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Full text of "New remedies: the method of preparing and administering them; their effects on the healthy amd diseased economy, &c"

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FOR THEIR ADMINISTRATION. 

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ROBLEV bijNGLISON, M. D., 



SIXTH SDITIOK, 



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PHILADELPHIA: 

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IB n t e c e lit aocoiding to ActofCongieM»in the year 1861, 
Bt Roblst Dumoliboh, M. D., 
the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Eastern District of PennsyhiiiiA. 



WM. S. TOUnO, rBIllTBB. 



391 
1 851 



PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION. 



The last few years bave been rich in valuable gifts to Thera- 
peutics; and amongst these, ether, chloroform, and other so called 
anaesthetics, are worthy of special attention. They have been 
introduced since the appearance of the last edition of the '^ JVeto 
Remedies J' Other articles have been proposed for the first time, 
and the experience of observers has added numerous interesting 
facts to our knowledge of the virtues of remedial agents pre- 
viously employed. To include all these, it has been necessary to 
add very greatly to the dimensions of the present edition. 

The therapeutical agents now first admitted into this work, 
some of which have been newly introduced into pharmacology, 
and the old agents brought prominently forward with novel ap- 
plications, and which may consequently be regarded as JVew 
Remedies, are the following: — Adansonia digitata, Benzoate of 
Ammonia, Valerianate of Bismuth, Sulphate of Cadmium, Chlo- 
roform, Collodion, Cantharidal Collodion, Cotyledon Umbilicus, 
Sulphuric Ether, Strong Chloric Ether, Compound Ether, Hura 
Braziliensis, Iberis Amara, Iodic Acid, Iodide of Chloride of Mer- 
cury, Powdered Iron, Citrate of Magnetic Oxide of Iron, Citrate 
of Iron and Magnesia, Sulphate of Iron and Alumina, Tannate of 
Iron, Valerianate of Iron, Nitrate of Lead, Lemon Juice, Citrate 
of Magnesia, Salts of Manganese, Oleum Cadinum, Arsenite of 
Quinia, Hydriodate of Iron and Quinia, Sanicula Marilandica, and 
Sumbul. 



IV PREFACE. 



To increase the practical value of the work to the therapeutical 
inquirer, the author has added to the Index of Diseases the parti- 
cular pages in which the various remedies prescribed in those dis- 
eases are referred to. 



Philadrlphia, ) 

18 GiRARD St., March, 1851. > 



ROBLEY DUNGLISON. 



Electro -Magnetismus. Since the above was written, the 
iauthor has received a work by Dr. Froriep,^ of Berlin, in which 
he gives cases of good effects produced by Electro-Magnetism, in 
"rheumatic effusions spread over the body" — acute, subacute and 
chronic ; in hemiplegia rheumatica^ rheumatic neuralgia, rheu- 
matic facial palsy , spasmodic contractions of the muscles of the 
face, toriters^ cramp, rheumatic paralysis of the forearm, hip, 
muscles of ihe thigh and leg, &c., &c. He rarely employed any 
remedial agency along with it, being desirous of ascertaining, 
without the possibility of doubt, its real effect. Currents were 
transmitted through the medium of sponges saturated with salt 
and water, and applied to the skin, or by acupuncturation, when 
it was requisite to act energetically on parts deeply seated, by 
introducing two needles of platinum in the course of a nerve. 
Dr. Froriep's testimony is highly confirmative of the good effects 
ascribed to Electro-Magnetism in certain diseases, in the body of 
this work.* 

> On the Therapeutic applkation of Electro-Magnetiam in the Treatment of Rheu- 
matic and Paralytic Afiections. By Robert Froriep, Doctor in Medicine and Surgery, 
Public Profeasor of General Surgery in the University of Berlin, dcc^ &c, &c Trans- 
lated from the German by Richard Moore Lawrance, M. D., Surgeon-Extraordinary to 
H. R. H. the Duke of 8axe Coburg and Gotha. London, 1850. 

*8ee page 296. 



PREFACE 



TO THE FIRST AND SECOND EDITIONS. 



The information concerning the remedies of more fecent intro- 
duction lies scattered in so many works, that it cannot be accessible 
to the mass of physicians. The author has, consequently, believed, 
that he would be rendering a service to the profession by concen- 
trating the results of experience within reasonable limits, so that they 
nuy be rea<li]y available to all. The majority of the new agents — 
it will be found — have been furnished by modem chemistry; and 
their employment has been attended with this advantage, that — when 
properly prepared — they are not liable to uncertainty in their opera- 
tion; whilst the various plants from which strychnia, emetia, quinia, 
Sce.t are obtained, are liable to irregularity of action, owing to faulty 
desiccation, to the season in which they are culled, d&c, d^c— -ob- 
jections which cannot apply to the active principles when separated 
from them. 

Owing to the difficulty of sifting the results of true from those of 
false observation, the author has esteemed it proper to give, as far as 
he was able, tlie recorded experience of all who have employed the 
remedies in question. 

It need scarcely be said, that to make a correct observer and a 
good therapeutist, a knowledge of every department of medical science 
is demanded. Anatomy, physiology, pathology, and materia medica 
are, indeed, but introductory to the great object which the practitioner 
has in view — the alleviation and removal of suffering. Were it other- 
wise, it would be but necessary to institute empirical trials, in every 
case of disease, with various articles in and out of the received lists 
of the materia medica, and from such vague trials to endeavour to 
deduce what is termed "experience." 

The erroneous idea prevails too extensively, that every one is ca- 
pable of profiting by observation, and that; therefore, all who have 
had the same amount of experience, must be equally capable of 
treating disease. Setting aside, however, the consideration of the 
differences that must necessarily result from the varied powers of in- 
dividuals, it can scarcely be maintained, that he whose attention hat 



▼i PREFACB. 



not been properly directed to the study of the preliminary branchei 
which have been enumerated, and whose mind has not been trained 
in tracing the relation between cause and effect, can ever duly profit 
by mere experience in that which has been properly termed ** the 
most inductive of all sciences."* 

To treat disease methodically and effectively, the nature of the 
actions of the living tissues, in both the healthy and morbid conditions, 
mast be correctly appreciated ; the effects which the articles of the 
materia medica are capable of exerting under both those conditions, 
must be known from accurate observations, and not until then can the 
practitioner prescribe with any well-founded prospect of success. 
Numerous errors would be perpetrated, were we to profess, and to 
carry out such profession, that we are guided by experience only, 
unless that experience had been gained by a due consideration of all 
the physiological, pathological, and therapeutical bearings of the sub- 
ject. In illustration of this, the well-known case cited by Dr. Paris 
in his Life of Sir Humphry Davy may be adduced. The enthusi- 
astic Beddoes, having hypothetically inferred that the inhalation of 
the nitrous oxide might be a specific for palsy, a patient was selected 
for trial, and placed under the care of Davy — at the time assistant to 
Beddoes. Before administering the gas, Davy thought of ascertaining 
the temperature of the body by the thermometer placed under the 
tongue. The paralytic, deeply impressed by Dr. Beddoes with the 
certainty of the success of the remedy, of which he knew nothing — 
soon after the thermometer was placed in his mouth, believing this to 
be the great curative agent— declared that he felt somewhat better. 
Nothing more was, therefore, done; and he was requested to return 
on the following day. The same form was then gone through with 
the same results; and, at the end of a fortnight, the sick man was dis- 
missed cured, no agent of any kind having been employed except the 
thermometer. 

Now, if the reasoning powers were not duly exerted, experience 
would obviously teach, as the result of this case, that the thermome- 
ter is an anti paralytic. The rational therapeutist is not, however, 
satisfied with this knowledge of the fact, for **fact it is." He in- 
quires into the mode in which the effect was induced, and he is not 
long in referring it to the influence exerted by the moral over the phy- 
Mique; and he classes the thermometer with Perkinism, animal mag- 

' Propterea sola expcrientia absque doctrind et ratione inocrta est et conjecturalis. 
Qui enim novit Hiabartiaruin purgare bilem, ncscit tamcn quando, quibus, ct cui luoiix) 
profit, nisi sit medicus doctus et peritus.^ Primeroa. Dt vulgi erroribuM in medieind, 
Bk i cap. zL AjDHelod. 1639. 



PtSfACft. Vli 

Aetisnif and their congeneroas arts, — amongst articles that act chiefly 
through the new impressions which they make on the senses. 

It might seem to those who are unacquainted with medical history ^ 
that in periods approaching our own, no such illogical inferences 
could be deduced, and that it has been the custom with the profession 
for ages to bestow all due caution and the most rational inquiry in the 
collection of facts. Such, however, is far from being the case. It is« 
indeed, humiliating to reflect on the credulity or faulty observation 
that has existed among nations, who have successfully cultivated 
many of the other branches of natural science. It ought scarcely to 
be credited, and yet it is nevertheless true, that the aqua apermatis 
ranarum or "vvater of frog's spawn" was to be found not very 
long ago in the Pharmacopoeia of Sardinia; and the aqua hirundi" 
num cum castoreo or ** water of swallows with castor " in those of 
Manheim and Wirtemberg. The latter preparation is directed to be 
made as follows : — Take of young swallows bruised in a mortar^ 
forty; rue, two handfuls; castor, one ounce; white wine, three pints. 
This disgusting preparation was given in hysteria and epilepsy* 
Again; the bufones exsiccati or ** dried toads" were in the Pharma- 
oopoeias of Spain and Wirtemberg, — having been formerly adminis- 
tered in powder, as a diuretic, in dropsy. In another work,' the an- 
tbor has cited many examples as strange as those instanced, and it 
would be easy to enumerate still more. 

In a recent French journal, and in an article by M. Ricord — the 
distinguished physician to the Venereal Hospital of Paris — we have 
an example of the pertinacity with which ancient prepossessions and 
inculcations adhere to us, and how difHcult it is to think and to act 
according to the unbiassed suggestions of our own observation and 
reflection. In the treatment of blennorrhagic epididymitis or swelled 
testicle from gonorrhoea, M. Ricord recommends compression to be 
made by means of the **sparadrap " or plaster of Vigo with mercury* 
The history of the plaster of Vigo is singular. Although still in the 
Pharmacopoeia of Paris, it resembles its prototypes but in name. In 
the Pharmacopoeia of Wirtemberg, it is directed to be formed of 
living frogs and living earth-worms, boiled with various inert and 
by us rejected herbs in white wine and vinegar, — the decoction being 
strained, and added to olive oil, litharge, oil of bayberries, turpentine, 
yellow wax, olibanum, euphorbium, and liquid storax, all melted 
together. 

1 General Therapeutics, p. 55. Philad. 183& [See, also, his General Therapentici 
ad Mat Medica, 5th edit L 66. Philad. 1850.] 



viii 

Yet it is scarcely possible to conceive, thai the frog*s spawn could 
have been supposed to yield a product on distillation diflering fron 
that of other animal substances when subjected to the same process ; 
that the swallows — in the preparation cited — added any thing to the 
antispasmodic virtues of the castor, or that the living frogs and earth- 
worms exerted any efficacy in the sparadrap de Vigo — a plaster eoH 
ployed for compressing tumours, and for which purpose we use one 
of simple adhesive constituents. They have all been properly re* 
jaoied from the lists of our medicinal agents, and are looked upon as 
irrational; yet we are compelled to infer from the fact of their having 
baen received, in some countries, into officinal publications — into the 
pharmacopceias, which emanate from congre^ lions of those of our 
profession, who are esteemed learned by education and by practice— 
that they were originally admitted under the sanction of fancied ex- 
perience. 

In the darker periods of medical history, monstrous and revoldng 
polypharmacal preparations were introduced, and nothing but the 
blindest devotion to authority or to established custom could have 
occasioned tlieir retention. It is not long since the Theriac of An- 
dromachus — itself but a modification of the Antidotum Mithridatum — 
was dii» missed from Uic British pharmacopceias. It consisted of 
aoventy-two articles, and was a farrago — as Dr. Ueberden observed 
—that had ** no better tide to the name of Mithridates than — as it so 
well resembles—- the numerous undisciplined forces of a barbarous 
kingt made up of a dissonant crowd collected from different countries, 
mighty in appearance, but in reality an ineffective multitude, that only 
hinder each otlier.** The electuarium opiatum polypharmacum of 
the Parisian codex— the descendant of the old theriac, with even an 
additional number of ingredients — contains acrid substances, 5; as- 
tringent, 5; bitter, 22; indigenous aromatics, 10; umbelliferous aro- 
matics, 7; balsams and resinous substances, 8; fetid ingredient's, 6; 
ivarcoticj, 1; earthy substances, 1; gummy or amylaceous, 4; sac- 
charine, 3. Total, 72— and one of these xhe Jlesh of the viper; a 
litde more than a grain of opium — which may be regarded as a prin- 
cipal eflfectivu ingredient— being contained in a dram of the compound. 
Yet, when the question arose in tlie London College of Physicians, 
as to what should be the fate of this '' many-headed monster,'* and 
when it was proposed by Dr. Ueberden, that it should be ejected from 
the pharraacopoDia,— on a division, it was found that there were //«>- 
teen votes for retaining and fourteen for rejecting it. Its ostracism 
was determined by a majority of one only, in a learned body twenty- 
seven of whose members were present. 



Staeh was the fate^ of a ^htiiotogeneom famgo," Whicb, a§ Dr. Parli^ 

has remarked, *<can be vindicated upon no principle of combmation," 
and yet enjoyed the confidenee of physicians for ages — a confidence 
ottqueslionably founded, in their belief, on^experieiH^e, but experieitce- 
baeed upon defective observation, and, consequently, on erroneous' 
inferenees— the results being consecutive rather than consequent, and 
bearing no relation whatever to the assigned cause. 

ff^ppily, more correct ideas are beginning to be entertained oti the 
subject of true experience^ It is now felt — to employ the language 
of a distinguished surgeon — Professor Liston — that the greatest num« 
ber of well-assorted faets on a particular subject constitutes experience, 
whether these facts have been culled in five years or in fifty. A better 
system, too, of observation generally prevails, so that we have dis- 
carded the absurd and revolting agents that are still retained in the 
books of authority of some European countries. Much, however, 
remains to be done. The catalogue of the Materia Medica is yet 
overstocked, and the pruning knife has still to be applied, to lop oft 
many of the redundancies which have been proved to be such by the 
more accurate attention that is daily paid to tracing the due relation 
between cause and efiect. *'To purchase a clear and warrantable 
body of truth,*' as Sir Thomas Browne has well observed, **we must 
forget and part with much we know." 

Every one will be compelled to admit, that it is the duty of the 
correct therapeutist to doubt the existence of qualities in any article 
until they have been adequately proved. When such is the case, no 
reasoning can set aside facts ; but unless the evidence be overpowering, 
it is equally his duty to remain in doubt, especially should reflection 
suggest to him strong grounds for believing, that the number of obser- 
vations has been insufficient, that they have not been properly made, 
or are unconsequential. 

To enable the profession to form an accurate estimate of the value 
of remedies of more recent introduction, or of the older remedies 
whose use has been revived under novel applications, the present 
volume was undertaken by the author. In Germany, several works 
exist on this subject, and that of Riecke — to which the author has 
repeatedly referred — served as a basis for many of the articles; his 
observations, however, do not come down farther than the year 1836. 
Some of the statements — especially in relation to the observations of 
certain of the German physicians — are given on Riecke's authority, 



X PRKFACK. 

for he has rarely appended references, by which the correctness of his 
assertions could be tested.^ 

It has been a great object with the author to furnish exact references 
to works in which farther infjprmation may be obtained, and the number 
of these will show, that he has devoted no small amount of time and 
attention to the subject He has likewise added the results of his own 
experience in public and in private. The motto which he has selected 
^-prodesse quam co/i^ptci— conveys, in epitome, his feelings. His 
sole object has been, ^ to be useful"— and if he has succeeded, the re- 
ward is ample. 

ROBLEY DUNGLISON. 

PhiladtlpMay Oetobtr 15, 1839. 

' lUoently, a second and enlarged edition of Riedce's work baa appeared; but tbe 
dMnpeuticai additions to it are by no means as namerons as tbe author had expected to 
find them. He has, consequently, made but few extracts from it in the present edition. 
It is entitled ** Die neuem Arzneimittel, ihxe physischen mid chemischen Eigenschaften, 
Bereitnngsweisen, Wirkungen auf den gesungen und kranken Organismus, und therapeu- 
tische Benutzung. Von Victor Adolf Riecke, Dr. Med., Mitglied des Vereins fiii 
HeSkunde in Preussen, u. s. w.; zweite, ^Uig umgeaibeitete Auflage. Stuttgart, 1840." 
[Note to Pie&oe of edition of 1641.] 



ALPHABETICAL 
LIST OF REMfeDIES. 



Abeille raellifiqae, 703. 
Aoetas chinicus, 605. 

morphicQS, 523. 

morphii, 523. 

quinicus, 605. 

strychnicus, 664. 
Acetone, 645. 
Acetam ligneum, 13. 

lignorum eropyreumaticum, 13. 

pyrolignosum, 13. 
Acid, acetic, empyreumatic; 13. 

aoric, 127. 

benzoic, 17. 

chromic. 701. 

cyanhyclric, 23. 

falltc, 20. 
ydriodic, liquid, 486. 
hydrocyanic, 23. 

medicinal^ 24. 
lactic, 36. 
mariatic, dephlogisticated, 182. 

oxygenated, 182. 
Ditric, 701. 
Ditro-muriatic, 187. 
of milk, 36. 

oxymuriatic, liquid, 189. 
prussic, 23. 
pyroligneous, 13. 
pyrolignic, 13. 
tannic, 38. 
Acide hydrocyanique, 23. 
benzoique, 17. 
chromique, 701. 
^llique, 20. 
lodique, 491. 
lactique, 36. 
nitrique, 701. 
pmssique, 23. 
pyro-aceiique, 13. 
pyroligneux, 13. 
pyrolignique, 13. 
tannique, 38. 
Acidum aceticum eropyreumati- 
cum, 13. 
benzoicum, 17. 

beiizoicum per sublimationero, 17. 
borussicum, 23. 
eahiocicuro, 148. 



Acidum cainc», 148. 
chromicum, 701. 

f&llicum, 20. 
ydrocyanicum, 23. 

iodicum, 491. i 

lacteum, 36. 

lacticum, 36. ^ 

lactis, 36. 

ligni pyro-oleosum, 13. 

roarinum dephiogisticatum, 182. 

muriaticum oxygenatum, 1R2. 

muriaticum oxygenatum ad coq. 
tagia, 189. 

nitricum, 701. 

prussicum, 23. 

pyro-aceticuro, 13. 

pyrolignosum, 13. 

pyroxylicum, 13. 

quercitannicum, 38. 

tannicum, 38. 

zooticum, 23. 

zootinicum, 23. 
Aconite, extract of, alcoholic, 51. 

extract of, ammoniated, 50. 
Aeon it ia, 45. 
Aconitine, 45. 
Aconitium, 45. 

Acqua balsamica arterialO; 82. 
Acqua Binelli, 82. \ 
Acqua Brocchieri, 84. 
Acqua Monterossi, 83. 
Actsa racemosa, 212. 
Actee, 212. 
Acupuncturation, 51. 
Acupuncture, 51. 
Adansonia digitata, 702. 
Adstringirende Brazilische Rinde, 

252. 
iEsculin, 410. 

iEsculus hippocastanum, 410. 
iEiher chloricus, 196. 

hydrocyanicua, 60. 

lignosus, 645. 

prussicus, 60. 

pyroacelicus, 645. 

sulphuricus, 61. 

8ulphuricu8 phosphoratus, 544. 

Titriolicus, 61. 



za 



Aetzroggen, 312. 
Afterkom, 312. 
Agaric blaoc, 138. 

white, 138. 
Agaricas albas, 138. 
Agathosma crenatntn, 293. 
Agathotes chirayita, 399. 
Aimaot, 496. 
Air-doaches into the Eustachian 

tube, 436. 
Akonitin, 45. 
Akapunktur, 51. 
Alaunerde, reine, 101. 
Alcali vegetabile salito-dephlogisti- 

catum, 581. 
Alcohol, mesitic, 645. 

saiphuris, 66%. 
Alcool de sou f re, 668. 
Alexiterium chloricum, 182. 
Almoad, bitter, water of, 80. 
Alumina, acetate of, 74. 

pure, 101. 

salts of, 74. 

sulphate of, 74. 
Alumince sales, 74. 
Alumine factice, 101. 

sels d', 74. 
Alurainii oxidum, 101. 
Aluminum, chloride of^ 74. 
Ammonia, arseniate of, 104. 

benzoate of, 19. 

hvdriodate of, 490. 

phosphate of, 76. 
Ammoniffi arsenias, 104. 

ferro-cilras, 342. 

phosphas, 76. 
Ammoniak arseniksanres, 104. 
Ammoniaque, ars^aiate d', 104. 

phosphate d^, 76. 
Ammoniated counter-irritants, 245. 
Ammonii iodidum, 490. 
Ammonium arsenicum, 104. 

arseniksanres, 104. 

hydroiodicum, 490. 

iodatum, 490. 

iodide of, 490. 

phosphorsaures, 76. 
Amylum iodatum, 490. 
Anthrakokali, 80. 

sulphuretted, 80. 
Antidynous counter-irritants, 245. 
Apfeljrranale, 402. 
Apis domestica, 703. 

mellifica, 703. 
Aqua amy^dalarum, 80. 

arsenical is Pearson! i, 105. 

balsamica arterial is, 82. 



Aaaa Binellii, 82. 

Brocchierii, 84. 

chlorioi, 189. 

lauro-cerasi, 30, 81. 

natri oxymoriatici, 643. 

oxygrenata-mnriatica, 189. 

oxygeno-muriatica, 189. 

oxymuriatica, 189. 

picis liquids, 89. 
Argent, cblorure d', 94. 

et d 'ammoniaque chlornre d', 95. 

cyan u re d', 97. 

iodure d', 98. 

oxide d', 99. 

preparations d\ 92. 
Argenti chloridum, 94. 

chloruretum, 94. 

cyanidum, 97. 

cyanuretum, 97. 

et ammoniaci chlornretum, 95. 

et ammonie chloridum, 95. 

ioduretum, 98. 

iodidum, 98. 

muriatico-ammoniati liquor, 96. 

oxidum, 99. 

prsparata, 92. 
Argentum chloratum, 94. 

cyanogenatura, 97. 

divisum, 101. 

hydrocyanicum, 97. 

iodatum, 98. 

limatum, 101. 

muriaticum, 94. 

muriaticum ammoniatum, 95. 

oxydatum, 99. 

salitum, 94. 
Argil, pure, 101. 
Argilla pura, 101. 
Armoise commune, 108. 
Arnica, 103. 

montana, 103. 

plauensis, 103. 
Arnique, 103. 
Arsenias ammonise, 104. 

potassce acidus, 336. 
Arseniate of soda, 105. 
Arsenic, hydriodate of, 106. 

iodide of, 106. 

and mercury. double iodideof,429. 

iodure de, 106. 

teriodide of, 106. 
Arsenici, 106. 

hydriodas, 106. 

et hydrargyri hydriodas, 429. 

et hydrargyri iodidum, 429. 

iodidum, 106. 

ioduretum, 106. 



ACniABETICAL COHTENTS* 



xm 



Ar«enioi teriodidam, 106. 
AreeQicum iodatam, 106. 
Axsenikiodiir, 106. 
Araeniksaures ammoniam, 104. 
Arseoite of potassa^ 105. 
Artaothe elongata. 506. 
Artemisia Tulgaris, 108. 

extractum resinosum, 111. 
Aspidiam filix mas, 381. 
Asoacoa, 715. 
Athyrium filix mas, 381. 
Atropia, 113. 
AtropiD, 113. 
Atropina, 113. 
Atropine, 113|. 
Atropinum, li3. 
Atropium. 113. 
Auri chloretnm, 120. 

chloretam cum chloreto natri, 122. 

chloridam, 120. 

chlora return, 120. 

Cjranidum, 125. 

Cjranuretum, 125. 

et sodii chloridum, 122. 

et sodii chloraretum, 122. 

et sodii perchloraretom, 122. 

iodidom, 126. 

ioduretum, 126. 

marias, 116. 

nitroronrias, 127. 

oxidum, 127. 

peroxidum, 127. 

prcparata, 116. 

pulTis, 129. 

terchloridum, 116. 

tercyanidum, 125. 

teroxydum, 127. 
Anrico-Datricum murias^ 122. 
Aoriferes composes, les, 117. 
Aaro-terchloride of sodium, 122. 
Aarum chloratum, 116. 

chloratum natronatum, 122. 

cyanatara, 125. 

cyanicura. 125. 

cyanogenatum, 125. 

hydrocyanicura, 125. 

kxlatom, 126. 

limatam, 129. 

metaliicum, 129. 

niariaticum, 116. 

mariaticum Datronatnm, 122. 

nitro-muriaticum, 127. 

oxydatam. 127. 

oxTdalatura rauriaticnm, 116. 

«alitom, 116. 

•esqaickloratum natronatnm, 122. 
Bachelor's bottoiu, 538. 



Balaustier, 403. 

Ballota lanata, 130. 

Ballota wollige, 130. 

Ballote cotonneuse, 130. 

Bandwurmwaldfarm, 381. 

Bans;, 166. 

Banksia Abyssinica, 139. 

Baobab, 702. 

Barii iodati hydras, 132. 

iodidum, 132. 
Barium iodatum, 132. 

iodide of, 132. 
Bark, resinous constituents of, 636. 

astringent, of Brazil, 252. 
Barosma crenata, 993. 
Raryt hydriodsaurer, 132. 
Baryta hydriodica, 132. 

hydriodate of. 132. 
Barytae hydriodas, 133. 
Barytin, 680. 
Barytium iodatum, 132. 
Baryumiodur, 132. 
Baumnuss, 493. 
Bebeeria, 133. 
Bebeerin, 133. 
Bebeerina, 133. 
Bebeerine, 133. 
Bee, 703. 
Beifusswurzel, 108. 

extract, 111. 

gemeiner, 108. 
Benzoate of ammonia, 19. 
Benzoesaure, 17. 
Berberin, 136. 
Berberina, 136. 
Berberine, 136. 
Berberin urn, 136. 
Berberisgelb, 136. 
Bergerthran, 545. 
Berliner Blau, 345. 
Betoine des Savoyards, 103. 
Biene, 703i 
Bignonenbaum, 137. 
Bignonia catalpa, 137. 
Bile, ox, 708. 
Bile, swine, 711. 
Bills porcina, 711« 
Bilis taurina, 708. 
Binellisches Wasser, 82. 
Biogamia, 398. 
Biomagneti^raus, 398. 
Bismuth, valerianate of, 704. 
Bisrouthi valerianas, 704. 
Bismuthum Talerianicum, 704. 
Bisulphuretum carbonii. 668. 
Bitter almonds, water o^ 80. 

oil of, 81. 



JQ? 



ALPHABETICAL COITTSMTaU 



\ 



Bittererde citronensaQres, 501. 
Bitterraandelwasser, 80. 
Blaokenheimer Thee, 390. 
BlaU) Berliner, 345. 

Pariser, 345. 
Blaud's Pills, 373. 
Blaasaure, 23. 

Blaasaures eisenoxydul Ziukoxid; 
695. 

Quecksilber, 413. 
Blaustoffeisen, 345. 
Blaastoffgold, 125. 
Blaustoffkalium, 588. 
Blaustoffqoecksilber, 413. 
Blaustoffsilber, 97. 
Blaastoffzink, 694. 
Ble cornu, 312. 
Bled aTort^, 312. 

farouche, 312. 
Blei hydriodsaures, 578. 

iodwasserstoffsaures, 578.^ 
Bleichpulver, 153. 
Bleiiodid, 578. 

Bleioxyd, sal pete rsaa res, 723. 
Bleitannat, 580. 
Bleu de Prusse, 345. 
Blue, Prussian, 345. 

Berlin, 345. 
Boccho, 293. 
Bocchoe, 293. 
Bole, Armenian, 101. 
Boletus albus, 138. 

kiricis, 138. 

purgans, 138. 
Boocho, 293. 

Brayera anthelmintica, 139. 
Brechnuss. 538. 
Brechstofi, 309. 
Brom, 141. 
Brome^ 141. 
Bromeisen, 338. 
Brometum ferricum, 33S. 

hydrargyrosum, 412. 
Bromhydras kalii, 585. 

potasse, 585. 

potassii, 585. 
Brom id um potas&ii, 585. 
Bromin, 141. 
Bromina, 141. 
Bromine, 141. 
Bromineom, 141. 
Bromininm, 141. 
Brominum, 141. 
Bromium, 141. 
Bromkalium^ 585. 
Bromquecksilber, 41 2. 

doppelt, 412. 



Broraquecksilber in maximum, 412. 
Bromum, 141. 
Bromure de potassium, 585. 
Bromuretum kalii, 585. 

potassii, 585. 
Bromwasserstoffsaores eisenoxyd, 
338. 

kali, 585. 
Brucia, 145. 
Brucin, 145. 
Brucina, 145. 
Brucine, 145. 
Brush, salTanic, 398. 

metallic, 398. 
Buccublatter, 293. 
Buchu, 293. 
Buckeye, 410. 
Buckhu, 293. 
Bngbane, 219. 
Buranhem, 512. 
Butyrum zinci, 688. 
Cade Oel, 721. 
Cadmii sulphas, 705. 
Cadmium sulphuricum, 705. 
Cadmium schwefelsaures, 705. 
Cadmium, sulphate of, 705. 
Csruleum Beroliniense, 345. 

Borussicum, 345. 
Cahincie radix, 147. 
Cainane radix, 147. 
Cainca root. 147. 
Caincie acidum, 147. 
Caincawurzel, 147. 
Calcar^ 312. 
Calcana chlorata, 153. 

chloretum, 153. 

chlorica. 153. 
Calcarie cblorum, 153. 
Calcii bichloruretum, 153. 

oxychloruretum, 153. 

oxydi chloruretum, 153. 

proto-chloruretum, 153. 
Calcis bichloruretum, 153. 

chloridum, 153. 

hypochloris, 153. 

oxymurias, 153. 
Calcium, oxide de, chlorure d\ 163. 

protoxichlorure de, 153. 
Calendula Alpina, 103. 

officinalis, 150. 

satiTa, 150. 
Calendulin, 150. 
Caltha alpina, 103. 

sativa, 150. 
Calx cblorinata, 153. 

oxymuriatica, 153. 
Candytuft, bitter^ 716. 



147. 

Ckniimmionm, 145. 
Caniimmiam, 145. 
Gannabine, 166. 
Cknnabifi indica, 164. 
Caper qporge, 3^4. 
Carboneom trichloratiuiii 705. 

chloratnm, 196. 
Ckio Tim Una toeta, 173. 
Garbo animalis, 173. 

carnis, 173. 

mineraiisy 339. 
Ckfboii* seaqoi-chloride of, 705. 

aeaqui-iodide of, 176. 

sesaoi-iodarat of, 176. 

terchJoride of, 196, 705. 

trichloratnm, 705. 

ckloratom, 196. 
CarboDemn salphoTatam, 668. 

chJoratQm, 196. 

tichloratum, 705. 
Carbonis seMui-chloridam, 705. 

aeaqai-iodiaQin, 176. 

seMDi-iodaretain, 176. 

tricnloridoiD, 705. 
Carbonicam cbloratuixi, 705. 
Carboniam iodatam, 176. 
Carbure de soufre, 668. 
Carburet of salphar, 668. 
Carragaheen moss, 210. 
Carageea moss, 210. 
Carn^eenia, 210. 
Castanea equina, 410. 

parina, 410. 
CaUlpa, 137. 

arborea, 137. 

arborescens, 137. 

oordifolia, 137. 

tree, 137. 
Catapuce, 334. 
Cataputia minor, 334. 
Catawba tree, 137. 
Catheterism of the Eustachian 

tube, 436. 
Cephaelinum, 309. 
Cemua nigra, 339. 
Cetrarin, 177. 
Cetraiina, 177. 
Cetrarine, 177. 
Cetrarin nm, 177. 
ChauFre Indien, 164. 
Charbon, animal, 173. 
Charcoal, animal, 173. 
Chaux, chlorate de, 153. 

chlorure de, 153. 

mariate suroxigio^ oa oxigtoi 
de, 153. 



Chaoz, oziehloniTe de, 153. 

oximuriate de, 153. 

aouachlorate de, 153. 
Chestnut, horse, 410. 
Chimaphila, 179. 
Chimophila, 179. 
Chinastoff, 603. 
Chiuicus citras, 607. 

hjdrochloricus, 612. 
Chinii acetas, 605. 

citras, 607. 

ferrocjanas, 608. 

hjdrochloras, 612. 

murias, 612. 
Chinii nitras, 613. 

phosphas, 613. 

sulphas, 614. 

tannas, 635. 
Chinin, 603. 

arseniksaures, 606. 

citronensaures. 607. 

citroneaures, 607. 

eisenblausaures, 606. 

essigsaures, 605. 

gerbesaures, 635. 

ferbstoffsaures, 635. 
ydrochlorsaures, 612. 

iodwasserstoffsaures, 610. 

milchsaures, 611. 

phosphorsaures, 613. 

salpetersaures, 613. 

salxsaures, 612. 

schwefelsaures, 614. 

sulphat, 614. 

tanninsaures, 635. 

Taleriansaures, 633. 

xitronsaures, 607. 
Chinini acetas, 605. 

citras. 607. 

phospnas, 613. 
Chininum, 603. 

aceticum, 605. 

citricum, 607. 

hydriodicum, 610. 

laeticum, 611. 

muriaticum, 612. 

resitio-sulphuricum, 636. 

salitum, 612. 

tannicnm, 635. 

valerianicum, 633. 
Chinioidine, 636. 
Chinium, 603. 

aceticum, 605. 

citricum, 607. 

ferro-cyanogenatum, 606. 

ferro-hvdrocyanicum, 608. 

hydrochloricnm, 612. 



XVI 



ALBBABKXKUL OOVTSnt. 



Chiniiim inQriaticum» 612. 

nitricum, 613. 

pho(«i>horiouni| 613. 

salitum, 612. 

Bulphuricum, 614. 

taniiicuro, 635. 
Chinoidino, 636. 
Chinolein, 716. 
Chioooccs radix, 147* 
Chirayita, 399. 
Chirctta, 399. 
Chlor, 182. 

Chloras kalious depuratas, 581. 
Chloras potaMicud, 581. 
Chlorato do potastOy 581. 
Chlorbloip 722. 
Chlorcalciumoxyd, 153. 
Chloro, 1H2. 

eau de, 189. 

liquide, 189, 
Chlorctum auri| 120. 

cum chlornto oatrii, 182. 

calcnrie, 153. 

xinci, 688. 
Chlorflflssiffkeit, 189. 
Chlorf(afi, 182. 
ChIorf(oI(i, 130. 

natrium, 122. 
Chlorsilber, 94. 
Chlorflnldnatroniiini, 122. 
Cblornydrasmorpiiieiita 527. 

oainicuA, 613. 
Chlori aqoa, 18t. 

liquor, 189. 
Chloride of fpM aad iodioin, 122. 

of MKla, 64). 

of zinc, 688, 
Chlorine, 182. 

•olution of, 189. 
Chlorineum, 182. 
Chlorini aqua, 189. 
Ch\oriniam, 182. 
Chlorinnm, 182. 
Ch)orkalk. I.SS. 

Chiorkohlonfiioff, dieiiaoh, 706. 
Chlnrnntrnn. 643. 
Chlnrtmtrum. 643. 
Chlornform. 1J»6. 
Ohiorplfifin. 5TT. 
Chlornlnrinnfttriam. 57S. 
Ohlnrihiirps kah, 5Sl. 

nfitrum. i^4i>. 
Ohlomilhor. JM.. 

Ohlor9<viii0ji«9iifrkoi;, 64^ 
Ohinrnm. If^C, 

li<2ui<)«m. I£t8. 



Chlorare d^argent, 94. 

d'or, 120. 

d'or et sodiuTDj 122. 

d'oxide de sodium, 643. 

de plomb, 722. 

de eoude, 613. 
Cblorur&tum argenti, 94. 

argenti et ammooiffi, 95* 

auri, 120. 

auri et sodii, 122. 

oxidi calcii, 153. 

oxidi sodii, 643. 

potawsB oxidatum, 581. 

zincicum, 688. 
Chlorwasser, 189. 
Chlor, wasserigea, 189. 
Chlorzink, 688. 
Chondrus, 210. 

crispus, 210. 

polymorphus, 210. 
Christophskraot, traubenformiges, 

212. 
Chromium, peroxide of, 701. 
Chromnaure, 701. 
Chrysanthemum, 150. 
Churrus, 166. 
Ciciitinum, 706. 
Cimicifuga, 212. 
Cinchonia. 215. 

iodide of, 610. 
Cinchonin, 215. 
Cinchonine, 215. 
Cinchoninum, 215. 
Citras chinicus, 607. 

ferricus, 341. 

quinicus. 607. 
Citronensaft. 728. 
Clarus secalinus, 312. 

sili^inis, 312. 
Clou de seigle, 312. 
Codeia, 218. 
Codeine, 218. 
Codeiuum, 218. 
Cod-IiTor oil, 545. 
Cohort, 812. 
Cohosh, 212. 
Colchicia, 224. 
Colchicum. 223. 

autumnaie, 223. 
Colchiqne, 283. 
Collodion, 838. 

cantharidal, 236. 
Collodinm, 832« 

tinctom, 335. 
CompresMO, 237. 
Comjireaaion, 337. 
1 methodioal, 937. 



ALFHABETICAL CONTEirrS. 



XYU 



Coneine, 706. 
Conia, 706. 
CoDiciDam, 706. 
Contra-irritation, 245. 
Contre-irritation, 245. 
Corrigeen moss, 210. 
Cortex adstringeos Brasilieneis, 252. 
Cory 1 us rostrata, 254. 
Cotyledon umbilicus, 707. 
CouQter action, 245. 
Counter-irritant lotions, Granyille'Sj 
245. 

amraoniated, 245. 

antidynous, 245. 

Gondret's, 245. 

Granyille's, 245. 

RaspaiPs^ 245. 
Counter-irritation, 245. 
Consso, 139. 
Crayon noir, 339. 
Creasote, 255. 

Crocus martis aperiens, 876. 
Croton oil, 561. 
Cmsadinha raiz, 147. 
Cobeba, 231. 
Cobeben. 281. 
Cnbeben'pfeffer, 281. 
Cobebin, 282. 
Cubebs, 281. 
Cusso, 139. 
Cyanather, 60. 
Cyaneisen, 345. 
Cyaneisenzink, 695. 
Cyanetura hydrargyri, 403. 

kalii, 588. 

zinci, 694. 

zinci et ferri, 695. 
Cyangold, 125. 
Cyan hydras potasss, 588. 

kalicus, 588. 

zincicuS; 694. 
Cyanidum kalii, 588. 

mercurii, 413. 

potassii, 588. 
Cyankalium, 588. 
Cyanc^uecksilber, 413. 
Cyansilber, 97. 
Cy^nure d 'argent, 97. 

d'or, 125. 

de mercure, 413. 

de potassium, 588. 

de zinc, 694. 
Cyanuret of ethule, 60. 
Cyanuretum argenti, 97. 

anri, 125. 

aaricum, 125. 

ferrozindcaiD^ 695. 



Cyanuretum hydrargyri, 413. 

potassicum, 588. 

zincicnm, 694. 

zinci et ferri, 695. 
Cyanwasserstofiather, 60. 
Cyanwasserstoffsaure, 23. 
Cyanzink, 694. 
Delphia, 287. 
Dolphin, 287. 
Delphina, 287. 
Delphinia, 287. 
Dolphin ine, 287. 
Delphium, 287. 

Derosne'sches opiamsalz, 535. 
Digitalia, 289. 
Digitalin, 289. 
Digitalina, 289. 
Digitaline, 289. 
Digitalinum, 289. 
Diosma, 293. 
Diosmin, 294. 
Dogwood, Jamaica, 732. 
Donovan's solution, 429. 
Doronic d'Atlemagne, 103. 
Doronicum Germanicum, 103. 

plantaginis folio, 103. 
Drops, fever, Warbarg*s, 135. 
Druck, 237. 

Duftstrauchblatter, 393. 
£au d'amandes amdres, 80. 

de Binellij 83. 

de Brocchieri, 84. 

de chlore, 189. 

de goudron, 89. 

de Javelle, 643. 

m^dicinale d'Husson, 233. 

styptioue de Brocchieri, 84. 
Eisen. biausaures, 345. 
Eisenoromid, 338. 
Eisenchinin, citronensaures, 345. 
Eisencyanurcyanid, 345. 
Eiseniodur. 349. 
Eisen, kohlensaures, 371, 376. 
Eisenoxyd, braunes, 376. 

baldriansaures, 380. 

citronensaures, 341. 

eisenblausaures, 345. 

gerbesaures, 379. 

iodwasserstofisaures, 349. 

kohlensaures, 376. 

milchsaures, 359. 

roit amrooniak, 342. 

salpefersaures, 361. 
Eisenoxydbydrat, 364. 
Eisenoxydul arsensaures, 336. 

arson i'ksau res, 336. 

blausaures, 345, 



X¥tll 



Eisenoxydul citronsaurefi, 341. 

hydriodsaures, 849. 

iodwasserstonsaurefi, 610. 

kohlensaares, 364, 376. 

milchsaaresy 359. 
Eisenpraparate, 335. 
Eisenzink, blaasaures, 695* 
Eiseozinkcyanflr, 695. 
Electricitas. See GalvazusmoB. 

aniinalis, 393. 

galvanica seu metallica, 393. 
Electricity, galvanic, 393. ' 

magnetic, 396. 
Elect ro-magnetiamus, iv, 396. 
Electropunctura, 303. 
Electropuncturation. 303. 
Elixir of opium, M'Maim'a, 630. 
Emeta, 309. 
Emetia, 309. 
Emetina, 309. 
Emetium, 309. 
Emetine of the violet, 309* 

indigenous, 309. 
Epurge, 334. 
Ergot, 313. 
Ergota, 313. 
Ergotin, 331. 
Esprit pyroac^tique, 646. 
Essigalkohol, 645. 
Essiggeist, 645. 
Essigsaures morphiom* 523. 
Ether, acetic^ injections of, into the 
Eustachian xtube, 440. 

chloric, 196. 

chloric, strong, 207. 

compound, 209. 

hydrocyanic, 60. 

prussic, 60. 

pyroacetic, 645. 

sulphuric, 61. 

sulphurique, 61. 
Etherine, hydrocyanate of, 60. 
Ethyle, cyanuret of^ 60. 
Eupatorium huaco, 407. 
Euphorbia lathyris, 334. 
Euphorbie, purgirkdrner, 334. 
Exoneurism, 398. 
Extract, alcoholic, of nnx vomica, 

638. 
Extractum fills maris, 140. 

nncis vomicie alcoholicum, 638. 

opii aceticum, 526. 

resinosum radicis artemi^c, 111. 
Extrait alcoholique de noix vo* 
mique, 538. 

de guarana, 569. 

savonneux de I'arine^ 675. 



Extrakt geistiges der Kifthenaugaii, 

538. 
Fallkraut, 103. 
Farrenkraut, 381. 

mannlein, 381. 

mannliches, 381. 
Pel bovinum, 708. 

bovis, 708. 

tauri, 708. 
Per, ars^niate de, 336. 

bromure de, 338. 

carbure de, 339. 

citrate de, 341. 

cyanure de, 345. 

deutoxicyanure de, hydrate, 349. 

hydrate, deutocyaaure de, 345. 

hydriodate de, 349. 

iodure de, 349. 

lactate de, 359. 

nitrate de, 361. 

preparations de, 335. 

protocarbonate de, 371. 

protoiodure de, 349. 

r^duit par hydrogeoe, 335. 

souscarbonate de, 376. 

tannate de, 379. 

tritohydrocyanate fermri de, 945. 

tritohydroferro-cyanate de, 345. 

valerianate de, 380. 
Fern^ male, 381. 

shield, male, 381. 
Perri et alumins sulphas, 711. 

aromonio-citras, 343. 

et ammonie citras, 342. 

arsenias, 336. 

borussias, 345. 

bromidum, 338. 

carbonas, 371, 376. 

carbonas pnecipitatus, 376. 

carbonas saccharatum, 378. 

carbu return, 339. 

carburetum nativum, 339. 

citras, 341. 

cyanuretura, 345. 

deuto-carbonas fuscus, 376. 

ferrocyanuretum, 345. 

ferro-sesquicyanidum, 345. 

hydriodas, 349. 

hydrobromas, 338. 

iodidum, 349. 

ioduretum, 349. 

lactas, 359. 

et magnesie citras, 344. 

nitras, 361. 

nitratis liquor^ 361. 

nitrici oxydati liquor, 361. 

oxydi ferrocyanasy .845. 



Ferri oxydalatum kydjoeyanicmn, 
345. 

ozydum fascum, 376. 

oxydam hydnlani, 364. 

oxydum nibrum, 376. 

pereyanidam, 345. 

peraitrasp 361. 

peraeaqouutratis liquoFi 361. 

pneparata, 335. 

protocarboaaa, 371. 

prassias, 345. 

palris, 335. 

et quinis citraa, 845. 

aesqnicyaDiduiDf 345. 

aetqaioxidam hydiatum, 364. 

aesquioxydum, 364, 376. 

sabcarbonas, 376. 

tanoaa, 379. 

▼alerianas, 380. 
Fernigo, 364. 
Ferram ammoniacoHsitrieiim, 342. 

areeDiatam, 336. 

arsenicum oxydalatum, 336. 

bonissicum, 345. 

bromatam, 338. 

carbooatain, 364, 376. 

carboDatom pnecipitatunii 376. 

carbonicum oxydnlatum, 376. 

carboQicnm saccharatuin, 372. 

carburetam, 339. 

citricara, 341. 

citricum cam ammoniaco, 342. 

cyaDogenatam, 345. 

cyanaretam, 345. 

hydriodatum, 349. 

hydrobromicum oxydatamt 338. 

hydrocyanicum, 345. 

hydroiodicam oxydalatom, 349. 

iodatam, 349. 

lacticam, 359. 

nitratom, 361. 

nitricum oxydatoro, 361. 

oxydatum hydratum, 364. 

oxyduiatum hydrocyanicam, 345. 

oxydam hyJricom, 364. 

perbromatum, 338. 

aapercarba return, 339. 

tannicura, 379. 

Talerianicum, 380. 

zooticam, 345. 
Fiel de Boeuf, 708. 
Filix mas, 381. 
Firing, 251. 
Flechtenbitter der Islandiachen 

Flechle. 177. 
Fleischkohle, 173. 
Florea Benzoea, 17. 



Flores JBenzoinif 17. 
Flowers of Benjamin, 17. 
FormylsaperdiiJorid, 169. 
Formylsuperiodid, 176. 
Fougere male, 381. 
Fucus amylaceas, 383. 

crispas, 210. 

Irlandicas, 210. 

lichenoides, 383. 
Fuligo, 385. 

fornacum, 385. 

ligni, 385. 

splendens, 385. 
Faligokali, 389. 
Fu m igatio mariatioo-ozygeiiata, 

182. 
Fumigation de chlor, 182. 

de Gayton, 182. 

Guytonienne, 182. 

hy^i^niqae, 182. 
Fumigations, Guyton-Monreaa, 182. 
Fungus of the larch| 138. 

laricis, 138. 
Galeopsis angastifoliai 390. 

dabia, 390. 

grandiflora, 390. 

ochroleuca, 390. 

prostrata, 390. 

segetum, 390. 

yersicolor, 391. 

villosa, 391. 
Gall, ox, 708. 

swine, 708. 
Gallussaure, 20. 
Galvanic brush, 398. 

plates, 393. 

suppository, 399. 
Galvanisation localis^e, 397. 
Galvanism, 392. 
Galvauopuncture, 303. 
Gebarpulver, 312. 
Gegpnreizung, 245. 
Gentiana chirayita, 399. 
Gerbsaure^ 38. 
Gerbestoff, 38. 
Gerbestoffblei, 580. 
Gichtthran, 545. 
Gigartina lichenoides^ 363. 
Glanzruss, 385. 
Glycerin, 400. 
Glycerina, 400. 

Glyceryle, hydrate of oxide o^ 400. 
Glyceryloxyd, 400. 
Glyzenn, 400. 
Gobarem, 512. 

Gold and soda, hydrochlorateof, 122. 
mariate of, 122. 



XX 



ALPBABETICAL COMTKMTB. 



Gold and sodiam, chloride of, 122. 

cl)lorid, 120. 

ohlorid) saares, 120. 

chloride of, 120. 

cyan id, 125. 

cyanide of, 125. 

cyanuret of, 125. 

iodid, 126. 

iodide of, 126. 

ioddr, 126. 

ioduret of, 126. 

krystalle, 120. 

metallic, 129. 

metal lisches, 129. 

moriate of, 120. 

natrium-chlorid, 133. 

natrum-chlorid, 133. 

natrum, salzaures, 133. 

nitro-muriate of, 137. 

oxide of, 127. 

oxyd, 137. 

oxyd, blaasaures, 135. 

oxyd, hydrochlorsaurea, 120. 

oxydirtes, 137. 
' oxyddl, salzaures, 120. 

oxy natrium, salzsaures, 122. 

peroxide of, 127. 

praparate, 116. 

preparations of, 116. 

puWer, 129. 

salpetersalzsaares, 127. 

salz, Figuier's, 123. 

salzsaures, 120. 

eaure, 127. 

sodahaltiffes, salzanres, 133. 

terchloride of, 130. 

tercyanide of, 125. 
Gondret's comiter-irritants, 245. 
Gracilaria lichenoides, 383. 
Granatapfelbaum, 408. 
Granatbaum, 403. 
Granatillol, 561. 
Granatin, 403, 503. 
Granaturo, 402. 

Granville's counter-irritants, 245. 
Graphites, 339. 
Green, winter, 179. 
Grenadier, 403. 
Grenadin, 403, 503. 
Goaco, 407. 
Guarana, 569. 

Gnarana-samenteig, 569. >^ 
Gancotton, ethereal solution of, 332. 
Guniah, 166. 
Habbi, 139. 
Hachisch, 166. 
Hsmospasia, 718. 



Hcmostasis, 713. 
Hagenia Abyssinica, 139. 
Hahnensporn, 312. 
Haloidum oxygenatum, 581. 
Hanf, 164. 

Hanfnessel grossblumigte, 390. 
Hamstofi^ 675. 

HarnstoflL salpetersaures^ 677. 
Haschisch, 164. 
Haschischine, 166. 
Hazel, beaked, 354. 
H^mospasie, 712. 
H6mostasie, 713. 
Hemp, Indian, 164. 
Henricea pharroacearcha, 399. 
Herba sideritidis, 390. 
Herbe a pisser. 179. 
Herbe Saint Cnristophe, 213. 
Herbstblume, 223. 
Herbstzeitlose, 223< 
Hippocastanum, 410. 
Hohlzahns, grossbluthige, 390. 
Holzessig, 13. 
Holzessigsaure, 13. 
HoJzsaure, 13. 

brenzliche oder brandige, 13. 
Honeybee, 703. 
Honigbiene. 703. 
Hopfenmehl, 718. 
Hopfenstaub, 718. 
Hornblei. 722. 
Homseecf, 313. 
Hornsilber, 94. 
Horse chestnut, 410. 
Huaco, 407. 
Huile do foi de poisson, 545. 

de cade, 731. 

de gen^vrier, 731. 

de morue, 545. 

de pignon d*lnde, 561. 

volatile de rooutarde, 559. 
Hundsnessel, gelbe oder grossblu- 
thige, 390. 
Hura Braziliensis, 715. 
Hydrargyri bibromidum, 413. 

bicyanidum, 413. 

biiodatum, 421. 

biniodidum, 421. 

borussias, 413. 

bromidum, 412. 

cyanetom, 413. 

cyanidum, 413. 

cyanuretam, 413. 

deuto-bromidum, 413. 

deuto-ioduretum, 421. 

deutonitras, 427. 

dipemitras, 487i 



ALFHASITICAL O O mXEM H k 



XXI 



Hjrdrari|3rrlet arsenici iodidQm,429. 
et aumie proto-chloridam, 716. 
hjdrocjranas, 413. 
iddidolatam, 418. 
iodidum, 418. 

nibnim, 421. 
nitnis, 496. 
nitratom, 496. 
perbroroidum, 419. 
periodidam, 490. 
pernitTatis liquor, 428. 
pneparata, 419. 
protobromidom, 419. 
proto-iodidam, 418. 
proto-iodoretum, 418. 
protonitras, 496. 
prassias. 419. 
sabiodidQiDi 418. 
sapernitras, 497. 
Hydrargjmini biiodatnm cam kalio 
iodato, 599. 
biniodidam, 491. 
borassicnm, 413. 
bromatuni; 412. 
cyanetnm, 413. 
cjanogenatam, 413. 
hjdrocyaoienm, 413. 
icKiatimi) 418. 

cum chloride merpurii, 

491. 
flavum, 418. 
rubrum, 421. 
iodidum, 418. 
iodidulatum, 418. 
nitricum oxydatum, 497. 
nitricum oxydulatum, 496. 
perbromatum, 419. 
periodatum, 491. 
subiodatum, 418. 
zooticnm, 413. 
Hydras ferricus, 364. 
Hydriodas ammonie, 490. 
kalicus, 595. 
lixivic, 595. 
Hydriodate of ammonia, 490. 

of potassa, 595. 
Hydriodio aoid, liquid, 486. 
Hydrobromsaures kali, 585. 
Hydrochloras morphicus, 597. 
chinicus, 612. 

Hydrocyanas kalicus, 588. 

zincicns, 694. 
Hydrocyanather, 60. 
Hydrocyanate of etherine, 60. 
Hydrocyanic ether, 60. 
HydrocyaoB&ure, 23. 



Hydroiodas kalicna, 596. 

liziris, 595. 
Hydroiodsaures Eisenoxydul, 349. 
Hypochloris sodicus aqu& solutus, 

643. 
Iberia amara, 716. 
Indicum, 432. 
IndicuB color, 432. 
Indig, 439. 
Indigo, 439. 
Indigum, 439. 
Infusum picis liquids, 89. 

picis empyreumatics liauidc,89. 
Injections ot air, &c. into tne Eusta- 
chian tube, 436. 
lod, 443. 

lodammoniom, 490. 
lodarsen^ 106. 
lodarsenik, 106. 
lodatherid, 176. 
lodbaryum, 132. 
lodblei, 578. 

lodchlorqueoksilber, 49!^. 
lode, 443. 
lodeisen, 349. 
lodetum hydrargyricum, 491. 

hydrargyrosom, 418. 

zmci, 698. 
lodRold, 196. 

lodhydras kalicus sen potasse, 595. 
lodhydrargyrate of ioduret of potas- 
sium, 592. 
lodhydrargyrite do chlorure mer- 

cureux, 491. 
Iodic acid, 491. 
Iodide of ammonium, 490. 

of arsenic, 106. 

of carbon, 176. 

of chloride of mercury, 491. 

of iron, 349. 

of potassium, 595. 

of quinia,- 610. 

of silver, 98. 

of starch, 490. 

of sulphur, 673. 

of zinc, 698. 
lodidum ammonii, 490. 

amyli, 490. 

argenti, 98. 

arsenici, 106. 

baryi, 139. 

carDonis, 176. 
' hydrargyri chloridi, 491. 

hydrargyricum, 491. 

hydrargyrosum, 418. 

plumbi, 575. 

potassii, 696. 



A&mABBTIOAL CAIlffliifM* 



lodidam qninic, SIO. 

Iodine, 443. 

lodinum, 443. 

lodinschwefel, 673. 

lodium, 443. 

lodl^alium, 595. 

lodkohlenstoff, 176. 

lodkohlenwasserstoff, 176. 

lodoforma, 176. 

lodohydrargy rate of potawium, 599. 

of ioduret of potassiam, 592. 
lodqaecksilber doppelt, 421. 

gelbes, 418. 

in maiimam, 421. 

in minimum des lods, 418. 

rothes, 421. 
lodsaure, 491. 
lodschwefely 673. 
lodsilber, 98. 
lodstarke, 490. 
lodstarkmehl, 490. 
lodum, 433. 
lodnre d'amidon, 490. 

de carbon, 176. 

defer, 349. 

plombiqae, 578. 

de potassium^ 595. 

de quinine, 610. 

de soufre, 673. 

double de mereiire et de mor- 
phine, 439. 
Ioduret of quinia, 610. 

of silTor, 98. 

of sulphur, 673. 
loduretum ammonii, 490. 

amyli, 490. 

argenti, 98. 

arsenici, 106. 

baryiit, 139. 

carbon ii, 176. 

hydrargyrosum, 418. 

potaasicum, 595. 

quinie, 610. 
lodwasserstoffaaure Sohwererde, 

139. 
lodwasaerstoffsaures Eisenoxydul, 

349. 
Iron, ammonio-citrate of, 349. 

and alumina, sulphate of, 711. 

and magnesia, citrate of, 344. 

and qninia, citrate of, 345. 

arseniate of, 336. 

bromated or bromide of, 338. 

carbonate of, 371. 

carburet of, 339. 

citrate of, 341. 

citrate of magnetic oxide of, 842. . 



Iron, cyanuret of, 345. 
hydriodate of, 349. 
hydrobromate of, 338. 
hydro-oxide of, 364. 
iodated, 349. 
iodide of, 349. 
ioduret of, 349. 
lactate of. 359. 
nitrate of, solution of, 361. 
oxide of, hydrated, 364. 
oxy hydrate of, 364. 
peroxide of, 376. 
peroxide of, hydrated, 364. 
pernitrate of, 361. 
persesquinitrate of, solotioa of, 

361. 

potassio-citrate of, 342. 

preparations of, 335. 

proto-carbonate of, 371. 

proto-iodide of, 349. ^ 

proto-ioduret of, 349. 

protoxide of, hydriodate of, 349. 

protoxide of, lactate of, 359. 

prussiate of, 345. 

sesquioxide of, 376. 

sesquioxide of, hydrated, 364. 

Bodio-citrate of, 342. 

subcarbonate of, 376. 

tritoxide of, hydrated| 364. 

yalerianate of, 380. 
Irritamentum metalloram sea me- 
tal! icum, 399. 
Johanniswurzel, 381. 
Julians regia, 493. 
Kabliauthran, 545. 
KahincsB radix, 147. 
Kali blausaures, 588. 

borussicum, 588. 

bromwasserstoffsauieS; 585. 

ehloricum, 581. 

chlorinicum, 581. 

chlorsaures, 5>91. 

cyanwasserstofisanret, 588. 

elainicum, 641. 

hydriodicum, 595. 

hydriodsaures, 595. 

hydrobroraicum, 585. 

hydrobromsaures, 585. 

hydrocyanicom, 588. 

hydroio<lat, 595. 

hydroiodinicum, 595. 

hyperoxygenirt salzsaures, 581. 

iodwasserstoffsaures, 595. 

iodatum hydrargyratnm, 599. 

muriaticum hyperoxygenatum, 
581. 

dlsaares, 641. 



Kali oxyehloneamy 581. 

ozydirt, salzsaures, 581. 

ozvmanatioQin, 581. 

safpetereaures, 724. 
Kalii cjaoaretum, 588* 

cyanetam, 588. 

cyanidum, 588. 

iodidnm, 595. 
Kaliseife, 641. 
Kaliam bromatoiny 585. 

bromid, 585. 

bromftr, 585. 

cy<aiiMi« Ooo. / 

cjaDogenatam, 588. 

eyanur, 568. 

hydriodatiiBi hydraigynrtaiii, 
593. 

iodatom, 595. 

iodur, 595. 
Kalk, chlorigsaore, 153. 

oxydirt saTzsaorea, 153. 
Kalkchlorid, 153., 
Kaminniss, 385. 
KaniramiD, 145. 
Katalpa, 137. 
Katzermaul, 390. 
Kinine, 603. 
Kioini citras, 607. 
Kininam, 603. 
Kioiom, 603. 

KlapperscUanffenwTiraeU 212. 
Klaprothii 8nlpna% 705. 
Knorpeltang, kraaaes, dlO. 
KodeiD, 218. 
Kohle roineralische, 339. 

thierische, 173. 
KohleDschwefel, flusaiger, 

668. 
Kohlenstoffeisen, 339. 
KohleDatofftrichlorid, 705. 
Kohlensolforidy 668. 
K5nig8waIInii88, 493. 
Kosflo, 139. 
KoDSflO, 139. 
Krahenaogen, 538. 
Krahenaagen bitter, 649. 

geistiges, extrakt der, 538. 
Krahenaugenstoff, 649. 
Kraoser Tang, 210. 
Kreasot, 255. 
Kreasote, 255. 
KreaaotOD, 255. 
Kreaaotnm; 255. 
Kreosote, 255. 
Krotoodl^ 561. 
Kobebenpfeffer, 381. 
Knbebin, 282. 



Labarraqne'a disinfeotiag liquid, 

163. 643. 
Lactaa ferroaoa, 359. 
Lactocariam, 496. 
Lathyria, 334. 
Lattichopium, 496. 
Lattigbitter, 496. 
Lattigmilchaaft, 496. 
Lead, black, 339. 

chloride of, 729. 

iodide of, 578. 

ioduret <n, 578. 

nitrate of, 733. 

taonate of, 580. 
Leberthran, 545. 
Lemonade, magnenan, 601. 
Lemon ja ice, 7&. 
Leonnrus lanata, 130. 
Leopard's bane, 103. 
Lerachenschwamm, 138. 
Letheon, 61. 
Lettuce opiom, 496. 
Leucolein, 716. 
Leukoleinum, 716. 
Liebersche Brust oder Avaseh* 

rungskraater, 390. . 
Lichen carrageen. 310. 
Lime, chloride of, 153. 

chlorinated, 153. 

chlorite of, 153. 

chlomret of, 153. 

hypochlorite of, 153. 

oxyraariate of, 153. 
Limon, sue de, 738. 
Liqueur d^sinfectante de Labarrm* 

^ue, 163, 643. 
Liquid, disinfecting, Labarraqoe's, 
163, 643. 

adhesive, Maynard'a^ 333. 
Liquor acidi muriatici oxygenati, 
189. 

alexiterius oxygenatna, 189. 

arsenti muriatico ammoniata, 96. 

chlori, 189. 

disinfecting, of Labarraqne, 163. 

ferri iodidi^ 353. 

ferri uitratis, 361. 

ferri nitrici oxydati, 861. 

ferri persesquinitralis, 361. 

hydrargyri et arsenici iodidi,430. 

hydrargyri pernitratis^ 428. 

hydrargyri supemitratis, 438. 

hydriodatis arsenioi et hydrargy- 
ri, 430. 

morphiae citratis, 529. 

natri chloreli, 643. 

opii, 586. 



sut 



▲LffBABSnCAL OOVTBWn. 



Liquor opii tedativus. 626. 

•ode chloridi, 643. 
chlorioate, 643. 
Lithanthrakokali, 80. 
Lithia, carbonate of, 717. 
Lilhi« carbonate 717. 
Lithine, carbonate de^ 710^. 
Lithion kohlenaaareS; 717. 
Lithiam, kohlensaares, 717. 
Lithon kohlensaures, 717. 
Lnpulin, 718. 
Maorotrys racemoM, 812. 
Magnesj 498. 

Magnesia and iron, citrate of, 344. 
Biff^nesia, citrate of, 501. 

citroneniaures, 601. 
BlagnesiflB citras, 601. 
Magnesian lemonade, 601. 
Magnetic, citrate de, 501. 
Magnet, 498. 
Magnetos, 498. 
Magnetic electricity, 296. 
Magnetism, animal, 398. 
Maffnetstein, 496. 
Malambo, 605. 
Malogranatum, 409. 
Manganese, salts of, 790. 

•ulphnte of, 718. 
Manganasii sulphas. 718. 
Mangaiioxydul, sonwefelsanres, 

718. 
Manganum tulphurioum oxydula- 

tum, 718. 
Mannastotr, 60S. 
Mannaxuoker, 503. 
Mannita, 603. 
Mannitum, 603. 
Mannleinwurmtapfelfarrn, 381. 
Marigold, garden, 150. 

single, 150, 
Marronier, 410. 

d'Inde, 410, 
Malias, 506. 
Matioo, 506. 
Mati^re de Deroane, 635. 

vomitive, 309. 
Matter of Derosne, 536, 
Meadow safl^ron, 923. 
Melambo, 505. 
Melini sulphas, 705. 
Mercure, cvanure de, 413. 

deato^ioJure de, 491. 

deuto-nitrate de, 497. 

dipernitrate de. 497. 

hydrocyanate de, 413. 

nitrate acide de, 498. 

nitrate de, 496. 



Mercure, periodare de, 421. 

preparations de, 419. 

protoiodnre de, 418. 

protonitrate de, 426. 

prussiate de, 413. 
Mercurii deuto-ioduretum, 421. 

protobromuretum, 412. 

protoioduretum, 418. 
Mercurius hydrocyanicns, 
413. 

nitrosns calide paratns, 427. 

nitroBUS frigore paratos, 426. 
Mercury and arsenic, hydriodate of, 
429. 

iodide of, 499. 

and morphia, iodide of, double, 
439. 

bicyanide of, 413. 

biniodide of, 431. 

bromide of, 413. 

cyanide of, 413. 

deutoiodide of, 421. 

deutonitrate of, 428. 

dipernitrate of* 438. 

hydrocyanate of, 413. 

iodide of, 418. 

iodide of, red, 421. 

iodide of chloride of, 491. 

iodoarsenite of, 439. 

nitrate of, acid, 438. 

nitrate of suboxide of, 496. 

periodide of, 431. 

preparations of, 413. 

protoiodide of, 418. 

proto-iodaret of, 418. 

protonitrate of, 426. 

prussiate of, 413. 

•ubiodide of, 418. 

supemitrate of, 438. 

solution of, 438. 
Mdre de Seiffle, 313. 
Mesitalkohol, 645. 
Mesitylene, bihydrate of, 645. 
Mesmerism, 398. 
Milchs&ure, 36. 
Mixture, Soudamore*8, 831. 
Mohnstoff, 516. 
Moleplant, 334. 
Monesia, 519. 
Monesin, 513. 
Moosbitter, 177. 
Moos, carragaheen, 210. 
Moos, Irlandisch, 310. 
Morphei acetas, 593. 
Morpheum, 516. 
Moiphia, 516. 

aoeute of, 623. 



ALFHABBTICAL CXniTKim. 



ZXf 



Morphia and oodeift, muriate of, 531. 

bimeoonate of, 630. 

citrate of, 5S9. 

hydriodate of, 5S7. 

hjdrochlorate of, 597. 

iodhTdfate of, 5Sf7. 

iodide of iod hydrate of, 527. 

iodoret of, 639. 

muriate of, 597. 

salts of, 516. 

solphate of, 55)8. 

tartrate of, 530. 
Morphie acetas, 593. 

hjdriodas, 597. 

hjdrochloias, 597. 
Morphii murias, 597. 

solphas, 598. 
Morphin, 516. 

essigsaures, 593. 

iodwasserstoffraore^, 597. 

saJzsaures, 597. 

schwefelsaores, 598. 
Morphina, 516. 
Morphine aoetas, 593. 

bimeconas, 530. 

hjdrochloras, 527. 

morias, 597. 

solphas, 698. 

tartras, 530. 
Morphine, 516. 

acetate of, 693. 

and zinc, double iodide of, 666. 

bimeconate of, 530. 

citrate of, 599. 

et codeine, doable mariate de,53 1. 

hydriodate de, 597. 

hjdrochlorate de, 597. 

iodhydrate de, 597. 

mariate of, 597. 

sels de, 516. 

sulphate of, 598. 

tartrate of, 530. 
Morphinsalze, 516. 
Morphinom, 516. 
Morphiam, 516. 

acetat, 593. 

aceticam, 593. 

essigsaares, 593. 

hydrochlorsaares, 597. 

mariaticnm, 597. 

salzsaares, 597. 

schwefelsaares, 598. 

salphat, 598. 

solphuricum, 528. 
Mort auz chiens, 223. 
Moss, carageen, 910. 

Ceylon, 383. 



Moss, corrigeen, 210. 

edible, 383. 

Irish, 210. 

Jaffna, 383. 

marine, 383. 
Moasse d'Irlande, 910. 

perl^e, 910. 
Moza, 531. 
Moziburiam, 531. 
Mozibustion, 531. 
Magwort, 108. 
Murias aurico-nitricura, 197. 

morphicas, 527. 

zincicos. 688. 
Muriate d'or, 120. 
Murid, 141. 
Muride, 141. 
Murigene, 182. 
Marin, 141. 
Marine. 141. 
MuBtaraseed oil, 559. 
Mutterkom, 312. 
Nadelstich, 51. 
Naphtha, 645. 

pnosphorata, 544* 

sulphurica, 61. 

yitriol, 61. 

wood, 645. 
Naphthalin, 720. 
Naphthaline, 790. 
Narcotina, 535. 

muriate of, 535. 
Narda celtica altera, 103. 
Narkotin, 535. 
Natrium-sold-chlorid, 129. 
Natriumpiatinchlorid, 578. 
Natron phosphorsaures, 798. 
Natronwapser, ozydirt salzsaares, 

643. 
Natrum chloratom, 643. 

chloricum, 643. 

chlorsaures, 643. 

ozydirt oder hyperozygenirt salz- 
saures, 643. 

ozymuriaticum, 643. 
Navelwort, 707. 
Nephrine, 675. 
Nephrodium filiz mas, 381. 
Neurogamia, 398. 
Nierenfarrn, ro&nnlicher, 381. 
Niesswurzstoff, 678. 
Nitras ferricos, 361. 
. hydrargyricuB, 497. 

hydrargyricus acido nitrico sola* 
tuB, 498. 

hydrargyrosns, 496. 

plumbicus, 723. 



ALVBABETICAL COHTCim* 



Nitre, 724. 

Nitro-muriatic mixture, 187. 
Nitram satuminura, 733. 
Noix Tomiaae, 538. 

eztrait alcooHque de, 538. 
Nombril de Vemis, 707. 
Noyer, 493. 
Nossbaam, 493. 
Nnx Tomica, 538. 

alcoholic extract of, 538. 
OchfleDgalle, 708. 
OelsOBS, 400. 
Ofenrass, 385. 
Oil of bitter almonds, 81. 

cod. 545. 

codliTer, 545. 

crotOD, 561. 

of mustard seed, 559. 
Oleum ctheream norum aniic«, 103. 

etheream seminom sinapis, 559. 

cadinum, 721. 

crotonis, 561. 

eophorbiffi lathyridis, 334. 

jecoris aselli, 545. 

] an i peri empyreumatioum, 721. 

morrhue^ 545. 

ricini officinale, 566.. 

seminis crotonis, 561. 

sinapis, 559. 

tijglii, 561. 

yitrioli dulce, 61. 

Tolatile seminum sinapis, 559. 
Opiane, 585. 
Opiumalkaloid, 516.' 

lettuce, 496. 
Opiumsalz, Derosne'sches, 535. 
Or, chlorore d' 120. 

oyanure d', 125. 

diTis^, 129. 

oxide de. 127. 

et de soaium chlonire d', 122. 
» et sonde, hydrochlorate d', 122. 

et sonde, muriate d', 122. 

metallique, 129. 

muriate d', 122. 

nitromnriate d', 127. 

oxide d', 129. 

pr6parations d', 116. 

protoiodure d', 126. 
Oxide d'argent, 99. 
Oxidum ferricnm hydratnm, 364. 
Oxydirtes silber, 99. 
Oxydirt-salzsanres natron wasser, 

643. 
Oxydum argenti, 99. 
Oxyhydrocarburetum ex oleo pyrox* 
ilico paratum, 255. 



Fumeea lapeomm, 103. 
Papaverinum, 218. 
Pariser blau, 345. 
Passerage, 716. 

Pasta seminum panllinMe, 569. 
P&te de guarana, 569. 
PauUinia, 569. 
Perlmoos Irlandisch, 210. 
Pfefferstoff, 572. 
Pferdekastanie, 410. 
Pferdekeste, 410. 
PhloiOrrhizina, 571. 
Phloridzin, 571. 
Pierre d'aimant^ 498. 
Pigmentum indicum, 432. 
Pills, Blaud's, 373. 

ferruginous, of Vallet, 372. 
Piper angusti folium, 506. 

caudatum, 281. 

cubeba, 281. 

elongatum, 506. 
Piperin, 281, 572. 
Piperina, 572. 
Pipsissewa, 179. 
Piscidia erythrina, 722. 
Platina, bichloride of, 577. 

mnriatica, 577. 

muriatica natronata, 578. 

perchloride of, 577. 

preparations of, 575. 
Platinc chloridum, 577. 
Platinchiorid. 577. 
Platine. bichlorure de. 577. 

et soaium, chlonire aouble de,678. 

perchlorure de, 577. 

pr^INirations de, 575. 
Platini bichloridum, 577. 

perohloridum, 577. 

prceparata, 575. 
Platinoxyd, salzsaures, 577. 
Platinpraparate, 575. 
Platinum, 575. 

bichloratum. 577. 

bichloride or, 577. 

chloride of, 577. 

perchloride of, 577. 

and sodium, aouble chloride of, 

578. 
Plocaria Candida, 383. 
Plomb, chlonire de, 722. 

iodure de, 578. 

nitrate de, 723. 

tannate de, 580. 
Plombagine, 339. 
Plumbago, 339. 
Plnmbi chloridum, 729. 

hydriodas, 578. 



ALBUAMETICAI* COMJEMFIB. 



XXVll 



Plambi iodhydras, 67& 

iodklQin, 578. 

ioduretum, 578. 

nitraB, 723. 

tannas, 580. 
Plombom iodataro, 576w 

hydroiodicum, 578. 

ntgnim, 339. 

nitricum, 733. 

scjtodepsicum, 580. 

tannicum, 580. 
Poison nut, 538. 
Poivre a queue^ 281. 
PolTpodium fi]iz mas, 381. 
PoIjporuB officinalis, 138. 
Potystichum filiz mas, 381. 
Pomegranate, 403. 
Potas^a, arsenite of, 106. 

chlorate of, 581. 

hydrocyanate of, 588. 

hydriodate of, 595. 

ioduretted, 598. 

hydrobromate of, 585. 

hyperoxy muriate of, 581. 

nitrate of, 734. 

ozymuriata of, 581. 
PotasssB brum hydras, 585. 

chloras, 581. 

cyan hydras, 588. 

euchloras, 581. 

hydriodas, 595. 

hydrobromas, 585. 

hydrocyanas, 588. 

morias hyperoxygenatum, 581. 

morias oxygenatum, 581. 

nitras, 724. 
Potasse, bromure de, 585. 

chlorate de, 581. 

hydriodate de, 595. 

iodure de, 595. 

nitrate de, 724. 
Potassii bromidum, 585. 

cyanidum, 588. 

cyanuretum, 588. 

hydrargyro-iodiduro, 593. 

iodidum, 595. 

iodohydrargyras, 598. 

ioduretum. 595. 

oxygeno-cnloruretum, 581. 

proto- hydriodas, 595. 

protoxidi hydriodas, 595. 
Potassium, bromide of, 585. 

cyanide of, 588. 

oyanoret of, 588. 

dihvdrargyro-biniodide of, 593. 

hydrargyro«iodide of, 592. 

iodide of, 595. 



Potassi am , iodohy drarg jrrate of. 593, 

ioduret of iodohydrargy rateo^592. 

ioduret of, 595. 

protoxide of, chlorate of, 581. 
Potio picea, 89. 
Poudre de blanchement, 153. 

de Tennant, 153. 
Powder, bleaching, Tennaat's, 153. 
Preta^ raiz, 147. 
Principium adstringens, 33. 

scytodephicum, 38, 
Prassiate de potasse et de fer, 345. 
Pseudoangnsturinum, 145. 
Ptarmica montana^ 103. 
Pulvis ad fumigationes muriaticas, 

183. 
Ponica granatum, 403.. 
Purgirkomer-Euphorbie, 334. 
Pyrola ambellata, 179. 
Pyrola corymbosa, 179. 
Pyrole en ombelle, 179, 
Quecksilber, blausaoraS| 413. 

bromid, 413. 

bromur, 413. 

cyan id, 413. 

deuto-bromur, 412. 

deuto-iodar, 431. 

deuto-iodiir des, 421 • 

iodid, 418, 421. 

iodid, gelbes, 418. 

iodidul, 418. 

iodar, 418. 

ozyd, blausanres, 418. 

oxydol, salpetersaures, 486. 

praparate, 412. 

proto-ioddr des, 418. 

proto-bromiire des^ 412. 
Quecksilberiodidkalium, 592. 

salpetersaures kaltbereiteteSy436. 
heisBbereiteteS)487. 
Quillaia, 513. 
Quina, 603, see Quinis. 

acetica, 605. 

citrica, 607. 
Quinia, 603, (for its salts see Qui- 
nine.) 
Quinie acetas, 605. 

arsenias, 606. 

arsenis, 607. 

citras, 607. 

et cinchonie tannas, 635. 

ferrocyanas, 608. 

hydriodas, 610. 

iodidum, 610. 

lactas, 611. 

murias, 612. 

nitras, 613. 



XXTUl 



ALPHABETICAL OOVtEWtn* 



Qaioic phosphas, 613. 

sulphas, 614. 

impurus, 636. 

yalerianasy 633. 
Qainin, 603. 
Quinina, see Quioine. 
Quinine, 603. 

acetate of, 605. 

amorphous, 637. 

arseniate of, 606. 

arsenite of, 607. 

brute, 604. 

citrate of, 607. 

disulphate of, 614. 

extract of, 636. 

ferrocyanuret of, 608. 

hydriodate of, 610. 

iodide of, 610. 

iodide of iod hydrate of, 611. 

lactate of, 611. 

muriate of, 613. 

nitrate of, 613. 

phosphate of, 613. 

sulphate of, 614. 

valerianate of, 633. 

and cinchoninO; tannate of, 635. 

and iron, hydriodate of, 611. 
Quininum, 603. 
Quin iodine, 636. 
Quinium, 603. 
Raiz crusadinha, 147. 

preta, 147. 
Reissblei, 339. 
Resina chine prcparata, 636. 
Rindsgalle, 708. 
Rinselblume, 150. 
Rocnenleberthran, 546. 
Rosscastanien, 410. 
Rosskeste, 410. 
Russ. 385. 
Russkali, 389. 
Rye, corned, 312. 

spurred, 313. 
Sabadillina, 67a 
Saccharum manns, 503. 
Safranbatard, 212. 

de mars aperitif, 376. 

des pr6s, 233. 

wilder, 323. 
Saffron, meadow, 233. 
Saint Christophe, herbe, 212. 
Sal essentiale corticis Peruyiani,603. 
Sdlicina, 637. 
Salicinuro, 637. 
Salpeters&ure, 701. 
Salt of Derosne. 531. 
Salzsaure, dephlogistisirteoder ozy< 
dirte, 189. 



I Salzaure Abersaure, 189. 
Salzsaures silberammonium, 95. 
Sanicula Manlandica, 736. 
Sanicle, 726. 
Sanicle, Maryland, 786. 
Sapo domesticus mollis, 641. 

ex oleo et potassi confectus, 641. 

elainicus, 641.^ 

kalicus, 641. 

mollis, 641. 

niger, 641. 

▼iridis, 641. 
Satzmehliodar, 490. 
Sauerdornbitter, 136. 
Savon k base de potasse, 641. 

mou, 641. 

noir, 641. 
Scheel'sches si&ss, 400. 
Schmierseife, 641. 

fi^rdne, 641. 
Schwanzjpfeffer, 381. 
Schwarzkom, 312. 
Schwefelather, 61. 
Schwefelalcohol, 668. 
Schwefeliodiir, 673. 
Schwefelkohlenstoff, 668. 
Schwererde, iodwasserstoflfiKiurey 

132. 
Schwindelkorner, 381. 
Scorodite, 336. 
Scudamore's mixture, 231. 
Secale clavaturo, 313. 

comutum, 313. 

luxurians, 312. 
Secalis cerealis, semina monstiota, 
318. 

mater, 313. 
Seemoos, Irlandisch, 210. 

geperltes, 310. 
Seetane, 310. 
Seife, kali, 641. 

schwarz, 641. 
Seigle cornu ou corrompu, 813. 

k ^peron, 312. 

ivre, 313. 

noir, 312. 

ergots, 318. 

faux, 313. 
Sel de Derosne, 531. 

de Gregory, 531. 

essentiel d 'opium, 531. 
Senfdl atherisches, 559. 
Serpentaria, cimicifuga, 218. 
Serpentariaa Braziliensis radix, 147. 
Sidhee, 166. 
Silberammonium, salzsaures, 95. 

chlortlr, 94. 

iodar, 98. 



ALPHABETICAL GONTBHTS. 



SflbermmiDOiiinmoxjd, 99. 

ozydj cyaniiaares, 97. 

ozydirtes, 99. 

praparate, 93. 

aalmiak, 95. 

saJzsaares, 94. 

zertheilteay 101. 
Silrer, ammooio-chloride of, 95. 

ehloride of, 94. 

chloniret of, 94. 

cjanide of, 97. 

cyanoret of, 97. 

iodide of, 98. 

iodoret of, 98. 

metallic, 101. 

mariate of, 94. 

and ammonia, chloride of, 95. 

chloraret of, 95. 

preparations of, 9d. 
Sioapis oleum, 559. 
Sipeerine, 133. 
Snake root, black, 212, 726. 
Soap, soft, 641. 
Soaa, arseniate of, 105. 

chlorinata, 643. 

chloraret of, 643. 

chlorite of, 643. 

hypochlorite oL 643. 

hyposulphite of, 727. 

phosphate of, 728. 
Sod« chloridam, 643. 

chloruretam, 643. 

hjposulphis, 727. 

ozymarias, 643. 

phosphas, 738. 
Sodii auri-terchloridum, 122. 

chloroplatinas, 578. 
Sodium, auro-terchloride of, 122. 

chloroplatinate of, 578. 

chlorure d'ozide de, 643. 
Soldier's weed, 506. 
Solotio alexiteria ozygenata, 189. 

chlorinii, 189. 

ferri nitratis, 361. 
Solution of chlorine, 169. 

Coindet's, 597. 

de Pearson, 105. 

Donovaji's, 429. 

Fowler's, 105. 

Lugol's, 489, 598. 

of nitrate of iron, 361. 

of persesquinitrate of iron, 361. 
Soot, 385. 
Sooci, 150. 

ordinaire, 150. 
Sonde, chlorure de, 643. 

hyposulfite de, 737. 



Soude^ phosphate de, 788. 

sulate sulfure de, 737. 
Son f re carbure, 668. 

iodur6, 673- 
Species pro vaporibus superozydi 

muriatici, 183. 
Sphcrococcus crispos, 210. 

lichenoides, 383. 
Spicanard, 739. 
Spiegelruss, 385. 
Spinnblume, 333. 
Spirit, pyro-acetic, 645. 
Spiritus pyro-aceticus, 645. 

salis marini dephlogisticatos, 183. 
Sponsa solis, 150. 
Springkraut, kleines, 834. 
Spur, the, 313. 
Spurge, caper, 334. 

garden, 334. 
Starch, iodide of, 490. 
Starkraehliodur, 490. 
Steinkohlenkali, 83. 
Stephensia elongata, 506. 
Stiiikstoff, 141. 
Stock fiechleberthran, 545. 
Stockung des Blutes in der Gefas- 

sen, 713. 
Strychna, 649. 
Strychnia, 649. 

acetate of, 664. 

hydriodate of, 665. 

icKiate of^ 665. 

iodide ol iodhydrate of, 666. 

nitrate of, 667. 

sulphate of. 668. 
Strychnia and zink, double iodide 

of, 666. 
Strychnin, 645. 

acetat, 664. 

essigsaures, 664. 

iodsaures, 665. 

iodwasserstoffsaures, 665. 

nitrat, 667. 

salpetersaures, 667. 

schwefelsaures, 668. 

sulphat, 668. 
Strychnine, see Strychnia. 
Strychninum, 645. 

aceticum, 664. 

iodicum, 665. 

nitricum, 667. 

sulphuricum, 668. 
Strychnium, 645. 
SubjeC; 166. 
Succus limonis, 738. 
Suffitus chlorini, 183. 

ozymuriaticus, 183. 



IXiPHABBTIOAL CXIII'fUm* 



Suffar of manna, 503. 
Soie, 385. 

Solfure de carbon, 668. 
Salphas cad miens, 705. 

maogano80B« 718. 

morphicas, 528. 

qninicu8/614. 
Snlphor, iodide of, 673. 
Snlphuret of carbon, 668. 
Snlphuretom carbonii, 668. 
Sulpharis earbnretnm, 668. 

iodidum, 673. 

ioduretnm^ 673. 
Snmbnii radix, 799. 
Snrobul root, 739. 
Surobalwurze], 789. 
Snperchloridam formjiienm, 196. 
Sappository, galvanic, 399. 
S^ertia cbirayiia, 399. 
Tabac de Montagne, 103. 

dee SaT03rard8, 103. 

des Voages, lois. 
Tang, kraaber, 310. 
Tannas chiiiii sea cincbonicns sen 

quinicoB, 635. 

plombi, 580. 
Tannic acid, 38. 
Tannicuro, 38. 
Tftnnin, 38. 
Tknninum, 38. 
Tar water, 89. 
TellurierouB, 398. 
Terra aluminis, 101. 

aluroinosa pura, 101. 

argil lacea pura, 101. 

bolaris, 101. 

sigillata^ 101. 
Th^ de seigle noirci des sages-fem- 

mes Am^ricaines, 313. 
Theerwasser, 89. 
Thierkohle, 173. 
Thonerde, gereinigte, 101. 

reine. 101. 
Thonerdensalte, 74. 
Thridace. 496. 
TithymaiuB latifoHus, 334. 
Todtenblume, 150. 
Tue-chien, 323. 
Ulva criftpa, 310. 
Urea, 675. 

nitrica, 677. 
UreiB nitras, 677. 
Ur^e, 675. 

nitrate de, 677. 
Uricum, 675. 
UfsacQ, 715. 
Uttilago, 319. 



Vallet'8 fermginoiia ptlk, 179. 
Vanqnelin, 645. 
Veratria, 678. 

sulphate of, 687. 
Veratrin, 678. 
Veratrina, 678. 
Veratrium, 678. 
Vermearia, 150. 
Vieillotte, 333. 
Vinaigre de bois, 13. 
Violine, 309. 

Voha'sche Electrictt at, 399. 
Voltaism, 393. 
Vomicina, 145. 
Vomic nut, 538. 

Wachholder-oel, brenzliehes, 721. 
Wallnusabaum, 493. 
Walnut tree, 493. 
Walschennuss, 493. 
Wasser, Binellisches, 89. 

Brocchierisches, 84. 

oxydirt, salzsanres, 189. 
Wasserstoffblausaure, 93. 
Water^ Binelli, 62. 

of bitter almonds, 80. 

Brocchieri, 84. 

tar, 89. 
Weed, soldier's, 506. 
Weidenbitter, 637. 
Weidenstoff, 637. 
Weisensafran, 923. 
Winter green, 179. 
Wintergrun, 179. 

holdenbliithigen, 179. 
Wismuth, valeriansanres, 704. 
WohWerlei, 103. 

blumenol, 104. 
Wobkerleidl, 104. 
Wclfstrapp, wolliger, 130. 
Woodsoot, 385. 
Verba del Soldada, 506. 
Zeitlose, 323. 

Zinc and morphia, double iodide of, 
698. 

and strychnia, double iodide of, 
666. 

butter of, 688. 

chloride of, 688. 

cyan u ret of, 694. 

ferrocyanuret of, 695. 

ferrohydrocyanate of, 695. 

hydrochlorate of, 688. 

hydrocyanate of, 694. 

iodide of, 698. 

muriate of, 6S8. 

prussiate of, 694. 
Zinci butyrum, 688. 



ALPHAB£TICAL CONTKNTS. 



Zinci chloridaiD, 688. 

cklornretnm, 688. 

cyanhYdraB, 694. 

cyftniuuro, 694. 

cyannretnm, 694. 

ferrocyanaretom, 695, 

feiTohydrocyanas, 695. 

iodidnm, 698. 

iodoretam, 698. 

TalerianaS; 699. 
Zincom borassicnnl, 694. 

chloratnm, 688. 

cyanogenatnm, 694. 

ferrohydrooyanicum, 695. 

hjrdrocyaDicam, 694. 

iddatom, 698. 

mariaticnm oxydatom, 688. 

salitam, 688. 



ZiDciim yalerianicum, 698. 

zooticum^ 699. 
Zink. baldnansaures, 699. 
Zinkbutter, 688. 
Zinkchlorid, 688. 
ZinkchlorQr, 688. 
Zink; chlorwasserstoffsauret, 688. 
Zinkcyandr, 695. 
ZinkeisenblausaureSj 695. 
ZiDkeisencjraniir, 694. 
Zinkiodur, 698. 

Zinkoxyd; eisenozydul, blaoBaures, 
695. 

salzsaures, 688. 

▼aleriansaures, 699. 
Zinkoxydul, blaosaures, 695. 
Zink, salzsaures, 688. 
Zoomagnetismns, 398. 



NEW REMEDIES. 



I. ACIDUM ACE'TICUM EMPYREUMATaCUM. 

Sthontmks. Acidum pyro-aceticam seo Ligni pyro-oleoeuni sea pyrolig- 

Dosum seu pyroxylicum, Acetum ligneum seu pyrolignosumseu lignorum 

empyreumaticum, Pyroligoeous, and Pyrolignic acid. 
f)rench. Acide pyro-ac^tiqae, A. pyroligniqae, A. pyroligneux, Vinaigre de 

bois. 
German. BrenzHche oder brandige Holzsaure; Holzsaure; 

Holzessig; Holzessigsaure. 

Pyroligneous acid, although brought much into notice — revived 
as it were — in recent times, is by iio means the product of those 
times exclusively. The cedria, with which the Egyptians em- 
balmed the bodies of the dead, it is presumed, was identical with 
it. Pliny recommends cedria, or the oil of tar, got from the 
cedar, in toothach,^ and Galen unites with him.' The virtues of 
pyroligneous acid are often also referred to by Boerhaave.^ 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

Pyroligneous acid is prepared in chemical laboratories by the 
dry distillation of wood, especially of hard wood, which is placed 
in an iron retort heated to redness. First of all, there passes 
over a light brown or greenish fluid, which contains some empy- 
rcumatic oil; to this succeeds the pyroligneous acid, which is 
formed during distillation. If the distillation be continued, more 
empyreumatic oil passes over, and lastly tar. 

The chief constituent of pyroligneous acid is vinegar, which 
can be deprived of its empyreumatic constituents by rectification 
with fine porous animal charcoal. Besides vinegar, it contains 
empyreumatic oil {pyrelain;) empyreumatic resin {pyrretin^ a 
peculiar matter containing nitrogen, and similar to an extract (em- 
pyreumatic extract,) and spirit of tar {spiritus pyrolignicus.) 
Reichenbach discovered in it the new substance, creasote,* which 
seems to be the most important ingredient, — its medicinal efficacy 
appearing to be dependent upon that substance. 

Impure pyroligneous acid is of a brownish colour, and of an acid 
soioky smell and taste. This is the preparation which is gene- 

•HMtNatxxxiv.il. 

* Oe Simpl. Medic Facult. lib. viL See Connack on Creasote, p. 59. Edinburgh, 

' Riecke, Die neoeni ArzneimitteL a. i. w. S. 6, StaUgart, 1837. 
« See the article Cieaaote. 

2 



14 ACIDUM ACETICUM EMPYREUMATICUM. 

rall^ used exterDally ; but, by chemical means, the acid may be 
punfied so as to furnish the aeidum aceticum empyreumaticum 
redificatum. This differs from impure pyroligneous acid in con- 
taining less empyreumatic resin and extract, and> creasote. The 
London College, again, prepare from it a stronger acid, — the 
aeidum aceticum fortius^ — which is extremely volatile and pun- 
gent, and is used as a revellent. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN HEALTH. 

From experiments instituted on animals, it would appear, that 
the administration of pyroligneous acid in large doses occasions 
vomiting of a considerable quantity of frothy fluid, having a strong 
odour of the acid; tremors of the limbs; convulsions; tetanus; pro- 
trusion of the eyes; insensibility; paralysis of the limbs; dyspnoea; 
croupy cough ; hoarseness, &c. The death of the animal super- 
venes with symptoms of suffocation, and the fatal termination is 
often rapidly induced. Inspection after death exhibits manifest 
venous congestion in the brain, spinal marrow, lungs, liver, and 
spleen, and in the right side of the heart, — with, at times, in- 
flammation of the stomach. According to Berres, it occasions 
marked narcotic effects. In by no means considerable doses, he 
found it to cause violent pain in the stomach and bowels, nausea 
and vomiting, general weakness, heaviness, vertigo, convulsions, 
and even death, without exhibitmg any decided effect upon the 
vascular system. In smaller doses, it is said to produce a sensa- 
tion of burning in the stomach, and after a time to quicken the 
pulse, and augment the cutaneous and renal depurations. Others 
— and the best observers, we think — deny it any narcotic pro- 
perties.* 

'^As an antiseptic, its efficacy is undoubted, and this has been long 
known. Creasote is, doubtless, a main agent in producing this 
result; and wherever the administration ot creasote is indicated, 
the use of pyroligneous acid may be proper. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

Possessed of the properties described above, pyroligneous acid 
was at once suggested in cases of gangrene and sphacelus^ in 
which it was successfully used, as well as in cachectic conditions 
brought on by the misuse of mercury, and in herpetic^ flahby^ 
fungous^ and sloughing ulcers, in porrigo, and in toothach pro- 
duced by caries — the acid being dropped upon cotton and applied 
to the hollow tooth. In most of these cases, it was generally ex- 
hibited both internally and externally. Numerous experiments 
have been made with it in various affections by different observers; 
but its use has been more especially extolled in cases of gangrene, 
in which it corrects fcBtor, and promotes the separation of the dead 

> Richter 8 Specielle Therapie, 8. 25l^. Berlin, 1 S'^S. 



ACIDUU ACSnCOM EMPY&fiOlf ATICUM. 15 

parts.^ The physicians of the BerliD Charit6 experimented with 
It in cases of sloughing gangrenous sores^ with such success, that 
they proDOUDced it an antiseptic of the highest order.' Besides the 
cases mentioned, it has been advised, mixed with white of egg, in 
excoriated nipples* in cancerous and scrofulous affeclions^ 
^in cancrum oris, by Berres, Elaatsch, Heim and Romberg; in 
fnercurial saliration by Schneider; in caries of the bones, and as 
a gargle in scarlet fever by Barth. It has, moreover, been re* 
commended by Buchanan^ in deafness caused by deficient secre- 
tion of the cerumen of the ear, and in discharges of an offensive 
character from the meatus auditoriuSy as well as from other 
outlets ; in chronic inflammation of the tarsal edges of the 
eyelids; in scabies; mfavus by Berres and Wigan ; in toot hach by 
Berres. In gastromalacia it has been recommended by Pitschaft* 
and Teufel;* in phthisis by Harless, and in dropsy y diarrhosay 
putrid nervous fevers J &c., by Ampach ]'' and in scorbutus by 
Berres,^ yet, as was before remarked, it is rarely employed in- 
ternally : indeed both externally and internally, it has been greatly 
supplanted by creasote. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The inequality in the strength of the preparation renders it diffi- 
cult to fix upon any precise dose. Of the impure pyroligneous acid, 
Sachs administered from five to thirty drops, three or four times 
a day, in simple or aromatic water. 

Externally y it is applied both in a pure and dilute state ; in the 
former case to ulcers, by means of a pencil, several times in the 
day. It is generally diluted with simple water : but in cases of 
cancrum oris, sugared water has commonly formed the diluent. It 
is also applied at times in the way of cataplasm. As a wash in 
porrigo, and as an injectiony it may be diluted with six or eight 
parts of water; as a collyriumy the proportion may be one part 
of the acid to twelve of water, and it may be employed, of about 
the same strength, as a gargle, 

Heim has recommended the following application in cancrum 
oris. 

' T. Y. Simons, in American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. v. 

* Riecke, Op. cit. 8. 9. 

* Bunharat, in Gazette Medicate, cited in Amer. Joum. of the Medical Sciences, Feb. 
1833, p. 503. 

* niustrations of Acoustic Surgery, Lond. 1825. 

* Med. Chirurg. Zeitung, No 7, 1825. 

* AnnaL fur die geaammte Helkund. unter der Redact d. Mitglied. der Badensch. 
BiniUtsk. Ster Jahrg. 1825. 

' Rust's Magazin, B. xvL H. 2. S,353, and Richter, Op. cit B. x. 8. 257, Berlin. 1 888. 
■ Aschenbreiiner, Die neueren Arzneimittel und Arzneibereitungsformen u.8.w. S. 7. 
Eiiargcn, 1848. 



16 ACIDUM ACETICUM EMPTREUfiiATICUM. 

lei aeidi leetiei empy renmatiei. 

Honey of pyroligneous acid, 

R. Acid. acet. empyreum. crad. f Siss. 
Mellis ro8a9 ^j. M. 

To be applied by means of a pencil. 

Buchanan advises the following form of injection in cases ox 
purulent discharges from the meatus auditorius. 

Injeetio aeidi aeetiei empyrenmatiei. 

Injection of pyroligneous acid, 

R. Acid, acetic, empyreum. f 3ij. 
Aquffi destillats f ^vj. M. 
Fiat injeetio bis die utenda. 

The following drops he recommends in cases where the ceru- 
men is deficient in quantity. 

GnttB aeidi aeetiei einpyreDmatiei. 

Drops of pyroligneous acid. 

R. Aeidi acet. empyreum. cnid. 
Olei. terebintn. rectif. 
Sp. fctheris sulphur, comp. aa. partes cquales. M. 

Two drops of this compound are to be dropped every night into 
the meatus auditorius. 

Gataplaima aeidi aeetiei empyrenjnatiei. 

Cataplasm of pyroligneous acid, 

R. Furfur. Ibss. 

Lin. pulv. Sj. M. bene et adde 

Acid, acetic, empyreum. crud. q. s. ut fiat cataplasma. 

To be applied to foul ulcers, 

Linimentnm aeidi aeetiei empyrenmatiei. 

Liniment of pyroligneous acid, 

R. Acid. acet. empyreum. ,^ss. 
Myroxyl. 5ij. 
Vitell. otI q. s. ut fiat linimentum. 

To be applied on lint three times a day to sloughs and ulcers, 

CoUntorinm aeidi aeetiei empyrenmatiei. 

Mouth-wash of pyroligneous acid. 

R. Acid. acet. empyreum. rectif. f 38s. 
AquaR cinnamomi f 5iv. 
Syrup, mori f gij. M. 

Phobus advises this as a wash for the raouth in cases of cancrum 
oris. It should be kept in a glass vessel covered with black paper 
to prevent decomposition. 



AC3DI7M BEXZOICUM. 1? 



II. ACIDUM BENZOICUM. 

8fB03iiJus. Aeidom Benxoicooi per sublimationem, Floras Bensoes mu 

BcBsoini, Beoxoie Acid, Plowen of Benjamiii. 
tiremek. Acido Beosoiqae. 
Germotu Beoioetaore. 

BcDzoic acid exists in the various balsamic substances, as ben- 
zain, storax, tola balsam, &c. 

M£THOD OF PREPARING. 

In pharmacy it is obtained from benzoin by sublimation. The 
fellowmg process is men in the last edition of the Pharmacopoeia 
of the United States (1842.) Take of benzoifiy in coarse powder, 
a pound. Put the benzoin, previously thoroughly mixed with an 
equal weight of fine sand, into a suitable vessel, and, by means of 
a sand bath, with a gradually increasing heat, sublime until vapours 
oease to rise. Deprive the sublimed matter of oil, by pressure on 
bibulous paper, and again sublime. 

A superior method, according to Messrs. Ballard and Garrod,* 
is to boil the benzoin in powder with hydrate of lime, so as to 
fonn a benzoate of lime, which is dissolved in the water, while the 
resin remains combined with the lime in the form of an insoluble 
compound. Muriatic acid being added to the filtered liquid, the 
benzoic add is set free, and crystallizes on coolir^. 

Benzoic acid, obtained by the process of the Pharmacopoeia of 
the United States, is in white feathery crystals, of an agreeable 
odour, fusible, wholly volatilizableif cautiously heated, and sparingly 
soluble in cold water, more so in boiling water, which deposits it 
on cooling; very soluble in alcohol, and readily dissolved by solu- 
tion of potassa, from which it is precipitated by chlorohydric acid. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

In another work* the author has remarked: — "The therapeuti- 
cal action of benzoic acid is doubtless excitant, and it «has been 
imagined by Dr. Pereira* and others, that its influence is princi- 
pally directed to the mucous surfaces, and especially to the ai^rian 
membrane." The author has no reason for believmg in this affi- 
nity, and such would appear to be the general feeling of the pro- 
fession, as it is now scarcely used except in one or two prepa- 
rations, in which it seems to be retained only from old prepossessions 
and associations. Of late years, however, it has been introduced 
fi:>r a special purpose, and on this account is noticed here. In a 
paper communicated by Mr. A. Ure to the Medico-chirurgical So- 
dety, January 7th, 1841,* he stated, that when a certain portion 

' Elcmenti of Mat Med. and Tberap. p. 275, Loiid. 1845. 

* General Tbeiapeutka and Materia MeJica, 4tb edit 1, 2:)6. PhOad. 1850. 
" Elementa of Mat Med. and Tberap. 2d Amer. edit. 1, .373. Pbila. 184& 

* Ftonodtl Medical and Surgical Joamal, July 17, 1841. 



13 ACIDinf BEKZOICUM . 

of benzoic add or of a soluble benzoic salt is introdoced iiito the 
stomach, the urine, in the course of a ooople of Lours, is found, 
opoD adding a portion of muriatic add, to yield a copious predpi- 
tate of beautiful rose pink adcular crrstak of hippuric aad. In 
pursuing his inrestigations farther, he ascertained, that no trace 
whatever of uric add or of any of its sal*^ could be discovered in 
the urine in question. It had been wholly superseded by the hip- 

Cric; and as the salts, which this add forms with the ordinary 
ses occurring in the animal fluids, as soda, ammonia and potassa, 
are all of easy solubility, Mr. Ure inferred, that in benzoic add 
we have ao agent of great ralne in the vrt'c acid diathesis: and 
he aflSrmed, that '^ the application of the abore pf indple had proved 
of material benefit in the treatment of certain unhealthy oooditioDS 
of the urine occurring m subjects of a oalaJcus or gavty diathesis; 
since it enabled the practitioner to obviate entirely the various de- 
positions resulting from excess of uric acidy the fruitful source of 
that most distresnng malady, stone in the bladder : as also to con- 
trol and prevent the formation of the so called tophaceous concre^ 
tions or chalkitones^ which occasion so much inconvenience, defor- 
mity and pain to individuals labouring under gout." 

The statement of Mr. Ure attracted the attention of chemists, 
whose observations did not howerer confirm the inference, that 
the hippuric add was formed at the expense of the uric acid in the 
urine,' although they established, that the benzoic add was con- 
verted into the hippuric* Neither, therefore, in the uric acid 
diathesis, nor in cases of the formation of gouty or tophaceous de- 
posits, the chief constituent of which is generally urate of soda, 
can the administration of benzoic acid be of service, and its ineffi- 
dency in these diseases is now admitted;' but from its power of 
causing increased addity of the urine, it has been considered to 
slightly stimulate the mucous membrane of the urinary organs, and 
has been found useful in catarrh of the bladder ^ and in cases where 
there exists a secretion of granular mucus mixed unth phosphates^^ 

The suggestions of Mr. Ure, in regard to the action of ben- 
zoic acid on the urates, induced Dr. Walker of Huddersfield,^ to 
administer it in chronic dysuria incidental chiefly to persons m 
the decline of life, or in what he terms dysuria senilis^ — an afiec- 
tion, which is, of course, dependent upon various pathological con- 
ditions, — and he asserts, that he was disposed to augur favourably 
of its utility. ** In some instances," he says, ^' we may account 
for the benefit resulting from its use by its chemical action on the 

' Keller, in apnendix to Liebig'f Animal Chemistrf, p. Sl^ Cambridge, 1842. 

* Uarrod, Lond. Edinb. and DubL Phil. Mag. June 1842, Lond. Lancet, vol. 2, 1844, 
p. 239, and Pro&. Booth and Boy6, Tranaactioos of the Amer. Philo& Soc, toI. ix. pt 2, 
p. 1H5. Fhila. 1845. 

' Rallaid and Garrod, op. dt p. 408. Ixmd. 1845. 

* Dalian: and Oarrod, p. 409, and Mr. Ura, Provincial Med. and Sor. Joam. Feb. 11, 
1843. and Lond. Lancet, Nov. 16, 1844. 

* Ibid. Feb. 26, 1842. 



ACIDUM BSNZOICUM. 19 

urates, which if in excess may add to the acrimony of the urine> 
and thus prove a source of irritation to the mucous membrane of 
the bladder. But it is often of service where the gravel in the 
urine is inconsiderable, and where the irritation and pain would 
seem to have arisen from some other cause." Dr. Walker, however, 
used it in association with copaiba; and his remarks induced Mr.. 
Soden' to employ the combination in some urinary affections, ac- 
oompanied with vesical irritation and increased secretion from the 
mucous membrane. The most remarkable result appeared to Mr. 
Soden to be its decided efficacy in diminishing, and in some in- 
stances of completely suppressing, the muco-purulent deposition in 
the urine, which is so prominent a symptom in most cases of affection 
<^ the bladder. He properly remarks, however, that a doubt may 
be very fairly entertained, whether this effect be attributable to 
the benzoic acid or to the copaiba, or to their combination ; and in 
the doubt Mr. Ure deduces no positive inference m regard to the 
precise agency of the benzoic acid.' 

It may be concluded, then, that benzoic acid has been introduced 
as a remedy in lithuria on erroneous chemical deductions : and 
hence that the favourable results recorded have been fallacious, or 
depending on other causes. 

Dr. Seymour' states, that he has frequently used the beiizoate 
OF AMMONIA in gott/, in cases in which the small joints were red and 
swollen, or where fluid was deposited in the joint of the great toe ; 
and also in cases where the urate of soda existed in the joints of 
the fingers; and that it was decidedly useful. He thiuKs, that 
early depositions were arrested, and large depositions diminished, 
under its use. He esteems it a good diuretic, and especially 
adapted for those cases of dropsy ^ in which an irritable stomach 
renders the employment of ordinary diuretics impracticable. He 
has also seen the albumen in renal dropsy diminish under its use. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The dose of benzoic acid may be from five grains to half a 
drachm. 

listnra Aeidi Benzoiei et Copaibs. 

Mixture of Benzoic acid and Copaiba. 

R, Acid. Benzoic. 3J. 
Copaib. f Jss. 
Vilell. ovi q. 8. 
Aq. Camphor, f 5 vij. M. 

Dose. Two table-spoonfuls three times a day. 

• Ibid. July 29, 1842. • Ibid. Feb. 11, 1843. 

* Thoughts on the Nature and Treatment of eeveral severe Oiaeaaes of the Human 
Body, vol l p. 123, Lond. 1847. 



20 ACIDUM GALLICUM. 



ACIDUM GALLICUM. 

Stnontmes. Gallic acid. 
French. Acide Gallique. 
Germaru Gallussaore. 

Gallic acid is by no means so abundant as tannic acid. A so- 
lution of the latter in water, exposed to the air, gradually absorbs 
oxygen, and deposits crystals of gallic acid, formed by the de- 
struction of tannic acid. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

A strong extract of gall-nuts in cold water may be precipitated 
in the cold by sulphuric acid : the thick mass roust be mixed with 
dilute sulphuric acid; be expressed whilst still humid, and be in- 
troduced, in this state, into a mixture of sulphuric add with two 
parts of water at the boiling temperature. The liquid is boiled 
for some minutes, and then allowed to cool. Crystals of gallic acid 
are deposited, which may be purified by crystallizing again from 
water ; — converting the new product — which is still coloured — 
by means of acetate qf lead — into an insoluble gallate of lead, 
which is washed, then diffused through water, and decomposed by 
a stream of sulphuretted hydrogen gas. The sulphuret of lead, 
thus formed, assists in carrying down the colouring matter.^ 

It may also be produced by adding sulphuric acid to a solution 
of tannic acidy which causes a precipitation of the tannic acid in 
combination with the sulphuric: the precipitate is dissolved in dt- 
lute sulphuric acid by the aid of heat, and the solution is boiled 
for a few minutes; the tannic acid is all decomposed; and, on cool- 
ing, crystals of gallic acid, coloured, are obtained." 

Gallic acid is in thin silky needles. It requires one hundred 
parts of cold water, and three of hot water, to dissolve it. It is 
very soluble in alcohol, and slightly so in ether. The solution 
in water has an acid and astringent taste, and is gradually decom- 
posed by keeping. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

Gallic acid has long been esteemed a valuable astringent ; yet 
doubts appear to have been entertained in regard to its being pos- 
seissed of such property ; and until its use was revived of late it 
had fallen into disrepute. Sir Benjamin Brodie, according to Dr. 
A. T. Thomson,® gave a patient, who had a frightful hemorrhage 
from the prostate gland, and in whose case all other remedies had 

* Graham's Elements of Chemistry, American edit, p. 637, Phila. 1843. 

* Ballard and Garrod, Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, p. 41 5, Londoii, 
1845. 

* Elements of Mat Med and Therap. 3d edit, and Watson, in Lond. Med. Gai. 
Jnly 8, 1842, p. 547, or in his Lectures on tlic Principles and Practice of Physic, Amer. 
edit p. 921, PhUa. 1845. 



ACIDUM 6ALLICUM. 21 

fiuled, a dose of " Ruspini^s styptic/* and repeated the dose twice 
in the course of twelve hours. About half an hour after the first 
dose was taken, the bleeding ceased, and it never recurred. This 
styptic is said to consist of gallic acid, a small quantity of sulphate 
of zinc, and opium, dissolved in a mixture of alcohol and rose 
water ; but as the quantity of sulphate of zinc and of opium appears 
to be too small to influence the medicine, a simple solution of gallic 
add in diluted alcohol, it has been conceived, may answer all the 
purposes of the expensive nostrum. Hence gallic acid has been 
used in cases in which the styptic has been found efficacious. 

In a paper read before the medico-chirurgical society of Edin- 
burgh, Professor Simpson^ stated, that in the previous year he 
hid employed gallic acid in menarrhagia with the most success- 
fiil results. Some of the cases, which had yielded under its 'use, 
were of old standing, and of an aggravated description. He gave 
it during the interval, as well as during the discharge; and he was 
first induced to prescribe it from finding that a case of very obsti- 
nate menorrhagia got well under the use of Ruspini's styptic, after 
many other remedies had &iled. Professor Simpson suggests, 
whether the anti-hemorrhagic properties of some of our common 
astringent drugs may not depend upon the gallic acid, as much as, 
or more than, upon the tannic acid which they contain, or upon 
the tannic acid becoming converted into gallic acid within the 
body. 

Dr. Stevenson^ has published several cases to show the value of 
this acid in uterine hemorrhage and hamaturia ; and Mr. James 
S. Hughes' has recorded a case of profuse hamaturia^ the result 
of injury on the lumbar region, which was treated successfully by 
it in the form of pill with extract of gentian — two grains and a 
half of the acid to each pill, — one of these being given at inter- 
vals of three hours ; and Homburger^ administered it successfully 
m hajnaturia renalis; in bloody diarrhcea accompanying the mor- 
bus maculosus; and in the hamoptysis of phthisis. Dr. Christi- 
son* has seen several cases of menorrhagia recover promptly un- 
der its use. He has likewise seen hamaturia repeatedly yield to 
it, and in two instances of hamoptysis the hemorrhage rapidly 
oeased after the third dose of six grains given every hour. Messrs. 
Ballard and Garrod* declare it to be one of the most powerful as- 
tringents that chemical art has derived from the vegetable king- 
dom ; and that a tolerably extensive experience by them of its use 

' Lend, and Edinb. Monthly Journal of Med. Sdenoei Jaly, 1843, p. 661. 

* Edinb. Med. and Surg. Journal, July, 1843. 

' DuUin Quarterly Journal of Med. Science, cited in Med. Examiner, July, 1847, 
pu447. ^ 

* Canstatt and Eimnmann*! Jahresbericht uber die Fortachritte in der HeOkunde 
imJahie, 1848, S. 149. 

• Diapenaatory, American edit by R. E. Griffith, p. 967. Philad. 1848. 

• Op. cit p. 415. Lond. 1845. 



38 JkClDUM QALUCOm. 

enables them to declare it to be an invaluable remedy in most 
forms o{ passive hemorrhages and fluxes. The chief of the cases 
ia which they have employed it, and where they have found it 
' of the greatest senrice, are menorrhagia and leucorrhcea, as well 
as for checking the distressing night-sweats of phthisis. In the 
first two of these especially, no astringent that they had employed 
would bear a comparison with this, either for the rapidity with 
which the cure was effected, or the permanency of the result. 
Their eulogy, however, of its action in the night-sweats of phthisis 
is calculated to throw some doubts on the accuracy of their expe- 
rience in other cases. No medicine can be expected to exert much 
efficacy on them, any more than on the hectic, inasmuch as they 
are mere morbid expressions of the condition of the lungs and ge- 
neral system. Messrs. Ballard and Garrod state, that if the use 
of the acid be continued beyond two or three days, it manifests 
some constipating tendency, whilst Professor Simpson affirms that 
it has the advantage over most other anti-hemorrhagic medicines, 
that it has no constipating effect. The observations of Messrs« 
Ballard and Garrod are probably the most accurate. They affirm! 
also, that the excessive expectorations of chronic bronchitis and 
phthisis are much influenced by its administration. In leucorrhoBa 
they have found it highly useful as an injection, and Mr. Sampson^ 
ffave it with good effect in gonorrhcea in the quantity of a drachm 
m the twenty-four hours, taken in twelve grain doses ; and he 
places great confidence in its use in cases of albuminuria. Dr. 
Christison,' too, had his attention turned to its apparent power of * 
arresting the excretion of albumen in the urine in Bright^s Dis^ 
ease of the Kidney , and in a few instances it appeared to mm to have 
that effect. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Gallic acid may be eiven in doses of from two grains to five or 
more, io the form of pill, repeated every two or three hours. 

Pilols aeidi galliei. 

Pills of gallic acid. 

R. Acid, gallic, gr. ij. — v. 

Confect. rosae q. s. ot fiat pilula. 

Injeetio aeidl gallief. 

Injection of gallic acid. 

R. Acid, gallic, gj. ad ,?j. 
Aquas Oij. M. 

* Loodon Lancet, Dec. lit, 1849. 2 Op. dt 



▲aDOM HTIMtOCTAincUlC. 33 



IV. ACnOUM HYDROCYAN'ICUM. 

Snro^TiCEB. Acidom Pmsucam sea Borvssicam sea Zooticam sea ZoO- 
tinioom. Hydrocyanic, Prossie, Cjanohydric or Cyanhydric Acid. 

/VfiKA. Acide Hjdrocymniqae, Acide Prosisiqae. 

German. Blaasiare, Wasserstoff blausaure, Hjdrocyansiare, 
Cran wasserstoffsanre. 

This acid can scarody be looked upon as new ; jet it is only in 
reoent times that its applicatioo to pathological oonditioos has been 
well af^ireciated. It was discovered by Scheele in 17S0 ; but its 
prepaiatioQ in a state of puritTj and its exact chemical constitu- 
tion, were not understood until Gay-Lussac published the results 
of his investigations on the subject in the year I815,i 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 
The three chief modes for preparing hydrocyanic acid at one 
tkse reoeired into the pharmacopoeias were those of Scheele, Cray- 
Lussac, and YauoueKn; the first of which was adopted by the 
firamers of the United States Pharmacopceia of 1820, and by those 
of Belgium, Paris, and Ferrara ; the seamdy by the pharmacopoeias 
of Paris and Ferrara; and the third by those of Belgium, Pans, 
and the United States. (iBdition of 1830.) 

1. Seheele*! lethod.*— Take of Prussian blue, 128 parts; 
Red oxide of mercury, 64 parts ; Distilled water, 105 parts. Boil 
for a quarter of an hour, constantly shaking ; strain, filter, and 
wash the residuum with Boiling water, 128 parts. Mix the 
two liquids together; introduce them into a flask, and add Por- 
phyrized ironjilings, 96 parts ; Sulphuric acid (66^) 24 parts : 
diluted with Distilled water, 24 parts. Shake the mixture, and 
keep the flask for an hour in cold water ; pour the decanted liquor 
into a tubulated retort placed in a sand bath, to the neck of which 
is attached an adapter tnat passes into a tubulated receiver, whence 
a curved tube issues that passes into a flask filled with water ; lute 
the apparatus; cover the receiver with wet rags; raise the heat 
until the liquid boils, and until there have passed into the receiver 
192 parts. Add to this liquid, 8 parts of Carbonate of lime. 
Distil again, and draw off 128 parts, which must be kept in a bot- 
tle covered with black paper* 

The process of Scheele always affords an acid mixed with a va- 
riable quantity of water. 

f. Gay-Lnssae'l let hod. — Take Cyanuret of mercury, 
at pleasure. Introduce it into a tubulated retort, the neck of 
which is furnished with a wide tube of glass filled with broken 
marble and chloride of calcium, which tube communicates, through 
a smaller one, with a bell glass surrounded by a freezing mixture. 

' Annales de Chimie, torn. Ixm p. 128, and torn, xct. p. 136. 



24 ACmUM HYDROCTAVICUM. 

Pour on murta/tc aciW sufficient to rise above the cjanuret to 
the height of a finger; heat gradually and moderately, and receive 
the condensed product into the bell glass. 

The acid obtained in this way is anhydrous, and of the specific 
gravity .700. 

t. Taoqnelin'i lethod.— Take of Cyanuret of mercury ^ 
1 part} Distilled water y 8 parts. Pass a current ot sulphohydric 
acid gas mto the solution, until the gas is in excess ; pour into 
the liquid pulverized subcarbonate of lead in sufficient quantity 
to remove the excess of sulphohydric acid ; shake the mixture 
constantly, and when it has no longer the smell of putrid eggs, and 
ceases to blacken paper impregnated with acetate of lead, filter 
and preserve it carefully. 

The product of this operation has been considered to approxi- 
mate the average density of the acid of Scheele.^ 

The variable density of the add prepared after Scheele's me- 
thod has prevented it from being generally used in medicine. The 
acid of 6ay-Lussac is most commonly employed ; but as its de- 
gree of concentration renders it dangerous, it is diluted with dis- 
tilled water. Robiquet has proposed to bring its density to .900, 
by adding two parts of water to it. Thus reduced, it resembles 
the acid of Scheele, with the advantage, that there is a constant 
and known ratio between the pure or anhydrous acid and the 
quantity of water united with it. Magendie adds to it six times 
its bulk, or eight and a half times its weight, of distilled water, 
and calls the mixture J9cide prtissique medicinal^* Medicinal 
prussi'c or Medicinal hydrocyanic acid. Others have advised 
the employment of a mixture of .three parts of water, and one part 
of acid, under the name of Acide hydrocyanique au quart or 
"Hydrocyanic acid of quarter strength."* 

Dr. Bache asserts, that he had the process (Proust's or Yau- 
quelin's) of the United States' Pharmacopceia (1930) repeated, 
when he found the acid obtained to have the specific gravity .998. 

In the last edition of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States, 
(1842,) the folbwing form was introduced. It is essentially that 
of the London rharmacopoeia. Take of Ferrocyanuret of Po- 
tassiuviy ^ij.; Sulphuric add y giss,; Distilled ti^a/er, a sufficient 
quantity. Mix the acid with four fluidounces of distilled water, 
and pour the mixture, when cool, into a glass retort. To this 
add the ferrocyanuret of potassium, previously dissolved in ten 

* See Notes on Hydrocyinic add, by R. E. Griffith, in Phflad. Joara. of Phanna^ 
h. 17. Philad. 1 833; abo, Pereira, Rlements of Materia Medica, 2d edit 1 429. Lond. 
1842. The Dispenaatoiy of die United States of America, by Wood and Badie, 6tli 
edit p. 786, Philad. 1845, and Mr. David Stewart, Maiyland Medical and Saigical Jour- 
nal, April 1840, pw 264. 

* Fonnulaire pour la preparation etc de plimears nooveanx m^dicameni. 
' Pharmacopee UniverBeUe, par Jomdan, t 31. Paria, 18S8. 



ACIDUM HTDROCTAKICUM. 25 

fluidoQDces of distilled water. Pour eight fluidounces of distilled 
water into a cooled receiTer, and having attached this to the re- 
torty distil, by means of a sand bath, with a moderate heat, six 
fluidounces. Lastly, add to the product five fluidounces of dis- 
tilled water, or as much as may be sufficient to render the hydro- 
cyanic acid of such a strength, that 12.7 grains of nitrate of sil- 
Ter, dissolved in distilled water, may be accurately saturated by 
100 grains of the acid. 

When hydrocyanic acid is wanted for immediate use, the follow- 
ing formula is recommended. — Take of Cyanuret of sUvety fiAy 
grains and a half; Muriatic acidf forty-one grains; Distilled tiMi- 
ter^ a fluidounce. Mix the muriatic acid with the distilled water, 
add the cyanuret of silver, and shake the whole in a well-stopped 
rial. When the insoluble matter has subsided, pour ofif the clear 
liquor and keep it for use. 

The characters that hydrocyanic acid should possess, according 
to the forms last given, are as follows : — It is colourless, of a pe- 
culiar odour, and wholly volatilizable by heat. One hundred grains 
of it produce, with solution of nitrate of silver, a white precipitate, 
which, when washed and dried, weighs ten grains, and is readily 
dissolved by boiling nitric acid. The acid of the Pharmacopceia 
of the United States contains two per cent: of pure anhydrous acid.^ 

No matter how prepared, hydrocyanic acid should be kept in 
well-stopped bottles from which the light is excluded. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN HEALTH. 

Hydrocyanic acid is usually classed amongst the narcotic poi- 
sons,' yet there is reason for believing, that its ordinary effects are 
purely sedative. Whilst the agents belonging to the class of nar- 
cotics produce, first of all, excitation in the organic actions, fol- 
lowed, sooner or later, when the agent is in sufficient dose, by signs 
of sedation, this acid would seem to occasion the latter results only. 

It is the most powerful of our poisons, at times producing, m 
an adequate dose, the fatal result so suddenly, that the animal ex- 
perimented upon can scarcely be removed from the lap of the ex- 
perimenter before all signs of life are extinct. This rapidity of 
action has seemed to be unfavourable to the idea, that it acts 
through the mass of blood, and to favour the view of those who 
believe, that the impression is made immediately on the nerves of 
the part with which it is placed in contact, or on the nerves that 
are distributed to the lining membrane of the blood-vessels, as sug- 
gested by Messrs. Addison and Morgan.^ The same objection, 
however, applies to the explanation of these gentlemen as to that 

* PharmaropGeta of the United States, p. 59. Philadelphia, 1S42. 

* ChrictiMNi, Treatiie on Poisone, lut Amer. from 4th Edin. cd. p. 582. Fhfla. 1845. 

* An EflBiy on the Operation of Poisonous Agents upon the Living Body. ' London, 



36 .4CIDinf HTDEOCTjUnCirM. 

which ascribes the effects to the poison bdng taken into the Uood — 
that the fatal result is often too sudden for us to presume, that it 
has entered the blood-veasels ; unless we esteem it an agent po^ 
se»ed of powerfiillj penetrating properties. 

A female, who was deceived by the odour of a solution of hy- 
drocyanic acid in alcohol, drank a small Tialful, and died in two 
minutes as if strode with apoplexy. A strong healthy man, 
thirty-six years of age, being detected in thieving, swallowed a 
small vialfui of the acid, staggered a few steps, and iell dead. Four 
or five minutes afterwards, the physician who was called found him 
lifeless, without the slightest trace of pulse or respiration. In a 
few minutes, convulsive expirations were observed, but no indica- 
tions of returning life : 'the face was sunken and livid ; the hands 
and feet deadly cold; the forehead and face cold and dry; and the 
eyes half open and glassy.* 

M. Damason* relates the case of a druggist, who had some hy- 
drocyanic acid in a vial with a ground stopper, and, as it had been 
prepared almost three months, thinking that it was decomposed, 
he opened the vial, and applied it to his nose to ascertain whether 
the acid retained any smell ; he instantly fell down, and remained 
for half an hour without giving the slightest signs of life; but finally 
recovered after an illness of several days. 

Many experiments have been made on animals with this acid. 
A drop, introduced into the bill or anus of a sparrow, induced 
death in from one to two minutes, preceded by convulsions. Even 
holding the bill over a vial filled with the acid proved fatal. A 
duck was destroyed by fourteen drops. Twenty drops introduced 
into the stomach of a rabbit killed it in three minutes. When a 
few drops were injected into the jugular vein, death supervened 
still sooner. A small dog, to which two drops had been given, 
experienced shortness of breath, staggered, fell, passed its urine re- 
peatedly, vomited twice, and afterwards seemed quite well. The 
same animal took, five hours later, eight drops, and fell into a te- 
tanic, comatose condition, but recovered in half an hour. More 
severe but not fatal effects resulted from sixteen drops. Thirty to 
forty drops administered to dogs and cats produced violent con- 
vulsions and death, in from six to fifteen minutes. 

The ex|)eriments of Emmert and Coullon seem to have shown 
that the action of hydrocyanic acid is more violent when it is in- 
jected into the jugular vein, or inhaled in a concentrated form ; 
less so when injected into the rectum. In the case of a horse, into 
whose jiipjular it was injected, death occurred in twenty-one mi- 
nutes. When placed in contact with the dura mater, or with 

I Hiifi'lnnd. Journal dcr Proctt§ch. HcUkund. Band. xl. St 1, S. 85— 92, and Osann, 
in Art. BlauHiiiire, in Encyc. Worterb. der Medkinuchen Wisacnschaft. Band. t. S. 
688, Bortim 1830. 

* Journal do Chunie M^dicale. Jain, 1831. 



ACWVU HTDROCrrANICITM. 27 

nerves, no striking phenomena were perceptible. This fact was 
confirmed by Yiborg.' Oo the other hand, when received into a 
wound in its concentrated state, it acts most violently. Scharring, 
who broke a glass containing the acid, and received some of it into 
the wound produced thereby, died in an hour after the accident. 

It is not easy to deduce comparative results from the discordant 
statements of different experimenters, inasmuch as we aire ignorant 
of the precise strength oithe acid employed. A French physirian 
made some experiments on the uncertainty of the strength of the 
medicinal acid; and found, that he could swallow a whole ounce 
of one sample, and a drachm of a stronger sample, without sus- 
taining any injury: but on trying some, which had been recently 
prepared by Vauquelin, he «was immediately taken ill, and nar* 
rowly escaped with life.* Dr. Pereira^ caused the instantaneous 
death of a rabbit by applying its nose to a receiver filled with the 
vapour of the pure acid: the animal died without a struggle. A 
drop of the pure acid of Oay-Lussac, placed in the throat of the 
most vigorous dog, caused it to fall dead after two or three hur^ 
ried respirations.^ 

We have already alluded to the effect of the acid when dropped 
upon the conjunctiva — a mucous surface, and therefore possessed 
of highly absorbing powers; but it cannot even be placed with im* 
punity in contact with surfaces, which, owing to their being co- 
vered with cuticle, do not readily absorb. Orfila^ states, that a 
professor of Vienna having prepared a pure and concentrated acid, 
spread a certain quantity of it on his naked arm, and died a short 
tune afterwards. Dr. Christison,' however, says this was proba^ 
biy a mistake. On repeating some of the experiments, he found, 
that a single drop, weighing scarcely a third of a grain, dropped 
mto the mouth of a rabbit, killed it in eighty-three seconds, 
and began to act in sixty-three; that three drops, weighing 
four-fifths of a grain, in like manner, killed a strong cat in thirty 
seconds, and began to act in ten ; that another was affected by the 
same dose in five, and died in forty seconds; that four drops, 
weighing a grain and a fifth, did not affect a rabbit for twenty se- 
conds, , Ikit killed it in ten seconds more ; and that twenty-five 
grains, corresponding with an ounce and a half of medicinal acid, 
began to act on a rabbit, as soon as it was poured into its mouth, 
and killed it outright in ten seconds at farthest. Three drops, 
projected into the eye, acted on a cat in twenty seconds, and killed 
it in twenty more; and the same quantity, dropped on a fresh 

* Omnn, loc. ch. 8. 5®). 

* Revue M^dicalo, xviL !265, and Christison on Poisonst let American Edit p. 582. 
Fhila. 1H45. 

' Elements of Mat Med. &c, 2d edit i 437, Lond. 1842. 

* Ma«cndie. in Annates de Chimie et de Pb3r8ique, vi. S47, and Formulaire, &c 

* Toxicologie. ^ « Op^dtp. 592. 



28 ACIDOM HTDROCTAHICUM. 

wound in the loins, acted in forty-five, and proved fata] in one 
hundred and five, seconds.^ 

As before remarked, from the rapidity with which the toxical 
effects are observed after hydrocyanic acid has been taken, it has 
seemed to be almost impossible for the poison to have entered the 
Uood-vessels, and have passed with the current of the circulation 
to the great vital organ on which its deleterious agency is exerted. 
The well devised and carefully conducted experiments of Professor 
Blake,* of St. Louis, show, however, that in the case of this poison, 
as of every other, the velocity of the circulatory current is so great, 
as to enable us to understand that the deadly influence may be 
exerted in all cases by the reception of the poison into the blood. 
He found, that sufficient time always elapses between the applica- 
tion of the poison and the first evidences of its action to admit of 
such contact. In an experiment on a rabbit with hydrocyanic 
acid,^ the animal, immediately after the contact of the acid with 
the lining membrane of the mouth, jumped from the table, and 
when on the floor was perfectly able to stand on its feet. At two 
seconds and a half after the application of the poison it fell on itk 
side, and in five seconds was dead. '^ This," says Dr. Blake, ** is 
but one of many experiments which have tieen performed on cats 
and rabbits, and in no instance have I observed instantaneous 
death, or even the instantaneous action of the poison."^ 

If given in rather too strong a dose, or — if in proper doses — at 
too short intervals, it produces headach, and vertigo, which go off, 
however, in a few minutes. When inhaled, even if diluted with 
atmospheric air, it causes vomiting, prostration, pains in the back 

Fart of the head, and great dioninution of the arterial pulsations, 
n a more concentrate state, the effects are more rapidly fatal 
than in any other form of administration. M. Robert found, that 
when a bird, a rabbit, a cat, and two dogs, were made to breathe 
air saturated with its vapour, the first and second died in one se* 
cond ; the cat in two seconds, one dog in five, the other in ten se- 
conds.^ 

With regard to the parts of the economy that are primarily 
acted upon by the hydrocyanic acid af\er it has entered the blood, 
most observers have designated the nervous system.* In no other 
way, it has been conceived, is it as easy to account for the extreme 

'^•0, also, Geoghegan, in Dublin Medical Joamal, for 1835, and Percira, Op. cit 
p. 24 \>. 

