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How One Evening's Study 
Led to a $30,000 Job 

A Simple Method of Mind Training that Any One 
Can Follow with Results from .the First Day 

By a Man Who Made Formerly No Mortf Thkn a Decent Living 

I HOPE you won't think I'm conceited 
or egotistical in trying to tell others 
how I suddenly changed from a com- 
parative failure to what my friends term 
a phenomenal success. 

In reality I do not take the credit to my- 
self at all. It was all so simple that I believe 
any man can accomplish practically the same 
thing if he learns the secret, which he can do 
in a single evening. In fact I know others 
who have done much better than I by fol- 
lowing the same method. 

It ail came about in a rather odd manner. 
I had been worrying along in about the same 
way as the average man thinking that I was 
doing my bit for the family by providing 
them with three square meals a day, when an 
old chum of mine, Frank Powers, whom I 
had always thought was about the same kind 
of a chap as I, suddenly blossomed out with 
every evidence of great prosperity. 

He moved into a fine new house, bought a 
good car and began living in the style of a 
man of ample means. Naturally tne first 
thing I did when I noticed these things — for 
he had said nothing to me about his sudden 
good fortune — ^was to congratulate him and 
ask him what had brought the evident change 
in his finances. 

" Bill," he said, " it's all come so quickly 
I can hardly Account for it myself. But the 
thing that has made such difference in my 
life lately began with an article I read a 
short time ago about training the mind. 

" It compared the average person's mind 
to a leaky pail, losing its contents as it went 
along, which if earned any distance would 
arrive at its destination practically empty. 

"And it showed that instead of making 
the pail leakproof most of us kept filling it 
up and then losing all we put into it before 
we ever reached the place where the con- 
tents would be of real use. 
"The leak in the pail, the writer demon- 
strated, was forgetful- 
ness. He showed that 
when memory fails, ex- 
perience, the thing we 
all value mosthighly,is 
worthless. He proved 
to me that a man is 
only as good as his 
memory, and whatever 
progress a man ac- 
complishes can be laid 
directly to his powers 
of retaining m his 
mind the right things 
— the things that are 
going to be useful to 
him as he goes alone. 
"Farther on in the 
article I read that the 
power of the mind is 
only the sum total of 
what we remember — 
that is, if we read a 
book and remember 
nothing that was in it, 
we have not addea 
one particle to our ex- 
perience ; if we make 
a mistake and forget 
about it, we are apt to 
make the same mis- 
take again, so our ex- 

Dmrid H. Roth 

Wbtn Mr. Roth lint de- 
tannined to eschanca bis 
Ifky mind for me that 
mnUratam aaTtliliic h* 
wwitod It to, it WM bo- 
OMU* be f amid Me meiD- 
orr to be probably poorer 
than tbat of any man ha 
knew. He ooan not i*- 
member a man's name 
» aeconda. Ha torsot to 
many thinca that be wae 
oooTtncsd ne ooald nerer 
succeed until he learned 
to lemamlier. Today there 
are over tan thoosand 
fai the United 
whoa Mr. Roth 
oftbem only 01 
J he ca n inaiautly 

Mr. RoOcao and baa 
hmalreda d timee at <S- 
nan and laetaiea aaked 
•fty or sixty men he haa 
nerer mat to tall Um thalr 
■amas* boiiiMaiaa and 
telephane numbers wd 
tlien after turning tiis 
bade while Iber chanced 
aMta, baa piekao eaoh one 
oat fay name, told him 
bis telaphoae number 
and businses oanssotioo. 
Thaea ara only a few at 
the aporea of equally " ta>. 
tnadble " thinss that Mr. 
Roth can do, and yet a 
few years aco he ooiildn*t 
ratnember a man' 

twenty eeoo u de. Why go 
aroand with a mind like a 
~ paU when, as Mr. 
laya, " what I hare 
any one can da" 

perience did not help us. And so on, in. 
everything we do. Our judgment is abso- 
lutely dependent on our experience, and our 
experience is only as great as our power to 

" Well, I was convinced. My mind was a 
'leaky pail.' I had never been able to re- 
member a man's name thirty seconds after 
I'd been introduced to him, and, as you 
know, I was always forgetting things that 
ought to be done. I had recognized it as a 
fault, but never thought of it as a definite 
barrier to business success. I staried in at 
once to make my memory efficient, taking up 
a memory training course which claimed to 
improve a man's memory in one evening. 
What you call my good fortune to-day I 
attribute solely to my exchanging a ' leaky 
pail ' for a mmd that retains the things I 
want to remember." 

Powers' story set me thinking. What kind 
of a memory did I have ? It was much the 
same as that of other people I supposed. I 
had never worried about my memory one 
way or another, but it had always seemed 
to me that I remembered important things 
pretty well. Certainly it never occurred to 
me that it was possible or even desirable to 
improve it, as I assumed that a good mem- 
ory was a sort of natural gift. Like most of 
us, when I wanted to remember something 
particularly I wrote it down on a memoran- 
dum pad or in a pocket note-book. Even 
then I would sometimes forget to look at 
my reminder. I had been embarrassed — as 
who has not been ? — by being obliged to ask 
some man whom I previously had met what 
his name was, after vainly groping through 
my mind for it, so as to be able to introduce 
him to others. And I had had my name 
requested apologetically for the same pur- 
pose, so that I knew I was no different than 
most men in that way. 

I began to observe myself more closely in my 
daily work. The frequency with which I had to 
refer to records or business papers concerning 
things that at some previous time had come 
under my particular notice amazed me. The 
men arouncl me who were doing about the same 
work as myself were no different than I in this 
regard. And this thought gave new significance 
to the fact that I had been performing practi- 
cally the same subordinate duties at exactly the 
same salary for some three years. I couldn't 
dodge the fact that my mind, as well as most 
other people's, literally limped sjong on crutches, 
because it could not retam names, faces, facts, 
and figures. Could I expect to progress if even 
a small proportion of the important things I 
learned from day to day slipped away from me ? 
The only value of of my hard-won experi- 
ence was being canceled — obliterated — by my 
constant forgetting things that my experience 
had taught me. 

The whole thing hit me pretty hard. I began 
to think about the subject from all angles as it 
affected our business. I realized that probably 
hundreds of sales had been lost because the 
salesman forgot some selling point that would 
have closed the order. Many of our men whom 
I had heard try to present a new idea or plan 
had failed to put over their message or to make 
a good impression because they had been unable 
to rememner just what they wanted to say. 
Many decisions involving thousands of dollars 
bad been made unwisely because the man re- 
sponsible didn't remember all the. facts bearing 
on the situation and thus used poor judgment. 
I know now that there isn't a day but what the 

^yer^e business man forgets to do from one to 
»'d4izen things that would have increased his 

f>rant^ There are no greater wprds in the Eng- 
ish lang'iage descriptive of business inefficiency 
than the t«o I'-ttle words " I forgot." 

I had rtachefl my decision. On the recom- 
mendation of 'Poweip, I got in touch at once with 
the Independent Corpora'jon which shortly be- 
fore had published' the' David M. Koth Method 
of Memory Training. Aii(< ^hen came the sur- 
prise of my life. In the very- hrst le-sson of the 
course I found the key to' i good memory. 
Within thirty minutes after I had opened the 
book the secret that I had been in need of all 
my life was mine. Mr. Koth has boiled down 
the principles perfecting the memory so that 
the method can almost be grasped at a glance. 
And the farther you follow the method the more 
accurate and reliable your memory becomes. 
Within an hour I found that I could easily 
memorize a list of 100 words and call them off 
backward and forward without a mistake. I was 
thunderstruck with the ease of it all. Instead of 
study the whole thing seemed like a fascinating 
game. I discovered that the art of remembering 
had been reduced l>y Mr. Roth to the simplest 
method imaginable — it required almost notning 
but to nad the lessons ! Every one of those 
seven simple lessons gave me new powers of 
memoir, and I enjoyedthe course so much that 
I look back on it now as a distinct ^deasure. 

The rest of my stoiy is not an unusual one 
. among American business men who have realized 
the value of a reliable trained memory. My in- 
come today is close to $30,000. It will reach that 
figure at the beginning of our next fiscal year. 
And two years ago I scarcely made what I now 
think of as a decent living. 

In my progress I have found my unproved 
memory to be priceless. Every experience, every 
busiiiess decision, every important name and 
face is easily and definitely recorded in my mind, 
and each remembered experience was of im- 
mense value in my rapid strides from one post 
to another. Of course I can never be thankful 
enough that I mended that " leaky pail " and 
discovered the enormous possibilities of a really 
good memory. 


Mr. Roth's faefor peraonal inatmctioa todaaaeaUnUted to 
fUUr members iatliOm. But tai order to eecnre nation-wide 
distribotioa tor the Roth Memory Course bi a dagle •eaeoii 
the publialierahaTeimttheprioaat ofilyflredoUaia.a lower 
flguie than any comae of ita kind lias ever been eoM before, 
and it contains the renr aune material in permanent form aa 
is glTeo fai the peisooaf tl.OOO oomae. 

So conHdeat ie the Independent Corpoistiaa, the pub- 
Uabers of the Roth Memory Comae, that onoe yon hare au 
opportunity to see in yonr own home how easy itistodoulile. 
yea triple toe power* o( your memoiy, md how easily you 
can aoqoire the secret c( a food memofT fai one erenlng, ttaU 
they ara willing to send the course on n«e emminatiaa. 

Dcat asnd any mooey. Merely mail the oounoo or write a 
letter and the complete course wOl be sent, all charges prr- 
paid, at once. It you are not sntlrsly mtisfleil •ntdit back 
any time wHUn tra days attar yon reosire it and yea will 
owe nothing. 

On the other hand, if you are aa plmsed aa are the tbou- 
anda of otlier men and woman who bare used tha eoorae. 
ssnd only tS in full payment. Ton take uo riak and you haire 
ererytliing to aaln so nail the ooupou now before tbia re- 
manable offer Is withdrawn. 


JutcHflil ttitt luttyOTibit 

Diviaioa of B ns i nssa Edncalaon 
Dapl. 229. 1 19 Weet 40lii St.. New York 

fMblithtn of The Indrptndnl (and l/nrper't WrrUyj 
Flsase send me the Roth Memory Courss of sersn lessons. 

I win either nmaS the coutes to yxm within Ura days after 

its receipt or send you 16. 



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^ fAebasis 
' o/All 



The secret of bosi- 
nea9 and social suc- 
cess is the ability 

to remember. I can 

mnke your mind an infallible 

rlasaifiad index from which you can 

instantly select thoughts, facta, 

iifxures. names, faces, EnabUf you 

t'> concMitrat*, d«v«lop ••(! - control, 

ov«rco«n* ^shfulnaas, Uihih on your 

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The result of 20 years* expeHciic« do- 

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WnfATftJav for free booklet "How to 

Wnte lOday Remember' and Copy- 

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Dicktoo School of Memorrr 1739 Hearst Bids., CUcafo. 18. 




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The Outlook 

Copyright, 1918, by The Ontlook Company 


Vol. 120 September 4, 1918 No. 1 

rE^^IDBKI. 8. T. rnUlFIB, TlCa-PianOBHT. rsAXK C. HOTT, 



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Br Joicph H. Odcll, Speeiel Correapondent oi 
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Digitized by 



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This photograph shows the vanguard of a fleet of 142 
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Drive. They drove all the way from Buffalo and are 
bound for the front 

It is estimated that at least 300,000 new motor-trucks will 
take to the roads during 1918. Many thousands of these 
will be army-trucks, which are expected to run from mid- 
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and tear. 

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Tarvia is a coal-tar preparation for use in constructing new 
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and proof against motor-trucks. 

The road shown in illustration is part of Riverside Drive, 
New York, treated with " Tarvia-B." 

Illustrated Tarvia booklet free on request. 



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Digitized by 


The Outlook 

SEPTEMBER 4. 1918 
Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York 


Each day since we last reported the progress of the war on 
the outlaws oi: Gennany has brought news of victory. The 
battle which began on Bastille Day, July 14, and was signalized 
at the first by an abortive Gei-man attack directed toward 
Chalons, and a brilliant, effective, and decisive counter-attack 
by Americans at Chateau Thierry, has continued without ceas- 
ing for day after day and week after week, and promises to 
continue for days and perhaps weeks to come. To us it seems 
the greatest battle in history. It is great, not because of its 
bigness, the immense numbers of men engaged, the colossal 
materials of war employed, the wide extent of territory over 
which it rages, the days and weeks it has consumed, but because 
of the momentous issues at stake. It is the battle at the peak of 
the war. It is up to this battle that the Allied nations have 
been toilsomely climbing in the years past. It is from this battle 
that the Allied nations will descend upon Germany to admin- 
ister the final crushing defeat. So it seems now. 

There are undoubtedly months of struggle ahead of us. How 
many months vrill be determined by circumstances over which 
we fuid our allies have virtual controL If we manage well, if 
we put forth our 'strength, if we resist trickery and peace 
swindles, if we lend our power to Russian resistance to Ger- 
many, if we strengthen the bonds that unite us to our 
allies, the bonds that have formed an alliance more binding 
than that which any treaty or other formal document can ci-eate, 
if we make use of the circumstances that are at our command, 
we may reasonably hope to dispose of Germany in another year. 

That is the significance of the battle that Foch is directing 
in these days. In order to imderstand what is happening we 
must remember that the object of the fighting is not acquisition 
of territory, but the defeat of the enemy. To weaken and then 
to destroy as a fighting force the German armies is what Foch 
is after. To that end the attainment of a town here, a crest 
there, a bridge-head, a railway, a line of defenses, is necessary, 
but ail these things are not ends in themselves, but means to 
the end. There is of course involved in this war the desire on 
the part of every AUied soldier, from private to general, to trans- 
fer the fighting from French and Belgian to German soil. We 
want not only to beat the Germans, we want to beat them 
where the beating will do them and the world the most good, 
and that is along and even across the Rhine. But the object is 
to beat them ; and under Foch's leadership we are beating 


We may think of this battle as extended from Arras to 
Rheims. In the first stage of the battle Foch hammered the 
Ilim at the left end of his line, where it extended in a semi- 
circle from Rheims through Chateau Thierry to Soissons. He 
hammered him hard. He took prisoners, munitions, and a toll 
in dead and wounded Germans ; but, whaJt is even more, he took 
from the Hun his sense of superiority and his power of decision. 
Then Foch struck him nearer the center of what is now the 
battle-line and drove him back from Montdidier. During the 
week which we are now recording Foch has tak^i him on the 
right of his line. There Haig, with hb gallant and dogged 
British troops, has seut the Hun reeling back. And what has 
been characteristic of this battle from the beginning is still 
characteristic of it. It has been a process of steady cruwing in. 
On August 20 the line ran curving inward on the .^es 
from Arras through Albert to Roye, and then jutted again 
inward around Lassigny and back to Noyon. While the French 
were striking near Noyon the British launched their attack 

southwest of Arras. With them were a few Americana. They 
gtithered in towns and teiritory from MoyenneviUe to Achiet-le- 
Grand, while the French, pressing on toward Noyon, drove in, 
in the course of a few days, a sharp wedge towards Chaony. 
Then the British by skillful maneuvering sent the Germans 
back, not only on their extreme right, but all along the line, 
so that Albert was soon left several miles within the Allied 
territory ; and before the seven days were up the British had 
penetrated and passed beyond the old Hindenburg line south- 
east of Arras. 

In addition to the fearful drubbing to which the Germans 
have been subjected there has been adminbtered the sort of 
defeat that makes it hard for the Germans to provide for a 
future respite. At the left end of their line they are standing 
behind the Vesle, but when they go back, as they will have to 
do, they will not find the line of the Aisne, or even that of the 
Chemin des Dames, as secure as they mi^ht wish, and if the 
British penetrate much behind the old Hmdenbui^ line near 
Arras the Grermans will find that not as comfortable or stable as 
they would like. The Germans are retreating because they 
have to retreat They cannot choose their time or their method. 
They are doing it wd^ but they are doing it under duress. The 
arrogant bandits who have devastated a urge part of northern 
France and were on their greedy way ^o Paris are now fighting 
for their lives. 


If there were any question of the country's determination 
to see this war through to a finish, it would be settled by the 
decision of the Nation to increase its man power by extending the 
draft age down to eighteen and up to forty-five. Whatever 
reluctance there has been to develop the man power of the coun- 
try by such a measure as this has not come ttom the people at 
hurge, but from those who are in responsible positions who have 
hesitated to make any such demand upon the people. 

The whole question has been whether boys of twenty, nine- 
teen, and even eighteen, should be called as well as men from 
thirty-one to forty-five. It is perhaps natural that there should 
be hesitation in calling boys of eighteen years of age. It is 
argued that they are not mature enough for service in modem 
wufare, and ih&t it is asking too much of parents to give to 
the service of their country sons of such youth. On the other 
hand, figures from the War Department have been cited to show 
that the battles of the Civil War were f oxight largely by young 
men under twenty-one years of age, and that there is no soldier 
equal to the young soldier. It is also pointed out that boys of 
eighteen who are now drafted will be put under training and 
wOl not be sent to the front in most cases before they are nine- 
teen. The debate over this question has gone on in Congress, 
but the country at large has shown every sign of willingness to 
support whatever action in this respect the military auUiorities 
consider wise and right. There is nothing the matter with the 
spirit of the people of America. 

Certain members of Congress have advocated the adoption of 
a provision which would make mandatory the selection of all 
eligible men of the class above the age of eighteen before those 
of eighteen are drafted ; but Congress, reflecting the public 
opinion of the Nation, has rejected the amendments to place any 
limitation upon the executive authority in this matter. 

It is gomg to be diiHcult to place boys of eighteen or nineteen 
in the draft and at the same time make provision for the con- 
tinuing of the education of young men of that age ; and yet 
such raucation is necessary if we are going to develop out of 
those young men the officers the country wiU need. The colleges 

Digitized by VJ\^»^V l*^ 


4 Septemlx^ 

and technical schools of the ooontry, in order to meet this situ- 
ation, are establishing Student Army Training Corps, in which 
eligible undei^^raduates will be enrolled. By their enrollment 
these yoimg men will become enlisted men in the United States 
Army and subject to call into active service, but, it is expected, 
will for the most part be furloughed for instruction in their 
respective institutions. Provision will probably be made for 
the assignment, at the Government's exjpense, to such institu- 
tions of young men who are fit to receive higher education, 
especially in military branches, but who are not financially able 
to pay tlieir own expenses. The measure as adopted by the 
House also contains a provision by which youths whose educa- 
tion is interrupted by military service will be permitted, at the 
Government's expense, to receive education at such institutions 
for a period equaling their military service, though not to 
exceed two years. 

One provision has aroused a great deal of debate. This 
is the so-called " work or fight " provision. It would make it 
incumbent upon every man of draft age who would be put in 
deferred classification because engaged in necesst^ war indus- 
try to enter military service if he stops his work. This has been 
objected to on the ground that it is " conscription of labor." It 
is argued that this gives private employers power over their 
employees in preventing them from striking or stopping work, 
oollectively or individuiQly. 

If the wage workers in war industries need to be protected 
against the despotism of private employers, their protection 
should be provided by Government regulation of employers 
rather than by the exemption of the worxers from consoriptaon 
under the " work or fight " prinmple. 

Germany ought to be aware by this time that the United 
States b going to send an overwhelming army of men to join 
in administering to her the defeat she richly deserves. 


What sort of defeat does Germany deserve and does the 
safety of the world demand as a consequence of her aggression ? 
This question was answered by Senator Lodge in a speech on 
the Man-Power Bill — one of the most notable speeches which 
has been made in Congress during the war. That speech has 
special significance because Senator Lodge has, as a conse- 

auence of the recent death of Senator Galnnger, succeeded to 
lie position of minority leader of the Senate. He spoke with 
the authority not only of his own great knowledge of inter- 
national affairs, but iJso of his new <^cial position. In brief, 
such defeat as Senator Lodge demands of Germany — and, as 
we believe, the country is growing more and more to demand — 
is one that will provide for what Senator Lodge calls " a dic- 
tated peace." The terms of that peace must not be arranged by 
negotiation with Germany, but must be imposed upon Germany 
as a result of agreement among the Allied free nations. Such 
terms as he r^ards as an irreducible minimum comprise the 
restoration of &Igium, the unconditional return of Alsace-Lor- 
raine, the redemption of Italia Irredenta, the re-establishment 
of the independence of Serbia and Rumania, the securing of 
the safety of Greece, the establishment of the great Slav popu- 
lation as independent states and of an independent Poland, the 
blocking of the pathway of Germany to the East, the restora- 
tion of Russia, the taking away of Constantinople from Turkey, 
the sharing of Germany's fate by Turkey and Bulgaria, the 
security of Palestine, the Syrians, and the Armenians. 

That Germany would acquiesce in such a peace as that is not 
to be imagined. " No peace," says Senator Lodge, " that satis- 
fies Germany in any degree can ever satisfy us. It cannot be 
a n^otiated peace. It must be a dictated peace, and we and 
our allies must dictate it." 

Though he speaks as a leader of his party, Senator Lodge, 
we believe, speaks for more than his JMirty, just as the President 
has at various times spoken for more than his party. It is the con- 
viction of the country that Senator Lodge voices. Our soldiers at 
the front who are fighting the Germans have no question about 
what kind of peace they are seeking through victory. And the 
more we hear of what Germany has done through ravaged 
France and Belgium, the more we hear how Germany fights to 
gain her ends, the more we in America have become con- 

vinoed that we ought not to ask Germanv to what terms slii 
will assent, but that we ought to fight until we are able to id 
Germany to. what terms she must assent. 

To what Senator Lodge has said we would add three stat» 
ments which we believe to be in accord with what the United 
States ought to do and will do. 

In the course of his speech Senator Lodge said that it is idl< 
to talk about annihilating the German people, .and that we an 
not engaged in this war to try to arrange a government fo 
Germany ; but that we should put Germany in a position when 
she will do no more harm. This is true ; but we should p 
further. First, the Allies have a right, and maybe a duty, u 
punish individual officers for murder or other crimes which tiM>i 
have committed in violation of international law ; and not odIi 
these officers, but also their superiors. Though the Allies nu; 
not find it their duty to punish the German nation as such, it i 
their right and their duty to refuse to interfere with Que operadd 
of the natural penal consequences that fall upon a nation guilt 
of the criminal conduct that has disgraced Germany. In tit 
second place, though it is not our busmess or desire to impw 
upon Germany a government of our selection, nevertheless, if * 
think it is necessary for rendering Germany harmless, we hav< 
the right to provide that a Hohenzollem shall never occupy tb 
German throne, and that Germany shall have a government a 
such a character as will not be a menace to the peace and safer 
of Europe and the world. In the third place, we have tli 
right and the duty to provide that the former German colonie 
shall not be returned to Germany. It would be bad enough t 
return those colonies to the Him from whom they have beei 
emancipated, if we did that in order to secure, through negc 
tiations, benefits for other peoples, but it wp)^ be intolerabl 
to do this as part of a dictated peace. , 

There is some danger that a tew Americaiis of kindly dispu 
sition may feel it their duty to try to save^ermany from i 
humiliating peace, a peace that leaves a sting behind it. It i 
not their duty or anyoody's duty to protect Germany from ti 
sting, the humiliation, the. disgrace which by her crimes she b| 
brought upon herself. 


When peace terms are dictated to Germany at the oound 
table of the Allies, as General Grant dictated the terms (i 
peace to General Lee, the sinking of the Lusitania and tl) 
assassination of her passengers wiU form the basis of one of tlx 
most terrific accusations brought against the Prussian hierarch;! 
In a notable decision, just himded down in the Federal Distrie 
Court of New York by Judge Julius Mayer, the destructia 
of the Lusitania has been le^lly and officimly declared to hati 
been an act of piracy. It has been so regarded by many layuio 
from the day the news of the torpedoing was published, but tlJ 
is the first time in which this definition has received leg^ auf- 
tion on this side of the water. 

The decision is the result of suits brought against the Ciuuv 
Line for damages to personal property, the claimants alle^ 
that the loss of the Lusitania was due to the negligence of Jyi 
owners and navigators. The litigation has been goings on fa 
more than a year. Judge Mayer's decision will, we think, h 
one of the historical documents of the war. In it he namU 
the facts in a form whose clearness and interest the practi 
journalist might well envy. He reviews the principles of va 
national law involved, with scholarly references to many 1 
decisions and writings touching on international relations. 

It has sometimes been said that the present war has destroj 
international law. This is not the opinion of Ju^e Mayer, lii 
refers even to Grerman documents to show that Germany thH 
retically, even during the present war, has recognized the biii> 
ing nature of international law, although in practice she b 
grossly violated it. He finds that the Lusitania was not carr 
ing munitions, that her captain took every possible precauti" 
for her safety, and that her owners were justified in relyii 
upon the universally accepted principle that an enemy Te» 
may be destroyed at sea '^ only if it is impossible to take it ioi 
port, and provided always that the persons on board are put i 
a pliice of safety." 

Judge Mayer concludes that "■ the cause of the nnking of tl 

Digitized by 




Lusitania was the illegal act of the Imperial German Govem- 
nent, acting through its instrument the submarine commander, 
uid violating a cherished and humane rule observed, until this 
xrar, by even the bitterest antagonists." And be adds this perti- 
lent prophecy as the final word of his judgment : " But, while 
n this lawsuit there may be no recovery, it is not to be doubted 
:hat the United States of America and her allies will well 
•emember tfie rights of those affected by the sinking of the 
Lusitania, and, when the time shall come, will see to it that 
reparation sh^l be made for one of the most indefensible acts 
)f modem times." 

Should this case be carried to the Supreme Court of the 
[Jnit^ States and Judge Mayer's decision and opinion there 
oe sustained, the Commissioners of the United States, when 
^ey come to settle with Germany, will have behind them th^ 
precedent of a great legal decision for demanding a large in* 
iemnity from Germany. Such an indemnity should be exacted 
90th as a punishment and as a reparation. It is false sentiment 
x> say that we must deal gently with Germany lest we crush 
ber. When the settlement day comes for Germany, there will 
be no duty calling upon any one to try to interfere with the 
jperation of the law, recognized by the ancient Hebrews, 
vhich visits "the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, 
md upon the children's children, unto the third and to the 
'onrth generation." 


Although the attention of the people of the United States 
a now fixed upon the problems of the European war, they ought 
lot to forget that one way to promote American success in the 
var is to cultivate and strengthen our friendships with our South 
American neighbors, especially with the republics of Argentina 
ind Brazil. 

About a year ago Secretary Daniels sent an American fleet 
» Rio Janeiro and Buenos Aires, and our officers and men were 
■eceived with warm hospitality by both Brazilians and Argen- 
;inians. Last February the Rev. Samuel G. Inman, Secretary 
>f the Committee on Co-operation in Latin America, in an article 
contributed to these pages, said : '* The visit of Admiral Caper- 
;on'B war-ships to Braal, Uruguay, and Argentina constitutes 
>ne of the most important events in the development of closer 
ntemational relations between North and South America." To 
lubstantiate this statement he quoted the opinions of well-known 
nen in South America, the Minister of Public Instruction of 
VIontevideo sajring, " I have been working for closer relations 
between my country and yours for thirty years, but I never im- 
igined it was possible for such a spontaneous expression of love 
uid sympathy to be given by any Latin- American nation to the 
[Jnited States." 

Brazil and Argentina have now reciprocated by sending two 
)f their finest war-ships to American waters. They are lying at 
mchor in the port of New York, the Brazilian battleship S3o 
Paulo and the Argentine dreadnought Rivadavia. On August 
21 the Mayor's Committee on National Defense of the City of 
Vew York gave a dinner at the Waldorf Astoria to the officers of 
,hese two snips. It was largely attended by citizens who wished 
n this way to express their appreciation of the courtesies shown 
» our own Navy in South American waters, and our friendship 
'or our great sister republics to the south of us. Ambassador 
!ifa6n, of Argentina, and Ambassador da Gama, of Brazil, spoke 
n felicitous English, and Secretary Daniels responded for the 
National Government, and especially for the Navy, in a very 
itrong address, in which he paid the following effective tribute 
x» the friendships which naval life produces : 

To these officers of these dreadnoughts and to the men who 
man them I wish, a* Secretary of the Navy, to tender the Na- 
tion's welcome— ihey are shipmates. There is no relation in life 
so intimate, lo cordial, so sjrmpathetic, as that which exists 
between shipmates. 

I T«memDer _some time aeo meeting an admiral, now on the 
retired list, and in chatting with him on Uie train I spoke of having 
met the day before a boatswain in the Navy, a man who had 
served for forty vears, a splendid type of tJie American sailor, 
and I said to the Admiral, "Do you know Bosun HiU?** 
" Wliy," said he, " of course ; we were shipmates "- and in that 
word shipmates goes a something of friendship and sympathy 

and comradeship that vou do not find anywhere in any other 
relationship in the world. 

It has been suggested that the hospitality of the metropolis 
ought not to be confined to the officers of these ships, but 
should be made to include the sailors as well. We hope 
that something can be done for the seamen of Argentina 
and Brazil while they are visiting these waters. What Dr. 
Butler, of Columbia University, has happily called the " inter- 
national mind " — that is to say, the mind to understand and 
respect the view of the other fellow — can in no way be better 
cultivated than by a promotion of such international naval 
visits as have been exchanged during the past year between the 
United States and her sister Latin- American Republics. 


As is well known, Theodore Roosevelt was one of the 
recipients of the $40,000 Nobel Peace Prize. It was awarded to 
him because of his connection with the Peace of Portsmouth 
which closed the Russo-Japanese War, 

When he received it, as he did not care to use it for himself, 
he gave it as a foundation for an industrial fund. Congress 
created a Commission to receive and use it. But it seems that 
it did not prove practicable to make the use intended of the 

As we are now in a great crisis, and as, to quote Mr. Roose- 
velt's own words, " the utmost demand is being made upon the 
ability of every man and woman, rich or poor, ... I do not 
think it right that the fund should lie idle, and I think it most 
appropriate that the Nobel Peace Prize fund should be used, 
through appropriate organizations, to care for our soldiers, and 
for the widows and children and mothers of our soldiers, in this 
great war, waged to secure the only kind of peace worth hav- 
mg — the peace which is founded on right and justice and 

Accordingly Mr. Roosevelt asked Congress to return the 
money for this purpose. The securities, when sold, plus the cash 
in hiuid, realized over $45,000, and Mr. Roosevelt promptly 
announced that he would make donations to the following war 
charities : The American, Italian, and Japanese Red Cross ; 
the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A.; the Knights of Columbus ; 
the Jewish Welfare Board ; the Salvation Army ; the Belgian, 
Serbian, Armenian, Rumanian, and Montenegrin sufferers ; the 
Navy League; and also to a large number ofpersons for 
personal war charities in widely separated regions. The language 
accompanying two of these gifts should \e quoted. One of the 
statements was : 

To Langdon Warner, Acting American Vice-CJonsul at Har- 
bin and Vladivostok for the Czechoslovaks, the extraordinarr 
nature of whose great and heroic feat is literaUy unparalleled, 
so far as I know, in ancient or modem warfare, S1,000. In this 
case, as in all the cases tliat follow, the value of the money con- 
tribution amounts to so little that it seems hardly worth sending, 
but the money was given to me by the Nobel Peace Prize Com- 
mittee for my action in connection with the peace of Portsmouth, 
which closed the Russo-Japanese War, and I. wish to use it in 
part to show my admiration for the high heroism of the peoples 
who have done most and suffered most in this g^reat war to 
secure liberty for all those nations, big or little, which lead self- 
respecting and orderly hves and act justly and fairly by others. 

The other was : 

To .Tudge Joseph L. Nonan, of Georgetown, Demerara, for 
wounded soldiers and tlieir families in Irehmd, $500. I send this 
through Mr. Nunan because he believes in Home Rule within 
the Empire, and stands uncompromisingly for prosecuting the 
war against Germany with all possible efficiency until the enemy 
is overthrown. 

The query arises as to whether Mr. Roosevelt might possibly 
have accomplished more good by giving the fund as a lump sum 
to some one organization. It certainly would have been easier 
that way. But Mr. Roosevelt chose another way, incidentally 
showing the wide range of his interests and knowledge, and 
accomplishing several things otherwise impossible. In the first 
place, he gave himself the satisfaction of snowing to many per- 
sons and societies that he trusted them to make proper use of 
his money ; he distinctly attached no conditions to his gifts. In 
the second place, he gave the lienefit of his indorsement to many 

Digitized by Vn^^^^V IV^ 



little-known bnt highly serviceable forms of relief and agents 
of relief. And, in the third place, he was able to use his donations, 
as in the case of the fund for wounded soldiers and their fam- 
ilies in Ireland, as a means of emphasizing certun principles 
and policies. 


The " Red Cross Bulletin " reports an interesting case 
under the Espionage Act recently tried in the United States 
District Court in Wisconsin. The defendant was charged with 
accusing the Red Cross and the Y. M. C. A. with being a 
bunch of grafters and saying, " Not over ten or fifteen per cent 
of the money collected goes to the soldiers or is used for the 
purpose for which it is collected," Apparently no evidence was 
offered on the trial by the defendant to sustain the truth of 
these accusations. The Espionage Act provides that whoever, 
when the United States is at war, shall willfully make or con- 
vey false reports or statements with intent to interfere with the 
operation or success of the military or naval forces of the 
United States, or promote the success of its enemy, shall be 
liable to a fine of not more than $10,000 or imprisonment for 
not more than twenty years, or both. The defense seems to 
have rested upon the cltum that charges against the int^rity 
of the Red Cross or the Y. M. C. A. were not in violation of 
this law. The answer of the Judge to this contention is thus 
reported by the " Red Cross Bulletin :" 

Can a man who contaminates the spring at its source avoid 
responsibility because the resulting damage occurs at the mouth 
of the stream ? Can a resident of this country avoid responsi- 
bility for remarks the effect of which is to mterfere with the 
raismg of the funds by which the Red Cross is maintained when 
he would be liable if he interfered with the same organization in 
its field of activity ? Without funds the organization cannot suc- 
cessfully carry on its work. In fact, one of the chief purposes of 
the organization is to convey from the citizen at home to the 
citizen in arms that which means to the latter gpreater comfort 
and greater efiBciency. This is possible only by the judicious use 
of the monevs donated by the supporters of this war. To cripple 
the force coUecting the funds by the spreading of false reports 
interferes with " the operation of success " oi the work and is 

This decision is of importance because it apparently is based 
upon the doctrine that m a democratic country a democratic 
organization cooperating with the military forces of the gov- 
ernment is in so far identified with them that any interference 
with their cooperating work is interference with the operation 
of the military forces of the government. 


The letter of Mr. Lloyd George, British Prime Minister, 
to the Interallied Women's Congress adds another to his dis- 
tinctions. In it he says : 

My experience in South Wales last week has confirmed me 
in the belief that the women there understand perfectly what is 
at stake in this war. They do not mean to make peace until the 
Allies have made it impossible for another carnival of violence 
to befall mankind. 

As justifying this tribute we quote the following from the 
platform of the Women's Party in England r 

War till victory, followed by a peace imposed upon the Ger- 
mans and their allies which, by withdrawing subject populations 
from their control and by reducing their mineral and other war- 
like resources, will make it physically impossible for the Ger- 
mans to wage another war with any prospects of success. . . . 

The adoption of more radical and vigorous war measures, 
with a view to securing complete and speedy victory. Such 
measures to include : 

Food rations, accompanied by the development of communal 
kitchens, so as to economize domestic labor, reduce food waste, 
and guarantee to the people the best possible food at the lowest 
possible prices, cooked in the most sKillful way, so that its full 
nutritive value may be secured. 

All non-essential industry to be now reduced, and even pro- 
hibited, in order to liberate additional labor power for agriculture 
and war industry and fighting power for the trenches. 

Efficient and lo}'al public service to be guaranteed by ridding 
all Government departments of officiab lutving enemy blood or 

connections, and of all officials who have pacifist and pro-Germaj: 
leanings, or have displayed lack of the necessary zeal and com- 

In addition, as a further indication of feminine acateness, t^ 
protest of the Women's Party in London to Mr. Lloyd Geoif 
concerning Bulgaria should be noted : 

The Women's Party, having noticed a rumor that Bulgaru 
may declare herself a republic, nevertheless feels assuried that 
the British Government, having regard for the fact that tin 
Bulgarian people are equally responsible with their aoverei^ 
for the aggressive and iniquitous national policy of Bulgaria, 
which is me Prussia of the Balkans, will refuse to make anj 
compromise peace with Bulgaria whether that country be under 
a monarchical or a republican regime, especially in view of th« 
fact tliat any form of compromise peace would invoke spoliatJon 
of our faithtul and lieroic aUies Serbia, Rumania, and Greece. 

A general election is impending in Great Britain. Under tl 
new Franchise Act, admitting women, the electorate will l> 
greatly enlarged. Of the position of the women towards retun 
ing the present Government, Mrs. Pankhurst, the EngUs': 
suffragist leader, says, as reported by the New York " Times 

It lias been stated that our party was in favor of the Socialiitt 
Labor programme. That is the very one we have been fi^htin|; 
against Lloyd George has not got a machine behind him in the 
coming general election like the " Wait and See " Laberal leader, 
Asquith, bnt he has the women voters with him, and we are 
fighters from the start. 

All the real English people who believe in the win-the-war 
policy will stand solid with Lloyd George, and the only ones 
against him will be the pacifist " Germauy-is-not-so-bad " type 
and the backers of the Bolshevik! propaganda now being circu- 
lated in England. 

Germany has reason to fear when such words come froi 


By the defeat of James K. Vardaman in the Mississipp 
primary for re-election to the United States Senate Presideol 
Wilson has won a triumph for the Nation. The President! 
declaration that Vardaman's re-election would be regarded " s 
a condemnation of the Administration " turned the tide againa 
that would-be statesman, though Mr. Harrison might have wm 
anyway. A characteristic statement of Senator Vardaman's i 
one quoted by the New York " Times," that " the Unit*( 
States stabbed Germany in the back while France and Englan 
held her down," 

In the Nebraska primaries, George W, Norris, also one <i 
the " wiUfid twelve" Senators, but of a far different sort fn- 
Senator Vardaman, secured the nomination for re election. \Vi 
do not know that the Administration opposed him on any oth-! 
ground than that he was a Republican. 

To our mortification, we find that, through an inadvertencv 
certain names were omitted in our recent list of the memb*^ 
of the Sixty-fifth Congress who voted right on the declarati<'. 
of war and on the Conscription BiU, The members oinitte 
were Rejjresentatives Bankhead, of Alabama ; Scott, of Iowa 
Goodall, White, and Hersey, of Maine; and Zihlman, «■ 
Maryland. Any one who assumes that because of our regrettad' 
omission they voted wrong is grossly mistaken ; they have clrtu 
scores and should be given cretUt for them. 

The case of Mr. White is specially to be noted, as his opp' 
nent for the nomination in the Maine primaries ia fonw 
Congressman McGillicuddy, who, according to the Natioui 
Security League's chart, voted wrong on four of the six prii 
cipal preparedness measures in the Sixty-iourth Cong^ress. J 
closer examination of Mr. McGillicuddy's record, we are tok 
will disclose that these are not the only votes of the kind ; ths 
he either voted against or did not vote at all on amendments in 
increasing aircraft production, for larger appropriations fo 
coast defense camion, and on the effort to secure larger battl< 
ship programmes. 


The first version of the Bible in China was that of D 
Joshua Marshman, and was published in 1820. The translatit 

Digitized by VJWVJV l*^ 


From Etquella iBarcdona, Spain) 



" Long Ut« Bfin I " 




From the Mempkit Commereial Appeal 

Satterfield in the Peona Transcnpt 




4 September 

by Dr. Morrison, of Canton, which, completed in that same 

fear, was published in 1823. Those who tried to pat these 
(ibles into circulation faced ^^reat difficulties, and it was con- 
sidered no small feat that durmg the year 1822 " the greater 
part of five hundred copies of t£e New Testament and some 
boohs of the Old Testament had been put into circulation." A 
far cry that to 1916, when the Bibles put into circulation by 
the American Bible Society alone numbered 2,274,710 copes. 

The American Bible Society b^;an its real work in China in 
1834, in the face of great opposition on the part of the author- 
ities of China. The Christians were accused of all sorts of evil 
intentions, and it was even said that their Bibles were saturated 
with a poisonous material in order to destroy those who received 
the books. Grradually the opposition of the Chinese was over- 
come. It was found that, instead of giving away the Bibles, a 
more successful way to get them into circulation was to sell them 
at a nominal price, m selling the books native Colporteurs 
proved very useful. 

From a trusted special correspondent of The Outlook in the 
Far East we learn that Dr. John R. Hykes is still in charge 
of the work of the American Bible Society in China. During 
the forty-five years that he has been there, and particularly 
during the twenty-four years that he has been with the Society, 
the work has made great strides. The circulation for his first 
year as agent was 305,715, an increase of 52,840 over the best 
previous record. At the same time the cost of distributing the 
Bibles was reduced by one-third for each thousand copies. 
Altogether, in twenty-four years Dr. Hykes has put more than 
eighteen million Bibles in circulation in China. 

Dr. Hykes abolished the practice by which local missionaries 
formerly kept the small profits on their sales for their expenses. 
He now has under him five paid white superintendents, who have 
under them in their respective districts paid Chinese directors 
of the many voluntary Chinese workers who do the bulk of the 
actual distribution. Of Dr. Hykes's work our correspondent 

" Americans who rejoice at the great strides which have been 
made in carrying the teachings of Christ among the vast popu- 
lation of China may thank Dr. Hykes, for in a large degree the 
success of the effort has been due to his tact, business sense, 
and unflagging energy." 


Reports from the Department of Agriculture, and espe- 
cially from the National War Oarden Commission, indicate that 
the present season is marking an unprecedented amount of 
canning, insuring the harvesting and preservation of our summer 
crop of spinach, peas, tomatoes, com, and other vegetables, as 
well U8 a great variety of small fruits. 

The industry in New York State is specially large, and is par- 
ticularly active in the northern region. In the last two seasons 
crops of vegetables were light ; the present crop is fine. More- 
over, canners have extended their acreage, thus still further 
enlarging their production. 

Yet the amount of money that they have been able to procure 
from the banks with which they deal has been inadequate to 
enable them to continue their business and save perishable food 
products. Meanwhile the cost of containers and other expenses 
had increased. The situation was precarious. Aid, to be of real 
value, was needed quickly; otherwise many perishable food 
products would be lost, to the great detriment of canners and 
the consuming public, as well as our soldiers overseas. 

The canners appealed to the War Finance Corporation, re- 
cently organized by Act ofCongress. The Corporation suggested 
a plan uuidra: which relief might be given. The main feature of 
tiie plan was a carefully controlled system of warehousing goods 
at the respective canning plants, so that the necessary adequate 
security might be obtained for the money advanced, as required 
by tiie War Finance Corporation Act A Warehouse Company 
was organized by the canners with paid-in capital of $100,000. 
This company issues receipts for goods stored, which receipts, 
to the extent of 125 per cent of the cost value of goods, form 
the basis of collateral to secure the respective loans to the can- 
ners. The company is managed by eleven representative canners 
of New York State. The arrangement provides that every 

canner in the State may avail himself of the facilities afforded, 
and Jio canner will be refused relief if he is worthy of it and 
has the required security. 

,It is a satisfaction to add that die operation of this plan has 
already relieved the situation and has averted the serious food 
loss tlu.t confronted the canning industry of New York. 


Six thousand meals using only fifty pomids ot sugar for all 
purposes is the record established by the cafeteria in the Food 
Administration Building at Washington. This is at the rate of 
one pound to one hundi«d and twenty meals, and is in some 
contrast with what the Food Adiiunistrati(Hi is asking the 
American housewife to do to save sugar — to use two poonds 
per month per person, or one pound for forty-five meals. - 

The Food Administration announces that it feeds an average 
of six hundred persons per day for the noon meal, and the sugar 
ration mentioned covers its use for all purposes, including tea, 
coffee, desserts, and in cooking. Most of die desserts contain 
such substitutes as honey, maple syrup, white svrup, or com 
S3rnip, and the use of sugar is confined almost exdusively to tea 
and coffee, for which there is a large demand.' Every ^tron is 
asked if he desires sugar in his tea or coffee, and, if so, it is served 
in uniform quantities at the time the cup is filled. 

No wheat in any form has been served, not even in cooking. 
Bread is made of cora-meal, potato, rice, barley, and com flours. 
This, has been found to work well from a palatable as well as a 
nutritional standpoint. 

Beef is served only dnce a week, and then in some form which 
presents the opportunity of stretching the quantity used, such as 
m stews, croquettes, casseroles, and 8ouffl(5s. Fish is served twice 
a week as a main dish, but is frequently used in salads. 

'Die cafeteria is self-supporting, and its use of substitutes 
(quite contrary to the widespread belief thaft substitutes are more 
expensive) has enabled its maua^ment to serve its menus at low 
prices, as may be seen by such items as these : 

Baked raaokerel— paisley aaaoe 10 Tomato and egg salad 10 

Cold tongne 10 Uaple nut podding with whipped 

Potatoes aa gTstin 06 cream.. OR 

Comoooob 05 Watermelon 03 

Rioe or com mnfflns and batter 05 Freah peauhea, eaoh OS 

Cheeae OB " j/ixuaa 3 for .06 


THE revelations concerning American inefficiency in sup- 
plying airplanes to the Army which have been made in the 
report of the sub-committee of the Senate Committee on 
Military Affairs and in the testimony of Major-General William 
L. Kenly, Chief of Military Aeronautics, ought not to surprise 
the couutiy. They had been foreshadowed in this and. other 
journals. Many months ago The Outlook reported to its read- 
ers, in several articles, the deficiencies and failures in our air- 
plane production. We had at that time reliable reports from 
trustworthy sources that all was not going well. We asserted 
that our Army was not getting airplanes, and was not likely to 
get them, under the prevailing conditions of organization and 
manufacture. In January last we said editorially : 

What is the duty of the American public, whose fighdn)![ sons, 
brothers, and husbands are awaitiiiK the weapons with which to 
win our victory ? The unpardonable sin ia mdolence and lassi- 
tude, or the paralysis of omciaj red tape hidden under the plea 
of military secrecy ; and it is the sin of the public if it permits 
inaction. In the light of the rifle and machine-gun revelations, 
it seems necessary that the public should demand the truth con- 
cerning our airplane situation. 

Criticisms of this kind aroused a storm of protest. The 
Outlook, as well as other journals which were trying to tell the 
truth for the good of the country, received letters accusing 
them of a lack of patriotism and loyalty. Some of our readers 
told us that we were actuated by partisan bias and were trying to 
discredit the Administration. But nothing that we said six or 
eight months ago concerning tiie mismanagement of our air- 
craft programme compares with what is now said by members 
of the Senate Committee especially designated for this investi- 

Digitized by 





Ktion. This hiTestigatiog snlv^ommittee consists of- two 
imocnts, Senator Thomas of Colorado and Senator Reed of 

' Missouri, and two Republicans, Senator New of Indiana and 

' Senator Frelinghuysen of New Jersey. The snb-committee, of 

which Senator Thomas is chairman, after calling attention to the 

fact that on June 8, 1917, the Government announced that a 

• great fleet of 26,000 airplanes was about to be created, and to the 

fact that on July 24, 1917, Congress appropriated #640,000,000 

[ to carry out this programme, says: " In the opinion of the Com- 
mittee, a substantial part of the first appropriation was practically 

^ wasted." The Committee makes no all^tion of corruption, 
leaving that aspect of the case to the special investigation which 
exnTnstioe Hughes is now carrying on. But it does assert 

I that diere was favoritism in making contracts and imbusiness- 
like confusion, waste, and lack of co-ordinated authority. The 

' Committee makes several practical recommendations of reform, 

I of which the two most important are, first, the creation of a 
Department of the Air with a single head, who would pre- 
sumably be a member of the Cabinet. This plan has already 
been adopted by Great Britain with notable success. The 

I second recommendation is a commission of engineers and pilots 

I for observation at die front. 

This report of the Senate Committee of the disheartening and 
almost scandalous situation in the American production of mili- 

I tary airplanes is oonfirmed by Creneral Kenly in the evidence, 

I just puUished, which he gave before the Senate Military Affairs 

I Committee. 

General William L. Kenly is a graduate of West Point and 

I has been in the service for nearfy thirty vears. He was in 
action in Cuba daring the Spanish War and in the Philippine 
Islands. He was appointed to his present post as Chief of Mili- 
tary Aeronautics last spring. He reports that he found great 
confusion in the airplane organization, and defined the entire 

I situation as " a mixed-up jumble." He ui^es the creation of a 

I Department of Aeronautics with a secretary in the Cabinet. 
A significant feature of his testimony was his assertion that, 
to the beet of his knowledge, and he m course is in a position 
to know as much about the airplane situation as any one 
in tiie country, not a single American-made machine was, 
as late as July 20, used by our fliers on the other side. 
He and two of his subordinates. Colonel Bane and Major 
Reinhart, who also, testified, named certain Amerioan-manu- 
faotored airplanes as " unsafe and dangerous." Ten days before 
this testimony appeared, a gallant young American aviation 
officer, who has just had a most dramatic fall in an American- 
made machine, m which, although he escaped with his life, he 
was severely injured, told one of the editors of this journal that 
all the American fliers on this side distrust the structural 
strength of this particular machine. What can possibly be worse 
for the morale of our Aviation Corps ? To supply our fliers with 
machines in which the^ have no faith because they have tried 
them and discovered thrar weakness is nothing less tJban a crime. 
We have done wonders with our man power. Our soldiers 
are the best in the world. Our training camps have been a 
complete success. The knowledge and practice of the art and 
science of fighting shown by our soldiers and sailors have been 
unsurpassed in mstory. llieir mechanical equipment ought to 
be of the very best, and t^e United States is capable of pro- 
dudng the very best if the production is properly organized and 
directed. We r^ret to have to say that the country will hold 
Secretary Baker personally responsible for the collapse of our 
aircraft programme. He has resisted the formation of a single 
department with a Cabinet head. The President ought not 
to permit this resistance any longer. As Commander-in-Chief 
of the Army and Navy President Wibon is entitied to the pro- 
found thanks of this country for his remarkable accomplish- 
ments in organizing the largest, finest, and most efficient body 
of fighting men tha^ any republic has ever sent to war. By using 
the same methods in producing its equipment that he has used 
in organizing this Army he will add to tne debt of gratitude his 
country already owes to him. We wish that the President might 
realize this and create a Bpecial department with a man of powec 
and authority at its head. This is the only effective remedy ror the 
War Dmiartment's present failure in airpUne production. To 
put, as Secretary Baker has now done, the matter in the hands 
of an Assistant Secretary of War is something, but not enough. 


A subscriber asks us to tell our readers in dear and simple 
terms what the Irish wish. Impossible I For they do not them- 
selves know what they wish. The British Government asked 
them to meet in .convention and formulate their wish that it 
might be presented to Parliament. They met in convention, 
and, after several weeks of debate, adjourned without being able 
to reach any conclusion. Individually Irishmen wish inconsis- 
tent things, collectively they can agree upon no common expres- 
sion of a united desire. What one group eagerly demands another 
group as eagerly abhors ; what one group regards as evidently 
rig^t another group passionately denounces as palpably wrong. 

Roughly sp«iking, tiie Irish may be divided politioiilly into 
three groups. 

One group desires Irish independence. John Devoy, an 
Irish Fenian, defined their wish over forty years ago in the 
following sentence : " The recovery of Irehmd's national inde- 

gmdence, and the severance of ul political connection with 
ngluid." The Sinn Feiners of to-day are the successors of 
t^e Fenians of the last century. Independence is tiieir wish. 

A second group desire home rule, but not independence. 
They desire to remain a part of Qreat Britian, entitied to her 
protection and to a share in the Imperial Government But 
they desire an Irish Parliament to manage Irish affairs, with 
tile right of regulating " all matters relating to the internal 
affairs of Ireland." These are the Nationalists. 

The third group wish to leave well enough alone. They 
desire no constitutional change in the relation of Ireland to 
Great Britain. One of their number has thus defined their 
wish : " The business men of Ulster are generally indined to 
censure the Government for too much weakness and vacillation 
in enforcing the law. We want a settied policy that will insist 
on punishing crime and supporting the law." 

The conflicts between these three groups are due in part to 
prejudices inherited from the past ; in part to diffei«noes in 
racial temperaments ; in part to a difference in relitdoas faith. 
In general the first group are Roman Catholics and Cdts, and 
live in the southern part of Ireland ; the third group are Prot- 
estants, descendants of an English colony planted m Ireland 
in the reien of Henry the Eighth, and live in the northern part 
of Ireland; the mid^e group occupy a position midway between 
the fir^t and the third, and include Roman Catholics and Protes- 
tants, Celts and Anglo-Saxons. They have been described by a 
recent English writer as " a practical party taking what they 
could get, and because they could show ostensible results they 
have had a greater following in Ireland than any other party. ' 

Irish independence would oe impossible for Great Britain and 
grossly unjust to Ireland. Shakespeare truly interprets the 
Englishman's estimate of his native land : 

" This pr«cioD8 stone set in the silver sea, 
Whion serves it in the office of a wall 
Or as a moat defensive to a house, 
Against the envy of leas happier lands." 

On this wall, this moat, the welfare, if not the existence, of 
Great Britain depends. How could England consent to see this 
wall thrown down, this moat filled up, a foreign coimtry in- 
habited by a hostile people planted at her doors, and Ireland 
made a rallying-place for England's enemies and Ireland's 
harbors nests for U-boats to prey upon E^lish commerce? 
Irish independence, impossible for England to ^^rant, would be 
disastrous for Ireland to receive. For it would give Ireland over 
to factional fights and resultinp^ anarchy. Betore the English 
conquered Ireland and established in that unhappy land law 
and order '' endless civil wars distracted the island ;" " the 
feuds of the Irish septs were as bitter as their hatred of the 
stranger." The Church shared in the general strife : " Feuds and 
misrme had told fatally on ecdesiastical discipline ;" " the 
bishops were political officers, or hard fighters like the chiefs 
around them ; their sees were neglected, their cathedrals aban- 
doned to decay ; through whole dioceses the churches lay in 
ruins and withont priests." So long as the present feuds between 
the Irish factions continue, so long as the Irish meeting iu con- 
stitutional convention cannot agree on any common plan for 
self-govenuneut, so long as souUiem Ireland invites German 

Digitized by VJWVJV IV^ 



invasion against England's rale, and northern Ireland threatens 
armed revolt against Irish rule, and the Church continues to 
foment bitter strife between the factions, so long it is certain 
that independence would bring upon Ireland -the civil wars of 
the past, and England would be compelled to interfere in order 
to re-establish law and order. 

Home Rule has much to commend it. Americans are used to 
local self-government and instinctively desire for other peoples 
what has proved so great a boon to their own land. But there 
are serious practical difficulties which have hithertd prevented 
the establishment of local self-government- for Ireland. The 
relation of Scotland, Wales, Engknd, and Ireland to each other 
is more like that of the counties in one of our States than like 
that of the States in the Union. One Parliament- legislates for 
all four countries. To leave Ireland without itepresentation in 
Parliament would deprive her of all part in the great affairs of 
the nation. To leave her representatives in Parliament and at 
the same time create an Irish Parliament to govern in local 
matters would give Ireland authority t)ver such questions as the 
land tax, the housing of the poor,- tlie ^regulation of the liquor 
traffic, conditions of suffrage, ahd. the like for the English 
people, while the English people Would have no authority 
respecting similar matters in the government of Ireland, 'u) 
the American a federal system in which every component part 
of the British Empire should have some share in uie Imperial 
government and each colony and province should have independ- 
ent authority in local l^isiation seems an ideal. But to expect 
the English people to undertake so radical a reconstruction of 
the British Empire while this war is absorbing all their thoughts 
and energy is not reasonable. 

And yet the America^ cannot agree with those who, whether 
Irish or English, think no change m the constitutional relations 
of England and Ireland is desirable. It is true that the injus- 
tice of England's rule is a thing of the past ; it is true, as our 
contributor Charles Johnston told oxA readers in The Outlook 
of week before last, that. "the wrongs of Ireland haVe long 
since ceased to exist except on pa\)er or in the chattel? of poli- 
ticians." Nevertheless good government is not a substitute for 
self-government. Self-government is the passion of the age. We 
are demanding it in America for our cities and for our political 
prinuries. Initiative, referendum, and recall are all extensions 
of the ininciple of self-government Women demand the ballot, 
not because government is bad, but because they wish a share 
in the self-government of the state. Even the children ate eager 
to take part in the government of their schools. And twenty* 
three civilized nations are engaged to-day, at an incredible sacri- 
fice, in fighting to make it possible for those nations which believe 
in self-government to establish and maintain it Ireland will 
never be at peace until England finds some way in which to 
unite local self-government in the island with a share in tlie 
national government of the Empire. This is her problem. The 
lamentable failure of the Irish Home Rule Convention has 
not been witiiout its uses, for it ha^emonstrated that the Irish 
people cannot agree upon any solfmon of the Irish problem, 
and they have by their failure effectually," though unintention- 
ally and unconsciously, tiirust the responsibility of finding a 
solution of that problem back on the people of Great Britain. 


There are two kinds of poetry — the static and the dynamic, 
the pictorial and the evocative, the expository and the creative. 
The one tells the whole story, and the reader praises or yawns j 
the other gives a hint, and with a Sudden, unexpected analogy 
or ima^native flash stirs the reader's imagination to complete 
the vision according to the experience and the needs of his own 
spirit Static poetry is really not poetry at all. It is prose for 
one reason or another set to dubious music. It is important 
only when it is a path leading to the top of the mountain where 
the view is ; or when it is a spring-boa^ from which the swim- 
mer dives off into the deep pool. Even in the greatest poets the 
percentage of lines that are static and those that are djmamic — 
the percentage, that is, of pedestrian prose and winged poetry — 
is a nundred to one. We plow through the hundred Imee and 
keep our Miltons and our Wordsworths complete in ten volumes 

on our shelves for the overwhelming wonder of that hundred 
and first 

Joyce Kilmer, who died heroically in France early in AoiJ^oBt, 
was in no sense a great poet The greater part of his two or 
three slender volumes is not poetry at all, as ne, who was a keen 
and just critic, would be the first to admit It is verse of 
charm and tenderness and whim, now humorous, now devotional, 
always sincere^ sane, wholesome^ vigorous, courageous. It re- 
veals a- man one would have loved to know, a man with more 
than a touch of Eugene Field and Whitcomb Riley, praising 
the homely things they praised, revealing the gentie tolerance 
they knew. He sings of the " Twelve-Forty-five " rushing past 
Patei"8on, whose 

'' foolish warring children keep 
The grateful armistice of sleep." 

He sings of the delicatessen-nmn and of the " Servant Girl and 
Grocer s Boy :" 

" Her lips* remark was : ' Oh, you kid !' 
Her soul spoke thus (I know it did) : 

* O king of realms of endless joy, 
My own, my golden grocer's boy, 

I am A princess forced to dwell 
Within a lonely kitchen cell, 

While yon go dashing through the land 
With loTeliness on every hand,' " 

and so forth. He sings of " Main Street " and of " Dave Lilly," 
the drunkard and ne'er-do-well whose ghost still fishes the 
fished-out streams on the sides of Greyu>ck ; he sings of the 
deserted house, the " house with the broken heart ; ' of the 
snow man the children made in the front yard. He sings of the 

*' unappeasable hunger 
For unattainable food," 

and of the eager soul^s reaching out for Christ In quiet, musi- 
cal 'measures he sings of the common experiences of common 

Yet it is-not because of these snatches of tancj or whim or 
religious fervor that a lover of poetry will in these furious times 
call upon his harried fellow-men to pay tribute to this poet 
buried in a forest in France. It is rather in spite of tiiem that 
we praise him. For these poems are static. They tell what there 
Lb to tell ; we commend or we yawn ; we pass on ; we are not 

But that is not the end. Twice in his brief career this gallant 
and graceful spirit, whose poetry was, in the main, the frail and 
imitative poetry of journahsm, came face to face, once with the 
wonder and once with the teiTor of life, and was moved to 
create. He looked at a tree and made a great discovery, and no 
one who has read the poem that Joyce Kilmer made in celebra- 
tion will ever look in wonder at a tree again without remember- 
ing what Kilmer said of it and of its brethren : 


« I think that I shall never see 
A poem lovely as a tree. 

A tree whose hungry month is preat 
Against the earth^ sweet flowing breast ; 

A tree that looks at God all day 
And lifts her leafy arms to pray ; 

A tree that may in summer wear 
A nest of robins in her hair ; 

Upon whose bosom snow has lain, 
Who intimately lives with rain. 

Poems are made by fools like me, 
But only God can make a tree." 

When the Lusitania was sunk, Joyce Kilmer was for a 
second time shaken to the depths, and in " The White Ships 
and the Red" wrote a ringing ballad of dismay and anger 
that was clear, powerful, and imaginative. By these two poems 
the people of the days to come will remember Joyce Kilmer. 
His heroic death for a great cause will give them an added 
touch of beauty. But they do not need a fortuitous circumstanoe 
to make them memorable. They stand by themselves. 

Digitized by VJWVJV iC 


* T TNDER the sharp necessity of organiziiig exert element 
I I of the National life for winning the war, of creating 
\^ vast stores of food and munitions, and insuring their 
utmost efficiency by instilling the spirit of victory into those 
who make them and dioee who use them, the Government of the 
United States has given official recognition, for the first time 
In its history, to the art of music. ' Everybody sing ' is die order 
which has gone out from official Washington. And it is being 
executed, not in the spirit of docile obedience, but in the high 
enthusiasm with which men gratify a need long felt." 

So writes Mr. Harold P. Quickwll to The Outlook, and adds 
that the Government's espousal of music is significant not only 
as a war measure but as an Important milestone in the progress 
of American musical culture. Ever since the establishment of 
skilled symphony orchestras here, he says, America has been 
gathering repute as a " musical Nation." Various responsible 
agencies nave computed in recent years that the American peo- 
ple are expending annually for the making of music upwards 
of $600,000,000. Few European artists of distinction of the last 
few decades have failed to display their art in American cities, 
and since 1914 New York City has without question been the 
musical capital of the world. 

The American people love to hear music well performed, 
and they pay miUums in cold cash for the best. They care 
enough for music to beckon across the Atlantic the most talented 
performers that Europe can train. But, as Mr. Quicksall points 
out, they have not taken music seriously enough as an art to 
vote public funds for its encouragement. 

Now, however, in the second year of its war, the United States 
Government has set in motion comprehensive machinery for 

setting the American people to making music themselves, not 
merely listening to others make it. 

And this, as Mr. Quicksall shows, is for the very practical 
purpose of revealing ibe National soul to itself, of firmg it with 
vigor and steeling it to meet triumph and trouble with unbend- 
ing will. 

Professor Spalding's recent article in The Outlook on singing 
in cantonments, showing the high place in which these ** sings ' 
are held by the men both in camp and at the front, proves the 
inseparable relationship of music and war. 

Tne illustration prmted above calls attention to the em- 
phasis of that relationship by community singing. To-day the 
people of Philadelphia are singing in their homes, in small 
groups about their doorsteps, in their theaters, and in throngs 
ten thousand strong in their parks and public squares. 

Mr. Quicksall informs us uiat recently some twelve hundred 
sailors and Marines from the Philadelphia Navy Yard man>he<l 
to the City Hall and to a reproduction of the mrtholdi Liberty 
Statue (which one notes in the illustration), where a crowd of 
many thousands awaited them. They had a Liberty Sing. The 
enlisted men sang like a trained chorus. The public sang. Then 
both groups sang together. 

In Philadelphia, so ]^. Quicksall savs, the opera, theater, 
or vaudeville performailbs are not infrequently interrupted 
wbUe a leader appears before the curiam and conducts a 
Liberty Sing. You meet singing bands on the Philadelphia 
streets, and the Philadelphian's mncheon club is quite certain 
not to disperse without giving voice to "The Long, Long 
Trail " or "Keep the Home Fires Burning;." 

The aircraft factory in the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Mr. 

Digitizecfby Vn^^^^V l.V^ 



4 Septemlr 

QuicksaD adds, has its specially drilled chorus and the Ilrlariiie 
bands are trained to a nigh state of efficiency. Lay musical 
organizations journey to the Y. M. C. A. *' hut " at the Navy 
Yard to give entertainments for the enlisted men. At the 
noon hour the employees in some of the mills gather to singf-the 
songs that the enlisted men and the public alue have come to 

This is, however, hardly devdopine a new idea so much as it is 
adapting an old. It is shaping the idea and practice of oommn* 
nity singing to its purpose of strengthening war-time morale. 
Doubtless we Philadelphia public would not have accepted the 
Liberty Sing so readily had it not been accustomed to the 
Community oing. At the first of a series of Sunday Com- 
munity Sings hdid last summer by Mr. Albert Hozie, one of 
the pioneers of community music, some three thousand residents 
of the city district were present ; at the last there were at least 
ten thousand. Such a preparation represented weeks of work 
saved for the Liberty Smg Commission. 
i It is probably die realization of this fact which has impelled 
tthe Government officials responsible for the promotion of 
rthe National programme to signify their intention of dnplioat. 
} ing the Philadelphia organization and methods in other cities. 
Liberty Sings are, after all, applied Community Sings. This 
realization has g^one far towards claiming thepnrpoee and 
rendering true the aim of " Singing to Win the War.' 

For, as Mr: Quicksall affirms, community mosic leaders have 

.(teamed certain primary lessons. They have learned that the 

charms of music — and hence its effects — are largely bound up 

with understanding and association ; that great, simile mW 
of overwhelming power and breadth of dignity, like t^e Rnssis 
national anthem, for instance, is not to be found for the lookb,- 
or written for the asking. They have learned that the noisis 
ragtime air often voices the emotions of millions. 

So t^ heads of the movement, says Mr. Quicksall, " hif- 
wisely parted company wit^ the dwindliug group of oammaskT 
music leaders who would either start their smging with daasoa 
music or adhere through all time to the son^ of Stephrai Foete 
They have recognized the middle ground. Their numerons taa 
booklets constantly include new numbers — the songs the peo{]( 
would ultimately sing in their homes and on the streets whetbti 
or not they received official recc^^ition. And their pn^TamiB 
is empirically correct" 

It is evident, we hope, that in planting the Liberty Sn 
in every city, town, aiid village of the Nation the United State 
Government is making substantial progress in the solntiffli < 
two National problems. As Mr. Quiclmall says: **No dint 
testimony hum enlisted men or the folks they leave behind i 
necessary to prove the inspiriting values under the stress of m 
of a Liberty avaf^ ; it is only necessary to look into the nptuina 
faces of any audience and heed the volume of sound it tnunde 

We hope that the Philadelphia idea of Liberty singini 
founded on community singing, will spread to every one of <m 
cities and towns. Every one needs the war value of a Libetti 
Sine. Every one needs, through a Community Sing, the deq 
imiJanting of the gennine spirit of song. 





LONG stretches of monottmous labor of an nn&miliar kind, 
amid uninspiring conditions, far removed from all the 
accustomed compensations, imrelieyed by the normal inter- 
ludes of domestic relaxation — such is the lot of the overwhelming 
majority of our soldiers in France. 

Some of them fight and will fight, bnt even with t^e infantry 
and artillery the glorious red moments of delirious warfare are 
rare. They may be in the trenches for weeks before the fateful 
whistie blows some morning in the gray of dawn. There are 
weary, weary hours of watehing, days of digging, weeks of snail- 
like movement toward the front lines, months of back-tiring and 
soul-tiring training. The romance and glamour and intoxication 
are all crowded into a brief but gorgeous fraction of time which 
is the heroic epoch of the indiyidual and the Nation. 

Back of those sacred and sanguinary front lines streteh innu- 
"merable camps, big and little — away back, right through France 
to the Alps, the Mediterranean, or the Atlantic. And there the 
men work, work, work, in glue-like mud or gray dust, until the 
' soul within them grows sm^ and hard and bitter. They came 
out here with valor beating like a triumphant chant in their 
hearts ; what religion they originally possessed had turned to a 
passionate romance ; what patriotism they had known was keyed 
to the clarion blast of self-forgetfvd combat. They landed in 
France as a host of heroes, with hardly a reluctant or timid 
spirit among them. They would have fought at any moment, 
singly or as divisions, witjb all their equipment or with their 
bare fists ; but throughout all the weary months they have had 
to work. Work I Just work ! Erecting camps, building camps, 
transporting suppliei, felling forests, digging experimental 
trenches, making aviation fi^ds — rough, common, monotonous 
work, but the kind of work which will win the war. 

So they grow tired and homesick and self-despising. When 
men fall into such a state, they lose morale. It cannot be 
explained to each and every one of them, in terms that spray 
inspiration over their jaded lives, that they are really winning 
the war. No one can turn the tadcs of the bakers, the sawmifi 

operators, the qnulennaster's box-bearers, the pick and shovd 
gang, the transport mechanics, into so many hundreds of thog 
sands of perpetual epics. The men simply grow stale and sullen 
they continue to work, but there is no elation in their labot 
they continue to live, hut there is nothing spontaneous in thei 

How to relieve them, to reinvigorate them, that has been th 
question. Their lot is inevitable ; ninety-nine oue-hundrcdtli 
of an army's life must be humdrum and inglorious. How t 
save their bodies, their minds, their souls — that is the spirituj 
problem of the military command. And, above all, democnc 
dare not fail in the attempted solution. If our men should sini 
to the level of mercenaries, democracy would have lost itself ■ 
trying to save itself. 

Thus the question of vacations for our soldiers became avid 
problem, inseparably connected with the winning of the m 
and indissolubly a part of our mission to humanity. After montb 
of circumscrilied toil our men must have a rest, and such a rei 
as can bring back the best and sweetest elements of their horn 
life. It must be sane and wholesome, but, above all, it mm 
reach beyond the muscles and into' the brain and heart. On 
French allies can go home on leave and live again for a f^ 
days with their loved ones amid the vineyards or on the bout 
vards, in the country they adore or the city of which they ar 
enamored. All over France I have seen the poilu on lean 
sitting at his doorstep or in a caf^ with his dear ones aUn 
him, and every one so happy. 

Our British cousins go back to " Bliehty " for a few dap 
and even the colonials feel that England is next door to homi 
But to our troops home is impossible. Some of them have bea 
over here for more than a year, and, much as they may admii 
France, its ways are still strange to them and its pleasures d 
never be theirs. So the American military authorities ai 
establishing " leave areas," into which our men can go for br» 
vacations and where they will find such relaxations as will tal 
away their war weariness, their homesickness, tJieir feeling i 

Digitized by Va\^*^V IV^ 




idividoal futility, or whatever self-revulsion may have gathered 
1 their hearts during the months of inglorious and grueling 

Savoy, with Aix-les-Bains as the center, has been established 
s the first " leave area." The entire scheme seemed to me to be 
9 reasonable and so necessary that I spent four days in Aix 
1 order to see for myself how ibe men responded. In the first 
lace, Aix is the Mecca, in times of peace, of European royal- 
ies, big and little, and American miOionaires. For situation it 
) a place beyond description. All around us are the noble peaks 
f the Frendi Alps. The town lies dose to the turquoise waters 
f Lake Bourget ; historical monuments abound even back to 
Cannibal's Pass, through which the • intrepid general led his 
lephants ; in the town the hotels are imsurmssed anywhere 
1 Europe — vast and sumptuous palaces ; the Casino (now the 
eadquarters of the Y. M. C. A.) has long been second only to 
rlonte Carlo for gayety, brilliance, and gambling ; the thermal 
aths are world famous ; and the parks and walks are places of 
efined beauty. 

Nothing is too good for the American soldier. He may come 
rom a rude cabm in a clearing on the slope of a Tennessee 
lountain, or from a tiny frame cottage in a squat Middle West 
illage, or from a tenement in the purlieus of one of our vast 
ities, but he walks and lives and acts like a king in gorgeous 
Lix-les-Bains. (Three enlisted men are now billeted in the royal 
uite once occupied by Queen Victoria.) The military authori- 
ies have leased three-quarters of all the hotel acconunodation 
f Aix and the vicinity for our soldiers. Not only is their trans- 
ortation furnished by the Army, but their board and lodging 
re also paid, and they live as well as any one need wish to live 
n this earth. Do they appreciate it ? Yes, in a way. There is 
o groveling gratitude ; they simply take it all as if it was theirs 
y right, as if they had earned it — which indeed they have, 
i'hose who are entirely unfamiliar with such splendor quickly 
ind their feet and move about among it all unabashed. 

But it must not be thought that French fashion and beauty 
ave entirely abandoned the place. The elite are still here, and 
lingle freely with our men on the streets, in the parks and 
laces of amusement. There is no incongruity. Our men behave 
s gentlemen, and in the four days of my visit here I have not 
ien a single element or sembUmce of vulgar rowdjrism on the 
art of the American soldiers. Trim and straight and with 
uiet dignity and self-respect they move about, and no one has 
luse for complaint. Such a result, however, is not due to 
bance. If hundreds of men had been dumped into Aix, or any 
niilar place, with no occupation but to sit about the caf4s or 
mm the streets, there would have been trouble. It is at this 
oint that the Y. M. C. A. emerges in a most important role, 
forking hand in hand with the military authorities, the Y 
racticafiy takes over the lives of the men from t^e moment diey 
rrive in Aix. 

First and foremost — incidentaUy, one of the boldest things 
ay philanthropic institution has ever done — the Y. M. C. A. 
as taken over the magnifioent world-famous Casino for the 
eriod of the war. We have nothing in America to compare 
ith the Casino, with its acres of ballrooms, assembly halls, 
imbling-rooms, concert piazzas, covered terraces, etc. There is 

theater in the building capable of holding one thousand 
Bople ; and dining-rooms and reading-rooms and approaches 
inumerable, through beautifully developed gardens, with foun- 
lins and lawns and green bowers. Now it all belongs to the 
. M. C. A. for the benefit of the American soldier on vaca- 

Workmg in ihis center there are seventeen Y. M. C. A. male 
«retarie8, and about twen^'^ve Y. M. C. A. women. These 
ispire and guide and control the social life of the place. There 

something going on all the while to meet the taste of the most 
osiroilar men : movies in one room, vaudeville in another, a 
uive in a third, a billiard tournament in a fourth, while tJie 
lyers and library and writing and dining rooms are also abuzz 
ith soldiers. On one evening the men had a choice between 
ladame R^jane playing in " Sans-Gene," a movie, or a dance. 
n Sunday evening, following a religious song service, the men 
raid choose between a movie and a concert. The concert, exoel- 
ntly rendered, was patronize<l far more liberally than the 
ovie, and, when the programme is considered, it is a great com- 

pliment to the taste of the American soldier. The men enjoyed 
every piece, judging by the applause. Here is the programme 
just as it was distributed : 


DiaoaeA* tl Juittet 1918, a 9 katrtt 


Orehaitra wiia Is dinotion da U. QKiiALD RcncouM 


MxB. MAOSI.SIKK Cabon, Contndto. Mhe. Mabtha Rshxvmox, Pimniita 

de* ConoerU Lamoiinilx 
Ma. Got Mauk, Piakistb 



a) Hymne Beige 

6) S^nade &Ck>lamt)iiM PUni 

e) Ao Bord de U Mer DwMar 

MuK. Martha RmnresaoK 

a) Lie Coaoon (Caokoo) Daqmn 

b) RomoDoe Faitrt 
e) Rh^paodie n. 11 lint 



Peer Gynt (Snite) 

1. Le Matin (Monnngr) 

2. La Mort d'An (Am's DeMh) 

3. L« Danoa d' Anita 

(Anitn'i Daaoe) 

4. Danoe Is Halle da Roide Montaigne 
(1b the HaU of the Monntain King) 

Mnb. Masblbkb Cabok Hh. Gut Maikk 

a) A Toi Bemberg £tnde en Forme de Valie 

6) Trate eat le Steppe Orttckamnow (A Study in Walts Style) 

e) Len Fte Smnt-Sahu 

Mmb. Madbudkb Cabom Obchbstbb 

a) La Cloche Saint-8a!in$ Daoae Macabre (Oanee Maicabre) . 

6) Aria de Samaon et Dalila (Poime Symphoniqne) 

In the matter of outdoor sports the Y. M. C. A. controls, by 
arrangement or lease, practically all the facilities of the region. 
During his eight days' vacation, at the very minimum ooe^ the 
soldier may take the Y. M. C. A. steamer up Lake Bourget to 
tiie rare old monastery where the Dukes of Savoy lie buried ; 
he may go by train to the summit of Mount Revard, from which 
the snow-clad peak of Mont Blanc seems only a stone's throw 
away, and from which point also he can look across into both 
Switzerland and Italy and down upon the Chartreuse, and trace 
the lines of several glaciers ; he may go by train, bicycle, or on 
foot (always person^y conducted and instructed by a Y man) 
to a dozen other spots of natural or historic beauty ; he may 
swim, or go fishing, or play tennis, golf, or baseball ; or, if he 
prefer a kss strenuous life, he may lounge in the gardens or 
upon the terraces, listening to band concerts or meetmg refined 
and interesting American women on terms of equality such as 
he knew at home. Thus a soldier can have any type of vacation 
he prefers, but always one that will refresh and strengthen him, 
that will take the weariness out of his body and the irritation 
frmn his mind, and charm away any devil that is infesting lus 

Aix-les-Buns is only one vacation center. Many, many more 
are to be o^ned rapidly. I visited two others, one of them an 
extremely mteresting spot — Chamb^ry, the capital of Savoy. 
It is the center from which the Blue Devils come, the most 
feared of all the soldiers of France. By great good fortune the 
Y. M. C. A. secured the chateau of the Count of Boigne for its 
center, much of the furniture being left in the famous house. 
The pictures on the walls have been gathered and loaned by a 
committee of citizens, and every canvas is well known in the 
salons of Europe. Adjoining the Y. M. C. A. ch&teau is the 
casUe of the Kings of Italy, belonging to the Savoy &mily since 
the year 1200. Tha espkjiade of this castie has been turned 
over to our soldiers by the Prtfet, or Governor, of Savoy, to- 
gether with several tennis courts in the royal grounds. In spite 
of the apparent grandeur, the place has been made homelike. 
The Y. M. C. A. ladies cook all the things the men like meet ; 
they organize dances, games, trips, concerts, etc. One of the 
best compliments I h^rd to the Y. M. C. A. in France was in 
Chamb^ry, where I was told that the demumondes say they 
cannot understand how the American women can make such a 
wonderful place that the soldiers are utterly indifferent to the 
illicit pleasures they themselves offer. 

The work of the Y. M. C. A. in the front-line trenches u 
instinctive. Any one, any organization, would be proud to give 

Digitized by VJ\^»^V iC 



4 Septcmir 

coBifort and aid to the men just going over the top or jttst 
retaming from the fray. It iis heroic work, but it is instinctit'e 
and elemental. The work m the camps and boats is more of lees 
Mereotyped ; necessarily it muse be so in order to fit in with the 
Iroutine of the day's military work. But here in the " leave areas " 
the Y work is shot through with genius, for it is an opportunity 
such as the world never presented before. For eight days the 

Y. M. C. A. is home, mother, father, pl^mate, friend, leads 
teacher, oham, and servant of the soldier. Everything that braa 
can devise ot money secure is lavished upon these tired me. 
and they are sent back to their units h&ppier and stronger, m\ 
ready for another stretoh of drudgery or another adventor 
with death. 

Somewhere in Franoe, Jnljr 88, 1918. 


AUGUST, 1918 

Joyce Kilmer, a nttdnate of Columbia and Rutgers, a member of the staff of the New York " Times," himself a poet of achievement w 
promise, some of whose verses have appeared in Tlie Outlook, was a serg^eant in the American Army in France, where he was killed L 
action in August, at the age of thirty-one, leaving a wife and four little cnildren. His Lusitania poem, originally published In the " Times 
was widely copied in the United States, Great Britain, and the British colonies. An estimate of his poetry appears in the editorial psgr 
of this issue. — ^The Editobs. 

Surely the saints you loved visibly came 
To welcome you that day in Picardy — 
Stephen, whose dying e^es beheld his Lord, 
Michael, a living blade of cr3rstal flame. 
And all the flower of heavenly chivalry 

Smiling upon you, calling you by name. 
Leaving your* body like a broken sword, 
You went with them — and now beyond our sight 
Still in the ranks of Grod you sing and fight, 
For death to you was one more victory. 




It is not only to officers, or those about to become officers, tliat 
others. — ^The Editors. 


SELF-CONTROL, or self-government, is essential in exer- 
cising command. A commander who cannot control his 
emotions of anger, excitement, ete.,. or who is swayed by 
his impulses of vanity, egotism, ambition, or personal prejudices, 
cannot obtain the best results from others, nor give his own best 
service to the cause. 

Not only must an officer set an example of self-control, but 
he should in every possible way strive to teach the habit to his 
men, particularly in regard to their passions and appetites, the 
indulgence of which will quickly ruin their bodies and render 
them unfit for duty and bring discredit upon the uniform and 
disgrace upon the nation they represent. 


Physical courage is naturally associated with ideas of deeds 
of valor ; it is expected of a soldier. It is usually an acquired 
habit, based upon moral courage. 

There is little use in telling a man not to be afraid ; but there 
is use in telling him that, no matter whether he is afraid or not, 
he will not nm away. He will stay because he is facing a danger 
common to all, because his comrades on his right and his left are 

foing to stay, because he would rather die than nm away, 
t is his mond force, in other wor^s, that will keep him from 
yielding to the impulse to run away. 

The truth of this is verified by incidents like one that occurred 
in a Canadian regiment in France. The regimental commander 
wanted a certain bridge to be held at all costs until the arrival 
of expected reinforcements. He could spare only a fraction 
of his force to hold it. He confided the mission to a captain, who 
selected fifty men for the task. The detachment had hardly got 
into position when the Germans rushed the bridge. With their 
macmne-gun and rifle fire the Canadians stopped the rush. The 

' The oounael concerning the duties of yonng officers embodied in this article 
and in that in The Outlook for August 28 by the same author will be included 
in a book entitled " Winning and Wearing Shoulder Stram," to be published by 
the Maomillan Company. Publication authorized by the War Department. 

the suggestions in this article apply, bat to all who have direction 

Germans formed and reformed, only to have their assaula 
break down under the fire of the defenders. Then the Grernuj 
artillery intervened, and the captain b^;an rapidly to lose hi 
men. He himself was soon killed, but his junior leaders, in turj 
took command until there remained but a corporal and eighth 
ten men. The corporal said : '^ Men, we must either get ont i 
here or die ; as for me, I prefer to tlie here." Every man staj» 
with him. The corporal was killed, and soon there was but oc 
man left able to fire a gun. This lone soldier, amid the bodies >' 
his comrades, got a machine gun into action and held the brid; 
till the reinforcements arrived. He had been wounded eig- 
times, and died before he could be taken to the rear. 


I think it was Cromwell who said that the fighting 8treii<;t 
of an army depended upon every man's knowing and lovb 
what he was fighting for. Of some men we feel that when th- 
are e^ven a thing to do that thing is going to be done. 

The officer who is brutal or arrogant, who believes solely ■- 
driving men like beasts of burden, cannot inspire confidei>>' 
or inculcate the spirit of duty. Neither can one who is vain • 
^otistieal, who puts his ambition for personal advancemti 
before his duty to the cause. Confidence is not to be won '. 
posing, by affecting an interest that is not sincere, by fali 
methods of seeking popularity. 

Confidence is destroyed by an attitude of indifference, u 
" don't-care " attitode, the attitude of the man who does just i 
little as he can, and keeps his eye on the clock for quittia 

To instill into his men his own spirit of devotion to duty 
the constant care of the leader. He cannot be everywhere pw 
ent ; yet duty must everywhere be well done. If Jack does i 
wateh or sentry duty honestly and efficiently. Bill and Jim, ai 
all the others whose turn it is to rest, can do so with oonfideo 
that the ^ alarm will be sounded in time to save their lin 
or that, if the enemy attacks, he will not get at them bef<' 
Jack gives warning. They will feel that Jack is " mi the job. 1 

If Bill and Jim like to feel that when Jack is on duty it wj 
Digitized by VJWVJV IV^ 




2 be well done, tihey most realize that they must give Jack the 
^ same right to confidence in themselves. 


' The habit of making disnaraging remarks about superiors 

^ or about subordinates is suoTersive of discipline ; it tends to 
weaken or 'undermine the authority of other leaders and to les- 
sen respect for them. As a habit it is oonta^ous and cumulative. 

With reference to his superiors, an officer stands in exactly 
the same rdation as that of his subordinates toward himself. 
If he has the habit of disparaging criticism, he is simply a 
stumbling-block in the way of the cultivation of that mutual 
confidence and fiuth which are necessary to effective team work. 

It is a particularly bad habit to reprimand junior leaders in 

the presence of the organization. This is not only the hardest 

kind of reprimand to endure — involving as it does personal 

, humiliation — but it is a blow at the authority of the junior and 

. at the confidence placed in him by the organization. 

The commander is of course responsible for the discipline 
1 and training of his subordinates and his organization. The 
proper way to bring to their attention mistakes at drill or on 
the maneuver field is not by reprimands before their organiza- 


There is no cut-and-dried formula for leadership. The power 
of leading men may be totally absent in the most profound 
scholar, and may exist to a high degree in an illiterate man. 

A natural leader, moreover, may be unfitted for command. 
Commanding means something more than leading, something 
more than the mere power of obtaining obedience from men. 

In watching children at play it is not unusual to see one who 
is doing all the thinking and directing. He tells this one to 
bring bricks or pieces of wood, that one to place them in posi- 
tion, another to do something else. His comrades all work under 
his direction in building the playhouse or the fort, with no 
thought of questioning his authority. They are obeying, and are 
happy in so doing. He is directing. He is a natural leader. 

In the mUitary service we want as leaders men who have these 
natural qualities. 

This* magic power of leadership, in the warfare of to-day, 
must be peculiarly the quality of the platoon leader, because he 
leads his men on the battiefield. 


A commander must be able to distinguish between essentials 
and non-essentials, or merely desirable phases of activities ; in 
other words, he should be able to grasp the spirit behind the 
form. If he can perceive only the letter instead of the spirit of 
the r^^ations, for example, he will not be able to make his 
training progressive, because he will be unable to recognize 
values and purposes ; or he may perhaps keep his officers so ousy 
writing out elaborate reports of no special value that they cannot 
get their troops trainra ; or he \ml be lost when he cannot 
remember what the book said*. He cannot adjust, cannot meet 
new situations. With him it is all theory and no practice. 

One of the lessons of the battle of the Somme (discussed in 
the " Journal' United Service Inst., India ") was : 

There is only one way of getting a thing done — whether it is 
digging a post hole or captunng a country, and that is to trust 
your man, give him what he asks for (within the bounds of 
common senBe) and judge him by results alone. If you have 
trained him properly, he will not betray your trust nor ask for 
unnecessary things. If he does not get results, if he fails through 
his own fault, replace him. But if you have trained him property 
he will not fail. 

Be very slow to condemn minor mistakes made in an effort 
at initiative. Ck»mmend the intention and point out where better 
methods might have been used. 

The commander is dependent for his success upon the efficiency 
of his subordinates ; he nas his duties, they have theirs. The com- 
mander should keep to his role ; if be cannot do that, he is likely on 
the battiefield to be directing a squad when he ought to be direct- 
ing his battalion or his r^ment ; such things have happened. 

A man may be mediocre or merely good in one capacity, but 
a genius in another. He should be serving in the role to which 
he is best fitted, working where he can do the most good. Don't 
be so narrow-minded as to perceive only the defects of your sub- 

ordinates or associates ; most men have some defects. Know 
your men and how to handle them. 


You will place a man as a sentinel, alone perhaps, isolated, in 
the darkness, in the mud, the cold, in deadly danger. What 
thoughts will keep him alert on his post ? 

The thought that he is standing between the enemy and his 
comrades b^ind him — ^more than that, between the enemy and 
his country, his homeland ; the thought that he is there because 
his leader wants him there — that leuler who has looked out for 
him, saved him so far as it was humanly possible from cold, from 
hunger, and from suffering, who has always been fair and square 
with him, who has proved himself to be a man and a friend. 

When the time comes for the supreme, crucial test, for the 
assault ; when the platoon is to jp;o over the top into the swirl of 
bullets and shell, into the face of death — and vour muscles tense 
for the spring — what is going to take every blessed man of them 
with you to strike at the gates of hell? 

Your leadership and the love they bear you. 

How are you going to bring these things about? 

By your fine character, your thorough training — your own 
and that you have given your men ; by the care, the fine, thought- ' 
ful care, you have taken of your men, and by the friendship 
and affection you have given wem. * 

You have made their drills short, vital, pulsating affairs that 
have stirred their blood and enthusiasm and brought them to 
the razor edge of efficiency ; you have kept them provided with 
shoes and warm clothing ; you have taught them the joy of 
clean, strong bodies and of a smart, soldierly appearance, 
kept them m>m sore and blistered feet and from disease ; you 
have procured comfortable billets for them whenever possible, 
rustied firewood to warm them, had the food on hand when 
they were hungry — only yon and God have at times known 
how ; you have given to this one the word of encouragement 
he needed ; that one has caused you trouble, you have had to 
correct hinr, but you have saved him from himself and made 
him a soldier ; you have always been fair and just ; vou have 
never failed them, and you have been their friend. Follow you I 
Yes, they will follow you. They will die for you, and greater 
love than this hath no man. 


Non-commissioned officers are to the company what the rein- 
forcement is to concrete. They hold it together and give it 

The corporal must be a man who can be relied upon ; he is 

Ere-eminentiy a man who gets things done. He must make it 
is business to find out what is expected of him, and make 
prompt, resourceful action a habit. 

The se^eant has more authority than the corporal and more 
responsibinty. His promotion means that he has made good as 
a corporal and has shown qualifications for command. 

The non-commissioned officer is at a disadvantage in being 
taken from the ranks where he has lived in close, familiar rela- 
tions with the men over whom he is, by his promotion, given 
authority. He needs strength of character to adjust himsdf to 
the changed position. 

Non-commissioned officers, like platoon leaders, should be 
natural leaders of men. They must know how to give orders 
and how to enforce them. They must learn how to get things 
accomplished through their own forceful personality. A non- 
commissioned officer who merely tells a man to do something, 
and depends upon higher authority to enforce the execution of 
it, is nothing but a messenger boy ; he is of no use to his officers 
or to his company. 

A Frenchman who was one day talking to me of his military 
experiences said some things that are worth bringing to the 
attention not only of non-commissioned officers, but of the men 
who at first find irksome the firm, impartial administration of 
the military service. He could not at first see the reason for a 
lot of things that he afterwards learned to understand. For 
example, he and some young comrade — like himself, just called 
to the colors — who had be^ out for a walk or other form of 
amusement during the hours of relaxation, and who had not 
wanted to lose a minute of their pleasure, would come running 
back to quarters, only to arrive, panting and dripping with per- 

Digitized by Va\^»^V IV^ 



spiration, balf a minate late at the great iron gate leading to 
their barr^ks. It would be dosed. Before allowing them to pass 
the sergeant in charge would take their names. That meant a 
report and two days' confinement during the recreation period. 

The young men diought that was very hard, in view of the 
tiny fraction of time by which they were late and the desperate 
efforts they had made to arrive <m time. But the sergeant was 
inexorable. They grumbled much at his inhumanity. 

Afterwards, this man said, he came to see that the old sergeant 
was right. If one who arrived half a minute late were excused, 
another half a minute behind him would think he had just as 
good a reason for leniency ; and so would the next, a minute or 
two later — and so on, until men would be straggling in at all 
hours. If you have a sliding limit, you have no limit. ' 

Never in its history has warfare been a matter of such thor- 
oughness of detail. 


Study very carefully the purpose of the punishing power 
vested in you, and the manner in which it should be exercised. 

In administering punishmento the character of the offense 
must be taken into consideration, and the previous record and 
service of the offender. Be lenient toward minor faults and 
mistakes due to inexperience. Never allow a fault or a mistake 
to pass unnoticed ; but remember that a word or a glance may 
often better serve the purpose of correction than a penalty. 
For the first offense, or the second, a word may serve to put 
the man on the track ; if he is not the right sort, if he willfully 
repeats the offense, refuses to be advised or warned, the situa- 
tion must be promptly and vigorously dealt with. Punishment 
must promptly follow the offense. 

Explain to the men why faults cannot be allowed to pass 
unnoticed, why corrections must be applied. It is for the pro- 
tection of the team. 

Do not let soldiers receive the idea that they must do their 
duty through fear of their feaders. Never accompany an order 
for the performance of duty with a threat of punishment. Duty 
and discipline are not based upon fear. 

Teach your man to do his duty because he is a soldier ; teach 
him that to be a soldier m our Army is something to be proud 
of and something to live up to. 


It is well known that if yon tickle the ear of a sleeper with a 
feather he will brush at the feather without waking up ; simi- 
larly he will move his arm or his leg to avoid the irritation. If 
something flashes or breaks suddenly before your opened eyes, 
they will quickly close before your mind has become conscious 
of the danger. 

It is something like this involuntary or refiex action that we 
must develop in the loading and firing, the thrusting and throw- 
ing, the assaulting of a trench, ete. 

If soldiers are made to understand this, it will take away 
some of the tedium which tiiey experience in doing over and 
over the same thing. 

Explain the purpose of the drill or exercise. Many men do 
not understand the reason for such things. Explain also why so 
much repetition is necessary ; explain what the automatic power 
thus gained will some day do for the men. 

With men untrained in attention fifteen minutes is about the 
maximum for the best work ; this may be increased gradually 
to thirty. Make every minute coimt in this best-work period. 
Then it is better to change the drill. 

Stimulate interest on the part of the men by asking them 
questions about the drill or exercise, its purpose, the reasons for 
repetitions, the necessity of making every bit of it accurate, 
vigorous, and snappy. If they can be stimulated to thinking 
about the deeper meaning underlying their work, they will take 
an interest in making it thorough. 

Do not let slow men hold back faster men. Group the slow 
men under the very best instructor ; they are the ones that need 
him. Never allow fun to be made of a slow, clumsy, or awkward 
man. Don't laugh at him ; show him that you sympathize with 
him, and that you want him to make good. In this way you will 
pull him over. 

It is not the piteh of your voice but the concentrated energy 
and will in you that makes a command ring true. 


Closely connected with the matter of ooK>rdination, already 
discussed, comes the subject of attention to details. The war 
of to-day is a war of details. 

By details we mean, of course, essential details — those that 
will or can affect the issue. 

Command implies responsibility for details. It may take the 
work of many individuals to look out for all these details, and 
the company is provided with lieutoiants and non-commissioned 
officers to assist the commander in the work incident to supply 
and administration ; but the fact remains that the company 
commander is responsible that the work is performed, that the 
details are looked after. 

It is not sufficient to lay the blame for neglected details upon 
somebody else if you are responsible for the actions of that some- 
body else. It may be his business to procure certain articles, to 
attend to certain duties ; it is your business to see that he does it. 

Show appreciation of good service. Praise should not be 
cheapened by too frequent use, but unusual merit or effort should 
be recognized. A little judicious encouragement is often of untold 
value. Tact is just as necessary in military life as elsewhere. 

Encourage tiie initiative of soldiers. In warfare of to-day 
initiative is tremendously needed from private soldiers as well 
as from officers. Hundreds of examples might be cited to show 
the exercise of initiative and quick decision by private soldiers. 
To mention only one, told by Captain Jean des Vignes Rouges 
in his " L'Ame des Chefs :" A group of soldiers were in a shell 
hole or a piece of an old trench, separated from their organiza- 
tion, with which they had started as one of the waves of an 
assault. Their leader had been put out of action ; not even a 
corporal was with them. Bullets were whistling over their heads. 
Most of them were for clinging to the shelter till nightfall ; 
indeed, it seemed nothing but suicide to attempt anything else. 
One of them, however, fdt the urge to action ; he kept trying 
to see what was going on in No Man's Land. He managed by 
careful observation to locate some German machine guns which 
were in operation, and which had undoubtedly caused the assault 
wave to break down. Finally he perceived that some more com- 
panies of the French were forming behind a little crest, pre- 
paring for a renewal of the a^wault. The German machine guna 
woulaenfilade the companies when they came over the crest. He 
saw that the men with him ui the trench could by advancing a 
bit out of the shelter bring a deadly fire upon these machine 
guns. He explained this to his comrades, and jumped out of 
the trench, shouting to them to follow him. In a flash they were 
all firing on the machine guns at the moment that these were 
about to open on their comrades. " And that is how corporal's 
chevrons are won." 

The true leader is the friend of his men because he has in his 
heart the love of mankind, because he works with and for them, 
sacrifices for them, develops the best that is in them, watches 
them grow in character, sees them prepared to give their all — 
their hves — to their country. 


If a man hasn't in him the love of his country, he is in the 
wrong country or there is no coimtry that he can call home — 
he's a man without a country. 

If a man can't feel that he wants to make the world a better 
place for himself, he ought to Avant to make it better for others 
more helpless than himself. An English coal-miner left his 
imdei^round labors, his wife and children, and enlisted. He 
did not have to do this ; he could have had an exemption. 
When asked why he wanted to enlist, he said that when he and 
his mates learned what was being done to the women and babies 
of the world, learned of the terrible sufferings of helpless human 
beings, they decided that it was their business to help put a stop 
to it. And he wanted to fight to make the world safe for women 
and babies. He had the spirit of true manhood. 

The spirit of duty to theNation, to the world, is based upon the 
love of the community, the love of one's fellow-men. It is a form of 
team spirit, and should pervade our army from general to private. 
The supreme thing is service, when service is foimded upon love. 

" When we try. Dr. Cabot has written, " to serve the world 
(or to understand it), we touch what is divine." 

Digitized by 




WashingloH, D. C, August 96, 1S18. 

ihe Editor of The Outlook : 

n sending you the subjoined I fed that it is proper that I should inform you that I have received several letters alleging that 
previous article on the same suJyect was " inspired " or tmtten out of a partisan enthttsiasmfor Governmental management 
he railways as one of the things the present Administration has brought about. These charges are in a measure true. For 
•s I have been an enthusiast in regard to what could be accomplished with the transportation facilities of the country under 
ied management. My enthusiasm has not been diminished by the close study J have recently been able to give the subject 
m officer of the United States Jiailroad Administration. 

Tie increase in efflcieney and the savings that can be effected by synthesizing independent, competing, and unco-ordinated 
8 and by eliminating unnecessary duplication in service seem to me to be so self-evident that they need no demonstration. 
\[y views and my convictions upon the question are doubtless manifest in what Irerite, but they are the result of careful 
iy, and are not inspired by partisan enthusiasm or my present official association. It is impossible for me to conceal my 
lusiasm for the things in which I believe, and I doubt whether the ability to camofufiage one^s belief by what is called the 
dicial attitude " is consistent with the constructive temperament or a constrtictive philosophy. THEODORE H. PRICE 

^ an artide upon this subject published in The Outlook of 
August 7 I dealt briefly with the mac^itude and complex- 
its of tiie problems confronting the United States Railroad 
ministration in the work of taking over and synthesizing the 
terican railway system with its 1,700,814 employees. Be- 
se the congestion and delay encountered by \ha traveling 
>lic in the purchase of tickets and the reservation of sleeping 
ommodations was at that time a subject of general comment 
Iso attempted to describe the measures that were being 
en to relieve it. 
t is now my purp<jse to sketch briefly the organization that 

been created by Director-General McAdoo to operate the 
ds and the reforms and innovations that have thus far been 
roduced or planned. 

rhe central administration at Washington, which under the 
■ector-General is responsible for the operation of the railways, 

for its chief officers : 

W. G. McAdoo, Director GeneraL 

Walker D. Hines, Assistant Director-Greneral. 

Oscar A Price, Assistant to the Director-GeneraL 

John Barton I^ne, General CotuiseL 

John Sketton WiUiams, Director of Division of Finance and 

Robert 8. Lovett, Director of Division of Capital Expend!- 

Carl R. Gray, Director of Division of Operation. 

Edwud Chambers, Director of Division of Traffic. 

Charles A Pronty, Director of Division of Public Service and 

W. S. Carter, Director of Division of Labor. 

Theodore H. Price, Actaary. 

M. B. Clagett, Private Secretary to the Director-GeneraL 

kf r. Henry Walters, Chairman of the Atlantic Coast Line* 
} was until recently an active member of this organization in 
.rge of the standardization of motive power, has at his own 
uest beoi released from constant attendance in Washington, 
he continues nevertheleas to render highly valuable services 
an advisory capacity as a member of what has come to be 
ed " the Director-General's personal staff." 
rhe members of this staff are of course supplied with the 
retaries, assistants, and clerks that they require in their work, 
. the Director-General's policy has been to keep the Wash- 
ton organization as small as possible aiid avoid imposing 
»n the railways an unwieldy and expensive central adminis- 
live bureau. 

Associated with the Washington administration are various 
imitteea to whom are referred numerous problems that in- 
ve public hearings and deliberate investigation. Auiong them 
^ be mentioned the Railway Wage Commimion, composed of 
uiklin K. Lane, chairman, J. Harry Covington, Charles C. 
Chord, and William R. Willcox. Of this Commission F. W. 
unan was counsel and W. A. Ryan was secretary. Its work. 

which is now completed, included the report upon the wages 
paid to the railway employees in the United States, upon which 
the Director-General's action in ordering a substantial advance 
in wages was based. 

There is also an Advisory Committee on Finance, consistine 
of Franklin Q. Brown, chairman, Festus J. Wade, Frederick 
W. Scott, and James H. WaUaoe. The duties of this Committee 
are to investigate and advise with r^ard to the financial prob- 
lems that come before the Director of Finance and Purchases. 

Then there is a Board of Railway Wages and Working Con- 
ditions, that has been created to hear and investigate matters pre- 
sented by railway einployees or their representatives affecting — 

(1) Inequalities as to w^es and working conditions, whether 
as to individual employees or classes of employees. 

(2) Conditions arising from ' competition with employees in 
other industries. 

(3) Rules and working conditions for the several classes of 
employees, either for the country as a whole or for different 
parts of the country. 

The duties of this Board are advisory and its recommendations 
are submitted to the Director-General for his consideration. 

There is also the Railway Board of Adjustment No. 1, 
formed to deal witii any disputes that may arise between the 
employees in train, engine, and yard service and the railways, 
and the Railway Adjustment Bc»rd No. 2, which has a similar 
function to perform m dealing with any dispute that may arise 
between shop employees and tiie railways. 

For the si^e of public convenience and efficiency in operation 
the railway mileage of the country has been divided into seven 
regional districts, each of which uts been assigned to the man- 
agement of a Regional Director who has general charge of rail- 
way administration in his district. Under these R^onal Direc- 
tors come in turn District Directors, in charge of subdivisions 
of tiie regional districts ; Federal Managers, in charge of the 
more important single divisions or groups of less importiuit 
lines ; General Managers, operating the minor divisions ; and 
Terminal Managers, having control of all terminals at the more 
important centers and ports. 

The Regional Directors are of course subject to the authority 
of the Washington administration, but, as they are all men of 
experience ana distinction as railway executives, they are ac- 
corded large discretion in the management of the properties 
under their controL 

The geographical boundaries of the various regional districts 
are suggested rather than defined in the accompanying map. 

It is, however, impossible to map these districts accurately. 
Territorially they overlap each other in every instance, because 
the railway lines under the management of each Regional Direc- 
tor penetrate areas that are also inclnded ui other regional 
districts. The dbtricting has had for its purpose the a8seral)ling 
under the management of each Regional Director the larger por- 

Digitized by VJWVJV IV^ 



4 Sepieml 









tion of the mileage serving his territory. The limits of admin- 
istrative authority are therefore determined rather by the 
railway lines than by geographical boundaries, for they have 
been fixed more with regard to the movement of traffic and the 
service of the public than the conventional State boundaries or 

Thus it has been deemed wise to put the Pennsylvania lines 
and the Baltimore and Ohio lines east of the Ohio River in the 
All^heny District, and those west of the Ohio River in the East- 
em District, which contain^ the whole of the New York Central 
Division. This course has been followed in pursuance of a policy 
that contemplates the preferential use of the more northerly trunk 
lines for fast through freight and passenger traffic between the 
Chica^ District and the East, thereby releasing the lines in 
the .Mlegheny District for th^ distribution of the enormous 
traffic that originates in the Pittsburgh district, where conges- 
tion of local and through freight in the past has created some 
of the most costly and exasperating blockades that have been 
knowB in the history of American transportation. 

