or, s. [ 



* main' our, * main'-or, . [Norm. Fr. 
mainoure, manour ; O. Fr. mancevre, mancenvre 
= work of the hands.] A thing taken or stolen 
which is found in the hands of the person 
taking or stealing it. [MANCEUVKE.] 

"All offenders against vert and venison, who may 
be attached by their bodies, if taken with the mainour 
(or tnainoetivre, a mnw), that is, in the very act of 
killing venison or stealing wood, or preparing so to do, 
or by fresh and immediate pursuit after the act is 
done."Blackilme : Comment., bk. lit, ch. 6. 

II To be taken with the mainour: To be 
caught in the very act of stealing, &c. 

* maln'-pern-a-ble, a. [Fr. main = the 
hand, and O. Fr. pernable (for prenable) = that 
maybe taken ; prendre = to take.] Capable 
of being admitted to give surety by main- 
pernors ; capable of being mainprized ; bail- 
able. 

* main pern- or, * main' pern our, 5. 

[Fr. main = the hand, and O. Fr. pernor (for 
preneur) = one who takes ; prendre = to take.] 
A bail ; a surety for a prisoner's appearance 
in court. A man's mainpernors differed from 
his bail in this respect, that they could notim- 

Erison him to prevent his decamping which 
is bail can do. 

" The lord instice verelie took the advantage of the 
bond .-igainst the imimpernour*." Holinthed: Ireland 
(an. 1343). 

main-prize, main'-prise, s. [Fr. main - 
the hand, and prise, taken ; prendre = to take.] 
Old Law : 

1. (See extract.) 

"The writ of mainprize, manucaptto, is a writ 
directed to the sheriff (either generally, when ;my man 
is imprisoned for a bailable offence, and ball hath 
been refused, or specially, when the offence or cause 
of commitment is not properly bailable below), com- 
manding him to take sureties for the prisoner's ap. 
pearance ; usually called mainpernort, nnd to set him 
at large." Blackttone : Comment, bk. iii., ch. 8. 

2. The deliverance of a prisoner on security 
being given for his appearance at a day. 

* main'-prize, v.t. [MAWPRIZE, s.] To 
suffer to go at large, as a prisoner, on security 
being given for his appearance at a day. 

* main priz er, * main -pris-er, s. [Eng. 

mainpris(e) ; -er.] A surety. 

"Found mninprisern or sureties to answer the 
writ* of \&v."liolland: Camden, Ii, 176. 

Tpn.lTii [ s. [MANSE.] A demesne ; a manor- 
house. 

"A party of twenty of them, and my father and 
his servants, behind the maint." Scott : Waverley, 
ch. xv. 

main -stay, s. [Eng. main, and stay.] 

1. Lit. Naut. : The stay extending from 
the main-top to the foot of the foremast. 

2. Fig. : The chief support ; that on which 
one chiefly relies. 

" The laws which the Irish parliament of 1703 con- 
ceived to be the mainttau of the Protestant interest." 
Edinburgh Review, July 1867, p. 103. 

* main swear, v.i. [A.8. manswerian.] To 
peijure one's self; to swear falsely; to for- 
swear one's self. 



* main'-swurn, a. [MAINSWEAR.] Perjured, 
forsworn. 

main-tain', * main-ten-en, * mayn- 
ten-en, * main-teine, v.t. <k i. [Fr. main- 
tenir, from Lat. manu, ablat. sing, of manui 
= the hand, and tenen = to hold. 8p. mante- 
Her; Ital. mantenere.] 

A. Transitive : 

1. To keep, preserve, or continue in any 
particular state or condition ; not to suffer to 
change, fall, or decline or decrease ; to sus- 
tain, to keep up. 

"Small bands of auxiliaries who had well main- 
tained the honour of tbe nation." Macaulay : Hitt. 
Eng., ch. xxi. 

2. To keep or retain possession of; not to 
resign, surrender, or give up ; to hold, to 
keep. 

"When Bedford (who onr only hold maintain'd) 
Death takes from us their fortune to advance. 

Daniel : Civil Wan, T. 

3. To continue; not to allow to cease or 
drop ; to keep up. 

" During the vain struggle which two generations 
of Milesian princes maintained against the Tudors." 
Macaulay : Hitt. Eng., ch. i. 

4. To vindicate, to defend, to support, to 
protect 

" Forthon hast maintained my right and my cause." 
Pialm ix. 4. 

5. To vindicate ; to support or defend by 
force of reason or intellect ; to justify. 

6. To support with clothing, food, and the 
other necessaries of life ; to provide with the 
means of living. 

" It is a mistake to suppose that the rich man main- 
tains his servants, tradesmen, tenants, and labourers : 
the truth is, they maintain him." Paley : Moral 
Phil., bk. hi., pt. if., ch. ii. 

7. The bear the expense of ; to keep up. 

" What concerns it you if I wear pearl and gold T 
I thank my good lather I am able to maintain it." 
Shaketp. : Taming of the Shrew, v. 1. 

8. To allege ; to assert as a tenet or opinion ; 
to declare. 

" I have heard him oft maintain it to be fit that 
sons at perfect age, and fathers declining, the fattier 
should be as ward to the son, and the sou manage bii 
revenue." Shakeip. : Lear, i. 3. 

* 9. To represent. 

" This side is Hicms, Winter, this Ver, the Spring, 
the one maintained by the owl, tbe other by the 
cuckoo." Shaketp. : Love't Labour'* Lott, v. 2. 

B. Intrans. : To assert as a tenet or dogma ; 
to declare, and support by argument. 

" In tragedy and satire I maintain, against some of 
our modern critics, that this age and the last have 
excelled the ancients." Dryden : Juvenal, (lutrod.) 

main -tain'-a-ble, a. [Eng. maintain ; -able.) 
Capable of being maintained, kept up, or up- 
held ; defensible, justifiable, sustainable. 

" They perhaps, if they were urged, could say little 
else, than that without such a second voyage their 
opinion were not maintainable." Kateiyh : Hut. 
World, bk. ii., ch. i., i 8. 

main tain er, " mayn ten er, s. [Eng. 
maintain; -er.] One who maintains, upholds, 
supports, defends, justifies, or vindicates. 

"The right worshipful Maister Philip Sidney, a 
special favourer and maintainer of all kinds of learn- 
ing." Spemer : Spittle to Matter Harvey, signed E. K. 

main-tain -or, s. [Eng. maintain ; -or.] 

Law : One who, not being specially In- 
terested in a cause, maintains or supports a 
cause depending between others, by furnishing 
money, &c., to either party. 

main -ten- an9e, * main- ten -aunce, 

* mayn ten aunce. * men ten auiice, 

*. [O. Fr. maintenance, from maintenir to 
maintain ; Sp. mantenencia ; Port, manuten- 
encia.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of maintaining, supporting, up- 
holding, defending, vindicating or keeping up ; 
defence, vindication, justification. 

"So every where they rule and tyrannize, } 

For their usurped kingdomes maintenaunce." 

Spenser: The Team of the Mutel. 

2. The act of maintaining or supplying with 
the necessaries of life ; support, sustentation. 

" A large part of the produce of the soil has been 
assigned to them for their maintenance." Macaulays 
Hiit Eng., ch. xi. 

3. That which maintains or supports; 
means of support ; sustentation, sustenance. 

" He now was summoned to select the course 
Of humbly industry that promised best 
To yield him so unworthy maintenance* 

Wordsworth : Excurtion, bk. L 

* 4. Demeanour, mien, carriage. 

" She had so stedfast connteuaunce, 
So noble porte, and maintenaunce." 

Chaucer: Dreamt. 



fate, fat, (are, amidst, what, fall, father ; we. wet, here, camel, her. there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pdt, 
or. wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full ; try, Syrian. , 03 = e ; ey = a. qu - fcw. 



mair major 



3009 



IL Law : (See extract). 

" Maintenance is an offence that bean a near rela- 
tion to barratry, being an officious intermeddling in a 
uit that no way belongs to one, by maiutainm^ or 
assisting either party with money or otherwise, to 



" And nat eterne be withoute lye : 

nd se at ye." 
Chaucer : C. T, 8,011 



and by the statute 32 Henry VIII. c. 9, a forfeiture of 
ten pounds." Blackttune: Comment., ok. iv., ch. 10. 

If Cap of maintenance : [CAP,*.]. 
mair, a. & adv, [MORE.] More. (.Scotch.) 

mair 6 gal -lol, s. [First element doubtful ; 
Eng. gaUol (q.v.).J 

Chem. : Cjgl^ClnOio. -A. compound ob- 
tained, together with leucogallol, by the 
action of chlorine on pyrogallol dissolved in 
glacial acetic acid. 

* m ais on de we, * mns on de we, * mas 
yn dewe, * mes-on dieu, s. [Fr. maison 
aedieu= house of God.] A hospital ; an asylum. 

" Never prynce was there that made to poore peoples 
use so many matondrwet, hospytals, and spyttle houses, 
as your grace hath dona" Bait: Jiynye Johan, p. 82. 

maist, a. & adv. [Mosx.] (Scotch.) 
mais ter, s. <fe a. [MASTER.] (Scotch.) 

* mais -ter dom, s. [MASTERDOM.] 

* mais'-ter-ful, a. [MASTERFUL.] 

* mais'- ter -Sfe, * mais'- trie, 'mais- 
ter-^, s. [MASTERY.] 

maist -ly, adv. [MOSTLY.] (Scotch.) Mostly. 

" They're mautly wonderfu 1 contented." 

Burnt : The Tim rtogt, 

* maist <Jw, v. [See def.] A contraction 
for mayest thou. 

And nat 

This maittow understand an 
Chau 

mais' -tree (2), s. [MASTERY.] 

* mais tress, * mais tresse, s. [MIS- 
TRESS.] 

* mais'- trie, s. [MASTERY.] 

* mais-trise, s. [O. Fr. maistre = a master.] 
Masterly workmanship. 

maize, s. [A word of American origin ; it is 
Haytian.] 

1. Hot. : Zea Mays, a cereal grass of the 
tribe Phalareae. The leaves are broad, and 
hang down from the tops of sheaths. The 
flowers are monoecious. The males are in loose, 
terminal, compound racemes ; the females in 
many rows on a spike, enveloped in bracts. 
Each grain is surmounted by a thread-like 
style, giving the spike a silky aspect. The 
seeds, when ripe, are compactly arranged in 
rows on a rachis. They are flattened at the 
apex, and may be pale-yellow, white, varie- 
gated, blood-red, or purple. The seeds are 
very firm, the outer part being horny and the 
central mass more or less brittle and soft. 
Maize is said to have come originally from 
Paraguay, but is now only known in a state of 
cultivation. 

2. Agric : Maize, called also Indian-corn, is 
the staple grain of the warmer parts of 
America. It has been introduced into South- 
ern Europe, India, and Australia, and it is 
believed to support a larger number of the 
human race than any grain, excepting rice. 
It is sown in rows two to four feet apart, and 
is repeatedly hoed. The grain is detached 
from the rachis by machinery ; the leaves, 
and sometimes the steeped seeds are used for 
feeding, cattle, horses, &c. Maize is largely 
eaten in gome parts of this country. When 
made into bread it is generally mixed with 
wheat. It is often boiled, stewed, or baked, 
and is also much used in the green state as a 
vegetable. Maize is largely exported to Eu- 
rope. It is held in great veneration by 
the Indians. The mythic account of its 
origin is charmingly given by Longfellow 
(Hiawatha, v.). 

3. Vtg. Pathol. : Maize is often attacked by 
Ergot (q.v.). 

^ (1) Mountain-maize: 
Dot. : The Peruvian genus Ombrophytum. 
(2) Water-maise: 
Sot. : Victoria regia. 
maize-birds, s. pi 

Ornith. : According to Swainson, the sub- 
family Agelainae of the family Sturnidte (Star- 



lings). They are terrestrial American birds, 
associating in flocks which frequent open 
pastures where cattle exist, feeding on insects, 
ic. Called also Maizers. 

maize-starch, *. 

Chem. : The starch or flour of Indian-corn, 
Zea Mays, sometimes 
used to adulterate 
pepper, mustard, 
snuff, &e. It is 
readily detected 
underthemicroscope 
by its angular gran- 
ules, which exhibit 
well-marked central 
depressions and radi- 
ate hilums. 




MAIZE-STARCH. 



maiz'-er, s. [Eng. 
maize; -er.] 

Ornith. (PL): The sub -family Agelainae. 
Called also Maize-birds. (Swainson.) 

mai-ze'-na, s. [Latinised from Eng. maize 
(q.v.).] The starch prepared from maize ; 
corn-flour. 

*maj-es-tat'-lc, * maj e& tat - ick, 

* mSj-es-tat'-ic-al, s. ILat. majestos 
(genit. majestatis) = majesty (q.v.).] Of ma- 
jestic appearance ; majestic. 

" The house of my majettatick presence." Pocoekft 
On Botea (1685), p. 120. 

ma-jes'-tic, a. [MAJESTY.] 

1. Having the appearance of majesty or 
dignity ; august, grand, princely. 

" Princely counsel in his face yet shone, 
Majestic.' Milton : P. L., ii. 80S. 

2. Stately, pompous, splendid. 

" Up and down these echoing stairs . . . 
Sounded his majestic tread." 

Longfellow : To a Child. 

3. Sublime, elevated, lofty. 

" The expression is so majestic." Sector : WarlU, 
vol. v., ser. 6. 

ma-jes'-tic-al, a. [Eng. majestic; -al.] 
Majestic, dignilied, august, sublime. 

" If I were ever to fall in love again ... it would 
be, I think, with prettiuess, rather than with ma'et- 
tical beauty." Cowley : Euayt ; Of Greatneu. 

ma-jgs'-tic-al-ly, adv. [Eng. majestical ; -ly.] 
fn a majestic" manner ; with dignity. 

"And forth she pac'd majetticall!/ sad." 

Pope: Homer; Iliad xxiv. 124 

* ma-jes'-tic-al-ness, s. [Eng. majestical ; 
ness.] The quality or state of being majestic ; 
majesty, dignity. 

ma jes -tic-ness, * ma-jes-tick-ness, s. 

[Eng. majestic; -ness.] The quality or state 
of being majestic. 

" A serene, soft, rigorous, pleasing, fierce, 
Lovely, self-arm'd, naked majcsrirkneu, 
Compos'd of friendly contraries." 

Cartvrright: To the Counteu of Carlitle. 

maj es ty, * mag es-tee, * maj-es-te, 

* maj-es-tie, s. [O. Fr. majestet, majeste 
(Fr. majeste), from Lat. majestatem, accus. of 
majestas majesty, dignity, from the same 
root as magnus = great ; Sp. magcsdad ; Ital. 
magesla.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Dignity or grandeur of rank, manner, or 
character ; that quality which inspires rever- 
ence or awe in the observer ; stateliness. 

" No sovereign has ever represented the majetty of 
great staU with more dignity and grace." Macaulay : 
Hitt. Eng., ch. ii. 

2. Power, sovereignty. 

" Thine, O Lord, is the greatness and the power and 
the majaty."\ Chron. xxix. 11. 

* 3. Dignity, sublimity, or elevation in 
manner or style. 

" The first in loftiness of thought surpassed. 
The next in majctty." Dryden : On Milton. 

4. A title of kings, queens, and emperors, 
generally with the possessive pronoun : as, 
his majesty, your majesty ; also in the plu.-al, 
as, Their majesties were present. 

II. Her. : A term applied to the condition 
of an eagle crowned and holding a sceptre. 

U (1) Most Catholic Majesty : A title of the 
king of Spain. 

(2) Most Christian Majesty: A title borne by 
the kings of France. 

(3) Most Faithful Majesty : A title of the 
kings of Portugal. 

ma-jSr-I-ca, ma-ioT-I-ca (i and J as y), s. 

[For Maiorica= Majorca whence the Irst speci- 
mens came.] (See the compound.) 



majolica-ware, *. 

Pottery : A species of fine pottery, composed 
of clay thickly and opaquely enamelled, suit- 
able for receiving brilliantly coloured figures ; 
fabricated at Ferrara (143(>) and at Passaro 
(1450). It is sometimes called Raffaelle-ware. 
Majolica, until the time of Lucca dclla Robbia, 
was glazed with a plumb'iferous glaze (mezzo 
majolica), but Robbia invented a beautifully 
white, durable, enamelled, stanniferous glaz- 
ing. Giorgio, by the combination of mineral 
colours, succeeded in producing beautifully 
iridescent mby and golden tints. Of late 
years, the Staffordshire potters have succeeded 
in reproducing this ware, and slabs, friezes, 
tablets, vases, flower-pots, and other articles 
are now made of it. 

"The Mnezza-maiolica 1 was the coarser ware, formed 
of potter's earth, covered with a white 'slip' upon 
which the subject was reiiuted ; then glazed with the 
common ' marza-cotto or lead elaze, over which the 
lustre pi.Tnents were applied. The ' maiolica,' on the 
other hand, was the tin-enamelled ware similarly 
lustred. These terms were originally used with re- 
ference only to the lustred wares, but towards the 
middle of the sixteenth century they seem to have 
been generally applied to the glazed earthenware of 
Italy. The word maiolica should be again restricted 
to the lustred wares, although in Italy and elsewhere 
it is habitually used to designate all the numerous 
varieties of glazed earthenware, with the exception of 
the more common ' terraglia ' and in distinction from 
porcelain." C. D. Fortnum: Majolica, p. 21. 

ma'-jor, a. & s. [Lat., = greater ; corap. of 
magnus = great; Sp. mayor; Port, maior, 
mayor; Ital. maggiore; O. Fr. major; Ft 
majeur.] 

A, As adjective : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Greater in number, quantity, or extent ; 
larger. 

"The major part of your syllables." 

Shaketp. : Coriolamtl, ii. L 

* 2. Greater in dignity or importance ; more 
important. 

" Fall Greeks ; fall fame ; honour or go or stay, ; 

My major vow lies here." 

Shakap. : Trail ut i Creuida, r. L 

* 3. Of full age. 

" The young king who bad lately been declared ma. 
jar." Godwin: Maiiderllle, ii. 225. 

II. Music : Greater. A major third consists 
of four semitones, a minor third of three. A 
major tone is the whole tone having the ratio 
8 : 9 ; a minor tone, that having the ratio 9 : 10. 
Intervals have had the term major applied to 
them in a conflicting manner. [INTEBVAI, 
MODE, MAJOB-SCALE.] 

B. As substantive : 

* 1. Law : A person of full age to manage his 
or her own affairs, that is, twenty-one years of 
age. It is the opposite of minor (q.v.). 

2. Logic : The first proposition of a regular 
syllogism containing the major term. 

* 3. Hist. : The mayor of a town. 

"The major and companies of the citie receiued him 
at Shore-ditch." Bacon : Henry VII., p. 7. 

4. Mil. : An officer, next above a captain, 
and below a lieutenant-colonel ; in rank he i* 
the lowest of the field-officers. The word 
major te much used in conjunction with other 
military titles: thus, major-general ranks next 
below a lieutenant-general ; surgeon-major 
ranks the next above surgeon; sergeant* 
major is superior to a sergeant. Drum-major, 
trumpet-major, &c., are other titles. 

H Major and minor in a libel : 

Scots Lav: The major proposition in a 
criminal libel names the crime to be charged ; 
or, if it have no proper name, describes it at 
large, and as a crime severely punishable. 
The minor proposition avers the panel's guilt 
of this crime, and supports this averment by 
a narrative of the fact alleged to have been 
committed, it being necessary that the minor 
agree with the major. And the conclusion in- 
fers that on conviction he ought to be punished 
with the pains of law applicable to his offence. 

major-domo, s. A person who takes 
charge of a household ; a steward ; a chief 
minister or great officer of a palace. 

major- excommunication, s. The 

greater excommuncation. The same as ANA 
THEMA (q.v.). 

major-general, s. 

Mil. : An officer commanding a division or 
number of regiments ; he ranks next below 
a lieutenant-generaL 

major-generalship, *. 

Mil. : The rank or office of a major-generaL 



boil, bo^; pout, jo%l; cat, 90!!, chorus, 9hin, bench; go, gem; thin, $his; sin, as; expect, JjCenophon, exist, ph = 
-clan, -flan = shan. -tion. -sion = shun ; -tion, -sion = zhun. -clous, -tlous, -sious = slaus. -We, -dje, <tc. = 1*1, d*>L 



3010 



major make 



major-mode, . 

Music : The ordinary diatonic scale, having 
semitones between the third and fourth, and 
seventh and eighth degrees. 

major-orders, s. pi. 

Eccles. & Church Hist. : The four superior 
orders of the Roman Church bishops, priests, 
deacons, and subdeacons are so called. The 
term is antithetical to Minor Orders (q. v.). 

major-premise, . 

Logic: That premise of a syllogism which 
Contains the major term. 

major-proposition, s. 

Logic : (See extract). 

"The proposition which contains the predicate of 
the conclusion, connected with the middle term, is 
usually called the major-proposition, whereas the 
minor proposition connects the middle term with the 
subject of the conclusion." H'otti: ioyic.pt. ii., ch. ii. 

major-scale, s. 

Music : A scale having a major third from 
the tonic in an ascending series. 

major-term, s. 

Logic : (See extract). 

" The predicate of the conclusion Is called the major- 
term, because it is generally of a larger extension than 
the minor term, or subject." Watti: Logic, pt. iii., 
eh. ii. 

major-third, s. 

Music : [MAJOR, A. II.]. 
major-tone, s. 

Music : [MAJOR, A. II.]. 

ma'-jdr, v.i. [MAJOR, a.] To talk and look 
big ; to ape a military air. 

" Majoring and looking about sae like his honour." 
Scott : Waverley, Ixiv. 

majorat (as ma-zho-ra'), * [Fr., from 
Low Lat majoratus, from Lat. major = major 
(q.v.).] 

1. Ord. Lang. : The right of succession to 
property according to age. 

2. French IMW : Property, landed or funded, 
which may be reserved by persons holding 
hereditary titles, and entailed, so as to de- 
scend with the title. 

* ma'-jdr-ate, s. [Low Lat. majoratus.] The 
rank or office of a major. 

* ma'-jor-ate, v.t. [Low Lat majoratus, pa. 
par. of majoro = to increase, from Lat. major 
= greater.] To increase, to augment. 

" The infant after conception should be majorated." 
lluaell: Parly of Beatti, p. 142. 

*ma-j6r-a'-tion,s. [Low Lat. mijoratio, from 
majoratus, pa. par. of majoro = to increase ; 
Lat major = greater.] The act of increasing 
or making greater ; increase, augmentation. 

" There be five ways of mnjoration of sounds : en- 
closure simple ; enclosure with dilatation; communi- 
cation ; reflection concurrent ; and approach to the 
sensory." Bacon. Xat. Hist.. J 153. 

ma-jor'-I-ty, * ma-Jor-i-tie, . [Fr. ma- 
jbritt, from Lat. major = major (q.v.) ; Port. 
maioridade; Sp. mayoria.] 

* 1. The quality or state of being major or 
greater in number, quantity, or extent. 

" It is not plurality of parts without majority of 
parts which makes the total greater." Grew: Cot- 
Mbyte. 

2. The greater number ; more than one-half. 

"The whole body is supposed, in the first place, to 
have unanimously consented to be bound by the reso- 
lutions of the majority; that majority. In the next 
place, to have fixed certain fundamental regulations ; 
and then to have constituted, either in one opinion, 
or in an assembly (the rule of succession or appoint- 
ment being at the same time determined), a standing 
legislature"' Paley : Moral Philosophy, bk. iv., ch. lit. 

3. The number by which one number or 
quantity exceeds another : as, The bill was 
passed by a majority of five. 

4. Full age ; that age at which, by the laws 
of any country, persons become competent to 
manage their own affairs. 

* 5. Superiority, pre-eminence, first rank. 

"Douglas, whose high deeds, 
whose hot incursions, and great name in arms. 
Holds from all soldiers chief majority." 

Shaketp. : 1 Oenrt IV., 11L 1. 

8. The office, rank, or position of a major. 

* 7. Ancestors, ancestry (Lat. majores). 
fTo join or go over to the majority: A 

euphemism = to die. The idea has come down 
to us from classic times. The expression 9 
vAeoVui/ iV0<u is found in Crinagoras (Anthol. 
Palat. 11, 42), and " penetrare ad plures" in 
Plautus (Trin., ii. 2, 14). A correspondent of 
the Illustrated LondonNews(" Echoes," Sept. 9, 



1883) writes : " The phrase juining the ma- 
jority is a free translation of the sepulchral 
formula, ' Abierunt ad multps,' used by the 
Roman legionaries in Britain ; " but in all 
probability the English use of the expression 
comes from the following lines : 

" Life is the desert, life the solitude ; 
Death joint us to the great majority." 

Young : Revenge, IT. 1. 

ma'-jor-Ship, *. [Eng. major; -ship.] The 
office, rank, or commission of a major ; ma- 
jority. 

ma-joun, s. [MADJOUN.] 

ma jus' cu-lse, s. pi. [Lat.] Capital letters 
used in old Latin manuscripts ; majuscules. 

t ma-jus'-cu-lar, a. [MAJUSCULE.] Large, 
great ; of more than ordinary size. 



ma-jus'-cule, s. [Lat. majuscula (litera) a 
large or capital letter ; from majusculus, dimin. 
from major, niajus = greater.] A capital 
letter; as distinguished from a minuscule. 
Majuscules are found in Latin manuscripts of 
the sixth century and earlier. 

*mak a blc, *make'-a-ble, a. [Eng. 
mak(e) ; -able. ] Capable of being made ; feas- 
ible, effectible. 

" It is not to be understood of the accidents them- 
selves that all are makeable and destroyable." 
Cudaorth : Intellectual Syttem, p. 70. 

* mak-a-ron, s. [MACAROON.] 

make, * mak en, * mak-l-en (pa. t. 

* makede, made ; pa. par. * maked, * mood, 

* mad, made), v.t & i. [A.S. macian (pa. t. 
macode, pa. par. macod) ; cogn. with Gr. machen 
= to make ; O. H. Ger. machon; Dut maken.] 

A. Transitive : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. To create ; to cause to exist ; to bring 
into being or existence. 

" Let us make man in our Image." Oenrtit I. 28. 

2. To form of materials,; to produce, to 
fabricate. 

He fashioned It with a graving tool, after he had 
made it a molten c&}1."Exodta xxxii.,4. 

3. To produce ; to effect as an agent or 
cause ; to be productive of ; to give rise to. 

" Wealth maketh many friends." Protirbi xix. 4. 

* 4. To produce, to bear. 

" So every good tre makit h gode fruytls ; but an yvel 
tre makith yvel fruytis." Wycliffe : Matthew vii. 

5. To compose, as parts, materials, or in- 
gredients. 

" The heav'n, the air, the earth, and boundless sea, 
Make but one temple for the Deity." 

Waller. (Todd.) 

6. To cause to be or become ; to constitute ; 
to put or cause to be in a certain state or con- 
dition, expressed by a noun, adjective, parti- 
ciple, or clause. 

" If thou be the Ron of Owl, command that these 
stones be made \>iead." Matthew iv. 3. 

7. To put into a proper state or condition ; 
to prepare for use. 

" I wash, wring, brew, bake, scour, dress meat and 
drink, make the beds, and do all myself." Shaketp. : 
Merry Wima of Windsor, i. 4. 

8. To create ; to raise to a certain rank or 
dignity. 

" Of all these bounds, even from this line to this . . . 
We make thee lady." Shaketp. : Lear, 1. 1. 

9. To compel, to require, to constrain, to 
force, to cause. 

" They should be made to rise at their early hour : 
but great care should be taken in waking them, that 
it be not done hastily." Locke : On Education. 

10. To acquire, to gain, to raise as a profit 
or gain. 

"At sixty he made money ol Tiis genius and his 
glory." Jfacaulay: Jlitt. Eng., ch. xiv. 

11. To have or meet with as a result; to 
incur : as, To make a loss. 

12. To score : as, He made twenty runs in 
the first innings. 

* 13. To do, to perform, to be about. 

" Who brought thee hither? and what makttt thou 
in this place fJudget xviii. & 

14. To commit : as, To make default. 

15. To get or arrive at as the result of com- 
putation 'or calculation ; to ascertain by enu- 
meration, reckoning, measuring, &c. : as, He 
made the total 200. 

16. To complete, as by being added to a 
sum ; to make a total of; to amount tr. 



17. To serve ; to answer for ; to do the part 
or office of. 



18. To pass over the distance of; to tra- 
verse, to travel over : as, He made five miles 
in the hour. 

* 19. To represent ; to consider as ; to set 
down as. 

" ifuke not impossible 
That which butseems unlike." 

Shakesp. : Measure for Meaturt, T. 

20. To bring forward ; to exhibit. 

"She did not authorize her solicitor to make tb* 
charge." Daily Chronicle, Dec. 6, 1884. 

21. To go through the form of; to declare 
formally. 

"Arrangements will be made for him to makr, an 
affidavit liefore the R.-mibler takes her departure." 
Daily Chronicle, Dec. 6, 1884. 

22. To fetch, as a price : as, Wheat madt 
80s. 

11(1) Make is used periphrastically in con- 
junction with substantives to express an 
action of some sort, the nature of which is 
determined by the substantive, and the verb 
and substantive together are synonymous 
with a verb corresponding to the substantive. 
Thus, to make haste = to hasten ; to make com- 
plaint = to complain ; to make confession = 
to confess ; to make demand = to demand ; 
and to mate abode = to abide. 

"When from St. Albans we do make return. 
We'll see these things effected to the full." 

Shaketp. : 2 Henry VI., I 8. 

(2) Make is often used before an infinitive, 
expressed or understood, with a causative 
sense : as, He made me (to) work ; The medi- 
cine made him (to be) sick. 

IL Naut. : To reach, attain to, or arrive at ; 
to come near or in sight of. 

" Acosta recordeth, they that sail in the middle can 
make no laud of either side." Browne : Vulgar 
Krrourt. 

B. Intransitive : 

1. To do, to act, to be active, to operate. 

" The less you meddle or make with them, why th 
more Is for your honesty." Shakesp. : Much Ado About 
Nothing, iii. 3. 

2. To have effect ; to contribute, to tend. 
(Followed by * to, for, or * against.) 

"Considerations infinite do make againtt It." 

Shaketp. : 1 Henry IV., v. 1. 

3. To tend, to move in a direction, to direct 
one's course, to proceed, to go. (Followed by 
words indicating the direction or object ; as, 
He made for home, he made after the boy.) 

"As the waves make toward the pebbled shore," 
Shaketp. : Sonnet 70. 

4. To rise, to flow : as, The tide makes fast. 

* 5. To invent ; specif., to compose or write 
poetry. [MAKER.] 

" The god of shepherds, Tityrus, Is dead. 
Who taught me, homely as I can, to mike." 

(Spenter: Shepheardt Calender; Junt. 

If Intransitively make is used periphrasti- 
cally with adjectives, with the meaning of to 
be, to show one's self, to act as : as, To make 
merry, to make bold, &c. 

1J We cannot make without doing, but we 
may do without making : to do is simply to 
move for a certain end ; to make is to do, so as 
to bring something into being, which was not 
before ; we make a thing what it was not be- 
fore ; we do a thing in the same manner as 
we did it before : to make is the most general 
and unqualified term; to form signifies to give 
a form to a thing, that is, to make it after a 
given form; to produce is to bring forth into 
the light, to call into existence ; to create is to 
bring into existence by an absolute exercise of 
power : to make is the simplest action of all, 
and comprehends a simple combination by the 
smallest efforts ; to form requires care and 
attention, and greater efforts; o produce re- 
quires time, ami also labour : whatever is put 
together so as to become another thing, is 
made ; a chair or a table is made. : whatever is 
put into any distinct form, is formed; the 
potter forms the clay into an earthen vessel : 
whatever emanates from a thing, so as to be- 
come a distinct object, is produced. 

IT 1. To make against : To tend to injure ; 
to operate against ; to be adverse to ; to tend 
to disprove. 

" Even ;my own confession maket againtt me." 
Dryden : firgil ; .Sneid. (Dedic.) 

2. To make as if: To pretend, to make an 
appearance of. 

" Joshua and all Israel matte at if they were beaten 
before them, and fled." Jothua viii. 15. 

3. To mate at : To aim at, to run or move 
towards. 



ftte, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian, w, ce = e; ey = a. qu = kw. 



make maki 



3011 



* 4. To make away : 

(1) To alienate, to part with, to transfer : 
as, To make away one's property. 

(2) To kill, to destroy, to make away with. 
"Clarence . . . soon after, by sinister means, was 

clean made aval/." Spenter: On Ireland. v 

5. To make away with : To put out of the 
way ; to remove, to destroy, to kill. 
" 6. To make account : To reckon, to believe. 

7. To make account of: To esteem, to regard, 
to consider. 

8. To make believe: To pretend, to assume 
an appearance. 

* 9. To make doors : To make a door fast ; to 
fasten a door. 

10. To make free : To act with freedom or 
liberty ; to take a liberty. 

11. To make free with : To treat or use with 
freedom or without ceremony. 

"The same who have made free with the greatest 
names." Pope : lium-intt. (Introd.) 

12. To make friends : 

(1) Intransitive : 

(a) To become reconciled. 

(6) To contract friendships. 

"To be slow and cautious iu making friend*, but 
Tioleut In friendships once contracted, Ooldrmith : 
PoUte Learning, ch. viii. 

(2) Trans. : To reconcile. 

13. To make good : 

(1) To repair defects in. 

(2) To make compensation for ; to make 
mends for. 

(3) To maintain, to defend. 

" The grand master, guarded with a company of most 
valiant knights, drove them out again by force, and 
made yonl the place." Knottet : Hist, of tin Turkey 

(4) To fulfil, to accomplish, to carry out. 

" This letter doth make good the friar's words." 
Shuketp. : Romeo A Juliet, v. S. 

14. To make head, to make headway : To ad- 
vance, to progress, to make progress. 

15. To make light of: To treat as of no mo- 
ment ; to think or make little of. 



16. To make little of: 

(1) To esteem as of little or no value. 

(2) To understand imperfectly. 

17. To make love : To court, to woo. 

18. To make more of: To treat with more 
consideration ; to consider as of more value 
or importance. 

19. To make much of, * To make much on : 

(1) To treat with fondness or consideration ; 
to consider or treat as of great value or im- 
portance. (The second form exists now only 
as a vulgarism.) 

" The bird is dead 
That we have made so much on." 

Shizketp. ; Cymbcline, IT. 2. 

(2) To understand fully. 

20. To make no difference : To be a matter of 
Indifference. 

21. To make no doubt : To have no doubt, to 
be confident. 

22. To make no matter : To be of no import- 
ance or moment ; to make no difference. 

* 23. To make nothing for : Not to support 
or confirm. 

" Seeing they judge this to make nothing in the 
world for them." Roofer .- Ecclet. Polity. 

21. To make nothing of: 

(1) To consider or treat as of no moment or 
importance ; to consider as nothing. 

(2) To be unable to understand ; to obtain 
no satisfactory result from ; to be puzzled by. 

25. To make of: 

* (1) To cherish, to foster. 

" Xaycus was wonderfully beloved and made of by 
the Turkish merchants. Knollet : Hist. Turkct. 

(2) To understand : as, I don't know what 
to make of it. 

26. To make o/: To depart suddenly and 
quickly ; to run away. 

27. To make out : 
(1) Transitive: 

(a) To discover the true meaning or intent 
of ; to understand ; to decipher. 

"It may seem somewhat difficult to make out the 
bills of fare for some suppers." Arbuthnot : On Coint. 

(b) To prove ; to establish by evidence or 
argument ; to cause to appear. 

" There is no truth which a man may more evidently 
make out to himself, than the existence of a God." 
Locke: Human Undemanding. 



(c) To find or supply to the full ; to make up. 

(d) To attempt to prove or establish ; to 
pretend. 

"Scaliger hath made out that the history of Troy 
was no more the invention of Homer than of Virgil." 
Dryden. 

(2) Intrant. : To make a shift ; to succeed 
and no more. 

28. To make over : To transfer the right or 
title to ; to convey, to alienate. 

" Your better way is to make over 
In trust your fortune to a lover." 

Butler: Hudibrat, ii. 607. 

29. To make sail : 
Nautical : 

(1) To increase the quantity of sail already 
extended. 

(2) To sail or start ; to set sail. 

30. To make shift : To contrive or manage 
for the time. 

31. To make sure of: 

(1) To consider as certain or sure. 

(2) To arrange so as to be secure for one's self. 
" But whether marriage bring joy or sorrow 

Make lure of this day. and hang to-mor 

32. To make up : 
(1) Transitive : 

(a) To compose, as ingredients ; to form the 
constituent parts of. 

" In fact disobedience and resistance made up the 
ordinary life of that population." Uacaulay : Hist. 
ng., ch. xlii. 

(V) To collect into one mass or sum : as, To 
make up the amount of a debt. 

(c) To shape : as, To make up a mass into 
pills. 

(d) To supply what is deficient or wanting. 

" Whatsoever, to make up the doctrine of man's sal- 
vation, is added as In supply of the scripture's insuf- 
ficiency, we reject It." Hooker: Ecclet. Polity. 

(e) To compensate, to make good : as, To 
make up a loss. 

(/) To settle, to adjust, to arrange : as, To 
make up accounts. 
(g) To repair. 

"I sought for a man among them that should make 
up the hedge." Etekiel liii. S. 

(h) To assume a particular form or cast of 
features : as, To make up a face. 

(i) To dress, as an actor for a part. 

(j) To settle, to determine, to bring to a 
delinite conclusion : as, To make up one's mind. 

(A:) To reconcile, to adjust, to compose. 

' I knew when seven justices could not make up a 
quarrel." Shakesp. : At You Like It, v. 4. 

(1) To concoct : as, To make tip a story. 

(TO) Print. : To arrange slip matter in 
columns or pages. 

(2) Intrans. : To dress, &c., as an actor for 
a part 

33. To make up to : 

(1) To approach. 

(2) To court, to woo. 

34. To make up for : To make amends for ; 
to compensate for. 

35. To make water : 

(1) Ord. Lang. : To void urine. 

(2) Naut. : To leak, as a ship. 

36. To make way : 

(1) To open a passage ; to clear the way. 

(2) To make progress ; to advance, to pro- 
gress. 

* 37. To make with : To concur, to agree. 

" Antiquity, custom, and consent, in the church of 
Ood, making taith that which law doth establish, are 
themselves most sufficient reasons to uphold the 
same." Hooker : Eeclet. Polity. 

38. To make words : 

(1) To multiply words. 

(2) To raise a difference or quarrel. 

make (1), *. [MAKE, v.] Form, shape, struc- 
ture ; constitution or arrangement of parts. 
" He was a stalwart knight, and strong ; 
Of giant make he 'peared to be." 

Scott : Tliomai the Rhymer, ii. 

make-believe, . & a. 

A. As substantive : 

1. The act of making believe or pretending ; 
a pretending. 

2. A mere pretence or sham. 

" Consigns to contempt and disbelief a host of make- 
blievet.-~ttiaU : Batet of Belie/, pt. UL, f 8. 

B. As adj : Unreal, sham, pretended, not 
genuine. 



make-up. . 

1. Print. : The arrangement of slip matter 
in columns, or galleys into suitable length for 
pages. 

2. Theatre : The manner in which an actor 
ia dressed, &c., for a part in a play. 

"The success of the idea was prejudiced by the 
make-up, for though there was tudeousuess In the 
eyes, the lower part of the face of the new Caliban 
was anything but unprepossessing. " Daily Telegravh. 
Feb. 22. 1883. 

* make (2), s. [A.S. gemaca, maca = a mate ; 
coxn. with Icel. maki = a mate ; 8w. make = 
a fellow, a mate, a mutch ; maka = a spouse ; 
Dan. mage = a mate, a fellow ; O. S. gimako 
= a mate ; O. Dan. matt; Dut. maat = a mate.] 
A mate, a companion, a fellow, a husband or 
wife. [MATE, s., MATCH (2), s.] 

" Each not far behind him had his make, 
To wit, two ladies of most goodly hue. 

Sptnur: f. $., IV. 11. 80. 

* make'-bate, s. [Eng. make, v., and bate.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : One who excites or breeds 
quarrels. 

" Barillon was therefore directed to act, with all 
possible precautions against detection, the part of a 
makebatt."JJacanlay : Hilt. Eng., ch. vi. 

2. Hot. : Polemonium cceruleum. 

* maked, pret. ofv. [MAKE, v.] 

* make -game, s. [Eng. make, and game.] 
A butt 

" I was treated as ... a floating-stock and a make, 
game." Godwin : Jfandnille, i. 2GS. 

* make'-law, a. [Eng. make, v., and law.] 
Ordaining laws. (Stanyhurst.) 

* make -less, * make lea, a. [Eng. make 
(2), s. ; -less.] Matchless, unequalled. 

" Right as our first letter is now an A, 
In beautie first so stood she maktle*, 
Her goodly looking gladed all the prees." 

Chaucer : Trailut i Creuida, L 

* make -peace, s. [Eng. make, v., and peace.] 
A peacemaker, a reconciler ; a composer or 
adjuster of differences. 



" To be a makepeace shall become my age: 

the Duke of Norfolk's gage 
Shaketp. : Richard II., 71 L 



Throw down, my son, the Duke 



mak'-er, s. [Eng. make, v. ; -er.] 
L Ordinary Language: 
1. One who makes or creates anything, 
especially the Creator. 

" What pronteth the graven linage that the maker 
thereof hath graven it V Habakkuk it 18. 

* 2. A poet ; a writer or composer of poetry. 
The parallel of Qr. ITOUJTTJV = a poet, from 
iroie'u = to make ; also iroce'u = to write 
verses ; cf. Lat. facere.] [MAKE, B. 6.] 

" There cannot be iu a maker a fouler fault than to 
falsify his accent to serve his cadence, or by untrue 
orthography to wrench his words to help his rhyme." 
J'uttenltaui : A rt of Englith Potty, ch. viii. 

3. One who produces, causes, or gives rise 
to anything ; one who carries on any act 01 
pursuit. 

" I am a maker of war and not a maker of phrases." 
Longfcllov : Milet Standuh, Ii. 

* II. Law : The person who signs a pro- 
missory note, and who stands in the same 
position, after the note is endorsed, as the 
acceptor of a bill of exchange. 

make'- shift, s. & a. [Eng. make, v., and 
shift.] 

A. As substantive: 

1. That with which one makes shift ; a tem- 
porary expedient or substitute. 

" At beet can only be regarded as a precarious makr 
thift." Edinburgh Reman, July 1862, p. 292. 

* 2. A thief. 

" London Is sore charged with these makethiflet." 
A Mirourfor Magettratet of Cytiet (1584), fo. 33 back. 

B. As adj. : Used or adopted as a makeshift. 

make -weight (eight as at), s. [Eng. make, 
v., and weight.] 

A. As mbst. : Any small thing thrown into 
a scale to make weight or make up for clstl- 
ciency in weight ; hence, anything which is 
thrown in for the sake of appearance or to fill 
a gap. 

" And its sword as a makeweight to throw into the 
scale." Burke : Letter to a Xoble Lord. 

B. As adj. : Thrown into the scales to make 
np for deficiency. 

" The glimmering light 
Of maknceight caudle." 

J. PhUipt: Splendid Shitting. 

ma' ki, s. [The Malagasy name.] 

Zool. : The genus Lemur (q.v.). The word 
is rapidly going out of use in England ; but is 



boll, boy; pout, jowl; cat, cell, chorus, 9hln, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-oian, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -fion, -sion - zhun, -tious. -sious, -cious = shus. -ble, -die, &c. - bel, dfl. 



3012 



making malacodermes 



employed as a popular, and in some cases as a 
scientific, name in France. The King-tailed 
Maki is Lemur catta. 

mak ing, * mak- ynge, pr. par., a., & *. 
[MAKE, v.] 

A. A B. As pr. par. particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As substantive : 

1. The act of creating, forming, or con- 
triieting ; formation, creation, construction, 
fabrication. 

" When the cause is extrinnecal, and the effect pro- 
duced by a sensible separation, or juxta-poaition of 
discernible parts, we call it making. Locke : Suman 

Understanding, bk. ii., eh. xxvi., 2. 

* 2. The act of composing or writing poetry ; 
zeroising the creative skill of the poet. 

" The old famous poet Chaucer, whom for his excel- 
lency and wonderful skill In making, his scholar Lid- 
gate calleth the lode-star of our language," Spenttr : 
Letter tigned B. K. 

3. What has been made, especially at one 
time. 

4. The material from which anything is or 
may be made. (Generally in the plural.) 

"Men who have in them the makingi of better 
preachers." Frtuer't Magazine, Aug. 1858, p. 220. 

* b. The ornaments befitting exalted station. 
(Usually in the plural.) 

" She had all the royal mak'ngt of a queen." 

Sliaketp. : Henry VIII., IT. 1. 

U Making of deacons : 

Ritual : In the English Church the ordina- 
tion of deacons. The office is so styled in the 
Prayer-book, ordaining beingapplied to priests, 
and consecrating to bishops. 

malting iron, s. 

Shipbuild. : A large caulking-iron with 

nves lengthways of its face, used for the 
driving of oakum into the seams. 

making up, s. 

L Ord. Lang. : The act or state of becoming 
reconciled or friendly. 
IL Technically : 

1. Distill. : The reducing of spirits to a 
standard of strength, called proof. 

2. Print. : The arrangement of matter into 
lengths suitable for columns or pages. 

mak-ite, *. [Etym. doubtful; named by 
Adam.] 
Min. : The same as THENARDITE (q.v.). 

Dial-, mal-e-, pref. [Seedef.] Two prefixes, 
denoting ill or badly, derived from the Latin 
nude = badly, mains = bad, the latter prefix 
directly, the former through the French mal 
= bad. Male is properly used with words of 
Latin origin, the former can be prefixed to 
English words already existing. 

ma -la, s. pi. [MALUH.] 

Mal a bar, s. & a. [Native name.] 

A. As subst. : The name of a district on the 
West Coast of India. 

B. As adj. : Of or pertaining to Malabar 
Or its inhabitants. 

Malabar-bark, -. 

Bot. : The genus Ochna (q.v.). 

Malabar-leaf, s. 

Bot. : Cinnamomum malabathruM. 
Malabar-nightshade, . 

Bot. : The genus Basella (q.v.). 

Malabar-nut, 8. 

Bot. Justicia Adhatoda. 

Malabar-oil, s. A mixture of oils from 
the livers of various fishes found on the coasts 
of Malabar and Kurrachee. The species which 
chiefly furnish it are Rhyncobatus pectinatus, 
R. lasvis, Galiocerda tigrina, and Carcharias 
melanopterus. (Spcm.) 

Malabar-plum, s. 

Bot. : The Rose-apple, Eugenia Jambot. 
Malabar-rose, s. 

Bot. : Hibiscus Rosa malabarica. 

mal a can-thl dae, <. pi. [Mod. Lat. mala- 
eanth(us); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 

Ichthy. : A family of Acanthopterygian 
Fishes. Body elongate, with very small 
scales ; mouth with thick lips ; a strong 
tooth posteriorly on the intermaxillary. 
Dorsal and anal fins very long, the former 



with a few simple rays anteriorly ; ventrals 
thoracic, with one spine and five rays. Gill- 
opening wide, with the gill-membranes united 
beneath the throat Ten abdominal and 
fourteen caudal vertebrae. (Gunther.) 

mal a can thus, s. [Gr. paAd? (malos) = 
soft, and anavOa (akantha) = a spine.] 

Ichthy. : The typical and only genus of the 
family Malacanthidse (q.v.). Three species 
are known, all from the tropical seas. 

mal a ca tune, s. [MELOCOTON.] 

Ma-lac -ca, s. <fc a. [See def.] 

A. As subst. : The name of a district on 
the south-west coast of the Malay peninsula. 

B. As adj. : Of or pertaining to Malacca 
or its inhabitants. 

Malacca bean, s. 

Bot. : The seeds of Semecarpus Anacardium. 

Malacca-cane, s. 

Bot. & Comm. : A cane, used as a walking 
stick, imported from Malacca, though the tree 
producing it, Calamus Scipionum, is more 
common in Sumatra. Some are of a uniform 
rich brown, others mottled ; the colours, it is 
said, are produced by smoke artificially ap- 
plied. 

Mal'-a-ohi, . [Gr. MoAax l '<w (Malnchias); 
Heb. 'SN^p (Malakhi), exactly the word ren- 
dered " my messenger " inch. iii. 1, but which 
may have been a contraction of Malachijah = 
messenger of Jehovah.] 

Script. Biog. : The last of the Old Testament 
minor prophets. Of his history nothing is 
certainly known. 

IT The Prophecies ofMalachi: 

Old Test. Canon : The last prophetic book 
of the Old Testament. When it was penned, 
the Jewish people .were under a governor in- 
stead of a king (i. 8X and the Temple rebuilt 
(i. 7, 10, iii. 1, 10). The governor was pro- 
bably Nehemiah, during his second visit to 
Jerusalem. If so, then Malachi prophesied 
probably between 430 and 425 B.C., during the 
first part of the Peloponnesian war, and was 
a contemporary of Sophocles (496-405), Euri- 
pides (480-106), Herodotus (484-424), and 
Thucydules (471-396). In Malachi's time reli- 
gion was at a low ebb. The priests were not 
pious or moral enough to gain the respect of 
the people (ii. 7, 8, 9), who withheld tithes 



and offerings (iii. 8, 10), or, when they did 
pay them, selected from their flocks and 
nerds the lame, the sick, or the torn. With 
absence of piety came low morality. Divorces 
were far too many (ii. 14, 16) ; adultery, false 
swearing, fraud upon the feeble and the de- 
pendent were common. The prophet sought 
to correct all these evils. He encouraged a 
small remnant who had remained faithful (iii. 
16). He predicted the rise of "the Sun of 



5, 6). We learn that this was fulfilled in the 
coming of John the Baptist (Matt. xi. 10-14, 
xvii. 10-13 ; Mark i. 2, ix. 11-13 ; Luke i. 17, 
76, vii. 27). Malachi i. 2, 3 is referred to in 
Rom. ix. 13. The Hebrew style of the book 
is argumentative rather than poetical. Its 
canonical authority has never been doubted. 

mal'-a-chite, 5. [Gr. MAX'J, ;*oAox>? (mala- 
chi, mnloche) = mallow ; suff. -ite (Min.) ; Ger. 
malachit : Old Ger. molochit.] 

Min. : A monoclinic mineral rarely oc- 
curring*in crystals, but mostly as fibrous or 
compact stalagmatic masses, with mammil- 
lary or botryoidal surfaces ; or earthy. Crys- 
tals mostly twinned. Hardness, 3 '5 to 4; sp. 
gr. 3'7 to 4'01. Lustre of crystals adamantine, 
of fibrous kinds, silky to dull ; colour, bright 
green ; streak, paler ; translucent to opaque. 
Compos. : carbonic acid, 19'9 ; protoxide of 
copper, 71 "9; water, 8'2; yielding the for- 
mula, CuOCO + CuOHO. Found with other 
copper ores extensively distributed, in great 
abundance in the Ural Mountains, Russia. 
The Russian mines, those of Namaqualand, 
West Africa, did the Burra Burra mines, 
South Australia, yield a close variety which 
takes a high polish and is much used in 
inlaying work. 

malachite-green, . 

Chem : A green dye, consisting of the double 
zinc salt of a base, having the formula 



CasH^Nj. Malachite-green possesses many 
advantages over methyl-green, being cheaper, 
and less affected by soap, acids, or heat. 

ma la'-chi-um, s. [Mod. Lat, from Gr. 
ju'oAcucos (malakos) = soft. ] 

Bot. : Formerly regarded as a genus of 
Caryophyllaceae, but reduced by Sir Joseph 
Hooker to a sub-genus of Stellaria. The 
sepals are free to the base ; the styles five, 
rarely three ; the capsule with five bifid valves. 
The old Malachium aquaticum is now Stellaria 

. (Malachium) ayuatica. It is from one to three 
feet high, with a brittle stem, membranous 
leaves, and dicHotomous cymes of white 
flowers. Found in ditches, streams, &c., in 
England and elsewhere. 

ma la chl-iis, s. [MALACHIUM.] 

Entom. : A genus of Malacodermidae (q.v.) 
The species have the power of projecting fiom 
various parts of their thorax under excitement 
large fleshy vesicular appendages. Six or more 
are British. 

mal a ch6 chal'-9ite, . [Gr. juoAax>} 

(malache) = mallow, and xaAc6s (chalkus) =z 
brass.] 

Min. : A name used by Glocker for a sub- 
division of the family Halochalcite. It in- 
cluded all the malachite-like minerals. 

mal a cho den'-dron, s. [Gr. /utaAixi (mat- 

ache) = mallow, and SivSpov (dendron) = a 
tree.] 

Bot. : An old genus of Ternstromiacese, now 
called Stuartia (q.v.). 

mal a chra, *. [A name given by Pliny to 
a Persian tree producing a gum. (Paxton). ] 

Bot. : A genus of Malvaceae, tribe Uraneae. 
Malachra capitata, an Indian annual, with 
broad, heart-shaped leaves, covered with stift 
hairs, and yellow or white flowers, yields a 
fibre eight or nine feet long, with a silvery 
lustre, and almost as soft as silk ; it has been 
used in Bombay in jute manufactories. (Prof, 
Watt.) 

* mal-a-cls'-sant, a. [Lat. malacissans, 
pr. par. of malacisso; Gr. /xaAaccfu (malakizoj 
= to make soft; /noAcocos (malakos) = soft] 
Making soft or tender ; relaxing. 

* mal-a-cis-sa'-tipn, . [MALACISSANT.] 
A softening or mollifying. 

" This malacittation, or supplying of the budy, to b 
continued for one whole month." Bacon: JIM. Lift 
t Death. 

mal- a-cob-del'-la, s. [Gr. ftoAoucos (malakos) 
= soft, and /SSe'AAa (bdella) a. leech.] 

Zool. : The typical genus of the family 
Malacobdellidse (q.v.). Malocobdella grossa 
is a leech two inches long, found between the 
mantle and the branchiae of the large bivalve 
mollusc, Cyprina islandica. 

mal.-a- cSb-deT-li-dis, s. pi. [Mod. Lat 
malacobdelUa) (q.v.) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. 
-idee.] 
Zool. : A family of Hirudinea (Leeches). 



mal a co 9eph -a liis, . [Gr. 

= soft, and xc^oAi} (kephule) = the head.] 

Ichthy. : A genus of fishes, family Macrurida. 
The seales are very small, ctenoid ; the snout 
is obtuse, and obliquely truncated. 

mal-a-co-derm, s. [MALACODERMATA.] 
Zool. : One of the MALACODERMATA (q.v.). 

mal-a-c6-der'-ma-ta, s. pi. [Gr. naXaicot 
(malakos) soft, and ocpjaara (dermata), pi. of 
Sip/j-a (derma) skin.] 

1. Entom. : A sub-section or sub-tribe ol 
beetles, section or tribe Pentamera. They 
have the integuments soft and flexible, with- 
out interlocking apparatus ; hence the pro- 
thorax moves freely. The chief families are 
the Dascyllidae and the Malacodermidse. 

2. Zool. : A sub-order of Zoantharia, con- 
taining the Sea-anemones (q.v.). Professor 
Martin Duncan calls it Actinaria, and includes 
under it the families Actiuidte and Ceri- 
anthidee. 

* inal a-co-der'-mej, s. pi. [MALACODER. 

MATA.]" 

Entom. : One of Swainson's tribes or primary 
divisions of Coleoptera. It contains the soft- 
bodied Coleoptera, without reference to the 
numlwr of joints in their tarsi. The elytra 



[ate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we. wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or. wore, wolf, work, who, son, mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian. 99,03 = 0; ey-a. qu=- kw. 



malacodermidse -malanilic 



3013 



re soft, flexible, and often very short. He 
doubtfully divides it into the five families, 
Lampyridse, Caiitharidae, Lymexylouidse, Mor- 
dellidae, and Lycidae. 

mal-a-co der mi-dse, s. pi. [Or. MoAd? 

(malakos) = soft ; &eppa (derma) = skin, and 
Lit. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 

Entom. : The typical family of the sub-sec- 
tion or sub-tribe Malacodenuata. It consists 
of long, soft- bodied beetles, with the mentum 
often indistinct ; the abdomen with six or 
seven free segments. The type of organiza- 
tion is low. It contains the Glow-worm (q. v.), 
and other insects. British genera fourteen, 
including Telephora, Lampyris, &c. Some- 
times called Telephoridse (q.v.). 

mal -a cold, i [Gr. poAoxdc (malakos) = soft, 
and c!oc (eidos) = form.] Having a mucila- 
ginous texture. 

mal ac'-6-llte, s. [Or. /noAoxos (malakos) = 
soft, and Aidot (lithos) stone ; Ger. mala- 
kolith.] 

Min. : Formerly included bluish-gray, gray- 
ish-green, and whitish varieties of pyroxene 
from Sala, Sweden. Dana adopts the name 
for his first group of the Pyroxenes (q.v.), 
which contains little or no alumina, but con- 
gists essentially of a silicate of magnesia and 
lime. Named malacolite, because it was softer 
than the felspar with which it was found. 

mal a-coT-6-gist, s. [Eng. malacology); 
ist.]' One versed or skilled in malacology. 

mal a-COl'-O-gy, s. [Gr fiaAaKia (malakia) = 
Aristotle's name for the mollusca, and Adyot 
(Zogtos) = a discourse.] The science which treats 
of the mollusca, or soft-bodied animals. 



mal a con, mal a cone, s. [G. 

(malakos) = soft ; Ger. malakon.] 

Min. : An altered zircon, having hardness, 
6'5 ; sp. gr. 3'9 to 4'047 ; lustre, vitreous ; 
colour, brown. Found at Hitteroe, Norway, 
and Chanteloube, France, in aggregates of 
thin plates. 

mal a cop'-ter-i, s. pi. [Or. juoAuc< (mala- 
kos) = soft, and rrrepov (pteron) = a wing, a 
fin.] 

Zool. : In Professor Owen's classification, a 
sub-order of Teleostean Fishes. The endo- 
skeleton ossified, the exoskeleton in most 
as cycloid, in a few as ganoid scales ; fins sup- 
ported by rays, all except the first, sometimes 
in the dorsal and pectoral, soft or jointed, 
abdominal or apodal ; gills free operculate, a 
swim-bladder and air duct. Called by Miiller 
Physostomi. Owen divides the order into 
two sub-orders : Apodes, with the families 
Symbranchidse, Muraenidse, and Gymnotidse ; 
and Abdominales, with the families Hetero- 

Sygii, Clupekte, Esocidse, Salmonidse, Scope- 
dse, Characini, Galaxidae, Mormyridse, Cypri- 
Dodontidae, Cyprinidae, and Siluridae. (Owen : 
Comp. Anat. ; Fishes, p. 48.) 

tnal a-c6p ter-US, s. [Gr. ^uAn/cds (malakos) 
= so'ft, and jrrepiif (pterux) = a wing, a fin.) 

Ichthy. : A genus of fishes, family Labridae, 
from Juan Fernandez. 

mal a-cop-ter-yg'-I-an, a. & . [Gr. 
/xoAoicdf (malakos) = soft", and vrtpvyiev (pteru- 
gion) = a little wing, a fin.] 

A. As adj. : Of or belonging to the order 
Malacopterygii (q.v.); having soft fin-rays 
not pointed at the extremities. 

B. As subst. : An individual of the order 
Malacopterygii. 

mal-a-cop-ter-yir-I-I, s. pi [Gr. |u.aAa*ds 

(malakos) = soft, and irrtpvyiov (pterugwn) = 
ft little wing, a fin.] 

Ichthyology : 

L In the classification of Cuvier the second 
oraer of Osseous Fishes. All the rays of the 
fins are soft and cartilaginous ; they exhibit 
minute articulations, and are divided at the 
extremities into small fibres. Cuvier divided 
them into Abdominales, Sub-brachiales, and 
Apodes. 

2. In the classification of Professor Mtiller 
a group or section of the sub-order Pharyngo- 
gnatha, having soft fins. It contains only one 
family, the Scomberesocidse (q.v.). 

Bial-a-^o'p-ter-yg'-l'-ous, a. [MALACOP- 
TERYOII.] The same as MALACOPTERYOIAN 
(qv.). 



mal -a cos tc on, s. [Gr. /maAaKot (malakos) 
soft, and oareov (osteon) = a bone.] 

Path. : Mollities ossium, a diseased softening 
of the bones, in which they are liable to 
become bent, without being fractured. 

mal-a-cos'-tc -us, s. [MALACOSTEON.] 

Ichthy. : A genus of fishes, family Stomi- 
atidse. 

mal a cos -to mous, a. [Gr. juaAaKos (ma- 
lakos) soft ; o-ro/ja (stoma) = a mouth, and 
Eng. adj. suff. -ous.] Having soft jaws without 
teeth. (Applied to certain fishes.) 

mal a cos tra ca, s. [Gr. ^aAaicds-Tpaxo? 
(malakostracos) = soft-shelled : fiaAaxd; (mala- 
kos) = soft, and o<rrpaxov (ostrakon) = a shell.] 

Zoology : 

* 1. The term applied by Aristotle to the 
class Crustacea, because their integument 
was softer than the shell of the Mollusca. 

2. The highest division of the Crustacea. 
They have a definite number of body segments, 
generally seven somites constituting the 
thorax, and an equal number, including the 
telson, forming the abdomen. It contains 
crabs, lobsters, shrimps, wood-lice, sand-hop- 
pers, &c., and is divided into two great sec- 
tions, the Edriopthalmata and the Podoph- 
thalmata (q.v.). Dr. Henry Woodward calls 
it Thoracipoda (q.v.). 

mal a cos tra col 6 gy, s. [Gr. poAaxot 
(malakos) soft' ; o<rrpaxov (ostrakon) = a shell, 
and Adyos (logos) = a discourse.) The division 
of zoology which has special reference to the 
Malacostraca (q.v.). [CRUSTACEOLOOY.] 

mal~a-cos -tra-cous, a. [MALACOSTRACA.] 
Of or pertaining to the Malacostraca (q.v.). 

t mal-a-cot -6-my, s. [Gr. MoAouua (mala- 
kia) = "a mollusc, and TO/X>J (tome) = a cutting.] 
Comp. Anat. : The anatomy of mollusca ; a 
branch of Zootomy (q.v.). 

mal-ad-jusf-ment, s. [Pref. mal-, and 
Eng. adjustment (q.v.).] An evil, bad, or 
defective adjustment. 

mal ad min-is tra tlon, * male ad 
mln-Is-tra -tion, s. [Pref. mal-, and Eng. 
administration (q.v.).] Faulty or bad ad- 
ministration ; bad management of public 
affairs ; imperfect or faulty conduct in the 
administration of official duties; espec., of 
those prescribed by law. 

"The violence of revolutions is generally propor- 
tioned to the degree of the maladministration which 
has produced them." Macaulay : Hist. Eng., ch. xlii. 

mal'-a-drolt, a. [Fr., from mal = bad, and 
adroit = adroit (q.v.).] Not adroit or dex- 
terous ; awkward, clumsy. 

mal'-a-droit-ly; adv. [Eng. maladroit; -ly.] 
In a maladroit, awkward, or clumsy manner ; 
awkwardly, clumsily. 

mal - a droit ness, s [Eng. maladroit; 
-ness.} The quality or state of being mala- 
droit ; awkwardness, clumsiness. 

mal'-a-dy, * mal a die, * mal a dye. s. 

[Fr. maladie, from malade = sick, ill, from 
Lat. male habitiis = out of condition ; male 
= badly, ill, and habitus held, kept, pa. par. 
of habeo to hold, to keep.] 

1. A disease, sickness, or disorder of the 
body ; a distemper or disorder of the body 
arising from impaired, defective, or morbid 
organic functions ; espec., a lingering or deep- 
seated disorder or indisposition. 

" O, wist a man how many nuiladitt 
Folweu of excesse aud of glotonies 
He wolde ben the more mesurable 
Of bis diute." Chaucer : C. T.. 12,447. 

2. A moral -defect or disorder ; a corrupt 
state of the moral principles ; disorder of the 
mind or understanding. 

"Satire's strong dose the mtAady requires." 

/'. H'hitehead: Ejrittle to [)r. Thornton. 

ma la f I'-de, adv. phr. [Lat.] In bad faith ; 
deceitfully, treacherously. 

Mala fide possessor : 

Scots Law : A person who possesses a sub- 
ject not his own upon a title, which he knows 
to be bad, or which he has reasonable ground 
to suppose to be so. 

ma la fl-des, phr. [Lat] Bad faith. 

mal-a-ga, s. [See def.] A kind of wine im- 
ported from Malaga, in Spain. 



ma lag ma, s. [Gr., from na\d<T<na (ma- 
lasso) = to make supple, to soften ; naAoxds 
(malakos) = soft.] 
Med. : A poultice. 

mal-a- gucf ta, mal a guet a (u as w). 
s. [Fr. managuette, malaguette = grains of 
paradise, from Malagueta, the Spanish name 
of a village in Guinea, where they are bought 
or sold.] (See etym. and compound.) 

malaguetta pepper, s. 

Hot. : The seeds of Amomum, Grana Paro- 
dist, and A. Meleguttta. They have a warm 
and camphor-like taste, and are used to im- 
part a fictitious strength to spirits and beer. 

mal aise, s. [Fr.] A feeling of uneasiness 
or discomfort, which frequently is a premoni- 
tory symptom of a sorious malady. 

Mal a ka nes, s. pi. [Russ.] 

Ch. Hist. : A Russian sect who forbid making 
the sign of the cross and the use of images, 
and consider all wars unlawful. They observe 
the laws of Moses respecting meats, and are 
unorthodox on the sacraments. (Shipley.) 

ma lam -bo, me-lam'-bo, s. [The name 
given in New Granada to a kind of bark.] 
(See etym. and compound.) 

malambo bark, s. An aromatic, febri- 
fugal bark imported from Santa Fe de Bogota, 
the capital of New Granada. It is believed to 
come from a species of Galipea, or soma 
allied genus. 

mal a me thane, s. [Eng. malam(ic), and 
ethane.] 

Chem. : C^^HjONO^ The ethylic ether 
of malamic acid, produced as a crystalline 
mass, when dry ethyl malate is saturated 
with ammonia gas. 

mal am 1C, a. [Eng. mal(ate); amJ(monia), 
and suff. -u:.] Contained in, or derived from 
the malate of ammonium. 



It 



Chem, : 



may be derived from the acid malate of ammo- 
nium by elimination of one atom of water. It 
is not known in the free state. 

mal-am'-lde, *. [Eng. mal(ic), and amide.] 
Chem. : C 4 H 8 N 2 O 3 = C 2 H 3 , OH 

An amide of malic acid, obtained by passing 
ammouiacal gas into an alcoholic solution of 
ethylic malate. It is crystalline, and has a 
specific rotatory power of 47'5. Malamide 
is metameric with asparagin. 

mal am'-yl, s. [Eng. mal(ic), and amyl.] 
(See the compound.) 

malamyl nitrile, s. 

Chem. : (C4H 3 O2)'"N. A compound obtained 
by the action of heat on acid ammonium 
malate. It resembles the imide of fuiuario 
acid, and when boiled with hydrochloric or 
nitric acids, yields compounds of these acids, 
with an optically inactive variety of aspartio 
acid. 

mal -a- myl'-ic, a. [Eng., &c. malamyl; -ic.] 
Derived from malic-acid and amyl-alcohoL 

malamylic acid, s. 

Chem. : C 4 H 5 (C f H 11 )OB. Amyl-malic acid. 
Obtained by heating a mixture of malic acid 
and amyl-alcohol to a temjierature of 120. 
It forms a syrup which crystallizes on cooling. 

mal an-ders, *. [Fr. malandres, from Lat. 
malandria = blisters or pustules on the necks 
of horses.] 

Fair. : A dry scab on the pastern or at the 
bend of the knee of horses. 

mal an fl, . [Eng. mal(ic), and 



Chem, : C 10 H 9 NOs 



H 



phe- 



nyl-malimide. A compound obtained by melt- 
ing a mixture of malic acid and aniline, and 
extracting by means of boiling water. It 
crystallizes from its aqueous solution in deli- 
cate needles, melts at 170, and is very soluble 
in water, alcohol, aud ether. 

mal-a-nfl'-ic, a. [Eng., &c. mal(ic), and 
anilfine); suff. -ic.] Contained in, or derived 
from malanil (q.v.). 



boiL b6y ; pout, jowl; cat, fell, chorus, $hln, bencb; go, fern; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph fc 
-oian, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion ^ shun ;. -^ion, -sion - shun, -dons, -tious, -sious = shus. -Die, -die, &c. = beL deL 



3014 



malanilide maldonite 



H 



malanilic-acid, s. 

Chem. : C 10 H U NO 4 = (C^Oa)'" N. Phe- 

CgHs'Hj J O 

nyl malamic acid. Obtained as an ammonium 
salt by boiling raalanil with aqueous ammonia. 
It crystallizes in wliite, faintly lustrous, mi- 
nute needles, which melt at 145. Soluble in 
water, slightly soluble in alcohol, but insolu- 
ble in ether. Its salts are distinguished by 
their great solubility in water. The barium 
salt crystallizes in round nodules of dazzling 
whiteness. The silver salt, Ci H 10 AgNO 4 , is 
a white powder, which soon becomes coloured 
by exposure to light. 



an'-il ide, s. [Eng., <fcc. malanil (q.v.) ; 
suff. -ide.] 

Ckem.: C 16 H 16 N 2 0,= l(C 4 H 3 O. 2 y" (. Di- 



. 

phenyl-malamide. A compound produced, to- 
gether with malanil, by melting a mixture of 
malic acid and aniline, the malanil being 
separated by boiling water, in which it is solu- 
ble. It crystallizes in colourless needles, hav- 
ing a faint lustre ; melts at 175, and when set 
on tire, burns with a bright, smoky flame. It 
is insoluble in water, dilute hydrochloric acid, 
ammonia, and potash, but slightly soluble in 
alcohol and ether. 

ma! a pert, * mal a-perte, o. & *. [Fr., 
from mai = badly, ill, and apert = open, expert, 
from Lat. apertus = open.] 

A. As adj.: Pert, impudent, saucy, quick, 
forward. 

" Untutor'd lad, thou art too malapert." 

Shakeip. : 3 Henry VI.. v. S. 

* B. As subst. : A pert, saucy, forward, or 
impudent person. 

mar-a-pert-ly,*mal-a-pert-lie, *mal- 
a-pert-lye, adv. [Eng. malapert; -ly.] In 
a malapert, saucy, or impudent manner , 
pertly, saucily. 

mal'-a-pert-ness, s. [Eng. malapert; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being malapert ; sauci- 
ness, impudence. 

"Through his owne malajtertnea aud brain-sick- 
a.ene."aoliniked: Henry II. (an. 1104). 

* mal-ap-pro'-pri-ate, < [ pr e f - mal-, and 
Eng. appropriate, v.] To misapply ; to misuse, 

"She malappropriated several other articles of her 
craft" E. lironte: Wuthering Heights, ch. xxxiii. 

a prop, s. [MALAPROPOS.] The name 
of a female character in Sheridan's Rivals, noted 
for her blunders in the use of words. 

mal a prop ism, tmal ap ro-po !m, 

. [Eng. malaprop; -ism.] 

1. The act or habit of blundering in or mis- 
applying words, through a desire to use big or 
fine language. 

2. A word so misapplied. 

" Sadly annoyed he is sometime* by her malapro- 
poiinu.' Mia Edgeworth : Helen, ch. xx v. 

mal-ap'-ri-pos (s silent), adv. [Fr. mal a 
propos, from mal = badly, ill, and a propos = to 
the purpose.] Ill or badly for the purpose or 
occasion ; unseasonably, unsuitably, out of 
place. 

mal-ap-ter-ur'-us, s. [Mod. Lat., from Gr. 
(xoAaKos (malakos) = soft ; irrepov (pteron) = a 
wing, a fin, and ovpa (oura) the tail.] 

Ichthy. : A genus of Siluroid fishes. Head 
and body naked ; teeth small, congested into 
a crescentiu row in each maxilla ; branchio- 
stegous membrane, with 7-8 rows ; dorsal fin 
single, adipose, remote. Malapterurus electri- 
cus possesses a high degree of electrical power ; 
it is found in the Nile, and other rivers in 
Africa, as far south as the Zambesi. The 
electric organ lies below the integument on 
each side of the body, between two tendinous 
membranes, of which the innermost covers 
a layer of loose conjunctive tissue, that has 
been regarded as a second electric organ. The 
electric organ proper consists of many cells, 
mostly rhomboidal, and receives its nerves 

from the nervus vagus. This flsh attains a 
length of from one to two feet. It is noted 
for its fine flavour. 

ma'-lar, a. & s. [Lat mala = the cheek, from 
mando = to chew.] 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to the cheek 
or cheek-bone. 

B. As substantive : 

Anat. : The strong quadrangular bone which 



forms the prominence of the cheek. In many 
of the lower animals it is permanently divided 
into two, the orbital and the malar parts. It 
serves also with the great wing of the sphenoid 
bone to constitute the outer wall of the orbit. 

"The posterior angle of the malar extends well 
posteriorly." Tram. Amer. Philotoph. Soc., xiii. 205. 

malar-bone, s. [MALAR, s.] 

ma-lar'-l-a, s. [Ital. mar aria,, for mala aria 
= bad air : mala (Lat. mains) = bad, and aria 
air.] A morbid poison of unknown cha- 
racter generated in paludal or littoral districts, 
affecting the system through the blood often 
as long as twelve months after one has been 
exposed to it, and exerting its deadly influence 
in many cases through life. Hydrophobia is 
the only other form of disease in which the 
period of incubation may be as long or longer. 
Malaria emanates from marshy land in a de- 
composed state under the influence of heat 
above 60 F. acting on the moisture ; when 
thoroughly drained, flooded, or frozen, malaria 
is not generated. An elevation of from 1,000 
to 1,200 feet is, generally speaking, a protec- 
tion against it. Malaria causes ague, inter- 
mittent and congestive fevers, and one kind 
of yellow fever, marked by periodicity. The 
Roman Campagna and the West Coast of 
Africa are noted haunts of malaria and mala- 
rious fevers ; and rice-fields are also well- 
known sources of it. 

ma lar I al, t ma-lar'-i-an, a. [Eng. 
malari(a) ; -al, -an.] ' Pertaining" to, of the na- 
ture of, produced or infected by malaria. 

Tf There is a material cachexia and a maZarial 
remittent fever. 

ma -lar'-i-ous, a. [Eng. malaria) ; adj. suff. 
-ous.] Full of, or infected by malaria ; causing 
or producing malaria. 

" Till there is not a fever alley or a maJarioiit ditch 
left in any British city." C. Kingsley. (Life, ii. 279.; 

mal-as-sim-i-la'-tion, *. [Pref. maZ-, and 
Eng." assimilation (q.v.).] 

Pathol. : Imperfect or defective assimilation 
of food ; imperfect digestion, conversion, and 
appropiation of nutriment ; cacochymia. 

mar ate, s. [Eng. maZ(ic) ; -ate.] 
Chem. : A salt of malic acid. 

* mal'-ax, v.t. [Lat. malaxo, from Gr. pa.' 
Aa<r<j-a> (ma/usso) = to soften.] The same as 
MALAXATE (q.v.). 

"Apply an emplaah malaxed with unguent dial- 
thsese." Wueman: Surgery, bk. i., ch. ix. 

* ma - lax' - ate, v.t. [Lat. malaxatus, pa. 
par. of maloxo, from Gr. fxaAd<r<ru>, jiaAdTT<o 
(malasno, mulatto) to soften; /iaAaxo; (mala- 
kos) = soft.] To soften ; to knead to softness. 

* mal-ax-a'-tion, s. [Lat. malaxatio, from 
malaxatus, pa. par. of malaxo = to soften.] 
[MALAXATE.] The act of malaxating or soften- 
ing ; the act or process of forming ingredients 
into a mass for pills. 

mal'-ax a-tor, *. [Eng. malaxate) ; -or.] A 
mixing-mill. A cylinder having a rotating 
shaft and stirring-arms to incorporate ma- 
terials. Mortar-mills, pug-mills, and many 
other machines come under this description 
e.g. machines for mixing the ingredients of 
pills. 

ma lax'-c se, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. malax(is); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -ece.] 
Bot. : A tribe of Orchidacese (q.v.). 

ma-lax'-is, s. [Gr. = a softening, in allusion 
to the softness of the plant.] [MALAXATE.] 

Bot. : Bog-orchis ; a genus of Orchids, tribe 
Malaxese, family Liparidaj. The outer sepals 
spread widely ; the lip is inferior, entire ; 
spur wanting ; pollen masses four, in a single 
row. Malaxis palvdasa, a common fom, has 
four to five oval, vory concave leaves, and a 
spike of small greenish flowers. Found in 
bogs, &c., in England, Scotland, and other 
parts of Europe. 

Ma-lay , s. & a. [See def.] 

A. As substantive : 

1. A native of Malacca or the Malay Penin- 
sula and adjacent islands. 

2. The language spoken by the Malays. 

B. As adj. : Of or pertaining to the Malays 
or their country. 

Malay-apple, Malay apple-tree, . 

Hot. : Jambosa malaccensis. 



Ma-lay'-an, a. & s. [Eng. Maluy ; -an.] 

A. As adj. : Of, pertaining, or relating to 
Malacca or the Malay Peninsula, or its inhabi- 
tants. 

B. As substantive : 

1. A native of Malacca or the Malay Penin- 
sula. 

2. The language spoken by the Malays. 

Malayan-bear, Malayan sun- 
bear, & 

Zool. : Helarctos (Ureus) malayanus, a bear 
found in the Malayan peninsula, Borneo, 
Sumatra, and Java. It is about four feet and 
a half in length ; the fur is black, fading into 
brown on the nose. The chest bears a cres- 
centio white mark ; the Bornean variety has 
an orange-coloured, heart-shaped patch. It 
usually feeds on grains and fruits, and is very 
fond of honey. It occasionally indulges in 
animal food ; and is said to attack man, when 
hard pressed, and there is no means of escape. 

Malayan-porcupine, s. 

Zool. : Atherura fasciculata, a rat-like porcu- 
pine, about eighteen inches long. The spines 
of the body short and depressed ; tail short 
and scaly. 

Malayan sun-bear, s. [MALAYAN-BEAR.) 
Malayan-tapir, s. 

Zool. : Tapirus malayanus, the largest of the 
Tapiridse. Maneless, general colour glossy 
black, back, rump, and sides white. Habitat 
Sumatra, Malacca, and the south-west pro- 
vinces of China. Called also the Asiatic or 
Indian Tapir. 

mal brouck, *. [Fr. malbrouc, a corrupt, 
of Marlborougli.] 

Zool. : Cercocebus Cynosurus, the Dog-tailed 
Baboon of Shaw, found in Bengal. (Griffith. ; 
Cuvier.) 

mal-CO'-ha, s. [Native name.] 

Ornith. : An East Indian genus of Cuculidse. 
The bill is long, thick, aud rounded, with 
bristles at the base ; nostrils orbicular and 
lateral ; a large naked space round the eyes ; 
tarsi slender, as are the claws. 

mal-con for-ma'-tion, s. [Pref. mal-, and 
Eng. conformation (q.v.).] Disproportion of 
parts ; imperfect or abnormal formation. 

mal con tent, * male con tent, a. & s. 

[Fr., from mal ill, badly, aud content = con- 
tent, pleased.] 

A. -4s adj. : Discontented, malcontented, 
dissatisfied. 

" Yeelded leave, however malcontent." 

Speruer: f. ^., IV. vi. 44. 

B. As subst. : One who is discontented or 
dissatisfied; specif., one who is discontented 
with or murmurs against the government or 
its administration. 

"The malecontenti at the coffeehouses of London 
murmured at this profusion. "Macaulay: Bin. Krtg., 
i-li. xxxiii. 

* mal con-tent'-ed, a. [Pref. mal-, and Eng. 
contented (q.v.).] Discontented, dissatisfied; 
specif., discontented with the government or 
its administration ; seditious. 

"Against mutinous and malcontented subjects." 
Bacon: Henry I'JI., p. 89. 

* mal-con-tent'-ed-l^, adv. [Eng. malcon- 
tented; -ly.] In a discontented or dissatisfied 
manner ; with discontent. 

* mal con tent ed-ness, s. [Eng. malcon- 
tented; -ness.] The quality or state of being 
malcontented or discontented ; discontent, 
dissatisfaction ; espec., with the government 
or its administration. 

" They would ascribe the laying down my paper to a 
spirit of malecontentedneu. ' Additon : Spectator, 
No. 44S. 

mal da ni ae, mal dan i dee, s. pi. [A 

word of no etymology. (Agassiz.)} 
Zool. : A family of Annulata, established 
Savigny. It contains a single genus, 
Clymene. (Van Hoeven.) 

mal'-don-Ite, s. [Named . after the place 
where found, Maldon ; suff. -ite (Min.)."] 

Min. : A mineral occurring in small grains 
in quartz, and having an apparent cubic 
cleavage. Hardness, 1-5 to 2 ; sp. gr. 8-2 to 
9'7(?); colour, pinkish- white, tarnishing on 
exposure. Malleable. Compos. : by assay, 
gold, 64'5 ; bismuth, 35'5. Found at Nuggety 
Reef, Maldon, Victoria. 



tly 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, se, oe = e; ey = a. qu = jew. 



male malevolent 



3015 



mal-e-, pref. [MAI,-.] 

male, a. & . [O. Fr. mask (Fr. male), from 
Lat. masculus = male, from mas = a male 
creature, a man.] 

A. As adjective : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : Of or pertaining to the sex that 
procreates or begets young, as distinguished 
from the female, which conceives and bears 
young ; masculine. 

"Have ye not read that 

beginning made them mal 

* 2. Fig. : Possessing some quality or attri 

bute characteristic of males : hence, excellent, 

noble, superior. 

IL Bot. (Of an individual plant): Bearing 
stamens but not fruit. 

B. As substantive : 

1. Ord. Lang. : One of that sex which pro- 
creates or begets young ; a he-animal. 

" When they brought forth children they openly slei 
all the maltt." Stow: Memorable Antiquities, p. 80. 

2. Bot. : A staminiferous plant or in- 
florescence. 

male-fern, s. 

Bot. : Nephrodium Filix Mas, a fern, one to 
three feet high ; the stipes more or less scaly 
beneath ; the segments entire or serrate at 
the tip ; the frond generally bipiunate ; the 
pinnules obtusely lobed. Found in woods 
and shady places, bearing fruit in July and 
August. 

male-nuellin, s. 

Bot. : Linaria spuria. It is a hairy or vil- 
lous and glandular British plant, with ovate 
or orbicular leaves and yellow flowers, found 
in sandy and chalky cornfields. 

male-rhymes, s. pi. Rhymes in which 
only the last syllables correspond ; as, disdain, 
complain. 

male-screw, s. A screw whose threads 
enter the grooves or channels of the corre- 
sponding or female screw. 

* male-spirited, a. Having the spirit 
of a man; masculine, vigorous, manly. 

" That male-spirited dame, 
Their mother, slacks no means to put them on." 

Hen Jonson : Sejanut, 11. 

male-system, s. 

Bot. : All the parts of a flower connected 
with the stamens ; all appendages, processes, 
&c., forming part of the same series of organs, 
as the true stamens, or originating between 
them and the pistil. Called by Roper the 
andraecium. 

* male, s. [MAIL (2), s.] 

Inal'-e-ate, s. [Eng. male(ic); -ate.] 
Chem. : A salt of maleic acid. 

* male -ad mm is tra -tion, *. [MALAD- 
MINISTRATION.] 

male -branch-ism, s. [For etym. see def.] 

Hist. Philos. : A school of philosophy, so 

called from Nicholas Malebranche (1038-1710), 

a priest of the Oratory ; occasionalism (q.v.). 

* male con for ma tion, s. [MALCONFOR- 

M AXIOM.) 

t male -con- tent, a. & . [MALCONTENT.] 

* inal-e-di'-gen-9y, s. [Lat. malediixntiu, 
from maledicens malediceut (q.v.); O. Fr. 
muledicence ; Sp. & Port, maledicencia; Ital. 
maldicenza.] The quality of being maledicent ; 
the act or practice of using evil, reproachful, 
or abusive language ; proueuess to slander or 
abuse. 

" We are now to have a taste of the maledicency of 
Luther's spirit" Atterbury : Character of Luther. 

* mal-e-di'-cent, a. [Lat. maledicens, pr. 
par. of maledico = to speak ill or badly : male 
= badly, and dico = to say, to speak ; Ital. 
maldicente ; Sp. maldiciente.] Speaking re- 
proachfully ; using reproachful or slanderous 
language. 

"Possessed with so furious, so maledicent and so 
slovenly spirits." air E. Sandys : State of Keliffion. 

* mal e-dlc -ted, * mal -e diet, a. [Lat. 
maledictus, pa. par. of maledico = to speak ill.] 
Addressed with maledictions ; accursed. 

mal-e -die' -tion, * mal-e-dic-ci-on, 
* mal-e-dic-cy-on, s. (Fr. malediction, 
from Lat. maleilictionem, accus. of maledictio 



= a curse, from maledictus, pa. par. of mule- 
dico to speak ill against : male = badly, ill, 
and dico = to say, to speak ; Ital. mated izione ; 
Sp. maldiciiin.] Evil speaking, cursing ; a 
curse, an execration, an imprecation. 
" It is the malediction of Eve 1" 

LongfeU.ua: U olden Legend, ii. 

* mal-e-fac'-tion, s. [Lat. malefuctin, from 
male = badly, ill, factio = a doing, from foetus, 
pa. par. of facio = to do.] A criminal deed ; 
an offence against the laws ; a crime. 

" Guilty creatures, sitting at a play. 
Have by the very cunuiug uf the scene 
Been struck so to the soul, that presently 
They have proclaimed their maff/actiont," 

Khaketp. : Xainlet, 11. S. 

mal-e-fac -tor, * mal-e-fac-tour, *. 

[Lat mal f.J actor, from male = badly, ill, and 
factor = a doer ; facio = to do ; Fr. mulefaiteur; 
Ital. malfattore.] 

1. An evil-doer ; one who commits a crime or 
crimes ; a criminal ; one who offends against 
or violates the laws. 

" If he were not a male/actor, we would not have 
delivered hiui up unto thee." John xviii. w. 

* 2. One who does harm to another ; the 
opposite to a benefactor. 

"King Edward the Fourth, a malefactor to this 
College. Fuller : Hist. Cambridge, Iv. 19. (Margin.) 

* male-fea'-sange, s. [MALFEASANCE.] 

* ma-lef '-ic, a. [Lat. maleficus, from male = 
badly, ill, and facio = to do.] Causing ill, 
harm, or mischief ; mischievous, hurtful. 

* ma - lef - i - cate, v.t. [Lat. maleficus = a 
witch.] To bewitch. 

" What will not a man do when once he IB malt- 
Jicated I "Taylor : Jtaac Conmemu, ii. 4. 