« Ediiil). MchI. ami Surffical Journal, April, 1839, p. 330, and St Louis Med. and 
Burp. Journal. Nov. and Dec.. IR48. 

■ Anwrirjin .fournal of ilie Medical Sciencei, July, 1840, p. 106. 

• See the Autlior*8 General Thcrapcutica and Materia Mcdica, 4th edit, Bvo., Phih. 
1840. ^ , ^ 

' AnnnW dc Chimie, xciL 59. 

* LfHiMlale. Bdinh. Medical and Surgical Journal, January, 1839, and Lond. Lancet, 
June iGtti, 183{^ p. 440. 



mfiditj of its action in fiital cases. When mixed with the blood, 
kmerer, oat of the body, it altogether changes the character of 
that fluid, and opposes its coagulation;^ and a recent writer, M. 
Ooze,* of Strasburg, is of opinion, that it affects more eqiecially 
the df dilatory apparatus; death reciting from the su^nsion ol 
the movemeots of the heart, and the constriction of tl^ ultimate 
arterial divisions, whence follow repletion of the larger arterial 
tronka and stasis of the blood— the convulsions being owing* to a 
dc£BCtiYe supply of blood to the spinal marrow. Some of the Oer- 
■an writeraf* have endeavoured to indicate three grades of its a&- 
tioo oo the economy. First. In moderate doses, long continued, 
it oocanons a marked diminution in the action of the nervous and 
vascular systems; vertigo; disposition to syncope; epistaxis as a 
consequence of thinness of the blood ; and a disposition to putrid 
fceascs.* Secondly. In larger doses, the sedative effect of the 
acid on the spinal marrow, and the abdominal ganglia, is indicated 
by feeliogs of weakness, numbness, tremors, and other involuntary 
motions of the extremities; involuntary discharge of the urine and 
faces; augmentation of the cutaneous and unnary depurations; 
palpitations; anxiety at the praecordia ; weak pulse; and, accord- 
mg to some, headach, especially in the back part of the head; ex- 
ooriatioo of the tongue and inner parts of the cheeks,^ and saliva- 
tion. This last symptom is given by Dr. Christison^ on the aiH 
thority of Drs. Macleod and Granville.^ It has been suspected, 
however, that salivation, in these cases, was brought about by the 
use of an impure acid, containing probably a small Quantity of the 
corrosive chloride of mercury, particularly if the acid had been pre- 
pared — according to the process of the Dublin College — with bi- 
eyanuret of mercury, muriatic acid and water. Mercury is, indeed, 
asserted to have been actually discovered in the acid by Sylvester's 
teal. Thirdly. In still larger doses, it induces violent affections of 
the spinal marrow, convulsions, trismus, opisthotonos, emprosthoto- 
Aos, fainting, &c. 

From the results of all his observations, Osann' infers, that hy- 
drocyanic acid acts dynamically onT the nervous system, by di- 
minishing, depressing, and annihilating its life; and, through the 
nervous system, affecting the organs of vegetation or nutrition, and 
of haematosis; — that it incontestably has a specific relation to the 
spinal marrow, the ganglions of the abdomen, and the dependent 

' MMpendis. Lfectam oq tha Blood. Lect zviL io Lancet, for Jan. 26, 1839, p. 636, 
tfid Bhke, Ofx cit 

> Boachardat, Annoaire de Th6rapeutique pour IS.V), p. 20. Farit. IBfVO. 

' Richter, Specielle Tberapia, Band. x. S. 280 Beriin, I82H; and Oaann, loc. dt. 
S. 5-27. « Cncyc. Wbrteib. B. ii. S. 315. Berlin, 182ti. 

* Bom, in Rust's Maga^, B. liii. S. 282. * Op. dtat. 

* Load. Med. and Phya. Joum. zl?i. 359 and 363. * Loc. dtat a &26. 



30 ACIDUM HTDEOCTAHICUM. 

organs; and hence it is, that, in comparison with other narcotic 
agents, it is less stupefying, whilst it influences more deeplj the 

Ehenomena of vegetative or organic life. He properly remarks, 
owever, that the inferences of Jorg,' from his experiments, are 
apparently opposed to this vi^w. Jorg considered its effects upoo 
the brain to be excitant, and that it occasioned turgescence of that 
organ. 

T^ere would seem to be no distinct evidence of hydrocyanic add 
being a cumulative poison, although this has been at times 8ua> 
pecteid. Its operation must be diligently watched at first, until 
the proper dose is ascertained. This, says Dr. Christison,' is the 
only secret for using it with safety and confidence. 

EFFECTS OX THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

From the effects^ produced by the hydrocyanic acid on the 
healthy body, we may infer the cases of disease in which it may 
be indicated. It is decidedly sedative, allaying nervous irritabilitr 
and vascular action, and therefore adapted for all cases in whi<£ 
these are inordinately excited. Yet its power, as a medicinal 
agent, is not as great as was at one time presumed, and as is still 
presumed, by many. In some countries, too, it has found more 
favour than in others. In Italy, France and England, it has been 
more extensively used than in Germany ; yet in many of the Phar- 
macopoeias of the last country it has been admitted mto the list of 
officinal agents. The great objections that have been urged against 
it are — its danger, even in a small dose, if not carefully adminis- 
tered ; the difficulty of having it always of the same strength ; the 
impossibility of administering it undiluted, and the danger of giving 
too strong a dose in consequence of its rising to the surfiice of 
water. More than once the difference in the strength of the acid 
prepared by different methods would seem to have occasioned un- 
fortunate results. Orfila,"* mentions the case of a sick person, who 
had used it for a length of time in increasing doses, with advan- 
tage; when, being compelled to send her prescription to another 
apothecary, the acid he em|iloyed was so strong as to produce 
death, with all the symptoms of poisoning by hydrocyanic acid. 
For these and other reasons, Riecke, L. W. Sachs, and Osann 
greatly prefer the ^qua laurocerasi and the ^iqua amygdalarum 
amararumf which, although in other respects not less objection- 
able, are less dangerous.^ Sir George Lefevre* affirms that 
cherry-laurel water is a more effective preparation than hydro- 

' Materialien zu einer kijnftigen HcilmitteUehre, B. L 8. 53, 1 17. 

* On Poiiions, edit dt p. 588. 

* Toxicolojjie. 

' Die nruem AizneimitteK a s. w. von V. A. Riecke, S. 5. Stuttgart, 1837; Otum, 
ioc citat, and Emrdopad. Wbrterb. iL S15. 

* An Apology for the Nerves, dec. p. 291. Lond. 1844. 



ACIDUM HYDROCTANICUM. 31 

ejantc acid. In many nervous afTections, as palpitation, hysteria, 
&C., he generally prescribes the following draught: 

IL Aq. lauro-cerasi vv xx. 

flor, aurant. ? gi. 

Syrup tolut. f jj. M. 

The draught to be taken pro re nata. 

Possessed of the powerful sedative agency which has been de- 
scribed, it is not to be wondered at, that hydrocyanic acid should 
have been given in a multitude of cases; and, as constantly hap- 
pens, that unsuccessful trials, suggested by the merest empiricism, 
should have been made with it. 

It is rarely employed in fevers^ — intermittent, remittent, or con- 
tinued. By many, it has been esteemed bene%;ial in hectic; but 
here its agency must be doubtful.^ 

In inflammations^ especially when accompanied with marked 
erethism of the nervous system, it has been greatly extolled, and, 
next to blood-letting, has been regarded by many as one of our 
most valuable antiphlogistics. The followers of the contra-stimu- 
hnt school esteem it as one of their most efficacious contra-stimu- 
lants. In the acute inflammations of internal organs, it has been 
highly recommended by the Italian physicians, Borda and Brera ; 
b thoracic inflammation, after blood-letting, in conjunction with 
tartrate of antimony and potassa, and similar sedative agents; and 
by others in enteritis, metritis, and nephritis, and in active Ae- 
morrhages. In chronic inflammations it has been advised by 
Granville, Magendie, Heller, Elwert, Behr, Roch, ftc, and espe- 
cially in chronic catarrh, bronchitis, and hooping cough. In 
the last affection it is conceived by Dr. A. T. Thomson' to be 
"the sheet anchor of the practitioner;" and by Dr. Roe** to pos- 
sess a " specific '* (?) power. In warm weather, he thinks, it will 
cure almost any case of simple hooping cough in a short time ; in 
all seasons it will abridge its duration, and in almost every instance, 
where it does not cure, it will, at least, materially relieve the se- 
verity of the cough. 

In pulmonary consumption it has been recommended by Gran- 
ville, Magendie, S. G. Morton,* Fantonetti,* and others, parti- 
cularly where there is any inflammatory or spasmodic complication ; 
but others as Neumann, Weitsch, Sir James Clark, Andral,® For- 
get,' and, we may add, ourselves, have given it in these very ca5?es 
without any success. By some, indeed, it has been affirmed, that 

' See the aathor*8 General Therapeutics and Mat Med., 4th edit. ii. 183, Phila. 1850. 

• Elementfl of Mat Med. and Therapeutics, i. 4:i'i. Lond. 183iJ. 

* A Treatim on the Nature and Treatment of Hooping Cough. &c., p. 10. Lond. 1638. 

* lllufftrations of Pulmonary (yonsumption, p. 131. Philad. 1834. 
Mtazette de» Hopilaux. 1I» Fev., 1839. 

• Bulletin G^n6ral de Th^rapeutique, Mars, 1840. 

' L*Ezp6rienoe, 14 Nov., 1839; and Amer. Med. Intel, Sept 1, 1840, p. 170. 



3S ACmVM BTinUICTASICOlf . 

its admiDistratiOD io pbtbisis is to be adopted witb caatioo, as m 
naoy casesy instead of albyiog, it appears to bciease, tbe ooogli 
and ferer, diminish the expectoration, and occasioD a sense of saf- 
focation.' It has been, moreoTer, asserted, that its deprcasiDg and 
destructive agency has acted injoriously oo the organism of tbe 
consumptive.* 

In chronic nervous diseases^ especially when of a spasmodic 
character — as in spasmodic affections of ike heart — even when 
organic, hydrocyanic add has been advised as a soothing sgmt, 
as well as in spasmodic asthma; in the sense ofsvffocatien 
that accompanies hydrothoraz and other affections ; and in spas^ 
modic dynpha^ia. Its eflBcacy, too, has been marked, according 
to Dr. Elliotson,' in various neuropathic disorders of the sio^ 
mach, ^specially i% those in which pain at the epigastrium was 
the leading symptom, — in every form, indeed, of gastrod^nia; 
and in painful affections of the boweis^ of a similar character 
— enteraigia — it has been found useful by Dr. Pereira.^ 

In enlargement of the heart it was found by Heller to dimi- 
nish the force and frequency of the pulsations, and in this way to 
afford essential relief. In an old person, labouring under anasarca 
accompanied by great pain in the breast , Dr. Rees observed, 
after the administration of Yauquelin's acid, great diuresis, wilb 
tbe removal of the dropsy and its concomitant symptoms.* 

In the asthma pulverulent um of the Germans, (Staubastb- 
ma,) that is, in the variety to which millers, bakers, grinders and 
others are liable, Creutswicher is said to have found it highly 
serviceable.' Its efficacy has not been so marked in epilepsy^ 
chorea J and kindred affections; yet it has been strongly recom- 
mended in tetanus. Trevezant ordered it in a case of trawntatic 
tetanuSy after opium Jiad been given in vain, in the dose of from 
two to twelve drops with favourable results.' On the other hand, 
Klein gave it in a similar case, with no other apparent effect than 
that of rendering death more easy.* It has likewise been advised 
in spasmodic pains of the uterus. Yet, although it would seem 
to be soothing and antispasmodic in many cases of erethism, Grin- 
del and Osann' consider it by no means adapted for the radical 
cure of spasmodic diseases. 

In violent neuralgia^ especially in an impressible condition of 

> Schneider, Med. pokt AdverMrico am KruikenbeUe, Ente Liefer. S$. 63, vefencd 
to hy Onann. 

* Siphprf^indi, in Hufeland*t Journal d<*r pract Hrilkund. B. liil. 8t. (i, 8. 15. 

* (n tbe EfTicacy of IJjdrocj-aiiic or Frussic Acid in A fleet ions of the Stomach, Ac. 
IiOiMl 1^20. 

* Op. citato \K 443. 

* 0«inn Op. cit. and lUrleM, RheinWestphal. Jahrbucfa. Bd. z. Sl 1, a 6*2. 

* I<u8t*ii Maf^zin, Bd. xiil 8. 335. 

' Frnri^pa Noti/en, Bd. ihr. Na 1f>, 8.324. 

* Ifeidetberger Klini«^ Anoafen, Bd. iL 8. 113. 

* l<oc citet., 8. 636. 



AOIDOIf HT]>ftOCirAincOM. 33 

tbe yateolar system in nervoUs cephalalgia^ hemicrania, tie 
i9uloureuXy and in f^uly rheumatic sciatica^ H has been ex- 
tolled. Dr. E. S. Bonnet,^ of Charleston, treated successfully 
Sotne cases of facial neuralgia of great severity, by applying it 
externally in the form of the distilled water of prunus lauro-cera- 
It is proper, howeyer, to remark, that in two of the three 
described, belladonna was employed in combination. The 
mode of applying it was by lotion, composed of four ounces of the 
liQrel water, one ounce of sulphuric ether, alone, or with half a 
drachm or a drachm of extract of belladonna. With this lotion 
the affected parts, previously covered with carded cotton or cotton 
wadding, were kept constantly wet. It has likewise been recom- 
mended by Dr. Elliotson* in the cure of vomiting not dependent 
apoa inflammation. 

These are the chief cases in which its internal use has been 
prescribed. It has been employed externally in the following. 
As a soothing agent in severe pain; — for example, in toothach 
from caries; one to two drops, according to Elwert, being put into 
the hollow tooth. Krimer applied it in a dilute state to painful 
wounds; and it has been injected with advantage into fstulte. 

In neuralgia^ the af plication of a cataplasm of belladonna and 
hydrocyanic acid has been advised by some. 

In cutaneous affections^ of an itching, painful or inflammatory 
nature, it has been used with much success. In five cases of ob- 
stinate herpeSy Schneider used a solution of the acid in alcohol : in 
similar cases Dr. A. T. Thomson, besides tbe use of a purgative 
of calomel and colocynth, applied compresses to the parts wetted 
with the dilute acid. In two cases of impetigo, tbe local applica- 
tion completely allayed the distressing and intolerable itching and 
tingling, after other external applications, and the internal use of 
anodynes, had been of no avail. The discharge was diminished 
and rendered milder: alterative doses of mercury, combined with 
sarsaparilla, formed the internal treatment.' Dr. Thomson found 
the lotion useful, in combination with small doses of corrosive chlo- 
ride of mercury, in acne rosacea y and in several other cutaneous 
affections* In herpes, Magendie advises a lotion of hydrocyanic 
acid and lettuce water in the proportions mentioned hereafter. 

The acid has likewise been used, in the form of glyster, in mr- 
rhus of the pylorus y in the strength of six drops of Vauquelin's 
acid to eight ounces Of water;* and uterine pain from sdrrhusy 
injections of the acid, combined with infusion of belladonna, have 
been employed with advantage. 

* Nov4i Ameriom Archivies of Medical andSurgiral Science, April. 1R35. 

* Loud. Med Gaaette. 1H3I, and Amer. Joum. of Med. Sciencea, May, 1831. p. 943. 
' London Medical and Phyaical Journal Feb. IHV2; and the author*a edit of Magen- 

ie'a Pormubry, p. I IS. l^d. 1H24. Fhilad. Ib'^5. 

* Bemd, in Rnal'a Magazin. gd. ziiL, 8. 373. 



In (kphikilmia, cspeciaQ j of the scroiuIiMs kuul, with 
ment of the coajimctiYa, it has been ati^iaed bj Elwert*— two 
drops of the add being mixed with a drachm of water, and a litlk 
dropperi frequeotij into the eye : ami It hiis been given in the ao- 
tive inflammatory stage of bl€JUkyrrkijEa.' 

Ill vapoar has been advised in am/iunsis^^nd in opacity of ike 
eoTJiea ; ^ but it does not seem to be entitled to much credit in 
those affections. 

Lastly, when a portion of tstnia has protnuied firom the reclM^ 
it has been advised by Cagnola, Golnecke, and others, that hydnH 
cyanic acid should be applied to it with the view of dc ati o yia g 






Such are the principal aSections in which the hydrocyanic acid 
ha9 been used. The author has often employed it internally in 
many of the cases recommendeil, especially in paimfml a^eeHomi 
accompanied 6y greai memms imprusibilityj and mamsumpiim^ 
but he has not had sufficient reason to place it high in rank amongst 
medicinal agents.' He has certainly had no evidence, that it 
can cure consumption when not beyond its first stage, as remarked 
by Magendie.^ If the practitioner will bear in mind the eflhcts 
which the acid is capable of inducing upon healthy man, when the 
dose is carried to the reouisite extent, be will have no difficulty in 
deciding upon the cases m which its agency may be appropriate. 
If not a true sedative, it is the nearest approach to one u the 
catalogue of the materia medica ; and therefore its employment is 
clearly indicated in all diseases in which there is much erethismy^ 
administered alone or along with other appropriate agents. 

MODE OF ADMIXISTRATIOX. 

After the remarks that have been made on the varying strength, 
of the hydrocyanic acid, according to the particular form by which 
it may have been prepared, it is hardly necessary to say, that the 
physician must be acquainted with the character of the acid he 
prescribes. The ordinary dose of that of the PharmacopOBia 
of the United States is a drop, given three tiotes a day in a little 
sugared water: it must be borne in mind, however, that the spe- 
cific gravity of the acid is less than that of water, and hence the 
necessity of dropping the quantity of acid at the time of using it, 
rather than forming a mixture with a lar^r quantity of the add, 
which will certainly rise to the surface, if the mixture be put to 

* RiMt't Mairazin, B. liil, 8. 183. " 
« IM. B. xiiL, 8. 2'<M. 

* Pateraon in Lond. Med Gaz. Ma? 15, 1844, p. 808 

* Oflann. Op. ctt. and Genoa and Jalioa, Magaz. d. aualan^Kben Ltttottar der 
ffaammt Heilkund. B. ii. 177. Alan, Hufrland und Oi«nn'a Journal der piakt Hdl- 
kumL Bd. iTiu., 8l 6, 8. 122, ami Richter, Op. cit, 8. aiS. 

* Hee, aim. Becquerd, GaieCte M^icale de Paris, 13 Jan., 1840. 

* The •atbor'a edit of hia Fonnukiy, p. 108. 



AOIDUM HYDROOTANICUM. 36 

one aide : and aDleas the yial is shaken, a much larger dose may 
be administered than was intended. It must also be recoUecteci, 
tiiat the add loses its strength by keeping. Magendie remarks,^ 
that when left to itself in a close vessel, it sometimes becomes de- 
composed in less than an hour, and that it rarely preserves its in- 
tegrity for more than a fortnight. 

The substances that are incompatible with it in the same pre- 
scription, are most metallic oxides, particularly those of mercury 
and antimony, nitrate of silver, salts of iron, sulphurets, mineral 
adds and chlorine. 

The proper plan is to begin with a small dose and to augment 
it carefully untd some effect is induced, but if any of the signs — 
mentioned above as indicating the supervention of the sedative 
cflfects of the add — should superyene, it ought to be discontinued. 

Magoidie, it has been seen, uses the hydrocyanic acid of Gay- 
Lossac, diluted with 8.5 times its weight of water; and this mix- 
tare he denominates medicinal prussic acid. 

The following are forms in which the add may be admmistered. 

liitnra aeidi hTdrocTaniei. 

Mixture of hydrocyanic acid. 

(Melange pectoral.) 

R. Acidi hydrocyanici medicinalis f ^j. 
AqvLSd destillats Oj. 

Sacchari albi Siss. M. 

A dessert-spoonful of this is directed to be taken every morn- 
ing and evening at bed time — the dose being gradually increased 
to six or eight spoonfuls in the 24 hours. Magendie. 

R. Acidi hydrocyanici (Scheele's) Tii^xij. 
Vin. antimon. f 3J. 
Tinct. opii carophoratSB f ^iiss. 
AqusB camphone f ^vijss. Fiat mistura. 

Dose. — In hooping cough j a table-spoonful every four hours for 

a delicate boy four years old, to be given in some warm drink. The 

duld to remain in a warm room, and to live upon light pudding 

and broth. Soe. 

R. Acidi hydrocyanici (Scheele's,) ni xx. 
. Yin. antimon. f ^iss. 

ipecacuanhae f .^iRS. 

Aqaae f jptiij. Fiat mistura. 

Dose. — A tea-spoonful every two hours for a healthy-looking 
female child, five years of age. Boe. 

Syrnpni aeidi hydroeyaniei. 

Syrup 0/ hydrocyanic acid. 

R. Syrupi purificat. Oj. 

Acidi hydrocyanici medicinalis f 3j. M. 

'Op.citatp. 104. 



86 MSaOU LAOTV. 

This iynip may be added to Gommon pectoral mixtarva, 
■aed aa other aympa are. MagtmdU. 

latio aciif hyiraejaiici. 

Lotion of hydrocyanic acid. 

R. Acidi hydrocyanici f Jm. 
Alcohol, f ^. 
Aqo« dettillat. f Jsm. 

This was the lotion employed by Professor Thomson m caaei 
of impciit^o. 

The following was used by Schneider in herpes. 

R. Aoidi hydr^vcyaniei f ^ita. 
Alcohol, f 5Ti. M. 

And in the same cases Magendie employed the auligoined ibr- 
mola. 

R. Acidi hydroeyaniei f zij. 
Aquc laetocc Oij. M. 

The distilled water of the garden lettuce probably contains no- 
thing to recommend it over common distilled water. 

Dr. Joy' adiises the following lotion in acne and impetigo 
to correct itching; and in ulcerated cancer to diminish pain. 

R. Arid hydrocyan. dil. f ^i — ^vr. 
Decoct. malTc Oj. M. 

The bottle should be shaken before each application. 

All these formulae are objectionable for the reasons before aa- 
aijzned; and it is consequently better to drop the acid at the timt 
01 using it, taking care that it has not lost its properties. 



V. AC'IDUM LACTIS. 

SraoNTHBi. Aeidam Lacteum aeo Lactit sea Laetieam, Laetie Aeid, Acid 
of milk. 
French, Acidft Liictiqne. 
Oertnan. Milchs&ure^ 

This acid has been recommended as a therapeutical agent by 
Magendie.* 

METHOD OP PREPARING. 

Lactic acid may be obtained either from milk or from thejtiice 
qflhe red beet. In the latter case, the juice is put in a situation 
the temperature of which is between 77^ and 86^ Fah. After the 
lapse of a few days, a commotion is observed in the mass, which 

* Tweedie*! Libr. of Med.. ▼. 848, Lend 1840, or Amer. edit 
' PormuUire pour la urepamtioo ot I'emploi de pliuieun nouveaox m^dietmeni, dec, 
Edit. 9im0. PvU, 1»3& 



MXDQM LACnS. 87 

ii known ander the name ''viscous fermentatioD," (/ermen/flr /ton 
vugucttftf)) Md hydrogen and carburetted hydrogen are evolved 
in considerable quantity. When the mass has become fluid again, 
and the fermentation nas ended, which generally requires about 
two months, it is evaporated to the consistence of syrup, the 
whole then becomes traversed by a multitude of mannitic crys- 
tals, which — when washed with a small quantity of water, and 
dried — are entirely pure. The mass, moreover, contains a saccha- 
rine matter, which affords all the signs of the sugar of the grape. 
The product of the evaporation is next treated with alcohol; this 
fisBOfves the lactic acid, and precipitates several substances that 
have not yet been examined. The alcoholic extract is then dis- 
trived in water, which occasions a fresh precipitation. The li- 
^piid is now saturated with carbonate qf ztnc^ and by this means 
a fresh precipitation is effected, more copious than the preceding. 
By concentration, the lactate of zinc shoots into crystals, whidi 
are collected and heated m water, to which animal charcoal^ 
previously washed in muriatic acid, has been added : the fluid is 
then filtered, and the lactate of zinc is deposited in perfectly white 
crystals : these are washed in boiling alcohol^ in which they are 
insoluble; afterwards they are treated with &ary/a, and then with 
sulphuric acidj which separates the lactic acid. This is finally 
concentrated in vacuo^ 

Mitscherlich' gives the following process for preparing it pure. 
Lactate ofleady formed in the usual way, is decomposed by sul- 
phate of zinc; the sulphate of lead is separated, and the lactate 
of zinc crystallized by evaporation; this is at first yellow, but by 
repeated crystallizations it is obtained of a pure white. This so- 
lution of the lactate is decomposed by pure baryta; the oxide of 
zinc separated, and the lactate of baryta, which is in solution, is 
decomposed by sulphuric acid^ and the fluid evaporated; this 
yields a clear, colourless, syrupy, not volatile acid, which is de- 
composed, and leaves a readue of charcoal when heated at a suffi' 
dently high temperature. 

Milk, which has been suffered to ferment for a long while, and 
'is treated in the same way, affords lactic acid. Corriol has like- 
wise detected it in an aqueous infusion of the nux vomica. 

When concentrated in vacuo until it parts with no more water, 
lactic acid is a colourless liquor, of syrupy consistence; its specific 
gravity being about 1.215. It is inodorous, but of a very sour 
taste, similar to that of the strongest vegetable acids. When ex- 
posed to the air, it attracts moisture. Water and alcohol dissolve 
It in all proportions. One of its most striking properties, which 



* Gvy-Lomtc and Pdouze, Aniuleii de Chimie et de Physique, Avril, 1833. (Tom. 
Id. 410.)- W 

*RefKirt to Britiflh Aaocktkxi, Sd meeting, and Phfla. Journal of Phannacy, Ti. 83. 
Fhfliddphia, 1834^ 



38 ACmUM LACTI8. 

is of especial interest to the physician, is, that it quickly dissoWes 
phosphate of lime, especially that which is contained in bones. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

As lactic acid was conceived to play a part amongst the juices 
which effect the solution of the food in the stomach, Magendie 
thought it might be given with advantage in cases of dyspepsia 
produced by simple debility of the digestive apparatus ; and hif 
experiments afforded him very encouraging results. 

In consequence of the facility with which lactic acid dissolves 
phosphate of lime, it has \feen suggested, whether it might not 
be administered with advantage in cases of white gravely or, in 
other words, of phosphaiic depositions from the urme. Magen- 
die has not yet been able to institute experiments on this matter. 
At the time when the edition of his Formulary, to which we have 
referred, was published, he had commenced some clinical experi- 
ments with lactate of potassa, and lactate of soda, but without any 
results worthy of being communicated to the profession. He re- 
commends these salts, however, to the attention of physidans. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Magendie gives lactic acid either in the form of lemonade or of 
lozenges. 

Potni aeidi laetii. 
Lemonade of lactic acid. 

R. Acid, lact liquid. f3j. ad 5iv. 
AquK Oh. 
Syropi f ^ij. M. 

Paitilli aeidi laetii. 
Lozenges of lactic acid. 

R. Aoid. laot. pur. ^ij. 
Sacch. pulv. ^j. 
Gum. tragac. q. a. 
Ol. ether, vanigl. grtt ir. M. 

Make into lozenge weighing half a dram each. Let them 
be kept in a well closed vessel. Of these, from two to six may be 
taken in the 24 hours without any evil consequences. 



VI. AC'IDUM TAN'NICUM. 

HvNONTMBa, Aoidum Queroitannicum, Tanninum Purdm, Tanniealh, Pria. 

oipium Adatringena aeu Scytodephioum, Tannin, Tannic acid. 
PSrenck, Acide Tannique. 
Qcrman, Tannin, (iarberatoff, Gerba&are. 

This article, in its pure state, has been subjected to experiment 
of late years only. 



ACroUM TANNICUM. 39 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

According to Buchner,^ tannic acid should be prepared for me- 
dical use in the following manner. From eight to twelve parts of 
koi water must be poured on one part of powdered gcUls, and the 
mixture be allowed to digest for an hour, frequently agitating it. 
It must then be filtered, and the residue be again treated in the 
flune manner with a little hot water. The different infusions, 
which generally pass through the filter turbid, must be mixed to- 
gether, and a little diliUe sulphuric acid be added by drops, con- 
stantly shaking the mixture so long as any precipitate of tannic 
add follows. The acid is deposited very soon in this way, in a 
collected yellowish white, gelatiniform mass, which by the influ- 
ence of air gradually assumes a brown colour. 

After the fluid is poured off, the residue is washed twice with 
cold water acidulated with sulphuric acid : carbonate of bary^ 
ia^ or carbonate of potassa^ is then added to it in small portions, 
carefully sMiking the mixture, until there is no farther efferves- 
cence, and until a portion of the mass dissolved in water and test- 
ed by chloride of barium affords no more evidence of the presence 
of sulphuric acid. The yet moist mass is then put into a retort 
with alcohol of about ninety per cent.y which is added repeatedly 
m small portions; the alcohol is made to boil, to dissolve the tan- 
nic acid, and separate it from the sulphate of baryta or sulphate of 
lime; the alcoholic solution is then poured off clear, and by a gen- 
tle heat evaporated to dryness. 

The following form for its preparation is given in the last edi- 
tion of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States (1842.) Take of 
Gallsy in powder; Sulphuric ether ^ each a sufficient Quantity. 
Put into a glass adapter, loosely closed at its lower end with card- 
ed cotton, sufficient powdered galls to fill about one half of it ; and 
press the powder slightly. Then fit the adapter accurately to the 
mouth of a receiving vessel; fill it with the sulphuric ether, and 
dose the upper orifice so as to prevent the escape of the ether by 
evaporation. The liquid which passes separates into two unequal 
portions, of which the lower is much smaller in quantity and 
much denser than the upper. 

When the ether ceases to pass, pour fresh portions upon the 
galls, until the lower stratum of liquid in the receiver no longer 
increases. Then separate this from the upper, put it into a cap- 
sule, and evaporate with a moderate heat to dryness. Lastly, rub 
what remains into powder. The upper portion of liquid will 
yield ^y distillation a quantity of ether, which, when washed with 
water, may be employed in a subsequent operation. 

> Repertorium, B. xxziv. H. 3; also, A. W. Buchmv, Neueste Entdeckang. fiber die 
GertiBaare, u.a. w. Fmnkf. 183;), and DieriMch, in Heidelberger Klinieche Annalea, 
B. z. H..%a339, Heiddb. 1834. 

For tbeprooeaiof M. Doval, see AnnaL de Chimie et de PhyiiqiiB, and Amer. 
Joiiiiia]ofPhaim.JaIy, 1841, p. 171. 



40 ACIDUM TANinCUM . 

Tannic acid, thus prepared, is of a jrellowish-wbite colour ; of a 
strongly astringent taste ; very soluble in water, and less so in al* 
(Cohol and in ether. It reddens litmus paper.^ 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

Tannic add is a strong astringent,^ which has hitherto beei 
mainly used in uterine hemorrhage^ and especially by the Italian 

!>hysicians. Porta^ was, perhaps, the first who tried it. H* 
bund it very efficacious in cases not dependent upon any or* 
Sanic mischief in the uterus. It exhibits its powers, according !• 
im, even m small doses — as of two grains, and is well borne by 
the stomach. Ferrario^ likewise administered it with advantage 
in the same affection, but he does not consider it adapted for casea 
in which either partial or general plethora, or local exdtement of 
the uterus, or any organic disease, exists: it is indicated only 
where mere atony is present. He gives it in the form of powdef 
or pill, in two grain doses, six times a day. The etkci is gene* 
rally good: the hemorrhage diminishes and soon ceases, and, at 
the same time, the strength augments, and recovery succeeds witli* 
out any disturbance of the functions. Giadorow^ details two caaei 
of diweies cured by it, when given in combination with opium, at 
in the prescription at the end of this .article. The first patient 
was cured in ten, the second in twelve days. M. Dumars^ ex- 
tols it in the same disease, administered by the mouth as well ai 
by the rectum. 

According to Ricci,^ tannic acid has frequently been employed 
in Italy both in internal and external hemorrhages. G. A. 
Riohter,' however, affirms, that he has given it in habitual m^ 
trorrhagia without any advantage whatever. Within the laH 
few years, M. Cavarra^ has instituted many experiments on animala, 
as well as on himself, from which he concludes, that when tannie 
add is placed in contact with certain parts of the living economy^ 
it exerts upon them the same chemico-vital action which it does on 
an inert organic tissue, or, in other words, it tans them as it tans lea- 
ther. '* Tnese parts," he says, *' are the mucous membranes of the 
urethra, vagina, intestines, and lungs. The action of tannic acid 
appears to be, to cause such a condensation or contraction in them, 
that the glands with which they are studded no longer afford pas- 
sage for the mucus which they secrete." 

> Phann. of the Unitrd StotM. p. 63, Philad. 1B42. 

* See. on the action of thb agrat, Mitacherlich, Mediciniscbe Zeitung, Na 4^ 1838, 
and BvUet G^n^ral de Tborap. 30 Man, 1837. ^ 

' Detpech, Memorial det Hopitaux du Midi, Sic F^Tiier, 1829, p. 51. 

* Annali universali di Modicina, Oennajo, IH^. 

* Annali univerrali di Mfdicina,and (>azette Medical, Sep. 15, 1832. 

* Cited in the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal, Not. IH, 1842. 
^ Bulletin det 8ci»'nces Mcdicalea, Sept. \&2S. 

* Araneimittellehre, Supplement, a. 60 ; also, Cavalier, in Arthiv. G^n^raleft, six. f>99. 

* Bulletin derAcad(*mie R^ale de M^decine, Janvier, 1837; alao, American Medical 
IntalligBocwr. Oct 16, I837,p. 2&8. 



42 ACIDUM TAMMICUM. 

M. Aroed^e Latouf^ has highly extolled it for its efficacy in 
hemoptysis. In one case, it completely succeeded when other re- 
medies had failed ; and in three cases of hemorrhage to a slighter 
degree^ it was wholly successful. M. Charvet'' has also recom- 
mended it in the sweats of phthisis. He gives it in the dose of 
from half a grain to a grain and a half, alone or associated with 
opium, and generally at bed-time. 

Huter affirms, that tannic acid, prepared from dried galls, in the 
form of ointment, or diluted with distilled water, is very serviceable 
in most cases of Egyptian ophthalmia. It has likewise been ad- 
Tised in hemorrhoids and fissures of the anus.^ 

In the hyperemesis induced by ipecacuanha or emetia, it may 
be administered as an antidote. 

M. Druitt^ thinks, that in any case in which a vegetable astrin- 
gent is indicated, tannic acid should have the preference. A simple 
solution in distilled water, he says, is much more easily and quickly 
prepared, as well as much more elegant, than the ordinary decoc- 
tions or injections of oak bark, catechu, &c. It can be made, 
moreover, of uniform strength, and free from foreign inert matter, 
and is not liable to decompose quickly. In sore nipples^ he found 
it to be invaluable. He employs it in solution — five grains to the 
fluidounce of distilled water — on lint covered with oiled silk. He 
has also found it of great service in toothach. The gum around 
the tooth is first scarified with a fine lancet, and then a little cot- 
ton wool, imbued with a solution of a scruple of tannic acid, and 
five grains of mastich in two fluidrachms of ^ther, must be put 
into the cavity; and, ^'if the ache is to be cured at all, this plan 
will put an end to it in nine cases out of ten." 

In a case of open, almost incurable, cancerous ulceration^ in 
which it was applied by Dr. Michaelsen,* to arrest the bleeding, it 
excited a wonderful effect on the ulcer and the carcinoma itself. 

According to the experiments of Magendie,* tannic acid is one 
of the substances that oppose the coagulation of the blood. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

It may be given in the form of pill, or draught, or as a Inver 
ment. In the dose of from a quarter of a grain to two grains, it 
does not produce any unpleasant constipation, but its effects must 
be observed with care.' 

' Journal d« M^docine et de Cbirurg. Fratiq. Nov. 1839. See, also^ Boucfaardat, 
Anouaiie, &c^ pour Iri40, p. 203. 

* Bulletin G(§n<;ral <\e Th^rapcutique, Mai, 1840. 

* Diday, in Boiirhardat, Annuaire de Th6rapeutique pour 1847, p. 170. Paris, 1847, 

* Provincial Med. Joum Oct 0, IK44. 

* Med. (^hir. Zeitunf, xviii. 24, cited in Schmidl'i Jahrbucher, u. s. w. Na 6, S. 287. 
Jabrgaiig IK4<». 

* f^id. Luirei, Jan. 20, 1829, p. 636. 

* Cavarn,in Bulletin Gon/>raI dc Th6rapeatiqoe, 30 Man, 1837. 



AdDUM TAHHICUM • 43 

TiiiH artHitieiH €■■ teidt tiiiico. 

Aromatic wine with tannic acid. 

R. yini aromat. f ^viij. 
Acid. Utnnic. 9ij. M. 

R. Yini aromat. f ^viij. 
Acid. taDnic. 9ij. 
£xt. opii puriL ,^S8. M. 

Used as local dressings to chancres. Ricord. 

The YiNUM AROMATicuM of the French Codex, used by Ricord, 
is composed of four ounces of aromatic herbs, (rosemary, rue, 
sage, hyssop, lavender, absinthium, origanum, thyme, laurel leaves, 
red rose leaves, chamomile, melilotum, and elder,) digested in two 
pints of red wine for eight days. 

Injeetio acid! tanniei. 

Injection of tannic acid. 

R. Acid, tannic. 9iv. 
Infunde per minut. x. in 
Aquse ballientis Oj. 

To be injected slowly into the rectum in cases of uterine he^ 
morrhage. Dumars. 

R. Vin. rabr. f gvj. 

Acid, tannic, gr. xviij. M. 

Used in chronic blennorrhcea, or what is called an old gleet.^ 

Ricord. 

In the case of the female, the quantity of tannic acid may be 
doubled, or still farther increased. 

Pilnls acidi tanniei. 

Pills of tannic acid. 

R. Acid, tannic, pulv. gr. vj. 

Acac. pulv. gr. xij. 

Sacchar. pulv. gr . Ixxij. 
Syrup, q. s. ut fiat massa in pilulas pond. gr. iv. sing, dividend. 

Dose. — One to four, morning and evening, where an astringent 
is needed. Cavarra. 

Pilnls acidi tanniei compoiits. 

Compound pills of tannic acid. 

{^Pilules de tannin compostes.) 
R. Acidi tannic, gr. xvss., (1 gramme,) 

MorphisB acetat. 

Antimon. et potassie tartrat. aagr. iss. 

Confect. q. s. ut fiant pilulse xx. 

» La Lancette Fianqaiae, No. 33, Paria, 1^33, and Parker, Modem Treatment of Sy- 
philitic Dkeiuea, American Med. Library edit. p. 44. Philad. 1840. 



44 ACIDUM TAHinCUM . 

Dose. — One or two b the day in hemorrhage^ diarrhceOy Adc 

Jourdain. 

Pilnls aeidi tamiei eim opio. 

Pills of tannic acid with opium. 

(Pilules narcoiiqius astringeiUts.) 
R. Acid, taoaic. 389. 
Extract, opii gu }. 
Confect. ro80 q. 8. M. et divide in pilalas xx. 

One every hour in uterine hemorrhage. Dumars. 

Pilierei leidi tanniei et opii. 

Powders of tannic acid and opium. 

K. Acid tannic, ^ij. 

Opii pulT. gr. 88. Misce et divide in pnlTeres trea. 

Dpse. — One, mornin^y noon, and night; gradually increasing 
the quantity of tannic acid to four scruples daily. Giadorow. 

Syripii ifidi tanniei. 

S^rup qf tannic acid. 

R. Acid, tannic, p. t. 

Syrup, p. 500. — Mix and filter. 

Bouehardat.^ 

VigieitiH aeidi taiiiei. 

Ointment qf tannic acid. 

. R. Acidt tanniei sr. xvsa. 
Adipis Js8. M. 

This is the Pommade contre les ger^ures de Panus^ of M. 
IMday, Hpplioi, iiu Jissurt qf the anuSy on the extremity of the 
little tinker. Diday. 

tteadfrieiiB aeldi taiiiei eoapoiitiB. 

Compound dentifrice of tannic acid. 

K Acid, tannic. i:». 
Sacchar. lact. lb. iia8. 
i^nuiu. 3ii;i^ 
Kiftdeul. Mt'uth. 
«^^^ .\!ii!i. aa gtt. xx« 
Flur. aunuit. gtt. x. M. 

To prevent iiccuuiulation of tartar^ and give tone to the gums. 

Atiaihe.^ 

PamatiB aeidi taaiiei- 

Pomatum of tannic acid. 

^ Li/Mr •>«'( u'e UtHHiH.) 

R. Adipis !»uili. 3\ij. 
Acid, (uniuc. T^iy 
A^uw pur. t 3ij. 



• L'AU:iik» Ucdk-alD. Miii. l*^^ 



ia4(i,|i^ »i(k 



ACOHITIA. 45 

DissolTe the tannic add in the water, by triturating in a glass 
mortar; add the fat and mix.^ BiraL 

Lotto aeili tanniei. 

Lotion of tannic acid. 

Hydrokdif de tannin, pour Puriikre. 

R. Aquae de6tillat. f^viij. 

Acid, tannic, gr. xxxi}. Solve. 

Employed in obstinate bUnnorrhcea. BSraL 



VII. ACONI'TIA. 

Stkoktxes. Aconitina, Aconita, Aconitium, Aconitinum, Aconitine. 
German. Akoiiitin; Aconitin. 

This active principle, which was discovered by Peschier,- and 
by BrandeSy has been recommended by Dr. Turnbull/ whose eulo- 
gies on the medical virtues of the natural order Ranunculacea^ are 
evidently, however, overstrained. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

TurnbuII gives two processes; the former being the more easy 
of manipulation ; the latter yielding a purer result, and on the 
whole being preferable. A quantity of the fresh root of •^conitum 
napelius being very carefully and cautiously dried, and reduced 
to powder, — one part of it by weight, and two parts by measure 
o{ strong alcohol y are to be digested together at a gentle heat for 
seven days, and the tincture, whilst warm, is to be filtered. It 
must then be reduced to the consistence of an extract, by careful 
evaporation, at a low and well regulated temperature; the object 
of this being to prevent the destruction or expulsion of the active 
principle, which would very probably ensue, if the temperature 
employed were higher than barely sufficient to carry off the alco- 
hol. To the extract, thus prepared, liquid ainmonia is to be 
added, drop by drop, and mixed well with it, to precipitate the al- 
kaloifl : in this part of the process care must be taken that too 
much be not added, as in some instances the product appears to 
have been decomposed by inattention to this circumstance. It is 
not easy to give a precise rule as to the quantity ; but enough will 
have been added, if the extract exhales the odour of ammonia when 

* Bulletin G^noral de Theropentique, Janyier, 1H38. 

' TrommsdorflTs Journal der Pharmacic, ▼. 84. 

' On the medical properties of the natural order Ranunculaceoe, and mite particularly 
on the uaes of salndilla seeds, delphinium staphysagria and aconitom na^ierua, and their 
alcal(»dfi, veratria, sabadilline, delpninia and aconitine. Chap. iiL Lond. 1835. 

4 



46 ACQHITIA. 

Stirred. The mass now consbts of impure aconitia, mixed with a 
quantity of extractive, and other matters soluble in water, and it 
may be taken up either by boiling alcohol or by sulphuric ether; 
or the soluble matter may be removed by repeated washings with 
small quantities of cold water, which will leave theaconilia. This 
latter process, Turnbull says, is the one he has generally employed, 
and it b performed by pouring a little water on the extract, and 
mixing them carefully together; then allowing the undissolved 
part to subside, pouring off the fluid, and repeating the operation 
as long as any soluble matter is taken up: a quantity of light 
brown or gra^ powder is left, which may be purified by subse- 
quent solution in alcohol. This powder contains the active pro- 
perties of the aconite, in a high degree of concentration. 

The second process consists in dissolving the alcoholic extract ^ 
prepared as above, without the addition of the ammonia, in as 
much cold water as will take it up, carefully decanting the solu- 
tion from the insoluble part, and filtering it. To the filtered solu- 
tion liquid ammonia is to be added, drop by drop, as long as 
any precipitation is occasioned. When the precipitate has sub- 
sided, the supernatant fluid must be carefully poured, or drawn off 
by means of a syphon ; and after the precipitate has been deprived 
of as much of the fluid as possible, it should be purified by a sufli- 
cient number of washings with small quantities of cold water, or, 
what is better, it may be dissolved in as much alcohol as will take 
it up, and the solution be thrown into cold water: the precipitate 
thus formed is to be carefully dried. The product obtained by 
this process is white. 

The London College, in their Pharmacopoeia of 1836, give the 
following form : — Take of aconite rooty dried and bruised, two 
pounds; rectified spirit^ three gallons; diluted sulphuric acid, 
solution o/ ammonia and purified animal charcoal^ of each a 
sufiScient quantity. Boil the aconite with a gallon of the spirit for 
an hour, in a retort with a receiver fitted to it. Pour off the 
liquor, and again boil the residue with another gallon of the spirit, 
and with the spirit recently distilled, and pour off the liquor also. 
Let the same be done a third time. Then press the aconite, and 
having mixed all the liquors and filtered them, distil the spirit. 
Evaporate the remainder to the proper consistence of an extract. 
Dissolve this in water and filter. Evaporate the solution with a 
gentle heat, so that it may thicken like syrup. To this add 
diluted sulphuric acid, mixed with distilled water sufficient to dis- 
solve the aconitia. Next drop in solution of ammonia, and dissolve 
the aconitia which is thrown down in dilute sulphuric acid, mixed 
as before with water; then mix in the animal charcoal, occasion- 
ally shaking for a quarter of an hour. Lastly, filler; and having 
again dropped in solution of ammonia so as to precipitate the 
aconitia, wash and dry it. This process, however, according to 



▲OOHITIA. 47 

Messrs. Ballard and Garrod,^ mostly fails in procuring the alka* 
loid. 

Aoonitia occurs in the form of an amorphous powder, having an 
mtensely acrid and bitter taste. It is not volatile, and should leave 
no ash when heated to destruction. When well prepared, accord- 
ing to Creiger, it is a firm, colourless, and translucent mass; of a' 
shming af^pearance, friable and inodorous : the taste is disagreeably 
bitter, leaving behind it an acrid sensation in the throat, but not 
corrosive or Durning. It does not dissolve readily in water : at 
the ordinary temperature requiring one hundred and fifty parts 
thereof, but only fifty parts of boiling water. It is soluble in al- 
cohol and in ether. Tincture of iodine occasions in the solution 
a reddish-brown precipitate ; tincture of galls a white one. It 
forms, with the aods, for the most part, salts that are not crystal- 
lizable, which readily dissolve both in water aud alcohol. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

The effects of aconitia appear to be essentially analogous to 
those of delphinia. A grain of the first of the two preparations 
described by Tumbull was dissolved in a dram of alcohol; 
twenty drops of the solution put into the mouth of a guinea-pig 
occasioned death in a few minutes. Other experiments, too, have 
been performed, all of which demonstrate the extreme activity of 
the substance. If a grain or two of aconitia or veratria or delphi- 
nia be mixed with a Tittle lard, or dissolved in a dram of alcohol, 
and a small Quantity be rubbed on the skin, a sensation of heat 
and tingling is experienced after the friction has been persevered 
in for a minute or two. There is a slight difference, however, in 
the effects produced, and the resemblance is greatest between 
those of delphinia and aconitia. 

When a small quantity of aconitia, says Dr. Turnbull, either 
made into an ointment, or dissolved in alcohol, is rubbed for a mi- 
nute or two upon- the skin, a sensation of heat and prickling is ex- 
perienced ; to this succeeds a feeling of numbness and constriction 
in the part, as if a heavy weiiiht were laid upon it, or as if the 
skin were drawn together by the powerful and involuntary con- 
traction of the muscles beneath. This effect lasts from two or 
three to twelve or more hours, according to the quantity rubbed 
in. So small a portion as the one hundredth part of a grain has 
produced a sensation that has continued a whole day. A minute 
portion of it mixed with lard, and applied to the eye, occasions 
contraction of the pupil according to Dr. Pereira, whilst Geiger 
and Hesse affirm that the aconitia which they obtained produced 
dilatation of the pupil. Dr. Pereira states, that the aconitia pre- 
pared by Mr. Morson of London is so powerful, that one-fiftieth 

' Elcmentfl of Mat Med. and Tberap. p. 164. Lond. 1845. 



48 ACOSITU. 

of a frn'm L» ewlanzered the life of ac kcfiTLdcal. It is, be con- 
svJen, the most Tinj&eot poisoo kcovn, imci exotpdcg bydrocyaDic 
acid«* 

Whilst employing aconite itself in bis dbical practice. Dr. 
IxifKibard/ of Geneva, tritd its erfects on anitDals, and cbiefly in 
reference to its action on tbe beart. Tbe experiments were made 
on frogs, whose hearts beat with S'eat regularity, and for a conai* 
derable time after tbe animal has been mutilated. Tbe mediciDe 
was introduced into tbe stomach or applied locally to tbe beart, 
which was laid bare after the animal had been stnpified by blows 
on the bead« He found, that aconi*e employed internally rendered 
tbe puhations less frequent, but oot irregular, and consequently 
that it exerted a decidedly sedative efect on the heart ; whence he 
infers, that it is a proper remeiiy in active diseases of that organ, 
and indeed in inflammatory atfections in genera I, in which be ex* 
bibited it with success. In cases of poisoning by it, the contrac- 
tions of the heart have been found diminished and almost suspend- 
ed/- The homoeopatbists regard it as an energetic antiphlogistic. 

Dr. Eades* concludes, from his own observations, that the m06t 
remarkable symptoms exhibited by animals from the use of aco- 
nite or its alkaloid, are — weakness; stagE^ering: gradually in- 
creasing insensibility of the surface: slowly increasing weakness of 
tbe voluntary muscles, ending, perhaps, in paralysis; great lan- 
guor of the pulse ; more or less blindness, and convulsive twitch- 
ings before death. 

The ablest investigation yet undertaken into the actions of aco- 
nite, according to Dr. Christison,^ is contained in the inaugural dis^ 
sertation of Dr. Fleming* since published, and with a copy of 
which the author was favoured by Dr. Fleming. He found that 
the most remarkable symptoms are weakness and staggering, gra- 
dually increasing paralysis of the voluntary muscles, slowly in- 
creasing insensibility of tbe surface, and more or less blindness. 
He farther observed, that the pupil becomes much contracted; tbe 
irritability of the voluntary muscles is impaired; the veins are con- 
gested after death, the blood unaltered, and the heart capable of 
contracting for some time after respiration has ceased. From its 
art ion on the cerebro-spinal and muscular systems, he deduces tbe 
following practical inferences. Firsts it is seclative, anodyne and 
antispasmodic. Secondly, it is an advisable antiphlogistic in apo- 
plexy, phrenitis, or any disease in which tbe circulation of the brain 
is excited. Thirdly, it is contra-indicated in head-ach arising 

* Klementfl of Mat MM. Ac. 2d edit, il I'rl 1. Lond. 1^4C. 
' OazTttP M.dimlr de Parv, Oct. 10, IJnIo. 

' Orfila. Toxirologie. ii.2'21. 

* I)ul>lin Journal of Mnl. .S-iencp, Man*h, I'^l'*. p. Tm. 

* Trcatiw on PoW»ns, Amcr. edit. p. ^^5. Pliila. \^W 

* An Innuiry into the Phyiqi4ogy and Medicinal Properties of the Aconitum Napellus, 
Ac. LonOi 1845. 



ACONIT1A. 49 

fifom ansemia or chlorosis, and wherever there is a torpid or para- 
Ijftic condition of the muscular system, and, Fourthly ^ Its proper- 
ties suggest its employment in convulsive or spasmodic diseases. 

From its action on the circulation he infers, Firsts that it is a 
powerful antiphlogistic. Secondly^ it is calculated to be of great 
value in all cases where there is inordinate activity of the circula- 
tion. Thirdly^ it is contra-indicated when there is obvious me- 
chanical impediment to the passage of the blood, particularly 
through the heart or lungs: it is requisite, therefore, in every case 
before commencing its use, to ascertain that no such obstruction 
exists; ditiA fourthly y it is contra-indicated whenever there is irri- 
tability of the circulation, with great diminution of power, such as 
occurs after severe hemorrhage. 

Its results on the respiratory system led him to the inference, 
Firsty that it will probablv be found a highly advantageous anti- 
phlogistic in pneumonia, pleuritis, &c. Secondly ^ it seems calcu- 
lated to be serviceable in spasmodic asthma. Thirdly^ it is con- 
tra-indicated in difficulty of breathing, arising from any other cause 
than inflammation or spasm; dmd fourthly^ in cases of advanced 
bronchitis, with excess of secretion, it would prove highly injuri- 
ous by diminishing still farther the power of expectoration. 

Dr. Fleming has not met with any convincing evidence that it 
is a cumulative remedy ; although in two cases he was induced to 
suspect it. The individuals were affected with general tremors, 
severe pain in the head and eye-balls, constant lachrymation, in- 
tense photophobia, heat of skin, quick pulse, and great restlessness. 
In many other instances, howei'er, v^here the administration of the 
remedy was continued for weeks, and even months, no such effects 
were observed. 

The diseases in which Dr. Turnbull chiefly employed aconitia 
externally, were of the neuralgic kind ; but he used it as well in 
gouty and rheumatic cases; and its success, he remarks, fully an- 
swered his anticipations. He employs it either in the form of so- 
lution in alcohol, in the proportion of one or more grains to the 
drachm, — or of ointment, made according to the following for- 
mula: 

R. Aconitiee gr. ij. 

Alcohol gtt. vj. Tare optime et adde. 
Adipis 3j. ut fiat unguentum. 

The alcohol is added to prevent the aconitia from forming a 
thick compound with part of the lard, so as to render it difficult 
to make a proper ointment. In one case of tic douloureux, of ex- 
treme severity, as much as eight grains was prescribed in the oint- 
ment with the most marked benefit. The best mode of applying 
it is simply to rub a small portion of it over the whole seat of the 
affection, until the pain is either for the time removed, or until the 
full effect, described above, is induced on the cutaneous nerves ; 



50 AcoinriA. 

and the friction should be repeated three or foar timeSy or more 
frequently, during the day, according to the effect on the disease; 
the proportion of the aconitia being increased at every second or 
third rubbing. 

Dr. Tumbull found, in the case of aconitia — as well as in that 
of veratria and delphinia — that unless the friction occasioned a 
full development of the peculiar impressions caused by it when 
rubbed on the skin, no benefit whatever was to be looked for from 
its employment; and he observes, that if there be the slightest 
abra^on of the skm, an application of such activity should not be 
resorted to ; and that it should be carefully kept firom coming in 
contact with any of the mucous membranes. 

Aconite and its alkaloid have been used internally and exter* 
nally in neuralgia^ with marked advantage by Jahn, Tealier, 
Hufeland, Wildberg, Fleming ' and others ; but Drs. Copland, A. 
T. Thomson and others have prescribed it in several cases with* 
out success. By many, the external application of the remedy is 
considered to be more likely to be beneficial ; whilst others give a 
preference to its internal use. Mr. F. C Skey * details two cases 
which were cured by it. It was rubbed down into an ointment 
with lard, in the proportion of one grain of the former to one dram 
of the latter, and applied in a small quantity by the forefinger over 
the track of the painful nerve, and was gently rubbed or rather 
smeared over the surfece for half a minute or longer, once or twice 
a day, according to the degree of pain. 

The observations of Tumbull and Skey have been confirmed bj 
Drs. Roots, Sigmond, Fleming and others.' In neura/gia of the 
hearty Dr. Copland^ found it highly serviceable. 

Aconitia is not much used. The extravagance of its price, 
which is said to have been in England 3s. 6d. or upwards of three 
quarters of a dollar per grain,^ would necessarily limit its use, had 
it proved to be more advantageous than it has. It would appear, 
• that all its powers are possessed by the tincture of aconite or bj 
the alcoholic extract. 

Dr. Tumbull likewise advises the external application of an am- 
MOKiATED EXTRACT OF ACONITE, which is made by evaporating 
very carefully, and at a low temperature, the tincture of the dried 
root of the plant, prepared as directed in the process for obtaining 
aconitia, to the consistence of an extract. To every dram of this, 
eight or ten drops of liquor ammonias should be added, and after 
the mixture has stood a short time in a very gentle heat, to drive 

< OpLciL p. 56. • London Med. Gai. Nor. 5, 183a 

' Dr Cowan, Prormcial Med. and Surs. Joom. May, 1843; dtad in BnitliiVHlB*t 

Betromert. Amer. nliL Tiii. 26. New York. 1844. 
* Drtionarv of Prictka! Medicine, ti. t^. 

« ' Perain, fikmniti of Bfat. Med and Thenpu 2d Amer. cSl |k 7S7. Flub. 19ML 



ACONITIA. 51 

off the excess of ammoDia, it may be used in the form of an oint- 
menu according to the following prescription : 

ni gne It nm extract! aeoniti ammonia ti. 

Ointment of ammoniated extract of aconite, 

R. Ext aconit ammoD. 3j. 

Adipis 5iij. Misce ut fiat ungaentam. 

When this ointment is rubbed upon the skin, it occasions sen- 
sations in the part similar to those produced by the aconitia oint- 
ment: they are, however, rather more pungent. 

In less severe cases, Dr. TurnbuU advises the simple saturated 
tincture of the dried root, with or without the addition of 
a little ammonia. The external use of this tincture of aconite has 
been recommended in neuralgia and chronic rheumatism by 
Dr. Pereira,^ and Mr. Jos. Curtis;' and in hemicrania^ by Dr. 
Fleming. 

The alcoholic extract of aconite — Extractum aconiti aloo-. 
HOLCiUM — which is officinal in the last edition of the Pharmaco- 
pceia of the United States, 1842— has likewise been advised by 
Ors. Lombard of Geneva,^ Busse, J. B. Watkins,' and others, in 
articular rheumatism. Dr. Lombard gives it in doses of half a 
grain every two hours, and gradually augments the dose to six or 
nine grains in the same period. A case of poisoning by five grains 
of this extract — from which, however, the patient recovered — has 
been published by M. E. L. Pereyra, of Bordeaux." 

The applications of the different preparations of aconite to the- 
rapeutics have been given elsewhere.' 



Vm. ACUPUNCTU'RA. 

Sthoittmcs. Acupuncture, Acupuncturarion. 
Gtrman. Die Akupunktur; der NadeUtich. 

Although acupuncturation is really an ancient therapeutical 
agent, attention to it has been so much revived of late years, «nd 
its use has been so largely extended, that it may be looked upon 
as constituting one of the novelties of therapeutics. It consists in 
the introduction of needles into different parts of the body with a 
T^w of removing or mitigating disease ; and appears to have been 
entirely unknown to the Urecian, Roman, and Arabian physicians.' 

' Elements of Materia Medica, 2d edit, il 1808. Lend. 18412. 

* Lond. Lancet, June 2(i, 1841. ' Op. cit p. 60. 

* Gazette M^dkale, Juin 28, 1834. See, also, Sigmond, in Lancet for August 5, 
1837. * Philad. Med. Examiner, No. 33. 

' La Lancette Franqaise, No. 37, Mars 26, 18:^9. 



^ General Therapeutics and Materia Medica, i. 374. 
* V. A. RieGke, Die neoera Anmeimittel, a. a. w. IS 



4th edit Philad. 1850. 



8. 12, Stuttgart, 1837. 



52 ACUPUNCTURA. 

From the most ancient times, however, it has been in use with the 
Chinese and Japanese, by whom it was regarded as one of the 
most important of remedial agencies. By these people it was sys- 
tematically taught on appropriate phantoms or mannekinSy called 
Tsoe-Bosi, and the practice of the operation was permitted to 
those only who were able to pass a rigid examination thereon. In 
Europe, it was first known about 170 years ago, from the writings of 
a Dutch surgeon, Ten-Rhyne, who wrote in 1683 f and attention 
was subsequently drawn to it by Kampfer;* but after this it was 
almost forgotten, until Berlioz, in 1816, drew attention to its em- 
ployment. His example was soon followed by B6clard,' Br^ton- 
neau,^ Haime,* Demours,^ Sarlandie,' Pelletan, Se^alas, Danta, 
Velpeau, Meyranx,* .Dance, in France; by Churchill, Scott, El- 
liotson," and others in England ; by Friedrich,^® Bernstein" L. W. 
Sachs, Heyfelder, Michaelis,'^ Grafe,^' and others, in Germany; 
by Carraro,^^ Bergamaschi,'^ Bellini, and others, in Italy ; and dt 
Ewing,^^ E. J. Coxe,'' F. Bache,*® and others, in this country. M. 
Jules Cloquet had much to do in reviving its employment in his 
own country and elsewhere, by his treatise on the subject pub- 
lished at Paris, in 1826, where it was for a long period a fashion- 
able article in the hospitals; so much so, it is affirmed, that attempts 
were even made to heal a fractured bone by it without the appli- 
cation of any appropriate apparatus; and, at one time, it is said, 
the patients in one hospital actually revolted against the piqueurt 
nUdecins! '•. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

In the operation of acupuncture, needles are employed, which 
are very fine, well polished and sharp pointed. They are usually 
from two to four inches long, the length being adapted to the depth 
it may be desired to make them penetrate. If steel needles are 

' Mantisn acbemadca de Acupuncturi ad dissert de Arthritide. London, 1683. 

* AmcBnitat exotic, politico-pnysico modic. p. 583. Lemgov. 1712; and Histoiyof 
Japan, voL ii , Appendix, aect. 4, p. 34. 

' Mem. de la Soci^t^ M^ic d'Emulation, viiL 575. 

* Journal Univerael des Sciences M^d. xiii. 35. Paris, 1817. 

' Journal Gencr. de Medec torn, xiii., and Journal Univers. des Sciences Medic, 
torn. xiii. 1819. ' Ibid. torn. xv. 

^ Mem. sur I'Electropuncture. Paris, 1825. 

* Archives G6n^rales de M6d. torn. viL Paris, 1825. 

* Med. Chir. Trans, xiii. 407. Lond. Ib27; and art Acupuntuie, in Cydop. Pnct 
Med Amer.edit Philad. 1845. 

** Tranaiation of Churchill's work in German, p. 40. 

" Hufcland's Journal, Ixvil Berlin, I82d 

«• Griife und Walther's Journal, B. v. St. 3, S. 552. 

** E. Grafe, in art. Acupunctur, in Encyc. W6rtcrb.'der medicinisch. Wiasenschaft. B. 
I S. 312. Berlin, 1628. '* Annali Univrrsali d'Omodei. 1825. 

'• Ibid. 182a » N. Amer. Med. and Surg. Journal, ii. 77. Phila. 1^26, 

" Ibid. ii. 276. Phila. 182G. 

» ibid. i. 31 1. Phila. 182t); and art Acupunctuie, in Cyclop, of Pract. Med. i. 200, 
Phila. 1633. » Riecke, Op. dt S. 13. 



AcupuHcnnELA. 53 

•elected, they are heated to redness, and allowed to cool slowly, in 
order that they may be less brittle. At the blunt extremity of the 
oeedle a head of lead, or sealing wax is attached — to prevent it 
from being forced entirely into the body. This is the simplest 
method of acupuncturation, and it is as efifectual as any other. 
By various acupuncturists, needle-holders or handles of ivory have 
been devised, to some of which the needle is permanently attached. 
Perhaps the porie-aiguiUe or * needle-holder' recommended by 
Dr. F. Bache,^ is as good as any that has been invented. The 
needle, with its porte^aiguille^ consists of a handle with a steel 
locket to receive the end of the needle, which may be fixed se- 
carely, after having been inserted, by the pressure of a small la- 
teral screw. By this construction, the operator can at pleasure 
fix in the handle a needle of the length he may desire, and after 
inserting it he is enabled to detach the handle by relaxing the 
screw. After all, however, needles prepared in the simple manner 
nMHtioned above are adequate to every useful purpose. 

Besides common steel needles, those of gold, silver and plati- 
.Dum have been used, but it does not appear that one metal is pre- 
ferable to another. 

To introduce the needles, the skin i$ stretched, and the needle 
inserted by a movement of rotation performed in opposite direc- 
tions, aided by gentle pressure. As a general rule, the seat of pain 
will indicate the place where the needle should be introduced ; but 
where the feelings of the patient do not point out the spot, it must 
be suggested by our knowledge of anatomy and physiology. From 
the experiments of Beclard, Br^tonneau, S%alas, Dantu, Velpeau, 
and others, it would appear, that perforation of arteries, nerves, 
add even of important viscera with very fine needles, has not been 
followed by any injurious results; yet, at times, accidents have 
been produced thereby ; and, therefore, it may be laid down as a 
rule, that the greater nerves and arteries of a certain size, should 
be avoided. Prudence would likewise suggest, that important vis- 
cera, as the heart, stomach, intestines, &c., should not be pene- 
trated. 

The number of needles to be used varies according to the ex- 
tent of the parts affected. In the opinion of many experienced 
physicians, we ought not to be afraid of the number, but rather in- 
sert too many than too few, and not at too great a distance from 
each other. The length of time, during which they should be suf- 
fered to contbue in the part, differs : no fixed rule can be laid 
down. Some suffer them to remain for an hour and a half, or 
two hours: at times, a period of five minutes is sufficient. In 
other cases, they have been kept in for two or three days. It ap- 
pears to be by no means settled what medicinal influence is exerted 
by their longer or shorter continuance in the parts. 

' Cjrdop. p. 202. 



54 

ilFI ' LCrs OW THT ECOy03CY. 

Allasion has Tlrvstdj beat made to the impQutj with wliicii, ni 
the geneni&tT of cases, acupoDCtoratioa but be practised eren oo 
important organs. 

As respects the nerres, Cloqoet has seldom or ncTer seen the 
ponctare of them give rise to so much pain as to render it neces- 
sary to withdraw the needles: the pain was generallj trifiEng and 
speediij passed awaj. He inserted needles into the brain and 
spinal marrow, and mto the crural nerre of a cat. without any eri- 
dence of serere suffering or of change cf fanctioo. Similar ex- 
periments were made by E. Grafe with the same results.^ Nor 
was incouTenience found by Delaunay, Kclard and Cloquet to be 
sustained on puncturing the arteries and reins. A few drops of 
Mood perhaps issued , Irat the flow was readily stopped by pressure 
with the finger. The slight ecchymoss which, at times super- 
Tened, disappeared rapidly of itself. In Grife's experiments, |ie 
never found much bleeding ensue, although he properly esteemed 
it advisable to keep clear of the nerres and btood-Tessels^ in order 
to aToid any unnecessary pain or mischief. 

As regards the jfascis and periosteum, GrSfe found, that the iiH 
aertion of needles into them was always very painful, and he re- 
commends, therefore, that the operation should be performed with 
care on those parts. Should, howeTer, the needles be introduced, 
and much pain be experienced, it rapidly ceases, when they are 
withdrawn. 

Lastly — MM. Haime,Bretonneau, Yelpeau, and Meyranx insti- 
tuted sereral experiments on dogs by passing needles into the 
brain, heart, lungs, stomach, &c., and little or no inconTenience, 
as remarked above, was experienced, provided the needles were 
extremely fine. Cloquet passed his needles so deeply into the 
chest of an animal as to leave no doubt, that they had penetrated 
the lungs, and be subsequently pierced the liver, stomach, and tes- 
ticles without the superrention of any unpleasant result, and Bel- 
lini' affirms, that he has repeatedly passed them mto the stomach, 
liver and intestines without injury^ 

The pain occasioned by acupuncturation is generally easily 
tolerated ; but at times it is so violent, that the patients cry out; 
the violence, however, usually passes a way either when the needle 
is drawn out or forced in deeper. It would seem, that the opera- 
tion is, as a general rule, most successful when it occasions the 
least pain. Cloquet asserts, that a kind of electric shock is some- 
times experienced in the surrounding parts at the moment of the 
introduction of the needle; in other cases, a tremulous motion is 
observable in the fibres of the muscles penetrated. Almost always, 

' Art Acoponctor. in Ennrc. Worterbu a. & w. 8. 317. Berlin. 182B. 

* Cited in Brit A Forngn Medioo-Clnniis- Renew, for Juhr, 1848. p. 232. 



ACUFUHGTU&A. 55 

time after the entrance of the needles, a more or less regular 
aureola or haloiof a red colour, and without tumefaction, is per- 
ceptible around them, which soon disappears after they are with* 
drawn; but when they are suffered to remain long in the part it 
Qiiy persist for hours. 

Afhen the operation is productive of benefit, relief is speedily 
experienced. 

X he extraction of the steel needles is ordinarily accompanied by 
more pain than their insertion, especially if they have penetrated 
deeply, and been retained in the flesh for a long time. The diffi- 
oolty is owing to their having become oxidized, and consequently 
rough on the ^surface. In withdrawing them, it is advisable to 
give them a movement of rotation, and at the same time to press 
upon the skin surrounding them with the thumb and index 
mger. 

In the hospitals of St. Louis, La Piti6, and the Hdtel Dieu of Paris, 
acupuncturation was practised some thousands of times, and in 
every case, according to Guersent, without the occurrence of any 
thing unpleasant. Pelletan, however, affirms, that he saw it on 
four occasions followed by slight faintness at the hospital St. 
Louis, but none of the cases assumed the characters of full syn- 
cope. Gaultier de Claubry has frequently seen faintness, febrile 
movements, spasm, and insupportable pain produced by it, and 
Heyfelder saw it followed by convulsions and fainting. B^clard 
has related a case where the needle penetrated to the bone, and 
occasioned intense pain. The patient remained a long time faint, 
and afterwards violent delirium ensued, which gradually ceased 
io the course of the day, ami was followed by great debility. 
Subsequently, an abscess formed in the part on which the opera- 
tion was practised. 

As to the modus operandi of acupuncturation, we cannot con- 
ceive its effects to bie any thing more than a new nervous im- 
pression produced by the needle on the parts which it penetrates. 
The neeales having been found oxidized, especially at the point, it 
has been supposea by some, that the oxidation is connected with 
the remedial agency, and it has been even affirmed, that in some 
diseases they oxidize more readily than in others.^ It is a suffi- 
cient reply to this view, that beneficial results are obtained from 
the use of needles made of metals that do not become oxidized, 
and that the steel needles oxidize in the sound, as well as in the 
diseased body, and even in parts that have been removed from 
the body, and placed in warm water; for in the cold dead body, 
it is affirmed, the phenomenon is not observed. Cloquet and Pel- 
letan think, from their experiments, that the effects of acupunctu- 
ration are a consequence of the development of the nervous fluid 

'Grife,loc.Giua3l9. 



56 ACUPUSCI'UMA. 

— which they liken to the galvanic — around the needles; a view 
which is denied by Pouillet and BLcIard, but adopted in a modi- 
fied form by Dr. Bache,' who throws out the conjecture ^^that in 
many cases of local pain this accumulation of the nervous (eleo- 
tricalj fluid depends upon the altered state of the various fascie 
or condensed sheets of tissue, giving them the power, to a certlAl 
extent, of insulating the parts which they serve to embrace." 

The explanation is ingenious, but we do not think it necessary, if 
adequate, to explain the phenomena. We have no doubt, that the 
effects are owing to a concentration of the nervous power towards 
the part transfixed by the needle, so that a derivation of the ner- 
vous influx is induced towards the seat of pain, or towards the nerves 
particularly concerned in the production of the pain; but farther 
than this we know not. 

There is one phenomenon which is dependent on the oxidation of 
the needle. When the free extremity of an inserted needle is con- 
nected with the ground by means of a conducting substance, or is 
put in connexion with a soft part of the patient's body, it becomes 
the seat of a galvanic current, which is exhibited by the multiplier 
of Schweiger. That this phenomenon is dependent upon the oxi- 
dation of the metal, is proved by the circumstance that it does not 
take place when an unoxidizable metal is employed.' 

Acupuncturation has been used by Berlioz' in gouty and rheu^ 
malic cases; by Haime in rheumatic, spasmodic, and convulsive 
affections^ and by Demours in amaurosis and ophthalmia^ the 
needles being inserted into the temples; Finch advised it in 
anasarca, practised on the feet; he also discharged, in this way, 
the fluid of ascites.^ Pipelet' employed it advantageously in a 
violent convulsive affection. The needles did not remove or mark- 
edly diminish the symptoms, but they postponed their recurrence. 
Michaelis^ cured a case of rheumatism by it, but he did not find 
it so serviceable in cedema of the feet, as the fluid would not flow 
readily through the minute apertures. Friedrich proposed, in 
cases of asphyxia, when every other remedy had been employed un- 
successfully, that the cavities of the heart should be penetrated by 
a needle to excite its contraction, and this plan was subsequently 
advised by Carraro,^ who found, from his experiments on cats, 
that they could in this way be resuscitated after drowning, when 
^very manifestation of vitality had ceased. His experiments, how- 
ever, when repeated by Dr. E. J. Coxe," of Philadelphia, were not 
found to succeed. J. Cloquet obtained the happiest results from 
acupuncturation in neuralgia, rheumatism, muscular contractions, 

• 0|>. citat. p. 305. » Riecke, S. 1 6. 

• Op. chat PariR. 1816. • IamkI. Med. Repos. Mar 1823. 

• Journal Compiem. du Diet dea Scimoea M6tlic. t xvl Paris, 1823. 

• (Jrftfi? uml Wdlihera Journal, B. v. SL 'X 

^ Annul univ. di Medicin, 1823. See, also. Provincial Med. and Surg. Joom., May 
15, 1841. ' North Amer. Med. and Surg. Joum. IL U92. 



ACUPUirCTURA. 57 

spofBU, pteurodyne, cephalalgiay aphihalmioy tootkachy ^lepsy^ 
gouty gasirodytdoy coniusioms^ lumbago, periodical amaurosis, 
diplopia, paralysis, &c. A case of neuralgia, after ampotatioD, 
has been reported as cored by it.^ The patient was attacked by 
agooizin^ pains, not only io the stump, but also in the opposite 
th^h, accompanied by convulsions and fainting. In this state, 
two needles were planted in the course of the sciatic nerve. These 
produced no effect, but as soon as the third was introduced, the 
patient exclaimed, '^The doctor has struck the toe of my foot." 
The needle was then pressed still deeper, so as to pass through the 
nnrre, and the pain immediately ceased. AAer the needles had 
remained in half an hour, they were removed, and the patient en- 
joyed a sound sleep and a woke free from pain. About twenty days 
afterwards, the pain recurred; the needles were again applied, and 
relief as instantaneously followed. 

Several cases of neurals^a, removed by it, have been published 
by Prof. Riberi, of Turin> 

A case has been recently published by Dr. Seller,' in which"; it 
was employ efl with beneficial results in protracted lockjatr^ con- 
nected with attacks of suppurating sore throat, and accompanied 
with hysterical and also inflammatory symptoms. The needles^ 
were usually inserted to the depth of half an inch, and sometimes 
an inch: most commonly, one was placed on each side of the mesial 
Hne, between thcichin and hyoid bone; whilst sometimes two or 
three were introduced, one above another, as near as possible along 
the mesial line in the same region, and were kept in about a 
minute. 

It is in rheumatic affections that its success has been most 
marked. Dr. Elliotson * cured 30 out of 42 cases by it in St. 
Thomas's hospital. In sciatica its efficacy has been evident.* 

By Velpeau it has been proposed to cure aneurism by acupunc- 
turation. In performing some experiments on animals, he found 
that arteries punctured by the needle became the seat of a coagu- 
lum, and were ultimately obliterated. In 18*30, he read a paper 
before the Acadf'mie des Sdences, of Paris, proposing the opera- 
tion in the cases in question." He found, in his experiments, that 
whenever the needle remained three days in the flesh, the trans- 
fixed artery was completely obliterated. 

M. Bonnet, Chirurgien-en-chef to the Hotel Dieu at Lyons,^ 

» Bnllctino delle Scienze Medich. Ottobrr, 1^38, ritotl in Brit, and For. Mrd. Kcview. 
Jul. Ih40. p. C.V2. • Medico Chininr. Rev. April, 1841, p. r>Ol. 

' Northern Journal of Medicine, April, 1845, citeil in Draithwaite^a Retroapect. Amer. 
edit, xl 180. i\ew York, 11345. 

• Art Acupuncture, Cyclop. Pract Med. Amer. edit, by the author, Philad 1845. 

' Renton, in Rdinb. Med. and SurR. Joum. for IKU), xxxiv. 100; and (iravea, in 
Ixmd. Med. (iaz. July, 1831, and l*ond. Med. and Sun;. Journal, April, \h:VX 

' Lond. Med. Gaz. cite<l in Amer. Journal of Med. Sciences, Auff. \>*'\\ . p. 510. 

' Bulletin General do Therapcutique, cited in Dungliaon'a American Medical Intrlli- 
Ifcncer. for Dec. I, ie37,p. 317. 



08 ACUPUirCTURA. 

treated eleven cases cf varicose veins by introducing pins throngh 
their cavitiesy and alloi^ing them to remain there some time. Nine 
of these cases were cured. The same treatment was applied to 
herniary sacs. He passed three or four pins through the herniary 
envelops close to the inguinal- ring; and in order that they might 
exert a certain degree of compression, as well as of irritation, on 
the sac, he twisted the points and heads upwards so as to give them 
ft circular direction. The inflammation and pain usually com- 
menced on the third or fourth day after the operation, and'^the pins 
were removed a few days afterwards. M. Bonnet had treated four 
cases of inguinal hernia by acupuncturation. In two, the hernia 
was small, and three weeks sufficed for the cure: the third was 
more troublesome. Caution is of course requisite not to injure the 
spermatic cord. 

In a subsequent communication, M. Bonnet inculcates the neces- 
sity of causing the obliteration of the veins in several places se^ 
parated from each other by short spaces.' 

Acupuncturation has been revived ^ in the treatment of hydrocele 
by Mr. Lewis, Mr. King,' and others. It consists in carrying a 
common sewing needle — of the size used for sewing a button to ft 
shirt — through the skin, the dartos and cremaster, into the bag 
containing the fluid, so that a drop of the fluid follows the instru- 
ment as it is withdrawn. It is executed in nearly the, same man- 
ner as the ordinary method of tapping with a trocar, except that 
the needle, which should be oiled, cannot be plunged in so easily as 
that instrument. Mr. King suggests that the needle should be 
fixed in a handle, by which means it can be made to enter with 
comparative facility. After the operation, a compress, moistened 
with a discutient lotion, may be kept on the scrotum, and the pa- 
tient may walk about or remain at rest, as may best suit him. The 
phenomena which present themselves in a few hours are as fol- 
lows: — the swelling begins to be less circumscribed, and to lose its 
tenseness, and the areolar tissue of the scrotum becomes gradually 
more and more infiltrated with the fluid, which before distended 
the tunica vaginalis, and which, in the space of from twenty-four 
to forty-eight hours, will, according to Mr. King, have entirely 
chant^ed place. In five or six days, the infiltration tlisappears, and 
the patient is cured. Mr. Lewis first introduced the method as 
a palliative, but he has seen cases where a radical cure was ef- 
fected by it.* He considers the principle of puncturing with a fine 
pointed needle not only applicable to promote the absorption of the 
fluid in hydrocele, but in every case of encysted dropsy,^ 

* Airluvcs GeneralM dc Medocine, Mai, 1839. See, also, Dodd, in Medical Gaz.* 
Dec. 20, iS'MK 

• Traverg. in Lond. Med. Gazette, Feb. 1837, p. 7:^7. Lowib, llnd, Feb. 1837, p. 
788. Mr. Robert Keate, Ibid. p. 780. ■ Britinh Annals of Medicine, No. 1 , p. 1 3. 

* Davidson, in Edinb. Med. and Surg;. Joum. for Jan. 183H. 

• Lancet, May 7. 1836, and Jan. 14, 1837. See a caae of Ovarian Dropsy, in which 



ACUPUHCTU&A. 59 

Reference has alueady been made to the use of acupuDctaratioD 
b anasarca. The author has used it advantageously to drain off 
the fluid from the areolar membrane. In such cases larger needles 
are needed ; some prefer tHem to be of the size of an ordinary 
glovePs needle, and of a triangular shape ; a puncture of this kind 
being less likely to closeJ 

In the mass of cases, it need scarcely be said, this course can act 
merely in a palliative manner, — the cause of the dropsical accu- 
mulation persisting. Still, as Dr. Graves has remarked, under fa- 
vourable circumstances, and in a good constitution, the simple 
operation of evacuating the fluid by punctures made through the 
skin, has been, of itself, suflicient to efiect a cure. In a lady, 
under his care, general anasarca came on after fever, and resisted 
every form of treatment he could devise. When he had made 
many fruitless attempts to produce absorption by means of internal 
remedies, another practitioner was called in, who practised acu- 
poncturation of the lower extremities, and succeeded completely. 

Mr. Yowell ' has published a case in which acupuncturation was 
successfully employed for the removal of a ganglion, A young 
lady under his care had been affected with a ganglion of consi- 
derable size on the extensor tendons of the foot, which produced 
not only disfiguration, but some uneasiness. Mr. Yowell applied 
blisters, aiu) afterwards iodine ointment and pr/essure, for above a 
month, without benefit. He then inserted the tambour portt' 
aiguille of his patient. Pressure was applied, and within a week 
the tumour had completely disappeared. 

M. Wiesel,' has narrated a case o( fracture of the two bones of 
the forearm^ in which, reunion of the bones not having taken place 
at the end of nine weeks, he had recourse to acupuncture with full 
success. He introduced between the two moveable fragments of 
the ulna two needles, sufiiciently long to traverse the false arti- 
culation from side to side, and kept them in that position for 
the six following days, after which he withdrew them, because 
they had excited by their presence considerable swelling of the part 
and severe pain. Fifteen days afterwards, he traversed in the same 
manner the false articulation of the radius, with two other needles, 
which, at the end of a few days, caused sharp pain and slight sup- 
puration. He then applied a simple bandage to the limbs, and m 
the space of six weeks complete consolidation had taken place. 

When acupuncturation is conjoined with electricity or galvanism, 
it constitutes electro-pundure^ and galvano^punclure. 

it wa« employed by Robert D. Thompson, in Lancet, May 25, 1839, p. 344 ; and one 
of AkHcs, by Mr. Campbell, Lond. Med. Gaz Nov. 183H. 

' Graves, Lond. Med. Gaz. Oct 1838. See, also, King. Ibid. Oct 7, 1837, and 
Nov. 25. 1«37. ' Lancet, Aug 25, le38, p. 770. 

' Gazette des Hopitaux, Doc. 1843, cited in Braitbwaite's Retrospect, Amer. edit ix. 
186. New York, 1844. 



60 JETUZK HYDROCYANICUS. 



IX. ^THER HYDROCYAN ICUS. 

Synontmcs. ^ther Prussicus, Hydrocyanic, or Prussic Ether, Hydrocya- 

nale of Etherine, Cyanurel of Ethyle. 
French, Ether Hydrocyanique. 
German, Cyanather, CyanwatBerstofTather; Hydrocyanather. 

This preparation was discovered some years ago by Pelouze/ 
and, according to Magendie,'* it resembles in its effects hydro- 
cyanic acid, without being so violent a poison, and, consequently, 
he esteems it worthy of regard as an addition to the materia 
medica. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

Equal parts of stilpho-vinate of baryta and cyanvret of potas* 
sium are mixed intimately together; put into a glass retort, to 
which a tubulated receiver is adapted, and exposed to a moderate 
temperature. By distillation, a colourless, or slightly yellowish 
fluid is obtained, which separates into two distinct strata. The 
lighter consists chiefly of hydrocyanic ether, which is not pure, 
however, but mixed with water, alcohol, sulphuric ether, and hy- 
drocyanic acid. In order to purify it, it must be strongly shaken, 
and, with four or five times its bulk of water, must be exposed 
for some time to a temperature of 60° or 70° centigrade; it must 
be again agitated with a little water, decanted, suffered to remain 
in contact with chlorinated lime for twenty-four hours, and then 
distilled. The ether thus obtained is pure. It is a colourless 
fluid, of a penetrating, disagreeable garlicky odour. Specific 
gravity 0.78. It boils at 82° centigrade; is very slightly soluble 
in water, but soluble in every proportion in alcohol and sulphuric 
ether. In its pure state, it does not disturb a solution of nitrate 
of silver. It inflames very readily, and burns with a blue light. 
Potassa decomposes it with difficulty, and only when highly con- 
centrated. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

Six drops of this ether placed in the throat of a dog, occasioned, 
in a short time, deep respiratory efforts : the animal fell on its side, 
and convulsions succeeded, with considerable motion of the paws. 
This condition continued for four minutes, after which the effects 
gradually disappeared, and in the course of half an hour ceased. 
Six drops injected into the jugular vein rapidly caused death, with 
symptoms similar to those induced by hydrocyanic acid. Accord- 
ing to Magendie, these experiments w^ere frequently repeated by 
him with ditfcrent modifications after which he ventured upon its 
administration in disease. He added six drops of the ether to a 

' Joamol dc Fhannacie, xx. T^O. Faris, 1833. * Formulaire: — derni^re Edition. 



JETBESL SULPHURICUS. 61 

nacilaginoQS linctus, and prescribed it to a patient labouring under 
kooping'covgh, who, in the course of a few days, derived signal 
benefit from it, and without complaining of its penetrating, dis- 
agreeable odour. The same good effects happened to several 
patients to whom he gave it in the Hotel Dieu. But although the 
results were favourable in cases in which the hydrocyanic acid was 
indicated, he found it often necessary to discontinue it, on acx^ount 
of the invincible nausea which Its smell induced. Magendie ad- 
vises it in those diseases in which mixture of hydrocyanic acid 
have been found of service. 



iETHER SULPHURICUS. 

Stkontmcs. ^ther Vitriollcus, Naphtha Sulfurica, Oleum Vitriol! dulce^ 

Vitriol Naphtha, Sulphuric Ether, Letheon. 
French. Ether Sulfurique. 
German. Schwefelather. 

It is only within the last few years, that a class of agents has 
been introduced into the Materia Medica, which have received the 
name of •Anaesthetics^ a term used by Dr. Pereira* synonymously 
with narcotics, anodynes and paregorics, as << agents which dimi- 
nish sensibility or relieve pain ;'' but he adds, that the term is com- 
monly applied to agents which diminish common sensibility, or 
sensibility to pain. As remarked elsewhere,' however, it is most 
generally employed to designate such agents, when received into 
the lungs in the form of vapours or gases ; and the vapours most 
used are those of ether and chloroform. 

It has been long known, that the vapour of ether would cause 
exhilaration and intoxication when breathed from a bladder, a 
practice which, as the author has been informed, was a popular 
diversion thirty or forty years ago in Philadelphia. As long ago 
as the year 1805, it was used to relieve the distress in the last 
stage of pulmonary inflammation in the case of a gentleman in 
Boston: in like cases it has been frequently prescribed since, and 
it was so prescribed in the year 1812, to a member of Dr. J. C. 
Waf ren*s family, who experienced great relief from it. The mode 
of applying it was by moistening a handkerchief and placing it near 
the face of the patient. It was not, however, until October, 1846, 
that it was brought forward prominently as an anaesthetic in sur- 
gical operations. Dr. W. F. G. Morton, a dentist of Boston, about 
the middle of that month, infofmed Dr. Warren, that he had pos- 
session of a means for accomplishing the object; — that he had made 
trials of its efficacy in the extraction of teetti, and was desirous 

' The Elements of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, 3d edit, L 203. Lend. 1849. 
s General Thenpeutics and Mat Med., 4th edit, i. 344. Philad., 18&0. 

5 



62 JBTH£R SULPH0EICU8. 

that Dr. Warren should test its power in surgical operations.^ 
Accordingly, at the Massachusetts General Hospital, its merits 
were tested by Drs. Warren and Hayward, and the results being 
satisfactory, the trials were soon repeated there and elsewhere, in 
this country and abroad; and very speedily "etherization " — as it 
was termed — came to be regarded as one of the most important 
gifts presented by science to humanity. Although, however, it 
was first promulgated at the period above describ^, it is affirmed 
by Dr. C. W. Long,* of Jefferson, Jackson co., Georgia, that as 
early as the 30th of March, 1842, he removed a tumour from a 
patient who inhaled the vapour of ether from a towel, without any 
pain being experienced.^ 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

The officinal sulphuric ether of the pharmacopoeias is usually em* 
ployed for inhalation. The specific gravity of that of the Pharma- 
copoeias of the United States and London is .750 ; of the Dublin, 
.765; and of the Edinburgh, .735, or under. The last is the best 
for the purpose. The article employed by Dr. C. T. Jackson was 
prepared as follows. The strongest and purest rectified sulphuric 
ether, which can usually be obtained from the druggists, is agi- 
tated with water for the purpose of removing all acid. It is then 
freed from the water it may have taken up by chloride of calcium. 
The specific gravity of the product is about .725.* 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN HEALTH. 

The effects of all ansesthetics are essentially alike; iind since 
their recent introduction numerous experiments have been made with 
them by distinguished physiologists and surgeons, — as by a commit- 
tee of the Surgical Society of Ireland,* by Flourens," Longet,^ 
Amussat," Holmes Coote and Thomas Taylor,'' Ville,'® Gruby,** 
Thomas Wakley," G^rardin and Verrier,^^ Snow,'* Chambert/* 
Buchanan,*' Black,*' Schuh, Jorg, Von Bibra, Harlcss'® and others, 

• Etherization, with Surspcal Remarks, by John C. Warren. M. D^ p. 4, Bo«t, 1848. 
See, on the oriirin oi the inhalation of ettier as a means of preventing pain in &ur||ric«l 
operations tlic Report of the Boani of Trustees of the Ma«s;ichusetts General Hospital, 
Boston. 184H. • Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, Dec. IH49. 

' On the history of ether inhalation, see Dr. Rankint;. in Half- Yearly Abstract, Amer. 
edit V. 'X-Zfi^ Philad. 1847, and Report of the Committee on Surgery in Tranaactionfl 
of the Amer. Med. Association, i. 17!), Philad. 184H. 

• Warren, Op. cit p. 93. • DuWin Medical Press, Feb. 10, 1847. 

• Lancet, April 17, 1847, ' .\rchives G^nemlesde Medecino, Mars, 1847. 

• Comptes Rcndus, 22 Fevr. 1847. * Lancet, June 19, 1847. 

»• Ibid. July 10, 1847. »i Lond. Med. Gazette. Dec 24, 1847. 

M Lancet, Jan. 1 , 1848. <* Comptes Rendus, 27 Dec., 1847. 

*« [jond. Med. Gazette. Jan. 1848. 

•» Bouchardat. Annuaire de Th6rapeutiqae, pour 1848, p. 3(». 

»• lAKid. Med. Gaz. April, 1847. " Provincial Med. and Sun?. Joum. May 5, 1847. 
•• Canstatt und Eiseomann, JahresberichC, u. t. w., iro Jahre, ib4T, {▼. 169, Erlangrn, 
1848. 



JBTH£a SULPHUEICU8. 63 

and the results have been carefully noted.^ All of them, when re- 
ceived into the lungs^ readily enter the pulmonary blood vesselsy and 
proceed to the great nervous centres, to exert on these their appro* 
priate agency. As a general rule, perhaps, the intellectual and mo- 
ral manifestations first exhibit their influence through the excitant 
action of the ansBsthetic on the great cerebral and cerebellar gang- 
lia, so that a kind of intoxication supervenes, vrith imperfect power 
of regulating the movements. The sensory ganglia become subse- 
quently or simultaneously affected, and sensation and motion are 
iospended; and ultimately, if the quantity inhaled be sufficient, the 
Bedulla oblongata has its action suspended or destroyed ; respira- 
tion ceases, and death is the consequence. Yet great irregularity oc- 
curs in the supervention of these phenomena, as in the hysteroid 
condition induced by the animal magnetizer. At times, the in- 
tellect appears to be but little affected, whilst ordinary sensation 
isobtuuded; and, at others, morbid sensation or pain is blunted, 
whilst ordinary feeling persists. The supervention of anaesthetiza- 
tion is known by closure of the eyelids, if they have been pre- 
viously open; failure to respond to questions, and muscular relaxa- 
tion. Whilst the patient is under the influence, the pulse and the 
respiration must be carefully attended to. If they fail, or if the 
pupil, after having been contracted, becomes dilated, the inhala- 
tion must be immediately discontinued, and the face be sponged 
with cold water, ammonia be applied as an excitant to the nostrils 
and throat, and frictions to the extremities; and M. Ricord' recom- 
mends, in cases of threatened death from chloroform, the immediate 
inflation of the lungs, by applying the mouth to the patient's lips. 

It would appear from the experiments of Mr. Nunneley, M. 
Jules Roux"^ and others, that the local application of anaesthetics, 
as of narcotics in general, deadens the sensibility and power of 
motion of a part, whilst the nervous centres, and the nerves distri- 
buted to other parts of the body, may be unaffected. Mr. Nun- 
neley instituted an extensive series of experiments on animals, and 
found, that by immersing a limb in a small quantity of the fluid, 
or by applying the vapour topically for a limited period, it might 
be rendered perfectly incapable of motion and feeling, and be fixed 
in any desired position. 

It was but natural to suppose, that the indiscriminate employ- 
ment of so potent an agent, should, in some cases, ^ive rise to un- 
pleasant, and even fatal results. Yet when we reflect on the im- 
mense number of persons who have been subjected to the inhala- 
tion of ether, the surprise is, that so few examples of injurious 
consequences should have been recorded. 

* See H. J. Bigelow, Anrcsthctics, their mode of exhibition, and physiological efiectf, 
in Tranwctiona of the Aroer. Med. AaBociation, ii. 11>7, Philad. 1848. 

* Ranking 8 Half-Teariy Abetract, xL 191. Amer. edit Philad. 1850. 
' Gaaette des Hopitauz, 7 Nov. 1848. 



64 .STHER 8ULPHURICD8. 

The most remarkably ill effects noticed by Dr. Warren/ were 
of tv^o kinds; first ^ those caused by the exclusion of oxygen; and 
secondly y those from excessive etherization of the nervous centres, 
— the principal morbid effect from the latter cause being general 
convulsions — at times, so violent as to threaten life; but generally 
by suspending the inhalation, and employing the free affusion of 
cold v^ater, tne convulsions ceased. Cases in which distressing 
nervous and other phenomena supervened are related by Dr. War- 
ren, Mr. South, Professor Syme," Professor Murphy,' Mr. Law- 
rence of Montrose,* Mr. Copeman,* Dr. Bennett,^ Mr. Eastman,' 
Dr. H. J. Bigelow," Dr. N. R. Smith,* and others. Accidents 
have, however, been ascribed to it on no foundation. Thus, Dr. 
Pickford'^ states, that a medical friend in Dublin informed him, 
that of thirty fatal cases following operations in which ether bad 
been employed in the various hospitals of that city, eight were 
found to be the subjects of recent tubercles of the lungs, — the un- 
doubted product. It was believed, of inhalation, — a statement 
which Mr. Macdonnell** denounces as altogether groundless. 

Professor Syme, Dr. Roberts^' and others, witnessed inconve- 
nient effects from the inhalation of ether, and the editor of tbe 
Monthly Journal of the Medical Sciences observed great excite- 
ment, cough, with expectoration of pus, haemoptysis, and convul- 
sions. In some cases, erotic feelings, and even nymphomania oo- 
curreii in females: in others, hysterical symptoms, or those of de- 
preNhion, or intense headach, which continued several days; and 
similar phenomena have presented themselves to the author. Fa- 
tal casiea, too, have occurred, which have been ascribed to the in- 
halation, by M. Jobert, M. Roux, Mr. Nunn,Dr. Maclagan, Mr. 
RobbN. M. Blandin,'- M. Piedagnel,^* Dr. Paul F. Eve,^^ Dr. J. W. 
B. M*(*lellan,''* and others. Fatal cases are, however, much 
more rare than they were some time ago; and this is probably owing 
to u)(>re care l>eing taken in its administration, and in the discrimi- 
nation of cases for which it is adapted. 

It is proper to remark, that from tables published by Professors 
Simpson and Malgaigne, showing the mortality of surgical opera- 
tions in the British and French hospitals, where anaesthetics had 

• tV cil. u. *<i4. * Monthly Journal of Med. Science, Aug. 1^47. 

• l-uiK'vU Nov. \J7, 1847. * Monthly Journal, June. 1H47. 

- Pfiivuuial Med. aiu) 8urg. Journal, Kelw 10, 1S47. * Monthly Joar., June, 1847. 
' iAiik). uiul KUiitU MiHithly Journal. June, \t<47. 

• TraiiMi-tiouii (»f thit Aiitericau Medical Aiwociation, i. 209, Philad. 1848. 

- itiid. li. *^14, Philad. IMi). "^ fkliiilx Med. <Sc. iSurg. Joum. July, 1847. 
•' riuviikittl Mt-d. and Hurg. Joum., July 14, 1847. 

>' Moittlil> Journal ol' Mtxlii-al Science, April. 1847. 

•• (JuMlte dcM Hopitaux, V!3 Nov. 1847. SSee, also, the details of a case at the Hotel 
Oh'U, of I'aria, in Journ. den Cnnnoi* Medico Chirurg., cited in Rankings Half-Yeariy 
AUliut t, \uwT. edit vii. 1!H. PhihuL 1848. 

>* i-ited in iIm- AuR^r. Jour, of the Med. Sciences, A|inl, 1848, p. 558. 

*' HouthA^ru MixL and Surg. Joum. June, 1849. 

>* IransacliMUS of Uw Aiuer. Med. Ansocaatioo, i. 199; Phikd. I64a 



.£TH£R SULFHURICUS. 65 

been used, and where they had not, it would appear that the mor- 
tality was decidedly greater where they were not employed; and 
hence it has been inferred, that where the employment of chloro- 
form has sacrificed one life, it may have preserved a hundred.' 

During the inhalation of ether, the blood has been observed to 
lose its florid colour by Mr. Pring,' M. Amussat, Dr. Ranking,^ 
and numerous others. M. Lassaigne,^ however, states that such 
was not the result of his observations. 

The morbid appearances presented by animals killed by the in- 
halation of ether have been similar to those observed in asphyxia; 
fluidity of the blood ; accumulation of that fluid on the ri^ht side 
of the heart and large veins, with engorgement of the mternal 
viscera. In a fatal case, seen in the Royal Infirmary of Edin- 
burgh, there were found double pneumonia, bronchitis, and secon- 
dary purulent deposits in the joints. In a case recorded by Mr. 
Nunn, cerebral congestion, engorgement of the lungs posteriorly, 
and uniform fluidity of the blood, were found. In another case there 
was no great congestion ; but the blood was fluid throughout. The 
observations of MM. Amussat and Lassaigne showed, that in every 
case it loses its power of coagulation, although, with the exception 
of the presence of a minute quantity of ether, its chemical charac- 
ters are unchanged.' 

From a careful comparison of the effects produced on the eco- 
nomy by difierent anaesthetics. Dr. Hayward" decidedly prefers 
sulphuric ether to either chloric ether or chloroform, — its great 
advantages being, in his opinion, " its entire safety, the ease with 
which it is administered, and the slight inconveniences which fol- 
low its administration." 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

It was in severe surgical operations that anaesthetics were first 
employed in the way of inhalation ; and until the discovery of chlo- 
roform, sulphuric ether was used almost solely, and generally with 
the most gratifying results. As soon as the intelligence reached 
Europe it was at once laid hold of by the most distmguished sur- 
geons, by Messrs. Liston, Key, Ferguson, Lawrence, Skey,'' and 
others, in England; by MM. Malgaigne, Velpeau, Roux, Robert, 
Paul Guersant, Leroy d'Etoilles, and others,^ in France; and by 
Blumhardt, Diefienbach, Schuh, Heyfelder, and others, in Ger- 
many. 

I Report of the Committee on Sargm, Dr. N. R. Smith, Chainnan, in Tranaact of 
the Amer. Med. Association, il 21f>. Pbilad. 1849. • Lancet, May 1, 1847. 

* Half. Yearly Abrtract, Amer. edit, v 335. Phaad. 1847. 

* Cited in Provincial Med. and Surg. Joam^ May 5, 1 847. 

* Monthly Journal of Medical Science, April, 1847. 

' Remarks on the Comparative Value of the Difierent Anesthetic Agents. Boston, 1850* 
'' Amer. Journal of the .Med. Sciences, April, 1847, p. 50(L 
' Boucbardat, Annaaire, 1848, p. 36. 



66 iETHcm suLPHinucus. 

Not long after its intrcxluction in this coantry, Dioetera cases of 
surgical operations performed on patients rendered insensible by it 
were recorded by Dr. J. Mason Warren/ of Boston; and since 
then the testimony in its favour has been so orerwbelming and 
nuroerouSy that it is impracticable eren to enumerate the different 
authorities. Mr. Wells, of the English navy, soon reported the 
favourable results of one hundred and six cases.* Fractures and 
dislocations were happily arranged under its influence^ by Dr. 
Warren, Dr. Parkman,' Mr. Dehane,« J. Caunt,* and others. Mr. 
Lawrence^ reported that it had been used in St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital in all descriptions of operative procedures between two 
and three thousand times without a single unpleasant result. Dr. 
Snow,7 too, appears to have been most fortunate in his cases; for 
with the exception of headache on one or two occasions, the only 
unpleasant effects he had witnessed were sckness and vomiting, 
and these only occasionally. Mr. Humphrey,'* in several hundred 
cases in which ether or chloroform had been inhaled, saw serious 
neuropathic phenomena in only four or five cases; and beyond these 
never witnessed more than headache, sickness, and giddiness, last- 
ing for a few hours; and these symptoms supervened but occasion- 
ally ; whilst in one hundred and six cases Mr. Wells' saw no 
serious ill effects in any. 

There is scarcely a painful operation practised by the surgeon, 
oculist, or dentist, in which ether inhalation has not been employed. 
Among the earlier recorded cases were an amputation of the thigh 
by Dr. J. M. Warren ; extirpation of a tumour of the mamma by 
Dr. J. C. Warren ; an operation for necrosis of the tibia by Dr. 
Townshend ; reduction of strangulated hernia by Dr. J. M. War- 
ren,*^ and Dr. Hosack;" sounding for stonCy^nA lithotrity, by Dr. 
J. C. Warren ; stricture of the urethra^ with fistulous openings, 
by Mr. Liston ; lithotomy ^ by Mr.Tatum ; an operation for fistulous 
sinuses hy the side of the rectum^ by Mr. Keate;** the removal of 
tumours in various parts, by Mr. Syme ;" extirpation of the mam- 
ma, by Dr. Jas. Bryan ;** amputation of the thigh, by Dr. Mutter;'* 
extirpation of the eye, by Mr. Lawrence and M. Velpeau;*' and 
it has been inhaled in all cases of removal of tumours and plastic 
operations on the eyelids; but in operations, such as strabismus, 

> Borton Med. and Sorg. Journal March 24, 1^47. 

2 Lond. Med. Gazette. SepL. 1847. * Warren, Op. cit, pp. 44 and 4& 

* Provincial Med. and Sarg. Journal, Sept., 1847. * Lond. Med.'Gaz., June 4, 1847. 

* Amer. Joum. of the Medical Scieocea. April, 1848, p 551. 

^ On the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether in Surgical Operations, &c. Lond., 1847. 

* Provincial Med. and Surg. Joum., Aug. 9, 1848. ' Ixwid. Med. Gax., Sept., 1847. 
** J. <;. Warren, Etherization, with Surgie^ Remarks, p. 53. Boston, 1B48. 

*' Boston Mfd. and Surg. Joum., Aug. 11, 1847. 

u Snow. On cit, and Rankins's Half-yearly Abstract, Am-Ed., vi.97, Philad., IS48. 

" Month!? Journal of Medicd Sciences, Aug. 18, 1847. 

'•Med. Exam., June, 1847, p. 332. "Ibid., Jan., 1848, p. 14. ** Ranking, vii.24& 



ATHER SULPHURICUS. 67 

which require, at times, the exercise of volition, anaesthetics are 
not indicate ; and in tl^ose for cataract, artificial pupil, &c., Mr. 
Wilde* considers the amount of pain does not demand their use. 

The following list, drawn up by Klencke,* will give a view of 
many of the operations in which it is recorded to have been used 
in the year 1847 : 

1. Extirpations: — Of encysted tumours ^ by Schuh, Strode I 
and Hornig. 

Of cancer and similar tumours^ by Schuh, Pitha, Heyfelder, 
Opitz, Haller, Hayward, Pereshaw, Clement, Yelpeau, Malgaigne, 
Landouzy, Ricord, Roux, S^dillot. Of cancer of tfie lip, by Pitha, 
Heyfelder, Maison-neuve. Of ranula^ Heyfelder. 

Of condylomata^ by Thomson, Fergusson, Bruns, Mikschik, 
Flor, Schubert and Kraus, and Yon Brunner. 

Of telangiectasis^ W Schuh and Pitha. 

Of nasal polypus^ Schulz. 

Of glands. — Mammary glandj by Listen, Leblanc, Brookes, 
Bouchacourt, Goyrand. Parotid gland^ Heyfelder. Tonsils^ 
Roux. 

2. Herniotomy. — Key, Partridge, Schuh, Pitha, Von Riffel, 
Hevfelder. Radical operation (after Gerdy), Eraus, of Prague. 

o. Lithotomy, — Morgan, Guersant, Balassa, Lithotrity, Leroy 
d'Etiolles. 

4. Strictures. — Fergusson. Operations for fistula, Pitha, 
Heyfelder. 

o. Urethrotomy. — Petrequin. 

6. Phimosis. — Fergusson, Thomson, Schuh, Sigmund, Opitz, 
Reisinger, Balassa, Yon Rifiel. 

7. Castration. — Sigmund and Bonnet. 

8. Hydrocele. — Ricord, Jobert, Opitz,^ Schuh, and Balassa. 

9. Harelip. — Heyfelder, Pitha. 

10. Ligature of the Crural Artery, by Yon Riffel. 

IL Amputations. — Oft/ie thighs Hay ward, Lansdown, Cole- 
man, Liston, Malgaigne, Jobert, Th. Bell, Chiari, Raymonet, 
Duncan, Schuh, Pitha. 

Of the leg. Hawkins, Leblanc, S(^dillot, Haller, Pitha, Dum-v > 
reicher, Opitz, Reisinger. 

Of (he arm. Yelpeau, Schuh, Sigmund. 

Of the forearm. Liston. 

Of the hand. Yelpeau, Goyot, and Duval. 

Of the finger. Petrequin, Kraus, Martin, Heyfelder, Pitha, 
Sigmund. 

Of the teeth. Fairbrother, Tracy. 

12. ExARTicuLATiONS. — Of the foot'jointy Pitha. Of the 
tccthy Pitha, Sigmund, Opitz. Of the finger, Guersant, Voille- 

' Dublin Quart Joum. of Med. Sdenoe, May, 1848. 

* Canatatt imd Einomaim, Jahxeibericht, a. a. w., im Jahie, 1847, W. 163. 



68 JETHER SULPHURICITS. 

uuer, Macmurdo, Yon Riflel, Liston, Cooper, Yelpeau, Maisoo- 
neuve, Pitba, Opitz, Kraus of Prague, Sigmund, Kabler. 

13. Resections. — Removal of sequeslra^ Miller, Pitha, Sig- 
mund, Dumreicher, S6diIlot. Of the shouldery Nelaton. Head 
of the humerus, Pitba, Heyfelder. Of the ulna, Pitba. Of the 
head of the osfemorisy Sigmund. Of the tibia, S^dillot. Of the 
ankle-bone, Pitba. Of the lower jaw, Wattmann, Pitba, Tracy. 

14. Cartilaginous Concretions in the Joints. — Siemund. 

15. Myotomy and Tenotomy. — Dumreicber, Scbub, Sigmund, 
Pitba, Bebrend, Heyfelder. 

16. Rhinoplasty. — DiefTenbacb. Stomatoplasty, Liston. 

17. Operations on the Eye. — Blepharoplasty, S6dillot, Brett. 
Extirpation of a tumour, Bigelow, Jungken, Hammer. Cyst in 
the Orbit, Monod. Strabotomy, Brett, Malgaigne, Lorinser, 
Heyfelder, Hammer. 

Cataract, Brett, Cotton. Extirpation qf the bulb, Lawrence. 
Staphyloma, Arlt. Arlt also operated for Trichiasis, Blepharih 
phimosis, and Fistula lachrymalis. 

Of Ibe bloodless operations — unblutige Operationen — the 
following were performed under tbe narcosis induced by etber: 

1. Reduction of incarcerated hernia, by Pitba, Opitz, and 
Hornig. 

2. Reduction of Luxations, by Velpeau and Dumreicber. 

3. Introduction of the Catheter and Bougies, Fergusson. 

Tbe list of patients wbo inbaled ether or chloroform for surgical 
operations in the Massachusetts General Hospital to April 1st, 
lo48, as reported by Dr. H. J. Bigelow,* numbered 154; and in- 
cluded 9 amputations of the thigh, 11 of tbe leg, 4 of tbe arm, 
and 12 of the breast. Thirty-seven cases are reported by Dr. 
Watson,* as haVing been treated in the First and Second Surgical 
Divisions of the New York Hospital ; 13 cases at the Clinic of the 
University of Pennsylvania are reported by Dr. H. H. Smith;' and 
45 at the Clinic of the Jefferson Medical College by Dr. Miitter.* 
In 32 of these etber was employed ; in the remamder chloro- 
form. 

When tbe practice bad been followed less than a year, Mr. 
Lawrence reported, that tbe trials with ether in a single London 
hospital amounted to between two and three thousand cases. One 
dentist in that city, up to tbe middle of July, 1848, had adminis- 
tered ana^sthetiea more than three thousand times. 

The physician has recourse to etherization in all cases which 
require the emplovment of other powerful narcotics and antispas- 
modic^i. It was found especially valuable in all the 

Murose^, by Kalinsky.* 



• '1^ 



rNUMt-liiUM ul Uks Aiu»rk«ii MmIimI AancMtion, U 215. Philad., 1848. 
Itua,|i*4ld. ■Ibid.p.ViMK Mbid.,p.82]. 

L>«MliiMU uimI HiiMiiiuuMW JihrMUricbt. u. ■. w^ W. 167. EriMig, 1849. 



ATHER SULPHDRICUS. 69 

Tetanus. — It has been employed successfully for the relief 
of tetanic spasm; but, as properly remarked by Dr. Warren/ 
whilst it may mitigate the distress of the muscular contractions, it 
cannot be expected to overcome the morbid condition of the spinal 
membranes, or the medulla they envelop, which he — in the absence 
of adequate evidence and of probability— considers to be inflamma- 
tory. In cases related by Dr. W. H. Ranking' and M. Roux,'* of 
Cherburg, it appeared to act injuriously ; and in another in which 
it was tried in France, death—it was conceived — was unques- 
tionably hastened by it ; whilst in others, reported by Dr. Brady^ 
and Mr. Broughton,' it did not avert the fatal result. Cases are, 
however, recorded of its successful administration in tetanus, by 
Dr. Pertusio and Mr. Hawkesworth;^ but they are regarded by 
Dr. Ranking^ as by no means satisfactory. In cases related by 
Mr. Bransby Cooper," Dr. Crawford," and Dr. T. L. Ogier,*" af- 
thougb it afforded temporary relief, it did not arrest the progress 
of the disease towards a fatal termination. A case, however, is 
related by Mr. Hopgood," in a boy nine years of age, which was 
successfully treated by it; another by Mr. Chalmers;^' another by 
Dr. Theobald," of Baltimore; and another by Dr. Isaac Parrish;** 
and one of Tetanus rheumcUicuSf by Reichert.^' 

Hydrophobia. — A case is recorded by Mr. Allen," in which the 
spasms were temporarily relieved by ether inhalation, without, 
however, the fatal event being averted. 

Convulsions in a boy eleven years of age, were much relieved 
by it under the direction of Dr. Wyatt;^^ and a case in a child, 
five months' old, was completely cured by Dr. Sabin.^^ 

Delirium tremens. A case is related by Dr. Upham,'* in which 
sleep and quiet were induced by it ; and similar cases are recorded 
by Dr. Anderson.^ Dr. Stedman, too, used it with good effect."' 

Insanity. Ether has been inhaled under the direction of M. 
Cazenave, of Pau, and of M. Jobert''' and Dr. Boyd ; and it ap- 

* Etherization, with Sargical Remarks, p. 54. Boston, 1848. 

* Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal, April 21 , 1847. 
' Ixxidon Medical Gazette, 8ept, 1848. 

' Dublin Med. Preas, cited in Ranking's Half yearly Abstract, v. 340. PhUad.. 1847. 

* Provincial Medkal and Surgical Journal, May 5, 1847. • Ibid , May 19, 1847. 
' Halilyearfy Abstract Aroer. Edit, v. 341. Philad., 1847. 

* Lond Med. Gaz., Aug. 6, 1847. 

* Britiih American Journal of Medical and Physical Science, Dec., 1847. 

•• South. Joum. of Med. and Pharm., Nov., 1847. " Med. Times, Jan. 15, 1848. 
" Provincial Medical and SurgkaU Journal, June 30, 1847. 
" Amer. Joum. of the Med. Sciences, Jan., 1848. 
** Transactions of the College of Physkrians of Philad., vol. ii., Na 4. 
'* Canstait und Eiaenmann, Jahresbericht, u. s. w., im Jahie 1848, iv. 177. Er- 
bog, 1849. " Lancet. Oct 15, 1847. *' West Joum. Med. and Surg., Ap., 1848. 
** Boston Medkal and Surgical Joumal, April, 1848. 

" Prov. Med. and Surg. Joum., Dec 15, 1847. • New York Annalist. 

21 J. C. Warren, Etherization, with Surgical Remarks, p. 83. Boston, 1848. 
B Cited in Med. Gaz., May, 1847, and Brit and For. Med. Rev., April, 1847. 



70 iBTHEK f ULPHUftlCITS. 

pears to have oocaskmally traDquillized, witboat anj e^ 
queoces* 

Kturalgia. Its good effects ic this disease hare been depoaeii 
to by Kahosky,* especially in kemicrania ; and by M<Mrns,' SeiB- 
ple,^ Uonor6, Christison,' and others. 

Hysteria. A case in which the inhalation of ether proved sno* 
oessful in subduioi^ hysteric symptoms after every kind of treatment 
had been used for four days without effect, is related by Mr. Wil* 
kinson ; and another fortunate case by Ducros." 

jistkma. Dr. Willis and Mr. Cantrell* have employed it sue* 
oeasfullv. The latter states that be had long used it prior to ill 
recent mtroduction as an anesthetic. In 

Oksiimmte Hiccough^ it was prescribed with advantage by Dr. 
ChristiaQn;^ and in 

Hooptng'-com^kt it is spoken frvourably of by Dr. Willis** and 
Max. SiuKin.'' ^ 

L^r^gismms siriJ^Hs. A very severe case was onteriaHy 
beaefit«^l bv the use of a sponipe saturated with ether. Dr. Raa- 
king'' saw the case with Mr. Image, who reports it. It has also 
been used successfully in 

Colicu Pidomum^'hy M. Bouvier ;^' and in JUiuUni colic bj 
Hdring. 

itfiM/ Calculi, In the intense suffering attending the passage 
of a rtrual cakrulus — nephritic colic — inhalation of ether bias bees 
prescribtni with signal advantage by Dr. Ware*^ and Dr. Grieaui* 
ger; and in 

Dysmtnorrhaay by Dr. Griscom.'^ 

Ophthalmia. In violent cases, M. Guersant^^ has employed at 
the Hupital des Enfans Malades, of Paris, a collyrium composed of 
one part of nitrateof silver, and four parts of water, with great 
advantage. The pain is often, however, so great, that he has had 
recourse to the inhalation of ether with marked success to enabit 
him to make the application. Dr. Mackenzie^' advises the inhala- 
tion in many forms of ophthalmia, especially where there is much 
photophobia ; but the duration of the ophthalmia did not seem to be 
curtailed ; and Dr. Smith,*' of Cheltenham, by its agency, was 

' Dm Ray aiid Bdl. cited in TruiiL oftbe Amer. Med. Awoc. iiL79. Plubd , i85a 
' C«iiiAatl uiid Eiieniiiaon. Jabmbrricfat. u. s. w.« ir IG7. Ertan^ I849L 
' Meak-«1 TiiuM» cited in lUnkiog** Half jearir Abstnct. Amer. Edit, ▼. 341. 
Philad.. |M47. •'Uncct March W, H*47. 

• l>iri|MtiiMlory. Amer. Edit, bj R. E. Griffith, p. 152. Pbitad . I84S. 

• Lwiwl. July X 1647. ' IbiA, March 80. 1W7. 

• Prov. Med. aiid Surg. Joum.. May lf>. 1S47. • O^dL " OpiCit 
I' ('aiwt4tl uud Ewniaiann, Jahrrvhericht* u. a. w., im Jahre, 1^48, rr. 177. Er- 

bn4«'ii. 1^^^ " Half.y«ariY Abatnct %%c , Amer. Edit., t. 34d. Phibd., 1847. 

" CaititUU uiid Eamiinaiin. Opw cit iv. 177. 

'* HiMltm Med. and Surg. Joum.. May 1,1847. 

• TniiiiMilkiiM of the College i>r PhyKirtaiw of Phibdelphia, Aprfl. 1849. 

" l^uk»ii Medical Gaaette, June. 1847. '" Ibid. 

» Wilde. Kepurl on Ophthabnic Surgeiy, in Dnblm Qaarterir ioooul of Me&nl 
»ciMw,May,liWa ^ 



iETHER SULPHOaiCUS. 71 

enabled to examine and manipulate on the eyes of young children 
affected with strumous ulcerations of the eye. 

Intermittent Fever. It is affirmed that Mr. J. W. Freer,' a 
pupil in the Chicago Hospital, employed ether in this malady with 
the most delightful results. Two or three inhalations invariably 
arrested the paroxysm instantaneously during the cold stage; 
brought on diaphoresis; and in cases where there was no unusual 
exertion, the paroxysms did not recur. 

Phthisis. In the last stage of this fatal malady the inhalation 
of ether has been prescribed by Dunker,' and it has exerted a mani- 
festly soothing influence : it has been ably and forcibly urged, tod, 
by one^ who has had much to do with the introduction and pro- 
mulgation of anaesthetics in the treatment of disease, that in in- 
curaUe afTections, when the melancholy termination approaches, it 
may be highly desirable to administer them with the view of ren- 
denng death easy, — of inducing euthanasia.* 

Feigned diseases. Ether inhalation has been employed to de- 
tect them. M. Baudens^ records two cases— one of simulated, the 
other of real infirmity — in which it detected the fraud. If volition 
be overpowered by it, .the deception can no longer be main- 
tained. M. Bayard," however — and the Editor of the Medico* 
Chirurgical Review for October, 1849, accords with him — is of 
opinion, that owing to the occasional results which follow the use 
of anaesthetics, especially of chloroform, and the uncertainty of the 
revelations obtained through their aid, they ought not — and the 
remark applies especially to chloroform — to be employed for the 
detection of simulated disease. 

The obstetrician has largely employed the inhalation of ether 
and other anaesthetics to relieve the intense suffering that accom- 
panies severe labour ; and experience seems tor have shown, that 
whilst it effects this, and aids in the relaxation of the parts, it 
does not materially — or at all — diminish the parturient efforts. 
Professor Simpson,^ of Edinburgh, was, perhaps, the first to em- 
ploy the inhalation of ether in this relation, and was a strong advo- 
cate for its use until he had tested the virtues of chloroform, which 
he now employs exclusively. His opinion of the value of ether 
is sup|K)rted by the testimony of Paul Dubois," Professor Siebold,' 
M. Roux,'° of Toulon, Dr. Channing,'' Dr. Parkman,'^ M. Chailly,'' 

* niiiioiB and Indiana Med. and Surg. Joum. for Oct and Nov., 1847. 

* Canstatt und Eisenmano, Jahreflbericbt, u. a w., im Jahre, 1848, iv. 177. Ei^ 
Itn^en, 1840. • J. C. Warren. 

* Etherization, with Surgical Remarks, p. 69. Boston, 1848. 

* Cumples rendua. 8 Mara» 1847. • Annates d*Hygi6ne, xl'u. 165—201. 

* Monthly Journal of Medical Science. March, 1847; and Notes on the Inhalation of 
Sulphuric Ether in the Practice of Midwifery. ' Lancet, March 6, 1847. 

* lAHid. Med. Gaz., June 1 1, 1847. ** Gazette M^^icale de Paria, 9 Octobre, 1847. 
'* A Treatise on Etherization in Child birth. Boston, 184a 

^ American Journal of the Medical Sciences, April, J 849, p. 343. 
" Aichiwsa G^n^rales de M^dedne, Avril, 1847. 



7i JETHER SCLPHUEICCS. 

Dr. IJoytl/ Mr. Lansdown,' Dr. Protheroe Smiih,' Dr. Jonathan 
Clark,' Dr. Lindslv,' Dr. Trask,' and cumerons others. Objec- 
tions hHve been brought against its use, many of which do not 
iiK'rit much notice. The strongest, perhaps, is the one urged by 
Drs. KuJlbnl,^ Meigs, and others, that in instrumental deliveries 
nunc ts|)ecidlly, '^as in lithotomy and lithotrity," the sensibility of 
the piitieiit is a safeguard against injury of the soft parts: but the 
Ki}4iiiiM'iit is more specious, perhaps, than solid, as a careful opera- 
tor could Hcarcely perpetrate such a blunder.* It has been very 
lttr|;ily and Huccessfully employed in instrumental and complicated 
labouiN. Two cases of placenta prttvia were treated under its 
ii^iiK V by Dr. Protheroe Smith;* and examples of its value where 
tuiiiiii^ WHN requirtnl, are recorded by him as well as by Mr. Gor- 
don,'" Mr. PickenM,*' and others. In numerous cases of /»i/6rp€f a/ 
VilnruliiiofUlf and in forceps and craniotomy cases, its value has 
la*eji luanifeMted.^' 

MODK OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Vai'iouN foriUM of inhaling apparatus have been devised. Many 
mc li'leired to by Dr. Ranking ;" and someof ihem by the author^^ 
m iiiiolher work, with figures representing them. The vapour is 
uii*tit ('(tnvenientlv inhaled from a soft sponge, hollowed out on one 
Mdi*i lo ie4'4:ive the: proj«*ction of the nose, and saturated with the. 
IMJii-nl i'lhtsr. The Mponge, thus prepared, is applied over the nos- 
tiiU, through which the inhalation must be made, leaving the 
iiiouih li4-43 to receive atmoKpheric air, and thus prevent the dan- 
^ri 111 lUiihyKiM. 

Tim liiuu iv«iuireil to produce etherization is usually from thretf 
to livu uiiiiuten, and the quantity generally found necessary, is 
•ilMiiii two lluiil(tui^(TM; but the etlects must be carefully watched. 
I h Will 14111*^ reuiiiikM, that after careful inspection of two hundred 
Liuiti 111 liiith ki'Ki'M, of all age9i in a great variety of conditions of 
ht'iilili mil) (luertM*, etherised through a sponge, without reference 
to i|ifiiiliiv, Itu han Meeii no immediate or consequent symptoms, 

Ml .It. al 1 iiiMM. Mau h V7, IHU. * I«ancct, June 5, 1847. 

' I..I....I, M.IV I ami July :il. ISI7. 

' Mniiiil Im.iiuUuI| Uu>U*t, l*i|7 |i. 4*<!), and March, 1848, p. 153. 
' I » III .tiUt'Ui ul Uuv \ui*iihait MihIk'uI AMMviutiofi, vul. L, Fhilad., 1648; and 

** A lit) III 411 liiiiiuiil «a ilnt Mi^lk^l %S-H'Ikx<«i, iVtottcr. 1850, p. 'Ml. 

I u.. • I. V|ilil / I'll/ 

\ii ..•! I.I i)ti. U«.Iikuuu V^>sx-th»iM MiUttiMxsl a(r>ii)»t tho Employment of Anc** 
il,- li. Vt^iiii.i Id MitK«iiinH uih) Mul^«<l\, biOiitburtth IS4^; and Amnthcsia. or the 
I'miii-I , iii> ill •! \ ■liliiitiitMiit 4iul biilta*! Ill Suii;«'iv, Midwi^^n*, &c^ by J. Y. Simpaon, 
^1 M V rltiLt'l. I Ml, .»uU 4 TvmvtiikiiKk'iKx" Mwi>eti Profewwra Simpaon and 
\\ I., ill ■\l>-U>.tl k^^aiuiuii, M'livti, Isl*^, (N I4^V— April. 1^4'^. p 205 — and May, 
I i| ' i' -i'.> ' I •uuii liit> Jl. ISI7. *^ lliid., July 14, 1847. 

" I I . ill i.il Ml t >ui i Oiii^. I »uiii.. Mf^ii. 'iX IS 17. '* ("lijiiningr. Op. cit. 

II il , ..I I \i. U.I. I i.i thtv \Kilk.il Nhiux-i^ V. :>{•>. AiiM'r (Hlit Thilada. 1847. 

I < .. . .1 t It > tt>. till. 4 iii,| NUk^M MiHlkA Uh «xla i Us^ Philad. 1850. 

I ill .u .11. II \i \i. '*i iKioUiUi I'^K 



JETKfia 80LPHURICUS. 73 

which would lead bim to embarrass tbe patient and tbe surgeon 
with a complex apparatus; and ^similar views are entertained by 
Dr. Hay ward J The irritability of the parts," the latter remarks, 
"with which the ether comes in contact, is by degrees overcome; 
then the sponge may be applied directly to the face^ and, if neces^ 
sary, compressed in some measure so as toexchide to a greater de- 
gree the atmospheric air. When the desired effect is produced, 
which is usually in from three to five minutes, the patient has no 
control over the voluntary muscles; he cannot speak; he cannot open 
his eyes, when directed to do so ; his muscles become completely 
relaxed, and the pulse, which, at the beginning of the inhalation, 
is frequent, and often rises during tbe process to one hundred and 
forty beats in a minute or more, becomes slower, and 1 have very 
often known it fall to sixty. The patient is then insensible, and 
unconscious; and the surgeon may begin bis operation with great 
confidence that he will inflict no suffering. The sponge should 
then be removed, and reapplied, from time to time, as circum- . 
stances may require. If the ether is not pure, longer time is ne 
oessary to produce the desired effect : the brain and nervous sys- 
tem are more excited, and the patient is occasionally violent for a 
time, and with difficulty controlled. Before using the ether, the 
sponge should be dipped in warm water, and then strongly com- 
pressed, leaving it slightly damp. The evaporation seems to go 
on better in this way, than when a sponge is used that has not 
been previously moistened. In the first instance, the ether should 
be poured over the inside of the sponge: about two ounces is 
enough. When more is required, it should be applied to the out- 
side, as it is best not to remove the sponge from the face." 

It has likewise been administered per anvrrij and M.Pirogoff," 
of St. Petersburg, thought that the ansesthetic effects of the vapour 
were produced more speedily and with much less trouble to the 
patient. He found, that in from two to four minutes the odour of 
the vapour was perceptible in the breath, and the wonted effects 
supervened in from three to five minutes. The quantity of ether 
used varied from half an ounce to two ounces. Similar experi- 
ments were made by MM. Roux and Parchappe; and according 
to M.Velpeau,'the former preceded M. Pirogoff. 

I Kemarkfl on the Comparative Valae of the Different Ansesthetic Agents. Boston, 
1850. 
* Gazette Medicate de Paris, 8 Mai, 1847. 



74 ALUUIKM 9ALMS. 



XL ALU'MIljf^ SALES. 

Stnohtm E8. Salts of Alumina. 
French. Sels d'AlamiDe. 
German, Thonerdensalse. 

la Doaking experiments on the agency of Tarious sobstances 
as antiseptics, M. GannaP discoreredthat tbe aluminous salts are 
alone possessed of the property of preserving animal matters, — 
''their bases combining with geline to form a special compound, 
the acid being set free." He found the aluminous deliquescent 
salts to be, of all saline substances, those that afford the most satis- 
factory results. The acetate of alumina and chlobide of alu- 
minium succeeded perfectly. A mixture of equal parts of chloride 
of aluminium at 20^ Beaume (s. g. 1161,) and of the acetate of 
alumina at 10^ (s. g. 1.075,) proved as good an injection as we 
possess for the preservation of dead bodies. 

The preservation of animal substances appears to depend upon 
the combination of geline with alumina : but the acid sulphate 
does not possess enough of the preservative element; and hence 
M. Gannal was driven to the employment of the salts of alumina 
that are richer in alumina, and more soluble in water. Of all 
these, the sulphate of alumina was found to merit the prefe- 
rence, owing to its being of simple preparation and moderate pric^.* 
It may be made by the direct combination of alumina and sul" 
phuric acid ; and contains 30 per cent, of the former to 70 per 
cent, of the lattep. A kilogramme — about two pounds, eight 
ounces, and a dram and a half troy — dissolved in two quarts of 
water, and costing twenty cents, M. Gannal found to be sufficient, 
in winter, to preserve a body fresh by injection for three months. 
To preserve it for a month or six weeks, it was not even neces- 
sary to inject the blood-vessels, — an enema of one quart, and the 
same quantity injected into the oesophagus being sufficient for the 
purpose. In hot weather, the solution must be stronger, or in 
greater quantity, and it should be injected into the carotids. 

The acetate of alumina, of which M. Gannal made use, was 
prepared by the addition of acetate of lead to sulphate of alu- 
?ntna atifJ potassa. The acetate of alumina, thus prepared, at 
18° of Beaume's areometer, and in the quantity of five or six 
quarts, was sufficient to preserve a body for five or six months. 
This salt of alumina is, however, too costly ; and, therefore, can- 
not be employed in amphitheatres, where large quantities are re- 
quired. 

In the report on M. Gannal's memoir presented to the Insti- 
tute of France, the commission adduce, in favour of his plauithe 



1 History of Embalming, dec. by J, N. Gannal. Parin, 1838, transbled by R. Harlan 
M. D., p. 203. Philad. IH40. * Ibid, pw 233. 



