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Based on the Third Edhion of the Realencyklopadie 
Founded by J. J. Herzog, and Edited by Albert Hauck 









(^Associate Editors) 



{Depaiimenl of Systematic Theoloffy) 


{Department of Mxnor Denominatiims) 


{Jkpaftmani of Liturgies and Religious Orders) 

(TOL. I.) 


{Difortment of LUurgie$ and RdigUm* Orden) 

(T0L8. n. TO XIL) 

{D^xiirtment of the Old Tutamenti 

{Department of tite New Tettament) 


(Dqpartmenl of Chttreh Hittory) 


{Department of Pronuneialion and Typography) 

Complete in tCvpelve IDolumed 


JAN 6 1909 

)0 aaiw^Xli vScifMrt-^ 



Registered at Btattonera* HalL. London. England 

{^TinUd in the VniJUd SUtUsof Ameried} 
PublWied May, 1908 





(£ditor-in-Chibf. ) 
ProfeMor of Gburch Hlftory. New Tork UnlYonltjr. 



Editor in Biblical Criticifliii and Theology on ''The New Inter- 
national Kncyclopedia,** New Tork. 


New York, Formerly Profeoor of Biblical History and Lecturer 
on Ck>mparative Religion, Bangor Theological Seminary. 



(Department of Sj/«tem<Uic Theologu.) 

ProfeflBor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological 



(Department of Minor Denomiiiatione,) 

One of the Corresponding Secretaries of the Board of Foreign 

MisBloDS of the Methodist Episcopal Church, New Tork. 


(Department of Liturgictt and RelioUms Orders,) 

ProtesMir of Canon Law, Catholic Unlyersity of America, 

Washington, D. C. 


(Ojflee Editor.) 

Member of the Editorial Staff of the EncycIopsBdia Brltannica 

Company, New Tork City. 


(Department of the Old TettamenL) 
Professor of Oriental lAngiiagee, University College, Toronto. 


(Department of the New Tetdament.) 
Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New Tes- 
tament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass. 


(Department of Church Hintorv.) 

Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary 

(Baylor University), Waco, Tex. 


(Department of Pronunciation and Tupography.) 

fanaging Editor of the Standard Dictiomabt, etc.. 

New Tork City. 



Professor of Church History, Univenity of Halle. 

UOe Pastor of the Catholic Apostolic Chureh, Hartford, Conn. 


Professor of ChuCh History, Evangelical Theological Fttcnlty, 
University of Breslao. 


Prafttsor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological Semi- 


Professor of Church History, University of KOnigsberg. 

OEB, Ph.D., Th.Lic., 

Vonnerty PriratdoceDt in Old Testament Theology, University 

of Berlin, Member of the Executive Committee of the 

German Society for the Exploration of 

Palestine, Jerusalem. 


Pastor of St. Mlcbaers Church and President of the Society 
for the Inner Mission, Hamburg. 


Editor of the Encudopedia of MUssions^ etc., Washington, D. C. 

EDUABD BOEHMEB (f), Ph.D., Th.D., 

Fonnerly Professor of Romance Languages, Universities of Malle 
and Strasburg. 


Professor of Church History, Independent School of Divinity, 


Professor of Church History, University of GOttlngen. 


Professor of the New Testament and Church History, University 

of Grelfswald. 


Formerly Pastor at Nabem near Kirchheim, WQrttemberg. 



Prof enor of New Testament Kxegeila, niil?enlt7 of GKUttngen. 

BBIEGEB, Ph.D., TI1.D., 

ProfeMor of Church Hi8tor7« UnlTenlty of Lelpilo. 

D.Litt. (Oxon.)y 

ProfeMorof Theological Encyclopedia and Symbolics, Union 
Theological Seminary* New York. 

OABL VON BX70HBX70XEB (f), Th.D., 

Late Supreme Consistortal Councilor, Munich. 


Profeoorof Oriental Languages, UnlTerslty of Copenhagen. 


Uniyenity Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology, 
Pediagogics, and Dldacttcs, University of Erlangen. 


Instructor of English, CoUege of the City of New Yoric 


Professor of Canon Law, Catholic University of Amolca, 
Washington, D. C. 

Late Professor of Systematio 'nieology,Unlve^ty of Greifswald. 


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsio, 

and President of the Oerman Evangelical Archeo- 

logical Institute, Jerusalem. 


Professor of Church History, University of Berlin. 


Supreme Consistorlal Councilor, City Superintendent, and Pastor 
of the Church of the Cross, Dresden. 


Professor of Practical Theology, University of Giessen. 


lihrarian. University of Greifswald. 


Late Consistorial Councilor, Dessau. 


Uecording Secretary of the American Bible Society, New York. 


Vonnerty General Superintendent, and Honorary Professor of 

Church History, Evangelical Theological Faculty, 

University of Breslau. 

Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of Dogmatics and New Testament Exegesis, Uni- 
versity of Erlangen. 

PAUL PEINE, Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Berlin. 


Writer on Art and Architecture, New York City. 


Professor of Church History, Evangelical Theological Faculty, 
University of Strasbuig. 

UOe Professor of Church History, University of Halle. 

NORMAN FOX (t), D.D., 
Late Baptist Clergyman and Author, Morristown, N. J. 


Gymnasial Professor, Parchim, Mecklenburg. 

Professor of Ecclesiastical, Public, and German Law, Univer- 
sity of Leipslc 

Late Professor of Classical Philology and Ancient History, Uni- 
versity of Jeiia. 


Formerly Lecturer on Comparative Religion, Bangor Theo- 
logical Semimuy. 


Professor of History, University of TQbingen. 


Honorary Professor of GeograiAiy, Technical School, and Pro- 
fessor, Military Academy, Munich. 


Late Professor of New Testament Exegesis, Ethics, and Prac- 
tical Theology, Evangelical Theological Faculty, 
University of TQbingen. 


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsio. 


Formerly Professor of History and German in the Luisenstadt 
Beal-Gymnasium, BerlliL 

ADOLF HARNAOK, Ph.D., M.D., Dr.Jur., 

Professor of Church History, University of Berlin, and Gen- 
eral Director of the Royal library, Berlin. 

ALBERT HAUOK, Ph.D., Dr.Jur., Th.D., 

Professor of Church History, University of Leipeic; Editor of 
the Bealeneyhlopfidit, Founded by J. J. Herzog. 


Professor, and Director of the University Library, GiesserL 


Formerly Professor of History, Dorpat, Russia. 



Consistorial Councilor, Professor of New Testament Theology 
and Exegeids, University of Greifswald. 

Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Leipslc 


Dean, Neustadt-on-the-Aisch, Bavaria, Editor of Siona. 

PAX7L HINSOHIUS (t), Dr.Jur., 
Late Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Berlin. 



H0EL8CHEB, Th.D.y 

FMtor of tbe Church of St. Ntoholas, Leipilc, Editor of the AOoe- 

meine evanoeUBcfUutheriaehe Kirehemieituna and 

of the Theok)ot6ch€» LiUralurblaU, 


Frotanor of Homiletlos and Lltorgloi, UnlTenity of Lelpslc. 


Faator of .the Luther Church and PriyBt<4!ooent for the History 

of BeUgkmand the Old Testament In the 

UnlYOHlty, Lelpsic 


Profeswr of Dogmatics, Unlyerslty of Halle. 


Oonaistorlal Councilor, Unlyenlty Preacher, and Professor of 

Practical Theology, Evangelical Theological Faculty, 

Uniyerslty of Breslau. 


Supreme Conalstorlal Councilor, Berlin. 


Frofeaor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Lelpslc. 


ProfesBor of Old Testament Exegesis, Unlverrity of KleL 

AUGUST KOEHLEB (f), Ph.D., Th.D., 

UOe Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Erlan- 


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Evangelical Theological 
Faculty, University of Bonn. 

KOLDE, Ph.D., Th.D., 

Pr o fe ss o r of Church History, Unlvenlty of Erlangen. 

GEByPh.D.y Th.D., 

ProtesBor of Church History, University of Glessen. 



P ro aa ao r of Bystematlo and Prscttcal Theology, Univerrity of 




Uifie Provincial Councilor for Schools, Hanover. 

r wfe wo r of Systematic Theology, University of Heidelberg. 


Chief Inspector of the Royal Orphan Asylum, Stuttgart 


Professor of Church History, University of KOnigsberg. 


of Aryan Languages, University of Lelpslc. 


Late Studlendlrektor, Munich. 

GEOBG liOESOHE, Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of Church History, Evangelical Hieological Faculty, 


Professor of Church History, Univendty of Halle. 

WHiHELM LOTZ, Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Unlvenlty of Erlangen. 


Professor of Church History, Unlvenlty of Upsala, Sweden. 


Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto. 


Secretary of the Alliance of the Reformed Churches, London. 



Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Member of the Boyal Consistory, 


Professor of Church History, Unlvoslty of Marburg. 


Professor of Reformed Theology, Unlvenlty of Erlangen. 


Councilor for Schools, Lelpslc 


Professor of Christian Archeology, University of Berlin. 


Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New 
Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass- 


Professor in the Theological Seminary (Teacher of Hebrew, 

New Testament Greek, and Religion), Maulbronn, 



Professor of the History of Art, University of KieL 


Professor of Church History, Baylor Theological Seminary 
(Baylor University), Waco, Texas. 


Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Speyer, Bavaria. 


Late Bishop of Aalborg, Denmark. 


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and History of Religion, 
University of BaseL 


Pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, Parish of St. Paul, 


General Secretary of the Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip, 



Paftor of the First Oerman Evangelical Latlieran St. John^s 
Ctaorcb, Newark, N. J. 


fonnerly Instraotor In Frencb, Tale College and SbefDeld Sd- 
entlflc School, New Haven, Oonn. 


Pastor at Gateraleben, Pnmlan Saxony. 


University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology, Uni- 
venity of Leipsic 

Late Professor of History, University of Amsterdam. 

HUGO 8ACHSSE, P]i.D., Th.Lic, Dr.Jur., 

Professor of Ecclesiastical Law, University of Rostock. 


Professor for Religious Instruction and Hebrew, Holy Cross 
Gymnasium, Dresden. 


Professor of Chureh History, Western Theological Seminary, 
Allegheny, Pa. 

PHILIP 8CHAPF (t), D.D., LL.D., 

Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, 
New York. 


Pastor at Goldberg, Mecklenburg. 


Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of GOttlngen. 


Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology, Univer- 
sity of Greifkwald. 


Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock. 


Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Berlin. 


Professor of Ecclesiastioal and Commercial Law, University 
of Erlangen. 



Professor of Dogmatics and New Testament Exegesis, Evan- 
gelical Theological Faculty, Univereity of Bonn. 

BT7D0LF 8TAEHELIN (f), Th.D., 

Late Proftesor of Church History, University of BaseL 


Proftasor of Egyptology, University of Leipsic. 


Privy Councilor, Professor of the German Language and Lit- 
erature, University of Erlangen. 


Astor Library, New York City. 


Professor of Church History, University of GOttingen. 

WILHELM VOLOK (f), Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, University of Ros- 

D.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Didactic and Polemical Theology, Princeton Theo- 
logical Seminary. 


Professor of New Testament Exegesis, University of Marburg. 


Pastor Primarius, Guben, Prussia. 


Professor of Classical Philology, University of Munich. 

THEODOB ZAHN, Th.D., Litt.D., 

Professor of New Testament Exegesis and Introduction, Uni- 
versity of Erlangen. 

OTTO ZOEOBLEB (f), Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late Professor of Church History and Apologetics, University of 


This encyclopedia presents in a condensed and modified form that great body of Prot- 
estant learning called the Recdencyklopddie fur prote8tarUi8cheTheologieu7ulKirche,edxted by 
Professor Albwt Hauck, Ph.D., D.Th., D. Jur., the famous church historian of Germany. The 
German work is the third edition of that religious encyclopedia which was originally edited 
by the late Professor Johann Jakob Herzog and bore his name popularly as a convenient 
short title. The late Professor Philip Schaflf was requested by his intimate friend Dr. Her- 
zog to adapt the encyclopedia to the American public and this he did. To this combination 
of German and American scholarship the publishers gave the happy title of T?ie Schaff- 
Herzog EncydopcBdia of Religious Knowledge. This name has been familiar to thousands of 
the religious public on both sides of the sea for the past twenty-five years and so has been 
preserved as the title of this publication, with the prefix " New." 

The histoiy of this encyclopedia up to the present is this: In December, 1853, there appeared at Gotha 
the first part of the Realenq^klapddie fUr prateskmHacke Theologie und Kirche, which was the Protestant 
reply to the challenge of the Roman Catholic scholars engaged upon the Kirchenlexikon oder Enqfklopddie 
der kathoUschen Theologie und ikrer HiUfswiasenschaftenf which had been appearing at Freiburg im Breisgau 
flinoe 1S46. The credit for suggesting the latter work must be given to Benjamin Herder (1818-88), one 
of the leading publishers of Germany. Its editors were Heinrich Joseph Wetzer (1801-53), professor 
of Oriental p^ology in the University of Freiburg im Breisgau, a layman, and Benedict Welte (1805-85), 
a priest and professor of theology in the University of TQbingen. The proposition to do as much for Prot- 
estant theology and research was mooted by a company of Protestant theologians, and Matthias Schnecken- 
burger (1804-48), professor of theology in Bern, had been chosen editor of the projected work. But 
the political troubles of 1848 prevented the carrying out of the scheme and the death of Schneckenburger 
that year made it necessary to find another leader. At this jimcture Friedrich August Tholuck (1799- 
1877), professor of theology in Halle, where Johann Jakob Herzog was professor from 1847 to 1854, was 
consulted and he named his colleague. It was an ideal choice, as Professor Herzog was a competent 
scholar, a friend of progress in theology, moderate in his views, and a pereona grata to all parties among 
the Protestants. The publisher of the Protestant encyclopedia was Christian Friedrich Adolf Rost (1790- 
1856), who was carrying on the business of Johann Conrad Hinrichs, and imder that name. 

Both the Roman Catholic and Protestant religious encyclopedias were conspicuous successes and came 
to be called popularly, by the names of their editors, " Wetzer und Welte " und " Herzog " respectively. 
The former was finished in 1856 in twelve volumes, followed by an index volume in 1860; the latter in 
1868 in twenty-two volumes including the index. In December, 1877, the Herders entrusted a new edition 
of " Wetzer und Welte " to Joseph HergenrOther (1824-80), at that time a professor of theology in Munich. 
On his elevation to the cardinalate in 1879 he transferred his editorial duties to Franz Philipp Kaulen 
(1827-1907), Roman Catholic professor of theology in Bonn, and imder him the new edition was finished 
in 1901 in twelve volumes, eadi one much larger than those of the first edition. In September, 1903, the 
index volume appeared. In 1877 the first volume of the second edition of " Herzog" appeared, edited by 
Professor Herzog with the assistance of his colleague in the theological faculty in Erlangen, Gustav Leopold 
Flitt (1836-80). On Plitt's death Herzog called in another colleague, Albert Hauck (1845-), the professor 
of church history, who survived him and brought the work to its triumphant close in 1888 in eighteen 
volumes, indudingthe index. In the spring of 1896 appeared the first part of the third edition of " Herzog " 
with Hauck, who meanwhile had gone to Leipsic as professor of church history, as sole editor. It is upon 
this third edition that the present work is based. 

The idea of translating " Herzog " in a slightly condensed form occurred to John Henry Augustus 
Bomberger (1817-90), a minister of the German Reformed Church, and then president of Ursinus Col- 
lege, Collegeville, Pa., and in 1856 he brought out in Philadelphia the first volume, whose title-page 
nads thus: The Prateetant Theological and Ecclesiastical Encyclopedia: Being a Condensed Translaticn 
of Hertog's Real Encyclopedia. With Additions from Other Sources. By Rev. J.H.A. Bomberger, D.D., As- 
tiaUd by Distinguished Theologians of Various Denominations. Vol. I. Philadelphia : Lindsay cfe Blakiston, 


1866. In this work he associated with himself twelve persons, all but one ministers. In 1860 he issued the 
second volume. But the Civil War breaking out the next year put a stop to so costly an enterprise and it 
was never resumed. The first volume included the article "Concubinage," the second "Josiah." It 
had been issued in numbers, of which the last was the twelfth. 

In 1877 Professor Philip Schaff (1819-03) was asked by Dr. Herzog himself to undertake an Eng^h 
reproduction of the second edition of his encydopedia,and this work was fairly begun when, in the autumn 
of 1880, Clemens Petersen and Samuel Macauley Jackson were engaged to work daily on it in Dr. Schaff's 
study in the Bible House, New York City. The next year Dr. Schaff's son, the Rev. David Schley Schaff, 
now professor of church history in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., joined the staff. 
The original publishers were S. S. Scranton & Company, Hartford, Conn., but a change was made before 
the issue of the first volume and the encyclopedia was issued by Funk & Wagnalls. The title-page read thus : 
A Religioua Encydopadia : or Dictionary of Biblical^ Historical, Doctrinal, and Practical Theology, Based on the 
Beal-EncyklopadieofHerxog, Plitt,andHauck, Edited by Philip Schaff, DJ).,LL,D., Prof essor in the Union 
Theological Seminary, New York. Associate editors : Rev. Samuel M. Jackson, M,A., and Rev, D, S. Schaff, 
Volume I. New York : Funk A Wagnalls, Publishers, 10 and IB Dey Street. The first volume was issued 
Wednesday, November 1, 1882, the second Thursday, March 1, 1883, and the third Tuesday, March 4, 
1884. Volume I. had pp. xix. 1-847; volume II. pp. xvii. 848-1714; and volume III. pp. xix. 
1715-2631. In November, 1886, a revised edition was issued and at the same time the Encyclopedia of 
Living Divines and Christian Workers of AU Denominations in Europe and America, Being a Supplement to 
Schaff'Herzog Encyclopedia of Religiotis Knowledge. Edited by Rev, Philip Schaff, D,D,, LLJ),, and Rev. 
Samuel Macauley Jackson, M. A, New York: Funk A Wagnalls, Publishers, 18 and 20 Astor Place, 1887. 
In 1891 the third edition of the encyclopedia was issued and with it was incorporated the Encyclopedia 
of Living Divines, with an appendix, largely the work of Rev. George William Gilmore, bringing the bio- 
graphical and literary notices down to December, 1890. The entire work was repaged sufficiently to 
make it one of four volumes of about equal size, and it is this four-volume edition which is known to 
the public as the Schaff-Hersog Encycyclopedia, the volumes being respectively of pp. xlviii. 679 and four 
pages unnumbered; 680-1378; 1379-2086; iv. 2087-2629, viii. 296. As the German work at its base was 
overtaken by the time "S" had been reached, the "Schaff-Herzog" from that letter on was based on^the 
first edition of " Herzog." Therefore much of its matter is now very old. Yet it has been a useful work, 
and in 1903 its publishers determined on a new edition based on the third edition of " Herzog," which 
had been appearing since 1896. But inasmuch as there was a space of ten years between the be- 
ginnings of the two works, it has been necessary to bring the matter from the German down to date. 
This end has been acoompUshed by two courses: first by securing from the German contributors to " Her- 
zog " condensations of their contributions, in which way matter contributed to the German work has in 
many instances been brought down to date, and second by calling on department editors for supplemen- 
tary matter. 

Afl appears from what has been said above, this encyclopedia is not entirely a new work. It 
is really an old workreconstructed. Its list of titles is largely the same and it follows the same 
generiJ plan as in the old work. The pointsof identity are : (1) that at its base lies the Realenq/' 
klopddie fur protestantische Theologie und Kirche, once associated with the name of Herzog, 
now with the name of Albert Hauck, professor of church history in the University of Leipsic, 
and the author of the authoritative history of the Church in Germany; (2) that it gives in 
condensed form the information in that work, and takes such matter directly from the Ger- 
man work in most instances, although occasionally while the topic is the same the treatment 
is independent of the German contributor's; (3) that it has much matter contributed by 
the editorial staff and specially secured contributors; (4) that in Biblical matters it 
limits its titles to those of the German base, so that it should not be considered as a Bible 
dictionary, although the Biblical department comprehends the principal articles of such a 
dictionary. The points of dissimilarity are these: (1) It contains much matter furnished 
directly by those contributors to the German work who have kindly consented to condense 
their articles and bring them within prescribed limits. These limits have often been narrow, 
but in no other way was it possible to utilize the German matter. (2) It con- 
tains hundreds of sketches of living persons derived in almost every instance from matter 
furnished by themselves. In writing these sketches much help has been received, principally 
in the suggestion of names, from the English and American Who's Who and from the German 
Wer ist*8 (which is a similar work for Germany) , and we desire to acknowledge our indebtedness 
with thanks. But comparison between the sketches in this book and those given of the same 
individual in the books referred to will reveal many differences and be so many proofs of the 


extensive correspondence carried on to secure the given facts. Every person sketched herein, 
with ahnost no exception, has been sent a blank for biographical data. Some thought to 
save themselves the trouble of filling out the blank by referring to a dictionary of living 
persons, but it has generally turned out that the requirements of this blank were not met by 
the book referred to and it has been necessary to write to the subject, and frequently more 
than once, before the desired information could be secured. (3) The matter in proof has been 
sent to persons specially chosen for eminence in their respective departments. These depart- 
ments with the names of those in charge of them are: Systematic Theology, Rev. Clarence 
Augustine Beckwith, D.D., professor of systematic theology, Chicago Theological Seminary; 
Minor Denominations, Rev. Henbt Kino Carroll, LL.D., one of the corresponding sec- 
retaries of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, New York City; 
Liturgies and Religious Orders, in the first volimie, Rev. John Thomas Creaoh, D.D., 
professor of canon law. Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C, in subsequent 
volumes. Very Rev. James Francis Driscoll, D.D., president of St. Joseph's Seminary, 
Yonkers, N. Y.; the Old Testament, Rev. James Frederick McCurdy, Ph.D., LL.D., 
professor of Oriental languages. University College, Toronto; the New Testament, Rev. 
Henry Sylvester Nash, D.D., professor of the literature and interpretation of the New 
Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass.; Church History, Rev. Albert 
Henry Newman, D.D., LL.D., professor of church history, Baylor Theological Seminary 
(Baylor University), Waco, Texas. Besides reading the proofs they were requested 
to make such additions as would not only bring them up to date but represent the dis- 
tinctive results of British and American scholarship. (4) A much more thorough bib- 
liography is furnished. The attempt has been made to give sources so that students may 
pursue a subject to its roots; second, to supply the best literature in whatever language it 
occurs; third, to supply references in English for those who read only that language. (5) All 
articles based on German originals have been sent in proof to the writers of the original 
German articles when these writers were still living. Some of them had furnished the articles 
and they had merely been translated, but in the great majority of cases the German authors 
had not given that cooperation; not a few, however, have kindly read our condensations 
and made corrections and additions. For this cooperation thanks are due. 

We here mention with gratitude the permission given by the publisher of the Real- 
encyklopddie fur protestantische Theologie und Kirche, Mr. Heinrich Rost, the head of the 
great publishing house of J. C. Hinrichs of Leipsic, and by the editor of its third edition. 
Professor Albert Hauck, Ph.D., D.Th., D.Jur., of the University of Leipsic, to use its 
contents in our discretion. Dr. Hauck has done far more than give permission. He has 
manifested a kindly interest in our work, has revised the condensations of his articles, and 
facilitated our efforts to secure from his contributors advance articles. This helpfulness is 
much appreciated, and we would fain give it prominent recognition. 

Rev. David Schley Schaff, D.D., who holds the chair of church history in the Western 
Theolo^cal Seminary, Allegheny, Pa., whose father was the founder of this work and 
who was nimself one of its original associate editors, felt unable on account of other duties 
to assume any editorial responsibility for the present work, as he had been asked to do by 
the publishers when the new edition was determined on, but he entered heartily into the 
arrangement whereby the sole responsibility of general editor should be lodged with his 
former associate editor, and has cooperated by bringing down to date almost all the articles 
which he and his father contributed to the first edition. 

The labor of coordinating the material sent in by the many persons who have coop- 
ei ated to bring out this work has fallen upon the managing editor, Charles Colebrook Sher- 
MAN, who has discharged his difficult duties with conscientious fidelity and marked ability. 


The bibliography, which is probably the greatest novelty of this encyclopedia and is a fea- 
ture certain to be greatly appreciated, has been prepared by Professor George William 
GiLMORE, late of Bangor Theological Seminary, and the author of Hurst's Literature of 
Theology. The work of condensing and translating the articles from the contributors to 
the Realencyklopddie fur protestarUische Theologie und Kirche has been done by Bernhard 
Pick, Ph.D., D.D., Lutheran pastor, Newark, N. J.; Alexis iBi&NiB du Pont Coleman, M.A. 
of Oxford University, instructor in English in the College of the Qty of New York; Alfred 
Stoeckius, Ph.D., of the Astor Library; William Price; and Hubert Evans, Ph.D. of 
Leipsic. The pronunciations have been supplied by Frank Horace VizETELLT, F.S.A., 
managing editor of the Standard Dictionary. 

When the contributors to the Realencyldopddie have chosen not to condense their articles 
themselves, but have preferred that this work should be done by the editors of the New 
Schaff'Herzog, the fact is indicated by the use of parentheses enclosing the signature. Edi- 
torial additions or changes in the body of signed articles for which the contributors should 
not be held responsible are indicated by brackets. A double signature indicates that an 
article originally prepared by the contributor whose name appears first (in parentheses) has 
been revised by the contributor whose name follows. The cross (f) following the name 
of a contributor indicates that he is dead. 

Seftembkb 16, 1907. THE EDITOR. 


For purposes of research and definite information the student is constantly under the 
necessity of discovering not only lists of works on a given subject, but also initials or full 
names of authors and place and date of publication and often the exact form of the title 
of a book inaccurately or partially known. To furnish this information the work which 
will prove useful beyond all others is the British Mvseum Catalogue^ which with its 
Supplement records the books received down to 1900; accessions beyond this date 
are also recorded in supplementary issues. Especially valuable to the theological stu- 
dent are the four parts devoted to the Bibles and Bible-works in the British Museum, 
though the large number of entries makes it hard to consult these parts. Some help is 
given by the tables of arrangement. A Subject Index for 1881-1905, ed. G. K. Fortescue, 
4 vols., London, 1902-06, makes available a very considerable part of the late literature 
upon all subjects. Next to this, if indeed not equally valuable so far as it is finished, is 
the exhaustive work doing for the French National Library and for publications in French 
what the work just named does for the British. This is the Catalogue giniral . . . de la 
Bibliothkque Nationale, now in course of publication, Paris, 1897 sqq., of which volume xxiv., 
the last received, carries the list through "Catzius." The value of these two publications 
will be more accurately estimated when it is recalled that the two institutions are stated 
repositories for copyrighted books in the two countries respectively. An impor- 
tant feature of the first volume of the French catalogue is a helpful account of pre- 
vious catalogues of the French National Library. The English work is in folio, 
the French in octavo. Perhaps the next best general work is that of J. C. 
Brunet, Manud du libraire, 3 vols., Paris, 1810, superseded by the 5th ed., 6 vols., 
1860-66, with SuppUment, 2 vols., 1878-80. After these two works come in point of 
usefulness what may be called the national catalogues, recording the books published in 
Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, and America. For Germany the work was begun 
in the AUgemeines Burher-Lexicon, by W. Heinsius, reedited and enlarged by O. A. Schulz, 
then by F. A. Schiller, covering the period 1700-1851 in 11 voliunes, Leipsic, 1812-54, for 


the earlier period incomplete. This was continued by Hinrichs' Bucher-Katalog, cov- 
ering the years 1851-65 in one volume (1875), and from that time to the present by the 
Funfjdhrtger Bucher-KcUalog. Half-yearly volumes are published which are superseded in 
course by the five-year volumes. These were accompanied by a Repertorium up to 1885, 
which arranged the entries topically. From 1883 on the Repertorium was superseded by a 
ScUagwort^Katalog, by Georg and L. Ost, Hanover, 1889-1904 (now complete down to 
1902), serving as an index to the Hinrichs, and arranging the catch- words alphabetically. 

For publications in French there is the Catalogue giniral de la librairie frangaise, cover- 
ing the period 1840-99, 15 vols., Paris, 1867-1904, begun by O. Lorenz and continued by 
D. Jordell, with a Table des matiires or index published at irregular intervals, but exceed- 
in^y full and usable. The Table systimatique de la bibliographie de la France is an annual 
list of cop3nighted books classified according to subjects, published in Paris. 

For British publications the London Catalogue, London, 1846, now very hard to obtain, 
carries the list of books from 1800 to 1846 with Index to the same. This was continued by 
the English Catalogue,now complete down to 1905, 7 vols., London, 1864-1905. The three vol- 
umes for 1890-1905 are arranged by authors and subjects in one alphabet. For the period 
1837-89 there is an Index of Svbjects, 4 vols., London, 1858-93. A Yearly Catalogue is issued, 
which, like the French annuals and German semiannuals, is superseded by the volume cov- 
ering a series of years. 

For modem Italian works the authoritative source is the Catalogo generate della libreria 
Italiana, 1847-99^ compilato dal Prof. Attilio Pagliainif 3 vols., Milan, 1901-05, a work 
singularly complete for the period it covers. 