* maT-e-fige, a. [Fr., from Lat. maleficium 

= an evil deed, witchcraft, from male = 
badly, ill, and/acio = to do ; Sp., Port. & ItaL 
maleficio.] An evil deed ; a crime ; artifice, 
enchantment. 

" [He] fild their mouthes with meeds of maleficei." 
Spenser : Mother Uubberdt Tale, 1,154. 

* ma-lef -I-cenge, s. [Lat. maleficentia, from 
maleficus; Sp. mateficiencia ; Ital. maleficenza; 
Fr. malfaisance.] The quality or state of 
being maleficent ; the act of doing evil or 
harm. 

" The Bishop of Lincoln felt It, who fell into trouble, 
not for want of innocence, but for want of a parlia- 
ment to keep him from maleficence." Socket : Lift 
uf Williamt, pt. ii., p. Bi. 

* ma-lef'-i-gent, a. [Lat. male = badly, 
ill, and faciens, pr. par. of facio = to do.] 
Causing or apt to cause harm or Imrt ; given 
or prone to maleficence ; hurtful, mischievous. 

" Let us apply to the unjust, what we have said of 
a mischievous or maleficent nation." Burke: On the 
Policy of the Allies. (App.) 

* mal-e-fi'-cial (c as sh), o. [MALEFIC.] 

Injurious, hurtful. 

" Passing a law so maleficial unto them." Fuller : 
Church Hut.. III. vi. 14. 

* mal^e-fic'-I-ate (c as sh), v.t. [Low Lat 
maleficiatus, pa. par. of maleficio, from Lat. 
maleficium an evil deed, hurt, witchcraft.] 
To bewitch, to hurt, to harm. 

" Every person that comes near him Is maleficiated." 
ISurton : Annt. of Melancholy, p. 18L 

* mal-e-f ic-i-a'-tion (c as sh), . [MALE- 
FiciATE.] A bewitching. 

" A sixth in.iy be a preceding incapacity of marriage 
duties; whether natural, or advantageous; whether 
by way of perpetual maleficiation, or casualty." 
tip. Hail : Cotes of Conicience, dec. 4, ch. x. 

* mal-e-f ic'- ience (c as sh), . [MALE- 
FICENCE.] A doing harm or hurt ; male- 
ficence. 

* mal -e -fie'- lent (c as sh), a. [MALE- 
FICENT.] Doing'hann or hurt ; hurtful, male- 
ficent. 

* male-for-ma'-tion, s. [MALFORMATION.] 

mal -e -1C, a. [Altered from Eng. malic (q.v.).] 
Derived from malic acid. 

maleic acid, s. 

POOTT 
Chem. : C 4 H 4 O 4 - Cyfl 2 <^Q^. Pyromalic 

acid. A dibasic acid, obtained by the dry 
distillation of malic acid. It is isomeric with 
fmnaric acid, and differs from malic acid only 
in the eler-.ents of water, C4H 6 O5 = C4H 4 O4 + 
OH 2 . It crystallizes in oblique rhomboidal 
prisms, soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. 
It is colourless and inodorous, and its taste, 
sour at first, soon excites a very unpleasant 



sensation of nausea. Maleic acid forms in- 
directly substitution derivatives, of which 
moiiobruiuo-maleic acid is an example and 
type. It yields salts with the alkalis and 
metals, some of which are crystalline. 

H (1) Mono-ammonium maleate : 

Chem. : C^^SH^O^. It forms crystalline 

laminae, soluble in water, and slightly soluble 

in alcohol. 

(2) Di-ammonium-maleate : 

Chem. : C^H^NH^O.;. It is obtained as a 
crystalline jelly on saturating a solution of 
the acid with ammonia. 

(3) Barium maleate : 

Chem. : C^HoBa''^. It crystallizes in small 
shining needles united in stellate groups, 
sparingly soluble in cold water, but very 
soluble in boiling water. 

maleic anhydride, s. 

Chem. : C 4 H 2 O 3 = C 2 H2<^Q>0. A com- 
pound obtained by the repeated distillation of 
fumaric or maleic acid, the first portion of 
each distillate being rejected. It is a colour 
less crystalline mass, which melts at 57, and 
boils at 196. When dissolved in water, it is 
reconverted into maleic acid. 

* mal en-col-ye, s. [MELANCHOLY.] 

* mal'-en-gine, * mal en gin, * mal- 
len-gyn, s. [Fr. malengin, from Lat. nialu* 
bad, and ingenium disposition.] Guile, 
deceit. 

" The floreyn 
Was moder first of malengin." 

Oower.C.A., bk.tr. 

* male-o'-dour, s. [MALODOUR.] 

* malo-po-si -tion, s. [MALPOSITION.] 

* male-prac'-ti9e, s. [MALPRACTICE.] 

males -her-bi-a, s. [Named after Lamoignoa 
de Malesherbes, a French agriculturist.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of the order Males- 
herbiaceae (q.v.). Jt consists of a few Peru- 
vian pubescent shrubs, with solitary yellow 
flowers in the axils of the leaves. 

males-her-bi a-ce-se, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. 
malejlterUL(a); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -acece.\ 

Bot. : Crownworts, an order of Hypogyuous 
Exogeiis, alliance Violales. It consists of 
herbaceous or half-shrubby plants, with alter- 
nate lobed exstipulate leaves, and axillary or 
terminal solitary yellow or blue flowers ; 
calyx, tubular, membranous, inflated, five- 
lobed ; petals, five, persistent, arising from 
without ; a short membranous rib or coronet, 
perigynous, imbricated ; stamens, five or ten, 
perigynous ; ovary, superior, with parietal 
placeut; styles, three, long; fruit, capsular, 
one-celled, tliree-valved, membranous, many- 
seeded. Found in Chili and Peru. Known 
genera two, species five. (Limlley.) 

* mal'-e-son, . [MALISON.] 

* male sworn. * mal' -sworn, a. [Pref. 

mal-, and Eug. sworn.] Forsworn, perjured. 

* mal'-et, s. [Fr. mallttte, dimin. of malle = 
a sack, a bag.) [MAIL (2), s.] A little bag or 
budget ; a portmanteau. 

* male'-tal-ent, s. [MALTALENT.] 

* male'-tolt, s. [Norm. & O. Fr., from Lat. 

male = badly, ill, and Low Lat. tollita, froa 
Lat. tollo = to raise ; Fr. muletpte.] An illegal 
exaction, toll, or imposition. The term was 
first applied to the exactions of Philip le Bel 
in 1290, for his war against the English. 

* male-treat', v.t. [MALTREAT.] 

* male-treat' -ment, s. [MALTREATMENT.] 

ma-lev'-d-len9e, s. [Lat. malevolentia, from 
nmlevolens = malevolent (q.v.) ; Sp. male- 
vuleitcia.] The quality or state of being male- 
volent ; ill will ; ill feeling ; evil disposition 
towards another ; an inclination or disposition 
to injure or hurt others. 

" Malevolence, therefore, commences with some idea 
of evil, belonging to and connected with the object; 
and it settles into a permanent hatred of bis iwrmm. 
and of every thing relative to him. Capon . On tin 
Passions, pt, L, ch. ii., i 3. 

ma-lev -6-lent, a. [Lat. malevolent, from 
male = badly, ill ; volens, pr. par. of volo = to 
wish.] Full of or disposed to malevolence ; 
having an ill will or evil disposition towards 



boll, boy: pout, jowl; cat, cell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing; 
-ian, tian - shan. -tion, -sion = shun; -tion, -sion = zhun. -cious, -tious, -sious = shus. -ble, -die, &c. - bl, d^L 



3016 



malevolently malignant 



others ; wishing ill, evil or injury to others ; 
ill-disposed ; rejoicing in the evil or mis- 
fortune of others ; malicious, envious. 

" This It Worcester, 
Malevolent to you in all aspects." 

Shakesp. : 1 Henry IV., i. 1. 

Bia-lev'-d-lent-ljf, adv. [Eng. malevolent; 
~ly.] In a malevolent manner ; with male- 
volence ; with ill-will ; with a desire or dis- 
position to injure others ; maliciously. 

"The oak vindicated him from aspersions maleto- 
Itntly cast upon him." Howel : Vocal forat. 

* ma-leV-6-lo, s. [Ital., from Lat. maU- 
voius.] A malicious person. 

* ma-lev'-6-lous, a. [Lat. malevolus, from 
male = badly, ill, and volo = to wish.] The 
game as MALEVOLENT (q.v.). 

" Hitherto we see these maltvoknu critics keep their 
ground." Warburton: On Prodigies, p. 109. 

* mal-ex-e'-cu'-tion, o. [Pref. mat-, and 
Eng. execution (q.v.).] Evil, wrong, or 
faulty execution : maladministration. 

tnal feas anje, s. [Fr. malfaisance, from 
malfaire = to do ill : mal (Lat. male) = badly, 
ill, and faire (Lat. facio) = to do.] 

Lnw : The doing of an act which one ought 
not to do ; evildoing ; a wrong ; an illegal act. 

mal-for-ma'-tion, s. [Pref. mal-, and Eng. 
formation (q.v.).] A bad, faulty, irregular, or 
abnormal formation, conformation, or struc- 
ture of parts ; a deviation from the normal or 
regular structure or form of an organ. 

mal-goo-zar-ee', s. [Native name.] Land 
subject to assessment. (East Indies.) 

* mal-gra' clous, a. [Pref. mal-, and Eng. 
gracious.} Ungracious, ungraceful. (Gower.) 

mal-gre, * maul-gre, adv. [MAUGBE.] 

mal' -Ic, a. [Lat. mal(um) = an apple; Eng. 
suff. -ic.] Derived from fruit. 

malic-acid, s. 

Chem, : C 4 H 6 O 5 = C 2 H 3 OH 

covered by Scheele in 1785. It is very widely 
diffused through the vegetable kingdom, chiefly 
In combination with potassium and calcium. 
It is found in abundance in nearly all garden 
fruits, such as apples, cherries, and straw- 
berries, and in many roots, as, for instance, 
marsh mallow, liquorice, and madder ; also 
In carrots, lettuce, tobacco, poppy, sage, 
thyme, in the flowers of camomile, and elder, 
and in the seeds of parsley, flax, and pepper, 
&c. It can be prepared by precipitating the 
vegetable extract with lead acetate, and de- 
composing with snlphydric acid. The aque- 
ous solution left to evaporate yields groups of 
colourless shining needles, or prisms, which 
melt at 100. They are odourless, have a sour 
taste, and are soluble in alcohol. Active 
malic acid rotates the plane of polarisation to 
the left, [a] = - 5. By the action of reducing 
agents it is converted into succinic acid. 
Malic acid yields neutral and acid salts, and 
possesses a strong tendency to form the latter. 

II (1) Ammonium malate: 
Chem. : The neutral salt is soluble and un- 
Crystallizable. 

(2) Ammonium malate (acid salts) : 

Chem. : C^^NH^O,. Tt crystallizes in 
transparent prisms with well defined and 
strongly reflecting faces. It deflects the plane 
Of polarisation to the left [a] = - 6% 

(3) Calcium malate : 



Chem. : 



2OH 2 . The crystalline form 



of this salt is hemihedral, and it produces 
dextro-rotation. It is only slightly soluble iu 
cold water. 

malic-ether, s. 

Chem. : '^H^C^H.^O^. Obtained by pass- 
Ing hydrochloric acid gas into an alcoholic 
solution of malic acid. It is soluble in water, 
and decomposed by distillation. 

ma! ice, s. [Fr., from Lat malitta = bad- 
ness, ill-will, from malus bad; Sp. & Port. 
malicia ; Ital. mulizia.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. An evil disposition ; enmity of heart ; a 
disposition to injure others without a cause, 
or only for the sake of personal gratification, 
or from a spirit of revenge; malevolence, 
maliciousness, malignity. 



2. Enmity, hatred, ill-will. 

" I never sought their malice." 

Shakesp. : Henry nil., Y. 1 

* 3. A malicious person. 

" Shruggest thou, malice I " 

Shakes fj. : Tempett, i. 2. 

II. Law: A premeditated or formed design 
to do mischief or injury to another, called 
also malice prepense or aforethought. 

"Malice prepense, militia prcecogitata, is not 
BO properly spite or malevolence to the deceased in 
particular, as any evil design in general ; the dictate 
of a wicked, depraved, and malignant heart ; and it 
may be either express or implied iu law. Express 

Kalice is when one. with a sedate deliberate mind and 
rmed design, doth kill another: which formed de- 
sign is evidenced by external circumstances discover- 
ing that inward intention . . . Also in many cases 
where no malice is expressed, the law will imply it : as 
where a man wilfully poisons another; iu such a 
deliberate act the law presumes malice, though no 
particular enmity can be proved." Blackstone : Com- 
ment., bk. iv., ch. 14. 

* mal 196, v.t. [MALICE, .] To feel malice 
towards ; to regard with malice or ill-wilL 

" I neither envy his fortune nor malice his person." 
Fourth Report Bilt. MSA. Com., p. 291. 

*maT-i9e-less,a. [Eng. malice ; -less.] Free 
from malice, ill- will, or malevolence. 

"How fe"- are there that have truly maliceleu 
hearts and find this entire upright affection towards 
their brethren. "Leighton: Com. on Peter i. 22. 

*mal'-i-cho, * mal-le-cho, s. [Sp. mal- 
hf.cho = an evil action, from mal = bad, ill, 
and hecho = a deed, from Lat. facio = to do.] 
Mischief, hurt, wickedness. 

" Marry, this is miching matinhn." Shaketp. : 
Bamlet, iii. 2. 

'mal'-ig-ing, s. [Eng. malic(e); -ing.] 
Malice, ill-will. 

" Aud without any private malicing." 

Daniel : A Funeral Poem. 

ma li cious, * ma li tious, a. [Fr. mali- 
cieux, from malice = malice ; Sp. & Port. 
malicioso; Ital. malizioso,] 

1. Feeling or disposed to malice ; ill-dis- 
posed towards others; indulging malice, ill- 
will, or enmity against others ; malignant, 
malevolent, spiteful. 

"Oft have I mused what purpose bad 
That foul nuiticiout urchin had 
To bring this meeting round." 

Scott : Lay of the Last Minttrel, v. 13. 

2. Characterized or inspired by malice; pro- 
ceeding from malice or malevolence ; done 
with the design of injuring or hurting another. 

" Malicious slander is the relating of either truth or 
falsehood, for the purpr.se of creating misery." Pale]/ : 
Moral Philosophy, bk. iii., eh. xli. 

*3. Hurtful, evil. 

"The air appearing so malicious In this morbifick 
conspiracy, exacts a more particular regard." Uarvey : 
On Consumptions. 

malicious abandonment, s. 

Law : The desertion of a wife without cause. 

malicious-mischief, s. 

Law: The committing of an injury to public 
or private property, not for the purposes of 
theft, but from pure wantonness or malice. 
In some cases this is a felony, in others oidy 
a misdemeanour. The malicious destruction 
of machinery, or of goods in the process of 
manufacture, is an offence against public trade 
as well as against the property of the indivi- 
dual sufferer ; the immediate object of the 
offender being often the destruction of pro- 
perty generally, irrespective altogether of its 
ownership. This crime, and all those of a 
like nature, are now prosecuted under thu 
statute 24 & 25 Viet. c. 97, consolidating and 
amending the laws on this subject. 

malicious-prosecution, s. 

Law: A prosecution preferred maliciously 
or without sufficient cause or grounds. An 
action at law lies against the person who ma- 
liciously prosecutes another. 

ma :f clous ly, adv. [Eng. malicious; -ly.] 

1. In a malicious manner ; with malice or 
malevolence. 

" Proud tyrant* who maliciously destroy.' 

.ivmcrvile : Fable 12. 

2. Like one full of hatred ; with the strength 
of hate. 

"I will be treble-sinew'd, hearted, breath'd, 
And fight maliciously. 1 ' 

Shakcsp. : Antony i Cleopatra, iii. 11. 

ma li cious ness, ma li tious ness, -. 

| Eng. malicious ;--ness.} The quality or state 
of lieing malicious ; malice, malevolence, ill- 
will. 

" Hee opened to them the malitiautneu of the Lon- 
doners." Stow . Richard II. (an. 1391). 



* ma lif -er-ous, a. [Lat. malum = ill ; fero 
= "to bring, and Eng. adj. suff. -ous.] Bring- 
ing ill, evil, or harm ; hurtful, pestilential. 

ma-lign' (g silent), o. [O. F. maling (fern. 
maligne), from Lat. mcAignus = ill-disposed, 
wicked ; from maligenus = ill-born : from malt 
= badly, ill, and gigno(pa.. t. genui) = to pro- 
duce ; Sp & Port, maligno; Fr. malin, fern. 
maligne.] 

* 1. Having an ill will or evil disposition to* 
wards others ; malicious, malevolent. 

" Instead 
Of spirits malign a better race to bring." 

Milton: P. L., vii. 18. 

2. Unfavourable, unpropitious, pernicious; 
as, a malign influence. 

* 3. Malignant. 

" He that turneth the humours back . . . emlan. 
gereth malign ulcers and pernicious imposthuui*. 
lions." Bacon : Essays. 

*4. Hurtful, pernicious. 

" The ground of damp malign, 
Their bed nocturnal." 

Hart : Psalm cvli. paraphrased. 

malign' (g silent), * ma-ligne, v.t. & i. 
[Lat. maligno; from malignus = ill-disposed.) 
[MALIGN, a.] 
A. Transitive: 

* 1. To regard with malice, malignity, or fll 
will ; to treat with malice ; to injure mali- 
ciously. 

" Strangers conspired together against him, and 
maligned him iu the wilderness." Ecclus. xlv. 18. 

2. To speak evil of ; to traduce, to vilify, to 
slander, to defame. 

" Though many foes did him maligne therefor* 
And with unjust detraction him did beard." 

Spenser : f. (,/., VI., v. I 

* 3. To grudge, to envy. 

" If the heavens did his dayes envie, 
And my short blis maligne." 

Spenser: F. Q.. III. iv. Ml 

* B. Intrans. : To entertain malice, or a 
malicious disposition ; to be malicious or 
malevolent. (Milton.) 

ma Hg nan 9v, * ma-lig-nauce, s. [Eng. 
malignant; -cy; -ce.] 

A. Ordinary Language : 

1. The quality or state of being malignant; 
malevolence, malice, ill-will ; bitter enmity 
towards others. 

"Malignity seems rather more pertinently applied 
to a radical depravity of nature, and maHananoM to 
indications of this depravity, in temper and cunduct 
in particular instances." Cooan : On the Passions, 
ch. LL, 3. 

* 2. The state of beingamalignant ; opposition 
to the Puritan government. [MALIGNANT, 13.J 

" During the sittings of the Long Parliament, again, 
a considerable number of members were disqualified 
for malignancy." Daily Telegraph, Feb. 22, 1682. 

*3. Unfavourableness, unpropitiousness. 

" The malignancy of my fate might perhaps distem- 
per yors." Shaketp. : Tux i/ili Night, U. 1. 

B. Med. : Virulence ; a tendency to morti- 
fication, or a fatal issue. 

ma-tig* -nant, a. & s. [Lat. malignant, pr. 
par. of maligno = to be ill-disposed ; maligwtt 
= ill-disposed, malign (q.v. ).J 
A. As adjective : 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Disposed to harm, hurt, or injure others; 
full of malice, malevolence, or bitter enmity ; 
malicious. 

" The Jacobite writers were, as a class, savagely 
malignant and utterly regardless of truth." J/acatt- 
lay: Hist. Eng., ch. xi'x. 

2. Characterized by malignancy, malice, or 
ill-will ; done from malice or malignancy. 

" A subsistence closed against them with malignant 
cate."Macaulay : UM. ng., ch. viii. 

*3. Unpropitious, unfavourable; exercising 
a pernicious influence. 

" O malignant and ill-boding stars 1 " 

Shakesp. : 1 Henry YL, IT. 6. 
4. Hurtful, pernicious, harmful. 
" The noxious and malignant plants do many of 
them discover something in their nature by the sad 
and melaiicholick visage of their leaves, flowers, and 
fruit." Kan ' On the Creation, pt. 1. 

*5. Sinning heinously ; abandoned in sin. 

" God may chose his mark 
May punish, if he please the less, to warn 
The more malignant," Covtper : Task, ii. 158. 

*6. Heinous; exceedingly bad or wicked. 

" Cain's envy was the more vile and malignant to- 
wards his brother Abel, because, when his sacrifice 
was better accepted, there was no body to look on." 
Bacon : Essays ; Envy. 

IL Pathol. : A term applied to fever, cholera, 
tumours, &c., when the blood is so altered as 
to become putrid, and petechiae with passive 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
r, wore, wolf; work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur. rule, full; try, Syrian, w, ce = e; ey-a. qu = kw. 



malignantly malleus 



3017 



haemorrhages occur, or even a gangrenous state, 
as in haemorrhagic small-pox, and the worst 
forms of typhus or typhoid fever. 

B. As subst. : A person of an extremely evil 
or malevolent disposition ; specif, in English 
history, the name given by the Roundheads, 
or Parliamentary party, to the adherents of 
Charles I. and his son, in the civil war; a 
royalist, a cavalier. 

" But, Instead thereof, himself [Sir Richard Gour. 
neyl with great and very notable courage opposing all 
their fanatic humours both In the court of aldermen 
and at the common council, grew to be reckoned in 
the first form of malignants, which was the term they 
Imposed upon nil those they meant to render odious to 
the people." Clarendon : Civil War, 11. 91. 

ma llg -nant-ly, adv. [Eng. malignant ; -ly.] 
In a malignant manner; maliciously; with 
malignity or malice. 

" Malignantly delighted, dire Disease 
Surveys the glittering pest, and grimly smiles 
With hellish glee. " Thompson : Sickness, ii, 

*ma-ligne, v.t. <fci. [MALIGN, v.} 

ma-lign'-er (g silent), . [Eng. malign; -r.] 

* 1. One who regards another with malignity 
or ill-will ; an ill-disposed person. 

" I come a spy ? no, Roderigo, no, 
A hater of thy person, a maligner I 
So far from that, I brought no malice with me." 

Seaum. Jt Flet. : Pilgrim, IL 2. 

2. One who maligns, slanders, or defames 
another ; a slanderer, a traducer. 

" With some reflections upon the enemies and ma- 
ligners of Theron, he concludes." Wat : The Second 
Olympic Ode. (Arg.) 

*ma-llg'-nl-fy, v.t. [Lat. malignus = malign, 
and facio (pass, fio) = to make.) To make 
malign or malignant. (Southey.) 

ma-lig'-ni-ty, * ma-llg-nl-tee, ma- 
lig-ni-tie, a. [Fr. malignite; from Lat. 
malignitatem, accus. of malignitas ill dispo- 
sition ; malignus = ill-disposed ; Sp. maligni- 
dad ; Ital. malignitd.] 

1. The quality or state of being malignant ; 
malignancy ; extreme malevolence, enmity, or 
evil disposition towards others ; malice with- 
out cause or provocation. 

" .\liilianitn was In her a stronger passion than 
avarice. Macaulay: Hut. Eng., ch. XT. 

* 2. Unfavourablenesa, unpropitiousness, 
pernicious influence. 

3. Hurtfulness, destructive tendency, viru- 
lence ; deadly or pernicious nature or qualities. 

" It was concerned not to 1* an epidemicke disease, 
bnt to proceed from a malignitie in the constitution 
of the aire." Sucon . Henry I'll., p. 9. 

4. Heinousness, enormity ; extreme evilness 
or wickedness. 

"Tills shows the high malignity of fraud and false- 
hood." South : Sermont, voL 1., ser. 12. 

ma-lign' ly (g silent), adv. [Eng. malign, 
a. ; -ly.] In a malignant manner ; malig- 
nantly ; with malice or ill-will. 

" Yet, lest you think I rally more than teach, 
Or praise malignly arts I cannot reach, 
Let me for once presume V Instruct the times." 
Pope : Satires, v. 839. 

mal in flii-en9e, *. [Pref. mal-, and Eng. 
influence (q.v.).] Evil influence. 

" Predisposed to any malinjluence whatever." De 
Quincey: Concessions of an Opium-eater. (Appendix.) 

ma lin'-ger, v.i, [Fr. malingre = diseased, 
sickly, from mal = badly, ill, and O. Fr. haingre, 
heingre = thin, emaciated ; from Lat. male = 
badly, ill ; eegrum, accus. of ceger = sick, ill.] 
Med. : To pretend or sham illness in order 
to shirk duty. 

ma-Un'-ger-er, s. [Eng. malinger ; -er.] 

Med. : A person (specif., a soldier, sailor, 
or prisoner) who feigns illness in order to 
escape duty or labour. 

ma-Un'-ger-y, s. [Eng. malinger; -y.] 

Med. : The act or practice of pretending or 
shamming illness in order to shirk duty or 
any imposed task. 

mal in ofsk ite, mal-in owsk Ite (w 

as v), s. [Named after Se&or Maliuowski ; 
suff. -ite (Min.).] 

Min. : A massive variety of tetrahedrite, 
of a gray colour and metallic lustre. An 
analysis showed the presence of 13-08 per 
cent, of lead, and 11'92 per cent, of silver. 
It belongs to the silver-lead tetrahedrites. 
Found in the district of Recuay, Peru. 

mal is, s. [Gr. = a distemper in horses and 
asses.] 

Pathol. : A disease in which the cuticle is 



infested with animalcula. In Persia, the af- 
fection is produced by the Guinea-worm, in 
South America by the chigre, and in Europe, 
occasionally, by the louse (q.v.). [PHTHI- 
RIASIS.] 

maT-X-son, * mal-i-sun, *. [O. Fr. mali- 
son,, malichons, maldecon, a doublet of maledic- 
tion (q.v.V) A curse, a malediction, an exe- 
cration. (Opposed to benison.) 

" I gie God's maliton and mine to a' tort o' magis- 
trates." Scott : Rob Roy. ch. xxv. 

mal' -kin, * maul km (I silent), * maw- 
kin, s. [A dimin. of Mall, Moll = Mary.] 

* 1. A kitchen- wench. 

" The kitchen malkin pins 
Her richest lockram 'bout her reeky neck." 

Shakesp. : Coriolanus, 11. 1. 

2. A mop made of clouts for sweeping ovens. 

* 3. A stuffed figure dressed up ; a scarecrow. 
4. A sponge with jointed staff for ordnance. 

mall (1), * mal, * malic, * maul, * mawl, 

* mealle, * melle, s. [Fr. mail, from Lat. 

malleum, accus. of malleus a hammer ; 

O. Sp. motto; Port, malho; Ital. maglio.] 

1. A large heavy wooden hammer or beetle. 

"Some had mallei of lead." Berntrt : froiuart ; 
Oronycle, vol. L, ch. ccccxxii. 

* 2. A blow. 

" With mighty mall, 
The monster merciless him made to fall." 

Spenter: F. O.., I. vll. (t 

* mall (2), s. [From O. Fr. palemaille = a 
game wherein a round box bowle is with a 
mallet struck through a high arch of iron 
(Cotgrave), from O. Ital. palamaglio, palla- 
maglio = lit., a ball-mallet, from patta = a 
ball, and maglio = a mall, a mallet. The word 
is still preserved in Pall-JlfaH, and the Mall 
in St. James's Park.] 

1. A public walk. (Originally a place where 
pall-mall was played.) 

"This the beau moude shall from the mall survey." 
Pope : Rape of the Lock, v. 183. 

2. A court, a pleading-house. 

* mall, * maul, v.t. [MALL (1), s.] To beat 
with or as with a mall ; to bruise, to maul. 

" I'll maull that rascal, h' as out-brav'd me twice." 
Beaum. Jt f'let. : Maid's Tragedy, ii. 

mSl'- lard, * m.i - ar d, * mal - ardc, . 

[O. Fr. malard, malart; Fr. maillard, from 
O. Fr. male ; Fr. mdle, with suff. -ard.] The 
male of the wild duck ; a wild drake. 

" The mallard is the stock from whence our tame 
breed [of ducks] has probably been produced." (Jold- 
smith : Animated Nature, bk. vii., ch. xlL 

mal lard -ite, s. [Named after the French 
crystallographer, E. Mallard ; suff. -ite (.Min.).] 
Min. : A monoclinic mineral occurring in 
colourless crystalline masses, having a fine 
fibrous structure. Soluble in water. Efflo- 
resces on exposure and becomes opaque and 
pulverulent. Compos. : a hydrated sulphate 
of manganese. Found in a gray, clay-like 
stone, with quartz-sand and barytes, in the 
Lucky Boy silver mine, Utah. 

mal - IS - a - bfl'- i - tjf , s. [Fr. malUabilite, 
from malleable = malleable (q.v.).] The quality 
or state of being malleable ; susceptibility 
or capability of extension by beating. The 
most malleable of all metals is gold, which 
can be beaten out into leaves one three hun- 
dred thousandth of an inch thick. 

" A body of such a peculiar colour and weight, with 
" 



derttandinff, 



lleability and fusibility." Locke : H 



eability 
inff, bk. 



i., 5 6. 



mal -le-a-ble, * mal-la-ble, a. [Fr., from 
Lat. * malleo = to beat with a hammer, from 
Lat. malleus = a hammer ; Sp. malealle ; Ital. 
malleabile.] 

1. Lit. : Capable or susceptible of being 
spread, extended, or shaped by beating ; ca- 
pable of extension by the hammer ; reducible 
to laminae by beating. 

" When a man says gold Is malleable, he means and 
would insinuate something more than this, that what 
I call gold is malleable." Locke : Human Understand- 
ing. bk. iii., ch. x., j 17. 

* 2. Fig. : Pliant. 

" Hark the effect produced on our councils by con- 
tinued insolence and inveterate hostility, we grow 
more malleable under their blows." Burke : On a 
Regicide Peace, let. :.. 

malleable cast-iron, s. Iron cast from 
the pig into any desired shape, and afterwards 
rendered malleable, or partially so, by anneal- 
ing. It can be brazed but not welded. 

malleable - iron, s. Iron sufficiently 
pure to be drawn out into bars and welded. 



malleable iron-castings, s. pi. Small 
cast-iron articles are made malleable, their 
brittleness being removed, by packing them 
in powdered hematite (peroxide of iron) in 
tight fire-brick cases, and subjecting them 
to a continued red heat for about a week. 
They are then allowed to cool slowly. The 
oxygen of the hematite combines with and 
removes a part of the carbon of the iron. 

mal le a ble ness, *. [Eng. malleable; 
-ness.] Malleability (q.v.). 

"The metal* which are distinguished from other 
bodies by their weight, fusibility, and malleableneu." 
Locke : Human Understanding, bk. 111., ch. vt 

* mal' le ate, v.t. [Lat. malleatus, pa. par. 
of * malleo to l>eat with a hammer ; malleus = 
a hammer.] To beat with a hammer ; to ham- 
mer ; to shape or draw into a sheet, plate, or 
leaf by hammering. 

" He first found out the art of melting and mal. 
leating metals, and milking them useful for tools. ' 
Derham: Fhysico-Theology. bk. v., ch, i. 

mal-le-a'-tion, . [MALLEATE.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

I. The act or operation of beating into a 
plate or leaf, as a metal, by hammering ; ex- 
tension by hammering or beating. 

* 2. A beating, a pounding, a thrashing. 

" His squire, by often malleationi . . . might be 
beaten out into the form of a gentleman." Oavton ; 
festivoiu Jfotei, p. 67. 

II. Pathol. : An affection described by Mor- 
gagni and others as a form of chorea, charac- 
terized by constantly hammering, with one 
hand on the other, or on the knee of the same 
side. (Dunglison.) 

mal'-le-cho, s. [MALICHO.] 

mal le mar -6 king, . [Etym. doubtful.] 
Naut. : The visiting and carousing of sea- 
men in th/ Greenland ships. (Smyth : Sailor 1 ! 
Word-book-.) 

ma! -le moke, s. [Sw. mallemucke = the 
storm petrel.] The fulmar (q.v.). 

mal'-lSn-ders, s. pi. [MALANDERS.] 

mal-le-o'-lar, a. [Lat. malleolus, dimin. of 
malleus = a hammer.] 

Anat. : Of or pertaining to the ankle : u, 
malleolar arteries. 

mal-le- o'-lus, . [Lat. dimin. of maUeut = 
hammer. 

1. Anal. : One of two projections of the leg* 
bones at the ankle. 

2. Sot. : A layer laid down for the propa- 
gation of a plant by the process of layering. 

mal let, * mal ette, * mail-let, s. [Fr. 
maillet, dimin. of mail = a mall or beetle.] 
L Ordinary Language : 
L A wooden hammer, smaller than a mall 
or maul, used by stone-cutters, joiners, car- 
penters, printers, &e. The mallet is prefer- 
ably of boxwood 1 , but the wood of the applB 
and pear is often employed. 

"And with his mullet and his file 
To sliape the point, employs awhile 
The seventh .ind the last." 

Cowper : An Enigma. (Trans.) 

2. A stick with a wooden head like a ham- 
mer, used in striking the ball in croquet. 
II. Technically: 

1. Dent. : A plugger for compacting filling 
in carious teeth. 

2. Naut. : A caulking-mallet is one used 
with a caulking-chisel or making-iron to drive 
oakum into the seams of a vessel. A serving- 
mallet is a cylindrical block of wood, by which 
spun-yarn is tightly coiled around a hawser 
or rope. 

3. Surg. : A hammer used with a gouge In 
cutting bones. 

mal'-le -us, s. [Lat.= a hammer, a mallet.] 

1. Anat. : One of the small bones of the 
tympanum. (EAR.] The malleus consists of a 
head, neck, and handle (manubrlum), with a 
long and short process, the processus gracilis 
and processes brevis. 

2. Zool. : A sub-genus of Avicula (Wing- 
shell). It consists of six species from China 
and Australia, which when young do not 
much differ from any ordinary Avicula, but as 
they grow they develop " pars " to such an 
extent as to make the shell resemble a ham- 
mer. Malleus indgaris, or alba, is the Ham- 
mer-oyster (q.v.). 



boil, boy; pout, Jowl ; cat, 90!!. chorus, 9hin, bench; go, gem; thin, this, sin, as; expect, enophon, exist, ph = & 
-clan, -tian - shan. -tion, -sion = shun; tion, slon = ihun. -tlous, -clous, -sious - shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel. del. 



3018 



mallinders Malpighian 



maT-lin-ders, s. [MALANDERS.] 

mal-lo mo-nad -i-doe, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. 
mallomon(as) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. sutf. -itlce.] 

Zool. : A family of Infusoria, order Cilio- 
Flagellate. The 'body is clothed with long 
setose cilia, and there is a terminal flagellum. 

mal -lo-mon'-as, s. [Gr. /uaAAos (mallos) = a 
lock of wool, and /noi/os (inonas) a unit.] 

Zool. : The typical genus of the family Mal- 
lomonadidse (q.v.). 



mal-loph'-a-ga, s. pi. [Gr. fioAAos (mallos) 
= a lock of wool, and (fxtytlv (plMgein) = to 
eat.] 

Entom. : A sub-order of orthopterous in- 
ects, parasitic on vertebrates, and especially 
on birds, whence they are sometimes called 
Bird-lice. They are small, flat, wingless in- 
sects ; head, broad and horizontal ; thorax, 
narrow ; abdomen, broad, of nine or ten seg- 
ments ; legs, short and stout ; tarsi, two- 
jointed, with one or two claws. Eyes, small, 
and usually simple ; antennae, three- to five- 
jointed. The mouth, situated beneath the 
head, contains mandibles and maxillae, and a 
labium, with two-jointed palpi. There are t wo 
families : Philopteridae and Liotheidae (q.v.). 
1W. S. Dallas, in Cassell's Nat. Hist., v. 147.) 
By some entomologists they are elevated into 
an order, and others regard them as a degraded 
group of Hemiptera. 



--, . [Gr. /uoAAo>To (mallntos) = 
furnished with wool, fleecy ; /ioAAds (mallos) = 
a lock of wool.] 

1 1. Bot. : A genus of Euphorbiaceae, tribe 
Crotoneae. Mallottu philippensia is better 
known as Rottlera tinctoria. [ROTTLERA.] 

2. Ichthy. : A genus of fishes, family Salmo- 
nidae. The body is covered with minute scales, 
which in mature males become elongate, with 
free projecting points, forming villous bands. 
Cleft of the month wide ; maxillary very thin, 
lamelliform ; lower jaw the longer. Dentition 
very feeble. Pectoral fins large, horizontal, 
with broad base. Mallatus vlttosns, the Cape- 
lin, about nine inches long, is caught in im- 
mense numbers on the Arctic coasts of 
America and Kamtsohatka. The natives dry 
it for use in the winter. 

ma! low, mal lows, .. [A. 8. malu = a 
mallow, mealwe = mallows (Bosworth) ; Ger. 
malve, from Lat. malva (q.v.).] 

Bot. : The genus Malva (q.v.). 

IT The Common Mallow is Malva sylvestris ; 
the Dwarf Mallow, M. rotundifolia ; and the 
Musk Mallow, M. mosckata; all wild in Britain. 
The Marsh Mallow is the genus Althaea ; the 
Tree Mallow, the genus, Lavatera(q.v.). The 
Indian Mallow is the genus Sida, also Urena, 
and in America Abutilon. The Jew's Mallow, 
Corchorus olitorius and C. cujwwtarij. 

mallow-rose, s. 

Bot. : Hibiscus moschatus. 

mal' -low worts, s. pi. [Eng. mallow, and 
worts.] 

Bot. : The name given by Lindley to the 
irder Malvaceae (a. vA 



>ui. . me name giv 

order Malvaceae (q.v.). 



malm (I silent), s. & a. [A.S. mealm = sand ; 
Ooth. malma = sand.] 

A, As substantive : 

1. A name given to a kind of soil found in 
the south-eastern counties of England, rich in 
lime, phosphoric acid, and potash, and espe- 
cially suited for the cultivation of hops. 

" A warm, forward, crumbling mould, called bl:ick 
malm, which seems highly saturated with vegetable 
and aulmal manure." White : Xelbome. 

2. A kind of soft, brittle stone. 

3. Malm-rock (q.v.). 

4. A malm-brick (q.v.). 

B. As adj. : Composed of the soil malm : as, 
vuil in land. 

malm-bricks, s. pi. The name given to 
those brinks, made in the neighbourhood of 
London, in which the clay is pulped, mixed 
with cream of lime, and incorporated with 
breeze before moulding. 

malm-rock, s. 

Petrol. : A pale calcareous sandstone from 
the Upper Greensand at Godstone and Merst- 
ham. From being well adapted for the floors 
of furnaces, it is called also lirestone. It is, 
moreover, a durable building stone. 



mal mag, s. [Native name.] 
Zool. : Tarsius (q.v.). 

mal-mi gnatte' (gn as ny), s. [Corrupted 
from martnagnato, or marmignatto, the name 
of the spider in Corsica.] 

Zool. : Latrodectus malmignattus, a large spi- 
der, black, with about thirteen spots on the 
abdomen, which occurs in the south of Europe, 
and feeds on grasshoppers and other insects. 
It is found in Corsica, Sicily, &c. 

malm sey (I silent), * malme say, * mal- 
ve -sic, ' malme -sic, s. [A corrupt, of 
Fr. malvoisie malmsey, from Malvasia (now 
Napoli di Malvasia) = a town on the east 
coast of Lacedaemonia, in the Morea ; Sp. 
malvana; Ital. malvagia.] A kind of grape ; 
also a kind of strong, fine-flavoured, sweet, 
white wine made in Madeira of grapes which 
have been allowed to shrivel on the vine. 

"Sletheglln. wort, and malmtey." 

Shaketp. : Love's Labour'* Loit, v. 2. 

mal-o-bi-UT'-Ic, a. [Eng. malo(nic) ; biur(et), 
and suff. -ic.] (See the compound.) 



malobiuric acid, s. 



Chem. : 



((.CO) 
= N 3 |(C 3 H 



CO)? 

C 3 H 2 O2)". An 



acid analogous in constitution and mode of 
formation to biuret, N^CO^H^ produced by 
heating a mixture of barbituric acid and urea 
to a temperature of 150-170 
C 4 H4N 2 03 + CH 4 N 2 = C 5 H4(NH 4 )N 3 04 
Barbituric Urea ; Ammonium 

acid ; malobiurate ; 

dissolving the ammonium malobiurate in pot- 
ash, and supersaturating the solution with 
hydrochloric acid. It is a granular powder, 
slightly soluble in water, but very soluble on 
the addition of a few drops of bromine. 

mal-o'-dor, . [Pref. mal-, and Eng. odor 
(q.v.).] An ill or offensive odor. 

mal -o -dor-oils, a. [Pref. mal-, and Eng. 
odorous (q.v.).] Having a bad or unpleasant 
odor. 

mal-o'-dor-ous-ness, s. [Eng. malodorous ; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being mal- 
odoros. 

" In rain will It smell at the top of its voioe, till you 
can positively hear its malodouressneu hall a meadow 
oO." Daily Telegraph, Nov. 13. 1883. 

mal on' amide, s. [Eng. iimlon(ic), and 
amide.] 

Chem. : C 3 H 6 NoO 2 = CH;,(CONH 2 ) 2 . A crys- 
talline body obtained by digesting methyl 
malonate in aqueous ammonia, evaporating to 
dryness, and extracting by means of hot dilute 
alcohol. It melts at HO", is insoluble in abso- 
lute alcohol, and in ether, but soluble in hot 
dilute alcohol, from which it separates on cool- 
ing in the form of needles, having a silky lustre. 
When boiled in water, with repeated additions 
of ammonia, it is converted into ammonium 
malonamate, 



mal 6 nate, s. [Eng. malon(ic); -ate.] 
Chem. : A salt of mulonic acid. 

mal on' ic, a. [Eng. mal(ic), and probably 
(lcet)on(e); sutf. -ic.] 

prvnw 
Chem. : C 3 Il4O 4 = CH 2 ... An acid 



produced by the action of alkalis on cyauacetic 
ether, or by carefully oxidizing malic acid, 
with a cold solution of potassic dichromate. 
It crystallizes in large rhombohedral crystals, 
easily soluble in water and alcohol ; melting 
at 132, and decomposing at 145 into carbouic 
anhydride and acetic acid. The alkali salts, 
only of this acid, are easily soluble in water. 
The baric salt, CH 2 :(CO-O)2Ba,H 2 O, crystal- 
lizes in groups of needles, sparingly soluble in 
cold water. The silver and lead salts are 
crystalline, but quite insoluble in water. 

mal 6-nyl u-re'-a, *. [BARBITURIC-ACID.] 
ma'-loo, s. [Hind.] [See the compound.] 
maloo creeper, 5. 

Bot. : Bauhinia racemosa. 

mal'-d-pe, s. [Gr. naX<k (malos) = white (?), 
woolly (?), or soft (?), and <ijnj (ope) = view, 
sight, look.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of the malvaceous 
tribe, Malopeae (q.v.). Malope malacoides, 
is a plant with lar^e crimson flowers found 
in Barbary and the south of Europe. 



ma-lo-pe-ee, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. m.alop(e); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -aceas.] 
Bot. : A tribe of Malvaceae. 

mal-pigh -e-ae, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. malpigh(ia) ; 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -ece.] 

Bot. : The typical tribe of the order, Mal- 
pighiaceae (q.v.). 



mal pigh'-i a, s. [MALPIGHIAN.] 



Indies. It is eaten, as is M. urens 




mal-pigh-I-a'-ce -so, s. pi. [Mod. Lat., &c. 
malphigi(a) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. stiff, -ocece.] 

Bot. : Malpighiads, an order of hypogynous 
exogens, alliance Sapindales. It consists of 
trees or shrubs, occasionally climbing, gene- 
rally having opposite or whorled leaves wtth 
glands on the stalk below. Flowers yellow, 
red, white, or very rarely blue ; calyx, five- 
parted, as a rule glandular ; petals five, un- 
guiculate ; stamens generally ten, often mona- 
delphous ; carpels, three, two, or four ; styles, 
distinct or united ; fruit, a drupe, a woody 
nut, or a samara. At least 400 are found in 
South America, others in Africa, Asia, Poly- 
nesia, &c. Known genera, 42 ; species, 555. 

mal-pigh-i a -ceous (ce as sh), a. [Mod. 

Lat. i>ialpighiace(ce) ; Eng. adj. suff. -ous.] 

1. Gen. : Of or belonging to the Malpighiaceae. 

2. Spec. ; Having, like them, peltate hairs. 

mal-pigh'-I-ads, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. mal- 
pigh(ia); pi. suff. -ads.) 

Bot. : The name given by Lindley to the 
order Malpighiaceae (q.v.). 

Mai-pigh'-i-an, a. [See def.] Dis- 
covered by, or in any way connected with, 
Marcello Malpighi, an eminent Italian anato- 
mist (1628-1694). He was professor of medi- 
cine at Bologna, Pisa, and Messina, and, for 
the last three years of his life, physician to 
Pope Innocent XII. 

Malpighian bodies, s. pi. 

Anatomy : 

1. Of the kidneys: Small reddish granules, 
occurring in the cortical substance. 

2. Of the spleen : White spherical bodies, 
which may be regarded as lymph follicles. 
They disappear in badly-nourished subjects, 
hence, their presence in man has been denied. 
Carpenter, however, assert* that they are 
normally present in the human spleen, as in 
that of the lower mammalia. 

Malpighian caysule, s. 

Anat. : The dilated extremity of each urinl- 
ferous tubule of the kidney. 

Malpighian corpuscles, s. pi. 

Anat. : Oval enlargements of the lymphoid 
tissue surrounding the branches of the splenic 
artery. These bodies are sometimes thicken- 
ings on the sides of the arterioles ; more com- 
monly they surround the vessel*. Their in- 
terior consists of fine reticulum, and is filled 
with lymphoid cells, possessing amoeboid 
movements. (Holden.) 

Malpighian layer, s. 

Anat. : Rete mucosum (the mucous net), the 
mucous substance situated between the derma 
and the epidermis, which gives colour to the 
skin ; it is best demonstrated in the liegro, in 
whom it is, of course, black. 

Malpighian pyramids, s. pi. 

Anat. : Conical, medullary masses, occur- 
ring in the cortical substance of the kidney. 
Their broad bases are directed towards the 
surface, and their points towards the sinus, 
where they form prominent papillae. Each 
pyramid represents what was originally an 
independent lobe. In man these lobes co- 
alesce, though the pyramidal arrangement of 
the tubes remains. In the lower vertebrates 
the lobes are permanently separate. 

Malplghian-tubes, s. pi 

Compar. Anat. : A number of caecal convo- 
luted tubes behind the pyloric aperture of 
the stomach, and opening into the intestine, 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or. wore, wolf, work, wnd, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full ; try. Syrian. , ce = e ; ey = a. u = kw. 



malposition malum 



3019 



In Masticating Insects. These tubes are now 
regarded as performing renal functions, and 
as being analogous with the kidneys of higher 
animals. 

Malpighian-tuft, s. 

A not. : An arterial vascular tuft enclosed in 
the Malpighian-capsule (q.v.) It is about ,-U 
inch in diameter, and visible to the naked 
eye aa a minute red point. 

* mal po-si-tion, s. [Pref. mal-, and Eng. 
position (q.v.).] A wrong position. 

mal-prac -tlce, *. [Pref. mal-, and Eng. 
practice (q.v.)]. 

1. An evil practice or action; illegal or 
immoral conduct ; actions or practice contrary 
to law or established customs. 

2. lied. : Incorrect or injudicious treatment 
of a case; treatment that is injurious, illegal, 
or immoral. 

mal stick, i. [MAULSTICK.] 

malt, s. & a. [A.S. mealt, in compos, mealt - 
hus = a malt-house, from mealt, pa. t. of 
meltan = to melt ; cogn. with Dut. mout ; Icel. 
malt = malt, multa = to malt ; Dan. & Sw. 
malt = malt ; Ger. malz.] 

A. As substantive : 

1. Grain, usually barley, steeped in water 
and fermented, by which the starch of the grain 
Is converted into saccharine matter, dried on a 
kiln, and then used in brewing ale, stout, beer, 
or porter, and in the distillation of whiskey. 

2. Liquor brewed from malt; beer, malt- 
liquor. 

B. At adj. : Pertaining to, containing, or 
made of malt. 

malt-barn, *. A barn in which malt ia 
made or kept. 

malt-drink, 5. Liquor made from malt ; 
beer. 

malt-dryer, . A device to hasten the 
drying of malt by artificial heat. 

malt-dust, *. The grains or remains of 
malt. 

"Malt-dust is an enricher of barren land, and a 
great improver of barley." Mortimer : Husbandry. 

* malt-floor, *. The floor of an oast or 
malt-drying room. 

" Empty the corn from the cittern into the malt- 
Hoar." Mortimer : Husbandry. 

* malt horse, s. A horse employed in 
grinding malt : hence, a dull, stupid fellow. 

"He has no more judgment thanamaft-Aortc." Ben 
Joiivm : Every Man in ail Humour, I. 6. 

malt-house, s. A house in which malt 
ia made. 

malt-kiln, s. A heated chamber in which 
malt is dried, in order to check the germina- 
tion of the grain after having undergone the 
preliminary processes' of steeping, couching, 
and flooring ; an oast. 

malt -liquor, t. The same as MALT- 
DRINK (q.v.). 

* malt-mad, a. Maddened with drink ; 
intoxicated, drunken ; given to drink. 

"These English are so malt-mad." Beaum, t Flet. : 
The Pilgrim, UL . 

malt-mill, *. A mill for grinding malt. 

malt-vinegar, s. Vinegar made from an 
infusion of malt. 

malt, i:t. & i. [MALT, s.] 

A. Trans. : To make or convert into malt. 

" To mash the malted barley and extract 
Its flavour'd strength." Dudtley : Agriculture, L 

B. Intransitive: 

1. To make malt ; to follow the trade of a 
maltster. 

2. To be converted into malt. 

"To house it green it will mow-burn, which will 
make it malt worse." Mortimer: Butbandry. 

* 3. To drink malt liquor. 

" On principle never malted" 

Hood: Jfia KUmantegff 

* mal ta-lent, * male-ta lent, *. [O. Fr.] 

1. Ill-humour, ill-will, spleen, spite. 

" In him bewrayed great grudge and maltalent." 

Spemer: F. ., III. iv. M. 

2. A evil inclination. 

Mal tese , a. 4 s. [Eng. Malt(a) ; -tie.] 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to the island 
of Malta, or its inhabitants. 




B. As subst. : A native or inhabitant of 
Malta ; the people of Malta. 

Maltese-cross, s. A cross formed of 
four arrow-heads meeting at the 
points ; the badge of the knights 
of Malta. The eight points of 
this cross are said to symbolize 
the eight beatitudes. 

Maltese - dog, Maltese - 
terrier, s. A small variety of 
spaniel, with long, silky hair, 
most frequently white. The muzzle is round. 

Maltese-mushroom, s. 
Bot. : Cynomorium coccineum. 

mal'-tha, s. [Gr. na\Wi (malthe) = soft wax.] 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : Mortar. 

2. Min. : According to Pliny, this name was 
used for an inflammable mud which flowed 
from a pool at Samosata, Comraagene, North 
Syria, and resembling naphtha. It has since 
been used to designate the viscid bitumens. 
Dana includes it among his Pittoliums. 

mal'-tha-9ite, s. [Gr. p.aAdaKoc (malthakos) 
= soft ; Ger. malthacit, malthazit, maltazit.] 

Min. : A variety of Smectite (q.v.), occurring 
in thin laminae, or scales, among blocks of 
weathered basalt, at Steindorfel, Lausitz, 
Germany. 

mal the, s. [MALTHA.] 

Ichthy. : A genus of Acanthopterygians, 
family Pediculati. Anterior portion of the 
body very broad and depressed ; the anterior 
part of the snout produced into a more or 
less prominent process, beneath which there 
is a tentacle, retractile into a cavity. Jaws 
and palate with villiform teeth. Skin with 
numerous conical protuberances. Soft dorsal 
fin, and very short gill. The carpal bones are 
produced, and support the pectorals, which 
somewhat resemble short legs. Habitat, 
American shores of the Atlantic. Malthe 
vespertilio is a tropical, and M. cubifrons a 
northern species. (Gunther.) 

Mal-thus -I-an, a. & *. [For etym. see def.] 

A. As adj. : Pertaining to, or in any way 
connected with the teachings of the Rev. 
Thomas Robert Maltlms (1766-1834). His 
Essay on the Principle of Population was first 
published in 1798, and has gone through many 
editions. 

" Mr. Sadler's two principal works ... in whioh 
the Malthusian doctrines were impugned." t'ate* ' 
Met. Gen. Biog. (1875), p. 984. 

B. As subst. : A follower of Malthus ; one 
who holds that some check is necessary to 
prevent over-population. 

" Defer marriage till late in life, as advocated by the 
old McUthuiiant of the ascetic school." Dr. B. A. 
AUoutt: Malthuiian Tract I, No. 4. 

Mal-thus'-I-an-Jsm, s. [Eng. Malthusian 
(q.v.); -ism.] It is a noteworthy fact that 
a corresponding word does not exist in French.] 
Social Science : The teaching of Malthus, or 
of any other writer holding similar views, on 
the population question. The first principle 
of Malthus may be thus enunciated : That 
while the increase of the means of subsistence 
is in an arithmetical, the increase of popula- 
tion is in a geometrical ratio. This leads him 
to consider checks to population a subject 
which has occupied the minds of thinkers 
from the days of Plato (Laws, v., Repub., v.) 
and Aristotle (Polit., vii. 1(3) to our own time. 
These may be classed under three heads : 
(1) moral restraint ; (2) vice ; and (3) misery. 
Malthus unhesitatingly rejects the second, 
and endeavours to eliminate the third check 
by inculcating the necessity of moral self- 
restraint. He emphatically teaches that 
parentage involves weighty responsibility, and 
that it is not only imprudent, but immoral to 
bring human being* into the world without a 
fair prospect of being able to provide for 
them. The statement of Malthus, that popu- 
lation, unchecked, increases in a geometrical 
ratio, is inexact ; but the fact remains that 
population tends to increase beyond the means 
of subsistence. 

"A writer In the Revue det Deux Mondet had re- 
cently attacked him severely for Maltluaianim." 
The Public Health, Aug., 1968, p. 20. 

malt' in, s. [Eng. malt ; -in.] 

Chem. : A nitrogenous ferment, said by 
Dubrunfaut to be present in malt and in all 
cereal grains, and to be much more active 
than diastase. It is precipitated from a con- 



centrated extract of malt by alcohol 60 o.p. 
Dubrunfaut further asserts that diastase is) 
merely a product of the decomposition of 
maltin, and that the latter is .really the activ 
principle of malt , 

malt' -ing, pr. par., a., & . [MALT, v.] 

A. & B. As pr. par. d particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 
C. As substantive : 

Chem. : The process by which barley, wheat, 
rye, or any other description of grain is con- 
verted into malt. It consists of four opera- 
tions : viz., steeping, couching, flooring, and 
kiln-drying. The grain is steeped in water 
for from 30 to 50 hours, according to the tem- 
perature of the air, to enable it to take up 
enough moisture to soften it. The water is 
then drained from the cistern, and the softened 
grain thrown out into a rectangular vessel 
called a couch, where it remains until ger- 
mination has fairly commenced. As this must 
not be allowed to proceed too rapidly, the 
grain is at the end of 20 or 24 hours thrown on 
the floor to a depth varying from 10 or 12 
inches to 3 or 4 inches according to the season. 
On the floor the germination is regulated, the 
grain being turned every four or five hours, so 
that the whole of it may be brought under simi- 
lar conditions as to heat, light, and i"--^tur. 
When the atrospire has reached about three- 
fourths the length of the seed, the grain ia 
then spread more thinly on the floor, that it 
may wither, and that germination may ba 
arrested. At the end of five or six days after 
the grain has left the cistern, it is thrown on 
the kiln.where it is subjected to a gradual heat, 
not exceeding 60 for pale malt, 77 for amber 
malt, and 93 for brown or porter malt. Tha 
object of malting is not, as stated in many 
old works, to convert the starch of the grain 
into sugar, but to develop certain soluble 
albuminous bodies which possess the power of 
rapidly changing starch into sugar in presence 
of water at a temperature of 57 to 70 . Good 
barley yields about eighty per cent, by weight, 
or 109 per cent, by measure of dry malt. 

malting apparatus, t. 

Brewing : A vessel in which ground malt il 
steeped to make the infusion known as wort ; 
this, with the addition of decoction of hop* 
and fermentation, becomes beer. 

* malt man, * malte man, s. [Eng. malt, 
and Titan.] A maltster (q.v.). (Gatcuigiie : Steel 
Glas, p. 79.) 

* malt'-mas-ter, s. [Eng. malt, and master.} 
A maltster (q.v.). (Adams : Works, ii. 246.) 

* mal-tolt, s. [M A i .KTOLT. ] 

malt -ose, s. [Eng. malt ; -ose.] 

Chem. : Ci^Sy^n. Malt-sugar. A form of 
sugar obtained by the action of malt extract 
or diastase on starch paste. ' It is not so 
soluble as dextrose, and much less sweet than 
cane sugar. It is incapable of direct fermen- 
tation, but by the continued action of yeast 
it is converted into glucose, which then yields 
alcohol. Its optical rotatory power is 139 for 
the sodium ray, and 150 for the transition 
tint, and its copper reducing power about 62*. 

mal treat, v.t. [Fr. maltraiter, from Lat. 
male = badly, ill, and tracto = to handle, to treat ; 
Ital. maltrattare.] To treat badly or roughly ; 
to ill-use, to abuse. 

" It was a little hard to moKTwMum after. "SfenM." 
Trittram Shandy, vol. 11, ch. xvii. 

mal-treat'-ment, s. [Pref. mal, and Eng. 
treatment (q.v.).] The act of maltreating ; the 
state of being maltreated ; ill-treatment, abuse, 
ill-usage. 

malt' -ster. s. [Eng. malt; -ster.] A man 
whose occupation is to make malt 

malt worm, *. [Eng. malt, and worm.) 
One who is over-fond of or indulges in malt or 
other liquor ; a tippler. 

"Mad rnuitacliiu, purple-huad malttoormt." 
Shaketp. : 1 Henry IV., ii. 1. 

*malt'-jf, a. [Eng. malt; -y.] Pertaining to 
or connected with malt. 

"In an auriferous aud malty ihower." Dickmt: 
Bleat Bcnue, ch. xl. 

* ma'-lum (pi. ma -la), . [Lat. neut. sin& 

of mains = bad.] Evil. 

U (1) Malum inse: An evil in itself. 

(2) Malum prohibitum : An act wrong be- 
cause prohibited by law ; a prohibited wrong. 



boil, boj^: pout, jo%l; oat, 9011, chorus, chin, benph; go, gem; thin, this; sin, aa; expect, ^Ccnophon, exist. -Ing. 
-clan, -tian = shan. -tion. -sion = shun ; -(ion, -sion = shun, -clous, -tious, -sious - shus. -ble, -die, ie. - bl, deL 



3020 



malure m amtnalia 



*mal'-ure, s. [Fr. malheur.] Misfortune, 
ill luck". 

"A woful wight full of mature." 

Chaucer: Dreamt. 

* mal u-ri'-nse, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. malur(us); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -ince.] 

Ornith. : Soft-tailed Warblers. According 
to Gray a sub-family of Sylviadae, his first 
farriily of dentirostral insessorial birds, of 
which alums (q.v.) is the typical genus. 

mal u rine, a. [Mod. Lat. malur(us) ; Eng. 
adj. suff. -ine.] Belonging to or having the 
characteristics of the sub-family Malurinae 

(q.v.) 

" Perhaps the most curious example of the malurine 
birds is the beautiful little Emeu Wren."- Wood: 
/HIM. flat. Silt., ii. 274. 

ma liir iis, s. [Or. ftoAds (malos) = soft, and 
oupa {aura) = a tail.] 

Ornith. : The typical genus of Gray's sub- 
family MalurJNae. All the species are from 
Australia or Tasmania. The males are dis- 
tinguished by brilliant plumage. Malurus is 
included in the Linnaean genus Motacilla(q.v.). 



l' va, *. [Lat., from Gr. iaAdxi (malache) 
= ajmallow ; p.oAao-o-<o (malasso) =. to soften ; 
from the relaxing properties of the mallows, 
or from their downy leaves. ] 

Bot. : Mallows, the typical genus of the tribe 
Malveae and the order Malvaceae. Calyx sur- 
rounded by a three-leaved involucre, carpels 
numerous, circularly arranged, one-seeded. 
Sixteen species are known. Three, Malva 
gylvestris, M. rotundifolia, and M. moschata are 
British. The first has three to seven-lobed 
crenate-serrate leaves, and large pale, purple, 
or blue flowers ; the second has reniform 
obscurely -lobed crenate leaves, pale lilac or 
whitish flowers, and the third five to seven- 
partite leaves and pinnatih'd lobes, and rosy 
or white flowers. Cayanilles found that the 
bark of a foreign species, M. crispa, could be 
made into cordage. M. parviflora is eaten by 
the natives of India, in times of scarcity, as a 
potherb. The seeds are used as a demulcent 
in coughs and ulcers of the bladder. M. rotun- 
difolia and M. sylvestris, both of which grow in 
India as well as elsewhere, are also employed as 
demulcents ; the seeds of the former are ap- 
plied externally in skin diseases. 

mal va' 96 -se, s. pi. [Fern. pi. of Lat. mal- 
vaceits = pertaining to mallows, like mallows, 
mallow-shaped.] 

Bot. : Mallowworts : an order of hypogyn- 
ous exogens, the typical one of the alliance 
Malvales. It consists of herbs, shrubs, or 
trees, with alternate more or less divided 
stipulate leaves, the hairs, if any are present, 
stellate. Peduncles usually axillary, flowers 
large, showy, surrounded by bracts. Sepals 
five, three, or four, valvate in aestivation. 
Petals, as many as the sepals. Stamens, in- 

" definite, mohadelphous ; anthers one-celled, 
reniform, bursting transversely ; ovary con- 
sisting of many carpels, arranged around a 
common axis ; styles as many as the carpels. 
Fruit, capsular or baccate ; seeds, one or more 
In each carpel. Found largely in the tropics, 
And in smaller numbers in temperate climates. 
They are mucilaginous, and without exception 
wholesome (Lindley). Known genera 60, species 
700 (Sir Joseph Booker). Most abundant in 
America. 

mal va CGOUS (oe as sh), a. [MALVACE.*.] 
Of, belonging to, or resembling the order 
Malvaceae. 

maT val, o. [Lat. malv(a); Eng. suff. -al.) 

Bot. : Of, belonging to, or resembling the 
genus Malva (q.v.) % 

I The Malval Alliance : [MALVALBS]. (Lind- 

fcy.) 

mal-va'-ley, *. pL [PI. of Mod. Lat. mal- 

, valis, from Lat. malva (q.v.).] 

Bot. : An alliance of hypogynous exogens. 
They have monodichlamydeous flowers ; pla- 
centae in the axil of the fruit ; a valvate calyx; 
an imbricated or twisted corolla, definite or 
indefinite stamens, and little or no albumen. 
Lindley included under it the orders Sterculi- 
aceae, Byttneriacese, Vivianiaceae, Tropceol- 
aceae, Malvaceae, and Tiliaceae. 



. pi. [Lat. malv(a) ; fern. pL adj. 
suff. -ece.] 

Bot. : The typical tribe of the order Mal- 
vaceae (q.v.). 



mal-ver-sa'-tion, s. [Fr., fnnu 'malverser = 
to behave ill in office ; Lat. inale = badly, ill, 
and versor = to dwell, to be engaged in.] Evil, 
wicked, or improper conduct ; mean artifices ; 
fraudulent tricks ; espec., improper conduct 
or misbehaviour in an office or employment : 
as, fraud, breach of trust, extortion, &c. 



* mal-ve-sie, s. [MALMSEY.] 
mam, s. [MAMMA.] 

ma-ma', mam-ma', s. [See def. ; cf. Sp. 
mama ; Itaf. mamma ; Dut. mama ; Fr. 
maman; Ger. mamtt, mamme, memme; Wei. 
mam = mother ; Lat. mamma =. the breast.] 
[MAMMA.] An infantine te,rm for mother, 
composed of a repetition of one of the earliest 
articulations of the human voice. 

mam a hike, mam'-e-luke, * mam 
louk, * mem loull, s. [Fr. mamaluc, from 
Arab, mamluk = a purchased slave, from 
malaka =. he possessed ; Sp. mameluco ; Ital. 
mammaluco.] One of the former mounted 
soldiers of Egypt, consisting originally of 
Circassian slaves of the Bey, introduced in the 
thirteenth century. In 1254 they had increased 
so much in power, that one of their number 
became Sultan, the dynasty lasting till 1517. 
They continued, however, even after its over- 
throw by Selim I., to be the virtual ruling class 
in Egypt. In 1811 they were treacherously 
butchered to the number of 470 by Mehemet 
Ali, Viceroy of Egypt at Cairo, and soon 
after practically disappeared from history. 

ma man' ite, s. [Named after the place 
where found, Maman ; suff. -ite (Min).} 

Min. : A mineral resembling polyhalite in 
physical characters, but differing in having 
the potash, magnesia and lime in the ratio of 
1:2:3. Occurs in nodules at the salt mine 
of Maman, Persia, associated with carnallite. 

* marn'-bling, s. [Prob., the same as MUM- 
BLING.] [MUMBLE.] A mumbling. 

"In such a mamblifia of profession." Bp. Hall: 
Chrittian Moderation, bi. ii., } 2. 

mam' -e Ion, *. [Fr., from Lat. mamma = 
the breast.] A small hill or mound, so called 
from its resemblance to a woman's breast. The 
word acquired a position in the English lan- 
guage owing to the fact that one of the defen- 
sive works of Sebastopol was called the 
Mamelon. 

ma-mcs'-tra, s. [The nani? of a city, for- 
liierly the capital of Low<jr Armenia. (Me 
NicoU.)] 

Entom. : A genus of Moths, family Apamidas. 
The fore wings are dark gray, varied with 
black, and with a white line and spot, shaped 
like U. Expansion of wings an inch and three 
quarters. Larva feeds in August and Septem- 
ber on the heart of cabbages, geraniums, &c. ; 
the perfect insect appears in the following May. 
Mamestra persicarife is the Dot. It is blackish, 
purplish, and with yellow dots. Its expansion 
of wing is about an inch and a half. Found in 
the south of England, &c. 

mam il lar 1 a, mam mil lar I a, s. 

[Lat. mamiU(a), "dimin. of mamma = a breast, 
a teat; suff. -aria.] 

Bot. : A genus of Cactaceae, having a fleshy 
stem covered with teat-like projections, spi- 
rally arranged, with radiating spines from each 
teat, and flowers from the axils of the upper 
ones. The species are mostly Mexican. 

mam'-il-lar-y, a. & s. [MAMMILLAAY.] 

* mam' Ish, a. [Eng. mam;-ish.] Foolish, 
effeminate. 

"Some mamiih monsters can question it." Bp. 
Sail : Workt, . 464. 

mam ma (pi. mam'-mae), s. [Lat. mamma 
the breast.] [MAMA.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : The same as MAMA (q.v.). 
'"And who's blind now, mamma I' the urchin cried." 

Prior : Venui Mittaken. 

2. Anat. (PI.) : The breasts ; they exist in the 
male as Bellas in the female.but in a rudiment- 
ary state. In the female they increase in size 
until about the twentieth year, but do not 
secrete milk until after pregnancy has taken 
place. In structure the mammary gland is 
conglomerate, consisting of lobes held to- 
gether by firm, dense areolar tissue, the lobes 
are composed of lobules, and they of minute 



caecal vesicles, the ultimate terminations of 
the excretory duct. Near the centre of each 
mamma is the nipple, surrounded by an 
areola of a coloured tint, at first pink, but 
after impregnation becoming permanently 
brown. 

mam -mae-form, a. [Lat. mammce = breasts, 
teats, said forma = form.] 

Bot., &c. : Teat-shaped, conical with ft 
rounded apex, mamillary. 

mam mal, s. [MAMMALIA.] 

Zool. : An animal belonging to the class 
Mammalia (q.v.). 

mam-ma' li-a, s. pi. [Neut. pi. of Lat. mam- 
malis of or for the breasts, good for diseases 
of the breast ; among modern naturalists = 
having breasts, from mamma = a breast, a 
teat, a dug of animals.] 

1. Zool. : Mammals : the highest class of the 
Vertebrate sub-kingdom. The individuals 
are characterized by the possession of mamma 
(teats), enabling them to suckle their young. 
The class is sometimes popularly but errone- 
ously called Quadrupeds (four-footed animals). 
So, however, are some reptiles, as lizards and 
crocodiles, and some amphibians, as frogj 
and newts. On the other hand, whales aro 
not four-footed, yet they are akin to the warm- 
blooded quadrupeds, and like them suckle 
their young, which are brought forth alive. 
On this account Linnaeus introduced the term 
Mammalia, now universally accepted. They 
have red, warm blood, in this respect agreeing 
with Birds, but differing from Reptiles, Am- 
phibians and Fishes. The mouth is concealed 
by lips and armed with bony and enamelled 
teeth ; each ramus of the mandible is com- 
posed of a simple piece of bone. The covering 
is of hair. Normally, there are four limbs, 
which in some aquatic members of the class 
are modified into fins. The toes are generally 
five. Most of the bones are solid or have 
cavities filled with marrow, the air-cells which 
aid in imparting lightness to the bones of 
birds being, as a rule, absent. The bones of 
the cranium and of the face are immovably 
fixed to each other. The cranium is larger 
than in other vertebrates, the Ipwer jaw con- 
sists of only two pieces. The vertebral column 
may be divided into five regions, the cervical, 
the dorsal, the lumbar, the sacral, and tlu 
caudal vertebrae. [VERTEBRA.] Like birds 
and reptiles, the Mammalia have an amnion. 
The allantoid ceases to exist at an early period 
of foetal life, or is placentiferous. The brain 
possesses a corpus callosum. The heart has 
two auricles and two ventricles. The respira- 
tion is by lungs. There is a complete dia- 
phragm. Linnaeus divided the class into seven 
orders : Primates, Bruta, Ferae, Glires, Pecora, 
Belluae, and Cete : Cuvier into Biniana, Quad- 
rumana, Carnassiers, Marsupialia, Rodentia, 
Edentata, Pachydermata, Ruminantia, and 
Cetacea. Prof. (Sir Ri ,hard) Owen divided 
them, in 1857, on the structure of the brain, 
into Lyencephala, Lissencephala, Gyren- 
cephala, and Archencephala. The first in- 
cludes the Monotremata and Marsupialia ; the 
second contains the Rodentia, Insectivora, &c. ; 
the third Carnivora, Quadrumana, &c., and 
the fourth, Man. Prof. Huxley thus classified 
them : Sub-class 1. Ornithodelphia, having 
the single order Monotremata ; 2. Diclelphia, 
also with one order, Marsupialia ; 3. Mono- 
delphia(q. v.), containing the other Mammalian 
orders. For the classification of J. Dwight 
Dana, see MEGASTHENA. 

2. Pakeont. : As most of the older geological 
strata are marine, and the greater number of 
mammals terrestrial, it is not to be expected 
that many remains of the latter will be found. 
Besides the animals so highly organized pr^- 
bably came late upon the scene. A mammalian 
genus, Microlestes, appears in the Upper Trias 
of England, and Dromotherium in the Trias of 
America. Mammalian remains exist in the 
Stonesfield Slate of the Lower Oolite, and ia 
the Upper Oolite of America. Most of them 
seem to have been marsupial. Cretaceous 
forms have not yet been found. In 1871, Sir 
Charles Lyell made a census of the known 
secondary mammals, reckoning four in the 
Upper Trias of Wurtemberg, Somersetshire, 
and North Carolina, four in the Great Oolite 
of Stonesfleld, and fourteen in the Middle 
Purbeck Oolite of Swanage. Every division 
of the Tertiary has its appropriate mammals, 
nearly all placental, pachyderms being specially 
prominent. [MYTH.] 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
.or. wore, wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub. cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian, so, oe = e. ey = a. qu = kw. 



mammalian mammoth 



3021 



jnam-ma'-ll-an, o. [Mod. Lat. mammalia) ; 
Eng. adj. suff^ -an.] Of or pertaining to the 
mammalia or mammals. 

t mam-ma-lif -er-ous, a. [Lat., &c. mam- 
malia ; fero to bear, to produce, and Eng. 
adj. suff. -eras.] Containing the remains of 
mammals : as, a mammaliferous crag. [Noa- 

FOLK-CRAQ.] 

" They are the same mammal if ermu strata to which 
the geologist turns when looking lor remai 



-f maxn-ma-log'-fc-al, a. [Eng. mamma- 
log(y); -ical; Fr. mammalogtque. The only 
example in Littre is from the Revue des deux 
Jfondes, April, 1600.] Pertaining to or in any 
way connected with the science of mam- 
malogy (q-v.). 

"According to mammalogiral systems, which at 
different times have been proposed. "Oven ; Clou. 
Mammalia, p. 34. 

t mam-mal'-d-gist, s. [Eng. mammalog(y) ; 
-ist.\ One versed in mammalogy ; one who 
writes or treats of maminiferous animals or 
the mammals. 

t mam-mal'-6-gy^ s. [Eng. mammal, and 
Or. Aoyo? (logos) = a treatise, a discourse.] 
A treatise on mammals ; the science or doc- 
trine of mammals or maminiferous animals. 

mam -ma ry, a. [As if from a Lat mam- 
marius, from mamma = the breast.] 

Aunt. : Of or pertaining to the breast or 
paps : thus there are mammary glands, mam- 
mary arteries, &c. 

mam' - me - a, s.. [Latinised from mammee 
(q-v.).] 

Bot. : A genus of Clusiaceae, tribe Garcinieae. 
The only known species, Mammea americana, 
the Mammee Apple, or South American Apri- 
cot, is a large tree with showy odoriferous 
flowers. The fruits are several inches in 
diameter, with a double rind, the outer one 
leathery, the inner with yellowish pulp like 
that of an apricot. It is bitter, but nourishing, 
and good for pectoral complaints. It is eaten 
raw or cut in slices with wine and sugar, or 
boiled. The gum derived from the bark is 
used by negroes for destroying chigoes in their 
feet. 

mam'-mee, . [Native name in tropical 
America.] 
Bot, : Lucuma mammosum. [MARMALADE.] 

mammee apple, mammee-tree, s. 
[MAMMEA.] 

* mam mel iere (1 as y), s. [Fr. mamelliere, 
tram mamclle = Lat. mamilla, dimiu. of mam- 
ma = the breast.] 

Old Armour: A plate of steel secured to the 
hauberk, beneath the cyclas, for additional 
protection. Also one of two circular plates 
placed on the breast-plate, to which the hel- 
Hiet, sword, or dagger was secured by a chain 
to prevent its loss by a sudden blow. 

mam'-mer, r.i. [Prob. an imitative, as if 
from the repetition of the syllables -ma or mam ; 
ef. Mid. Eng. mamelen, momelen, Ger. mam- 
mcln, Dut. mommelen = to mumble (q.v.).] 
To hesitate ; to stand as oue muttering and in 
doubt. 

" Wliat yon could ask me, that I should deuy, 
Or >taud so mammering oil ? " 

Shaketp. : Othello, lit 3. 

* mam mer Ing, * mam-er-lng,* mam- 
er-yng, s. [HAJUODK.] A state of hesitation 
or doubt. 

" She stode still iu a doubte aiid In a mameryng 
which, way she might take." Sir T. More: Worket, p. 
750. 

* mam -met, * mam -mot, s. [O. Fr. Ma- 
hoatmet =. an idol, from Mohammed or Mahomet, 
from the false idea that Mahominedans were 
idolaters.] [MAUMET, MAWMET.] 

1. An idol. Great injustice was done in 
making the name of Mohammed synonymous 
witli an idol, while one great distinctive fea- 
ture of the religion introduced by the great 
Arabian, was its uncompromising hostility to 
every kind of idolatry. But almost the only 
one of the non-Christian faiths of the world 
practically known to our ancestors was Mo- 
hanimedism, and it was made to stand as the 
type of all false religions, idc*atrous as well as 
non-idolatrous. 

2. A doll, a puppet ; a figure dressed up, 

"I o* not for thee, Kate : this i no world. 
To play with mammett. and to tilt with lips." 

Shaketp. : 1 Henry IV., U. 8. 



* mam' - met - roiis, a. [Eng. mammetr(y); 
-ous.] Idolatrous. 

" Their most moustrous mass or mammetrout ma- 
aai."aale : Select Works, p. 165. 

* mam -met-ry, s. [MAHOMETRY, MAUMETHV.] 

1. Mohammedism. 

2. Idolatry. [MAMMET.] 

"Heretofore they call'd images mammets, and the 
adoration of images mammetry ; that is Mahomet and 
Mahometry; odious names." Selden: Taoie Talk; 
Paper]/. 

mam'-mie, mam'-my, s. [MAMMA.] A 

child's iiame for mother. 

main'-ml-fer, s. [Lat. mamma = a breast, and 
fero = to bear.] An animal which has breasts 
or paps for suckling its young ; a mammal. 

"Mammifer, iu trias near Stuttgart." Lyell : Man. 
ualSlem. deal. (ed. 4th), p. 508. 

IT M. de Blainville's name for Mammalia 
being Mammifera, the term mammifer is more 
common in France thau here. 

mam-mif '-er-OUS, a. [Eng. mammifer ; adj. 
suff. -ous.} Having breasts or paps, and suck- 
ling its young ; having the distinguishing 
characteristics of a mammal. (Lyell.) 

mam'-mi-form, a. [Lat. mamma = a breast, 
and forma form, shape ; Fr. mammiforme.] 
Having the form or shape of paps. 

mam mil la (pi. mam mil -1), s. [Lat., 

dimiu. of mamma = a breast.] 

I. Anat. : The nipple. 

II. Botany : 

1. (Sing.) The apex of the nucleus of an ovulo. 

2. (PI.) Teats like tubercles on the surface 
of plants, as on Mamillaria. 

mam'-mil-lar-y\ ma-mil'-lar-y, a. & *. 

[Lat. mamillaris, from mamilla, dimiu. of 
mamma = a breast.] 

A. As adjective : 

1. Ord. Lang. : Of or pertaining to the breasts 
or paps ; resembling a pap. 

2. Geol. : Having the surface studded over 
with rounded projections. (Lyell.) 

3. Min. : An imitative shape resembling 
that of the breast, mostly occurring in minerals 
having a stalagmitic origin. The surface con- 
sists of a group of rounded prominences, and 
is distinguished from botryoidal (q.v.), by a 
portion only of the globule or sphere being 
visible on the surface of the mass. 

B. As substantive : 

Geol. : A surface studded over with rounded 
projections. 

mammillary-eminences, s.pL 

Anatomy : 

1. More or less marked prominences on the 
Inner surface of the bones of the cranium, 
which correspond to the anfractuosities of the 
cranium. 

2. White round medullary tubercles, of the 
size of a pea, situate at the base of the brain, 
behind the gray substance, from which the 
iufuudibulum arises. (Dunglison.) 

mammillary-process, s. 

1. Anat. : A tubercle projecting backwards 
from each superior articular process of certain 
vertebrae. Called by Owen Metapophysis(q.v.). 

2. Bot. : [MAMMIFORM]. 

mam'- mil -late, mam -mil lat-ed, a. 

[As if from a Lat. mammillatus.] 

1. Min. : The same as MAMMILLARY, A. 3. 

2. Pathol. : Having mammiform projections 
on its surface. 

3. Zool. : (Of the apex of some shells) : Bounded 
like a nipple. 

mammillated liver, *. 

Pathol. : Cirrhosis (q.v.). 

mam-mll-la'-tion, s. [Eng. mammill(ate) ; 
ation.] 

Pathol. : A term adopted as the translation of 
the French etat mammillone. A corrugated con- 
dition of the gastric mucous membrane, which, 
if slight, may be pathological ; but, if more 
extensive, may be pathognomic of polypus of 
the stomach. (Dunglison.) 

mam'-mil-loid, a. [Lat. mamWa = a little 
breast, a pap, and Gr. cl&os (eidos) = appear- 
ance, form.] Shaped like or resembling a pap 
or nipple. (Ouxn.) 



* mam' -mock, * mam-moc, ' maxn-oclc 

s. PProb. from Gael, mam a round hill, a 
handful, with dimiu. suff. -ock (as in hillocfc).J 
A shapeless piece. 

" King John he valiantly subdued. 
The miserable French and there iu mammoct hewed." 
Draj/ton : Poly-Olbion. s. 17. 

* mam mock, v.t. [MAMMOCK, s.} To tear 
in or into pieces ; to fall to pieces. 

" He did so set bis teeth, and tear it ; 0, I warrant* 
how he mammocked it ! "Shnkctp. : Coriolanut, i. *. 

mam -mo dis, s. [Hind, mahmudi a kind 
of fine muslin.] 
Fabric: Coarse, plain Indian muslins. 

Mam'-mon, mam' mon, s. [Lat. mammona, 
from Gr. /tafuufaf (nuinwnas), from Syrian 
mamond = riches. Cf. Heb. JTOTDQ (matmdn) 
= a treasure, from jpp (taman) = to hide ; 
Chaldee mammon, mdinon.] 

1. Script. Poetry (Of the form Mammon) : 
According to Schleusuer, the Syrian God of 
riches, but no traces have been obtained of an 
idol actually worshipped under that name in 
Syria. The word is, therefore, now held to ba 
a mere personilication of riches. It is used in 
this latter sense in Matt, vi.24, and Luke xvi. 9. 
Milton poetically makes Mammon a fallen 
angel of sordid character. 

" Mttmmon led them on 
Mammon the least erected spirit that fell 
From heaven." Milton: f. L., i. 678. 

2. Ord. Lang. (Of the form mammon): 
Riches, wealth. 

" Mammon is riches or aboundance of goods." Tyn- 
da.ll: Worket, i>. 233. 

* mam' mon-Ish, a. [Eng. mammon ; -isfc.) 
Devoted to the service of mammon or the pur- 
suit of riches ; inspired or actuated by mam- 
monism (q.v.). 

* mam -mon-ism, s. [Eng. mammon ; -ism. J 
Devotion to the service of mammon or the pur- 
suit of riches. 

"If all except mammonism be a vain grimace.' 
Carlt/le : Pott * Pretent, bk. ii., ch. xvi 

* mam'-mon-ist, s. [Eng. mammon ; -4st.} 
One devoted to the service of mammon or the 
pursuit and acquisition of riches ; a worldly 
person ; a worldling. 

" When I'd arrive the very top of all 
The mistaken mammonitU umcalL" 
Brome ; A Paraphrate upon JfccletiatU* i. ! 

* mam'-mon-ite, s. [Eng. mammon; -ite.] 
The same as MAMMONIST (q.v.). 

"When a M ammonite mother kills her babe for 
burial fee." Tennyton ; Maud. I. i 44. 

* mam-mon-i-za'-tion, s. [Eng. mam- 
moniz(e); -ation.] The act or process of rnain- 
monizing ; a rendering mammonish or devoted. 
to the pursuit and acquisition of wealth. 

* mam' mon-ize, v.t. [Eng. mammon ; -ize.} 
To render mammonish ; to actuate with a 
spirit of mammouism. 

* mam'-mose, a. [Lat. mamma = a breast.] 
Having the form or shape of a breast ; breast- 
shaped. 



' - moth, s. & a. [Russ. mamant' = a 
mammoth (Skeat); Tartar mamma = the earth, 
because the Tungooses and Yakoots believed 
this animal worked its way in the earth like a 
mole (Webster). Skeat dismisses as absurd the 
etymol. from Arab, behemoth or mehemoth ; but 
for the other side see Geol. Mag. (1880), p. 408. 
Littre says the word is of unknown origin.] 

A. As substantive : 

Palceont. : Elephas primigenius. The first 
mammoth discovered was found imbedded in 
ice in 1799 on the shores of the Lena, by a 
Tungoosian fisherman named Schumachoff. 
A Russian engineer, named Benkendnrf, thus 
describes a mammoth unearthed from a tun- 
dra (q.v.) in the north of Siberia, where so 
many lie buried in the same manner as do 
the remains of Cervus megaceros in the peat- 
bogs of Ireland : 

"Picture to yonrseU an elephant, with a bod* 
covered with thick fur, about thirteen feet iu height, 
and fifteen iu length, with tusks eight feet long, thick. 
and curving outwards at their ends, a stout trunk of 
six feet in length, colossal limbs of a foot and a half In 
thickness, and a tail naked to the end. which waa 
covered with thick tufty hair. His parchuieut-lika 
large naked ears lay fearfully turned up over the 
bead ; about the shoulders and back he had stiff hair. 
about a foot in length like a mane. . . . Under tha 
outer hair there appeared everywhere a wool, very soft, 
warm, and thick, and of a yellow-brown colour. A* 
compared with our Indian elephants, the 'head was 
lough, the brain-case low and narrow, but the trunk 
and mouth were larger." 



boil, boy ; po"ut. J6%1; cat, cell, chorus, chin, bench ; go, tern ; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph = L 
L-cian, -tian = ahan. -tion, -Bion shun ; -(ion, -fion - *""", -clous, -tious, -sioua - shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel, del. 



3022 



maminothrept man 



Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins (Qirnr. Journ. Gecl. 
Soe., xxxv. 138, 537.), treating of the range of 
the mammoth in time and space, comes to the 
conclusion that it existed in Britain before, 
daring, and after the Glacial period. Its re- 
mains are found in France in "enormous 
abundance ;" there it was contemporary with 
the Cave-men of the Pleistocene, as is proved 
by a spirited engraving of it on a piece of 
mammoth ivory found in the Cave of La Made- 
leine, Dordogne (Figured in LubbocKa Orig. of 
Civil., p. 41) ; it has been found in nearly every 
county in England; and, broadly speaking, 




MAMMOTH. 

Its range extended " over the whole land of 
the northern hemisphere." It is a noteworthy 
fact that the teeth of the mammoth found in 
the northern regions have narrow plates, while 
the plates of those discovered further south 
are broad. This Prof. Darwin attributes to 
difference of food. He is also of opinion 
" that the mammoth may be taken as the 
ancestor of the Indian elephant." To show 
how plentiful these animals once were in 
Asiatic Russia, Mr. H. H. Howorth (Geol. Maq. 
<1880), p. 500) says, that from 1825 to 1831 
there were never less than 1,500 poods of fossil 
ivory sold at Yakutsk, and one year the sale 
reached 2,000 poods ; and similar ivory was 
offered for sale in Khiva as early as the tenth 
century. 

B. As adj. : Resembling the mammoth in 
point of size ; gigantic, immense : as, the 
Mammoth Cave in Kentucky, the Mammoth 
Tree in California. 

mammoth-tree, * 

Bot. : Sequoia gigantea, a great Californian 
tree, surpassed in height only by the Eucalyptus 
(q.v.) of Australia. The largest known speci- 
men, that in the Mammoth Grove at Calaverag 
in Upper California, where it was discovered 
by a party of Americans in 1850, was 327 feet 
high by 90 in circumference. It is the largest 
of known trees, and is believed to be from 
8,000 to 4,000 years old. It belongs to the order 
Coniferse (Pinaceae), tribe Abietinae. 