ALUMINJS SALES. 75 

experience of MM. Serres, Dubreuil, Bourgery, Azous, Velpeau, 
and Amussat. << In the month of June, 1836/' says M. Serres, 
''in the amphitheatre of the hospital, the body of a man, 22 years 
of age, ¥ras injected. Left to the open air, in a room exposed to 
the south, and upon a wooden table, it^was preserved until the 
month of September, and was ultimately mummified. In the 
month of July, eight bodies were injected for dissection, and kept 
fifteen days. During the months of August and September, sixty 
subjects were injected. They were kept for twenty days." From 
these experiments, M. Serres concluded, that the liquid furnished 
by M. Gannal, permitted the dissection of bodies during summer, 
which had not been practicable in the anatomical schools of the 
hospitals of Paris ; and that it gaVe to the instruction in operative 
medicine a development which it had not previously enjoyed ; for, 
daring the months of August and September, they were enabled 
to have thirty bodies at a time on the tables as in the middle of 
winter, so as to enable them to repeat before the students all the 
operations required in a regular course of operative surgery. For 
his discovery the Institute of France awarded M. Gannal the 
grand Monthyon prize of 1600 dollars, which was established for 
the discovery of any means calculated to remedy the unwholesome- 
Dcss of any art or profession. 

A useful application of M. Gannal's process is said to have been 
made by the police of Paris, in preserving bodies for many weeks 
in the Morgue or dead-house, where suspicions of murder required 
an unusual retention of the body above ground.' 

Specimens of pathological anatomy, preserved in the liquid of 
the injection, were not exempt, according to Dr. Harlan, from 
the usual inconvenience attached to similar preparations in a solu- 
tion of chloride of sodium and other salts, — being equally liable to 
incmstations, so as to require a change or renewal of the solution. 

The salts of alumina have been used in this city with the view 
of temporarily preserving the dead ; and a case has been published 
in which the acetate was employed ; but the corrosive chloride of 
mercury was used along with it, which was unnecessary. In the 
afternoon of the day on which the individual died, the abdominal 
aorta was injected upwards and downwards with a saturated so- 
lution of corrosive chloride in alcohol ; and on the following day, a 
saturated solution of acetate of alumina was thrown in, "which," 
says Dr. Sharpless,^ "had the immediate effect of giving the 
whole body a manifest rose colour, making it resemble life in a re- 
markable degree." 

The salts of alumina have been chiefly employed to prevent pu- 
trefaction in the dead body; but they might be used with eminent 
advantage as external applications in cases that require the topi- 

* Harlan, Appendix to Gannal, Op. dt, p. 254. 
' Medical Examiner, Aug. 13, 1842, p. 513. 



76 AMMONIJ& PHOSPHAS. 

cal use of antiseptics. At the author's suggestion, they were so 
used at the Philadelphia Hospital, and were found to have an ex- 
cellent effect in ulcers requiring antiseptic and detergent applica- 
tions.^ Two drams of the sulphate to half a pint of water is a 
good wash in such cases; but it may be made much stronger than 
this. Dr. George Johnson, of Georgia, used an injection of the 
sulphate with the happiest results in casesrof fetid discharges /ram 
the vagina.* After handling pathological specimens, the author 
has found a saturated solution of the salt remove the offensive 
odour from his hands more speedily and effectually than any other 
antiseptic. 

I 

XII. AMMO'NIiE PHOSPHAS. 

Synontmes. Ammonium phoRphoricum, Phosphate of Ammonia. 

French. Phosphate d'Ammoniaque. 

German, Phosphorsau res Ammonium. 

Phosphate of ammonia has been recommended in some of the 
unofficial pharmacopoeias and formularies, as an excitant, dia- 
phoretic and discutient;* but it could scarcely be said to be em- 
ployed in medicine, when it was brought forward by Dr. Thomas 
Buckler, of Baltimore, on chemical considerations, as *' a new re- 
medy for gout and rheumatism, as a solvent of uric add calculus^ 
and for diseases, acute and chronic, connected directly with the 
lithic acid diathesis,**^ 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 
Neutral phosphate of ammonia may be made by saturating a 
somewhat concentrated solution of phosphoric acid with ammonia^ 
applying heat, and setting the solution aside, that crystals may 
form. Or, it may be formed by saturating the excess of acid in 
superphosphate of lime by carbonate of ammonia. Phosphate of 
lime will be precipitated, and phosphate of ammonia obtained in 
solution, which, being concentrated by a gentle beat, affords, on 
cooling, the salt in crystals. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 
From the facts of the frequent existence of lithuria in gout and 
rheumatism, and the sudden elimination of uric acid« — and that 
when chemists have examined the structural thickenings in those 
diseases, they have found a variable abnormous per centage of 
earthy matter, consisting for the most part of soda and lime, — and 
from other considerations. Dr. Buckler infers, that uric acid exists 
in the blood, — not in a Me state, or it would be passed contino- 

• M.J. Penn™ckfr, Med. Ex., April 1, 1843. p. 63. » Ibid. May 27. 1843. p. 112, 
' Merat and De Lena, Diet UnW.de Mat Med. &c^ 6dit. de'BraxeUes. I. llfK 
Braxdlea, 1838. * American Journal ofMcdical Sriencea, Jan., 1846. p. lOa 



AMMOHUB PH08PHA8. 77 

otsly, but ID a state of combination with soda or liroe, or both. 
The predooiinance of lithic acid in the urine, he considers, gene* 
lally heralds recovery from an acute attack of gout or rbeuma- 
tim. ^* Taking into account Jf' be observes, '' these two prominent 
frets, namely, the excess of lithic acid found in the urine at the 
period of convalescence from an attack of ^out or rheumatism, 
and the sabseqoent deposit of soda and lime in the white tissues, 
it occurred to me, that during the existence of these diseases, the 
Ihhicacid might exist in the bk>od in a state of combination with 
soda and lime, in the form of insoluble compounds, which the kid- 
tieys and skin refuse to eliminate. If, then, any agent could be 
found capable of decomposing the lithates of soda and lime exist* 
ing in the blood, and of formmg in their stead two soluble salts, 
which would be voided by the kidneys and skin, we should there- 
by get rid of the excess of fibrin in the blood, the symptomatic 
fever and the gouty and rheumatic inflammation, wherever seated, 
which have been excited by the presence of these insoluble salts: 
it occurred to me that phosphate of ammonia might be the agent, 
provided it could be given in doses sufficient to answer the end, 
without producing any unpleasant physiological symptoms. If 
our theory were true, phosphate of ammonia seemed to be the 
proper reagent, for it would form, in place of the insoluble lithate 
of sbda, two soluble salts, the phosphate of soda, which is remark- 
ably soluble, and the Jithate of ammonia, which is also soluble, 
and both capable of being readily passed by the skin and kidneys. 
The excess of uric acid would thus be got rid of in the form of 
lithate of ammonia, and the soda floating in the round of the cir- 
culation, instead of being. deposited, as it were, like an alluvial 
formation in the substance of the fibrous and cartilaginous tissues, 
would be taken up by the phosphoric acid and eliminated from 
the circulation.'^ 

With such views Dr. Buckler administered the phosphate of 
ammonia, and found that thickening of the white tissues, of long 
standing, disappeared under its continued use; that it was de- 
cidedly serviceable in attacks of gout and acute rheumatism , 
and that in many old hospital cases of chronic rheumatism^ the 
patients, without a single exception, declared themselves better, 
and begged for a continuance of the medicine. In every instance, 
in the cases reported, it was found that where lithic acid was pre* 
sent in the urine, it at once disappeared under the use of the phos- 
phate of ammonia. From this rapid disappearance of the acid 
from the urine, in every case, he was led irresistibly to the con- 
clusion, that the phosphate of ammonia must prove the best agent 
for dissolving uric acid calculus; but he had had no opportunity 
for testing its efficacy in this respect. 

The cases adduced by Dr. Buckler do not demonstrate to us, so 
strongly as they do to him, the marked efficacy of phosphate of 
6 



I 



ammonia in the cases in question. It is proper also to remarlc 
that, according to the analysis of Berzelius, Ibis salt exists tn the 
urine in health, and we base no reason to believe that it is not pre- 
sent in gouty and rheumatic diseasEa also. Moreover, altbough 
there may be generally a predominance of uric acid in the urine, 
in gout and rheuroatism, it is by no means clear that these diseases 
are dependent on contamination of the blood with undischarged 
urea and uric acid, as has been maintained by many.' "Several 
considerations," say Messrs. Ballard and Garrod' — able chemists 
— "prevent our subscribing fully to this doctrine, which we are 
not aware to be established upon aught but bypoibelical grounds." 
Pbosphatic deposits are frequently, indeed, observed in conjunc- 
tion with gouty affections, and in many instances, it would seem, 
that tophaceous concretions contain no urate of soda, but in its 
stead phosphate of Hme. In numerouscasesof gout, ihephospha- 
tic predpminance is indeed marked.^ Keller,* again, in animad- 
verting on the views of Mr. A- Ure, referred to under Acidum 
Benzoicum, remarks, that Mr. Ure " is certainly too hasty in re- 
commending benzoic acid as a remedy for the gouty and calculous 
concretions of uric acid. He seems to suppose that the uric acid 
has been employed in the conversion of benzoic acid into hippuric 
acid ; but as bis observations were made on a gouty patient, it nay 
be supposed that the urine, even without the internal use of ben- 
zoic acid, would have been found to contain no uric acid." 

M. Mattei" of Bastia, has published some cases which appeared 
10 him to exhibit the valuable agency of the phosphate in gout and 
rheumatism in the dose of about 30 grains ; and Dr. S. Edwards,* 
confirms its advantages in diseases which appear to depend upon 
the presence of an excess of liikic acid or Hthales in the blood. 
In chronic articular rheumatism, it appeared to be especially be- 
neficial. As a solvent of lithic calculi his experience does not en- 
able him to pronounce upon it, but his observations lead him to 
depose positively as to its powers to arrest the increase and per- 
haps the formation of them. In lithic acid gravel, he has fre- 
quently used it; and experience has taught bim, that it creates a 
very rapid decrease and disappearance of the red crystalline sedi- 
ment. 

Sufficient time has not elapsed for experiments to have been 
made on a great scale, to test the qualities of the pbosphatic salt in 
the cases described by Dr. Buckler. It has been already seen, that 



' Willi 



9. Principlea ofMedicinc, Arm 



*A. Ure, Pioiinrial Med. and Surg. Jaumal, Feb. 11, IB43; cited ID BraitbinhB'* 

Relmspnl, tu. 47. Lottd. llMa 

* LiehigB Animal Chemiiltj, Amer. edit, p. 315. CBmbridge, 1842. 

■ Revue M^dico-Chinirgicale. Dec IS47. 

' ProYincist Mad. Joumn], Not. 17, im7; and Amer, Journ. of the Med, Sdence*, 
Jan. I,ie48, [1.530. 



AJfMONI£ PHOSPHAS. , 79 

in the case of the benzoic add, examples were not wanting to 
prove its eflScacy in lithuria; although no one now can believe that 
It could have exerted any efficacy m the manner suggested. So 
(u as the phosphate of ammonia has been given, it does not seem 
tt> have generally fulfilled the expectations excited by Dr. Buckler. 
In a trial made with it by Dr. C. Yoigt,^ in the dose of only about 
three grains, a series of alarming and highly irritative phenomena 
succeeded, caused, he thinks, by the violently irritating action of 
the salt on the stomach ; yet Dr. Yoigt had good reason to suppose 
that the preparation employed was pure. 

In commenting on this case. Dr. Kuschenberger,' of the United 
States Naval Hospital, New York, states that he has employed 
phosphate of ammonia in nine cases in doses of ten grains, repeated 
every four hours. In no case was the article used for less than a 
w^, and in several it was continued three, four, and even six 
weeks. The urine was tested before the medicine was prescribed, 
and during its use ; but iio change in its constitution was detected 
by reagents, nor was there any modification in its quantity or spe- 
cific gravity. In one case only did any amelioration occur in the 
symptoms af^er the use of the salt ; but whether this was owing 
to it he could not decide. Inasmuch, however, as no perceptible 
effects were induced in any of the other cases, his impression was 
that the phosphate is useless in the treatment of chronic rheu- 
matism. 

Since then Dr. H. Hartshorne, resident physician at the Penn- 
sylvania Hospital,* has reported some cases of rheumatism in 
which the phosphate was prescribed b]r Dr. Pepper. The smallest 
dose given to an adult was ten grains, and in several cases it 
reachra thirty grains, continued three times daily for a number of 
days. In two or three, in doses of twenty grains, it disordered 
the alimentary canal. Several of the cases recovered ; but addi- 
tional treatment was generally used — as Dover's powder at night, 
the warm bath, cupping, blisters dressed with morphia, mercurial 
(Mntment combined with narcotics, veratria ointment, &c. These, 
Dr. Hartshorne considers, may perhaps claim much of the credit 
of the cures, which were mostly very slow. The phosphate, he 
says, has been used by his father, Dr. Joseph Hartshorne, with 
such results as to incline ]i\m to think that it may be a valuable 
addition to our means of treatment of rheumatism. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The dose of the phosphate of ammonia is from ten to twenty 
grains, which may be given, dissolved in water, three times a day. 

1 Med. Examiner, May, 1846, p. 389. > Ibid. June, 1846, p. 342. 

* Ibid. July, 1846, p. 397; and January, 1849, p. 49. 



80 AQUA AMYGDALARUM CONCENTEATA. 



Xm. ANTHRAKO'KALL* 

Stkomtmk. Lithanthrekokali. 
German. Steinkohlenkali. 

This article was first proposed by Polya, of Pestb, in the year 
1837. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

Two forms are employed, the simple and the sulphuretted. 
The former is prepared by dissolving carbonate of potassa in 10 
or 12 parts of ioti ti^ watery and adding as much slaked lime as 
will separate the potassa. The solution thus obtained contains onlj 
caustic potassa. The filtered liquor is placed on the fire in an 
iron Tessel, and suffered to eraporate until neither froth nor cffer- 
Tescence occurs, and the liquid presents a smooth sur&ce like cil. 
To thb is added the levigttied coal in the proportion of 160 parts 
to 196 parts of potassa. The mixture is stirred and removed from 
the fire, and the stirring is continued until a black homogeneous 
powder results. This powder is kept in a dry place. 

To obtain the sulphcretted anthbakokali9 16 parts of sul' 
phur must be mixed accurately with the coal, and the mixture be 
dissoh*ed in the potassa as directed above. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

Polya afiirn^ that Anthrakokali exerts its influence on the 
skin generally^ and especially on chronic cutaneous affections. It 
has also been given beneficially by Felsach in scrofula and chronic 
rheumatism. 

The dose of the simple and sulphuretted preparations is 10 cen- 
tigrammes (gr. iss.) three times a day. 

M. Gibert employs it externally in chronic cutaneous affecHonSf 
in the form of ointment^ which may be made of one drachm of the 
anthrakokali to from one to three ounces of lard."^ 

FuLiooKALi is an analogous substance. 



XIV. AQUA AMYGOALA'RIM CONCENTRATA. 

SvNONYMi:!!. Water of Bitter Almouds. 
French. F^iU d'Atnauiles Ameres. 
(itrtnan, Hitter mundelwaftser. 

Tlie watiT of bitter almonds has been received into many of the 
iiiodern Phannacopa?ids;— into those of Bavaria, Paris, Ferrara, 
IIhiiovct, lli'Siie, and Prussia for example. 

> Krtiiu u I (V ' > • * ^'^^1 ' ^^^^ kali. * |MUama.* 8t>e M M . J acotmvin, in Gaaettn M ^dicale 
(L l^uiiM. NuikU mu) iv^i mid Kitnle, Uie ncuem Anneimiitel, u. a. w. 2te Auflage, 8. 
U«, Hlutlaart, lH4(li akio, UuhMnel, American Journal of Pharmacy, Jan. 1843. 

' AurtiBnhwnneri Uto neimrn AnneimJtIel, u. a. w. 8. ^ Eilangeo, lb48. 



AQUA AMYGDALAEUM CONCENTRATA. 81 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

The PharroacopcRia of Prussia directs it to be prepared in the 
following manner. — Take two pounds of hitter almonds, bruise 
them well, and add — whilst triturating them — ten pounds o( spring 
watery and four ounces of highly rectified spirit of wine. Let 
the mixture rest for twenty-four hours m a well closed, vessel, and 
then distil two pounds. The product must be kept in a well stopped 
bottle. Giese found the quantity of hydrocyanic acid con- 
tained in the product of the above formula half less than that in 
cherry laurel water ; and JSrg, from his experiments upon himself 
and others, proved it to be much weaker and more uncertain. 

Neither this preparation, nor the distilled aqua lauro-cerasi, is 
much employed in this country, or in Great Britain. 

The inequality in the strength of the Aqua lauro-cerasi and of 
medicinal hydrocyanic acid suggested this preparation, which was 
extolled by Hufeland for its uniformity. Its effect is entirely like 
thai of Aqaa lauro'Cerasij but its greater regularity in strength 
and action has not been confirmed. Owing, indeed, to the uncer- 
tainty in strength of both these preparations, Liebig thinks, that 
physicians would act very judiciously were they to discard them, 
and substitute a certain amount of amygdalin dissolved in water, 
and mixed with emulsion of sweet almonds; as the remedy, pre- 
pared fresh every time when it is to be administered, will always 
possess the same composition. Seventeen grains of amygdalin 
vield one of anhydrous hydrocyanic acid; consequently, by mixing 
o4 grains of amygdalin with 66 grains of emulsion of sweet al- 
monds, so that the total amounts to 100 grains, a fluid is obtained 
corresponding to the medicinal hydrocyanic acid of the Prussian 
Pharmacopoeia (2 per cent.) A third of a grain of amygdalin 
corresponds to one grain of medicinal acid: the solution of one 
grain of amygdalin in three fluidounces of emulsion of sweet 
almonds contains, consequently, one grain of medicinal acid in every 
fluidounce of the mixture.* 

Water of bitter almonds has been used by Dr. Hodgkin' as a 
means of allaying distressing itching, as in prurigo senilis. In 
some cases, it produced immediately a beneficial effect ; in others, 
it was of no benefit, and caused smarting and irritation. Mr. May 
keeps a solution of oil of hitter almonds in the proportion of one 
part to seven of alcohol. This he uses as a substitute for hydro- 
cyanic acid for internal administration ; he gives about half a drop 
for a dose. Externally, he employs it of the strength of a drop 
of the solutionMo an ounce of water. 

' Ranking*8 Hal%«irly Abstract of the Medical Sciences, pt. ii. , toL 1 , [k 346. A mer. 
edit. New York, 1846. 

* PbarroaoeutKal Traniactiona, Sept 1841; and A mer. Joum. of Pharmacy, Jan. 
1842, p. 352. 



AQUA BINELLII. 



XV. AQUA BlNELLIl. 



Stuoktmes. Aqua Bataamica Arteriaiis, 

Itntian. Acqua Biriplli, Acqus Balsamica Arleriale. 

French. Eau de Bineili. 

Gtrman. B i ne I lisch e a VVass e r. 

Many years ago, this Italian noslrum was vaunted ihroughont 
Europe as a styptic in every kind of hemoTrkaee, both when em- 
ployed internally and externally. By several Italian physicians — 
Cotugno, Antonucci, Santoro and others— it was found highly ser- 
viceable; and Von Grafe' thought that he had observed good ef- 
fects from it. This opinion was confirmed by the observations of 
Eosch, Vrolick, Melzger," and Lesser. Subsemiently, however, 
not only Von Grafe, but Simon/ Dieffenbach,' and Dr. John Davy ' 
found that it was not possessed of more efficacy than simple cold 
water.' This hsmastatic received ils name, ^cqua Bineili, from 
Dr. Fideli Binelli, the inventor. The first public trials to test ils 
efficacy were instituted at Turin, in 1707, by order of the govern- 
ment; the results of which were esteemed favourable. Soon afler 
this Binelli died ; the secret of the composition and of the modeof 
preparing the nostrum were, however, communicated before his 
death to Gaelano Pironii, and Andrea Ferrara, who carried on a 
profitable trade with it for some time. The secret appears to have 
been lost ; but in the years 1829, and 1S30, it was affirmed to 
have been rediscovered, and fresh experiments were instituted, and 
over and over again repeated in Germany. Various blood-vessels 
were divided on animals, — the femoral ami carotid arteries, and the 
jugular veins, — and the cuts were made In every direction, — longi- 
tudinally, obliquely, and completely across; and in all cases the 
hemorrhage yielded as soon as charpte or lintsteeped in the Acqua 
Binelli was applied and pressed gently against the wound for five 
or ten minute.s. Encouraged by these experiments, the liquid was 
tried on man and with seeming advantage; but it was soon found, 
that the results were not owing to any properties of the liquid, 
but rather to the cold, moisture, and appropriate pressure. 

The author has given at length in another work' the results of 
Ibe experiments and observations of Dr. Davy. They convey in- 
teresting information as regards the phjsiolc^y, pathology, and 
therapeutics of wounded vessels, and impart a useful lesson to the 

> Gralc'i Journal, Bd. nil, S. G5D. ' Ibid. Ud, iivii. 

* Horn's Archiv. 1933, 8ept und OrL S. <K6. 
' Hrcher'n LilenriaJie Aniuleii, IS33,S. Ab6. 

* Bilhib, Med. and Surg. Joum., Julyi 1^3, at Rncnitztw^ Pbvdologkal and AtiBli)> 
mical. Amer. Med. Liijrai; ediLp. 37t). PliilniL J84II. 

■ E, firiife. Art Kieosot, in EncjxtDpad. Worlerbuth der Medicin. Winenscli. Bd 
II. S .W6, Berlin. i>i:iO. 
' General ThecBpeDlki and MaL Med. 4lli edit. ii. 1 12. Fhilad. IB50. 



AQJJA BIKELUI. 83 

inquirer, — not to deduce iuferences from inadequate data, without 
having investigated every collateral circumstance that may bear 
upon a question. The results of Dr. Davy's experiments show 
how hemorrhage from wounding a large artery, which would be 
speedily fatal, may be arrested by moderate compression with 
several folds of linen or cotton moistened with plain water ; and 
they further show how, under this moderate compression, the 
wound in the artery may heal, and the vessel remain pervious, 
without the supervention of aneurism. Dr. Davy lays great stress 
on moderate pressure, such as may allow the blood to continue to 
pass through the artery. 

At the meeting of the British Association in 1839, Dr. Macart- 
ney, of Dublin,^ m alluding to the powers which nature possesses 
to repress hemorrhage, provided the surfaces be treated as an open 
wound with cold applications, related a case in which, after ampu- 
tation of the hand of a child, the stump was dressed with lint kept 
wet with cold water, and in which no ligature was applied or re- 
quired. This Dr. Macartney believed to be the first case on re- 
cord m which amputation had been performed without the appli- 
cation of a ligature. 

The Acqua Binelli is a perfectly transparent fluid, almost 
tasteless, and having a slightly empyreumatic odour; but neither 
the presence of salt, alkali, earth nor acid could be detected by the 
senses. It has been generally considered to be indebted for its 
fancied haemastatic property to creasote in some form; but Dr. 
Davy's explanation appears to be sufficient to account for the phe- 
nomena. 

M. Bouchardat' gives the following complex formula for the 
Acqua Binelli or Acqua Monterossiy of which, he says, great use 
is made in the civil and military hospitals of Naples. Take of the 
roots of calamtts aromaficus^ bistort, coiisolida officinalis^ and 
tormentilla — each 250 parts; oak bark, log wood, of each 
500 parts; leaves o/ greater plantain; eupaioriutn of Avi- 
oenna; athanasia maritima; European sanicle; alchemilla 
vulgaris ; sumac; and nettle ; flowering tops of rosemary, and 
sage; of each 1000 parts; flowering tops of teucrium marum; 
dittany of Crete, peppermint, of each 250 parts; flowering 
tops of pennyroyal, catmint, lesser centaury; and achillea 
millefolium, of each 1000 parts; balsamide, 250 parts; Cy- 
prus nuts, 1000 parts; white agaric and black pitch, of each 
500 parts. All the ingredients must be cut into small fragments, 
and be macerated in a sufficient quantity of water for twenty-four 
hours. When the liquid is wholly absorbed, a fresh quantity is 
added, so that the mass may be covered with water to the height 

' London Atheneum, Aug. 31, 1839, or Med. Intelliftenoer, Oct 15, 1839, p. 317. 
' Annuaire de Th^npeutiqne, dec, poor 1843, [k 227. Paris, 1843. 



64 A<(OA BKOCCHIKftn. 

p 

of about four or five inches. It is then distilled so as to draw over 
about two thirds of the fluid employed. 

The product of this distillation is, however, possessed of more 
taarked properties than those of the Acqua Binelli described above.- 
It is said to be astringent, and to corrugate bleeding and injured 
tissues, causing the formation of coagula, which prevent a farther 
discharge. It coagulates albumen. It is also employed internally 
in the various profluvia. 

A substitute for the Acqua Binelli prepared by ProfesMr 
Schultz is the following.^ 

Aeqaa Binellii faetitis. 

Factilious Acqua Binelli. 

R. 01. erop^reumat. tabaci f ^ij. 

animal. Dippel. gtt. xij. 

Aq. destillat. f 3^i»i- M. 

Used externally only. 



XVI. AQUA BROCCHIE'RII. 

Synohtmes. Brocchieri, or Brocchiari water. 
Itciian, Aeqoa Brocchieri. 

French. Eau de Brocchieri ou Styptique de Brocchieri. 
Oirtnan, Brocchierisches Wasser. 

This water strikingly resembles the Binelli water, both in 
sible properties and action; and the same discordance of sentiment 
in regard to its virtues has existed amongst obse^vers^ It was 
largely used in Paris upwards of fifteen years ago; and the pro- 
fession generally appear to have decided at that time that it was 
devoid of efficacy. Dr. Paris* examined it, but it appeared to him 
to be nothing more than water perfumed by some vegetable essence. 
"This supposed styptic," he remarks, ''has made much noise in 
Paris, and is said to be even capable of arresting the flow of blood 
from a divided carotid artery ! The method of applying it is to 
saturate tow with the liquid, and slightly press it upon the bleed- 
ing vessel, where it is to remain for fifteen or twenty minutes: the 
rapidity with which a coagulum is said to form, and the tenacity 
of it, are attested to be most extraordinary. In order to ascertain 
the fact, having procured a supply of it from Paris, through the 
kindness of my fnend. Dr. Badham, I proceeded to the Veterinary 
College, and with the assistance of the professional gentlemen of 
that establishment, I made a very careful experiment upon an ass 
without the least effect." 

' BoQcbadat.p. 8S9. 

* Phannaoolqna, Amer. edit inm the 9th London edit by Lee, p. 133. New Yoik, 
1844. 



AqUA BEOCCBI£RU. 85 

t A few jeara ago, a gentleman who bad visited Paris brought it 
over to thb country, and it was again subjected to various trials, 
aad whilst some deposed most strongly to its potency as a hsema- 
8tatic,others considered it to possessslight power ; and others, again, 
denied that it had any styptic virtues whatever. Experiments, it 
k affirmed, were instituted before MM. Blanqui, Amussat, Lisfranc, 
and others,^ of Paris, in which the effusion of blood from the ca^ 
rotid artery of a sheep was speedily arrested by it. Similar experi- 
ments were tried in New York by Dr.3arrabino, of the United 
States navy, and others; and in Charleston, by Dr. J. Lawrence 
Smith, and S. D. Sinkler, editors of the Southern Journal of Medi* 
eine and Pharmacy.' These last gentlemen thought it certain, 
that it arrests hemorrhage in a most marked manner, without 
either being styptic or cauterizing in its action. They considered 
that both it and ergotin ** operate by a peculiar action upon the 
Uood, or upon the walls of the artery. In the case of the Broc* 
diieri water, nothing decisive is yet known, although it is stated, 
thai the caliber of the artery is restored to its natural integrity," 
and they add: — '*The composition of this water is unknown. It 
is colourless; of very slight acid reaction, very little taste, and this 
iK>t astringent. Its odour is aromatic, and the only idea we are 
yet capable of forming of its nature, is, that it is water containing 
the volatile principle of some plant, over which it has been dis« 
taied." 

In a subsequent communication, however,^ after having experi* 
Hiented farther with the Brocchieri water, as well as with ergotin 
and creasote, they arrive at the following conclusions: — First. 
When Brocchieri water, ergotin, or a watery emulsion of creasote 
is applied to the wounded artery of a sheep, it depends greatly, if 
not altogether, upon the nuinner in which the lint is applied to the 
wound of the artery whether the hemorrhage is arrested or not. 
If it be placed immediately upon the orifice of the cut vessel, the 
success is certain; if, however, the vessel shrink from contact with 
the lint, the animal is almost certain to bleed to death. Secondly. 
By a small pledget of simple lint placed immediately upon the in- 
cision made into the carotid artery of a sheep, the hemorrhage is 
arrested in a few moments: and after a lapse of from twenty to 
thirty minutes, the animal may be let loose, without any apprehen- 
sioD of the return of the hemorrhage. If the lint be applied so as 
jiot to touch the wound in the, artery, all effort to arrest the he- 
•iBorrhage will be ineffectual. " From these results, it will be seen 
how many difficulties often attend the simplest experiments; and 
how important it is to leave no point, not the most apparently tri- 
vial, without close examination : it is true, it requires both time 
Aod trouble, but both are more than compensated for, by a know- 

'-^'Bortrm Medical and Sarffical Joamal, Jan. 14, 1846, p. 4S0. 
' See the No. for Match, 1846, p. 158. * Ibii July, 1846, p. 406. 



86 AQUA BROCcHucan. 

ledge that ve become Id possession of truths that are important to 
ourselves and to others.'' Thirdly. The sheep is an unfit ani- 
mal to try the hemastatic powers of substances as regards the ho* • 
man subject ; for although sheep will bleed to death by a wound 
in one of the larger arteries, still, by the application of a small 
pledget of lint, sustained with a little pressure immediately upon 
the wound in the vessel, the hemorrhage will cease, and t)ie ani- 
mal survive. The same, they are convinced, may be said of all 
the like experiments upon the lower classes of animals, as in many 
of them the hemorrhage from a large vessel will be arrested spoo* 
taneously. This is true — they say— of the dog, and so faras their 
knowledge extends, the sheep is more ready to bleed to death than 
any other quadruped. << Furthermore, the blood of an animal is 
more plastic, coagulating with far greater rapidity than that of 
man ; and as the arresting of the hemorrhage in these experiments 
is dependent upon the formation of a clot around the opening, and 
in the cavity of the vessel, it ought, therefore, to happen more 
readily in them than in man.'' Fourthly and lastly; they con- 
clude, that if the haemostatic virtues of the agents, which they em- 
ployed, are to be correctly ascertained, it is only by experiments 
upon the human subject ; and no value, they think, should be given 
to those made in any other way. Whether the Brocchieri water^ 
ergotin, and creasote will stand the test, they are not as yet pre- 
pared to say, owing to the discordant character of the results of 
experiments. They have no doubt that these substances hasten 
the coagulation of the blood, and that they may, under some cir^ 
curostances, arrest hemorrhage from the smaller arteries; but in 
the case of the larger vessels, they are of no manner of use, at least 
not more so than the lint without them. The experiments made 
on the human subject that have come to their notice are: — wound 
on the hand ; oozing for some time after the operation for hydro- 
cele; oozing from a tumour on the back tried with Brocchieri 
water. In the first case there seemed to be no effect; in the last 
two some slight effect: the oozing in the case of the hydrocele, 
although diminbhed, could not be arrested. Hence they think, 
there is no danger of the ligature of vessels being supplanted by it. 
Professor Mott, in a clinical lecture delivered on the 10th of 
January, 1846,' has the following remarks: — "I knew M. Broc- 
chieri when I was in Paris: he is an uneducated man, and a per- 
fect charlatan. When his discovery was made known in Paris, it 
created some stir ;^ and I made several experiments with it, in con- 
nexion with several other gentlemen, one of whom was engaged 
in the preparation of the water. The subjects of the experiments 
were strong and healthy sheep, upon whose carotid arteries we 
operated, and we found that its power to stop hemorrhage was . 
next to nothing, and where the bleeding was arrested, it was prin- 

' New Toik Medical and tkugical Reportor. 



AQUA BROCCHIERII. 87 

dpally from the pressure made by the large quantities of lint, with 
which the wound was filled. Therefore, I say, as the result of 
'my experience, that the styptic powers of this preparation are not 
to be relied upon for a moment ; that it is infinitely less useful than 
an infusion of rh^tany or tannin, and that it can never take the 
place of needles and ligatures. The other qualities that have been 
ascribed to it of curing disease, and arresting haemoptysis are 
equally non-existent." 

The AcQua Brocchieri was brought to the notice of the Medico- 
Cfairorgical Society of Louisiana, at its sitting in March, 1846, by 
a communication from one of the venders of the nostrum, accom- 
panied by some bottles of the article, with the request that the So- 
ciety would examine and report upon its styptic powers. The 
Society, on the ground that it would be settmg a bad precedent, 
declined the proposition. Several of the members, however, de- 
termined to avail themselves of the earliest opportunity to test its 
properties, and Dr. A. Mercier has published the result of his 
experiments.* After detailing two cases of wounds, on which it 
was used as a hsemastatic, he remarks: — '*The pain which these 
two patients experienced from the application of the Eau Brocchieri, 
a pain incomparably greater than that from the application of strong 
salt and water, or any other styptic solution, together with its utter 
inefficacy in cases of hemorrhage, have induced me to abandon 
any farther trials with it, except, perbaps, in cases of hemorrhage 
from mucous membranes, as from the nose, rectum, &c. &c., which 
are so common in this country." 

With the same view of testing the virtues of this famous fan- 
cied hsemastatic, the author's friend and colleague, Professor 
MOtter, in the presence of the late Dr. Kearney of the United States 
Navy, Dr. King of the Army, Dr. J. W. Wallace, and several 
other medical gentlemen, conducted a series of experiments on 
some ten or twelve sheep, the results of which were as follows: 

" When the carotid artery," says Professor Mutter, in a letter 
to the author, '^ was opened, especially if the incision, ran parallel 
to the long diameter of the vessel, and the Acqua Brocchieri was 
freely applied, the haemorrhage ceased in the course of ten, fifteen, 
or twenty minutes; and the sheep, recovering speedily from its 
prostration, would eat with avidity. On examining the wound, it 
was found filled with a coagulum, but there was no adhesion be- 
tween it and the walls of the vessel, and of course no organization 
could be detected. Similar results were obtained with several 
other styptics, such as creasote, tincture of chloride of iron, oil 
of turpentine, &c. &c. On the whole I was led to consider this 
agent a tolerably good styptic, but not better than those already 
• in daily use. To test the vis medicairix natural Dr. Wallace 

' New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, May, 1846, p. 816. 



86 AqiTA nuxxHnmo. 

diviiled completely both carotids^ and applied nothing to the womid; 
)et *ecoTery took place in the course of 30 miniites, the animal 
walking about and eating with the others. When the remd 
was partially divided, so as to prevent contraction and retraction, 
death speedily ensued." 

It is proper to add, that the first experiments of Drs. Smith and 
Sbkler satisfied them, "that a sheep would Meed to death with 
his carotid cat, and that no application of water, even in the fotm 
of ice, could arrest the hemorrhage.'' With this conviction on 
their mindi, they considered themselves " fully prepared to fE>mi 
just conclusions concerning the two experiments" which thev 
made on sheep. Yet in Dr. Wallace's case, it will be obsenreu, 
the sheep recovered after both carotids hsid been divided ; and 
without an^ application whatever. 

A committee of the Medical Society of Vir^ia, consisting, of 
Dr. C. P. Johnson, G. G. Minor and R. W. Haxall^ appointed 
to investigate the qualities of the Acqua Brocchieri, reported, as the 
results of their experiments. Firsts that it has no power of co- 
agulating blood. Secondly J that it has no power of producing 
contraction of the coats of an artery. Thirdly y that it does not 
arrest hemorrhage from an incised wound sooner than the unaided 
power of nature would accomplish the same result. Fourthly^ 
that in the case of incised arteries, its application is no more to be 
depended upon to arrest the hemorrhage than that of simple cold 
water. The committee are of opinion that the true and only caoaa 
of the arrest of the hemorrhage in their experiments, ''as in all of 
the cases which have been reported, is pressure^ the pressure 
being continued for a sufficient length of time to allow a coagulum 
to form which will be firm enough to resist the impulse o! the 
blood from the orifice in the vessel." 

On the whole, the remarks made on the Acqua Binelli apjdy 
equally to the Acqua Brocchieri. Neither, it would seem, is pos- 
sessed of the haeinastatic virtues that have been ascribed to it. 

According to M. Martius,^ Brocchieri water may be made as 
follows: — Macerate for twelve hours pine wood {bois de sapin) 
cut small and bruised, in double its weight of water. Then distil 
until a product is obtained equal in weight to the wood employed. 
Leave this distilled water at rest for twenty-four hours; after 
which the volatile oil that collects on the surface must be sepa- 
rated. Before using the water it is necessary to shake it. 

M. Deschamps has proposed the following substitute for it. 
Take of turpentine, 500 parts; water, 600 parts. Boil for a 
quarter of an hour,^ then add a sufficient quantity of water to 
obtain 1000 parts of turpentine and water. Let it become cold, 
and filter. 

' American Journal of the Mad. Sciencea, Jalj, 1846, p. 146. 

< I/Abeilla M^icale. Fenier, 1846, p. 54. 

' BoQcfatnkt, Noo^eaa Formohira Magiatral, 3e «dit p^ 2»1. Paria, 184&. 



\ 



AQUA PICI8 LK^VXDSl, 89 

Another hsmastatic water, under the name Eau himastaiiqut de 
Tisterand, has been experimented with in Paris, and M. Fr^my, 
hieme at the Hotel Dieu, reports several cases in its fayour. M. 
R6camier has also used it, and considered it to be possessed of the 
fame properties as the Acqua Brocchieri : he esteems it to be even 
Biore advantageous, and aflSrms that he has succeeded with it in 
caaes of hamoptysis^ intestinal hemorrhage^ and dys^tery. The 
fidlowin^ formula is given by M. Bouchardat^ for a hsemastatic 
water which may be substituted for the Eau Mmastatique de Tis^ 
HTond. * 

R. SangDin. Dracon. 

Terebinth (det Vmge»j) aa Jtij. 

Aqne Oij. 

Digest for twelve hours, and filter. 



XVII. AQUA PICIS LIQ UIDiE. 

SnroimfBS. Aqjua Picis een Picea^ Intusom Picis Liquids 'seu Pici9 

Empyreamatic® Liqaidc, Potio Picea, Tar Water. 
^tmtk, Eao de Goudron. 
Qtrwum. Theerwasser. 

This preparation, at one time so much extolled, and recom* 
mended on the authority of the celebrated Bishop Berkeley, but 
which had almost fallen into total disuse, has been revived, "more 
especially since it has been found to contain creasote. It was first 
employed extensively in England about the middle of the last cen- 
tury, and was drunk not simply as a therapeutic but as a prophy- 
lactic agent, so that Riecke facetiously remarks, almost as much 
tar-water was consumed by the inhabitants of London, as beer 
and other drinks.^ 

As commonly happens in such cases, practitioners passed from 
one extreme to the other, and as they gradually found that tar 
water was not capable of accomplishing all that had been ascribed 
to it, they ultimately neglected it altogether. Still formulae for its 
preparation exist in many Pharmacopopias — in those of Dublin, 
Bavaria, Brunswick, Paris, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and Wirtem- 
berg, for example. 

Water takes up from tar a small portion of acetic acid, crea- 
sote, and resinobs matter. Tar-water was formerly much praised 
as a remedy in pulmonary consumption^ and as a diuretic ; its 
virtues, however, appear to rest almost wholly on the contained 
creasote. Some years ago, Arnheimer, of Duisburg, recalled the 
attention of practitioners to it as a remedy in many chronic cutaneous 
affections^ especially of the herpetic kind; and asserted, that he 
found no remedial agent more valuable when its use was perse- 

' Op. dt. « Die neuero Annetniittel, 8. 38. StuUgart, 1837. 



90 AquA PICI8 uquiDJE. 

▼ered in for one or two months to the extent of a {not or two 
daily. Amheimer directed patients to prepare it for themselTea 
in the following manner. A pound of tar was pat into a deep 
porcelain dtsh^ and a quart of water was poured upon it ; for 
half an hour it was stirred with a spoon ; the mixture was then 
allowed to stand for twenty-four hours; the tar remaining oo 
the surface of the water was skimmed off, and the dear fluid pot 
into well stopped bottles. He advises, that a large quantity shoiiU 
not be prepared at once, as the water in time becomes ropy, and 
its golden yellow colour is changed to a darker hue. It is gene- 
rally taken without any repugnance. The process in the Dublin 
Pharmacopoeia is the following : — Take of Tar^ two pbts ; Watery 
a gallon : mix, and stir with a wooden rod for fifteen minutes; 
then, when the tar has subsided, filter the liquid, and keep it in 
well closed jars. 

Since the discovery of creasote, tar-water has received freish 
consideration, and it is not improbable that it may come again 
into more general use, as it appears, from experiments, that 
there are cases where it would seem to merit a preference over 
creasote. M. P6trequin has made sooie trials with both, in 
chronic catarrh^ and m different stages of phthisis.^ The num- 
ber of cases reported by him is twenty-three ; of these seven were 
of chronic catarrh^ in which creasote was given: generally the 
cough was mitigated. by it, but in two no effect was produced on 
that symptom. The expectoration was usually diminished or 
facilitated ; in two cases, however, no advantage was derived from 
it, and in one case the sputa were bloody. In the majority, the 
dyspncea ceased : in others, it continued ; and in the same number 
of cases the pain in the breast was relieved. As to its effects 
on the digestive organs, it several times excited thirst ; but the 
most marked result was the sensation of burning, which it caosed 
in the majority of cases, in the digestive tube, or in the breast. 
In two cases, it exhibited no influence on an existing diarrhoea, 
whilst in two others, it appeared to diminish the number of the 
evacuations. In two, it excited vomiting, and commonly produced 
nausea. On the whole, in the greater number, it appeared to 
render good service, but in one it was of no avail, and in another 
it seemed to aggravate the aflbction. 

In four cases of incipient phthisis treated with creasote, M. 
P6trequin obtained the followmg results. Although, in one in- 
stance, the cough was aggravated, in the majority the opposite 
was the fact. The expectoration was facilitated, but diminished 
in quantity : the dyspnopa was more or less improved, and in two 
cases the pain in the chest was relieved. In this disease, also, 
creasote excited burning in the epigastrium or chest, and in one 
instance fugitive sensations of heat and creeping in the limbs. In 

I Goette M^diodede P^ Na 45, Not. 5, 183e. 



AqUA PICIS LIQUIDJE. 91 

V 

one case, the benefit was striking; in two, the improvement was 
to a leas extent, and in one the disease was augmented. Four 
-other cases were of advanced phthisis. In most, the cough was 
more or less improved, — never increased ; the oppression remained 
much the same, but in one case it became more severe. As 
regards the effects upon the digestive organs, they were much the 
Mme as in the first class of cases. The improvement in one case 
was insignificant; in two others but slight, and in the fourth the 
affection was aggravated. 

M. Petrequin directs tar water to be prepared by digesting an 
ounce of tar in a quart (^tn/e) of water for eight days, and then 
filtering. It is taken mixed with milk to the extent of from 
eight to twelve ounces in the day. With this preparation, he 
treated three cases of chronic catarrh. The cough was always 
improved by it; the expectoration diminished or facilitated ; the 
dyspncea alleviated or removed, and the pains in the chest were 
improved or dissipated. In two cases, it appeared to act benefi- 
cially on vomiting which accompanied the cough. The appetite 
was improved, and in one case diarrhcea seemed to be dimi- 
nished, whilst in two others existing constipation yielded during 
its use. In all the cases, sleep was restored. On the urinary se- 
cretion it exerted no influence, and it neither excited thirst nor 
nausea like creasote. In three cases of incipient phthisis^ its ac- 
tion was more beneficial than that of creasote. The cough was 
always ameliorated, the expectoration facilitated or diminished, 
and the dyspnoea and thoracic pain relieved. In one case, it 
seemed to act favourably on accompanying emesis, and in another 
to quench thirst. It excited or improved the appetite, and aided 
digestion. In one case of advanced phthisis^ the alleviation pro- 
duced by tar water was beyond all expectation, but in another 
the disease had proceeded so far that it was wholly unsuccessful. 

So far, then, as M . P6trequin's experiments go, they would 
seem to show that advantage may be derived, in the cases in 
miestion, from the administration of creasote and tar water ; and 
that the latter is perhaps possessed of properties which the other 
has not — to the same degree at least. The cases are, however, 
too few to enable us to deduce any thing entirely satisfactory. 
Fresh experiments will doubtless be instituted, which may enable 
us to infer positively on matters that must as yet be considered 
involved in doubt.^ The. author has administered it freely in 
phthisis^ as well as in chronic bronchitis. In the latter affection. 
It has relieved cases in which the accustomed excitant expectorants 
are found to be serviceable. The same has been the fact in the 
former disease; but farther than this no advantage has accrued 
from its administration. 

In a French periodical,' some cases are published from the 

1 Dolandes, Diet de Medec et de Chinirgie Pnt zi 333. 
* La Lanoette Fiaja^aue, 8 Avrfl, 



92 AKOENTI PRJEPARATA. 

records of the hospitals for 1829 aiMi ISSO, during the attendanoe 
of the late Professor Dupuytren, in which injections of tar water 
were successfully administered in caiarrkus vesica, along with 
the use of pills of turpentine. The tar water was made by in- 
fusing in the cold, for a night, a pound of tar in ten pounds of 
spring water, filtering and warming the solution before using it. 
Large quantities of this were injected through an elastic gum ca* 
theter, which was forthwith withdrawn and the patient directed 
to retain the injection as long as possible. The injection was re** 
peated daily, and Venice turpentine was administered internally 
in the form of pill. 

A SYRUP OF TAR may be made by dissolving sugar in tar 
water.* 



XVIII. ARGENTI PRiEPARATA. 

SfNONTMEs. Preparations of silver. 
French. Preparations d' Argent. 

Crerman. Silberpraparate. 

• 

Of the preparations of silver, the nitrate is the only one that baa 
been much used, and this chiefly as an external application. The 
attention of physicians has, however, been directed to the internal 
use of many of those preparations, and especially by M. Serre,' 
professor of surgical clinics at Montpellier. This gentleman com* 
menced bis first trials in May, 1835, in the civil and military bo»> 
pital of St. Eloi. At that time, there was an unusual number of 
syphilitic patients in the wards, of which the most severe and 
appropriate were selected for treatment by the preparationa of 
silver — the chloride, cyanuret, and iodide. Trials were also made 
with divided metallic silver, oxide of silver and chloride of 
ammonia and silver. At first, they were administered iatraleip- 
tically ; the chloride, the cyanuret, and the iodide in the quantity 
of one-twelAh of a grain ; the chloride of silver and ammonia in 
the quantity of one-fourteenth of a grain ; and the oxide of silver, 
and the divided silver, in the dose of one-eighth, and one-quarter 
of a grain, respectively. M. Serre soon found that these doses 
were generally too small : he, therefore, raised that of the chloride 
and iodide to one-tenth, and to one-eighth of a grain, without the 
slightest inconvenience resulting. The other preparations were 
also increased in the same proportion, with the exception of the 
chloride of silver and ammonia, which requires more precaution 
than any of the other preparations. M. Serre did not restrict 
himself to the iatraleiptic administration of these substances, but 

' SoulieiTBTi, Journal de Phannade, Janvier, 1B42, p. 7(X 
s Bulletin General de lli^npeutique, lfc<3C. 



AJMUENTI nUBPAEATA. tiS 

eoqployed them internally in the form of {hU, and externally as 
local appUcatioos. 

M. Serre describes several cases of syphilis in vhich the pre- 
parations of silver were administered. The first patient was a sol- 
dier, 26 years old, of athletic constitution, who, at the time of his 
admission into the hospital, had several extensive chancres on 
ihe prepuce, so close to each other as to seem to form one large cir- 
cular ulceration, five or six lines in diameter. After a few days' 
jpest, and the use of baths, M. Serre ordered the chloride of silver 
ia friction on the tongue in the quantity of ooe-twelflh of a grain. 
The ulcers were treated with simple cerate {cerutum Galeni) 
spread on lint. After the second rubbing, the patient experienced 
violent colicky pains, which were not severe enough, however, to 
induoe a discontinuance of the remedy. Scarcely had a grain of 
the chloride been employed, when the secretion from the ulce- 
rated parts became less ; the surface of the chancres lost the kind 
of grayish border which tbey possessed, and cicatrization pro- 
ceeded rapidly. The frictions were continued, and the condition 
of the patient went on improving. At the end of two months, he 
left the hospital. In the five subsequent cases, the same plan of 
treatment was pursued. The chloride was used exclusively ac- 
cording to the iatraleiptic method. The symptoms were various; 
in addition to chancrtSy there was in one case a suppurating bubo; 
in another, syphilitic vegetations at the margin of the anus; and 
in a third, fissures in the same part. In the seventh case, in which 
there were chancres^ gonorrhceay and extensive rugous blotches 
on the nates, the chloride of silver was rubbed on the tongue, and 
applied topically in the form of ointment. The eighth patient, 
who suffered with large condylomata^ as well as with ulcers in 
the neck, took the chloride in pills to the extent of nine grains in 
the course of the treatment : frictions with the ointment of silver 
were also applied to the affected parts. 

M. Serre deduces from all his experiments the following 
amongst other conclusions. First* The preparations of silver 
have this great advantage over those of mercury, that they never 
occasion salivation, nor do they induce in the intestinal canal or 
in the respiratory organs the disagreeable effects that are too 
often caused by mercury. Secondly. Should their therapeutical 
agency be confirmed by experience, and they be introduced into 
hospital practice, great advantage will be derived as respects the 
purity of the wards, and the cleanness of the bed-clothes, &c. 
Thirdly. Patients can be treated by them in secret as well 
as when travelling, without fear of detection. Fourthly, The 
preparations of gold are to be preferred in these respects; but 
gold has the disadvantage of exciting too much, and cannot, there- 
fore, be exhibited to those of a nervous and impressible tempera- 
ment, or who have weak and delicate chests. In such cases the 
7 



94 

preparations of mlrer merit the prdercDoe. FiflUf. The pro* 
paratioos of silver are modi cheaper than those of goM, and mn^ 
therefore, more arailaUe in practioe amongst the poor, and ai 
lari^e hospitab; and, moreorer, thej are more easily preparadf 
which is a connderatjon of some moment as regards the 
oeii^ of small towns. Sixthly^ and lastly. There are 
which mercurial and gold preparations fail, and where preparal 
of silrer might be of adrantage. 

The obsenration of others has not confirmed the asstftioBt of 
M. Serre. M. Ricord' employed the Tarions preparations, made 
after the formulae given by M. Serre, in the same doses; but not 
being able to observe any effect that could be fairly ascribed to 
these agents, he ventured upon considerably larger doses — as mndiy 
for example, as twelve grains a day of the iodide and cyaniueC^— - 
but without any marked results. 

Id this country, the preparations of silver have been hot fittle^ 
if at all, used in syphilis ; nor do they appear to merit special 
favour.* 



XIX. ARGEN'TI CHLOTODUM. 

SvnoirTMEs. Argentam Mariaticom sea Salitum seo Chloratam, Chlo* 
ruretam Argenti, Chloride, Chloniret or Mariate of Silver. 

French. Chlonire d' Argent. 

German, Salzsaares Silber, Chlorsilber, Homsilber, Silber* 
chlorQr. 

Chloride of silver is prepared by the decomposition of a solution 
of fiiiratt of silver by an excess of a solution of chloride of so^ 
dium. The resulting product or chloride of silver appears under 
the form of a flaky, clotted, very thick precipitate : it must be 
washed repeatedly with boiling water, and be exposed to the heat 
of a sand-l)ath, so that it may dry as speedily as possible. 

Chloride of silver, prepared in this way, is of a white colour, de- 
void of taste, and not soluble in water, but soluble in ammonia. 
In the light it speedily changes, especially when much divided, or 
when moist ; and assumes a somewhat dark violet hue, as the 
chlorine is given off. It suffers no decomposition when united 
with vegetable matters. It must be dried and kept protected 
from the light.^ Its uses have been referred to under the head of 
the preparations of silver. 

As nitrate of silver is probably always converted into chloride 
of silvei" by meeting with the chlorohydric acid in the stomach, it 

> J. J. L. RaUier, U Lanoette Fran<;aiw, No. ItA, Oct 13, 1836. 
* W. P. Johnson, Medical Examiner, Not. 23, 1839, p. 743. 
' On the mode of Conning the Tariuus preparations of silver, sec Charoou, in Bulletin 
Ghakni de Th^npentiqiie, Na xri. Aus. 30, 1836. 



A1|GENTI ET AMMONLfi CHLO&IDUM. 95 

oecorred to Dr. Perry,^ at the time resident physiGian of the Phila- 
ddphia Hospital, to administer the chloride, which he did with ad- 
vantage in epilepsy^ chronic dysentery y chronic dtarrhcea^ and 
other affections in which nitrate of silver is prescribed internally. 
Twelve grains given daily for three months produced no unplea- 
nnt symptoms; and in no case did discoloration of the skin suc- 
ceed. In epilepsy, three grams, given four or five times a day, pro- 
duced effects similar to those of nitrate of silver, but more marxed. 
In chronic dysentery, half a grain to three grains, taken three 
times a day, produced immediate diminution in the number of the 
evacuations, and relieved the tormina ; inducing, at the same time, 
an improvement in the character of the stools and other symp- 
toms. Similar testimony is afforded by Kopp, and others. The 
author has very frequently prescribed the chloride ; and on the 
whole it has appeared to him to be equal to the nitrate of silver 
in the cases mentioned by Dr. Perry. 

It has been affirmed that a combination with iodine will prevent 
the discoloration of the skin ; and that the use of iodine will re- 
move it where it has already occurred; but farther experience is 
necessary to establish this. See Argenti Iodidum, (p. 98.) 

Pnlvii argenti ehloridi. 

Powder of chloride of silver, 

R. Argent, chlorid. gr. j. 
Irid. florent. pslv. gr. ij. 

Reduce to a fine powder, and divide into eight or ten portions ; 
to be rubbed on the tongue. Serre, 



XX. ARGENTI ET AMMONIA CHLO'RIDUM. 

Stsomtmks. Argentum Muriaticum Ammoniatum, Chloruretum Argenti 
et Amraoniie, Chloride or Chloruret of Silver and Ammonia, Ammonio- 
chloride of silver. 

French. Chlorure d'Ar|:ent et d'Ammoniaque. 

German. Silbersalmiak, Salzsaures Silberammonium. 

This preparation is obtained, when we saturate, by the aid of 
heat, liquid ammonia y with freshly precipitated and carefully 
washed chloride of silver. The operation must be accomplished 
at such a degree of heat, that the fluid shall boil once ; for if the 
boiling be continued a few moments and in the open air, no crys- 
tals will be deposited on cooling. If the fluid, whilst in full ebul- 
lition and preserved from the light, be filtered, very regular crys- 
tals will be deposited on cooling, which may be dried between 
blotting paper, and should be kept in a well stopped bottle. 

* American Medical Libnury and Intelligencer, Feb. 1841. 



96 

Chloride of alver mad ammonui has a Uviaii white coloiir, the 
pecaliar smell of aaiiBOoia, aad a hunniig, ilawrt cansticy taale. 
In the air^it gradually exhales ammoDiay Mid aoqwcs all the pio- 
perties of simpie cUoride of sHvefy without, howerer, kMH^ tlie 
fonn of the ori^al compontioo. If the crystals be kept m the 
ammoiiia in which tbe^ were formed, they do not expenenee the 
slightest change in their oolonr from the inflnenoe of light. When 
treated with distiUed water, the chloride is deca ny oae d . A por> 
tion saturated with ammook is a^in disserved ; yet a mudi greater 
portion remains andissolTed ; this contains only a small qnaatky 
of ammonia. It experiences the same 'decomposition through tw 
influence of heat, as when it is exposed to the open air, except that 
the decomposition takes place more rapidly. It di^lays notfoDg 
extraordinary when rubbed with organic matters. 

This remedy, as before remarked, has been used withadraotage 
by Serre in cases of syphilis. 

Another preparation, Liquor argenti muriaiici ammoniati, 
has been long recommended by Kopp, in cases of ekronie nervoH9 
affections. It is prepared according to the following formula:—- 

R. Argent, nitmt. fus. gr. x. 
Aqnc destillat. f ^ij. 

Solato filtrato iDstilla liqnoris natri mnriatici, (Sodii chloridi,) q. & ad 
pnecipitandum. Prscipitatam sedulo ablntum solve in liquoris ammon. 
canst, ^iss: adde acidi muriatici ^iij. vel q. s. ut precipitatio evitetaret 
argentum muriaticum in statu eoTntionis pennaneat. Pondns flaidi fil- 
trati squale tit nnciis duabos cum dimidi^.* 

This preparation is transparent; but, under the effect of light, 
it suffers black flakes to be deposited. It is therefore necessar}* 
to preserve it in small bottles, painted black, in a dark place. In 
using it, acid substances should be avoided. 

Kopp found the liquor argenti muriatici ammoniati of 
great eflScacy in St. Vittis*s dance. It may be given to children 
of about ten years of age, morning, noon, and night, in doses of 
three drops, gradually raised to six, in a spoonful of distilled wa* 
ter. 

Pilals argenti et ammoniB ehloridi. 

Pills of chloride of silver and ammonia. 

R. Argent, et ammon. chlorid. gr. j. 

Irid. florent. pulv. gr. ij. 
ConservaB flor. tills q. s. ut fiat massa in pilulas xiv. dividenda. 

For external use. Serre. 

I ** Tate of fuwd nitrate of silirer, ten fljains ; difltffled water, two ouncec: — Into the 
filtered idutbn drop enough of a idution of chloride of sodium to precipitate. DisBQlTe 
the carefully waaheo precipitate in an ounce and a half of caustic liquid ammonia; add 
throe drams of muriatic acid, or enough to avoid precipitation, and that the chloride of 
silver may remain in a state of solution. The weight of the filtered fluid should be equal 

two ouDoef and a half.** 



A&GENTI CTAHURKTUM. 97 



XXL ARGENTI CYANURETUM. 

SivoimiES. Argenti Cyanidum, ArgAtum Cyanogenatuiq seu Cyanicum 
aea Hydrocyanicam, Cyanuretom Argenti, Cyanide or Cyanuret of 
Silver. 

Fnnck, Cyanare d' Argent. 

On m an * Blanstoffsilber, Cyansilber, Cyansaures Silber- 
oxyd. 

Cyanuret of silver is obtained by permitting a weak solution of 
kjfdrocyanic acid to act on a solution of nitrate of silver? The 
fery liebt white precipitate, formed thereby, must be repeatedly 
washed with distilled water, and be reduced to dryness m a mo- 
derately heated oven. In the preparation of the cyanuret of sil- 
ver, as of the iodide, it is essential to pour on only so much of the 
iliid in the formation of the precipitate as may be required for the 
eoinplete decomposition of the nitrate of silver. If too much hy- 
drocyanic acid be used, a part of the precipitate will be separated 
in the form of hydrocyanate of silver. If, instead of hydrocyanic 
acid, hydrocyanate of potassa be used, the latter, if added in too 
great proportion, will anite with the cyanuret of silver, and form 
a soluble double salt. 

Cyanoret of silver is of a white colour, devoid of taste, not 
soluble in water, but soluble in ammonia. In the air, the sur&ce 
very soon becomes of a dark violet hue, similar to that of the chlo- 
ride of silver under like circamstances. It is dry, and should be 
kept preserved from light. It experiences no decomposition when 
nixed with nentral vegetable matters. 

From experiments made by Dr. Letheby,* he concludes, that it 
ii a local irritant, producing great vomiting and a congested state 
of the vessels of the stomach ; — that when it has been dried before 
its introduction into the system, no other ill effects follow : but if 
it be administered in a moist state, it is then capable of being ab- 
sorbed and perhaps decomposed, ** for an albummous solution has 
the property of dissolving the cyanide, and, moreover, the contact 
of it with any of the chlorides of the systemic fluids would pro- 
duce a double decompomtion, and the formation of a soluble cya- 
nide, whose effects would be similar to that of cyanide of potas- 
sium.'' 

The dose capable of killing a dog is fivie grains: its specific ac- 
tion appeared to Dr. Letheby to be on the brain, producing occa- 
monal convulsidis, always coma, paralysis, a peculiar sighing re- 
spiration; a fluttering, irregular, and tumultuous action of the 
heart, and it ultimately kills by a gradual exhaustion of the invo- 
luntary acts, death taking place in from one to three hours after 
its administration. 

1 Plianxi. of the United States, p. 77. PhilKl. 184% 
• London Med. Gai. Jan. 9, Feb. 4 and 17, 1843. 



98 ARGENTI lODIDUM. 

Its use in disease has been referred to under the preparations of 
silver. 



XXII. ARGENTI lO'DIDUM. 

Synonymcs. Argentum lodatum, lodoretum Argenti; Iodide or lodniet 

of Silver. 
French. lodure d'Argent. 
German, lodsilber, Silberiodur. 

Iodide of silver is obtained by mixing a solution of nitrate qf 
silver with one of iodide of potassium. The yellowish flakes, 
produced by the admixture of the two fluids, are then washed se- 
veral times with distilled water, and dried in an oven. In this 
preparation, also, it is important, that only so much of the reagent 
should be added as is necessary for the complete decomposition of 
the salt of silver. A surplus of the iodide of potasaum would 
form, with the already precipitated iodide of silver a soluble and 
crystallizable double salt of iodine, whereby the quantity of the 
product, which it might be desirable to obtain, would be dimi- 
nished. 

Iodide of silver is of a very pale yellow colour; but becomes, 
under the action of light and air, of a deeper yellow. It has no 
taste, and is neither soluble in water nor ammonia. The latter 
property serves to distinguish it from the chloride and the cyann- 
ret of the same metal. Like the chloride, the iodide must be kept 
in a dry dark place. Neutral vegetable substances appear to exert 
no action upon it. Its properties have been enumerated under the 
head of the preparations of silver. It may be added, however, 
that Dr. Chas. Patterson has been convinced of its decided efficacy 
in hooping-cough. 

It has been already remarked that a combination with iodine 
is said to prevent the discoloration apt to be induced by nitrate of 
silver.* The following form for this purpose is given by Dr. Pat- 
terson: — 

Pilole argenti iodidi eompoiits. 

Compound pills of iodide of silver, 

R. Argenti iodid. 

Potassae nitrat. aa gr. x. 
Tere simul ut fiat pulvis subtil, deia adde. 

Glycyrrhiz. pulv. 388. 

Sacchar. 9j. 

Mucilag. acaciae q. s. ut fiant pil. xl. 

Dose. — One, three times a day. 

1 Pattenon, Dublin Medical Press, Aug. 25, 1642, and April 19, 1843. 



ARGENTI OXmUM. 99 



XXIII. ARGENTI OXIDUM. 

SnroHTMES. Argentum Ozydatam, Oxydum Argenti. 

Frtnek. Oxide d'Argent. 

Qenman, Silberoxyd, Oxydirtes Silber. 

Oxide of silver is obtained by the reaction of potassa on a so- 
lation of nitrate of silver. The alkaline fluid must be added in 
excess, and the oxide, vhich is the product of the decomposition, 
be washed several times ma considerable quantity of water, and be 
dried by moderate heat, and preserved from the light. 

The following form has been given :^ — 

R. Argent, nitrat. crystallizat. ^j. 
PotasscD ^vij. 
AqoflB ^xviij. 

Dissolve the nitrate of silver in two or three ounces of the' 
water, and the potassa in the remainder : mix the two solutions ; 
slir with a glass rod, and throw the whole upon a filter. Lastly, 
wash the precipitate from adhering alkali, and dry it carefully. 

In the state of hydrate, the oxide is black ; when anhydrous, it 
appears as an olive greenish brown powder : it is tasteless, and 
capable of absorbing-carbonic acid from the air. Under the long 
continued influence of light, it is blackened ; and at a heat below 
obscure red, it is reduced to the metallic condition. To be kept 
for a long time in the pure state, it must be protected from the 
fight in a well stopped bottle. 

This preparation, which was also recommended by M. Serre, 
has been used by Van Mons in syphilis,* 

Dr. Lane' — under the idea, that nitrate of silver is always de- 
composed in the stomach by chlorobydric acid, whence results 
chloride of silver, which enters into the circulation, is conveyed 
to the cutaneous surface, and is converted into an oxide by the 
action of light and by its strong affinity for albumen — has admi- 
nistered the oxide of silver, and with advantage, in diseases of the 
uterine sysieniy in which there is undue secretion and great irri- 
tation. He gave it for two months, at intervals, without the 
slightest tendency to discoloration ; and Dr. Golding Bird has pre- 
scribed it for four months without any bad effects. Dr. Lane 
found it very beneficial in half-grain doses, twice a day, in cardi- 
algia and pyrosis ; gastrodynia ; irritability of the stomachy 
accompanied by gnawing and constant pain, nausea, &c. It seemed, 
likewise, to be l^neficial in uterine hemorrhage^ both in the im- 
pr^nated and unimpregnated state. 

Dr. Lane^ gives the oxide to subdue undue secretion^ whether of 

' A. Oubamel, Amer. Jour, of PharroaGy, July, 1842, p. 100. 

* Riecke, Op. dt S. 440. 

' London Lancet, July 10, 184 L 

* Load. Med. Gai., April, 1846, p. 640. 



100 AmGKirtl OZID0M. 

a sanguineous or other character. In epistaxis and hismoptysiSf 
especially when they occur in chlorotic females; and in the prO' 
fuse purulent expectoration and colliquative perspirations 
of phthisis he has found its employment of much advantage. He 
esteems it to be essentially sedative, and employs it both internally 
and externally. In cases of irritable ulcer, its action is highly 
beneficial ; and he thinks it decidedly preferable to the nitrate* 
when the stimulant caustic action of the latter is not required. In 
external forma of ophthalmia, an ointment, of the strength of a 
dram to the ounce, often exerts a rapid influence. In ulceration 
of the cornea, with thickening and congestion of the eyelids, it baa 
proved highly beneficial. The ointment of the oxide of silver ia 
softened to the consistence of thick cream by the addition of oliv^ 
oil, and is applied to the eye by means of a camel's hair pencil. 
When a patient is taking it for any length of time, he considers it 
well to suspend its administration for a few days every month* > 
Sir James Eyre^ found the oxide uniformly successful in curi^ 
pyrosis ; but he gave at the san^e time a cathartic pill of the tomr 

E^und extract of colocynth and extract of hyoscyamus every night« 
e found similar successful results in h4ematemesis and /uemoptjf^ 
sis: he does not, however, restrict himself to the oxide, Ml 
assists it by bleeding, blistering, and other means. Having 
found the remedy much superior to all other agents during an ao> 
tive professional life of upwards of thirty years. Sir James urgeat 
trial of it. In the cases detailed by him the dose never exemM 
three grains a day. Its employment is not advised where fekrile 
action exists. 

In addition to its value in gastrodynia, pyrosis, hssmoptysiSf 
hsematemesis, and menorrhagia. Sir James says it will be found 
of infinite benefit in restraining hemorrhage from the intestinal 
canal, obstinate chronic diarrhoea, colliquative perspirations^ 
and leueorrhoea.* 

Dr. Thweatt' confirms the observations of Dr. Lane and Sir Jas« 
Eyre as to the advantages to be derived from it in menorrhagia* 
He goes, indeed, much farther ; and, whilst he does not pretend to 
claim for it the appellation of a specific, he ** is persuaded that^ 
caeteris paribus, all that is claimed for mercury in syphilis, or qui* 
nine in intermittent fever, can be claimed for the oxide of silver in 
menorrhagia in its different forms !" He considers it best adapted 
for those forms of menorrhagia which depend on an undue exctta^ 
tion of the uterine organs, unaccompanied by high inflammatory 
action. 

The ordinary dose of the oxide is half a grain three tisies a day. 
Dr. Thweatt combines it with a small quantity of opium or mor- 
phia. 

' Ouhlin Journal of Med. Sciences, May, 1845. 

< See, also^ AUnatt, Lond. Mad. Gaaella, Maj S, 1846. 

" Amer. Jooi. of the Med. Sdeooea^ July, 1849, p. 69. 



AE6ILLA PVEA. 101 

Ungventiim ixidl irgeiti. 

Oinimeni of oxide qf silver. 

R. Argent, oxid. gr. xx. 

Adipis J j. Misoe ot fiat nnguentQin. 

When the iodide or cyannret is substituted, for the oxide of sil- 
ter, ten or twelve grains of one of these may be added to the 
eimee of hrd. Serre, 



XXIV. ARGENTUM Dl VISUM. 

SmOHYMts. Metallic Silrer. in a state of d^visiod. 
Qtrman. Zertheiltes Silber. 

Pare oxide of silver is placed in a porcelain crucible, and the 
fire 18 increased to (full reoness. The product is then allowed to 
oooly is rubbed in an agate mortar, and sifted through a close sieve 
or bolting cloth. In this condition, divided silver forms a very fine 
powder, of a dullish white colour: the air has no influence upon 
It, unless when impregnated ¥rith sulphureous vapours. 

Besides the use of this preparation in syphilis, already referred 
to, it may be remarked, that tue filings of silver, Argentum lima- 
tmn, which agree with it in chemical relations, had been adminis- 
tered many years before, in cases of iniermiitent fever, by Dr. 
Ifeyer, of Biickeburg.* 

iSTotwithstanding the testimony adduced in its favour, it is pro- 
iNibly wholly inert, or exerts but a mechanical agency. 



XXV. ARGIL'LA PURA. 

Stkoht^bs. Alomina para, Oxidum aluminii, Terra aluminosa pura, 
Terrm alominis, Terra bolaris sea argillacea pura seu depurata seu 
hydrata, Pure Aii^il or Alumina. 

Ftenck. AluTDfine factice. 

Gifman, Reioe Thonerde; reine Alauaerde; gereinigte 
Alavnerde oder Tbonerde. 

This substance was known in olden times by the names Armt' 
Hiaii Bole, Terra sigillatay &c., in which forms it was always, 
however, mixed with Hme and iron. It was highly extolled as an 
absorbent, demulcent, diaphoretic and astringent ; was employed in 
hanarrhage, diarrhtea and dysentery, phthisis, poisoned wotmds, 
ftc., and was also applied extemalfy in cases of erysipelas. It 
kkd almost fallen into complete oblivion, when its tsewas resumed 
by some of the German practitioners. Wth us, it is scarcely ever, 
or never, prescribed. 

* BiedM, Op. eil,.8. 43G. 



102 AROILLA PITRA. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

The purest argil is prepared by drying sulphate of alumina and 
ammonia^ and exposing it for 20 or 25 minutes to a red heat in a 
crucible : the sulphuric acid and ammonia are driven off> and the 
argil remains behind in the form of a white powder. Formerly, it 
was prepared by dissolving alum in water, and precipitating the 
argil from the solution by means of carboncUe ofpotassaor oftodOf 
or by potdssa. It is affirmed, however, that generally, more or 
less sulphuric acid remains with the earth, so that it requires to be 
purified by repeated washing, until there is no longer any acid re- 
action. If a still higher degree of purity be needed, the precipi- 
tate is dissolved in muriatic acid, and the argil precipitated by am- 
monia. 

The powder, prepared by these methods, is of a white colour, 
and devoid of smell or taste ; but it communicates to the tongue 
a feeling of astringency. When breathed upon, it yields a pecu- 
liar earthy smell. It is insoluble in water, but attracts mobture 
greedily from the air, and forms with it a gelatiniform mass. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

Pure argil was highly recommended by Perdval in indigestion 
attended with predominance of acidity ; and it was in such cases 
extolled by Ficinus and Seiler.* According to the former, it merits 
a preference over all other absorbents, inasmuch as it forms astrin- 
gent salts with acids. He found it especially useful in diarrhcea and 
aysentery^ particularly in children. Seiler recommends it m the 
vomiting of infants ^viYacYx is usually accompanied by acidity, and 
in the dtarrAcsa of older children. Neumann ' found it successfol 
in checking diarrhaa^ which neither starch glyster, nor opium, nor 
any other therapeutical agent had succeeded in diminishmg. He 
made a mixture of two drams of argil, and four ounces of a de- 
coction of logwood, and administered it to children by the tea- 
spoonful. Weese' also employed it successfully in several cases 
of infantile diarrhcea where there was evidently a predominance 
of acid. One of the latest encomiasts of argilla depurata is Diirr, 
who, for several years, administered it in the diarrhcea and cholera 
of infants, and found it highly efficacious. 

The chemical reasons, urged by Ficinus and others, merit atten- 
tion. The article is worthy of employment in affections of the 
intestinal tube, in which astringents are indicated. The diloro- 
hydric and the acetic or lactic acid are always in the stomach when 
any alimentary or other matter is present there ; these acids can- 
not fail, consequently, to unite with the argil, and the resulting 
compound must possess astringent properties. 

1 ZeitKhriil fbr r*iatiir. und Heflkmide der Dreidner Fnikmann, B. I, H. 1, S. 8S. 
* Beroerkunffoi fiber die gebranchlicbiteo Anneimittel, too Dr. Kui Geoig Nea- 
DMim, 8. 55, Beam, 1840. ' Puiee Megttim B. xu. H. S, a SM7. 



ARNICA. 103 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The dose, in the 24 hours, for a ver^ young child, is from 5ss. 
to 3J* ; for older children, from gj. to 5ij. Small doses are of little 
or no avail. The vehicle is commonly an emulsion. 

The following forms are given by Rieeke.' — 

liitnra argillB. 

Mixture of argil. 
R. Emuls. Bern, papav. (ex Jss. parat.) ^iiiss. 
Argille Dune 9 'J* 
Syrop. althee f ^ss. M. 

Dose. — A teaspoonful to a child two years old affected with 

iutrrhaa. 

R. Argill. pur. ^m, 
Acaciie 3j. 
Sacch. 3ij. 
Aq. foBoicul. f ^iij. M. 

Dose. — The same as the last to a child one year old. 

R. Emuls. oleos. cum vitell. ovor. parat. ^j. 
Syrup, alth. f ^j. 
Argill. depurat. 568. 
Aq. cinnam. simpl. f ^j. 
Extract, conii gr. ij. M. 

Dose. — The same as the last two to a child three months old, 
affected with cholera infantum. Durr, 



XXVI. ARNICA. 



Stmontmes. Arnica Montana sen Plauensis, Doronicum Germanicuray 
Panacea Lapsoram, Ptarmica Montana/ Caltha Alpina, Calendula 
Alpina, Narda Celtica altera, Doronicum plantaginis folio, Leopard's 
Bane. 

French* Amique, Tabac ou B^toine des Savoyards, Tabac de Montague, 
Doronic d'AUemagne, Tabac des Vosges. 

German. Wohlverlei, FaUkraut. 

This plant, which belongs, in the sexual system^ to Syngenesia 
polygamia superflua, and to the natural order Compositse Synan- 
thereae, is in the secondary list of the Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States, but it is not much used in this country ; nor does there ap- 
pear to be any clear appreciation of the cases for which it is 
adapted.* Such, too, appears to be the sentiment of the French 

C petitioners. ^' It may be concluded," say MM. Merat and De 
ns,' ^' that we have as yet insufficient data to pronounce posi- 
tively on the affections in which arnica can be uneouivocally effi- 
cacious ; we must, consequently, always bear in mmd its heating 
and active qualities when we prescribe it.'' 

* Die neaern AroMimitte], & 41. Stuttgart, 1837. 

s Wood, in Dinenntonr of the United States, by Wood and Bacfae, Art. Arnica. 

'^' ' UniTenel de Matiire M^dicale, &c. i. 423. Park, 1829. 



104 A&8ENIAS AMMOML£. 

According to Sir Oeorge Leferre/ the (Germans class arnica 
among sacred remedies ; and its virtues are extolled throughout 
two pages of the PharmacopceiaRuthensis. Sir George was muck 
disappointed in its effects. It is much more uncertain than strych* 
nia in its operation, aad he has known it giren in large doses 
without producing any sensible results. 

In Crermany, the flowers and root are much employed in paro' 
If sis, as an excitant to thenerrous system; and it is chiefly to in- 
troduce the volatile oil — the oleum mthereum flarum amicm. 
Germ. Wohl verleidl, Aetherisches Wohlverleiblu- 
Den6l» — to the attentioa of the profession, that we refer to the 
arnica at all. This oil is obtained from the flowers, and has been 
much recommended by Schneider in old cases of paralysis, which 
are the result of the apoplectic condition. He himself often ad- 
ministered it with eridait success ; the paralytic limbs becombg 
warmer, more active, and mocc serviceable under its use. He 
recommends it abo m imimrwiiom»y especiaDy of the abdomen.* He 
mixes four drops otmrmiem oil with haJf an oonce ofspirilus atheris 
sulphurici composilus or spiritus atheris miiHci, and of this gives, 
for a dose, from four to twelve drops several times a day. The 
mixture has an agreeable smeO and taste. Four drops of the oil 
to four ounces of sugar form a good el4tosacch€rumJ* 



XXVII. ARSEN'US AMMO'MJB. 



Sviioinma. Ammoaiam Arsooieam ten Araeaickam, Aiseniate oC 

Ammonia. 
Frtn€k, Arshiiaie d* AmmoDwqoe. 
Genaofi. Arseniksaares Ammonium, Arseniksaures Am- 

moBiak. 

This preparation of arsenic has been highly recommended, smoe 
the year I0I8, by Biett, in several cutaneous diseases, and espe- 
cially in psoriasis inveUrata^ 

METHOD or PREFARING. 
It may be prepared by taking arsenic acid one part, dissolving 
it in water, and addmg pure ammonia or carionate of ammonia 
sufficient to saturate the add ; — or, as follows : — Take of arsenumr 
acid, one part ; nitric acid, four parts, mtirta/tc ortV, half apart; 
saturate the solution with carbonate 0/ ammonia, and let the ar* 
senical salt crystallize. 

> An Apology for the Nenrw, pi 292, Lood 1844. 
' Aichenbrenner, Die neueren Anneimittel, u. «. w. ErUngcii, 184& 
' Riecke, Die neurn ArmeimitteL o. t. w. a 337. 8tiittgart, 1837. 
«CaMMiv«,in Dict.deMMecade61itiT. 33; aad Caiman and Schedil'i Pne- 
tkal Synopiii of CutMeoua Dmbmii^ tt—irtrf by a B. Griffith. PhiMi 18S9. 



AKSEKIAM AMMmnM. 305 

EFFECT8 ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

A grain of this salt may be dissoWed in an ounce of distilled 
water; and of the solution from twenty to twenty-five drops be 
pven daily, gradually increasing the dose until it reaches a dram or 
more in the twenty-four hours. 

There does not seem to be much difference between the effects 
of this preparation and those of other forms of arsenic, that have 
been received into the Pharmacopoeias. Arsenious acid itself, as 

well as ARSENTTE OF POTASSA and ARSENIATE OF SODA — ^the offici- 

Dil solution of the former well known every where under the name 
oi** Fowler's Solution;*' that of thfe latter known, in continental 
Europe especially, under the name ** ^qua ^rsenicalis Pear^ 
ionii *' or Solution de Pearson — are possessed of precisely the 
same properties as arseniate of ammonia, and, like it, have been 
found equally efficacious in obstmate diseases of the skin. Nor is 
the knowledge of the agency of arsenical preparations in cutaneous 
affections new. In India, the efficacy of arsenic in those diseases 
has been long known : and, in Europe, attention was attracted to 
it by Fowler,' and Girdlestone,* and subsequently by Willan,* 
Pearson,^ and others ; but no one administered the arsenical pre- 
paratbns more extensively in these diseases than Biett and Rayer 
of Paris, whose situations afforded ihem ample opportunities for 
testing the virtues of the different articles of the Materia Medica 
in skm complaints. They succeeded by means of the arsenical 
preparations, and especially of the one now under consideration, in 
removing several inveterate affections of the ekin^ that had re- 
sisted every other remedy. The author has found equally benefi- 
cial results from this practice in his own experience. All chronic 
cutaneous diseases are dependent upon an alteration in the functions 
of the capillary vessels, or system of nutrition of the part af- 
fected ; and there appear to be but two ways in which these can 
be reached, so that a new action may be impressed upon them ; — 
in the one case, through the medium of the general circulation ; 
and, in the other, through the agency of topical applications, made 
to come in contact with the diseased surface. Arsenic, — like io- 
dine, mercury in small doses, and certain other alteratives, — acts 
in the former way, modifying, after a protracted exhibition, the 
fluid of the circulation, in such manner, that it makes an altered 
impression on the system of nutrition, and breaks in upon the dis- 
eased catenation. In no case« however, have we observed these 
salutary effects, until the use of the arsenical preparation had 
been persevered in for several weeks. These diseases are chronic 

> Medical Rqwrls. London, 17R6. 

* Essays on the Hppetitifl, &r., of India. London, 1787. 

' Desicription and Treatment of Cutaneous Diseases. London, 1798. 

* Ohsenrations on the Effects of ▼arioiis articles of the Materia Medica in the Vene- 
real Disease, 2d edit London, 1807. 



106 ASSENICI lODIDUM. 

in their nature, and they require a chronic medication. Time is, 
indeed, m every case, an element in the cure. 



XXVIII. ARSENICI lO'DIDUM. 

Synonymes. Arsenici Teriodidum, loduretum Arsenici, Arsenicum loda- 
tum. Hydriodas Arsenici, Iodide, Teriodide, or Hydriodate of Arsenic. 
French. lodure d'Arsenic. 
German. lodarsenik, Arsenikiodur, lodarsen. 

Of late years, this preparation has been highly extolled by Biett, 
in the same class of affections as the last; — applied externally. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

The iodide is prepared, according to Magendie,^ in two ways: 
1 . By heating in a glass alembic a mixture of sixteen parts of af" 
senious acid and one hundred parts of iodine. The combination 
sublimes in the form of orange-coloured needles. 2. Thirty parts 
of pulverized arsenious acid, and one hundred parts of iodine 
are boiled in one thousand parts of water. As soon as the liquid 
becomes colourless, it is filtered, and the filtered solution is evapo- 
rated to dryness. If it be thought advisable, this can be sublimed. 

A formula, employed by Plisson, is to digest three parts of ar- 
senious acid, in fine powder, with ten parts of iodine, and one 
hundred and nine parts of watery until the odour of iodine is no 
longer manifested. The clear liquid is then decanted, and sub- 
jected to evaporation. At a certain degree of concentration, the 
iodide forms m red crystals: or, the solution may be evaporated to 
dryness, and then sublimed in close vessels without decomposition, 
when it forms beautiful crystalline scales. 

Water, in large quantity, dissolves it wholly ; but if it be di- 
gested with a small quantity, it is decomposed, hydriodic acid 
being formed in solution, and white crystalline scales, composed of 
water, acid, and iodide in variable proportions.* 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

When iodide of arsenic is injected into the veins, it does not 
exert so strong an action on the heart as might be expected from 
so poisonous a substance. Dr. Blake^ twice injected solutions, 
containing each six grains of this substance, into the jugular vein 
of a dog, without producing the slightest appreciable effect on the 
heart. On injecting a solution containing fifteen grains, the ac- 
tion of the heart was immediately arrested. 

Professor A. T. Thomson has employed it in several cases of 

' Formulaire, edit ciL 

2 A.Duhamel, American Journal of Pharmacy, Octolvr, lvS40. p. 187. 

' Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, April, lc^39, p. 336. 



AR8ENICI lODIDUM. 107 

lepra and impetigo ^ with very great success.^ He begins with 
one tenth of a grain doses, three tiroes a day, and increases them 
to a* quarter of a grain. In some cases, he had not been able to 
ezce^ two-thirds of a grain, as symptoms of poisoning came on, 
and the medicine had to be given m diminished doses. 

Dr. Neliean's' experience leads him to place more reliance on 
the iodide, m these and similar chronic cutaneous affections^ 
than in any other preparation of arsenic; but although he found 
it alone capable of curing many cases of psoriasis and lepra, he 
considers that its beneficial action is much augmented by combining 
it with iodide of potassium and iodine. 

It has been given with success in a case of cancerous disease 
of the breast f by Dr. F. C. Crane.^ The dose was an eighth of 
a grain, which was reduced to one-twelfth, and gradually increased 
to a third of a grain, beyond which it could not be borne. In a 
case of inveterate lepra vulgaris^ it was carried to the extent of 
one ^rain for a dose, with the most decided curative effects. 

Biett has frequently applied an ointment of it in cases ofphage- 
denic tuberculous cutaneous diseases.^ 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Mr. Erichsen thinks with Dr. A. T. Thomson, that iodide of ar- 
senic is most advantageously exhibited in combination with the 
extractum conii, which appears to sheathe its irritating qualities, 
and prevents it from exciting too powerfully the mucous membrane 
of the stomach. By the addition of red iodide of mercury, a com- 
pound pill may be formed, which resembles, in its effects, the 
iodide of arsenic and mercury, and has been much, and successfully, 
employed by Dr. A. T. Thomson in the treatment of lupus and 
other diseases of the skin, and which Mr. Erichsen has found of 

Erticular service in certain syphilitic eruptionsy of the squamous 
id more especially.^ 

nngnentnm arseniei iodidi. 

Ointment of iodide of arsenic. 



R. Arsenic, iodid. gr. iij. 
Adipis ^j. M. 



Biett. 



An extemporaneous preparation, which is considered to combine 
the virtues of both arsenic and iodine, is said to have been em- 
ployed successfully in Philadelphia.* It is formed as follows: 

I Lancet, Jan. 19, 1830, p. 621. 

< Dublin Quarteriy Journal of Med. Sctenoe, Nov. 1849. 

• Lancet, Aug. 31, 1839. 

• See. also, Ballard and Garrod, Elenaenta of Mat Med. &Cn p. 387. Lond. 1845. 

* Lond. Med. Gaz., May \% IH43. 

* A. Dubamel, Ainer. Jooni. of Phannacy, Oct 1849, p. 1B7. 



108 AUTsmauL tijx^aris. 

R. Liquor iodin. compos, f ii. 

potasscB areeoit. i giv. M» 

Wfa^n mixed together in these proportions, a change is obsenred 
10 the appearance of the mixture, A^hich is instantaneoosly ren- 
dered almost colourless. The dose is five drops. 



XXIX. ARTEMISIA VULGA'RIS. 

Synonyme. Mafi^^ort. 

French, Armoise Commune. 

German. Beifuss, Gemeiner Beifuss. 

Almost all the species belonging to the genus artemisia are pos- 
sessed of bitter and aromatic properties, and several afford ^^loorm- 
seed" Artemisia vulgaris was employed by many of the older 
physicians, but it had fallen into oblivion, when its use was re- 
vived in Germany, by Burdach, a physician at Triebel, near So- 
race,* who recommended it strongly as a preventive of epilepsy. 
Since that time, it has been much prescribed in that country, but 
its employment has not extended much to other countries of Eu- 
rope, or to this side of the Atlantic. The root is the part pre- 
ferred : — formerly the herb and the tops were solely used. The 
root was employed in epilepsy, centuries ago, but it bad been neg- 
lected, or was only exhibited as a nostrum, when Burdach en- 
tered upon his investigation, of which the following is a summary. 

The root of the artemisia should be dug up in autumn, after the 
stalk has become dry, or in the spring before the stalk has shot 
up; but perhaps the latter half of November is as good a period 
as any. It must be freed from the adherent earth by shaking. 
Burdach regards washing to be objectionable, as the root may lose 
some portion of its efficacy thereby. The old, ligneous, mouldy 
and damaged parts of each root must be carefully removed, and 
the fresh young side roots {fibrillar) which are distinguished by 
their smell, clear colour, and greater juiciness, must be spread on 
paper, and dried in the shade, and as soon as they become brittle 
they must be carefully preserved. Besides the fibrillae, the soft, 
sound, and juicy parts of the root, especially the fleshy rind of the 
thicker roots, must be used. 

The period required for drying them varies; in moist weather, 
it may be two months : but late in the year the desiccation may be 
aided by the gentle warmth of the sun, or of a stove ; the latter 
must never, however, rise higher than from sixty-four to sixty- 
eight degrees of Fahrenheit. If put away too early, the root be- 
comes spoiled; if too late, it loses many of its volatile parts. 
When powdered, it ought not to be kept too long, as the volatile 

' Hufiiland^B Jounial, B. Iviii. St 4 und 5. 



A&TKHI8IA yUI.GARIS« 109 

portions escape, and it soon becomes devoid of smell. Even daring 
the process of pulverizing, loss is sustained, and the fresh powder 
has a much feebler odour than the entire root, so that Burdach 
advises, for distant patients, that the root in substance should be 
sent to them, and that they should be recommended to pound it for 
use in a well covered mortar. By pulverizing, the inner, hard, 
woody parts are separated from the smaller roots; they must be 
removed and thrown away, as the powder of the cortical substance 
of the small radicles has alone been found efficacious. The smell 
of the well dried root is very strong, pungent and peculiar, espe- 
cially when we open a vessel in which it has been stored away in 
quantity. The taste is sweetish, sharp and nauseous. 

* 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

It has been already remarked, that Burdach^ recommends ar- 
temisia especially in epilepsy; and he affirms that it requires no 
preparation or special attention. It is most efficacious when given 
about half an hour before the attack, which it usually prevents; 
but if this be impracticable, it mav be given as soon as the patient 
comes to. The dose is a heaped up tea-spoonful, (from fifty to 
seventy grains,) which may be administered in warm beer; the pa- 
tient should be put to bed immediately, be covered up warm, and 
allowed warm small beer to drink, so as to occasion diaphoresis — 
care being taken that he does not expose himself to cold. This 
coarse is to be repeated so long as there are any traces of mischief. 
When the remedy, however, acts favourably, Burdach asserts, 
that frequent repetition is not often necessary. At times it hap- 
pens, that when the dose has been raised to a dram and a half, akid 
thrice repeated, no critical sweat follows : Burdach then aids the 
operation by giving the liquor cornu cervi succinatusj {spiriius 
ammoniae succinatuSy) in an infusion of serpentaria, valerian 
root and arnica flowers; but the effect, he says, was always better 
when the diaphoresis was produced by artemisia alone. One im- 
portant advantage in the use of this agent is, that a judgment can 
be speedily formed of its utility: when much may be expected 
from it, a marked improvement usually occurs after the first doses. 
In those cases of epilepsy which recur every day, and sometimes 
even from three to fifteen times a day, and especially where the 
paroxysms are so violent and frequent as to leave little interval 
for the patient to be restored to consciousness, the artemisia has 
proved more certa'm in its operation, either in removing or miti- 

fsting the disease. In such cases, two doses were given on the 
rst day, and afterwards one tolerably strong dose daily till the 
third da^. In those forms of epilepsy whose attacks recurred 
twice daily, morning and evening, the artemisia acted very benefi- 
cially ; the paroxysms soon became somewhat weaker and shorter, 

' Caipei'i WocheiMchrift, Oct 22, 1836, a 675. 
8 



110 ARTEMISIA VULGARIS. 

and were postponed a day or two. In such cases it is advisable to 
continue the remedy for some weeks. Infants at the breast bear 
artemisia especially well. It is equally efficacious in the epileptic 
attacks of young iemales from twelve to fifteen years of age, and 
prior to the establishment of menstruation. Under its use, the 
catamenia have generally taken place, and the epilepsy has disap- 
peared. On the other hand, it was found to aggravate cases of 
epilepsy occurring as a disease of growth, (Entwickelungs- 
krankheit,) in young persons from seventeen to twenty-two 
years old, and as a consequence of great corporeal development* 
It was equally unfortunate in cases of epilepsia nocturna, where 
the paroxysms came on irregularly at an interval of about five, ten, 
or fifteen days, and generally about midnight; as well as in that 
form in which, — after the patient had suffered for six, seven, or 
eight weeks, under violent symptomatic sweats, — a morbid condi- 
tion ensued from two to three times every twenty-four hours, con- 
sisting of repeated epileptic attacks, with great prostration in the 
intervals. 

These are the main results of the communications of Burdach.' 
The number of his experiments and observations was considerable^ 
and the results appear to have been frequently most happy, espe- 
cially in the case of females, who seem to have exhibited them- 
selves more beneficially impressed by the remedy than males; the 
proportion of cures bemg as three to two. Tosetti" gives the pro- 
portion of cases in women and children to that of fnen, as eight to 
six. 

In the Berlin Charite, artemisia is said to have been used with 
equal success. The German journals contain numerous cases, on 
the authority of E. Grafe,^ Wagner,* Van Maanen,^ Wolf,* Osann, 
Bonorden,' Schluter, Bird," Lowenhard," Geis,*** and others.** 
But few physicians, according to Riecke, have been disappoint- 
ed in it, and, where they have, he ascribes the failure to its 
having been given in cases for which it was inappropriMe, or to 
the preparation of the artemisia not having been properly attended 
to." 

In consequence of a German physician having recommended 
Jjriemisia absinihiutn to Professor A. T. Thomson, Dr. Elliot- 
son** was induced to try it in epilepsy. The patient to whom 
he gave it was a girl, seventeen years of age, who had been af- 

* Riecke, Die neuern Aizneimittel, u. s. w. S. 49. Stuttgart, 1837. 

'Diss, inaug.de Kadioe Artemis, vulg. rcmed. antiepilept. Berolin, 1827; and Onnn 
in Art Artemisia, Cncyc Worterti. iiL 313. Berlin, IH^. 
■ Grafe und Waither^s Journal B. vL H. 2. 

* Hufeland*8 Journal, lix. 8. 6. 

• Ibid. Ixi. 5. • n>id. Ixii. 3. ' Ibid. li. 1 . 

• Ibid. Ixv. 3. • Ibid. Ixv. 3. » Ibid. Ixv. 3. 
" Ricbter's Specielle Therapie, B. x. 8. 377. Berlin. 182a 

» Op. dt. S. 49. '" Lancet, July 9, 1836. 



ARTEMISIA VULGARIS. Ill 

fected with epileptic fits for four months — three or four occurring 
daily. A dram of the powder was given three times a day. This 
was on the 30th of March. On the 9th of April, the dose was in- 
creased to two dramsy when the fits became less frequent, but not 
less severe. On the IGth, the dose was repeated every four hours. 
She had only one slight fit in the course of twelve days; and, on 
her dismissal, on the 24th of May, had had no fit for twenty-six 
days. Dr. EUiotson was of opmion, that the strong infusion 
would be less offensive to the patient, and quite as effective as the 
powder. 

Besides epilepsy, artemisia has been used with advantage in 
other diseases, as in St. Vitu$*s dance.^ Wutzer employed it 
successfully in the convulsive diseases of childhood^ and it was 
recommended by Biermann' in eclampsia infantumy occurring 
during the period of dentition. He advised it to be given to chil- 
dren in gradually increasing doses, commencing with half a grain; 
and giving, an hour afterwards, a grain, and, in two hours, two 
grains, which is usually the last dose required. The gradual aug- 
mentation of the dose he considers advisable, " to prevent the 
crisis which the artemisia induces from being too turbulent."! 
Kolreutter, of Carlsruhe, administered artemisia in different dis- 
eases, with great success. He prefers the extractum resinosum 
radicis artemisia vulgaris^ German,. Biefusswurzelextract, 
to the root in substance. This is prepared in the following man- 
ner. A quantity of the dried and powdered root is covered with 
alcohol, and permitted to digest for some time ; the filtered liquor 
is then evaporated in an earthenware vessel, until it has attained 
the /Consistence of an extract. Kolreutter employed this advan- 
tageously in the eclampsia of childreny (in certain cases after the 
application of leeches;) in tormina, unaccompanied by inflamma- 
tion ; in the diarrhcea of children and adults, in sporadic cases of 
cholera morbus, and in dysentery, after the bloody evacuations 
had ceased; in gastric fevers, on their assuming a nervous cha- 
racter; and in dysphagia, cardialgia, chronic vomiting, scirrhus 
of the stomach, chronic cephalalgia and neuralgia of the face; 
in chlorosis, and in obstruction of the catamenia, as well as in 
epilepsy. The dose, in the twenty-four hours, is from 3ss. to 3j.; 
to small children, a few grains. 

Such is the chief testimony adduced in favour of artemisia by 
the German writers mainly. It is to be feared, that the ad- 
vantages to be derived from it in epilepsy have been exaggerated. 
Where there is no organic disease of the encephalon, substances, 
which, like it, are nauseous, bitter and aromatic, may be produc- 
tive of advantage as tonics and revellents. In one case of this 
nature it was employed by the author, but the results were not 

' Oitterroann, in Hufeland'e Joaroal, IziL I. Bonorden, Op. cit. 
* Riedce, Op. cit S. 50. 



' 112 ARTEMISIA TULGA&IS. 

striking. When aided by other means and appliances, it appears 
to be powerfully diaphoretic; and, doubtless, therefore, in appro- 
priate cases, especially where there is much nervous impressibility, 
it may be productive of the good effects ascribed to it by Burdach, 
Kolreutter, and others. Yet, as Osann has remarked,^ it must be 
improper where polysemia, or a tendency to active hyperemia, is 
present. The analysis of Hergt, Hummel, and Janike afforded, 
along with traces of volatile oil, some balsamic resin, both of 
which are excitants to the living economjr. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The following forms for its administration have been adopted 
by some of the Uerman authorities: — 

TiHetara artemiiis. 

Tincture of MugworL • 

B. Artemis, vulg. rad. concis. §▼• 
Alcohol, dilut. Oij. M. 

Digest for three days ; express and filter. Dose, — half a drachm 
to two drachms, four or five times a day, in epilepsy. 

Rademacher^ 

Deeoetnm artemiiiir. 

Decoction of Mtigwort. 

B. Artemis, vulg. rad. concis. ^j. 

Coque cum aque q. 8. per semihoram 
ad. colat. Oj. 

Half a tea- cupful of this may be taken every two hours, in cases 
of epilepsy. Hildenbrand. 

Pnlvii artemiiis. 

Powder of Mugwort. 

B. Artemis. yuI^. rad. pulv. a;]. 

Sacch. alb. 9j. M. at fiat pulvis. 

The powder to be administered daily in the evening, in warm 
beer, in cases of epilepsy. Lowenstein. 

liitnra artemiiiir. 

Mixture of Mugwort. 

B. Ext. arterois. vulg. alcoholic, gr. iv. 
Acacice 3j. 
Sacch. ^iij. 
Mist, amygd. f Jiij. 

A coffee-spoonfuP to be given every half hour in eclampsia 
infantum. The dose may be gradually raised to two coffee- 
spoonfuls. Kolreutter. 

» Art ArtemisiA in Eiicyc. Wbrteib. iiL 313. Berlin, 1829. 

• Atcfaenbieiiner, Die neueren Aixneimittel, u. s. w. S. 37. Eriangen, 1848. 

' About two ordinary tea-fpoonfulii 



atropia; 113 



XXX. ATROP'IA. 

Stsohtmxs. Atropina, Atropiam, Atropinum, Atropine. 
JVcncA. Atropine. 
German. Atropin. 

This is the active principle of Atropa belladonna, and ivas dis- 
covered many years ago in the leaves by Brandes. To it is pro- 
bably owing the whole of the medicinal efficacy of the plant. In 
1825, M. Fauquy found it in the root, and affirms, that he de- 
tected it also in the stalks of datura, hyoscyamus, and solanum.^ 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

The most approved processes for extracting this alkaloid, ac- 
cordhg to Dr. Pereira,' are those of Mein, Thomson, and Richter. 
The ^^ocess of Mein is contained in the Pharm. Central-Blatt, 
fikr lo33. The following is given in the United States Dispen- 
satory,' from the Journal de Pharmacies vol. xx., p. 87. — The 
roots of plants two or three years old are selected; of these, re- 
duced to an extremely fin^ powder, twenty-four parts are digested 
for twelve days, with 60 partS of aleoholf of 86 or 90 per cent. 
The liquid having been separated by strong evaporation, the resi- 
due is then treated anew with an equal quantity of alcohol; and 
the tinctures, poured together and filtered, are mixed with one 

Eart of hydrate of lime, and frequently shaken for twenty-four 
ours: the copious precipitate which now forms is separated by 
filtering; and diluted sulphuric acid is added, drop oy drop, to 
the filtered liquor till slightly in excess. The sulphate of lime 
having been separated by a new filtration, the alcoholic liquor is 
distilled to one half, then mixed with six or eight parts of pure 
water, and evaporated with a ^ntle heat till the whole of the 
alcohol is driven off. The residual liquid is filtered, cautiously 
evaporated to one-third, and allowed to cool. A concentrated 
aqueous solution of carbonate of potassa is then gradually added, 
so long as the liquid continues to be rendered turbid, and the 
mixture is afterwards suffered to rest some hours. A yellowish 
resinous substance, which opposes the crystallization of the atropia, 
is thus precipitated. From this the liquid is carefully decanted, 
and a small additional quantity of the solution of the carbonate is 
dropped into it, till it no longer becomes turbid. A gelatinous 
mass now gradually forms, which, at the end of twelve or twenty- 
four hours, is agitated, in order to separate the mother waters, 
then thrown upon a filter, and dried by folds of unsized paper. 
The substance thus obtained, which is atropia in an impure state, 

* M^t A. De Lem, Diet Univenel de Mat M6d. Art Atropbe. BnixeDet, 1838. 

• Efementi of Mat Med. and Tbenm 2d Amer. edit n. 312. Phibd. 1846. 
' Sixth edition, p. 138. PIuImL 184& 



114 ATROPIA. 

is dissolved in five times its weight of alcohol ; and the solution, 
liaving been filtered, is mixed with six or eight times its bulk of 
water. The liquor soon becomes milky, or is rendered so by 
evaporating the excess of alcohol, and, in the course of twelve or 
twenty-four hours, deposits the atropia in the form of light-yellow 
crystals, which are rendered entirely pure and colourless by wash- 
ing with a few drops of water, drying on blotting paper, and 
again treating with alcohol, as before. 

By this process, Mein obtained, from twelve ounces of the root, 
twenty grains of pure alkali — according to the authors of the Dis- 
pensatory, — not quite twelve grains, according to Dr. Pereira. 

Atropia crystallizes in transparent silky prisms, is devoid of 
odour, and is soluble in alcohol and ether; very slightly so in 
water. It dissolves in acids, with which it unites to form salts. 
At a temperature of 212^ it is volatilized. • 

As atropia is an expensive article, and therefore very liable to 
adulteration, Mr. Donovan,^ to insure its purity, advises that a 
dram of commercial atropia be dissolved in an ounce of alcohol. 
If there be a residuum, it must be separated; and six ounces of 
distilled water be added, shaking the mixture. No change ap* 
pears at first; but, afler twelve or eighteen hours, the atropia 
crystallizes in beautiful stellated groups, which adhere to the 
sides of the vessel. These, after pouring off the liquor, must be 
collected on bibulous paper, and dried. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 
Atropia is a most virulent poison. When given to dogs and 
cats, it causes vomiting, dilatation of the pupil, stupor and death. 
A tenth of a grain produced, on man, manifestly poisonous phe- 
nomena. When Brandes applied a " minimum '* quantity of the 
sulphate to the tongue, headache, with alternate chills and flush- 
ing, trembling, oppression of breathing, and weakness and small- 
ness of the pulse supervened.' An imponderable quantity, applied 
to the eye, occasions dilatation of the pupil. Reisinger^ used it 
for this purpose, dissolving a grain in two scruples of water; and 
it has been proposed by Mr. W. W. Cooper,* surgeon to the 
North London Ophthalmic Institution, and by M. Bouchardat,' 
as a substitute for belladonna for dilating the pupil in cases of 
cataract, &c. Mr. Cooper affirms that he has used it, with the 
greatest satisfaction, in a considerable number of cases, — the pro- 
portions being two grains of atropia dissolved in a dram of alcohol 
and seven drams of distilled water. A colourless solution is the 
result, which — Mr. Cooper affirms— is equally efficacious in its 

' Ranking*8 Half-Yeariy Abttract Jul? to December, 1848, Amer. edit, p. 215. 

• Oe«terlen, Handbuch der Heilmitellehre, 8. 784. Tubingen. 1845. 

' Ascbenbrenner, Die neueren Anoeimittel, u. i. w. S. 41. Erlangen, 1848. 

* London Lancet, June 8, 1844. 

' Annuaire de Th^rapeutiqoe, Ac^ poor 1847, pw 19. Paris, l*iif. 



ATROPIA. 115 

action as, and much more elegant than, the ordinary preparations 
o{ belladonna, — a full drop placed in the eye producing speedy 
and complete dilatation of the pupil in the generality of cases, 
although, in some instances, a stronger solution may be required. 
He has never seen ill effects from its use, although be has tried it 
m the proportion of four grains to the ounce; but, he thinks, two 
grains will be found to answer every purpose. He directs a drop 
to be used night and morning, where he is desirous of keeping up 
the dilatation of the pupil. An objection, which does not seem to 
be a very forcible one, has been made to this preparation, — that 
it involves the necessity for the addition of alcohol. Mr. J. Llo^d 
Bullock^ proposes, therefore, to substitute the salts of atropia, 
which are neutral and soluble in distilled water. Dr. Jacob' con- 
siders it more effective and convenient than any extract or tbcture 
of belladonna. 

Id experiments made with it by Messrs. Bouchardat and Stuart 
Cooper,' they found it, in the dose of a centigramme — gr. .1543, 
produce on man all the severe symptoms of the active solanacese — 
as delirium, coldness of the surface, syncope, depravation of sight, 
and aphonia ; yet they consider it, owing to the facility of adminis- 
tering it and of regulating the dose, to be a most valuable agent in 
every case in which belladonna and other solanacese are beneficial. 

Its dose is about one-twelfth of a grain ; or it may be employed 
endermically. 

Tinetnra atropiir. 

Tincture of atropia. 
{Chuttes ou Teinture d^ Atropine.) 

R. Atropis gr. xv. (1 gramme.) 

Alcohol. 85 per cent. 3x. (40 gramnuM.) M. 

Dose^ — one to five drops. 

Ungnentnm atropis. 

Ointment of atropia. 

(^Pommade d^ Atropine.) 

B. Atropie gr. iv. (25 centigr.) 

Adipis l^j. and 3j. (5 grammes.) M. 

The size of a pin's head to be introduced, night and morning, 
between the eyelids, in cases of adhesion of the iris to the lens. 

Bouchardat.* 

An ointment, composed of five grains of atropia to three drams 
of lard, has been much used in neuralgia.^ 

Atropia is so lethiferous, that it is not much employed internally. 

* Ixxid. Liinoet, June 15, 1844, p. 39a 

* Dublin Medical Press, cited in Med. Examiner, October, 1848, p. 652. 

' Bouchardat, Annuaire de Th6rapeutique, pour 1848, p. 10 ; and ftiid. pour 1849, p.7. 

* 8ee, also, Cunier, in Bouchardat, Annuaire pour 1b48, p. 10, Paris, 1848. 
' Brookes, Lancet, Jan. 30, 1847. 



119 AURI PJftJSPARATA. 



XXXL AURI PR^PARATA. 

Stnontmks. Preparations of Gold. 

French, Lee Prepamtions d'Or, Les Compost aarif^res. 

Oemum. Ooldpraparate. 

The administration of ^Id in medicine is not modern. In the 
times of alchemy, it was n'equently used in nervous diseases, con' 
vulsionsy hypocnondriasisy mental affections, profuse salivation^ 
&c. ParacelsuSy Horst, and Poterins recommended it« united witji 
corrosive sublimate^ in syphilis. Its violent effects, however^ 
brought it into discredit, and during the decadency of alchemy it 
fell mto entire disuse.^ It is probable, too, that many prepa- 
rations were brought forward as containing ^old, which bad none 
of it, and this may partly account for the discredit into which it 
lapsed.' M. J. A. Chrestien' was the first who — in more modem 
periods, (about the year 1810,) — recalled the attention of practi- 
tioners to the preparations of gold, and after him many physicians 
employed them« so that the piH)lisbed results of their observations 
hare furnbhed us with a considerable amount of evidence in rela- 
tion to their therapeutical properties, and they have, in conse- 
quence, been received into many of the modern pharmacopceias.^ 

As the different preparations agree in their effects on the econo- 
my, it may be well to make a few observations which apply to all. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN HEALTH- 

Orfila made many experiments to discover the action of the 
preparations of gold on animals. Three dogs, into whose iugular 
veins he injected a small Quantity of the chloride dissolved in 
water, died speedily — deatn being preceded by difficulty and 
rattling in breathing, cough, symptoms of suffocation and slight 
vomiting; these results supervening immediately after the injec- 
tion had entered the blood-vessels. On dissection, the lungs were 
found livid, engorged with blood, and without any crepitating 
noise when cut into; wrinkled, discoloured, and scarcely lighter 
than water; the heart was of a violet colour ; the left auricle and 
ventricle full of black blood, and the right cavities empty and 
contracted. The effect of the salt supervened with such rapidity 
that the blood of the crural artery — which was opened a few 
minutes after death — was of a brownish red, almost black, colour. 

' RicfateT*8 SpedeDe Therapie, z. 504, Berlin, 1828; and Nachet, Art Or, in Diet, 
dee Scienoes Medicates, torn, xxxm 

* Riecke, Die neiiem Arzneimittel, 8. 53. Stuttgart, 1837. 

' Recberches et Obeervatione rar lei efieti dea preparations d'Or du Dr.Chiestien,dkc. 
P^ria.lS2l. 

* See Alt Gold, in EncycL Worteib der Mediciniach. Wiaeenachaft, B. xy, 8. 77, 
Berlin, 1837. 



▲URI P&JBPARATA. 117 

In two dogs, to which he gave the chloride, a torpid omditioo 
WIS indocedy which terminated fiitallj in a couple of days. The 
mucous membrane of the stomach was found inflamed and ulcerated. 

The effects on man of agents so potent^ in appropriate doses, 
have been investigated by many observers. Experiments on 
animals had already exhibited the powerful influence which they 
are capable of exerting on the organs and functions of organic 
life. One of the most striking effects is said to be, an in- 
crease of the various secretions; commonly, the urinary secre- 
tion is lai^gely augmented, as well as the transpiration, and the 
btestinal and salivary secretions. Not unfrequently, under the 
continued administration of the gold, actual salivation ensues, 
which differs, however, from that induced by mercury. It is 
always slow in appearing, and is by no means so exnausting; 
nor do troublesome ulcers occur ; and the saliva is thinner, and not so 
tenacious. Like mercury, the preparations of gold occasion ex- 
citement in the organism, which often ends in a true febrile 
condition. After they have been taken for some time in moderate 
doaes, there is generally a feeling of increased warmth in the 
stomach, and an augmentation of the appetite. The pulse is ren- 
dered fuller and more active, and the animal heat and vital activity 
are augmented, so that in such as are predisposed to the affection, 
hemorrhage is apt to take place. The catamenia recur sooner 
than usual under their influence, and the quantity lost may be 
greater.' Sooner or later, a regular attack of fever not unfre- 
quently supervenes, — as indicated by shivering, and pains in the 
limbs, back, and stomach, — which may continue for a few hours^^ 
but sometimes lasts for days, and at length ends by sweating, depo- 
sitions in the urine, and occasionally by salivation. 

In very large doses, certain of the preparations of gold are cor- 
rosive poisons. The symptoms, caused by their use, when they 
act as such, are — oppression in the region of the stomach ; nausea, 
vomiting, pains in the abdomen and diaphragm, a metallic taste in 
the mouth, augmented secretion of saliva, without the teeth or 
gums being affected, pulse excited, and breathing oppressed." As 
a general rule, they are not esteemed proper for impressible indi- 
viduals ; on the other hand, in persons of torpid constitutions, they 
would appear to have exerted an excitant influence even on the 
generative system. Certain persons, according to Chreslien and 
Niel, are not susceptible of this action; and, again, there are some, 
according to Cullerier, junr.', who cannot tolerate them in any 
form. 

When too large a dose has been given, the remedy should be 
entirely discontinued for some time, or the dose be diminished ; and 
the effects will soon disappear. One of the greatest recommen- 

' Rieeke, Op. cH. S. ft5. * Grotzner, in Ruflt*i Magaxin. su. 3. 



118 Aumi 

datioos of gold orer mercury, io the eyes of maDyy is that it does 
not act so destructiTely on the orgaDism, and ne^er induces such a 
cachectic condition as the hitter occasionally does.* 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IX DISEASE. 

The diseases, in which the preparations of mU have been ad- 
ministeredy in modem times, are chiefly the following. 

Syphilis. — They have been occasionally used in primary sores, 
but have been mainly employed in secondary syphilis, espe- 
cially in old cases, where a doubt often exists, whether more of 
mercurial cachexia or svphilis be present. They are ^ven, also, 
where there is a scrofulous complication, and where it is desirable 
to exhibit some other remedy than mercury; and lastly, their use 
is indicated where mercury has failed to remove syphilis.' 
Many practitioners doubt whether the preparations of gold should 
be esteemed much inferior to those of mercury. Numerous expe- 
riments inisrtituted, amongst others, by Chrestien,' Cullerier, junr./ 
S. L. Mitchill/ Niel, Biett, Lallemand,"^ Wendt,^ and L^rand,* 
have shown, that their employment has been most advantageous 
in the difTereot forms of syphilis, and that they have rarely disap- 
pointed expectation. Aliblert found them especially usefiu in sy- 
philitic eruptions. It must be borne in miud, however, that when 
they are given in syphilis, their operation b slow, and that, in the 
first instance, the symptoms may appear aggravated: they are not, 
therefore, adapted for cases in which it is important to act speed- 
ily, so as to arrest the disease at once, and prevent its farther de- 
velopment. 

GonorrhcM, — In protracted cases of gonorrhoea, several phy- 
sicians^ have extolled the preparations of gold; others, as Wendt 
and Ritter, have advised them for the sequelae of gonorrhoea 
(Trippernachkrankeiten:) it is not probable, however, 
that they could be of much u^ in gonorrheal affections, which, as 
is well known, are curable without any mercurial preparations. 

Scrofula. — The efiicac^ of the preparations of gold in scrofula 
was deposed to by Chrestien, Eberle, Niel, Legrand,^^ Herrmann, 
and Kopp." According to observation, it would appear that they 
effect improvement in the mildest cases, and are beneficial where 
there is much torpor, but that they ought to be avoided in irritable 
subjects. In scrofulous ophthalmia, and in scrofulous porrigo, 
they would seem to have been most efficacious. 

The preparations of gold have been employed by M. Baude- 

* Riecke, Op. dt S. 5& * Eberle, Treatiiie on the Mat Medica, 2d edit i. 247. 

' Op. CiUit p. 6 ; lee, alio, Lettre k M. Magttidks sur les preparations d'Or, dec. 
Parii, 182^. « Diet dee Sciences M^dicales, Art Or., torn, xxxm 

* l)yrkman*s Dispenaatoiy, p. 201, and Eberle, Op. cit 

* Journal Univertel dea ociencea M6dicales, t zxTiL 
** Rust*8 Maffazin, Bd. xvL 8t I. 

' Gajtette M6dicale de Paris, Oct 80, 1837. ■ Grotxner, Op. dt 

•* Bulletin GtfiknX de Thdru)eutique, Na xt. 15 AoDt, 1837. 
•1 Denkwuidigk. in der antl Praxis iii. 351. 



AURI PRJEPARATA. 119 

locQue, at the Hdpital des Enfans Maladesy and by M. Velpeau 
at La Cbarite.' At the former institution, they were given in 
enormous doses. M. Baudelocque gave the chloride and the stan- 
nate in doses of from ten to twelve grains, without producing any 
effect on the disease, and without any apparent injury to the con- 
stitution of the children subjected to the experiment. The oxide 
prepared by potassa was carried as high as twenty grains during 
the day. At La Charit^, Velpeau gave fifteen, eighteen, and 
twenty grains of the chloride and oxide during the day, — and 
higher ooses were not tried, solely on account of the expense of 
the medicine. These results differ greatly from those of Orfila 
and Devergie, the former of whom affirms, that the chloride b 
more active than the corrodve chloride of mercury ; and the latter 
states, that in the dose of one-tenth to one-twentieth of a grain, 
it produces more or less inflammation of the lining membrane of 
the stomach and intestines. 

Scirrhus and cancer. — The utility of the preparations of gold 
appears to have been most decided m scirrhous induration of the 
tongue, according to the observation of Wendt, Helm, and others; 
in such case, they are rubbed on the tongue; this, indeed, is the 
most common form of administration. H. Hoffmann relates a case 
of scirrhus of the pylorus, in which the chloride was entirely 
successful ; and frictions with the chloride, or the oxide on the 
labia pudendi have been recommended by Hufeland, Herrmann, 
Meissner, Grotzner, Gozzi,' and others, in cases of scirrhus and 
cancer of the uterus. In the same affections, Krimer has advised 
them to be applied to the os uteri. Scirrhosities, it is affirmed, 
have been dispersed through their agency ; and even in open cancer 
marked improvement has been perceptible. 

In Jumours of the bones, and in like affections, the prepara- 
tions of gold have been employed successfully by some practitioners, 
and especially when the cases originated in syphilis. 

Several forms of lepra have been treated with them by Alibert, 
and A. T. Chrestien, and with the best effects. 

In amenorrhcea, Carron du Villards employed the cyanuret 
successfully, beginning before the expected menstrual period. 

Lastly. — Wendt, Delafield, and Grotzner have administered 
them with benefit as diuretics in dropsy. With others, however, 
they have failed. According to Riecke,^ the results of experience 
would seem to show, that they are especially adapted for dropsy 
dependent upon organic disease of some viscus. 

None of the preparations of gold are much employed at the pre- 
sent day. Their expense is, mdeed, a weighty objection, unless 
there were striking advantages in adopting them in special cases 
of disease in preference to other articles of the Materia Medica. 

' L'Expcrience, No. Ixzxvii ; and Lancet, March 23, 1839, p. 31. 
s Sopra Tuao di alcuni remedii aurifici neile malattie veDeree. Bologn. 1817; and Omo- 
dri, AnbaL Univera. di Medicin., iroL ▼. ' C^ ctt 8. 58. 



130 AURI CHLORIDUM. 



XXXII. AURI CHLORIDUM. 

Stnontmbs. Aurum Chloratum sea Muriaticum seu Oxydulatum Ma« 
riaticum, Chloretom sea Marias Aari, Aarum Salitum, Chioruretam 
Aari, Aari Terchloridum, Mariate of Gold, Chloride of Gold, Terchloride 
of Go^. 

FVemeh, Chloride d'Or, Miniate d'Or. 

German. Salisaares Gold, Chlorgold, Goldchlorid« Salz* 
saures Goldoxydal, Hydrochlorsaares Goldozyd| Gold- 
krystalie. 

Tfais preparatioD is received into several of the European Phar- 
macopoeias, and is usually formed by digesting one part of gM 
leaf in three parts of mtro-muriatic adal in a sand ^th, 
and evaporating gently to dryness. Magendie,^ however* recoa>* 
mends the following method, which has been adopted in the French 
'' Codex,^^ Take one part of fine Uaf goid^ divide it into small 
portions, and put it into a vial of white glass; pour upon it three 
parts of nUro-muriatic acid — formed of one part of mtric add, 
and two parts of muriatic acid — and heat the whole in a small 
sand bath, so arranged, that in case the retort breaks, the fluid may 
be recovered without loss. The solution of the ^old will soon 
take place. The fluicl must be then evaporated until the smell of 
chlorine is perceptible. This point can be readily determined, as 
after the decomposition of the nitro-muriatic acid there is a period 
during which the nitrous acid is alone given off. The disenga^ 
ment of chlorine indicates the commencement of the deoompoaitioQ 
of the chloride formed. The vessel must now be removed from 
the fire and suffered to cool. The chloride appears immediately 
as a crystalline mass, in the form of a multitude of beautiful yellow 
needles. In this condition, chloride of gold is as pure as it need 
be: it contains no excess of muriatic acid, and is not deliquescent. 
It can be preserved in the same vessel m which it has been pre- 
pared — by merely stopping it with paper — without any danger of 
undergoing decomposition. 

Chloride of gold, prepared according to Magendie's formula, b 
very acid, but this property is not owing to its containing any free 
acid. The taste is also styptic and disagreeable. It only attracts 
moisture from the air when it contains an excess of muriatic acid, 
as is the case in Wendt's preparation. It is readily soluble in wa- 
ter, with which it forms a solution of a beautiful yellow colour. 
Many animal and vegetable substances, — and especially the epi- 
dermis — are coloured by it of a purple violet when it is placed in 
contact with them. Exposed to a moderate heat, it passes to the 
state of protochloride. When Jieated to a greater degree in close 
vessels, chlorine is disengaged and metallic gold left behind. 



AUai CHLORIDCM. 121 

The chloride is one of the most active of the preparations of 
gold. It belongs to the class of corrosive poisons/ and greatly 
resembles the corrosive chloride of mercury in its operation on the 
economy. It must consequently be administered with caution : — 
even a tenth of a grain has been known to induce unpleasant irri- 
tation of the stomach.' It has been given both internally and ex- 
ternally in ayphilisy dropsy^* and glandular affections. 

M. Chavannes, a pupil of M. Pfetrequin/ of Lyons, has published 
an account of the great success of the latter in the treatment of the 
ulcerated form of Tupus» luptts exedens, by means of this agent, 
which he has found of great utility in other forms of cutaneous 
disease^ when they assume an ulcerated form, as carcinoma of 
the face J eczema^ tuberculous syphilide^ &c. It is made of one 
part of pure laminated goldj three parts of chlorohydric acid^ 
and one part of nitric acid. It produces a temporary, sharp pain, 
and coagulation of the albuminous matters on the surface of the 
ulcer, which changes its colour successively from an orange yellow 
to a purple, violet, and black; a crust forms, and, under it, healing 
takes place without a cicatrix, unless the parts have been deeply 
destroyed. 

In die form of ointment, it is said to relieve the pain of rheu" 
matic gout^ often in a truly wonderful manner. The purple 
stains caused by it are speedily removed by washing the part with 
a little wine — a fact that was discovered by accident.^ 

The dose is from one-sixteenth to one-twelfth of a grain, once 
6t twice a day, gradually but slowly increased. In the like quan- 
tity it has been rubbed upon the tongue and gums. Externally, 
It nas been applied in the form of ointment or watery solution — 
the latter more particularly in ophthalmia^ especially of the scro- 
fulous kind, in which Jahn found it very efficacious; and in chronic 
granular eyelids^ Dr. W. Clay Wallace* found a solution of six 
or eight grains of it in an ounce of water, vastly superior to the 
nitrate of silver. In recent cases, however, it was inferior. 

The following are some of the forms in which it has been pre- 
scribed : — 

Boll anri ehloridi. 

Boluses of chloride of gold, 

{Belt antisyphiliticij Pharmacopoeia Batava.) 

Antisyphilitic Boluses, 

B. Auri chlorid.gr. 88. ad gr. ij. 

Extract, aconit. gr. vj.ad gr. zij. Fiant boll sex. 

Two of these to be taken for a dose, and repeated three times a 
day. 

' Orfila, Toxicolog. i. 5921 ' Magendie, Focmulaire. 

* Wendt, in Rust's MagBziii, B. xxv. 

' Revue M^dicale, iii &— 70, pour 1848; eked in Brit and For. Medico-Chinirg. 
RcT. April, 1849, p. 539. 

* WiicwoMki, in Medirin. ZeHong, cited in Lond. Med. Gax., Mar. 7/1845. 
' Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Nov. 3, 1847. 



122 AXTBu rr aooa chlobidom. 

Pililv airi ekisridi. 

Pi/Zf ofchloridt of gold. 
(Piltdm ckiorunti aurij Ph. Amstelodamensis noT&.) 

E. Aari ehlorid. gr. x. 
Glycyrrhiz. pulv. ^iij. 
Sjrnp. q. s. at fiant pilule cL 

Dofle. — One daily, gradually aagmenting the quantity. 

B- Aori chlorid. gr. i. 

Ljcopod. pair. gr. xr. M. fiat pair, in part. xri. diridend. 

One of the powders to be mbbed upon the tongue and gams 
daily. Chrtstien. 

Gradaally, the saose quantity of the chloride may be divided 
into twelve, and afterwards bto ten parts, and be used in the same 
way. 

Ua^ieHtiB tiri eklsridi. 

Oinimeni of chloride of gold. 

B. Anri chlorid. gr. it. 
Misce inlime cum 

Ung. roec 5J. 

fFendi. 
CflljrlHB airi ckloridi. 

Collyrium of chloride of gold. 

B- Aari chlorid. gr. ij. 
Solve in 

Aquc destill. f 3TJ. 
r. collyrium. 

To be applied by means of linen compresses, or dropped into 
the eye. Jahn 4* Fischer, 



XXXIII. AURI ET SO DII CHLO RIDUM. 

Stnonvmer. Aurum Muriaticum (PAormac. Bani55ic.) sen Aurum Man* 
aticum Natronatam sea Chloratum Natronatum, seu Sesquichloratum 
Natronatum, Sodii Auro-Terchloridum. Perchloru return Auri et Sodii, 
Chlorctum Auri cum Chloreto Natrii, Murias Aurico-natricum, Chlom- 
return Auri et Sodii, Chloride of Gold and Sodium, Hydrochlorate or 
Muriate of Gold and Sodium, Auro-terchloride of Sodium. 

French. Chlorure d'or et d^ Sodium, Hydrochlorate ou Muriate d'Or et 
d<; SSoude. 

German, Salzsaures Goldnatrium, Chlorgoldnatronium, 
Guldnatriumchlorid, Natriumgoldchlorid, Sodahaltiges 
Hal xflau res Gold, SalzsauresGoidoxynatrium, Chlorgold- 
natrium, Figuier's Goldsalz. 

This preparation is in the Pharmacopoeias of Prussia, Ferrara, 
Sweden, &c. M. Figuier directs it to be made in the following 
manner.* Dissolve four parts of gold in nitro-muriatic acta, 

> Annslra de Cbiniie, Firrkr, IB^. and Ricckc. Die Neuero Arzneimittcl, a 63, 
Htuttgwt, 1837. 



AURI £T 80D1I CHLORIDUM. 123 

and evaporate the solution to dryness; add thirty-two parts of 
watery and one part oi chloride ojsodiumy and evaporate to one 
half. On cooling;, crystals will form, which consist of 69.3 parts 
of chloride of gold ; 14.1 parts of chloride of sodium, and 16.6 of 
water. In the French " Codex,^^ it is directed to be made by dis- 
solving 85 parts by weight of chloride of gold, and 16 parts of 
chloride of sodium, in a small quantity of distilled water. The 
solution is evaporated by a gentle heat until a pellicle forms, and 
18 then put aside to crystallize. 
The formula of the Prussian Pharmacopoeia is as follows : 

B. Auri partea vj. 
SolTe in 

Acidi muriatici q. 8. 
Acidi Ditrici quantam ad auri solutionem reqniritur, guttatim addendo. 
Tqdc admisce. 

Natri muriatici sice. part. x. 
£t post solutionem leoi igne evaporando in pulverem flavum redige.i 

This preparation has a beautiful yellow colour, and appears un- 
der the form of four-sided prisms. It attracts moisture from the 
air, but to a less degree than the chloride of gold with excess of 
sulphuric acid. 

The Aurum Muriaticum Natronatum of the Germans is 
milder than the preceding preparations, and is more frequently ad- 
ministered, especially in Germany, than any preparation of gold. 
It is used both internally and externally. The dose is about the 
same as that of the last preparation, but it may be carried higher. 

Kopp' affirms, that he has frequently employed it with advan- 
tage, in small Aoses^'in scrofulous tumefaction of the upper lip. 
He prescribed daily, and once or twice a day, from one twenty- 
fourth to one-thirteenth of a grain of it, reduced to powder, with 
two grains of sugar, and rubbed by means of the finger on the 
inner side of the affected lip. In cases oi scrofulous, thick, sen- 
sible^ and slightly inflamed nose, in the adult, Riecke' recom- 
mends the ointment, described below, to be applied to the nasal fossae; 
and three times a day a powder composed of from one-sixteenth 
to one-twelf\h of a grain of the salt of gold to two grains of sugar 
of milk, to be rubbed on the gums with the moistened finger. The 
salts of gold, according to Riecke, appear to have a specific ac- 
tion on the organs in the mouth, gums and nose ! ! 

Pnlvii et lodii ehloridi. 

Powder of chloride of gold and sodium* 

R. Auri et sodii chlorid, part. iij. 

Irid. florent. in pulv. subtii. part. ix. 

* Take of gold nx parts: 
Dissolve a sufficient quantity of 

Muriatic add, adding as much nitric add as is required to dissolve the gold. Then 
mix ten parts of the dry chloride of sodium; and after evaporating the solution over a 
dam fire reduce it to a yellow powder. 

* Opw oL B. til 8.351. " Die neiiem Anneimittel, a. a. w. a AA% 



134 Aimti rr soon chlokiditm. 

Three grains of this represent three-quarters of a grain of tbt 
salt of gold. These three grains are divided into thirty frictions 
for the weakest doses, and into three for the strongest. Starch 
may be substituted for powdered orris root. Legrand* 

liquor anri etisdii ehloridi. 
Solution of chloride of gold and sodium. 

B. Ami et sodii chlorid. gr. ij* 
AquflB destillat. f ^j. M. 

Ten drops to be given every two or three hours, in cases of 
dropsy. Grotzner. 

Pilnls anri et lodii ehloridi. 

Pills of chloride of gold and sodium, 

B. Auri et sodii chlorid. in aqus destillat. q. s. solut. gr. ir. 
Extract, aconiti ^ss. 
-^— dulcam. 3j. 
AltbssB paly. q. s. at fiant pilule Ixxz. 

Three pills to be taken three times a day. Orqtzner, 

B. Amyli. solan, taberos. gr. iv. 
Acaciie f^j. 
In mort. vitr. exacts mistis adde terendo 

Aur. et sod. chlorid. — in ^\, aq. destillat. sol at. — gr. x. 
Fiant pilula cxx. 

Each of these contains about one-twelfth of a grain. 

A. T. Chrestten. ' 

Paitilli anri et lodii ehloridi. 

Lozenges of chloride of gold and sodium. 

B. Aari et sodii chlorid. gr. v. 
Sacchar. pair. Sj* 
Misce exacts in mortar, vitreo et adde. 

Mucilag. acacie q. s. at fiant pastilli Ix. 

Each of these will contain about one-twelfth of a grain of the 
salt. A. T. Chrestien. 

UngQeitmn anri et lodii ehloridi. 

Ointment of chloride of gold and sodium^ 

B. Aur. et sod. chlorid. gr. iij.— iv. 
Adipis .^88. 
Misce exacts. Fiat angaentam. 

Used in friction. Grotzner, 

B. Aur. et sod. chlorid. gr. iiss. 
Adipis ^iss. M. 

The size of a bean to be placed in the nasal fossae in scrofulous 
cases^ along with the iatraleiptic use of the powder before de- 
scribed. Riecke. 