A better idea of the method followed m this re^onal district- 
ing and the more important railway systems in each district 
may perhaps be had from the following brief statement ;, 

The Eastern I}! strict, A. H. Smith, Regional Director, 
New York, comprises the lines located chiefly in the New Eng- 
land States in Nev^ York State, in the northwestern portion 
of Pennsylvania, and in Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan. 

Some of the more imwirtant lines included in this district are 
the New York, New Haven, and Hartford, the Boston and 
Maine, the Boston and Albany, the New York Central, the 
Nickel Plate, the West Shore, the Delaware and Hudson, 
the Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western, the Baltimore and 
Ohio lines west of Pittsburgh, and the Pennsylvania lines west 
of Pittsburgh. 

The Allegheny District, C H. Markham, Jiegiomil Di- 
rector, Philadelphia, comprises the lines located chiefly in the 
State of Pennsylvania, the northern part of West Virginia, and 
some of the lines traversing Maryland and New Jersey. It also 
includes the Long Island lines as an extension of the Pennsyl- 
vania lines east of Pittsburgh; 

Amoner the more important lines in this district are the fol- 
lowing : The Baltimore and Ohio and the Pennsylvania lines 
«ast of the Ohio River, the Bessemer and Lake Erie, the 
Central of New Jersey, the New York, Philadelphia, and Nor- 
folk, the Philadelphia ^d Beading, and the Western Maryland. 

The Pocahontas District, N. D. Maher, Regional Director, 
Roanoke, Virginia, contains most of the east and west lines 
traversing Virginia aiud West Virginia and a certain portion 

of the mileage penetrating the coal-fields of Kentucky i 
southern Ohio. 

Among the more important lines in this district are i 
-ChesapeSte and Ohio fines east of Louisville, Columbus, i 
Cincinnati ; the Norfolk and Western ; and the Virginian. 1 
terminals of all railways at Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Newp 
News, Virginia, and the Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt line ; 
also assigned to tliis district. 

The Southern District, B. L. Winchell, Regional Direct 
Atlanta, Georgia, includes most of the north and south li 
traversing the territory south of the Ohio and Potomac Kiv 
and east of the Mississippi River. 

Among the more important lines in this district are 
Atlantic Coast Line, the Sealxmrd Air Line, the Soutlu 
the Norfolk Southern, the Louisville and Nashville, the Flor 
East Coast, the Central of Georgia, the Alabama Great Soi 
em, and the Illinois Central lines south of Cairo, Illinois. 

The Sotithn-estem District, B. F. Bush, Regional Direct 
St. Louis, includes most of the lines south of the Misso 
River, running generally southwest and traversing the Statei 
Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas, and Louisiana west 
the Mississippi. 

Among the more important lines in tliis district are 
International and Great Northern, the Kansas City Southt 
the Missouri Pacific System, the Missouri, Kansas, : 
Texas, a certain portion of the Rock Island lines, the St. L« 
and San Francisco, the Texas and Pacific, the Wabash ft 
St. Louis to Kansas City and Omaha, the Gulf, Coloni 
and Santa Fe, the Fort Worth and Denver City, the Soi: 
em Pacific lines east of El Paso, and the Texas and > 

The Central Western District, Hale Holden, Regio 
Director, Chicago, comprises the lines running in a southw 
erly direction from Chicago and Kansas City to and toward 
Pacific Coast. The mileage of this district traverses the StJ 
of Illinois, southern Iowa, northern Missouri, Kansas, Nebras 
Wyoming, southern Idaho, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, J 
zona, Nevada, and California. 

Among the more important lines in the Central West 
District are the Union Pacific ; the Atchison, Topeka, and Sa 
F^ ; the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific, excepting that ] 
tion of its lines that are included in the Southwestern Distri 
the Chicago and Alton ; Chicago and Eastern Illinois ; 
Chicago, Burlingfton, and Quincy ; Colorado and Southern ; 
Oregon Short Line ; the Southern Pacific lines west of El P 
and Ogden, except north of Ashland, Oregon ; the "West 
Pacific ; and the £1 Paso and Southwestern. 

Digitized by 





The Northwestern District, R. H. Aishton,^ Regional 
Director, Chicago, conttuns most of the mileage mnoing west and 
nortiiwest of Chicago and Kansas City to and toward the Pacific 
coast. Generally this mileage traverses northern Illinois, Wiscon- 
sin, Minnesota, northern Iowa, northern Nebraska, North and 
South Dakota, Wyoming, Montana, Oregon, and Washingfton. 

Amon^ the more important lines includeid in the Northwestern 
District arti the Chic^o and Northwestern ; Chicago, Milwau- 
kee, and St. Paul ; the Chicago-Great Western ; the Great North- 
em ; the Minneapolis and St. Louis ; the Northern Pacific ; 
the Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie ; the Oregon- 
W^ashington Railroad and Navigation Company ; and the 
Southern Pacific lines north of Ashland, Or^on. 

A Marine Section of the Division of Transportation with 
headquarters at Washington has also been created, and a man- 
ager of this section has been appointed to supervise the opera- 
tion of the steamship lines owned by the railways, the object 
beidg to co-ordinate tneir services more completely with the rail- 
w(^s, as weU as with other shipping. 

Two Inland Waterways Districts have thus far been created ; 
namely, the Mississippi and Warrior Rivers District, of which 
M. J. Sanders, of New Orleans, has been made Federal Mana- 
gei* ?and the New York and New Jersey Canals District, includ- 
mg the Erie Canal with its connecting waterways and the Del- 
aware and Raritan Canal, of which G. A. Tomlinson has been 
made Federal Manager. 

This is a brief oumne of the scheme of organization that has 
been set up and the duties assigned to its more important offi- 
cials. Inasmuch as the corporate organizations of the various 
companies owning the railways taken over must, be preserved, 
and the officers of those companies have duties and responsi- 
bilities to their stockholders and creditors that may not be iden- 
tical with the interests of the United States Railroad Admin- 
istration in operating the projperties as a synthesized system, it 
has been deemed wisest to reheve these officers of all responsi- 
bility for Government operation, and while many of them will 
remain in the employment of the companies that diey serve they 
will have no functions to perform in so far as the operation 
of the railway properties during the period -of Governmental 
control is concerned. 

This management will lie exclusively in charge of the Regional 
Directors, the Federal Managers, and the General Managers, 
appointed by the Director-General, who will report to the cen- 
tral administration in Washington. That there may be no 
question of dual allegiance on their part, these Federal appointees 
nave been required to terminate all their relations with the 
corporations, whether as officers or directors. The policy of the 
Director-General in thus differentiating between the corpo- 
rate officers and the Federally appointed operative officers has 
resulted in some misconce^ition. 

It has been erroneously stated that the presidents of the rail- 
ways were " discharged.' Such is not the case. All of the rail- 
way corporations are officered by presidents and as many other 
officials as their directors find it necessary to employ, but these 
officers are not officers of the United States Railroad Adminis- 

While prior to Government control there could be no compe- 
tition in the matter of the freight or passenger rates charged 
by the various railways, there was active competition in the 
solicitation of both freight and passenger business. In the larger 
cities nearly all the roads maintained separate ticket offices and 
employed many solicitors whose duty it was to try to get 
shippers to route freight over the lines they representeid. 

As under imified management the freight and passenger 
earnings all go into a common fund, there has ceased to be any 
reason for inducing passengers or shippers to patronize a special 

This elimination of competition has made it possible to con- 
solidate the ticket offices and dispense with the freight solicitors. 
It is estimated that some $23,000,000 a year will be saved by 
the adoption of this policy as it is already being applied. In the 
larger cities the numerous ticket offices maintained by the sepa- 
rate railways have been consolidated, and it is now possible for 
a traveler to purchase a ticket for any one of the available 
routes at a single office. The change, like all changes, resulted 
in some inconvenience when it was at first introduced, but the 

public is rapidly coming to appreciate its advantages, and as 
soon as it shall have been possible to recruit the depleted ticket- 
selling force by the addition of trained women the saving in 
time that the new plairTenders possible will doubtless be appar- 
ent. It is in the line of scientific progress and economy, and its 
logic is indisputable. 

Another innovation that may be regarded as in the line of 
scientific economv is what is in railway parlance described as 
the " rerouting of freight." When the railways were in compe. 
tition,itwas to the financial interest of a given line to. carry we 
freight the longest possible distance over its own lines. In doing 
this it was assured of a larger share of the through rate than it 
might have been able oth6i^s«,to secure. The result was that 
those railways which had the best solicitors sent the traffic they 
secured over their own lines, which were often circuitous and 
longer than the competing routes. 

Now the United States Railroad Administration tries to send 
the freight that it carries by theishortest routes that are available, 
providM the grade and condition of the shorter route make its 
use possible. 

Great progress has been made in this direction, especially in 
the West, and many new through lines are being developed. 
One of them, from Los Angeles to Dallas and Fort Worth, is 
over five hundred miles shorter than the routing via the South- 
em Pacific lines formerly much used. Another, from the oU-fields 
at Casper, Wyoming, to Montana and Washington State points, 
is 880 miles shorter than the route formerly used. Fruit from 
southern California to Ogden is hauled 201 miles less than by 
the route previously used. Still another route between Chicago 
and Sioux City is 110 miles shorter than the one previously used. 
A new route between Kansas City and Galveston has been 
developed which is 289" miles shorter thau the 1,121 miles pre- 
viously traversed. Eighty-eight miles have been saved by devis- 
ing a new route between Mason City and Marshalltown, Iowa, 
and 103' miles by a new route between Fort Dodge, Iowa, and 
Chicago. The route from southern California to Kansas City 
has b^n shortened by 234 miles. 

As one example of the ecoi^omy that has been thus made pos- 
sible it may be mentioned that recently during a period of about 
sixty days some 8,999 cars were rerouted in a certain Western 
territory, so as to effect a saving in the mileage traveled by 
each car of 195 miles, eqiial to a total of 1,754,644 car miles. 

These are only a few of the mileage economies in the routing 
of freight and passengers that have already been applied. In- 
stances could be multiplied, but those mentioned are sufficient 
to indicate the progress that is being made in this work. It 
means a substantial reduction in the cost and time of transpor- 
tation between many given points and the more intensive em- 
plojnnent of both the rolling stock and equipment of the rail- 

Another important economy has been effected by the elimina- 
tion of unnecessary passenger trains. Between many of the 
larger cities of the country served by competing railways there 
was a surplusage of elaborately equipped trains. In many cases 
they started and arrived at the same time. Some of them were 
only half filled. Thus, for instance, there were two twenty-hour 
trains between New York and Chicago that left and arrived at 
the same hour. Between Chicago and St. Paul there were three 
or four trains leaving about six o'clock in the evening and 
arriving at practicaUy the same hour the next morning. There 
was a similar duplication, and in some cases a triplication or 
quadruplication, of service between many of the larger centers, 
ui the winter there were three Florida flyers between New 
York and Jacksonville. One train run in two or more sections 
when necessary would have served the public traveling to Florida 
just as well. 

Many of these unnecessary trains have been eliminated. In 
the territory west of Chicago and the Mississippi River passen- 
ger trains that traversed an aggregate of 21,000,000 miles a 
year have been done away with. The saving, estimating the cost 
of hauling a passenger train at one dollar a mile, whi^ is less 
than the present expense of operation, is approximately f21,000,- 
000 annually. The pubHo is just ta well served, and die roads 
over which the abandoned trams MiieA to be moved have been 
freed for freight and local traffic. In the Eastern district unes- 
sential passenger trains that used to travel 26,400,000 miles per 

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annum have been elimmated. . In other r^oQal districts super- 
fluous trains are being rapidly Annulled. The through trav^ is 
being directed to the shorter and natural routes, the hauling of 
special trains or private cars is being discounted, the schedules 
are being revised so that connections wilt be closer, and railway 
tickets between competitive points are honored by any of the 
competitive routes, so that the traveler is free to use the trains 
leaving at the most convenient hour. Other reforms that have 
been introduced include the abolition of the practice under 
which an opulent or extravaJjQft traveler could occupy a whole 
section in a sleeping-car upoB' one railway ticket or a compart- 
ment upon a ticket and a half, thus depriving his less prosper- 
ous or more thrifty f ellow-passen^H^ff the deeping accommo- 
dations to which he was entitled. 

Other important economies that are being worked out in con- 
nection with the passenger ser^fj^nclude the common use of 
the same terminals by railways^$rmeriy in competition and 
using separate terminals. The mos{ conspicuous example of the 
latter innovation is the use of ^e Pennsylvania terminal in 
New York for through trains via the Baltimore and Ohio be- 
tween Washington and New York. Passengers wishing to go 
from New York to Washington by''4he Baltimore and Ohio 
used to have to take the Twenty-third Street or Liberty Street 
ferry and cross the river. ^48 was inconvenient. The result 
was that the Pennsylvania gat thn.bulk (A the traffic, although 
the Baltimore and Ohio maintained a well-equipped and very 
full service. Now it really makes' xm difference to the traveler 
between Washington and Itew Yoi^ whij^ road he goes by. 
Both make practically the same time and leave 4md arrive from 
and at the same terminals. In this eae^ m in many others, the 
trains have been " staggered "-f(S. g^ it hks been arranged that 
they shall leave at successive hours instead of at the same time, 
as tiiey often did in the past. The i^esult is that fewer trains are 
necessary. A ticket from Washington to New York, or vice 
versa, is good over either road, ^uid, as there is a train nearly 
every hour, it is almost unnecessary to consult the time-tables. 

It is hard to say which of the many progressive ideas that are 
being worked out will have the greatest value measured in terms 
of increased efficiency or money saved, but one -of the most 
imjportant is the plan that has been adopted for the standardi- 
zation of engines and freight oars. No one seems to know 
how many -different types of freight can^Jiave hitherto been 
used in the American railway service 'An estimate pub- 
lished a year or more ago put the nuiSber at 2,023, but no 
railway man will vouch for its accuracy. Nearly every impor- 
tant nulway had its own specifications for car-building. None of 
these were identical, and they were generallf'tshang^ in some 
more or less important detail when new cars were ordered. 
There were box cars of both steel and wood, gondola cars, flat 
cars, hopper cars, refrigerator cats, tank cars, automobile cars, 
furniture cars, cattle cars, and many olher sorts of cars suited 
to tiie different varieties of traffic. When a car broke down, it 
frequently had to be sent, if it could travel at all, to be repaired 
in the shops of the road by which it was owned. 

The action taken by the Eailroad Administration will make 
this unnecessary, at least in so far as tlie hundred thctssand new 
freight cars that have been ordered are concerned. Some of them 
have already been delivered, and the balance will follow as 
rapidly as the shops can torn them out. A minimum of standard 
types has been agreed upon. They are as follows : Three types 
for box cars, two for hopper cars, three for gondola cars, one 
for refrigerator cars, one for tank cars, and one for flat cars. 
The standard type of cattle car is under consideration and will 
shortljr be agreed upon. It is surprising to find how experts 
are disagreed as to the best type or cattle car. Twelve 
tyi)es of cars will be substituted for the 2,023 in use, if 
that estimate is correct The parts of these twelve types 
will be interchangeable. The increase in the efficiency and 
serviceability of the rollfng stock will be great. The mobility of 
the freight car equipment will also be g^reatly increased by the 
abolition of the car-accounting organizations. Formerly one 
railway company using the cars of another company was 
charg^ a per diem rental for them, and a very intricate and 
expensive system of accountiiig was necessary in order to adjust 
these chaises. Some of the companies that were poorly supplied 
with cars made a practice of keeping " foreign " cars — i. e., cars 

belonging to some other company — on their lines to the detrimeol 
of tiie well-equipped roads. To trace and recover theae can 
many car-tracing bureaus were maintained. They employed 
hundreds of men. All this will be done away with. The surplm 
of rolling stock on one road or in any particular section of tlu 
country will be immediately distributed among the roads in 
need of additional equipment, and a much more intensive uh 
of the rolling stock will be made possible. 

In the department of motive power, which provides and earn 
for the locomotives, the same general plan has been adopted. 
Some thirty types of locomotives' of at least one hundred differ- 
ent weights have hitherto been in use. There are from thirtera 
to eighteen thousand different pieces of metal in a looomotive. 
In some cases they are cut to a measurement of one one-thoo- 
sandth of an inch, and many of the parts fitted to one locomotive 
are useless for the repair of another. To meet these difficulties 
the Railroad Administration has decided that only six types <i 
locomotives of two weights each shall hereafter be purchased 
The parts of the various types will be interchangeable. Their 
construction will be uniform. They can do the work for whidi 
they are designed anywhere, and can be operated with greater 
safety, because an engineer or fireman who is familiar with the 
locomotive of one type will be able to run any other machine of 
the same type efficiently without going through the process of 
" becoming acquainted " with it. Accurate comparisons between 
the coal consumed and the work done will be possible without 
the allowances that have previously had to be made for the 
differences in construction or power, and the train-load can be 
• accurately corelated to the known power of the different types 
in use. Some 1,415 new locomotives have been ordered by the 
Railroad Administration. More will be ordered as fast as the 
builders can supply them, after making allowance for the loco- 
motives that the War Department requires for the service of 
our Army in France and the r^trictions that the War Industries 
Board has imposed upon the distribution of the necessary steel. 

These are but a few of the economic and executive reforms 
that have been planned or applied, but the human side of the 
problem has not been neglected meantime, and a. consisteDt 
effort is being made to carry out Mr. McAdoo's policy and 
" humanize the railways and n^^ative the idea that corporatiom 
have no souls." The wages of employees have been advanced in 
accordance with the recommendations of the Railroad Wage 
Commission as modified by the Director-General. The basM 
eight-hour day has been recognized. The women employed hy 
the railways have been put upon the same wage basis "lijBTr 
performing a similar duty, and instructions have been MRMd 
that no women shall be permitted to occupy positions ""iratlri 
to their sex or allowed to work amid conditions that are JMt 
The discrimination against Negroes that has hitherto ionaiSSk- 
pression in the payment to them of lower wages than whituMB 
received for similar service has been discountenanced ^tjb 
issuance of an order eliminating the color line from the w$|pi 

The organization of a Bureau for Suggestions and Complaiab 
has been announced under a notice posted in all the stations aal 
passenger cars, which reads as follows : 


I desire your assistance and co-operation in making the raS* 
road service while under Federal control in the highest poesiUlft 
degree satisfactory and efficient. 

Of course, the paramount necessities of the war must havt 
first consideration. 

Our gallant sons who are fighting in France and on the hioh 
seas cannot be adequately supported unless the railroads sup^W 
sufficient transportation for the movement of troops and WW 
materials, and to keep the war industries of the Nation going 
without interruption. 

The next purpose is to serve the public convenience, comfo(t| 
and necessity to the fullest extent not incompatible with thft 
paramount demands of the war. 

In onler to accomplish this, criticisms and suggestions from 
the public will be extremely helpful, whether they relate to the 
service rendered by employees and officials or impersonal details 
that may convenience or inconvenience patrons of the rulroads. 
It is impossible for even the most vigilant management to keep 
constantly in touch with lacal conditions and correct them when 
they are not as. they, unless the public will co-operate 

Digitized by 





To8«thar with G«Mnl Dim and Genenl Giudino, G«ii«ml BadogUo than* the PREPARED FOR ACTION 

oradit oi the raoent Italian Tiotoriea on the Piava 



Li«ut«nant Fonak, aooording to recent despatohee, ha* bronght down hia rixty- 

Ihiid enemy plane. Thi* place* him on an equality with the aoe of aoe*, 

Gnmemer, in the number of hia air rictorie* 

aAMt News *(avioc 

Mr. Tohaykoraky ha* lonK been known aa a ivTolationiat. It is anooonoed that 
he i* to be Preairlent of " the Ooremment of Northern Ku**ig^l V^ 



This pictnre, which brings to miiiS a well-known painting, "The Queen of the Swords," by W. Q. Orchardson, R.A., has peculiar significanoe in that it symbolizes 
the onion of Army and Navy, the bride being B[i^BiOn|ae Franklin, a daoghter of Commander William B, Franklin, of the United States Navy, and the biktegroora 

, Lieutenant ^^ fi.^Uck, son of Major<}eneral W. M. Black, of the United States Army 



A Chinese force will, it is announced, join the Allies at Vladivostok. In the picture the President of China, Feng Kuo-chaug, is seen reviewing a detadiment of 

these troops 

Digitized by VJWVJV IV^ 


I despatch-bearer must know how to carry his despatches and his machine successfully throngh extraordinary places, and his tmininR must provide for such 
nier^enciea. The tests to which candidates for the position of despatch-bearer by motorcycle are subjected include the trial of a difficult leap in midair such as is 
hown in the picture. The rider in this case is not under actual test, but is practicing. He is ■). W. Terhune, of Hackensack, N. J., and is shown making; a recoid 

jump of thirty-six feet , ' i 





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4 Septen 

in pointtng out deficiencies and disservice when they exist, so 
that the proper remedies may be applied. 

I have, therefore, established a Bureau fob Suoobstions 
ASV CoHPLAuns in the Director-General's office at Washing- 
ton, to which the public is invited to resort 

Aside from letters of complaint and suggestion, the public can 
render a genuine service by sending letters of commendation of 
employees who are conspicuously courteous and efficient in the 
penormance of their duties. Nothing promotes the esprit of a 
great organization more than recognition from time to time of 
ttiose employees who perform their duties fiuthfully and com- 

It is requested that all communications be brief and explicit, 
and that the name and address of the writer be distmctly 

Also give the time of day or night, the number of the train, 
the name of the railroad, and, if possible, the name of the em- 
ployee whose conduct is complained of or whose services are 
commended, together with such other information as will enable 
me to take appropriate action. 

Please adcb«es w r. m » 

W. G. McAdoo, 

Director-General of Railroads, 

Bureau for Suggestions and Complaints, 

Washington, D. G. 

Studies are being made to determine whether the adoption 
of an equitable and universal ^lan for Um compensation of em- 
ployees in case of death or mjury and the provision of life, 
nealth, and old-age insurance is practicable. There are 1^^ 
difficulties in the way ariung from the existence of pension and 

insurance ^luis previously in use, but they will probably 
overcome. The problem is a big one and its solution will reqi 

To meet the advance in the wages of railway employees wl 
the Director-General has allowed in accordance with the reo 
mendation of the Railroad Wage Commission and the incre 
in other operating charges, passenger rates have been advan 
to three cents a mile and freight rates by an average of twei 
five per cent. These advances were necessary. They are tar '. 
than those that have been established since the outbreak of 
war for nearly every other service that is performed or ev 
commodity that is consumed. That they wiU be cheerfully i 
by the Amwican public th«re is no doubt. 

This is but a partial list of the more important reforms i 
changes already adopted or under immediate coosiderati 
Their effect in increasing the efficiency of the aervioe and 
larging the capacity of the existing railway facilities cannot 
definitely stated or approximated as yet. Most of the chan 
have been effected wiutin the last two mcMiths and under prii 
ownership sixty days have been required for the oompilat 
of informing railway statistics. 

Speaking gmenmy, howevor, the figures thus far ooDa 
show that encouraging proeress has been made in .aoeelerat 
the movement of traffic and in employing the available eqi 
ment more intensively, and I venture the predicti<m that by 
time autumn turns the leaves the serviceable efficioic^ of 
American raUways will be so increased that but few will qi 
tion the wisdom of the President's aotimi in taking them ov 



GUGLIELMO FERRERO'S volume on " Europe's Fate- 
ful Hour " consists of a series of essays not very closely 
connected. At least the connection is spiritual rather 
than literary. The spirit which more or lees pervades them all 
may be expressed as an interpretation of the contrast between 
quantity and quality, or between power and culture, or between 
bigness and greatness. The author sees this as a contrast be- 
tween Latin and Teuton ideals. This it may be, but we ihink 
that it is more than this. At least the ambition for quantity is 
one of the natural fruits of the democratic development of the 
last century and a half. 

In the Old World the object of life was the development of 
what Nietzsche has called the Superman. Industry provided 
comforts for the few ; the many were left in a life of ignorance 
and poverty. For the few were built royal palaces ; the many 
lived in huts. For the few were woven and embroidered by 
painstaking industries splendid robes ; the many lived in rags. 
The few sat down to tables spread with rare foods and ooeUy 
wines ; the many lived on black bread and often suffered from 
hunger. The few rode in coaches with outriders; the many 
walked. For the few there were universities where scholars 
were made and culture was imparted ; the many knew not how 
to read or write. Even religion was for the few — in Roman 
Catholic communities for those who retired into convents and 
monasteries that they might cultivate the religious spirit, in the 
Protestant communities for the elect; there was no way by 
which the non-elect could join their ranks. 

By democracy the object of life has been revolutionized. It 
is not the cultivation of a Superman or a class of Supermen. It 
is the largest possible life for the largest possible number. In 
democracy, therefore, quantity naturally comes first and quality 
second. We do not say that this is a necessary consequence of 
democracy, but it is a natural first consequence. Providing for 
the many could be done only by less painstaking care to pro- 

' Europe's Fateful Hour. By GogUelmo Ferrero. Dodd, Mead & Co.. New 
Tork. S2. 

duoe perfection, and the painstaking care to perfection ' 
therefore lessened and too often abandoned. Draaooracy bn 
few palaces and many homes ; but the homes are often oj 
and the ugliness is often increased by an u;norant attemp 
add beauty. Power looms have taken the phuse of hand lo< 
and imitation the place of real laces and real embroidery ; 1 
if shoddy doth and the imitation laces turned out by the miUi 
are inferior to the products of hand looms and hand-made la 
they are superior to the rags which the poor had previoi 
worn. Adulteration cheapens and sometimes poisons the fc 
sold in the open markets ; but, in spite of this, the food of 
poor is better. The coach and four and the post-ohaise g 
place to the stage-coach, and that in turn to the railway, foi 
expedition the old-time royal coaches could not oonapete v 
the new-time democratic railway trains. Public schools cs 
into existence and gave education to the young people, but t 
did not give either scholarship or culture. Happily, the i 
versities remained, from which scholars and cultivated gen 
men were graduated, and the doors of these universities b 
been opened with remarkable rapidity, so that now in democr 
countries the children of the poor can often rise to the higl 
ranks in the Republic of Letters. Music has been adaptet 
the uncultivated, and the uncultivated appreciate rhytiim i 
melody, but not harmony ; so came secular ragtime in the h( 
and sacred ragtime in the Sunday schools. The phonograj^h 
lowed, furnishing sometimes a substitute for, and sometimes 
introduction to, the orchestral interpretations of great mast 
Chromes made a certain kind of art possible in the home 
the poor ; and those who wished paintings but did not wisl 
pay the price could buy pictures which the artist painted w] 
the buyer waited for them. Democracy speeded up everythi 
It was in a hurry, and could not wait. Of this Signor Fen 
gives a humorous illustration : 

One day at New York I was speaking in appreciative tern 
of American architecture to a very talented architect. " Ye 
yes," he answered, sarcaatically, " my compatriots are quite read 

Digitized by VJ\^*^V IV^ 



> spend one hundred million dollan on building a church m 
eautiful as St Mark's in Venice, bat they would insist on its 
eing finished in eighteen months." 

>ignor Ferrero adds : 

The reply was suggestive. How .is it possible to beautify a 
rorld which is perpetually being transformed, where nothing u 
table, and where eveiythmg, from furniture to buflding^, must be 
limed out in quantities ?" 

jn this world nothing is either wholly good or wholly evil, 
e passion for qoantity has had maleficent as well as beneficent 
alts. It sacrificed quality to quantity. It changed the popu- 
estimate of values ; of spiritual as well as material values, 
at was counted the greatest university which had the great- 
number of students, the greatest newspaper which had the 
atest circulation, the greatest book which was the bestseller, 
greatest preacher who had the greatest congregation. Effi- 
icy in making and seUing things regardless of their quality 
ame in many minds the supreme excellence. Germany became 
admiration and the envy of the commercial world because she 
isessed this excellence in a remarkable degree. Other coun- 
e were restrained in their commercial ambition by otLer con- 
arations. England was restrained by her reverence /or tradi- 
1. " There are no people more slow to change its opinions, 
thods, principles, tastes, and convictions in matters of art, 
jnoe, rdieion, philosophy, and, even to a certain extent, in 
itics." The Latin peoples were restrained by their idealism, 
'ranoe offered more resistance to this current of thought tlian 
T other country, but for that very reason it was too often said 
,t she was aging." America, the land of a conglomerate popu- 
lon, found in democracy itself some safeguards from the perils 
democracy. " One does not, however, need to travel in 
lerica in order to realize that the Americans are no mere 
■barians, wholly given over to money-grubbing. . . . The 
>rt made by the Americans to establiso schools all over the 
intry would in itself be sufficient to refute such an accusa> 
1. ... A writer p;iven to paradox might even assert that 
lericans are more idealistic than Europeans, ii the desire to 
lerstand, admire, and assimilate everything, art, ideas, and 
igions alike, is to be regarded as a proof of idealism. . . . 
by, then, struggle for the triumph of one to the detriment of 
other, instead of allowing man to take from each all the 
)d that each has to offer ? Those who know North America 
1 say that, if there be a distinctively American doctrine, it is 

Germany was restrained neither by traditions as England, by 
alism as France and Italy, nor by the spirit of brotherhood 
America. Her traditions were all autocratic and barbaric. 
sse were not imposed upon her by a despot. They were in 
blood and in the thoughts and habits of her people. Her ideals 
■e all those of despotic power ; the only instruments of national 
atness which they recognized were those of the armed man. To 

Germans the saying of Isaiah was unmeaning : " For all the 
lor of the armed man in the tumult, and the^uments rolled 
»lood, shall be for burning, for fuel of fire." ^e restraints of 
ral idealism recognizing numan rights and divine authority 
y either did not perceive or perceived only to repudiate them. 
)y recognized no equality of nations, and therefore no in- 
lational law. They recognized no brotherhood of man, and 
ref ore no obligations to f eUow-men of other races. " The love," 
} Bemhardi, " which a man showed to another country as 
li would imply a want of love for his own countrymen." 
»y recognized no moral law superior to the national self-will ; 
moral law above the law of the state. Religion furnished no 
Taint, for their God was their ally, not their Lawgfiver. 
If a people," says Ferrero, " is to live happily and work 
Btably, there must be a certain balance between quantity 

quality, and this balance is only possible if the ideals of 
tection — whether artistic, moral, or religious — are capable 
etting a bound to the desire for the increase of wealth. In 
many there is no such balance between quantity and quality, 
luse there are no such ideals of perfection capable of setting 
nind to the desire for increase of wealth. The Germans have 
led the world with shoddy goods and inferior and fraudulent 

imitations. " What are all these Smyrna carpets woven at 
Monza ; all these Japanese goods or all this Indian furniture 
manufactured at Hamburg or in Bavaria ; all these Parisian 
novelties made in a hundred places ; all these rabbits whom a 
lew weeks suffice to change into otters ; all these champagnes 
made in America, in G«rmany, in Italy, if not the lies of quan- 
tity, which steal from mined and proscribed quality her last 
rags?" And while Germany has not been the only sinner, she 
has been a leader in this race, and has set -the pace for the 
rest of the world. To this passionate greed are due what are 
perhaps the two greatest evils in the world — alcoholism and 
war. Says Ferrero : 

Alone among all tlie civilizations of liistory, our civilization 
has applied itself with the same energy to manufacture ever 
greater quantities of all products, from alcohol to explosives, 
m>m cannons to aeroplanes, without ever troubUug itself as to the 
use that would be made of them. It is thus that enormous quan- 
tities of alcohol have been distilled ; and after having been dis- 
tilled they have been given to the million to drink, even at the 
risk of destroying whole nations.- The' primary sources of the 
vice are in the inaustry and not in the men. It is not the thirst 
of men which obliges mdustry and agriculture to produce drink 
in ever-increasin? quantity ; it is industry and agriculture which, 
swept along by the tremendous economic onrush of the world, 
augment Vae production ; and, to dispose of it all, teach the 
masses to get drunk. ... If we want to save the masses from 
this curse, Uiere is only one way : entirely to prohibit the distil- 
lation of the alcohols of inferior quality aestined for the making 
of liqueurs, and rigorouslv to linut the production of the alco- 
hols of superior quality. The people will be obliged to drink less 
when they no longer have any tiling at their disposition but wine, 
beer, and a few very expensive liqueurs. 

From the democratic movement Germany was immune. She 
did not wake up to its commercial significance until long after 
the free nations had perceived and taken advantage of it. The 
colonies of England, France, and Italy practically covered the 
uncivilized world ; over most barbaric peoples some civilized 
flag was floating. The civilization of these barbaric peoples 
developed wants, and their wants furnished a market for tlie 
goods of the civilized Power. Germany might find a market 
for her goods in civilized nations, but there she was compelled 
to compete with their own manufacturers, and she was uways 
liable to be hindered, if not prevented, from entering the coun- 
tries by tariffs. 

These three motives conspired to impel Germany to war: 
Her aristocratic rulers were impelled by her ambition for power ; 
her commercial leaders, by their desire for markets ; the intel- 
lectuals followed the soldier and the manufacturer, inspired by 
national self-conceit. National self-conceit is to be found not 
in Germany alone ; but nowhere in free countries will be found 
such a self-oonceit as is expressed, for example, in the following 
sentence by Professor Eucken, who is probably the sanest and 
broadest-minded of modem German phdosophers : " To us more 
than to any other nation is intrusted the true structure of human 
existence; as an intellectual people we have, irrespective of 
creeds, worked for soul depth in religion, for scientific thorough- 
ness, for the creation of independent personality in our educa- 
tional methods. . . . All this constitutes possessions of which 
mankind cannot be deprived; possessions the loss of which 
would make life and effort purposeless to mankind." 

I have not attempted in tliis article to indicate all the 
forces which have led Germany to initiate this world war ; but, 
taking the suggestion furnished by Signer Ferrero, I have 
endeavore<l to point out a partial answer to the question which, 
in common with all the world, he is asking and to which his 
book furnishes a partial answer : " The real problem of the 
European war seems to present itself thus : How was a nation, 
universally regarded as a brother of the great European family, 
able to conceive, at the dawn of the twentieth century, the idea 
of conquering, by surprise, a decisive supremacy over all the 
other countries of the world, by destroying with fire and sword, 
in a few months, one of the most ancient, most glorious, and 
most active centers of civilization, and how did it decide to 
stake all that is possessed, . . . that is to say, a very brilliant 
position, ... in this venture?" 

Digitized by 




MEN, money, and materials are the 
three great factors in industrial 
production. There is no lack of 
raw material within our country ; 
neither is there lack of money. Because of 
the schedules of production which we have 
fixed for ourselves there is a shortage of 
industrial man power. It was necessarv, 
therefore, to distrihute our available supply 
of manpower among our essential industries 
in the order of their need. 

This having been accomplished, the most 
important work remained to be done. Each 
human worker has to be impressed with the 
vital importance of the part which he plays. 

To fully accomplish tnis the worker must 
be permitted to share in the adventure of 
industry. There b adventure in industry, 
but usually it is confined to the chief execu- 
tives of the organization. By sharing it 
with the workers their interest and pride 
in production results will be aroused. 

Instead of being permitted to dwell upon 
the deadly monotony of the Heating of 
rivets hour on hour, the heater boy in the 
ship-building plant must be made to see that 
upon his eiliciency and steadiness depends 
the work of hb riveting crew ; that upon 
tlie work of his crew and the many others 
just like it depends the speedy completion of 
a ship ; that awaiting that ship are soldiers 
for the trenches, munitions for the armies, 
and food for our troops and our allies. 

A matter of hours gained by the riveters 
in fabricating the ship may seem unimpor- 

A matter of hours gained in the delivery 
of a ship's load of machine-gun mimitions 
at the height of a battle may mean the dif- 
ference between victory and defeat. 

It b just thb conception that needs to 
be brought home to each worker in every 
essential industry in our country. 

So may a negative be changed into a 
positive condition, the dbinclination to pro- 
duce may be overcome, the lack of interest 


in production may be eliminated, by instill- 
ing within each worker an intense personal 
interest in the objective, an<l inspiring him 
with a real inclination to produce to the 
utmost, hour after hour, aay after day, 
week after week. 

The key to wrinning the war is ships. 
Realizing this, our Government took com- 
plete charge of . the industry through tlie 
medium of the United States Shipping 
Board Emergency Fleet Corporation. 
There then arose serious question as to 
whether the workers in the shipyards and 
allied industrial plants would nse to the 
need. A higher scale of wage was adopted 
tlian had ever before been paid for this 
class of work in the history of the world. 
But for a time even this did not suffice. 
ftlany men would work until they had re- 
ceived the amount of pay to which they 
had been accustomed in previous occupa- 
tions. Then they would loaf the rest of the 
week. Few seemed to realize the terrible 
gravity of the situation. The Board recog- 
nized this as a g^eat problem in the psy- 
chology of the industrial worker, and took 
steps to meet it in a positive way. 

The first was the formation of the Na- 
tional Service Section, with its main oflBces 
in New York City, and with Dr. Charles 
Aubrey Eaton as the head, for the distinct 
purpose of carrying on a campaign of 
inspiration and education among the men 
of the shipyards. 

Dr. Eaton was then pastor of the Madi- 
son Avenue Baptbt Church, and had previ- 
ously had large churches in Cleveland and 
Toronto. A man of splendid physique and 
magnetic personality, hb greatest strength 
lies in his deep-rooted sympathy with and 
large understanding and appreciation of the 
American workingman. It is this feeling on 
hb part that at once transmits itself in a 
telepathic way to his workingman audi- 
ences, winning their attention, confidence, 
and co-operation. 

Hb conception of hb work is best con- 
veyed in Dr. Eaton's own words : 

We look upon oar task as a National aerrioe. We 
apeak to the workers in shipyard and indastrial 
plants, not as laborin|r men, but as American 
citizens. We know nothinsr of class or caste. Our 
message is as much for the management as for the 
men, and for the people of the Nation as for thoee 
connected with its indnstrial production. 

We appeal to the best that 'a in men. Class con- 
aoioosness is driven ont by awakenin); a National 
oonscionsness. Small ideas are cured by hig ideas. 

We show the men that their work to win this 
war ia not simply so much work for so much pay — 
it is a sacrament, a religion ; it is fighting as truly 
as if they were in the trenches in France. 

Dr. Eaton divided his National Service 
Section into three broad divisions — Busi- 
ness Office, Speakers, Printed Publicity — 
all under his own close personal super- 

To head these he operated his own 
selective draft The organization and con- 
duct of the Section on a business basis wa« 
placed in the charge of Horace L. Day, of 
New York, another of those big, broad 
American business men who have placed 
patriotism before profit, abandoning for 
the duration of war participation in per- 
sonal enterprise. 

The reaching of the industrial workers 
in the shipyards of the country through 
printed messages as well as through loc^ 
plant publications, general magazines, and 
the daih' press was placed in the charge of 
A. R. Parkhurst, the Section's secretery, 
and a prominent figure in the New York 
new8paj)er world. . . 

The work started through the recruiting 
of a staff of military and layman speakei-s, 
to be despatched in pairs into every ship- 
yard and allied industrial plant m the 
country. The military speakers are British. 
Canadian, Anzac, French, and Italian offi- 
cers and privates, either retired through 
physical disability or in this country on fur- 
lough and loaned to die Section through the 



Digitized by 




conrtesy of their respective Governments. 
The type of men b typified by tlie mention 
of hot tew, such as Major-General Swinton, 
K.C.B., D.S.O., father of the British tank ; 
Lieatenant*CoIoneI R. S. Evans, D.8.O., 
British Army ; and Corporal Frank A. H. 

These are all men who Iiave been in the 
thick of the fighting and many have won 
glory in Ufe trenches. They know the Hun 
and his ways tlirough peraonal contact and 
insight. They know the needs of the situa- 
tion through personal participation. They 

kept the newspapers and magazines sup- 
plied with information as to the progress 
of these industrial fighters. A series of 
pamphlets, profusely pictured, has con- 
veyM a realization ot the vital need for 
ships, and how they could individually help 
in supplying the need. 

The first, entitled "S.O.S— Send Out 
Ships !" reminded the workers of the past 
glories of America's merchant marine — to 
be revived. This was followed by " Beat- 
ing the U-Boat," which contained pictures 
and facts regarding the American ti-ans- 

of enthusiasm soon began to set in through- 
out the shipyards and allied industrial 
plants. Wheels began to turn faster. Spirit 
improved day by day ; output increased 
hour by hour. Managements and men 
began to understand each other and, as a 
result, to trust each other as never before. 
Both got down to one purpose — to aid to 
the utmost in winning the- war. 

The positive good accomplished is evi- 
denced oy the telegrams and letters from 
the managements of the plants, of which 
the following, received from one of the 


The poster at the left is by E. Hopper, of New 
York City ; it won the first prize in the " Citizens " 
cUas. Above is the fiist-prize winner in the " Ship- 
Bnilders " class, by Arthnr Hutchins, of Boston. 
The poster at tne rigfht is by W, H. Hoffman, a 
schoolboy of Savannah, Georgia ; it won the first 
prize in its class. There were four classes — the first 
open to all, the second to soldiers or sailors only, 
toe third to workers in ship-bnilding; plants only, 
and the fourth to aohool-children only. There were 


Join thearmy 
of shipbuilders. 

prizes amounting to 91,000, three to each class. The Shipping; Board, in its canipugn for atiranlatuK 
patriotic war work_ among the shipbuilders, had' the co-operation of the New York "Snn," which 
made the contest widely known and aroused much enthusiasm. The model for the prize poster " Smash 
the Hun " was a " bender " in the Morse Dry-dock ; and when he heard that " his " poster had woo 
the prize he bectune so enthusiastia that he at once enlisted in the Navy. There was grreat excite- 
ment in the plant when the poster was shown to the men, for everybody at onca recognized Pete bhen 

The prizes were offered by the National Service Section of the United States Shipping Board, Emergency Fleet Corporation 

largest munition plants in the country, is 
typical : 

My one regret is that I)r. Baton and all the ainll 
were not able to witness the wonderful tninsfornin- 
tion in the spirit of our workmen, including fore- 
men, superintendents, officials, and all the rest. 

You do know, perhaps, that approximately fiflern 
hundred of our men, from our most ini|iortjiii^ 
departments, were not at work because of liick of 
patriotism and the effect of German propaganda, 
and, knowing this, I am sure you appreciate the 
seriousness of such a situation and the great uer«»- 
aity for heroic effort. 

What has been nccomplishe<l here has been mmio 
possible through your coopenitiun. Our entire or- 
ganization is now awiike to the full iniportanoe of 
thetAsk, and is driving as it never did befurv to w':i 
the war. 

Another, from the hea<l of one of our 
largest shipyards, says : 

I have personiUly attended several eraployitin' 
meetings where your speakerH were present. 

I have paid special attention to watching the 
crowd of workiuKn and noting how they n-spund. 

There is no doubt about the influence yon are 
having. It is upward and onward in Hliip production. 
You will find it stendily growing, and I ho|><> all the 
principals in shipynrds «rill take your work very 
seriously and at every opiwrtunity do evi-rythini; 
poaailile to keep the splendid thoughts nu>vin; 
which yon have started. 

This result is accomplishc<l by ext«ndin<; 
the worker's understanding, t4>uohing bis 
pride, arousing his love of justice (and 
sometimes his fears), instilling n-ithin him 
the conviction tliat he is fighting as truly 
as if he were in the trenches in France, and 
thus giving him a participation in that 
spirit of high adventure which is necessary 
for the greatest achievements both in peace 
and war. 

Digitized by y<JKJKJ\ll\^ 

are able to deliver a message that strikes 
fire in the heart of the workingman. 

The soldiers are paired witn a layman 
speaker, forceful and eloquent — usually a 
volunteer pastor or preacher on leave from 
his church — and are sent out at regular 
intervals. The message they have to deliver 
is as much to the managements as to the 
men. It is one of cold fact, presented in a 
graphic, inspirational way, to bring vividly 
to tttem our great need for ships. Perhaps 
the most striking feature of these messages 
is the strong spiritual note that perraues. 
No stronger sermons are preached from 
any pulpit than the strong man-to-nutn 
and man-to-God talks of these soldier- 

Practically all of the meetings are held on 
" company " time, for it is then easier to 
congregate all employees at a designated 
point. Executives nave stated that the time 
lost by the men while attending these meet- 
ings is a good investment, as it is quickly 
made up by the renewed energy and better 

The Section has now more than a hun- 
dred speakers on its staff. In the month of 
July alone they talked in 1,2.52 meetings, 
to an audience totaUng 1,159,089 industrial 
workers. Dr. Eaton himself, in addition 
to his executive responsibilities, addressed 
workers in New York, New Jersey, Illinois, 
Ohio, Michigan, California, Washington, 
and Oregon, talking to about 13u,000 

Supplementing the speakers, Mr. Park- 
hnrst s department has placed " speed up " 
posters about the yards, " speed up " Utera- 
tnre in the hands of the workers, and has 

ports sunk by the Hun, and calling upon 
the shipyard workers to replace each one a 
hundredfold. Other booklets were " To 
Back 'Em Up," pointing out to the workers 
the need for ships to back up our boys in 
the trenches ; *' Let's Work," carrying a 
personal, autographed message from the 
President to the workingman ; " Spurs to 
Speed," which contained words of appreci- 
ation for tlie splendid spirit shown by the 

One of the mediums for reaching the 
workers is the (my-roll envelope, in which 
are placed " spoonfuls of patriotism " in 
the form of small cards bearing war mes- 
sages from men of international reputation. 
Literature is also atldrvssed to the wife of 
the ship-builder, that she, too, may realize 
the need for her husband to work eight hours 
a day, six days a week, week after week. 

The Section held a poster competition 
which brought in nearly fifteen hundred 
entries; many of them bearing the names of 
pruniinent American arti.sts. Tlicsc are to 
supply a new fund of inspirational posters 
to be placed in the 8hi]>yards and ]>mnt8. 

Managements of plants have been urged 
and aided to establish service departments 
in their plants ; to organize employee asso- 
ciations, bands, encourage spoi-ts, and in 
every way promote tlie best interests of 
the employees. In more than one plant the 
Section has inaugurated an Industrial Rela- 
tions Agreement, which aims at large mu- 
tual understanding between employer and 
employee, with the result that tlie just aspi- 
rations of the men will be advanced and 
unreasonable demands witlidrawm. 

As a result of tlie Section's work a tide 





Baaed on The Outlook of August 28, 1918 

BSftoh week an Oatline Stady oi Carrent Hiitory based on the precaiing number of The Ootlook viQ 
be printed for the benefit of oarrent erenta claaaee, debating olnba, teaohert of history and of Bngjiah, and 
the like, and for use in the home and by snob indiridnal readers as may desire suggestions in the serious 
study of enrrent history. — Thb Bdctobs. 

[Those who are using the veekly outline should 
not attempt to cover the whole of an outline in any 
one leaaon or study. Assign for one lesson selected 
questions, one or two propositions for diaoossion, and 
only such words as are found in the material assigned. 
Or distribute selected questions among different 
members of the class or group and have them 
report their findings to all when assembled. Then 
haye all discuss the questions toeether.l 

I — ^uttebkational affatss 

A. Tovie: Direct Testimony; German 
Self- Accusation ; Poniskment of the 

Beference: Pa^es 643, 645; editorial, 

pages 648, &9. 
Questions : 

1. Write an editorial on the material 
quoted from the letter received from France 
by a member of The Outlook's staff. Think 
out not less than tliree appropriate titles to 
your editcrial and explain why you think 
they are suitable captions. 2. The Outlook 
thinks that the German army should be 
" so crushed that for generations the world 
will remember dieir fate as a wamins; to 
the lawless." Is or is not The Outlook 
advocating for the Allies the principle of 
« German f rightfulness " ? 3. The Outlook 
quotes Uie " Frankfurter Zeitung " as say* 
ing that " the German political system is 
false." When is a political system sound ? 
Indicate specifically wherein Germany's 

rlitical system stands in need of reform. 
What would have to be done, and how 
long do you think it would take, to develop 
sound public opinion in Germany ? 5. On 
page d48 The Outlook speaks of "the 
pyohology of the Kaiser." What is meant 
oy this ? 6. Explain Dr. Hill's statement 
on the same page : " Without question. 
Kaiser Wilhelm II is the most lustrionic 
sovereign of bis time, and perhaps of any 
time." How prove Dr. Hill's statement ? 
Do so. 7. From reading this editorial, what 
do you conclude the present punishment of 
Uie Kaiser is ? 8. The Outlook believes the 
"Kaiser should receive future punishment and 
that that punishment should be hothphvsi- 
eal and psychologicaL Discuss just what, 
in your opinion, that punishment should 
be. Tell what you think of the Allies, after 
they have dented Germany, bringing a 
charge of murder against Wilhelm II and 
ezecutiiLg him on proof of that charge. 9. 
You will do well to read " The Roots of the 
War," by W. S. Davis (Century) ; "The 
Origins of the War," by J. H. Rose (Put- 
nams) ; " True and False Democracy," by 
N. M. Butler (Scribners). 

B. Topic : The Czechoslovak Nation ; 
Czechoslovaks on the Side of the 
Allies ; A New Nation. 

B^erenoe: Pages 644, 651, 652. 

1. These references tell us of the birth of 
two new nations. How many nations are 
there altogether ? What are the first-rate 
Powers of the world? 2. What is a nation? 

What is a race? What is nationality? 

3. Locate the Czechslovak nation. What 
facts has The Outlook given about the 
Czechoslovaks as a people and nation? 

4. For what reasons are the Czechoslovaks 
on the side of the Allies ? 5. Discuss what 
you think will result from this alignment. 
D. Of what nation is Hussain the first 
King ? Where is it ? What are its ideals ? 
7. From the information given by The 
Outlook, what importance do you attach to 
the new Kingdom of the Hediaz ? 8. Find 
out all vou can about the origin and cfaaiy 
acter of the Arabs and their religions con- 
dition before Mohammed. Have they ever 
been conquered by a foreign foe ? 9. Give 
the leading facts about the Turkish £m- 

?ire at the dawn of the nineteenth century. 
0. What are the most important things to 
be remembered about the Turks from 
1801-1918? 11. Discuss why the Christian 
nations of Europe have allowed Turkev to 
remain in Europe. Should they have oone 
so ? 12. Two worth-while books are " Na- 
tionality in Modern History," by J. H. 
Rose (Macmillan), and "The Ottoman 
Empire," by W. Miller (Pntnams — Cam- 
bridge University Press). 
C. Topic: The Message of the World to 

the Church. 
Reference : Editorial, pages 660, 651. 

1. What does Dr. Abbott mean by " the 
Church " ? By " sin "? 2. Explain his state- 
ment: "The brutalities in Belgium and 
France are but the outward manifestation 
of an inward life." 3. Dr. Abbott thinks 
the modem ministry has done well to re- 
ject the doctrine of " total depravity." Do 
you ? 4. Do you agree or disagree with Dr. 
Abbott when he says : " Time is no cure 
for sin." "Education is no panacea for 
sin. Development will not destroy it " ? 

5. What, according to Dr. Abbott, is the 
message of the world to the Church ? Dis- 
cuss. D. What proof is there that the world 
was never more " eager to hear the mes- 
sage of Isaiah and Paul " ? 

n — PBOPOsrriuNB fob disoussion 

(Tlese propositions are suggested directly or indi- 
rectly by the subject-matter of The OuUook, but 
not discussed in it.) 

1. Libertv and e<}nali^ are mutually de- 
structive. 2. Public opmion is not very 
old. 3. Anarchy and despotism are friends. 

(All of the following words and expressions are 
found in The Outlook for August 28, 1918. Both 
before and after looking them up in the dictionary 
or elsewhere, give their meaning tn your own uxyrdi. 
The figures in parentheses refer to pages on which 
the words may be found.) 

Validity (643); fustian, bombast (648); 
melodrama, anthropomorphic, logical (649); 
vanguards (645); jehad, lineal, nefarious 
(651) ; tautological, inefficacy (650), sub- 
tleties, ethical platitudes (65l). 

A booklet suggttting method$ qf luing the Weekly Outline (^ Current Uittory wiU be tent on applieation 

4 September 




Believing that the advance of business is a snbje^ 
of vital mterest and importance. The Outlook will 
pr e s e nt under the above heading frvqnent dia- 
cnssions of ssbiects of industrial and oommarcial 
interest. The department will include paragTaphs 
of timely interest and articles of educntjonai value 
dealing with the industrial npibuilding of titt Nation. 
Comment and suggestions are invited. 





Pnsldsot KIsmI Motor Car Compsay 

IF I were asked what steps are necessary 
to provide against delays in overland 
transportation during the coming win- 
ter months, I would say : Build good 
roads on the shortest i-outes connecting im- 
portant centers. Protect these roads from 
washouts, cave-ins, and other obstructions 
caused by snow and ice, by building wind- 
breaks, protection embankments, etc. 

Build loading sheds with platforms that 
permit the quick loading and unloading of 
goods and supplies. 

Form return loads bureaus and secure 
the co-opei-ation of every truck owner in 
your community. 

Promote motor rural express routes 
among the farmers, dairymen, produce 
growers, etc. 

Consolidate all retail delivery, local ex- 
press, and moving equipment. 

Inaugurate motor-truck highways around 
and through cities and communities to per- 
mit of uninterrupted passt^ of motor 

We must not forget that the winter 
months, with their new problems, are " just 
over the hill." This summer has seen in- 
creased activities in every line of business. 
The cotmtry has doubled and treble<l its 
production operations, with the result tiiat 
we are apt to forget that while the summer 
months are conductive to such increased 
activities in so far as transportation and 
haulage of goods and supplies are concerned, 
the wmter months are just the other ex- 

Just as the different armies overseas are 
ireparing for the long winter siege ahead 
y building and connecting railways, erect- 
inr supply bases and depots so that there 
wul be no delay in carrying out the pro- 
gramme outlined by the general head- 
quarters, irrespective of the intensity of the 
winter season, so industrial and mercantile 
America should do likewire. Transporta- 
tion of goods and supplies is just as impor- 
tant, it not more so, during the winter 
months as during the spring and summer 
months. While a good many sections of tlie 
country apparently realize the necessity of 
preparing for the coming winter, I do not 
beheve that America as a whole has 
grasped the necessity of aution in this mat- 
ter. The very fact that the Government is 
spending huge sums of money for building 
and maintenance of good roads, for the 
purpose of facilitating overland transpor- 
tation, should cause every community to 
look into Uie road conditions in its neigh- 
borhood and between it and the next city, 
and act accordingly. It has been said that 
the lack of good roads is the weak link in 
our transportation chain. Without them the 
maintenance of uninterrupted schedules is 
almost an impossibility, because not only do 
Digitized by y^JVjyjWls^ 







3,000 Red-Blooded Men 

" There is no Railroad President — no Corporation Director in America too big for 
the job of handling one of our huts in France," cables one of America's best known 
business men from "over there." Here is a chance for you men whom war has skipped. 

Men of the **skipped generation, " men whose fathers were 
in the Civil War and whose sons are in this war — '^regular 
fellows, ' ' of the in-between age, men who have made good 
in business, made good in times of peace, men whose success 
has come to them through knowing how to handle other 
men — ^three thousand of you are wanted. 

There's a need in France right now for 
such as you to take charge of Y. M. C. A. 
huts. These are the unarmed soldiers, nerve- 
proof under a shower of shells, willing to 
sleep where they can, eat when there's a 
chance, able to work 16 hours a day, good 
mixers, ready to be preachers or friends — 
yes, and at need, game to the core. 

Three thousand such jobs are waiting — 
at nothing per year — for those who can 
fill them. Nothing per year — nothing but 
the thrill that comes to the man who does 
his part, nothing but the tingle of blood 
that squares his shoulders and makes him 
say to himself: "It was my part and I 
did it." 

Write, giving full details, to Y. M. C. A. Overseas' Headquarters 
E. D. POUCH, 347 Madison Avenue, New York 





OnMfaatMl tkroaik DMilMi of AdTWtiitag. 


This apace contributed for the Winning of the War by 

Digitized by 






New Fall Catalogue 

Janes McCutcheon 




Fall and 


For Upwards of sixty years, 
the name of McCutcheon has 
been a synonym for all that 
is best in Linens. 

The new Fall Catalogue of 
"The Linen Store " is full of 
interest for every lover of 
" the House Beautiful." 

It illustrates also a specially 
attractive selection of the 
most desirable Under- and 
Outer-garments for Ladies, Misses and Children. 
The collections of both Imported and American- 
made Lingerie are very extensive. 

Notwithstanding the present strenuous war-time 
conditions, we continue to maintain our high 
^standards of merchandise and service in every de- 
partment. Orders by mail will receive the same 
scrup,ulous attention as heretofore. 

Send for New Catalogue 

A copy of the new Fall Catalogue will be mailed 
gladly on request. 

James McCutcheon & Co. 

Fifth Avenue, 34th & 33d Sts., N. Y. 


The Motor Truck as the Nation'$ Home Provider 

bod roads cause delays, but they double and 
even treble the cost of operation, as well as 
increase the depreciation of trucks, and we 
have not the necessary oversnpply of motor 
trucks to risk having them put out of com- 
mission through the lack ot suitable high- 
ways and byways. 


Getting the goods and supplies to a com- 
munity is one thing ; delivering them to 
the altimate purchaser is another. The 
problems that must be overcome in the first 
instance are altogether different from those 
in the second, and, to my mind, the most 
logical plan of eliminating unnecessary 
delays and loss of time, widen always occur 
when motor trucks are driven through the 
business streets and the congested traffic 
zones, is that of setting aside a certain 
street or avenue for the operation of motor 
trucks only. That this idea has been con- 
sidered is evidenced by a plan that was 
recently presented for tne consideration of 
a certain city's Comprehensive Plan Com- 
mittee. This plan called for a system of 
motor-truck highways, so constructed that 
the city's industrial organizations would be 
able to make speedy motor deliveries to far- 
distant points as well as through the city. 
In order to minimize the expense it is 
planned to make over a number of roads 

already in operation and to reconstruct 
.them so that tney can stand the city's heavy 
traffic. Right there is where the projectors 
of this plan showed wisdom. It is due to 
the fact that motor trucks have been oper- 
ated over roads that were not built for such 
heavy traffic tliat we have many poor roads 
that were good roads. Every community 
should be earefnl not to-niake this mistake. 
The wear and tear on a road which motor 
trucks give is far greater than the wear 
given by passenger cars, and it will be 
found cheaper in the end if the roads are 
built or put into condition necessary to 
stand up under motor-truck operation. 

Tins same plan can be put into operation 
by every community, no matter what its size. 
By building a motor-truck highway that 
connects tlie community with its source of 
supply, there is also assurance of uninter- 
rupted delivery and haulage. 


After a community has protected itself 
from transportation famine by perfecting 
its highways and byways by forming re- 
turn loads bureaus, rural motorrtruck 
express routes, and local motor truck 
transportation companies, their operations 
should be systematized by not only install- 
ing the proper service sUtions to take care 
of the equipment, but also erecting loading 
and unloading sheds and platforms so that 

4 September 

the receiving and shipping of groods can b« 
made with the least loss of time or unneces- 
sary use of labor. In cases where sach 
buildings are erected, it will pay to install 
those labor-saving and time-saviog devices 
that mean elimination of tie-ups due to 
antique loading and unloading methods. 

In this respect, motor-truck transporta- 
tion companies can learn a good lesson 
from the railways. Up to a year ago tlie 
railways were considered models of efB- 
ciency, but it took tlie increased demands 
made upon them by the war to show up 
many weaknesses. Freight and express 
warehouses, shipping platforms, and receiv- 
ing stations were found to be inadequate 
to meet tlie new demands. Not only were 
the buildings too small, but the plajas and 
methods in use were not elastic enough to 
meet increased demands. Since that time 
many changes have been made in the 
metnods of shipping and receiving freieht 
and express matter, with the result tbat 
capacities have been doubled and trebled 
at not only a reduction in expense, bat also 
in labor. 


We now come to the question of a com- 
munity perfecting its delivery and haulage 
equipment withui its city limits. Just as 
the transportation equipment of manufac- 
turers hiis been " emciencyized " to meet 
present-day demands, so that of retailera 
and wholesalers should be co-ordinated to 
meet the new conditions with which thej 
also must contend. 

The cost of any article to the consumer 
depends on the expense of not only manu- 
facturing but delivering it in the home. 

Systematize the retail delivery equip- 
ment of any community, and that bag of 
flour, pounid of beef, suit of clothes, or new 
carpet will be delivered in your home at 
less cost. Multiply this saving by the total 
population, and you will have a staggering- 
number of dollars the motor truck can save 
every community. 

Divide this amount by the number of 
homes, and it will be found that the mving 
to every family will help meet Liberty 
Loan and Thrift Stamp pledges. The motor 
truck is destined to become the Nation's 
home provider, just as it has become the 
only solution for the manu&cturers' trans- 
portation problem. In fact, it would not. 
surprise me that after the war, and even 
before the war ends, the short-line railways 
will be a thing of the past. Not only be- 
cause the motor truck can deliver goo<ls 
over short hauls in quicker time and at a 
reduced shipping rate, but because it saves 
labor and time by delivering tiie eoods right, 
to the consijgnee's door. Add to this the fact, 
that there is no initial expense in putting a. 
line of motor tracks in operation outside 
of the original cost of the trucks as com- 
pared to the high cost of track-building 
and railway equipment. 


The different committees of the National' 
Council of Defense at Washington, such 
as the Highways Transpoi-tation Committee, 
National Motor Truck Committee, and 
many others, are doing wonderful work 
considering the many innovations they 
have had to adopt, the many handicaps, 
they have had to overcome, and Uie Nation- 
wide educational work they have to con- 
duct But these patriots are only human — 
they are not infallible — and only by luann- 
facturers, retailers, and owners of motor 
trucks co-operating with them can tlieir- 
work make itself felt. 

While it is true that .their sugg^tions. 

Digitized by VJ\^»^V IV^ 


The Motor Trvek as the Nation't Borne Provider 

and plans have beea adopted with excellent 
i-esnits, it u only in spots or widely separ 
i-ated sections of the country. Nation-wide 
adoption is necessanr. Every community 
nmst join in if the Nation as a whole is to 

It must be remembered that these differ- 
ent committees have made an intensive as 
well as extensive study of the country's 
transportation requirements. They have 
not only considered the Nation's needs 
from a National standpoint, but through 
the many thousands of workers they have 

r rating in every section of tlie country 
/ have Becure<l data and figures from a 
local standpoint on conditions in communi- 
ties, towns, and cities of all sizes. Their 
recommendations and suggestions, there- 
fore, should be taken at their full value. 

The lack of co-ordinated haulage and 
delivery of supplies for the home can not 
only boost the cost of delivering goods, but 
it can create an enormous loss oi time and 
an unnecessary consumption of labor and 
upkeep, as well as keep trucks from mov- 
ing other goo<l8 that are awaiting trans- 
portation. As Secretary of Commerce 
Redfield says : " No one Knows how much 
the country pays for cartage, but any one 
who looks into the question is pretty sure 
to find that the figure is larger than they 
thought it could be. Imagine what railway 
freight costs would be if there were all the 
uneconomical routing, duplication, and 
special service on the railways that there 
is in local delivery, and you get some idea 
of the opportunity there is in saving these 

This great country of ours is made uprof 
cities and towns. Each community is a 
little country or nation in itself, ana it is 
only by the people of these communities 
working at a nundred per cent efficiency 
pitch that the Nation as a whole can meet 
Its obligations in an efficient manner. 

Voluntary co-operation by merchants 
and retailers of every community should be 
made without hesitation or delay. Without 
such help the Government, if the need 
arises, will undoubtedly pass laws and 
regulations. Uncle Sam is out to protect 
the American home by keeping it supplied, 
so that his millions of workers can keep up 
the industrial pace that will eventually win 
the war. He nas said in so many woixls 
that efficient transportation in the cities 
and in every community is a patriotic 
movement, and as such should be started 
without unnecessaiy loss of time. 


To show his good faith and to help start 
the ball a-rolling he has been investigating 
the project of combining local delivery 
systems and consolidating all Uie delivery 
e<|uipment now operatea by department 
stores and others requiring a delivery ser- 
vice. His object is to handle all deliveries 
by motor truck via a centralized system, to 
reduce the cost of deliveiy so that in place 
of the " butcher, the baker, and candlestick- 
maker " delivering goods to the same house 
and on the same day via different haulage 
e<inipment, and consuming the time and 
lanor of many drivera and helpers, one 
truck and one driver will bring the parcels 
for all three on a single trip. 

The result has been that sweeping inves- 
tigations in all pai-ts of the country have 
l>een made and assisted by prominent retail 
and wholesale merchants. 

Sucli investigations have prove<I tliat, 
through the practice of special deliveries, 



m%Q9e advice 

IT is just as possible to read 
character and worth from 
the appcirance of printed mat- 
ter as from the bearing of the 
man who issued it. Your mes- 
sage on poorly selected paper 
will have its argument pinched 
in half- 
It is useless to claim quality 
when your paper cries cheap- 
ness; to asseverate delicacy 
when your paper suggests rug- 
gedness; or to dilate upon 
strength when your paper de- 
notes feminity, 

Your printer or advertising 
agent will find fdr you the 
Strathmore Quality Paper 
which expresses the idea you 
wish to convey. 

Meanwhile, write for " The 
Language of Paper," an interest- 
ing talk on the exprestivmesi of 
texture ana color in paper, by 
Frank Ahah Parsons, President of 
the N. Y. School of Fine and 
Applied Arts. 




Quality Papers 


The Public is warned not to 
purchase mowers infringing 
the Townsend Patent No. 
1, 209.51 9. Dec. 19.191 6 

The Greatest Grass- 
cutter on Earth. Cuts a 
Swath 86 inches wide. 


Send for llluMlnki 

Digitized by 




4 Sept e mber 

See America's Inland Seas this Year 

There is none of the congestion on America's Inland Seas that you will 
find on land this year. Eacli day — each hour — ti-aveling the sparkling hhie 
seas along the 6-aay, 1600-mile Northern Navigation route, bnngs its thrill, 
its novel pleasure, its unanticipated charm. 


Via Sarnia, Soo, Pt. Arthur and Ft. William 
Tea in the afternoon — an orcliestra aboard — an evening dance and refreah- 
raents — picnic to Kakabeka Falls, the North's Niagara — all are regular 
parts of the cruise. 

And again, there is the Moeaeryl — a eharmin^ panonuua of Na- 
tore's bmt hiradiorafta. Lake* Huron and Superior. The Looks at 
the Soo. Dnluth harbot^-the North's Naples. 

"noket inclndel all costs — meals, berth, side trips and entertain- 
ment. Direct rail connections east and west. An ideal water-liiJc in 
jronr rail journey. — For particulca-M and crtUMtfMer writt 

C. W. Holton. General Paaaenger Agent. Dep«. 3 

-tfr asJt your local ticket mgtnt or mny Amtrlean Exprtss Ccm^ny Trmvtl Dt^rttment OJfUt 

White LiHes of France 

The true Flwar dm Ly» — fragrant, early 
and absolutely hardy. 10 strong roots, 
freshly dug, $1.75, postpaid. 

Atnerle<mi;num Darwin Tullpt, DaffodfU and 
SgacinAi lltai •• Seat the Dnbsh^' and eott no more. 

Write today for list of isra and •pedally choio* Ballw, 
Boota and Seeds for lUl Planting. 

HMhrt bsnaJ. IM Tissbwylis An., Bcaanilk. N. T. 

Yo\ir Wants 

la ereiy Una d houiehold, adncational, boitoMi, or peraonal 
aanrioe— damesUo woiksn, tMchwi, mirass, boaiiMM or 
profinslniiil aasiatants, etc., etc.— whether you require help 
or are neUng a litaation, may be llllad through a little 
annnnnoament in the daarifled oolunuu of The Outlook. 
If yo^ haTe aome uOdn to laU or exofaange, tbaae colnmns 
may prore <d r«al vafaM to yon aatliey faaT« to many otliera. 
Bend for dasoiiptiTa oircnlar and order blank AMD FILL 
TOUB WAHT8. Addraw 

Departnnent of CIssslflad Advertising 

THE OUTLOOK. 381 Fourth Ave.. N. V. 




Schools, Public Buildings 
and Residential Buildings Reciture i ' ir^ 

_^ ' I WUff Fltfor Sweepinfi and Dustinit hniatici which ftre mkd« of good quBlity, tUB. alMtic brlstlM. Bks- 

Itatioa dcmsnds thtt dirt and dust b« actuftlly retnovvd. Soft brushes, which mst down, will not serve the purpose. 


and other brusbet for Household, HechsDlcal kod other purposes, do the work as itshouM be tJouv. lUlisble and economical. 
Send for Illustrated Literature. Department A. 

JOHN L WHITING-J. J. ADAMS CO., Boston, U. S. A. g^ol^.li^rrd"?.:^ 

VhitiaC'AdKtl),, Awftrd.d Oold Uedal sod Official Blu* Ribboo, th. UichMt Awagd >t Panam.-Ptcific fapoiitioo. 18H 

The Motor Tmdc as the Nation's Home Provider 

half-loads, and nnnecessaiy deliyeries, the 
proportion of equipment for retail delivery 
requirements are unnecessarily high — that 
stores could well get along with less equip 
ment, and of course with fewer men, and 
. still render a deUvery service to customers 
which would not in any way be inconve- 

From this investigation the Board has 
recommended to all retail merchants the 
reduction of regular deliveries to one per day 
over each route and the elimination of 
special deliveries. 

Retail stores that have adopted this rec- 
ommendation have effected a great saving 
in their deUvery expense and equipment. 
If action is taken by the Government, 

necessitating every retail establishment in 
the country doing likewise, there would be 
plenty of motor-truck equipment to help 
solve every community's transportation 
problems, whether withm the city limits, 
the agricultural and dairy areas, or to con- 
nect with the suhorban districts or the cities 
next door. 

To my mind, the next step after the 
elimination of unnecessary deliveries 
should be the forming of co-operative de- 
livery systems among the retailers of every 
community. This would not only reduce 
the individual delivery expense of each con- 
cern participating, but it would at the same 
time relieve men and equipment for other 
work. Tliis in itself is of vital importance, 
because tlie labor situation is such that 
every available man not absolutely neces- 

sary in the regular bosinesa diannels should 
be released to join themen in the £actoria 
and mdustries doing Giovemment work. It 
is of more unportance to a commnoity for 
its men to apply their time to producing 
that which the community needs than to iw 
wasting time on work that can be saved if a 
more concentrated delivery organization a 

Recently six retail stores in a Soathem 
town ot approximately fifteen thousand in- 
habitants formed a co-operative deUveiy 
system, witli the result that, instead of 
using half a dozen trucks and as many men, 
one truck and one man were found to be 
sufficient. The five trucks thus relieved 
were put to work in transporting other 
supplies that had been held up. 

Similar results, I understand, have been 
secured not only by merchants' associa- 
tions, but by private individuals who have 
contracted to nandle the merchants' deliv- 
eries at a saving to the merchants as well as 
a profit to themselves. 

Result : the merchant pays a lower price 
for deUvering his goods, lus> ciutomere do 
not have to wait for separate delivery 
of different articles, less equipment and 
labor is used, releasing men and trucks 
needed for more important work, and with 
the substitution of motor trucks for horse- 
drawn vehicles greater economy and de- 
pendabihty were assured. 

In making the most of the production 
output of the country, which is reaching a 
magnitude hard to realize, prompt hau&ge 
and delivery plays one of tae most impor- 
tant, if not the leading part, and far he it 
from us to neglect, or even delay, perfect- 
ing our lines of transportation. 


I cannot agree with yonr editorial on 
the view vertical in The Outlook for 
August 28. My own experience is directly 
tlie contrary. For many vears of my life 
my best thoughts and ideas have come 
to me durin? tlie night — usually between 
three and six o'clock — and these ideas, 
carried into practical execution, have proved 
to be of the utmost value. I can recall 
no sinjgle instance where my decisions 
arrived at during tliese moments have not 
been correct. I sleep outdoors where I can 
lie on my back and look at the stars, and I 
seem to get a much truer perspective dar- 
ing these moments than at any other time. 
Never having been the victim of insomnia, 
I cannot of course answer for that morbid 
condition which clothes one's consciousness 
in fabe colors. My experience is that five 
hours of continuous sleep is enough at one 
time. I appear to awake quite naturally 
and easily and am all awake at once. An 
hour or so of reflection is enough osuaUy 
to induce me to go to sleep agam, and no 
matter how distressed in mind I may be — 
and a family man during these days has 
many serious problems — I can always eo to 
sleep in a few moments. It may he only a 
personal whim, but I alwavs sleep with 
either my feet or my head towanis the 
north star, and have fallen into the habit 
of considering myself only a point in the 
universe, going towards the sim at the rate 
of about fifteen miles a second. The con- 
sciousness of this fact always produces 
serenity. I have been guilty of this prac- 
tice for over twenty years — ^in fact, nave 
come to rely upon it as a source of inspira- 
tion and mental strength — and, so far as I 
am able to determine, I cannot see that it 
has resulted in the slightest harm. 

TaoMAa L. Massos. 

Digitized by 





From Less CoaJ 

We Can 
Prove It 

FIRST we wUl prave it by wliat 
othen hkTa themaelTea proTen, 

Then, we will farther pioTe it by mn 
appeal to your ooimnon senae. 

After which, we will, if yon wiah it, 
arrange for calls and interriewt with 
nearby Kelsey Health Heat naers. 

Following which, we will agree to 
(are enongh coal for yon, to pay for 
the extra cast ol a Kelaey Warm Air 
Oeneiator that makee the Kelaey 
Health Heat. 

lan't that &ir enongh ? 

Send for Saving Senae Booklet. De- 
maad eoonomy prooii. 


230 Janea Street, Syracuae, N. Y. 

REwnu aocuo 

IIS-TrMkAwaH 2l7-TWMlUh9l 

MSnH ftlHH 

40$-Tr.«.S«anHk. SpM 95-T Min' Eick. 



Don't Breathe Dust 

ThiT Read Filter aid* braathln*. VmM 
lor Hay Fever. Catarrh and Astboia. 
Mc poatpald, lUnttrattd InoUel on rtquai. 
NASAL FILTER COm St. Paol. Miaa. 


4/dlimt ati^i^jSt* 

flwc iiMiviites.'^ 
lo&d steitoi\s,1Ke 

Sendee disUndii^e 


A soldier's letter says that when his 
regiment disembarked at a port in France 
the men were cheerily welcomed by a crowd 
of small children who sang a song the first 
line of which ran something like this : 

" (DUoeil, xe gongiceil ire." 
The words sounded like gibberish to the 
Americans, but the tune seemed strangely 
familiar ; and presently it dawned on the 
newcomers that the children were singing, 
or trying to sing, in English, 

" HaUI baU t the gang's all here I" 
These soldiers' predecessors from America 
had evidently thought it would be nice for 
the incoming Sammies to hear something 
familiar, and so hod taught the French 
children to sing this somewhat boisterous 
air as a welcommg anthem. 

Remaining on the wing continuously for 
thirty hours and thirty mmutes is the latest 
feat recorded in the world of aviation. This 
record, as reported by the Navy Depart- 
ment at Washington, on August 2, was 
made by Ensign F. J. Barnes, who is at- 
tached to the American Naral Air Forces 
in European waters. 

The newer type of collector to which 
the war has given rise, a London corre- 
spondent writes to the "American Art 
Mews," occasions not a little worry and 
also some amusement to the art dealers on 
account of his (or her) naiveU. A speci- 
men of this class, a woman, recently in- 
vaded one of the London art stores and 
asked to be shown an " antique " chest of 
drawers. " On examining the Jacobean 
example to which her notice was directed, 
she palled out one of the drawers and 
pointed out that there were evidences of its 
having been used. Unconvinced that such 
a state of affairs was only natural in the 
case of a piece of furpiture of so great an 
age, she complained bitterly that she had 
asked to see ' antique ' furniture, not second 
hand ! She would certainly not dream of 
baying for her new house furniture that 
had been used by some one else !" 

The late W. H. Newman, one-time Presi- 
dent of the New York Central lines, was, 
says the " Railway Age Gazette," " re- 
sponsible for the really Mantiful straetare 
which the Grand Central terminal in New 
York City has become. It was his idea that 
the Grand Central terminal property should 
be made self-supporting br the erection 
over the undergronnd yard oetween Forty- 
second and Fif^-seventh Streets of a series 
of buildings — hotels, office buildings, exhi- 
bition halls, etc. — renting for sufficient to 
pay interest and taxes not only on the 
ground above which they stand, but upon 
the entire terminal, including Uie station 
building itself." 

A correspondent of the London " Sphere," 
writing from Wales, says, gently satirizing 
tlie large number of Weuh uiights: "I 
am told that every journalist in Wales has 
been knighted. . . . For a political jour- 
nalist to get a knighthood ... is as easy 
as shelling peas. They are aU political 
journalists in Wales. And so it is said Dr. 
Clifford recently preached an eloquent ser- 
mon, taking as nis text, " And they could 
not reach Him because of the Press." 

A friend of The Outlook has been re- 
reading Kipling, and sends us this quota- 
tion as an apposite one in the present world 
struggle. It was published nearly thirty 
vears ago in " From Sea to Sea." Kipling 
IS recoraing his conversation with some 

Americans en route to America from 
Japan : " ' We'll worry through somehow,' 
said the man from Louisiana. ' What would 
do UH a world of good now would be a big 
European war. We're getting slack and 
sprawly. Now a war outside our borders 
would make us all pull together. But that's 
a luxury we sha'n't get' The man from 
Louisiana, if he is afive now, must realize 
that the coveted luxury is with us in full 

An Italian subscriber writes from Rome : 
" I feel to be true the statement that The 
Outlook is the best magazine ever published. 
Therefore I would IDce you to correct a 
little mistake I remarked m an editorial in 
the June 26 number : ' Commander Rizzo 
and Commander Milazzo,' eto. It was Lien- 
tenant Aonzo who was the companion of 
Commander Rizzo in the audacious exploit 
you desci-ibe. Milazzo is a little town on 
the Sicily coast where Commander Rizzo 
was bom." Milazzo, it may be added, is 
also celebrated in history as the scene of a 
victory by Garibaldi in 1860. 

The big girl is coming into her heritage ; 
an advertisement in a New York daily 
paper reads: 

^— A Co. require the aerrioea of larok rtook 
OIBL8 for their Women'a Apparel. Large neat 
giria reqniied ; spl e ndid salary and e»oellent oppor- 
tnnity, eto. 

Queer questions come to editors of sci- 
entific journals. Here is one, quoted as 
coming from a member of an important 
aviation society : 

What is the acceleration of preoesalon when maas 
apins and preoeaaea with the aame radina Teetor, 
sad in the aame plana, tangential to the earth'a 
sorfoee ? The abore question ia important, and ia 
put in oonsidemtioD of 940,000 Cash Priie offered. 

This is characterized as an "utterly mean- 
ingless question ;" and, worse still, " the 
Cash Prize faded to notliing when investi- 
gation was made." i 

An Adirondack club which uses simpli- 
fied spelling prints even its menu oara in 
the new orUiosraphy. Its bill of fare for a 
recent " Fry&y contains these items : 
" Mixt piklz, spyst cnrants, parsli sans, 
shird eg^, boild tresh samon, rost prym ribs 
ov beef, buterd carets, letis, victon bred, ys 
cream, cookiz, cheez and tosted waferz, 
cofi." There is no food shortage at this club, 
it is announced, for it has its own " poltri 
farm," "imens gardens," and it "raizd 
9200 bushels of fyn potatos last sumr." 

A Sunday-school teacher in one of the 
churches, tne " Christian Register" notes, 
remarked to her elass that in the- burial 
custom of the ancient Elgyptians the people 
were buried in their nsophaguses ! 

Japanese newspapers, according to Pro- 
fessor F. L. Martin, of the University of 
Missouri's school of journalism, divide 
their news into " hard 'and " soft" The 
hard news consists of serious, important 
events. The soft news includes all sorts of 
" human interest " incidents. What is called 
the " third page " of the soft news depart- 
ment consists of trivial stories which would 
be called gossip in this country. Here is a 
sample of " third page " soft news : 

Since Etsunaka, a teaidant of Osakuaa, has sepa- 
imted from her master, a ooal dealer, she has lost a 
good opponent for her noted poweie of qnanreliag. 
The neighbon are breathing freely again at the 
proapeot that they need no longer hear embarraaaing 
qnarreU which hare made the neighborhood faniona. 
The reaction haa been w great that Ktsnnaka has 
been downhearted. She aays : " I leel sick now that 
I have no one to quarrel with." 

Digitized by 





Advertising rates are : Hotela and BMorts, Apartments, Tonn and TtsTeL, R«al Brtat«, Lira Stock and Poultry, fifty oanta per agata line, 
four colomns to the page. Not leas than four linei aeoeptad. in calonUtiog space required for an adrertiMment, count an avenge of six mHa to tba 
line unless display type is desired. 

" Want " adTertisements, under the yarious headings, " Board and Rooms," " Help Wanted," etc., tan eents for eadi word or initial, Indndliis 
the addr c op, for each insertion. The first word of each " Want " adTertiasmeat is set in capital lett^H withoat additio«d fhaige. Other lyada 
may Iw set in capitals, if desired, at double rates. If answers are to be addraaaed in care of The Ontloolc, twenty-five cents ia ohaiged for the box 
nmnber named in the adTertisement. Replies vill be forwarded by us to the adyectiaer and bill for postage rendered. Special headii^iB appio p r ia te to 
the department may be arranged for on ^plication. 

Orders and copy for Classified AdTertisements must be receiyed with remittance ten days before the Wednesday on whiob it is inteaded the adTertise- 
ment sliall first appear. 



WANTED f?om aboat'the mJJi 
die of October for 5 or 6 months. 

■ modantednrioed imf umiabed spattmant (for 
9 adulta) OC* or S rooms, kHchan and bath. 

The neighbaihood of Waabinaton 

Oramercy Park preferred. t,CB7, 

Hotels and Resorts 



Batwsan two lakes; fiahlng, batUug, goK, 
teimia: azaeUent table. Vrita Manager, 



CoaiBcnwcalBi /y«. Doatoa 

^ _ . ., ■ Your Inaulrtca ^adty answered 

if Yea Are Tired or Not FeeUag Well 

you cannot flod a more comfortable place ia 
Maw Sngland than 



It attorda all the oomlorta of home withoat 



The Leslie 

A qnlet. eosy little bonsa by the sea 
iBik DocivliTC BaaUd. ?n i lw i ln laha. 



Interbrook Lodge and Cottacea 

THERE is a place where yon can 
find the Tery essence of the 
Antnnm — where the air is liye and 
good to breathe, where the first light 
ifrosts are touching wooded hills and 
fot harvest fields with glorious color, 
where the moon seems larger and 
the stars seem brighter. That place is 

Meredith Inn 

In the Catskills 

Tba Inn baa an old-faahioaed. homelike air, 
but ia thoroughly modem in appointmenta. 

There are prtrateanltea and alawmspmrchea, 
modem pnunblng, abowera aa welTaa tuba, 
electric W>ta and ateam haat iriien needed. 

Iban ia a <diaerful dining-room and a moat 
comfortable UrtoK-room with log-flraplace. 
There an bowUng allqraaad bUliatd taUea in 
the Caabio, a tannia court on the lawn and a 
liTarj of Pisroe Arrowa for tha conTenlence 
and pleasure of guaata. Tou will like Uereditb 
Inn. It ia time now to make Fall raasmtlona. 
/Utaa BnM ha. HmM. Ddamn Cmb«. H. T. 


Hotel Le Marquis 

Slat Streot * Fifdi Avenoe 
N«w York 

Oom b lnaa arary oonTaniaaoa and home 
eomfort, and commanda itaaU to people of 
reflnamant wiahing to lire on American Plan 
and be within eaay taaoh c< aodal and dra- 
matic cantaia. 

Room and bath SUM par day with maah, or 
aLWparday without maala. 

lUnatcated Booklet ghdlr aent noon 
nqnast. JOHH P. TOLBOST^ 

Hotels and Resorts 



bwlndingiaaaia^'i^a^'ntaa fortwb waeu 
or mora. Looatica Tary oantraL OonTamant 
to all alsratad and atraat car Unaa. 

ton S<iaar« 
adWaing Jodaon l(aaK>rial Church. Hooou 
iriSud without bath. Ratea tJJM perdar. 



on viatocntio BrooklTn Hel^hU 
umI eoiOT tfaa KdrmnUcM of 


ttia moat famous roof In America. Dine MO 
feet in tha air, with a nancgraphic riaw of 
New Tork Hainor atietching b«ore you for 
a diatanoa of 10 milea. Dancing if you like. 
Write for booklet E. 
Hicka. and RamMa Slraab, BnaUra 

Health Resorts 


Box D, Media. Pa. Por treatment 
of diaaaaa by Oateopatbr and allied phyai- 
okigical metlioda, includfaig Fruit, Milk, 
and other Bcientiflc Dieta: Hydrothar- 


;ht, and Air hatha, ate Ideal for 
recreation. BookJat on requeat. 

Sanford Hall, est. 1841 

Private Hospital 
Por Mental and Nervous Diseases 
Comfortable, homelike surround- 
ings ; modem methods of treatment ; 
oompetent nurses. IS acres of lawn, 
park, flower and vegetable gardens. 
Food the best. Write for bookM. 

Sanford Hall Flashing New York 

Dr. Reeves' Sanitarium 

A Privata Home (or chronic, narroua, and 
mental patianta. Alaoaldarly people requiring 
care. Huriat K. Bearsa, M.U., Matroaa. Haaa. 

I INDFNII^ Uaal Placa iar Skk 
irr" . PaaaJataCalWaB 

■MTlaetawB, Pa. lAn inaUtution darotad to 
tha paraonal atudy and apadalisad traat- 
manVoftheinTalld. Haaaaga, KlactricitT, 

Rydrotharwy. Applrlor circular to 

RoBSKT LnriKOOTr Waltss, M.r 

(lata ol The Walter BanitariumI 

Real Estate 


FOR SAI.B— Charleaton, S. C, 
leading South Atlantic port and wtntar 
tomrlat raaort, large, handaoma modem raai- 
denoMumace h ee t« a,on Chariest o u 'afaahion- 
able bonleTard, (rantte on beaatttol Aahley 
Rirar. Moat deairabla Bontham winter home. 
Boaan P. Prcat, » Broad Bt., Charlaaton, S. C. 



FOR 8AI.E— In Rast Tenneasee 

Home of retired pfayaioian. 80 acrea, oorering 
mountain top orerlooking town and riTar ; 
1,MI0 feet abora aea leTelTldaal climate sU the 
year round. Wellplantedtotmitandflowen; 
3 bama, hennery, nrdana and farm land. 
Good mountain rciad available for email cara. 
Comfortable houaa with large liring-roook, 
big flreplac& hot-water heat, talephooa, aleo- 
tno Ughta, electric pump, modem plumbing. 
Woodonblaoe. Adoreea 
Jomr A. HocKwsu., Box 222, Harriman.Tann. 

Country Board 

Two TOITNO LADIES, motherleaa, 
offer pleaeant home in pretty auburban 
town on Long lahmd to elderly lady for a 
moderate ramnneratiaa. 0,101, Outlook. 


FOR eala or leaae. A well kicatad atore 
building in Ormond, Florida. Addreaa J. O. 
Gardner, Agt. 


Real Estate 



On Sarasota Bay 

lodge, 8 acrea. Boat, bcathouae. Fruit, etc. 
For paortlcalara and inuatrated Hteratura ad- 
dreaa Dr. W. B. Watarbuiy, BAiaaota, Florida. 


UsT S«ar HiD, New HuqeUre 

Fnrnlahed oottace tor September and 
October. Rent tlM, including wood and ice. 
Wa. S. Batcbbu, Owner, Sugar Hill, N. H. 

Bualnaea Situatlona 

' WANTED, aa confidential busineaa man and 
factotum, by an elderly gentleman in Balti- 
more, an educated and refined gentleman, 
aiiigl^ juat past draft age, in aound healtli, of 
cheetiiu peraonality, with eome buaineaa apti- 
tude and experience, and of irraproachable 
chaiaoter, to reaida in the home. Salary (l.OW) 
per annum. Higheat teatimoniala required 
and glTon. «,208, Outlook. 

OompanlonaaaJ Dotnaatio Helpers 

WANTED — Companion (or elderly lady 
living in okMaahioned farm-houae thirteen 
milea (rom heart of CleTebaid ; hourly trolley 
aerrioe, beautiful country. Good pay, dutiea 
not onaroui. Exoellent nfereooea required. 
6,170, Outkmk. 

MOTHER'S halpar wanted to aaaiat in care 
o( boy 5 yeara old and girl IS montba old at 
Summit, N. J. Permanent poaition, p le aea n t 
home and aurrouudinga. Room 163, 40 Wall 
St., New rork. 

GOOD home (or nice woman with or with- 
out child : general houaework. Write fully 
Boom 16. M Broadway, Mew fork. 

WANTED— Nnree for two young children 
in Springfield, Maaa. Referencee required. 
AddreMVtaT Ralph HopUna, Landa End, 
Bo dtpo rt, Maaa. 

REFINED young woman wanted, laat M 
September, to go toKanaaa City (or winter aa 
moUier'a helper or gOTemeaa forjiirl ten and 
boy ai x. Be feraneeaneoeieary. 6,201, Outlook, 

WANTEI>-An American young lady aa 
companion-halpar. State age and f lOl particu- 
lara. 6,aW, Outlook. 

Teachers and Covameaaaa 

OOTERNE88 wanted, care and entartain- 
mantof pupila, September 18, aohool backward 

El. ^o teaonliw nor household dutiea. 
en teacher^ ore goremeaaea.) Four 
I free middle of day, all day monthly 
(Wedneaday), three daya at Chriatmaa, two 
ICaater. Educated American Proteatant. 
Thirty-five monthly. Including board, laundry, 
room atone near three pupua. Peraonal in- 
terview, referencee, cburch aSlliation, age. 
Seguin Sdiool, Orange, N. J. 

WANTED— Competent teacfaera for pnbHc 
and private aehoola and collagea. Sand (or bul- 
letin. Albany Taacbaia' Agency. Albany, N.T. 
OOTERNE8SE8, matnma, mothera' help- 
era, cafeteria managera,^ df *" 

iteria managera, dietitiana. Hiai 
, SS7 Howanf Billldli«, Providence 

, 18 Jackaon BaU, Trinity Courts 

Thuiadayi, 11 to 1. 

NURSERY Eovemeaa, Proteatant, (or chil- 
dren three, eight, and eleven, In Cleveland. 
Mnat be good uurae. Would like French, 
German, and kindergarten training. Longeu- 
gagement and advancement (or eiflciency. 
Belerencea required- 8,210, Outtook. 


Teaeltere and Ooverneaaaa 

TEACHERS deairfaig ecbool or ooOege 
'oaltiaai apply Intamatknal Musical and 
BdncaticoarAgeoKy, Carnegie Hall, N. T. 

WANTED, for private adiool, experienced 
ktadermrtaar who can apeak French fluently. 

6,102, ( 

WANTED-Expeilenced teacher, oollege 

ladnate, to teach mathematka and aoieDoe 

Philadelphia. C^n, 


ui private achool 


ProfeealonnI Situatlona 

WANTED, by graduate reaJatared imiae, 
dtoatioa aa neMrnniae in coDege inflr 
Mlas Mamie Wri^it, Baita^etB. O. 

» infirmary. 

Bualneae Situations 

CHURCH director d yoong people^a work. 
Trained and experienced woman. a,UB. 
Outkx*. ^^ 

Oompanlonaaad Domeetle Helpers 

LAST dealrea poaition aa annerinb 

matron of inatitnion, pcafanbly cfail 

private home. Kzperienoed. refined, beet 

, M Cottage St., New 

PRACTICAL, oonadentiooB 
loaaekeeiier, leaTinK p r ese n t 

recommendationeVAt libeity Beptemher 1. 
8,17s, Outknk. 

EXPERIENCED dietitian - hooaekeeper 
wiahea poaition in amall boarding aohool, dob. 
or private family. Intereeted in keeping 
houaehold exnenaea dowu._ Refei 
changed Addreaa O., ' 
Haven, Conn. 


hooaekeeiier, ^ , __, 

tember U, ready br buaineaa October 
Private and public experience.. Will weloome 
auperviaing care o( chUdran. Good reference. 
Addreaa A. I. R., Box SM, Montroae, Pa. 

LADT, experienced in manuement of 
apartment houae, tactful, good }udKe o( 
human nature, wtuias position. 6,ai», Ontlook- 

COMP ANION to elderly oouple ; home- 
maker for motherleee family. Higheat refer- 
encee. ei,»>t, Outknk. 

POSITION aa companion, managing houae- 
keeper, chaperon, oriiartial care of^ mental 
caae. Expartanced. Willing to travel. Beat 
referencee. 8,100, Outlook. 

COLLEGE graduate, five years' experience 
in teaching, wiahea poaition aa companion <a 
to teach In private family. Coontry pre- 
ferred. M*7, Outkwk. 

WOMAN of culture, oompetent to take fnU 
charge of houaehold, or act aa oomnanlcn. 
chaperon, etc deeirea poaitian In bi^ claaa 
home. Raa traveled ezUnaivaiy, and aaeocia- 
tiona vahied greatly. Bighaei oredantiali 
(umiabed. Addreaa B. E., Qeneral Delivery. 
Bocheater, N. T. 

TOUNG woman, collage graduate, wiahea 
to go to aonthera CaUfomia after October I 
aa bdiea' attendant. No oompsnaation other 
than expeneea. Relerencea exchanged. Ms^ 

TRAINED dietitian, hoapital experlenn. 
deeirea poaition in hoapital or adiooL 6,1m, 

Tsaehers and Covernesaas 

CAMP DIRECTOR and Eentlemnn o( 
boarding achool axperienoe— draft exempt— 
dealrea reaidential or traveling tutorehip 
young boya or executive Junior achool oon- 
nection. Reachaa New York September e. 
8,178, Outlook. 


graduate deeirea poaition hi a prir 

or family for the coming achool year. 

CORNEIX graduate dealrea poaitian in 
latin dqiartment cf high aohool or aeminary . 
Twelve yeara' experience. 6,138, Outlook. 

primary achool 
I a private achool 



by Lyman Abbott, ako 4 

veraea of Ameriea—Tlie Fledge t " 

PATRIOTISM -,^_-.^^j 

.araeaof America-TlieTledge to the Flag- 
JverseaofTheStar-SpangledBannar, all ma 
liUle leaflet. Further the caoae of PabiotiBm 
by diitributing in your Mtera. in pay eovel- 
opea, in echoola, cBurchaa, chwa, and i 
gatheriuKa. 200 aent prepaid, for 
Irthor MTMorae, McniolaETN. J. 

OFFICER'S wife, oollege gnduata, with 
children (tauaband abroad), wiahea to takatwv 

f:irla, lu to 18. into her home in Weetcheeter 
or winter. Healthful anrroundinga, peraonal 
tutoring. Bpecial attention to voloe, maii- 
nera, and general information. Write Mrs. 
Raymond. Eaat Blue Hill, Maine. 

M. W. Wightman & Co. Bhcpping Anocy. 
eatabliahed UW. No charge -,sin(Bptdalv«(j. 
44 Weat 22d St., New York. 

Digitized by 





"he Pratt Teachers Agency 

70 Fifth Avenne, Mew Tork 

Boouuneiidi taaotaBn to collegMMNlbllo tad prints Mliooli 
JTMM pT»nU »bout Mliooli. Wii». O. Pratt. Micr. 


I deputmant*. tl,00O-|2,IIM. SpeeikI tarnu. Tu lurmi 

.. 1*— . ^ a. AMBunw IffBAh^Ma OnlUtniv Maht /Iwlaan 


bOSMCT, Hjicbeca Building, New Orleans. 



>ithedral School for Girls 


nder Bpiteofol control). Colleee Pnpantarj ud Oananl 
ouiiM, »]mo Miuic Exviewion, DomMtic Bciencc etc. 
krefulboma lUe. Idesl olinute. Low ntea. 19th year begine 
ctober J. RKV. RODERICK P. COBB. A.M., Rector. 


le University of Chicago 


io sddhioa to resident 
work, offen sbo untrue- 
boo by correspoadeiice. 

For detailed in- 

(ormstion address 
ZTtkYstf U.«IC(«va,IlL iihcIm~utU« 


>EAN ACADEMY, Franklin, Mats. 

'ouns men and jonnKwomen find here a homelike atuoa- 
here, thorough aodMBcient training in every department 
[ a broad cunore, a lojal and helpful achool epirlt. Libenl 
ndowmentpermlU liberal temu,tns->4()0 per year. Special 
ourae in DomeetiG Science. 


For catalogue and inf ormaUonaddreaa 

W. FEIRCE, ntt, D., Prinolpal 


»3 Highland St., Matiek. Mas*. 

. CoHega Prapaniory School (or Girl*. 17 milea from Boaton. 

Mlaa Conant. Mlaa Birelow, Prinelpala. 


Life in the open. Athlettca. HouMhold Arta. College and 
eneral oouraea. 

Kach girl'a penonality obaerred and dereloped. Write for 

ooklat. „ „ 

Wbt Hiwtdk, MAia. 


400SAC SCHOOL 5°«¥o*X 

A Chareh Sekool For Boy 
lealthfullr kwatad In the opper Hooeao Valley among the 
larkahii* BiUa. U milea from Wlllianutown, Maaa., W milea 
rom Albany, N. T. Preparaa tor college and bnalnaaa Hfe. 
ndiridaal care ghren to each boy. Athletica, Football, 
lockey, BaaabaU. Daihr Drill tai BlUitanr Bxarciaea. Addieas 
iKCTOR, EEV. K. tf. TIBBIT8. DjSa L.H.D., Hooaick, 
iamnL Bchool year bagtaa Beptember S, UU. VISITOR, 
■HK BT. BKV. B. HTNKLadS; D.D, Albany, M. Y. 


aitnated at 2U Spring St., Oiafaiing, New Tork 

The length of the courae la iH years and the achool la reg- 
itered by the Mew Tork State Bducation Department, 
.Ibany, New Tork. Being affiliated with Bellerne Hospital, 
he student apeuda aix montha of the 2K years at one ol the 
Luraing aohoola c< that institntion bi New Tork City. 

No allowance la giren during the probationary period of 
wo moaths, but after the student is accepted she la giren 
.10 per month daring the Unt year and $13 per month for 
he remainder of the time. 

Caadldatea ahoold be from 19 to SI years of sge and ahould 
e able to preaent edocatlonal credentiala covering at least 
ne year's high school work or its eauivmlent. 

There are aereisJ vacancies to be filled, and thoae deairing 
o enter the September okas ahould apply at once to the 

it. John's Riverside Hospital Training 
School (or Nnrses 


Begistered In Haw Tork Btat^ oilers a > years' oourse— a 
laneral tnlntng to refined, educated women. Require, 
aenta one year high scliool or Its e<mlTaleut. Apply to the 
>i i e cti eaa of Noraaa, Vonkera, New Tork. 



A prrtcticai finUhing school for oirU and mature young 
rom^n. BuMtb oentnl loostion wt Blverslde Drire OT«r- 
ooking the Hudson. 

Dorasstlo soianoa np to data. Mary Lee Swann, Director. 

Hish class secrttanal trmintng a apecialty— high class posl- 
ions a result. Qf tnieresl to high »enoot and coilege gradu- 
tUt and matvre gotmff icomrit NOT high srhooi gniduate^. 

Collein pfspamkn. Spanish ; Frencb. NalUv teachert. 

Health sniwrrlskn \ Pnfestiorud phggieal director. 

Oirls from 35 BUtea, Csnada an<r ebswhera. 14 oolteKea 
•epresentad last ystt* 
Its. O. L. BoTOMiirBaflstfar. as W. Tad St., N. T. 


BnWwar at 120db Strctt 
New TefkCHy 

llie charter reqnlrea that "Equal prlvUegaa of admlaalon 

The Outlook 

Copyright, 1918, by The Oatlook Company 


YoL 120 September 11, 1918 No. 2 

TB> oirTLoax IB rmusBSD wxiklt ct tub outlook comAHT, 


PBSswBirr. V. t. pdlsitbk, Tica^ RBiomrr. ntuiK c. hott, 



War Action that Will Help Ut Win 39 

The Senate Votes Dry 39 

The War and Child Labor 39 

"Cha(leM Sunday" 39 

A Week of Viotorieg 40 

Will Ruuia be a Thorn in Germany's Side? 40 

Labor Day , 41 

Some State Primaries 41 

America's War Ambassador to Great Britain 41 
The Old-Time New England Shipyards.. 42 

A Bachelor's Garden 42 

The Bowling Green Association 42 

Cartoons of the Week 43 

Light from Dark Africa 44 

Three Foreign Americanizing Leagues... 44 

The S. V. C 44 

A Just Peace 45 

The Democracy of a Private School 45 

A Legacy of the War to Our Colleges... 46 

Goldenrod 47 

The Colleges and the War 48 

The Vanished Schoolmaster (Poem) 51 

By Hermann Hagedom 

In an Empty Class-Room (Poem) 51 

By Vera M. Bnrridg* 

The Battle of Chlteau Thierry and Beyond 51 
ByJoaepb H. Odell. Special Correspondent ol 
The Outlook in France 

Making the Maimed Whole. What Our 
Wounded Soldiers Can Learn from Dis- 
abled Men Who have Been Educated for 
Efficiency : 

"Useful as Other Men Are" 54 

By Laey Simnu 
I Mutilati 55 

By Frank Hunter Potter 

"The World a Very Cheerful Place" 56 

By Jamee J. Wilaoa 

Tying History to Life 58 

By J. Madison Gatbany. A.M. 

Current Events Illustrated 61 

Edueation for Citizenship 64 

By Paul Lm Blicrba 

Weekly Outline Study of Current History 6 

By J. Madiaon Galhany, A.M. 

The Story of Firearms— 1 68 

A Reorganized Railway : The Results of 
Reorganization from an Investor's Stand- 
point 73 

By the Way 74 

BT SUBSCRIPTION M.0O A TEAB. gingla coplee 10 osats. 
For foreign aubsoriptioo to couDtries in the Foetal Union, tSM. 
Addzeas all ooounnnioatioaa to 


381 Fourth Avenue New Yokr City 

Salt Mackerel 



FAMILIES who are fond of FISH cui be annpUed 
FRANK E. DAVIS COMPANY, with newly caught. 
KEEPABLE OCEAN FISH, choicer than any bihud 
dealer could poaribiy furnish. 

We PREPAY expreas on all orders east of Kanma. Onr 
fish are pure, appetising and eoofxwucal and we want YOU 
to try some, paymoit subject to your approval. 

SALT MACKEREL. Cat; mtatr, Jnhjr flah, am 
delicious for breakfast. They axe freahly pacxod In brine 
and will not spoil on your hands. 

CODFISH, as we mlt U, Is whiu, boneless and ready 
for instant use. It mskea a aobaiantial meal, a fine change 
from meat, at a much lower ooet. 

FRESH LOBSTER la the best tUng known for aalada. 
Ri^t fresh from the water, our lobetwa limply are boiled 
and packed In PARCHMENT4JNEO CANS. They 
come to yoQ aa the purest and safeet lobsters you can buy 
and the moat la aa crisp and natural aa if yon took h from 
the ahell yourself. 

FRIED CLAMS U a reliahable, hearty diah, that your 
whole family will enjoy. No other flavor la Just like that of 
clama, whetner fried or in a chowder. 

FRESH MACKEREL, perfect tor trying, SHRIMP 
to cream on toast, CRABMEAT for Newbuig cs deviled, 
SALMON ready to serve, SARDINES of aB kinds, 
TUNNY for adad, SANDWICH FILLINGS and every 
good thfaig packed bere or abroad you can get direct fran 
us and keep right on your pantry abslt for regular or 
emergency use. 

With every Older w« said BOOK OF RECi- 
PES for preparing all our produota. WrUe 
Jar il. Our lilt tells how each Und of ,. 
fish is put up, with the driivered price ..*'* PVaafc B. 
so you can obooae just what yon Davia Ce. 

will enjoy most. Bend the .-* stC^talWbiL 
coupon for tt now. ..- GloociSr.BK 

FRANK E . . ..•••■■ . "« /^™ 7?" 
DAVIS CO. ..•••■ ""^^ "^ ^^* "^ 









the Boston 


Digitized by 




Why worry — 

the floor is Valsparred! 

Think of having a varnish on your floors, 
woodwork, and furniture that says, " Why 
worry when accidents happen V* 

There is one such varnish — Valspar. 

Thousands of tests have proved conclu- 
sively that water, either scalding hot or 
icy co\A, positively will not injure its surface. 

Nor will alcohol, ammonia, and such 
liquids turn it white, spot or mar its 
beautiful surface. 