" mam mo thrept, . [Gr. jua/ufiodpenrof 
(mammothreptos), from /xajujua (mamma) = a 
mother, a grandmother, and rpeijxa (trepho) = 
to nourish.] A child brought up by its grand- 
mother ; a spoilt child. 

" We are the mammotJirepti of Slnne." 

Daviei : Buly Rood*, p. 15. 

mam my, *. [MAMMIE.] 

nam'-pe-lon, s. [Native name.] 

Zool. : Cynogale Bennettii, one of the Viver- 
ridae, from Borneo. It differs from other 
members of the family in being stout and 
plump. Colour yellowish-brown, lighter on 
the under-side of the head and over the eyes ; 
darker on the legs. The snout is long and 
pointed, the muzzle bald, the ears very short, 
the whiskers well developed. It frequents 
the neighbourhood of water, and is a good 
climber. 

man (pi. men), * mon, s. & a. [A.S. mann, 
man ; cogn. with Dut. man ; Icel. madhr (for 
mannr), man; Sw. man; Dan. mand ; Goth. 
manna ; Ger. mann ; Lat. mas (for mans) = a 
male ; Sansc. mana. The sense is " thinking 
animal " from the root man = to think, found 
unchanged in Sansc. ; cf. also Eng. mind, 
mean; Lat. memini, &c.J 

A. As substantive : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. An individual of the human race: a 
human being ; a living person. 

" The people gathered themselves together as one 
man to Jerusalem." Ezra Hi. 1. 

2. A male adult of the human race as dis- 
tinguished from a woman: 

" Neither was the man created for the woman ; hot 
the woman for the man." 1 Corinthian* xi 9. 



3. A male adult of the human race as dis- 
tinguished from a boy or child. 

" The nurse's legends are for truths received. 
And the man dreams but what tue buy believed." 
Uri/dvn : Code i fox, 33S. 

4. A husband. 

5. A male servant or attendant ; a work- 
mau ; an adult male in the employ or under 
the direction of some person. 

" Oue of my husband's men." 

Shakeip. : Rape v/ Lufrece, 1,291. 

6. The human race ; mankind ; human beings 
collectively. 

".Van has been studied more carefully than any 
other organic being, and yet there is the greatest pus- 
Bible diversity amongst capable judges whether he 
should be classed as a single species ur race, or as two 
(Virey) as, three (Jacquinot), four (Kant), five (Blu- 
menbach), six (Button), seven (Hunter), eight (AgassU), 
eleven (Pickering), fifteen (Bory St. Vincent), sixteen 
(Desmoulins). tweuty-two (Morton), sixty (Oaufurd), 
or ;is sixty-three, according to Burke." Darurin: lie- 
Kent of Man, i. 226. 

7. A male who possesses the characteristics 
of manhood or manliness. 

" The man that dares traduce, because he can 
With safety to himself, is not a man." 

Cowper : Expostulation, 433. 

8. A vassal, liege, subject, or tenant. 

9. Man is used as a word of familiar address, 
frequently conveying the idea of impatience, 
contempt, or disparagement. 

" You may partake of anything that we say : 
We speak no treason, man." 

Shaketp. : Richard III., 1. 1 

10. Man is used loosely or indefinitely (like 
the French on) in the sense of one, any one, a 
person. 

"A man wonld expect -to find some antiquities.'' 
Addison : On Italy. 

IL Technically: 

1. Script., Anthrop., Ethnol., &c. : Since the 
middle of the nineteenth century there has been 
a growing tendency to refer all the sciences 
relating to man to one comprehensive science, 
Anthropology. Scripture teaches that on 
the sixth day of creation "God created man 
in his own image " (Gen. i. 27), a little lower 
than the angels (Psalm riii. 4, 5), planted for 
him a garden (Gen. ii. 8), gave him leave to 
eat of its fruits with the exception of one, of 
which he was forbidden to partake on pain of 
death (ii. 16, 17, iii. 2, 3). Both his wife (Eve) 
and he disobediently ate the fruit, became 
liable to death, and were expelled from Eden 
(iii. 6-24). The duration of human life was 
then nearly a thousand years (v. 4, 8, 10, 14, 
27, 31, &c.). But after the flood, brought on 
by the wickedness of the antediluvian world 
(vi. 3, 5, 6, 7, &c.), it was gradually curtailed 
(xi. 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 23, 25), till finally it 
reached the limits which still continue 
(Psalm xc. 10). God selected for himself as 
his special people the Jewish race, one of 
those descended from Abraham (Gen. xii. 1-3, 
xvii. 21, xxviii.4, Exod.v. l,&c.). "Godsoloved 
the world that he gave his only-begotten Son, 
that whosoever believeth in him should not 
perish but have everlasting life "(John iii. 16), 
thus to some extent at least counteracting 
the influence on mankind of Adam's sin 
(Rom.v. 19). A distinction is drawn between 
the " spirit " of man and that of the inferior 
animals (Eccles. iii. 21). An obscure passage 
in the New Testament may perhaps have some 
bearing on the case of the latter (Rom. viii. 
19-23). Mr.' Darwin is of opinion that man 
sprung from one of the naked molluscs called 
Ascidians, the line of descent or ascent run- 
ning through some humble fish like the 
lancelet, then up through the ganoids and 
other fish, the amphibians, reptiles and birds, 
the Monotremata, the lowest Mammals, the 
Marsupialia, the Placental Mammalia, the 
Lemurs, the Simiadse, and the Anthropoid 
Apes. (Darwin : Descent of Man.) [For the 
time at which remains of man first appear in 
the geologic strata, see Antiquity of Man, 
FLINT-IMPLEMENTS, &c. For his zoological 
characteristics, see ANTHROPID/E and HOMO. 
For tlie question whether man constitutes one 
species with several varieties, or more species 
than one, see the example under A. I. 6.] 
Blumenbach divided mankind into five races, 
the Caucasian, the Mongolian, the Ethiopian, 
the American, and the Malay. Cuvier reduces 
the five to three, the Caucasian, the Mongo- 
lian, and the Ethiopian. Dr. Pritchard ex- 
tended them to seven, the Iranian (the same as 
the Caucasian), the Turanian (the same as the 
Mongolian), the Native Americans, the H"t- 
tentots, the Negroes, the Papuas or Woolly- 
headed Polynesians, the Alfourou and Native 
Australians. Dr. Latham divides mankind 
into three varieties, Mongolidse, Atlantidse, 



and Japetidae. Prof. Huxley's classification 
of mankind is into the Australoid, Negroid, 
Mongoloid, Xanthochroic, and MeLu...airoie 
races. (For other inquiries, see Uic several 
sciences relating to man.) 

2. Games: A piece with which a game, as 
chess or draughts, is played. 

B. As adj. : Man is used adjectively in a 
few compounds to denote the male sex ; male. 

" Every man child shall be circumcised. "Oenerit 

xvii. lu. 

II Man is found frequently in compounds, 
the meanings ot most of which are sufficiently 
obvious. 

man-ape, s. A popular name for any 
anthropoid ape. [ANTHROPOID.] 

* man-at-arms, s. A soldier, especially 
one in the middle ages, fully armed and 
equipped ; a heavy-armed soldier. 

* man-case, s. A body. 

"He had a handsome man-cote." FuMtr : Church 
Biliary, 111. vii. 18. 

man-dram, s. A preparation used in the 
West Indies, like bitters, to excite languid 
appetites. It consists of a mixture of sliced 
cucumbers, shallots, or onions cut very small, 
a little lime-juice and Madeira wine, with a 
few pods of bird-pepper, well mashed, and 
mixed with the liquor. (London.) 

man-eater, s. 

1. Ord. Lang. : A cannibal. 

2. Zool. : A name applied to either of the 
two great Felidae, notably to the tigers, when, 
in old age leaving their natural food, they 
prey by preference upon man. 

H The Anglo-Indian view is that a tiger 
when its teeth decay with age is no longer 
able to pierce the hide of a bullock or an ante- 
lope. Driven to desperation by hunger it 
ventures timidly to attack a child or a woman, 
and is astonished to find how feeble is the 
resistance it meets with. Its fear of man, 
which in its vigorous days was very great, 
now vanishes, and, unless destroyed, it makes 
dreadful slaughter of the human race. It is 
probably the same with the lion. (See the 
example.) 

"A man-eater is invariably an old lion. And when 
he overcomes his fear of man so far as to couie to 
villages for goats, the people remark. His teeth ar 
worn, he will soon kill men." Prof. Parker, in Co* 
tell's Jfat. Sat., 11 27. 

man-eating, a,. & s, 

A. As adj. : An epithet applied to old lions 
or tigers, which, by preference, attack man. , 

B. As sulmt . : The practice of attacking 
and devouring man in preference to any of 
the larger mammals. 

"The lion is said sometimes to develop the taste for 
man-eating, which makes the tiger so terrible." 
Prof. Parker, In Cautll't Jfat. Bitt., ii. 25. 

man-engine, s. A mechanical lift for 
raising and lowering men in the shafts of 
mines. It consists of a vertical rod worked 
from the engine-beam alternately up and 
down in the mine-shaft. On this rod are 
handles and stopping-places at distances equal 
to the stroke of the rod ; similar handles and 
steps are fixed at the side of the shaft or on 
another rod which rises and falls in the reverse 
way to the first rod. By stepping in turn from 
one set of steps to the other, the miners 
ascend or descend the mine. In practice it 
has proved to be fruitful of accident. In this 
country the man-engine is being superseded by 
cages or, as in some of the mines on Lake 
Superior, by cars. 

man-fungus, s. 
Bot. : Geaster (q.v.). 

* man huxter, s. The same as MAS- 

MERGER (q.V.). 

"Be so, and no more, you man-htucter." 
Beaum. & Flet. : Ctatutn of the Country, iv. L 

* man-mender, s. A ludicrous or con- 
temptuous name for a physician or surgeon. 

" Whither go all these men-mendtrt, these physicians t * 
Beaum. * Flet. : Jfontieur Thomat, it L 

* man-mercer, s. A woollen draper ; 
one who deals by retail in clothes, &c., for 
male attire. 

man -midwife, s. A man who practises 
obstetrics ; an accoucheur. (Byron : Vision 
of Judgment, Ixxvii.) 

* man-milliner, s. A male maker of 
millinery ; hence, one who busies himself 



fate, tat, fare, amidst, what, fall, lather; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
Or, wore, wolf, work. whd. sin; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur. rule, full; try, Syrian, w. 09= e; ey = a. qu = kw. 



man manaso 



3023 



with trifling or effeminate occupations or em- 
bellishments. 

" An empty-pated fellow, an.l as conceited as a man- 
milliner." Theodore Hook : All in the Wrong, ch. ii. 

* man minded, a. Having the mind or 
qualities of a man. 

* man monster, s. A monster in the 
service of any person. 

"My man-monster hath drowned hi> tongue in sack." 
Shaketp. : Tempest, iii. 2. 

* man-mountain, s. A man of gigantic 
proportions; a giant. (Swifl: Gulliver; Lil- 
iiput.) 

man-of-war, s. An armed ship ; a ship 
of war. 

"Supported by a British man-of-war from Lalman 
and two guuboats." rimes, NOT. 10, 1878. 

Man-of-war bird : [FRIGATE-BIRD], 
Man-of-war's man: A seaman belonging to 

ship of war. 

man-of straw, s. A man of no sub- 
tance, influence, weight, or means ; one put 
forward as a puppet or decoy. 

man-orchis, s. 

Sot. : Aceras anthropophora. A fanciful 
resemblance is pointed out between the tip of 
this orchis and a man hung by the head. It 
is British. [ACERAS.] 

man-rent, s. [MAN-RED.] 
man rope, a. 

Nant. : A rope suspended by stanchions on 
ach side of a gangway, and used in ascending 
or descending a ship's side, hatchways, &c. 

man-shaped, a. Having the external 
conformation more or less closely resembling 
that of man. 

Man-shaped apes : 

Zool. : A popular name for the Anthropoid 
Apes. [ANTHROPOID.] 

"In the jjr.-at order of the Primates, after man, 
tand the nt ' ,t-<thtiped, or anthropomorphous ape!." 
Prof. Duncan, in CaueUi Jfat. Bitt., L 6. 

man-tiger, . 

Anthrop. : A person credited with having 
the power of assuming the shape of a tiger 
at will. The belief that certain individuals 
have such power is common in India, and the 
Khonds say that a man-killing tiger is either 
an incarnation of the Earth-goddess, or a 
transformed man. [LYCANTHROPY.] 

. " It is thtu with the Lavas of Birma, supposed to be 
the broken-down remains of a cultured race, and 

dreaded as man-tigeri." Tutor : Prim. Cult. (1873), 
i. 113. 

man-trap, s. An engine or contrivance 
for latching trespassers. Their use is now 
Illegal, unless set in a dwelling-house between 
unset and sunrise. 

man -worship, . Undue reverence, 
respect, or adulation paid to a man ; extreme 
obsequiousness. 

nan, v.t. [MAN, s.] 

1. To furnish with men ; to supply with a 
sufficient force or complement of men, ;us for 
management, service, defence, Ac. 

" She was so formidably manned that all attempts 
to board her failed. 'Macaulay : Hi*t. Eng.. ch. xviii. 

* 2. To furnish or provide with a man or 
errant. 

"I was never maimed with an agate till now." 
tthakrip : 2 ffenry />'., i. 1. 

*3. To act or play the husband to. 

"Do you think I could man a hussy yetT" Tht 
Coalman i Courtihip to the Creel-v>if<t"t Daughter, p. 4. 

* 4. To accustom to man ; to tame, as a hawk. 
" Another way I have to man my haggard. 

To make her come, and know her keepers call." 
Shakeip. : Taming of the Shrew, iv. 1. 

t5. To fortify, to strengthen; to supply 
with strength for action. 

"He mann'd himself with dauntless air." 

Scott : Lady of tlie Lake, iv. 10. 

, * 6. To brave ; to bear or face like a man." 

* I must man it out." Dryden : All/or lave, ii. 

U To man the yards : 

Naut. : To send a sufficient number of men 
upon the yards to reef or furl the sails ; also 
to range men in a standing position along the 
tops of the yards, as a mark of respect to 
some person, or on some memorable occasion. 

* m An -a-ble, a. [Eng. man,*.; -able.] Of age 
. lor marriage or a husband ; of a marriageable 
age. 

"That's woman's ripe age ; as full as thou art 
At one and twenty ; she's manable. is she not T " 
Btaum. t flit. : Maid of the Mill, ii. 1. 



man'-a-ca, s. [Brazilian Portuguese.] 

Hot. : Franciscea unifiora. [FRANCISCEA.] 

* man-ace, s. & v. [MENACE.] 

man a cle, * man I cle, * man y clc, s. 
[Fr. manicle, from Lat. manicula, dim in. of 
ma nun = a long sleeve ... a manacle, 
from manus = the hand ; Ital. manetta ; Sp. 
maniota.] Handcuffs for criminals. The two 
pieces of metal are hinged together, the upper 
portion of which is curved so as to tit the 
wrist, and the lower portion is straight, ex- 
cept at a point near its outer end, where it is 
slightly bent. (The word is seldom used 
except in the plural.) 

" Knock off his manaclet ; bring your prisoner to 
the king." Hhaketp. : i'ymbeline, v. 4. 

man -a-cle, v.t. [MANACLK.] 

1. Lit. : To put manacles or handcuffs on, 
in order to confine the hands ; to shackle, to 
handcuff, to fetter the limbs. 

" We'll bait thy bears to death, 
And manacU the bearward in their chains. ' 

Shakeip. : 2 Henry 17. , v. 1. 

2. Fig. : To restrain or confine in any way ; 
to fetter. 

" Spirits when they please 
Can either sex assume, or both : o soft 
And uncouipouuded is their essence pure ; 
Not tied or manacled with joint or limb/ 

MiUon: f. L. t l. 426. 

man age (age as Ig), v.t. & i. [MANAGE, s.] 
A. Transitive: 

1. To have under direction ; to direct, to 
guide, to conduct, to carry on, to administer, 
to handle, to transact. 

" Tell the nations, in no vulgar strain, 
What wars I manage, and what wreaths I gain." 
Prior : Henry <t Emma. 

2. To have under control; to be able to 
guide or direct. 

" His dragoons had still to learn how to manage 
their horses." Macaulay : Hist. Eng.. ch. xiv. 

3. To treat ; to put to use. 

" Who then thy master, say. and whose the land 
So dicss'd and manag'd by thy skilful hand?" 

Pope : Bomtr ; Odyssey xxiv. 303. 

4. To wield ; to have under command ; to 
understand the use of. 

"It was found that not one in four of the English 
soldiers could manage his piece at all." Macaulay : 
Hitt. Eng., ch. xiv. 

5. To train in the manage, as a horse ; to 
train generally. 

* 6. To contrive, to effect, to treat of. 

" Mark how the genius of a Virgil has managed a 
war after a Homer." Jtfickle : Muertation on the 
d. Sic. 



* 7. To make subservient. 

8. To husband ; to treat or use with caution 
or sparingly. 

9. To treat with caution or address ; to use 
cautiously or wisely. 

" Oft times nothing profits more 
Than self esteem, grounded on just right 
Well managed.- Milton : P. L., viii. 673. 

B. Intransitive : 

1. To carry on, control, or direct affairs. 
" Leave them to manage for thee, and to grant 

\v bat their unerring wisdom sees thee want." 

Oryden : Juvenal, sat. s. 

2. To contrive. 

* man' -age (age as Ig), s. [Fr. manege = 
the training or management of a horse, from 
Sp. maneggio=a. managing, a handling, a 
riding school, from mono = the hand ; Lat. 
manus; Ital. muneggiare to manage.] 

1. The treatment, training, or management 
of a horse. 

" They are fair with their feeding, they are taught 
their manage, and to that end riders dearly hired. ' 
Sltaketp. : At You. Lite ft, i. L 

2. Conduct, management, direction, admin- 
istration. 

" Lorenzo, I commit Into your hands 
The husbandry ami manage of my house." 

Sitakeip. : Merchant of Venice, iii. 4. 

3. Treatment. 

"Now for the rebels, which stand out in Ireland ; 
Expedient manage must be made, my liege." 

Hhaketp. : Richard 11., i. 4. 

man age-a-bll I-ty (age as Ig), s. [Eng. 
manageable ; -ity.] The quality or state of 
being manageable ; tractability. 

man - age ~ a - ble (age as ig), a. [Eng. 
manage; -able.] 

1. Capable of being managed ; easy to be 
turned or directed towards, or used for its 
proper purpose. 

" Were education else so sure to fail. 
Conducted on a mannytablr scale?' 

Cowper : rtrafinium. 70& 



2. Capable of being easily managed, governed, 
or turned ; tractable, docile : as, a manage- 
able child. 

3. Easily made subservient to one's views 
or designs. 

* man -age -a- ble -ness (age as ig), s. 

[Eng. manageable; -ness.] The quality or 
state of being manageable ; tractablcness, 
docility. 

t man age-a-bly (age as Ig), adv. (Eng. 
manageable) ; -ly.\ In a manageable manner 
or degree. 

* man'- age -less (age as Ig), a. [Eng. 
iiuuiagK ; -less.] Incapable of being managed. 

man age ment (age as Ig), s. [Eng. 

manage ; -ni.eiU.\ 

1. The act of managing, carrying on, guid- 
ing, directing, or conducting ; conduct, ad- 
ministration, direction. 

"The affairs of men and the management of this 
sublunary world. 'Hartley : Sermon*, voL L, ser. 11. 

* 2. A negotiation ; a treaty, dealing, or 
transaction. 

" He had great management! with eccleslasticks, in 
the view of being advanced to the pontificate. " Adtit- 
ton : On Italy. 

3. Those who manage, carry on, direct, or 
conduct any matter, business, undertaking, 
institution, &c. ; the body of managers or 
directors collectively. 

4. Cunning, art, artifice ; skill or prudence; 
contrivance ; skilful conduct. 

" I repose upon your management what is dearest to 
me, my fame and reputation." Dryden: Anttui Mira- 
bilit. (An Account of tin-. Poem.) 

man ag-er (ag as Ig), s. [Eng. nanag(e); 
-er.] 

1. One who has the management, conduct, 
or direction of any matter, business, under- 
taking, institution, &c. ; a director, a con- 
ductor, specif., of a theatre. 

" Mr. Walpole was one of the manager! on this occa- 
sion." flurA* . Appeal from the ffete to the Old Whig*. 

2. One who manages or conducts business 
with frugality and economy ; a thrifty person ; 
a good economist. 

3. A contriver, a schemer. 

" An artful manager, that crept between 
Uis friend and shame." Pope : Ep. to Satiret, L 

man-a-ger'-l-al, a. [Eng. manager; -ial.J 

Of or" pertaining to a manager or management. 

" How I have set my heart on rushing into Forster's) 

study . . . Maclise s paiuting-roouj, and into .Mac-ready's 

*man ag-er-y (ag as Ig), s. [O. Fr. 

menagerie.] 

1. Management, conduct, direction, adminis- 
tration. 

"None were punished for the ill manager!/ and con- 
duct of the expedition." Baker : C/iarlei 1. (an. 162ft). 

2. Manner of using. 

" The ready managery of their weapon*." Decay tf 
Piety. 

3. Economy, frugality, husbandry. 

M The court of Rome has, in other instances, so wen 
attested its good managery, that it is not credible, 
crowns are conferred gratis.' Decay <tf Pitty. 

i. Moral conduct. 

man ag ing (ag as Ig), pr. par., a., & t. 
[MANAGE, v.] 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective : 

1. Conducting, guiding, controlling, or ad- 
ministering. 

2. Economical, frugal, contriving, planning. 
" I'ir fYitffi signified, at one and the same time, 

sober and managing man. an honest man. and a uiaa 
of substance." QoldtmUit : The Bee, No ft. 

C. As subst. : The same as MANAGEMENT 
(q.v.). 

" And let the goodness of the managing 
Rase out the blot of foul attaining quite." 

Daniel : Ciril Wan, it. 

man' -a- kin, s. [O. Dut. mannelxn, a dimin. 
from inan; Fr. mannequin; Ger. mannchen.} 

1. Ord. Lang. : A little man, a dwarf, a 
mannikin (q.v.). 

Tli is is a dear manikin to yon. Sir Toby." 
Twelfth ffight, iii. 2. 

2. Ornith. : Pipridse, a family of Mesomyodi, 
containing some sixty species ; closely allied 
to the Tyrants. They are all of small size, 
somewhat shy in their habits, and are found 
in the wooded portions of South America. 

* man-ase, s. & v. [MENACE.] 



boil, boy; poUt, j<Swl; cat, cell, chorus, 9hln, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist. -Ing. 
.-clan, -tian = shaa. -tion, -slon= shun; -(ion, -sion = zhun. -tlous, -sioua. -clous = shus. -ble. -die, &c. = bel, del. 



3024 



manatee mandarin 



man a tee , t man a ti , * man a tin, 
*. [Etym. doubtful. "Agassiz says from the 
native name ; McNicoll adopts ilie etym. given 
in the extract, as does Prof. Flower iu Encyc. 
Brit. (ed. 9th), xv. 456.] 

Zool. : Any individual of the genus Manatus 
(q.v.), more particularly M. australis (ameri- 
canux), first discovered by the early Spanish 
colonists. Dr. Haslau was of opinion that 
there were two species of Manatus in America, 
and the northern form he named M . latirostris ; 
they are now generally considered as consti- 
tuting a single species. Desmarest separated 
the African Manatee from its American con- 
gener, on account of cranial differences, not, 




f"' 



however, of great importance, and called it 
M. senegalensis. Manatees are found in the 
creeks, lagoons, and estuaries of some of the 
West India islands, on the American coast, 
from Florida as far as 20 S., in the great 
rivers of Brazil, on the coast of Africa from 
16 N. to 10 S., and in Lake Tchad. They 
are slow and inactive, and quite inoffensive; 
they browse on aquatic, preferably fluviatile, 
plants in shallow water. Their numbers are 
rapidly diminishing, as they are hunted for 
the sake of their skin, the oil they yield, and 
their flesh. The Manatee measures from 10 
to 12 feet in length. It has a thick, wrinkled, 
hairless hide, of a dark bluish gray color. 
The eyes are small and deeply sunk, and the 
nostrils are valved slits at the end of the 
snout. 

" IU most remarkable feature is the forcpiiw, occu- 
pying the usual place of the cetacean fin, but bearing 
o close a resemblance to a human hand that the name 
manatee is generally supposed to have l>een conferred 
on it by the first BnuiiM explorers on this account" 
Wilson : Prehistoric Man, L 874. 

f man-a-ti', . [MANATEE.] 

ma-nat'-i dse, 6. pi. [Mod. Lat. manut(us); 
at. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 

Zool. : Sea-cows ; the single family of Illi- 
ter'8 Sirenia, the Herbivorous Cetacea of 
f. Cuvier. The Manatidse, however, differ 
from Whales in many important particulars. 
The family contains three genera : Halicore, 
Manatus, and the recently extinct Bhytina. 

* man'-a-tin, s. [MANATEE.] 

* ma na' tion, s. [Lat. manatio, from mano 
= to flow out.] The act of issuing or flowing 
out of something else. 

man a tus, s. [Mod. Lat., from manatee 

i <q-v.)3 

I 1. Zool. : The typical genus of the family 
I Manatidse (q.v.). Body pisciform, ending in a 
shovel-like tail with rounded edges ; no traces 
of hind limbs, either externally or internally ; 
no dorsal fin. The fore limbs are flattened 
paddles, without traces of fingers, but with 
three diminutive flat nails near their extremi- 
ties. The upper tip is tumid, cleft into two 
lobes, which are divaricated to receive food, 
and contracted to seize it and convey it into 
the mouth. Eyes and ear-orifice minute. 
Bkin gray, wrinkled, covered with delicate 
hairs ; upper and under-lip setigerous. Two, 
If not three, species are known. They feed 
aolely on aquatic vegetation. [MANATEE.] 
2. Palceont. : (See extract). 
" Extinct species of Manatus have been found in the 
Post-pliocene deposits of Eastern North America from 
Maryland to Florida." Wallace: (ieog. Diitrib. of 
Anima.li, ii. 210. 

man a wa, s. [Maori.] The green aromatic 
resin of Avicennia tomentosa, eaten by the 
New Zealanders. 

* man -DOte, . [A.8. man, and bate.] 

Feudal Law: Compensation paid for the 
killing of a man ; espec., compensation paid 
to a lord for the killing of his man or vassal. 

* man'-ca, . [MANCUS.] 



manche (1), maunch, s. [Fr. nianche, from 
Lat. maiiica, = a long sleeve, from manus = 
the hand.] 

* 1. Ord. lung. : A sleeve with long, hang- 
ing ends to it. 

2. Her. : A bearing representing such a 
sleeve. 

" That manch, that mooue. this martlet, and that 
mound." /ferric* : lletperides, p. 316. 

* manche-preseut, s. A greedy fellow ; 
a parasite. 

man -che (2), s. [Native name.] 

Naut. : An East Indian boat used on the 
Malabar coast. It has masts raking forward 
and a flat bottom. 

Man -ghes-ter, s. [See def.] 

Geog. : A city in the south-west division of 
Lancashire. 

Manchester school, s. 

Politics : A name applied by their opponents 
to the early advocates of Free Trade, whose 
head-quarters were at Manchester. Their 
distinctive tenet was Free Trade, notably in 
s corn [CORN LAWS] ; but through their chief 
leaders, Messrs. Cobden and Bright, they were 
also identilied with protests against a spirit of 
militarism (q v.), which led to their being 
called the " peace-at-any-price " party. 

".What they mean by the Manchester School is 
merely copying a phrase of Mr. Disraeli, which refers, 
I supix>se, really to the forei.;ii iwlicy which was more 
prominently, perhaps, advocated by Sir. Colxleu and 
myself some years ago than by any other two men 
probably in the country." liight Uon, J. Bright : 
Speech at Birmingham, Jan. 29, 1885. 

Manchester-yellow, s. 

Chem. : Naphthaline yellow, jaune d'or, 
Martius yellow. This dye is the calcium 
or sodium compound of binitro-naphthalinic 
acid (CioHeCNC-a^O)- It is obtained by adding 
sodic nitrite to a solution of hydrochlorate of 
naphthylamine, until all the naphthyline has 
been converted into diazonaphthol. Manches- 
ter-yellow imparts to wool and silk permanent 
yellow hues, varying from lemon yellow to a 
deep golden colour. It is superior to picric 
acid dye in not being volatilized by steam. 

* mangh'-et, * mainch-et, s. & a. [Etym. 
doubt fuL Probably connected with Fr. man- 
gerto eat.] 

A. As subst. : A small loaf of fine bread. 

"Of bread made of wheat we have sundrie sorts 
daille brought to the table, whereof the first and most 
excellent is the mainchet, which we t-ommonlie call 
white bread." Ilolinshcd : Description of England, bk. 

ii., ch. vi. 

B. As adj. : Fine and white. (Said of bread 
or flour.) 

" Thyrtle quarter! of manchet floure.' 3 Eingt iv. 
(1551). 

man chi neel', s. [Fr. mancenillier, manza- 
nille; Ital. mancinello; Port, mancenilheira, 
Sp. manzanillo, from manzana = an apple, 
from malum Malianum, a kind of apple, which 
the manchineel resembles.] 

Hot. : Hippomane Mancinella, a euphorbia- 
ceous tree, forty or fifty feet high, growing on 
the sanely coasts of the West Indian Islands, 
Venezuela, Panama, &c. It has ovate or ellip- 
tical shining leaves, with small, inconspicuous 
flowers. It is very poisonous. If a single 
drop of the white juice fall upon the skin it 
will cause a wound extremely difficult to heal. 
The juice of the fruit similarly burns the lips of 
any one who bites it. Deleterious as it is, its 
venomous effects have been much exaggerated 
by credulity. Biynonia leucoxylon is said to 
be an antidote to the poison. 

IT Bastard Manchineel : 

Bot. : Cameraria latifolia, one of the Apocy- 
naceae. 

Man ghoo , Man'-ghu, Man-tghoo', *. 

[Native name.] 

1. A native of Manchooria, a territory be- 
longing to the Empire of China. 

2. The language spoken by the natives of 
Manchooria. 

Man chu ri an, Mant gnu ri-an, a. & 
s. [MANCBOO.] 

A. As adj. : Belonging to or found in Man- 
chooria. 

B. As subst. : The same as MANCHOO (q.v.). 
Manchurian crane, . 

Ornith. : Grus viridirostris. It is a favourite 
bird among the Chinese, and a considerable 
number of them are kept in captivity at Pekin. 



* man -gi pate, v.t. [Lat. mancipatus, 
par. of nuincipo = to dispose of, from man 



It is one of the commonest subjects chosen 
by Chinese artists, and their studies of it ar 
extremely vigorous. 

Manchurian sub-region, . . 

Geog. Zool. : An interesting and very pro- 
ductive district, corresponding in the east to 
the Mediterranean sub-region in the West, or 
rather perhaps to all western temperate 
Europe. Its limits are not very well defined, 
but it probably includes all Japan : the Core*, 
and .Manchuria to the Amour river, and to the 
lower slopes of the Khingan and Peling moun- 
tains. (Wallace : Geog. Dist. of Animals, i. 220.) 

man gi-mte, s. [Named by Jacquot after 
the place where it was stated to have been. 
found, Mancino ; suff. -ite (Min.). (See def.)] 

Min. : Supposed by Jacquot to be a trisili- 
cate of zinc, but since shown to be a mixture, 
and not to have been found at Mancino, 
Livorno, but at Campiglia, Tuscany. Berthier 
states that the mineral was named after the 
family Mancini. 

pr. 

anceps. 

= one who acquires anything at an auction ; 
manu = in the hand, and capio = to take.] To 
enslave, to bind, to fetter, to tie. 

" It is no marvel if those have mancipated their 
minds to the judgments of some whom they over* 
admire. 'Up. Hall : Episcopacy by Divine Jliyht, S i. 

* man-gi pa'-tion, s. IMANCIPATE.] Th 
act of mancipating or enslaving ; slavery J 
involuntary servitude. 

* man -gi-ple, s. [O. Fr. mancipe, from Lat. 
manciptm, accus. of manceps = one who ac- 
quires anything at an auction. The I is in- 
serted, as in syllable, from Lat. syllabu, par- 
ticiple, from Lat. participium, &c.] A steward, 
a purveyor ; espec., the steward or purveyor 
of a college or inn of court. 

" Their manciple fell dangerously ill. 
Bread must be had, their grist went to the mill : 
This simkin moderately stole before. 
Their steward sick, he robb'd them ten times more.* 
Betterton: Mttler of Trompinyton. 

*man'-cus, * man'-ca, s. [A.S. mancus.J 
The Anglo-Saxon mark", a coin current both 
in silver and gold. A gold mancus of thirty 
pence was equal to about 7s. Gd. sterling, and 
the silver mancus, weighing about the fifth, 
part of an ounce, was about equal to our 
shilling. 

* mand, s. [Lat. mando = to command, to 
direct.] A demand ; a question. 

man-da'-mus, s. [Lat. we command or 
direct ; 1st pers. pi. pres. indie, of mando 1 
command or direct.] 
Law : (See extract). 

" The prerogative writ of mandamus is & command 
issuing in tlie name of the sovereign from the Queen'* 
Bench, and directed to any person, corporation, or 
inferior court of judicature requiring them to do some 
particular thing therein specified, which appertain* 
to their office and duty, and which the Queen's Bench 
has previously determined, or at least supposes to be 
consonant to right and justice. A mandamus lies, 
for instance, to compel the admission or restoration 
of the party applying to any office or franchise of k 
public nature, whether spiritual or temporal, to 
academical degrees ; to the use of a meeting-house, 
4n. ; for the production, inspection, or delivery or 
public books and papers. A mandamus mny there- 
fore be had to the courts of the City of London, to 
enter up judgment; to the quarter sessions, to hear 
an appeal ; to the spiritual courts, to swear a church- 
warden, and the like. This writ is grounded on the 
oaUi of the party injured, of his own right, and th 
denial of justice below : whereupon a rule is usually 
made, directing the party complained of to show 
cause why a writ of mandamut should not issue : and, 
if he shows no sufficient cause, the writ itself is issued, 
at first in the alternative, either to do thus, or signify 
some reason to the contrary ; to which a return, or 
answer, must be made at a certain day. And. if the 
inferior judge, or' other person to whom the writ i* 
directed, returns or signifies an insufficient reason, 
then there issues in the second place a peremptory 
mandamut, to do the thing absolutely : to which no 
other return will be admitted, but iierfect obedience.* 
Blackslons : Comment., bk. Hi., ch. 4. 

* mand.' ant, s. [Lat. mandans, pr. par. of 
mando ="to command, to direct.] The same 
as MANDATOB (q.v.). 

man da r in', s. [Port, mandarin, from Malay 
mantri'= a counsellor, a minister of state, 
from Sansc. mantrin a counsellor, from man- 
tra = a holy text, a charm, counsel, from 
man = to think, to mind, to know.] A general 
name for a Chinese magistrate, or public 
official, civil or military. 

mandarin-duck, s. 

Ornith. : Dendronessa (Aix) galericulata, a 
beautifully plumaged species from the country 
north of Pekin and the basin of the Southern 



Ate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot. 
or. wore, wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian. . = o; ey = a. qu = kw. 



mandarin mandrake 



3025 



Amour. It is highly prized in China, and Sir 
John Bowring, in 1850, had extreme difficulty 




MANDARIN-DUCK. 

In obtaining a few couples for transmission to 
England. The mandarin-duck breeds freely 
in captivity. 

mandarin orange, s. 

Bot. : Citrus nobilis, a variety of Citrus 
Aurantium. 

man-da rin, v.t. [MANDARIN, s.] 

Dyeing : To give an orange colour to silk or 
wool by the action of nitric acid, which par- 
tially decomposes the surface of the fibre. 

* man-da rin ess, s. [Eng. mandarin ; 
-ess.] A female mandarin. (Lamb.) 

* man-da rin ic, a. [Eng. mandarin ; -ic.] 
Of or pertaining to a mandarin ; befitting a 
mandarin. 

* man-da-rin ism, s. [Eng. mandarin ; 
-ism.] Government by mandarins ; the spirit 
or character of mandarins. 

man da-tar-y, man -da-tor-y, s. [Fr. 

mandaUiire, from Lat. mandatum = a mandate 
(q.v.) ; Sp. & Ital. mandatorio.] 

* I. Ord. Lang. : A person to whom a com- 
mand, charge, or mandate has been given. 

"Sending their mandatory with a musqueteer to 
Doctor Hammond's lodging." Fell : Life of Bam- 
mond, p. viii. 

II. Technically : 

1. Canon Law : A person to whom the Pope 
has, by his prerogative, given a mandate or 
order for his benefice. 

2. Common Law: One who is authorized, 
and undertakes without a recompense, to do 
some act for another in respect to the thing 
bailed to him. 

man -date, s. [Fr. mandat, from Lat. man- 
datum = a charge, order, or command, neut. 
sing, of mandatus, pa. par. of mando to 
command ; Sp. & Ital. mandato.] 

L Ord. Lang. : An order, a command, a 
Charge, an injunction, a commission. 
" Oh, that my mind were equal to fulfil 
The comprehensive mandate which they give." 

Wordiworth : White Doe of Rylitane. (liitrod.) 
IL Technically: 

1. Canon Law : A rescript of the Pope com- 
manding the ordinary collator to put the per- 
son therein named in possession of the first 
vacant benefice in his collation. 

2. Eng. Law: A judicial charge, command, 
or commission ; abatement of goods without 
reward, to be carried from place to place, or 
to have some act performed about them. 

3. Scots Law : A contract by which one per- 
son employs another to act for him in the 
management of his affairs, or in some particu- 
lar department of them , which employment the 
person accepts, and agrees to act. The person 
giving it is called the mandant or mandator, 
and the person undertaking the mandatory. 

* man -da -tor, s. [Lat., from mandatus, pa. 
par. of mando = to command, to direct.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : A director ; one who gives 
orders or directions. 

" A person is said to be a client to his advocate, but 
a master and a mandator to his proctor." Ayiiffe : 
Par ergon. 

II. Law. 

L A bailer of goods. 

2. A person who deputes another to per- 
form a mandate. [MANDATE, II. 3.] 

man da-tor-y, a. & s. [Lat. mandatories.] 
A. As adj. : Containing a mandate, com- 
mand, precept, or injunction ; directory. 

"He usurped more than ^mandatory nomination of 
the bishop to be consecrated." Abp. Uther : On Or- 
dination. 



B. As subst. : The same as MANDATARY- 
(q.v.). 

man del -a-mide, s. [Eng. mandel(ic), and 
amide.] 

C 6 H 5 -CHOH 
Chem. : C 8 H 7 O 2 -NH2 = 

CONH 2 . 

Obtained by heating to 180 in a sealed tul>e, 
a mixture of beuzoic aldehyde, hydrogen 
cyanide, and water. It crystallizes in rhombic 
or hexagonal tables, soluble in water and 
boiling alcohol, slightly soluble in ether, and 
melts at 131. Heated with baryta water to 
186, it is converted into barium mandelate 
(CgHrOs^Ba, which crystallizes in rhombic 
tables, soluble in water. 

man -del ate, s. [Eng., &c., mandel(ic); -ate.] 

Chem. : A salt of mandelic acid. 

H Arnmonic mandelate is a yellowish-white 
powder, difficult to crystallize. Soluble in 
water and alcohol. Baric mandelate crystal- 
lizes in needles, slightly soluble in water, 
insoluble in alcohol. The copper salt is a 
beautiful light blue powder, which, when 
heated, gives off bitter almond oiL 

m&n-del'-ic, a. [Ger. mandel = an almond ; 
Eng. suff. -ic.] (See the compound.) 

mandelic acids, s. pi. 

Chem. : CgH 8 O 3 = C 6 H 5 'CH(OH)-CO-OH. 
Phenylglycoliic acid. Formobenzoic acid. 
An acid prepared by heating bitter almond 
oil with hydrochloric or sulphuric acids, and 
extracting by means of ether. It crystallizes 
in prisms or tables, very soluble in water, 
alcohol, and ether, and melts at 115 with loss 
of water into a yellow oil, which on cooling 
solidifies to a gum. Heated above its melting 
point, it diffuses an agreeable odour resembling 
white-thorn blossoms. Mandelic-acid con- 
tains the elements of bitter almond oil and 
formic acid. It neutralises bases completely, 
and expels carbonic acid from its compounds. 

* mande - ment, * maunde - ment, s. 
[COMMANDMENT.] A command, a command- 
ment, a mandate. 

" He schewed the Erie Rogers the pape's mandement.' 
Robert de Brunne, p. 30". 

man der, s. [MAUNDER.] 
man'-der-H, s. [MANDREL.] 

man'-de-ville, s. [Prob. a corrupt, of O. Fr. 
mandil, mandille.] [MANDIL.] The same as 
MANDILION (q.v.). 

man' dl ble, s. [From. Lat. mandibula and 
mandibulum, from mando = to chew ; Fr. man- 
dibule ; Prov. & Sp. mandibula.] 
Anatomy : 

1. Human : The inferior maxilla, or two 
mandibles may be said to be united in the in- 

ferior maxilla or lower jaw. (Quain.) 

2. Comparative: 

(1) (Among Vertebrates in general) : The 
lower jaw answering to the maxilla inferior in 
man. [1.] (Huxley.) 

(2) (Among Birds, pi.) : The upper and lower 
rostra of the beak. (Huxley.) 

(3) (Among Arthropoda, pi.): The upper pair 
of cephalic appendages used as jaws. (Huxley.) 
In insects the term is restricted to the upper 
and outer pair of jaws. (Owen.) 

(4) (Among Molluscs) : Used of the beak in 
Cephalopoda. (Nicholson.) 

man dib u la (pi. man dtb u-lse), s. 
[Lat. = a jaw.] A mandible (q.v.). 

man-dib' u-lar, a. [MANDIBULA.] Pertain- 
ing or belonging to the jaw. Thus there is a 
mandibular arch. 

man-dlb-u-la -ta, s. pi. [Neut. pi. of- Mod. 
Lat. mandibulatus, from Lat. mandibula, man- 
dibulum.] [MANDIBLE.] 

Entom. : According to Clairville, Stephens, 
&c., a primary division or sub-class of insects 
containing those which have jaws for masti- 
cation, as distinguished from those which 
have a suctorial mouth. [INSECT.] 

man-dlb -u late, a. & s. [MANDIBULAR.] 

A. As adjective : 

Entom. : Having mandibles, as distinguished 
from a suctorial mouth. 

B. As substantive : 

Entom. : An insect of the sub-class Mandi- 
bulata (q.v.). 



man-dib -u-lat-ed, o. [MANDIBULATE.] 
The same as'MANDiBULATE, a. (q.v.). 

man-dibu -li-form, a. [Lat. mandibula, 
mandibulum = a jaw, and/ormo = form.] 

1. Zoology : Having the form of a mandible. 

2. Entom. : Having the lower jaws hard, 
horny, and like the upper jaws in form. 

* man' -dil, s. [O. Fr. mandil, mandille, from 
Lat. mantellnm, mantelum a table-cloth, a 
cloak, a mantle.] A sort of cloak or mantle. 

* man dil ion (i as y), s. [O. Fr. mandil} 
Ital. mandiglione.] A kind of loose garment .j 
a soldier's cloak. 

" A mandUion, that did with buttons meet, 
Of purple, large, and full of folds, curl'd with a 
wanuiui nap." Chapman: Homer; Iliad x. 

man -di-oc, man'-i-oc, s. [From mandioca, 
its name in Brazil.] 

Bot. : A euphorbiaceons plant, Manittot 
utilissima. [CASSAVA, MANIHOT.] 

mandioc plant, s. [MANDIOC.] 

* mand-ment, s. [MAN-DEMENT.] 

man do line, man' do-lin, s. [Fr. man- 
doline, mandole, maiuiore, from Ital. mandate, 
mandora.] 

Music : An Italian fretted guitar, so called 
from its almond shape. There are several 



DUUIKB tuiieu nj&a me viuini, i.e., \j, u, ^\ , at. 

The Milanese, next in favour, has five double 




MANDOLINE. 

strings tuned G, C, A, D, E. A plectrum is 
used in the right hand, and the left is era- 
ployed in stopping the strings. It is written 
on the G clef. In the Neapolitan mandoline 
the E strings are of catgut, the A strings of 
steel, the D strings of copper, and the O 
strings of catgut covered with copper-wire. 
The compass is about three octaves. 

* man dom, s. [Eng. man ; -dom.] The 
state of being a man ; manhood ; men collec- 
tively. (E. B. Browning.) 

man -dbre, s. [Fr.] 

Music : The same as MANDOLINE (q.v.). 

man drag -or a, s. [Gr. ^av6p<ryop (man* 
rfrajroras).] 

1. Ord. Lang. : A soporific potion prepared 
from some plant of the genus described under 
2. [MANDRAKK.] 

" Give me to drink mandvagora." 

Shaketp. : Anton,/ * Cleopatra, L S. 

2. Bot. : A genus of Solanaceae, tribe 
Atropese. Mandragnra ojflcinalis is the man- 
drake. 

man' -drake, s. [MANDRAOORA.] 

1. Anthrop. Folk-lore : From the rude 
resemblance of the bifurcated root to the 
human figure many superstitious notions have 
gathered round this plant. Columella calls it 
semihomo (v. 19), and Pliny speaks of the pre- 
cautions with which it was to be plucked up 
(H. N. , xxv. 94). Bulleine's Bulwark of Defence 
is a mine of quaint lore on the subject, and 
Browne (Vulgar Errovrs, bk. ii., ch. vi.) follows 
in his track. On being torn from the ground, 
the mandrake was feigned to utter groans in- 
spiring horror (Cyril Tournour: Atheist's Tra- 
gedy, v. 1), causing madness (Shakesp. : Rom. 
Jul., iv. 3 ; Webster: Duchess of Malfi, ii. 5), 
or even death (Shakesp. : 2 Henry IV., Hi. 2). 
It was an emblem of incontinence (Shakesp. : 2 
Henry IV., iii. 2) ; soporific qualities were at- 
tributed to it (Marlowe : Jew of Malta, v. 1) ; it 
was used in magic (Nabbes : Microcosmus, iv.), 
and formed an ingredient in Iove-potion8 
(Burton : Anat. ofMelan. (ed. 1881), p. 650). 

2. Scrip. : Heb. C'MTn (dhudhaim), a pL 
word, correctly rendered in the A. V. , man- 
drakes (Genesis xxx. 14, 15, 16 ; Song of Solo- 
mon vii. 13). 

mandrake-apple, s. 

Bot. : The fruit of the mandrake. It U 
beautiful, fragrant, and in no way poisonous. 



boll, boy; pout, jowl; cat, 9 ell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as: expect, ^enophon, exist, ph = fc 
-cian. -tian = shan. -tion. sion = shun ; -tion, -si on = zhun. -clous, -tious, -sious = shus. -ble. -die. <tc. = beL, del. 



3020 



mandrel manganese 



man' drel, man dril, * man'-der-fl, s. 

[A corrupt, of Fr. mandrin = a punch, a 
mandrel, prob. from Gr. ndvSpa. (mandra) = an 
enclosed space, a sheepfold, the bed in which 
the stone of a ring is set.] 

1. Lathe : An arbor or axis on which work 
is temporarily placed to be turned. The 
arbor which revolves in the head-stock of a 
lathe and carries the upper pulley, and also 
the chuck or face-plate if one be used. 

2. Mach. : The revolving spindle of a cir- 
cular saw or a circular cutter. As the annular 
bush slips upon the mandrel, its conical face 
penetrates the central orifice in the saw and 
maintains its concentricity ; an elastic pack- 
ing intervenes between the bush and the end 
collar. 

3. Forg. : A round rod of any desired dia- 
meter, used in giving an interior cylindrical 
form to a forging, as a nut or hollow spindle. 

4. Cast. : A plug around which a body of 
metal or glass is cast. 

mandrel-lathe, s. A lathe adapted for 
turning hollow work, which is clasped by a 
chuck on thn end of the mandrel in the head- 
Btock ; or for turning long work which is 
supported by the head and tail centres. It 
is the usual form of well-made lathes for 
metal and wood-turning. 

man' drill, s. [Fr. mandrilk, from the native 
name. (Bu/on.) Huxley thinks the English is 
from man, and drill = a man-like ape (Man's 
Place in Nature, p. 10). j 

Zool. : Cynocephalus Maimon (Mormon), an 
African baboon. It was well known to the 
ancients, and Aristotle speaks of it (H. A., 
2, 11, 2) under the name of Choeropithecus 
(Hog-Ape). A full-grown male measures 
about five feet, when erect ; the hair is light 
olive-brown above, and silvery-white beneath. 
It has a small pointed yellow beard, and a 
tuft of hair on the top of the head, which 
gives the whole face a triangular appearance. 
Nicholson says (Zoology, p. 733) that it is 
"rendered probably without exception the 
most disgustingly hideous of living beings by 
the possession of large blood-red natal cal- 
losities, and of enormous cheek-protuberances 
striped with brilliant colours in alternate 
ribs." Mandrills are insectivorous ; and, in 
addition to their immense canine teeth, ap- 
proach the Carnivora in many points of 
anatomical detail. 

man du ca ble, a. [Fr., from Lat. man- 
duco = to" chew ; Sp. manducable.] Capable 
of being manducated or chewed ; fit for eating. 

f man'-du-cate, v.t. [Lat. manducatus, pa. 
par. of manduco, an extension of mando = to 
\ chew.] To chew, to masticate, to eat. 

*' When be manducates such unwholesome, such un- 
pleasant fruit." Bishop Taylor : Sermont, p. 252. 

t man-du-ca'-tion, s. [Lat. mandvcatio, 

from manducatus, pa. par. of manduco = to 

chew ; Fr. manducation ; Sp. manducacion ; 

Ital. manducazione.] The act of chewing, 

masticating, or eating. 

" The sum then of Archbishop Cranmer's doctrine 
on this head is : 1. That John vi. is not to be inter- 
preted of orai manducation in the sacrament." 
Waterland : Works, vli. 141. 

t man'-du-cir-tor-y, a. [Eng. mandvcat(e); 

, -ory.] Pertaining to, fit for, or employed in 
chewing or masticating : as, manducatory or- 
gans. 

tnan-du'-cus, s. [Lat. = a glutton.] 

Greek & Roman Antiq. : A comical figure, 
representing a glutton or gormandizer, carried 
in processions and comedies to create laughter. 

inane, . [Icel. man (genit. manor, pi. manar); 

cogn. with Sw. <fe Dan. man; Dut. moan; 

O. Dut. mane; Ger. mahne; O. H. Ger. mana; 

Wei. myngen = a mane, from mwn = the neck.] 

The long hair growing on the upper part of 

the neck of some animals, as horses, lions, 

&c., and hanging down on one or both sides. 

" Each wave was crested with tawny foam. 

Like tbe mane of a chestnut steed." 

Scott : Lay of the Latt Minstrel, i. 28. 

mane-sheet, s. A sort of covering for 
. the upper part of a horse's head. 

mined, a. [Eng. man(t); -ed.] Having a mane. 
maned ant-eater, s. [ANT-EATER.] 
maned fruit-bat, s. 

Zool. : Pteropus jubatus, a native of the 
Philippine islands. 



* mane'-faire, s. [O. Fr.] 

Old Armour : Armour for the mane of a horse. 

ma - nege' (ge as zh), s. [Fr. manege or 
manege, from Ital. maneggio = management of 
a horse.] A school for training horses and 
for teaching horsemanship ; a riding-school ; 
the art or science of breaking, training, and 
riding horses ; horsemanship. [MANAGE, s.] 

* manege' (ge as zh), v.t. [MANEGE, s.] To 
break in and train a horse for riding or for 
graceful performances. 

ma nch, s. [Heb. TOO (maneh) ; cf. Gr. fiva. 
(mna).~\ [MiNA.] 

Weights & Measures: A weight among the 
ancient Hebrews. Its amount cannot be pre- 
cisely determined ; the passage (Ezek. xlv. 12) 
relating to the subject being ambiguous. It 
may mean that there were three manehs, one 
of twenty shekels, one of twenty-five shekels, 
and one of fifteen ; or it may signify that the 
maneh was = 20 + 25 + 15 = 60 shekels. 
Gesenius thinks the former to be the more 
probable hypothesis. 

man'-e-quin (qu as k), s. [Fr. mannequin 
= a manikin (q.v.).] An artist's model made 
of wood Or wax. 

* man ere, * man-er, s. [MANNER.] 

* ma ner I-al, a. [MANORIAL.] 

ma'-nes, s. pi. [Lat., prob. from * manis, 
* maniis = good ; the first form survives in 
immanis = huge, immense ; the second in 
Genita Mana = the good mother, to whom, 
Pliny (Hist. Nat., xxix. 14) says, the Romans 
used to sacrifice a puppy.] 

Roman Myth. : The Good Ones, a euphemis- 
tic expression for the infernal deities (as 
benevolent spirits) opposed to larvae and 
lemures (q.v.). In the description of the 
funeral rites of Polydorus, Virgil (JEn. iii. 
62-68) has a noted passage on the ceremonies 
with which the Manes wore worshipped. 
The term was also applied to shades not yet 
deified. The Manes might be called up by 
magic (ib. iv. 490), they were invoked to be 
present at funeral rites (v. 99), and from them 
came deceptive dreams (vi. 897). Tylor 
(Prim. Cult., 1872, ii. 120), mentioning that 
the Romans inscribed on their tombs " D. M." 
(Diis Manibus), remarks that "the occurrence 
of this ' D. M.' in Christian epitaphs is an 
often noticed case of religious survival." 

manes-gods, s. pi. 

Compar. Religions: The Dii Manes of the 
Romans. [MANES.] , 

"The early Romans, ascribing to their manes-gods 
a love of human blood, duly administered to it." 
Herbert Spencer : Prin. of Social., L (App., p. I.) 

manes-worship, s. 

Anthrop. : The term adopted by Tylor to 
denote the worship of the dead, whether of 
an ancestor of the particular worshipper, or 
of some deified hero of his race. It has a 
very wide range both in time and space. 
Herbert Spencer (Prim. Social., vol. i., ch. 
xx.) thinks it developed from the universal 
or almost universal belief in an other-self, 
which survived after death, and that manes- 
worship was the outcome of a desire and 
endeavour to propitiate the ghost. He brings 
forward evidence as to its existence among 
Turanians and Aryans, and notes that among 
the Jews the offerer of first-fruits to Jehovah 
was required to say that he had not "given 
thereof for the dead." (Deut. xxvi. 14 ; cf.. 
Eccles. vii. 33 ; Tobit iv. 17.) Sir John Lub- 
bock (Orig. of Civil, 1882, p. 318) says 
of manes-worship that it "is a natural de- 
velopment of the dread of ghosts," and both 
Tylor (Prim. Cult., 1873, ii. 120) and Spencer 
(loo. cit.) see in the cultus of saints in the 
Roman Church "a survival of the manes wor- 
ship of a less advanced age." [HAOIOLATRY.] 
*' To sum up the whole history of manes-worship, it 
Is plain thiit in our time the dead still receive worship 
from far the larger half of mankind, and it may have 
been much the same ever since the remote periods uf 
primitive culture in which the religion of the manes 
probably took its rise." Tylor : Prim. Cult. (1873), ii. 23. 

manes-worshipper, s. One who wor- 
ships the spirits of the departed ; one who 
practises manes-worship (q.v.). 

" The Chinese manes-worshipper may see the outer 
barbarians come back . . . into sympathy with his 
time-honoured creed." Tylor : Prim. Cult. (1873), i. 148. 

H A copious bibliography will be found in 
Lubbock and Tylor. 



ma-net'-ti, s. [Etyrn. doubtful.] 

Hort. : A variety of rose, used as a dwarf 
stock in budding. 

ma-net'-ti-a, s. [Named after Xavier Ma- 
rietti, prefect of the botanical garden at 
Florence, and author of Regnum Vegetabile, 
1756. (Paxton.y] 

Bot. : A genus of Cinchonacese, family Cin- 
chonidae. It consists of climbing undershrubs 
from tropical America. The root of Manettia 
cordifolia is valued in Brazil as a medicine in 
dropsy and dysentery. 

* man'- f ul, * man'- full, o. [Eng. man, 
and full.] Having the spirit of a man ; bold, 
spirited, daring, brave, courageous. 
" Ne great emprises for to take in hand, 
Shediug of blood, ne manfull hardiuesse." 

Chaucer : Complaint of the alack Knight. 

man ful-ly, adv. [Eng. manful; -ly.] In a 
manful, brave, or courageous manner ; lihe a 
man ; boldlj'", bravely. 

" His long red coat, well brushed and neat. 
He manfully did throw." Cowper : John Oilpin. 

man -ful ness, ' man f ul nesse, s. 

[Eng. manful ; -ness.] The quality or state of 
being manful ; manliness, bravery, boldness, 
courage, spirit. 

" Daniell, then Byshoppe of Wynchestre, sent tbi 
Wenefride to Rome with his letters of commeudacioa 
for his manfulneue ther shewed." Bale: nglish 
Votaries, pt. i. 

marig, prep. [A.S. gemang.] In the midst of; 
among (q.v.). 

" Au' out a handfu' gie him ; 
Syne bade him slip frae 'mang the folk. 
Sometime when uae ane see'd him." 

Burnt: Halloween, It. 

man'-ga-bey, s. [From Mangabey in Mada- 
gascar, "of which place Buflfon supposed it to 
be a native.] 

Zool. : Cercopithecus ^Ethiops, an African 
monkey. Colour reddish-brown, becoming 
red on the top of the head. There is a white 
band between the eyes, which is continued on 
each side to the back of the neck, whence its 
popular name, White Eyelid Monkey. The 
last molar in each lower jaw resembles those 
of Semnopithecus. 

man ga-nate, s. [Eng., &c. mamgan(ic); 
-ate.} 
Chem. : A salt of manganic acid. 

man -ga-nese, s. [A word formed by Gahn 
by metathesis, from magnesium, the name 
which he first gave it.] 

Chem. : Symbol, Mn ; atomic weight, 55. A 
diatomic metallic element, proved by Pott, in 
1740, to be distinct from iion, but the 1 metal 
itself was first eliminated by Gahu (1774). It 
occurs chiefly in the form of peroxide (black 
oxide of manganese), and as sulphide and car- 
bonate. The metal has been prepared in two 
ways : first, by reducing the oxide with oil and 
charcoal in a closed crucible, and also by re- 
ducing the fluoride by sodium in a hessian 
crucible heated in a blast furnace. The metal 
obtained by the first method is soft and brittle, 
and has a specific gravity of 8'013 ; that by 
the second is brittle, but hard enough to 
scratch glass, sp. gr. 7'206. Both varieties 
have a grayish-white colour, but by exposure 
to the air speedily becomes oxidized. Man- 
ganese enters into compounds both as a base 
and also as an acid radical. It forms several 
well-characterized oxides. 

manganese-apatite, s. *--** 

Min. : A variety of apatite (q.v.) found at 
Horrsjoberg, Wermland, Sweden, and said to 
contain a notable amount w protoxide of 
manganese. 

manganese brucite, s. 

Min. : A variety of Brucite (q.v.), containing 
over 14 per cent, of protoxide of manganese. 
Occurs with hausmannite at the Jakobsberg 
mine, Wermland, Sweden. 

manganese-chloride, *. 

Min. : According to Scaechi, this mineral 
occurred, associated with chloride of magne- 
sium, in the saline encrustations or sublima- 
tions formed at Vesuvius at the eruption of 
1855. 

manganese hedenbcrgite, * 
Min. : A variety of hedenbergite (q.v.), con- 
taining above six per cent, of protoxide of 
manganese. Occurs at Vester-Silfberget, Da- 
larne, Sweden. 



Cite, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot 
' or, wore, wolf, work, wild, son; mute. cub. cure, unite, cur. rule, full; try, Syrian, se, ce = e; ey = a; qu=kw. 



manganesian mangier 



3027 



manganese idocrase, -. 
i jl/Ja. : A variety of Vesuvianite (q.v.), oc- 
1 curring in brown slender crystals at Ala, and 
San .Marcel, Piedmont. According to an anal- 
ysis by Sismonda, it contains over seven per 
cent, of protoxide of manganese. 

manganese oxide, .-. 

Min. : The same as BRAUNITE, HAUSMAN- 
XITE, MANOANITE, PSILOMELANE, and PYRO- 
XTJSITE (see these words). 

manganese-phosphate, s. 
Mln. : The same as TRIPLITE (q.v.) and 
TRIPHYLINE (q.v). 

manganese-silicate, s. 
Min.: The same as RHODONITE (q.v.X and 
TEPHROITE (q.v.). 

manganese sulphide, s. 

Min. : The same as ALABANDITE (q.v.), and 
HAUERITE (q.v.). 

manganese tantalite, 5. 

Min. : A variety of Tantalite (q.v.), or 
Columbite (q.v.), of a reddish to blackish- 
brown colour, by transmitted light a fine red. 
An approximate analysis yielded, tantalic 
{columbic) acid, 85' 5 ; protoxide of manganese, 
9-01 ; protoxide of iron. 3'42 ; lime, 1'14. Oe- 
urs, with various other minerals, at Utoe, 
Sweden. 

If Manganese-alum = Apjohnite ; Manganese- 
.Amphibole = Rhodonite ; Manganese-arsenide 
= Kaneite ; Manganese - blende, Manganese- 
glance = Alabandite ; Manganese-borate = SMS- 
texite ; Manganese-carbonate = Rhodochrosite ; 
Manganese-chrysolite = Tephrnite : Magnesite- 
epidote = Piedmontite ; Manganese-garnet = 
Spessartite ; and Manganese-spar = Rhodonite. 

man ga-nes' i-an, a. [Eng. manganese); 
-ian.] Pertaining to, or consisting of man- 
ganese ; having the qualities of manganese. 

man-ga nes'-ic, a. [Eng. manganese); -ic.] 
The saine as MANGANIC (q.v.). 

inan-ga-nes'-i-uxn, s. [MAGNESIUM.] 

man-gan' -Ic, a. [Eng. mangan(ese) ; -ic.] 
Obtained from manganese (q.v.). 

manganic-acid, s. 

Chem. : This acid cannot exist in the free 
tate. It is found in combination when 
caustic-potash is fused with levigated man- 
ganic oxide, but the salt is very unstable. 

manganic-dioxide, s. 

Chem. : MnC>2. A neutral substance occur- 
ring in the minerals pyrplusite and varvicite. 
The facility with which it parts with a portion 
of its oxygen renders it a very valuable oxi- 
dizing agent in the chemical laboratory, as 
well as in some manufactures. 

manganic-oxide, s. 

Chem : MnoOs. Occurs in nature as the 
mineral braunite. 

man'-gan - ite, s. [Ger. mangan = man- 
ganese'; suif. -ite (Min..). Named by llaidin- 
ger ; Ger. mamjatiit.] 

Min. : An orthorhombic mineral occurring 
in crystals longitudinally striated. Crystals 
sometimes twinned. Hardness, 4'0 ; sp. gr. 
4'2 to 4'4 ; lustre, sub-metallic ; colour, dark 
teel-gray to irou- black ; streak, reddish- 
brown, opaque, though sometimes translucent 
in thin splinters. Compos. : sesquioxide of 
manganese, 89'8 ; water, 10 - 2 ; corresponding 
with the formula Mn 2 OsHO. Occurs in metal- 
liferous veins in many parts of the world, the 
finest crystallized specimens, however, having 
been found in veins traversing felsite at Ilfeld, 
Hartz, Germany. 

man-ga -nl-um, s. [MANOANESIUM.] 
man-gan 6-, pref. [MAJJOANESE.] 

man-gan 6 cal 9110, s. [Pref. mangano-, 
and Eng. calcite ; Ger. manganocalcit.] 
Mineralogy : 

1. A mineral occurring in rhombic prisms 
and sheaf-like groups of crystals, also diverg- 
ing, and resembling ar.'igonite (q.v.). Hard- 
ness, 4 to 5 ; sp. gr. 3'037 ; lustre, vitreous ; 
colour, Hesh-red to white faintly tinged with 
red ; streak, colourless. Com'pos. : a car- 
bonate of manganese, with carbonates of 
lime, magnesia, and iron. Found at Schem- 
llitz, Hungary. 



2. A variety of calcite (q.v.), containing 
variable amounts of carbonate of manganese. 

man -gan 6 lite, s. [Pref. mangano-, and 
Gr. AiSos (lithos)=& stone ; Ger. manganulith,] 
Min. : The same as RHODONITE (q.v.). 

man gan 6 phyir ite, s. [Pref. mangano-, 
and Gr. <j>v\\6v (pkullon) = a leaf ; Ger. man- 
ganophyll.] 

Min. : A micaceous mineral, occurring in 
thin scales. Colour, bronze to copper-red ; 
streak, pale red. Compos. : silica, 38'50 ; 
alumina, iro ; protoxide of manganese, 21'40; 
protoxide of iron, 3'78 ; lime, 3'20 ; magnesia, 
15-01 ; potash and soda, 5*51 ; loss by igni- 
tion, 1 - (50. Dissolves in hydrochloric acid, 
silica separating in the form of the original 
scales. Closely related to Alurgite (q.v.). 
Found with many mineral species at Pajsberg, 
Filipstad, Sweden. 

man- gan-o-8i deV-ite, s. [Pref. mangano-, 
and Eng. siderite.] 

Min. : A variety of rhodochrosite (q.v.) 
containing carbonate of iron An approximate 
analysis yielded a result which corresponded 
nearly to the formula 2MnCOs + FeCOs- 
Found in globular forms resembling sphaero- 
siderite (q.v.) at various places in Hungary. 

man -gan' -6 -site, . [Pref. mangano-; $ 
connective, and suff. -ite (Min.)."] 

Min. : An isometric mineral, occurring in 
minute octahedral and dodeeahedral crystals, 
but rarely in cubes. Cleavage, cubic. Hard- 
ness, 5 to 6 ; sp. gr. 5'18 ; lustre, vitreous ; 
colour, emerald-green when fresh broken, but 
becoming black on exposure. Compos. : pro- 
toxide of manganese, 98'04 ; protoxide of iron, 
0'42 ; magnesia, 1 - 71 ; lime, 0'16, the resulting 
formula being MnO : isomorphous with ]>eri- 
clase (q.v.). Found with various minerals in 
a manganesian dolomite, also in calcite and 
brucite (q.v.), in localities in Sweden. 

man-gan-6-stIb'-i-ite, s. [Pref. mangano-; 
Lat. stibium, from Gr. <m/3i (stibi)= antimony, 
and sutf. -ite (Min.).'} 

Min. : A black granular mineral resembling 
hausmannite, but of a blacker colour. Crys- 
tallization probably orthorhombic. Compos. : 
antimonic ac'l, 24-09 ; arsenic acid, 7'44 : pro- 
toxide of manganese, 55'77 ; protoxide of iron, 
5-0 ; lime, 4't52 ; magnesia, 3-0, conducting to 
the formula, 10MnO(Sb,As)2O 5 . 

miin gan-ous, a. [Eng. mangan(eee); -ous.] 
(See the compound.) 

manganous oxide, 5. 
Chem. : MnO, is a basic body, obtained by 
heating the carbonate in a current of hydrogen. 

man gan-skler ite, s. [Ger. mangan = 
manganese ; Gr. oxA/jpos (skleros) = hard, and 
suff. -ite (Min.)."} 
Min. : The same as RHODONITE (q.v.). 

* marig - corn, * mehg' - corn, * mong- 
corn, s. [A.S. unmans to mix, to mingle 
(Prov. Eng. meng, mincj), and Eng. corn.] A 
crop of several varieties of corn grown to- 
gether ; a mixture of wheat and rye or other 
species of corn. 

* mange, v.t. [Fr. manger, from Lat. mandu- 
co tu chew.] [MAXDUCATE.] To eat. 

" Te have manged overs niuche that inaketh yow be 
yke." fiert Plowman, p. l. 

mange, s. [From the adj. mangy (q.v.) ; Fr. 
mangeson.] 

Vet. Svrg. : A disease of the skin occurring 
in dogs, horses, cattle, &c., and similar to the 
itch in human beings. 

" Don Carlos his pockets so amply had filled. 
That his iniinge was quite cured." 

Rocheiter : Trial of the Poett for the Bayt. 

man -gel wur'-zel, s. [MANOOLD-WURZEL.] 

man -ger, . [Fr. mangeoire, from manger = 
to eat, from Lat. manduco to chew.) 

1. Ord. Lang. : A trough or box in which 
corn or fodder is placed for horses or cattle ; 
usually accompanied by a rack for hay. 

" An though they were not fallen in a puddle of dirte, 
but rubbeil and layde in litter vnder the monger at 
theyr ease." r T. Mam: Worket, p. 1138. 

2. Shipwright. : A space abaft the hawse- 
holes on the working-deck, bounded by planks 
lying athwartships, and serving to prevent the 
water that comes in at the hawse-holes from 
flooding the rest of the deck. 



manger-board, . 

Naut. : Th board or bulkhead on a ship's 
deck that separates the manger from the otl.er 
part of the deck. 

* man ger y, * man-ger-ie, . [Fr. man- 
ger = to eat.] The act of eating. 
" All the while that Gamelyn 
Had held hU manyerie." 

Chaucer: Cuke'i T'tlr. 

man-gif'-er-a, s. [Mod. Lat., from Enji., 
&c. mango, and Lat. fero = to bear, to pro- 
duce.] 

Bot. : A genus of Anacardiaceae, consisting 
of trees of alternate, stalked, entire leaves, 
and panicles of small pinkish or yellowish 
flowers. Mangifera indica is the Mango (q.v.). 
The fruit of M. sylvatico, is used in India 
medicinally. The coarse-flavoured fruit of 
M. fcetida is eaten in Tenasserim, of which 
the tree is a native, and where it is cultivated. 

man'-gi-ljr, adv. [Eng. mangy ; -ly.] In ft 
mangy manner; foully, meanly. 

"Oh. this sounds mangtly, 
Poorly, and scurvily in a souldier's mouth." 

Ueaum. * Flat.. : The falte Ont, U. S. 

man -gi ness, * maun-gy-nesse, s. [Eng. 
mangy ; -ness.] The quality or state of being 
mangy ; the state of being infected with the 
mange. 

mah'-gle (1), v. t. [A weakened form of man- 
kelen, a freq. from Mid. Eng. manken = to 
maim, from A.S. be-mancian to mutilate, 
from Lat. mancus = maimed, mutilated.] 

1. Lit. : To maim, to mutilate ; to cut with 
repeated blows so as to leave a ragged or 
jagged wound ; to hack, to lacerato ; to dis- 
figure by cutting or hacking. 

"Had thy "mangled bleeding corse been found. 
Thy relics had reposed in Trojan ground." 

Pitt: riryil; JSneid, vt 

2. Fig. : To destroy the symmetry or com- 
pleteness of ; to mutilate ; to spoil or mar by 
bungling, ignorance, or mismanagement. 

"The organ part was thoroughly mangled." Athm. 
tfum, Feb. 2S, 1882. 

man -gle (2), v.t. [Dut. mangelen = to roll 
with a rolling-pin ; mangel-stuk = a rolling- 
pin ; Ital. mangano ; a modification of Low 
Lat. manganum, manganus = a mangonel (q.v.), 
from Gr. fj.dyya.vov (mangganon).] To roll or 
gmoothe clothes with a mangle ; to calender. 

"Might have got up my linen as I came along ha 1 
ha! not a bad idea that queer tiling to have it 
mangled when it's on one. "lii<-keiu : Pickwick, ch. XT. 

man -gle, s. [MANGLE (2), .] A machine in 
which damp clothes are smoothed by roller 
pressure. The old-fashioned mangle had a 
box weighted with stones and reciprocating 
upon rollers which ran to and fro npon the 
clothes, spread upon a polished table beneath. 
The improved mangle for smoothing and 
stretching woven goods previous to starching 
and calendering, has a number of rollers fixed 
in a strong frame, and capable of being forced 
together by levers or screws. In some mangles, 
the bottom rollers have grooves diverging 
from the centre, so as to spread the cloth out- 
wardly towards each edge as it passes through, 
removing the creases. 

"Regular mangle Baker's patent uot create in 
my coat" Dickeiu : Pickwick, ch. iv. 

mangle-rack, s. 

Mach. : A i-ack having teeth or opposite 
sides engaged by a pinion, which meshes with 
the opposite sides alternately. Thus the con- 
tinuous rotary motion ol the pinion is con- 
verted into a reciprocating motion. 

mangle-wheel, s. A wheel used in 
mangles for pressing clothes, having a curved 
douiile rack upon it, the object being to drive 
the weighted box, by means of a continuous 
rotary motion of the driving-pinion, to the 
shaft of which a handle is attached. As the 
pinion is rotated, it passes from the inside 
to the outside teeth of the rack alternately, 
giving a reciprocating rotary motion to the 
whjel, which drives the box to and fro. The 
shaft of the pinion traverses a groove in the 
wheel as the pinion passes from one side of 
the rack to the other. 

man'-gler (1), . [Eng. mangl(e) (1), v. ; -r.j 

1. One who mangles, mutilates, or break* 
in cutting ; one who mutilates or disfigures. 

" Coarse m<tntjlfrs of the human face divine, 
Paint on. TicMl : To Sir God'rey Kneller. 

2. A machine for grinding meat, to render 
it more easy to masticate or stew. A mastica- 
tor. 



boll, boy ; pout, jowl ; cat, cell, chorus, 9hin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
Clan, -tian = scan, -tion, -sion - shun; -(ion, -sion - znun. -cious, -tious, -sious - shus. -ble, -die, &c. bel, deL 



3028 



mangier manicate 



man gler (2), 5. [Eng. mangl(e) (2); -er.] 
One who uses or works a mangle ; a calenderer. 

man-gll-et -i-a, s. [Latinised from the 
Javanese name of tne species defined.] 

Bot. : A genus of Magnoliacese, tribe Mag- 
noliese, consisting of five species, from tropi- 
cal Asia. They are tall trees, with entire 
leaves and showy flowers. The white solid 
wood of Manglietia glauca is made into coffins 
in Java, being supposed to preserve the 
corpses put into them from decay. 

man go, s. [Native name mangha.] 

L Botany: 

1. The fruit of the Mango tree, also the 
tree itself. It is Mangifera indica, an um- 
brageous tree, wild on the Western Ghauts, in 
the Chutia Nagpore Hills and the Naga Hills, 
and cultivated all over India. The fruit is 
considered one of the very best in India ; 
it is laxative. The bark of the root and, to a 
certain extent, of the stem is used in diar- 
rhoea, &c. The young leaves are good for 
pectoral complaints, the old ones for cleaning 
the teeth. The seeds are anthelmintic and the 
resin of the bark antisyphilitic. The seeds 
contain gallic acid. The bark and the leaves 
yield an interior yellow dye. The dry unripe 
fruit is used as a mordant, especially in dyeing 
with safflower. The leaves and the bark are 
used in parts of India in tanning. The bark 
and kernel are given in diarrhoea. The galls 
of the kernel, if snuffed, stop bleeding from 
the nose. The kernel is an anthelmintic ; it 
in used also in bleeding piles and menorrhagia. 
(Bindley, and Calcutta Exhib. Report.) 

" What lord of old would bid his cook prepare 
ilangnes, portargo, champignons, cavare ? " 

King : On Cookery. 

2. A green musk melon pickled. 

^[ The Mountain Mango is Clusia flava, the 
Wild Mango (1) Clusia flava ; (2) some species 
of Irvingia. 

IL Ichthy. : The same as MANOO-FISH (q.v.). 

mango-bird, s. 

Ornith. : A popular name for the Indian 
Oriole (Oriolus kundo). 

mango-fish, . 

Ichthy. : Polynemus paradiseus or longifllis, 
known in India as the Tupsee. It is about 
eight or nine inches in length, and is found 
in the Bay of Bengal, ascending the Ganges and 
other rivers to a considerable extent. Its 
popular English name has reference to its 
beautiful yellow colour, resembling that of a 
ripe mango. 

mango-ginger, s. 

Bot. : Curcuma Amada. 

man-gold wur' zel.man' gel wur zel, 

*. [Ger. mangold = beet, and wiirzel = root."] 

Bot. & Agric. : Beta vulgaris, variety macro- 
rhiza. It is cultivated chiefly as fodder for 
cattle. The roots are used for food ; they 
have sugar enough in their composition to be 
profitably extracted, as is the case with ordi- 
nary beet. 

man go nel, " man ga nel, *mang- 
ncl, s. [O. Fr. , from Ital. manganello, man- 
gano, from Low. Lat. mangaiium, manganus, 
mangnna, from Gr. tiayyavov (mangganon) = a 
machine for defending fortifications.] An 
engine of war employed to batter down walls 
and hurl stones and other missiles. 
"Mid manganeU It giunes hor either to other caste." 
Robert of Gloucester, p. 566. 

man' go-nlsm, *. [MANOONJZE.] The act 
of mangouizing, or setting off to advantage. 

" Let geutlemeu and ladies who are curious, trust 
1 little by jrumnnnumt, insuccations, or medicine, to 

alter the species, or Indeed the forms and shapes of 
flowers considerably." Evelyn : Kalend. Hortente ; 
March. 

* man -go-nlst, s. [MANOONIZE.] 

1. One who mangonizes or furbishes up 
worthless articles for sale. 

" The mangonltt doth feed and graith hii horse." 
Honey Maiterl all Thinat (1698), p. 77. 

2. A slave-dealer. 

" One that sells human flesh, a manganltt." 

Revenge, or a Match in A'ewgate, L 

*man'-gin-ize, v.t. [Lat. mangonizo, from 
mango a dealer who furbishes up worthless 
things for sale ; a slave-dealer.] 

S. To furbish up for sale ; to set off to 
advantage. 

2. To fatten, as slaves for sale. 



raan'-go-steen, man go stan, s. [Malay 

mangostans, the name of the fruit. (Laurent 
Garcin, M.D., F.R.S.)] 
Botany : 

1. (Of the two forms) : The fruit of Garcinia 
Mangostana, a fruit about the size of an orange, 
filled with a sweet pulp. The tree bearing it 
grows in Malacca, and is cultivated in South 
Tenasserim. The rind of the tree is used as 
an astringent in diarrhoea and dysentery, 
especially in the chronic diarrhoea of children. 

2. (Of the form mangostan) : Amaranthus 
Mangostana. 

^[ Wild mangosteen : 

Bot. : Embryopteris glutinifera. 

mangosteen-pil, s. An oil obtained 
from Garcinia indica. 

man' go-stin, s. [Bug. mangost(ana) ; -in 
(Chem.).~\ 

Chem. : Cs^R^Of. A golden yellow crys- 
talline body contained in the husk of the fruit 
of Garcinia Mangostana. The dried husks are 
boiled in water to remove the tannin, and 
then treated with hot alcohol. On evapo- 
rating the alcoholic solution, mangostin is 
deposited as a yellow crystalline substance, 
destitute of taste and smell. It is insoluble 
in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether, 
forming neutral solutions. It melts at 190, 
without loss of water, to a dark-coloured 
liquid, which solidifies on cooling to an amor- 
phous mass. It reduces gold and silver 
from their solutions, but is not precipitated 
by any metallic salt, excepting basic acetate 
of lead. The precipitate thrown down by 
the lead salt appears to have the formula 



mangue, s. [Native name.] 

Zool. : Crossarchus obscurus. This single 
species of its genus is from tropical Africa. 
It is much smaller than the Mampelon, not 
exceeding fifteen inches from snout to root of 
tail, which is about eight inches. The body 
is thick and stout, the fur brown, lighter on 
the head ; the ears short, the snout long, 
flexible, and projecting, like that of the Coati. 
The secretion from the anal glands is extremely 
fetid. 

man -gouste', s. [Fr. , from munr/oos, the name 
of the animal in various Indian languages.] 

Zool. : Herpestes (Viverra, Linn.) ichneumon. 
[ICHNEUMON.] 

man' -grove, s. [Malay manggi, manggi.] 

Botany : 

1. Sing. : Rhizophora Mangle. It has aerial 
roots. It covers immense tracts of coast 
within the tropics, rooting down to low water 
mark. The seed germinates on the tree, send- 
ing down roots into the water. 

2. PI. : The order Rhizophoracese (q.v.). 

IT Black or Olive Mangrove is Avicennia 
tomentosa. (Treas. of Bot.) The Brazil or 
White Mangrove is Avicennia tomentosa (Pax- 
ton), though sometimes that name is given to 
Laguncularia racemosa. (Treas. of Bot.) 

mangrove-bark, s. 

Bot. & Comm. : The bark of Rhizophora mu- 
cronata, Bruguiera gymnorhiza, Avicennia offi- 
cinalis, Ceriops candolleana, C. Roxburghiana, 
and Kandellia Rheedi.i. They are^ifiuable for 
tanning. (Prof. Watt.) 

mangrove-hen, . 

Ornitii. : Rallus longirostris, a South Ameri- 
can and West Indian bird. Above it is of a 
faint ash-colour, with the chin nearly white ; 
beneath it is white with a ferruginous tint. 

man gy, *man'-gie', *maunge, a. & *. 

[Fr. mange = eaten, pa. par. of manger = to 
eat.] 

A. As adj. : Infected with the mange ; 
scabby, mean. 

" Away, thou Issue of a mangy dog." 

Shakeap. : Timonqf Athem, IT. S. 

* B. As subst. : Mange. 

" The dog whose mam/,y eats away his haire." 

Stapylton : Juvenal, v i i i . 41 

man-ha' den, . [MENHADEN.] 

man'-ha-ter, s. [Eng. man, and hater.] One 
who hates man or society ; a misanthrope. 

" li'iu s.-iui, of Geneva, a professed manhater, or 
move projierly speaking, a philosopher enraged with 
more than half of mankind." GoldtmUh : On Polite 
Learning, ch. viii. 



man-heim, s. [MANNHEIM.] 

man' -hole, s. [Eng. man, and hole.] A hole* 
in a cesspool, drain, iron boiler, tank, or a 
recess in an electric subway, or again a 
chamber or compartment of an iron ship, 
designed to allow the entrance of a man for 
examination, cleansing, and repairs. In boilers 
and tanks it is usually secured by a bridge 
and bolt, so as to render it water, steam, or 
air tight, as the case may be. In drains, the 
cover is a lid with a stink-trap joint. 

manhole-door, s. The cover or lid of 
a manhole in a boiler or tank. 

man hood, * man-node, s. [Eng. man ; 
-hood.) 

1. Human nature, as opposed to a divine* 
or spiritual nature or being. 

2. The state or quality of being a man, as 
opposed to the state or condition of one of 
the lower animals. 

3. The state or quality of being a roan as 
opposed to a woman ; the opposite of woman-- 
hood. 

" Pit you to your manhood." 

Shakctp. : Cymbeline, iii. 4. 

4. The state or quality of being a man a 
opposed to a boy or child ; the state of being- 
an adult male. 

" Thy prime of manhood daring, bold, and venturous." 
Shakesp. : Richard 111., iv. 4. 

* 5. The qualities that become a man ; manly 
qualities : as, bravery, fortitude, honour, &c. 
" And holds their manhood* cheap, while any speaks, 
That fought with us upon Saint Crispian's day." 

Shaketp. : Henry V., iv. 3. 

ma'-ni-a, * ma-nle, s. [Lat. mania, from. 
Gr. fiavla (mania) = madness, frenzy, from, 
the same root as Gr. '^.eVos (menos) = mind, 
spirit ; Eng. mind, &c.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Madness, frenzy ; intense excitement. 

"A. mania ot which the symptoms were essentially 
the same with tlioseof themania of 1720." Macaulaf: 
Bist. Eng., ch. xix. 

2. A vehement desire or longing for some- 
thing ; a craze : as, To have a mania for col- 
lecting old china, <tc. 

II. Mental Pathol. : A disorder of the im- 
pulses or propensities ending in disordered 
intellect with excitement. The mind is usually 
a complete chaos, and kindness or affection, 
only seems to irritate, instead of soothing. All 
the faculties are usually involved, differing- 
thus from monomania. The most frequent 
forms are homicidal, suicidal, pyromania, klep- 
tomania, nymphomania, and mania-a-potu. 

mania-a-potu, s. Madness from drink- 
ing ; delirium trenicns. 

* man'-i-a-ble, a. [Fr., from manier = -b 
handle, to manage ; Lat. manus = the hand.} 
Manageable, tractable, docile. 

ma'-nl-ac, * ma'-m-- ak, a. & *. [Fr. ma- 
niaque, as if from a Lat. maniacus, from manfo 
= madness ; Sp., Port., & Ital. maniaco.) 

A. As adj. : Raving with madness ; having. 
a disordered intellect ; mad, crazy, lunatic. 

B. As subst. : One who has a disordered 
intellect ; a madman, a lunatic. 

"All their symptoms agree with those of epileptic* 
and maniaci, who fancied they had evil spirits within 
them." Farmer: Demoniact of the Ifeut Tettamfiit, 
ch. i., | 8. 

* ma-ni'-a-eal, o. [Eng. maniac ; -al.] The> 
same as MANIAC, a. (q.v.). 

" Epilepsis and maniacal lunacies usually conform, 
to the age of the moon." drew : Cotmo. Sacra. 

man-I-car'-i-a, s. [From Lat. manicce =t 
the long sleeves of a tunic, serving for gloves. 
From the appearance of the spathe.] 

Bot. : A genus of Palms, tribe Borasseae, 
and that section of it characterized by having: 
pinnated leaves. When young, however, they 
are generally entire. Manicaria saccifera, the. 
Bussu, is a palm from the lower part of the 
Amazon. Its stem is about fifteen or twciity 
feet, its leaves are occasionally thirty feet 
long. They are used by the Indians for 
thatching their huts, and the spathcs are 
made into bags, whence the appropriate specific: 
name saccifera. 

man i cate, a. [Lat. manicatus =. sleeved,, 
from manica = a long sleeve ; manus th 
hand.] 

Bot. : Interwoven in a mass, which can be- 
easily separated from the surface, as Cacalia 
canescens, or Bvpleurum giganteum. (Lindley.) 



fkte, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we. wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot 
v or. wore, wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full; try, Syrian, w, w = e; ey = a. qu = tew. 



Manichaean manikin 



Man-i-chae'-an, a. <fc s. [From Gr. Maw 
Xato (Manicltalos) ; Lat. Manichcens, from 
Mani or Manes, an Oriental philosopher, said 
to have been born in Babylon about the begin- 
ning of the third century, and crucified circ. 
A.D. 276. Prof. Adolf Harnack says "that the 
name has not yet been explained, and that 
it is uncertain if the word be of Persian or 
Semitic origin."] 

A. As adj. : Pertaining to, or in any way 
Connected with the tenets of Manichaeism 

B. As substantive : 

Church Hist. (PL) : Originally, the followers 
Of Mani or Manes ; later, the word came to 
bear a much wider significance, including 
those who held any form of dualism, or the 
Gnostic notion of the hatefulness of matter 
which Manes adopted. 

"The Pope's legate marched with a great army 
mgaiiisttheAlliigenses, whom he called Manictueans." 
Jortin : Eccles. Hist. (ed. 1846), ii. 303. 