• See p. 123. 



AURI CYAMURETUM. . 125 



XXXIV. AURI CYANURETUM. 

STRomrMBS. Anri Cyanidam seu Tercjaniduni^ Aurum Cyanicum seu 
Cyanogenatum seu Cyanatum seu Hydrocyanicuni) Cyanuretum auri- 
cum seu Auri, Cyanuret, Cyanide or Tercyanide of gold. 

French. Cyanure d'Or. 

Gtrman. Blausaures Goldozyd, BlaustofTgold, Cyangold, 
Goldcyanid. 

The mode of preparing this combination, recommended by M. 
0. Figuier,' of Montpelher, is as follows. He decomposes chlo- 
ride of gold by cyanuret of potassium^ but states, that many pre- 
cautions are necessary to procure it in a pure state. The chloride 
must be as neutral as possible, which can only be effected by re- 
crystallizing the salt several times. The cyanuret must not be al- 
kaline, or contain any formiate or carbonate of potassa, and it is 
to be added to the solution of the chloride of gold very cautiously 
as long as there is any precipitate, taking care that there is not 
the slightest excess of the cyanuret, as this would cause a solution 
of part of the product, and the formation of soluble double cyanu- 
rets. The cyanuret, thus made, is to be well washed with pure 
water, and dried in a dark place. 

The process in the French " Corfex" consists essentially in add- 
ing very carefully a solution of pure cyanuret of potassium to a 
aoTution of chloride of gold y until a precipitate — which is cyanuret 
of gold — ceases to be formed. The chloride of gold, prior to so- 
lution, should be deprived of all excess of acid by heating it in a 
salt water bath. It is a yellow powder, which is insoluble in 
water." 

In some experiments, Magendie • found, that cyanuret of gold 
is one of the substances that promote the coagulation of the blood. 
Where, consequently, it is desirable to impress a modification on 
that fluid in chronic cutaneous, and other affections, its adminis- 
tration might perhaps be found useful. M. Pourche,* who has 
used it successfully in syphilis and scrofula^ recommends its ad- 
ministration — in the form of frictions on the tongue — mixed with 
powdered orris root, well washed in alcohol, and dried. 

Pnlyjs anri eyannreti. 

Powder of cyanuret of gold. 

B> Auri cyanur. gr. j. 

Irid. fforent. pulv. gr. iij. M. 

Chrestien. 

I Joornal de Pharmacie, xz. 8. 99, and Ainer. Joam. of Phaim. vi. 8*2. Philad. 
1833 — 4. See, fox another mode of preparing it, Deferre, in Bulletin G^n^ral dm 
Th^rapeutique, F^vrier, 1838. 

* Fereira, Elements of Mat Med. &c, 2d edit i. C86. Lond. 1842; or 2d An 
edit by Caraon. Philad. 184G. 

* Lemons sor le Sang, &c., and Tranabtioo, in Lancet, January 20, 1839, p. C36. 

* Journal de Pharmacie, zx. 599 and 649. 

9 



126 AURI lODIDUM. 

In pills he prescribes it as follows : — 

PilnlB tnri eyannretf. 

Pills of cyanuret of gold. 

CL Auri cyanur. gr. j. 
Ext. mezereoD. gr. lij. 
AltheiB pulv. q. s. ut fiat massa. 

Each pill to weigh five grains. 

To childreoi the dose at first should never exceed one-fifteenth 
of a grain. 

liitnra len Liqnor len Solntio anri eyaiinreti. 

Mixture or solution of cyanuret of gold. 

B. Auri cyanur. gr. iii. 

Aquae alcoholisat. f^Tiij. M. 

Dose. — A tea-spoonful twice a day, gradually increasing thft 
dose. Chrestien. 



XXXV. AURI lO'DIDUM. 

Stnontmes. Auri lodaretma, Anmm lodatum, Iodide or lodoret of Gold. 

French. Proto-iodure d'Or. 

Qerman, lodgold, Goldiodur, Goldiodid. 

According to the French Codex, this is made by adding a sola* 
tion of pure iodide of potassium to a solution oi chloride of gold, 
collecting the iodide of gold, which falls down, on a filter, and 
washing it with alcohol to remove the excess of iodine, which pre- 
cipitates with it. M. Meillet' recommends the following process 
in preference. Tp a solution oi gold as neutral as possible is add- 
ed by degrees neutral hydriodaU of ammonia so long as a preci- 
pitate falls. The solution must not be too far diluted. A small 
quantity of alcohol must now be added, not more than about one- 
tnird of the whole volume of the liquid. • After some hours' rest, 
this is decanted, when a precipitate of a blackish colour is obtained, 
composed of iodine and iodide of gold. It is then washed by de- 
cantation with a little alcohol; when an almost white and half 
crystalline iodide of gold is obtained. This is dried in the open 
air on plates, and is Kept free from light in stopper bottles. In 
this process, the gold is completely precipitated, which never 
occurs when the iodide of potassium is employed ; and the iodide 
has an invariable composition." 

This has been used in the same cases as the other preparations 
of gold, in the dose of one-fifteenth to one-tenth of a grain. 

* Joamal de Pharmade, Nor. 1841, fk 665. 

> For another prooeai for forming the iodide of gold, ne M. J. FonkMi Jooroal da 
PhunMcie, Mot. 1841, p. 653. 



AUBI OXIDUH. 127 



XXXVI. AURI NITROMU'RIAS. 

SrHomrim. Aurum Nitrico-Muriaticum, Nitromuriate of Grold. 

Firenek, Nitromuriate d'Or. 

Gemmn. Salpetersalzsaures 6o]d,\ 

Nitromuriate of gold has been recommendedi of late years, by 
Recamieri whose attention was directed to it by accident. A 
worker in gold had a cancerous tumour on the back| which, as it 
incommoded him, he touched frequently with the hand; this oc- 
curred whilst he was dissolving gold in aqua re^a ; after this the 
tumour soon presented another appearance, and went away in a 
short time. Kecamier thought it probable that the workman had 
received some of the solution upon his fingers, which had thus been 
applied to the tumour. Under such impressions, he employed it 
in the case of a female, who was affected with an extensive cancer; 
the disorganized parts resumed their natural texture, and completely 
healed, although the cancerous dyscrasy ultimately proved fatal. 
In the case of a female, with/tingii^ of the neck of the uierusy a 
complete cure was effected by it; and in carreer cj the uterus he 
found it advantageous. 

Recamier prepares it by dissolving six grains of pure chloride of 
gold in an ounce of nitromuriatic acid : and he applies it like other 
corrosiTe agents, taking care to confine it to the parts to be acted 
upon. When the object is to cauterize, it must be applied to the 
affected parts, until a whitish scab or crust is formed, which falls 
off in three or four days; after which the application may be re- 
peated as often as may be necessary. The pain caused by the ope- 
ration is generally insignificant, and in cases where it is violent it 
can be allayed by pledgets dipped in laudanum. 



XXXVII. AURI OXIDUM. 

SrifONTMES. Auri Teroxidum sou Peroxidum, Aurum Oxydatuni; Oxide 

of Gold, Peroxide of Gold, Aaric Acid. 
French. Oxide d'Or. 
Oerman. Goldoxyd^ Oxydirtes Gold, Goldsaure. 

Oxide of gold, prepared by calcination, is the crocus solis of the 
Wirtemberg Pharmacopoeia. The oxide is received also into the 
PharmacopoBias of Ferrara and Hanover. 

Magendie^ recommends the following as one of the modes of 
preparation. Take any quantity of chloride of gold, put it into 
a flask of white glass and pour upon it six or seven times its weight 

' FormuUira, Ac 



128 AURI OXIDUM. 

of boiling watery to dissolve the chloride ; then add erystallized 
baryta gradually, until the liquid is no longer acid, as shown by a 
strip of litmus paper. The liquid is then boiled, permitted to cool| 
and filtered. The precipitate is washed several times with warm 
water: the water of the various washings is brought together and 
evaporated nearly to dryness; the saline mass, when cool, is then 
dissolved in water, and in this way more and more oxide of gold 
is obtained, which may be added to the other. The oxide is now 
washed with boiling water, until the water no longer affords a 
precipitate on the addition of nitrate of silver. It is then washed 
once or twice with water acidulated with nitric acidy to remore 
the small quantity of carbonate of baryta formed during the ope- 
ration, and which may remain mixed with the oxide. These wash- 
ings are repeated with cold watery until the instillation of sulphuric 
acid occasions no longer any white precipitate, vrhich indicates 
that it is free from baryta. The oxide is then dried at a beat of 
from 167° to 190^ of Fahrenheit, after which it is kept in a cool 
and dark place in a well-stopped bottle. 

The process recommended by M. Cottereau is the following: 
An excess of magnesia must be boiled with a dilute solution of 
chloride of goldy till the solution loses its colour; the whole is 
then to be filtered, and the precipitate well washed ; the result, 
which is aurate of magnesia, is to be treated with an excess of 
dilute nitric acid, which removes all the magnesia, and leaves 
the oxide in a pure state. This is to be again well washed, and 
dried between sheets of bibulous paper, but without compression 
or exposure to light or heat.' 

In the French " Codex " it is directed to be prepared by boiling 
four parts of calcined magnesia with one part of terchloride yf 
gold and forty parts of water. It is then washed, firs( with watery 
to remove the chloride of magnesium, and afterwards with dilute 
nit'ic acidy to dissolve the excess of magnesia.* 

In the condition of hydrate, the oxide of gold is of a yellow 
colour; when dried, of a blackish-violet. It is never entirely 
soluble in chlorohydric acid, always leaving behind a small por- 
tion which is reduced to the metallic state during desiccatioo. 
Neither sulphuric nor nitric acid has any action upon it. 

Oxide of gold has been administered by many ph^'sicians, and 
especially by Westring, Niel, Chrestien,' and Legrand,* in tbfc 
same diseases as the other preparations. 

> Amer. Joum. of Pharm. 2d wrics. ii 1 10. Philad. 1837. 

• Pert ini. Elements of Materia Medica, tM edit I 6ci5. Lond. 1842 ; or 2d 
edit by (^nrson, ThiLid lb-16. ■ Op. cilat 

* 0|». cit^ and De TOr, de aoo Emploi dans le traitcment de la Sjphiliis ^^ 



AURUM METALLICUM. 129 



XXXVIII. AURUM METALLICUM. 

Stnontmis. Metallic Gold. 
French, Or Metallique. 
Gtrman, Metallisches Gold. 

Metallic gold is either administered in the form of aurum 
lifnatum^ ** gold filings/^ — formed by filing the finest gold with a 
6oe-toothed file — or in that of pulvis aurty aurum divisum seu 
pulveratum^ (French, Or divise — Germ. Goldpulver, Fein 
zertheiltes oder praparirtes Gold,) \i^hich is obtained 
by amalgamating gold with quicksilver, and driving off the quick- 
silver by heat.* According to Trommsdorff, a very fine gold 
powder may likewise be obtained by precipitating the gold from a 
dilute solution of the metal in nitro-muriatic acid by means of 
green sulphate of iron. The precipitate, thus • formed, when 
washed and dried, is of a brownish colour, but when polished, 
exhibits the most beautiful golden splendour.^ 

It may also be prepared by rubbing leaf gold with sulphate of 
poiassaf sifting and washing with boiling water to remove the 
sulphate.' 

MM. Chrestien and Niel have exhibited metallic gold largely, 
and, they affirm, successfully; but, according to Wendt, it has no 
action on the economy. It is not easy, indeed, to conceive, that 
a substance so difficult of oxidation can have much, if any, effect. 
The former gentlemen and Gozzi r^ard it as the mildest of the 
preparations of gold, but equally efficacious with the others, al- 
though more tardy in producing its effects. 

It has been administered in the dose of from a quarter of a 
grain to a grain, three or four times a day, in the form of powder 
or pill, — the dose being gradually increased ; and has been rubbed 
daily upon Ihe tongue, in the quantity of from one to three grains 
mixed with starch powder, or powder of lycopodium. Where 
the condition of the tongue and of the interior of the mouth does 
not admit of this, Niel advises that a blister should be applied on 
the side of the neck, and that the denuded surface should be 
dressed with a mixture of a grain of gold amalgamated with mer- 
cury, and half a dram of lard ; gradually augmenting the quantity 
of gold to two grains. In syphilitic ulcers and excoriations^ 
metallic gold is applied externally, amalgamated with the proper 
quantity of mercury, and united with unsalted butter, lard, or 
cerate, in the proportion of twelve grains to one ounce.^ In 
iyphUitic excrescences, frictions with gold powder mixed with 
laJiva are said to have been serviceable. 

I f . „. .^« UnWerwIle, il 215. Paris, 1828. 

; Joufdan, Pharmacopeev^ ^ ^^ Stuttgart, 18^7. ^ ^ ,^^„ 

ftiecke. Vie neuem \J^^ Medica and Therapeutics, 2d edit i 682, Lond. 1842; 

i^eiwm, EkmeniM of^Bt^^^^ ^^^ 



130 BALLOTA I^ANATA. 

The following formulse are given by Riecke :' 

PnlYii inri Compositni. 

Compound Gold powder. 

B* Auri diyis. gr. TJ. 
Amyli gr. Ixvj. 
M. f. pulT. in part. xij. iBqiiales di?id. 

A powder to be given four times a day. 

B. Auri divifl. 

' Lycopod. aa gr. ij. 
M. f. palvis. 

A powder to be rubbed once a day upon the tongue. 

Syrnpni inri. 

Syrup of Gold. 

^. Aari divis. ^j. 

Syrap. acaciie, ^j. M. 

Employed to pencil vlc&rs of the pharynx^ and as a dressing to 
€hancres. HopitcU de Monipellier. 

Pomatmn Anri. 

Ointment of Gold. 

B. Anri divis. 3J. 
Adipis ^88. M. 

To be rubbed on buboes^ and applied to blisters. Legrand. 



XXXIX. BALLOTA LANATA. 

Stnontmes. Leonums Lanatus. 

French. Ba]Iote Cotonneuse. 

German. Wolliger Wolfstrapp, Wollige Ballota. 

This plant belongs to the Natural Family, Labiate; Sexual 
System, Didynamia Gymnospermia. It grows exclusively and 
commonly in Siberia, in dry mountainous regions. In its native 
country it has been long administered as a powerful diuretic, 
especially in dropsy. Both Gmelin and Pallas refer to it in this 
relation in their travels in Siberia. Of late years, its use has ex- 
tended elsewbere; and it is now frequently employed in Russia, 
Germany and Italy. It is said to be often adulterated with 
ieonurus cardiaca^ ballota nigra, and marrvbium ;* and it is im- 
portant that the genuine Siberian plant should be used, as the 
observations of Brera have shown the cultivated plant to be 
powerless. For medicinal purposes, the whole plant has been 
employed, with the exception of the root. It contains, according 
to Orcesi, tannic acid, a bitter, resinoid, aromatic matter — picro- 



Deaem Arxneimit S. 59, Stuttgart, 1837. 
> Sdunidt't Jahrbuch der in-und andimdMch. gMumnt. Medicin. B. if. 8. 87S. 



BALLOTA LANATA. 131 

hallotin — a green, ^axy substance, chloride of sodium, nitrate of 
potassa, and salts of iron and HmeJ 

The diseases in which ballota lanata has been administered 
abroad — for it has not been employed in this country — are the 
following :• 

Dropsy, — Rehmann prescribed it several times with decided 
advantage; and, where organic disease prevented the cure, the 
urinary secretion was always largely augmented by it. The 
chemical condition of the urine was likewise .strikingly changed 
during its use : at first, it was whitish, afterwards darker, and, 
ultimately, almost black, or of a deep brown, like the darkest beer. 
At times, when the accumulation of fluid was pretty well removed, 
a pain would occur in the hypochondres, which indicated that its 
use should be laid aside. Schilling, m Werchny-Udinsk, asserts, 
that he cured several cases of dropsy by it. Rupprecht and Muhr- 
beck administered it with the best effects, and Brera' found it 
extremely serviceable in hydropic conditions, especially where 
they had been preceded by, or were complicated with, rheumatic 
or gouty affections. Luzzato prescribed it with ecjual success; 
and Heyfelder, who gave it according to the prescnption of the 
Russian physicians, observed the urine to be of a blackish-yellow 
hue at the commencement, and, afterwards, of a very dark colour. 
He found, however, that, to keep up the diuresis, it was requisite 
to combine it with other diuretics, or to change it for other agents. 

Rheumatism and Gout, — In these diseases, ballota is adminis- 
tered in Siberia. Brera, as well as his compatriots, Ghidella, Fon* 
tebuoni, Santini and Luzzato, have tested its efficacy by repeated 
trials. The pains generally soon disappeared under its use, and a 
cure took place, without relapse. 

Adiposis. — In a case of this kind, it was exhibited in St. Peters- 
burg, by Dr. Weisse. The fatness was inordinate, and the remedy 
acted most favourably. It did not, however, occasion diuresis, but 
under its use a hemorrhoidal flux returned, which had previously 
been arrested. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Decoction is the best form for administering the plant ; from 
». to ^j. to 5viij. of water ; — this portion to be divided into 
Ewo halves, and to be taken in the course of the day. Rehmann 
boils ^iss. to §ij. of the coarsely powdered plant in Oij. of water, 
down to half; to which he adds, according to circumstances, some 
diffusible excitant, or a few drops of laudanum. Of this mixture, 
be directs a cupful to be taken morning and evening, gradually 
increasing the dose. 

' Bouduiidat, Annuaire de Th^npeatique, poor 1850, p. 78. 

• Riecke, C^ dL S. 68. « '^Antologia Medica, No. 9, Febbnjo, 1835. 



132 BARU lODIDUM. 



XL. BA'RII lO'DIDUM. 

Stkontmes. Bariam lodatam, Barytiom lodatura, lodaretam Barytii, 

Iodide of Barium. 
CUrman. lodbaryum, BaryumiodQr. 
Id solution, BarvtCD Hydriodaa, Hydras Barii lodati. Baryta Hydriodica, 

Hydriodate or Baryta. 
German. lodwasserstoffsaure Schwererde; Hydriod- 

saur er Bary t. 

This preparation has been introduced of late years. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

Iodide of bariam is obtained by boiling haryta earth in a solu- 
tion o( iodide of iron in vater, (made by taking one part of pure 
iron filings, and four parts of iodine, pouring upon them from six 
to eight parts of water, agitating frequently, and applying warmth 
gently, until the fluid appears clear and almost colourless,) or, 
what is cheaper, by boiling a solution of iodide of iron with car- 
bonate ofbarytUy which must be added in small portions as long 
as there is any efTerTescenc^. 

The fluid obtained by either process, after filtering, must be 
clear and neutral, and yield no bluish or blue precipitate with the 
ferrocyanuret of potassium: if it yields a precipitate, the decom- 
position of the salt of iron is incomplete. Should the solution, 
formed in the first manner, have an alkaline reaction, the excess 
of baryta must be removed by exposing the mixture to the air, 
whereby it becomes converted into a carbonate, and falls to tht 
bottom. The solution is then evaporated until a pellicle forma^ 
the heat being gentle; the crystals are placed quickly between 
printing paper, and kept in a well-stopped glass vessel. They 
form white radiated plates, which easily deliquesce in the air, and 
on that account cannot be prescribed in the form of powder, but 
may be dissolved in some aromatic water. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

Jahn instituted several experiments with iodide of barium, on 
plants, animals and man, in a state of health and disease. In con- 
siderable doses, it acts as a poison on the organism, and as one of 
the acrid class. Administered in very small doses, and with great 
circumspection, he found it to be serviceable in scrofulous and 
similar morbid conditions^ and as an alterative in morbid growths^ 
hypertrophy^ chronic inflammation^ &c., in which conditions 
it proved equally useful with chloride of barium, mercury or 
iodme.^ Jahn's observations, it appears, did not lead him to speak 
positively regarding its advantages or defects; and he adds the 
caution — " Caute, per Deos, incede, latet ignis sub cinere doloso." 

■ IUecke,Op.cit8.71. 



BEBEERIA. 133 

Jahn's observations were published in 1830, and, according to 

Riecke, he has been since silent on the subject. Rothamel ad- 

noinistered the iodide in a desperate case of scrofula^ occurring in 

a patient twenty-one years of age, with great success. He began 

with one-eighth of a grain three times a day, and increased the 

dose gradually during a protracted administration of the article, 

until three grains were taken four times daily. 

Biett has administered it frequently in cases of scrofulous 

swdlingSy and at times externally, according to the following 

form : — x 

UngneDtnm barii iodidi. 

Ointment of iodide of barium. 

B. fiarii iodid. gr. It. 

Adipis ^], M. at fiat ungaentam. 



XLI. BEBEERIA. ^ 

Strontmes., Bebeenna; Bebeerinam ; Bebeerme; Bebeerin. 
French, Bebeerine. 
German. Bebeerin. 

A tree known in Demarara by the Indian name Beheeru^ and 
by the Dutch name Sipeeri, had been observed by M. Rodie, a 
surgeon in the British navy, to pos^ss a bitter-tasted bark, which, 
on examination, was found by him to contain a vegetable alkali, to 
which he gave the name Bebeerine. From this alkali he prepared 
a sulphate, which he exhibited with success as an antiperiodic. 
Dr. Maclagan having received some of the bark, and likewise some 
of the fruit of the plant, subjected them to chemical examination. 
The bark occurs m large, flat pieces, from one to two feet long, 
and varying in breadth from one to six inches. It is about four 
lines thick, of a cinnamon-brown colour, without aroma, pungency, 
or acrimony, but of a strong, persistent, bitter taste, with consi- 
derable astringency. The fruit is a nut, with two plano-convex 
cotyledons, of the size and figure of a walnut. The plant is un- 
known. It was supposed, by Mr. Lindley and Sir William Hooker, 
to whom the fruit was sent, to be lauraceous ; but Dr. Maclagan 
could not discover any genus or tribe of lauraceae to which it could 
be referred. Dr. Ranking refers it to Nectandra Rodiei.* The 
timber of the tree is well known by the name of greenheart^ It 
is much employed by ship-builders. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

Dr. Maclagan treated the bark with water acidulated with 
sulphuric acid ; precipitated the alkaloids by ammoma; dried the 
precipitate over a water-bath, and purified them by redissolving, 

' HalAyetilj Abitract of ibe Med. Soraoei, L 221 . Amer. edh. New York, 1845. 



134 BEBEERIA. 

bj means of sulphuric acid ; treating with animal charcoal^ and 
reprecipitating by ammonia. In this way the alkaline matter is ob- 
tained in the form of a hydrate, nearly quite white. If this be 
dissolved in alcohol, it forms a clear orange solution, which, on eva- 
poration, leaves a shining, totally uncrystalline matter, a good deal 
resembling in appearance a transparent resin. This, however, is 
not a homogeneous product, for in some parts it seems pale yellow, 
in others, orange brown, and if agitated with anhydrous ether is 
separated into two portions, one soluble, the other insoluble in that 
fluid. Both of these are distinct vegetable alkalies. To the former 
Dr. Maclagan applied M. Rodie's name — Bebeerine ; the other he 
called Sipeerine^ from the Dutch name of the tree. 

As obtained bv evaporating its solution in ether or alcohol, be- 
beeria is in thin layers, in the form of a transparent, yellow, shining 
film; but when in mass, or powder, it is opaque. The alcoholic 
solution has a strong alkaline reaction on litmus paper. Its taste 
is strongly and permanently bitter, with a slight resinous flavour, 
and it evolves feebly a corresponding odour when united with sul- 

f>huric acid. Bebeeria is soluble in nve times its weight of abso- 
ute alcohol, and dissolves with great facility in alcohol — pure and 
diluted. Ether takes up a thirteenth of its weight. It is very 
sparingly soluble in water, requiring 1766 parts of hot, and 6650 
of cold water for its solution. It forms, with the sulphuric, mu- 
riatic and acetic acids, yellow, shining, uncrystallizable salts, all of 
which are very soluble in wa(tr, and intensely and durably bitter, 
with a slight degree of astringency on the tongue. Sipeerine is 
that portion of the alkaline precipitate which is insoluble in ether. 
It is of a dark brown, shining appearance, and forms neutral com- 
pounds with acids, some of which are crystallizable. Dr. Macla- 
gan had not, however, obtained it in quantities sufficient to enable 
him to examine its properties minutely.^ 

Sulphate of bebeerine, according to Messrs. Ballard and Gar- 
rod,' is an article of commerce, usually found in brown, crystalline 
scales, soluble in water, sparingly so in alcohol, and possessing an 
intensely bitter taste. The solutions of the salt are neutral, and 
ammonia precipitates the alkaloid. Dr. Maclagan was led to in- 
stitute experiments, with a view of ascertaining how far, in point 
of cheapness, the salts of the alkalies of bebeeria might be substi- 
tuted for quinia ; and he found that, by a modification of the ordi- 
nary processes for sulphate of quinia, he could prepare a sulphate 
of bebeeria, which could be sold at a price below the average of 
sulphate of quinia, during late years. The process for obtaining 
it for medicinal use in Edinburgh is essentially the same as that 
of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia for sulphate of quinia. The 

* Trannctions of the Rojal Society of Edinburgh, voL xv., pt 3, or LoDdoa and 
Edinburgh Monthly Journal of Medical Sdencea, July, 1843, p. 653. 

* Element! of Materia Medktf and TheraiMMtfiei, p. 41 1. Loud. 1845. 



B£BEEEIA. 135 

bark is first freed from tannin and colouring matter, by boiling it 
with carbonate of soda: it is then exhausted by boiling in water 
acidulated with sulphuric acid, and the alkaline matter is thrown 
down from the concentrated acid liquor by means of carbonate of 
soda. The impure bases, thus separated, are washed, dissolved, 
and neutralized with weak sulphuric acid, and the solution is 
treated with animal charcoal, concentrated, filtered again, and 
finally evaporated in thin layers in flat vessels.^ 

Owing to the great improvement in the manufacture of the arti- 
cle for medical use, it is said to be sold at less than half the price 
of the sulphate of quinia.' 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

Dr. Maclagan sent some of the sulphate to Demarara, where it 
was tried with marked success in the treatment of intermit tents. 
It appears, indeed, to possess all the antiperiodic properties of the 
sulphate of quinia, and has, accordingly, been found of great ser* 
vice in intermittent and remittent fevers^ neuralgia^ &c. 
Many such cases are related by Dr. Maclagan as occurring in his 
own practice,* as well as in that of Dr. Watt, of Georgetown, 
Demarara; of Dr. J. Anderson and Mr. D. Falconer, and of Pro- 
fessor Simpson, of Edinburgh. The last gentleman made trial of 
it in periodic neuralgia, occurring during utero-gestation, and 
with beneficial results.^ Dr. Gairdner, of Edinburgh, has also 
^ven the particulars of a case of intermittent headach occurring 
ma young, and recently married lady, who, there was some rea- 
son to suspect, was pregnant, which was cured by the sulphate of 
bebeeria. In strumous ophthalmia, it has been recommended, 
by Dr. Llewellyn Williams,^ as a substitute for sulphate of quinia, 
not only on account of the moderate price of the drug as compared 
with the sulphate, but also, because, according to the testimony of 
Dr. Maclagan and others, it is better adapted to some constitutions 
^ and affections than it; not being so liable to excite the circulation, 
or affect the nervous system. He gave it in the dose of two 
grains night and morning. 

According to Dr. Christison, it is in general use in Edinburgh 
and other places in Great Britain, and it is said not to produce the 
unpleasant phenomena that occasionally follow the use of the sul- 
phate of quinia. 

Dr. Maclagan^ states, that a secret preparation, sold under the 
name of " Warburg^s Fever Drops^^ appeared, from chemical 
examination, to be a tincture of bebeeria,— probably of the seeds of 
bebeeru ; but this is not the conclusion to which a commmission of 

' Chr»tison*t Oispeimtoiy, Amer. edit, by R. E. Griffith, p. 969. Edinb. 1848. 

' Edinborgh Med. and Surg. Journal, April, 1845. 

' Lood. and Edmb. Monthly Journal, Aug. 1843, pw 68& 

« Edinb^ Med. and Surg. Journal, April, 1845. 

• Prorindal Medical and Surgical Journal, Oct 18, 1848. 



136 BRRBERINA. 

pharmaciens arrived, from a recent examination of it. According 
to them, its chief constituents are, — sulphate of quinia, aloes, sat« 
fron, camphor, zedoary and angelica.^ 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Sulphate of bebeeria may be given in the same manner as sul- 
phate of quinia. The dose as a tonic is from one to three grains; 
as an antiperiodic, from five grains to a scruple. 



XLII. BERBERINA. 

Synonym E8. Berberinum, Berberine, Berberin, 

French, Berberine. 

German, Berberin, Berberisgelb, Saaerdornbitter. 

The inner bark of Berberis vulgaris is of a yellow colour, and 
a bitterish, somewhat astringent taste. It is cathartic, and was 
formerly used m jaundice; originally, perhaps, in consequence of 
the " signature " of the yellow colour.* In more modern times, 
it has been again recommended in the same disease on the faith of 
experiments.^ 

The bitter principle of the root was discovered a few years ago 
by Buchner and Herberger, and its properties have been investi- 
gated by Brandes.* Buchner first recommended, at a meeting of 
the German Association of Naturalists and Physicians, in the year 
1834, that it should be received into the Materia Medica; but 
hitherto few experiments have been made with it. 

METHOD OF PREPARING, 

An alcoholic extract of the root of berberis vulgaris is prc- 

Ered, to which water is added. This throws down a pulveni- 
)t brown substance; the fluid is poured off; and the substance 
dried; it is then treated with alcohol^ which takes up the berbe- 
rin, leaving a small portion undissolved. By evaporating the al- . 
cohol, the berberin remains.^ 

Thus prepared, berberin resembles an extract: it is of a brown- 
ish-yellow colour, translucent, and smells like the root; its taste 
is a pure bitter, and it becomes soft in the air. Buchner^ suc- 
ceeded in obtaining the bitter principle pure, and in a crystalline 
form. Its reaction is neither alkaline nor acid; it is soluble in al- 
cohol and water, but not so readily in the latter as in the former. 
When crystallized, it requires 600 parts of water for its solution: 
whilst in alcohol, at a medium temperature, it is soluble in 100 

' Fochfl, cited in CaiuUtt and Ei»nniann*8 Jahreabericht, u. ■. w. im Jahre, 1849, 
Bd. V. a 13d. 
' Ray, Historia Plant ii. 605. ' Lond. Med. Repoa., new aeriea, L 38. 

* Archiv. der Apothekervereina,ii 29. * Riecke, Op. cit. S. 442. 

* Journal de Phannacie, xxL 309, and Philadelphia Journal of Pharmacy, m 398. 
Philadelphia, 1835. 



BI6NONIA CATALPA. 137 

parts. It approximates the alkaloids in its nature^ as with certain 
acids it forms crystallizable compounds. It is not soluble in ether. 
The brownish-yellow solution formed by it is turned of a reddish- 
brown by alkaues, like the infusion of rhubarb, and acids restore 
the colour. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

According to Buchner, no injurious consequences are to be ap- 
prehended from the administration of berberin as a therapeutical 
agent. Of this he had an opportunity of satisfying himself both 
on his own person and on others. When labouring under indi- 
gestion^ he took it with the best effects; not only was the dys- 
pepsia removed, but also a yellow hue of the skin which had pre- 
viously existed. He recommends it, therefore, as an excellent 
stomachic, especially when there is disivrbance of the /unctions 
of the liver. In doses of two, five or ten grains, it only aids the 
appetite; but in larger doses — fifteen to twenty grains — it acts 
upon the bowels without inducing tormina, and therefore not as a 
drastic. 

Within the laslt few years, Koch has published some observa- 
tions on the use of berberin. He treated several cases with it as 
prepared by Buchner himself, when he found all his results con- 
firmed, and that it merited a high rank amongst bitter agents. 
He gives two cases of marked disturbance of the digestive func- 
tion, in which berberin afforded essential service; and recommends 
it highly in convalescence from typhus ^ cholera^ &c.* 



XLIII. BIGNO'NIA CATALPA. 

Stmontmes. Catalpa, Catalpa Cordifolia seu Arborescens seu Arborea, Cap 

talpa or Catawba Tree. 
French. Catalpa. 
German, Katalpa, Bignon ienbaum. 

Bignonia Catalpa belongs to the Natural Family, Bignonia- 
oeae; Sexual System, Didynamia Angiospermia. It is a tree 
well known in this country, but is not applied to any medicinal 
use. According to Kampter and Thunberg, the Japanese physi- 
cians consider the pods {siliqtise) to be a powerful remedy in dif- 
ferent asthmatic affections. This gave occasion to several Nea- 
politan physicians — and especially Professor Antonucci — to insti- 
tute experiments in reference to its virtues, and their report was 
decidedly favourable. Brera also extols it in asthma. As to 
the precise mode in which it acts, we have no exact information. 
Dierbach and Richter- place it amongst the Acria ; whilst, accord- 
ing to the analysis of Grosso,^ it seems more likely that its active 
principle is of a fatty nature, resembling the butter of the cacao. 



' Boochardat, Annuaire de Th^rapeutique. pour 1850, p. 181.' 
> RiBcke, Op. dt. S. 72. ' Gaiette M^dicale de J 



Paris,! 634, p. 8. 



138 BOLETUS UkMMCm. 

It is probaUe, that it possesses no other virtoes than those of a 
siiDple demulcent, and that the properties ascribed to it have been 
mainly, if not wholly, derived from the substances associated with 
it. Brera, for example, administered it with the following addi- 
tions:^ 



Adde 
Or, 



Adde 



B- Catalp. siliqoar. ^ss. 

AquflB q. 8. ad. colatur. f ^Tiij. 

Oxymel. scille f Jss. 

B. Catalp. siliqnar. ^ss. 
Senegs rad. ^ij. 
Aqae q. s. ad colatur. f Jyiij. 



Oxymel. Bcille f Jj. 

To be taken by little and little. Brera. 



XLIV. BOLETUS LATIICIS. 

S7N0NTME8. BoletuB pui^Ds scu albus, Agaricus albas, Fnngus.Laricis, 

Polyporus officinalis, Fungus of the Larch, White Agaric. 
FVench, Agaric blanc. 
German. Lerschenschwamm. 

This fungus grows on the stem and larger branches of the larch. 
Formerly, it was administered as a cathartic, but in this respect it 
has become obsolete. Still, it has been retained in many Phar- 
macopoeias; for example, in those of Amsterdam, Bavaria, Bruns- 
wick, Paris, Ferrara, Geneva, Hamburgh, Hanover, Oldenburg, 
Poland, Prussia, Saxony, Sweden, Wirtemburg, and Wurzburg. 
Latterly, it has been administered frequently in the colliquative 
sweats of phthisis. Barbut, of Nisraes, made many trials with 
it," which were favourable; and the experience of Andral was si- 
milar.' More recently, however, he has expressed the opinion, 
that no great advantage has been derived from it/ By several of 
the German physicians equally advantageous results have been 
obtained — as by Toel and Trautzsch — so that, according to Riecke,* 
it deserves, perhaps, to be better known and investigated. Kopp 
has added his testimony in its favour.^ 

Formerly, as a cathartic, half a dram to a dram of the powdered 
boletus was given. In profuse diaphoresis it is administered in 
doses of from two to six grains. The dose, repeated for a few 
evenings, according to Barbut, arrests the sweating, which, Riecke 

» Ricelterio Clinico, Pad. 1825. 

* Burdach. in Journal dcr Praktisch. Heilkund. von Haffland,Mar8. 1830. 
■ Journal de Fharmacie, vol. xx. 

* Coura de PaUioIogie Interne, &c., recuelli et r^dig^ par A. Latour, p. 157. Edit, 
Bruxellea. 1837. » Op. cit a 73. 

* JDenkwQidigk. in dor iuHlich. Pnxn. Fniik£ 1836, S. 344, dted by EUeck& 



BRATKBA ANTH£LMINTICA. 139 

thtoks, is effected through its revellent excitation of the abdominal 
nerves; for which reasons he suggests, that the propriety of the 
union of opiates with it, to prevent its purgative effect, may be 
questionable. Kopp gives it in the dose of three grains, morning, 
noon, and night; and Pisson* in from four to six, eight, and tea 
grains. If it acts upon the bowels, which is rarely the case, the 
dose must be diminished, or a*small quantity of opium or laudanam 
be added. 

PiUIs boletl larieii eem opio. 

Pills of white agaric and opium, 

E. Bolet. laricis gr. xv. 

Extract, opii gr. iiss. M. et 
divide in pil. vj.l 

One or two at bed- time in the colliquative sweats of phthisis, 

Bayer,* 



XLV. BRAY'ER^ ANTHELMINTICA. 

Stnontmes. Hagenia Abyssinica, Banksia Abyssinica, Kosso, Kousso, 
CouBso, Cusso, Rabbi. 

This plant is a native of Abyssinia, and belongs to Nat. Ord, 
Rosaces Sanguisorbese {^Decandolle^ Sex. Syst. Icosandria 
Digynia. It was first taken from Abyssinia to Europe by Dr. 
Brayer, from whom it received its name. The flowers are the 
parts used in medicine, and yield, on examination, an extractive 
matter, containing tannic acid, which is most readily taken up by 
hot water; and, consequently, the decoction is the best form of 
preparation. 

In Abyssinia, the flowers of brayera are said to have been em- 
ployed with great success in tapeworm. It would seem, that the 
taenia solium especially is endemic in many parts of that country, 
— so much so, indeed, that few of the natives are exempt from it. 
They are in the habit of taking the anthelmintic every two months, 
children commencing at the age of five or six years, and continuing 
it through life. Being a drastic cathartic, it cannot be thus taken 
indiscriminately with impunity, and prolapsus ani is often induced 
by it. The dose varies from six to eight drams, and is taken in 
cold water, early in the morning. It usually acts on the bowels 
in about a couple of hours, the worm — or a part of it, being gene- 
rally expelled in the third or fourth evacuation.' 

In Europe, no eitperiments had been made with them until Dr. 
Plieninger, having become acquainted with a missionary from 

' Annalea de Th^rap. Oct 1847. 

• I3ourhardat, Annuaire de Thdrapeutiqae, p. 8, Paris, 1842. 

• Traniiactions of the Med. and Phj^aical Society of Bombay, cited in DuliKn Joam. 
of Mfd. Science, March, 1S45; and in Rankings Hal£>Tearly Abstract, Amer. edit, 
Put L, p. 88. New York, 1845. 



140 BRATERA ANTHKLBONTICA. 

Abyssinia, and heard his description of their wonderful effects^ ob- 
tained some of them from him, which he submitted to Dr. Kurr, 
who detected, on examination, the constituents above mentioned. 
With the rest of the flowers, Dr. Plieninger made trial in two 
cases. He took a handful of the blossofnsy about ^j. or ^iss. and 
boiled them in ^xvi. of water down to one half, adding to the 
strained liquor as much honey as counteracted, in some measure, 
the objectionable taste. This decoction was taken by a delicate 
woman, about thirty years of age, who had previously used the 
extract um Jilicis maris in pilular form, according to Peschier's 
plan, without success. In the course of the day, she passed 
numerous fragments of tsnia, mixed with mucous discharges, with- 
out experiencing any striking inconvenience from the remedy. 
From this time, she remained free from the parasite. 

A robust man, thirty-eight years of age, who had taken large 
quantities of tartrate of antimony and potassa, in consequence of 
violent inflammation of the lungs, — whilst he lay sick of this dis- 
ease, discharged a great many portions of tSBnia, without having 
previously experienced any inconvenience from the presence of the 
entozoon. In July, 1834, he took the same decoction. Since 
then, he has had no appearance of taenia in his evacuations. 

Although but few cases had then occurred in which brayera 
had been administered in European practice. Dr. Plieninger con- 
sidered it a valuable addition to the materia medica, inasmuch as 
it can be administered to delicate persons and children; without 
violence being done to the whole organism, as is the case with 
many of the true anthelmintics; but the article had not been im- 
ported in sufficient quantities into Europe to admit of the neces- 
sary trials for fully testing its efficacy. Since then, a quantity of 
the flowers was brought to Europe by M. Rochet d'Hericourt, 
and trials were made with it in Paris, in the service of MM. San- 
dras and Chomel, which were entirely successful. M. Sandras 
followed the directions given him by M. Rochet d'H6ricourt, 
and having kept the patient fasting the evening before the in- 
tended administration of the remedy, he gave, on the following 
morning, the whole of an infusion made from 20 grammes — 
about five drachms — of the flowers coarsely pulverized, to 250 
grammes — about eight ounces of warm water. At the expira- 
tion of about an hour, the cathartic action of the medicine com- 
menced ; the first evacuations generally contained portions of the 
farasite; and, in the third or fourth, it was found expelled entire.* 
t has also been used successfully in three cases, by Drs. Budd and 
Todd.^ 

So far as the author knows, this anthelmintic has not been intro- 

• Riecke, Op. cit S. 73. * 

> Bouchardat, Annuaire de Th^nipeutique poar 1847, p. 2r>6. Paris, 1847; and 
IlNd. pour 184^^ p. 2:>4. ' Medical Times, April 90, 1850. 



BROMINUM. 141 

duced into this country, where tsnia is rare. Should the plant 
be considered worthy of cultivation, it is said that a supply can be 
readily obtained at Massowah, on the Red Sea. Being of a hardy 
nature, it might bear to be transplanted into Europe or this coun- 
try. Hitherto, the great drawback to the use of Kousso has been 
the difficulty of procuring tt, and its enormous cost. *^ At the 
time when it could be purchased in Paris," says Dr.Pereira,' " its 
price was £1 los. per ounce, or 17s. 6d. per dose. M. Rochet 
d'H^ricourt, the sole holder of the medicine, at the present time, 
refuses to sell any quantity less than his entire stock, at the rate 
of one guinea per ounce. His nephew tells me that his uncle pos- 
sesses 1400 lbs. of it, which, at one guinea per ounce, will cost 
22,400 guineas ! The impossibility of effecting a sale on such 
terms will, I doubt not, ultimately compel the holder to reduce his 
demands to something approaching to reason." 



XLVl. BRO'MINUM. 

Stmomtmbs. Bromium, Bromum, Brominium, Bromineum, BroroiDa, 

Moride, Murina, Bromine. 
French. Br6me. 
Gemuai. Brom, Bromin, Marid, Marin, Stinkstoff. 

This elementary substance was discovered in 1826, by Balard, 
of Montpellier. In its chemical properties it is allied to chlorine 
and iodine; — to the former more than to the latter.^ Balard de- 
tected it whilst occupied in some investigations on the water of 
salt-ponds, and gave it the name bromine — from /3pw/i05, " a stench 
or smell," — on account of its disagreeable odour. It is met with 
chiefly in sea water, and in certain animal and vegetable sub- 
stances that live therein. It has likewise been found in many 
mineral waters, of this and other countries, and especially in salt 
springs — as in those of Salina, by Professor Silliman, and of Ke- 
nawha, by Professor Emmet, ft is in the secondary list of the 
Pharmacopoeia of the United States, (1842.) 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 
Balard's mode of preparing bromine consists in passing a cur- 
jent of chlorine through bittern j after which ether is added, and 
the two liquids are strongly agitated. The chlorine decomposes 
the bromide of magnesium — the form in which bromine exists in 
the bittern — and converts the bromide into a chloride of mag- 
nesium, setting the bromine free. The ether dissolves the evolved 
bromine, the mixture assuming a hyacinth-red colour. The ethe- 
real solution is agitated with caustic potassa^ by which bromide 

1 Pharmaoeatical Joarnal, July, 1850; or. The American Journal of Phannacy, 
Oct 1860. s Glofar, Edin. Mad. and Surg. Joum., July, 1849. 

10 



142 BEOMINUM. 

of potassium and bromate of potassa are generated ; the ether be- 
coming colourless and pure, and fit to be used for dissolving fresh 
portions of bromine. When a sufficient quantity of the bromide 
has been obtained, it is mixed in a retort with peroxide of tnof^ 
ganesBy and acted on by diltUe sulphuric acid, by which the 
bromine is given off. The sulphuric acid sets free hydrobromic 
acid, which, at the moment of its dicnengagement, is deprived of 
its hydrogen by the oxygen of the peroxide of manganese, and 
is thereby converted into bromine. The bromine passes over in 
reddish vapours, and is made to condense under water contained 
in an appropriate receiver. 

M. Bussy^ prefers the following form. The mother waters 
of kdpf {Soude de Varecq^) after iodine has been precipitated 
from them by means of chlorine, contain bromine in the state of 
a metallic bromide, when care is taken to add no more chlorine 
than is required to precipitate all the iodine. To 1250 parts of 
these mother waters^ 32 parts of peroxide of manganese in pow- 
der, and 24 of common sulphuric acid at 66^ are added. The 
mixture is then put into a tubulated glass retort, to which a tubu- 
lated receiver is adapted, and to the Tatter a tube, which dips into 
a flask. The retort and receiver, as well as the tube, must be 
ground so as to fit accurately without lutes or corks, which would 
be destroyed by the chloride. Every thing being arranged, the 
retort is heated until the liquid is made to boil, when the bromine 
condenses in the receiver under the form of red, oily striae, with a 
small quantity of water. The operation must be arrested when 
the red vapours cease to be produced. By slightly heating the 
receiver, without dismounting the apparatus, the bromine may be 
made to pass over into the flask, in which it will condense on 
cooling. The mother waters used in this preparation should not 
be rejected, until it is evident, on the addition of a fresh quantity 
of sulphuric acid and oxide of manganese, that they contain no 
more bromine. 

Bromine, at the ordinary temperature, is a fluid of a blackish- 
red colour, when regarded in quantities, — but of a hyacinth-red 
when placed in a thiq layer between the' eye and the light. Its 
smell is strong, peculiar, acrid and disagreeable, resembling that 
of chlorine. Its taste is acrid. It colours the skin yellow — the 
colour gradually disappearing of itself. Its specific gravity is 
2.966. It is readily set free; and, when volatilized, assumes the 
form of dark-red vapours. It boils at 117^; is sparingly soluble 
in water, and the solution is of a yellow colour. It is more solu- 
ble in alcohol, and still more so in ether. In its chemical relations 
with other bodies, bromine, as before observed, resembles chlorine 
and iodine; but chlorine appears to have more power, and iodine 
less than bromine, — as bromine is separated from all its combina- 

I Journal de Phannadty JanTitr, 1837. 



BROMINUM. 143 

tioos by chloriDe, whilst it decomposes the compounds of iodine, 
and assumes the place of the latter. It forms acids both with 
oxygen and hydrogen. Its test is the production of an orange 
oofour with starch. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN HEALTH. 

Experiments have been instituted to discover the influence of 
brgmine on the animal ecohomy, and especially by Barthez.^ In 
thb respect also it resembles iodine, and, like it, belongs to the 
class of irritant poisons. Twelve grains, dissolved in water, and 
injected into the jugular vein of a dog, destroyed it almost instan- 
taneously. Cough ensued; the respiration and circulation were 
accelerated; the pupils dilated; the male organ was erect; and 
these signs were followed by involuntary discharge of the excre- 
ment, and, at times, stiffness of the upper and lower extremities. 
On dissection, Barthez found the cavities of the heart full of coa- 
gulated blood, and the lungs gorged with the sa^e fluid; in the 
venae cavte there were dark coagula ; and in the stomach and in- 
testines, small, bloody, blackish cylinders, similar to sticks of lunar 
caustic. The same quantity, introduced into the stomach, caused 
death in three or four days, when the (esophagus was tied; when, 
however, the animal was able to vomit, fifty to sixty drops were 
requinte. The poison acts less intensely when it is given in con- 
junction with aliment; it produces coughing, excitement, nausea 
and vomiting. Constant sucking of the tongue was noticed, with 
frequently extraordinary restlessness and anxiety, and debility 
gradually augmenting until death. On opening the body, the 
stomach has been found contracted; the mucous membrane wrin- 
kled, at times softened, and frequently the seat of roundish ulcera- 
tions, of an ashy-green colour. Near the pylorus, Barthez found 
black spots, which could be readily scraped oS* w^ith the back of 
the scalpel, and left gangrenous ulcers exposed. Barthez recom- 
mends magnesia as an antidote to bromine, but he rests his re- 
commendation on a single observation only. Butzke obtained 
similar results from his experiments. In one case, only, in which 
a dog died a few hours after a dose of three drams, he found the 
intestines unchanged, and death could only be ascribed to the 
paralyzing influence of the poison on the nervous system." 

Two series of effects, according to Dr. Glorer, are produced by 
its introduction, in large doses, into the stomach: one, arising from 
the volatilized bromine getting into the fauces and air-passages; 
and, the other, from its corrosive and irritant action on the 
stomach and intestines. Another series, he conceives, may be 
due to its entrance into the circulation. It appears to be more 
irritant when diluted than when pure. 

« De r Action du Brome, Ac, (These) Paris, 1828. Sec, also, Foumct, in Bulletin 
G^ifi^rel de 'J^^raneutique, Fevrier, 183H. 
s Cbmtkon oo PoMoni, 3d edit p. 166. 





144 

The rapoan of lnoaia e do not 9eem to exert 
leoee oo the vorkmen who prepare it.' 

EFFECTS 05 THE ECOSOKT IX DI^IASE. 

Poarcltfr fifst oted both pore bromine and bromide of pots 
for therapeotica] purposes. He found it rerr etBckdom in 
scrofuJCf tsptdallj in <fispernng simmams ttetUimgSy both wLen 
l^eo iotemallj and applied extemallj.* In a case of Terj b^^ 
go'Urtf it vas bigfalj serriceaUe. Accordii^ to Poarche's obser- 
ratiooy it excited heat in the lace, headacb, drroess of the throat, 
kc^f vhicb, howererySooo disappeared. Poarcbe gare it iDtemallj, 
cfilifted vith fort j parts of disdiled vater, beginning with fire or 
six drops of this mixtare, and gradually raising the dose. It has 
also been added in a dilate state to lotions and cataplasms. The 
remedy is not, howerer, much used. 

Magendie frequently administered bromine, but more commonly 
some of its preparations. He prescribed it in caseslo which iodine 
did not appear to exert the proper efficacy, or where the patient 
had become accustomed to its use. The chief diseases in which 
he gare it were scrofula^ amenorrhita, and hypertrophy of the 
veniridet of the heart. It has also been adminbtereil by M. 
Foumet,^ in chronic arthritis^ both mteroally and externally ; but 
his facts, as be himself remarks, were too few to enable him to de- 
duce any general conclusions as to the therapeutical Talue of the 
remedy in those affections. He always gave it in a pure state, in 
the form of mixture, with a solution of gum : and, externally, it was 
applied in the form of ^'alcoholic mixture" to the affected joints. 
The dose was at first two drops in four ounces of the vehicle ; and 
it was gradually increased by two drops at a time, until as much 
as sixty drops were given in the twenty-four hours. 

The ALCOHOLIC MIXTURE, uscd by M. Fournet as an external 
application, consisted, at the commencement, of ten drops of hro- 
mine to an ounce of alcohol: this was augmented daily by five 
drops until it reached one hundred and twenty drops. 

Dr. Glover^ considers a solution of bromine in water an ele- 
gant and useful application in scrofulous j syphilitic^ and specific 
ulcers, as well as in eczematous eruptions. He gives a case of ob- 
stinate tuberculous eruptiony where an ointment of bromine and 
bromide of potassium, — eight minims of bromine, and half a dram of 
the bromide to an ounce of lard effected a cure ; and also, a case 
of sarcomatous tumour of the knee removed by a similar but 
stronger ointment. He thinks that, physiologically, bromine and 
the bromides are nearer the group of chlorine and the chlorides, 
than that of iodine and the iodides. He maintains, that the che- 

> A. Chevallier. AnnaU^fi d*Hygi^ne Publ. &c^ Avn1, 184*2. 

• Bulletin General de lli^rapeutiqae, Mo. 14. 'SO JaUlet, 1837. 

• Ibid. Fdrrier, 1 038. ' EdinL Med. and Sarg. JoamiO. Oct 1843. 



BRUCIA. 145 

mical and physiological relations are alike, and that the same is 
true of the medicinal properties.^ 

The preparations of bromine are described in other parts of this 
volume. 



XLVII. BRUCIA. 

StUoNTMBs. Brucina, Brucinum, Brucium, Caniramium, Caniraminum, 

Pseodangustarinum, Vomicina, Bruciae. 
French. Brucine. 
German. Brucin, Kanimarin. 

This alkaloid was discovered by Pelletier and Caventou, in 1819, 
in the bark of the false angustura — Brucea arUidysenterica. It is 
found also in small quantities in nux vomica, and in St. Ignatius's 
bean. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

An alcoholic extract of false angustura bark is prepared, which 
b dissolved in a large quantity of cold water, and filtered, in ordejr 
to separate the fatty matter. The colouring matter is precipitated 
by acetate of lead; the excess of this is thrown down by sulpho- 
bydric acid gas, and the brucia by an alkaline ba/e, for which 
purpose magnesia may be employed. The precipitate from the 
ma^esia is then washed, dried, and treated with o/coAo/, which lays 
hold of the brucia : this is obtained by evaporation. As brucia is 
somewhat soluble, the precipitate ought not to be washed too much. 
Brucia, thus obtained, is coloured, but it may be procured colour- 
less by forming an oxalate of brucia, and treating it with a mix- 
ture of equal parts of alcohol and ether. The oxalate is thus de- 
prived of its colouring matter; after which it is decomposed by 
magnesia: brucia is thus obtained wholly pure and devoid of co- 
lour. 

Pure brucia is of a white colour, and in regular crystals of the 
form of oblique prisms, having a base representing a paralle- 
lofirram; it has a pearly lustre, very bitter taste, and is soluble in 
500 parts of boiling water, and in o50 parts of cold. In alcohol 
it dissolves readily, from which solution it is obtained in the crys- 
talline form. When exposed to the influence of heat, it melts at 
a temperature very little above that of boiling water. At a higher 
temperature, it is decomposed, and affords the same products as ve- 
getable substances that do not contain nitrogen. With acids, 
brucia forms neutral salts, which differ from the salts of strychnia. 
The sulphate of brucia crystallizes in very fine needles, and re- 
sembles the sulphate of morphia, but it has a much more bitter 
taste. Nitrate of brucia does not crystallize, which constitutes 
an essential difference between brucia and strychnia. With an 

' Edin. Med. and Sur^. JoumaU Oct 1842, and Lond. and Edink Monthly Joaraal of 
Med. 8daooe, Not. IH43, p. lOU. 



146 BRUCIA. 

excess of nitric acid, the salt has a beautiful pearly {nacre) 
aspect. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

Brucia acts energetically on the animal economy in the same 
manner as false angustura, but much more strongly. It is similar, 
in its operation, to strychnia, but is considered to be weaker in the 
proportion of one to ten, according to Pelletier ; one to twelve, ac- 
cording to Magendie ; ^ and one to twenty-four, according to An- 
dral.' It requires four grains to kill a rabbit, whilst half a grain 
of strychnia is sufficient. A tolerably strong dog, to which three 
grains of brucia had been given, was affected with symptoms re- 
sembling tetanus, bu^ did not die. 

Pelletier is of opinion that brucia, or rather the alcoholic extract 
of false angustura, might be substituted in practice for the extract 
of nux vomica ; its operation is nearly the same, whilst there is no 
danger of its acting too violently. Andral has frequently pre- 
scribed it, ajid his deductions are, that it is far more under our 
coutrol than strychnia. Like strychnia, it has been given in cases 
of paralysis with varying success. It would appear to have acted 
most beneficially in that resulting from leai poisonii^. M. Bri- 
cheteau, from his observations od joaan, and ]Vf. Boucluurdat,' from 
his on animals, infer that brucia is more active than is usually ad- 
mitted. In paralysis succeeding apoplexy^ the former employs 
it with much advantage^ and accords with M. Andral in its be'mg 
more manageable than strychnia. He is of opinion, that no be- 
nefit is to be expected from it in paralysis until six months have 
elapsed from the attack of apoplexy. Earlier than this it may 
induce serious effects^ owing to its toxical influence on the cerebro- 
spinal system. He commences with about the sixth of a grain, 
{tin centigramme^ and increases the dose each day by the same 
quantity, so long as no effect is induced. Should convulsions su- 
pervene, it must be discontinued, until the effects are decidedly di- 
minished, when it must be again augmented by a sixth of a^rain 
in the day. M. Bricheteau has found some patients bear as much 
as three grains in the day. Magendie administered it with success 
in two cases of atrophy^ one of the leg, and the other of the 
arm. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 
Brucia, according to Magendie, may be given either in pills or 
tincture, gradually augmenting the dose. Andral raised it from 
half a grain to five grains. Magendie recommends, that the alka- 
loid should always be that obtained from false angustura, — the bru- 
cia of nux vomica being mixed with a portion of strychnia, which 

* Formula ire, &.c^ drs Noaveaux M^dicamens, &c 

* Journal de Phydolo^de Magendie. iii.267, JuiUet, 1823. 

' AnnoairB de Therapeutique, £c, pour 1847, pw 42. Paris, 1847. 



CAINCiB RADIX. 147 

adds to its activity, and renders it difficult to determine the dose. 
The following formulse are recommended by him : — 

Pllnis brneis. 

Pills of brucia. 

B. Brticis pur. gr. xij. 

Confect. rose ^ss. M. exactiss. et fiant pilule xxiv. 

One pUl to be begun with twice a day. Magendie. 

Tlaetnra brneis. 

Tificture of brucia, 

(French, Mcool de Brudne,) 

B. Alcohol (86° Ar6oQ., 8. g. 847,) f 5J. 
Bnicic gr. xviij. M. 

Of this tincture, from six to twenty-four drops may be given, in 
Ibe form -of mixture, in any vehicle. Magendie, 

listnra brneis. 

Mixture of brucia. 
{Potto Stimukms.) 

B. Brocie gr. vi. 

Aque destiluit. f ^iv. 
Sacchar. Jij. M. 

Dose. — A table-spoonful night and morning. Magendit. 



XL VIII. CAIN'C^ RADIX. 

Stkontmbs. Bad. Cbiococcs, R. Cainane, R. Caninane, R. Cahinoe, R. 

Kahincs, R. Serpentaris Braziliensis; Cainca Root. 
Portugttese, Raiz Crasadinha, R. Preta. 
Gtrman^ Caincawurzel. 

The plant which furnishes the root introduced into Europe of 
late years, and which has since become known as a remedial agent, 
is Chiococca anguifugOy of the Family Rubiacese ; Sexual 
System, Pentandria Monogynia.* The shrub grows wild in the 
forest of Brazil, esp>ecially in the province of Minas Geraes, and 
the root is used there against the bites of serpents. This is of the 
thickness of the finger, round, and knotty ; the surface smooth or 
irregularly wrinkled ; the wood tough, and of a whitish colour ; 
the smell disagreeable, especially that of the fresh root ; and the 
taste at first like that of coffee, but afterwards nauseous and pun- 
gent. The bark of the root alone possesses efficacy, the woody 
portion having no action. The bark separates readily from the 
wood; it is thicker on the root itself than on the branches; and, 
on the outside, is of an amber, or brownish yellow green colour ; 
yellower and brighter on the youngest parts ; the epidermis is not 
easily separated. According to the chemical investigations of 

'AftC%i(xxNXi,iDE»7doiNid.WdrtBib.m53l. B«ii 1831 1 and Von Maithii, 
Bpec. Mat Med. Bnal, 1 18. 



148 CAINCJC RADIX. 

Pelletier and Caventou,^ the following are found to be the consti- 
tuents of the bark: — 1. A bitter principle, crystallizable in smalli 
white, silky, shining needles ; inodorous, and very soluble in hot 
alcohol, which communicates to the whole plant a degree of as- 
tringent bitterness, and at the ^me time has an acid reaction mi 
litmus paper. In order to separate this acid, which has been 
termed by those chemists — acidum cahincicum seu cainanieum 
seu cainanium seu cainanuniy German, Caincasaure, Cain- 
ca bitter — in a pure state, the alcoholic extract of the root most 
be dissolved in water, filtered, and precipitated by lime, until the 
fluid loses all its bitterness ; the precipitate is then decomposed by 
oxalic acid, and boiling alcohol or acetic or muriatic acid may be 
dropped into an aaueous decoction of the bark of the root, and, 
in the course of a few days, the acidum cahincicum will separate in 
the form of small crystals. With cahincic acid, prepared in this 
way, however, some colouring matter is still united. 2. A fatty, 
green, nauseous-smelling substance, which communicates to the 

[>Iant its odour. 3. Yellow colouring matter; and 4. A viscid co- 
ouring matter.* 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

The effect of camca root seems to be especially exerted on the 
digestive and urinary organs. It occasions watery evacuations, 
and diuresis. From the experiments, however, of Albers,' made 
on a great number of dropsical patients in the Charity, at Berlin, 
he was induced to deny its diuretic powers, and to place it 
amongst the drastic purgatives, by the side of helleborus niger. 
Wolff was of the same opinion. According to Von Langsdorff,^ 
it is a highly efficacious emmenagogue, possessing, also— to use 
his own language — considerable resolvent virtues, and hence em- 
ployed in dropsies that are connected with obstructions in the 
abdomen. Riecke* asserts that he had occasion to employ it in 
two cases of ascites complicated with induration of the liver. He 
had no expectation of effecting a radical cure, but it afforded no 
palliation; diuresis was not excited, whilst nausea, colic, and diar^ 
rhoea supervened, so that he discontinued it : he gave it in decoc- 
tion. Others have observed the same inconvenience from its use, 
or have found it wholly ineffectual; for example, B. Heyfelder, 
Reinhardt, Bartels,* and others. Riecke suggests the }K)ssibility, 
in these cases, of adulteration of the drug. On the other hand, 
cainca has been highly extolled by Francois, Ribes, Wagner, 
Solieer, Lowenstein,^ &c., but particularly by Von Langsdorff. 

The main diseases in which cainca is recommended, are, 1. Drop* 

> Journal G^n^ral de M6decine, Mai, 1830, and Pbila. Joum of Pbannacy, Ul 165. 
PhOad. 1831. * Journal de Pharmade, xvi. 465. 

' Median. Zeitung. Na iv. Sept 1832. 

* Hecker'a Litter. AnnaL B. iv. 8. 395, and Ruat'a Repertorium, B. xiv. 8. 458. 
' Die neuem Armeimittel, a. a. w. 8. 84. Stuttgart, 1837. 

• OriUe Odd Waltber'a Joamal der Chirufgie, u. a. w. xm. 8. 470. Beitin, 1836. 
^ De Radioe Caince ejuaqiie m moifaM hydropidti TiitulA. BcroL 1S98L 



CAINCJE &ADIX. 149 

sieSf in ivhich many favourable trials have been made by Von 
Langsdorff, Spitta,^ Guddoy, Engler, Frangois, Wagner, Solieer, 
B6ral, Robredo,^ &c. 2. Intestinal wormsy against which it 
appears to act like other drastics. 3. Obstructed menstruation: 
on this subject, however, farther trials are needed. When it ope- 
rates as an emmenagogue, it is probably altogether like cathartics 
that act more especially on the lower part of the bowels, that is, 
b^ contiguous sympathy. 4. M. Francois has recommended it 
highly in catarrhus vesicae^ but the experience of others has not 
confirmed this.^ It may be mentioned, that, in its native country, 
it is used for rheumatic pains ; in a peculiar kind of pica expe- 
rienced by the negroes of South America ; and, as already re- 
marked, against the bites of serpents, 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Cainca is given in various forms — powder, infusion, and 
decoction; and, besides these, a tincture and an extract have 
been made of it. A strup and a wine have also been recom- 
mended. To form the latter, one ounce of the powdered root is 
infused in a pint of wine: the tincture is made with one part of the 
root and eight parts of alcohol at 20^. The alcoholic extract 
18 considered to be the most uniform in strength, and has, there- 
fore, been preferred by many. The syrup is formed by dis- 
solving 5iiss. of the extract in a little alcohol^ mixing this with a 
pint of hot simple syrupy and allowing it to boil for some time, in 
order that the alcohol may evaporate. The dose of the powder is 
from 9j. to 3ss. in the twenty-four hours. It appears, however, 
to be the most ol^ectionable form, and to give rise to unfavourable 
symptoms more ^equently than the others. Opinions vary as to 
whether the infusion or the decoction should be preferred. Ac- 
cording to Caventou and Pelletier, boiling extracts very weU the 
efficacious parts of the root, and there are cases in which the decoc- 
tion has rendered essential service after the infusion had been admi- 
nistered without success. Of the decoction, from f 3j. to f 3iij. are 
given in the day. Of the extract, the dose, in the twenty-four 
hours, is from twenty to thirty grains; of the tincture, f 3j. to f 3ij*^ 

The decoction used by Spitta and others was tnade as follows: 

Veeoetnm radieU eaines. 

Decoction of cainca root. 

B. Caince rad. ^ij. 
Coque cum aquae Oiss. ad dimidiam partem, et cola. 

Dose. — A table-spoonful three times a day. 

Von Langsdorff^ §• Francois, 

> Hecker*! Litlerar. AddaL W. 396. 

s Journal de la Academia de Medicina de Megico, Oct 1836 ; dtod in Brit and For. 
Med. lUnaw, p. 562, Apt 1838. 
' BuDetm G^n^ral de Therapentique. No. 13, JuiDet, 1837. 

* Journal de Chimie M^ioale, Mai, 339-342. Park, 1887. 

• HoMuid nnd Onim*a Joom. a Ixil 8t 9. 



150 CALENDULA OFFICINALIS. 

By Others, the following form has been emplojred : 

B* Cainc. rad. |^j. 
Aqace Oij. 
Coqoe ad dimidiam partem et oola. 

Dose.— Two table-spoonfuls three or four times a daj. 

Engler. 

Dr. John H. Griscom,^ of New York, considers there is a re- 
markable analogy between cainca and apocynum cannaUnum. 

The •/9ctdum cahincicum^ described above, is said to possess 
tonic, cathartic and diuretic powers, and has been used success- 
fully in some cases by Franfois, in the dose of six grains gradually 
increased to fifteen. 



XLIX. CALEN'DULA OFFICINA'US. 

Stmontmbs. CaleDdala Saliva, Caltha Sativa* Yerracaria, Chryaaothe- 
mura, Sponsa Solie, .Single Marigold, Garden ^larigold. 

French, Souci, S. Ordinaire. 

German, Ringelblume, Gemeine Ringelblnme, Tod- 
te nbln ma. 

This plant belongs to Familt Synantherese ; Sexual System, 
Syngenesia Necessaria. It is much cultivated in the gardens of 
southern Europe more especially, and grows wild tbel«. The 
whole plant has a feeble aromatic smell, which is not^ however, 
unpleasant. The taste is bitter and somewhat pungent. It was 
examined chemically by Geiger and Stoltze,' who found in it a pe- 
culiar glutinous matter, readily soluble in alcohol, insoluble in 
ether, and in ethereal or volatile oils, and but little in water : to 
this they gave the name calendulin. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

The term officinalis indicates, that the calendula was formerly 
received into the lists of the Materia Medica as an ** officinal ; 
but it had become entirely obsolete, when Westring,' a Swedish 
physician, in 1817, recalled attention to it. He recommended it 
particularly in cases o{ cancer of the breast and uterus j having 
noticed its good effects by accident. Visiting an aged female, 
who had suffered for a long time under an extremely painful indu- 
ration of one mamma, he found she was able to allay the burning 
pain by the application of the fresh plant. This induced him to 
try it in several cases of cancer ^ and from the results he was led to 
infer, that it is perhaps the best agent that can be employed in 
that frightful malady. He never, however, employed it alone, but 

associated with it other active remedies, so that but little attention 

. 

* Amer. Journal of the Medical Saenoea. for May, 1838, p 55. 

* Berlin. Jahrbi d. Pharmac. B. nl 8. 282. 

' Er&hniiig uber die HeSiui^ der Kicbigncliwttia, a. c w. TiaiMiated from the 
Swediih into Gennan, bj K. Sprengd. HaL 1817. 



CALENDULA OFFICINALIS. 151 

was paid to his i^^commendation ; — a great portion of the efficacy 
of tbe agents employed, being — it was thought probable— ascriba- 
•Ue to the associated articles. 

Some time after Westring's publicatioD, the remedy was used 
by others, and his observations were confirmed. Rudolph* em- 
ployed it with advantage internally, in a case of tnduration of 
tke mamma in a young female; but the acetate of iron was at 
the same time applied externally in solution. Fehr' found it 
highly useful not only in incipient, but in advanced scirrhus: 
Stein praises it in cancer of the indeguments^ (Hautkrebs.) 
He forms ihe expressed juice of the young plant and flowers into 
ao ointment with fresh butter, and applies it once or twice a day 
by means of lint, having previously washed the ulcers with a de- 
coction of the plant. Internally, the calendula is prescribed in the 
form of decoction, made with milk or water, or of a m^llago pre- 
pared from the fresh juice, dissolved in an aromatic water ; or 
BMde into pills. When the salve is applied, a sense of burning 
arises, which speedily becomes absolute pain. This soon, how- 
ever, abates, and almost wholly disappears; and if it be too vio- 
ient, more butter may be added ; the ichorous discharge becomes 
improved; the offensive odour corrected, and in from fourteen to 
iwenty-one days, the ulcer is converted into one of a benign and 
readily cicatrizable character. 

Rust, also, frequently administered the exiractum calendula 
in cancerous ulcers, and as a discutient in chronic indurations, 
jb combination, however, with other efficacious agents. Schnei- 
der affirms, that he prescribed the extract with the best effects in 
induration of the stomach, and in tumefaction and decided 
induration of the glands and uterus. He employed a decoc- 
tion of the flowers and plant in cancer of the uterus^ and found 
it an excellent soothing and discutient agent. Muhrbeck' used 
the extract with eminent success in chronic vomiting; Carter* 
in extremely obstinate vomiting; and De Camp in a case of car^ 
dialgia, where the excitability of the stomach was so great, that 
every remedial agent was rejected before it had opportunity to act. 
Fehr also extols it in am^enorrhcea, in which disease it was ce- 
lebrated with the older physicians; but, as Riecke* has remarked, 
the amount of experience with calendula is vet small— too small 
for us to pronounce whether it merit a fixed place in the lists of the 
materia medica. 

' HafeUod and Osann's Jour, der prakt Heilk. B. IviiL St 1, S. 119. 

* Verhandlungen der serein, aratlich. GeseUschafl der Scbweiz. Jahrg. 1831, and 
Dierbach, in Heidelberger Annalen, B. x. H. 4, S. 501. Heidelberg, 1H34. 

* Hufeland's Journal der prakt Heilk. B. Ixii. St. 5, 8. 128. Rust's Magazin. der 
gcflunnit Heilk. B. xl 8. 3.'>l). 

* London Med. Rep. April, 1826, p. 347. See, also, Link und Osann, in art. Calen- 
dula, in Encyc. Woiterb. u. a. w. B. vl S. 520. BertlSSL • Op. dt S. 101. 



152 CALENDULA OFFICINALIS. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION, 

The extraclum calendulse is contained in the Hanoverian and 

Saxon Pharmacopoeias; in the latter it is directed to be piepared 

in the following manner: — 

B* Calendul. officinal, part. j. 
Aquce part. viij. 

Macerate for twenty-four hours ; then boil for a quarter of an 
hour, and strain forcibly; boil the remainder with tour parts of 
water; mix the two liquors, and, after twenty-four hours' rest, 
evaporate to the proper consistence.^ 

The dose of the extract is different according to different obser- 
vers. Muhrbeck gave four grains five times a day. Fehr allows 
3ij to 3vj. Phobus directs the dose of the extract, prepared ac- 
cording to the Prussian Pharmacopoeia, to be from eight to sixteen 
grains, gradually increasing it to 3ss and more, from two to four 
times a day. It may be given either in the form of pill or mixture. 
Externally, the extract is used in solution, to moisten the dressings 
of ulcers, and to form ointments. The dose of the decoction of the 
fresh plant is f jj. to f Jij. 

The Sardinian Pharmacopoeia has a Conserva florum calen^ 
dulxy made by beating together one part of the flowers and two 
parts of powdered sugar. It has, also, an Jictium florum caUn^ 
dulse, made of one part of the petals digested in four parts of vi- 
negar; and the Wirtemberg Pharmacopoeia has an Unguenium 
florum calendulaSy made of four ounces of the petals boiled in a 
pound of fresh butter, until (he mixture is entirely evaporated. 
This is used as an emollient and resolvent. 

Pilnls ealendnls. 

Pills of calendula. 

B> Ferri subcarb. 
Calend. pulv. 
Extract, calend. kk 3J. 
Mucilag. acac. q. 8. ut fiant pilalae xc. 

Dose. — Five to eight, three times a day, as a soothing agent in 
cancerous ulcers,' Husi. 

B. Hydrarg. chlorid. mil. ^ss. 
Antim. solphor. aur. ^j. 
Extr. calendol. 
c^nii, aa 9ij. M. f pil. pond. gr. ij. sing. 

Dose. — Five pills,, three times a day, as a discutient in chronic 
indurations. Rust. 

lotio extrieti ealendnls. 

Lotion of the extract of calendula. 

B* Extract, calend. 

anthemid. aa 3ij. 

* PhaniMcop^ UniveraeDe, &&, par Jourdan, il 696. 



GALX CHLORINaTA. 1*53 

Solve in 

Aq. lauroceras. f Jij. 
Adde 

Tinct. opii f jj. 

As a dressing wash (Verband wasser) in cancerous ulcera^ 
lions. Rust. 

It is obvious that the precise agency of the calendula cannot be 
tested in any of these formulae, the substances associated with it 
being themselves active agents. In this country, it is never per- 
haps used. 



L. CALX CHLORINATA. 

SmoirTMBS. Calcis Chloridum seu Hypochloris, Oxychloru return Calcii, 
Protochloruretom Calcii, Chloraretum Oxydi Calcii, Bichloruretum 
Calcii, Ozymurias Calcis, Calx Oxymuriatica, Calcaria Chlorata seu 
Chlorica seo Chlorinica, Chlorum Calcarie, Chloretum Calcariae, Chlo- 
rinated Lime, Chloride, Chloruret, Hypochlorite, Chlorite or Oxyinu- 
riate of Lime, Tennant's Bleaching Powder. 

IWficA. Protoxichlorure de Calcium, Oxichlorure de Chaux, Chlorure 
d'Ozide de Calcium, Bichlorure de Chaux, Oximuriate de Chaux, Mu- 
riate Suroxiseo^ oa Oxigene de Chaux, Chlorate ou Souschlorate de 
Chanz, Poudre de Blanchement, Poudre de Tennant. 

^erflMin. Kalkchlorid,Chlorkalk, Chlorigsaurer Kalk, Chlor- 
ealcinmoxyd, Oxydirt Salzsaarer Kalk, Bleichpalver. 

Chlorinated lime is a compound of chlorine and oxide of cal- 
cium. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

It may be prepared either in the dry or moist way. In the 
former case, chlorine is made to act on hydrate of lime in a pul- 
verulent form ; in the latter, chlorine^ in a gaseous state, is passed 
into lime water. For technical purposes, the latter is most used ; 
for pharmaceutical, the former. In the London Pharmacopoeia, it 
is directed to be prepared as follows : — Take of hydrate of lime 
a pound ; chlorine j as much as may suffice ; send in the chlorine 
to the lime in a proper vessel, till it is saturated. Chlorine is very 
easily evolved from binoxide of manganese, mixed with chlorohy- 
dric acid, by a gentle heat.' It is generally, however, prepared 
in large chemical establishments for the use of bleachers, and is 
therefore in the list of the Materia Medica in the Pharmacopoeia 
of the United States, (1842.) 

Chlorinated lime has the appearance of a white, loose powder, 
of a sour, bitterish and somewhat biting taste, exhaling a marked 
smell of chlorine, and dissolving with tolerable facility in water, 
at the same time giving off much chlorine gas.^ Its nature and 

* Brande'g Dictionaiy of Materia Medica, p. 135. Lend. IB.*^. 
s Link, Art Chlor, in Encyc. Worterb. der Median. WinenKbaft, viL 579. Berlin, 
1881. 



154 CALX CHLORINATA. 

composition are a subject of dispute, and hence the term ** chlori- 
nated lime/' which has been adopted by the London, Edinburgh^ 
and United States Pharmacopceias, in place of chloride of lime. 

M. Hunoux Desfontenelles* affirms, that having prepared pills 
of chlorinated lime, extract of opium and honey, they experienced 
a spontaneous combustion a short time afler they were prepared ; 
and he states, that the reaction took place at times whilst the mix- 
ture was being made. He found, that powdered marshmalloW 
root and liquorice, when united with chlorinated lime and honey, 
' produced the same result. It would hence appear that chlorinated 
lime and organic substances ought not to be associated in the same 
prescription. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

The action of chlorinated lime is generally esteemed to be ana- 
logous to that of liquid chlorine ; Hufeland, however, assimilates it 
to that of chloride of calcium. The data have been considered as 
scarcely, perhaps, sufficient to determine its precise operation. It 
appears, however, to act mainly by means of its chlorine, which, 
being loosely combined, is readily disengaged, — all acids, even the 
carbonic, occasioning its separation. It is not much employed in- 
ternally ; but, according to Cima, it occasions slight pains in the 
abdomen, burning in the stomach, and at times diarrhcea. 

As to its internal administration, Cima gave it in cases of scrth 
fulous swellings. By Cloquet, it was used both internally and 
externally in gangrenous ulcers; and by Grafe, Deschamps, 
Graves," and the author m/cetor oris. In a case of pec/oro/ dis^ 
ease, with great fcztor of the breath and expectoration, it was ad- 
ministered by Drs. Graves and Stokes with remarkable benefit — a 
pill of three grains with one of opium being given three times a 
day, and the quantity being increased to twelve grains a day : the 
bed was also sprinkled with a solution of it. It has been used with 
advantage by the author in a similar case; and in gangrene of the 
lungs. By Reid,' it was prescribed in dysentery, and in a bilious 
typhus occurring in summer; by Copland^ in the last stage of 
typhus fever, when the evacuations were highly offensive, given 
in draughts of aromatic water with mucilage. Dr. Pereira* also 
states that he can bear testimony to the good effects of it in bad 
cases of fever ; but the same results were not observed in the fever 
of Edinburgh.^ It was likewise given by Oroh, Cohen, and 
Schlesier^ in phthisis, and by Grafe in gonorrhcea. In none of 

* Jour. (1e (^himie M^dicalef and Soubeiran, Jour, do Pharmacie, Fe^rier, 1 842, p. 121 . 

* Dultlin Hospital Kcports, vol. v. 

" Transactions of the Association of Fellows and Licentiates of the College of Physi- 
cians in Ireland, vol. v. 18:^8. 

* Houlton's Appendix to translation of Ma(^ndie*s Formulary, p. 163. 

* ElcmenU of Materia Medica, Ac, 2d edit p. 593, Lond. 1842; or 2d Amer. edit, 
bv Carson. Philad. 1846. 

' * Chrirtiiion. Dispensatory, p. 242. Edink \M2 
^ Casper's Wocbpnadirift fbr die gesamnite Heilkunde, No. 37, 1838. 



CALX CHLOBINATA. 155 

these cases is it presumable, that chlorinated lime possesses virtues 
not coDtained in liquid chlorine. 

For external use it has been adopted in various cases, and espe- 
dallj in ulcers. According to Trusen, an aqueous solution is 
proper for torpid ulcers of almost all kinds — the phagedenic^ the 
scrofulous J &c In syphilitic ulcers^ it appears to be of use when 
the chancre is sloughing, and eats deeply into the flesb.^ Trusen 
employed a solution formed by rubbing from Siij* to 5iv. with a 
pint of water, pouring off the. supernatant fluid after it had stood 
a quarter of an hour^ and applying it by means of pledgets of lint 
to the ulcer, renewing the application whenever the lint became 
dry. In this way, he found the profuse ichorous secretion from old 
ulcers diminish, the offensive odour abate, and fresh and healthy gra- 
nulations spring up. By the same kind of treatment, phagedenic^ 
herpetic and scrofulous ulcers generally cicatrized speedily and per- 
manently.' Trusen employed, at the same time, crude antimony 
with cathartics; and in all cases he directed strict repose, and re- 
gulated diet. 

Trnsen's observations have been confirmed by many modern 
physicians, amon^t whom may be mentioned Labarraque, Lis- 
franc, Ekl, Lemaire, Heiberg, and Kopp. In ozana^ good effects 
were observed from it by Horner,' Awl,* Heron,* Detmold,** 
and Strathing: and a solution of it, in the form of injection, was 
found serviceable mfistulay by Trusen and Ricord. In cancerous 
ulcersy recourse has been had to it by Heiberg, Labarraque, Du- 
parcque. Martinet, (fcc, and, in all cases, it corrected the offensive 
odour, and, at times, the ulcer 4tself assumed a more favourable 
appearance. Dr. Frohlich ^ used it with advantage in a cancerous 
affection oftheface^ in the strength of one part to sixteen parts 
of water. In such case^ it has been recommended, in order to 
have the concentrated action of the chloride, that it should be 
formed into a paste by admixture with water, and be applied in 
this manner. 

It has been prescribed, also, in cases o( ulceration of the mouth, 
by Kopp, Angelot, Heiberg, &c., applied either in the form of so- 
lution or of a soft paste. In cases of wounds, the application of a 
solution of it has been recommended by many, as by Trusen, Ekl, 
Lisfranc, ^ to promote cicatrization after the inflammation has sub- 
sided. In a case of punctured wound received in dissecting^ 
and when the inflammation was proceeding up the arm with alarm- 

* Mene, in Gazette M^dicale, Feb. 11 , 1832. 

* See, also, Houlton's Appendix to Ma^endie's Formulary, p. 162. 
' Amer Jour, of ihe Medical Sciences, No. xL 

• Ibid. Na xxil for Feb. 18:W, p. 543. • Ibid. Nov. 183(5, p. 271. 

• Holacher'a Annalcn, 1840, Bd. v. Heft. 1 ; cited in Brit, and For. Med. Rev.. Oct 
1841. p. 549. 

'* Mediein. JahrbiJcher dea k. k. osteenrich. Staaten. B. xvii. 8. 168. Wien, 1834. 
' Bulletin G^ii6ral de Th^npeutique, Juillet, 183a 



156 CALX CHLORINATA. 

ing rapidity, and the pain and tension were extreme, the patient 
experienced immediate relief from a solution employed as a lotion, 
combined with the free use of leeches.^ 

Gubian^ has proposed to apply it to prevent pitting from small" 
pox. The maturated pustules are to be opened, and washed with 
a weak solution ; desiccation takes place very promptly, and, it is 
said, no marks or pits are left. 

On account of its antiseptic properties, it has been applied in 
cancrum orisj by Labarraque, Richter, Berndt, and numerous 
others, and in sloughing off tclions of the female organs of gene-' 
ration y of an analogous nature, by Labarramie and Ekl; in hos- 
pital gangrene^ by Percy, Labarraque, Sienmogrodzki, Delpech, 
and Renard; and in gangrene of the scrotumy as well as in ordi" 
nary gangrene^ by Heiberg and Trusen; in all of which it was 
of decided efficacy/ In such cases it may be applied either in the 
form of the paste above mentioned, or in strong solution — ^ij to 
Oj of water. 

In burns of the second and third degree, when they are not 
spread over too great a surface of the body, a solution of chlori- 
nated lime, according to Trusen, markedly diminishes the pain, 
moderates the too great suppuration, and excites, especially in the 
second degree, sound granulations; in the third, speedy separation 
of the dead portions, and in both cases a smooth and firm cicatrix. 
Either a solution united with mucilaginous substances, or a liniment 
prepared of it, may be applied. 

Lisfranc's observations* entirely accord with those of Trusen. 
He applies compresses spread with cerate over the burnt parts; 
the compresses having holes in them so that the burnt surfaces are 
exposed; they are then covered with lint soaked in a solution of 
chlorinated lime, which is kept in situ^ and moistened as it be- 
comes dry. A solution of it, as well as of chlorinated soda, may 
be applied, indeed, with advantage in the first stage of a burn or 
scald; and Mr. Holt ^ affirms that he knows nothing so efficacious 
in a *^ black €ye." Dr. Chopin,' too, affirms, that in wounds pro- 
duced by contusion, laceration, or by the explosion of gunpowder^ 
where there is much pain, speedy and certain relief is produced by 
keeping the dressings constantly wet with a solution of it: he found 
it, as well as chlorinated soda, very serviceable in cases of sore 
nipples. 

In chilblains, it has been used in the form of solution and of 
liniment with advantage, not only in ulcerated chilblains, but 
where the skin was unbroken, by Trusen, Lisfranc, Grafe, and 

* Alcock, Easay on tlie Use of the ChlorureU, &c. London, 1827. 

* Journal de Chiroie MdJicalc, vi. 315. 

* Riecke, Die neuem Arzneimittel.u. «. w. Stuttgart, 1837. 

* Gazette Medkale, Mare 21 lc<35. Sec, also, Bulletin General de Th^rapeatique, 
JuiUet, 1838; and CUnique Chirurgicale de THopital de la Hti6, Para, 1841. 

* UDoet, Apnl 6th, 1834. • Gantte Medkale, Oct 31 , 1836. 



CALX CHLOBINATA. 157 

others. In many cases, however, it has been found advanta- 
g;eous to diminish the inflammation first by the application of 
leeches. In cases of deeper frost-bites it has likewise proved be- 
neficial. 

In salivation caused by mercury, it has been valuable,^ espe- 
cially when administered at the begmning of the increase of secre- 
tion. When the ptyalism has proceeded to a greater extent, 
Tnisen uses, at the same time, sulphureous baths. A collutory of 
chlorinated lime not only diminishes the excessive secretion from 
the salivary glands, but speedily mitigates the sense of burning 
m the mouth, induces the healing of the erosions of the mucous 
membrane, and corrects the mercurial foetor. In such cases, the 
author has frequently employed it with advantage, although the 
affection is not much under the control of medicine. 

In offensive odours from the mouthy arising from cariouS teeth, 
Regnard employed a solution of it, but it excited the salivary 
glands in a disagreeable manner. On the other hand, E. Grafe 
recommends it strongly in this very case, and even in caries, both 
inwardly and externally, as a collutory and tooth powder. In the 
latter form, it is said to remove speedily the tartar and yellow de- 
positions on the teeth. By Chevallier and Kluge, it is strongly 
recommended for cleansing the mouth. The latter gives a formula 
for a collutory, which will be found amongst the prescriptions at 
the end of this article. It effectually cleanses, whilst it does no 
injury to the enamel of the teeth. 

In scarlatina^ a solution of chlorinated lime may be employed 
most advantageously as a gargle, and in the form of ablution to the 
surface." 

In scrofulous swellings of the g/anifc, according to Cima, it 
may be applied with advantage in the form of ointment; and by 
Grafe it is recommended in swellings of the joints. It has like- 
wise been used successfully by WernecK in goitre. 

In several chronic eruptions^ it has been much extolled — as 
in herpes f by Kopp; in i7cA, by Heiberg, Derhei'ms,' Cluzel, Fan- 
tonetti,* Hospital,* Wittzack,' and Napoli.^ Dr. Christison' 
affirms, that he never uses any other remedy in itch; — a solution, 
contammg between a fortieth and a sixtieth part of chlorinated 

> Clliotson, in HouIton*s Appendix to translation of Magendie's Formulary, Amer, 
flditn.lG2. Philad. 1834. 

• Copland, in the Appendix to Houlton'u edition of Magendie's Formulaiy, p. 163, 
8. Jackfon, of Northumberland, (now of Philadelphia,) in Amer. Journal of Medical 
Sciences, zil 26\ and 550, and Ibid, for May, 1»38, p. 5(5. (Dr. J. uses chlorinated 
ftrftj ' Journal de Chimie M^dicale, ii. 575. 

• Bulletin de Th^rapeutique, lti33; and American Journal of the Medical Sdeoces, 
August, m33, p. 53:^ 

• Amer. Journal of the Medical Sciences, Nov. 1834, p. 240 (extracted.) 

• Casper's Wochenschrift, Feb. 4. 1837, 8. 79. 

' Joum. de Chimie Med., cited in Amer. Jour, of Pharmair, July, 1^41, p. 172. 

• DkpenMttory, Amer. edit by R. E. Griffith, p. 302. Philad. 1848. 

11 



158 CALX CHLORIKATA. 

]ime, applied five or six times a day, or continuously with wet 
cloths, aihys, he say§, the itching in the course of twenty-four 
hours, and generally accomplishes a cure in eight days. Hfe has, 
also, found the same lotion useful in most other eruptions attended 
with itching, which symptom it allays even where it does not re- 
move the disease. In pruritus puaendi muliebrisy it has beea 
advised by Darling; and in tineay by Trusen, Roche, Cotterean, 
Kopp, and Ebermeier. In the last disease, it is applied in the 
form of liniment ; in the others, in solution ; but in the itch often 
abo in the form of ointment. Michaelsen recommends the follow- 
ing method of treating itch : Take of chlorinated lime from two to 
four ounces, according to the degree in which the disease exists, 
and the length of time it has been in the system ; put this in a 
common flask or bottle full of rain or river water, so that as much 
as possible may be dissolved. In using it, the patient mast shake 
the bottle well, in order that some of the undissolved lime may be 
taken up. With this he washes the parts affected three or four 
times a day. Every third or fourth day, when the skin becomes 
somewhat rough or irritated, he is made to take a tepid bath, or 
to wash himself with warm soap and water; and this until the cure 
is accomplished. The internal management is the same as in other 
plans of treatment. In the case of young children, the mixture 
must of course be weaker — about one ounce to a pint of water. 
By this plan, the patient, it is said, is entirely cured, without any 
unpleasant concomitants, in from seven to ten days. 

Chlorinated lime has likewise been applied in purulent ophthal" 
mia. Varlez* cured contagious blennorrhoea of the eye, by 
dropping upon it a solution of it. Colson, Delatte, and Reynaud* 
also saw good effects from it, both in acute purulent ophthalmia^ 
and in chronic ophthalmia with granulations ^ obscurity of the 
cornea^ and especially in copious secretion from, the Meibomian 
glands, Guthrie^ applied a solution successfully in three cases 
of ophthalmia neonatorum; and Pereira^ advises a weak solu- 
tion in the same cases. Farvagnie used it beneficially in scro- 
fulous and catarrhal ophthalmia,^ 

Dr. Radclyffe Hall** has treated purulent ophthalmia^ both in 
the adult and in children, with success, by a saturated solution. 
His plan of using it is as follows. The eyelids are slowly and 
gently separated, until the cornea can be seen, when that is prac- 
ticable ; and all secretion is wiped away with a fine, soft sponge. 
A large, bushy camel's hair pencil, charged with the strong solu- 

' Cite^ in American Joamal of Med. Sciences, L 459. 
' Journal fiir Chirurgie, u. a. w. B. xiv. H. 4. 

* Medical and Physical Journal, Nov. 1 627. 

* Elements of Mat Med. 2d edit, i. 593, Lond. 1842; or, 2d Amer. edit bj J. Car- 
son, Philad. 1846. 

* Verfaandlung. der vereinigt antlich. Gesellschaft der Schweiz. Jahr. 1929. Zarich, 
1830. * Prorincial Med. and Sui«. Journal, Dee. 1844. 



CALX CHLORINATA. 159 

ttoDt 19 then insinuated beneath the upper eyelid, and swept round 
the front of the eye; the pencil is again charged with the solution, 
and applied to the lower eyelid everted. Unless plenty of the 
fluid be thus applied, it will be less effectual, but equally painful. 
There is considerable pain, of a smarting, burning qharacter, for 
half an hour or longer, and the already swollen eyelids become 
still more tumid. In a few hours, a serous discharge oozes out 
from between the eyelids, and the swelling partially subsides. 
This is followed by a secretion of matter; but, after two or three 
applications of the solution, it is in perceptibly diminished quan- 
tity, and the discharge gradually loses its characteristic yellow 
colour, and is seen in flakes on opening the eyelids. After three 
or more applications, the eyelids no longer swell, and the pain is 
much less. As the inflammation lessens, the eyes must be kept 
clean with warm water, and matter must never be suffered to 
collect beneath the upper eyelid; a little spermaceti ointment is 
smeared on the edges of the eyelid, and the strong solution is ap- 
plied once in every twenty-four hours, until the secretion ceases to 
be in the least degree puriform. The longest period required for 
the cure was a month ; the shortest, four days. 
, It has likewise been employed advantageously in other bleri' 
narrhosas besides the one mentioned, and especially in the gonor^ 
rhctal? Grafe, of Berlin,' aflSrms, that he succeeded with it 
when copaiba and cubebs had failed. He used it both in the form 
of pill, made as described hereafter, and of injection — the injection 
being made by dissolving gr. xxiv. in f ^vj. of water^ and add- 
ing 3S8. of wine of opium. His observations are confirmed by 
Dr.Radclyffe Hall,^ who observes, that in the treatment of diseases 
attended with a contagious discharge, it is desirable not only to 
lessen the inflammatory action which causes the secretion, but, at 
the same time, to alter the contagious character of the matter 
secreted; and he advises chlorinated lime as capable of fulfilling 
these indications. In the first stage of gonorrhoea^ before the 
discharge has become completely puriform, or the scalding great, 
a single injection of about two fluidrams of a saturated solution 
in water, will always, he says, put a stop to the disease. In the 
second stage, where there is a considerable discharge of pus, and 
more pain, several injections are required. In gleet y also, pro- 
vided the discharge be not kept up by some structural change 
in the urethra, the strong injection is useful, but not to so 
striking a degree. The effects of injecting this strong solution 
are,~sharp pain, and often erection for the moment; slight pufiS- 
ness and eversion of the orifice of the urethra, and tenderness 

* Alcock, Enay on the Uae of Chlorurets, &c. Lond. 1827. 

• American Joomal of Medical Sciences, and Amer. Journal of Pharmacy, 2d aeriea, 
vol il 86. Pbilad. 183t^. See, also, M. Rounf, Balletin G^-n^ral de Th^rap. JanT. 1842. 

*Op.cit 



160 CALX CHLORINATA. 

on pressure, with a feeling of unusual iirmness for two or three 
inches d6wn the corpus spongiosum, where these did not already 
exist. In a short time the pain subsides, and in a quarter or half 
an hour, a serous discharge issues from the mouth of the urethra. 
Occasionally, oedema of the prepuce, with its attend^t sense of 
numbness in the part, ensues. There is scalding, but, usually, not 
to any very great degree, for the first two or three times of pass- 
ing the urine, which may "be, in a great measure, obviated by in- 
jecting a little oil of almonds a short time previously. In al)out 
eighteen or twenty-four hours, the lips of the urethra are found 
to be separated by a clot of firm, yellow pus. This is removed 
by the stream of urine, and may, or may not, form a second time. 
If the disease be only in its first stage, it will now, according to 
Dr. Hall, be cured; but if more established, the injection will 
have to be repeated as often as the peculiar tingling sensation and 
gonorrhoeal secretion reappear. In this case, the small, firm clot 
is not formed ; but, in its stead, there is a discharge of more fluid 
pus. The number of injections, and, consequently, the length of 
time required for cure, depend chiefly upon the anterior duration 
of the disease. In the acute stage of a first attack, where both 

Eain and discharge are considerable, Dr. Hall has never seen any 
arm from employing this strong injection, — using, at the same 
time, mild aperients, tartrate of antimony and potassa and opium 
internally, enjoining perfect rest and abstinence, and fre(^uently 
washing out the urethra with some weak, astringent solution, as 
that of acetate of zinc, formed by the double decomposition of sul- 
phate of zinc and acetate of lead. On the contrary, the course of 
the disease ha^ appeared to be materially shortened. When the 
inflammation is subacute, but the discharge still purulent, as in 
persons habituated to the disease, or after a certain period of a 
first attack, copaiba or cubebs have been given in the usual way, 
but the injection has been manifestly of service. In gleet ^ a sin- 
gle injection has sometimes cured, «fter the failureof almost every 
other kind of injection. More frequently, several injections have 
been required. In a few instances, the chlorinated lime has 
wholly failed ; but, in these cases, no other injection has succeeded 
afterwards. 

But one of the most important of the applications of chlorinated 
lime is as an antiseptic and disinfecting agent. ^ It is admirably 
adapted for preventing and checking putrefaction, and for cor- 
recting the offensive odour of parts already putrefied:* and hence 
its application is most useful in anatomical investigations." Some 
time before dissection, the body may be enveloped in a cloth 
wetted with a solution of it, (Ca/c. chlorin, Jss., .^qvse Oj.,) 
which must be kept wet by sprinkling it from time to time: in 

' I^Abanraqiie on the Use of the Chlorides of Soda and Lime, trandatsd bj Jacob 
Porter. Mew Haven, 1821). ^Alcock, Op. cit ' Magendie, Fonnulaire, ^lc 



CALX CHLOBINATA. 161 

this manner the offensive odour is speedily corrected. It is 
equally well adapted for purifying the air of the wards of hospi- 
tals, jails or ships; a little of the solution being sprinkled, from 
time to time, on the floors; or shallow vessels, containing it, being 
placed in different parts of the room. It is used, moreover, for 
neutralizing contagious miasmata dispersed in the air, or contained 
in clothing, furniture, &c., care being taken, in all these cases, 
that due ventilation be practised. It has been properly doubted, 
however,* whether its use be productive of any advantage in pre- 
venting the spread of infectious, contagious, or epidemic diseases. 
It has been affirmed, indeed, to be positively injurious, by dete- 
riorating the atmosphere, and in this there may be truth, unless 
the precautions, mentioned above, be taken. In various cases, in 
which such diseases have prevailed, it has destroyed all offensive 
odour, — acted, in other words, as an antibromic or deodorizer, — 
but the extension of the malady has not been prevented.' 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Chlorinated lime has been given internally both in the form of 
pill, solulion and Iroches, the dose being from gr. ij. to gr. vj. 
four to six times a day. Externally, it is generally applied in 
solution of different strengths, (from Z'y to 3iv. to eight ounces of 
water) — being decanted to remove the particles of lime from it, 
unless where it is considered advisable to employ the turbid solution. 

In cases of very olSTensive evacuations from the bowels, ten or 
fiileen grains may be added to a common enema. It is, likewise, 
applied m the form of ointment, and of liniment, and also of paste 
made by admixture with water. 

The following forms have been given for its administration:^ 

Troehiici caleii ehlorinats. 

Lozenges of chlorinated lime. 
H. Calcis chlorin. gij. 

Sacchar. ^^iij. 

Amyl. 3j. 

Tragac. 3J. 

Carmin. gr. iij. 
M. Fiant trochisci. pond. gr. iij. sing. 

One of these to be taken three or four times a day, and allowed 
to dissolve in the mouth, in cases oifcetor oris. Deschamps, 

HlRtora ealeii ehlorinats. 

Mixture of chlorinated linie. 
B. Calcis chlorin. 3j. 
Mist, amygd. f ^vij. 
Syrup, acaciae f ^j. M. 
A table-spoonful every three hours in gonorrhoea, — E. Grafe.* 

' OlMervationfl on the Chloridefl and Chlorine as ** disiniecting agents," and as Preven- 
tWes of (/holera, by H. Bronson. Boston, 1832. See, also, American Journal of the 
Medical Sciences, for Feb. 1833, n. 481 ; Albers. in Ixmdon Med. Gaz. viii. 410. (as 
to its ineflScacy in cholera;) and Pereira, Elements of Mat. Med., dec., 2d edit., i. 591. 
Loud. 1942; or 2d Amer. edit, by Dr. Canon, PhUada. 184& > Pereira, Ibid. p. 592. 

' Riecke, Op. dt S. 94. * Joiunal fiir Chirurgie, u. i. w. B. xvr. St. 2. 



162 CALX CHLOBI9ATA. 

Pilils ealeii eklorinats. 

Pills of chlorinated lime. 

&• Calcis chlorin. 3j. 
Ext. opii gr. ix. 
Mocilag. acac. a. 8. 
Divide in pilulas Vir. 

Dose. — One, every two or three hours, in gonorrhoea^ gra- 
dually increasing the dose until eight, ten or twelve are taiien 
every hour. Grd/e, 

Collntoriim caleii eklorinats. 

Collutory qf chlorinated lime. 

B. Calcis cblorin. srs. xv. ad 388. 
Macil. acac. f Ij. 
Syrap. anranU f ^88. M. 

A little of this solution to be applied by meads of a mop of 
charpie to xdcerM in the mouth. ^ngelot. 

B. Calci8 chlorin. spij. 
AqosD defttillat. 
Alcohol, aa. f 5ij. 
01. rose g**- iv. 
Solve et filtra. 

Chevallier. 

A tea-spoonful of this solution is mixed with a glass of water, 
and used in fcetor oris. According to Riecke,^ an analogous 
nostrum has been sold at a high price under the name — Pneu* 

tnokatharterion . 

' R. Calci8 chlorin. 3J. 

Solve, leniter terendo, in 

Aqua destillat. Ovj. 
tunc adde 

Alcohol. (.830) f 3viij. 

Mist, reponatnr in loco frigido per horas xxiv.; tunc filtretur et reserv. 
in lagen& bene obturate. (*^ Let the mixture be put aside in a cold place 
for twenty.four hours; then let it be filtered and kept in a well stopped 
vessel.'*) 

It has been recommended that the mouth should be rinsed with 

this after the teeth have been brushed. — Freyburg von Kluge. 

R. Calcis chlorin. Jss. 
Solve exactiss. trituratione in 

Aq. f iij. 
et post limpid, clarificat. admisce 

Alooholis f ^ij. 

01. ros« g«*- IV, M. 

The mouth is rinsed, in cases of salivation^ with a mixture 
made by adding a tea-spoonful of the solution to a glass of water. 

Trusen. 

The Pharmacopoeia of Sweden has an antiscorbutic collutory ^ 
called Linctus ad stomacacen seu oxymuriatis calcici^ which 
18 formed as follows: 

iOpidtS.94. 



CALX CHLORINATA. 163 

B. Solat. calcis chloriD. 368. 
Aqu», 
Mollis, aa. ^vj. M. 

Dentifrieium ealeli chlorinats. 

Dentifrice of chlorinated lime. 

B. Calcis chlorin. in palv. sr. iv. 
Coralline rubre 31J. M. 

A new tooth-brush should be slightly wetted, then dipped in 
this powder, and rubbed over the teeth. Employed to give their 
natural colour to teeth. Magendie. 

Solotio ealeii eklorinatie. 

Solution of chlorinated lime. 

B. Calcis chlorin. 5iij. 

Solve in 

Aquie destiU. Oj. 

Adda 

Tinct. opii crocat, vel 

Vini opii f 5J. ad f a^ij. M. 

Applied io frost-bites. Trusen. 

B- Calcis chlorin. Jss. 

Tare invicem at sensim affunde 

Aq. (sen Aq. rose) Oj. 
Et post clarificat. limpid, admisoe 

Mucil. acac. (sea sem. cydon.) Jij« 

Applied, by means of linen rags, in cases of bums. — Trusen. 

B. Calcis chlorin. ^ij. ad 3iij. 
Aquae Oj. Solve. 

To be applied, by means of rags kept constantly wet, in cases 
o{ hospital gangrene; the mixture bemg shaken. 

Bust 4r Kluge. 

B. Calcis chlorin. ^iij. 
AquiB destillat. Oj. 
Solve et cola. 

Used as a lotion in cases of itch on the thighs, legs and arms, 
twice or thrice daily. In general, six or eight days are sufficient 
to effect a cure. Magendie. 

The disinfecting liquor of LabarraquCy Liqueur dksinfec- 
tante de Labarraque^ is made by adding ten parts of water to 
one part of chlorinated lime divided in a mortar; suffering the 
solution to settle, and then filtering. 

Collyrium calcis cklorinats. 

Collyrium of chlorinated lime. 

B* Calcis chlorin. gr. iv. ad vj. 
Vin. opii ni^x. 
Mucilag. acac. f ^iss. 
A^. rosae f Jij. M. et filtra. 

To be dropped on the eye, in cases of catarrhal and scrofu- 
lous ophthalmia. Farvagnii. 



164 CANNABIS INDICA. 

Injeetlo ealeii ehlorinats eompoiita. 

Compound injection of chlorinated lime. 

B. Calcis chlorinat. 3ii. 

Decoct, kramer. f 5xiij. M. 

Half an ounce of this to be injected into the nose three or four 
times a day, in cases of ozasna. Detmoldy of Hanover. 

Cataplaima ealeii ehlorinats. 

Cataplasm of chlorinated lime. 

B. Calcis chlorin. 

Sodii chlorid. aa. Jss. 

Aques destill. Oss. 

Farine sem. lia. q. s. at fiat cataplasma. 

Used in cases of scrofulous swelling of the Joints. Grafe. 

IlBgDentum ealeii ehlorinats. 

Ointment of chlorinated lime. 

B* Calcis chlorin. 3J. 

Adipis ^j. M. et fiat UDguentum. 

To be rubbed in, in cases of scrofulous swellings. Cima. 

B* Calcis chlorin. 38s. 

Adipis ^j. M. et f, unguent. 

Used in goitre. Wemeck. 

B* Adipis ^j. 
Sodae borat. 
Calcis chlorin. aa. 3J. M. exactissimd. 

In cases of chilblains. Trusen. 

B* Sulphuris Jiss. 

Calcis chlorin. bene tritnr. Jij. 
• Adipis Jx. M. 

In itchy morning and evening. Hospital. 

Linimentum ealeii ehlorinats. 

Liniment of chlorinated lime. 

B* Calcis chlorin. 388. 
Tere in mortario vitreo et sensim afi'unde 

Aq. rose (seu fontane) f ^j. 
£t post, limpid, ciarificat. admisce 

01. amygd. fgj. 

To be applied, by means of a pencil, in cases of tinea capitis. 

Trusen. 



LI. CANNABIS INDICA. 

Stnontmbs. Indian hemp, Guojah, Haschisch. 
French. Chanvre Indien. 
German, Hanf. 

Cannabis, which grows in India, and has been described by 
some botanists under the name Cannabis Indica^ does not appear 



v 



CANNABIS INDICA. t65 

to possess any specific differences from the common hemp, Canna^ 
his saiiva; and accordingly by many botanists they have been re- 
garded as identical.^ 

The term ^'Indian hemp'' has long been assigned, in the United 
States, to Apocynum cannabinum : this has given occasion in Eu- 
rope, and occasionally in this country, to confusion in regard to 
the two articles, which are very distinct in their natural and me- 
dical characters." 

The narcotic effects of cannabis have been long known to the peo- 
ple of Southern Africa, South America, Turkey, Egypt, Asia Mi- 
nor, India, and the adjacent countries of the Malays, Burmese, and 
Siamese, by whom it is used in various forms to induce intoxica- 
tion. It is, likewise, extensively employed in popular practice in 
Tarious diseases. In Western Europe its use is unknown, and it 
is questionable, whether the hemp of that region or of this coun- 
try be possessed of the same properties. Dr. O'Shaughnessy, of 
Calcutta, states, that the extraordinary symptoms produced by the 
oriental plant depend upon a resinous secretion with which it 
abounds, and which seenos to be wholly absent in the European 
plant. The absence of the resinous secretion, and consequent want 
of narcotic power, he ascribes to difference of climate. M. de 
Courtive^ has submitted to analysis cannabis procured from Al- 
giers, or from Indian seeds reared in France. He finds the active 
principle to reside in resin, which he extracted by a complicated 
process of maceration and the action of alcohol. From 9 to 10 
parts of this resin — cannabine — were procured from 100 parts of 
the plant: the Algerian article furnishing it in greater abundance; 
and he affirms, that a grain and two-thirds, or even half the quan- 
tity, produced in some temperaments an equal effect with half a 
dram of the thick extract. The Cannabis sativa of Italy fur- 
nished an active but much weaker resin. The resin obtained by 
M. de Courtive is of a deep greenish-brown colour, of an aromatic 
but nauseous odour, and of a hot, acrid, and enduring taste. It is 
soluble in cold ether, alcohol, and volatile oils; insoluble in water 
and dilute alcohol. 

The Messrs. Smith, of Edinburgh, satisfied themselves that the 
resin concentrates in itself the whole properties of the plant. The 
following is their mode of preparing it. Digest bruised gunjah 
in successive portions of warm water until the expressed water 
comes away colourless, and again for two days at a moderate heat 
in a solution of carbonate of soda^ in the proportion of one part 
of the salt to two of gunjah. Colouring matter, chlorophyll and 

' Royle, Mat. Med. and Tberap., Amer edit by J. Carson, p. 551. Philad. 1847, 
and Pereira, Elements of Materia Medica, 2d edit p. 1066. Lond. 1842. 

* Fane, in Lond. Med Oaz.. May 5, 1843, p. 20'J. 

• BoDchardat, Annuaire de l*h^rapeutique, pour 1849, p. 52. Paris, 1849; and Ran- 
--'■ Half yearly Abstract, Tiii. 214, Amer. edit PhUad. 1849. 



166 

inert concrete oil, being thos refnoved, expres and wash the resi- 
doiim, dry it, and exkaot it bj percoIatioB with rectified SfiiiL 
Agitate with the tincture fniii of iime contaimng an ounce of 
lime for ererj pound of eunjah: and, after filtrationy throw down 
excess of lime with a littK sulphmrie add. Agitate with the filr 
tered liquor a little animal ckarcoaiy which is afterwards to be 
remoTed by filtration. Distil off most of the spirit: add to the 
residual tincture twice its weight of water in a porcelain basiD» 
and let the remaining spirit eraporate gradoally. Lastly, wash 
the resm with firesh water till it comes away neither acid nor faitr 
ter ; and dry it m thin layers. Dry gunjah yields six or seven 
per cent, of it ; and its strength as a narcotic corresponds with 
this proportion.^ 

In certain seasons and in warm countries, a resinous juice ej^ 
udes, and concretes on the leaves, slender stems and flowers of 
cannabis. Thb constitutes the ehurrus of Nipal and Hindoo* 
Stan, and in it resides the powers of all the preparaticms of henp. 
This resin — cannabine, hasckUchin^ — is very soluble in aloohol 
and ether; partially soluble m alkaline, but insoluble in acid, aolih' 
tions. When pure it is of a blacldsh-gray colour; it is hard at 90^ 
of Fahrenheit, but softens at higher temperatures, and fuses readi- 
ly. It is soluble in the fixed and in several volatile oils. Its odoor 
is fni<rrant and narcotic; taste slightly warm, bitterish and acrid. 
The dried hemp plant, which has flowered, and from which the 
resin has not been rembved, is called (runjah or Haschieh: It is 
made into bundles of 24 plants each. These bundles are 2 feet in 
length, and 3 inches in diameter.* It yields to alcohol twenty jDer 
cent, of resioous extract, composed of the resin — ehurrus — and 
green colouring matter. The Gunjah is used for smoking. The 
larger leaves and capsules, without the stalks, constitute iSUAee, 
Suhjee^ or Ban^y which is used to form with water an intox^ 
eating drink. When the plant is distilled with a large quantity of 
water, traces of volatile oil pass over, and the distilled liquor has 
the powerful narcotic odour of the plant^ 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

Cannabis Indica, raised in India, appears to have the greatest 
activity. Mr. Donovan made numerous experiments with hemp 
cultivated by himself, and was satisfied that domestic hemp is des- 
titute of the principle ^^ which renders the Indian plant so desira- 
ble an extract to the voluptuous people of the East." 

The effects of this remedy would appear to have been well 
known to the Arabian and Persian physicians of both modem and 

» Chrutuna, Dnpematory, Amer. edit p. 973. Ptiflad. 1 84a 
' Bouchardat, Annaaire de Thenpeutique, pour le50, p. 10. 

• Ballard and Garrod, Elements of Mat. Med. and Tberap.. jx 413. Lond. 1845. 

* For tbe hi^ory of the Haachkch, see Moreao, Lourvioar and BoodMidat, in Boa- 
chardat, Annoaire poor 1B47, p^ 11. Paiw, 1647. 



CANNABIS INDICA. 167 

ancient periods; but the first person, who seems to have well 
tested its properties was Dr. O'Shaughnessy.^ In his various ex- 
perimentSy he did not observe the least indication of pain, or any 
degree of convulsive movement. They all, be affirms, *Med to 
one remarkable result, — that while carnivorous animals and fish, 
dogs, cats, swine, vultures, crows, and adjutants invariably and 
speedily exhibited the intoxicating influence of the drug, the gra- 
miDiTorous, — such as the horse, deer, monkey, goat, sheep, and 
oow, — experienced but trivia] effe<As from any dose that was admi- 
aistered." Encouraged by these results, he felt no hesitation as 
to the perfect safety of giving the resin of hemp an extensive trial 
ill cases in which its apparent powers promised the greatest degree 
of utility. The general effects observed on man were alleviation 
of patD in most cases, remarkable augmentation of the appetite, 
aphrodisia, and great mental cheerfulness. The more violent ef- 
fects were a peculiar form of delirium, and a cataleptic state. 

Under the influence of fourteen grains of the resinous extract 
taken at bed-time, Mr. Donovan* awoke early in the morning, with 
a rush of strange sensations through his head, accompanied by a 
crackling and smging noise, and a vibratory motion through the 
whole body. These gradually subsided, and whilst dozing off, he 
thoi^ht an explosion took place in his head, followed by the same 
nishmg noise and vibration as before, and afterwards by a strange 
metallic sound. Various other noises succeeded. His sense of 
tooch and feeling had gradually become more and more obtuse, 
QDtO at length he lost all feeling, unless he pinched himself se- 
Terely. " The eflPects," says Mr. Donovan,t" were now at their 
lieight, and the consequences were surprising. I absolutely lost 
the consciousness of having a body, and my corporeal existence, 
appeared to be comprised within the head, and a small portion of 
my chest near the throat: in these spots I felt as much alive as 
ever, but all other parts were without feeling, and, to my percep- 
tion, annihilated, My intellect was not in the least disturbed; 
memory was as good as ever. I reasoned well enough ; was con- 
scious of external objects as in perfect health ; but I had some no- 
tion that if I gave way to sleep, I should never wake in this world ; 
yet, strange to say, I felt perfectly resigned to this sudden termi- 
nation of existence.'' Similar phenomena have appeared in others 
from a much smaller dose.' 

On trying an alcoholic extract, sent to Dr. Christison* by Mr. An- 
drew Robertson of Calcutta,' for toothache, he found, that about 

* On the Preparationfi of Indian Hemp, or Gonjah, (Cannabis Indita^) &&, Cal- 
cutta. 1839; and Brit and For. Mad. Rev., July, 1840, p. 2'<24. 

s Dublin Joomal of Med. Science, Jan. ]»45. * Op. dt 

' See the author's General Thenipeutica and Mat Med. 4th edit i. 38a Philad. 1850. 

* Op. cit p. 973. 

* For an account of this extract, see Phannaceutkal Journal, cited in Aroericui Jour- 
nd of Pharmacy, for August, 1847, p. 195. 



168 CANNABIS INDICA. 

four grains, taken at three A. M., caused, in an hour, cessation of 
pain, a pleasant numbness io the limbs, giddiness, a rapid succ^s-^ 
sion of unassociated ideas, and impossibility to follow a train of 
thought, frequent intervals of sleep, and slight incnease in the force 
of the pulse. Next morning there was an ordinary appetite, much 
torpidity, great defect and shortness of memory, extreme apparent 
protraction of time, but no peculiarity of articulation or other ef- 
fect, and these symptoms lasted until two P. M., when they en- 
tirely ceased in a few minutes after taking lemonade. The results, 
however, of different observers, in regard to this agent, are by no 
means in accordance. Whilst some believe it capable of replacing 
opium, where the latter disagrees, others have found it fail where 
opium had failed. Dr. Lawrie, of Glasgow,^ has reported its ef- 
fects in twenty-six cases, from which he drew the following con- 
clusions. First. It seems to belong to that class of narcotics, 
which rapidly induce excitement and intoxication, followed b^ 
sleep — neither sound nor refreshing. Secondly. In a full dose it 
acts powerfully on the heart, causing palpitation, and a rapid, 
weak, intermittent pulse; and on the nervous system, producing 
delirium, coma, convulsions and dilated pupils. Thirdly. Its ef- 
fects are generally transitory. In one case, however, the intoxi- 
cation and dilatation of the pupils lasted nearly forty-eight hours. 
Fourthly. It is a very uncertain agent, in some cases producing 
the most violent and seemingly dangerous symptoms; m others, 
being nearly inert. Fifthly, It very frequently causes vomiting, 
which, whether it occur spontaneously, or from emetics, very 
speedily relieves \i% unpleasant, and perhaps dangerous effects. 
Sixthly, Applied around the eye, it does not dilate the pupil. 
Seventhly. It exerted little influence on the few patients to whom 
it was given in the form of enema. Eighthly, He does not think 
it a valuable addition to our narcotic medicines. In very few cases 
did it act as an agreeable soporific and anodyne. In none did it 
succeed when opium had failed ; and in one case only was it pre- 
ferred to opium. He does not think it is to be trusted to. 
Ninthly. So far from acting generally as an anodyne, its effect 
was so disagreeable, that the majority of those who took it once, 
only did so a second time on compulsion, and this was the more 
remarkable, as the patients on whom he experimented belonged to 
a class to whom stimulants of all kinds were familiar, and who 
would greedily swallow opium and spirits to an unlimited amount. 
Tenthly. It seemed useful in two cases oi subacute rheumatistn; 
and, lastly, it caused an immediate craving for food, and, in a few, 
permanently increased the appetite. 

Professor Miller,' of Edinburgh, believes cannabis to be compa- 
ratively valueless as an anodyne, as well as hypnotic, in ordinary 

I Lond. and Gdinb. Monthly Jouroal of Medical ScieDoe, Nov. 1844, p. 497. 
* Ibid. Jan. 1845. 



CANNABIS INDICA. 169 

circumstances. Its virtue seems to him to consist in a power of 
controlling inordinate muscular spasm. This it exhibited in a 
case of traumatic tetanus reported by him. Many cases have 
been published, in which its anti-convulsive power was confirmed. 
In opposition, however, to Professor Miller, Dr. Clendinning* has 
no hesitation in affirming, that its exhibition has usually, and with 
remarkably few substantial exceptions, been followed by manifest 
effects as a soporific or hypnotic, in conciliating sleep; as an ano- 
dyne, in lulling irritation; as an antispasmodic, in checking cough 
and cramp; and as a nervine stimulant, in removing languor and 
aoidety, and raising the pulse and spirits; and these effects have 
been observed by him in both acute and chronic affections, in 
jonng and old, male and female. 

Dr. Corrigan^ believes, that the action of cannabis is primarily 
on the motor nerves; its influence he inclines to think being trans* 
mitted along these to the sensorium, and nerves of sensation. 
Speaking of its peculiar advantages as a sedative, he affirms, that 
even in over-doses it does not produce the dry tongue, or the de- 
rangement of the digestive organs, which occasionally follows the 
use of opium. Its effects on different persons, however, he re- 
marks, are very different. In the case of a lady who had long 
suffered from neuralgia of the face, neck and head, twenty drops 
of the tincture caused temporary loss of power in almost all the 
muscles, followed by sleep; while a similar dose has been taken by 
other patients three times daily, for weeks, with impunity and 
advuntage. 

Dr. Pereira' experimented on some specimens of Gunjah and 
Nipalese churrus, which were sent to him by Dr. O'Shaughnessy. 
He tried them both on animals and man, and gave specimens of 
them to medical friends; but their effects were found to be com- 
paratively slight. "Whether,*' — says Dr. Pereira, — "this be 
owing to the preparations having undergone some deterioration in 
their passage, or to the comparative phlegmatic temperament of 
the English, I know not. My experiments on animals were made 
in the lecture-room of the London Hospital before the students of 
the Materia Medica class; and the trials on the human subject 
were made in the wards of the hospital." 

Messrs. Ballard and Garrod* sfate, that when the dose was large, 
they have observed the urine acquire an odour something like that 
evolved when the tincture is mixed with water, and in part like 
that of the Tonquin bean.* 

• Provhidal Med. and Surg. Jour., May 27, 1843, and Med Chifurg. Trana^ xxvi. 208. 
' London Med. Times, cited in Med. Examiner for Sept. Iti45. 

• Eleroenta of Mat. Med. 2d edit ii. 1098. J.ond. 1 84W. * Op. cit 

• For the ezperimenta of M. Lieautaud and Brierre de Boismont, and of M. E. de 
Chaniac, see Bouchardat, Annuairc de Th^rapeutique, pour 1845, p. 29, Paria, 1845, 
and Ibid, poor 1846, p. 13. See, also, Lieautaud, cited in Ranking^s Abstract, p^ 342. 
Anier. edit Mew York, 1846. 



170 CAR9ABI8 nrDICA. 

iDdian hemp was prescribed by Dr. O'ShaughDessj in Tarious dis- 
eases. In rheumatism^ acute and chronic, the results were not 
rery satisfactory. In one case, the most marked catalepsy super- 
vened along with the usual intoxicating effects. In a case of Ay- 
drophobiay the soothmg influence of the remedy was very great ; 
but the disease terminated fatally. In cholera^ he considered its 
agency to be ^' promising, and to deserve the attention of the prac* 
titioner;" and since then it has been extolled in that disease by 
MM. Aubert-Roche, Chaniac, Willemin/ Gastinel, Legroux* and 
others. * 

The testimony is strongest in regard to its influence in iraumaiie 
tetanus^ of which Dr. O'Shaughnessy refers to fourteen cases ; of 
these, nine appear to have recovered. It is well remarked, bow^ 
ever, by Messrs. Ballard and Garrod,^ that it is no easy matter to 
determine the claims which a medicine holds forth to control teta- 
nus; and that we should be cautious of advancing statements in 
reference to the subjugation of such a formidable disease unless on 
the most unexceptionable evidence. '^Tetanus has been occasion- 
ally recovered from under a variety of treatment, and hence the 
disappearance of it in a few cases during the treatment by this 
drug must not rashly be used as a decided evidence of its curative 
capabilities. Of two cases lately treated with it in the Univernty 
College hospital, one died, and the other recovered: the former 
was traumatic ; the latter idiopathic However, it is difficult to 
say how far it influenced the favourable termination ; inasmuch as 
full and repeated blood-letting and colchicum were also employed." 
This difliculty exists in most of the reported cases. In but few 
has cannabis been given alone. It is proper, too, to add, that in 
the hands of Mr. Stafford,* Mr. Potter,^ and Dr. Babington, 
it failed, or, at the most, afforded only temporary relief, although 
the utmost care was taken to obtain the article in a state of purity.* 
From the results of his cases, Dr. O'Shaughnessy concludes, that 
the resin of hemp, given boldly and in large doses, is capable of 
arresting effectually the progress of that formidable disease, ''and 
in a large proportion of cases, of effecting a perfect cure ;" — and 
further; ''that in hemp the profession has gained an anti-convul- 
sive remedy of the greatest value." 

The commendations of Dr. O'Shaughnessy gave occasion to the 
employment of cannabis by many practitioners. Mr. Ley pre- 
scribed it with advantage in various spasmodic diseases, — choreoy 
sciaiicay &c., which gave him the most perfect confidence in its 

' Bouchardat. Annuaire <3e Th^F^utiqoe pour l&i9, p. 51. 

« IbkJ.poar 185<), IX 10. 

' See, al«o, cases by licv, Lond. Lancet, AprQ 1, 1843, and Isaac Hecster, Boat Med. 
and Sur^. JiHimal, Jane '\7, 184G, p. 3U4. * Op. cit p. 414. 

> Lond. Med. Gaz.. April *21), lliM5. * Lood. I^ancet, Jan. 1 1, 1845, p. 36. 

' Jbid. Dec. 14, 1844, p. 3;V2 

* Chariton, Retroflpective Add rem, in Tranaactionf of the Provincial Med. and Surg. 
AaaociatioD, xH, 2U. Lond., 164(1 



CANNABIS INDICA. 171 

power to produce relaxation of the muscles, heavy sleep, and 
during its action, abatement of pain ;^ and Wolff- and Ruhbaum,' 
finmd it valuable in neuralgic affections. Mr. Lynch* likewise 
prescribed it with success in a case of neuralgia above and around 
the right orbit ; and in an epidemic neuralgia of the head^ but 
especially of the jaw, which prevailed around Rathenow in the last 
quarter of the year 1S47, Ruhbaum' found great benefit from 16 
to 20 drops of the tincture of cannabis, which contained about a 
grain of the alcoholic .extract. It has also been given in mania 
with advantage, by M. Moreau.^ Dr. Cbnolly, it appears, in a 
clinical lecture upon mental disorders, remarks, that he believes 
there is very little of the genuine Indian hemp now in Europe. 
He thinks, that if his observation of its effects in the Hanwell 
Asylum be not altogether erroneous, it roust become an important 
article of commerce. After some careful trials of the tincture, he 
feels justified in speaking well of it. It is chiefly useful, he thinks, 
in chronic cases. A dram and a half, and sometimes two drams, 
have frequently been given in chronic cases of recurrent niuniay 
and although generally with good effects, sometimes without any 
whatever.^ By Dr. Corrigan, cannabis has been administered with 
great success in chorea^ in the Richmond Hospital, Dublin. 

With such evidence in its favour, it is certainly important, that 
Indian hemp should be subjected to a full and fair trial ; and even 
admitting that it may fall short of the character given of it by Dr. 
O'Shaughnessy and others, it can scarcely fail to l)e an important 
addition to our Materia Medica. 

Dr. Churchill * speaks favourably of the powers of cannabis in 
checking uterine hemorrhagic discharges^ from his own experience, 
as well as from that of others. The largest class of cases m which 
he found it of the most unqualified benefit was of menorrhagia^ 
where the discharge, although excessive, is fluid, and but little 
mixed with clots, and when tne uterus is not enlarged. In many 
such cases, five drops of the tincture, three times a day, arrested 
the flow in from twenty-four to forty-eight hours. In several 
cases of threatened abortion, when employed sufficiently early, it 
succeeded remarkably well. He prescribed it, too, in three cases 
of cancer uteris at a tolerably early period, on account of conti- 
nued draining of blood ; and he thought temporary relief was 
affordetl. It appeared to him to exert an astringent power in 
hemorrhages from mucous surfaces, and to have a sedative or ano- 

' Provincial Med. and Surg. Joum., Aug. 20, 1842. 

• Schmidt, Op. citt. 155. 

■ Schmidt'fl Jahrbucber u. s. w., Na 9, Jahrganq:, 1848, S. 277. 

• Provincial Med. and Surg. Joum., April I, 1843. 

• Schmidt's Jahrbijcher der gManunten Medirin. Jahrgang, 1848, No. 11 ; S. 155. 

• Du Hachiflch et de I'Ali^nation Montale, Etudes Ps\'chologiquo8 ; Paria, 1845. 
Noticed by Dr. Pliny Earle, in Amer. Joum. of the Med. i^cienc««, April, 184C, p. 423. 

• Amer. Jooinal, loc. ctt ' Medical Times, May 12, 1849. 



172 CANNABIS INDICA. 

dyne effect. The preparation he invariably used was Mr. Dono- 
van's tincture of the resin, with which he begins in the dose of 
five drops, three times a day, increasing it, in a few cases, to ten, 
but seldom more. The effects are very soon seen, generally in 
twenty-four or forty-eight hours; often much sooner. In some 
cases, indeed, the enect was instantaneous. 
In consequence of Dr. Churchill's belief, that cannabis possesses 

B)wers similar to ergot in arresting hemorrhage from the uterus, 
r. Simpson ^ was induced to try, whether it is possessed of any 
oxytocic property; accordingly, he gave it in several cases of te- 
dious labour, and he states that parturient action seemed to be 
very markedly and directly increased after its exhibition; but, far 
more extensive and careful experiments would be required before 
a decided opinion could be attained in regard to its possessing such 
powers, and theif amount. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The p^parations used by Dr. O'Shaughnessy are the follow- 
ing:— 

Extraetnm cannabis Indies aleoholienm. 

Resinous or alcoholic extract of Indian hemp. 

This is prepared by boiling the rich adhesive tops of the dried 
Gunjah in alcohol (*835) until all the resin is dissolved. Tlie 
tincture, thus obtained, is evaporated to dryness in a vessel placed 
over a pot of boiling water. The mode of preparing the resin by 
the Messrs. Smith, of Edinburgh, is given before. The ordinary 
dose of the extract is from two to five grains; that of the pure 
resin of Messrs. Smith appeared to them to be active in the dose 
of two-thirds of a grain, although made with old gunjah." 

In hydrophobia, the resin in soft pill, to the amount of ten to 
twenty grains, is directed to be chewed by the patient, and to be 
repeated according to the effect. 

Tinetnra cannabis Indies. 

Tincture of Indian hemp. 

R. Extract, cannab. Indie, alcohol, gr. xxiv. 
Alcohol, dilut. f §j. 

Of this a dram is given in tetanus every half hour, until the 
paroxysms cease, or catalepsy is induced. In cholera, ten drops 
given every half hour were often found to check the vomiting and 
purging, and bring back warmth to the surface. Dr. O'Shaugh- 
nessy's experience leads him to prefer small doses of the remedy 
in order to excite rather than narcotize the patient. 

' Monthly Journal of the Medical Sciences, July, IBoO. 

* See, on all tim subject, Bouchardat, Annuaire de Therapcutique, pour 1849, pi 51 — 
60. Paris, ie49. 



CARBO ANIMALIS. 173 

Havitvs cannabis Indies. 

Draught of Indian hemp. 

B. Tiact. cannab. ludic. n\^ zv. 

Alcohol, ti^ xlv. M. at f. liaustus. 

Donovan. 
Mr. Donovan ^ recommends that the patient should either swal- 
low the whole of this directly from the bottle, to avoid loss — or 
pour it into a little water, and instantly swallow it off. If it be 
not taken instantly, the resin will be precipitated — will adhere to 
the vessel, and thus escape being swallowed, which always hap-> 
pens when the prescriber directs water to be mixed in the draught 
by the apothecary ; and Mr. Donovan says he has seen several dis- 
appointments in consequence. 



LII. CARBO ANIMALIS. 

Stkonvmes. Carbo Carnis, Caro Vitulina Tosta, Animal Charcoal. 

fVench. Charbon Animal, 

German, Thicrische Kohle, Fleischkohle, Thierkohlc. 