For American publications the period 1820-71 is inadequately covered by the Biblio- 
tkeca Americana, by O. A. Roorbach to 1861, and then by J. Kelly, a set of books rarely 
on the market. The American Catalogue continues this to the end of 1905 in 6 vols, 
folio, 2 vols. roy. 8vo, New York, 1880-1906. This was begun by F. Leypoldtand is con- 
tinued by the Publishers' Weekly. In this series a Yearly Catalogue is issued, superseded like 
the other annuals by the larger volume. The whole is being supplemented by Charles 
Evans with the American Bibliography , a Chronological Dictionary of All . . . Publications 
. . . , 1639-1820. Of this magnificent work, vols, i.-iv. are issued, Chicago, 1903-07, bring- 
ing the titles down to 1773. 

For earlier books a valuable set of volumes is L. Hain, Repertorium bibliographicum, 
2 vols, in 4 parts and an Index, Stuttgart, 1826-91, giving a list of books printed from 
the invention of printing to 1500. To this W. A. Copinger has added a Supplement in 2 
vols., 3 parts, London, 1895-1902, and Dietrich Reichling, Appendices, in course of prepa- 
ration and publication, containing corrections and additions, Munich, 1905 sqq. 

Valuable as selected and classified lists of general literature, including theology, are 
Sonnenschein's Best Books and Reader's Guide, London, 1891-95. The foregoing are all 
in the field of general literature and are not specifically theological. 

Of specifically Theological Bibliographies, giving lists of literature in the various depart- 
ments of the science, the older ones have principally a historic value. Some of the best 
are: J. 0. Walch, Bibliotheca theologica selecta, 4 vols., Jena, 1757-65, arranged topically 
with an index of authors; G. B. Winer, Handbuch der theologischen Litteratur, 3d ed., 3 vols., 
Leipsic, 1837-42 (gives little literature in English); E. A. Zuchold, Bibliotheca theologica, 
2 vols., Gdttingen, 1864 (an alphabetical arrangement by authors of books in German issued 
1830-62) ; W. Orme, Bibliotheca theologica, London, 1824 (contains critical notes) . One of the 
older books, often referred to for its lists of editions of Scripture, is J. Le Long, Bibliotheca sacra, 
2 vols., Paris, 1709, enlarged by A. G. Masch, 5 vols., Halle, 1778-90. T. H. Home added 
to his Introduction a rich bibliography of the works issued before and in his time (also printed 


separately), London, 1839, which, however, is not found in editions of the Introduction later 
than that of 1846. An excellent work is that by James Darling, Cydopcsdia Bibliografhica ; 
a Library Manual of Theological and (General Literature, London, 1854, with supplementary 
volume, 1859, particularly useful as giving the contents of series and even of volumes. A modem 
production, noting only works in English, is J. F. Hurst, Literature of Theology, New York, 
1896, fairly complete up to its date, arranged according to the divisions in Theology and in 
convenient smaller rubrics, with very full indexes. Unfortimately, it needs supplementing 
by the literature subsequent to 1895. It is to be hoped that the publishers will see their 
way to add a supplement, containing the later literature. For Roman Catholic theology 
consult D. Gla, Systematisch geordnetes Repertorium der kathoUsch-theologischen Litteratur, 
Paderbom, 1894. W. T. Lowndes, Bibliographer' 8 Manual, 4 vols., London, 1834, new 
edition by Henry G. Bohn, 1857-64, while not exclusively theological, deals largely with 
curious theological books and is useful for the annotations. 

Among the most useful guides to theological literature are the works on Introduction 
to Theology or on Theological Encyclopedia and Methodology, most of which give classified 
lists of literature. Schleiermacher's Kvrze DarsteUung dee theologischen Studiums, Berlin, 
1811, 1830, was followed by K. R. Hagenbach, Encyklopddie und Methodologie, Leipsic, 1833, 
revised by M. Reischle, 1889. This last, though not in its latest form, was practically repro- 
duced by 0. R. Crooks and J. F. Hurst, New York, 1884, rev. ed., 1894, with copious lists 
of literature, English and American, added. Better even than this is A. Cave, Introduction 
to Theology, 2d ed., Edinbur^, 1896, in which the lists of literature are especially valuable, 
thou^ the lapse of a decade since the publication makes a new edition desirable. Of very 
high value for its citation of literature, including Continental, English, and American, is 
L. Emery, Introduction d Vitude de la thiologie protestante, Paris, 1904. 

In the way of Biblical and Theological Dictionaries and Encyclopedias the past 
decade has witnessed great progress. The two great Bible Dictionaries, superseding 
for English readers all others, are A Dictionary of the Bible, by J. Hastings and J. A. 
Selbie, 4 vols, and extra volume, Edinburgh and New York, 1898-1904 (comprehensive 
and fully up to date in the Old Testament subjects, but conservative and often timid 
in dealing with the New Testament), and Encydopoedia Biblica, by T. K. Cheyne and 
J. S. Black, 4 vols., London and New York, 1899-1903 (also comprehensive, much 
more ''advanced'' in the Old Testament and admitting representation to the "Dutch 
School " in the New Testament parts, but handicapped by the Jerahmeel theory of Prof. 
Cheyne). F. Vigoiux)Ux, Dictionnaire de la Bible, Paris, 1891 sqq., still in course of pub- 
lication, has reached ''Palestine" with part xxix., and is an excellent specimen of the 
conservative type of French Biblical scholarship. 

In Christian Archeology the work of W. Smith and S. Cheetham, Dictionary of Chris- 
tian Antiquities, 2 vols., London, 1875-80, is still valuable, and there is no later work in 
English to take its place. Of high value is F. X. Kraus, RealnEncyklopddie der chrisUichen 
AUerthumer, 2 vols., Freiburg, 1881-86. The best work, which must supersede all others 
because of its extraordinary completeness and fulness, but which has been only recently begun 
and must take many years to complete under its present plan, is F. Cabrol, Dictionmiire 
d^archiologiechritienneetde liiurgie, Paris, 1903 sqq. (parts i.-xilare out, and bring the reader 
down to "Baptfane"). In a different field, and worthy of high praise, is W. Smith 
and H. Wace, Dictionary of Christian Biography, Literature, Sects, and Doctrines, 4 vols., 
Londoa 1877-87, representing the best English scholarship of its day, and, from the 
nature of its contents, not easily to be superseded. A help to this, particularly in the matter 
of early Christian writers, is W. Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Myth- 
ology, 3 vols., new edition, London, 1890. 


In the general field of Historical and Doctrinal Theology must be men- 
tioned on the Roman Catholic side the Kirchenlexikan of Wetzer and Welte, 2d 
ed., begun by Cardinal Hergenr5ther, continued by F. Kaulen, 12 vols, and Register, 
Freiburg, 1880-1903. This work must be conmiended for its accurate scholarship, its ad- 
mirable regard for proportion, and for the large range of subjects it treats with fairness 
and with only a suspicion of a tendency toward ultramontanism. Briefer is the Handlexir 
kon der katholischen Theologie, begun by J. Schafler (continued by J. Sax), 4 vols., Regens- 
burg, 1880-1900. The new Kirchlichea HandJexikon of M. Buchberger, Mimich, 1904-06 
(in progress), is not particularly valuable. The evangelical side of German scholarship is 
represented by the great work of J. J. Herzog, Realerwyklopddie fur proteatanHache Theohgie 
und Kirche, 3d ed., revised imder A. Hauck, Leipsic, 1896 sqq., 18 vols, issued to date. 
This is the great storehouse of German Protestant theology and the basis of the present 
work. The most ambitious work of American scholarship is J. McClintock and J. Strong, 
CydapcBdia of Biblicai, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature, 10 vols.. New York, 1867- 
1881, with two supplementary volumes, 1884-86 (claims to have over 50,000 titles; necessarily 
it is now in need of revision). Other works, each having its distinctive field, are: W. F. 
Hook, A Church Dictionary, 8th ed., London, 1859, reprinted Philadelphia, 1854; J. Eadie, 
T?ie Ecclesiastical Cyclopedia, ib., 1861 ; J. H. Blunt, Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical 
Theology, 2d ed., ib., 1872; idem. Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, and Schools of Thought, ib., 
1891 (both of considerable worth, representing "High Anglicanism"); W. E. Addis and 
T. Arnold, A Catholic Dictionary, London and New York, 6th ed., 1903; J. Hamburger, 
RealrEncyklopddie des Judenthums, 3 vols., 3d ed., Leipsic, 1891-1901 (deals with both 
Biblical and Talmudic subjects; "by a Jew for Jews"); The Jewish Encyclopedia, published 
under the direction of an editorial board of which I. K. Funk was chairman and Isidore 
Singer managing editor, 12 vols.. New York, 1901-06; F. Lichtenberger, EncydopMie des 
sciences rdigieuses, 13 vols., Paris, 1877-82 (for French Protestants). T. P. Hughes, Dic- 
tionary of Islam, London, 1885, is the only encyclopedic work on the subject, but 
defective and imreliable. In Hymnology there are: H. A. Daniel, Thesaurus hymnologicus, 
i. Latin hymns, ii. Latin sequences, iii. Greek hymns, iv.-v. supplement to vols, i.-ii., Leip- 
sic, 1841-55 (a storehouse of material often inaccessible elsewhere, but ill digested, inac- 
curate, and perplexing to consult) ; E. E. Koch, Geschichte des Kirchenliedes und Kirchen- 
gesangs der christlichen . . . Kirche, 3d ed., partly posthumous, 8 vols, and index, 1866-77 
(the greatest collection of biographies of h3nimists, unfortunately not reliable) ; the one Eng- 
lish cyclopedic work in hymnology is J. Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, London and New 
York, 1907. A work of immense erudition and alone in its field, which comprehends much 
that is theological, is J. M. Baldwin, Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, 3 vols., New 
York, 1901-06 (vol. iii. in 2 parts is devoted to the bibliography of the subject, duly classified) . 

While most of the Biblical Helps are noted under the appropriate titles in the text, 
the following are worthy of special mention here. For the Old Testament all the books 
except Exodus to Deuteronomy were published in handy form in the Hebrew by G. Baer 
and F. Delitzsch, Leipsic, 1869-95 (the text, though critical, does not concern itself with 
readings from the versions); the best ed. so far of the complete Hebrew text is C. D. 
Ginsburg's Hebrew Bible, 2 vols., London, 1894; the text alone was reprinted in 1906 
(the Introduction to the Hebrew Bible by Ginsburg, London, 1897, is the one indis- 
pensable handbook to the text); yet a very excellent Biblia Hebraica has been 
published by R. Kittel with the assistance of Professors G. Beer, F. Buhl, G. Dal- 
man, S. R. Driver, M. Lohr, W. Nowack, J. W. Rothstein, and V. Ryssel, in 2 parts, 
Leipsic, 1905-06, obtainable also in smaller sections. The new series entitled The Sacred 
Books of the Old Testament, ed. Paul Haupt, now in coiu'se of publication, Leipsic, London, 


and Baltimore, 1894 sqq., and known generally as the "Rainbow Bible" and less widely 
as the " Polychrome Bible/' sets forth the composite origin of the books and indicates the 
separate docimients by printing the text on backgrounds of different tints (the critical 
objection to the series is that as each book is not directly the result of a consensus of scholar- 
ship, the effect in each case is the pronouncement of a single scholar and consequent in- 
decisiveness in the verdict). The lexicons which are most worthy of confidence are: W. 
Gesenius, Thesaurus phUologicus criticus lingwB HArauB^ 3 vols., Leipsic, 1826-53 (indispen- 
sable for the thorough student) ; idem, Hebrdisches und Aramdisches Handworterhuch, 14th 
ed. by F. Buhl, ib., 1905; and (best for the English student) F. Brown, C. A. Briggs, 
and S. R. Driver, Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, Oxford and Boston, 
1906. Besides the old Goncordance of J. Fiirst, Leipsic, 1848, there is now avtdl- 
able S. Mandelkem, Veteris Testamenti concordarUice Hebraice et Chaldaicej ib., 1896, 
which unfortunately is badly done, the errors being very numerous. The best gram- 
mar is W. Gesenius, Hebrdische Grammatik, 27th ed. by Kautzsch, 1902, Eng. transl. 
of 25th ed. adjusted to the 26th Germ. ed. by G. W. Collins, London, 1898, along with which 
should be used S. R. Driver, Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew, London, 1892. Re- 
lated to Old Testament study is M. Jastrow, Dictionary of the Targumim, Babli and Yerur- 
shalmi, and the Midrashic Literature, 2 vols., London and New York, 1903. For the Greek 
of the Old Testament there is sadly needed a new lexicon. The only one of moment is J. F. 
SchleuBneT,LexiciininterpretesGr(BCos Veteris Testamenti . . . ,2 vols., Leipsic, 1784-86. The 
ConcordanticB Grcecce versionis, by A. Tronmi, 2 vols., Amsterdam, 1718, ought not to be dis- 
carded, even by those who possess E. Hatch and H. A. Redpath, A Concordance to the Sep- 
iuagint, Oxford, 1892-1900, 2d ed., 2 vols, and supplement, 1906, the omissions in which 
make still necessary recourse to the older work. 

For New Testament texts the student will naturally turn either to the Editio octava 
eritica major of Tischendorf, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1869-72, with Prolegomena by C. R. Gregory, 
3 vols., ib., 1884-94 (containing the most complete collection of the variant readings with 
description of the sources from which they are derived) ; to the edition by B. F. Westcott 
and F. J. A. Hort, 2d ed., Cambridge, 1890; to R. F. Weymouth's Resultant Greek Testa- 
ment, London, 1892; to E. Nestle's Novum Testamentum Greece, 3d ed., Stuttgart, 1901; or 
to O. vonGebhardt's ed., combining the readings of Tischendorf, Tregelles, and Westcott and 
Hort, 16th ed., Leipsic, 1900. Of lexicons the best for general purposes is J. H. Thayer, 
Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, New York, 1895; but notice must be taken of 
H. Cremer, Biblisch-theologisches W'&rterhuch, 9th ed., Gotha, 1902, Eng. transl. of 2d ed., 
Edinburgh, 1886, with supplement (a work that aims to bring out especially the the- 
ological, philosophical, and psychological elements of the New Testament vocabulary, and 
is not a general lexicon). A choice is given in concordances between C. H. Bruder, Con^ 
cordanticB . . . Nom Testamenti, 5th ed., Gottingen, 1900, and W. F. Moulton and A. S. 
Geden, Concordance to the Greek Testament, Edinburgh and New York, 1897 (good for 
Westcott and Hort's text). For the English Bible the two concordances of value now are 
R. Young, Analytical Concordance to the Bible, 7th ed., Edinburgh and New York, 1899; 
and J. Strong, Exhaustive Concordance to the Bible, New York, 1896. The best grammar of 
the New Testament is F. Blass, GrammaJtik des neutestamenUichen Griechisch, Gottingen, 
1902, Eng. transl. of 2d ed., London, 1905, along with which should be used E. D. 
Burton, Syntax of Moods and Tenses in New Testament Greek, (Jhicago, 1901 (the best work 
on the subject). Of H. J. Moulton's Grammar of New Testament Greek, only vol. i., 
Prolegomena, is published, Edinburgh, 1906. General Semitic and Oriental philology is 
treated in separate volumes on the individual languages in the Porta linguarum orienr 
talium, ed. J. H. Petermann, H. L. Strack, and others, Berlin, 1884 sqq. 


As a directory upon the geography of Palestine the following works represent the choi- 
cest: the latest and the standard bibliography of Palestine is R. Rohricht, Chronologir 
sches Verzeichniss der auf die Geographie des heiligen Landes bezuglichen LiUeratur von SSS 
his 1878^ Berlin, 1890. Earlier but still useful is T. Tobler, Bibliographia geographica 
PalestincB, Leipsic, 1867. On the topography there is nothing in English, perhaps nothing 
in any other tongue, superior in its way to G. A. Smith, Historical (kography of 
the Holy Land, 7th ed., London, 1897. Alongside this should be put E. Robinson's Bib- 
lical Researches in Palestine, 3 vols., London and Boston, 1841, and in Germ, transl. at 
Halle the same year, and LaJter Biblical Researches, 1856 (a second ed., including both 
works in 3 vols., was published, Boston, 1868, but omits some things in the first edi- 
tion which are sadly missed). In spite of its age this book is still useful. The Palestine 
Text Society of London has since 1887 been engaged in republishing the ancient itineraries 
and descriptions relating to Palestine, thus making available to the student material other- 
wise obtainable only by painful research. Special notice is deserved by the monographs 
published by the Palestine Exploration Fund of London, including the massive Memoirs, 
An epoch-making work was W. M. Thomson's The Land and the Book, 3 vols.. New York, 
1886 (perhaps the most popular book ever written on the subject). An old classic, by 
no means superseded, is H. Reland, PaUzstina ex monumentis iUustrata, Utrecht 1714. 
On the antiquities of Israel two works with nearly the same title, Hebrdische Archdologie, 
were issued in the same place and year, Freiburg, 1894, the one by I. Benzinger, in 1 vol. 
(new ed., Tubingen, 1907), the other by W. Nowack, in 2 vols. 

In the department of Church History the sources available to the student are 
growing exceedin^y abimdant. For a survey of early Christian literature the most 
detailed work is that of A. Hamack, Oeschichte der altchristlichen LiUeratvr his Eusdnus, 
2 vols, in 3 parts, Leipsic, 1893-1904 (a book of reference). A handbook of great value 
is G. Kruger, Geschichte der altchristlichen Litieratwr in den drei ersten Jahrhunderten, Frei- 
burg, 1895, 2d ed., 1898, Eng. transl., New York, 1897 (a model of compression and succinct- 
ness, including short lives of the writers and good lists of literature). C. T. Cruttwell, Lit- 
erary History of Early Christianity, 2 vols., London, 1893, is also a work of merit. A 
massive work, doing for the Byzantine and later writers of the Greek Church what Harnack 
does for the early period, is K. Erumbacher, Byzantinische Litteraturgeschichte, 627-1453, 
Mimich, 1897. As a guide to the use of medieval literature, and as a help to the 
sources and an indicator of all that is best in those sources in modern works, there is no book 
which can be compared with A. Potthast, Bibliotheca historica medii cevi, Berlin, 1896, quoted 
in this work as Potthast, Wegweiser. No student of ecclesiastical history can afford to 
be without this most complete guide to the MSS. and the editions of the sources of 
knowledge of the lives of the saints, notables, and writers down to 1500 a.d. 

As a source for original investigation in Patristics, as well as in medieval theological 
writings, there is nothing so handy (because of its comprehensiveness) as the collec- 
tion made imder the direction of the Abb^ Migne, Patrologice cursvs completus, Series 
Latina, 221 vols., Paris, 1844-64; Series Grceca, 162 vols., ib., 1857-66 (a set of works 
rarely on the market, costing about $1,200, but possessed by the principal general and theo- 
lo^cal libraries in the country; the drawback is that the text is often not critical and 
is very badly printed). Subsidiary to the use of Migne the following works are often 
quoted: J. A. Fabricius, Bibliotheca Grceca, 14 vols., Hamburg, 1705-28, new ed., by G. C. 
Haries, 12 vols., 1790-1811, incomplete (quoted as Fabricius-Harles), which is a biblio- 
graphical and biographical directory to early patristic writings, and contains textual matter 
of great importance; J. S. Assemani, Bibliotheca orientalis ClementinO'Vaticana, 3 vols., 
Rome, 1719-28 (a collection of Syriac, Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Hebrew, Samaritan, Ar- 

xviii PREFACE 

menian, Ethiopic, Egyptian, and other documents, with critical matter relating to them) ; 
fi. Mart^ne and N. Durand, Veterum scriptorum et monumentorum . . . coUectio, 9 vols., 
Paris, 1724-33; A. Gallandi, Bibliotheca veterum patnim antiqtujrumque scriptcrum ecdesir 
asticorum, 14 vols., Venice, 1765-81 (contains some works otherwise difficult of access. An 
index of contents to Gallandi is to be found in J. G. Dowling, NotUice acriptarum sanctorum 
patrum, pp. 192-209, Oxford, 1839). A work of great usefulness is R. Ceillier, Histoire 
gifUrale des avieurs sacris et eccUsiaatiques, new ed., 14 vols, in 15 and Table ginirale dee 
matih-es, 2 vols., Paris, 1858-69. Noteworthy are the excellent and handy Corpus scrip- 
torum ecdesiasticorum Latinarum, Vienna, 1867 sqq., appearing in parts and not in regular 
order (vol. xxxxvii. appeared 1906), and Patrum apostolicorum opera j ed. O. von Gebhardt, 
A. Eamack, and T. Zahn, 4 vols., Leipsic, 1876-78, the same, 5th ed. minor, 1905; and J. B. 
lightfoot. Apostolic Fathers, 4 vols., London, 1877-89 (a work which will stand as one of 
the monuments of English scholarship, rich in ori^al investigation, and with excursuses 
of the first rank in value and brilliancy). All these are supplemented in the case of new 
discoveries or by new treatment of works already in hand in the Texte und Untersuchungen 
gur Oeschichte der aUchristlichen Ldtteratur, ed. O. von Gebhardt and A. Hamack, Ist series, 
15 vols., 2d series in progress (14 vols, issued), Berlin, 1883 sqq., and by the English Texts 
and Studies, ed. J. A. Robinson, 7 vols., Cambridge, 1891-1906. For the English student 
there are available the Library of the Fathers, ed. E. B. Pusey, J. Keble, and J. H. Newman, 
40 vols., Oxford, 1839 sqq.; and the Ante-Nicene, and Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, best 
and handiest in the Am. ed., published as follows: Ante-Nicene Fathers, ed. A. Cleveland 
Coxe, 9 vols, and Index, Buffalo, 1887 (Index volume contains a valuable bibliography of 
patristics); Select Library of the Nicene and PostrNicene Fathers, 1st series, ed. P. Schaff, 
14 vols.. New York, 1887-92, 2d series, ed. P. Schaff and H. Wace, 14 vols., New York, 
1890-1900. The first series includes 8 vols, of Augustine's works (by far the best collection 
yet published in English) and 6 of Chrysostom's; the 2d series includes the church histories 
of Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, and selected works of Gregory of Nyssa, 
Basil, Jerome, Gennadius, and others. Not to be left out of account is the Reliquice sacra 
of M. J. Routh, 2d ed., 5 vols., Oxford, 1846-48, a collection of patristic and other frag- 
ments still of value and constantly employed and referred to. 

Among collections of Sources the first place is easily held by the massive Monumenia 
OermanicB historica, still in course of publication, of which over 60 volumes are already issued 
in folio and quarto, Hanover and Berlin. This series originated in the GeseUschaft fur die 
dltere deutsche Geschichtskunde in Frankfort, 1819. The work was put into the hands of 
Dr. G. H. Pertz, to whom the great comprehensiveness of the series and its consequent value 
is largely due. Dr. Pertz was editor and did much of the work till in 1875 it passed into 
the hands of Prof. G. Waitz, at whose death in 1886 Prof. W. Wattenbach took charge, 
and in 1888 Prof. E. Diimmler. Most of the German experts in the branches which the 
collected documents represent have collaborated. There are five sections, Scriptores, Leges, 
Diplomata, Epistolce, Antiguitates, and many subsections. The documents in this royal 
series concern Christendom at large and not, as the title suggests, the (Jerman empire alone. 
There is a volume of Indices by O. Holder-Egger and K. Zeumer, Berlin, 1890, covering the 
volumes issued up to that time, and the table of contents is carried five years farther along 
in the work of Potthast mentioned above. 

Other collections of value to the historical student are: the Bibliotheca rerum Germani- 
earum, ed. P. Jaff6, 6 vols., Berlin, 1864-73; M. Bouquet, Rerum OaUicarum et Francicarum 
scriptores. RecueU des historiens des Oaules etdela France, 23 vols., Paris, 1738-1876 (begun 
by the Benedictines of St. Maur and continued by the Academy. A new ed. was published 
under L. Delisle, 1869-94. The record is carried down to 1328 a.d.) ; L. A. Muratori, Rerum 


Italicarum acriptores, 25 vols, in 28, Milan, 1723-51 (covers the period 5(KV-1500 a.d.; an 
elaborate new ed. under the direction of Giosui Carducci and Vittorio Fiorini is being pub- 
lished by S. Lapi at Citt& di Castello, 1900 sqq.) ; Corpus acriptcrum hiataruB Byzantince, ed. 
Niebuhr, Bekker, and others, 49 vols., Bonn, 1828-78 (not so good in workmanship as is 
usual with German issues; a new ed. is in course of publication in 50 vols, at Bonn). In 
connection with this series of Byzantine historians should be noticed E. A. Sophocles, Oreeh- 
Engliah DicHonary, Memorial edition, New York, 1887 (good for the Greek of the Roman 
and Byzantine periods). RecueU dea hiatoriena dea croiaadea, 13 vols., Paris, 1841-85 (pub- 
lished under the care of the French Academy), is necessary for the study of the kingdoms 
of Jerusalem, C3rprus, and Armenia. The Corpua Refarmatorum, begun at Halle, 1834, with 
the works of Melanchthon in 28 vols.; continued with Calvin's in 59; and now presenling 
those of Zwingli, is the indispensable source for the student of those writers. Of some 
value to the student, more particularly to the archeologist, are: Corpua inacriptionum Latir 
nantm, Berlin, 1863 sqq., and Corpua inacriptionum Grcecarum, Berlin, 1825 sqq. A mag- 
nificent series is in progress in the Corpua inacriptionum Semiticarum, Paris, 1881 sqq. 

For those who have not access to large libraries a niunber of selections from 
historical docmnents have been printed. For church history to the time of Con- 
stantine, cf. H. M. Gwatkin, Selection from Early Writera, London and New York, 
1893; for the medieval and modem periods one of the best is E. Reich, Select 
Documents lUuatrating Medicsval and Modem Hiatory, London, 1905, with which may 
be compared the smaller collection by S. Mathews, Sdect Mediasval Documenta, 764.-126^ 
A.D.J Boston, 1892 (both give the selections in the original languages). For stu- 
dents of the medieval period O. J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal have translated many impor- 
tant documents in A Source Book for Mediasval Hiatory ^ New York, 1905. Other works of 
this character are E. F. Henderson,. /Se^ Documenta of the Middle Ages, London, 1892; 
D. C. Munro and G. C. Sellery, Medieval Civilization, New York, 1904 (consists of transla- 
tions or condensations from European writers on important topics) ; J. H. Robinson, Read- 
ings in European Hiatory, 2 vols., Boston, 1904-06 (containing translations, condensations, 
and adaptations of selections, ranging from Seneca to J. A. Hobson, useful for illustration 
of European and American history, sacred and secular). The reader of German will receive 
efficient help in such publications as M. Schilling, QueUenlmch zur Geachichte der Neuzeit, 
2d ed., Berlin, 1890; K. Noack, Kirchengeachichtlichea Leadruch, 2d ed., Berlin 1890; D. A. 
Ludwig, QueUenbiuJi zur Kirchengeachichte, Davos, 1891; P. Mehlhom, Aua den Quellen der 
Kirchengeachichte, Berlin, 1894; C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geachichte dea Papattuma, 2d ed., 
Tubingen, 1901; H. Rinnand J. Jiingst, Kirchengeachichtlichea Leadruch, Tiibiagen, 1905. 

To English Ecclesiastical Sources an excellent guide is C. Gross, Sourcea and Literature 
of English Hiatory to 1486, London, 1900. Fu^ among the collections of sources is 
to be mentioned A. W. Haddan and W. Stubbs, CouncUa and Ecdeaiaatical Documenta 
rdating to Oreat Britain and Ireland, 3 vols. (vol. ii. in 2 parts), London, 1869-78 
(covering the period 200-870 a.d.; a storehouse of original documents, unfor- 
tunately left incomplete through the death of Haddan). Of high value are David Wil- 
kins, Concilia Magncs BritannicB . . . 446-1717, 4 vols., London, 1737; Monumenta hia- 
(orica Britannica. Materiala for the Hiatory of Britain . . . to the End of the Reign of Henry 
VIL Notes by H. Petrie and J. Sharpe, Introduction by T. D. Hardy, vol. i. folio, London, 
1848 (no more published; issued imder the direction of the Record Commission); J. A. 
Giles, Paires ecdesice Anglicani ad annum ISOO, 36 vols., Oxford, 1838-43 (the work not 
well done, but still useful). For the reader of English alone a large number of select sources 
are given in H. Gee and W. J. Hardy, DocumerUs Illustrative of Engliah Church Hiatory, 
London, 1896 (covers the period 314-1700). Known by the searcher after original sources 


as of the hi^est value are the publications of a number of societies. Belonging in this 
class, though not under the care of any society, are Rerum BrUannicarum medii cBvi scrip- 
tores, published under the Directum of the Master of the Rolls, London, 185S-91 (known as 
the Rolls Series. One of the most important of this series is No. 26, T. D. Hardy's De- 
scriptive Catalogue of Materials Relating to the History of Oreat Britain and Ireland . . . to 
the End of the Reign of Henry VII., 3 vols, in 4, 1862-71). The Henry Bradshaw Society 
of London began in 1891 to publish monastic and other documents; the Camden Society 
exists for the purpose of publishing documents illustrative of English history (London, 
1838 to date), many of which are of ecclesiastical interest; the Surtees Society of Durham, 
founded 1834, has issued over 100 volumes, many of which make available sources of the 
first rank. 