Man i chse' ism, t Man-i-chee Ism, . 
[Eng. Manichit(an) (q.v.), t Manichee ; -ism.] 
Church Hist. : The religious system founded 
by Mani or Manes, who either claimed to be or 
was regarded by his followers as the Paraclete 
promised by Jesus (John xiv. 16, 17). The 
system is Dualism tempered with Gnosticism 
rather than a lapse from primitive Christi- 
anity. Mani postulated two primal beings, 
Light (God) and Darkness, under the simili- 
tude of kingdoms, and from the hitter Satan 
and his angels were born. Adam owed his 
being to Satan. Continual conflict exists be- 
tween the two kingdoms, and, when the King- 
dom of Light is victorious, the world will be 
destroyed by fire, and the supremacy of God 
established. The ethics of the system were 
severely ascetic. The Manichaeans were di- 
vided into two classes the "elect "and the 
" hearers." The former were bound to observe 
the three seals : (1) Of the mouth, forbidding 
animal food, the use of wine and milk, and 
impure speech ; (2) of the hands, forbidding 
the destruction of life, whether animal or 
vegetable ; and (3) of the bosom, forbidding 
(probably) marriage (certainly offspring), since 
woman was regarded as the gift of the demons. 
The hearers were less strictly bound. The 
Old Testament was rejected, and only so much 
of the New taken as suited the peculiar tenets 
of the sect. They had a kind of hierarchy, 
fasting was practised, and among the later 
Manichseans rites existed analogous to baptism 
and the Eucharist. The sect spread rapidly 
in the East, extended to Northern Africa, 
where the persecution of the Vandals, in the 
latter part of the fifth century, stamped them 
out, and to Southern Europe, where some of 
their tenets reappeared later in the doctrines 
of the Paulicians, and later still in those of 
the Albigenses. 

Man i chees', s..pl. [MANICH.EAN.] 
Ch. Hist. : The same as MANICH^EAN, B. 

" The Manichees rejected the Old Testament altoge- 
ther." Addis i Arnold: C'ath. Met., p. 541. 

man I chord, man i cor -don, s. [O. Fr. 

manicordon ; Fr. manichordion, from Gr. fio- 
v6\op&ov (monochordon), from fioVo? (monos) = 
alone, single, and \opSri (chorde) = a string ; 
Ital. monocordo ; Sp. & Port, manicordio.] 

Music : An instrument resembling the spinet 
and harpsichord. 

* man'-I-con, s. [Lat., from Gr. pat/tied? 
(manikos) pertaining to madness ; fiavia. 
(mania) = madness.] A species of nightshade, 
so called from its juice being supposed to 
produce madness. 

man' i cure, *. 

1. The professional care or treatment of the 
hands and nails. [PEDICUBE.] 

2. One who manicures. 
man' i ciire, r.t. & t. 

A. Intrans. : To attend to the hands and the 
nails, treating the blemishes of the former, 
trimming and polishing the latter, Ac. 

B. Tram. : To care for (used only for the 
hands and nails.) 

man i die, s. pi. [Mod. Lat., &c. man(is) 
(q.v.) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 

Zool. : Pangolins. The second of the three 
families into which the order Edentata, in 
some classifications, is divided. It contains 
but one genus, Manis (q.v.). 

manie, s. [MANIA.] 



man i fest, * man i-feste, a. & s. [Fr. 
manifeste, from Lut. manifestus = manifest, 
evident ; properly, that may be struck by the 
hand, palpable, from mantis the hand, and 
*festus, from an obsolete verb, *fendo (seen in 
defendo, offendo) = to strike ; O. Sp., Port., & 
Ital. manifesto ; Sp. manifiesto.] 

A. As adjective : 

1. Plain, open, not concealed ; not doubtful 
or obscure ; evident to the eye or obvious to 
the understanding ; not difficult to be seen or 
understood. 

"God was manifest in the flesh."! Timothy 111. 1C. 

*2. Detected, convicted. 

" You heard not he was false : your eyes beheld 
The traitor mi mi fat ; the bribe revealed." 

Dryden : Ovid ; tietamorpkuses riii. 

*3. Followed by of before the crime or 
charge. 

" GUistho there stood manifest of shame, 
And, turned a bear, the northern star became." 
Dry den. (Toad.) 

B. -4s substantive : 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : A public declaration, a 
manifesto. 

" But you. authentic witnesses I bring, 
Before the gods, and your ungrateful king, 
Of this lay manifest.' 

Dryden : Bomer ; Iliad L 473. 

2. Comm. : A ship's manifest is a formal 
statement of a cargo for the use of the Custom- 
house officers, and usually contains a list of 
all the packages on board, with their distin- 
guishing marks, numbers, and descriptions, 
all of which details are indicated by a printed 
form. 

man'-i-fest, v.t. [MANIFEST, a.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : To make manifest, clear, or 
plain to the eye or understanding ; to show 
plainly, to make obvious ; to display, to dis- 
cover, to make known. 

" For there is nothing hU, which shall not be mani- 
fested." Mark, iv. 22. 

2. Comm. : To exhibit the manifest of, or 
declare at the Custom-house : as, To manifest 
a cargo. 

* man i fcst a ble, * man -i fest i blc, 

a. [Eng. manifest; -able, -ible.] That may or 
can be manifested, or made clear or plain. 

" There is no other way then this that is manifest- 
able either by Scripture, reason, or experience." 
More : Def. of Moral Cabbala, ch. iii. 

man-i fes-ta tion, s. [Lat. manifestatio, 
from manifestos = manifest ; Fr. manifesta- 
tion; Sp. manifestacion ; lta\.manifestazione.] 
The act of manifesting, disclosing, or discover- 
ing that which is unseen, secret, or obscure ; 
the act of making plain, evident, or clear to 
the eye or obvious to the understanding ; dis- 
play, revelation, exhibition, discovery. 

"The manifestation of his personal valour." 
Kaleigh: Hist, of the World, ch. viL, 2. 

man'-I-fest-ed, pa. par. or a. [MANIFEST, v.] 

* man'-I-f8st-ed-ness, s. [Eng. man ifested ; 

-ness.] The quality or state of being mani- 
fested. 

* man i fest-i-ble, a. [MANIFESTABLE.] 

m^n'-l-fest-lj; * man-y-fest-ly, adv. 
[Eng. manifest; -ly.] In a manifest manner; 
clearly, plainly, evidently, openly. 

" The malicious persecutyng of the cleare trouth to 
manifestly proued. -TyndoM: Worket, p. 17. 

man I fist-ness, s. [Eng. manifest ; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being manilest ; plain- 
ness, clearness, obviousness. 

man-I fes' to, s. [Ital. =(o.) manifest, (s.) 
a manifesto, from Lat. manifeslus manifest 
(q.v.).] 

1. A public declaration or statement of 
some government, sovereign, or leader, pro- 
claiming certain opinions, motives, or in- 
tentions in reference to some act or line of 
conduct. 

" He put forth a manifesto, telling the people that 
it had been h,s constant care to govern them with 
Justice and moderation." Macaulan : Hitt. Eng., 

en. x. 

* 2. A manifestation ; evidence, proof. 

"Succeeding years produced the manifesto or evi- 
dence of their virilities. 'Browne: Vulgar Errours, 
bk. iii., ch. xvii. 

* man-I fes -to, v.i. [MANIFESTO, t.] To 

issue a manifesto. 



man-I-fold, * man-y-fold, a., adv., & s. 
[A.S. manigfeald, from manig many, -feald, 
suff. = -fold, from fealdan = to fold.] 



A. As adjective : 

1. Numerous and various in quality or kind 
many in number ; multiplied. 

" For him it bore 
Attractions manifold and this he chose." 

Wordsworth : Excursion, bk. L 

2. Varying, complicated, or comprehensive 
in character or nature ; exhibiting or em- 
bracing many points, features, or character- 
istics. 

" This changeful life. 
So manifold In cares." Cowper : Task, v. 769. 

B. As adv. : By many times or degrees ; 
many times. 

"There is no man . . . who shall not receive 
manifold more in thig present time." Luke xviii. 80. 

C. As subst. : A copy made by a mauifold- 
writer. 

manifold-writer, . A contrivance by 
which a number of copies may be written afc 
once, the pressure of the stylus being com- 
municated through a number of leaves of 
thin paper, between each of which is a greasy 
sheet of coloured paper that imparts its. 
colour to the page with which it is in contact. 

man I-fold, r.. [MANIFOLD, a.] Tomultiply; 
specif., to multiply impressions or copies of, 
as by a manifold-writer. 

* man -i-fold-ed, a. [Eng. manifold; -ed.\ 
Having many folds, doublings, or complica- 
tions. 

"And manifolded shield he bound about his wrist.' 
Apenser: F. ^., II. iii. L 

man'-I-fold-ly', adv. [Eng. manifold; -ly.J 
In a manifold manner or degree ; in many 
ways. 

" The scarfs and the bannerets about thee did mani- 
foldly dissuade me from believiu/ thee a vessel of 
too great a burthen." Shakesp. : All's Well that Endtt 
Well, 11. 3. 

man -1-fold-ness, s. [Eng. manifold ; -ness.l 
The quality or state of being manifold ; multi- 
plicity. 

* man'-i-form(l), a. [Lat. manus = the hand, 
and/ormu = shape.] Shaped like the hand. 

* man'-i-form (2) (a as e), a. [Eng. many,. 
and/orm.] Of many forms or shapes ; multi- 
form. (C. Reade.) 

*maniglion (as ma-nH'-yon), s. [ItaL 

tnaniglio -= a handle ; diiuiu. from Lat. munuf 
a hand.] [MANILIO.] 

Ordn. : One of two handles on the back of & 
piece of ordnance, cast after the German form. 
(Bailey). 

man I hot, man i-hoc, s. [The Brazilian 
name of the plant.] 
Botany : 

1. A genus of Euphorbiacese, tribe Crotonese. 
Manihot utilissima, the Jatropha manihot of 
Linnaeus, the manioc or mandioc, is a shrub 
about three feet high, extensively cultivated 
over the tropics. The root, weighing about thirty 
pounds, is full of deleterious juice, but being 
rasped, bruised, washed, and heated on iron 
plates, the poison is expelled, the harmless 
residue constituting Cassava (q.v.). The> 
powder which floats off in the water when it 
is washed is a pure starch, and, when it 
settles down, becomes Tapioca. Arnotto was. 
formerly regarded as an antidote to the poison 
of the manioc. 

2. Hibiscus Manihot. 

man -I -hot' -ic, a. [Eng., &c., manihot ; -ic.| 
Contained in or derived from manihot (q.v.). 

manihotic acid, s. 

Chem. : An acid said to have been obtained 
from the root of the Jatropha manihot. Ifc. 
crystallizes in prisms, having an acid taste, 
and forms neutral salts with lime, baryta, and 
magnesia. 

man i kin, man a kin, * man nl kln 

s. [O. Dut. mannekin, a double dimin. Irom 
man = man ; Ger. maniichen.} 

1. Ord. Lang. : A little man ; a dwarf, a 
pigmy. 

"Forth rnsh'd the madding mannikin to arms." 

Beattie : Battles of the Pigmies i Cranes, 

2. Art, <Cc. : An artificial figure representing 
the human body, and capable of being dis- 
sected to show the relative position and pro- 
portions of the parts of the body it is designed 
to illustrate. It is frequently of papier- 
mache, the detachable pieces being painted in. 
imitation of the viscera and other organs. A 
manikin in illustration of obstetric subject* 



boil, boy; pout. Jowl; cat, 9 ell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph = t 
-cian, -tian = shan. -tion, -slon = shun;, -tion, -sion = zhun. -clous, -tious. -sious = shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel, del. 



3030 



manil manna 



.\ has an elastic perineum, nterus, and foetal 
i head, so that the artificial parts may simulate 
1 the natural action of parturition. 

tU&n'-D, ma-nil' -la (1), s. [MANILIO]. 

tna-nil-i-o, j. [Ital. maniglio= a handle, 
.. from Lat. manus = a hand.] 

1. A ring or bracelet worn by Africans as 
,. an ornament for the legs or arms. 

2. A piece of copper shaped like a horse- 
ehoe, passing as money among certain tribes 
on the west coast of Africa. 

Ma nil' la, Ma-nil' -a, >. [See dcf.J 

1. The capital of the Philippine Islands. 

2. A kind of cheroot manufactured at 
Manilla. 

Manilla-hemp, . Hemp made from the 
fibre of a species of banana, Musa textilis, which 

rws in some of the East India islands. It 
i very Taluable fibre, the finer qualities 
being used for fabrics, and the coarser for 
Cordage. The chief fabrics are Manilla hand- 
> kerchiefs and scarfs. 

Manilla-rope, s. Rope made principally 
fa the Philippine Islands, of the fibres of a 
species of banana. It floats in water. 

3nan'-i -6c. man i hoc, man i hot, . 

Hot. : A name for Manihot utUissima. [M ANI- 
HOT.] 

jnan'-I-ple, *. [Lat. mnnvpulus = (1) a hand- 
fill, (2) a company of soldiers under the same 
standard, a liand of men ; from manus = the 
hand, and * pulus = filling ; from the same 
root as Lat. plenus, Eng. full, Fr. maniple, 
fip. manipulo, Ital. manipolo.] 
* I. Ordinary Language : 

1. A handful. 

" I ha seen him wait at court there with his manlpUt 
Of iiapers." Ben Jomon : Magnetic Lady, i. 2. 

2. A small band of soldiers or men ; a small 
troop. 

"Our small divided maniplet cutting through at 
very angle of his ill-united and unwieldy brigade." 
UMon : Of Unlicensed 'Printing. 

II. Technically : 

1. Roman Antiq. : One of the divisions of 
"the Roman army. It consisted of sixty rank 
and file, two officers called centuriones, and 
one standard-bearer called vexillarius. Of 
the sixty soldiers, twenty carried only a spear 
nd javelins ; the remaining rty had oblong 
shields, and probablj body armour also. 
(Ramsay : Roman Antiq.) 

2. Roman Ritual : One of the sacred vest- 
jnents assumed by a bishop after the Confiteor 
"In the Mass, and by a priest after the stole and 
Ixifore the chasuble. It is attached to the 
left arm, to leave the right at liberty for 
ministering, and varies in colour and character 
with the vestment (o.v.). It is also worn by 
the deacon and subdeacon. (Pugin.) In very 
many churches of the English communion it 
has been restored, and it has now become a 
portion of the English vestments. (Lee.) 

* naa-nlp'-n-lar, a. [Lat. manipulans, from 
VMnipiuus == a maniple.] 

1. Of or pertaining to a maniple. 

2. Of or pertaining to the hands ; manual. 

"Safe and snug under his mnnipular operations." 
Lytton: The Caxtmi, bk. xi., ch. vii. 

Jna -nip' u late, v.t. & i. [Lat. manipulus = 
a" handful, a maniple (q.v.); Fr. manipuler ; 
\ Bp. manipular; Ital. manipolare.] 

A. Transitive : 

1. Lit. : To handle or operate on with the 
hands ; to work up with the hands ; to treat ; 
to subject to certain processes. 

2. Fig. : To operate on or treat skilfully or 
artfully, generally with a view to give a false 
appearance to ; to cook : as, To manipulate 
accounts. 

B. Intrant. : To use the hands, as in scien- 
tific experiments, mechanical operations, 
artistic processes, &c. 

ma nip n la tion, s. [Fr. ; Sp. manipula- 
tion; Ital. manipolaxione.] 
I Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : The act of manipulating or working 
With the hands ; skilful or artistic use of the 
hands in artistic or mechanical operations of 
any kind. 

2. Fig. : The act of operating on or treating, 
so as to give a false appearance or character 

i to; the turning or twisting of anything to 



serve one's own ends, views, or purposes : as, 
the manipulation of accounts, figures, &c. 
TT. Technically: 

1. Animal Mag. : The application of the 
magnetiser's hands, chiefly to the hypochon- 
dria and the abdomen, or to diseased parts of 
those on whom it is sought to operate. 

2. Min. : A particular mode of digging ore. 

* ma-nlp'-U-la-tlve, a. [Eng. manipulate); 
ive.] Pertaining to or performed by manipu- 
lation. 

" The manipulative process is the result of practice." 
Cailell'l Technical Educatur, pt. xi., p. 287. 

ma-nip'-u-la-tor, . [Eng. manipulate); 
-or.] One who manipulates ; specifically, the 
transmitting instrument attached to the dial 
telegraph. 

t ma-nip'-U-la-tor-y^ a. [Eng. manipu- 
lat(e); -ory.] Of or pertaining to manipula- 
tion. 

ma'-nis, t. [Lafc. * mentis, from the dismal 
appearance of the animals, and because they 
seek their food by night.] [MANES.] 

Zool. : Pangolin, or Scaly Ant-eater ; a genus 
Of edentate mammals, belonging to the group 
j Effbdientia (Diggers). There are no teeth, 
, the ears small and indistinct, the tongue 
round and exsertile. The body and tail 
covered with horny imbricate scales ; tail 
long. They can roll themselves into a ball, 
and are then protected by their scales, which 
are capable of inflicting pretty severe injuries. 
The genus is confined to Africa and India, and 
the best-known species are described in this 
dictionary under their popular names. 

Man'-i-to, Man' i-tou, *. [Indian.] Among 
American Indians the name given to a spirit, 
god, or devil, or whatever is an object of reli- 
gious awe or reverence. Two spirits are espe- 
cially spoken of by this name : one, the spirit 
of good and life, the other the spirit of evil. 

" Gitche Manito, the mighty, 
He the Master of Life, was painted 



As an egg, with 



, 
nt* projecting 



erywhere is the Great Spirit, 
Was the meaning of this symbol. 
Mitche Manito the Mighty, 

f Evil. 



e the dreadful Spirit of Evil. 
s a serpent was depicted, 
s Kenabeek, the great serpent. 
Very crafty, very cunning 
Is the creeping Spirit of Evil, 
Was the meaning of this symbol." 



Longfellow : Hiawatha, riy. 

man'-I-trunk, a. [Lat. manus, (genit. mani) 
= the hand, and truncus = the trunk. ] 

Entom. : The anterior segment of the thorax 
in insects. 

man'-kfll-er, s. [Eng. marc, and Tciller."] One 
who kills a human being ; a manslayer, a 
murderer. 

man-kind', * man kindc, man kyndc, 
* man kin, s. &, a. [A.S. mancynn, from 
man = man, and cynn = kind, race. The d 
is excrescent.] 
A. As substantive: 

1. The human race ; man taken collectively ; 
man. 

" The proper study of mankind is man." 

Pope ; Essay on Man, ii. i 

2. The male part of the human race ; men 
collectively, as distinguished from women. 

" Thou shalt not lie with mankind as with woman- 
kind." Leviticus xviii. 2i 

* 3. Humanity, human feelings, manliness. 

" O you, whose minds are good, 

And have not forced all mankind from your breasts." 
Ben Jomon : Hejanut. v. 10. 

* B. As adjective : 

1. Resembling man or men in form or 
nature ; not womanly ; unwomanly, mascu- 
line, bold. 

"So, so, 'tis as 't should he, are women grown so 
mankind > Must they be wooing t"Deaum. <* Fits. : 
Woman Hater, lit 2. 

2. Ferocious, strong. 
manks, . & a. [MANX.] 

* man -less, a. [Eng. man ; -less.] 

1. Destitute of men. 

The world wag void . . . 
Seasonless, herbless, treeless, manias, lifeless.' 

Byron: Darkneu. 

2. Not manned with men. 

"It was no more but a stratagem of fire-boats, man- 
leu. and sent upon them by the favour of the wind in 
the nUht-tiuie,* 1 Bacon : Of a War with Spain. 

3. Unbecoming a man; unmanly, base, 
cowardly, mean. 



* man'- less - ly, adv. [Eng. manles; -ly.) 
In an unmanly or inhuman manner; in- 
humanly, cruelly. 

" She saw her Hector slain, and bound 
T' Achilles chariot ; mnnlnssl// drag'd to the Grecian 
fleet." Chapman : Homer ; Iliad xxil. 

* man -like, * man liche, * man lyche, 
a. [A.S. manlic.] 

1. Resembling a man in form, shape, or ap- 
pearance. 

" Under his forming hands a creature grew, 
Manlike, but ditfcreut sex." Milton : P. L., viii. 47fc 

2. Having the qualities or character proper 
to a man, as distinguished from a woman; 
manly. 

" Elizabeth, the next, this falling sceptre hent ; 
Digressing from her sex, with manlikt government^ 
This island kept in awe." 

Drayton: Poly-Olbion, s. IT. 

man' ll -ness, *. [Eng. manly; -ness.] The 
quality or state of being manly ; the attri- 
butes or qualities proper to a man ; dignity. 
" Whilst her fond husband strove to lend relief 
In all the silent manliness of grief." 

Goldsmith : Deserted rillagt. 

* man -ting, . [Eng. man ; dimin. suff. -ling.} 
A little man. 

" A man [Horace] BO gracions, and In high favour 
with the Emperour, as Augustus often called him hi* 
wittie manUng (for the littleness of his stature)." Btn 
Jonson: discoveries. 

man' ly, a. & adv. [Eng. man; -ly.] 
A. As adjective : 

1. Of or pertaining to a man. 

" But, generous youth, sincere and free declare 
Are you, of manly growth, his royal heir." 

Pope: Homer; Odyssey 1. 248, , 

2. Becoming or befitting a man ; manlike, 
brave, firm, stout, undaunted, fearless. 

" And scarce did manlier nerve uphold 
The hero Zal in that fond hour.' 1 

Moore: nre-WoriMppun 

3. Having the qualities or attributes proper 
to men ; brave, stout, strong. 

" Now, clear the ring, for. hand to band,' 
The manly wrestlers take their stand." 

Scott .' Lady of the Lake, T. M. 

* B. As adv. : Like a man ; manfully, 
courageously, boldly, fearlessly. 

" This tune goe manly." Shakesp. : Macbeth, IT. L 

man'-na, s. [Gr. ^dwa (manna); Heb. pp 
(man), an abbreviation of NVT jp (man hu) = 
what is this? because the Israelites, when 
they first saw it, " said one to another, It is 
manna : for they wist not what it was." 
(Exod. xvi. 15, 31.)] 

1. Scrip. : " A small, round thing, as small 
as the hoar frost," which lay upon the face of 
the wilderness every morning except on the 
Sabbath (Exod. xvi. 14, 26, 27), sent by Je- 
hovah as bread rained from heaven (ver. 4, 5\ 
and continued during the whole forty years of 
the Israelite wanderings in the wilderness 
(ver. 35). It melted when the sun became 
hot (ver. 21), and if left till next day bred 
worms and stank (ver. 20). An omer of it 
was preserved to show to future generations 
the nature of the food divinely provided in 
the desert. Attempts have been made to 
identify it with some of the other substances 
now named manna [2]. Some of these are 
purgatives rather than food ; only two are 
esculents viz., Lecanora (Parmetia) esculenta 
and L. ajfinis, two lichens. These are some- 
times supposed to be manna. They are natives 
of Armenia, Asia Minor, the Sahara, and 
Algeria. [LECANORA.] 

" And when the dew fell upon the camp in the night, 
the manna fell upon it." Numbers xi. 9. 

2. Bot. : A concrete discharge from the bark 
of Fraxinus rotundifolia and some other 
species of the genus, including in the south 
of Europe the Common Ash, F. excelsior. The 
sweetness is due to the presence not of sugar, 
but of mannite (q.v.). A kind of manna is 
produced by a species of Camel's-thorn, and 
is obtained by shaking the branches. It is 
found only in Persia and Bokhara, not in 
India, Arabia, or Egypt. Eucalyptus man- 
nifera, an Australian tree, exudes a substance 
like iniiiina, but less nauseous. 

U Manna of Brianc.on is an exudation from 
the Common Larch. Manna of Mount Sinai 
is aji exudation produced by the puncture of 
an insect, Coccus manniparus on Tamarixman- 
nifera. The sweetness arises not from man- 
nite, but from sugar. In Persia a similar insect 
produces a kind of manna on T. gallica. Po- 
land manna is Glyceria fluitans. 

3. Chem. : A saccharine .juice which exudes 
from certain species of ash, chiefly Fraxinus 



late, fat, (are, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go. pot. 
or. were, wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full: try, Syrian, ss, co = e; ey = a. qu = kw. 



man ned manoeuvre 



3031 



vrma. found prowijQ \n the south of Europe 
ml in Asia Minor. It has an odour resembling 
tliat of honey, and tastes nauseously sweet, 
with a slight acridity. It is soluble in water 
and alcohol, and its aqueous solution readily 
undergoes fermentation, yielding a liquid with 
a peculiar odour and containing butyric acid. 
The analysis of manna shows it to consist of 
manna-sugar, mucilage, a reddish-brown resin, 
a sweet gum, and not more than four per cent. 
of inorganic matter. 

4. Pharm. : Manna, the exudation from the 
incised bark of Fraxinus rotundifolia and F. 
omits, is a very mild laxative, suitable for 
children. It is mixed also with some purga- 
tives like senna, but tends to produce flatu- 
lence and griping. (Garrod.) 

manna ash, s. 

Dot. : Ornus europcea or Fraxinus ornus. It 
grows on the skirts of mountains in Calabria. 
Between the middle of June and the end of 
July the manna gatherers make an incision in 
the bole of the tree, which they deepen the 
second day, inserting a maple leaf to receive 
the gum. Sometimes bits of reed or twigs 
are applied, on which the manna hardens in 
tubular pieces called canali ; these being con- 
sidered purer than the rest, fetch a higher 
price. (London.) 

manna-croup, s. The prepared seeds of 
Olyceria fluitans. [GLYCERIA. } 

manna -seeds, s. pi. 

Bot. : Glyceria fluitans. 

manna trungebeon, & 

Bot : A kind of manna found in Mesopo- 
tamia and the adjacent regions on Hedysarum 
Alhagi. (London.) 

manned, * mand, pa. par. or a. [MAN, .] 

A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective : 

1. Furnished or supplied with men. 
* 2. Blocked up with men or bodies. 

"So long till all the entry was with bodies mand. 
Spenter: F. .. VI. xi. 40. 

man ner (1), man cr, * man -ere, s. 

[Fr. maniert, from O. Fr. manier = habitual, 
accustomed to, from manier = to manage, to 
handle, from main ; Lat. nanus = the hand ; 
8p. manera; Port, maneira; ItaL maniera.] 

1. The mode in which anything is done ; 
mode of action ; mode or way of performing, 
doing, or effecting ; method, style. 

"A resolution condemning the manna- in which 
his accounts had been kept." Macautan : Hist. Eng., 
eh, xxiv. 

2. The customary or characteristic style of 
acting or conducting one's self ; habitual style, 
bearing, or conduct ; use, custom. 

"Paul, as his manner was, went in unto them." 
Jctexvii. 2. 

3. The characteristic style of writing or 
thought in an author, or the characteristic 
peculiarities of an artist. 

4. (PI.) : General mode of life or living ; 
conduct. 

" Morals and manner* were subjected to a code re- 
sembling that of the synagogue.' liacaulay : Sift, 
ing., ch. i. 

5. (PI.) : Behaviour, carriage, deportment ; 
especially ceremonious, polite, or respectful 
deportment ; civility, politeness, breeding. 

" I dare your worst objections : it I blush, 
' It is, to see a nobleman want manner*." 

Shaketp. : Henry VIII., ill J. 

6. Bort, kind, fashion. 

" What manner of man is this, that even the wind 
wid the sea obey him J Mark iv. -.i. 

7. Certain degree, fashion, measure, or 
Me. 

" It is in a manner done already ; 
Fur many carriages he lnith dispatch 'd 
To the sea-side." Shakeip. : King John, V. 7. 

If By any manner of means : By any kind of 
means ; by any means. (Colloq.) 

man -ner (2), s. [MAINOTJB.] 

man nered, a. [Eng. manner; -ed.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Having manners, carriage, 
or deportment ; disposed, minded, affected. 

" lit] shall make your lord 
That which he is, new o'er : and he is one 
The truest manner' d." Shaketii. : Cymbcline. i. 2. 

2. Art : Exhibiting or characterized by the 
peculiar style or manner of an author or 
artist ; exhibiting mannerism. 

" A mannered piece, showing silvery evening twi- 
light on a pool and dancing in the shadow." Athen- 
aeum, April 1, 18M. 



* man' -ner hood, s. [Eng. manner; -hood.] 
Manner, way, custom. 

"This did wonderfully concerns the might and 
maniti'rhoudat the kiugdouie." Bacon: Henry Vll., 
p. 74. 

man -ner ism, s. [Eng. manner; -ism.) 
Adherence to the same manner ; tasteless 
uniformity ; adherence to a peculiar style 
or manner ; a characteristic mode of action, 
bearing, or treatment carried to excess. 

" Manneritni is pardonable, and is sometimes even 
agreeable, when the manner, though vicious, is 
natural." Macaulay: Euayt ; BotwtU'i Johnion. 

t man'-ner-lSt, s. [Eng. manner; -ist.] One 
who adheres to a peculiar style or manner ; 
one addicted to mannerism ; one who follows 
one uniform and unvaried style or manner, 
whether natural or copied. 

" He sometimes succeeded well, though a strong 
manneritt." Walpole: Anecdote* of Painting, vol. 
iv., ch. iii. 

man -ner U-neSS, s. [Eng. mannerly; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being mannerly, civil, 
or polite in behaviour or deportment ; polite- 
ness, civility, complaisance. 

" Others out of mannerlinftt and respect to Go4, 
though they deny this universal soul of the universe, 
yet they devised several systems of the universe." 
Hale: Orig. of Mankind, p. 34. 

man-ner-ly; a. & adv. [Eng. manner; -ly.] 

A. As adj. : Having or showing good 
manners ; polite, civil, courteous ; not rude 
or vulgar. 

" Manmtrly devotion shows in this.* 

Shaketp. : Romeo & Juliet, i. 5. 

B. As adv. : In a mannerly manner ; politely, 
civilly, courteously; with civility or polite- 
ness. 

" We'll mannerly demand thee of thy story." 

Shaketp. : Cymbeline, iii. . 

man ners, s. pL [MANNER, s.] 

* manners-bit, s. A portion of a dish 
left by guests that the host may not believe 
himself reproached for failure to make suffi- 
cient provision. 

* man'-ner-some, a. [Eng. manners; -some.] 
Mannerly, polite, well-behaved. 

" Mary was obliged to bite her tongue to keep it 
in any way mannertome." Blackmore : Crippt the 
Carrier, ii. 96. 

Mann'-heim, Man'-helm, s. [See def.] 
The name of a town in Baden, where the sub- 
stance described below was first made. 

Mannheim-gold, *. A brass used by 
jewellers, as an imitation of gold. Copper, 3 ; 
zinc, 1 ; tin, a small quantity. 

man'-nide, s. [Eng. mann(ite) ; suff. -ide.] " 
Chem. : QH^O.! = C 6 Hj 4 O 6 2H ? O. A 
compound obtained by boiling mannite with 
butyric acid. It is a syrupy liquid, which is 
at first sweet to the taste, but afterwards 
bitter. It is very soluble in water and in 
absolute alcohol, and differs from mannitan 
in being much more volatile, evaporating 
rapidly at 140. 

man -ni-kln, a. [MANIKIN.] 

mann' -ingf, s. [Eng. man ; -ing.] 

1. The act of furnishing or supplying with 
men : as, the manning of a ship. 

2. A day's work of a man. 

t man'-nisb, * man -isn, * mann-ishe, a. 

[Eng. man ; -ish.] 

1. Having the nature or qualities of man ; 
proper to the human species ; human. 

" But yet it was a figure 
Most liche to mamtitthe creature. 1 * 

Gotner : C. A^ Tt 

2. Resembling a man as distinguished from 
a woman ; hence, bold, masculine. 

" The horrible mistake of adopting the r6!e of a 
mannish woman." Literary World, March 27, 1885, 
p. 2U6. 

3. Putting on or simulating the character 
or appearance of manhood. 

" We'll have a swashing and a martial outside. 
As many other mannish cowards have." 

Shaketp. : At You Lite It, i. S. 

4. Proper or peculiar to man ; characteristic 
of man ; human. 

"To don siune Is mnnnlsfi, but ceroes for to per- 
severe long in sinue is worke of the oivei." Chaucer : 
Tale of Xelibeut. 

5. Characteristic of the age of manhood ; 
manly. 

" And let us, Polydore, though now our voices 
Ha ve got the manni'aA crack, sing him to the ground." 
Shaketp. : Cymbeline, iv. 2. 



* man'-nish-iy, adv. (Eng. mannish; -ly.} 
In a mannish manner ; like a man. 

* man -nish ness, * man'-Ish-nesse, *. 

[Eng. mannish; -ness.] The quality or state 
of being mannish ; masculineness, boldness. 

" But, alas I the painted faces, 'and manithneue, and 
monstrous disguisedueae of one sex." flj). Sail: Im- 
preueof Ood. 

man nl-tan, *. [Eng. mannite) ; suff. -an.] 
Chem. : C 6 H 12 O 5 = CHg(OH)4O. A syrup 
with a slightly sweetisn taste, obtained by 
heating mannite to 200, or by boiling it with 
concentrated hydrochloric acid. It is very 
soluble in water and alcohol, insoluble in ether. 
By long contact with water, or more quickly, 
by boiling with baryta water, it is reconverted 
into mannite. Its specific rotatory power for 
the transition tint is (;i)j + 36*5. 

man'-ni-tate, s. [Eng. mannit(ic) ; -ate.] 
Cliem. : A salt of mannitic acid. 

man'-nlte, s. [Eng. mann(a); suff. -ite.] 

Chem. : CH 14 O 6 = CeH^OH)^ Mannitol, 
Sugar of Manna, Sugar of Mushrooms. A 
sugar very widely disseminated in the veget- 
able kingdom, occurring in the leaves of I.igu- 
tram vulgare, in numerous bulbs, in fungi, in 
sea-weeds, in the sap of the apple and cherry- 
trees, limes, &c. It is most readily obtained 
from manna by treating it with boiling alcohol, 
filtering, and allowing the alcoholic solution. 
to crystallize. From alcohol it crystallizes in 
fine silky needles ; from water in large trans- 
parent rhombic prisms. It has an intensely- 
sweet taste, is soluble in cold water, very solu- 
ble in boiling water, but insoluble in ether. 
It melts between 160 and 170, and boils aft 
200, distilling with very little decomposition. 
Mannite may be prepared artificially from 
grape sugar by the action of hydrogen evolved 
| by sodium amalgam. 

man-nif-ic, a, [Eng. mannitfe); suff. -ic.J 
Derived from or contained in manuite (q.v.). 

mannitic acid, s. 

Chem. : CgH^O? = C 6 Hg(OHVCC"OH. A 
monobasic acid, isomeric with gluconic acid, 
produced together with mannitose, when a 
concentrated aqueous solution of mannite is 
oxidized by platinum black. It is a colourless 
gummy mass, soluble in water and alcohol, 
almost insoluble in ether. It forms salts, 
which contain two equivalents of a metal, but 
these have not yet been obtained in the crys- 
talline form. 



mannitic-anhydride, s. 



Chem. : 



= (C 6 H 8 )v 



Man- 



nitic ether. A slightly yellowish compound, 
having the consistence of turpentine, formed. 
by heating mannite with water in a sealed 
tube to 280 for three hours. It has a bitter- 
sweet taste, is very soluble in water and 
alcohol, but insoluble in ether. It is un- 
fermentable, Isevogyrate (a)) = 5 "59, and 
does not reduce potassio-cupric solution, it 
is a true ether of mannite. 

mannitic - ether, s. [MANNITIC - ANHY- 
DRIDE.] 

man -nl-tol, *. [MANNITE.] 

man ni-tone, . [Eng. mannit(e) ; -one.] 

Chem. : CgH 12 C>5. A crystalline body, too- 
meric with mannitan, prepared by heating 
mannite with water in a sealed tube for ihrea 
hours to 180. It has a sweet taste, is soiiibla 
in water and alcohol, does not reduce copper 
solutions, and has a specific rotatory power 
= (a)j - 25. 

man -nl-tose, *. [Eng. mannit(e); -OM.] 

Chem. : C 6 H 12 O = CgHKOH^O. An nn- 
crystallizable sugar, isomeric with glucose, 
produced by the oxidation of mannite in 
contact with platinum black. It is solnhl* 
in water and alcohol, is fermentable, but nw 
no action on polarized light. 

manoeuvre (as ma-no'- ver), s. [Fr. = a 
work of the hand, a manoeuvre, from Low 
Lat. manuopera, manopera, from Lat. manu 
= with the hand, and opera = work; operor 
= to work ; Lat. opus (genit. opens) = worK ; 
8p. maniobra = handiwork ; maniobrar to 
work with the hands, to manoeuvre; ItaL 
manovra = the working of a ship ; manoviart 
= to steer a ship.] 



boil, bo^; pout, Jo^l; cat, cell, chorus, 9hln, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, enophon, exist, 
-clan, -tlafi = Shan, -tion, sion = shun ; -tion, -sion = ifln- - cious, - tious, -sious = alms, -ble, -die, &c. b^l, 



-ing. 



3032 

1. A regulated movement, evolution, or 
change of position, as of a body of troops, a 
number of ships, &c. ; a military or naval 
evolution or movement for the purpose of dis- 
tributing the forces in the best manner to meet 
the enemy. 

" This bold and masterly manauvre proved decisive." 
BelsKam : Bist. Great Britain (April 8, 1782). 

2. An artful, adroit, or skilful move, pro- 
ceeding or action ; skilful management. 

" By which manreuvre I took the credit of having 
travelled like a gentleman." Observer, No. 83. 

3. A silly affected trick to attract notice. 
(Scotch.) 

manoeuvre (as ma-no'-ver), v.t. A i. 
[MANCEUVRE, s.] 

A. Intransitive : 

1. To perform manoeuvres ; to move or 
change positions amongst troops or ships for 
the purpose of securing advantage in attack 
or defence, or in military exercises for training 
and discipline. 

2. To manage or contrive matters with ad- 
dress, art, or skill ; to employ intrigue or 
stratagem to effect a purpose. 

B. Trans. : To cause to perform manoeuvres 
or evolutions ; to change the positions of in 
manoeuvres. 

" Sir George Rodney . . . now manoeuvred the fleet 
with such skill, us to gain the windward of the enemy." 
BeUham: Hist. of Great Britain (April 8. 1782). 

manceuvrcr (as ma-no -vrer), s. [Eng. 
manoeuvre) ; -er.] One who manoeuvres or 
intrigues. 

" 'This charming widow Beaumont is a manauvrer." 
Mus Edge-worth : Manoeuvring, ch. i. 

ma nom' e-ter, *. [Or. ^ai-o? (manos) = 
thin, rare, not dense ; and nerpov (metron) = a 
measure.) An instrument for measuring the 
elastic force of gases or steam. It consists of 
a graduated tube in which a body of confined 
air is compressed by the gas or steam under 
experimental test, a body of mercury inter- 
vening between the air in the tube and the 
.gas or steam whose elastic force is to be as- 
certained. The tube containing the confined 
air, of a certain volume at a given tempera- 
ture, is maintained at the said temperature by 
a bath, and is tested for the graduation of the 
tube by means of a column of mercury. It is 
then ready for the connection by a tube with 
the reservoir or boiler which contains the gas 
or steam whose elastic force is to be ascer- 
tained. A steam-gauge. Called also a inano- 
scope. 

man 6 met ric, man o met ric al, o. 

[Eng. manometer ; -ic, -ical.] Of or pertaining 
to a manometer ; made or determined by the 
manometer : as, manometric observations. 

man or, * man cr, * man ere, * man 
oire, * man nor, * man our, s. [O. Fr. 
manoir, maneir, maner = a manor-house, a 
mansion ; prob. a place to dwell or abide in, 
from O. Fr. manoir, maneir = to dwell, Lat. 
maneo = to remain, to dwell.] 

* L Ord. Lang. : A dwelling, a residence, a 
habitation. 

Trouth himself overal and al 
Had ch.e his maner principall 
In her, that was his resting place." 

Chaucer: Dreamt. 
IL Technically: 

1. Eng. Law : A lordship or barony held by 
a lord and subject to the jurisdiction of a 
court-baron held by him. 

"A manor, manerium, a manendo, because the 
usual residence of the owner, seems to have been a 
district of ground, held by lords or great personages; 
who keep in their own hands so much land as was 
necessary for the use of their families, which were 
called terne.domtmcales, or demesne lands, being occu- 
pied by the lord ordoininusiimnerii and his servants." 
Rlackstone : Commentaries, bk. 1L, ch. 6. 

2. Amer. Law : A tract of land occupied by 
tenants who pay a fee-farm rent to the pro- 
prietor, sometimes in kind, and sometimes 
perform certain stipulated services. (Burritt.) 

manor-house, manor-seat, s. The 

house or mansion attached to a manor. 

ma nor I al, * ma-noV-I-al, s. [Eng. 
manor; -ial.] Of or pertaining'to a manor. 

"This tenure is also usually embarrassed by the In- 
terference of manorial claims." Paley : Moral Philo- 
sophy, bk. vl., ch. xi. 

man 6 scope, s. [Qr. ^avos (manos) = thin, 
rare, not dense, and oxon-ico (skopeo) = to see, 
to observe.] The same as MANOMETER (q.v.) 

ma-nos -c6-py, s. [MANOSCOPE.] 

Phys. : That branch of physics which deals 



manoeuvre mantelet 

with the determining of the density of vapours 
and gases. 

* ma-no'-ver-y, s. [MANOEUVRE.] 

Law: A device or manoeuvring to catch 
game illegally. 

* man'-quell-er, s. [A.S. mancwellere, from 
man = man, and cwellan to kill.] A man- 
killer or manslayer ; a murderer. 

* man'-quell-ing, . [MANQUELLER.] The 
act of killing a man ; murder, homicide. 

" Here are shewed ii. manors of mangwUing, one done 
wyllingly and of set purpose, the other vnwyllingly." 
Deuteronomy,*. (1551.) 

* man-red, * man rent, s. [A.S. man- 
rede, from man man ; suff. -red, -rede = 
state, as in kindred, hatred.] 

Scots IMW : Personal service or attendance. 
It was the token of a species of bondage, 
whereby free persons became bondsmen or 
followers of those who were their patrons or 
defenders. 

man -sard, s. [The name of a French archi- 
tect, died 1(566, by whom this style of roof was 
invented.] 

Arch. : A style of roof, also called the French 
curb, or hip-roof. It was designed to make 




MANSARD-ROOF. 

Four pieces of timber connected at points A D c D E, 

and strengthened by tie-beams A K and B D. 

the attics available for rooms, in consequence 
of a municipal law limiting the height of 
front walls in Paris. 

manse, s. [Low Lat. mansa = a farm, from 
mansus, pa. par. of maneo = to remain.] 

* 1. A house or dwelling with or without 
land. 

2. The dwelling-house reserved or built for 
a Presbyterian minister. (Scotch.) 

" To grip for the lucre of foul earthly preferment, 
sic as gear and manse, money and victual." Scott : 
Heart of Mid- Lothian, ch. xliii. 

* If Capital manse : A manor-house, a lord's 
court. 

man ser vant, *. [Eng. man, and servant.] 
A male servant. 

" But the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord 
thy God : In it thou shaft not do any work, thou, nor 
thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy 
maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that i 
within thy gates." Exodus xx. 10. 

man sion, * man si oun, s. [O. Fr. man- 
sion - a dwelling-place, from Lat. mansionem, 
accus. of mansia an abiding, a place of 
abode, from manstis, pa. par. of maneo = to re- 
main, to dwell ; Ital. mansione; Fr. maison.] 

1. A dwelling-house, a place of residence ; 
specif., applied to a house of considerable 
size and pretension. 

" And in that mansion children of his own. 
Or kindred, gathered round him." 

Wordsworth : Excursion, bk. viL 

2. The lord's house in a manor : a manor- 
house. 

* 3. A place of residence ; an abode. 

t are many mansions." John 

* 4. Residence, abode. 

" These poets near our princes sleep. 
And in one grave their mansions keep." 

Denham : On Mr. Abraham Cowley. 

mansion-house, s. 

1. The house in which one resides ; an in- 
habited house. 

" The place must be, according to Sir Edward Coke, 
a mansion-house ; and, therefore, to account for the 
reason why breaking open a church is burglary, . . . 
he quaintly observes that it is donna mansionalit fiei." 
Blackstone: Comment., bk. lv., c. 10. 

2. A manor-house. 

" This party purposing In this place to make a dwell- 
ing, or, as the old word is, his mansion-house, or his 
manor-house, did devise how he might make his land 
a complete habitation to supply him with all mauer 
of necessaries." Bacon: Use of the Law. 

If The Mansion House : The title given to 
the official residences of the Lord-Mayors in 
London and Dublin. 



* man' -sion, v.t. [MANSION, s.] To dwell, 
to remain, to abide. 

" As also the rest of the creatures mansioning there- 
in." -1/e^.r : Paraphrase of St. Peter (1642), p. 16. 

* man sion-ar y, a. & s. [Eng. mansion; 
-ary.] 

A* As adj. : Resident, residing : as, a man- 
stonary canon. 

B. As subst. : (See extract). 

"They might be perhaps the habitations of the man* 
lionaries or keepers of the Church." Archtzologia, 
xiU.293. 

* man'-sion-ry, *man-son-ry, *. [Eng>. 
mansion; -ry.] Abode or abiding in a place. 

" The temple-haunting martlet does approve. 
By his loved mansionry, that the heaven's breath 
Smells wooingly here. Shakesp. : Macbeth, i. S. 

man slaugh ter (gh silent), s. [Eng. man, 
and slaughter.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : The slaughter or killing of ft 
human being or beings ; homicide. 

" Manslaughter shall be held the highest pitch 
Of human glory." Hilton : P. ., xi. 369. 

2. Law : (See extract). 

"Manslaughter is therefore thug defined, the un- 
lawful killing of another without maliceeither express 
or implied : which may be either voluntarily, upon a 
sudden heat, or involuntarily, but in the commission 
of some unlawful nci."Blac/cttone : Comment., bk. iv.. 
ch. u. 

man -slay-er, *man-sle-or, s. [Eng. man, 
and slayer.] One who slays a human being; 
a mankiller, a homicide, a murderer. 

" He was a manileor fro the begynnyng," Wycllfftl 
Jons. 

man'-steal-er, . [Eng. man, and stealer.} 
One who steals or kidnaps human beings, 
generally for the purpose of selling them into 
slavery. 

man'-steal-ing, s. [Eng. man. and stealing. J 
The act or crime of stealing or kidnapping 
human beings for the purpose of selling them, 
into slavery. 

man'-sucte (u as w), * man suette, n. 

[Lat. mansuetus, from manus = the hand, and 
suetus, pa. par. of suesco = to accustom.] 

1. Tame, gentle ; not wild, not ferocious. 

"This holds not only In domestick and mansuetu 
birds : for then it might be thought the effect of clr- 
curation or institution, but also in the wild." Jtagt 
On the Creation. 

2. Gentle, kind, meek, courteous, mild. 

" Thou lover true, thou maiden mansuete." 

Chaucer (I) Letter of Cupid*. 

* man'-sue-tude (u as w), *. [Fr., from 
Lat. mansuetudo, from mansuetus = mansuete 

(q.v.)-l 

1. Tameness, gentleness. 

2. Gentleness, meekness, mildness. 

" A vertue that cleped is mansuetude, that i* da* 
bonairtee." Chaucer : Persones Tale. 

* man'-swear, v.i. [A.S. mdnswerian.] To 
swear falsely ; to perjure oneself. 

* man' sworn, a. [MANSWEAB.] Foresworn, 
perjured. 

Mant ~9hod, s. [MANCHOO.] 

*man'-teau (pi. man-teaus, or man- 
tcaux) (cau, eaus, eaux as o), * man- 
to, s. [Fr.] A mantle, a cloak. 

" Prescribe new rules for knots, hoops, manteaus, wigs." 
Warton : fashion, a Satire, 

man teele, s. [MANTLE, s.] 

man'-tel, s. [O. Fr. Mantel and mantle are 
the same words, the difference in spelling 
being apparently made only to mark the 
difference in sense.] The ornamental facing 
and shelf around a fireplace. 

mantel-piece, s. A beam across the 
opening of a fireplace, serving as a lintel to 
support the chimney-breast. 

mantel -shelf, . A shelf above the 
fccing of a fireplace. 

mantel-tree, *. The lintel of a fire- 
place. 

man' tel-ct, mant'-let, s. [A dimin. of 

mantle (q.v.).] 
* L Ord. Lang. : A small mantle or cloak. 

"A mantelet upon his shouldres hanging, 
Bret-ful of rubies red, as fire sparkling." 

Chaucer : C. T v 2,165. 
IL Fortification : 

1. A movable blind constructed of planks. 
and sometimes plated, to cover a body of 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wglf, work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian, aj, co = e. ey = a. qu = kw. 



manteline manual 



3033 



pioneers and protect them from small shot ; 
a sap-roller is now used. 

2. A protection of woven rope, to protect 
gunners at embrasures. 

*man'-tcl inc. s. [A dimin. from mantle 
(q.v.)]. A little mantle worn by kuights at 
tournaments. 

man-tel' -li-a, . [Named after Dr. Gideon 
Algernon Mantell (1790-1852) ; successively of 
Lewes, Brighton, and London, an eminent 
palaeontologist and geologist.] 

Palceont. : A genus of Cycads. Mantellia 
nidiformis is found in the Purbeck Dirt-bed. 
The specific name refers to the aspect they 
present when cracked, as they always are 
more or less, by the superincumbent strata. 
For the same reason quarrymen call them 
petrified birds' nests. 

* man tic, a. [Gr. navniefa (mantikos), from 
pain-is (mantis) = a prophet.] Pertaining or 
relating to prophecy or divination, or to a 
prophet or divine ; prophetic. 

"The mantle faculty belongs to the part of the soul 
nttled in the liver." Robertton Smith ; Old Testament 
in Jewish Church, lect. x., p. 42S. 

man -ti-chor, man'-ti-cor, s. [MANTIOER.] 

jnan-ti-cbr'-a, . [Lat. mantichora; Gr. 
fiavTtyupat (mantichoras), ^avri^opaf (manti- 
' choras), iuLvri\u>pos (matitichoros), jKaiTixopos 
(mantichoros) = the Persian mardkhora, a 
fabulous animal, mentioned by Ctesias, ap- 
parently compounded of a lion, a porcupine, 
and a scorpion, with a human head.] 

Entom. : A genus of Cicindelid, Tiger- 
beetles. The species which are large, black, 
and wingless, inhabit the deserts of South 
Africa. 

man ti dsB, man ti des, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. 
manti(s); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idte, or 
masc. and fern, -ides.] 

1. Entom. : A family of Orthopterous Insects, 
tribe Cursoria. The first pair of limbs are 
very peculiarly modified, the coxa being greatly 
elongated, while the femur bears on its curved 
underside a channel armed on each edge by 
strong movable spines. Into this groove the 
tibia closes like the blade of a penknife, the 
sharp serrated edges being adapted to cut and 
hold. Prothorax generally exceeding the meso- 
thorax in length. Antennae mostly setaceous. 
Elytra and wings in all. Chief genera : Mantis, 
Empusa, and Eremophila (q.v.). 

2. Palasont. : Dr. Henry Woodward con- 
siders Lithomantis carbonarius, of the English 
Coal Measures, to belong to this family. 

man ti ger, man -ti-chor, man ti cor, 
. s. [MANTICOBA.] 

1. Her. : A monster, with a human face, the 
body of a lion or tiger, a scorpion's tail, and 
long spiral horns. 

2. Zool. : An unidentified (possibly imagin- 
ary) monkey. 

' Near these was placed, by the black prince of Mo- 
1 nomotapas's side, the glaring cat-a-mountain, and the 
xnan-mimlckiug manager." Arbuthnot A Pope. 

man -til la, s. [Sp.] 

1. A hood ; a covering for the head and 
'shoulders, worn also as a veil by Spanish 

ladies. 

2. A light cloak or covering thrown over 
the dress of a lady. 

man '-tis, s. [Gr. fid 



saye 



-tis, s. [Gr. fidi'Ti? (mantis) = (1) a sooth- 
r, (2) a Kind of locust or grasshopper, 
with long, thin fore-feet, perhaps Mantis re- 
ligiosa. (Liddell Scott.)] 

Entom. : Soothsayer, or Praying Insect ; the 
typical genus of the family Mantidse (q.v.). 
Two species occur in Southern Europe : Man- 
tis religiosa, from two to two and a half inches 
in length, and M. oratoria, a smaller species. 
Others are found in the wanner regions of the 
world. The popular names by which they 
are known in different countries have refer- 
ence to their supposed power of indicating the 
way to a lost traveller, and derive their force 
from the religious significance attributed to 
the slow and solemn motions of the insect. 
But the seemingly devotional attitude of the 
Mantis is that in which it watches for its 
prey, seizing unfortunate insects between its 
femur and tibia, thus maiming, and then de- 
vouring them. They are very pugnacious ; 
the Chinese are said to keep them in cages, 
and match them against each other, as western 
nations used to do with game-cocks. 



mantis-crab, mantis-shrimp, s. 

Zool. : Squilla mantis. Its popular name is 
a translation of the scientific name given it 
by some writers, Cancer mantis (digitalis). 
[LOCUST-SHRIMP.] 

mantis-shrimp, s. [MANTIS-CRAB.] 

man tis'- i a, s. [Named from the insect 
mantis, to which the flowers bear some resem- 
blance.] 

Bot. : A genus of Zingiberaceae. Mantisia 
saltatoria. Opera Girls' Mantisia, a plant intro- 
duced into greenhouses from the East Indies 
in 1808, derives its specific name from the fan- 
ciful notion that the flowers are like a dancing 
figure attached to a wire. 

man tis pa, s. [MANTIS.] 

Entom. : A genus of Neuropterous Insects, 
closely allied to the Hemerobiidas, with which 
group some writers class them. They differ, 
however, from that group in the structure of 
the fore-legs, which are elongated and con- 
verted into raptorial organs like those of the 
Mantidse (q.v.). The prothorax is also elon- 
gated, and the head is rather broad, with 

i prominent eyes. The species, which are of 
moderate size and not very numerous, are 
found in all the warmer parts of the world. 
Mantispa paganus is common in Southern 

, Europe. 

man-tis'-pl-daa, . pi. [Mod. Lat. man- 
tisp(a); Lat. fern. pi. adj suff. -idee.] 

Entom. : A group of Neuropterous Insects 
erected for the reception of the genus Man- 
tispa (q.v.). 

man-tis'-sa, s. [Lat. = a worthless addition, 
a makeweight.] 

Math. : The decimal part of a logarithm. 
Thus, the logarithm of 900 being 2'95424, the 
part '95424 is the mantissa. 

man tic, * man tel, man-tell, s. [O. Fr. 

mantel (Fr. manteau) = a cloak, a mantel of a 
fireplace ; from Lat. mantellum = a napkin, 
a means of covering, a cloak (fig. ) ; mantele, 
mantile = a napkin, a towel ; Low Lat. man- 
turn = a short cloak ; Ital. & Sp. manto ; 
Fr. mante = a mantle ; Dut., Dan., & Sw. 
mantel ; Sp. mantilla.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : A cloak or loose garment worn over 
the rest of the dress. 

" Havliig rent my garment and my mnntlt, I fell 
upon my knees." Ezra ix. 5. 

2. Fig. : Anything which covers or conceals ; 
a cloak, a cover. 

" Before the heav'ns thon wert, and at the voice 
Of God, as with a mantle didst invest 
The rising world." Milton : P. L.. iii. 10. 

IL Technically: 

L Anat. : The name given by Reichert to 
the covering portion of the hemisphere-vesicle 
in the brain. 

2. Arch. : A mantel (q.v.). 

3. Building: 

(1) The outer covering of a wall, of different 
material from its inner portion. 

(2) The enveloping masonry of a blast- 
furnace (q.v.).. 

4. Found. : A covering of clay designed to 
form a matrix or mould for casting : as, a 
porous clay covering of a basso-rilievo design 
in wax. The mantle and pattern are baked, 
the wax runs off, and 

the porous clay is a 
mould from which a 
casting is obtained in 
relief. 

5. Her. : The cloak 
or robe which ac- 
companies and is re- 
presented behind the 
escutcheon. MANTLE. 

6. Hydr.-eng. : An 

inclosed chute which leads the water from a 
fore-bay to a water-wheel. 

7. Zool. : The external soft contractile skin 
of the Mollusca, which covers the viscera and 
a great part of the body like a cloak. (Owen.) 
Where a shell is developed it is secreted by 
the mantle. Called also the Pallium. 

mantle-breathers, s. pi. 

' Zool. : Palliobranchiata, a name proposed 
by De Blainville for the Brachiopoda, re- 
ferring to the respiratory f auction exercised by 
the pallium or mantle. 




mantle-breathing, a. Exercising re- 
piratory functions by means of the pallium 
or mantle. 

Mantle-breathing bivalves : 
Zool. : The same as MANTLE-BREATHERS 
(q.v.). 

" All the Brachiopoda, or mantle-breathing bivalve* 
are exclusively inhabitants of the ocean." it its Crane, 
la Castell't Sat. Bitt., v. 260. 

mantle-piece, s. [MANTEL-PIECE.] 
mantle-shelf^ *. [MAUTEL-SHELF.! 

* mantle-tree, . [MANTEL-TREE.] 

man' -tie, v.t. & {. [MANTLE, .] 

A. Trans. : To cover, to wrap, to cloak, to 
hide, to obscure. 

" Darkness the ikies had mantled o'er 
In aid of her design." 

Cowper : Queen's Visit to London, 

B. Intransitive : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. To be spread out or expanded as a mantle. 

" The pair [of wluga] that chid 

Each shoulder broad, came mantling o'er his breast. 
With regal ornament" JfUtmt : P. /.., v. 27ft. 

2. To spread or grow luxuriantly. 

" The mantling vine 

Lays forth her purple grape, and gently creep! 
Luxuriant." Milton : P. L., iv7 MO. 

3. To be overspread. 

'* In maiden confidence she stood. 
Though mantled in her cheek the blood." 

Scott : Lady of the Lake, IT. It. 

4. To become covered with a coating ; to 
gather a covering or coating on the surface. 

" There are a sort of men, whose visages 
Do cream and mantle, like a standing pond." 

Shaketp. : Merchant of Venice, i. L 

*5. To take rest, relief, or ease ; to enjoy 
one s self. 

IL Falconry : To stretch out the wings by 
way of relief or for ease. 

" Ne i ther hauke which mantleth on her pearch." 
Spenter : F. ., VI. ii. 2. 

* man'-tler, s. [Eng. mantl(e) ; -er.] On 
who wears a mantle ; one dressed in a mantle. 

mant let, s. [MANTELET.] 

mant ling, s. [MANTLE.] 

* 1. A mantle. 

" The Italians apply it [plastlck] to the mantling at 
chimneys with great figures, a cheap piece of magnio- 
cence." Reliquiae Wottoniana, p. 63. 

2. The same as MANTLE, s. II. 4, 

* man to, s. [MANTEAU, MANTUA.] 

* man-t6T-6-gist, . [Eng.mcmtoZogfy) ; -irf.] 
One skilled or versed in mantology or divina- 
tion ; a diviner, a prophet. 

* man-tol'-O-gJr, . [Or. HO.VT& (mantis) = 
a prophet, a diviner, and Aoyos (logos) = a dis- 
course.] The art of divination or prophecy. 

Man' ton, s. [See def.] A name given to 
fowling-pieces made by Joseph Manton, a 
celebrated London gunsmith. Often called a 
Joe Manton. 

man-tra, s. [Sans.] 

1. Among the Hindoos: A charm, an in- 
cantation, a prayer, an^nvocatioii. 

2. Vedic Sacred Liter. : A name given to any 
one of the hymns addressed to elemental 
deities which constitute the Sanhita of the 
Big and other Vedas. 

* man'-tu-a, s. [ItaL & Sp. manto = a mantle.] 
A lady's "gown. 

" Not Cynthia, when her mantua't plnn'd awir, 
E'er felt such rage, resentment, and despair. 

Pope : Rape of the Lock, IT. . 

* mantua maker, s. A dressmaker, * 
mantle-maker. 

Man'-tu-an, a. & s. [See def.] 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to Mantuev 
a town in Italy ; born in Italy. 

" Ages elapsed ere Homer's lamp appear'd, 
And ages ere the Mantium swan was heard." 
Cuvrper : Table Talk, 567. 

B. As subst.: A native or inhabitant of 
Mantua. 

*man'-t& s. [Fr. manteau.] A mantle, a gown, 
a mautua. 

man'-u al, * man' -u-el, * man-veil, a. 

& s. [Fr. manuel, from Lat. ma.nualis ; per- 
taining to the hand, manual ; manus = the 
hand ; Sp. & Port, manual; Ital. manuale.] 



bSil, bo^; pout, Jc%l; cat, 90!!, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this, sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph = & 
-clan, -tiaa = shan. -tion, -sion = shun; tion, slon = zhun. -tious, -cious, -sious = abas, -ble, -die, <tc.j=.bel, ' 



mamialist mamimotive 



A. As adjective : 

1. Of or pertaining to the hand ; performed 
or done by the hand. 

" A well organized and very pliant hand may deter- 
mine to occupations requiring manual dexterity." 
Beddoes : Mathematical Evidence, p. S3. (Note.) 

2. Used or made by the hand. 

"The treasurer obliged himself to procure some 
declaration under his majesty s sign manual. "Claren- 
don: Civil War. 

* 3. Having hands. 

"Parents deprived of hands beget manual issues, 
knd the defect of those parts is supplied by the idea 
of others." Browne : Vulgar Errourt, bk. vii., ch. ii. 

B. As substantive : 

L Ord. Lang. : A small book, such as can 
be easily carried in the hand ; a hand-book ; 
a short treatise. 

" This manual of laws, stiled the confessor's laws." 
Bale : Common Late of England. 

II. Technically: 

1. Eccles. : A book containing the occasional 
and minor public offices of the Roman Church. 

2. Meek. : A fire-engine worked by hand. 

" On the arrival of the manual an alarming fire 
was found to be in progress." Weekly Dispatch, May 8, 
1887. 

3. Music: The keyboard of an organ. 

manual-acts, s. j>l. 

Eccles. & Church Hist. : Acts performed by 
the hands of the celebrant in the mass, chiefly 
the fraction of the host, and making the 
ign of the Cross over it before consecration. 
Both were objected to at the Reformation. 

manual-alphabet, s. The deaf and 
dumb alphabet ; the letters made by deaf and 
dumb persons with their fingers. 

manual-exercise, s. 

Mil. : The exercise or drill by which sol- 
diers are taught to handle their rifles and 
other arms properly. 

manual-key, s. An organ-key in the 
manual, played by the hands ; the pedal keys 
are playefl by the feet. 

* man'-U-al-Jj3t, *. [Eng. manual; -ist.] An 
artificer, a workman, a handicraftsman. 

* man'-n-al-ly, adv. [Eng. manual; -ly.] 
In a manual manner ; by the hand or hands. 

* man u-ar : y, * man-u-ar-i, a. & s. [Lat. 
manuarius, from manits = the hand.] 

A. As adj. : Pertaining to or done by the 
hand ; manual. 

"It standeth not that they which are publiqnely 
Imployed in His land's) service, should live of base 
and manuari trades." Hooker : Eccl. Pol., bk. v., } 81. 

B. As substantive : 

L An artificer, a workman, a handicrafts- 
man. 

"There are some special gifts of the Spirit, which 
we call charismata, which do no more argue a right 
to the sunship of God, than the manuarys Infused 
kill of Bezaleel and Aholiab could prove them salntg." 
lift. SaU : Herman on Romans viii. 14. 

2. A consecrated glove. 

" Some minuarlet for handlers of relics." Latimer: 
Workt. L 49. 

* ma-nu'-bi-al, a. [Lat. manubialls from 
manubias = money obtained by the sale of 
booty, booty ; manus = the hand.] Belonging 
to spoils ; taken in \ar. 

* manublal - column, *. A column 
adorned with trophies and spoils. 

ma nu -bri-al, a. [MANUBRIUM.] 

Anat. : Of or pertaining to the manubrium ; 
formed like the manubrium. 

ma nu' bri um, s. [Lat. = a handle, from 
manus = the hand.] 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : A handle, a haft. 

2. Anat. : The presternum, a segment of 
the sternum or breast-bone. It is so called 
from resembling a handle. 

3. Bot. : A cylindrical cell, arising from the 
middle of the inner face of each shell or 
cortical cell in the genus Chara. (Thome.) 

4. Zool. : The polype suspended from the 
roof of the swimming bell of a Medusa, or 
from the gonocalyx of a medusiform gonophore 
amongst the Hydrozoa. 

* man-u-cap'-tor, *. [Lat manus = the 
hand, and captor = one who takes ; capio = 
to take.] 

Law : One who stands bail for another ; a 
surety. 



man -u-code, *. [Fr., from Mod. Lat. 
manucodiata (q.v.).] 
Ornithology : 

1. Sing.: Any individual of the Manucodia, 
whether considered as a group embracing two 
genera, or as a separate genus. 

2. Plural: 

(1) As applied by Moutbeillard (Hist. Nat., 
Oiseaux, Hi. 192), the name was restricted to 
the King Bird-of-Paradise, and three allied 
species. 

2) The Manucodia (q.v.). 
" As with members of the Paradiseidce generally, 
the uidlfication of the Uanucodet is still shrouded in 
mystery." Prof. Xewton, in Encyc. Brit. (ed. 9th), 
xv. 605. 

man-u-co'-dl-a, s. [MANUCODIATA.] 

Ornith. : A group of birds either belonging 
or closely allied to the Paradiseidfe, and 
peculiar to the Papuan sub-region. The 
plumage is glossy steel-blue ; the outer and 
middle toes are united for some distance, and 
there is an extraordinary convolution of the 
trachea in the males, to which the loud and 
clear voice of the birds is owing. Mr. Sharpe 
divides the Manucodia into two genera : 
Phonygama (q.v.) and Manucodia proper, of 
which four species are admitted. Manucodia 
chalybeata (chalybea), from the north-west, and 
M. comriei, from the south-west of New 
Guinea ; M. atra, widely distributed over the 
Papuan sub-region, and M. jobiensis, peculiar 
to the island whence it derives its specific 
name. 

man-n-CO-di-a'-ta, *. pi. [Latinised form 
of Malay Manuk-dewata = bird of the gods, 
the native name for Birds-of-paradise in 
general.] 
Ornith. : (See extract). 

" ffanucodiata was used by Brisson (Ornithologit, ii, 
130) as a generic term equivalent to the Linnsean 
Paradisea. In 178S Boddaert, when assigning scientific 
names to the birds figured by Uaubeuton, called the 
subject of one of them, Manucodia chalybea, the first 
word being apparently an accidental contraction of 
the name uf Brisson 's genus, to which lie referred it. 
Nevertheless, some writers have taken it as evidence 
of an intention to found a new genus of that name, 
and hence the importation of Manucodia into scien- 
tific nomenclature, and the English form to corre- 
spond." Prof. SeuAon, in Encyc. Brit. (ed. th), xv. 
604. (Note.) 

* man - n - du'- cent, . [Lat. manus ='the 
hand, and ducens, pr. par. of duco = to lead.] 
One who leads another by the hand ; a manu- 
ductor. 

* man-U-duc'-tlon, *. [Lat. manuductio, 
from manus = the hand, and duetto = a lead- 
ing ; duco = to lead.] The act of leading or 
guiding by the hand ; guidance, leading. 

Now this Is a direct manuduction to all kind of 

sin." South: Sermons, vol. ii., ser. 6. 

* man -U- due'- tor, . [Lat. mantt = the 
hand, and ductor = a leader, a guide ; duco = 
to lead ; Fr. manuducteur.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : One who leads or guide* 
another by the hand ; a guide, a leader. 

" Love be your manuductor ; may the tears 
Of penitence ( .'ee you from (all) future fears." 

Jordan : Poems, before 1660. 

2. Eccles. : A person in the ancient Church, 
who led the choir and beat time for the music. 

* man'-u-Hict, a. & s. [Lat. manus = the 
hand, and foetus = made.] 

A. As adj. : Made by the hand ; manufac- 
tured. 

" A great part of the linen mamifact is done by 
women and children." JHaidman: Jfaval Specula- 
tions, p. 312. 

B. As subst. : Manufacture. 

"T encourage woollen manufact* 

D'Urfey: Collirit WaVt, lit 

man-u-fac'-tor-y^ *. & a. [Lat. manus = 
hand," and factorium a place where anything 
is made, a factory, from /ocio=to make.] 
[MANUFACTURE.] 

A. As substantive : 

* 1. The act of manufacturing ; manufacture. 
2. A building or place where goods are 
manufactured ; a factory. 

"In places, wherein thriving manufactories have 
erected themselves, land has beeu observed to sell 
quicker." Loch- : Lowering of Interest, <frc. 

B. As adj. : Of or belonging to or em- 
ployed in a manufactory, or the manufacture 
of goods. 

* man-u-fac'-tu-ral, a. [Eng. manufac- 
tur(e); '-al.] Pertaining or relating to manu- 
factures. (W. Taylor, in Annual Review, iv. 38.) 



man-u fac ture, * man i fac ture, i. 

[Fr., from Lat. manu = by the hand, and 
factura = a making, from facio = to make J 
Sp. manufactura, manifactura; Ital. manifat- 
tura.] 

1. The act, process, or operation of manu- 
facturing or making wares of any kind ; the 
process of reducing raw materials to a form, 
suitable for use, by operations more or less- 
complicated. 

"By means of trade and manufactures a greater 
quantity of subsistence can be annually Imported into 
a particular country, than what its own lands, in ths> 
actual state of their cultivation, could afford." 
Smith : Wealth of Nations, bk. iv., ch. ir. 

2. That which is manufactured ; anything 
made from raw materials. 

" Where forraine materials nr but superfluities, for- 
raine manufactures should bee prohibited." Bacon r 
Henry VII., p. 215. 

man-U-fac'-ture, v.t. & i. [Fr. manufac- 
turer} Sp. manufacturar.] 

A. Transitive : 

1. To make or fabricate by art and labour 
from raw materials ; to form by workmanship. 

" Manufactured articles were hardly to be found." 
Jfacaulay : Hist. Eng., ch. xii. 

2. To employ in work ; to work up into 
suitable forms for use : as, To manufacture 
wool, &c. 

B. Intrans. : To be occupied or engaged in. 
the manufacture of wares. 

ma mil , . [Native name.] 

Zool. : Felis manul, a cat occurring on the 
steppes of Tartary and Siberia, It is about 
the same length as the Wild Cat, Felis caius, 
but has longer legs. The fur is yellowish, 
mixed with white ; the head is striped, ana 
the tail ringed with black. 

man-u-lac'-tu-rer, s. [Eng. manufacture) f 
~er.] One who manufactures ; one who em- 
ploys men in the manufacture of wares. 

"Oar woollen manufacturers have been more suc- 
cessful." Smith: Wealth of nations, bk. iv., en. vUL 

man - u - fac'- tu - ring, pr. par., a., & , 
[MANUFACTURE, v.] 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective : 

1. Engaged or employed in the manufacture 
of wares. 

"A trading and manufacturing country naturally 

Surchases with a small part of its manufactured pro- 
uce, a great part of the rude produce of other coun- 
tries." Smith : Wealth of Nations, bk. iv., ch. ix. 

2. Pertaining to or connected with manu- 
factures or manufacturers : as, manufacturing- 
interests. 

C. As subst. : The same as MANUFACTURE. *. 

(q-v.)- 

ma-nu'-le-a, . [From Lat. manus = the 
tiand, in reference to the form and relative 
position of the five divisions of the flower.] 

Sot. : The typical genus of the sub-order 
Manuleae. It consists of handsome Cape 
shrubs, with yellow, orange, or red flowers. 

ma-nu'-le-se, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. manul(ea); 
and Lat. fern. pL adj. suff. -ece.] 

Bot. : A subtribe of Gratiolese, order Scrophu- 
lariaceae. 

* man'-u mise, * man u miss, v.t. [Lat 
manumissus, pa. par. of manumitto = to manu- 
mit (q.v.).] To manumit. 

"Then Valerius Judging that Vlndiclus the bond- 
man had well deserved also some recompence, caused 
him not onely to be manumissed by the whole grant 
of the people, but made him a free man of the city 
besides: and he was the first bondman manumissrA 
that was made citizen of Rome." Xorth: Plutarch, 
p. 86. 

man u miss ion (ss as sh), s. [Fr., from 
Lat. nianumissio, from manumissut, pa. par. of 
manumitto = to manumit; Sp. manumision; 
Ital. manumissione.] The act of manumitting 
or releasing from slavery or bondage ; emanci- 
pation. 

"Villeins might be enfranchised by manumission, 
which is either express or implied. "Blackstone^ Com- 
ment., bk. ii., ch. 6. 

t man'-u-mlt, v.t. [Lat. manumitto = to re- 
lease, from manu = from the hand, and mitto 
= to send ; Sp. manwnitir; Ital. manumettere.] 
To release from slavery ; to set free from 
bondage or servitude ; to free, to emancipate. 

" Several manumitted slaves were Joined to them.* 
Hume: Essays, pt. ii., ess. 11. 

* man'-u-mo-tlve, a. [Lat. manu = by tLo 
hand, and Eng. motive, a. (q.v.).] Movable by 
hand. 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pdt, 
or, wore. wolf. work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur. rule, full ; try, Syrian. , ce- e ; ey - a. au - kw. 



manumotor maormor 



3035 



* man' 11- mo tor, s. [Lat. manu = by tlie 
huiid, and Eng. motor (q.v.).J A wheeled 
carriage adapted to be driven by the bauds of 
the rider. 

* ma-niir'-a-ble, a. [Eng. manur(e); -able.] 

1. Capable of cultivation. 

" This book gives an account of the manurabl lauds 
In every manor "Hale : Orig. of Mankind, p. 235. 

2. That may or can be manured or enriched 
by manure. 

* ma-nur'-age (age as Ig), s. [Eng. manure); 

age.] Cultivation. 

* ma-niir'-anoe, s. [Eng. manur(e); -ance.] 
Cultivation." 

" Being kept from manuranct ... by this hard re- 
straint they would quickly devour one another." 
Spenter: State of Ireland. 

ma niire', v.t. [A contracted form of man- 
utuvre (q.v.).] 

* 1. To work with the hand ; to till, to 
cultivate. 

" It [Japan] is mountainous and craggy, full of rocks 
ud stony places, so that the third part of the empire 
is not inhabited or manured." Memorial* of Japan 
(Backlnyt Society), p. 3. 

* 2. To manage, to administer. 

** It is gouerned, administered, and manured by 
three sorts of persons." Smith : Commonwealth, bk. L, 
ch. xxiii. 

3. To enrich as soils with fertilizing sub- 
stances, as dung, guano, ashes, lime, vege- 
table, or animal refuse, &c. ; to dress with 
manure. 

"The land is manured, either by pasturing the 
cattle upon It or by feeding them In the stable, and 
from thence carrying out their dung to it." Smith : 
Wealth of Nationt, bk. L, ch. xi., p. 807. 

ma-niire', s. [MANURE, v.] 

Agric. Chem. : A term applicable to any 
material which may be used for accelerating 
vegetation or increasing the production of 
plants. The cultivation of plants, year after 
year, tends to exhaust the soil of its air-food 
and ash constituents. It becomes, therefore, 
necessary to replace these by addition of 
manure. This, to some extent, proceeds natu- 
rally by the absorption of air-food by the soil 
in the form of ammonia and carbonic acid, 
and also by the decomposition of the mineral 
matter of the soil under the influence of time 
and tillage. The air-food is supplied by 
nitrogenous matters, chiefly in the form of 
ammoniacal salts, and the asli constituents by 
the use of salts of phosphoric acid and potash, 
in the form of preparations from bone or in 
the use of a mineral phosphate, such as 
coprolites. Those substances which furnish 
both classes of food comprise guano, stable 
manure, fish, seaweed, refuse of towns, and 
artificial saline mixtures, &c. Generally speak- 
ing, phosphates are held to favour the produc- 
tion of a large root crop, and nitrogenous 
manures to increase the production of corn. 
" Though many a load of marie and manure layd 
Revived this barren leas, that erst lay dead. 

lip. Hall: Satirft, bk. v., sat. 1. 

manure-drag, s. 

Agric. : An implement drawn by a horse, 
and having teeth which catch into a bunch of 
manure, and drag it to a place where it may 
be loaded or piled. 

manure-drill, *. 

1. An attachment to a grain-drill which 
deposits powdered fertilizer in the seed-row 
or broadcast, as may be desired. 

2. A form of watering-cart to distribute in 
streams over the surface of a field the liquid 
carried in the box of the vehicle. 

manure-fork, s. A four-pronged fork 
for pitching manure, clearing stables, &c. 

manure-hook, s. A hand implement 
having three or four teeth bent at an angle 
with the handle, and used in dragging manure 
out of a stable, out of a waggon, or scattering 
manure-heaps in a field. 

* ma-niire '-ment, s. [Eng. manure; -ment.] 
The act of manuring ; cultivation, improve- 
ment. 

" The manurement of wits is like that of soils, where 
before the pains of tilling or sowing, men considerwhat 
the mould would bear." IKotton : On Education, p. 76. 

*ma-nur'-er, s. [Eng. manur(e) ; -en] One 
who manures land. 

ma : nur-l-al, a [Eng. manure); -ial.] 
Of or pertaining to manure. 

" The manurial value of the ammonia-phosphates on 
A Urge scale." Athenaeum, March 21, 188$, p. 381. 



man' u -script, a. <fc s. [Lat. manuscriptus 
= written bjr the hand : manu = by the hand, 
and scriptus, pa. par. of scribo = to write ; 
Fr. manuscrit; Ital. manuscritto.] 

A. As adj. : Written by or with the hand ; 
not printed. 

"These me 

Jfacaulay : Ilitt. Kng., ch. x"L~ 

B. As subst. : A book or paper written by 
the hand ; a writing of any kind, in contra- 
distinction to that which is printed. (Con- 
tracted to MS., pi. MSS.) 

"Study our manutcriptt, those myriads of letters 
which have passed 'twixt thee and me." Donne: 
Valediction to hit Book. 

* man-u-tSn'-en-oy, *. [Lat. manu = in 
the hand, and tenens, pr. par. of Unto = to 
hold.] Maintenance. 

man u ten -sion, s. [Lat. manu = with the 
hand, and Eng. tension.] (See extract.) 

" The plan of manutention, or holding violent 
patients for a long time by the hands of attendants." 



* man ward, * man wardo, adv. [Eng. 
man; -ward.] Towards man. 

" After that the kindnes & love of our Saviour Qod 
to manaarde appeared." Titut ii. (1551.) 

Many, a. & s. [See def.] 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to the lale of 
Man or its inhabitants. 

B. As substantive : 

1. (As a plural) : The inhabitants or natives 
of the Isle of Man. 

2. The language spoken by the natives of 
the Isle of Man. It is closely related to Gaelic 
and Irish. 

Manx-oat, s. 

Zool. : A variety of the domestic cat (Felis 
domestica), a native of the Isle of Man, distin- 
guished by having no tail, or only a rudi- 
mentary one. It is now 
nearly extinct in the Isle of 
Man. 




Manx-puffin, Manx-shearwater, . 

Ornith. : Piiffiniis anglorum (Procellaria puf- 
Jlnus). [SHEARWATER.] 

many (a as S), * man i, * mon-i, mon-y, 

a. & s. [A.S. manig, mcenig, monig ; cogn. 
with Dut. menig ; Dan. mange; Sw. mftnge; 
I eel. margr; Goth, manags ; Ger. manch; 
M. H. Ger. manec ; O. H. Ger. manac ; IT. 
minic ; Gael, minig ; Wei. mynych ; Russ. 
mnogie.] 

A. As adj. : Numerous ; consisting of a 
great or large number of individuals. 

" Probably not without many prayers, the decision 
was mMle."Macaulay : Ilitt. /:</., ch. L 

U When followed by a or an before a singu- 
lar noun, many has a more distributive or 
emphatic force than when joined with a plural 
noun. 

" Full many a flower is bom to blush unseen. 
And waste its sweetness on the desert air." 

dray: Elegy. 

B. As substantive : 

1. A multitude. (A.S. manigeo, manigu.)' 

" O thon fond many 1 with what loud applause 
Dld'st thou beat heav'n with blessing Boliugbroke. 
Shakrip. : 2 ttenry IV., i. S. 

2. Preceded by the indefinite article, it 
signifies a considerable number. 

" Mother of a many children." 

Shaketp. : Richard III., ill. 7. 

If 1. The many : The great majority of 
people ; the common crowi 
2. So many : 

(1) The same number of ; as many. 

(2) A certain number indefinitely , as, Take 
so many of them, and so many of the others. 



3. Too many : Too great, too powerful, too 
strong. 

"They come to vie power and expense with thou 
that, are too high and too many for them." L' Kitrangt, 
*ft Many is largely used in comjiositioii with 
adjectives, forming compounds, the meanings 
of which are sufficiently obvious : as, many- 
coloured, many-flowered, many-hued, tie, 

many-banded, a. Marked with many 
bands or stripes. 

Many-banded Goshawk : 

Ornith. : Melierax polyzonus, common in 
Abyssinia and Senegambia. 

many-cleft, a. Having numerous clefts 
or cuts. 

many-cornered, a. 

1. Lit. : Having many corners or angles ; 
polygonal. 

* 2. Fig. : Having many corners or recesses ; 
intricate. 

" Search those many-cornered minds. 
Where woman's crooked fancy turns and winda," 
firyden. (Toad.) 

many-headed, a. 

1. Ord. Lang. : Having many heads ; hence, 
applied to the people in the sense of fickle, 
changeable. 

IT The expression is of Horatian origin, and 
occurs in the first epistle to Maecenas (I. i. 76): 
"Bellua es multorum capitum." Pope imi- 
tates the passage (Sat. iii. 121) : 

" Well, if a king's a lion, at the least 
The people are a many-header beast." 

2. Bot. : A term applied to a root, terminated 
by several distinct buds. 

If The many-headed: The common herd; 
the multitude. 

* many languaged, a. Speaking many 
or various languages. 

" The city since of many-lnnguaged men." 

Pope: Uomer; Iliad xx. 457. 

many-parted, a. Having many parts 
or divisions. 

* many-peopled, a. Having a large or 
numerous population ; thickly inhabited. 

" He from the many-peopled city flie : 
Contemns their labours. Sanift. 

many-root, s. 

Bot. : A West Indian name for RueUin 
tuberosa. 

* Many-saints'- day, 5. Pentecost. 

"Those three thousand gained (on ifiuiy-Kniuti-ilayt 
by Saint Peter." Fuller : Church Siitory, iii. (Dedic.) 

many-sided, a. 

L Lit. : Having many sides : as, a mony- 
sided figure. 
II. Figuratively: 

1. Having many sides or points for con- 
sideration : as, a many-sided question. 

2. Exhibiting many aspects of mental OP 
moral character ; showing mental or moral 
activity in many different directions ; open to 
many influences ; widely sympathetic : as, a 
many-sided character. 

3. Derived from many sources or influences ; 
exhibiting many phases ; wide, liberal, not 
narrow : as, many-sided erudition. 

many-sidedness, s. The quality or 
state of being many-sided. 

many- ways, many -wise, adv. In 
many different ways ; variously, multifari- 
ously. 

many- weathered, a. Variable in 
weather. 

"The day 
Changeful and many-tceat hered.* 

Southey : Evening Rainto*. 

* man-y, s. [M KIN-Y.) A retinue of servant* : 
a body of followers or attendants. 

maor, s. [MAER.] 

Mao ri (ao as tfw), *. & a. [Native word.] 

A. .-is subst. : A native inhabitant of New 
Zealand. 

B. As adj. : Of or pertaining to the nativa 
inhabitants of New Zealand. 

Maori-rat, s. 

Zool. : A murine rodent, occurring in New 
Zealand ; it is identical with the Black Rat 
(Mus rattus). 

* maor -mor (ao as a), s. [Gael, maer, maor 
& royal steward; 7nor = great.] A royal 
steward of high dignity and power, placed by 



boil, bdy; pout, Jdwl* cat, 9011, chorus, shin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-ian, -ti an - shan, -non, -sion-sbun; -(ion, -sion-^ zhiin. -clous, -tious, -sious = ahus. -We, -die. &c. = bel, del* 



3036 



maoutia maraud 



the King of Scotland over a province instead 
of a thauage, and exercising the office of royal 
deputy, eujoying a third part of its revenues. 

ma-OU'-ti-a, . [Named after Emmanuel Le 
Maout.] 

Bot. : A genus of Urticaeese. Maoutia Puya 
is a shrub with very white leaves, growing in 
the Himalayas. It yields a strong fibre of 
go;xl quality, used for making fishing-nets, 
nut-bags, twine, and cloth. (Calcutta Exhibi- 
tion Report.) 

map, *mappe, . [Fr. mappemonde, from Lat. 
mappa mundi = a map of the world ; mappa = 
a napkin ; Ital. mappamondo.] 

L Lit. : A representation of a portion of the 
earth's surface, or of a portion of the heavens 
upon a plane. There are, therefore, two kinds 
of maps, terrestrial and celestial. Terrestrial 
maps are of two kinds, those which represent 
portions of land and water together, which 
are properly called maps, and those which 
represent portions of the ocean, only indi- 
cating the directions of currents, soundings, 
anchorages, rocks, shoals, buoys, lighthouses, 
&c. ; these are called hydrographical maps or 
charts. A map of the earth, or of a portion 
of the earth, generally shows the physical 
features of the country, as rivers, mountains, 
lakes, ifec., the situation of towns, cities, &c., 
relatively to each other, and by means of the 
lines of latitude and longitude relatively to 
every other point on the earth's surface. 
Maps are also prepared for special purposes, 
as geological, statistical, ethnological, or his- 
torical maps. It being impossible to repre- 
sent a spherical surface on a plane, so that the 
parts shall have to each other their proper 
relative positions, the representation is, in all 
cases, conventional. Various devices have 
been resorted to, each of which has its own 
peculiar advantages and disadvantages. A 
representation of the meridians and circles of 
latitude forms, in all cases, the skeleton or 
basis of every map of an extensive portion of 
the earth's surface, and it is upon a correct 
delineation of these that the accuracy of any 
map depends. The principal methods of pro- 
tection are the orthographic, the stereographic, 
the globular, the conical, and the cylindrical 
or Mercator's projection, besides various com- 
binations and modifications. In the first 
three cases the plane upon which the map is 
to be drawn is called the primitive plane, and 
is supposed to be passed through the centre 
of the earth. The various lines are projected 
upon this plane, by lines drawn through their 
different points and some fixed point, called 
the point of sight. Upon the location of the 
point of sight depends the peculiarities of the 
three methods of projection. 