Animal charcoal is an ancient remedy, which has been revived 
amongst us. The older physicians used several kinds, and recom- 
mended them in various diseases, but without having any fixed 
principle: the circumstances, indeed, that suggested their exhibi- 
tion, in many cases, are entirely unintelligible to us of the present 
day. In the old Wirtemburg Pharmacopoeia, we find the Erina" 
ceus combust us y or "burnt hedgehog," as an antihydropic; the 
Sericum tostum, or " burnt silk," and the Hirundines comhista, 
or "burnt swallows^" as antiepileptics; the Lepus cowhustus, or 
" burnt hare," as an antilithic; the Reguliustiy or " burnt wrens," 
advised in nephritis and calculous affections; and the Talpts com- 
busta, or " burnt moles," at one time much extolled in erratic 
gout, lepra, scrofula, ulcers and fistulae! All have properly fallen, 
however, into oblivion with the profession, although there may 
yet be some who cling with pertinacity to these relics of ancient 
ignorance and superstition. The ^^ cancer remedy" of Cosme, 
into the composition of which burnt shoe-soles entered, appears to 
have kept up the employment of animal charcoal, as well as the 
" burnt sponge," Spongia usta, in which, however, the charcoal 
is of but little efficacy compared with the iodine it contains. These 
were, perhaps, the only forms in which animal charcoal was used 
at the time when Weise, a German physician, revived its employ- 
ment; and many physicians soon came forward to attest favourably 
in regard to it. 

' Op. ciL 



12 



174 CAAfiO AKIMALIS. 



METHOD OF PREPARING. 



Weise gives the following method of preparing it: Cut ribs of 
vealy with the flesh attached, into small pieces, and put them into 
a drum for roasting coffee — turning the drum constantly whilst it 
is placed over the fire. When innammable air begins to pass off, 
which is distinguished by the flame playing around the drum, the- 
combustion must still be kept up a quarter of an hour longer. If 
it be continued as lon^ as any inflammable air is disengagetl, the 
preparation is inefficacious. The substance, most commonly met 
with under the name of ^^ animal charcoal," is obtained by burning 
bones. The residue, when reduced to powder, is the well known 
substance hone black or ivory black. This generally contains more 
or less phosphate of lime, according to the kind of bone from which 
it has been procured. It is directed in the London Pharmacopoeia, 
and in the last edition of the Pharmacopceia of the United States 
(1842,) to be purified by digestion in dilute muriatic acid, as fol- 
lows : Take of animal charcoal, a pound ; muriatic acid and watery 
each twelve fluidounces. Mix the muriatic acid with the water, 
and gradually pour it upon the charcoal; then digest for two days 
in a gentle heat, occasionally agitating. Set aside, and pour off the 
I supernatant liquor; then wash the charcoal with repeated portions 
of water till no traces of acid are perceptible ; lastly dry it.* Char- 
coal, prepared in this way, should be a combination of carbon, car- 
bonate and phosphate of lime, hydrogen, and nitrogen. From an 
analysis, which Meurer made of animal charcoal, prepared accord- 
ing to Weise's formula, it contains, also, chloride of sodium and a 
little carbonate of soda, as well as a portion of iron. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

In the case of a young man of scrofulous diathesis^ Weise saw 
a tumour J of the size of a hazelnut, and very painful, situate under 
the nipple, disappear under the use of animal charcoal. Accord- 
ing to him, its efficacy is strongly exerted on the uterus and mam- 
mae. Rothamel and Hohnbaura extol it in dyspepsia and gastri- 
cism, as well as in cases of diarrhaa. In obstinate chronic glan- 
dular indurations, especially of the mammary glands, Weise affirms 
it to be a certain remedy: he, at the same time, however, considers 
a regulated diet to be indispensable. Scirrhus of the lips, he says, 
also disappears under its use, and even scirrhous goitre, when the 
charcoal is associated with burnt sponpre. On cartilaginous 
polypii it is said to have exerted a beneficial agency, and to have 
diminished the tendency of mucous polypi to return after opera- 
tion. Even open cancer, it is asserted, has been healed by it.' 
On these recommendations of Weise, animal charcoal has been 

' For the mode of preparation on the large scale, see Prreira, Tlie Klcraenls of Mate- 
ria Medica and Therapeuticn. 3d edit. L 312. Lond. 1S41>. 
' Riecke, Die neuem Aizneiniittel, u. a. w. S. 104. 



CARBO ANIMALIS. 175 

used by several German physicians, especially by Wagner, Kopp, 
PitschaA, Radius, Rothamel, Hesselbach, Guoipert, Hohnbaum, 
Fricke, Michaelsen, and Siebenhaar; and, as a general result of 
their observations, it would seem not to be devoid of therapeutical 
agency; although many of the experimenters failed in noticing 
any sanative effect from it. Fricke, for example, did not observe 
the least benefit in the very cases mentioned by Weise. He gave 
it, also, in the way of experiment, in several other cases, but 
without detecting the slightest influence on the organism. Other 
physicians saw advantages from its use in open cancer, but these 
were only transient. On the other hand, the experience of Wag- 
ner, Kopp, Michaelsen, and Rothamel would seem to show, that 
it was enectual in removing incipient scirrhus of the mamma. 
Kopp employed it successfully in scirrhous goitre, and Pitschaft 
in a case of what he terms struma varicosa, Radius dispersed 
under its use a considerable swelling of the submaxillary glands. 
In scrofulous affections, especially in scrofulous indurations of 
the glands, it is said to have proved useful in the hands of Kopp^ 
Rothamel, Speranza, Kuhn, and others; but Baudelocque did not 
find it possess any therapeutical property.^ Pitschaft, in a deli- 
cate, strumous woman, who was suffering constantly under ozana, 
found it of eminent service after other remedies had failed. Radius 
thought it aided the absorption of a disintegrated. cataract, and 
Siebenhaar saw good effects from it in induration of the pancreas. 
Riecke ' suggests, that farther trials may show, that it might be 
used in the place of iodine, which it appears to resemble in its ac- 
tion on the economy, whilst it affects the organism less injuriously. 
It is doubtful, however, whether the properties of the two sub- 
stances can be regarded as at all analogous, and whether animal 
charcoal be possessed of any other properties than those usually 
ascribed to prepared charcoal — caiho ligni, 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Carbo animalis is given in doses of from half a grain to three 
grains twice a day — commonly in the form of powder with sugar, 
or with powdered liquorice root. Weise advises it to besprinkled 
on the hard edges of cancerous ulcers, and Speranza extols an 
ointment made of charcoal, and oil, or simple cerate, as a discutient 
in scrofulous swellings, 

Pnlvis earbonis animalis. 

Powder of animal charcoal, 

B. Carbon, animal, gr. ij. 
Glycyrr. pulv. gr. v, 
F. pulvis. 

> Dubois (d* Amiens.) Trait^ Je Pathologie G^n^rale, 2eme ddit p. 206. Bnixrlles* 
1835. M)pcit. 



176 CARBONIS 8£8QUI-IODIDUM. 

A powder to be given morning and evening in induration of the 
mamma. Michaelsen. 

H* Carbon, animal, gr. yi. 
Spong. ust. gr. xij. 
Glycyrrhiz. pulv. ^ss. ' 
M. f. pulv. in partes vi. sequales dividendns. 

A powder to be taken night and morning in scirrhous goitre. 

Riecke. 
R. Carbonis animal, gr. iv. 

Glycyrrh. pulv. Qiv. M. et divide in part. viij. 

One of these to be taken dry, morning and evening, a little 
water being drunk afterwards, in cases t)f scirrhous indurations 
of the mammoe. After the eight powders have been taken, the 
dose may be increased gradually by half a grain, until it ultimately 
attains ^our grains. At the same time, unirritating and spare diet 
should be inculcated. 

Bolns earbonii animalii. 

Bolus of animal charcoal. 

B. Carbon, animal, gr. iij. 
Ammon. muriat. pvlv. 9j. 
Ext. conii gr. ij. 
glycyrrhiz. q. s. ut fiat bolus. 

One of these to be given three times a day ; — in cases of swell- 
ing and scirrhus oftheprostate, and of the mucofis membrane 
of the urethra. Magendie. 



LIII. CARBONIS SESQUMO'DIDUM. 

Synonymes. Carbonis Sesqui-ioduretum, lodidum Carbonic, loduretum 
Carbonii, Carbonei ioduretum^ lodoformura, loiloforma, Carbonium seu 
Carboneum iodatum, Sesqui-iodide or Sesqui-ioduret of Carbon, Iodo- 
form. 

French. lodure de Carbone, lodoforme. 

German. led kohlenstofT, lodkohlen was serstoff, lodatherid, 
Formylsuperiodid. 

This preparation is made by mixing concentrated alcoholic 
solutions of iodine and potassa until the former loses its colour. 
A solution is obtained, from which the addition of water throws 
down a yellow precipitate — the sesqui-iodide of carbon, which is 
soluble ir. alcohol and ether, but insoluble in water. The ethereal 
solution yields large yellow crystals by slow evaporation. It has 
a sweet taste, and a strong, saffron-like odour. Mitscherlich' 
considers the taste very disagreeable. M. Bouchardat gives the 
following form for its preparation." Take, of iWiVie, 100 parts; 
bicarbonate of potassa ^ 100 parts; water ^ 750 parts; alcohol^ 

* Traite de Chimie, traduit par V'aleriug. 

2 Annuairc de Th^ran. pour 1844, p. I JG. Paris, 1844; and Nouveau Fonnulaire 
Magiatral, pu 33a. Pana, 1845. 



CETRARINA. 177 

250 parts: mix the vrhole in a flask, which must be placed in a 
water bath, the heat of which must be gradually raised, to favour 
reaction. When the liquor has lost its colour (sera decolorie^) 
add, of iodine y 25 parts; heat again; renew the addition of iodine 
when the liquor has lost its colour; and, a short time after the 
point has been passed at which it no longer changes by heat, add 
a few drops of a solution of potassa^ to deprive the liquor of 
colour. Filter, and wash the precipitate produced, which will 
consist of crystalline plates of iodoform, of a beautiful citrine 
colour. The evaporated liquor will yield a large quantity of 
crystals of pure iodide of potassium. 

According to M. Bouchardat, iodoform furnished by this pro- 
cess, will be as economical as any other product of iodine; and, he 
does not doubt, it will occupy a useful rank amongst the prepara* 
tions of iodine employed internally. 

Fifty grains, given by Dr. Cogswell,' to a strongly made terrier 
dog, proved fatal ; and, on dissection, the large vessels were found 
congested; the inner membrane was closely corrugated, and the 
apices of the rugae were of a rose-red colour. M. Bouchardat 
gives it in the form of pill, united with extractum absinthii in 
scrofulous affections y and of lozenges. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

The dose of iodoform is one grain three times a day. Dr. 
Litchfield' used it with advantage in five cases of enlarged 
glands; in two of lepra^ and three of porrigOy in the form of 
ointment composed of 5ss. of the powder to 5vj. of simple cerate. 

Pnlvii earbonis sesqni-iodidi. 

Powder of sesqiii-iodide of carbon, 

( Iodoform powder . ) 
B. Carbon, sesqui-iodid. 

Elseosacchar. Vanill. aa 3ij. 
Sacchar. pulv, g^j* M, 

Dose. — Fifteen grains, three times a day, in scrofula. 

Bouchardat.^ 



LIV. CETRARI'NA. 

SrifoifTMcs. CetrariDum, Cetrarium, Cetrarin, Cetrarine. 
Drench. Cetrarin. 

German. Cetrarin, Moosbitlor, Flechtenbitter der Island- 
ischen Flechte. 

This substance was extracted from Cetraria Islandica, by M. 
Herberger, a pharmacien at Kaiserslautern.* 



1 Emv on Iodine, p. 122. Ediiib. 1837. 

* Lend Med. Gaz., Aug. 1830. 

' Annuatie, Ac, pour 1842, p 11K>. 

* Buchner*! Repeitorinm, B. viii. H. 1, 1837. 



178 CETRARINA. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

The coarse powder of ceiraria is boiled for half an boor in 
four times its weight of alcohol at .833; it is then left at rest 
until vapours cease to be given off, to avoid the loss of the alco- 
hol; when it is strained and pressed. Three drams of murialie 
acid^ previously diluted with water ^ are now added to each pound 
of the moss; this is mixed with from four times and a quarter to 
four times and a half its bulk of water^ and the mixture is left at 
rest for a night in a closed flask. The next day, the deep yellow 
fluid, which swims above the copious deposite obtained, is poured 
ofl*; this deposite is the impure cetrarin, the colour of which is 
more or less greenisl^. It is now collected on a filter {chausse^) 
left to drain as little as possible, and subjected to pressure. To 
purify it, it must be divided into small fragments, and washed, 
.whilst still moist, with alcohol or ether, which deprives it of 
colour; it is then treated with two hundred times its weight of 
boiling alcohol^ in which the inorganic matter, that has hitherto 
accompanied it, is scarcely soluble. The greater part of the 
cetrarin is gradually precipitated on the cooling of the alcoholic 
solution. The portion which still remains in solution may be 
separated by the evaporation of the alcohol. 

One pound of cetraria, according to Messrs. Ballard and Grar- 
rod,^ yields about two drams and a half of cetrarin. 

Pure cetrarin is, at times, in the state of a white powder, re- 
sembling magnesia; at others, in small globules united in the form 
of arborizations, which do not present — even under the microscope 
— any crystalline texture. When gently compressed, it has a 
slight silky splendour. It is neuter, light, unalterable in the air, 
inodorous, and has a very intense, bitter taste, especially in the 
alcoholic solution. Its best solvent is absolute alcohol, one hun- 
dred parts dissolving 1.70 of it at the boiling temperature, but 
only 0.28 at 14° centig. (58° Fahr.) Alcohol, at .830 dissolves 
0.44 when boiling; 0.28 at 25° cent. (77° Fahr.,) and only 0.04 
at 14° cent. (58° Fahr.) It is still less soluble in boiling and in 
cold water, the essential oils, creasote, &c. It is somewhat more 
soluble in ether, but insoluble in the fixed oils.^ 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

Muller, of Kaiserslautern,' details two cases in which he has 
administered cetrarin. One of these was a quartan^ the other, a 
tertian intermittent. The effects appeared to be exerted more 
slowly than those of quinia, but it seemed to him not to affect the 
stomach as much.[?] Its price must be considerably less, as M. 

1 Elements of Mat Med. and Therapy p. 365. Lond. 1845. 
> Journal de Pharmacie, xxiil 505. Paris, 1837; and Bulletin G^n^ral de Th^ra- 
peutioue, No. 18, Sept. 30, 1837. 
■ U. Brock, in Bulletin G^n^ral de Therapeutique, No. 17, 15 Sept., 1837. 



CHIMAPHILA. 179 

Herberger succeeded in obtaining, from a pound of cetraria, 135 

Strains of very pure cetrarin. It has also been prescribed saccess- 
idW in intermittents, by Regatelli and Von Lippich.^ 
It has not been given, so far as the author knows, in this country. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Miiller gave it in the form of powder, according to the following 
prescription : — 

B* Cetrarin. 

Acacifis aa. gr. ij. 

Sacchar. "^bs, M. et fiat pulvis. 

Dose. — One of these every two hours, during the apyrexia, 
Bruck," suggests, that if dissolved in alcohol, its action may be 
incomparably more potent, and that it may more speedily arrest 
the paroxysms of an intermiltentj than when given in powder. 



LV. CHIMAPHILA (FOLIA.) 

Stvontmes. Chimaphile yel Chimophilae UmbellataB Folia, Chiroaphilce 
Corymbosae Folia, Pyrola, Pyrolae UmbellatSB Folia, Winter Green, 
Umbellated Winter Green, Pipsissewa. 

Frtnek. Herbe k pisser, Pyrole en Ombelle. 

German, Die Blatter des holdenbluhtigen Wintergrdns, 
Wintergrun-Blatter. 

This plant is not new to us; but numerous trials have been 
made with it of late in Europe. It is admitted into the Phar- 
macopoeia of the United States, is a beautiful evergreen, and is 
mdigenous in the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. 
It belongs to the Natural Family Ericineae of Decandolle ; Pyro- 
lacese Lmdley ; Sexual System, Decandria Monogynia. A good 
description of it is given by Barton.' 

The leaves have a bitter-sweetish taste, with some degree of 
astringency. The taste of the stems and roots is, in addition, con- 
siderably pungent. Boiling water and alcohol extract the virtues 
of the plant. The constituents, so far as ascertained, are bitter 
extractive, tannic acid, resin, gum, lignin, and saline matters. 
The active principle has not been determined. It probably resides 
in the bitter extractive — the resin and tannic acid, however, con- 
tributing to its effects.^ 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

The leaves of Chimaphila were long used by the Indians of 
this continent, and from them the American physician was induced 

' AKbenbrenner, Die neueren Arzneimittel, u. ■. w. 8. 71. Erlangen, 1648. 
•Op.cit 

' Medical Botany, i. 17; see, also, Art Chimaphila, in Wood and Bache*8 Dispensatory . 
« Pereira's Elements of Materia Medica, &€., ii. 1333. Lond. 1642; or 2d Amer. 
edit., by CaxaoQ. Phihd.1846. 



IdO CHIMAPHILA. 

to employ them. The first regular treatise respecting the plant is 
said !• have been a thesis of Dr. Mitchell, published in the year 
1803.^ In Canada, it is said to have been long used in diseases 
of the urinary passagesy esfecmlly calculus; in dropsy ^waA in 
chronic gout and rheumatism; its effects appearing to resemble 
— but not to exceed — those marvellously ascribed to uva ursi.' 
Somerville^ and Barton extol it as an excellent diuretic in different 
forms of dysuria^ and in dropsies , especially such as succeed to 
acute diseases; in nephralgia as a palliative, especially when the 

Earoxysms are occasioned by gravel which has accumulated in the 
idney ; and even in vesical calculus. During its use, the appe- 
tite has improved, and the digestive powers have augmented ; the 
patients often experiencing — immediately after it was taken — an 
agreeable sensation in the stomach, and in the region of the kid- 
neys. Radius* found it especially serviceable in dropsy, gouty 
and rheumatism,; and in inordinate activity of the secretory 
function of the mucous membranes — chronic catarrh, phthisis 
pituitosuy &c. According to him, it is contraindicated where 
there is much fever, disposition to diarrbopa, gastricism, and great 
debility of the stomach. Heyfelder affirms, that it appears to be 
advantageous in the debility of the digestive organs attendant 
upon dropsy, but its diuretic effect is not considerable or enduring, 
so that it requires to be associated with more powerful agents. 

Experiments, which have been made in the Bvirger-hospital, at 
Pesth, and which have been collected by St. Rochus, and pub- 
lished by Windisch, the director of the hospital, are extremely 
favourable to the chimaphila. Within two years, nearly two 
hundred dropsical cases are said to have been radically cured by 
it. Windisch recommends it most strongly to the attention of his 
colleagues; he asserts it to be one of the best diuretics we possess; 
that it does not impair digestion; moderatel5^ accelerates the cir» 
culation ; gently encourages the action of the bowels, and powers 
fully augments the urinary secretion; that the patients willingly 
take it, and that it induces no nausea. It was administered witn 
advantage in dropsies unaccompanied by fever, and not dependent 
upon organic mischief, upon " corruption of the humours or para- 
lysis of the lymphatic textures." In febrile conditions and inflam- 
matory diatheses, it is said to have been always injurious, as well 
as when it was administered prior to the resolution of obstructions 
remaining after long protracted intermittents ; but when these are 
removed, and no excitement exists, — more, according to Windisch, 
is to be expected from it than from any other agent, and he 

• Barton's Collection, il 2. 

2 See the author's General Therap. and Mat Med^ 4th edit I 876. Philad. 1850. 
■ McdicoChirurgical Transactions, v. 340. 

* Auaerieaene Heilformeln zum Gebrauche fur praktiachc Aerzte und Wundlrzte, 
0. s. w. 8. 175. Leipz. 1836, 



CHIMAPHILA. 181 

Strongly advises, that careful trials should be made vrith it in the 
proper cases. He advises, also, that its use should be persevered 
iBf in order that good effects may be derived from it. 

The author has frequently administered chimaphila in public 
and private practice, and has found it serviceable, where a tonico- 
diuretic was indicated. It is probably owing to its tonic proper- 
ties, that it has been found occasionally serviceable in scrofma. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 
Chimaphila is given either in infusion^ or, what is preferable, 
in decoction; the dose in the day being from half an ounce to an 
ounce of the drug. Where it does not act sufficiently on the 
bowels, Radius advises, that a few senna leaves should be added. 
In affections of the chest, he found the addition of the spirit of 
nitric ether advantageous. Generally, however, he gave it alone. 
Windisch found a combination of it with tartrate of antimony and 
potassa, sulphuret of potassium, muriate of ammonia, squill, and, 
m very great weakness, cinchona and preparations of iron, ser- 
viceable. Radius often administered, also, the aqueous or spirit- 
Q0I18 extract. 

Deeoetnm ehimaphilce. 

^Decoction ofpipsissewa. 

B. Chiraaphil. ^j. 

Aqu« Oij. (Diss, Ph. I?. S. and'Lond.) 
Coque ad colatnr, Oj. 

To be used daily in dropsy. Somerville. 

Dr. Joy^ adds to this two drams of Liquor Polassae Carbo- 
natis, and directs four table-spoonfuls of the mixture to be taken 
three times a day. He recommends it "in dropsy and chronic 
affections of the urinary organs^" as if all these affections were 
identical or even analogous pathological conditions ! 

B. Chiroaphil. ^ss. ad ^j. 
Coque cum aqn© f ^xlj, ad reman, f Jvj. 
Coctione finitd adde 

Spirilus frumenti {gin, malt spirit or whisky) ( Su^ 

Djgere frigide per horas vj. el cola. 

Dose. — Two spoonfuls, to be taken four times a day, in dropsy 
and gout. Radius. 

B. Chimaphil. ^vj, 
Coque cum aq. f ^xij- ad reman, f ^vj. 
Sob finem coctionis adde 

Fol. sennie ^ij. et cola. 

Dose. — A spoonful to be taken every two hours. Radius. 

A fermented decoction was used by Dr. Parrish, in the Penn- 
sylvania Hospital, in cases of strumous disease^ particularly 
white swelling and similar affections qf the joints. According 

1 Tweedie'i Lihraiy of Medidne, 2d American edit toL iil p. 692. Phibd. 1842. 



182 CHLORIVUM. 

to Dr. Carson,* it makes an agreeable beverage. A decoction or 
infusion is first formed i^itb half a pound of chimaphila leaves^ 
to a gallon of water: a pound of sugar or half a pint of molasuMf 
half an ounce of powdered ginger , and some ^easi are then added. 
This mixture is placed in a tight vessel, and kept in a warm place, 
until fermentation is accomplished. Instead of the ginger, or, in 
addition to it, essence of spruce may be used. 

The dose is half a tumblerful three or four times daily. 

J. Parrish. 



LVI. CHLO'RINUM. 

Stmontmes. Chloriniam, Chiorineom, Chlorum, Chlorine, Marigene, 
Acidom Muriaticum Oxygenatum sea Marinum Dephiogisticatam, 
Spiritus Salis Marini DephlogisticatuSi Dephlogisticated Muriatic Acid, 
Oxygenated Muriatic Acid. 

French. Chlore. 

German, Chlor, Chlorgas. 

Uncombined chlorine is employed medicinally not only in the 
^seous but in the liquid state. Each of these will be treated 
m succession. The forms for evolving it in the gaseous state, as 
well as the gaseous chlorine itself, have had various names as- 
signed them expressive of their chemical or 'medical properties. 
They have been termed, respectively, •/^ciViiw muriaticum oxy- 
genatum ad contagia; Fumigatio muriaiico-oxygenaia ; 
Fumigatio Guyton-Morveauniana; Putvis ad /umigationes 
muriaticus ; Species pro vaporibus superoxydi muriatici; 
Suffitus oxymuriatictis ; S. chlorini; jJlexiterium Chlori' 
cum, Fumigation de Chlor^ F. de Guytony F, Guytonienne, 
F. Hygi^nique^ &c. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

Chlorine is obtained from chlorohydric or muriatic acid. For 
this purpose, one part of well pulverized peroxide of manganese 
with five or six parts of concentrated muriatic acidy is put into 
a retort, to which heat is applied, and the gas received over water. 
Or, it may be obtained from a mixture of one part of peroxide qf 
manganesCy four parts of kitchen salty two parts of concen- 
trated sulphuric acidy and four parts of water. 

Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas; of a peculiar, strong, disa- 
greeable, stifling odour. The flame of a lighted taper introduced 
into it becomes at first pale, afterwards red, and is ultimately ex- 
tinguished. It remains unchanged in the highest temperatures. 
It has a great affinity for hydrogen, so that it abstracts this gas 
from every substance that contains it, and forms with it chlorohy- 
dric acid. Hence it decomposes all the gases that contain hy- 
drogen, and all organic colouring matters, as well as — it is con- 
ceived by many — miasmata and contagious matters. 

> Peroba'i Efementa of Mat Med. and Thenpu, ad Amer. edit ^ 391. PhOa. 1846. 



CHLORINUM. 183 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 
Chlorine, when diluted, and received into the lungs, occasions 
coughing, and symptoms of suffocation, to which a protracted ca- 
tarrh often succeeds : not unfrequently, too, we observe in those 
who are compelled to be exposed to it, bronchitis and pneumonia. 
Animals soon die when they are immersed in it.^ In Mr. Brough- 
ton's experiments, mice exposed to it fell dead in less than thirty 
seconds. On opening them, the heart was found palpitating ; the 

Eristaltic motion of the intestinal canal continued, and could be 
pt up by irritating it with a probe. The vessels of the brain' 
were collapsed. The lungs were tinged with the yellow colour 
of the gas, and the peculiar odour of chlorine was perceptible 
throughout their structure. Coagulation of the blood took place 
as under onlinary circumstances. A rabbit, two or three weeks 
old, was immersed in it, and died in less than half a minute. On 
opening the thorax, the heart was found acting freely, and on 
puncturing the aorta, the blood jetted out forcibly to a con- 
siderable distance. The peristaltic motion of the bowels was also 
{;oing on. The vessels of the brain were in a collapsed state. The 
lings were very much distended, tinged yellow, and, when re- 
moved from the chest to a distance, emitted the odour of chlorine. 
The right ventricle of the heart was distended with dark blood. 
The eyes were much glazed in each experiment. '^It has been 
generally thought,'' adds Mr. Broughton, ^'that chlorine is inca- 
pable of passing the epiglottis" [the glottis] ^'but from the above 
observations it is evident that this gas enters the bronchial tubes 
in t&e act of inspiration. A portion of it probably circulates 
through the brain, suspending the cerebral functions without di- 
rectly destroying the action of the involuntary organs, — contracti- 
lity remaining long after the destruction of animal life, as is evinced 
by the activity of the heart and of the intestinal canal. "^ 

These very facts, however, seem to show, that but little of the 
gas enters the lungs; probably no more than what passes imme- 
diately preceding the closure of the glottis by the forcible contrac- 
tion of the arytenoidei muscles. When inhaled in a dilute state, 
it is absorbed ; and, according to Mr. Wallace, the urine acquires 
bleaching properties. It would appear, also, that, in manufacto- 
ries, the chief consequences from exposure to an atmosphere of it 
are acidity, and other stomach complaints, which the men gene- 
rally remove by taking chalk:' this fact is confirmatory of the 
view, that acidity of the stomach is usually, if not always, depen- 
dent upon excess in the secretion of the gastric acids, the most 
important of which is the chlorohydric. When chlorine is inhaled, 

* See Chriititon on PoiMXis, Amer. edit p. 152. Philad. 1845. 
' Journal of the Royal Institution, from Jan. to June, IB30. 
" Pereira, ElemenU of Mat Med. &c, 2d edit. L 22d, Lond. 1642 ; or 2d Amer. edit. 
Ij Canon, Philttd. 1846. 



184 

it is reasonable to suppose that more of this add may be secreted 
in the stomach. 

The irritating effects of chlorine become less and le^ where 
persons are exposed to the fumes, and workmen are able to carry 
on their operations with imponity in an atmosphere impregnated 
with it, where one unaccustomed to such exposure could not re- 
main with impunity for more than a few minutes.^ 

MODE OF ADMIXISTRATIOX. 

1. By inhalation, — In the way of inhalation, chlorine gas b 
never administered in a state of purity, but always diluted with 
atmospheric air ; often, too, it is united with watery vapour. Gan- 
nal affirms, that the workmen in a bleaching establishment, who 
suffered under diseases of the chesty were visibly improved, and 
ascribed the amelioration to the inhalation of air contaming it. 
He, therefore, instituted various experiments on consumptive tn- 
dividualsy from which good results, he conceived, followed. Sir 
James Murray' also mentions, that a friend of his had observed 
similar effects among his workmen who were exposed to the inha- 
lation of watery vapour strongly impregnated with chlorine. The 
experiments, however, which were instituted at La Charit6, in 
Paris, on this mode of treating phthisis^ were by no means en- 
couraging; and the same may be said of those at the Hotel Diett 
of that city, instituted by Rullier.^ In many cases, indeed, the 
disease appeared to be aggravated. Bayle, likewise, thought the 
inhalation of it generally unfavourable, although he asserts that be 
cured a case of tubercular phthisis with it. Since then, it has 
been recommended by Cottereau. Professor Albers,* of Bonn, 
who administered it repeatedly, and carefully watched its effects, 
conceives, that it acts as a stimulant when applied to the mem- 
brane, but that, when it gets into the blood, its effects are anti- 
phlogistic; and he is of opinion, that when there is no haemoptysis 
or violent local irritation present, chlorine inhalations may be used 
in diseases of the lungs and air-passages. Its stimulant effect 
gradually diminishes, and, after a time, the mucous surfaces of the 
lung become less sensible to its exciting influence. In tubercles 
of the lung J chronic catarrhal chronic injlammationj and ul- 
ceration of the bronchial mucous membrane, and in dilata- 
tion of the bronchiy he found it of no service; and, in most cases, 
it could not be borne, in consequence of the irritation it induced ; 
but its operation was very salutary in pure ulceration of the 
lungs, or vomica. It had always, however, to be administered 

* Chriatwon, A Treatiae on Powona, Ist Amer. edit. p. 616. FhfliKl 1845. 

» A niffiertation on the Influence of Heat, Ac., Lond. Id20; citeil in the Dub. Joar. 
of Medical Science, for March. 1831), p. 96. 

• See, alao. Percira, Op. cit p. 229 ; and E. J. Coxe, Practical Treatiae on Medical In- 
halation, p. 83. Philad. 1841. 

' Uannoveiach. Annalen, 1836, cited in BriL and For. Med. Rev. July, 837, p. 215. 



CHLORINE. 185 

caatiously and experimentally. Dr. Stokes always found chlorine 
mhalations prejudicial in phthisis, as they produced, in every case, 
increase of bronchial irritation, dyspepsia, and arrest of the pul- 
monary secretion. In his trials of the remedy in gangrene of the 
lungs^ he found it decidedly beneficial, correcting the foetor of 
the breath and expectoration, and, therefore, calculated to obviate 
not only the local but the constitutional symptoms. Sir James 
Ciarlr^ is of opinion, that the inhalation of chlorine has only pro- 
duced relief in persons whose lungs have been diseased to a very 
limited extent. Dr. A. T. Thomson^ considers it " the best topi- 
cal expectorant, and the most salutary excitant to the mucous 
membrane of the lungs that has yet been inhaled ;" and Dr. Chris- 
tison^ affirms., that he has tried the practice repeatedly ; and al- 
though, like Dr. Elliotson, he has witnessed ^'such amelioration 
as be never saw before under the use of narcotics or any other 
means," he has not met with any instance where the amelioration 
was permanent. Such, likewise, has been the experience of the 
author. Dr Pancoast informed him, that a case of aphonia oc- 
curring in a young lady, in which there was but little voluntary 
power over the diaphragm, was cured by the inhalation of chlorine, 
after the galvanic plates and the electro-magnetic apparatus had 
been used in vain. 

Chlorine may be inhaled from a common dish or inhaling appa- 
ratus, by dropping any of the acids on a mixture of chlorinated 
lime, so that the gas may be disengaged slowly ; but the best me- 
thod of inhaling it, as well as iodine, is that recommended by Dr. 
Corrigan.* He properly remarks, that, in order for inhalation to 
have a fair trial, it is requisite, Jirsfj That the apparatus should 
be simple in its construction, and easily kept in order. Secondly, 
That it should be capable of keeping up a supply of vapour for 
any length of time, and that the evolution of the vapour should be 
steady and easily regulated. Thirdly, That it should also fur- 
nish a sufficient supply of aqueous vapour to prevent any irritation 
of the larynx, or lining membrane of the air-tubes ; Bn^, fourthly, 
and most important of all, that its employment should entail nei- 
ther trouble nor fatigue on the invalid. 

* Dublin Hocipital Reports, vol. v. 

* Trratisc on Tubercular PhthiBiH, p. 84, LonJ. 1834 ; alpo, Aincr. edit Piiilad 1^35. 

* Elements of Mat Med. and Therap. 2d edit Lond. Ifc35. 

* Difl^nsntory, p. 312. Edinb. Ib42. 

* UuUin Journal of Medical Science, March, 1839, p. 94. 




To fulfil these objects, Dr. 
Corrigan advises the apparatus 
represented in the marginal fi- 
gure. It consists of a light opeo 
iron-wire frame, about eighteen 
inches high, at the hottom of 
which is a spirit-lamp, A : at the 
proper height above it is an eva- 
porating porcelain dish, about six 
inches in diameter, B: above 
this is a glass globe, C, with its 
necL downwards. In the neck 
of the globe is a corlc, D, bored, 
anil through the opening is 
drawn, moderately tight, a short 
plug of cotton wick, such as is 
used in a spirit lamp: in the glass 
globe at E, opposite the neck, is 
<lnlled a pin-hole, to allow air to pass in, according as the fluid 
within drops out through the neck. To use it, the porcelain dish 
is tilled with hot water, the spirit lamp is lighted, and as soon as 
the water in the dish has begun to boil, the glass globe containing 
chlorinated lime, (if this be the substance used,) is placed as in 
the illustration. The rate, at which the fluid in the globe shall 
percolate the cotton wick and drop into the hot water beneath, is 
easily regulated. If it should not drop with sufficient rapidity, 
one or two of the threads of cotton may be removed. Should it 
drop too rapidly, this is corrected by pressing in the cork more 
tightly, or introducing one or two additional threads of wick. 

Eight ounces of a saturated solution of chlorinated lime may 
be poured into the glass globe; and into the water of the porce- 
lain di-h, two ounces of the diluted sulphuric acid of the phar- 
macopceia. As the solution drops, the acid seizes on the lime, 
and the chlorine is evolved in connexion with aqueous vapour.' 

Chlorine is hut little used in this form, and can only be adapted 
for cases in which the pathological condition of the bronchial mu- 
cous membrane, or neighbouring parts, requires the exhibition of 
an excitant.* In this way, it may be occasionally serviceable in 
chronic bronchitis ; but its administration requires great caution.' 
In cases of poisoning by hydrocyanic acid, as well as by sulphu- 
retted hydrogen, it is a most efficacious agent. Chlorinated lime 
may he used for this purpose. 

■ London Mcdirat Gazelle, April 6. I83f), p. i% 

• Toulmoitrhc, in Rcvuo M«dicslc, Airil l»34. Sw. on Ihe Tarioui mode* oTinlii- 
blion. Sir C. Souilamore. in l.oniL Med. Gu., Feh. 7, ItJtll, and C, J. Coie, Pnctkil 
Trealiw on Inlixlnlion. Fliii<iJ.. IH4I. 

' Archive* G^ntrale*, Avril, 1834; and a oDrnmanicalton on lh« eiceUent efleela <•( 
chlarine rapour io tmiarrk, in Giiellt HUiole de IVia. Juik^ 1838. 



CHLORINUM. 187 

2. By Fumigation. — Fumigations of chlorine have been par- 
ticalarly recommended by Dr. Wallace, of Dublin/ They appear 
to resemble, in their action, the nitrons and nitro-muriatic acid 
baths, and have been especially employed in liver diseases j un- 
accompanied by inflammation, but in which there is a disturbance 
of the biliary secretion. According to Wallace, they are more 
certain than ablutions and baths of nitro-muriatic acid, and have 
the advantage, that their application subjects the patient to less 
mconvenience.^ The good effects of chlorine, in such cases, have 
likewise been tested by Zeise,^ in his bathing establishment at 
Altona. When chlorine is brought in contact with the skin, in 
this way, it soon occasions a pricking sensation; increase of tran- 
spiration; great afflux of fluids to the surface of the body, and 
sometimes a pustular eruption; increased secretion of saliva, urine, 
and bile ; slight inflammation of the mouth and fauces, and im- 
peded respiration and circulation. Dr. Mettauer is disposed to re- 
fer the action of the compound, in every case, to the presence of 
chlorine, and to believe, with Dr. Scott, of India, who first intro- 
duced the nitro-muriatic acid to notice, about thirty-three years 
ago, (1817,) that a solution of chlorine in water will answer, in 
aU cases, as well as the acid. In the last edition of the Pharma- 
copoeia of the United States, the following formula has been intro- 
duced for the preparation of the Acidum Nitro-muriaticum. 
Take of Nitric acid, f siv.. Muriatic acid, f Jviij. Mix Aem 
in a glass vessel, and, when eflervescence has ceased, keep the 
product in a well stopped glass bottle, in a. cool and dark place. 

Dr. Wallace found chlorine fumigations serviceable not only in 
hepatic diseases with disordered secretion of the liver, but in 
several other morbid conditions, as hypochondriasis, cachexia, 
and in all affections in which a prolonged excitation of the skin, 
and a restoration of its suppressed or impaired functions are es- 
teemed serviceable, — hence, in old cases of syphilis, scrofula, 
chronic catarrh, and rheumatism' Generally, cathartics were 
combined with the fumigations, and the evacuations were con- 
stantly observed to present a highly bilious character. In chronic 
cutaneous affections, as in lepra, psoriasis, and scabies, these 
fumigations have been found useful; but, generally, fumigations of 
sulphurous acid are employed in preference, in consequence of the 
greater facility with which they can be prepared.* 

Injections of chlorine gas have been employed for the radical 
cure o{ hydrocele by M. Deblois, of Tournay, and M. Decond6.* 

* Rewiircbefl respecting the Medical Powere of Chlorine, &c. liOnd. 1822. 

' See. on the Nitro-Muriatic Mixture, as a remedial agent, .T. P. Mettauefi American 
Joam.Med. Sciences, Fch. 1840, p. 201. 

" Nye Hygea udtnved af C. Otto, 1825, and Hufeland und Osann*s Joum. derprakt. 
Heilkund. B. Ixiii. St 1. 

* Gnen on Diaeases of the Skin, American Library edit. Philad. 1838. 

* BuOetm Medical B^, Janvier, 1836. 



18S CHLORIKUM. 

The gas is contained in a bbdder, to which is attached a pipe and 
stop-cock adapted to the canula of the trocar, into which it is fixed 
afler the fluid is evacuated ; the stop-cock is theh turned, and the 
bladder pressed so as to force the gas into the tunica vaginalis. 
When this is distended, the pipe and bladder are removed, and the 
thumb is placed over the mouth of the trocar, so as to prevent the 
issue of the gas for the space of two minutes; it is then allowed to 
pass, and two or three repetitions of the injection are made, which 
are sufficient for the cure. It would appear, that risk must be in- 
curred from the injection of such an acrid substance, but M. De- 
conde says not. 

Fumic;ati()ns of chlorine, with the view of destroying the mat" 
ter of contagion J and oi preventing the spread of contagious 
diseases, have long been used.* As long ago as the year ]773, 
they were proposed for these purposes; and were subsequently 
extensively used by Guy ton de Morveau; hence they have been 
called the ^^Gnytoniany^ or " Guy ton Morveau fumigations,^^ 
In fumigating the extensive general penitentiary at Milbank, 
Westminster, Dr. Faraday adopted the following method. One 
part of cornmon salt was intimately mixed with one part of black 
oxide of manganese ; the mixture was placed in a shallow 
earthen pan, and two parts of oil of vitriol ^ previously diluted 
with two parts by measure of water ^ were poured upon it, — the 
whole being stirred with a stick. Chlorine was liberated for four 
days. The quantities of the ingredients employed were 700 
pounds of common salt, the same quantity of oxide of manganese, 
and 1400 pounds of sulphuric acid.* 

Whatever may be the virtues of chlorine fumigations as an 
antibromic or smell destroyer, experience would seem to have 
shown that they are useless in preventing the spread of zymotic 
diseases. Possessed, as all the preparations of chlorine are, of po- 
tent antibromic virtues, it was natural to suppose, that they might 
equally destroy morbific miasmata, and therefore be valuable pre- 
ventives of cholera, and other zymotic maladies. In the fever of 
the Niger, they were fully tried and totally failed, and there is no 
reason to believe that they are more effective in other forms. 
Some years ago, chlorine was employed at the Small Pox Hospi- 
tal, London, with the view of arresting erysipelas in the wards.^ 
The offensive smell was removed as usual, but the propagation of 
the disease appered lo be unaffected. During the progress of cho- 
lera on the continent of Europe, in 1831 and 1832, extensive 
trials were made with it, but without any beneficial result.** At 

' Link, Art. Chlor.in Kn^vdop-id. W6rtert>.der ineJicin. Wiasenschaft B.TiL8.575. 
BerUn, lr31. • Pereira, Op. oL p. 238. 

• Pereira, Op. rit. ?d edit, i 371, bond. 1849. 

* Oierbadi. i>ie Ncacsten Entdeckungen in der Materia Medica, L 411, Heidelberf 
and Leipzig, 1837. 



CHLORINI AQUA. 189 

a time when the Cholera Hospital at Moscow, was filled with 
ckMids of chlorine,^ the greatest Dumber of attendants was attacked ; 
and similar facts were noticed by distinguished observers in Ber- 
fin ana elsewhere.' 

When chlorine is evolved in the manner above described, it is 
liable, like all the acid gases, to the objection, that it is extremely 
irritating when respired. It cannot, therefore, be used in the sleep- 
ing apartments of the sick, although it may be employed benefi- 
cially after they have been withdrawn, and the object is to disin- 
fect the chamber. It ruins all polished surfaces, but this can be 
effectually obviated by painting them over with a compost of 
starch. The chlorides are not kable to the same amount of objec- 
tion, as they exhale the chlorine slowly. 



LVU. CHLO'RINI AQUA. 

SnKMnrMEs. Aqua Chlorinii seu Chlorine! seu Chlorata seu Chlorinica 
aeu Chlori seu Oxymuriatica seu Oxygenata muriatica seo Oxygeno-mu- 
riatica, Liquor Chlori seu Chlorini seu Acidi Muriatici Oxygenati seu 
Alexiterius Oxygenatus, Chlorum liqnidum, Solotio Chlorinii seu Alexi- 
taria Oxygenata, Solution of Chlorine, Liquid Oxjonuriatio Acid. 

#V«fidL Chlore Liquide, £aa de Chlore. 

German, Chlorwasser, Wasseriges Cblor, Chlorflilssigkeit, 
Dephlogistisirte oder Oxydirte SalzsSlure, Uebersaure 
Salzsiure, Oxydirt Salzsaures Wasser. 

This preparation is contained in many of the foreign pharma- 
copoeias. It is in those of Austria and Anvers ; and in the Bata- 
vian. Bavarian, Belgian, Danish, Dublin, Edinburgh, Parisian, 
Finnish, Hanoverian, Polish, Prussian and Swedish.' It has been 
more extensively administered on the continent of Europe than in 
this country or in Great Britain. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

The Prussian Pharmacopoeia directs chlorine gasy made after 
the manner before described, to be passed into the bottles of a 
Woulfe's apparatus filled with distilled water^ until two-thirds 
of the water are displaced : the bottles are corked under water, and 
the water is agitated until it takes up the gas. The liquid is then 
drawn off into small bottles, which are well filled, and kept in a 
dark place. In this way, liquid chlorine may be kept for a long 
time undecomposed. In its preparation, some little chlorohydric 
acid is formed, so that it has at times to be purified by treating it 
with a solution of nitrate of silver. 

* Albers, Lond. Med. Gazette, viil 40. 

< G^ranlinandOaimard,DuCholera.MorbiM,3^me^dit,p.110, Paris, 1833, and the 
tatbor, in Report of the Sub-Committee on Cleansing the city (Philad.,) p. 15, Fhih. 
1849. * Pliarmacop6e Univer'seUe, L 405. Paris, 1826. 

13 




190 cBumai aqua. 

The proce» of the DobliD Thatrm^eopctik m snihr to ikku 
That of the Edinborgh PhannacopoBia differs ; and b as follavs: 
Take of Chloride o/$odium, usXj grains ; Sulphuric acid (< 
mercial,) two fluidrams; Red oxide of lead, three hundred 
fiftj graios; Water, eight flnidocmces. Triturate the chloride of 
sodium and oxide together ; put them into the water contained in 
a bottle with a gian stopper ; add the acid, and agitate occasiooaUj 
till the red oxide becomes ahnost white. AIk>w the ioscdnhle 
matter to subside before using the liquid. 

EFFECTS OX THE EC0503nr 15 HEALTH. 
From experimeDts made bj Orfila* on dogs, it appears, that 
considerable doses of a moderately concentrated solution of chlorine 
prove fatal bj exciting, sooner or later, inflammation of the 
stomach, accompanied with great bnguor; and when death takes 
place Tery rapidlj, signs of organic alteration are met with in the 
stomach. In its action on the economy, chlorine is closelj allied 
to the acids, and especially to the chlorohjdric lotrodu^ into 
the stomach in moderate doses, solution of chlorine excites an 
agreeable feeling of warmth, which soon spreads over the whole 
of the body : in strong doses, according to L. W. Sachs, a kind of 
intoxicating stupor is induced bj it, soon succeeded by prostraticMi. 
It has been conceived Xo act equably as a moderate excitant fsi 
the nervous system, and thereby to moderate inordinate action in any 
part ; and is, to a certain extent, antiphlogistic, without possessii^ 
any of the debilitating qualities of the antiphlogistics proper. 
In the opinion of some of the Qerman pathologists, it powerfully 
stimulates the organic actions, especially the lymphatic and glandu- 
lar systems, moderating inordinate secretion. Its antiseptic pro- 
perties are likewise considerable. It would appear, however, that 
the number of observations has not been sufficiently great — 
although they have been by no means few — to allow of any com- 
prehensive appreciation of its exact modus operandi on the hu- 
man organism.' 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 
Although solution of chlorine is properly no new remedy, it is 
only of late years that it has been frequently administered. At 
the present day, in some countries, it is in common use. It is not 
long since Meurer maintained, that it is impossible to administer 
chlorine internally, and that in every case in which it was believed 
to have been given, the article really taken was chlorohydric or 
muriatic acid; for, owing to the affinity of chlorine for hydro- 
gen, wlieneviT any union takes place between it and organic mat- 
ters, the chlorine, he affirmed, disappears, and chlorohydric acid 
alone exists, as he had proved by repeated experiments. In this 

t Toxicoloffie G6n6^d^ i. HI. 

* lUieiit, Die Deomi Armeiiiiittel, u. ■. w. 8. 30, Stuttgtrt, 1837. 



CHLORINI AQUA. 191 

aasertion, however, he was opposed by many observers. Herzog 
and Barmann came forward with experiments, to show thai Meu- 
rer had gone too far in his deductions ; and, from all the experi- 
ments, it would appear, that in prescribing aqua chlorini many 
mistakes had been, and — we may add — still are, committed. From 
Barwald's experiments, it would appear, that if water which has 
rested on aromatic or other vegetable substances be chosen for the 
dilution of the solution of chlorine instead of distilled water, a dif- 
ference is produced in the rapidity of the decomposition. In a 
mixture of aqua chlorini, distilled water, and simple syrup, the de- 
composition takes place tardily ; but if, in place of syrup, a muci- 
laginous juice be substituted — for example, the syrupus althaese — 
acids are speedily formed; as well as when a decoction of althaea 
is substituted for distilled water; whereas a mixture of decoction 
of salep, (gr. v. to water gj.) syrup, and aqua chlorini, in well 
stopped bottles, remained undecomposed above twenty-four hours. 
In these experiments, however, the persistence of the smell and 
taste of the chlorine exhibited, that the wholeof it had not been con- 
verted into chlorohydric acid. In the same manner as in the case 
of the decoction of marsh-mallows, the addition of infusum sennae 
and infusum Valerianae, as well as of the solutions of extracts, and 
especially of liquorice, destroyed the smell of the aqua chlorini in- 
stantaneously, even when the taste of chlorine could still be de- 
tected. When the solution was combined with remedial agents 
that contained much colouring matter, the decomposition took 
place with great rapidity. From the results of these experiments, 
JBarwald advises aqua chlorini to be given in admixture with dis- 
tilled water and simple syrup, as in this way only can we be sure 
that the patient has taken the chlorine undecomposed. Herzog 
lays it down as a rule, that the solution of chlorine should only be 
mixed with colourless transparent substances — water, simple syrup, 
gum Arabic or decoction of salep. 

In respect to its administration in disease, it may be well to 
speak first of its internal use, which, in several morbid conditions, 
seems to have rendered good, and in some cases eminent, service. 
The following are the diseases in which it has been chiefly recom- 
mended : — 

Irritative fever^ — as in the violent irritative fever that occurs 
during the period of dentition ; in which it has been administered 
with great success by Kopp, Mehlhausen, Goden, Trusen, and 
Riecke.^ Pangerous determinations to the head have been, in 
thb way, obviated, along with the unpleasant complications which 
are apt to be occasioned thereby. ToeP exhibited it in convui» 
sions during dentition^ which were accompanied by too great ac- 
tivity of vessels ; and he affirms, that he has prescribed no remedy, 
which, in all respects, answered so well. 

' Op. dt 8. 30. ' Archiv.d. med. Eiiahnms. Man and April, 1885. 



192 CHLORim AQUA. 

Mrvousf every especially when tending to the putrid character. 
Id the plague^ according to Wagner, it is of no avail ; but in 
putrid fever y according to Kopp, it is highly useful. Spangenberg 
observed good effects from it in an epidemic typhui with hepatic 
derangement. It is likewise extolled in typkux by Wolf, BrauD, 
Hufeland, and others; and by Sacco in the fever called petechialf'^ 
itself a typhus. Of late, it has been much used in Germany in 
typhus MominaliSf which corresponds to our typhoid fever^ to 
oppose the origin and development of the intestinal ulcerations; 
but when the disease is farther advanced it has been found oaelesB. 
It is especially recommended in this disease by Clemens^ but he 
commonly premised the use of an emetic. Trusen considers the 
emetic unnecessary. He first applies leeches to the epigastrium, 
and then prescribes immediately aqua chlorini in considerable 
doses; — in lighter cases, a dram every two hours; and if the 
disorder of the head be already great, the tongue chapped and the 
peculiar expression of countenance present, he gives two drama 
every two hours. Bartels is less satisfied with the action of 
chlorine in abdominal typhus. It raises, he says, the sinking 
powers very speedily, but often excites the sanguiferous system, 
and not unfrequently increases the abdominal symptoms so palpa** 
biy, that the physician is compelled to have recourse to other 
agents. Riecke\ thinks, however, that it may be of essential ser- 
vice in this disease, which so frequently mocks the best directed 
efforts of the practitioner; and he suggests, that farther experi- 
ments are highly desirable, especially as those instituted by Trusen 
and others are not free from objection, by reason of their having 
associated substances with chlorine that quickly decompose it. 

Carbunculus mnlignus (MiizbranrJkar bunkel.) — In the 
variety of malignant anthrax caused by handling the skins of cat- 
tle, the internal and external use of chlorine has been found of 
essential service by Ettmiiller, Herbst, Stumpf, and Hoffmann. 
The benefit derived from its use externally, in this and similar 
affections, induced Dr. Cramer* to try its effects on bad faruncur 
lous swellings, the progress of which was surprisingly expedited, 
and the extension of the ulceration much limited, compared with 
what occurs under the use of poultices. 

Scarlatina. — Pfeufer,Wendt, Kopp, and Trusen extol it highly 
in this disease for which, on theoretical grounds, it would seem 
to be appropriate, by reason of the great turmoil in the san- 
guiferous system, — indicated by rapidity of pulse and inordinate 
evolution of heat, which bear but little direct ratio to the degree 
of vital energy. Braithwaite, who, it is asserted, was one of the 
earliest, if not the earliest, that advised chbrine in scarlatina, sup- 

• Op. cit. 8. 33. 

« Ca«pcr'« Wochenachrift, No. 8, cited m Brit, and Foreign Medico-Chinvg. Rer. 
July, 18o0, p. 27d 



CBLORINI AWA. 103 

pbted that it acted as specifically as the bark in intermittenti or 
mmniry in syphilis ! and Trusen asserts that it may be advan- 
tageottsly used in cases where other remedies have been found 
ineflTectual. It is especially recommended by Braun and Spiritus 
ia malignant scarlatina. Dr. Watson^ says, that from several dis- 
tinct and highly respectable sources, chlorine has been strongly 
pressed upon his notice as a most valuable remedy in the severest 
forms of scarlatina. His informants have stated, that whereas 
they formerly dreaded to be summoned to cases of that disease, 
they now, having had eip^ience of the virtues of chlorine, felt no 
misgivings in undertaking its treatment. Dr. Watson himself has 
not oad opportunities enough for trying it to speak confidently of 
its sanative power, but presumes that its disinfecting properties may 
account in part for the good it does. It probably deprives the 
foul secretions of their noxious quality. The author has often used 
it| but, in highly malignant forms of the disease, like every other 
ag^nt, it fails. He gives it internally ; sponges the surface with 
it; and employs it, or a solution of chlorinated lime or chlorinated 
soda, as a gargle. Dr. Cramer saw great relief follow its applica- 
tkm to the neck, in a case of this disease in a child, in which 
aoffoeation was impending. He kept compresses well soaked in it 
to the part. 

In other f Artie affections — small^poxy measles , ruheoliBf &c.— 
it has been prescribed with advantage; and Dr. Schneider* strongly 
Kcommends it as a gargle in smatl-pox and angina. He applies 
it diluted with water, and finds it exert a remarkable ectrotie effect 
over variola when affecting the tongue and throat; and over an^ 
gina in generaU In putrid dysentery , (faulige Ruhr,) it is 
extolled by N^en and Kopp; and in intermittent^ by Kopp and 
Kretsehmar. Trusen recommends it m the irregular, and espe- 
daUv io the anticipating forms, where danger exists of their be- 
coming continued. Under its use, he found the paroxysms become 
regular, with perfect apyrexia, so that the ordinary febrifuges could 
be given advantageously. In gastric Jever, Trusen trusted to it 
solely for the removal of the disease ; he found that it corrected the 
morbid secretions from the mucous membrane of the digestive tube. 
Other physicians have also derived equally favourable results from 
its administration in that malady. 

In gastromalacia, it has been prescribed by Rhades, Blasius, 
and Winter, but as Riecke,' — from whom this detail of the expe- 
rience of the German practitioners has been chiefly taken, — properly 
observes, farther observation is necessary before we can decide as 
to its efficacy in such cases. 

In trysipelaSf especially of children, it has been recommended 
by Kopp. 

^ Lflctoiet on tbe Principles and Prtdioe of Physic, 2d Amer.edit,p. 1024. Philad. 
< Cnmor, Op. dt * Op. dt a 34. 



194 CHLORINI AQUA. 

In inflammation of the livery favourable results were obtained 
from it in the Children's Hospital at St. Petersburg; and it exhi- 
bited, in these cases, the analogy to calomel in its action, which 
has been pointed out by many observers. 

In hydrophobia^ it has been used both internally and externallr 
as a preventive, especially by the Italian physicians Brera, Previ- 
tali,^ Ghisaldoni, Agliati, Arrigoni, Narcisi, and Anelli, whose 
experience is in its favour. Wendelstadt and Ruppius have like- 
wise published favourably regarding it. It is obvious, however, 
that much fallacy may arise as to the precise agency of reputed 
preventives. Every one, for example, who may be bitten by a 
mad dog is not attacked with hydrophobia ; and, unless great cau- 
tion be used, any article may be regarded as a preventive. This 
is the main reason why we have so many preventives of this and 
other diseases. 

Solution of chlorine has been advised by Ruppius and Mertzdorf 
in dropsy y especially ^t/cA as supervenes on the acute exanthemata. 

In the diathesis phthisica^ it has been recommended by Goden, 
and has been affirmed to moderate the hectic in phthisis ^ mA to 
make the remissions more marked. In these cases, it requires 
to be given in large doses, and to be exhibited for a considerable 
time. 

In many cases of chronic cutaneous affections with diminished 
plastic energy, it has been used with success by Kopp. 

In nomxi or cancrum oris, and m fcRior of the mauthf it has 
been recommended internally as well as topically; and, according 
to the experiments of Persoz, Nonat, and others, it renders emi- 
nent service in cases of poisoning by hydrocyanic acid. 

Externally, it is used either pure, diluted with water, or in com- 
bination with oil. Godier affirms, that he cured strumous swell" 
ings of the glands by a cerate of chlorine. Eisenmann, Culle- 
rier, and Blache recommend it — at times pure, at others diluted — 
in the way of injection, in gonorrhea and leucorrhcea. It is em- 
ployed, also, in flabby y putridy and offensive ulcersy in carhuncur 
lus malignusy and in chronic cutaneous affections -^bs tinea capitis y 
itch (Deimann,) herpes (Alibert,) asthenic aphthiBy &c. 

In large abscesses and in buboesy great advantage was derived 
by Mr. Cramer * from its external use. The matter was at tiroes 
absorbed, and when this was not the case, the progress of the case 
was still very favourably influenced. 

Lastly: ablution with a solution of chlorine, or of the chlorides, 
has been advised as a preventive of venereal infection. In can^ 
cerous ulcerSy it corrects the unpleasant odour, and excites a new 
action in the part, causing the secretion of better pus: farther than 
this, we cannot expect much from it. Baths of it are recommended 
by Wagner as an excellent means for preventing the plague. 

1 Pntiche OMerrnioni mD' Idrolbbia, &c Mflan, 1S20. « Op. dt 



CHLORINI AQUA. 195 

Schonlein advises, that in scarlatina the whole surface of the body 
diould be washed with a mixture of aqua chloriDi and water, which 
he prefers to ablution with cold water. 

Finally : aqua chlorioi is occasionally sprinkled in the sick cham- 
ber, to purify the atmosphere during the prevalence of contagious 
or other diseases. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

As already remarked, whenever aqua chlorini is prescribed, its 
fiicility of decomposition must be borne in mind. It is, for this 
reason, best to prescribe it, for internal administration, with water 
only,^ or at most with the addition of simple syrup. For exter- 
nal use, water alone should be associated with it. As to the pre- 
OK mode in which chlorine is affected by fatty substances, we have 
as yet no accurate knowledge; it maybe calculated, however, that 
part undergoes decomposition. Such combinations have, notwith- 
standing, been found useful. 

The solution should never be prescribed in quantity larger than 
ii necessary for twenty-four hours, as by frequently opening the 
1 ip which it is contained, decomposition readily ensues. The 
I should be put in a dark place, and be surrounded by black 

The average dose for an adult, m the twenty-four hours, ma^ be 
fixed at an ounce, although much larger quantities may be given 
without inconvenience, it is scarcely necessary to say that the 
precise dose must vary with the degree of concentration. 

Ungnentnm chlorini. 

Ointment of chlorine. 

Unguentum oxygenatum ex tempore parandum, 

B. Aqose chlorin. p. j. 
Adipis p. viij. M. 

Used in t^cA. Pharmacopcna of Austria, 

linimentnm aqnoD chlorini. 

Liniment of chlorine. 

B. Aquse chlorin. f 31. 
Olei olivie f 3 j. M. 

Externally, in obstinate itch, tinea capitisy and herpes. 

Deimann Sr G. A. Richter. 

B. Cane albte 31]; 
Leni calor. liqnef. adde 

01. amygdal. q. s. 
at fiat linimentom cui refrig. adde 
Aq. chlorin. ^iss. M. 
Used externally in ulcers. Ludwig. 

< Lepsge, Joam. de Chimie Med. cited in Encyclop. det Sdeiioet M6d. Janv. 1842. 



196 cHuutorominm. 

fiargariiBi a^is ehloriii. 

Gargle of chlorine. 

B. Tragac. pair. gr. xij. 
Aqnc f ^iv. 
Aqne cUorin. 
Syrup, aau f Jss. M. 

To be used as a gargle in ulceraiion and chronic inflammaium 

of the mouth and fauces* Baiter. * 



LVIII. CHLOROFORMUM. 

SrHoimfES. Chloroforma, Garboneam chloratam, Svperchloridmn fir- 
mylionm^ Chlorofomit improperly called, by some, Chloric ethar,* aad 
Terchloride of Carbon. 

French. Chloroforme. 

German. Chloroform, Formylsnperchlorid. 

This preparation, which was admitted into the Supplement of 
the last edition of this work, has acquired fresh interest, in cons^ 
quence of its introduction and extensive employment as an ansa- 
thetic in the same cases'as sulphuric ether ; which it has indeed, in 
the practice of many, wholly supplanted. 

BfETHOD OF PREPARING. 

Chloroform was discorered separately and about the same period 
by Mr. Guthrie,* M. Soubeiran,^ and Liebig.' It is obtained in 
the following manner, according to the process of Mr. Guthrie* 
Into a clean copper still put three pounds of cA/artna^€d /tme, and 
two gallons of well flavoured alcohol, s. g. '844, and distil. 
Watch the process, and when the product ceases to come over 
highly sweet and aromatic, remove and cork it up closely in glass 
vessels. The remainder of the spirit should be distilled off for a 
new operation. These proportions are not essential : if more 
chlorinated lime be used, the ethereal product will be mcretsed ; 
nor is it necessary that the proof of the spirit should be very high. 
Mr. Guthrie says he ** has commonly used the above proportions 
and proof, and has every reason to be satisfied with them." From 
the above quantity he has conmionly obtained about a gallon of 
ethereal spirit. 

It may be obtained also in the following manner.* One part of 
hydrate of lime is suspended in 24 parts of cold water, and 
chlorine is passed through the mixture until nearly the whole lime 
is dissolved. A little more hydrate is then added to restore the 

' Formulaire Pratique det Hopitaaz Ciyib de Paris, 3^me ^doo. Paris, 1827. 

* Dirrboch, Die neueeten Entdeckoiigeo in der Materia Medica, iiL 930, HeideBMf , 
and Leipzig, 1847. ___ 

* 8iUiman*s Journal, zzL 64, Jan. 1832. ' 

« .\nnalefl de Chimie et de Physique, xlviiL 131. Paris, 1831. 
> Ibid. zUx. 14a Paris, 1832. 

* Fovmes, Elementvy Cbeoistiy, p. 339. Philad. 1845. 



CHLORQFOKMUM. 197 

alkaline reaction : the clear liquid is mixed witb one part of alcohol 
or tDOod spirit^ and after an interval of 24 hours is cautiously dia- 
tiUed in a very spacious vessel. A watery liquid containing a 
little spirit, and a heavy oil collect in the receiver ; the latter, 
which is the chloroform, is agitated with water, digested with 
Moride of calcium^ and rectified in a water bath. 

The most fragrant form is obtained by the action of chlorinated 
lime on alcohol. Dr. Christison^ gives the following mode of pre- 
paring the article, which he and others have used so successtully 
as an anaesthetic. One pound avoirdupois of bleaching powder^ 
with three pounds of water and three ounces of rectified spirit, 
yields, by distillation in a roomy vessel, about nine fluidrams of 
crude chloroform of the density 1'220. After thb, the residuum 
begins suddenly to froth up. The crude chloroform, which is 
covered in the receiver by a stratum of weak spirit, is purified bv 
dialdng with it half its volume of sulphuric acid, gradually added; 
and water and alcohol being thus removed, the strong chloroform 
is freed of a little sulphuric acid by redistilling it from milk of 
lime or baryta. The product, which is pure chloroform, if the 
process be well conducted, amounts to about half a fluidounce. Dr. 
Cbristison has not found the quantity to be increased, as some 
have represented, by increasing the Quantity of alcohol. 

Chloroform is a transparent, colourless fluid, of the specific 
gravity 1*480; of a peculiar, fragrant, ethereal odour, resembling 
Uiat of apples; and of an ethereal, slightly acrid, intensely sweet, 
taste. It speedily evaporates; and boils at 140^ Fahr. It is 
readily soluble in alcohol and ether, but only in 2000 parts of 
water. It dissolves volatile oils, camphor, caoutchouc, wax, and 
resins. Its most frequent adulteration is with alcohol, which is 
easily detected by the reduction of its density. 

Dr. W. Gregory," however, ascribes the injurious effects of the 
chloroform in ordinary use to the presence of certain volatile oily 
impurities, which must be removed before it can be safely em- 
ployed. These oils contain chlorine, have a disagreeable smell, 
and, when inspired or smelt, cause distressing headache and sick- 
ness. The test recommended by Dr. Gregory for these impuri- 
ties is to agitate the chloroform with sulphuric acid, which should 
be <]uite colourless, pure, and of the full density of 1*840 at least. 
This, when agitated with impure chloroform, becomes yellow or 
brown, from its action on the oils, which it chars and destroys. 
Any change of colour is readily seen by the contact with the 
colourless chloroform that floats above. Pure chloroform gives 
no colour to the acid. ' Dr. Beatty' accords with Dr. Gregory in 

* Dnpensatoiry, Amer. edit hj R. E. Griffith, p. 974. Phflad. 184a 

* Monthly Journal of Med. Sdence, May, 1850, p. 41 4 ; or Amer. Joum. of Phannacy, 
Get 1850, p. 398. 

' The Dublin Quarterly Joomal of Med Scienoe, Aii^aat, i860. 



198 CHLOROFO&MUM. 

the belief, that we have thus Id our power a very simple means of 
testing and purifybg chloroform before employing it. 

EFFECTS ON T^E ECONOMY. 

The medical properties of chloroform are like those of sulphuric 
ether, than which, when sufficiently diluted, it possesses a more 
agreeable taste, so that it is readily taken even by children. Dr. 
H. Hartshorne^ experimented with it on himself and others when 
in health. He found that seventy-five drops gave him a sensation 
of general diminution of consciousness and sensorial capacity. 
Sight, hearing, and touch were made less impressive ; but no feel- 
ing of exhilaration or perversion occurred. He was drowsy. 
The pulse was not at all accelerated; it was, indeed, two beats 
slower in the minute; and the same effects were observed in two 
other medical gentlemen, from two or three times the quantity. 
One took over two hundred drops. He became very heavy, and, 
in a short time, passed into a sound sleep. In all of them, the 
influence had departed after an hour or two. No one felt as if he 
had taken alcohol, and in none was the pulse increased ; and the 
conclusion with all of them was, that it is a direct sedative to the 
encephalic nervous system, — a sedative narcotic. 

Chloroform is said to have been used with advantage in asthma, 
spasmodic coughs atonic isthmitis^ ''and other diseases in 
which a grateful and composing medicine is indicated."* In cases 
of cancer it has been given internally in the dose of two or three 
drops by Mr. Tuson,' and has produced sleep and perfect ease. 
As a local application to the cancerous part its action was of a 
sedative character. He also gave it with advantage in uterine 
irritation or nturalgic affections of the uterus. In such cases, 
he prescribed it internally, but in others, attended with obstinate 
discharge, it ought to be injected as well. In obstinate vomiting, 
three drojis have " at once taken effect;" and in such cases Mr. 
Tuson has found benefit from applying it to the pit of the sto- 
mach. In cancer of the pylorus, " it has proved most efficacious 
in preventing the return of the food, and in relieving the pain and 
suffering of the patient." In sloughing ulcers, he has used it 
extensivelvy and he is not acquainted with a remedy more bene- 
ficial. ** In phagedmna, there cannot be a more useful local 
application; but care should be taken to apply it only to the 
sloughing parts." " In fungoid disease, the application of the 
chloride of carbon has been very remarkable." Mixed with 
water, it is said to form a very useful gargle in foul ulcerated 
sore-throaty removing the fcptor, and giving the ulcers a healthy 
appearance. It is also, according to Mr. Tuson, of the greatest 



I Amor. Joum. of the Med. Scimoes, p. 353, Oct 1848. 
< Diipeontary of the United Stales, 6th edit^p 124:2. PhOada. 1B4S. 
* Lond. Lancet, Johr 15, 1843, p. 553, and The Stnicture and FunctioDS of the Fe* 
make Breaal, p. 4ia Lood. 184& 



CHLOROFOaifUM. 199 

b affections of the gums and teeth^ " removing the unpleasant 
stinging pains produced by the exposure of some nervous filament; 
and its use not only gives ease, but removes any unpleasant foBtor 
fnMD the breath." Such is a {Xcture-r— doubtless overdrawn by 
Mr. Tuson— of the efficacy of chloroform as a remedial agent. 

As a narcotic, chloroform has been given internally in asthma^ 
spasmodic covgh^ cancer y uterine irritatiq^, hysteria,* neuralgia* 
cnronic vomiting from nervous causes, such as that which occurs 
in pregnancy, and in short wherever sulphuric ether has been 
found of service. 

As a sedative and soothing external application it has been 
used in open cancer, sloughing ulcers, orchitis,^ neuralgia,^ neur 
ralgic tooth-ache,^ lumbago,^ painful pelvic tumours;* and as a 
eoUutory in fcetor oris; and internally it has been prescribed in wew- 
ralgia,* flatulent colic; in cough, as an addition to pectoral mix* 
tares ; and by M. Delcoux, in intermittent fever, who ascribes to 
it febrifuge and antiperiodic virtues. Soon after its discovery, it 
was prescribed by the Doctors Ives,*® of New Haven, in asthma^ 
spasmodic cough, scarlatina, and atonic quinsy, and with favour- 
able results. 

But its most interesting and important application is as an 
ansesthetic agent administered in the way of inhalation. As long 
ago as the year 1832 it was employed in this manner by Professor 
Ives," of New Haven, in a pulmonary affection attended with great 
debility and dyspnoea, which was effectually relieved by it; but no 
fertber attention appears to have been paid to it until Professor 
Simpson/^ of the University of Edinburgh, instituted trials with 
it, and other anaesthetic agents, and found it infinitely more effica- 
dous than any. In his first publication, after having tried it on 
upwards of fifty individuals, he detailed some striking cases of 
midwifery and surgical practice, in which it had been inhaled with 
the most satisfactory results. The main advantages which he 
conceived it to possess over sulphuric ether, were ; — that a much 
less quantity is needed ; that its action is much more rapid and 

' M. Goillot, cited ir) Christison, Op. lupra cit ; and Dispensatory of the United States, 
8th edit^ p. 1243. Philad. 1849. 

* Fonnby, Christison's Dispensatory, p. 975. Philad. 1848. 

'Mr. Tuson, Op. cit: also Wahu, Annuaire de Medecine, et de Chirurgie pratiques, 
poor 1850, p. 15. 

* Buisson, L* Union M6dicale, No. 4, cited in Brit and Foreign Medico- Chirurg. Rev. 
July. 1850. 

* Ranking, Half-yearly Abstract, ix. 219, Amer. edit Philad. 1849. Tusod, Op. 
dt; Hays and Bond. Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, voL 2, 
Ma 6; and Laroque, Bulletin de Th^rapeutique, Mars, 1849, p. 209. 

' Pigeolet, dted by Wahu, Annuaire de Mededne, et de Chirurgie pratiques, pour 
1849, p. 247. 
' L'Union M^icale, 21 Oct 1848. * Ibid. 31 Octolire, 184a 

* H. Hartihome, Amer. Joum. of the Med. Sciences, Oct 1848, p. 353. 
** SiDiman's Journal, xxi. 406. *i Ibid. 

** Aooountof a new anosthetic agent as a substitute finr sulphuric ether in Smfsry, 
Edinh. 1847. 



300 cHLomoFORiivif. 

complete, and generally more persistent ; its inhalation more agree- 
able and pleasant ; and that being required in much less quantity, 
it is more portable and transmissible than sulphuric ether ;^tlutt 
recovery is usually more speedy, leaving fewer unpleasant feelings ; 
and that it does not excite irritation of the bronchial tabes, is 
pleasant to the taste, and does not leave a disagreeable taint of 
the breath. As soon a| the discovery wasf promulgate by Dr. 
Simpson, the inhalation of chloroform was largely employed in all 
cases in which the inhalation of ether had previously been directed. 
Experiments were made by numerous observers, — by Dr. Simpson^ 
himself, Dr. Snow,« M. S6dillot,» Mr. Wakley, jun.,* Mr. Qnibv,' 
MM. Dum^ril and Demarquay, M. Amussat," M. Grerdy,' iL 
Jobert,* Mr. F. Sibson," M. Coze," and others, to determine its 
physiological action ; from all of which it appears, that whilst 
chloroform is a much more potent agent than sulphuric ether, its 
action as an ansBsthetic is essentially the same ; MM. Dum6ril and 
Demarquay in their experiments on animals state, that ether and 
chloroform are rapidly fatal, when inhaled in very large quantity. 
Dogs were destroyed in thirty-iive or forty-five minutes, and even 
in less time, by chloroform. When the inhalation of chloroform, 
like that of ether, is carried beyond a certam pomt, it is capable 
of producing death ; and if not to this extent, convulsions and 
profound insensibility. Certain persons appear, too, peculiarly 
susceptible to its influence, so that disagreeable, and even dangei^ 
ous phenomena may present themselves, when least expect. 
Many such cases have been recorded ; — the disagreeable effects 
being chiefly, — vomiting, especially when the inhalation has been 
used soon after eating; headache, continuing for several hours; 
hysteric or tetanic convulsions, and formidable depression of the 
heart's action. The ordinary effects are described by Dr. Cfaiii* 
tison'^ as follows : — When inhaled in the dose of twenty or tUity 
minims from a handkerchief, it speedily occasions whizzing and 
pulsation in the head ; a change in the apparent colour of objects; 
pleasurable ideas and visions; loss of consciousness, or a semi* 
conscious state, and either soft sleep, or tendency to laughter and 
jocularity, or propensity to incoherent talking, or boisterous tur- 
bulence; and when this state passes ofi", which happens in five or 
six minutes at most, there is little or no recollection of what has 
passed, and no remembrance of pain, eve| although pain may have 

* MondilT Journal of Med. Science, Dec 1847. 
*UDc«(;FeK]3,IS48,andMay 13, ld4d « Comptes rendiM, jk 802. *IW. 

* Bullelin «k« Acadtoiiess. * Camples nodiu» N<nr. 3d, 1847. 
^ ConipCes rendua. pw 803. 

Mhii.p.80& Sce.alacvAiner.Joiini.oftheMed.Scienoe>,JuIy,1848,p.»7. 

* Land. Med. Gai., Feb. lj<4d 

'* BoQchaidat .\nnaatre de Thenmeutiqiie. pour 1850. pi 38. 

" Dianen»Uvy4Amer. edit, by R. E. Griffith, p. 975. Phibd. 1843. See, abo, a let- 
ter Irom Dr. Chrwdaon to M. Duan^ io Bouchaidat. .\iinodre de Therapeuliqiie, pow 
1849, p. 7& 



CHLOROFORMUM. SOI 

been expressed. These phenomena closely resemble in nature 
and variety the effects of the inhalation of nitrous oxide gas. The 
tSect on the heart's action is yariable. The most frequent devia- 
tioD, witnessed by Dr. Christison, is, some increase in the frequency 
and diminution in the force of the pulse; but often no distinct 
change takes place, and occasionally the pulse is strengthened. 
When a dose of a fluidram or more is inhaled in the same man- 
ner, the most frequent effect is the rapid induction of coma, with 
complete relaxation of the muscles; slow and often stertorous 
breathing; upturning and fixing of the eyes, and total insensibility 
to agents which cause, in ordinary circumstances, the most acute 
suffering. The pupils are variously affected, but always contractile. 
Frothing at the mouth b not unusual. Slight convulsive twitches 
of the face and limbs are more rare. The insensibility may begin 
in fifteen seconds, and is rarely postponed beyond two minutes, if 
the chloroform be skilfully applied. It continues usually between 
five and ten minutes, but sometimes for two hours, if the inhala- 
tion has been kept up for some time by renewing the chloroform on 
the handkerchief. Sometimes quiet sleep succeeds ; more generally 
a drowsy, dreamy state, but not unfrequently rapid, complete con- 
adousness and activity. In general, no recollection is retained 
of any occurrence during the state of insensibility. For the most 
part, there is no remarkable subsequent effect; no lassitude; no 
headache; no sickness; no loss of appetite; but occasionally there 
is a little weariness or sickness. 

Such is the statement of one who is partial to the administratioi^ 
of chloroform. He admits, however, that other results have been 
observed, which he regards as anomalies, depending upon consti- 
tutional peculiarities or impurities in the chloroform. '^I have 
witnessed," he remarks, "violent tetanic spasm twice in the healthy 
state ; and once in delirium tremens, but without any ill conse- 
quence : hysteric agitations, contortions, and screaming, have also 
been witnessed, but without any ultimate harm ; and during both 
of these affections there has been no recollection afterwards of 
any uneasiness. Sickness and vomiting have sometimes occurred, 
chiefly, according to my observation, when the remedy was used 
too continuously so as greatly to obstruct the breathing. Relaxa- 
tion of the sphincters is an untoward accident, which is not so 
frequent as might be exMcted. The only really formidable affec- 
tion is sinking of the pulse, as in the case adverted to above ; and 
this seems a rare occurrence." 

It is undoubted, however, that unpleasant and even alarming 
phenomena have been produced by it in the experience of Mr. 
Beales,^ Mr. R. Stewart,' Mr. W. W. Gull,^ Dr. Mitchell,* Dr. 

' Lond. Med. Gaz^ Dec. 24. 1S47. > niid. Jan. 184S. * Ibid. Dm. 1847. 

* Ibid. Jan. 184», from DuUin Med. Press. 



202 CHLOROPORMUM. 

Nevins,' Dr. Reed,* Mr. Tomes, Dr. Webster,' (insanity induced,) 
Dr. John Snow,* Dr. C. H. Cragin,^ M. Michon,^ Delarue,^ and 
others, and fatal cases ascribed to its deleterious aorency haye been 
recorded by Mr. Meggison,® Dr. R. Jamieson,* Mr. KobinsoD,^* 
M. Gorr6,»* Dr. Anderson," M. Robert,*' R. O. Johnston,'* M. 
Confevron,*' and others.** 

According to M. Gruby, during the inspiration of chlorofonD, 
the arterial blood retains its florid hue, and if, under asphyxia, it 
assumes the dark venous character, the red colour is speedily 
restored ; yet by others*^ a highly venous appearance of the blood 
issuing from the arteries has been noticed ; and M. Robin*' ascribes 
the anaesthesia induced by it and ether to their preventing the com- 
plete conversion of venous into arterial blood. Like ether, chlo- 
roform is capable of inducing local anaesthesia,*^ by dipping the 
part in it, or applying it externally by means of lint, — a fact, 
which was noticed before it was employed as an anaesthetic in the 
way of inhalation, and led to its use as a local agent by Mr. Tusoo 
and others. Its influence in deadening the sensibihty of a pari 
has been recorded also by M. Gruby,'® Mr. Nunnely,'* Dr. Simp- 
son," Mr. Spry," M. Jules Roux,'* Mr. Higginson'* and others. 

No sooner were the anaesthetic properties promulgated by Prof. 
Simpson than it was employed in all the cases in which the inhala- 
tion of ether had been prescribed. It was given in the yarioas 

J^Teuroses. In 

' Lond. Med. Gazette, Mar. 1848. * Lancet, April 29, 1848. 

* Lnnd. Med. Gaxettef Jan. 1850, and Pfiychological Journal, April, 1850. 

* Edin. Med. and Surg. Journal, cited in Amer. Journ. of the Med. Scienoei^ J^Jj, 
1850, p. I (')«). • Med. Examiner. April, 1848, p. 2'^3. 

* A rchives Odn^ralefl de M^d6cine, JuiUet, lb50, p. 370. 
Mliid. Sept. 1850, p. 105. 

* Med. Tiinea, Feb. 5, 1848. * Lond. Med. Gaz., Feb. 26, 184& 

*" Medical Tiinca, cited in Ranking*8 Half-yearly Abbtract, Amer. edit tuL 290, 
Philad. 1848. 

" LaiK^t, July 4, 1848. See a fatal case, occurring in Cincinnati, in Western Ijan- 
oet, Mur. IH4H; and another at Hyderabad, in Scinde, in ibid., July 22, 1848. ^ Ibid. 

*" Cited in Medical Timet, July 22, 1848. 

'* Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal, July 2(5, 1848. 

'* Cited in Lancet, Nov. 17, 1R49. 

** Lond. Med. Gazette, Jan. 1 849. See, on the injurious and fatal effects of dilorofonn, 
J. C. Warren, Amer. Joum. of the Med. Sciences, April, IH49, p. 379; and Efiectsof 
Chlorofivni and of strong Chloric Ktlier, as narcotic agents, Boston, 1849; Dr. Snow and 
otlierM. in Amer. Journal of the Med. Sciencen, July, 1849, pp. 274-278; aldo, a Dis- 
cuRHJon Iwfore the Academy of Medicine of Paris, on the action of Chloroform, by MM. 
Mal^iigno, Amutwat and vtuerin, cited in Meil. TirnrH. Nov. 25. and Dec 2, 1848, and 
Lancet, Frh. 2, 1^4*1; and in Bouchardat. .\nnuairc dc 'llicrapeutique, pour 1849, pi. 90. 

" Pioviiicial Med and Surg. Journ., Feb. 9, 1818. 

" Archive* Gen^ralcA de Medwine. Fevrier, 18o0, p. 238. 

*• Boston MihI. and Surg. Journal, .^pril, lJi4::<. 

•• Loiul. Med. (■azrtte, i)ec. 24. 1847. 

•> Provinci.ll Meilical and Surgical Journal, June 28, 1848. 

•• Mmithlv Journal of Meil. Soiena% l5'47-4H, p. 451. 

* rrovini-ial Mcilii^al and Surgical Journal, Aug. 28, 1848. 
** (•aaetto dea Hopitaux, 7 Nov., 1818. 

i* Lond. Mod. Gaietlab Jan. 1849. 



CHLOROFORMUM. 203 

Tetanus, successful cases were recorded by Mr. Geo. Sloman,^ 
Mr. R. L. Baker' and Dr. E. H. Clarke.^ M. Forget* and M.Jules 
Roux' refer to seven cases of cure, against six of want of success. 
Dr. C. A. Worthington^ has reported a case in which it afforded 
great relief, but did not prevent the fatal termination. 

Hydrophobia. One case of this almost intractable malady has 
been recorded in which it was successful ; and others^ in which 
it greatly relieved the intense suffering from the spasms; but on 
the other hand, in a case by Mr. S. B. Denton^ it augmented them. 
A case of hydrophobic mania was treated happily with it by Mr. 
R. Y. Ackerley;" and one of presumed hydrophobia, under the 
care of Professor Jackson'^ of Philadelphia, is reported as having 
been cured by it. Dr. Jackson inclines to the belief that the case 
was one of true hydrophobia ; but the published details do not 
lead the author to the same conclusion. In 

Neuralgia J it was prescribed with advantage, by Dr. Protheroe 
Smith, Mr. Sibson" Dr. D. Brainard,^^ and others; and in 

Chorea, by Mr. Harris" and Mr. Sibson.** 

In delirium tremens, by Dr. P. Smith ; and it was used with 
great success in inducing sleep, by Dr. Joseph Parrish^' and Dr. 
Whiting.'* 

Insanity. Dr. M'Gavin*^ and Dr. E. B. Moore>' found it an 
excellent sedative and hypnotic; and in sick headache, Dr. P. 
Smith prescribed it with advantage. It was also given with great 
benefit in typhus, as a sedative and hypnotic, by Dr. Fairbrother,^^in 

Jisthma, by Mr. Chandler,*® Mr. Greenhalgh,** and Dr. Cra- 
gin;** in 

Hooping cough, by Dr. Protheroe Smith; in 

Colic, by the same gentleman, and by Dr. Cragin;*^ in 

Nephritic colic, by Drs. Bowditch and A. Stille;** in 

> Provincial Med. and Surg. Jonm., Sq)t 5, 1849. 

* Ibid , May 31, 1848, and Lancet, Jane 3, 184a 

* Amer. Joum. of tbe Med. Sciences, July, 1849, p. 75. 

* Cited in Canstatt und Eiaenmann's Jamesbericht, u. s. w. im Jahre, 1849, ▼. 190, 
Eilangen, 1850. i 

* Revue Medico-Chirurg. Nov. 1 848, cited in Boudiardat, Annuaire de Th6rapeutiqae, 
poor 1849. fx 101. * Provinc. Med. and Surg. Jourik, April 19, 1848. 

' Ranking'g Half Yearly Aliatract, &c, viii. 2V2, Amer. edit., Philad. 1848, and T. 
T. Smiley, Med. Examiner, April, 1848, p. 223. 

* Provincial Med. and Surg. Joum., Oct 31, 1H49. * Lancet, July 29, 1848. 

** TransBctioofl of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia for January and April, 
1849. 11 London Med. Gazette, March 31, 184& 

•• North- Western Med. and Surg. Journal, Sept 1849. 

*' Lancet, June 3, 1848. ** London Med. Gaz., Feb. 4, 1848. 

'• New Jersey Medical Reporter, July, 1848. 

*• Ohio Med. and Surg. Joum,, March, 1849. See, also, Zcitschrift ftir die Gesammt. 
Mcdirin, April, 1850. No. 4, S. 553. 

*' Report of Montrose Asylum, 1848, cited in Monthly Journal of Med. Sci.,Oct 1848. 

** Boston Med. and Surg. Journal, April 4, 1849. 

** Lancet, Jan. 28, 1848. * Provinc. Med. and Surg. Journal, Jan. 29, 1848. 

** Lancet, Dec. 4, 1847. •: Medical Examiner. April, 1848, p. 227. " Ibid. 

** Tianwctiooa of tlie C9llege of Phynciana of Philadelpoim, yoL iL Na 6. 



^ 



CHLOAOPORMUM. 



Biliary calculus^ by Dr. P. Smith; in 

Dysmenorrhosa^ by the same geatlemaOi and by Dn. J. H. 
Bennett^ and Dr. Withers;' in 

Bronchitis^ by Mr. Brown;' in 

Cholera morbus, it has been employed successfully by Mr. 
Brady and Mr. Plummer;* and in 

CholerOy by Dr. James Hill, Dr. Ferguson,^ and Dr. A. Bour- 
nonville." With others, however, as Dr. W. Robertson/ it has 
only succeeded in relieving the distressing cramps. Lastly, in 

Feigned diseases j it has been used in the way of detection; 
but the same objections apply to it as to other anasthetics. 
(See page 71.) 

In regard to the employment of the inhalation of chloroform ai 
an anaesthetic in surgical operations, the same remarks are appli- 
cable as were made on sulphuric ether. Wherever a powerful 
anaesthetic, anodyne and relaxant was needed, chloroform has 
been had recourse to, and the highest testimonials have been 
brought forward in its favour by the most distinguished surgeons 
of all countries. On this side the Atlantic, ether inhalation is, 
perhaps, more employed, and is generally considered safer; but 
there are many who prefer chloroform." In obstetrical practiee 
it has been largely administered; and the same objections have 
been urged against its employment in a natural process, as in 
the case of sulphuric ether.^ Since its first introduction by Dr. 
Simpson, it has been extensively used in Edinburgh, to subdue the 
sufferings of childbearing; and it is impos^ble to extol any agent 
more highly than it has been. " Its effect," says Dr. Christison,'* 
'Ms perfect, and may be maintained uninterruptedly for many 
hours, without influencing the frequency or force of the uterine 
contractions, and without any eventual harm. It is only when 
the deepest coma, with suffocative stertor, is brought on, that the 
uterine contractions are apt to be arrested for a time; — a property 
which may be taken advantage of to facilitate the operation of 
turning." 

From a careful and dispassionate inquiry into its effects in snch 
cases. Dr. Murphy" is of opinion, that it does not interfere with 

' ImmxU Feb. IP. 1848. * Wrntern Jouroal of Med. and Surg:, Feb. 184a 

"L«ii«»l, Uw.4, 1S47. 

« London Mt\L Ga&^tte. Sept 16, liM8. ' Dublin Med. Pies, Nov.Saiid 18^ 1848. 

' Medkral Examiner. Aug. I«M9. * MonUihr Joamal of Med. Science, Dec. 1848. 

* On \\w ValiK' of' AnMhetka. and especiaUj'of Chlorofonn in Somnr. See Sur- 
gical E\(ierionct^ of Cblorofbrm. br James MiQer, F.RS.E. EdinbiR|pK 184a Prat 
LLE4IS. Mod. Ci:i<vtu\ June tf. ]S*4^\ and the RcfiortB of the Committeee on S uigeij in 
TrmnsactivMis office .American Modica! Aseocialion. toI& i. and iiu Philad. I84t^5& 

*$«w fUiie 7:2. and Ranking'* Half-vcaiir Abatract til 252. Ameiican editioQ, 
Philad. 1S4^. R^r t!ie views of Dra. Rahkine, Simpeon, Rdand, Tvler, Smith, and 
otLen; and Toid. > iii. \.M 1 . PhDad. 1 S4*.>. 

•• Di9|*n«ton-. edit. ciL p. 97lv Philad. 1S4& 

" Clikwt^&^nn in the IVacticv of .Miilwifhr. died in Ranking, lot. oL, and MoDtUj 
Journal of Medical SooKe, Dm. 1S49. 



CHLOROFORMUM. 205 

the parturient action of the uterus, unless given in large and un- 
necessary doses ; — that it causes greater relaxation of the passages 
and perineum, and a greater secretion from the mucous membrane 
of the vagina ; subdues nervous irritation, caused by severe pain ; 
restores nervous energy; secures the patient perfect repose for 
lome hours after delivery, — and that its injurious effects, >when an 
ordinary dose is given, seem to be dependent upon constitutional 
peculiarities or improper management. 

Its value in natural labour and operative midwifery has been 
deposed to by numerous observers; — by Mr. Brown,^ Dr.Nevins," 
Messrs. CliSbrd, Fearn, Wilson, M. Richet,^ Dr. Protheroe 
Smith/ and by Drs. Keith, Moir, Malcolm, Thompson, Purdie, 
Gumming, and numerous others, cited by Dr. Simpson,^ as well as 
by Dr. Denham,^ Dr. Henry Bennett,^ Dr. Geo. N. Burwell,' Dr. 
J. P. White,' Dr. Channing,*^ Dr. C. H. Cragin," Dr. Lindsly,^' 
Dr. Beatty,^ Dr. Trask,*^ and others. 

In labours complicated with puerperal convulsions^ good 
effects have resulted from it in the practice of Mr. W. J. White,^* 
Mr. Feam,*« Mr. Clifton, Dr. J. P. White," Dr. Channing,^** Dr. 
S. N. Harris,^^ Dr. Harding,»° Dr. Keith,«» and others. 

Dr. Ranking** has recently remarked, that if he may judge from 
the tenor of numerous private communications, there seems to be 
a growing indisposition, in England at least, to the employment 
of anaesthetics in natural labour, although he is not prepared to 
tav, that the trouble attending the use of the agent has not some- 
thing to do with the objection. In instrumental and other forms 
of complicated labour, he believes they are still much employed 
by the leading accoucheurs of England; whilst, in Scotland, the 
withholding of them, even in natural labour, is almost the excep- 

' Lancet, Dec. 4, 1847. ^ London Med. Gazette, March, 1848. 

* lUnkiDg's Half-yearly Abstract, vii. 255. PhilaJ. 1848. 

* Lancet, Nov. 27, 1847. 

* Monthtf Journal of Med Science, October, 1848; and Ranking, op. cit., viiL 242. 
Phflada. 1849. * Dublin Quart Journal of Med. Si>ienro, Aug. 1849. 

* London Journal of Med., March, 1850. ' Buflfklo Med. Journal, ^o^r. 1848. 

* n)id. Sept. I84a "* Dr. Parkman, Amer. Journ. of Med. Sci., July, 1849, p. 41. 
" Medical Examiner, April, 1848, p. 2*28. 

I* Ibid. June, 1848, p. 340; and Report of the Committee of Obstetrics, Dr. Lindaly 
Chairman, in Trans, of the Amer. Med. Association, i. 228, Philada. 1848, and Sup- 
plement, containing the fevourable Testimony of Prof Channing, Dr. E. J. Marsh, tfr. 
J. C. Bennett, Dr. M. B, Wright, Dr. Moultrie, Dr. Gross, Dr. Jas, Stewart, 6k j also, 
Rmnt of the same Committee, Dr. Gilman, Chairman, in Tiamactions, Ac, ii. 241, 
?]Sm. 1849. 

*• Dublin Quart Journal of Med. Science, Aug. 1 850, p. 341 . 

** Amer. Journal of the Med. Sciences, Julv, 18.50, p. 341. 

" Lancet, March, 1848. *' Lond. Medical Gazette, Feb. 11, 1848. 

>" Buf&lo Med. Journal, Sept., 1848. 

* A Treatise on Etherization in Childbirth, Boston, 1848. 

* Charleston Med. Journal, Sept. 1848. 

* Boston Med and Sur^. Journal, Feb. 21, 1849. 

s' Monthly Journal of Med. Science, August 1850. 

B HaU^yeariy Abstract, ftcn z. 266, Amer. edit Phi]a.l8&0. 

14 



306 CHLO&OFORMUM. 

tioa. Dr. Rigby is satbfied, that a sufficient immiiDity from tnP 
feriog may be attained without annihilating conscioosneas, aad 
advises, that not more than ten or fifteen drops should be used «t 
a time, by which the patient may have the sensations of paib 
much mitigated, and, at the same time, be perfectly conscioiis of 
its occurrence; and a similar view is entertained by ProfesM^r 
Lindsly,^ of Washington, and by Professor T. E. Beatty,' of Dob* 
lin. it would appear, from the observations of Drs. Murphy umi 
Beatty, that the first effect of a good dose of chloroform is to 
arrest uterine action for a short time, so that if the pains be slow 
and feeble, they may be more certainly interfered with ; and to 
obviate this result, Dr. Beatty' associates with it ergot, which he 
has found to answer a valuable purpose. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The dose in which Mr. Tuson administers chloroform is from 
one to four or five drops; but others go as high as a tea-spoonfiil, 
diluted with water, or sugar and water, or mucilage. In neural- 
gic affections it appears to have given the greatest relief in the 
form of liniment, composed of linimtntum saponis seu Uhu 
mentum camphorxy f |ij., chloroform, f 3J., to be carefullj 
rubbed over the affected part; or the chloroform may be applira 
by means of a rag wetted with it. 

As a wash, injection, and gargle, Mr. Tuson prescribed it £- 
luted with water, in the proportion of one or two drams to the 
pint; but as an application to the sound skin, it is generally used 
undiluted — being applied by means of lint or soft rags, covered 
with oiled silk to prevent evaporation. When employed un- 
diluted, it ought to be pure, as, according to Mialhe and others, 
when it contains absolute alcohol it acquires caustic properties, 
and excoriates the surface with which it is made to come in con- 
tact. Dr,. Hay ward,* indeed, ascribes such properties to the chlo- 
roform itself. 

The dose for inhalation is a fluidram at a time, which most 
be renewed in two minutes, if the desired effect be not induced. 
According to Dr. Christison,^ there seems to be no limit to the 
safe repetition of it. Dr. Simpson has used eieht fluidounces in 
thirteen hours, in a case of labour. The patient, he says, ex- 
periences least annoyance, and is least apt to show a precursory 
stage of excitement, when a full dose is used at once. Professor 
S. Jackson^ has related the case of a lady, labouring under stricture 
of the upper portion of the rectum, with convulsions and peculiar 
spasms, who, by gradually increasing the quantity as the effects 

I Medical Examiner, June, 1848, p. !)40. 

• Dublin Quarterly Journal of Med. Science, Aug. 1850, p. a ' IHd pw 8. 

• Remarks on the Comparative Value of Uie different An&sthetic AgentR. Boat 1850. 

• Diapensatoiy, American edit, by R E. GriOSth, p. 977. PhiJad. 1848. 

• Tranaactioni of the College of Phyaidaiis of Thiladelphia, toL il Na 6. 



CHLOmOFOEMUM. 207 

diminisbed, inhaled, in the course of an evening, two ounces; then 
two ounces more, and another ounce in the course of the night — 
Btking five ounces, from 5 o'clock, p. m. until 10 o'clock the 
■eKt morning. Dr. Jackson, having been sent for in consequence 
of the mother's alarm at the quantity of chloroform used, found 
her with a feeble pulse, diminished temperature of the body, and 
eoomderable mental excitement. She remained cold and nearly 
pobeless for forty-eight hours, when the effects disappeared. 

As in the case of the inhalation of sulphuric ether, various forms 
of apparatus have been invented for the inhalation of chloroform, 
some of which have been figured in another work.^ They are all, 
however, admitted to be unnecessary. A small muslin or silk 
handkerchief, twisted into a hollow cone, or into the form of a 
bird's nest, moistened with chloroform, and held near the nose or 
month of the patient, is the arrangement adopted by Dr. Simpson, 
and most operators. In this way, a due admixture of atmospheric 
air may be insured, and the risk of apnoea avoided. When the 
eflfect produced is greater than is desired, the patient should be 
placed in the horizontal posture; cold air be fanned across the face, 
and cold water be dashed or poured over the forehead and head. 
Ammonia may be inhaled; and, in more urgent cases, it has been 
advised, that the physician should blow into the mouth of the pa- 
tient for the purpose of artificial respiration, if no apparatus be at 
hand. It has been suggested, too, that it would not be an idle 
prorinon to have an electro-magnetic machine in operation. As 
loon as the patient b able to swallow, stimulants may be adminis- 
tered internally ; but under the apprehension that the respiration 
might otherwise be fiirther embarrassed,^ it has been recommended 
that they should not be given until he has revived in some measure.^ 

Lake ether, chloroform vapour has been administered per anum 
by Pirogoff, Bromme, Korner, and Seifert.^ 

Under the names concentrated chloric ether, and strong 
CHLORIC ether, a compound of pure chloroform and nearly a6- 
iolute alcoholy composed of one-third of the former to two-thirds 
of the latter has been employed by Dr. J. C. Warren * and others; 
but Dr. Bache' has properly sugf^ested that, as the name chloric 
ether was originally applied by Dr. T. Thomson to the " Dutch 
liquid," or "chloride of defiant gas," it would be well to abandon 
the appellation for either chloroform or its union with alcohol. 
Correct names, as he remarks, for the latter combination would 

' General Therapeatics and Mat Med. 4th edit i. 386. Philad. 1850. 

* C. H. Cragb, Med. Examiner, April, 1848, p. '£27. 

* ChristiflOD, Diroenaatory, p. 977. 

* Canitatt und Eiaenixiann^a Jahreabericht, u. a. w. im Jahre 1849, v. 190, Erlangen, 
I85a 

' EllecU of Chloroferm and of strong Chloric Ether, as narcotic agents. Beaton, 1849. 

* The Dkpenaatory of Uie United States of America, 8th edit p. 1245. Pliilad. 1849. 



208 CHLOROFORBfUM. 

be either alcoholic solution of chloroform, or tincture of chlorO' 
form. 

By Dr. Warren^ and others, this preparation has been regarded 
as safer than chloroform, and more agreeable than sulphuric ether; 
but if the unpleasant effects of chloroform be owing, as has been 
supposed by some, to its not being pure, it is not easy to see how 
the chloric ether can be safer than chloroform.^ The preparation 
sold in London and elsewhere under the name ^^ chloric ether,'* it 
said to be a weak tinctqre of chloroform, of variable quantity, con- 
taining at most but 16 or 18 per cent, of chloroform, and at timet 
not more than 5 or 6 per cent. 

According to a Report of the Standing Committee on Surgery of 
the American Medical Association, of which Dr. Mussey wat 
chairman,^ there are two kinds of chloric ether — the chloric ether 
of commerce, consisting of one part of chloroform to fifteen of 
alcohol; the other, more concentrated, composed of chloroform 
one part, and alcohol nine parts — the latter, the one employed for 
anaesthetic purposes. It is a much weaker article than thott 
above mentioned. Cases of the successful use of chloric ether, at 
an anaesthetic in surgical operations, are given by Dr. Warren;' 
and Dr. Channing ^ employed it successfully in obstetric practice. 
Dr. Hayward,^ however, states that he cannot divest himself of 
the belief, that chloric ether is an unsafe anaesthetic, when he con- 
siders that it is simply chloroform diluted with alcohol. *^ It it 
true,*' he remarks, '' that as far as we know, no fatal effects have 
hitherto followed its inhalation ; but it is also true, that it has at 
yet been used to a very limited extent, and in all the cases in 
which it has been exhibited, that have come to my knowledge, it 
has been managed with great caution and judgment. But I fear, 
that if it be used with the same freedom'that sulphuric ether is, 
we shall soon have to record some very different results. We 
cannot feel confident that it will always be confided to skilful 
hands only, nor by any means certain that death, when not looked 
for, may not follow its exhibition.'* 

When it comes in contact with the unprotected skin, it acts 
upon it — Dr. Hayward says — in the same manner as chloroform. 
He thinks, too, that it is more apt to induce disagreeable encepha- 
lic disorder than ether. 



' Hayward, Remarks on the Comparathre Vahie.of difleient Anssthetic Agenta. Boa- 
ton, 1850. 

' The Traniiactiora of the American Med. Association, iil 323, Phihid. 1850; and 
Amer. Joum. of the Med. Sciences. April, l84J>,p. 379. 

' Op cit and Transactions of the Amer. Med. Association, iii. 385. 

* A Treatise on Etherization in Childbirth, illustrated h\- five hundred and eighty-one 
cases, Boston, 1848; and Dr. S. Parkman, Amer. Joum. of the Medical Sciences, July, 
1849. p. 42. 

* Reinarks on the Comparatife Value of the difierent AncstheUc Ageots. Boaloii, 
1850. 



CHLOROFORMUM. 209 

A COMPOUND ETHER has also been eroployed, which consists of a 
solution of chloroform in sulphuric ether. It was formed on the 
suggestion that ether alone is too slow and uncertain, whilst chlo- 
roform itself is too rapid and hazardous in its effects ; and hence, 
the union of the two, it was conceived, might act more gradually 
and safely. Under its influence, amputations were performed by 
Dr. Cox at the Bellevue Hospital with favourable results.^ 

Sulphuric ether, chloroform, and chloric ether, and compound 
ether are the ansesthetics most frequently employed; and it maybe 
bteresting to state the preferences of different practitioners for one 
or other of them, as enumerated in the Report of the Standing 
Ck)mmittee on Surgery of the American Medical Association, of 
which Dr. Mussey, of Cincinnati, was chairman.' Dr. Hayward, 
of Boston, expresses a strong preference for sulphuric ether. It 
is preferred, too, by Dr. Horner, of Philadelphia. Dr. J. C. War- 
ren, and his son, Ur. John Mason Warren, Professor Knight, of 
Tale College, and Dr. A. L. Pierson, of Salem, Massachusetts, 
employ chloric ether exclusively. Dr. D. M. Reese, of the Belle- 
Tue Hospital, New York, uses a mixture of one part of chloroform 
with two parts of sulphuric ether, by weight ; and when the pa- 
tient is less impressible, chloroform alone. Dr. Pope, of St. Louis, 
employs either chloroform alone or in combination with ether. 
Dr. Brainard, of Chicago, uses pure ether, or three parts of ether 
to one of chloroform. Dr. Washington L. Atlee, two parts of 
ether to one of chloroform, liquid measure. Dr. Howard, of Co- 
lumbus, Ohio ; Dr. Twitchell, of New Hampshire ; Dr. Eve, of 
Augusta, Georgia, now of Louisville; Dr. Gross, of Louisville, 
now of New York; Dr. Shipman, of Syracuse, New York; Dr. 
Hamilton, of Buffalo, and Dr. Mussey, prefer chloroform ; and the 
last gentleman remarks, that were he to employ any other anse- 
sthetic than simple chloroform, he would select the mixture of it 
with ether — one measure to two, as employed by Dr. Atlee; as 
from several trials he has made, he thinks the pulse is rattier better 
sustained than under chloroform alone. 

It appears then that each of these anaesthetics has its advocates; 
and, perhaps, under careful management no decided preference 
need exist. 

The vapours of sundry other substances — of chlorohydric and 
nitric ethers^ of bisnlphurel of carbon^ of chloride of defiant 
gaSf of benzifif aldehyde, light coal tar naphtha,^ <fcc. &c., 

> Churning, a Treatise on Etherization in Childbirth, p 30. Boston, 184a 
' TrannctionB of the American Medical Association, iiu 323. Philad. ISM). 
' Professor Simpson, Monthly Joomal of Medical Science, April, 1848. Boochaidat, 
Annuaire de Th^rapeutique pour 1 849, p. 1 07— HI. H.J. Bigclow, Transactions of the 
Amer. Med. Association, i. 197, Phibd. 1848; and Report of tlM Committee oo Surgery, 
Dr. N. R. Smith, chairman, Ibid, vol 2, p. 213. PhUad. 1849. 



210 CHOKDRUS. 

have been inhaled, and produced anaesthetic effects analogous to 
those of ether and chloroJEbrjUi but they are not employed.^ 



LIX. CHONDRUS. 

Stnontmks. Fucub Crispus eeu Irlandicus, Lichen Carrageen, Chondms 

Crispus sen Polymorphus, Spheroooccus Crispus, Ulva Crispa, Iri^ 

Mom, Carrageen, Carragaheen or Corigeen Mots. 
French. Mousse d'Irlande, Mousse Perl^. 
Oerman. Krauser Tang, Seetang, Carragaheenmoos, Ir- 

landisch Moos, Irlandisch Perl-oder Seemoos, Geperi- 

tes Seemoos, Krauser Knorpelfang. 

Although Carrageen or Irish moss has long been used in Ireland^ 
it was but little employed in other parts of Europe, or in jthis 
country, until within the last few years. Of late, it has been used 
precisely in those cases in which Lichen Islandicus or Iceland 
moss has been deemed appropriate. In Germany, the first trials 
were made with it in the year 1833, by Von Grafe of Berlin, and 
the results were given to the world in his report for that year,* of 
the Clinical, Surgical and Ophthalmic Institute, attached to the 
Frederick William University. 

Chondrus, which belongs to the Natural Family Algae, exists 
in the Atlantic Ocean, on the coasts of England, IrelancC western 
France, Spain, and Portugal, and as far as the tropics. It is also 
said to be a native of the United States. It is met with more 
abundantly, however, in Ireland, especially in Clare, where it is 
used by the poor as an article of diet. It is thrown on the diore 
by the waves, and is gathered at the time of the ebb.* 

Irish moss, when fresh, is of a purple-brown or purple-red 
colour, and somewhat resembles Iceland moss; but when dried, as 
we meet with it in commerce, it is mostly yellowish or dirty white, 
but intermixed with purplish-red particles, and resembles laminae 
of horn : it is crisped, translucent, and frequently contains small 
shells, calcareous concretions, and grains of sand. It has not 
much taste; the smell seems to betray iodine, which, however, 
has not been detected in it. When the moss is chewed, it feels 
like so much cartilage, but, by the moisture and warmth of the 
mouth, it soon loses its brittleness. It contains a little chloride of 
sodium.^ 

The jelly obtained from it is transparent and colourless, its 

> Amer. Joum. of the Med. Scienoea, Aprfl, 1849, p. 528. NumiriBj, Pfovindil 
Med. and Surg. Journ. March 7, 1849. 

> Bericht Qber das kltnuche chir. augen'anUiche loadtut der k. Friedr. WittL Uoi^rwa. 
far d. J. 1833. Beri. 1834. 

* Perein, dementa of Materia Medica and TherapeaticB, ii. 874. Loud. 1848; or 
2d Amer. edit, by Caraoo. Phflad. 1846. 

* £. Giufe in Art Fucoa. £Dcydo|Mul. Wdrteri>. der medidniacben WianuKfaaft. liii. 
ai. Berlin, 1835. 



CHOMDRUS. 211 

taste 18 by do means disagreeable; it keeps several days, and is 
not converted by muriatic acid into mucus, like the jelly which 
18 obtained from land plants. It exists in the proportion of 79.1 
per cent., and has been considered to consist of pectin in large 
proportion, and starch; but Dr. Pereira^ esteems it a peculiar 
principle, and gives it the name Carrageenin. It is easy of di- 
gestion, is readily borne by weak and irritable stomachs, and ex- 
erts a soothing influence on the air-passages and the intestinal 
canal. In order to obtain it, the moss is cut small, carefully 
cleared from impurities, boiled with the selected vehicle, and 
strained. Von Grafe obtained from nine ounces of milk boiled 
with half a dram of the moss, five ounces of jelly ; and as much 
from a dram and a half of the moss and twelve ounces of water. 
The formula, commonly used by him, is given below. To this 
jeOy may be added any dietetic or remedial agent, which may be 
considered indicated in the particular case.' 

Chondrus is in the secondary list of the Pharmacopoeia of the 
TJiiited States, — cetraria in the primary; but the assignment ap- 
pears to be arbitrary, as one is perhaps as valuable an agent as 
the other .^ 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

Chondrus is used in the affections that are considered to be 
benefited by Iceland moss. As a diet, it is given in consumptive 
cases, and wherever there is erethism in the respiratory or di* 
gestive apparatus. It is sometimes prescribed in diarrhoea, 
alon^ with astringent or other remedies. The jelly has been ad* 
vised as a diet in scrofulous cases. Von Grafe afiirms, that he 
has often found it serviceable in hoarseness, dry spasmodic 
cough, consumption, diarrhcea, and dysentery, in the intestinal 
pain which remains after inflammation and ulceration qf 
these parts, and after poison has been taken; in diseases ac* 
companied by much emaciation, and in the prostration en- 
suing on serious diseases and operations. In similar affections 
it has been extolled by Hufeland.^ On the other hand, Heyfelder 
affirms, that he, and many physicians of his acquaintance, have used 
the moss without either good or evil results in phthisis, as well as 
in erethism of the respiratory and digestive organs; and 
Riecke' remarks, that as it makes a very agreeable jelly, when 
boiled with milk, and with the addition of a little of the aqua lau^ 
rocerasi, it may do for cases where we must prescribe '^ ut fecisse 
aliquid videamur.'' The truth is, that it can render no more 
service than other substances that contain a similar principle ; and, 

•OpwcH. 

> L. FeocfatwanMr, in Philid. Jonm. of Pharm. vi 204. PhOad. 1833-4. 



' See the aathof^s General Therapentics and Mat Med., 4th edit L 253. Philad. 1850. 

* Hdfeland and Oaann*8 Joarn. der practitch. Heilkund. B. 77, St. 5, p. 135. 

* Dia neiMii AnneimitteL Stattgart, 1837, S. 236. 



212 ClMHilWfT^A* 

accoT ifin g ly , bat few prescribe it with anj other view tihan wb 
demolcent aod nutritioos aliment in cases where sach is needed 

MODE or AD>II5IdTRATfOX. 

IcfSftiB chaidri. 

Deeoetion of Iriak moss, 

R. Chondri (elect, et coacis.} ^ss. 



Adde 



Lact. recent, f Jtx- 

Coq. ad remanent, eolatnr. f 5^. 



Sacchar. %%%. ad ,^'. 

Aq. axnjgtJal. amar. eoneentr. 3j. 

To be taken in the coarse of the day. Von Graft. 

B» Chondr. (elect, el concia^) ^im. 
Coq. cum aq. font, f 5xij. ad remanent. coIaL f $▼. 
Syrnp. nxbi idsi f 5i9s. ad f 51). 
Aq. arojgd. amar. concentr. 9j- 

To be osed throogh the dajr. When employed as diet. Yon 

Orafe allows from ten to eighteen onnces of the jelly in the daj. 

B« Chondr. (elect, et coneiB.) 5S8. 
Coqoe cum aq. font. q. s. ad reman, f Jtj. 
Colatnr. adde 

Sodc phosphat. ^iss. 

S> rap opii f ^ij. ad f ^iij. 

Dose. — A spoonful every two hours in cases of ksemopigsU, 
between the attacks. Ciarus. 

B« Lactis f 5xxiv. 

Chondr. (elect, ct concis.) ^'ir» 
Sacch. 5J. 
Cinnam. cont. 9j. 
Coqne per minnt. x, leni igne ; filtr. et exprime. 

B* Chondr. (elect, et concis.) ^ij. 
Coque cum lactis Oj. ad consist, gelatin. 
Tere cum 

Sacch. ^ij. 

Amygdal. amar. No. 2. 

To be used in the course of the day, and daily. Hufeland. 



LX. CIMICIF'UGA. 

Stnohtmcii. Cimicifuga Racemosa sea Serpentaria, Actaea Racemoaa, 
Macrotrys Racemosa, Black Snake-root, Cohosh, Bugbane, (}ohort« 

French. Act^e, Herbe Saint Christophe. 

German. Trauben f 6 rm iges Cnristophskraat, Schwarza 
Klapperschlangcnwurzel. 

This plant is a native of the United States, growing in shady 
and rock^ woods from Canada to Florida. Sexual System, 
Polyandna Di-Pentagynia ; Natural Order, Ranunculaceae. 
The root is the part used in medicine. It yields its virtues to 



CIMICIFU6A. 213 

bculiog water, and was found by Mr. Tilghman, of Philadelphia. 
to contain gum, starch, sugar, resin, wax, fatty matter, tannic 
and gallic acids, a black colouring matter, a green colouring 
matter, lignin, and salts of potassa, lime, magnesia, and iron.^ 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

Cimicifuga belongs to the class of acro«narcotics. Until re- 
cently, it is said to have been employed chiefly in domestic prac- 
tice, as a remedy in rheumatism^ dropsy^ hysteria^ and in va- 
rious affections of the lungs, especially such as resemble con- 
sumption.' It is noticed here, however, chiefly in consequence of 
the encomiums that have been passed upon it, of late, as a remedy in 
chorea. Several cases of thb disease, reported by Dr. Jesse 
Young to have been cured, were published some years ago; and 
at the same time it was stated, that Dr. Physick had known it 
prove successful in many instances.' Dr. vVood^ also states, 
that he administered it in a case of chorea, which rapidly reco- 
vered under its use, after the failure of purgatives and metallic 
tonics. He also remarks, that he had derived the happiest effects 
from it in a case of convulsions, occurring periodically, and con- 
nected with uterine disorder. Dr. T. S. Kirkbride,' has pub- 
lished some cases of success, obtaibed in the same disease, from 
its administration, after free purging had been employed. In 
one successful case, in a girl, nine years old, whose mental 
faculties were much disordered, and who had lost nearly all 
power over both her left extremities, — there being, at the same 
time, irregularity of the bowels, headache, and pain frequently 
shooting down the left arm, cups were applied to the back of the 
head and neck once; stimulating pediluvia were prescribed, with 
friction with salt over the surface of the body, and she was mode- 
rately purged every day for a week before the Cimicifuga was 
begun with. Dr. Kirkbride refers to a very intractable case, that 
fell under the care of Dr. Otto, and that yielded ultimately to this 
drug. He always purges before he has recourse to it, and 
general frictions with salt or the flesh brush, and pustulation with 
croton oil over the spine, iie believes to be of much value in 
chronic cases. Dr. Beadle® of New York treated a case success- 
fully in a girl eighteen years of age. There was considerable 
gastric derangement, with suppression of the catamenia, for 
nearly five months, from pregnancy. She was put upon the use 
of Cimicifuga, five grains of the powder being given every three 

* Joarnal of Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, vi. 20; and Wood, in Diipenaatoiy 
of the United States, by Wood and Bache, Art. Cfimiciluga. 

> F. J. Garden, Amer. Med. Recorder, Oct 1823. 

' Amer. Joum. of the Med. Sciences, iz. 310. * Op.citat. 

' American Journal of the Medical Sciences, February, 1840, p. 289. 

* New York Journal of Medicine and Surgery, July, 1840, p. 191. See also C. C. 
Hildreth, Amer. Joum. of the Med. Scknoe, Jan- 1843, p. 61; and F. J. Garden, Dad. 
p. 347. 



S14 CIMICIFUGA. 

hours, and no other remedy exeept an occasional dose of sulphate 
of magnesia. There was little improvement in her condition during 
the day, for nearly a week, after which she improved rapidly and 
was well in three weeks. The medicine produced no senaUe 
effect. 

Allu^on has been made to the employment of Cimicifuga in 
popular practice, in cases of rheumatism. Like other narcotico- 
acrids, when pushed so as to produce catharsis, and even slight 
narcosis, it may unquestionably be of service in acute forms of the 
disease.* Dr. F. N. Johnson has, at different times, selected 
more than twenty cases of aciUe rheumatism, including the se- 
verest forms, and treated them with cimicifuga for the purpose of 
testing its powers in that disease. The results were in the highest 
degree satisfactory, ''every vestige of the disease disappearing in 
from two to eight or ten days, without inducing any sensible 
evacuation, or leaving behind a single bad symptom." These trials 
were repeated by Dr. Johnson, Dr. N. S. Davis, and others, until 
they had no more doubt of the efficacy of cimicifuga in the earl^ 
stages of acute rheumatism than they had of the power of vaca- 
nation as a preventive of variola! Dr. Johnson found the most 
acute and severe cases yield to its influence not only more speedily, 
but more perfectly, and with less danger of metastasis to other 
organs, than to any other form of treatment.' The author has 
always classed it among sedatives ; and the observations of Dr. 
Davis are in favour of this. 

In some parts of the country, cimicifuga has become a very 
popular remedy in coughs; and Dr. E. G. Wheeler* affirms, that 
he has found it useful in several cases of severe and protracted 
cough ; especially in the chronic cough or bronchitis of old peo- 
ple. Dr. Wheeler states farther, that by some eminent physi- 
cians, it has been thought to be a good substitute for ergot in 
parturition^ being dissimilar, however, in its mode of action, — 
relaxing the parts, and thereby rendering labour short and easy. 
This, however, requires confirmation. 

It has been advised by Dr. C. C Hildreth^ in " acute phthisis^ 
uncomplicated with much inflammation in the vesicular structure, 
or pulmonary mucous or serous membranes ;" who states, that he 
has '^ often seen the most prompt action of the decoction alone, in 
throwing off febrile excitement or the hectic paroxysm, allaying 
cough, reducing the rapidity and force of the pulse, and inducing 
gentle perspiration." "In those intercurrent congestions and 

' E. A. Anderson, and Alexander Vedder, in American Medical Intelligenoer, yoL tL 
p. 296, Philadelphia, lb39. Also, fiotton Medical and Surgical Journal, Oct. 2, 1839, 
p. 136. 

* Report of the Committee on Indigenous Botany ; Dr. N. 8. Davia, Chairman ; in 
IVanflBCtiona of Amer. Med. Association, i., So3, PhiladM 1848. 

" Boston Med. and 8urv. Journal, Sept 4, 1839, p. 65. 

* Amer. Joum. of the Med. Scienoesi, Oct 1843, p. 288. 



OINCHONIA. 316 

ioflaimsatioiis, so frequent in the second and third stages of 
phthisis, from atmospheric exposures/' he states, that 1^ has 
''often seal the same happy influence exerted ;'' but the testimony 
in regard to its beneficial action in these cases is certainly wanting 
in precision.^ 

MODE OF ADMINISTRAf ION. 

The dried root of cimicifuga may be given in powder. Dr« 
Eirkbride administered it in the dose of a tea-spoonful; and Dr. 
Wheeler in the dose of 3j. from three to five times a day. Dr. 
Davis recommends it in the dose of from thirty to sixty drops oi 
the tincture, or twenty grains of the powder repeated every two 
hours ''until its effects are manifest." It is niost commonly, 
however, given in the form of the 

Seeoetnm eimieifngs. 

Decociion of black snake^ooL 

B* Cimioifiig. oontos. ^j. 
Coque paulisper in 
Aqu» Oj. 

Dose. — One or two fluidounces — two to four table-spoonfuls-^ 
several times a day. 

Tiaetira eimieifngs. 

TinctuTt of Uack snake^oot. 

B. Cimicifug. contus. ^iv. 
Alcohol. (.835,) Oj. 

Dose. — Twenty drops three or four times a day. An idea pre- 
vails, that the stronger the alcohol the better is the preparation ; 
but this may be questioned. 



LXI. CINCHO'NIA. 

Sthontmbs. Cincbonina, Cinchoninum, Cinchonin, Cinchonine. 
French. Cinchonine. 
Otmum. Cinchonin. 

Although Duncan, of Edinburgh, Reuss, of Moscow, and 
Gomez,' of Lisbon, had endeavoured to separate the active prin- 
ciple of the cinchonas, and had given the term cinchonine to a 
resinous extract obtained in their investigations, the honour of 
discovering both dnchonia and quinia, and of applying them to 

fractical purposes, belongs to the French chemists — Pelletier and 
Javentou.* 
Cinchonia is commonly obtained from the gray or pale varieties 

* See the aathor*fi General Therapeutics and Mat Med^ 4th edit. u. 196. Philad. 1850. 

* Ricbter'a l^ielleThenpie, B.z. S. 325, Berlin, 1828; and Magendie'a Formnlaira. 
' Anniles de Chimie eC de Fbynqve, zt. 889 and 337. 



216 CINCHONIA. 

of ciDchona; the yellow furnishing the quinia, and the red both 
cinchonia and quinia. It is an alkaloid strikingly analogous to 
quinia in its chemical and medical relations, but is not as much 
used. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

Cinchonia is obtain^ by boiling cinchona in alcohol^ until it 
loses all its bitterness; the alcoholic solution is then evaporated to 
dryness in a water bath; the extract, thus obtained, is dissolved 
in boiling water^ strongly acidulated with muriatic acid; an 
excess of calcined magnesia is added, which, after a few minutes' 
boiling, will fix all the red colouring matter, and render the liqmd 
clear. When cold, the liquid is filtered, and the magne«an pre- 
cipitate washed with cold water; it is then dried in a stove, and 
all the bitterness separated by repeated digestions in boiling 
alcohol; the alcoholic liquors are mixed, and the cinchonia crys- 
tallizes as the fluid cools. Cinchonia, thus obtained, still contains 
a green fatty matter, which may be separated by solution in a very 
weak acid. If the acid be too strong, it will dissolve a part of 
the fatty matter, and the intended object will thus be defeated.^ 

Cinchonia may also be obtained by treating pulverized pale 
cinchona by weak sulphuric acidy precipitating the solution by 
means of lime in excess; collecting the precipitate on a filter, 
washing, and treating it, after drying, with boiling alcohol,* 

Cinchona is white, translucent, crystallizing in needles ; requiring, 
for its solution, 700 parts of cold water, according to Magendie; 
according to others, 2500 parts of boiling water. On account of 
its very sparing solubility in water it has but a slightly bitter taste. 
In alcohol, it is readily soluble, and the solution is extremely bitter, 
as well as the salts formed by its union with acids, which resemble 
the salts of quinia. It does not dissolve readily in fixed or vola- 
tile oils, or in ether. At a certain temperature, it volatilizes; a 
great part, indeed, is destroyed by the operation, yet a sensible 
portion escapes the decomposing power of the caloric. 

In medicine, pure cinchonia, as well as the sulphate and acetate, 
is prescribed. The sulphate is soluble in 54 parts of water, and 
in 0.5 parts of alcohol (s. g. .815:) it is not soluble in ether. It 
forms crystals and tastes bitter. The acetate, on the other hand, 
does not crystallize; and is less soluble in water than the sulphate; 
but an excess of acid facilitates the solution. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

It is not necessary to say much on the application of cinchonia 
and its preparations to disease, as they have been almost wholly' 
superseded by qumia and its salts. It is a weaker article, and 

* Mageodie, FonnuUira, Stc 

* Pharmaoopte UniTeneOe, L 414, Parii, 1828. ; 



CIKCHONIA. 217 

therefore requires to be given in larger doses ; Magendie and Git- 
termann assert that it has been found ineffective as an antiperiodic 
Ballvy' Chomel,* Mariana,' Wutzer/ and others, however, have 
exhibited it successfully.' Dufresne" frequently prescribed it, and 
he.assigns it this claim to preference, that it is almost tasteless, or 
at least that the bitter taste is but tardily developed; and that it 
need not be given in combination with acids, as the acid contained 
in the gastric secretions will render it soluble.^ He gave it in 
intermttteniSy during the apyrexia, in the quantity of from six to 
twenty grains, and found it of marked use in the cases ofj^asiral" 
gia with formation of acid, which are so often met with in 

Joung females, and are not unfrequently associated with leucorrhoea, 
ypochondriasis, melancholy, &c. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The following formulae have been recommended, but, as before 
remarked, they are rarely used, the preparations of quinia being 
DOW almost universally prescribed. 

Syrnpni einehonis. 

Syrup of cinchonia. 

B* Cinchonie sulphat. gr. xlviii. 
Syrup Oj. M. 

Used in the same cases as the Syrupus quinia ; a table-spoon- 
ful for a dose. Magendie. 

Tinnm einehonis. 

Wine of cinchonia. 



B* Cincbonise sulphat. gr. xviij. 
Vini Maderens. Oij. M. 



Magendie. 



Tinctufa cinchoniie. 

B« Cinchonifle sulphat. gr. ix. 

Alcohol (34° or s. g. -847,) f gj. M. 

Magendie. 

Magendie recommends, that this tincture should be used for 
preparing, extemporaneously, wine of cinchonia, by adding two 
ounces of the tincture to a pint of Madeira wine. 

1 NooT. Biblioth. Medicate, ix. 189. * Nouv. Joum. de M6deciiie, Man, 1631. 

' 0«enraz. suIla Pratica del Sol&to de Cinconinn, &c. 

* Rnat und Caliper's Krit Repert B. xxi. and Bulletin des Sciences M^dic. Sept 1827. 
' Art Cincbonine, in M^rat and de Lens, Diet de Mat M6d. 

* Biblioth^que Universelle, Mai, 1831, p. 89. 

^ See, also, Ganz, io BoUetiiio delle Scienze Mediche di Bologna, Agosto et Settenibn, 
1836, p. 121. 



218 CODKIA. 

Boll 6iiehoiii». 

Boluses qf einchonia. 

Boli antifebriles. 
Febrifuge hcUvMs. 

B. Cinchonifle sulphat. gr. iij. 
MicflB panis, 
Mellis, 
Glycyrrhiz. aa. q. 8. at fiat bolus. 

Dose. — One, every two hours. Brera} 

liitnrt eiiichoiiis. 

Mixture of cinchonia. 

B. Cinchonie sulphat. gr. ri. ad xlviij. 
Potasse acetat. 
Sacchar. aa. §88. 
Solve in 

Aquae anthemid. §vj. 

Dose.— A table-spoonful every two hours, in intermit tenis. 

Sundetin. 



For the iodide and other preparations of cinchonia, see the cor- 
responding preparations of Quinia. 



LXII. CODEiA. 

Sykonymbs. Codeina, Codeinum, Papaverinum, Codeine. 
F)reneh. Codeine. 
Chrtnan, Kodein. 

Although opium had been repeatedly examined by the chemists, 
and certain of its active constituents separated from it, it was not 
until within the last twenty years, that the article, whose name is at 
the head of this paragraph, had been obtained from it. It was 
discovered by Robiquet in 1832,^ and as it has been exhibited 'as 
a therapeutical agent, it requires notice. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

According to Winkler,' this new alkaloid may be prepared in 
the following manner. Morphia is first thrown down from a solu- 
tion of opium, made in the cold, by means of ammonia; the me- 
conic acid is precipitated by the chloride of calcium; for the re- 
moval of the colouring matter, the fluid is then treated with the 
extract or subacetate of lead; and the extract of lead, contained 
in the fluid poured off from the precipitates, is afterwards decom- 
posed by sulphuric acid; the fluid, separated from the sulphate 

*■ Ricettario Clinico di Brera. Padov. 18^. 
s Journal de Phannacie, xix. 91 and 1G2. Paris, 1H33. 
* Buchner's Report, xW. p. 459, cited in Journal de Phannade, xzi 251. 
1835. 



OODXIA. 219 

of lead, is now treated with an excess of caustic alkali; the mix- 
ture is exposed to the air until the excess of free alkali has at- 
tracted carbonic acid from it : it is then agitated and digested with 
ether, and left to evaporate spontaneously, after which a yellow- 
ish, highly transparent, but not crystalline compound remains, 
which forms with muriatic acid a crystalline salt, and resembles 
exactly the codeia of Robiquet. 

Merck^ procures codeia in a very simple manner. He treats 
morphia, precipitated by soda, with cold alcohol ; the spirituous 
tincture is carefully saturated with sulphuric acid; the alcohol 
drawn off, and the residue treated with cold water as long as it 
is turbid ; it is then filtered, and the filtered liquid evaporated un- 
til it has the consistence of syrup: on cooling, ether is poured 
over it in a large flask; caustic alkali is added in excess, and 
the whole strongly agitated. The ethereal mixture is then so sa- 
turated, that codeia crystallizes from it in a few hours. By eva- 
porating the ether, and treating the residue with alcohol^ the co- 
deia is obtained, by degrees, wholly pure, and separated from an 
oily matter, which is a great obstacle to crystallization. ** 

Codeia, according to Pelletier, consists of 31 parts of carbon; 40 
parts of hydrogen ; 5 parts of oxygen, and 2 of nitrogen. It is 
an alkaloid, soluble in water, alcohol and ether; but not so in al- 
kaline solutions. It unites readily with acids, and, with the chlo- 
rohydric especially, forms a salt, which crystallizes with great fa- 
cility. When the crystals of codeia are heated on a plate of pla- 
tinum, they burn with a flame without leaving any residue. 
Heated in a tube, they melt at about 150° centigrade ; and, if al- 
lowed to cool immediately, form a crystalline mass; if, however, 
the heat be continued, the oleaginous fluid rises along the sides of 
the tube, appearmg to shun the heat ; but it does not volatilize. 
When dissolved in water, codeia communicates to it decidedly al- 
kaline properties. 1000 parts of water at 60° Fahrenheit, dis- 
solve 12-6 parts of it; the same quantity at 100°, 37 parts, and 
at 212°, 58*8 parts. If more codeia be added to boiling water 
than can be taken up, the surplus melts, and forms, like meconin, 
an oleaginous layer on the bottom of the vessel. This aqueous 
solution, by careful refrigeration, affords a translucent and uncom- 
monly well defined metal. Tincture of galls forms a copious 
precipitate with a solution of codeia, in which respect, the latter 
differs essentially from morphia, as it does in many other of its 
properties, — as m being soluble in ether, but insoluble in a solution 
of potassa; in not decomposing iodic acid, nor forming a red com- 
pound with nitric acid ; whilst it is not precipitated from the dilute 
solution of its salts by means of ammonia.' 

' Joamal de Phannacie, cited in American Journal of Pharmacy, new aerie^, L 171 
Philad. 18;{5. 
* Ballard and Garrod, Elementa of Mat Med. and Thempi fk 169. Lond. 1845. 