In the field of Biography a number of works should be known to students. A monu- 
mental work begun by J. S. Ersch and J. G. Gruber, continued by A. Leskien, is AUgemeine 
Encyklopddie der Wissenschaften und Kunste in alphabetischer Folge, Leipsic, 1818-89 and still 
receiving additions. Already 100 volimies and more have been issued, and it is to be contin- 
ued from time to time. The biographical interest is so pronounced in this production that it 
takes a front rank in this class of works. The biographical interest is also predominant in 
another work to which very frequent reference is made, L. S. Le Nain de Tillemont, MSmoires 
pour servir 4 Vhistoire eccUsiastigue des six premiers sikdes, 2d ed., 16 vols., Paris, 1701-12, 
parts of it in an English translation by T. Deacon, 2 vols., London, 1721, 1733-35. J. P. Nice- 
ron, M&moires pour servir h Vhistoire des homines iUustris dans la republique des lettres, 43 vols., 
Paris, 1729-45, is a work of reference often used; mention is due also to the Biographie univer- 
seUe, ancienne et modeme, 45 vols., Paris, 1843 sqq., and Nouvelle biographie universelle 
of J. C. F. Hoefer,46 vols., Paris, 1852-56, both serviceable and sometimes the only avail- 
able works. Of national biographical works, for Germany there is the AUgemeine deutsche 
Biographic, 50 vols., Leipsic, 1875-1905 (still in progress; it is under the auspices of the 
Historical Conmiission of the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences) ; for France, the His- 
toire littiraire de la France begun by the Benedictines of St. Maur, 12 vols., Paris, 1733-63, 
and continued by members of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles-lettres to vol. xxxii., 
1898 (a new edition is in progress, completed as far as vol. xvi.); for Protestant France 
may be consulted E. and ^. Haag, La France protestante, 7 vols., Paris, 1846-59, 2d ed., 
enlarged by H. L. Bordier, vols, i.-vi., 1887-89; also belonging here is A. C. A. Agnew, 
Protestant Exiles from France, 2 vols., Edinburgh, 1886 (printed for private circulation only). 
The one work of note for Holland is A. J. Van der Aa, Biographisch Woordenboek van der 
Nederlanden, Haarlem, 1852 sqq. For England there is the noble Dictionary of National 
Biography, edited by Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee, 63 vols., and 3 supplement vols., with 
one of errata, London and New York, 1885-1904 (contains much of interest to Americans, 
especially on the founders and notables of colonial times; a cheaper ed. is promised) ; F. 
Boase, Modem English Biography of Persons who have died since . . . 18S0, 3 vols., Truro, 
1892-1901; and J. Gillow, Bibliographical Dictionary of English Catholics, 1534.-1885, 5 
vols., London and New York, n.d. (the lists of works by the subjects of the entries are an 
exceedingly valuable feature, being very complete). The Danes have also a biographical 
dictionary like those mentioned, Dansk biografisk lexikon, tiUige omfallende Norge for tidsrum- 
met, 1587-1814. Udgivet af C. F. Briska, Copenhagen, 1887 sqq. 

There is still needed an adequate work on American Biography which shall correspond 
to the English Dictionary of Natumal Biography cited above. There are available the Na- 
tional Cyclopoedia of American Biography, 13 vols.. New York, 1892-1906 (the alphabetical 
order is abandoned and no consistent substitute adopted; an elaborate index volume 
appeared in 1906) ; and Appleton's CydopcBdia of American Biography by James Grant Wil- 


son and John Fiske, rev. ed., 6 vols., ib., 189S-99 (the revision consists mainly of a sup- 

As a propsedeutic to the study of General Church History an indispensable 
work is E. Schiirer, Geschichte dee judischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, 3d ed., 3 vols. 
and Index, Leipsic, 1898-1901, Eng. transl. of 2d ed., 5 vols., New York, 1891. Of works 
on general Church History there is a wide range of choice. A. Neander, History of the Chrts- 
tian Religum and Church, 11th Am. ed., 5 vols., Boston, 1872 (coming down to 1517 
A.D.), and Index volume, 1881, is the most philosophical work on the subject yet published, 
superseded in parts by the discoveries made since it was written, but as a whole by no means 
obsolete; with this should go J. K. L. Gieseler, whose Ecclesiastical History in the German was 
in 5 vols., Darmstadt, 1824-25, Eng. transl. begun by S. Davidson and others, 5 vols., Edin- 
burgh, 1848-56, edited and translation carried further by H. B. Smith, translation com- 
pleted by Miss Mary A. Robinson, 6 vols.. New York, 1857-81 (especially valuable for its 
citation of original documents) ; and J. H. Kurtz, a translation of which from the 9th Ger- 
man edition by J. Macpherson appeared in London, 1888-89 (condensed in form and very 
usable; new ed. of the German by N. Bonwetsch and P. Tschackert, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1906). 
P. Schaff, History of the Christian Church, 7 vols.. New York, 1882-92, coming down through 
the Reformation, but omitting vol. v. on the scholastic period, is perhaps the most readable. 
A very compact work is W. Moeller, History of the Christian Church, 3 vols., London, 1892- 
1900 (comes down to 1648; the 2d ed. of the German original by H. von Schubert, Tiibmgen, 
1902). J. F. Hurst, History of the Christian Church, 2 vols.,* New York, 1897-1900, is also 
compact; it is conservative in treatment of its subject. A. H. Newman, Manual of Church 
History, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1900-03, is, like Hurst, compact but less conservative in tone. 
The reader in Church History will find three works constantly referred to; viz., J. Bingham, 
Origines ecdesiasticce, or the Antiquities of the Christian Church, 10 vols., London, 1708-22, 
often reprinted, unfortunately not seldom in abbreviated form (recognized by scholars as a 
work of "profound learning and unprejudiced inquiry" and remaining one of the standards 
in this department; best ed. in 8 vols, of his complete works in 10 vols., by R. Bingham, 
Jun., Oxford, 1855) ; A. J. Binterim, Die vorzuglichsten Denkvnirdigkeiten der christr-katholischen 
Kirche, 2d ed., 7 vols., Mainz, 1837-41 (a treasury of important notes on " things worthy 
of remembrance"); and J. C. W. Augusti, Denkwiirdigkeiten aus der christlichen Archdologie, 
12 vols., Leipsic, 1817-31. Out of the number of works on the Histor>' of Dogma the one 
likely to be most useful, thou^ by no means the most philosophical, is A. Hamack, Lehr- 
Imch der Dogmengeschichte, 3d ed., 3 vols., Freiburg, 1894-97, Eng. transl., 7 vols., London, 
1894-99, and Boston, 1895-1900. A work of the first rank frequently referred to for the 
history of Europe till the fall of Constantinople is E. Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall 
of the Raman Empire, best edition by J. B. Bury, 7 vols., London, 1896-1900 (Gibbon is 
said to be the only student who worked over thoroughly the Byzantine Histories; formerly 
regarded as an opponent of Christianity, many of his positions are now taken by church 

For the Church History of Germany three works with the same title, Kirchengeschichte 
Deuischlands, are of supereminent worth and are generally used as works of reference: A. 
Hauck, vol. i., 4th ed., Leipsic, 1904, vol. ii., 2d ed., 1900, vol. iii., 3d ed., 1906, vol. iv., 2d 
ed., 1903 (contains rich bibliography) ; F. W. Rettberg, 2 vols., Gottingen, 1846-48 (espe- 
cially good for origins); and J. Friedrich, 2 vols., Bamberg, 1867-69 (like Hauck, good in 
history of the dioceses). A handy help to the early sources of German Church History is 
W. Wattenbach, Deuischlands Geschichtsqudien . . . bis zum Mittd des 13. Jahrhunderts, 
5th ed., 2 vols., Berlin, 1885, 6th ed., 1893-94 (the changes are so great that both editions 
are frequently quoted side by side). A work of genius, learning, and attractiveness, but 


avowedly from a strong Roman Catholic standpoint, is Johannes Janssen's History of the 
Oerman People at the Close of the Middle Ages, German original ed. L. Pastor, 14th to 16th 
ed. completed in 8 vols., 1903, Eng. transl. by Miss Mary A. Mitchell and Miss Alice M. Christie, 
London, 10 vols, having appeared up to 1907. 

For the Church History of France a bibliography is furnished by A. Molinier, Les Sources 
de Vhistoire de France, 2 vols., Paris, 1901-02. Besides Bouquet, already mentioned, there are 
available for early sources: F. Guizot, Collection des mimoires relatifs A Vhistoire de France, 
31 vols., Paris, 1823-35; and Gallia Christiana, 16 vols., ib., 1715-1865. An important 
work is J. N. Jager, Histoire de Vtiglise catholique en France, 20 vols., ib., 1862-78. In Eng- 
lish there are: W. H. Jervis, Tfie Oallican Church, 2 vols., London, 1872; H. M. Baird, Rise 
of the Huguenots, 2 vols.. New York, 1883; idem. The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre, 2 
vols, ib., 1886-87; idem. The Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 2 vols., 
ib., 1896. 

A fwr survey of the course of the Church in England is obtained by combining W. 
Bright, Chapters in Early English Church History, Oxford, 1906, with the series edited by 
W. R. W. Stephens and W. Hunt, 7 vols., London, 1899-1906, as follows: W. Hunt, The 
English Church 697-1066 (1899) ; W. R. W. Stephens, The English Church 1066-1272 (1901) ; 
W. W. Capes, The English Church in the 14ih and 15th Centuries (1900); J. Gairdner, The 
English Church in the 16th Century (1903); W. H. Frere, The English Church in the Reigns 
of Elizabeth and James L (1904); W. H. Hutton, The English Church from the Acces- 
sum of Charles I. to the Death of Anne (1903); J. H. Overton and B. Felton, The Church of 
England 17U-1800 (1906). 

For the Church History of Ireland and Scotland the following are valuable: J. Colgan, 
Adta sanetorum veteris et majoris Scotioe seu HibemuB sanctorum insules . . . , 2 vols., Lou vain, 
1645-47; H. M. Luckock, The Church in Scotland, London, 1893; J. Lanigan, An Ecdesias- 
tieal History of Ireland . . . to the 13th Century, 2d ed., 4 vols., Dublin, 1829 (a very 
important and essential work) ; J. O'Hanlon, Lives of the Irish Saints, 7 vols., Dublin, 1875- 
1877; J. Healy, Insula sanetorum et doctorum, or Ireland's Ancient Schools and Scholars, Dub- 
lin, 1890; and T. Olden, The Church of Ireland, London, 1892. Consult particularly the 
list of literature under Celtic Church in Britain and Ireland. 

American Church History as a whole is treated in the American Church History Series, 
13 vols.. New York, 1893-97, issued under the auspices of the American Society of Church 
History. The principal denominations receive extended treatment by some of their own 
specialists; for the minor denominations the provision made is only that given in vol. i. 
by H. K. Carroll, The Religious Forces of the United States, new ed., 1896. It is in respect 
to the minor sects that most difficulty is experienced in obtaining data. Another series of 
a more popular character is The Story of the Churches, New York, 1904 sqq. 

For the history of the Papacy an indispensable work is C. Mirbt, Qudlen zur Geschichte 
des Papsttums, 2d ed., Tubingen, 1901 (a guide to the history, giving citations from original 
sources and a conspectus of the weightiest literatiye). The only work which covers nearly 
the entire history of the popes is that of A. Bower, History of the Popes to 1768, 7 vols., 
London, 1748-61, wiih Introduction and Continuation by S, H, Cox, 3 vols., Philadelphia, 
1847 (the latter is the ed. cited in this work; the character of the History is poor, as was 
thatof theauthor). H.H.Milman,Hwtoryo/LartnCAm<ian%,9vols.,newed.,London,1883, 
is excellent and brings the history down to 1455; for its period (590-795, 858-891) a worthy 
work is R. C. Mann, lAves of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, vol. i., 2 parts, London, 
1902; vol. iii., 1906; of great value is L. Pastor, Geschichte der Pdpste seit dem Ausgang 
des MiUdaUers, 4 vols., 4th ed., Freiburg, 1901-07, Eng. transl., 6 vols., London, 1891-1902 
(a most industrious and honest work, based on research in the original archives, covers the 


period 1305-1534; vols, i., iii., and v. of the English contain bibliographies); the period 
137S-1527 is covered by M. Creighton's History of the Papacy, 6 vols., London, 1897 (an 
invaluable work); L. von Ranke, Rimische Pdpste, 9th ed., 3 vols., Leipsic, 1889, Eng. 
transl., 3 vols., London, 1896, is indispensable for the period 1513-1847; the story is con- 
cluded by F. Nielsen, Geschichte des Papsttums im 19. Jahrhundert, 2d ed., Gotha, 1880, Eng. 
transl., 2 vols.. New York, 1906. A work which parallels part of those mentioned is 
F. Gregorovius, Oeachichte der Stadt Rom, 6-16 Jahrhundert, 8 vols., Stuttgart, 1886-96, 5th 
ed., 1903 sqq., Eng. transl., from the 4th edition, 8 vols., London, 1901-02. The oflBcial 
Catholic record, covering the early and middle period, is the Liber pontificalia, best ed. of 
the whole work by L. Duchesne, containing text, introduction, and commentary, 2 vols., 
Paris, 1886-92, though the ed. by Mommsen, in MGH, Gestorum porUificum Romanorum 
vol. I, 1898, is even better so far as it goes. The bulls and briefs of the popes are best con- 
sulted in BuUarium, privUegiarum ac diplomabim Romanorum porUificum coUecHo C. Cocque- 
lines, 14 vols., Rome, 1733-48, supplemented by BuUarium Benedicti XIV., 4 vols., ib., 
1754-58, and BuUarii Romani continuatio (Clement XIII.-Gregpry XVI.) by A. Barberi and 
A. Spetia, 19 vols., ib., 1835-57, the whole reedited by A. Tomassetti, 24 vols., Turm, 1857-72. 
Consult also L. Pastor, Acta inedita ad historiam PorUificum Romanorum, vol. i., lS76-lJl6Ji., 
Freiburg, 1904. 

A niunber of collections and discussions of the Decrees and Proceedings of the Councils 
has been made. Those most cited are P. Labbe and G. Cossart, Sacrosarvda concUia, 17 
vols, in 18, Paris, 1672; J. Harduin, Conciliorum coUectio regia maxima, 12 vols., Paris, 
1715; J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima coUectio, 31 vols., Venice, 1759- 
1798 (of the older collections the one most cited) ; C. J. von Hefele, ConcUiengeschichte, 7 vols., 
Freiburg, 1855-74 (coming down to 1433; a 2d ed. was begun by the author and carried on 
by Cardinal Hergenrother to 1536, 9 vols, in all, 1863-90; apparently vol. vii.of the 2d ed. 
never appeared) ; the Eng. transl. of Hefele by W. R. Clark includes only vols, i.-iii. of the 
German, down to 787 a.d., 5 vols., 1883-96. Of all these Hefele is the most accessible 
and now the oftenest cited. 

On the subject of Monastidsm all students are most deeply indebted to C. F. de T. 
Montalembert, Les Moines d'occident, 5 vols., Paris, 1860-67, authorized Eng. transl., 7 
vols., London, 1861-79. For the history of religious orders the old standard, rich in erudi- 
tion, is P. Helyot, Histoire des ordres monastiques, religieux et mUitaires et des congregations 
skvlaires de Vun el de VauJtre seze, 8 vols., Paris, 1714-19; the best modem work is M. Heim- 
bucher. Die Orden und Kongregationen der katholischen Kirche, 2 vols., Paderbom, 1896-97, 
2d and enlarged ed., 3 vols., 1907, utilized from Vol. IV. on; the one work in English to 
be cited, which, however, leaves much to be desired, is C. W. Currier, History of Religious 
Orders, New York, 1896. 

On the history of the separate Orders in the Roman Catholic Church the most 
important are the following: for the Jesuits, A. and A. de Backer, Bibliothdque des 
Icrivains de la soci&S de J6sus, 7 vofs., Li^ge, 1853-61, new ed. by C. Sommer- 
vog^l, Paris, 1891 sqq.; the HistoruB sodetatis Jesu, by a number of hands, 6 parts 
in 8 vols., Rome, 1615-1759; J. A. M. Cr^tineau-Joly, Histoire rdigieuse, politique 
d litUraire de la compagnie de J(sus, 6 vols., Paris, 1844-46; for the Benedictines, J. Ma- 
billon, Acta ordinis sancti Benedicti, 9 vols., Paris, 1668-1702, and his Annates ordinis 
• • . Benedicti, 6 vols., Paris, 1703-39; for the Carmelites, J. B. de Lezana, Annates 
saeri prophetici et Eliani ordinis . . . de Monte Carmdo, 4 vols., Rome, 1651-66; for the 
Dominicans, Monumenia ordinis fratrum prcedicatorum, in course of publication at Louvain 
since 1896 (the earlier works, now being superseded, are: A. Toiux)n, Histoire des hommesiHus- 
tres de Saint-Dominique, 6 vols., Paris, 1743-49, and T. M. Mamachi, Annates ordinis 


prctdicaJUjrum, 5 vols., Rome, 1754) ; for the Qstercians, A« Hauriqiie, Armales cisterciennea, 
4 vols., Lyons, 1642-59, and P. le Nain, Essai de Pardre de Citeaux, 9 vols., Paris, 1696- 
1697; for the Franciscans, the Analeda Franciseana, 3 yoIb., Freiburg, 1885-97, and the An^ 
nales fratrum minorum, begun by L. Wadding, 8 vols., Lyons, 1625 sqq., continued by J. de 
Luca and various hands at Naples and Rome, 26 vols., and covering the period 1208-1611. 

Somewhat akin to the foregoing is the subject of Hagiology, in which two works 
stand out as preeminent. The one is the Acta sanctorum of J. BoUand, the issue 
of which was begun in 1643, continued till the dispersion of the Jesuits compelled 
suspension of the work from 1794 (when vol. liii. was issued) till 1845. In all 63 
vols, have been published, and a new ed. has appeared, Paris, 1863-94 (see Acta 
Martyrum, Acta Sanctorum). This is supplemented by the Analeda BoUan- 
diana, edited by a number of Jesuits, Paris and Brussels, 1882 sqq. (still in progress; it 
includes dociunents unused or passed by in the Acta, newly discovered material, 
variant accounts, notes on the old accounts, and description of manuscripts). The 
other important work is the Acta sanctorum ordinis S. Benedicti of J. Mabillon and T. 
Ruinart, 9 vols., Paris, 1668-1701, and Venice, 1733-40. Mention may be made of the 
Acta sanctorum Belgii of J. Ghesquiere and others, 6 vols., Brussels, 1783-94. J. Colgan's 
work on Scottish and Irish saints is noted above (p. xviii.). The plan of arrange- 
ment in these compilations is that of the Roman calendar, the substance is the lives 
and legends concerning the saints, and the value of the material varies greatly. A very 
large amount of the material is derived from contemporary sources and is therefore use- 
ful when sifted by the critical processes. 

In the comparatively new and certainly interesting region of the Comparison and His- 
tory of Religions the series of first importance, making available to readers of English many 
of the Bibles and Oonmientaries of the great religions, is that of the Sacred Books of the East, 
imder the editorship of F. Max Miiller, 48 vols., Oxford, 1879-1904. A valuable set of his- 
torical expositions of the historical religions is found in the Darstellungen aus dem Crebiete 
der nichtchristlichen Religionsgeschichte, 15 vols., Miinster, 1890-1903. The Annates du Mu3ie 
Ouimety Paris, 1880 sqq., combine the features of the Sacred Books of the East (translations 
of native sources) and of the Hibbert Lectures (discussions of particular religions). The 
Hibbert Lectures (q. v.) are a number of series, each series amounting to a treatise on some indi- 
vidual religion or phase of religion, delivered in Great Britain between 1878 and 1902 by spe- 
cialists of eminence. A corresponding series, known as the American Lectiu-eson the History of 
Religion (q.v.), has been in progress since 1895 and is planned ahead as far as 1910. A valuable 
set is found in the Handbooks on the History of Religions edited by M. Jastrow, of which the 
following have appeared, Boston, 1895-1905: E. W. Hopkins, Religion of India, 1895; M. 
Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, 1895; P. D. Chantepie de la Saussaye, Religion 
of the Ancient Teutons, 1896; A. Wiedemann, Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, 1897; 
M. Jastrow, Study of Religion, 1901 ; and G. Steindorfif, Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, 1905. 
The best individual work on the whole subject is P. D. Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrhuch 
der Religionsgeschichte, 3d ed., 2 vols., Tiibingen, 1905 (in which the author had the coopera- 
tion of numerous scholars). Next to this is C. P. Tiele, Inleiding tot de godsdienstwetenschap, 
2d ed., Amsterdam, 1900. Other important volumes areE. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture, 
4th ed., 2 vols., London, 1903; J. G. Frazer, TheOolden Bough, 2d ed., 3 vols., ib., 1900; F. B. 
Jevons, Introduction to the History of Religion, ib., 1896 (all dealing with primitive religion). 

Geo. W. Gilmore. 


Abbet: R. a. Cram, Ruined Abbeys of Great Bril- 

ain, London, 1906. 
T. Perkins, Short Account of Ramsey Abbey, 

London and New York, 1907. 
Abbott, £. A.: Apologia : an Explanation and a 

Defense [of the Biblel London, 1907. 
Abbott, L.: Christ'' s Secret of Happiness, New 

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Impressions of a Careless Traveler, New York, 

Abgar: F. C. Biirkitt, Early Eastern Christianity, 

pp. 1 1 sqq., London and New York, 1904. 
Abhedananda: VedarUa Philosophy, New York, 

Abrahams, I.: A Short History of Jewish Literar 

ture [70-178 a.d.]. New York, 1907. 
Judaism, London, 1907. 
Abtbsinia: R. P. Skinner, Abyssinia of To-day, 

London, 1906. 
Lord Hindlip, Abyssinia, London, 1906. 
F. Rosen, Eine deutsche Gesandschaft in Abes- 

sinien, Leipsic, 1907. 
Acta Marttrum, Acta Sanctorum.: A. Du- 

fourcq, f^tudes sur les gesta martyrum ro- 

mains, Paris, 1906 sqq. 
Henri Quentin, Les Martyrologes historiques du 

moyen Age. Etude sur la formation du mar- 

tyrologe remain, Paris, 1907. 
P. Saintyves, Les Saints, successeurs des Dieux. 

Essais de mythologie chritienne, Paris, 1907. 
AcFON, Lord: The History of Freedom and other 

Essays, London, 1907. 
Historical Essays and Studies, London, 1908. 
Adams, G. M.: Life, by £. £. Strong, Boston, 1907. 
Addib, W. E.: Christianity and the Roman Empire, 

new ed., London, 1906. 
Adenkt, W. F.: How to Read the Bible, new ed., 

London, 1907. 
ADI4ER, C: Jews in the Diplomatic Correspondence 

of the United States, Philadelphia, 1907. 
Adrian IV.: Life, by J. Duncan Mackie, London, 

Atrica: In General: E. d'Almeida, Historia JEti- 

opia. LQrri L-IV., Rome, 1907. 

B. Alexander, From the Niger to the Nile, Lon- 
don and New York, 1907. 

A. H. S. Landor, Across widest Africa, London 

and New York, 1907. 
A. B. lAoyd, In Dwarf Land and Cannibal 

Country, London and New York, 1907. 

C. G. SchimngB, In Wildest Africa, New York, 

Alfleis: Frances E. Nesbitt, Algeria and Tunis, 
Painted and Described, London, 1906. 

M. W. Hflton Simpson, Algiers and Beyond, 
London, 1906. 

Eept: W. S. Blunt, Secret History of the Eng- 
lish OccuT^ion of Egypt, London, 1907. 

Ftench Africa: G. Francis, UAfrique ocd' 
dentate franfaise, Paris, 1907. 

A. Chevalier, L'Afrique centrale franpaise (Mis- 
sion CharinLac Tchad, 190S-04), Paris, 1907. 
L. DesDiagnes, Le Plateau central NigSrien. 
line Mission arch^ologi^ et ethnographigue 
au Soudan franpais, Pans, 1907. 
Portuguese Africa: R. C. F. Maugham, Portu- 
guese East Africa, London, 1806. 
G. M. Theal, History and Ethnographyof Africa 
South of the Zambesi. 1. The Portuguese 
in South Africa, from 1606-1700, London, 
South Africa: S. Passarge, Die Buschmdnner 

der Kalahari, Berlin, 1907. 
idem, SUdafrika. Eine Landes-, Volks- und 

Wirtschaftskunde, Leipsic, 1908. 
J. P. Johnson, Stone Implements of South 

Africa, London, 1907. 
West Africa: R. E. Dennett, At the Back of 
the Black Man's Mind: or. Notes on this 
Kingly Office in West Africa, London, 1907. 
Aqnes, Saint: Life, by A. Smith, New York, 1907, 

and by F. Jubaru, Paris, 1907. • 
Agnosticism: W. H. Fitchett, Beliefs of Unbelief, 

Cincinnati, 1908. 
Aked, C. F.: One Hundred Responsive Readings 

from the Scriptures, New York, 1908. 
Albert of Brandenburg: lAfe, byH.O. Nietsch- 

mann, Burlington, la., 1907. 
Alexander IV.: Life, by F. Tenckhoff, Pader- 

bom, 1907. 
Alexander Severus: Life, by R. V. N. Hopkins, 

New York, 1907. 
Alfred the Great: Proverbs; reed, from the MSS. 
by W. W. Skeat, London and New York, 
Allard, Paul: Eng. transl. of Dix lemons sur le 
martyrs, "Ten Lectures on the Martyrs," 
New York, 1907. 
Allen, A. V. G.: Life of Phillips Brooks, new ed., 
Boston, 1907. 
Freedom in the Church, Boston, 1907. 
cf. J. B. Johnson, Freedom through the Truth. 
An Examination of the Rev. A. V.G. Allen*s 
" Freedom in the Church," New York, 1907. 
Allies, Thomas William: Life, by Miss Mary H. 

Allies, London, 1907. 
Ambrose, Saint, of Milan: J. E. Niederhuber, Die 
Eschatologie des heUigen Ambrosius, Pader- 
bom, 1907. 

Andrews, L.: Private Devotions, new ed., London, 

Angus, J.: Bible Handbook, rev. ed., 2d impression, 

Anna Comnena: L. Du Sommerard, Anne Comr 
nkne, timoin des croisades; Agnh de France, 
Paris, 1907. 

Aphraates : F. C. Burkitt, Early Eastern Chris- 
tianity, pp. 133 sqq., London and New York, 


Apocrypha, The Old Testament: Die Weisheit des 
Jesus Sirach. Hebrdisch und deutech, MU 
einem hdjrdiechen Glossary Berlin, 1906. 
R. Smend, Griechisch-^yrisch-hebrdiecher Index 

zur Weisheit dee Jesus Sirach, Berlin, 1907. 
Die WeisheU des Jesus Sirach erkldrt, Berlin, 

Apocrypha, The New Testament: The GospdofBar- 
nabaSf ed. and iransl. from the Italian MS. in 
the Imperial Library of Vienna^ by Lonsdale 
and Laura Ragg, iJondon, 1907. 

Apolloniub op Tyana: T. Whittaker, ApoUonius 
of Tyana and other Essays, London, 1906. 

Apologetics.' Jean Riviere, Saint Justin et les 
apologistes du second sikle, Paris, 1907. 
E. F. Scott, The Apologetic of the New Testor 

ment, London, 1907. 
S. Weber, ChrisUiche Apologetik, Freibiu"g, 

O. Zoeckler, Geschichte der Apologie des Chris- 
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Arianibm: S. Rogala, Die Anfdnge des arianischen 
Streites untersucht, Paderbom, 1907. 

Aristotle: Transl. of the first book of his "Meta- 
physics," by A. E. Taylor, Chicago, 1907. 
New complete transl., ed. J. A. Smith and W. 
D. Ross, London and New York, 1908 sqq. 

Arthttr, W.: Life, by T. B. Stephenson, London, 

AsLA Minor: W. M. Ramsay, The CUies of Saint 
Paul; their Influence on his Life and Thought, 
The Cities of Eastern Asia Minor, London 
and New York, 1908. 

Assyria: H. Winckler, History of Babylonia and 
Assyria, London and New York, 1907. 

Athanasius: F. Cavallera, S. Athanase, Paris, 1907. 

Atonement: John Scott Lidgett, The Spiritual 
Principle of the Atonement as a Satis faction 
made to God for the Sins of the World, 4th 
ed., London, 1907. 
The Atonement in Modem Thought, A Sym- 
posium, 3d ed., London, 1907. 
H. C. Beeching and A. Naime, Bible Doctrine 
of the Atonement, London and New York, 
J. M. Campbell, The Atonement the HeaH of the 
Gospel, London, 1907. 