2. Fig. : A distinct and precise representa- 
tion of anything. 

map-holder, s. A frame for the display 
of maps or charts. In one form the maps are 
on an endless web of cloth ; in another they 
re hung from separate rollers in the manner 
of window-blinds. 

map-measurer, s. An instrument with 
a little wheel of known circumference, which 
is made to roll along a line and indicate its 
length, the number of revolutions being 
counted, and the fraction, if any, observed by 
reference to the pointer and graduated peri- 
meter. [OPISOMETER, PERAMBULATOR.] 

map - mounter, . One who mounts 
maps by backing them with canvas, varnish- 
ing them, and fixing them on rollers. 

map, "mappe, v.t. [MAP, .] 

1. Lit. : To draw or delineate a map or 
chart ; to lay down in a map. 

2. Fig. : To point out, describe, or set down 
accurately, generally followed by out. 

" I am near to the place where they should meet, 11 
Puaiiio have mapped It truly." Shalcetp. ; Ci/mbeline, 

ma' -pie (1), . [A.8. mapulder, mapolder, from 
mapul = maple, and treow = tree ; Ger. maz- 
holder.] The genus Acer (q.v.). 

"Unmolested worked the women. 
Made their sugar from the maple." 

Longfellow : Hiawatha, xlU, 

f Of the Maples of the United States may be 
named Acer ttriatum, the Striped Bark Maple, 
which often forms great part of the under- 

Sowth in woods, and A. saccharinum, the Sugar 
aple, which abounds in the northern part of 
this country. Its wood is satiny in texture and 
is much used by cabinet-makers. When finely 



marked with undulating fibres it is called Bird's- 
eye Maple. A. campestre is the Common Maple 
of Europe. There are other common species. 

maple-sugar, s. 

Chem. : Maple saccharose. A coarse sugar, 
used by the inhabitants of the Northern States 
of America, obtained from the sugar-maple 
(Acer saccharinum), by boring a hole into the 
wood in the spring, and inserting a spout to 
convey the juice into a vessel placed for its 
reception. On boiling down the liquid, a 
dark-coloured crystalline mass is deposited. 
This sugar rarely finds its way into commerce. 

*ma'-ple(2), s. [Mor.] A little mop. 

"As broade as auullurs' maple*." Naihe : Lenten 
Stuffc. (Dedie.) 

mapped, pa. par. [MAP, t>.] 

* map'-per-y, * [Eng. map ; -ery.1 The study 
or planning of maps or charts ; bookish theory. 

"They call this, bed-work, mappcry, closet war." 
Shakesp. : fruit ut & Creuida, i. 3. 

*map'-pist, . [Eng. map; -ist.] A maker 
of maps. 

" Learned mappiitt on a paper small 
Draw (in abridgement) the whole type of all." 

Sylteiter : Little llartat, 811. 

ma-prou'-ne-a, s. [Named by Aublet, pro- 
bably from a Guiana name. (Britten.)] 

Bot. : A genus of Euphorbiacea, tribe Hip- 
pomanea. Maprounea brasiliensis yields a 
fugitive black dye. A decoction of the root 
is given in derangements of the stomach. 

maqui (as mak'-we), s. [Native name.] 

Hot. : Aristotelia, a Chilian shrub of the 
order Tiliacese, used for making musical in- 
struments, the strings of which are formed of 
the tough bark. A wine made from the 
berries is prescribed in malignant fever. 

mar, * marre, * merre, v.t. [A.S. merran, 
in comp. dmerran, dmyrran = to dissipate, 
to waste, lose, hinder, obstruct ; mirran = to 
impede ; gemearr = an impediment ; cogn. 
with O. Dut. merren = to stay, to retard ; Dut. 
marren = to tarry ; O. H. Ger. marrjan = to 
hinder, to disturb, to vex ; Fr. marri = sad, 
vexed.] To injure, to spoil, to hurt, to 
damage, to disfigure. 

"Marring all the festal mirth." 

Scott : Lady of the Lake, 11. 8. 

* mar (1), * marr, s. [MAR, v.] A blot, a 
blemish, an injury. 

" I trust my will to write shall match the mam I 
make in it" Atcltam : To Edward Raven, May, 1451. 

* mar (2), *. [MERE.] A lake. 
ma'-r* (1), s. [PATAGONIAN-CAVY.] 

ma' ra (2), s. [Icel. = a nightmare.] 

Norse Mythol. : A demon who torments and 
tortures men with visions, and even crushes 
them to death. [MARE, 2.] 

mar-a-bdn', . [Native African name.] 

OrnUh. : The popular name for at least two 
species of Storks of the genus Leptoptilus, 
the vent feathers of which were formerly much 
esteemed as ornaments, and for ladies' head- 
dresses. Leptoptilus argala is the Asiatic 
marabou or Adjutant (q.v.). L. Marabou, a 
smaller species, is from tropical Africa, where 
it assists the vultures in consuming the filth 
of the negro villages. It is, if possible, uglier 
than its Asiatic congener, but its delicate vent 
feathers are equally valued. 

mar a-bout', mar a boot', . [Arab.] A 
Muhammadan who devotes himself to a reli- 
gious life. He considers it a merit to fight 
for his faith. Many such exist in Northern 
Africa. They pretend to supernatural powers. 

ma' -rah, *. [Heb. = bitterness.] 

1. Lit. : The name given to a place on the 
east of the Red Sea. 

"They could not drink of the water> of Marah, for 
they were bitter : therefore the name of it was called 
Marah." Exod. XV. 21 

* 2. Fig. : Bitterness ; bitter water. 

" Slaked Its thirst with marah of Ita tears." 

Longfellow. 

ma-ral', s. [A native word.] A sacred in- 
closure or temple among the islanders of the 
Pacific Ocean. 

mar'-a-nade, v.t. [MARINATE.] 

mar-a-na'-tha, s. [Gr. Mopovafla (Afar- 
cmatha); Aramaic NfW p>p (Maran atha) = 
the Lord coiueth.] 



Scrip. : A term used by St. Paul, at the con- 
clusion of his first Epistle to the Corinthians, 
in connection witli an anathema. Anathema 
Maranatha = Let him be accursed at the com- 
ing of the Lord. 

mar'-an-ite, s. [Etym. doubtful.] 

Mia. : The same as CHIASTOLITE or MACLB 
(q.v.). 

ma-rant', . [MARANTA.] 

Sot. (PI.) : The name given by Lindley to 
the order Marantacese (q.v.). 

ma-ran'-ta, *. [Named after B. Maranti, a 
Venetian physician and botanist, who died in 
1554.] 

Bot. : Marant, the typical genus of the 
order Marantacese (q.v.). Maranta arun- 
dinacea, M. Allouya, and M. nobilis, furnish 
arrowroot in the West Indies, and M. ramosis- 
ima in the East Indies. The split stems of 
M. dichotoma, a native of India and Burmah, 
are made into mats. 

mar-an-ta'-ce-ae, . pi. [Mod. Lat. mar* 
ant(a); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -acece.] 

Bot. : An order of Endogens, alliance Amc- 
males. It consists of herbaceous ( tropical 
plants without aroma. There is' often a 
tuberous rhizome, full of starch ; the stem 
generally branched; the leaves are simple, 
sheathing with a single midrib, from which 
numerous veins diverge at an acute angle, 
running parallel to each other to the margin 
of the leaf; inflorescence a dense spike, a 
raceme, or a panicle either terminal or radical ; 
flowers arising from spathaceous membranous 
bracts ; calyx short, inferior ; sepals three ; 
corolla tubular, irregular, with the segments 
in two whorls, the outer three-parted, equal, 
the inner very irregular; stamens three, 
petaloid, only one fertile ; anther one-celled ; 
ovary one to three-celled ; ovules one 01 
many, erect ; fruit capsular. Found in tropical 
America, Africa, and India, They are ot 
economic value from the starch in which thej 
abound. Known genera six, species 100. 
(Lindley.) 

ma-ras'-ca, s. [Ital. = a kind of sonr cherry, 
from Lat. 'amarus = bitter.] A small, black, 
wild, variety of cherry, from which maraschino 
is distilled. 

mar-as-chi'-no, s. [Ital. marasca = ma- 
rasca (q.v.).] A delicate spirit or liqueur dis- 
tilled from cherries ; the best is from Zara in 
Dalmatia. 

ma-ras'-mi-us, s. [Mod. Lat. = pertaining 

to decay, from marasmus (q.v.).] 

Bot. : A genus of fungi, akin to Agaricus. 
Some foreign species are finely coloured. 
Marasmius Oreades is the Champignon, which 
is eatable ; M. scorodonius is used as a condi- 
ment. 

ma ras' mo-lite, s. [Gr. ^apao>6s (marat- 
mos) = decaying; suff. -lite (Min.).~\ 

Min. : A blende (q.v.) partially decomposed, 
and containing some free sulphur. 

t ma-ras'-mus, s. [Gr. /iopao-/ios (marasmot) 
= decay.] 

Pathol. : The wasting away of the body with- 
out obvious cause. Now it is assumed that 
this must be brought about by some local 
disease, and investigations are made to ascer- 
tain which it is. 

mar-as-que -no (qu as k), s. [MARASCHINO.) 

Ma- rath'- 1, s. [The native name.] [Mxn- 
RATTA.] The language spoken by the Mah- 
rattas. Called also Mahratta (q.v.). 

" Second come* Marathi which remained a Prakrit 
till the twelfth or even thirteenth century." Beamet: 
Comp. Gram. Aryan Lang, of India, i. (1872), p. 120. 

ma-rat'-ti-a, s. [Named after L. F. Maratti, 
o'f Valloinbrbsa in Tuscany, who wrote upon 
ferns.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of the order Marat- 
tiacea (q.v.). Hind says that the rhizomes 
of Marattia alatti are eaten by the Sandwich 
Islanders in time of scarcity. 

ma-rat-tif-a'-ce-w, *. pi. [Mod. Lat. ma- 
ratti(a) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -aceas.] 
Bot. : The same as DAN^ACE^E (q.v.). 

f ma-raud', v.i. [Fr. marauder = to beg, to 
pla'y the rogue, from maraud = a rogue, a beg- 



ISte, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or. wore, W9lf, work, who, son : mute, cub, cure, unite, cur* rule, full ; try, Syrian, se. ce = e ; ey = a. qu - jew* 



marauder inarch 



3037 



gar.] To rove iu quest of plunder or booty ; 
to pillage, to plunder. 

" Their gain. t>>eir glory, their delight. 
To sleep the iny. maraud the night. 

.ScoM. Marmion, v. 4. 

ma-raud'-er, r, [Eng. maraud; -er.] One 
who marauds ; one who roves in search of 
plunder ; a pillager, a plunderer. 

- No labourer dared bring any thing for sale let some 
nuirauder should lay bauds oil it by the way." Mac- 
utility : llitt. Eng., cL xlL 

mar-a-ve-di', a. [Sp., from Arab. Murd- 
bitin = the steadfast, a name of a dynasty 
that reigned in Spain and Africa.] 

1. A Spanish copper coin, value less than 
one farthing sterling. 

2. A Spanish gold coin, value about four- 
teen shillings sterling. 

mar ble, * mar-bel, * mar-bre, *mar- 
bre Ston, s. & a. [Fr. marbre, from Lat. 
marmorem, accus. of marmor = marble ; Gr. 
^idp/iopot (ma.rma.ros) = a glistening white 
stone, from naptuupw (marmairo) to sparkle, 
to glitter.] 

A* As substantive : 

I. Ordinary Language: 

1. In the same sense as II. 2. 

8. A column, tablet, pillar, ftc., of marble 
or other .itone, remarkable for some inscrip- 
tion or sculpture. 

3. A little ball of marble, stone, clay, Ac., 
used by children as a plaything. 

" Nor fear'd the martlet, as they bounding flew." 

Oay : Lamentation of Olumdalclitch. 

H, Technically: 

1. Art : A plate of stone used by painters ; 
slab on which raw colours are ground with 
ft muller. 

2. Geol., Petrol, Sculp., it Building Stones; 
A popular name for any limestone which is 
sufficiently hard to take a tine polish. (Lyell.) 
Any calcareous or even any other rock which 
takes ft good polish, and is suitable for decora- 
tive or architectural purposes, (ttutley.) Fine 
marbles are very abundant in the United 
States, not only those adapted to building 
purposes, but statuary marble equal to that of 
Italy being found. Beautiful colored marbles 
are produced in Tennessee and other states. 
Marble may be of one color, white or some 
other shade, of two colors closely mingled, 
or of many colors. Some contains shells, cor- 
als, Ac. Some of the fossiliferous limestones 
furnish excellent marbles. For instance, the 
encrinital limestones of the Carboniferous for- 
mation have the fossils white in a dark gray 
or black matrix. Nonfossiliferous crystalline 
marbles consisting of sedimentary calcareous 
strata, altered by metamorphism, also furnish 
good marbles. The statuary marble of Italy 
may be of this character. [STATUARY MARBLE.] 
The purest kinds are used for statues, those 
less pure as building material. The Carrara 
nd Parian marbles are of this type. Other 
marbles are the Verd Antique, the Fire Marble 
or Lumachelle, the Giallo Autico, Madreporic 
Marble, &c. 

f (1) Finished marble is that which is ready 
for its place. 

(2) Polished marble : [MARBLE-POLISHING]. 

(3) Rough marble is in the shape of blocks 
from the quarries. 

(4) Rough-hewn marble is out with the saw 
or squared with the stone axe. 

3. (}lass-man. : A stone or iron plate on 
which glass is rolled to shape it ; a marver. 

4. Printing : 

(1) A printer's imposing-stone. 

(2) A style of colouring, for paper and book 
edges. 

If (1) Arundel or Arundelian marbles : 
[ARUNDELIAN]. 

(2) Elgin marbles: A collection of basso- 
relievos and fragments of statuary brought 
from the Parthenon at Athens to England by 
Lord Elgin in 1814. They were afterwards 
purchased by the British Government, and 
are now in the British Museum. They con- 
sist chiefly of the metopes, representing for 
the most part the combats of the Centaurs 
and Lapitlut, and the statues or fragments of 
statues, which ornamented the tympana of 
the pediments of the Parthenon, or Temple of 
Minerva. To these were added the frieze from 
the temple of Nike Apteros, a series of casts 
from the temple of Theseus, and the choragic 
monument of Lysierates. 



B. At adjective : 
I. Literally: 

1. Composed or consisting of marble. 

" Aa o'er the marble courts of kings. ' 

Moon : Light of a* Harm. 

2. Variegated, veined, or streaked like 
marble. 

IL Figuratively : 

1. Hard like marble; cold, insensible: as, 
marble heart. 

* 2. Pure, pellucid. 

"[lie]. . . into the world's first region throws 
Through th pure marble air his obliuue way." 
Jlilttn : P. 1... lii. 564. 

H Artificial Marble : An indurated composi- 
tion of gypsum, alum, isinglass, and colour- 
ing materials incorporated into a paste and 
moulded into form. 

* marble-cutter, 9. One who cuts or 
hews marble ; a workman in marble ; a 
machine for cutting marble. 

marble-edge, s. 

Bookbind. : A mode of ornamenting the 
edges of bound books. [MARBLE-PAPER.] 

marble-edged, a. Having the edges 
marbled, as a book, &c, 

marble-handsaw, s. A Wade without 
teeth, and having a block handle at the back. 
It is used with sand for cutting slabs into 
pieces or slips. 

* marble-hearted, a. Haying a cold, 
cruel heart ; hard-hearted, insensible. 

" Ingratitude I thou marble-hearted fiend. 
More hideous, when thou shew'st thee iu a child, 
Than the sea-monster ! " Shaketp. : Lear, i. 4. 

marble-paper, s. Paper ornamented 
with a coloured pattern resembling marble ; or 
ornamented by a process similar to that of 
marbling, with patterns bearing no analogy to 
those of marble, but assuming certain conven- 
tional forms, in which the colours are singu- 
larly blended and contrasted. 

marble-rubber, s. A block or tray 
with a flat sole, moved above the marble slab 
with a combined rotary and reciprocating 
motion. 

marble-scourer, . A rubber for gar- 
facing marble slabs. 

mar' -ble, v.t. [MARBLE, .] To variegate, 
stain, or vein like marble ; to give an appear- 
ance of marble to. 

mar'-bled (bled as beld), a. [MARBLE, v.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Variegated, spotted. 

" Those fine covers of books that, for their resem- 
blance to speckled marble, are wont to be called 
marbled." Boytt : Workt, lii. 448. 

2. Bol., &c. : Having the surface traversed 
by irregular veins of colour, like a block of 
marble. 

marbled-beauty, s. 

Entom. : Bryophila perla, a small whitish 
moth, dappled with bluish-gray. 

marbled tiger-cat, s. 

Zool. : Felis marmorata. Habitat, the Sik- 
kiin Himalayas, the hilly parts of Assam, 
Bin-mail, Malayana, and Java. Head and 
body from eighteen inches to two feet long ; 
tail about fifteen inches. Dingy tawny to 
yellowish-gray, with long, wavy, black spots, 
somewhat clouded or marbled ; belly, yellow- 
ish-white ; tail spotted and tipped with black. 

marbled white-butterfly, s. 

Entom. : Arge Galathea, a rare bntterfly, the 
wings of which are creamy white, marbled 
and veined with black. 

* mar'-ble-ize, v.t. [Eng. marble; -ize.] To 

colour in imitation of variegated marble. 

mar'-bling, s. [MARBLE, v.] 

1. The act or process of staining, colouring, 
or variegating in imitation of marble. 

2. Any marking resembling that of veined 
marble. 

*mar'-bly, a. [Eng. marbUe); -y.] Resem- 
bling marble in appearance or structure. 

* mar bul, s. [MARBLE, s.] 

marc (1), . [MARK (1), s.] A weight of gold 
or silver ; a money of account. 

marc (2), *. [Fr., from Lat. emarcus = a kind 
of vine.] The refuse matter remaining after 
the pressure of fruit, as of grapes, olives, Ac. 



mar -ca site, * mar cha site, s. [A word 
of Arabic origin ; O. Ger.'marc/uwita; Mod, 
Gcr. markasit.] 

Min.: This name formerly included all 
crystallized pyrites, but Haidinger, in 1845, 
confined it to the orthorhombic varieties. It 
is found either in crystals mostly twinned, or 
as globular or reniform masses with fibrous 
structure, and massive. Hardness, 6 to 6*5 ; 
sp. gr. 4-078 to 4-847. Lustre, metallic ; colour, 
pale bronze yellow to greenish-gray ; streak, 
grayish or brownish-black. Fracture uneven. 
Brittle. Compos. : as in pyrites, sulphur, 
53-3 ; iron, 46-7 ; formula, FeSV The German 
mineralogists distinguish seven varieties, re- 
sulting mainly from their habit of crystalliza- 
tion : (1) Radiated (Strahlkies) ; (2) Cocks- 
comb Pyrites (Kammkies) ; (3) Spear Pyrites 
(Speerkies) ; (4) Capillary Pyrites (Haarkies) ; 
(5) Hepatic Pyrites (Leberkies); (6) Cellular 
Pyrites (Zellkies) ; (7) Arsenical Pyrites, the 
same as KYRosiTE(q.v.). The pyrites of sedi- 
mentary rocks mostly belongs to this species, 
and that of metamorphic and igneous rocks 
to Pyrites (q.v.). More prone to decomposi- 
tion than pyrites. Occurs abundantly in clays 
of various formations, and in the chalk. 

mar ca sit Ic, mar-ca-sit'-ic aL a. 

[Eng. marcasite) ; -ical.] Of or pertaining to 
marcasite ; of the nature of marcasite. 

"The place that abounds with these manhatUioat 
minerals." Boyle: Workt.iil.3W. 

mar cas -sin, s. [Fr.] 

Her. : A young wild boar. 

mar'-eel-me (1), s. [Fr., from Lat marceo = 
to be weak or thin.] 

Fabric : A thin silk tissue used for linings, 
&c., in ladies' dresses. 

mar'-9l-ine (2), s. [Named after the place 
where found, San Marcel, Val d'Aosta, Pied- 
mont ; sutt'. -ine (Min.).] 
Mineralogy : 

1. The impure form of braunite (q.v.), con- 
taining 10 per cent, of sesquioxide of iron. 

2. An altered form of Rhodonite (q.v.) by 
oxidation ; the same as HETEROCLINE (q.v.). 

Uar-ceT-li-an, *. [For etym. see def.] 

Church Hist. (PI.) : Followers of Marcellus, 
Bishop of Ancyra, in the fourtii century, who, 
in his zeal against Arianism, ran into the 
opposite error of Sabellianism. (Shipley.) 

mar-ces'-cent, a. [Lat. marcescens, pr. par. 
of marcesco =. to fade, incept, of marceo = to 
be thin or weak.] 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : Withering, fading, decaying. 

2. Bot. : Withering or fading, not falling off 

until the part which bears it is wholly 

matured, as the flowers of Orobanche (q.v.jt 

(Lindley.) 

* mar-ce's'-ci-ble, o. [Lat. marcesco = to 
wither.] Liable to wither or decay. 

marc-gra'-vi-a, s. [Named after George 
Mart-grave, a German, who, in 1718, pub- 
lished a Natural History of Brazil.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of the order Marc- 
graviacese (q.v.). In the West Indies the 
stem, root, and leaves of Afarcgravia umbellata 
are regarded as diuretic and antisyphifitic. 

marc-gra-vi-a'-ce-te, *.;{. [Mod. Lat. 
marcgravHa) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -acece.] 

Bot. : Margraviads; an order of hypogynoua 
exogens, alliance Guttiferales. It consists of 
trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing, with 
alternate, simple, entire, coriaceous, exstipu- 
late leaves ; flowers regular, in umbels, ra- 
cemes, or terminal spikes, generally in bag- 
shaped or hooded bracts ; sepals two to seven ; 
corolla of five imbricated petals, or gamo- 
petalous ; stamens generally indefinite ; ovary 
superior, three or many-celled ; style one ; 
stigma simple or capitate ; fruit generally 
succulent, with many seeds imbedded in the 
pulp. Natives chiefly of tropical America, 
known genera four, species twenty-six. 
(Lindley.) 

mar9h(l), *marche, r.f. [MARCH (1), s.] To 
border, to be contiguous, to run side by side. 

"I know the estates well; they march with my 
own." Scott : Bride qf Lammermoor, xvii. 

mar9h (2), v.i. tit. [Fr. marcher, a word of 
doubtful origin, perhaps from Lat. marcus = 



boll. by; pout, jowl; cat, cell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, ^Cenophon, eyist. ph 
-cian, tian - shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -(ion, ?ion = zhun. -clous, -tious, -sious = shus, -ble, -die, ic. = fcel, df 



3038 



march mare 



hammer, and so referring to the regular 
tramp of a marching body of men ; otherwise 
from Fr. marche = a boundary, as in the phrase, 
alter de marche en march* = to go from land to 
land, to make expeditions ; O. H. Ger. marcha.] 
[MARCH (1), s.] 

A. Intransitive: 

1. To move by steps, and in regular order, 
as soldiers ; to walk or move forward with a 
steady, regular tread. 

" Our word is Laws and Liberty 1 
March forward, cme and all." 

Scott: War Song. 

2. To walk or move in a grave, steady, or 
deliberate manner. 

" Doth York intend no barm to us, 
That thus he marcheth with thee arm In arm?" 
Shaketp. : 2 Henry VI., v. \. 

B. Transitive : 

1. To cause to move in military order or in 
regular procession, as soldiers. 

2. To cause to go anywhere at one's com- 
mand, and under one's guidance. 

"Cyrus marching his army for divers days over 
mountains of snow, the dazzling splendour of its 
whiteness prejudiced the sight of very many of his 
soldiers." Boyle : On Colourt. 

march (1), marche, s. [Fr. = a frontier ; 
O. H. Ger. marcha ; A.S. mearc = a mark, a 
boundary. ] A frontier or boundary of a terri- 
tory ; especially applied to the boundaries or 
confines of political divisions, or to the 
country lying near and about such. The term 
is most commonly applied to the borderland 
of England and Wales, and of England and 
Scotland, the latter of which was divided 
into two divisions, the western and the 
middle marches, each of wlWch had courts 
peculiar to itself, and a governor, called the 
warden or lord of the marches. In Scotland the 
term is applied to the boundaries, or marches 
which determine them, of conterminous estates 
or lands, whether large or small. 

U Riding of the Marches : A practice still 
observed in some parts of Scotland, for the 
purpose of preserving in the memory of the 
inhabitants the boundaries of a parish, town, 
&c., for which purpose the magistrates of the 
burgh and chief men ride in procession along 
the boundaries of the property belonging to 
the burgh, and perform certain ceremonies. 

* march-man, s. A person living on the 
marches or borders of two countries ; a bor- 
derer. 

" Now Bowdeu Moor the march-man won ." 

Scott : Lay of the Lait Minstrel, j. 60. 

* march -ward, s. A warden of the 
inarches ; a marcher. 



^h (2), s. [MARCH (2), v.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : [II. 1.]. 

2. Figuratively: 

(1) A stately or deliberate way or move- 
ment ; rhythmical movement. 

" The varying verse, the full resounding line, 
The long majestic march, an-1 euergy divine." 

Pope : Satiret, v. 2. 

(2) Progress, advancement, progressive de- 
velopment : as, the march of intellect. 

H. Technically: 

1. Mil. : The amount of ground covered by 
a body of troops in one day. Fifteen miles is 
the ordinary distance ; anything above that is 
a forced march, but il also depends on weather, 
state of roads, and length of column. Large 
armies usually move with a complete division 
on the main roads ; but these columns are 
within supporting distance of each other, and 
should not be separated by intervening ob- 
stacles that would prevent easy concentration 
for battle. Rate of march, 2i to 3 miles an 
hour, including a brief halt after the first half- 
hour, and a halt of five minutes every suc- 
ceeding hour. Flank inarches are those made 
in proximity to the enemy, but across his 
general front. 

2. Mus. : A musical composition so arranged 
as to be suitable for accompanying troops in 
walking. There are quick and slow marches 
in duple and treble time, besides marches 
peculiar to certain nationalities. 

"The drums presently striking up a march, they 
make no longer stay, but forward they go directly." 
XnoUei: Bitt. oft:-.e Turkt. 

3. Weav. : One of the short laths laid across 
the treadles under the shafts. 

J To make a march : In euchre, to take all 
the tricks of a single deal. 

march-past, s. A marching past a re- 



viewing officer or some high personage on 
parade. 

March (3), s [Low Lat. Marcius, from Lat. 
Martins (mens) = (the month) of Mars ; Fr. 
Mars.] The third montli of the year. 

U Mad as a March hare : As mud as it is 
possible to be. 

March-dagger, *. 

Entom. : A moth, Chimabacche fagella. The 
wings of the female are only partially de- 
veloped, the four wings terminating in a 
sharp point. They are whitish-gray, yellowish, 
or brownish. 

* March-mad, a. Very mad ; crazy, de- 
mented. 



(4), *. [A.S. me ret = balm, mint, 
parsley. (Somner.)] 
Bot. : Parsley. 

* mar-chande, s. [MERCHANT.] 

mar-fhant'-e-SB, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. marchan- 
t(ia); Lat. fern. pL adj. suff. -ece.] 

Bot. : The typical tril>e of the order Mar- 
chantiacese (q.v.). The spore cases are capi- 
tate; the involucels membranous, regularly 
slit. (Lindley.) 

mar 9hant'-i-a, *. [Named by Nicholas 
Marchaut after his father, John Man-limit, 
a French botanist, admitted to the Academy 
of Sciences iu Paris in 1666.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of the tribe Mar- 
chantese and the order Marchautiacese (q.v.). 
Marchantia polymorpha is a small plant, oc- 
curring in bright green thin lamellae, with 
their outline irregularly lobed. The frond is 
attached to the ground by radical hairs de- 
scending from its lower surface. The plant 
occurs not uncommonly on the borders of 
springs, in damp shady courtyards, &c. 

mar 9hant i a' cc- se, s. ],!. [Mod. [Lat. 
marchanti(a) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -acece.] 

Bot. : Liverworts ; an order of Acrogens, 
tribe Muscales. It consists of cellular plants, 
with broadish lobed thalloid fronds, emitting 
roots from their underside. From the bifur- 
cations of the frond arise steins bearing 
sporanges with spores mingled with elaters, 
but having no columella. The male fruit is 
mersed in sessile or stalked discoid or peltate 
receptacles. The Marchantiacese grow on 
the earth or trees in damp places. They are 
found in all but the driest climates ; two grow 
in Melville Island. Lindley enumerates fifteen 
genera, and estimates the known species at 
twenty. He divides the order into two sub- 
orders, Marchanteae and Targionete ; Berkeley 
into three, Targioniese, Jecorarieae, and Lunu- 
larieae. The order belongs to the wide-spread 
class, Hepatic*. 

* ma^h'-er (1), *. [Eng. march (1), s. ; -er.] 
The governor or warden of the marches or 
borders. 

If Lords marchers : Noblemen living on the 
inarches or border-lands of England and Wales, 
who had their own courts and laws, as petty 
kings, until they were abolished by statute in 
the reign of Henry VIII. 

mar9h'-er (2), s. [Eng. march (2), v. ; -er.] 
One who marches ; a soldier. 

" They take away a marcher'* knees." 

Chapman : Homer ; Iliad xix. 16L 

mar9h'-Ss (1), s. pi. [MARCH (l), *.] 

* mar9h'-es (2), s. [MARQUIS.] 

* mar9h'-et, s. [Low Lat. marcheta = a fee of 
a mark (q.v.).] 

Feudal law: A pecuniary fine paid by a 
tenant to his lord for the marriage of one of 
the tenant's daughters. The custom prevailed 
both in England and Scotland 

"He [Malcomel abrogated that wicked law. esta- 
blished by King Ewln the third, appointing halfe a 
marke of siluer to be paid to the lorde of tin- soile. in 
redemption of the woman's chastltie, which is vsed to 
be paled yet vnto this day, and is called the marvhrti 
of woman." Holimhtd : Hiitorie of .Scotland (an. 
108). 

g, pr. par. & a. [MARCH (2), v.] 

marching-regiment, . A colloquial 
term for an infantry or foot regiment of the 
line. (Generally used in disparagement.) 



mar chion-ess, s. [Low Lat. marchiuneua, 
from marchionem, accus. of marchio a pre- 
fect of the marches, with fern. suff. -issa.J 
The wife or widow of a marquis ; a lady hold- 
ing the rank or diguity of a marquis (q.v.). 

* mar9h'- pane, s. [O. Fr. marcepain ; Fr. 
massepain; Ital. marzapane; Sp. mazapan; 
Ger. marcipan, marzipan. Origin doubtful ; 
perhaps Martins panis = the bread of Mars.] 
A kind of sweet bread or biscuit; a macaroon ; 
a spice-cake composed of sugar, nuts, pine- 
apple, almonds, sometimes with poppy-seeds 
and Indian corn. 

"Good thou, save me a piece of marchpane.* 
Shakesp. : Komeo & Juliet, i. 5. 

* mar'- 9! -an, a. [Low Lat. marcius; Lat. 
martins = pertaining to Mars.] Under tha 
influence of Mars ; martial. 

Mar 91 an 1st, *. [For etyin. see def.] 

Church Hist. (PI.) : The followers of a certain 
Marcianus Trapezita in the time of Justinian. 
They kept the Jewish Sabbath as a fast. They 
are not to be confounded with the Marcionists 

(q.v.). 

* mar'-9ld, a. [Lat. marcidus, from marceo = 
to fade, to pine ; Ital. & Sp. marcido.] 

1. Withered, faded, wasted away, drooping. 
" He on his own fish pours the noblest oil ; 

That to your nutrcid dying ln-rbs assigned, 
By the rank smell and taste betrays its kind." 
Dryden : Juvenal, sat. T. 

2. Causing wasting or feebleness. 

* mar-9id'-i-ty, s. [As if from a Lat. wiar- 
cidiUis. from marcidus = withered, wasted.] 
The quality or state of being withered, wasted, 
or faded ; leanness, meagreness. 

Mar / -9i-on-ite, s. [For etym., see def.] 

Church Hist. (PI.): The followers of Marcion, 
a Roman gnostic, who flourished about the 
middle of the second century. He taught 
that matter was the origin of evil, that there 
were two opposing principles of good and 
evil, and a creator independent of God. 
Eleutherus, Bishop of Rome, expelled him 
from the Church about A.D. 177. 

Mar-jI-on-It'-Ic, a. [Eng. Marcioni(te) ; suff. 
-tic.] Of or pertaining to Marciou. [LUKE, 
MARCIONITE.] 

"Some idea as to the contents of the MarcionMa 
gospel." W. Sunday : fort. Rev. (1875), p. 8411. 

Mar^ite, s. [MARCOSIAN.] 

mar co brun ner, s. [See def.] A cele- 
brated Rhine wine, possessing much body 
and aroma, so called from the Markobrunn 
vineyards, between Mainz and Biugeu. 

Mar co Po'-lo, s. [See def.] A celebrated 
Venetian traveller of the thirteenth century. 

Marco Polo's sheep, s. 

Zool. : Ovis poll, one of the finest species of 
the genus. Habitat, the high lands of the 
Thian Shun mountains, north of Kasligar and 
Yarkand. In winter this sheep is grayish- 
brown, white below, white mane, and white 
disc on tail. In summer the gray changes to 
brown. There is a well-defined dark dorsal 
line. The horns are spiral, and sometimes 
measure as much as four feet and a half from 
tip to tip. 

* mar'-cor, * mar -cour, s. [Lat. marcor, 
from marceo = to be thin or lean, to wither, 
to fade.] A state of withering or wasting; 
leanness ; loss of flesh. 

"The exolutiun and languor ensuing that act in 
some, the extenuation aud murmur iu others, and the 
visible acceleration it makes of age iu most." Brown*: 
Vulgar rroun, bk. iii., oh. tx. 

Mar-co'-sl-an, s. [For etym., see def.] , 

Church Hi4. (PI.) : The followers of Marcus, 
an Egyptian Judaizi'.ijr Christian of the second 
century. They possessed a number of apoc- 
ryphal books, and tlieir opinions seem to 
have resembled those of the Socinians. 

mar'-cus, s. [Lat] A large iron-headed 
hammer. 

mar'-9y-lite, s. [Named after R. B. Marcy ; 
suff. -lite (Min.).] 

Min. : An impure atacamite of a black col- 
our, probably resulting from the alteration of 
copper-glance. From the south of the Red 
River, Arkansas, U.S.A. 

mare (1), * mere, s. [A.S. mere, fern, of 
mearh, mearg, mear = a horse ; cogn. with 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wit, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pit, 
or, wore, W9lf, work, whd, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cor, rule, full; try, Syrian. , = e; ey = a. qu = kw, x 



mare margined 



3039 



Icel. merr = a mare ; mer-hross, mer-hryssi = a 
mare-norse, used as the fern, of murr = a 
steed ; Daii. nuir = a mare ; Sw. mcirr = a 
mare ; Dut. merrie ; Ger. mdhre ; O. H. Ger. 
merihd = a inare, fern, of marah = a battle- 
horse ; Gael, marc ; Wei. & Corn, march = a 
horse.] The female of the horse or other 
species of the genus Equus. 

" The other mare* running and flinging through the 
camp, came to atay right against them." North : 
I'lutirch, Ji. 247. 

mare's-nest, s. An absurd discovery, 
having no real foundation in fact ; a discovery 
which turns out to be a hoax or delusion. 

mare's tail, . 

1. Sot. (Sing.) : The genus Hippuris (q.v.). 

2. Meteor. (PL): A popular name for the 
cloud called Cirrus (q.v.X 

mare (2), . [A. 8. mara = an incubus ; Icel. 
mara = the nightmare ; Ger. mar, nachtmar 
= the nightmare (q.v.).] A kind of torpor 
or stagnation which seems to oppress the 
stomach with a weight ; a nightmare (q.v.). 

"Mushrooms cause the incubus, or the inare In the 
stomach." Bacon: Hat. HUt. 

t mare -blobs, s. [Eng. mart, and blob = 
that which is blunt ; a lily.] 
Bot. : Caltha palustris. 

ma-re'-ca, ma-ri'-ca, s. [Etym. of first 
form doubtful ; tlie second probably the name 
of a nymph, the fabled mother of the Latins. 
(Virgil : &n. vii. 47.)] 

Ornith. : A genus of Anatidae, sub-family 
Anatinae. The bill is very short and small, of 
equal breadth throughout, the tip not nar- 
rowed ; the tail long, pointed. Mareca Pene- 
lope is the Widgeon (q.v.). 

mar-e kan ite, a. [Named from Marekan, 
in the Gulf of Kamschatka, where it occurs.] 
Petrol. : Obsidian in the form of little 
grains, of the size of peas, of a pearly-white 
colour ; occurring in thin concentric layers. 
A kind of Pearlstone. (Phillips.) 

ma rem -ma (pi. ma- r 6m -me), s. [Ital.] 
A name given to tracts of country in Italy, 
uninhabitable in summer on account of the 
exhalations of sulphur and alum from the 
soil. Th term is also sometimes used for 
the malaria or unhealthy exhalations from 
such a soil. 

Bta-re'-na, ma-roe -na, s. [Etym. doubt- 
ful.] 

Ichthy. : Coregonus marcena, the muzzle of 
which, though obtuse, still advances beyond 
the mouth. 

* mar -e-schal, . [Fr.] A marshal (q.v.). 

" Great maraehal to Henry the Sixth." 

1 Shaketp. : Henry VI., iv. 7. 

m&r-gar'-ic, a. [Eng., &c. margar(i>ie); -ic. 
(See the compound.) 

margar ic acid, s. 

Chem. : Cj/HuOz = C^H^'CH^ CO. OH. Ce- 
tyl carbonic acid. The name formerly given 
to an acid supposed to exist in natural fats, 
but now only applied to an acid obtained by 
boiling cetylic cyanide with potassic hydrate 
solution. It resembles palmitic acid, forming 
white crystals, which melt at 59'9, and boil at 
277 under a pressure of 100 mm. Very few of 
the salts of margaric-acid have been prepared. 
The sodium salt, obtained by adding a boiling 
aqueous solution of pure sodic carbonate to a 
boiling alcoholic solution of margaric acid, 
forms a jelly-like mass. The barium and silver 
salts, ]>re pared from the sodium salt, are white 
ajnorphous powders. 

mar garlc ether, . 

Chem. : A term incorrectly applied to what 
is probably only a mixture of stearic and 
palmitic ethers. 

mar gar me, . [MAROARITE.] A peculiar 
pearly substance extracted from hogs' lard. 
The name is now applied to artificial butter 
made from a mixture of animal fat and oiL 

t mar-gar-I-ta' -ce-oas (or ceaus as 

8 has), a. [Mod. Lat. margar itaceun ; Lat. 
margarita = a pearl ; -oceiw.J Pearl-liearing. 

mar gar lia, . [Lat. margarita; Or. ^op- 
yopiTTjs (margarites) = a pearl ; Pers. mervaria 
=a pearl ; Fr. marguerite ; Ital. &Sp. margarita.] 
* L Ord. Lang. : A pearl. 

" Neither cast ye youre margarita before swyn." 
WyeUffe : MiMhev vlL 



IL Mineralogy : 

1. A mineral species included by Dana in 
his inargarophyllite section. Crystallization, 
orthorhombic. Cleavage, basal, eminent. 
Hardness, 3'5 to 4'5 ; sp. gr. 2 '99. Lustre of 
cleavage surfaces, pearly ; elsewhere, vitre- 
ous ; colour, grayish, reddish-white, yellowish ; 
translucent ; lamina; brittle. Compos. : silica, 
30'1 ; alumina, 51'2 ; lime, 11-6; soda, 2'G ; 
water, 4'5. Occurs with chlorite at the 
Greinerberg, Tyrol ; with emery (emerylite) at 
Isle of Naxos, Grecian Archipelago, and Asia 
Minor, also in the United States. 

2. The same as (ELLACHERITE (q.v.). 

3. A name used by Glocker for his family of 
Micas. 

t mar-gar-I tif'-er-ous, a. [Lat. mar- 
garita = a pearl ; fero = to bear, to produce, 
and Eng adj. sutf. -ous.] Producing pearls. 

mar gar 6-, pref. [MARGARONE.] (See the 
compo'und.) 

margaro nltrile, s. 

Chem.: CujH^jCN. Cetylic cyanide. A 
compound prepared by the action of cetylic 
iodide on potassic cyanide. 

mar gar 6 dlte, s. [Gr. itafyapMris (mar- 
garodes) = pearl-like.] 

Min. : A hydrous mica resembling musco- 
vite (q.v.) in crystallization and physical 
characters, but having a more pearly lustre, 
and a more or less silvery white colour. It 
appears to be the result of a hydration of a 
mica, mostly muscovite. 

mar -gar-one, s. [Eng. margar(ic); -one.] 
Chem. : The acetone of margaric acid. 

mar gar- 6 phylT - ite, s. [Gr. ^ap-yapt'njs 
(marga rites) = pearl, and ^uAAov (phullon) = 
a leaf.] 

Min. : A name used by Dana for a section 
of the hydrous silicates which, when crystal- 
lized, are micaceous or foliated. A large 
number of minerals, however, are included 
which appear to be chemically allied, though 
at present these are only found in a compact 
amorphous condition. 

mar-gar y-lene, . [Eng. margar(ic), and 

(all)ylene.~\ 

Chem. : CiiS^y. A hydrocarbon obtained 
by the dry distillation of menhaden-oil soap. 
It boils at 195. 

mar -gay, s. [Native name.] 

Zool. : Felis tigrina, a feline from Brazil and 
Guiana, where it is known as the Tiger-cat. 
It is smaller than the Ocelot (Felis pardalis), 
to which it has a general resemblance, though 
it is not so handsome. It is capable of do- 
mestication, and is a capital ratter. 

* marge, s. [Fr. , from Lat. margo = a margin.] 
An edge, a margin, a brink. 

" He .Ire* his flaming sword, and struck 
At Inui so ficTcely, that the um.er margt 
Of his sevenfold shield away it took." 

Spenter: F.Q., IL v. . 

* mar '-gent, s. [The same word as margin, 
but with an excrescent t, as in tyrant, &c.] 

1. A margin, an edge. 

"A sheet of iiaper, 
Writ on both sides the leaf, margeut and all." 

Hhakesji. : Love i Labour'! /.cut, T. 2. 

2. The margin or side of a page or leaf. 

"He thiuketh it better to put a declaration in the 
maryent."Tgruialt: Warkt, p. 32. 

* mar gent, v.t. [MARGENT, .] To enter, 
note, or set down in the margin. 

"Succession of yeares, which I have margcnted 
through the whole story. " Mirrour /or Magistrate*, 
p. 765. 

mar'-gin, s. [Lat. margo, genit. marginis; 
cogn, with Eng. mar A: ; Ital. margine ; Fr. 
marge.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : A border, a brink, an edge, a verge ; 
espec. applied to the edge or side of a page or 
book left blank, or partly occupied with notes. 

" To have Interrupted my text or crowded my mar- 
gin with references to every author." Patty : Moral 
Philosophy, vol. i. (Dedic.) 

2. Figuratively: 

(1) A sum or quantity left or set aside to 
meet unforeseen contingencies, casualties, ex- 
penses, or results ; a certain latitude on 
which to work or depend. 

" A sufficient margin of stability was not provided 
in the original design." Brit. Quarterly /!e*ieic, vol. 
Ivll. (1873), p. 111. 



(2) The difference between the prime cost 
of an article and its selling price, which 
leaves room for profit. 

IL Technically: 

1. Bot. (Of a leaf): Either of the two edges 
of the opposite sides between the base and the 
sj)ex. It may be entire, quite entire, cremate, 
serrate, toothed, grained, curled, repand, an 
gulur, or sinuate. 

2. Carp. : The flat part of the stile and rail 
of framed work, such as panel-doors ; a lock- 
rail. 

3. Roofing : The exposed portion of a slate, 
tile, shingle, or clapboard, when secured on 
the roof. 

IT Margin of a courst: [MARGIN, ., II. 2], 
margin-draught, margin-draft, s- 
Masonry : A plain surface adjacent to the 
joints of ashlar, surrounding the pick or ham 
mer-dressed middle portion of the face. 

margin-line, s. 

Naut. : A line or edge parallel to the uppef 
side of the wing transom on a ship, and just 
below it, where the butts of the after bottom 
planks terminate. 

mar-gin, v.t. [MARGIN, s.] 

1. To furnish or provide with a margin ; to 
border, to edge. 

" It is margined with choice shrubs and evergreens 
and bedding plants." Qardenert' C'hruntde, xvi. (1881), 
601. 

2. To enter or note in the margin of a book. 

mar'- gin-al, * mar-gin-all, a. [Fr. mar- 
ginal; Sp. marginal, margenal ; Ital. mar- 
ginale.] 

I. Ord. Lang. : Of or pertaining to a margin ; 
specif., written, placed, or set down in the 
mai-gin of a i>age or leaf. 

"The passage itself is set down in the marginal 
notes." Pope: Temple of Fame. (Advt.) 

II. Botany: 

1. Fixed upon the edge of anything. 
(Lindley.) 

2. Relating to the margin of anything. 
(London.) 

marginal-bodies, s. pL 

Zoology : 

1. Certain bodies arranged around the necto- 
calyx in a Medusa. They are of two kinds, 
vesicles and pigment spots, eye-specks or 
ocelli. 

2. Lithocysts, consisting of vesicles and 
ocelli like those of the Medusa, but com- 
bined into a single organ. 

marginal-pneumonia, a. 

Pathol. : Condensation of the lung, leading 
to collapse of the air cells from the plugging 
up of a bronchial tube. Called also dissemi- 
nated lobular pneumonia, carnification, or 
pulmonary collapse. (Tanner.) 

mar-gin-a'-li-a, s. pi. [Eng. marginal; 
Lat. neut. pi. sufi. -ia.] Notes written on the 
margins of books. 

t mar'-gin-al-ly, adv. [Eng. marginal; -iy.J 
In or on the margin of a book. 

"Such quotations of places to be mirginally Mi 
down." Ardtbp. Jfemomb: View of the Bible Trantla- 
tion, p. 99. 

" mar 1 -gin-ate, v.t. [Lt. marginatus, pa. 
par. of margino = to furnish with a margin.] 
To furnish with a margin or margins ; to 
margin. 

mar gin-ate, a. [MABOINATE, v.] 
Botany: 

1. (Of a calyx). 

(1) Reduced to a mere rim. 

(2) Having the rim or margin of a different 
texture from the rest. 

2. Edged ; a term used when one colour is 
surrounded by a very narrow rim of another 
one. 

mar'-gin-at-efL, pa, par. or o. [MAROIIT- 
ATE, v.} 
Ord. Lang. <t Bot. : Having a border. 

mar gined, pa. par. or a. [MARGIN, .] 
Furnished with a margin or border. 

margined fruit-bat, s. 

ZooL : Cynopterus marginatus, a bat occur- 
ring in all parts of India, in Ceylon, and east- 
ward as far as the Celebes and Philippines. Il 



boll, b6y; poilt, J6%1; cat, fell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
clan, -tian = shan, - 1 ion, -sion = shun : -Won, -slou = thun. -tious. -slous. -dons = shus. -We. -die, &c. = bl, del. 



3040 



mar ginella marine 



la about four inches in length, and varies in 
colour, through different shades o ' brown and 
reddish-brown : the ears are surrounded by a 
white border. It is very common, and very 
destructive to fruit. 

margined tailed otter, s. 

Zool. : Pterunura sandbackii, found in Brazil 
and Surinam. In skull characteristics it 
greatly resembles the Sea Otter (q.v.). The 
fur is of a bright bay-brown above and below. 
The popular name is derived from a longitu- 
dinal ridge on each side of the conical tail. 

mar-gin HiL -la, s. [Dimin. of Lat. margo = 
a rim.J 

Zool. : A genus of gasteropodous molluscs, 
family Volutidse. The shell is smooth and 
bright, the spire short or concealed, the 
aperture truncated in front, the columella 
plaited. The animal resembles that of Cyprsea. 
Known recent species 139, from the warmer 
parts of the world ; fossil 30, from the Eocene 
onward. 

mar go , pref. [Lat. = a margin.] (See the 
compound.) 

margo thaUodes, s. 
Bot, : A rim formed by the thallus of a 
lichen. 

mar -go'- pa, s. [Etym. doubtful.] (Seethe 
compound.) 

margosa tree, . 

Sot. : The Indian Neem tree, Melia Aza- 
dirachta. [NEEM.] 

mar-go'-tl-a, s. [Gr. jiapydrTj; (margotes) = 
rage, madness, lust (?).] 

Bot. : A genus of Umbelliferse, family El- 
seoselinidaj. The inner side of the seed is 
furrowed. O&ly known species Margotia 
laserpUioides, growing in Spain, Portugal, and 
the North of Africa. It secretes an aromatic 
oil. 

mar -gra-vate, s. [MARORAVIATE.] 

mar grave, * mare-grave, s. [Dut. mark- 
graaf, from mark = a mark, a march, border- 
land, and graaf=. a count, an earl ; Ger. mark- 
graf; Dut. markgreve.] Originally a keeper, 
lord, or warden of the marches or borders ; 
now a title of nobility in the empire of Ger- 
many. [MARQUIS.] 

mar-gra vi ad, s. [Mod. Lat. marcgravi(a); 
Eng. suff. -ad.] 

Bot. (PL): The English name given by 
Lindley to the order Marcgraviacea (q.v.). 

mar-gra - vl-ate, s. [MARGRAVE.] The ter- 
ritory or jurisdiction of a margrave. 

mar' -gra-vine, . [Dut. markgravin; FT. 
margravine; Ger. markgrcijin.] The wife of a 
margrave. 

f mar'-guer-fte, *. [Fr.] 

Sot. : The daisy (Belli* perennis). 

mar-gyr-I-car'-pus, . [Gr. napyaplrrp 

margarites) a pearl (?), and xupiro; (karpos) 
= fruit.] 

Bot. : A genus of Sanguisorbaceee. Mar- 
gyricarpus setosus is a small bush, with needle- 
shaped leaves aud pearly succulent fruit. 
A decoction of it is given by the Peruvians 
against haemorrhoids. 

*mar'-i-al, s. [Lat. Maria = Mary.] A hymn 
iii honour of the Virgin Mary. 

" In the closing of their rhyming marialt." Ward : 
Sermonl, p. 5. 

ma ri -a lite, s. [Etym. doubtful.] 
Mineralogy : 

1. A tetragonal mineral much resembling 
meionite(q.v.). Hardness, 5'5 to 6; sp. gr. 
2'53 ; lustre, vitreous ; colourless ; transpa- 
rent. Compos. : silica, 62'1 ; alumina, 20'2 ; 
lime, 5'5 ; soda, 12-2. Occurs in piperno 
(q.v.), at Pianura, Naples. 

2. The same as HATJYNE (q.v.). 

Har'-I-an, *. [Eng.' Mary ; -an.] Pertaining 
or relating to the Virgin Mary, or to Mary, 
Queen of England, daughter of Henry VIII. : 

as, the Marian persecution. 

* Mar -J-an-Ism, . [Eng. Marian ,- -it.] 

(See extract.) 

" Mnrianitm, as the worship of the Virgin bat been 
ealled."-V. Jartrii : Art Hintt, p. 3SS. 



ma-ri'-ca (1), s. [MABECA.] 

mar i ca (2), *. [Gr. fxapcuVw (moraind) = to 
waste away, an allusion to the fugitive flowers.] 
Bot. : A genus of Iridaceae, containing species 
from South America. 

mar-id, s. [Arab.] 

Muham. Mytliol. : An evil spirit or demon 
of the most powerful class. 

* marie, * mary, & [MARROW.] 

tmar'-i-et, s. [Fr. Mariette, dimiu. of Marie 
= the Virgin Mary.] 
Botany : 

1. Campanula urticifolia, a blue bell-flower, 
a native of Germany, introduced into British 
gardens, A.D. 1800. 

2. Viola marina. 

* ma-rlg'-en-ous, a. [Lat. mare =the sea, 
and gigno (pa. t. getiui) = to produce, to bear.] 
Produced in or by the sea. 

mar i gold, t mar'-y-gold, s. [From Eng. 
Mary =. the Virgin Mary, and gold. Hence the 
introduction of marigold windows in lady 
chapels.] 

1. Bot.: Calendulaofficinalis, anative of south- 
ern Europe, though now very common in 
gardens as an ornamental plant. It has 
orange-colored or lemon-colored flowers, which 
impart a yellow color to cheese. It is often 
double. 

" The marigold, that goes to bed with the son." 

Stakeip. : Winter' t Tale, iv. S. 

* 2. Nwnis. : A piece of money, so called 
from the colour. 

If African Marigold is Tagetes erecta ; Corn 
Marigold, Chrysanthemum segetum; Field Mari- 
gold, Calendula arvensis; Fig Marigold, the 
genus Mesembryanthemum ; French Marigold, 
Tagetes patula ; Marsh Marigold, Caltha 
palustris and the genus Caltha itself; and 
Pot Marigold, Calendula ojficinalis. 

marigold-window, s. 

Arch. : A Catherine- wheel window. 

mar'-I-got, s. [Fr. marais = & marsh.] A 
small lake close to or near the brink of a 
river, and fed by the overflowing of the river. 
(West. Africa.) 

mar'-i -graph, s. [Lat. mare = sea, and Gr. 
ypafyui (grapho) = to write, to draw ; Fr. mari- 
graphe.] An apparatus for registering the 
height of the tides ; a tide-gauge. 

mar'-I-kln, mar I ki na, *. [Native 
South American name ; Fr. vuirikina ; Port. 
muriquinha.] 

Zool. : Jacchus rosalia. A small South 
American monkey, the Tamarin (q.v.). 

mar' I-nade, s. [Fr. = pickle, from marin 
= marine (q.v.).] 

Cook. : A liquor compounded of wine and 
vinegar, with herbs and spices, in which fish 
or meats are steeped before dressing to im- 
prove their flavour. 

* ma -ran' al, a. [Lat. marinus = marine.] 
Bait, bitter." 

"These here are festival, not marinal waters." 
Adamt : Workt, i. 1C8. 

mar'-J-nate, mar'-I-nade, v.t. [MARI- 
NATE, s.] To salt or pickle, as fish, and then 
preserve them in oil or vinegar. 

" Why am I styled a cook, if I'm so loath 
To marin&ce my fish, or season broth ? " 

King : Art of Cookery. 

ma-rine', a. & . [Fr. marin, from Lat. mari- 
nus = pertaining to the sea ; mare = the sea ; 
cogn. with Eng. mere = & pool, A.S. mere, Ger. 
meer, Eng. marsh, moor.] [MERE (1), .] 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to or con- 
nected with the sea in any way : as 

1. Found in, inhabiting, or produced in the 
sea. 

" Vast multitudes of shells and other marine bodies, 
are found lodged in all sort* of stone." Woodward. 

2. Naval, maritime. 

3. Used at sea ; intended for use on ships 
or at sea : as, a marine barometer. 

4. Pertaining to or connected with naviga- 
tion. 

"The code of maritime laws, which an called the 
laws of Oleron, and are received by all 'lations In 
Europe as the ground Mid substruction of all their 
marine constitutions, was confessedly compiled by our 
king Richard the First at the isle of Oleron on the 
coast of Fnnce."Blaclatone : Comment., bk. I., ch. IS. 



B. As substantive : 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. The shipping for a country collectively ; 
the whole navy of a kingdom. 

"The first [factious] wished France, diverted from 
the politicks of the continent, to attend solely to her 
marine, to feed it by an increase of commerce, and 
thereby to overpower England on her own element" 
Burke: Regicide Peace, let. 2. 

2. Maritime or naval affairs ; the whole 
economy of navigation. 

3. In the same sense as II. 1. 

4. An empty bottle. (Slang.) 
n. Technically : 

1. Mil. (PI.): Troops enlisted for service 
either on board ship or on shore, and under 
the authority of the Naval Department, but 
drilled, disciplined, clothed, equipped, and 
paid similarly to the land forces. In garri- 
sons or when serving with regular troops in 
the field, they are under the army rules for 
discipline and rank by army seniority ; on 
board ship they are under the naval dis- 
cipline, but no undue interference with 
them can be made by the naval officers, nor 
can the men be ordered to go aloft. Their 
duties are to maintain the necessary guards, 
man some of the guns, form part of the armed 
crews of the various boats when called away 
for service, and form a permanent force for 
landing with the seamen if necessary. In all 
these matters they are commanded by their 
own officers. The marines of the European 
nations are not designed for service perma- 
nently on board ship ; the American navy is 
the only one besides that of England in which 
the marine forms a necessary and definite 
fraction of a ship's company. 

* 2. Paint. : A sea-piece (q.v.). 

Tell that to the marines : An expression 
signifying utter disbelief in a statement made 
or story told. It arose from tlie fact that 
marines, being ignorant of seamanship, were 
made butts of by the sailors. 

marine-barometer, 5. A barometer 
suspended in gimbals, and attached by an 
arm to some upright fixture of the ship, en- 
abling it to maintain a vertical position dur- 
ing the rolling and pitching motions of the 
vessel. 

marine-boiler, *. A form of boiler 
adapted for the use of steam-engines on sea- 
going vessels. 

marine-corps, *. A corps or body of 
marines. 

marine-ducks, s. pi. 

Ornith. : The sub-family Fuligulinae. 

marine-engine, s. A steam-engine to 
propel a sea-going ship. There are various 
kinds of them : the beam, direct-acting, oseil- 
lating, trunk, high-pressure, &c. 

marine-galvanometer, s. [GALVANO- 
METER.] 

marine-glue, s. A composition of caout- 
chouc, shellac, and mineral oil. 

marine-governor, s. A governor for 
marine engines, intended to overcome the 
effects of the motion of the vessel on a gover- 
nor of ordinary construction. 

marine hospital service, ... This 
service, established in 1798, as the medical 
bureau of the Treasury Department, has the 
duty of providing relief for sick aud disabled 
seamen of the United States merchant marine. 
It is under the direction of a supervising 
surgeon-general, appointed by the President, 
and responsible to the Secretary of the Treasury 
for his official acts. Its purpose is to encour- 
age fit persons to become seamen by assuring 
them of proper care and maintenance when 
sick or disabled, and to relieve municipalities 
of the task of providing for this class of 
persons. Marine hospitals have been estab- 
lished in a number of cities, the fund for the 
support of which is largely derived from a tax 
laid on merchant and naval seamen, and 
officers and marines of the naval service, who 
are included as beneficiaries of the fund. The 
duties of the officers of the service have in- 
creased, until they now include the manage- 
ment of quarantine, the examination of pilots 
for color-blindness, examination of life-saving 
surfmen, and various others. 

marine insurance, s. The insurance 
of ships, goods, Ac., at sea. 

marine-provinces, . pi. 

Zool. GeoL : Eighteen provinces into which 



Cate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir. marine; go, 
or, wore, wolf, worls, who, son; mute, CUD, cure, unite, cur. rule, full; try, Syrian. , ce = e; ey = . u - 



marined mark 



3041 



the oceans of the world are divided, each with 
distinctive faunas. The term is used chiefly 
In connection with the geographical distribu- 
tion of mollusca. 

marine-railway, . A railway or tram- 
way on which a vessel is hauled up for re- 
pairs. 

marine-sauce, 5. 

Sot. : The Common Laver, Porphyravulgaris. 

marine-soap, s. A kind of soap espe- 
cially adapted for washing with sea-water. It 
la made chiefly of cocoa-nut>oil. 

marine-store, s. A place where old 
ships' materials, such as cam as', rope, iron, 
&<., are bought and sold. The term is also 
extended to any shop or place where old 
articles, such as metals, rope, grease, rags, &c., 
are bought and sold. The keeper of such a 
Store must have his name, together with the 
words "Dealer in Marine Stores," painted in 
letters not less than six inches long over his 
door, and must not buy of any person appar- 
ently under sixteen years of age. 

Marine-store dealer : A person who keeps a 
marine store, 

marine -survey or, . One who surveys 
Ships for repairs, insurance, &c. 

ma-rtned', a. [Eng. maritime); ~ed.] 

Her. : Applied to an animal with the lower 
parts of the body like a fish. 

mar'-I-ner, * mar-y-ner, s. [Fr. marinier, 
from marin = marine (q.v.) ; Sp. marinero; 
Port, marinhero ; Ital. mariniero.] A seaman, 
a sailor ; one whose occupation is to assist 
in navigating ships. 

mariner's compass, s. [COMPASS, s.] 

maV-I-ner-sblp, . [Eng. mariner; -ship.] 
Seamanship. 

" Hauing none experience In the feate of mariner, 
ihippe." Udal: Apapn. of Ercumia, p. . 

ma-rin-d-ra'-ma, *. [Eng. marin(e); Gr. 
bpo/xa (horama) = a'view, from 6pdu (horad) = 
to see.] A picture of a sea- view ; a sea- 
piece (q.v.). 

mar-I-ol'-a-ter, *. [MARIOLATRY.] One 
who supports or practises Mariolatry. 

mar-i-Sl'-a-try, [Lat. Maria = Mary, the 
Virgin Mary, and Gr. Aarpcia (latreia) = ser- 
vice, worship.] A term used by Protestants 
to express what they consider undue honour 
paid to the Virgin Mary by Christians of the 
Greek and Roman communion, and by a cer- 
tain section of Anglicans. It is considered 
that such devotion began in the fourth cen- 
tury, and received a fresh impulse in the tenth. 

tnar I-6-nette', *. [Fr., from mariolette, 
a dimin. of mariole = a little figure of the 
Virgin Mary.] A puppet moved by strings. 

mar'-I-on-ite, . [Named from Marion Co., 
Arkansas, where found ; suff. -ite (Min.).'] 

Min. : A hydrozincite (q.v.), occurring in 
contorted and concentric laminae, and botry- 
oidal crusts. 

Ma'-ri-otte, *. [Edme Mariotte, a Burgun- 
dian in holy orders, who was one of the first 
members of the French Academy of Science ; 
died May 12 ; 1554.] (See the compound.) 

Marlotte's-law, s. [LAW, If (2).] 

mar i pos -ite, s. [From Mariposa, where 
It occurs ; suff. -ite (Min.).] 

Min. : Sillimau has proposed this name for 
an anhydrous silicate of protoxide of iron, 
alumina, chromium, lime, magnesia, and pot- 
ash. Colour light apple-green. It has been 
provisionally referred to fuchsite (q.v.). It is 
the constant associate of the ore of the Mari- 
posa region, California. 

mar'-I-put, s. [Etym. doubtful.] 

Zool. : Viverra Zorilla,** kind of Civet. 

* mar I schal, s. [MARSHAL, .] 

ma ris -CUS, s. [Lai. mariscus, mariscos = a 
kind of rush.] 

Bot. : A genus of Cyperacese, tribe Cyperese. 
About a hundred species are known, mostly 
from the tropics. 

mar'-Jsh, s. & a. [Low Lat. mariscus, from 
Low Ger. marsck = a marsh (q.v.). 



A. .Is- sti'ust. ; A marsh, a bog, a fen, a moor, 
swamp. 

" A* evening mist, 
Risen from a river, o'er the maritlt glides." 

Milton: P. L..11L SO. 

B. As adj. : Marshy, moory, boggy, fenny, 
swampy. 

" Some plantations . . . have built along the sea 
and rivers, in maruh and unwholesome grouuda." 
Bacon: Euayt; Of Plantation*. 

Mar'-ist, a. & s. [Fr. Mnriste, from Marie = 
the Virgin Mary.] 

A. As adj. : Belonging to or characteristic 
of the. Congregation described under B. 

B. ^4s substantive : 

Eccles. <t Church Hist. (PI.) : A Congregation 
founded in 1830 by some priests at Lyons for 
the education of the poor and mission work. 
They wear the ordinary dress of secular 
priests, but take solemn vows. They have 
one house in London. 

mar'-i-tal, a. [Fr., from Lat maritalis = 
pertaining to a husband ; martins = a hus- 
band ; Sp. marital; Ital. maritale.] Pertain- 
ing to or connected with a husband ; incident 
to a husband. 

"A husband may exercise his marital authority 
so far, as to give his wife moderate collection." Art 
of Tormenting. 

* mar'-I-tat-ed, a. [Lat. maritus = a hus- 
band.] Having a husband ; married. 

*mar'-I-tim-aL, *mar-l-tim~ale,a. [Eng. 
maritim(e) ; -al.] Pertaining to the sea ; 
maritime, marine. 

" Skill of warlike service, and experience In mari- 
timil causes." Holinshed : Deicription of Jreland. 
(Ep. Ded.) 

* mar'-i-tim-ate, a. [Eng. marUi m(e) ; -ate.] 
Maritime. 

" Leaving his own name to some maritimate pro- 
vince on that side." Kaleigh : llist. of World, bk. i., 
ch-vlii. 

mS,r'-i-time, a. [Fr., from Lat. maritimus, 
from mare = the sea; Sp. & Port, maritime ; 
Ital. marittimo.] 

1. Pertaining to or connected with the sea, 
navigation, or marine affairs ; pertaining to or 
connected with shipping or commerce by sea. 

" That no rude savour maritime Invade 
The nose of nice nobility." 

Cowper : Task, ii. 258. 

2. Bordering on or situated near the sea. 

"All the maritime tract comprehending Suss-x, 
and part of Keut." Drayton : Poly-Olbion, s. 17. 
Illuttrationt to Selden. 

3. Having a navy or marine, and commerce 
by sea : as, a maritime power. 

* 4. Characterized by naval strength or 
supremacy, or by numerous naval expeditions. 

" In the maritime reign of Queen Elizabeth, Sir 
Edward Coke thinks it matter of boast, that the royal 
navy of England then consisted of three-and-thirty 
shiiKs."Blnc/alonf: Commentaries, bk. i., ch. 13. 

maritime-courts, s. pi. 

Law : The Court of Admiralty and its court 
of appeal, the Judicial Committee of the Privy 
Council. 

maritime fruit-bat, . 

Zool. : Cynonycteris amplexicaudata, an In- 
dian tailed fruit-bat, with a geographical 
range from the Persian gulf to the Philippine 
Islands. It haunts the coasts, and by some 
zoologists is supposed to feed on mollusca, 
and other marine animals picked up on the 
sea-shore. 

maritime-interest, s. A premium 
charged upon a bond of bottomry. 

maritime-law, s. The law relating to 
shipping, navigation, harbours, and seamen. 

* maritime-state, s. The body consist- 
ing of the officers and mariners of the British 
navy, who are governed by express and per- 
manent laws, or the articles of the navy, 
established by act of Parliament. 

* mar-I-tor'-i-ous, a. [From Lat. maritus 
= a husband, on analogy of uxorious (q.v.).] 
Fond of a husband. 

" Dames maritorioiu ne'er were meritorious." 

Chapman : lluuy D'Amboii, Ii. 

* mar-I-tUT'-I-ent, a. [Lat. maritus = a 
husband.] Wishing to become a husband. 

"Mason was ... a long while mariturient." 
Soul hey : The Doctor, ch. cxxvi. 

mar'-jdr-am, s. [Ger. majoran; Ital. ma- 
jorana, mdggiorana; Sp. majorana, mejorana; 
Port, maiorana, mangerona, amaraoo ; Fr. 
marjolaine, from Lat. amaracus; Gr. ofiopaicot 
(amarakos), andpaxov (amarakon), the Persian 



and Egyptian species of which were probably 
akin to our own marjoram, the Greek one = a 
bulbous plant.] 

Bot. : The genus Origanum. Common Mar- 
joram is Origanum vulgare. It has broadly- 
ovate, obtuse, entire, or toothed leaves, and 
roundish panicled heads of purple, odoriferous 
flowers. It is wild in Britain on dry hills and 
bushy places, where it flowers from July to 
September. It is found also in Continental 
Europe, tlie north of Africa, and Asia. The 
dried leaves are used instead of tea, and in 
fomentations ; the essential oil is caustic and 
is used by farriers ; a little cotton-wool 
moistened with it and placed in the cavity of 
an aching tooth will often give relief. Country 
people use it to dye woollen cloth purple, and 
linen reddish brown. Goats and sheep eat it, 
horses do so to a less extent, but cattle will 
not feed on it. 

If The Cretan Marjoram is Origanum creticum, 
the Egyptian Marjoram, 0. cegyptiacum, the 
Knotted Marjoram, 0. Majorana, and Winter 
Sweet Marjoram, 0. heracleoticum, 

mark (1), * marc (1), s. [A.S. marc, pi. mar- 
caw; cogn. with Ger. mark; IceL mork.] 

1. A weight still used in some parts of 
Europe, especially for gold and silver. It 
varies in different countries. 

2. The name of several coins, formerly or 
still in use : as, 

* (1) An English coin, value 13s. 4d. sterling. 

" Thre thousand marke he gaf with testament full* 
To Petir and 1'aule of Rome." [right. 

Jtobert de Bntnne, p. 20. 

(2) A German coin, value lljd. It is divi- 
sible into 100 pfennige. 

(3) The old unit of value in Hamburg, value 
about Is. IJd. sterling. To a great extent 
superseded by the new monetary system of 
Germany. 

* (4) The sixth part of the Danish rigsdale, 
value nearly 4.jd. steiling. 

* (5) The fifth part of the Norwegian specie 
daler, called also the ort, value lOJd. sterling. 

mark-banco, s. In Hamburg and the 
Hanse Towns an imaginary unit of value, 
equal to about Is. 6*<1. sterling. 

mark-courant, s. In Hamburg and 
the Hanse Towns a unit of value, equal to 
Is. 2d. sterling. 

mark (2), * merk, * merke, s. [A.S. mean 
= a mark, a bound, an end, a border ; cogn. 
with Dut. merk; Icel. mark; Sw. mdrke; 
Dan. mterke ; M. H. Ger. marc, all = a mark, 
a sign ; M. H. Ger. marke ; O. H. Ger. mar- 
cha; Fr. marque; Goth, marka = a border- 
land, a march ; Lat. margo ; Mid. Eug. it 
Fr. marge = a margin (q.v.).] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Literally : 

S) A visible sign or impression, as by a 
a line, a stroke, a stamp, a figure, a cut, 
&c., left by any body upon another. A mark 
may be made either by leaving a portion of 
one substance upon another, as of ink on a 
paper ; by an incision or indentation made in 
a softer by a harder body, as the mark of a 
seal in wax ; by a change of colour, or 
bruise, as the mark of a whip on a person's 
back. 

"Set a mark upon the foreheads of the men."-. 
Eiek. ix. 4. 

(2) Any visible sign, indication, or token by 
which a thing may be distinguished, recog- 
nized, or detected. 

(3) That at which a missile is or may be 
directed ; a butt, a target, an aim. 

(4) A character or sign, generally in the 
form of a cross, niade by a person who cannot 
write, as a substitute for his name or signa- 
ture. 

" The method of the Saxons was for such as could 
write to inscribe their names, and. whether tlity could 
write or not, to affix the sign of the cross ; which cus- 
tom our illiterate vulgar do, for the most part, to thil 
day keep up ; by signing a cross for their mark when 
unable to write their u&wes."BlaclMone: Comment* 
bk. 11., ch. 0. 

2. Figuratively : 

(1) Any distinguishing sign, token, or evi- 
dence. 

" How know you that I am In love T 
Marry, by these special markt." 
Mutketfi. : Twi gentlemen of Verona, U. L 

(2) Pre-eminence, distinction, consequence, 
importance, position. 

" Both Fablus and Cornelius, In the 3econd decem. 
vira'e. were patrici.insof mark." Lewb: Cred. Early 
Rom in UM. 11855), ii. 248. 



boll, bo^; pout, jd%l; cat, 90!!, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, $his; sin, as; expect, yenophon, e^ist. ph = L 
-dan, -tian = shan. -tion. ion = shun ; -(ion, -cion = ghi\n, -clous, -tious, - sious = shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel, dfl> 



3042 



Mark market 



* (3) An object looked at for guidance ; the 
object of respect or regard ; a pattern, an 
example. 

(4) A butt, a target ; that at which anything 
U or may be directed. 

" Obliquely waddling to the mark in view.' 

Pope : Dunciad, i. 171 

(5) The point to be reached ; the proper 
standard : as, To be up to the mark. 

(6) The exact amount, a limit : as, To be 
within the mark. 

* (7) The same as MARQUE (q.v.). 
n. Technically: 

1. Comm. : [TRADE-MARK]. , 

2. Naut. : One of the notifications of depth, 
on a sounding-line. [If (4).] 

H (1) God bless (or save) the mark ; save the 
mark: Ejaculations or parenthetical expres- 
sions indicative of irony, scorn, deprecation, 
or surprise. 

"And I (God bleu the mark/) his moorship's ancient." 
Shaketp. : OtheUo, 1. 1. 

* (2) Mark of tooth : The marks on the teeth 
0f horses by which their age is known. 

"At four yean old cometh the mark of tooth In 
horses, which hath a hole as big as you may lay a pea 
within it; and weareth shorter and shorter every year, 
till at eight years old the tooth is smooth." Bacon: 
Jfat. Bitt. 

(3) To make one's mark: To make one's 
influence felt; to attain to a position of 
Influence and distinction. 

(4) Marks and deepi : 

Naut. : The mode of indicating lengths on 
the hand lead-line. The marks have certain 
indications ; the deeps are the estimated 
fathoms in the intervals of the marks : 

Mark 2, leather; mark 3. blue bunting; deep 4, 
mark 5, white bunting : deep 6, mark 7, red bunting ; 
deep 8, 9, mark 10, leather ; deep 11, 12, mark 13, blue 
bunting ; deep 14, mark 15, white bunting ; deep 16, 
mark 17, red bunting ; deep 18, 19, mark 20, two knots. 

Mark (3), s. [Or. Mopicov (Markos), from Lat. 

. Marcus.] 

Scrip. Biog. : The evangelist whose name is 
prefixed to the second gospel. He was almost 
certainly the same as the "John whose sur- 
name was Mark," mentioned in Acts xii. 12, 
25. The name John was Jewish ; Mark 
(Marcus) was Roman. [JoHN.] John Mark's 
mother lived at Jerusalem, her house being a 
resort of Christians (Acts xii. 12). He was 
nephew, cousin, or other relative of Barnabas 
(Col. iv. 10). He seems to have been converted 
by Peter (1 Pet. v. 13), and also to have 
been the young man so nearly captured on th>. 
evening of our Lord's betrayal (Mark xiv. 51, 
62). On the first missionary journey of Paul 
and Barnabas, he went as their minister, but, 
while they were at Perga, left them, and re- 
turned to Jerusalem (Acts xii. 25 ; xiii. 13). 
Paul considering him fickle, would not accept 
him as an attendant ; while Barnabas, his 
relative, believed him thoroughly trustworthy. 
In consequence of this difference of opinion, 
Paul and Barnabas separated, Paul going in 
one direction on a mission tour, and Barnabas, 
accompanied by Mark, on another. Ulti- 
mately Mark gained anew the good opinion of 
8t. Paul, and attended on him during his final 
imprisonment (Col. iv. 10 ; Phil. 24). We read 
of him as being with Peter "at Babylon" 
(1 Pet. v. 13). Afterwards Paul desired his 
return to Rome (2 Tim. iv. 11). Tradition is 
scanty and contradictory as to his subsequent 
career. 

H The Gospel according to St. Mark : 
New Test. Canon : The second of the gospels, 
almost universally attributed to the John 
Mark of this article. Papias, Irenams, Clement 
of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius, 
and other Christian fathers, allege that a con- 
nection existed between Peter and Mark, the 
fetter probably deriving from the former the 
chief materials for his work. This view is 
probable, when it is observed that n.ore pro- 
minence is given to censures upon St. Peter 
than on commendatory statements regarding 
him (cf. Mark viii. 33 with Matt. xvi. 17-20). 
The writer was evidently a Jew, or at least 
familiar with Judaea; but his gospel was 
specially designed for the Gentiles. Except 
in recording the discourses of Jesus, he no- 
where shows that any incident narrated ful- 
filled Old Testament prophecy, and the term 
"law," in the sense of the Mosaic law, no- 
wher occurs. Statements likely to give 
offence to the Gentiles are also omitted (cf. 
Matt. x. 6, 6 with Mark vi. 7-11). His gospel 
seems to have been written at Rome, though 



there are a few suffrages in favour of Alex- 
andria. If addressed especially to any Gentile 
nationality, it was to the Romans. While 
there are Aramaeisms, in the Greek there are 
Latin expressions too, as (ojvaos (kensos) 
Lat. census, and Ktvrvpiiav (kenturiori) = Lat. 
centurio. Mark records the miracles more 
than the discourses of Jesus. His style is 
more precise and graphic than that of the 
other evangelists. The language approaches 
more closely to that of St. Matthew than to 
that of St. Luke. The general opinion of the 
Christian church for many centuries was, as 
it still is. that it was the second gospel in 
point of time ; though the opinion is gaining 
strength that it was the first instead of the 
second. Till the question be settled, it is use- 
less to attempt to fix its date. The last 
twelve verses of St. Mark (xvi. 9-20) are of 
doubtful authenticity. External testimony is 
perhaps slightly in their favour, but internal 
evidence is strongly against them ; hence, in 
the Revised Version, they are separated by au 
interval from the rest of the book. 

mark, v.t. & i. [A.S. mearcian, from mearc = 
a mark.] 

A. Transitive : 

1. To make a mark on ; to impress with a 
mark ; to stamp. 

" My body's marked with Roman swords." 

Shakes?. : Cymbeline, Hi. 8. 

2. To denote, to distinguish, to stamp, to 
characterize. 

3. To single out, to designate, to point out, 
to appoint. (Often followed by out.) 

" If we are marked to die, we are enough 
To do our country loss." 

Shaketp. : Henry F., Iv. 8. 

4. To take notice or observation of ; to take 
note of; to notice, to observe ; to pay heed to. 

" Looks It not like the king T .Wark it, Horatio." 
Shaketp. : Hamlet, i. 1. 

5. To point out ; to indicate. 

" His . . audibly marking the time with his foot 
cannot escape censure." Athenaum, Feb. 18. 1882. 

B. Intrans. : To notice ; to take note ; to 
observe critically or attentively. 

" The Grecian marking as it cut the skies." 

Pope : Homer ; /Had xvii. 851. 

If (1) To mark out : To designate ; to notify 
as by a mark ; to single out. 

"That markt thee out for hell." 

Shaketp. : Richard II., IT. 

(2) To mark time : 

Mil. : To lift and bring down the feet alter- 
nately at the same rate as in marching, but 
without moving in any direction. 

mar kab, *. [Corrupted Arabic.] 

Astron. : A white star of the second magni- 
tude, a Pegasi, at the junction of the wing and 
shoulder of the imaginary Pegasus. 

* mark'-a-ble, a. [Fr. marquable.] Remark- 
able, notiable. 

"He would strike them with some markaklt punish- 
ment." Sandyi: State of Religion, to. 2b. 

marked, pa. par. k a. [MARK, v.] 

A* As pa. par. : (See the verb). 
B. As adjective: 

1. Noted or distinguished with a mark. 

2. Plain, open, evident. 

" He seems to have been afraid that he might . . . 
receive some marked affront." jl/ocautay: Sin. Eng., 
ch. xi. 

marked-pawn, . 

Chess : A pawn marked out by a player as 
the piece with which he undertakes to check- 
mate his adversary. 

mark'- eel -ly, adv. [Eng. marked; -ly.] 
Plainly, openly, evidently, publicly. 

* mar-kee, *. [MARQUEE.] 

mark er, *. [Eng. mark; -er.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. One who sets or stamps a mark upon 
anything. 

2. One who takes note or notice. 

3. A counter used in card-playing. 

4. At English schools and universities the 
monitor who calls the roll after divine service. 

II. Technically: 

1. Billiards: The person who notes and 
calls out the score. 

2. Military: 

(1) The man stationed at the targets to signal 
the points made. 



(2) The soldier who is the pivot round 
which a body of men wheel, or who marks 
the direction of an alignment. 

3. Sewing-machine : An attachment for form- 
ing creases in or marks on fabric, so that it 
may be folded in line with such crease or 
mark for a tuck, and in a line parallel with, 
and at any desired distance from, another tuck. 

mar'-kct, s. [O. Pr. * market, markiet, mar- 
chet (Fr. marche), from Lat. mercatus = traflBc, 
trade, a market, from mercatus, pa. par. of 
mercor = to trade ; merx (genit. mercis) = mer- 
chandize; Ger. & Dut. markt; Icel.markadhr; 
Sp. & Port, mercado ; Ital. mercalo; Dan. 
marked ; Sw. marknad ; O. H. Ger. marchat. 
marcat, mercat; M. H. Ger. markat.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. A public place in a city, town, &c., where 
cattle, goods, &c., are exposed for sale ; a 
publicbuilding in which pro visions are ex posed 
for sale ; a market-place, a market-house. 

" No man makes haste to the market, where there is 
nothing to be bought but blows." Raleigh : HM. 
World, bk. iv., ch. if., 5 4. 

2. The meeting or congregating together of 
people for the purchase and sale of goods ; an 
occasion on which cattle, goods, &c., are pub- 
licly exposed for sale ; a fair. 

3. The crowd or assemblage of persons met 
together in a market for business or pleasure. 

4. The transactions, dealings, or trade in > 
particular commodity. 

5. Purchase or sale ; the rate of purchase 
and sale ; price, cost, demand : as, The market 
was dull. 

6. The country, region, district, or place 
where anything is dealt in, or is in demand. 

* 7. Purchase, bargain. 

"What is a man. 

If his chief good, and market of his time. 
Be but to sleep. Shaketp. : Samlet, IT. 4. 

II* English Law : The privilege of having a 
market. Market is defined by statute to be 
" the' liberty of grant or prescription whereby 
a town is enabled to set up and open shops, 
&c., at a certain place therein for buying and 
selling, and better provision of such victuals 
as the subject wanteth." Public marts, or 
places of buying and selling, such as markets 
and fairs, with the tolls thereunto belonging, 
can only be set up by virtue of the grant of 
the crown, or by long and immemorial usage 
and prescription, which presupposes sucl), A 
grant. The general rule of the law is thafT an 
sales and contracts of anything vendible, in 
fairs or markets overt, that is, open, shall not 
only be good between the parties, but also 
be binding on all those that have any right 
of property therein. Market overt in the 
country is only held on the special days pro- 
vided for particular towns by charter or pre- 
scription ; but in London, every day, except 
Sunday, is market-day. The market-place, 
or spot of ground set apart by custom for the 
sale of particular goods, is also in the country 
the only market overt ; but in London in 
every shop in which goods are exposed pub- 
licly to sale, is market overt, for such things 
only as the owner professes to trade in. lu 
Scotland no such privilege attaches to goods 
sold in market-overt ; and the owner of goods 
sold by one who has stolen them, or to whom 
they may have been lent, may reclaim them 
from the purchaser. 

market-basket, . 

1. A basket used to carry goods to or from 
market. 

2. A basket used by dealers in the London 
fruit and vegetable markets. It contains 50 
Ibs. of potatoes. 

* market-bell, s. A bell rung to give 
notice that trade may begin. 

"Enter, go in, the market-bell is rung." 

Sliaket/i. : 1 1/enry VI., iii. 

* market-beter, s. One who swaggers 
up and down ; a swaggerer. 

" He was a market-beter at the full." 

Chaucer: C. T., 4,937. 

market-crier, s. A public or town crier. 

market-cross, s. A cross set up to de- 
note where a market is held. They were 
sometimes of very elaborate design. 

" Proclaim'd at market-crottei, read in churches." 
Shaketp. : 1 Henry ir.,v. I. 

market-day, s. The day on which a 
market is held. 

* market-folks, * market-folk, s. pi. 

People who attend markets. 



fate, fat. fare, amidst, what, fall, father: we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub. cure, unite, cur. rule, full : try, Syrian, ce, = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 



market marlstone 



market-garden, . A garden in which 
vegetables and fruits are raised for the market. 

market-gardener, *. One who grows 
vegetables, fruits, &c., for the markets. 

, "As the mob of fishermen anil market -gardenm, 
who, at Naples, yelled ami threw up their cap* in 

', honour of Massaniello." Macau*ayt nut. ng., ca. 
zU. 

* market-geld, *. The tolls raised at a 
market. 

market-house, *. A building In which 
a market is held. 

market -maid, s. A female servant 
who attends a market to buy or sell. 

" But vou are come, 
A market-maid to Rome. 

Shaketp. : Antony t Cleopatra, 111. . 

market-man, & A man who attends a 
market to buy or sell. 

" So worthless peas mts bargain for their wive*, 
A market-men for oxen, sheep, or horse." 

Shaketp. : 1 Henry VI., r. t. 

market-overt, s. An open or public 
market. [MARKET, s., II.] 

market-place, >. The open space in a 
town, &<:., where a market is held ; a place of 
public sale. 

" The second, with a bearded face, 
Stood singing in the market-place.* 

langftllow: Sinytrt. 

market price, market-rate, s. The 

Current price or rate of commodities ; current 
value aa expressed iu terms of money. 

" I had that which any inferior might 
At market-price have bought." 

Shakeip. : All'i Well That Endt WeU, T. S. 

market-stead, * market stod, *. 

A market-place. 

" Their best archers plac'd 
The market-tied about. 

Drayton : Poly-Olbion, s. M. 

market-town, . A town which has the 
privilege of holding a market at curtain times. 

market-woman, s. A woman who at- 
tends markets to buy or sell. 

mar ket, v.i. & t. [MARKET, *.] 

A. Intrans. : To deal in a market ; to buy 
Wid sell ; to make bargains for commodities. 

* B. Trans. : To offer for sale or sell in a 
market ; to deal in ; to vend. 

" Industrious merchants meet, and market then 
The world's collected wealth." 

Southey: Thalaba, ir. 

mar -ket-a-ble, a. [Eng. market ; -able.] 

1. That may or can be sold; fit for the 
market ; saleable. 

" Leaving the finely ground mineral residues to pass 
away readily for concentration into a marketable 
condition." DtMy Telegraph, Sept. 15, 138Z. 

2. Current in the market. 

mar '-kSt-a-ble- ness, . [Eng. market- 
able; -ness.} The quality or state of being 
marketable. 

*mar'-kSt-er, s. [Eng. market; -er.] One 
who attends a market to buy or sell ; one 
who exposes goods for sale in a market. 

mar ket-Ing, . [Eng. market ; -ing.} 

1. The act or practice of attending or trans- 
acting business in markets. 

* 2. Goods offered for sale in a market ; 
commodities purchased in a market. 

mark hoor, mark -hbre, . [Native 
name.] 

Zool. : Capra megaceros, popularly called the 
Serpent-eater, found in the forests of the 
north-east of India and in Cashmere. It is 
rather larger than the Ibex. Colour, slaty- 
gray ; the long beard of a darker hue. The 
triangular spiral horns are sometimes as much 
as five feet long. Markhoors have bred 
several times in the gardens of the Zoological 
Society, Regent's Park, London. 

mark'-Ing, pr. par., a., & t. [MARK, v.] 

A. & B. -4s pr. par. </k particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 
C. As substantive : 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of impressing a mark or marks 
upon anything. 

2. A mark or number of marks upon any- 
thing ; a characteristic or peculiar arrange- 
ment of natural colouring : as, the markingt 
on the petals of a flower. 

IL Botany: 

L The term is used of the surface of leaves, 



which may be rugose, netted, half-netted, 
pitted, lacunose, honeycombed, &c. 