220 CODKIA. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

As morphia does not represent the whole of the activity of opium, 
Robiquet concluded, that other substances might concur therewith, 
and he conjectured that codeia might be one of them. Under this 
idea, KunkeP instituted experiments with it on rabbits and dogs, 
from which he obtained the following results. First, Codeia dif- 
fers from morphia in this — that it does not, like the latter, paralyze 
the lower extremities. Secondly. It appears to exert a power- 
fully excitant action. It occasions convulsions of the limbs, and 
muscles of the neck, and when it produces death, this seems to 
be owing to its action on the cerebellum and medulla oblongata; 
twice, he noticed symptoms of backward progression under its use, 
and those parts after death were found turgid with blood. To 
judge from the condition of the heart and lungs, it affects likewise 
the circulatory organs. It occasions inflammation of the tissues, 
with which it comes in immediate contact. Its action is more ener- 
getic, when introduced into the areolar membrane, than into the 
stomach. It seems, also, to exhibit a special action on the urinary 
organs, for animals to which it is given never evacuate their 
bladder as long as they are under its influence. Thirdly. Co- 
deia differs from the watery extract of opium, in not paralyzing 
the hinder extremities ; but it approximates it in this, that it 
acts, as has been said, more powerfully when introduced into 
the areolar membrane than into the stomach, and accelerates respira- 
tion and circulation. Kunkel, however, remarks upon the results 
of his experiments, that they demand repeated trials for confirma- 
tion, as he was only able to experiment with a very small quan- 
tity of the substance. Robiquet observes that Kunkel's experi- 
ments have led to the inference, that when codeia is combined 
with acids, it loses much of its efficacy — the very opposite, by the 
way, to the inferences of Magendie. 

Barbier^ has taken considerable pains to fix the talue of codeia 
as a remedial agent. He prescribed it in the dose of one or two 

!f rains in a syrup, prepared with the aqueous solution of the alka- 
oid, of such strength that a table-spoonful of half an ounce con- 
tained one grain of codeia. In his opinion, it exerts a peculiar 
agency on the nerves of the ganglionic system, whilst it appears 
to possess but little influence on the hemispheres of the brain, and 
to make no impression upon the spinal marrow. In the epigas- 
tric region, he remarks, its agency is powerfully manifested; 
and here in the centre of the ganglionic system, its effects may 
be investigated, and their extent and magnitude appreciatedf. 
If a spoonful, or, at an interval of from one to two hours, two 
spoonfuls of syrup of codeia be administered to one affected with 
the symptoms to be described immediately, it will be found, 

' Jomma de Chimie Medicafe, ix. 223. • Gazette M^dkale, 8 Man, 1834. 



CODELA. 221 

that it exhibits a considerable and remarkable effect upon the 
economy. If the person complains of pain in the epigastric re- 
gion, beneath the lower extremity of the sternum, and stretching 
to the sides and back; and if, with these symptoms, there is com- 
bined a feeling of heat, with indescribable anxiety, marked debili- 
ty, paleness, decided alteration of the features, a sense of painful 
traction sometimes on one side, at others on the other, of the epi- 
gastric region, with tendency to syncope, frequent sighing, de- 
spondency, and more or less sensibility to pressure in the epigas- 
tric region, &c., Barbier considers the seat of the disease to be the 
epigastric nervous plexus; and in such cases, he says,]t^e has found 
no remedy superior to syrup of codeia. He has observed it afford 
decided relief, where the coats of the stomach were manifestly in 
a state of degeneration. A common effect of codeia is sleep; 
which is never accompanied by heaviness of the head, nor by de- 
termination of blood to the brain. When the persons awake 
from the sleep produced by it, the countenance is bright and lively, 
and there is a tendency to laughter. Barbier was led to believe, 
that it does not affect the nervous cords connected with the ver- 
tebral portions of the centre of the nervous system. In his obser- 
vations at the hospital of Amiens, he often noticed the neuralgic 
affection of the abdomen above mentioned to be accompanied by 
pains in the head, loins, and limbs, and whilst codeia relieved the 
abdominal uneasiness, it left the others untouched, — a singular cir- 
cumstance, if true, but requiring fresh observation before we can 
esteem it to be established. He remarks farther, that almost all 
the patients who were benefited by codeia had used laudanum un- 
successfully. Codeia, he adds, occasions no manifest change in 
the circulation and respiration ; it does not disturb the digestive 
function ; seems merely to diminish the feeling of hunger, and oc- 
casions no constipation. During its use, itching of the surface is 
fr^uently experienced. 'When applied to the skin, it induces no 
striking phenomena. When placed, in the quantity of two grains, 
on a blistered surface, it excites a painful sensation of burning, 
without any other change, — the neuralgic pains, for the removal 
of which it may have been thus employed, not appearing to be 
modified by it. 

Dr. W. Gregory made experiments upon himself and some of 
his pupils with nitrate op codeia. None of them experienced 
any effect from a dose of three grains and under; from four to six 
grains, however, occasioned striking symptoms— quickness of 
pulse, sense of heat in the head and face, remarkable excitement, 
like that following the use of intoxicating liquors; agreeable, and 
apparently permanent, stimulation, accompanied by considerable 
itching, which began at the head and extended over the whole 
body. To this succeeded, in the course of a few hours, a dis- 
agreeable sense of relaxation, with nausea, and often vomiting. 



223 CODEIA. 

None of the experimenters felt the slightest inclination to sleep, 
uatil after the feeling of relaxation. Riecke' thinks that these ex- 
periments confirm Kunkel's observations, that codeia loses its 
efficacy when combined with acids. 

In the year 1834, M. Martin Solon, at one of the sittings of the 
Acaddmie Royale de M6decine, when the experiments of Barbier 
with codeia were the subject of discussion, confirmed his views 
regarding its soporific property. It appeared to him to allay the 
cough qjtht consumpiive. He remarked, however, that he bad 
not observed the effects on the ganglionic nervous system, which 
Barbier had witnessed. 

Magendie^ took a grain of codeia, dissolved it in a little water, 
and injected it into the jugular vein of a middle-sized dog, whidi 
was immediately thrown into profound sleep — readily broken, 
however, by any strong noise made in the vicinity of the animal ; 
but the interruption was of brief duration, — sleep soon recurring. 
This condition persisted for several hours without being accom- 
panied by any unpleasant symptoms. The effect was not the same 
with the muriate of codeia: a single grain of this salt, introduced 
in the same manner into the organism, suddenly induced deep 
sleep; but, after the animal had slept five or six hours, it died. 
Several similar experiments afforded a like result. Magendie ad- 
ministered codeia in the H5tel Dieu to different patients. He 
found that one grain, given once or twice, succeeded, in many 
cases, in inducing a quiet and soft sleep, to which no confusioti 
succeeded the next day, as is commonly the case with morphia. 
As respects intensity of action, he compares one grain of codeia with 
half a grain of morphia. Two grains often excited nausea, and 
even vomiting. Magendie found the muriate to be decidedly 
stronger than pure codeia. Two grains commonly induced, be- 
sides sleep, vertigo, nausea, and even vomiting ; but this dose suc- 
ceeded like a charm, in cases of neuraJgia faciei and in sciaiica^ 
that had resisted the most valued agents.^ 

Dr. Miranda, of the Havana, has published* the results of his 
experience with codeia in what he calls powerful nervous irriia- 
lions of I he mucous membrane of the stomachy and he affirms, 
that he cured eleven cases by the S)Tup of codeia alone. He be- 
gan with a dram, night and morning, and gradually increased it 
to an ounce in the twenty-four hours. His success was so striking 
that he is induced to " regard the discovery of codeia to be fortu- 
nate for humanity, especially in climates like that of the Havana, 
in \ hich gast rites are so multiplied." 

' Die neuem Arzneimittel, u. s. w. S. 140. StattgBrt, 1837. 
s Formalaire pour la preparation et Femploi de plusieuni nouveauz medicament. Edit 
Ome. Paris, 183(3. 
■ Gully*8 Trandation of the 8th edit of Magmidie'a Foniralaire. Lood. 1836. 
^ Journal de Phanntde^ ixiT. 145. Ptr^ 1038. 



COLCHICUM. 233 

Sympni eodeis. 

Syrup of codeia. 

This is directed by M. Cap^ to be prepared in the following 

Diimer: — 

K. CodeicB gr. xxiv. 

Aquie dedtillat. f Jiv. 
Sacchar. Jviij. 

Reduce the codeia to an impalpable powder in a glass or por- 
celain mortar. Triturate with one-third of the water, allow it 
to settle and decant. Treat the residuum with another third of 
the water, and again with the remainder. Put the whole into a 
small mattrass, covering the opening with a piece of moistened 
parchment perforated with a pinhole. Heat in a water bath until 
the codeia has entirely disappeared. Remove the mattrass from 
the fire to add the sugar ; cover the opening again ; agitate, and put 
the vessel again in the bath, until the sugar is completely dissolved. 
Each ounce of the syrup contains two grains of codeia. 

M. Levraty ain6,* of Lyons, obtained excellent effects from the 
use of the syrup in the " ataxic form " of typhoid fever. He gave 
it to adults in the dose of two drams, and of one dram to a 
child. 

MuBiATE of CoDCiA has been used in this city, but it has not 
been found to possess any virtues which the salts of morphia do 
not; whilst its price has been enormous — as much, we are in- 
foniied, as four dollars the dram. 



LXIII. COLCHICUM. 

SvKONTBfBS. Colchicum Autumnale, Meadow Saffron. 

Frtneh. Colchiqoe, Tue-Chien, Mort aux Chiens, Safran dea Pre*, Safran* 

Bfttard, Vieiilotte. 
Qtrman, Herbstzeitlofle, Zeitlose, Wiesensafran, Herbst- 

blame, Wilder Safran, Spinnbluine. 

Meadow saffron is a well-known plant in the temperate parts of 
Europe, where it grows wiltl in moist meadows. It belongs to 
the Family Colcbicaceae: Melanlbaceae {Lindiey;) and to Sexual 
System Hexandria Tri^ynia. It is avoided by cattle; and its 
active poisonous properties have been long known; fatal cases, 
indeed, still occur every now and then from its employment, not 
<mly in animals, but in consequence of its too free use in the 
treatment of gout. Reynolds, the inventor of the wine of Col- 
chicum, commonly called *^Reynolds^s SpecifiCy^ is said to have 
killed himself by an overdose of it. A case is given of a man 

' Joomal de Phvmade, xiiiL 418. Paris, 1837. 
• Aiduvw GtoMlM de ItodKiM, Mai, 1847, p. lis. 



234 

who tooky by mistake^ an oance and a half of the tiDcture, 
and died in forty-eight hoars, after sufferiog much from vomit- 
lofTy acute pain in the stomach, colic, purging, and delirium.* 
The cases of two diildren are also on Becord, who were poisoned 
by a handful of the seeds, and who died in the course of the day, 
death being preceded by violent vomiting and purging. Consi- 
derable redness of the mocoos coat of the stomach and small in- 
testines was found : in other cases, no morbid appearance has been 
detected.* 

A fatal case has been published by Dr. Blumhardt, from the 
papers of Dr. Neubrandt. The patient, a man aged thirty-two, 
took, by mistake, a decoction made of a large table-spoonful of the 
seeds to three pints of water. He was soon afterwards attacked 
by vomiting, purgingi and died two days afterwards under symp- 
toms of narcosis and endo-enteritis. Another fatal case, whidi 
was caused by the leaves,^ is referred to in the same Journal ;* 
and, more recently, one, from the administration of the tincture, 
has been published by Professor A. T. Thomson.^ 

Colchicum is not of modem introduction. It is the HermO' 
dactyl of the ancients. It had, however, almost wholly fallen 
into neglect, when its use was revived in Great Britain, in the 
first quarter of the present century, as an excellent agent in rhea- 
matic and gouty affections. That it is highly esteemed as a the- 
rapeutical agent, is shown by the number of officinal works into 
which it has been admitted: amongst others, the Pharmacopoeias 
of the United States, Austria, Amsterdam, and Anvers, and in the 
Batavian, Belgic, Brunswick, Danish, Dublin, Spanish, Edinburgh, 
Paris, Ferrara, Geneva, Hamburg, Hanoverian, London, Lisbon, 
Russian, Saxon, Swedish, and Wirtemberg. 

Several chemists have investigated the composition of the plant. 
Pelletier and Caventou believed, that they had found veratria in 
it ; but, from the examinations of Geiger and Hesse, it appears 
that the alkaloid, discovered by those gentlemen, was not veratria, 
but a peculiar principle, colchicia or colchicine^ which is found 
in every part of the plant; crystallizes in slender needles; is in- 
odorous, and of a very bitter, and, afterwards, biting taste. In- 
troduced into the nose, it does not occasion sneezing like veratria. 
It has a feeble alkaline reaction; but neutralizes acids completely, 
and forms with them crystallizable salts, which have also a bit- 
ter, pungent taste. It dissolves with tolerable facility in water. 

For therapeutical purposes, the root or bulb, (cormuSy) as well 

' Edinb. Med. and Surg. Journal, xiv. 262. 

• Chri»ti«on on Poinons. 3d edit p. 791. E^inb. 1836. 

' 8eo a cane of over-dose of Colchicuin, by T. A. Henderson, in London Med. Gtz., 
Aug. 17. \KVX p. 763. 

^ Mediciiiiflches (yorrespondcnzblaU, 1840, cited in Encydograpbie des Sciences 
Medicates, Mai, 1S40, p. 41*2. 

* London and Edinb. Monthly Joamal of Med. dciaioe, June, 1843^ p. 537. 



COLCHICUM. 225 

as the flowers and seeds, have been administered. The fresh root 
has a somewhat disagreeable smell, and a bitterish acrid taste. 
When chewed for any length of time, it excites the secretion of 
saliva and thirst; destroys the sense of feeling in the tongue; 
causes a sense of burning in the mouth and lips; constriction of the 
fiiuces, hiccup, violent pains in the abdomen, vomiting, diarrhoea, 
and discharge of blood upwards and downwards. 

By drying, the cormi lose somewhat of their efficacy. Dr. 
Houlton* recommends the following method to ensure their dry- 
bg spontaneously without being sliced. They are to be stripped 
of their loose, dry coats, and the bud or little bulb, the rudiment 
of the future plant, is to be carefully picked out. This part, ac- 
cording to him, has a high vital endowment; is very tenacious 
of life, and, unless removed, the cormi wiU not readily become 
dry: yet, when it is removed, and they are put in a dry place, 
they will dry without any trouble, and in a short time. 

The seeds have of late come much into use. They are inodo- 
rous, but of a very acrid taste. Their agency is like that of the 
bulb, and — some think — they are more equable in their effects. 
To ensure this, however, they must be gathered wholly ripe, when 
they first become entirely black. They have been highly recom- 
mended by Dr. Williams and others. 

The flowers are the mildest part of the plant. They have been 
successfully administered by several English physicians. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN HEALTH. 

In its eflects, colchicum resembles digitalis in one thing, that it 
renders the pulse less frequent,^ according to Thomson and Willis; 
but, in other respects, Osann and Riecke** think it agrees more 
with squill.^ In moderate doses, the different parts of the plant 
that have been mentioned act as diaphoretics, diuretics, and 
cathartics. On the digestive organs, they are conceived to pro- 
duce less debilitating effects than squill. 

Sir Everard Home ascribesmuch of the griping and nauseating 
effect which sometimes follows the use of the vinous and other tinc- 
tures of colchicum that have not been carefully filtered, to the 
sediment which forms in them, and which may be removed with- 
out injury to the desired effect of the medicine.* Sir C. Scuda- 
more," however, found the sediment to be inert. Several experi- 
ments were made with colchicum on healthy individuals. In the 
first case, 160 drops of the vinous tincture of the seeds were taken 

' Pharmaceutical Transactions, July 1, IH44. 

* Art Colchicum, Encyc. Worterb. der Med Wiaaensch. viil 136. Berlin, 1832. 
•Op. cits. 112. 

* See the author's General Therapeutics and Materia Mcdica, 4th editioOi i. 290. 
Phibda. IV^I 

* BrmnJe's Dictionaiy of Materia Medico, p. 189. London, 1839. 

* Tnatke oq Goat, 3d edit. p. 513. 



2S6 OOIXHXCUM. 

m. 24 hours, bj a youDg man a^ed 18; — the first dose being 50 
drops, the last, 60. Seven copious evacuations were produced^ 
with loss of appetite and debility for twenty-four hours. In the 
second case, a youth, 17 years old, took 170 drops m 9 hours, in 
doses of 70, 60, and 40 drops: nausea and vomiting, and six 
copious evacuations followed. Third case; a youth, aged 15, took 
130 drops in 10 hours, in 4 doses; the first, of 40 drops, and, the 
last three, of 30; vomiting and only one evacuation were the result. 
Fourth case; a youth, aged 12, took 60 drops in two doses, after 
an interval of ei^^ht hours: nine copious watery evacuations were 
produced. Fifth case; a youth, ag;ed 17, took 40 drops at bed- 
time, 30 drops next morning, and 30 drops seven hours after, — ia 
all, 100 drops in 19 hours: vomiting and faintness, and five copious 
evacuations were the. result. The same boy afterwards tooK 70 
drops at one dose, which were followed by vomiting and headach, 
but not by purging. Sixth case; a boy, aged 10, took 80 drops 
in 24i hours, in four doses, of 20, 15, 25, and 20 drops: great 
sickness and vomiting, and nine evacuations resulted. 

Dr. John Aldridge^ states, that he has seen three cases in which 
profuse ptyalism followed the use of half a dram of the tincture of 
the seeds taken for some time thrice a day. In one of these cases 
at least, mercury had never been taken ; nor had the patient ever 
been salivated. They were all cases of ophthalmia. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

The diseases in which colchicum is recommended, are as follows: 
In gouty and rheumatic cases^ it has been supposed to be 
almost a specific. Numerous practitioners have testified to its 
valuable agency in such affections; among: these, may be named 
Mr. Want, Dr. Johnson, Dr. Williams, Mr. Battley, Dr. Arm- 
strong, Sir Everard Home, Sir C. Scudamore, Mr. Haden, Dr. 
Copland, Dr. Graves, Sir Henry Halford, Dr. Wallis, Dr. Barlow,' 
Mr. Wigan,^ Dr. Holland,* Dr. Gairdner,* Dr. Seymour," and 
others in England; and Locber-Balber, Kahleis, Gumpert, Plasse, 
Weber, Klokow, Biermann, &c., in Germany.'^ Colchicum is pre- 
sumed to be the active ingredient of the celebrated gout remedy — 
Eau mtdicinaU cTHusson — which has been considered to be 
formed of two ounces of colchicum root, macerated in eight 
ounces of sherry wine; the dose being from twenty to eighty 
drops. 

' Dublin Hospital Gazette, Oct. 1, 1845; cited in Amer. Journal of the Medical 
Sciences, Jan. 1846, p. 215. 

^ Art Gout, in Cvdopopdia of Practical Medicine, Amer. edit Philad. 1845. 

' Lancet and Med. Gaz., June 30, 1838. 

• Medical Notes and Reflections, 2d edit, p. 124, Lond. 1840. 

■ On Gout; its Histoiy, its Causes, and its Cure. London, 1849. 

' Thoughts on the Nature and Treatment of sereral iSevere Diseases of the Human 
Body, i. 93. London, 1847. 

' Riecke, Op. cit, and Richter's SpedeDe Tbm^ x. 18a Beriin, 1628. 



COLCHICUM. 227 

Dr. R. B. Todd^ considers colcbicuro to be chiefly applicable 
to the sthenic form of gout, which occurs in robust constitutions, 
and in the prime of life, and that it is almost inadmissible in per- 
sons advanced in years, who have had several attacks, and in 
whom the malady would seem to be too deeply rooted to be in- 
fluenced by the temporary administration of this remedy; and Dr^ 
Seymour^ affirms, that ** in gout, especially in gout originated 
from excess; in strong, violent, painful gout, it may be given not 
only without fear, in moderation, but with almost an absolute cer- 
tainty of relief, without any bad effects either immediately or 
remotely following its use." 

In acuie rheumalism, as well as in various inflammatory 
affect ions ^ colchicum was proposed by the author's friend, Mr. 
Charles T. Haden,' as an excellent sedative to reduce excited 
organic action, which he conceived it capable of effecting to such 
an extent, that blood-letting might generally be rendered un- 
necessary in febrile and inflammatory disorders;^ yet, in the very 
cases in which it was esteemed so appropriate by iMr. Haden and 
by Carminati,^ it is regarded unadvisable by others. Thus, Riecke," 
speaking of its use in acute rheumatism, says, that it was at one 
time given in that disease under the most opposite circumstances, 
but that it was soon found necessary to restrict its employment 
within narrower limits, and to pretermit it when any considerable 
febrile condition existed. 

The author has often exhibited the different preparations of 
colchicum in ^out, and, frequently, with decided advantage ; but 
Tery often it has failed altogether. In his own person, it has 
never appeared to prevent or to modify the paroxysm. In acute — 
and the same may be said of chronic — rheumatism, its advantages 
have not been by any means clearly marked in his experience: 
many physicians, however, testify most strongly in its favour. 
Like other acro-narcotics, as the cimicifuga, when pushed to the 
extent of slightly affecting the system, as shown by nausea, with 
some cerebral confusion, it has, at times, effected a revulsion, 
which has broken in upon the morbid chain in acute rheumatism. 
A severe case, under the author's care, yielded rapidly to it when 
pushed to the extent of inducing painful diarrhoea, accompanied 
by distressing tenesmus. In this case, twenty-five drops of the 
tincture of the seed were given three times a day. When the 
bowels become affected, the remedy must be discontinued altoge- 
ther, or the quantity be diminished. By attending to these rules, 
Dr. Christison^ affirms, that he has never had occasion to observe 

' Pricticsl Remarks on Gout, Rheumatigm, Fever, dx., p. 105. Lond. 1843. 

*Op.cit p. 93. 

' PractObi. on Colchicum Autumnale in Inflaromatoiy Diaeasea. London, 1820. 

* See also Dr. Lewina, in Edinb. Med. and Surgical Journal, for April, 1837, or in 
Brit and For. Med. Review, for Oct 1837, p. .'><)5. 

* Memor. deU' InaCituto del Regno Lombaido-Venet ISia • Opw ctt & 43. 

* Dtq)eDMtoiy, p. 355. Edinb. 184Z 



228 coLcmcuM. 

any unpleasant effects from its use, or any symptoms which a dose 
of opium did not readily subdue. He adds, that he ha^ never 
seen a case of rheumatism essentially benefited, till the patient 
suffered from colic and diarrhcea, on the one hand, or from frontal 
beadach and giddiness, on the other. The ill success which some 
practitioners have encountered in using colchicum, he thinks, may 
have arisen from inattention to this circumstance. In chronic 
rheumatism, it has exhibited less marked results; yet there is no 
agent, perhaps, which is so much employed in rheumatic cases in 
general. In none of these, according to most observers, need any 
sensible evacuation be produced by it, although some, it has been 
seen, have affirmed — and such is the result of the author's obser- 
vation — that it is more efficient when it evinces its influence upon . 
the alimentary canal. ^ Such, too, is the experience of M. Monne- 
ret,* who found that the powerful revulsion on the bowels, caused 
by the tincture in the dose of one dram to four drams in the 
twenty-four hours, given in one, two or four divided doses, was 
sufficient to suspend or remove the disease, — the improvement 
always coinciding with the diarrhoea; and Dr.Wigan» asserts, that 
he gives colchicum powder in rhevmatic gout in the dose of eight 
grains every hour, until " active vomiting, profuse purging, or 
abundant perspiration takes place, or, at least, until the stomach 
can bear no more," and, when thus administered, he pronounces 
it to be " the most easily managed, the most universally applica- 
ble, the safest, and the most certain specific [?] in the whole 
compass of our opulent [London] pharmacopoeia." Yet, Dr. 
Upshur* has recently declared, that, in chronic rheumatism, he 
thmks he has sometimes derived great benefit from it, but, in the 
acute form, never. He adds, that it may be he has been " so un- 
fortunate as always to get hold of an inferior preparation," — a 
qualification which, however, applies equally to the results of his 
experience in the chronic form of the disease. 

Mr. Anthony White,* himself a sufferer from gout, relies ex-, 
clusively on a combination of colchicum and calomel, according to 
the formula given hereafter. He is of opinion, that ** the main 
object to be pursued towards the effectual cure of the gouty 
paroxysm, by the removal of its immediate cause, is the restora- 
tion of the natural functions of the liver, as indicated by a copious 
discharge of bile through the bowels." On the other hand. Dr. 
Gairdner'* maintains, that colchicum never more effectually re- 
lieves the patient than when it acts silently and peacefully, with- 
out producing any evacuation whatever, or in any way disturbing 
the patient's comfort and ease. It ha^ been demonstrated, by 

* Sec Wood and Bache's Dispensatory, Art Colchicum; and Lewins, Op. citat 

• Archives Gonerales de Med . Mar. 1844, cited in London Med. Gaz.. May, 1844. 

' London Med. Gaz. June 30. 18:^. * Medical Examiner, Oct ia>0, p. 5d0. 

» London .Medical Gazette, August 18, 1848. • Op. cit 



COLCHICUM. 229 

Drs. Douglas Maclagan, Chelius and Lewins, that it causes a 
more copious discharge of urea from the system, and Dr. Gairdner 
found, in repeated investigations, that the increase of urea was 
attended by a great diminution of the urates in the urine. 

The vinous tincture of the seeds has been extolled in the 
tetanus of warm climates, by Dr. W. G. Smith,* of Port-au- 
Prince. He begins with 5ss. and increases the dose every half 
hour, repeating it until emesis or catharsis has been produced. 
It is then discontinued. 

In dropsy f colchicum was used of old with good results; and 
it has been employed in modern times. Carminati gives the de- 
tails of a case of dropsy supervening on scarlatina, and Plasse, 
<me of hydrothoraXy in which it was advantageously prescribed. 
In such cases, it may be well to push the remedy until it affects 
the bowels. In chronic bronchitis^ it has been given with ad- 
vantage by many physicians, and especially by Drs. Armstrong* 
and Hastings,^ and Dr. Pereira* found it of great service in 
humoral asthma and other chronic bronchial affections^ espe- 
cially when these complaints were accompanied with anasarcous 
swellings. By Drs. Eisenmann and Ficinus,* the vinum colchici 
has been given in gonorrhoea. The latter prescribes from twenty- 
five to thirty drops three times a day, combined with tinctura 
opii, low diet, the warm bath, &c. These means were attended 
with unprecedented success in the treatment of gonorrhoea and 
other inflammatory discharges from the urethra in the male, and 
firom the vagina and uterus, in the female. 

By Ritton" it has been advised as an extremely efficacious 
remedy in leucorrhoea, in the dose of five grains of the powder 
three times a day; and in several spasmodic diseases it has been 
extolled by Raven. Tait'' speaks in exalted terms of it in scar- 
latina — the dose, to children from four to six years of age, being 
three or four drops of the vinum colchici every three or four 
hours. Mr. Fosbroke advises it in ischuria; Elliotson saw 
favourable effects from it in obstinate /?rt/ri^o; Bullock gave it in 
erysipelas; by Chisholm and Baumbach" it was exhibited success- 
fully against tape-worm^ and Dr. Chapman° states that from ten 
drops of the tincture of the root repeated several times in the 

* American Journal of the Medical Sciences, for Nov. 1835, p. 66, 

* Patholofsy of Consumptive Diseases. London, 1822. 

* Inflammation of the Mucous Membrane of the Lungs, I^ndon, 182L 

* Elements of Materia Medica, &c., ii 947, London, 1842; or 2d Amer. edit, by 
Canon, Philad. 1846. 

* Casper's Wochenscbrift, Aug. 26, 1848; cited in Lond. Med. Gazette. 
" Lancet, Aug. 2. 1844. 

' Amer. Joum. of the Medical Sciences. May, 1838, p. 205. 

* Ro8t*s Magazin, B. xxi S. 270 ; and Osann, in Art Cblchicum, in Encyc. Wor- 
terfoi der Medicin. Wissenschafl. B. viii. a 136. BeHin, 1832. 

* {.lectures on the more Important Diseases of the Thoracic and Abdominal Viscera, 
pu 2U9. Philad. 1844. 



230 COLCHICUM. 

twenty-four hours, and persisted in for some timei as much may 
be anticipated in functional constipation^ with a view merely 
to the restoration of the lost susceptibility of the bowels, as from 
any thing else withm his experience. He has rarely, mdeed, 
seen it fail. 

Colchicum is sometimes applied externally as a liniment to 
rheumatic joints^ in the form of the tincture of the seeds or bulb«^ 
It has been recommended by Mr. Wansborough in gout j^ two 
drams of the tincture of the seeds being added to f ^iv. of a spirit 
lotion. It is affirmed, however, that the local use of morphia had 
the same effect,^ — the part being bathed in hot water for a minute, *- 
and then lint applied, spread with simple cerate, on which about 
three grains of acetate of morphia w^re distributed. 

Mr. Laycock^ has advised the tincture of the root as an exter- 
nal application in rheumatism^ alone or combined with tinctura 
camphors:. It was used in the author's Clinic at the Philadel- 
phia Hospital, and often with advantage; but whether much, or 
any of the benefit was produced by the colchicum, he was unable 
to decide. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Colchicum is not so frequently given in substance, although it 
is often prescribed in this form. The dose of the powdered root 
is from three grains to ten, several times in the day. The offici- 
nal preparations of this country and Great Britain are : — acetum 
colchici (United States and London ;) oxymel colchici (Dublin;) 
syrupus colchici (Edinburgh ;) vinum colchici radicis (United 
States and London;) and extractum colchici aceticum (London;) 
than which. Dr. Holland^ affirms, he knows no preparation more 
certain in effect, or better capable of fulfilling the peculiar pur- 
poses of the medicine. These are made from the bulb. 

The officinal preparations from the seeds are tinctura colchici 
seminis (United States and Dublin;) and vinum colchici seminis 
(United States.) The London Pharmacopoeia has likewise a 
spirit US seminis colchici ammonialus or tinctura colchici 
compositOy which is much used by the English physicians, and 
is formed by macerating two ounces and a half of bruised colchi* 
cum seeds in a pint of aromatic spirit of ammonia, Mr. Bat- 
tley recommends an extractum, colchici e succo bulborum re- 
center expresso^ and such a preparation is in the Pharmacopoeia 
of Austria." The dose is two grains every two hours. 

Dr. A. T. Thomson recommends a saturated vinous tincture^ 
made by macerating an ounce and a half of the dried bulb in twelve 

' Diet de Matiere M^dic par MM. M^rat and De Leiu, ii. 361. 

• Uncet, July «». 1837. ' Ibid. Aug. 5, 1837. 

* London Medical Gaxette, March IS, 1839, and June 8, 18:)9, p. 388. 
■ Medical Notes and Reflectioiia, Sd edition, p. 153. London, 1840. 

' Jourdan, Phannaoop^ UniyeraeUe, i 43S. Paris, 1828. 



COLCBICUM. 231 

oanoes of iohite wine. From thirty to sixty minims are given to 
gouty patients when in pain. 

The dose of the powdered root or seed is, as was said, from 
three to ten grains; of the acetum colchiciy from thirty minims to 
one fluidram; of the syrupus colchiciy from one fluidram to half 
a fluidounce ; of the vinum colchici radicis^ from fifteen minims to 
one and a half fluidrams; and of the vinum colchici seminis from 
one to twofluidrams. 

Dr. Copland ^ suggested the use of the fresh flowers in the form 
of vinegar, tincture, &c., as milder than the seeds or bulbs, and yet 
equally efficacious in rheumatic and other affections; but they are 
not employed. 

Hanitoi eolehiei et magneiis. 

B. Yin. rad. colchic. 9j. 
Magne«ie 988. 
Mist, camphor. 3X. M. 
Fiat haastus. 

To be taken twice a day in gout. 

Seymour. 

liitara e«lehi€i. 

Mixture of colchicum. 
Scudamort** mixture. 

B> Magnes. sulphat. ^j. ad ^ij. 
Solve in 

Aque menth. crisp, f ^x. 
Adde 

Acet. colchic. f 5J. ad f ^iss. 

Syrup, croc, f 3J- 

Magnes. 9viij. M. 

To be well shaken. Three table-spoonfuls to be administered, 
80 that from four to six evacuations may be produced in twenty- 
four hours. Given in paroxysms of gout. Sir C. Scudamare. 

Gntta eolehiei eompeiits. 

Compound drops of coichicum. 

R. Extract, aconit. 9j. ad 3B8. 
Solve in 

Yin. colchic. sem. f ^ss. M. 

Fifteen, twenty, thirty, or forty drops to be given three times a 

day. WAer. 

B. Tinctur. colchic. sem. 

guaiac. aa. f jiij. M. 

Dose. — Thirty or forty drops three times a day in chronic rheU' 

matism. Slasius. 

Ht. Tinct. colchic. sem. 

digit, aa. f ^ij. 

Sp. ether, nitric, f 38S. M. 

Dose. — Twenty drops, on sugar. Hildenbrand. 

1 Loud. Med. Repos. 1623. 



232 COLLODION. 

PilnlB eolehiei. 

Pills of colchicum. 

R. Colchic. pulv. gr. iij, 

Saponis q. s. ut fiat pilnla. 

Dose. — Three daily, increasing the quantity to five or six. 

Ritton. 

PilnlB eoleliiei eompoiits. 

Compound pills of colchicum. 

B. Extract, colchic. acet. gr. iij. 

Palv. ipecac, comp. 

Ext. colocynth. comp. aa.gr. j — ij. M. 
et fiat pilula. 
In gout. Sir H. Halford. 

B. Ext. colchic. acet. 

Hydrarg. chlorid. mit. 

Aloes, aa. gr. j. 

Ipecac. puTv. gr. ij. M. 

Dose. — One every four hours in gout. Two or three are gene- 
rally enough " to produce a considerable disgorgement of the liver." 
This is assisted by one or two doses of cooapound decoction of aloes. 

Jl. White. 
Linimentnm eolehiei et eamphors. 

Liniment of colchicum, and camphor. ' 

B. Tinctur. colchic. rad. 

■ camphorse, aa. partes equales. M. 

Laycock. 



LXIV. COLLODION. 

SyNONYMEs. — Collodium, Ethereal Solution of Gun Cotton. 

Professor Schonbein appears to have first shown the solubility of 
gun cotton in sulphuric ether. He states, that long before it was 
employed in this country, he had recommended for surgical use a' 
fluid, which he termed, " liquor constringens " and ^^ ether glue;^^ 
and that it had been employed in Switzerland three years previous 
to any notice of it in America.^ Specimens o^ the solution were 
exhibited by Dr. C. F. Jackson before the Boston Society for 
Medical Improvement, in December, 1846, or January, 1847, to 
illustrate its use as a brilliant varnish. Soon afterwards. Dr. H. 
J. Bigelow' prepared a bottle of the solution according to Dr. 
Jackson's directions, and whilst employing it as a varnish, he 
accidentally smeared it on a fresh wound of the finger. The 
smarting that resulted drew his attention to the wound, and he 
immediately endeavoured to rub it off, but it had dried almost 
instantaneously, and remained on ; the smarting soon ceased, and 

• Lancet, Mar. 17, 1849. 

' Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Mar. 22, 184& 



COLLODION. 233 

when the film was removed, union had taken place. Dr. Bigelow 

at once had recourse to it as a dressing for wounds, especially such 

as it is desirable to unite rapidly by the first intention. 

About the same time a young medical student, Mr. George P. 

Maynard,^ of Boston, exhibited a similar liquid adhesive substance, 

which he had introduced as a substitute for the common adhesive 

plaster, over which it seemed to possess many advantages, and to be 

applicable to cases in which the latter is not; and in a letter to Dr. 

John D. Fisher, read before the Boston Society, Mr. Maynard* 

stated, that he had used the adhesive liquid, and seen it used by 

his preceptor. Dr. Whitney, in more than one hundred cases of 

surgery, some of them serious,— and in all successfully. Mr. May- 

nard appears to have first used it surgically in January, 1847 : 

and it was, in consequence, known for some time under the name 

of *^ Maynard^s adhesive liquid ;*^ but, subsequently, it received 

the name Collodion— from xoxxa, * glue;' — by which it is now 

known. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

The formula generally adopted for the preparation of collodion 
is that of M. Mialhe. The plan recommended by Mr. Maynard 
was to treat cotton with nitric and sulphuric acids; washing 
the substance thoroughly, and afterwards dissolving it in pure sul' 
phuric ether. Several French chemists, on repeating the process, 
failed to procure the cotton in a state in which it could be dissolved 
by ether, when M. Mialhe' ascertained, after many trials, that it 
was much more readily procured by using a mixture of nitrate of 
potassa and sulphuric acid, M. Mialhe's process is as follows : — 
Take of finely powdered nitrate of potassa 40 parts by weight ; 
concentrated sulphuric acid 60 parts, carded cotton^ two parts. 
Mix the nitric with the sulphuric acid in a porcelain vessel ; add 
the cotton, and agitate the mass for three minutes by the aid of 
two glass rods. Wash the cotton, without first pressing it, in a 
large quantity. of water, and when all acidity is removed, as indi- 
cated by litmus paper, press it firmly in a cloth. Pull it out into 
a loose mass, and dry it in a stove at a moderate heat. The 
compound, thus obtained, is not pure fulminating cotton — French, 
fulmicoton : it always retains a small quantity of sulphuric acid ; 
is less inflammable than gun cotton, and leaves a carbonaceous 
residue after explosion ; but it possesses, in a remarkable degree, 
solubility in ether, especially when mixed with a little alcohol. The 
collodion is made of this prepared cotton^ 8 parts by weight ; 
rectified sulphuric ether^ 125 parts ; and alcohol^ 8 parts. The 
cotton is put with the ether into a well-stopped bottle, and the 
mixture is shaken for some minutes. The alcohol is added by 

> Amer. Journal of the Medical Sciences, April. 1848. 

» Borton Medical aYid Surgical Journal, Mar. 2{», 1848. 

* Lond. Med. Gazette, dt^ in Amer. Joara. of Pharmacy, Jan., 1849, p. 42. 



234 COLLODfOK. 

degrees, and the mixture is shaken antil it acquires a sympy odih 
sistence. It may be then passed through a cloth, the residue be 
strongly pressed, and the liquid kept in a well-secured bottle. 

Other modes of preparing it are given by Mr. J. B. Eld wards,' and 
by Messrs. Charles S. Rand' and Edward rarrish.' Gun cotton will 
also dissolve in equal parts of ether and alcohol, and form as 
adhesive a solution as that in ether alone. It of course dries more 
slowly, and whilst it may not be as well adapted for holding the 
edges of incised wounds together as the latter, it may be preferable 
in certain cases, — as an application to abraded surfaces, for example. 

Collodion has been used extensively by the surgeon as a reten- 
tive adhesive compound in all cases of solution of continuity, — 
either applied directly to the part, by being brushed over with a 
camel's hair pencil, or spread on strips of cotton. On ulcers and 
abraded surfaces — as m superficial bums it acts as an excitant; 
the ether evaporates, and a film is left, which protects them against 
the irritating and desiccative influence of the air.^ It was sog^ 
gested in hums by Dr. Payne, dentist, of Montreal ; and Dr. Craw- 
ford' of that city employed it successfully, and since then its utility 
has been confirmed by others.* M. Briquet^ used it successfully in 
a case o{ erysipelas of the abdomen; and Dr. J. W. Freer," of llli- 
nois,in an epidemic erysipelaSy yNh\ch prevailed there in the spring 
of 1839, applied it, by means of a feather, over the affected part. 

By Mr. Erasmus Wilson' it was prescribed in various cutaneous 
diseases^ and with advantage, — for example, in chronic ery- 
ihema of the face^ intertrigOy chapped nipples and chapped 
hands ; herpes labialisy h. prasputialis^ and A. zoster; lichen 
agrius ; lupus non exedens^ and /. exedens; acne vulgaris, and 
several affections of the sebiparous organs. In these cases, it 
has the same action as in burns ; and besides by its contraction, 
during the evaporation of the solvent, pressure is exerted on the 
part, which may be of essential service. As elsewhere remarked 
by the author,'® in cases of acne Bnd follicular affections of the 
skin in general, he has seen advantage firom it. Occasionally, it 
has induced an inflammatory condition of the follicles, and at 
first seemed to aggravate the afiection; but, subsequently, good 
has resulted from the modified nutrition induced. As a protect- 

■ ijond. Phirmaceut Joum.: cHed in Amer. Joum. of Pharmacy, July, 1849, jk 233. 

* Amer. Joum. of Pharaiacy, July, I84I». pu 209. • Ibid. October, 1849, p. SSa 

* For a summary of the surgical and other caaea in which it had been until that time 
employed, aee Bigeiow and Maynard, opi dtj and Lond. Joum. of Medicine, Feb^ lb49; 
or Ranking*8 Half-yearly Abstract, Amer. edit, iz. 100, Philad., 1849. 

'British Amer. Joum., Aug. 1848. 

* Lambert, Gantte M6dicale de I^yon; cited in Bouchardat, Annuaire de Hi^n- 
^tique, pour 18:»0, p. 24 1 ; and Liman in Casper's Wochenschrift, Juli 27, 1850, died 
01 Keller und Tiedemann*s Nord Amerikaniacher Monatsbericht fiir Natur— und Heil- 
konde, a 188, Nov. 1850. 

"* Bulletin de l*h6rapeutique, xxrriii., 322 ; dted in Brit and For. Medico^LimiK., 
July, 18&U, n. 275. 

* North Western Medical and Sarrical Journal, Jan., 185a * Lancet, Sow., 1848. 
■• Gcneial TheiBpentks and Mat Med., 4 th edit, 1 497, Philad., 1850. 



COLLODION. 235 

iDg, supporting and compressing agent, it appears to have been 
applied with advantage by M. Caballero^ over a large aneurismal 
tamour of the subclavian artery; and Dr. Brainard"^ used it with 
advantage for the cure of erectile tumours {navt) without opera- 
tion. Dr. John Evans,' disheartened by the general want of sue- 
eess in preventing suppuration in masittis, and satisfied that the 
most prominent indication of cure is to overcome the freedom with 
which blood is sent into the mamma, and by compression cause the 
absorption of the effused plasma, employed a coating of collodion 
to obtain the benefit of its contraction ; and he affirms, that in no 
case, except one, had the slightest suppuration supervened. In 
every one, the relief was prompt, and no inconvenience resulted 
in any, except the slight smarting caused by its application. Mr. 
Wilson, as well as others, found that the film left by the eva- 
poration of the solvent is liable to crack from want of elasti- 
city, and consequently to peel off, a defect which is remedied by 
combining a certain portion of oil with it : by this means, the 
film is sufficiently elastic to follow the motion of the part to which 
it is applied, without separating into flakes. A farther improve- 
ment was considered to be effected by giving the solution a flesh 
colour. The coloured solution has been called collodium ttncium. 

Dr. Simpson^ employed it with perfect success in some cases of 
painful fissures at the base of the nipple. Having brought to- 
gether the edges, he applied the collodion, which formed a protec- 
tion against all irritating influences, and permitted the child to 
sack. The healing process took place rapidly. Equally good 
effects in cases of sore nipple were obtained by Mr. Brown.' 

Dr. T. R. Mitchell* considers it superior in ulceration of the os 
tmd cervix uteri to nitrate of silver. It forms an artificial cover- 
bg to the ulcer, and permits the healing process to go on beneath. 
In cases of simple abrasion^ three applications have proved suffi- 
cient ; in more obstinate cases, he has employed caustics first, and 
then covered the eschar with collodion, and has in this way cured 
extensive ulcers in half the time required by other methods. He 
has likewise found it beneficial in inflammation of the vagina 
without ulceration. In cases of chancres, which have become 
dean, and are in process of reparation, H. Lippert has seen the 
cicatrization rapidly effected by the application of collodion, seve- 
ral times a day, by means of a camel's hair pencil .'^ 

In bleeding from leech bites , the hemorrhage was restrained by 
Mr. Tucker,^ by compresses of lint dipped in collodion, and it 

' Waba, Annuaire de M6dedne et de Chirurgie pratiques, pour 1850, p. 2l5i 

* iNortli Western Medical and iSurgical Journal. Sept., 1849. ' Ibid^ Sept, 1850. 

* Monthly Journal of Med. Science, July, 1^49. * Lancet. Dec. 24, 184a 

* Dublin Med. Press, Oct 4, 184«. ' J^ncet, Dec. 9, 1848. 
"Casper's WochenKbrid, 1(3 Febr. 1850, No. 7, dted in Keller und Tiedemtnn, 

OpwdiyDec., 1850, p.221. 



236 COLLODION. 

succeeded also with Mr. R. T. Wylde.^ Dr. W.U. Ranking' ap- 
plied it advantageously with the same view in the incisions mad^ui 
cupping. By Dr. Muirhead^ it was employed with great benefit in 
bed sores; and by Dr. W. H. Ranking* it has been suggested as a 
valuable application to the face for the purpose of excluding the 
air, and preventing pitting in variola. As a stopping for teeih^ 
it was used by Mr. Ancell, and by Mr. J. Robinson,^ dentist ; the 
latter of whom affirms, that he has frequently applied collodion in 
severe cases of toothache, arising from exposure of the nerve, with 
perfect success, where no persuasion could induce the patient to 
submit to extraction. 

By M. Hairion' it has been employed to glue the eyelids to- 
gether, where it has been desirable, as in keratitis and conjuncti- 
vitis, to protect the inflamed surface from the contact of air, to 
prevent the movements of the eyelids over it, or to retain topical 
applications in contact with it. He usually appjies it to the eyelids 
of one eye, and afterwards, if both eyes are diseased, to the other. 
The adhesion never continues longer than forty-eight hours. A 
little space may be left at the angle of the eye for the discharges 
from the inflamed surface to escape. In perverted states of the 
eyelids — as trichiasis, districhiasis, entropion, ectropion, &c., the 
ease wilh which the desired rectification can be secured renders it, 
M. Hairion considers, a most valuable palliative and even curative 
agent. 

In pharmacy, collodion has been employed as a coating for 
pills. The pill is placed on the point of a needle and dipped in 
the solution. M. Burden' employs one of the specific gravity 
.810, and two immersions are sufficient. Pills of aloes and colo- 
cynth, thus coated, can be taken without the slightest taste of those 
nauseous articles being perceived. 

Ca NTH ARID AL CoLLODioN, Collodium vcstcans sen cant hart- 
dale; French, Collodium cantharidaL Under this name, a vesi- 
cating agent has been proposed by M. Ilisch,' of St. Petersburg. 
It is prepared by exhausting, by the method of displacement, a 
pound of cant harides coarse]) powdered, with a pound of sulphuric 
ether and three ounces of acetic ether. In this manner, a satu- 
rated solution of cantharides is obtained. In two ounces of this 
solution twenty-five grains of cotton powder are dissolved. It 
may be preserved unchanged in well-stopped bottles.^ 

* Lancet, Jan. 6. 1H49. 'Ibid., January 13, 1849. 
■ Ih'ul. Jan. 27. 1849. * Op. cit • Lancet. IW. 30, IHIft. 
•L'Union MeJicalc, Nov. 29 & 31 ; cited in Brit and For. Medico-chirurg. Rev. 

July, 1«49. 

' Bouchardat, Annuaire dc Therapeutiquc, pour 1850, p. 243. 

* Canstiiit und Kiwnniann*a Jahrefibcricht ijber die F^ortschritle in der Heilkundc im 
Jahrc I84J>, S. 178. Erlan{?cn, iH50, and Phannaceutical Journal, Mar. 1, lb50, cited 
in Amcr. Joum. of Pharmacy, July, 1850, p^ 229. 

* Bouchardat, Annuaiie dc Th^rapeutique, pour 1850, p. 101. 



COMPRESSIO. 237 

.Mr. Charles S. Rand,^ of Philadelphia, who has made many 
e]f{)eriments with this preparation, confirms the statements of M. 
Uisch in its favour. Some improvements, he thinks, might be 
Bade in his formula. The proportion of cantharides is unneces- 
sarily large, a tincture made with double the amount of ether being 
found to vesicate with equal power. 

In employing M. Uisch's preparation, it is sufficient to paint the 
part with a camel's hair pencil dipped in it ; and if, after desiccation, 
which takes place in less than a minute, it appears that the skin 
is not entirely covered, the operation must be repeated. A more 
certain and rapid action is obtained, if the part be covered with a 
little lard or simple cerate. No longer time is required for the 
blister to be produced than in the case of the Emplastrum cantha- 
rides; and it has the advantage of not being disturbed by the 
movements of the patient. 

According to Mr. Rand, the contraction induced by it, as in the 
case of simple collodion, is a serious objection, — owing to its not 
only causing pain in the sensitive vesicated surface, but retarding 
the necessary action; but the addition of Venice turpentine to the 
amount of about one per cent, effectually obviates this, *' and 
renders the preparation perfect." When the blister is formed, the 
film of collodion loosens, and, curling at the edges, may, by a 
slight effort, be detached without rupturing the membrane beneath. 
If it be simply painted upon the skin, and the ether be allowed to 
evaporate, vesication does not take place sooner than with the 
officinal plaster ; but if immediately on its application a piece of 
oiled silk be bound upon the part, and suffered to remain an hour, 
so as to prevent rapid desiccation, a blister will be formed in three 
hours, sometimes more quickly ; and in one instance it formed in 
one hour.^ 

The cantharidal collodion has been frequently employ ed, and has 
met with much favour. 



LXV. COMPRESSIO. 

Stkoxtmes. Compression, Methodical Compression. 
German, D r u c k . 

This valuable method of modifying the condition of the capil- 
lary or intermediate system of vessels, and, through it, the function 
of nutrition, has become more extensively employed in the treat- 
ment of disease. As a sorbefacient, in various hypertrophies and 
dropsies, anasarca, ascites, ovarian dropsy,^ chronic hydrocephalus,* 

* Amer. Joum. of Pharmacy, Jan., 1850, p. 20. " Rand, Op. cit. 
■ Mr. Isaac Brown, London I ^ancet. May 9, 1H4-1, and April 5, 1845. 

* Hinch, Casper's Wochcnschrift, cited in Provincial Med. and Surg. Joum. April 29, 
1843. Engelnuinn, dted from Gaz. Med. de Paris, Jan. 28, 1843, in Amer. Joum. of 
the Med. Sdenoet, Oct 1843, p. 458. 

16 



238 COMFKEgRO. 

&c.y it has long been nsed whererer its agency was applicable, and 
its effects have been decided.^ Of late years, it has been proposM 
in inflammatory and other affections^ in which it had been pre- 
viously esteemed inapplicable. Upwards of twenty years ago, it 
was highly recommended in rheumatic affections^ hy Dr. William 
Balfour,* of Edinburgh ; and numerous cases were brought for- 
ward by him, and by others, to attest its efficacy. Since then, it 
has been advised by Guerin,^ in the cases o{ phlegmonous erysipe^ 
las of the extremities; by Yelpeau,^ in severe bumsy and phldntis, 
and in inflammation of the synovial apparatus;^ and Mr. James 
Allan ^ has related three cases of phlegmasia benefited by a simi- 
lar treatment — ^two were of erysipelas of the lower extremities, 
and one of the face* In these, compression was of speedy and per> 
manent benefit — the pain caused by it being very transient. He 
states, moreover, that he has found the bandage of very great ser- 
vice in removing the pain and swelling of joints affected with 
acute rheumatism^ after the mSre active degree of inflammation 
had passed away. 

In cases of external inflammation, compression acts probably in 
two ways, — first, by diminishing the circulation in the interme- 
diate system of vessels concerned in the pathological condition ; 
and, secondly, by restoring tone to the over-dilated vessels ; for it 
. is in erysipelatous affections, in which this form of hyperemia 
more especially exists, that it has been found of greatest advantage. 
Numerous cases of erysipelas of the extremities have been treated 
by the author by compression, and with great benefit. He is con- 
stantly, also, in the habit of employing compression, under the cir- 
cumstances mentioned by Mr. Allan, in arthritic affections attended 
with great effusion, and with the roost satisfactory results. 

From an observation of the good effects resulting from com- 
pression in analogous cases, it occurred to Dr. Fricke,' of Ham- 
burg, that it might be employed with advantage in cases of orchitis 
or swelled testicle {hernia humoralis;) which is frequently very 
tedious, and requires means that are by no means easy of applica- 
tion. He, accordingly, had recourse to it, and the result was sa- 
tisfactory : he found, that ** the disease could be removed by it in a 
simple, easy, and surprisingly rapid way." Dr. Fricke was not, 

* Clinique MMkrafe de FHopital Neckar, p. 247, Paris, 1835; or the anthor^s tranda- 
tion in American Medical Library, first year. See, also, the author's General Tberapeu* 
tic8,D. 2-2^, Fbilail. 1836; or his General Thcra}). and Mat Med. 4th edit. ii. 2ri5, Philad. 
1850; likewise, MurcUi, Annali Universali di Medicin. Marzo, lb40, dted in Brit and 
For. Mel. Rev Jan- 1841, p. 237. 

' A now mode of curing Rhcumatisro and Sprains without Debilitating. Edinb. 1817. 

* Joiim. Analvt i 90. 

* Ibiil. and Bulletin General de Therapeutique, Na IG, Aoi^t 30, 183a 

* Nouv. Bib. Med. Aoiit, 1826; and Merat and De I^ns, Diet de Mat Med., art 
CoDiprewion. ' British Annals of Medicine, Jan. 27, 1H37. 

^ Zeitschrift ftlr die geaaromt Medicin. B. L U. 1, Hamburg, 183G. See, also, Brit 
and For. Med. Rev. for Joly, 1836, p. 253. 



COMPRES8IO. 239 

bowever, the first to employ compression in this disease. It 
would seem, that as long ago as the ^ear 1803, it was used at the 
PenDsylvania Hospital, by Dr. Physick, and by Dr. Hartshorne.* 
Dr. Fricke is of opinion, that, generally speaking, compression 
may be employed in every kind of irijlammatory engorgement of 
Uk iesticUf whatever may have been its cause, and at all stages of 
the disease. In many cases, the pain was^ at first, in some degree, 
increased ; and in some, especially when applied too tightly, it in- 
duced great suffering; but this never continued long — the patient, 
in a short time, finding himself so much relieved as to be able to 
kftve his bed and walk about the room. In many cases of recent 
origin, a single application of the compression was sufiicient; but 
when the disease was of longer duration, say from three to eight 
days, it was found necessary to repeat it two or three times. 
Swelling of the sperndatic cord, if not very considerable, did not 
contra-indicate its use; nor did other coexistent local affections, as 
buboes, ulcers, &c. When a general febrile state accompanied the 
orchitis, compression was found to be the best means for removing 
it, where the vascular action was not too considerable; although, 
in extremely rare cases, such a state was the effect of the com- 
pression itself. When the pain was very severe, it was generally 
owing to the compression having been too strong, and the same 
was the case with certain signs of gastric derangement, that occa- 
sionally supervened. In these cases, it was necessary to suspend 
the remedy unt'd the derangement was removed by the use of an 
emetic, or the application of a poultice to the stomach. Such 
cases were, however, extremely unfrequent. The good effects 
exhibited themselves very soon aAer its employment, and the 
qpeedy abatement of the pain was always the surest sign of its efii- 
cacy. If it continued for some hours in any considerable degree, 
a general disorder of the system might be looked for to explain the 
iauure of success. 

In the summer of 1835, Dr. Fricke treated, in this manner, 
seventeen cases. Of these were cured, in one day, one; in three 
days, four; in four days, two; in five days, three; in nine days, 
one; and in ten days, two. The last three were severe and unfa- 
vourable cases. For the purpose of compression, he employed 
sticking plaster, made very adhesive, but not of too irritating ma- 
terials, and spread on strips of linen, of the breadth of the thumb. 
No preparatory measures, as leeches, cataplasms, &c., are required. 
In slighter cases, the patient may stand before the surgeon, lean- 
ing against the wall, or he may sit on the edge of a bed or sofa, 
so that the scrotum may hang freely down. If the scrotum and 
neighbouring parts are much covered with hair, it must be removed ; 
but, generally speaking, this is unnecessary. 

' American Journal of the Med. Sciences, Jan. 1842, p. 258. 



242 C0MPRE8SI0. 

of leather, the extremities of which unite on the abdomen : from 
its centre behind a strap descends, which, on reaching the genital 
organs, bifurcates, and is iwally buckled in front to the cincture. 
On the descending strap a small cushion is placed opposite the part 
OP which pressure has to be made. Dr. Batchelder,^ of Utica, 
affirms, that he has been in the habit of using compression of the 
perineum as a remedy in this affection for upwards of twenty years. 

Compression of the arteries, as an antiphlogistic agent, has 
been revived by Goyrand, Malapert, and others; the object 
being to prevent the afflux of blood to a part labouring under 
hyperaemia. The origin of this idea has been a matter of con- 
troversy;^ but, as Dezeimeris* has remarked, it certainly is not 
4lue to the gentlemen who have engaged in it. Blaud compressed 
the carotid in brain fever; Autenrieth did the same, before 
Blaud, in cases of convuUions. Earl, in epilepsy; Livingston 
and Kellie, in rheuTnatism; Ludlow, in gout; and Parry, of 
Bath, half a century earlier, employed compression of the vessels 
in different diseases, with the clearest appreciation of its modus 
operandi. 

Compression of the carotids has been used by M. Strohlin* in 
hysteric convulsions^ and has almost always succeeded in modi- 
fying the form of the attack. He used it in two cases oi epilepsy 
with similar success. Compression of the carotids at the com- 
mencement of the paroxysm always caused them to cease in a 
minute afterwards. 

M. Allier' has published a case of intermittent neuralgia of 
the lobe of the right ear, cured by compression of the primitive 
carotid of the same side: half an hour before the paroxysm, the 
compression was exerted, with interruptions of five minutes every 
quarter of an hour. He has, also, reported a case of neuralgia 
of the orbit o-frontal nerve: and, subsequently, of the nervus 
pudendus superior^ respectively cured by compression of the 
carotid, and abdominal aorta. The compression of the carotid of 
the affected side was continued the whole forenoon, with pauses of 
five minutes every quarter of an hour. For the pudic neuralgia, 
the abdominal aorta was compressed for the space of three quar- 
ters of an hour: the neuralgia, in both instances, gradually ceased. 
M. Dufrtsne** has published a case of hemicrania and facial 
neuralirjri of the right side, cured by the same means. Compres- 
sion of the rie;ht primitive carotid for ten seconds occasioned in- 
stantaneous disappearance of the pain, which returned in one 
minute after the removal of the pressure. Compression of the 

' \cw York Medical and Sai^ical Reporter, cited in St. Louis Med. and Sui^. Joam., 
June. IH40. p. 43. 

2 Cia? -fte .\Tf iliraV d? Varis, No. 40, IR Nov., 1817, ml .Va 47. ' Ibid. 

* An'l.ivvs Gi'iier.iL de Metkvinc, Man, 18 IJ. 

• I/Exi«rience, No. 16, 20 Jan., IsaS. • Ibid. No. cxiTiii Dec. 1 ^39. 



coMP&Easio. 243 

same vessel for twelve seconds also caused immediate cessation of 
the pain, but it shiAed to the posterior part of the bead. Tbis pain 
ceased with the removal of the pressure, and in two minutes after- 
wards the original pain reappeared on the right side. When 
graduated compression was made on the same vessel for thirty 
seconds, the pain, as before, moved to the posterior and left part 
of the skull. M. Dufresne then pressed on the left carotid, and, 
increasing the force as he diminished that on the right side, the 
posterior pain disappeared, and no return of either had taken 
place ten minutes afterwards. The patient slept well and made 
DO complaint of pain in the morning. 

The employment of compression of the epigastrium to arrest 
hiccup was recommended by Bordeu, but it had fallen into obli- 
vion. It has been revived, however, and was suggested to M. 
Rostan' by an old physician of Paris, whose wife was subject to 
attacks of hysteria, during which she suffered from incessant 
hiccup, and in which he had observed, that she experienced re- 
markable relief from strong compression on the epigastrium with 
the hand. Since then, M. Rostan has employed it in many cases 
(rf'the same kind, and constantly with good effect, whatever might 
have been the cause of the hiccup. To render the pressure con- 
stant, he has employed a pad with a truss-spring as a substitute 
for the hand ; and M. Boyer^ has recorded three cases of painful 
and obstinate hiccup instantly relieved by the same means. 

Compression of the abdominal aorta has been revived by M. 
Baudelocque, and many others, with the view of arresting uterine 
hetnorrha^e occurring in labour, as well as the hemorrhage which 
foljows wounds of the arteries of the inferior half of the body.^ 
In a case of uterine hemorrhage^ detailed by Dr. Ehrenreich,* 
external compression by the hand on the abdomen, which is the 
only way of acting on the aorta when any obstacle exists to the 
introduction of the hand into the uterus, was tried without suc- 
cess, owing to the thickness of the abdominal parietes. The he- 
morrhage was, however, completely controlled by introducing the 
entire right hand into the uterus, and making forcible pressure 
with the fingers in a conical shape on the aorta immediately above 
its bifurcation. Many similar cases have been published and re- 
ferred to by M. Piedagnel, in a memoir communicated to the 
Sociit^ M6dica/e d*Eniulationy of Paris, on which an excellent 
report was read by MM. Velpeau and Britre de Boismont, giving 
a history of the process. It is necessary at times that the com- 
pression should be continued for a considerable period, even for an 

' La Lancctte Francaisp, 20 Tiisr. 1847. 
' Kcvuc MrJico-ChinirK. JuUlet, 1847. 
' Siv an account of Baudelocquo's views, by J.C. Chrirtonhcni, in Lancet, July 2(», 

* MoiiciniKhc Zeitung,No. xzzvii. 1839, dted in Britiah and Foreign Medical Ra- 
*TCW, July, 1640, p. 274. 



244 '" COBfPRESSIO. 

hour or two, should the case seem to require it. The gentlemen 
last cited advise that it should be associated with ergot.^ 

The mode adopted by M. Seutin^ for compressing the aorta in 
such cases is as follows. The woman is to be placed on a ho- 
rizontal plane, with the head and shoulders raised, and the thighs 
flexed upon the pelvis, in order to relax the abdominal muscles as 
much as possible, and to avoid mechanical engorgement of the 
uterine vessels. The surgeon, placed on the right side of the patient, 
uses the left hand to compress the vessel, keeping the right dis- 
engaged for any other purpose which the case may demand. The 
intestines being pushed on one side by gentle manipulation, the 
three fingers of the left hand are pressed firmly and deeply be- 
hind and to the left of the uterus, nearly on a level with the um- 
bilicus. By this plan, the aortic pulsations will be evident, and 
farther pressure is then to be made in a direction downwards and 
backwards. In order that the operator may not be too much fa- 
tigued by continued exertion, his hand may be compressed by 
those of an assistant. 

Lastly : M. Allier' employed compression of both carotids in 
a case of hydrophobia at the commencement of an attack; imme- 
diately, the convulsion ceased, and the patient became apparently 
exanimate. The family were alarmed, and would not permit a 
repetition of the experiment. The case ended fatally. 

In paroxysmal diseases, the ratio medendi of compression is 
not the same as in inflammatory diseases. In the latter, the flow 
of blood towards the inflamed part is prevented by the compres- 
sion of the arterial vessels proceeding to it; but when compression 
is exerted on the vessels m neuralgia and congenerous diseases, 
the new impression caused by the resulting irregularity in the 
circulation, and the modification in the nervous functions induced 
thereby, break in upon the morbid catenation like the different 
agents that are classed under the head of antispasmodics, of which 
class we have elsewhere endeavoured to show — what, by the way, 
is not now contested by any eminent therapeutist — that we have 
none that can be regarded in any other light than as indirect 
agents.* 



' La Lancette FmnQ&in, 12 Mai, lci40. 




Mat. Med. 4th edit L 395. FhUad. 1830. 



CONTBA-IRBITATIO. — AMMOKIATED COUNTER-IRRITANTS. 245 



LXVI. CONTRA-IRRITA'TIO. 

Stkontmbs. Counter-irritatioD; Counter-action. 
French. Contre-irritation. 
Gtrman. Gegenreizung. 

It is not the object of the author to enter into an explanation of 
the therapeutical application of counter-irritants, or revellents in 
general : this he has done at considerable length elsewhere ;^ but 
to refer to some agents not mentioned in the body of this work, 
to which attention has been revived, or first directed, of late years 
more especially. 

AMMONIATED COUNTER-IRRITANTS. 

GiJidret's ammoniaeal ointment; Granyille'i ronntfr-irritants 
— Antidrnoai' eonnter-irritanti— BaipaiTs eoanter-irri- 
taot. 

Ammonia has long been used in different formula; for exciting 
nibefaction and vesication of the cutaneous surface. When two 
parts of liquid ammonia are united with one part of suefy and one 
otoil of sweet almonds ^ the mixture forms the Pommade ammo' 
niacale of Gondret, which has been used for a long time to excite a 
speedy revulsion in cases of chronic affections of the brain, incipi" 
ent cataract J amaurosis,^ &c., as well as to cauterize the integu- 
ments deeply.^ To the advantages of this preparation, as well as 
of derivation in various diseases, M. Gondret has called the atten- 
tion of practitioners in an ex professo treatise.* 

The formula, given above, is that of the French Codex; but, 
according to M. Trousseau,^ it is much too hard for use, unless 
the weather is warm. He proposes two different formulae, — 
one for summer, and the other for winter. In the former, he di- 
rects three parts of /ard, one of ^t^ef, and four of liquor ammonia; 
in the latter, equal parts of lardy and liquor ammonia, 

M. Gondret has communicated to M. Miquel a formula for 
his Pommadey which differs from that of the Codex, and accord- 
ing to him, succeeds much better. It is as follows : — Take of 
lardy 32 parts: oil of sweet almonds, 2 parts. Melt by a gentle 



' Grneral Therai 



ipcutky, p. 333; or General Tlicrapcutics and Mat. Mcd.ii. 217. ^ 

* A term c»iined by Dr. Granville. It ought to bo "Antodynous," from um/'agaiiwV* 
and 6«?uri7, " pain." 

' Bouchanlntf Annuairo dc Th^rapeutique pour 1844, pi 215, Paria, 1844| and Lie- 
fianc Ibid. Hl.'V, p. l*^->.^ Paris, li:?45. 

* Considerations sur rem[)loi du feu en m6dccine, suivies dc Toxpof^^ d*un moyen ^pia- 
paitir|ue proprc a fiupplecr la cauterisation, et a remplacer Tusage dee cantharidos. Pari» 
ielf»; and Nouv. Bibli.ith. Med. iii. 44 1 , Paris, 16*28. 

* Traito th/'orique et pratique dc la Derivation centre les aflections lea pIuscomTnunes, 
en gen«>niU telle que la ricthoro, T Inflammation, rHemorrliai^ie, Sic Paris, ]S(37. 

' Joum. des Connaiss. Med., cited in Medico- Chirurmcal Review, July, IH4(), and 
TrouKau and Pidoux, Traits de Tbcrapeutique, &&, Seme ^klit. L 3GG. Paris, 1S47. 



246 CONTRA-IBRITATIO. — AMMONIATED COUNTER-IRRITAirTS. 

heat ; and add liquid ammonia at 25^, 17 parts, stirring until it 
becomes cold.^ 

Since the appearance of M. Gondret's treatise, Dr. Granville* 
has published one on counter irritation, which gave rise to 
much attention on both sides of the Atlantic, — ^partly in conse- 
quence of the strong encomiums he passed on certain counter- 
irritant applications employed by him; and still more in conse- 
quence of the mystery which he threw around them, by keeping 
their preparation a secret, until the united voice of the profession 
had expressed the mingled feelings of surprise, indignation, and 
regret, which such conduct on the part of an individual, holding 
an elevated position in the ranks of the profession, naturally en- 
gendered. It is due, however, to Dr. Granville to remark, that 
on subsccjuently publishing his formulae, he stated, that he ad- 
dressed his work to the public to impress all with the value of the 
agency, but that it would have been unwise in him to give precise 
formulae to those who could not estimate the proper proportions 
of the ingredients; that every physician can apportion them; and 
that he had never concealed the formulae from his friends, and 
always intended to give them to the world.^ 

Dr. Granville describes two sorts of ammoniated lotions, of 
different degrees of power, which are prepared in the following 
manner: Each kind of lotion consists of three ingredients: — Ist. 
The strongest liquor of ammonioy A. 2d. Distilled spirit of 
rosemary^ B. 3d. Spirit of camphor^ C. These are made as 
follows: — 

A. The strongest Liquor op Abimonia. — Saturate a given 
quantity of distilled water, contained in a glass receiver surrounded 
by ice, with ammoniacal gas obtained in the usual way from a 
mixture of equal parts of muriate of ammonia and recently slacked 
//wic, both reduced to a fine powder. The water may be made to 
take up nearly 800 times its bulk of ammoniated gas under the 
circumstances described; its specific gravity will then be about 
.872, and 100 parts of it will contain thirty-three parts of real 
ammonia, according to Sir H« Davy's tables. This solution of am* 
monia will, therefore, be more than three times the strength of the 
liquor ammonice of the PharmacopcEia of London, 100 parts of 
which, at a specific gravity of .960, contain only ten parts of real 
ammonia. Dr. Granville, therefore, called this "liquor aramoniie 
fortissimus." The liquor ammonise fortior of the last United States' 
Pharmacopoeia (1842,) which is of the specific gravity .832, is of 
sufficient strength. 

• nourhardat. Op. cit lt?45. p 254. 

' Counter iiritation, its Principles and Practice, illustrated by one hundred CaseR of 
the most |>ninful nnd important ureases cfUvtuallv cnrtHl hv External Applications. Lon- 
don. l«a"<; or Amer. Med. Lib. edition. Philni 1S3S. ' 

' Lond. Lancet, Oct. 27, 183d. 



CONTRA-niRrrATIO. — AMMONIATED COUNTER-IRRITANTS. 247 

B, Distilled Spirit of Rosemary. — Take two pounds of the 
tips or small leaves of fresh rosemary^ and eight pints of alcohol; 
leave the whole in infusion for twenty-four hours in a well co- 
vered vessel, and after adding as much water as will just prevent 
the empyreumatic smell, distil over seven pints. The Pharmaco- 
poeias of London and the United States direct the essential oil of 
rosemary to be distilled with alcohol to form the spirit of rose- 
mary. Such a preparation Dr. Granville found unsuited for his 
purpose. 

C- Spirit op Caiiphor. — To four ounces of pure camphor add 
two pints of alcoholy so as to dissolve the camphor, and filter. 

Tne three ingredients, thus prepared, should be kept always 
ready at hand, in well-stoppered glass bottles, so as to be able 
to make, extemporaneously, a counter-irritating lotion of any 
requisite strength, according to the nature of the case. But, 
for ordinary purposes. Dr. Granville advises that both a milder 
and a stronger ammoniated lotion should be kept prepared for 
use. 

Lotio iiinmoniata mitior. 

Milder ammoniated lotion. 

Assuming the quantity of lotion desired to be divided into eight 
parts, the proportion of the ingredients will stand thus: — 
A — four-eighths. B — three-eighths. C — one-eighth, or as 

foUows: — 

R. Liq. ammon. fort, f ,^j. 
Spirit, rosmarin. f o^J* 
Tinct. camphor, f ^ij. M. 

Lotio ammoniata fortior. 

Stronger ammoniated lotion. 

If the quantity desired be also divided into eight parts, then the 
proportion of the ingredients will run as follows: — 

A — five-eighths. B— two-eighths. C — one-eighth, or as fol- 
lows: — 

B. Liq. ammon. fort, f ^x. 
Spirit, rosmar. f §6S. 
T1ncl.camph.f3ij. M. 

Although the changes of proportion may be deemed trifling, 
yet the strength of this lotion is such, that Dr. GranviHe never 
employs it, except in cases of apoplexy, and for the purpose of 
cauterization. 

Directions for Mixing the Ingredients — A and B are gradually 
mixed together. The mixture becomes opalescent and somewhat 
turbid, and a peculiar, highly agreeable, ethereal smell is given 
out, different from the individual odour of either inprredient, 
although the extreme pungency of the ammonia is still discerni- 



248 CONTBA-IRBITATIO. — AMMONIATED COUNTER-IRBITAirrS. 



ble. "I have strong reasons to believe," says Dr. Granville, 
^'tbat, at this point of the operation, some particular change takes 
place, which imparts to the mixture of the two ingredients some 
of its valuable peculiarities as a counter-irritant described in my 
work; but what that change is, it is not my business to enter upon 
in this place : suffice it to say, that in a great number of experi- 
ments made with the ingredients separately (for each of them acts as 
a counter-irritant on the skin,) and with them combined, the effects 
were uniformly different; those in the former case being found 
unequal to the production of those complete results which I trust 
I have justly promised to the profession. Ammonia alone (how- 
ever strong) will not give rise to the effects I have described, 
though it has often stopped internal pain, and produced small 
blisters ; but never has it succeeded in almost immediately pro- 
ducing a full vesication, as I have seldom failed to produce with 
the two ingredients mixed together, particularly after the third 
ingredient had been added." Before, however, the third ingre- 
dient is so added, it is desirable to clear the previous mixture, by 
the addition of a small quantity of alcohol, and to set the whole 
in a cool place. All the various precautions here mentioned may, 
upon an emergency, be dispensed with, when an immediate action 
is required, either to arrest pain or relieve deep-seated inflamma- 
tion. But for the more delicate uses, particularly for instanta- 
neous vesication. Dr. Granville recommends, that the preparations 
should be obtained in the manner specified. The lotion must 
always be kept in bottles with a glass stopper. 

M. Raspail^ has recommended the following lotion, the eff*ects 
of which, he says, are often instantaneous in relieving intolerable 
headach: 

B. Liquor, ammon. p. 100. 

Aquee destillat. p. 900. 

Sodii chlorid. purif. p. 20. 

Camphor, p. 2. 

Essent. rosar. q. s. 

The whole to be mixed cold. 

A piece of linen is to be steeped in this solution, and applied 
over the part of the head which is the seat of pain, care being 
taken that none of the fluid passes into the eyes. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN HEALTH. 
The various counter-irritants, described above, act essentially 
in the same manner; differing only in the intensity of the counter- 
irritation which they induce. In all, liquor ammonisB is the main 
effective ingredient. The stronger of Granville's lotions is a 
powerful agent. It gives rise, in a few minutes, to vesication 
over the whole surface to which it is applied ; almost as rapidly, 
indeed, as if boiling water were placed upon the part. 

' L*Exp6rienco, 24 Juillet, 1 84a 



CONTBA-IERITATIO. — AMMONIATED COUNTER-IRRITANTS. 249 

It need scarcely he said, that the strength of these lotions may 
be regulated so as to produce either full vesication, or sinnply 
rubefaction, by varying the quantity of liquor ammoniae. 

The mode of applying these liquid counter-irritants is, as in the 
case of Oleum Sinapis — first to impregnate with them a piece of 
cotton or linen, folded six or seven times, or a piece of thick or 
coarse flannel; and then lay either of these on the spot, pressing 
with the hand, at the same time, very steadily and firmly on the 
compress, over which there should be placed a thick towel, 
doubled several times, so that not only the evaporation of the 
lotion may be impeded, but the hand employed m pressing the 
application to the part may not suffer from direct or indirect con- 
tact with the liquid. Care must be taken that the ammonia does 
not reach the eyes or nose.* As a general rule, the application 
should seldom be kept on longer than from one to six or eight 
minutes; and, Dr. Granville affirms, it has often happened to him 
to find, that less than a minute was sufficient to produce the de- 
ared alleviation of pain and spasm. But, in order to excite the 
higher degrees of counter-irritation, vesication and cauterization, 
as many as ten or twelve minutes may be necessary. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

There can be no doubt that the ammoniated counter-irritants 
are valuable agents in all those diseases which are capable of being 
benefited by a sudden and powerful revulsion. It is chiefly, as 
elsewhere stated,^ when the diseased action has been prolonged 
for a considerable period, and in affections which belong to the 
neura/ffic chtss^ that rapid revulsions are productive of the most 
marked advantage. When the disease is of an acute character — 
as in the different phlegmasiic — revellents which are more pro- 
longed in their action, are — as a general rule — preferable. It is 
in the first class of affections, chiefly, that his lotions are extolled 
by Dr. Granville ; he urges the importance of the sudden vesica- 
tion effected by them in the treatment of many serious disorders; 
and affirms that they arrest " nervous and muscular pain 
almost immediately, provided it does not depend on structural 
disease."* There is perhaps no agent — he remarks — except 
boiling water, which can, in the space of between three and ten 
minutes, give rise to as ample a vesication. But, as powerful 
and effective a revulsion can be accomplished by the actual cautery 
in various forms, and especially in that of the moxa. This we 
say from observation; and it is a result to which just theory 
would lead us. The ammoniated lotions are, however, devoid of 

* Gninvillo. Op. cit., Amcr. cnlit. p, 30. 

' General TliorapeuticB. p. 341; and General Therapeutics and Materia Medica. 4 th 
ediu ii. '2l\. Phila-l 1-50. 
» LanttJl, Oct "-^7, li*3S. 



250 CONTBA-nLRITATIO. — AMMONIATED COUNTER-ntRITANTS. 

the painful mental impression, which the dread of actual fire occa- 
sions; although we doubt not that, in many of the cases above 
referred to, such mental impression may exert an important 
agency in the cure. 

Dr. Granville gives the following, not very classically arranged, 
list of diseases, which, in the course of nine years, have appeared 
to him to be benefited by his counter-irritants. 

DISEASES. 

A. PriDclpally nffeeting the Ncrroni Byitem. 

1. Acute neuralgia [ P^jJ^J^nt ] ^'^ <iouloareux. 



2. Spasm / including \ Sl Viiiis's Dance. 

3. Convulsions ^ ^^ Hysterics. 



4. Cramp. 

5. Brow-oi^ue, 

6. Tetanus or Lock-jaw. 

7. Highly acute toothach, 

8. Nervous licadach, 

B. Prineipally tffeetiig the Haielei and Tendinons Tiiinei. 

9. Rlieumatism. 

10. Lumbago, 

11. Swelled and highly painftd articulations, 

C. Prineipally affecting the Cirenlation. 

12. Headach from fulness of blood in the head. 

13. Congestions andjsuddin attacks of blood in the head. 

14. Sore-throat. 

^e. F 1 ' a C«« of the trachea and bronchia, ) fr«.,^:«« ♦*. 

15. Early t„ftam-\ j „f ^„ lungs and their membranes, \ , J*"^'"? '" 

"^""^ t c. of the heart and pericardium. ' S *=""'"""?""»• 

D. Diieaiei of a mixed character. 

./? c . .1— . C a. affecting the heart. 

16. Supfr»>cd gout I J ^^^,j„t ^^ ^^^^^^ 

17. Genuine pout. 

18. Parylitic debility. 

E. Aeeidental, Hcehanieal and Cntaneoni Derangement!. 

19. Violent sprains, 

20. Pimples. 

21. Biles. 

22. Ringtcorm. 

Dr. Granville does not affirm that all these disorders, and their 
modifications, have yielded to the ammoniated counter-irritants; 
or that the counter-irritants were always the sole agents employed. 
On the contrary, a few of them, he says, on particular occasions, 
resisted that agency; others were only momentarily benefited; 
and a few more required the simultaneous employment of ordi- 
nary internal remedies to assist in, and complete the cure. Among 
the exceptions to the general rule of success, he enumerates 



CONTaA-IRRlTATIO. — FIRING. 251 

chronic tic douloureux; chronic rheumatism of long standing; 
epilepsy dependent on organic mischief in the encephalon, or any 
I»rt of the spinal apparatus; and rheumatic gout, in persons whose 
constitutions had been completely shaken by that disorder, or by 
any other previous disease, although, even in this case, some good 
was obtained from using the ammoniated counter-irritants. The 
second and fourth of these disorders are of the number that 
require, in addition to the ammoniated applications, an appropriate 
iDtemal treatment. The other two Dr. Granville has found to 
be only partially relieved, but never cured, by counter-irritating 
lotions.^ 

In many of the disorders, referred to by Dr. Granville in the 
table given above, the ammoniated counter-irritants have been 
employed, both in public and private in this country. They have 
been largely used by the author, and their effect in nervous and 
spasmodic diseases^ in neuralgic and deep-seated rheumatic 
vains^ has, at times, been very striking. Severe pains have 
yielded rapidly, as described by Dr. Granville; hyperaemiae of 
particular organs have been diverted elsewhere, especially after 
blood-letting and sedatives had been premised; and, in short, 
whenever revellents, sudden and rapid in their action, have been 
demanded, ammoniated counter-irritants have effected every thing 
that similar powerful revellents were capable of accomplishing, — 
but no more. The author has been in the habit of having re- 
course to the moxa in congenerous affections, and with ecjually 
satisfactory results. There is one objection, too, that applies to 
the use of these strong lotions: — the sloughs and sores incjuced bv 
them are often considerable, and remarkably difHcult to heal. 
This, it is true, may be partly prevented, by being careful that 
the application is not too long continued ; but, with the greatest 
caution, these results will, at times, supervene. When such is the 
case, simple dressings, with emollient poultices, will be found the 
best applications. 

Not long ago, Dr. Corrigan,^ of Dublin, strongly recommended 
a mode of producing counter-irritation as an admirable remedy in 
lumbago and analogous affections in other parts of the body. It 
consists in a species of " firing " performed by an iron instrument 
which is very portable, and consists of a thick iron wire shank, 
about two inches long, inserted in a small wooden handle, having 
OD its extremity, which is slightly curved, a disc or button of 
iroo, a quarter of an inch thick, and half an inch in diameter, the 
whole instrument being only six inches in length. The face of 
the disc for application is quite flat. The only other portion of 
apparatus required is a small glass spirit lamp, so small that it can 
be carried in the waistcoat pocket. To use the instrument, the 

* Op. cit, p. 29. ' DubUn Uo^itai Gazette, March, 1846. 



252 COBTEX ADSTRINOENS BBASILIEN8I8. 

lamp roust be lighted, and the button held over the flame, keep- 
ing the forefinger of the hand holding the instrument at the dis- 
tance of about half an inch from the button. As soon as the 
finger feels uncomfortably hot, the instrument is ready for use, and 
the time required for heating it to this degree is only about a 
quarter of a minute. It is applied as quickly as possible, the skin 
being tapped successively at mtervals of half an inch over the 
affected part as lightly and as rapidly as possible; care being 
taken to bring the flat surface of the disc in contact ^ith the skin. 
In this way, the process of firing a whole limb, or the loins, 
making about one hundred applications, does not occupy a minute, 
and once heating the lamp suffices. The iron is never rendered 
red hot; it is very little hotter than boiling water, and an eschar 
is never made by it, and rarely a blister. The pain produced by 
its application is so slight, that, according to Dr. Corrigan, some 
of the resident clinical clerks in the hospital preferred it, in their 
own cases, when suffiering under local muscular rheumatism, 
to any other method of counter-irritation, — it being, in their 
opinion, the least troublesome, most rapid, least painful and most 
effectual. In sprains of the muscles of the back and other parts, 
and in sciatica, he has seen it render valuable service, as well 
as in neuralgia of the fifth pair, and in paralysis of the portio 
dura. Even delicate females, he says, will not object to its fre- 
quent repetition, when required. 

The method of Dr. Corrigan has been extensively tried by Dr. 
M'Cormack,^ who has reported very favourably in regard to its 
powers, and by others. 



LXVII. CORTEX ADSTRIN'GENS BRASILIEN'SIS. 

Stnonymes. Cortex adstringens Brasiliensis vcniS| Cortex adstringens 

varus, Astringent Bark of Brazil. 
German. Adstringirende Brasilianische Rinde. 

This bark was introduced into Germany, in the year 1818, by 
Schimmelbusch, a merchant, who carried it from Brazil, where 
it had long been used internally, as well as externally, as an ex- 
cellent astringent.^ According to Von Martius,^ it is the bark of 
Acacia jurema, but this is not certainly determined.* Oesterlen' 
assigns it to mimosa (acacia) cochliacarpa seu virgin alis. 
Merrem' affirms, that the genuine bark is in more or less flat 
pieces; at times, in half, or complete rolls, from four to twelve 

* Lancet, Jan. 5, 1847. 

■ Von SclilcctcnJal, in Encydop. W6rtcrl\ dcr Mc(1icin.Wi9sen9chatt B. viii S. 53i?. 
Bcriin, \f<22, ' Reisc, ii. 788. 

* Rieckc, Die neuem Aiznrimittcl, S. 146. 



» Handbuch der HeihnitteHohrc. S. 48 1. Tijbin^. 1845. 
* Ucber den Cortex adstringens Brasiliensis. Kdln, 1828. 



CORTEX ADSTBIN6ENS BRASILIEKSIS. 253 

inches long; from an inch to two inches and a half broad, and 
from one to four lines thick ; these are more frequently straight 
than crooked. The bark may be separated into two parts; an 
outer, which is rough, and an inner rind, of a smooth, fibrous cha- 
racter : the two are but loosely connected together. The outer 
bark is of a grayish-brown colour, traversed by longitudinal and 
transverse furrows, having, here and there, white and grayish- 
white crusty growths, covered with a foliated lichen. The mner 
bark is of a dark-red brown, on its outer surface, and, after the 
OQter bark has been separated, is somewhat smooth: on the inner 
side, it is of a bright reddish-brown, and, probably owing to the • 
laceration of the woody splinters, somewhat fibrous. The younger 
bark is smooth in the fracture, and of a dull splendour. The 
older bark, which is thicker, is unequal, and may often be sepa- 
rated into fibrous layers, which are readily lacerable. When 
chewed, it has a tolerably strong, astringent, somewhat bitter and 
disagreeable taste, but it does not excite nausea, nor leave any 
arriere-gouL It has scarcely any smell. In its chemical rela- 
tions, it resembles rhatany.^ 

Merrem, who made numerous experiments with the bark, af- 
firms, that, whilst it possesses the properties of astringents in 
general, and to a high degree, it is rather sedative than exciting ; 
agrees with the digestive organs, and aids the peristaltic action. 
He employed it, first, with more or less success, in hemorrhage — 
in epislaxiSf hemoptysis ^ and metrorrhagia; and Giinther* found 
it very eflicacious in profuse menstruation arising from atony of 
the uterus. Secondly ; in mucous discharges^ as leucorrhcea^ hlen- 
norrhaay &c. Thirdly; in inflammatory and exanthematous 
affections — as cynanche, urticaria^ and in periodical erysipelas of 
the face. Fourthly; in nervous di^ea^e^, especially when asso- 
ciated with disturbance of the menstrual function, and leucorrhcea : 
and, fifthly, in weakness and catarrhs of the genital organs, 
bladder and rectum. The Indians consider, that the bark affects 
especially the generative apparatus, and, from the experiments of 
Merrem, it would seem, that its agency is more particularly ex- 
erted in cases of leucorrhcea; and in many, after cinchona had 
been administered without effect.^ 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Merrem prescribed it in various forms. He gave the powder 
in doses of from 9j. to 3ss., three or four times a day, mixed with 
water. It appeared to him to act most beneficially in cases of 
mucous discharges unaccompanied by disorder of the digestive 

* See the analvris by Hofrath Trommsdorff. in BrantV?, Arrhiv., B. xxxiii. S. 2(30 : 
and Dierfoach, in'Heidellierg. Annalen, B. i. H. 3, IS. 3:>7. lleiJclh. 1834. 

* in Hariess Rein-WestphaL JaiirbQcb, B. viii, St 1, S. 72; and Brandcs, Archiv. 
Band, xL 8. 200. 

' Gaum, in £ncyc Worteiinich der Median. WiaKnach. Tiii. 541. 

17 



854 €X)BTLX78 B08TRATA. 

functions; and he found that the powder was better borne hy some 
than the decoction, which is singular, as the woodj^ matter is more 
apt, m such cases, to disagree. He rarely gave it combined with 
aromatics, and never found the combination of use. To form the 
DECOCTION, an ounce of the coarsdy powdered hark was boiled 
with sixteen ounces of watery down to f Xviij.; and to this an 
ounce of syrup was added. The dose was Kom one to two spoon- 
fuls every two hours. • Merrem also prepared an extract, and a 
TINCTURE, in 'the same manner as these preparations' are made of 
cinchona ; of the former, he took from one to two drams, dissolved 
it in six ounces of an aromatic water y and added ^ss. of syrup. 
Of the mixture, a spoonful was given every hour. 

Externally, the decoction was injected three times a day in 
leucorrhcsa and blennorrhcea; or, in the former disease, a sponge 
imbued with the decoction was mtroduced, and kept there for 
some time. It has been applied, also, as an astringent to ulcers. 

Hiitira eortieii Brtiilieiiis aditriageitii. 

Mixture of the astringent bark of Brazil. 

B. Decoct, cort. adstring. Brasil. f ^vij. 
Copaib. cnm vitelli ovi q. a. subact. 
Tinct. ferri pomati, aa f ^ij. 
Syrup, balsam, f §j. M. 

Dose. — A spoonful every two hours, in. obstinate gonorrhata 
and leucorrhoea. Merrem. 

B. Cort. adstring. Brasil, ^ss. 
Coque cnm a.qQn fontan. q. s. 
Sub fin. coction. adde 

Sabin. 5ss. 
Colatur® f 5viij. adde 

Syrup, aurant. cort. f ^j. 

Dose. — A spoonful every hour in cancer of the uterus^ and 
in the hemorrhage thence arising. Merrem. 



LXVIII. CORTLUS ROSTRATA. 

Stkonyme. Beaked Hazel. 

Beaked hazel is a shrub two or three feet high; Natural 
Order, Amentaceae; Suborder, Cupuliferse; Sexual System, 
MoncEcia Polyandria; which grows in the mountainous regions of 
North America. The nut which it produces is of an ovate shape, 
surrounded by a coriaceous and scaly involucre or cupula, termi- 
nating; in a tube an inch and a half long, covered with short and 
thick bristles, very similar to those of mucuna or cowhage.^ 

' Duhamcl, Amer. Joomal of Phannacy, Jan. 1843. 



CREASOTUM. 255 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

The short, stiff bristles have beeu found to possess similar an- 
thelmintic virtues with mucuna, and to be equal to it in all re- 
spects. Mr. Duhamel states, that Dr. Heubener, of Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, from whom he obtained the specimen described by 
him, had employed it in cases of wormSy and was much pleased 
with it. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

It may be given, like mucuna, m syrup, molasses or other con- 
astent vehicle, and in the same doses. 



LXIX. CREASOTUM. 

Stkontmks. Creasoton, Creosoton, Creosotum, Kreosoton, Kreosotum, 
Oxjhydro-carburetam ex oleo pyroxilioo paratum, Creosote, Creasote, 
Kreosote, Kreasote. 

Ertneh. Creosote. 

Gtrman, Kreosot. 

Thb substance was first discovered, several years ago, by Rei- 
chenbach, of Blansko, and is extensively employed as a therapeu- 
tical agent. Its marked chemical properties suggested, that it 
might be possessed of a decided influence on the economy, and 
numerous experiments were immediately instituted to test the ac- 
curacy of the notion. These were of the most opposite character; 
and it is not surprising, as m every similar case, that there should 
have been great discrepancy in the results, and in the opinions 
deduced therefrom. There can be no doubt, however, that crea- 
80te forms a valuable addition to the list of our remedial agents. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

The process given by Koene,* is esteemed one of the best for 
preparing it on a large scale, — almost the only way in which it 
IS formed: we, consequently, meet with it only in commerce. 
Hence it is in the Materia Medica list of the Pharmacopoeia of 
the United States (1842,) — not amongst the preparations. Tar, 
derived from pit-coal, is distilled in a retort provided with a long 
tube having a large mouth. Under this is placed a receiver. 
The oil, which comes over first, swims on water; and it is neces- 
sary to remove, from time to time, the products of the distillation, 
until an oil is obtained, which sinks in water. When this is the 
case, the product is collected. The heavy oil, obtained during the 
distillation, condenses not only in the receiver, but in the tube of 

J Annnlesiie Chimio ct de Physique, Juillct, 1S35. See Connack on Crpasotc, p, 38, 
LnniL 183C; or the Amer. edit, in American Medical Library; alfo. Turner's Cbemiitry, 
&lh edit p. 873, and ChriitiiOQ, Diapenaataiy, p. ^4, Edinb. 1642. 



256 CREASOTUM. 

the retort, where it unites with the naphthalin, fonning a buty- 
raceous substance. By applying a gentle heat, the mass drops 
into the receiver. The product is now allowed to remain in a cool 
place for some hours, after which it is pressed. The expressed 
naphthalin still contains oil, which is separated by heating it with 
its own weight of acetic acid, until it melts. AAer allowing it to 
cool, the crystallized naphtha is pressed, and the acid adhermg to 
the creasote is saturated with carbonate of potassa. The creasote 
is now to be shaken for a quarter of an hour with phosphoric acid, 
— the proportions being half an ounce of the acid to* twenty 
ounces of the oil. The mixture ought then to be agitated with 
its bulk of water, and afterwards be distilled with a graduated heat, 
care being taken to separate the oil which floats on the surface. 
The rectified oil is now to be dissolved in its own volume of a hot 
solution of caustic potassa, s. g. 1.120. When it has been allowed 
to cool for half an hour, the supernatant oil is removed, and the 
heavy oil again treated with caustic potassa, only a fourth part of 
the solution being, however, employed this time. On uniting the 
solutions of potassa, a slight excess of diluted phosphoric acid is 
added, and the free creasote, which floats on the surface, is sepa- 
rated. It is again rectified; and the first product, which is chiefly 
water, being rejected, the creasote comes over pure. M. Koene 
recommends the substance, thus prepared, to be preserved in bot- 
tles covered with black paper. 

A protracted and complex process, like the above, necessarily 
makes the drug expensive, especially as the quantity obtained is 
but small. M. Koene procured by it ten drams from thirty-two 
ounces of tar. M. L^m^re, one of the first Parisian pharmaciens 
who made pure creasote, obtained from eight hundred pounds of 
tar about six pounds of creasote. 

Reichenbach generally prepared it from the tar of the beech by 
six distillations; dissolving it afterwards in a solution of caustic po- 
tassa three times, and setting it free successively by sulphuric acid.* 

Giordano* has recommended the following simplified mode for 
obtaining it. Distil wood tar from the willow, at an elevated 
temperature, from a tinned copper retort, until the residue has the 
consistence of soft pitch. Re-distil the liquor passed over till its 
residue resembles the former. The liquor, neutralized by carbon^ 
ate of potassa^ or lime-watery is re-distilled till all the oil of crea- 
sote has passed over. The oil is dissolved in caustic potassa, from 

* For an nrrount of thw and other prodiicto of tlu» <l««tnicti\'e distillatian of vegelatk- 
matter, spc Connack. ()p.ciL RoichptiUich*** olisorvativjs ami cxpcrimrnt* arr containnj 
in a work cntilltHi *• Das KrrosoC in cbomiiwhpr, |)hy-i"'"her und niedicinisihrr H<>zn»- 
bona, von Dr. K. Reichenbach, u. a w. zwfiu* mil .Nachtnigen und Zu<ittzen fon 
Schwoiix^er-lSoiJi'I verm. Aiwgalc. Leipi. 1835 ;'* aee, also, Annales dc Chimie, liil 325. 
Paris. IH:W. 

« Annali di Medicina, Aprile, 1^.*^, cited in Brit, and For. Med. Rev. Julv. IR36. 
p. tid3. For the pioce« of Cakieriiu, «e Edinb. Med. and Suig. Jooro. for Oct lt34. 



CREASOTUM. 257 

which, after simmering a little in a porcelain vessel, and cooling, 
the eupione, which floats, is easily separated. The same opera- 
tion is repeated with the eupione, to remove all the oil that is 
united with it. The saponaceous liquor, treated with dilute sul* 
phuric acid^ is distilled into water, from which the creasote is 
separated, and the water saturated with creasote is kept for exter- 
ou use, or re-distilled for a concentrated acetic acid of a pungent 
and most agreeable odour. Gozzi^ has given the following sim- 
ple method of procedure: Distil tar into a cylindrical vessel, half 
fiill of water. Pour off the watery liquid at the top; add to the 
heavier liquid at the bottom sulphuric acid diluted with half its 
weight of water; heat the mixture till it boils; expose the super- 
natant creasote for three days to the air, stirring it frequently ; and 
distil the product thrice for thorough purification. 

Creasote is a colourless, transparent fluid. Its refractive power 
ig very great, and in angular glass vessels it is beautifully irides- 
cent. Its odour is penetrating, and disagreeable, but not offen- 
sive: many compare it to that of castor. It adheres to every thing, 
and is somewhat permanent. Its taste at first is very burning and 
caustic to the tongue; but on admixture with the saliva, it becomes 
somewhat sweetish. It has an oleaginous feel, and is of about the 
consistence of oil of almonds. Its specific gravity, at 68^ Fahr., 
is stated by Reichenbach to be 1.037; but Dr. Christison' afiSrms 
that he has never found it lower than 1.065, or higher than 1.067. 
The fact is, of course, of interest in relation to its adulterations. 
It boils at 397°, and at — 17° does not congeal. When placed on 
paper, it forms a greasy spot, which, however, disappears after a 
while, and can be removed by the application of a heated body 
without any residue. It is a non-conductor of electricity. With 
water at 68^, it unites in two different proportions — one of the 
combinations consisting of I J of creasote and 100 of water; the 
other of 10 parts of water and 100 parts of creasote. The taste 
of the first mixture — creasote water — is very burning at first, and 
afterwards sweetish, like that of pure creasote, but of course weak- 
er. A drop of creasote in 10,000 parts of water produces a 
marked impression on the tdtigue, and has a smoky smell. Lit- 
mus and turmeric paper are not in the least changed by it ; so that 
it has neither an acid nor an alkaline reaction. At both poles of 
the galvanic battery, it furnishes numerous and striking combina- 
tions. It does not possess the property of the ordinary empyreu- 
matic oils, of becoming yellow and inspissated. It dissolves 
iodine, phosphorus, and sulphur. Acetic acid at 1.070, and alco- 
hol, dissolve it in all proportions, and with the latter it is often adul- 
terated.^ Ether and petroleum likewise combine with it in all 

* Journal de Chimic M^dicalc, cited in American Journal of Pharmacy, Jan. 1R30, 
fk 330. • Diapenaatory, p. 374, Edinb. 1842. 

' Jouna] de Chim. Mdd.and Amor. Journal of Phannacyi July, 1841, p. WU, 



258 CBEASOTUM. 

proportions. With potassa, it forms two or three combinationSy 
one of which crystallizes. Resins and resinous bodies either de- 
compose creasote, or it decomposes them. With balsams, fixed 
and volatile oils, camphor, and the vegetable alkaloids, it unites 
readily. It coagulates albumen, and its antiseptic property is 
most remarkable, whence its name, from xpfa$, * flesh,' and o*^**, 
*I preserve' — owtjjp, * preserver.* Fresh meat, placed in creasote 
water for half an hour or an hour, and then taken out and dried, 
may be exposed to the heat of the sun without undergoing putre- 
faction. Nay, when flesh has begun to be putrid, the process 
ceases after it has been washed with creasote water, and if suffered 
to remain immersed in it for an hour, it does not subsequently pu- 
trefy. There can be but little doubt, consequently, tlmt creasote 
is the main antiseptic and conservative principle of pyroligneous 
acid and tar water. From the experiments made by Heichenbach 
to determine the exact components of the flesh on which the crea- 
sote acts, he arrived at the following results. It unites with the 
albumen of the blood in the flesh, which it coagulates, and with the 
red particles without acting on the fleshy fibre, which serves merely 
as the frame-work for the coagulated matters ; and it is well known 
that dried albumen does not putrefy, but becomes hard, brittle, and 
transparent. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN HEALTH. 

Reichenbach has properly remarked, that the excessive burn- 
ing pain in the tongue, which creasote causes, must have at once 
suggested it to be a poisonous substance. It was soon found that 
plants, sprinkled with creasote water, died ; that fish placed in it 
were convulsed ; and that small animals, as wasps and flies, died 
when touched with the pure article. If a small quantity of it be 
spread upon the hand, and washed off a minute afterwards, the 
place is found to present a white appearance, but without pain or 
inflammation. In the course of a few days, the place becomes, 
dry, and the cuticle desquamates. When creasote is applied to a 
part where the epidermis is deficient, or to a wound, instantane- 
ously an extremely violent burning pain is experienced, which 
continues for eight or ten minutes; but if the part be carefully 
washed, it gradually ceases. The cause of this is conceived to be 
the property which creasote possesses of coagulating albumen; and, 
where blood is flowing, of arresting it. If the rapid disturbance 
which it excites, affects important organs, death results sooner or 
later, accordin^c to their importance in the economy : relief, how- 
ever, may be afforded by those substances that dissolve coagulated 
albumen, as caustic alkalies, acetic acid, &c. It is probable, how- 
ever, that the poisonous properties result from its acrid character. 

To appreciate the physiological effects of creasote, experiments 
have been undertaken by many individuals. Miguet gave a 



C&EA80TUM. 259 

}'Oung dogy for eight days, an ounce a day of distilled water con- 
taining four drops of creasote, without any effect. When, how- 
ever, he doubled the dose, nausea, languor, subsultus tendinum, 
and tremors occurred, followed, in the course of a few days, by 
marked emaciation. On discontinuing the creasote, the functions 
gradually resumed their pristine condition, and the animal reco- 
vered its flesh. To anotlier dog, he gave at once two drams in 
half an ounce of water, and immediately thereafter great prostra- 
tion of the muscular system ensued — vertigo, fixed eyes, stupor, 
dyipoGBa, accumulation of mucus in the air passages, spasmodic 
cough, discharge of large quantities of foamy saliva, with vomit- 
ing of a milky matter, although the animal had taken nothing 
of the kind. After two hours' suffering, it died of convul- 
suns. The body was immediately opened : all the tissues, except 
the liver, exhaled a strong smell of creasote; and the whole of the 
mucous membrane of the mtestinal canal was inflamed. The mat- 
ters contained in the stomach coagulated when placed in contact 
with albumen. When heated, they yielded a thick smoke, and a 
marked smell of creasote. In the heart and large vessels, the 
bk)od was more firmly coagulated than usual: the lungs were gorged 
with blood ; in the brain there was no evidence either of congestion 
or hemorrhage. In another dog, into whose carotid equal portions 
of water and creasote were injected, death resulted with similar 
phenomena, but more rapidly. The precise quantity of creasote 
used in this experiment is not stated. 

Simon, in his experiments, found that when ten drops of crea- 
sote, diluted, were injected into a vein, scarcely any effect resulted. 
Reiter and Miiller, who likewise made experiments on animals, 
agree with Simon as to the result of injections of creasote into 
the veins; no special symptoms were induced by it, but this ap- 
peared to be owing to the blood being instantaneously coagulated 
by it, which not only prevented the farther progress of the crea- 
sote, but also of the blood ; hence, no evil consequences resulted ; 
and, it is probable, as Riecke has suggested,^ that the weaker the 
solution of creasote, within certain limits, the greater may be its 
effect on the mass of blood. 

Comeliani,^ an Italian physidan, has also instituted a series of 
experiments with creasote on lambs, rabbits, &c. All these ani- 
mals bore small doses of creasote — however unwillingly it might 
be taken — without any remarkable results, and without loss of 
appetite. Large doses, however, imnoediately occasioned general 
torpor, sudden inclination to pass the urine, paralysis — especially 
of the lower extremities — with or without convulsions, and fre- 
quently the ejection of a bloody foam. When the doses were 

' Die neuern Arzncimittel, u. s. w. 8. 153. 

* Giomale deUe Sdenze Medico-Chinirgiche, No. 8, Febnjo, 1635; cited in Brit, and 
For. Mfld. B«fiew, p. 365, Jan. 1836. 



260 CEEA80TUM. 

large, and it was bat little diluted, death took place in a few 
minutes, and on examination, the inner lining of the stomach was 
generally found corroded, yet not so constantly as to allow of 
death being ascribed to that circumstance. It followed, farther, 
from his experiments, that pure creasote applied to a denuded 
nerve, or injected only in small quantities into a vein, may occa- 
sion death suddenly ; and that the application of the creasote to 
extensive wounded surfaces in the same animals may be ultimately 
followed by fatal consequences. Where a very large dose of crea- 
sote was administered, immediate death was produced without 
organic lesion. 

in the trials made with it by Dr. Elliotson^ he found no action 
produced upon the bowels; but it sometimes augmented the 
(quantity of urine. He once saw it, in the dose of a minim three 
times a day, cause micturition nine times in an hour. In another 
case, in doses of three minims, it produced severe stran^ry. 

According to Simon, when applied to the muscles, it destroys 
the surface Tike caustic. Miiller and Reiter, in their experiments, 
found, that it speedily rendered the muscular fibres of a dirty- 
whitish appearance, and readily lacerable. When applied to the 
fresh blood of the hog, it converted the colour in an instant to an 
ashy-gray ; after which it became black and quickly coagulated. 
Mixed either pure or diluted with blood, it thickens it; the siix- 
ture assumes a brown-red colour, and is found studded with small 
white points, which are nothing more than coagulated albumen. 
On exposing the coagulum to the air, it assumes a yellowish-re<l 
colour. Reich, on the other hand, who appears to have made many 
experiments with creasote, both in internal and external diseases, 
affirms, that be has never observed any caustic effect from it: 
from which assertion, as Riecke has remarked,^ the only inference 
to be deduced is, that he must always have applied it largely diluted. 
Fremanger likewise asserts, that when pure creasote is applied 
to the epidermis, it does not destroy it; but merely occasions 
more or less redness of the skin. When applied to a suppu- 
rating surface, it caused, instantaneously, the formation of a white 
pellicle, owing to its coagulating the albumen contained in the 
secretions from the wound. Adventitious tissues, with which it 
is brought in contact, are destroyed by it. When placed between 
the lips of a wound, it prevents healing by the first intention, by 
coagulating the albumen; and, consequently, it may be employed 
in all cases where it is desirable to prevent the growing together 
of parts. Fremanger is, indeed, disposed to refer all its efficacy 
to the action which it exerts on albumen. 

Its long continued use often occasions an inflammatory condi- 
tion which, as Dr. J. L. Da Luz^ observes, has nothing in com- 

» Medico-Chirurg. Tran»c. vol xix. Lond. 1835. ■ Op. cit S. 154. 

' Joumtl (]« Sociedade das Sciencaa Mcdicasde Lisboa, torn. v. Lkboa, 1^*37; re- 
Tiewctl in Zeitschrift fur die gesommte Mcdicin. Oct 1838, S. 224. 



CREASOTUM. 261 

moD with the disease for the cure of which it may have been 
prescribed. In a case of porrigo favosa, treated with it by the 
aothor, febrile irritation supervened, and the head was covered 
by an artificial eruption, which induced, however, a new action 
in the system of nutrition of the -scalp, and, after its subsidence, 
the porrigo was cured. 

Dr. Cormack, of Edinburgh, instituted various experiments on 
the lower animals to test its physiological effects.^ In three 
experiments, about twenty-five drops of pure creasote were in- 
jected into the venous system of dogs. All the animals died. 
10 every case of poisoning by it, which he has observed, Dr. Cor- 
mack found the following to be the symptoms. — Its first delete- 
rious action was a powerful one of sedation on the heart ; the 
Tital energies of that organ seeming to be instantaneously para- 
lyzed. In some instances, hurried and sonorous respiration went 
on for more than a minute after the heart had ceased to beat. In 
general, one or two convulsions, resembling the tetanic, preceded 
death; and, almost invariably before expiring, the animal uttered 
one or more shrill cries. In every instance the atony of the heart 
immediately after death was very striking. 

From other experiments it appears, that when it is injected 
into the arteries the deleterious efifects are of a much milder cha- 
Tacter, and if the dose be not large, the animal may experience 
bat little inconvenience, — a circumstance which proves the im- 
portance of a thorough admixture with the blood before the poi- 
sonous article reaches the heart; such admixture not taking place 
to the necessary extent, when the poison is injected into the veins, 
but being readily effected when injected into the arteries, and con- 
aeouently distributed through the system of nutrition. 

When taken for any length of time, the urine acquires a black- 
ish hue, and in some cases creasote may be recognised in it.^ 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

• 

Creasote has been administered in various diseases; the follow- 
ing may be esteemed a summary of the chief therapeutical expe- 
riments made with it. 

Hemorrhage. — The discovery of creasote happened at a time 
when the Acqua Binelli enjoyed more confidence as a styptic 
than it does now ; and the fancied probability, that the nostrum 
was indebted to creasote for its properties, gave rise to many ex- 
periments with the latter in cases of hemorrhage. One of the first, 
who instituted experiments with it on rabbits, was G. Simon. Not 
being able to obtain any striking results from the Acqua Binelli, 
he tried creasote, pure, as well as in the form of creasote water, 
and of an emulsion prepared with gum Arabic; and from the results 

' Op. dt p. G6. s Madeod, in Med. Gaz. xtl 599, and xvii 653. 



262 CSCASOTUM. 

of these be was led to affirm, that altbough creasote occasioned 
the coagulation of the albumen of the blood, it acted no better as 
a styptic than cold water. With the Acqua Binelli be was not 
able to coagulate albumen. The rapid separation of the albumen 
in the form of a reddish-gray coagulum under the influence of 
creasote, he found to«be of no advantage, as the mass remained soft 
and pulpy ; and the wound in the vessel would not close, but was 
immediately opened by the stream of blood. Neither did he 
esteem it adapted for arresting trifling hemorrhages; for, when very 
much diluted, it was still too exciting to the injured parts, and 
greatly delayed their union. This, indeed, might, he thinks, be 
expected from the fact, that pure creasote, when placed on the skin 
for ten or twenty minutes, induces superficial inflammation. The 
experiments of other physicians have been decidedly more favour- 
able. Miiller and Reiter,^ for example, in theirs, found that 
creasote was far more efficacious than the Acqua Binelli; for, when 
the latter was prescribed, it was always necessary to have recourse 
to other agents, before the hemorrhage was arrested. In •their 
experiments on dogs, they found the hemorrhage from a divided 
crural vein quickly cease, when a compress of cotton wetted with 
creasote was placed on th^ vessel with a moderate degree of 
pressure. Three days afterwards, the crural artery vras exposed 
on the same dog, and divided ; but it was afterwards necessary to 
tie it, as the creasote, in consequence of the excessive hemorrhage, 
could not be brought into immediate contact with the vessel, but 
merely acted on the superficial layer of blood, and therefore did 
not arrest the hemorrhage. The crural artery of a young and 
tolerably strong dog was cut a short distance above its division, 
compression being at the same time exerted upon the trunk. The 
artery did not bleed. Nine minutes afterwards, a compress of 
cotton soaked in creasote was applied immediately to the divided 
extremity of the artery, with some degree of pressure. When 
the compress was removed, the bleeding was entirely arrested, 
and the wounded surface was dry, and had an ashy-gray hue. In 
an old dog, hemorrhage from a divided crural artery was arrested 
by the same means, but not so speedily. When the artery was 
examined, it was found to be wholly closed, having a navel-like 
depression at the extremity, which disappeared when the vessel 
was pressed upon, and ultimately became conical. Within the 
vessel there was a conical coagulum, which could be readily de- 
tached ; and for the space of a line, the artery appeared inflamed 
through its coats. In arteries that had been divided for a longer 
time, the union was likewise complete; but there was this differ- 
ence, that the inflammation at the end of the vessel had disappeared, 

' Bchini(]t*8 Jahrbuch. cited in Encydomphie des Sciences M^icalos, Man, 1837. 
See, also, Burdach, , Medicin. Zeitung. Jahrgang, 1840| No. 31, cited in Lond. and 
EdinL Monthly Journal of Med. Sodoo^ May, 1642. 



C&EA80TUM. 263 

and a pointed fibrous caruncle was observed in the vessel, vrhich 
was doubtless the fibrinous portion of the previous coagulum. 

From their experiments, Miiller and Reiter were led to con- 
firm the haemastatic properties of creasote, both when the hemor- 
rhage occurs from veins and from arteries. The arteries divided 
were of considerable size, larger than the radial artery of an adult 
male. They consider pressure indispensable to occasion the crea- 
sote to act immediately on the artery ; and the arrest of the hemor- 
rhage, they ascribe, not alone to the coagulation of the blood, but 
to the contraction of the arteries. In parenchymatous hemor- 
rha^, creasote water was generally sufficient; as well as in tole- 
rably extensive wounds of the surface. Horin^, also, obtained 
ntisfactory results from his experiments on animals. He ex- 
posed, on an old cat, the crural artery and vein of the right side ; 
made a small incision into the latter, and pressed upon it to stop 
the copious flow which ensued : he then applied over the wound, 
for two mbutes, a small compress of lint, wetted with a solution 
of creasote — two drops to one hundred of water — and the bleeding 
ceased. The artery was now opened, and a similar compress 
placed upon it with the same result. Two days afterwards, a se- 
cond experiment was made of the same kind, except that, owing to 
the struggles of the animal, a larger opening was made into the 
crural artery. In this case, it was necessary to apply the com- 
press for four minutes before the hemorrhage ceased. In another 
oat, a large transverse incision was made into the inner surface of 
the right thigh, above the middle, by which muscles, arteries, 
vdns, and nerves were divided. Two large compresses of lint, 
wetted with a solution of creasote, were then pressed on the parts 
for five minutes, and the bleeding entirely ceased. The like re- . 
suit was obtained in the case of an old horse, whose jugular vein 
was opened. But the creasote solution did not succeed m wholly 
arresting the hemorrhage in the same horse, when an opening 
was made into the crural vein and artery. 

To these experiments on animals may be added some that were 
instituted on the human subject, which testify, more or less, to 
the efficacy of creasote as a haemastatic. Hahn applied it in 
some insignificant cases, but saw no better effect from it than from 
oold water. Most found it speedily arrest slight hemorrhage from 
small vessels. Horing applied it successfully in cases of epistazisy 
which had obstinately resisted»other agents, — two plugs of lint, 
dipped in a solution of creasote, being inserted in the nostrils, after 
which the hemorrhage soon ceased. Fichtdauer employed it 
with equally advantageous results in violent bleeding from leech 
hiiesy after several haemastatics had been used in vain ; and Hey- 
felder extols it for arresting hemorrhage from large wounded sur* 
faces. Berthelot differs with Fr6manger and Simon, who affirm 
that union by the first intention is prevented by it. The results 



264 CREASOTUM. 

of his observation were opposite. Miguet applied it snccem* 
fully as a hsemastatic in fresh wounds on man and animals. 
Both pure creasote and a solution of it were, however, unsuoce8»- 
fully used by Bardili in hemorrhage from the arteria tibialis po^' 
tica, which he ascribed to the blood having lost its albumen, owing 
to the excessive discharge. Reich and Hauff found injections 
with creasote water useful in hamorrhagia uteri. Schneider htd 
a case of hemorrhage that had continued for seven hours in a man 
eighty years old, which proceeded from the gums of the upper 
jaw; the blood oozing as from the pores of a sponge. He dir^ted 
the roan to take as much creasote water into his mouth as he was 
able ; and after three repetitions the hemorrhage ceased, and did 
not recur. Kohler^ endeavoured to test the haemastatic operation 
upon himself. He made an incision in his forearm an inch long, 
and three or four lines deep, to which he applied creasote water. 
A lancinating pain was felt in the wound, but no other sensible 
effect. A drop of pure creasote was now let fall between the lips 
of the wound: this was followed by a sensation of burning and 
drawing; for a moment coagulated flakes of a whitish*gray coloar 
covered the wound, and there was a temporary cessation to the 
flow: it soon, however, recurred. After a time, the hemorrhage 
ceased ; but not sooner— Kohler thinks — ^than if cold water had 
been applied. The feeling of burning and drawing continoedy 
however, for some time ; the edges of the wound were somewhat 
swollen, and (Edematous, and, in about four hours, were cohered 
with a yellowish-brown lymph ; but there seemed to be no delay 
in the cicatrization. 

In a case of lithotomy^ it was found impossible to arrest the 
hemorrhage by any of the usual means, and no particular vessel 
could be discovered from which the blood flowed. The patient 
was at last reduced to the lowest ebb, from the continued loss 
of blood, and had already lost consciousness, when a sponge, 
dipped in pure creasote, was introduced into the wound, and 
pressed against the bleeding parts for an instant or two. The 
hemorrhatje was immediately arrested. No particular pain vras 
experienced ; no unpleasant symptoms occurred ; thin eschars 
were thrown olf, and the patient recovered.* J. L. da Luz* 
found it an excellent styptic in capillary hemorrhage; but in Ae- 
morrhasce from great ves€els it tlid not prevent a recurrence of 
the bleeiiing. In hamoptysisy it^ internal use has been found 
beneficial. Santini^ prescribed it in a desperate case with com- 
plete success, and with Schmalz it wa*5 equally effective; on the 
other hand, it was of little avail in Guitti's hands. In hamor 

' Noue Wic»nn«rhaftlich. Ann^!cn. u. n. xr. B. i. H. 3. S. "385. Berlin. 1><35. 
- Davr, Etlijili. MoJiul aii.l S.in;ical Joam.V, 0^*t. \M\. ' Opucil. 

* Gszett^ Terifieutica di Vorona, Mats, IS34; citeJ in American JoumaLof the 
Mediod Sciences, Feb. 1830, p, 50.!. 



CBEASOTUM. 265 

temesisy it succeeded with Dr. Isaac Parrish of Philadelphia.^ 
after the remedies generally employed in such cases had failed 
to produce any effect. Dr. Wm. T. Wragg,^ employed it inter- 
nally with advantage in a variety of hemorrhages — as flooding 
after abortion; flooding where there was no pregnancy: kemar^ 
fhage from the stomach and bowels; hemorrhage from the 
bladdery and hemoptysis; and the result of his observations in- 
duces him to conclude, that, on the whole, they '^entitle the remedy 
to a place amongst the means upon which reliance may be placeci 
in the treatment of a class of diseases, in the management of 
whicli we are oflen embarrassed." He extols it also as a h^- 
mastatic in traumatic hemorrhage; and a case is given by Drs. 
J. L. Lawrence Smith and S. D. Sinkler,^ in which a mixture of 
creasote, " a watery emulsion of creasote," (the formula for which is 
given hereafter,) with proper pressure by means of a dossil of lint, 
arrested the hemorrhage produced by an oblique slit in the carotid 
of a sheep. They express their belief, however, that when the 
emalsioD of creasote is applied to the divided artery of the sheep, 
it depends greatly, if not altogether, upon the manner in which 
the lint is applied to the wound in the artery, whether the hemor- 
rhage is arrested or not. If it be placed immediately on the 
orifice of the cut vessel, success is certain; "if, however, the 
vessel shrink from contact with the lint, the animal is almost 
certain to bleed to death." 

Its effects as a haemastatic suggested it fo Dr. E.W. Faulcon,^ 
of North Carolina, as a remedv in a case o{ mercurial salivation^ 
in the form of gargle made by half a dram of creasote to a pint of 
sage tea, which was used every hour during the first day. The 
enects were excellent. 

Burns, — Most used creasote with decided relief in burns of 
the second and third degree, applied by means of rags wetted 
with creasote water. Berthelot also cured two cases quickly with 
it; the slightly burnt places becoming desiccated ; the more severe 
healing by the formation of a crust. Guitti applied both creasote 
water and creasote ointment with advantage in burns which had 
proceeded to profuse suppuration; and Dr. Sutro"* strongly recom- 
mends an ointment of creasote, the formula for which is given 
hereafter; and advises it to be kept ready prepared under the name 
of * burn ointment.' 

In profuse suppuration^ it has been advised, on the authority 
of Levrat and Berthelot; but, according to J. L. da Luz,* it has no 
marked influence on the secretion of pus, and is therefore useless 
in suppurating abscesses. In otorrhata it has been especially 
beneficial . 

' Merlical Examiner. Aug. 10, l«i3f>. p. 501. 

•South'»m JournJil of Metlirine and Pharmacy, March, 1R4C, p. 128. 

• IbkU JuH-, 1840, p. 403. • Medical Examiner, Nov. 1848, p. G5C. 

* Medical Times, Jan. 4, 1815, p. 314. • Op. cit 



266 CREASOTUM. 

Lesions of the integuments, — According to Reichenbach» 
creasote is of esseotial service in the intertrigo of children, at 
well as in excoriations induced by lying — bed sores. In tbe 
l&tter case, Guitti used it with success. Hahn also frequently 
employed it. In cases where ulceration had not taken place, m 
washed the parts several times a day with creasote water, and W9S 
of opinion that he had prevented, in some cases, the occurrence of 
ulceration. Where ulceration had already taken place, he covered 
the parts with linen rags, folded two or three times, which he 
soaked in creasote water, and fixed them on by means of adhesive 
straps. The superficial ulcers soon healed ; and the deeper "were 
transformed into hollow surfaces, secreting a homogeneous seroue 
fluid, but no pus. 

Hiiring employed creasote water with advantage in sore nip» 
pies; and creasote ointment has been recommended by Dr. Fift,^ 
in sprains and contusions. 

In chilblains^ whether ulcerated or not, Hahn* used creasote 
washes successfully; — the affection yielding in a few days; and 
Dr. Hemdon^ regards creasote ointment as the best remedy io 
that affection with which he is acquainted. M. Dever^e also ex- 
tols an ointment of creasote, subacetate of lead and opium in the 
proportions given hereafter. 

ulcers. — Fissures of the skin and superficial ulcers y accord- 
ing to Hahn, were changed, under the application of creasote wa- 
ter, into a blackish-brown scab, which adhered for a long time, 
and, when it fell off, left the parts healed, or, by occasioning too 
much shrinking, gave rise to fresh inflammation and suppuration. 
' Deeper ulcers were affected in the same manner as those caused 
by long lying. Its eflicacy in atonic and varicose ulcersy especial* 
ly of the leg, nas been attested by Levrat, Berthelot, Rossi, Hechen- 
berger, and others; but Guitti, Heyfelder, and Schmalz were less 
satisfied with it. A case of indolent ulcer between the knee and 
ankle, accompanied with a good deal of inflammation, was cured by 
Dr. Crary, in five- weeks, by the application of a solution of creasote 
(ten drops to the ounce of water,) with methodical compression 
of the limb, by means of a bandage.^ Bresciani de Borsa' consi- 
ders it a 'sovereign remedy' for indolent and obstinate ulcere. 
He applies it in the form of a lotion, consisting of six drops of 
creasote to four ounces of water, gradually increasing the strength 
to 10 or 20 drops. Meister found the application of creasote wa- 
ter, in cases of carious ^ scrofulous^ syphilitic^ fistulous^ and 
sanious ulcers, to be strikingly and almost uniformly advanta- 

* Jjoml Med. Gax., April 7. 183"^, p. 04). * Gazette MoJicale de Paris, Dec 1834. 
" Ainerican Med. fntelligenocr, March 1.'). IS3S, p. 425. 

« Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. Juiv 3, \S'<M\ n 332. 

* Goaettcdea Hopitaux, Sept 19, lcJ4G; intUnking^s Half-yearly Abstract, Jaouair 
to July, 1847, p. 199. 



CREASOTUM. 267 

geoos. Heyfelder, likewise, found it extraordinarily useful in 
icro/ulaus ulcerSy and Dr. Cormack^ states, that he had an op- 
portunity of seeing a case of the kind treated by Dr. Shortt, in 
the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, where an extensive scrofu- 
hus ulcer of the hip^ after resisting a variety of treatment, at 
last yielded to creasote, and was ultimately completely cicatrized. 
Od the other hand, Otto tried both pure creasote and the watery 
solution in ulcers of various kinds, especially the scrofulous : the 
sloers very generally put on, in the course of twenty-four hours, 
a cleaner appearance ; still they did not cicatrize ; on which ac- 
miDt Otto prefers, in old ulcerations at least, the use of a solution 
of chlorinated lime; for notwithstanding creasote diminished and 
improved the character of the suppuration from scrofulous ulcers, 
and rendered them cleaner, it did not ameliorate the general con- 
dition ; — after the diminution of the suppuration, local pains, loss 
<rf sleep, and slight febrile movements generally supervening. On 
these accounts. Otto does not think creasote applicable to scrofu- 
\om ulcers in general. 

Many observers depose to the good effects of creasote in scro^ 
/ulaus caries. Among these may be mentioned Hahn, Coster, 
Ritgen, Fr^manger and Hauff. In fistulous u/cer^— also of syphi- 
litic origin — several physicians have employed it beneficially. 
Dr. Fife,^ of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, found it useful not merely m 
obstinate but in malignant ulcers. In no case of ulceration, he 
affirms, in which he tried it, did it disappoint his expectations. 
lo a sloughing carbuncle, the alcoholic solution, (^thirt]r drops to 
the ounce,) mixed with carrot poultices, was applied with advan- 
tage by Dr. llerndon,^ of Culpeper C. H., Virginia. In scurvy and 
b scorbutic ulcers, M. Coen^ found its use followed by excellent 
results, and he refers to cases in which it has been administered 
iDtemally with v^ry great advantage. J. L. da Luz' considers it 
ID excellent cleansing remedy in atonic ulcers, but its prolonged 
use, he thinks, retards cicatrization. In hospital gangrene, he 
esteems it the best antiseptic, and the most powerful means for 
checking its terrific progress. In gangrenous or sloughing ulcers^ 
Hahn used it. Several times a day he pencilled the slough with 
pare creasote, and, in the intervals, fomented it with creasote 
water. According to Reichenbach, two oj^ensive affections of 
the labia pudendi — the consequences .of infiltration of blood — 
were cured by it ; and Reich and Sir Francis Smith^ treated with 
success cases of cancrum oris ; and the former, one of scorbutic 
ulceration of the gums. In herpetic ulcers, Huring and Ber- 

* Op. cit. 11. 106. • Lond. Med. Gaz., April 7, 1838, p. 65. 

* Ainer. Med. Intelligencer, March 15, 18:W, p. 425. 
^Giornalo fier servire, &c., di Venczia, 183(). 

*Jornal da Bociedadc daa ScicDcas de Lisboa, T. v. LuIkki, 1837; noticed in Zcit- 
vhiiA for die gesammte Medicin. Oct 18:^ S. 224. 

* DubUn Journal of Med. Science, for May, 1637. 



268 C&EASOTUM. 

tbelot observed favourable effects from creasote water; and it has 
been found especially useful in carcinomatous and syphilitic 
ulcers^ in v^hich it has been often employed. In cancer of the 
uterusy Wolff injected it, in two cases, into the vagina. In one, 
the pain was so great, that, on the ninth day, after six pints 
of creasote water had been used, it was obliged to be discon- 
tinued. In the other case, the treatment was continued twenty- 
six days, and sixteen pints were used: in it, also, the pain was 
sensibly aggravated. The secretion was not improve^ in either 
case, nor was hemorrhage prevented by it; for one of the patients 
died immediately after an attack of this kbd : the other lingered a 
long time. Heyfelder found injections of creasote water, in con- 
junction with the extractum caJenduls, of no use in cancer uteri. 
On the other hand, in a case of superficial ulceration of the os uteri, 
with copious discharge of a puriform mucus, which had been 
treated unsuccessfully by other agents, for several months, Hahn 
found an injection of creasote water effectual in fourteen days. 
T6alier^ has likewise reported a case of superficial ulcerations 
around the os uteriy to which nitrate of silver had been applied at 
least twenty times without inducing a cure. By touching the ulcers 
with lint fixed upon the end of a probe, and dipped in a mixture 
of one part of creasote and three parts of water, excessive pain was 
induced ; but this gradually passed away, and in six days the signs 
of ulceration had disappeared. It is more than doubtful, however, 
whether either of the last two cases was carcinomatous. In a case 
of cancer of the breasty a solution of creasote was applied by the 
same gentleman. This excited, instantaneously, violent pain, but 
after a time the pain ceased, and relief was obtained. Rossi saw a 
cancerous ulcer of the face healed by creasote ointment, but it 
soon broke out again. The same gentleman cured a fungous 
tumour on the alveolar margin of the right os maxillare — which 
bad occasioned the loss of all the teeth of that side except one, and 
which even the actual cautery had not prevented from returning 
— by a collutory of six drops of creasote in six ounces of water. 
Heyfelder saw creasote used without effect in a case of cancer of 
the skhi, and Cormack* in one of lupus of the nose, Guitti 
cured an ulcery in appearance cancerousy by the application of 
pure creasote, for which, at a later period, the solution was sub- 
stituted, and Marchal has published a case of cancer of the lip. 
the cure of which he believes he accomplished by means of 
creasote.^ Garbiglietti cured a fungous ulcer with caries of 
the fibula by creasote, but it is questionable whether the ulcer 
was carcinomatous; and Meisint^er saw cancer of the face im- 
proved by the use of creasote ointment. It has been before re- 

* Revue M6tlirale, Fevrier, 1834. For similar ca!«8, see Fricee, in Berlin- Medirin- 
Zeilung, Nro. la, 1837. • Op. cit p. 1 15. 

* Gazette Medicale de Paris, Fev. 1835. 



C&EAflOTUM. 269 

marked, that Meisinger used creasote vritb advantage in syphi" 
liiic ulcers, Hahn also applied creasote water in primary syphi- 
liiie sorts; the small, superficial ulcers healed soon; the larger and 
deeper remained stationary. In a phagedenic ulcerated bubOy the 
spreading was arrested, but this was all. According to Heyfel- 
der, creasote — probably pure — excited, in a case of primary 
syphilitic ulcer^ in a plethoric individual, violent inflammation, 
and so much sensibility, that it was obliged to be discx)ntinued. 
Bertbelot cured a chancre^ which had resisted caustics and other 
cicatrizing agencies, in a few days, by creasote water. Rehfeld, 
abo, treated secondary syphilitic ulcers successfully with it, giving 
however, at the same time, the corrosive chloride of mercury 
inwardly. Chronic venereal ulcers have in some cases yielded 
Co it, aAer they had resisted every other kind of treatment.' iDr. 
Burkner, of Breslau,' reports a case, which, after having proved 
rebellious to every kind of general and local management that 
could be devised, at length yielded to the application of pure crea- 
sote by means of a camel's hair brush. The character of the se- 
creted pus immediately improved ; the wound began to heal by 
E'anulations from the base ; and, at the end of four weeks. Dr. 
iirkner found his patient quite well. In condylomata, it has 
been equally successful. By the application of creasote water, 
Haho found them contract and disappear; but the more obstinate 
required to be pencilled with pure creasote. Heyfeldcr, Reich,^ 
Fiicke, and Coen,^ also found creasote efficacious in these cases. 
The last gentleman but one had the most frequent opportunities 
for observation ; by him creasote, in a dilute state, was applied to 
the top of the condylomata by means of a pencil. In cases of small 
condylomata, touching them once or twice was sufficient for their 
removal; of larger, it had to be more frequently repeated. In some 
obstinate cases, it required two or three weeks before they disap- 
peared; but when once they fell off*, they did not return. 