In the bathroom, kitchen, pantry, and 

laundry, spills and splashes won't hurt 
it — in fact, the way to clean a Valsparred 
surface is to wash it with hot water and 
soap ! 

Use Valspar wherever you need varnish^ 
indoors or out. 

It protects and preserves. It is quick- 
drying. It gives a beautiful finish. It is 
wonderfully tough and durable. 

Don't rest content with merely reading 
about Valspar varnish. Try it. 

Special Offer — If you wish to test Valspar send 20c. in stamps and 
we will send you enough Valspar to finish a small table or chair. 



The Vamish That Won't Turn White 


440 Fourth Avenue, New York 

Lar£ttt Man^/mctMrtrt of Higk-srattt Varnithtt in thi v^rtd 

New York Chicago 


Toronto Londoa 

(Trade Mark) Amsterdam 

W. P. FULLBR & Co., Saq Francisco and PriDc{|)tl 
Pacific Coast Cities 

Digitized by 


The Outlook 

SEPTEMBER 11, 1918 
Offices, 38L Fourth Avenue, New York 


** Out to Win " is the title of Coningsby Dawson's new 
book. It is tiie motive and motto of radical and thoroughgoing 
measurefl jntit put into activity by Congress, the Administration, 
and the people. 

" We solemnly purpose a decisive victory," says President 
Wilson in ids admirable proclamation of the new Man Power 
Bill, signed b;^ him on August 31. The calmness and cheerful- 
ness with which the measure has been received, almost as a 
matter of oourse, fully bears out the President when he adds : 
" By the mem of the older group nowtsalled on the opportunity 
now opened to them will be accepted with the calm resolution 
of tkose who realize to the full the deep and solemn significance 
of what diey do. . . . They know how surely this is the Nation's 
war^ how imperatively it demands the mobilization and massing 
of all our resources of every kind, lliey will regard this call as 
the snpreme call of their day, and will answer it accordingly." 
It is believed that the extension of the age liinit to the period 
long ago traditionally established as that for military service — 
that is, to include all men between the ages of eighteen and 
forty-five — will produce a new r^istry of about twelve and a 
half millions, to oe added to the first r^stry of nine and a 
haJf million men between twenty-one and tibirty-one. New York 
City alone is expected to roister a million men. All must reg- 
ister, but by no means all are to fight. The unfit, the alien, the 
man who has pressing responsibilities to &iiiily or the public, 
and, above all, as the President says, " those who cannot be 
spared from the civil and industrial tasks at home upon which 
the sncoess of our armies depends as much as upon the fighting 
at the front " — these classes will be withheld from the fitting 
front. AH others of the a^ indicated must register on Thurs- 
dayt September 12. This starts the machinery which will 
assiuredly array an army of 4,000,000 Americans against the 
Hun next summer. And it can be doubled thereafter, if 
need be. 

The draft bill passed with slight change from its original 
form. The '* work or fight " amendment failed, not beoiuse 
it was wrong in prinoijue, but partly because other former 
l^slation gave power tio prod industrial slackers, partly be- 
cause meml^rs thought that " anti-strike " industrial legislation 
did not belong in a draft bilL The educational provision is 
worded as follows : 

The Secretary of War is authorized to assign to educational • 
institations for special and technical training soldiers who enter 
the military service nnder the provisions of this act in such 
numbers and under snch reflations as he may prescribe ; and 
is authorized to contract witli such educational institutions for 
the subsistence, quarters, and military and academic instruction 
of snch soldiers. 

We give the exact Government statement as to its plans in 
this diroction on another page. 


Another indication of the Nation's fixed purpose to win 
was seen when the Senate passed the " Bone Dry Amendment " 
with practically no opposition. War prohibition is a war meas- 
ure, based not on theory but solely for war efficiency. The only 
regrettable thing about the law is that it goes into effect on 
the first day of next July instead of next January. An excellent 
and practical provision, however, allows the President to estab- 
lish anr zcmes about industrial pbmts, coal mines, and other dis- 
tricts, m his discretion. Like other war legislation, the operation 
of this Act will extend beyond the war during demobilization, 
the date to be fixed by the President. , . , . 
Technically, the " bone dry " situation is this : the measure 

just passed by the Senate is an amendment to a Food Production 
Act which has been pjussed by both branches of Congress, but 
with a different prohibition amendment in the lower house. It 
is predicted that the House conferees will accept the Senate 
amendment in place of its own. 

It is an astonishingly hard time for King Booze just now t 
Apart from the war measure, it is apropos to note that fourteen 
States have ratified the Federal Prohibition Amendment, and 
that there are twenty States already dry which are yet to be 
heard from. Assuming that these will ratify, onljr two more are 
needed to swing the (^institution into the prohibition line. 


A proposed war measure (avowedly so, and maintainable only 
as such) is the Keating Child Labor Bill, now before the House. 
It would directly prohibit the labor of children imder the age 
of fourteen years at any time and of children between the ages 
of fourteen and sixteen for more than eight hours a day or at 
night in mills, factories, canneries, and manufacturing establish- 
ments, and of children under sixteen years of age in mines and 
quarries. These are the standards of the Federal Child Labor 
Law recently declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. 
The new bill seeks to restore and maintain these standards dur- 
ing the war by direct prohibition under the war power of Con- 
gress. There is no question of the authority of Congress to meet 
the present emei^^cy in this way. The uiw wouM remain in 
force for the duration of the war and six months thereafter. 
^ this means time would be given to draw up a new Federal 
Child Labor Bill which will meet the test of constitutionality. 

The immediate need for a National law is very strongly lelt 
by those who are iia dose touch with the conditions affecting 
children. From all over the country reports come in of greatly 
increased numbers of work permits issued to children during 
the last few months, of an increase in juvenile delinquency in 
certain cities, and of illegal employment of children. 


The American people on their first " chugless Sunday " 
voluntarily suid with an astonishing approach to unanimity 
accepted uie request of the Fuel Administrator to refrain from 
using in pleasure riding the gasoline so much needed for our 
motor trucks, tanks, and urplanes in France. It was a real 
sacrifice on the part of those who can use their cars for pleasure 
only on Sunday, but it was made cheerfully and even gleefully. 
The few who diJsregarded the request proved a shining mark 
for the jeers of the earless populace. Statistics as to increased 
church attendance are laclung. Rough estimates of the gasoline 
saved on that one day range m>m seven to ten million gallons — 
enough to move a sizable army in France. 

The only dissent from this gasoline-saving plan comes from 
those who desire to make it more rigid by means of gasoline 
cards issued in accordance with the use made of the cars and 
limiting the amount to be used in all pleasure travel to fit each 
case. It is argued that this would work more fairly as between 
the man of moderate means and the rich man than the Sunday 
plan, for the man of moderate means often has no leisure to 
take his family out excbpt on Sunday. 

Now let Dr. Garfield take courage from this response of the 
people and shut down rigorously the use of coal and resulting 
light for display and non-essentials. The people are not afraid 
of restriction ; they are afraid of unequal distribution, of a 
repetition of last year's suffering of the poor for lack of fuel, of 
deficiency in the coal for ships, munitions, and things nei-essary 
in civil life. There are too many " ifs " in the coal programme — 


Digitized by VJ^^VJV IV^ 




if we don't have too cold weather, and if every one will bum a 
third less coal, and so on. Meanwhile some dealers have no coal, 
others seem to have plenty ; some consumers are supplied, others 
who hopefully obeyed Dr. Grarfield's " early bird " injunctions 
last April continue to wonder when the " worm " will appear. 


The completeness of the Allies' victory on the western 
front was doubly assured in the week ending September 3 by a 
long and almost startling list of towns and positions captured 
or occupied. One by one in quick succession fell, following the 
pivotal success at Bapaixme, Roye, Chaulnes, Combles, Noyon, 
Bullecourt, P^ronne, and literally scores of less well known 
places. And the success was not only on the Somme front, but 
both to the north and the south of it. When we remember 
with what anxiety and depression we all read the news months 
ago of the capture of Mont Kemmel by the Germans, we can 
measure the corresponding elation with which its recapture by 
the British was welcomed last week. The gateway of the road 
leading toward Calais on the line stretching between Locre and 
Ypres had been valiantly held despite the German occupation 
of Mont Kemmel. Now, as one may sa^, the gate is shut and 
locked and guarded. Somewhat surprisingly, a division of 
Americans (Washington authorities think that it is the Twenty- 
seventh Division) is reported as working with the British in 
Belgium, and to it is attributed the capture of the town of 
Voormezeele. This, added to the capture in the southern part 
of the line by Americans of the town of Juvigny, insures a full 
share of the honors of the week to American soldiers. 

News of the crowning victory of the week came on Septem- 
ber 8. Lens, the fortifi^ city which stood like a rock before 
the old German line and was in vain attacked by the British 
over and over again last year, has fallen into British hands. 

There remains now of the territory occupied by the Germans 
in their great offensives which started op March 21 only an 
arid, devastated, worthless stretch of what is practically an ex- 
aggerated No Man's Land. Much of this ground has been fought 
over four times. With the exception of the fortress of Ham, 
there is not a spot in it that is capable of prolonged defense or 
that is worth defending by the Germans. 

More than that; the British have broken through the 
famous Drocourt-Quefuat line; This is a real penetration into the 
enemy's old line of defense, and if the hole is extended and 
Allied armies push through, a serious outflanking of the famous 
Hindenbu]^ Ime may result, with the not improbable result 
of another mrge-scale retiral by the Germans. Our readers will 
recall that this noted " switch-line " was a sort of patch put 
on the northern part of the Hindenbui^ line when that section 
of the proposed Lne of defense nmning from Arras southeast to 
Bullecourt was broken through by the British who followed 
up the Germans so rapidly in the great German withdrawal on 
the Somme front. Thus the Drocourt-Queant loop became an 
integral part of the Hindenbui^ line, as strong and as firmly. 
held as any other part. The British are now astride of the 
Arras-Cambrai highway, and this section of the gi«at conflict 
offers tempting possibilities. 

What of the future? It is almost inconceivable that the 
Germans should plan and execute another great offensive this 
year. It is far more probable that General Foch will strike on 
a large scale. Kecent and new methods of wire-cutting, of attack 
by tanks, and of artillery fire have made the defense of trenches 
and fortified lines leas secure than before. The splendid work 
done by the whippets or light tanks is an illustration of this. 
More than ever before in this war, it is now army against army 
and generalship against generalship. 

It is difficult at this time to form an accurate idea of the 
losses either by the enemy or the Allies, but there is good evi- 
dence that the Allies' losses have be^ slight as compared with 
the enormous extent of the operations carried on. As to the 
German losses, an indication is given by an official report issued 
in Paris on September 2 which states that 128,302 men had 
been captured by the Allies since July 15, together with 2,069 
guns and nearly 14,000 machine guns. 

One indication that the German power is tottering is seen in 
tiie seizure by Spun of one or more German ships as reprisal 

for the destruction of Spanish ships by submarines. HoUx 
is threatening to take the same course. It is always nob 
able that these long-suffering neutrals who have most serio 
outrages to resent show increasing firmness against Genn 
tyranny whenever the military star of the AUies is in t 

It is futile and childish for German writers to attemM 
minimize the extent of their great defeat. From the Kaiser am 
they bragged too loudly and too posith/ely about their will 
win by one tremendous assault or series df assaults this sumnii 
As one writer says, " Their whole campaign of 1918 to da 
stands out by their retreat as a confessed one hundred per oe 
failure." They have lost the initiative ; they have suffered qui 
out of proportion to the losses of their enemies ; they have drai 
on their reserves in a most extensive way. Thus, while the Alii 
may look forward to a continuous and steady increase 
reserves during the coming months, the Germans must reorg: 
ize their shattered units, fill up their reserves with boys a 
untrained men, and make what seems now to be an aim 
hopeless attempt to match the brain power of their strategii 
with that of the gfreat leader of the Allies, General Foch. 


The rule of the Bolsheviki is endangered from many dii 
tions. In Moscow itself the Social Revolutionists are adopti 
the Nihilistic methods they formerly used against the C 
in their effort to overthrow the Bolsnevild. A more compl 
answer could not be had to the mistaken impression so k 
prevalent in this country that the Bolsheviki represented n 
cal democracy.. The Social Revolutionists are certainly radi 
enough to make absurd the idea that the enemies of the Bui 
eviki are chiefly reactionaries and imperialists. 

It was at the hands of Social Revolutionists that the Germ 
Ambassador in Moscow and tiie German Governor in I 
Ukraine met their deaths. Now comes the news that a wom 
Social Revolutionist, Dora Kaplan, has tried to assassiiii 
Lenine, the head of the Bolshevik government. It is not kno 
positively as we write whether Lenine is living ac dead, but 
seems certain that he was seriously wounded. Lenine may p 
sibly not have been a German spy, but he could not have d< 
more to help Germany if he had been its ^d tooL His r 
name is said to have been Vladimir Ulianoff. Before the i 
Lenine vrrote much on Social Democracy, and he has aim 
declared that the western nations were really fighting agali 
world democracy and for capitalism. The ride established 
Lenine and Trotsky was based on no theory either of democn 
or Socialism. It corresponded rather with the teachings of ( 
I. W. W., in that it would exclude not only capitaBsts a 
intellectuals, but all who were not hand workers, from any p 
of the government. This is pure class autocracy, and in 
development Lenine and Trotsky extended it to mean that cm 
those who supported them should be regarded as belonging 
the proletariat. Thus they expelled the only representati 
body Russia has had since the beginning of the war — the G 
stituent Assembly. It is interesting to note that reoen 
there has been an attempt to restore the power of the Constitai 
Assembly elected last fall by gathering together some of 
members at Samara, which is under the protection of I 

The military movements of the Allies, intended to nn 
forces of the Czechoslovaks now separated by a stretch of I 
Siberian Railway, are gaining in strength. The Bolsheviki lu 
been attacked by the Japanese on the Ussuri River front, a 
apparentiy with success. General Semenoff in another section 
advancing almost without opposition. It will not be long bef< 
the armies of the Allies and of General Semenoff and of t 
Czechoslovaks will form a continuous line along the rail* 
from Irkutsk eastward to the Pacific. It recentiy became nen 
sary for the Allies to put an end to the attempt of Genei 
Horvath to assume a dictatorship at Vladivostok which was u 
in harmony with the Allied effort. This was done with liti 
disturbance, and was absolutely necessary to carry on the ge 
eral object of safeguarding Siberia. 

Inst^id of drawing reserves from among the Russian m 
jects, as had been Germany's announced intention, it now see* 

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aore probable every day that Russia must either be left to itself 
>T Germany, in vrluch case the fall of the Bolsheviki will occur 
Imost automatically, or that Germany must make such a mili- 
ary effort in Russia that in a certain sense a new Russian war 
ront will be created. 


The celebration of Labor Day on Monday of last week 
ras the most significant and patriotic keeping of this holiday 
ince it was established in 1887. The parades in the various 
ities of the country this year were not merely industrial and 
argely indicative of " class consciousness," as they often have 
teen in the past, but were National, loyal, and military in their 
haracter. American workingmen took the occasion to demon- 
trate that they were first of all for American liberty and after 
hat for the rights of the wage-worker. This is the position of 
he best-known and most infiuential leader that labor has ever 
lad in this country, Mr. Samuel Gompers. Mr. Gompers is 
low in England with a commission of labor men, genuine 
land workers and not mere sentimentalists, to interpret to 
British labor the attitude of American workmen in the war. 
At. Gompers and his associates are telling British labor that 
lo workingman can have his rights until the despotic and auto- 
iratic doctrine which permeates and actuates Germany to-day 
9 thoroughly rooted out of the world. 

The huiday was taken as an appropriate time for the launch- 
ng of some of our new ships. In the Philadelphia region two 
hips were launched aggregating 10,000 tons. At a Massachu- 
etts shipyard a 13,000-ton steamship was launched. A Govem- 
aent minesweeper was launched at the Brooklyn shipyard, 
knd at Newburgh, New York, sixty miles up the Hudson and 
en miles above West Point, the seat of the National Military 
Academy, a 9,000-ton vessel was successfully launched, the first 
i a series which are being built in that Hudson River city, 
ilr. Roosevelt was the speifiker of the day at Newburgh, and 
ras greeted by an enthusiastic audience of several thousand 
leople. There is a romantic historical association with the 
Aunching of this steamship, which takes its name, " Newburgh," 
rom the city where it was built. Although sixty miles from the 
oean, there is water enough in the river, which has some tidal 
low and ebb, to fioat vessels of the largfest draught. Newburgh 
)ay is broad and deep enough to hold a large fleet of our big- 
;e8t naval vessels. It was protected from the ships of the hostile 
British navy during the years of the American Revolution by 
, huge hand-foi^ea chain which was stretched across the river 
rom the precipitous shores at West Point to the equally rocky 
lank on tne east side of the river. Links of this chain manr be 
een to-day in the museum at the admirably preserved . Wash- 
igton P«idquarter8 in the city of Newburgh. Not even a " big 
^rtha " could bomb the Newburgh shipyard from the coast. 
Jo one now supposes that Germany will ever be able to attack 
Jew York, but the fact that a shipyard sixty miles from the 
s& is beginning to turn out once a month 9,000-ton vessels is a 
triking lUustration of the hopelessness of Germany's endeavor 
) conquer the world by her murderous and barbaric submarine 


Of the State primaries just held, those in Michigan are of 
rational significance because Mr. Henry Ford was a candidate 
ir both the Republican and Democratic nomination for United 
itates Senator. Mr. Ford, who was supported personally by 
be President of the United States, won nis nomination in the 
>emocratic paiiy, but was defeated in the Republican primary 
y Mr. Truman Handy Newberry. Mr. Ford has generally 
een oonsidered a Republican, although he has never taken an 
ctive interest in politics, and is reported to have said that, 
[though he has been a voter for thirty-one years, in all that 
me Lkb has voted only six times, and uien merely because his 
dfe made him vote. He is a pronounced and professed pacifist, 
"he Democrats doubtless selected him as their candidate partly 
ecanae of the President's support and P<ti^ly because of his 
eaerved prominence as an industrial genius. The fact that his 
ame ii a household word wherever automobOes are mentioned 

gfives him the somewhat uncertain advantage as a political 
candidate which notoriety always gives. The Republicans doubt- 
less rejected him because of his extreme pacifism. Mr. New- 
berry, the choice of the Republicans, is in military matters quite 
the opposite type of man from Mr. Ford. He served as an 
enlisted man during the Spanish War on the U. S. S. Yosemite, 
was Assistant Secretary of the Navy from 1905 to 1908, and 
Secretary of the Navy in the Roosevelt Cabinet for a brief 
period until the Roosevelt Administration was succeeded by 
Mr. Taft's. He is an expert who has alwars taken a deep and 
active interest in the prog^ress pf the United States Kav^. 
Michigan is naturally a Republican State. The country will 
watch with interest to see whether Mr. Ford's unique person- 
ality outside of the field of politics can overcome the natural 
tendency of Republicans to support the man who has been an 
active and faithful servant botn of their party and the ooimtry. 

President Wilson not only let it be known what his symp.-v 
thies were in Michigan but also in South Carolina, where he 
publicly opposed the nomination of Coleman L. Blease for 
United States Senator. In that State a primary nomination is 
equivalent to an election. Mr. Blease, an ex-Governor of the 
State, was defeated by an unusually large majority by his oppo- 
nent, Mr. Dial. Mr. Blease, who has been criticised in the past, 
not only at home but throughout the country, for his grotesque 
speeches and actions as a public ofBcial, and whose attitude on 
tne war is offensive both to the Administration and to patriots 
throughout the country, has now been almost contemptuously 
rejected by his own constituents. His defeat is a healthiul thing 
both for the State and for the country. 

In Montana Miss Jeannette Rankin has been decisively 
rejected in the Republican primaries as a candidate for the 
United States Senate. In the Democratic primaries Senator 
Thomas James Walsh is unopposed for re-election. Miss 
Rankin, the first woman to be elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives, has not made a favorable impression upon the coun- 
try, and apparently her constituents share the country's opinion. 
She voted both against the declaration of war upon Germany 
and against the Conscription Act on the g^oimd of extreme 
theoretical and sentimental pacifism. In this respect she is like 
Mr. Ford. She is probably permanently retired from pditics, 
and deservedly so. 

In California there was a curious contest in the primaries for 
the Governorship. The Republicans nominated the present 
incumbent. Governor William D. Stephens, who was Lieutenant- 
Governor under Hiram Johnson and became Governor when 
Mr. Johnson resigned that office to accept a United States 
Senatorship. Governor Stephens's closest opponent was James 
Rolph, Jr., who has been Mayor of San Francisco for two 
terms. Mr. Rolph was a candidate for nomination in the prima- 
ries of both the Republican and Democratic parties. In the 
Democratic primary his opponent was Francis J. Heney, who 
was very prominent in the reform movement in San Francisco 
a few years ago, and proceeded against the political criminals 
and comiptionists of that city even at the risk of his life. Al- 
though Mr. Rolph jpreesed Mr. Heney very closely, and at this 
writing appears to have received the most votes m the Demo- 
cratic primary, he cannot have the Democratic nomination, 
because, having lost the nomination of his own party, he is pro- 
hibited by the primary law of California from becoming the 
Democratic candidate. 


When a man whose excellent reputation among his fellow- 
citizens has been achieved as writer, editor, and publisher 
becomes Ambassador to a friendly Power in time of profound 
peace, his country naturally expects from him onlv a placid 
diplomatic career ; that he will be urbane and tactful ; that he 
will avoid blunders ; and that he will quietiv and with dignity 
maintain and strengthen the amicable relations of the two 
countries and efficientiy manage the business committed to his 
care — this is all that is requisite. 

But hardly had Walter H. Page, with such a record and an 
experience, been Ambassador to the Court of St. James's a year, 
when the worM sci'incd to fall to pii"s''« alHMit his ears. The 

Digitized by 




stress and anxiety of the first months of the world war must 
have taxed his nerve and power to the utmost. Now he retires 
after five years and more of service of the utmost value to his 
country. The Enelish papers not only express sympathy and 
oonoem over the iU health that has forced Mr. Page's retiral 
and admiration for his personality, but recognize how much he 
has done to draw the two peoples together. Particularly they 
point out his tact when the United States was neutral and 
questions relative to the British blockade were arising, and his 
eloquence after the United States entered the war, and refer 
with enthusiasm to his address at Plymouth upon the fourth 
anniversary of the outbreak of the struggle. " Mr. Page was a 
worthy successor of Lowell, Bayard, and Choate," says the 
London " Express." " His term of office was a hard one, and he 
served his country and ours admirably well." A portrait of Mr. 
Page appears elsewhere in this issue. 

America will be fortunate if the difficult task of finding a suc- 
cessor to Ambassador Page results in filling the post with a 
man who understands Englishmen as well as he did. Personal 
and political considerations should not for a moment weigh in 
the selection of an Ambassador who wiU be a force in uni^ring 
the war effort and the hearty fellowship of the two great Anglo- 
Saxon peoples. 


After a long period of inactivity, some of the world's largest 
cargo ships are now being built at the New England shipyards. 
This is particularly noticeable in Maine, a State once renowned 
for the great number and fine quality of its ships. In the old 
days the Maine clippers, brigs, brigantines, and barkentines 
were known in many waters, particumrly in those of the West 
Indies and South America. But when the war came in 1914 
only a few wooden ships were being constructed in Maine. 

About a year ago the Federal Shipping Board began its 
activities. Smce then the Maine shipyards have been engaged 
in building 116 vesseLs. A number of them have already been 
launched. There are wooden freight steamers, steel freighters, 
tugboats, lighters, trawlers. Some 15,000 men are worran^ at 
{vSL speed in the 3rard8. There are thirty-nine shipyards of size. 
Old ship-building plants that were long dead and mourned as 
supposedly beyond resurrection have sprung to life again " and 
with an energy they never knew in tneir palmiest days," the 
Shipping Boud people say. 

In one Maine yard they have a clever motto : " Not Do Your 
Bit-Do Your AIL" 

Turning to Massachusetts, another ship-building State, we 
find that in 1856 it launched 156 vessels, many of them small 
fishing craft, with a total of nearly 93,000 tons ; that marked 
the prime stage of America's merchant marine industry. But 
what does the present show ? proudly asks the Shipping Board. 
In the chief Massachusetts yard, that of the Fore River 
Shipping Corporation at Quincy, 15,000 men — as many as 
in all Maine — are working day and night on ships, some 
12,000 men on vessels for Die Navy and some 3,000 men on 
merchant ships. 

At Fall River, Somerset, SomerviUe, and Chelsea the yards 
are busy turning out three-masted and four-masted wooden 
sailing schooners and auxiliary schooners. The old-time yards 
at Gu)ucester and Essex are occupied chiefiy with buUding 
fishing craft. 

The Shipping Board's statement as to these things contains 
this account of the origin of the name schooner : " It was about 
the year 1713 and at Gloucester the first vessel of the schooner 
type was launched. A tradition persists that, enthusiastic at the 
speed made on her trial trip, a boy exclaimed, ' See how she 
schoons !' ' A schooner let her be 1' agreed the builder, hearing 
the remark. The word schoon in ancient New England meant 
making a flat stone skip along the water." 


We have just heard of a Government employee at Wash- 
ington who attends night school, but who has found time be- 
tween office hours and the starting of his evening studies to 
care for a war vegetable garden. He has a list of no less than 

thirty-five varieties of produce in that garden, and, what is 
more, he gives away all the food he raises. 

That this kind of work is attempted by this kind of man is 
an additional evidence that the number of war gardeners has 
increased. They now number some 5,285,000, according to 
the estimates of the National War Gtuden Commission. It 
divides the war gardens by sections, as follows : 

South, 1,264,000; New England, 262,000; New York, 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, 762,000; Central 
West, 2,430,000 ; and the Pacific Coast and Mountain States, 
577,000. The greatest perctotage of increase was noted through 
the Central ^ est, this being accounted for by the fact t^ 
some of the other sections of the country had a larger number 
of war gardens in proportion to the population last year than 
did the Central Western States. 

It became evident early in the season that there waa to be a 
correspondingly great effort to save as much as possible of the 
war-garden surplus. Says President Wilson : " Every pound 
of vegetables properly put up for future use and every jar of 
fruit preserved add that much to the insurance ot victory." It 
is thus a satisfaction to note the National War Ghirden Com- 
mission's estimate of a total of not less than 1,450,000,000 
quart jars of canned vegetables and fruit stored away this 
summer for future use. 

In many cases, tons of v^^tables have thus been saved which 
could not have been taken care of by individual effort. In the 
first place, demonstration kitchens proved of value. La the 
second place, community canning has been inaugurated on a 
large s(»Ie. For instance, in DaUas, Texas, some 17,600 oans oi 
vegetables were put up in the first few weeks after the commu- 
nity cannery was started there. 

A picturesque canning undertaking is that of Hickory, North 
Carolina. The employees in the machine shop of the Carolina 
and Northwestern Railway Company there turned the cylinder 
of an old engine into a canniog plant, connecting it with the 
shop steam-boiler. They put in three shdves of heavy wire screen 
to hold the jars of v^etables, and did their garden preserving 
after regular hours. 

" Fo(kI will win the war." We are beginning to realize this 
more than ever, now that we see such examples of the spirit 
which inspires America. 


Those who visit New York City seem to have an idea that 
social missionary work is necessary only on the lower East Side. 
There is a lower West Side which also needs attention. True, 
it is not so large in area as the East Side ; it lies in the angle 
formed by Vesey Street, Broadway, Bowling Green, and 3ie 
Hudson Uiver. It is thus one of the old sections of the metropo- 
lis, and was once inhabited by the " first families." 

It now houses many thousand immigrants — Syrians, Turks, 
Greeks, Russians, Hungarians, Italians, Irish, Germans, and 
eighteen other nationalities. The men are largely longshoremen 
working among the docks and warehouses ; or they are cleaners 
for the great downtown office buildings ; or they do porter work 
of various kinds. The women and children are in evidence to 
many a hurrying commuter as he goes from the subway stations 
through the connecting streets to uie Hudson River ferries. In 
the narrowest streets may be seen old houses, the open doors of 
which show hallways patched and shored, layers of wall-paper 
generations old, and courtyards littered and filled with yurd- 
toilets. The street and the courtyards are the only places of out- 
door recreation for either grown-ups or children. Indoor recrea- 
tion may be guessed at from the many saloons and pool-rooma 
of a low order. 

The grown-ups do not interestthe hurrying commuter as much 
as do the children, most of them Syrian children, with the 
peculiar olive complexion, raven-black hair, and lustrous eyes 
characteristic of the race. They are puny children. Even the 
hurrying commuter longs to stop and help them in some way. 

Hf can help them. Let him realize that the New York cholera 
epidemic, seventy years -ago, reached its height in tJbia very 
neighborhood, and that tuberculosis now thrives in it. When he 
reads this and thinks of the pale-cheeked, listless, thin-bodied 
little waifs he has seen in that congested neighborhood, may he 

Digitized by 



Barclay in tke Baltimore Sun 

" HartUnir, thpeak ! Are der Bohweinhnnds closer ooming ?" 


Bthte in the New York World 

. 'j^ fr.'; :.- - 




fi«0iM in iKt Cartoons Jiaganm 



Baitte in La Baiomettt (Pari*) 

" It is your hooM that has been bombed, my poor 
" Yea, Sot I'm not worrying — the landlord haa to 




Digitized by 




11 Septembn 

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ktumn M the John Ericmon- League of Patriotic Service ; an-l 
t\ui DftnUh Ijmgue, named after the great friend cS the "* ^ 
nu<r){i«l t<mth," the Jat^b A. Rii« League of Patriotic Service 
Th« Danish and BUvic Leagues were the direct outgrowth of ^ 
Third Lilwrty Loan drive, having been formed on May 9 and 
May 80 reHpe<;tively, while the Swedes, who had recogniwi) 
the Nitnation earlier, and who also wanted to impress tbeir lop 
alty aft4kr the Luxburo^ disclosures, had oi^^anized theirs ii 
Manth. Judge Harry Olson, Chief Justice of the Chicago Mn 
nioipol ('ourt, is President of the John Ericsson League, awi 
ICdwin Hjiirkman, the prominent translator and writer, serve 
in the oa|>R4'ity of general secretary and organizer. Dr. ^hu 
lltmluH, the well-known chemist, is President of the Dsmid 
Ijttagut« ; and John F. Stepina, the President of the Jlrst Amw 
itian State Dank, is head of the Slavic League. On the centra 
oouiicilM are the leading men of the three races from over tl* 
whkJe country. 

Tlikk priuciual object of the leagues is, of course, the Amei 
{(Wkiiatiou of all the people of their race in this oonntry am 
the mvuring of their loyal co-operation in every activity coo 
uwtekl with the wiiming of the war. Hence their form o 
ikrgauiaation has been planned for the quickest and moet eS 
oiwkt ways of accomplishing this object. The Swedes have i 
systeut (kf subonlinate coimcils in every important Swedisl 
iHkuter throkkghokkt the country ; the Danes have a central can 
catalkk(»«ke system, b«iUt up by the efforts of the bead Council a 
1.W Hkkikdrek) ainl the co-operation of every Danish fratema 
auil ohuWh ikrj^kisatioa in the country ; and the Slavs ai 
ukakiuy giHKl itete k>f the subeidiaiy national groaps that joine 
tkt^'thtsr to buikl the big allied league. naHely, the Bobemiai 
(.VkHtian. l\kl»h. Slovak. Lithianian. SerWan. and Ukrainiai 
Thkv*. »:» !fOk>Q as the Goreniment wants fnhlirity eoncemiq 
tb« liberty Loan, the Red Cross^ or anC fAer war meason 
the W«k^kketk hi»v«> tW ■Ak.-hinenr rHair. ^§. only far spreadin; 
tb<^ itiKyr«Mt»tk>u^ but also for stqwiemwiting it with aaeh extr 
tUK^bv^V* afe» a^«^ tMivt^sarT whiHW tJa» lespoiHe Big:fat otfaerwis 
b«f Kkkf wjMtk*. 

A« aKklittottiil piurtxMMs. the Ungues are aQ wuakii^ fo 
«fi<t»bli'.hui^ betUHT rei^oDi^ xaA andentanJin^ between thei 
iMotbaHr vvuutrttM ami this ooontrr. and. kM. ther arc taking a 
active Mkrt m :h«^ w«nai wvi&uv ot their ■»■ l^>»^t^ in the Tari>>(i 
vkkui^ L'!)x^ Slavic L«nckw ha!> aiM> the hope of 1 
bv-i(.> utukCtrrially in the jcntt^I« ot tijeir Enropenn 

A'.tiK>ui:<i[ tjhf Usvju** ar» t"r!n>?«i kxIt 5>r the liBzatMi <rf ti 
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f militia, which, however, is under obligation to co-operate 
rith the S. V. C. whenever the common interests of foreigners 
re threatened. 

The members of the S. V. C. drill one day a week nine months 
a the year, and formerly had a training camp every now and 
hen. 6ut recently there has been enough to do without training 
amps. Many members of the corps have gone to the front, and 
hose who have remained in Shanghai have kept themselves in 
onstant readiness to jump into their fighting togs, like well- 
rained policemen, for urermaa intrigue in China has demanded 
oustant vigilance. 

After the war began the German and Austrian companies of 
ourse drilled apart from the rest of the corps, but on one occa- 
ion all nationalities took part in a sham battle t<^ether as if the 
lid feeling of friendliness still existed. Asa matter of fact, com- 
>aratively little bitterness was to be seen between the Germans 
md Britons who had formerly drilled together until the Lusi- 
ania was sunk. Then there was a decided change. But the 
Deutonic companies, of course, could not be disbanded imtil 
[Siina entered the war. When China did that, the Teutons were 
promptly deprived of their arms, and now the S. V. C. is entirely 
in organization in the interest of the Allies. 


UNITED STATES Senator Lewis, of Illinois, is reported 
to have said at a recent gathering at the American 
Luncheon Club in London that t£e Allies ought not 
lefine in detail the conditions of peace because it would deprive 
he peace commissioners of the trading basis necessary in the 
londuct of peace negotiations. 

If this report is true. Senator Lewis neither understands the 
Inty of the Allies nor the spirit of the American people. There 
ihould be no trading with the brigands who have plundered 
Belgium and France, Poland and Serbia. We should not ask 
bem on what terms they will make peace. We should tell them 
m what terms they can secure peace. 

At one time in the history of Israel the people suffered op- 
)res8ion at the hands of their neighbors, the Syrians. The civili- 
ation of the Syrians was not much better than the civilization 
if the Germans. It is recorded of the King of Syria that he 
lestroyed the people of Israel, " and made them like the dust 
d .threshing." Elisha, the prophet of Israel, was sick, " of his 
ickness whereof he died." And the Kin^ of Israel went to con- 
olt him. The rest of the story we will give as it is narrated in 
he Book of Kings : 

And E^ha said unto him, Take bow and arrows : and he took 
unto him bow and arrows. And he said to the king of Israel, 
Put thine hand upon the bow : and he put his hand upon it. And 
£Ii8ha laid his hands upon ttie king's hands. And he said, Open 
the window eastward : and he opened it. Then Elisha said, 
Shoot : and he shot. And he said, Tlie Lord's arrow of victory, 
even the arrow of victory over Syria, for thou shalt smite the 
Syrians in Aphek, till thou have consumed them. And he said, 
Take the arrows : and he took them. And he said unto the kin? 
of Israel, Smite upon the ground : and he smote thrice, and 
stayed. And the man of God was wroth with him, and said, 
Thou shonldst have smitten five or six times ; then hadst thou 
smitten Syria till thou hadst consumed it : whereas now thou 
shalt smite Syria but thrice. 

We recommend this narrative to our ministerial readers, 
t furnishes an appropriate text for the times. 

A work abanaoned half done is not begun. What did we 
tart to do? For what have we sent our young men to die on 
he bloody fields of F^ce? For what have we laid upon our- 
elves a burden of taxation wholly unprecedented in the history 
f the Nation ? For w6at have we substituted war bread for 
rbeat bread, stinted ourselves in the use of sugar, economized 
1 coal to the point of serious discomfort if not at times and in 
laoea to the point of peril, disorganized our industries, sur- 
endered for the time our individual liberties, turned over to 
he Government our telegfraphs and our railways ? President 
l^ilflon in his Labor Day message gives to those questions the 
orrect answer : 

Let us make this, therefore, a day of fresh comprehension, not 
only of what we are about and of renewed and clear-eyed resola- 

tion, but a day of consecration also in which we devote ourselves 
without pause or limit to tlie great task of setting our own coun- 
try and tlie whole world free to render justice to all and of making 
it impossible for small groups of political rulers anywhere to dis- 
turb our peace or the peace of the world, or in any way to make 
tools and puppets of tnose upon whose consent and upon whose ^ 
power their own authority and their own very existence depend. 

This is what we have undertaken to do. Woe be to us if we 
stay our hands imtil it ia accomplished. To accomplish this, to 
make the world free to render justice to all, to make it impos- 
sible for small groups of nders anjrwhere to disturb our peace 
or the peace of the world, or, for that matter, for any people 
maddened by ambition and self-conceit to disturb that peace, 
it is not enough that we dethrone the Hohenzolletns, not enough 
that we destroy the military oligarchy that now rules Germany ; 
we must deprive the German nation of the power ever to 
attempt again the scheme of world dominion. Eric Fisher 
Wooci quotes Raemaekers as saying : " I do not believe that 
there is any German who is not a pan-German. All of them 
suffer from this national and nation-wide megalomania." We 
have been loth to believe this. We were inclined to agree 
with President Wilson's discrimination between the rulers of 
Germany and the German people. But we do not believe in 
that discrimination any longer. We do not think that the 
President any longer believes in it. The entire German people 
are obsessed with the insane delusion that the German nation 
b divinely ordained to rule the world. The evidence is too 
strong to be gauisaid. It is not safe to allow in such a crisis the 
wish to be father to the thought. There will be no world peace 
until the Anglo-Saxon and the Latin and the Slav and the 
Chinese and the Japanese and the African and the Teuton 
believe in a democracy of nations as well as in a democracy of 
individuals, believe that each race has its place in the family 
of mankind, believe in mutual respect and mutufd good will, 
believe in international law and international fellowship, believe 
in an international policy of " Live and let live." 

Only a just peace can be a permanent peace. 

If, as the result of this war, Germany is compelled to pay the 
financial damage she has done to Eielgium and France and 
Poland and Serbia, and to the commercial nations whose ships 
engaged in peaceful commerce she has sunk upon the seas, it 
may be hoped that she will no longer believe that " Might is 
the supreme right." It is due to her as well as to the nations 
she has plundered that she be oompeUed to do justice that they 
may receive justice. For it is omy as she is compelled to do 
justice that she will believe in justice. And it is due to the 
God of justice to whom her Emperor has so often and so 
theatrically appealed that true justice be represented by us in 
the final settlement of this war. 

A judge who should sentence a criminal on a " trading basis " 
would be unfit to sentence anybody. If we should barter with 
Germany over the terms of peace we should be unfit to call 
ourselves the standard-bearers of democracy, and should be sell- 
ing our birthright for a mess of pottage. 


Tou have been looking for a school for your boy. Perhaps 
you have not been satisfied with the public school of your 
neighborhood. Perhaps you want your boy under masculine 
influence for a while — something he may not be able to get at 
home. Perh%ps you are convinced that he needs to be thrown 
on his own reliance as he cannot be if he stays at home and 
goes to day school. And yet you hesitate to send him to a pri- 
vate boarding-school. You have heard that boarding-schoola 
are undemocratic, and that in a free country like this the only 
democratic schools are those of the public school system. You 
don't want your boy to grow up to be a snob, a man apart from 
his fellows. You want him to be a prince of the royal house, 
and in a democracy the royal house is the common people. Yon 
do not want him shut out from the privileges of his kmd. And 
yet you need not for that reason hesitate to send him to a 
private schooL Among the private 




II Septenh 

to be found some of the most democratic of its institutions. 
One way of showing this is to tell of the record of one school 
that we know. 

In the first place, though it is within a two-honr jontne;^ from 
one of the great cities of the Nation, the school is set in the 
open country. Its acres cover the crest of a mountain spur. On 
one side spreads a broad rolling valley, with its &rms, villages 
and towns, and its wide river. On tl^ other side is the moun- 
tain range with its woods, its wild life, its ponds and springs 
and bro<^. The fact that there is a private boarding-school m 
such a situation makes for democracy. The littie public school 
in the neighborhood is for the ^oung children of the neighbor- 
hood ; but this private school is for boys from all parts of the 
Nation. In tKe public school the child of the mountain meets 
and knows only the child of the mountain ; but in the private 
school the boy from Ohio and the boy from New Jersey, the 
boy from Illinois and the boy from Massachusetts, become 
friends. Sectionalism is a foe to democracy. The man whose 
acquaintance is parochial may prove as dangerous to a democracy 
as the man who has always kept his life witiiin the narrow circle 
of a littie social grou^. In a private school West and East and 
South and Norm mmgle as they seldom if ever are found 
mingling in a public school. Situated as it is, this private board- 
ing-school gives to these boy^' a large proportion of whom are 
from city homes, the refreshing life of the mountains, woods, 
and fields. It is an error to suppose that democracy means 
giving city privil^^es to people of the country ; it means quite 
as trmy givmg country privileges to people of the city. Our 
public sonool system provides, and at present at least can pro- 
vide, no such school as this for city boys. To confine schools to 
those of the public school system would be to deprive all the city 
children of this free land of the things that only such a private 
boarding-school in the country can provide. Democra^ is not 
a denial of privileges ; it is the extension of privileges. The way 
to develop democracy in education is to make such a school 
available for boys from families of limited means. There are 
boys from families of limited means in this schooL Undoubtedly 
provision for enlarging their number would be welcomed. 
Meantime, if you can afford to send your boy to such a school, 
and do not do so, you will be doing no other boy a benefit and 
may be denying your own boy his right. To send him there is 
not to shut him out of democratic rights ; on the contrary, it is 
doing your share in making democracy rich. And every one 
who enables a boy to go to such a school who could not otherwise 
go there is also doing his share in enriching democracy. 

Such an environment as that of this school is, moreover, an 
influence for the simplicity of democracy. It is a place where 
old clothes at times are needed and are the only fitting garb. 
It is a place where the smaller boys build huts in the woods and 
can spend afternoons like explorers. And with the taste of the 

{irimitive life the boys have, besides the benefit of organized ath- 
etios and swimming, a modem, filtered indoor swimming pool. 
Democracy, as interpreted and applied in a school like this, 
enables boys to appreciate and use powers developed through 
the wide range of men's experiences from those supplied by 
modem skill to those evoked by a wholesome response to the 
primal instincts. In this respect, as in others, democracy in a 
school of this sort is not restrictive but expanding, not impover- 
ishi^ but enriching. 

What the spirit of this school is may be discerned in the 
honors which the boys most highly prize. Besides the usual 
athletic and scholastic prizes awiutiei at the close of the school 
year there are, standing above them all in distinction, three 
cups. One of these is awarded by vote of ihe older boys and 
the masters to that boy who has r^neeented besti* high ideals, 
manly sport, tenacity of purpose, earnest endeavor, dean living, 
fair play, and true chivalry." Another cup is awarded to the 
boy who, without reference to any special performance, " makes 
the best resjwnse to his environment." The third of these cups 
is given to the boy " who has been most helpful to his feDow- 
schoolmates in the solution of their own personal problems." 
These thr«e cups, natural products of the spirit of the school, 
are not unworthy symbols of that democratic spirit that judges 
men not by the external power or authority or possessions that 
they acquire, but by their character, their development, and 
their service. And it was charat^ristio of this spirit that one 

year the school letter that is awarded to the athletes who hai 
upheld the honor of the school in its contests on the playiq 
field was awarded to a boy whose physical limitations kept iu 
off the teams, but failed to prevent him from going regulariy I 
the practice, getting into the game whenever he ooold, aa 
imbuing the sdiool team with his own dauntless spirit. 

It is mevitable that when a time of testing comes to dono 
racy, as it has oome in this war, such a school as this shcnl 
reveal its character in its record at the front. Its Service Flag 
of course blazoned with stars, and was among the first— ^ f; 
as we know, was the first — to signify those who had paid ti 
last full measure of devotion by stars of g(Jd. The school's di 
tinction in service may best be indicated by specific cases. Tl 
former head master of the school, whose name the school ben 
on his recent retirement after many years of service, offen 
himself as a volimteer for the Belgian Belief Commission u 
served in Bel^um until the war came to America, and eri 
then stayed in Bel^^um and was in the last group of America 
serving the cause of Belgian relief to leave. Thereupon 
offered himself as a volunteer in the service of the Y, M. C. J 
and now is serving the Y in France. His three sons, gradual 
of the school, volunteered, were accepted, and have^ been in t 
service of their country. One enlisted as a private in the Bej 
lar Army, one in the National Guard, and one first in t 
Ambulance Corps and later in the artillery. The present be 
master's son, who graduated from the school, though too yoo 
for the draft, enlisted while a freshman in college, and is n 
a non-commissioned officer of Pershing's army in Fran 
These four young men are typical of the graduates of the schc 
Enlistment in the ranks has been the method by which tb 
youn^r men have displayed the democratic spirit of service ch 
actenstic of this private boarding-schooL 

And tliis spirit is the spirit of its rel^fion. Not every pal 
school, unfortunately, is free to be religious ; not every priti 
school expresses its religious spirit in the form of service, 
this BchoM, however, the religious spirit has been the spirit 
service ; and has flowered in the service that its graduates a 
other former students are rendering in the defense of the ri< 
of people to be democratic and free. 

Are you thinking of sending your boy to school? Ifso,8el 
the school, not because of the system it belongs to, but becai 
of its spirit and its record. Democracy is not a matter of foi 
but of substance. 


Our higher education has looked too much toward yea 
day and too littie toward to-morrow. Facing backward is; 
an aid to prc^^ress, even though one walks in the right directi 

The commonest charge against our colleges before this ^ 
was that American studente had no acquaintance with 
important events of the world of to-day in which they liv 
College young men and young women did not read the ne 
papers. They did not know whether or not Portug^ wa 
republic or whether Venizelos was a Mexican revolutionist 
a frontier post in Rumania. They did not know what queeti 
were agitating the minds of their own National statesmoi i 
what history was being made on their own soiL 

The warmest friends of our colleges will hardly deny 
justice of this common criticism, which was just about eqvu 
true of undergraduate young women and unaergradua,te yoi 
men. But if ue studies in our classrotnaas were tradition: 
unrelated both in nibject and in method of treatment to 
life our students must live when tiiey graduate, and if tb 
studies exacted practically all of the students' time, is it 
evident that student attention would be withheld from con 

Until a recent rejuvenation the liberal college had actni 
been getting further and further away from real life. W 
institutions for* the higher education of young men first ca 
into existence, in the Middle Ages, they had a most pract 
purpose to perform. They had to fit men for theprofession 
life that in those days called for any learning. Their curric 
were as thoroughly vocational in character as is the corricol 
Digitized by VJiV^^^V IV^ 




o-day in any school of agrionltnre or dentistry. Only tihose 
hinga were taught which would be of direct use to the students 
n the life-work they were to take up after graduation. 

As the centuries passed, other professions and trades b^an 
» demand that their practitioners should be educated. And 
ret, through a reverence for tradition, which is confused with a 
"eTerence for pure learning, we still puzzle over a curriculum 
lesigned originally to provide a technical training for certain 
iroressions. It was only after. the greatest persistence that 
idvooates of such sciences as physics and biology were able to 
>reak into this crystallized programme, and it is not surprising 

note how recently English was added. In the days of the 
irst colleges there was no such thing as a body of English 
iterature from which to study English ; it could not be a part 
>f those courses which we have canonized, and therefore it 
las been kept out of college classrooms even down to this 

The charge that current newspapers before this war were not 
'ound in the hands of our collie students was not necessarily 

1 criticism of the effectiveness of the classrooms they attended ; 
)ut it was a charge against the applicability of those classrooms 
» presentrdaylife and the value of their accomplishment. The 
lewspaper is not a text-book ; but at least it is a symbol. If 
rar college courses of study were all so organized that they 
lad a direct bearing upon the problems of to-day's living, then 
itndents would without other incentive seize upon the news- 
laper as an essential supplement to classroom work ; and inci- 
ientally the task of teaching them to discriminate between 
lews wheat and news chaff would be an easier one. 

Before this war laid its fearfully vitalizing hand npon 
nir people many colleges were making an effort to appraise 
ihis criticism of " devitalization." Some were meeting it gradu- 
illy, while others confused it with the wearisome discussion 
between " cultural " and " vocational," between the relative 
ralnes of liberal and technical training. But even in wiser ool- 
egiate centers progress inspired from within was too slow. The 
mtside world, upset by war, but with a brain swept clear of 
wbwebs, is now forcing a more rapid action. 

In specific terms, what is the war doing for the liberal cot 
^e ? It is putting to immediate test that old boast : " We are 
training for service." It is raising the window-shades that hide 
,he world from the classroom, and only the most obstinate 
-eactionary will dare attempt to pull them down again. The 
9rofe88or of mathematics is discovering that the theory of navi- 
ration, for instance, will teach certain mathematical principles 
iven better than he was able, by means of abstractions, to teach 
;ho8e same principles before. The instructors in physics and 
shemistry are listening to many questions from the men who 
nake war, and by discussing tiie theory of these questions in 
;he classroom they gain resmts more effective than they ever 
'ained by the abstract problems of former days. Yet it is hardly 
:air to cite these men of science as examples ; they have been 
far readier than their colleagues to point to the outer world 
;hrough their laboratory windows. The teacher of a modem 
aneuage who permitted a dassful of students to leave his 
jurisdiction without ever hearing the idiom of that language 
'r^y spoken in his classroom has been sharply awakened. 

This change does not mean that liberal training is giving 
place to technical. The mathematics instructor is not neces- 
larily fitting his mei\ for the Navy ; but because his boys can see 
>ur Navy at last from their classroom windows a certain mathe- 
natical problem now has new value ; and because they can 
ilmost descry the shores of France and Italy and Germany and 
^pain, they do not rest content with a mastery of French or 
jrerman represented by ^ges of Moli^re or Goethe worked 
rat with the help of a ^ctiouary. 

Of late years attacks upon our system of elementary educa- 
don and the appearance of manual training and vocational 
:nuning in the field have put new life into some of our primary 
^ext-books. Arithmetic and spelling are taught more effeo- 
dvely than they used to be, as is proved by a comparison of 
nany examination papers of the present day with those of a 
reneration ago. Yet it is not a " vocational " arithmetic that 
B being taugnt. The realization that life is a laboratory for 
he demonstration of theories as well as a shop for the making 
>f practical products has put new life into devitalized tex^ 

bodks. But it has taken more than such an attack to upset the 
traditionalism of the college. 

This, we like to believe, will be one of the legacies of the 
great war. The colleges will move more alertly, nice forward. 
The classroom will &ad in the community outside the campus 
material for the demonstration of theories and the working out 
of problems. Court-houses, town meetings, charities, editorial 
desks, and pressrooms will be seen dearly from the classroom 
window, and the siiudy of their various operations will save a 
deal of chalk and blackboard space. 

The war is, moreover, forcing into college halls some studies 
that we temporizingly call ^^ preparedness courses, which we 
have discovered, to our surprise, might have been there long 
ago. As though every college study if properly conducted were 
not in reality a preparedness course I 

The war has forc^ daily newspapers into the hands of our 
students, and every dassroom is aroused by new questions. 
Even the teacher of dead languages, through whose mouth 
ancient civilizations might spe^ again and teach their many 
lessons, finds himself saymg, " Perhaps I too may help to inter- 
pret these questions of to-<hiy." 

All this tne war is doing in our coll^;e8, everywhere. True, 
the need was greater in some collies than in others ; but all 
are the gainers ; and, once done, it can hardly be undone. 


About the Happy Eremite and his lady as they walked along 
the lane under the old twisted apple trees was the humming 
warmth of summer. In the pasture sloping south Esmeralda, 
the cow, munched the short grass. The two pigs were stretched 
in all their pink corpulency m the shade of ihe grea,t cherry 
tree in front of the bam. Jack, the horse, sprawl^ under the 

" Goldenrod 1" exclaimed the Lady Eremite as they turned 
into the road that led up the hilL 

" By Jupiter ! So it is !" he cried, regretfully. 

They walked between files of deep green and yellow gold. 

" Isn't it unusually early ?" she asked, not without a touch of 

The Happy Eremite laughed. " Oh, lady, lady," he said, 
" don't you know that you have just uttered one of the Original 
Seven Bromides ? Have you ever known a summer when you 
didn't ask yourself that question and answer it a dozen times at 
least for yourself and other indignant folk who felt that nature 

• was cheating them ? You know that you've always answered, 
' I'm sure I've never seen it so early I' and year after year 
you've felt the same tug 'at your heart and the same reluctant 
stiffening of relaxed muscles for the combat with winter, and a 
faint impersonal sadness which the Germans call Wehmut and 
which no watchful censor can translate. 

" Of course the goldenrod is too early this year. It always 18 
too early every year. You see, it means the beginning of the 
end of the season of luxuriant things — of deep, fresh g^rass and 
thickets, and those young willows of ours wonderfully bending 
under the weight of the new shoots, and fidds of wheat shoulder 
high, and warm ground to lie on, and warm winds, and lazy, 
wandering thoughts. The goldenrod comes in the very height 
of summer as a sort of — " 

^Memento mori" interposed the Lady Eremite. ** I don't 
like that idea." 

"• Oh, no I" he cried. ** I don't mean that it comes as a grim 
ghost to the feast. It comes merdy as a gentle reminder, the 
gentlest of reminders, that there are difficult days ahead and 
we might as well get used to the thought. It is the season of 
combat sending a harbinger to the season of rest and beauty, 
an exquisite thing of ddicate lo'. diness shaped in gold, to say : 
' There is a time to lie back and dream, and a time to get up 

* and work. You have rested in the shadow of sumptuous boughs. 
Ygu have bathed morning and night in the beauty of exquisite 
color. The sim has warmed you, and running brooks have cooled 
you, and fruits and berries and ddicious greens have sprung 
up like weeds to sustain you and strengthen you. Now make 
your soul ready for the struggle once more.' " i 

The Happy Eremite broke a stalk at the roadside and studied 



11 Septemlxr 

the sheaf of slender, aspiring stems, bending at the top ^ith 
their golden burden of bloom. " Look !" he said. " The sheaf 
together is like a star, and every blossoming stem is a mass of 
little stars with the buds below like stars asleep, ready to break. 
If we must have winter, can you imagine a more inspiring mes- 
senger to tell us that winter is on the way ? If we must have 
the struggle with the coal problem, and the struggle with 
refractory and moody furnaces, and the struggle with water- 
pipes that freeze in spite of all precautions, and the struggle 
with Bridgets who do not like the country in winter, and uie 
struggle with snow-drifts and biting winds, can you imagine 
a gentler method for the good Lord Almighty to tell us to get 
ready ? He tells us in terms of the very beauty in which he 
sees us reveling that that beauty must pass to make way for 
the sterner beauty of spiritual combat. And he tells us months 

ahead. He seems to know that we need time to say good-b; 
to ease and luxury and to muster our strength for battle." 

" It is a comforting notion," said the La^ Eremite, " even if 
it does presuppose a sort of kindly but stem Deity that I caa'i 
believe m." 

^' Oh, but it doesn't presuppose ^hat sort of Deity at all," tLe 
Happy Eremite protested. " Call your God Law, or the Divine 
Principle of Being, or whatever you will, the fact of the golden- 
rod remains unchanged. Into the midst of your luxuriant peac« 
it comes to give you warning of approaching war. There ii 
nothing strident about it, nothing violent, nothing sensational 
Quietly at the roadside it unfurls its golden flag that means 
Prepare .'" 

" And fill the cool-bin," added the Lady Eremite. 

" Exactly," he said. " The coal-bm of the souL" 



THE most important thing in connection with future college 
education in this country is the decision of the Government 
to enter upon a certain policy of regulation of the educa- 
tion of all American boys of eighteen and over who already are 
or who naturally would be in cellmate institutions. 

When the Government bill extending the draft age from 
eighteen to forty-five inclusive was introduced in Congress, the 
cry went up from many that it would close the doors of every 
college in t^e country. Hardly. The Government's plans mean 
the best method for keeping the coU^;es alive. Not only will 
the Government prevent unnecessary depletion of our colleges 
by indiscriminate volunteering among the students ; its creation 
of a Students' Army Training Corps (known as the S. A. T. C.) 
wiU give to many of our educations institutions something new, 
and will also make education itself more widespread. 

The following statement issued by the War Department out- 
lines the purpose and operation of the Students' Army Training 

1. All young men who were planning to go to school this fall 
should cany out their plans and do so. Each should go to the 
college of hu choice, matriculate, and enter as a regular stadent. 
He will, of course, also register with his local board on the regis- 
tration day set by the President. As soon as possible after 
re&ristration day, probably on or about October 1, opportunity 
will be given tor all the regularly enrolled students to be in- 
ducted into the Students' ArmyTraining Corps at the schools 
where they are in attendance. Thus the Corps will be organized 
by voluntary induction under the Selective Service Act, instead 
ot by enlistment, as previously contemplated. 

The student, by voluntary induction, becomes a soldier in the 
United States Army, uniformed, subject to military discipline, 
and with the pay of a private. They will simultaneously be 
placed on full active duty, and contracts will be made as soon 
as possible with the colleges for the housing, subsistence, and 
instruction of tlie student soldiers. 

2. Officers* uniforms, rifles, and such other equipment as may 
be available will be furnished by the War Department, as pre- 
viously announced. 

3. The student-soldiers will be given military instruction under 
officers of the Army, and will be kept under observation and 
test to determine their qualification as officer candidates and 
technical experts, such as engineers, chemists, and doctors. After 
a certain period the men will be selected according to their per- 
formance, and assigned to military duty in one of the following 
ways : 

(a) He may be transferred to a central officers' training 

(Jo) He may be transferred to a non-commissioned officers' 
training schooL 

(e) He may be assigned to the school wliere he is enrolled 
for further intensive work in a specified line for a limited 
specified time. 

{d) He may be assigned to the vocational training section 
of the Corps tor technician training of miUtary value. 

(e) He may be transferred to a cantonment for duty with 
troops as a private. 

41 Similar sorting and reassignment of the men will be made at 
periodical intervals, as the requirements of tl<e service demand. 

It cannot be now definitely stated how long a particular stadent 
will remain at college. Tins will depend on the requirements of 
the mobilization and the age group to which he belongs. In order 
to keep the unit at adequate strength, men will be amnitted from 
secondary schoob or transferred from depot brigades as the 
need may require. 

Students will ordinarily not be permitted to remain on duty in 
the college units after tlie majority of their fellow-citizens of like 
age Iiave been called to military service at camp. Exception to 
tliis rule will be made, as the needs of the service require it, in 
the rase of technical and scientific students, who will be assigned 
for longer periods for intensive study in 8|>ecialize<l fields. 

5. No units of the Students' Army Training Corps will, for 
the present, be established at secondary schools, but it is hoped 
to provide at an early day for the extension of militarv instnic- 
tion in such schools. The secondary schools are urged to inten- 
sify their instruction so that young men seventeen and eighteen 
years old may be qualified to enter college as promptly as pos- 

G. There will be both a collegiate section and a vocational sec- 
tion of the Students' Army Training Corps. Young men of draft 
age of grammar school education will be given opportuni^ to 
enter the vocational section of the Corps. At present about 
27,500 men are called for this section each month. Application 
for voluntary induction into the vocational section should be 
made to the local board, and an effort will be made to accom- 
modate as many as possible of those who volunteer for this 

Men in the vocational section will be rated and tested by the 
standard Army methods, and those who are found to possess the 
requisite qualifications may be assigned for further training in 
tlie collegiate section. 

7. In view of the comparatively short time during which most 
of the student-soldiers will remain in college and tlie exacting 
military duties awaiting them, academic instruction must neces- 
sarily be modified along lines of direct military value. The War 
Department will prescribe or suggest such modifications.- The 
schedule of purely military instruction will not preclude effective 
academic work. It will vary to some extent in accordance with 
the type of academic instruction, t.g., will be less in a medical 
school than in a college of liberal arts. 

8. The primary purpose of the Students' Army Training Corptf 
is to utilize the executive and teaching personnel and the physical 
equipment of the colleges to assist in the training of our new 
armies. This imposes g^eat responsibilities - on tlie colleges and 
at the same time creates an exceptional opportunity for service. 
The colleges are askeil to devote the whole energy and educa- 
tional power of the institution to the phases and lines of training 
desired by the Government. The proolein is a new one and calls 
for inventiveness and adaptability as well as that spirit of co- 
operation which the colleges have already so abundantly shown. 

9. The plan contemplates the making of contracts with aQ 
institutions having units of the Students Army Training Corps 
for the housing, subsistence, and instruction of the stadent- 
soldiers to take effect on or about October 1, 1918. A separate 
statement of this dr.te sets forth tlie procedure and principles 
governing these contracts. 

Perhaps with this in prevision, notable departures have bea 
ma<le by Brown, Amherst, Yale, Princeton, and other colleget^ 
Brown is to be in session throughout the year, so as to niak< 

Digitize?! by VJOVJV'-^ 




t possible for the student, if present at the summer term, to 
omplete the coarse in three years. Amherst has established a 
wo-year course which permits students to choose from the 
oll^e curriculum tboee studies that seem most desirable and 
tenencial, English and mathematics, however, bein? required the 
irst year. Princeton and Yale have established a three-year 



When, in 1914, war beean, our colleges were quick to engage 
n relief work. Harvard, Princeton, W^illiams, for instance, 
stablished ambulances in France, and the Yale Mobile Hoe- 
lital Unit was not only the first mobile medical unit organ- 
zed in America, but the first to be put into operation in 
Trance. Not a few undergraduates left colleges in the midst of 
heir courses and went into ambulance and hospital work. 
Vmerican coll^fes should be credited, too, with some of the 
inest of those spirits who dedicated their lives to the Allied 
auae of freedom before the United States entered the war — 
Hctor Chapman and Alan Seeger, of Harvard ; John McCon- 
lell, of the University of Virginia, etc. 

When, in 1917, we entered the war, our coU^aos did three 
hings: (1) They increased this relief work ; (2) many of them 
ashed to the colors ; (8) they brought about the introduction of 
(lilitaty training ifato the coU^^. 

The mcrease m ooll^fe relief work may be seen in the establish- 
aent of base hospitals. For example, iNaval Base Hospital No. 2 
) composed of the. medical faculty of Stanford University and 
he nurses from lis hospital ; Army Base Hospital No. 22 is 
mule up by the Harvard Surgical U°>t ^ No. 28 is occupied 
aoetly by Marquette University (Mjlwat^ee). men ; No. 24 is 
omposed entirely of Tulane University (New Orleans) men ; 
io. 25 was organized lately by the University of Cincmnati ; 
nd No. 26, wholly by the University of Minnesota. Laboratory 
aen for the field, evacuation, base, and mobile hospitals have 
leen trained at the Yale Medical School, the only one of its 
jnd orameoted with any university ; the only school for the 
raining of army doctors in the prevention and care of tubercu- 
3sis is at the New Haven Hospital, affiliated with Yale. 

Belief work may also be noted in the establishment of schools 
f instruction for the treatment of war fractures, giving system* 
tic instruction to rotatine classes of medical officers, like 
he school established at Tulane; or in the existing schools 
f dentistry, like those at Tulane, at Harvard, and at Mais 
uette, in which titiousands of operations have been performed 
X Axmj and Navy men without charge ; or in the medical, 
ental, and pharmaceutical schools of Temple University at 
Philadelphia and the University of Maryhuia at Baltimore, or 
I the new school of Rontgenology for medical offieers conducted 
y the Cornell University Medickl College in New York City. 


Before we entered the war a lan^e number of college men 
ad gone into the fighting forces. They had joined the Boyal 
lyin^ Coips, the Princess Patricia Regiment, the Duke of 
VeUingtons Regiment, the Black Watch, the Coldstream 
ruards, the Irish Guards, the French Fljring Legion, and the 
Ihasseurs Alpins in the British and French land and air forces. 

The fiunous Lafayette E^scadrille in French aviation work 
-as organized by two Harvard men, Norman Prince and Frazier 
!urti8, and the first graduate from an American college to fall 
as Lieutenant Wilhamson, of the Duke of Wellington's West 
Liding Regiment, also a Harvard man. 

At the outbreak of the war between America and Germany 
great group of college men, undergraduates as well as grada> 
tea and former students, rushed to the colors. After the Com- 
lencement of that year there was another rush of those who 
ad just become graduates. Of that class at Williams, for in- 
ance, there were 110 men ; of these 106 are in the service. 

Wbm the time came for the class of 1918 to graduate, it was 
rident that our colleges had lost about 25,000 students com' 
ared with the attendance the previous year. At Princeton 
[one over half of those on the rolls had gone. And not only 
lat. So many iustructots in engineering and other technical 
shools had be«n called out that it was hard to man the classes ; 

at Harvard, for example, over two himdred members of the 
teaching staff bad gone into the Natioual service. 


Our colleges did not wait for war to be declared by us to 
begin military training — ^indeed, the land-erant ooll^ies have 
always maintained it ; among others, Com^ Ruteers, Purdue, 
the Universities oi California, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Ken- 
tucky, Maine, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, Tennes- 
see, Vermont, Wisconsin, Wyoming, the Ohio State Univer- 
sity, the Pennsylvania State College, and the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology — '* Boston Tech," as it is still known,- 
and will be, despite its removal to Cambridge. t. . . . 

Our foremost military authority was the foremost propMAn- 
dist for universal military training. Like Lord Roberts ii^ Eng* 
land, so in America, General Leonard Wood had long points 
out the need of such training. He was also a particular propa- 
gandist for military training in coll^^es. In I9l8 he organized 
what became known as " Army Camps for College Students " at 
Plattsbun^, Gettysburg, and elaewhere. 

Towarcb the end of 1914 the undergpnduates at Princeton 
asked the Faculty to organize military training. After confer, 
ence with Genertu Wood, (1) a course of lectures was established 
early in 1915 on military history and policy, on the relations of 
r^fiilar forces to militia reserves, on types of ordnance, military 
map-making, military hygiene, etc., the lectures to be eiven once 
a week by officers detailed by the War Department ; {2) tactical 
excursions were started for the study of offensive and defensive 
positions at a given location, trench, bridge, and road building ; 
(8) practice in rifle shooting both on indoor and outdoor ranges 
was begun. 

On the initiative furnished by this movement, for which 
G^ieral Wood was primarily responsible, in January, 1916, 
military eetablishments were started at various colleges. At 
Harvard a r^ment was formed. It had no Government con- 
nection except that the Government famished rifles, bayonets, 
and belts. Its enrollment amounted to about a thousand men. 
At Yale, in the same month, four battalions of field artillery 
were formed and drilled. 

THK R. O. T. C , 

Five mmiths later, in order to have a eontinnal resooroe of 
officer material. Congress aathoriied the establishment at educa- 
tional institutions of units of Reserve Officers' Training Corps, 
to give training to undereraduates (while those students con- 
tinned their r^fular studied for a prescribed course of four years, 
with a weekly number of hours of military instruction, and 
under an officer of the Army, active or retired, detailed as Pro- 
fessor of Military Science and Tactics. 

The R. O. T. C. was prescribed by G^eral Order No. 49 of 
the War Department, September 20, 1916, to prepare students 
to perform the duties of commissimied officers m the United 
States military forces. Units were established at Harvard, Yale, 
Princeton, Johns Hopkins, Cornell, WiUiams, Amherst, Bow- 
doin. Trinity, Georgetown, the Catholic University of America, 
Washington and Leie, Western Reserve, Purdue, Northwestern, 
Whitman, the Universities of Iowa, Kentodcy, Maryland, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and others. 

In order to meet the War Department's reauiremmts, 
courses similar to that pursued at the Johns Hopkins Univet^ 
sity were in order. Class-room recitations in military subjects 
were required of all members of the unit. In addition, one 
military lecture was griven each week. There was instruction in 
mapping and ground problems. The entire imit drilled several 
hours a week. Credit towards graduation was given for thecourse. 

officers' trainino cahfs 
Membership in the R. O. T. C. did not exempt from the draft, 
but whenever a student was drafted, by the War Department's 
order, the Professor of Military Science and Tacticsat the student's 
college forwarded the young man's record of work to the Adjutant- 
General at Washington, with a recommendation, if such were 
deserved, that the student be admitteil to an Officers' Training 
Camp. Thus the collegian could feel that he had almost an 
assurance of a commission at the end of his course at the Officers' 
Training Camp. Should he graduate before being called to the 
colors, he automatically became either a provisional second lieu- 
Digitized by VJWVJV IV^ 



tenant or, if not actoaQy oommissioned, was placed on a list 
as eliifible for a ccnninission when more cheers were needed. 

A month after we entered the war the first Officers' Training 
Camp was established. Of the members of this camp, 284 were 
admitted from Harvard alone, other Harvard men joining the 
Naval Reserve, the Signal Corps, and other branches of tlie 
Anny and Navy. For the Officers' Training Camp the War 
Department assigned a definite ^uota of men to every ooll^re 
having a R. O. T. C. unit. For mstanoe, for the latest of me 
Offioers' Training Camps the quota for Williams men was 40 
alumni and as many undergraduates as had reached the required 
age of advancement in military preparation ; out of the 250 
men in the Williams R. O. T. C. 102 were sent. 


When we went to war, the colleges wanted to do two things : 
first, to take part in the war, and, second, to keep on with their 
work. It seemed as if these desires collided. At this juncture 
President Wilson uttered these wise words : 

It would seriously impair America's prospects of saecess in 
this war if the supply of nighly trained men were onneeessarily 
diminished. ... I therefore nave no hesitation in nrffing col- 
leges and technical schools to endeavor to maint ai n thev courses 
as far as possible on the usual basis. 

As a result coU^^ work is still being pursued, and yet mili- 
tary work has been added. For exaniple, at Amherst just after 
we entered the war no less than 425 out of 476 students were 
drilling. At Brown and other imiversities concessions were 
made. Men were excused for military or agricultural service ; 
certain requirements for a degree were waived. Throughout the 
country, indeed, while the old courses were continued, the 
college curriculum was being more and more adapted to the 
necessities of war. These necessities have made oorooll^^ 
richer in physical, mental, and spiritual life. 

The student in khaki upon the campus marks the distinction 
between the old academic days and actual military service. 
Those who are not in khaki seem the more conscious of their 
civilian clothes. At the " Boston Tech " there have been no less 
than a thousand students in uniform in attendance at the rega- 
lar studies in addition to about twelve hundred enlisted or com- 
missioned men in militafy or naval aviation schools maintained 
there for the Grovemment. 

Some collies offer courses in both military and naval sci- 
ence; for instance, Amherst, Princeton, the College of the 
City of New York, the " Boston Tech," Georgetown, Yale with 
its Naval Unit, the University of Michigan, and Harvard. At 
Harvard there are two courses, one for the members of the 
Naval Reserve and one in the Government School of Ensigns. 

Radio schools, to supply the Navy and the merchant marine 
with radio operators, have become a feature of Amherst, Cor- 
nell, the Coll^;e of the Citar of New York, Georgetown, Pratt 
Institute (Brooklyn), the University of CiJifomia, and, above 
all. Harvard, where about nine out of every ten radio operators 
employed by the Government are being trained. 

The schools of vocational tnuning indude instruction not only 
in radio work, but also in other telegraphy ; in auto-mechanics, 
in carpentry, wheelwright, and bla^smiUi work ; in electrical 
engineering ; in shoe and harness making ; in tinsmithing and 
plumbing, m road-building and concrete work ;. sometimes also 
in languages and nursing. Such schools are specially to be noted 
at Hampton and Tuskegee Institutes and Howard University 
(colored institutions), at Dartmouth, Cornell, Lehigh, Purdue, 
and Tulane Universities, at theCam^e Institute of Technology 
(Pittsburgh), and^t the Universities of Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, 
and Michigan. To some of these the Government details men 
for instruction in camps, cantonments, navy jrard and ship- 
yard work. Incidentally, what better form of- practical, general, 
technical tnuning can be found than the co-industrial plan in 
operation at the University of Cincinnati, for instance, by which 
a man spends part of his time in the university class-rooms and 
laboratories and part in applying what he has there learned 
(and, as well, earning a living) in some actual industry ? 

As to provision for college men abroad, in May, 1917, Yale 
established the Yale Bureau in Paris, from which grew the 
American University Union in Europe, now support^ by 136 
colleges, vmiversities, and technical schools, with the twofold 
objed; of helping American college men in the war service and 

of encouraging closer bonds between the American universitiet 
and those of roreign countries. 


There are now, some say, nearly two hundred thousand cd- 
l^re men — undergraduates, graduates, and former students— in 
the National war service as a whole ; that is, not only in the 
three great branches of defense (the Army, the Navy, and the 
air service), but also in those additicmal forces required by war 
work — among the scientific experts in the administration de- 
partments at Washingttm, and among the Red Cross, Y.M.C.A., 
and other recognized war workers. 

It is interesting to glance at a table of the total number d 
men from certain representative colleges in our war service 
as a whole, armed ana unarmed. The proportion in the armed 
service is, as a rule, from three to five times that of the unarmed 
service. Such statistical information, necessarily incomplete 
and sometimes misleading, is, however, suggestive. Roiijgfal; 
speaking, the totals are somewhat as follows : 


Harvard .... 

Estimated at about 

9,000 men 




6,200 « 

"Boston Tech" 



4,000 « 

Dartmouth .... 



1,900 « 




1,200 « 

Brown . ... 



1,200 « 




1,000 " 

University of Mune 



1,000 « 




800 « 

University of Vermont 



700 « 

Wesleyan .... 



700 « 

Trinity .... 



600 " 


University of Pennsylvania . 

Estunated at about 

5,500 men 

Columbia .... 



5,600 « 

Cornell .... 



6,100 " 




4,500 " 




2,400 « 
1,700 « 

University of Maryland . 



J*^ " 

Lehigh .... 



1,200 « 




800 « 



University of Michigan 

Estimated at about 

9,600 men 

« " lUinou 



4,600 " 

« " Cliicago 



4,000 « 

Ohio State University 



3,500 •* 

University of Minnesota . 



2,600 « 

" " Wisconsin . 



2,600 « 

Purdue . . . , 



2,500 « 

Indiana .... 



2,000 « 

Northwestern . 



1,800 « 

Marquette . . , 



1400 « 

University of Cincinnati . 



1,000 " 

Oberlin .... 



1,800 " 

THE ! 


University of Virginia 

Estimated at about 

2,500 men 

« « Texas . 



2,600 « 

« " Tennessee . 



1,500 " 




1,400 " 

University of Kentucky . 



1400 « 

Tulane .... 



900 « 

University of the South . 



700 " 

" " Arkansas 



700 « 

Hampton Institute . 



600 « 

Tuskegee Institute . 



400 » 



University of California . 

Estimated at about 

3,000 men 

" " Washington 



2400 « 

Stanford .... 



1,400 « 

University of Colorado 



900 *• 

« « North Dakota 



500 « 

As may be imagined, there are rival candidates among the 
colleges for the largest percentage in the war service to the total 
number of graduates and undergraduates. Among these rivals 
are Harvard, Princeton, Michigan, Williams, and the Univer- 
sity of Virginia. ^->^ » 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



I hear him laughing down the hall somewhere 
To think that any one should call him dead 
Or talk as though the best of him had fled 

To some blue haven of the upper air. 

Make no mistake. Glad, calm, and strong to bear 
Burdens, he walks these balls, high-spirited, 
With you and me in his great heart and head. 

We may not see his face ; but he is there. 

And he will still be there when you and I 
Climb feebly the long hill and turn to view 
Our gaudier grandeur and ova noisier fame. 
And see a desert ; while afar his cry 

Shakes into manhood boys he never knew 
And kindles hearts that never heard his name. 



Dear God, be near and very kind 

Unto my children fair 
Now fighting in the fields of France, 

And make plain to them there 

The truths they sensed half-shamedly 
Amid last June's bright flowers : — 

The Charter, and the faith of Joan, 
Are their trust these red hours. 

Show them they bleed for Shelley's dream. 
Fight at Burke's side for right ; 

God against demon, Milton's theme. 
They live each horror-night 

With them alone free history lives, 

Shines beauty's saving sun : 
Complete, O Lord, the teaching them 

That I had just begun ! 




f^HlTEAU THIERRY! The name has been hanging 
over the consciousness of Paris for many weeks and about 
k^_>4 it has clustered all the hopes and fears of the Allied cause. 
t seemed to us like either the first or the last syllable of 
urmageddon. The old town is only about forty miles from 
'aris, and the Huns held it in the middle of July. Chateau 
"hierry ! What would it prove to be ? Some thought only the 
:arting-point on the last lap of the Boches' journey, and then 
iie sack of the richest and fairest city in the world ! But 
Jhiiteau Thierry is on the Mame, and the Manxe has proved 
} be the River of Death to Eaiserism. On the south side of 
lie river lay more than one division of American troops — pure- 
looded, high-spirited United States men, who strained upon 
\xe leash which wise generalship imposed on them. They were 
)ld to hold the line, but they did not. The American idea of 
olding a line against the enemy is to advance and drive the 
je from his positions. That is exactly what happened — one of 
tiose splendid plus-duty affairs which history will write about 
tupidly for many a generation to come unless some poet 
ppears who loosens an epic and startles the world. 

Good fortune placed me near enough to this Getl^burg of 
lie world war to get into it. Clarence Buddington Kelland, of 
be " Saturday Evening Post," and now of uie Y. M. C. A. 
'ublicity Department, accompanied me. We had a French 
utomobile, which we loaded to capacity vrith cigarettes, gum, 
boc-olate, and tobacco. The driver was a wounded American 
}ldier wearing the Croix de Guerre who had never maiiipu- 
ited a French car before. We started out of the city on a zig- 
fig, ricocheting from almost everything we met. The time 
ras three o'clo«uc in the afternoon, and our progress for the 
ext ten hours was thick with thrills, alarms, perils, and labors. 
V^e stuck in the mud and needed a platoon of infantry to push 
s out. We ran out of gasoline, and it cost a liberal libation of 
Lmerican cigarettes to bribe a supply from a French convoy 
ommandant. Our radiator dried up, and the engine threat- 

ened to incinerate itself ; but an artiUery outfit finally furnished 
water from a swamp a fiill half-mile off the road. We got mixed 
up with a division going to the front, and had to take our place 
in a thousand slow-movmg camions. We threaded our liehtless 
way through heaps of ruins which were once respectable vil- 
lages, the only illumination being the lurid horizon, on which 
the artillery belched a dull-red fire. Kelland sat on heaps of 
tobacco and sang many popular songs in a chnrch-«hoir voice. 
I tried to forget that I was hungry, thirsty, cold, and aching 
in every joint. At 1:30 a.m. we pidled into tiie desohition which 
had once been Chateau Thier^ and found the headquarters of 
die Military Police. The M. P.'s were Philadelphia policemen 
at home, and there amid the Boche devastations we discussed 
the most baffling of all municipal themes — how not to govern 
Philadelphia on civilized lines ; and the Vares and McNichols 
and Penroses and the Wanamakers and the Rittenhouse Square 
accessories would have been amazed and somewhat pained to 
have heard what we said about them in the early morning 
drizzle with the German rear-guard guns punctuating our 

Why do Americans persbt in differentiating between the 
German military caste and the Crerman people? They were 
ordinary Boche regiments which held Chateau Thierry, and 
when their evacuation of the place became obviously necessary 
they set about to destroy and poUute everything within reach. 
Remember, this is not hearsay ; I went into Chateau Thierry 
on the heels of the American advance and saw things with my 
own eyes. Every vandalistic^Hunninh, fiendish, filthy thing that 
men could do these Huns wi in Chateau Thierry just before 
they left. The streets were littere<l with the private possessions 
of Uie citizens thrown through the windows ; every bureau and 
chiffonier drawer was rifled and its contents destroyed ; in 
the better-class houses the paintings were ripped and the china 
and porcelain smashed ; furniture was broken or hacked ; mir- 
rors were shivered into a thousand fragments ; mattresses and 

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11 Septet 

upholstery were slashed ; richly bound books were ripped ; in 
fact, there was hardly a thing in the city left intact. The houses 
of the poor, in which the Gemuin privates had been billeted, 
were just as badly pillaged and devastated as the homes of the 
well-to-do. The church, grrand enough for a cathedral, had not 
been spared. Its paintings and altars and crucifixes and sta- 
tions of the cross had been ruthlessly battered and defiled. Yet 
even this does not tell the story — a story which cannot be told 
to people who respect decency — for the Germans left tokens of 
physiod and mental obscenity in every house I visited, and 1 
entered scores. If all hell had been let loose in a choice suburban 
town for half a day, it could not have put its obscene and dia- 
bolical mark on a place more unmistakably than the Germans 
put theirs on Chateau Thierry. I stood amazed that there could 
be so much unrelieved vileness, such organized beastliness, in 
the world. 

This brings me to the question of how the Allied nations feel 
towards Germairy — a question which I have been at no usual 
pains to study. France is the most difficult to describe. In the 
main the French are in the struggle to free the northern part 
of their land from a devouring monster. They are too busy in 
self-defense to indulge in moral psychology. Wherever the Ger- 
man foot has trod there is nothing left but ruin ; not an object 
of art or a subject of sentiment has been spared. They are hold- 
ing back a monster which is trying to ravish and rape them, 
and they fight with a mingled sense of fear and horror, which 
is shot through with a vivid consciousness of personal and na- 
tional honor, innocence, and righteousness. The British are some- 
what different. They have a feeling that their incomparable 
navy protects them, and that their land fighting is an over-plus 
c(Hitribution to the general cause of decency and civilization. 
It would not be true to say that the average Britisher hates the 
Germans ; rather he looks upon them as an unexpectedly hor- 
rible atavism, a frightful blend of tiger, snake, and ape, an ex- 
aggerated type of Caliban, a section of tite human family which 
has become physically, socially, and morally insane — a something 
repulsive, loathsome, foul, dangerous, and racially fratricidu 
which must be curbed at any cost. The British do not hate the 
German ; they simply vomit lead into them whenever possible 
because of utter disgust. Our Americans are in another class. 
Thus far our knowledge of German brutality and villainy has 
been somewhat remote, except for the troops that have seen 
such sights as they and I saw together in Chateau Thierry and 
the adjacent villages and towns. Americans despise the Germans 
as men who do not know how to play fair or fight clean or keep 
tiie common covenants of civiliisation. Hence we still hold the 
crusading spirit. We fight as the saviors of our gallant allies, 
who need help after four years of struggle against prostituted 
science and skill. Our Army has a mission, a sacred missicm, 
and from the officer in command down ^ the lowliest enlisted 
man there is a feeling of dedication. They are all fighting for a 
cause, and each is the champi<m of all that is fine and h^y and 
worth-while in the world. Later, after closer contact with the 
Hun, something more bitter or repugnant may enter into the 
feelings of the Army ; but the present mood is so sublime and 
vicarious and stem that it assures victory. 

But to come back to Chateau Thierry. Kelland and I dropped 
onto a mattress in a looted and wretched bedroom and slept 
until morning. (This was the first of several nights through 
which I slept in my uniform and boots.) The battle was on a 
conflict which many believe to be the turning-point of the ^ar. 
It was also the first time in which division after division of 
American fighting men were thrown into the fray. But a battle 
which is being waged over a front of seventy or eighty kilome- 
ters, which lasts for weeks and engages hundreds of thousands 
of men, cannot be described by any one correspondent. Fortu- 
nately, I am not accounted a war correspondent, and therefore 
may evade the main issues. After three hours' sleep in the 
wrecked cottage, we had breakfast in a shell-mined garden. A 
good breakfast it was, too — coffee, pancakes, and strips of bacon, 
not served with Ritz finesse, but grabbed by healdiy, hungry 
men who were glad to eat it standing. 

Just when I nad finished that rough but wholesome repast a 
wet, muddy, disheveled, but jaunty figure in khaki hove in 
sight. The wings on his blouse left no doubt as to his unit. 

" Where in the devil am I ?" he asked. 

" Chateau Thierry," I replied. 

" Thought I was safe," he said. "■ Saw a blue car, and kw 
the French were around. . . . Afraid at first I hadlude 
inside the Boche lines. . . . Got mixed up in the doods u 
had to land in a potato-field across the nver . . . waded i 
stream. . . . Must telephone back to headquarters. Where 
the nearest station ? . . . Thanks, I'll be back for some cofp 
in a few minutes. . . . Think I can get the machine up agii 
later in the day. . . . Need some gas — that's alL" 

He was only a boy, but self-possessed and master of himst 
to the utmost degree. His sangfroid was perfectly oharmingi 
thegray dawn of the morning. 

Then we found the Y. M. C. A. attached to the Din 

ion. Although it was only 6 AM., every man — there were sete 
or eight secretaries — yraa already up and shaved and at w«d 
Their unit was moving to the extreme front that day, and. I 
rare g^ood luck, it was a unit in which I had served as chaplii 
Many of the officers knew me personally, and accepted meviii 
out question as a part of the outfit. This gave me a chance i 
see everything that was worth seeing in the way of war. I at 
had some supplies of cigarettes, tobacco, chocolate, and chewii 
gniin left, but I was able to secure more fro;n the Y. M. C. i 
stores, which had kept contact with the moving troops. At i 
point I picked up Francis B. Sayre, President Wilson's soih 
W, and E. Harold Cluett, of the Y. M. C. A. War W« 

Council, and under the guidance of Colonel , the DivisM 

quartermaster, we started together for the sanguinary 

The story of our journey is altogether too gruesome to 
As we passed along roads and through fields we saw 
which will haunt me till my dying day — dead Germans in 
grotesque posture, just as tney ff£ ; an American soldier by 
roadside with his head blown utterly to pieces ; the abanda 
arms and clothing of soldiers littered everywhere ; grouiMi 
our own wounded and rassed boys, to wh<Mn we gave such on 
fort of cigarettes or dioocdate as the medical orderlies wa 
permit ^ torn battalions or decimated platoons halted i« 
moment and again moving into action ; a wdl-known Yale n 
lete carrying out urgent and perilous tasks in the intelliga 
department ; convoy carrying food and ammuniti(Hi forwud 
spite of heartbreaking difficmties ; and, last of all, a madiii 
gun battalion holding the last edge of woods between the Affi 
and the German forces. No <me could go any Luther to t 
front than we were at that moment. We were in the van of a 
of the bitterest battles of the war — the fight that was to dii 
the Boche out of the Soissons-Rheims salient, deliver Fu 
and teach the Hun once for all that America was to be the it 
sive factor in the struggle. In those fateful woods Sayre, 
and I had a supper which will tell its own story. We 
roast beef (really tender), hot macaroni, boiled pota 
and jam, and coffee. It was all well cooked and we 
than enough. Will the dear, coddled, secure, and war-t«C| 
ing American at home reinember that this is how we T"^ 
of our fiehting men who are within range of German 
guns and rifles ? Of course there are instances where 
troops outrun their field kitchen and suffer — I found 
had not seen food for forty-eight hours during the awfoL 
of an attack — but such cases are not the rule. 

We gave away our supplies to men who hardly had 
smile in return ; we spoke words of cheer and enooui 
to those who had looked death in the face and whose 
on the verge of eternity ; we talked of loved ones and 
when such heavens and havens seemed the most remote 
in the universe ; we offered our friendly services to hi 
boys who never expected to see another friend on earth 
gratified though they all were, they took it for gfranted 
we wore the i. M. C. A. badge, and the Y. M. C. A. men 
always in the van of the advancing army where the soldi 
need friendship and comradeship. 

But let me tell one story of this terrible experience witii 
machine-gun company on the edge of the woods. 
Y. M. C. A. had no other testimony to offer in evidence 
confidence our soldiers have in its integrity and effici( 
would be enough, more than enough. In the twilight an enlL- 
man walked up to me with perfect confidence, pointed to I 
red triangle on my arm and said, in broken English : 

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'' Maybe I get killed, like the others ; you send my money to 
ly moUier?" 

I asked him where his mother lived, and he replied, "^ Metilin, 
I Greece." 

It seemed a long cry, but I promised, hoping that some way 

might be able to get the money through. 

He disappeared, and in less than ten minutes returned with 
Ight hundred and fifty francs in French currency and one 
undred and eighty dollars in American bills. 

After receiving the treasure I began to write a receipt, when 
je man said:" No bother about receipt. You Y. M. C A." 

When I returned to Chateau Thierry, still under bombs and 
^ a wild welter of surging French and American troops, the 
'. M. C. A. financial secretary took the money as calmly as if 
B had been a Wall Street or Broad Street banker, saying : " All 
ight; I'll send a receipt to the company commander and 
lansmit the amount to Greece, through Paris, by the next 

Of coarse there were casualties in Chateau Thierry and to 
le north. The Allies could not wipe out that impertinent and 
udacious salient between Soissons and Rheims without paying 
>11. Chateau Thierry had several field hospitals, at least one 
>r each division engaged. Francis Sayre and I worked in one 
F them, and particularly with the men who were being carried 
1 from the ambulances. They came in a sickening stream ; 
Dctors, orderlies, and stretcher-bearers were tired out and were 
orking on their nerve ; the patients ranged all the way from 
lattered and perishing hulks of humanity to slightly gassed 
ises and mere flesh wounds. Every one was too busy to answer 
aestions, so we read the dressing station tags tied to the patients 
id avoided giving cigarettes to the gas cases. How wonderful 
lese men were I As we lit a cigarette in our own lipe and put 

between the lips of the wounded man he looked his gratitude 
tr more eloquently than words could have fashioned. Only 
ice, and that in the surgical ward, did we hear a cry from 
lose broken men, and then it was a dying boy who sighed with 
is last breath, " Mother, oh, mother I" 

Far spent and on the verge of nerve collapse, Sayre and I 
imed away and walked silently back to the x . M. C. A. The 
in teen was in a stately mansion, or what once had been a 
ately mansion before the dastardly Hun had blasted its beauty. 
I the courtyard and iai out into the street there stretched an 
>parently endless line of men awaiting their turn to get to the 
iimtLT. After the fttoilkss (l;iys aiul bedU-ss ni^'hts and bloody 
ittles all they asked '9^^ package of cigarettes, a square of 
lewing tobacco, a baf«J^chocolate, or a quarter of a ix)uiul of 

crackers ; they were willing to stand in line for one or two 
hours for the privilege of making that simple purchase ; they 
were as quiet and oraerly as if tl^y had been entering church. 
Then darknww felL In one sense it was a mercy, for the 
Y. M. C. A. canteen men were ready to drop from utter weari- 
ness ; in another sense it was a tragedy, because several hundred 
war-weary and nerve-spent men couldnotbuy what they wanted 
most. Then it was that the spirit and the mission of the 
Y. M. C. A. were revealed ; in order to give no guidance to the 
Boche airplanes lights were not allowed in Chateau Thierry 
and the secretaries could not see to sell or to make change. So 
they solved the problem by walking down the long waiting line 
widi baskets, and giving, absolutely free, to each man what he 
wanted most — cigarettes, tobacco, sweet biscuits, or chocolate. 
Then the line mdted away. It was a very fine thing and typifies 
the spirit of the Y. M. C. A. When the men have money and 
time to purchase commodities, the Y sells what they need at 
reasonable rates ; when the moment of extremity comes, par- 
ticularly at the front, and our fighting men have no chance to 
buy, then the Y g^ves everything away, without question of creed 
or race ; and that is perhaps the noblest of all its noble work. 

I am finishing this article in the refined security of a Paris 
hotel looking out across the beautiful Tuileries gardens — 
thanks to the brilliant counter-offensive of the united Allied 
forces. For the first time in many da3rs I have changed my 
clothes, washed my body, and slept upon a bed. As I look back 
I ask myself what impressed me most, what seemed the gp^atest 
thing I had seen in ail the phases of the terrific battle ; and I 
answer without hesitation, the unselfishness and valor of the 
Y. M. C. A. men. They were either too old to fight or were 
physically incapacitated, yet they had crossed the ocean to 
huce the hazards of war out of sheer love for the imperiled 
cause or for the cheer and comfort of the fighting men of our 
Army ; they asked for no financial returns and looked for no 
badges of glory ; but wherever the danger was the greatest or 
the opportimity for service the most obvious I found them — 
bankers, stock-brokers, preachers, university professors, mano. 
factorers, professional men — working cheerfully, radiantly, 

gtrsistently, and seeking neither pnuse nor reward. It was tiie 
loria in Exoelsis of humanity. There may be defects in the 
administration of the Y. M. C. A. ; it may rest upon a narrow 
theological foundaticm, and may make unreasonable* exclusions 
at home.; it may admit small men now and then to its personnel ; 
but at the battle-front, wliere our soldiers are fifjliting and dying 
for all that our hearts hold dear, the Y. M. C. A. is a blazing, 
glorious, unmistakable evidence of the presence of God. 

DTOORAFH Sr *. H. OURMtr, AMtltlGAN r. 

liu U joat a part of the liDe waiting tli«ir turn to get up to the counter of the canteen which the T. M. C. A. opened in a chfttenu in CliSleau Thierry within twent^- 
mr boon aftertbe entrance of the Krauco-Araerican troups. The line wiw unbmkHD frum 9:M in the morning until H iit nii;lit. wiili an buur out (ur " eau." Thia 

waa on* of the Tery few bouiea left intact in Chiteao Tbietry, but ita cuntenta hud bveu di»truyed . ^-^ T ^^ 

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Hospital ships are beginning to bring back to us the victims of the war — men who have been glassed, men who have lost arms or le; 
who have become blind, or who in other ways have suffered disabilities which will make them temporarily at least nnable to engage 
oseful work. To enable these men to become again nseful members of society, self-supporting and self-respecting, is one of the g^reate 
gations resting on the people of this country, for whose sake these courageous men have suffered disablement and mutilation. The fo 
accponts of men, some of them civilians and some soldiers, who have " made good " in the face of dire misfortune ought to prove it 
both to otir wounded men who may chance to read them and to the educators whose work may concern itself with the restoration 
crippled men who are certain to come under their care in ever-increasing numbers. In the first article Mr. Lacy Simms, Superinten 
Schools in Otero County, New Mexico, tells how he became self-supporting and the support of a family of seven, though handieapp 
the loss of both hands. In the second article Mr. F. H. Potter tells of Italian work for mutilated soldiers, giving some striking exan 
men who have done fine things as a result of their new training. In the third article Mr. James J. Wilson tells his own story of b« 
his life over ag^ain after an accident, his remarkable account being vouched for by Dr. R. L. Cameron, chief surgeon of the Republic 
Company of Youngstown, Ohio, with which company the young man was employed at the time of the accident. — Thk Editobs. 





AT the age of six I lost both hands by having them 
mangled m a cotton gin. They were amputated immedi- 
ately, about half-way between the wrist joint and the 
elbow. Before the arms healed and the stitches were removed 
I had already learned to use my feet well enough to play mar- 
bles and to put my hat on and off with them. When I wanted 
to do a thing, I never failed to try to do that thing at onoe, 
and in most things I have finally succeeded, and am still learn- 
ing to do things at the age of thirty-one. 

As soon as my arms healed I b^an to use them at once, 
learning rapidly from the start to do most of the things I wanted 
to do, and I soon forgot I didn't have hands, until one day, at 
the ace of thirteen, because of the curiosity of other people, 
I held my arms in front of a mirror, and then, apparently 
for the first time, realized that I was different from ottiers. 

For some reason, I was, permitted, while quite young, to 
visit away from home a great deal, and this ixxk me awav 
from the home folk, who were inclined to help me too much 

nibly, and threw me on my own responsibility and resources. 
1 trace many of my attempts and successes to this. " Neces- 
sity is the mother of invention " and " Where ihen is a will 
there is a way " are possibly the world's greatest success axioms. 

I started to school at the age of eight, did just what the otiier 
children did at games and in books, and soon learned to write 
with the pen or pencil held between two stubs (arms) and with 
no other help. 

The necessity for further self-dependence increased when 
I was sent away to a boarding-school at the i^e of fourteen. 
After three years there I came home and taught school in an 
adjoining neighborhood. 

After one year of teaching I finished two more years of 
academic work, and took a course in bookkeeping and other 
commercial studies, including shorthand, but no typewriting. 
Later I kept my father's medical accounts. 

Some months after this my father, a- practicing physician and 
surgeon in eastern Texas, lost his health, and our family came 
to New Mexico in 1905. Since that time I have taught in the 
public schools, done general work on a farm ranch, gardening, 
pruning trees, and irrigating. Hav& carried the mail for Uncle 
Sam on horseback, and finally became county superintendent 
of schools in 1909 for three years, having been the main sup- 
port of the family of seven for seven years. 

Having realized my need for further education, at the end of 
my first term as county superintendent I refused to be a can- 
didate again, took what money I had, borrowed $800 more, 
went to Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio, and graduated from 
the four-year A. B. course in three and one-half years, major- 
ing in sociology, with a minor in education. In college I worked 


for part of my expenses by mowing lawna, anlimtitig dxi 
ing, selling books, etc. It wasn't easy to maintain mj 
8(£ool and keep a $6,000 endowment insurance pud u] 


now, three years or less since graduation, I have re 
borrowed money and have increased my insurance. 

During the first year after graduation I served aa < 
ment secretary and educational director of the Akroi 
Y. M. C. A. I resigned from the work voluntarily 1 

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with more preparation and wider experience, I felt that I could 
return to my home cotmty and get our ruial schools out of a 
rut. Thus I am a^in county superintendent of schools. 

If there should ever be any reason why I should not do 
educational work, 1 know that I could make my living as a 

Srdener or florist, or, with capital, could become a successfid 

These are a few of the things I can do when necessary or do 
all the time : 

Thread a needle, sew on buttons, pick up a pin* or a dime 
from the floor, take my purse from my pocket and make change, 
go to market and bring as many bundles as the next one, work 
the combination on the lock box at the post office, play the 
piano, use the typewriter (slowly), dress myself completely, 
lacing and buttoning my shoes, buttoning all buttons except 
my collar button, imdress with no help at all, eat with no help, 
using all eating utensils, blaclc my shoes, shave mj'self with 
safety or ordinary razor, sweep the floor, build a fire, press 
clothes, and, in short, I have done and do the usual things of 
life, even to marrying a wife. 

I have never before been persuaded to write or tell even a 
few of the things I have here Mrritten, and do it now only in 
the hope that the information or suggestions may help restore 
men to usefulness during and after the war. 

I am in hopes, too, that I may be able to be of further ser- 
vice to our handicappe<1 men, since I cannot g^ into the trenches. 
(But this reminds me to say that I hunt with rifle or shotg^m. 
Last season I killed two wild turkeys with a .22 rifle.) 

In addition to my genera/ interest in re-education and reha- 
bilitation, let me say that I have two brothers in the war, one in 
France in ambulance work and the other on a destroyer, either 
one of whom may need just such help in case he is wounded. 

I would like to say, in conclusion, that the psychological ele- 
ment' has been the deciding favorable condition in my life. 
Whether this mental attitude,, which I have always had, is due 
more largely to things inborn or to the mental environment 
which my parents kept me in is hard to say. 

I have never had any doubt but that 1 could be useful to 
the world and achieve a fair degree of what is called success. 
This is due, no doubt, in some measure to the fact that, in 
all my parents' planning for me and my future, they planned 
for my success, and never in my presence, or otherwise, I 
think, expressed any doubt that I would be useful as o^er 
men are. 

Believing in the importance of the belief of others in me, and 
the consequent self-confidence so derived, I hold that the verr 
first step m the rehabilitation of disabled soldiers is psychologi- 
cal — to drive out the '^ I-am-ruined, I-am-helpless, What-in-tne 
world-will-I-do " idea. This must be supplanted with " OtJiers 
have done. Others are doing, I shall, do." 

Some may not need to get a new psycholiw^cal attitude, and 
for such, opportunity, together with mechanical helps, perhaps, 
will be all they will need. For such, no doubt, it will be suffi- 
cient that each one shoidd know just what hundreds and thou- 
sands similarly disabled are doing. Then Uiey will attempt, and 
with perseverance will succeed. 



HE had been blinded at the taking of Oorizia^ and the 
Italian King, Victor EnAnanuel III, stood by his bedside 
holding his liand. 

"Neither I nor the country will ever forget the sacrifice 
which you have made." 

" Ah, Sire," replied the soldier, turning his sightless face to 
the King with a smile, " my blindness does not make me so 
unhappy as you might think, for my eyes are still filled with 
a great light which will never fade, because of the last thing 
wUch they saw — the Austrians running away." 

How much do most Americans know about Italians, any- 
how ? We see them coming and going from their work, with 
their picks and shovels over their shoulders. Few of us can 
speak even a few words of their language, so we are utterly 
unable to know what they are thinking or how they feel ; and 
we call them " Wops " and " Dagoes " and " Guineas," and let 
it go at that. We complain that they have a Camorra, a Mafia, 
a Black Hand. The Camorra is simply the Tammany Hall of 
Naples, though it plays for smaller stakes. The Black Hand is 
nothing but a band of Italian criminals, like our gunmen. The 
name is not even Italian ; it was invented by a New York 
journalist. The Mafia is a great secret society which extends 
over the whole of Sicily. Marion Crawford, who studied Sicily 
profoundly, believed it to be the descendant of one of the secret 
societies formed by the Greeks after the Roman conquest to 
keep alive the feeling of Greek uationalitv and loyalty. 

How many of us know of the debt which we owe to Italy — 
no less a thing than the victory of the Mame ? Italy had been 
the ally of Germany and Austria, and in 1914 France had to 
fear an attack on her southern lx)rder. It was not till Italy had 
assured France that she would at least remain neutral that 
Joffre dared to withdraw from the Italian frontier trooijs 
enough to enable him to win the battle of the Mame. If it had 
not been for this assurance, the German campaign would have 
proceeded as per schedule, and what might nave happened ia 
too horrible to contemplate. 

Do we know that the refugees from the provinces occupied 
by the Austrians and the people who stayed behind in them 
have snffereil as much as the Belgians and the inhabitants of 
northern France? It is a delusion to think that the Anstrians 
are less cruel than the Germans ; the history of Italy for the 

last hundred years proves that if the German is a brute the 
Austrian is a brute too, and a meaner one than the German. 

The poor refugees and the inhabitants of the occupied dis- 
tricts have had no one to make the eloquent appeals for them 
which were made for Belgium and France. Italy herself has 
gone on caring for them, and, though she is not a rich country, 
she has shouldered the burden in silence, heavy as it is. 

How many of us know that the Italian is the most responsive 
human being in the world ? If you don't believe this, the next 
time you meet an Italian laborer on the road smile at him and 
say, ^''Btion giomo." You need not be afraid of being misun- 
derstood ; it is the friendly custom of his country, as it used to 
be in the rural districts here. And I will wager a subscription 
to The Outlook that if you do it as if you meant it you will get 
back an answering smile which will surprise yon by the way it 
changes that laborer's face. But it must oe done as if you meant 
it. Five and twenty years ago Queen Victoria used to spend the 
winters in Florence. She used to drive out in a little victoria — 
did it get its name because she loved it ? — preceded by a single 
outrider. As she passe<1, every one wotUd turn and raise his hat. 
But the old lady was not always gracious in bowing back, and 
one day two peasants, outraged by a particularly curt nod, or 
perhaps none at all, ran out into the middle of the road and 
shook their fists after the carriage, and one called out, " You 
ought to go to our queen and learn how to be polite to poor 
people." Queen Margherita's bow, even to strangers, was a 
marvel. She would lean forward and smile, and her face would 
light up as if to say, " Why, where have you been all this 
time ? It's 80 nice to see you back." 

You have heard a lot about the Caporetto disaster. Do you 
know that that was the result of sheer ignorance ? With devU- 
ish ingenuity the Austrians selected a section of the line which 
was manned by elderly men — second-line troops — and showered 
it with fake copies of Italian paiiers which said that peace woidd 
soon be det^lared ; and the iwor Italians believed it. So, when the 
Austrians apjiearetl, crying out, " Peace has tiome," they let them 
into their trenches, and then the Austrians bayoneted them. 
There was nolnxly to imdeceive tlie poor men. An Italian gen- 
eral told the iShufaro (mayor) of Rome that if the American 
Y. M. C. A. had been on that front the disaster woid«I never 
have hapi)ene<L Our men would have " put them wise :" and 

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11 September 


that their own officers did not do so gave rise to some very ugly 
charges which it is not necessary to repeat here. 