AuQUSTiNB, Saint, of Hippo: Preaching and Teach- 
ing according to Saint Augustine, Being a 
new Translation of his De doctrina Chris- 
tiana, Book 4, ond De rudibus catechisandis. 

WUh three introductory Essays, by Rev. W. J. 
Vashon Baker and Kev. C^nril Bickersteth, 
London, 1907. 

P. Friedrich, Die Marieologie des heiligen 
Augustinus, Cologne, 1907. 
Australia: N. W. Thomas, Natives of Australia, 
London, 1906. 

Kinship Organizations and Group Marriage in 
Australia, London and New York, 1907. 

K. L. Parker, The Euahlam Tribe. Study of 
Aborioinal lAfe in Australia, London, 1906. 

A. Buchanan, The Real Australia, London, 
Babcock, M. D.: Fragments that Remain; Ser- 
mons, Addresses and Prayers, ed. Jessie B. 
Goetschius, New York, 1907. 
Babylonl/l: H. Winckler, History of Babylonia and 
Assyria, London and New York, 1907. 

R. J. Lau, Old Babylonian Temple Records, 
London, 1907. 

J. D. Prince, Materials for a Sumerian Lexicon, 
New York, 1908. 

E. Mayer, Sumerier und Semiten in Babylonia, 
Berlin, 1907. 
Bampton Lectures: 1907: J. H. F. Peile, The Re- 
proach of the Gospel : an Enquiry into the 
apparent Failure of Christianity as a Genertd 
Rule of Life and Conduct, London and New 
York, 1907. 
Banks, L. A.: Tlie Sinner and his Friends, New 

York, 1907. 
Baptism: R. Ayres, Christian Baptism. A Trea- 
tise on the Mode of Administering the Ordi- 
nance bu the Apomes and their Successors in 
the Early Ages of the Church, London, 1907. 

Philalethes, Baptismon Didache; or, ScrijUural 
Studies on Baptisms, especially Christian 
Baptism, London, 1907. 

Baptists: H. C. Vedder, Short History, new ed., 
Philadelphia, 1907. 

Bardesanes : F. C. Burkitt, Earlv Eastern Chris- 
tianity, lect. v., London and New York, 1904. 

Baring-Gould: Sermons to Children, 2d series, 
London, 1907. 
Tragedy of the CcRsars, new ed., London, 1907. 
Nero, London, 1907. 

Devonshire arid Strange Events, London, 1907. 
A Book of the Pyrenees, London, 1907. 
Restitution of All Things, London, 1907. 

Barton, W. E.: Sweetest Story ever Told: Jesus 
and His Love, Chicago, 1907. 


[Abbreviations in common use or sdf-evident are not included here. For additional information con- 
cerning the works listed, see Concerninq Biblioqrapht, pp. viii.-xx., above, and the appropriate articles 
In the Dody of the work. The editions named are those cited in the work.] 

.no i AU^MiMUM <l0utteA« BioonphU, 50 volt., 

-^^^ 1 Leipaic. 1875-1905 

Adv adv€r»ua, "acainst" 

. ,D jAivMrtoan Journal of PhUohoy, Balti- 

-*''^ \ more, 1880 sqq. 

J ,m S American Journal of Tkiology, Chicago, 

-*''^ 1 1897 aqq. 

.rt> \Archiv fibr kalholUehM KircKenredU, 

^^^ 1 Innabruek. 1857-61. Biains. 1872 eqq. 

iArekiv fUr Litleratur- und KireKenoe- 
BckidUe dM MittdalUr§, Freiburg, 
1885 sqq. 

Am. American 

. w J S Abhandlunoen der MUnehener AkademUt 

^^^ 1 Munich. 1763 sqq. 

{Anio-Nicene Falker; American edition 
by A. Cleveland Coxe. 8 vols., and in- 
dex. Buffalo, 1887; vol. ix., ed. Allan 
Mendes, New York. 1897 

Apoe Apocrypha, apocryphal 

Apol Apologia, Apology 

Arab Arabic 

Aram Aramaio 

art article 

Art. Schmal Schmalkald Articles 

MQw> \ Acta wnclorum, ed. J. Bolland and others, 

-^^^ I Antwerp. 1643 saq. 

Ao^g \Acta 9aneiorwn orainia 8. Benedicih ed. 

'^^ 1 J. Mabillon, 9 vols., Paris. 1668-1701 

Assyr Assyrian 

A.T AU€9 Testament, " Old Testament " 

Aon. Con Augsburg Confession 

A. V Authorised Version (of the English Bible) 

AZ AUgemeine ZeUungu Augsburg, TQbingen, 

Stuttgart, and TQbingen. 1708 sqq. 
Bensinger. 1 1. Bensinger. Hebrdiacho Archdologi** 

Architologit.,. . ) Freiburg. 1894 
Bertholdt, JL. Bertholdt, Hiatori$ch^KriUaehe Ein^ 

BinUiiung. . . . K UUung . . . des AUen und Neuen Tf- 
{ lamenU, 6 vols.. Erlangen, 1812-19 

BFBS British and Forei^ Bible Society 

iii«««i«am (J* Bingham, Ortginea eedetiaaUea, 10 

rSSSSU i ▼<>»»•. London, 1708-22; new ed., 

Ongtnea ] Oxford. 1865 

IM. Bouquet, Recueil dea hiatorUna dea 
Bouquet, RaeuaH< Oaulaa et da la Franca^ continued by 

f various hands, 23 vols.. Paris. 1738-76 

(Archibald Bower, Hiatory of the Popea 
Bower, Popaa. ,.< . . . to 1768, continued In/ 8, H. Cox, 

\ 3 vols.. Philadelphia, 1845-47 
nrkwf SBapHat Quarterly Review, Philadelphia, 

^^" 1 1867sqq. 

BRO SeeJaff^ 

Cant Canticles, Song of Solomon 

cap eapul. *' chapter " 

r^snuw. A ««^M.a t R* Ceillier, niataira dea auteura aacrfa et 
™SS: ^"**'*" \ aceUaiaatiquea, 16 vols, in 17, Paris, 

•'"'^ I 1858-69 

Chron Chronicon, *' Chronicle " 

I Chron I Chronicles 

II Chron II Chronicles 

fyjQ iCorpua inacripOonum Gracarum, Berlin, 

^jj^ ^ S Corpua inacrijOionum Latinarum, Berlin, 

CI8 ( Corpua inaeriptionum Samiticarum, Paris, 

\ ifclsqq. 

eod oodex 

cod. D codex Beta 

eod, Theod codex Theodoaianua 

Col Epistle to the Coloasians 

eol., cob column, columns 

Conf Confaaaionea, " Confessions " 

I Cor First Epistle to the Corinthians 

II Cor Second Epistle to the Corinthians 

COT See Schrader 

^D { Corpua refartnaiorutn, befnin at Halle, 

*'* \ 1834, vol. ITTTJT, BerGn. 1905 


fM. Creighton, A Hiatory of the Papacy 
Creighton, from the Great Sehiam to the Sade of 

Papacy Rome, new ed., 6 vols.. New York ana 

[ London. 1897 
rQnr sCorpua acriptorum ecclaauuticorum Lati' 

^^^*^ "j norum, Vienna. 1867 sqq. 

C8HR \ Corpua acriptorum hiatonca Bytantina, 

^^"^ 1 49 vols^ Bonn, 1828-78 

Cumer, Raligioua ) C. W. Currier. Hiatory of Raligioua 

Ordera } Ordera, New York, 1896 

D Deuteronomist 

DACL i ^* Cabrol. Dictionnaira d'archiologie 

^ I chrHienne et de liturgu, Paria, 1903 sqq. 

Dan Daniel 

J. Hastings. Dictionary of the Bible, 4 
vols, and extra vol., Edinburgh and 
New York. 1898-1904 
W. Smith and S. Cheetham. Dictionary 
of Chriatian Antiquitiea, 2 vols.. London, 
W. Smith and H. Waoe. Dictionary of 
Chriatian Biography, 4 vols.. Boston, 
, Deuteronomy 

Da vir. HI Da viria illuatribua 

De Wette- ( W. M. L. de Wette, Lehrbuch der hie- 

Schrader. Ein-{ toriach-hritiacfien Einleitung in die 

laitung ( Bibel, ed. E. Schrader. Berlin, 1869 

DOQ See Wattenbach 

L. Stephen and S. Lee. Dictionary of 
Biography, 63 vols, and 

DC A. 



National ^ . ._ 

supplement 3 vols., London, 1885-1901 
Driver /tiirrWu/^ ( ^' ^^ Drivcr. Introduction to the Literature 
ii^n ''**^'*^{ of the Old Taatament, 5th ed., New 

***"* ( York, 1894 

E Elohist 

( T. K. Cheyne and J. S. Black. Bneydo- 

SB -< pcedia Biblica, 4 vols.. London and 

( New York. 1899-1903 

Bed Eccleaia, " Church "; eccleaiaaticua, *' ee- 

clesiastical " 

Eeeles Ecclesiastes 

Eeelus Ecclesiasticus 

ed edition; edidit, ** edited by " 

EJ Elohist Jahvist (Yahwist) 

Eph Epistle to the Ephesians 

Epiat Epiatola, Epiatolce, " Epistle," " Epistles " 

Erseh and Gni- ( J. S. Ersch and J. O. G ruber. AUoemeine 
ber, Encyklo- < EncyklopHdia der Wiaaenachaften und 

p/idie. f KUnate, Leipsic. 1818 sqq. 

E.V English versions (of the Bible) 

Ex Exodus 

Esek Esekiel 

faae faaciculua 

Friedrich. KD. . . 

Fritssche. Exe- 
getiachea Hand- 

J. Friedrich. Kiretiengeachiehte Deutadi' 

landa, 2 vols.. Bamberg, 1867-69 
O. F. Fritssche and C. L. W. Grimm. 
Kurzgefaaatea exegetiachea Handbuch 
su den Apocryphen dea AUen Teata- 
, menta, 6 parts. Zurich. 1851-60 

Gal Epistle to the Galatians 

cUm .nri TTar^lv \^' ^^^ ^^^ ^' ^- Hardv, Doeumenta 
n^^«L2f ^'i lUuatrative of Engliah Church Hiatory, 
DocumenU . . . . ] London, 1896 

Gen Genesis 

Germ German 

/3AIJ \G6ttingiache gelehrte Ameigen, Gdttingen, 

^^^ 1 1824 sqq. 

r<:v.Vvr>n n«/.7.-«« ( E. Gibbon. Hiatory of the Decline and 
^^ b^jj \ FaU of the Roman Empire, ed. J. B. 

*"*** ^**" I Bury. 7 vols., London, 1896-1900 

Gk Greek, Grecized 

IC. Gross, The Sourcea and Literature of 
Gross. Sourcea. . . < Engliah Hiatory . . to 11*85, London, 

Hab Habakkuk 



Hftddan and 
Stubbs, Coun- 


Harduin« Con- 

Harnack. Dooma 

Hamack, LUUror 

Hauck. KD.. 




Hefele, ConcUien- 

Heimbucher, Or- 
d€n und Kon- 
gngationen. . . . 

Helyot. Ordre0 
monoBtiquM. .. 

Henderson, Doc- 



Hut, eed 













Joeephus, Ard. . . 

Joeephus, Apion. 
Joaephua, lAfe. . . 
Joaephus, War... 





Julian, Hym- 






KrQger, Hittory 


Labbe, CaneOia 

Lanigan, Bed, 




A. W. Haddan and W. Stubba. CounciU 
and EccUnoMtical DocumenU Relating 
to Oreat Britain and Ireland^ 3 vola., 
Oxford, 1869-78 
Refera to patriatic worka on hereaiea or 
heretica, TertulUan'a De vrcueriptione, 
the ProM haireeeia of lren«ua, the 
Panarion of Epiphaniua, etc. 
, .Haggai 

tJ. Harduin, Conciliorum coUectio rtgia 
) maxima. 12 vola., Paria, 1716 
A. Harnack, History of Dogma . . . from 
Oie Sd German edtlum, 7 vola., Boaton, 
A. Harnack, GeadiidUa der altchriat- 
lichen Litteratur bia Euaebiue^ 2 vola. 
in 3, Leipaic, 1893-1904 
A. Hauck, Kirchengeeehiehte DeiUecK- 
lands, vol. i., Leipaic, 1904; vol. ii.. 
1900; vol. iii., 1906; vol. iv.. 1903 
RealencykhpOdie fUr proteetantiache The- 
ologie und KircKe, founded by J. J. 
Herzog. 3d ed. by A. Hauck. Leipaic. 
I 1896 aqq. 
, .Epiatle to the Hebrewa 
. Hebrew 

( C. J. von Hefele, Conciliengeachiehte, eon- 
's tinned by J. Hergenrdther, 9 vola., 
( Freiburg. 1883-93 

1 M. Heimbucher. Die Orden und Kongre- 
•; gationen der katholiaehen Kirche^ 2 
( vola., Paderbom, 1896-97 

^P. Helyot, Hiatoire dea ordrea monaa- 
ttquea, religieux et mUitairea, 8 vola., 
Paria, 1714-19; new ed.. 1839-42 
j E. F. Henderaon, Select Hiatorical Docu- 
\ menu of the Middle Agea, London, 1892 
. Hiatory, hiatoire, hiatoria 
j Hiatorui ecdeaiaaUca^ ecdeaiat, *' Church 
1 Hiatory " 

Homilia, homiliai, *' homily, homiliea " 
. .laaiah 
. .Italian 

. . Jahviat (Yahwiat) 
. .Journal Aaialique, Paria, 1822 aqq. 
P. Jaffd, Bibliotheoa rerum Oermani- 

carum, 6 vola., Berlin, 1864-73 
P. Jaffd, Regeata Tpontifieum Romanorum 
. . . ad annum 1198, Berlin, 1851; 
2d ed.. Leipaic 1881-88 
Journal of Bwlioal Literature and Exege- 
aia, first appeared aa Journal of the 
Soei^y of Biblical Literature and Exe- 
0am. Middletown, 1882-88, then Boa- 
^ ton, 1890 aqq. 

( The Jewiah Encyclopedia^ 12 vola.. New 
} York, 1901 H06 
..the combined narrative of the Jahviat 

(Yahwiat) and Elohiat 
. .Jeremiah 
Flaviua Joaephua, " Antiquitiea of the 
Jewa " 

Flaviua Joaephua, " Againat Apion " 

Life of Flaviua Joaephua 

{ Flaviua Joaephua. " The Jewiah War " 


\Jahrbiicher fOr proteatantiache Theologie, 
I Leipaic, 1875 aqq. 

j The Jeunah Quarterly Review, London, 
1 1888 aqq. 

{Journal of Theological Studiea, London, 
1899 aqq. 
jj. Julian, A Dictionary of Hymnology, 
1 New York. 1892 
..See Schrader 
. .See Schrader 
. .See Friedrieh. Hauck, Rettberg 

IWetaer und WeUe*a Kirdienl^nkon, 2d 
ed., by J. Hergenrdther and F. Kaulen. 
12 vok. Freiburg, 1882-1903 
G. KrOger, Hiatory of Early Chriatian 

Literature in the Firat Three Centuriea, 

New York. 1897 
K. Knmibacher, Oeachichte der hyaan- 

tiniachen Litteratur, 2d ed., Munich, 

P. Labbe, Saerorum conciliorum nova 

et ampliaaima collectio, 31 vola., Flor- 
ence and Venice, 17 B&-9S 
. Lamentationa 
J. Lanigan, Bcdeaiaatical Hiatory of 

Ireland to the ISth Century, 4 vola., 

DubUn. 1829 
Latin, Latiniaed 
Legea, Legum 

Lev Leviticua 

LXX The Septuagint 

I Mace I Maocabeea 

II Mace II Maccabees 

Mai, Nova col- j A. Mai, Seriptorum veterum 

lectio 1 _ lectio^ 10 vols., Rome, 1825-38 

Mann, Popea..,. 
Manai, ConeUia . • 


McClintock and 
Strong, Cydo- h 
padia , 



Milman. Latin 

Mirbt, Quellen. . . • 

Moeller. Chria- 
tian Church..., 




Muratori, Scrip- 




Neander. Chria-S 
tian Church. . . 'l 


Nioeron, M^ j 
wutirea | 


Nowack, ArchA-\ 

ologie ^ 



N.T. ... 

Num. . . . 



O. T. . . . 



R. C. Mann, Ltvea of the Popea in the 
Early Middle Agea, London, 1902 aqq. 

G. D. Manai, Sanctorum conciliorum 
eollecHo nova, 31 vola., Florence and 
Venice, 1728 


J. McClintock and J. Strong, Cydonadia 
of Biblical, Theological, and Eccla- 
aiaaticcU LitenUure, 10 vola. and aup- 

, plement 2 vola.. New York, 1869-87 

Monumenta Oermaniathiatoriea, ed. G. H. 
PertB and othera, Hanover and Ber- 
lin, 1826 aqq. The following abbrevia- 
tiona are uaed for the aectiona and aub- 
aectiona of this work: AnL, Aniiqui' 
tatea, " Antiquitiea "; AucL anL, Auc- 
torea anii^iaaimi, " Oldeat Writera "; 
Chron. min.. Chronica minora, " Leaaer 
Chroniclea ''; Dip., Diplomata, '* Di- 
plomas, Documenta "; EpiaL, Epia- 
lola, " Lettera "lOeaL ponL Rom., 
Oeata ponlificum Romanorum, '* Deeda 
of the Popea of Rome '*; Leg., Legea, 
"Lawa"; Lib. de lite, LibeUi de lite 
inter regnum et aacerdotium acaculorum 
xi et xii eonacripti, " Booka concerning 
the Strife between the Civil and Eccle- 
aiaatical Authoritiea in the Eleventh 
and Twelfth Centuriea "; Nee., Ne- 
crologia Oermania, " Necrology of 
Germany "; Poet. Lat tevi Car., 
Poeta Laani atvi Carolini, "Latin 
Poeta of the Caroline Time ": Poet, 
Lot mod. <ni, Poeta Latini meaii eevi, 
** Latin Poeta of the Middle Amcb"; 
Script., Scriptorea, " Writera '': Script 
rer. Oerm.^^acriptorea rerum Germani- 
carum. " Writera on German Sub- 
jecta "; Script rer. Langob., Scriptorea 
rerum Lang^Mrdioarum et Italicarum, 
" Writera on Lombard and Italian 
Subjeeta "; Script rer. Merov., Scrip- 
torea rerum Merovingicarum, ** Writera 
on Merovingian Subjeota " 


H. H. Milman, Hiatory of Latin Chria- 
Hanity, Indtiding that of the Popea to 
. . . Nicholaa v., 8 vola.. London. 

C. Mirbt, Quellen aur Geadiu^te dea 
Papattuma und dea r&miachen Katho- 
liciamua, TObingen, 1901 

W. Moeller, Hiatory of the Chriatian 
Churdi, 3 vola., London, 1892-1900 

J. P. Migne, Patrologiat curaua compUiua. 
aerieaOraea, 162 vola., Paria, 1857-60 

J. P. Migne, Patrologice curaua completua, 
aerieaLaiina, 221 vola., Paria, 1844-64 

Manuacript, Manuacripta 

L. A. Muratori, Rerum Italicarum acrip- 
torea, 28 vola.. 1723-51 

Neuea ArcAiv der Geaetlachaft fUr altera 
deutache Geadiichtakunde, Hanover, 
1876 aqq. 


no date of publication 

A. Neander. General Hiatory of the Chria- 
tian Rdigion and Church, 6 vols, and 
index, Boston, 1872-81 


R. P. Nioeron, Mhnoirea pour aervtr h 
Vhiatoire dea hommea illuatria .... 43 
vola., Paria, 1729-45 

Neue kirchlidu Zeitadirift, Leipaic, 1890 

W. Nowack, Lehrbuch der hdiriiiadten 
Archdologie, 2 vola., Freiburg, 1894 

no place of publication 

The Nicena and Poat^Nicena Fathera, lat 
series, 14 vols.. New York, 1887-92; 2d 
aeriea, 14 vola., New York. 1890-1900 

New Teatament, Novum TeHamentum, 
Nouveau Teatament, Neuea Teatament 



Ordo aancU BenedicO, "Order of St. 
Benedict " 

Old Teatament 

See Smith 

Prieatly document 



( L. Pastor, The Hiatory of the Popee from 
Pastor. Popee ...< the Cloee of the MlddU Agee, 6 vols.. 

( Loudon, 1891-1902 
on J j Patree eedeeia Anglioana, e<L J. A. QUes, 

^'^^ 1 34 vols.. London, 1838-46 

PEIF Palestine Exploration Fund 

I Pet First Epistle of Peter 

II Pet Second Epistle of Peter 

Pliny. HieL not. . . Pliny i Hietoria naturalie 

i>»**k.^ nr-*^ ^A. Potthast, Bitdiotheea hietorioa medii 
JiiS?' ^ i «w. Wegweieer durdi die Oeechiehte- 
^'**^ I tMTibs. Berlin, 1896 

Prov Psoverbe 

Ps Psalms 

DODA SProceedinge of the Society of Biblical 

^^^^ I ilrefcsotow/. London. 1880 sqa. 

q.v.. qq.v quod (qua) vide, ** which see ''^ 

nlnV. 'P.^« /L. von Ranke. HieUrry of the Popee, 
Banke. ,Popee.... ^ 3 ^^^ London. 1896 

RDM Revue dee deux mondee, Paris. 1831 sqq. 

RE See Hauck-Hersog 

-D^ u rk.w- (E. Reich. Select DoeumerUe lUuetrattng 

B»eh, Docur ) Mediceval and Modem Hutory, London. 
••*»*• J 1905 

RBJ , . . .Revu^ dej Hudee Juiv€a. Parjfl, 1880 qqci 

« . . , «- r, t F. W . Rettbcrg* K irchmgeschurhie DguUch- 

Kettbers. itJ/ . . ^ ^^ ^ vol*.. G^ittingen, lS4e--i8 

Bev Book of llcvijlBtioii 

■o- u* IT'- i^ li A. L. Rjcbt«r. IjehrbtuJi "d« katholiechen 

Richter. Aircfl*n-J ^^ ^anoflUchen KirchenrmckU, Sth 
'•^** I ed. bv W. Kfthl. Iveipftic. 188© 

Robinson, EurO' ) Jd U. Habinson^ Utaaintfe in Earopmn 
pean Hietory .. i Bi*t^ry, 2 voK. BoiitoD, l&04-0tt 

Robinson. R^ [ EL HobiDKiQ^ BiMicai Rreearrha* in 
eearchee, widj PalaU-rv, Boetoti, 1841, ^nd Later 
Later Be-j BiMical Rr»earchee i a Piilettifie, 3d ed, 
eearchee { ot the whole, 3 vob., 18&T 

Rom. * r .EpLitle to the liomans 

0«»D J £^c>u« <J« th^to&ie tt de phUoaoj^ie^ 

'^^'^ 1 LaiLSttnne. 1S73 

R. V .EeVised Versioa (of the KR^Il^h Bibk) 

ease. ^ ^ , .scnruium, "' ofrulury " 

I Sam ....I S«4niivl 

II Sam. II Samuek 

i^on-ffJ Bookt af the Old Tettameni {" Rain- 
bnw Ijibk >, Leipsic^ Lontkui, nnd 
Baltimore, 1^94 sqn, 
Sehaff, Chriitian \ P. 8ch»9, HiMtory of a^ Chriftifin Church, 
Churdi ,- - . ) vols. i,-iv., vi,^ vij,. New York, 18SJ-92 

Bcfaaff. Crescfi . . -^ 3 ^^^^ jj^^ y^^j^ 1877-«4 

4 E. Bchrader, Cunrif^irm InMcripH^mt ond 

Sehrader, COT. .< the Old TntameM^ 2 vols.* Lundon. 
I 1SS5-88 

o^k^,]^ r AT h^ ScijJ»der. Dw JCri/trt*cAr*/i*» und dat 

bebrader. AAI..^ ^^ T^eUiment. 2 vol*.. Berlin. 1 902-0! 

Bcbrader, AH... ^ dvol*.. Berlin. lSSU-1901 

SchOier. J t'utfe« im ZeitaUfT Jfju Chrieti^ 3 voU.- 

GssdUdUs 1 Leipsic^ lS0f^-19Ol: Kas- trmnal, 5 

[ vols.. New York, 1891 

&rtpl .3m>tor*i» " writers " 

Sent .Senientiir " Sent^Dces " I 

8. J 4. , _ ,£od«bu Jetu, " Society of Jetua " 

or- ' Theokmit^^ Btudien und Kritikrn, H&m- 

*A ** O bunt, 1S26 Miq. 

Q^uk f .'..x.;« i W. R. Smithn Kinekip and MarHage in 
Smith. Ktnehip.. ^ ^^^^^ Araijia. LondotJ, 1903 
Q«uu rk^rr' \Vi. K. SStnith. The Old TetUimeni in the 
Smith, UIJC..,^ JewUh Church, tondon, 1892 
fl-.UK Pw^J..^. J W. li. Smith, Frophete 0} ierfut . , . to 
Smith, Prophete. -j ^ £j^AiJk Ceniuru, London. 1895 
Smith, ReL «/ j W. R. Smith, Rtligian of the SemUet, 
Sem 1 Londoa, IS94 

S.P.C. K... 
S. P. G 

sq.. sqq . 


Thatcher and 
McNeal, Source 




Tillemont. M^ 


II Tim 




Tob. . . . 



TSK .. 

1897, Berlin. 1898 sqq. 
Theologieehee LitteratiMatt, 



Usolini. Theeaip- 




Heidentum.. . . 


Zahn, Kanon. . . . 









( Society for the Promotion of Qiristian 
1 Knowledge 

j Society for the Propasation of the Gospel 
I in Foreign Parts 
. .and following 
. .Stromata, " Miscellanies" 
. . sub voce, or sub verbo 
O. J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal A 
Source Book for Medicnal Hietory 
New York. 1905 
First Epistle to the Thessalonians 
Second Epistle to the Thessalonians 
Theolooieche Tijdechrift, Amsterdam and 

Leyden. 1867 sqq. 
L. S. le Nain de Tillemont. Mhnoiree 
. . . ecclMaetiquee dee eix premiere 
eiidee, 16 vols.. Bnissek. 1693-1712 
First Emstle to Timothy 
Second Epistle to Timothy 
Theologiecher Jahreebericht, Leipsic. 1882- 
1887. FreibuTjS. 1888. Brunswick. 1889- 

Bonn, 1866 

Litteratuneitung, Leipsie, 

1876 sqq. 
Theoloifiedte Quarlalechrift, Tabingen. 

1819 sqq. 
J. A. Robinson. Texte and Studiee, 

Cambridge. 1891 sqq. 
Tranea^ione of the Society of Biblieal 

Archctology, London. 1872 sqq. 
Theolooieche Studien und Kritiken, 

HambuTK. 1826 sqq. 
' Texte und UrUereuchunoen eur Oeechichte 

der altchrietlid^en Litteratitr, ed. O. von 

Gebhardt and A. Harnack. Leipsic, 

) TUbinger Zeitechrift fUr Theologie, TQbin- 
1 gen. 1838-40 

j B. UgoUnus. Theeaurue antiquitatum 
) eacrarum, 34 vols.. Venice, 1744-69 
. Vetue Teetamentum, Vieux Teetament, '* Old 

Testament " 
( W. Wattenbach, Deutechlande Geechichte- 
< quellen, 5th ed.. 2 vols.. BerUn, 1885; 
( 6th ed.. 1893-94 

jj. Wellhausen. Reete arabiechen Heiden- 
1 tume, Berlin. 1887 
] Zeiteefurift jUr Aeeyriologie, Leipsic, 
1 1886-88. BerUn. 1889 sqq. 
jT. Zahn, Oeechichte dee neuteetamenl- 
\ lichen Kanone, 2 vols.. Leipsic. 1888-92 

! Zeitechrift fUr die oltteMtamentliche Wie- 
eenechafU Giessen. 1881 sqq. 
Zeitechrift der deutechen mortfenJ&ndi- 
echen Geeellechaft, Leipsic, 1847 sqq. 
j Zeitechrift dee deutechen Palaetina-Ver- 
' \ eine, Leipsic, 1878 sqq. 
. .Zechariah 
. .Zephaniah 

i Zeitechrift fUr die hietorieche Theologiet 
published successively at Leipsic, 
Hamburg, and Gotha, 1832-75 
t Zeitechrift fUr Kirchengeechichte, Gotha, 
•1 1876 sqq. 

j Zeitechrift fOr kcUholieche Theoloffie, Inns- 
• \ bruck, 1877 sqq. 

j Zeitechrift fiir kircMiche Wieeenechaft und 
' 1 kirchlichee Leben, Leipsic. 1880-89 

I Zeitechrift fUr wieeenechaftliche Theologie, 
. < Jena, 1858-60, Ualle, 1861-67, Leipsie, 
( 1868 sqq. 