2. It is employed of the colour or variega- 
tion of leaves, &c. 

fl Marking of cattle : 

The marking or branding of cattle is com- 
monly practiced in the great open ranches of 
the Western States, for the ease of recovery of 
strays from the herds, there being fixed marking 
periods iu which all the young cattle are bran- 
ded with the owner's mark. Sheep are also 
marked to distinguish them. 

marking-fruit, marking nut tree,*. 

Bot. : Semecarpui Anucardium. 

marking-gauge, *. 

Carp, : The marking-gauge bus a stem which 
carries a scriUng point and a head or fence, 
which is adjustable on the stem and secured 
in adjustment by a set screw or weilge. As 
the scribe is drawn along on a board, the fence 
slides on the ledge of the latter, and causes 
the mark to be parallel with the edge and at 
the regulated distance. 

marking-ink, . An indelible ink for 
marking clothes. 

marking-iron, *. An iron stamp for 
branding cattle, goods, &o. 

marking-machine, s. 

Coining: A machine used in the mint, to 
swage the edges of planchets for coin, raising 
the edge of the blank preparatory to milling. 

marking nut-tree, s. [ M A RHINO-FRUIT. ] 
marking-plough, *. 

Agric. : A plough used in running slight 
furrows in ploughed land as a mark for plant- 
ing corn, or, at greater distances, for sowing 
broadcast. Also used in crossing out laud 
for planting an orchard. 

* mark'-mg-ly, adv. [Eng. marking; -ly.} 
Attentively. 

" Pyrocles markingly barkened to all that Damedas 
aid." Sidney : Arcadia, p. 417. 

* mar'-kis, . [MARQUIS.] 

* mar kis-esse, *. [A femin. from markit.] 
The wile of a marquis ; a marchioness. 

" I wol with other maidens stoud 
That ben my felawes, in our dore, and see 
The markiseuc." Chaucer : C.T., 8,180. 

* mark man, s. [Eng. mark, and man.] A 
marksman.* 

" A right good markman t And she's fair I love." 
Shaketp. : Romeo t Juliet, L L 

marks -man, . [Eng. marks, and man.] 

1. One who is skilful to hit a mark ; one 
who can shoot well. 

" He was a fencer ; he was a marktman ; and. before 
he had ever stood in the ranks, he was already im ire 
than half a soldier." Macaulay : Hut. JCny., eh. xiii. 

* 2. One who, not being able to write, 
makes his mark instead of his name. 

" If you can avoid it do not have marktmen for wit- 
nesses." Lord St. Leonard*: Handy-book of Property 
Law, i>. 170. 

marks' -man -ship, . [Eng. marksman; 
-ship.] The" quality or state of being a marks- 
man ; dexterity in shooting. 

marks' -wom-an, s. [Eng. marks, and 
woman.] An archeress ; a woman who shoots 
at a mark. (Lit. & fig.) 

"Less exalted but perhaps not less skilful marts- 
' Sco: St. Konant Well, ch. xvlii. 



* mark' -wor- thy, a. [Eng. mark, and 
worthy.] Noteworthy. 

"A miirkmrthy old fact or two." Carlyle : Kit 
eeU.. iv. 8. 

marl, * marie, s. [O. Fr. marie, merle ; Fr 
mariie ; Wei. marl; Ir. & Gael, marla ; Dut., 
Dan. & Sw. mergel ; Low Lat. maryila, dimin. 
of Lat. mar go, = marl.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : In the same sense as IL 8. 

2. Fig. : The ground, the earth. 

" To support uneasy steps 
Over the burning marl." Hilton : P. L., L 9M. 

IL Technically: 

Geol. : Clay with much calcareous matter in 
its composition. Sometimes it is soft, some- 
times hard, in the latter case being called 
Indurated Marl. It sometimes contains car- 
bonate of lime to the extent of 40 or 50 per 
cent. If composed largely of shells, or frag- 
ments of shell, it is called Shell Marl. It is 
largely used as a fertilizing material, and other 
beds of sand and clay which are useful ai 



fertilizers are popularly called marls, even 
when lacking the special character of marl 
proper. The green sands of New Jersey, whose 
value is due to a green silicate of iron and 
potash, with occasionally some phosphate of 
lime, are thus called marls. Marl is found in 
nearly every country, being due to the deposits 
iu clay or mud of the shells of mollusks and 
other animals. It exists in enormous deposits 
in central New York and along the Hudson, 
and uxicusivfly iu Ohio. The cretaceous and 
tertiary beds of New Jersey and the Southern 
Atlantic and Gulf States contain it in great 
deposits, a nearly continuous belt extending 
from upper New Jersey to Texas. There are 
small deposits iu other states. Only the marls 
of New Jersey are used to any important ex- 
tent. Here nearly a million of tons are used 
annually, the greensand bed being 90 miles 
long and from 6 to 10 wide. Deposits of 
phosphatic marls have been opened in Ala- 
bama, which are said to be very valuable as 
fertilizers. 

marl-brick,*. The same as MARL-STOCK 
(q.v.). 

marl-slate, . 

Geology : 

1. Gen. : Any calcareous shale bearing the 
same relation to marl which shale does to 
clay. It is very abundant in the Swiss Alps. 

2. .Spec. : A series of beds with magnesian 
limestone, constituting the Middle Permian 
rocks. [MAGNESIAN-LIMESTONE.] 

marl-stock, s. An English name far a 
kind of brick ; a cutter. [CUTTER, s. II. 3.] 

marl (1), v.t. [MARL, s.] To dress or manure 
with marl. 

"Never yet was the man known that herewith 
marlfd the same ground twice in bis lifetime.' 
P. Bolland: Plinie, bk. xvii., ch. Tiii. 

marl (2), v.t. [MARLINE.] 
Nautical : 

1. To fasten with a marline. 

2. To perform the operation of marling (q.v.). 

mar la-ceous (ce as sb), a. [Eng. marl; 
-accous.] Resembling or partaking of the 
nature or quality of marl ; marly. 

* marie, v.i. [A corrupt, of marvel (q.v.).] 
To wonder, to marvel. 

marled, a. [MARL, s.] Variegated, spotted. 
(Scotch.) 

" Gif I kenn'd but where ye baide, 
I'd send to you a marled plaid." 
Burnt : Ihe (Juidwife of W auchope-kout*. 

mar -line, s. [Dut. marling, marlijn, from 
marren = to tie, and lijn = a line.] 

Naut. : A small cord composed of two 
strands slightly twisted and used for lashing, 
sewing, and tricing. Used either white or 
tarred. 

" Some the gall'd ropes with dauby marline bind." 
Dryden : Annul Miraailit, cxlviii. 

marline-spike, martin-spike, s. 

Naut. : A pointed iron pin suspended by 
lanyard, and used to make an opening between 
the strands of rope in splicing. 

mar' -line, v.t. [MARLINE, s.] 

Naut. : To wind marline round, as a rope. 

mar ling, s. [MARL (2), v.] 

Naut. : The act or operation of wrapping a 
rope with spun-yarn or twine, having a knot 
at each turn to secure it if it becomes cut at 
one or more places. [SERVING.] 

mar ling hi t ch , . 

Naut. : A kind of hitch used by sailors it 
winding or twisting spun-yarn. 

marling spike, s. [MARLINE-SPIKE.] 

marl'-ite, s. [Eng. murl, s. ; -ite.} A variety 
of marl. 

mar-lit'-ic, o. [Eng. marlit(e); -ic.] Par- 
taking of the qualities or nature of marlite. 

marl -pit, * marie-pit, s. [Eng. marl, s., 
and pit.] A pit where marl is or has been 
dug. 

" He was In a marlepit yfalle." 

Chaucer: C. T., 3,455. 

marl'-stone, s. [Eng. marl, s., and stone.] 

Geol. : A sandy calcareous and ferruginous 
bed, or series of beds, dividing the upper from 
the lower Lias clays. 



boil, bo^ ; p6ut, jo%l ; cat, 9011. chorus, 9hin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, Xenophon, exist. -Ing. 
-dan, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -sion = zhun. -dona, -tioua, aioua = suus. -We, -die, &c. = bel, del. 



3044 



marly marque 



mart'-y, o. [Eng. marl, s., and -j/.] Com- 
posed of or containing marl ; abounding with 
marl ; resembling marl. 

" The lean and hungry earth, the fat and marZtfmouId. 
Where sands be always hot." 

Drayton : Poly-Olbltm, s. S. 

marly-clay, s. A variety of clay, used in 
making pale bricks, and as a manure. 

marly-limestone, s. Argillaceous lime- 
stone ; limestone with clay in its composition. 

mar-mair'-6~-lite, s. [Gr. na.pna.ipu> (mar- 
maird) = to glisten, to shine, and Aides (Itthos) 
= a stone ; Ger. marmairolith.] 

Min. : A mineral occurring in very fine 
crystalline needles, diffused throughoo* a 
brownish manganesian limestone, at Longban, 
Wermland, Sweden. Crystallization, probably 
monoclinic. Hardness, 5 ; sp. gr. 8'07 ; col- 
our, pale yellow ; transparent. Compos. : 
silica, 56'27 ; protoxide of iron, 2'03 ; protoxide 
of manganese, 4'86 ; magnesia, 21 - 3fi; lime, 
6'33 ; potash, 1'89; soda, 6'94 ; loss by igni- 
tion, 0-90. 

mar'-ma-lade, * mar'-ma-lSt, * mar'- 

ma let, * mar me lad, s" O. Fr. merme- 
lade (Fr. marniela.de), from Port, marmelada, 
from marmelo = a quince, of wliich fruit it was 
originally made ; Lat. melimelum, from Gr. 
fu\ilii)\ov (melimelon) = a sweet apple, an 
apple grafted on a quince, from /xe'Ai (meli) =. 
honey, (Lat. mel), and /iijAoc (melon) = an 
apple.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : A general name given to pre- 
serve prepared from various fruits, especially 
those of a bitter or acid nature, as oranges, 
lemons, barberries, the berries of the mountain 
ash ; sometimes also of apples, plums, pears, 
pine-apples, &c. 

2. Bot. (1) Achras mammosa, a dessert fruit 
[ACHRAS], (2) [MARMALADE-TREE]. 

marmalade box, s. 

Bot., c.: The fruit of Genipa esculenta or 
americana. [GENIPA.] 

marmalade-tree, s. 

Bot. : Lucuma mammosum. [LucuMA.] 



* mar ma lat, 

MALADE.]" 



mar ma let, s. [M AR- 

mar ma lite, s. [MARMOLITE.] 

mar'-ma-tite, s. [Named after the place 
where first found, Marmato ; suff. -ite (Jfin.).] 
Min. : A variety of blende (q.v.) of a dark- 
brown to black colour, and containing 10 per 
cent., or upwards, of iron. Sp. gr. 3'9 to 4'2. 
Christophite (q.v.) is a related mineral. 

* mar-me-lad, s. [MARMALADE.] 

mar mo lite, mar ma lite, s. [Or. 

/iop/xac'pcu (marmairo) = to "glisten, to shine, 
and Ai'9o (lithos) = stone ; Ger. marmolith.} 

Min. : A variety of the mineral serpentine 
(q.v.), occurring in thin brittle folia. Sp. gr. 
2 - 41 ; lustre, pearly ; colour, greenish to pale 
green. Found at Hoboken, New Jersey, U. S.A. 

inar'-md-ra-ceous (ce as sh), a. [As if 

from a Lat. marmoraceus, from manner = 
marble.] Pertaining to or resembling marble. 

* mar mor ate, * mar'-mor at cd, a. 
[Lat. marmoratus, pa. par. of marmoro = to 
cover with marble ; marmor = marble.] 

1. Covered or overlaid with marble. 

" Under thi> ston closyde and marmorate 
Lyeth John Kitte, Londoner natyff." 

Wood : Athena Oxon,, voL L 

2. Variegated like marble. 

mar-mdr-a'-tion, s. [Lat. marmoratio, from 
marmoratus, pa, par. of marmoro = to cover 
with marble.] 

1. The act of covering or encrusting with 
marble. 

2. The act of variegating so as to resemble 
marble. 

3. A casing of marble to a building. 

ttar mor a turn, mar mor e' turn, s. 
[Lat.] 

1. Architecture : 

(1) A cement made of pounded marble 
and lime for architectural purposes. 

(2) White of egg and quicklime incorporated 
IB a mortar. 

2. Dent. : A cement of tin-foil and mercury, 
formerly used for filling decayed teeth. 



mar mor e al, mar mbr'-e-an, a. [Lat. 
marmoreus, from marmor = marble ; Fr. mar- 
moreen; Ital. & Sp. marmoreo.] 

1. Pertaining to or resembling marble. 

2. Made of marble. 

* mar-mor'-e'-al-ly, adv. [Eng. marmoreal ; 

-ly.] Like marble ; stonily, coldly. 

"He was not marmorcally emphatic, al Lander 
*&." Athenaum, Nov. 12, 1881, p. 624. 

* mar'-mor-tin-td, s. [Lat. marmor mar- 
ble, and Eng. tint (q.v.).] A process employed 
in the last century to decorate walls, ceilings, 
&c., in imitation of marble, &c., by deposit- 
ing on a ground of an adhesive nature marble 
dust or powder, arranged in the form of the 
veins of a plaque of marble, and sometimes 
in that of an ornamental figure. 

mar'-mose, s. [OPOSSUM.] 

mar mo set', * mar-mo-ze t', *. [Fr. mar- 
mouset, from Low Lat. marmoretum = a little 
% marble figure ; marmor = marble.] 

Zoot. : The Platyrhine genus Hapale (q.v.), 
from the tropical region of South America. 
Hapale Jacchus is the Common Marmoset, 
which is readily tamed, and becomes an 
amusing pet. The fur of the body is darkish- 
brown, with different shades of colour for 




MARMOSET. 

each hair, which is dusky at the root, reddish 
in the middle, and gray at the tip. The head 
is small, the nose flat, the face black, with a 
long tuft of white hair sticking out from 
each side. The tail is long and bushy, marked 
with alternate rings of ash-colour and black. 
H. humeralifer is the Cloaked Marmoset. 
The fore part of the body is white ; the hands 
gray ; the rump and underside deadish-tawny ; 
tail banded with gray and black. Called also 
Ouistiti. [MIDAS.] 

mar mot, * mar-mot -to, .-. [Fr. mar- 
motte, from Lat. mus montanus = the mountain 
mouse.] 
Zoology : 

1. Sing. : A popular name for any individual 
of the genus Arctomys (q.v.), but more parti- 
cularly confined to Arctomys marmota, the 
Common or Alpine Marmot, inhabiting the 
higher regions of the Alps, Pyrenees, and 
Carpathians. It is about twenty inches in 
length ; dark brown above, and lighter below. 
The Hoary Marmot, an American species, 
ranging as far north as the Arctic Circle, is 
A. pruinosus. Marmots live in large societies 
in extensive burrows. They are very active 
in the summer, and pass the winter in a state 
of torpidity. 

" Hence also some beasts, as the Marmotto or Mtu 
Alpinut, a creature as big or bigger than a rabbet, 
which absconds all winter, doth (as Hildanus tells us) 
live upon its own fat." Ray : On the Creation, pt. ii. 

2. PI. : The genus Arctomys, or True Mar- 
mots : less properly, Arctomyinee, the second 
sub-family of Sciuridse (q.v.). 

* mar mo zet', s. [MARMOSET.] 

ma-rone', a. [MAROON, a.] One of a class 
of impure colours, composed of black and 
red, black and purple, or black and russet 
pigments, or with black and any other de- 
nomination of pigments in which red pre- 
dominates. 

marone-lake, s. A preparation of mad- 
der, of great depth, transparency, and dura- 
bility of colour : it works well in water, 
glazes, and dries in oil, and is in all respects 
a good pigment ; its hues are easily given 
with other pigments, but it is not much used. 



* mar'-on-ist, s. [After Publius Virgilws 
Maro, commonly called Virgil.] A disciple of 
Virgil : a Virgilian. 

" Like some imperious maronitt." 

Bp. Ball : Satiret, L ri. T. 

Mar'-6n-ite, a. & s. [For etym. see def.] 

A. As adj.: Belonging to or characteristic 
of the sect of the Eastern Christians de- 
scribed under B. 

" There is also a .Vnronite college at Kome." Addit 
t Arnold : Cath. Diet., p. 643. 

B. As substantive : 

Church Hist. : A body of Eastern Christian! 
of Mount Lebanon, probably deriving their 
name from one Maro, a Syrian monk contem- 
porary with Chrysostom. They adopted 
Monothelite errors, but were united to the 
Roman Church in 1182, though they soon 
fell away through Greek influence. In 1216 
they again submitted, and the connection has 
subsisted ever since. They have excited 
more attention in Europe than other Oriental 
Christians, on account of the persecutions 
they have suffered at the hands of the Druses 
(q.v.). In 1860, 1,300 Maronites were killed, 
and 100,000 driven from their homes. Since 
then the governor of the Lebanon has been 
nominated by the Sultan of Turkey. In 1865 
the Maronites numbered about 150,000. Arabic 
is the vulgar, and Syriac the liturgical lan- 
guage. 

ma roon' (1), a. & s. [Fr. marron = a run- 
a'way slave ; an abbrev. of Sp. cimarron =s 
wild, unruly, from cima a mountain-top.] 

A, As adj. : Fugitive. 

"A warrant of the Lord Chief Justice broke up the 
Maroon village for a short time." Uacaulay : Hilt. 
Eng., ch. xxiil. 

B. As substantive : 

1. The name given to negroes in the West 
Indies. In many cases by taking to the fo- 
rests and mountains they rendered themselves 
formidable to the colonists, and sustained a 
long and brave resistance against the whites. 
When Jamaica was conquered by the English 
in 1655, about 1,500 slaves retreated to the 
mountains, and were called Maroons. They 
continued to harass the island till the end of 
the last century, when bloodhounds were 
employed to track them to their hiding-places. 
(Bartlett.) 

2. A bright white light used for signals in 
the East Indies. 

maroon-party, *. A party of pleasure, 
differing from a picnic in that it occupies 
several days instead of one. 

ma roon', v.t. & i. [MAROON, a.] 

A. Trans. : To put ashore and leave on a 
desolate island by way of punishment, as 
was done by the buccaneers, &c. 

B. Intrans. : To go on a maroon-party ; to 
picnic. 

" A marooning party ... is a party made up to 
pass several days on the shore or in the country." 
Bartlett : A mericanitmt, p. 334. 

ma- roon' (2), a. & s. [Fr. marron = the great 
chestnut, from Ital. marrone.] 

A. As adj. : Of a brownish-crimson colour ; 
claret- coloured. 

" It is of a deep almost maroon green." Oardtner't 
Chronicle, xvi. (IBM), 599. 

B. As subst. : A rocket having the case 
bound round with tarred twine, so that it 
explodes with a great noise. 

ma-rodn'-er, s. [Bug. maroon (q.v.); -er.] 
A" runaway slave ; a maroon. 

" On the south shore dwelt a marooner, that modestly 
called himself hermit." Byrd : Wettovtr Paper*, 
p. la 

mar 1 -plot, s. [Eng. mar, v., and plot.] One 
who, by officious interference, mars or spoils 
a plot or design. 

Mar purg, Mar burg, s. [See def.) A 
town of Hesse Cassel. 

Marpurg Conference, s. [REFORMA- 
TION, ZWINGLIANISM.] 

marque (que as k), * mark, s. [Fr. marque 
= a boundary, a distress or seizure of goods ; 
fromO. H. Ger. marcha = a march, a boundary.] 
[MARCH (1), s.] A licence to make reprisals 
on the belongings of a public enemy, generally 
in the phrase letters af marque or letters o) 
marque and reprisal, which meant originally a 
licence or commission to pass over the bound- 
ary or frontier, into an enemy's country, and 
capture or destroy the persons or goods of tha 



fate, fat, Hire, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, so, ce = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 



marquee marriage 



3045 



enemy, in reprisal for goods or persons cap- 
tured or destroyed by him. The meaning now 
is an extraordinary licence or commission 
granted by the government of one country to 
its subjects to make reprisals at sea on the 
subjects of another country in return for in- 
juries it has received or suffered ; a licence to 
engage in privateering : a private vessel com- 
missioned to attack and capture the vessels 
of an enemy ; a privateer. 

" But the granting of letter* of marque has long been 
disused, the conference which met at Paris in 1856, 
after the close of the war with Russia, having recom- 
mended tbe entire abolition of privateering. Black- 
Hone : Comment., bk. 1., cb. 7. 

mar quee' (qu as k), s. [Fr. marquise = 
(1) a marchioness, (2) an officer's tent, a mar- 
quee. The s has been dropped from a mis- 
taken idea that marquees, the proper form, 
was a plural: so we have sherry for sherris, 
pea for pease, &c.] 

1. An officer's field tent. 

2. A large field tent or covering made of 
strong canvas to keep off the rain ; generally 
with a second canvas or fly a little above the 
tent proper. 

t mar - ques-al, a. [Eng. marquess; -al.] 
Pertaining or belonging to a marquis. 



befo 



> nee all eyes, not royal, ducal, or marquesal, fall 
i her own." Trollope : Barchetter Totcert, xxxvii. 



mar'-quess, s. [MARQUIS.] 

mar quet ry (qu as k), mar quet er ie, 

*. [Fr. marqueterie, from marqueter = to in- 
lay, to variegate, from marque = a mark (q.v.).J 
Inlaid work. It includes parquetry, reisner 
work, buhl, mosaic. (See these words.) The 
manner of executing this work consists in 
cutting the designs out of pieces of wood or 
plates of metal and inserting pieces of a dif- 
ferent colour. When the inlays are inserted, 
the work is levelled with the toothing-plane, 
and then scraped with the joiner's scraper ap- 
plied obliquely at the joints of the wood. 

"The royal apartments were richly adorned with ta- 
pestry and marquetry. 'Macaulai/: Sift. Eng., ch. xx. 

mar-quis, mar -qucss, "march es, 
*mar-kis, *mar quesse, s. [O. Fr. 

markis, marchis (Fr. marquis) = the governor 
of a frontier, a warden of the marches, a 
marquis, from Low Lat. marchensis = a prefect 
of the marches, from marcha = a march, a 
boundary, from O. H. Ger. marcha = a march 
[MAECH (1), s.]; Sp. marques; Port, marques; 
Ital. marchese.] 

*l. An officer whose duty it was to guard 
and defend the marches or borderland of a 
country ; a warden or prefect of the marches ; 
a marcher. 

2. A title of nobility in England, ranking 
next below a duke, and above an earl. It is 
also a title of dignity in France, Italy, and 
Germany. The eldest son of a marquis in 
Great Britain 
is usually 
styled by 
courtesy an 
earl, and the 



younger sons 
nd daugh- 
ters lords and 
ladies. The 
wife of amar- 




COBONET OT MARQUIS. 



quis is called a marchioness. The title of 
marquis is often attached as a second title to 
a dukedom, and is held by the eldest son of a 
duke during his father's lifetime. The coronet 
of a marquis consists of a richly-chased circle 
of gold, with four strawberry leaves and four 
balls of pearls set on short points on its edge ; 
the cap, crimson velvet with a gold tassel on 
the top, and turned up with ermine. 

"The Harquett wa. (he falsest, ... the most pnsll- 
Unimoui, of mankind." Jim. a i/rty : Bin. Buy., xiii 

*1T Lady marquess: A marchioness. (Shake- 
tpeare: Henry VIIL, v. 2.) 

mar'-quls-ate, *. [Fr. marqitisat, from 
marquis.] The seigniory, dignity, or lordship 
of a marquis. 

" The duke made a sudden attempt upon the mar- 
?u<itof Montaerrato." Aelj? "<> Wnttoniamt, p. 415. 

* mar -quis-dom, * mar-ques dome, *. 

[Eng. marquit; -dam.] A marquisate. 

"Other nobles of the margunrlanu of Saluce." 
noli*,hed: Hitt. Scotland (an. 1483). 

mar-quise' (qu as k), . [Fr.] The wife 
of a marquis, a marchioness. 

marquise-ring, s. A lady's ring, hav- 
ing somewhat the shape of a vesica (q.v.). 



* mar ' quis ship. * marqueship, s. [Eug. 
marquis; -ship.] A marquisate. 

' But as for the marqueihlp of Corke ... he would 
not a then nor yet thought it good to deale therein." 
aoliiulud: aitt. Ireland (an. 1586). 

Mar quoi (quo! as kwa), *. (See the com- 
pound.) 

Mar quoi's rulers, s. pi. A set of rulers 
devised by an artist named Marquoi, for the 
purpose of facilitating the operations of plot- 
ting and plan drawing. The set consists of a 
triangular ruler, whose hypothenuse is three 
times as long as the shorter side of the tri- 
angle, and several rectangular rulers, gradu- 
ated into equal parts, according to different 
scales. The rulers are made of hard wood, 
ivory, or metal, and the graduation lines are 
cut close to the edges of the rectangular rulers 
for facility of application. 

* mar quys, s. [MARQUIS.] 
mar-ram, s. [MARUH.] 
marred, pa. par. or a. [MAR, v.] 

marr'-er, * marr'-ar, s. [Eng. mar, v. ; -er.] 
One who mars, spoils, or defeats anything. 

" For he sayeth yt they may be ye marrart & dl. 
troyers of the realme." Sir T. More : tt'orka, p. 295. 

* mar'-ri-a-ble, *mar'-i-a-ble, a. [Eng. 

marry ; -able.] Fit to be married ; marriage- 
able. 

"Thither shortly after came ambassadours from the 
emperour, requiring the king's daughter affianced vnto 
him and being now viripotent or mariable, desired 
she might be delivered vnto them." Bolimlied : 
Henry I. (au. 1115). 

mar'-riage, *mar / -iage, *. [Fr. manage, 
from Low Lat. maritaticum, maritagium = 
a woman's dowry.] 
L Ordinary iMnguage : 

1. Lit. : The act of marrying or uniting a 
man and woman as husband and wife ; the 
legal union of a man and woman for life ; the 
state or condition of being married ; wedlock. 

2. Figuratively : 

* (1) A wedding-feast ; a feast on the occa- 
sion of a marriage. 



(2) Intimate union, 
IL Technicall,y : 

1. Anthrop. : Herbert Spencer (Prin. of 
Social., i. 279) says that "the marital rela- 
tions . . . have gradually evolved ; " and 
that the first stage was promiscuity (q.v.), 
which " may be called indefinite polyandry, 
joined with indefinite polygyny " (i. 297) ; 
to that succeeded polyandry (q.v.), "in some 
cases the husbands being strangers, in others 
akin, and usually brothers " (i. 297) ; higher 
in rank stands polygyny, "with which Hebrew 
history made us acquainted in our childhood" 
(i. 304) ; and in due time was evolved mon- 
ogamy, "the natural form of sexual relation 
for the human race" (i. 314). Sir John 
Lubbock believes that "our present social 
relations have arisen from an initial stage of 
hetairism or communal marriage " [U 1J ; and 
says : 

" I believe that communal marriage was gradually 
sujierseded hy individual marriage (mauled on capture, 
and that this led firstly to exogamy, and then to 
female infantiu.de . . . Endogamy and regulated 
polyandry, though frequent, I regard as exceptional, 
and as not entering into the normal progress of de- 
velopment" Origin of Civilisation (1882), p. 103. 

Mr. J. F. McLennan's Primitive Marriage 
is devoted to the subject of marriage by cap- 
ture [1[ 3]. Bachofen (Das MuUerrecht) has 
no idea of marriage being the result of social 
evolution. He considers that : 

"At first . . . human beings lived in a state of 
hetairism. The women, by nature nobler and more 
sensitive than the men. were at last disgusted with 
this life, and under tbe impulse of a strong religious 
aspiration, combined to put an end to helairism ami 
introduce marriage. They succeeded, and established 
monogamy, bat not without an appeal to force." 
Bachofen in McLennan : Studiet in Anc. Hilt., p. 413. 

2. Law : In law marriage is regarded in no 
other light than a civil contract. The law 
allows it to be valid where the parties were 
willing to contract, able to contract, and did 
contract in the form required by law. Dis- 
abilities to contract were formerly considered 
as either canonical or civil. Consanguinity, 
affinity, and corporal infirmity were canonical 
disabilities, making the marriage voidable, 
but not ipso facto void, until sentence of 
nullity had been obtained. The last of these 
is nmv, however, the only canonical disability 
on which marriages, otherwise regular, can be 



declared void. The others have by statute 
been declared civil disabilities, which make 
the contract void ab initio. Besides con- 
sanguinity and affinity, there are three other 
civil disabilities : (1) A prior marriage, in 
which case, besides the penalties consequent 
upon it as a felony, the second marriage is 
void. (2) Want of age, which is sufficient 
to avoid all other contracts, a fortiori it 
ought to avoid this, the most important 
contract of any .... But it is never- 
theless so far a marriage that if at the 
age of consent the parties agree to con- 
tinue together, they need not be married 
again. (3) Want of reason. The statute 
6 and 7 William IV. c. 85 provided for places 
of religions worship being registered for the 
solemnization of marriage, and permits of 
this contract being entered into before a 
registrar of marriages, without any religious 
sanction whatever. But whether solemnized 
in church, celebrated in a place of worship, 
or entered into before the registrar, a marriage 
must in all cases be preceded and accompanied 
by certain circumstances of publicity, or be 
entered into in virtue of a licence, which is 
obtainable only on oath being made that there 
is no legal impediment. By marriage the 
legal existence of the woman is incorporated 
and consolidated into that of the husband, 
under whose protection and cover she per- 
forms everything, and is therefore called in 
our law-French a feme-covert, fcemina viro co- 
operta, and her condition during her marriage 
is called her coverture. Marriages are dis- 
solved by death or divorce. "A husband can 
present a petition for the dissolution of his 
marriage on the ground that his wife has been 
guilty of adultery ; and a wife may seek tha 
same relief on the ground that her husband 
has been guilty of incestuous or bigamous 
adultery, rape, or unnatural crimes, or of 
adultery coupled with such cruelty as would 
have entitled her to a divorce a menso et 
thoro, or of adultery coupled with desertion 
without reasonable excuse for two years and 
upwards." (Macqueen,) In Scotland marriages 
are either regular or irregular, the latter being 
by mere consent without the intervention 01 
a clergyman, the parties expressing a solemn 
acceptance of each other as man and wife, in 
writing or verbally in the presence of witnesses. 

If (1) Communal marriage : 

Anthrop. : Sir John Lubbock's name fin- the 
condition which some other authors call He* 
tairism or Promiscuity. 

"The primitive condition of man, socially, was on* 
in which marriage did not exist, or, as we may per- 
haps for convenience call it, of communal marriage. 
whore all the men and women in a small community 
were regarded as equally married to one another." 
Lubbock : Origin of Civilisation (1S82), p. 98. 

(2) Complex marriage : The domestic relation- 
ship between the sexes existing in the Ameri- 
can sect calling themselves Perfectionists. 

" The central domestic fact of the household is tha 
complex marriate of its members to each other, and 
to all : a rite which is to he understood as taking place 
on the entrance of every new member, whether mala 
or female, into association ; and which is said to con- 
vert the whole body into one marriage circle : every 
man becoming the husband and brother of every wo- 
man ; every woman the wife and sister of every man. 1 * 
Bepaorth Dixon : Spiritual H'ivet. 

(3) Marriage by Capture : 

Anthrop. : "The j^ractice of getting wives 
by the ft or force " (McLennan : Studies in 
Anc. Hist., p. 41). Two notable cases are the 
Rape of the Sabines (Liv., i. 9) and the abduc- 
tion of the daughters of Shiloh liy the sons of 
Benjamin (Judges xx., xxi.) (See Smith : Bible 
Diet., s.v. Marriage ) 

" Marriage by capture is the third form of marriage 

pecially recognised by ancient Hindoo law." Luo- 

bock: Origin of Ctriliiatioti (1882), p. 108. 

U Obvious compounds : Marria ge - bond, 
marriage-day, marriuge-hour, marriage-tie. 

marriage-articles, s. pi. The same as 
MARRIAGE-CONTRACT. 

marriage-bed, *. The bed appropriated 
to a man and woman on their marriage. 

marriage-bell, s. Joy-bells rung on tha 
occasion of a wedding. 

Aad all went merry as a marriage-ben." 

Byron : Childc Harold. Hi. M. 

* marriage brokage, s. A considera- 
tion paid for arranging a marriage. It is 
illegal, as contrary to public policy. 

t marriage - broker, s. One who ar- 
ranges or contrives marriages. 

marriage-contract, s. The contract 
or agreement on which a marriage is founded. 



boll, boj>- ; pout, jowl ; cat, fell, chorus, ghin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this, sin, as ; expect, Xcnophon, exist, ph = f. 
-iaa, tlan = shan. -tion, -sion = shun; (ion, sion = shun, -tious, -clous, -sious = shus. -ble, -die, <tc. = bel, del. 



SG4G 



marriageable marrymuffe 



marriage favor, . A wedding-favor ; 
a knot or bunch of white ribbons or flowers 
worn at a wedding. 

marriage license, s. A license for the 
solemnization of a marriage. Marriage licenses 
differ in the different states, in some no license 
being required, while others have strict license 
requirements. This diversity of laws opens 
the way to evasion of the laws of any particular 
state. Thus the license law of Pennsylvania is 
evaded by crossing the Delaware and contract- 
ing an unlicensed marriage in New Jersey. 

U In England licenses are of three kinds : 

1. Special license, granted only by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, which dispenses with all 
restrictions as to time or place. It is granted 
as a right to peers, Ac., and as a favor to other 
persons. 

2. Ordinary license, granted by the Bishop 
of a diocese, through a surrogate, it dispenses 
with the publication of banns. A declaration 
must be made that no impediment exists, and 
the residence of one of the contracting parties 
in the district in which the marriage is to be 
solemnized is required for " the fifteen days 
last past," before the issue of the license. 

3. License of the Superintendent Registrar. 
This license applies to any building registered 
for the solemnization of marriage. Declaration 
aa to impediments, and residence of one of the 
persons, are required. 

marriage-lines, s. pi. A common name 
for a marriage certificate. 

" I took out of my bosom . . . my marriage-linct." 
Stoat : CloMer A Hearth, oh. Iv. 

marriage-portion, s. A portion given 
to a woman on her marriage ; a dowry. 

marriage-settlement, s. An arrange- 
ment usually made before marriage, and in 
consideration of it, whereby a jointure is se- 
cured to the wife, and portions to the children, 
in the event of the husband's death. 

marriage-vow, . The vow taken by 
the man or woman at their marriage. 

mar rlage-a-ble, a. [Eng. marriage; -able.} 
1. Fit for marriage ; of age to be married. 
"The proportion of children which any marriage- 
able man or woman may be presumed shall have. 
Sraunt : BUlt of Mortality. 

* 2. Suited or suitable for close union. 

" They led the vine 

To wed her elm ; she, spouaed, about him twines 
Her marriageable arms." Milton : f. L., v. 217. 

fmar'-riage-a-ble-ne : SB,s. [Eng. marriage- 
able; -ntss.] The quality or state of being 
marriageable. 

mar -lied, pa. par. & a. [MARRY, t>.J 

A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective : 

1. United in marriage. 

" The married offender incurs a crime little *hort of 
perjury." Paley : Moral Philosophy, bk. iii., h. iv. 

2. Formed or constituted by man-ia,, ) ; con- 
jugal : as, the married state. 

* 3. Joined, concordant, in harmo..y. 

" Lap me in soft Lydiau airs, 
Married to immortal verse." 

Milton: L'AUtgro. 

^ Married Women'* Property Act : 
Law: In most of the states of the United 
States, the earnings of a married wuman 
are to be deemed her own separate property, 
as are her deposits in savings banks, 
&<. On the other hand, a husband is not 
liable for the debts of his wife, contracted be- 
fore marriage, but the wife is liable to be sued 
and her separate property taken to satisfy 
* those debts. 

* mar'-ii-er, . [Bug. marry, v. ; -er.] One 

who marries. 

miir ron, *mar-roon,a. &<;. [MAROON, a.] 

mar r on, s. [Fr.] 

Pyrotech. : A paper box strongly wrapped 
with twine and filled with powder ; it is in- 
tended to imitate the report of a cannon, and 
Is fired by a piece of quickmatch projecting 
externally. 

max" -rot, marre, s. [Etym. doubtful.] 

Ornith. : A popular name for Alca impennit, 
the Great Auk. [AUK.] 

mar'-rdw (l), * mar-ow, * mar -we, 
marugho, * marwhc, * mary, 3. [A.8. 
mearh ; cogn. with Dut. merg = marrow, pith ; 



Icel. mergr ; Sw. merg ; Dau. maro ; Ger. 
mark; M. H. Ger. marc; O. H. Ger. marag ; 
Wei. mer ; Cor. maru.} 
L Ordinary Language: 

1. Lit. : In the same sense as II. 2. 

" One of the harde bones kuockeu they 
The mart/." ClujMcer : C. T., U.477. 

2. Fig. : The essence, the pith, the best 
part. 

IL Technically: 

1. Anat. Physiol. : Medulla or fat filling 
the large internal cavities of the various bones, 
especially in the cavities of the long ones, in 
the spongy tissue, and the articular extremi- 
ties of these and the short rounded ones. It 
is an oily fluid contained in bundles of vesicles. 

2. Bot. : [f 2 (1)]. 

U 1. Spinal Marrow : 
Anat. : The spinal cord (q.v.). 
2. Vegetable marrow : 
Botany : 

(1) Citcurbita ovifera. It has greenish-yellow 
flowers. Its native country is Persia, but it 
is cultivated in many other countries, Britain 
not excepted. It is tender and sweet. It is 
boiled when half ripe, and served with sauce ; 
or it is gathered young, and fried in batter. 

(2) Per sea gratissima. 
Marrow Controversy, s. 

Scottish Church Hist. : A controversy regard- 
ing an old book called the Marrow of Modern 
Divinity, written by a Puritan soldier under 
the Commonwealth, and recommended in the 
year 1717 by the Rev. Thos. Boston. It was 
re-published in 1718 by the Rev. James Hog of 
Carnook, with a preface from his pen. Some 
of the leading men in the Scottish Church, 
especially Principal Haddow, of St. Andrews, 
objected to its teachings. The moderate party 
were against the volume, the evangelical 
party in its favour. It was condemned by 
the General Assembly of 1720. A representa- 
tion was given in by twelve ministers in 1721, 
with a petition that the act of condemnation 
might be withdrawn. The excitement pro- 
duced by this controversy was one of the 
causes which ultimately led, in 1733, to the 
deposition of four ministers, and that again to 
the creation of the Secession Church. [SECES- 
SION.] 

Marrow-men, s. pi. 

Scottish Church Hist. : The twelve ministers 
who signed the petition to the General As- 
sembly against the condemnation of the Mar- 
row of Modern Divinity. [MARROW CONTRO- 
VERSY.] They are known also as the Twelve 
Brethren and the Representers. 

marrow-bone, * marl-bone, * marie- 
bone, * mary bone, .-. 

1. Lit. : A bone containing marrow, or 
boiled to extract the marrow. 

" A coke they haddeu with hem for the nones. 
To boile the uhickeues and the marie lionet. 

Chaucer : C. T., 38J. 

2. Fig. (PL) : The bones of the knees ; the 
knees. (In this sense by some taken as a 
corruption of Mary-bones, in allusion to the 
reverence paid to the Virgin by kneeling.) 

" He fel upon his maribonet, & pitteously prayd me 
to f.irgeve him." Sir T. More : \Yorket, p. 727. 

marrow-tat, . A kind of large, rich 
pea. 

marrow-pudding, s. A pudding made 
from beef marrow, or vegetable marrow. 

marrow - spoon, s. A long, narrow 
spoon for extracting marrow. 

marrow-squash, s. An American name 
for the vegetable marrow. [MARROW (1), *.. 
II. 1.] 

mar'-row (2), . [Perhaps a corrupt, of Fr. 
mari, from Lat maritus = a husband.] A 
match, a mate, a partner ; one of a pair. 

" He saw that he wasna to get Die Vernon for hi* 
marrow." Scott : Jtob Roy, ch. xxxv. 

mar'-row (l), v.t. [MARROW (ix .] To fill, 
as with marrow or fat ; to glut. 

mar'-rdw (2), v.t. [MARROW (2), .] To as- 
sociate with, to equal ; to fit exactly, to 
match. 

m&r'-row-Ish, a. [Eng. marrow ; -ifc.] Of 
the nature of marrow ; resembling marrow. 

" A soft, marromith, and white substance, Ingendred 
of the purest part of seed and spirits." Burton : 
Anatomy o/ Melancholy, p. 19. 



* mar'-row-less (1), a. [Eng. marrow (1), s. ; 
-less.] Wanting or devoid of marrow. 

" Thy bones are marrouleis, thy blood is cold." 

Shaketp. : Macbeth, ill. 4. 

* mar -row-less (2), a. [Eng. marrow (2), s. ; 
-less.] That cannot be matched or equalled ; 
unequalled, incomparable. 



-^, a. [Eng. marrow; -y.} Full of 
marrow ; pithy, like marrow. 

"A marrowy like substance with greenish veins in- 
terspersed." Vrjinger: Sugar Cane, bk. i. (Note on 
ver. 46.) 

mar-ru'-bl-dse, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. marru- 
b(ium); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 
Bot. : A family of Labiate, tribe Stachese. 

mar-ru'-W-in, s. [Eng. marrubi(um); -in 
(C/ieni.).] 

Chem. : A bitter principle extracted from 
white horehound (Marrubiuin vulgare) by 
means of boiling water. It is almost insol- 
uble in cold water, but very soluble in alcohol 
and ether. From its alcoholic solution it 
crystallizes in needles, from its ethereal solu- 
tion in rhombic plates. It melts at 160 ; at a 
higher temperature it is partially decomposed, 
giving off irritating vapours. 

mar -ru-bl-um, s. [Lat. = the horehound.) 

Bot. : White Horehound ; the typical genus 
of the family Marrubidse (q.v.). The calyx is 
ten-toothed ; the stamens included within the 
tube of the corolla, the two anterior or lower 
ones the longest. Thirty species are known. 
They are from the temperate and warmer 
parts of the Old World. Marrubium vulgare, 
the Common White Horehound, is a well- 
known plant. [HOREHOUND.] 

mar rum, mar ram, s. [Norfolk dialect.] 

Bot. : Ammophila arenaria, called also 
Psamma arenarium, formerly Arundo arenaria. 

marrum grasses, s.pl. 

Bot. : Grasses whose creeping suckers and 
tough entangled roots bind together the loose 
moving sand of the sea coast, as Ammophila 
arenaria. 

mar'-ry\ * mar-i-en, v.t. & i. [Fr. marier, 
from Lat. marito = (1) to give a woman in 
marriage, (2) to take a woman in marriage, 
from maritus a husband, from mas (geiiit. 
mar is) = a male; Sp. maridar; ItaL maritare.} 

A. Transitive: 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Literally : 

(1) To unite in marriage or wedlock ; to 
join for life as man and wife ; to constitute 
husland and wife according to the laws or 
customs of the country. 

"What! shall the curate controul me? Tell him, 
that lie .si, all marry the couple himself." Gay : What 
d-yecallUI 

(2) To give or dispose of in marriage or 
wedlock. 

" Would I had never married my daughter there.* 
Sliiikcsp. : Tempett, 11. L 

(3) To take as husband or wife : as, A man 
marines a woman, or a woman marries a man. 

* 2. Fig. : To write intimately or closely ; 
to join, to associate. 

" Harrying his sweet noats with their silver sound." 
liruune : Britannia* Paituralt, bk. i., i. &. 

IL Naut. : To splice. 

"To marry, in splicing ropes, is to loin one rop to 
another for the purpose of reeving it, which is pat* 



B. Intransitive: 

1. To enter into the state of matrimony or 
wedlock ; to take a husband or wife. 

" I will marry one day." 

Shaketp. : Comedy of grrort, 11 L 

* 2. Formerly it was followed by with or to. 

* I'll to the doctor ; he hath my good will, 
And none but he to marry with Nan Page." 
Shaketp. : Merry Wioet of Windtor, iv. i. 

* mar'-rj', exclam. [A corrupt, of Mary, from 
the practice of swearing by the Virgin Mary.] 
Indeed, forsooth. 

" Yea, marry, shalt thou, and with all my heart.* 
Camper : Spittle to Joteph Bio. 

mar'-ry-ing, pr. par. & a. [MARRY, v.] 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adj. : Inclined or disposed to marry! 
as, a marrying man. 

mar -ry-miiffe, s. [Etym. doubtful.] A 
coarse common cloth. 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or. wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, so, 09 = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 



Mars marshal 



3047 



Mars, . [Lat., from an older and poetical 
form Atavors.] 

1. Roman Myth. : The god of war. His 
mother was Juno. He was often represented 
as a nude old man, with a shield, a helmet, 
and a pike. He was seated in a chariot drawn 
by two furious horses. The horse, the wolf, the 
magpie, the vulture among animals, and the 
dog-grass among plants, were sacred to him. 

2. Astron. : One of the superior planets 
situated between the earth on the one side 
and the vast cluster of asteroids on the other. 
Its mean distance from the sun is 141 millions 
of miles, and at times it is only 35 millions of 
miles from the earth. It revolves round the 
sun a few minutes under 687 days, and rotates 
upon its axis in 24 hours, 37 minutes, 22'73 se- 
conds. Its equatorial diameter is about 4,200 
miles, its polar about seventy less. Its mass is 
about one-eighth that of the earth. When at its 
greatest distance from the earth its telescopic 
diameter is less than four seconds of arc, but 
when nearest this is increased to twenty-four 
seconds, hence the planet varies greatly in 
brightness. Mr. Dunkin mentions that in the 
northern hemisphere of Mars the spring lasts 
191 Martial days, summer 181 days, autumn 
149 days, and winter 147 ; in the southern 
hemisphere spring and summer taken together 
are seventy-six days shorter. Prof. Phillips, 
of Oxford, has shown that the great inter- 
change of atmospheric humidity which must 
necessarily take place periodically between the 
two poles tends to produce violent hurricanes. 

Viewed by the naked eye, Mars appears of 
a uniformly red and fiery tint ; but looked at 
through a powerful telescope the ruddy colour 
is found to be confined to certain definite areas, 
which are therefore believed to be continents 
having "an ochrey tinge in the general soil, 
like what the red sandstone districts on the 
earth may possibly offer to the inhabitants of 
Mars, only more decided" (Herschel: Astron., 
510). Contrasted with these red portions 
others, by a general law of optics, appear 
greenish, and are considered to be seas. 
Around the poles are " brilliant white spots," 
which have been conjectured, with some prob- 
ability, to be snow and ice " as they disappear 
when they have been long exposed to the sun, 
and are greatest when just emerging from the 
long night of their polar winter. The snow- 
line then extends to about six degrees (rec- 
koned on a meridian of the planet) from the 
pole " (fbitt). Mr. Huggins's researches with 
the spectroscope confirm Sir John Herschel's 
view of the reason the planet has a ruddy 
tint. In 1877, Prof. Asaph Hall, of the Ob- 
servatory at Washington, by the aid of the 
great Washington refracting telescope, dis- 
covered that Mars had two satellites. The 
nearest is believed to be from 23 to 25 miles 
in diameter, and revolves about 4,000 miles 
from the surface of the planet, in a period of 
7 hours, 39 minutes. This is much less than 
the period of rotation of Mars itself, and con- 
stitutes a unique fact in the solar system, 
which has furnished forcible corroboration of 
Mr. G. H. Darwin's theory of the tides. The 
other satellite is believed to be about 18 miles 
in diameter, and revolves at about 12,500 miles 
from the surface, in 30 hours, 17 minutes. 

* 3. Chem. : An old term for iron. 

4. Her. : A name for the colour gules or red, 
on the coats of sovereign princes. 

mar-sa'-la, s. [Seedef.] A wine of a sherry 
character," made at Marsala in Sicily. 

mars den'- 1- a, s. [Named after William 
Marsden, Esq./F.R.S. (1756-1836), Secretary 
to the Admiralty, an Oriental scholar, and 
author of a history of Sumatra.] 

Bot. : A genus of Asclepiadaceae, tribe 
Stapelise. Marahnia tinctoria, a native of the 
Himalayas and Burmah, yields a blue dye like 
indigo. M. Roylei, a Himalayan species, af- 
fords a fibre of which fishing nets and strong 
ropes are made. The unrij* fruit is powdered 
and given as a cooling medicine. M. tena- 
cis.iim'i furnishes Rajmahal fibre (q.v.). The 
plant grows in ludiaandthe Eastern Peninsula. 

Marseillais (as Mar sa ya ; fern. Mar- 
seillaise, as Mar-sa-yaz'), a. & s. [Fr.] 

A. As adj. : Belonging to or pertaining to 
Marseilles. 

B. As substantive : 

1, A native or inhabitant of Marseilles. 

2. (O/ the farm Marseillaise) : The same as 
MARSEILLAISE HYMN (q.v.). 



Marseillaise hymn. s. A song written 
by Rouget de Lisle, an officer of artillery in 
the garrison of Strasbourg in 1792. It received 
its title from having been sung by a party of 
the Marseillaise Club as they entered Paris 
on the invitation of Madame Roland ; the 
song, though less sanguinary in sentiment 
than most of the songs of the Revolution, was 
employed as accompaniment to mauy of the 
horrible deeds of that, and of later periods, 
and by association become dangerous enough 
to be included among the songs prohibited to 
be sung in France under the Bourbons and 
the Bonapartes. The tune to which it ia 
set by the author of the words, contains pro- 
gressions so unusual in popular songs, that it 
is difficult to account for its general adoption. 

marsh. * mersche, s. [A.S. mersc = a marsh, 
for merisc = full of meres or pools, from mere 
= a mere, a pool ; Low Ger. marsch ; Low Lat. 
mariscus.] A tract of low land occasionally 
or usually covered with water ; a fen, a bog, 
a swamp, a morass. [MARISH.] 

" Your low meadows and marvVlands you need not 
lay up till April, except the spring be very wet. Mid 
your -narshet very poachy." Mortimer : Htubandry. 

marsh-beetle, s. 

Bot. : Typha latifolia, called also Marsh- 
pestle. 

marsh-bred, a. Bred or produced in 
marshes. 

marsh centaury, s. 

Bot. : The Least Gentian, Cicindelia ftli- 
formis. 

marsh cinquefoil, s. 

Bot. : Potentilln Comarum, formerly Coma- 
rum palustre, a British rosaceous plant with 
five to seven leaflets, and dark purplish-brown 
flowers. 

marsh crocodile, s. 

Zool. : Crocodilus palustris, found in the 
Ganges and the Indus, and at Malabar, Madras, 
and in Ceylon. Its snout is covered with 
numerous small irregular proininences(whence 
it is sometimes called C. bombifrons), and the 
space between the eyes is deeply concave. It 
is worshipped by some religionists, and near 
Karachi are some hot springs swarming with 
these saurians, which know the fakirs who 
feed them. 

marsh -elder, s. 

Bot. : The Guelder-rose, Viburnum Opului. 

marsh-flower, s. 

Bot. : The genus Limnanthemum. 

marsh-gas, s. 

Chem. : CH 4 = C g s , methane. Light car- 

buretted hydrogen, hydride of methyl, a hydro- 
carbon gas very abundant in nature. It is 
evolved from stagnant water, and great quanti- 
ties are given off in coal-pits where it is known 
as the fire-damp of the miners. It is one of the 
usual products of the destructive distillation 
of organic matters. It may be formed in 
large quantities by the destructive distillation 
of a mixture of alkaline acetate with a hy- 
drated alkali. Of all known compounds it is 
the richest in hydrogen, and, with the excep- 
tion of the latter, is the lightest known gas 
(sp. gr. '5576, air =1). It is colourless, with- 
out taste or smell, and is neutral to test paper. 
In water and alcohol it is sparingly soluble. 
It is the type of a numerous class of com- 
pounds. 

marsh fish, s. 
Ichthy. : [MUDFISH], 

marsh-harrier, s. 

Ornith. : Circus oiruginosui, a handsome rap- 
torial bird, about twenty -four inches in length. 
It frequents marshy places, and always builds 
near water. Small snakes, frogs, wounded 
birds, eggs, and nestlings unable to fly, form 
the main part of the food of this bird. The 
species has a wide geographical range in the 
Old World ; it is common in Cambridgeshire, 
in Scotland, Ireland, and parts of Wales. 
[HARRIER.] 

marsh-hen, mud-hen, s. 

Ornith. : Ballus virginianus, the Virginia 
Rail. 

"Jupiter . . . butled)xrat to prepare iomemarA- 
hrni for supper." Pot : The Gold. Bug. 

marsh-land, s. Marshy, swampy land ; 
a marsh. 



marsh-mallow, *. 

1. Bot. : The genus Althaea, and specially 
Althaea officinalis. It is a softly pubescent 
plant, with axillary cymes of large rosy leaves 
A native of Europe and Asia in marshei 
near the sea. A decoction of the roots and 
other parts yields a tasteless, colourless, muci- 
lage. Used as a demulcent for children, and 
in cases of irritation. 

2. Comm. : A popular pasty confection made 
from the marsh-mallow. 

marsh-marigold, t. 

Bot. : The genus Caltha (q.v.), and soecially 
Caltka palustris. 

" Bright gowan, and monk-marigold, farewell. 
Wordtworth : FarevM. 

marsh-miasma, s. Miasma generated 
in marshes, the normal situation from which 
it emanates. [MIASMA.] 

marsh-nut, *. 

Bot. : The Marking nut, Semecarpus Ana- 
cardium. Called also Malacca-bean. 

marsh-pennywort, t. 

Bot. : The genus Hydrocotyle (q.v.). 

marsh-ringlet, . 

Entom. : A butterfly, Cosnonympha Davut, 
one of the Nymphalidse. It is tawny with 
black spots on the underside of the wings. 
It is found in June and July on moors and 
mosses in Scotland and in the west of Ireland. 

marsh-rosemary, s. 
Bot. : An American name for StaOce Limo- 
nium. 

marsh-samphire, s. 

Bot. : A name for the genus Salicoruia(q.v.). 
[SALTWORT.] 

marsh-shrew, *. 

Zool. : Sorex palustris, a small rodent of 
North America, ranging as far north as Hudson 
Bay territory. The dentition is the same M 
that of Crossopus, to which it bat i*6Q re- 
ferred by some writers. 

marsh-tit, - 

Ornith. : Parus palustris, common round 
London. 

marsh-trefoil, .- 

Bot.: Menyanthes trifoliata. [M EN Y ANTHEM.) 

marsh twayblade, s. 

Bot. : An orchid, Malaxis paludosa. 

mar shal, * mares chal, * mar-i-schal, 

* mar Schal, * Tnay-grm 1^ s. [O. Fr. 

mareschal (Fr. marechal), from O. H. Ger. 
maraschalh (M. H. Ger. marshale ; Ger. mar- 
schall) an attendant upon a horse, a groom, 
a farrier, from O. H. Ger. marah = a war- 
horse, and scale (A.S. scealc; Ger. & Dut. 
schalk) a servant.] 

* 1. An official who had charge of horses ; 
groom. 

* 2. An official who regulated combats in 
tli lists. 

" I'uask'd the royal grant ; no manhal by, 
As knightly rites require, nor Judge to try." 

On/dtn : Palamon t Arcite, ii. SM. 

3. One who regulates rank and order at a 
feast or assembly ; one who arranges and 
directs the order of a procession, &c. 

* 4. A harbinger, a pursuivant ; one who 
goes before a prince to declare his coming and 
provide entertainment. 

5. A military officer of the highest rank ; a 
field-marshal. 

"Great marihal to Henry the Sixth of all bis wars." 
Shateip. : I Henry VI.. IT. 7. 

6. In America a civil officer appointed by 
the President and Senate of the United State* 
in each judicial district, and answering to the 
sheriff of a county. His duty is to execute all 
precepts directed to him, issued under the 
authority of the United States. 

7. An officer of any private society, ap- 
pointed to regulate their ceremonies and exe- 
cute their orders. 

* 8. A leader, a guide. 

" Reason becomes the marshal to my will." 

Shaker?. : Jtidtummeri Xighfi Dream, ii. 1 

If (1) Earl Marshal of England : The eighth 
officer of state ; the title is hereditary, being 
held by the Duke of Norfolk. The Earl Mar- 
shal has jurisdiction in the court of chivalry 
during a vacancy in the office of High Con* 
stable. 



boll, bo~y ; pout, Jowl ; cat, cell, chorus, chin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as , expect, Xenophon, exist. -Ing. 
dan. -tian = trtmn. -tion, -ion = hun , -flon, -fion = zhun. -clous, -tlous, -sious - shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel. del. 



3048 



marshal martagon 



*(2) Earl Marshal (or Mariscal) of Scotland : 
An officer of state who had command of the 
cavalry under the constable. The office was 
held by the family of Keith, but was forfeited 
by rebellion in 1715. 

(3) Knight Marshal, * Marslial of the King's 
(or Queen's) Household : An officer whose duties 
were to hear and determine pleas of the crown, 
and suits between those of the royal house- 
hold and others within the verge, that is 
within a circle of twelve miles round the royal 
palace. 

(4) Provost-Marshal: [PROVOST]. 

(5) Marshal of the King's (or Queen's) Bench : 
An officer who had charge of the prison called 
the King's (or Queen's) Bench in Southwark. 
The office was abolished by statute, 5 & 6 Vic- 
toria, c. 22. 

mar shal, v.t. [MARSHAL, *.] 
L Ordinary Language : 
1. To arrange or rank in order ; to arrange 
uitably ; to draw up or dispose in order. 

"His steel truncheon, waved on high. 
Seemed marthalling the iron throng.* 

Scott : Cadyow Cattle. 

S, To bring together; to gather, as for battle. 

M FalM wizard, a vaunt ! I have marshalled my clan." 
Campbell : Lochiel'l Warning. 

3. To direct ; to lead as a harbinger. 



IL Her. : To dispose in order the several 
parts of an escutcheon or the coats of arms of 
distinct families. 

mar" shal y, * mar shal cie, s. [Eng. 
marshal, s" ; -cy.] The office, rank, or position 
of a marshal. 

" Thin office forgo of the marshnlric.' 

Robert de Brunne, p. S92. 

mW-Shal-ler, s. [Eng. marshal; -er.] One 
who marshals or disposes in proper rank or 
order. 

mar -shall -Ing, pr. par., a., & i. [MAR- 
SHAL, v.f 

A. & B. As pr. par. it particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As subst. : The act of arranging or dis- 
posing in due rank and order. 

" The true mar>,\alling of the degrees of loveraigne 
honour are there." Bacon : Eaa.ni ; Of Honour. 

mar'-shal-sea, 5. [Eng. marshal, and sea, 
see a seat, a see.] A prison in Southwark 
belonging to the marshal of the royal house- 
hold, now denominated the Queen's prison. 

U * Court of Marshalsea : A court formerly 
held before the steward and marshal of the 
king's household, to administer justice be- 
tween the king's domestic servants. It in- 
cluded two courts of record : 

(1) The original court of marshalsea, which 
held plea of all trespasses committed within 
the verge, that is within a circle of twelve 
miles of the royal palace. 

(2) The palace-cpurt(q. v.) created by Charles 
I., and abolished in 1849. 

mar'-shal-shlp, s. [Eng. marshal; -ship.] 
The office, rank, or position of a marshal. 

"With him the Duke of Norfolk, with the rod ol 
marshithhi/j, a coronet on his head." Shakesp. : Henry 

YIII., iv. i. 

marsh' -wort, . [Eng. marsh, and wort.] 
Hot. : Oxycoccus paluslris. 

marsh' -y, o. [Eng. marsh ; -y.] 

1. Having the nature of a marsh, bog, or 
iwamp ; boggy, fenny, swampy. 

14 No natural cause she found, from brooks or bogs 
Or marthy lowlands to produce the fo,;s." 

Dryden : Otid ; iletumorpkom L 

2. Produced or growing in marshes : as, 
marshy weeds. 

mar si! e-a, s. [Named by Linnasus after 
Count F. L. Marsigli, founder of the Academy 
of Sciences at Bologna.] 

Bot. : Pepperworts or Rhizocarps, the typi- 
cal genus of the order Marsileacere (q.v.). It 
Consists of plants growing in mud, which 
have a creeping rhizome, h'liform leaf-stalks, 
supporting a compound four-leaved blade ; 
capsules stalked, dehiscing when ripe, with 
macrospores and microspores, the former male 
the latter female. Found in the South of 
Europe, in Africa, India, Australia, Brazil, 
&c. Marsilea quadrifolia is an Indian water- 

lant common in the Punjaub and elsewhere. 
t is said to be eaten as a potherb by the 
natives. 



mar-sil-e'-a'-9e'-aa, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. mar- 
sile(a); Lat. fein. pi. adj. suff. -iicece.] 

But. : An order of Acrogens, alliance Lyco- 
podales. It consists of aquatic plants with the 
root-stalk or stem creeping, the leaves filiform 
or bearing four obovate leaflets with circinate 
vernation. Fructification composed of coria- 
ceous oblong or globose capsules containing 
two or more cells, the whole formed of a 
metamorphosed leaf. Within are parietal pla- 
centas, to which are affixed many membranous 
sacs enclosing macrospores and microspores. 
Found in temperate and tropical regions. Ac- 
cording to Sir Joseph Hooker, the known 
genera are two, species forty. Marsilea, the 
typical genus (q.v.), is widely distributed. 

[PlLULABIA.] 

mar sil' -ly, * . [From the name of the inven- 
tor.] (See the compound.) 

marsilly-carriage, s. A naval gun- 
carriage having no fore trucks, the front tran- 
som resting immediately on the ship's deck. 

mar sip 6 bran'-chi i, s. pi. [Mod. Lat., 
from Gr. p<xp<ri7ro? (marsipos) = a pouch, and 
/Spa-yx'a (brangchia), pi. of ftpa.yxi.Qv (brangchion) 
= a fin, a gill.] 

Ichthy. : Purse-gills ; an order of fishes, con- 
stituting Cuvier's Cyclostomata, Miiller's Cy- 
olostomi. 

mar su' -pl-al, a. & $. [Lat. marsupHum) ; 
Eng. adj. suff. -al] 

A. As adj. : Pertaining to a bag or pouch ; 
having a bag or pouch ; belonging to the Mar- 
supialia (q.v.). 

B. As subst. : An individual belonging to 
the Marsupialia (q.v.). 

marsupial-bones, s. pi. 

Compar. Anat. : Two small bones springing 
from the brim of the pelvis, and formed by the 
ossification of the internal tendon of the ex- 
ternal oblique abdominal muscles. They sup- 
port the marsupial pouch in the Marsupialia. 

marsupial-sacs, 5. pi. 

Zool. : Pouch-like sacs occurring in connec- 
tion with the generative apparatus in some 
Acalephae, Crustacea, and Lamellibranchiate 
Molluscs. (Owen.) 

mar-su-pi-a'-li-a, mar au-pi-a'-ta, s.pl. 
[Lat. marsupHum) (q.v.) ; neut. pL adj. suff. 
-alia, -ata.] 
1. Zoology: 

(1) Of both forms, chiefly the first) : Marsu- 
pial or Pouched Animals. Mammals having 
a marsupium or pouch. Under the designa- 
tion Marsupiata, they were considered by 
Cuvier to be a sub-division of his order Car- 
nassiers (Carnivora), although their teeth were 
of various types, and many were vegetable 
feeders. Some have an analogy to the Insec- 
tivora, others to the Carnivora, and others to 
the Rodentia, from all which they differ in 
possessing a marsupium or pouch. [MARSU- 
PIUM.] They are now generally termed Mar- 
supialia, and elevated into a sub-class, called 
by Prof. Huxley and others, Didelphia (q.v.). 
The young are born of a small size and im- 
perfect in condition, but are transferred to the 
marsupium, where they become attached to a 
long nipple which supplies them with milk. 
There is evidently in this arrangement a first 
faint approach to the oviparous one which 
characterizes birds. The majority of the 
species inhabit Australia and its adjacent 
islands, though the Didelphidae (Opossums) 
are American. 

Viewing the Marsupialia as an order, Prof. 
Owen, in 1839, divided them into five tribes : 
Sarcophaga, Entomophaga, Carpophaga, Poe- 
phaga, and Rhizophaga. Subsequently he 
divided them by their dentition into the Di- 
prodontia and the Polyprodontia. Dallas and 
others separated them into the Phytophagous, 
or Plant-eating, and the Rapacious Marsu- 
pialia, the latter including the carnivorous 
and the insectivorous families. Prof. Martin 
Duncan, regarding the M.-irsitpalia as an order, 
divides it into two sub-orders, the Marsupiata 
(q.v.) and the Monotremata. 

(2) (Of the form Marsupiata) : 

(o) The name given by Cuvier to the Marsu- 
pialia, now Didelphia. 

(&) According to Prof. Martin Duncan and 
others, a sub-order of the order Marsupialia 
[1.] He includes under it the families Macro- 
podidae, Phascolomyidae, Phalangistidae, Pera- 
mclidic, Dasyuridse, and Didelphidae. 



2. Palceont. : The oldest known mammalian 
species, Microlestes antiquus, is believed to have 
b.'en Marsupial. It is from the Upper Trias. 
Others occur in the Keuper of Wurtemburg, 
the Rhsetic rocks, &c. It is believed that 
during the whole Secondary period all the 
mammals existing were Marsupial, though 
analogy would lead one to expect that the 
Mouotremata will yet be found. 

mar-su pi-a'-li-an, a. [Eng. marsupial; 
-ian.] The same as MARSUPIAL (q.v.). 

mar-su'-pl-an, a. [Lat. marsupi(um ); Eng. 
adj. suff. -an..j The same as MARSUPIAL^.V.). 

mar-su-pi-a'-ta, s. pi. [Lat. marsupi(um) ; 
neut. pi. adj. suit', -ata.] [MARSUPIALIA.] 

mar-su'-pi-ate, a. & s. [Lat. marsupHum) ; 
Eng. suff. -ate.] The same as MARSUPIAL (q.v.). 

mar-su-pi-o-cri-m'-tes, s. [Lat, marsn- 
pium = a bag, a pouch ; Gr. icpiVoi/ (krinon.) 
= a lily, and suff. -ites.] 

Palceont. : A genus of Crinoidea, the arms 
of which are in two rows. They are of Silu- 
rian age. 

t mar'-su-pite, *. [MARSUPITES.] 

Palceoni. : Any species of Marsupites (q.v.). 

mar su pi' -tea, s. [Lat. marsup(ium); suft 

-ites.] ' 

Palceont. : Tortoise-encrinite, the typical 
genus of the family Marsupitidae. It is of 
Cretaceous age. 

mar su-pit'-i-dae, a. pi. [Mod. Lat. marsw- 
pit(es)'; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 
Palceont. : A family of Crinoidea. 

mar-su'-pi-um, s. [Lat. marsupium = a 
pouch, from Gr. |j.apo-t'irtoi/ (marsipion), fnap- 
<ruitiov (marsupion) = a little pouch ; diiuin. 
of /tapo-irros, fiapoviros (marsipos, marsupos) = 
a bag or pouch.] 

Compar. Anat. <fr Physiol. : A pouch contain- 
ing teats for giving milk to the imperfectly 
developed young of the marsupial animals of 
the sub-class Didelphia. 

mar- syp- 1- an'- thus, s. [Gr. papo-urot 
(marsipos) = a purse, and ivOos (anthos) = a 
a blossom, a flower.] 

Bot. : A genus of Labiatae, family Hyptidsa 
(q.v.). Marsypianthus hyptoides is employed 
in Brazil for medicating baths. 

mart (1), mairt, *. [A contraction from 
Martinmas (q.v.).J A fatted cow, or what- 
ever animal is slaughtered at Martinmas for 
winter provision. (Scotch.) 

"Ou they cam out to gather marti for the garrison.* 
Scott: Old Mortality, ch. zxvii. 

mart (2), *. [A contract, of market (q.v.).] 

1. A place of public sale or traffic ; a market} 
a market-place. 

" If any born at Ephesus 
Be seen at Syracusan marls and fairs. 
He dies." Shakap. : Comedy 0} Emm, L L 

2. Purchase and sale ; bargain. 

" I play a merchant's part. 
And venture madly on a desp'rate mart." 

Shaketp. : Taming of the Shrtlt. IL 

3. A place of disposal ; a market. 

If Letters of mart : Letters of marque. 
[MARQUE.] 

* Mart (3), . [Lat. Mars (genii. Marti$) - UN 
god of war.] 

1. Mars, the god of war. 

2. War, warfare, battle, contest. 

* mart, v.t. & i. [MART (2), s.] 

A. Trans. : To traffic in ; to buy or aelL 

" To sell and mart your 
offices for gold. 
Shakap. : JuHta 
Catar, iv. 3. 

B. Ivtrans. : To 
deal, to traffic, to 
trade. 

"A saucy stranger in 

his court to mart, 
As in a stew." 

Shaketp. : Cymbc- 
line. i. 6. 

mar'-ta-gon, s. 

[Fr. & Sp. ; Ital. 
martagone.] 

Bot. : A kind of lily, Lilium Martagon. The 
stems are two or three feet high ; the leaves 
are petioled, obovate, lanceolate, whorled, the 




MARTAOON-ULT. 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian. ,O3 = e;ey = a;4U = kw. 



marte martingale 



3049 




Time * 

ward VI. ; s. James I 



upper ones linear ; the flowers erect, racemose, 
drooping, pale purple or white, with dark 
raised papilla; and red-brown anthers. Native 
of continental Europe, naturalized in Britain. 
The bulbs are eaten by the Cossacks. 

martagon-lily, s. [MARTAOON.J 
marte, s. [MART (2), s.] 

* mar'-tel, v.t. [Fr. marteler, from martel ; 
Lat. marteVus, marculus = a little hammer, 
dimin. of marcus = a hammer ; Ital. martello.] 
To strike, to hammer, to beat. 

" Her dread(ull weapon she to him addrest, 
Which ou his helmet martel: td so hard." 

Spatur: f. ., III. vii. 4S. 

* mar'-tel, s. [Fr.] [MARTEL,*.] A hammer. 

* martel-de for. s. A hammer aud pick 
conjoined, 
used by 
horse sol- 
diers in the 
Middle Ages 
to break and 
destroy armour, 
and generally 
hung at the sad- 
dle - bow. They 
were sometimes 
furnished with 
hooks to hold 
them at the sad- 
dle-bow, and were 
perforated to re- 
ceive a cord, 
which could be 
twisted round 
the hand or MARTELS-DE-FER. 

Wrist, SO that (from the Goodrich Court Col- 

mUht no? be 

imgnt not DO 

beaten out when 

the soldier was engaged in fighting. They 

were sometimes of considerable weight. 

mar' te-linc, s. [Fr.] A small stone-ham- 
mer used by sculptors and marble-workers. 
It is pointed at one end and square or dia- 
shaped at the other. 

marteline -chisel, s. A sculptor's chisel, 
driven by a mallet or hammer, and used by 
artists or workers in marble. 

mar-tel'-lo, s. [For etym. see compound.] 
A martello-tower. 

martello tower, s. 

Fort. : A circular, isolated tower of masonry, 
erected on the coast of a country as a protec- 
tion against invaders. The name was originally 
given to towers erected on the coasts of Sicily 
and Sardinia against the pirates in the time of 
Charles V. (A.D. 
1519-1556). By 
gome the name 
is derived from 
the practice of 
giving warning 
of the approach 
of an enemy by 
striking a bell 



MARTELLO-TOWER. 



with a hammer ; by others from Mortella 
Bay, Corsica, where a tower of this descrip- 
tion was taken by an English naval force 
in 1794, after a prolonged resistance. The 
tower is usually about 40 feet in height, 
having two stories, and a shell-proof roof 
with a 4i-foot parai>et. The walls are 5} 
feet thick ; the lower story is for stores, 
magazine, and retreat ; the second is a case- 
mate with embrasures ; the roof is armed en 
barbette with a traversing gun, under a bomb- 
proof. There are martello-towers on the coasts 
o"f the south of England, Ireland, and Jersey, 
within range of each other. The entrances 
are at a considerable height above the ground, 
and the tower has a ditch and glacis. They 
are now of little value as coast defences. 

mar'-ten (l), *. [MARTIN.] 

mar -ten (2), * mar-tern, * mar tor, n. 

[Fr. martre ; cf. Ital. martora; Sp. marta. from 
Low Lat. * marturis, from M. H. Ger. & Ger. 
marder ; cogn. with A.S. mtardh = a marten.] 




Zo&l. : The popular English name for any 
individual of Cuvier's sub-genus Mustela(q.v.), 
or of Nilsson's Martes. They are" limited to 
the northern portion of both hemispheres, 
ranging southwards as far as 35 W. ia America ; 
one species, the Indian Marten, occurs in 
Java. The species are very similar in their 
habits, arboreal, and, as a rule, carnivorous, 
though less so than the Weasels (q. v.). Ac- 
cording to Rolleston (Journ. Anat. Phys., 
ii. 4"), the Common European Marten " was 
functionally the ' cat ' of the ancients." But 
it is as fur-yielding animals that the Martens 
are most important, and vast numbers are 
taken every year to supply the wants of civili- 
sation. The finest fur comes from the highest 
latitudes, principally from North America 
and Siberia. The American " Pekan " (Muttela 
pennanti) is the largest species. M. zibelhni, 
the European Sable, is the most valuable 
species. There are several other species, such 
as the Pine Martin, the Beech Martin, &c. 
[MARTES, MUSTELA, SABLE.] 

" The generic name of the mart era. In modern zoolo- 
gical works oscillates between Martes and Mattel*." 
Prof, flower, in Encyc. Brit., xv. 678. 

mar tes, s. [Lat.] 

Zool. : Nilssou's name for the genus Mustela 
(q.v.). 

* mar text, s. [Eng. mar, and text (q.v.).] 
A blundering or ignorant preacher ; one who 
perverts the meaning of words. 

mar tial (ti as sh), * mar-shall, a. & . . 
[Fr. martial, from Lat. martlalis = pertaining 
to Mars, the god of war ; Sp. martial ; ItaL 
marziaU.] 
A. As adjective : 

1. Pertaining to war ; suited to war ; mili- 
tary. 

"The shepherd's gray to martial scarlet changed." 
Wordtworth : Excursion, bk. vii. 

2. Pertaining to or connected with war ; 
opposed to civil. 

" Now martial law commands us to forbear." 

Pope: Burner; Iliad vii. 352. 

3. Given to war, fond of war ; warlike, 
brave. 

" A maid, and be so martial / "Skaktip. : I Henry 
rf., ii. 1. 

i. Suited for soldiers. 

" My youthful peers before my eyes . . 
Prepared themselves for glorious enterprise 
By martial sports." Wordsworth : Lttodamia. 
t 5. Pertaining to or resembling the planet 
Mars ; under the influence of the planet Mars. 

"The nature of the fixed stars are . . . esteemed 
martial or jovial according to the colours whereliy 
they answer these planets." Browne : Vulgar Er- 
rouri, bk. vi., ch. xiv. 

*6. Having the properties of iron, called 
by old chemists Mars. 

" Why should the Chalybes or Bilboa boat 
Their harden'd iron ; when our mines produce 
As perfect martial ore ?" Philips : Cider, i. 

* B. As subst. ; A soldier, a warrior, a mar- 
tialist. 

*' Like sturdy martial*." 

filler: David 1 1 Sinne, t. 36. 

martial-law, s. An arbitrary kind of 
law, built upon no settled principles, and 
having no immediate constitutional or legis- 
lative sanction, but proceeding directly from 
the military power, and founded only upon 
paramount necessity. When proclaimed in 
any district it includes within its dominion 
all the inhabitants, and extends to matters of 
civil as well as of criminal jurisdiction. It is 
proclaimed only in time of war, insurrection, 
rebellion, or other like emergency. 

* mar'-tial-ism (ti as Sh), s. [Eng. martial ; 
-ism.] The quality or state of being martial 
or warlike ; bravery ; martial exercise. 

mar- tial -ist. * mar tial list (tl as sh), 
s. [Eng." martial; -ist.] A'warrior, a fighter, 
a soldier. 

* mar'-tial-ize (ti as sh), v.t. [Eng. martial ; 
-ize.} To render martial. 

" [I] trained him up- 
In all perfections of a mrtiallia. 

Beaum. ic Flet. : Lava of Candy, T. i. 

mar'-tial-ly (ti as sh), adv. [Eng. martial; 
-/i/.] In a martial manner. 

Whilst eytber king thus martially 
Defends, aud did offend." 

Warner : Albiont England, bk. iv., ch. rxt 

*mar'-tial-ness(tiassh), s. [Eng. martial; 
-ness. ] The quality or state of being mart ial ; 
martialism. 

mar' -tin (1), . [Fr., a proper name applied 



to various birds and animals ; thus, martin- 
pecheur = a kingfisher ; oiseau de S. Martin a 
the ring-tail or lien-harm. (G'otyrawe.).] 

Ornith. : Hirundo vrbica (Linn.), Chelidon 
urbica of later ornithologists, the Common or 
House Martin. Like its congener, the Swal- 
low, which it closely resembles, it builds a 
mud-nest under the eaves of houses and barns, 
but it differs from the Swallow in having a 
conspicuous white band across the lower 
back. The Sand Martin (H. riparia) is pale 
brown above aud white below. It hollows 
out galleries in the banks, where it nests 
and breeds ; and is the smallest of the three 
British Hirundines. Tlio Sand Martin and 
the House Martin are both birds of passage, 
arriving in spring aud departing towards the 
end of the summer. Cypselvs aims, the Swift 
(q.v.), is sometimes called the Black Martin. 
The Purple Martin of America is Hirundo (or 
Prague) purpurea. The plumage of the male is 
almost wholly steel-blue; the female is duller 
in colour above, brownish-gray beneath. The 
Fairy Martin of Australia is Hirundo Ariel, 

mar'-tin (2), a. [Etym. doubtful.] A grind- 
ing tool consisting of a brass plate with a 
flat stone facing. An opening through the 
plate and lining allows sand to pass through 
aud insinuate itself between tho martin and 
the stone which is being ground ; a runner. 

* mar -tin (3), s. [Flem. = an ape.] An ape. 

" Who knoweth not that apes men martini call?" 
AWhipfttranApe.orMartinDaplaced. (1589.) 

Mar -tin (4), 5. [A proper name.] (See the 
compound). 

Martin's-shells, s. pi. 

Ordn. : Cast-iron spherical shells, lined 
with loam and cow-hair and tilled with molten 
iron. Used as incendiary shells. 

* mar'-tin-et (1), *. [Fr. =a dimin. of martin.] 

[MARTiN(l).] The bird called the Martin (q.v.) 
" If they should alight upon the ground, they could 
by no means raise themselves any more, as we see 
those birds which have but short ftet, as the swift 
and martinet, with difficulty do." Kay: On Ott 
Creation, pt. L 

mar'-tin-et (2), *. [After General Martinet, 
a very strict officer, whom Voltaire describe* 
as the regulator of the French infantry under 
Louis XIV.] 

Mil. : A strict disciplinarian ; an officer 
who exacts a rigid adherence to the details 
of discipline, or to firm and fixed methods. 
" Our Colonel's self whom men did call 

The veriest martinet." 
Barhutm .- Ingoldsby Legends ; Dead Drummer. 

mar'-tin-et (3), mart-net, s. [Fr.] 

Naut. : A small line on the leach of a sail, 
to assist in handling it in furling. 

* mar'-ttn-et-ism, s. [Eng. martinet (2) ; 
-i.m.] Rigid or severe discipline ; the en- 
forcement of strict discipline. 

mar tin gale, mar tin gal, s. [Fr. mar- 
tingale, in the phrase, chausses a la martingaU 
= an oddly - made kind of 
breeches, named after the 
Jfartigaux (pi. of Marti- 
gal), the inhabitants of 
a place called Mar 
tigues, in Prov- 
ence ; Sp. 
martingal ; 
Ital. martin- 
gala = an old 
kind of 
hose.] 

1. (See ex- 
tract.) 

" The mar- 
tingale, in- 
vented by 
Evaugelista, 
an eminent 
horseman of 

Milan, is 1CARTINOALB. 

long strap, or 

thong of leather, the one end of which is fastened to th 
girth, between the fore legs, and the other to the bit, 
or. which is the better way, should have a thin mouth- 
piece of its ovu.~Mtrmgtr : Rotary, of Art of Sort* 
manihip, ch. x. 

2. Nautical : 

(1) A lower stay for the jib-boom or flying 
jib-boom. The martingale of the former 
passes from the end of the jib-boom to the 
dolphin-striker, and is set up by setting taut 
the back-ropes of the latter. The flying jib- 
boom martingale passes from the end of the 
spar, is rove through the end of the dolphin- 
striker, and is set up in the head of the ship. 




boil, boy ; pout, jowl ; cat, 90:1, chorus, chin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this : sin, as ; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing, 
-tian = shan. -tion, sion - shun ; t ion, -ion - zhiin. -cious, t io us, aious = shus. -ble, -die, ic. = bel, del. 



3050 



Martini marvel 



(2) A perpendicular spar under the bowsprit 
end, for guying down the headstays of a ship. 

(3) Sport. : A gambling term signifying the 
doubling of stakes again and again, until the 
player wins. (Thackeray : Newcomes, xxviii.) 

martingale-stays or guys, s. pi. 
Naut. : Ropes or small chains stretched to 
the jib-boom end for staying it down. 

Mar ti ni, s. (See the compound.) 

If Martini-Henry Rifle : 

Mil. : The infantry fire-arm with which the 
English army has been armed since 1872. It 
is a combined weapon, the barrel being rifled 
on Henry's polygroove system, and the breech 
action being that invented by Martini. It is 
a hammerless rifle which is locked by the 
closing of the breech block, which drops 
downward by the action of a lever that rests 
against the trigger-guard when the breech is 
closed. The action of opening the breech 
discharges the empty cartridge, which is 
partly formed of thin sheet brass, with a solid 
base-cup containing the detonating material, 
which also tends to prevent the escape of the 
powder-gas. It has a very flat trajectory, a 
range of 1,200 yards for aimed fire, can dis- 
charge 25 unaimed shots per minute, has good 
penetration, owing to its long bullet being 
slightly hardened with antimony, and rarely 
gets out of order. 

Mar-tin iquc (quo as k), *. [See def.] 

Geog. : One of the Windward Islands ; it 
belongs to the French. 

Martinique-frog, a. 

Zoot. : Hylodes martinicensis. In this species 
the metamorphosis takes places within the 
egg. When the young burst forth they are 
tiny frogs, with a tail, which is soon absorbed. 

Mar'-tin-Ists,, s. pi. [For etym. see def.] 

Church Hint. : A Russian sect which rose at 
Moscow under Catherine II., taking their 
name from Martin, a Frenchman, who intro- 
duced into Russia the doctrines of the Mystics. 
(Shipley.) 

Mar tin mas, * mar tin masse, * mar 
til-mas, * mar ty messe, s. [Com- 
pounded of the proper name Martin, and 
Bug. mass.] The feast of St. Martin, the llth 
of November. 

"Families laid In their stock of salt provision, then 
called Jtorttnnuu beef. 'J/acautoy.-.tfur..en0.,ch. iii. 

mar'-tins Ite, s. [Named after Martins of 
. Halle ; suff. -ite (Min.) ; Ger. martimsit.] 
Mineralogy : 

1. A variety of salt (q.v.) containing 9'02 
per cent, of sulphate of magnesia. Found at 
Stassfurth, Prussia. 

2. The same as KIESERITE (q.v.). 

mar -tire, * mar tore, s. [MARTYR, .] 

1. A martyr. 

2. Martyrdom. (Romaunt of the Rose.) 

* mar-tire, v.t. & i. [MARTYR, .] 

mar' tite, . [Said to be named after the 
planet Mars, whose sign is the sign of iron, 
but more probably after Martius the traveller, 
who brought it first from Brazil ; Ger. martit.] 
Min. : A sesquioxide of iron crystallizing in 
the isometric system, in octahedrons like 
magnetite ; also massive. Hardness, 6 to 7 ; 
sp. gr. 4-809 to 4'832; lustre, submetallic ; 
streak, reddish- or purplish-brown ; fracture, 
conchoidal. Non-magnetic. Has been re- 
garded as a pseudomorph after magnetite 
(q.v.), but this view has been questioned, 
owing to the discovery of very extensive beds 
and masses of this mineral which present no 
evidence of pseudomprphic action. Dana in- 
clines to the former view. 

mar'-tle mas, s. [MAR- 
TINMAS.] 

mart-let t. [A corrupt 
of martinet (1).] 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : A 
martin. 

" The fool multitude that . . . 

like the martlet. 
Builds In the weather on the 
outward wall." 

Shaketp. : Merchant of 




MARTLET. 



. ..JIC, ii. 9. 

2. Her. : A fanciful bird shaped like a martin 
or swallow, but represented with short tufts 



of feathers in the place of legs. It is the 
difference or distinction of a fourth son. 

mart'-net, s. [MARTINET, 3.] 

mar-tyl'-a-mlne, s. [First element doubt- 
ful; Eug.'(xyl)yl, nud amine.] [XENYLAMINB.] 

mar-tyn'-I-a, s. [Named after John Martyn, 
F.R.S., profe'ssor of botany at Cambridge ; he 
died in 1768.] 

Sot. : A genus of Pedaliacese. It consists 
chiefly of Mexican plants, having as fruit 
capsules terminating in two hooks. Martynia 
proboscidea, growing in Italy, adheres to the 
clothes of travellers by its hooked spines. 
M. fragrans is occasionally seen in gardens. 
The fruit of M. diandra is sold in India as an 
antidote to scorpion stings. 

mar -tyr, * mar tere, * mar-tir, * mar- 
tire, s. [A.S. martyr, from Lat. martyr ; Gr. 
fxaprvp, /uuxpTvs (martur, martus) = a witness, 
lit. = one who remembers, from the same 
root as Eng. memory (q.v.).] 

1. One who suffers death for the sake of 
Christ and his religion ; one who by his death 
bears witness to the truth ; one who gives up 
his life rather than renounce his religion. 

"In those days wherein Autipas was iny faithful 
martyr, who waa slain among you." Rev. ii. 13. 

2. One who suffers death or persecution in 
defence of any cause. 

" For these humble martyrs of passive obedience 
and hereditary right nobody has a word to say." 
Jlacaulay: HM. Eng., ch. zi. 

IT The Church recognises three kinds of 
martyrs : (1) in will and deed ; (2) in will, 
though not in deed ; (3) in deed, though not 
in will. It is noteworthy that the three days 
immediately following the great festival of 
Christmas commemorate St. Stephen, St. 
John the Divine, and the Holy Innocents 
respectively. The first suffered willingly for 
the faith ; the second was willing to suffer, 
but, according to tradition, was miraculously 
delivered ; the third suffered, though too 
young to be willing so to do. Many martyrs 
find a place in the English Calendar; but, 
with the exception of those above mentioned, 
and the Apostles, none has popular lessons. 
The proper colour for Feasts of Martyrs in 
the Roman Church is red. 

mar tyr, * mar-tri.ty.J. & i. [MARTYR, *.] 
A, Transitive: 

1. To put to death for adherence to the 
truth or one's religion ; to make a martyr of. 

2. To murder, to destroy. 

" Here his abode the martyr d Phocion claims 
With Agis, not the least of Spartan names." 