Do you think that the Italians like to be ignorant? No, 
indeed. Let me tell you the stories of two soldiers. One man, a 
shepherd, who before the war was not able even to read, was 
blinded. In the hospital they b^ah to educate him and to train 
him in something wnich would enable him to earn his living. 
One day he was overheard saying to a comrade that he wouM 
rather have knowledge and inner vision than eyes blinded by 

There was another, a Sardinian peasant, who had lost his left 
arm and 1^ and three fingers of his right hand. It had been 
his dream from childhood to go to school, but he had never been 
able to. He said to one of his teachers, "• The loss of my arm 
and 1^ has been the best thing which ever happened to me, 
for in compensation I have realized my dream." In a year he 
learned to read and write and typewrite, so that he can earn a 
livelihood, and, in addition, he has developed such an inventive 
faculty that he has been able to devise an artificial hand for a 
violinist who had lost his own, and now that man can play in an 
orchestra and earn his living too. The Italian peasant does not 


hug his ignorance ; he laments it, and is only too grateful for a 
chance to learn. 

The Italians have developed wonderful schools where these 
mtUilati are taught useful occupations. The men learn cob- 
bling, basket-making, tjrpewriting, telegraphing — a hundred 
different trades — each man that for which ne is b^t fitted. The 
blind, in particular, invent new and wonderfully graceful forms 
of baskets. Don't you want to help these m&a who face their 
misfortune so galUmtly, you who read this? If you do, send 
what you can spare to Mr. Alessandro Oldrini, in care of the 
Guaranty Trust Company, 613 Fifth Avenue, New York City, 
for the American Committee in Aid of the Italian Refugees 
and the Soldiers Crippled in War, and every dollar of it will be 
wisely spent. Italy is doing what she can, but she cannot do it alL 

A beraagliere had lost one 1^, but had learned to ride a 
bicycle, and was employed as a despatch-bearer. In an Austrian 
attack he was wounded to death, and as he fell he raised him- 
self up, hurled the crutch which he carried on his wheel in the 
faces of the approaching Austrians, and fell back dead. Are 
not such soldiers as this worth helping ? And is it not time for 
us to pay some of the debt which we owe to their country ? 



WHILE employed by a rubber company in the spring of 
1916 my hands were caught in a large roller and badly 
crushed. I was taken to a hospital, and there it was 
found necessary to amputate the left nand two inches above 
the wrist. The right hand was in a serious condition, but at the 
time of the accident it was thought that the hand might be 
saved. In the course of time the hand became infected with 
gangrene, and it was necessary to amputate the digits. After 
the latter opei-atiou the remaining palm gradually healed, but 
to assist nature in her work skin-grafting was necessary. 

As the result of the operation, I was left with a badly muti- 
lated stump on my right hand and a stump on my left arm with 
which to perform my daily duties, I might be expected to be 
discouraged under such circumstances ; but, partly by studying 
the hospital life about me, and partly by setting my mind on 
some small task, such as trying to hold a pipe with my stumps 
and succeeding only after many tiresome attempts, I ceased 
paying much attention to my affliction. Then I set about over- 
coming the many difficulties before me. I did this with high 
hopes, and forgot to a great extent that I had met with a 

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Berioos misfortune. After five months I left the boepital and 
began my new life in the world at the age of nineteen. 

1 had many things to learn, but as I overcame my difficulties 
1 found myself gaining skill and ooniidenoe. I worked out a 
system for learning my many tasks by taking one simple thing 
Bit a time and working on it until I could do that single opera- 
tion perfectly, regardless of the time it would take to learn it. 
1 was baffled for nearly three months in my attempt to fasten 
my collar, but finally, with the aid of a button-hook, I mastered 
the task. That was the greatest achievement in my life, and I 
shall never forget how happy I was when I could button my 
eoUai as rapidly as I had in the days before the accident. Tying 
my tie was another serious difficulty, but a month after I had 
learned to button my collar I had tbe right twist and turns for 
the necktie. How -happy I was when I reached the milestones 
in my journey to independence I I had a special reason for 
wanting to learn these things, for my mother had promised 
to send me to a boarding-school as soon as I ooidd dress 

I now turned my attention to eating and serving myselt at 
the home table and in pulolic restaurants. I could not hold a 
knife or fork satisfactonly until I had a lucky thought. While 
in the hospital I had held my fork in the folds of the dressing. 
I recalled that idea, and now I thought of utilizing the leather 
covering that I had been wearing on my right hand. I had a 
little pocket sewed onto the mitten about the width of an ordi- 
nary fork handle. This was a decided improvement over the 
use of the hospital bandage. I now could cut meat, as the knife 
was held rigid in place, but the main use of the pocket was the 
holding of a fork. 

There were a great many tasks I had to learn to perform. 
For instance, I had difficulty in taking money from my pocket- 
book, until I hit on the idea of carrying it in a long wallet in 
my inside coat pocket. Then I could push the pocketbook 
upwards so that I could reach it with my teeth. The money may 
be returned to the pocket in the same manner — that is, by hold- 
ing it with the teetib and drawing the coat and then letting the 
puTse slide back into the pocket. 

Another idea came to me, and that was a way to use a razor. 
I purchased a safety razor, taking care to select one having a 
handle that would fit tight into the pocket of the mitten. I now 
can use a safety razor as well as if I had hands. 

My mind was now directed towards an education, and, as I 
was perfectly capable of taking care of myself, I prepared to 
enter a boaiding-school. 

There was a great problem on my mind which seemed very 
hard to solve, but after a little study I succeeded. I wanted a 
simple device with which I could write rapidly and easily. 

I experimented in many ways until I thought of a device that 
has proved nearly perfect. A piece of aluminum was fitted to the 
palm of my right Land, about 4% inches in length. Then it was 
bent around die end of the stump so that a swivel could be 
attached which, when in position, would be near the top of 
the hand. The construction of the swivel was very simple. It 
consisted of a small rectangular-shaped piece of aluminum, 
about 1% inches in length and % mch square. Inside the 
box were two springs slightly oval in shape when fitted in 
place. A pen or pencU inserted in the box could be held at 
any angle. £ither pen or pencil could easily be inserted er 
removed. I inserted the pen by placing it on the desk or by 
holding it with my teeth. To remove the pen I would hold 
it with my teeth and pull it out in that manner. 

Now that I had a device to use, the next thing was to learn 
to write with it. That kept me busy for some time, but after 
practicing an hour or more each day for about a month I finally 
succeeded. Although it was very tedious, I found out that the 
time spent in teachmg myself to write has paid me many times 

I was encouraged much more after I had learned to write. 

and I began to get ready to enter schooL In order to be effi- 
cient in all things that were necessary to perform each day, I 
began to practice everything that was of importance to me. I 


tied my tie several times each day. I also wrote an hour or 
two more than I had been in the habit of doing. In fact, I 
did everything that would aid me when I was dependent on 

In September, 1917, at the age of twen^, I entered Phillips 
Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, where I have been studying 
entirely alone and without assistance, except that I have my meat 
cut in the school dining- halL I also do the work that is required 
of a student taking the reg^ular Latin course. I am in no way 
troubled about writing, and it gives me a great deal of pleasure 
to be able to keep up with the other students. 

As a result of my experience, I wish to send words of cheer 
to all who find themselves placed in a similar position, whether 
from injuries received in battle or in an industrial plant. It is 
a great misfortune to be deprived of limbs or eyes, but if every 
person thus handicapped will think only of the opportunities, 
and not of his handicap, and most of all keep up his courage by 
constantly training himself for the duties of life, he will before 
long find that he is independent and self-supporting. Now that 
I have learned what I can do for myself, I am anxious to help 
others who are still held back by their infirmities. 

If any one wishes such information as I can give, I shall be 
very glad indeed to answer any questions. At first the tasks 
seem very difEcult, but after a short time they gradually grow 
easier until no effort is required to perform them. If those who 
have met with misfortune will think of the world as a very 
cheerful place, they will soon find it so, and wiU pay very little 
attention to their handicaps. 

Vonngstown, Uhio. 

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F)R every effort there laust be' some incentiye. Part of 
the business of the teacher, the parent, any one, in fact, 
who has responsibility for the management of children or 
young people, is to provide pr6]per incentive for learning. If the 
mcentives are simply temporary — such as the desire to avoid 
immediate trouble or puniMunent or humiliation — the quality 
of the work that the boy or ?irl does will be different from 
that which is done under anoUter kind of incentive. The tech- 
nical term used by teacbera td designate the art of supplying 
the right kind of incentive tJr motive for study is " motivation. ' 

If I understand the term properly, motivation may be said 
to mean the making of school work significant to those who 
attend schooL It is the putting of content, meaning, and 
value for students into the school work done by students. Mo- 
tivation has to do with the articulating of subject-matter to the 
experiences, the questions, the desires, of those studying. In 
motivation the pupil, his attitude, his interests, his motives, his 
problems, and his usefulness in society are the primary consid- 
erations. The pupil's work is motivated whenever he sees a real 
use in it, whenever it satisfies some need he feels. In motivating 
sch mH worfc-i t is the teacher^ tmsiness to supply desirable and 
adequate motives. And moth«ns more tiian mcentive and more 
than interest, though there can be no motive without incentive 
and interest. Motive impels the pupil to self-expression and 
self-realization. Motivated ' school work allows no quarter to 
meaningless reciting. Motivated work never crushes the pupil, 
never discourages fim, &n4 never drives him out of school. And 
the teacher who believes in motivated work consciously teaches 
his subject in terms of its value to the individual taught and in 
terms of its value to society. Non-motivated work is useless 
work. More than that, it is highly damaging to both teacher 
and pupil. It prevents the teacher from booming his best and 
leads the pupil into habits of inattention and dishonesty, and 
to an utter dislike of school work. The arch-enemy of motivated 
work is the smug satisfaction and the smug complacency of 
teachers and of school oflicials concerning the value of work 
done according to traditiolial, academic, and formal methods. 
And it is only logical to add that no one can truly lay claim to 
being an educator or a first-class teacher who does not possess 
the experimental attitude and who does not actually experiment. 

There are many different ways of looking at the motivating 
of work in history. It would be quite proper to say that history 
study is motivated if the pupil is led to see that he should study 
history so that he may stand at the head of his class in scholar- 
ship, that he may win a prise, that he may hold public office, 
that he may become a better conversationalist, that he may be 
known as the best-informed person in town in history, that he 
may enter college more easily. His study is motivated, too, if 
he becomes interested in the study of history just because it is 

But, for my part, I have no desire to discuss motivation in 
the study of histo^ on any such grounds, no matter how worthy 
such grounds are in the opinion of others. To me such motives 
are entirely miworthy the study of history. They are ephemeral. 
They are not significant enough. They stand for too little. And 
they can't make of the young citizen what ought to be and can 
be made of him for a democracy. 

If the teacher of history is to make the teaching of history 
perform its true function and truly motivate the study of his- 
tory, he should consider hisihfstory class-room a democratization 
fac^tory. By this I mean that he will render his pupils demo- 
cratic. And this, in turn, means that the pupil is letl to appreci- 
ate how democracy has come to be, what it now is, what its 
fundamental problems are, what his personal relation thereto is, 
and what his function therein is. And withal this means that 


the study of history is not truly motivated unless and until thi 
pupil by such study has been developed into a thinker and no^ 
mto a mere believer. 



But such a conception of motivating the study of hiator 
depends upon the teacher's conception of the meaning of educa 
tion, his conception of history itself, and his conception of wh; 
and how history should be taught. 

The history teacher's conception of education must b 
freighted with meaning for surpassing the idea that it is " nice 
to be " educated," that it is the tmng that is expected to b 
done, that pupils will have a better standing in " society " i 
they are educated. No. The history teacher will view educ; 
tion as the key to Rationed development, as the channel throng 
which to instill in young citizens a National spirit, as the mean 
by which the needs of the pupil are linked up with the need 
of the community, as the avenue by which pupils becom 
acquainted with cil^. State, and National ideals and activitie 
as the opportunity to build up within the young American 
higher and a more useful ideal of citizenship. 


Truly motivated history study — motivated as I havesnggested- 
also depends upon the teacher's conception of those to whom I 
teaches history. If history study is to be motivated in the ii 
terest of both the pupil and democracy, those taught must n( 
be regarded as sand pails, as empty vessels, to be mechanical] 
filled with facts, as spectators acquiring mere information an 
knowledge. Nor can tne teacher r^^ard nimself as an appointe 
purveyor of information and facts. He will r^ard his pupi 
as human beings who are in the school for fruiaul experience 
He will think of them, not now and then, but all the time, i 
citizens in a democracy, citizens capable of thinking for thet 
selves, capable of appreciating public activities, capable i 
understanding social problems and politics. He will look upc 
his pupils as adolescents who are in the period of hero worsh' 
and of the formation of ideals, a period in which there is unlii 
ited opportunity for developing guiding habits of life, intelle 
tnal, moral, and social He will consider them, not as bits of i 
educational machine which starts up late in the morning ai 
stops early in the afternoon, but as a group of human uni 
who are to help shape America's future. 


For truly motivated work the teacher's conception of histoi 
must be that history is not merely the record of man's lii 
That view of history is the traditional, the oonvfentional view 
it, and makes history yb/vn and not content. It lines out histoi 
as events, dates, facts, and statistics that hat^e been, as data 
be mastered in intellectual ways, as subject-matter to be V( 
bally learned and learned in a given chronological order, 
matter to be studied for its own sake, as " pages " of a reco 
mechanically assigned. History is not merely ^e record of h< 
batties were fought, of how kings succeeded kings, of how 1 
tions met nations, of how races fought races. History is n 
merely the record of man. It is more than that. It is the /i 
of man. History is a forceful, active, living thing, not an aoc 
mulation of results or a nuuss of information Vhich possil 
may be of use at some future time. History is dynamic. Historj 
the problems of mankind. History is the struggle of ideals, t 
struggle which prodlices a higher and ever higher civilizatic 
History is the evolution of democracy — democracy that is env 
oping the globe. History is how people have lived, toiled, aj 
struggled; is what people have thought and think about relig^c 
God, science, and human relations. History is the pages of li 
not the pages of a book. History is the erperience of individu 
and nations. History is ideas and ideals that persist. History 
the present. The present war is history. The struggle betwe 

Digitized by Va\^»^V l*^ 



tlie nulwaya and o^anized labor is history. So is die Rus- 
sian Revolution of 1917. These and the like should be studied 
now — now when they are trying men's souls, now when they 
are matters of public and private discussion, now when they are 
determining the attitude of men and women toward public 
duty, public morality, and public honor. Current history should 
be considered histoid just as truly as past .history should be 
considered history. Current history is making future histonr 
just as truly as past history has made current hiatonr. Such 
la the conception of history for which the teacher of history 
ought and most fight if the teaching of history is to be moti- 
vated in the interest of the social and the political needs of a 
democracy, which needs are pairamount to any and all other 

AVTiy should history be taught ? That the mind may be 
developed, not that the brain may be stuffed. Why? That 
the pupil may become a thinking, participating unit in society. 
Wliy? That conditions, institutions, life, and issues may be 
significant. Why ? That the pupil may have a sense of civic 
and moral responsibility. Taught that the pupil may see that 
the struggle of the Gracchi is always with us, that the Renais- 
sance is iuways with us, that the English Revolution of 1688 is 
always with us, that the American Revolution is always with us, 
that the French Revolution is always with us, that the Civil War 
is always with us, and that the Russian Revolution of 1917 will 
always be with us and with posterity. This is why history should 
be taught. For it should be remembered that the great princi- 
ples back of these and other great strt^^les of history are the 
principles for which men have lived and died, that for these same 
principles men now live anddie, and that for these same principles 
men will ever live and die. History, real history, knows no past 
tense. The only things that have a past tense are the thm|^ 
which history has dismrded. Thus conceived, history study will 
be organized around problems, because the teacher and the 
pupil vrill consider all true history as problems. For the teacher 
of history who carefully observes takes note that topics which are 
worth studying can and will be traced right back to real social 
problems, and that the problems of the past are essentially the 
problems of the present. Modem history is fimdamentally 
ancient history in modem dress, in modem surroundings. The 
problems of the ancients are our problems. The great issues of 
society are alwa3rs substantially the same. They are, generally 
speakmg, questions of making a living, of privilege and oppor- 
tunity, questions of finance, of faith, of bebef, questions of who 
shall take part in government, and of how those who hold public 
office can be held responsible. History should be taught that 
the vital questions of tiie present may be studied in the light of 
the past without imposing authoritative views or conclusions on 
the minds of those studying. The study of history thus con- 
ceived is vitalizing, purposeful, and significant to the pupil, and 
does no less for this teacher than for we pupiL 

With such a conception of education, of the pupil, of history, 
and of why history should be taught as I have suggested, how 
oan the teacher bring about thoroughly motivated work in the 
study of history ? Can he bring the pupU to an appreciation of 
wliat democracy is and of what it should mean to live in and 
l)e a part of deinot^racy ? _ Can the teacher lead the pupil to real- 
ize through the study oi history the value to him of becoming 
a thinker and not merely a believer ? He can. But how ? There 
are several ways, among others : 

Trace with the dass how the great central features of our 
present civihzation have come to be what they are. Trace with 
care the growth of independent, compact, and powerful states 
without which no substantial progress could ever be made. 
Trace the process of the breaking down of barriers which once 
separated classes of men. Trace the gradual almlition of privi- 
lege. Trace the extension'of itolitiital power to the common man. 
Trace the CHtablishment of e(]ualitv l)efore the law. Trace the 
evolution of popular etliutatioii. Trace the emancipating of re- 
ligious thouglit. Tra(;e tlie function of science in human affairs. 
Trace the effect of the application of steam jwwer and eltx^tric 
power to machinery. Trace the status of woman in the various 

stages of hum^n ftrogr^.? Trace these and similar historical 
forces in their origin and development and see the light break 
in upon the mind of the youth. See how the study of history 
burins to be significant to him. See the desire arise in him to 
search further, to know more. See him begin to realize the 
terrible cost of our present liberties in time, m effort, in strug- 
gle, and in bloodshed. See him also becoming a thinker and 
not a mere believer. ■ ti. >.;- 

In history teaching definite <. comparisons should be made 
from the fiirst lesson to the last lesson. Comparisons reveal 
points of likeness and of differotoe. The securing of public 
positions, the process of legislatitm, the relation ra the indi- 
vidual to government, the responsibility of public officials, the 
variety and management of industries, the sources of wealth, 
the kmds' and the value of money, the manner of living, the 
kind of dress, educational opportunities, the status of science, 
tiie status of woman, and the morals and the ideals of the peoples 
of the past should always be compared with those very things 
in our own day. By such comparisons the pupil himself will see 
aud realize the long route traveled over to attain our present 
multiplex civilization. By this method the real value of onr 
civilization and the pupil s relation thereto will be revealed to 
and realized by the pupil. 

If I judge correctiy, teachers, generally take it for granted 
that pupils who recite well understand the vocabulary used, and 
if no questions as to the mewung of words and expressions 
used by the author arise, vt conclude that pupils know fairly 
well the meaning of the author's terms. Investigation on the 
part of any teacher will reveal the astonishing fact that the 
core words of practically every lesson are understood by almost 
no one in the class. An accurate, ^owledge of the meaning of 
words is essential to significant study, clear thuikin?, and correct 
expression. " Any teacher knows that," you say. If so, why do 
almost all teachers, with the possible exception of teachers of 
English, almost wholly, if not entirely, neglect word study? 
Much should be made of word i^tudy if tbe pupil's work is to be 
motivated effectively. • 

The teacher of history is certain to find that almost no pupil 
in any of his classes can give an accurate definition of such 
terms as history, government, constitution, law, democracy, 
citizen, subject, bill, civilization, 4,^Poti8m, political party, a 
nation, a country, public utility, partisan, pacffist, anarchy, cul- 
ture, religion, society, patriotism, morality, and hundreds of 
other terms which are oonstantiy used in our text-books on his- 
tory. If any teacher is inclined to doubt this contention, let him 
investigate this matter in his own classes next Monday morning. 
About two weeks ago I put to one hundred and forty-seven 
pupils in the four grades who are taking history work with me 
m the Hope Street High School the following question : *' Does 
an accurate study of words make your study of history more 
interesting and more profitable ?" 1 find among others the fol- 
lowing answers : " Before we began our accurate study of the 
meanmg of words I did more memorizing of what the author 
said th^ I do now." " It makes my work ever so much easier 
when I know the real meaning of the terms used." " Our caref id 
word study has gotten me out of the dark." " I can talk now with- 
out groping for words." '* It helps me in my other studies." " It 
is a satisfa^'tion to me to know that I am using words correctly." 
'* I like word study because it makes newspaper aud magazine 
reading more interesting and mote valuable to me." " An awn- 
rate study of words saves time, because I have noticed that it does 
not take me so long to prepare my lessons since I know the real 
meaning of words as I come upon them." ** I read more now out- 
side of school l>eoau8e my reading is more interesting to me." 
" It is valuable liecause it keeps one from misinterpreting what 
he reads." " Very often I fina that a word has a broatler mean- 
ing than I thought it had, and finding this out opens new 
ground for thought." " Word study oj^ns up the meaning of 
the text to me, and this makes me like history l>etter." 


By way of daily prei>aratiou pupils should be asked to MTite 
out and hand in answers to such questions as these : What aro 

Digitized by VJ\^»^V IV^ 



the problems in to^lay's lesson that.were befpre the people at 
that time ? What kind of problems were ihey — ^financial, mili- 
tary, economic, religious, educati<mal ? Did they attempt to 
solve their problems ? If so, how j If not, why not ? What 
changes or improvements would you suggest? Do you know of 
any problems before us to-day or before any other people to-day 
that are similar to the problems before the "people in to^lay's 
lesson ? How many propositions of the singular type and of die 
universal type do you find suggested by the text of to^lay's 
lesson ? State such propositions and be able to disciiss them in 
class. That history work can be and will be effectively moti- 
vated by asking pupils to answer such questions as these is 
beyond doubt. 


The study of history can be motivate*! also by substituting 
discussion for recitation — discussion which not only shows 
clearly whether pupils know the facts of the lesson, but also 
tests whether they really appreciate the facts — discussion that 
will make pupils do thinking of their own. We have made a 
huge blunder in assuming that the reciting of historical facts 
will make those facts significant to the pupil and to the class. 
Reciting is a deadening process. There is no inspiration in it. 
Before a member of tne class begins to recite every one in it 
not only knows that he who is going to recite will in all proba- 
bility not say anything more than the author has already said to 
CA'ery one in the class, but every one also knows that tiie facts 
of the lesson will not be recited so well as the author has stated 
them in the text. Instead of asking pupils to recite the facts of 
the lesson ask them to answer such questions as : What prob- 
lems did you find in to-day's lesson ? Whose problems were 
they ? Why were they problems ? What was done about them ? 
Why was not more done ? Who objecte<l to what was attempted ? 
WTiy ? Are there similar problems to-day ? What position do 
you think you would have taken had you been there ? Why ? 
Would there be any work for a man to do to-<lay who possessed 
ideals similar to those of Julius Csesar ? What are the things in 
to-day's lesson worth remembering ui^til you are eighty-five 
years old? What makes a country democratic? What is your 
relationship to the Government ? What good does the Govern- 
ment do you ? Has your town, your city, your State, your coun- 
try, the right to expect anything from you ? If each citizen does 
not do his proper share of thinking and service, what then ? If 
the right sort of laws are not passed, who is to blame ? If public 
money is not rightly spent, who is to blame? Is it the duty of 
each citizen to inovr how his representatives vote ? Why ? What 
makes a thing right or wrong ? What do you think of this ? of 
that? What are your reasons for thinking so? 

Recently I asked 147 different pnpiEi whether discussion 
made their work in history more interesting and more valuable 
than did reciting. Here are some of the answers, almost word 
for word : " Di^ussion makes me remember the facts better." 
" It makes me think." " I can't rely wholly on the text-book." 
" It develops my reasoning power." " It nudces me feel more like 
a man th^ reciting does." " Discussion trains the mind to 
respond quickly." "You have to be more than a parrot in dis- 
cussion." " It develops the pupil's individuality." *' I find I can't 
discuss a topic unless I know the facts, and hence discussion 
leads me to know the facts." " Discussion is a lot more inter- 
esting than recitation." " It does me a lot of good to hear what 
my classmates think about the topics we discuss." " It is inter- 
esting to watch a teacher conduct a discussion." " I like it be- 
cause it develops the power to debate." " By discussion you kill 
two birds with one stone — you learn the facts and then you 
apply them." " The recitation method adds nothing to one's 
knowledge, the discussion method does." " It makes the conver- 
sation of others more interesting to me when I am out of school, 
because I know what they are talking about." " Recitation 
causes the pupil to look upon history as a matter of memory ; 
discussion causes the pupil to reason about the facts of the les- 
son." " Discussion is very valuable to me because from hearing 
the point of view of other students I think of and learn many 
things I shoiUd not otherwise think of and learn." "In dis- 
cussing a topic we do not have to endure the monotony of hear- 
ing the same thing over and over again." " It is of value to me 
because it not only trains me to express my own ideas, but it 

also gives me a lot of new ideas." " It makes me see why a thing 
is so. ' " Discussion makes us apply the things we know." " Dis- 
cussion puts meaning into the lesson for me.' " A pupil does not 
learn one-half as much by reciting as he does by discussing." 
" Discussion takes the ' bookislmess ' out of school work." 
" There is no sense in learning history just to recite it, but 
there is sense in studying history when you know you will hear 
a good discussion on it." " Discussion has taught me the value 
of Teaming history." " Discussion leads me to try and interpret 
history, which is more valuable to me than repeating what an 
author has said." 


Without the slightest doubt the study of history can best be 
motivated through the study of current history. Iji this article 
current history means history that has been made too recently 
to be included in the history text-book. No tenable argument 
can be advanced against the study of current history in schools, 
while almost countless sound arguments can be advanced in 
favor of studying it. Almost all of the objections — I was going 
to say all of the objections, and, as far ^ 1 know, the statement 
would be sound — to the introduction of current history into the 
school curriculum are offered by those who have never taught 
current history. Their objections are theoretical and imagined. 
Will the study of history be motivated through the study of 
current history? I am sure it will ; but, instead of proving by 
statements of my own that this is so, I am going to let the proof 
oome from those who are studying current history with me. 
Within the last two weeks I asked the ninety-six juniors and 
seniors who are studying current history with me the following 
question : " Does the study of current history make your ooorse 
in history more interesting and more valuable ? If so or not so, 
give reasons." They did not know before entering the class- 
room that they were to be asked this question, and I asked 
them not to write their names on the test paper. Every one of 
them said that the study of current history did make his course 
in history more interesting and more valuable. Only a portion 
— ^a smaU portion — of what they wrote follows : 

"The studying of current history is exceedingly valuable to me 
because it is the last chapter of the story begun long ago. We 
should lose the significance of the first part of the story if we 
did not study the Last part." " It makes me realize the impor- 
tance of the deeds of our forefathers for us to-day." " I look for- 
ward to the current history day because it makes the history 
I have studied before more real to me." " It shows me the vale 
of studying text-book history."* " It causes me to compare wl 
is going on to-day with things that have taken place in the past.* 
" It shows wherein progress consists." " A pupd can derive mor 
real good from the study of current history than from any otho^^ 
subject." " It makes the world aljout me interesting." " It sho^ 
me the outcome of past history.'* " It makes my text-book in 
history more interesting and more valuable when I gfo back to 
it after having studied current history." " It reveals the value 
of good citizenship and the harm that comes to the country 
through ignorance and disloyalty." " It leads me to take an 
interest in what the President and the Congress are doing." 
" It makes my own country seem more valuable to me." '* It 
makes me eager to know what the outcome of events will be." 
" I like it because it gives me a chance to apply my knowl- 
edge of former history." " It is valuable to me because I am 
not so embarrassed when in gatherings of intelligent people." 
" It is valuable because a study of the present helps us to un- 
derstand the past, and the study of the past helps us to under- 
stand the present." " I never tried to think for myself until I 
began to study current history." " It leads me to tiiink how I 
woidd try to solve some of our problems if I were called upon 
to do so." " Past history is freshened by the study of current 
history." " To know past history and be ignorant of current 
history is to live in a world of history dreams." " To study past 
history and omit the study of current history Is like half making 
a thing and then leaving it." " The study of current history 
shows the meaning of the struggle of the past." " It is valu- 
able to me because I see now how history is matle." " I like to 
compare our handling of a problem with the way past peoples 
handled a similar problem.' " This shows me wliether we have 
profited by what has gone before," " I never knew before how 

Digitized by VJ\^»^V IV^ 




Hr. Miyaoka, a distin^ished jurist of JapAn, addressed the American Bar 

Aaaocution at its recent annual meeting at Cleveland. He has oconpied many 

important judicial and diplomatic [Miaitions 



Mr. Page ha.s just resigned his imiwrtant post on account of ill health. He has 

been Ambassiuior for five years, serving his country with marked ability 

during the trying period of the war. See editorial comment 







The difference in the official position of these two men is a striking one. Sir William Weir is a Minister with a sent in the Cabinet and has an authority with regard 
to the whole war airplane service of Great Britain like that of Secretary Daniels over our Navy or Secretary Baker over our Army. Mr. Ryan is Second Assistant 
Secretary of War, and in authority is subordinate to Mr. Baker and in n»nk to First Assistant Secretary Crowell. His duties are solely concerned with the prodno- 
tioa of Army airplanes. He has, of connw, nothing to do with the Navy airplanes. What the Senate Committee and Genenil Keiily, OKiSf of SlilitsnrlAeronautica, 
have urged i« that the United States have a Secretary with a seat in the Cabinet, having charge of all airplanes, ^|^|^^^{M/nVfrg^^|t^^^Mi(^to that of 

.Sir AViUiam Weir O 

B«Ti«« OFFiciM. moraamm, nrmiMTioMi. nun ■uvice 





In the picture at the top of the page it wUl be noted tliat most of the behnets have a tell-tale bullet bole. In the other picture many interesting aspecU of the 

German physiognomy may be seen 

Digitized by y<JKJKJ\ll\^ 


rata* KUMTMTiM hhvigi 

This French loldier is delighted to g:et an American cigarette, and no doubt 
Mill more delighted to have a friendly word from ao American man and an 
I woman, aa shown in the picture. The latter ie a member of one of 
the aaociatioos engaged in restoring devastated France 



The personality of the ex-President's family is always of interest to the American 

people. Here are seen, left loriirlit. Captain Archie Roosevelt's young son; Mr. 

Roosevelt ; Mrs. Arrliie Hoosevelt ; Kiclinrd Derby, Jr. ; Mrs. Itoosevclt ; J^lith 

Derby on the lap of her mother, Kibel Uooaevelt Derby 

Digitized by 





11 Septemiici 

problems of a country arise." " I see how numy of the happen- 
ings of to^y have their foundations hud in the past/ " It 
makes history alive to me." " The study of current history 
makes our own Government and our own problems mean con- 
siderable to me." " By it I see the results of the past operating 
upon the present." " Grovemment and war were never real to 
me until I studied current history." " History without current 
history sounds like some fish story or some fairy story." '' I 
think I'll be a better citizen for having studied current his- 
tory." " I value democracy more when I see how it acts under 
actual conditions." "The problems of the ancients are more 
real to me now that I have studied current history." " Study 
of current history takes the dullness and the unprofitableness out 
of history work.' " It shows me how governments mak» their 
reputation." " It makes my peuny newspaper more valuable to 
It has taken a lot of prejudice out of me." " I wish I 


could take current history four or five times a week, because 
it makes both the past and the present mean so much more to 
me." Now what do you think of the study of current history 
as a means of motivating the study of historjr ? 

America has a won(krfnl public educational system. Our 
school-houses are well built, and their physical equipment has 
become better and better. Teachers are better trained and better 
paid than ever before. The schools perform a real service to the 
country. All tiiis and much else can be and is freely admitted. 

Yet many teachers and educators, as well as a multitude of 
parents and a greater multitude of pupils, are dissatisfied witli 
the results of our educational system. More than that, tfaer 
believe something is wrong. There is a fundamental difficult 
somewhere. Especially does one think so when he realizes that 
not more than twelve of every <me hundred who are registered 
in the first grade remain in our public schools long enough to 
receive a high school diploma. We have admirable equipment 
and improvements. The difficulty does hot lie in that oirectioo. 
The real trouble is that the work done in our schools is not sig- 
nificant to those doing it. They don't see the value, the use, d 
it, and consequentiy tiiey take littie or no interest in what the; 
are doing. Most of the work is external and foreign to tJie pupik 
By our selection of svigect^matter and by our tnethoda oj 
instruction, both of which were largely determined by men and 
toomen long since dead and gone, we assassinate the thirst and 
the hunger for knowledge ana the desire to do things found in 
all normal young persons. Before they enter school they are as 
loquacious as parrots, pestering parent and relative alike witl 
questicHUL Soon after they enter school most of them are im 
more eager and restiess for knowledge than so many pieces di 
statuary. The remedy for this condition undoubtedly is in 
thorough, efficient, and practical jiiotivation of school worii, 
motivation of such a sort as to be the salvaticm of our educ» 
ti<m, and therefore of our democracy. 



AN old man in the mountains above Fort Collins carried 
wood every day into a hotel. The job was beyond his 
strength, and a young surveyor who was worUng near 
quietly slipped the wood onto his own broad shoulders. 
. "" Now, one of them humans," said the old fellow, ** wouldn't 
'a' done that." He meant the tourists who filled the hotel, and 
he suggested the difference that some of us fancy we feel between 
the I^t and the Weet.^ 

At the comer of Chambers Street and City Hall Pa^ the 
tides of tiie world wash about New York's Hall of Records 
building. During May, 1917, 1,358 aliens were naturalised in 
the Supreme Court there, and 82 in the largest court in the 
Denver Naturalization District. 

Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, Wyoming, and southeastern 
Idaho — 153 counties, 107 bigger than Rhode Idand, 76 as 
large as Delaware^ one holding a ranch (me-fifth the size of 
New Jersev. Roads so long and straight and lonely that you 
can climb into your car, set the throttle, and trav^ over the 
earth — you can almost feel the bulge of it — for an hour at a 
time without touching pedal or lever or doing anything at all 
except hold the steering-wheel steady, slow up a littie, swing 
around a curve, and do the same thing for another hour. And 
maybe not a living thing to see all daylong but two eagles and 
a bobcat. A hundred and ten miles and not even a place to buy 
gasoline I Sand so deep that the ranchmen say the jack-rabbits 
drown in it I And the austere, eternal mountains^ just touched 
here and there with a scuff of human life. 

There are 160 naturalizing courts, and an annual average of 
ten persons admitted to citizenship in each. Leave out the five 
largest, and the average is six. 

There is time out West for the personal touch. The great 
stammering black-bearded German-Kussian giant who is so 
overawed by the dread majesty of the law that he can scarcely 
remember the town of his birth is not petitioner No. 15,724, 
but Johannes SchneidmiDer, whose ranch " comers with " the 
sheriff's. Johannes is father of the village grocer and is " attached 
to the principles of the Constitution of the United States and well 
disposed to tiie good order and happiness of the same," to the 
personal knowl^ge of most of the people in the court-room. 

Three thousand nine hundred and forty aliens filed petitions 
for naturalization in Philadelphia in seven weeks. Some of them 

> " Hnmans " ia a real word in this sense. A ranchman near Santa F^ couldn't 
understand whjranr one wonld use a " bnraans " saddle. The Western article 
waa the only thing tat any sane rider of a horse. 

had had to wait eighteen months for the chance. May 10, 191.5 
stands out in Phuadelphia's calendar. The new Americaiu 
their wives and children — eighty-five hundred of them — packe 
the Municipal Convention HalL The President came fion 
Washington to welcome them, and those who took his simpl 
words as he meant them learned what we stand for from tb 
Nation's best exponent. 

No trouble to show the need for a citizenship class in Phil 
adelphia, and supply it. The butt<m is pushed, and off you g« 

But in Laramie — where Bill Nye edited the "Boomerang 
thirty-eight years ago — we naturalized twelve in 1914, seven ii 
1916, and ten m 1916, agamst Philadelphia's 8,460, 6,684, an 
2,567. It's a big, bare country up there. Maybe you have seen i 
from the windows of the Overland Limited — rocks and plaim 
and plains and rocks, and off to the south a jagged blue Une c 
mountains ; all along the tracks snow-guanls cleverly set i 
single file and companies to meet the currents of the wind, an 
in their lee, when tne biting white flakes scud along like smob 
jack-rabbits sheltering. 

Two trains met at Orin Jimction. 

" Is there much snow on the Laramie Plains ?" said the NortI 
western conductor. 

" No, boss," replied the porter, " there ain't. But there's 
powerful lot of it passin' through." 

Most things pass through the Laramie Plains. But here an 
there a ranch-house clings sturdily to the rolling prairie, like 
lichen growth, and the county somehow contributes its anntu 
average of ten new citizens. 

When they are admitted in March and September, nobod 
comes from afar to welcome them ; but there is a gleam of tfa 
dream in the eyes of a woman who watches them come in. Sh 
has taught nearly all of them. They hold certificates of n^ui 
tion issued by her, countersigned by the chief naturaXizatio 
examiner on behalf of the United States, respected by tli 
Court ; and they give a very excellent account of themselves. 

" If there is one person in this coimty who wishes to learn, 
said the Laramie citizenship instructor, " I shall be glad t 
teach him." 

At first there wasn't. There wasn't, in fact, for two month 
Then came one, thirty miles overland, on a cayuse, once a weel 
Another month, and there were five. There is a pretty stead 
attendance now of six or eight, and not the least of the stars i 
the crown of the Naturalization Service is the citizenship clai 
of Laramie, Wyoming. 

Digitized by 





It grew slowly, but the Sterling class, in the flat homestead 
oiuitry of eaBtem Colorado, was bom one November afternoon, 
Lill panoplied, like Minerva, from the judge's appeal. 

He lined up before him in the jury-box eight of that day's 

rplicants who had failed to show an intelligent understanding 
the principles of our Govei-nment, and won them over by a 
ttle straight, earnest talk. 

He arranged for a prosperous farmer to call weekly for a 
eighbor who was too poor to have a wagon of his own ; he had 
is shift changed so that the man who worked for the sugar 
ompaoy could attend ; he made one promise to come on the 
rain — persuaded him that it was worth it; and he shamed 
he laggards out of their inertia. 

The whole eight enrolled — all German-Russians. They repre- 
ent a fair slice of country. The land they own would hold 
juxeinburg and Montenegro. The city superintendent of schools 
a.ught them ; but they met in the judge's chambers, and all sorts 
f people took a hand. The surroundings infected some of them ; 
hey became interested in the Federal reporter system and a 
licture of the Supreme Court, and a very fair beginners' lecture 
n the rudiments of law resulted. 

They caught a glimpse of our scheme of government as some- 
hing as real as their methods of farm management ; as much 
a the making ; as subject to change ; and they realized with 
stonishment that they were parts of it, to make it and to change 
t with the rest. 

Before we find fault with our applicants for citizenship for 
heir lack of interest it would be well for us to try honestly to 
ell them what the Republic is. Many of them never find out. 

An Englishman who did not know sat before a Utah court 
3st summer. He had kept his original ignorance of American 
ostitutions rather imusually intact, and his answers to the ex- 
.miner's questions had demonstrated the fact abiindantly. 

" I shall not admit you to citizenship now," said the judge. 
■ You must know more than you do. i ou may return at the 
lext hearing." 

'^ I don't think I will," said the Englishman. " I have wasted 
nough time on this already. I'm foreman out at the smelter, 
nd half the Austrians and Italians in my gang are citizens. 
They are naturalized all the time, and some of them don't know 
nything. If the United States wants that kind and won't take 
(le, ritt through." 

An unfortunate way to address a judge appointed by the 
'resident for life, set permanently above the reach of common 
oen, all-powerfuL The court officials, looked to see the light- 
ling strike. They thought the Englishman had earned it. 

"My friend," said the judge, earnestly, " you are making a 
aistake. I am sorry you misunderstand me. It will be better 
or you and the country if you will learn the things a citizen of 
he United States ou^ht to know. I shall not dismiss your 
letition. I hope you will think it over and decide to study." 

He did. He employed the principal of a school to teach him, 
,nd after he had answered correctly every question that the 
xaminer could think of he stood up like a man and said he 
tad been wrong, and thanked the judge. 

" I didn't know what the United States was," he said. " I 
wouldn't take anything for what I've found out !" 

Here a little, there % little. The years stretch themselves into 
lecades, the decades into centuries ; the Nation is built like a 
■oral reef. 

A little Ford car in the northern Colorado coal-fields does 
ts minute part. If it is standing to-night under an incandescent 
ight in front of the town haU of one of the drab little coal 
amps, there is a citizenship class inside — one of the State Uni- 
versity's steadily lengthening chain — held to«^ether by the young 
nan who drives the Ford. Just a few tired miners, usually — 
lardly enough, sometimes, to call it a class at all — but the 
vork goes on. 

At this writing the major part of one of these classes is in 
aiL Thev are charged vrith resisting the Selective Service Act ; 
hey would not register and they attempted to dissuade others. 
>rtainly they will not be naturalized ; they are not the stuff 
hat makes good citizens. But they are better worth working 
or, perhaps, than " him that is well. ' The citizenship instructor 
s wcmdenneif he cannot get permission to continue his lessons 
n the jaiL Probably he wul. lie is that kind. 

This class of his must be punished, and the law is here to see 

that it is. But his job is to try to make them understand what 
America stands for and why we have to fight. Maybe they dorCt 
know. It is worth something to them to find out — and to us. 

In an old building in Denver, at Thirteenth and Welton 
Streets, is a good public school with a good name — the Denver 
Opportunity School. In so far as possible, it teaches anybody 
anything he wants to learn — citizenship, for example, to a 
class of thirty-five aliens of all ages and conditions, who come 
four nights a week. 

One of his pupils sat on the edge of a chair in the naturali- 
zation office and said, with flashing eyes and eloquent hands, 
" Do you really think he is right, and that after this war may- 
be my country, too, will be a republic? If I thought we were 
fighting for that — " 

He had enlisted, that Austrian. He may be in France now. 
There are three of his brothers in the other army. How he 
wanted to feel that he was fighting against them but^or them, 
and for Austria! How he leaped at me idea I 

We need interpreters. We lead our aliens to citizenship, but 
it is only men like this instructor who can make them drink of 
the spirit of it. 

There is a kinship between his mind and the minds of the 
men who made the Declaration of Independence ; he feels as 
they felt. It is aninteresting exhibition of the power and sanity 
of tiie idea that underlies that instrument. 

No one is there from the mistaken idea that if he would be 
naturalized attendance is compulsory. Those who wish to obtain 
the necessary information elsewhere are free to do so ; those 
who stand satisfactorily the preliminary examinations conducted 
by the Naturalization Service are told that they are sufficiently 
well informed to pass the tests imposed by the court and need 
not learn more ; but the class is recommended to the attention 
of them all, and imiversity graduates, high-salaried professional 
men, engineers, artists, cooks, waiters, and street^weepers sit 
there comfortably, side by side, only one citizen of the United 
States among them — their servant and their teacher. The city 
furnishes his services, but they are indebted to the spirit of 
American democracy for his point of view. 

It is a good thing to know that if the President and the 
Vice-President both died the Secretary of State would become 
President of the United States ; that the only real Territories 
we have are Hawaii, Alaska, Porto Rico, and the District of 
Columbia ; and that Mr. Wilson is the twenty-eighth Executive 
head of the Nation ; but it is much better to catch the feel of 
the thing, the urge that brought us into being, that makes us 
great, God helping us, and keeps us going. 

When the unbdievable blessmg of peace has returned to the 
tortured earth, it is not likely that a greater drama will be staged 
for some time than the making of America. And the aliens who 
came a million a year in 1913 and 1914, 326,000 in 1916, 
298,000 in 1916, the straggling few who are coming now, and 
the inestimable millions of those tides that will set this way 
after the war, will act some of the leading roles, have a hand in 
setting the stage, and a good deal to do with fashioning the 
play itself. What wUl they make of America? It will depend 
upon what America makes of them. 

Year in and year out, two-thirds of them do not become natu- 
ralized. ButchUdren bom to them here are citizensof the United 
States, and, whether we like it or not, those who stay are America. 
To force citizenship upon them by law cannot benefit us very 
much, for a perfimctory knowledge that will let them by can be 
easily acquired by the most vicious, the dullest, and the least 
interested. It is a pity, therefore, that we haven't succeede<l in 
making them want citizenship, in making them feel that it is a 
privilege worth preparing for. A citizenship survey of the Nation 
might justify itself ; to find out who are aliens and why, and to 
sn^^t ways to remove the disability. 

But reaching those unnaturalized two-thirds is a big thine; that 
might be done ; this other smaller work is an established fact. 
Where there was ignorance, there is knowletlge ; where there 
was indifference, there is interest ; men who didn't care about us 
are for us. 

And we are for them ! Many of us who didn't know them 
before, who thought that a man who spoke four languages was 
stupid because he couldn't s))eak English, have leame<l in teaclH 
ing. In expounding America's dream of the brotherhood of man 
they have come to see it for the first time in its idealistic reality. 





Based on The Outlook of September 4, 1918 

Bach week ao Outline Stndy of Carrent EQatory based on the preoeding nomber of The Ontlook will 
be printed for the benefit of carrent eventa olawas, debating claba, teaebers of history and of Bng^liah, and 
the like, and for nae in the home and by sooh individual readers as may desire sngKestions in the serious 
atndy of current history.— Tbb Editobs. 

situation " almost scandalons." Otbers 
consider it " a scandal/' " a crime against 
the country," " a disgrace," " a National 
humiliation," "a fla^»nt nonfeasance," 
"this disastrous experience." Which of 
these expressions seem to you to describe 
the situation most accurately? 3. Where 
does The Outlook place responsibility " for 
the collapse of our aircraft programme " ? 
Where do you? On President Wilson? 
Secretary Baker? On Congress? Public 
opinion ? Where ? Discuss, giving reasons. 
4. Why, in your opinion, did the former 
Aircraft Production Board fail to make use 
of the technical successes of foreign engi- 
neers ? Why did they g^ve %d much wei^t 
to the opinions of " inexperienced automo- 
bile mannfacturers " ? Why was there such 
a lack of system? 5. What would you 
consider adequate punishment for those 
persotuUly responsiole for the aircraft 
situation as reported by the Senate Ck>ra- 
mittee ? 6. Some of The Outlook's readers 
not only condemned it for its reports 
months ago on our aircraft failures, bat 
dropped their subscriptions. Some editors 
have actually tried to make the Senate 
Committee's report a matter of no condem- 
nation of the Administration. Tell frankly 
what you think of such readers and editors. 
7. Read Major Bishop's " Winged War- 
fare " (Doran) and Winslow's «°With the 
French Flying Corps " (Scribners). 

C. Topic : « Europe's Fateful Hoar." 
Reference : Pages 26, 27. 
Qtiestiotu : 

1. Dr. Abbott belieres that democracy 
has revolutionized the object of life. How 
does he explain his behef? 2. State and 
discuss the three motives which Dr. Ab- 
bott says " conspired to impel Germany to 
war." Famish proof. 3. Answer further 
than Dr. Abbott does the question raised 
by Signor Ferrero at the end of this 


(Tha** propasitions are suggested direotly or indi- 
reotly by the subjeot-matter of The Outlook, but 
not disoossed in it.) 

1. The purpose of democracy is to secure 
justice without sacrificing liberty. 2. No 
war has been inevitable. 3. The former 
German colonies should never be returned 
to her. 


(All of the following words and expressions are 
found in The Outlook for September 4, 1918. Both 
before and after looking them up in the diotimary or 
elsewhere, give their meaning in your own words. 
The figures in parentheses refer to pages on which 
the words may be fonnd.) 

II Septembe 

(Those who are using the weekly ontliDe should 
not attempt to cover the whole of an outline in any 
one lesson or study. Assign for one lesson selected 
questions, one or two propositions for discussion, 
and only soch words as are found in the material 
assigned. Or distribute selected questions tunong 
difiFerent members of the class or group and have 
them report their findings to all when assembled. 
Then have all disonss the questions together.] 


A. Topic : The New Draft Ages ; A Dic- 

tated Peace ; The Lusitania Again. 
Reference : Pages 6-7. 
Questions : 

1. In commenting on the new draft ages, 
The Outlook uses these expressions : " the 
decision of the Nation to increase its 
man power," and " but Congress, reflect- 
ing the public opinion of the Nation." 
Make clear the fact expressed in the itali- 
cized words. 2. Is tlie Man Power Bill 
democratic ? What is your opinion of the 
*' work or fight " provision ? 3. Present 
several arguments for or against the fol- 
lowing : "It is the older men who should 
be sent to the front last." 4. Suppose the 
voung men of eighteen to nineteen would 
be superfluous in securing General March's 
three millions. Does it follow that they 
should not be called out ? Discuss. 5. Should 
a college education for soldiers and sailors 
be given at Government expense when the 
war is over ? 6. Do you think there is too 
much legislating in America upon untried 
experiments ? 7. Give two or three reasons 
for insisting upon each one of Senator 
Lodge's terms of peace reported on page 6 
of 'Ttie Outlook, o. What is your opinion 
of those who think Senator Lodge's terms 
too harsh, and would ask Germany to what 
terms she would assent? 9. Discuss the 
harm of treating with Germany as an 
equal. 10. To what Senator Lodge said 
The Outlook adds three statements of its 
own (paee 6). What are they ? 11. The 
Outlook oelieves that individual German 
ofiBcers and their superiors should be pun- 
ished for murder or other crimes. Do you 
think public opinion is with The Outlook? 
, Reasons. Make out a list of Germans who, 
in your opinion, should be punished for 
murder. Ought soldiers and officers ever 
in time of war to murder any one? 12. 
What principles of international law were 
involved in the sinking of the Lusitania? 
13. For what reasons is Judge Mayer's 
decision notable ? Would you demand any 

£unishment for Germany for sinking the 
lUsitania ? Whom would you deal with in 
settling this case ? Can a Government be 
punished ? 

B. Topic : The Airplane ScandaL 
Reference : Editorial, pages 10, IL 
Questions : 

1. Make a summary of tlie facts concern- 
ing the production of aii-planes in Amer- 
ica. 2. The Outlook considers the airplane 

Mandatory, duress (5) ; Italia Irredenta, 
Poland, hierarchy (6); culture, the post- 
chaise, ragtime (26), aging, paradox, phi- 
losophers, centers of civilization (27). 

A bookUl suggesting methods infusing the Weekly Outline of Current History wHl be sent on application 


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Digitized by VJWVJV IV^ 




Forty Years of Service 

Forty years ago when the now 
huge phmt of the Harmony 
Mills was built at Cohoes, N. Y. , 
the roof was laid along the lines 
now advocated in The Barrett 

After forty years of hard service, 
when the matter of reroofing 
came up recently the old roof 
was found to be in such good 
condition that it was a question 
whether to repair it or lay a 
new one ! 

The management decided that 
the old roof had given them 
their money's worth and ordered 
a new one like it, under its 
modern name, a Barrett Speci- 
fication Roqf. 

Is it any wonder, in the face of this 
kind of service, that we are able to 

give a 20-Year Guaranty Bond on 
Barrett Specification Roofs ? 

Not that they need a Guaranty Bond 
to make them last : the Bond is merely 
an expression of our definite knowl- 
edge that Barrett Specification Roofs 
will last much longer than twenty years. 
Read what the owners of the Harmony 
Mills have to say about their roof : 

" • • • tlie originaL roofs laid along the 
lines of The Barrett Specification were 
applied on our mills aoout forty years 
ago, and have served us satisfactorily 
during tliis period. 

" On the basis of such service, we are ccn- 
vinced that a Barrett Specification Roof 
is not only superior to, but more eco- 
nomical tlum any other type of roofing. 

"Therefore, we decided to reroof our 
mills with Barrett Specification. The re- 
roofing work is, of course, well on the 
way to completion and we are pleased to 
advise that we consider your supervision 
over the application of great value. We 
shall be glad to receive expression of your 
confidence in the roofing m the shape of 
your Twenty Year Bond. 

(Signed) " John A. Perkins, Agent" 

The 20-Year 
Surety Bond 

We now offer a 20- Year Surety 
Bond Guaranty on all Barrett 
Specification Roofs of fifty 
squares and over in all towns 
of 25,000 and over, and in 
smaller towns where our In- 
spection Service is available. 

Our only requirements are 
that The Barrett Specification 
of May 1, 1916, shall be strictly 
followed, and that the roofing 
contractor shall be approved 
by us. 

A copy of The Barrett 20-Year Specification, with roofing diagrams, sent free on request 


New York Chicago 

Detrnt Binaiiigbaai 
Atliuits Dolnth 

Toledo Colambiu 

Kanus Citjr 


Boatoo St. Louis 

Minneapolia Naahrille 

Bangor Washington 

Latrobe Bethlehem 

CleTeland Cincinnati Pittabtugh 

Salt Lake Citjr SeaUle Peoria 

Johnstown Lebanon Youngstown 

Elizabeth Buffalo Baltimore 

THE BARRETT COMPANY. Limited: Montreal 

Halifax, N. S. 

Toronto Winnipeg 

Sydney. N. S. 


St. John, N. B. 



Quaker Oats 5e 
Round Steak 37c 
Leg of Lamb 52c 
Veal Cutlets 44c 

Stewing Hens 34c 
Broilers 70c 

Eggs 43c 

Fish 40c 

Buy Foods 

By Calories — Not By Pounds 

Compare fowl cost by ealorios, and yon U "■''e more Quaker Oats. 
The calory is the energy unit nsed l)y governments to measure food. 
On this basis, at prices current at this writing 

Meats Average 8 Times as Much.. 

Eggs, Fish and Fowl 
Cost 8 to 10 Times Quaker Oats 

That is, for the same calory value. Yet these are all major footls. 

Pound for jwund, Quaker Oats ha.s twice the calories of round steak. 
Every cupfid contains 280 calories — as nnich as four eggs. 

Every dollar you spend for Quaker Oats saves at least $7 if useil 
to displa<;e meat, measured l)y the calory basis. 

You have known the oat as the marvel fo<Kl, well balanced, rich in 
minerals. But its wealth of luitriment makes it also the money-saving 

Make Quaker Oats your breakfiist. Mix it also with your flour 
fowls. Use it to .save money, to save wheat and meat, to add flavor 
and nutrition. 

It is one of the greatest foods you have. 

The Best One - Third of Oats 

We use just the quefu grains— l)ig, rioii and flavory — in making Quaker 
Oats. AVe get hut ten pounds from a hushel. 

Thus you get oat flavor at its hest. You get it without extra price. All 
oat foods are made doubly inviting when you use this premier grade. 

12 to 13c and 30 to 32c Per Package 

Except in Far West and South 


11 September 




BeUeviiig that the adTanoe of businen is a snbject 
of vital interest and importance, The Ontlook will 
present nnder the above heading fieqnent di«- 
ciusions of snbiecta of indastrial and oommerdal 
intereat. This department will- inclade paraerapha 
of timely interest and articles of edncattonaT value 
dealing with the industrial upbnilding of the 
Nation. Comment and snggestiona are invited. 


HISTORY is indissolubly connected 
with the development of ofPensive 
weapons for tlie conquest of wild 
animals and of enemy races. It has 
b«en said that that country is happiest 
which has the least recorded history — for 
such a country would inevitably have dwelt 
in peace for tlie greatest number of years. 
So the histon^ of a nation is largely a 
record of warnire for conquest or defense, 
and the development of the gun has played 
a leading part m the making of history. 

And this is particularly true of our own 
country, whose discovery dates from the 
time that firearms were first coming into 
general use in Europe. The annals of the 
early conquest of America by the Span- 
iards depict the astonishmeht and terror of 
the native Indian tribes at the sudden, 
thunderous death poured upon them by the 
Spanish musketeers. Fizarro in Pern, Cor- 
tez in Mexico, and De Soto in North 
America all met and overpowered vastly 
greater forces of natives by tlie superior 
advantage of muskets. Tliey came to be 
regarded by the awestruck Indians as su- 
perior beings who could call down the 
thunder and lightning from heaven at their 

The prehistoric savage probably fot^ht 
with his fists and teeth, and bit and scratched 
like a wild animal when attacked. 

" Man's earliest arms were fin^rs, teeth, aal nails. 
And stones and fragments from the bnaohing 

Then, perhaps, when, wandering through 
the depths of the forest, he was attacked 
by a wild beast from which he could not 
escape or hope to beat o£E with his bare 
hanos, he mignt have cast around him for 
some means of defense and have picked up 
a large rock and hurled it at the onrushing 
brute. Stunned by (lie sudden blow, his 
attacker might have halted momentarily, 
and thus allowed the savage to make good 
his escape. He had discovered that he could 
strike a harder blow than the blow of his 
fist, at a greater distance than the length 
of his arm. And, after all, a modem rifle 
is simply a mechanical means of striking 
an enormously hard blow at a great dis- 

Prehistoric man and his descendants thus 
learned to throw missiles and became hunt- 
ers of game. Next, some genius of the 
tribe discovered that by placing the stone 
in the center of his skm girdle, whirling it 
around his head and then releasing one end, 
the stone would fly to a much greater dis- 
tance and with greater speed. Thus the sling 
became an effective weapon of the chase, 
and companies of sling^men formed the 
armies of that day. The sling is frequently 
mentioned in the Old Testament, and every 
one is familiar with the story of the valiant 
David slaying the giant Goliath with his 
sling and a carefully selected stone from the 
brook. In early historic times battles were 

Digitized by VJWVJV IV^ 






A ptifr/iy jmttfm often menus a miss, 
many times a rrippie, ami sometimes 
bcuily muiiltitnl gtmu 

The hnnUhittimj Winf'hfstei- jtttttTn 
is ereiily illttrihnt'-tl. A'" ganie ffeti 
through^ and no game is mutilated 

Is your game getting away 

because of faulty pattern? 

J F there's one thing that spoils a day's 
luinting, it is a gun that shoots a 
patchy pattern. 

Patchy patterns lead to the mutilating of 
one bird, and the missing or crippling of 
the next, at a like distance. 

In taking wing-shots at ducks or upland 
birds, therefore, an even spread of the 
pellets is essential — not for one shot, or two 
shots, but for every shot. 

Try the Winchester Model 12 

Shooting its own ammunition, the Win- 
chester Model 12 delivers an even, hard- 
hitting shot pattern at the range for which, 
its muzzle is constricted. With any kind of 
skill at pointing, you are bound to get a 
good bag of unmutilated birds. 

The Winchester Model 12 is a light, 
superbly-balanced shotgun, of graceful de- 
sign. Pointing it is as easy as pointing your 
arm. It is simple and sure in operation, and 
it works smoothly in whatever position it is 

For those who prefer a hammer action 
run, we have designed the Model 97. It is 
built on lines similar to the Model 12, but 


has hammer action. As a fowling piece it 
is exceedingly effective. 

An axiom of gun making 

Men who know guns reaUze that the 
accuracv and durability of a gun depend 
primarily upon the barrel. To them the 
quality of the barrel measures the quality 
of the gun. With Winchester, the oarrel 
is the gun. For years this has been an 
axiom of gun building in the Winchester 
shops. Through the most unremitting at- 
tention to boring, finishing, and testing, 
Winchesterhas developed a single standard 
of barrel quality which prevails in the high- 
est and lowest priced Winchester models. 

How the barrel is bored 

The barrel of the Winchester Model 12 
is bored to micrometer measurements for 
the pattern it is meant to make. The degree 
of choke exactly offsets the tendency of the 
shot to spread. Until its pattern proves up 
to the Winchester standard, no gun can 
leave the factory. The nickel steel construc- 
tion preserves the original accuracy forever. 

The Bennett Process, used exclusively by 
Winchester, gives the Winchester barrel a 
distinctive blue finish that, with proper care, 
will last a lifetime. 



Look for this mark on the barrel ot a 
Winchester gun. It means that the gun has 
been subjected to the iVinchesler Defini- 
tive Proof test. It stamps the gun with 
Winchester's guarantee of quality, which 
has 50 years of the best gun-making repu- 
tation behind it. 

Every gun that bears the name Win- 
chester, and that is marked with the Defini- 
tive /'roo/'stamp, has been fired many times 
for smooth action and accuracy. It has also 
been fired with excess loads as a test of 
strength. At every stage of Winchester 
manufacture, machme production is supple- 
mented by human craftsmanship. Every 
Wiiuhester gun is perfected by the test ana 
adjustment process. , 

It is this care in manufacturing that has pro- 
duced, in the Model 12 and Model 97, guns 
of unsurpassed game-getting qualities — guns 
which have won the name of " The Perfect 
Repeaters " among wild-fowl hunters. 

Write for the clateam] *p«cifioa6oiu of 111* Mixlel 
12 and 97, and abo far our n«w bookJ«t on ahoUs. 

Winchester Repeating Arras Company 
Dapt. SSI Naw Havan. Cona.. U. S. A. 

UOHEL 12. Hmamviett Taif-dotcn Rrpeattng ahotmiM. Uiulf in 
ffmiffe. V€if/U about 7H tbt. ; tn IG gintge. wfig/lt aboui b Ibt. ; tn 'JO giiu^.^. 
wmahl about 6 lbt.—Tn*T* popular vUh women and new thooUrt beeauee of 
tu fightnfu and v«ry riigni recoil 

lfofiel97. Tair-dawn R^prfitimg S/tvtgun. Mnde. in 1? gang^. trright ithotU 
TJi tha, ; im 1ft gnng^, weight tihout 7h tb*. The fnrorite icitA thootert If A* 
vre/ar a slide /orearn r^jjenting tholgun u^ith a hammer 

World Standard Cant amd Ammanition 

Digitized by 




11 Septemlier 

Always Among 
the High Gun5 

* High scoi-es at the traps can be adiievetl only with guns in 
perfect working order. Always among the hig^i guns at the 
tournaments you'll find the wise sliootei-s using 


The Universal Gun Oil 

Successful traphootere and game hunters everywhere have used 3-in-One 
over 'JO years. They prefer this high-gjiule oil because it always keeps their 
firearms in the smoothest working condition. Never gnnis or collect* dirt. 

.^in-<.hie not only lubricates perfectly the magazine, trigger, shell extractor, 
hanmier and break joints, but it absolutely prevents rust forming inside or 
outside the barrels and on every other metal I»rt. Tleaiis the barrel of 
burned black powder residue. Also cleans and polishes the wooden stock and 
fore-end. Keeps the whole gun bright and shinv, like new. I>>ading firearm 
manufacturers use and recommend IVin-Oiie. Try it yourself ! 

;^in-(>ne is sold at all stores — in 2.^c Handy Oil Cans and in ISc, 25c and 
50o bottles. 

C" U r r Libernl sample of 3-in-One Oil and Dictionary 
X^ IxCtfCj of Uses — both Free. Write us a postal 

Three-in-One Oil Co., 165 AEG. Broadway, New York 

The Story bf Firearms (Continued) 
often thus decided by the selection of a 
champion by each side, who then fought it 
out while the contending forces played the 
part of spectators. This same idea was 
often earned out in the davs of chivalry 
when a knight was selected m>m each side 
to meet in mortal combat. 

The early races were probably better 
ai-med than we imagine. Early £^ptian 
inscriptions show the skillful use of the 
sling. £xpert slingmen were also found in 
the Roman army and were called fundi- 
tori. The early Australian aborigine in- 
vented the boomerang and throwing-stick 
for hurling spears. I^ has made little im- 
provement in these weapons even up to the 
present day. The use of the sling was 
almost universal for centuries. Its last ap- 
pearance for military purposes in Europe, 
as far as we know, was at the siege of 8an- 
ceiTC in 1572. 

The bow was evolved at a little later 
stage than the sling, and soon became pre- 
eminent as a hunting weapon. Armed with 
the bow and arrow, man became the lord of 
creation. No longer did he fear the prowl- 
ing beasts, but went out boldly and hunted 
the fierceat of them. And so, free to come 
and go, be was able to spread into vari- 
ous lands and to organize the tribes and 
nations which at last gave us civilization 
and history. Soon we find armies made up 
largely of archers, and the bowman plays 
a conspicuous part in mediaeval history. 

The first bows were probably made by 

thinning down the horns of an ox and join- 
ing them at the base. This gives almost tibe 
exact form of the classical bow. Grecian 
bows were originally of horn, and later of 
wood. The strings were of horsehair or 
thongs of hide. Arrows were of Ught wood 
or reeds tipped with barbed points. Many 
savage races poisoned the tips of their 
arrows and spears. 

The picturesque bandits and outlaws of 
Britain, livinp; by the chase, developed the 
famous English longbow. This bow was a 
deadly weapon op to a distance of 400 
yards. Archers were gradually employed in 
the English armies, and many famous 
deeds of the Scottish longbowmen are told 
by Sir Walter Scott and other writers. The 
battles of Crdcy, Poictiers, and Agincourt 
were won for the English by the great 
skill of these longbowmen. llieir arrows 
could pierce armor as well as a musket-ball, 
and the flower of French chivalry could 
not withstand the clouds of barbed shafts 
which did terrible execution. 

It is recorded that archers shooting be- 
fore King Edward YI at considerably over 
two hun(&ed and twenty yards pierced an 
oak plank one inch in thickness, several of 
the arrows passing right tlirough the plank 
and sticking into the butts at the back. 
The legends of old England teU of many 
famous Dowmen. We have all delighted in 
the tales of Robin Hood, Little Jonn, and 
their merry men displaying their skill with 
the bow in the depths of the greenwood. 
Robin Hood is the great sportsman, the 

incomparable archer, the loverof the g^reen- 
wood, and of a free, brave, and adventor- 
ous life. 

Contemporary with the English bow wss 
developed the Continental crossbow or 
arbalist, a weapon developed from the an- 
cient catapult. The crossbow was looked 
upon as a most cruel and barbarons 
weapon, and Pop« Innocent III forbade 
its use among Christian nations, but sanc- 
tioned it in fighting against infidels. Richard 
I introduced the crossbow into the Ejig- 
Jish army arainst the wish of the Pope ; 
and, being killed a few years later by a 
shot from one whUe besie^ng the castle of 
Chaluz, his death was considered as a judg- 
ment from heaven inflicted upon him for 
his impious conduct. 

Tlie crossbow was another step towards 
the day of the rifle. The bow was made of 
steel and was mounted on a wooden frame, 
one end of which was rested on the shoulder 
for a brace. The crossbow was very slow 
and awkward to load, and its range was 
considerably less than that of the longbow. 
It was, however, very accurate at a short 
range. It was probably a crossbow th^ 
William Tell einploved in the celebrated 
apple feat attributetf to him. The crossbow 
fired bolts and auarrels and occasionally 
"fire-arrows,"* pellets, and stones. Cross- 
bows are still carried by Chinese soldiers in 
some of the interior provinces. 

And now comes the most momentous 
step in the development of weapons of 
offense with the discovery of gunpowder 
and its adaptation to firearms. Uonpowder 
was known in the East from times of dim- 
mest antiquity. The introduction of an 
explosive mixture into Europe followed the 
first Mohammedan invasion. Gunpowder 
was used at the siege of Constantinople in 
668, and the Arabs or Saracens are re- 
ported to have used it at the siege of Mecca 
m 690. In a sea conflict between the 
Greeks and Pisanians in 1098, the former 
had fire-tubes fixed at the prows of tlieir 
boats. But the real discovery of gunpowder 
in Europe is commonly attributed to two 
monks, Roger Bacon in England and 
Berthold Schwartz in Germany. Roger 
Bacon, while experimenting in his labora- 
tory, discovered the explosive properties 
of a certain combination of saltpeter. In 
his writings he recorded the formula of this 
mixture as the result of his investigations. 
* Berthold Schwartz studied Bacon's works 
and carried on experiments which resulted 
in the actual manufacture of Kunpowder 
about 1320. It was soon adopteain Central 
Europe, but did not appear in England until 
somewhat later. 

The earliest forms of firearms which 
appeared in Europe were small cannon of 
forged iron, which shot arrows or stones. 
Mahomet II possessed a huge cannon at 
the siege of Constantinople in 1453. It is 
reported to have been 48 inches in diameter 
and fired stone bullets of 600 pounds 
weight. This was a worthy forerunner of 
the modern German " big Bertha " which, 
has recently been shelling Paris. By the 
middle of tne fifteenth century the produc- 
tion of large cannon became quite common 
in Germany. 

The first small arms were earliest and 
best developed in Italy and Germany. At 
first the chief advantage supposed to be 
possessed by firearms was the terror and 
confusion caused by their use. Their range 
and caliber were soon increased, however, 
and their value for destructive poiposea 
was quickly appreciated. 

The first hand gun came into practical 
use in 1446 and was of very rude construe^ 

Digitized by 





The Story qfFirearvu ICotUinued) 

ion. It consisted of a simple iron or brass 
ube with a touch-hole at uie top fixed in a 
it^x^ight wooden stock the end of which 
MMsed under the right armpit when the 
^un was about to be fired. A match was 
uade of cotton or hemp and boiled in a 
itrong solution of saltpeter. A cock or 
terpentine was fixed in the gun to hold the 
natch, which was brought down to the 
griming by a trigger, whence the term 
3iatchlock. Matchlocks are still in use by 
^e Chinese, Tartars, and Persians. 

An early form of hand firearm was the 
a&nd cannon or culverin. These were of 
»inall bore and were extensively used 
towards the close of the fifteenth century. 
Tlie hand culverin required two men to 
operate it. One man leveled and held the 
wreapon steady during discharge, while his 
companion applied the priming and the 
match. These hand cannon were largely 
used by the Emperor Sigismund in his 
Roman campaign m 1430, when they created 
a great sensation. Their accuracy in hitting 
w^as small, however, and the trouble of 
loading was great, while their imperfections 
were as numerous as those of the gun- 
powder with which they were fired. 

The early matchlocKs were very slow- 
firing and uncertain. English musketeers 
in the battle of Dunbar, in 1650, experi- 
enced great difiSculty in retaining their fire 
because of a dense fog and a heavy rain 
the night previous, which dampened their 
matches. In 1638, at Wittenmergen, the 
musketeers of the Duke of Weimar shot 
only seven times during the action that 
lasted from noon till eight o'clock in the 

As stated above, the object of the early 
^runners was to frighten ; guns were made 
expressly for ttie loud report caused by 
firing tnem. Montaigne wrote in 1585, 
when numerous improvements had been 
made, that " the effect of firearms apart 
from the shock caused by the report, to 
which one does not easily get accustomed," 
was so insignificant that he hoped they 
would be discarded. 

To add to the terror of the «nemy a 
variety of peculiar firearms were produced. 
The " Holy Water Sprinkle " was much 
favored by the English, and had four or 
more barrels joined and arranged in the 
same manner as the chamber oi a modem 
revolver. This could be discharged several 
times at very close range. 

The matcnlock was a most unsatisfac- 
tory weapon — it burned up a good deal of 
fuse and was hard to keep lighted. So in 
1517 the wheel-lock, an improvement on 
tlie matchlock, was invents in Nurem- 
berg. In this a notched steel' wheel was 
wound up by a key, like a clock. Flint or 
pyrite was held against the jagged edge of 
the wheel by the pressure ot the serpentine. 
Yon pulled tlie trigger, then " whir," the 
wheel revolved, a stream of sparks flew off 
into the flash-pan, and the gun was dis- 

About 1540 the Spaniards invented a 
larger and heavier firearm, carrying a ball 
of ten to the pound, called a musket. This 
wei^Mn was introduced into England before 
the middle of the sixteenth century, and 
soon came into general use throughout 

As a sporting weapon the gnn niav be 
said to oate m>m tne invention oi the 
wheel-lock, though firearms were used for 
sporting purposes in Italy, Spain, and Ger- 
many m the fifteenth centoiy. In Great 
Britain little nae appears to have 


. UMC / 




and Metallic Cartridge^ 

KEEP tke nglit spirit burning — tlie ^ooi 
American pioneer spirit — and get some -w^liole- 
some recreation and some game tor your table, ^ritk a 
Remington UMC big game nne and cartridges. 

^^ith a Remington UMC Autoloading or Slide 
Action R.epeater m your nands, loaded vcitb Remington 
UMC Cartnages, 'when your 'well earned chance cornea 
to bag tnat big buck you 'will be prepared to snoot right. 

for Shooting Right 

No bolt or lever to blindly grab and ■w^ildly yank — your 
hands stay right in snooting position. Easy to snoot be- 
cause fit, balance and sights are right. And bas the 
•peed, tne accuracy and the punch to do its 'work 
quick and clean. 

Tbere is not a single l>ehincl-the-times model or out-of-date feature 
in the Remington UMC line of big game rifles. They are the 
leaders — leadership hacked by the Grand Prize Gold Medal, high- 
est possible oi honors, "For Modem Firearms and Ammunition," 
avvarded to Remington UMC at the San Francisco Exposition. 

3o/tl hy Sporting Goods Dtalers in \our Community 

Clean %nA oil your rifle 'witb REM OIL. the eotnbiiiA. 
tion Powder Solvent. Lubricant and Ruat Preventive 


Larg€»t 2^anufacturtr» of Fir*amit and Amtnunitten tn cA« }X^orfJ 


made of firearms for game shooting until 
the latter half of the seventeenth century, 
and the arms then used for the purpose 
were entirely of foreign make. 

A manufactor3rior sporting arms was in 
existence in St. Etienne, France, early in 
the sixteenth century. An Italian sporting 
work published in lo69 informs ns tnat the 
art of shooting on the wing was first prac- 
ticed in Italy about 1580, 

About 1635 the modem firelock or flint- 
lock was invented. A flake of flint was fas- 
tened to the cock and when the tri«;er was 
pulled it snapped against a steel plate. 
This struck off sparks, which fell into the 
flash-pan and firm the charge. The match* 
lock gradually gave way to the flintlock, 
which was the weapon of Marlborough's 
and Wellington's armies. This was the 

famous " Brown Bess " of the British army. 
The highest development of the flintlock 
is found in the fowling-pieces of the end of 
the eighteenth and beginning of the nine- 
teenth centuries, particularly those made by 
Joseph Manton, the celeorated English 
gunsmith and inventor. The flintlock re- 
mained in use in the British army until 

(Thia article will b« conoladed in next 
week's iarae of The Outlook) 

Among other sovroet we are indebted to tkefoUout- 
ingfor information embodied in this article : 

The Winchester Repeating Armt Co. 

The Remington Armt Union Metallic Cartridge Co. 

CoU't Patent Firearmt Co. 

" ITu Oun and Il$ Dnelopment," ty W. W^ 

Article* in " The American Skoottr." 

Digitized by 





II September 


All Intimate questions from Outlook readers about inTestment securities will be answered either by personal letter or 
in these pages. The Outlook cannot, of course, undertake to guarantee against loss resulting from any specific invest- 
ment. Therefore it will not advise the purchase of any specific security. But it will give to inquirers facts of record or 
information resulting from expert investigation, leaving the responsibility for final decision to the investor. And it will 
admit to its pages only those financial advertisements which after thorough expert scrutiny are believed to be worthy of 
* confidence. All letters of inquiry regarding investment securities should be addressed to 


September Investments 
On Attractive Basis 

WE are offering for September investment a list of 
bonds and short-term notes of a breadth and 
variety to meet the requirements of all classes of investors. 

The securities which we offer have been thoroughly 
investigated by our buying departments and comply 
with high standards. 

These securities afford a liberal yield and we recom- 
mend them for investment. 

Send /or List Z-Sj. The office nearest to you will be 
glad to supply it. 

The National City Company 

National City Bank Building New York 


Tan Krok BMe. 

Atlxitta, Oa. 
Tfnat Co. of O*. Bids. 

Baltimobl Md. 
Muiuey Bldg. 

BoMOK, Mas*. 


BcnALo. K. T. 
MAriiM Buk Bide. 

CmcAOo, lix. 
127 So. I« tells St. 

OmcimiATi, Ohio 
Fourth Natl. Bk. Bldg. 

CuviLAHS, Ohio 
OuardUn Bldg. 

Dattok, Ohio 
Mutual Home Bldg. 

DsirvBB. Colo. 
ns i;tb street. 

l>n'Borr. MicR. 
147 Oriswold Street 

Harttokd, Co»ii. 
Conn. Mutual Bldg. 



IicDiAHAroLn, Iiro. PiinjtDB.nnA, Pa. 

Fletcher Saviiigi St 1421 Chutnut ~ 

Tnut Bldg. 
Kahsas Crrr, Mo. 

Republic Bldg. 
Loe Ahoclb, Cal. 


McKniKht Bldg. 


;»0 Broad St. 
Nbw OaLKAm, La. 
301 Baroune St. 

LoKDOH, E. C. 3 Eog. W Biahojagate. 

Short Term Notes 

8a> FKAUCnOO, OAb 

4M CaHtontla St. 

PrmBCBOH, Pa. 
Farmera Bank Bldg. 

Portland. MAnn 
396 Congreu St. 

PoBTLAifD, Ore. 

Rai 1 way Exchange Bldg. 
PaoiaDBNcR. R. I. 

Industrial Tniat Bldg. 
Richmond, Va. 

ja4 Mutual Bldg. 

.ITU, Wabi 


BnuiioriBLD, MAaa. 
3rd Natl. Bank Bldg. 

St. Locis, Ho. 

Bk. of ComorarM BMc 
Washinotoh, D. C. 

741 l.ttli 8t., N. W. 

Wilku-Barbx. Pa. 
Mhiera Bank Bldg. 


Digitized by 







IT is a popular fallacy that the securities 
of a rail«ray that has been through re- 
ceivership and subsequent Veorganiza- 
tion are to be viewed askance, or even 
let severely alone. 

Mr. Stuart Da^ett, in his very human 
book " Railroad Keorganization, by way 
of definition, says, in effect, the term reor- 
anization is used to denote the exchange of 
securities for the principal of outstanding, 
unmatured general mortgage bonds, or for 
at least fifty per cent of the unmatured 
junior mortgage bonds of any company, or 
for the whole of the capital stocjc This 
exchange of securities must take place upon 
a considerable scale. Small readjustments 
may involve valuations of specific bits of 
property, but they do not require that 
comprenensive survey of the relations of 
all parts of the system to each other which 
distinguishes the general reorganization. 

While a reorganization is often tedious, 
expensive, and detrimental to the business 
interests of the corporation, if thoroughly 
done, it generally brings the best results. 
Many of the railway systems which we 
now look upon as the strongest in the coun- 
try — for example, the Atchison, Union 
Pacific, and Northern Pacific — have been 
throuffh such a reorganization to their 

The typical railway reorganization fol- 
lows the failure of the road to meet the 
interest on its outstanding obligations. 
Whatever the immediate reasons tor this, 
there are two fundamental causes. First, 
the latitude which railways have been 
allowed in capitalization ; witness the Erie's 
increase of its per mile capitalization from 
upwards of $80,000 in 1864 to some $117,000 
in 1872 without a corresponding property 
increase. The second is excessive competi- 
tion. The detrimental effect of this has in 
the past made itself felt somewhat in rate 
cutting, pursued often to a point below 
cost, but chiefly through the ill-considered 
acquisition of new lines. 

The difficulties of the St. Louis and San 
Francisco Railroad Company, resulting in 
its reorganization in 1916, furnish a strik- 
ing illustration. The road had embarked 
upon an extensive programme of expansion. 
Its purchases and construction of such 
properties as the New Orleans, Texas, and 
Mexico, the business of which proved to be 
of practically no value, was the real cause 
for the default in interest payments on the 
funded debt 

The reorganization plan finallv adopted 
was one proposed by Frederick Strauss, of 
J. & W. Seligman & Co., acting with repre- 
sentatives of the holders of the refnnding 
mortgage bonds, general lien 5e and others. 
By thu reorganization the capitalization was 
reduced by nearly thirteen per cent and the 
fixed charges from nearly nfteen million to 
a little over nine million dollars. Ample 
provision was made for future workmg 

The success of this interesting reorgan- 
ixation Is shown by the increased earning 
capacity since possessed by the company. 
Announcement was recently made in the 
newspapers that the directors of the new 
company — ^the St. Louis-San Francisco 
Railway — are expected to meet soon after 
the signing of the Government railway con- 
tract to act on the 1918 interest declara- 
tion on the income mortgage 6 per cent 

bonds. Series " A," due July 1, 1960. These 
bonds were issued in the reorg^ization to 
the amount of $35492,000. Interest on them 
is payable annually. On October 1, 1917, 
full o per cent interest was paid. In that 
year, after allowing for fixed charges, 6 
per cent interest on income bonds, and 6 per 
cent on preferred stock, the balance of earn- 
ings available for common stock was equal 
to $4.75 a share. 

If a railway reorganization proves to be a 
thorough house-cleaning and the new com- 
pany is furnished with sufficient funds to 
carry on business, there is no reason why 
tts securities should not be sound. Of course 
a purchase of a share in the equity, good 
will, and earning power of such a railway, 
represented by its stocks^is purely a specu- 
lation, although experience shows them to 
have been generally profitable. On the 
other hand, its bonds, being usually a con- 
solidated and reduced funded debt, repre- 
sent the best results of the reorganization. 
Indeed, they are frequently to be preferred 
to bonds of a road to which no stigma of 
receivership attaches. 


Q. I have oome into poMMiion of stock on the 
face of which it is stated to be full-paid and dod- 
aseesaable. Being nnveraed in financial matters, I 
will greatly appreciate an explanation of this 
phrase. Also, I have been offered water bonds of 
the city and ooonty of Denver, which 1 undeietand 
are a new issne. Can yon give me your opinion of 

A. The phrase " full-paid and non-assess- 
able" means that in the case of failure 
the holders of stock so classified cannot be 
legally compelled to make further pay- 

This has a bearing on the article on 
railway reorganization published on this 
page. If the first-mortgage issue of a 
corporation be foreclosed and the first- 
mortgage holders take the property for 
themselves, the stockholders and holders 
of junior bonds lose their interest in the 
corporation unless willing to contribute 
more or less heavily to the new capital re- 
quired. In this way full-paid and non- 
assessable stock may be assessed, although 
only with the stockholder's consent, for he 
has the option of giving up his interest and 
taking the loss. 

The water bonds to which you refer are 
the general obligations of the city and 
county of Denver. The proceeds are to be 
used to buy the plant and distributing sys- 
tem of the Denver Union Water Company, 
at a price of $13,970,000. The bankers 
interested in the selling syndicate state 
that the net earnings of uxe water company 
are sufficient for the payment of interest 
and sinking funds on the total debt of the 
city, and that the net bonded debt of Den- 
ver is less than one-eighth of one per cent 
of the assessed valuation. In buymg mu- 
nicipal bonds it is always advisable to 
secure a copy of the legal opinion. Such an 
opinion does not in any way guarantee the 
value of the security, but is the report of a 
competent lawyer to the effect that, after 
examination into the details of the issu- 
ance of the securities, he believes that it 
has conformed with all Uie legal reauire- 
nients and that the bonds so issuea are 
valid obligations of the debtor. 


The wise investor is regu- 
larly investing his surplus above 
war tsoces and Govemtnent 
Bonds in short-term securities 
o( industries essentisJ to our 
nation in both peace and war. 

He thus secures a fairly 
liquid and high interest bear- 
ing investment that will pro- 
■vide a strong reserve should 
there be a business depression 
following the war. 

Lei us send you our Booklet 
O-200, describing aeoeral 
issues of this character. 



Farm Mortgages 

as negotiated by us combine all the 
advantages of safe and profitable invest- 
ments. We have been engaged in this 
business here for 46 years without loss 
to an investor. 

Wriufor bockUt arid list of rmroffmngs. 

The Humphrey InTesbneDt Co. 

I'his business established by L. U. 
Humphrey, later Governor ofKansas 

Liberal Yield 
Positive Safety 

A LL of the First Mort- 
gage Real Estate 
Serial Oold Bond issues 
we offer are baaed upon 
new property that is in- 
come • producing. They 
are non-fluctuating and 
absolutely safe.The return 
is ifo. Write for booklet. 

"A Bayar't CaU» to Goodlnv—tmmU. " 


Bond 6t Mortgagt Co, 

Harry W. Ford. Prei. 
to L GrUmalJ Stnmt Dmtnil 

Digitized by 




Taking Stock of the Future 

WE are publishing a series of 
papers describing the pre- 
parations now being made for 
after-war trade by various coun- 
tries, including Great Briton, 
France, Italy, Canada, Japan, 
Australia, and Germany. 

We shall be glad to send you 
these papers; also the following 
booklets bearing on foreign trade 

Banking Service for Foreign Trade 

Export TradeunderthelVebbLav) 

Acceptances (in Domestic and 
Foreign Trade) 

Financing our Future Abroad 

A complete list of our publica- 
tions now available for distribu- 
tion is given in our leaflet, "F*ub- 
licarions of Current Interest" 

Guaranty Trust Company of New York 

140 Broadway 

FiiTH Ati. Ornat Kadiion Ain. Omcz Lohdon Orrici Paiii OrriCB 

Fifth An. & 43rd Sc Madnon An. & 6och St. 32 Lombud St. , E. C. RaeHcaltaHoH, I4c3 

Capital and Surplus $50,000,000 Resources more than |6oo,ooo,ooo 



A eoDTM of forty Icmocm in tfao hlotorr, form, 


Bn J. *i% t«««»tl«. hr TMnUII«r«r UfMMMt'a. 

JfO-pcvo ootoioffiM/yvi. PUoMoidrum 

THi mu ooBBwronmc* sthool 

TAini WANTC <n«nirlii» of lioDMliold.ailacatieul, 
IVWIt If JMl I J fairinM. nr rmnwul inrTlnn rtnimiitln 
w wfc«n , f ch t t i, iii ir Mt, bniliif or ^<i <<m l nrnl mt i tin t*, 
«tCM etc— whathor yoa raqidra help or ere eeeUng e dtiie 
tUn, amj be filled throagh a little eiinoimccinflnt In the 
oleeilfied oohuniu ol Tlie Outlook. If 70a have ■ome article 
to uHX or axchenge, theae oohunna may prore ol real TaJne 
toronaetherhantomanrothen. fleod (or d«e m l|i tl »e dr- 
otUaraadotdar blank AND FILL TOUR WANTS. AddrMi 
I dOmiti ktmUm. It WHlOOi;. 381 farii Att. K T. 



Banka, Tnuteee, Inaoianoe Companiea, Inati- 
tatloaa. Sto^ hare inveated with tia for rean 
wllhoai the (on of a cent In principal or inter- 
rat. iDdiTldualaareinTitedtotakeadnuttase 

I of oar Fint Mortcwea cm tanprored (arma. $900 and 
TO. 2S yeara' ezperieooe. " ' '~ ■"""■" 
Write for toll particulars. 

oca. Our teooid an open book. 

503 J«okaon St. Top«ka. Kansas 





No InvMtor hu over (oredosed % Mortage, teken afoot 

of land or lost * dollar on a Danfortb nm Mortga^. 

For farther information regarding our Farm Loam and 

Bonds write for Booklet and Invaetors* List No. 58. 



Foundsd AD. 1858 




FtetlalCoDtanti of September 

Ha7 FeTor 

Efaner liae, M.D. 

Breatkinf and Life 

John i. Mixm, UJ>. 

Why Women Are InrdUcb 

8. W. I>odd% U.T>. 

Neorelgia and Toodi-Ache 

VJtSlatiA a. OnraU, ILD. 


Edward B. Warman, AJL 

Marriage and Health 

Giadya Wantworth Bajiioida, KJX 

SocietT During War 

Ifitieab Hadad 


Wetter i. N. Urlngrton, H.D. 

lite abore are a fair ol the featured aitleiea In 

Beptember number. 

IB centa a eopr (l.SO a jmmr 

TrUl oftar 4 ownllw 25c 


308 SL Jamaa BniUinc Naw York 

^This FREE Shoe Book 

ScrowoMi wiu poou>cr«>a> mm oeacHptitNia 
Envvar sboM for Uco.Wanwo, uwl Oiildrwi. 

aweu- aboas are ••wt 
a «o coTiibiiis comfort. 

■g o. Wom an snd CSilldraa. 
L. Bb-le sod qaj^Htr! t« m 

y *M»cfc^ Aiw ikirt f lew 

FE Simon Shoe'sPbV.:;;';- 


Jnat Ont. A New Sons Book. Sample copy will 
damonitrateltaTalue. Kxamination Copy Board 25c. Clotli 3.V: 
The BlKlow and Main Co., Mew York • Chicago 

11 September 


A New Yoi^ (Sty paper prints the fo^ 
lowiitg request on ue part of Maey'a de- 
partment store: "The War Department 
asks for peach stones. Peach stones have 
a valuable and important war nse. Whether 
the number of patches yoo use is large or 
small, please save the stones. They may be 
left at the Liberty Peach Stone Barrd, 
Broadway near our 35th Street entrance, 
where they are being collected for Uncle 
Sun. The stones moat be dry." 

A subscriber writes : " My mother, Mrs. 
Rebecca £. Butler, living near Kllabell, 
Gieorgia, who will be eighty-nine years old 
if she lives until the fifteenth daj of next 
February, has the following hvii^ de- 
scendants : Children, 10 ; Krandchuidren, 
86; great-grandchildren, 135 ;great-great- 
mndehildren, 27 ; total, 258. lX>e8 Colond 
Roosevelt, one of vour former editors, «4io 
is a believer in large families, know of 
any family that can excel this record ?" 

The above paragraph speaks well for 
€reorgia, but from another an?le the palm 
in the matter of fecundi^ is claimed ov a 
Pennsylvania town, as the following aes- 
patch to a daily paper shows : 

Hatfield High School, Moot g ouiery Goanty, 
elaims the diatinotion of beings the only higrh aehool 
in the oountry to graduate a claaa in which then 
were triplets. The girU, sizteen jtm*» of age, an 
danghten of Mr. and Mn. B. K. Swaitley. It it 
diffionlt to tell the giria apart. 

" How many ships are you going to get 
into the water this fear?" Mr. Charles M. 
Schwab asked Admiral Bowles at the Hog 
Island yards, as reported in " The WorU's 
Work. " Our prog^mme calls for thirty- 
one, bat we are going to try for forty- 
e^ht," was the reply. " Make it fifty and 
Yu. see that yon get the best Jersey cow 
in America, said Mr. Schwab. Admiral 
Bowles has a dairy farm and Mr. Schwab 
knew it. " Pm going to begin picking ont 
that cow right awav, retorted the Admiral, 
" and when I get ner I'll lead her throagh 
Uie yards here so all the boys can see her." 

An English clergyman, according to the 
" Presbyterian Advance," was grieved to 
find his services for men poorly attended. 
He expressed his regret to the verger. " I 
really think they ought to come," be said, 
sadly. "■ Tbaf 8 just what I've said to them 
over an' over again," said-the verger, consol- 
ingly. " I says to 'em, ' Look at me,' I says; 
' look at me 1 I goes to all them services,' 
I says, ' an' wot 'arm does they do me ?*" 

In "A Calendar of Leading £xperi- 
mente," by W. S. Franklin and Bwty 
MacNutt, some amusing experiments aT« 
interspersed with serious ones. Two of thi 
former are these : L Arrange a phonogrwl 
so that it can be driven forwards or ba^- 
wards at will and reverse a faumliar mel 
ody like « Yankee Doodle." 2. Spin a hard 
boiled egg on its side ; it will quickly staai 
up on one end. 

Among " Napoleon's Maxims," as sma 
marized in "Leadership and Militar 
Training," by Colonel L. C. Andrews, i 
this advice, which has its bearing on pre* 
ent war developments : " A passive dc 
fense is deadly, and does not win battlei 
Aggressive action is safer, and more pro 
line of victory. Troops that have th 
initiative hold the advantage point. Th« 
force the others to play their game." 

The wonderful collection of old mafita 
in the Hemiitagu, tlie Imperial art gaDer 
of Petrog^ad, has ceased to exist, according 
to press despatches. Thus the Bolshevil 

digitized t5y VJ^^*^ 

us^e Bolshe 


By tk: Wtv tContimedt 
hafve another sin laid at their doors. They 
petniitted Grennan agents posing as Swedes 
arid Norw^iians to bay the pictures for 
trifling sums and carry them off to the 
hope of Kultur. When the day of resti- 
tu^on comes, these paintings must be put 
oa the litt of things to be accounted for. 

Josh Billings, the hnmoiist, was not ap- 
pfcciated when he offered his first contri- 
bution to a papvt in his home town, accord- 
ing to a connepondent of the " Christian 
R^jister " who was personally acquainted 
widi him. He then concluded to follow 
Aitemns Ward's example and misspell his 
articles so as to attract attention. "In this 
absurd shape," he said* " I sent one of mv 
cmfortunate productions to thn ' New York 
Weekly.' I soon got a letter accepting my 
uannseript and asking me for more. In 
time I was under a big salary not to write 
far amy other paper." One of Josh Billings's 
•ocwHtricities described was his " Lecture 
«■ llilk." In this lecture he never said a 
m0ti about milk, but a glassful of that 
3ifnd stood on his desk while he talked 
WM was occasionaUy sipped by him as he 
ipslke. As milk was his support while he 
talked, rather than water or something 
stronger, his lecture was in truth given 
■" on milk." 

In these days when the maid-servant has 
departed to the monition works or the 
hospital no right-minded man wiU object 
te sharing the household tasks with his 
wife, at least to the extent of wiping the 
dklies. If there be any recalcitrants, this 
p asi ng e of the Bible may be read to them, 
laetdentally it indicates the masculine pro- 
cedare in the art of dish-wiping according 
telte Hebrews : " I will wipe Jerusalem as 
•ana wipeth a dish, wiping it, and taming 
it i9«de down." (2 Kings xxi. 13.) 

If a despatch from Ocate, New Mexico, 
ia eort^tt, that place has the honor of har- 
borii^ tlie youngest old man in the coun- 
try. ^Matt Crosby," it reads, "is the oldest 
cowboy in the United States. Recently he 
eelebrated his ninety-first birthday by 
breaking in a younj^ horse just off the 
raaga^ and followea this by roping and 
tying a three-year-old steer in a htUe more 
than four minutes." 

The example of spryness quoted above 
ahould be encourag^mg to noni^enarians. 
Others who look askance at the doctrine 
attributed (erroneously, - br the way) to 
Dr. Osier, that a man's usefulness ceases at 
forty, may take heart at another newspaper 
item, to tiie effect that James Douglas, a 
New Yorker who died recently leavmg an 
estate valued at $20,000,000, sUted in his 
will that this vast fortune was accumulated 
After he had arrived at the age of forty. 

A Grerman who has become a thorough 
American, Charles F. Heartman, of New 
York City, has published a leaflet in which 
he says : " I am only seven years in this 
country. The most glorious moment of my 
life was when the postman handed me that 
long white envelope that I knew contained 
mr nataralization papers. I immigrated to 
this oonntry as a pohtical refugee. . . . Ger- 
mans may come here because wey are dis- 
satisfied with German laws or because of 
the hated militarism. But when they come, 
let them be cut off from German influence, 
from a German press, from a German club, 
and yoa will see tnem gettinc^acauainted with 
American ideals. For me the German press 
and a large number of German clubs are of 
poisonous consequences. ... I am in favor 
of the suppression of the German press." 




of the 


By Harry Emerson Fosdick 

A book that breathes the spirit of 
the determined Christian warrior. 

Read what an artillery officer at the front wrote 
to the folks at home: 

" I want to tell you, too, while the opportunity is at 
hand, of" the wonderful and important influence Dr. 
Fosdick's new book, The Challenge of the Present Crisis, 
is having thruout the country. I put it down — with eyes 
sparkling — and fists clenched — with determination anew 
to rid the world rf this German pest — but also with 
wider view of the world problems involved in this 
war — with new strength — new hope — new faith for 
the future of civilization. Not only have I been thus 
affected but many of my friends the same." 

In Mr. Fosdick's fearless analysis of the value of force and 
its limitations, the place of militarism in a Christian civilization, 
and other fundamental elements in the present situation, which 
constitute a challenge to Christian churches and individuals, he 
proves afresh his power to interpret the current thoughts of 
men and to guide fhem to higher levels. 

You should have a copy — ^what it has done 
for others it will do for you. 

At all Bookstores 


347 Madison Ave., New York 

Digitized by VJWVJV l*^ 




MM are : Hotak a^ Reurta, Aiiutinenta, Ton'aail Ttanii, Bod Estate, tin, Stack a^ PimltiT. fi&7 ""*» pw as*** 1<B^ 
itedHpace. Not ka tliaa foor liui aooeptad. In oaleolatinK qiaee teqabed for a> ad ml iiiaai l . ewt as Brence of as word* to tll» 

- Wt " aitiiitmiaiBH. — der the Tarioas headiiiga, "Boatd and Rooma," "H«lp Wanted," te.. tea eeate for aaeb wad or nitial, IntdadiiiK 
tihe aadrB—. tor eacfa iawf ftioo. The fi»«t wocd of eaeh " Want " ad»e i t ite ii> en t ia let ia capital letten wkhoat iili B liii— I nfc ii n - OUmt vocdi 
^ ha aet B laiiilih. if deved, at doaUe tatea. If annren an to be addraaaed ia can of The Ootiook, twcatjr-five oenW ia ehused for the bs 
I the aJwif— iial. Replies wiQ be forwaided by na to the adTcrtiser and biU for pn s ra ge leai i a ta i i . Spsri a l hu si B ac i aivsapnite to 





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demons"™^ it. value KxaminSion Copy B.«r.l2icCd,,{hl^ 
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IF you are in the habit of buying 
The Outlook at a news-stand, it 
will be to your advantage to iJace 
a standing order with yonr newsdealer. 
The War Industries Board has re- 
quested publishers to discontinue the 
aeoeiitance of unsold copies from news- 
dealers, and in conforniity with that 
request The Outlook is now non-return- 
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The Outlook 

Copyright. 1918, by 'ITie Outlook Company 


Vol. 120 September 18, 1918 No. 3 




rirrv-Two laatiBs — four dou-aes is advarce. entered 


An Announoement ■*• 

The CJovernment-Railroad Contract 81 

The Benishin£ of Beer 81 

The Student-Soldier 82 

The Slacker and the Careless Man 82 

The Offensive is Still with the Allies.... 82 

Cartoons of the Week 83 

Gains in Russia 84 

Primary Day in New York 84 

The Baby-Weighing Campaign 84 

The Lesson of Lafayette Day 85 

The Romance in Ruts 86 

The Devil and the Deep Sea 86 

Broadway on a Hot Night 87 

A Judicial Definition of Allegiance 88 

To America (Poem) ^ 

By Harold Trowbridfe Puliiler 

Running Submerged ^ 

Special Corrcapondeoce (rom Henry B. Beaton 

Bolshevism and Applied Anti-Bolshevism 92 

By Theodore Rooaevelt 

Art, Romance, and War 93 

By Joicph H. Odell, Special Correapondenl of 
The Outlook in France 

America to Devastated France (Poem). 

By Theodoiia Garriaon 
All the Comforts of Home : What the Army 
Engineer Corps Has Done for the Men 

in the Training Camps 95 

By Francis Lynde 

Current Events Illustrated 97 

The Fighting Shepherd 101 

By W. S. Rainilord 

California in the School of War 102 

Special Correspondence by Cardinal Goodwin 

The End of a Perfect Day 103 

Special Correspondence by Lyman P. Powell 
Weekly Outline Study of Current History 106 
By J. Madison Gathany, A.M. 

The Story of Firearms— II 

Universal Military Training 79 

An Aviator Has a House Painted 79 

The Letter and the Soldier HI 

By William L. Stidger 

Dying Young 

By the Way 




18 Sep.emt-T 

The Pratt Teachers A«ency 

70 Ftfth Avmsaa. New Tork 


AdTiaea pBrmu »bout Behools. Wm. O- rrmEX. mzt. 





BY SUBSCRIPTION 14.00 A YEAR. Single copies 10 ceuU. 

For loreign aubacription to countries in the Poetal Union, to.M, 

Addreaa all communications to 


381 Fonrth Avenue ^ew York City 

U. I 

Ho«>te%Ortte.WlM*toWrife, ' 

and Where 1o sell. I 

CaHnUeyournund-D'^ I 

yoMT mp ar m t i iiw piofBoPto. I 
Torn yonr idctu into ddUn. j 

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im. VeiBiflcBtion, Joumalisn. ' 
Play -Writinc PhotopUj | 
Writinc, etc, IxuKlit pcraoo- , 
Dr.Esen'Wetn. any by Dr. J. B«ck Esenwsio. I 
fiir many years editor of Lij>pinootfB »«aia™«- "* ' 

B Btafl of literary experts. Cofiatructi»e uilicMr- 
Frank. honeBt, helpAiI adviot Kga/ te»chutf- 

Oas F«pa has rse«hra4 
aitadss oriniK aallr !• «•" ' 
calsk. Kftt^rti i s L si'iJ 
mn i im ss ^ (M •«-> 

•nnt<as mr »7S • 

There k no other iiistitution or >(ency doinc ao muc* 
far writers, youi^ or <M. The univeiBitiea recopiiK 
th^ far over one hundred memberB of tlie Entisli 
bcultiM of hifber inatitutiona ai« Btudyinc in <k 
Literary Depertment The editora reoocouc *. *» 
they are constantly recommondinB our ocsmea. 
w. p.1** n, WMw: lM.wn>. w. •e»;dbferk 

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iaTi>a>.'tniD lUT i»co«iK>«« ■— * 






A Charch School Far BK)g_ __ 
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ETCTOSrKiv: K. D. TIBB1T8, D.DaJfcSJi-fcS*' 
S°a^^'^8db<AlSirta«ktai« 8ei>t«nber ^U>^ ^^ 



St. John's Riverude Hospital Tnii 
School for Norses 


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noecsl tTBintaic to reened. adncated wousen. ft 
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Domestic science up to dute, lanilf.Strm^^ 

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JtB. O. U ScDDDBB, Regiatnr, 


Broadvar al 120di Street 
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Digitized by 




We do not know how in bo short a space 
a better ' editorial on the desirability of 
universal military training and patriotic 
service coold be written wan is found in 
the following letter, sent by an American 
soldier in France to his little son in Texas. 
It has been sent to us by the baby's mother 
with this comment : " I am wondering 
whether you can publish this. I think it 
points out the need of universal military 
training pretty welL" It certainly does. 

p. 0. eth Bg. 
ifyD^S«n: F»no,. Jtily 13. 1918. 

I don't know as yoo will be able to recognize my 
bandwritiiiK — this being the fint letter I have sent 
in 3roar direction. Ton see, laat year you were a 
little too young to receive letters, and, to come rigbt 
down to ciues, this year may find yon a little under 
the reading age. 

Yon and I never got very well acquainted, did 
we ? We have not as yet had much of a chance. 
\\'hen yon oome to count up the months that we 
have lived under the same roof, we only got about 
five, while we were at Fort Bliss, so I have to go 
largely on what mother has told and written me. 

She wya you ate a joy. That you are strong and 
husky and have a good disposition, which is fine for 
a starter. 

limagine that you are having afinetime to-day — 
a party, perhaps — a new pair of shoes and a nqmber 
of new toys. 

And in addition yoa will invbably be allowed to 
spend an inoreased amount of time on the beach in 
honor of your being two years old. 

It must be great fnn to play on the beach. I 
<!onld not do that when I was your age. We lived 
a long way from the sea ; in £>ct, I did mot see salt 
water until I was fifteen years old. 

In about fifteen years I would like for yoa to 
think over this army business, fiy that time yon 
should have a pretty good idea of what yon wish to 
do for the rest of your life, and it will he time for 
you to decide. 

I can toll yon right now that the service has some 
drawbacks, and that there are many features that 
yoa may not like, but if yon get into a miz-np like 
this, and yon are bound to, and put it over — the 
riffkt, I mean — yon will have the great sadsfaotion of 
knowing you had the honor to help in setting things 
straight and enabling people to live as Qod intended 
they should. When you come to military age, the 
country will probably require yon to take a course 
in military training ; at least I hope it will. If by 
any chance the country does not require it, you may 
know that / will. I want you to get everything you 
possibly oan out of that course. It will help you 
g7«atly in any work that you may decide to take 
np, and just assure as yoa are a foot high you will 
need military tnuning at some stage of your career. 

I did not intend to write a sermon on this ooeasion, 
bat I see that I have dooe that very thing. What I 
did mean to do was to toll you that I hope that yon 
have a fine day and a mighty fine time. 

Be a good boy and a good soldier. 

With lota of love, Pathkb. 





It was a simple boyish letter written in 
London by a youtb nom Worcester, Mas- 
sachua^tts, with a little bit of news, a little 
bit of complaint, and a great big bit of 
confidence in what he and the Americans 
were going to do ; but the better part by far 
was : " I have saved my pay for some time 
now, and I want to give dad a surprise by 
having the old house painted. Won't yon 
please let me know how much it will cost ? 
Mid 111 send yon the money and leave the 
reat to you, but yoa mustn t let dad know 
who is paying for it" 

That same evening on the train, among 
the missing and reported as a prisoner, I 
read the name of tlie aviator who wrote Uie 
letter. A. J. M. 