The following system of Uansliteiation has been used for Hebrew: 

M = ' or omitted at the 


y = ' 

n = t 

B = P 

3 = b 

» = t 

fi = ph or p 

3 = bh or b 

i = y 

V = ? 

l = g 

3 = k 

p = ¥ 

i = gh or g 

3 = kh or k 

1 = r 

^ = d 


t5f = 8 

1 = dhord 

D = m 


n = h 

J = n 

n = t 

1 = w 

D = 8 

n = th or t 

The vowels are transcribed by a, e, i, o, u, without attempt to indicate quantity or quality. Arabic 
and other Semitic languages are transliterated according to the same system as Hebrew. Qreek is 
written with Roman characters, the common equivalents being used. 


When the pronunciation is self-evident the titles are not respelled ; when by mere division and accen- 
tuation it can be shown sufficiently clearly the titles have been divided into syllables, and the accented 
syllables indicated. 

a as in sofa 

(1 " " arm 

a " " at 

& " " fare 

6 " " p«n* 

6 " " fate 

i «• •' tm 

i '* ** machine 

o " " obey 

6 " " no 









































iu as in duration 
c=k " " cat 
ch " " cAurch 
cw=qu as in queen 
dh (th) " " the 
t " " fancy 

g (hard) " " go 

loch (Scotch) 

hw (wh) " " why 

^ In looented syllables only ; in unaooented syUables it approximates Uie aound of e in o?er. 



AACHEN, alcen, STHODS OF: The political 
importance of the town of Aachen (Latin Aquia- 
granum; French. Aix4arChapelU) under Charle- 
magne and his successorB made it a favorite meeting- 
place for varioujs aasemblies. The first synod of 
Aarhen (or Aix) is usually reckoned as ha\'ing met 
on Mar. 23, 789, and there is no doubt that a 
gathering took place on that day; but its results 
are known only from two royal decrees, the so- 
called Adnumitio generalis {MGH, Leg,, i., Capitu- 
laria regum Francorum, ed. A. Boretius, i., 1883, 
cap. 22), and the instructions for the royal repre- 
sentatives (cap. 23). The former repeats a 
summary of the earlier canonical legislation on the 
duties of the clergy, and adds further regulations 
for the improvement of clerical and social life, 
dealing with diligence in preaching, the education 
of the clergy, the observance of the Lord's Day, 
just judgment, equal weights and measures, hos- 
pitality, and the prevention of witchcraft and per- 
jury. The other document treats of monastic 
discipline and the regulation of civil society. It 
is questionable if this gathering can be properly 
called a synod; and still less can the name be applied 
to that of 797 (cap. 27), which regulated the con- 
dition of the conquered Saxons. On the other 
hand, the assembly of June, 799, in which Alcuin 
disputed with FeUx of Urgel (see Adoptionism) 
may be so called, and likewise the three meetings 
in the years 801 and 802. Their deliberations led 
to a series of decrees (cap. 33-35 and 3&-41) which 
throw light on Charlemagne's endeavors to elevate 
clergy and laity. The most important is the great 
instruction for the miasi dominici sent out in the 
spring of 802, dealing with the discipline of bishops, 
dergy, monks, and nuns, the faithful performance 
of their duties by public officials, and the establish- 
ment of justice throughout the empire. Among 
the results of the autumn synod of 802, cap. 36 
and 38 deserve special attention; they deal with 
the duty of intercession for the emperor and bishops, 
the education of the people, tithes, divine worship 
and the sacraments, clerical discipline, and the 
system of ecclesiastical visitations. The next 
^ynod (Nov. 809), was occupied with the doctrine 
of the procession of the Holy Ghost. In the autumn 
of 816, or the summer of 817, Louis le D^bonnaire 
I.— I 

assembled his first synod at Aachen, when the 
bishops laid down new regulations for the com- 
munity life, both of canons and nuns. In the 
simmier of 817 an assembly of abbots discussed 
the observance of the Benedictine rule. The diets 
of 819 and 825 and similar later assemblies can 
again scarcely be counted as synods, though the 
one held in the sacristy of the cathedral, Feb. 6, 835, 
has a synodical character. It adopted a thorough- 
going pronouncement on the life and teaching of 
bishops and inferior clergy, and on the position of 
the king, his family, and his ministers, with a view 
to regulating the confusion which the strife between 
Louis and his sons had caused. It also required 
of P^pin of Aquitaine that he should restore the 
church property which he had appropriated. For 
the synod held at Aachen in connection with the 
question of Lothaire's divorce, see Nicholas I. 
The last two synods of Aachen were held under 
Henry II., one in the year 1000 in connection with 
the restoration of the bishopric of Merseburg (see 
WiLLiQis); the other, in 1023, when the contest 
between the dioceses of Cologne and Li^ for the 
possession of the monastery of Burtscheid was 
decided in favor of the latter. 

(A. Hauck.) 

BiBUOORAyHT: FraomerUum hiHorieum de eoncUio Aqui9- 
granenai, in lI*billon. AmUseta, i. 62, Pmris, 1723. and in 
Bouquet, RacuaU, vi. 415-443; EpUiola Synodi il^ui*- 
Oranenaia ad Pippin, ia Labbe, Conrtita, vii. 1728, and in 
Bouquet, Recueil, vi. 354; A. J. Binterim, Proffmatischs 
Otadiichle der deutachen . . . ConcUien, ii., iii.. Maim. 
1836-37; MOH, Leg. i. (1835) 465; ib. Capituiaria reg. 
Franc., ii. 2 (1893). 463-466; Hauck. KD, ii.; Hefele. 
Concilienoe8chicfUe, vole, iii., iv.; MOH, Leg. aectio ni., 
ConcUia, i. 1 (1904). 

AARON: The brother of Moses. In the Yah- 
wistic source of the Pentateuch he is called 
" Aaron, the Levite," i.e., the priest. He is first 
mentioned when Yahweh appoints him as spokes- 
man for Moses in the mission to Pharaoh (Ex. iv. 
10-17, 27-31); and consistently he always appears 
with Moses before the Egyptian king. Later Aaron 
and Hur support Moses during the battle with the 
Amalekites (Ex. xvii. 8-13). When the covenant 
was made at Sinai, Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, with 
seventy elders, accompanied Moses to the moun- 
tain; but Moses alone " went up into the mount 



of God " (Ex. xxiv. 1-2, 9-18; cf. xix, 24 j. While 
Moses delayed on the mountam Aaron tnade the 
golden calf; and later be sought to excuse him* 
eelf by saying that ha had oeted under compulsion 
of the people, who were ito patient at the long 
absence of their leader (Ex. xjcadi.)' Iq the narra- 
tive of Num. xiio Aaron again appears in an un- 
favorable liglit. He ia eoid to tiave died at Moaera, 
in the wilderness, and Elea^ar, hia son took his place 
aa priest (Deut- x. 6). Finally, he ia incidentally 
mentioned in Josh. xxiv. 5 and 33. The signi^cant 
fact in all these notices ia that the Y&bwbtic soiificea 
recognise Aaron aa P^**'- In the Priest code 
Aaron's genealogy and family are given in detail 
(Ex. vL 20^ 23). He is three years older than 
Mosea (Ex, vii. 7). He is mode Moses's ** prophet" 
before Pharaoh (Ex. vii. 1-2), and, accordingly, plays 
an important part in all transactions at the Egyp^ 
tian court. By means of his rod the miracles are 
performed (Ex. vii., viii.). During the wandering 
Aaron retains his prominent position » although 
subordinate to Moses, The hungry people murmur 
against both brothers, and, at Moses's command, 
Aaron replies to them, and later preserves a pot of 
manna before Yahweh (Ex. xvi.). The priesthood 
is instituted at 8inai and solemnly conferred upon 
Aaron, his four sons^ and their descendants (Ejc. 
xxviii.). Of these four sons^ only Eleazar and Itha- 
mar remain after the destruction of Nadab and 
Abihu (Ijev. x. 1-7). Aaron is not only original 
ancestor and type of the priesta as diittinguished 
from the Levites, but also, in narrower sense, 
prototype of the high priest, who was always from 
bis family and apparently ibe first-bom son in 
direct line. A few of the lawa of P are delivered 
to Aaron as well as Moaes (Lev. xi. 1, xiii> 1, xiv. 
33, XV. 1 ; Num. xix. 1 ). After the departure from 
Sinai, Korah and his followers rebel against Moses 
and Aaron; and Yahweh miraculously vindicates 
the supremacy of the latter (Num. xvi.-xvii.; the 
narrative is amplified by an accomit of the up* 
rising of Dathan and Abiram and a cont^est between 
Levites and priests). Aaron dies on Mount Hor, 
and Eleasar becomes priest in his stead (Num. 
XX. 22-29, xxxiii. 38-39). Of other Old Testament 
paas&j^es in which Aaron is mentioned none is note- 
worthy except Mic. vi. 4, where he is joined with 
Moses and Miriam, (F. BuHL.) 

It is important for the history of the priesthood 
in Israel to notice that in the narratives of J and E 
(called " Yfthwiatie " above) the priestly function 
of Aaron is quite subordinate, he being mainly 
represented there as the spokesman and the minis* 
ter of MoAes and, along with Hur, as his represen- 
tative-^a ** judge" of the people (Ex. xxiv. 13, 14), 
It is in the priestly tradition that tlie idea of Aaron's 
sacerdotal functions is elaborately developed, 

J, F. M. 

BiBuooRArsr: S. B^riaj^-Oould, Ltgmd* of 0. T. Charac^ 
Urt, 2 VdtB., Londud, ISTl; J. WitlLlwuaen, Gfarhichtt tt- 
nuU, chap. jv.» Berlin, iS7S; H .v»n Oort. Dw Aaronevlen ib 
TkT, iviii. (ISS*) 2S9 ȣid 235; J^Beiaiingisr, Htt^^iMch* 
ArehOoiooit, pp. 40&-^2g. Freiburg, IS94; W. Now&ck. 
ArdUftioffM, ii. S7-130* lb. 1804r A. Ku«mci in ThT, Jtiiv. 
Ct8W)) 1-42; A. T»ti HootiB,ck<«r< L* ^QCtrd&ct Itntv^u* 
4ant la hi *t dant VkiMUjire d** Htbreux, Louvnin^ 1899; 
a I. CurtiH, Th* Lnitfkai FtinU, Ediubrnth, 1S77. 

AAAOn AED JULIUS: English Msxtyrs. See 
Alban, Sainit, op Vcruu^u. 

ABADDOn, a-had'en ("Destruction''); In the 
Old Testament a poetic name for the kingdom of 
the dead. Hades, or Sheol (Job xxvi. 6; Prov. xv. 
11, where Abaddon is parallel to Sheol). The 
rabbis used the name for the nethermost part of 
hell. In Rev, ix. U the " angel of the bottomless 
pit " is called Abaddon, which is there explained 
as the Greek Apollyon (** destroyer "); and he ia 
described as king of the locusts which rose at the 
sounding of the fifth trumpet. In like manner, in 
Rev. vi. S, Hades is personified following after 
death to conquer the fourth part of the earth. In 
rabbinical writings Abaddon and Death are also 
peiBonified (cf. Job xxviii. 22 )* 

AB'ADIIL See Tai^od. 

A-BAR'BA-HBL. See Abrabaniii., 

ABAUZIT, fl"b6"El', FUtMIN: French Reformed 
scholar; b. of Huguenot parentage at Uz^ (20 m, 
w.n.w. of Avignon), Languedoc, Nov. 11, 1679; 
d, at Geneva, Mar. 20, 1767, After the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes ( 1 6S5) an attempt was made 
to bring him up as a Roman Cathohc, but it w^as 
frxist rated by his mother. After some hardshipa 
and sufferings, mother and son settled in Geneva, 
where Abau^it was educated and where, with the 
exception of visits to Holland and England in 
169S, he spent liis long life devoted to study and 
the service of the city libraty. He was one of the 
most learned men of his timCi posseseed much ver- 
satility, and enjoyed the friendship of scholars like 
Bayle, Jurieu, Basnage, and Newton. Neverthe- 
le^, he published practically nothing; and aft^r 
his death many of his manuscripts were destroyed 
by hifi heirs. A volume of (Eu ifre^ diverges appeared 
at Geneva in 1770; and a different edition in two 
volumes at London and Amsterdam in 1770-73, 
They include essays against the doctrine of the 
Trinity as commonly received, upon the Book of 
Daniel, and the Apocalypse. He rendered much 
service to a society for the translation of the New 
Testament into French (published 1726). Many 
of his theological w^ritings are translated in E. 
Hani''ood's Miscellanies (London, 1774), with 
memoir; and seven essays are reprinted thence in 
Sparks 's Collection of Essays and TrocU in Tht- 
oio^, voL L (Boston, 1823). 

BiauooaAPnT: J. Senehier. Hiatowt Ixtt^mw^ de Oenhf9^ 
Geneva < 1786; E, uid E. Baav. La France ptotestatUe, 
ed. U. L. Bordiet. i. 2. Farid. 1877; A. Gibert, AbamU 

ABBADIE, a"ba" dr, JACQUES : Protestant apol- 
ogist; b, at Nay (10 m. s. by e. of Pau), France, 
1654 (7); d. at Mar>'lebone, London, 1727, He 
studied in the French Reformed Church academies 
of Saumur and Sedan, and early showed much 
talent. On invitatbn of the elector of Branden- 
burg, he became pastor of the French Reformed 
congregation in Berlin in 16S0; after the death of 
the elector (1688), he followed Marshal Schomberg 
to England- and became pastor of the French 
church in the Savoy, London, in 16S9. In 1&99 
he was made dean of Killaloe, Ireland, Hia TraiU 
de ia virit£ de la religion ChrMitnne (vols. i. and ii.* 



Rotterdam, 1684; vol. iii., 1689: Eng. transl., 2 
vols., London, 1694), became one of the standard 
apologetic works in French literature. Of his other 
works, VAri de se connaUre soi-mhne (Rotterdam, 
1692), giving an outline of his moral system, at- 
tracted much attention and was warmly defended 
by Malebranche. 

Biblioobapht: For full list of his writings, consult 
E. and £. Haag. La France protMtarUet i.. s.v., Paris. 
1846; for his life, the collection of his sermons, Am- 
sterdam, 1760. iii.. and D. C. A. Agnew. ProieHarU 
ExUet from France, pp. 223-228, Edinburgh. 1886; on 
his work, R. Elliott. The Conaietent Proteatant . . . with 
aome obaervatuma on a treoHae , . . by J. Abbadie, Lon- 
don, 1777, and M. lUaire, MHude aur J. Abbadia conaideri 
eamwu pridicaieur, Strasburg, 1858. 

ABBATE; ABBl^ See Abbot. 

ABBESS: The title of the head of many monastic 
communities of women, even in some orders where 
the head of the monasteries for men does not bear 
the title of abbot. An abbess is commonly elected 
by the community. Cases of appointment by 
the pope on the nomination of the sovereign have 
occurred less frequently than in the case of abbots. 
By the ruling of the Council of Trent, only those are 
eligible who have been eight years professed and 
reached the age of forty, except, in exceptional 
circumstances, when a dispensation is granted by 
the pope. An absolute majority on a secret ballot 
is required. The election must be confirmed by 
the bishop (or, in certain cases of exemption, by 
the pope, or the head of the order), before the new 
abbess possesses full jurisdiction. A formal bene- 
diction, for which there is a form in the PorUificale 
Ramanumf ia also given by the bishop in many 
cases. The power thus assigned to the abbess is 
merely that requisite to rule her community, and 
in no sense a spiritual jurisdiction; she can not 
commute or disp^ise from vows, laws of the Church, 
or statutes of the order. She may inflict light 
punishments in the spirit of the rule; but the more 
severe ones are reserved to the ecclesiastical su- 
perior of the convent, who has jurisdiction in the 
forum externum. In general it may be said that 
the power of an abbess has been and is much more 
restricted than that of an abbot. For the pecul- 
iarly wide jurisdiction of abbesses over men as 
well as women in the order of Font^vraud (not 
without precedent in the Celtic monastic system), 
see FoNT^VRAUD, Ordeb of. See also Abbot; 


ABBEY: A monastic house imder the rule of an 
abbot or an abbess. The name ia strictly appli- 
cable only to the houses of those orders in which 
these titles are borne by the superiors. While in 
the East the free form of a group of scattered cells 
(known as a laura) continued side by side with the 
common dwelling of a cenobite community, the 
West developed a distinct style of its own in monas- 
tic arohitecture. The extant plan of the monastery 
of St. Gall (820) may be taken as typical of the 
construction of Western monasteries in the early 
Middle A^es. The center of the entire group of 
buHdingB was occupied by an open rectangular 
space, on the north side of which was the church, 
while on the other three sides ran the cloister or 
ambulatoiy, a vaulted passage open on the inner 

side, and serving both as a means of communication 
and as a place for exercise in bad weather. Con- 
nected with the cloister, on the ground floor, were 
the refectory and kitchen; the chapter-house, in 
which the reading and exposition of the rule and 
the chapter of faults took place; the calefactarium 
or winter dining-room; and the parleatorium or 
reception-room of outsiders. On the floor above, 
opening on a similar passage which connected with 
the choir of the chureh or the organ-loft, were the 
vestiarium, where the clothes were kept, the library, 
the dormitory, the infirmary, the rooms for the 
novices, and the apartments of the abbot, which 
were supposed to be accessible from outside without 
passing through the enclosure into which strangers 
were not allowed to penetrate. The kitchen, which 
lay within this enclosure, had in like manner a 
connection with the house for the reception of 
pilgrims, and with the various farm-buildings, 
which usually formed a separate quadrangle. The 
entire group of buildings was surrounded by a 
high, solid wall, which in some cases was fortified 
against the dangers of rude times by towers and 
strong gates. The monks' burying-ground was 
also within the enclosure. 

This system was preserved, with slight modifi- 
cations, throughout the Middle Ages, the Cistereians 
adhering to it with especial closeness, as may be 
seen at Gairvaux and Maulbronn. Sometimes it 
was enriched by architectural decoration, as in the 
high- vaulted double refectories of St. Martin at 
Paris and of Maulbronn, or adorned with painting, 
as the world-famous " Last Supper " of Leonardo 
da Vinci in the refectory of Santa Maria delle 
Grazie at Milan. In houses occupied by female 
religious the extensive farm-buildings were natu- 
rally lacking. The combination of hermit and 
community life among the Carthusians required a 
larger space, which was obtained by adding to the 
original quadrangle on the basis of the church a 
second larger one, commonly surrounded also by 
a cloister, with an open space or garden (containing 
a cemetery) in the center, and with individual 
dwellings for the monks around it. The mendicant 
orders strove for simplicity in building as in other 
things, and were forced by their situation in towns 
to a more restricted plan. The teaching orders 
added a wing or a separate house for their pupils. 
The Jesuits completely abandoned the traditional 
plan, and built themselves large palatial houses, 
while modem monasteries have Uttle to differen- 
tiate them from other large institutions. For a 
more detailed treatment of the structural system 
of abbeys and monastic buildings, consult the ex- 
haustive monograph by Venables in the Encydo- 
podia Britannicaf s.v. Abbey. See Monasticism. 
Bibliography: In general: DC A, ii. (1880) 1243-68 
(gives a list of 1,481 monasteries founded before 814); 
DACL, i. 26-39; A. Ballu. Le MonaaUre de Tebeaaa, 
Paris, 1897 (valuable for detailed description of a typi- 
cal abbey). Austria : G. Wolfsgruber, A. HabI, and O. 
Schmidt. Abteien und KlOater in Oaterreich, Vienna, 
1902. France : L. P. H^rard, ttudea archiolooiquea aur 
lea abbavea^ de Vancien diockae de Paria, Paris, 1852; 
M. F. de Montrond. Dictionnaire dea abbayea et 
monaatkrea, ib. 1856; J. J. Bourass^, Abbayea et monaa- 
tirea; hiatoire, monumenta, aouvenira et ruinea, ib. 1869; 
E. P. M. Sauvage, Hiatoire littfraire dea abbayea 
Normandea, ib. 1872; A. Peigne-Delacourt, Tableau dea 



abbay€8 et dea moruuUre» d'hommea «n FrancB .... 1708. ib. 
1876; J. M. Bease, Let premUn monatUrM de la OauU, in 
Bmme d— quetHan* hitloriquM, Apr., 1902. Qbemamt: 
O. Orote, Lexicon deuteeher SHfte, KUeier, und Ordena- 
hHueer, 6 parte. Osterwiek, 1874-80; H. G. Hasae, Qeechidir 
U der eaeheieehen KldeUr in der Mark Meiaeen und Ober- 
laueitt, Qotha. 1887; H. H. Koch. Die Karmelitenkldeter 
der niederdeutecKen Provine, lS-16 Jahrkundert, Freiburg, 
1889; H. Hauntinger, Soddeuteche Kl6tter vcr 100 Jahren, 
Cologne. 1889; L. Sutter, Die Dominican-KUeter auf die 
Oebiete d. heukgen deuUchen SchtoeUe im IS Jahrkundert, 
Lucerne, 1893; A. Hohenegger. Dae Kajnuiner-Klotter 
Mu Meran, Inn«bruck. 1898; F. M. Herhagen. Die Klotter- 
Ruinen tu Himmerod in der Eifel, Trevea. 1900. Great 
BBrTAiN AND Ibbland: M. Archdall, Monaeticon Hiber- 
nieon ; . , , the Abbey; Prioriee , , . in Ireland, Lon- 
don. 1786, ed. by P. F. Moran. Dublin. 1871; W. Beattie. 
Caallee and Abbey of England, 2 yoIb.. London. 1861; M. 
E. C. Walcott, Mineter and Abbey Ruina of the United 
Kingdom, ib. 1860; W. and M. Howitt. Ruined Abbey 
and Caetlet of Great Britain, 2 ser., ib. 1862-64; Religioue 
Houeee of the United Kingdom, ib. 1887; T. G. Bonney. 
CathedraU, Abbey and Chxtrehea of England and Walea, 2 
voU.. ib. 1888-91 (reviMd. 1898); W. C. Lefroy. Ruined 
Abbey of Yorkthire, ib. 1890; J. Timbs. Abbey, Caetlea 
and Ancient Holla of England and Walea, 3 vols., ib. 1890; 
W. A. J. Archbold. Someraet Reltgioua Houaea, ib. 1892. 

ABBO OF FLEURY, flO^ii': French abbot 
of the tenth century, one of the few men of that 
time who strove to cultivate learning and led the 
way for the later scholasticism;, b. near Orleans; 
d. Nov. 13. 1004. He was brought up in the Bene- 
dictine abbey of Fleury (25 m. e.s.e. of Orleans); 
studied at Paris and Reims; in 985-987 was in Eng- 
land, on invitation of Archbishop Oswald of York, 
and taught in the school of the abbey of Ramsey; 
was chosen abbot of Fleury in 988, and brought 
the school there to a flourishing condition. He 
upheld the rights of his abbey against the Bishop 
of Orleans, and at the s3mod of St. Denis (995) 
took the part of the monks against the bishops. 
He twice represented King Robert the Pious as 
ambassador at Rome, and gained the favor of Pope 
Gregory V. He upheld strict monastic discipline; 
and an attempt to introduce reforms in the monas- 
tery of La R^le (in Gascony, 30 m. s.e. of Bordeaux), 
a dependency of Fleury, led to a mutiny by the 
monks in which he was fatally wounded. He 
wrote upon such diverse subjects as dialectics, 
astronomy, and canon law; and his extant letters 
are of much value for the history of the time. 

Bibuoobapht: For his works, and hij* life by his pupil 
Aimoin, consult AfPL, cxxxix.; for his Epiatolae, Bou- 
quet. Recueil; for his life. J. B. Pardiac, Hiatoire de St, Ab- 
bon, Paris. 1872. 

ABBOT: The head of one of the larger houses 
in the Benedictine and other older Western monastic 
orders. The term originated in the East, where 
it was frequently used as a title of respect for any 
monk (being derived from the Aramaic abha, 
" father "); but there it was replaced, as the title 
of the superior of a monastery, by archimandrite 
and other titles. In the Western orders founded 
before the end of the eleventh century the title is 
still in use. According to the present system, 
abbots are divided into secular and regular; the 
former are secular clerics who are incumbents of 
benefices originally bearing the title of abbey but 
since secularized; the latter are classified accord- 
ing as they have authority only over the mem- 
bers of their house, or over certain of the 
faithful, or enjoy a quasi-episcopal jurisdiction 

over a definite territoiy, or are merely titular 
abbots, their houaes having fallen into decay. 
They are further divided according to the term of 
their office, which may be either for life or for three 
years. A special class known as mitered 'abbots 
have permission to wear episcopal insignia. The 
election of an abbot is conmionly by vote of the 
professed brothers, in most cases only those in holy 
orders. The candidate must be twenty-five years 
of age, a professed brother of the order, and a priest. 
Actual jurisdiction is not conferred until his con- 
firmation either by the bishop or, in the case of 
exempt abbeys, by the superior in the case, fre- 
quency the pope. His benediction is the next 
step, which takes place according to the office in 
the Pontificale Rarnanum, usually at the hands of 
the bishop of the diocese. He has the power to 
regulate the entire inner life of the abbey in accord- 
ance with the rule, and to require obedience from 
his subordinates; according to the rule of St. 
Benedict, however, abbots are required not to 
exercise their authority in an arbitrary manner, 
but to seek the counsel of their brethren. In many 
particulars a quasi-episcopal jurisdiction has in 
course of time been conceded to them. Since the 
eighth century they have been allowed to confer 
the tonsure and minor orders on their subjects, to 
bless their churches, cemeteries, sacred vessels, 
etc., to take rank as prelates, and, if generals ex- 
ercising quasi-episcopal jurisdiction, to sit and vote 
in general councils. 

The practise of granting abbeys in eommendam 
to deserving clerics, or even to laymen, led to the 
creation of a class of merely titular abbots, who had 
nothing of this character but the name and the 
revenues. This practise, which was the source of 
many abuses, was regulated by the Council of Trent. 
From it sprang the custom in France of appljring 
the title abbi to any prominent clergyman who 
might, according to the custom of the time, lay 
claim to such an appointment, and then to the 
secular clergy in general. A somewhat analogous 
custom existed in Italy, where many professional 
men, lawyers, doctors, etc., though laymen and 
even married men, retained some marks of the 
clerical character which had earlier distinguished 
the majority of scholars in their dress and in the 
title of abbate. In some Protestant countries the 
title of abbot still clung to the heads of institutions 
that had grown out of monasteries suppressed at 
the Reformation. See Monasticism. 

ABBOT, EZRA: Unitarian layman; b. at Jack- 
son, Waldo (bounty. Me., Apr. 28,' 1819; d. at Cam- 
bridge, Mass., Mar. 21, 1884. He was fitted for 
college at Phillips Academy, Exeter, N. H., and 
was graduated at Bowdoin, 1840. He then taught 
in Maine and, after 1847, in Cambridge, Mass., 
also rendering service in the Harvard and Boston 
Athenseum libraries. In 1856 he was appointed 
assistant librarian of Harvard University, in 1871 
he was imiversity lecturer on the textual criticism 
of the New Testament, and in 1872 he became 
Bussey professor of New Testament criticism and 
interpretation in the Harvard Divinity School. 
From 1853 he was secretary of the American Orien- 



tal Sodetj. He was one of the original members of 
the American New Testament Revision Company 
(1871), and in 1880 he aided in organizing the 
Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis. He 
was a scholar of rare talents and attainments. 
He stood first and foremost among the textual 
critics of the Greek Testament in America; and 
for microscopic accuracy of biblical scholarship 
he had no superior in the world. On account of 
the extreme attention he paid to minute details, the 
number of his independent publications was small, 
and the results of his labors have gone into books 
of other writers, to which he was willing to con- 
tribute without regard to reward or adequate 
lecognition. His Literature of the Doctrine of a 
FtUtvre Life^ first published as an appendix to Alger's 
History of the Doctrine of a Future Life (Philadel- 
phia, 1864), and afterward separately (New York, 
1871), is a model of bibliographical accuracy and 
completeness, embracing more than 5,300 titles. 
He enriched Smith's Bible Dictionary (Am. ed., 
1867-70) with careful bibliographical lists on the 
most important topics, besides silently correcting 
innumerable errors in references and in typography. 
His most valuable and independent labors, how- 
ever, were devoted to textual criticism and are in 
part incorporated in Gregory's Prolegomena to the 
Ed. via, crilica major of Tischendorf 's Greek Testa- 
ment; the chapter De versUme (pp. 167-182) is 
by him, and he read the manuscript and proofs 
of the entire work. His services to the American 
Bible Revision Committee were invaluable. The 
critical papers which he prepared on disputed 
passages were unconmionly thorough, and had no 
small influence in determining the text finally 
accepted. His defense of the Johannean author- 
ship of the fourth Gospel (The Authorship of the 
Fourth Gospel; External Evidences, Boston, 1880; 
reprinted by his successor in the Harvard Divinity 
8dKX)l, J. H. Thayer, 1888) is an invaluable con- 
tribution to the solution of that question. 