Gonorrhoea and Leucorrhasa, — Most extols creasote water as 
a remedy in gleet. He applies it either in the way of injection, 
or by small tents wetted with it and introduced into the urethra. 
In leueorrhoea, he strongly recommends both its internal and 
external use. Reich injected creasote water in a case of gouor* 
rhoea, and in one of malignant leucorrhcea ; yet its agency in 
these cases was doubtful, as copaiba was given at the same time. 
Hahn' also used injections of creasote water in the second stage 
of gonorrhoea and in gleet; but he did not think that the dis- 
charge ceased sooner under its agency than under the ordinary 

I Connack, Op. citat. p. 107; and in Txmd. and Edinb. Monthly Joum. of Med. 
Sfirace, Oct. 1H42. See, also, Kunrhel, in Bulletin 06ner. de Therapeutique. p. 313. 
Parim \nX\. » Ca«per*8 Wwhenwhrifl Sepr. 9. 1837, S. 5e3. 

* Hufeland*8 Journal, Jan. 1834. and Revue Modicale, Mai, 1834. 

* Giomale per 8enrire, &c. di Venezia, An. 183G. 
> Guette Mddicale de Taria, Dec. 1834. 

18 



370 CmSABOTITlf. 

means; whilst, ia some cases, the iDflannnation was even aug^* 
mented. In two cases of benign fluor alhus^ after maoy other 
remedies had been employed in vain, Schmalz saw good effects 
from the use of a solution of creasote; but, in a third case it 
afforded no relief. Dr. Elliotson^ gave it intemaU? to a female 
labouring under gonorrhota^ — at first, in the dose of two minims, 
to an ounce of water, and, afterwards, in the dose of four, six, and 
even eight minims, but no good resulted from it. Dr. R. H. AU- 
natt' has used creasote injections va gonorrhoea and in leueorrhota 
with very satisfactory results. He proposes the remedy also for 
cases of gleet occurring in flabby leucopblegmatic males. The 
formula for an injection used by him is given hereafter. 

The author has administered it not unfrequently in leueorrhma 
and other mucous discharges^ and, when persevered in, it has at 
times appeared to be of decided service.^ Dr. Robert Dick,^ of 
Glasgow, has called the attention of the profession to its use in 
the chronic stage of gonorrhoea^ and in gleet. He thinks its 
beneficial effects are more obvious than those of copaiba. He 
administered it in doses of two drops with loaf sugar beaten into 
a syrup with water; and M. Em. Rousseau* has used it success- 
fully in the acute stage of gonorrhoea in the proportion of 
gr. xvss. of creosote to half an ounce of water. The dose of this 
was three or four drops, from four to six times a day, in a wise- 

Slassful of sugared water; injecting, five or six times a day, three 
rops in a glassful of decoction of marshmallow. 
Cutaneous affections, — Dr. Fahnestock," of Pittsburgh, uses 
creasote in erysipelas, as a local remedy, and so successfully, that, 
in a practice of many years, he has not seen a case that did not 
yield to it. In every case of heal erysipelas of the face or els^ 
where, he applies pure creasote, with a camel's hair brush, over 
the whole of the affected surface, and to some distance beyond 
the seat of inflammation; and, at the same time, prescribes calomel, 
followed by jalap in sufficient quantity to induce free catharsis. 
In the majority of cases, this is all that is needed. In the phlegm 
monous form, it is necessary to repeat the application more fre- 
quently than in the simple, with the addition of a bread and water 
cataplasm, applied nearly cold, and well sprinkled with water 
stronsjly impregnated with creasote; or a cloth may be kept con- 
stantly wet with the solution, especially when the face is the seat 
of the affection. The creasote should cause the parts to become 
white immediately: and it is worthy of observation, that the skin 

' Lan-YU (ivr Dec., is:i\ p. 435. ' Lomlon T.ancrt, Dec. 31, 1RI2, p.r>04. 

' Sop, jiltm. <'wn. in (Jiornale per Scnire, Ar.. di ViMirzia, 1^3^; and Dr. Wm-T. 
Wml'I?. J^'-ulliom Journal of Motlirinc ami Phaminr\-, Mun-h, 1840, p. 1*2^. 

* Kilinb. Ml**!, r.iid Suri;. Journal, April, 183S, p.<)()2. 

• l/AU>ilk- M«''dicali», Avril. I?^47. p. DC. 

' American Journal of the Medical Sciencei^ July, 1846, p, 152. 



CEEASOTUM. 271 

does not remain in the least marked by the application, no matter 
iiow often it is applied. Reich treated a case of crusia lactea 
externally by creasote» and internally, by the mild chloride and ' 
the black sulphuret of mercury. The result was favourable. 
In itch^ it was recommended by its discoverer. Wolff, too, saw 
three cases of not very recent itch cured in eight days by lo- 
tions of creasote water. Reich and Coen* extol the water and 
the ointment in inveterate itch. J. L. Da Luz* considers it as 
valuable as sulphur, but Otto did not find the water particu- 
larly efficacious. He gives strong testimony, however, in its 
&vour, in herpetic eruptions : in a very short time it induced 
evident improvement, and often removed the affection in from 
eisht to fourteen days. When the cases were more chronic, 
t longer time was, of course, required for the cure. He never 
administered it, however, without attaining his object. His rule 
was, to bathe the affected parts twice a day with creasote water, 
and in particular cases he directed, in addition, general baths of 
warm water. The eruption commonlv disappeared very rapidly 
under this management, but it speedily recurred, unless general 
bathing was used at the same time. It again yielded, however, 
very readily to creasote water. Grandjean, Reich, and Kcihler, 
also applied the water successfully in herpes; and Guitti found 
both the water and the ointment most serviceable in herpetic 
t^ectiona when combined with appropriate internal treatment. 
Heyfelder recommends that alterative drinks, as the decoctum 
sarsaparillse, should be combined with them. Even in herpes 
exedenSy the external application of creasote was found effectual 
by Ritgen, Grandjean, and Rossi. Wolffs cured a case of 
ancient impetigo in about eight weeks, by a solution of creasote 
{Creasot. f ^ss.; •Sq. destiliat, f gv.) At first, the application 
caused so much heat and inflammation, that in eight days it was 
oUiged to be discontinued, and afterwards it was alternated with 
fomentations of warm water from day to day until the cure was 
completed. Dr. Herndon, of Culpeper C. H., Va., derived much 
benefit from the ointment in psoriasis. In a case of acne 
rosacea of seven years' standing, accompanied with headach, ner- 
vousness, thirst in the morning and acid eructations, for which the 
patient — a female — was put under treatment for a month, without 
success, Dr. Elliotson* determined on trying creasote. The ad- 
vantage was soon manifest, as in three days the eruption was 
evidently diminished. At first, she took two minims three times 
a day; this was gradually augmented to twenty minims, — the 
farther increase of the dose being prevented by the supervention 
of giddiness and tremors. At the end of seven months, she was 

' Oi». cit. 

• Jomal da Sacioclade das Scirncas NfcdicAR dc Lisbon, torn. v. Lislxn, 1837, noticed 
in Zeitflchrift fur die Resiuninte Mrdicin. Oc% 1H36, S. 1224. 
' Median. Zeitung, u. g. w. Na 3U, lh!34. ' Lancot, July 4, 1834, p. 459. 



372 CREABOTUM. 

discharged; the eruption being scarcely perceptible, and the dy*- 
prptic symptoms entirely removed. In a chronic pustular dU^ 
tasCf not curable by antiphlogistics, the same gentleman observed 
better effects from it than from any remedy previously prescribed.' 
Dr. Copland found a saturated solution in water answer well as a 
lotion m porrigo /atfoaa.* The author has often used it io 
pom'^Oy both creasote water and creasote ointment, (see the 
formulae at the end of the article;) they have always appeared to 
him suflBciently strong, and when the quantity of creasote was 
increased, so much inflammatory irritation was induced, that they 
had to be discontinued for a time. 

In cases of chronic inflammation of the free edge of the 
eyelids y cures were effected by Coster, and G. T. Black^; by the 
former, from the use, twice a day, of a dilute solution of creasote 
{Creasot. gW- xij.; Aq. destillat. f ^ij.) applied by means of a 
camel's hair pencil. The cure was complete in ten days. The 
formula for the lotion used by Mr. Black is given afterwards. 
An ointment of it has also been found of essential service ia 
various forms of strumous ophthalmia^ by Dr. C. C. Hildreth, 
of Zanesville, Ohio.^ In different kinds of ophthalmiOy M. San- 
son used creasote, but never observed the disease to be modified 
by the treatment.' 

In cases of prolapsus vaginae^ Schlesier tried the external use 
bf a solution of creasote. After astringent injections, and the ap* 
plication of decoctum krameriae by means of a sponge, bad been 
used in vain, he injected diluted creasote for seven weeks, omit- 
ting it only at the time of menstruation. It excited a burning 
sensation of a few minutes' duration. At the expiration of the 
time mentioned, the prolapsus had strikingly diminished, and the 

freat sensibility of the prolapsed parts had disappeared. Owing, 
owever, to the supervention of irritation in the urinary bladder, 
it had to be discontinued, when there was every prospect of ultir 
mate success. 

Dr. Buttmann' has given the case of an old lady, upwards of 
seventy years of age, who had laboured for several years under 
oedema of both legs to such an extent as to interfere materially 
with progression. She experienced lancinating pains in both feet, 
and irregular paroxysms of fever. Many external and internal 
remedies had been used in vain, when, by way of experiment, he 
applied cataplasms of creasote, soon after which the swelling, very 

• Medico Chirurfij. Traneact xix. 237. Lond. 1835. 

* Gull>*8 edition of Ma^cndie^s Formulary, p. 204. Lond. 1835. See, also. Sir F. 
Smith, in Dublin Med. Jour, for May, 1837, and J. L. Da Luz, Op. cit 

• London l^oncct, Aug. 7, 184L 

• Amer. Journ of the Med. Sciences, Oct 1842. p. 3(>4. 

* Comple rendu des Seances de la Soci^'t^ de Medecine, Stance du 7 Mars. 1834. 

* Beitragen zum Sanitata Berichle daa Frankfurter Regicrungs-Bezirks: cited in 
Medkan. Zeitimg, Dec. 7, 1638, 8. 252. "^ 



CR£ABOTUM. 273 

noch to his astonishmeDt, gradually disappeared, and with it the 
febrile attacks. 

In iooihach from carious teeih^ creasote has often been used, 
being applied to the hollow of the tooth by means of a pencil, or 
of cotton imbued with it. The testimony in its favour has been 
lery great. It has been extolled by Coster, Reich, Hahn, Knei- 
lel, Heyfelder, Fitchbauer, Hauff, Otto, Guitti, Kohler, Meisin- 
ger,^ and numerous others. Some have advised a collutory of 
creasote, but this is more disagreeable, whilst it is less efficacious 
than creasote applied immediately to the carious tooth. It ex- 
cites instantaneously acute pain and a considerable secretion of 
saliva. The pain of toothach is often relieved by it, but it gene- 
niHy recurs ; and perhaps the advantage derived from this agent 
is not ^ater than from any of the stronger essential oils. As a 
palliative, it is ver^ useful. In rheumatic toothache the insertion 
of a little cotton, imbued with creasote, in the. ear of the same 
side, has been found serviceable.' Although, however, it alle- 
viates the pain of toothach, it has been considered to hasten the 
destruction of the tooth.^ 

In deepness J apparently owing to deficient secretion from the 
aruminous follicles^ advantage has been found from its use, 
after the ear had been syringed. Perhaps as good a form as any 
is that recommended by Mr. Curtis,* which consists of one dram 
of creasote to four drams of lard. A little of this oil is inserted 
bto the meatus, night and morning, with a camel's hair pencil. 
He considers the preparation contra-indicated in cases of otorrhcea 
attended by pain or inflammation. Dr. Partridge,' who has seen 
many excellent effects from creasote in such cases, prefers to com- 
mence with half a dram to four drams of oil of almonds, applied 
by means of a camel's hair brush. After a few days, he usually 
increases the quantity of creasote as the occasion may require, 
often using it as strong as one part to three of oil. 

In cases of ntevi, Dr. Thornton" found it the most effectual of 
all applications. He applies it two or three times daily, more or 
lets diluted : excoriation, ulceration, and gradual disappearance of 
the nsevus ensue, — the cicatrix being always smooth and sound. 

Thus far, we have spoken mainly of the external use of crea- 
sote. Reference has been made to its internal administration in 
cases of hamoptysisy htematemesis and leucorrhaa. In the fol- 
lowing diseases, it has been chiefly given internally : — 

Phthisis. — Reichenbach excited considerable expectations from 

' Medicin. Jahrbucfa. dei k. k. osterreich. Staates, B. xr. 8. S53. WieOi 1834. 
*Riecke, Op. dt. 8.167. 

' Connack, Lond. and Edinb. Monthly Journal of Med., Oct, 1842. 
' London Lancet, vol L p. 328, 1838-9; and Mr. Wright, ibid, p, 690. 
* Medical Examiner, May 30, 1840, p. 348. 

' Northern Journal of Medidne, Dec. 1644 ; dted in Bruthwdle*a Relraned, xL 186, 
Amer. edit, N. T., 1845. 



274 GREAflOTUM. 

its utfe in phthisis ^ — fulmonafyy laryngeal and bronchial; and u 
in so intractable a disease every suggestion is immediately and 
eagerly embraced, numerous trials were instituted with it, the 
results of which were by no means accordant. Reich^ affirmed, 
that he gave it both in laryngeal and tubercular phthisis with di^ 
tingubbed success. In a case, in which the disease appeared to 
be considerably advanced, the offensive expectoration was changed 
into one of a tasteless, mucous character, although the fever and 
the night sweats- experienced no modification. Subaequently, 
haemoptysis supervened, with violent fever; on which account the 
dose was diminished. Under the use of the remedy the condition 
of the patient appeared to improve, — except the cou^h, which wis 
not mitigated ; an anodyne was consequently substituted for the 
creasote; under which his patient — a female — improved so much, 
that he was led to believe she might be saved, although the ooneh 
still remained severe and frequent. In another case, creasote al- 
layed the hectic fever, and transformed the purulent expectora- 
tion into one of a mucous character ; yet, although the general 
condition of the patient seemed to be improved, the cough and 
uneasiness of the chest continued almost unchanged. Grandjean, 
also, had a case of phthisis in the third stage, the expectoration of 
which was soon diminished ; the pain in the side removed ; the 
appetite, sleep and strength restored under its administration, but 
the result of the case was not known. Levrat asserts, that be 
found it highly useful in chronic bronchitis^ and in same kintb 
of phthisis, Hechenberger saw good effects from the inhalation 
of creasote in the form of vapour in a case of ^* ulcerated lungs f^ 
five, ten, or fifteen drops, according to the degree of tolerance of 
the lungs, being dropped into hot water in an appropriate vessel, 
and the vapour received through the tube of an inverted fiinnel. 
He was of opinion, that this mode of exhibiting it prevented the 
disagreeable effects apt to be induced by its internal use; and 
farther experiments nave confirmed his view. On the other 
hand, Elliotson' derived no favourable results from his trials with 
creasote in phthisis; even inhalation of the vapour was gene* 
rally unattended with any advantage; yet, he is of opinion, that 
it may be useful where there are only one or two ulcers in the 
lungs, and there is no tendency to their farther production, as 
well as where there is much secretion from the bronchial mucous 
membrane. Either no advantage, or an injurious influence fol- 
lowed its use in phthisis, by Rehfeld, Haupt, Treumann, Giinther, 
Schmalz, Meisinger, Otto, Kohler,^ and others. The published 
experiments by Wolff, in the Charit^, at Berlin, cannot be es- 
teemed more favourable. It was tried in eleven cases of luber^ 

' Hufeland's Jour., Jan. 1834; and Reme Med., Mai, 1834. 
* Medico-Chinirg., Transact zix. 221. London, 1835. 
' Heckcr'a moaa WkwuidiBft. Annid. B. i H. 3. 



CREASOTUM. 275 

eular phthisis^ of which one was m the first ; eight were in the 
second, and two in the third stage. In two cases, there was 
scarcely any advantage, after it had been given for fourteen days. 
In one case, it bad to be discontinued on the eleventh day, owing 
to the supervention of obstinate vomiting. The case ultimately 
terminated unfavourably. In six cases, the s}'mptoms appeared to 
be aggravated, and the patients died soon afterwards. In two, in 
which the disease was in its second stage, death supervened un- 
expectedly early, on the fourth and the seventh days of the treat- 
meat, — in one case, by suffocation; in the other, by sudden hy- 
drothoraz. The pulse, according to Wolff, was generally quick- 
ened under its use; the hectic augmented; the urinary secretion 
diminished; the expectoration neither changed in quantity nor 
joality ; the cough was not mitigated ; nor the dyspnoea diminished : 
ID four cases, on the other hand, they were manifestly increased : 
once, epistaxis occurred, and twice haemoptysis. From the re- 
mits or all his trials, Wolff is disposed to think, that creasote 
should be banished from our list of agents employed in phthisis; 
both as respects the radical and the palliative treatment;^ but al- 
though they may not sanction us in placing much value on it in 
the treatment of phthisis, it may be improper to ostracise it alto- 
gether,' as, according to the testimony of others, it would seem 
to have rendered service. Rampold and Spath assert, that they 
have derived advantage from it in confirmed phthisis where no in- 
flammatory complication was present ; the expectoration and col- 
liquative sweats being diminished under its use ; and M. Petrequin,^ 
from his trials with it, considered its effects to be more beneficial 
—as might be presumed — in incipient than in confirmed phthisis ; 
bat in no case did he observe any thing approaching the radical 
cares described by "Some. He, indeed, gives the preference to tar 
water, (see Aqua Picis Liquids.) 

In bronchorrhcBay or that state of the bronchial mucous membrane 
which consists in a profuse secretion without inflammation, the in- 
balatk>n of creasote has been found of essential service.^ In the 
chronic mucous affections of the lungs of old people, it appears to 
have been especially useful. 

Rheumatism and Gout. — The success obtained by Reich ^ from 
tbcture of soot in gouty and rheumatic affections, and the proba- 
bility that its efficacy might depend chiefly on the creasote it con- 
tained, induced him to prescribe the latter remedy internally in 
those diseases. He made the first trial upon himself. After ex- 
posure to cold, he was attacked with lancmating pain in the right 

' See, al«>, Kohler, in Rust's Magazin, B. zlvi, cited in Amer. Journal of the Med. 
Sciences* February, IB37, p. 497. ^ Riecke, Op. cit, & 170. 

' GsKtte M^dkaile de Paris, Nov., 1836. 

* £BiotsoD, in Med. Chirurg. Transact, zix. 221. Lond. 1835. 

* Hotiand's Journal, Jan. 1834, and Reme M6d., Mai, 1834. 



376 

leg, for the remora] of vfaicfa tbe ordinnr rpmrJirt were cmpkifed 
io raio: it y'uAAtA to the ate of creasote eiTcn for nine days. He 
relates aootber case of rhemmaiu-m^ and ooe of ai^mic gmd^ m 
vkicb it vas eqnUr socoosAil. Marcus, of Haderalebeo, re coM 
mewis it in cases d rKeumaiinn, yhoccompamitd hy txciietma^ 9f 
the raiculnr ^y^tem, or tendency io congesiiitm and fArUt r tai H m u 
It is proper, boveTer, to ofaserre tfaat he combiaed other afseols 
with it, scrthat his experimeats are by do means dedsiTe as to ill 
efficacy. Of tbe three patients to vboae cases he refers, one mikj 
vas cored: tbe other experienced improvement. Karsten bmA 
none of tbe advantages described by Reich, in rheumaiie and 
0f/uiy cases, from ils use. In a case of rhewmaiie Aeadadh, 
iTscbopke found surprising benefit from frictions of creasote, and 
plugging the e^r vith cotton dipped in it. It immediately excited 
acute pain, and some rubefaction of the skin: and as the burning 
ceased, the pain ceased along with it. In Most's experience^ 
lotions of creasote water greatly alleviated the pain of the joinU 
in rheumatism and atonic gout. 

In vomitings not arising from inflammation or other orgame 
disease of tbe stomach, Elliotson ^ found creasote very efficacioas. 
In the vomiting of prtgnancy it has been highly valnaUe. If 
the sickness comes on regularly after rising in the morning, Dr* 
Cormack ' prescribes two or three drops to be taken five or tea 
minutes before getting out of bed. This he has generally found 
effectual ; but if it should not be, the patient b directed to repeat 
the dose in two hours. In more troublesome cases, when the 
sickness occurs at intervals during the day, one or two drops are 
given every two, three, or four hours. He has also found it sei^ 
viceable in the sickness and vomiting following a drinking de- 
bauch. Even in Asiatic cholera and in seasickness^ it appeared 
to allay the vomiting. In various affections of the stomach, as in 
cardialffia and gastrodynia^ it may be useful.' In vomiting from 
nervous excitability^ it has been affirmed to excel all known medi- 
cines.* After Dr. Elliotson had recommended it, Dr. Shortt tried 
it in about a dozen cases, and found it equally successful, as did 
also Dr. A. T. Thomson, of London, Dr. Bodington, of Erdington, 
in Warwickshire, Dr. Christison,^ and many others. Dr. John 
Walker, of Glasgow, in a case published by him,' does not appear 
to have been equally fortunate; and with Dr. Paris it entirely 
failed.' The author's own success has been by no means as great 

• M«*fIiro-(yhirarRical Traiwactions, vol. xix., or Lancet, Aug. 20, 1836. 

* I^mdon mw\ Edinb. Monthly Journal of Med. Science, Oct, 1842. 

' Kitrkc, Op. cit H. 172. * Connack, on Creoaote, p^ 133. 

' DiiipiriiisiU)iy, p. :<77 Rllnb. 1842. 

' Unrct. Dec. 1!), ]d%(, p 447. 8ee, also, Taylor, iUd. Aug. 15, 1835, and Maeteodt 
in I.KH11I. M<n1. (razrtle, xvi. 51)8, and xvii. 653. 

^ L'liiinnnroiogia, H\\ edit. ap|irnd. Lond. 1838. See, also, Pernra, Elem. of Mat. 
Med. and Tberap. U edit p. 420, liOnd. 1842; or 2d Amer. edit by Caiaoo, Phaid. 
1840. 



CREAS0TC7M. 277 

ai that of Dr. EUiotson. Id many cases, indeed, it has developed 
irritability of the stomach, where this did not previously exist.' 
Dr. EUiotson admits, that in large doses it seems to excite vomit- 
ing, and that when given in such quantities with a view to check 
it, DO good, but evil, results from a large dose. As a preventive 
ofiea-sicknessy it has been extolled by Dr. EUiotson, and by Mr. 
A. B. Maddock.^ It has been administered, also, as an excitant 
to relieve gastrodynia and flatulence^ and where hydrocyanic acid 
■od creasote have been separately tried unsuccessfully. Dr. Elliot- 
lOD recommeDds that they should be combined. Dr. J. B. Wilmott^ 
has extolled its use in injections in camp dysentery. One was ad- 
ministered every night composed of a dram to twelve ounces of 
atarch ; and more recently it has been suggested in the same form 
by Dr. Flint * in chronic dysentery. 

Several portions of /^enia having been observed to be discharged 
after the administration of creasote, Kraus was induced to prescribe 
it as a powerful anthelmintic. This he did in numerous cases, and 
with the best success; — from five to eight drops being given to 
adults with castor oil ; or where the bowels were not freely opened, 
with half a drop or a drop of croton oil. 

In diabetes mellitusj it was first given by Berndt,^ and with 
striking success. One or two cases of the same kind are relateil 
by Gadolin ; but Rehfeld used it without advantage. Dr. Elliot- 
iOD agrees with Berndt in the opinion, that it is sometimes of use 
in diabetes, and may even be greatly instrumental in accomplishing 
a cure.* 

Dr. EUiotson ^ tried it in nervous disease. In some cases of 
epilepsy, the paroxysips appeared to be rendered less frequent and 
more mild; but in the generality of cases, they returned with fresh 
violence. In some, the remedy had no influence on the disease; 
io others, it appeared to aggravate it. In neuralgia, great advan- 
tage was at times derived from it, although here, again, it was 
frequently of no service.' A severe case of facial neuralgia, was 
cured by Mr. Thomas Kelly,' by three drops made into a pill with 
crumb of bread, and given every three hours. Inoculation with 
a mixture consisting of 10 or 15 grains of acetate of morphia in 
one dram of creasote, was employed with much advantage in the 
tame disease by Mr. Rynd." Punctures were made over the nerves 
affected, and the solution was introduced. In a very short space 
of time the pain was relieved or wholly disappeared. Dr. Elliot- 

' Connack, Lond. and Edinh. Monthly Journal of Med. Science, Oct 1843. 

* Amer. Joum. of the Med. Sciences, Feb. 1838, p. 406. 
" Ijondon Medical Gazette, May 23, 1845, p. 16*i. 

* Buffalo Med. Journal, cited in Med. Examiner, April, 18i>0, p. 252. 

* Kleinert*s Repertorium, Jan. 1835, and Lancet, July IH, 1835. 

" Mcdico-Chirurgical Transactions, zix. L3t2-I35. Lond. 18:^5. ' Op.cit. 

* Cormack. loc. cit * DuUin Medical Pieai, Sept 13, 184a 
" DobUn Medical Pies, March 12, 1845. 



278 CEEASOTUM. 

son also observed good effects from it in hysteria^ where there woi 
no inflammatory complication^ in spasmodic erethism of the Tier- 
vovs system^ and in palpitation; and Dr. Herndon,^ of Virginia, 
used it with much benefit as an inhalation in hysteric croup (thirty 
drops to the quart of hot water .^ In asthma^ dependent upon 
morbid excitability of the bronchial mucous membrane^ Dr. EUiot- 
son * found its inhalation often useful. 

In two cases of chronic glanders^ the «ame gentleman ^ accom- 
plisheda cure in the course of a few weeks, by the sedulous use 
of an injection of a dilute solution of creasote {Creasot. gtt. j ; 
Jiqua f Ij.) thrown up the affected nostril; combining the treat- 
ment, in one of the cases, with the internal use of the remedy; and 
a similar case of success is given in a more recent number of a Bri- 
tish medical periodical. ^ 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The dose for internal use is one or two drops, given severa[ 
times a day, in gum water. ^ In cases of tape- worm, the dose 
should be larger. Some give it in emulsion, but this form is ob- 
jectionable on account of its disagreeable taste. It is best admi- 
nistered in pill. Externally, it is at times applied pure ; at others, 
diluted, — commonly with water, with or without the addition of 
alcohol, — or in the form of ointment. Carminati^ affirms that oil 
and mucilage, when combined with it, render it milder, but that 
vinegar increases its action. Dr. Cormack,^ however, doubts the 
assertion in regard to vinegar. In three comparative experiments, 
which he made with a view of testing the justice of Carminati's 
conclusion, there was no apparent difference in the activity of cre- 
asote, when given with acetic acid or alone. He was led to be- 
lieve, however, that the addition of albiunen caused it to act more 
powerfully, which, if true, would be singular. 

The inhalation of creasote vapour may be accomplished by dif- 
fusing a few drops of creasote through water, or a mucilaginous 
liquid, in an ordinary inhaling vessel, or in the mode described under 
the head of Chlorine." 

PilnltB ereasoti. 

Pills qf creasote, 

B. Creasoti n\^ x. 

Glycvrrhiz. polv. ,:;j. 

Mucilag. acac. q. s. ut fiat massa 
in pilulas xx. dividenda. 

Dose. — Two pills three times a day. In neuralgia^ atonic 

■ Amer. Med. InteDigenoer, March 15, 1838, p. 425. * OpL dL 

' Lancet, for June 20, 1>^33. * Ibid. Jui. 20, 183£>. p. 145. 

* It m^ be wdl to remvk, tfaet the floidnun contains one hundred and fifty drape of 

*Opicit * Opi dtat p. 8d. "Seepagel8& 



CREASOTUM. 279 

rheumaiism^ and chronic bronchitis. The number of pills may 
be gradually increased to eight or ten at a time. Joy} 

R. Creasot. ^j. 

Ext. glycyrrhiz. 

Gal ban. aa. 3S8. 

Althieae pulv. ^ij. 
Fiat massa in pilulas cxz. dividenda. 

Dose. — Six pills, four times a day. In consumption. 

Reich. 
R. Creasott, 

Ext. glycyrrhiz. aa. 5J. 
Althaeas pulv. 3ij. 
Fiat masfl. in pil. cue. dividend. 

Dose. — Fiye pills, morning and evening, in atonic gout. 

Reich. 

Hamtni ereaioti. 

Creosote draught, 

R. Cneasot. t>K i* 
Aqus camphorcBy 
Infus. gentian, compos, aa. f ^vj* 

M. fiat haastas. 

To check vomiting. 

liitnra ereaioti. 

I Mixture of creasote. 

R. Creasot. gtt. v. 

Mucilag. acacise f ^iij. 
Synip. althies f §j. M. 

Dose. — A spoonful, every three hours, in hmmoptysis. 

Santini. 

Tinetnra ereaioti pro ginsivii. 

Tincture of creasote for the gums. 

R. Creasot. f^j. 

Alcohol. £51 j. M. 

As much of this is to be added to cold water as is necessary to 
give it a piquant taste. The teeth may be washed with it, and 
«Uke mouth rinsed. Used in cases of fcetor of the mouth from ca- 
fious teeth, and to limit the caries. Buchner. 

R. Alcohol. j360 B.) f giss. 
Creasot. I 3J. 
Tinct. cocci f jvj. 
01. menthie gtt. xxxvj. 

Used for toothach: and, diluted, as a wash for the gums. 

Righini.^ 
R. Creasot. 

Alcohol, aa. ^ss. M. 
To be applied to carious teeth. Radius. 

1 Tweedie*! LSbnrj of Medidne, ▼. 282. Lond. 1840 ; or 2d Amer. edit vol. iii. 
Hubd. 184S: « Joamal de Chimie M6d. Avril, 1841. 



280 CREASOTUM. 

R. Creasot. p. i. 

Alcohol, p. vtij. M. 

This is the ordinary strength of the tincture. Used where 
fractions of a drop of pure creasote are prescribed. 

lotio ereaioti.' 

Lotion o^ creasote. 

R. Creasot. 588. 

AqDie destillat. f Jr. M. 

Used as a lotion in impetigo sparsa and itch, Wolff, 

B. Creasot. f ^j. 
AcacicB pulv. 3J. 
Aquaefjviij. M. et fiat emuUio. 

This is " creasote emulsion,** used as a haemastatic. 

Smith 4r Sinkler, 

The author has occasionally found a lotion composed of f Sss. 
to Oj. of water too irritating. 

B. Creasot. gtt. xij. 

Aq. de8tillat. i Jij. M. 

To be applied by means of a camel's hair pencil twice a day to 
inflamed eyelids. Coster. 

B. Crea8ot. tr^^ iij. 

Tinct. lavand. compos. ^ xx. 

Aque destillat. fj 88. M. 1 

<?. T. Black, 

B. Creasot. gtt. iv. 

Aq. destillat. f Jij. M. 

In irritation of the gums, Frimanger, 

B* Creasot. f 588. 
AcacicB Jiss. 
AqusB camphor, f J xss. M. 

Used every two hours in cases of aphthous ulceration of the 
mouth, Magendie. 

B. Creasot. gtt. x. 
Aceti f 51 j. 
Aqu6f3ij. M. 

Used in csises of phagedenic ulceration, and to chancres; appliM 
by means of a camel's hair pencil. Shortt,^ 

DngQCDtQm ereasoti. 

Ointment of creasote* 

B. Cerati, 

01. amygdal. aa. §j. 
Creasot. gtt. xxx. M. 

A dressing in scrofulous caries, Frimanger. 

The Unguentum Creasoti of the London and United States 

yOp^dtp. 112. 



CUBEfiA. 281 

PbarmacopcBias is composed of half a fluidram of creasote to an 
ounce of lard; — that of the Dublin Pharmacopoeia, (1850,) of one 
dram to seven. 

Dngoentom ereasoti eompositom. 

^Compound ointment of creasote. 

B. Creasot. 

Liq. plumb, eubacetat. aa. gtt. z. 
£xtract. opii gr. is8. 
Adipis ,^j. M. 

An application to chilblains, Devergie. 

B* Creasot. 555. 

Carbon, animal, pneparat. 5j. 

Alcohol, f 5is8. 

Ung. cetacei ^iss. M. 

A ** burn ointment.*^ This may be modified according to age 
u follows : — for children under five years of age, it should be 
weakened by mixing it with four tiroes its bulK of spermaceti 
ointment; for children from five to ten with twice its bulk; and so^ 
on, gradually increasing the strength according to the age of the 
patient. In protracted cases, the strength should be gradually 
increased. Sutro. 

linimentnm ereaioti. 

Liniment of creasote. 

B« Creasot. gtt. v. — xx. 
01. oliv. f^88. M« 

To be rubbed two or three times a day on the diseased parts in 
chronic herpes, CornelianL 

Injeetio ereasoti. 

Injection qf creasote, 

B* Creasot. n^. xx. 
Liq. potass, f 3ij. 
Sacchar. 3!]. 
Tare in mortario, et adde gradatim 
AquiB f Sviij. M. 

The injection to be used three times a day. JR, Jl, Allnatt, 



LXX. CUBE'BA. 

STMONTifEs. CubebcB, Piper Cubeba seu Cubebarum sea Caudatum, 

Cabebs. 
French, Poivre h. queue, Cub^be. 
German. Cubeben, C ub e benpfef fer, Kube benpf offer. 

Schwanzpfeffer, Schwindelkorner. 

Cubebs are the fruit of Piper cubeba, which grows in India, Java, 



288 CUBEBA. 

Guinea, &Ci Sexual System, Diandria Trigynia; Natural 
Order, Piperaceae. The corns of this plant have been long knows 
in the shops; and in the old Wirtemberg Fharmacop<£ia they 
figure as calefacient, incitmg, disculient, antmervous, and carmina- 
tive agents, which seem to have a specific action in vertigo: hence 
they obtained the name "Sch windelkorner" or *' grains for 
vertigo." They had, however, fallen into oblivion, until they 
were reintroduced in modern times into practice, especially by the 
English physicians and surgeons. 

The shell of the dried berry has a weak taste, but smells 
agreeably; and the kernel has a bitter aromatic flavour, which is 
biting at first, but afterwards cooling. The corns were analyzed by 
Tromsdorff and by Vaucjuelin ;^ but the most recent analysis is by 
Monheim.' He found in 100 parts,— lignin 65; extractive mat- 
ter 6; Cubebin (Piperin) 4.5; matter like wax, 3; green volatile 
oil 2.5; yellow volatile oil 1.0; balsamic resin — which, according 
to Vauquelin, is very analogous to balsam of copaiba — 1.5; chloride 
of sotiium 1.0, and 15.5 parts loss. Cubebin appeared to Mon- 
heim to be identical with piperin, but to be united with an acrid 
soft resin. The volatile oil may be obtained separately by dbtiUa- 
tion with water. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

In addition to the general excitant properties of the peppers, 
the action of cubebs is exhibited on the urinary and genital organs. 
Under their use, the secretion of urine is augmented; it becomes 
of a darker colour, and assumes an aromatic odour. Cubebs have 
been advised, in modern times— Jirst, in cases of gonorrhasa, in 
which they have been esteemed a specific by many. Yet the consi- 
derations that apply to copaiba are equally applicable to cubebs. 
Although the revulsive effect induced by both on the kidneys may 
mitigate the inflammatory condition of the lining membrane of* 
the urethra, which constitutes gonorrhoea; yet, in violent inflam- 
matory cases, and in the early stages of ordinary cases, they may 
be injurious; and there are many instances on record in which bad 
consequences appear to have resulted from their improper adminis- 
tration. Still, there are physicians who administer both them and 
the copaiba in every stage of the disease. Of 50 patients, treated 
by Mr. Broughton^ by cubebs, 10 were cured in from 2 to 7 
days ; 17 in from 8 to 14 ; 18 in from 15 to 21; 1 on the 55th day; 
and in 4 only was no success obtained. In the chronic stage of 
gonorr/icva, M. Ricord* prescribes cubebs in combination with 
sesquioxide of iron ; and in addition the patient is directed to inject, 
four times a day, a solution composed of *Jq, destitiat, f 3viij., 
t'^rgent, nit rat, gr. ij. 

* MiMiioir. (1u Muj^'um, vi. 235. < Journal cJe Pharmacie, xx. 403. 

* Mcdiro-Chimrgical Trans-ictions, xiL 1. Lond. l5?2'2. 

* La Lana^tte Fnm<,*ai8c, No. 33. Paris, IdSd. 



CUBEBA. 283 

It has been affinned, that different evils have ensued from the 
of cubebs: which ought to suggest care in their administra- 
tioD| — for example, — ardor urinae; fever; inflammation of the ure- 
thra, bladder, and testicles ; retention of urine ; cutaneous erup« 
tions, &c.^ 

In the blennorrhoea of females, cubebs are equally extolled by 
many practitioners, as well as in leucorrhoea.* 

Spitta found them very efficacious in old and obstinate cases of 
eorjfzOf when given in the form of lozenges: they are said, like- 
wise, to have been administered with advantage in defective au* 
ditionj catised hy a catarrhal affection of the Eustachian 
tube. Rosin found the chewing of cubebs very serviceable in 
aphonia. They have also been prescribed successfully in chronic 
rheumatism. FiiP gave them with striking advantage in inter- 
mittent fever; and in India, they are regarded to be aphrodi- 
siac.« 

According to Dr. Paris, it is important to keep the bowels open 
during their use, for when hardened fsBces are allowed to accumu- 
late, the spice insinuates itself into the mass, and occasions exco- 
riations of the rectum.' 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Cubebs are commonly given in the form of powder, and in 
doses of from 1 to 2 and even 4 drams, repeated once or oftener in 
the day. Lozenges, boluses, and electuaries, are likewise pre- 
pared of them; and the London, Dublin, and United States Phar- 
macopceias have a Tinctdra Cubebs {Cubeb. giv., Jilcohol. 
dilut. Oij. Dose, f 5j. — f oij.) In consequence of the disorder at 
times induced by them in the digestive function, Velpeau proposed 
that they should be given in the form of glyster, to the amount of 
one or two drams of the powder, suspended in five or six ounces 
of an oily vehicle; and this method has its advantages.^ To at- 
tain the same object, M. Dublanc, .lour., prepared an oleo-resinous 
extract J one sixteenth part of which possessed equal virtues with 
one part of cubebs; five grains, three times a day, acting like the 
ordinary dose of powdered cubebs.' He prepares it by adding oil of 
cubebs to the resinous extract, which is prepared by digesting the 
cake left after the distillation of the*oil in alcohol, and distilling off 
the spirit. The process of Mr. Wm. Procter, Jr., is considered to be 

' Loml. Mwl. and Physical Journal, Mar. 183*2, and Mcrat and De Lens, Diet Uni- 
teni. do Matierc Medicate. &c., art. Piper Cubcba. 

• Edinb. M«l. and Surjj. Journal, xviii. 3ll». BlundcU, Diseases of Women, p. lo8, 
Lend.; or American Medical l^ibrary edition. Philad. 1840; also. Lisfranc by Pauly. 
tnnMated by Lodge, p. 243, Boston, 1«^0; and llicord. Practical Treatise on Vcnerwil 
Diseaflps, by Drummond. Amer. edit. Philad. 1843. 

' Reoueil dc Mod. Chirurg. et Pharm. Militaire, xvi. 

• Mcrat and De Lens, Art. cit 

» Braiidc, Dictionary of Materia ]Vfedica, p. 205. Lond. 1839. 

• Archives Geniirales de Mddecine, xiil 47. 

Joum. de Chimie McdicaJe, iil 401, and Joum. de Pbarmacie, xiv. 40. 



2M 

a better ofke. He exhausts cubefan by ether, in a •iisplacement appt- 
rafna, and snbcnitf the ethereal :i::cti:re to 1:1^1^:100 in a water 
bath. The r<:sL^ iai ^Jker^.tzl txtrzct o/aih^M coctains all the vi^ 
latile oily cubebLi and resin, as veil as cost cf the waxj matter, bot 
none of the extnctive. One drim ct" i: w ec :al to ooe oanoe of 
ctibebif. It maj be admlnLstereil in the tbnn ot emoIsxoD, piUs, or 
cap^^ules. Do%, from srr- ▼- to ,:^.- 

The ToIati!e oil is sofLetimes e^Ten in the dose of 10 or 12 
drop^, fospendeiJ in water by the ai*i of snaar, or associated with 
oil of copaiba. Ge/atinout capsuii-i 0/016^61, containing the 
oil, are someticnes taken. 

M. Fiorrv^ ha^ stror.olv recGmrc#'ni^e«i an l5Fcsio9 of CrvCBS 
(Cuh^h. ^y,m^qu^ Oij.; to be osed six or eight times a day as an 
injection in urethritis and vaginitis, 

PbItIi cibfbt esmpsiitii. 

Compound powder o/cub^. 

B. Cube be polT. 5]. 
E>'2Dte palT. 3«d. 
Pulv. aromat. ^ij. 
Sacchari .^j. 
DivIiJe in chartalas Fiij. 

Dose. — One, three or four times a day, in t^onorrhcta^ leu- 
corrhceOy gleet ^ prostatic and involuntary seminal discharges. 

Ryan? 

B. Cubeb. pulv. 5!^. 

Aluminis pulT. 5«3. M. et divide in chart, ix. 

One to be taken three times a dav. Ricord,* 

m 

Eleetaariom rvbebt. 

Electuary 0/ cubebs, 

B« Cubeb. pulv. 3SS. 
Me] I is cfespum. q. 9, 
Fiat electaariam. 

Dose. — A tea-spoonful, three or four times a day, in catarrhus 
vesica, c. urethrasy ic. Radius. 

B« Copaib. 5iT&9. 
Subige cum 

Vilello ovi uniu?, ct 
Adde 

Cubeb. pulv. ,:)iv5s. 

Con feet. roMC 5SS. 
M. ct fiat electuarium. 

Dose. — A tea-spoonful three or four times a day. ^'^ogt. 

' Prrrini, Elrmrntu of Mat. Mwl flml Thrrap 3d cdit.voLS, Pi. 1, p. V2\Vi. Ijond. 1850. 
« Gnnttc iIp^ Hopitaux. Mai, 1842. 

* Uiiiv«-r»al PharmaropcDia. or a Practiral Formiil.irv of Hof^ttaln, both British and 
Forritfn. Xny .Mi«hatl Ryan, M. D^ &r. Ac. :W edit. p*. IliO. Loiid. 1WJ». 

* .Matliieoy Journal dcs ConnuflB. M6d. Chirur. Juin, 11^40. 



CUBEBA. 285 

B. Gopaib. 

Cubeb. poly. &a. ^ij* 

Aluminis Jj. 

Extract, opii gr. ▼. M. 

Dose.— A dram, night and morning, in the pulp of a prune. 
The quantity may be rapidly increased to two drams morning and 
cfening. 

B. Copaib. part. i. 

Cuoeb. pulv. part. xij. ^. 

Tinct. vanillee q. s. M. 

Dose. — 3j. three times a day. Cazenave.^ 

Troehiiei enbebe. 
Lozenges of cubebs, 

B. Cubeb. pulv. ^ij. 

Tolut. gr. vj. 
Admisce 

Syr. myroxyl. 

Efxt. glycyrr. aa. ^j. 
Acacie q. 8. ut &l massa in trocbiscos pond. gr. z. dividenda. 

Used in coryza. Spitta. 

Boli enbebv. 

Boluses ofcubebs, 

B. Copaib. 

Acac. pulv* a&. ^ij. 

Aque nor. aurant 9ij. 
Terendo'bene mixtis adde 

Cubeb. pulv. ^ij. 
Miflce, et fiant boh No. vj. 

Dose. — One, three times a day. Henschel. 

M. Labelonye^ has recently proposed the following method for 
Kparating all the principles ofcubebs from the ligneous matter. — 
CubebSy reduced to coarse powder, are placed in an apparatus for 
displacement and exhausted by ether^ which dissolves the wax, 
Tolatile oils and balsamic resin. The residue is submitted to the 
action of dilute alcohol at 20° (.935,) which dissolves the extrac- 
tive principle, and chloride of sodium. The alcohol and ether are 
separated by distillation in part, and separately. Evaporation of 
the hydro-alcoholic solution is then carried on in a water bath until 
it possesses the consistence of a soft extract, to which the ethereal 
proiluct is added; the evaporation being continued for a short time, 
the ether is completely volatilized, apd a strongly aromatic extract 
is obtained, as consistent as honey. This it is improper to subject 
any longer to the action of heat, on account of the contained vola- 
tile oils; the presence of which in all cases interferes with complete 
desiccation. 

' Bourhardat, Aunuaire de Therapeutique pour 1842, p. 44. Paris, 1842. 
* BoUetin G^n^ril de Therapeutique, cited in Aoier. Joum. of Pharmacy, 2d asiiefi, 
^S»p.316. Phibd.1837. 

19 



286 CUBBB4. 

One part of this extract is conceiyed to be equal to five of tbe 
cubebs. It can be readily mixed with water by means of muci- 
lage, and can be administered m potions, injections, ftc 

The best form of exhibition, according to M. Letbelonye, is in 
lozenges, or in an emulsive syrup. 

Troehiiei extraeti hjdro-aUokoliei Btkerei eiWIi. 

Lozenges of the ethereal hydrtMilcoholic extract ofcvbAs, 

B. Extract, hydro-alcohol, aether, cubeb. J^iij- 
Alcohol. Oij. 
Solve et adde 

Sacchar. in pnlv. ten. Ibj. 
01. mentha pip. gtt. xvuj. 

Pour the mixture into flat vessels upon a stove, and allow tbe 
alcohol to evaporate at a moderate heat. When the mass is com* 
pletely desiccated, reduce it to a fine powder, and add a sufficieot 
quantity of mucilage of gum tragacanth to form lozenges — 18,13, 
9, or 6 grains each. Alost persons, M. Labelonye says, can swal- 
low with facility those weighing eighteen grains, and contaimng 
six grains of the extract: ten of these are equivalent to half an 
ounce of the powder. 

Syrnpos extracti hjdro-aleoholiei fftherei enbels. 

Syrup of the ethereal ht/dro-alcoholic extract qf cubebi' 

B. Ext. hydro-alcohol, aether, cubeb. ^iij. 
Suspende ope mucilaginis in 

Aq. menthae pip. Oj. 
Adde 

Sacchar. Ibij. M. 

Four ounces of this syrup contain two drams of extract, eqoi- 
valciit to ten of powdered cubebs. 

Dose. — A tea-spoonful. 

M. Labelonye also envelops the extract in sugar, as in tk 
ordinary sugar-plum. 

An EXTRACT of CUBEBS has been recommended to be prepared 
as follows: — Cubebs are exhausted by. repeated digestion laff'- 
cohol, which readily takes up all the active principles of tbe 
pepper ; viz., a resin resembling that of copaiba, and a ookmral 
resin, with an almost concrete essential volatile oil. The akohol 
is distilled from those tinctures at a temperature so moderate is 
not to volatilize the essential oil. When the operation can bec•^ 
ried no further in this manner, the evaporation must be continiied 
in an open vessel by the aid of a water bath, at a still lowtf de- 
gree of heat; a little finely pulverized Spanish soap must now be 
added to prevent the separation of the rean, and preserve the 
extract of a uniform consistence. 



DKLPHINIA. 287 

The ordinary dose of this in blennarrhosa is about fifteen grabs 
three times a day.^ 
Dr. Puche* employs a liquid aqueotfy extract of cubebs; a 

aid alcoholic extract; a syrup of the alcoholic extract; 
lus of cubebs ; and one of cubebs, copaiba and turpentine. The 
last he covers with a gelatinous mixture to obviate the unpleasant 
taste. 



LXXI. DELPHI'NIA. 

SriroNTHis. Delphinina, Delphininum, Delpbininiam, Delphium, Del- 

phina, Delphia, Delphinine, Delphine. 
Sermon. Delphinin, Delphin. 

This alkaloid was discovered in 1819, by MM. Feneulle and 
Lassaigne,^ and, almost at the same time, by Brandes,^ in the seeds 
of delphinium staphisagria, in which it is united with acetic acid. 
As a therapeutical agent, it has been chiefly recommended by 
TnmbuU; but he did not employ it in its pure state. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

The plan recommended by Magendie' is to boil a portion of the 
seeds of delphinium^ cleared of their coverings, and reduced to a 
fine paste, in a little distilled water; to pass the decoction 
through linen cloth, and filter. Pure magnesia is now added, 
and the mixture is boiled for some minutes ; the filtration is re- 
peated; and the residues are washed carefully and digested m 
alcohol. On evaporating the alcoholic tincture, delphinia is ob- 
tained in the form of a white powder, having some crystallized 
pomts. 

This is esteemed the most simple mode; but if a large quantity 
be required, the following plan is advised — on account of the time 
and patience necessary to decorticate the seeds. Submit the un- 
clean seeds y when well bruised, to the action of weak sulphuric 
acid. Precipitate the liquor by ammonia^ and redissolve in 
alcohol the delphinia, which is still slightly coloured. To purify 
it, draw off the alcohol by distillation, dissolve the residuum in 
muriatic acid, and boil with magnesia. 

The plan recommended by Couerbe, and adopted by Turnbull,' 
is to evaporate a saturated tincture of the seeds to the consist- 
ence of a thin extract, and then to treat it with water acidulated 
with sulphuric acid. This solution, when filtered, is to be pre- 

' Jndd, Medico-Botanical Tranaactions, voL i. p. 4. Lond. 1839. 

* Joum. de Connaiaa. M(>dical. Aout, 1840; and Bouchardat, Nouveau Fonnulairc 
Magistral 3^iiic. edit p. 12S). Paris, 1845. 

' Annales de Chimie, torn. xi. xii., or Journal de Fharmade, vi 47 and 366. 

* 8chweigger*s Journal der Chimie, xxv. 361>. ' Formulaire, &c. 
"On the Medical Propertiea of the Natural Order Ranunculaoee, chapter 11. 

Und. 1835. 



286 1 

i'i|iitntc(i by ammonia. Tfc^ prwici-"'-^-* — *cw^ semp irveci 
itH WMKrr 'i% to be Uken op by ^./::>v.>. loic hSBLO. reauce&i is 
the? «:oiiiiifiti'iicur of an tetXrzit^,^ vLir.ti » J.dk-nn» ir is nHBiiixvd m 
avttiulairti watrr; to this so!u*ioDy Lrtr^fC. fc bxd&L qnaniEy of 
nitric livid ii tulileil, ail long a^ anj pnc^pcLkit s tXirc^vx. dc««^ 
'V\\v lit{ui«l, IrttMl from this precipitate, is SLg-iiJL i? !•£; suiiieciefi tt 
|iiv('iititattoii by ammonia^ and the powder is dncsd. Tiiv is 
Uvlpfunui of vuinuivrce; but, like veratria, i: is a caizip:iuuc s 
^(iiiK-Ci Mtul I'on.Hist!! of resinous matter^ iiaphyta.frifi axic del- 
fi.'iiut.i ; ibi* ilt'lphiiiia is obtained by treating Hx prvotfr wink 

/ V '-, whiih tcikvs up tht* delphinia, and leaves tbe sitji.}stcr'm^ 
NVhiU in a stdtt of purity, delphinia is white, palverLJtij:. aai 
x\v\kh\ a Miicll; but, like veratria, when applied to tbe i&urc 
uH-akUattc of the nvKs^s it occasions sneezing, along with en t\ 
JaMi Mvv'.ion of mucus. Its taste is at first Intter, and aficx- 
\%a x!\ jv ;ul« 4ikI it acts u|)on animals in the same manner ais — bat 
akv^v v;v:^v(u\ill> th^u — thc seeds whence it is prepared. It is 
\\. \ \.s«:( X'> ^^lublr in water, but yet in sufficient quantiTT to 
.x\i>.ti..<.Nvi;c A W\wr t^ste to the fluid. In alcohol and etbrr it 
.iix^vNvA :\Mjr\ ; And these solutions have the property of reodei^ 

•j^ x\ .:;^ «^i \MVtx i*rtvn» and of restoring the blue colour of 
^...^ V ^S^t ;^\l.k'iH\i bv acids. It combines readily with acidly 
«.K \s.ik\ »«uIia) \Al(s/\\hich are possessed of much bittei 
%.*. *. .x-..\ , «isl It m;)v U^ prtvipitnted from solutions of 
<^xii «\; « K-K b^ the addition of an alkali. 






■ ■ k ft« 



■ • ^ \ 



t.>rKiMS ON THE F.CONOMY. 

v^w i>v ,\.v i,;s';^ts of Ortiln,* delphinia appears to belonjjr 

^ ;..\v ,% »N \* '**'N\M:o jxMsons. In the dose of about five 

^j -x^-^N A «t.c' :,N ,^*'\i;s: 4nd the fatal result is more speedily 

nnK« K .s ,'^.;* a fcs di^'!\^lvtHl in wcak acetic acid; the 

;. K 1. o ,-t».\ />rs U5 the space of from forty to fifty 

W'K.. J "^.v.v :>.vv^h water introduced into the sto- 

\ . , I v » -v %• « %>.' :S*rx' bv a Uo^ature placed around the 

Ax ^« x..Nf,. X A-\vi'i\?\ wiih restlessness, giddiness, 

, v*^^ ,-s. « . ^.^^■v *i^J v'eaih in two or three hours. 

... S jtvv vU the stomach was generally 



• N 



»» % 



.\ »'. .X X' 



I 



.• ,\' .'c'vM:-:.* and its salts, Turnbull 

V : <tV..r rjs !:!'le eifeet on the mucous 

N ' 1 •. \m\v'n 1: may Iv i;iven, he says, 

. XV N. ' , \ ,-. *,'"^ w x^- rV,:i grains a day, in doses 
.«. '. . i . . .. " H* .A,-: '.; Xv^-vitinsx: in this quantity, 

li '\w w . .. X • ,., . N^ .vx. {.,^x .iv»^ '.^5' bs>\ve!s, but causes very 
\\'a\ ...1, «;:.« I I ) ii' \x ! X .< ',vx - J*ts .IS a diuretic, and oeca- 
sij.ia a v.'.ixi.\ .a^\ ;l.'\\ .', i\s\' ^T.e. When tiiken to the ex- 

' .\du\Mu JoUiuU J^ Xt«xl \ . «3iii rv:&«MCx^ Gca I 739. 



OIOITALINA. 289 

tdit of a few grains, it induces heat and tingling in various parts 
of the body, similar to those produced by rubbing it upon the 
ddn; and its other effects are very nearly the same as those of the 
lilts of veratria. 

The preparations of delphinia have been used in the same dis- 
eases as those of veratria, and they appear to exert a similar ac- 
tion: the test laid down by TurnbuU, in the case of veratria, ap- 
plies equally to delphinia ; — namely, unless a solution of delphinia 
10 alcohol, m the proportion of four grains to a dram, occasions a 
distinct sensation of heat and pricking, when rubbed for three or 
four minutes on the forehead, the specimen ought not to be used, 
as no beneficial effect would arise from its application. When 
rubbed upon the skin, it gives rise to a sensation of burning, not 
unlike that which manifests itself a short time after the application 
of a blister, but not to an unpleasant degree, unless the friction has 
been carried too far. The effects of delphinia differ from those of 
veratria in being generally more powerful and durable. 

The diseases m which delphinia has been chieflv employed, 
like veratria, are — tic douloureux ^ par aly sis ^ and rneumaiism. 
In the first of these, when the affection is seated in the tongue, or 
at the point where the infra-orbitar nerve escapes from its fora- 
men, the use of delphinia, according to Turnbull, is to be preferred, 
because it can be applied to the tongue, or rubbed on the gums, 
without occasioning irritation of the mucous membrane. He thinks 
it also, upon the iiniole, better adapted for the treatment of para- 
lytic cases than veratria, but principally on account of the property 
It has ** of exciting the circulation in the diseased part.'' 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The manner of applying delphinia is the same as that recom- 
mended for veratria. It may be used either in the form of oint- 
ment or in solution in alcohol; and the proportions to be em- 
ployed, in either case, may vary from ten to thirty or more grains 
to the ounce, according to the severity of the affection, for the 
treatment of which it is prescribed. The duration of the friction 
Aould be regulated in the same manner, or it should be continued 
Qntil the pungent sensation produced by the rubbing exhibits 
itself. 



LXXII. DIGITALl'NA. 

Sthontmis. Digitalin, Digitalia, Digitalinum, Digitaline. 
fitnch, Digitaline. 
Gtrman. Digitalin. 

The active principle of digitalis was supposed to have been 
separated by Le Royer, and by Lancelot ;^ yet these substances 

' Perein, EleDoente of Mat Med. and Tbenm., 2d Aroer. edit il 207, PhSad., 1846; 
nd Art Digitaline, in Mkn% and De Lew, Kct de Mat M^ 



290 DTOITAIINA. 

excited but little attention either from the pharmacien or the 
physician. Subsequently, MM. Homolle and Quevenne separated 
it, and it has received much notice, especially from M. Bouchar- 
dat,^ who has entered fully into its pharmaceutical and remedial 
properties. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

The following formula is given by M. Bouchardat.^ One kikh' 
gramme (about 2 lbs. 8 oz.) of dried digitalis leaves of the veafy 
coarsely powdered and previously moistened, is put mto a displace* 
ment apparatus, furnished with its plu^ of carded cotton, and is 
treated with cold water so as to obtain a concentrated soluticm. 
The liquid must be immediately*precipitated by a slight excess rf 
subacetate oflead^ and be thrown upon a filter, when it will pass 
through, limpid and colourless. A solution of carbonate of soda 
is now added until a precipitate is no longer thrown down; and 
the filtered liquor is deprived of the magnesia, which it still retainSy 
by phosphate of ammonia. The filtered solution is again pre- 
cipitated by tannic acid in excess, and the precipitate, collected 
on a filter, is mixed, whilst still moist, with one-fifth of its weight 
of powdered oxide ofleady (litharge.) The resulting soft paste^ 
placed between unsized paper, dri^ on a stove and pulverized, is 
exhausted by concentrated alcohol, in a displacement apparatus* 
The alcoholic solution, deprived of colour by means of animal 
charcoal, leaves as a residue of evaporation a granular yellowish 
mass, which, when washed with a little distilled water, drained and 
treated by boiling alcohol, suffers the digitalis by evaporation to 
be deposited on the parietes of the capsule under a granular 
mammillated form.' 

When drained and dried, the digitalis oueht still to be twice 
treated with boiling concentrated ether, which separates from it, 
among other substances, a white crystalline matter, traces of green 
matter, and an odorous principle.^ 

Digitalin is a neutral product, not an alkaloid, as said by some;' 
having the appearance of a white powder; a confused or amor- 
phous crystallization, and is but little soluble in water ; insoluble 
in ether, but very soluble in alcohol; and of an intensely bitter 
taste, so much so, that the 15th of a grain is sufficient to com- 
municate a decided bitterness to two quarts of water. When 
diffused in small quantity in the air, it causes violent sneezing. 
It is not susceptible of any combination with acids or bases. 

' Annuaire de Th6rapeutique ct de Mat. Med. &c, pour 1845, p. 60. Paris, 1845. 

*Op.cit.p. 69. 

' See, farther, on the preparation, properties, &c, of this substance, Bouchardat, 
Annuaire de Thcrapeutique, pour 1U4(>, p. 80, Paris, 1846; and, for recent RespsrcliM 
of MM. Homolle and Quevennc« Sandras and Bataille, the Annuaire of M. Bouchardat, 
for 1850, p. KMi 

* Ocsterlen, Handbucfa der Heilmittellehre, S, 769. Tubiogen, 1845. 

* Bouchardat, O^ dU pour 1845, p. 60. 



DIGITALINA. 291 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN HEALTH. 

MM. Boucbardat and Sandras^ injected into the subcutaneous 
veins of the abdomen of a robust dog one tenth of a grain of impure 
digitalin, dissolved in a few drops of alcohol, and about two fluid- 
ooDoes of water. Scarcely was the dog untied, when it made 
sereral attempts to vomit; walked in a straggling manner, like an 
intoxicated individual ; evacuated the boweTs with much straining, 
tnd, in a few minutes, fell down. Whenever it was raised up, it 
staggered, and renewed its efforts to vomit. During this time, the 
pulsations of the heart exhibited the greatest irregularity in 
their rhythm. They were jerking {brusques) and strong ; se- 
veral of them succeeding each other rapidly, and then a manifest 
interval occurring. The number of pulsations, which in the nor- 
mal state was from 100 to 120 a minute, was reduced to 36 or 40. 
The dog died at the expiration of four hours. The whole venous 
STStem was found ^rged with black blood, the clots of which 
mtended the principal veins. There was no other appreciable 
disorder. 

In another dog, pure digitalin furnished by MM. Homolle and 
Qnevenne, was injected in the same quantity and dissolved in the 
same manner into the external jugular vein. The animal walked 
for an instant as if giddy ; it tnen stopped and suddenly fell ; the 

Sisatidns were slow, unequal, and about 40 per minute. The dog 
id in about a minute and a half after the injection. No appre- 
ciable disorder was observed on dissection. 

Other experiments were made by administering digitalin by 
the mouth, and the same phenomena ensued. They injected it also 
into the venous system of animals, and conclude, from the whole 
of their experiments, that it is unquestionably an excessively active 
substance, especially when pure. It modifies in a singular manner 
the circulation, and is capable of exciting intense irritation of the 
digestive organs, when taken by the mouth. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

Having satisfied themselves as to the energy and modus operan- 
di of digitalin, it became important to obtain its sedative effects 
GO the circulation, without its acrid action on the digestive organs. 
By means of mucilage and marsh-mallow powder, MM. Bou- 
chardat and Sandras made pills, each of which contained a demi' 
centigramme (the 10th part of a French grain) of digitalin. 
These pills they gave under their own eyes to patients to whom a 
retardation of the circulation might be useful, and when there was 
nothing dangerous to be apprehended from the use of an agent capa- 
ble of irritating the digestive tube. In all, the pulse was marked- 
ly retarded ; and irregularity was induced. In only one case were 

* BoQcfaardtt, Op. dt {k 60. 



292 DIOITALINA. 

the^ told of any increase in the urinary secretion. When the 
toxical effects appeared^ they were indicated by disorders of the 
senses^ dbturbance of the head, distressing dreams, and halluctna- 
tions, which were soon followed by diarrhoea, or more or less 
bilious vomiting. When these phenomena appeared, the digitalin 
was stopped, but, in spite of every precaution, the vomiting con- 
tinued at times for two or three days. 

The investigations of M. Rayer, as reported by M. Hervieoz/ 
have led him to sum up the physiological effects of digitalin as 
follows. First. In doses of the twenty-fourth to the sixteenth 
of a grain it renders the circulation slower, and increases the se* 
cretion of urine. Secondly. Doses of one-twelfth to one-eighth 
of a grain may give rise to serious disturbance of the nervous 
centres, and the digestive organs; and, thirdly. Beyond an eighth 
of a grain, intolerance always supervenes, and death might ensue 
if this limit were overstepped, or if the experiment were continued 
too long. 

It would appear from these observations that digitalin represents 
digitalis in all its active properties, and that it may be administered 
in every morbid condition m which the plant has been found ser- 
viceable.^ By employing it — as properly remarked by MM. Bon- 
chardat and Sandras-— the physician always knows exactly the 
quantity of the active principle which he aaministers. 

When applied endermically, its action is so irritating that it 
can scarcely be used in that manner.^ 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Comparative trials satisfied M. Bouchardat^ that 4 milligrammes 
(gr. .0616 Troy) of digitalin, correspond in energy of action with 
about 40 centigrammes (gr. 6. 176 Troy) of powdered digitalis, 
prepared with the greatest care. It is a hundred fold stronger 
than the most active preparation of digitalis. 

The following formulae have been recommended.^ 

Pilnls digitalins. 

Pills of Digitalin. 

R. Digitalin. er. .7720 (5 centigrammes.) 
Acacias puTv. 
Mucilagin. acaciae, q. s. ut fiant piialae xx. 

Dose. — 1 to 4 daily m hypertrophy of the heart. Bouchardai. 

Grannla digltalins. 

Granules of digitalin. 

B. Digitalin. gr. 15*44 (1 gramme.) 
Sacchar. ^iss. (50 grammes.) 

* Boachardat, Annuaire de Th^rapeutiquCt poar 1849, p. 149. 
i Strohl, Gazette M6d. de Strasbourg, Aout et Octobre,1849, cited in Anhxw. G^n^- 
rilea de M^dechie, Janv. 1850, p. 100. 

a BoucbaTdat, Annuaire, &c., pour 1846, pw 92. * Op. cit p. 77. 

' Botichaidat, Op. cit p. 76; tnd NoiiTeau Fonnalaiie Magistral, Sems 6dit p. 837. 
1845. 



DIOSMA. S93 

Make into one tboasand granules like comBts. Each of these 
contains a milligramme (gr. .0154) of digitalin. 
Dose. — Fonr to six in the 24 hours. fiamolU 4r Qtf€rffiii€. 

Syripii digitaliiB. 

Syrup of digitaliiu 

R. Digitalin. gr. Im. (10 centignunmes.) 
Sjrupi O 2} (1500 grammes.) 

Dissolre the digitalin in alcohol, and add the syrup. In every 
15 grammes (40 grains) of the syrup there is a milligramme (gr. 
*0154) of digitalin. 

Dose, four to six spoonfuls in the day, or in some appropriate 
iafiision. Homolle 4r Quevenne, 

liitira digitaliiB. 

Mixture of digitalin. 

B- Digitalin; gr. '0770 (5 milligrammes.) 
Aqne lactucc 3iiij (100 grammes.) 
Syrup, flor. an rant. 5?i8S. (25 grammes.) 

Dissolve the digitalin b a few drops of alcohol; then add the 
£itilled water and the syrup. 
To be taken by table spoonfuls in the 24 hours. 

Homolle 4r Quevetme. 

Dngneitnm digitalinc. 

Ointment of digitalin. 
B. Digitalin. gr. '770 (5 centigrammes.) 

Dissolve in a few drops of alcohol at 22^ (s. g. '923;) and in- 
corporate in lard {axonge balsamique) 10 grammes (Siiss.) 



LXXIII. DIOSMA. 

Strontmks. Diosma Crenata (folia;) Barosma Crenata (folia;) Agothos- 
ma Crenatom (folia;) Bocchoe, Bocho, Boocho, Buckha, Bucha Leaves. 
French. Diosmee ci^nelee. 
Gtrman. Buccublatter; Daftstra nchbla tter. 

Diosma crenata is indigenous at the Cape of Good Hope. It 
belongs to the Natural Family Rutacese; Sexual System 
Pentandria Monogynia. The smell of the leaves is penetrating 
and peculiar, but resembling that of rue and camphor. By some 
it has been compared to that of oil of juniper; b^ others, to 
rosemary ; by others, to cummin, and by others agam, to that of 
the urine of the cat. The name is, therefore, by no means 
expressive, — ««>?, "divine," and oafj^tj, "odour." The taste of 
the leaves is aromatic; somewhat pungent; and, in the opinion 
of Buchner, resembles that of peppermint ; without any parti- 



2M DIOSMA. 

• 

cular bitterness, yet disagreeable. According to the analysis of 
Buchner, Brandes, and Cadet, the most important constituents 
appear to be a volatile oil of a greenish-yellow colour, a peculiar 
principle — diosmint and a semi-resinous substance. Diosmin is 
a very tenacious adhesive matter, similar to l^eruvian balsam, and 
can be drawn out in fine threads. It has the same smell as the 
leaves, only somewhat weaker; the taste is pungent and bitter. 
The semi-resinous matter has a resinous lustre; is of a dark 
brown colour, becomes fluid when heated, and bums with a 
flame. Its odour is not remarkable; taste, somewhat pungent 
and sourish.' 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN HEALTH. 

The Hottentots have long used the leaves of several varieties.of 
diosma both internally and externally; but they ^ve the prefe- 
rence to diosma crenata. Through them its virtues became 
known to the European settlers. It was first brought to the no- 
tice of British practitioners by the notorious Richard Reece, who 
is more known for the part he took in the farce of Joanna ISouth- 
cote than for any thing else. In Grermany, it was chiefly promul- 
gated by Jobst, who published ah extract from Reece's obser- 
vations in the Repertorium of Buchner.* Bardili instituted ex- 
periments for testing its action on the healthy organism. It first 
acts — he says — as an excitant on the stomach, whence arises a 
feeling of increased heat in that organ, and the appetite becomes 
augmented : from the stomach, the excitement spreads to the vas- 
cular system; the heat of the body is increased ; the pulse becomes 
more frequent, and the transpiration is favoured. It acts, like- 
wise, on the urinary secretion; the urine is separated in larger 
quantity, contains flocculi, depasits a purulent (?) sediment, and 
exhales an aromatic odour. On the digestive function, it seems 
to produce somewhat of a constipating efiect. Bardili thinks, 
that he has also witnessed some narcotic operation in his experi- 
ments. 

The same results were produced by diosma on animals. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

The inhabitants of the Cape administer this agent as a sto- 
machic, and the Dutch physicians give it with success in indigea^ 
Hon. It is said also to have afforded essential service in chronic 
cases o/ rheumatism and J^ori/. Autenrieth extols it in rheuma^ 
tic painSy which have had their foundation in repelled itch (?) ; 
and its utility in chronic rkeumatism has been confirmed by 
numerous others. It has been extolled, uioreover, in hsematuria^ 
calculous pains^ and in irritated and suppurative conditions qf 



> Joanial de Chiiiiie Medkale, m. 13, tnd Jounial de Fhftrnwcie, xiiL 106. 
t BmmI* zm a 51. 



DI08BCA. 295 

the bladder, urethra, and prostate. The author has repeatedly 
adoibistered it, but has observed no other effects than those oi a 
moderate excitant diuretic and tonic. Reece says he found it 
eflkacious in incontinence of urine, and in catarrhus vesica; 
and he gave it — united with tincture of cubebs — in spasmodic 
stricture of the urethra, gonorrhoea, swelling of the prostate, 
and impotence. 

At the Cape of Good Hope, buchu leaves are often applied ex- 
ternally, in the form of liniment and baths, as well as of fomen- 
tatiODS and cataplasms, in luxations and rheumatic pains, — and 
in wounds, especially the contused. 

It may be remarked, that this — like almost every similar re- 
medy — has been given in cholera; and, as the Riga physicians 
aaert, frequently with favourable results. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The dose of the powder is 3ii. in the day: this, at least, is the 
eonunon dose at the Cape. The if\fusion necessarily contains 
more of the volatile oil than the decoction; but, on the other hand, 
the Utter has more of the diosmin : as respects their action, how- 
ever, there is not much difference. A vinegar, oxymel, liniment, 
extract, and tincture of diosma have been advised. 

The London, Edinburgh, Dublin, and United States Pharmaco- 
poeias have an In fusum Diosmje (§ss. of the leaves to Oss. of 
water, Pharm. U. S.;) dose, f §iss : and the Dublin, a Tinctura 
BitCHu (§ij. of the leaves to Oj. of proof spirit;) dose, f 5ij* or 
fSiij. 

Infnmm dioims eompoiitnm. 

Compound infusion of buchu. 

B' Diosm. 

UvGD urei aa. Jss. 
Aq. bullient. Oss. 
Digere leni calore in vase clause per semiboram. Colaturae adde 
Syrup, seneg. f ^ss. 

Dose. — One or two spoonfuls every two hours in blermorrhouL, 

and in atony and paralysis of the bladder. Clams. 

B. Infus. diosms f §vij. 
Tinct. diosme, 
Cnbeb®, aa. f ^ss. M. 

Dose. — Two table spoonfuls three times a day. This formula 
is recommended by Dr. Joy ' " in chronic diseases of the prostate, 
bladder, kidneys, gravel, &c.," as if the pathological condition to 
be rectified were, in all these cases, identical ! 



> Tweodie*t Library of Medkine, ▼. 311. London, 1840; or 2d American edit. vol. 
bL Fhilad.1842. 



296 ELECTRO-MAOIIKTISICUS. 

^ ELECTRICITAS, sbb GALVANISMUS. 

LXXIV. ELECTROMAGNETISMUS. 
Stnontmbs. Electro-magnetism, Magnetic Electricity. 

Electro-magnetism has been introduced amongst therapeutical 
agencies as adapted for the same cases as electridty and gal- 
vanism. Various forms of apparatus have been designed; coil 
machines f and magneto-eleciric machines:^ but, perhaps, as Dr. 
Pereira has remarked,' the most convenient, simple, and powerful 
is the magneto-electric machine of Mr. E. M. Clarke, of LondoD; 
which consists of a battery of six curved permanent magnets, and 
an intensity armature, around whose cylinders 1500 yards of fine 
insulated copper wire are coiled.. The ends pf this wire comma- 
nicate respectively with a pair of directors, each holding a piece 
of sponge, dipped in vinegar, or a solution of common salt. When 
the armature is rotated, and a portion of the body is interposed 
between the directors, a succession of shocks is experienced. As 
thb machine is not affected by the moisture of the atmosphere, 
and acids are not required to excite it, it is possessed of advantages 
which the galvanic battery has not 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 
Electro-magnetism has been employed in all cases in which vol- 
taic electricity has been deemed advisable. Mr. E. S. Clarke, who 
applied it in the wards of Dr. Graves at the Meath Hospital, states 
that he found it act more quickly in neuralgia ^ than in any other 
disease. Some varieties it removed in two or three applications, 
but others often required a feeble electro-magnetic current for 
many successive days. Next in order of facility came *^ rheumoHc 
and sciatic cases; then cases oi deafness; after those, some varie- 
ties of catamenial suppression. It also acted readily on certain 
curable forms of amaurosis; then in partial paralysis, and with 

g eater diflSculty in hemiplegia than in almost any other form.'' 
r. Golding Bird,^ and Dr. Neligan ' found electro-magnetism of 
immense advantat^e in many forms of paralysis; whilst in Dr. Benoe 
Jones's^ trials of it, in the same disease, no benefit was derived in 
the majority of the cases. Dr. Wm. Davis ' found it of great value 
in rheumatic paralysis^ in a case of subacute articular rheumatism^ 
which had produced such changes in the locomotive organs, that 

■ See the tiitbor*t General Thenpeotict aoJ Mu. Med. 4tfa edit 1510. Pliibd.1850. 

• Elemeoto of Mat Med. and Therapw 3d edit iroL i. p. 5a Land. 1849. 

• Graves, System of Clinical Medicine, p. AM. Dublin, 184a 
« Lundon Lancet June 13. 1846, p. 649. 

■ London and Edinburgh Month^ Joomal of Med. Scienoe, April, 1846. 

• London Journal of MediciDe, Na 2, 184% 

' PnmDdal^MediaJ nd Singical Journal, Nov. IS, 184& 



£LECTRO-tf AOKETtSMUS. 297 

the patient was unable to walk or use her hands; and Professor 
Kabik^ bears equally favourable testimony to it in the same affec- 
tioos. 

An anomalous case belonging to the neuroses was laid before 
the Sheffield Medical Society ; a summary of which is given by 
Mr. Law.* A lady, 51 years of age, had suffered from neuralgia 
of the right inferior maxillary nerve, when she was suddenly 
seized with vomiting; fainted, and lost power over the arms when 
10 the upright, but not when in the recumbent posture. Soon 
afterwards she found it impossible to swallow, and the sickness 
•ubsided: after this, she had paralysis of the left side of the face, 
and of the right arm and leg. Nothing could be introduced into 
the stomach except through an oesophagus tube. Electro^magnetism 
was applied to the back of the neck and chest in the course of the 
oesophagus, to the left side of the face, and from the spine in the 
course of the nerves to the right arm and leg. This was done for 
one hour at least, three times a day for a month, and afterwards 
twice a day. Nutritious and stimulating substances were passed 
down into the stomach, and quinia and other tonics were aduiinis* 
tered. Under this management she completely recovered. ** With 
respect to treatment," says Mr. Law, ^* the writer doubts whether 
the electro-magnetism is entitled to the credit of having effected 
the cure; or whether this should be attributed to the quinine, sti- 
mulating tonics and great attention which was paid to' the digestive 
organs. Paralysis occasionally terminates favourably quite irre- 
spectively of medical treatment, and the acknowledged obscurity 
ID which the proximate cause, in the case under consideration, was 
involved, demands especial caution in assigning to each of the va- 
rious means employed in the treatment its due share of credit. It 
is by no means impossible, that the electro-magnetism, instead of 
having carried off the complaint, retarded the cure, and that this 
was ultimately accomplished by nature assisted by the general 
treatment Until a series of cases treated with electro-magnetism, 
have been contrasted with a parallel series treated without, it 
would be unphilosophical to pronounce a decided opinion on this 
principle as a curative agent in paralysis. Although the writer 
has employed electro-maf>netism in a variety of cases during the 
last twelve months, yet he has hardly been able to verify a single 
observation of any one of its numerous and zealous advocates. 
Dr. Shearman used either the negative or positive pole, as chance 
directed. Now, Retter asserts, that the former diminishes, whilst 
the latter augments the powers of life; and J. D. Humphreys, 
medical galvanist, with Chas. Woodward and others, says, that 
the positive pole exerts a salutary influence, by exhilarating the 

• Praflr. Vierteljahr, v, 4, 1 848 ; cited in Schmidt's Jahrbiichcr, u. «. w. No. 8, p. 159. 
Jahrgan?. IKf!) 

* Provincial Medical and Suigial Jonnwl, Maj 16, 1844. 



296 ELECTEO-MAONBTISMUt. 

spirits, and iofusing feelings of energy and strength; while the 
negative excites a sense of exhaustion and of irritation. These 
wnters distinctly state, that the only effect of the negative pok^ 
if applied to the seat of a disease, would be to aggravate its worst 
symptoms. How are these opinions to be reconciled with Dr. 
Shearman's belief, that he had cured his patient by the indiscriminste 
use of the oxidating and deoxidating electricities? Dr. Willdnson, 
Dr. Hodgkui, Mr. Ware, and Mr. Carpue, ascribed wonderful power 
to electro-magnetism in diseases affecting respiration, drculatioii^ 
digestion ii'nd secretion. According to these gentlemen, there is 
hardly a complaint which it will not either cure or relieve, or an 
indication in therapeutics, which it will not satisfactorily fulfil. 
The writer can reconcile the discrepancies between the statements 
of authors and his own experience only by supposing, that the 
publications on this subject contain many errors. With respect, 
however, to the case under consideration, it is right to say the so- 
ciety (Sheffield Medical,) generally agreed with Dr. Shearman, in 
ascribing the cure to electro-magnetism; and that Dr. Abercromhie 
speaks rather favourably of this agent.'' 

This case was doubtless one of the large class of anomalous 
nervous maladies, which reouire' new nervous impressions, and a 
tonic system of medication. To fulfil the former indication, nothing 
could be more appropriate than electro-magnetism. The same 
may be said of a case of hysterical convulsions^ which occurred to 
Dr. Byrne,' in a girl, twelve years of age, who was aroused from 
each paroxysm by having the poles of an ordinary electro-magnetic 
battery applied — the one to the occiput, the other to the sacrum. 

Mr. Tuson ' has recorded observations of a very favourable cha* 
racter in regard to the benefit of this agent in certain local neu* 
ralgic affections^ the consequence of injury ; and it has been ex- 
tolled by Dr. William Gumming^ in constipation^ and in certain 
irregtUarities of the functions of the bowels. 

Dr. Hays,^ who, as remarkedf under Galyanismus, found ^1- 
vanism the most useful remedy in certain cases of amaurosis which 
fell under his care, employed electro-magnetism in several cases 
in Wills' Hospital, and in a number in private practice, but with- 
out its seeming to be productive of the slightest benefit in a single 
instance; whence he too hastily infers, that for remedial purposes 
a regular and constant galvanic current would appear to be more 
useful than the violent shocks produced by interrupted currents, 
such as are induced by the electro-magnetic apparatus. This is 
obviously a non sequitur^ for the shocks may be diminished so as 
scarcely to be felt; and, moreover, theory would suggest, and ex- 

^ Charleston Medical and Surgical Journal, cited in Ranking*8 Abstract, Jamuny to 
July, 1849, p. 49. 

* Medical Timea, Feb. 24, 1849. ' London Med. Gaaetto, Dec. 7, 184a 

* American Journal of tba Med. Sdeooei, Aug. 1840, p. 388. 



XLCCTR0-MA6NETI8MUS. S99 

perience has shown, that there are numerous cases in which the 
excitant and revulsive effect of properly graduated shocks is more 
senriceable than the regular and constant current. 

Dr. Kramer^ has employed the magneto-electric or electro- 
magnetic current as a remedy for deafness and tinnitus aurium. 
He found it a decided excitant to the organ of heairing, its action 
being manifested by convulsive twitchings, pains in the ear, mo- 
mentary increase in the hearing distance, and aggravation of the 
timiitus, either at the time or afterwards; but it did not seem to 
have anv strengthening effect on the nerves, and required to be 
used with the greatest precaution, and in the mildest manner. The 
action was strongest when the current was conveyed from the 
mouth of the Eustachian tube to the external meatus of the affected 
ear, instead of from one auditory passage to the other. 

Dr. Thomas Radford ' employed galvanism with great success 
in the treatment of cases of uterine hemorrhage^ accidental or 
unavoidable, accompanied by exhaustion, and occurrmg before, 
during, or after labour. He considers, from positive trial, that it 
will be found a most important agent in tedious labour ^ depending 
upon want of power in the uterus, and where no mechanical obsta- 
cles exist.^ He also suggests the probability of its proving valua- 
ble in originating uterine action de novo in cases where it may be 
deemed necessary to induce premature labour; and that it may be 
worthy of trial in certain cases of menorrhagia in the ungravid 
state, where, on examination per vaginamy the uterus is found to 
be atonic, as evidenced by its large, flaccid condition, and the patu- 
lous state of the os uteri. His mode of applying it is as follows. 
Slight shocks are carried through the long axis of the uterus by 
means of a conductor introduced along the vagina to the os uteri, 
another being placed externally over the fundus. Shocks may be 
also passed transversely through the uterus by applying simulta- 
neously the conductor on each side of the abdomen. The applica- 
tion must be made at intervals, so as to approximate, as nearly as 
possible, its effects to the natural labour pains; and be continued 
10 as to meet the exigencies of the case. Successful cases are re- 
lated by Messrs. Thomas Dorrington,* H.Wilson,* Mr. Cleveland,* 
and others. 

In a case of amenorrhcea^ electro-magnetism was used with suc- 
cess by Dr. Collins.^ He had applied the electro-magnetic ma- 

' Beitrage zur Ohrenheilkunde, Berlin, 1845; cited in Brit and For. Med. Review, 
July, 1847, p. 22. 

* Provincial Medical and Sargical Journal, Sept 18, 1844, p. 386; and Dublin Quart. 
Journal, May, 1847. 

'See a case bj Mr. Clarke, Dublin Hospital Gazette, March 1, 1845, cited in Braitb- 
waite'fl Retrospect, January — June, 1846. p^423. 

* Provincial Med. and Surg. Journal, March 11 and 18, 1846. * Ibid. Ap.20, 1846. 
' Dr. G. Bird, Lecturea on Electricity and Galvanism, in London Medical Gazette, 

Jane 1 1, 1847. ' London Lmnoet, Jan. 25, 1845, p. 91. 



300 KLECTR0-MAGVETISMU8. 

chine in some other cases with the happiest effects; and was in- 
duced to try it in this. He applied one of the buttons on the , 
lumbar re^on of the spine, and the other in front over the pubic 
region, using the negative and positive poles alternately to the 
spme and abdomen : the remedy was continued five days, from 
five to ten minutes each day, when the catamenia were fully re« 
established. Dr. Collins adds, that he has used it with good 
effect in rheumatism. 

It has likewise l>een employed with success in amenorrhcBa and 
dysmenorrJuBay by Dr. Robert L. McDonnell, of Montreal,^ and 
by Dr. Walkly, of Mobile.' The former prefers the apparatus 
sold under the name of the vibrating magnetic machine. Wheu 
this is in operation, one of the buttons at the free extremity of the 
electrodes is applied by the physician to the lower portion of the 
spinal column, corresponding to the point of exit of the sacral 
nerves, and the other is applied by the patient herself, or by a 
female attendant, immediately over the pubes. In order to pro- 
tect the patient from the inconvenience of receiving the shock 
through the hand which holds the button, a thick glove should be 
worn. Having desired that one button be kept firmly pressed 
upon the os pubis, the physician commences by passing the other 
button along the spine from the occiput to the os coccygis. After 
this has been done slowly four or five times, the button is kept 
for five or six minutes immediately over the sacrum, and the 
electricity is thus passed in an uninterrupted current through the 
uterus. It is not necessary to put the patient to great torture by 
increasing the strength of the shocks. More benefit, according to 
Dr. McDonnell, will be derived from an uninterrupted and steady 
transmission of a moderate current than by occasional shocks of 
great intensity. The current may also be sent transversely 
through the pelvis, by placing a button on each hip, above the 
great trochanter. 

Dr. Walkly^ thinks electro-magnetism as a parturifacient far 
preferable to ergot, for the reason, that the pains induced by it are 
regularly intermittent, as in natural labour, and hence not likely to 
injure either the mother or the child. The electricity may be 
applied by placing the negative electrode in a foot-bath with the 
feet, whilst the positive electrode is placed over the lumbar region, 
and a succession of shocks passed for from three to five minutes. 
The application of galvanism to induce and increase parturient 
contractions of the uterus has often, indeed, been proposed. It 
was suggested by Herder* in 1803, and by Dr. F. Ramsbotham in 

* British American Journal, cited in Ranking's Half-yearly Abstract, July to Decem- 
ber, 1^46, p. 170. 

* New Orleans Med. and Surg. Journal, July, 1846, pw 52. 
" Op. cit • 

* Diagnostische Praktisrhe Beitragc zur Erweiterung der GeburtshQlfe, I^ipz. 1832), 
cited by Proicsor Simpson, in Monthly Journal of M^ical Science, July, 184(i| pw :):*. 



SLSCTBO-HAONETISMUS. 301 

1834,^ but does not appear to have been employed by them. 
ScTeral trials were instituted by Professor Simpson, of Edin- 
bon^hy with the view of ascertaining the exact degree of influence 
vbich galvanism possesses over the contractile action of the uterus 
during labour, and consequently the amount of aid which may be 
expected to be derived from it m any case in which its assistance 
is had recourse to. Hb general results were not favourable to it. 
In one instance the pains were more frequent in their recur- 
rence, but shorter in their duration during the application of gal- 
vanism ; in five other cases, it neither increased the average fre- 
quency of the pains, nor their average duration. In one case, the 
pains ceased whilst the galvanism was applied, and returned upon 
Its removal. In another, the action ceased whilst the galvanism 
was applied, and did not return on its withdrawal, nor for 24 
hours s^fterwards. Professor Simpson concludes, that as employed 
at the present time and in its present mode, it is not a means 
which can be in any degree relied on to directly excite or in- 
crease the contractile action of the uterus ; " and is so far practi- 
cally and entirely useless as a stimulant to the parturient action of 
the uterus." 

There can be no doubt, however, from the mass of testimony, 
much of which has been collected by Dr. Channing,' of Boston, 
that uterine contractions may be excited by the powerful stimula- 
tion which interrupted electro-magnetic currents are capable of 
inducing. 

In the opinion of Dr. Golding Bird,^ electricity is the only 
really direct emmenagogue with which experience has furnishea 
OS. " I do not think," he remarks, '* I have ever known it fail 
to excite menstruation when the uterus is capable of performing 
this function." " The rule," he adds, " for ensuring success in the 

Sreat mass of cases of amenorrhoea is sufficiently simple. Improve 
le general health by exercise and tonics ; remove the accumula- 
tions often present in the bowels by appropriate purgatives ; and 
then a few electrical shocks, — often a single one will be sufficient to 
produce menstruation, and at once to restore the previous deficient 
function." As the author has elsewhere* remarked, however, im- 
provement of the general health is itself an efficient agency in the 
removal of araenorrhcea. An admirable mode of using it, ac- 
cording to Dr. Channing, is the hip-bath, in which one of the 
poles of the electro-magnetic or galvanic apparatus is immersed 
near the organs to be especially acted upon. The other handle is 
applied in the course of the spine, or in the bath on the opposite 

* Simpson, Op. cit 

^ Notes on the Medical Application of f Icctricity. Boston, 1849. 
' l^nd. Med. Gaz., June U, 1847. 

* General Therapeutics and Mat Med., 4th edit, 1 422. Fhilad. 1850. 

20 



302 ELficmtO-BCAONCTISlllTS. 

side of the body. Dr. Tracy £. Waller ' recommeDds it as a 
valuable agent in prolapsus uteris 

An interesting case of poisoning by opium is recorded by Dr. 
Thomas S. Page/ of Valparaiso, in xvhich electro-magnetism was 
successfully employed to cure the patient. The breathing bad 
become short and hurried ; the mouth Tvidely extended, and jKff 
fallen; nothing seemed capable of rousing him; the exbaostioa 
was extreme; the pulse could be felt feebly at the wrist, and 
was maintained there, in Dr. Page's opinion, by the agitation 
which he had undergone. Electro-magnetism was now appliad. 
Whilst an assistant rapidly rotated the wheel. Dr. Page applied 
the balls at first to each side of the neck, and ran them down be- 
hind the clavicles. The arms and body moved convulsively, bot 
the patient lay as unconscious as before. He now passed one 
ball over the region of the heart, and the other to a cone* 
sponding point on the right side. In an instant the eyes opened, 
and with a ghastly expression of countenance the bead and hoif 
were thrown convulsively toward Dr. Page, and he groaned. Be 
now sank back into his reclining posture, and was again asleqii 
The balls were reapplied in the same situation with similar resoRs 
a third and a fourth time, when he cried out: — '^no more!'' Be- 
action was now positively established. 

Dr. Page suggests, that electro-magnetism will not only k 
found a most useful agent in cases like the above ; but in h^|;Uf 
congestive forms of disease^ where oppression of the nervous sjffr 
tern prevents reaction and speedily destroys life. In all cases of 
asphyxia he considers it will be useful, and believes that in ver^ 
many instances it might be applied with the happiest effects is 
asphyxia neonatorum » 

When employed — as every form of electricity occasionally ifr^ 
to modify the function of nutrition for the removal of morM 
growths^ or to promote the absorption of effused fluids asio^ 
drocelef magneto-electricity is most commonly administered intke 
way of electro-puncture; yet excellent effects are not unfreqiieotlf 
induced by the employment of the magneto-electric influence intke 
shape of shocks passed through the part affected for a longer or 
shorter period. 

* Medical Examiner, April, 1 84 8, p. 2.'^. 

* Amer. Joum. of the Medical Sciences. Aug. 1843, p. 301. 

' Ogior, in Southern Journal of Medfcine and Sur^iy, No. 3, and Ftoit, Chid» 
ton Med. Journal, July, 1848. 



KLICTEO-PUKCTUmA AND OALYANO-PUNCTURA. 303 



LXXV. ELECTRO-PUNCTU'RA, GALVANO-PUNCTU'RA. 

SriroirTifKs. Electro-puncture, Electro-puncturation, Galyano-puoctura, 
GalTano.puncture, Galvano-puncturation. 

Otnman. Electropunctar, Gal vanopunctur. 

Electro-puncture consists in a union of acupuncture with elec- 
tricity. The idea of the conjunction appears to have originated 
with Berlioz; but Sarlandiere was, doubtless^ the first who put it 
in practice, although J. Cloquet has contested the priority with 
bim — a matter, by the way, as in all such casesi of extremely 
imall moment. The operation consists in employing acupunctu- 
ration in the usual way, either with a single needle, or with two 
or more; and making a communication between them and the 
prime conductor of an electrical machine in action ; or they may 
oe made to form part of the circuit in the discharge of a Leyden 
jar. In this way, the electrical influence may be graduated from 
the simple aura to a full shock. Sarlandiere appears to have em- 
ployed electro-puncture with great success; but he restricts its use 
to rheumatic or neuralgic paxns^ uncomplicated with organic mis- 
chief or inflammation : when such complications exist, he advises 
that bloodletting and general antiphlogistics should be premised. 
Guersent thinks it better, in all these cases, to use simple acu- 
puncturation, and only to employ electro-puncture when the first 
proves to be inadequate, as in paralysis^ and in tremors produced 
wy the immoderate use of mercury; in all cases, indeed, in which 
the malady depends on a diminution of the nervous energy. A 
case of success from its use in paralysis of the right arm, in which 
voluntary motion and sensibility were destroyed, has been pub- 
lished.* The patient was, in the first instance, subjected to the 
use of blisters and moxas along the course of the radial nerve, from 
which he obtained some advantage. The remedy which succeeded 
best, however, was electro-puncture along the nerves from the 
shoulder to the hand. At first, the punctures were but little felt; 
but afterwards they were very painful. The sensibility, mobility, 
and strength of the fingers and hand gradually returned ; and, three 
months at\er his admission, the patient left the hospital completely 
cured. 

Galvano-puncture has likewise been used by M. Jobert' for 
the treatment of deafness dependent upon paralysis of the acou- 
stic nerve. He introduces Itard's sound through the nasal fossse 

' E. Gth6, art. Electro-pandura, in Encjdopad. Worterlk deriMedidniich. WiMenach. 
I. &50. Berlin, la'M. 

* U Lanoelte Francaiae, Dec. 20, 183G; dted in Amer. Med. Intel., Oct 16, 1837, 
1^966. 

' Cited from L*Ezuninatear M6dk»le, in Lood. Med. Gai., June 9, 1843, p. 366. 



304 KLEcnto-FimcTimA aitd GALTAHo-FtnrcnmA. 

into the Eustachian tube; and into this sound a long thin aca- 
puncture-needle is passed, so as to fix itself in a point of the 
parietes of the tube, whilst the other extremity projects from the 
end of the sound. Another acupuncture-needle is implanted in the 
membrana tympani. This being done, one of the conductioe 
wires of a galvanic battery, the trough of which is filled with 
water and chlorohydric acid, is passed through the eye of one of 
the needles, and the end of the other conducting wire is made to 
touch the opposite needle. M. Jobert has used in the beginning 
eight pairs of plates of the battery ; afterwards, ten and twelve 
pairs, and as high as eighteen ; and he asserts, that he has patieuts 
who have been acted upon by the entire pile, which contains forty 
pairs. At the moment the poles are placed in contact, there is a very 
painful shock in the ear and head, with convulsive movements; 
but the shock and pain usually cease immediately. In one patient, 
the impression was felt for eight days; but it never exceeded a 
slight pain, and ceased of itself. When the patient was irritable, 
only one shock was given ; but he has given two and even three 
shocks to persons whose sensibility was obtuse, and who had been 
already subjected to electro-puncture. In general, he permitted 
eight days to elapse between each trial. He relates four cases of 
well marked deafness, which were completely cured, one after a 
single shock; another after two shocks; and a third after two sit- 
tings, each consisting of three galvanic shocks. 

The author has frequently used both electro-puncture and gal- 
vano-puncture in rheumatic and neuralgic affections; but he 
does not think the advantages were more marked than those of 
simple acupuncture, whilst the suffering from the operation was 
certainly greater. Magendie regards electro-puncture as the re- 
medy par excellence in the treatment of obstinate neuralgia,^ 
In rheumatism of the chronic fomiy it has afforded almost in- 
stantaneous relief; and M. Raciborski^ found it of essential advan- 
tage in cases of sprains, 

Magendie affirms, that he has treated many cases of incomplete 
amaurosis with great success by galvano-puncture. He fixed 
a needle in the frontal nerve, and another in the superior max- 
illary, making these communicate respectively with the poles of 
a galvanic pile of twelve pairs of plates, each six inches square. 
Whenever the contact was made, the patient experienced a painful 
commotion in the course of the nerves, and at the bottom of the 
orbit; light became better appreciated, and the pupil contracted. 
A case has been reported by Dr. Dacamina ^ of palsy of the 

* Medico- Chimrg. Rev. Julv, 1841, p. 202; see, also, Dr. Shustcr, cited in Lond. and 
Edinb. Mruithly Joum. of Me^. Science, June, 1^4, p. 510; and Dr. Cowan, in Addreae 
liefore the l*rovincial Med. and Surg. Association, cited in Braithwaite's Rctroapects, 
Am^T. edit. xii. 3r>. N. Y. 1^45. 

* Citc<l in Southern Medical and Surgical Journal, July, 1846, p. 436. 

* Piycfaological Jouraol, January, 1949. 



SUOIBO-PUMOTUaA AND GALYANO-PUJffCTU&A. 305 

i^HguCj which was cured by it. In 1813, an old womau was 
seised with general paralysis of sensation and motion in conse- 
quence of fright. This passed away, except as regarded the armsy 
heed and tongue. She was unable to articulate a word. Twenty* 
three years afterwards, Dr. Dacamina had recourse to galvano- 
puDctore,— one pole of the apparatus being applied to the occipital 
nerve b^ oieans of a needle introduced into the neck, and the other 
to the tip of the tongue. After two applications, the patient could 
laise the organ ; and after the third, she could reply to some ques- 
tioBS intelligibly, although with difficulty. After this, the points 
of contact Were yaried, and the electricity was applied to different 
parts. The patient gradually recovered her speech, and the other 
palsied parts were also cured. 

In cases of asphyxia^ galvano-puncture has been proposed to 
arouse the dormant energies. The effect of electricity, in the dif- 
ferent forms in which it is adopted in medicine, on the functions 
of sensibility and muscular contraction, could not fail to suggest it 
early to observers as a fit agent for this purpose: but it is rarely 
at hand, and, therefore, seldom available. J. P. Frank, Thillaye,^ 
and others have highly recommended it ; — the latter gentleman, 
OD the strength of numerous experiments on animals. «As the ob« 
ject, in these cases, is to arouse the respiratory muscles to action, 
the electric shock may be passed through the shoulders or the chest 
in any direction. Neither common nor galvanic electricity is 
possessed of much — if any — power to restore the action of the in« 
voluntary muscles. The author has frequently attempted to re* 
excite the action of the heart, intestines, nbres of the uterus, &c. 
soon after the cessation of respiration and circulation, by means of 
the galvanic stimulus, but without the slightest success, although 
the voluntary muscles responded to it energetically. Besides, 
were the action of the heart re-exdted by it, this could be but 
BKxnentary. A necessary stimulating agency to that viscus is 
distention by the proper fluid, and unless the respiratory move- 
ments were restored, and conversion of venous to arterial blood 
effected, so that the latter could reach the left heart, the action of 
that organ could not be maintained. Every attempt, therefore, is 
properly made to restore the action of the respiratory muscles, so 
that hsmatosis may be accomplished.' 

M. Leroy d'Etiolles^ has suggested galvano-puncture in a man- 
ner which, at the first aspect, appears most formidable; but which 
is really less so than it seems to be, in consequence of the impu- 
nity with which fine needles can be made to penetrate, as has been 

* Archives G^n^rales de Mddecme, torn. xu. 

* Art Avphjrxia, by the tuthor, in the American Cyclopedia of Practical Medicine, 
part X. p. 486, Sept 1836; and in his Practice of Medicine, 3d edit I 475. Philad. 1848. 

* Magendie's Journal de Physiologic, torn. viL torn. viii. and torn, ix.; also. Rechercbes 
Kxperimentales sar^ TAsphyxie, Paris, li^9; and Bourgeois. Obaerrations sur la 

u.nr.^ ^g letoor a la ▼» dans ptusiems caad^Aiphyiie. Parity 1^9. 



306 



ELECT BO-PUSCTU HA AND tJALVANO-PONCTDBA. 



I 




seen," even the most important organs. He introduced an sea- 
puncture needle on each side, between the eighth and ninth ribs, 
until it reached the fibres of the diaphragm. He then establishwl 
a galvanic current between the needles by means of a pile of 
twenty-five or thirty pairs of plates, an inch in diameter. The 
diaphragm immediately contracted, and an inspiration was accom- 
plished. He then interrupted the circle, when the diaphragm, 
urged by the weight of the abdominal viscera, and, aided b}^ gen- 
tle pressure made on the abdomen by the hand, returned lo its 
former position, and an expiration was effected. In this way.lk 
two respiratory acts were made to succeed each other, and regular 
respiration was reinduced. A continuous current was likeniae 
employed in some cases; but the respiratory movements were 
irregular, and nothing like natural respiration resulted. Lenij 
tried his method on animals asphyxied by submersion; and when 
they had not been under water more than five minutes, they were 
often restoied. 

These experiments were witnessed by Magendie.' On different 
occasions, M, Leroy asphyxied animals of the same kind, and ap- 
parently of the same strength, and while those that were left to 
themselves* perished, those that were treated by galvanism re- 
covered. As an aid, therefore, to pulmonary insuflBaiioD, aatsn 
important one, galvanism, — combined or not with acupunctoralion, 
— might be advantageously employed in asphyxia, but, as 1*1 
been already remarked, it can rarely be avaihible. Certainly, no 
lime should be lost in adopting the other energetic and iodispen- 
sable measures that are demanded.^ It has been recomiDenifed, 
that as only a very small apparatus is necessary, batteries, con- 
sisting of a few plates, might be kept wherever there are statioB- 
houses for the reception of persons in a state of asphyxia.* The 
suggestion is good; and they might also with propriety form » 
part of the cabinet of apparatus of the private practitioner; but 
whilst an assistant is preparing the apparatus for action, the prac- 
titioner should be assiduously engageil in employing other ineiix 
of resuscitation.' 

In a paper read before the French Academy of Sciences, in 
January, 1843, Dr. Shusler* reported the following conclofla» 
as the result of his employment of electro-puncture in dis««e- 
First, Electricity is only useful as a therapeutical agent when in- 
troduced into the substance of the affected organs by means of 
acupuncture. Second/y, Galvanic electricity and the electrt- 
magneiic fluid, when employed by acupuncture, constitute the 

'Soiart. .Acupunc)ar«.p.5i. ■ Joomil ilo PtijaologkiL 

' Sue Brt. Anhyin. Oji cit p. iVG. 

• K»y. in EdinlHir^h MeJ, uid Sutg. Jaamd, «»br« uid in bis »rak aa A«Sjw 
LonJon, lt<3't. 

■ S«r Mnct. Art. GalmuHnoa, in Encjiilopid. 4et gtauuiHen mFdiaa. and cbinit* 
fnch. FnXN, u. L w. Ste Auflige. Lei|D. Ii:>36. *0[vcil. 



EXiECTBO-PUNCTUaA AlTD OALYANO-PUKCTUEA. 307 

most powerful and harmless agents that yre possess. Thirdly ^ 
The affections in which electro-puncture may be employed suc- 
cessfully are: — First, hydrocele^ ascites (idiopathic or sympto- 
matic of curable lesions,) hydroihorax, and articular dropsies. 
Id use may be extended to chronic hydrocephalus, dropsy of 
the pericardium, and the greater part of dropsical effusions. 
Secondly, lipomatous, steatotnatous, atheromatous, melice- 
raus, serous and synovial cysts. Thirdly, congestions and 
indurations, chiefly those of the lymphatic glands, of the testi- 
cles and epididymis; indurations of the areolar tissue in the 
neighbourhood of certain kinds of ulcers, and in the walls of fistu- 
lous passages, and certain indolent tum^actions; and there 
woold be nothing irrational, he properly remarks, in attacking 
cancerous affections in the same way. Fourthly, goitre. 
Fifthly, varicose dilatations, especially when electro-puncture 
can be aided by rest and compression; anid he does not despair to 
employ it with advantage in cases of aneurism and erectile 
tumours. Sixthly, chronic rheumatism, neuralgia, and cer* 
tain nervous diseases. Seventhly, paralytic affections in ge- 
' oeral, but especially those of the retina, (amaurose asthinique,) 
and of the muscles of the voice, (mutisme paralytique.) 

M. 2ienobi Pechioli^ has detailed a case of double hydrocele 
in which he employed electro-puncture. Two needles were in- 
serted, one into the upper, the other into the under, part of the 
tomour. These were connected to opposite poles of a voltaic 
pile, and the electric fluid was passed in a continued current for 
nve minutes, when it had to be discontinued in consequence of the 
right testicle becoming painful. Five minutes after the removal 
of the needles, both hydroceles disappeared completely. In the 
evening, redness and heat of the scrotum occurred, and the right 
ode of the scrotum became oedematous. The operation was re- 
peated in ten days, and was followed by a like result. Ten days 
afterwards, it was again resorted to, after which he had no return 
of the disease. M. rechioli is of opinion, that the openings made 
by the common mode of acupuncturation are too small to allow 
the fluid to escape, and he thinks, that by passing a current of 
dectricity through the hydrocele, the contained fluid is forced out 
through the sac into the areolar tissue of the scrotum, whence it 
is removed by absorption. 

M. Petrequin,* of Lyons, has applied electricity to the cure of 
aneurism in three cases. Two of these he had lost sipht of be- 
fore the influence of the treatment could be duly appreciated. In 
another case, of aneurism of the temporal artery, galvano- 

* Bulletin deUe Scieine Medic, di Bologna, Sept., 1841 ; cited in DuUm Journal of 
Med. Sciences, NoTernber, 1842, p. 311. 

* Amer. Journal of the Med. Sciences, Jan. 1846, p. 229 ; cited from Med. Times, 
Not. 15, 1845; and Revue Medkale, No?. 1846, p. 340. 



306 

puncture was performed by the introiiuction into the tumour of 
two sharp steel pins crossing esch other at right arngles; tht 
heads of the pins were then placed in comflHinication with the 
wires of a voltaic pile, and a shock and sharp pain were 
perienced, the pain increasing with the intensity of the 
action. The operation lasted ten minutes, ami fifteen plates were 
employed. The pulsations gnHtoally diminished in the tumcmr 
daring the operation, and, at its close, had entirely disappeared.' 
No accident followed the experiment; and in ten days neither 
tumefaction nor pulsation eoold be detected in the spot where tte 
aneurism had existed. M. P^treqoin lays down the following 
precepts, an observance of which, he thinks, will «isure a cooH 
plete coaguhtion of the blood contained hx an aneurismal tumcnir. 
Firsi, compression of the artery between the aneurism and tbe 
heart daring the application of Ihe galvanic agency. Secondly^ 
the pins introduced into the tumour should be numerous, crom 
each other at right angles, and their surface should be protected 
by a coat of varnish, in order to prevent unprofitable loss of the 
electric ikid. Thirdly^ after the operation, ice should be applied 
to the tumour. Successful cases of its employment in aneurisoi 
are given by Drs. Bellingham, (yShaughnessy,^ Abeille,' BorelK/ 
and others; but it has been unsuccessful in the hands of Listooy 
Phillips and others, and has been very unfavourably reported on 
by M. Gimelle,^ before the Academy of Medicine of Paris, who 
is so impressed with the numerous dangers and the ill success of H, 
that he desired the Academy to pass an absolute condemnation of 
it. This was, however, regarded as too extreme a measure, since 
cases in which the ligature could not be employed, or had been 
so usually without success, might sometimes be benefitted by 
this procedure. 

There can be no doubt that electro-puncture is capable of ma- 
terially modifying the nutrition of the part on which it is prac- 
tised, and that it will, consequently, be found to exert power over 
morbid deposiiions, solid as well as fluid. 

' Banking's Half^vearlv Abttract January to Julv, 1S47 ; Amer. edit, p. 19G; and 
Iliia. July to l>ecembpr, 1847, p. 203. 

* AnnakHi de IVrapentique, Norembfe. lS-17; citrd in Ranking, Op. dt, Jamrf 
to Jiji»#», lr4'^, p. 1 07. 

' .^1 Ikinult'fl Jahrbiicber, Bd Ixiv., S. 75; cited in Canstatt und Kisenmann, Jabnih 
bcriclit, u. a. w. im Jahrc, I "49. v. 145. Erfancrn. ISTm). 

* H-:)iotin (Ic I* A cade m. xt. 57*J-S2; cited in Britisti and Foreign Medical 
Jalj, ieo4), p.2G8. 



£M£TIA. 309 



LXXVL EMET'IA. 

SmoHTMKs. Emetina, Emeta, Emetinum, Emethim, Emetine. 
Frmck. Emetine, La Mati^re Vomitiye. 
Ginmm* Emetin, Breohstoff^ 

Id the year ISl?, MM. Pelletier and Magendie,^ by a series of 
chemical and j)hysiological experiments, discovered, that the vari- 
ou kinds of ipecacuanha are indebted for their emetic properties 
to a peculiar substance to which they gave the name Emiiine. 
This substance possesses the emetic power in a very concentrated 
lUte, and blM neither the dkagreeable smell, nor the nauseous 
taste of ipecacuanha. They considered, therefore, that it might 
be advantageously substituted for ipecacuanha on all occasions. 

There are two varieties of the active principle — the colovred 
and the pure — which, as Magendie remarks,' bear the same rela<* 
tion to each other as moist sugar does to the white and crystal- 
filed. Ipecacuanha, derived from cephaelis ipecacuanha, contains 
the most emetia. 

Emetia has been received into many of the Pharmacopoeias, as 
tte Parisian, Batavian, Hanoverian, &c. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

1. Coloured Emetia. — Powdered ipecacuanha is digested 
in ether at 609 (.720) to dissolve the fatty matter whence it 
derives its disagreeable odour, and which possesses no emetic 
virtue. When the powder yields nothing more to ether, it is ex- 
hausted bv means of alcohol: the alcohol is then evaporated in a 
water-bath, and the residue is dissolved in cold water. It thus 
loses some of the wax, and a little fatty matter, which still ad- 
hered to it; it is then only necessary to mix it with carbonate of 
magnesia^ whereby it loses its gallic acid, — to redissolve it in 
alcoholy and to evaporate to dryness. 

By a similar process, M. Bouflay obtained from the roots, leaves, 
flowers and seeds o{' Viola odoratOy an active, alkaline, -bitter 
and acrid principle, similar to emetia from ipecacuanha, which he 
denominates emetine of the violet j indigenous emetine or vio- 
line. According to Orfila, it possesses highly poisonous qualities.' 

2. Pure emetia — Cephaelinuniy of Bischon. — This is obtained 
by substituting calcined magnesia for the carbonate used in the 
process just described, in such quantity, that the acid existing in 
the liquid may be neutralized, and that which is associated with 
the emetia be separated from it. The precipitate of magnesia and 
emetia must now be washed with a little very cold water ^ to re* 
move the colouring matter, which is not combined with magnesia ; 

' Journal de Pharmacie, iii. 145; and Magendie*a Formulaiie pom la pr^paratioD de 
plmieure noaveanx m^dicamena^ dec. * Op. dt 

' Jonnial De Pharmacie, Janner, 1S94. 



310 EMSTIA. 

and, after being carefully dried, it must be treated with alcohol^ 
which dissolves the emetia. The emetia obtained by the evapo- 
ration of the aicoholi must then be dissolved in a dilute acid, and 
treated with pure animal charcoal. After this purificationi the 
emetia must be precipitated by a salifiable base. The waters used 
to wash the magnesian precipitate still contain emetia, which may 
be separated by a second series of operations. 

Coloured emetia appears in the form of reddbh brown, trans- 
parent scales; is almost inodorous, and of a bitter, but not nau- 
seous taste. It can withstand the heat of boiling water withoat 
experiencing change; is very deliquescent, soluble in water, and 
not crystallizable. 

Pure emetia has a white and frequently a somewhat yellowish 
appearance; is pulverulent, and does not deliquesce, like the for- 
mer, in the air. In cold water, it is but little soluble; more so in 
warm. In ether and alcohol, it dissolves readily. Its taste is 
feebly bitter. It has an alkaline reaction, is dissolved by all the 
acids — diminishing their acidity, but without wholly neutralizing 
them. With the acids it forms crystallizable compounds, from 
which it may be precipitated by galls, which are the best agents 
for obviating the effects of emetia, when given in too large a dose. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN HEALTH. 

According to Magendie,^ from half a grain to two or three 
grains of coloured emetia given to dogs and cats, excited vomit- 
mg, at times followed by long sleep. In larger doses, — ten grains* 
for example, — it occasioned, in dogs, repeated vomiting, after 
which the animal fell asleep, and generally died in twenty-four 
hours. On dissection, violent inflammation was found in the lungs, 
and in the mucous membrane of the stomach and bowels through- 
out their whole extent. The effects were the same when the 
emetia was injected into the jugular vein, or absorbed from any 
part of the body. In a healthy man, two grains of coloured 
emetic taken fasting, produced repeated vomiting, to which su<^ 
ceeded a decided disposition to sleep. Even a quarter of a grain, 
at times, induced nausea and vomiting. It acted also on the 
bowels. 

The effects of pure emetia are analogous, but more powerful: 
two grains were sufficient to kill a strong dog. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

The same effects are induced on the morbid as on the healthy 
economy. Magendie recommends the administration of coloured 
emetia — as the pure is much too dear — in every case where it is 
desirable to excite vomiting, and especially where ipecacuanha is 
indicated. It has not, however, been much used, except by Ma- 
gendie himself. M. Lerminier, who prescribed it, says that one or 

'Opcdtmt. 



£M£TIA. 311 

two grains of coloured emetia are equal in strength to from ten to 
twenty of ipecacuanha ; but that he observed no difference in their 
operation, and Dr. Domeier^ appears to have arrived at the same 
eonclusion. The obvious advantages it possesses are — the con- 
venient and agreeable form under which it may be administered, 
and the circumstance that several spurious sorts of ipecacuanha 
are frequently passed off in commerce, and occasion, in conse- 

?Qence, considerable disappointment in the mind of the practitioner. 
?he employment of the active principle of course precludes these 
inconveniences.^ 

Prollius has frequently administered pure emetia, which he re- 
commends as a substitute for ipecacuanha, on the grounds above 
mentioned ; and he properly adds, that the price is not a matter of 
to much moment as it might seem to be, by reason of the very 
mall quantity required to produce the desired effects.. 

When made into an omtment, with lard, and rubbed on the 
skin, it produces a great number of small painful pustules, which 
ndther suppurate nor leave pits. It may be used in all cases in 
which the unguentum antimonii is needed ; and where it cannot be 
applied, as on the face. It has been rubbed on the chest in dii^ 
eases of the lungs ^ nervous palpiiationj and rheumatic pains? 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

To produce vomiting, three grains of coloured emetia may be 
dissolved in any vehicle, and given in divided doses, at short in- 
tervals. In several cases, with Dr. Domeier,^ one ^in was 
amply sufficient. Of pure emetia, Magendie found, m a man 
eighty-five years of age, one-sixteenth of a grain enough to in- 
duce vomiting. He remarks, however, that the man was easily 
made to vomit. Prollius founcl the medium dose of pure emetia, 
for an adult, to be from two-sixteenths to three-sixteenths of a 
grain ; sometimes it was requisite to give another sixteenth. Very 
rarely had he to give more than four-sixteenths, or one-fourth of 
a erain. As, on account of its sparing solubility, pure emetia, 
when given alone, might be restricted m its operation, Prollius 
adds an equal portion of tartaric acid, and a little sugar. 

liitnra emetis vomitoria. 

Emetic mixture of emetia. 

* B. Emet. colorat. gr. iv. 

Infus. flor. aurant. f ^ij. 
Syrup, fior. aorant. f §88. M. 

Dose.— A dessert-spoonful every half hour, — to excite vomit- 
ing. Any simple distilled water and syrup may be substituted 
for those of orange flowers. Magendie. 

* London Medical Gaaette, Sept 14, 1839, p. 229. 

* Cliniqae M6dicaks, ToL i. Pirii» 1823. 

* AKfaenbranner, Dm neiMrea Armeiiiiiltely a. i. w. a 108. Eriangen, 1848. 
'OpicitaL 



Piitllll QBttiB peeUriilei. 

Pectoral lozenges ofemeiia, 

R. Emetic colorat. gr. xxxij. 
Saoohar. 5iT. 
Macilag. q. 6. at fiant pastilU, pond. gr. vu aing. 

These losenges are commonly coloured red, to distingiiish tbem 
from those of ipecacoaiiha. A little carmine may be added for 
tkia purpose. 

Given in caaes of catarrh^ hatgjing-coughf chronic diarrhoiaj 
&c. 

Dose. — One loaenge occasionally. Magtndie* 

PaitilU emetic Tomltorii. 

Emetic lozenges ofemetia. 

B. Emetise colorat. gr. xxxij. 
Sacch. ^ij. 
Macilag. q. 6. at fiant pastill. pond. gr. zviij. singal. 

Dose. — One of these lozenges, taken fasting, is generally 
enough to make a child Tomit : three or four are required for an 
adult. Magendie. 

liitara tBetic parifieatc YOBitarlt. 

Emetic mixture qf purified emetia. 

R. Emetise parif. — in paaxil. acid. nitr. solat. — gr. j* 
Infos, flor. tilis f .^iij. 
Synip. althce f ^j. M. 

Dose. — A dessert spoonful to be given every quarter of an 
hour, until vomiting is induced. 



LXXVII. ER'GOTA. 

Stnontmes. Secale Coraotum sea Laxarians sea Clavatam, Clavus 
Secalinus, Calcar Secalis Mater, Seroina Monstrosa Secalis Cerealia, 
Ustilago, Clavas Siliginia, Sparred Rye, Corned Rye« The Spar, Ergot, 
Horn seed. 

French. Seigle ergote, Ergot de Seigle, Ble cornu. Clou de Seigle, Mere 
de Seigle, Bled avorte, b. 6irouche, Faux Seigle, Seigle coruu oa cor- 
rompu, S. Ji eperon, S. ergotise, S. ivre, S. noir. 

German. Mutlerkorn, Gebarpulver, Afterkorn, Schwarzkorn, 
Aelzroggen, Hahnensporn. 

The effects which this substance is capable of exerting on the 
uterus are so well known as not to need any lengthened descrip- 
tion. Its employment in parturition having been revived in this 
country, there are but few who are ignorant of its reputed proper* 
ties. Certain other effects have, however, been ascribed to it, in 
very recent times, which require mention. 

Spurred rye or ergot — the latter being the common name, from 



EBQOTA. iSlS 

its '^spurred'' appearance^ — is usually considered to be the result 
of a disease in rye, occurring most frequently when a hot summer 
succeeds a rainy spring." DecandoUe, however, regards it as a 
parasitic fungus, which he terms Sclerotium clavus; whilst Le- 
Teille esteems it to be a fungus giving a coating to the diseased 
ffrain — the medical virtues residing in the coating. This fungus 
he calls Sphacelia segetum. Brande refers it to the Natural 
Order Fungaceae, ^nd tenns it Spermo'edia clavus; and in the 
last edition of the London PharmacopGeia, it is referred XoAcinula 
clavus of Fries ;^ but, according to Lindley, Fries has no such plant 
in any of his works; and the only species of Acinula known, •/^ca- 
nula candicans, is found on the rotten leaves of the common 
alder, and among melting snow ; its organization is of another kind 
from that of the spermoedia; and Fries, who regards the other as 
a morbid state of the grain of certain grasses, regards acmula as 
a true fungus.* M. Debourge considers, that ergot is an animal 
product of the telephorus family. The insect deposits a liquid of 
its own formation on a grain of rye, and produces the ersot ; 
whence it follows, he conceives, that ergot may be produced at 
pleasure by expressing this liquid upon all the grains of rye that 
are within a certain period of their maturity.^ 

"Mr. Smith^ and Mr. Quekett,^ however, maintain that ergot is 
not a fungus but a diseased state of the grain occasioned by the 

growth of a fungus not previously detected : to this fungus the 
tter gives the name Ergoiastia^ abortans or Ergoisetia ahor^ 
Ufacicns, By the microscope, they discovered sporules, sporidia, 
or jointed bodies, which appeared to be the reproductive particles 
of the fungus.' 

Mr. Francis Bauer,^® who has made ergot a subject of parti- 
cular study, and who, many years ago, undertook, at the sug- 
gestion of Sir Joseph Banks, a series of careful microscopical 

* French, ergoU a **8pur." 

* Dr. Wright, Edinb. Med. and Surg. Joum., Jan. 1841. * Syst MycoL 

^ Brande'a Dictionary of tho Materia Medica, p. 233, Lend. 1839. Sec, also, Venus, 
Orandrin dcr Medicin. Receptirkunst, u. s. w. S. 347, Weimar, 1838 ; and the opinions 
of Schreher, De Gcer, Parroenticr, BufTon, Von MiJnchaascn.TeaBier, Zuckert, nosrig, 
Hobe, Ay men, Robeit, Tillet, &c., in Wright, op. cit. 

* Soei lie's Savantes, in Encyclographie des Sdenoes M^dicales, Avril. 1838; and 
A. Richard, Elements d'Histoire Naturclle M^dicale, 4eme 6dit ii. 13, Paris, 1849. 

■ Transactions of the Linnean Societv of London, xviil Ft 3, p. 449. Lond. 1840. 

^ Riid. p. 453, and London Lancet, June 22, 1839, p. 465. See also an abridgment 
of a communication read by Mr. Quekctt before the Linnean Society, Dec. 4, 1838, with 
iOostrativc wood cuts, in American Journal of Pharmnc}% for July, 1839, p. IIG. For 
remarks on an insect met with in the diseased grain, see a paper by Mr. Muller, of 
Butler county, Pa^ with comments by Dr. Carson, in Amer. Journal of Pharmacy ibr 
Jan. 1839, p. 2G9. 

* From ergota, and atiria, ** cause." 

' See the views of Quekett, Zink, Corda and others on the fungus, to which Dr. Pe- 
reira has given tho name Oidium abortifacieita^ ergot-mouldt from •€?, "an egg," 
and itSi(, " resemblance ;*' in Pereira*s Elements of Mat Med. and Thcrap. 8d edit. voL 
3, Pt i., p. 944. Lond. 1850. 

*' Trennctions of the Linnean Society of London, zvm. Pt. 3, p. 481. Lond. 1840. 



314 ERGOTA. 

observations with a view to determine the nature and cause of tluit 
singular production, does not consider the question as to the came 
of the ergot to be finally and satisfactorily settled. He states that 
he is not convinced that the filamentous fungi with numerooB 
sporidia, pointed out by various recent observers, are the cause or 
the consequence of the ergot: — because, first — every gramineow 
plant is equally infected with that minute filamentous fungus, yet 
very few of these plants produce ergots, — amongst agricultonil 
grams, the rye being the only one that is subject to the disease; and 
secondly J in autumn all decaying plants are infected with sudi 
filamentous fungi and minute sporidia. M. Bauer's investigationt 
led him, however, to determine the ergot to be a morbid condition 
of the seed. 

Ergot is in grains, from a third of an inch to an inch and a half 
long, and from a line to three lines in diameter, usually curved 
like the spur of a cock, having commonly two longitudinal fur^ 
rows, and often irregularlv cracked and nssured. Externally, it 
is of a dingy -purple hue; mtemally of a pale grayish-red or gray- 
ish-white. Its odour is peculiar, fishy and nauseous; taste ob- 
scurely acrid and disagreeable. Unless excluded from the air, it 
swells and softens, acquiring a deep black colour and heavy smell; 
and becoming infested by a little acarus, which is about one-fourth 
the size of the mite of cheese, and destroys the interior of the er- 
got, leaving the grain as a mere shell. In four months, seven 
and a half ounces of fecal matter of the acarus were formed from 
seven pounds of ergot.^ The powder becomes quickly damp, and 
full of animalcules. It ought, therefore, to be fresh: certainly not 
to be kept for a longer period than two years. 

To prevent the formation of the parasites, Mr. Rowle^ keeps a 
small piece of camphor in the stopper bottle which contains the 
ergot. This soon annihilates the whole race of insects, and adds 
greatly to the certainty of the effect of the medicine. The plan had 
been recommended before by Dr. Bright.^ It has been advised 
that the camphor should be mixed with the ergot, in the propor- 
tion of a gram to a scruple.^ 

It has been proposed to dip the dried ergot in a concentrated 
solution of gum Arabic; to dry this on a plate of white iron; and 
when it is dry, to repeat the process two or three times; keep- 
ing it afterwards in a well stopped bottle.* A recent writer* 
has advised the following method for preserving it in good con- 
dition for several years. First, To reduce fresh well dried ergot 

* Percira, Blcmpnts of Mat Med . and Therap. iL 1 (>. Lond. 1 842 ; or 2d A mer. edit 
by Camm, Fhilad. 184(). « Lond. Lancet, Aug. 10, 1841. 

' Edinb. Med. and Surg. Joum. Na 141, and Lond. Lancet, Aug. 24, 1844. 

* Mr. Simpson, liond. Lancet, Sept 7, Itt44. 

* M. Martin, Joum. de Chim. Med^ Avril, 184L 

« V.Logrip, in Journal dc Chioiie Mddicale, cited in Lend, and Gdinh. Monthly Joum. 
of Med. Bcmaot, April, 1845. 



fiAOOTA. 315 

to powder. Secondly, To expose the powder to a temperature 
of 112^ or 120° Fahrenheit, in order to dry it thoroughly and 
quickly. Thirdly, To put it into ^lass bottles not exceeding a 
hectogramme, (about three ounces) m size, and seal them herme- 
tically. Fourthly. To withdraw it from the action. of light by 
shutting it up either in a dark place, or by covering the bottles 
with black paper. 

Mr. R. M. Nunn, of Wexford, extols the following plan of pre- 
senration, of which he speaks from experience.* Procure a choice 
specimen of ergot; reduce it to powder; have in readiness a suffi- 
GKDt number of two dram bottles; into each bottle put one dram 
of sulphuric ether, (alcohol may do as well) and then press in two 
drams of the powdered drug : (if the bottles are of the proper 
size, a slight pressure will be necessary to make them hold this 
quantity:) then cork well, and either seal with wax or coyer with 
bladder. When required for use, put the contents of one of the 
bottles into a tumbler; and pour on them a small quantity of boiling 
water: violent effervescence takes place, which speedily subsides, 
and during which the ether is evaporated. As much boiling 
water may then be added as is necessary. It is instantly fit for 



As it is important to jud^e between a good and a bad specimen 
Dr. Wright remarks,^ that if it be clear and smooth on the sur- 
face; not powdery; of a deep purple colour; neither entirely 
Uack nor light brown; having a full strong odour; breaking clear- 
ly; exhibiting a pink blush interiorly; unpunctured by insects; 
Imming with a clear jetting flame, and of a less specific gravity 
than water, its activity may be trusted. 

It has been affirmed, as the result of actual trials, that ergot 
picked from growing rye is much more powerful than that which 
18 gathered on the barn floor after the grain had been threshed.' 

When examined by the microscope, the internal structure of 
ergot is found to consist of minute roundish cells, many of which 
contain particles of oil. The bloom seen, at times, on its surface, 
seems to be composed of the sporidia of the fungus, to which it 
is believed by many to owe its origin.* 

Chemical analysis has thrown no light on the cause of its pro- 
perties. According to the analysis of Vauquelin' it contains a 
colouring matter of a yellowish hue; a white oily substance; a vio- 
let-colouring matter insoluble in alcohol ; a free acid, which is 
in part phosphoric ; a very abundant vegeto-animal matter, which is 
greatly disposed to putrefaction, and furnishes much thick oil and 
ammonia on distillation: and a small quantity of free ammonia, 

^ London Lancet, cited in Med. Examiner, Oct 19, 1844, p. 251. 

> Edinb. Med. and Surg. Joum. Oct 1839, p. 29a 

" Bottcher and Kloge, cited by Chriatison, Di^penaitOTy, p. 414. Edinb. 1842. 

* ChrbtiMD, Op. dt, p. 411. EdinK 1842. 

• Memoir, du Mufeum, m. 198, Faria, 1817. 



316 EBGOTA. 

which may be obtained at the temperature of boiling water. A 
more recent analysis has been made by Maas,^ of Hamburg. Ebe 
found it contain gluten; ammonia or a peculiar alkali; acetic add; 
a violet-colouring matter: resin; fixed oil; an alkaline acetate; 
but neither starch, hydrocyanic acid, narcotina, nor phosphoric 
acid, which some had discovered in it.^ It has likewise been 
analyzed by Bonvoisin, Pettenkofer, Winkler, Robert, Wiggers,* 
Legrip,^ and others. The analysis of Wiggers is very elabo- 
rate. The results were, — a thick white oil, 35.000; white 
fatty matter, 1.0456 ; cerin, 0.7578 ; fungin, 46.1862 ; ergoiin^ 
1.2466; osmazome, 7.7645 ; sugar, 1.5530; gum extractive and 
colouring matter, 2.3250 ; vegetable albumen, 1.4600; phosphoric 
acid and phosphate of potassa, 4.4221; phosphate of lime and traces 
of iron, 0.2922; silica, 1394. Dr. Wright's* analysis furnished 
him with the following constituents and their proportions in 100 
parts of ergot; thick iivhite oil, 31.00; osmazome, 5.50 ; mucilage, 
9.00; gluten, 7.00 ; fungin, 11.40 ; colouring matter, 3.59 ; feciua, 
26.00; salt, 3.10; loss, 3.50. Ergot appears to him to differ 
from sound rye, chiefly in the presence of oil, osmazome and fun* 
gin. He gives the following process for preparing the oil of 
ERGOT.^ Digest ergot in liquor potassae, at a temperature of from 
120^ to 150*^, until a perfect saponaceous mixture is formed. The 
liquid must then be diluted with half its weight of water, be accu- 
rately neutralized by sulphuric acid, and submitted to distillation 
from a salt-water or oil bath. The product is white, adhesive, and 
fatty-looking, almost free frpm empyreuma, and nearly tasteless. 
The readiest and best, but most ex()ensive mode of obtaining it, 
is to pass ether through ergot in fine powder by the process of 
displacement. By allowing the ether to evaporate spontaneously, 
the oil is left in its purest form.^ This Dr. Wright considers to 
be the aclive matter of ergqt ; and he states — as the result of 
positive experiment— that it has the same effect in inducing power- 
ful uterine contractions as ergot itself. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

The effects produced on the animal economy by ergot, when 
eaten as food, are extremely injurious: the aggregate of the symp- 
toms has l)cen termed Ergotism, At times they are limited to 
vertigo, spasms, and convulsions, with a peculiar tingling or for- 
mication in the arms and legs, which has given the affection the 

' BuIIotin (Jcs Scionrcfl Mi-dicales do Fcrussac, xix. 332; and Merat and Do Lens, 
Diet, de MuL Med. art. Ergot 

" For Mr. Buttlevs Analysis, bw Lond. Med. Gaz., Fob. 1831, and for that of Wig- 
(Tcra, Laiuvl, Nov. 10. l.S:l*i,citrd from Allgcm. MiiL Zoitung. 

' Wrinht. Ediiib. Mod. and Surg. Journal. OoL \^:\\\ p. 2i>a 

* Bouohardat, Annuaire de Tliuraprutifiuc. iwur 184.*). p. 44. Faris, 1845. 

' Op. rit. * Edinb. Med. and Surg. Journal, July, 1840. 

' Duhomcl, Amer. Journal of Pharmacy, July, 1841, p. 95. 