How to End Film 

On Your Teeth 

All Statements Approved by High Dental Authorities 

It Must Be Done 

Brashingr teeth without ending the 
film is pretty nearljr useless. Millions of 
people know that. They find that brushed 
teeth still discolor, still decay. And statis- 
ticB show that tooth troubles are constantly 

A slimy film which you feel on your teeth 
is the cause of most tooth troubles. It gets 
into crevices and stajra, resisting the tooth 

That film is what discolors, not your 
teeth. It hardens into tartar. It holds 
food which ferments and forms acid. It 

holds tibe acid in contact with the teeth to 
cause decay. 

Millions of germs breed in it They, 
with tartar, are the chief cause of pyor- 
rhea. So it is that fibn which wrecks the 

Science has now found a way to daily 
combat that film. Able authorities have 
proved it by clinical tests. It is embodied 
in a dentifrice called Pepsodent, which 
countless dentists are now urging. It is 
bound to supersede old methods with 
eveiyone who knows it 

A Week WiU Show 

The results of Pepsodent are so evident 
so quick, that a week's use is convincing. 
And we offer that test at our cost. 

Pepsodent is based on pepsin, the diges- 
tant of albumin. The film is albuminous 
matter. The object of Pepsodent is to 
dissolve it, then to constantly prevent its 

Ordinary pepsin will not serve this pur- 
pose. It must be activated, and the usual 
agent is an acid harmful to the teeth. 

But science has discovered a harmless 
activating method. Five governments have 
already granted patents. It is that method — 
used only in Pepsodent — which makes 
possible this efficient application. 

After a great many testa made by den- 
tal authorities, Pepsodent is recognised 
as the way to fight this film. And now 
we urge eveiyone to prove it in their 

Send the coupon for a One- Week tube. 
Use it like any tooth paste and watch re- 
sults. Note how clean your teeth feel after 
using. Mark the absence of that slimy film. 
See how your teeth whiten as the fixed Aim 

Stop your inefficient methods for one 
week. See how much more Pepsodent 
accomplishes. Then judge for yourself 
what to do in the future. 

Cut out the coupon now. 

Ratam yoar amply tooth pattm fwfces to thm n*€irmt Rmd Cross StatJMt 

ace. U.S. 

Tht New-Dcuf DaMfikx 

Sold by Druggists Everjrwlier^ 
—A Scientific Product 

One- Week Tube Free 


Dept. 183, 1104 S. Wabash Ave. 
Chicago, III. 

Mail One- Week Tube of Pepsodent ta 



Digitized by 





• ■•••• • 




issoLaLyJeaaintK ieweCersCs ^~^ 


- - SILVERSiniTHS an^ GOLDSTniTHS - - 




—■■■■■■,— I 

Digitized by 


The Outlook 

SEPTEMBER 18, 1918 
Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York 

Three articles relating to three widely different phases of the war will appear in The Outlook next week : 
I *' The War Costs and the War Debt " Mr. Theodore H. Price discusses questions relating to National 
^penditure ; in " Across South Africa in War Time " Mr. Gregory Mason, the staff correspondent of The 
utlook, describes South Africa's patriotic efforts for ihe war ; in " What You Want to Know About Our 
rmy in France " Dr. Odell, who has been the special correspondent of The Outlook in France, answers 
^finitely and directly the very questions that are being asked by relatives and friends of our soldiers 
»road. These three articles will make the forthcoming issue of The Outlook a notable one in its direct 
(flection of war conditions. 



The final step is about to be made in the taking over of 
e steam railway properties of the United States by the Gov- 
nment in porsuanee of the President's proclamation of the 
"st of January last. This step is the signing of a contract 
itween the Unite*' States Eailroad Administration and the 
rporations owning the railways. The questions that have been 
> much debated in the negotiation of this contract are highly 
implicated, and it is hardly necessary to discuss them at length, 
lit the main points at issue between the railway corpora- 
N)8 and the Government may be stated in simple terms, as 

Under the law the Government has taken over the railways, 
preeing to pay to their owners as rental an annual sum equal 

the average net operating income as reported to the Inter- 
tate Commerce Commission for the three years ending June 
), 1917. The net operating income of a railway is what ia left 
ter the operating expenses and taxes have been paid out of the 
t>ss earnings of the railway. This rental for their properties 
e railway corporations have practically accepted without 
imur : but there . are two points in the proposed contract to 
lich many of the corporations, and especially a protective com- 
ittee representing the holders of railway securities, have stren- 
ii«ly objectwl. The Government insists that necessary per- 
uient improvements to a railway shall be paid by the railway 
^^If out of the proceeds of securities which it sludl sell, charg- 
^ the same to its capital accoimt ; or, if the railway prefers, 
a Oovemment will pay for the improvements and betterments 
d deduct the cost from the amount of rental. The railways 
k that the Government shall sell securities of the railways 
Hicfient to make the necessary improvements, claimin|^ that 

many instances tlie railways have no market for additional 
nds. Let us sup]x)8e that the New York, New Haven, and 
irtf ord Railroad wishes to build a bridge at New London, cost- 
r a million dollars. The Government says that it will build 
9 bridge, but that the road must sell a million dollars' worth 
1>onds to provide the funds, or that it will deduct the million 
liars from the amount due the road in rentals. The roads ask 

be relieved of the burden of selling such bonds, on the 
uund that in war time the Government can find a market for 
[•h securities when the private corporation cannot. 
The other point at issue has been the right of the railways to 
3 the Government at the conclusion of the rental period for 
y loss of traffic or good will that they may suffer owing to 
i policy of the Kailroad Administration during the time that 
has oontrolle<l their properties. When the roads are returned 
their private owners, the Pennsylvania Railroad, for instance, 
g-ht say to the Government, " We have for many years been 
torionsly building up a profitable freight and passenger traf- 
. Yon have diverted much of this passenger and freight traffic 
other railways, and therefore the earning power of our cor> 
r&tion has been decreased, and we shall ask the courts to 
Bide bow much we are to be reimbursed for the injury." 
!Vf r. McAdoo has insisted that the right to bring such a suit 
luld be expressly waived in the contract. He has maintained 

that if the Government had not taken over the railways at the 
time it did many of them would have been entirely bankrupted 
by the experience of the past six months, and that no conceiva^ 
ble damage by diversion or modification of their traffic can 
equal the advantages of a Government guarantee of net earn- 
ings. He also insists that any conceivable loss of business owing 
fb a rearrang;ement of traffic would be the result of a war meas- 
ure, for the consequences of which the Government should not 
be beld responsible. At the present writing the indications are 
that the railway corporations will patriotically accept the con- 
tract as offered, and the opinion of many well-informed financiers 
is that they will not suffer in so doing. 

There is a third contingency which has not been referred to 
either by the Government or the railways in their debates, but 
to which it is not inappropriate to allude. If Government 
control of our inter-State railvrays should turn out to be 
permanent, as many economists think it will, the difficulties as 
to betterments and traffic damage anticipated by the railway 
corporations will not arise. For the Government will take ever 
the properties in fee simple as owner, payinof for them outright 
in some manner to be agreed upon, probably in the form of 
Government bonds. This contingency has been foreseen by some 
of the most astute of the railway managers themselves. Presi- 
dent Ripley, of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa ¥6 Railway, 
if we remember correctly, some years ago suggested that this 
was the necessary and desirable solution of the railway problem. 


If administrative war orders continue to check and bar the 

f>roduction of alcoholic bevera^i^es, there will not be much of the 
iquor trade left to be dealt with, during the war at least, by 
act of Congress or amendment to the Constitution. All brew- 
eries in the country are to be closed on December 1 next by 
order of the Food Administration. The purpose is twofold, to 
save coal and to save grain for war use whether by ourselves 
or our allies. This accomplishes exactly what the Randall 
Amendment to the Agricultural Stimulation Bill proposed, 
and leaves the lower house better disposed to substitute the 
Prohibition Amendment passed by the Senate. Both houses have 
agreed to the proposal that the President shall have power to 
establish *' dry zones " where war and industrial efficiency make 
it desirable. 

The closing of the breweries, like that of the distilleries, 
seems to be accepted even by those enraged in the business with 
calmness and in a patriotic spirit. The result will in time 
involve the dosing of large numbers of saloons as weH as brew- 
eries, and will temporarily put many men out of work. But 
there is no lack of use nowadays for buildings, men, or capital. 
They will be added to the forces working for the things the 
country needs and must have. 

The dosinff of the breweries here has created a strong im- 
pression in England, where the London ** Spectator " and other 
Cpers have long carried on a campaigfii against using g^rain for 
er. A writer in one paper says : "As A merit 

Digitized by 




it looks as if she is dosing her breweries that ours may remain 
open. It is very doubtful if, supposing the circumstances were 
reversed, we should do the same for her ; but it is a notable 
example of the determination of the United States to let nodi- 
ing stand in the wslj of carrying on the war." Another writer 
pomts out that while America is stopping beer Warwickshire 
coal-mineis are on strike because they are not supplied with 
beer enough. 


Many of the colleges are announcing their ^ans for carry- 
ing out the provisions established by the War Department for 
the Students' Army Training Corps. The methods and purpose 
of this great National educational undertaking were stated riilly 
in The Outlook last week. The young men of the country are 
urged to enter the ooUeges without regard to the question of 
draft age. The collie will judge o{ the fitness of the applicant 
to enter coUege. If he is eighteen years old or over, he must of 
course register for the draft before his local board and take the 
usual physical examination. He will then become a soldier, and 
his uniform, arms, and living expenses will be provided by the 
Grovemraent. He will, however, be inducted into the Students' 
Army Training Corps at the college which he has entered and 
will take the courses established there under the arrangement 
with the Government. Naturally the instruction will follow 
lines of direct military value ; for instance, Colimibia University, 
in New York City, sats out special courses in French, geography, 
chemistry, topography, map-making, engineering, and the like. 
United States officers will furnish technical military instruction. 
It may be noted, however, that the programme of the War 
Department specifically states that academic work will not be 

When the soldier-student is called out, as he may be at 
any time, when other drafted men of the same age are, the 
intention in the large majority of cases certainly is not to 
put him at once on the firing line. That would be the least 
valuable use that could be made of him. The real purpose 
of the scheme is shown in the fact that the soldier-student 
called to the colors may be sent to an officers' training camp, 
to a non-commissioned officers' training school, to a vocar 
tional training section of the Students' Army Training Corps, 
or finally assigned to the very school or oolleee where he Is 
enrolled for intensive work in a specified line. This explains a 
provision of the Government's programme which otherwise has 

Euzzled some readers — namely, " Students will ordinarily not 
e permitted to remain on duty in the coU^e unit after the 
majority of their fellow-citizens of like age have been called to 
military service at camp." It is evident that, whether at college 
or in special work in some form, the National purpose is to tram 
and educate rather than merely to drill. " Reservoirs of officer 
material " is one phrase used by the Government. Columbia, 
annoimces, doubtless with authority, that students of eighteen 
and nineteen will remain for not less than nine monuis of 

The purpose has never been more finely stated than in a 
recent letter from President Wilson to Secretary Lane. The 
President says : " So long as the war continues there will be 
constant need of very large numbers of men and women of the 
highest and most thorough training for war service in many 
lines. After the war there will be urgent need not only for 
trained leadership in all lines of industrial, commercial, social, 
and civic life, but for a very high average of intelligence and 
preparation on the rart of all the people." And he declares 
with feeling that "No boy or girl shaU have less opportunity 
for education because of the war, and that the Nation may be 
strengthened as it can only be through the right education of 
all its peopl^." 

No one can doubt that this vast new educational imdertak- 
ing of the Government will have a permanent effect on the 
methods and scope of the Nation's relations to education. The 
Goverament is not taking over the colleges as it took over the 
railways, but it is using them as an indis^nsable factor in 
the great National effort. That education is of Nation-wide 
importance and not a local matter is one of the lessons that 
must be drawn. 


In the recent " slacker raids " in New York City and i 
vicinity fewer men suffered because they were trying to doil 
their patriotic duties than because they were careless and regai 
less of orders. It is not surprising that there was an ontcnr 
the inconvenience and discomfort mvolved, but forethought < 
the part of the individual would have prevented a gn^^at deal 
it. If it is possible to plan a better and less troublesome way 
detect and arrest the slacker than that adopted in these raids 
certainly should be done. But the result was to teach a doal 

. lesson : first, that the conscription law is not to be evaded wit 
out detection and pimishment — and this was a partivulai 
needed lesson to the evil-disposed at a time when over twel 
million men are on the point of registering themselves for mi 
tary service ; the other is that every citizen is now more or V 
subject to military duty, and that it was a breach of that du 
to disregard the order given to all exempted or deferred m 
to carry their cards with them constantly. It is safe to :< 

; that hereafter few men in possession of registration or clas 
fication cards will leave home without them. Very likely t 
machinery of this raid might have been improved upon ; Bo8t< 
is said to nave put in practice an efficient combing out of slao 
era without the disagreeable features seen in New York Citv 
An inquiry is to be had under the President's order into t 
methods of the raid, and the result wiU be enlightening as 
future methods. If it is true, as Senator Chamberlain stated 
the United States Senate, that " tens of thousands of perfect 
innocent men were held overnight in crowded prisons, aJthooj 
they were not trying to evade military duty," itcertamly se«i 
that some milder method of separating the innocent from t 
guilty might be found. Particularly embarrassing waa the ca 
of the men who had not registered because they were either abo 
or below the draft age, but who did not " look their age " ai 
were suddenly called upon to famish birth certificates. 

In New York City, Brooklyn, and in the near-by pu 
of New Jersey over sixty thousand men in all were found wil 
out proper credentials ; of these about fifteen hundred v( 
slackers or had something seriously wrong with their reconi 
about fifteen thousand, while not slackers, were negligent 
some of their duties and were ordered to report back to th 
local registry boards. These figures indicate that while the n 
majority of citizens carried out their duty faithfully, tlu 
were still enough who failed of their duty in some d^;ree 
justify the Government in making a vigorous and even stre 
ous effort to enforce the law. 


There is a significant contrast between the ■ B(ddier-li 
utterance of Marshal Foch, " We will continue to pursue i 
enemy implacably," and the admission of a great German pa| 
that " the German high command has decided not to oondi 
in the future a war of offense, but a war of defense." It woi 
be contrary to the genius of Marshal Foch if the war on I 
western line were to settle down into a condition of mut 
blockade. Now that the Germans have been driven back 
almost the positions they occupied before their offensives b^ 
on March 21, it is natural to ask what the next move wiU 
The question, however, is one that is impossible to answer. Tl 
there will be a forward thrust by Marshal Foch at some part 
the enemy's line is more than probable ; just where it will b( 
a matter of pure conjecture. In the north General Byng's for 
are threatening Carabrai from the positions they occupied af 
their first memorable attack on that city, while Douai is also 
danger. These positions are protected hy the extensive foi 
known as the Ilavrincourt Wood, and around this the British i 
making progress. At the other extremity of the line the Frei 
are in the same way working around the St. Gobain forest, wh.' 
impedes the advance toward La Fere and Laon. These two ft 
tions, north and south, are like the hinges of a g^reat door. 
either or both should be broken through, the central section 
the German line would inevitably have to be drawn back a 
an entirely new line of defense, miles to the rear, be taken 
the German army. 

One interesting exposition of the effect of Marshal Foe 
strategy points out that all through the recent oounter-off 

Digitized by VJWVJV IV^ 


Kirhy in thr S nr York W'lrtil 

Hoppmo UP 


Bekse in the New York World 



Braakensiek in De Amsterdammer (Amsterdam, Holland) 

Von Hertliu^ : '* We hold Bel^nin mt h imwii." 


Morfiand in London Opinion 


*' Pnnlun iii*<. inadnm I 1 niii a^Kure thAt ve have not been intrmluoeil, but 1 
hope that you will not object to my mentionini; the fact that this u the mrismd time 
you have fltiick your fiirk into my leg." 


Digitized by 




sives the Germans have been forced to mass their reserves on 
the main line of attack from Ypres south and eas'- to the 
Argonne forest ; that the time has never come when they have 
been able to replace or restore the reserves taken from that part 
of their line extending east and south of the Argonna forest to 
Switzerland, and that it is at least a reasonable theory that it 
is on this latter part of the line that a new attack by the Allies 
may attempt to break through here and cross the boundary 
into Alsace and Lorraine. 

The most interesting war news of the week to Americans is 
found in Greneral March's recent umouncement that ninety per 
cent of the American soldiers abroad have been formed into a 
distinctly American Army, leaving less than ten per cent of these 
soldiers brigaded with British and French troops. As we have 
over a million and a half men abroad, this means the formation 
of an American Army of at least a million effective soldiers on 
the fighting line. Americans cannot but feel proud of the exist- 
ence of this great force, which will be used as a unit just as 
General Haig uses the British army or General Mangin the 
French army, subject, of course, to the strategic plans and 
orders of Marshal Foch. It may be noted that the part of the 
line evidently held in large part by oiu- American forces is pre- 
cisely that described in the preceding paragraph as now presu- 
mably weakened by the withdrawal of German reserves. If 
this section of the Ime — that is, roughly speaking, from Rheims 
to BeUort — is actually chosen for the next great offensive, the 
new American Army would play a leading part in that attack. 

Whatever may be the next move of the Allies, we may feel 
sure that Marshal Foch wUl not easily allow the offensive to be 
taken from his hands. He is a past-master in so directing his 
movements as to bring pressure to bear from apparently distant 

Stints on the strongholds from which he proposes to drive the 
ermans. It is in this way that most of the well-known land- 
marks and cities have fallen in the recent offensive. To continue 
to make the Germans conform their movements to his will 
undoubtedly be hi? policy ; one military writer says that the 
possession of the offensive in the future is worth half a million 
men to the Allies. 

In our natural elation at the marvelous campaign of the last 
two months we must not foolishly imagine that the victory is 
all but gained or that there can be the slightest relaxation in 
our effort, military and industrial. Lord Milner, the British 
Minister of War, points out to those who are over-confident 
that the lesson of the recent successes is just the opposite. The 
way to shorten the war is to increase and not relax the pres- 
sure, military and economic. Lord Milner well says : " Amer- 
ica's strength — ^reat as it is — can only be relied upon to bring 
about a decision if it is added to the forces of the European 
allies and not substituted for them. . . . From a military point 
of view, the successes are of no value unless they are followed 
up, and to reap the fruits of them the enemy must be given no 

It may be added that there are physical reasons why our 
efforts must be increased rather than diminished. As our Army 
abroad expands, its need of supplies and munitions constantly 
increases. Moreover, even German retreats, welcome as they 
are to us, lengthen our distance from our bases, and therefore 
wiU, as our advances continue, require constantly increasing 
effort. One press correspondent remarks : " Did you ever stop 
to think that every mile we drive the German back increases 
the tax upon our supplies? The farther the German retreats, 
the more mUes of railroad we are required to build in order to 
hit him. The farther back he goes, the more material we will 
have to ship across the Atlantic." 


In Russia, as on the western front, the Allied forces are 
making notable headway. The Czechoslovak forces, aided by 
the Japanese troops which came up from Manchuria and by 
the other Allied forces which have been landed at Vladivostok, 
now control the Trans-Siberian Railway from a point six hun- 
dred miles southeast of Petrograd to the Pacific coast. They 
have defeated and driven away the Red Guard forces which 
have so lon^ held the intermediate section of the railway east 
of Lake Baikal. One result is that the Bolsheviki are cut off 

and isolated so far as regards rail and tele|^ph commnnicatbc 
from the rest of the wond except through Germany. 

The Bolsheviki have only themselves to blame for the k 
now being waged upon them by the Czechoslovaks. It was d< 
violation of their pledges to the Czechoslovaks to allow then u 
pass peacefully through Russia to the Pacific ports that pn 
cipitated war. From Moscow and Petrograd the news repon 
indicate a rule of bloodshed and brute force. The lawless inbi 
ference by the Bolshevik government with the British Consul 3 
one indication of this anarchistic condition of affairs. The b>\ 
that eighty thousand Russians have joined in the Czechmloni 
resistance to the Bolsheviki shows that the Bolshevik leaden 
do not represent Russia or any large ^rt of Russia, bat oolyi 
small minority of violent followers. Their downfall is colj 1 
matter of time. 


Primary day in the State of New York has come and gin 
and the regular candidates of the two great parties for GovertM 
have been nominated by largje majorities. Governor Whitnai 
won over his competitor, Attorney-General Lewia, by a v«] 
large vote, and Alfred E. Smith, now President of the Bau 
of Aldermen of the City of New York, received an almoeit eiinaT] 
large majority over his competitor, William Church OsImr 
who in the old days would have been called the silk-stoekiiii 
candidate, if it may be said that Democratic candidates fu 
wear silk stockings. Both of the successful candidates are di 
choice of their respective organizations and were opposetl ii 
that ground by arguments which apparently made little impm 
sion upon the primanr voter. Even the third-term bt^e faSx 
to terrify, for Mr. vNliitman is now the regular Republicii 
nominee for ^ third term as Governor of the Empire State. 

Mr. Smith, as our readers know who read the very interval 
ing article about him by ex-Senator Davenport in The Outlt>i<l 
for July 31, is a Tammany man — that is to say, he is a meulK 
of that famous oi'ganization, in good and regular standing- l» 
he made an enviable record for himself both in the Legimtai 
and in the last Constitutional Convention. Mr. Osbom i» 
New York City lawyer of distinction and high character wb 
has held various positions of influence in the Democratic part; 
but has never been affiliated with Tammany. He ran in tii 
primary not so much as an opponent of Mr. Smith as an uppi 
nent of Tammany. 

No one has questioned the integrity and sincerity of " M 
Smith, as he is familiarly and even affectionately known by b 
friends. The criticisms of his nomination have been made 'i 
those who fear the malign power of Tammany. The NV 
York "Evening Post," whose political motto seems to 1" 
" Wherever you see the head of an organization man in eitix 
party, hit it," wound up a long and not altogether unfiieud 
editorial on Mr. Smith's nomination as follows : 

Will he [Alfred E. Smith] come down to the city to lunch regu- 
larly with Murphy as Theodore Roosevelt used to coiue to 
breakfast with Tom Piatt ? 

To this the New York " Times " rises up as a defender 1 
both Mr. Smith and Mr. Roosevelt by saying : 

If he does, and tlie lunclieons dou't do Murphy any luor^ 
good tlian the breakfasts used to do Piatt, there is not much fur 
us to worry about. 

This, we think, both succinctly and wittily expresses the atl 
tilde of the people of New York State generally. It remain- 1 
be seen whether Mr. Smith can on Election Day roll up a laK 
enough vote below the Harlem River to offset the normal B 
publican majority *' up the State." He has been indorsed in 
personal letter by Mr. Lansing, Secretary of State, who is 
citizen and voter of New York State. As Mr. Lansing is tl 
ranking member of the President's Cabinet, Mr. Smith's frien( 
regard this letter as equivalent to an indorsement by tl 


Reports from Washington tell of the gains that are liein 
made toward the objective of Children's Year — " to save ii 

Digitized by 





indred thousand babies and to get a square deal for children." 
he year was inaugurated on April 6, 1918, the aoniversary of 
IT entry into the war, under the direction of the Children's 
ureau of the United States Department of Labor and the 
Toman's Committee of the Coimcil of National Defense. The 
ork has the special approval and support of President Wilson, 
he first activity undertaken was a weighing and measuring test 
>r Imbies and little children. To the present date, fully six 
jllion children under six years of age nave been tested with 
ales and tape-measure, and the work is still going on. 
The chief value of the weighing and measuring lies in the 
>ct that it is bringing the children to public attention and 
■ousing communities to action for child welfare. Sinm weight 
id height constitute a rough index of physical condition, the 
st has served to indicate the children who are in especial need 
' irare. Parents have discovered in their children unsuspected 
>f ects, many of them remediable if taken in time, but likely to 
ean future suffering and ill health if neglected. 
'' Clean-up " campaigns and campaigns for better milk are 
ting undertaken. Public lecture courses and classes in child 
ire for mothers and " little mothers " have been instituted. At 
le )>eginning of Children's Year each community was assiraed 
quota of the one hundred thousand babies to be saved. Now 
1 over the country doctors, nurses, newspaper men, business 
en, mothers, and fathers are working in uieir several commu- 
ties to '* raise " that quota. 

Pland in hand with the work for babies and children work 
>r the welfare of older boys and girls is being carried on as an 
itivity of Children's Year. Early in the summer a recreation 
•ive was started, with the object of fostering and promoting 
le sort of play that would add to the bodily vigor and gener^ 
ell-being of young folk. European experience shows that while 
tnditions for babies have actually improved in some regions 
nee the war, there has Ijeen a tendency to neglect the older 
lildren in the press of circumstances. They have suffered in 
ialth and in morals. Foreign authorities, according to a report 
cently published by the Chudren's Bureau, point to an increase 
ju venue delinquency as a result of the abnormal conditions 
at inevitably arise from war. Fathers at the front, mothers at 
le factories, play-leaders and teachers drawn away for war 
[>rk, schools commandeered for hospitals, relaxed police super- 
sion — aU these things, with the unrest and imac«u8tomed ex- 
tements of war time added, are named as a cause of the increase 
the number of yotmg offenders. As an antidote, foreign 
ritcrs are almost wianimous in suggesting recreation, abundant 
id properly supervised. 

Such recreation is one of the main objects of Children's Year, 
he National organizations interested in the activities of boys 
id girls are co-operating with the local committees of the 
Qimcil of National Defense to maintain and increase the facili- 
^ for play in every community. 

All over the country boys and girls are practicing the tests 
physical efficiency originated by tlie Playgromid and Recre- 
iuu Association, one of the agencies interested in the di ive. 
Iiey are organizing into penny-whistle clubs and young folks' 
hkIh and choruses. They are learning the folk-dances of the 
Hies. In the Play Week now being held or so<m to be held 
is fall all over the country, these young people will be ready 
exhibit their accomplishnientjs. There will he s]>e<>ial drills, 
'st-aid drills, and demonstrations of cami>-life activities by the 
:>y Swrats and Girl Scouts and Camp Fire (iir)s. The Junior 
m1 Cross will exhibit the things they have made for soldiers, 
ilors, and refugees ; the Caiuiuig Clulw and the Boys' and 
iris* Clul)8 of the Department of Agriculture, and the School 
arden Army of the Bureau of Education, will show what they 
,vc done in the inter««t of food (nmservation. Ohl games will 
! n'vivetl. Many coiuiuunities are planning to present ))ageants 
owing the contribution to be made by the (children of the 
ation to the cause of democracy. 

The Committee on Training Camp Activities has demon- 
rat*-<l to the country, beyond all question, the value of recrea- 
Hi in promoting the health and morale of our men in camp. 
:ie War Camp Community Service has shown that abundant, 
ian recreation is an effective antidote to the vicious uifluences 
at have always in the past Im'cu camp followers. It is the aim 
the Chililren's Bureau and tlie Woman's Committee, with the 

aid of the cooperating organizations, to demonstrate during 
Children's Year the value of recreation for children. 


FRIDAY, Septemlter 6, the anniversary of the birth of 
Lafayette and of the winning of the first Battle of the 
Marne, was recognized by celebrations in various parts of 
this country. That in New York City was perhaps the most 
notable. It took the form of a distinguished gathering in the 
Aldermanio Chamber of the fine old historic City HaS in the 
afternoon and of a banquet in the evening. The exercises at the 
City Hall were both of a military and a civic character. French 
veterans and American soldiers and sailors stood at attention as 
the distinguished visitors entered the building, and a detachment 
of British sailors and of American soldiers in khaki, with their 
rifles, added picturesqueness to the gathering in the Hall. State 
Supreme Court Justice Victor J. Dowling greeted the guests and 
audience as Chairman. He is, we believe, of both Irish and Bel- 
gian ancestry, but of a sturdy Americanism which showed itself 
in an admirably expressed appeal to fight the war to a finish and 
to support our allies, from the British to the Japanese, without 
limit. To this sentiment he elicited a response of prolonged 
applause, as he also did when he referred to the two great spir- 
itual figures of the war as King Albert and Cardinal Mercier of 
Belgium. Mr. John Jay Chapman read an unusually stirring 
poem, in which he compared the pursuit of the Hun to a hunt of a 
wild boar whose poisonetl breath was almost as much to be feared 
as his ruthless fangs. This reference by poetical analogy to the 
danger of a negotiated peace also brought out the pronounced 
approval of the gathering. A specially interesting part of the 

i)rograiume was the reading by Mr. Maurice Leon, to whose tire- 
ess and patriotic energy the National celebration of Lafayette 
Day is largely due, of some personal messages from President 
Poincare of France, Marshal Joffre, Marshal Foch, General 
Pershing, and Admiral Sims — each expressing the idea that the 
war must be carried on until the enemy unconditionally sur- 
renders. No n^otiate<l peace for them ! 

The chief feature of the afternoon was the address by Colonel 
Theodore Roosevelt. His speech fell into two parts ; the first was 
a tribute to our allies and an assertion that " we must win the 
war as speedily as possible; but we must set ourselves to 
fight it through, no matter how long it takes, with the resolute 
determination to at^ept no peace until, no matter at what cost, 
we win the pe&ae of an overwhelming victory." The second part 
of his address was devote<l to urging the importance of a per- 
manent policy in the United States of universal military train- 
ing and service. A league of nations to enforce peace could 
l>e of no value, he said, unless each member of that league was 
strong enough to defend itself and therefore to throw the weight 
of its power into the defense of the league. 

Mr. Roosevelt did not add, as he might very well have done, 
that a league of nations to enforce peace already exists ui 
the group of twenty-three Allies, including ourselves, who are 
fighting against the banditry of Germany. We ho|)e that league 
will be continued after the war, and that no other nations will 
l)e taken into it, not even the neutral nations, imless they are 
didy elected after passing a rigorous test as to their qualifica- 
tions for admission. Any international league of nations to 
enforce jHsace that is to Iks successful must l» based U]x>n 
morality, and it woidd Ite as inappropriate and destructive to 
take immoral nations into such a league as it would be to take 
immoral persons into a 8(K-iety to promote social purity, or 
thieves and robbers into a WK-iety to protect pro|)erty. 

The response to Mr. Roosevelt's address was made by his 
Excellency the French Ambassa<ior, Mr. Jusserand, who also 
spoke in the evening at the dinner of the Fi"an<*e-America 
Soi'iety. Mr. Jusserand pointed out what absolute folly it is to 
dejwiid ui)on any treaty made with nuHlcm Germany, not only 
l)ecau8e at the outbreak of the war she «'onteinptuously allude<l 
to the treaty with Belgium as a " scrap of pai)er," but Wcaus*- 
hrr tn»atic8 of pea*'e made only this year with Russia and with 
Rumania are not treaties of jK-ace, but treaties of slavery. 

Lafayette Day has now bt'CH>ine a sort of international holi- 
day of the Allies, and it slumld 1h> so continucil. The most 

Digitized by 




18 S«pu 

important lesson its growing celebration in this country has, it 
seems to u&, is that there now exists in the world a league for 
peace consisting of twenty-three nations; that those nations 
must continue their joint membership in this league even after 
a decisive victory is won ; that the purposes of the league will 
be not only to determine economic, social, and political reladcm- 
ships among themselves, but to see that the treaty of peace 
which they draw up is observed and obeyed by other nations ; 
and, finally, to make it clear that they will not take into their 
league any other nations as members unless they so elect, after 
as careful scrutiny and as strict rejection as is exercised by a 
fraternity or club in private life which aims to maintain serious 
objects and high standards of iqembership. 

As Mr. Roosevelt well said in his liafayette Day address, ihe 
man who puts internationalism above nationalism is as much to 
be suspected as the man who puts promiscuous affection for his 
neighbors above devotion to his own family. The twenty-three 
nations who are now fighting for the liberty of the world as 
against Pan-German despotism are the charter members of a 
league for peace. It is their first duty to protect that charter 
membership. Promiscuous admission of every nation into the 
league, regardless of its past record or present character, would 
ma^e the charter not worth the paper it is written on, and thus 
automatically destroy the league itself. 


Ruts are too rarely regarded as a road to romance. A too 
common prejudice in favor of the uncommon blinds us to the 
glamour of the commonplace. Why should not the track most 
trodden be richest for human discovery, with its lure of count- 
less feet urging us to ascertain their unknown goal, its wayside 
treasure of philosophies set there for our guidance by the innu- 
merable discoverers who have followed the road before us ? For 
the bom adventurer conservatism may hold more enticement 
to exploration than revolt. Such a man keeps step with the 
crowd in fearless following of convention. He is not afraid of 
anything, least of all of capering ahead of conservatism, if con- 
vinced he would thus reach a goal. He exacts of circumstance 
that it shall offer him the utmost opportunity for struggle and 
the most incontestable superiority to the conditions designed for 
him which his soul can attain. Demanding this, he has his 
doubts whether kicking off the harness is as inalienable a proof 
of sporting blood as going swiftly in it. How can he be sure he 
possesses endurance enough to win the race if he runs around 
the hurdles instead of jumping over them ? He thinks that per- 
haps the only way to find out why the hurdles of convention 
are set upon the highway is to accept them. 

The true adventurer distrusts revolt because he is afraid it 
may prove to be an avoidance of difficiUties that might afford 
him both development and discovery, the two things he is deter- 
mined no fate shall deny him. For example, viewing the careers 
of George Eliot and George Sand, he grants that they were 
big women both, but queries whether they might not have been 
even bigger if they had been enthusiastically humdrum. It is 
only a most uncommon person who can be commonplace by con- 
viction. It is the gift of certain geniuses to see tlie romance in 
ruts, and to live it. It was once the endowment of a certain 
artist, not one of the Georges of literature, but a womau named 

Convention, if investigated with a reckless abandon to con- 
formity, may prove a richer region in discovery than any radi- 
calism. A laical may be a man most hidebound by lus own 
opinions. The true explorer tests conformity and rebellion with 
exactly the same openness of mind, and his hesitation before the 
rosy promises of revolt concerns not their respectability but their 
reliability ; will the path of individual freedom they point really 
keep his brain as alert, his muscles as flexible for combat, as 
that more ancient roadway which conceivably is planned with 
more foresight for taking him farther from the limitations of 
self, necessitated by a blind choice of his own direction ? The 
argument has nothing to do with conformity in itself, or with 
nonconformity in itself, but merely suggests that the former is 
just as fertile a field for the adventurer as the latter. An external 
compliance sometimes affords an inner freedom not otherwise 

obtained ; for if people see you kicking; away customs the; 
likely to restrain you forcibly, which either prev^its altog< 
the sweet solitude of your quest or makes you so self -con 
that you can no longer enjoy it. The man who habituall; 
with the crowd, inquisitively acquiescent, has the chance 
to detect the human riches of the beaten track and also to 
aside, unnoticed, to his own treasure-digging. 

When one advocates the courage to m audadoasly com 
place, one has in mind that the commmiest posBeasion on i 
IS a soul ; every Tom, Dick, and Harry owns one, yet ever 
knows that his soi^ is a trackless realm for exploratit 
measureless an area that its mere outskirts cannot be exhai 
in seventy years. Only the timid man need ever fear I 
bored so long as he holds a soul fief. Yet how many < 
instead of being liberated by the possession of peraonalit] 
bound and baffled by it, like the caged starling : 

" Forever the impenetrable wall 
Of self eonfinea ray poor rebellious sooL 

I weary of desires never guemed, 
For ahen passions, strange imaginings. 
To be some other person for a day." 

One way to fly free of the bars is to analyze oar aonl qi 
Granted that what we all desire is the opportunity to be l 
toward the unexpected, why do we take such precsutia 
have our paths run accortling to our little self-set pal 
pleasant as a park ? Of life we demand opportunity for d 
achievement, but when life opens to us this domain oi 
familiar doorstep we refuse to pay the price of admitl 
True valor lies in taking adventure wherever it is offeret 
paying the price like a man. 

Believing always that the common road has more wis 
than any road that he might select for himself, the true a 
turer is never ncmplused oy the knowledge that the wor 
to-day is not so rich in external encounters as it was for 
bus or Drake. Ultimately we shall be restricted solely to 
itual exploration, only to find the tracks of the untrodden 
to be limitless. A presently poet complains of the ei 
that it brings far countries too near : 

" Rekindled are the fires of Akbar's tents, 
Strange moons have silvered stranger continents, 
Forsaken gods implore us. 
Legended river, peak, and island girth, 
And all the riches of the realms o? earth 
Are vital now before us, 
But mystery, dear mystery, lies dead." ' 

Still there -remain to us forever tlie n^lected myster 
our own house and yard. The gift of glamour is a gift o 
own bestowing, and whether we let it shine on far thinj 
familiar, on external or on spiritual, it has power to mai 
little kings of the commonplace. 


Holland is between the devil and the deep sea. Germs 
the devil ; America represents the deep sea. 

Having no coal and little wheat, Holland is naturally <le 
ent iipon other countries for them. As she cannot get ace 
the British supply, she gets her coal from Germany. .4 
cannot get access to the Russian, Rumanian, and Hung 
supplies, she gets her wheat from America. 

Holland probably needs more coal proportionately than 
any other country. As a Dutehman, Mr. Rooseboom. ii 
current " Atlantic Monthly," shows, much of her land Li ' 
sea-level, and to a large extent windmills are replaced by s 
pumps ; a.s he states, it is a case of " pump or toe swampM 
18 German coal that warms and lights Dutch houses, that ! 
her trains and industries running. What has Holland to d 
return for coal ? Gold, of course — the thrifty Dnteh ; brt 
what Germany needs more — sugar, coffee, coooa, fish, b 
eggs, beef, cheese, and some wheat. Even when Holland has 
virtually starving, says Mr. Rooseboom, food has been sma 
over her borders into Germany. 

As to wheat, we continued to export laxge amounts to Hd 
until we realized that it was being re-exported to fed 

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xuui annv. America protested. The result was that since 
dtk 16, 1916, so a correspondent in HoUand informs as, no 
a, floor, or stock feed imported by that country has been 
icted to Germany or elsewhere ; that nog^rain, flour, or feed 
>utch <mgin has been exported (this was made possible 
use of import of corresponding quantities from abroad), 

tihat the food which has been exported from Holland has 
isted of surplus dairy and a^oultural products, the proper* 
skipped to each country bemg fixed by agreement with the 
isli and Crerman GovemmeDts. 

1 1917 Holland paid for and loaded into Dutch vessels in 
?rican ports nearly two hundred thousand tons of grain, 
r, and feed. These ships were detained here until a large 

of the cargo was spoiled, the loss to Holland, together with 
demurrage, being some $8,000,000. Such treatment our 
espondent characterizes as " unfriendly, unfair, and stupid." 
t first blush it does seem so. But what are the facts? We 
ined the Dutch ships, first, because our supply of btmker 
Avas as inadej^uate as our supply of grain — and grain export- 

Holland might have served to release equivalent foodstuffs 
le enemy ; and, second, because we needed the ships. The 
^e Treaty, which Holland and America both signed, pro> 
<i for utilization W either state of private property in time 
ar. Not until the Dutch Government, under German duress, 
id itself unable to carry out its programme for the simul- 
lous departure of a oorrespondii^r ship for America every 
» a Dutch ship left our ports, did we proceed to exercise 

right. We agreed to replace the shim in kind at the 
a of the war and to b^^ to send to Holland a hundred 
ifiand tons of bread oer^ls, with the understanding that 
r should not contribute, even indirectly, to Germany's aid. 

this act the Dutch Government called (despite Holland's 
lature to the Hague Treaty) " an act of violence." When 
vinced, however, of its legality, it still complained that we 

repudiated Dutch- American friendship. 
!erteinly Dutch- American friendship proudly rests on a firm 
la of Dutch friendliness. As Mr. Boweboom points out, the 
x;h would not advance one man or one cent to help England 
ing our Revolution ; on the oontrtury, the Amsterdam bankers 
lisbed $14,000,000 to help our colonists, and when Balti- 
e was hard pressed by the British blockade it was a Dutch- 
i who broke the blockade and relieved the town with Dutch 
in ships ; moreover, the first foreim salute to the American 
was fired by Dutch guns, and Holland was the first to 
3ome the newBepublic as her equaL Not only have we been 
tef ul for these things, but the heroism shown in Dutch his- 
f has had no sincerer admirers, we are sure, than Americans, 
witness many books, from Motiey's " Dutch BepuUio " to 
fiis's "■ Brave Little Holland." 

Ii)lland's history shows us that in 1681 she issued an immortal 
iaration of liberty. She was then united. In 1918 we find 

bound. In Holhuid conditions like those in Spain prevail 
. Booeebotmi informs us that "the common people are 
idedly anti-German," but that " in the up^r classes, and 
re particularly among the aristocracy, there is more sympa- 

for the German cause." Inindentally, the Dutch Queen's 
liand is German. 

The result is — and we cannot be surnrised — that in neither 
tin nor Holland is there peace. Mr. Rooseboom quotes 
•roving^ The Outiook for December 26, 1917, in whiohwe 
1 : " What is commonly called peace is not peace at all : 
re absence of fighting is not peace ; on the contrary, if you 
it peace yon wm have to fight for it." 
ilpparenuy in Hollancl, at least at present, the people are not 
dy to fit^t for it, for in the fight they would not be united. 
M Mr. Rooseboom speaking of the " upper " or " lower " 
mes when he asserts that *' uie Entente is gradually pushing 
Hrilliug Holland into her [Germany's] arms ' ? That certainly 
M not smack of the spirit of 1581. 

Kn indication that the governing classes of Holland are in 
ae danger of falling into Germany's arms may be found in 

1 Dutch proposal (probably German-inspired) reported in 
ly and not as yet disavowetl, as far as we know, it was to 
id eaual amounts of imtatoes to Germany and to the Entente, 

which Holland was prepared to devote a total of 50,000 
IS. As the Allies do not need their half, the 50,000-tuu 


roposal might result in all of the amount going to Germany, 
'ernaps in the new assurance of cereals from Au)erica Holland 
finds that she can^pare potatoes. Getting carbohydrates in one 
form, she would export them in another. She would tiius as 
surely supply Germany with calory ration as if she again 
reshipped there wheat received nom America. Of course 
Holland would get in return: a corresponding amotmt of ooaL 
Holland has now received a raxt of the foMstuffs promised 
b^ us under the arraujp^ement. The President would be right in 
withholding the rest if this potato report is confirmed. 

Our correspondent protests that Holland has maintained 
" firmly and steadfastiy those principles of international law 
that were first formulated on her soiL" Has she? Or has 

Let Holland look across her border to .another country of 
about her own size which has maintained these principles, 
which has sacrificed herself during four years in their defense. 
That is why we are sending thousands of tons of foodstuffs to 
Rotterdam, there to be miloaded into Dutch river steamers 
and forwarded to Belgium through Dutch waterways, reljring 
on Dutch' assurances that food intended for relief in Belgium 
will never be requisitioned for use in Holland. And that is why 
Holland herself has nobly provided homes for thousands upon 
thousands of Belgian refugees. 

America is in uiis war to win. She intends to remain true to 
her friendship for the gallant nation which once befriended her. 
It is Holland s part, tiiough sorely pressed, to remain worthy of 
that friendship. 


The Happy Eremite walked up Broadway from Thirty-fourth 
Street into the gay littie world of theaters and cabarets and 
spendthrifts of money and hope that lives its feverish life in 
and about Times Square. The hour was the one which Broad- 
way considers peculiarly her own, namely, midnight. The 
theaters and the movie houses were already dark ; but the ni^ht 
was hot, and two currents of sweltering humanity were flowmg 
along the sidewalk, north and south, aimlessly so far as the 
Happy Eremite could see, having no destination except the 
VMnie goal of hectic adventure. 

The ci^wd was the ordinary crowd, jostling and noisy and 
cheap, but its degree of vulgarity struck the Happy Eremite 
as quite out of the ordinary, for the starched jauntiness that 
gives Broadway a certain gaudy dash of its own was wilted ; 
the flashiness railed to flaw. There were little brown runnels 
through the paint. 

It was as though life, in a sardonic mood, had impetuously 
stripped these Children of the Blind Alley of their diseuise. 
There Uiey were, in a steam of heat and perspiration and vile 
perfumery, with the garment of manufaoturea prettiness flung 
aside, revealed in their nakedness. 

Theydid not make an attractive picture. 

TheHappy Eremite walked slowly up Broadway, staring into 
the livid noes that floated by on the bliack current. It seemed 
to him that he was on some murky riveivbank of hell watching 
the «ndless passing of the damned. 


The word rang like a gloomy bell through his being. 

His Sense of Humor interposed. " Don t be an ass," it said. 
** You talk like a deacon." 

" No," his Sober Judgment answered. " These people are 
damned, and joking about it won't make them any less damned 
thui they are. They are not damned because a Scotchman in 
the sixteenth century said that any one who let himself have 
a good time was, ipso facto, automatically, and without further 
amunent, damnea. They are not damned because they have 
ofrended God or because they have sinned, or any nonsense of 
that sort. A lot of them undoubtedly are perfectly respectable 
and have never done anything the theologians would classify 
as sin. They are damned because they think tliat they can find 
happiness in tangible, seeable, smellable things — iu clothes and 
perfume and food and strong drink, and in looking at exciting 
pictures, and iu feeling strange, dark thrills tingling their 
flesh. They will chase happiness and they won't find it, and 

Digitized by 




they wiD chase it more wildly and still they won't find it; 
and they will desiccate their hearts in the desert heat and 
quench their spirits in the marshes, and they will be damned 
uirough time and through eternity, to the third and fourth 
generation, damned and damned and — " 

" See here 1" cried his Conscience. " I thought you called 
yourself a Christian Eremite. Christianity means grace, foiv 
giveness, salvation. Where do these come in ?" 

*' They come in," he answered, " as all other priceless things 
come in — even as the trust in purchasable things goes out." 

He moved slowly on, and the turgid current flowed slowly 
past him, noisy and imclean. Suddenly he was aware of a 
strident voice above the other strident voices. 

" Naw, go 'way," it cried. "I'm sick o' you tango lizards. 
Why douteher go an' enlist ?" The voice was drowned in the 

sound of many voices. The Eremite turned southward, ai 
minute later he heard the voice once more : 

" Say, Florence," it said, softly, quite near him. " I'm g 

" What for ?" queried another voice, shrill and cheap as 

"Oh, I don't know," said the other. "I'm sick o' t] 
cheap-skate willies. I'm sick of a lot of things. I gaei». 

Her voice died away, lost in the mordant laughter < 
slightly intoxicated pair pushing their way from a restaiu 
to a taxi. 

The Happy Eremite looked up at the stars and murmun 
prayer to uie Guardian of hearts that were sick of "cb 
skate willies." 


The Rev. J. Fontana, pastor of the German Evangelical Chnrch, New Salem, North Dakota, was recently tried at Bismarck, in 
State. He was charged with having uttered from time to time seditious language for the purpose of interfering with the military actir 
of the Government. The presiding Judge was Charles F. Amidon, of the United States District Court, District of N(Mth Dakota. The ; 
returned a verdict of guilty against Mr. Fontana on August 15. United States Attorney Hildreth moved for sentence on August 19. 
passing sentence Judge Amidon said in part what follows. — Tub Ebitoks. 

OU received ^our final pa^rs as a citizen in 1898. By 

" ' ' lured 

the oath which you then took you renoimced and abj 
all allegiance to Germany and to the Emperor of Ger- 
many, and swore that you would bear true faith and allegiance 
to the United States. What did that mean ? That you would 
set about earnestly Rowing an American soul and put away 
your German soid. That is what your oath of allegiance meant. 
Have you done that? I do not think you have. You have cher- 
ished everything German, prayed German, read German, sane 
German. Every thought of your mind and every emotion <n 
your heart through all these years has been German. Your body 
has been in America, but your life has been in Germany. U 
you were set down in Prussia to^y, you would be in harmony 
with your environment. It would fit you just as a flower fits 
the leaf and stem of the plant on which it grows. You have 
influenced others who have been under your ministry to do the 
same thing. You said you would cease to cherish your German 
soul. That meant that you would begin the study of American 
life and history, that you would open your mind and heart to 
all of its influences, that you would try to understand its ideals 
and purposes and love tnem, that you would try to build up 
inside of yourself a whole group of feelings for the United Stat^ 
the same as you felt towards the fatherland when you left Ger- 
many. There have been a good many Germans before me in 
the last month. It has been an impressive part of the trial. 
They have lived in this country, luce yourself, ten, twenty, 
thirty, forty years ; and they had to give their evidence through 
an interpreter. And as I looked at them and tried as best I 
could to understand them, there was written all over every one 
of them, " Made in Germany." American life had not dimmed 
that mark in the least. It stood there as bright and fresh as the 
inscription upon a new coin. I do not blame you and these men 
alone. I blame myself. I blame my country. We urged you to 
come. We welcomed you ; we g^ve you opportunity ; we gave 
you land ; we conferred upon yon the diadem of American 
citizenship — and then we left you. We paid no attention to 
what you have been doing. 

And now the world war has thrown a searchlight upon our 
National life, and what have we discovered ? We find all over 
these United States, in groups, little Germanics, little Italics, 
little Anstrias, little Norways, little Russias. These foreign 
people have thrown a circle about themselves, and, instead of 
keeping the oath they took that they would try to grow Ameri- 
can souls inside of them, they have studiously striven to exclude 
everything American and to cherish everything foreign. A 
clever gentleman wrote a romance called " America, the Melt- 
ing Pot." It appealed to our vanity, and throujrfi all these years 
we have been seeing romance instead of fact. That is the awful 
truth. The figure of my country stands beside you to-day. It 
says to me: Do not blame this man alone. I am partly to 
blame. Punish him for his offense, but let him know that I see 

things in a new light, that a new era has oome here. Punish 
to teach him, and the like of him, and all those who have I 
misled by him and his like, that a change has come ; that tl 
must be an interpretation anew of the oath of all^^iance. It 
been in the past nothing but a formula of words. From 
time on it must be translated into living characters incan 
in the life of every foreigner who has his dwelling-place in 
midst. If they have been cherishing foreign history, fon 
ideals, foreign loyalty, it must be stopped, and they must bi 
at once, all over again, to cherish American thought, Amer 
history, American ideals. That means something that is ti 
done in your daily life. It does not mean simply that you wiD 
take up arms against the United States. It goes deeper fart 
that. It means that you will live for the United States, andi 
you will cherish and g^w American souls inside of yon. 
means that you will take down from the walls of your home< 
picture of ^e Kaiser and put up the picture of Wa.shing1 
that you will take down the picture of Bismarck and hang 
the picture of Lincoln. It means that you will begin to i 
American songs ; that yon will b^n earnestly to study Ai 
ican history ; that you will begin to open your lives thro 
every avenue to the influence of American life. It means i 
you will begin first of all to learn English, the language of 
country, so that there may be a door into your souls timi 
which American life may enter. 

I am not so simple as to entertain the idea that racial ha 
and qualities can be put aside by the will in a day, in a yeai 
a generation ; but because that is difficult is all the more ks 
why you should get about it and quit cherishing a foreign 
If half the effort had been put forth in these foreign comui 
ties to build up an American life in the hearts of these for« 
bom citizens that has been put forth to peroetuate a fon 
life, our situation would have been entirely different from « 
it is to-day. You have violated your oath of allegiance in t 
You have cherished foreign ideals and tried to make them e 
lasting. That is the basic wrong of these thousands of li 
islands of foreigners that have been formed through our wl 
limits, that, instead of trying to remove the foreign life onl 
their souls and to build up an American life in them, they I 
striven studiously from year to year to stifle American life 
to make foreignness perpetual. That is disloyalty. And 
object, one of the big objects, of this serious proceeding in 
court, and other like proceedings in other courts, is to < 
notice that that must be stopped. 

I have seen before my eyes another day of judgment. V 
we get through with this war, and civil liberty is made ! 
once more upon this earth, there is going to be a day of ji 
ment in these United States. Foreign-bom citizens and 
institutions which have cherished foreignness are going tn 
brought to the judgment bar of this Republic That dsj 
judgment looks more to me to-day like the g^reat Day of Jii 

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Be solemn in your joy, O land. 
While triumph marches with your flag. 
Remembering the holy band 
That bore it on from vale to crag. 

Be solemn in your joy, O land, 
And prayerful in your high delight, — 
Where your victorious colors stand 
There is a host beyond your sight. 

It is the host of those who died, — 
Dear Belgian babes and stalwart men. 
And women whelmed beneath the tide ; — 
That liberty might live again; 

Daughters of France whom God forgot 
In dens below the German line. 
And soldiers grim who questioned not 
But gave their blood like living wine ; 

Men from the warm Italian plain 
Who jjerished in the snow and ice. 
And Britons who were proud to drain 
The brimming cup of sacrifice ; 

And, last of all, your eager sons 
Who stormed the very mouth of hell. 
Glad-eyed they met the flaming guns 
And caught your banner ere it fell. 

This is the host, O land, that knows 
The worth of pain, the cost of peace; 
And on the road your banner goes 
They follow till the war drums cease. 

They ask no honors from your hand. 
No flowered wreath, no carven stone. 
Behold their steady eyes command 
One thing of you and one alone. 

Build them a rampart mountain high 
Between their children and the Hun, — 
Then those who were so proud to die 
Will know at last their task is done. 

Though drop by drop you count the cost. 
Lift up that rampart to the skies ! 
If the battle end and their cause be lost. 
Have you courage to face that host of eyes ? 


Digitized by 



18 September 

ment than anything that I have thought of for many yean. 
There is going to be a separation on that day of the sheep from 
the goats. Every institution that has been en£»£|ed m this 
business of making foreignness perpetual in the United States 
will have to change or cease. That is going to cut deep, bnt it 
is coming. 

I recognize the right of foreign-bom citizens to hear their 
religion, if they cannot understand it in English, spoken to them 
in the tongue tiiat they can understand. If they have not yet 
acquired enough English to read, they are entitled to have a 
pa])er that shall speak to them the language that they can 
understand. I cannot go further than that. And this is the 
capital thing that is going to be settled on that day of judg- 
ment, namely, that the right to those things is temporary, and 
it cannot be enjoyed by anybody who is not willing to r^^ard 
it as temporary and to set about earnestly making uxe time of 
that enjoyment as short as possible. That means a fundamental 
revision of these foreign churches. No freedom of the press will 
protect a perpetual foreign press in these United States. It 
won't protect any press or any church which, while it is trying 
to meet a temporary need, does not set itself earnestly about the 

business of making that temporary situation just as temporary 
as possible, and not making it, as has been true in the past, jiiM 
as near perpetual as possible. Men who are not willing to d<> 
that will have to choose. If they prefer to cherish foreign ideals, 
they will have to go to their own. If it is necessary, we will 
oanoel every certificate of citiaenship in these United States. 
The Federal Government has power to deal with that subject 
and it lb going to deal with it. Nothing else than that sorely 
can be possible. And the object of the sentence which I pro- 
noimce upon you to-day is not alme to punish you for the dis- 
loyalty of which you have been guilty, but to serve notice upon 
you, and the like of you, and all of the groups of people in tiiis 
district who have been cherishing foreignness, that the end of 
that r^me has come. It is a txJl to every one of yon to set 
about earnestly the growing of an American soul inside of yon. 
The Court finds and adjudges that yon are guilty under each 
count of the indictment, and as a punishment uierefor it Lt 
further adjudged that you be imprisoned in the Federal Peni- 
tentiary at Leavenworth for the term of three years. The 
sentences under the three counts of the indictment are to run 
concurrently and not successively. 



The Navy Department has recently announced that American submarines are at work on the other side. Thanks to the courtesy of 
Secretary Danieu and Admiral Sims, a special naval correspondent of The Outlook, Mr. Henry B. Beaton, was recently permitted to visit 
the submarine base. Mr. Beaton writes that the record of these submarines is niacniificent, and that when their story is told it will prove U< 
he one of the most heroic of the war. Another article from this correspondent mil follow. — ^Thb Editoks. 

IT was breakfast time, and the officers of the submarines 
then in port had gathered around one end of the long dining- 
table in the wantroom of the mother ship. Two or three 
who had breakfasted early had taken places on a bench along 
the nearer wall and were examining a disint^^ting heap of 
English and American magazines, while, pushed back from the 
table and smoking an ancient brier, the senior of the group read 
aloud the wireless news which had just arrived that morning. 
The news was not of great importance. This lecture done with, 
the tinkle of cutlery and silver, which had been politely hushed, 
broke forth again. 

" What are you doing this morning. Bill ?" said one of the 
young captains to another who had appeared in old clothes. 

" Going out at about half-past nine with the X 10." (The X 10 
was a British submarine.) " Just going to take a couple of shots 
at each other. What are you up to ?" 

" Oh, I've got to give a bearing the once over, and then I've 
got to write a bunch of letters." 

" Wouldn't you like to come with us ?" said the first speaker 
to me, pausing over a steaming dish of breakfast porridge. " Be 
mighty glad to take you." 

" Indeed, I would," I replied, with joy in my heart. " All my 
life long I have wanted to take a trip in a submarine." 

" That's fine I We'll get you some dimgarees. Can't fool 
round a submarine in gootl clothes." The whole table beean to 
take a friendly interest, and a dispute arose as to whose clothes 
would best fit me. I am a larce person. " Give him my extra 
set ; they're on the side of my locker." " Don't you want a cap 
or something ?" " Hey, that's too small ; wait and I'll get Tom's 
coat." " Tnr these on." Thev are a wonderful lot, the subma- 
rine boys, tae most wonderful lads in the world. 

I felt frightfully submarinish in my outfit. We must have 
made a picturesque group. The captain led off, wearing a tat- 
tered, battered old uniform of Annapolis dajfs; I followed, 
wearing an old navy cap jammed on the side of my head and 
a suit of newly laundered dungarees ; the second officer brought 
up the rear, his outfit consisting of dungaree trousers, a kind 
of aviator's waistcoat, and an old cloth cap. 

The submarines were moored close by uie side of the mother 
ship, a double doorway in the wall of the machine shop on the 
lower deck opening directly upon them. A narrow rimway con- 
nected the nearest vessel with the sill of this aperture,-and mere 
planks led from one suiHTstructure to another. The day, first real 

day after weeks of rain, was soft and clear ; great low masses 
of vapor, neither mist nor doud, but something of both, swept 
down the long bay on the wings of the wind from the clean, 
sweet-smelling sea ; the sun slrane like ancient silver. Little 
f retfid waves of water, clear as the water of a sprin|^, coursed 
down the alleyways between the submarines ; guDs, piping and 
barking, whirled like snowflakes overhead. I crossed to one gray 
alligatorish superstructure, looked down a narrow circular hatch, 
at whose floor I could see the captain waiting for my coming, 
grasped the steel rings of a narrow ladder, and descended into 
the submarine. 

The first impression was of being surrounded by tremendow. 
almost incredible complexity. A bewildering and intricate mas." 
of delicate meohauioal contrivances — valves, stop-cocks, wheels, 
chains, shining pipes, ratchets, faucets, oil-cups, rods, ganger.. 
Second impression — bright deaidiness, shining orass, gleams of 
steely radiance, stainless walls of white enamel paint. Third 
impressions-size ; there was much more room than I had ex- 
pected. Of course everything is to be seen by floods of steady 
electric light, since practically no daylight filters down through 
an open hatchway. 

*' This," said the captain, " is the control-room. Notice the 
two de^th gauges — two, in case one gets out of order. That thidc 
tube with a brass thread coiled about it is our periscope, and it's 
a peach ! It's of the ' housing ' kind and winds up and dovni 
along that screw. The thread prevents any leak of water. In 
here " — we went through a lateral compartment with a steel 
door as thick as that of a small safe — ^' is a space where we eat, 
sleep, and live ; our cook-stove is that gas jet in the oomer ; we 
don t do much cooking when we're running submera^ ; in 
here ' — we passed another stout partition — " is our Diesel engine 
and our dynamos. Up forward is another living space, which 
technically belongs to the officers, and the torp«lo-room." He 
took me along. "• Now you've seen it all. A fat steel cigar, 
divided into various compartments and cram-jammed full of 
shining machinery. Of course there's no privacy whatsoever." 
(Readers will have to guess what is occasionally used for the 
phonograph table.) " Our space is so limited that designers will 
spend a year arguing where to put an object no bigger than a 
soap-box. We get on very well, however. Every crew gets used 
to its boat ; the men get used to each other. They like the life : 
you wuldn't drag them back to surfatte vessels. An ideal suK 
marine crew works like a perfect machine. When we go out. 

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you'll see. that we give our orders by klaxon. There's too much 
noise for the voice. Suppose I had popped up on the siuface 
ru^ht under the very nose of one of those destroyer brutes. 
She might start to ram me ; in which case I'd have not time 
to make recop^iition signals and would have to take my choice 
lietween getting rammed or depth-bombed. I decide to sub- 
merge, push a button, the klaxon gives a yell, and every man 
does automatically what he has b^ trained to do. A floods 
tlie tanks, B stanas by the dynamos, C watches the depth gauges, 
and so on. That's what we call a crash dive." 

" Over at the destroyer base," I said, " they told me that the 
Germans were having trouble because of lack of trained crews." 

" Yon can just bet they are I" said the captain. " Must have 
lost several boats that way. Can't monkey with these boats ; if 
somebody pulls a fool stunt — p^ood-nightf" He opened a gold 
watch and closed it again with a cfick. " Nine o'clock. Just 
time to shove off. Onne up on the bridge until we get out in 
the bay." 

I climbed the narrow ladder agaip and crept along the super- 
structure to the bridge, which rose for all the world like a little 
grav steel pulpit. One has to be reasonably surefooted. It was 
<;unous to emerge from the electric-lighted marvel to the sun- 
light of the bay, to the view of the wild moimtains descending 
to the clear sea. It was like a dream glimpse into the future — a 
look into that marvelous mechanical, electric future which is ' 
certain to be that of humankind. The captain gave his orders. 
Faint, vague noises rose out of the hatchway. Sailors standing 
at various points along the superstructure cast off the mooring 
ropes and took in. bumpers shaped like monstrous sausages of 
(K>rd which had protected one bulging hull from another. The 
submarine went ahead as solemnfy as a planet. Friendly faces 
leaned over the raU of the mother ship, high above. 

Once out in the bay, I asked the second in command just 
what we were up to. The second in command was a well-knit 
ynimgster, wilih the coolest, most resolute blue eyes it has ever 
lM>en my fortune to see. 

*" We're going to take shots at a British submarine, and th«i 
she's going to iMve a tr^ at us. We don't really fire torpedoes, 
but maneuver for a position* Three shots apiece. There she is 
now, running on the surface. Just as soon as we get out to deep 
water we'll submerge and go for her. Great practioej" 

A British submarine, somewhat larger than our American 
lioat, was running down the bay, pnslung curious little waves 
of water ahead of her. Several men stood on her deck. 

" Nice boat, isn't she ? Her captain's a great scout. About 
two months ago a patrol boat shot off his periscope after he made 
it reasonably dear he wasn't a Hun. You ought to near him tell 
about it I Especially his opinion of patrol-boat captains. Great 
command of language. Bully fellow. Bom submarine man." 

*' I meant to ask you if you weren't sometimes mistaken for 
a German," I said, 

" Yes, it happens,'' he answered, coolly. " You haven't seen 
Smithie yet, nave you? Guess he was away when you came. A 
bnnoh of destroyers almost murdered lum last month. He's 
come the nearest to kissing himself good-by of any of us. Going 
to dive now ; tame to get under." 

Onoe more down the steel ladder. I was getting used to it. 
The handful of sailors who had been on deck waited for us to 
pass. Within, the strong, somewhat peppery smell of hot oil 
from the Diesel engines floated, and there was to be heard a 
hard, powerful knocking-spitting sound from the same source. 
The hatch-cover was secured — a listener might have heard a 
steely thump and a grind as it closed. Trapped I Men stood 
calmly by the depth gauges and the valves. Not being a " crash 
«live,' the feat of getting under was accomplished quietly — 
accomplished with no more fracas than accompanies the running 
of a motor car up to a door. One instant we were on the surface, 
the next instant we were under, and the lean black arrow on the 
broad moon-faced depth gauge was beginning to creep from ten 
to fifteen, from fifteen to twenty, from twenty to twenty-five. 
The clatter of the Diesel engine bad ceased ; in its place rose a 
low hum. And of course there was no alteration of light ; nothing 
but that steady electric glow on those cold, clean, bulging walls. 

" What's the prc^ramme now?" 

^ ** We are goinp; down the bay a bit, put up our periscope, 
pick up the Britisher, and fire an imaginary tin fish at him. 

After each shot we coiae to the sur&oe for an instant to let 
him know." 

" What depth are we now?" 

"Only fifty-five feet" 

" What depth can you go ?" 

" The Navy regulations forbid our descending more than two 
hundred feet. Subs are always hiking around about fifty or 
seventy-five feet under — ^just oeep enough to be well under the 
keel of anything going by." 

" Where are we now ?" 

" Pretty close to the mouth of the bay. I'm going to shove 
up the periscope in a few minutes." 

The captain gave an order, the arrow on the dial retreated 
towards the left. 

" Keep her there." He applied his eve to the periscope. A 
strange, watery-green light poured out of the lens, and, focusing 
in his ey% I't ue ball with wild demoniac glare. A consultation 
ensued between the captain and his junior. 

" Do you see her?" 

" Yes ; she is in a line with that little white bam on the island 
— she's heading down the bay now. So many points this way " 
(this last a direction to the helmsman). " There she is — she's 
making about twelve — she's turning, coming back — steady — 
five— SIX— fire 1" 

There was a rush, a clatter, and a stir, and the boat rose 
evenly to the surface. . 

" Here, take a look at her," said the captain, pushing me 
towards the periscope. I fitted the eyepieces (they might nave 
been those of field-glasses embedded in the tube) to my eyes, 
and beheld again the outer world — the kind of a world one 
might see in a crystal, a mirror world, a glass world, but a 
remarkably dear- little world. And as I peered a drop of water 
cast up by some wave touched the outer lens of the tube, and a 
trickle big as a deluge slid down the visionary bay. 

Twice again we " attacked " the Britisher. Her turn came. 
Our boat rose to the surface, and I was onoe more invited to 
accompany the captain to the bridge. The British boat lay far 
away across the inlet We cruised about, watching her. 

"There she goes." The Britisher sank like a stone in a pond. 
We continued our course. The two oflioers peered over the 
waters with young, searching, resolute eyes. Then they took to 
their binoculars. 

" There she is," cried the captain, " in a line with the oak 
tree." I searched for a few minutes in vain. Suddenly I saw 
her ; that is to say, I saw with a g^reat deal of difficulty a small 
dark rod moving through the water. It came closer ; I saw the 
hatpin-shaped trail behmd it. 

Presently with a great swirl and rolling of foam the Britisher 
pushed herself out of the water. I could see my young captain 
]ud|^g the performance in his eye. Then we played victim two 
more times and went home. On the way we discussed the sub- 
marine patrol. Now there is no more thrilling game in the world 
than the game of periscope vs. periscope. 

" What do you do ?" 1 asked. 

" Just what you saw us do to-day. We pack up with grub 
and supplies, beat it out on the high seas, and wait for a 
Fritz to come along. We give him a taste of his own medi- 
cine; give him one more enemy to dodge. Suppose a Hun 
baffles the destroyers, makes off to a lonely spot and coini^ 
to the surface for a breath of air. There isn't a soul in sight, 
not a stir of smoke on the horizon. Just as Captain Otto 
or von Something is gloating over the last hospitol ship he 
sunk, and thinking what a Iqvdy afternoon it is, a tin fish ooiues 
for him like a bullet out of a gun, there comes a thundering 
pound, a vibration that sends little waves through the water, a 
great foul swirl, fragments of cork, and it's all over with the 
' Watch on the Rhine.' Sometimes Fritz's torpedo meets ours on 
the way. Then onoe in a while a destroyer or a |)atriotic but 
inisguided tramp makes things interesting for us. But it's the 
most wonderful service of alL I wouldn't give it up for any- 
thing. We're all going out day after to-morrow. Can't you t«hle 
London for permission to go? You'll like it. Don't believe any- 
thing you hear about the air getting bad. The ]>rinciiNil nuisance 
when you've been under a long while is the cold ; the boat gets 
as raw and damp as an imoceui>ie<l house in winter. 

" Jingo, quarter past one I We'll be late for dinner," 

Digitized by VJ\^»^V iC 



AT this moment the Bolsheviki are the most dangerous 
enemies of Russia and of democracy and the most ser- 
viceable tools of the militaristic and capitalistic German 
autocracy. Their American representatives, who range from the 
German^ed Socialists, the leaders of the Non-Partisan League, 
the professional pacifists and so-called internationalists, to the 
I. W. W. and Anarchists and bomb-throwers and dynamiters 
and " direct action " men generally, lack only the power, but not 
the will, to play a similar part. 

This seems an incongruous assembly. But every Bolshevist 
movement always contains crack-brained fanatics and foolish, 
simple people cheek by jowl with the sinister advocates of ^' direct 
action." It is folly to show these ** direct action " people any con- 
sideration. Their purpose is to inspire terror by murder. They 
use the term " direct action," but they mean murder. Blatant 
Anarchists of this type are miscreants and criminals. We ought 
to stamp them oat by exerting the full power of the law in the 
sternest and most vigorous fashion against them and their sym- 
pathizers before, and not merely after, murder is committed. 
All radical democrats whose democracy is genuine must join in 
relentless opposition to these men, who are at this moment- 
rather more dangerous foes to liberty and democracy in the 
United States than the woi-st Bourbon reactionaries themselves. 

In Russia we see before our eyes how professed anti-militarists 
and peace-at-any-price men may become the especial apostles of 
murder. The Russian Bolshevists are the paid or unpaid allies 
of Prussian autocracy. Similarly, there is often an underhanded 
agreement in this country between the corrupt capitalist and 
the lawless demagogue or agitator ; the kind of agreement or 
common action that existed at one time in San Francisco between 
corrupt politicians and capitalists and violent labor leaders, as 
shown by Francis Heney in the famous graft prosecutions. 

Most certainly we must not foi^et our mdignation against the 
profiteers or the exploiting capitsdists in our indignation against 
the " direct action " men. Sometimes it is a profiteering corpora- 
tion which was most to blame. Elsewhere it is the lawless leaders 
of^ misled workmen. We should act with as stem and prompt 
efficiency against one type of wrong-doer as against the other,. 
and then ice should remedy the conditions which cause the 
vjrong-doiTig. The worst possible course is to refuse to punish 
the lawlessness of the I. W. W. and yet to leave unremedied 
the wrongs done by exploiting and profiteering capitalism. Put 
down the lawlessness and remedy the wrongs. 

Every wise movement for progress in our country must be as 
free from taint of subserviency to the red flag gentry as from 
taint of subserviency to predatory and labor-exploiting or farm- 
exploiting capitalism. 

Nothing is easier than to make rhetorical addresses on behalf 
of humanity and to write little uplift and social reform books 
and pamphlets and articles ; but what counts is reducing the 
principles to practice by the service test, the test of trial and 
error, the test which h^ to take into account actual conditions 
and the unpleasant, no less than the pleasant, facts of human 
nature ; and this is very hard. 

Each of us can probably furnish some illuminating illustrap 
tions of these truths out of his own experience. Here is one such. 
The country region in which I live during the last forty years 
has changed from an almost purely farming, fishing, and oyster- 
ing neighborhood into one where city families of moderate means 
and some families of wealth spend their summers. When I was 
a boy, there were so few places with a shore front that they 
were negligible. The owners of these few places built docks as 
a matter of course. Clam-diggers went along the shores as they 
pleased. Farmers occasionally came down to the shore in sum- 
mer for clam-bakes and bathing picnics. Oystermen and seiners 
or duckers kept their boats near their own docks or those of their 
friends. The shore was but little used by all of these persons 
taken tt^ther ; and nobody looked far enough ahead to provide 
against trouble in the future. 

A railway came in. City people bought places with a shore 
front. Gradually almost all the shore front was taken up by 
adjacent owners, who naturally and properly wi8he<l access to 

the water, and buUt docks. They used the shore continiuU;. 
whereas the dammers and picnickers used it very little. lUu; 
of them in no way interfered with the clammers. A few did. 
showing a disregard or ignorance of what they were doing. TIk 
picnickers were inevitably hampered, largely because some of 
them behaved — as Professor Homaday, of the New York Zoo, t«^ 
marked of certain slovenly and selfish holiday-makers — "' likew 
many little pigs," leaving a filthy litter behind them ; and without 
some kind of overseer or police arrangement it was impossible tn 
discriminate between the well-behaved and the ill-behavetL 

For years the townspeople declined to take any action to secov 
the just rights which a few of them had occasionally enjoyed. 
Then the selfish misconduct of one or two property-owners whi 
sought to deny all proper access to their beaches roosed a fad- 
ing which manifested itself in a foolish and vicious effort— «i 
. <me time a mob effort — to destroy the docks and thereby ptt 
vent the property-owners themselves from having any meaas (J 
access to their sailboats. The motive seemed to be less to secun 
their own rights than to interfere with those of whom they wen 
jealous. Recourse to the law finally settled the right of th 
property-owners to these docks and their duty to keep opening* 
m v\e docks so that the dammers and the rare wayfarers aloii< 
the beach would not be interfered with. 

But this did not help the picnickers and those farmers a 
villagers who occasionally wished to come to the beach for bad 
ing or boating. A few publio-spirited persons, therefore, starta 
a movement for a park, with a long stretch of beach, on whid 
public and private boat-houses and bath-houses could be erei-ted 
Various rich and well-to-do persons, none of whom would ere 
have used the park, agreed to furnish half the money if th 
town would furnish the other half. It was voted on at tlie nex 

I rode down to the polls with a friend, a hired man — a gonl 
upright, hard-working citizen, who lives some miles away froi 
the water, who owns a small property, and is therefore a smii 
taxpayer. After voting I found uiat our two votes had neatis 
ized each other : he voted against the park ; and the park prop 
sition was beaten by the votes of the smaller taxpayers teh 
lived inland and from among whom the cMef beneficiaries < 
the nark would have come. These men had felt vagudy jeaki 
of the richer property-owners near the water, and had symp 
thized with the movement to interfere with them ; but they wei 
not willing to incur the small expense necessary in order 1 
establish such collective ownership of a portion of the wate 
front as would enable them to enjoy their rights along it. 

Now the people who thus voted were my friends and ne^ 
bors; good people in all the ordinary relations of life. Ti 
trouble was that they had not developed the look-ahead pow 
— very few of us have developed it to i^e degree that assured 
will be necessary in this country. Therefore they unconscioi» 
played into the hands, first, of those few property-owners wl 
selfishly and arrogantly ignored the rights of others, and aftc 
wards of the few persons of Bolsheviki type whose actions we 
dictated primarily by a kind of malevolent jealousy, who car 
far less to benefit those who were not well off than to do son 
thing that would be distasteful and injurious to those who we 
better off. 

The exact antithesis to this type of shortsightedness is foai 
in such a development as the wonderful Palisades Park, adjiti 
ing New York City. In 1900, in order to save the beauty of t 
Puisades and prevent their being exploited by private gre« 
the New York Legislature created an unpaid commission, 
which George W. Perkins was made head and of which he b 
been the guiding spirit ever since. They started with an appi 
priation of ten thousand dollars. They secured the oo-operati< 
of New Jersey with New York State. They secured puHi 
appropriations of about three millions and public contributia 
of about four millions. They have worked incessantly for yes 
without a dollar's reward for themselves. They gradually devi 
oped the most extraordinary park of the kind in the world, 
occupies a space of over twenty square miles. All the iiatni 
beauties have been preserved. There are fine automobile driti 

Digitized by VJWVJV IV^ 



lit the main effort has been to make the park of use to persons 
small or moderate means who would pay merely vhot their 
ivileges actually cost. There are tents and shanties by bean- 
til Ituces in which families can spend a fortnight and enjoy 
mderful scenery and excellent fishing. There is a workin?- 
rls' summer home in which working-girls can get a fortnight s 
iliday with all kinds of enjoyment for fourteen dollars — the 
dinary amount for a vacation with pay. On the narrow beach 
the foot of the Palisades there are in summer camped 
my thousands of people, in tents, who cross the river to the 
;y by jitney boats, so that the breadwinner can go back and 

forth. The picturesque Bear Mountain Inn, where excellent 
food is given at cost prices, is visited by thousands of people 
every Sunday during we season ; all of the privil^^ such as 
boating; on the little lake near by, are run by the public authori- 
ties, without a profit for any one. 

There could be no better illustration of efficient collective 
action of immense benefit to the people as a whole ; collective 
action by the representatives of the public under ihe lead of 
public-spirited private citizens keenly alive to their duties, privi- 
leges, and opportunities as members of the American oommon- 
weallii. Such action represents applied Anti-Bolshevism. 




~^ ACH day records the same resolution : When the war is 
i over and peace returns to this fair land, I shall come again 
_J to this rare old city, to these wayside shrines, to these 
utious landscapes. To-day France is fevered and hectic and 
; clang and roar of the world's grimmest enterprise 2ire too 
iquitous, too continuous. Here I am in noble Dijon, the cit^ 
the Dukes of Burgundy, the province in which liberty was 
1 grown and belligerent before she was cradled elsewhere, and 
ile America was still shrouded from view by the ominous 
lantic fogs. The men of Dijon fought the Romans and helped 
stem the progress of the Gotlis ; they resisted the Saracens 
Uantly in 737, and the Norsemen in 888 ; they antagonized 
; French kings for nearly four centuries. They had one of 
i few parliaments of Europe from time immemorial, and the 
>Te6entatives of the people were always famous for jealousy 
their political rights. When, in 1625, Francis I was a prisoner 
Madrid, he offered Bni^^dy as a ransom to Charles V, but 
t President of Parliament resented the change of suzerainty, 
dng, " We wiD never obey masters we have not chosen." 
BiVen in war time Dijon retains reminiscences which carry 
; back to quieter days. Bernard of Clairvaux was bom in a 
tie overlooking the city, and Bossuet first saw the light in 
; of its quaint, high-gabled streets ; Claus Sinter made the 
f a center of art in the fourteenth century, and Rude carried 

tradition to its zenith in the early nineteenth coitury. But 
IV the predominating tone is khaki and the prevailing note 
haste. Our men are everywhere — quiet, independent, self- 
pecting, and square-shouldered fellows, who fit tolerably well 
o the picture. At least they synchronize with the most per- 
«nt traditions. For the traditions which persist in any given 
ce from age to age are those which have a spiritual quaCty — 
e of liber^, reverence, devotion to truth, and sensitiveness to 

%J> the turmoil of France is on the surface ; vast camps 
inging up in a night, roads thronged with endless convoys 
motor transport, rails kept hot with trains of troops and 
»plle8, airplanes roaring skyward like titanic bees. Every- 
ere there are American soldiers in SG[aads, platoons, bat- 
ons. They splinter into ones and twos m the cities, and one 
ely sees more than a battalion at any moment, even near the 
Dt. Bat the general impression is that they have slopped all 
r France, spraying and splashing even the remotest spots. 
thin an hour of the time I readied Dijon I was starting 

with a moving-picture operator for a distant hill section. 
; had a Ford truck which seemed to be afflicted with asthma, 
ceta, St. Vitus's dance, and the blind staggers, all at once, 
rty-four miles of ruMy, ribby, rocky road had to be covered 
;wo hours, but we did it ; when the machine stopped, I felt 
bed in a sublime sea of silence, so great was the relief. Our 
ective was a sawmill, where a- company of two hundred and 
y inen« representing every State in the Union except Florida, 
•e getting out lumber for docks, railway ties, and barracks, 
r-ourse it was part of the war — a prosaic, lonely, inglorious part, 
. the war could not continue without it. Every one on earth 
L foreptten that unit except the Army Supply Department 
L the X . M. C. A. They lived embowered in the woods, more 
iot« bum civilization than if they had been in the heart of 

the Adirondacks ; working in two shifts, they kept the mill run- 
ning twenty hours out of every twenty-four ; tney had never 
seen a German, and never would ; they had no band, no flags, 
no parades, no consolations and compensations of human society ; 
they were an uncharted island of commonplace industry rar 
removed from the stirring currents of war. But the Y. M. C. A. 
had discovered them, as it had hundreds of other isolated nnits 
thronghout France, and had sent out a Saturday evening movie 
to touch the week of dreariness with a final hour of cheer. 
Never anywhere was grand opera or high drama more fully 
appreciated than that movie in the Y tent at the end of no- 
where. When our perambulating jimk-heap, held together by a 
special providence, arrived at the camp, the men sent up a 
mighty cheer ; all through the performance they vented the 
most pungent comments upon the various dramatic situations 
on the screen ; at the dose they thanked us without limit for 
bringing out the show, and the captain quite frankly said that 
, he would get quite ten per cent more lumber out of his mill 
to-morrow as a sequence to our visit. Also we left a supply of 
tobacco, cakes, soap, and other sundries to be sold in the canteen, 
and a gratuitous supply of baseballs, bats, and mitts for their 

No one can imagine the trip back to Dijon. We wheezed and 
groaned and snorted and ricocheted over forty-four miles or 
more of vague and tortuous and dangerous roads ; thrice we lost 
our way ; once we waited for half an hour in a frantic effort 
to awaken the keeper of the gates at a railway grade crossing ; 
we lost another half-hour at an intervening lumber camp try- 
ing to locate a Y. M. C. A. man who was to return to Dijon 
with us ; we had a tire blow-out, engine trouble, and a shortage 
of gasoline ; but we plowed onwara through the darkness and 
uncertainty and arrived at Dijon at 2 a.m., after having cov- 
ered eighty-eight miles (not counting digressions owing to mis- 
direction) in order to give two hundred and fifty .^^erican 
soldiers a moving-picture show. That is simply one of the thou- 
sand etchings of the Y. M. C A. in France. 

Sunday, the day following, happened to be July 14, the 
French festival of independence. Throughout France it was 
celebrated heartily by the Americans in a spirit' of national and 
spiritual reciprocity. At a' gr^A Y. M. C. A. hut in a huge 
supply camp I heard an American college president give an 
address to several hundred soldiers on the parallel between the 
French struggle for independence and our own. It was an 
exposition sound in historical facts and true in deep, soul- 
uniting emotion. The audience responded promptly to point 
after point, and at the close showed its complete approval by 
vigorous applause. But the thing which impressed me most 
during the day was a visit to one of our base hospitals. There 
I foimd the early heroes of our championship for world-wide 
freedcmi — men in wheel-chairs, on crutches, with arms in slings, 
groping with bandaged eyes, or waiting cheerfully and conJB- 
dently in bed for the triumph of scientific skill and gentle, 
patient nursing. And five times in less than an hour men drew 
trom their pockets the most sacred and glorious of their posses- 
sions — photographs of loved ones at home. 

Napoleon said that an array moves on its stomach, and 
perhaps it is true ; but my experience persuades me that our 

Digitized by VJ^^VJV IV^ 



18 Sept 

American boys bear exile, endure privation, perform miracles of 
endurance, and carry out unsurpassed prodigries of valor upon 
the photo^fraphs tiiey carry under their coate. Simple, natural, 
unsophisticated boys they are — all of them, from officers in high 
command to buck privates — who unblushingly bring out those 
pictures after a moment's intercourse, and without the prelimi- 
naries of established friendship. Call it what you like, smile if 
you will, drop a tear if you cannot irestrain it, sneer if you are 
crudely blase or unutterably coarse, but nevertheless I contend 
that it is the divinest thing that a man can do, thus to uncover 
his innermost soul to any one who is decent enough to show even 
the slightest trace of sympathy. In spite of everything — our 
Broadways, our cocktails, our State universities, our " New Re- 
public " magarines, our Pullman cars, and our bizarre churches 
— the American personnel in France, from general to private, is 
very elemental, very childlike, and almost divinely pure-minded. 
Somehow, I do not know why, but it strikes me more forci- 
bly every day that our men are an army of the children of God 
fighting for the king^dom of heaven on earth. Because they are 
unsophisticated they do not know it and would be amazed' to 
bear it, but such seems to be true. 

The same spirit reaches upward and outward in many sur- 
prising ways. At this base hospital I found the Army chaplain 
and the Y. M. C. A. secretary occupying a room togeUier. They 
came from different parts of the country, they had inherited 
widely diffei'ent ecclesiastical traditions, had be^ trained in dif- 
ferent kinds of theology, represented different denominations, 
and were of manifestly different temperaments ; but in that one 
generous ministry to the wounded men they had been bathed in 
an obliterating sympathy, and they agreed that when they 
returned to .^nerica they hoped to be co-ministers of the same 
church for the rest of their lives. Only the vitally essential 
things count out here. 

Not far from Dijon is the most unique accessory of modem 
warfare — thecamouflage camp or factory. I suppose that it would 
be unpai-donable to tell in detail what I saw there. It must 
suffice to say that hundreds of the cleverest .artists, illustrators, 
stage-managers, architects, and engineers of America have their 
.^ headquarters here, and their part of the multiform struggle is 
to devise the meaiis whereby the Hun can be outwitted, con- 
fused, and cheated of his objective. War is no longer a matter 
of waving banners and shining armor, but of surprise and 
deception. These camouflagists are able to create anything 
from a fake boulder to a simulated stretch of landscape. And 
it is really art, so realistic in design and detail that the observer 
is often deceived even though he is near by and has been 
warned. After a period in camp the artists and stage-managers 
and engineers take turns in going to the front, where they 
superintend the erection of their numerous deceptions and make 
drawings and designs for others. 

In the camp there are between four and five hundred women 
workers — some from Dijon, many from the invade<l and devas- 
tated regions, and a few from Belgium. They do the weaving 
and dyeing and cutting. As not a few of them have lost loved 
ones in the war, they understand perfectly the value of camou- 
flage, and therefore work vigorously. It is hard work and dirty 
work, and the dye and paint have an unwholesome effect upon 
the system. A medical ofiioer looks after their health, and the 
Y. M. C. A. has jumped out of bounds in establishing a hut 
and assigning workers for these women. Chocolate and whole- 
some foods are provided for meals, places for rest and diversion 
are near at hand, entertainments are arranged in which the 
camouflage artists lay themselves out to amuse the weary but 
indefatigable women, and ever3rthing possible is done to hu- 
manize the conditions of labor. The place is as far from a 
sweat-shop as one can imagine, but it was curious to find the 
Young Men's. Christian Association doing this unique work for 
French women ; and it is another example of what an inHtitu- 
tion may become amid the exigencies of war. 

What whimsical characters one meets out here ! It was a very 
hot noon, and I was messing with the enlisted men in a tent 
which seemed to draw and hold all the heat of the sun in that 
one place. Next to me- sat a little corporal from the Pacific 
coast, and he had a mind so nimble, in spite of the torrid tem- 
perature, that he completely exhausted me. But he had an idea — 
an idea which fille<l him with enthusiasm. We walked out 

together and talked the idea through in the <^n air vil 
ravishing slopes of the Cote d'Or stretching away on evo] 
He did not seem particularly anxious to killGrermansorti 
democracy ; he had no consuming desire to become a p 
or to win glorious victories ; he simply wanted to start a So 
school theater on his return home. He told me of the <i 
Sunday schools he had been forced to attend in ehUdbooc 
how they had all but killed his religious faculties and inst 
he was not a churchman — indeed, he never, or rarely, att 
a religious service, although he loved the stUlness an 
solemn grandeur of the French cathedrals ; but he saw all 
of possibilities in a dramatic presentation of Scripture t 
dren^-educational, ethical, and spiritual possibilities 
sketched what could be done with Joseph, Daniel, David, E 
Peter, and others on the stage, in a simple way, for i4ii 
during the hour now spent in futile Snncby-schoij peila^ 
under the very roof of the church. " We would make th 
dren re-live all those marvelous episodes," he said ; " ve 
so weave them into their imaginations that both the for 
the lesson would never be forgotten. And the Chnreh 
to do it," he continued. " Once the Church did run the d 
and when the two parted company the Church lost ant 
most valuable instrumentalities." I hope the passicm will i 
out and that my little corporal will return hcnne after tl 
and establish his Sunday-school theater. 

One of the most discouraging aspects of Y. M. C. A 
is the difficulty of obtaining necessary supplies. Witii 
available ship carrying troops and military stores, the Y. M 
is able to set only a faction of what it should have for i 
teens and huts. Here in Dij(m I found a practical solal 
the problem. What could not be imported from home n 
made on the spot. They are ingenious and persistent ere 
these Y men ; not one m a himdred is doing the same b 
work he did at home and for which he was trained ; n 
them seems to have any idea that there is anything iu tin 
that cannot be done if one has the wiU to do it Being 
to obtain baseball bats, they had the lumber cut and kiL 
it in a bread bakery, then they turned it and polished it 
of mitts, they set the local harness-makers to sewing them 
ing an unappeasable himger for American chocolate cand 
started a factory to manufacture it ; they made contrac 
near-by pastry-cooks and bakers to make American cook 
macaroons and crackers on a big scale ; finding no gi 
Diion, one of the lady secretaries. Miss Evelyn Warner 
enl, compiled and published one in English ; needing 
bles, the secretaries leased and planted a large garden. I 
American courage or wealth which most impresses the 
here, but American inventiveness, resourcefulness, and 
to get things done quickly. 

France will prove to be the starting-point of a libenl 
tion to many of our American soldiers. The majority i 
seem to appreciate the best things readily. Dijon nas a ■ 
full of rare treasures which art critics travel hundreds < 
to visit One of the Y. M. C. A. secretaries has made I 
seum a part of the Y's educational programme. Every 
leads groups of serious-faced boys through the gallerie 
ancient palace ; points out and explains the statuary o 
Sinter, Sambin, Dubois, and Rude ; leads them to die 
paintings of Rubens, Bellini, Bartolommeo, Lotto, da 
Andrea del Sarto, Frans Hals, Holbein, Greuze, Teni( 
a score of other masters ; gives them some local history 
the exquisitely carved tombs of the Dukes of Biu^^undv 
them to the cases containing the rarest enamel jewelri 
world ; and gives the periotls of the richly carved fum 
went around with him and a group of enlisted men, most 
from country districts in the Western States, and I wa« 
at their intelligent interest and their keen, if uuconre 
comments. The visit costs the men nothing, as the « 
charges are paid by the Y. M. C. A. Thousan<ls of « 
carry through life the impression made upon them i 
priceless treasures, and the Y. M. C. A., although this 
tiny part of its work here, will make a large coutributio 
culture of America. I asked the Y secretary how he ( 
do it. " How ?" he said. " Why, it is the only thing to i 
are here to serve the Iwys, and how better can we sen 
than by putting them into contact with the richest art ti 

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of the ageB?" Later I found by inqniry that that secretary is 
a well-t<Mio Boston business man who is always equally ready 
to wash dishes, expound art, teach the Bible, or straighten out 
money difficulties for the boys at any time, by day or night. 
He is devoting his time, strength, money, and very heart to 
aiding our soldiers during their stay in France, and he asks 
absolutely nothing in return, not even thanks. 

Following hard upcm my visit to the Dijon Museum, I went 
to the bakery where a thousand United States Army bakers 
do nothing but make bread twenty-four hours to the day. Good 
bread it is, too ; clean, palatable, and white — such bread as 
Americans have not known at home for many a month. No one 
will begrudge our men the very best with every atom of nutri- 
tion that nature has stored in the finest of the wheat. They 
earn it every day in this foreign land, far from home, in the 
midst of strangers, confronted by a hundred perils, working to 
the limit of human endurance ; they earn it, and must have it. 
It was a stunt night at the bakery under the supervision of the 
Y. M. C. A. The piano was moved from the hut to the ball- 
ground, canvas covered an arena carefully marked by ropes, 
three or four hundred men and a dozen officers sat around the 
ring. First the piano struck a popular air, and every one sang ; 
this waa followed by a three-round boxincr match ; a violinist 
placed " The End of a Perfect Day," " Humoresque," and a 
whimsical melody I did not recognize ; a vigorous wrestling bout 
was next pulled off,; then, as a stranger newly arrived from 
home, I was asked to speak, and I told them of the utter and 

absolute confidence America has that our Army will finally put 
the Kaiser and Kiuserism on the scrap-heap. The evening 
closed with every one singing " The Long TraU." 

Who can hem asking hunself : What is this Y. M. C. A. 
which teaches Bible classes, conducts mass singing, follows ihe 
bo3ni everywhere with little luxuries, superintends athletics, 
leads men into the treasure-house of art, provideis educational 
facilities, plays banker to hundreds of thousands of men, estab- 
lishes busmess enterprises on the drop of ihe hat, &thers and 
mothers a million of homesick men, acts as a circulating library, 
keeps the dear bonds of love firm by providing a million soldiers 
with the facilities for writing home, preaches to them, prays 
with them, plays with them, suffers wiui them, and does it all 
in the name of the One who taught ihe law of human service — 
what is this Y. M. C. A.? At present I cannot answer the 
question ; my head whirls with the things I have seen, such dis- 
similar and divergent thin^, and wrought out upon a scale that 
is fairly staggering. Amenca will have to answer ihe question, 
the whole world will, for it is something we have never seen 
before, and it marks an epoch of spiritiial significance just as 
startiing as the Crusades, the Franciscan movement, the Refor- 
mation, or the rise of Puritanism. It holds within itself poten- 
tialities sufficient to cause the mightiest reactions and readjust- 
ments of thought and emotion, and frcmi this time onward the 
Christian world must move in new channels. He would be a 
bold man who should try to predict the direction. 

July 36, 1918. 




That which hate has blasted love sball lift again. 
(Trust us when we tell you that this thing shall be.) 
The new-grown orchards shall lift to sun and rain 
And the new vines clamber to the stanch roof-tree. 

That which hate has blighted love shall raise to bloom ; 
(Trust us when we tell you the promise shall be kept) 
Candle-light and hearth-Ught and that familiar room 
That all your heart remembered and your sad eyes wept. 

That which hate has taken, tibat will love restore. 
(Trust us when we tell you that our word is true.) 
The lights of home shall beckon within an opened door. 
Oh, weary ones, turn back again, the board is spread for yon I 




WHEN Jeff Bledsoe, Tennessee mountaineer, caught 
untamed on Chilhowee Bald and certified by his dmft 
board as fit material for the National Army, was rail- 
roaded to his designated cantonment, it was quite within the 
possibilities that he had never before ridden in a railway train, 
had never dreamed of modem housing conveniences, and, except- 
ing on " First Monday " court days in his isolated mountain 
county seat, had never seen as many as a hundred of Ins fellow- 
citizens together at one time and in one place. 

It was quite as likely that Jeff hadn't heard of the great war ; 
or, if he had, it was only by word of mouth, and with no grasp- 
able notion of what it was all about One of the niany Jens 
landed at Camp Jackson, wary-eyed, reticent, sullen. To the 
usual enrolling questions — age, nationally, place of residence, 
and former occupation — he was dumb. The questioner in this 
instance happeue<l to be a Reserve officer and a Southerner 
fairlv well acouainted with the Jeffs and their limitations. 

" What is the matter with you ?" he asked. " Why don't you 
answer the questions ?" 

** I ain't sayin' nothin'," was the stubborn reply. " Ef you- 
uus got ary thing ag'inst me, I 'low ye got to prove hit"' 


A light dawned upon the officer. 

" Tm me — where do you think you are ?" he queried. 

*' I reckon hit's a cou't, ain't it ? Ain't you-uns 

The officer explained. The cantonment was not a court, and 
Jeff had not been summoned to answer to a charge of making 
' moonshine " whisky. The country was at war, and he had been 

selected as a fighting man — a soldier, 
" Huh !" sa^ Jeff, 

the sullenness vanishing like the dew on 
I allowed hit was a cou't. I ain't afeard to 

a July morning ; 

fight Git me a gan, cap'n, an' I'll projec' round an' brung you 

in one o' them Dutchies afore sundown. I shore kin shoot 

some ; 

It goes without saying thaf.Teff hatl little trouble on the rifle 
range, in spite of the fact that the modem high-power infantry 
arm was a violent change from his old model 73 Winchester at 
home. He and his kind are iiatural-lmm riflemen. It was in 
Imrrai-ks that he found the greatest number of surprises. To l>f 
housed in a building with some two hundred of his fellows : to 
have lights that he couldn't look at without blinking, and that 
refuseu to be blown out with his breath ; to have water at the 

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touch of a spigot and without having to carry it half a mile 
in a bucket from the nearest spring ; to be required to get him- 
self wet all over at stated peri<xis in an up-to-the-minute canton- 
ment bath-house ; to have some new demiition of the " furrin " 
word " sanitation " thrust upon him and hammered into him at 
every turn ; these, indeed, were innovations as startling to him 
as they would have been to the blanket Indian whose successor 
he was in the mountain wilds. 

The building of the great cantonments and their equipment 
with the modem necessities and conveniences has parsed into 
history, but the history still makes interesting reading. In the 
building period, or at the close of it, America patted itself hilari* 
ously on the back and applauded vociferously at the spectacle 
of all speed records smashed, of miracles wrought at the mere 
waving of the magician's — or the engineer's or contractor's — 
wand. But of the technical difficulties met and surmounted at 
breakneck speed or of the modem completeness of these vast 
eamp cities the average citizen living at a distance from his 
nearest cantonment can have little ooncepdon. 

Figures are always rather desolating to anybody but a statis- 
tician, but it is only by means of them that the big generalities 
can be taken in. The standard cantonment city, if its buildings 
and spacings were arranged in a straight line, would be well 
over three miles long — would reach, say, from the Battery to 
Madison Square. To shorten this magnificent distance it Is 
usually built in the form of the letter U, with its train areas at 
the closed end of the letter, the whole covering a space of about 
sixteen long city blocks one way by eighteen short ones the other. 
These, of course, axe only tlie average dimensions. They have 
been varied in some of the sixteen cantonments to fit the topc^- 
raphy and the shape of the reservation, and increased in others 
— as at Camp Meade, where the buUding area alone is about 
two miles by three. 

With a few exceptions, these camp cities were buUt upon 
non-productive land, and at some distance from the nearest city 
or transportation center , which meant a prodigious lot of pre- 
liminary work in the way of land-clearmg, drainage, forest- 
cutting, and road-building, both of the rail and wagon variety. 
Fort Oglethorpe alone among the Southern camps (and it is not, 
strictly speaking, a National Army cantonment) offered a ready- 
made site in Chiokamauga Park, the Civil War Imttleground 
owned by the Government ; but it was at the moment husking 
an adequate water supply for the number of men and aninuds 
to be assembled. 

The unit of the cantonment — which is uniform in size and 
construction in all of the camps — is the barrack. This home of 
the soldier in training, the standard two-himdred-man barrack, 
is a wooden building one hundred and twenty feet long, forty- 
three feet wide, and two stories high, with a low-pitehed roof 
covered with some one of the patented fire-resistant sheet 

At one end there is a twenty-foot one-storied kitehen extend- 
ing the full width of the building. Half of the lower story of 
the barrack serves as a mess-hall, furnished with tables and 
bench seats for two himdred men ; twenty feet more of it is the 
company hall, entrance, and stairway ; and the remainder and 
the entire upper story is filled with bunks and lockers for the 
soldiers' use; 

The erection record for this barrack unit — it has been in the 
headlines, but it will bear repeating for the credit of America — 
was made at Camp Pike, near Little Bock, Arkansas. Work 
began, setting the foundation posts, at 9 A.M.; buUding com- 
pleted, scaffoldings down, litter cleared away, doors hung, win- 
dow screens fitted and workmen out and gone at 11:55. Beat 
it if you can. 

Wnen you have seen one of these barracks, yon have seen 
them all ; and they are numbered by the hundreds — not figura- 
tively, but literally. In Camp Lewis alone there are 144 of 
them ; and, in addition, enough other buildings — administra- 
tion, warehouses, officers' quarters, commissaries, stables, and 
the like — to make a total of about twelve hundred. 

The building of the barracks and other cantonment struc- 
tures was a contractor's job — always under the watehful eye of 
a constructing quartermaster — and the speed at which they 
were evolved left little room for criticism and won its just meed 
of praise at the time of its accomplishment. But of the purely 

engineering problems — ^the watering, lighting, heating, aid 
sanitation — of these great camp cities less has been writto. 
And it is tiiese that add the home comforts and safegnudlli 

In all of the locations selected an ample, pure^onroe 
supply was the first consideration ; ample, because the 
lean Army aUovrance in a camp designed to shelter a di' 
with the proper proportion of mfantry, cavalry, artillery, 
engineers, with their respective trains and animal equi_ 
is fifty-five gallons a day per man — nearly double mat of 
European Allies. 

The water sources va^ in the different camps. Chickamain 
'^ort Oglethorpe) uses Chattanooga city water drawn from ne 
Tennessee River and forced through ten miles of mains, withi 
powerfid electrically driven booster pump at the half-way paiit 
to help the flow over the hills of Missionary Ridge. CampG» 
don has Atlanta city water, also pushed tJkrougn ten miles d 
pressure mains. Camp Lee uses Petersburg city water ; Camp 
Taylor, that from the mimicipally owned Louisville wat«r- 
works. Camp Dix's eng^eers firstoontemplated a supply drawn 
from artesian wells, but the fine sand underlying the camp site 
threatened to obstruct the flow ; hence the New Jersey's camp 
supply is drawn from Rancocas Creek. Camp Lewis, at Amer- 
ican Lake, Washington, takes its water partly from wells and 
partly from immense springs flowing into the lake. Upton, 
Fort Dodge, Sherman, and others depend ap(Ni wells, eidiet 
dug, bore<^ or driven. 

The magnitude of some of the self-contained water plants 
where no supply was obtainable from a near-by city can bat 
be shown by another dip into figures. At Camp Dodge > 
well sixty feet in diameter and thirty-three feet deep was do; 
by machmery — a steel derrick operating a clam-«hell gnb-bucket 
Tjie plant contains three huge pumps driven by electric motoK, 
each pump with a capacity of one thousand ^llons a minute 
against a head of two nundred and fifty feet. There is a millioa- 
gallon concrete reservoir on top of a ridge, and to carry tbr 
water up to it there are four-fifths of a mUe of sixteen-mdi 
wq^d-stave pipe ; and all this as a mere preliminaiy to the mile* 
oitrenching and pipe-laying for the distribution of the water b 
the camp areas. Some job to be done wiule you wait ! Ami 
that b precisely the way it was done. 

For water-service conveniences the camp city has as many as 
any other kind of city : fire hydrants all over the place, bubbler 
dnnking stations where they will do the most good, watering- 
troughs for the live stock, pressure systems in the kitcbem. 
pressure hot-water systems for the bath-houses in cold weather. 
and for each Jsarrack good bathing facilities and a lavatory. 
Aside from cautionary warnings against needless waste, tbet« 
is no restriction placed upon the use of water. And as a matter 
of course where filtration or chemical purification is needed it 
wasprovided for. 

This brings in Jeff again — this filtration business ; not the 
mountaineer Jeff this time, but another one bftiling from Hm 
bottom lands of the Red River, where the normal color of the 
streams is a fine shade of buckskin ecru. Jeff, arriving weaij 
and with his tongue like a dry chip in his mouth at Camp Pikn 
asked for a drink of water. Steered to the nearest " bubbler." 
he stared long and disappointedly at the crystal-clear output 
Then he shook his head and turned away. " That thar aia'l 
water," he said, reproachfully. " Reckon I know water what 1 
see it. Water's yaller." 

Hand in hand with an abundant water supply in the canfm 
ment goes a complete and well-designed sewerage system, 
asked a constructing quartermaster how thoroughly this sewer- 
ing process had been carried out. 

" To a finish," he said. " The day of the camp latrine, even 
in its most carefully sealed form, has practically passed, and 
with it — and with the serum inoculations and the abolition oi 
camp garbage dumps, flies, and mosquitoes — the twin camp 
soouiges, typhoid and dysentery, have disappeared so far *< 
they were owing to camp conditions." 

" But you do have them now and then," I ventured. 

" Only when they are brought here." 