Of his writings, besides those already adduced, 
may be mentioned: an edition of Orme*s Memoir 
of the Controversy respecting the Three Heavenly 
Witnesees (New York, 1866); work upon G. R. 
Noyes's (posthumous) Translaiion of the New 
Teetament from the Greek Text of Tischendorf (1869); 
work upon C. F. Hudson's Greek and English Con- 
cordance of the New Testament (1870); The LaU 
Professor Tischendorf , in The Unitarian Review, 
Mar. 1875; On the Reading " an only begotten God" 
or ** God only begotten,** John i. 18, ib. June 1875; 
On the Reading " Church of God,** Acts, xx, 28^ in 
the Bibliotheca Sacra, Apr. 1876 (like the preceding, 
first privately printed for the American Bible 
Revision Committee); Recent Discussions of Ro- 
mans ix. 6, an exhaustive article on the punctuation 
of this passage in Journal of the Society of Biblical 
Liieraiure and Exegesis, June and Dec. 1883. 
The four articles mentioned last, together with that 
on the fourth Gospel and seventeen others, were 
published in 1888, under the editorship of J. H. 
Thayer. (Phiup ScHAFFf.) D. S. Schaff. 

BnuooBAPHT: Bgra Abbot, a memoir edited by S. J. Bar- 
row*. Cambridae. 1884; Andover lUview, i. (1884) 664; 
r World, XV. (1884) 113. 

ABBOT, GEORGE: Archbishop of Canterbury; 
b. at Guildford (30 m. s.w. of London) Oct. 29, 
1562; d. at Croydon (10 m. s. of London) Aug. 4, 
1633. He studied at Balliol 0>llege, Oxford 
(B.A., 1582; probationer fellow, 1583; M.A., 1585; 
B.D., 1593; D.D., 1597), took orders in 1585, re- 
mained at Oxford as tutor, and became known as 
an able preacher and lecturer with strong Puritan 
sympathies. He was made master of University 
College 1597; dean of Winchester 16(X); vice-chan- 
cellor of the imiversity 1600, 1603, 1605; bishop 
of Coventry and Lichfield, 1609; bishop of London 
1610; archbishop of Canterbury 1611. His learn- 
ing and sincerity can not be questioned; but he 
was austere, narrow, almost a fanatic. His one 
great idea was to crush " popery," not only in 
England, but in all Europe; and popery to him 
meant every theological system except that of 
Calvin. To further his purposes abroad, he meddled 
persistently in the foreign policy of the State and 
chose arbitrary, high-hsmded, and cruel means to 
accomplish his ends at home. His principles 
allowed him to flatter the king, to help him gener- 
ously in money matters, and to serve lum in certain 
political undertakings, such as the restoration of 
episcopacy in Scotland in 1608-10. At other times 
his conscience compelled him to be just, and con- 
sequently he could not retain the royal favor. A 
Presbyterian at heart, he accepted episcopacy 
only from a love of order and sense of loyalty to 
constituted authority; and his appointment as 
archbishop was displeasing to the Anglican party, 
who had wanted Launcelot Andrewes (q.v.). His 
undiplomatic course incensed his opponents, and 
they pursued him relentlessly and cruelly. In 1621 
he killed a gamekeeper while hunting. It was 
purely accidental, and he was deeply shocked and 
grieved; nevertheless, William Laud (his successor as 
archbishop and his personal enemy for years) and 
others seized upon the incident to annoy him and 
weaken his influence. Charles I., after his acces- 
sion, favored Laud, who brought about Abbot's 
sequestration for a year (1627-28) because he had 
refused to sanction a sermon by Dr. Robert Sib- 
thorp, vicar of Brack ley, indorsing an unlawful 
attempt by the king to raise money, and showing 
little sympathy with Abbot's favorite policy of 
support to the German Protestants. After this 
his public acts were few. But with all his faults 
and disappointments he was faithful to duty as he 
understood it; and he was generous with money, 
charitable to the poor, and a patron of learning. 
He was a member of the Oxford New Testament 
Company for the version of 1611; and through him 
Cyril Lucar (q.v.) presented the Codex Alexan- 
drinus to Charles I. With other works, he pub- 
lished A Brief Description of the Whole World 
(London, 1599; 5th ed., 1664), a geography pre- 
pared for his pupils at Oxford, containing an inter- 
esting description of America; and An Exposition 
upon the Prophet Jonah (1600), which was reprinted 
in 1845 with a life by Grace Webster. 

Bibuoorapht: T. Fuller, Church Hiitory, 6 parts. London, 
1055 (ed. Brewer. 1845); Biographia Britannica, 6 vols., 
ib. 1747-66 (oontaina hia life by W. Oldys. reprinted by 
Arthur Onslow.JGuildford. 1777); W. F. Hook, EccleHcf- 
tical Biography, 8 vols.. London. 1845-62; idem, Liv4» of 



Airthbithcp§, 12 voU., ib. ia4H}-72: S. R. QordiDer, His- 
ton/ of England, ims-lSU, IQ vob., ib. I8SS-8i; DNB, 

ABBOT, ROBERT : 1. Bishop of Salkbury; elder 
brother of George Abbott Arcbbisbop of Caoterbuiy ; 
b. at Guildford (30 m. s*w, of London) about 1560; 
d. at Salisbury Mar. 2, 1618. He studied at Balliol 
CoUege, Oxford (feUow, 15S1; M.A., 1582; DJ),, 
1597), and held several imjjortaJ^t livinp. In 1609 
he became msst^^r of Balliol; in 1612 regius pro- 
fessor of divinily at Oxford; in 1515 bishop of 
SaUabwy. He was a learnetl man, an able preacher, 
and a prolific writer, holding in general the same 
views aa his brother, but advocating them with 
more discretion and tact. Ilia works include two 
treatises in reply to B^^llarmine, A Mimw of Popish 
StibiiUies ( London r 1594), and Aniichristi demon- 
glratio (1603); and A Dcfericeof the Reform&d Catholic 
of Mr. Wiiliam Perkins (3 ports, 1606-09). which 
won hun royaJ favor and a promise of preferment. 

BtBuoattApar: Thou. Fuller. Ab€i Rtdevivwi, Txjndoa, 1351 
(ed. W. Nichob. 2 vola., 1867); idem. Church MistvtT/, 
B pt»., ib. 1055 M. by Brewer. 1&45) ; A. Wood, 
Athtna Ozonun^er. il. 224-227, ib. 1092^ Hioffraphia 
BrUanniai, 6 vols., ib. 1747-66 (life feprlnted by A^^ 
O&BiLoWt Guildford, 1777}; CrimimU TriaU* iUusiraUve of 
BritiMh Hixisry, iL 386-307, ib. 1837 Cde*l» with Abbot** 
p^rt in the ooDtrovemy over the GunpoA^der Hot) ; DNB^ 
i. 2t 

2. Vicar of Cranbrook, Kent, 1616-^3; b. 
probably, 1588; d. about 1557. He studied at 
Cambridgie (college unknown), took the degree 
of M.A, there, and wa^s incorporated at Ox- 
ford. Parliament liaviog decided against plviraU- 
ties of eccSeaiast leal offices, he resigned his Cran- 
brook vicarage in 1643^ retaining that of South- 
wick, Hampshire, although much smaller. He was 
afterward rector of St, Austin's, London. He was 
a strong churchman; and engaged in many con- 
troversiiM^ particularly with the Brownists, to 
whom he was not always fair. Many of Im writings* 
as his Milk for Babes, or a Mother^ s CaJlcchism for 
her Ckiidr^n (London, 1646), were very popular, 

BiBuoaRJkPirT: A. Wood, Faati. apf^ended to Athtn^ Oj<i~ 
nifffWM, London. 1 69 1 -a 2 te^l- P- Btiw, i. 3il* Oxford, 
1848 J; John Walker, Sji^€rin(fA of the Cigfou, ii. IftS, Lon- 
dotit 1714; B. Brook, Livea of the PuriianMt iii. 182, ib. 
1S13; DNB. L 25-m 

ABBOTT, EDWARD: Protestant Episcopalian; 
b. at Farmington, Me., July 15, 1841* He was 
educated at the Onivemty of the City of New York 
(B.A., 1860) and at Andover Theological Seminaty 
(1 860^2 ; did not grad uate ) . 1 n 1 862-63 he was an 
agent of the United States Sanitary Commission, 
and in the latter year was ordained to the Congre- 
gational ministry. Two years later he founded 
tht? Steams Chapel Congregational Church (now 
the Pilgrim Church) at Cambridge, Maas.^ of which 
he was pastor four years* In 1872^73 h© was chap- 
lain of the Masaachasetts Senate. In 1879 he was 
ordf^red deacon m the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
and priest ad in 18S0, bis parish being that of St. 
James, Cambridge, wldch he still holds* He refused 
the proffered missionary bishopric of Japan in 1SS9. 
At various times he has been a member of tlie 
Board of Visitors of Wellesley College, trustee of 
the Society for the Relief of the Widows and Or- 

phans of dergymen of the Protestant Epi^scopat 
Church, director and president of the Associated 
Charities of Cambridge ^ vicenlean and dean of the 
Eastern Convocation of the Diocese of Massachu- 
setts, president of the Cambridge Branch of the 
Indian Rights A^ociation, member of the Mission- 
ary CJotmcil of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 
secretary of the Standing Committee of the Diocese 
of Massachusetts, member of the Provisional 
Committee on Church Work in Mexico, president 
of the Indian Industries League, president of the 
Cambridge City Mission, and has been active in 
other religious and philanthropic movements. His 
theological position is that of the Broad Church, 
sympathising neither with the extreme of medi- 
evalism nor higher criticism. In 1869-78 he was 
associate editor of the Boston Congregattonalistt 
and was Joint proprietor and editor of the Boston 
Literary World from 1877 to 1888, again editing it 
in 189-V1903, Urn principal works are The. Baby*i 
Things : A SUny in Verse (New York, 1S71); Para- 
graph History of the Unii^ Stales (Boston, 1875)j 
Paragraph History of the American Revolidiem 
(1876); Revolvlimiary Times (IS76); History of 
Carr^ridge (1880): Fhiitips Brooks (Cambridge, 
1900); and Meet for the MasUsr*s Use : An Alle- 
gory (1900). 

ABBOTT, EDWm ABBOTT: Church of Eng- 
land, author and educator, b. in London Dec. 20, 
1838. He studied at St. John*s College, Cambridge 
(B*A., 186] ), where he was elected fellow in 1862. 
He was aaaiatant master at King Edward 'j^ School, 
Birmingham, in 1862-64, and at Clifton College in 
the following year, while from 1865 to 1889 he was 
headmaster at City of London School. He w^as 
Hutsean lecturer at Cambridge in 1876 and select 
preacher at Oxford in the succeeding year. His 
works include Bible Lessons (London, 1S72); 
Cambridge Sermoris (1875); Through A^alure to 
Christ (1877); Oxford Serimms (1879); the article 
Gospels in the 9th ed, of the Encyclopaedia Brit- 
annica; The Common Tradition of the Synoptic 
Gospels (1884; in collaboration with W. G, Rush- 
brooke); The Good Voic^f or A Child's Guide to 
the Bible, and Parables for Children (lS75)i Bacon 
and Essex (1877); Philochristus (1878); Onesimus 
(1882); Flatland, or A Romance of Many Dimensions 
(1884); Francis Bacon , an Accotmt of his Life and 
Works (1885); The Kernel and the Hnsk (1886); 
The Anglican Career of Cardinal Newman (1892); 
The Spirit on the Waters (1807); St. Thomas of 
Cimterbury (Edinburgh, 1898); CorredionM af Mark 
Adopted by Maiihew and Luke (1901) ; From Letter 
to Spirit i 1 903 ) ; Paradosis (^ 904 ) ; J ohan n ine 
Vocabulary f A Coviparison of the Words of the Fourth 
Gospel with Those of the Three (1905)^ and Silanus 
the Christian (1906). 

ABBOTT, JACOB; American €!ongregationalist; 
b. at Hallowell, Me,, Nov, 14, 1803; d, at Farming- 
ton, Me,, Oct. 31, 1S79. He was graduated at 
Bowdoin, 1820; studied theology at Andover, 
1822--24; was tutor and professor of mathematics 
and natural philosophy at Amherst, 1824-29; 
principal of the Mount Vernon School for Girla, 
Boston, 1829-33; ordained evangelist and pastor 



of the Eliot Congregatioiial Church, Roxbury, 
Mbbe., 1S34p In 1839 he removed to Fanningtonr 
Me.^ and spent the remainder of his life there and 
in New York devoted to literary work and teaching. 
He wrote many atory-books which had a wide cir- 
culation, Buch as the Young Chri&tian Beries (4 
voIb,: new edition of the Young CkrUtiant with 
life, New York, 1882), the HoUo Booka (14 vols,) 
and Rolh^u Tour in Europe (10 vob.), the Fran- 
€onia Stories (10 volsj^ Science for the Young (4 

ABBOTT, JUSrm EDWARDS: Presbyterian; 

b, at Portsmouth, N. H,, Dee, 25, 1853, He waa 
educated at Dartmouth CoUege (A.B., 1875) and 
Union Theological Seminary j from which he was 
p^uated in 1879, He was ordained to the Con- 
gr^ational ministry in the following year, and 
after acting as stated supply at the Presbyterian 
church at Norwood^ N* J., in 1881-S2* went to 
India under the auspices of the American Board of 
Commiaaioners for Foreign Missions, Since that 
time be kaa been stationed at Bombay in the 
Mara.tha Misaion, and hasi contributed a number 
of monographs to scientific penodicals on the 
epigraphy and nunnismatica of Indiat in addition 
to preparing religious works in Mai^thi for the 
use of Hindu converts. 

ABBOTT, LTHAlf: American Congregational- 
ist; b. at Eoxbury* Ma;ss., Dec, 18, 1835. He woii 
educated at New York University (B,A, 1853), 
and after practising law for a time was ordained a 
minister in the Congre^tional Church in 1860. 
He WB« pastor in Tene Haute, Ind., from 1860 
to 1866| after which he held the pastorate of the 
New England Church, New York City, for four 
yearst resigning to devote himself to literary work. 
In 1888 he succeeded Henty Ward Beecher as pastor 
of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, but resigned in 
1898. He was secretary of the American Union 
Commission from 1865 to 1869, and later was a mem- 
ber of the New York Child Labor Committee and 
of the National Child Labor Committee. Among 
other societies, he is a member of the Bar Asso- 
ciation of New York, New York State Historical 
Association, National Conference of Charities and 
Connection, Indian Rights Association, New York 
Anocia^tion for the Blind, Association for Improv- 
ing the Condition of the Poor, The Religious Educa- 
tion Association, American Board of Cdnmnissionera 
for Foreign Blisaioi^, American Institute of Sacred 
Literature, American Peace Society, New York 
State Conference of ReUgion, and the ITniversal 
Peace Union* His theological position is that of a 
Con^egiationalist of the Liberal EvanjE^Ucal type. 
In addition to editing the '' Literary Record '' of 
Barper^a Magaziite, he edited The lUveiftd^d Chris- 
tian WeMy (1871-76) and since 1876 The Chris- 
tian Union (with Henry Ward Beecher till 1881; 
name chan^ to The Outlook, 1893)- He has 
written Jesus of Nazareth (New York, 1869); Old 
TestameTU Shadows of New Testameni Truth (1870); 
lUustraled Commcfdary on the New Testament (New 
York, 1875); Dieiionary of Religious Knowledge (Bos- 
ton, 1876; in collaboration with T, J. Conant); How 
to Study the Bible (1877)^ In Aid of Faith (New 

York, 1886); Evolxdion of ChristianUy (Boston 
1896); The Th^logy of an Evoluiionisi (IS97); 
Chrietianity and Social Froblefnt (1897); Life and 
Letters of Paul (1898); Pn^tems of Ufe (New York, 
1900); Life and Literature of the Ancient Htbrews 
(Boston, 1900); The R%ghii< of Man (1901); Henry 
Ward Beecher (1903); The Other Room (New York, 
1903); The Great Companion (1904); Christian 
Ministry (Boston, 1905); Personality of God (New 
York, 1905); and Induitriol Problems (Philadel- 
phia, 1905). 

Ireland, author and professor; b. at Dublin ^r. 
26, 1829, He waa educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin (B.A., 1851; M,A., 1856; B,D., 1879), 
where he was elected fellow in 1854. From 1867 
to 1872 he was professor of Moral Philosophy at 
Trinity CoUege, of Biblical Greek from 1875 to 
1888, and of Hebrew from 1879 to 1900, and haa 
also been librarian of the College since 1887, He 
has been chairman of the Governors of Sir P. Dun's 
Hospital since 1897. In theology he is a Broad 
Churchman. His works include Sight and Touchf 
an Attempt to Disprove the Berkleyan Theory of 
Vinon (Dublin, 1864); Par paUmpseslorum Dub^ 
HnenHum (1880); EUmeni^ of Logic (18S3); Etnm- 
ffelioruin versio Antihieronymiana (2 vols,, 1884); 
Theory of the Tides (1888); Celtic Ornaments from 
the Book of KeUe (1892); Notes on SL Paul's 
Epistkn (1S92); E$$aySf Chiefly an the Original 
Te^ts of the Old and New Testameni^t (Edinburgh, 
1897); Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Library of 
Trinity College, Dublin (Dublin, 1900)- and Cata- 
logue of Incunabula in the Library of Trinity College, 
Dublin (1903), in addition toKant's Theory of EthtcSf 
a translation (1873). 

ABBREVIATORS : Officials of the papal chan- 
cery whose duty it is to prepare apostolic lettera 
expeditad through that office. The name la derived 
from the fact that part of their work consists in 
taking minutes of the petitions addressed to the 
Holy See and of the answers to be returned- For- 
merly they were divided into two clashes ♦ di porco 
magqiore and di parco minor e, but the latter class 
has long been abolished. In the CoUege of Abbre- 
viators at the present time there are twelve cleri<^ 
and seventeen laymen. Legislation of Feb, 13, 
19<)4, defines their duties anew. The office dates 
from the early part of the fourteenth century, and 
hasj been filled by many dtatinguished prelates. 
In 1466 Paul II, abolished it because it had been 
corrupted, but it waa restored by Sixtus IV. in 1471. 
There b also an abbreviatoTt di curia attached to 
the datary, who prepares minutes of papal letters 
addressed motu propria to the entire Church. 

JoHK T. Crkagh, 

ABDIAS^ ab'dt-as: Legendary first bishop of 
Babylon, Under the title, De historia certammis 
apostolici there exists a collection of myths, legends, 
and traditions relating to the lives and ivorka of 
the apostles, and pretending to be the Latin trans- 
lation of the Greek translation of the Hebrew work 
of Abdias, Neither the book nor its author was 
known to Eusebius or to Jerome, nor do they find 
mention before Ordericua Vitalia (12th cent,). 



Bxblioorapht: W. Lannon, De hiatoria certaminia apoa- 
toliei, Parii, 1560. and often reprinted; FabrioiuB, Codex 
apoervphu$, ii. (Ist ed.. 1703), and ii., iii. (2d ed.. 1719); 
C. Oudin, CommentariuM de ecriptoribue eeeletiatticUt ii. 
418-421, Leipdc. 1722; Q. J. Voss. De hietorieie Oracie, 
p. 243. ib. 1838; J. A. Giles, Codex apocryphu$ Novi Tee- 
tamenH, London, 1852; Mifi^e, Troiaihne ei demiire en- 
cydopidie thMoffigue, xxiv. (06 vok., Parii, 1855-66); S. 
C. Malan, Conflieta of the Holy ApoeUea . . . traneJated 
from an Ethiopic MS., London, 1871; DCB, i. 1-4. 

ABEEL, DAVID: Missionary; b. at New Bruns- 
wick, N. J., June 12, 1804; d. at Albany, N. Y., 
Sept. 4, 1846. He was graduated at the New 
Brunswick Theological Seminary in 1826; in 1829 
he went to Canton as chaplain of the Seaman's 
Friend Society; and in 1831-33 he visited Java, 
Singapore, and Siam for the American Board. 
Returning to America by way of Europe in 1833, 
he aided in founding in England a society for pro- 
moting the education of women in the East. He 
went back to China in 1838 and founded the Amoy 
mission in 1842. He published a Journal of his 
first residence in China (New York, 1835), The 
Missionary Convention at Jerusalem (1838), Claims 
of the World to the Gospel (1838). 
Biblioorapht: Q. R. Williamson, David Abeel, New 

York, 1849. 

AHSEL (''Breath"): Second son of Adam and 
Eve and the brother of Cain, who, according to 
Gen. iv. 1-16, killed him from envy. 

ABELARD, ab'e-lOrd. 

I. Life. 

Student Life and Lecturer on Philosophy ((1). 

Ueloise (( 2). 

Monk and Abbot (} 3). 

Second Condemnation for Heresy (( 4). 

Last Days (( 5). 

II. System. 

Philosophy (( 1). 
Theology (( 2). 

III. Writings. 

Abelard is a name used as the common desig- 
nation of Pierre de Palais (Petrus Palatinus)^ the 
first notable representative of the dialectico-critical 
school of scholasticism founded by Anselm of 
Canterbury, but kept by him within the limits of 
the traditional orthodoxy. The meaning as well 
SB the original form of the by-name is uncertain; 
it has been connected with the Latin hajvlusy 
"teacher," and with the French abeiUe, "bee." 
The ending " -ard " is Prankish, and the entire 
name may be. 

L Life: Abelard was bom at Palais (Le 
Pallet), a village of Brittany, about 12 m. e. of 
Nantes, in 1079; d. in the Priory of St. Marcel, 
nearChalon-sur-Sadne (36m.n. of MAcon), Apr. 21, 
1142. He voluntarily renounced his rights as 
first-born son of the knight Berengar, lord of the 
village, and chose a life of study. His first teacher 
was Roscelin, the Nominalist, at Locmenach, Brit- 
tany, now Looming, 80 m. s. w. of Brest. Then he 
wandered from one teacher to another 
I. Student until he came to Paris, where William 

Life and of Champeaux, the Realist , was head 
Lecturer on of the cathedral school and attracting 
Philosophy, great crowds. Young as he was, 
Abelard was bold enough to set him- 
lelf up as William's rival; he lectured, first at Melim 
(27 m. s.s.e. of Paris), then at Corbeil (7 miles nearer 

Paris), and, after a few years, in Paris itself at the 
cathedral school. His success was sufficient to 
make William jealous, and he compelled Abelard 
to leave the city. About 1113 he betook himself 
to Anselm of Laon at Laon (86 m. n.e. of Paris) to 
study theology, having hitherto occupied himself 
wholly with dialectics. His stay at Laon was short 
and was followed by a few years at Paris, where 
crowds flocked to hear his lectures and brought 
him a considerable income. 

This brilliant career was suddenly checked by 
the episode of Heloise, a young girl of eighteen, 
said to have been the natural daughter of a canon 
of Paris, living with her uncle, Canon Fulbert of 
Paris. Her education was confided to Abelard, 
and a passionate love sprang up between them. 
When Fulbert attempted to separate them, they 
fled toward Brittany, to the home of Abelard 's 
sister, Dionysia, where Heloise bore a son, Astra- 
labius. To satisfy Fulbert the lovers were married, 
Abelard asking that the marriage be 
2. Heloise. kept secret out of regard for his eccle- 
siastical career. Fulbert disregarded 
this request and also treated his niece badly when 
she returned to his house. Abelard accordingly 
removed her to the Benedictine nunnery of Argen- 
teuil (11 m. n.e. of Versailles), where she had been 
brought up, and where later she took the veil, a 
step which Fulbert interpreted as an attempt by 
her husband to get rid of her. In revenge he had 
Abelard attacked by night in his lodgings in Paris 
and mutilated, with the view probably of rendering 
him incapable of ever holding any ecclesias- 
tical office. Abelard retired to the Benedictine 
abbey of St. Denis in Paris (probably about 1118), 
where he became a monk and lived undisturbed 
for a year or two, giving instruction in a secluded 
place (the " ceUa "). 

He received much sympathy and had many pupils. 
In 1121 a synod at Soissons pronounced heretical 
certain opinions expressed by him in a book on the 
Trinity (De unOaie et triniiate dimna; discovered 
by R. Stdlzle and published, Freiburg, 1891). He 
was required to bum the book, and 
3. Monk to retire to the monastery of St. Med- 
and Abbot ard, near Soissons. In a short time, 
however, he was allowed to return to 
St. Denis, but was ill received there; and his 
assertion that the patron saint of the monastery 
and of France was not the same as Dionysius the 
Areopagite (see Denis, Saint) made more trouble 
with the abbot, the monks, and the court. He 
fled, but was compelled to return and recant his 
opinion conceming St. Denis. Afterward he was 
allowed to retire to Champagne, near Nogent-sur- 
Seine (60 m. s. e. of Paris) where he built an oratory 
to the Trinity. Pupils again gathered about him 
and the original building of reeds and sedges was 
replaced by one which he called the Paraclete. 
But he was still under the jurisdiction of the abbot 
of St. Denis and suffered much annoyance. He 
accepted the election as abbot of the monastery of 
St. Gildas in Brittany (on the peninsula of Ruis, 
10 m. s. of Vannes), and stayed there ten y^rs, but 
he found it impossible to control the unruly monks 
and they tried to poison him. He found refuge 




from time to time at the Paraclete, which he had 
presented to Heloise after the numiery of Argen- 
teuil was closed (c. 1127); but his visits as spiritual 
director of the nuns who gathered about his wife 
caused scandal, and he had to give them up. An- 
other attempt was made on his life; and once more 
he sought safety in flight, whither is not known. 

For several years his life is obscure; it is only 
known that in 1136 John of Salisbury heard him 
lecture in the school on the hill of St. Genevieve in 
Paris, and that during this period he wrote his 
autobiography, the Historia calamiiatum. In 1141 
a council, instigated mainly by Bernard of Clair- 
vaux, a man thoroughly antipathetic to Abelard, 
who had long considered his teaching wrong and 
his influence dangerous, met at Sens (61 m. s.s.e. of 
Paris). Certain extracts from Abelard 's writings 
were pronounced erroneous and hereti- 
4. Second cal (June 4, 1141). Abelard declined 
Condemna- to defend himself; he appealed to the 
tion for pope, and with his followers left the 
Heresy, council. His former pupil, Cardinal 
Guido de Castello (afterward Pope 
-Celestine II.), took his part at Rome; but Bernard 
wrote a letter denouncing Arnold of Brescia, 
another pupil, as one of the champions of Abelard, 
and thereby influenced the decision of Pope Inno- 
cent II., who condemned Abelard to silence, ex- 
conununicated his followers, ordered him and 
Arnold to retire to a monastery, and their books to 
be burned (July 16, 1141). Abelard wrote an 
apology defending himself against the action of the 
council, and sent a letter to Heloise maintaining his 
orthodoxy. He wrote a second apology submitting 
to the Church, and made peace with Bernard. 

By the friendly intervention of Peter the Vener- 
able, Abbot of Cluny, permission was given him to 
spend the rest of his days at Quny. He continued 
his studies, " read constantly, prayed 
5. Last often, gladly kept silence." But, bro- 
Dajs. ken by his sufferings and misfortunes, 
he did not live long there. With a 
view to his physical betterment Peter sent him to 
the neighboring priory of St. Marcel, at Chalons 
and there he died. His body was taken to the 
Paraclete; and on the death of Heloise (May 16, 
1164) her body was placed in the same coffin. In 
1817 their remains were removed to the cemetery 
of P^re Lachaise, Paris, and a monument was 
erected of stone from the ruins of the Paraclete. 

n. System: Abelard belonged to the school 
of Anselm of Canterbury, but he did not follow 
him alaviflhly; and he was more critic than apolo- 
gist of any system. He borrowed much from 
Augustine, Jerome, and older Church Fathers, as 
well as from Agobard, Claudius of Turin, Engena, 
and Fredegis. His originality is seen in his doc- 
trine of the Trinity and the Atonement and, as a 
philosopher, particularly in his teaching concerning 
the prmeipia and his position toward the question 
of universalia. The latter is not quite 
I. Philoso- dear; but it appears that he was 
phj. neither nominalist, realist, nor con- 
ceptualist. William of Champeaux, 
the extreme realist, declared the universalia to be 
the rery essence of all existence, and individuality 

only the product of incidental circumstances. To 
this Abelard objected that it led to pantheism; 
and he pursued his criticism so keenly that he forced 
William to modify his system. He rejected nomi- 
nalism also, according to which the universalia are 
mere names, declaring that our conceptions must 
correspond to things which occasion them. This 
view is not conceptualism in so far as it does not in 
one-sided fashion emphasize the assertion that the 
general ideas are mere conceptus mentis, mere sub- 
jective ideas. 