Pope : Temple of Fame. U*. 

* 3. To torment, to harass, to afflict, to per- 
secute, to torture. 

" So doest thou now to her of whom I tell. 
The lovely Amoret. whose gentle hart 
Thou martyrest with sorow and nith smart." 

Spenter : F. Q., I V. iv. S. 

* B. Intrant. : To suffer martyrdom. 

mar -tyr dom, * mar tir dam, * mar 
tir-dom, * mar-tire-dome, s. [A.S. 
martyrdom, from martyr = a martyr.] 

1. The death of a martyr ; the state of 
being a martyr; the voluntary suffering of 
death or persecution for the truth or one's 
faith. 

" And crown* with martiredame his sacred head." 
Spenter: F.q., III. iii. 39. 

* 2. A representation or picture of the death 
of a martyr. 

" The martyrdom of St. Agnus by Domenichino." 
Sir W. Jonet : Eaay on the Imitative Arti. 

* 3. A church erected over the spot where 
a martyr has suffered. [MARTYRY.] 

* mar-tyr-i-za'-tion, s. [Eng. martyrise); 
ation.] The act of martyrizing or martyring ; 
the state of suffering martyrdom. 

* mar'-tyr-ize, v.t. [Eng. -martyr ;-<.] To 
sacrifice as a martyr ; to martyr ; to make a 
martyr of. (Spenser : Colin Clout.) 

* mar'-tyr-ly, adv. [Eng. martyr; -ly.] Per- 
taining or relating to martyrs or martyrdom ; 
martyr-like. 

"Piety, Sanctity, and Jfartyrly Constancy ." 
Oaudtn : Teari of (He Church, p. 16. 

* mar'-tyr-i-lo'ge, * [MARTYROLOGY. Pr. 
martyrologe ; Ital. & Sp. martirologio.] A 
register or list of martyrs. 

" Two other kings a* much as our martyrologe may 
sted." flraytan : Paly.dlbion. s. 24. 



mar-tyr-o-log'-Ic, mar tyr 6 16 10- 

al, o. [Eng. martyrolog(y) ; -ic, -inal.} Of Of 
pertaining to martyrology ; registering of 
registered in a list of martyrs. 

mar-tyr-Sr-O-glSt, s. [Eng. martyrolog(y); 
ist ; Fr. martyrologiste.] One versed in martyr- 
ology ; a writer or compiler of a martyrology. 

mar-tjrr-oT-6-gy, t. [Gr. ^apn/p (martur), 
gen. /uaprvpo? (marturos) = a witness, a martyr, 
and Aoyos (logos) = a discourse, a treatise.] 

Ecclesiol. Church Hist. : A list of martyrs 
and other saints, with brief notices of their 
life and death, together with the mysteries of 
religion, such as the Incarnation, the Trinity, 
&c., commemorated on each day of the year. 
It is simply a calendar, amplified by short 
notices of the subject of each feast. In the 
religious orders of the Roman Church it is 
read at Prime. It was formerly, and in some 
orders is still, read in the monastic chapter, and 
not in choir. 

"He who had a genius for art might illuminate* 
martyrology." Macaulaif : Hilt. Eng., ch. i. 

* mar'-tyr-Ship, s. [Eng. martyr; -ship.] 
The quality or state of being a martyr ; mar- 
tyrdom. 

"[These] now will willingly allow martyrship to 
those from whom they wholly withheld, or grudgingly 
gave it before." Puller: General Worthies, ch. iii. 

t mar'-tyr-y, *. [For etym. and def., see ex- 
tract.] 

" The oratory or altar, erected over the tomb of a 
martyr, was anciently denominated either a JJartyry, 
from the Greek Maprvpiop = confession ... or 
Memorial, because built to do honour to his memory." 
Rock : Sierurgia, p. 279. 

mar um, s. [Lat., from Gr. /j.dpov (maron) = 
the plant described in the definition.] 

Bot. : Teucrium Marum, Cat -thyme, a labiate 
which grows in Spain. Formerly it was in- 
cluded in the London Pharmacopoeia, but is 
now superseded by the flowers of lavender. 
It was used in the preparation of the com- 
pound powder of asarabacca. 

marum camphor, s. 

Chem. : A camphor extracted from cat- 
thyme (Teucrium Marum), by distilling the dry 
herb with water. It is obtained as a white, 
crystalline, brittle mass, heavier than water, 
and possessing an unpleasant odour and aro- 
matic taste. 

Ma-rut, s. [Sansc.] 

Hindoo Myth. : A god of the wind worshipped 
in Vedic times. 

ma-ru'-ta, s. [Latinised from Fr. marute, 
" 



Bot. : A genus of Asteracese, sub-tribe An- 
themideae. Maruta fcetida is acrid enough to 
blister the skin. A decoction of it, in the 
dose of a teacup full, tends to produce copi- 
ous sweating. (Lindley.) M. Cotula is more 
generally called Antheniis Cotula. [ANTHEMIS.] 

mar vel, mar veil, > mar vaile, *mer- 
vaile, * mer veil, s. [Fr. merveille, from 
minis, from Lat. mirabilia, neut. pi. of mira- 
bilis wonderful ; miror = to wonder at ; Sp. 
maravilla; Ital. maraviglia ; Port, maravilha.] 
1. Anything wonderful or astonishing ; that 
which causes wonder or astonishment ; a 
wonder, a prodigy. 



t 2. Wonder, astonishment, surprise, ad- 
miration. 

" Use lessens marvel, it is said." 

Scott: Lay of the Last Miiatrel, ii. tt. 

* marvel-monger, . One who deals in 
marvels ; one who writes or tells marvellous 
stories. 

"The mareel-mumjers grant that He 
Was moulded up of a mortal metal." 

Beaumont : ftyckt, x viii. M. 

marvel of Peru, . 

Bot. : Miiubilis Jalapa and the genus Mink 
bilis (q.v.). 

mar'- vel, * mar-vail, * mer-vaile, * mer- 
vayle, *mer veil-len, v.i. & t. [MAR. 

VEL, S.] 

A. Intransitive : 

t 1. To wonder, to be astonished ; to be 
struck or filled with wonder, astonishment, or 
amazement. 

t 2. To wonder, to be curious to know. 

" I marvrl where Troilus Is." 

Shaketp. : Troilus Creuida, i. 1 



late, fat, fare, amidst,- what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or. wore. W9lf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, so, m = e ; ey = a ; yr = ir. 



marvellous mash 



3051 



* 3. To be a source of wonder or astonish- 
ment ; to cause wonder. 

" So thut it to me uothyui?e meruaylah 
My sou ne, of loue that the ayleth." 

dower : C. A., Ti. 

* B. Transitive : 

1. To wonder at, to be astonished at. 

2. To cause astonishment or wonder to ; to 
surprise, to astonish. 

" Yet oue merueilled more bow many other briddei 
Huddtju and hiludeu her egsjes ful derue." 

fieri Plowman, xi. 442. 

mar vel loiis. * mar-vail-ous, *mer- 
veil-ous, *mer-vel-los, *mar-vseyl- 
OUSC, a. & adv. [Fr. merveilleux, from mer- 
veillt = a marvel ; Ital. maraviglioso ; Sp. 
maravilloso ; Port, maravilhoso.] 
A. As adjective : 

1. Exciting or causing wonder, astonish- 
ment, or amazement ; astonishing, strange, 
wonderful. 

" As he told them 
Of hU mantUaut adventures." 

Longfelluu : Hiawatha, zxl. 

2. Surpassing or exceeding belief ; not to be 
literally believed ; incredible. 

"The marvellau* fable Includes whatever U super- 
natural and especially the machines of the gods. 
Pope: Burner; Iliad. (Pref.) 

* B. As adv. : Marvellously, wonderfully, 
exceedingly. 

" The rogues are maneUotu poor." Shakttp. : JHlt 
Wtll That ndt WM, iv. S. 

U The marvellous : A substantival use of 
the adjective, denoting that which exceeds 
natural power ; that which is preternatural ; 
that which exoeeds probability; marvellous 
or incredible stories or statements ; boastful 
lying : as, He deals in the marvellous. 

mar'-vcl lous ly, *mar-vel-ous-ly,odv. 

[Eng. marvellous; -ly.] In a marvellous man- 
ner or degree ; wonderfully, surprisingly, as- 
tonishingly, incredibly. 

mar vel lous ness, s. [Eng. marvellous; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being marvel- 
lous; wonderfulness, incredibility. 

"The marvelloutneu of some works, which Indeed 
are natural, hath been the cause of this slander. 
Kaleigh : Hilt, oftht World bk. 1.. ch. it, } Z. 

mar'-ver, s. [A corrupt, from the French 
marbre, marble, a slab of that material being 
formerly used.] 

Glass-making : A slab of marble or cast-iron, 
with a polished surface and supported by a 
stand. Upon it glass is rolled to give it a 
cylindrical shape. It sometimes has con- 
cavities for shaping glassware when blowing. 

mar'-y, s. [MARROW (1), *.] 



of Mai v 



Mai'-ft *Mar-ie,e*e/. [Seedef.] [MARRY, 
txcl.] An oath : By the Virgin Mary. 

* Mary-bud, s. The marigold, Calendula 
officinalis. (Shakesp. : Cymbeline, ii. 3.) 

Mary-sole, s. 

Ichth. : According to Giinther, Rhombus 
megastoma. Called also the Whiff, Sail-fluke, 
or Carter ; but Couch considers them ditfer- 
rent. Common on the South Coast. 

Mary's flower, s. 

Bot. : (1) Anastutica hierochientica ; (2) Ma- 
rianthus, one of the Pittosporacese. 

mar'-y-gdld.i. [MARIGOLD.] 

Mar'-y- land, . [Named in honor 
I., Queen of England. 

','.".;. : One of the United States, lying on 
either side of Chesapeake Bay. 

Maryland yellow throat, . 

Ornith. : Tvrdus trichas (Linn), Trichasper- 
tonatus (Swainson), a passerine bird. Common 
throughout the United States, going south- 
ward at the approach of winter. 

Mar y land er, . A native or resident 

Maryland (q.v.). 

mar-y-6T-ar-trjf, . [MARIOLATRY,] 

mar zu o -to, s. [Ital.] A kind of spring- 
corn grown in Tuscany, the straw of which is 
used for plaiting. (Treas. of Bot.) 

ma sar 1-dae, ma-sarM-des, s. pi. [Mod. 
Lat. nuisar(is); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee, or 
niasc. and fern. -u/.] 

Entom. : A family of hymenopterons in- 
sects, sub-tribe Diploptera. The antennae 
hive apparently but eight articulations, the 




eight forming with the preceding one an 
almost solid knob. 

mas -a-ris, s. [Etym. doubtful ; perhaps from 
Gr. nacraonai (nMsaomai) to shoot out the 
lip. (McNicoll.)] 

Entom. : The typical geuns of the family 
Masaridffi (q.v.). The abdomen is long. 

mas ca-gninc, mas'-ca-gnite (gn as 
ny), *. [Named after Professor Mascagni ; 
sutf. -ine; -ite (Jtfiw.).] 

M in. : An orthorhoiubic mineral found 
about the volcanoes of Vesuvius, Etna, and 
those of the Lipari Islands, in meal-like 
crusts and stalactites. Hardness, 2 to 2'5 ; 
sp. gr. 1-72 to 173. Color, yellowish-gray 
or lemon-yellow ; taste, bitter and pungent. 
Compos. : sulphuric acid, 53'3 ; ammonia, 
347 ; water, 12. Readily soluble in water. 

m&S'-Cle, s. [O. Fr. (Fr. 
made), from Lat. macula = 
a spot, a mesh of a net.] 

* 1. Old Arm. : A lozenge- 
shaped plate or scale. 

2. Her. : A bearing in the 
form of a lozenge, perfor- 
ated or voided so that the 
field appears through the 
opening. 

mas clcd (clcd as keld), s. [Eng. mas- 
d(V) ; -ed.] Having or exhibiting mascles. 

mascled armor, . Armor formed of 
small lozenge-shaped plates of metal fastened 
on a lea- 
thern or 
quilted tu- 
nic. The 
Norman 
soldiers on 
the Bayeux 
tapestry 
are repre- 
sented as 
we a ring 
such ar- 
mor. 

mas' - cfit, 
. A person 
or thing 
whose pret- 
ence or pos- 
session, TO- MASCLED-ARMOR. 
spectively, 

is supposed to bring good luck. The opposite 
of hoodoo. 

"maa -cu late, v.t. [Lat. masculus = male.] 
To make* strong. 

mas cu line. *mas-cu lyn, a. & s. [Fr. 
masculin, from Lat. masculinus = masculine, 
from masculus male ; mas = male ; Sp. , Port. , 
& Ital. mascuiino.] 

A. As adjective : 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Of or belonging to the male sex; not 
female, not feminine. 

" Fray God she prove not matmline ere long." 

Skaketp. : 1 Henry VI., 11 L 

2. Pertaining to or intended for the use of 
males. 

3. Having some of the attributes or charac- 
teristic qualities of the male sex : 

(1) Strong, robust, powerful : as, masculine 
strength of limb. 

(2) Manly, bold ; not effeminate ; spirited. 

" Whose verse may claim, grave, mntc-uline. and strong, 
Superior praise to the mere poet's song." 

Cotcper : Epitaph on Ilr. Johnton. 

(3) Bold, forward, coarse ; unbecoming to a 
woman. 

IL Technically: 

1. not. : Belonging to the stamens. 

2. Gram. : Denoting or pertaining to the gen- 
der of words which represent or are appro- 
priated to things or beings of the male sex 
grammatically : as, a mnsr.ullne noun. 

3. Law: Recent enactments declare that 
words of the masculine gender shall be held to 
include females, unless the contrary be ex- 
pressly stated. 

B. As substantive : 

Gram. : The masculine gender ; a word of 
the masculine gender. 

masculine -rhymes, . pi. The same as 
MALE RHYMES (q.v.). 




* mas -CU-liae-ly, a dv. [ En;,', masculine ; -ly.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : In a masculine manner; like 
a man. 

" You have dime most nuuculinely." 

Ben Junion : CatUiiu. UL I. 

2. Gram. : As a masculine word or phrase ; 
in a masculine sense. 

" Others expound f<t> < to siguifie maiculmely, and 
to relate to Adam." Bp. TViyier / Dtut Juitijicaiui. 

* mas cu -line ness, s. [Eng. masculine ; 
ness.] The quality or state of being mascu- 
line ; a partaking of the attributes or qualities 
of man ; masculinity. 

t mas cu-lin i ty, s. [Fr. masculiniti, from 
masculin masculine.] The quality or state 
of being masculine. 

" The Englishman who visits Germany cannot for a 
loug time hear a lady use the expression ' Mein Mann' 
without a half belief that the person is specially dwell- 
lug on the fact of her husband's nuucujimfy." Mini, 
No. zxi., p. 6. 

mas'- cu. ly, a. [Eng. maicle ; -y.] 

Her. : Covered over with mascles conjoined, 
resembling net-work. 

mas'-deu, . [See def.j A species of French 
wine, from Masdeu, in the Eastern Pyrenees. 

* mase, s. [MAZE, s.] 

* mase, v.i. [MAZE, v.] 

* mas cd ness, s. [MAZEDNESS.] 

* masclin, * mazer in, * masaliue, * mas- 
lin, mas lyn, * rncst ling, s. [A.S. mast- 
lea, mceslen = brass ; mcustling = a vessel of 
brass.] 

1. A mixed metal, probably bronze. 

"The leues were matalyne." 

Sir Ferumbrai, 1,1X1. 

2. A cup of brass ; a drinking cup. 

3. A mixture of wheat and rye. 

* mas' er, s. [MAZER.] 

maser-tree, s. 
Bot. : Acer campestre. 

* mash (1), s. [MESH.] A mesh of a net 

"To defend against the stings of bees, have a net 
knit with so small mailut, that a bee cauuot g 
through." Jlorlimtr : Husbandry. 

mash (2), s. [Probably of English origin ; ct 
A.S. mexfcet a mashing-vat, max-wi/rte = 
wort, new beer, whence max mase, probably 
= a mixture ; cogn. with Sw. dial, mash = 
brewers' grains ; Sw. mash grains, mashe = 
to mash ; Dan. mash a mash ; mash-kar = a 
mashing-tub ; mceshe to mash ; North Fries. 
mash = grains, draff ; Ger. meisch = a mash ; 
meischfass a mash-vat ; meischen = to mash, 
to mix ; Ir. masgai'.n = to mash, to infuse ; 
Gael, masg = to mix, to infuse ; measg = to 
mix.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. A mass cf ingredients mixed, blended, or 
beaten together promiscuously ; a mixture of 
bran and hot water for horses. 

2. The act or process of mashing or mixing 
several ingredients together. 

* 3. A mess ; a confused mixture. 



* i. A mess, a trouble. 

" I doubt mainly I shall be 1' th' math too." 

Beaum. t flet. : Tht Captain, 111. S. 

II. Brewing : Crushed or ground grain, 
malt, or a mixture of the two, steeped in hot 
water so as to obtain an infusion consisting of 
the saccharine portions. The resulting solu- 
tion is wort, and when decocted with hops 
and fermented it becomes beer ; when simply 
fermented, it is wash for distillation. 

mash-cooler, *. A stirring-trough in 
which mash or wort is stirred to expedite 
the cooling. The rotary vertical shaft has its 
fans and stirrers ; the former cause a circula- 
tion of air, and the hitter stir the contents of 
the shallow circular tube. 

mash-tub, mash tun, mash-vat, s. 

Brewing : The vat or cask in which malt is 
steeped, and from which the saccharine solu- 
tion is drawn. 

mash, v.t. [MASH (2), s.] 

L Ordinary Language : 
1. To mix, beat, or blend into a confused 
mass or mixture. 

"(Let) then be yoke* of fresh and new-laid eggs, 
boil d moderately hard to be miugl'd and matk'd with 
tbe mustard, oylaud vinegar." frelyn : Acetaria. 



boll, boy ; pout, J<rfrl ; cat, cell, chorus, 9hin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, Xenophon, e^ist. -Inc. 
-dan, -tian = shan. -tion, -slon = shun ; -tion, -sion = zhun, -clous, -tious, -sioua - shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bcl. del. 



3052 



mash mason 



2. To bruise ; to crush by pressure or beat- 
tog. 

IL Brewing : To make an infusion of malt 
by steeping and stirring in hot water. 

tuash (2), v.t. [Etym. doubtful.] To secure 
the notice, attentions, or affections of one of 
the opposite sex. ( U. S. Slang.) 

^ Masher: One who flirto indiscriminately or 
tries to do so ; math : the object of such atten- 
tions when returned ; to make a mash : to win 
attentions or affections ; to be mashed on : to be 
infatuated with ; to go on the mash : to seek 
acquaintance (with those of the opposite sex) 
by free and unconventional flirtation. (Slang 
in all senses.) 

mash al lah, interj. [Turk. & Pers.] Praised 

be Allah 1 Praised be God I 

mash-ing, j>r. jxfr., a., & s. [MASH, .] 

A. & B. As pr. par. A particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As substantive : 

L Ord. Lang. : The act or process of beating 
or mixing into a confused mass. 

IL Brewing: 

1. The act or process of making an infusion 
Of malt (called wort) by steeping and stirring 
in hot water. 

2. The quantity of malt and warm water so 
mixed together. 

mashing tub, . 

Brewing : A tub or vat for containing the 
mash in breweries. 

* mashing vat, * meshing -fetto, s. A 
mash -vat or tub. 

"He uiaye happe ere aught long, to fall Into the 
mething-fett*." Sir T. JUore : Worm, p. 679. 

mash lum, mash'-lin, a. & s. [MASEL.IN.] 

A. As adj. : Mixed ; a mixture of different 
kinds of grain. 

" The mathlum bannocks will suit their muirland 
tamachs weeL" Scott : Old Mortality, ch. zx. 

B. As subst. : Mixed grain, mixed food. 

mash' -$, a. [Eng. mash;-y.] Of the nature 
of a mash ; produced by mashing. 

" The country flouts, 
And foams unbounded with the math;/ flood." 

Thomson : Autumn, W9. 

mas-id nesse, s. [MAZEDNESS.] 

mask, masque, * maske, s. [Fr. masque 
= a mask, a visor, for masquere, from Arab. 
maskharat = a buffoon, a fool, a jester, sport, 
from sdkhira = to be ridiculed ; Sp. & Port. 
mascara = a masker, a mask.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

* 1. A festive entertainment ; a reveL 

"After whom marcht a jolly company, 
In a manner of a maske, e n ranged orderly.' 

Spenser : F. O.., IIL Til 5. 

* 2. A revel or entertainment at which the 
company was masked ; a masquerade. 

U In these senses the spelling now usually 
Adopted is masifue. 

* 3. A revel, a mummery. 

"This thought might lead me through thii world'! 

vain matk, 
Content, though blind." Milton : Sonnet zviL 

4. A cover for tlie face, either for purposes 
of defence, or to conceal one's identity ; a 
visor ; a face-covering of a humorous or ludic- 
rous character. 

" Could we suppose that a matk represented never so 
naturally the general humour of a character, it can 
iiever suit with the variety of passions that are inci- 
dent to every single person." Addiion : On Italy. 

5. Anything used or adopted as a disguise ; 
a pretence, a subterfuge. 

" Meanwhile the face 
Conceals the mood lethargic with a mask 
; Of deep deliberation." Courier : Talk, IT. Z. 
U. Technically : 

1. Arch. : A piece of sculpture representing 
the human face in different aspects, employed 
for various purposes, as gargoyles, anteflxae, 
outlets of fountains, keystones of arches, on 
walls and shields, &c. According to the 
style of decoration, they were either noble or 
grotesque. 

2. Fencing: A wire cage to protect the face 
from a stray cut or thrust with a foil in fenc- 
ing. 

i 3. Factories: (INHALER, II.]. 

4. Fort. : A cover of gabions or earth to 
protect workmen in constructing a battery, 
or a screen for a battery. 



5. Music <t Theat. : (See extract). 

" A species of dramatic entertainment in which ori- 
ginally the performers wore matkt of peculiar forms 
suggestive of the allegorical characters assumed. In 
many instances the miis^ue had no definite design or 
plot, but depended for its success upon the occasion for 
which it was written, the wit of the poet who furnished 
the words, the skill of the musician who supplied the 
music, and the ingenuity of the machinist and scene 
painter by whom the stage effects were produced. 
The early nuuquel were simply acted pageants, but by 
degrees the genius of such writers as Fletcher and Ben 
Jousou furnished the poetical groundwork of many 
matquet acted at Court by the children of His Ma- 
jesty's Chapel Royal and St. Paul's Cathedral The 
most beautiful work of this class is the Cnmui of Mil- 
ton, acted at Lndlow in 1634, and although prod need at 
a time when the taste for this class of entertainment 
had fallen off, it has always been held to be the most 
perfect specimen of a matqut." (Stainer i Barrett. ) 

* mask-house, s. A house for masquer- 
ades or masques. 

"Some mask-house, wherein a glorious (though 
momentary) show were to be presented." Bp. Hall : 
Contempl., bk. iv. 

mask-tree, s. 

Bot. : Alonsoa, a genus of Scrophulai ia. 

mask (1), v.t. & i. [MASK, .] 
A. Transitive: 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : To cover with a mask, either for 
defence against injury or to conceal identity. 

" Him he knew well, and guessed that it was she ; 
But being matked he was not sure." 

Shaketp. : Two Gentlemen of Verona, v. 2. 

2. Fig. : To disguise, to cover, to conceal, to 
bide. 

" Masking the business from the common eye. 
For sundry weighty reasons." 

Shaketp. : Macbeth, Hi. 1. 

n. M Hit. : To cover. 

" They would be altogether Jeopardised unless Tel-el- 
Kebir were masked by a larger force than Wolseley 
can afford to spare." Standard, Sept. 2, 1882. 

*B. Intransitive : 

1. To play a part in a masquerade ; to go 
about in masquerade. 

" And then we masked." 

Shickaii. : Komto i Juliet, i. L 

2. To be disguised in any way. 

mask (2), v.t. & i. [MASH, v.] 

A. Trans. : To mask, to infuse. (Scotch.) 

"But I hope your honors will tak tea before ye gang 
to the palace, and I maun gaiis; and mask it for you." 
Scott : Waverlty, ch. Till. 

B. Intrans. : To be in a state of infusion. 

masked, pa. par. & a. [MASK (1), v.] 

A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective : 

L Ordinary Language : 

I. Wearing a mask ; disguised, concealed. 

" The matked ladles in the pit of the theatre." 
Macaulay: Silt. Eng., ch. xiv. 

*2. Bewildered (? mazed). 
" Leaving him more masked than be was before." 
fuller : Holy War, bk. iiL, ch. ii. 

II. Botany: 

1. Having the upper and lower lip of an ir- 
regular gamopetalous corolla pressed together 
so as to resemble the face of a grinning ani- 
mal. Example, Antirrhinum. Called also 
Personate. 

2. Having its real nature concealed. 

masked-ball, . A ball at which the 
Company wear masks, or appear in masquerade. 

masked-battery, s. 

Fort. : A battery concealed from the view 
of the enemy by mantlets, bushes, or other 
screen. 

masked-crab, *. 

Zool. : Corystes cassivelaunut, common on 
the south and west coasts of England and 
Wales. The marks on the carapace bear some 
resemblance to a human face, whence its pop- 
ular name. It lies buried in the sand, with 
only the antennce visible above the surface. It 
is a very ancient type ; many representatives 
of it occur in the Gault and Greensand. 
[PAL^EOCORVSTES.] 

masked finfoot, . 
Ornith.: Podica personata, one of the Hal- 
liilic, from Burma]) and Malacca. 

masked-gull, s. 

Zool. : Lams capistratus, sometimes called 
the Brown-headed or Lesser Brown-headed 
Gull. In its summer plumage the hair-brown 
feathers about the head form a complete mask. 

masked-monkey, s. 

Zool. : CallithriX personata, a Brazilian mon- 



key with yellow-gray hair, the head and tho 
hands blackish, the tail reddish. 

masked-pig, s. 

Zool. : Sus pliciceps. Its popular name has 
reference to its deeply furrowed skin, which 
Darwin compared to the plates on the Indian 
Rhinoceros. 

mas' keeg, i. A swamp. (Upper Great Lakea 
and Canada.). 

mas kel-yn-ite, *. [Named after Prof. 
Maskelyne ; suff. -ite (Afiw.).] 

Min. : An isometric mineral occurring in 
distorted cubic grains in the Sherghotty 
meteorite. Hardness, about 6-5. Compos. : 
silica, 54-3 ; alumina, 24'8 ; proto- and sesqui- 
oxides of iron, 4'7 ; lime, ll'l; soda, 4'9; 
potash, 1*2. This corresponds to the com- 
position of labradorite (q.v.). 

mask'-er, s. [Eng. mask (I), v. ; .] 

* 1. A mask. 

" Cause them to be deprehended and taken and thrtr 
matken taken off." Sir T. More : Worket, p. 758. 

2. One who wears a mask ; one who plays ft 
part in a masquerade. 

" Lewis of France Is sending over maskert, 
To revel it with him and his new bride/ 

Shaketp. : 3 Henry VI., ill. *. 

* mask'-er, v.t. [MASKER, .] To mask, to 
hide, to cover. 

" So mrukered nil understanding." HoUtisheil : Silt. 
Eng. (an. 1377). 

* mask'-er-y, * mask ar-y, *. [Eng. mask- 

-er; -y.] The dress or disguise of a masker; 
showy array, masquerade. 

"Wee'l first thank heaven 
And then wee'l see some matkery." 

Jf abbes : Unfortunate Mother, K. S. 

mas'-kin, . [Eng. mass (2), s. ; dimin. sufit, 
-kin.] The mass. 

mask Ing (1), pr. par., a., & s. [MASK (1), v.] 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adj. : Pertaining or appropriate to 
masque or masquerade. 

" What masking stuff is here T " 

Shaketp. : Taming of the Shrew, Iv. & 

C. As substantive : 

1. The act of covering or concealing with or 
as with a mask. 

2. Masquerading. 

" With fiddling, feasting, dancing, drinking, maskina ' 
Byron : Beppo, C 

mask Ing (2), pr. par. or a. [MASK (2), v.] 
masking pat, s. A tea-pot. (Scotch.) 

" Then up they gat the matkin'-ixtt 
And in the sea did Jaw, man." 

Burnt: A Fragment. 

mas -kl nonge, s. [The Algonquin name.] 

Ichthy. : Esox estor, an immense pike, caught 
in the St. Lawrence and the Great Lakes. 
Bartlett (Diet. Amer.) remarks that he saw 
one " taken at Kingston upwards of four feet 
in length." Dr. Richardson (Fauna Bor. 
Amer.) says that he found none in the rivers 
which fall into Hudson's Bay or the Polar Sea, 

mas-lach, . [Turk.] A stimulant prepared 
from opium, and much used in Turkey. 

mas-lin, a. Its. [MASELIN.] 

ma son, mas-cun, *. [O. Fr. mojojv 
masson ; Fr. may oil,, from Low Lat. macionem, 
ace. of macio = a mason, a word of doubtful 
origin; M. H.Ger.mao=amason ; Ger.stein- 
metz = a stone-mason, prob. from M. H. Ger. 
meizen; O. H. Ger. meizan = to hew, to cut; 
Ger. mcisel = a chisel.) 

1. A builder in stone ; a workman whose 
business is to lay stone or brick in building ; 
a worker in stone. 

" Obedient to the maton't call 
They roll the stone, and raise the wall." 

Cambridge : Apology for writing rent. 

2. A member of the fraternity of free- 
masons (q.v.). 

mason-bee, . 

Zool. : Chalicodoma mwaria (R&mmur). 
It builds a nest, of fine sand grains firmly 
united by a salivary secretion, upon the sur- 
face of walls. This species is nearly allied to 
the genus Osmia (q.v.). 

* mason- lodge, . A room or place 
where a fraternity of freemasons hold their 
meetings. 

mason-wasp, . 

Enlom. : Odyntrns murartus, a solitary wasp. 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, F re, sir, marine ; go, p5t 
V* wore, wplf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try. Syrian. e, 03 - e ; ey = a ; qu - kw. 



mason mass 



3055 



which in June and July, excavates a hole in 
the sand or the plaster of a wall, and at the 
entrance builds a tube about two inches long. 
The cement is formed by moistening the de- 
tached grains with water, which it disgorges. 
It deposits its eggs in the hole, laying up 
caterpillars stung half dead for support to its 
own larvae when hatched. In turn these wasp 
larvae often fall a prey to ichneumons. 

* ma son, v.t. [Fr. maconner, fr. mafon = a 
mason. ] To construct of masonry ; to build 
of stone. 

" ilatoned and wroughte of divene stones." Ber- 
neri : Froittart ; Cronyclt. vol. 1., oh. 1. 

ma'-sined, a. [Eng. mason; -ed.] 

Her. : Applied to a field or charge which is 
divided with lines in the nature of a wall or 
building of stones. 

ma-son '-ic, a. [Eng. mason, s. ; -ic.] Of or 
p'ertaining to freemasons or freemasonry : as, 
a masonic lodge. 

ma'-sin-ite, s. [Named after Owen Mason ; 
sutf. -ite (A/in.).] 

I/tin. : A variety of chloritoid (q.v.), found 
in very broad plates of a dark -green colour, 
in Rhode Island, U.S.A. 

ma' son-ry, s. [Fr. maconnerie, from mayon- 
ner = to do masons' work.] 

1. The art or occupation of a mason ; the 
art of so arranging stones or brick as to pro- 
duce a regular construction. The masonry of 
the ancient Egyptians was remarkable for the 
large size of the stones employed, sometimes 
as much as thirty feet in length. They were 
laid without mortar. The Cyclopean or earlier 
masonry of the Greeks, some remains of which 
exist in the walls of Mycenae and Tiryns, was 
formed of large and irregularly shaped masses 
of stone, the interstices being filled with 
smaller stones. In a few of the earlier Eng- 
lish buildings, considered by some to be Saxon, 
the quoins, the door, and window jambs, and 
occasionally some other parts, were formed of 
stones alternately laid flat and set up endwise ; 
the latter were usually much longer than the 
others. This is termed "long and short" work. 

"Stone* and mortar, aud all the instruments of 

matonri/.'Jlume : On the Undemanding, f 11. 

2. The work executed by a mason. 

"The lighthouse lifts its massive wkMonrjr, 
A pillar of fin by night, of cloud by day." 

Longfellow: Liyhthouie. 

S. The craft, mysteries, or principles of 
Freemasonry (q.v.). 

ma soo la, mas soo la, ma su lah, a. 
[Native name.] 

Naut. : A. boat of the Coromandel coast, 
adapted to be beached on the surf-beaten 
shore. The planks are sewed together with 
coir, over wads of the same material which 
press upon the seams. They are 30 to 35 feet 
long, 10 to 11 feet beam, 7 to 8 feet deep, and 
are rowed by twelve men, oars double-banked, 
and a steersman with an oar at the stern. 

mas' -6-pin, . [Etym. doubtful.] 

Chem. : CisHjgOj. A resinous 'body, ob- 
tained from a tree called Dschilte, growing in 
Mexico. It is a snow-white pulverulent sub- 
stance without taste or smell, insoluble in 
water, but soluble in alcohol and ether, from 
which it crystallizes iu white silky needles. 
It melts at 155, and solidifies on cooling to a 
glassy, brittle, yellow substance. 

mas 6 rite, . [Bug. masor(a); -ite.] One 
of the writers of the Masora ; one who ad- 
heres to the traditional readings of the Hebrew 
Scriptures. 

"The Uatoritet extended their care to the voweli." 
Matter : Vindication of tin ItMe, p. 257. 

* masque, s. [MASK, .] 

* masqu er (qu as k), s. [MASKER, s.] 

masqu er ade (qu as k), s. [Fr. ; O. Fr. 

mascarade ; Ital. rtutscherata.] 

1. An assemblage of persons wearing masks, 
and amusing themselves in various ways ; a 
revel in which the company is masked ; a 
masked balL 

" The world's a matqutrade I the maskers yon, yon. 
700." Ooldmitk : Epilogue to The Sitter*. 

i, Disguise. 

" The pains that have made 

Poor Winter look lino in such strange mauruerade." 
Wordsworth : Farmer of Tiltbury rate. 

* 3. A Spanish diversion on horseback, per- 
formed by squadrons of horse. 



masqu -er-ade (qu as k), v.i. it t. [MAS- 
QUERADE, s.] 

A. lutrtinsitive: 

1. To wear a mask ; to take a part in a 
masquerade. 

2. To go in disguise. 

" A freak took an ass In the head, and he goes Into 
the woods, matquerading up and down iu a lion's 
skin." L'Kitrange : Fablet. 

* B. Trans. : To put in disguise ; to dis- 
guise. 

masqu'- er- ad -er (qu as k), s. [Eng. 
inasijuenul(e) ; er.] One who wears a mask ; 
one who takes part in a masquerade ; one 
who wears a disguise. 

" Ttie dreadful matouerader, thus equlpt. 
Out sallies." Young : Night Thought*, v. 880. 

mass (l), masse (1)> * l Fr - "'-, from 

Lat. massa = a mass, prob. from Gr. /uafa 
(maza) = a barley-cake, from fxa<r<ru (masso) 
= to knead.] 

L Ordinary language: 

L A body of matter, collected, concreted, 
or formed into one lump ; a lump. (Applied 
to any solid body.) 

" One common man composed the mould of man." 
Dryden : Sigitmonda 4 Guitcardo, 602. 

* 2. A collective body or aggregation of fluid 
matter. 

" A deep* matte of continual! sea is slower starred 
to rage." Sarnie : Tacitut ; Ayricola, p. 188. 

3. A heap ; a great quantity or amount. 

" Thy sumptuous buildings and thy wife's attire 
Have cost a matt of public treasury." 

Shaketp. : Henry VI., i. t. 

*4. Bulk, size, magnitude. 

" This army of such matt and charge. 
Led by a delicate and tender prince." 

Shaketp. : Hamlet, IT. 4. 

5. The body of things considered col- 
lectively ; the general ; the main body or 
part : as, the mass of the people. 

IL Technically: 

1. Physics: The quantity of matter which 
a body contains. This is not necessarily the 
same as its volume, but is precisely propor- 
tioned to its weight, the assumption being 
made that weight arises from a greater 
quantity of matter being compressed into a 
limited space. Two bodies are said to have 
equal masses if when placed in opposite 
scales in vacua they exactly balance each 
other. The mass of the uiiit of volume in 
any body of equal density throughout is the 
measure of this density. If m equal the mass 
of a body, v its volume, and d is density, then 
m = vd. The British unit of mass is the 
standard pound avoirdupois. [AVOIRDUPOIS.] 

2. Bot. (PL): Collections of anything in 
unusual quantity, as the pollen masses in 
Oruhidacoie and Asclepiadacese. 

IT (1) Measures of mass : A grain, an ounce, 
a pound, a ton. 

(2) The masses : The great or main body of 
the people ; especially the great body of the 
working classes ; the populace. 

" His exertions in the cause of themaaet."nannay 
Singleton Fontenoy, bk. I., oh. . 

mass-meeting, s. A large or general 
meeting called for some specific purpose. 
Mass-meetings were first talked of in the 
political campaign of 1840, when Harrison 
was elected President of the United States. 
The expression has since become naturalized 
in England. 

mass (2), * masse (2), * messe, . [A.S. 
mcesse = (1) the mass, (2) a church-festival, 
from Low Lat. missa = (1) a dismissal, (2) a 
mass ; generally explained by supposing that 
the allusion is to the words ite, missa est = go, 
the congregation is dismissed, from missus, 
pa. par. of mitto = to send, to dismiss ; Fr. 
messe; Ital. missa; Sp. misa; Dut. mis, missa; 
Oer. & Dan. messe; Sw. & I eel. messa.] 

1. Roman Theol. <t Ritual : " The perpetual 
sacriQce of the new covenant, in which the 
body and blood of Jesus Christ are really and 
truly offered to God under the species of 
bread and wine." (Gotchler.) According to 
the Catechism of Ac Council of Trent, the 
Sacrifice of the Mass was instituted by Our 
Lord at his last supper (Luke xxii. 19) ; it 
must be offered to God alone ; was signified 
in Malachi i. 11 ; is the same sacrifice with 
that of the Cross ; there is one priest of both, 
for the celebrant uses not his own words, 
but those of Jesus Christ ; it is a sacrifice 
of praise and propitiation, and available 
for the living and the dead (pt. ii., ch. iv.). 



There is an obligation on all Christians of tie 
Roman Obedience to hear mass on all Sun- 
days and holydays of obligation. 

" Burled . . . with gorgeous obsequies, 
And matt, and rolling music, like a queen." 

Tmnytm : Lancelot t Elaine, l.SM. 

2. Music: A setting of certain portions of 
the mass to music ; the portions of the mass 
usually set to music namely, the Kyrie, the 
Gloria,, the Credo, the Sanctus, and the Agnut 
Dei. An Offertory and Benedictus are some- 
times added to these numbers. Masses are 
designated musically after the key in which 
they commence, as Beethoven in D ; and 
liturgically, according to the character and 
solemnity of the accompanying ceremonial. 

IT 1. Capitular Mass : The High Mass on 
Sundays or holydays of obligation in col- 
legiate churches. 

2. Conventual Mass : The mass which the 
rectors of cathedral and collegiate churches 
are bound to have celebrated every day 
solemnly and with music after tierce. II) 
must be applied for benefactors. 

3. High Mass : [H ICH-MASS]. 

4. Low Mass : [LOW-MASS]. 

5. Manual Mass : A mass said for the inten- 
tion of a person who gives an alms. 

6. Mass of the Prassanctified : [PR^GSANO- j 

TIFIED]. 

7. Midnight Mass: The last of the three 
masses said on Christmas eve. 

8. Missa Cantata : A mass sung, but with- 
out deacon and sub-deacon. It is not accom- 
panied with the ceremonies proper to High 
Mass (q.v.), though in some places the use of 
incense is permitted. 

9. Missa Catechumenorum : Mass for Cate- 
chumens. At first, the name was applied to 
the prayers and ceremonies of mass as far as 
the offertory, when the catechumens took 
their departure ; afterwards it came to signify 
a special service, to which catechumens and 
penitents, and even Jews and pagans were ad- 
mitted. (Goschler.) [DISCIPLINE OFTHE SECRET.] 

10. Missa Fidelium: Mass of the FaithfuL 
A name given to the more solemn parts of 
the mass, from which in the early Church 
catechumens were excluded. 

11. Missa Sicca: Dry mass. This is not 
strictly speaking a mass, for there is neither 
consecration nor communion. It is now dis- 
used, except as a means of familiarizing 
persons about to be ordained with the cere- 
monies of High Mass. 

12. Parochial Mass : The mass said on Sun- 
days and holydays of obligation by a parish 
priest or the priest in charge of a quasi-parish 
[MISSION], for the special benefit of those whose 
pastor he is. For this mass he can take no 
stipend (q.v.). 

13. Private Mass : A mass said by a priest 
for his own devotion, and not to satisfy any 
obligation. There must be at least one server. 
Solitary masses are strictly forbidden. 

14. Public Mass: A mass to which the 
faithful of both sexes are admitted. Such 
masses are prohibited in monasteries. 

15. To hear mass : To be present at mass ; 
to assist at the celebration of mass. 

" They rose, heard matt, broke fast, and rode away.* 
Trunnion : Lancelot i Elaine, 411 

16. Votive Mass: A mass which does not 
correspond to the office of the day, but is said 
according to the choice (vatum) of the cele- 
brant. On Sundays, feasts of double rank, 
and a few days specially excepted, votive 
masses cannot be said. 

mass-bell, s. The bell rang during 
mass ; a sanctus-belL 

" [He] with holy water sprinkled 
All the ship ; the matt-be/lt tinkled." 

Longfellow : Mutician't Tale, zL 

* mass-book, s. A missal or Roman 
Catholic service-book. 

mass-house, s. A contemptuous name 
for a Roman Catholic place of worship. 

* mass - priest, * masse - priest, t. 

Originally a priest whose functions were con- 
fined to saying mass, either in a religious 
house or in a chantry for the repose of the 
soul of a benefactor. As a rule, these clerics 
knew little theology, and hence the name came 
to have an opprobrious meaning as in the 
example. 

" The witlessly-mallcious Prosopopey . . . become* 
wel the month of * scurrile maue-priett, and is worthy 
nothing but a scome." Bp, Sail: Honour of .Varied 
Clrrgie, bk. ii., i 7. 



boil, boy ; pout, jowl ; eat, 96!!, chorus, 9hin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin. as : expect, ^Cenophon, exist, ph = & 
-clan, -tian shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -sion - ah .1. -c*oua, -tious, -sious shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel, del. 



3054 



mass mast 



mass, v.t. [MASS(U ] 

1. I^ gather or collect in a mass or masses ; 
to assemble in crowds. 

2. To strengthen, as a building, for the 
purposes of fortification. (Uayward.) 

* m&SS, f.i. [MASS (2), s.] To celebrate mass. 

" lie would uy no service, he massed without conse- 
cration." Bale : English Vutarta, pt i. 

mas -sa ere (ere as ker), *. [Fr., probably 
from tow. Ger. matsen = to maul, to kill.] 

1. The slaughter or butchery of numbers 
of human beings ; indiscriminate killing or 
slaughter, especially without authority or 
necessity; carnage. (Dryden: Conquest of 
Mexico, v. 2.) 

* 2. Murder. (Shakesp. : Richard III., iv. 3.) 
H Massacre of the Innocents : [INNOCENT, II.]. 

mas sa ere (ere as ker), v.t. [Fr. massa- 
crer, from massacre = a massacre.] 

1. To butcher ; to kill or slaughter indis- 
criminately and contrary to the usages of 
nations. (Savile : Tacitus ; Historic, p. 180.) 

2. To kill in any way. (Scott : The Poacher.) 

* mas'-sa-crer, . [Eng. massacr(e); -er.] One 

who massacres. (Burke : Regicide Peace, let. i.) 

mass age (age as ig), *. [Gr. y.a.<r<ru> (mas- 

sff) to work with the hands, to kuead dough, 
or Arab, mass = to press softly.] 

Surg. : A scientific method of curing dis- 
ease by systematic manipulations comprising : 
1. Surface friction (effieurage) ; 2. A form of 
kneailing (petrissage) ; '.'>. Manipulations with 
the tips of the fingers (massage a friction); 
and 4. A kind of striking or percussion with 
the hands (tapotement). These procedures are 
combined according to definite rules, and the 
treatment is found useful in paralysis, neur- 
algia, rheumatism, joint diseases, &c. It is 
used amongst the Sandwich Islanders under 
the name of lomi-lomi, and in Tonga is called 
toogi-toogi, mili, or/ota. 

Mas sa'~li a, s. [MASSILIA.] 

Mas sa'-li ans, s. pi. [MESSALIAN.J 

mas sa-sau ga, s. [Indian name (?).] 

Zool. : The Prairie Rattlesnake, Crotalopho- 
rus tergeminits (Say). Habitat, from Ohio to 
Michigan, westward. It lias large scutes on 
the head, and the rattle is much smaller than 
in other species. 

Mas se na, s. [Perhaps named after Marshal 
Ma.ssena, who failed before Wellington's lines 
at Torres Vedras, and had to retreat from 
Portugal.] (See the compound.) 

Massena trogon, s. 

Ornith. : Trogon massena, a species from 
tropical South America. It is about a foot in 
length, dark bronze-green above, with the 
smaller wing feathers speckled white and 
black, and the belly of a beautiful carmine. 

mas-ser, . [Eng. mast (2), s. ; -er.] A 
priest who celebrates mass. 

" A good master and 90 forth ; but no true guspel 
preacher." flat* : Yet a Count, \>. 38. 



mas' se ter, s. [Gr., from f 
mai) to chew.] 



(masao- 



A not. : The masseter muscle, short, thick, 
and quadrilateral, composed of two planes of 
fibres, superficial and deep, and forming one 
of the maxillary group of muscles. 

mas se ter ic, mas se-ter ine.o. [Eng. 
masseter; -ic, -ine.] Of or pertaining to the 
masseter. Thus there are a masseteric vein, 
artery, nerve, and fascia. 

mas si-cot, s. [Etym. doubtful.] 

Min. : Protoxide of lead having a scaly 
crystalline structure. Hardness, 2 ; sp. gr. 8 ; 
when pure, 9-2 to 9'36. Colour, sulphur to 
orpimeut yellow, sometimes reddish. Crystal- 
lization orthorhombic. Found in consider- 
able quantities in Mexico. 

Mas sll I a, Mas sa -U-a, *. [The ancient 
name of Marseilles.] 
Astron. : [ASTEROID, 20). 

Mas-sil'-i-ans, s. ;>/. [From Massilia, the 
Latin name of Marseilles.] 

Church Hist. : A sect founded by John 
Cassian or Cassianus, who, coming from the 
East to Marseilles, erected a monastery there. 



He modified the Augustinian tenets. His 
views were called by his adversaries Semi- 
pelagian (q.v.). 

* mas'-si ness, *. [Eng. massy; -ness.] The 
quality or state of being massy ; massiveness ; 
great weight and bulk. 

mass -Ive, a. [Fr. massif, from mass* = amass. ] 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Forming or consisting of a great mass ; 
heavy and thick ; weighty, ponderous, having 
great size and weight. 

" In Saxon strength that Abbey frowned. 
With missive arches broad and round.' 

Scott ; Marmlon, it 10. 

*2. Great, mighty. (Longfellow: Builders.) 
IL Min. : In mass so imperfectly crystallized 

that there is no regular form. 
f For the difference between massive and 

bulky, see BULKY. 

mas-sive-ly, adv. [Eng. massive; -ly.] In 
a massive manner. 

mas si ve ness, s. [Eng. massive; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being massive. 

mas soo -la, s. [MASOOLA.] 

mas so rah, ma -so'- rah, t mas-so 
reth, t ma so' reth, s. *[Heb. rnbo (mas- 
sorah), rnDQ (massoreth), rniDiJ (masoreth) = 
tradition, from Aramaean npo (masar) = to 
give over, to transmit orally.] 

Hebrew Literature : The Massorah is a mar- 
ginal directory, indicating on almost every 
line in the margin of the MS. bibles how the 
letters, words, forms, and phrases are to be 
written, according to the most ancient rules 
laid down by those who compiled, preserved, 
and transmitted the canon and the Old Testa- 
ment scriptures. Every spurious letter or 
redundant word, every variation in the vowel 
points, accents, or in repetition of a phrase, 
and every peculiarity of construction over 
which the copyist is likely to blunder, and 
which have been the great source of the vari- 
ous readings, are most carefully noted ; and 
those who are engaged in multiplying the 
codices are warned against the passages in 
question that here there is a peculiar pheno- 
menon which is not to be made conformable 
to the ordinary reading. The Massorah also 
gives the various readings contained in stan- 
dard MSS. of the Bible viz., the Codex Hil- 
lali, the Jericho Codex, the Muggah Codex, 
the Sinai Codex, &c. It was at first tradi- 
tionally transmitted by the authorized and 
professional scribes, who afterwards com- 
mitted it to writing. The first edition of it 
in the Rabbinic Bible of Jacob ben Chayim 
(Venice, 1524-5) only gives a portion of this 
critical corpus. The entire mass of the Mas- 
soretic Rubrics has been edited and published 
by Dr. Ginsburg, in three vols., imperial folio. 

mas so ret ic, mas 6 ret ic, mas so 
retf-ic-al, a. [Eng. masoret(h); -ic, -ical.] 
Of or pertaining to the Massorah : as, the 
massoretical rules or rubrics, the massoretic 
vowel points or accents, the massoretic text 
i.e., the text of the Hebrew Scriptures com- 

6 'led in accordance with the rules of the 
assorah. 

mas' -soy, s. [Etym. doubtful ; probably a 
native name.] (See the compound.) 

massoy bark, s. 

Bot., <tc, : The bark of Laurus Burmanni. It 
resembles cinnamon in flavour, and, when 
powdered, is much used by the Japanese. 

massoy camphor, s. 

Chem.: A camphor obtained from massoy 
bark, by distillation with water. It is heavier 
than water, dissolves in alcohol, ether, and ace- 
tie acid, and is coloured yellow by nitric acid. 

massoy oil, s. 

Chem. : A name given to two volatile oils 
present in massoy bark, the one being heavier, 
the other lighter than water. They are soluble 
in alcohol, ether, and acetic acid, and both are 
coloured red by nitric acid. 

*mas-su elle, ' mas-u-el, s. [Fr. mnssue 
= a club.] A club or mace used by soldiers 
during the Crusades. 

mas sy, a. [Eng. mass (1) ; -y.] Massive ; 
consisting of or forming a great mass ; pon- 
derous, bulky. (Macaulay : Hist. Eng., ch. xiv.) 



mast (1), s. [A.S. mccst ~ the stem of a tree, 
a bough, a mast ; cogn. with Dut. mast ; Sw., 
Ger., it Dan. mast; I eel. mastr; Fr. mat ; Port. 
masto, mastro.] 

Naut. : A long spar of timber, iron or steel, 
placed amidship, nearly perpendicularly upon 
the keelson, and serving to support the yards 
and gatt's to which the sails are bent. A mast 
consisting of one piece is a pole-mast. Masts 
are also known as single-tree masts or made 
masts. Masts for large vessels are composed 
of several pieces, about one foot square, with 
rounded segmental lengths on the outside, 
and the whole encircled at intervals by hoops. 
The middle tree is the spindle. The fishes are 
the side-trees. With two masts : the larger is 
the main-mast, the smaller is the fore-mast or 
the mizen-mast, according to its position 
relatively to the main-mast. Brigs, brigan- 
tines, and schooners, have fore and main 
masts. The ketch and the yawl have main 
and mizen-masts. With three masts, they 
are called fore, main, mizen ; with four masts, 
they are called fore, main, mizen (maiu-mizen), 
and jiggermast (bonaventure-mizen). Iron 
masts are made hollow, the plates of the shell 
being single-riveted at the longitudinal joints 
and double-riveted at the circular joints. In- 
ternal stiffening ribs and braces prevent flex- 
ure, collapse, or torsion. A trysail-mast is a 
small mast, stepped to and abaft of a lower- 
mast, to carry a trysail or spanker. 

" He stoop'd his head against the mart. 
And bitter sobs came thick and fast 1 ' 

Scott : Lord of the Islet, IT. It. 
T To spend or expend a mast: To have a 
mast broken in foul weather. 
" Their sails are tatter'd, and their mutts are tpent." 
Dryden : Ovid; Heroida vii. 

mast carling, s. 

Shipbuild. : Large timbers at the side of 
the mast-rooms that are left deep enough to 
receive the cross-chocks. 

mast coat, s. 

Naut. : A conical canvas covering fitting 
over the wedges round the mast to prevent 
water oozing down from the decks. 

mast head, s. 

Naut. : The top or head of a mast. 

mast-bead, v.t. 

Naut. : To send to the mast-head or top of 
a mast to remain there for a time, specified 
or not, as a punishment. 

" The next morning I was as regularly matt-headtd." 
Uarryat : frank Mlldmay, ch. iv. 

mast hole, s. 

Shipbuild. : A hole in the deck to receive a, 
mast. It is of larger diameter than the mast 
by double the thickness of wedges which 
hold the mast in position. The framing of 
the mast-hole consists of fore-and-aft part- 
ners, cross-partners, and corner-chocks. 

mast-hoop, s. A circular band to which 
the luff of a fore-and-aft sail is bent, and 
which slips on a spar in raising and lowering. 

mast-house, masting-house, s. 

Shipbuild. : A long-roofed shed or building, 
in which masts are shaped, bound, and de- 
posited ; a building provided with the neces- 
sary apparatus for fixing ships' masts. 

mast-prop, s. A spar forming a lateral 
support for a mast when a ship is careened. 

mast-scraper, s. A tool for scraping 
masts ; it is usually a triangular plate with 
an edge whose bevel is away from the handle. 
Its edge is sometimes partly concave, to more 
nearly tit the contour of the mast. 

mast-Step, *. A socket at the foot of 
a mast. 

mast tackle, s. 

Nautical : 

1. Purchases used in putting up or sending 
down masts. 

2. Purchases attached to the mast for lift- 
ing or lowering boats, getting in freight or 
stock, bulky stores, machinery, blubber, &c. 

mast trunk, .v. 

Naut. : A box, in small vessels, in which 
the mast stands. 

mast (2), *. [A.S. moist ; cogn. with Ger. 
mast = mast ; masten, = to feed ; Goth, matz ; 
O. H. Ger. maz ; Eng. meat ; cf. Irish mais, 
meas = an acorn ; maise = food ; Welsh ma = 
acorns, a portion, a meal.] 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, p5t, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub. cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian. , = e ; ey = a ; an = kw. 



mast master 



3055 



Bot : The fruit of the oak and beedi or 
other forest trees ; acorns ; beech-nuts. 

"The sable water and the copious matt 
Swell the (at herd." 

Pope: Homer; Odyuey xiii. 471. 

mast-tree, s 

Bot. : A tree which produces mast; some- 
times applied specifically to the cork-tree. 

mast (1), v.t. [MAST (1), *.] To provide with 
a mast ; to fix a mast in. 

'mast (2), v.t. [MAST (2), .] To feed on 
mast. 



mas ta $em bcl I drc, s. pi [Mod. Lat. 
mastacembeHiis) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 
Ichthy. : Acanthopterygian Eels. Fresh- 
water fishes characteristic of and almost con- 
fined to the Indian region. The body is 
elongate, eel-like covered with very small 
scales. Mandible long, but little movable ; 
dorsal fin, very long ; no ventrals ; humeral 
arch separated from the skull. Gill-openings 
reduced to a slit at the lower part of the side 
of the head. The family contains but two 
genera, Rhyncobdella and Mastacembelus 
(q.v.) (Gunther.) 

mas-tavern be liis, s. [Gr. juaorof (mas- 
tax) = the mouth, and (ft/SoAAw (embatto) = 
to throw in.] 

Ichthy. : The typical genus of the family 
Mastacemlielidae (q.v.). Mastacembelus pan- 
caltts and M. armatus are extremely common, 
the latter attaining the length of about two 
feet. M. argus is from Siam, M. aleppensisfrom 
Mesopotamia and Syria, and M. cryptacanthiis, 
M. marchei, and M. nigei from West Africa. 
(Giinther.) 

mast-age (age as ig), s. [Eng. mast (2) ; 
-age.] The right or season of turning hogs 
into the woods to feed on mast ; the money 
paid to the lord for such right. [PANNAGE.] 

mas -t&x, s [Gr. jioo-Tol (mastax) the jaws, 
the mouth ; uao-ao/x<u (mttsaomui) to chew.] 
Zool. : The muscular pharynx or buccal 
funnel into which the mouth opens in most 
of the Rotifera. It usually contains a very 
complicated masticatory apparatus, believed 
by Mr Gosse to be homologous with the parts 
of the mouth in insects. Called also pharyn- 
geal bulb. 

mast'-ed, a [Eng. mast (1) ; -ed.] Furnished 
or provided with a mast or masts ; generally 
in composition . as, two-masted, three-masted. 

" Slow enlarging on the view. 
Four manned and matted barges grew." 

Scott . Lady <>/ the Late, ii. 18. 

mas'-ter, * mais-ter, * mays ter. 
* meis-ter, s. & a. [O. Fr. maistre, meistre, 
from Lat. magixter = a master, from the same 
root as magnus = great ; Gr. /xe'-ya? (megas) = 
great; Sp. maestre, mv.estro ; Ital. maestro; 
Dut. meester ; Dan. mester; O. H. Ger. mew- 
ter ; Sw. mdstare ; Icel. meistari.] 

A. As substantive : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. One who is placed in authority ; one who 
has the control, authority, or direction over 
some person or thing ; one who has the right 
to control or dispose ; one who rules, governs, 
or directs. 

Specifically : 

(1) One who has others under his immediate 
control ; an employer. It is the correlative 
to servant, assistant, slave, &c. 

" And pay the menials (or the matter i treat." 

Pop* : Homer ; Odyuey xx. 364. 

(2) A head, a chief. 

"If they have called the matter of the home 
Beelzebub, how much more shall they call them of 
the household. --Jfotttow x. 24. 

(3) A teacher, a professor ; the founder or 
Chief of a sect. 

" There in his noisy mansion skilled to rule, 
The Tillage matter taught his little school " 

Gotdrmith : Deterted fillage. 

(4) One who has possession and the power 
of using or controlling at pleasure ; an owner, 
a proprietor. 

" They bad reason to fear that, if he prospered in 
England, he would become absolute matter of Hoi- 
land." Macaulay : Hilt. Kng., cb. ix. 

(5) One who can control or direct at plea- 
lore. 

14 Hen at some time an mutter* of their fate*.' 

Shaken*. : Julitu Catar, i. z. 

2. A respectful title of address ; now seldom 



used except by an inferior to a superior, or to 
a boy, the form now used being mister (q.v.). 

" The Pharisees answered, sayi 
a sign from thee." Matthew 

3, A young gentleman. 

"Where there are little matteri and misses in a 
house, they are impediments to the diversions of the 
servants." Hv(ft : Mrectiont to Servant!. 

4. One who has attained eminence or per- 
fect skill in any occupation, art, science, or 
pursuit ; a man eminently skilled in the exer- 
cise of any power, mental or physical, natural 
or acquired. 

" To pastoral melody or warlike air, 
Drawn from the chords of the ancient British 
By some accomplished matter." [harp 

Wordnfartk: Excurtion, bk. Til. 

& A title of dignity. 
English utage : 

(1) At the universities and colleges, a de- 
gree : as, a Master of Arts. 

(2) In law, a title : as the Master of the 
Rolls, a Master in Chancery. 

"Indictments were preferred against the suitors, 
the solicitors, the counsel, and even a matter in 
chancery, for having incurred a pnemunire by ques- 
tioning in a court of equity a Judgment in the court 
of King's Bench, obtained by gross fraud and iinposi- 
Uon."-Blackttone .- Comment., bk. iii., ch. i 

(3) The head of certain corporations, socie- 
ties, or guilds : as, the Master of Balliol, the 
Master of the Goldsmiths' Company, the 
Master of a Masonic Lodge, &C. 

II. Technically: 
1. Art: 

(1) The old masters: Ancient painters of 
eminence : as, Raphael, Rubens, Titian, &c. 

(2) The little masters. [LITTLE-MASTERS.] 
* 2. Bowls : The jack. 

" At bowles every one craves to kisse the maitUr." 
ffouon : School of Abate, p. 60. 

3. Naut. : The captain of a merchant-vessel. 

" Good Boatswain, have care. Where's the matter I 
Play the men." Shaketp. : Tempett, i. 1. 

4. Navy: An officer who navigates the ship 
under the direction of the captain. He is 
selected from the list of lieutenants when he 
has qualified for the special duty. 

B. As adj. : Belonging to or characteristic 
of a master ; chief, principal, head, eminent. 
(See the compounds.) 

(1) English usage (Master-at-arnu) : 

Navy: A petty officer, who may be con- 
sidered the head of the ship's police ; his 
assistants are called ship's corporals. 

(2) Master in Lunacy : A judicial officer 
appointed by the Lord Chancellor, to hold 
inquiries into the state of mind of persons 
alleged to be insane, and incapable of manag- 
ing their own affairs. 

(3) Master of the Buckhounds: A state official 
who has the charge and management of the 
royal staghounds. 

(4) Master of the Ceremonies : [CEREMONY]. 

(5) Master of the Horse: The third great 
officer of the British Court. He has the 
management and supervision of all the royal 
stables and horses, with authority over all 
equerries, pages, coachmen, grooms, footmen, 
&<. In state processions he rides next to the 
sovereign. 

(6) Master of Hounds : One who keeps a 
pack of hounds. 

(7) Mister of the Household : In the British 
Court, an officer employed under the Treasurer 
of the Household to examine accounts. 

(8) Master of the Mint : [MINT]. 

(9) Master of the Robes : [RoBES]. 

(10) Master of the Rolls : 

Law: One of the judges of the Chancery 
division of the High Court of Justice, as ori- 
ginally constituted by the Supreme Judica- 
ture Act (1873). By the amending Act of 1881 
the Master of the Rolls ceased to be a member 
of that court, and became a member of the 
Court of Appeal, retaining, however, his rank, 
title, salary, patronage, &c. (Lely <t Foulkes.) 
[ROLL, s., II.] 

"This great officer . . . was formerly the chief 
merely of the masters in chancery, who carried out 
the decrees and i erformed the ministerial functions of 
that court. Cardinal Wolsey is said to have been the 
first chancellor who devolved on the Matter of the 
Kollt the exercise of a considerable branch of the 
equity jurisdiction of the court." Btaekttont: Com- 
ment., bk. Iii., ch. x. 

(11) Master of the Temple: The chief eccle- 
siastical minister of the Temple Church, 
London. 

(12) To be master of one's self: To have com- 



plete control or command of one's own 
passions and temper. 

U Master is largely used, in composition, 
with the sense of chief, head, eminent ; ob- 
vious compounds are master-baker, master-jest, 
master-tailor, Sic, 

master-attendant, . 

Navy : The officer next in rank to the super- 
intendent of a royal dockyard. 

master-builder, *. 

L The chief builder. 

"Tborberg skafting, matter-buildfr, 
In bis ship-yard by the sea." 

Longfellow: Muticiarit TaU. 

2. A builder who employs workmen. 

master-chord, . 

Mus. : The chief chord ; the chord of the 
dominant. 

'master fast, " maister fast, a. 
Tied to a master. 

" Whoso hath ones married a wife Is . . . in Dinner 
half maitter-fatt. " Udal : Apophth. of Kratmut, p. 17. 

* master-gunner, s. An officer in charga 
of artillery. 

" Chief matter^urmer am I of this town." 

Shaketp. : I Henry VI., i. 4. 

master-hand, s. A person eminently 
skilled in anything. 

" Nameless graces which no methods teach. 
And which a matter-hand alone can reach." 

Pope : FMay on Criticiim, Itt. 

t master-joint, s. 

Geol. : A leading joint or fissure traversing 
rocks in a straight and well-determined line, in 
distinction from one of the smaller kind, run- 
ning but a short way, and that irregularly. 

master-key, s. A key which commands 
many locks of a certain set, the keys ol which 
are not interchangeable among themselves. 
While neither one of a series of keys may 
suffice to open any lock besides the one for 
which it was constructed, a master-key is one 
which will open any one of the set. 

master-lode, *. 

Min : The principal vein of ore in a mine. 
master-mariner, . 

Naut. : A skilled seaman, holding a certifi- 
cate of competency to take charge of a vessel ; 
the captain or commander of a merchant 
vessel. 

master-mason, s. A Freemason who 
has been raised to the third or master's degree. 

master-mind, . The chief or predomi- 
nating mind or intellect ; the master-spirit. 

" There shone the image of the master*nind.~ 

Pope : Homer ; Iliad xviii. US.- 

* master-mould, . The chief or finest 
moulding or composition. 

" The matter-mould of Nature's heavenly hand." 
Byron: Childe Harold, IT. 24. 

* master-note, s. 

A/iis. : An old term for the sensible or lead- 
ing note. 

master-passion, . The chief "or pre- 
dominant passion. 

* master-reason, . A chief or principal 
reason. 

" She has me her quirks, her reason*, her matter- 
rtatont " Shaketp. : Pericltt. iv. 8. 

master-sinew, s. 

Far. : (See extract). 

"The matter-rinrir is a large sinew that surronndf 
the hough, and divides it from the bone by a hollow 
place, where the wind-galls are usually seated, which 
e largest and most visible sinew in a hone's body J 



laxed or restrained." Farrier"! 



is the larges 
this oftentimes 
Diet. 

master-singer, . The same as Miia- 

TEKSINOER (q.V.). 

master-spirit, *. The leading spirit in 
any enterprise ; a master-mind. 

master-spring, s. The main-spring; 
the spring which sets in motion or regulates 
the whole work or machine. 

master-string, s. The chief string. 

"The tender'st point, the matter-tiring 
That makes most harmony or discord to me." 

Roue. (Tadd.) 

master-stroke, . A masterly achieve- 
ment; a wonderfully clever cr skilful per- 
formance. 

" Paul should himself direct me. I would trace _ 
Bis matter-ttroket, and draw from his design.* 

Covper: Tatk.li.SM. 



boil, by ; poUt, j<$wl ; eat, 9011, chorus, 9hin, bench ; go. gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, Xenophon, e^ist. -Ing. 
-elan, -Man - shan. -tlon, -slou = Bbun ; -(ion, -f ion = zbun. -clous, -tious, -sioua - onus, -ble, -die, Ac. = bel, d*L 



3056 



master mastication 



master-tap, s. A tap-screw (q.v.). 

master-tooth, *. One of the principal 

teeth. 

" Some living creatures have their matter-teeth La- 
dented one within another like saws : as lions and 
dogs." Bacon. 

master-touch, s. The touch or finish of 
a master-hand. 

"master-town, 'master -tonne, *. 

The chief town, the capital. 

" Jason is romed forth to the ci tie, 
That whylome cleped Jasconicos 
That was the master-tonne of all Colcos." 

Chaucer : Legend of Dido. 

master-wheel, s. The main wheel in a 
machine which acts as a driver of many parts. 
Such is the large cog-wheel in a horse-gear 
which imparts motion to a circular system 
of pinions. 

master-work, 8. The principal perform- 
ance or work ; a master-piece ; a chef d'reuvre. 

"Here, by degrees, his matter-work arose." 

Thornton : Cattle of Indolence, ii. 1. 

* master- workman, s. A foreman, an 
overseer over workmen. 

mas'-ter. v.t. & i. [MASTER, .] 
A. Transitive : 

1. To become the master of; to subject 
one's power, authority, or control ; to over- 
power, to subdue. 

" His passion musters him." 

Tennyson : Enid i fferaint, 8W. 

2. To make one's self master of ; to over- 
come the difficulties of, so as to understand 
fully : as, To master a science. 

* 3. To be a master to. 

" Rather father thee than master thee." 

Shaketp. : Cymbelint, IT. S. 

* 4. To own or possess ; to be the master or 
possessor of. 

" I see their antique pen would have expressed 
E'en such a beauty as you master now " 

Shaketp. : Sonnet 106. 

5. To treat or handle in a masterly way, or 
with skill and thoroughness. 

* B. Intrans. : To be skilful ; to be a master ; 
to excel. 

mas'-ter -dim, * mas -ter- dome, s. 

[Eng. master; -dom.] Dominion, power, au- 
thority, control. 



* mas' tcr ful, * mas ter full, * mats 
ter-full,a. [Eng. master, : -full.] 

1. Having the skill or art of a master. 

" [She] heard sayne, for not might it ben hid. 
How mtaterfvU a leech be had him kid." 

Browne : Shepheards Pipe, ecL L 

2. Characterized by skill or masterly power. 

" Even so it comes many times Into my mind to ay 
thus . . . that sophistical and masterful syllogisine." 
P. Holland : Plutarch, p. 528. 

3. Inclined to act the part of a master ; im- 
perious, exacting. 

" For either they be fall of ielousie, 
Or matterfull, or louen nouelrie." 

Chauctr : Troilut t Creteidt, 1L 

4. Powerful, strong. 

" He fell, as which notbynge couthe 
How mauter/ull loue is in youthe." 

dower: C. ^., bk. ill. 

t mas'-ter-ful ly, adv. [Eng. masterful ; -ly. ] 
In a masterful or masterly manner. 

" A lawless and rebellious man, who held lands 

masterfully and in high contempt of the royal family." 
Macaulay : Hist. Kng., ch. ziiL 

t mas'-ter ful -ness, s. [Eng. masterful; 
-ness.} The quality or state of being master- 
ful or masterly ; masterly skill. 

"An easy masterfulness that brought out every 
element of beauty." Daily Telegraph, March 9, 1882. 

mas ter hood, s. [Eng. master; -hood.] 
Imperiousness. 

" I would accommodate quietly to his masterhood." 
C. Bronte: Jane Kyrt, ch. xxxiv. 

mas -ter less, u. [Eng. master; -Utt.] 
1. Wanting or without a master or owner. 

" Lo I where yon steeds run matterlett." 

Scott : Lord o/Ost Islet, vt 18. 

* 2. Ungoverned, unsubdued. 

mas ter II -ness, *. [Eng. masterly; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being masterly ; mas- 
terly skill. (Athenamm, Oct. 28, 1887, p. 570). 

'-ter-iy, a. & adv. [Eng. master; 4y.] 
A. As adjective: 
1. Suitable to or become a master ; formed 



or executed with extraordinary or superior 
skill and art^ most excellent, artful, or skilful. 



2. Having the dispositions or manners of a 
master ; imperious, domineering. 

* B. As adv. : In a masterly manner ; like 
a masttr ; with the skill or art of a master. 

" Masterly done : 
The very life seems warm upon her lip." 

Hhaketp. : Winter's Tale v. S. 

* mas' - ter - OUS, a. [Eng. master; -ous.} 

Characteristic of a master ; masterly. 

"To wreathe an enthymema with masterous dex- 
terity." Milton : Apol./or Hmectymnuut. 

mas'-ter-piece, s. [Eng. master, and piece.] 
1. A performance superior to anything of 
the same kind, or to anything done by the 
same person ; anything done with extra- 
ordinary skill and art. 

" At an earlier period they had studied the master. 
pieces of ancient genius." Macaulay : JJist. Eny., 
ch. ill. 

* 2. Chief excellence or talent. 

mas'- ter -ship, ' mas-ter-shyppe, . 

[Eng. master ; -ship.] 

1. The position, place, or office of a master. 

"The kinds of this seignoury, Seneca makes two: 
the one, power or command ; the other, propriety or 
mastership. ' Raleigh : Hist. World, bk. 1., cfi. ix., 1. 

2. The position, place, or office of teacher. 
[MASTER, *. 1 (3). J 

*3. Dominion, rule, power, superiority, 
mastery, pre-eminence. 

"Where noble youths for mastership should strive." 
Dryden : Ovid ; Metamorphoses 1. 

*4. Superior skill, art, or knowledge. 

" When the sea was calm, all boats alike 
Showed matterthiv in floating." 

Shaketp. : Coriolamu, IT. 1. 

* 5. The chief work, the masterpiece. 

"Two youths of royal blood, renown 'd in fight. 
The mastership of heav'n in face and mind. 

Dryden : Palamon i Arcite, ii. til. 

* 6. A title of respect : used ironically. 

"How now, signior Launce? what news with your 
mastership t " Shaketp. : Two Gentlemen of Verona, 
111.1 

mas ter-wort, *. [Eng. master, and wort.] 

Sot. : The umbelliferous genus or sub-genus 
Imperatoria. Common or Great Masterwort 
is Imperatoria or (according to Sir Joseph 
Hooker) Peucedanum Ostruthium. Impera- 
toria being made a section of Peucedanum. It 
is two or three feet high, with few leaflets, and 
large many-rayed umbels. It is a native 
of the north of America and of Europe. 
Called also by Hooker and Arnott by the 
book-name of Broad-leaved Hog's Fennel. 

1 English Masterwort is the genus /Kgopo- 
dium. 

masterwort oil, s. 

Chem. : A volatile oil, obtained from the root 
of masterwort. It appears to be a mixture 
of several hydrates of a hydrocarbon isomeric 
with oil of turpentine. It is transparent and 
aromatic, and boils at from 170" to 220. 

mas ter y, mais trie, ' mats try, 
' mseis-trie, *. [O. Fr. maistrie, meistne, 
from maistre = a master (q.v.).] 

1. Dominion, rule ; power or right of go- 
verning ; the position or state of a master. 

" To meaner front was ne'er assign'd 
Such mastery o'er the common mind." 

Scott . Lord of the Islet, iv. 2S. 

2. Superiority, pre-eminence. 

" If a man strive for masteries, yet is he Dot crowned 
except he strive lawfully." 2 Timothy ii. 6. 

3. Victory in war. 

" It is not the voice of them that shout for muster* 
... I hear." Exodus xxxii. 18. 

* 4. The act of mastering. 

"The learning and mastery of a tongue being un- 
pleasant in itself, should not be cumbered with other 
difficulties." Locke : On Education. 

* 5. Pre-eminent skill, art, or dexterity ; 
masterly skill or power. 

" O, had I now your manner, maistry, might . . . 
How I would draw." 

Ben Jonton : Poet to the Painter. 

*{J. Success attained by superior skill, art, 
or dexterity ; a triumph. 

* 7. A contest for superiority. 

* 8. The philosopher's stone. 

* mast-fill, a. [Eng. mast (2), s. ; -/w/<7).] 
Abounding in mast, or the fruit of oak, beech, 
or other forest trees. 

" Thus the mnttful chesnut mates the skies." 

Drydtn : Virgil ; Oeoryic ii. *0. 



mas tic, mas'-tich, mas tick, 'raas- 
tache, * mas-tiche, s. & a. [Fr. mastic, 
from Lat. mastiche ; Gr. /iaorixt) (mastiche) = 
the gum of the tree Schinos, from it.aa~rd.fia 
(mastazo), from ^acrao/iot (masaonai) to 
chew ; fid<rra (mastax) = the mouth ; Port. 
mastique ; Dut. mastik ; Ger. mastix.] 

A. As substantive : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. The same as II. 1 (2). 

2. A kind of mortar or cement used for 
plastering walls. It consists of finely-ground 
oolitic limestone, mixed with sand and li- 
tharge, and used with a considerable portion 
of linseed oil. It sets hard in a few days, and 
is much used in works where great expedition 
is required. 

IL Technically: 

1. Botany: 

(1) (Of all the forms): [MASTIC-TREE], 

H Barbary Mastic is Pistacia atlantica, 
Mastic of Chios, P. Lentiscus, North Indian, 
Bursera gummi/era, and Peruvian Mastic, 
Schinus molle. 

(2) (Of the form mastich, mastick) : Thymut 
Mastichina. 

(3) (Of the form mastic) : Major ana crassifolia. 

2. Chem. : The resin of Pistacia Lentiscus, oc- 
curring in small rounded translucent grains 
or tears, which soften when masticated, giving 
out a slightly bitter, aromatic taste. It is 
soluble in rectified spirit and oil of turpentine, 
and is used in fumigations and in the manu- 
facture of varnishes. Its sp. gr. = 1'074, and 
its composition, according to Schrotter, is 



3. Dentistry : Mastic dissolved in chloro- 
form or ether, is often used to stop decayed 
teeth. 

4. Pharm. (Chiefly of the forms mastiche and 
mastick) : Sometimes used as a masticatory 
on account of the agreeable odour it impart! 
to the breath. 

* B. A* adj. : Gummy, adhesive or sticky 
like mastic. 

" Gellia wore a velvet mastick patch." 

Bp. Hall : Satires, bk. vL, sal L 

mastic-herb, mastich-herb, *. 

Hot. : Thymus Mastichina. 
mastic-tree, t. 

Botany : 

1. Pistacia Lentiscus, an anacard growing 
in the Levant, the north of Africa, and the 
south of Europe, especially in the Isle of 
Chios. [MASTIC, If.] It ha* evergreen pari- 
pinnate leaves, with winged petioles. It is 
about fifteen or twenty feet high. Transverse 
incisions are made, in dry weather, in August 
and September, in tlie bark of the tree, from 
which the mastic exudes in drops, which ar 
suffered to run down to the ground, and when 
concreted are collected for use. 

2. Pistacia atlantica, growing in Barbary; 
it yields Barbary Mastic. 

* mas tic-a-ble, a. [Lat. mastico = to mas- 
ticate ; Eng". -able.] Capable of being masti- 
cated ; susceptible of mastication. 

mas tl-ca-dor, s. [Sp. mastigador, from 
Lat. mastico to chew.] A part of a bridle; 
a slavering-bit. 

mas'-tl-cate, v.t. [Lat. masticatus, pa. par. 
of mastico = to chew, properly = to chew mastic, 
from Lat. mastiche=- mastic (q.v.); Ital. mas- 
ticure; Sp. masticar ; Port, mastigur.] To 
chew ; to grind and crush with the teeth, SO 
as to prej>aie fur swallowing. 

" Now I eat my meals with pain, 
Averse to masticate the grain." 

Cotton: Fable TL 

mas-tl ca' tion, s. [Fr., from Lat. masti- 
catio, from masticatus, pa. par. of mastico = to 
masticate (q.v.),; Sp. masticacinn; Ital. masti- 
gazione.] 

Phys. : The trituration of the food and the 
mixing of it with the salivary secretion, pre- 
paring it for the further action of the stomach. 
Mastication is voluntary in the adult, except 
when the will is in abeyance ; in infants and 
the lower animals it becomes instinctive. It 
is performed by the action of the lips, teeth. 
and mouth. This action is mechanical, whilst 
the further digestive process in the stomach 
is chemical. Mastication is succeeded by de- 
glutition, or swallowing, by which the aliment 
is conveyed into the pharynx, and from there 
to the stomach. 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
Or, wore, wolf, work, who. son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, role, full ; try, Syrian. B, a = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. , 



masticator masula 



3057 



mas-ti ca -tor, s. [Eng. masticat(e) ; -or.] 

1. One who or tliat which masticates ; 
specif., a small machine to cut up meat for 
aged persons, or those who have lost their 
teeth or the power of chewing. 

2. A machine which kneads the raw caout- 
chouc to render it homogeneous. 

mis'-tl-ca-tor-jf, o. & s. [Fr. masticatoire.] 
A. As adj. : Chewing ; adapted for the office 

or duty of chewing. 
* B. As subst. : A medicine to be chewed 

only, not swallowed. 

"Salivation and muticatariet evacuate consider- 
ably." Floyer: On Ilumourt. 

mas tlcb, . [MASTIC.] 

mas'-tl-cin, *. [Eng., &c. mastic ; suff. -in.] 

Chem. : That portion of mastic insoluble in 
alcohol. It is a soft white resin, but by pro- 
longed heating becomes transparent, yellowish, 
and friable, and is then soluble in alcohol. 
Its composition, according to Johnston, is 



mas tick, s. [MASTIC.] 

* mis tick, a. [See def.] Perhaps = mas- 
ticating, but more probably a misreading or 
misprint for mastiff. 

" When rank Thersites opes his maitick Jaws." 

SHakftp. : Troilui t Cretlida, 1. S. 

maS -ti-COt, S. [MASSICOT.] 

mas tiff, * mas tif, * mas tis, * mas-tyf, 

* mes tif, * mcs tyf, * mas-tive (pi. 
mas tiffs, t mas -tlves ), s. [O. Fr. mestif 
= mongrel, mastin (Fr. matin) =. a mastiff, pro- 
perly a house-dog, from Low Lat. * mastinus, 

* masnatinus, from masnata, masnada a 
household, from Lat. mansio = a mansion ; 
Ital. mastino ; Port, mastim ; Sp. mastin.] 

Zool. : A variety of dog of an old English 
breed, probably peculiar to the British Isles. 
It is the Dogve de forte race of Buflbn, the 
Cants molossus of Linnaeus, C. mastivus of Ray, 
and C. viUaticus or catenarius of Dr. Caius. 
The head resembles that of the bull-dog, but 
with the ears dependent. The upper lip falls 
over the lower jaw. The end of the tail is 
turned up, and the fifth toe of the hind foot is 
frequently developed. The nostrils are sepa- 
rated by a deep furrow. The bark is deep- 
toned, and the aspect of the animal grave and 
noble. It is taller than the bull-dog, but the 
chest is not deep, and the head is large in 
proportion to the general form. The mastiff 
is faithful and affectionate, and makes an ex- 
cellent watch-dog. 

" The next. Is the mastiff or ban dog, a species of 
great size aud strength, and K very loud barker. Han- 
wood (Forat Laal says, it derives its name from Mam 
the thefe. being supposed to frighten away robbers by 
IU tremendous voice.' ftnnant : Brit. Zool. ; Tht 
U,ut(ff. 

\ Cuban mastiff: 

Zool. : A variety of mastiff, Intermediate in 
size between the English variety and the bull- 
dog. It is extremely savage, and was used in 
the days of slavery for tracking runaway 
negroes. It is now used as a watch-dog, and 
by the Spaniards for bull-fighting. 

mastiff-bats, >. pi 

Zool. : The cheiropterous sub-family Molos- 
sinae (q.v.). The popular name is derived from 
a faint resemblance which they bear to mas- 
tiffs in the conformation 01' the head. 

mas-ti ga -dor, ?. [MASTICADOR.] 

mas tig a m ce ba, s. [Gr. /^icrrif (mastix), 
genit. jtao-Ttyo? (mastigos) =. a whip, and Eng., 
ic. amoeba (q.v.)_] 

Zool. : A genus of Naked Lobose Rhizo- 
pods. Mastigamacba aspersa is an intermediate 
form between the Rliizopoda and the Flagel- 
late Infusoria. It is about 1 mm. long, taper- 
ing at the ends, with many pseudopods, and 
a general investment of minute bodies. There 
is a flagellum projecting in front from an 
ovate corpuscle enclosing a nuclear body. 

mas ti goph or a, . [Gr. (xo<rrfyo^dpo 

Siiiajitigophoros) = ca'rrying a whip, from /too-rif 
miistix), geuit. /ia<rri-yo9 (maitigos) = a whip, 
and <4opo* (pharos) = bearing, from <epo> 
(pherS) = to bear, to carry.] 

Rot. : The typical genus of the family Mas- 
tigophoridw (q.v.). 

mas-ti g^phor i-dte, s. r l [Mod. Ut. 
Mastigophoi\a) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 



Bot. : A family of Jungermanniaceee, tribe 
Jungermanneae. 

* mas-tl-goph'-or-ous, a. [MASTIOOPHORA.] 
Carrying a wand, scourge, or whip. 

mas'-tlg-o-p6d, s. [Gr. ftoimf (mastix), 
genit. iidtTTtyos (mastigos) = a whip, aud irous 
(pous), genit. jroSo? (podos) = a foot.] 
Zool. : (See extract). 

" It will be convenient to distinguish those Protozoa 
. . . which are provided with cilia or flagella as matti- 
gopodt." Huxley : Anat. Invert. Animalt, p. IS. 

mas'-tig-ure, *. [MASTIOURUS.] Any indi- 
vidual of the genus Mastigurus (q.v.). 

" The Egyptian maittgure is a native of Northern 
Afriea." Wood : Illut. Jfat. Silt., IL 90. 

mas - tig - iir' - tis, *. [Gr. ftaortf (-,nnstix), 
genit. )xa<myos (mastigos) = a whip, and oiipd 
(aura) = a tail.] 

Zool. : Fleming's name for Cuvier's lacertine 
genus Uromastix (q.v.). 

mast' -ing, pr. par., a., & 5. [MAST, v.] 

A. & B. As pr. par. <* particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As subst. : The act or operation of fur- 
nishing with masts. 

mastlng-house, s. [MAST-HOUSE.] 

masting shears, s. A contrivance con- 
sisting of two spars and one or more guys, 
used for stepping or removing masts on board 
vessels. [SHEARS.] 

mas ti -tis, s. [Or. pooro; (mastos) = the 
breast ; suff. -itis.] 

Pathol. : Inflammation of the breasts of wo- 
men ; it commonly terminates in suppuration. 

mast -less (I), o. [Eng. mast (1), s. ; -less.] 
Having no masts ; unfurnished with masts. 

"There Is every reason to believe that . . . she Is 
not superior to our matt leu vessels." Brit. Quarterly 
Review, Ivii. 117. 

* mast -less (2), a. [Eng. mot (2), s. ; -less.] 
Bearing or producing no mast. 

" A crown of mattleu oak adorn VI her head." 

IJr>/den : Palamon i Arcite, iii. Ml. 

* mast'-lin, s. [MASELIN.] 

mas to don, s. [Gr. nao-rds (mastos) = a 
teat, a nipple, and b&ovs (odous), genit. bSovrof 
(odontos) = a tooth.] 

Palceont. : An extinct genus of Probos- 
cideans, closely allied to the true Elephants 
(q.v.). The crowns of the molar teeth have 
nipple-shaped tubercles placed in pairs, and 




SKELETON Or MASTODON GIGANTETJ8. 

from the number of these projections, Dr. 
Falconer divided the genus into groups : (1) 
Trilophodon, and (2) Tetralophodon (q.v.). 
Generally speaking, the two upper incisors 
formed long curved tusks, as in the Elephants, 
but in some cases there were two lower in- 
cisors as well. 

The genus ranged in time from the middle 
of the Miocene period to the end of the 
Pliocene in the Old World, when they ber-ame 
extinct. In America several sjwcies espe- 
cially that which, from the abundance of its 
remains, is the best known, Mastodon ohioti- 
ms, americanus, or gigante.us survived to a 
late Pleistocene period. 

To exemplify their range in space, Prof. 
Flower (Encyc. Brit. (ed. 9th), xv. 623) gives 
the following list. 

"Trllophodont series: M. anguttitlrni, bortont, pen- 
telici. larrnafcut, tapirvidrt (or turicentit). and mrga- 
tidtnt, from Europe ; Jf. /alconeri Hud pandinni*, from 
India ; M. ohiotimu. obtcurut. and >>mductut. from 
North America; and M. andium and humboldtii, 
from South America. 