This particidar quartermaster officer had had a large and 
varied experience in the cantonments in his specialty, whid 
is sanitary engineering, and I asked him to tell me aboal 

Digitized by 






I aujvnuTim SERvicc 


tfttaammmMmaumtem ^ zealous touno sailor issrucTiNO A workman's keuistration card 


i\V VOUK^T^S^^ 


(l) committee on public information 

These prisonera ai'e l>eioK seiirchml primarily fur import^uit ])iipera, ami are iiuideiitally l)("iin; rcliived of uouei; ilml knives, iiuitubeK, etc. Matty soeB«s Ilka 

have been enacted in tlie ^Teat counter-ort'eusive ' 

Digitized by ' 

iiiatuueK, etc. saaaj so 


■muTKNUL FILM Hnvigc 

ligeDt worken on our new ships are deserVinf^of iiiedAla jiut as are the 
roea at the front. The piotme nhowa workers on the cargo ships Bokigan and 

Bogaya leoeiving badges of honor when the ships were laonobed 

*l«naH Ntwsi>Ai>>ii UHMH scmric* 


Peaoh-stonea are used in making a charcoal powder to counteiaot the effect of 

poison gas. The picture, taken jn a New York street, shows how they are being 

ooUeoted for nse by the Goreniinent 


mooNvooa 4 iMomwooo 


c pliutognph was taken from the deck of the Dutch liner New Amsterdam, which had been stopped by the submarine off the Norwet^ian const. The steamer'n 
i<.-«n are seen in the lifebwU ; they have taken the ship's paiwrs to show to the oomniHiidtir of the submnriiie. The I'-boat, it is reported, dimppeared almost 

instantly when it sighted a vessel on the horiam, which was probably a British cruiser Dloltlzed bV V^IXl^l^Sf L^ 

Digitized by VJWVJV H 



18 Seplmh 

the various methods of sewt^ disposal. He had the data at his 
tongue's end. 

^^Over half of the cantonments have the most approved 
methods : septic tank and chlorination, the tanks with inter- 
mittent or trickling or sprinkling filters. Some few drain direct 
into watercourses which are not the source of any water-supply. 
Camp Lewis drains into Pnget Sound ; Camp Taylor, mto the 
city sewerage system of Louisville. This one " — ^we were at Fort 
Oglethorpe at the moment — " has septic tanks and sprinklers, 
and the effluent, which is entirely inoffensive, goes into Chickar- 
mauga Creek." 

Not less complete than the water and sewerage systems in the 
cantonment cities are the lightin^^ and power installations. 
Wherever it was possible the ^ectnc current has been taken 
from tihe nearest central source ; otherwise, self-contained plants 
have been built. The camp cities are generously l^bted, both 
as to building and as to the streets and areas. The familiar 
incandescent is everjrwhere, and there is current to spare for 
power usee besides : for electric fans, for the driving of pumps 
and laundry machinery, for the refrigerating plant, tor hoepi^ 
ventilating systems, and the like. In at least one of the camp 
cities I saw the men getting the r^^ulation hair^nit with electri- 
cally operated clippers. 

Next to good housing, pure water, proper sewerage, and effi- 
cient light comes the need for winter warmth, subsidiary to the ' 
other requirements only in the Southern cantonments. As to 
the memods employed, climatic conditions govern. In the 
warmer zone the barracks are heated by stoves in the lower 
story, with stovepipe drums in the upper. Where the winter 
temperatures run lower, central or individual low-pressure steam 
plants furnish the heat ; thousands of boilers, more thousands 
of radiators, miles of piping. The heating pbuits are under the 
supervision of the superintendent of buiMmgs and grounds, a 
Q. M. C. captain who reports to the officer in charge of all util- 
ities — a Q. M. C. major. The three superintendents of heating 
are first-class sergeants, and under them there is a force of fire- 
men and ash-handlers drawn from the rank and file. 

No modem city, camp or other, would be complete without 
its telephone system ; and the cantonments are nothing if not 
modem. In somojuatanoes the telephone system is local, with 
only long-distance connections to tie it to the outside world ; in 
others it is an extension of the system of the nearest city, with 
a camp exchange. In either case the long-distance service is 
available for the use of the soldier in training, and the National 
tel^^ph companies have branch offices in the cantonments — 
quite often a number of them — located in the various Y. M. C. A. 

Postu facilities come under the head of conveniences, if not 
exactly under that of engineering problems. They are afforded 
by branch post offices, and brigade, regimental, and company 
deliveries. If the soldier has given, his company letter and regi- 
mental number in his address to the home folks, his mail reaches 
him as promptly as it would in a city delivery system — there 
or thereabouts. 

Troop movements and the handling of supplies fall to the 
railway lines, but ordinary transportation to and from the 
cantonment's nearest city or town is usually provided byjocal 
trolley lines. In cases where these lines were not -thready in 
existence they have been promptly built ; the near-by city or 
town has seen to that. For Jeff and his fellows in the company 
barracks are the freest of spenders, and the after-pay-day leave 
scatters money broadcast in the nearest place where it can be 
distributed. What does Jeff buy? Ordinarily a lot of things 
for which he hasn't the slightest possible use. I've seen him pay 
a dollar and a half lor a restaurant dinner that wasn't half as 
good as the " chow " which would have been served him in the 
company mess-halL But that is strictly his affair. 

Of the good job the Y. M. C. A. is making in the adding of 
home comforts and conveniences in the cantonments — to say 
nothing of the entertainment features ^of the work — much has 
been written of the praiseful sort, and it is all deserved. I spent 
an instructive hour the other day at the counter in one of the 
Y buildings, just listening and looking on. At the time — it was 
a hot and thirsty afternoon — there were probably a hundred 
men sitting at the bench desk which encircles the big room, 
writing letters. The secretary, a man who, as I happened to 

know, had given up a good business connection to do Ins 1m i 
the war, was as busy — and as cordial — as a political camCibs 
before election. 

*' Yes, sure we've got stamps " — this to a new draftee sendii^ 
his first letter home. " Paper and envelopes ? Always "'— tt 
to another applicant. '^ Movie programme ? Right up then a 
the walL" Then to aigrave-faced young husky who looked asi 
he might be a. bit homesick : " Play the phcmograph '! (! 
course you may — tliat''s what it's here for. Go to it." 

In a littie lim 1 wedged in my word. 

" Don't they worry the life out of you ?" 1 asked. 

llis laugh was a tonic for tired people. " Not for a minDtt 
I enjoy it. 

** But the long hours — ^they are long, aren't they ?" 

** Six in the morning to ten at night. But what of tb: 
When you think of the fellows ' over there ' — excuse me. He 
Pietro — to a bright-faced littie Ttalian cavalryman who m 
passing—" did you get your shirt mended ?" 

The Italian backed around to show a huge rent acTO» <« 
shoulder — neatly darned. 

" Da ladies fix-a heem fine — I tank-a you," he smiled. 

" They're glad to do it ^ come again when you have anydui 
you want patched. The ladies are here Mondays, Wednesday 
and Fridays." 

And so it went throughout the hour. 

Admirable as the work of the cantonment Y is, it is hatdl 
fair to let the praise of it overshadow that of at least two otiii 
organizations which are laboring, and to excellent purpose, is d 
same field. These are the Knights of Columbus and d 
Y. M. H. A. (the Jewish young men's society). Club-rooi 
similar to the assembly-rooms of the Y, are maintained bylM 
of these associations, and while the Y has the largest field foR 
it has no monopoly on the hearty brand of welcome extended 
the beginning soldier. 

Not to starve the soldier mentally while it is btiilding b 

f>hysically into a fit fighting man, the cantonment city 1^ i 
ibrary — a free circulating library under the auspices of i 
"American Library Association. In Chickamauga, which is tj] 
cal, the central library is housed in a large building with fLtaa 
reading-rooms, long rows of book-stacks well filled, tables *i 
current magazines, racks of late newspapers. What is mud) m 
to the point, it is enthusiastically patronized by the m^i. I a.4 
the librarian what they read most, and was surprised wks 
didn't say it was light fiction. He said the call was chiefly I 
technical books b^unng upon the particular branch d I 
service in which the applicant happened to be training. 

Unquestionably Jeff's job in his training camp is to fit li 
self, or to permit himself to be fitted, to fight the battles of 
country ; and the daily routine of the cantonment takes «< 
care of that part of his education. But in many other w. 
apart from the military discipline the cantonment city b ga 
to exert a tremendous influence — a remodeling influence — od 
Chilhowee Balds and other backward American regions. 

To say nothing of the experiences he may have abroad, 
training period will have given Jeff a new outlook upon ' 
and its possibilities. It has already done so. If the yesx « 
to end to-morrow, he would never be content to go back to thi 
as they were on the Bald. Or, if he should go back, he wu 
carry with him, t<Kjether with his disciplined body and his » 
learned lesson of the value of good food, good housing, and 
balanced ration, a spirit of progress and enlightenment, Ixai 
the things he had heard and seen and touched to make the i 
a better place for his children to live in. 

By looking back a littie way you will see that this arti 
started out to be a listing of the home comforts of the soldid 
the making, as these have lieen planned for and provided bj 
designers, engineers, and builders of the cantonment cities. 1 
it has rambled off to other phases of things, just as the atteni 
and interest of the camp visitor will ramble in any attem}' 
take in the multifarious activities and outreachings of the 
training centers. Yet the fact remains that it was the -V: 
Engineer Corps that laid the broad foundations. 

lliis arm of the service, rarely seen against any ^>ect3< > 
background, has come to its own in the gre&t war. Fn ' 
pre-war personnel of only twenty-five hundml men and off 
it has grown to be a hotly of two himilred tbousan<l, with n 

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than half of that number oa active service abroad. Into its 
Reserve ranks have gone hundreds of professional men who, out 
of pure patriotic promptings, have willingly taken a major's, a 
captain's, or even a lieutenant's pay in exchange for a successful 

world-builder's income. And it is to this body of highly special- 
ized men, and to the more or less disregarded quartermaster 
officer — who is oftener than not an engineer — that the National 
Army in the making owes all the comforts of home. 



" I am the good shepherd : the good shepherd giveth his life for 
the sheep."— -«/oAw x. 11. 

I NEVER realized what shepherding meant in the old days 
of long ago till I lived among the little-known flock-keeping 
tribes of middle Africa. 

Life as we experience it is something utterly different from 
what it was to our forebears. We cannot visualize it, try as we 
may. We call imagination to our aid, but the past remains 
misty, dim, unreal — a life, a land, we may dream of but cannot 
enter. But when you come into intimate intercourse with primi- 
tive man, watch lus doings, listen to his slowly told stories, g;ain 
gradually his shyly yielded confidence, then a fresh page in 
human history is turned over by a black man's hand and a new 
world story, which is but the oldest of all old stories, is being 
told you, if you have ears to bear it. 

Here, alas ! the far g^reater part of our modem travelers fail. 
They are bent on winning their own objectives. The native, to 
them, is little more than a means to an end. They kill wild 
beasts, sometimes wild men, they map. unknown countries, they 
measure mountains, but the savage master of mountain and 
jungle stands mute before them ; he and his life are little more 
than an incident in their adventurous progress. 

To me the fascination of little-known lands lay in their hiunan 
revelations. For more than two years night after night I 
sat by my big camp fire. When the day's march was done, then 
the real day b^an for me. Then my two hundred men, drawn 
from six or seven different tribes — men who hung on me for 
guidance, safety, and food — after they had rested from the long 
tiay's march, would, because they knew I liked it, come of their 
own will, first in twos and threes, and then in trooping com- 
|>any, round my fire, and in dance and song and story try, in 
their humble way, to let their white Bwana (master) know a 
little of what they were and wanted to be. 

Daring those wonderful African nights I found myself look- 
ing into an almost lost chapter in the great book of human his- 
tory, listening to a story, haltingly tdfd and almost forgotten, 
seeing, before it quickly passed forever, some vision of what, 
hundreds of thousands of years ago, the life of primitive man 
must have been. 

So, I say, it was in the African wilderness, and by its wild- 
l>ea8t-8caring fires, that I got a newer and truer understanding 
of what the good shepherd of long ago was and did. 

It must have meant almost the same thing in all wild lands, 
where men were feeble and the wilderness was strong. 

It may sound an exaggeration, but it is the truth, that among 
all herd-keeping tribes the flock of the tribe represents the final 
gold reserve, as it were, of tribal existence. 

In those parts of Africa where sheep, goats, and cattle can 
live, all other native property is generally of very secon<lary 
importance, and on no tribal office, not even on that of the war- 
rior, does the well-being of all depend quite as much as on that 
of the shepherd. 

If the choice is forced on it, a pastoral tribe may desert even 
itH women and children sooner* than its flocks. In the old days 
iroats and cattle ooidd always (not in Africa alone, remember) 
purchase women, and so the tribe could renew itself ; but with 
its herds lost or destroyed the tribe was doomed. 

I am drawing no fancy picture. I am speaking of African 
Itastoral life as it existed but a very few years ago, as in part it 
>xistB to^lay. 

In inland tropic lands there are few natural food resources, 
'cw edible fruits or roots. To raise and store grain taxes the 
iidustry of the nomad, and often adds to the tribal dangers, as 
t invites the attack of strange tribes. When the sun has 

burned the grass, the native hunter wn&'Jiift puuy bow finds it 
hard to feed his family. He cannot get within k^Ring^c^stance of 
wild game ; he falls back then sometimes, as we^CD^M; {i*om the 
Bible story the Jews did, on the wild bee and its store.* During 
such times his flock, or his small part in the tribal flock, is his 
very life. On its milk, sometimes but rarely on its flesh, be 
can support life. 

So m primitive times (and still in primitive conditions) the 
shepherd who guarded the flock night and day in itis joumeyings 
from pasture to pasture was an alf important man. He must be 
absolutely truthful. He must be absolutely brave. 

He must be absolutely truthful, for he is the banker of his 
people, and could, if he would, not only muddle his accounts 
but ruin his patrons. Every lamb or goat or calf bom during 
the long months he must be absent m>m the village, seeking 
good grazing for his charge — months during which he must not 
for a moment relax his watchfulness — must be credited to tiie 
rightful owner when he returns. Every weakling lost or dead, 
every victim of lion, leopard, or wild dog, must be honestiy 
accounted for. The wild African is not highly placed in our 
human scale, yet this astonishing feat of memory that the tribal 
shepherd must accomplish is actually achieved by thousands of 
black men. And, more wonderful still, these good shepherds 
can render such accounts several years after they have given up 
their job. I can vouch for the truth of this amazing statement. 

But, fascinating as it is to write of my unknown black 
shepherd, let me come to the lesson he taught me, to the light 
he cast on the Gospel story. 

As he stood there with his puny weapons, his bow and spear, 
before me rose the picture of the Man who called himself the 
Good Shepherd lieeause he gave his life for his sheep. I seemed 
to see the good shepherds of all the struggling times in our long 
past — black, white, and yellow shepherds, careful, watchful, 
brave — rise in a great company mistily behind him and acclaim 
him Master and Lord. 

The Shepherd King of Israel was a fighting man, so the 
legend ran. That my black shepherd was also a fighting man 
there can be no doubt. Legend bad it that David, defending 
his flock, slew in one day a lion and a bear. However that might 
be, I knew well that this poor black man sqttatting by my 
thorn-wood fire faced the worst lion in the world and ue cruel, 
sneaking leopard with the same puny weapons and the same 
high heart that the Poet King of four thousand years ago had 

Jesus knew David's story. So did every man, woman, and 
child that listened to him, and so it was that, standing liefore a 
people who religiously conserved their past, he cried : '* I am the 
good shepherd : the goo<l shepherd giveth his life for the sheep." 

" Giveth his life.' How and why V In tame surrender ? In 
watchfid care only? Ah, no. In bitter, sad, often hopeless 
battle with the brute force of the untamed wild he must give 
his life for his sheep. 

The shepherd of old was a fighting man, I say. So was the 
Master. Though fallen on peacef id times, the churches have often 
forgot it. Were he back on earth to-day, Jesus would again pro- 
claim himself the Good Shepherd, and would surely grjve his 
blessing to those millions who are striving to make our jjoor world 
a place where his peace can at last reign. Would he not welcome 
to his high company the men and women of all nations and all 
classes and all creeds who are giving all they love best to alNtlish 
forever that ruthless militarism which has become the evident 
curse and enemy of mankind ? In it the beast fonrt's of the | 
are ravaging the flocks of his children, and with it to the death 
the fighting Shepherd would wage war. 

Digitized by 







DURING the summer of 1915 The 
Outlook sent Mr. James Davenport 
Whelpley to the Pacific coast for 
the purpose of securing first-hand* 
information reg^arding the attitude ^f d(« ' 
Far Western public toward the con^A dien< 
raging in Europe. Mr. Whel^e^ 'cMue 
direcuy from the battlefieids ti) padilomia, 
and the environment ^n frhich he found 
himself upon reacbkib "his destination was 
enough to foikfi " th& spirit of the traveler 
from tlM'jfki''.z6ne sink within him.'" The 
GrermAi^, ;&e French, the Belgpans^ the 
English,' and the Italians were givmg enter- 
tainments, the proceeds of which were 
used for relief woi^ in their respective 
countries, and the Red Cross received sub- 
stantial support from citizens representing 
both sides of the world war. " A straiwer 
to this planet who landed directlv in San 
Francisco," he wrote for the issue of 
August 11, " might be forgiven if he came 
to the conclusion that Europe had been 
visited by a great flood or famine, . . . and 
that here was a Nation, fortunately immune 
by reason of its remoteness, which was 
exerting itself in relief measures." Appar- 
ently the only existing sentiment pertamiiig 
to the war was one nvorine peace, and it 
was encouraged by Mr. Bryan and the 
women's dubs, and strengthened by " crowds 
of young men and women who get together 
ana decide that this terrible war ought to 
be stopped at once." 

Witnont attemptine to examine these 
impressions of Mr. Vv lielpley's, we must 
admit that the majority of the people of 
California were opposed to taking active 
part in the European war at that time, and 
that they gave open expression to this sen- 
timent more tluun a year later when they 
cast the determining vote in -the second 
election of Mr. Wilson. The majority did 
not know that the Allies were fitting 
America's battle as well as their own. Presi- 
dent Wilson had not begun his second 
term, however, before conditions arose 
which revolutionized publicopinion through- 
out the West. 

Meanwhile tke war sentiment in Cali- 
fornia was quickened when the people 
learned, through information made public 
by the trial and conviction of Franz Bopp, 
German Consul at San Francisco, that the 
reptiU^ns propaganda emanating from 
Berlin was emitting its slimy secretions in 
their very midst. The State Legislature 
passed an Act creating a State Council of 
Defense, which was approved by the Gov- 
ernor on March 29. The body was organ- 
ized, held its first meeting, and began its 
work on April 6, within half an hour after 
President Wilson signed the declaration of 
war, and three days before the National 
Council of Defense called upon the States 
to form such organizations. Eighteen com- 
mittees were named,, each to- supervise and 
direct a certain phase of war-preparedness 
work. In each of the fifty-eight counties 
local councils of defense were organized, 
consisting of the judge of the superior 
court as chairman, the district attorney, 
the sheriff, the chairman of the board of 
supervisors, the counhr clerk, and three 
additional members. These bodies were in- 
defatigable in the patriotic work assigned 
them. Reports of the -State Council of De- 
fense which have been filed with the Gov- 
ernor from time to time cover such subjects 
as increased crop production, prevention of 
waste, the home gardening movement, 

organization of home guards, detection and 

repr^io^ pf enemy acts, assisting farmers 

tueoOgh iQtfunty farm advisers, surveying 

:'«mf mapping military roads, solving the 

;: Koor proDlems for the farmer, eliminating 

* loss in the harvesting of crops, safeguarding 

the moral welfare and providing dean en 

tertainment and recreation for tne enlisted 

men, and many other similar subjects. 

These councils with their affiliated organ- 
izations have been doing most effective 
work in ormnizing and co-ordinating local 
patriotic effort and enthusiasm, "niis is 
ulustrated in many instances. California 
was one of the first two States in the Union 
to complete the registration of heir male 
citizens under the Federal Seleetive Ser- 
vice Act By September 28, 1917, fifty-two 
Home Guard squads had been formed in 
the State. During the same year, in response 
to the Nation's plea for increased crop 
production, eighty per cent of the fanners 
m the State increased their yield more than 
thirty per cent over that of 1916. Califor- 
nia is Sfud to have been the first State in 
the Union io organize a committee on en- 
gineering and inventions, and through this 
committee more than twenty new devices 
for making war were reported to the War 
Department before Octooer 1, 1917. 

A littie over four months after war was 
declared Mr. Hoover appointed Mr. Ralph 
P. Merritt Food Commissioner for Califor- 
nia, and the latter, on August 26, announced 
the sta£f of assistants who would carry out 
the Government plans for food conserva- 
tion and the control of agricultural prod- 
ucts, including marketing, distribution, and 
the supervisipn of food industries. Through 
the frequent publication of bulletins, the 
cordial and efiicient service of numerous 
local suliordinates, and the patriotic re- 
sponse of the people, the State Food Ad- 
ministrator has rendered excellent service 
to the Nation. After a recent tour of the 
entire State which took him into the rural 
communities as well as into the more 
densely populated areas, Mr. Merritt is 
reported to have said that the response 
which the people are making voluntMily is 
nothiiuf less than " magnificent." 

In uct, this eager response to the de- 
mands of the hour has manifested itself in 
a most substantial way on many occasions. 
California's apportionment in the First 
Liberty Loan was $91,000,000, her sub- 
scription was $115,621 ,0idO ; in the Second 
Loiui her quota was $134,496,579, her sub- 
scription was $183/S71,200; in the Third 
the quota and subscription were $133,820,- 
429 and $174,512,450, respectively. TliuBa 
total quota in the three drives, amounting 
to $359,317,008, was oversubscribed bv 
$114,187,692. In a list of seven cities with 
populations between two hundred and fifty 
and five hundred thousand that had sub- 
scribed most liberally to the Third Liberty 
Loan, the Official Bulletin, on May 8, 1918, 
gave California two ; Los Angeles standing 
second in the list, with a rating of one hun- 
dred and fifty per cent, and San Francisco 
sixth, with a rating of one hundred and 
nine per cent. In a list of nineteen, with 
popumtions rang^g from one hundred to 
two hundred and fifty thousand, Oakland 
has a place with a rating of one hundred 
and four per cent. In addition to this Cal- 
ifornia had purchased AVar Saving Stamps 
to the amount of $0,504,976.50 on August 
1, 19lS. 

In the first campaign made for funds by 

the Red Cross in 1917 California gave 
$2,616,848.92. In the drive which waa car- 
ried on during last summer the amount 
reported to Ju^ 1 was $7411,083.62. Eacit 
01 the 129 chapters into which the State 
was divided for the last campaign over- 
subscribed its quota with two exceptions, 
and one of the two reached its apportion- 
ment This total of $9,727 ,932.M does not 
include either the money raised in the 
membership campaign, when over three 
hundred thousana joined the Red Cross, 
or any attempt to estimate in dollars and 
cents the volunteer service given by thou- 
sands of citizens, particularly the women, 
throughout the entire war period. Wlien 
we add to this more than $400,000 sub- 
scribed to the work of Bel^;ian relief, 
$l,460,000,(approximately, which has been 
given t6 the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation, about $400,000 to Ihe Knigfats of 
Columbus, and the generous sums contrib- 
uted to the Young Women's Christiaa 
Association, to the i oung Men's Hebrew 
Association, and to other orders and soci- 
eties, it will be seen that the State has aa 
enviable record of volunteer service. 

If we consider the contributions made to 
the industrial output of the Nation, particu- 
larly to that of ship-building, we shall find 
that California has done her part Of the 
ninety-five vessels sent down the ways in 
the various shipyards of the country on 
July 4, more than half were built on the 
Pacific coast The San Francisco Bay dis- 
trict launched seventeen steel ships, eight 
of them destroyers and nine cargo vessels ; 
the shipyards of San Pedro, four ; and the 
Eureka yards, the same number on the 
same day. In addition to the steel vessels 
mentioned the Pacific coast is credited 
with thirty wooden vessels — eighteen from 
Oregon, ten from Washington, and two 
from California. One of the steel ships of 
12,000 tons at the Union plant oi the 
Bethlehem Ship-Building Corporation was 
launched in thirty-eight days, making a 
world's record, which Director Schwab said 
he believed would not be surpassed nnlras 
it was accomplished by the men who made 
the record. The six honor flags awarded 
by the Emergency Fleet Corporation have 
come to the Pacific coast because of the 
excellent work done by the ship-builders of 
the West 

Verily, conditions have changed in Cali- 
fomia, as they have throughout the West 
since the summers of 1915 and 1916. Neu- 
trality has given place to war, and indiffer- 
ence and opposition have g^en way to 
interest ana co-operation. The hyphen 
everywhere has been condemned. Local 
officials have co-operated with tiie Federal 
branch of the Secret Service in uncovering 
and stamping out Grerman propaganda 
wherever it could be found. Anti-Grerman 
sentiment has been mining rapidly. In 
California the State Board of Education 
has taken action which has resulted in re- 
moving the German language from courses 
of study throughout the State. School- 
teachers with pro-German sjrmpathies have 
been dismissed. University professors with 
Grerman names and German tact have been 
compelled to resign their positions. Briefly, 
California has made it quite clear to all 
who Uve within her borders that there is to 
be nothing left which shall serve as a me- 
dium for tne spread of " German KuUur" 

But this is no time to pause for self- 
congratulations. More pertinent is it in 
Cahfornia and throughout the Nation to 
ask ourselves a few frank questions. Are 
we yet one hundred per cent efficient? 
Can we be one hundred per cent efficient 

Digitized by Va\^»^V IV^ 




if onr pnblic sentiment has not yet reached 
that degree of efficiency ? Can onr public 
sentament be one hundred per cent efficient 
if it will tolerate threatened interruptions 
in any branch of our war work ? Do we 
realize that we have just begun our part of 
the task in this world conflict? Do we 
realize that the National Government 
expects to spend approximately $24,000,- 
000,000 during the fiscal year ending June, 
1919, and that $16,000,000,000 of that 
amonnt may be raised by the sale of Lib- 
erty Bonds ? Do we forget that the Bed 
Cross, the Young Men's and the Young 
Women's Christian Associations, and simi- 

lar organizations, will call npon us a^ain 
and again for more and still more milhons 
for relief work in this titanic business in 
which we are engaged ? We may well be 
proud of Vhat our boys are dome " over 
there,"' we may congratulate ourselvea on 
what we have done " over here ;" but we 
must not permit these self-indulgences to 
lead to optimistic or selfish intoxication, so 
that we will be disqualified to complete die 
task which we have undertaken. 

Cardinal Goodwik, 
Professor of American History, 
llGlls College. 
OdUand, Odifbniis, Aa«iut 18, 1918. 



TIE hot wave first raced across the 
com belt of the Middle West on Sun- 
day. When Friday came, the ther- 
mometer was still dancing up and 
down between 100° and 110° hot Fahrenheit. 
The com, eager to fill up its ear, was blis- 
tering in the Iowa sun, and the leaves were 
turning fast to fodder. The bumper crop in 
sight a week before was now no more tnan 
a Uvely hope. Day after day clouds climbed 
op into the western sky to thunder a v^rant 
note and then to disappoint each evening 
the earnest farmers. 

Everything wilted but Chautauqua. That 
never wilts. Chantaaqnans, well seasoned 
these many years past, " feel no more the 
heat of the sun." General management has 
the highly intelligent support of local com- 
mittees, local editors, local ministers. Even 
the stores close during th|e Chaataaqua hours. 
Families for many a mile round set their 
house in order for Chautauqua week, and 
crowd the big tent afternoon and evening. 
Chautauqua audiences are well trained. 
No better listeners are to be found. Good 
music, good P^ys, good speaking, they de- 
mand, and ChautauQua nianaeers never 
disappoint them. While mere celebrity may 
draw, something more is needed to save 
from the fate described by him who wrote : 
" Th«y Uirlit roe odos. 
They hurry by. 
And never come again." 

I have studied the Chautauqua speakers. 
They command the admiration of the hon- 
est critic, lliey have method as well as 
meosage. They are as artistic in their craft 
as George Aruss in his or Galli-Curci in 
hers. They deal with serious subjects as 
experts. They carry men, women, and chil- 
dren on to the conclusion of the longest 
lecture by knowing when to lighten at the 
proper moment with a story, or a lilt of 
numor, or sometimes a local reference. 
Said a village woman in my hearing of a 
fellow-speaker on the problems of patriot- 
iam : " I thought at first he would be hard 
to follow, but I surely hated when he had 
to atop." I heard that lecture. Tlie ther- 
mometer was reported to be 105^ in the tent. 
The speaker held tlie rapt attention of the 
people for an hour and a half in a philo- 
sopnical presentation of the causes of the 
war and our resiMJiisibilities in consequence. 
It was like reading a solid book, and con- 
densing it with marked success into one 
hearing. It was typical, and twenty millions 
of Americans are reported to be listening 
to such addresses in Chautauqua tents the 
country over. 

Chautauqua is patriotic. With a daily 
p r o gramme with a patriotic tinge Chautau- 
qua is helping to make real Americans no 
matter what tlieir pedigree, and deserves 

the confidence of our President and his 
Administration. While I have spoken for 
Chautauqua before, this hot August finds 
me for the first time " on circuit " in Iowa, 
living daily the Chautauqua life, speaking 
every night in combination with a quartette 
of jolly Doys who sing the patriotic songs 
and Government war pictures ; sometimes 
rising the next morning at 3:30 to " auto " 
and railroad to the next appointment It is 
hot, hard, grueling work, with no days off, 
as in tlie trenches, but joyously worth while. 
Everybody is good-natured. Broken sleep 
is partly made up in the train, partly be- 
tween performances. 

It was almost noon when we got into 
Blanchard. Good cheer awaited us at the 
little concrete hotel and a good dinner. 
Then a patriotic afternoon, including a 
pageant for the children to perform and a 
scholarly address, of which the young 
mother with the baby in her arms re- 
marked to me, her seat-mate, " I wish the 
Kaiser had heard that ! He would know 
where to get off." 

We were sitting on the hotel porch wait- 
ing for the evening call to duty when the 
local editor with the evening paper in his 
hands came sauntering up to show us the 
good news from the front. He was a real 
lowan, widely read and equally at home in 
comment ou Europe or America. He talked 
about Uie technique of the war like a Frank 
H. Siinonds, its moral issues like a Chris- 
tian, its statecraft Uke a Wilson or Lloyd 
George. lowans are great talkers. Hotel 
porches and trains are visitine opportuni- 
ties. One of them told me wat they are 
more conservative than some of their neigh- 
bors in the States near by. At any rate, they 
cannot be hurried in the formation of opin- 
ions, nor worsted in discussion when tneir 
minds are once made up. They talk with 
an informedness and felicity nowhere sur- 
passed in this country. They are humor- 
ously sensitive here and there to anything 
that looks like Eastern condescension ; but 
they never bristle. They are so sure that 
their lines are cast in pleasant places that 
they keep good-natured however warm the 
aivument As one of them said to me : 
" We folks travel. 'Most everybody goes to 
New York and to California. The auc- 
tioneer in ' galluses ' and shirt sleeves has 
been all round the world. If Eastern folks 
do not like to take us ou equal terms, we 
neither worry nor get mad. We know 
Iowa is tlie nest State in the Union. We 
let them fade away." 

Here and there are little groups of 
foreign-born. One or two of my audiences 
consisted practically of Gentians and of 
Swedes. But tliey are goml AiiiericAUs. 
Tliey are through with the hyphen. They 

are sendiiw thmr boys over to beat the 
Kaiser, and they do not want them home 
until the job is done. One of them, a most 
attractive man, remarked to me as we were 
circling round the town in his " machine :" 
" When the trouble was between England 
and the Fatherland, I had some sympathy 
for the country where I lived in my boy- 
hood. The Germany of my boyhood was a 
pretty nice place. I thought possibly some- 
thing could be sud on both sides. But after 
the Kaiser, in January, 1917, let loose his 
submarines again and broke his promise to 
us I made up my mind that tiie Kaiser 
was a crook, and that the Fatherland I 
loved was dead. It was Uncle Sam for me 
after that I wish I could %ht, but they 
tell me I am too old. I am proud to say, 
however, that my boys are over there, and 
if they have to kill Uieir cousins in the 
Grerman army they will do it like Ameri- 
cans.. I am doing what I can at hoipe. I 
have got three thousand people in the 
county to raise hogs this year for Uncle 
Sam. We expect to net Sn),000 for him. 
But I do wish I could fight !'* 

That evening performance I never could 
forget, not even if I tried. I was schedule<l 
for the middle of the programme. I was 
explaining to the audience that we are not 
going to stop this war till we have both 
beaten the Kaiser and agreed with other 
nations to end war forever. As I began to 
speak the clouds began to gmmble and to 
spread out over the whole sky. Flashes of 
lightning played round tlie tent like search- 
lights through an Allied city. Here and 
there a little restlessness was evident, not 
due, however, to the coming of a storm, but 
to concern abont the horses and " autos." 
Mothers made their babies as comfortable 
as possible and crooned them to quiet 
Nobody thought of going heme. Chautau- 
quans always stick it out 

Naturally I was on my mettle to make it 
worth their while to stay, and not to be out- 
talked by the thunder. I made them laugh 
with agood story of the lighter side of 
war. When I told them that the war will 
never end till Old Glory floats over the 
Potsdam palace to save us all from Pots- 
damnation, their applause beat out the 
thunder-storm. Then I told them that onr 
allies have for four long years been fight- 
ing our war as well as theirs, and that we 
now at last are watching them in heroic 
and resistless onslaught They rose to the 
moral heights of tiMesae obliae, and put 
themselves on record white the thunder 
crashed as it had never crashed before and 
the lightning atoned freely for its neglect 
of the com belt 

I was speaking of tlie air raid which I 
saw in London when suddenly the ap- 
plause began again and extravagantly out- 
reached the merit of my words. I did not 
understand at first, but I was soon to learn 
that my audience good-naturedly was 
watching the rain trickling down in a 
widening stream through a joint in the 
tent and drawing nearer to me. At last a 
big splash struck iny neck. Instead of mov- 
ing to one side, I Bteppe<] across the foot- 
lights. Detennined to play up to such an 
audience, I went down into their miditt, 
where I battled with the thunder till there 
was a place to stop, while the people said, 
" Go on, go on !" 

By this time the blessed rain was pour- 
ing down in torrents, to the delight of all of 
us, and, without awaiting its cessation, uin- 
brellaless, I hurrie<l back to ray hotel, un- 
mindful of the drenching and thinking 
only that " this is tlie end of a perff <;t 
day." Lyma.v P. Powki-l. 

Digitized by Va^^^^V IV^ 



18 September 

This advertisement, which is appearing in the daily newspapers, seems to us of such importance 
to American industry that tee reproduce it here on our own responsibility as neips and not as an 
advertisement. It throws a clear light on one of the great economic problems of the war and ought 
to be read by every jyrogressive American business man. — THE PUBLISHERS OF THE OVTLOOK. 

A Message 
to American Business 

The Lesson of British Experience 

From an Address made in New York by Mr. Val Fisher, 
London Publisher, Member London Chamber of Commerce, 
Associate Member American Chamber of Commerce in London 


'N four years of war, 
many things have hap- 
pened in Great Britain 
that I am quite sure you 
will be interested in hear- 
ing about. 

''Some wonderful things 
have happened in advertis- 
ing, through war condi- 
tions, and I want to touch 
on some of those things, 
that you may be prepared 
for the conditions that will 
probably arise as the war 
goes on. In the last four 
years the business men of 
Great Britain have learned 
more concerning the im- 
portance of building good- 
will through advertising 
than they did in forty years 
preceding the war. 

" In considering business conditions 
in England you must bear in mind that 


VICE. That means ONE-THIRD of 

our entire male population, from the 
infants in the cradle to the extremely 

'" You must bear in mind that 
5,000,000 British women who never 
worked before have voluntarily gone to 
work to 611 the places of men at the 
front. Hundreds of our women are 
working in factories making TNT — a 
work that ruins the hair and turns 
the skin yellow — thus sacrificing their 
beauty for the rest of their lives for the 
sake of Britain and freedom. We hav« 
only one business in England and that 
is to win the war. We are all concen- 
trated on that one thing, even to the 
boys and girls. 

" You would think under such condi- 
tions, with as many men in active ser- 
vice, in proportion to population, as you 
would have if you had 18,000,000 men 
in uniform — you would think under 
such conditions that retail business 
would be botmd to be bad. And yet 
business is wonderfully good. You 
American business men are now in much 
the same |K)8ition as were the British 
business men at the end of their first 
year of war. You are wondering what 
will be the effet^t of increasing selective 
service — you are anticipating restric- 
tions on your business — and I want to 
tell you some of our experiences so you 
can profit by them. 

" The department stores of any coun- 
try usually reflect the state of trade. 
The profits of the twelve leading London 
department stores during the period of 
war were as follows : Fiscal year 1914- 

15, profits #4,950,000; 1916-16, #4.- 
250,000 ; 1916-17, $5,575,000. In the 
Provinces the profits of the nine leading 
stores were: 1914-15, $750,000 : 1915 

16, |i945,000 ; 1916-17, $1,150,000. 

" In the wholesale trade, the seven 
largest British houses increased their 
profits from $3,429,000 in 1914-15 t*> 
$5,885,000 in 1916-17. In the grocery 
trade, our leading chain-store firm niade 
a profit of $2,313,755 in 1916-17, au.l 
increased it to $3,736,000 in 1917-lK 
the latter figme being $1,000,000 iwt 
annum over their average for the pri-- 
vious five yeai-s. Lest you shoidd think 
this is profiteering, I will tell you that 
the turn-overs justify such proHts, aiul 
further, the British Government has 
recently declared there was no profit- 
eering. Tra<le is good, abnormally good 
in England, because never before in ifo 
history have there been so many work- 
ers per thousand population — never 
before has the wealth of the oountrv 
been so evenly distributed. 

" The experience of Britain's retail 
stores contains an object lesson which 
shoidd not be lost on the business mvn 
of America. During the first. few montlL> 
of the war many stores cut down their 

Digitized by 





advertising. But Self ridge did not. He 
did not skip a single day. He used all 
the space ihe papers would allow him 
to use and has continued to do so. The 
result was that Self ridge's profits dur- 
ing the first year of the war were 
11573,000, during the second $750,000, 
and during the third year $1,125,000. 

" Another London store, much larger 
than Self ridge's at the start of the war, 
decided to cut down its advertising, and 
did so until they saw their mistake, and 
the result is shown in their returns. 
This store's profits for the first year of 
the war were $1,546,000 ; for the second 
year, $1,000,000 ; and for the third year, 
$1,176,000. From fourth or fifth place 
among London stores, in volume of 
business and profits, at the start of the 
war, Selfridge has climbed to SECOND 
place as the result of his continuous 
advertising, and he would be FIRST 
to-day had not the war prevented build- 
ing additions to his store. 

" British manufacturers who have 
not a dollar's worth of merchandise 
to sdl, whose entire plants are em- 
ployed on Government work, are 
keying their advertising continu- 
ously before the public, because 
while they are perfectly Mrilling to 
turn their profits over to the Gov- 
ernment, while they are perfectly 
willing for the sake of winning the 
vrar to have their factories com- 
mandeered and their normal busi- 
ness completely stopped, yet they 
are not willing to saciifice their 
good will; they are not willing 
to have their name* or . their 
products forgotten. 

" And so they continue thdr ad- 
vertising, continue building their 
good-will, so that when the war 
shall be won there will be an im- 
mediate demand for the billions of 
dollars' worth of merchandise that 
their greatly enlarged factories will 
then turn out. 

"This is a time when every manu- 

facturer, every business man, should 
look far ahead. Good-will cannot be 
built in a day, even by advertising. The 
war will not last always. We have all 
seen the mistake of being unprepared 
for war; it is almost as great and serious 
a mistake to be UNPREPARED 

"What are you igSing to do with 
your acres and acres of enlarged factory 
space now employed in the making of 
War Products all over America, if you 
don't build good-will now for the goods 
you are going to make when the war is 
won ? How are you going to keep the 
smoke coming out of your factory chim- 
neys after peace is declared, if you don't 
keep your name constantly before the 
public now, and build a demand for 
your peace-time products that will 
insure a satisfaetoty business the 
minute you stop making muni- 
tions or other war supplies ? 

" The war has taught the manufac- 
turers and business men of Britain that 
advertising is not only the least expen- 
sive way to sell goods, but that it also 
has the far more important function of 
will whose benefits, especially in critical 
times, can hardly be measured. British 
business men have also learned that 
advertising can be used in time of war 
to stop the sale of their goods, and at 
the same time retain and even increase 
the good-will of the public. In a few 
cases British corporations have realized 
when it was too late, and after irrevo- 
cable damage was done, that advertising 
woidd have saved them. 

" Moreover, you Americans must not 
forget your opportunities for foreign 
trade. Millions of people in Great 
Britain and France and Italy and Cen- 
tral and South America will be looking 
to you for American-made goods when 
the war is over. Those of you who are 
best prepared, those of you whose good- 
will is most firmly established, will reap 
the greatest benefit. 

" From the outbreak of the war Brit- 

ish business men clearly recognized their 
duty to their country and its fighting 
men. It was essential that they shouM 
strain every nerve to keep the trade of 
the country as near normal as possible 
during the war, and it is just as essen- 
tial that when peace comes they must 
be prepared to ke^p eoery factory 
working at full pressure and to 
find employment for every em- 
ployable unit. It is only by such 
methods that Britain can pay for her 
share of the war. 

" No nation stands to gain as much 
oonunercially from the war as does 
America. In Great Britain the per 
capita income is $236, and the per capita 
debt $589 ; in the United States your 
per capita income is $352, and your per 
capita debt is $63. 

"As you gentlemen know, I have 
been interested in fostering Anglo- 
American trade for many years. And I 
want to warn your manufacturing and 
export houses that NOW is the time 
to prepare for peace. I find a tendency 
here to neglect preparations for export 
trade until peace has been declared. 
There could not be a greater mistake. 
Now is not the time to export, but most 
emphatically now IS the time to lay 
your plans and build good-wilL 

" Through a long experience with 
Anglo-American trade I know that 
most of the failures made by British 
houses exporting to this country and of 
American houses exporting to Great 
Britain have come about through the 
lack of adequately undei-standiug the 
temperaments of the public in the two 

"These are times of rapid and tre- 
mendous change. No man can rest un 
his laurels. Those who were lemlers last 
year, those who are leaders now in their 
respective business lines, may be sur- 
passed next year by far-seeuig, efficient, 
competitors who have laid their 
plans a long way in advance. " 

The above is reproduced in the interest of American Industry by the 


Office of the National Executive Secretary 
Metropolitan Tower, New York 

American Association of Advertising Agencies embraces a national membership and comprises the followinij councils : 
Western Council, New England Council, Philadelphia Council, Southern Council, and New York Council 

Digitized by 






Bated on The Outlook of September 11, 1918 

BMsh WMkan OatUne Study o( Garraat £Biitof7 baaed on the preoedtng number of The Ontleak will 
be printed for the benefit of oorrent erente olaewa, debating elabe, teaofaers of hiatory and of Bngjiah, and 
the like, and for on in the home and by nidi indiridaal raadere aa may deaii* ao g geationa in the •arion* 
atody of eniveBt hiatory.— Tbx BonoBS. 

[Thoae who aie naing the weekly ontline ahonld 
not attempt to cover the whole of an ontline in any 
one leason or stady. Assign for one leesop selected 
qaestions, one or two propositions for disooasion, and 
only snch words as are f oond in the material aasigiied. 
Or distribate selected questions among diSereat 
members of the cbus or groap and haTe them 
report their findings to all when assembled. Then 
have all disooas the qnestions tomther.] 


Topic .- The Battle of Ch&teau Thierry ; A 

Just Peace. 
Eeferenee: Pages 51-53; editorial, page 


Note. — Bead the references' in the order 
BUgrgested. 1. On page 51 Dr. Odell says 
that " the Marne has proved [italics mine! 
to be the River of Death to Kaiserism. 
Should he sav " has proved " ? Explain the 
meaning of tne figure of speech he uses in 
these quoted words. 2. Do you think it is 
right for Americans to differentiate " be- 
tween the German military caste and the 
German people"? The Outlook and Dr. 
Odell do not. Discuss. 3. How, according 
to Dr. Odell, do the Allied nations feel 
towards Germany ? How account for the 
difference? 4. Give several reasons why 
the Allied nations do not teach their peo- 
ple to hate the Germans. Germany teaches 
all Germans to hate tbe Allied peoples. 
5. Describe tlie spirit of the Allied solaiers 
and the conditions at the front as shown by 
this article of Dr. Odell's. 6. Give, with 
reasons, your opinion of the war work of 
the Y. M. C> A. and the function of tliat 
institution. 7. What lessons do yon see in 
Dr. Odell's article for Americans who 
remain at home ? & The Outlook does not 
believe (page 45) in a negotiated peace 
nor in a " trading basis " of peace with 
Germany. Tell why you believe The 
Outlook does or does not reason soundly. 
9. Would you be willing to have this war 
end at once if Germany would but change 
lier form of government ? Several reasons 
should be given. 10. Can you give not less 
tiian four reasons why now is the psycho- 
logical moment to press forward the prose- 
cution of the war ? 11. Read a book valu- 
able to every one : " Stakes of the War," 
by Stoddard and Frank (Century). 


A. Topic: Some State Primaries; the 

Ambassador to Great Britain. 
Reference : Pi^es 41, 42. 

Note. — ^These topics should be made the 
basis of a study ot certain political party 
matters. 1. What is a State primary? Dis- 
tinguish between it and the caucus, between 
it and the delegate convention. Explain 
the " open primary." What is your opinion 
of it ? 2. In how many States is the direct 
primary method used ? Explain how the 

direct primary came into existence. 3. 
Have such radical methods as the initia- 
tive, the referendum, the recall, and the 
direct primary pToved themselves to be 
more in the interest of good government 
than the old methods of party government ? 
More than a mere personal opinion is called 
for . in this answer. 4 Do you think the 
Republicans of Michigan wise in rejecting 
Mr. Ford as their candidate for United 
States Senator. Reasons. 5. The Outlook 
tiiinks Miss Rankin is and should be per- 
manentiy retired from politics. Discuss 
The Outiook's opinion. & It is said that 
the women voters of Montana are responsi- 
ble for Miss Rankin's defeat Is this the 
strongest of arguments for universal or 
equal suffrage ? 7. How do American Am- 
bassadors secure their positions ? Give rea- 
sons why they shoula or should not be 
elected by popular vote. 8. Name a suc- 
cessor to Ambassador Pi^e. Give reasons 
for your selection. 9. Consult any modem 
civil government text-book, and own two 
very valuable books, "Politician, Party, 
and People," by H. C. Emery, and " Popu- 
lar Government," bv W. H. Taft (both 
published by tiie Yale University Press). 

B. Topic : The articles on Education. 
Reference : Pages 54-65. 
Questions : 

1. For wliat reasons should the accounts 
of Superintendent Sinims, Mr. Potter, and 
Mr. Wilson be inspiring to our own 
wounded men and to those who will have 
charge of their education ? 2. Do you tiiink 
every unfortunate person could come to 
view this world as " a very cheerful place " ? 
Illustrate liberally and dfiscuss. 3. Discuss 
the value of the study of history. 4. Tell 
what you would say to a foreigner in ex- 
plaining to him what the American Repub- 
lic is. 4. Discuss: "The fatal defect of 
our education is its superficiality. We teach 
notiiing thoroughly." 

(These propositions are suggested directly or indi- 
rectly by the subject-matter of The Outlook, but 
not discussed in it.) 

1. Democracy is still chiefly an aspira- 
tion. 2. Democracy is the extension of 
privileges. 3. Originality is not allowed to 
develop in our system oi education. 


(All of the following words and expressions are 
found in The Oatlook for (September 11, 1918. Both 
before and after looking them up in the dictionary 
or elsewhere, give their meaning in pour own words. 
The figures in parentheses refer to pages on which 
the words may be foond.) 

Nomination, candidate, majority, repu- 
tation, Ambassador (41) ; brigands, mega- 
lomania, obsessed, g^ainsaid (4o) ; refugees, 
peasants (55) ; motivation, history ^) ; 
common man, vocabulary (59). 

A booklet tuggesting methods qf using the Weekly Outline of Current History will be sent on application 




TIE development of modem fireamu 
had a very direct bearing upon the 
exploring and opening to eivuizadog 
of the North Amencan continent. 
The early American colonists were sai>- 
jected to great dangers and privations, auJ 
were forced to depend greatly on thfir 
flintlocks not only tor food but as a pro- 
tection against the ever-imminent attacks 
of the In£anB. Whether the settlers landei 
on the stem and rock-boond coast of Nev 
England, the rolling ooimtry of the Poti^ 
mac, or the bayous of the South, they were 
exposed to the same difficulties and dan- 
gers. The wily savaee lurked in the mr- 
roundine forests to fell with his bow in! 
arrow the settler who dared to strayfar 
from the protection of his log cabin. vTik 
beasts abounded ready to poonce upon tW 
lone traveler. The colonist must tfaerefuv 
have his 8[an always ready at hand and be 
adept in its use, for on it his life ofta 

The colonists often had to make their 
own guns, and miglity good ones they wer« 
too, if we can believe the stories of their 
expertness and marksmanship. The bioir 
derbnss was the standby of these fine 
settiers. These wei-e of peculiar desigi;. 
with bell-nosed barrels for the purpose i-t 
scattering the charge. From these oM 
weapons it was customary to dischai?? 
missiles of all kinds, but more especialK 
slugs of lead or iron. Captain John Sniitli. 
of Pocahontas fame, was armed with Wf 
of these weapons when he was pursued tcd 
captured by Powhatan's warriors. Smith'j 
companions, overpowered by the Indiac- 
earlier in the day, had already been cap- 
tured and put to death. From the captmr. 
party the Indians obtained some gm.- 
powder which they brought to Smith, t*l!- 
m? him that they intended to plant it i: 
oraer to " discover the nature of the se«d.' 
The blunderbuss was the weapon a.'«c-l 
by the great Frenchman Chainplain, wk' 
founde<r Quebec and afterward disco ver«v 
the lake which bears his name. 

Inasmuch as tiie American settlers weit 
so dependent upon their guns, they wtrc 
quick ° to adopt any improvements whirl 
would give greater range and accuracy. AJ 
the earlier muskets were smooth-bore aiK 
were loaded with round bullets. The bon 
was larger than tlie bullet, which rolled i:i 
the barrel when fired, and was thiut grifn 
an " english " which caused Uie bullet t« 
curve in its flight, and thus the euii w&^ 
very inaccurate at an^ distance. An earii 
English army officer is said to have statri 
that he felt perfectly safe when fired upoi 
at a distance of over eighty yards, provide! 
the gun was ainie<l directiy at hini. TIh 
American guninakers, therefore, were qnicl 
to see the advantages of the rifle, which \a" 
not yet come into common use in £uropr 
although the rifling principle had been ir 
ventea as early as 1520. In a rifle the insiJ* 
of the barrel is grooved, giving the pro 

C^ile a rotating motion before feaving th 
rel. This rotatine' motion lessens tiii 
tendency of tiie bullet to depart from i 
straight line, and also in a measure ov«r 
comes atmospheric resistance. The colonL'°-< 
developed a long flintlock mozzle-losdiK 
rifle. This was rendered still more effective 
by the use of a " patch." The patch yrnf ' 
piece of linen soaked in oil which was lai'l 
over the mu7.7.1e and the bullet then i>larf- 
over it and rammed down into the bam ■ 

Digitized by VJ\^»^V IV^ 





How to heat a church 

A new system that abolishes useless waste 

LIKE a business-building, a church's 
idle hours far outnumber its working 

Only some of its rooms are used part of 
the time but the heating system — big enough 
for the whole building — must nevertheless 
be used for these two or three rooms. Think 
what a waste of precious heat, of precious 
coal, this means, even if all the other rooms 
are cut off. Think how many homes could 
be kept warm and comfortable, with the 
fuel thus wasted. 

It is time this waste was stopped. It is 

nation's homes of sorely needed fuel. 

Grinnell Ready-Heat is the ideal heating 
system for churches. It heats just the rooms 
you need — and no more. It heats them 
for just as long as they are needed — and 
no longer. 

On Sundays the whole church is thoroughly 
warmed, but ad soon as the congregation 
has dispersed the heat is turned off. All 
fuel expense immediately ceases. Quite 
different from shutting off a furnace half 
full of good coal. On week-days, when 
perhaps one or two parlors or classrooms 

depriving the nation's industries and die are in use for a few hours, Grinnell Ready- 
Heat will 'Warm just these 

How to Reduce Your Church 
Heating Bills 

Grinnell Ready-Heat combine* the 
best known principle* of CAS-keating 
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heating need* require. It co*ta le** to 
inatall and le** to operate than any other 
equally iffident heating lystem. 

It ia a new and different ajratem. No 
other gas-heating *y*tem offer* so many 
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your preaent co*tly, waateful coal-heater 
with Ready-Heat 



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The pa*tor'* residence and all out- 
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the basement frae forodter purpose*. 

Ask Your Gas Company 

Your Ga* Company will be able to 
explain to jrou the advantage* of Crin> 
nell Ready-Heat or if you prefer to 
write to u* for fuller informarion, pleaae 
addre** below. If you tell us the num- 
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free of coat or obligatioB. 

289 W. Exehaaf* Straat, 




18 SeptemLcr 

The greatest 
I^ctbojr Sctv^er for 
OI.I> or NEW Hornet 

Scarcity of help brings the house- 
wife face to face with doing her 
own housework. Homes and other 
buildings must be kept as clean as 
when help was plentiful. This is 
easily done at a great saving of 
time and labor with an 

Vacuum Cleaner 

Ten minutes' work with an ARCO 
WAND .does more real cleaning 
than an hour with duster, brooms, 
and cloths. Buying an ARCO 
WAND is a wise and profitable in- 
vestment for a fundamental need. 

'BtaHy put in old or new hornet, apart- 
ments, hoapitals, factoriea, hotda, etc., and 
will outlast the building. Coets about a 
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easy payments. 

Sand for eataJog "Tba Area 
Wand" ahowing what it wUl 
do, and why it is • war-ttma 
domestic laber-aaTing na c as" 

Aw^i(Ml ^ijmiRr](MPj»nr 

Dcpw tmcnt 0*S 
816-832 Sooth Mirhifn Ave. Chlcaco 

tlakmeftht wmUrJamout IDEAL Soften 
«ntf AJUMKICAN RadivUin 

The Story of Firearms (Continued) 

The patch acted as a lubricant and also 
held me charge finnly in place. The barrels 
of these rifles were often as much as six 
feet long and they had an accurate range 
up to one hundred yards. The astounding 
accuracy obtained by the pioneers with 
these nfles has been most interestingly 
described by James Fenimore Cooper in 
his " Leatherstocking Tales." It is said ttiat 
much of the success of Uie Americans 
against the English troops in the Revolu- 
tionary War was due to the fact tliat they 
were armed with their long-barreled hunt- 
ing rifles, with which they could bring down 
a squirrel from the tallest tree, whde the 
English were armed with the old smooth- 
bore muskets. 

But still another great change was to 
come in the manufacture of firearms with 
the invention of the percugsiou system. The 
objections to the fhntlock were that it did 
not entirely preserve the priming from wet, 
and that the flint sparks sometimes failed 
to ignite the charge. In 1807 a Scotch 
clergyman, the Rev. Alexander John 
Forsythe, obtained a patent for priming 
with a fulminating powder which exploded 
by concussion. This iiiiportant improve- 
ment was not recognized and adopted by 

the English military authorities until more 
than thirty years later. In the meantime it 
was gradually developed and the copper 
percussion cap invented. It was not until 
the introduction of the copper cap that the 
percussion gun could be considered in every 
way superior to tlie flint. 

The old flintlock guns were muzzle- 
loaders. Even after the percussion system 
came into general use for both rifles and 
shotguns, Uie muzzle-loading principle 
was still employed. Many attempts had 
been made to bring out a gun with oreech- 
loading mechanism, but none were success- 
ful because of die escape of gas at the 
opening in the breech wnen the gun was 
tired, which occasioned a serious loss of 
power. The development of an expansive 
cartridge case containing its own means of 
ignition effectually solved this difficulty and 
brought about the general adoption of the 
breech-loading principle. 

Cartridges were probably invented by the 
French, who used to wrap up powder and 
bullet in paper to enable the soloiers to load 
quickly and dispense with the cumbrous 
powder-horn. Cartridges are first men- 
tioned in England alMok 1777. Military 
cartridges were tie<I around with tape and 
the end that contained the powder nad to 

be bitten off before loading. The pi^ 
then served as a wad or paten. 

In 1836 Lefaucheux produced a cartridge 
and a breech-loading gun. The cartridet 
contained within itself all the requisites for 
the gun's discharge. From this dates the 
success of the modem breech-loading rifle 
and shotgun. The earliest efficient modem 
cartridge case was the pin-fire, patenteti by 
Houiller, a Paris gimsmith, in 1847, with 
a tliin, weak shell which expanded by flie 
force of the explosion, fitted perfectly into 
the barrel, and thus formed an efficient gas 
check. The central-fire cartridge, pnu-ti- 
cally as now in use, was introdaced into 
England in 1861 by Daw. 

Ever since the ingenuity of the earlj 
settlers devised the long-barreled ri& 
America has played a leading part in gwi 
manufacturing. In 1798 contracts were 
awarded by George Washington for the 
manufacture of rifles at Harpei^s Ferrr. 
This arsenal continued to turn oat rifles 
and pistols for the Government up to the 
Civil War. In 1842 the first Americu 
percussion rifles were niaile at this arsenal 

The idea of making guns with inter- 
changeable parts by machinery was fint 
worked out m America. About 1797 £fi 
Whitney secured a contract for 10.0IX). 
arms, which he manufactured entirely bj 
stamping and applying machinery to the 
shapmg and finishing of the several parts. 
He also introduced the system of gauges, 
by which nniformiw of constmetion is in- 
sured for parts maue after the same modd. 

John H. Hall, of Harper's Fernr, wu 
the next to improve the system. In 1812 he 
wrote to the United States Government, 
laying particular stress upon his phui of 
making guns. He says : " Every sunilar 
part of my gtm is so much alike that it wiQ 
suit every other gun." This qratem of 
interchangeable parts was first applied to 
Government service by Hall in 1818, and 
the Harper's Ferry guns occujiy a prtHui- 
nent place in our ear^' history. 

Samuel Colt produced and patented the 
first practical revolver in 183o. This be- 
came a very papular weapon with armj 
ofiicers, and was first used extensively in 
the Seminole War in Florida and other 
Indian wars. It was also use<l by British 
oflicers during the Crimean War and the 
Indian Mutiny. 

At the outbreak of the Mexican War the 
United States troops were e<iuipped with 
Shai-p's breech-loading cai'bine, which 
could be fired ten times per minute. Tbii 
gun was used with great success againut 
uie Mexicans and later in tlie Civil War. 
During the Civil War over sixty different 
kindH of carbines were developed. In 1849 
Jennings developed tlie forerunner of the 
repeating rifle, and in 1851 Smith & 
Wesson brought out the repeating pistol 
Smith & Wesson were also tlie first to pro- 
duce the copper cartridge for revolvers. 
The Spencer carbine apiiears to be the 
first succeMsful repeating rifle and was pat- 
ented in 1860. In this iifle the magazine a 
in the butt. It could be fired seven timet 
In ten seconds, and was used in the Civil 
War witii great success. 

One of the earliest and most saccessfol 
American gunmakers was Eliphalet Rem- 
ington. Eliplialet wante<l a gun to go hunt- 
ing with, and, as his father refused to buy 
him one, he decided to make his own. He 
hammered out a g^n barrel from scrap 
iron, walked fifteen miles to Utica to liave 
it rifled, and finally had a weaiion of which 
he might well be proud. The gun was s* 
good that soon the neighbors ordered 
others like it, and soon the Remington 
Digitized by Vn^^^^V IV^ 




The Story <ifFirearnu (CWtmwrf) 
:orge wm hard at work to meet the de- 
iiand. The result was the establishment 
)f the first Remington plant at Ilion, New 
Vork. The Remington rifle became noted 
Ft>r its rapidity of loading and firing. It 
lias been extensively nsed by the American, 
French, Danish, and Italian Governments. 
Following the Spencer carbine came the 
Henry repeating rifle, which contained 
fifteen cIuuvm under the whole length of 
the barrel. This was improved upon and 
superseded by the Winchester repeating 
rifle. In this rifle the magazine is a tube 
containing the cartridges placed under the 
barrel and protected by the wood fore 
end of the stock. The magazine can always 
be replenished at the breech end without 
changing the normal condition of the gun. 
The Winchester model 73 was a very fa- 
mous gun used in much of the Indian fight- 
ing of the late TO's. The Winchester model 
(Hi was used by the Turks in the Battle of 
Plevna, and led to the development of the 
repeating rifle by European ex])ert8. 

The Hotchkiss magazine gun is a modi- 
fication of the Winchester, and was first 
shown at the Centennial Exhibition in 1876. 
'Vhe magazine is in the butt and will con- 
tain five cartridges. 

Both the Lee and the Krag were used in 
the Spanish War, and in 19w the Spring- 
field rifle was developed. Upon our en- 
trance into the Euro]>ean war tlie Browning 
frun was adopted by the United States Gov- 
ernment. Tne Winchester autonwtic rifle 
fires and ejects the shell by merely pressing 
the trigger. It can fire from four to twenty 
Khots before reloading. 

'Hie shotgun wasdeveloi>ed coincidentally 
with the rifle and is the favorite weapon of 
sjmrtsmen for small game. Repeatmg or 
magazine shotgims are made on tlie same 
principle as tlie repeating rifle with a maga- 
zine below the barrel. In the liammerless 
gun the whole igniting mechanism is out of 
sight, the hammer bemg pUced within the 

It will be reinembere<I tliat the early 
blunderbuss had a bell-shaped muzzle, with 
the idea of scattering the shot. The modem 
shotgun is built on exactly the reverse 
principle, known as the " choke-bore." This 
appears to have originated with the early 
Spanish gumiiakers. In an old work on 
gumiery, " La Chasse au Fusil," it is 
assertea tliat in order to throw the shot 
more closelv the caliber should be narrower 
at the middle than at eitlier breech or 
muzzle ; wliile others insisted that tlie cal- 
iber must contract gradually from breech 
to muzzle. 

In an interesting work upon " American 
WiW Fowl Shooting," b^ J. W. Long, the 
writer says : " Since the invention or per- 
cussion locks no improvement in the con- 
struction of shotguns, or fowling-pieces, as 
they were then calleid, has ever appeared 
so truly valuable to sportsmen as that pecu- 
liar formation of bore known as the ' chcke,' 
bv which the divergence of the pellets of a 
ehar^ of shot in their flight is greatly 
modified and controlled. I need onlv men- 
tion the bust that by its use the effective 
range of a gun may be greatiy increased, 
in many cases fully doubled, and its cUim 
to pre-eminence is fully establishecL" 
As the popular interest in the gun for 

Xrt has mcreased, many clubs for trap- 
oting have been organized. The origin 
of trap-shooting may be traced to the 
ancient pastime of popinjay shooting, a 

Suite practiced by the ancient Greeks and 
le t-xpert bowmen of inediieval times. 
The |M>pinjay was a stuffed parrot or fowl 

Tne pen that 

taught the 
writing "world 

a habit 






llf Fillina, 






THE Fountain Pen Hubit Uiuk 
hold with the perfection of 
Waterman's Ideal. It devel- 
oped with the geuenil knowledge 
of the jjeu's succean. Today it is a 
universal habit. With people who 
liave iiwd \Vatenuau'ii Ideal there 
is no substitute. Quality, merit and 
usefulness have eaniefl for it the 
lijjht to be aske<l for and purcluused 
by name — W^ateniian's Ideal. 

For over thirty-five years this 
pen has made all writing and 
clerical work easier to accomplish, 
with a ^reat saving of time and 

W,aterman'8 Ideal today is the 
one little tool that is keeping; the 
home and its absent ones in (Con- 
stant touch. It is helping to do 
the work that is falling U[m)u the 
depleted home forces. 

Select a Waterman's Ideal that 
is iU3curately suited to your hand 
and character of writing and it will 
serve you well for many years. Tlu* 
makers are interested in the suc- 
cess of every pen wherever it goes 
and as long as it lasts. 

■f2.5n. fi.OO. $5.00 ,iml up 

Sold At Best Stores 

E. Waterman Co., 191 Broadwnr, Now York 

t Sdiool S<, B<Mt<ra II) So. Cbrk 3l.. Clucagn 17 SlockJM Si, Su Fraoct 

179 Sl J>iiio Su MooumI 41 Ktn«>w«y. Uodan. W C 6 Ruo Maui«>7.' PMa 

placed upon the top of a pole and used as 
a target. In some instances a living bird 
was used, a certain amount of Uberty oeing 
g^ven it by the length of cord used to 
secure it to the pole. Homer in the Iliad 
mentions popinjay shooting, a dove being 
file mark and prizes being given. 

Many vears before it became a fashion- 
able pastime pigeon shooting was practiced 
by the frequenters of low public nouses in 
the EngliHn towns, and later it was taken 
up by English noblemen and numerous 
clubs wei-e fonned. 

In this country clay pigeons are used, 
which are releasetl from a trap by a spring 
and fly away from the marksman like a 
live bird. 

There is a widespread movement on foot 
in this country to teach the growing boy to 
handle a gun. For this purpose the .22- 
caliber rifle is produced by several gun- 
makers. It is our belief that every boy 
should have a knowledge of firearms and 
their proper and sportsmanlike use. In a 
recent article in The Outlook entitled 
"The Gun as a Weapon of Education," 
the value of the gun in developing charac- 

ter, self-reliance, and manliness was 
charmingly described. 

Since our entrance into the great war we 
Iiave learned much. We have seen the folly 
of mipreparedness and the necessity for 
universal military training. Events have 
shown us that knowledge of the gun is as 
important to-day as when our forefathers 
dejiended upon tlieir trusty rifles for pro- 
tection from tlie redskin and the wild ani- 
mals of the forest. Let us trust tliat Amer- 
ica has learned the lesson well, and let the 
gun be truly a " weapon of education " for 
every Ameiican boy who sliall be taught 
the great lessons of self-reliance, sports- 
maiisliip, courage, and true love of countri-. 

.'liNon|7 olhrr tourcrt vr are indrbird to thefoUoK- 
ingfor it\formatioH embodied in thit article : 

The Winchester Repeatimj Arms Co. 

The Remington Armt Union Metatlie Cartridge Cv. 

Colt't Patent Firearm* Co. 

" The Gun and If Development," b» W. W. 

Artida in " Tht American Shooter." 

Esrly next year it is propoaed to diaonas in two 
■epuitte articles the history «f the revolver and the 
development of the hicli-powend rifle and machine 
gun brought about sinoe the beginning of the war. 

Digitized by VJWVJV l^ 



18 September 


Advertisins rate* : Hotels and Rcaorti, ApartmenU, Toon and Ttsrel, Real Estate, Lire Stock and Poultry, fifty eenU per agate Use, 
four ooluiuas to the page. Not leaa than four lines accepted. In oalcnUting space reqniied for an adrertiaenMnt, oonnt an aTerai^e of six words to the 
line unless display type is desired. 

" Want " adrertisements, under the various headings, " Board and Rooms," " Help Wanted," etc., ten cents for saoh mnd or initial, IncHndln^ 
tb6 address, for each insertion. The first word of each " Want " advertisement is set in capital letters without additional charge. Other words 
may be set in capitals, if desired, at doable rates. If answers are to be addressed in care of The Outlook, twenty-five oenta is charged for the box 
number named in the advertisement. Replies will be forwarded by us to the advertiser and bill for postage rendered. Special headings appropriate to 
the department may be arranged for on application. 

Orders and copy for Classified Adrertisements most be received with remittance ten days bafon the date of issue when it is intended the adverdae- 
ment shall first appear. ' 



WANTFn In New York City, 
nAniCU fp„m Kbont the mid- 
dle of October for A or 6 uiiinths, 

s uodetate-priced (urulshed anirtment (for 
3 sdulU) of 4 or A rooDU, kltcTusn uid bath. 
Tbe udfhborhood of Wuhmgtou Sqiuue or 
Qramercy Pmrk prefeiTod. 9,067, Outlook. 

Hotels and Resorts 



Commonwealth Ave. Beaton 


Globe Trotlers call Ihe Puritan one of 

Ihc tnosl homelike hotcU in theworltL 

Your inqiiirie.i qladly an^wcrrtl 

O l-CoitfUo-nqt end our booKkt mdiied -a-" 

If Yon An Tired or Not Feeint Well 

you caiinot &iid a more comfortable plaoe in 
New Bngluid than 



It sIfordB All the comforts of home without 



Cottage ODon all year. Ideal weather on 
Long ivana BeptemDer, October, and Novem- 
ber. Oolf, tennis, sailing, bathing, motoring. 

Philipse Manor Inn 

Directly on the Hudson River, at 
Philipse Manor, North Tarrytown 

View nnimrpannni — autumn moat attractive 
aeaaon of all Motoring, trmmpinie— eaay com- 
muting. Fall and winter rates by day or week. 
Telephone, Tarrytown 176. 


H0tel Le Marquis 

31i^ StTMt & Fifth Avenu* 

New York 

CombtaMB svscy eo u »e ni «nee and hoMa 
comfort, sad commends Itself to people of 
reflnsmeot wishing to live on Amancan Plan 
aod be within easy reach of social and dra- 
matic centers. 

Room and bath t>M par day with meals, or 
tl.m per day witbout meala. 

IlhistiBted Booklet gkuilv seat udod 
requeat. JOHN P. TOLSOIT 


adJoiuiug Judaoo Memorial Church. Rooms 
with and without batli. Rates S3.M par day, 
inoliidtaic meals. Special rates for two weeks 
or more. Location very central. Convenient 
to sll elevated and etreet car lines. 



on aristocimtic BrooklTii Hei^U 
and enioy the advantages of 


the moat famous roof in America. Dine IM 
feet in the air. with a panographic view at 
New York Harbor stretching baore you for 
a diatanoe of 10 milea. Dancing If yon like. 

Write for booklet B. 
Heatagaa, Hicka, sal lamtM Streaii, IraeUrs 

Health Resorts 

Sanford Hall. est. 1841 

Private Hospital 
For Mental and Nervous Diseases 

Comfortable, liomalike surround- 
ings ; modem methods of treatment ; 
competent nntees. IS acres of lawn, 
nark, flower and vegetable eardenK. 
Food the best. Write /or booklet. 

Sanford Hall Flushing New York 

DerlHtawa. ra. |An inatltutlon derotad to 
the penonal atudv and apecialiied treat- 
ment of the invalid. Maaiage. Kleotricity, 
Hrdrotherapy. Apply for circular to 
RosaaT ILvriaoorr WALTSa, M.D. 
I lace of Hie Walter Hanltsrlnuil 

Dr. Reeves' Sanitarium 

A Private Home for chronic, nervous, and 
mental satlanta. A In elderly people requiring 
care. Harriet ■. ReeTea.M.D.,Melraee. Maaa. 

Real Estate 



ProductiTe wil ; new e^ht-room houae, 
larn rooma, larve reranda, hardwood floors, 
nanuml wood nnii&; high eleTatloD. good 
view, near neighbors; new bam basement 
wHh cement floor ; located three miles from 
station. Price jU,0iNi, fl.WU cash. 

J. J. CASBIDY, Woodbury. Conn. 


Camps and Cottages 

for rent or for sale at all prioes in any 
part of the Adirondaeks. Write for 
free, illustrated booklet. 

Mention The Outtook 

Real EsUte OfTies. Sarauc Uke, N. Y. 


reut or for aale, modem brick dwelling 
on hillside, fifteen minutes from station, 
BtSMU best, hardwood flooia, two baths, large, 
encloeed porch, gaimse, one-half acre of lawn, 
garden : ooaatlng ana akating. Address K. V. 
WAFFL. a) Proapect St., East Orange. N. J. 


FOR SALK— In K»at TenneSMM 

Home of retired idiTBician, 80 acrvs, oorerlng 
moahtaln top orerlooking town and tiTsr; 
1,M0 feet abore sea tereTldeal climate aU the 

r tar round. Well planted to fruit and flowers; 
bams, hennery, gardens and farm land. 
Qood mountain roisd avaUwIe for small can. 
Comfortable bouse wtth liurge llTing^room, 
big fireplace, hot-water heat, lelepbon*, elec- 
tric lights, electric pomp, modem phunUng. 
Wooa on plaoe. Address 
sloHir A* HoQgWLL, Box 2a, Harrlman, Tenn. 

Real Estate 


FUR SALE -Charleston, R. C.~, 
leading South Atlantic port and whiter 
tourist resort, large, handsome modem reei- 
denoe,fumaceheKea,on Charleston's faahioo- 
able boulevard, fronting on beautiful Ashley 
River. Moat desirable Boutbem winter home. 
Susan P. Frost, • Broad St., Charhstoo, S. C. 



LAST and daughter (school girl) desire 
board in private family on Brooklyn Heights 
from end of September. Twosunny rooms pre- 
ferred. ' Reterenoas exchanged. Mrs. F., 
Sharon, Conn. 

LAOT desires to board with private fsmily 
uptown. lte<erancesexfllisngsd. >,W7,OtttlooiL 


Bualnaaa Situation* 

EMBROIDERERS on hitsnU' silks and 
flannels. Work sent out of town. The R. R. 
Barringer Co., 31 East list St., New York City. 

Oompanlona aad Domaatlc Halpara 
WANTED — Refined young woman as 
mother's helper to assist in care of little girl 
Home near Aibdelphia. ^^n, Ontkwk. 

WANTED— Mother's helper, two chiMren. 
Pennsylvania farm. ft,231, Outlook. 

WANTED— Raflned, mlddl»«ged woman 
aa huusekeeperK»ok. Twoity-four hour* off 
weekly. Good salary. Write Mrs. Foote, 

Wahiut St., Englewood, N. J. 

YOUNO man wishee to secure servioee of 
lady who will take care of his three mother, 
leaa children and keep house for him. One 
maid employed. 8,M», Outlook. 

WANTRD-OanaMe woman (not a servant) 
to manage household of four, two adulta, two 
children. Must be good, plain cook, fond of 
good home and househola economloa. A,S1, 

Taaohera and aovarnaaaca 

WANTED— Competent taaohera for public 
and prirate schools and colleges. Seud for biilp 
letin. Albany Teachers' Agency, Albany, N.T. 

TEACHERS dMiring school or college 
positions apply International Musical and 
Educational Agency, Carnegie Hall, N. T. 

WANTED - Two experienced teacheis. 
Latln-Eiigiiah and mathematioa. High school 
grade. gTllOaiid board. Southern school. Hi^ 
altitude. 6.233, Outlook. 

WANTED — Teacher in boys' miXtaty 
academy. High school subjects. Address 
Box A, Woodstock, Va. 

WANTED — Nursery governess or intel- 
ligent child's nurse for cluldren of eight and 
five. English, Frencli, or American. Protea- 
taut. Write Mra. Horace Coleman, DeKalb 
St., Norristown, Ps. 


Buslnaaa Situation* 

UNIVERSITY woman, special experience, 
desires poalcion as secretary, assistant editor, 
assistant manager. 6,225, Outlook. 

COLLEOE woman, librarian, iu>w In Oov- 
eniment service, wishes engagement in South 
or California for winter. Keferences ex- 
changed. 6,292, Outlook. 


Oompanlen* sad Oamastle Halpar* 
HOUSEKEEPER or oompanioo In mother- 
leaa or invalid's home where servaata aie kept 
or caretaker of country home or camp where 
owners visit occasionally. laolatioD no ub)er- 
tlon. Refined, capable, Chriatian widow, ex- 

Ssrienced housekeeper, Ucenaed automohile 
river nine vean, also drive borsea. Capable 
taking full charge, uudeistanda care furnaoa. 
water system, eic. In coimtry nlsoe. Capable 
dressmaker, fond a< and undsntands chil- 
dren, also experienced in oars ol si4^ B^er- 
anoaa exchanged. Will fDtnish bond If acces- 
sary. Only well nying poatlon with faigh- 
olasslaiaihreoiiaaersii: C»S, Outlook. 

NURSE of axperienoe d eali e a care o< cfarone 
Invalid, elderly lady, or in okl ladiea' homa. 
Rsterenoea required. 8,334, Outlook. 

YOUNO woman aa oompaaiosi. Or oou- 
panion and chaperun for girla. Bewhic part 
time. Retferencea. 6,236, Outlook. 

AMERICAN lady as oomp 

fond of home duties, experienced In nn 
Capable of taking chaise of oorreonsMlancc. 
etc. Beat referencea. 6,M4, Outlook. 

or travel. «,aM Outkwk. 

COMPETENT and eraerlsnoed young wo- 
man of education and refinement deriiss 
position aa secretary or oompanioo. t/bmao- 
graphic knowl«dge.RefFrencea.«,M2, Outlook. 

MATRON wanU pnitian in children's or 
girla' home. State partifculara. 6,aB, Ontknk. 

WANTED, by woown of leOneBMat and 
experience, position as supervising honae 
keeper in family of widower or Invalid. 
Capable of takhig full charge. 6,212, Ontloak. 

LADY wishes position of chaperon in family 
with chiklren at Washington, O. C. 6.30, 

'TRAINED nurse. — Nurs»coninaiiion to 
Isdy, gentlemau, or chikl. Snooeaanil experi- 
ence. Highest references. ttlM, Outkwk. 
Taachara and Oovamaaae* 

rOUNO Freucli teacher waaU acfaool for 
Tuesdays and Thursdaya or aome Ooveni- 
ment work. New York pi ate i ved. Beat rt<- 
erences. 6,243, Outlook. 

POSITION as governess of backward dbiM 
in private family ; experienced, pfaotfcalnnxae, 
competent to take full charge. 6,236, Ontlook- 

00VERNES8, experienced Undarcartner, 
desfraa position. 6jfe, Onttoofc. 


PATRIOTISM by Lyuisn Abbott, also 4 
veraea of America— Hie Fledge to the FW— 
1 versea of Tlie Star-Spangled Banner, allS a 
little leaflet. Further the csuae of Fauiatiam 
hy distributing hi your letters, in pay anvel. 
opea, in schools, cnurchea, clubs, and aocial 
imtheriiiKa. JWI sent prepaid for M cesita. 
Arthur M. Morse, Moutclilrril. J. 

LADY living alone, beautifnl. artistic home, 
besutif 111 surrounding oountnr, hssltliful giae 
air. fine walks, would take info ber boasa two 
hHlies, or two youug girls nasdbg chaperoa.or 
elderly conpfa. Would consider invalid or 
cripple needing care, or two, three amall chft. 
dren orUbsiis, or of professional people. Two 
hours New York; two hour* ndiaaetnliia: 
eight miles Lakewood. 6,241, Outlook. 

WANTED for winter, near Naw Yot^ 

eleasaiit home for old lady. Cheerful, atten- 
ve care. Every comfort. Ra l a i e Bic ea re- 
quired. 6,236, Outkwk. 

WANTED— Two girls to work for board and 
tuition In private achool- Address Box 49^ 
Windsor, Conn. 

M. W. WIehtman & Co. Shopptaig Arancy, 
established ISiM. Nocharge; promptdeSverv. 
44 Weet 22d St., New York. ' "^ 

YOUNO man wialies home for htsaaalf aad 
tliree motherleaa chiklreu where aAectiosiate 
and intelligent care cau be given. Must be In 
or near New York City. 6,8(1, Outlook. 

YOUR WANTS lneveryUneo(hoassboU,edaostiaML 

workers, teachers, nurses, business or y i o fes sio nal asasateDta, 
etc., etc.— whether you reanire help or are aeekiag a sltaa- 
tion, may be filled tlirough a little announcement in tlw 
classified columns of The Outlook. If yon have Some article 
to sell or exchange, these columns may prove of real valae 
to you as they have to many others. Band for dsscijpUie eii^ 
cul&r and order blank AND FILLfOUR WANTS. Address 

Ihsvbsed sf CI»iie4iUmtii«TiiEfNnU«3n fsM* Am. R.t 

Digitized by 







" I haven't had a letter in five months 
rom home," a boy in a hospital said to me. 
le was lonely and discouraged. And right 
lere may I say to the American people 
hat there is no one thing that needs more 
onstant urging than tLe plea that yon 
rrite, write, write, to your soldier in France. 
le wonld rather have letters than candy 
ir cig^arettes, or presents of any kind, as 
auch as he loves some of these material 
hings. I have pat it to a vote dozens of 
imes, and the result is always the same — 
en to one they wonld rather have a letter 
i-om home than a package of cigarettes or 
I box of candy. I nave seen, boys literally 
uffering pangs that were a thousand times 
I'orse tmin wounds because they did not 
eceive letters from those at home. 

" Nobody back there cares a damn 
kboutme! I haven't received a letter in' 
ive months !" a boy burst out in my pi«s- 
nce in Nancy one night. 

" Have you no moUter or sister?" 

" Yes, but they're careless ; they always 
rere about letter-writing." 

I tried to Ax up excuses for them, but it 
ested both my imagination and my enthu- 
iasm to do it. I could put no real heart 
nto making excuses for them, and so mv 
rords fell like lame birds to the ground, 
kud the tragedy of it was that both of us 
mew there was no good excuse. It was the 
uost pitiable case I saw in France. God pity 
he careless mother or sister or father or 
riend who isn't willing to take the time 
ind make the sacrifice that is nreded to 
upply a letter at least three times a week 
o tne lad who is willing to sacrifice his all, 
f need be, that those at home roav live in 
teace free from the horror of the Ilun ! 

" Lew sweaters 
And more letters," 

night very well ba the motto of the folks 
lere at home, for the boys would profit more 
n the long run both in their bodies and in 
heir souls. A censor friend of mine said to 
ue one day : " If you ever get a chance when 
roa go home to urge the people of America 
o write, and write, and write, to their boys, 
lo it with all your heart. You could do no 
>etter service to the boys than that." 

" What makes you feel so keenly about 
t ?" I asked him, for he talked so earnestly 
hat it surprised me. Ordinarily you think 
if the censor as utterly devoid of hnman- 
tarian impulses ; just a sort of a machine to 
lice out the really interesting things in your 
etters ; a great human blue pencil or a great 
luman pair of scissors. But here was a 
lensor that felt deeply what he was saying. 

" I'll tell you," he repUed. " It is be- 
cause some of the letters that I read — 
hose going back home from lonely boys 
>egnng somebody to write to them ; liter- 
ally begging somebody, anybody, to write — 
hat it gets my goat ; I can't stand it I 
>ften feel like adding a sentence myself to 
lome letters going home, telling them they 
tttght to be ashamed the way they treat 
heir boys about letter- writing ; but the rules 
ire stringent that I must neither add to nor 
ake from a letter save in the line of Riy 
I II ties. I'd like to tell a few of Ute people 
uiok home what I think of diem, and I'd 
ike them to read some of die heartaches 
hat I read in the letters of the boys. Then 
he^'d nnderstand how I feel about it." 

I shall never forget my friend tlie wrestler 
r hen I asked how it was that he kept so dean, 
atd he replied, " The letters help a lot" 

I have seen boys suffering from wounds 

Service to Investors 

T TN USUAL opportunities for investments offering exceptionally 
^ attractive returns, without sacrifice of security, are available 
under present conditions. Our Bond Department issues monthly 
a booklet of Investment Recommendations which describes securities 
offered and recommended by this Company. We shall be glad to place 
your name on our mailing list for the current and succeeding issues. 

In our Bond Department we centered diis 
Company's activities in investment securi- 
ties. It daily meets problems which only 
occasionally confront the individual investor. 
In selecting bonds and notes' which will 
best meet your requirements, the extensive 
facilities and services of this Department can 
be of advantage to you. 

This Company is an organizadon of two 
thousand people and forty departmenu, and 
has correspondents of its Bond Department 
in various cides. It ofiers the &ciUQes and 
services of a commercial bank, a trust com- 
pany, a foreign exchangebank, an investment 
insdtution, and a safekeeping depontary. 
Each department is complete in itself; all work 
together under a single policy of service. 

The co-operation of these resources of or- 
ganization, fiicilides and capital, within one 
insdtution, makes possible a service of the 
broadest scope. 

Your inquiries as to how any 
feature or our service may meet 
your needs will be welcomed. 

Guaranty Trust Company of New York 

140 Broadway 

FirTH At«. Omcx 
rifth Are. & 43rd St. 

Maduoh Ate. Orrici 
Madison Are. tc 60th St. 

LoNooK Orricx 
31 Lombard St., E.C. 

Pasii Orricx 
Ruedctltalien*, 1&3 

Capital & Surplus $50,000,000 Resources over $600,000,000 

of every description. I have seen them ly- 
ing in hospitals with broken backs. I have 
seen them with blinded eyes. I have seen 
them with lees gone and arms. I have seen 
them when the doctors were dressing their 
wotmds. I remember one captain who had 
fifty wocmds in his back, ana he had them 
dressed without a single cry. I have seen 
them gassed and I have seen them shot to 
pieces with shell shock, and yet the worst 
goffering I have seen in France has been 
on the part of boys whose folks back home 
have neglected them ; boys who day after 
day had seen the other fellows get their 
letters regularly ; boys who had gone with 
hope in tneir hearts time after time for let- 
ters, and then had lost hope. This is reld 
suffering, suffering that does more fo 
knock the morale out of a lad tlian any- 
thing that I know in France. 


Mr. George A. Rood, of Cleveland, Ohio, 
writes us that the following lines by John 
Uav have greatly appealed to him, espe- 
cially since the war, when he thinks of the 
multitude of young men who are " bartering 

dull age for immortality." We are glad to 
comply with this suggestion and print them 
herewith : 

{Deathless Death) 


At eve when the brief wintry day is sped 
I muse beside my fire's faint-nickering glare. 
Conscious of wrinkling face and whitening 

hair — 
Of those who, dying yoimg, inherited 
The immortal youthfulness of the early 

I think of Raphael's grand seigneurial air ; 
Of Shelley and Keats, with laurels fresh and 

Shining unwithered on each sacred head ; 
And soldier boys who snatched death's 

starry prize 
With sweet life radiant in their fearless eyes. 
The dreams of love upon their beardless 

Bartering dull age for immortality ; 
Their memories bold in death's unyielding 

fee . 
The youth that thrilled them to the flnger- 

*'!*• DJaitized bv VJ^^VJSriC 

Digitized by VJWVJV H 




Credit to whom credit is due : John Dil- 
lon, flagman, is largely responsible, says 
the " Safety Magazine of the New York 
Central Lines," tor the fact that at Main 
Street crossing in Bloomington, Illinois, 
there has been no accident to any person 
during the past ten years. Seven tracks 
cross the street at this place, two ol them 
being the main tracks of two different rail- 
ways, and switching engines are at work 
there every day. In praise of John Dillon 
the Magazine says : "He has not the shanty 
habit. He displays the stop sign in the 
middle of the street and he holds it high." 

" Nervous breakdown ; debility. Get 
into tlie country ; long walks ; no alcohol," 
said the doctor, as reported in " Good 
Health." The patient sighed. "And," con- 
tinued the doctor, " one cigar a day !" " Oh, 
doctor, not that," protests the sick man. 
" One cig^ a day," reiterated the physi- 
cian, inexorably. Six weeks later the 
patient returned to town. " How do you 
feel?" queried the doctor. "Splendid!" 
« And you liked it all?" "Everything but 
the one cigar." The doctor smiled. " The 
tobacco habit — " he b^an. "Isn't any 
joke," put in the patient, ruefully ; " it is 
hard for a man at my time of life to take 
up smoking !" 

Congress has been filmed in action. 
D. W. Griffith, maker of spectacular movies 
like " Hearts of the World," secured per- 
mission to photograph the House in session 
for a new war production which he is 
Tnn.lcing to show the beneficent effect of 
the draft in making soldiers for liberty. 

A curious foot-note to history is found 
in Simon Wolfs recently published " Presi- 
dents I Have Known." Mr. Wolf, a Waah- 
iiurton lawyer, a loyal Unionist, and a 
fnend of President Lincoln, was yet also 
acquainted with John Wilkes Booth and 
resembled him in appearance. He says con- 
cerning the assassination of Lincoln : " Af- 
ter the tragedy I was compelled to remain 
in my house until after Booth's capture, for 
unfortunately I resembled him very much 
in feature — so much so that Theodore 
Kaufman, the historical painter, asked me 
to sit for him for his nunons minting of 
' The Assassination of President Lincoln.' " 

Here is an anecdote that Mr. Wolf tells 
about Andrew Johnson : He was told that 
if he attempted to speak in a certain South- 
em city he would be shot. Undaunted, he 
placed a large revolver on a table in front 
of him at the time he w*8 to make his ad- 
dress, and said : " I am informed that I 
would be shot if I attempted to speak here. ' 
I am ready to be shot before I commence." 
There was dead silence, then tumultuous 
applause, and he made his speech without 
the slightest disturbance. 

Besides being acquainted with several 
Presidents, Mr. Wolt met many celebrities 
during his career as a diplomatist. One of 
these was Arabi Pasha. Here is- one of 
Arabi's stories : A sheik was speaking in 
the mosque, and said, " All of you who are 
afraid of your wives stand up. All stood 
tap except one man. Afterwards the sheik 
went to this man and said, " Evidently you 
are not afraid of your wife." The man re- 
sponded : " She g^ve me such a beating this 
morning that I was not able to stand up." 

Hay fever is described in the " Journal 
of the American Medical Association " for 
August 17 as due to the inhalation of 
pollen from wind-pollinated plants, espe- 
cially of the common ragweed. As this 

weed does not thrive at an altitude of 6,000 
feet, localities at such altitudes afford relief. 
So, too, does an island that is kept free of 
weeds, and has no land nearer than five 
miles. In a list of hay fever resorts in the 
United States the largest number given are 
in North Carolina, owing to the many 
mountain resorts in that State that exceed 
the limit of 6,000 feet in altitude. 

Here is a sermonette to farmers from 
the " Rural New Yorker." It begins with 
a text : 

Unorganized agricuUkre it imUmduaUy telling 
unappraited predvctt to a weU-it\formed body of 

That ig jnst what it ia. The original Amerioaii 
farmer came forward with a fine far from aome 
wild animal. Men like John Jaoob Aator would 
buy it for a handful <A powder and shot, a few 
beads, or a drink of nun. Yet when it turned up 
as a ooat or oape for my lady's baok in Paris or 
London it brought $1,000 or more. From that day 
to this the individual farmer has been selling " un- 
appiHised products " for about what the organized 
buyers and handlers will give him. . . . There is 
only one way out — organisation. And the farmers 
must do this work themselves. 

The problem of omnipresence has new 
difficulties for American children of to-day, 
who want to be " shown." The following 
dialogue justifies the statement : 

Seven-year-old, Yes, Greoffrey, God is 
everywhere — in everything, in us, in every- 

Pour-year-old. How do yon know that, 
brother ? 

Seven. Well, mother says so. [Pause.] 
^t's a great puzzle. fPause.] 

Four. Is God in the Germans ? 

Seven (doubtfully), Ye-es, God is in the 
Germans. [Pause. J 

Four (earnestly). I'll bet you don't know 
that, brother ! 

A good word for Noah's prescience as a 
ship-ouilder is found in an aUusion to his 
Ark in "Nauticus." "It would not be a 
difficult task," says that journal, "to pick 
out of Lloyd's Register many ships built 
within the last twenty years whose dimen- 
sions suggest a form closely resembling 
that of Noah's Ark. According to the 
dimensions griven in the Bible as translated 
in terms of modem measurement, the Ark 
was 480 feet long, 80 feet wide, and 48 feet 
deep. Her tonnage was 11,413, and she had 
plenty of room for paira of all the distinct 

Stecies of animals that are classed by 
uffon — ^244 — and she could have accom- 
modated a thousand persons and then had 
plenty of room for the storage of supplies." 

Some one vrill sometime probably make 
an anmsing book out of the many absurd 
suggestions that have been made about the 
conduct of the war. One of these sugges- 
tions will be found in a novel called " !rot- 
terat and the War." One of its characters 
advises the shooting of shells filled with 
bees ! When the shell strikes a German 
trench and the bees are liberated, he says, 
there will be an immediate skedaddle on 
the part of the Huns, for who could fight 
after being stung on the eyelid by an in- 
furiated bee ! 

The Health Commissioner of Chicago 
believes in war bread. He says " it is no 
use kicking at having to eat bread made of 
barley, oatmeal, and buckwheat, when 
really the new article of food is as palatable 
as the bread of former years and if any- 
thing more nutritious." He suggests emula- 
tion of the old lady who, having but two 
teeth remaining, said, "But, thank God, 
they hit." 


Steel RACid 

pOR the storage of 
"^ materials, parts of aO 
kinds, supplies, too^, etc., 
Durand Steel Racks are 
an indispensable adjunct 
to any factory equipment. 

They are strong, neat in appear- 
ance, convenient, durable and 
fireproof. It takes but a few 
moments and no tools to respace 
the shelving to take care o( 
varying quantities of stock. 

W» ara makar* of Stmal Radm, t 
Coantan, mte., for momwy kmdofntmr- 
ehtmdiam ; also Darand Staol L oeiam n 
for avary naad. Writa for eatalogttm 

Durand Steel Locker Co 

1S73 Ft. OeaiUfB Bk. BMg. OTS VaadatUi BUf 
Chicago New York 


I Reduce Your Weight 

= ^^OU cao get rid of excess 

m I flesh a« sore aa mnriae 

g tomorrow. If yon do not 

rj poaaen a, perfect ngura, our- 

^ reotpotMaiMlsbiuidantAcc^tA, 

3 lei me help you. Yon can 

q aeeompligh these things in 

vd| a siniple way — in youT room. 

~ 1 know Tou oftu becauM Fve 

e3 helped 89,000 women uid what I 

^ hare done lor ao many I can do 

= (or you. 

M Don't rednoe by dmsa or diet | 

^ alone. You'll look old u 70a do. 

:3 Tou should liave the proper exei^ 

^ dae to reduce your flgore juM 

^ irhfrr umt it-niU ?/ ifUucfd, 

= I build your vitality, atrwigtlMiii 

s your heart and teach you to Mana, 

!f walk and breathe oorrectly, as 1 

--= reduce you. 

If you aend me your hetebt, ni ten you joat mtmt 

i^ you ahould weigh. No oSaiia ami I'll aaod yaa 

ii mv a-vml tllustnted booUet FREE. Write aZ. 

f3 I'd like to tell you d my woodertol ezpeilanoei. 


i3 I>ept..8 684 South MIohlKsn ATenue 


ii :'::!;!:;:': i:iiiiiiiiii;iii:ii;iiiiii::uinii;;:::;::i!i;iiiiiiuiiiiiHiiuiiiBnn^ 
Digitized by VJ^^VJV l*^ 



Fat Juicy Salt Mackei 

Direct FromThe Fishiii5 Boats ToYoii 
" Jrom DavisyGloucester 

Such a Good Breakfast 

ere?" Thus my direct-to-home business 
was started — I never sell to dealers. 

Folks, here's a real treat from old Gloucester. A pail of fat, newly- 
packed, full-flavored mackerel— ten deliciously-tasty fish of fine white, tender 
meat. Oh, but you will eqjoy these temptingly good fish ! How the appetizing 
fragrance of broiling mackerel whets a lagging appetite ! They're yours to try, 
on request^— send no money — sample these tasty mackerel first. ^^1-^/ P ^ayyLa 


natural sea taste. We clean and wash them before 
weighing. You pay for only net weight — no heads 
and no tails, just the white, all meat portions — the 
parts that make the most delicious meals imaginable. 
You probably have never tasted salt 
mackerel so appetizingly good as mine. 

Send No Cash — 
Try the Fish First 

I want you to know before you pay 
that my fish will please you. If there 
is any possibility of a risk I want it 
to be at my expense. Just mail the 
coupon today. I will ship at once a 
pail of my fall mackerel, containing 
ten fish, each fish sufficient for three 
or four people, all charges prepaid, 
so that your family can have a real 
Gloucester treat next Sunday morning. 
Then,, if my mackerel are not better 
than you have ever tasted, send back 
the rest at my expense. If you are 
pleased with them — and I'm sure you 
will be- send me |t4.90 and at the 
same time ask for Descriptive List 
of Davis Fish — sold only direct 
never to dealers. And remember, when order- 
ing Davis' Mackerel, you get only the clear, 
edible portions of the fish — an economical 
food, so good to eat, so nutritious — and 
a food the Government is asking us 
to eat to help win the war. Mail the 
coupon now, with your business 
card, letterhead or reference. 

Frank E. Davis Co. 

55 CMtnl Wlurf, Gloacaitw, Mui, 

After the Elusive Mackerel 

I love the salt water. I love the foods that come oat 
of the salt water. I love to recall my younger years 
when in the nipping, salty air of October and No- 
vember we would be out for weeks in 
my father's vessel, with himself as 
" skipper," after the great mackerel 

Bat^k in '85, several friends of mine, 
inland folks, a^ked me to select and 
send them a pail of Gloucester mack- 
erel. Then this thought occurred to 
me : " Why can't I supply families 
everyirhere with the choicest of 
Gloucester mackerel — the kind we our- 
selves eat — sending them direct from 
the ocean to the tables of my custom 



It Takes a Fisherman 
Know Fish 

You see, I know fish. All my days 
have been spent aboard fishing boats 
catching fish, knowing the choicest 
and picking 'em out, cleaning and 
curing them the right way. Today my business 
housed in the most modem fish-building in the coun- 
try. It b fitted with the best possible sanitary equip- 
ment for cleaning and packing fish. Standing right 
at the water's edge, the fishermen's catches are brought 
right into my building. So they go to your table with 
the " tang of the sea " right in them. 

Fall Mackerel — ^Fat and Tender 

Most of the fish your dealer can buy are Spring 
fish, thin, dry and tasteless. I select for you only Fall 
fish, fat and thick-meated, the kind that retain their 

A fat, tender, juicy Davis' 
Mackerel broiled to a fiz- 
zling brown ; some buttikr, 
a sprinkling of pepper, a 
touch of lemon, if you wish — 
how good it smells, how 
tempting it looks, how it 
tickles the palate, and, oh, 
how it satisfies! — the favorite 
breakfast dish of thousands. 

' FnakL 



Thr Fmnk S. DiirtM Comjmnu 
prrimrrd to '"'ppfy, at intrrrttiH\ 

fthrrji, it* protturtjiln htiteli. Win 
nutUiitiftnji, hnfpttniK, xrhitota. 
(tc. Write for tpeciiU prire liM. 

' Without any tfbliufttion 

on my put. pleu« tend 

me. ail cMaritt ^ipmd, 

, a [Mdl of thCK rood Da^iv 

( •loiicratcr Mackerri. to contain 

ten choice fiah. each fiah auflicieiit 

fur tbrc« or four pco|>lc. I arrcc to 

nut |i 90 ID 10 daja or retiiru ihr 


Digitized by 

M* f .... 




25 Sepi 

Dr. J. H. TDdoi of Dearer, Colondo, la 
ona at tba moat widaly kiioira madioal 
lafonnan In tba Unitad 8«ataa. He la the 
editor <i< " FhOoaophT of Health." RIaiin- 
poctet woika an >' DIaeaaee of Women 
■od Kan ChadUrtti -," "Food," 3 toI. ; 
"Oonorrtiea and SjrpliiUa ;" " Appendioi- 
tta ;" " Cbolen In&ntom ;" " Tjrphoid 
rarer ;" " Impaind Health. lu Oaoia and 
Con," 2 Tol., ate. 

THERE are thousands of men and women 
in this country who are not "lending a 
band " because of personal inefficiency, 
perpetual fatigue and laziness, entirely due 
to tneir ignorance in eating. Many doctors 
say, " Eat what agrees with you," but, how 
are ycu to know f Bewilderment no longer 
is necessary — read 

The Pocket 

by Dr. J. H. Tilden, who depends entirely 
upon diet and correcting of habits to relieve 
and cure his patients of their varying ailments. 

The first edition of " The Pocket Dietitian " 
was exhausted in sixty days; the second 
edition of ten thousand is now offered to 
the public It will teach YOU how to live, 
give YOU an idea of the real cause of disease 
and how to sidestep it. It is crowded with 
hints as to proper combinations, menus for 
people in all walks of life. It disabuses the 
public mind of a prevailing fallacy that cures 
can be made by some pecuflar diet. Diseases 
cannot be cured except by giving up the habit, 
whatever it is, that enervates, after which lost 
energy is returned and full health restored 
and maintained by right food combinations. 

tined to be the most popular book on diet 
in the world. Price only $\.0Q (100-page 
volume, pocket size, flexible leather cover) ; 
it is worth a business to some, and life to 
others. Send check, money order or cur- 
rency for it without delay. Address, De- 
partment " PD-2." 

Philosophy of Health 


The Outlook 

Copyright, 1018, by Tb* Oatkwk Company 


Vol. 120 September 25, 1918 No. 4 

TBI ODTbooK n rciuaKBD nwMLt n Tm oonooK ooarAar, 


maiDBiT. ■• T. Fsuiiai, Tic»*»aein«irr. FBAm o. noTT, 
TBaASOROk BinaT H. AUOTT, aacBVTABT. TrnxTsaa D. 
OAEHAa, ADTaiTiaiiw luiiAa^ tbau.t auiaoumo*— 
nrrr-Two mtam—Hm DOLLAae m aotasob. uinuu 
Aa uooaD-euaa iutt**, jult 21. u93, at ths roar 
orrxM AT mw mu, uasas nra act or haboi 3. itra 

The Austrian Peaoe Note 117 

An Insult to Belgium 117 

Germany's Brutatity in Africa 118 

Lenioe and Trotaky Paid German Agents 118 

Cartoons of the Week. 119 

The Amerioan Viotory 120 

Thirteen Million Men Enrolled 122 

Labor Strikes, Lookouts, and the War.. 122 

A United Effort for War Relief. 123 

Greenville Answers 123 

' ' Why Not Compromise with Germany P" 123. 

The Adventure of Aoquietoenoe 124 

The Eremite Walks to Cbureh 12S 

A Plan to Help Polieemen Oat ol Tight 

Plaoes 126 

An Interview with Commiaaionor Bnright by 
H. H. Moore, of the Oatlook Staff 

Smaibing the German Will to Win 127 

By D. Thomai Cnrtin 

What You Want to Know About Our 

Army in Pranoe 128 

By Joeaph H. Odell 

Acroii South Afriea in War Time 131 

By Gregory Maao'n, StaC Corraapondent of 
The Oatlook 

The War Coiti and the War Debt 134 

By Theodore H. Prioa 

Current Brents Illustrated 




"Nothing but a Boohe " 

By William L. Siidger 

'A Violet in Pranoe (Poem).. 

By Viator C. Reeae 

Our Medical Corps in Aetion 

By H. W. Boyatoa 

Weekly Outline Study of Current History 142 
By J. Madiaon Oathaay, A.M. 

The I^ew Books 145 

War Loans 147 

The Lord's Inleations 149 

A War Incident 149 

By the Way 151 

BT SUBSCRIPTION I4.W A YKAK. 8fai(la oopiee 10 oeotL 
For foreign anbaoriptiaii to ooontriee in tha Poetal tJnlon, •S.SS. 

Addraea all nranmniifcatloni to 


381 Fontth AvBime New York City 


Once a Private Branc 
Y Now Famous ^ 
k Everywhere / 

These Rare Havanas 

V*>re orit^'inully iiuule up for my 
privat*^ ii»e from the chuiceat leaf 
ohtaiitabl^ in the mountaiuous dia- 
trict of Culia— the Vuelta dtatrict. 
Frieiida kooii iiiflisted that I include 
Ui«tu in my biiyiiik:..\ftotherB learned 
of tlies^ BU}>er-^e)ifi:htfu) amokea, 
tlit-v liK) wanted my brand. 

iliia dt-mand kept a friend busy 
buying: th« 8fle+'t*d leaf I oaed. 
Bemi; a coiuiuiasf-ur, ho Bcoept«d 
ooly the cruam of tlie crop. Now 
ttao'iiitAnds of men nmoke my mono- 
arram brand and I give my whole 
ume to the enormous buaiuew that 
fau resulted. 

A Real Thrift Smoke 

1 Save Yoa Many Profits 

Cit:ar vnltie is limited to qualitv. 
I'rices that exceed that value incluae 
Diaiiy prortttt and many exTieiwen— 
•alaries of salt^meit and tfieir ex- 

Knaea, store upkeep and other 
mi8. I save you all these. You can- 
not buy my i-igars in any store. I 
deal direct only. Vou get these mt- 


For the Fighters Too 

I have recently received many 
ordcm for ^. R. w. Havanas to be 
Bt'iit direi't to "our twys " lii camp. 
1 lu'tw orders have come from my 
ifU'ilar ruBtomcrs— men who know 
and anpreciate a rare smoke. Their 
tliou^ntfuhiess might well be fol- 
lowed by you. 