As theologian Abelard is noteworthy for his 
doctrine of revelation, his attitude toward belief 
on authority, and his conception of the 
2. The- relation between faith and knowl- 
ology. edge. Concerning revelation he em- 
phasizes the inner influence on the 
human spirit rather than its external manifestation, 
and does not limit inspiration to the writers of the 
Scriptures, but holds that it was imparted also to 
the Greek and Roman philosophers and to the 
Indian Brahmans. He teaches that the Scriptures 
are the result of the cooperation of the Spirit of 
God with the human writers, recognizes degrees 
of inspiration, and admits that prophets and 
apostles may make mistakes. He does not hesitate 
to disclose the contradictions in tradition, and 
distinguishes like a good Protestant between the 
authority of the Scriptures and that of the Fathers. 
Faith means to him a belief in things not susceptible 
to sense which can be grounded on rational demon- 
stration or satisfactory authority. He opposes 
the compulsion of authority, will have free dis- 
cussion of religious things, and everywhere follows 
his own conviction; but he sets narrow limits to 
what can be known. An adequate knowledge of 
the unity and trinity of God he declares impossible, 
as well as a scientific proof that shall compel belief 
in the existence of God and immortality. Here 
he asserts merely a possibility of belief. He con- 
demns the acceptance of formulas of belief without 
knowing what they mean, and will have no one 
required to believe anything contrary to reason; 
he found nothing of the kind himself in the Scrip- 
tures or the teaching of the Church, and does not 
mean to exclude the supernatural. The doctrine 
of the Trinity he always treats in connection with 
the divine attributes; and in spite of all precautions 
the Trinity always becomes in his thought one of 
the attributes. He qualifies omnipotence by 
teaching that God does everything which he can, 
and therefore he could not do more than he has done. 
He can not prevent evil, but is able only to permit 
it and to turn it to good. As for his ethics, he 
teaches that moral good and ill inhere not in the 
act but in the motive. The evil propensity is not 
sin; it is the pcma merely, and not the culpa^ which 
has passed from Adam upon all. His theory of 
the Atonement is moral. The aim of the incarna- 
tion and sufferings of Christ was to move men to 
love by this highest revelation of the divine love. 
The love thus awakened frees from the bondage 
of sin, enables to fulfil the law, and impels to do the 
will of God, no longer in fear, but in the freedom of 
the sons of God. By law he understands the natural 
law which Christ taught and fulfilled, giving thereby 




the highest example. By his love^ faithful to 
death, Christ has won merit with Godj and because 
of this merit God forgives those who enter into 
communion with Chriet and enables them to fulfil 
the law. It is in personal communion with Cbriat, 
therefore, that the real Atonement conaieite* Only 
such aa let themselves be impressed with the love 
of Christ enter into this communion. By the curse 
of the law from which Christ frees ^ Abelard under- 
stands the Mosaic rehgion with its hard puniab-' 
meDt<». Inasmuch as Christ made an end of the 
Mosaic religion, he abolished its punishments also, 
m. Writings: A practically complete edition 
of tlie works of Abelard (including certain writings 
which are spurious or of doubtful origin) was fur- 
nished by Victor Cbusin in the Outrages inMiis 
d'Abiiard (Paris, 1836) and Petri Abelardi opera 
nitn€ primum in unum colUcta (2 vols.^ 184ft"59); 
the Opera f from the edition of A. Ducheine and F. 
Amboise (Paris, 1619), with OpusoAla published 
later, a^e in MPL^ clxxviii, (lacks the Sic ei non^ 
that brilliant piece of akeptical writing 1. Par- 
ticular works have been published as follows: the 
Thmlagia Christiana and the Hexameron, ed. Mar- 
tfene and Durand, m the Thesaurus nomts anecda- 
torum, V. (Paris, 1717); the Ethiea (*Scito te ifmvm), 
ed. B, Pej, in the Thesatinis ajwcdotorum n&vis- 
simuSt iii, (1721); the />ta/«^iis and the ^pifoT/ie or 
SenleniuE, ed. F. H, Rheinwald (Berlin, 1831, 1835); 
the Sic et non, ed. T. Henke and G. S. Lindenkohl 
(Marburg, 1851; incomplete in Cousin's edition » 
1836); the Hist&rui colamUaium, ed. Orelli (Zurich, 
1841); the Planctus virginum I&raei super fiUa 
Jeptw GaladUm, ed. W. Meyer and W. Brambach 
(Munich, 1886); the Hifmnarius paraclitensiSj ed, 
G. M. Dreves (Paris, 1S91)^ the Traclaius d^i unitate 
€i iriniiott dimna, ed. R. Stolzle (Freiburg^ 1891 )» 
The letters have been often published in the original 
Latin and in translation (l^tin, ed. R. Rawhnson, 
London, 1718; Eng., ed, H, Mills, London, 1850; 
ed, H, Morton, New York, 1901; Germ., with the 
Hisloria calamitatum, ed. P. Baumgartner, Reclam, 
Leipsic, 1894; French, with Latin text, ed. Gr^rard, 
Paris, 1885); and selections will be found in some 
of the works cited in the bibliography below. 
BiBUootiArliY: J, Berinston. , , , Livt* of Abeillard imd 
Hrtaimi, Mriih . . . Thevr Let^rM, 2d «d.t BLrmi^gbam. 
17S8; C. de iWimuflat* Abikffxi, 2 voia.. Parja. 1845 (the 
■tandard biogt-Hphy): J. L, J&rabL, Abolard und liiloittt 
Bcrllti. IB50; P. P. G. GuLRot* Ltttra d'AbaiioT^ €t d'HS- 
tow, pr^MSet d'un tuai hutaticpi*, Parui. ll^O, 1853: C, 
Prmtit*!, GeachvAte dtr L*xrik im Abtndlandty ii. lflO-204. 
Leipiuc. ISfii: O, W. Wight, Ah^lard and Helaite, New 
York 1861; E. Bonnier, Abelard ei St Bernard. Piiri#, 
tBe2; UefeLe. CiyrKUignQ€*chichU. y. 321-326^ 3^- 
4S6; A. StOckK Gemthi^Oe der Ph<ta$Qphim d^* Miti^ktttfr*. 
i. 21S-272, Mftin*. 1S64; H. Reuter. Gitckichte dtr reiigi- 
Gt4m. i4afJti4ruitfl im Mittetaller, i. 183-259* Berlin. 187J5; 
E. VacsudArdt Abctard €t m luUc avec St BernaTd, $a doc~ 
trine, m m4ih&d^, P&m, tSftl ; S. M. DeuUch. Peter AbA- 
lard^ Leipaic. I3S3; A. 9. Hictuu-dflon* Ab^Urrd and Helm*e. 
with a StUdLion of tkrit Uttera, New Yark, 1S84; J. 0. 
OQinpayrt*, AhtloTd and the . . . Iliai&ry of UnitiertiHet, 
Londorit 1803; A. Hausrath* Peter AbOlard, Leipsic, 1806; 
Joi, McO&be, P^MT AHlvrd, New York, 1901 (an «]CMLleDt 
book); Hauck, KD, iy, 400 aqa- 


A sect mentioned by Augustine {Haer., Uxxvii*; 
cf. PrmdesiinatuSj i. 87) as fonnerly living in ll^c 
neighborhood of HJppOi but already extinct «/hen 

he wrote. Their name was derived from Abel, 
the son of Adam. Each man took a wife, but 
refrained from conjugal relationi^ and each pair 
adopted a boy and a girl who inherited the property 
of their foster-parents on eondition of li\'ing to* 
giether in like manner in mature life. They were 
probably the remnant of a Gnostic sect, tinged 
perhaps by Maniehean influences. [The name grew 
out of a wide-spread belief that Abel though mar- 
ried had lived a life of continence.] 

G. KfttrQEiT, 

BrsuoasAP^r: C. W, F. W»1ch, Ef\Mi!M!rf *tn*r poW*(anditfe(i 
HtMiatiM der Ktttertient i. 607-608* Leipii^i 1762, 

ABELLI, o-bel'U, LOUIS: French Roman 
CathoOc: b. 1603; d, at Paris Oct, 4, 1691, He 
waa made bishop of Rhodez^ southern France, in 
1664p but resigned three years lat^r and retired to 
the monastery of St, Lajsare in Paris, He was a 
vehement opponent of Jansenism, His numerous 
works include: MeduUa theologica (2 vols., Paris, 
1551 X a treatise on dogmatics; La Ttaditwn de 
VEglise toachant la devotion envers la Saints Viergt 
(1652); Fw de St. Viruitfni de Pau/(1664); De 
VohHtsance ei BOumiseiQn due au Pape (ed, Cheniel, 
1S70); and two volumes of njeditations. La Couronne 
de VanjUe chriHenns (1657). 

ABEIT EZRA (Abraham ben Meif thn Ezra): 
Jewish poet^ grammarian, and commentator; b. 
in Toledo, Spain, 1002; d. Jan, 23, 1167, He left 
Toledo about 1138 and is known to have visited 
Bagdad, Rome (1140), Mantua and Lucca (1145)| 
Dreux (45 m, w.e*w. of Paris; 11 55-57 )» and Lon- 
don (1158); in 1166 he was in southern France, 
His poems show a mastery of the metrical art but 
have no inspiration, bis grammatical works are not 
logically arranged, and his commentaries lack 
religious feeling. His exegetical principle was to 
follow the grammatical sense rather than the alle- 
gorical method of the Church; yet he resorts to 
figurative interpretation when the literat meaning 
is repugnant to rea;8oa. His critical indght is 
shown by hints that the Pentateuch and laaiab 
contain interpolations (of. H, Holzlngerj EintsUung 
in dm Hexaleucht Freiburg^ 1S93, pp. 28 sqq,; 
J. FUrst, Der Karum dea AUen TestamenUt Leij^c, 
1868, p, 16), though he lacked the courage to say 
so openly. His chief importance is that he made 
the grammatical and religio-philo^phical worka 
of the Spanish Jews, written in Arabic, known out- 
side of Spain. His commentaries (on the Penta- 
teuch, Isaiah, the Minor Prophets, Job^ Psalms, 
the five Megilloth, and Daniel) are usually found 
in rabbinic Bibles. His introduction to the Pen- 
tateuch has been edited by W. Bacher (Vienna, 
1876); the commentary on Isaiah^ with Eng* 
trans, and two volumes of Essays on the Wriiin^ 
of Abraham ibn Ezra, by M, Friedlander (4 vols,, 
London^ 1873--77). His poems have been pub- 
lished by D. Rosin (4 parts, Brealau, 1885-91) 
and J, Egers (BerUn, 1886), (G. Dalman.) 
BtBUOOR^F^r: L. Zunip Die t^rvigogale Poesie dsa MiUel- 
diler*. Berlin, 1S55^ BA, KiLmpf, Nichtamialun^che Poen$ 
andnluMcher Dichier, i. 213-240, Pn«n4<i. 1S5B; M, Eisler, 
VQrU9ungt:n Qbm- die jOfHache Phil&s&phvi dea MiUclaltert, 
i. 113-120, Vicrrnn, 1S76; W. Bikcher, Abraham ibn Eau 
ala GrammdiiJbr, Strvbiuy, t8^2,- J. 3. Sixiegler, O*- 
«cAidUtf dar Phiioaaphia daa JunUniumSt pp, 263-265. Leip* 




«c. 1890: H. GrAti* GtKhkhis dtr JmUn, ri. (1894) lfi4- 
191. 2S®^3W, 733-735; iu. (1897) 131-140. Eug. tranuL, 
LoDdDa, 1^1-06; J. Winier &rtd A. WflEUfhe. Die jii- 
dUc/u LiMtnxh^, ii. 1$4-191. 2$9-306^ B«rlio. 1S04. 

ABERCIUS. See Avercius. 

ABERCROMBIE, ab'er-ernm-bi, JOHK: Scotch 
physician aod writer on metaphysics; b* at Aber* 
deen Oct, 10, 1780 j d. at Edmburgh Nov, H, 1S44. 
He studied medicine at Edinburgh and London, 
and settled in the former city afi practising pliysician 
in 1SG4. He became one of the foremoAi medical 
men of Scotland, but is bejst known aa the author 
of ifyquiTw$ amcerning the JnVtlhduol Poidctr and 
the InvestigatioTL of Truik (Edinburgh, 1S30) and 
The Fhihaophy of the Moral Fftlingi ( London , 
1S33), works wliich he wtx>te from a belief that hla 
knowledge of Dcrvou^ diaeaaea fittjed him to discuss 
mentBl phenomena. The bc^oka long enjoyed i^rcat 
popularity, but were not written in the real irpirit 
of a tnith-fieekcr, have little originality, and are 
now superseded. A volume of Ej^at^s and Tracts, 
m&inly on religioua subjects, waa published post* 
humoualy (Edinbui^gh, 1^7). 
BiBUQCiLArsT; W. Axidersati, StQUiA Nation t i. 2^ Edta- 

buf^h. l^M; DNB, I 37-3S. 

ABEBJfETHY, ab'er-neth-i, JOHH; Irish Pres- 
byterian; b. at Brigb, County Tyrone, Oct. 19, 1680; 
d. at Dublin Dec., 1740, He studied at Glaagow 
<M.AO and Edinburgh, and became minister of the 
P*«ibyterian congregation at Antrim in 1703, In 
1717, following hh own judgment and desire^ he 
cbooe to remain at Antrim, although the synod 
wished bim to accept a call from a Dublin congre- 
gation. To disregard an appointment of the aynod 
waA an unbeard-of act for the time, and the Irish 
Church waa spUt into two parties, the *' Subscri- 
bera " and " Non-Subseribera/' Abeniethy being 
at the h^d of the latter. The Non-3ub^ribera 
wete cut off from the Clmreh in 1726. From iT^iO 
till his death he was minister of the Wood Street 
Church, Dublin, Hero be again showed himself 
in advance of hia time by oppof^ing the Test Act 
and ^* all laws that, upon account of mere differences 
of religious opinions and forms of worship, ex- 
cluded men of integrity and ability from serving 
their country," His published works are" Dia- 
eouTsa on the Being and Ptrfecticns of God {2 vols., 
London, 1740^3); Sermm^ (4 vols., 1748^51), with 
life by James Duchal; Tracts ajui Sfrmojis (1751). 

BnLtOaaiiFitT: J. B. Rmd, Pr^mhvt^rtan Chfir^ in Iretund, 
2 TDl*.* Edinburgh* 1834-^7; DNB., i. 4»-49. 
Roman C^atholic archbishop of Bamberg; b. at 
Mttnneistadt (36 m. n.n,e* of Wdnburg) May 1, 
1B52. He was educated at the Pa^aau Lyceum 
(1870-71) and the University of WDnburg (Ph.D,, 
1S75), and from 1875 to 1881 was active as a pariah 
prieit. In the latter year he was appointed an 
a^istant at the episcopal clerical seminary at 
WUrtburg, and four years later was made professor 
of dogmatics at the Royal Lyceum, Regensburg. 
In IS90 he was appointed professor of dogmatics 
and symbolics at Wilnsburg, where he was dean in 
I8m-Q5, 1S99-1 900. and rector in 1900-01. In 1905 
ha was consecrated arehbiHhop of Bamberg. He 
hu written Einhtit de* Seim in Christum nadi der 

Lehre des hsUigen Thatnas von .4 gum (Regensburg* 
1889); Von den gditiichm Eigenschaften ttnd von 
der Sdigk^il^ twei dem h^iiigen ThomoB i^on Aquin 
zugeschHebene Abhandlungen (Wiiriburg, 1893); 
Bibhi^theca Thomisttca (1895); and Das Wesen des 
€hri$tentu7ns nach Thomas von Aquin (1901 ). 

ABGAR (Lat. Abgaruis)i Name (or title) of 
eight of the kin^ (toparchs) of Osrhoene who 
reigned at Edessa for a period of three centuries 
and a half en<ling in 217. The fifteenth of these 
kingiB, Abgar V„ Uchomo (" the black," 9-46 a,d.), 
is noteworthy for an alleged correspondence with 
Jesus, firat mentioned byEuscbius{//i>f. t^cc^. i. 13), 
who states that Abgar, suffering sorely in body 
and having beard of the cures of Jesms, sent him a 
letter professing belief in his divinity and askiug 
him to come to Edessa and help him. Jesus wrote 
in reply that he must remain in Palestine, but that 
after liis ascension he would send one of his dis- 
ciples who would heal the king and bring life to him 
and his people. Both letters Euseblus gives in 
literal translation from a Syriac document which 
he had found in the arehives of Edessa. On the 
same authority he adds that after the ascension 
the Apostle Thomas sent Thaddajus, one of the 
aeventy, to Edesaa and that, with attendant 
miracles, he ftilhlled the promise of Jesus in the 
year 340 (of the Seleucidan era =29 A-n.). The 
DoctHna Addmi (Addfeus = Thaddjuus; etlited and 
translated by G, Philhps, London, 1876), of the 
second lialf of the fourth century, makes J^ui 
reply by an oral message instead of a letter, and 
a<lds that the messenger of Abgar was a painter and 
made and carried back with him to Edessa a por* 
trait of Jeaus. Moaes of Chorene (c, 470) repeats 
the story (//«(. Armeniaca, ii. 29-32), with additions, 
including a correspondence between Abgar and 
Tiberius, Narses of Assyria, and Ardashea of Penda, 
in which the " kmg of the Armenians " appears 
as champion of Christianity; the portrait, he says, 
was still in Edessa. Gross anachronisms stamp 
th%s story as wholly un historical. Pope Gelasiua 
L and a Roman synod aboxit 495 pronounced the 
alleged correspondence with Jesus apociyphal. A 
few Roman Catholic scholars have tried to defend 
its genuineness (eg. Tillemont, Memoir &s, i., Brussels, 
1706, pp. 990-997: Welte, in TQ, Ttibingen, 1S42, 
pp. 335-305), but Protestants have generally re- 
ject^ it. See JEisua Christ, FicrutiEa and Im- 
ages OF. (E. SciiMIDT.) 

BtHUaoft4i>ErT: R. A. LipduSf Die edcmmeniacfm Abtfartnot, 
Brunswick, JSSO; K. C. A, Matthes, Dm «ieit«tmiKht A^ 
Oartagc. Leipue, t8S2; A NF. vin.70'2 iqq.: L.J. Tixeront, 
Lem origineM de I'egtw d'Ed^aMn et ta tigendm d*Abaar, Piuih, 
ISSS; Lip«iuB &nii Eutitiet. Aria apoMtolarum apocnfTff^* 
vol. i.p Lrffipsic. isei; W. T. Winshilk* The Lf«cr from 
/enui VhriH to Abfff^rva Qnd the IjeUer of A^&^oruJ tti ChnmU 
1801: H&mack, Littgratar, U b^^i-o4Q. ih. 1893; TU. n«w 
■er, iiL, 1^90, 102-im. 

ABHEDANAHDA, a-bed"a-nan^a', 5WAM1: 

Hindu leader of the Vedanta propaganda in Amer- 
ica; b. at Calcutta Nov. 21, 1866. He was educated 
at (^alcutta University, and after being professor 
of Hindu philosophy in India went to London in 
1896 to lecture on the Vedanta. In the following 
year he went to New York, where he has since 




remained, succeeding Swami Vivekananda as head 
of the Vedanta Society in America. Theologically 
he belongs to the pantheistic and universalistic 
Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. His works 
include, in addition to numerous single lectures, 
ReincarruUion (New York, 1899); Spiritual Un- 
foldment (1901); Philosophy of Work (1902); How 
to he a Yogi (1902); Divine Heritage of Man (1903); 
Self-Knowledge (Atmor-Jnana) (1905); India and 
her People (1906); and an edition of The Sayings 
of Sri Ramakrishna (1903). 

ABIATHAR. See Ahtmelech. 

ABIJAH, a-boi'ja (called Abijam in I Kings xiv. 
31, XV. 1, 7, 8): Second king of Judah, son of Reho- 
boam, and, on his mother's side, probably a great 
grandson of David, since his mother Maachah is 
caUed a daughter of Absalom (II Chron. xi. 20; 
" Abishalom,'' in I Kings xv. 2). In I Kings xv. 
10, however, Maachah, the daughter of Abishalom, 
appears as mother of Asa; and in II Chron. xiii. 
2 the mother of Abijah is called Michaiah, the 
daughter of Uriel. " Michaiah " here is probably 
a scribal error for " Maachah, '' the addition ''daugh- 
ter of Abishalom " in I Kings xv. 10 probably a 
copyist's mistake; and it Lb possible that Uriel was 
son-in-law of Absalom, and Maachah, therefore, 
his granddaughter. Abijah reigned three years 
(957-955 B.C. or, according to Kamphausen, 920- 
918). The Book of Kings says that he walked in 
all the sins of his father, which probably means that 
he allowed idolatrous worship, and adds that the 
war between Judah and Israel, which followed the 
division, continued during his reign. According 
to II Chronicles xiii., Abijah gained some advantages 
in the war, which, though soon lost, were not unim- 
portant. He may have been in alliance with 
Tabrimon of Damascus (I Kings xv. 18-19). His 
history Lb contained in I Kings xiv. 31-xv. 8, and 
II Chron. xiii. 1-22. (W. Lotz.) 

According to the more correct chronology Abijah 
reigned 918-915 B.C. J. F. M. 

Bxbuoorapht: See under Ahab. 

ABILENE, ab^'i-lt'ne: A district mentioned in 
Luke iii. 1 as being under the rule of the tetrarch 
Lysanias. It is evidently connected with a town 
Abila, and Joeephus (Ant., XVIII. vi. 10, XIX. v. 
1, XX. vii. 1; War, II. xi. 5, xii. 8) indicates that 
the town in question was situated on the southern 
Lebanon. Old itineraries (Itinerarium Antonini, 
ed. Wesseling, Amsterdam, 1735, p. 198; Tabula 
Peutingeriana, ed. Miller, Ravensburg, 1887, x. 3) 
mention an Abila, eighteen Roman miles from 
Damascus, on the road to Heliopolis (Baalbek), 
the modem Suk Wady Barada, on the south bank 
of the river, in a fertile and luxuriant opening 
surrounded by precipitous cliffs. Remains of an 
ancient city are found on both banks of the river, 
and the identification is confirmed by an inscrip- 
tion (C/L, iii. 199) stating that the emperors Marcus 
Aurelius and Lucius Verus repaired the road, which 
had been damaged by the river, " at the expense 
of the Abilenians." The tomb of Habil (Abel, 
who is said to have been buried here by Cain), which 
is shown in the neighborhood, may also preserve 

a reminiscence of the ancient name, Abila. It 
has generally been assumed that the Lysanias 
intended by Luke was Lysanias, son of Ptolemy 
who ruled Iturea 40-36 b.c. (Josephus, Ant., XIV. 
xiii. 3; War, I. xiii. 1). If this be correct, Luke, 
is in error, since he makes Lysanias tetrarch of 
Abilene in 28-29 a.d. It may be noted, however, 
that the capital of Iturea was Chalcis, not Abila; 
and Josephus does not include the territory of 
Chalcis in the tetrarchy of Lysanias. Furthermore, 
there is an inscription (CIO, 4521) of a certain 
Nymphaios, " the freedman of the tetrarch Lysa- 
nias," the date of which must be between 14 and 
29 A.D. Hence it is not improbable that there 
was an eariier and a later Lysanias and that the 
latter is the one who is mentioned as tetrarch of 
Abilene. (H. Guthb.) 

Bxbuoorapht: A. Reland, PalcttHna^ 527 sqq., Utrecht, 
1714; Robinson, Later ReMorchM, pp. 479-484; J. L. 
Porter. GianI CiUu of Batihan, i. 261, New York, 1871; C. 
R. Conder, Ttd-Work in PaleaUne, p. 127, London, 1880; 
ZDP, Yin. (1885) 40; Ebers and Guthe. Pal&eiina in Bild 
und Wort, i. 456--i60. Stuttgart. 1887; Sohttrer. OfehidUe, 
i. 716 sqq.. Eng. transl.. I. ii. 335 sqq.; W. H. Waddinc- 
ton, InacripHonB GrecgueB et Latinu de la Si/rie, Paris, 1870. 

ABISHAI, a-bish'a-oi: Elder brother of Joab 
and Asahel (I Chron. ii. 16); like them the son 
of Zeruiah, David's sister (or half-sister; cf. II 
Sam. xvii. 25, where Zeruiah 's sister Abigail is 
calleddaughter of Nahash, notof Jesse). His father 
is not mentioned. He was David's companion in 
hiB time of persecution (I Sam. xxvi. 6 sqq.), saved 
hiB life (II Sam. xxi. 17), and served him faithfully 
to the end of his reign. He was the first among 
the " thirty " in the catalogue of David's mighty 
men (xxiii. 18-19, reading " thirty " instead of 
"three;" cf. Wellhausen, Der Text der Backer 
Samuelis, GOttingen, 1871, and Klostermann's 
commentary on Samuel ad loc.). While Joab 
was commander-Lurchief Abishai often commanded 
a division of the army (against the Anmionites, 
II Sam. X. 10-14; against Edom, I Chron. xviii. 12; 
against Absalom, II Sam. xviii. 2; against Sheba, 
II Sam. XX. 6). He was valiant and true, but 
severe and passionate toward David's enemies 
(cf. I Sam. xxvi. 8; II Sam. iii. 30, xvi. 9, xix. 21). 

C. VON Orelli. 

ABJURATION: A formal renimciation of heresy 
required of converts to the Roman Catholic Church. 
The First and Second Councils of Nicsea insisted 
on a written abjuration from those who, after 
having fallen into the religious errors of the time, 
desired to be restored to membership in the Church. 
The necessity of abjuration is reaffirmed in the 
Decree of Gratian and in the Decretals of Gregory 
IX., and found an important place in the procedure 
of the Inquisition. This tribunal distinguished 
four kinds of abjuration, according as the heresy 
to be renounced was a matter of notoriety or of 
varying degrees of suspicion, — de formali, de levi, 
de vehementi, de violento. Abjuration of notorious 
heresy or of very strongly suspected heretical 
inclinations took the form of a public solemn cere- 
mony. In modem times the Roman Inquisition 
requires that a diligent investigation shall be con- 
ducted regarding the baptism of persons seeking 




admission into the Church. If it is ascertained 
that baptism has not been received, no abjuration 
is demanded; if a previous baptism was valid, or 
was of doubtful validity, abjuration and profession 
of faith are necessary preliminaries to reception 
into the Church. A convert under fourteen years 
of age is in no case bound to abjure. The act of 
abjuration is attended with little formality, — ^all 
that is necessary is that it be done in the presence 
of the parish priest and witnesses, or even without 
witnesses if the fact can otherwise be proved. 
The modem formula of abjuration foimd in Roman 
Catholic rituals is really more in the nature of a 
profession of faith, the only passages savoring of 
formal renunciation of heresy being the following, — 
" With sincere heart and imfeigned faith I detest 
and abjure every error, heresy, and sect opposed to 
the Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic, Roman Church. 
I reject and condemn all that she rejects and con- 
demns." John T. Creaoh. 

ABLON: Village on the left bank of the Seine, 
about 9 m. s. of Paris, noteworthy as the place 
where public worship was first conceded to the 
Protestants of Paris. Notwithstanding the edict 
of Nantes (May 2, 1598), the Protestants of the 
capital were not allowed a church within the city 
itself, but had to travel to Ablon. In 1602 they 
petitioned the King for a place nearer the city, 
alleging that during the winter forty children had 
died from being carried so far for baptism. In 
1606 their petition was granted and the church 
was removed to Charenton, at the junction of th& 
Seine and Blame, six or seven miles nearer the city. 
The toilsome and sometimes dangerous '' expe- 
ditions " to Ablon are often spoken of by Sully 
and Casaubon. 

ABLUnONS OF THE IIASS: The rubrics of 
the mass prescribe that immediately after com- 
munion the celebrant shall purify the chalice with 
wine, and his fingers with wine and water. These 
ablutions, as they are called, are dnmk by the priest 
unless he is obliged to celebrate a second time on 
the same day, in which case he pours the wine and 
water of the last ablution into a special vessel, 
kept for the purpose near the tabernacle, and 
consumes them at the next mass. Pope Pius V. 
in 1570 introduced into his Bfissal the mbrics on 
this matter as they exist to-day. The first clear 
references to the ablutions as practised to-day are 
found in the eleventh centiuy. Ablution of the 
hands is also prescribed before mass, before the 
canon, and after the distribution of communion 
outside of mass. John T. Creagh. 

ABHER. See Ish-bobhbth. 

ABODAH ZARAH. See Talmud. 

ABOT (PIRKE ABOT). See Talmud. 

ABOT de-RABBI NATHAN. See Talmud. 

ABRABANEL, d-bra'^bd-ner (ABRAVANEL, 
ABARBANEL)y ISAAC: The last Jewish exegete 
of importance; b. of distinguished family, which 
boasted of Davidic descent, at Lisbon 1437; d. in 
Venice 1509. He was treasurer of Alfonso V. of 
Portugal, but was compelled to flee the country 
under bis micoessor, John II., in 1483. He lived in 

Spain imtil the Jews were expelled thence by Fer- 
dinand and Isabella (1492), when he went to Naples. 
In both countries he rendered important services 
to the government as financier. From 1496 till 
1503 he lived at Monopoli in Apulia, southern Italy, 
occupied with literary work, and later settled in 
Venice. He wrote commentaries on the Penta- 
teuch (Venice, 1579) and on the earlier and the later 
Prophets (Pesaro, 1520 [?]) which show little origi- 
nality, and are valuable chiefly for the extracts 
he makes from his predecessors. In his Messianic 
treatises (Yeshu^ot meahihho, " The Salvation of his 
Anointed," Carlsruhe, 1828; Ma'yene horyeahu'ah, 
"Sources of Salvation," Ferrara, 1551; Maahmia' 
Yeahu'ah, " Proclaiming Salvation," Salonica, 1526) 
he criticizes Christian interpretations of prophecy, 
but with no great insight. His religio-philosophical 
writings are less important. In the interest of 
Jewish orthodoxy he defends the creation of the 
world from nothing (in Mif*alot Elohim, " Works 
of God," Venice, 1592) and advocates the thirteen 
articles of faith of Maimonides (in Rosh amanah, 
" The Pinnacle of Faith," Constantinople, 1505). 
His eschatological computations made the year 
of salvation due in 1503. (G. Dalman.) 