"Tetralophodont series: M. anerneitili. diuimilii, 
and fmtyirnttrti, from F,urn|e ; M. latuteiu. rimlmtit, 
aud peranumtit. from India ; and M. mirifiau. from 
North America, Remains of M. anvmemit and 
M. bortoni have been tound in the cra^s of Norfolk 
aud Suffolk." 



A fragment of a tusk, presenting the char- 
acteristic structure only known at present 
in elephants aud mastodons, was found in 
a drift-deposit, east of Moreton Bay, Queen- 
land, and was described by Prof. Owea in 
Proc. Roy. Soc. , March 30, 1882. 

mas to don-sau -riis, s. [Eng., &c. mat- 
todon, and Gr. uaOpos (sauros) = a lizard.] 

Paloxint. : A genus of LabyrinthodonU 
founded by Prof. Jaeger on cranial remains 
from the Lower Keuper of Wurtemberg. The 
name is misleading, as the animal had no 
affinity with the Saurians, and is now better 
described as Labyrinthodon Jaegeri. Casts of 
the remains are in the British Museum of 
Natural History at South Kensington. 

mas-to-don'-tic, a. [Eng. mastodon ; t con- 
nective, and sufT. -ic.] Pertaining to or resem- 
bling a mastodon. 

mas-to-dyfl'-i-a, . [Gr. fuwrrps (mastos) = 
the breast of a woman, and oSvvrj (odune) = 
pain.] 

Pathol. : Irritable breast, a neuralgia o.' the 
intercostal nerves, or of the anterior supra- 
clavicular nerves going to the mammary 
glands. 

mas -told, a. [Gr. jwurrds (mastos) = the 
breast, and e*6o? (eidos) appearance.) Per- 
taining to or resembling the breast ; teat-like. 

mastoid artery, s. 

Anat. : A branch of the occipital artery, 
entering the skull through the mastoid fora- 
men, and ramifying in the dura mater. 

mastoid cells, s. pi. 

Anat. : Irregular cavities in the substance 
of the mastoid process of the temi>oral bone. 
They communicate freely with one another, 
and are lined by a thin mucous membrane 
continuous with that of the tympanum. 

mastoid foramen, s. 

Anat. : The passage in the mastoid portion 
of the temporal bone, by which the mastoid 
artery enters the skull. 

mastoid-muscle, *. [STERNO-MASTOID 

MUSCLE.] 

mastoid process, s. 

Anat. : A nipple-shaped projection behind 
the aperture in the ear, in the mastoid por- 
tion of the temporal bone. On the inner side 
there is a deep groove for the attachment of 
the digastric muscle, and internally there is a 
groove for the occipital artery. 

mas-toid -e-al, a. [Eng. mastoid ; -eal.] 

Anat. : Situated in or pertaining to the 
mastoid process. 

mas toid 6 , pref. [MASTOID.] 

Anat. : Of or belonging to anything mastoid. 

mastoido humeral, a. 

Anat. : Connected both with the humeral 
and with the mastoid process. There is 
mastoido-humeral muscle. 

mas-t8r-&-gjf, s. [Gr. >ia<rr(k (mastos) = the 
breast, and Aoyos (logos) = a discourse, a 
treatise.] A treatise or history of animals 
which suckle their young. 

* mas tress, *. [MISTRESS.] 

mas tur ba tion. * mas-tu-pra'-tlon, 

. [Fr. masturbation, mastvpration, from Lat. 
masturbaliis, pa. par. of masturlxj = to practise 
onanism, prob. from mantis = the hand, and 
stiiprum = defilement ; Sp. masturbation ; 
Ital. masturbmione, mastuprazione.] Onanism ; 
self-defilement. 

mast -wood, *. [Eng. mast, and wood.] (See 
the compound.) 
If YeUoto mastiDood : 
Bot. : Xanthoxylon (Tobinia) coriacea. 

mast'- wort, s. [Eng. mast, and wort.] 

Bot. : The name given by Lindley to the 
order Corylacese. 

* mast -y, a. [Eng. mast (2), s. ; -y.] Full of 
or abounding with mast or acorns, ic. 

* mas ty, * mas-tyf, *. [MAsrirr.] 

* mas -n -el, s. [MASSUELLE.] 
ma su -la, . [MASOOLA.] 



boll, boy ; pout, Jo^l; oat, 90!!. chorus, chin, bench; go, tern; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph - t 

-clan, tiarj K 0han. -tion, -slon = shun; -tion, -sion = shun, -clous, -tious, -sious - shus. -ble. -die, ic. = bel, del. 



3058 



mat match 



mat (1), * matte (1), * natte, s. [A.S. 
meatta ; from Lat. matta ; Low Lat. natta = 
a mat ; cogn. with Dut. mat ; Ger. matte ; Sw. 
matta; Dan. matte; Ital. matta; Sp. mata; 
Fr. natte.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. A rug of straw, rushes, husks, coir, junk, 
Smp ; a tufted fabric of these materials or 
Of wool ; a skin with the hair or wool on ; a 
set of slats, &c. Mats are for cleaning shoes 
at a door ; keeping the feet from a cold floor, 
as in carriages or halls, and elsewhere. 

"Th* women and children in the west of Cornwall 
make matt of a small and fine kind of benta there 
growing, which serve to cover floors and wall*." 
Caret* : Survey of Cornwall. 

2. A kind of coarse fabric used in the 
packing of furniture or goods, in the stowage 
of corn, and in covering up plants against 
frost, &c. [BASS-MAT.] 

3. A small piece of oil-cloth, fabric, or 
worsted work, to place beneath a hot dish or 
wet jug, to preserve the polish of a table ; 
dinner-mat. 

* 4. A mattress. 

5. Anything growing thickly together, or 
closely interwoven, so as more or less to re- 
semble a mat in appearance, form, or texture : 
M, a mat of hair. 

IL Technically: 

1. Naut. : A wad of woven or thrummed 
Junk, used to secure standing rigging from 
the friction of yards and ropes. 

2. Photog. : An ornamental plate or passe- 
partout laid over a photograph, and forming 
an oval or other symmetrical border to the 
picture, as well as keeping it from abrasion 
by the glass. 

mat-grass, s. [MAT-WEED.] 

mat- weed, mat-grass, s. 

Botany : 

1. Nardus, a genus of grasses, the only 
species of which is Nardus stricta, which 
grows abundantly on moors and heaths in 
short tufts which are so coarse and rigid that 
cattle will not eat it. [NARDUS.] 

2. The graminaceous genus Psamma (q.v.). 
H Hooded mat-weed is Lygeum Spartium; 

Bea mat- weed, Psamma arenaria; and Small 
mat- weed, Nardus stricta. 

mat (2), matt, matte (2), . [Ger. matt = 



oat (2), matt, matte (2), s. 
dull, dim ; applied to metals.] 



Metall. : An alloy of metals in a crude form, 
in the process of reducing. 

m&t, v.t. & i. [MAT, .] 
A. Transitive : 

1. To cover or overlay with mats or matting. 

" Keep the doom and windows of your conservatories 
well matted and guarded from the piercing air." 
fvetyn : Kalendar. 

2. To twist or twine together ; to inter- 
weave like a mat ; to entangle : generally in 
the pa. par., as matted hair. 

" The fibres are matted as wool Is in a hat." Grew: 
Cotmo. Sacra, bk. i., ch. iv. 

* B. Intrans. : To become matted ; to grow 
thickly and closely together ; to become in- 
terwoven like a mat. 

* mat'-a- chin, 5. [MATTACHIN.] 
tnat'-a-cho, . [MATACO.] 

mat'-a-co, mat a cho, mat -I-co, >. [Na- 
tive names.] 

Zool. : Dasypus Aspar (Desmarest), D. tri- 
dnctus (Linn.), the Bolita, or Ball Armadillo, 
so-called from its faculty of assuming a spheri- 
cal form. It is about eighteen inches long, of 
which the tail is two and a half, and the head 
three. Between the two bucklers are three 
movable bands, whence the animal is some- 
times called the Three-banded Armadillo 
Habitat, Brazil, Paraguay, and Buenos Ayres, 
but it is nowhere very common. 

mat' -a- dor, mat -a-dore, s. [Sp. matador, 
from motor, Lat. macto to kill, to sacrifice ; 
mactator = one who kills or sacrifices.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : One who kills : specif, in 
Spanish bull-fights the man appointed to 
administer the fatal stroke to the bull, when 
excited to furr by the attacks of the pica- 
dores and banderilleros. He is armed with a 
sword and a small stick (muleta), to which a 
piece of scarlet silk is attached. The animal 
Is killed by plunging the sword into it near I 




MATADOR. 



the left shoulder-blade, and if the stroke is 
skilfully and 
properly given, 
death is instan- 
taneous. 
" In costly sheen 
and gaudy cloak 
array'd. 

But all afoot, the 
light-limb'd 
liatadors 
Stands in the cen- 
tre, eager to in- 
vade 

The lord of lowing 
herds." 

Byron: Child* 
Harold, iv. 74. 

2. Cards : One 
of the three 
principal cards 
in the games of 
ombre and qua- 
drille, which are 
always two 
black aces and 
the deuce of spades and clubs, and the seven 
of hearts and diamonds. These are called mur- 
dering cards because they take or kill all other. 

" Now move to war her sable matadoret 
In show like leaders of the swarthy Moors." 

Pope : Rapt of the Lock, iii. 47. 

* mat--oT-6-g#, s. [MATEOLOOV.] 

* mat-se-o-tech -nie, s. [MATEOTECHNY.] 

* mat'-a-fund, s. [Sp. matar = to kill, and 
Lat. fu'nda = a sling.] A kind of sling. 

" That murderous sling 
The matafund." Southey : Joan of Arc, bk. Till. 

ma-ta-ma'-ta, s. [Native name.] 

Zool. : Chelysfimbriata, a river tortoise living 
in the stagnant pools near the Orinoco and 
Amazon. It lives on fish and small water- 
birds. Its peculiar barbules, from their close 
resemblance to worms serve to attract fish. 
The head is depressed, wide, and triangular ; 
the nostrils prolonged into a kind of proboscis, 
the gape wide, and the jaws rounded. The 
buckler is flat and bumpy. 

mat9h (1), * macche (1), * maebe (1), s. 
[O. Fr. mesche, meiche = a wick of a caudle, a 
match, from Low Lat. * myxa, myxus = a wick 
of a candle, from Gr. nva (muxa) = the nozzle 
of a lamp ; Fr. meche ; Sp. & Port, mecha ; 
Ital. miccui. ] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Anything which readily 
catches fire, either from a spark or by fric- 
tion, and is used for conveying, communi- 
cating, or retaining fire ; specifically, a splint 
or strip of combustible material, usually 
wood, one end of which is dipped in a com- 
position that ignites by friction. There are 
numerous varieties of matches, adapted for 
different uses, as fusees, vestas, vesuvians, &c. 

"Nor will it [the smoke of sulphur] easily light a 
caudle, until that spirit be spent, and the flame ap- 
proacheth the mate*." Brovme : Vulgar Errouri, 
bk. vl., ch. xli. 

2. Ord, <fc Mining: A slow-match consists 
of loosely-twisted hempeu cord dipped iu a 
solution of saltpetre and lime-water. It burns 
at the rate of one yard in three hours. A 
quick-match is cotton coated with a composi- 
tion of mealed-powder, gum, and water. 
When not confined it burns at the rate of one 
yard in thirteen seconds. Another quick- 
match is made of cotton- wick boiled in salt- 
petre and water. Alcohol and mealed powder 
are added to the warm solution, and the wick 
left to steep for twenty-four hours. The 
match is then dried. 

" We took a piece of match, such a> soldiers use, of 
the thickness of a man's little finger, or somewhat 
thicker." Boyle: Wort*, i. 2. 

If To prime a match : To prepare the match 
so as to be easily ignitible by putting on the 
end of it some wet bruised powder, made into 
a sort of paste. 

match-box, s. A box for holding matches. 

match cloth, s. A kind of coarse woollen 
cloth. 

match-coat, . A large loose coat made 
of match cloth. 

* match-cord, s. A line or cord pre- 
pared as a match. 

* match tub, t. 

Old Ord. : A tub with a cover perforated 
with holes, in which lighted slow matches 
were hung, fire downwards, and in which 
there was water to extinguish any sparks that 
might fall from the matches. 



match (2), * macche (2), * macho (2), . 

[A.S. mcecea, ge-maxca = a couiraae, a com* 
panion, a spouse ; Icel. maki ; Sw. make ; 
Dan. mage; M. H. Ger. mach,, gemach ; Dut. 
makker.] [MATE (1), .] 

* 1. One equal, like, or similar to another; 
an equal, a companion, an associate, a mate. 

" Neither felowship of their matches nor fe.re of 
any such as are after the worldly compt accoiuptod 
for theyr betters." Sir T. More: Worket, p. 1.0S5. 

2. One able or equal to contend or cop 
with another. 

" To force our fleet, or e'en a ship to gain. 
Asks toil and sweat, and blood : their utmost might 
Shall Bud its match." Pope : Homer; Iliad xv. 563. 

3. The bringing together of two parties 
fitted or suited for each other : as 

(1) A competition or contest for victory in 
strength, skill, or science. 

" Well known In many a warlike match bf ore." 
Draytun : Baront' Ufcri, it, 

(2) Union by marriage. 

" If John marries Mary, and Mary alone, 
Tis a very good match between Mary and John." 
Coteper: Mary A John. 

4. One to be married or to be gained in 
marriage ; a consort. 

" Should I tell the ladies so disposed, 
They'd get good matches ere the season closed." 
Whitehoad: Cretan. (Epil.) 

* 5. A bargain. 

"There I have had another bad match." Shakttp.: 
Merchant of Venice, iii. L 

* 6. An agreement, an appointment, an 
arrangement. 

" The hour is fixed, the match is made." Shakeip. : 
Merry Wives of Windtor, ii. 1 

* ^ A set match : A conspiracy. 

"They should think this a let match betwixt th 
brethren." J5p. Hall ; Contemfd. ; Aarorit Center. 

match boarding, matched-board' 
Ing, - 

Carp. : Boards provided with tongues and 
grooves on the respective edges, so as to 
drive together and make a tight-joint. Used 
in siding, flooring, and for tight-cases. When 
each board is beaded in front on the edge 
where the groove is, the lining is properly 
called matched and beaded boarding. 

match-gearing, . 

Gearing : Two cog-wheels of equal diameter 
geared together. 

match-hook, s. A double hook or pair 
of hooks in which one portion forms a mousing 
for the other. 

match-planes, s. pi. A pair of planes 
making a tongue and groove respectively, the 
former to fit the latter. Used in making 
tight joints on meeting edges of boards. Ad- 
justable match-planes have moving fences to 
determine the distance of the tongue or the 
groove from the working edges of the re- 
spective boards. For varying widths of 
grooves and tongues different irons are used 

match plate, s. 

Found. : A plate upon the opposite sides 
of which the halves of a pattern are placed 
correspondingly, to facilitate the operation of 
moulding. The plate is placed between the 
partsof a flask, rammed up from both sides, and 
removed, allowing the parts to come together. 

match-wheel, *. A cog-wheel adapted 
to mesh into or work with another. 

* match (1), v.t. [MATCH (1), .] To purify, 
as vessels, by burning a match in them. 

mat$h (2), * mache, v.t.&i. [MATCH (2), .] . 
A. Transitive : 

1. To be a match for or to be equal to ; to 
equal ; to be able to compete with. 

" A wretch whose sorrows matched my own." 

Scott : Rokeby, Iv. M. 

2. To compare as equal ; to put forward as 
a match or equal. 

"The Shepherd's Kalendar in Spenser is not to ba 
matched in any modern language." Dryden : Du- 
fremoy. 

3. To oppose as equal ; to set against or put 
forward as an equal in contest. 

" Eternal might 

To match with their inventions they pi turned 
So easy." Milton : P. L., vi. ML 

4. To oppose as a match or equal ; to con* 
tend against as a match. 

" (The] shame of being matched by such a too.* 
Itrydfn: Annul Mirabilii, cxa 

6. To suit ; to make to harmonize or accord. 

" So well was matched the tartan screen 
With heathbell dark and brackens green." 

Scott : Lady of the Lake, iii. SI. 



fate, fit, tare, amidst, what, fall, tether; we, wit, here, camel, her. there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, ptffc 
or. wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mate, cub, cure, unite, ear, rale, fall ; try, Syrian, w, 09 = e ; ey - a ; <iu - kw* 



mate tiable materialism 



3059 



6. To suit, to accommodate, to proportion. 

" Lt poets match their subject to their strength." 
Kotcommon : On Poetry. 

* 7. To marry ; to give in marriage. 

"To match my friend Sir Thurio to my daughter." 
Shakftp. : Tim Gentlemen of Yrrona, lit 1. 

8. To Join in any way ; to combine, to unite, 
to couple. 

" A sharp wit matched with too blunt a will." 

Shatetp. : Lofe't Labour 't Lott, 11. 

B. Intransitive: 

1. To be united in marriage ; to marry. 
" Matching mon for wanton lust than honour." 

Shaketp. : 8 Benry VI., iii. 3. 

2. To be of equal or like size, figure, quality, 
<fec. ; to agree, to tally, to correspond : as, 
These colours match. 

\ mat9h'-a-ble, a. [Eng. match, (2), v. ; -able.] 

1. Equal, suitable ; fit to be placed in com- 
parison or competition ; comparable ; fit to 
be joined or matched. 

If Followed by the preposition to or with 
before an object. 

" Matchablf either to Semi ram is . . . 
Or to Hypslphil." fipenier : f.Q.,ll.f.K. 

2. Correspondent. 

" Those at land that are not matchabU with any 
upon our ihores, are of those very kinds which are 
found nowhere but In the deepest parts of the sea." 
.' Woodward : Nat. nitt. 

mat9h -a-ble-nSss, s. [Eng. matchabU ; 
ness.] The quality or state of being match- 
able ; correspondence. 

mat9hed, pa. par. or a. [MATCH (2), v.] 
matched-boarding, s. [MATCH-BOABD- 

1NO.] 

match er, s. [Eng. match (2), v. ; -er.] One 
who matches. 

mat-9het, s. [Sp. machete.] A knife used 
for cutting sugar-canes ; a machete. 

" Had recently received an order for a large quantity 
of meachrt kuives, of a peculiar pattern, used in the 
cutting of sugar-canes in the Eait Indie*." Morning 
Chromde, May 25, 1857. 

mat9h'-ing, pr. par., a., & s. [MATCH (2), v.] 
A. & B. As pr. par. <t particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As subst. : The act of providing with a 
match ; suiting or accommodating. 

matching machine, 5. A wood-planing 
machine which tongues and grooves the re- 
spective edges of a board. 

matching plane, s. [MATCH-PLANE.] 

mat9h less, * match -lesse, a. [Eng. 
match (2), s. ; -Jess.] 

1. Having nq match or equal ; unequalled, 
unrivalled, incomparable. 



* 2. Not matched or paired ; unlike. 

mat9h' 1&SS ly, adv. [Eng. matchless; -ly.] 
In a matchless manner or degree ; in a manner 
or degree not to be matched or equalled. 

match less ness, s. [Eng. matchless; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being matchless ; in- 
comparability. 

* mat9h -l&ck, s. [Eng. match, and lock.] 

1. The old form of gun-lock which pre- 
ceded the wheel-lock and the flint-lock. It 
had a match which was presented to the prim- 
ing, whence its name. 

2. A musket fired by means of a match. 

mat9h -mak-er (1), s. [Eng. match (l), s., 
ana maker.] One who makes matches for 
burning. 

match -mak-er (2), s. [Eng. match (2), s., 
and mating.] One who contrives or arranges 
marriages. 

mat9h -mak ing, a. & s. [Eng. match (2), 
s., and making.] 

A. As adj. : Anxious or trying to arrange 
marriages : as, matchmaking mothers. 

B. As svbst. : The act or practice of arrang- 
ing marriages. 

mate (1), s. [A corruption of Mid. Eng. make 
= a companion, a mate ; A.S. gemaca, maca 
= a mate ; cogn. with Icel. maki ; Sw. make ; 
Dan. mage; O. Sax. gi-maho; O. Dan. maet; 
Dut. moat.] [MAKE, s.] 



I. Ordinary Language : 

1. One who ordinarily associates with 
another ; a companion, an associates. 

" It seemed, like me, to want a mate, 
But win not half so desolate." 

Byron : Pritoner of Chilian, r. 

2. A suitable companion ; a match. 

* 3. A husband or wife. 

" Thou hast no unkind mate to grieve thee. " 

Shaketp. : Comedy of Brrort, 11. L 

4. One of a pair of birds or animals which 
associate for the propagation and care of 
young. 

" The turtle to her mate hath told her tale." 

Surrey : Jieitleu Slot* of a Latter. 

IL Nautical: 

1. An officer in a merchant vessel, whose 
duty is to assist the captain. In large ships 
there are three mates, called respectively, 
first, second, and third mates or officers. 

* 2. Generally, a subordinate officer ; an 
assistant : as, a surgeon's mate. 

mate (2), s. [MATE (2), v.] 

Chess : The state of the king when he is in 
check, and cannot get out of it by moving 
himself, or by interposing a piece between him- 
self and the checking piece, or by taking it. 
The player whose king is in such a position 
loses the game. [CHECKMATE (1), s. ; STALE- 
MATE.] 

ma'-te (3), *. [Mate comes from the language 
of the Incas, and = calabash. Paraguay-tea 
was at first called yerva do mate, and then the 
name mate came to signify the plant, and its 
dried leaves. (Encyc. Brit.)] 

Bot. : The Brazilian name for Ilex paraguen- 
sis. [PARAGUAY-TEA.] 

mate (1), v.t. & i. [MATE (1), .] 
A. Transitive : 
L To match ; to marry. 

" If she be mated with an equal husband." 

Shaketp. : Timon of Athent, L L 

2. To match one's self against ; to oppose 
as a match or equal. 

" 1, 1' th' way of loyalty and truth, 
Dare mate a sounder uiau than Surrey cau be." 
Shake t]>. : Henry VIII., Iii. 1 

*3. To vie with ; to reach to. 

" Tall ash, and taller oak that mate* the skies." 

Drt/den: VirgU; Georgic 11. 93. 

* B. Intrant. : To match one's self ; to pair, 
to associate. 

mate (2), v.t. & i. [Pers. shah mdh = the king 
is dead ; mat = he is dead, from Arab, mdta = 
he died ; Turk. & Pers. mat = astonished, 
amazed, perplexed.] 
A. Transitive: 

1. Ord. Lang. : To confound, to paralyze, to 
stupefy, to astound, to appal, to crush. 

'* Not mad, but mated ; how, I do not know." 

Shukesp. : Comedy of Errort, 111. *. 

2. Chess : To checkmate (q.v.). 

*B. Intrans.: To be confounded, astounded, 
or paralyzed. 

"mate, a. [O. Fr. mat; Ital. matto = mad, 
fond.] Confounded, astounded, paralyzed, 
dejected. [MATE (2), v.] 

" When he saw them so piteous and so mate." 

Chaucer: C. T., 858. 

mat-e^er'-ic, a. [Eng. Ac. mate, and eerie.] 
(See the compound.) 

mateceric acid, s. 

Chem. : An acid obtained from the wax of 
the Yerba mate (Ilex paraguayensis). It is a 
white substance, haying acid properties, solu- 
ble in ether and in boiling alcohol, and melting 
at 105-110. Ite sp. gr. is O'SISI at 26. 

* mate' -less, a. [Eng. mate (1), s. ; -less.] 
Without a mate or companion ; solitary, de- 
serted. 

" Daughter too divine as woman to be noted, 
Spouse of only death in matelest maidenhood." 
A. C. Swinburne: Athent. 

*mat-e-16te, s. [Fr., from matelot = a 
sailor.] A dish of food composed of many 
kinds of fish. 

* mat-e-61 6-gf. mat-se 6T 6 gy, s. 

[Fr. muteoloijie, from Gr. fiarcuoAoyta (mataio- 
logia), from /idratot (mataios) = foolish, and 
Adyos (logos) a discourse.) A vain, useless, 
or unprofitable discourse or inquiry. 

"The bead-roll of mataolon embodied In the extract 
here given." Bait : Modern tngluh, p. (7. 

-mat-e-o tech ny, ' mat se o tech nie, 



s. [Fr. mateotechnie, from Gr. liortuort^fnta 
(mataiotechnia), from joaratof (mataios) =; fool- 
ish, and Te'xnj (techne) = an art.] An unpro- 
fitable or useless science. 

"Such a peevish practice and unnecessarie mitao 
technie.'Touchiton* of Complexion*, prel, p. 6. 

ma ter, . [Lat. a mother.] 

1 1. Ord. Lang. : Mother. (Slang.) 

2. AlMt. : [DURA MATER, PlA MATER]. 

* mater aceti, s. 

Bot. : The Vinegar-plant (q.v.). 

ma ter I a, s. [Lat.] Matter, substance, 
materia medica, . 

1. A general term for the different medicines 
employed for curative purposes ; a list of 
remedies. [MEDICINE.] 

2. A description of the several material 
substances employed for curative purooses 
with an investigation into their modes of 
operation, and their effects upon the human 
frame. It includes both Pharmacy, or Pharma- 
cology, and Therapeutics. 

ma-ter'-i-al, * ma-toY-i-all, o. &. [Fr. 
materiel, from Lat. materialis = material, 
from materia, materies = matter (q.v.) ; Sp, 
material; Ital. materialt.] 

A. As adjective : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Of or pertaining to matter ; consisting of 
matter ; corporeal, substantial, not spiritual. 

"The elements were good enough to confine their 
hostility to the mere material fabric of the ship." 
Timet, Nov. 10, 1875. 

2. Pertaining to, connected with, or con- 
cerning the physical nature of man, as dis- 
tinguished from the moral or religious nature ; 
relating to bodily or worldly wants or inter- 
ests : as, the material well-being of a person. 

3. Important, momentous, essential ; of 
moment or importance ; having a bearing or 
influence ; weighty. 

" That were too long their infinite content* 
Here to record, ue much materinll." 

Hpenter : F. Q.. IL x. 74. 

* 4. Full of matter ; sensible ; having sense 
or ideas. 

"What thinks material Horace of his learning? ' 
Ben Jonson : Poetattfr, v. L 

IL Logic: Pertaining to the matter or es- 
sence of a thing, not to the form. 

B. As substantive : 

1. Anything consisting of or containing the 
fundamental properties of matter; the sub- 
stance or matter of which anything is made, 
or constituted : as, Rags are the material at 
paper. (Frequently used in the plural.) 

2. (PI.) : The matter or subject on which a 
discourse, treatise, or any production of the 
mind or talent is founded or constructed. 

" Concerning the materialt of seditious." Bacon : 
Ettayt; Of Keditiont. 

If L Saw material : Material in its natural 
state, or unmanufactured. 

2. Strength of materials: Tne power by 
which any substance, as a rod, beam, chain, 
rope, &c., resists any effort to destroy the 
cohesion of its parts. There are four distinct 
strains to which every hard body may be ex- 
posed, and which are -first, a body may be 
pulled or torn asunder by a stretching force, 
applied in the direction of its fibres, as in the 
case of ropes, stretchers, king-posts, tie-beams, 
&c. ; secondly, it may be broken across by a 
transverse strain, or by a force acting either 
perpendicularly or obliquely to its length, as 
in the case of levers, joists, &c. ; thirdly, it 
may be crushed by a force acting in the direct- 
tion of its length, as in the case of pillars, 
posts, and truss-beams ; fourthly, it may be 
twisted or wrenched by a force acting in a 
circular direction, as in the case of an axle of 
a wheeL 

* ma ter i al, v.t. [MATERIAL, a.] To make 

material ; to'materialize. 

" I believe that the whole frame of a beast doth 
perish, and is left in the same state after death M 
before it was materialtd unto life." Browne: Keliaio 
Medici, i 37. 

ma-ter I-al-Ism, *. [Eng. material; -ism.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

* 1. Matter ; material bodies collectively. 

2. In the same sense as II. 

3. The tendency to devote care and time to 
the material nature, and its interests and 
wants, to the neglect of the spiritual nature. 



boll, boy ; poUt, J6%1 ; oat, cell, chorus, 9hin, bench ; go. gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-clan, tian - shan. -tion, -slon - shun ; -(Ion, -sion = zhun. -dons, - tious, - sious = shus. -hie, -die, &c. = bel, del. 



3060 



materialist Diathesis 



II. Hist. A Philos. : The system of philo- 
sophy which regards Mind as a function of 
matter; the mechanical theory of the Imi- 
verse. The first traces of materialism as a 
system are to be found iu the atomistic 
philosophy of Leucippus and Democritus, 
which sought to comprehend all pheno- 
mena as products of matter and motion 
alone. Next in order conies the Epicurean 
School ; but Epicurus differed from Demo- 
critus in ascribing to the atoms a certain 
power of individual or arbitrary self-determi- 
nation (Cic., de Nat. Dear., i. 24, 25). From 
this time a supernatural element may be said 
to have found a place in every philosophical 
system till the seventeenth century, since 
which time materialism has again come to the 
front. Gassendi (1592-11)55) sought to com- 
bine Epicureanism with Christian theology ; 
but F. A. Lange (Gesch. des Materialismus, 
p. 118) does not scruple to call him " the re- 
newer in modern times of systematic mate- 
rialism." In England, Hobbes (1588-167!)) 
accepted materialism as the foundation of his 
theory (Lewes: Hist. Phil., ii. 234), and was 
followed by Hartley (1704-1 757), and still later 
by Priestley (1733-1804), who, like Gassendi, 
sought to combine materialism with Chris- 
tianity. In France the System of Nature of 
Holbach (1723-1789) was the greatest produc- 
tion of materialist philosophy in the eighteenth 
century. In Germany, in the present day 
materialism has many champions, men dis- 
tinguished for physical and especially biolo- 
gical research standing in the foremost ranks. 
Moleschott, combating Liebig, comes to the 
conclusion : " No matter without force ; no 
force without matter " (Der Kreislaitfdes Lebens, 
p. 362). Vogt followed with Bilder aus dem 
Thierlfben. Rudolph Wagner, an opponent of 
materialism, proposed at the Gottingen Con- 
gress of Physiologists to discuss the question 
of a "special soul substance." The challenge 
was accepted, hut no discussion took place, 
and the Deutsches Museum (Nov. 16, 1854, 
p. 755) states "that among five hundred per- 
sons present, not one single voice was raised 
in favour of the spiritualistic philosophy." 
Wagner appealed to a wider public in his 
Glauben und Wissen, to which Vogt replied in 
a pamphlet, distinguished rather by sarcasm 
than argument : Kb'hlerglaube und Wissen- 
tchuft. To this succeeded Biichner's Krnfl 
und Staff, which, according to Lewes (Hist. 
Phil., ii. 752) was " for a time the best-abused 
book in Europe. The chief opponents of the 
outburst of materialism in Germany were 
Wagner, Lotze, and Fichte. 

" Atheism may l termed Materialism in it naked, 
and not its transcendental sense. Materialism in its 
transcendental sense may indeed be imagined to be 
Universal Existence without beginning or end: but 
then this form of Materialism i in reality Pantheism." 
History of Pantheism, ii. 276. 

a tor i al ist, a. & a. [Eng. material; -ist.] 

A. As substantive : 

1. One who holds the principles of any 
system of materialism. 

"The 'free-thinking' antagonist of free-thinking 
materialists." Fritter: Berkeley, p. 100. 

2. One whose care is for his material rather 
than his mental or moral interest. 

B. As adj. : Pertaining to materialism ; 
materialistic. 

" The material itt view is Quite as imperfect as the 
spiritualist view." Q. H. Level : Uitt. Phtt. (1880), 

ma ter i al 1st ic, ma ter 1 al ist ic 

al, a. [Eng. materialist ; -ic, -ical'] Relating 
to or partaking of the nature of materialism. 
"We object to the decidedly sensational and almost 

materialistic texture of the work." Brit. Quarterly 

Review, vol. Ivii. (187.!), p. 80L 

ma-ter-I-aT-l-ty, . [Fr. materialite, as if 
Bom a Lat. materiaiitas ; Ital. matenalita; 
Sp. mater ialidad.] 

1. The quality or state of being material, 
or consisting of matter ; material existence ; 
corporeity. 

" Nor had compacted earth, nor rock, nor stone. 
Nor gross matfrialitii been known. ' 

Byrom : An Epistle to a Gentleman in the Tempi*. 

t 2. The quality of being material or im- 
portant ; importance, moment, weight : as, 
the materiality of evidence. 

ma-ter I-al ize, v.t. [Eng. material; -ize.] 
1. To reduce or bring to a state of matter 
or material existence ; to invest with matter 
or corporeity ; to make material. 

"By this means [the invention of letters] we mat*- 
rialit- our ideas, and make them as lasting a the ink 
and pnper, their vehicles." Guardian, No. 178. 



2. To consider or explain by the laws or 
rules which are appropriate or peculiar to 
matter. 

3. To cause to assume a character appro- 
priate to material things ; to occupy with 
material instead of moral or religious interests. 

ma-ter -ial-iz Ing, a. [Eng. materialist); 
ing.] Directed or tending towards mate- 
rialism. 

ma-ter'-i-al-ly, adv. [Eng. mo.terial ; -ly. ] 

1. In a material manner or state ; in the 
state of matter. 

2. In substance, not in form only ; essen- 
tially. 

3. In a material or important manner or 
degree ; essentially, importantly. 

11 All this coucerneth the customs of the Irish very 
materially : as well to reform those which are evil, 
as to confirm and continue those which are good." 
Spenser : State of Ireland. 

ma ter i-al-ness, s. [Eng. material; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being material ; mate- 
riality, importance. 

* ma-ter-X-ar'-l-an, s. [Lat. materiarius = 
pertaining to matter; materia = matter.] A 
materialist. 

* ma-ter' i-ate, a. & s. [Lat. materiatus, pa. 
paf. of materw = to construct of matter, from 
materia matter.] 

A. As adj. : Constructed or composed of 
matter. 

" The most ponderous and materiate amongst 
metalles." Ruuxm : Nat. Bist., ^ 326. 

B. As subst. : A substance or thing com- 
posed of matter ; a material substance. 

* ma-teV-l'-a-ted, a. [Lat. materiatus.] The 

same as MATERIATE (q.v.). 

* ma ter -I-a'-tion, s. [Lat. materiatio, from 
materiatus, pa. par. of materio = to construct 
of materials.] The act or process of forming 
matter. 

"Creation is the production of all things out of no- 
thing ; a tarnation not only of matter but of form, 
and a matcrintlon even of matter itself." Browne : 
Vulgar rrour bk. vi., oh. L 

ma te ri eL s. [Fr.] [MATERIAL.] That 
which, in a complex system, constitutes the 
materials or instruments employed, as dis- 
tinguished from the personnel, or men em- 
ployed ; thus the baggage, arms, provisions, 
&c., of an urmy are its materiel, as distin- 
guished from the men, who constitute the 
personnel ; so also the buildings, libraries, 
apparatus, &c., of a college, as distinguished 
from the professors and officers. 

* ma-ter'-I-ous, a. [Lat. materia) ; Eng. adj. 

suff. -ous.] The same as MATERIAL, a. (q.v.). 

ma ter nal, * ma ter'-nall, a. [Fr. roa- 
ternel, from Low Lat. matefnalis, from Lat. 
maternus motherly, from mater = a mother ; 
Sp. & Port, maternal ; Ital. maternale. ] Of or 
pertaining to a mother ; becoming or befitting 
a mother ; motherly. 

" [She] long his loss with tears maternal mourned." 
Hoole : Orlando Furioso, i. 

ma-ter'-nal-ly, adv. [Eng. maternal; -ly.] 
In a maternal or motherly manner ; like a 
mother. 

ma-teV-ni-ty^ . [Fr. matemitt, from Lat. 
riuUernitatem, ace. of maternitas, from maternus 
= maternal ; Ital. maternita ; Sp. maternidail.] 
The quality, state, condition, or relation of a 
mother. 

" Her charity was the cause of her maternity." 
Parthena Sacra (1633), p. a. 

maternity -hospital, . A lying-in 
hospital. 

mate ship, s. [Eng. mate (I); -ship.] Com- 
panionship. 

" I sat among them equally 
In fellowship aud mateship, as a child." 

K. B. Browning : Aurora Leigh, vii. 

mat -f el- on, s. [Wei. madfelen.] 

Bot. : A plant, Centaure.u nigra ; knapweed. 

* math, * mathe, s. [A.3. mreth, math, from 
mdwan = to mow.] A mowing ; a crop 
gathered by mowing. (Chiefly in composition, 
as aftermatA.) 

"The first mowing thereof for the king's use, is 
wont to he sooner than the common matht."Bp. 
Ball: Bard Texts; Amos vii. 

Math -a rlns, s. pi. [See def.] 

Church Hist. : An order of friars, founded 



by St. John of Matha in the thirteenth cen- 
tury for the redemption of Christian captives. 
[TRINITARIAN, II.] 

math e mat ic al, t math-e-mat'-ic, a. 

& . [Fr. mathematique, from Lat. mathemati- 
cus; Gr. /u.adwiaTiKos (mathematikos) = belong- 
ing to the sciences, mathematical, from 
/xafljj^a (mathema), genit. fiaflij^aros (rnathi- 
matos)= that which is learnt, a lesson, science; 
Ii.o.v6a.v<a (iiMnthanu) = to learn ; Ital. & Sp. 
matematico.] 
A. .4s adjective : 

1. Of or pertaining to mathematics. 

" Solving problems mathematics 

Byron: Grant*. 

2. According to the rules or principles of 
mathematics ; theoreticallypreciseoraccurate. 

" Every single argument should lie managed as 
mutfawuttfcaldemoustration." Locke: Human Under- 
standing, { 7. 

3. A term employed to denote the school of 
philosophy more generally known as the 
Pythagorean (q.v.), from the fact that its 
method was purely deductive, and its ten- 
dency towards the consideration of abstrac- 
tions as the only true materials of science. 

" Hence the name not unfreqiiently given to that 
School of the Mathematical." G. H. Leioes: Hist. 
Philos. (1880), i. 28. 

IT Mosheim applies the name "mathematical 
philosophy " to that of Gassendi and his suc- 
cessors, as distinguished from the metaphy- 
sical philosophy of Descartes. The name is 
unhappily chosen ; for, while the method of 
mathematics is deductive, all who use the in- 
ductive method are claimed as cultivators of 
the mathematical philosophy. (Mosheim : 
Church Hist. (ed. Reid), pp. 735, 736, 813.) 

* B. As subst. : A mathematician. 

math c mat ic al ly, adv. [Eng. mathe- 
matical ; -ly.] In a" mathematical manner ; ac- 
cording to the rules or principles of mathe- 
matical science ; with mathematical certainty. 

" The correctness of the solution is as mathematically 
certain, as the truth of any property of the triangle." 
ijtevart : Of the Human Hind, voL ii , ch. ii., } 8. 

math-e-ma-ti'-cian, s. [Fr. mathematicien, 
from Lat. " mathematicus ; Gr. /maOn/ia-nico* 
(mathematikos) = mathematic (q.v.).J One 
who is versed or skilled in mathematical 
science. 

" Mathematicians, among the Romans, were, tot 
some time, specially meant of astrologers, or itar 
prophets." Grew : Cosmo. Sacra, p. 327. 

math e mat Ics, ' math e -mat icks, . 

[In Ger. mathematik ; Fr. mathematiyue ; ItaL 
matematica ; Lat. mathesis (1) learning, (2) 
mathematics ; Gr. /xaflTjo-ts (mathesis) learn- 
ing, science ; fiaOelv (mathein) = to learn, 
2nd aor. inf. of ii.o.vB6.via(manthano) = to learn. J 
The science which treats of all kinds of quan- 
tity which can be numbered or measured. It 
is divided into Pure, Abstract, or Speculative, 
and Mixed, Concrete, or Practical. Pure 
mathematics investigates the properties of 
abstract numbers and magnitudes. Mixed or 
Practical mathematics applies the knowledge 
thus acquired to practical matters. Pure 
mathematics is divided into Arithmetic, or the 
Science of Numbers, and Geometry, or the 
science which measures figured extension. 
" I have mentioned mnthfinntn-ks as a way to settle 

in the mind an liabitof reasoning closely aud in train." 

Locke : Human Understanding, ^ 7. 

IT The names of sciences, such as mathe- 
matics, physics, mechanics, optics, metaphysics, 
&c., though in appearance plural, are treated 
as singular nouns. Some, indeed, are found 
in Mid. English in a singular form, as mathe- 
matike (Chaucer), mechanic (Gower), &c., and 
we still retain a large number of such names 
in a singular form, as arithmetic, logic, rhetoric, 
music, &c. The plural form was probably 
adopted to indicate the conipkx nature of the 
ideas expressed. 

* math er, s. [MADDER.] 

*ma'-thea,. [Corrupted from Lat. anthemit 
(q.v.).] 

Bot. : A kind of wood-chamomile. (Aim- 
worth.) 

* ma the sis, * ma-the-sy, s. [Gr., from 
fiaffeiv (mathein), 2nd aor. inf. of iia.vSa.vta 
(manthano) = to learn, to understand.] Learn- 
ing or science in general ; especially mathe- 
matical science. 

" After he set vp a great scole at Cauntorbury of al 
maner of scyences, as rhetorick, logyck. phylosophy 
mathesy, astrologi, geometrye, arithmeticke, and 
musicke." Bale : English Votaries, pt. i. 



Ate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we. wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pit* 
r. wore, wolf, work, who. son ; mute. cub. cure, unite, our, role, roil ; try. Syrian. , <e = e ; ey = a ; an = lew. 



mathook- matrimonially 



3061 



mat-hook, s. [MATTOCK.] 

mat'-l-cin, s. [Eng., &c. matic(o); stiff, -in 
(CACTI.)!] 

Chem. : A yellowish-brown substance, ex- 
tracted from the matico (Piper angustifolium). 
It is soluble in water and alcohol, insoluble 
in ether. It has a disagreeable odour, and 
extremely bitter taste. Its aqueous solution 
yields a yellow precipitate with potash and 
with ammonia. 

mat'-t-co (1), * [MATACO.] 

ma-ti'-co (2), s. [The Spanish name of Piper 
angustifolium.] 
Botany : 

1. An astringent plant, supposed to be 
Artanthe elongata ; called also Piper angusti- 
fnlium. It is applied in leaf or as fine powder 
to stop haemorrhage from wounds or leech- 
bites ; sometimes also an infusion is taken 
internally. 

2. The name given in Peru to Eupatorium 
glittinosum, a plant of quite different qualities 
from those of No. 1. 

3. Walteria glomemta, which furnishes a 
drug like that yielded by No. 1. 

matico leaves, s. pi. 

Pharm. : The leaves of Matico (2), 1. They 
ire from two to eight inches long. 

matico-oil, s. 

Chem. : An oil obtained from the leaves of 
Piper angustifolium by distillation in presence 
of water. It is heavier than water, pale-green 
in colour, has a strong odour, and persistent 
camphorous taste. It is soluble in ether, and 
forms a carmine-coloured liquid with oil of 
vitriol. 

matico stearoptene, s. 

Chem. : A crystalline substance which sepa- 
rates from the volatile oil of matico, when it 
is cooled to a few degrees below 0. It melts at 
103'. 

mat'-In (IX . & *. [Fr. matin = (a.) belong- 
ing to the morning, (s.) morning, from Lat. 
matutinus = belonging to the morning, from 
Matuta = the goddess of Dawn and Morning : 
Ital. mattino = morning.] 

A. As adj. : Pertaining to the morning ; 
matutinal. 

" The sixth, and of creation last, aroM 
With evening harps and matin." 

Milton: P.L.,riL4M. 

B. As substantive : 

L Ordinary Language: 

1. Morning, dawn. 

"The glow-worm shew* the matin to be near.* 

Shakes?. : Samlet, 1. & 

2. A morning-song. 

" And crop-full out of door he flings. 
Ere the first cock his matin rings. 

Milton : L'AUeyn. 
TL Eccles. : [MATINS]. 

ma -tin (2), *. [Fr.] 

Zool. : Canis latiiarius. A dog considered 
by the French to be the progenitor of all 
breeds that resemble, and yet cannot be classed 
with, the greyhound. It is rather a species 
in which are included a variety of dogs. The 
head is elongated, the forehead flat, the ears 
pendulous towards the tips ; colour, yellowish 
fawn. It is commonly em ployed in France as 
a sheep-dog and watch-dog. ( Youatt.) 

mat' in al, a. [Eng. matin ; -al.] 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : Of or pertaining to the 
morning or matins ; matutinal. 

2. Geol. : An epithet distinguishing the 
third series of the Appalachian Palaeozoic 
strata, and intended to express the morning 
period of the Palaeozoic day. The New York 
titles of the Matinal strata are Trenton Lime- 
stone, and Hudson River Slate Group ; tut 
nearest British equivalents are the Llandeilo 
and Bala rocks of the Cambrian series. Maxi- 
mum thickness 2,500 feet. The highest organ- 
isms hitherto found are some trilobites, cephal- 
opods, and molluscs. (Prof. H. D. Rogers: 
Otology of Pennsylvania.) 

ma ti nee, s. [Fr., from matin = the morn- 
ing.] An entertainment or reception given or 
held early in the day. 

mat ing, t mat tin$, * mat ynes, * mat 
yns, s. pi. [Fr. matin.es, from Lat. matvtinae 
(horae) (the hours) of the morning ; Port. 
matinas ; Sp. maitines.] 



L Literally & Eccles. : 

L Anglican: The daily office of Morning 
Prayer. It is composed in part of the pre- 
Refonnation offices of Matius and Lauds. [2.] 

2. Roman : The first portion of the Divine 
Office [OFFICE, If], with which Lauds are 
usually associated. On Sundays and double 
feasts matins have three nocturus ; on simple 
feasts and week-days, one nocturn (q. v.). Easter 
and Pentecost have each only one nocturn, 
with three psalms. After private prayer ver- 
sicles and responses are recited ; the invita- 
tory psalm follows. In the tirst nocturn are 
said three psalms on feast days, twelve when 
the office is of the Sunday, and three lessons 
from Scripture ; the second and third nocturns 
have each three psalms, and the lessons are 
chosen from the patristic writings for the se- 
cond, and from some commentary on the gospel 
of the day for the third uocturn. On feasts of 
Saints the lections of the second nocturn are 
usually biographical. Lauds consist of five 
psalms, the little chapter, a hymn, the canti- 
cle Benedictus, collect, and commemorations, 
if any. 

t IL Fig. : A morning song. 

" The merry larke her mattint sings aloft" 

Sjxnter: Epithalamion. 

* mat-ire, * mat ere, s. [MATTER, s.] 

mat -lock-ite, s. [Named after the place 
near which it was found, Matlock ; surf, -ite 
(JJftn.).] 

M in. : A tetragonal mineral occurring in 
crystals of a tabular habit. Cleavage, basal, 
imperfect Hardness, 2'5 to 3 ; sp. gr. 7 '21 ; 
lustre, adamantine ; colour, yellowish ; trans- 
parent. Compos. : chloride of lead, 55 '5 ; 
oxide of lead, 44'5, corresponding with the 
formula, PbCl+PbO. Occurs with cromford- 
ite at an old mine near Cromford, Derbyshire. 
The mineral is stated also to have occurred 
as a sublimation product after the eruption of 
Vesuvius in 1858. 

* mat -rass, . [Fr. matras = an arrow, a 
javelin, a matrass, from Lat. materis, mataris, 
malara = & Celtic javelin, a pike, so called 
from its long, straight, narrow neck.] 

1. Chem. : A glass vesae4 with a long neck, 
a rounded body, and sometimes furnished with 
a tubulure. It is used for distilling and di- 
gesting. 

2. Hort. : A similarly shaped glass vessel 
used to protect flowers from the sun, rain, &c. 

" Protect from violent storms, and the too parching 
darts of the sun, your peuuached tulips and ranuncu- 
luses, covering them with matrauet." Evelyn : Kalen- 
dar. 

* mat-ress, s. [MATTRESS.] 

ma-trf-arch'-al, a. [Formed from Lat. mater 
= a mother, on analogy of patriarchal (q.v.).] 
Reckoning kinship on the female side. 

" Those earlier periods of civilisation in which th 
matriarchal principle was still in force." Xatur*. 
June 24. 1886, p. 186. 

mat ri car'-I-a, a. [Lat. matrix (genit. ma- 
tricis) the womb ; from its being formerly 
used in uterine complaints.] 

Bot. : A genus of composites, sub-tribe 
Chrysanthemeae. The heads are yellow, the 
ray, if any exist, white, the florets of the ray 
conspicuously ligulate, those of the disc 
terete, the achenes of both the ray and the 
disc angled, the epigynous disc large. From 
the Eastern Hemisphere ; seventy are known. 
Two are European: Matricaria Chamomilla 
(Wild Cliamomile), of the sub-genus Matri- 
caria, and if. inodora (Corn Chamomile), of 
the sub-genus Pyrethrum. The first has 
aromatic bipinnatifid leaves and a five-ribbed 
fruit. It is the Wild Chamomile. It is found 
wild or a colonist in Britain, occurring also 
in continental Europe and Asia. On distilla- 
tion it yields an essential oil, which is power- 
fully anti-spasmodic. The second was for- 
merly called Pyrethrum inodorum. It is 
common. M. Parthenium (Feverfew) is a cul- 
tivated variety. 

matrlcaria camphor, 

Chem. : CioHieO. * camphor isomeric with 
laurinol, obtained from the oil of feverfew 
(Matricaria Parthenium). It resembles lauri- 
nol in all but its optical properties. 

ma'-tiice, . [MATRIX.] 

mat' - ri - 9id - al, a. [Eng. matricid(e) ; -al.] 
Pertaining to matricide. 



mat'-li-cide, *. [Fr. = mother-killing, from 
Lat. matrieida = murderer of a mother ; mater 
(genit. matris)=& mother, and ccedo (in compos, 
-cido) = to kill ; matricidium = the murder of 
one's mother ; Ital. & Sp. matricidio.] 

1. One who kills or murders his or her 
mother. 

I. The killing or murder of a mother. 

" Nature compensates the death of the father by the 
mt/-ici<Zaudinnrderoftheinother." Brown*: Vulgar 
Brroun, bk. ill., oh. xvii. 

mat -ri -9ite, *. [Lat matrix = the mother- 
stone of another mineral ; sutf. -ite (A/in.).] 

M in. : A mineral occurring in crystalline 
fibrous masses with concentric structure, in- 
cluding crystals of spodiosite (q.v.), at the 
Kran mines, Wennland, Sweden. Hardness, 
8 to 4 ; sp. gr. 2-5a ; lustre, pearly ; colour, 
gray ; feel greasy. Compos. : silica, 33'99 ; 
magnesia, 37'% ; liin^, 5-64 ; alumina, 1-33; 
protoxide of iron, 1-82 ; protoxide of mangan- 
ese, 0-47 ; soda, 0'98 ; water, 17 '81. 

* ma trlc-u-la,s. [Lat = a register.] [MA- 
TRICULATE, a.] ' A register, a roll. 

" His name occurs not in the matrirula. only that of 
John Sherley, a Sussex man, and the son of a Gent. 
matriculated as a member of that hall, in 1582, aged 
If Wood: Athena Oxon., voL i. 

ma-tric'-u-late, v.t. & i. [MATRICULATE, o. : 
ItaL matricolare ; Sp. matricular.] 

A. Trans. : To enter in a register ; to regis- 
ter ; to enrol ; specif., to admit to member- 
ship of a body or society, and especially of a 
college or university, by enrolling the name in 
a register. 

"That every scholar . . . shall hare been matricu- 
lated twenty-four calendar months at least." Sioc*. 
Hone: Comment., I 1. (Introd.) 

B. Intrans. : To be admitted to a member- 
ship of a college or university by passing an 
examination and having one's name enrolled 
in the register. 

* ma-tric -u-late, a. & *. [Low Lat. ma- 
triculatus, pa. par. of matriculo = to enrol, to 
register ; Lat. matricula = a register ; dimin. 
of matrix = (1) a breeding animal, (2) a womb, 
(3) a public register.] 

A. As adj. : Admitted or entered as mem- 
ber of a body or society, and especially of a 
college or university ; matriculated. 

"To be matriculate, with ladies of astate." 

Skellon : Crowne of Laurell. 

B. As subst. : One who is matriculated or 
enrolled as a member of a body or society, 
and especially of a college or university. 

" Suffer me in the name of the matrieulatet of that 
Arouthnot. 

ma-tric-u-la'-tion, *. [MATRICWLATE, v.] 
The act of matriculating ; the state of being 

matriculated. 

" A scholar absent from the university for five yean, 
i* struck out of the matriculation book ; and upon his 
coming de novo to the university, ought to be again 
matriculated." Ayliffe : fareryon. 

mat-rl-md'-nl-al, a. [Fr., from Lat. matri- 

monialis, from 'matrimonium = matrimony ; 

Sp. & Port, matrimonial; Ital. nuitrimoniale.] 

1. Of or pertaining to marriage or wedlock ; 

connubial, nuptial, hymeneal. t 

"The main article in matrimonial alliances.' 
FaUt : Moral Philaiophy, bk. iii., ch. viii. 

* 2. Derived from marriage. 

" If he relied upon that title, he could be bat a kinc 
at curtesy, and have rather a matrimonial than a regal 
power, the right remaining in his queen." Aaron.' 
Henry Vll. 

matrimonial-causes, *. pi. 

Law : Suits for the redress of injuries re- 
specting the rights of marriage. They were 
until recently a branch of the ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction, are now exclusively cognizable in 
the Court for Divorce and Matrimonial Causes 
under the statute 20 & 21 Victoria, c. 85. 

matrimonial crown, *. 

Scots Law A Hist. : A grant by which the 
husband of the Scottish queen acquired the 
right to assume the title of king, to have hia 
name stamped upon the coins, and to place 
his signature side by side with that of the 
queen upon all public documents. 

t mat-ri-mo'-nJ-al-l^, adv. [Eng. matri- 
monial; -ly.] In a matrimonial manner; ac- 
cording to the laws or customs of marriage ; 
as a husband or wife. 

"He Is so matrimonally wedded unto his church, 
that he cannot quit the same, even on the score of 
going into a religious house." Ay lift : Parergon. 



boil, bo^ ; pout, Jowl ; cat, cell, chorus, chin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, yenophon, exist, ph = t 
-cian, tian = shan, -tion, - sion = shun ; (ion, -fion = xuun. -clous, - tious, -slons = shus. -ble, -die, &c. - bel, del. 



3062 



matrimonious matter 



* mat-rf-mo'-r I OUS, a. [Bug. matrimony ; 
eras.] Matrimonial. 

" Foreseeing the miserable work that man's ignor- 
ance and pusillanimity would make in this matrimo- 
nious business. " Milton : Tetrachordon. 

mat ri mon y. mat ri moine, * mat- 
ri mon-ie, * mat-ry-mon-ye, s. [O. Fr. 

matrimonie, from Lat. matrimonium, from 
mater (genit. matris) = a mother ; Sp., Port. & 
Ital. matrimonio.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Marriage, wedlock ; the married state ; 
the union of man and wife for life. 

" Ms that io 
wel." Wycllft 

* 2. A wife. 

" Restore my matrimony undented." 
fleaum. * /7. .- Little French Lawyer, IT. &. 

3. A game at cards. 

* 4. A mixture of raisins and almonds, or 
ny similar mixture. 

IL Roman Theology : One of the seven sacra- 
ments of the Roman Church, necessary for the 
community, but not for the individual, just as 
the Sacrament of Orders is necessary for the 
Church at large, but not for each individual 
Christian. Matrimony is a contract raised to 
the dignity of a sacrament. As a contract it 
is " a lawful marital union between a man and 
a woman obliging them to lifelong participa- 
tion in each other's society ; " as a sacrament, 
it "confers grace, sanctifying the legitimate 
union of a man and a woman." It was defined 
as a sacrament at the Council of Trent (sess. 
xxiv.), on Nov. 11, 1553. In the "Doctrina 
de Sacramento Matrimonii," prefixed to the 
Canons of that session, the indissolubility of 
matrimony is said to be foreshown in Gen. ii. 
23, 24, and ratified by Christ (Matt. xix. 3-9). 
Reference is made to Eph. v. 31, 32 ; and it is 
asserted that " the holy fathers, Councils, and 
the universal tradition of the Church have 
always taught that matrimony is justly to 
be reckoned among the Sacraments of the 
New Law." 

matrimony vine, . 

Bot. : Lycium barbarum. 

ina trix, * ma'-trfye, . [Lat. matrix, from 
mater (genit. matris) a mother : Fr. matrice ; 
Ital. matrice ; Sp. matriz.] 

* 1. Aiiat. : The womb or uterus. 

"That thou shalt set apart unto the Lord all that 
openeth the matrix.' Exodva xiii. 12. 

2. Bot. : A place where anything is gene- 
rated or formed. (Lindley.) 

3. Casting: A mould; the shape in which 
anything is formed. 

4. Coining, Type-founding, &c. : A mould 
which gives form to an object driven into it 
or hardening therein, as 

(1) The intaglio or indented device for a 
coin, either engraved or produced from a hub 
on which the design has been produced in re- 
lief. The matrix is the mould into which a 
soft steel plug is driven, and which is to be 
used in making the die from which the coin is 
truck. 

(2) The mould in a type-founding machine 
which gives the form to the letter on the end 
of the type. The letter is originally engraved 
on the end of a piece of steel, which is subse- 
quently hardened, and is called a punch. The 
punch is used to impress the matrix. 

(3) The plaster mould (in intaglio) obtained 
from a form of type, and used to obtain an im- 
pression (cameo) in type-metal, known as a 
stereotype (q.v.). 

5. Dyeing : One of the five simple colours- 
black, white, red, blue, and yellow, combina- 
tions of which are used to form compound 
colours. 

6. Min., Petrol., <t Geol.: The portion of 
rock in which a mineral or a fossil is em- 
bedded. 

7. Mining : The gangue or stony substance 
In which metalliferous ores are formed, asso- 
ciated, or imbedded. 

8. Odontology : The formative material from 
which teeth are developed. [TooTH.] 

9. Math. : Any rectangular arrangement of 
symbols : as 

al 01 1 
03 in i 

03 W 0. 

^ To be in the matrix : 
Min., Geol., e. : To be still embedded, in - 
te.ul of having become detached. (Lyell.) 



ma tron, * ma-trone, s. [Fr. matrone, 
from Lat. matrona = a matron, from mater 
(genit. matris) = a mother ; Sp., Port., & Ital. 
matrona.] 

1. A married woman ; espec., an elderly 
married woman ; a woman of sufficient years 
to be the mother of a family, whether actually 
so or not ; a woman of staid manners ; the 
female head of a family. 

" For thee the soldier bleeds, the matron mourns." 
Pope : Homer ; Iliad vi. 418. 

2. The female head or superintendent of an 
institution ; a head nurse in a hospital. 

H Jury of matrons : 

Law : A jury of married women empannelled 
to inquire into the truth of a plea of pregnancy 
put forward in stay of execution by a woman 
sentenced to death for treason or murder ; 
also a jury empannelled to try whether a 
widow who alleges herself to be pregnant by 
her late husband is with child, and to deter- 
mine the time of conception and the expected 
date of delivery. 

* ma tron age (age as I&), *. [Eng. matron ; 
-age.] 

L. The quality or state of being a matron ; 
matronhood. 
2. Matrons collectively. 

" His exemplary queen at the head of the matronag 
of this laud." Burke : Regicide Peace, let. L 

4 ma' -tron- al, a. [Eng. matron; -al.] Of 
or pertaining "to a matron ; becoming or suit- 
able to a matron or elderly lady, or married 
woman ; grave, motherly. 

"He had heard of the beauty and virtuous beha- 
viour of the queen of Naples, the widow of Fenllnando 
the younger, oeing then of matronal years of seven 
and twenty." Bacon : Henry Vll., p. 218. 

* ma' tron hood, *. [Eng. matron; -hood.] 

The state or condition of a matron. 

ma-tron-ize, v.t. [Eng. matron; -ize.] 

* 1. To render matronlike. 

* 2. To act as a matron or mother to ; to 
chaperon. 

ma tron like, o. [Eng. matron; -like.] 
Having the manners, qualities, or appearance 
of a matron ; matronly, grave, sedate. 

ma tron ly, *ma-trone-ly, o. & adv. 
[Eng. matron; -ly.] 

A. As adj. : Like a matron ; gravely ; hav- 
ing the manners or appearance of a matron ; 
elderly, sedate. 

"The matronly wife plucked out all the brown 
hairs, and the younger the white." L' Estrange : 
Fablet. 

B. As adv. : Like or becoming a matron ; 

"And toward them full matronely did pane." 

Spenter: F. y., I. x. 8. 

t mat-ro-nym'-Ic, s. [Ahybrid word, formed 
from Lat. mater = a mother, and Gr. ovofi-a. 
(onoma) & name.] A name derived from a 
mother or a maternal ancestor. 

" If It be ft clear sign of exclusively female kinship 
that children should take the mother's family name, 
it is, a fortiori, a note of it that they should be called 
by a matronnmic."J. F. Me Lennan; Studiet in 
Ancient aist., p. 28. 

*ma-tross', s. [Dufj. matroos; Dan. & Sw. 
mdtros ; Ger. matrose = a sailor.] (See ex- 
tract.) 

" Matrona, In the train of artillery, are a sort of 
soldiers next In degree under the gunners, who assist 
about the guns in traversing, spuuging, firing, and 
loadiuz them ; they carry firelocks, and march along 
with the store-waggon:! as a guard, and as assistants, 
in case a waggon should break." Bailey. 

matt, matte (2), s. [Ger. matt = dull, dim. ; 
said of metals.] 

1. Metall. : A mass of imperfectly reduced 
metal, having impurities, mineral and metallic, 
as in the case of copper. 

2. Gilding: The dead or unburnished sur- 
face of gold, when the gold-leaf is merely 
pressed upon the size and is not rubbed with 
the burnisher. The dead appearance of por- 
tions acts as a foil to the lustrous surface 
over which the burnisher has passed. 

* mat ta- chin, * mat' -a- chin, i. [Sp. 

matachin.] A dance in which the performers 
fenced and thrust at each other with swords, 
as in real duelling, protecting themselves with 
their bucklers ; a sword-dance. 

IT To dance a mattachin : To fight a duel. 

" I'd dance a matachin with you, should make you 
sweat your best bloud for't." lieaum. t Flet. : The 
Elder Brother, T. t 



mat' -ta -more, *. [Fr. mata-no-e, ftxxn Aru'i 
metmu'r = a ditch, a cavern, a cave.] Aft 
underground repository for grain. 



),.] 



matted), . 

matte (2), s. [MAT (2), s.] 

matt -ed, pa. par. & a. [Mxr, .] 

A. As jkji. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adj.: Intertwined or interwoven like 
a ma< ; growing thick and close together. 

"His breast was bare, his matted hair 
Waa buried in the sand." 

Langfellow : The Save'l Dream, 

matted glass, s. 

Glass: A mode of ornamenting glass for 
windows, in which the surface is covered 
with a very fusible powder, either opaque, 
white, or tinted. This being removed in por- 
tions, the glass is fired and the composition 
fixed, giving a bright pattern on a dull ground. 
Substantially the same effect is produced by 
painting the pattern on the glass with an 
asphaltum varnish, and then etching the sur- 
face with hydrofluoric acid. By a similar 
process the glass bottles of the chemist have 
their labels ineffaceably inscribed. 

mat'-ter, *mat-er, "mat ere, "mat- 
tere, * matr-ter-ie, s. [O. Fr. matiere, mat- 
ere (Fr. matiere), from Lat. mater in = matter, 
materials, stuff; Sp., Port., & Ital. materia.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Body, substance ; anything perceptible 
by one of the senses ; that of which the whole 
of the universe is composed. 

"Matter being a divisible substance, consisting 
always of separable, nay of actually separate and 
distinct parts, 'tis plain that unless it were essentially 
conscious, in which rase every particle of matter must 

sciousuesses, no system of it in any possible composi- 
tion or division, can be any individual conscious. 
being." Clarke : letter to Mr. Dodiaell. 

2. That of which anything is composed; 
materials. 

3. The contents or essence of a writing, 
discourse, or speech ; that which is said or 
written ; the meaning, sense, or substance. 

" A book where men may read strange matters." 

Shaketp. : Macbeth, i. .1. 

4. That which is treated of; that of which 
one speaks, writes, or treats ; the subject or 
materials of a writing, discourse, or speech. 

"If they were embarrassed, it was only by tha 
abundance of the matter from which they had to 
maketheirselcction." Macaulay: aist. Eng., ch. xxiit. 

5. That which excites or arouses thought or 
emotion : as, This is a matter for gratitude or 
astonishment. 

6. Substance, sense; not empty talk, ver- 
bosity, or frivolity. 

" I beseech your grace, pardon me ; I was born to 
speak all mirth ud no matter." Shakeip. : Much Ada 
About Nothing, ii. 1. 

7. A point in question ; an affair, a business. 

" I will debafc this matter at more leisure." 

Shaketp ' Comedy of Errort, iv. 1. 

8. (PI-) Affairs, events, the course of events. 

" Matters succeeded so well with him, that every* 
body was in admiration to see how mighty rich 
was grown." L'Ettrange, 

9. A cause or subject of complaint. 

"If the craftsmen havj a matter against any man, 
the law is open : let them implead one another." 
Actl xix. 38. 

10. The cause, ground, or occasion of any 
event or state : as of a disturbance, an illness, 
a difficulty, a doubt, &c. 

" Why, what's the matter I " Dunyan : Apology. 

11. Import, consequence, moment, import- 
ance. 

"If I had had time to have made new liveries, I 
would have bestowed the thousand I borrowed of you i 
but it is no matter, the poor show doth better." 
Shaketp. : 2 Henry IV., v. & 

12. Thing in a general sense. 

" For they speak not peace : but they devise deceitful 
matters against them that are quiet in the laud." 
Ptalm xxxv. 20. 

13. An indefinite amount, quantity, or por- 
tion. 

" Away he goes to the market- town, t. matter of five 
miles off, to enquire if any had SMO bis MS.',-* 
L' Estrange: Fablet. 
IL Technically: 

1. Logic & Metuph. : The logical matter of a 
proposition is the terms of which it is com 
posed, i.e., the subject and the predicate, tfo* 
copula being regarded as the form. Tins' 
division of a proposition into matter and form 
has come down from the teaching of the 
Schoolmen, who regarded the elements of 
which any ens was composed as the matter, 



fate, fa*, fere, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full ; try, Syrian. , OB = e ; ey = a ; <ju = lew. 



matter maturation 



3063 



and the disposition of those elements as the 
form, of that ens. 

2. Med. : Purulent substance which has ga- 
thered in a larger or smaller abscess ; pus. 

" In an inflamed tubercle in the great angle of tin 
Uft eye, the matter being suppurated, I opened It" 
Witema 

3. Printing: 

(1) Manuscript or copy ready to set up in 
type. 

(2) Type composed and ready to be used in 
printing. It is live, standing, or dead, accord- 
ing us it is ready for use, awaiting re-use, or 
ready for distribution. 

4. Ph$s. : That which possesses the pro- 
perties the existence of which is revealed to 
us by our senses; a substance. Its qualities 
are impenetrability, extension, divisibility, 
porosity, compressibility, elasticity, mobility, 
and inertia (all which see). It exists in at 
least three forms the solid, the liquid, and 
the gaseous. 

If (1) Matter of record: That which is re- 
corded, or which may be proved by record. 

(2) * Upon the matter, * Upon the whole 
matter : On or upon the whole ; taking all 
things into consideration. 

" In their superiors it quencbeth jealousy and layeth 
their competitors aslew> ; so that upon the matter. In 
a great wit deformity is an advantage to rising." 
Bacon: Ettayt ; Of Deformity. 

matter-of-course, a. Phlegmatic, in- 
different, cool. 

" I won't have that sort of mattcr-of-courte acqui- 
escence. 1 '- llughet : Tom Brown at Oxford, ch. xxx. 

matter of fact, s. & a. 

A. As subst. : A reality, as distinguished 
from that which is fanciful, hypothetical or 
hyperbolical ; a fact 

B. As adjective : 

1. Treating of facts or realities ; not fanciful 
or hyperbolical ; commonplace, simple, plain, 
ordinary. 

2. Adhering to facts or realities ; not im- 
aginative ; prosaic. 

mat -ter, v.i. & t. [MATTER, .] 
A. Intransitive : 

1. Ord. Lang. : To be of moment, conse- 
quence, or importance ; to signify. 

" To a man of virtue and honour, indeed, this mat- 
tered little." Macautay : Bist. Eng., ch. xvii. 

2. Med. : To form pus ; to collect, as matter 
In an abscess. 

" The herpes beneath mattered, and were dried up 
with common epuloticks. " Witeman : Surgery, bk. 1., 

ch xvii. 

* B. Trans. : To regard, to care for, to mind. 
" He did not matter cold nor hunger." S. Brooke : 
fool o/ Quality, 1. 91. 

mat'-ter-ful, a. [Eng. matter; -fuHl).~\ 
Full of matter ; pregnant, 

" What a sweet, unpretending, pretty-mannered, 
matterful creature." Lamb : To Wordsworth, p. 97. 
(1815). 

mat ter less, ' mat ter-lesse, a. [Eng. 
matter; -less.] 

1. Not material ; immaterial. 

"Like shades . . . quite matterlem."Davt*t : 
Wittei Pilgrimage, p. 35. 

2. Devoid of matter, substance, or sense. 

" All Ane noise 

Of verse meere mnttcrleae and tinkling stories." 
Ben Jonaon : Horace : Art of Poetry. 

mat'- ter -jf, * mat ter ie, o. [Eng. mat- 
ter; -y.} 

1. Full of matter ; important, weighty. 

"Away with your matterie sentences, Momus ; they 
are too grave, and wise, for this meeting." Ben Jon- 
ton : Poetatter, Iv. 4. 

2. Generating pus ; purulent. 
"The putrid 

humc 
causes 
tion. 

Matth ew (ew as u), s. [Lat. Matthants; 
Or. Marfcuoc (MaUhaios), according to Ge- 
senius, a contr. of Heb. rrnno (Mattitheah) 
= the gift of God, the name oorne by the 
Maccabee patriot, Mattathias.] 

Scrip. Biog. : An apostle of Jesus, almost 
certainly the same as Levi, the son of Alpheus 
(Ct Matt. ix. 9-13, Mark ii. 14-16, and Luke 
v. 27.) He was a " publican "i.e., a tax- 
gatherer who sat at the receipt of custom 
at Capernaum on the shore of the Sea of 
Galilee. (Ibid.) Taxgatherers are rarely popu- 
lar men ; and, moreover, the money which 
Matthew raised was not for the Jewish, but for 



'he putrid vapours colliquate the phlegmatlck 
ours of the body, which transcending to the lungs, 
M their mattery cough." Harvey : On C'ontump- 



the Roman government, he was, therefore, re 
garded as outside the pale of society, and his 
companions, when he was called to the apostle 
ship, were " publicans and sinners." After 
his call he figures in all the lints of apostles 
(Matt. x. 3 ; Mark iii. 18 ; Acts i. 13). Clement 
of Alexandria represents him us dying a 
natural death ; much later tradition repre- 
sents him as having been martyred. 

H The Gospel according to St. Matthew : 
New Test. Canon: The first of the four 
Gospels in arrangement, and long almost 
universally held to have been the first in 
point of publication, though it is more pro- 
bable that Mark came first and Matthew only 
second in point of time. The author's name 
is nowhere given in it, but universal Christian 
tradition assigns it to Matthew the apostle, 
called Levi, and there is a fragment of internal 
evidence in the same direction. In connec- 
tion with the call of Matthew the first gospel 
relates that " as Jesus sat at meat in the 
house, behold many publicans and sinners 
came and sat down with him and his dis- 
ciples" (Matt. ix. 10). Why they presumed 
to come is not stated ; but St. Luke explains 
that they came because they were invited. 
He says that " Levi [Matthew] made him a 
great feast in his own house : and there was 
a great company of publicans and of others 
that sat down with them" (Luke v. 29). If 
the author of the first gospel felt diffident 
about recording the hospitality of St. Mat- 
thew, the only reason can be that he was St. 
Matthew himself; the sole argument against 
this view is that St. Mark also withholds the 
information that invitation to the party was 
given (Mark ii. 15). The special object of the 
first gospel is to show that Jesus was the 
Messiah of ancient prophecy. The author 
continually quotes the Old Testament pro- 
phets, sometimes indicating that the events 
took place to fulfil the prophecy (i. 22, ii. 15, 23, 
&c.), at others simply that they fulfilled the 
prophecy (ii. 17). The book was addressed 
specially to the Jews. The ancient fathers 
believed that it was published at first in 
Aramaic, but, on the other hand, no quota- 
tion from the Araniieau book is extant, and 
the Greek has every appearance of an original 
work rather than a translation ; of two kinds 
of quotations from the Old Testament, one is 
from the Septuagint Greek. 

Eusebius fixes the date of its publication 
in the third year of Caligula, A.D. 41, but lived 
too late really to know ; Ireueeus is in favour 
of a later date, apparently A.D. 60. Rational- 
istic writers, who disbelieve in prophecy, 
place it after the destruction of Jerusalem. 

In 1771 Williams attacked the authenticity 
of the first two chapters. He was followed 
by Strotli, Hess, Ammon, Schleiermacher, 
Norton, &c. They were defended by Fleming, 
Griesbach, Hug, Credner, Paulus, Kuinoel, 
Neander, &c. All the old manuscripts and 
versions contain them, and they are quoted by 
the fathers of the second and third centuries. 

St. Matthew is the only evangelist who 
reports at length the Sermon on the Mount. 
He gives prominence to other discourses of 
Jesus. Like his fellow synoptists he gives 
details of the ministry of Jesus in Galilee, 
not speaking much of Jerusalem till the 
closing scenes drew nigh. 

ma-tthi-6-la, ma thi 6 la, s. fNamed 
after P. A. Mathioh or Matthiblus an Italian 
physician (1500-1577).] 

1. Dot : Stock ; a genus of Cruciferae, family 
Arabidae. The sepals are erect, the lateral 
ones saccate at the base. The petals have 
long claws. The pod is long, with a thick 
septum and one-seriate seeds. Found in the 
Old World. Thirty-one known. Two are 
British. Matthiola incana is the Horny 
Shrubby Stock found in the Isle of Wight, 
but, according to Watson, only as a denizen. 
It is the origin of the Stock Gillyflower culti- 
vated in gardens. M. sinvata, the Great Sea- 
stock, is found on the sandy shores of Wales, 
Cornwall, and the Channel Islands. It has 
large purple flowers, fragrant at night. 

[STOCK.] 

2. Pharm. : In India Matthiola incana is 
grown for its seeds, which are used as in- 
fusion in cancer. They are regarded as ex- 
pectorant, and are given in cases of snake 
bite. 

matt -ing (1), pr. par., a., & i. [MAT, t>.] 

A. & B, At pr. par. it particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 



MATTOCK. 



C. -As substantive : 

I. Ordinury Language: 

1. The act of interweaving or entangling, M 
the materials in a mat. 

2. Materials for mats. 

3. A texture composed of hemp, coir, jute, 
rushes, hair, grass, palm-leaves, &c. The 
India matting is made of a peculiar Oriental 
grass ; Russia matting of bast or linden bark. 
Matting is also made of strips of black walnut 
or other ornamental wood, with wires passing 
through them at right angles. The wooden 
strips are separated by elastic washers made 
from india-rubber tubing. Matting is used for 
covering halls, passages, platforms, &c., or 
as doormats. 

II. Technically: 

1. Naut. : A texture made of strands of old 
rope, or of spun yarn, beaten flat and inter* 
woven, and used to prevent chafing. 

2. Photog. : The passepartout over a pic- 
ture ; a mat. 

matt Ing (2), . [MATT, *.] 

1. Ord. Lang.: A regular rough lustreleu 
surface. 

2. Gilding : Covering plates with varnish in 
gilding on water size. 

matting-loom, s. 

Weaving : One in which slats are introduced 
into the shed to form the woof. 

matting-tool, s. 

Metal-work: A kind of chasing-tool, em- 
ployed in producing a regular rough surface 
on an object ; usually in the lathe. 

t mat-tins, s. pi. [MATINS.] 

mat tock, * mat tok, s. [A.8. mattuc, from 
Wei. mutog = a mattock, a hoe ; Gael. 
madag; Ir. mad6g.] An implement 
with an iron head, having blades at 
each end presented in different planes, 
and an eye in the middle into which 
the handle is inserted perpendicu- 
larly to ., i i -- _ 
the head. ^^I^KM. 

The cut- 

ting edges 

are presented like those of an axe 

and an adze respectively. It is used 

in forests and plantations for grubbing 

among stumps and trees, whose roots 

prevent the use of the spade. 

" We took this mattock and this spade from him." 
Shaketp. : Romeo i Juliet, v. 3. 

mat tress, * mat-res, * mat ter esse, 
t. [O. Fr. materas (Fr. malelas), from Arab. 
matrah = a place, a foundation, a place where 
anything is thrown ; cf. Sp. & Port, al-mad- 
raqvt = a quilted cushion, a mattress.] A 
padded bed, or one stuffed and quilted or 
tied, so as to keep the stuffing to a general 
thickness. The filling is hair, moss, sponge, 
cotton, husk, straw, shredded wool, &c. The 
term is also applied to an elastic bed-bottom 
of coiled or woven wire. 

* ma-tiir'- ant, s. [Lat. maturans, pr. par. of 

mdturo = to ripen, to mature.] [MATURATE.) 

Pharm. : A medicine or application to an 

inflamed part, to promote suppuration; a 

maturative. 

" mat'-u-rate, v.t. & i. [Lat. maturatut, pa. 
par. of'maturo to ripen, to mature ; matunu 
ripe.] [MATURE, o.] 

A. Transitive: 

1. Ord. Lan.gr. : To ripen ; to bring to ripe- 
ness or maturity ; to mature. 

2. Med. : To promote suppuration in. 

B. Intransitive : 

1. Ord. Lang. : To ripen ; to come to ma- 
turity ; to mature. 

2. Med. : To suppurate perfectly. 

mat-U-ra'-tion, s. [Lat. maturatio, from 
maturatus, pa. par. of maturo = to ripen, to 
mature.] [MATURE, a.] 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : The act or process of ripen- 
ing or bringing to maturity ; the state of be- 
coming ripe or mature. 

"Till further observation shall discover whether 
these are diamond* not yet fully ripe, and caiable 
of growing harder by f urther maturation." Boi/lt : 
Worki. i. <53. 

2. Med. : The formation of pus in inflam- 
mations ; the act or process of suppurating 
perfectly. 



boiL bojr- ; pout, jowl ; cat, 9011, chorus, chin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, Xenophon, exist. -lag; 
-cian, -tiun - shan. -tion, sion - ahftn ; -(ion. -ion = zhun. -cious, -tious, -sious - shus. -We, -die, &c. = bel, del. 



8064 



* ma-tiir'-a-tive, a. & s. [Fr. maturatif; 
Ital. maturativo; Sp. madurativo.] 

A. As adjective : 

1. Ord. Lang. : Ripening, maturing ; tending 
to bring to ripeness or maturity. 

"Between the tropicks and equator their second 
summer is hotter, and more maturatiae of fruits than 
the former." Browne : Vulgar Krroun. 

2. Med. : Conducive to the formation of pus 
in inflammations. 

" Butter is maturative, and is profitably mixed with 
auodyues aud suppuratives." Wiseman : Surgery. 

B. As substantive : 

Med. : Any medicine or application produc- 
ing or tending to nroduce suppuration; a 
maturant. 

" The same [limed] applied with figs ii an excellent 
maturatiae. and ripeneth all imposthumes." P. Hot- 
land: PlinU. bk. xx., ch. xxli. 

ma-tiire', o. [Lat maturus = ripe; Ital. 
maturo ; Sp. 4 Port, maduro ; Fr. wv&r.l 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : Ripe, ripened ; brought to maturity 
by time. 

2. Figuratively: 

(1) Ripened; perfected by time ; brought to 
a perfect or complete state of development. 



" His deep and piercing eye 
dateness weighed 
To doubtful counsels." Hamilton : The Thiitlt. 



Looked wisdom, aud mature sedatene 



(2) Of full growth : as, a man of mature years. 

(3) Completed, perfected ; ready or ripe for 
action ; fully prepared : as, The plan is mature. 

IL Technically: 

1. Comm. : Become payable ; having reached 
the time fixed for payment: as, The bill is 
mature. 

2. Med. : In a state of perfect suppuration. 

ftta-ture', v.t. & i. [Lat. maturo = to ripen; 
O. Fr. maturer ; Fr. murir.] 

A. Transitive: 

L Ordinary Language: 
L Lit. : To ripen ; to bring to a state of 
ripeness or maturity. 

"And, like the stores autumnal suns mature, 
Though wintry rigours unimpaired endure." 

Covrper : Conversation, 649. 

2. Fig. : To advance towards perfection or 
perfect development ; to make ripe or ready. 

" As rolling yean matured his age, 
He nourished liold and sinewy as his sire." 

Smollett : Ode to Independence. 

IL Med. : To bring to a state of perfect 
suppuration ; to maturate. 

B. Intransitive : 

L Ordinary Language : 
L Lit. : To become ripe ; to ripen. 
2. Fig'. : To advance towards perfection or 
perfect developement. 
IL Technically: 

1. Comm. : To become payable ; to reach 
the time fixed for payment : as, A hill matures. 

2. Med. : To come to a state of perfect sup- 
puration. 

ina-tiire'-ly, adv. [Eng. maturely; -ly.] 

1. In a mature manner ; with ripeness ; 
ripely, completely. 

" Whan they (the actea of man) be dooue with sucbe 
moderation, that nothing In the doing may be seue 
superfluous or indigent, we say. that they be ma- 
turely dooue." Sir T. Elyot : The Oopernour. bk. i., 
ch. xxii. 

2. With or after careful deliberation ; care- 
fully, deliberately. 

"You had maturely weighed the advantages of 
rising higher with the hazards of the fall" Drydtn: 
rtrgil: Georgia. (Dedlc.) 

*3. Early, soon. 

" We give Him [God] thanks for contracting the 
days of our trial, aud receiving us wore maturely into 
those everlasting habitations *bo\e."Bentlt]t : Boyle 
Lecture*. 

ma tiire -nSss, s. [Eng. mature; -nets.] The 
quality or state of being mature ; maturity. 

t mat-U-reV-9ent, a. [Lat. maturescens, 
pr. par. of maturetco = to grow ripe ; incept. 
from maturo to ripen.] Becoming ripe ; 
approaching ripeness or maturity. 

ma-tiir'-i-ty, * ma-tur-i-tie, *. [Fr. ma- 
titrite, from Lat. maturitatem, ace. of maturitat 
= ripeness, maturity ; maturus = ripe ; ItaL 
maturitd.] 

L Ord. Lang. : The quality or state of be- 
ing mature ; ripeness ; a state of perfect or 
complete development. 

"Not sufficient to bring their fruits and grain to 
maturity." Ray : On the Creatiim, jit. it. 



IL Technically: 

1. Comm. : The time when a note or bill of 
exchange becomes due. 

2. Med. : A state of perfect suppuration. 

mat-u-tin'-al, a. [Lat. matutinalis, from 
matutinus = belonging to the morning.] 
[MATINS.] Of or pertaining to the morning. 

" Another matutinal expression in ancient use was 
Give you (i.e. God) good day." Penge : Anecdotel of 
the KiKjliah Language, p. 277. 

* mat u -tine, a. & *. [Lat. matutinus = be- 
longing to the morning.] 

A. As adj. : Pertaining to or appearing in 
the morning. 

"According as the sxld stars begin either to sbtne 
out or be hidden In the morning before the sun be up, 
or at evening after the sunue is set, they be said to 
rise and goe downe, and thereupon are uaaed mainline 
or vespertine, oriental! or occidentall, according as the 
one or the other haui>eueth unto them in the twy- 
ligbt, morning or evening."/'. Bolland : Plinie, bk. 
xviii., ch. xxv. 

B. As subst. (PL): Matins. 

" Jiatutines were the first hour, or six of the clock." 
fuller: Church Hut., vi. 287. 

mat' -work, s. [Eng. mat, and work.] The 
same as MATTING (1), . (q.v.). 

mat' y, mat'-ie, s. [Anglo-Indian.] A male 
native servant-of-all-work in India. 

maud, maad, s. [Etym. doubtful ; perhaps 
from Maud or Matilda.] A plaid worn by 
shepherds, &c. 

" For south as weel as north, my lad, 
A' honest Scotsmen lo'e the maud. 

Burnt : Ouidwife of Wauchope-houie. 

* mau' die, v.t. [MAUDLIN, a.] To render 
maudlin ; to throw into confusion or disorder. 

maud'-lin, a. [A corruption of Eng. Mag- 
dalen (Mid. Eng. Madeleyne), i.e. Mary Mag- 
dalene, who was represented as shedding tears 
of sorrowing repentance] 

* I. Tearful, full of tears, weeping. 

"Sir Edmoud-berry . . . milks their maudlin eyes." 
Dryden : Prol. to Loyal Brother. 

* 2. Half-intoxicated, muddled with drink. 

3. Full of or characterized by sickly senti- 
ment ; over emotional. 

maud'-lin, s. [Prob. a corrupt, of Magdalen.] 
[MAUDLIN, a.] 

Bot. : Achillea Ageratum ; more fully, Sweet 
Maudlin. It grows in the south of Europe. 

" The flowers of the maudlin are digested Into loose 
umbels." Miller: Gardener' t Dictionary. 

* maud' lin ism, s. [Eng. maudlin, a. ; -ism.] 

The quality or state of being maudlin ; sickly 
sentimentalism. 

"This piece of perfunctory maudlinitm." Jtrvm- 
mond : I'erthihire in Bygone Dayt, ch. xir. 

maud'-lin- wort, . [Eng. maudlin, s., and 
wort.] 
Bot. : Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum. 

* mau'-gre (gre as ger), * mal-gre, 
maul gre, *mau-ger, prep. |O. Fr 
malgre, maugre, maulgre; Fr. malgre = ill- 
will, from mal (Lat. mains) = bad, ill, and gre 
(Lat. gratum) = a pleasant thing ; Ital. mal- 
grado.] In spite of, in opposition to, not- 
withstanding, despite. 

" I. through the ample air, In triumph high 
Shall lead hell captive, maugrr. hell." 

Milton: P. L., iii. 244. 

"mau'-gre (gre as ger), v.t. [MAUORE, 
prep.] To defy. 

mau' I lite, s. [From the island of Maul, 
Hawaiian Archipelago ; suff. -lite (Min.). ] 
Min. : The same as LABRADORITE (q.v.). 

man kin (1), . [.MAI. KIN-.] 

mau kin (2), maw'-kin, maul kin, . 

[A contr. of grimalkin (q.v.).] A hare. (Cf. 
the use of puss for a hare as well as a cat.) 

" It will be my lot to be shot down like a mawktn." 
Scott : Old Mortality, cb.