ERGOTA. 317 

name amons the Germans ofKriebelkrankheit or ^^ creeping 
disease." Most commonly, the limbs waste away, lose sensation 
and the power of motion, and separate from the body by dry gan- 
grene — constituting gangrenous erethism or mildew mortijica'- 
tion*^ These, however, are the toxical, not the therapeutical, 
effects of the agent .^ 
The extraordinary property, ascribed to ergot, of. assisting the 

Srturient efforts, has long been credited in Germany. Its old 
^rman names, Mutterkorn('' womb-grain"^ and Gebarpul- 
▼ er {** parturient powder,*^ pulvis ad partum,) are sufficient evi- 
dences of this notion ; but, for a long time, this was rather a mat- 
ter of popular than of scientific belief, although the '^pulvis partU" 
rientts " of the Marburg Pharmacopoeia consisted principally of 
ergot.* 

u pwards of forty years ago, it was recommended in this country 
hjf Dr. John Stearns, of Saratoga county. New York, and since that 
time the weight of testimony adduced in its favour on both sides 
of the Atlantic has been overwhelming. Still, there are many dis- 
tinguished individuals, who deny it all power over the uterus both 
in tne unimpregnated and the impregnated state, and who affirm, 
that it acts only indirectly on that viscus through the general dis- 
turbance it occasions; and that, therefore— like every other internal 
agent administered as an abortive — it ought to be esteemed rather 
indirect than direct in its action. Such is the decided opinion of 
J5rg,^ whose attention has been directed to the effects produced 
by different medicinal agents on the sound and diseased economy, 
and who goes so far as to affirm, from his experiments and obser- 
vation, that there is no " farther connexion between these dege- 
nerate grains and the uterus, than the word Mutter ('uterus') 
which is common to both." From his various and varied experi- 
ments. Dr. Jorg Infers, that ergot, when given in small doses, pro- 
duces little or no effect upon the functions; but that when fresh 
dried in an oven, and administered in large doses, it oppresses the 
stomach, occasioning nausea, vomiting, colic, liquid evacuations; 
destroys the appetite, and injures the digestive powers ; these effects 
being accompanied by a sense of weight in the head, vertigo, ce- 

' See articles, Convulsio eerealis, and Ergoti\fm^ in the author*? Medical Ix^xicon, 
7th edit., Philad. 1848; also, his Therapeutics, p. 27*2, Philad. Ie3t»; or his General 
Therapeutics and Mat. Mcd^ 4th edit. ii. 11>7, Fhilad. 18.'0 ; and a case of K r ie bcl- 
krankheit, induced by ergot, in Med. Times for July, lr^47, recorded hy Dr. R. R. 
NuttaU. 

*See Cliristison on Poisons, 3d edit chap. xL Wright, op. cit. p. 307, and Jan. 
1840, p. 9. 

• Wright, op. cit. p. 22. See, on the hirfory of Ergot. Ranibtiotham, Principles and 
Practice of Obstetric Medicine and Surgery ; appendix, Amcr. edit Philad. 1 H45. 

* Dass dcr Oebrauch inner Reizmittel zur Bcfonlerung dcr Geburt des Kindes unno- 
thig, ffuchtios, und gesundcn Frauen sojjar sch'adlich sei; u. s. w. S. 40, Zcit. 1h:{3. 
See, also, Pereira, op. cit. p. 019, and Ronji^n, in Rapj»ort de MM. Bupsy, Polletier, 
Dubaili Frenay p^re et F. Boudet, in Joum. de Pharmacie, Ftvrier, ld42, p. 175. 

21 



818 EaGOTA. 

phalalgia, and by ^neral torpor of the system. Under these cir- 
cumstancesy he thinks, it is not difficult to understand, that the 
connexion between the fcetus and the uterus may be modifiedj ftiid 
abortion take place. The researches of M. Arnal/ satisfied him, 
that the first action of er^ot is on the intestinal canal, in the om- 
cous membrane of which it produces an inflammation sui generis 
(?), and anatomical lesions, which remind the observer of those 
seen in typhoid fever; whilst the greater part of the phenomeni 
seen towards the termination of poisoning by it resemble many of 
those of the same malady. The composition of the blood he found 
flrreatly altered. It was rendered more diffluent; a portion of ha 
fibrin was removed; and, if long continued, it produced softening 
of the gums, and pathological phenomena, analogous to those of 
scurvy. 

The author caused various experiments to be instituted with 
erffot in doses of half a dram, and a scruple, of the powder, 
and in the form of the oily matter referred to below. These 
were made on both males and females; and the general efiects 
were those described by Dr. Jorg ; — when the dose was too large, 
nausea or vomiting often resulting, with signs of narcosis. Thcj 
were made, at the author's desire, by Drs. Cottman and M'Kee, 
at the time resident physicians at the Philadelphia Hospital.* A 
case of narcosis, produced by this drug in the dose of thirty graioi 
-—administered for the purpose of restraining a real or supposed 
tendency to hemorrhage after the expulsion of the placenta — was 
communicated to the author by Dr. Beckwith, of Raleigh, North 
Carolina.^ 

Dr. Hooker, of New Haven,^ found, when a quantity of pal- 
verized ergot was macerated for several days in sulphuric ether, 
and the liquid evaporated in a c;Iass vessel until it no longer 
afforded a smell of ether, that there remained at the bottom of 
the vessel a small quantity of thick heavy oil, resembling in ap- 
pearance fish oil ; above this was a lighter oil, much more abun- 
dant than the former, of a light reddish brown colour, and of a 
sweetish nauseous taste. The light oil was found to be possessed 
of decidedly narcotic properties. In two experimental cases, the 
effects of ergot continueil apparent for nearly a week ; the pupils 
of the eye were dilateil : the pulse, respiration, and capillary action 
were very slow, and the skin liviJ, — with loss of appetite, general 
languor and lassitude, and rigiditv and soreness of the muscles: 

' S«x' « Kfssmt, by M. Piorn. &( iho Meii.irt of M. Anul m Boocbudat, An- 
nuatrr ot* l'bon{.vut:^ue p.>ur l<4i\ )v 1:24. 

' Aokrr. Mc\i lD:rII^^*lK>:r. Sopt I. 1S3:\ pk. 161. Scv. alft>. M. Cordvr. in Joam. 
Gciv de M«.\l .\xh!. l<*2ll. juvl i\ T. IV Gra\inji. in .\nni^ Univenali di McdioDa. 
0»tX4V. 15^^^ c^l^^^ in Brli anj IV. Mc\l. Rev. Got. 1>I0. p. 5JvV. 

• Aracc. Mcxi Inirilkviwrr. Oct 15. 1?;3»\ p. CI 3. S<e. aI*x Tfwwraa and Pidooz, 
Trmite i&e Thenp. i. Tviio. Para^ 1?37. 

« ligrtMi .\M. and Swf. Jounul. x. 2:^, BoMon. 1^37. 



XRGOTA. 319 

tiKMe of the thighs and other parts of the lower extremities being 
more particularly affected. For three days^ the pulse continued 
below fifty, with a proportionate infrequency of respiration.^ 

In the experiments made with this substance, by Dr. M^Kee,* 
be found that in every case, when given in doses of from ten to 
forty drops, it at first produced slight exhilaration of the spirits 
with increase of circulation; but these symptoms were soon fol- 
lowed by sedation, and in the larger doses by nausea, also. The 
sedative properties were equally exhibited in experiments insti- 
tuted on the healthy individual, by Dr. Q. Gibbon,^ of Salem, 
New Jersey, with the decoction, extract, and oil. The experi- 
ments of Dr. De Gravina,^ led him to infer that ergot is a direct 
sedative, like digitalis, and hence he considers it a good antiphlo- 
gistic remedy, and well calculated to lower the vitsJ powers. 

An ethereal solution has been prepared by Dr. Rees, by digest- 
ing four ounces of powdered ergot in four fluidounces of ether 
for seven days. The ether dissolves the fatty matters contained 
in the drug. It is then poured off, evaaporated to dryness, and 
the residue again dissolved in two fluidounces of ether. Repeated 
trials of this preparation have been made by Mr. J. C. W. Lever,' 
who affirms that it acts most powerfully on the parturient powers 
of the uterus during and after labour. What is singular, — Mr. 
Lever remarics, — whilst all the other preparations of ergot not un- 
fraquently produce acro-narcosis, he has not once seen these symp- 
toms supervene on the use of the ethereal solution. He thinks 
the^ are most probably caused by some constituent of the drug, 
which ether does not dissolve, — a view which cannot be recon- 
ciled with the results of the experiments detailed above. Each 
ounce of the preparation. Dr. Rees thinks, may be considered 
equivalent to two ounces of ergot ; or fifteen drops to half a dram 
dose of the powdered drug. Mr. Lever gave it, dropped upon 
sugar, in doses varying from fifteen drops to thirty, and found 
that uterine action commenced in twenty minutes or half an hour. 

Although ei^ot is capable of producing the acro-narcotic effects 
described above," their supervention is not desired b^ those who 
regard it to be possessed of peculiar powers by which it causes 

' See Amer. Med. IntcUigencsTi Dec. 15, 1837, p. 329. A case has been recently 
poblkhed, t^ Dr. Myddleton Micbel, of sudden death, which he ascribes to ergot taken 
with the view of producing abortion in one who, owing to her having been previously 
ufflicted, in two attacks, with well-marked opisthotonos and eniprosthotonos and nervous 
depreasion of the vital energies, was a fit 8ul)jcct for the occurrence of such £ital re- 
sqUs. It does not, however, appear to the author as clearly as it does to the nar- 
rator of the case, tliat the sudden — immediate— death, was owing to the toxical influence 
of the ergot. Charleston Med. Journal and Review for Sept. 1650. 

•ftid. Septl, 1839, p. 161. 

' Amer. Joum. of the Medical Sciences Jan., li^44, p. 2A4, * Op. cit. 

• London Medical Gazette, April 10, 1840, p. 108. 

• Bo^jean, cited in Bouchardat, Annuaire de Th^rapeutique, poor 184?, p. 85. 
PtoM,1843. 



320 ERGOTA. 

contraction of the uterine fibres of the parturient female^ and who 
administer it with that view. When given in appropriate and 
properly repeated doses^ the uterine action, they assert, becomet 
more energetic, and the contractions constant and almost unremit- 
ting; but there is no accompanying disorder. Cases are on record' 
in which it has appeared to induce rupture of the uterus, where 
the obstacles to delivery were invincible. It has been largely 
administered, and in no country, perhaps, more than in Out* 
Practitioners of eminence — here and elsewhere — have placed the 
fullest reliance on its powers to excite contraction of the uterine 
fibres, and although in many of the cases which fell under their 
observation, the parturient efforts might have recurred without 
the agency of the ergot, this could scarcely have been the case 
with the remainder. From the results, therefore, of these cases^ 
we seem compelled to admit, that ergot is possessed of expulsive 
properties by which it acts upon the parturient uterus; but that 
it is capable of producing any effect upon the unimpregnated 
uterus, or upon the impregnated, at any time except when par^ 
turition has commenced, is denied by many. It has been affinned, 
indeed, that in the neighbourhood of Trois Croix, in France, there 
was, during the season of 1841, an epizootic abortion amongpt 
the cows, which had produced much consternation amongst the 
farmers; and that M. Bodin,* director of the school of agricultniey 
had discovered that the grains of rye, and of many other of the 
gramincT, contained a considerable quantity of ergot. This, he 
concluded, was the cause of the epizootic. On the other hand, 
the experiments of Dr. Wright,^ and of Dr. De Gravina,* seem to 
exhibit the singular fact, that ergot appears to have the power 
of prohns^ing gestation in the guinea pig and rabbit, when ad- 
ministered for a considerable period !' The result of all observa- 
tions precludes the belief, that the increased parturient efforta 
resulting from its agency are produced indirectly by violence 
done to the constitution of the mother, inasmuch as, m most of 
the recorded cases of benefit accruing from its administration, no 
such violence would appear to have been perpetrated. Yet, ad- 
mitting the full power ascribed to ergot, in these cases, it can be 
rarely necessary to have recourse to it; and it is doubtless often 
employed, where the propriety of the administration of it, or of 
any other agent, is extremely questionable. A writer, who places 
the discovery of its powers in the same rank with that of the 
vaccine virus, states, that he has administered it in 1500 cases!* 
But the effect produced by ergot upon the mother has not been 

' IX'Imas, Journal dc Mt-ilcciiic do Montprllipr, and Journal de Pharmacies Juin, ItM2, 
p. 5Ut. 

= Journal dc Mod. ct Chirurc Pratiq. Oct 1 ?4 1. •Op. cit * Op. cit 

» Brit and For. Med. Review. Oct. I«*40, p. 5otu 

• AVardleworth, Esaay on the Chemical. BoUnical, Phyiinl and Partuiient Proper- 
ties of the Secale Comutnm. London, 1S40. 



EBGOTA. 321 

the only topic of interest in regard to its use in parturition. It 
has been maintained by many, that, since its introduction, the 
number of the still-born has auraiented, and that observation has 
sufficiently shown, that where it is given to expedite delivery, 
more or less danger always accrues to the offspring;^ either by the 
induction of asphyxia, or of positive death, owing to the violence 
of the uterine contractions, or to the deleterious agency of the 
drug on the fcBtus in utero.* Observations by Dr. Hardy ,^ of 
Dublin, show, that it exerts a powerful sedative influence on the 
action of the heart of both mother and foetus. But even were we 
to admit its prejudicial efiect on the foetus to be true — and it has 
been deposed to by many obstetricians — and that the number of 
the still-born is greater than formerly — which, however, appears 
to be by no means the case — its influence could be but small, and 
could not account for the statistical differences that have been 
noticed.^ 

Mr. Braithwaite' affirms, that in order that ergot should act 
perniciously on the child, it is necessary that its action on the 
uterus should be uninterrupted. He has seldom or never seen 
any bad effects on the child when the patient had some rest 
between the pains. In many cases, it has been largely adminis- 
tered, and yet the child has been born alive. Dr. James Patterson,^ 
of Glasgow, details the particulars of a case in which the enor- 
mous quantity of four ounces was given, yet the movements of the 
child continued lively; and he refers to an excellent paper, now 
before the author, by Professor Von Busch,^ of Berlin, which 
contains a reference to one hundred and seventy-five cases, in 
which it was given on account of deficient labour-pains. One 
hundred and seventy-seven children were born ; of these, one hun- 
dred and forty-two were born alive; eighteen in a state of asphyxia, 
which was removed by appropriate treatment; and seventeen still 
bom. Of the seventeen dead, seven had evidently died before 
labour, and were more or less putrid; and ten, during labour; of 
these^two lost their lives from turning; one from presentation of 
the breech; two from prolapsus of the funis; one from narrow pel- 

* Cbevane, in Transact of the Provincial Med. and Surg. Aasociation, iv. 306, Lon- 
don, 1836. Huston, North American Med. and Surg. Journal, 18Q9; and Chatto, in 
London Med. Gaz., July 13, 1839, p. 575 ; alao, Reports of Med. Society of London, 
in Lancet, Oct 26, 18^, p. 168, and Wright, £dinb. Med. and Surg. Journal, Jan., 
1840, p. 25. 

* Mojon, in Gaz. M6d. de Paris, 19 Janv., 1839; and T. E. Beatty, Dublm Journal 
of Med. Science, May, 1844, p. 218. 

' DuUin Journal of Medical Science; cited in Med. Examiner, for Jan., 1848, p. 75. 
« Ayeiy, in Transact of the Med. Society of the Stote of New York, vol. iii. Pt 2, 
p^ 185, Albany, 1837. 

* Retrospect of Pract Med. and Surg., vol i. Na 1, p. 181, 3d edit London, 1842. 
" Lond. Med. Gaz., June 1, 1839, p. 337. See, on this subject, E. Warren, New 

England Quarterly Journal of Medicine and Surgery. July, 1842, p> 10. 

^ Die gebiirtBchQlflicbe Klinik an der koniglichen Friedrich-Wilhehna'UniveTBitat zu 
BciiiD, in nene Zeiticfarift fur Geburtskunde, u. a. w. B. v. H. 1 8. 107. BerliD,1837. 



33S EBGOTA. 

Tis and detention of the head therein; one from the long doratioD 
of the foarth stage of labour; one from a difficult forceps caae» 
which required perforation afterwards; one from a peculiar de* 
formity o? the extremities; and one from no assignable cause; so 
that, of the one hundred and seventy-seven cases, there was bat 
one which could be referred to the agency of ergot, and there 
was no reasonable ^ound for such reference. 

A recent writer^ is disposed to think, that ergot, improperly ad* 
ministered, produces puerperal convulsions as a remote effect, — and 
that it gives rise to hour-glass contraction, and to a predisposition 
to hydrocephalus in the early stage of infantile life ! The chief or 
only cases m which Dr. Catiett seems to think it admissible mre^ 
when there is serious hemorrhage, owing to detachment of the 
placenta, acoomfMnied bv deficient uterine tone; and in the latter 
stage of labour, in checking hemorrhage from whatever cause. 

Dr. Frank Ramsbotham,' who regards ergot as capable of ex* 
erting specific powers on the uterus at all perils of utero-gestation, 
and who has referred to several cases of premature labour, induced 
in his own practice by its use, is disposed to conclude, that al* 
though it may bring on labour without having recourse to any 
operation, yet that it does not present a more likely, or indeed, so 
probable a means of saving the infant as the dfder method of 
puncturing the membranes; and he infers, from his ezperienos^ 
that whatever might have been the quantity admmistered, unless 
it exerted a decided influence over the uterus, the child suffered 
no detriment.* 

Dr. Paterson* and Mr. Heane* have directed ergot snccessfblly 
in large doses with the view of inducing premature labtmr* 
The former of these gentlemen is disposed to think, that its 
abortive properties are not exerted upon the impregnated uteros 
at an early period of utero-gestation, but that, at a certain stage 
of development, the uterine fibres are capable of being excited by 
it so as to expel the foetus. It would be strange were its agency 
to be thus restricted. 

When ergot was found to be possessed of the power of excitvng 
uterine contractions^ it was philosophical to employ it in retention 
of the placenta^ in after-painsy^ and in cases of uterine hemoT" 
rhagCy and of convulsions^ in the parturient state, accompanied by 
atony of the uterus.* In such cases, means of more speedy action 

> Catiett, Edinb. Med. and Snrg. Jonmal, Jan. 1843. 

* London Med. Gax., June I5th, 1839. n. 420. See, ite>, Diid. June 98, 1834. 

' See, on this mibject, J. J. Kebo, in London huacei, Jane 88, 1639, p. 4G8; and 
Doparcque, in Revue M6dicale, Man, 1838. 
'Lond.Med.Gaz., June 1,1839, p. 338. See, a&K>, Ibid., Sept, 1838. 

• Ibid., Jan. 26, 1839. For Tarioua opinions on this subject, see Or. Wrigfat, in 
Edinb. Med. and Sorg. Joonial, Jan. 1840, ^ 27. 

" Haffinin,inBerLMed.ZatiHis,June29, l8a6;aidBeal^,iDOpwii^oit 
t Dapocqut, Revue M6d. Mm% 1838. • Vw Bwdk Op. dt i Mtt. 



ER60TA. 323 

• 

are needed ; but still, cases might arise in which its adnuDistration 
might be serviceable, and several such, attesting the benefit ren- 
dered by it, have been published.^ It has been strongly recom- 
mended, likewise, for the prevention or removal of uterine Ae- 
morr/u^e, by Stearns,^ Dewees,' Bradley,^ Abraham,^ Kisch, 
Trousseau,^ T. E. Beatty,'' and others. In a case of copious 
hemorrhage from the uterus connected with polypus, Mr. Moyle* 
administered two drams of the tincture, which was repeated at 
intervals, with the effect of inducing uterine contraction and the 
expulsion of the polypus, " which eaualled in size two large pla- 
centae." He was equally successful in a similar case. Other 
cases, in whicl^ the effect of the ergot was to force down the 
polmus so that a ligature could be applied to it, have been re- 
lated by Dr. Somerville and Dr. M'Farlane.^ 

The employment of ergot has been extended to amenorrhcea,^^ 
and dysmenorrhcea, and to uterine hefnorrhage in the unimpreg' 
noted female, and many cases have been published in confirmation 
of its beinjg possessed of decided virtues." It was thoi^ht, also, 
that it might he serviceable, — and was found so by Bazzoni,'' 
Negri, Langlet," and others, — in leucorrhcea, and in gonorrhcea,^^ 
dynniery,^ &c.; and again, as it proved to be useful m uterine 
hemorrhage, it was conceived that it might exhibit like powers in 
other hemorrhages; and, accordingly, it was given in cases of 
epistaxisy^^ hemoptysis, hamatemesis, htjematuria, &c. In these 
last cases, it has not been so often employed .^^ The author has 
frequently administered it in them, but has never had reason to 
believe that it exerted any efficacy ; and such has been the case 
with MM. Trousseau and Pidoux," Dr. Pereira,*® and others.** 

■ Cuopf, London Med. Gsx^ Jan. 13, 1843. 

* Philaoa. Jonm. of Med. and Phya. Sdeooo, ▼. 44. \* Byalem of MidwifeiT. 

* Uneet, April 15, 1837. * Ibid. ApHB 22, 1^. 

* Joumal del Connoiaaancea^ 1839. 

* Dublin Qaartechr Journal of Med. Science, Maj, 1846, p. 323. 

* I^ond. and Edmb. Montklv Jonm. of Med. Science, June, 184 1 . * Ibid. Aug. 184 1. 

* Enriotti, in Repertorio Med. Chiruig. del Pieroonte, cited in Jouni. dea Connoia- 
moom, Mai% ISSa Lai^t, Bulletin Medical Bdge, Join, 1839, p. 123. Deweea, 
Midwifeij, diapi Amenor^cBa; Looock, Cydop. of Practical Medicine, 1 70. Naucbe, 
Noviveau IHcL de M<^d. et Chirurg., art Eigot ; and Dr. Wright, in Med. and Surg. 
Joomal, Jan. 1840, p. 34. See, abo, Churchill, (with whom it fiiiled,) Diaeaaea of 
Femelea, Amer. Med. Uixaiy edit p. 54. Philada. 1839; and G. Fyfe, Med. Gaaetfe, 
June 18, 1841. 

" G. Fyfe, Op. ali.\ and John Tale, Beaton Med. and Surg. Joumal, July 8, 1846, 
p^459. 

** Annali Unimaali di Medidna, Febi 1831 ; and Ryan, Medical Focmulaiy, p. 264, 
3d edit London, 1839. ^' Op. citat 

** Muller, in Ruat'a Magazin, B. xl. H. iil, cited in Amer. Joumal of the Medical 
Soaaoea, Feb. 1885, p. 527; Ryan, Op. dt and DearueUea, Gaaatta dea Hopitaoz, 
2Juin,1842. 

** Mqjon, Op. dt ^ John Tale, loc dt. 

'^ Duparcque, Op. dt, and De Gravina, Annali Univeraali di Medidna, Ottobre, 1839. 

•• Traite de Th^rap. L 54a Paria, 1837. 

•• Elem. of Mat Med. and Therap. il 925. Lond. 1842. 

" fibe the Mthor'a Genenl Thenp. and Mat Med., 4th edit iL 198. Phibd. 1650. 



9i4 EftGOTA. 

The narcotic or sedative property, however, which it exhiUts in 
certain cases and doses, and the sedative action which it exerts io 
others, may render it, at times, serviceable m these affectiooSy 
whatever may have been the process of reasoning which led ori* 

ginally to its employment.^ 

Where hysteria depends upon simple atony of the eeneratire 
system ; or of the nervous and generative systems comoined. Dr. 
^ardo' found the internal administration of ergot followed by tbe 
rapid removal of tbe disease. His practice consists in giving 
about a scruple of the powder mixed with sugar, in divided doses 
each day, intermitting the dose every third or fourth day. Many 
cases are related by him to show the efficacy of the practice, — 
the hysteria, and tbe irregularity or absence of the menstrusl 
secretion being removed at the same time. In spermatorrhaa^ 
too, dependent upon aton^ or excessive irritation of the genital 
organs, it has been useful m the dose of from three to five grains 
three times a day.^ 

Dr. Wright^ affirms, that when applied to an abraded surfaoey 
it gives rise to profuse sloughing. He tried it on woonds 
nearly healed, and in less than 24 hours they discharged purulent 
matter abundantly, which was generally of an offensive character; 
and tbe wounds, thus treated, even under the application of proper 
curative means, were long and tedious in healing. In the form of 
powder, he found it very serviceable in arresting hemorrhage; 
and not simply in a mechanical manner, as was proved by experi- 
ment. Even in the form of infusion, it possessed the power in 
an extraordinary degree. Muller divided the popliteal artery in 
the sheep, and completely arrested the bleeding by lint dipped in 
an infusion of ergot. The caudal artery, and the anterior crural 
artery of a horse were cut, and tbe bleeding was similarly subdued. 
Dr. Wright says, that he has several times divided the external 
jugular and the saphena major veins, and has never failed to arrest 
the hemorrhage by an infusion of ergot, although with arteries he 
has been generally less successful. In the greater number of his 
experiments, he used a dilute solution of ergot, in the place of 
warm water, to sponge the bruised parts, and always succeeded in 
preventing that continued flow of blood, which is often a serious 
obstacle to the safe direction of the knife. He consequently re- 
commends it as a valuable means of preventing troublesome he- 
morrhage from small vessels in the course of surgical operations; 
and, upon the same principle, believes the injection of a similar 
solution into the uterus, in cases of flooding, will be found to an- 
swer every practical end that can be desired. The decoction has 

* See tome remarks on this subject, by the author, in his Anoer. Med. Intel, vol. i. p. 31 9. 
" Citid in EdinK Med and Surg. Journal, Jan., 1843, p. 225, and in Bouchardat, 



Annuaire de Therapeutique pour 1843, p. 93. Paris, 1H43. 
• Ibid, pour 1848, p. 80. Paris, 184a * Op. ci 



cit., Jan. 1840, p. 20. 



ERGOTA. 325 

proved to be an equally efficacious hsemastatic in the hands of 
others.^ 

In a severe case of epistaxis. Dr. Wright* arrested the hemor- 
rhage by injecting up the nostrils equal parts of very dilute spirit 
and oil of ergot; and he has little doubt, that in the severe cases 
of uterine hemorrhage that follow delivery, the injection of the 
oil diffused through water into the uterus would be productive of 
the happiest results. It proved also serviceable in arresting he- 
morrhage after the extraction of a tooth, and from leech-bites. It 
will be seen, presently, however, that the styptic properties of the 
ergot have been supposed to reside chiefly, if not exclusively, in 
the ergotiny or extract of ergot. 

Snuffed up the nose, powdered ergot was observed, by M. 
Cowperat,^ to have the power of removing the dilatation of the 
pupil caused by belladonna. Dr. J. F. M'Evers* repeated the 
experiment, and found that it did not cause any change when 
employed on the same day with the belladonna ; but, in every case, 
on the subsequent mornmg, whilst the pupils were still largely 
dilated, the ergot had a marked effect in a few minutes. In a 
case of mydriasis he prescribed it with success. 

Dr. Wright found the oil a valuable external application in cases 
of local rheumatism. In three instances, it was entirely suc- 
cessful. The affected part was well rubbed with it for a quarter 
of an hour, night and morning until relief was obtained. He 
states, farther, that it is one of the most valuable remedies with 
which he is acquainted in toothache and has repeatedly known it 
subdue the pain when creasote had failed. By M. Lisfranc,' the 
powder was employed in the dose of from two to eight grains, in 
cases of hypertrophy of the uterus of various kinds, whenever 
reduction of the organ to a less size seemed to be the prominent 
indication; and Dr. Perrine* has published some cases o( periodic 
cal disease^ in which it was administered with advantage during 
the intervals; but no farther results appear to have been elicited. 

M. Payan^ thinks it demonstrated, that ergot is primarily and 
essentially an excitant of the spinal marrow; and he conceives, 
that its action on the uterus, bladder, and muscles of the lower 
extremities is but secondary, from a reflex action transmitted from 
the spinal marrow to those organs through the nerves distributed 
to them. He has given the details of some cases of paraplegia^ 
which seemed to be relieved by it ; an infusion of fifteen grains in 

' Wrigrht, cited in Liston's Lecturesr London Lancet, Aag. 31, 1844, p. 691. 

* Edinb. Med. and Surg. Joum., July, 11^0. 

* Iiondon Medical Gazette, Sept., 184H. 

* Dublin Quarterly Journal of Med. Science, November, 1848. 
■ Pauly'g Lisfranc, translated Inr I>odge, p. 330. Boston, 1839. 

* American Journal of the Medical Sciences for Nov., 1833, p. 279. 

* Revue Medicalc, FCvrier et Mars, 1839; and Journal de Pharmacie, Juin, 1842, 
p. 543. 



326 ](BGOTA. 

water being men at first in the coarse of the day, and the doie 
beiDff gradually augmented.^ 

M. Allier, fils,? from having observed, as he believed, contrao 
tion of the fibres of the bladder under the admmistration of ergot, 
has recommended it highly in cases of retention of urine; uig 
feels himself justified in inferring, from the results of varied o)h 
servation, that it is capable of restoring to the bladder the con- 
tractility it may have lost, owing to immoderate distention ot its 
coats by accumulation of urine; — that its action has been evinced 
in cases in which this land of paralysis has resisted all known 
therapeutical agents; and that, owin^ to the fugacious character 
of its operation, it ought to be admmistered at short intervals, in 
broken doses, and these be long continued. He recommends, that 
it should be commenced in the quantity of a scruple in the dav, 
divided into six e^ual parts; that the dose should be afterwards 
raised to forty grams,^ and then gradually diminished to a scruple; 
and afterwards discontmued by decrees in eight or ten days after 
the cure, in order to consolickite it. A case of retention in Hbfi 
male, cured by ergot, is recordal by Dr. Em^ley,^ of Roscrea. 
Ten grains were given three times a day. Sunilar testimony if 
afforoed by Dr. J. J. Ross,^ of Cambusmore, Dr. Houston, of 
Dublin, Dr. Sainmont,' and others.* 

It has been recommended by Dr. Steinbeck,' m incontinence of 
urinCy from want of power in the sphincter of the bladder. It was 
associated, however, with extract of belladonna, nux vomica, and 
phosphoric acid; so that it is impossible to say what precise influ- 
ence was exerted by it. 

Lastly, m the Annates de la Societe de Mededne de Gand, M. 
Guersant " has published two cases in which he administered it 
with the greatest advantage to effect the expulsion of fragments 
of calculi after the operation of lithotrity. Twenty-lour grains 
were first given in three doses during the day ; but no effect having 
been produced, the dose was increased to thirty grains, when iht 
patient experienced frecjuent desire to pass the urme, followed by 
pain in the hypogastric region, prickmg in the limbs, and slight 
derangement of vision. After using the medicine for five days, 
fragments of calculi were passed, and, during twenty-four hours, 
in three times the quantity that had been discharged during the 
whole previous period sul^equeut to the operation. 

' See, also, Petrequin, BoOetin de TherapeDtique, Mara, 1640. 

* Journal dea Connoiaaancea M^dico-Cbirurfficalea, Nov. 1838. 

* Dublin Medical Preaa. Aprfl 26, 1843. 

* London and Edinburgh Monthly Journal of Med. Science, Jan. 1844, p. 43. 

* Gazette dea Hopitaux, Juillet, 1848, cited in Schniidt*a Jahrbiicher, u. a. w. Na 7, 
S. 17. Jahrgang, 1849. 

* Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal, April 24, 1844. 
^ Median. Zeitung, cited in Lond. Lancet, March 4, 1843. 

* Jounial de Medicine et de Chirurg. Pratiq. Novembre, 1839, 



ERGOTA. 3S7 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The great difference which has been observed in the effects of 
ergot has led to the belief, that there must be much difference in 
the article, and that every care must be taken to have it good. 
Dr. Ryan,^ indeed, affirms that not one dru&^gist or chemist in a 
hundred has it genuine. According to Dr. Wright, if it be clear 
and smooth on its surface; not powdery; of a deep purple colour; 
neither entirely black, nor light brown; have a full strong odour; 
break dearlvi exhibiting a pmk blush internally; be unpunctured 
by insects; bum with a clear jetting flame, and be of less specific 
gravity than water, its activity may be trusted. 

It must be recently pulverized, too, if we are desirous to count 
opon its action when given in this form.^ 

When prescribed with the view of augmenting parturient energy, 
it is most conmionly perhaps given in powdery in the dose of from 
ten to twenty grains, repeated every twenty minutes until the 
eflRsct upon the uterus is elicited. By many, as by M. Arnal,^ it 
is conndered more active than any of its preparations. Professor 
Von Bosch ^ found the best results when it was given in the dose 
of ten grains at short intervals — from ten to fifteen minutes. In 
one case it was requisite to repeat it eight times; in four cases, six 
dotes were sufficient; in twelve, five; m thirty-three, four, and in 
Aft remainder df the one hundred and seventy-five cases, three 
uhd less : the smallest quantity exhibited was a smgle dose of ten 
grnns ; the largest, nine doses of ten grains. Dr. Ryan ^ says the 
Baximam dose is a dram and a half; but it, obviously, cannot be 
tDD8 limited. 

Dr. Samuel Hardy, of Dublm,^ has observed, that it has always 
rwaiiifnced its action within twenty-five minutes at the farthest, 
when the child has been expelled alive; and that if a longer time 
than this has elapsed, instruments have been necessary, and the 
eUU has been born dead. The beneficial effects of ergot are evi- 
^eaeed by the pains running into one another without any appre- 
ciable interval. Professor Beatty, of Dublin, affirms that when 
ddiyery was not effected within two hours from its exhibition, the 
child's life was generally lost ; and such is the result of the obser- 
vations of Dr. Hardy.'' Several cases are, however, reported by 
Mr. J. Pratt, which disprove this statement. In one, three hours 
dapaed between the taking of the medicine and xlelivery ; in ano- 
ther, five hours; in another, three and a half; and in a fourth, aix 
hours; and, in all the cases, fine healthy children were bom.' 

Dr. Hodcer, who considers, that the ecbolic and the narcotic 

* Foinralanr, pi 284. > ADier, op. dt. 

* Bouchanut, Aoniiaire de Th^rapeutHjue poor 1649, pi 124. * Opu dt 8. 106L 
' Opi dt. * Dublin Journal of Medical Sdenoe, May, 1845. 

* Dublin Journal of Med. Sdenoe, died in Med. Examiner, Jan. 1848, pi 76. 

' Dublin HoapiCal Gtzeltiu died in Amer. Joum. of the Medical SdaacoB, Jan. 1846, 
pi944. 



328 ERGOTA. 

properties of ergot ma^ be separated, recommendsy in these 

the clear infusion, which possesses, he conceives, the former pro* 

perty only. The powder of course contains both. 

Dr. Bishop, of Ifew Haven,^ asserts, that he has seen but onee 
any unpleasant effects from ergot, and then he gave it in powder; 
the labour was protracted and narcotism induced. In New Haven, 
it is the general practice to administer the infusion, and in that 
form it is considered safe and effective in parturition. It is not 
easy, however, to see how the fixed oil can be taken up by hot 
water.' The infusion i^ termed in France, " Thide Seigle noird 
des sageS'femmes Amiricaines^^!^ By some, as will be seen 
hereafter, the sedative and other properties of ergot have been af- 
firmed to exist in the aqueous extract or ergotin. It is proper to 
remark, that the form of infusion, as well as of decoctitmf was 
found by Dr. Joi^ to be highly unpleasant to the stomach, and it 
could not be repeated in his experiments — which, it must be 
remembered, were not made on the parturient female — in laige 
doses for any length of time, without irritating the bowels, pro* 
ducing loss of appetite, and general impairment of the digestiTe 
function. 

Dr. Wright^ recommends the oil qf ergot to be given in the 
dose of twenty to fifty drops in tea, weak spirit and water, some 
aromatic water, or made into an emulsion with mucilage and syrop. 
It would seem to be the most advisable form of exhioition, as the 
oil retains its properties for several years, if kept in well closed 
bottles excluded from light. As to the form of tincture, Mr. 
Battley affirms, that alcohol will not extract the active property, 
and Dr. Ryan ^ states, that he has certainly found the tincture 
to fail in the majority of cases. Mr. Battley prefers the watery 
extract. 

For the purpose of inducing premature labour, it has been ne- 
cessary to give ergot in larger doses. Dr. Paterson * gave it in the 
form of infusion, until the patient took six drams of the medicine. 
The infusion was likewise given by Dr. F. Ramsbotham,^ and the 

auantity which each of his patients took varied from two to twelve 
rams. 
As a parturifacient. Dr. \V. R. Gore ^ has recommended the 
ammoniacal solution of ergot, a formula for which is given here- 
after. This, he says, contains all the active principles in a conve- 
nient form, and with increased efficacy, the ammonia causing the 
ergot to act more rapidly, and with greater certainty. 

When ergot is given with other views, the usual dose is 10 or 

' Amer. Med. Intel. Dec. 15, 1837, p. 330. 

* Sec the author*8 General I'berapeutics and Mat Med. 4th edit 1 429. PhOad. 1850. 
' Journal de Pharmacie, Fevrier, 1H42, p. 177. 

* EdinU. Med. and Sarg. Journal, Julv, 1640. 

* Qp. cit p. 2G6. '• Lond. Med. Gaaette, June 1. 1839, p. 333. 
' Had. Jane 15, 1839, p. 421. • Medical Timea, Not.6, 1842. 



ERGOTA. 329 

Id grains of the powder, three or four times a day : the results of 
the observations of Dr. Cottman ' have shown, however, that in 
30 grain doses its sedative effects are more marked. This, too, 
was the dose in which it was administered by Dr. Hooker. In 
rach cases, the tincture, and the light oil described bj^ him may 
also be prescribed ; — the latter, in the dose of ten to thirty drops. 

Infasam ergots. 

Infusion of ergot. 

' R. Ergot. 3j. 

AqusB buUientls f Jiv. 
Infunde. 

Dose. — One third, to be repeated every 15 or 20 minutes in 
deficiency of uterine contractions. 

B. Ergot, ^ss. 

Acius bullientis f .^xxiv. 
Colatur&B aude 

Syrup, simpl. f 3J. 

Dose. — Two ounces every three or four hours, to induce pre- 
- mature labour. Paterson. 

B. Ergot. ^88. 
Infunde per semihoram jn 

Aque bullientis f^JM. et cola. 

This quantity to be taken for a dose, and repeated every four 

hours. jP. Ramshotham, 

B. Ergot, gss, 
Infunde in 

Aquse bullient. f ^iij. 
Cola et adde 

Ergot, in pulv. gr, x. — gr. xv. M. 

This quantity sweetened with sugar to be taken for a dose. 
To be repeated in twenty minutes; and if the uterus should not 
contract well, to be given a third time. S. L. Hardy. 

B* Ergot, in PuIv. crass, ^ij. (avoirdupois.) 
Aquas bullient. §ix. 
Infuse for an hour in a covered vessel and strain. 

The product should measure about eight ounces. 

Dublin Pharmacopoeia o/'1850. 

Liquor ersotie ammoniaealis. 

Ammoniacal solution of ergot. 
Into half a pint of spiritus ammonias aromaticus put four 
ounces of fresh ergot ^ bruised coarsely. Let them stand for a 
month, frequently stirring with a glass rod, after which squeeze 
out every drop of the spirit. In a glass stoppered bottle, it may 
be preserved for any length of time without deterioration. 
' Dose. — Thirty drops in a wineglassful of cold water, every 

* Americaa Medical Intelligencer, Sept 1, 1839, p. IGl. 



830 XEFOTA. 

ten tmnates, until the action required is sufficient, applying at the 

same time a gentle pressure with the flat of the hand on the 

abdomen. When the pains are present, three doses are inoally 

enough. W. R. Gore, 

BeeaetiB ergats. 

Decoction of ergot. 

K* Ergot. Zj, 
Aque 0iJ88. 
Coque ad Oij. et cola. 

Dose. — A table-spoonful every quarter of an hour. 

Tinetira ergatir. 

Tincture of ergot. 

B. Ergots in pulv. crass. ^wMj. (a?oirdupoit.) 
Alcohol, dilut. Oij. f 5x1. 

Macerate for fourteen days, and strain; express, and filter. 

Fi?e fluidrams contam one dram of ergot. 

Dublin Pharmacopoeia oflSSO. 

B. Ergot. Su^- 

Alcohol, dilut. Oj. 
Macera per dies quatuordecim et cola. 

Dose. — Twenty minims to two fluidrams, two or three times a 
day, as a sedative agent. Guy^s HospiiaL 

Syrnpni ergots. 

Syrup of ergot. 

(Strop de Calcar, — Desgranges.) 

B. Ergot, gr. XX. 

Extract, opii. gr. 4. 
Syrup, f Sviij. M. 

Dose. — Two table-spoonfuls (one ounce) in cases of engorge' 
ment of the uterus. Lisfranc. 

Pnlvercs ergots eompoiiti. 

Compound powders of ergot. 
(Anti hemorrhagic fowdtrs. — Rtan.) 

B. Ergot. 3s8. 

Pulv. aromat. ^ss. 
Sacch. 3S8. 
M. ct divide in chartulas x. 

Dose. — One, every hour or every second or third hour, in at- 
tive hemorrhage from any outlet. In leucorrhoea and gleets one 
may be given three or four times a day, and should tbey fail the 
following may be substituted. 

B. Ergot, pulv. 9 ij. 

Cubeb. pulv. 5j. 

Pulv. aromat. ^ss. , 

Sacchar. jj. 
M. et divide in chartulas. viij. 

Dose. — One, three or four times a day. Ryan. 



ER60TA. 331 

Pilnltt ergottt. 
Pills of ergot. 

B. Ergot, pulv. gr. iz., zij. vel zviij . 
Ext. hyoscyam. gr. i. 
Potass, nitrat. gr. xv. 
Camphor, paly. gr. iij. M. et diyide in pil. xl. 

Two to four, every two hours, in cases of urethritis of the 
prostatic or membranous portion of the canal. Desruelles, 

finim ergotif. 

Wine of ergot. 

B. Ergot, contas. iij. 
Vini Qj. 

Macerate for 14 days, shaking occasionally ; then express, and 
filter through paper. 
Dose.— f 5j. to f 3ij. Pharm. U. S. 1842 

Injeetio ergots. 

Injection of ergot. 

B* Ergotae ^ss. 

Aq. bullieat. Oss. 

Used in cases of erythemoid vaginitis and urethritis. 

Desruelles. 

Sxtraetam ergots. 

Extract cf ergot, — Ergotin. 
{Erf^tine ou Extrait kSmogtatique, of Bonjean.) 

Powdered ergot is exhausted by water, by the process of dis- 
placement, and the watery solution is heated m a water bath. At 
times it coagulates, owine to the presence of a portion of albumen ; 
at others, it does not. In the former case, the coagulum is sepa- 
rated by the filter, and the filtered liquor is evaporated in a water- 
bath, until it ha^the consistence of a clear syrup. A considerable 
excess of alcohol is then added, which precipitates all the gummy 
matters. The mixture is left at rest, until the whole of the gum 
is precipitated, and the liquid has assumed a state of limpidness. 
The liquor is then decanted to reduce it in a water-bath to the 
consistence of a soft extract. In the latter case, the watery solu- 
tion is brought directly to a half syrupy state, and is treated by 
alcohol as mentioned above, to obtam from it the extract, which, 

Erocured by this process, is soft; of a red or brown colour; very 
omogeneous ; of an agreeable odour of roast meat, and of a 
slightly piquant and bitter taste, more or less analogous to that of 
damaged wheat. It forms with water a limpid solution of a beau- 
tiful red colour. 500 parts of ergot furnish from 70 to 80 parts 
of extract. 

M. Bonjean affirms, contrary, as has been seen, to the opinions 
of other observers, that whibt ergotin contains the medicinal 



332 EEGOTA. 

property of ergot, the oil and the lemn, contain the paiaoBOoi 
properties. He considers it a real specific [?] m hemorrhagi 
in general. '^When my ergotm/' he remarks, ** shall haTebeei 
tri^y observers will be struck with the immediate effect it pro- 
duces in the most frightful {foudroyantea) hemorrhages: tk 
most rebellious cases of hmmatemesU yield m a short time 
under its use; and relapses are generally rare, especially lAea 
the precaution is taken to continue its employment aome tine 
after the cessation of the symptonui." To be convinoed tint tk 
ergotin is also the obstetrical principle^ we have only to treit pov- 
dered ergot with ether, b^ the process of dispracement, nntil tibe 
whole of the matter that is soluble in the liquid is exhausted: k 
this manner the poison is removed, — that is all the oil of ei]got ail 
the resin. A powder remains, which is no longer unctnoas, bit 
rough like sand, without any disagreeable taste or poisonoos infli* 
ence, and which in the dose of 6 or 8 grains, powerfully eiota 
uterine contractions, in every case of inertia qf the wamb^ m 
which the employment of ergot would be esteemed proper.^ 

Dr. Sachero,* Professor of dmical medicine in the ITniveniif 
of Turin, prepared two extracts of ergot, the one aqueauSf and toe 
X other alcoholic. The former had the diaracters described above^ 
whilst the latter was of a deep brown colour, with no particular 
smell, and was very pungent and slightly bitter to the taste. The 
watery extract he regards as a hyposthenic remedy, well adapted 
for cases of hemorrhage ; the resinous extract, he thinks, probaUf 
acts as an excitant ; whilst the oily is the poisonous prindple.^ 
''The action of the ergot," he remarks, ''wnen administerecliDiti 
natural state, appears to be of two kinds ; the one, as in laboor, 
affects the sanguineous system, the energy of which it dimiiuihei 
{hyposthenisesy) by means of the ergotm: the other affects tk 
nerves of the uterus, which it stimulates by its resinous principle. 
To this double action must be added a third, equally bypQi* 
thenic, that of the oily or i)oisonous principle." 

Dr. Ebers^ found ergotin of very marked advantage in «^ 
rine hemorrhage. He. employed it "with the most perfect 
success" in those forms that are attendant upon cancer of tbe 
uterus, and which so greatly exhaust the patient's sti^engtb, aal 
lead rapidly to death. These he treated exclusively with ciflj^ 
tin, in doses of two grains every two hours. In almost all oe 
cases, twelve doses were sufficient to arrest the hemorrhage. lo 
uterine hemorrhage occurring at different periods of life, in youAi 
and especially at the critical period, he has found it of equal id- 
vantage. 

* Bouchardat, Annuaire do Th^rapeutiqne, pour 1843, p. 88, & pour 1844, p^ «l. 
« Cited in Lond. and Edinb. Monthly Joum. of Med. Sdenoe, Aug. 1844, ud ia 
the Aroer. Joum. of the Med. Sciences, Oct 1844, p^ 46a 
' London Medical Gazette, Nov. 1845. 



EAGOTA. 333 

It is proper to remark, that Drs. J. Lawrence Smith and S. 
D. Sinkler mfer, from the results of a trial of ergotin on the 
divided carotid of a sheep, that it depends greatly, if not altoge- 
ther, upon the manner in which the lint is applied to the wound 
of the artery, whether the hemorrhage is arrested or not. If it 
be placed immediately upon the orifice of the cut vessel, ^' success 
is certain : if, however, the vessel shrinks from contact with the 
lint, the animal is almost certain to bleed to death."^ Such, also, 
is the opmion of M. Yelpeau,^ and of M. Bouchardat,* the latter 
of whom had done much to disseminate the views of M. Bonjean. 
He has concluded, that the facts adduced by M. Bonjean, in '^ sup- 
port of his discovery, are very far from presenting the charac- 
ters of demonstration." '^ As regards the success on animals," he 
remarks, *^ it is well known how plastic their tissues are, and with 
what ease they are repaired after serious injuries ; and as respects 
the effects of ergotin on wounds in individuals of the human spe- 
cies, those that have been hitherto published may be attributed 
with probability to the circumstances that were associated with 
the application of the remedy almost as much as to the action of 
the remedy itself."* 

liitnra extraeti ergots. 

Mixture of extract of ergot. 

[Potion d^ergotine,) 

R. £xtracti er^ote'gr. xv. 
Aquef.^iij. 
Syrup, dor. aurant. seu liroonis f Jj. M. 

Dose. — A table-spoonful every quarter of an 'hour, in cases of 
hemorrhage^ or of inertia of the uterus. In very violent cases 
of hemorrhage the quantity of ergota must be increased, and the 
doses be given more frequently. Bonjean. 

Syrapni extraeti ersotir. 

Syrup of extract of ergot. 

(Strop d^ergotine.) 

B. Extract, ergot, ^iigs. 
Solve in 

Aq. flor. aurant. seu 

Aq. rosae f ^ j. 

Syrupi f ^xvj. 
Coque syrupum et adde solutum. 

Dose. — Two to four table-spoonfuls a day, more or less, accord- 
ing to the urgency of the case. Bonjean. 

* Southern Joamal of Medicine and Pharmacy, July, 1846, pi 406. 

* Coinptes rendufl, 6 JniDet, 1840. 

> Annuaire do Th6rapeutiqiie, &c., pour 1847, p. 49. Paris, 1847. 
*Annuaire,&G,pour 1848»p.81. Paris, 184a 

22 



3M fiCPBOItaUL ULTHTBIS. 

Fililc cxtrteti ergfts. 

Pills of extract of ergot, 
(Piiuies (TErgotme.) 

R. Extract, er^ote 32* 

GlycTTThiz. pair. q. 5. at fiuit pO. L 

• Dose. — Six to ten in the day. Bonjean. 



LXXVni. ETPeOITBlA LATHTRB. 

Sy 3K>3iT3cu. Catapotia MinoTf LathyTiay Tlthymaliia LaXifoliBa^ Caper 

^arge. Garden Sparge. Mole PlanL 
FrfTuk. Sparge. Caiapace. 
German, Kleiaes Spriagkraat, Parpirkdrner-Enpliorbie. 

The o3 of spurge — Oleum Ectpho&bls Lathtsidis — has 
been recently recommended in meificine. Althoogh the eaphor- 
bia 18 not a natire of thia coontrj, it is sometimes met with in 
situations where it has the appearance of growing wiM. It is 
easily caltivated, and in some parts of New Jersey, where it has 
been introduced, is found in abundance.^ 

The oil obtained from the seeds resembles in colour oknm 
ricini, but is less dense. It has no odonr when newly prepared, 
and no perceptible taste. It is soluble in sulphuric ether, insoluble 
in alcohol, and forms a soap with the alkalies. Its s. g. is .920. 

EFFECTS OX THE ECONOMY LX DISEASE. 

Dr. Charles Calderini found, that, in the dose of from four to 
eight drops, it acted as a cathartic on the adult, without occasion- 
ing colic or tenesmus. In half the quantity, it prored cathartic 
to children. He gaTe it in sugared water, or in the form of an 
emulsion ; and was of opinion that it might be advantageously 
substituted for castor oil, especially for children. AAer him, it 
was employed by M. Grimaud, and subsequently by M. Bally,' 
who carried the dose as far as ten drops, and by M. Martin Solon,^ 
at the H6tel-Dieu of Paris, who uses it with excellent effects as 
a hyHragogue cathartic in various diseases, in the dose of from 23 
to 46 grains — or one and a half to three ^raiwrn^^. Louis Frank* 
has suggested its employment in cases of ioenia^ hysteralgia, 
ascites, &jc. 

It would appear, from the remarks of Mr. Scattergood, that the 
oil obtained from the beans grown in this country, does not pos- 
sess the mild qualities ascribed to the European article. Six, e^t, 

' Scattereood, in PliilacL Joum. of Phainttcy, h. 124. Phibd 1833. See, alao^ Jouni. 
(k Chimie Med. ii. 17S. 2 Journal Unhrerael des Scieooec M^dic&ks, xlL 864. 

• Bullet c;«'neral de Theraprutique, AoQt, 1848. 

« Joarn. de PbamL xL 273: and Merat and De Lens, Diet de Mat M^. in. 153. 
Paria, 1831. 



FERRI FRJKPARAJA. 335 

ten, and twelve drops were given to several individuals as a ca- 
thartic ; and although administered in conjunction with aromatic 
oils, and in one or two cases with an alkali in the form of soap, it 
invariably produced nausea, and even vomiting. Mr. Scattergood 
adds, that he has been informed by the manu&cturer, Mr. Thomas 
Bellangee, of Crosswicks, New Jersey, that when administered 
in small (quantities, and repeated at intervals of half an hour or 
an hour, it operates on the bowels freely as a cathartic, without 
producing much nausea. 

Pichonnier^ has proposed the following formula for a cathartic 
mixture. 

listnra old enphorbis. 

Mixture of oil o/ euphorbia, 

B. X)lei euphorb. lathyr. gtt. viij. 
Acac. pulv. 5j. 
Sacchar. ^ii. 
Aqos destilltt. f ^iij. M. 



LXXIX. FERRI PR^PARA'TA. 

STKomriiEs. Preparations of Iron. 
French, Les Pr^pratrations de Fer. 
Cferman, Eisenpraparate. 

Metallic Iron has long been employed in the cases in which 
chalybeates in general are indicated. The French Codex directs it 
to be formed into an imjpalpable powder prepared by porphyrizin^ 
bright and clear iron nlings without water. Of Jate years, it 
has been proposed by M. Quevenne to reduce the sesquioxide by 
means of hydrogen, which is done by passing a stream of the gas 
over the oxide, contained in an iron or porcelain tube heated to kw 
redness. The iron, thus prepared, Febri pulvts^ — Lefer riduit 
par rhydrogene — must be kept in a dry, well stopped, bottle, on 
account of its great liability to oxidation. Mr. Wm. Procter pre- 
pares it by placing precipitated carbonate of iron on layers of iron- 
gauze in a tube of wrought iron; passing a stream of hydrogen 
through it heated to a dull red ; maintainmg this for some hours, 
and keeping up a small current of gas till cool.^ 

MM. Miquelard and Quevenne combine it with sugar and choco- 
late, and form it into granules and pills.'* M. Raciborski^ has 
strongly recommended it in anaemic and, especially, in chlorotic 

' Joorn. de Chimie M^dicale. Paris, 1827. 

* A formula for this if introduced into the Itft edition (1850) of the Dublin Pbaima- 
ooMeia. 

^ R. E. Griffith, Universal Formulaify, Ac, p. 199. Philad. 185a 

* TrouMeau and Pidoaz, IVaitd de Th^mpeotique et de Matiere M^dkaie, i. 2. Paris, 
1847. • De la Pabert^, an:. Park, 1844. 



336 FERRI ARSEKIAS. 

cases: and it is a favourite chalybeate with the author's col- 
league, Professor Meigs.^ The ordinary dose is about two grains 
three times a day in the form of pill made with sugar and gum. It 
has not appeared to the author to possess any marked advantage 
over the carbonate or sesquioxide. 



LXXX. FERRI ARSE'NIAS. 

Stmontmss. Fernim Arseniatum sea Arsenicicum Oxydulatum, Aneniattf 

of Iron, Arseniate of Protoxide of Iron. 
French. Arseniate de Per. 
German. Arsensaures Eisenoxydal, Arseniksaures Eisen- 

oxydul. 

This preparation has been recommended by Mr. Carmichael,* 
who often applied it externally in cases of cancerous ulcers^ 
Naturally, it presents itself in small, clear, bluish-green crystals, 
of a regular octahedral shape, and is called scorodite. Artificially, 
it is formed by double decomposition. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

Glaser gives the following formula for its preparation : — Eight 
ounces of semivitrified tohite arsenic^ sprinkled with a little spirit 
of wine, and reduced to fine powder, are mixed with as much 
purified saltpetre. The mixture is then placed in an uncovered 
Hessian crucible, which should only be half filled with it, and 
then be placed in a wind furnace. At first, a slight degree of heat 
is applied, under which the mass soon melts, giving off copious 
red fumes, the inhalation of which should be carefully avoided. 
The process had better, therefore, be carried on in the open air, or 
in a laboratory that has a chimney with a good draft. When the 
mass no longer gives off red fumes, and flows tranquilly, the cra- 
cible must be capefully removed from the fire, the contents be 
suffered to cool somewhat, and boiling distilled water be poured 
upon them: under active boiling they will dissolve altogether. 
Hot water, sufficient to fill the crucible, is now added, and the 
whole is allowed to remain at rest for twenty-four hours; at the 
expiration of which time a considerable quantity of beautiful crys- 
tals of acid arseniate of potassa is found on the sides of the crucible. 
The fluid, holding the salt in solution, is now filtered into a clean 
porcelain or glass vessel; the crystals are collected, dried carefully 
in the shade, and put away amongst the poisons as the *>irsenias 
pofasssB acidus. 

The fluid, poured from the crystals and filtered, is now diluted 
with distilled water, and a solution of pure sulphate of iron 

• FcmalM and their Diaeaws, n. 371. Philad. I84a 

* An Easay on the Effecta of the Caifoonate and other Preparations of Iron upoo Cm- 
ccf,2dcdit DobaD,1809. 



FEBRI AR8ENIAS. 337 

added thereto so long as any precipitate is thrown down. The 
bluish-green precipitate, insoluble in water, is the /erri arsenias, 
which must be collected on a filter, washed and dried in the shade. 
The process must be conducted with the greatest care, and the 
vessels used be cautiously cleansed or broken, for fear that mis- 
chief may arise. In these chemical operations^ the acid of the 
saltpetre is decomposed by being heated with the arsenious acid or 
white arsenic, a part of its oxygen is taken by the latter, and ar- 
senic acid is thereby formed, which unites with the potassa of the 
saltpetre and forms acid arseniate of potassa : the nitric acid be- 
ing converted into nitrous acid is given off in the form of red Aimes : 
bv admixture of a solution of sulphate of iron with the solution of 
the acid arseniate of potassa, a double decomposition ensues, the 
result of which is the formation of sulphate of potassa and arse- 
niate of iron, which last, being insoluble, falls to the bottom of the 
vessel. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

According to Carmichael, this preparation acts more powerfully 
on the vitality of cancerous formations than any other agent, and 
the dead slough caused by it is much deeper than that caused by 
the application — which was at one time so much celebrated — called 
**Plunket*s caustic.^* He allows, however, that the greatest cau- 
tion should be observed in its use. Of late, he has employed a 
compound of arseniate of iron with phosphate of iron ; half a dram 
of the former to two drams of the latter. This mixture must be 
applied very thin by means of a camel's hair pencil, and not over 
the whole surface of the ulcer when it is "extensive. It has also 
been administered internally in cancerous affections and lepra ^ 
by Cazenave ; and Biett^ recommends it in lupus, elephantiasis y 
psoriasis, chronic eczema and lichen. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 
Arseniate of iron may be applied externally in the form of oint- 
ment, composed of from 9j. to 3ss. to from Jss. to Sj. of lard ; or 
the compound, just mentioned, may be applied in the following 
manner : — 

Dngnentnm ferri arieniatig eompositnm. 

Compound ointment of arseniate of iron. 

B. Ferri arseniat. ^ss. 
— phosphat. 31 j. 
Cerat. cetacei ^vi. M. 

This ointment must be spread on lint and applied to the ulcer. 

Carmichael 4* fVerneck. 

Werneck gives it the preference over all the usual arsenical pre- 
parations. The dose is from -^Vth to f^jth of a grain, made into a 
pill. 

* AKhenbramer, Die neneran Aimeimittel, 8. 131. Eibngen, 1848. 



The fellowiig Ibrmofa flsf be uaed in canccroas and other 



Pililc ferrt trniittii itmptiitc 

CcmpcumdfUh ofarseniMU efirom. 

B. Ferri araeniat. gr. iij. 

Extract, geatian. 3J. 

Gtjcjrtlnz. pair. ^ij. 

Sjrnip. coiosTis q. t. at fiat 
maaaa, in piliuas litnL ciividcDda. 

Doae. — Qae, thrta tioia a day. 



LXXXL FERRI BRCKMIDUM. 

SiaoimiKS. Ferrum Biomatnm tea PerbrofoatOB^ Brtnnehiiii FerricDiDy 
Bromated Iron, Bromide of Iron; — in soIotioD, Hydrobromate of Iron, 
Ferri Hydrobromad, Fenum Hydrobraaiieiim Qxydatoin. 

f¥tndk, Bromore de Fer. 

German. BronieiseDi Eiaenbremidy BroBwassaratoffaaniaa 
Eiseaoxyd. 

METHOD OF PBEPARING. 

This preparatkm is made by heating equal parts d hromine 
aad iron filings under wafer. As soon as the fluid beooines of 
a menirii colour it is filtered and evaporated to dryness: the 
reddish residue — again dissoWed in water and eyaporated — is 
broimde of iron. It has a brieh-red colour ; dissolves readily in 
water, is deliquescent in the air, and has a very styptic taste.* 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY, AND MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Magendie has prescribed it successfully, in cases in which the 
preparations of bromine have been indicated. (See Brotninum, 
p. 142.) He recommends the following formula. 

PilalB ferri bromidi. 

Pills of bromide of iron. 

B' Ferri bromid. pnlF. ^r. xij. 
Gonfect. rose gr. xnij. 
Acacic poly. gr. xij. 
Fiat massa in pilalaa xx. dividenda. 

Dose. — Two, morning and evening. Magendie- 

B* Ferri bromid. 5J. 

Extract, glyoyrrhiz. q. b. 
nt fiat massa in pilulas Ix. divideDda. 

Dose. — One or two, morning and evening, in cases oiscrofuloy 
and hypertrophy — of the uterus especialfy* Wemtck. 

Fonnakbe poor la pr6pandaOy Slc^ de plusieiin noutesiix m^ 



deniiin Mit* 



FSAKI, CAft^UKSTDM. li2Q 



WXXIL FERRI CARBURETUM. 

Stnohtmes. Ferrom Carburetam seu Carbonatum seu Supercarburetom ; 
Carbnretam Ferri NatiTum, Graphites, Plambago. Plumbum Nigrum, 
Carbo Mjueralis, Cerussa Ni^, Black Lead, Carburet of Iron. 

French, Carbure de Fer, Graphite, Crajron noir, Ptombagine. 

German, Kohlen stoffeisen, Graphit, Reissblei, Mineral- 
ische Kohle. 

This well known substance was formerly considered to be 
slightly astringent and desiccative. By Weinhold,^ it has been 
advised strongly in certain cutaneous affectionSy but although it 
has been received into various pharmacopoeias of continental 
Europe, as the Antwerp, Bavarian, Brunswick, Spanish, Parisian, 
Finnish, Prussian, Saxon, and Swedish, it has never been rqcog- 
Dised as a therapeutical agent in this country or in Great Britain. 

METHOD OF PKEFARING. 

As crude graphite is frequently very impure from the attached 
matrix, the Prussian Pharmacopoeia has a formula for its purifica* 
tion, the product of which bears the name graphites depuratus. 
With this view, the graphite must be very finely pulverized : a 
pound of it is boiled in a proper quantity of common water for 
an hour; the water is then decanted, and two ounces of nitric 
acid and of muriatic add, and eight ounces of common water are 
poured upon the graphite. This mixture is digested for twenty- 
four hours, frequently shaking it ; the acid fluid is then poured 
off, and, after the residuum has been washed by an appropriate 
quantity of common watery it is dried. 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

The internal use of graphite produces no perceptible change on 
the organic functions, except that, according to Weinhold, under 
its protracted use, the urinary secretion is augmented, and a dis- 
position to micturition excited. He found, however, that in Aer- 
petic and other cutaneous affections, it occasioned a very favour- 
able modification in the eruption, and wholly removed it. In 
consequence of the results of his observations, he published a 
monograph in which he recommended it to physicians in those 
diseases. He employed it as well internally as externally. The 
urine, he asserts, after its administration, commonly began to 
make a deposit, and this continued until some change in the cu- 
taneous affection announced its approaching cure. In cases of 
comj^lication of herpes with other affections , Weinhold combined 
it with other remedies ;-^in syphilitic eruptions^ adding corrosive 
sublimate, &c. 

The efficacy of graphite in herpetic and other cutaneous affec- 
tions has also been attested by many other respectable physicians, 

' Dtt Giaphit ab efa oeo cntdeckiM Mitlel gBgm FfecfatBD. Lrifo. ISOa 



340 FKRRI CABBURKTUM. 

as Horn, Heim, Ruggieri, Brera, Bernstein, Hildenbrand, Richter, 
Hufelandy Marc,' &c. This circumstance gave occasion to its 
admission into the Prussian Pharmacopoeia ; yet it has not the 
confidence of physicians, even in those countries into the pharma- 
copoeias of which it has been received, and is consequently but 
little prescribed. Its use in chronic cutaneous diseases is said to 
have been suggested by the circumstance, that in Venice the 
makers of crayons are speedily cured of any such affections under 
which they may labour.' 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Internally, graphite is given in doses of from five to fifteen 
grains, from two to four times daily; and the dose may be au^- 
mebted, according to circumstances, to a dram in the dav* It is 
^ven in powder or in the pilular form. Externally, it is applied 
in the form of ointment or plaster — ^from 3ij. to Svj. of the gra- 
phite to an ounce of the constituent. 

Pnlvii ferri earbnreti. 

Powder of carburet qfiron\ 

B* Ferri carburet. 

Sacch. aa. 588. M. 
DiTide in paries equal, vi. 

Dose. — One, every two hours, in lichen leprdides. 

Von Hildenbrand» 

« Eleetnarinm ferri earbnreti. 

Electuary of carburet of iron. 

R. Ferri carburet. Jss. 

Mellie despumat. 5ij. M. 
Fiat electuarium. < 

Dose. — A coffee-spoonful, morning and evening. — Weinhold. 

PilnlB ferri earbnreti. 

Pills of carburet of iron. 

B. Ferri carburet. 

Extract, dalcamar. aa. 3j. 
M. fiaot pilulflB pond. gr. ij. sing. 

Dose. — Six, three times a day. Marker. 

B. Ferri carburet, ^ij. 
Zinci oxid. 38S. 
Adipis ^j. M. 

Mayer. 

' Riedw, Die neuem Araieimittel, a. s. w. Stottgart, 1837, S. 214; see, tfao, Won- 
hold, in Hufeland's Joaroal, B. nxjvr. St 1, 8. 118: Heim in Horn's Aidiir. 1810, 
xii 326, and n>id. 1811, B. 1, S. 91 ; Huber, in Med. Chir. Zeitung, 1811, Na 68, 8. 
282; Hofeland, Jouro. der prekt Heilkunde, B. xxxviii. 8t G; Bernflein, Ibid. B. xli. 
8t 5; Mayer, Ibid. B. Ix. 8l 2, and Oaann, in Emrclop. Worleib. der Med. WkKMch. 
z.4.34. Berlin, 1834. 

* M^C and Ue Lena, in Diet de Mat M^d., ait Oaibone. 



FERRI CITRAS. 341 

Ungnentnm ferri earbnreti. 

Ointment qf carburet of iron. 

B* Ferri carburet. 
Salphnr. aa. 5n. 
Adipis q. 8. ut nat ungnentam. 

Emplastrnm ferri earbnreti. 

Plaster of carburet of iron. 

B. Ferri carburet. 3ij. 
Emplast. sapon. ^iv. 
MiBce intime. 

Weinhold. 



Brera. 



LXXXIII. FERRI CITRAS. 

Stkontmes. Fernim citricnm, Citras ferricus, Citrate of Iron. 
Fttnck. Citrate de Far. 

Gtrman. Citronsanres Eisenoxydul, CitroneDsaures £i- 
senoxyd. 

Two citrates of iron have been proposed, of late years, by M. 
B^raP — tbe one the sesquicitrate or citrate op the sesqui- 
OXIDE OP IRON ; tbe otber, tbe citrate of the protoxide of 

IRON. An AAfMONIO-CITRATE, a POTASSIO-CITRATE, and a SODIO- 

CTTRATE bare likewise been introduced. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

Tbe citrate of the sesquioxidcy according to Mr.Dubamel,* is 
prepared as follows: — Take of Citric acid, crystallized, jiij. or 
three parts; Hydrated oxide of iron ^ dry, jij. or two parts; 
Distilled watery ^xij. or twelve parts. If the moist t^drate be 
osed, about ^vj. are required; but as tbe degree of moisture is not 
always tbe same, Mr. Dubamel suggests, that tbe oxide should be 
in excess. Tbe water may be heated to about 180^: a boiling 
temperature should be avoided, as it renders tbe sesouioxide less 
readily soluble.^ Tbe solution is filtered, and tbe filter washed 
with distilled water sufficient to obtain twelve parts of liquid. 
This forms what is kept by the French Pharmaciens under the 
name Liquid Citrate of Iron, marking 24° of Beaum6. It holds 
in solution one-third of its weight of dry citrate of iron. The 
solution is evaporated to the consistence of thick syrup. It is 
then spread out on glass or porcelain plates, where it speedily 
dries in thin layers, which are separated and broken into fragments. 

' Journ. de Chinie M^icale ; cited in Amer. Joum. of Fharm., April, 1841, p^ 72. 

* Aroer. Joum. of Pharmacy, Oct, 1842, p. 225. 

" W. Procter, dted in DiipeiiMtoiy of the United Stotee, 8th edit, p^ 1S4& Phila., 184& 



341 

Its taste is add, bat oat diiiij^iiiiliiij and it m mid to be, of all 
ciialvbeate salts, the least onpieflsuit to the tute. 

(f Urate nf protoxide of irrm. m prefHued by M. Benl,^ by 
treating imn jiiinqs with cUrie add preriooiy (fiasolTed in i/t#- 
tUled water. It has a strongiy narfcprf cfaalytnte taste. 

Gtrate oi sesqui-oxide of irtm is a somewfaat imoIuUe salt: it 
ocean in traaspamit lamios of a garnet hoe, wfaidi aie penna- 
nent in the air. Citrate n£ the piatusaie ia of a dark-green 
colour: soluble, and the ^hifiim doies not cbange its green coloar 
by exposniF to air. 

AM3fD!fio-<nTajLTE OF iBOB» CUrote of iron amd awntunUaj 
Ammoniae ferro-citms. «£ JerrietKUraSj Farri et ontmo- 
jus eUraSy Ferrum ciiricutn cum atnmof%;uteOj Ferrutn 
irmmoniacth^itricuni: German, Eisenoxyd mit Ammo- 
nia k, is prepared by neotralizing the excess of acid in pre- 
paring the nitrate of the sesqoiaxide by ammonia^ and CTaporating 
as berbre.^ Ic is a much more solohle salt than the citrate of the 
sesquioxide, and ia sGgfatly defiqoesoent. If the acid or the citrate 
be neutralized by soda or potassa in place of ammonia, the sodip- 
GxnLLTX, and the POTjUBO-crraATK op imov, are formed, which 
greatly resemble the ammonio-citTate.' The AX3i09io-ciTmATK — 
Fbrri ammanio ei/ra»— ia ^^^^'^^^^•^ in the last Dobfia Phanna- 
copopia.^ 

A crr&ATE 07 magsttvc aswrn or xaoif is prepared by oom- 
hitting the wuuputie oxide with eiirie acid. 

Mr. Edward Parrish' makes a syrup qfciiraie qfiron as fol- 
lows. He first prepares a moot protocarbooate of iron, by mix- 
ing together solutions of sulphate qfiron and carbonate of soda, 
precisely as directed for YaDec's ferruginous mass, and washing 
with sweetened water. This is then tfissolTed by means of a 
slight excess of citric add in water, and b eTaporated to dryness. 
A greenish deliquescent, freely soluble, uncrystallizable salt results, 
the taste of which is ferruginois, but not very unpleasant. To 
make the syrup, one ounce, Troy, of this salt is dissolved in five 
floidouDces of simple syrup. The solution is easily effected, and 
forms a dark greenish-brown liquid. The dose is from tlurty drops 
to a tea-spoonful. The syrup of citrate of iron of Beral, is a sac- 
diarine solution of the citrates of ammonia and sesquioxide of iron. 

EFFECTS OK THE ECONOMY IN HEALTH. 
The citrates of iron resemble, in their properties, the tartrate 
and the lactate of iron, and may be given in the same cases. The 

' Amer. Jovm. at Pbann., Apvfl, 1841, p^ 73. 

* Fov hnm at pRpaiataoo we Redwood, b bit cdidaD df Gnj'* Sorpfcwnmt to the 
PharmMowBiM. 2d ediu lyndoo, leJ48. 

* BaOard and Garrod, Clemmto of Mat Med. and Thoam p. 389. Loodon, 1845. 

* Tha Phannacopsia of the King and Queen's Cofleee of FhjmaaDs in Ireland, 
I860, p. 43. DoMtn, I85a 

* Amm. iooni. of Pbaniacy, October, 1848, p^ 649. 



FEBAI CITRAS. 343 

author has used the citrate largely, and is much pleased with it. 
It is unquestionably one of the most agreeable of the chalybeates, 
and equally effective perhaps with any. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The dose of citrate of iron may be the same as that of the salts 
above mentioned. The author generally prescribes it in the quan- 
tity of ten grains three times a day. The citrates are not decoi^f 
posed by alkalies, and hence may be given with them if desirable. 
The ammooio-citrate, according to MM. Ballard and Garrod, i/s 
the most used, and may be conveniently admmistered in porter, 
which conceals its taste, without its own flavour being inapaired. 

It has long been administered in wine, of which the following 
are two forms ; — the first from the Hamburg, and the latter from 
the Wirtemburg, Pharmacopceia. 

TiHUDi ferrl eitratii aromatienm. 

Aromatic wine qf citrate of iron. 

R. Ferri limatur. ^j. 
Limon. 8UCC. Jiij. 
Macera per noctem, at adde 
Gentian. Jss. 
Cinnern. ^ij. 
Vini f JxTJ. 

Dose. — Of the decanted wine, f ^ss. to f ^j. and more. This 
preparation, or one analogous to it, is said to be prescribed by 
certain physicians of this country — of Charleston, for example.' 

Take of Iron filings y four ounces; Bitter oranges^ four. 
Remove the peel, the white, and the seeds; beat them in a stone 
mortar, and let the paste remain at rest for two days; then pour 
upon it Madeira wine, ten ounces, and Spirit of orange peel, 
two ounces. After sufficient digestion, express and filter. This 
preparation is called, in the Wirtemburg Pharmacopceia, Tinctura 
Ferri jJurantiaca seu Tinctura Martis cum P'ino Malvatico 
et Pomis JJurantiis.^ According to Mr. Gore,^ it possesses the 
most agreeable odour and taste of any medicinal compound ever 
introduced into practice. It is aromatic, carminative and tonic; 
and, he adds, that he has no doubt it will supersede the prepara- 
tions in general use,. when once it has been iairlv tried. In 
strumous habits; in passive uterine hemorrhage; m anasarca 
from general debility; in chlorosis; in malignant disease^ in 
which iron has been extolled ; and in all diseases that arise from a 
general deficiency qftone^ Mr. Gore considers this preparation 
to be ^^ of exceeding utility, from its agreeable and chalybeate 
qualities.'' He suggiests, also, its use in chronic bronchitis, in 
which he gives it in combination with ipecacuanha wine. 

* Dnbamel, loe. dt * Jourdan, Phannaoop^e UnhieneDe, 1 545. Paris, 1888. 

* Dubiio IMical ?nm, Apnl ^ 1840. 



344 



FERRI ET MAGNESIA C 



I 



iqDB chalrbFBta eflerreiccni. 

Effervescing chalybeate water. 
fi. AqureOiBB. 

Ferricitral.flicc.gj. 
Acid.cilric. 9iv. 
Sode bicatb. gv. 
Add first the citrate of iron and citric acid, then tbe bicarbonate 
of soda, corking the bottle at once, and secunng tbe cork,' This 
b a delicate but active chalybeate. It may be formed, also, con- 
veniently and agreeably, by dissolving 5 to 10 grains of Ihe cUthU 
in f S^j. of ihe mineral water of the shops, and flavouring with 
syrup (if orange peel. It is said, however, to be apt to escile un- 
pleasant eructations.* It has been called ' Chalybeate Ckampagu. 

A citrate of iron and magnesia, Ferbi et Magnesia Cmm, 
is prepared by dissolving hydrated oxide of iron ia a solution of 
ct7r/c acid, saturating the liquid with carbonate of magnesia, kA 
evaporating to dryness.' The salt presents itself in the form of 
brown brilliant scales, of a sweetish and feebly inky and notdia- 
greeable taste. It is perfectly soluble in water, and has theadTso- 
tage over the ferro-citrate of ammonia, that it is not dehquescenl, 
so that it can be given in powder. Moreover, it does not ioiliict 
constipalion, like most of the salts of iron. Tbe dose is froiii4tD 
15 grains in solution. It may also he given in powder or pill. 
Sfrnpot fcrri tl nsgneiis citratit. 
Syrup of citrate of iron and magnesia. 

B. Ferri et mEignes. cilral. p. x. 
Solve in 

Aq. flor. aiirant. p. xx. 
Syrup, p. cc. M. 

Van den CorpL 
Fnlvji ferri el mBgneslE citratii. 
Powder of citrate of iron and magnesia. 
ISaccharuTi dt eilrate dtfer et de magnesic.) 
B. Ferri el roafrnes. cilral. p. v. 
Sacchar. pulv. p. xl. 
CanellE alb» p. v, M. 
Dose. — Fifteen grains. _ Van den Corfni- 

Troiehtiei ferri et magDPiin eltratli. 
Lozenges of citrate of iron and magnesia. 
* ■ B. Ferri et magnes. cilrat. p. v. 

Sacchar. pulr. p. xl. 

Vanill. Sacchar. {SatcKarure de vanilk.]f.i- 
Mucilag. tragaeanlb. p. v. M. 
Each lozenge to contain fifteen grains. ' Van den Corpuf. 

1 Bullrt. de Thirap, ciled in Ptoiincinl Med. md Sure. Jouin. Dct lO, ISJS. 
• PCTeim, Eleroento of MBleria Meiii™ ind Thtnip. 3iT rdil. L 791. Und. iWl 
' Van den Comul, cited in Douchaiiial, Annuaiie cic 'nierap.pOQi IS'iO. p.!* '" 

fimnula of Van den Corput, wilh remarks by Mr. Win, Procter, Jr. U pna Jo*"*' 

Ji)urn.of Phannacy, Octgber, 18G0, p. 3H. 



FERRI FERROCYANURETUM. 345 

M. Beral has likewise introduced ^.Citrateof Protoxide of Iron 
and Quinia — Ferri et Quinus Citras, Ferrum et Chininum 
cUricum; Germany Citronensaures Eisencbinin; vrhich is 
formed by tbe union of four parts of Citrate of iron witb one part 
of Citrate of quinia in solution, and evaporating. It may be 
given in tbe form of pill, wberever a cOmbmation of tbese tonics 
18 needed. An extemporaneous formula may be made by uniting 
citrate of iron, and citrate or even sulphate of quinia together, 
iRrhicb may be given either in pills or solution. 



LXXXIV. FERRI B'ERROCYANURETUM. 

Stnontmks. Ferri Cyanidum seu Cyanuretum seu Borussias seu Sesqui- 
eyanidum sen Ferrosesquicyanidam seu Percyanidum seu Ferrocy- 
anas, Ferrum Cyanogenatum seu Cyanuretum seu Zooticum seu Bo- 
rossicum seu Hydrocyanicum seu Ojcydulatum Hydrocyanicam, Cm* 
ruleum Borussicum seu Beroliniense, Pcussiate or Cyanide or Cyanu- 
ret of Iron, Prussian Blue, Berlin Blue. 

French. Trito-hvdro-ferro-cyanate de Fer; Deutoxicyanure de Fer Hy- 
drate, Tritohydrocyanate Ferror^ de Fer, Prussiate de Potasse et da 
Fer, Bleu de Prusse. 

German, Cyaneisen, Blaustoffeisen, Blausaures Eisenozy* 
dul; Eisenblausaures Eisenoxyd, Blausaures Eisen, Ei- 
sencyanurcyanid, Berliner Blau, Pariser Blau. 

In commerce, this preparation, with us, bears the name o("Prus^ 
sian hluey^ but in Germany it is called ^^ Pariser blau,*^ It is not 
in a state of purity, and, consequently, that which the apothecary 
prepares is best adapted for internal use. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. , 

The form given by Bucbner is as good as any. Ferrocyanuret 
of potassium, as commonly met with in commerce, is dissolved in 
vrarm distilled water, and to the clear filtered solution is gradually 
added, in a glass vessel, a solution of chemically pure smphate of 
iron so long as a precipitate is thrown down. After the precipi- 
tate has fallen to the bottom of the vessel, and the supernatant 
fluid, which contains sulphate of potassa, has been poured off, the 
precipitate is first digested with dilute sulphuric or muriatic acid, 
in order to dissolve the excess of oxide of iron; the beautiful dark 
blue precipitate is then collected on a filter, carefully washed with 
boiling water, and dried. 

The following form for the preparation of "p^^re Prussian hlue,^' 
is admitted into the last edition of the Pharmacopceia of the United 
States: — Take of Sulphate o^ iron, giv. ; Sulphuric add, f aiiiss. ; 
Jfitric acid, f 3VJ., or a sufficient quantity; Ferrocyanuret ofPo^ 
tassium, ^ivss. ; Water, Oij. Dissolve the sulphate of iron in a 
pint of water, and, having added the sulphuric acid, boil the solu- 
tion. Pour it bto the nitric acid m small portions, boiling the 



fifBti fuc t *«""**» or tvf afiBTCBsft. aAfifiOB, wrtfl it bo Iobrt 
ft^AmxA ft <tok coioar; tfcca aiitnr Ar Kfni to eooL DMulii 
ffe ferrvrvvinnst cf MtHnmL in rkt ngBooifcr of the wtei , aad 
add :h» K6ifa» j^nrimfl^ tt defic9Clfni,aeilatiBg tbemataie 
after eai!& adikna: tfen pinrx mm siSttr. WaA tfe predpi* 
tote vith b»3a^ vxKr findl tfce- pau i uui p fov toB t rleiB . LMt^, 
Arj it and rriv sCft pinnlff .^ 

Yti I ">> t jgBi gt €tf iroD. ii (df 2 ksHCifcl dfcp fche. coloiiry aad 
devoiri ct odior and torte. It s iBtaa^omA \if hat, «ri is iMO- 
loble in varer, ajoofcol, ether, cfls and cfiisDe acidiL Potaan and 
«Mb deocmpcK c£. It ad&eresimiTto the taai{rae,wliidi Riedte 
thinks ES ovkg to its eoBtasxiog acgyL 

EiTECT^ Olf THE ECO3P0XT. 

Of the e&cts of fa ru c ii aqget of iroa on the haman eooBOOiT 
ia health «e hare do f iMkare CodZao gaTe it to TarioiB mi» 
nahy bat obaerral no aetbofr^m it. It has been giren, however, 
and not withoot socoes, ia seTcral diseases; and I^.L. W. Sachs, 
vho has HOC mfireqoe&tijr aduDrtered it, consders it one of the 
■oat impoftant chaljbcatcs with which we are acquainted. He 
thinks it probable, that the hTdrocranic aciil has not nodi agencj; 
jft it certainlj seems to £der from all the other preparations 6[ 
iron. It has been espcciaDj recommended in epilepsy hj Sjrdc- 
hoff,^ of Ghent; and more recently bj \L Faiire d'Cmans.' In 
rerj obstinate cases, not dependent upon organic mischief, Crdc- 
boff succeeded entireijwithit; with the ada]t,he commenced with 
half a ^rain dailT, and raised the dose gradoali^to three, foar, and 
ereo six grains and upwards. When the patient was plethoric, 
be premised blooJ-Ietting, or appBed leeches, from time to time, to 
the temples. Hildenbrand anid Geig^res confirm its efficacy in 
epilepsy. M. Fairre d^Esnans used the followiog formula: — 

R. Ferri fenocjanoret. gr. xr. 

Ext. Valerian, gr. xIt. 
M. et dJTide in pU. xxir. 

One pill to be taken three times a day, at an interval of six 
hours, and each pill to be followed by a wineglassful of infusion 
of Talerian. 

It bas also been administered by Dr. Zollickofier^ successfully 
in a case of chorea; three grains being given in the form of pill, 
three tiroes a day. In six days, the girl, twelve years old, was 
entirely cured, after camphor, opium, quinia, and asafc?tida, nitrate 
of silver, and subcarbonate of iron had been given in vain. In 

\ Pbannacopceia of the United States, p. 109. FbOad. 1R42. 

* Journal rfe (*hnnie MecJieale, iii 2^5. See, aho. Joam. des Connak. M6d. Ghinir. 
Aoot, lb41;orKncycLdesScieiiceaMed.Se0Ul84l,p.468. 

* Jooroal da Modecine et de Chimrgie PiatMoes. dted in Amer. Jouxn. of die Med. 
SdenrcR, July, 1850, p. 202. 

* Mcdaoal Exanniar, Mi^ 16^ 1840, ^ 314. 



FKRRI F£RROCTANUE£TOM, 347 

initrmtiteni fevers Dr. Zollidcoffer ^ found it so efficacious, that 
heaven gave it the preference over cinchona: and his experience 
has been confirmed by that of Eberle,^ Hosack," J. E. Craighead/ 
BEasse,* and others. Wutzer, in Oermany, also exhibited it suc- 
ceasfulty ; and Stosch gave it advantageously, in combination iRrith 
dnehona and rhubarb, in a case of obstinate intermittent. Sachs 
Hcewise tried it frequently, but as often "vrithout, as with, success. 
When it has proved efficacious in intermittents, the dose has been 
by DO means large. Some hare given six or eight grains every 
fimr hours during the apyrexia, and even as much as a scruple has 
been administered. "Sachs found it several times efficacious, when 
four doses of two grains each were taken; and Riecke^ affirms, 
that his father obtamed essential service from it in the leucophleg' 
malic conditions resulting from intermittent fever. ZoUickofler 
extols the ferrocyanuret also in remittent fever ; and there may, 
doubtless, be periods when it may be administered with benefit; 
but it is not often used. He recommends it, likewise, in dysentery,'' 
when the inflammatory condition has passed away, either sponta- 
neously or under the efforts of art; and Sachs remarks, that in 
atonic conditions of the intestinal canal, which supervene on 
dysentery, it may doubtless be of great service. Gergeres admi- 
mstered it successfully in chronic diarrhcta. L. W. Sachs enters 
into a long theoretical disquisition on the precise action of the 
remedy, in which there is, doubtless, much that is speculative. 
He used it, he says, with success, in many cases which it would 
be difficult to classify under any formal nosology ; their common 
bond, however, was, that they were dependent upon " nervous 
disorders, especially of the plastic functions of the abdominal organs, 
the mischief appearing first of all to be gastric." In such affec- 
tions he found a combination of the ferrocyanuret of iron with 
rhubarb especially serviceable. He gave it in not less than two 
grain doses, which were gradually augmented to six, three times 
a day. Dr. Moll saw decidedly good effects from its use in a case 
o( immoderate menstruation from atony qfthe uterus, with gene- 
ral elevation of nervous excitability, after he had employed the 
remedies, commonly recommended, unsuccessfully. He found it 
also extremely beneficial to children of a strumous habit, and of 
great torpor. Stosch found it serviceable in a case of scrofula, in 
which haematosis was imperfectly accomplished ; and Dr. Bridges ' 
obtained great advantage from it in a case of severe and protracted 
facial neuralgia. 

* Aroericnn Medical Recorder, v. 540. " Materia Medica, 2d edit L 233. 

* New York Medical and Physical Joamal, 1823, 

« American Medical Intelligencer, May, 1842, p. 230. 

> Ascbcnbrenner, Die neueren Anaiciniittel, u. s. w. S. 122. Eriangen, 1848. 

* Op. citat S. 217. ' Chapman^a Philadelphia Journal, Aug. 1823. 

* Wood and Bache*a Dkpen i tor y, art Fenri Fenocyanmetom. 



848 FEERI PEEBOCYAHUABTUIL 

It has been also recommended as probaUy more eflfedife thn 
any other remedy in inveterate cases of oicaridei in the rectm. . 
With this view, five grains of the salt may be nibbed op in tio 
ounces of warm water or mucilage of gum araUc, and be thran 
op into the rectum, to be retain^ there ^' ontil the next ngdir 
defecation." This most be repeated daily, gradoaUy incnMii' 
the quantity of the cyanuret, ontil perfect and permanent idfaf i 
afforded.^ 

Externally, the ferrocyanuret has been used in tbe Somadmlr 
ment, in cases of ill-conditioned^ torpid and foui uicut^ iwl 
even of noli me tangere. Stosch applied it in m case ci fmigm 
ulcer with marked advantage; makmg it into a paste wA infer 
and using it in that form. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

Polvii ferri ferroeytiireti. 

Powder of ferrocyanuret qfiron. 

B. Ferri ferroc^ran. er. iij. ad. zxxvj. 

Sacchar. 3ij. M. et divide in pnlveres vj« 

Dose. — A powder, two or three times a day, in epikpig. 

JSSrM^. 

B* Ferri ferrooyan. gr. j., iv., vj., ad xij. 

Sacch. 3j. 
Fiat pal vis in partes xij. squales dividendns. 

Dose.— A powder, every two hours, m q^ilepstf. 

FbnSild^ikml 

B. Ferri ferroc3ran. 

Guaiac. palv. a&. jj. 
Misce et divide io chartalas xij. 

Dose. — One, three times a day. — Employed successfbDy k i^ 
termittents.^ 

Pilnls ferri ferroevannreti. 

Pills of ferrocyanuret nf iron. 

B* Ammoniao. 

Rhei 

Ext. taraxac. aa. 3j. 

Ferri ferrocyan. ^r, xviij. ad. xxxfi. 
M. et fiat massa in pilulas Ix. dividenda. 

Dose, — Four to six, twice a day, in disorder of the gangBtli^ 
system. L. W. Sachs, \ RaiUm^ 

Ungnentnm ferri ferroeyannreti. 

Ointment of ferrocyanuret of iron. 

B. Ferri ferrocyan. 51. 

Unguent, cetacei 5J. M. et fiat uogaentiB* 

' Amer. Joum. of tbe Medical Sciences, Jan. 1847, p. 347. 
" Elli9*8 Formulaiy, ^h edit p. 186. Philad. 1840. 



FEEEI lODIDOM. 849 



LHXV. FERRI lO'DIDUM. 

■Sthomtmes. Ferri lodoretom, Fernim lodatam. lodated Iron, Iodide or 
lodnret, Protoiodnret, Protoiodide or Protiodicte of Iron. 

fWncA. lodtiTO do Per, Protoiodare de Fer. 

^€f9rman, lodeisen. 

In solution, Ferri H^fdriodas, Ferrcim Hydriodatum sen Hydroiodicom 
Oxydulatom, Hydriodated Iron, Hydriodate of Iron, Hydriodate of Pro- 
toxide of Iron. 

V^nneh. Rydriodate de Per. 

Omian. Hydroiodsanres Clisenozy^nl, lodeiMn, lodwae- 
•erstof faanres Eiaenoxyda], £i8«niod&r. 

Although attenticm had been directed, seTeral years ago, to this 
preparation^ it was not mnch used, until Prof. A. T. Thomson/ 
of the London Univerftty, recotmnended it strongly in a special 
monograph several years since. It has been received into different 
Pharmacopoeias. 

METHOD OP PREPARING. 
The following method is recommended by Dr. Thomson. One 
part of iron wire should be robbed in a porcelain or wedgewood 
mortar with about three or four parts of todintj gradually adding 
distilled water ^ until fifteen parts of the fluid have been used ; the 
whole is then to be introduced into a Florence flask, with an ad- 
ditional portion of unre and of distilled water. This excess of iron 
is a matter of indifference in the preparation of the hydriodate, 
and in that of the iodide it is necessary for preserving the combi- 
nation from decomposition during the evaporation of the solution. 
These materials are next to be boiled together, until the fluid ac- 
auires a pale greenish colour, when it must be filtered. Thifi solu- 
tion contains a hydriodate of the protoxide of iron; and, if the' 
exact quantitv of the iodine be previously ascertained, so as to 
enable the solution to be procured of a definite strength, it may be 
kept in this state for medicinal use. In general, however, the 
solution is evaporated to dryness, and, for this purpose, it may be 
poured into a clean flask, containing a piece of iron wire sufli- 
ciently long to reach from the bottom to the surface of the fluid, 
and the boiling should be continued until the bulk of the solution 
is reduced to one-third. It must then be filtered, after which 
the evaporation should be continued to dryness. It is necessary 
to break the flask as soon as the mass is cold, in order to obtain 
the solid iodide, which should be immediately transferred to a 
dry bottle, accurately fitted with a ground stopper. The bottle 
should not hold more than two ounces of the preparation ; for 
when it is large and not full, the iodide deliquesces nearly as 
rapidly as when it is exposed to the free action of the atmosphere. 

* Some Obflervationi on the Preptretion and Medicinal Empbyment of the loduret 
and Hydriodate of Iron, 8vo.-p. 64. Lond. ISM. 

23 



iSSD FXBBI lODIDUJl. 

Wi»er; tiie fiask if broken, and the iodide bottled beiiocc tiie 
i^ coiL. deliquttsoenoe also takcB place, a-pecooule of tbtiaKU 
foTiiMvd,. aud iodine is evolred. 

Tiie forzxi for tbe preparation of tbe solid iodaie 
ii: Ml*: ids: edition of tbePlstnxtticopasJa of tfaeUinled States 
/oltitwtng; — Take of Iyditi€,^iy, Jroti Jilitig'iy-^f JJuiiU^ 

~'ix tbe iodine witi £ mt of iiK^ dv- 



wat^^, h pin: and a faaif 

tiliet: water iu ix poroelaic or i^laK -veoel, and ^oulnalK mM 

iror filtu^. stimi^ coottantW. Heat tbe miztuK- .genth 

tift Iiquit: iKfiQutrek£: Ugiit ^raenisb colour; tberi filter, sad ^ter 

tiK iiqiiiL u»^ paowd. poor upoci tbe filter balf a pint of tmt 

uImsl waie' uoiini^ boi. Wboa tbit> aball bave 

liit fiikrpcc uQuo:.A:ti Mnpemtui^ not exssaedmg 212\ u. ai..nBL 

v«Mwe. u firYktafi.- £««}• Ibe dry iodide in a cloieh atopneL iac- 

tifc " 

Tuf Pioi pmpoitec in Kt. Puiandr of Tbiiadeipbib» tits: inc 
ti« XliC Jjdin auL LaiW..' JEui jireparing tbe solutcoii n: -ibt in»- 
Ui^iiitt I) tniL liivoriodaitoTprotOKideoriron k; tiar iblinwiip.: — 
Tatft ti J^nr./Bs:.. Jrtmfitifi^, per&cth pnr^ and unngudise. 
x« . ZiutiilnfL -wai^.. ^adias. ?ul ibe iodine into a ponaeiaiL i^^ 
au^^ wtti 191K baff tie^quantin- of -watet. and add'tiieiniLfiibg^ 
tv mkil inafTtanKh.atrnu^ itie misluve inritL & ^buE rod. TiK^mn»- 
bruiu.n A^n diieaF iiafK*: beat je frolved iwitii Ibe dJaenci^fBinBit^ 
11^ 4 sn:utl i7iamit7 \v ^;ainiir tif indint;. and tbe misson- Bconnci 
m »»r«iii«t r*uinr TTica.. xnaaualH- deepeuE tt t dart red. wTieii 
t-uc tp\r»)p. '»•' rtK fTin ia» Hen. added, tbe capBuk iE' put it c 
iktw. \r *.n>- ;ip. fan» ir i anrr iamTi. and beated alnv'Tr: 
'•rtiur.:/ /• 5:;r "nft imuit. JLl joduretttjc! bvdriiidat* rifirnL » 
Kvirir.v:, v-imn. inu«r tie. a^nniL afbeHi.BODi j«apent. *:iit fcne 
M* < Mnn»ft 17 irr.iiarK. TTiift point k indianed In- ibt cl'!t« (&- 
\%^r,»-i'.,f.n '.«' :ift K.iimnTi. £1 Tiik sttit it k £ltcre^: ani dhe 
-fi^^-p <rt'f t ?>r */» tar^nulj iraabec 'w'rJL tit rpin>innnr Lifif of 
'ti^ :t«^^.>.-: v^:v»r- jrvmnfiV iiiaf Ad t*./ "Ae bnlirnr 'pruE':- In 
'^j<5 \\'A,\rj^: » v.»iu,r.tt rr.rmnc Tv-elTe mc t Luif raDDomncs b 
4?'',»* >r:,. -xi* 'xicwjt '.f "vnir.n. r'ra'=»»si"!:f mit dmiD afioSSe t^irtm. 

TV y.-..".i.n^ ^r*.rh * i* i.*TC 'X'Oi:'!*!®. *ocdre§ a >Hep red 

;• : "• : .fj-'i "', *.-.* >*:k>. If 1.1 jZiH-'tn^i Lrfn^'fite of :r:^L: but 
,• '/./I * '^ ^HH.i .•»^v.'*«f r? :tf r.mi^r ru!ie bv beatiaz it i»2ain 
^i f. s 5 ';./».. '/,.^r.*.*.T 'if i":a £11::^. r.r.ti^ tbe licuH becomes 
'/, /, .; '^5 . ^f, •o p'«:T«rf.t tt*-« cLar.-2«, a coil of soft iron wire 
fA-f/ *^- ir^^',^ ..v. '.'.#: fv-'f In It; a fact which bas been locg known/ 
ht* f),irU 54, f/»ip;iv|'jtf:r has recently rediscorered.* 

• »'...! vJ h^^fn „i f'!.;.fr/^7. i,. -^7. PhW. l?33. ' Ibid t 201. 

' /m«frMPl #lr f'faifffiwnR, Man, l^'i, p. 224. 



FERRI lODIDUM. 351 

The iodide of iron is obtained by evaporating to dryness the 
filtered solution, taking care, towards the end, to stir incessantly 
with an iron spatula, and to detach the salt from the bottom of 
the capsule as it forms. The heat must be managed most care- 
fully, diminishing it gradually, and removing the capsule quickly 
from the fire as soon as the odour of iodme is evolved. The 
solution of this salt, when the iodide is well prepared, is of a pale 
greenish colour, and deeper in proportion to the decomposition 
which some parts may have undergone towards the end of the 
operation. 

Iodide of iron requires to be well secured from the influence 
of the atmosphere, both on account of its deliquescent property, 
the rapid oxidation which the metal undergoes when deliquescence 
occurs, and the consequent decomposition which takes place. It 
is important to prevent this, as the peroxide of iron is compara- 
tively inert as a medicinal agent; whilst the free iodine extricated 
during its oxidation, according to Dr. Thomson, alters altogether 
the virtues of the medicine. This partial decomposition of the 
iodide is rendered immediately apparent on dissolving it in twenty 
times its weight of distilled water, and filtering: instead of a per- 
manent, clear, very pale greenish-yellow, we obtain an ochre- 
coloured, completely insoluble precipitate. Much of the iodide 
usually prepared is of this description, and to this may, doubtless, 
be referred some of the disappointment and discrepancy amongst 
practitioners as to the operation of the medicine m cases appa- 
rently similar. Even when the iodide has been carefully prepared, 
it often contains a little free iodine ; but, according to Thomson, 
it is chiefly owing to the carelessness of assistants and apprentices 
in compounding prescriptions, by frequently exposing the iodide 
to the air, that its properties, and, consequently, its medicinal 
powers, are impaired : hence, it is preferable to keep it in solution, 
or in the form of bydriodate, which it becomes, whenever water 
is added to it. 

If the solution be prepared with a definite quantity of iodine, 
as described, it will keep without changing its characters; but as 
it is usually made by dissolving^ the iodide in distilled water, it 
requires to be rendered neutral by the following means: — Intro- 
duce into a flask the solution of any given strength, and place in 
it two or three doubles of clean and soft iron wire, sufficiently long 
to extend to the surface of the fluid; boil for a few minutes, and 
then leave it at rest, until the solution becomes clear, after which 
it may be either decanted off* from the precipitate which forms, or 
filtered: no farther change takes place in a solution thus treated, 
however long it may be preserved, provided it be kept in a black- 
ened or a green bottle. In tnis process, the wire affords iron 
to saturate any free iodine present in the solution, or that may 
have been extricated by the formation of the peroxide of iron in 



8S8 FBHRI iOmDUM. 

the iodide; aad a perfectly neutral soktion b^g thus obtained, 
by the immediate coaveriioa of the newly formed iodide into te 
hydriodate of the protoxide, no subsequent change takes |daoe to 
long as the solution is kept secluded from the Kght. The b«t 
proportions, according to Dr. Thomson* for fonmng the medicinal 
solution, are three grains of the dry solid iodide to each fluidrafU 
of distilled water. If the water be not either distilled or filtered 
rain water, perfectly free from foreign ingredients^ and partiott- 
li^rly if it c(nitam any earthy or saline carbonates, decompositioii 
instantly takes place, iodine is extricated, and a carbonate of iron, 
which rapidly passes into the state of a peroxide of that aoetal, is 
precipitated* 

To protect the solution of iodide from decomposition, it hai 
been advised to associate it with sugar, which appears to exert 
the same protective agency as it does on the protocarbonatA. 
With this view, the following preparation has been pr<^K>sed hf 
Mr. Procter.^ Take <^ Iodine^ eleven drams; Iron filings^ iomt 
drams; St/rup, UncryHallixable honey ^ or UncryataUitable 
sugar, four ounces; Distilled water ^ a sufficient quantity. Mile 
the iodine with eight fluidounces of the distilled water, and 
gradually add the iron filings, stirring constantly; then apply a 
gentle heat until the solution shall have acquired a light green 
colour, or shall not give a blue colour to a solution of stardi; tlien 
add whichever of the three protecting saccharine substances mat 
be chosen; continue the heat a short time and filter. Lastly, wash 
the filter with as much distilled water as will make sixteen fluid- 
ounces of solution of iodide of iron. 

Liquor Fer&i Iodidi, or Solution of Iodide qf Iron of the 
last edition of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States (1842,^ is 
essentially the same as this. The saccharine matter employed in 
it is prepared honey. The solution, thus obtained, is of a pale* 
greenish colour. It has little or no sediment. 

M. OberdorfTer, of Hamburg,^ gives the following form for the 
preparation of the sesqui^iodide of iron; whose effects, and mode 
of administration are the same as those of the iodide. It may 
be preserved a long time without undergoing decomposition. Mix 
in a glass vessel half an ounce of iodine; a dram and a half of 
iron filings; and an ounce of water. When the reaction is com- 
pleted, the mixture is to be slightly shaken, until it becomes of a 
clear green colour, which is due to the iodide of iron. It is then 
diluted with four ounces of water, filtered, and some water is 
passed through the filter. To the solution two drams of iodine 
are afterwards added, which are readily dissolved. A deep redk 
dish-brown liquid results, to which a sufficient quantity of water 

' American Journal of Pharmacy, for July, 1840, p. 13; and Ibid, for January, 1841, 
* 2eilR^nft fur die gMammte Madicin. Jok, \9¥K 



rmna iodibuk. 3d3 

is ft^dtd to make the wtight of the whole ten ounces. Each dram 
contains about four grains and a half of iodine. 

When iodide of iron is carcftiHy prepared, it is of an iron-gray 
edoiiry foliated lexture, brittle, aad exhibits a crystalline arrange- 
ment similar to metallic antimonyi except that it is darker. In 
the dry state, it is inodorous; but, when moist, it smells somewhat 
eC iodine: the taste, when dry, is simply styptic; when moist, 
somewhat acrid, before it impresses the gustatory organs. At 
tOfP of Fahrenheit it fuses ; and, at a higher temperature, is de- 
composed — the iodine being volatilized, and the iron remaining 
kk the state of oxide* It dissolves in all proportions in water,^ 
the changes supervening, which have been already indicated. It 
it decomposed by chlorine, the mineral acids, oxide of arsenic, 
meeonic acid— consequently by opium and laudanum — gallic and 
tannic acids, the pure and carbonated alkalies, different metallic 
salts, and by the infusions of digitalis, belladonna, hyoscyamus, 
lobeeco, amylaceous substances, kc.: such articles ought not, 
therefore, to be given in combination with it. 

£FFBCTS ON THE ECONOMY IN HEALTH. 

From experimeats made on his own person. Dr. Thomson states 
the ibUowing to be the physiological effects of iodide of iron. 
When taken in doses of from three to five grains, it makes no 
aansible impression on the stomach, although it sharpens the 
^ipetite, ai^ improves the digestive function : it seems to stimu- 
late moderately the digestive canal through its entire length ; for 
it opens the bowels ; and, whilst it produces the black colour of 
the alviae discharges, characteristic of all the preparations of iron, 
it corrects their foetor. When it does not affect the bowels, it 
aogmeats the action of the kidneys, increasing the flow of urine ; 
and if the solution be taken two or three times a day, for several 
days in succession, the presence of both the iodine and the iron 
can be readily detected in the urine. The temperature of the 
sldo is moderately elevated, and the insensible perspiration in- 
creased. On one occasion, having taken ten grains for a dose, it 
almost immediately caused an uneasy sensation at the epigastrium, 
accompanied with nausea, that contmued for several hours, and a 
slight degree of headacb. These symptoms were relieved by a 
copious evacuation, which was perfectly black. Two hours after 
taking the medicine, a large quantity of urine was discharged ; 
which, on bebg tested, displayed the presence of both iodine and 
iron. The experiments on animals, made by Dr. Cogswell,* in- 
duced him to infer: — 1. That it acts as a local stimulant, possess- 
ing the power of affecting peculiar disorganization. — 2. That its 
action is more particularly directed to the tract of the alimentary 
canal. 

* EMqr OB lodne, p. laS. Edbbiirgh, 1S37. 



354 PKEEI lODIDUM . 

When added to blood out of the body, it promotes its coagula- 
tioD.^ 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY IN DISEASE. 

From the chemical composition of iodide of iron, Dr. Thomson 
coopered it might be specially adapted for cases in which aug- 
mented activity of the capillary or intermediate system, with a 
tonic effect, might be indicated, and particularly in $cro/ulinU 
affections^ iabes mesenterica^ chiorasiSy incipient scirrhuSf 
rickets f amenorrhcea^ hronchoceU^ atonic dyspepsia^ — ^indeed 
in all cases accompanied by debility. In such affections, he con- 
ceives the iodide will act more efficiently than any of the other 
preparations oH iron. In secondary syphilis^ it may be comUned, 
he suggests, with iodide of potassium; and in incipient cancer^ 
its efficacy is aided by the administration of arsenic at the same 
time. Dr. Thomson has found it serviceable in atonic gastric 
dyspepsia^ when combined with bicarbonate of potassa, and taken 
at the moment of admixture, in the dose of from three to eight 
grains or more.* A great advantage it possesses is its ready solu- 
bility, owing to which it can enter the circulatory system with 
facility, and modify the condition of the fluids. In chronic scro' 
fulous caseSy it produces all the good effects of the preparations 
of iron, without any of the concomitant and subseouent symptoms 
that are so apt to supervene, especially in impressible individuals. 
Where the case is accompanied by vascular erethism, or fulness, 
it must be reduced before the iodide can be esteemed appropriate. 
In chtorosiSy occurring in strumous habits, it has been found 
most serviceable. Dr. AshwelP prescribed it with success in such 
cases, in association with colomba or gentian, according to the 
formula given hereafter. Its efficacy in cancer is elucidated by 
Dr. Thomson, by the details of a case of scirrhous fnamma^ 
which, after protracted and fruitless treatment by other agents — 
as by other preparations of iron combined with conium — ultimately 
yielded to a combination of iodide of iron and conium. Some 
cases are also detailed in which it was very effective in removing 
old syphilitic affect ions, especially of the skin. M. Baumes,* 
who employed the iodide with the most satisfactory results in old 
and obstinate syphilitic ulcers, especially when the patient was 
feeble and scrofulous, gave it in the form of pills with extract of 
opium, — increasing the dose of the iodide from two or three to 
twelve or twenty grains in the twenty-four hours. Along with 
the cicatrization of the sores, the improvement g[ the general 
health was most remarkable. 

' Mageodie, belong war le Sang, Ska or transbtion in Uie Lancet Jan. 26, 1839. 

* London Dispenutory, and Brande^s Dictiooaiy of Mat Med., p. 252. Lond., 1939. 
See. alao. Solon, in Diet de M^d. et de Chinirg. Pratiq., art lode ; and AihweO, in 
Guy's Hospital Reports, pt l 128; and pt iii. 555. 

' A Practical 'J'reatise oo the Diseases Pteuliar to Women, American edit, p. 33. 
Phibd., 1845. * Medioo^^lururgical Rev., Oct. IMO. 



FERRI lODIDOM.' 355 

Prior to the publication of Thomson, Pierquin had given the io- 
dine in cases of leucorrhaa^ and amenorrhcea ; and Eager^ had 
recommended it in scrofula. Ricord' found the very best effects 
firom its internal use in cases where tonics required to be combined 
with antisyphilitic remedies, especially where any scrofulous vice 
Uymphatisme) constituted a complication. He administered it, 
likewise, with great success, to remove the consequences of 
syphilis; and found it advantageous in atonic ulcers of the legSj 
«dm1 in spreading ulcers of the throaty which had been aggra- 
vated or had not yielded to mercury* The strength of M.Ricord's 
solution was half a dram of the iodide to §viij. of water, given, 
we presume, in the twenty-four hours. M. ilicord^ also uses it in 
the form of injection in cases o! blennorrhosa: wherever, indeed, 
tonic astringent injections are needed, the iodide, in his opinion, 
should occupy the first rank. Its use, he thinks, can only be 
contraindicated when there is much inflammation or pain in pass- 
ing the urine, or when cystitis exists. The strength of the in- 
jection, should be three grains to the fluidounce of water. 

In consequence of its promoting the coagulation of the blood 
out of the body, Magendie^ prescribed it in the form of injection 
(f ^i. to Oij. of water,) several times a day in a case of severe 
uterine hemorrhage. The hemorrhage ceased. 

A case of confirmed diabetes^ was treated in the Hotel-Dieu of 
Paris, by the iodide given in the form of pill, each pill containing 
five grains. Four pills were taken m the twenty-four hours. In 
this case, the iodide must have been efficacious, for the usual 
animal diet recommended in such cases had failed previously to do 
good, until the iodide was associated with it. 

It has likewise afforded apparent benefit in cases of tubercular 
phthisis^ and in the mass of such cases is as well adapted for 
modifying the morbid action of the system of nutrition, so deeply 
implicated in that fatal malady, as any other agent, with th^ ex- 
ception, perhaps, of cod liver oil. The syrup is the best prepara- 
tion. 

Dr. C. J. B. Williams' considers the iodide to answer better 
than any other chalybeate in chorea. It pervades the system 
more rapidly, he thinks, and keeps the secretions more free. He 
gives it in doses of one grain three times a day, increased to four 
or five grains, taking care, at the same time, that the bowels are 
open. 

* Dnbliii Jouni.of Med Scienoe, 1834 ; alio, Coowell on lodme, pi 138. JUSirb. 1837. 

* J. J. L. Rattier, in La Lancette Fran^aiae, 4 F6t^ 1837. 

' J. J. L. Rattier. Ibid. 16 F^t^ 1837; aee, also, Rerue M^dicale, Janvier, 1888, 
dtad in Amer. MedL Intd., Sept 15, 1838. * Op. dt 

* Cited m ProTindal Med. and Surg. Joomal, Nov. 5, 1842. The reealta obtained 
in Ae Hotel-Oieii are leferred to in London Lancet, July 8, 1843, p. 517 ; aee, aleo, 
M Eoifliii^re, Gazette M^ddeParii, 24 Dec, 1842; dtedfin Amer. JoanuoftheMed. 
BciencM, April, 184% p^ 454. * Madkal Timaa» May 24, 1845, pi 133. 



356 FKKEI lODlDON. 

Mr. B. PhUlips' prefers it in scrofgU to aay o£ the prepantku 
of iodine. The miaimiira dow was a grain twice a day; tke mx- 
imitm, three grains, three times a dny- In 233 eases, it was eolj' 
necessary to intermit ils use Tor a few days in three cases. lo 
one, it excited ptyalism. About ouce a weelt he gave an spcfim 
or cathartic. Id cases of scrofulous ulceration, as a con3ec|ucoct 
of abscess, or from other causes, he employed, with the best eSwti 
a lotion cootaining three or four grains of the tocUde to ao ounce 
of ilistiJled water. Where parts are irritable, he usually reoon- 
■aends the ointment of iodine to be applied to the part oa lint. 

Stauss^ gives the case of a young femak affected with aacila, 
hydrolhorax and anasarca, who liad been tapped for the ascito, 
and had tak»i gratiola and lactuca firosa without any benefit, 
who was cured by a mixtuje of Tiitelura Jerri iodid., Tiial. 
eort. aurarU. si. 5ij-, and -/Ig. jSor. auranlior. ,^ij., of wlucfaa 
spnonfid was given four times a day. Under thiSi the otatvi 
hyilropiaus disappeared. 

The author has frequently ^ven this remedy is puUi£ anil 
private practice, and has considered it eapecially adapted fortbcse 
cases in which there appears to be torpor m the system of do- 
trilioD, as in asthenic di'Dpsy, old visceral engorgemenh, and 
indeed of hypcrtropfitf of aiy kind, accompanied by deji' 
dent action in the system of nutrition. In oligemia, whew 
there is paucity of red corpuscles of the blood, and the flnid is dt*- 
gether too thin, it would seem to be especially indicate<l, from iS 
property, mentioned above, of promot'uig the coagulation of the 
blood, and, therefore, of inspissating it. Hence, in aH caaM of 
scorbutic, hydropic and other dyscvasies, and is hemarr/tagei 
occurring in such pathological eaniMHons, the author baa pre* 
scribed it largely, and with excellent efiects. It appears to hia 
to he the best remedy we possess wherever « eutropbic anil tetie 
is indicated. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

The dose of iodide of iron, administered in lh« cases alwi 
referred to was generally three or four grains two or three tiflH 

''^* PiUlffl ferrl iodUt. 

Pills qf iodide of iron. 

These pills may be prepared in the following manner, accordSlJ 
to a formula communicated by Mr. Robert Leslie, of Gla$gOV(|f 
Dr. Christison of Edinburgh.^ Tate of iodine, 127 graiDs; ■* 

' Undcxi Mod. GezcHe, Jan. 10, liMO; nee, alro, ScK>fl|[&; ils Ndtofe, CuM^lk 
by B. PhiUips, F. R. 3, Amet. aliL. ji. 2i8. PhiU. IMO. 

' Uiu^t, Wochonsrhiift. No. 34, cilod in Caiulatt and I 
liber die FoctKhrills ill ileiHeilkunijeim Jafare 1S48,V. 133. 

' Phaimaceul. Tnuuaot., Aug. t, 1644, p. TO. 




S of idxMt ithe tfaicknew of 9 thin qwU» half an ounce ; dis^ 
tilled water, 7S mioims. Agitate them briskly together ia a stronf 
QOMW phial |»DO?ided with a well fitted glass atflfper, mrtil the 
fettli which %ono8 beeomes whiter This wil^ happen in less thao 
ten mmUiea. Pour the liquid upon two drains of finely powdewil 
loaf sugar in a Uttje wftter, and triivrate inunediatelv and brisUyi 
&r a few imnutes:; add gradually a noixtvre of the followiag pow^ 
ders» — liquorice powder, half an otmce; powdoF of ^um Arabic, a 
dram and a half; flour^ a dram. Divide the mass into 144 pills. 
Each pill will contain about a grain of iodide of iron. 

Tinnm (ervi iodiii. 

Wine 0/ iodide o/iron. 

B. Ferri indidi Jss. 

Yin Bordgalens. Oj. M. 

Dose. — A tea-spoonfuly morning and evening. PierquinJ* 

Tiiietnrft ferii lodidl. 

T\nciure qf iodide qf iron. 

B* Ferri iodidi ^\^ 
Alcoholis, 
Aqne, aa. f ^ij. M. 

Dose. — A tea-spoonfbl, morning and' evening. Pierquin. 

liitnra fervt iodidi lomposita. 

Gbffl^potcndf mixture of iodide qf iron. 

B> Ferri iodidi bt, xvj. 
Tincl. ooloifan. aeq 

■ gentians comp. f Jj. 
AqoflB destillat. f JWj. M. 

Dose. — Two tablerspoonluJs two or three times a day. 

MfhuoelL 

Byriii^ii. ferri iodidi. 

Syrup of iodide of iron. 

Various forms have been giyen for this preparation.* The 
following is the one admitted into the last edition of the Edin- 
burgh Pharmacopoeia: — Take of Iodine (dry,) 200 grains; Fine 
iron wire^ recenlly cleaned, 100 grains; White sugar in powder, 
four ounces and a half; Di^tUled water, six flnidounce^ Boil the 
iodine, iron and water together in a glass matrass, at first gentl^> 
to avoid the expulsion of iodine vapour, afterwards briskly tiU 
about two fluidounces remain. Filter this qu]ckljf> while hot, into 

> Joomal de Cbimis M^dicalejDu 310, Mai, 1831. 

* Fraderkin^ Repertor. fbr die Pbaimicie, 1839, dtod in Amer. Joom. Med. Sdraoei^ 
Feb. 1840, p. 499; DupMqaier, Joom. de Pharm. Man, 1841, p, 116, and Mara, 1843, 

5. 325; F. Boodet, ibid. Sept 1841, p. 335; B^raL Joom. de Chun. Med. died in Amer. 
ounLof Pliannaoy,Apri],184l,p.74; A. T.Tbotnaon, Lond. Phannac Tianwctioni^ 
Aug. 1841; tod LttaCner, Joum. de PhttrmwiB^ Fbwt'mr, 1842, p^ 133. 



358 FXRRI lODIDUM* 

a matrass containing the sugar; dissolve the sugar with a gentle 
heat, and add distilled water to make up six fluidounces. 

Twelve minims of this syrup contain one grain of the iodide* 
It ought to be nearly colourless or pale yellowish-green, and with- 
out sediment. Dr. Christison states, that it will always be defect- 
ive in strength ^^wlfen made with British iodine, as now commonly 
met with in the market, unless allowance be made for the water, 
which it very generally contains in large proportion."^ 

Troehiiei ferri iodidi. 

Lozenges of iodide of iron. 

R. Ferri iodidi s^ss. 
Croci puW. ^ij. 
Sacchar. ^iv. 
M. fiant trochisci No. 120. 

Dose. — Six to ten, daily. Pierquin. 

BoUtio ferri iodidi. 

Solution of iodide of iron. 
(French, Eau dPHydriodaU de Fer.) 

B. Ferri iodidi ^as. 
Aqns Oij. M. 

Added to enemata, lotions and injections. 

R. Ferri iodidi ^ss. ad ^ij. 
Aque destillat. Oj . M. 

To be added to a general bath in cases of UuMrrhaa^ amenor- 

rh€Mf &c. 

Injeetio ferri iodidi. 

Injection of iodide of iron. 

R. Ferri iodid. gr. iij. 

Aquae destillat. f 5vi. M. 

The quantity may be increased to nine grains to the ounce of 
water, care being taken to avoid irritation. 

Used in gonorrhcea. Ricord.^ 

UngBeatam ferri iodidi. 

Ointment of iodide of iron. 

R. Ferri iodidi ^iss. 

Adipis Sj. M. ut fiat unguentnm. 

A piece the size of a hazelnut to be rubbed, morning and even- 
ing, on the inner part of the thigh, in cases of leucorrhcea and 
amenorrfuBa. 

* DispeiuAtory, p. 431. Edinb. 1842. 

* A rractical Treatit&on Venereal Diaeaiet, tmuktod bj Drommoiid, Amer. edit p. 
237,249. Fhilad.1843. 



FERRI LACTA8. 359 



LXXXVI. FERRI LACTAS. 

Stnontmes. Fermm lacticam, Lactas ferrosus, Lactate of Iron, Lactate 

of Protoxide of Iron. 
French. Lactate de Fer. 
German. Milchsaares Eisenoxyd, MilchsanresEisenoxyduL 

This preparation was recommended by MM. Gelis and Cont^, 
internes at La Charit6,in Paris, and has been fayourably reported 
upon by M. Bouillaud, in the name of a committee, consisting of 
MM* Bally, Fouquier, and Bouillaud.^ 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

MM. Gelis and Conte prepare lactate of iron by treating pure 
iron filings with lactic acid, diluted with water. M. Louradour* 
extracts lactic add from whey, which he collects from the dairies 
in the neighbourhood of Paris, where much cheese is made. The 
whey, exposed a long time to fermentation under the influence of 
an elevated temperature, becomes charged with a large quantity 
of lactic acid, it is evaporated to one-third or one-fourtbW its 
volume, decanted and filtered ; and is then saturated with milk of 
lime, which produces an abundant deposit, chiefly of phosphate of 
lime. The filtered solution is precipitated by oxalic add, and 
again filtered, and then concentrated to a syrupy consistence. It 
is now diluted with alcohol^ which precipitates the lactine and the 
salts. The solution, on being filtered, and the alcohol distilled off, 
yields pure lactic acid. Lactate of protoxide of iron is pre- 
pared by digesting in a sand-bath, at a low temperature, this add, 
diluted with water, upon iron filings. At the end of six or seven 
hours of reaction, the liquid is boiled, filtered, and concentrated; 
when, on cooling, it deposits crystals. These crystals, drained on 
a funnel, and washed with alcohol by displacement, should be 
dried rapidly, and be preserved from any contact with air. The 
salt presents itself under the form of crystalline plates, which are 
very white, and but slightly alterable. It is sparingly soluble in 
water ; reddens litmus paper, and possesses the ferruginous taste in 
a tolerable degree. When dissolved in water, it attracts oxygen, 
and quickly biBComes yellow. 

The sparing solubility of the lactate has permitted M. Loura- 
dour to simplify still more his process, by omitting the purification 
of lactic acid by alcohol, and treating it immediately with iron 
filings: the liquor, suitably evaporated, affords crystals of the 
lactate: the foreign salts and the lactine remain in the mother 
waters, which are rejected. 

* Journal de Pharmacie, cited in Amer. Journal of Pharmacy, July 1 1 840, p. 121 . 8ee» 
alao, BdraL Joum. de Chimie M^icale, cited in Amer. Joum. of Fharm. April, 1841, p. 
74; and Gelis and Cont^, in Bouchardat, Annuaire de 'fh^rapeutique pour 1848, pw 
166. Faria, 1848. 

* BuUetin General da Thiferapeutique, Mwn, 1840. 



tKk FCBU LAOVAS* 

As the lactate would seem to be often adulterated with efflo- 
resced sulphate of iron, or the saint predpitalM with alcohol, or 
with starch or sugar of milk, M. Louradoar recommends^ that no 
lactate should be used except what is under the form of crystalline 
plates, which do not readily admit of fraud.^ 

EFFECTS ON THE ECONOMY. 

Iiactate of iron has been used in cases in which protocarboaat^ 
of iron is employed, and chiefly in chlorosis. MM. Gelis and 
Cont6 are disposed to refer the bene£cial agency of the proto** 
* carbonate to its becoming lactate of iron in the stomach, by 
uniting with the lactic acid, which has been presumed to b&one 
of the healthy gastric acids. This idea led them to administer 
lactate of iron ready formed. In chlorosis the remedy has been 

SVen by MM. Fouquier, Bally, Beau, Rayer, Nonat, Andral^ 
onillaud, Gerdy, Franz, and others, who have collected a great 
number of cases, which show its success in that disease.^ M. 
Bonilhud^ made trial of it in twenty-one cases, fourteen of which 
were treated at La Charit6. One of the last cases not bemg de- 
ddedly chlorotic may be excluded. Of the thirteen, ten were 
female^, and three males. Of the ten females, ei^t presented 
well marked chlorosis; two were rather of anaemia, xhe dose was 
carried to six, eight, .ten, twelve, and fifteen lozenges, each con-r 
taining about five cenHgrammes of the salt (gr. }) in the twentv- 
four hours. It was well borne, and always sensibly increased tne 
appetite; but, as Mialhe^ and Pereira' remark, there seems to bo 
no evidence of its superiority over the citrate or tartrate of iron. 

MODE OF ADMINISTRATION. 

MM. QeMs and Cont6 form fireshly prepared lactate of iron into 
lozenges, in which the su^r prevents the superoxidation of the 
iron, and preserves the medicine; whilst, at the same time, a form 
m given, which allows of great facility of administration. MM* 
Andral and Fouquier seldom exceed twelve grains of the lactate 
in twenty-four hours; and M. Bouillaud never gives more than 
twenty. 

The following formulae have been proposed by Mr. Cap: ^ 

' Jouro. de Phanimcie, and Amer. Joom. of Pharmacy, Oct 1840, p. 23a WoUei^ 
proceH if given by Chritftnon, Dispensatory, Amer. edit by R E.Oriffith, pi. 978. PhSad. 

1848. F. Roder*s proons, which reaemblee it ■ given in Dieihach. Die neoesten £nt- 
dKkungan in der Mat Med. 3er Band. 3to Abth. a 85a Uddelb. und Leipc 1847 
8ee,ak»»onthi8aobiect,Diapenaatoiyof tbeUmtedStatei,8theda.p. JS78. Pl»Iad* 

1849. ""^ 

' Bulletin Q6n6rBl de Therapeutiaae, Man, 1840; alio, Ija Lanoette Frmn^ake, dtod 
in London Lancet, Feb. 8, 1840, u 707. 

* Encydographie dee Sciences M^dicales, Mart, 1840, p. 226. Acad^mie Royak de 
M^dacine de Paris, Beance du 4 Fevrier, 184a 

• Traits de TArt de ibrrouler, p 184. Paris, 1845. 

• Elements of Mat Med. and Therap. 3d edit i. 790. Lond. 1849. 

* Journal de Phann^ and Amer. Joam. of Phannacy, Oct 1840, p. 226. 



FEBMKTUAB* 381 

Tr^ehiui ferfi Itettlii. 

Loaemga of kutaie of ir^n. 

B* Feni l&etat. gvij. gr. 43 (30 gr*flifiM»«} 
Saeokar. Jzisa. (360 grmmmes.) 
Mnoilag. acaci« q. •• 

Make into lozengea^ eaoh weighing gr. x. (65 cenHgrammes) 
which will contain gr. I (5 ce»^ramm€«) of toe salt. 

ByrepBi ferri Uetatii. 
Syrup of lactate of iron. 

B. fetri lactat. Ji. (4 grammes.) 

Aqn» destillat. bolRent. Jviss. (200 grammes.) 
Sacchar. alb. |[xiij. (400 grointiej.) 

H. Cap contfiderft the use of this sjmip to be mere oonvenient 
than Aat oi the lossenges, because the iernigiiieus taste dees not 
remain so long in the mou^. 

PHnlft ferri laetatit. 

Pills of lactate of iron. 

B. Ferri lactat. 

Althiee pnlv. §4. gr* xvss. {1 gramme.) 
Mellia q. b. at fiant pil. xx. 

Chalybeate bread has been administered in one of the largest 
hospitals of Paris to chlorotic patients, snd with the best effects. 
From four to five grains of lactate of iron may be mixed with every 
three and a half oances of bread, without giving it any unpleasant 
taste or injuring its quality.^ 



LXXXVII. FERRI NITRAS. 

SrvomrMBs. Ferri P^mitras, Ferrum Nitretum seu Nitricum Oxydatam, 

Nitras Ferri, Nitras Ferricus, Nitrate of Iron, Eeraiirale of Iron. 
French. Nitrate de Fer. 
Oerman, Salpetertauret Eisenoxyd. 

LIQUOR FERRI PERSESQUINITRAnrtS. 

Stnomtmes. Liquor sen Solatio Nitratis sen Pernitratis Ferri, Liquor 
Ferri Nitrici Oxydfati, Solution of Persesquinitrate of Iron, Solution of 
Nitrate of Iron. 

METHOD OF PREPARING. 

This preparation, which has been introduced of late years into 
practice, may be formed in the following manner: 

Take of small chips or pieces of Iron wire^ an ounce and a half; 
Nitric acid, three ounces by measure; Water, twenty-seven 
ounces ; Muriatic acid, one dram. Put the iron into an earthen- 
ware vessel, and pour on the nitric acid, previously diluted with 
fifteen ounces of the water. Set the vessel aside till the whole of 

' Pronncial Medictl and Surgical Jomnal, June, 184L 



382 ' FKimi srnujk 

the acid has united with the iron, so as to fbrm a penesqnimtrmte ; 
then decant the liqiiiil from the portion of iron, which remflins 
undissolved; strain, and filter. Add the moristic add with the 
remainder of the water, or with as much of that liqoid as will in- 
crease the whole solution to thirty ounces. When the process b 
finished — which takes some hoars — the liquid has a red coloar, 
so dark, that when riewed by reflected light, it seen» almost 
black. 

Three ounces of nitric add of the usual strength (1.4) generallT 
dissolve an ounce of iron, so that when the process is oompletea, 
a portion of the metal remains undissolved. The solution then 
consists entirely of persesquinitrate of iron ; and, if speedily 
decanted, it may be preserved in that state ; but if allowed to 
stand for a few hours longer on the iron, it will undergo a fiirther 
change, becoming gradually converted into pemitrate aiad protoni- 
trate of iron. The first of these is insoluble, and renders the 
liquid turbid ; and the latter, which remains dissolved has not the 
medidnal properties that render the persesquinitrate valuable. 
When the solution contains nothing but nitric add and peroxide 
of iron, it slowly undergoes decomposition on standing, so that, at 
the end of a few weeks, the whole lk}uid begins to become tur- 
bid. The addition of some muriatic acid prevents this decom- 
position, and the quantity suflSdent for this purpose b too small 
CO affect the medicinal powers of the persesquinitrate. The solu- 
tion, when properly prepared, is of a beautiful dark red colour, 
when viewed with transmitted light. Its taste is very astringent, 
and not at all caustic.^ 

A formula, since given by Mr. Kerr, is the following. Take of 
Iron wire J (No. 17,) one ounce; nitric acid^ three fluidounces; 
water ^ fifty-seven ounces; muriatic acid, a dram. Mix the 
nitric add with fifteen ounces of water in an earthen vessel, capa- 
ble of holding three or four times the quantity. Put into this the 
iron wire broken into a number of pieces : cover the vessel lightly. 
In eieht or twelve hours, the solution must be poured off, and the 
remainder of the water, with the muriatic acid, be added. 

The formula admitted into the last edition of the Dublin Phar- 
macopeia^ is the following. Take of fine Tron wire, free from 
rust, ^j, (avoirdupois;) pure nitric acid, three fluidounces; dis- 
tilled ivutcr, a sufficient quantity. Into the acid first diluted with 
^xvj. of the water introduce the iron wire, and leave them in con- 
tact until gas ceases to be disengaged. Filter, and add as much 
water as will make the bulk one pint and a half, (f §xxx.) 

' Kerr, in Ampriran Journal of the Medical Scieno