Take advantage of my free offer. 
Try five free. Decide for yourself. 
Then order for yourself and "the 
boys " you are »o proud of. Prices 
to<V«y are $.5.,^i for l(Ki or $i.85 for SO. 
"Wiir conditioiiB, of course, make 
tlifs*- prioeH subject to change 
BO I wouI<l auviae 
quick m.-tion. 





, CO""' 

. co»t' 

















m L ee t weed BaMat. Brffala, II. T. slST 


Mentaltani physical— to the 
utmost — tnat's what vee 
need new. 

Your capacity to do de- 
penda on your "Human 
Machine"— aee to it that 
that Bt'catest of all encinea, 
your Heart, is runnins per- 
fectly. Be sure that it will 
malce the hill— and crarry 
^ tl iroug h —strong. 

Rest — and an 'intelligent 
going over of your Titai 
machinery is a patriotic 
necessity. Don't fAIrt* jron 
are all right -KNOW IT. 

and, in this connection — 

THE Glen Springs 

The Plenaer American "Cttre** 
Per Heart Diserdera 



Digitized by VJWVJV l*^ 






Many of the best private schools, colleges, correspondence schools, 
and camps are advertised in these columns. Each one issues descrip- 
tive literature which will be sent to Outlook readers upon application 


The Pratt Teachers Agency 

70 nfth ATanne, New TorC^ 

RaooainMiids Wnhwri to ooU*i«%ntbUa indptlrata Mhooli. 
AdTJi BMiU ibont ichook. Wm. O. Prmtt. Mkt. 


all dqartmanta. tliOOO-ISiMW. BpwW tenni. Iki lima- 
WAIg TlACg»B»' AOMIOT, MiclMO BnlMlBg, HBW OrlaMM. 



A BMklantW ud I>*t School tor Oirta, prapam (or 

AnwrUan and Oanadlaii CniTanltiM. Bnclal BnainaM 

Conna, HonaahoU tdeaaa and Phyaioal Cultura Connea. 

Praaiteit, MiB. OmiKa Dickaaa. Prbi., MiM laobel O. Blown. 

Baoinnad Bapt. 17th. Proapactua on appUcation. 


The Cfirtis School for Young; Boys 

Haa Down f mtr^onr yaaia and la atUl iiDdar tba aoiva 
diiacnoo of Ita (onndar. _ _ _ ^ . 


FuDiaios I 

Obulld B. t 

9ioonn>LD CaiiTca, ( 


Country School for Giria 

F. K. Dana, IU..A;.. Principal, WaahfaiKtan, Ooimaotieiit. 
Boatoa l a ui aa au tatlTa. Uubl E. Bonui, A.B., VIca- 
Principal. Box » C, CnhiMi*. MiinhoaetU. 


Cathedral School for Girls 

oia.AinM>. nxuRiDA 

(jmdar BpUeopat emtnt). CoUacs Piapaiatorj and Oanaial 
Coaiaaa, alao Mnaio, bpraaaion, Domattic Bdanca, ato. 
CaraWWJi^ Igglc^*>i«w ««J*^ y-rhagina 



The Uuvenity of Gbicago 

nAUp in addUon lo raidant 
ll^mjj W(«k.otfenakaiBMnic- 

cTiinY I*" <>«<^>*<> i«- 

tJlUI/I lomatioB addraaa 
(MTaar 0.jlC(INT.W)Cycafa.ll. whJS 


Educate Yonr Child 

la Your Own Hona 


(KtaUitKtd 1887) 

A nnlqae syitam by maana of wfaloh 
chUdron from UndarBaxtan to U 
yaaia of asa oaj ba adocatad at bcaoa 
nndar tha gnldanoa of a aohool with a 
natlaaal repatatian fortnlninK chO- 
dran. for uif onnattoa write, tutirg 
•ca of child. Alao aak tor otrcnlar 
Mr. Batjtt^ new book 'OhUd 

on Hr. E 

Th« Calrart ScImoI, 2 Ouaa St., BaMBora. Md. 
V. H. HUltll. A». (Hairarf). Hii«aiil». 



ELM HILL^j?n*?aTd',:5.1gnS?.'tS: 

akUltnl and aflaetianata can. Inritoiatlns air. WMtcra 
(arm. Sana oafaT. All modam canTanlaaoaa. PancoM 

jsssstss^ ffiisvirgsrs. gargkoJg^MJr- 


■8 Hlshlspd St.. KBtlek. Msaa. 

A CoBiBa na(*iau>x Moot tor Olrk. IT moaa trooi 

MliM Conmnt, Mlaa B1k«Iow> Prinolpala. 


Perry Kindergarten Normal School 

IS Hnntinstan ATanaa, Boatsa. Maaa. 


Preparea for KinderKartan, Primary and Playcroond 
paamona. For booklet addnai The Secretary. 

DEAN ACADEMY, Franklin, Mm. 

sad Tear 

women find liare a bomallke atmoa. 

Solent tralnfaiff In erety department 

, a loyal and halptui eohool iplrlt. libeiai 

endowment permltallbaaltaima,m6-fMII per year. Spadal 
Oomaa In Dcmeatio Sclanoe. 

P or catalogue and Information addteai 
ARTBCRWrpEIBOK, Lltt. D.. Prtnolpal 


The Burnham School 


Founded by Hary A. Barabsin In 1877 

Oppcelte Smith College Campoi 



For many yeara known aa ** na Bnnham BohooL" 
Unl year opena September, lau. * 

Correapnndance ihonld be adi l i i iiii l to 
Mlae B. T. Otrm, Principal, NoaruimoB. ILua. 


A cogna of forty laaooa In the Metory. focm, 

i atru e lUr e,a»dwrltln»otthalia«i«' ito i > tanghtby 

IDn J. lln i »n «»«l»,f«rT«i«M<ll»r«fU»«l» nMf ai 

UO-paga oa m ogumpr—. Fiaaataddrtm 

m maa ooBsisponnci mbool 



Lite fai the open. Athletioa. Hooaahoid Arta. Collie and 
general oooraea. 

Bach giri'a panOBaUty obaamd and denkipad. Wittator 


KENT PLACE, Summit. N. J. 

A country achool tor girla M mHea from New York. CoDega 

Pieparatorr and Aoademlo Couraea. 

Mia. iatafc %aa<M» raal. MM Aaaa S.W"'-i.rifar»ih 



tn&hnj at IZOlk Street 


nw ohaitar raqntraa that " Bqnal prlrllegee of admiarion 

and fautmcttoa, with all the adrantagaa ol the Imtlta- 

ttpn, ihall be allowed to Studenta of erery deooadaatiott of 

^fasIIJSgaSgr ATf SUBS ^^^S^ 







_^^ ^wn, Maaa., M mile 

'. Pnnaiaa for college and biuineaa Ufa 
■'^ -■> boy. AthI -■ 

A Church a .,.. 

taanUallT hiaatad la the opMr BooaacVallay among 
lerkahlraBllla U DrfUa trom^ruSamatown. IbiaTlOi 

ram Awaay, R. T. ' "" 

ndlridoal care gh 

ol nar bqrina Saptombar », 1»U. VIS-- 
V. lU HnrKLBOSTD.D., Albaay, H. 1. 



CorBwaU.oii>Hud*on, N. Y. 

THE itoty of this famous School 
is told in the iliustrated cata- 
logue, which will be sent 
npoa application to the Princqial. 

Largest MiUiary School in UteEast 


Hewlett School for Girls 


Ooalialf hour fnxn New Tork. Primary throogh ooUege 
preparatory. Outdoor aporte. Circular upon laQoaat. 

SL John's RiYerside Hoqiital Training 
School for Norses 


Baglatarad In New Toik Btat^ oSera a a yaara' eonree a 
ganaiBl tialninf , to raflnad, adDcataa woaan. _lt*gnli*- 

menta ooa year high achool or tta oqulnkot. Apply to the 
Directieaa of Nnnaa, Tonkara, New Tork. 



Pioehtirat, North Cardins 

Combines a thorough colle(^e pre- 
paratory course with instruction in 
the elements of military science, and 
physical training in accordance with 
modem military ideals. 
L k. DOaWORTHroU. FJI.&S. Ojh bflrii. 

R«|al riiftii). Had iMlir. 
R.CUliroN PUn. B. A.. OiM. AtML HaJ Maitar. 

Kate for Boarding Scliolars, f900 a 
year, payable half yearly in advance. 

Term begins October 9, 1918. 


The Baldwin School 

ACaaalfySckaalhrGfak Ina Hawr, Paea. 

Prepamtion for BrTn Uawr, Mount Holyoke, Smith, 
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Digitized by 


The Outlook 

SEPTEMBER 25, 1918 
Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York 


At 6:20 P.M. on Monday of lajst week the United' States 
vemment received the official communication from Austria 
•posing a peace conference. At 6:45 the same evening the 
isident officially rejected the proposal in the following words: 

The Govemment of the United States feels that there is only 
>ne reply which it can make to the suggestion of the Imperial 
Lustre- Hungarian Government. It has repeatedly and with en- 
ire candor stated the terms upon which the United States would 
onsider peace, and can and will entertain no proposal for a 
onference upon a matter concerning which it has made its posi- 
ion and purpose so plain. 

kVhat the Austrian note proposed was a secret conference — 
to use the exact' words of the text, " a confidential and 
binding discussion at a iieutral meeting-place " — for the con- 
eraticm of possible terms of a general peace. The Austrian 
« did not propose an armistice, but, on the contrary, asserted 
.t " the war activities would experience no interruption." It 
de an appeal for such a conference on highly moral grounds, 
fountains of old misunderstandings might be removed and 
ny new things perceived. Streams of pent-up human kind- 
is would be released, in the warmth of which everything 
ential would remain, and, on the other hand, much that is 
agonistic, to which excessive importance is still attributed, 
lua disappear." No phrases in the note excited more con- 
ipt than those just quoted. To suggest that "streams of 
it-up human kindness could flow at a peace table from Ger- 
ny, which has crucified and tortured Belgium, or from 
stna, which has starved and laid in waste Serbia, was 
arded everywhere as verging upon the hypocritical. 
tVe say everjrwhere ; but it must be regretfully recorded that 
re was in the United States one notable and disappointing 
«ption. The New York " Times," one of the ablest daily 
rapapers in the English-speaking world, which up to the 
sent has powerfully supported the contention that the war 
at be prised by the Allies to a decisive and final military 
tory, editorially commended the Austrian note, saying that 
arguments are " presented with extraordinary eloquence and 
ce, and that the offer is one " which the AUiee may honor- 
y accept in the confident belief that it will lead to the 
[ of the war," adding, " We cannot imagine that the invi- 
ion will be dedined. This strange attitude of the New 
rk " Times," which has been for four years a source of 
iogth to the Allied cause, has raised a storm of protest, not 
y in New York, but throughout the country, wat conclu- 
$lv proves how sensitive public opinion is to the slightest 
ptcion of any effort to bring about a compromise with Prussia 
1 her partners. Even the New York " American," whose 
rse during the war has aroused hostility and denunciation 
DDg patriotic Americans, editorially condemned the note. 
9 '* A^merican " pointed out, as The Outlook did two years 
> in its comment upon the peace proposal of Germany in 
.6, that when the Southern Cfonfederacy, with the approval 
hie pacifist Horace Greeley, suggested a peace conference to 
eident Lincoln, he replied that ^ore peace negotiations could 
entered up<m three tnings were indispensable. They were : 

1. The restoration of the National authority throughout all 
le States. 

2. No receding hy the Elxecutive of the United States on the 
avery ouestion from the position assumed thereon in the late 
jinual Message to Congress and in preceding documents. 

3. No cessation of hostilities short of an end of the war and 
le disbanding of all forces hostile to the Government 

t is one of the mysteries of modem journalism that in this 
nt crisis of tbei war, when the American Army in France is 

making its spirit and power felt by the enemy, the New York 
" American " should be following the example of Lincoln, while 
the New York " Times " is acting in the spirit of Horace Greeley 
and Jefferson Davis. 

President Wilson's strong and unmistakable reply to Aus- 
tria is- not only applauded by the entire country, but, before 
this reaches our readers, will be followed by similar notes of 
rejection from all the Allies. Public opinion in the Allied coun- 
tries, as reported fully by cable, is united in opposing Austria's 
" peace offensive." This is in spite of the fact that there is a 
small group in Great Britain, represented by the London 
" Chronicle, ' the London " Daily News," and the Manchester 
"Guardian" — a group composed of ultrarsentimentalists who 
think Prussians are amenable to brotherly reasoning, and of 
financial interests that want the destruction of property to cease 
without much regard to principle — which has rollowed the lead 
of the New York " Times's" editorial. The President's quick 
and effective action ought to put a complete end to any fears 
that the Administration is in sympathy with either of these 

In December, 1916, in commenting upon Germany's peace 
note of that month. The Outlook stated the irreducible mini- 
mum which it believed the Allies should insist upon as a basis 
for any peace n^otiations. They are as appropriate to the 
Austrian note as they were to the German, and we repeat them 

The immediate evacuation of all foreign soil by the German 

A declared readiness to make some compensation for the 
iireparable injury inflicted upon Belgium and northern France. 
Tne expulsion of the Turk from Europe. 
The freedom of the Dardanelles for the commerce of the 

And a co«incil of European Powers, perhaps of world Powers, 
to consider what measures should be taken for protecting the 
rights and well-being of the people of Alsace and Lorraine, 
Poland and Lithuania, and the Balkan States ; and pre-eminently 
what measures can be taken to prevent future wars between 
civilized nations, and to lift off tne burden of an intolerable 
militarism from the overburdened people. 

We discuss elsewhere in this issue the principles and methods 
which must be followed in any genuine negotiations for a last- 
ing peace. 


Simidtaneously with the official proposal by Austria for a 
secret peace conference came an unofficial report from London 
of a so-called peace offer to Belgium from Geriuany. It is not . 
likely that Belgium will for a second think of following the 
example of Russia and engaging in what would be a second 
Brest-Litovsk Treaty. Nor is it likely that Belgium will even 
consider a proposal to abandon her allies or to forget the 
infamous outrages and ininriee she has endured. The mere 
offer to patch up an amicable agreement, coming from Germany 
to Belgium, is a deep and intolerable insult 

It is more than likely that Germany's proposal is made with 
the expectation of a rebuff. Germany may believe that if the 
Allies reject the suggestion from Austria, and if Belgium sooms 
the proposal made to her, then whatever pacifist sentunmit exists 
among the Allies might incline to regard Germany as an honest 
seeker for peace. Such a sentiment might weaken or slacken 
the Allies in their determination to attain a decisive vic- 
tory. If Germany really seeks peace with Belgium, which wc 
doubt it would indicate a growing realization on her part of 
military weakness. Conceivably, now that the military strength 

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of the Allies is waxing while her own is ^a^ing, she may think 
it worth while to ehorten her war line even though she lose sab- 
marine bases and other valuable war assets. If Germany's cam- 
^ign next year is to be strictly defensive, the elimination of 
Be^um would allow her to mass her defense on a mach less 
extended line. In this way of looking at it, the Belgian pro- 
posal may be a sign of constantly lessening hope for victory on 
Germany's part. 

The proposals included in the offer of peace to Belgium are 
summarized as follows : 

That Belgium shall remain neutral until the end of the war. 

That thereafter the entire economic and political independ- 
ence of Beldam shall be reconstituted. 

That the pre-war commercial treaties between Gremianv and 
Belgium shall again be put into operation after the war for an 
indefinite period. 

That Belgium shall use her good oflBces to secure the return 
of the German colonies. 

That the Flemish question shall be considered, and the Flem- 
ish minority which aided the Grerman invaders shall not be 

Nothing could be more characteristic of Germany's brutal 
diplomacy than the proposal that, after Belgium should have 
abandoned her allies ana rescuers, she should consent to act as 
a catspaw to save Germany's colonies. 

But the most notable thing about these peace conditions is 
not so much what is there as what is not there. Not a word is 
sud about the repayment of the enormous sums of money taken 
out of Belgium by Germany, nor of the destruction of Belgian 
property, nor of the suffering and devastation that the innocent 
people of Belgium have endured. As to the last, there are some 
thines that can never be paid for, and in time even Germany 
will learn this. 

Mr. Lloyd George's phrase of two years ago still remains the 
keynote as regards any possible peace negotiations with Ger- 
many : *' Complete restitution, full reparation, effectual guaran- 
tees." It applies to Belgium even more positively than to any 
other coimtry. 


In all Germany's talk about the possibilities of peace, as, 
for instance, in that by its Vice-Chancellor, Herr von Payer, 
the other day, one of the definite preliminary conditions laid 
down is that tiie German colonies in Africa should be returned. 
If any proof were needed of the injury to civilization of such a 
concession, it may be found in a report describing the adminis- 
tration of German colonies of Africa just made public by the 
Acting Secretary of the Interior of the Union of South Africa, 
Mr. £. H. L. Gorges. Evidence is adduced from official German 
sources, from the writings of authors acquainted with the facts, 
and from sworn statements by native chiefs and Europeans. 
The report is summarized as follows by an English writer: 
" The first twenty-five years of German rule in southwest Africa 
was an unbroken record of official bad faith, private oppression, 
cruelty, barbarities, and robberies, culminating in the Herero 
and Hottentot rebellions. During the first seventeen years 
there was no law for the natives. Such protection as the law 
eventually provided indicated considerations of humanity, but 
the order to exploit the natives as laborers remained. 

When the ill-treatment of the natives led them into insurrec- 
tion, the " discipline " of the Germans took the form of out-and- 
out massacres. The Hereros were reduced from eighty thousand 
to fifteen thousand in number. In one case a German Governor 
issued what is rightly described as an extermination order, 
which in so many words said that no prisoners should be taken, 
and that men, women, and children should be slaughtered with- 
out mercy. 

After brutal force had restored order the German rule was 
cruel; the rights, interests, and development of the natives 
were ignored. Naturally the natives are now unanimous in feel- 
ing that they never should be turned back to the tender mercy 
of the Germans. 

In every instance where Germany has dominated a non-Ger- 
man people or had dealings with a weak and small nation she has 
actea solely on her \Maio idea that might makes right. Not only 

these African colonies, but the smaller countries the woridM 
have nothing to look forward to but repression and oppres 
if Germany should succeed in carrying out her world-donumii 


Extraordinary revelations as to the relations between I 
German Government and the leaders of the Russian Boklin 
show that, even before Lenine and Trotsky supinely yield^i 
Brest-Litovsk Russian territory and Russian independeuv 
German domination, they had been involved in treachery of 
basest kind to their country and to their own associates. Alt 
series of documents, carefully annotated and interpreted 
Mr. Edgar Sisson, has been made public by the CommittM 
Public Jjiformation. Mr. Sisson represented that Conunitts 
Russia last winter, and there gathered die material for t 
exposure of the baseness and subservience of Trotsky i 
L^ine. Just how it was obtained is not stated. 

Many of the letters thus published relate to the anxiet;o(l 
German Government to set back into iheir own hands audi 
of the Russian archives uie evidence of their secret nudi 
tions. For instance, one letter tells of a deposit of fifty mi 
rubles of gold transmitted from Germany uirough Sto(Mobi 
the People's Commissars — that is, the Bolshevm leaden. T 
money, it is boldly stated in the letter, was to be spent in ptii 
the aed Guard and in carryitag on anti-Bolshevik ptopsjai 
in Russia and Siberia, whi(^ was " troubling the Gemun (« 
emment." This was months before the treaty of peace b^ 
Russia and Germany was signed. About the same tiiwi 
million rubles was paid for uie express purpose of sendiii; 
Bolshevik emissary to seize the *' Japanese and Americas ■ 
materials in Siberia " — a significant commentary on thenetc' 
the despatch of American and Japanese troops to YladiTofii 
which happily came about in time. Another German docnni 
in the plainest of words refers to ^ the opening of acoountti 
Messrs. Lenine, Sumenson, Eoslovsky, Trotsky^and other mi 
workers on the peace propaganda by order Wa. 2754 of I 
Imperial Bank." 

The German Government also had the insolence to ask the 1 
shevikleaders to tell Germanyjust what supplies had been nm 
from her allies, where they were and what forces guarded tin 
Proof positive is reported also that the Germans were u^ 
that social agitators be sent to the prison camps in German; 
engage in peace propaganda among the English and Fie 
troop, while, on the other hand, a German official writi^ 
Lenme, curtly and as if from a master to a slave, calling hii 
account for not keeping his promise to prevent any Son* 
propaganda in Germany. The unparalleled duplicity of I^ 
IS seen in the fact that at the same time he was trying to mak( 
Russian proletariat believe that there would be a German i> 
lution growing out of Socialist Russian propaganda. La 
accepted the rebuke meekly with an offer to discuss the w^ 
and with no denial that he had made a personal promix 
stated. The commercial and industrial future relations of*' 
many and Russia were discussed in this correspondence in 
most brazen way, with proposals, unrebuked by Lenine ^ 
Trotsky, to make Germany supreme in Russian finance i 
industry, and to bar out for five years after peace migk' 
signed trade between Russia, on the one hand, and France, E 
land, and America, on the other^m vitally important proJ* 
Russia itself under these plans ^uld become a mere Gen> 

Perhaps the most singular among these condemnatory psi' 
are two documents issu»l in Germany in 1914. These p»i' 
were evidently procured in Germany by some Russian K 
were sent to Petrograd, and were preserved in the arct 
there. The German Government knew of their existent' 
demanded their return to prevent exposure. Copies or ( 
togpiuphs are included. One of them is an order from ' 
German General Staff dated Jtme 9, 1914, directing aD 'nx 
trial concerns in Germany to open the sealed envelope)' 
taining their " industrial mobilization plans and r^i^' 
forms, ' so that, as Mr. Sisson comments, they might oe f 
pared for a war the excuse for which had not yet bed ' 
vented. The second is also an order from the German Geii< 

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Kirbi/ in the .\>ic York World 


Greene in the New Yort Evening Telegram 



From her Brummer (Berlin) 


Don't harry, Kentleraen. Every one will have his tnm. 


Braakensiek in De Amsterdammer ( Atnsterdam, Holland) 

Foeli : " Drop that sjiik !" 

Bolshevik Bfiir-lracit-r : " Tlie aniiiiul ln-^'ina to ris*.- ii^^iiust iiu-. I't 
hold him. And 1 did want to do him a lot of good." 




2S Septcnh 

Staff, and was issued in November, 1914. Its object was to 
prevent the sailing of ships carrying munitions from American 
ports to Russia, France, and England. It proposes " delays, 
embroilments, and difficulties," to be made by " sU destructive 
agents and observers " in the United States and Canada. An- 
archists and escaped criminals are suggested as useful agents. 
This is a plain confession of Germany's criminal activities in 
this country while the United States was still a neutral nation. 
The points above summarized are merely typical and illus- 
trative of the many underhanded and despicable ways in which 
Lenine and Trotsky acted as German agents, and paid agents 
at that. Over and o\ee again they betrayed Russia, their 
former aUies, and the very proletariat they professed to rep- 
resent. They are now holding onto a precarious semblance of 
authority by wholesale executions. Meanwhile on almost every 
side of their limited territory the real Russian people, aided by 
the Allies, are drawing a circle of resistance. 


The more the Germans try to explain away the importance 
of Gener&l Pershing's great success, the more does its value 
become apparent. It may be, as the Germans say, that they 

havti always expected to abandon the St. Mibiel salient if j 
were attacked m force , but certainly they did not inteixl i 
abandon with it from fifteen to twenty thousand of their i\ 
diers and guns by the score. Their retreat was not a rout; \n 
that they were pushed back much harder and quicker tlui 
the^ had imagined possible is i>roved conclusively by the resuii 
If the St. Mihiel salient is of no value to the Gena^ 
("The grapes are sour," said the fox), it surely is of Talne) 
the Allies. By a sweeping movement, the salient, as some oi 
has said, was turned inside out in less than two days. Not «d| 
were some two hundred and fifty square miles of territoj 
occupied, but much-needed means and routes of conmuuieatia 
were acquired behind the fighting lines. Far more important i 
the fact that a part of the AUies line which in the past hii 
often been called " » quiet sector " now becomes to Genuanjl 
threatening sector. The possibilities here for attack and advan{ 
are full of hope and advantage. Hereafter Germany will alwsj 
face at this point the danger of a thrust on a large scale. 0^ 
more opening b avulable when Marshal Foch weighs up t^ 
relative advantages <^pttack and surprise. Before the new Inj 
great distance, lies Conflans, a nul«i| 
tne first importance. Beyond lies tl 
y, the possession of which has been i| 

and at not such a v( 
and strategic point 
vast iron field of ~ 

\ 0(lA NtAXE 



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(iii ^^ III I II II 
















EMBERCbU^^n^^*^ _ ^„ 



r^ /"_/ REGNICVILLE — * ' - 





O ^ 







o — © 







•tp^, BATTLE Ll/ve 


SHAPED paut shows 


Geneml Pershing's Fint Army, aided by French forces, attiwked this salient from the south and west on September 12, and in two days ware in oompkte 

with many thoosand prisoners. They were still advancing when this map was drawn 

Digitized by VjOOQIC" 




"livro have be«n three main battle froDts in the Western campaiin> thia year — that of March, that of June, that of .Vpteiiilxr. The reiuler will note how the grrat 
Mini of Germany have now ■hnuik to three narrow strips, white from Ixtns south the Allies have driven well over the line held by Germany before her offennives 
al^aa, asd elsewhere the old line and the new touch each other in sevenil places. The three lines indicate irraphicnlly the vlib and flow of a stuix-oduuit ninii;!;!*'' 

with the Allies to-day pressing the enemy hard at vital points 

Digitized by 




inestimaUe aid to Germany. It may be aawuMMtUiuiaiiB to 
diet an innnediate attach on the strongbQld of Mate ; liiitj£liie 
left wing of Pershing's azmy advaooes in JLarraame, Iheie is 
danger to tixe Germans that Metz may be outflanked. Already 
it is reported that the heavy gtms of Metz and of the Allies are 
exchanging fire. 

An English military writer compares the rapidity of the 
American and French advance in two days with the " slow, 
dearly bought victories of 1915," when the Allies were fighting 
in this vicinity for the possession of Combres, and declares that 
there is no part of France which has greater military value than 
the block of territory included in imaginary lines drawn between 
Metz, St. Mihiel, Verdim, Sedan, and Longwy. 

The American First Army has thus carried out its first 
extensive operation as a major unit under American chief com- 
mand with the precision of clockwork and with complete suc- 
cess. French forces aided in the movement, but the weight of 
the blows which crushed the sides of the salient was American. 
Our losses were comparatively small ; the enemy's losses, par- 
ticularly as i^;ards prisoners, were serious. 

Meanwhile on the main front from above Arras to below 
Soissons Marshal Foch and General Haig have made gains at 
several points and have kept the Germans guessing where the 
next heavy attack may develop. To the layman the probability 
seems to favor the choice by Foch of one or both of the 
extremities of the line rather than the center — that is, in the 
direction either of Cambrai, in the north, or of La Fere and 
Ldion, ia the south ; certainly the Germans have been kept wor- 
ried and busy in these sections, which have often been com- 
pared to the hinges of the line. A study of the larger of the two 
maps printed herewith will show that the British have made 

Sins in the north beyond the lines held by Germany last 
arch. This is what General Haig had in mind when he said : 
*' Already we have pressed beyond our old battle lines of 1917 
and have made a wide breach in the enemy's strongest de- 
fenses." The largest Allied advance beyond the old German 
lines, however, is that made by the American drive in the St. 
Mihiel sector. These advances beyond the old German lines 
overbalance in extent of territory the narrow strips which are 
all that Germany retains of her great offensives of this spring 
and early summer, while in strat^o value there is an immense 
difference in our favor. 

There is every evidence that tiie Allies, under Marshal Foch's 
brilliant strat^y, will hereafter force the fighting at the points 
they choose. Germany is on the defensive ; the initiative is 
with us. AH the stronger, therefore, is the need for the Allies, 
and especially for America, to push their effort for next year 
with every possible man and every shell available. The way to 
make the war short is to fight quick and hard with every atom 
of force brought to bear and without a minute's relaxation of 
wiU and effort. 


The registration on September 12 of all men from eighteen 
to forty-five inclusive not already registered was carried out 
with a smoothness and machine-like rapidity which was really 
a marvel of efficiency. That it was so was due in part to the 
voluntary efforts of many thousand citizens who aided in the 
work and to the experience of the now practiced local registry 
boards. The machinery used in political elections was employed 
to advantage. 

The resmt of the r^stration corresponded very closely with 
the predictions of the statisticians. It is not known, as we 
write, exactly what the total of the r^istry will be, but there 
seems to be no question that it will exceed thirteen million, and 
the latest estimate we have seen indicates that it may not fall 
very far below fourteen million. Thus Provost Marshal-Gen- 
eral Crowder was able to cable as a birthday greeting to Gen- 
eral Pershing, on September 13, that " the Nation responded 
yesterday with an enrollment which promises to exceed all esti- 
mates, thus insuring the uninterrupted flow of man power to 
the Army under your command." 

The next step will be the issuing of questionnaires to the 
registrants between the ages of nineteen and twenty and those 
from thirty-two to thirty-six. Thereafter will follow the classifi- 


and Ae-iih>Uiiiiiiiiiifc' oi tkdmnm i l daamm -aa^ias In 
dooe be&we. It imt bean made dear tiiat liie reoentiiittl 
-mn-priarity iadnrtnes isRied by the War Indastries Boni 
does not determine completely the preference list vlaij 
serves as a basis of industrial exemption from the dnii 
The two lists are not for the same purpose. The district dni 
boards are perfectly at liberty to include among those indostm 
the workers in which are entitled to deferred clasgificaln 
any industries which seem to them properly to biilong in tlii 
class without reference to the specific list of non-priority inda 
tries put forth by the War Industries Board. In each ase j 
rests with the district draft boards to determine whether th 
industry is or is not non-productive, and also whether the hd 
vidual man is or is not absolutely essential to the industry. 

The new registration will provide a constant stream of soidia 
by the hundred thousand to join their fellow-fighters sbn« 
in making the name and flag of America honored, and tbti 
country a major determining factor in overpowering Genm 
ruthless ambition. 


While Congress did not pass the proposed "' work or fight 
amendment to the Draft Bill, it is clear that the President mult 
the war powers vested in him is determined to enforce its piii 
ciple in dealing with strikers or employers in essential udu 
tries. He has made lus position dear in connection with tli 
strike of munition workers at Bridgeport, Connecticut Ab« 
five thousand workmen were involved, most of them belongii 
to the Bridgeport District Lodge of the International Aswdi 
tion of Machinists. 

Under a general understanding, approved by the Ameiiea 
Federation of Labor and by most of the employing maoniil 
turers of the country, the National War Labor Board at Wul 
ington is now acting as arbitrator in all labor disputes mvolTii{ 
war industries. In the Bridgeport strike the machinists nhn 
to abide bv the findings of the War Labor Board, and t!M 
the same time the officers of the Smith & Wesson CompaDj.i 
Springfield, Massachusetts, similarly refused to abide b; 
decision of the War Labor Board. There was also a std 
threatened at the works of the Bethlehem Steel Company, ii 
a certain uneasiness among the anthracite miners in Prautsj 
vania alarmed the country, already anxious about its supply) 

All of these difficulties the President has settled by a cool 
of action which he announces in an effective and admiaU 
letter addressed to the Bridgeport strikers. In the ooum i 
that letter he a&yB : ' 

Your strike against it [the award of the National War Labor 
Board] is a breach of faith calculated to reflect on the sinceiitT 
of National organized labor in proclaiming its acceptance «! 
the principles and machinery of the National War Lalwr B«M<i 
It such disregard of the solemn adjudication of a tribunal tt 
which both parties submitted their claims be temporized whL 
agreements oecome mere scraps of paper. If errors creep im* 
awards, the proper remedy is submission to the award with u 
application for rehearing to the tribunal. But to strike againii 
the award is disloyalty and dishonor. 

The Smith & Wesson Company, of Springfield, MasssehD- 
setts, engaged in Government work, has refused to accept tlu 
mediation of the National War Labor Board . . . appror^ 
by Presidential proclamation. With my consent the War Depart- 
ment has taken over the plant and business of the Company, u 
secure continuity in production and to prevent industrial (b- 

It is of the highest importance to secure compliance wiii 
reasonable rules and procedure for the settlement of indtutiu' 
disputes. Having exercised a drastic remedy with recalcitiu: 
employers, it is my duty to use means equally well adapted t« tt" 
end with lawless and faithless employees. 

Therefore, I desire that you return to work and abide by th( 
award. If you refuse, each one of yon will be barred from ev 
ployment in any war industry in the community in which tix 
strike occurs for a period of one year. During that time tli' 
United States Employment Service will decline to obtain emptor 
ment for you in any war industry elsewhere in the Uniw 
States, as well as under the War and Navy Departments, tlr 
Shipping Board, the Railway Administration, and all Goren- 
roent agencies, and the draft boards will be instructed to rejv* 

Digitized by VJWVJV l*^ 




kny claim of exemption based on your alleged usefulness on wan-, 

This letter at once settled the Bridgeport strike, and the 
ichinists are returning to work; the Bethlehem Steel Com- 
ny has announced its acceptance of the War Labor Board's 
itrd ; and it is believed that the declaration by the President 
the policy he will pursue in such controversies at least mini- 
2es and probably removes the danger of a strike in the 
thracite region. 

As the war continues, the ** work or fight " principle enunci- 
sd by President Wilson will have, we think, wider and wrider 
plication. The fact is that every citizen of the United States, 
m or woman, who is not a physical or mental defective, must 
principle be conscripted to serve the coimtry. We must aU 
t into that frame of mind in which each one is willing to do 
iat the country directs for the good of alL To take our own 
Id of work as an illustration, the military censorship is a form 
conscription. In certain important matters The Outlook is 
d to-day by the Government what it may say and what it 
ly not say. It aotjoiesoes cheerfully in this application of the 
rork or fight " pnnciple, provided only that the Government 
thority is exercised for the good of all and not for partisan 
factional purposes. 


The appointment of Mr. John R. Mott as director-general 
the proposed united war work campaign which is to be made 

November is a guarantee of the wisdom and broad purpose 
the plan. As the head of the war work of the Young Men's 
xistian Association, Mr. Mott has been one of the most 
piring figures of the war, and his efficiency and warm, human 
npathy have been accompanied with the widest willingness to 
operate with all other helpful a^ncies. 
rne seven bodies which will unite in the effort to raise the 
>nnous sum of $170,000,000 — and that they will succeed no 
) for a moment doubto — are the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
tion, the Young Women's Christian Association, the National 
tholio War Council (including the activities of the Knights 
Columbus), the War Camp Community Service, the Jewish 
elfare Board, the American Library Association, and the 
Ivation Army. 

[t is absolutdy true that this is not a philanthropic campaign, 
ch less a sectarian campaign, but a war campaign. In Mr. 
ttt's words, ** These seven great oi^anizations represent every- 
Qg that is best in the life of the American soldier. They 
iresent the church and the club and the theater and the 
rary and the athletic field. Together they follow the boys onto 

troop trains, through the cantonments, onto the transports, 
I at every step of the way, even to the front-line trenches." 


What of the hinterlands ? New York, Chicago, St. Louis, 
i the larger cities are splendidly patriotic and able to demon- 
tte their feelings in parades and events of magnitude. The 
idreds of smaller cities, the thousands of vilbges, for the 
it part, do their knitting unheard of and unsui^. 
Jreenville, South Carolina, however, recently round a way 
•xpress its devotion to the Allied cause in a manner both 
que and significant. Greenville is a bustling little city 
oted in the roothills of the Blue Ridge, three hundred mOes 
m the sea. Its mills are engaged m the manufacture of 
K>n goods. One of them supplies material for gaa masks. 
t OreenviUe's closest relation to the war is its proximity to 
np Sevier, only three miles away. With industry and the 
I p as its chief interests, the city realized itself peculiarly 
I fitted to dramatize the fact that the war is being fought, 

by the Army, not by labor, but by the whole great Nation, 

and indivisiole. 
Looordingly, on Labor Day, 1918, Greenville and Camp 
ier joined in a celebration which included the Army, labor, 
■/erttal orders, society, all elements of civic activity. A picture 
\ poster designed for the occasion appears on page 137. 
^nie procession included Confederate Veterans, soldiers of 
a.y, the Red Cross, Patriotic League Girls, and many civic 

auooiationB. It .raovcid past the Secession Monument, now 
decked with the Stars and Stripes, under the heavy foUaged 
oaks of North Main Street, to the City Park. 

Here, at the band-stand, from which hung the banner of the 
War Camp Community Service, the official organization under 
the Government for connecting the town and the camp, the 
formal prc^ramme began. The Mayor, on behalf of the city, 
presided. Colonel Louis J. Van Schaick, Commander of the 
90th Infantry Regiment, brought the messt^ from the camp. 
President John E. White, of Anderson College, son of a Con- 
federate soldier and father of a boy " over there," fused the 
spirit of the occasion by speaking on " Our Common Purpose." 

Judged from the standpoint of mass, compared wiw tiie 
mammoth affairs of our major cities, Greenville's celebration 
would be unimportant, ephemeral. But its conception, its bear- 
ing on the National purpose, are noteworthy. Its unique nature 
in combining all the elements of the city and the camp gives the 
event significance ; but its especial value may be seen in the fact 
that thisspecial demonstration of National unity was staged in the 
hill country of South CaroUna, the first State to secede in '61. 


WE give on another page some details of the commu- 
nication of the Austro-Hungarian Government to the 
Allied Powers proposing a " confidential and unbind- 
ing" conference as a prebminary to peace n^otiations, and 
aiao the separate proposal of Germany to Belgium, secretly 
made and unofficially reported. 

Overwhelmin|; public opinion in -this country and among our 
allies, without distinction of party, supports President Wibon's 
prompt rejection of Austria-Hungary s offer. There are good 
grounds for believing that this peace move is not sincere; 
that it Ls a blind to stimulate pacifism in the Allied oooo- 
tries. It proposes a secret conference of agents who will 
have no power to bind their Governments ; and this country 
absolutely i^rees with the President's statement that there 
can be none but " open covenants of peace, openly arrived at." 
It makes no suggestion of any preliminary action such as 
America has from the outset insisted must precede any peace 
negotiations — action admirably defined by Mr. James M. Beck, 
former United States Attorney-General : " No peace parleys, 
formal or informal, preliminary or final, can be wisely entered 
into by the United states and its allies at this time unless and 
until Ae Central Powers give some evidence of their good feuth 
by vacating Bels^um, northern France, and Russia, lliis should 
be the irreducible minimum." It makes no offer and no sug- 
gestion of any offer for indemnity or reparation for the crimes 
committed against Armenia, Serbia, northern France, and Bel- 
gium, and there should be no thought of' peace without a prom- 
ise of such reparation. It implied^, if not in explicit terms, 
repudiates the conditions expressed by President Wilson in 
his address to Congress on February 11 that "every territorial 
settlement involved in this war must be made in the interest 
and for the benefit of the population concerned, and not as a 
part of any mere adjustment or compromise of clauns among 
rival states." No result from such a " confidential and unbind- 
ing " conference is probable, none hardly possible, except an 
unsatisfactory peace or a prolongation of the present war. It 
is true that no armistice is suggested, yet it is certain that any 
such peace negotiations would make more difficult the vigor- 
ous prosecution of the war at the very time when the success 
attending the arms of the Allies ^ves promise of victory for their 
cause and permanent justice and peace based on that victory. 

But besides these reasons, voiced both by statesmen and by 
various leading American newspapers, there is the still more 
fundamental reason that there are some issues which ou^ht not 
to be, and cannot be, settled by compromise ; some enemies with 
whom there ought to be no negotiations. 

When Oliver Twist was captured in the streets of London 
by members of Fagin's gang, tne question whether he should lie 
rescued or left in tneir keeping was not a question which could 
be settled by compromise. It was not a case for negotiated 
peace. What would be thought of the police of London if in 

Digitized by VJ^^UQlC 



2S Sn^rali 

mu'h ft trntm tlwy «i¥mlil figreti to exiwt no iMUiutbtiufiit frum 
I'Wiii iM»<l Jiill HykMtif KMipn luul HykM winiIu ffiv« Oliver up? 
iifltfluiH in Olivt^r 'J'wiitt utultipliMl » tbwiuMUwl told. Germany 
i» V»iilu mui Hill Hykim niiiltipli«(l a tbooMuid told. The 
iifVHum liuvemnwut Uhh (»<1i<'iiiiry dMflared that it i* holding 
( Hivur Twf«t M » |ww» t<> Im* unmI in {tMUiii D«gutiati<nu. And 
ifputrfrnm ill Munii ami (i(»war«li('« in uthon propoae to anfree 
Uiat iu> {NinaltiiM nIuUI Iw iiii|NM<«(l and no in(unnniti«H exacted 
if I^agiii and lilU HyiuM will ifivu ()liv<>r Twint up, 

Tlw Kaiiter, in an whlrtm d«livt!red lately at the Krupp 
munition worlia, perhaiM in prH|)aration for the anticHpated 
noinnmnidation of AuHtna-niini{ary, appealed to itentimentalistfi 
in otlittr couiitritw under ifulHe of apiiealinff to (wtriotimn and 
juHtiiM) in IiIk own nountry. We (piote from tni« wUrem a aingle 
iwratfmph i 

(iMi'Uiany'H enanilai hogtin tlia war l>ecauM they were envioui 
of (Jtmiiaiiy'ii iiroMparity. Their envy benoiiia hatred when tlieir 
tiHlimlHtiiinD failed. Oeniianii do not know hatred — only honeit 
wrath wlduh duaU tlie enaniy a hlow, ami then when lie i« pro*- 
Imte and hluMltng we extend hini our hand and look to hi* 
remtvery. (iennany i* only Hglitiny for exlatenoe, and mu*t 
iltfht the hattle tlu-ough. 

ThiH Htatenient of the Kainer iit ^taralleled^by a paragraph 

Central Powe 

lite eiMiununimtion ot AuHtriaplIimgary : " The Centraf Powers 
IttHve it in nil doubt tliat they are oidy wiufing a war of defenie 
for tlw Intem'ity ancl Uie atH'urity of their terrltoriea." Tbeae 
H(Htt<ii\t<ntM {kf tlie Kaiaer and va AuHtria- Hungary aaaume a 
(HkliMMiil IgnomutH) in tlieir own |)eo}tle aa to the onpn and the 
proKceiw t>f the w««'ld war. That uMtuniptiou of tl»eir ignoranre 
uui,Y l>e j\iMtiUe(l i but tlte )Mto|tle <if U\e eiviliaed natituiR who 
have fm'Uietl a league «if iiuUual Helf-pr«>teotion againat the 
( ievuinu ItrimMulH a)<e not igiuuiuit. Two weeks ago Dr. Jooeph 
U. (Mell, The ()utl«Htk'« H)HH<ial iHtrretipondeut in France, 
detKM'ilHMl iu Ita itageai the tit«atiuent given by the retreating 
Ovmwua to a deieitaeleiM eitv hi their (MitweHiiion. We recall to 
our ri<adera a few MeutetuteM muii bin groidiic letter : 

I weitt Intu (HtAteau Thlei>ry on tlie heeU of the Ainerioan 
advaiUHt aud aaw Uiiiv^* with my own eye*. Kverv vandaliatic. 
iluuuUUt H«tudii>h, tiUTw thuig Uiat uieu cuukl do tneae Huu» did 
iu (liAtwkw 'I'hiorry jw«i h«>fw« th«>\ l*>(t. Thw strwts were Ut- 
Itsi-ed with th« (kriYMle pvuutxiaituw u( the cititfitst thrown throu)(fa 
(tk«> w tudow« i ovei'v buveau aiul ohiiTiuoM' ttrwwttr w»s rtDed 
atkil itit vikMtiMkId dvotrevMl i iu the l>«<tter-(<Uas houaea the uatut* 
iu^a w«ii;e rivk^l immI the ohiua aud |Mu\<ehuu «uk«ith«Hl ; (urui* 
tuve>kaa Wlieu er kuM^kMli minxura wvre iduverwl into « thuu- 
MMUvl tVH^'Ukeuta ; uw»t(re<ui«a KUii u^j^olatery w«re aWhtnl ; rivhly 
t>j>uud UHkka wMv ripiMMl t lU I'mv^ there wna hanlW a thii^ iu 
the city Wlil kut«ot. 'Ine hou»ea «4 the pooTt iu whH>h the Ger- 
UMUt (urtxwiea had heeu luUt^twi, were ju«t »a Wtly (uUsgeil «ud 
dv\a!>tate«,l aa the Koutea ui the >*eU~lo-<lok 'like (.-hurvA, gnutd 
euvku^h (er a vathvih-td^ hiMi uet beeu a)MMr«<l. Its ptuutiit:;!* iumI 
tkhtti'H iUMi cifttvitivea mkI ^Oatkuw gi the creaa he>.l beeu tuthieaaly 
Wkttered aunt vUtiled. Yet eveu thit* Uvea Uv4 t«-U the stur^ — a 
Ht«M'\ whWti sHkuuot W twKl tv eeo^ whe raapev"* dei-euvv - for 
ihe (icvuMkua Wtt Wk<^ua vi' ^vstctJ iumI uteut:^ ebaceutty in. 
e\et'> bMM!*e I vicuteit, ami I eetered aeoMe.. 

'1^-4 i* u<.»t be»»ix»y i it is* u<.>t the *ci\Hmt of an unkui>wtt 
v>.>i-ret«|.>«.>ij<U-ut » it i* th*,' reiH.>rt of su» Auierij.-aii i-lervvuiiiu ot" 
^«.>od Ntuiiviinj; iu hix V'hurvK whoee swxvunt iu our vxJumus ot 
ihv uii:<.uu> (.-aui^Mi iu Auteri«.*a wa.-i so sKvumte tluit the War 
lV|.>»vtiu<.'u« iiJvlvr^txl thiit hiwhuu *Jid piibii.-yh*,^! it iu learie* 
twui. Uv«a v.'tui we uegi>ti;tte with suvh a pe».n>le'.' How 
ciu we c>.>»K-iliate or ut-s^v'tiitte with or *,x>uipn.>uiL-<e wich a 
po>*t.'r which crieti ^ b\\Kv ! l\tu.v!" luid »c the same time 
s;v>ee ».>u iii its uiaJ auv».'r ifi l>r»ititlit\ aiid bv'Ktialicv ' The t."hiet 
ciKti tA> ',iK' oihvvi-s ot justice* " Lee ut> h»ive {K-do?/' wiijle die 
sjHJi^ wiiiuuit.'e tM buru. t-HVH{;e, dci»in>v. ajul miLnicr. I: is 
»vj>v>iU'vi tiuu l.n'iiiuui si>iiiK-i->» iwe t'irui.-Ju\t wth pis&.>ti so 
sui.ul '.lUi: thc> can be >.vuct'.ut\i iu the cii>st\i n^t. The .s«.'i<;icr 

thlVWi UJl "lirv 'uuivts Mid Cfit'S " \ tilt fill '." N\ UH "u> vTlJ'tor 

>i.ivui(>Ct» tv ;t<.\'v (It tile l»i>>itt'i>'»l -aii'^ Uiiff. t:ic M-utitT Ml<'\>ts 

HOUI huv v.VUvV«iit.vl !USt»>I. I'll.-* 'N winr Vicl'IUiitV :> .(« Km I'll i 

blj; >*.\il«:'. I'hc l^'iu rs ui Lx'ilia JJui \ •fiiiui crv - !y mu i-^ul .'" 
•*\\Av iiuir cv>utt»vic!N. !u aiuis siii'v't ; aii>i '>i'««-l.'»'rnia;is aim 
jK*».t:i^t>. '.Uvii' tile .1 ,'«■ /■'/«(' ;uia ci«'^e liu ir «_>»•> Oini •ear^ to 
:i»c ^iKvl'iii;. 

L;k- Lkucviicius u^».\i cvtrv SaluMiO iu :Iie ot tiie 

Eiiiaoopal Chnrdi proniises tliat the Christ shall "" guide u 
feet into the way of peace." The very promise implies that \ 
way of peace is not always dear. Chnst gives to his disciJ 
peace ; out he adds, ** not as the worid giveth, give I onto fi 
What is the difference between the peace whiui the world gii 
and the peace which Christ gives? 

The world sometimes o£rers peace to the coward who fl^ 
from the field of battle or seeks it through conciliatioD ^ 
compromise with wickedness. Christ, never ! No more onetl 
promising, no more vehement repudiator of all attempt; 
escape conflict with evil than Jesus Chtist does the histon 
the human race afford. We remember Christ's saying toi 
penitent brigand, ** This day shalt thou be with me in pi 
disc ;" we forget that to the impenitent brigand he offered 
word of comfort or consolation. We remember his humilitj 
washing his disciples' feet ; we for^ his saying to Peter, i 
I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me." We remember | 

welcome to those who came to nim in penitence and with a pk^ 
to a new life — Matthew, Zaccheus, the publicans and harlots ; | 
forget his rejection of the self-confident disciple, the pmij 
tinating disciple, the irresolute disciple. Thousands of »em\ 
have I^n preached on the &ther s welcome of the retnn 
the prodigal ; not many on the fact that the father did i 
receive his son until the son had learned his lesson and <» 
back with " I am no more worthy to be called thy s<mi." Tlij 
sands of sermons have been preached on Christ's saying 
Peter, "Thou art Peter, and on this rock I will buiMi 
church ;" very few on the saying tliat followed when P« 
desired to nersuade his Master from the cross, ** Get tbeehdi 
me, Satan. ' 

There can be no permanent peace, no just peace, no Chriiti 
peace, until the Germans aliandon the territory which d 
nave occupied, lay down their arms, promise to do what i 
can to repair the wrongs they have committed, and sue ; 
peace. To negotiate terms of peace with the criminals »1 
they are still continuing their crimes would be to make <i 
8elv«e their accomplices. The only peace that is possible i«< 
which the civiliaed world dictates np<Mi terms to which I 
criiniuala submit. 


A man who was bold enough to create a career out ct 
limitations once laid down the precej^ for others amiii 
haiHlii-apued, ** The conqoeet of fate comes not by rel)eij 
struggle, out by acquiescence." The text on whit^ Trmi 
built a life of heroism has in the:«e days of universal baffles 
a iuei«iage far wider than hL$ application of it merely to the pi 
leuis \>t' the ivn^iuuptive. 8ui>mis!>ion to incomprehensible \ai 
i-ap has tt^Miay bei'oute fot all of us the sole rule for sanitv. 
st>le c*>uditii>u for effort. We no k>oger see or know <w choi 
iustetHl we have bei\>me ex|>ectantly acquiescent, and in \ 
change from self-sufhciency to seif-<ioubt we »re experiemij 
curivHiii exhilaration of ailventure. We staggo-, je* we U 
tVk so strong : we are blimlt^ yet never saw so dearir. 
utter battle we for the tirst time know utter peace. Yet la? 
such peiice. the pesKv of a gaj^ aurepted to the attexmaet, »1« 
beeu (.K«sible to U5 if we kul n«>t thought adventure lay u 
a dift'ervut road? 

Our prvjuvlice atrainst acquiescence was dne to oar ««■« 
iii^ the spirit of subuii;«>tou as the opposite nfhrr dau 
essence of ail wn Cure. Now, ac«]uiescent:e K boC rei^gna^ 
which t» par^\ziu^ : aor k it revolt, whiek is i ihaiiiti i^r i 
»(uie^-eui-e is t'.'ilowiaaj the path f >nt:^l on yoo m tike faith i 
ic a<.>iiLs more iest chaxi any iLirvctii.>n yoa mi^^ht: eikMHe ft*" 
seif. It is as if »e wiere y','iui:~tt-« ^)iiis5 *"'' * lark 3' ■<' 
tVn>"it tuui'.iar to a W"o»L>maii father, who. knuwriof; t»'. 
tvy-i aiui tile i*<x>L wav-i. aixi himself periiapa rvvallv » ' 
Uir^'us at lieart. m:_:tiL bet'.-r^ witiiiirawinff Co the ilta 
reinie^Mius, jave •.inliiutetf tor eui-li out* sepacate fe.-il«.a^ 

ti-i:i •T-'iiii-iiijj m<.'i>; irui bv tile way and a becter fm ii* 

at tile -uii tiiau any to be •ix.werv^t by tile lads £ar tihese'''' 
I' ■»i>Uj<i .■£ .,•> urse be uiervi' a ■iiif"<ion of <^araeter »'- ' 
tne 'Hi\-4 wnuiii more eu'vv •ju:;:j^'ii<; dieir own inisiac'- •' 
our ^'iniaiu-e t;iuu •jei-ves m^j -iii-r" au»i mute cleaHv v.-- ■* 

Digitized by 




tely discernment of their desires .evinced by their father's 
)ioe, and proving to him both their kinship with him in 
[intlessness and uieir confidence in the patterns they surmise 

hand to have set along their path. 

To each man his own forest trail. Strange that even with all 
', woods of the world to draw upon so many separate ways 
dd have been d|anned for the gallant loneliness of single- 
ided combat I To each man his own high hazards fore- 
lained. Yet one may indicate a qnest still teeming with 
(sibilities, a roadway so familiar that we might easily miss 

mysterious allurement. An ancient creed had uncanny 
svision of that day when men, by overdiscovery of earth's 
ysical secrets, should be confined to moral adventure — to be 
yhristian stiU remains the most audacious emprise any man 
I make, a path so fearlessly visionary that it is practically 
attempted. There is a fallacy in the popular conception of 
th, of which the acquiescent man should ^ear his brain if he 
X) enjoy to the full the inner import of his philosophy. This 
lacy 18 that there is more daring inherent m doubt than in 
ief . Every one who has investigated for even a short distance 
I road of submission knows that religion, so far from being 
I solace of the weak, is the supreme daring — dizzy, tranacen- 
it — of the strong. jFaith is the frank endeavor to get the 
est joy of existence from the hypothesis that the netted laby- 
th of human lives thridding earth's forest is the work of a 
:h Designer who, of all our endowments, sympathizes most 
;h our love of independent adventure as being closest akin to 

own divine impulse to experiment, his own inexhaustible 
srgy toward perfection. 

\nd the end of all the paths, the appointed meeting-place, 
t death, or is death only a light-swung gate upon a road of 
1 more glamourous exploits ? A lifetime practice of acquies- 
ice forms a habit of expectation that makes one as eager for 
I next world as for this one. From Ulysses down through the 
» have not the old always been the most gallant of aU 
rentorers ? Gladly divesting themselves of the last remaining 
rden of human vanity, they stand ever in our sight, fearless 
make trial of the supreme mystery. 

rhns might a man once have walked his way through life to 
kth, ever ardently submissive and secure ; thus, strong in his 
losophy of aocjuiescence, might he have won through idl fates 
1 fights familiar to our fathers. But what of to^y ? The 
ods of the world are suddenly black as no man has ever 
»wn them. We were swinging gallantly through the forest, 
enely confident of progress — and now ? The sun struck from 
I sky I Traveler songs cut short by blood-wet hands upon 
r throats I Branches that crash, earth that heaves, lewd 
» that crackle I Foul men that flout to our faces our faith 
a Father who awaits our arrival ! Each one of us g^ppling 
gly with despair, and yet knowing that all about him 
lers struggle ; we hear the straining of their muscles, the 
>bing breath of their fall, their voices that shriek through 
i blackness : " We perish 1 O God of battles, vouchsafe to us 

> meaning !" 

Well for that man in this hour who, having through faith 
de a high adventure out of life when existence was still 
nnal enough to be comprehended by human philosophy, holds 
his band uie tested weapon of his confidence in the unknown, 
lerewith to-day he can meet the utterly unprecedented. Shall 

> adventurer of acquiescence — hands disciplined to delight in 
foreseen combat, heart trained to welcome all foreorcmined 
portnnity for his testing — be first to guess that this battle is 
rhaps the supreme adventure set humanity by its Progenitor? 
mself divinely audacious in character, has that Progenitor 
rough finest sympathy with our soul quests selected our geuera- 
n as the first of his sons to reach a stature great enough to con- 
er the enemy of to-day ? Does he, in paternal pride, risk all civ- 
sation on the issue of our prowess ? Has he perhaps summonetl 
I servitors to see how nobly we, his sons, can fight ? Perhaps 
himself stands even now secret in the forest, restraining his 
]>etuous squire Michael, his hardy henchman Gabriel, lest 
•y presume to help men who are his sons ? Every previous 
venture of ou.' life, when intrepidly accepted, has served to 
itve, through its fitness to our desires, his sympathy with our 
lor. Beyond this veil of agony what beatitude of comnuleship 
an appointed place of peace does he perceive that he is able 

to stand quiet watching us ? Seeing our anguish, must he not 
feel his hand in love tremble toward his quiverful of thunder^ 
bolts, longing to hurl them all to our support ? But would 
not one sin^e arrow of assistance f^rgue his distrust of our 
divine inhentanoe of bravery from himself ? Has humanity ever 
had so supreme an opportunity to show that we believe the God 
of courage is our Fatner ? Never before has the race of men had 
such a chance to prove our faith in GKnI, for never before has 
he shown such faith in us. 


Being a patriotic citizen, the Happy Eremite left Elizabeth, 
the Tin Horse, in her stall and walked the three miles that 
stretched between his house and the place of his customary 
sabbatical devotions. He did not want to walk three miles. In 
the first place, being forty-odd and inclinmg to the rotund, 
walking any distance at aU was an unsatisfactory business ; in 
the second place, walking three miles to<church meant walking 
three miles nome from church, which made six miles ; and he 
had pot walked six miles since the days when he had courted 
Mary Floyd in competition with an indefatigable monster who 
based his appeal to Mary principally on the fact that he was a 
gorgeous animaL Ever since that Awful Year the Happy Ere- 
mite had disliked pedestrianism. 

But the Happy Eremite was a vestryman, and vestrymen, if 
they are wise, attend morning services. He took a last longing 
glance at Elizabeth, the Tin Horse. For an igstant he was 

"Pro-German !" he muttered, addressing the Devil. He dosed 
the garage door quickly, and resolutely started off. 

The morning was clear and crisp, as mornings in September 
should be, and the countrjrside, to his surprise, was really very 
pretty. He wondered whv he had never cnscovered before how 
pretty it was. Farms nestled in it, browned, in trees, the way they 
did in books. Cows stared at him, munching. Their placid fea- 
tures gave him a sense of tranquillity. He broke off a twig of 
birch and began munching himself. 

The road was curiously deserted. Once a buckboa^ laden 
to the danger-point with a Hungarian couple, their progeny* 
and their boarders, lumbered past him. He knew them. He 
kaew also that they possessed a Tin Horse themselves, and found 
himself expatiating inwardly on the patriotism of the newly 
naturalized that refused to give gasoline to the Kaiser. He 
passed old Widow Mayhew, crusty, stem, and stalwart, bearing 
her seventy-odd years likewise to church. He passed a group ca 
city folks, elders and children, summeringa mile beyond his own 
house. Their portion was eight miles. They g^reeted him with 
a zest that told him better than words that a gasolineless Sun- 
day was a romantic adventure almost as thnUing as a trench 

To his own amazement the Happy Eremite found himself 
waxing firmer and more elastic of step as the miles slipped away 
from under his feet. He had expected the opposite. He had 
rather pictured himself as falling into his pew at the end of the 
three miles, an exhausted man, puffing and knocking like an 
old car climbing a hill " on three." Actually he walked like a 
professional. He passed everything except quadrupeds. By the 
time he reached the State Road he had rediscovered his youth, 
and was vowing comical vows to get his revenge on Mary Floyd 
by making her do her daily marketing on foot. 

The church was on the comer of the State Road, and the bell 
was tolling its message to deacons,, vestrymen, and all other 
good people as the Happy Eremite reached it. But he did not 
at once obey the summons. He stood on the comer staring at 
the great thoroughfare. 

lie stared up its length of black asphalt under the arching 
elms, and turned and stared down its length of black asphalt 
under other arching elms. The State Road was a highway unit- 
ing two of the greatest cities in the country. Generally on a 
Sunday morning three hundred, four hundretl, five hundred, 
six hundred cars, every hour passed that comer, going east or 
going west. To-day there was no car in sight. 

He waited. He waiteil even after his vestryman's conscience 
told him he had no business longer to wait. Ila ! Then at la-st 

Digitized by 




25 Septeafc 

came an automobile. One slacker, any;vay I T^e ctvr whizzed 
by. There was a label on it — Official business. An officer in 
uniform was driving it. The Happy Eremite still waited, 
fascinated. At length another car came. It, too, bore a label — 
Physician. Still he waited. The second car whizzed out of 
sight. A|nun the highway was empty. 

" Oh, Bill, Bill, Bill !" murmured the Happy Eremite at last 
" Oh, William, your goose is cooked. I always rather guessed 
it would be cooked, William, sooner or later. But I never knew 
it for sure. Now I know. For no one has shouted, ' Fer&oten/' 

No, one has said, ' You aha^n't go joy-riding of a Sunday.' Sob 
one has merely said, ' I^or the sake of your country ^ it migk\ 
better if you aidnH.' And, William, die roads are swept da 
of Lizzies large and Lizzies small as all the guns yon own oool 
never in the world have swept them. Take it from me, Williu 
take it from me. Your goose is cooked and your ganda 
boiled in vinegar. Look around and choose your exit, Bil 
America means business I" 

Whereupon the Happy Eremite entered the church jast i 
time to praise God from whom all blessings flow. 




of the New York City Police Department, sat at his big 
desk in Headc|uarters. He is a big, stalwart, upstanding 
man ; but not too big, like some of the old-time police officers 
who looked as if uiey couldn't run a block without being 
winded. He was nattily dressed, as becomes a chief who wants 
his men to look spruce ; but he was not bediamonded as New 
York officials were pictured in the political caricatures of the 


days of Tweed. He spoke fluently ; but not too fluently, as do 
some of the people who are all words and no action. He looks 
you squarely in the face out of steady eyes and shakes your 
hand with a good honest grip, and, in short, ^^ves you the im- 
pression of being just the man you would like to see coming 
around the comer of a city street on a dark night if you needed 
a friend. 

I had called to see Commissioner Enright about a plan that 
he has under consideration to help new policemen out of finan- 
cial difficulties. I had not known they ever were in that kind 
of trouble, and said so to the Commissioner. 

" Well, it's thb way," Commissioner Enright explained. 
" You probably don't taiow, for most people don't, that a newly 
appointed policeman has to spend between two and three hun- 
dred dollars for his outfit. He has to buy two uniforms, an 
overcoat, a blouse, a sweater, two caps, a rubber coat, rubber 
boots, a revolver, a pair of nippers, and even a mattress to sleep 
on and bedding to cover him. Most of these things wear out and 
then he has to replace them. How is he to find the money for 
this outfit ? Not many young men from the classes that seek 
appointment have money in tiae bank. So they have to borrow. 

" I know this, because it was my own experience. When I 
was appointed, the new patrolman got $1,000 a year — after- 
wards this was reduced to $800, now it is $1,200. I was a bach- 

elor, but even so I found that amount very little to live on i 
this expensive city, and I had at once to borrow money for n 
outfit. Tor sevend years I was in hot water over these debt 
What must it be for the man with a wife and children ?" 

Here the Commissioner reached across his desk for a fikai 
produced a letter. He went on : 

^ It was this letter that set me thinking about some plan i 
help the policeman who is in debt for his outfit. This na 
asked for an interview, and here states his case. He esLjt I 
can't support his familv and pay his debts too. He owes oti 
one htmdred dollars, which he has been trying to pay back i 
installments. Then he has his Liberty bond to pay for, he h 
benefit dues to pay, a doctor's bill, and so on. When he caa 
to see me he said, 'Commissioner, isn't there some way I 
which I could borrow a couple of himdred dollars at low iote 
est ? If there was, I could pay off my creditors and get out i 
this snarl, and then I would get rid of the new debt in a ye 
or so, I am sure.' 

" I felt sorry for this inan, for I had been in the same tronb 
myself, and I said, ' I'd lend you the money myself, but wheit 
I l)e as soon as the thing got around? Dozens and himdred«i 


Honae tax (bed-making, at SI per mooth) 

Bootblack, at T5c. per month 

Lunianoe (inolndine Department aaaociations) 

Orerooat (on time, $60), cash 

Winter blonae (on time, S31.S0), oash 

Winter tronaers (on time, S11.90), oaah 

Snmmer suit (on time, 825), cash 

Beddine (inclnding mattien, blankets, sheets, pillows, etc.), 

complete , 

Snmmer cap 

Winter cap 

Winter gloves (book) 

Woolen gloves 

Summer gloves 



Pocket " billy " \ritb atrap and number 

Night baton 















Robber coat with cape 7.P3 

Robber cap cover , .{IS 

Safetjr holster (for revolver) IJO 

Cartridge holder .25 

Belt 75 

Robbers, per pair 1.90 

Dress baton 45 

Tassel (for dress baton) TO 

Nippers and holder ,95 

Cwtridges, per box 1.10 

Total «284.(>5 


other men in a similar fix would be after me, and what could 
do ? But I am going to think out a plan for helping you u 
the other men who have debts and are paying ni^ rates < 
interest on them.' " 

" Well, Commissioner," I said, "what is your plan T* 
" It's this : If some man or men who have made their monf 
in New York City and feel friendly towards the place will o 
operate with me, I can do it. I want twenty-five thomvl 
dollars and I don't want to pay any interest on it. I will ««1 
as a revolving fund for the benefit of these men. I will \Ai 
fifty dollars nere, there a hundred, maybe sometimes a hti 

Digitized by 





mqjre. The men ynU pay it liack in monthly'inBtallmentB; say 
fivt or ten dollars a monih. I will chai|;e them three per cent 
interest, to pay for clerical help, stationery, and so on. In a 
year most of them would be out of debt. If any of the good 
people who have lent the money want it back it will be weirs 
on demand. They won't get any interest in money, but they 
will get a big return in gmd will and in feeling that they hare 
relieved a lot of pretty {^>od men of a heavy burden." 

Here I interposed an objection. 

"• Commisraoner, the city supplies the Department heads with 
autoinotnleflf doesn't it» became, efficienoy and. the good of the 
force dfWMMid it?" 


** Weil, «^ simdEbi^fc Oe city sa^ply tiw g j iiwiiif witk 
thMT ootft heaaamwB^ataermiibe^tmi. of tib* faBailniwii] 
it ? W^hy draold' &ib cilji lumin.aM'flHMi vn 
another man pay for a dub and a revohrer?** 

" Well," was the answer, " there is some logic in that, as there 
is in the other fact that the Government supplies a soldier with 
his equipment But practically there are too many difficulties 
in your plan. If the police were to get their outfit free the fire- 
men would want theirs free, and then the street-cleaners. And 
then Father Knickerbocker would throw up his hands and say, 
^ You're putting more taxes on me I It'll cost ten million dollars I 
And I won't stand for it.' " 

^ Well, why not get the Legislature to g^ve you an appro- 

" That would be impossible. There would be the same cry 
about taxation, and added to it would be : ' PatemalLsm ! Let 
New York City's police take care of themselves and not look to 

the State for aid.' Sb tlie trouble would still be with ns. I've 
thought the thine pretty well through, and if I can get a few 
willing hands to help I'm sure we can aid these patrolmen along 
the line I suggest. There is stmwthing in the spirit of the times, 
too, that would make my plan a eood aae for i^e helpers as 
weU as the helped. The pouce of New York, I believe, are im- 
partial protectors of property, but sometimes one hears of one <rf 
them saying, ' What do these rich euys do for us ? We pound 
the pavement all day and all night for them, but do we ever get 
any gratitude for it?' If ever any of the police feel that way 
they would have a change of heart if they found that some men 
wiuL money were helping to keep thun free from debt and out 
of the hands of the money AaAa." 

The C«MnmiaBianiw zoai^ lor I had speat half an hour with 
him and tbmaLwae admB imaHag to see him. As he shook 

, "'.XotL te m a . to fike flowaxs, Conunis- 

He said, "Just step out here a minute." 

We walked through French windows <m to a roof space adjoin- 
ing his office. It was freely decorated with potted ^ants. 

" After I had been working five or six months on this job," 
he said, " I took a short vacation. When I came back, I found 
the boys had done this." The big man beamed as he looked at 
the blooming plants. I thought to myself, " That man certainly 
has a big heart — he loves flowers and he loves his ' boys.' " 

Now, if some other big-hearted men — or women — are willing 
to help him, and to help the New York police force in a fight 
against a burden of debt that affects perhaps fifty per cent ci 
them, let them address Commissioner Ridiard £. Enright, 
Police Headquarters, New York City- 




ONE autumn day in 1916 Herr Stresemann, the great 
Industrialist leader of the Reichstag, famous for his 
invectives against America, stopped me on Unter den 
Linden in Berlin with the remark : 

*' Do you think that your country will break with us if we 
ise the submarine to its fullest capacity ?" 

" 1 feel absolutely certain of it, I replied. 

He paused, while his eyes flashed ana hia jaw hardened. 

" WeD, we're going to do it, none the less," he declared, 
imphatically. " .^^r all, what could the United States do if 
ihe did enter the war ? You are not a nation in the German 
lense. You have a vast extent of territory, to be sure ; and, 
lumbering population as one would cattie, you have more than 
ve. But what a population I I will tell you what your coimtry 
s : America is a continent of jelly , full of indissoluble lumps 

This statement by this prominent German vitally concerns 
IS, our lives, and our fortunes. 


Herr Stresemann b the head of the German- American 
[ndustrial Alliance, the Saxon Industrial Alliance, is heavily 
nterested in the North German Lloyd, and is, in short, one of 
lie leaders in the politics of big industry in Germany domi- 
lated by the Krupps. He has steadily backed the Tirpitz policy 
Old all that it means ; and not only will he and his party con- 
inae to exhort their countrymen never to give up Alsaoe- 
L<orraine, but they will also exhort the German millions to 
luld the occupied districts of France and Belgium. He works 
land in hand with the Krupps in their ambitious and alarmingly 
uooeesful scheme to control the whole German press, in order 
hat they may forge manacles for the minds of the German 
•eople, so that these, in their efficient millions, will continue 
lie bloody work of militaristic commercialism. 

Herr Stresemann and the vast majority of his countrymen 
hink they can win because they believe that we cannot turn 
tw scales. They base this belief upon the opinion of us crystal- 
iaed in the " jdly " quotation given above. Throughout Ger- 
many I ocxistuitly h«urd such remarks as : " The Americans 

are money mad and are willing to pay any price for peace I" 
" We can always buy America !" " What could you do ? You 
are not soldiers." " If your Government tried to do anything, 
you would have civil war." 

The reason, therefore, why the German belief that we can- 
not mobilize all our resources concerns vitally every one of us is 
that in this war of endurance — a war in which I have seen both 
sides in Europe bending beneath the strain — the one thing that 
buoys each side is hope. Deprive either of it, and ' the other 
wins. Hope is the greatest boon to the human race. It has 
saved lives and has made republics and empires. Convince the 
German people that further sacrifices and deprivations are use- 
less, and we shall be within sig4it of peace. 

" Isn't it strange that the Germans keep on fighting when 
they have no chance to win?" is a remark I have heard many 
times since my return home. 

The majority of the Germans do not see it that xoay. 

Only duriiiig oneperiod of the war thus &r has hope almost 
faded from them, lliat was in the summer and autumn of 1916, 
when food shortage, the breakdown at Verdun, and the combined 
attacks east and west shook Germany and threatened her much- 
vaunted unity. Pessimism was contagious. Eveiybody grumbled. 
Nobody smiled publicly. As I passed among them, I felt like a 
man standing on a dripping landscape with all horizons leaden- 
hued. At last the German Government was up against it with 
its own people. It played its Hindenburg card, and was success- 
ful more through AUied weaknesses than German strength, 
tremendous as that is. The clouds lifted over Rumania and 
Russia, and the sustaining sunshine of hope smiled again upon 
the Central Powers. 

Once more the leaders sought to fill the people with the will 
to hold out and endure anything rather than yield. For four 

fears I have done nothing but study the war on both sides, and 
am thoroughly convincei that the '* will to win " will be the 
final deternunant. It has been developed in the Germans to a 
high d^pree through a combination of patriotism, delusion, and 
the horror of the taxation burdens consequent upon defeat. We 
must develop it to an equal and even greater extent We shall 

Digitized by 




25 Septemfctt 

have done this when the overwhelming majority of us are 
resolved that, from Uie Atlantic to the Pacific and l^from the 
Great Lakes to the Rio Grande, every scrap of energy we pos- 
sess dhall be mobilized and concentrated to the one purpose of 
smashing Kaiserism. 

This means sacrifices, and we have got to make them. Bat 
the great and hopeful fact is this : The more guicMy we impress 
upon the people of Germany that, storming shoulder to 
shoulder, we are wuling to make any sacrifices, thai we are 
resolved to stick to the finish, and that we are developing a 
power commensurate with our vast resources and great pop/a- 
lation, the less will our sacrifices be / 


For the simple reason that the German vnll to win will crack 
with the vanishing of the hope to win. When that happens, the 
German people wifidemaudsomething definite in the wayof peace 
terms from their l^ers. They may 3ien refuse further to follow 
the miHtaristic pan-German will-o -the-wisp into the death bogs 
of despair. F'et that can happen only when the people of Ger- 
many are made to feel that there is a greater force outside in 
the world than that forceof which they form apart, and which 
they have been taught since childhood is the greatest force in 
the world. 

There are many ways in this most complex of wars in which 
we and our allies must develop such force and show Germany 
that we possess it. One of the most important of these is finance. 
Right here is where every one of us, no matter upon what man- 
ner of war work we may be engaged, can do an additional some- 
thing materially to end the sorrows which have darkened the 
homes of Europe and are now casting their shadows over us. 

I found the Germans a thrifty and a practical people. Their 
own Government has educated them to know financial values 
in raising war loans. They have raised eight. They have grown 
to think of them in t^rms of three billion d^lars each. What, then. 

will be the effect upon them when they learn that the Goven- 
ment of the United States is requesting, all at once, not tiim 
billions, but six? Bear in mind that such a loan is nothing 
less than a world sensation. The molders of the public opiniao 
in the Wilhelmstrasse will watch in suspense for the result If 
we fall short of what our Gi>vemraent rightly asks, they oe 
flare such headlines across the Grerman newspapers as : 


These would be accompiaflkd by articles which would fill tht 
people with the belief thatlfthey but continue to hold oat tliev 
can win — a belief whioh wdfll direedy result in increased Imes 
of those we love and a lon^^ severance of home ties. 

Imagine, on the other haM; the effect upon the German peoptf. 
with their standardized idea of their three-billioQ-dollar loau> 
and the great effort they have had to raise them, if they wptf 
confront^ with the hard, cold facts that the Government d 
the United States can get not only the huge amount asked for, 
but billions over. Such an accomplishment would spell fon' 
and determination to them, and,owmg to the kind of edacsti<K 
with which they have been saturated for three generations. 
force is the only international argument whioh will impr» 

Knowing first-hand the German war spirit and how it k 
affected by currents of hope and currents of despair, I sfaafi 
watch the result most anxiously. I eiinoerely believe that there 
is not an atom of exag^ration in the statement that anybodr 
who buys a bond at this critical time may be really saving tk 
life of some one dear to him by shortening the war. It is ooe 
way to help kill Grermany's hopeful belief that America is a 
continent of jelly. 




SINCE my return from France I have been deluged with 
questions by relatives and friends of our soldiers. The 
queries' have not been prompted by mere curiosity ; indeed, 
they seem to me to have had their birth in the heart rather 
than in the mind. This war, both in its causes and its issues, 
reaches far deeper than a desire for national glory ; it pene. 
trates to the very source of our moral instincts and habits. We 
not only wish to win the war, but to issue from its awful expe- 
riences on a new level of personal purity and national honor. 
Therefore I hope that this catechism may iniUcate some of 
those deeper things for which I sought persistently while mov- 
ing freely about France from camp to camp and battlefront to 

Can we learn the truth about our armies abroad * Will the 
censor allow it to be told ? 

In five articles I sent from France the censor deletcid only 
three words, and those words might have indicated that a 
certain division participated in the fighting about Chateau 
Thierry. I brought back also numerous notes, read by the cen- 
sor, without a cavil. I may say that the censor was not only just, 
but unexpectedly helpful, and was glad to have anything pass 
which did not give away vital secrets of military strategy. 

Whatfacilities had youfw seeing our troops f 
As a correspondent of The Outlook I was welcomed every- 
where, and in the uniform of a Y. M. C. A. secretary I was 
able to reach the very front lines. By reason of personal friend- 
ship with important army officers I had the use of army trans- 
portation, which was supplemented by Red Cross transporta- 
tion. In these various ways I was able to see numerous units 
and widely different phases of our military expedition, all the 
way from a great port to the extreme fighting front — the vast 
S and S camps, the reserve camps, the scattered lumber com- 

panies, the aviators, the hospitals, the engineers, the trainiaf 
schools, and the splendid fighting divisions actually in batdt:. 
In all, I must have seen hundre(& of thousands of our troops. 

Tdl us something about the general health of our men. 
It is excellent, the disease rate being nearly negligible. Tb. 
soldiers look bronzed, sturdy, and in almost penect fighting 
trim. They sleep mainly in the open air, have r^^ular exercise, 
plenty of plain nourishing food, and are watehed over witb i 
scientific skill never known in an army before. Men everywhen 
were complaining of outgrowing their uniforms. And, by tb 
way, our troops look very soldier-like in their spiral puttees an^ 
rabbit caps. On the whole, they appear to be younger and u 
have greater resiliency than their English or French comrades 

What do they get to eat? 

As I messed day after day with both officers and enlistd 
men I can testify that the food was palatable and nutritions- 
abundance of white bread, well-cooked fresh meat, h»cm 
potatoes, beans, jam, pancakes, and sometimes simple sweetmel 
puddings. Even when a big fight is on, the supply trains mui 
age to get to the front, and no praise is too high for those wbi 
plan and carry out the supply service. Now and then a battaliio 
may outrun or even lose its field kitehens in the melee, but tbi^ 
is rare. I saw it happen only once. 

Is there much drinking of intoxicating liquors among ('• 
^Expeditionary Force ? 

That is a difficult question to answer because it is quantit. 
tive. It seemed to me that there was a surprisingly small amoas' 
even of the lighter drinks, while whisky, gm, ete., are not obtain 
able at all. Officers and men both take wine and beer, but tt 
alcoholic percentage in each is so low that no effect is notio«abl 
AH the while I was in France I never saw one enlisted man wi- 

Digitized by VJ\^»^V IV^ 




even seemed to be under the influence of liquor. Neither did I 
see any conduct that bordered on rowdyism. I never believed 
that men — hardly more than boys most of them — in such large 
numbers could be so orderly and gentlemanly. 

Whtit about the sex problem, peraonal purity ? 

Mr. Raymond B. Fosdick, the ChaiD|^a of the Commission 
on Training Camp Activities, War De|vtment — the Commis- 
sion which nas done and is doing such n^taificent work for our 
amiiea in the camps and cantonments^5k home — met me in 
Paris after he had made a most thoroug^'«urvey of conditions 
in France, and he dictated the following statement for my use : 

" People back home needn't worry about our boys over here. 
A finer, cleaner, more wholesome bimch of men I have never 
met. I have seen thousands of them, all the way from our bases 
on the seacoast to the front lines ; I have eaten and lived with 
them in their barracks and dugouts. There can be no just 
grounds for complaints about their conduct on any score. They 
are here on serious business, and they know it. I have yet to 
see one of them intoxicated. I do not say there are no cases of 
intoxication in the Expeditionary Force ; I have heard of some. 
I merely say that, with opportunities for observation somewhat 
unusual, I' have not seen any myself, and I have had similar 
testimony from the Y. M. C. A. men who have been here for 
months. One has only to go back twenty years — to Spanish- 
American War days — to realize what a clutnge has taken place 
in our ideas of training an army to fight. 

" As far as venereal disease is concerned, the official statistics 
for the month of June show it to be at one-nineteenth of one per 
cent for the entire American Expeditionary Force. This is con- 
siderably lower than it is in the training camps in the United 
States, where we have been under the impression that we are 
doing a pretty |;ood job. It is, I believe, lower than the rate in 
any of the armies now in Europe. Compared with the prevail- 
ing disease rate in the civilian population in the United States, 
it 18 almost negligible. 

" Our men over here are not plaster saints — to use Kipling's 
expression — ' But they ain't no blackguards too.' They are a 
great lot of upstanding fellows who are hitting hard and prov- 
ing themselves worthy of our best traditions." 

How do you account for this marvelona record of sexual 
purity f 

I will give my reasons without attempting to indicate their 
relative influence : The men are wiser and more fearful of per- 
sonal, physical, and moral consequences because of the instruc- 
tion they received in the camps at home from the Medical 
Department of the Army, lecturers and literature sent out by the 
Commission on Training Camp Activities and the Y. M. C. A. 
and Knights of Columbus ; the prophylactic treatment so rigor- 
ously insisted upon by the Army authorities for exposed cases ; 
the fact that a large percentage of the troops are at the front 
and therefore away from temptation ; the work of the 
Y. M. C. A., the Y. W. C. A., and the K. of C. in providing 
healthful and satisfying recreation and entertainment for the 
men in their spare time ; and last, but by no means least, to the 
fact that nearly all of our men carry in their pockets, as their 
most precious and sacred possession, photographs of their 
women folk at home — wives, sweethearts, mothers. They bring 
these photographs out for the inspection of any sympathetic eyes 
at the earliest opportunity. Our men are home-loving, self- 
respecting. God-fearing fellow^, pure and straight, in spite of 
the fact uiat a few of the weaker ones fall before the tempta- 
tions of the lai^er cities. I felt that it was an unspeakable 
honor to belong to such a race. 

Are they very homesick? 

Yes, they are— very. There is no doubt about it. In spite of 
all that is done for them by the various non-combatant or semi- 
military agencies, they woidd all give everything they possess to 
l)e back home again — everything except honor. They do not dis- 
guise the fact; they are a marvelously ingenuous lot; but they 
invariably add : " But I wouldn't go back for the world until 
this show is over;" or, " But we've got to stick it out and see it 
through ;" or, " We'll stay till the last dirty Hun is dead or cries 
' Kamerad.' " They are hungry tor letters from home, for a news- 
paper from the old town, for a word with some one who knows 

their folks ; they are utterly homesick, and they pine for the dear 
&miliar faces and places ; but not one of them would turn ba^ik 
across the Atlantic until national honor and international' 
decency have been vindicated. 

Do you mean that they are unhappy f 

No ; for, although homesickness is constantly with them as 
an undertone, the men are healthy minded and accept gleefully 
whatever pleasures are available. The Y. M. C. A. huts with 
movies, theatrical performances, musical entertainments, lec- 
tures, boxing and wrestling matches, are always crowded. The 
Y. M. C. A. is carrying hundreds of the best American per- 
formers from place to place, at huge expense, just to brighten- 
the leisure hours of the troops. Also, tiie men organize im- 
promptu entertainments or sports on their own benalf. Our 
men, too, are mingling quite freely with the French civilians ; 
I have seen them m scores of French villages and towns laugh- 
ing and trying to talk with the adults and playing blithely 
with the children. Nothing has endeared the American soldiers 
to tlie French people more than the natural way they have of 
forming an immediate comradeship with the children. 

What can the people at home do to mitigate the homesick- 
ness of our men f 

Write letters often, and always write cheerful letters. Send 
photographs of all the loved ones, even if they are only small 
snap-shots. And then subscribe to and work for the war funds of . 
the Y. M. C. A., the Red Cross, the K. of C, the Y. W. C. A., 
the Salvation Army, and the American Library Association. 

Did you see any of our drafted men over there, and how did 
tJieyfeel about their compulsory service ? 

I saw three divisions at or near the front, and there was no 
difference apparent between them and the Regulars or National 
Guardsmen in temper, morale, or bearing. All distinctions have 
faded, and in France there are only American citizen-soldiers, 
the exponents of effective democracy. 

How do our men get along with their French and British 
allies ? 

With the French better than with the British. There are 
such great differences of language, habits, food, and methods 
between our troops and the French that there is no basis for 
comparison. We accept their ways as final. But the British are 
so near to us that the differences are noticeable and noted. I 
do not mean that there is any bad feeling between our men and 
the British, but there is not the abandon of cordiality that 
marks our relationship with the French soldiers. And for a while 
there was a tendency among our men to think that both the 
French and the British had gone stale, or were war-weary, or 
were content not to fight very aggressively. But after a few 
days of fighting side by side in Qxe Rheims-Soissons salient all 
such impressions were swept away, and our troops have now 
both respect and enthusiasm for their allies as warriors. But it 
still remains true that the British temperament, war aims, sacri- 
fices, and contributions on both land and sea are sadly in need 
of interpretation to Americans. 

What do our men think of the German soldiers f 
They hate them now, although at first their attitude was rather 
one of scorn. But they have seen the horrible and gratuitous 
devastation wrought by the Hun, they have experienced his 
treachery and brutality upon the battlefield, they have looked 
upon evidences of his utter beastliness in places recently evacu- 
ated, such as Chateau Thierry, and now they hate him with a 
clean, manly, and even God-like hatre<l. They know that all the 
distinctions said to exist between the German rulers and the 
German people are the mere fictions of diplomatic finesse, and 
that to-day there is only one Hun, and that that Hun stretches all 
the way down from the perjure<l-souled Kaiser to the purchased- 
souled private. That is why the American troops are rushing 
into battle with the cry of " Lusitania " on their lips. 

FIoic do our men fight ? 

In a thoroughly businesslike way. Stories of individual valor, 
sent back by the newspaper CH>rre8p<>ndent8, would make it seem 
that every American soldier is on his own, and that he fights 
with the initiative and independence of a knight-errant of old. 

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Of ooane he does whes and where it is .neoeaaaty. >Biit the 
impression one gets at tixe front is that our troops are -wtli 
disciplined, always kept in hand by their respective commands, 
and that iiiey carry out the orders of the General StafE with 
promptness and intelligence. WhenjmoTing forward into action, 
they an qaipt and solrann ; it is only wh^ they are let loose 
upoa tiiecauBiy tiaMiHK^)i^(finAHi':a9pd'imHiiliye'daA'k 

What has been, the ^eet of the Amerie<m» on lite •morale of 
the other Allied anmea ? 

first of all, I must pay a richly deserved tribute to tiie inftu- 
ence of the American non-combatant units upon both the mili- 
tary and civil population of France. When the story of ihe 
American Bed Cross is fully told after the war, it will be 
revealed how that mi^ificent organization held u^ the morale 
of the French nation wiring those dark days following the great 
German offensive of this spring and before the weight of our 
military contribution was felt. The unchronided but glorious 
work of the Y. M. C. A. in the French armies, known as the 
Foyer du Soldat, carried hope and courage to our gallant 
ally just when they were most needed. Americans will always 
be proud of that vicarious service, and France will always be 

In the next place, it is a combination of the quality and the 
quantity of America's participation which put new life into the 
other Allied forces. In the first sector held by Americans our 
men proved that they had staying pow;er and unlimited courage. 
After the German drive of March certain American units were 
put at strat^c points— all im^rtant points — between the ex- 
treme Crerman advance and Pans. When the German onslaught 
of July 16 occurred, there were Americans brigaded with the 
French at Chateau Thierry, at Soissons, at Dormans, at Chalons. 
Wlien Marshal Foch struck back on July 18, our troops showed 
at tibeir very best in the open warfare which immediately devel- 
oped. They rolled up the crack Hun divisions like veterans. 
"Diey proved, to the High Command, that men taken from civil 
life could become invincible soldiers in less than a year. The 
<]!Sdity amazed the French generals. At thatdme we had about 
one nullion three hundred thousand troops in France, and they 
were stiU pouring in at the rate of a quarter a million a 
iBibth. If a few American divisions could do so magnifioortiy, 
what must happen when we have a hundred dirisions on the 
line? The vision electrified the French and British. Moreover, 
the knowledge that such vast and effective reserves were coming 
warranted Marshal Foch in using lus carefully hoarded Fren<£ 
and British reserves, and this has meant the continuance of t^e 
Allied advance week after week and the breaking of the boasted 
Hindenburg line. 

How are our sick and wounded beinp cared for? 

I was in several of our big base hospitals and many evacua- 
tion and field hospitals and dressing stations while in France, 
and it seemed to me that everjrthing which energetic and ma- 
ture scientific skill and careful nursing could do was being 
done for our men. I talked to the patients about the care they 
received, and from the scores — perhaps hundreds — of soldiers 
with whom I spoke there was not a single complaint. I mar- 
veled at the cheerful and patient courage of our men ; although 
I saw many who were desperately wounded and obviously m 
great pun, I never heard a whimper or a moan. The Red Cross 
chaplains were doing fine service in all the hospitals where I 
met them. The one anxiety that seemed to conaurae the patients 
was to get well quickly in order to fight the Boche fiends again. 

How is the Hed Cross functioning in France f 
Its work is so multiform that no one observer, in a compara- 
tively limited time, can see more than isolated fragments of its 
activities. I saw some of its efforts for the refugees, and they 
were beyond praise. I went to a number of its dispensaries in 
the munition districts and in the rural districts, and no com- 
mendation could be too emphatic for what it is accomplishing 
amon^ the women and children. I examined the distribution of 
material to French hospitals through the American Fund for 
French Wounded, and the task seemed to be efficiently and 
enthusiastically handled. I watched the stretcher-bearers and 
ambulance men in their hazardous service at the extreme battle- 

frcmtf and every' aoaaamiKedio ^^wwdiy of atation. Intk 
battle north of CSi&tean Thierry they get men back to the hos- 
pitals from the fighting line ten and even fifteen kiloraeten 
away within four or five hours of the time they were wounded. 
Americans who will no( support the Red Cross in all its far- 
flung work of mercy are tnutors to humanity. 

JkJAe T. M. C A. tmJnng good in France ? 

Be9aad4fa»«had«w of a doubt. If there is any complaint, it it 
b » Miu w tlie «oldien have taken the Y. M. C. A. for granted, 
and they expect from it, as their right, services which no organ- 
inUian can perfectly render amid the tumult of war ; they mre 
forgotten that it is a voluntary organization, supported by pub- 
lic generosity, doing things that were never done for any armj 
in we world before, dependent lar^^ely upon untrained wu r kew , 
laboring on a scale so vast and against difficulties so formidablr 
that any service rendered is a signal triumph of resource- 
fulness and pluck. Added to the work done for our men in the 
training camps at home, the Y. M. C. A. abroad runs the can- 
teen, the library, the amusements and recreations, the vacatioD 
areas, hotels in the cities, a marvelous banking system, sod 
whatever else will make for a higher morale in the army. On 
August 1 the Y. M. C. A. had 2,506 Americans at work u 
France, with over 1,000 civilian French employees. At the 
request of General Pershing the Y took over Uie entire canteen 
serviee . f pr the American Army, which means that wherever i 
unit of our troops is to be found the Y operates a general store 
in which all kinds of supplies are sold at cost. At the very 
front and during a battle the.Y.M. C. A. secretaries carry 
cigarettes and chocolate in a pack and give them away to die 
fighting men. I have not only seen this done, but I have done it 
myself. Hundreds of entertainers have been sent overseas bj 
the Y to take the dangers out of the unoccupied hours for our 
men — opera singers, actors and actresses, vaudeville perf ormets, 
lecturers, etc.; £he entertainers go from camp to camp at heav; 
cost and with ^^reat difficulty, and all of the penormanoes are free. 
Nearly a million dollars a month of soldiers' pay is sent back to 
their friends in America by the Y. Educational work -ef^Jiifi- 
nite variety, from college grade studies to simple instrueCion m 
English for the illiterates, is being carried on in hundreds d 
places. All the Y. M. C. A. secretaries are in France at a per- 
sonal finanoial semfiee — not one is reeM> salliry at 
he did in America. The Y. M. C. A. women canteen worken 
are bringring a very refining and brightening influence to heat 
upon the soldiers, and still more shtrald be sent. In a word, the 
X . M. C. A. is rendering an absolutely indispensable serviw 
to the American troops, and is as fine an example of applied 
religion, minus sectarianism, as the world has ever seen. 

Does the Y. M. C. A. overemphasise religion f 
From personal observation I am inclined to think that titt 
Y. M. C. A. rather underemphasizes it. In the beginning there 
may have been a few over-zealous religionists in the Y organiza^ 
tion, but while I was in France those engaged in the field 
seemed to be so afraid of going to extremes tlutt they did not 
keep the deeper spiritual motives and incentives sufficiently to 
the fore. Our boys know the hazards of their adventure, and 
they are serious ; whenever I spoke to them in Sunday serviom. 
with simple but reverent directness, they thanked me vritb 
manifest gratitude. I have the same testimony from army 
chaplains and others. 

Hoto are the other nonrcombatant organizations serving thf 
Allied catise ? 

As far as I could see they were doing splendid work within 
the limits assigned to them. Compared with the Red Cross and 
the Y. M. C. A., their work had rather restricted scope while I 
was there. In the two or three places in which I observed thr 
Knights of Columbus the spirit and quality of their serviee 
were very fine; they provided homelike reading-rooms and 
stretched out a friendly hand to any soldier, regarmess of creed 
orjchurch. The Salvation Army has won the affection of our 
men, but its efforts are restricted by shortage of money: 
the Salvation Army reaches the hearts of the boy chiefij 
through cooking, which brings back memories of home, and bj 
the bravery of its workers in serving as close as possible to thr 
danger-line. The Y. W. C. A. is ^ing marvelous things for 

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lunition workers and government and civilian employees, and 
iceives the encouragement and assistance of the French Gov- 
■nment and War Derartment. The Soldiers' and Sailors' 
:ome on Bae Royale, Paris, is doing a limited but splendid 
ork for our enlisted men who happen to be in the city. Hie 
merican Library Association is sending out books and maga- 
nes, but not yet in sufficient quantities. 

If you had to divide, aav, $100 or any multiple thereof of 
mr oum money between tnese nonrcomoatant organizations 
orking in France, what would he your ratio, baaed upon 
mr ooBervcftione t 

Red Cross, forty per cent ; Y. M. C. A., thirty-five per cent ; 
le balance between the others. Of course this is a personal 
iswer to a personal question, and is not offered as a fixed and 
ud jud^ent upon the merits or needs of the respective 

What does our Army need most over there to become the 
'iermining factor in the war f 

That is the easiest of all questions to answer, because every 
le in France seemed to agree on the three responses : 

1. At least three million men. 

2. Not less than twenty-five thousand airplanes. 

3. Unlimited machine guns. 

When will the war endf 

I do not know ; no one knows. - But our men are praying that 
may not end until the militaristic Central Powers are smashed 

completely in a crushing military defeat that autocracy can 
iver make its dehumanizmg and fiendish mi^ht again felt in 
e world. What our men are most fearful of is that there may 

be a pronaness in iiifln«itial groups of Americans in America 
to allow Germany to lay down her arms when her rulers see 
defeat to be inevitable, and then to sit down at a table with the 
butchers as though they were equals. Our men feel that any 
negotiated peace, or any peace based on anvthing less than a 
final elimination of Prussian militarism, will be a betrayal of 
the world's honor, and our heroes, together with their valiant 
comrades of the Allied armies, will have suffered and died in 

What mare can we do at home to make victory sure and 

Support the Administration promptly and enthusiastically in 
all war measures. 

Insist that politics be cut out of both parties for the duration 
of the war. 

Conserve everjrthing needed abroad and do it cheerfully — 
food, coal, gasoline, in particular. 

Subscribe to the Liberty Loans and buy the Thrift Stamps 
to the utmost limit of your ability. 

Give all the money you possibly can to all the non-combatant 
organizations now working for the good of our soldiers at home 
and overseas. 

Remember always that sacrifice is the liberating and redeem- 
ing law in this fateful hour and that whatever we may suffer 
at home cannot, match the glorious sacrifices our men are 
making abroad. 

. Stamp prompti.y and heavily upon evei^ least sign of dis- 
loyalty or pro-Germanism whenever it manifests itseU in word 
or deed, and alwajrs bear in mind that German propaganda now 
works toward a negotiated peace in onler to save we form and 
fiibrio of its autocracy. 




VFTER twelve days' steaming from Colombo, Ceylon, we 
reached Delagoa Bay, Portuguese East Africa. Three 
hours before we came up to the entrance of the broad 
y, when land was out of sight and probably thirty-five miles 
ray, the strong wind bore to us the smell of burning grass and 
kves — that smell which always makes a Yankee homesick for 
iw England autumn. The weather was only slightiy cooler 
ui it had been in the tropics we had just left, but there was 

mistaking that scent. It meant autumn. Winter was just 
ginning for folk aroimd Delagoa Bay.. 
An hour or two later a white strip appeared between sea and 
y ahead, and grew rapidly broader. It was the chain of white 
id dunes at the entrance to the bay, little changed probably 
loe it was discovered for white men by the Portuguese iiavi- 
tor Antonio de Campos, who sailed up there in one of Vasco 

Gbuna's ships in 1502. From that white promontory it was 
U more than an hour's cautious steaming between the reefs 
d sand-bars of the bay to the town named after the Portu- 
ese trader Louren90 Marques. This is the capital of the 
ovimce of Mozambique, and is the headquarters of the Gov- 
iment of Portuguese East Africa. Thanks to their brave 
vigators who tri^ these southern seas in high and unwieldy 
isels of rarely^ more than three hundred tons burden, the Por- 
^ese have gained most of the East African ports which were 
3d by the old Arab traders. Delagoa Bay was the first port 

call for Portuguese ships homeward bound from Goa, in 
dia ; and Algoa Bay, farther south on the east coast of Africa, 
8 the last port of call for ships outward bound to Goa ; hence 

> names, 2>e la goa and A la goa (contracted to Algoa). 
ilagoa Bay, it may be remembered, was added to the other 
irtuguese territoiy in 1872 by the decision of Marshal Mao- 
ftbon, to whom the Portuguese and British submitted their 
inu for arbitration. He decided that England should have 

> first right of purchase, in case Portugal should want to sell 
i territory, and it is said that imm^iately after Marshal 

MacMahon's decision Portugal would have been willing to sell 
for twelve thousand pounds. How the British must have re- 
gretted that they did not buy before the Boer War, when terns 
of arms and ammunition were sent in to the Boers through 
Delagoa Bay, most of them from Germany ! > 

LiHig before our ship turned up the arm of the bay on which 
the town is situated we could see the red face of the abrupt hill 
supporting the residential part of Louren(^ Marques. We 
steamed past these almost crimson cliffs to reach the docks built 
out from the low ground which supports the business section of 
the town. 

There is always a charm about a sea town where Spanish is 
the language, and a Portuguese port has the same charm. 
The two lajaguages are sufficientiy alike for a person with a 
small vocabidary in one to pick out many words in the other. 
As I stepped ashore I could imagine myself in a port in Mexico 
or Central America. There was the Plaza, where in a few hours 
the band would play the usual Simday evening concert, and 
there were the street signs in words of a familiar euphony. It 
must be admitted, too, that most frequent among them was the 
announcement that within beer could be had. The Latins will 
be the last for prohibition ! 

A Kentucky colonel could hardly distinguish between a 
native of Lourem^ Marques and a Negro of our own South. 
In size, shade, and feature the native and the transplanted 
African seem identical, and both have the same love for per- 
sonal display, for frills, feathers, and colored sparkling baubles. 
In a heavy rickshaw wide enough for two I was pulled about 
by a Negro whose costume consisted of a sort of bathing suit, 
ribbons and tassels about the knees, ankles, and wrists, and a 
bunch of rooster tail feathers above each ear. 

The town is a clean and beautiful one, especially that part 
of it on the hill where are most of the European residences. 
All the larger roads are macadamized, and there arc electri(> 
lights and electric street cars. Being sub-tropic, Loureni.-o 

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25 SeplemW 

Marques has drawn its flora from both the temperate zone and 
the tropics, but more from the latter than from the former. 
There are tall eucalyptus trees, suggesting our sycamores with 
their patches of whitish bark, and here and there a slim cocoa- 
nut pabn lifts its topknot aeainst the sky. The sides of the 
roads are lined with beautiful blue bougalnvillea or brilliant 
golden-shower, a sort of orange honeysuclde — at least to the lay- 
man's eye. Then there is an occasional tall tree like a torch 
with that fiery blossom called flame-of-the-forest, which loves 
the son it suggests. From the hill (Jiere I had a splendid view 
of the best Imrbor in South Africa (Delagoa Bay is twenty-six 
miles long and twenty-two broad), with the blue Indian Ocean 
in the distance, almost lost through the blue haze from the 
grass fires ashore. 

The air that afternoon had just a tiny tang of autumn in it, 
like our early September days at home when goldenrod and 
purple aster are ripening and barn-swallows congregate on 
tdephone wires. There was a tense stillness, as if all nature 
waited for the season to die.' 

The next day I found it surprisingly easy to get permission 
to journey overland via the Transvaal to Cape Town, which was 
the next port of call for our ship. South and East Africa, unlike 
India, are little burdened with passport regfulations, and in other 
ways there are few indications that Africa has felt the war. 

The train left Loureni^ Marques early in the afternoon, and 
the first part of the journey was through a fia£ country covered 
with uninteresting bush. Occasionally a few naked black boys 
Would leap out from the side of a little puddle or swamp and 
wave their arms at us. Gradually the bush grew higher and 
thicker, and small abrupt knolls, or kopjes (pronounced koppies), 
b^kn to appear. This was lion country, said a fellow-traveler. 
After a ride of about fifty mUes we reached Komati Poort, a 
town in Briti^ territory just over the Portuguese line. Here 
was one of the most amusing examinations of passengers I have 
seen in any cotmtry, Mexico and Russia not excepted. A British 
official put us all through the most searching cross-examination 
as to age, occupation, nationality, itinerary, family, etc., but 
without asking any passenger's name! When one passenger 
twitted him about tms omission, the ofiicial insist^ that a 
knowledge of our names was " quite unnecessary, sir, quite 

The bu^ continued to grow thicker and the kopjes bigger. 
Very common was a tree widi a top as flat as if it had oeen 
trimmed. A British fellow-traveler who had himted here said 
that the country contained maUy lions. He pointed out to us 
several low circular stone walls which had been tJirown up by 
British soldiers as cover against the Boers in the skirmishes of 
the war of eighteen years ago. Soon at our right appeared a 
rather emaciated river, far less formidable in appearance Cjoa 
in reputation. It is named after the crocodiles which infest it 
and which are much more feared by both white men and black 
than lions or other wild beasts. From the train several of the 
crocodiles could be seen basking on the sand-bars which the 
receding water had left uncovered. When the natives, and when 
animals even as large as bullocks, go to the river's edge to drink, 
the crocodiles frequently rush them, and, if successfm in getting 
a grip, usually succeed in dragging their prey into the river, where 
the reptiles have everything uieir own way. There are hippo- 
potami in this river also, but their attacks on man are infrequent. 

We were now in a country where nearly every village could 
boast of having played some part in the war between the British 
and the Boers. Li a certain sense, though, we were unrolling the 
panorama of history backwards, for, in a general way, the &ht- 
mg in the Boer War had taken a northeasterly direction, while 
my itinerary I^ mostly toward the southwest. Over this very 
railway Paul Kruger had fled to the ship which took him to 
Holland a few weeks after Roberts entered Pretoria on June 6, 
1900. One of the first stations we reached after leaving Portu- 
guese soil was Kaapmuiden, which is the junction for the branch 
line to the important town of Barberton, the center of the 
De Kaap gold-fields. On September 13, 1900, Barberton was 
wrested from the Boers by General French, now Field Marshal 
Sir John French. Eighty-six miles beyond Kaapmuiden is 
Nelspruit, junction of the little branch line running nearly to 
Pilgrim's Rest, the village which was the precarious seat of the 
Boer Government when peace wasi couuiuded. This town is now 

becoming famous for the citrus grown there. These trees, pepps 
trees, and castor-oil bushes relieved the monotony of the witda 
bush. The road climbed rapidly tO another now historic towi, 
Machadodorp, near which Buller rescued from the Boers tiini 
thousand British prisoners who had been carried away frug 

In the morning we woke up at Pretoria, founded and nanN^ 
for M. W. Pretorius, the first President of tiie South Africa 
Republic. It was the capital of the Transvaal from 1860 uiti 
it surrendered to General Roberts. It is now the administrabn 
capital of the Union of South Africa, Cape Town being tb 
legislative capital. 

♦Ve stopped at Pretoria only long enough to gfulp breakfu 
and change engines. In the forty-nve-mile run from Pretoii 
to Johannesburg the track rises twelve hundred feet, so that 
although the sun was climbing higher in the sky, the air gm 
cooler. The scenery was typical of the treeless higher veltli 
This veld^ was very rocky, which is unfortunate for t£e fan&ai 
who live on it in more senses than one. In the violent thiuder 
stovms of the rainy season in this part of the world these roda 
which are filled with iron, attract the lightning, and deaths b; 
lightning are common among those who strug^e to get a livii^ 
from this hard soiL 

Again and again we passed a Boer farmer driving his fosi' 
wheeled ox wagon of the " prairie schooner " type. Sometima 
there would be twelve oxen, sometimes as many as sixteen, poi! 
ing abreast in pairs. Where the veldt grew less rocky sd 
greener, it looked exactly like parts of the cattle country in at 
Western States. Now we entered an industrial region. % 
passed a small branch line running to Modderfontein, wheni 
the largest dynamite factory in the world. Soon we could m 
ahead and at each side of the railway great white mounds, lifa 
huge crude pyramids of white stone. The material was ftn 
dered stone, and the hills were heaps of the white tailines a 
refuse from the gold mines. We were now entering the Ms 
watersrand (White Water Ridge), which produces more gti 
than any odier district in the world. The high hills of the wlia 
rock refuse grew more and more conspicuous until we reatM 

Jo'burg, as the residents like to call it, which was a ma 
mining camp thirty years ago, is now a city of 260,000 (140,(K< 
whites) which would be a credit to any country. The prindpl 
streets are wide and well paved, and the most conspicuous thuj 
about it is an air of hustle and prosperity which some Amen 
cans like to think is peculiarly Amerioaii. I kept rubbing d] 
eyes, for I felt sure I was at home. There are a dozen citi«$ a 
our West which have the exact tone and spirit of Jo'burg, u 
doubt, but those with which I am most familiar are in Tem 
It is like San Antonio, and perhaps more like a larger £1 ¥»» 
for the excitable psychology of a frontier town stiu lingers i 
Johannesburg. Jo'burg is full of ready money, and by the sad 
token living there is expensive. It is easy come and easy g" a 
Jo'burg, and th6 inhabitants are proud of it. Especially tk?; 
would have you know that Jo'buig is " alive and kicking." 

On the first glimpse of Johannesourg I recalled what a fello* 
passenger had said to me on the steamer. "' South Africa is tli 
happiest place in the world," this woman had said. 

"What do you mean ?" I asked. 

" I mean," she said, " that South Africa is full of gna! 
strong, healthy men and women who ride wonderfully and dce^ 

There is the glow of open-air living on the cheeks of the iih4 
women, and children you see in Johannesburg and the spriq 
of clean muscles in their gait. In other ways the place se«« 
happy. The soft collar and soft hat predommate there, and » 
healthier climate can be found in the world. At an altitude « 
6,740 feet, Jo'burg has the dry, bracing, sunny climate o 
northern Mexico and parts of our Southwest. Yon ooold not )> 
morbid, melancholy, or really atheistic there if you tried. 

In a city where money is as easily made as in Johannesbuij 
it is not surprising to &id that every one is more or less of I 
gambler. Whether it is stocks, mining shares, land booms, pc>k<*, 
or suireptitiously sold tickets in the Portuguese East Afri(«j 
lotteries, every one in Jo'burg, from millionaire clubman H 
chambermaid, succumbs to the aleatory instin««t now and tlw* 

Though the big, red-cheekeil sons and daughters of ht^' 

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fanners are seen driving or walkug through its shopping streets, 
Johannesburg is now much more British than Boer. And, aa the 
largest city in South Africa, it is full of echoes of the conflict 
lietween the two white nationalities there which will end no one 
can say when or how. 

The British in South Africa are very frank in discussing 
this, and some of the things they say surprise the stranger who 
has formed his opinion of the British- Boer question only from 
the salient evidence that General Smuts and General Botha and 
many other Boers are loyal to the British Empire and have 
served with conspicuous devotion through the present war. In 
tiie short time that I was in the Union of South Africa I talked 
with a good many Britons, and almost without exception they 
admitted that republican sentiment is on the increase among 
the Boers. 

The three outstanding political parties in South Africa are, of 
course, the Unionist party, the National party, and the South 
African party. The Unionist party is British pure and simple. 
The other two are Dutch. The South African party is the party 
of General Botha, the present Premier. It stands for the contin- 
uance of the Union of South Africa as a part of the British Em- 
pire. The Nationalist party is the party of the Dutch who are 
discontented with the present arrangement and who would like 
to have South Africa for the Dutch. The lower house of the 
South African Parliament (which has all the initiative in legis- 
lation) is at present easily controlled by the coalition between 
the Unionist and South African parties which was formed in 
order to secure the devotion of the South African Union to the 
Empire during the war. This coalition has something like one 
hundred seats in the House of Assembly, while the National- 
ists have only twenty-seven or twenty-eight. The Labor party 
and the independents each have two or three representatives. 
Thus at present the Government of the Union is easilv con- 
trolled by the groups loyal to the Allies and to the British 
Empire. But nearly every Briton with whom I talked was of 
the opinion that the Nationalists are steadily growing in influ- 
ence. A few men expressed the belief that if an election should 
lie held to-morrow the Nationalists would win a majority of 
seats in the important lower house of the Legislature. This, 
however, is certainly an exaggerated view. What all intelligent 
loyal South Africans are anxious about, however, is the out- 
come of the next r^rular election, which comes in 1920. If the 
war should end before then, and if the strength of the National- 
ists continues to grow at the present rate, it is by no means oer- 
t^n that the next election will not result in a victory for the 
party which wants eventually to reinstate in South Africa a 
republic of the Dutch, for the Dutch, and by the Dutch. 

What makes prognostications more difficult is the fact that 
not a few Boers are now enrolled among those loyal to England 
merely for reasons of expedi«icy. How many there are of these 
who would show their true colors in a crisis by deserting to the 
other side no one can aa^. 

Of the 1,400,000 whites in the Union only about forty per 
cent are British. Fourteen years ago more than fifty per cent 
of the whites in the same territory were British. But a good 
many Britons who came out in the rush after the Boer War 
have gone home, and the higher birth rate of the Dutch has 
helpecf to carry them ahead. It bids fair to carry them further 
and further aliead unless the British swell their number by 
immigration. This the Unionist party wants to do, but both the 
South African and Nationalist parties are strongly opposed. 
British immigration would mean the building up of a predomi- 
nating British electorate and the eventual political eclipse of 
the Dutch. The Dutch are well aware of this, and will fight 
immigration to the last ditch. A hard strup^le on this issue 
seems inevitable, but it is hard to see how the Dutch can be 
moved from their position unless the British home Government 
shoold interfere. Such interference is unlikely, for it might 
lieget open rebellion. 

The Orange Free State and the Transvaal are naturally the 
centers of the Dutch unrest, though there is not a little of it in 
the northern part of the Cape Province. The dissatisfaction is 
rather vague. It is a sentimental hankering for the old days of 
the Boer Republic, plus the natural desire of the outs to get in. 
The Dutch can complain of no serious injustice at the hands 
of the Britittii. There are no discriminations against them such 

as they enforced against foreigners in their former republic 
The Boers have all the privileges of the British and are allowed 
their own language. The Union Government " Gazette," the 
official publication of the Union Government, is published in 
both English and Dutch. The British are very easy on the 
Boers, some Britons say too easy. 

There is an opinion among the disaffected Dutch that victory 
for Germany would help them. As a matter of fact, it is only 
too easy to imagine what Germany would do to a rich Boer 
Republic if she should win the war and recover her colonies in 
Africa. Men like General Smuts — the intelligent Boers — are 
not deceived on this point But the average ^ter is not very 
intelligent and is extremely provincial. He has no idea of 
affairs outside of South Africa ; he cannot realize the sti-ength 
of the British Empire ; he cannot appreciate the importance of 
sea power in relation to colonial attempts at independence. 
The average Boer is lazy, like most white men in South Africa ; 
but, more than that, the average Boer is old-fashioned in every- 
thing, from religion to agriculture. The methods used by the 
Boer agriculturist would make a Yankee farmer laugh. 

As a matter of fact, although the Dutch in South Africa 
talk glibly about democracy, they do not understand it. The old 
Transvaal Republic was an oligarchy pure and simple. There 
is much more democracy under the present union. 

The Dutch in South Africa consider the British interlopers. 
" The Dutch came here first, and the country rightfully belongs 
to them," is their cry. The Boer sees no inconsistency in this 
slogan, for, like all other white men, he ignores the claims of 
the native. But it is the admission of the shrewdest white men 
in South Africa, whatever their national origin, that the native 
problem is beneath everything. 

A Briton who is as prominent a business man in Johannes- 
burg as any of his countrymen said to me : 

'^ The contact between the black and the white always de- 
grades both. The white man gets lazy, the black man is demor- 
alized by white institutions. After they have come in contact 
with white civilization the male black declines in honestv and 
other virtues, the female in chastity. I woidd like to see Africa 
divided, districts being set apart for both black and white in 
which the other must enter only under special circumstances. 
But this would be difficult to accomplish, for it would demand 
great sacrifices on the part of the whites." 

This man's testimony as to the effect on the white man of his 

Eroximity to the black is corroborated on every hand. *^ Black 
ibor is the curse of South Africa, because it makes the white 
man lazy and leads to his degeneration," intelligent whites tell 
you again and acain. And it is prolmbly true that the white 
farmer in South Africa does much less labor with his own hands 
than the white farmer in Canada, for instance. 

It is idle to speculate on the future of South Africa with con- 
sideration for the influence and prospects of Boer and Briton 
alone^ for the native holds the biggest trumps. Slowly but surely 
native labor is replacing white in one enterprise after another. 
The skilled native laborer is becoming a factor to be reckoned 
with. And white labor is hastening its own downfall by a series 
of strikes, conflicts between white labor and white capital dis- 
astrous to both, and incidentally providing the black man with 
an example of the power of organize<l action which he is not 
slow to rec<^ize. Ten years ago the black walked onlv in the 
streets of Johannesburg.^ Now he walks on the sidewalKs. That 
is just one straw which shows the wind's direction. 
' There is no apparent way of sidetracking the black man. for 
the black popidation of South Africa is growing more rapidly 
than the white. To the philosopher who likes to contemplate 
the possible future in long stretches, it is not the conflict 
between white and white but the conflict lietween white and 
black in South Africa that is most interesting. 

In the meantime there seems no immediate danger of reWllion 
on the part of the Dutch republicans. The fate of the reWUion 
of 1914 taught them a lesson. They have leanie<l that it is im]N)H- 
sible for swif tiy moving commandos of mounted men to terrorize 
the country as they did eighteen years ago. The automobile 
has put an end to that. When De Wet's rebels were rt»unde<l up 
by- motor cars, their horses were completely exhausted. 

The thousand-mile railway journey frt)m Johannesburf; to 
Cape Town took me two days. ^Iany of the names of the places 

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we passed throcu^h had a &uniLar, ring, as ^(afe^ing^ famous aSi 
the starting-point of the Jameson raid and famous for the 
remarkable defense pnt up there in the Boer War by eight hnn- 
dred British under Colonel Baden-Powell, who held out for 217 
days until relief came. Also, of course, Modder River, and 
Magersfontein, only a few miles away, as well as Kimberley, 
famouis for diamonds. On the train was an old British sergeant- 
major with red hair, red mustache, and fine Greek features 
who had fought in that war and who had just returned from 
the war of to^lay after three years in Flanders and France. He 
kept shaking his head as we passed the familiar places. 

" Ah, that was a war !" he said. " O' course it was no picnic, 
but a man 'ad a 'orae an' could move round with a bit o' free- 
dom. This 'ere fightin' in Flanders ain't proper fightin' at alL 
It's like anchorin two prisons side by side an makm' 'em blaze 
away at each other." 

Throughout the first part of the run, while we were in the 
TransvafJ, the fiat expanse of veldt was unbroken by any eleva- 
tion ; but when we got down into the northern part of the Cape 
Province, bare, jag^g^ed, fantastic mountains began to appear. 
Take a Texan there blindfolded and he might swear he was in 
southwestern Texas or northern Mexico, except for the absence 
of burros. Farther on we crossed the great Karoo Desert, as dry 
as Arizona, but needing only irrigation, like all the country in 
the neighborhood, to make it as fertile as anything in South 
Afrioa. Like Mexico, South Africa is virtually imtouched as yet. 
Perhaps there is a good deal of truth in the remark of a Scotch- 
man from Johanne^urg who said to me that, in his opinion, the 
b^t thing fm S(n>(^"Amea'wotild'be'-tiie-exlut«stion of tiiegold 

" Then they'd turn to the real riches of the country," said 
he. ** It was the same way in Australia." 

Soqth Africa ne^ the adequate development of her soil by 

Elanters and farmers, individiudly perhaps, not by great land- 
olders. But, unfortunately, most of the best land is now held by 
private land companies, so that it is difficult for the Govern- 
ment to enoouraee individual homesteaders to try their lock 
with the veldt. Much of the land hdd by these private compa- 
nies is suitable for agriculture, but was bought for its imag- 
inary mineral wealth. Though it is valueless For their own pur- 
poses, the owners will sell it only at prices higher than the 
average immigrant farmer can afford. 

But there is no better land in South Africa tiian that in the Hex 
River Valley, which we entered when the train shot down from 
the great plateau of the Karoo Desert, dropping twenty-four 
hundred feet though thirty-six miles of picturesque scenery. 
Irrigation is very successfully practiced in this valley, whwe 
the soil IB ideal for many fruits, especially the grape. The wine 
and brandy of the Hex River Valley are famous in ScHith 

After traveling all the afternoon through this pleasant green- 
ery I came to the end of my overland journey. A g^eat steep 
mountain straddled the track, shaped liKe a half-bow^ its jagged 
horizontal ridge darkening two nulea of the horizon. At each 
end of this crescent-shaped barrier and nearer us was a sfaan 
smaller mount, the Devil's Peak at the left, and the Lion s 
Head at the right. The main eminence was Table Mountain. 
Cape Town lay in the cup at the bottom, and off to the right 
was blue Table Bay, witn American sailing ships resting at 

" In all^e world," said Fiwiide, " there is perhaps no city so 
beautifully situated as Cape Town." If he had said seaport city, 
perhaps few would dispute him. 
Oqie Town, Soath Abim, June IS, 1918. 



AS we are entering upon the campaign for the sale of the 
Fourth Liberty Loan, it is altogether appropriate that we 
should take account of what two years of war will have 
cost us and determine, if we can, in how far and how speedily 
our expenditures can be recovered under peace conditions when 
they shall have been established. 

American pride in the widely advertised wealth of the coun- 
try has not only led us to be lavish in spending, but it has in- 
duced more or less exaggeration in the current estimates of the 
war's cost Popular feding is expressed by the remark, " Hang 
the expense ! let us lick t£e Huns," and many people, having 
oome to believe that victory was largely a matter of money, 
have felt a certain satisfaction in reading of the unnumbereid 
billions that are being disbursed. 

To a certain extent the growth of this feeling has been 
encouraged by the newspapers, until the editors as well as the 
public ^ve become careless of the facts. Thus in the New 
York " Times " of July 23, under the headline " American War 
Bill Now fifty Billion," there was published a Washington 
despatch dated July 22, from which the following is a quota- 

In the first year the expenditure amoanted to $18,879,177,012, 

while Congress has antnorized for the second year ending 

June 30, 1919, appropriations amoonting to approximately 


This statement and others like it have been widely printed, 
and the reaction of the public mind seems to indicate that most 
people are rather wdl pleased vrith the wealth and munificence 
that are implied. 

' It would neverthelesd'be a very serious matter if we were 
dissipating our National wealth at the rate named. The fact is 
we are not spending any such sum for war, and much of what 
we are spending is being invested in the interest-bearing obli- 
gations of our allies, which are presumably good, and in ships, 
shipyards, terminals, warehouses, railways, and other things that 
will be valuable and productive long after peace is declared. 

The amounts that are being spent constructively or invested 
in the interest-bearing debt of other nations cannot be ^MCtuatdy 
ascertained at present, but the total is large and may be apprmi- 
mated. We know, for instance, that Congress has authorind 
the Secretary of the Treasury to loan 110,000,000,000 to oat 
allies, and that the credits alr^dy placed at their disposal aggm> 
gate about 17,000,000,000. 

These loans all bear interest at a rate one-half per o^it in 
excess of what our Government is paying. 

A statement obtained from the Shipping Board indicates 
that the Government will own the following property as of 
August 1,1919: 

Steel ships delivered . . . . 5,388,635 tons »1,077 ,727,000 
•Wood and concrete ships delivered 1,627,500 " 309,412,500 

Ships on ways and fitting out afloat : 

Steel 4,000,000 " 400,000,000 

Wood 1,300,000 " 117,000,000 

Concrete 750,000 " 66,250jN§ 

Shipyards and plants 200,0004)M 

Houses 100,0004MBi 


To this statement there is appended a memorandinu rea^nf 
as follows : 

In addition there will be an undeterminable but quite laxM 
amount of money which will be tied up in equipment bought 
and paid for but not yet put in ships. 

Probably we shall be well within the mark in assuming tint 
our investment in ships and shipyards a year hence wiU be at 
least 112,750,000,000, and this will not include the enormous 
additions that have been made to our Navy. Then there are the 
military warehouses that the War Department is constructing 
in the United States, and the docks, warehouses, and railways 
that have been built in France as well as in some other Euro- 
pean countries. Very few people realize that there is a complete 
American owned and built railway system now in operation in 
France, which includes lines running to the front from three 

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■ Lufayetto Day liaa now beooiue a sort of iuteniatioiuil holiday of the Allies, and it should be so oontinaed." — From an editorial in Tlie Outlook of Sei>tember 18 

on "The Leaaou of Lafayette Day" 

Digitized by 




T)ii^ (Option, supplied by the Committee on Public InfonuRtion, conveys the Kood news that Amerioin troops hare penetrated into the enemy's oonntry. The; c- 
, not yet " over the Rhine," but this picture is an earnest of their progress in that direction 



Leader of the C»,,vaks in their war ^^ CONNECTICUT 

Digitized by 





Tlie work of restoriug European cathedrals defaced by German Tandallim has 

Ik-^d, and America is helping in the work. The large plate glass is known as 

an easel ; to it the patterns are affixed by wax. Kroni this the exact sizes of 

glass are cut to reconstruct the church windows 



By Ora B. Edwards. The picture symbolizes the co-operation of the anny and 

civilians in working for victory. The emblem in the upper right-hand corner is 

tliAt of the War Camp Conmmnity Sert'ice, which oi'ganized the celebration. 

See editorial couimeut elsewhere 



Digitized by VJWVJV IV^ 



2S September 

different French ports at which enormouib terminals hkve been 
erected at American expense with American labor. 

These railways are equipped with American can and engines, 
are operated by Amencan soldiers, and it is said that one of 
them is being developed into a trans- European trunk line that 
will shorten the time between Havre and Rome by twenty-four 
hours. The accuracy of this statement cannot be vouched for, 
but from the meager information obtainable it seems safe to 
estimate the cost of our permanently productive investments in 
Europe at $1,000,000,000. 

An official statement from the War Department puts the 
outlay upon warehouse construction in the United States " com- 
pleted or in process planned to facilitate the speedy handling 
of materials for the use of the Army " at " approximately 
$218,000,000." Those who are amazed at these figures should 
inspect the reconstructed Bush Terminal in Brooklyn, which is 
said to have cost $42,000,000. 

The warehouses completed or under construction are located 
at Philadelphia, PittsbureJi, Baltimore, Hoboken (New Jersey), 
Jeffersonville (Indiana), l*ort Newark (New Jersey), Americus 
(Georgia), Chicago, Dayton (Ohio), Richmond (Virg^ia), San 
Antonio, Middletown (Pennsylvania), New Orleans, Boston, 
Brooklyn, St. Louis, Newport News, Little Rock (Arkansas), 
Schenectady, New Cumberland (Pennsylvania), Colnmbus 
(Ohio), Charleston (South Carolina), and Norfolk (Virginia). 

With a few exceptions, the buOdings are permanent structures 
of concrete brick and steel, they are equipped with railway sidings 
and all the latest devices for ihe movement of goods in peace as 
well as in war times, and the facilities that they will provide will 
no doubt greatly increase the speed with which the vessels of the 
merchant fleet we are building can be loaded and tmloaded both 
now and hereafter when we shall have recovered the place that 
we formerly held among the maritime nations of the world. 

Other permanently productive investments that are being 
made as a result of uie war include such enterprises as the plant 
for subtracting nitrogen from the air that is being budt at 
Muscle Shoals at a probable ultimate cost of $80,000,000, a 
powder factory which will involve an outlay of $124,000,000 and 
which is being designed so that it can be used for the manufacture 
of fertilizers, and scores of gun and ammunition works that are 
owned by the Government and can be converted to the uses of 
peace. Finally, there is the capital that the Government has set 
aside for the War Finance Corporation, the Railroad " Revolv- 
ing Fund," and the Grain Purchasing Corporation, which, 
though included in our war costs, is being safdy and produc- 
tively employed and wUl be returnable to the Treasury in tbe 
process of post-bellum liquidation. 

In the case of a private corpohition such investments would 
be charged to capital rather than expense account, and would 
be reckoned as an offset against any resultant increase in liabil- 
ities. Upon this theory of accounting, let us examine the facts 
and prepare a balance-sheet in which they will be set forth in 
their true relation. 

The statement that " our war bill for two years will be fifty 
billions " is based upon the idea that all the appropriations made 
by the Sixty-fifth Congress for the two fiscal years ending June 
30, 1919, ynH be spent and spent irrecoverably. 

It is true that tiie appropriations for the year ending June 
30, 1918, aggregated $18,879,177,012, and that the appropria^ 
tions and contract authorizations for the succeeding year amount 
to nearly $30,000,000,000, but not all of these appropriations 
were for war purposes, nor does it seem possible that any such 
sum will be dubursed. 

Durinc the twelve months ending Jmie 30, 
1918, the actual disbursements of the 
Treasury were but $12,696,702,470 

Of which there was paid : 

For ordinary expenses of the 
Government, say .... $1,000,000,000 

For interest on pre-war debt, 
say 23,232,376 

For Panama Canal .... 19,268,000 

For farm loan bonds . . . 65,018,296 

For loans to Allies at interest 4,738,029,750 5,845,548,422 

Leaving disbursements on 
account of our own war ex- 
penses $6,851,154,048 

The Treasury statement does not show what portion of this 
$6,851,154,048 represents an irrecoverable or nnprodoctiTe 
expenditure, but we do know that prior to June 80, 1918, lai^ 
payments were made for ships, shipyards, warehouses, terminals, 
munition plants, docks at various foreign ports, and the great 
railway system that we are building in France, and that tiie 
bills appropriating 

$500,000,000 for the War Finance Corporation, 
600,000,000 for the Railway « Revolving Fond," 
50,000,000 for tiie U. S. Grain Corporation, 

had all been passed before June 80, 1918, from, wiuch it 
may be inferred that substantial payments had baaa 
under tiiem. It is a guess, but a reasonable one, thait a 
ooverable or unproductive war expenditure during Hm ft 
year ending June 30, 1918, did not much exceed 95,w(Lfi9<k,Q0lk, 
if indeed it reached that sum. 

In his letter of June 5, 1918, to Mr. Kitchin, Mr. McAdoo 
estimates the Treasury disbursements for the fiscal year ending 
June 80, 1919, at $24,000,000,000, which, added to the 
$12,696,702,470 paid out in the previous year, makes the total 
outlay for tiie two years . ...... $36,696,702,470 

From this, in order to arrive at our dis- 
bursements on account of the war, there 
should be deducted : 

Expenses of peace establish- 
ment, two years .... $2,000,000,000 

Interest on pre-war debt two 
years, say 50,000,000 

Amoonts paid and appropri- 
ated for farm loan bonds, 
two years 265,000,000 , 

Panama Canal, etc 50,000,000 $2,365,000,000 

Leaving for two years' dis- 
bursements on account of 
war $34,331,702,470 

It is impossible to ascertain in detail what 
this sum will have been spent for, but we may 
attempt a rough distribution of it based 
upon general knowledge, as follows : 

Loans tp Allies as author- 
ized $10,000,000,000 

Cost of ships and shipyards, 



Cost of railways in France 
and other permanently 
productive investments in 
Europe, estimated . . . 1,000,000,000 

" Revolving Fund " for rwl- 
ways. . 500,000,000 

Capital War Finance Corpo- 
ration 500,000,000 

Capital U. S. Grain Corpo- 
ration 50,000,000 

Cost of Army warehouses, 
New York and elsewhere 
inU. S 228,000,000 

Other permanently valuable 
or productive investments, 
say 972,000.000 $16,000,000,000 

Balance of two years' war 
disbursements irrecover- 
able $18,331,702,470 

OurtotaldisbursementH of 36,696,702,470 

will have been provided for as follows : 

Total Liberty Loans author- 
ized $22,000,000,000 

War SavingTB Stamps author- 
ized 2,000,000,000 

Taxes and other revenue, 
1918 4,000,000,000 

Estimated revenue from Tax 

Bill now in preparation . 8,000,000,000 $36,000,000,000 

So that it would appear that approximately sixty-six per oent<f 
mir irrecoverable war expenditure, estimated at $18,3^,702,471 
will be p,id by taxation amounting to $12,000,000,000. aJ 
that agamst the bonds and War Saving Stamps atithoriioi 
amounting in all to $24,000,000,000, we shall have S16.00dii 

Digitized by VaO^^V IV^ 




000,000 of leooreraUe or productive aasely, leaving ajiet or 
uncovered increase in the |>UDlic debt of only $8,000,000,000. 

Of course it may be urged, and properly, that a large allow- 
ance should be made for the amortization and depreciation of 
these assets, and the policy of treating them as dead invest- 
ments is undoubtedly wise, but that policy is keeping us in a 
poration that will make the obligations of the Unitra States 
Government the most besought investments in the world the 
moment that their further issuance becomes unnecessary. 

The question is not one of their repayment, but of how rapidly 
they may be repaid without bringing about a credit contraction 
that will create depression. In fact, one of the things chiefly to 
be feared La that the lessons of industrial efficiency and personal 
economy learned during the war will enable us to reaocumulate 
wealth so rapidly that we will pay off the public debt too fast, 
and thereby deflate an undoubtedly inflated situation so sud- 
denly that credit will be prostrated. 

This was what happened after our Civil War and brought 
about the panic of 1873. Men can adjust themselves to almost 
any change, provided it is not too sudden. Deflation is desirable 
and inevitable, but it should not be so accelerated that it will 
result in shock and dislocation. 

Including the mea who are fighting, and the men and women 
who are working to keep them supplied with food and war 
materials, some 10,000,000 people are probably engaged in work 
that is, in a sense, unproductive. When these people are re- 
turned to the ranks of productive industry, the rapidity with 
which the^ will be able to create wealth will be astounding, for 
their efficiency will be greatly increased by tibe new methods 
that have been introduced and the devices and economies that 
have been adopted to speed up and augment war production. 

The study that has been given to scientific economy and the 
results that have been attained are not generally understood or 
appreciated. In Washington there are two organizations within 
<£e War Industries Bou^ that have done remarkable work 
along these lines. One is the Conservation Division, formerly 
the Commercial Economy Board, of which A. M. Shaw is chief. 
The other is the Resources and Conversion Section, whose chief 
is Charles A. Otis. 

The function of the first-named board has been to eliminate the 
surplusage of styles and sizes made and sold in the manufacture 
and distribution of staple articles, upon the theory that a mul- 
tiplicity of styles involved waste in production, unnecessarily 
stimulated the demand, and compelled merchants to carry stocks 
that tied up millions, and perhaps billions, of capital that was 
needed for the prosecution of the war. 

To induce the manufacturers to make the changes and intro- 
duce the reforms recommended time has of course been required, 
bat as their advantages became apparent the resistance has 
diminished, and in many different lines of trade the simplifica- 
tions that have already been effected will save an enormous 
amount of labor and material, which means, in the last analysis, 
a more rapid creation of wealth. Thus about two thousand dif- 
ferent sizes and types of plows and tillage implements have been 
eliminated and a great reduction in t£e variety of other agri- 
coltural implements hitherto manufactured has been effected. 
xhe sizes and types of automobile tires produced have already 
been reduced from 287 to 33, and it is expected that within 
two years only nine standard descriptions will be noanufactured. 

There were formerly six hundred sizes and types of metal 
bedsteads made. Now only thirty are produced, and the metal 
tabing used in their manufacture has been standardized so that 
its cost will be substantially reduced. 

The color, height, and variety of shoes has been reduced by 
at least half, with a corresponding reduction in the cost of pro- 
duction. Each manufacturer of paint and varnish is now restrict- 
ing his product to thirty-two shades of house piint and ten 
grades of varnish, as against nearly one hundred different vari- 
eties formerly produced. 

To save cans the half-gaUon and many of the smaller^ized 
packages have been eliminated. 

In the manufacture of hardware, where the number of styles 
and sizes hitherto produced was almost infinite, the reduction 
will average fifty per cent. The number of items in one saw 
manufacturer's catalogue has been reduced by seventy per cent. 
In the stove and furnace trade seventy-five per cent of the types 

and sizes baye.beeo, cot opt, and those remaining require the 
least iron and steel for tneir production. 

In men's and women's clothing the simplification of styles 
agreed upon will reduce the material required by from twelve to 
twenty-five per cent, and by restricting the sizes of samples 
about 3,450,000 yards of do^ will be saved annually. The high 
price of tin has led to a great reduction in its use for solder. 
Babbitt metal, bronze, tinfoil, etc., and silk dyers have learned 
that tiiey can get along with thirty per cent of the tin formerly 
used in giving luster and weight to certain grades of silk. Great 
economy has oeen effected by inducing manu&cturers to stand- 
ardize tiie size of the boxes in which their goods are packed. 
Waist manufacturers, for example, are packing two or three 
waists in a box instead of one. This wul save probably two- 
thirds of the freight space formerly used for shipping waists. 
Similar economies of shipping space have been effected in many 
other lines of business. 

In the delivery of goods substantial economies have also been 
secured by the partial abolition of *' C. O. D." and " on ap- 
proval " deliveries, as well as by reducing the number of daily 
wagon trips, and price concessions to those customers who 
acquired the '* cash and carry " habit have also reduced the 
retailer's cost of distribution. 

The list of these innovations could be greatly lengrthened, but 
from those described some idea may be had of the enormous 
saving in the cost of manufacturing and distributing goods that 
has been effected in almost every department of trade. 

All these innovations are essentially methods of saving labor, 
and if they are not abandoned after die war they will add enor- 
mously to the wealth-creating power of the Nation, for wealth 
is but labor in a concrete and useful form. 

The work of the Resources and Conversion Section of 
the War Industries Board is along similar but divergent lines. 
As a result of the specialization of industry practiced in this 
country there are hundreds and thousands of factories that 
make different parts of the things that are assembled and com- 
pleted in other factories. The automobile industry, for instance, 
has become specialized to an amazing degree. 

One consequence of this specialization has been a great waste 
of transportation. A simple instance of this is the pig iron 
requirea for the steel that will be idtimately used to make the 
saws in an Alabama cotton gin. 

It may be mined at Birmingham, shipped to Pittsburgh as 
" P'Ki" *nd there converted into sheet steel. Thence it might 
be sent to Philadelphia to be made into saws, and then again 
back to its point of origin, Alabama, where it is worn out taking 
the seed from the cotton. 

In many other cases there ia a still greater waste of trans- 

fortation, and in one instance the same material transmuted 
y successive manufacturing processes is known to have been 
shipped back and forth over nearly identical routes some eleven 
times before it became part of the finished article and was put 
to use. 

To eliminate this unnecessary transportation where possible, 
in so far as the manufacture of war material is concerned, is the 
task to which Mr. Otis has addressed himself, and he is succeed- 
ing so well that he will probably effect a lasting revolution in 
American industry that will save hundreds of mmions annually 
both during the war and afterward. 

But it would take a book to describe all the scientific econo- 
mies that have been learned or evolved from the experience of 
the war. We have been taught to save coal, to utilize by-products, 
to use com instead of wheat for bread, to eat less meat and 
sugar and to live healthier lives, to wear old clothes and wear 
them out, and to earn more by increasing our production, and 
spend less by decreasing our consumption. 

By the saving in labor thus effected we have been able to 
supply the man power necessary for the successful prosecution 
of the war, and oy the practice of the nnnuraberod economies 
that are rapidly becoming habits we have been able to follow a 
" pay-as-you- go " policy in meeting the war's expenses and to 
loan some $7,000,000,000 or more to our allies besides. 

The experience has been salutary, its lessons will not be for- 
gotten, and the record thus far indicates that we will be able to 
recreate the wealth destroyed and pay the debts incurred within 
a surprisingly short time after the re^stablishment of peace. 

Digitized by VJ^^^^V IV^ 





(Written on boaid a United States transport ooming home) 

SOME special experiences that one has 
in France durin? these war days stand 
ont like the silhouettes of mountain 
peaks against a crimson sunset. One 
of these experiences was that with the 
m^or down on our line. 

it was a morning in March, following one 
of the hottest raids that the American 
troops had endured and swept- back up to 
that time. 

The raid had started at 3 a.m. with a gas 
attack. This lasted for an hour, and then a 
heary shelling began, after which there was 
a marked pause so that the major thought 
it was over for that day. As was the usual 
custom, he allowed two Y secretaries to 
go down into the front-line trenches with 
provisions for the boys. But about the time 
they got there and had unloaded their bags, 
which they carried over their shoulders, 
the Boche started his shelling again. 

" Yon fellows will have to beat it back !" 
theyoung captain said. 

The two secretaries started back through 
a commnnication trench which led into a 
woods through which they had already 
come that morning. From this woods the 
trench led across a field to a camouflsjg^ed 
road which was the exit of the trench into 
the little vilh^. The sheUs were falling 
fast in the woods as they hurried tlirough. 
They didn't know just how they would get 
through the open field that was before them, 
even though there was a trench there. 
They knew it to be within plain view of the 
German heavies. When tney got to the 
edge of the woods, however, fate decided 
their course for them, for they found a 
wounded German prisoner who had both 
legs broken. He was lying on a stretcher, 
and lying beside him on the ground were 
two stretcher-bearers. 

" We're all tired out and can't carry him 
a step farther. We've already toted him 
two miles, and he's nothin' bat a Boche 
anyhow ; we're going to leave him right 

But the two secretaries protested and 
offered to spell the stretcher-bearers if they 
would take the wounded Gennan on in. 
This M^reed to. they started across the 
open field through the communication 
trench. Half way across they found that the 
shelling of that morning had caved in the 
trench completely. What were they to do ? 

They must either go back to the woods 
or climb out and carry their wounded man 
along the parapet. They talked it over and 
agreed that it they carried the prisoner 
on their shoulders, "being in plain sight of 
the German gunners, they would not be 
shelled, especially when the Germans could 
see thatiit was a German wounded man that 
they were carrying back. So on this supposi- 
tion they started out along the parapet. 

But tney were new to tSe game of Ger- 
man warJmre, and they soon found that 
they had started out on the wrong suppo- 
sition, for in half a minute a terrific bar- 
rage of German shells was falling around 
them, some bursting within twenty feet of 
them. If it had not been for the fact that 
it had been raining for several days and 
the shells sank into the mud two feet before 
they exploded, the whole crowd would have 
been blown to bits. 

As it was, they dropped their wounded 
prisonet on the parapet and " beat it," as 
the fifty-year-old preaclier-secretary de- 
scribed it to me the next day. 

" And I never knew before that I eonld 
make a hundred yards in six seconds. I 
was like the Negro doughboy : I heard the 
shell twice, once when it passed me and 
Main when I passed it. I was much older 
tnan any of those other fellows, but I beat 
them across that field. 

" We reported to the major. He said to 
us, 'Boys, where is your wounded Ger- 

" ' We left him back there on the part^iet, 

The major, a typical American officer, 
looked at tnem a wlule and then said some- 
thing that makes me thrill with the pride of 
beingan American every time I think of it : 

" Well, he may be nothing but a Boche, 
but we're Americans, and you'll have to go 
back and get your wounded prisoner. If 
yon men don't want to go, I must go my- 

And back these two secretaries and a 
young lieutenant orderly went. The streteh- 
er-bearers had disappeared. There was 
another barr^e of snell fire, and the men 
lay in a sheU hole for two hours; but 
at last they got their wounded German 

" He may be nothing but a Boche, but 
we're Americans," is a sentence that ought 
to go down in history to the glory of the 
American officer. 

But the officer is not the only man with 
this spirit in the American Army. I can 
illnstnto this by following this same Ger- 
man boy to the evacuation hospital. I saw 
him there a week later. His legs had both 
been set and he was lying in a bed between 
two Americans. His legs were propped up 
and weighted.* 

This Doy was lying there and several 
American soldiers were giving him a little 
concert. I remember that one had a 
mouth organ, one had a guitar, and one had 
a mandolm, and several others were sing- 
ing. The wounded German boy was over- 
come by this unexpected kindness and lay 
there with the big tears rolling down over 
his cheeks. 

" Ah, he's nothin' bat a kid," one of the 
Americans said to me as I came up to the 
little group. " He's nothin' but a kid even 
if he IS a Boche." 

The Gennan told lu through an inter- 
preter that his officers had told all of the 
soldiers that the Americans were barbari- 
ans and that all men who fell into their 
hands would be killed. The momin? that he 
was received into the hospital liad almost 
convinced him that this was true, for 
souvenir-seeking Americans had actually 
stripped him of the buttons on his coat, had 
taken his helmet, his insignia, and every- 
thing that would make a possible souvenir. 
He was certain that this was the prelimi- 
nary to the murdering that he had been told 
that he must expect if he fell into the Iiands 
of the Americans. But, much to his aston- 
ishment, he was well cared for at the hos- 
pital. He was washed and then dressed in 
clean clothes. He was well fed and well 
cared for by both doctors and nurses, and 
then the climax was reached when the sol- 
diers serenaded him. This overcame him. 
The tears felL 

There are some who will scorn this kind 
of a story, and some who believe that it is 
bad policy, but I know of many thoughtful 
men in France who believe that if the 
common German soldier finds out that the 

25 September 

American treats his prisoners in this man- 
ner when they are wounded it will do 
more to destroy the morale of the German 
army than anything that could happen. 

Then there is another silhouette memorj' 
of France. 

It u that of a little graveyard in a 
French field where two stone fences meet. 
It was springtime. There were five lads to 
be laid away that fair morning in Giod's 
Acre. There were three privates, a captain, 
and a Grerman boy. 

A few of us stood around this little quiet 
place with uncovered heads while the chap- 
lain read the service. Then the first body 
was lowered into the grave, the salute 
fired and Taps sounded. Then came the 
second boy. Then the third, with the salute 
fired and Tape sounded. Then came the 
American captain, with the salute and 
Taps. Then came the Boche. 

The firing squad didn't know what to do 
about the Boche. The sergeant turned to 
the captain-chaplain and said, " Sir, shall 
we fire a salute for the German ?" 

We waited anxiously to hear the Ameri- 
can officer's answer. It was a tense moment. 
But we were not to be disappointed. In- 
deed, we seldom are in our American offi- 
cers. No finer group of men lead an army 
in Europe thaii our American officers. 
"He may be nothing but a Boche, but 
we're Americans," illustrates the spirit of 
them all. They do not drive; they lead. 
Officers are just as much exposed to fire 
as anybody else. And this officer of the 
Church was no exception. He saw his great 
opportunity. He seized it ; and in quick, 
short, sharp, meaningful sentences he 
spoke : 

" Boys, we are not fighting this dead Ger- 
man boy : this poor 1m is out of it all for 
good. And, after all, he is just some Ger- 
man mother's son. We are not fighting 
him. We are fighting the German mihtary 
caste, the German Government, the Ger- 
man nation, but not this dead boy. He had 
died on the field of battle. Yes ; play Taps 
for the Boche 1" 

I shall never cease to feel proud of that 
chaplain to the end of my oays, and his 
short, sharp, manly, American, military 
sentence, " Yes ; play Taps for the Boche I 
shall ring in my heart ana memory forever, 
and, I think, in the hearts and memories, 
too, of every man who stood in that little 
comer of a French field that shall be for 
always sacred to gome American homes and 
to one German home. 




Amerloui Expeditiooary Forces 

I picked a violet in France, 
Belov^ of shade and dew. 
I wish ray idle hands had left 
It smiling where it grew. 

Beside a little wayside shrine 
Demolished in the war 
It steadfastly proclaimed its faith 
That God wotud quite restore 

Each lovely work of his that man 
In churlish wrath destroyed. 
And that new loveliness would fill 
Each aching, empty void. 

It was a little violet ; 

I held it in my hand 

And marveled that its withering 

Should make me understand. 

Djgitized by 





LESS than two centnriea ago the armv 
doctor was still a " barber surgeon. 
His primary duty was to shave the 
offieers of the line. No doubt he did 
that better than anything else, since modem 
medical science is little more than a cen- 
tnnr old. Quite naturally, the old tradition 
of nim has died hard in the army. His uni- 
form tall verv recently has remained a 
sort of fancy dress in the eyes of the pub- 
lic and the lighting man. It was not so 
manv years ago, says the historian, that " a 
British medical officer who had been re- 
warded for heroism in the field was con- 
temptuously dubbed ' a brave civilian ' by 
the commander -of the British army, a man 
who never saw a battle." Heroism in the 
field is an incident in the medical service. ' 
Quite as many army surgeons (by percent- 
age) have been killed in this war as officers 
at the line. 

The current achievement of our own 
Medical Cktrps might be recognized more 
generously, in its work at the front it is 
said to be already more efficient than any 
other ; none exceis it, we may safely say, 
in personnel, methods, or organization. 
After we entered the war, it did in a year 
what it had taken the British three years 
to do. We had their experience to go by 
and the experience of our volunteer units 
during the early rears of the war. But we 
had something else— the qualities we like 
to think of as American, the knack of 
adapting ourselves to new conditions and 
problems — assets of initiative and flexibil- 
ity, as well as of trained skill. The Ger- 
man medical service is a capable mech- 
anism. The British service hais been more 
or. less hampered by the famous British 
conservatism. The American service at 
once showed itself ready to adopt old 
methods or invent new ones, as the emer- 
gency might require. It possessed an 
amazing volunteer personnel. We discov- 
ered, not long after the war broke, that a 
queer thing had happened " over there " — 
an over-stock of American specialists of 
the highest class. Men of general utility 
had to be called for, to take the plumbing 
off the watchmakers' hands. A roster ot 
our Medical Corps overseas in those first 
months would have been a sort of " Who's 
Who " for our most distinguished medical 
men in all fields. They were the first to be 
taken for service at tne front. In a way, 
they had most to give. But the others were 
eaually needed and equally ready to give 
wnat they had ; and this we shall not for- 

But we ought not to let our pride in these 
volunteers obscure the merit of our Regu- 
lars. The American Army surgeon has 
always played an important part in our med- 
ical affairs, and has had little credit for it 
with the public at large. For example, it was 
Surgeon-General Rush, of the Continental 
Army, who made the first American studies 
in hygiene, insanity, and anthropology. 
His successor, William Browne, prepared 
the first American pliarmacopoeia. Another 
army aargeon, John Jones, published the 
first American work on medicine and sur- 
gery. Another, William Beaumont, was the 
pioneer in experimental physiology ; his 
experiments in the physiology of digestion 
gave him international fame. Major Walter 
Reed, of our Medical Corps, was the man 
who discovered the yellow fever mosquito 
and who had most to do with the discovery 
of the real causes and means of control of 

typhoid epidemics. Since the beginning 
of the present war. Colonel Louis A. 
La Garde's treatise on gunshot wounds 
has demolished the old theory that the heat 
of ignition and explosion sterilizes a missile. 
His proof that the bacilli of lockjaw survive 
a journey by bullet has led to tJie anta- 
tetanic injection as a first-aid measure. 
These names may serve to suggest the 
quality of the men who have worn the uni- 
form of our Medical Corps from the be- 
ginning. The name of Surgeon-General 
Gorgas may well cap the Ust. 

Few important discoveries in medicine 
or surgery have been made since August, 
1914. There has been no such event as 
Lister's discovery of the value of antiseptics 
in surgery just before the Franco-I^russian 
War of 18y0. His method is still the main 
relianceof the army 8urgeon,though the best 
civil practice has swung from antisepsis to 
asepsis. Roughly speaking, one is the way of 
poisoning the flies in one s kitchen, and the 
other u the way of keeping them out alto- 
gether. The method of asepsis is the method 
of absolute cleanliness^-ot sterilizing, as it 
were, everything but the wound, ana treatr 
ing that with frequent and literal irrigation, 
with pure water. It is when this method 
could be used that the most surprising cures 
of this war have been eSectea. But there 
is neitlier time nor space nor leisure for 
these methods near ^^ front. What is done 
must be done quickly with the aid of anti- 
septic solutions, the best of which, to be 
sure, are of our own time. With the meth- 
ods and weapons of the new warfare have 
come new injuries and diseases. Most of 
them have to be dealt with by the applica- 
tion of old principles and methods to the 
fresh problem. One of them, gas gangrene, 
was studied by an American before it be- 
came an effect of war. As far back as the 
nineties Professor Welch, of Johns Hop- 
kins, discovered the "bacillus Welchii," 
the malignant agent of gas gangrene. 
There are other effects of g^ and of trench 
fighting — new wound infections and dis- 
oraers of the nerves, and the baffling 
results of shell shock and wind contusion. 
These problems had to be faced before we 
came into the war, but our volunteer units 
did their part in working them out, and 
our Army service was ready for them when 
the hour struck. Our most distinctive con- 
tribution thus far in surgery has been in 
bone-grafting. " Siraplicissimus " might do 
one of its delicately numorous pictures of 
the Yankee building a new jaw for the 
race ! In a mechanical way, various Yankee 
notions have been contrived : a new ham- 
mock-stretcher for crooked trenches where 
the standard stretcher had proved useless, 
a standardization of surgical splints, and 
so on. 

After all, it b in the field of prevention 
that we have done most. Our British cousin 
is notoriously proud of his personal " tub- 
bing." Perhaps we take that process a little 
more for granted, and are less inclined to 
be content with it We got the habit of 
civic and domestic as well as personal sani- 
tation some time ago, while the average 
Briton still fumbles for the idea of tiiat 
slightly ludicrous thing, " American plumb- 
ing." By the same token tlie Tommy seems 
to nave taken his French billet pretty much 
as he found it. American troops, we are 
told, insist on cleaning up the premises 
before they will tarry in them even for a 
niglit. Their fight is against the vermin 


that tiansmit typhus' and other ancient 
scourges, and against the flying germs 
that breed in filUt. Not only typnoid, but 
the paratyphoids and cholera nave fallen 
before their tiny hypodermic lance. Care, 
ajad more care, is l>emg taken against the 
enlistment of diseased men, especially the 
tuberculous. Certain very recent studies 
and, experiments even promise control of 
that elusive foe of armies in the field, the 
dreaded dysentery. And this is all of our 
generation. "Atthecloseof the Civil War," 
says Dr. Osier, " we had no positive knowl- 
e<ue of the cause of any of the grMt scourges 
of numanity." During the Spanish- Ameri- 
can War typhoid was still at large. A few 
rears later our whole army on the Mexican 
Dorder was jabbed in the arm — and the only 
case of typnoid known among those thou- 
sands was that of a teamster who bad 
somehow dodged the needle. 

What is the visible result of all this in a 
large way ? Daring the Civil War there 
were six times as many deaths from disease 
as from violence. Unaoubtedly there have 
been twice as many as that, taking an aver- 
age of relatively modern wars. In the 
present war the figures read the other way. 
And our army leMs the rest in health. As 
early as last March Greneral Gorgas made 
an astonishing announcement, which seemed 
to attract little attention : " The world's 
military hygiene record for deaths from 
sickness hiu been reduced more than fifty 
per cent in the United States Army since 
we entered the war. The record until that 
time was held by the Japcmese, and was 
twenbr-one deathis per thousand. Deaths in 
the Ijnited States Army have dropped to 
ten per thousand." As tor conditions at the 
front, we have the extraordinary recent 
statement, on good authority, that "the 
doctor has so dealt with the situation in the 
camps . . . that the actual death rate from 
disease among the men in the camps, under 
all the hardships to which they have been 
exposed, is less than two-thirds of what it 
was in times of peace in the barracks." 
Besides its functions of prevention and sal- 
vage, there is the third great field of tiie 
mwiem medical service, " reconstruction " 
— the care and training of the human flot- 
sam cast back on our snores by the tempest 
of war. MiUtary wrecka^ there must oe ; 
our new determination ' is that it shall not 
be moral and civil wreckage as welL 

There is yet anotlier aspect of the medi- 
cal service. Pirogoff, tlie Russian surgeon, 
declared that war itself is an epidemic, and 
that "not medicine, but administration, 
plays the leading part in the aid of the sick 
and wounded in the scenes of war." As a 
feat of organization, the expansion of our 
Medical Corps has Itardly been paralleled 
in any other oranch of the Army service. 
It was prepared for war, and when war 
came it knew what was to be done and 
worked without delay or confusion. It 
keeps " ahead of tlie game " — manned and 
equipped for the care of far larger forces 
than are actually in the field. Its organiza- 
tion, we need to remind ourselves, covers 
far more than the relatively spectacular 
service at tlie front. As war loses its tradi- 
tional glamor, we begin to see how much 
of it belongs to tlie rear. We have our 
great hospital system, our huge armies to 
care for, on this'side of the water. And tlie 
heart and nerve-center of the whole big 
working concern, at home and abroad, may 
be found in tlie office of the Surgeon-Gen- 
eral at Washington — an office covering 
seven floors of the busy " Arnex " that 
flanks the Army and Navy Building, on tlie 
side away from tlie White House. 

Digitized by Va\^»^V iC 





Based on The Outlook of September 18, 1918 

Eaoh week am OnUine Study of Current Hiatory bued on the preoeding number of The Ondook will 
be printed for the benefit of current erents claases, debating; oluba, teacben of history and of Engliah, and 
the like, and for use in the home and by snoh indiTidual readers a* may desire anggeetiona in the aerioua 
atudy of current hiatory. — Thb Editob8. 

25 September 

[Thoae who are naiiiK the weekly outline thoiild 
not attempt to oorer the whole of an outline in any 
one leaaon or stndy. Assign for one leason selected 
qneationa, one or two propos i tions for diaonasion, 
and only anch words as are found in the material 
assigned. Or distribute selected questions among 
different members of the class or group and have 
them report their findings to all when assembled. 
Then have all discuss the qnestiona together.] 


A. Topics BoWievism-and- AppUed' Anti- ■' 

Reference: Pages 92, 93. 
Questions: ' 

1. Who are the BoUheviki ? State and 
discass gome of their beliefs. 2. Mr. Roose- 
velt believes America has its Bolsheviki. 
Who are they ? What would he have done 
to them ? By what authority and in what 
manner would Mr. Roosevelt deal with 
these Bolsheviki ? Tell why, in your opin- 
ion, he is or is not too severe. 8. Explain 
. clearly the meaning of profiteers, exploit- 
ing capitalists, and " direct action " men. 
Give illustrations. 4. Mr. Roosevelt advo- 
cates stem, prompt, and efficient action 
iwainst all such persons and corporations. 
He also believes that the conditions which 
cause the wrong-doing should be remedied. 
State just what action yon would bring 
against such peo^e, and explain how the 
conditions can be remedied. 5. Explain > 
what Mr. Roosevelt means by. the " look- 
ahead power." He is of the opinion that 
this sort of power will be necessary to a 
high degree m oar country. Give several 
reasons why. 6. Explain how the " look- 
ahead power " can be developed. 7. What 
is meant by an " orderly Grovemment " ? 
Name the principles and ideals that an 
enduring Government must be founded 
upon. o. The Bolsheviki do not believe in 
either patriotism or nationalism ; they be- 
lieve in what they term " intemationausm." 
What results have their beliefs had upon 
Russia? What effect upon other nations? 
Would you substitute internationalism for 
nationalism ? Reasons. 9. Is there an inter- 
nationalism that is really helpful ? Explain. 
10. Tell very definitely what Americanism 
is and what it is not. 11. Place in your 
library and stttdy "The Foes of Our 
Own Household," by Theodore Roosevelt 
(Doran), and " Americanism — What It Is," 
by D. J. Hill (Appleton). 

B. Topic : The Lesson of Lafayette Day. 
Reference : flditorial, pages 85, 86. 

1. When and where was Lafayette bom ? 
What were the conditions in France and in 
America at the time he offered his services 
to our country? 2. Tell, with reasons, 
what you think of — " Lafayette is as un- 
forgettable as Washington in American 
history and affection." If this statement 
is true, what is its significance ? 3. Has 
America been saved twice by French 

valor ? Explain your answer. 4. What u 
a negotiated peace ? Illustrate. A dictated 
peace ? Illustrate. 5. Do you think this war 
should continue until the Allies march into 
Berlin and there dictate peace at the can- 
non's mouth on German soil ? Tell why or 
why not. 6. Should the Allies arrange a 
just and righteous peace with Grermany? 
If so, should defeated Grermanv be permit- 
ted to have anything to say about what is 
a'" just and righteous" peace? What would 
the conditions and terms of such a peace 
be ? 7. According to The Outlook, wbat is 
the most important lesson of Lafayette 
Day ? What does it say about that lesson ? 
8. Tell why you do or do not i^ee with 
The Outlook. Name other lessons of La- 
fayette Day and discuss them. 9. You will 
find valuaole reading in " The Vandal of 
Europe," by Wilhelra Mtthlon (Futnams), 
and « In the Fourth Year," by H. G. Wells 


Topic : The Student-Soldier. 
Reference : Page 82. 
Questicns : 

1. What u the Students' Army Train- 
ing Corps ? What are its methods and pur- 
pose? (See The Outlook, September 11, 
1918, page 48.^ 2. Do you thmk it would 
be unaemocratic to send the student-soldier 
"at once on the firing line"? Give rea- 
sons. 3. Tell somewlut at length what 
influence this war is having upon our tra- 
ditional educational ideas and methods. 
4. From the standpoint of government, 
what authority is responsible for our edu- 
cational system ? Do you think this is as it 
should be ? 5. Read the editorial in The 
Outlook of September 11, 1918, p^es 46, 
47, entitled " A Legacy of the War to 
Our Colleges," and discuss what the editors 
say in it. 

ni — PROPosiTioire for disodssion 

(These propoaitians are suggested directly or indi- 
rectly by the anbieot-matter of The Outlook, but 
not diacnased in it.) 

1. The loyal American is the best inter- 
nationalist. 2. All reasonable persons be- 
lieve in a league of free nations. 3. All 
institutions are made of and sustained by 
propaganda. 4. Arbitrary authority is the 
most corrupting influence known. 

IV — vocabulary BuiuJiira 

(All of the following worda and ezpreaaions are 
found in The Outlook for September 18, 1918. Both 
before and after looking them up in the dictionary or 
elaewhere, ^ive their meaning in yow oum word». 
The fignrea in parentheaes refer to pages on which 
the words may be found.) 

Bolshevism, fanatics, the I. W. W., capi- 
talism (92) ; Cai-dinal, immoral nations, 
treaties (85) ; college, inducted, educa- 
tion, chemistry, topography, instruction, 
' non-commissioned officer, academic, effect, 
factor (82). 

A booklet tuggating methoda of tuing the Weekly Outline of Current History unll be sent on application 




^^^M THE P E R M A N t 'si T S 


I DOtif 7 Hm Uutlooh 

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Digitized by 






^^'"^j^oo Al 


Bfftct nf hard wadding that JUt the barrel lotueiy. Unchecked by /rleHon 
or mvzzte choke it is bloten through the ttiot clutter Mcattering the shot 
charge. Actual letl target 221 peileU out of 431 or 51% of the ihol 
charge (lH ot. aj 7H cAi««0 inMe a 304tuih circle al 40 ytU 

004 if 



Effect of veali wadding lorn to thredt by the gat Natl. The eeparaU 
jnecee are bloicn into the shot clutter, scattering the pellets in all directions, 
IVith no resistance to the explosion, the pressure is low and penetration 
poor. Actual test target ITS pellets out of 431 or 41% of the shot chargo 
(in OS. of 7M chUled) inside a 30-inch circle al 40 yds 


The Winchester system of wadding. The wadding expands evenly, sealing 
in the gas blast all the way to the mutsle, where the wadding is checked 
by the ** choke^' or constriction. The shot cluster travels on ahead vn- 
bnken. Actual test target 320 pellelsoul of 431 or 74% of the shot charge 
{ly, 01. of 7H chUltd) inside a SO^ineh cireU at 40 yds 

Effect of wadding construction on shot patterns 

Poor wadding responsible for more faulty patterns and 
lost birds than all other gun and shell troubles combined 

A strong; uniform shot pattern depends upon how perfectly 
the wadiUHg in your shells controls the nve ton gas blast 
behind it. 

The wadding, like the piston head of a gas engine, must 
give the explosion something solid to work against so that - 
the shot may be^»xA«</out evenly. 

Itmnst expand and fill the tube of the barrel, completely seal- 
ing in the gas behind it. No gas must escape to scatter the shot 

It must offer just the right amount of resistance so as to 
develop uniform pressure and high velocity without danger of 
jamming the pellets out of shape at the " choke " or muzzle 

The illustrations at the top of this page show actual test 
patterns as high as 59^ faulty, the result of poor wadding. 

The Winchester system 

Winchester Wadding is the result of repeated experiments 
to determine the most ethcient control of the gas blast. 

The special construction of the Base Wad gives what is 
known as Progressive Combustion to the powder charge. 

Combustion spreads instantly through the powder charge. 
By the time the top grains of powder become ignited the 
/»// energy of the burning powder behind is at work. Though 
the explosion is almost instantaneous, it is none the less 
Progressive, the final energy and maximum velocity of the 
completely burned powder being developed at the muzzle, 
where it is most needed. 

Meanwhile, under the heat of combustion, the tough, 
sprinzy Winchester Driving Wad has expanded to fill the 
barrel snu^ all around. No gas escapes. It is completely 
sealed in. The wadding ^mxA«j up the shot evenly. 

At the muzzle the shot pellets slip out without jamming, 
while the wadding is checked for a brief interval by the 
constriction of the muzzle. // follows some distance behind 
the shot pattern. 

The shot cluster travels on unbroken by gas blast or wad- 
ding and makes the hard hitting, uniform pattern for which 
Winchester shot shells are world famous. 

FUh TaS FTaih. All Winchester smokeless shells are 
niade with the new Winchester Primer — the quickest and 
most powerful shot shell primer made. Its broad fish tail 
flash gives even and thorough ignition. Every grain of 

f>owder is completely burned up before the shot charge 
eaves the muzzle. 

Thm Crimp. The required degree of pressure necessary 
in seating the driving wads is worked out in combination 
with the hardness or the softness of the crimping required 
for any particular shell. 

Watmr-proofing and LabrictiHon. In the cold damp air 
of the marshes, or under the blazing sun at the traps, Win- 
chester shells will always play true. Winchester water- 
proofing process prevents them from swelling from damp- 
ness. Special lubrication of the paper fibres prevents 
brittleness and " splitting" in dry weather. 

Uniform Shmll: From primer to crimp, Winchester shells 
are constructed to insure the maximum pattern possible from 
any load and under all conditions. $100,000 is spent annually 
in the inspection and testing of finished shot shells. 25,000,000 
rounds of ammunition are fired every year in testing guns 
and ammunition. 

Clean hits and more of them 

To insure more hits and cleaner hits in the field or at the 
traps, be sure your shells are Winchester Leader and Repeater 
for Smokeless; Nublack and New Rival for Black Powder. 
Write for our Free Booklet on Shells. Wioohetter 
Repeating Arms Co., Dept. 571, New Haven, Coon., U.S. A. 

World Standard Can* and Ammanition 



25 September 


this means of reaching other 
than its own readers voith a 
story that has been refused at 
advertising rates by the New 
York newspapers and billboards. 
This is the story. 

In the course of a campaign against sedi- 
tious and disloyal publications, undertaken 
at the urgent request of the Government, The 
Tribune exix)sed the disloyalism of the Hearst 
newspapers in a series of articles entitled, 
" Coileil in the Flag-Hears-s-s-t." 

\V IIILE The Tribune was engaged in this 
work the newsdealers of Greater New York 
declared war on the Hearst newspajjers, for 
ecouamic and mtriotic reasons. All the mem- 
bers of the New York Publishers' Associa- 
tion, except The Triliune, resolved to treat 
this action on the part of the newsdealei-s as 
an illegal Iwycott, and agreed to support 
Hearst by refusing to sell their papers to any 
• - dealer who stopped buying the Ilearst papers. 
This was to say that a newsdealer who for 
any reason refusetl to handle Ilearst's Amer- 
ican or Journal, or who reduced his daily 
onlers for them, couFd buy no other morning 
or evening newspaper. The Publishers' Asso- 
ciation was afraid that if the newsdealers 
couhl overthrow the influence of Hearst they 
would be strong enough to demand a general 
retluction in the price of papers. 

In view of its fight against the Hearst 
newspapers which had led to their being 
denounced by the National Security League 
aiul barretl from many commmiities for patri- 
otic reasons. The Tribune could not stand 
with Hearst commercially. The Tribune, 
thei-efore, acting alone, announced that it 
woidd sell to all newstlealers alike, without 
discrimination, whether they handletl Hearst 
newspapers or not, 

1 HEKEUPON the Publishera'As8<K'iation, 
representing (besides tlie Hearst ne\vsi«i)ers) 
The World, The Times. The Sun. The Herald, 
The Staats-Zeitung, The Evening Sun, The 
Evening World, The Evening Telegram. The 
Mail, The Globe and The Post, decreeil that the 
circulation of TheTribune should be restrainetl. 

It notified the American News Company 
not to deliver The Tribime to anti-Heai-st 


newsdealers. The American News Company 
is a monopoly and absolutely controls the 
distribiition of morning newspaj^ers in New 
York. Acting on orders from the Publishers' 
As.sociation, it refused to deliver The Tribime 
to newsdealers who either cancelled or re- 
duced their orders for the Hearst newspapers. 

/\T this iK)int The Tribune was expected 
to choose between sacrificing its anti-Hearst 
policy or losing control of its circulation. 
The Tribune chose instead to fight it out. 
The first step was to meet the newstlealers' 
economic problem by reducing the price of 
papers from #1.40 to #1.20 jjcr hinidred. 
When this was announced The American 
News Comjiany refusetl to deliver The 
Tribune at all to any newsdealer, except at 
the old price of #1.40 per huiulre<l. Having 
attempted liy its monopolistic jxiwer to <]io- 
tate to whom The Tribune should Ihj sold, 
this organization projx)sed now to say at 
what price it should be sold. 

The tribune then procee«led to or- 
ganize its own delivery system, a thing so 
difficult and costly to do that no New York 
morning newsjiajjer has ever tried it under 
conditions now existing. 


LEANWHILE Heai-st has invoked the 
aid of the citj' administration, through Mayor 
Hylan. whom the Hearst impers pretend to 
have elccteil to office. Licenses of the anti- 
Hearst dealei-s have V)een revoke<l. There 
have been injunction pnx'eedings in the 
c<iurts and incipient riots in the streets, all 
of which the New York newspa})ers have 
steadily ignore*! in their news columns. The 
newsdealere are soliciting jxjpular t-ontribu- 
tions to a fiuui. Checks should he 
sent to Lemuel Elv Quigg, their counsel, at 
32 Liberty Street, New York. 

1 HE Tribime has retaine<l Lindley M. 
Garrison, former Secretary of War, as s])ei'ial 
counsel to seek the legal retlress to which it 
may be entitled. 

Nont — Owing to the ttarcity of print paper ant} the rule* of ronserraiion note being obsertyfl. it is 
impossible for The Tribune to exreea tts paid circulation — othtrnise it wvuid undertake to give this 
story uniimited circulation in Seic York from its own press's. The same condition as to paper limits 
the distribution of pamphlets. Therefore, tho$e who are urith us in thix/i<jht art rtunrstrd to give this 
poge further arcuiation. Cut it out and mail it to your friends and ask them to rtmail it to othtrs. 

IVTem Qork (Tribune 

Digitized by 




Thk DepattniMit will iaolade dasotiptiTe notm, with 
or witbont brief commenta, about books reoeired 
hj The Outlook. Mnny of the important books will 
u*s more estanded and oritiaal treatment later 




Bjr Gene Stratton- 
Doubleday, Page & Co., GardetfCity. 

DauKhter of tbe Liand (A). 


Mrs. Stratton- Porter's new book is rightly 
described as " a story of American grit." 
Kate Bates fights her way against a &ther 
who thinkn j^nt a yoanger daughter's duty 
is to scrub Mil drudge so that the boys may 
have land fmA opportunities. Kate defies 
him, runs Mby, oecomes a teacher, and 
emphatically^^aoHIes her own canoe. For 
a long time sh^ develops the fighting power 
at the expense of feeung, but m the end 
she gets a broader view of Hfe and helpful- 
ness. There is more reality and terse writing 
and less exuberant sentiment in this story 
than in some of the writer's earlier books. 

Our Admirable Betty. By Jeffery Famol. 
Ldttle, Brown & Co., Boston. 81.60. 
A joyous romance of England in the 
eighteenth centwy, with villains, duek, 
highwaymen, fashionable gallants, the de- 
votion of an honest but unfashionable sol- 
dier to the charming and wilful Betty, and 
a coarse of true love which runs far from 
smoothly but ends happily. 

Virtuous Wives. By Owen Johnson. Little, 
Brown & Co., Boston. 81JJ0. 
The deadening and dangerous effect of 
a life of constant social excitement and 
&shionable emulation on wifely ideals and 
character is depicted closely and, no doubt, 
accurately. Tlie moral b evident^but one 
feels that there is unnecessary elaboration 
of the unwholesome phase described, 

Zeppelin's Paasenffer rrtie). By £. P. Oppen- 
beim. Little, Brown & Co., Boston. SI. SO. 
A German spy, dropped into a quiet 
flngHsh town from a Zeppelin, practically 
blackmails the sister and fianc^ of an 
English prisoner in a German camp into 
treating nim with sometliing more than 
tolerance in order that he may secure the 
prisoner's release. One must not take a plot- 
story too seriously, but both the ladies and 
the author are far too lenient to this detest- 
able person. 

Ireland. A Study in Nationalism. By Fnuiais 
Haokett. B. W. Huebaoh, New York. 92. 
Open-minded Americans will find this 
book by a clever Irishman, one of the edi- 
tors ot the " New Republic," persuasive 
and iQuminating ; even those whose minds 
are made up as to the merits of the Irish 
problem will find much new information 
presented ; and the average reader will be 
attracted by the style, which in brilliant to 
a fault in a serious historical discussion, 
and sometimes leaves the reader, as in the 
ease of the writings of another clever Irish- 
man, Bernard Snaw, in doubt as to jusi 
where the author himself stands. 

B«wirter at Armageddon (A). By Will Irwin. 
O. Appletm A Co., New York. SI .SO, 
The author as a war correspondent 
is among the best and best known p{ 
American writers. His opportunities -have ' 
been unusnaL He writes of affairs 4n 
France, Switzerland, and Italy, of warfare 
on sea and on land, and always he has a 
hearty sympathy with the peoples of the 
coantriee and places visited and with the 
war effort of ttie Allies. There are innu- 
merable touches of human nature and hu- 
man experience aa well as of humor. The 
articles in their present collected form de- 
serve and will obtain a wide reading. I 

nm PMuta 

Thm Babblaa 

Tiny Pellets 

of Com Hearts are Steam Exploded — 

Puffed to Bubbles, Raindrop Size — 

To Make Com Puffs 

There are toasted corn bubbles — called Corn Puffs — which form the 
finest of the Puffed Grains, some folks think. 

They are airy, flimsy, drop-size globules, with a multiplied toasted com 

• Sweet pellets of hominy are sealed in huge guns, then subjected to fear- 
ful heat. Then exploded to eight times former size. 

The object is to blast every food cell, to make digestion easy. But the result 
is also a food confection — the most delightful product ever made from com. 

For the War-Time Milk Dish 

Coundess children nowadays get Corn Puffs in their bowls of milk. 

They are thin, crisp, flavory morsels, light as air. And never was a com 
food so fitted to digest. 
Between meals children eat them dry, lightly doused with melted butter. 

Keep Com Puffs wfth your other Puffed Grains. It's a winsome, wheat- 
conserving dainty, And,iike all Puffed Grains, the blasted food cells make 
it hygienic food. 

Com Puffed Puffed 
Puffs Rice Wheat 

All Bubble Grains 
Each 15c 

Bxcapt In 
Far Wmt 

The Quaker Qats Q>mpaiiy 

Sole Maker* 


Digitized by y<JKJKJWlC 



25 Septeeiber 


All legitimate questions from Outlook readers about investment securities will be answered either by pononal letter or 
in these pages. The Outlook cannot, of course, undertake to guarantee against loss resulting fnnn any specific invest- 
ment. Therefore it will not advise the purchase of any specific security. But it will give to inquirers &cts of record at 
information resulting from expert investigation, leaving the responsibility for final decision to the investor. And it will 
admit to its pages only those financial advertisements which after thorough expert scmtiny are believed to be worthy of 
oonfidence. All letters of inquiry regarding investmoit securities should be addressed to 


A Personal Appeal 

Buy Liberty Bonds- 
Buy to Your Utmost 

The duty of every American citizen is plain — as plain as the 
duty of every American soldier. 

The soldier's duty is to fight for Liberty. 
The citizen's duty is to /en^ for Liberty. 

But the time has gone by for merely "doing one's bit". We must do our 
all, if the war is to be won. No true patriot can be content with a subscrip- 
tion to the Fourth Liberty Loan that is less than the limit he can afford. 

Buy Liberty Bonds and buy to your utmost! The loan is larger than 
before — the effort must be greater than before — the obligation on each 
and every one of us is greater. If you bought one bond in previous 
Loans, buy two. If you bought ten, buy twenty now. 

Back up our boys in France with a smashing oversubscription of the Fourth 
Liberty Loan — an oversubscription that will wake the echoes in Berlin. 

Every dollar you subscribe goes to arm and equip and protect our 
boys in France — to save the lives of those inestimably dear — to bring 
them home safely. 

Let your subscription measure up to your patriotism! Buy Liberty 
Bonus and buy to the utmost! 



BMablithed 1882 


ISO Broadway 



Locb Aiode BMl. 



Straus Building 
San FnANasco PHiLADBtJ>iaA 

Cncker Bide Stock Excbuifc BMi: 

Digitized by 








TTTTHEN the ina?nitade of this war 
% 1 / first bore iteieii in upon our con- 

W scioasness, the ahnost oniverBal 
opinion was that it must come to 
a speedy dose, if for no other reason than 
tbe pronibitiTe cost. As each season rolled 
•roand it seemed as if the limit of the bel- 
ligerent nations' ability to finance them- 
a^ves had been reached ; but they con- 
tinned to float successfijly larger and 
larger loans nntil the total, as recently esti- 
mated, has reached the neighborhood of 
seventy billions of dollars. This figure is 
exdosiTe of some three-quarters of a bill- 
ion borrowed by Switzerhind, Holland, and 
Spain, principally for mobilization ex- 
penses, and covers only the internal loans 
of the various countries. 

As might be supposed, Grermany, Aus- 
tria, and Hnngaty nead the list widi ap- 
proximatdy twenty-nine billions, while 
Great Britain and her colonies take second 
place with a little over fifteen biUione, and 
the United States third with $10,220,990,- 
560. France and Russia have each raised 
in this way over six billions, and Italy 
about two and one-half billions. 

Great Britain has brought out the largest 
single war loan to date, that of February, 
1917, for $4,811,000,000 ; but tbe United 
States is about to overshadow this total 
with an offering of six billions for subecrip- 
taon. These two countries are alone in insti- 
tnting intensive campaign for the purpose 
of wstributing loans among numerous 
small investors. This method has been 
highly successful, and follows sound finan- 
cial hnes, for the burden is thus lifted from 
the banks, enabling them to loan to indi- 
vidnaJs on war bonds as collateral, instead 
of purchasing for their own account These 
loMis are callable in whole or in part, 
which makes for the ultimate liquidation 
of the obligation out of income, and to that 
extent is conducive to saving. A stronger 
economic position results. 

Althougn our Liberty loans have in- 
creased from two to three and four billions, 
each one in itself a record, with seeming 
ease, the task upon which we embark on 
September 28 is little short of colossaL 
For its successful culmination the co-opera- 
tion of every one will be needed. It is 
incumbent upon us to buy aU we can with 
cash and with the use of our individual 
credit, afterward seeing that the obligations 
thus incurred are Uquidated bv the results 
of small self-denials, which will appear as 
nothing when considered in the light of 
contributions, however small, to the cause 
of civilization. 


Q. IhaTeaboatySjTOOtoiiiTest. Do yon consider 
tbe following iaenee fint clan and conaerratiTe ? 
Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul geneml and 

refuDoiiiK mortgage 4H per cent bonds. 
Seaboard Air Line fint and consolidated 6 per 

cent bonds. 
Central Aisientine Railway 6 per cent convertible 

gold notes. 
Pere Marquette Railway first mortgage series 

" B '° 4 per cent gold bands. 
Gas yoa toggest any others ? 

A. All the bonds which you mention are, 
in oar judgment, safe and conservative and 
suitable for tbe general requirements of 
the individual investor. 

Ton are without question using good 
iudgment in selecting for the most part 
UMiff-term investments. Simply as a matter 
of diversification, it might be worth your 
while to consider investmg a part of your 
funds in some of the short-time industrial 
issues, offered, as you probably know, at 



They're going over there on 

"A.B.A." 3?r£ Cheques 

On what kind of funds are you going over there to engage 
in works of mercy or to perform sterner acts of duty? Are 
you going to travel on funds that are safe and convenient? 
"A.B.A" Cheques are safe because those you purchase are 
usable only after you have countersigned them. They are 
conuenienf because of just the right denominations ($10, $20, 
$50, and $100), compactly arranged in a neat little pocket 
case and good for payment of purchases and services in all 
Allied and neutral countries. 

Thousands of men and women embarking in war work have 
supplied themselves with this "safest, handiest travel money." 
Elntire units of nurses have been equipped with "A.B.A" 
Cheques, before sailing. You can conserve your time and 
spare yourself many annoyances by getting a supply of these 
Cheques at your bank. 

// your bank does not sell them, apply to 

Bankers Trust Company 









No Innrtor ha* erar f oreclond a Martemge, tak«o a toot 

oi butd or lost a doUarou a Danlorth Partn Mortgage. 

For further Information regardinfc our Farm Loans and 

Bonda write for Booklet and luTeatora' List No. U. 



Founded A«D. II 



Is in practically erery instance used for improre- 
ments to increase farm production and contribute 
more to winning the war. Safety is assured by ex- 
oepCional aecurity— improved. prodnctlTe farms In 
only best sections of three m richest agTicnltural 
States, Ohio, Indiana, and IlUnols ; by leKal Kuar^ 
antee of principal and Interest at »'i, i and by 
record of nearly sixty years without loas. 

Write tor Special BoUetin and Booklet 04. 


^^ tmWitii 186BL-CnilJ at »■»>■ t3.<IO«l«00 

Coosiderlnir income, Iftlety, mnd 

o[^Kn\inixy for patriotic lervfcc. 

Straus FArm Mor^^ffcs are hlfrhly 

drtinble wmr time InvevtiDeDti 



On Part Payment Plan 

9100 — $500 — $1000 

We hne tamied two books of unusual 
interest to those who an seekinx invest- 
ments that combine 

Certainly of Income 
Safety of Principal 
Ea$m of MaiketabUity 

Ask for loura Inrftlmmti No. l!>2f> and A 
Sa ft tray to Save No. J.'i^fi and learn how 
tmty it is to own an Iowa Municipal Bond, 
Iowa First Farm Mortgage or Iowa First Farm 
Mortgage Bond. 

Bankers Mwtgage Company 

Csvital $2,000,000 
DmMouim Iowa 

Digitized by VJWVJV IV^ 



25 September 



Fancy Table Linens 

Itidian NmmJlepoint on Craam 
Haitdwooen Linmn. Set of 
hinnty - Hoe pieeea coiuiet- 
ing of 20-inch Centerpiece 
and two eixea of plate Doilime 


From France, Italy, Ireland, Spain, Madeira and 
Fayal Islands, also India, China and Japan, we 
have collected an assortment of Fancy Linens, 
distinctive in character and many of which are 
moderate in price. 

Luncheon Sets — round, square, oval and oblong in many 
styles of Embroidery and Lace. Twenty-five pieces to a set. 

$10.50 to 175.00 per set. 

Mosaic and Italian Cut-work Tea Cloths. One to one 

and a half yards square. $7.50 to 55.00. 

Tea Napkins — plain and fancy in a large and attractive variety. 

$5.00 to 67.50 per dozen. 

Lace Luncheon and Dinner Cloths in a number of exquisite 
designs. These Cloths are made in round and oblong shapes. 

$57.50 to 350.00. 

Scarfs of every size and description. Lace-trimmed, Em- 
broidered, Italian Needlepoint, Mosaic, Sicilian, etc., 

from $2.00 to 150.00 each. 

Tray Cloths — oval and oblong, in many styles of Embroidery 
and Lace. 

Estimates and drawings submitted for the embroidering of 
monograms, crests, etc. Linens to be embroidered for the Holi- 
days should be ordered now. 

Our illustrated Fall and Winter Catalogue showing many 

other attractive Household Linens mailed 

gladly on request. 

i James McCutcheon & Go 

I Fifth Avenue, 34th & 33d Sts., N. Y 


Reg. Tiadt-Mark 


«r "tl r ■ In every line of bouMbokt, educmtioiwL biuinew, or pemual aervice— dome«tlc w 

T AIIIT W AllTft »*"T!?* S"**"*" "'wF'SfSS'??^ ■'!™?.i;4**^' etc.-whather you require he! 
1 UUI TT CUllO R altUfttiotL may be filled through a little umounoement in the clovifled dolnmna of The 
Outlook. If you have ■ome article to seU or exchange, these oolumna mav prove of real value 
to you aa they have to maay otherm. Send for deacriptive circular and order blank AND FILL YOUR WAJfTS. AddraH 
I>epartinent of Clasalfled Advertlalnff, TUK OUTLOOK. 381 Fourth Avenue. New York 

^ workers, teachers, 
help or are seeking 
"* oolnmna of The 

■•• gi_rn_i H S^^'* Food* Mora Farm li^fim | 

FIkKJ ■ "«™'"* *** \\nc%, American farms are the I 
im*#l ■ focxl foctories of Ihe world. Loan your J 
p4|Wa« ■ dollar! to lubricate the " whceJi ■* uf | 
rAKPl ■ Aericulture. An hivestment in our Farm 1 

" . __m Mortcajtes and Real Hstate Bonda Is 

WKIUtfkl patriotic. profiUblr.nnd^afc Wnteloilay| 
riUIUViKjH for Pamphlet " S ' and current otTerlnifS. I 
^ Amounts to fuit. L J, Lasiv < Cs., Brsari I 
■~^" 1.1. Cnftta/ an.f Surfiius^OOfiOo\ 





(Jl tat Ike laproTOMrt af Stracti 

iTugrntnqTXMXRTBom) co. 

Write for Circalar OS 
and Prit, 

OR, Oaklaad. CaUf . 


Quatioiu and Atuwert (Continued) 
prices to yield from 1 Uil% per cent. We 
refer particularly to Bethlehem Steel 7s, 
Armour Gs, Proctor & Gamble 78, Amal- 
gamated Sn?ar 7s, Duquesne Light Gs, and 
American Cotton Oil (s. 

Q. Pleaae answer in The Ontlook : Do jrou con- 
sider Cities Serrioe Preferred a good boj at present 
price ? How do 70a oonaider the stock as to intrin- 
sic value ? 

A. We consider Cities Service Preferred 
one of the best of the public utility pre- 
ferre<I stocks. The dividend is now being 
earned four times over. 

Whether tlie stock is a good buy at the 
present price is a question which depends 
very largely on the attitude of the Govern- 
ment towards public utilities, the attitude 
of the public and the State utility corarnis- 
sions, as well as on all tlie innumerable 
factors related to the world of finance 
present and future. 

As an investment, we consider this stock 
a good purchase at tlie present price. 

Q, Will jron kindly tell rae what yoii know and 
think of American Telephone seveu-year 6a as s 
safe and sound purchase at present prices — about 
94, 1 am told. 

A. The American Telephone and Tele- 
graph Company seven-year 6 per cent bonds 
are, in our judgment, a safe and conser^-a- 
tive investment as well as an attractive 
purchase at the issue price, 94 and interest. 

The convertible privilege adds an attrac- 
tive speculative feature to the bonds. The 
terms of convertibility give the holder an 
option on the stock of tliis company at 106 
per cent between 1920 and 192o. 

Do you regard Bethleheni Steel 8 per cent 
(erred as sate as American Locomotive or 

Steel Car ? 

I have some investments in the latter t^ro and 
had iu mind to tnr the former, if not thoagiit by 
my business friends to be risky. I should be gieatlj 
obliged to you for an opinion. 

A. We regard Bethlehem Steel 8 per 
cent preferre<l as being practically assured 
of the continuance of uie present dividend. 
The company is in strong financial condi- 
tion and IS carrying on work which is in- 
dispensable to tne prosecution of the war. 
The management is pursuing a. conserva- 
tive and foresighted policy looking toward 
the continuance of the compuiy's prosper- 
ity after the war is over. To our mmJ, 
BeUilehem Steel 8 per cent preferred de- 
serves a higher rating than American 
Locomotive preferred or Pressed Steel Car 

(^. In a recent issue yon spoke of the Inter- 
nauonal Paper Company stock as desiT&ble at this 
time. Do you consider it safe enough for a person U 
moderate means? 

A. We did not intend, in mentioning 
International Paper Company preferred, to 
imply that we considerad it an entirely 
conservative investment for a person in 
your circumstances. Whether one of mod- 
erate means ought to buy such a stork 
depends upon whether he can afford to take 
some risk, and whether he would suffer 
materiallv if the dividends were to be dis- 

If you will examine carefully the article 
in_ which you saw the stock mentioned, yon 
will find tiiat we were comparing it with 
some very low-grade bonds which, after 
all, although they are called " bonds," are 
not by reason of that fact entirely safe 
from an investment standpoint. 

In our opinion there can be UtUe ques- 
tion about the continuance of the present 
dividend of 6 per cent on the preferred 
stock of the International Paper Companv, 
this in spite of the fact that recent earnings 
have not come up to expectations. 

Digitized by VJ^^^^V iC 





1 was struck with the incident related by 
John Van Ess of a visit by an American 
to a school up the Tigris, where he found 
the teacher instructing the scholars some- 
thing about the New World. The teacher 
requested the American to tell them some- 
thing about his home land. The American, 
pointing on the map to the Isthmus of 
Panama, told of the project of uniting 
two continents ; after wluch the teacher 
stepped forward and said : " This teaches 
UB now we are privileged to live in a land 
where Allah is known and feared. Over 
there they purpose to cross Allah's path by 
making water to flow where he made land. ' 

How like an incident which happened 
right here in Maryland ! I was born 
and raised in western Maryland,, where 
the Dunkards are largely dominant as 
farmers. These Dun^ros are opposed 
to war, do not go to law, and accept 
the Bible literally. When the project of 
building the Chesapeake and Onio Canal 
was started, there was little trouble in secur- 
ing the right of way until the conunittee 
struck the Dunkard settlement in Wash- 
ington County, Maryland. Those old, 
bearded men (liiey never shave) were ob- 
stinate ; " If the Liord intended water to be 
there, he would have put it there." Long 
months were spent in trying to bring these 
simple-mindea people around to appreciate 
the value to then- land and the commercial 
value of the enterprise. Finally, in one last 
effort, the committee called a meeting of 
the landowners, when ui^ent appeals were 
made to agree to the right of way. One 
after another met the appeal by saying, 
" If the Lord intended water to be tliere, he 
would have put it there." The case was 
almost hopeless, when fin'ally one old, long- 
bearded elder rose and said, " And Isaac's 
servants dig-ged a well," and sat down. 
That was a knockout for the literalists. 
The right of way was granted and the canal 
was " &g-ged." John R. King. 

Bakimore, Maryland. 


Tlie writer, a young lieutenant in the 
United States Air Service, after being 
foiumissioned and sent abroad, was given 
s|>ecial training in England as a " fignting 
scout " and assigned for active service to a 
squadron of the Royal Air Force on the 
I* rench sector of the front. He has been 
entirely in English camps and with Eng- 
lish associates. Previous letters told of 
flights into Germany escorting bombing 
planes, but this, written to his mother, re- 
lates an unusual incident, one of the many 
that are combining to build a bridge of 
brotherhood between the nations: 

" You will remember that I took my 
violin with me when I left home. I have 
kept it in my trunk, where it is safe and 
Bonnd, and I think I have had it out only 
three times. You know I believe there are 
but very tew times when one camiot be 
happy, or at least contented -with one's lot 
if one can nuike up his mind to it and look 
at the cheerful side of things, for, as the old 
saying goes, 'There is a silver lining to 
every croud,' if one will but see it. iSome- 
times it takes a lot of hunting to find it 

" At such a time I have played my violin 
to myself and found comfort in running 
over Uie old, sweet airs, many of which I 
can remember. The last time I did it was 
at this c«mp and not very long ago. Dark- 
ness was just coming on as I started to put 



Sets the Pace for 


CLEAN, modem and sanitary fac- 
tory conditions should be^in at the 
•washrooms. Enthusiasm, ^ood will, 
greater productivity, lower operating 
cost, increased profits result when the 
standard of modem equipment throu^ont the factory is on a par with 

*'j$iiittda»4r Plumbing Fixtures 

The ^ood health of yoar employes, mental 
OS well as physical, is as important to your 
piant as the "tnned-np" ronninA order of 
your machinery. In the washrooms of 
huAe plants and offices in almost every 
field of manufacture and business,, Sam- 
tary Plumbing Fixtoros are demonstrat- 
ing this daily. The same applies to the 
housing conditions surrounding employes. 

Oar book, "Factory Sanitation," will ^va 
you a very comprehensive idea of modem 
plumbing equipment for factories. One 
of our service men will be ^d to ^ve 
yon some very definite infbrmation and to 
help with the preliminary plans for your 
equipmeat. - write -for. the |bopk and send 
for a service man. See 'StBttdsnT Fiztoies 
at any of the showrooms in the list below. 

Standard <$attttai!9 IPI^. Co: 

Makers of ^tMutaMT PlnmUni Ffactnres 







. . I as OCVON8HIK 

1215 WALNUT 

. 4I«.44« WATtS 
1 0S MXTM 










IHE , 





..a4S-2SB S. THIRD 
...451 W. FEDCPAL 
....StXO- to JACOB 


..•S W. WATER ST. 
,.. 14S.SI M.UXOME 


new. MAIN 











away my violin, when my door opened 
slowly and I made out a figure hesitating 
on the threshold. It proved to be one of 
the mechanics, and as ne grasped my band 
he begged me, with consiaerable feeling in 
his voice, not to be angry with him for pre- 
suming to speak to an officer and interrupt 
him. He said he had been passing outsiae 
when he heard the notes of a violin and the 
old songs of his boyhood days. He rambled 
on and on, telling me of his old home in 
Wales, the people he used to know, and 
about his fatner and mother. He used to 
work the bellows of the church organ, and 
so had acquired an ear for music. Some 
famous violinist once played in the village 
and made a deep impression on him. 

"He said he Knew my name was , 

tliough I never remember having seen him 
before, and that it was an old Welsh name. 

He wished that I could visit his home town, 
and assured me of a warm welcome if I 
would come after the war. He said he was 
going to write home to-morrow about the 
American who could make a fiddle talk and 
sing. ' God Save the King ' had eswcially 
impressed him, but I had been thinJiiug of 
' America ' when I played those notes. 
Then he suddenly became self-conscious 
and embarrassed, and backed out of the 
door, bowing and begging forgiveness fur 
the interruption. 

" It was a strange occurrence. His def- 
erence to me as an oflioer was because in 
the English army there is a wide difference 
between an enlisted man and a commis- 
sioned officer. The gap is great, not only 
because of rank, but also of class distinc- 
tion, and before the war was very much 
greater than at present.'*'-^ ^^ ^. 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 



25 September 


Advertising rates : Hotels and Resorts, Apartments, Toara and TisTel, Real Estate, LdTe Stook and Ponltry, fifty cents per agate line, 
four oolnmns to the page. Not less than {oar lines accepted. In oaloolating^ space required for an advertisenient, count an areiage of six words to the 
line nnless display type is desired. 

" Want " advertisements, nnder the various headings, " Board and Rooms," " Help Wanted," etc., ten cents for each word or initial, tnolndinic 
the address, for each insertion. The fint word of each " Want" advertisement is set in capital letters without additional charge. Other words 
may be set in capitals, if desired, at double rates. If answers are to be addressed in care of The Outlook, twenty-five cents is charged for the box 
number named in the advertisement. Replies will be forwarded by us to the advertiser and bill for postage r^dered. Special headings appropriate to 
the department may be arranged for on application. 

Orders and copy for Classified Advertisements must be leoeived with remittanoe ten days before the date of iasue when it is intended the adT«itiae- 
ment shall first appear. 


Hotels and Resorts Hotels and Resorts 


The Wayside Inn 

New miford, I.ltehfleld Co.. Conn. 

InthsIoothUtooftheBarkshiras. Openanthe 
'Mr. An ideal plsoe (or yoor ■ommer's rest. 
houzB from New York. Write for booklet. 
Mrs. J. E. CASTLiE, Proprietor. 



If Tm Are Tired or Not Feeliag WeU 

yon cannot find a more comfortable plaoe in 

New KnghHid than 



It sflords all the comforts of boms without 






- Ideal 

, October, and Novem- 

OoU, tcnnla, nilUig, bathing, motoring. 

Philipse Manor Inn 

Directly on the Hudson River, at 
Philipse Manor, North Tarrytown 

View unsoriMMaed— antamn moat attnuitlre 
season of all Hotorinc, tramninir— eair oom- 
mottna. Fall and winter ratca by day 
•^ ■ \ Tarrytown 176. 

. Fail and winter Tatea by day or weelt. 
TeiBplMaa, " ' "~ 


Hotel Le Marquis 

31at StTMt A Fifth 

Naw Yoric 

•Tsrjr odtTnteooa and homt 

oomf<Mrt, and oommuKU rmK to peop)« of 
n&ammat wiahhic to Uta od AiD«no»a Pfam 
■od be witUn easy nnoh o< aociftl and dnh 
mfttio oantora. 

Room and batb 94JM per day with me^ti, or 
fl50 per day witlioat meala. 

lUuetratod Booklet Kkdlj eant upon 



on aristooiBtic Brooklyn Heishta 
and eojoy the advaatacet of 


the meat famous roof in America. Dine MO 
feet in the air. with a paoognwhic view of 
Haw Tork Banor atretohinK before you tor 
a diitanna of 10 mllca. Dandnar If you Ilka. 

Write for booklet b! 
■•atatw. Wcfa. aad RtmM Stnala. Bn»klyB 


The Margaret Louisa 

of the Y. W. O. A. 
14 East 16th St, Naw York 
A homsUke hotel lor aeltaniiportinc 
woman. Binsle rooms (1.00 per night. Doa- 
ble rooms (2 beds) (1.40 per night. Restan- 
nnt open to all woman. Hand for eimalar. 


adioining Judaon Memorial Church. Booma 

wiUi and witliout Jbath. Bates |ajOp« day, 

^ Special ratal for two 

or more. Location vary oantnl. Cionvsnlanc 
to all elencad and atreat car linaa. 



Ideal for outdoor life tai whiter. HAbooae 
Ceitlfl^ otty water. 

and taidlTldasI 

Northein cook__. . 

Uisa MART E. SANBORN, Aiken, S. C 


t£ita>Ht*ttt Itn 

^ FhHl Balk BmiI aaJ S 
r MA.. ■ lOO^m sirt. Hiigili ram. YiMA 

Health Resorts 

LINDEN l^t MmI rtaca lar Skk 
y* . ■"- . P^elttaClWall 

DerlMtawB, ra. lAn bistltation daToted to 
the peraonal atadT and apecialiiad traat- 
mant of the inTalid. Maamga, Klectricity. 
Hydratbenuiy. Apply for droular to 
BoincT itnTiiicoTT WAuns. M.D. 
(late of The Walter Banltanam) 

Crest View Sanatorium 

Greenwich, Ct. FiratKslaaiinaUnapacta, 
homa oomtoita. H. M. HncHoocK, H.D. 

Dr. Reeves' Sanitariam 

A Private Homa for chronic narToua, and 
' iljpatianta. AlaoeUerlT people reqairing 


Beautiful, auiet, raatful and homelike. Orer 
W yaera ofauooeasful work. Thorougii, re- 
llaue, dependable and ethical. Krary oom- 
Coit and conrenienoe. Accommodationa ot 
superior quality. Diaorderof thenervouasya. 
tarn aapecialty. Fred. W. Seward, Sr.. M.D., 
Fred. wTSaward, Jr., H.D., Ooabeo. N. T. 

Real Estate 



Some oultirating : haa naw foUT'Kiom bungs, 
low, Teiands on front and aide; bam with 
•aran atanohiooa, two hen^ionaea ; all build- 
inga naw. Spring water; tOO feet eleration ; 
a^aotlTe view. B minutes* walk from Wood- 
bury trolley. Price KJM),_11,400 cash. 

i. I. CASSmivWoodbary, Conn. 



Avoid your coal UU ! i oompletely fni^ 
niahad modem oottagea (8 and 4 rooma), 1600 
(or tM0-|190 eachKNear Bookladge. Month 
free if aacurad before November. 

Blair, Cocoa, Florida. BoxU. 



Camp Gahada, an estab- 
lished Camp for Boys 

Adirondack Mta. near Corinth, K. T. laiga, 
tttlly equipped ladge, gravity apring wMar 
aystam, tetmla conrta, etc. Addreaa L. Da Witt 
ranar407 BrandywineAve.,SchanacUdy,N. Y. 


FOB 8AI.E-Charleaton, S. C. 
leadmg South Atlantic port and winter 
touriat raaort, laiga. handaome modem nai- 
abla bottlevaid, fnntinK on baautitul Ashley 
Blver. HgatdeairablaBoathera winter home. 
Susan P. Froet, * Broad St., Charlc^on, 8. C. 



VOR SAIiE— in East Tenneesee 

Home <A ratlied physician, 80 aona, covering 
mountain top overlooking town and river; 
1,500 feet above aea lavelTldeal cUmate all the 

Bar round. WaUpf' 

baroa, hennery. 

J ear round. Well planted to fruit and floweia 
baraa, hennery, gardana and farm land. 
Qood mountain niaa available f or amaU can. 

Comfortable honae with 

Ug fireplaoa, hot-water heat, 
tHoMghtaToIf ^ 

luge Urlng-room, 
at, telephone, elec- 

tric likhta, eleotrio pump, modem plumbing. 

Woodon jdaoa. Addreia 

Jobs A. BooiwaLL, Box 322, Bsirimsn,Tenn. 


Bualnaaa Situation* 
XXBC DTI VK woman tor leaponslble posi- 
tion in huxe New England lunch room. Prnue 
give age, GnahMaa or teaching experience aud 
salary desired. «,3at, Ontk>oL 

WANTED— Toong kdy stenographer and 
BpaniahtrsnaSttarbyeatalliahednouae. Per- 
manent position. (,2110, Outlook. 
OomoanionaaaJ OomaatloMalpara 

WANTED— Reflned, middlfraged woman 
aa honiekeapeHiook. Twenty-four hoon off 
weekly. Good aalary. Write Mra. Foote, 
Wahiut St., Bnglewood, N. J. 


Oompanlonaaad Domaat'e Halpeis 

WANTED— Mother's helper, two diiklim 
Pennaylvania farai. 0,211, Ontlook. 

MOTHER'S helper tor children « aadl ami 
liabyO months. Ability to neak rraach<i» 
sirea, but not nsoaaaary. Good Iwme aad 
annuner In the country. Write fuUy a> to 
experlaoce, salary, giving i d ei e u oea. SJK 

WANTED— Nurae fcr two diildren T and S 
yean old. Beferancea. Address Mis. Walter 
Okxitt, can Jamea W. Cheney, Booth Km- 
chaster. Conn. 

MATURE women for KiiiiiiiKias OS mothart 
helper tor girls two and ei^it— vmst Frend^ 
immsry inatraction, knowledge of phyAal 
care. State age, nationality. Beat rafaienna 
8,184. Ootkwk. 

WANTED— Xxperienoed nurae (or thra 

chOdnn, Ptelnileld, New Jeraay. Parmanam 

poaitlon. One year or more r a t ett aic e m 

quired. State qoaUflcationa. 0,381, Ontlock. 

Taachara and Oovamaaaaa 

OOVBRNESSBS, natrcoa, BothsnC kab. 
era, cafeteria managera. diatitiane lib 
Kicbarda, Stl Howard BnUdiw, Providaaoa. 
Boiton, 18 Jackaon BaUTninlty Ooait, 
Thuiadaya, 11 to 1. 

iV ANTED-Compatent taneben for pebVe 
and private idioola and eollagaa. Send for bul- 
letin. AJbany Taachara' Agency. Albany, H.T. 

WANTED - Two experienoed taaeben. 
lAtin-Engiiah and mathematica. BUaadMol 
Knide..«7Wandbcanl. SoathemacbaoL BUi 
aMtude. 0,aM, Outkwk. 


Bueinaaa Situations 
UNITERSITr woman, apechU « 
dflairea poaition aa aecretary, ssslsti 
aaalatant manager. 8,215, OutkMdc 

BUSINESS manager and matron by r- 
ilned, capable, experienced couple In midiCe 
Ufe. Chfldren'a noma or boya'^ oollege nr*. 
f erred. Now employed prominent InatitntidB. 
6o anywhere. Addieaa 0,2Gi, Outic ok. 

OompanlonaaWOomaatle Halpais 

OENTLEWOMAN.- Homamaker open for 
poaition : economical, motherly, oompaniiis. 
able. iniMarvineM^ Phihdetpiiia, fZ^ 

TOUNO lady of reSnement and adncatn 
deairea poaition aa companion to lady la pri- 
vate family. New Tork or vkihilty. ojsn 

REFINED woman, capaUa and wdW. 
deairea poaition aa oonvaleaoent naaae « 
companion or houaakaeper in private isaiilT- 
8,298, Outleok. 

T—e hata and Ooeamaaaaa 

VISITING govemeea aedu poiitian. Kla- 
dergaitner. 8,948, Outioak. 

FRENCH teache^ collage graduate, «mmm 
position achool or nmily, vlaitinc urafelnd- 
Kugliah, music, 8,259, Outlook. 


PATRIOTISM brldiaaa Abbott, aha 4 
veraee of America— The Piedgv — 

2 veraea c( The StspSpangl 
Uttle leaflet. FurUierlbec 

ledge to Um rtw- 
(led Banner, allSi 


1iydistributlng~liryoaT letters, & pay enval 
opee, te achoola, enundiea, chiba, aad i 

gBtherinin. 200 
Arthur M. V 


^ for 30 
■, N. J. 

IF you are in the habit of buying The Outlook at a news-stand, it will be to 
your advantage to place a standing order with your newsdealer. The War Indus- 
tries Board has requested publishers to discontinue the acceptance of unsold 
copies from newsdealers, and in conformity with that request The Outlook is now 
non-returnable. To prevent loss, therefore, newsdealers must limit their orders to 
actual sales. Buyers at news-stands may co-operate and avoid disappointment 
by giving their dealer a standing order for the weekly delivery of The Outlook 



Digitized by 




Jse Just tke Steam Yon Need- 
No More — 

No Less — 


Pontrol BMh ladiator indi- 
vidually and pomtively. If 
you want HotH radiAtion, 
turn the ADSCOOradnated 
Radiator Valve aoooidingly 
and use (^ amoant of steam 
-nof All On"or"AU Off." 


Aimo9phmHe Syttmm 

bifatoi ViW ai «• AUCO tf^K 
In the iiHiit flooaomkml, u wen 
a« tli*> siinplMt anteta of iteam 
heating ftjr Indlildiial hotnw or 
indiistrul hooiiiig ; for ofBoe or 
public biiiUtaigB, aithar iliigle 
or in ij^roups. 

With the ADSCO Bntam than 
are uo uuiMSi no air Donnd radi- 
ator*, DO "water 
faammer." do leaky 
valTaa, do dlaigiaa- 
•Ua odora. 


tree from 29 to 

Wrila far BalUtia I3S-0 

■tin l«f- teOa howa bof water 
retain can be chanced orer 
> a better oootiolled^ ASBCO 
Tatem. If joo are tntareatad 
■ baattaa a ktoup at bvUd- 
«*, aaklor oar boUatln on "Central Btatfan Haatinc. 


Coaral Offlea and Warfca I N. Toaawaada. N. Y. 
NmrYork CUcaia Saallla 

One Bankf 

in every four 



this adwrtisement 

is number 14 

of a series 

Art /YV^tal 

Steel Office Furniture, Safes and Files 

In the days when German professors 
rere welcome in American college towns a 
istingaiahed Herr Doktor was lectaring in 

New England ooUeee. He noted the 
^stem of lodging stuoents here, and said 
> an American niend, "I see that yon 
idge your students in dormitories. In 
iermany oar students dissipate themselves 
U over the towitr' The learned doctor of 
»ar8e used the wbrd " dissipate " in a way 
lat will stand a dictionary test, bat its con- 
otation to American ears is unfortunate. 

" Our new maid," says the humorist of 
te « Scottish American." " stood in dismay 
»fore the statue of the Venus de Milo. 
wisting the dust-rag in her hands, she 
lid, dolefully, ' Befo' I stahta to work 
far, I jee' wants yo'-aU to know I didn't 
la' de arms oCTn dis little monument I 
St was dataway when I come V " 

Which is tiie more difBcult feat — to climb 
p the outside of a New York City sky- 
imper or to climb down? The Hmuan 
\j has been thrilling New Yorkers with 
m first-named act ; now comes Dare Devil 
tore and says that to climb down is much 
irder, because you can't see where you're 
liiig. He chaUenges the Human Fly to 
k up while he himself goes down on any 
kcted building, the loser to pay a forfeit 
t S10,000 to any war charity the winner 
■ky name. Incidentally, it may be men- 
incd that the Homan Fly now makea his 
M more spectacular by chmbing up a 
1^ building's outside walls at night, nis 


^ous way beingillnminatedby search- 

Harry Butters, a yonng man of means 
who devoted his life to the great cause in 
France and whose letters have recently 
been published, wrote to a friend that he 
was giving up all his accustomed luxuries, 
but one tmtt he disliked to discard was a 
fancy brand of soap called " Azurea." In- 
quiry at department stores in New York 
Uty elicited the fact that this is a French soap 
which till recently was still in the market 
and which sold for ninety-five cents a cake. 
Many other fant^ fVench soaps and per- 
fumes formerlv sold to fastidious customers 
can no longer oe obtained in this country. 

The war has caused deprivation of luxu- 
ries in himibler quarters also. It seems 
that many prize dogs have until recently 
been fed on fancy food, but now their 
rations must be cut. One prize dog is re- 
ported to have had on his menu two fresh- 
killed chickens a week ; he now has to be 
content with less expensive delicacies. A 
city butcher is reported to have had a stand- 
ing order for two loin chops a day for one 
canine pet and a pound of calfs liver for 
another. " They'd turn up their noses at 
scrap meat," he said. These epicures of the 
animal world must now be content with 
ordinary fare, such as in the old days went 
to the butcher's favored customers for noth- 
ing as " meat for the dog." 

These interesting biographical compari- 
sons are found in Arcmoald Henderson's 

"Enropean Dramatists:" "Like Goethe, 
like George Eliot, Henrik Ibcen was that 
rarest of prodacts, an artistic temperament 
endowed with a scientific bnun. Along with 
Eklgar Allan Foe, Ibsen must be ranked as 
a strange composite of scientific worker and 
artistic thinker." It will be noted that a 
woman is included in the above enumera- 
tion of the " rarest of prodacts." 

The " things our grandmothers did " are 
so often ridiculed that it is pleasant to read 
this in the " American A^iculturist " in 
an article about protection from lightnmg : 
" Our CTandmothers used to ensconce thlsm- 
selves [as a- refuge from lightning] in the 
midst of a large, thick feather bed — and 
this was a wise thing to do, for feathers 
are a non-conductor. Tlie article goes on : 
" Rubber being a non-conductor, it is well 
to slip on a pair of overshoes during a 
storm, so that if the house happens to be 
struck, the shock cannot prove injurious. 
It affords the greatest relief