Abrabanel held a place of some importance in 
the history of Christian exegesis due to the facts 
that he appreciated and quoted freely the earlier 
Christian exegetes and that many of his own writings 
were in tmn condensed and translated by Christian 
scholars of the next two centuries (Alting, Bud- 
dflDus, the younger Buxtorf, Carpzov, and others). 

J. F. M. 
Biblxoorapht: J. H. Majus, Vita Don laaae Abrabanielia, 
GiessenCr), 1707(r): C. F. Bisohoff. Du^erUUio . . . tU 
. . . Vila atque 9cripH9 Imtaci il6ra6anie{t«, AJtdorf, 
1708; M. Schwab. Ahravanel et ton ipoque, Paris, 1865; 
JQR, i. (1888) 37-52; H. Grtetx. Oeachichte der Juden, viii. 
324-334. ix. 5-7. ii. 208. 213. Eng. transl.. London. 1801- 
88; Winter and WOnsche. Oeachichte der jUdiachen Litr 
teratwr, ii. 333. 330. 443. 451. 701-702. Berlin. 1804; D. 
OasBel. Jiidiaehe OetchtdUe und Litteratur, Leipaio, 1870. 
pp. 321 sqq., 427. 425 aqq. 

ABRAHAM, 6'bra-ham or a'bra-hOm. 
Souroee of his Biography Analysed (Si). 
Historicity of Abraham Defended (t 2). 
Historicity of the Patriarchs Defended (t 3). 
Impossibility of Fully Reoonstnicting the Sources ( S 4). 

This article will be limited to an attempt to 
establish the credibility of the tradition which 
represents Abraham as the first ancestor of the 
Israelites, against the arguments of those who doubt 
or deny the existence of the patriarch as an histori- 
cal personage. 

Knowledge of Abraham's history must be derived 
exclusively from Gen. xi. 26-xxvi. 10. Other 
accounts — Josephus, ArU.t I. vi. 5-xvii; Philo, 
De AbrahamOf De migrcUione Abrahamif De con- 
greasu quaerendcB eruditionia cauaaf De profugis, 
Quia rerum dimnarum hcerea ait ; the haggadic 
narratives (collected by B. Beer, Leben 
I. Sources Abrahama naeh Auffaaaung der jadi- 
of His achen Sage, Leipsic, 1859); the notices 
Biography in Eusebius, PraparoHo evangelical ix. 
AnaljTzed. 16-20— are all excluded by their late 
origin. Many maintain that the Bib- 
lical narrative is also discredited for the same reason. 
It is true that the beginnings of the patriarchal 


Abraham ▲ Sanota Olara 



history cannot be dated later than about 1900 B.C., 
and even if Genesis was written by Moses (c. 1300 
B.C.) its account is from 500 to 600 years later than 
the life of Abraham. If , as so many believe, the 
present Genesis originated between 500 and 400 
B.C., a period of from 1,400 to 1,500 years inter- 
venes. Whenever it may have been written, 
however, the Book of Genesis presents the concep- 
tion of the life of Abraham current in the pious 
circles of Israel at the time of composition; and 
this conception may be shown to have been handed 
down from earlier periods. The narrative is a 
piecing together of the sources (E, J, and P) without 
essential additions by R. For the present purpose 
it matters little when P originated, since this poi> 
tion of the narrative is a mere sketch, barren of 
details. It is generally assumed that E and J origi- 
nated between the time of Jehoshaphat and Uzziah 
(850-750 B.C.); others think it more probable that 
E belongs to the time of the Judges (c. 1100 b.c), 
J to that of David (c. 1000 B.C.). If the latter 
assumption be correct, the combination of E and 
J (which are supplementary rather than contra- 
dictory) gives what passed for the history of Abra- 
ham at the end of the period of the Judges and at 
the beginning of the monarchy. The Book of Deu- 
teronomy contains passages which imply facts and 
conceptions written down in EJ (cf. vi. 3, 10, 18; 
vii. 7, 8, 12, 13; viii. 1, 18; ix. 5, 27; xiii. 18; 
xix. 8; xxvi. 3, 7, 15). If, then, Deuteronomy be 
Mosaic, the history of Abraham is traced back to 
the Mosaic time. It can not be the product of the 
inventive fancy of Israel during the sojourn in 
Egypt; for during the first half of the sojourn the 
patriarchal period was too near to admit of fancies, 
and diuring the oppression there was no thought of 
migrating to Canaan and settling there. It is 
thus quite improbable that fancy transformed 
wishes into promises once given to the fathers. 

Most of the critics ascribe Deuteronomy to the 
last century of the monarchy of Judah. The 

narrative of EJ is, then, the oldest 

2. Historic- written attestation of Abraham; and 

ity ot the question arises, how far can this 

Abraham narrative be accepted as historical? 

Defended. If it is not historical the origin of its 

conception of Abraham must be ex- 
plained. It has been suggested that Abraham 
was a deity adored in antiquity and afterward 
humanized (Dozy, Noldeke, E. Meyer). But in 
all Semitic literature no god named Abraham is 
found; and no indication exists that Abraham 
was ever conceived of in Israel as a deity or higher 
being. More plausible is the view that Abraham, 
Isaac, and Jacob were ethnographic collective 
names (Wellhausen, Prolegomena, Berlin, 1895, 
pp. 322 sqq.). Abraham in particular was a com- 
bination of Israelitic, Edomitic, Moabitic, and 
Ammonitic nations. These collective names were 
afterward conceived of as names of individuals of 
remote antiquity, to whom fancy involuntarily 
ascribed a history reflecting the views and wishes 
of the later period. But there is little to prove 
that the names of the patriarchs were originally 
collective names; and against the supposition is 
the fact that the Israelites did not call themselves 

after the name of Abraham but after that of Isaac, 
Jacob, Israel. Moreover, the picture of Abraham 
presented by EJ is not what one would expect 
Israel's fancy of the time of the Prophets to paint 
as the portrait of a patriarch par excellence, Well- 
hausen says of the patriarchs as they appear in EJ : 
" They are not courageous and manly, but good 
house-masters, a little imder the influence of their 
more judicious wives." It is hardly conceivable 
that the Israel of the monarchy should have im- 
agined as the type of an Israelite indeed a man 
without courage, devoid of manliness, and ruled 
by his wife. Abraham's faith and obedience are 
emphasized and he is depicted as interceding with 
Yahweh; but EJ also makes him many his half- 
sister, which was incest according to the Israelitic 
conception; he took Lot with him against Yah- 
weh's command; though Yahweh had promised 
him C^aan as his abode, he went thence to Egypt; 
more than once he endangered the honor of his 
wife; his faith is occasionally, though only momen- 
tarily, not free from doubt (Gen. xv. 8, xvii. 17, 18). 
If, then, the origin of Abraham as a fictitious per- 
sonage can not be explained and traced, nothing 
remains but to conclude that his history rests upon 
tradition. Like all tradition, that of Abraham may 
contain inaccuracies, amplifications, or gaps; but 
the less it answers the expectation of an ideal form 
or can be proved to be a product of later times 
developed from the past, the greater is its claim to 

Another point raised against the historicity of the 

Biblical narratives of the patriarchs is that in the 

time of Moses, and later, Yahweh was 

3. Historic- a thunder-god dwelling on Sinai and 

ity of the was worshiped in a fetishistic manner 

Patriarchs by the Israelitic tribes, which at the 

Defended, same time were devoted to totemism. 

But this objection rests upon a rash 

inference, from single phenomena of the religious 

life at the time of Moses and the subsequent period, 

that the religious conceptions and usages of the 

Israelites were identical with those of the Arabs 

who lived two thousand years later in the time 

before Mohammed's appearance. The Israelites 

were not conscious of any special relationship with 

the Arabs, and the religion of the latter before 

Mohammed can not be proved to be a petrifaction 

of former millenniums. 

The effort to prove the patriarchs imhistorical 
from the narrative of the sending of the spies (Num. 
xiii.-xiv.) — because it appears questionable in that 
narrative whether it was worth while or possible 
for Israel to take Canaan, whereas on the basis of 
the history of the patriarchs both were certain — 
falls to the ground when it is remembered that the 
authors who wrote the story of the spies were fully 
convinced that Yahweh had promised Canaan to 
the fathers, and that they wrote with the supposition 
that no intelligent reader would see in their narra- 
tive a contradiction of this conviction. The most 
plausible objection to the historicity of the narra- 
tives of the patriarchs is the length of time between 
the events recorded and the origin of the documen- 
tary sources extant in Genesis. But that tradition 
may preserve a faithful record of former events 




Abraham ASanota Olara 

especially where matters of a religious nature are 
ooncemed, will be denied only by those who judge 
the remote past by the conctitions of the present. 
The Indians and the Gauls for centuries handed 
<m their religious conceptions by means of oral 
tradition; and it is very possible that the authors 
of the documents of Genesis had records from very 
ancient, even pre-Mosaic, time. The possibility 
once admitted, that a faithful tradition concerning 
Abraham may have been preserved to the time 
when the documents of Genesis originated, the 
last reason for considering him a product of later 
Israelitic fancy, is removed. 

No one of the three sources which are pieced 
together in the present GenesiB can be fully re- 
constructed. The document P must 
4. Impos- have contained much more material 
•ibility of than the siun total of all the excerpts 
Folly Re- from it. The source E appears fibist 
comtmct- with certainty in chapter xx. ; and J, 
ing the especially for Abraham's later years. 
Sources, is preserved only in fragments. There 
is thus no means of knowing all that 
the sources originally contained; and, furthermore, 
many passages of Genesis can be assigned with 
certainty neither to one nor another of the sources. 
Hence the accuracy and completeness of our knowl- 
edge of Abraham's history is dependent on the 
fidelity and good judgment with which the compiler 
of Genesis has done his work; and in attempting 
to delineate the true story of Abraham's life it is 
an imperative duty to weigh carefully the possi- 
bility and probability of each detail. 


The historicity of the personal as distinguished 
from the tribal Abraham is still held by a wide 
though perhaps narrowing circle of scholars. In the 
above article the difficulties are too lightly treated. 
The embarrassing question of Abraham's date 
is disposed of ({ 1) by the assmnption that it can 
not have been later than 1900 b.c. But Gen. xiv., 
by its Babylonian synchronism, puts it in the 
twenty-third century b.c., at least one thousand 
years before Moses, and fifteen hundred years 
before the generally accepted date of Abraham's 
first biographer. Moreover, practically nothing 
is known of the history of his descendants until 
the era of Moses. When we seek for at least a 
substantial personality amid the vagueness, inoon- 
sistendes, and contradictions direct or inferential, 
that marie the several accoimts, we are thrown 
back upon the fact of the persistent general tra- 
dition, which evidently had a very early origin, 
and to which great weight should in fairness be 
attached. J. F. M. 

BiBLiooaAPBT: BMidat the histories of Ivael and oommen- 
taiiet on Qenesis, oonmilt W. J. Deane, Abraham : Hi§ 
Lift and Timet, London. 1886; H. C. Tomkins, Abraham 
and Hi» Age, ib. 1807; C. H. ComiU, 0-ekiehU de» VoUcm 
Imad, Lripoic, 1808, Eng. transl., Chioago. 1898; P. 
Dornstetter, Abraham ; Studien Hbtr die AnfUmge dee he- 
br^ieAen VcUcee, Fmburg. 1002. For the extra-BibUcal 
tnditions: O. WeQ. BibUethe Legenden der Mueelmdnner, 
Frankfort. 1845; H. Boer, Leben Abrahome, naeh Auffae- 
ettno der H^Keeken 8aoe, Leipdc, 1860; T. P. Hushea. 
Dieiionary of ieiom, pp. 4-7, London, 1806 (giTes Abra- 
ham pamcee in the Koran); B. W. Baoon, Abraham the 
Bew at Yakweh, in the New World, voL viii (1800); JE, 

BPiORAPHA, Old Testament, II., 21. 

by which a famous German preacher, Ulrich 
Megerle, Lb usually known; b. at Kreenheinstetten 
(20 m. n. of Constance), Baden, July 2, 1644; d. in 
Vienna Dec. 1, 1709. He was the son of an inn- 
keeper, and received his education from the Jesuits 
at Ingolstadt and from the Benedictines at Salz- 
burg. In 1662 he entered the order of the bare- 
footed Augustinians, and rose to positions of 
authority, becoming prior of his house, provincial, 
and definitor. After 1668 or 1669, with the ex- 
ception of seven years (1682-89) spent at Graz, 
he was attached to the Augustinian Church in 
Vienna. He was primarily a preacher, and his 
first published works were reprints of sermons. 
His definite literary activity dates from the plague 
of 1679, which called forth three small books; but 
these, as well as similar occasional writings — such 
as Att/, auf, ihr Christen (1683), inspired by the 
danger of the Turkish invasion and imitated by Schil- 
ler in the Capuchin's address in WaUensteina Lager, 
viii.; Gack Gack (1685), a book for pilgrims; 
Heilsamea GemiachrGemaach (1704) — are of com- 
paratively slight importance. His principal work, 
Judas, der ErzSchelm (4 parts, 1686-95), is an 
imaginary biography of the betrayer of Christ, 
written from the standpoint of a satirical preacher. 
About the same time he wrote a compendium of 
moral theology, Grammaiica religiosa (1691) in 
which the more dignified Latin precludes the 
characteristic pungent flavor of his vernacular 

Abraham represents the Catholicism of his age 
not in its noblest, but in its most usual form. He 
is fanatical, eager to make converts, intolerant; 
constant in praise of the Jesuits, full of the bitterest 
reproaches against Protestants and Jews. He has 
the most childish notions of science; but he makes 
very skilful use of his scanty equipment of learning. 
He has a perfect command of every rhetorical 
artifice, and knows how to play upon the feelings 
of his hearers, to appeal to their weaknesses, and 
to call up vivid pictures before their minds, not 
disdaining to raise a laugh. Satire is his strongest 
weapon; and he is a direct inheritor of the old 
German satiric tradition. He exercises the func- 
tions of a critic with the fearlessness of a mendicant 
friar; neither his audience, nor the court, nor his 
brethren of the clergy are spared. The biu-lesque 
manner which he uses in treating the most serious 
subjects was popular in the fifteenth century, and 
may have suited that age; but it was out of place 
in the second half of the seventeenth. The force of 
the contrast becomes apparent when it is remem- 
bered that Abraham was appointed court preacher 
in 1677, sixteen years after the same title had been 
conferred on a Bossuet. It is only fair, however, 
to recall what the general level of education was 
in Roman Catholic Germany at the time, and to see 
in Abraham rather a popular entertainer than a 

A complete edition of his works in twenty-one 
volumes was published at Passau and Lindau 

Abraham Boohellenala 



(1835-54), and selections at Heilbronn (7 vols., 
1840-44) and Vienna (2 vols., 1846). Single works 
are accessible in many editions {Judas der Erz- 
Schdm, Stuttgart, 1882; Auf, auf, ihr Christen, 
Vienna, 1883). (E. Steinmbybr.) 

Biblioorapht: T. O. von ICarajan, Abraham a Saneta 
Clara, Vieima, 1867; W. Soberer. VortrAge und AufttUs* 
Mur Oetdiichte det o^i^Uichen LAena in Deutaehland und 
OMterrmch, Berlin. 1874; H. Mareta, Ud>er Judat den Erx- 
tehelmt Vienna, 1875; A. Silberstein, Denk^Aulen im Oe- 
biete der CuUur und LUeratwr. Abraham a Saneta Clara, ib. 
1879; E. Scbnell, Pater Abraham a Saneta Clara, Municb. 
1895; C. Blanckenburg, Studien nber die Spraehe Abra- 
hamt a Saneta Clara, Halle, 1897. 

learned Maronite; b. at Eckel, Syria, in the latter 
part of the sixteenth century; d. at Rome in 1664. 
He was educated in the college of the Maronites at 
Rome and was promoted to doctor of philosophy 
and theology. For a time he was professor of 
Arabic and Syriac at Pisa, and afterward at Rome, 
where he was called by Urban III. He was one 
of the first to promote Syriac studies in Europe, 
and his Syriac granunar (Rome, 1628) was long 
used. In 1640 he was called to Paris by Le Jay to 
assist in the Paris Polyglot. The Arabic and Syriac 
texts for this work had been entrusted to Gabriel 
Sionita, a Maronite professor at Paris, who per- 
formed his work in an unsatisfactory manner. 
Abraham agreed to undertake the books of Ruth, 
Esther, Tobit, Judith, Baruch, and Maccabees, on 
the ground that he possessed better codices than 
Gabriel. The latter, however, took ofifense; where- 
upon Abraham resigned the work and returned to 
I^me (1642), having edited only the books of Ruth 
and III Maccabees. He was attacked in four 
letters (Paris, 1646) by Val^rien de Flavigny, who 
wrote on the side of his friend Gabriel, and a sharp 
controversy ensued (cf. A. G. Masch, Bibliotheca 
sacra, Halle, 1778, p. 358). During a second resi- 
dence in Paris (1645-53) Abraham taught at the 
Sorbonne, and published the concluding volume 
of an edition of the works of St. Anthony (1646; 
vol. i., containhig the letters, had appeared in 1641), 
as well as Catalogus librorum ChaldcBorum auctore 
Htbed Jesu (1653) and Chronicon orierUale (1653), 
a history of the patriarchate of Alexandria, trans- 
lated from the Arabic of Ibn al-Rahib, with an 
appendix treating of Arabia and the Arabs before 
Mohammed. In 1653 he returned to Rome. He 
published two works in answer to the views of John 
Selden (q.v.) concerning the early position of the 
episcopate, viz., De origine nominis papa (Rome, 
1660) and EiUychius patriarcha Alexandrinus 
vindicaius (1661). (A. Jeremias.) 

Biblioorapht: For his life consult J. 8. Ersch and J. G. 
Gniber, AUgemeine Bneyciopiidie der Wieaenachaftent i. 30, 
360, Leipaic. 1818; Biographie univeraelle ancienne et mo- 
deme, xii 457-458. Paris. 1814. 

ABRAHAMITES: A deistic sect which appeared 
in the district of Pardubitz, eastern Bohemia, after 
1782. They claimed to hold to the faith of Abra^ 
ham before his circumcision; rejected most of the 
Christian doctrines, but profeaied belief in one 
God, and accepted, of the Scriptures, only the 
Decalogue and the Lord's Prayer. The govern- 
ment took measures against them, and they were 

soon suppressed. The name was also applied to 
the followers of one Abraham (Ibrahim) of Anti- 
och at the beginning of the ninth century; they 
were charged with idolatrous and licentious prac- 
tises, probably on insufficient grounds, and may 
have been related to the Paulicians. 
Bibuoorapht: [P. A. Winkopp]. Oeechichte der bdhmiaehen 

Deiaten, Leipsio. 1785; J. G. Meusel. VermiaehU Nach- 

riehten und Bemerkungen, Erlangen. 1818; H. Gr^goire. 

Hiatovra dea aectea riligieuaea, v. 410 sqq.. 6 vols., Paris, 


ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL: English rabbinical schol- 
ar and author; b. at London Nov. 26, 1858. He 
was educated at Jews' College and University 
College, London (M.A., 1881). After teaching at 
Jews' Ck>llege for several years, he was appointed 
senior tutor there in 1900, but in 1902 accepted a 
call to Cambridge as reader in Talmudic and Rab- 
binic Literature. He has been a member of the 
Conunittee for Training Jewish Teachers, the Com- 
mittee of the Anglo-Jewish Association, was the 
first president of the Union of Jewish Literary 
Societies, and has been successively honorary 
secretary and president of the Jewish Historical 

Abrahams has been one of the editors of the 
Jewish Quarterly Review since 1889, and contributes 
each week to the Jewish Chronicle. His works 
include Aspects of Judaism (London, 1895; in 
collaboration with Claude G. Monte fiore); Jewish 
Life in the Middle Ages (1896); Chapters on Jewish 
Literature (1899); Maimonides (Philadelphia, 1903; 
in collaboration with D. Yellin); and Festival 
Thoughts (London, 1905-06). 

theran; b. at Medaker, Sweden, Mar. 2,1856. lie 
was educated at the public schools of his native 
country, and at Augustana College and Theological 
Seminary (Rock Island, III.), graduating in 1880. 
He entered the Lutheran ministry in the same year, 
and in 1886 was called to the pastorate of the Salem 
Lutheran Church, Chicago, where he has since 
remained. He was associate editor of Augustana, 
the official organ of the Augustana Synod, from 
1885 to 1896, and for six years was president of the 
Illinois Conference of the same synod. He is also 
a member of the board of directors of Augustana 
College and Theological Seminary, president of the 
board of directors of Augustana Hospital, Chicago, 
a member of the board of missions of the Augustana 
Synod and the Illinois Conference, and was a dele- 
gate to the International Lutheran World's Con- 
gress at Lund, Sweden, in 1901 . In 1894 he received 
the Swedish decoration of Knight Royal of the 
Order of the Polar Star from King Oscar II. In 
theology he belongs to the historic Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, and adheres to its original un- 
altered creeds. He has written Jtibel Album 
(Chicago, 1893). 

ABRASAX, ab'ra-sax (ABRAXAS, ab-rax'as). 

Various Explanations (§ 1). The Abrasax Gems ({ 2). 

Abrasax (which is far conunoner in the sources 
than the variant form Abraxas) is a word of 
mystic meaning in the system of the Gnostic 
Basilides, being there applied to the " Great 



Abraham Boohellenals 

Archon " (Gk., meffoa arehOn), the princeps, of the 
3^ spheres (Gk., auranoi; cf. Hippolytus, Refu" 
tatio, vii. 14; Iremsus, Adversus hdreses^ I. xxiv. 
7). Renan considers it a designation of the most 
high, unspeakable God lost in the greatness of his 
majesty; but he has probably been misled by 
erroneous statements of the Fathers, such as Jerome 
on Amoe iii. ('' Basilides, who calls the onmipotent 
God by the portentous name ' abraxas ' ''), and 
pseudo-TertuUian {Adversus omnes hcereaes, iv.: 
" he [Basilides] affirms that there is a supreme God 
by the name * Abraxas ' "). 

Much labor has been spent in seeking an explana- 
tion for and the etymology of the name. Salmasius 
thought it Egyptian, but never gave the proofs which 
Various ^® promised. Miinter separates it into 
EzDUma- *^^ CJoptic words signifying " new- 
^^^^ " fangled title." Bellermann thinks it 
a compound of the Egyptian words 
abrak and sax, meaning '' the honorable and 
hallowed word," or " the word is adorable." Sharpe 
finds in it an Egyptian invocation to the Godhead, 
meaning ** hurt me not." Others have endeavored 
to find a Hebrew origin. Geiger sees in it a Grecized 
form of ha-berakhah, *' the blessing," a meaning 
which King declares philologically untenable. 
Passerius derives it from abh, ** father," bora, 
" to create," and a- negative — *' the uncreated 
Father." Wendelin discovers a compound of the 
initial letters, amoimting to 365 in numerical value, 
of four Hebrew and three Greek words, all written 
with Greek characters: ab, ben, rouach, hakadoa ; 
sdUria apo xylou (" Father, Son, Spirit, holy; 
salvation from the cross "). According to a note 
of De Beausobre's, Hardouin accepted the first 
three of these, taking the four others for the ini- 
tials of iheGreek anikrdpoussdzOn hagiOi xyldi, ''sa- 
ving mankind by the holy cross." Barzilai goes back 
for explanation to the first verse of the prayer 
attributed to Rabbi Nehunya ben ha-Kanah, the 
literal rendering of which is " O [Godl with thy 
mighty right hand deliver the imhappy [people]," 
forming from the initial and final letters of the 
words the word Abrakd (pronounced Abrakad), 
with the meaning " the host of the winged ones," 
i.e., angels. But this extremely ingenious theory 
would at most explain only the mystic word Abra- 
cadabra, whose connection with Abrasax is by no 
means certain. De Beausobre derives Abrasax 
from the Greek habros and sad, ** the beautiful, the 
glorious Savior." It is scarcely necessary to 
remark upon the lack of probability for all these 
interpretations; and perhaps the word may be 
included among those mysterious expressions 
discussed by Hamack (Utber das gnostiache Buck 
PisUsSopkia, TU, vii. 2, 1891, 85-89), " which 
belong to no known speech, and by their singular 
collocation of vowels and consonants give evidence 
that they belong to some mystic dialect, or take 
their origin from some supposed divine inspiration." 
That the numerical value of the letters amounts to 
3ft5, the number of the heavens of Basilides and 
of the days of the year, was remarked by the 
eariy Fathers (Iremeus, Hippolytus, the pseudo- 
Tertullian, and others); but this does not explain 
the name any more than it explains MeUhraa and 

Neilo8, of which the same is true. And the num- 
ber 365 is made use of not only by Basilides, but 
by other Gnostics as well. 

The Gnostic sect which comes into light in Spain 
and southern Gaul at the end of the fourth centiuy 
and at the beginning of the fifth, which Jerome 
connects with Basilides, and which (according to 
his Epiat.f Ixxv.) used the name Abrasax, is con- 
sidered by recent scholars to have nothing to do 
with Basilides. Moreover, the word is of frequent 
occurrence in the magic papyri; it is found on the 
Greek metal tessera among other mystic words, 
and still more often on carved gems. The fact 
that the name occurs on these gems in connection 
with representations of figures with the head of a 
cock, a lion, or an ass, and the tail of a serpent was 
formerly taken in the light of what Irenspus says 
(Adversus hcsreses, I. xxiv. 5) about 
2. The the followers of Basilides: ** These 
Abrasax men, moreover, practise magic, and 
Gems, use images, incantations, invocations, 
and every other kind of curious art. 
Coining also certain names as if they were 
those of the angels, they proclaim some of these . 
as belonging to the fij^t, and others to the 
second heaven; and then they strive to set forth 
the names, principles, angels, and powers of the 
365 imagined heavens." From this an attempt 
was made to explain first the gems which bore the 
name and the figures described above, and then all 
gems with unintelligible inscriptions and figures 
not in accord with pure Greco-Roman art, as 
Abrasax-stones, Basilidian or Gnostic gems. Some 
scholars, especially Bellermann and Matter, took 
great pains to classify the different representations. 
But a protest was soon raised against this inter- 
pretation of these stones. De Beausobre, Passe- 
rius, and Caylus decisively declared them to be 
pagan; and Hamack has gone so far as to say that 
it is doubtful whether a single Abrasax-gem is 
Basilidian. Having due regard to the magic 
papyri, in which many of the unintelligible names 
of the Abrasax-gems reappear, besides directions 
for making and using gems with similar figures 
and formulas for magical purposes, it can scarcely 
be doubted that these stones are pagan amulets 
and instruments of magic. (W. Drexler.) 

Bibuographt: C. Salmasius. De armia dimadericitt p. 572, 
Leyden. 1648; Wendelin, in a letter in J. Macarii Abraxa$ 
. . . accedUAbraxa$Protsu8t9eumulHformuoemmasBa9ili' 
diana portentota varietaa, exhibita . . . a J. CkifleHo, pp. 
112-115. Antwerp, 1657; I. de Beausobre. Hiatoire 
critique de ManicMe et du ManidiHmne, Iii. 50-69. Amster- 
dam. 1730; J. B. Passerius, De oemmia Baailidiania dia- 
iriba, in Gori. Theeaiarue gemmarum anHquarum aetrifera^ 
rum» ii. 221-286. Florence, 1750; Tubi^res de Grimvard. 
Count de Caylus, RecueH d'arUiquitie, vi. 65-66, Paris. 
1764; F. MQnter. Vereueh Uber die kirchlichen AUerthUmer 
der Onoetiker, pp. 203-214. Anspach. 1700; J. J. BeUer- 
mann, Vereueh Hber die Oemmen der Alien mil dent Ahraxae- 
Bilde. 3 parts, Berlin. 1818-10; J. Matter. Hietoire crt- 
Hque du OnoeHcieme, i.. Paris. 1828, and Strasburg, 1843; 
idem. Abraxae in Heriog, RE, 2d ed., 1877 ; S. Sharpe. 
Egyptian Mythology, p. 252. note, London, 1863; Geiger, 
Abraxae und Elxai, in ZDMQ, xviii. (1864) 824-825; 
G. Barsilai, Oli Abraxae, etudio areheologieo, Triest. 1873; 
idemJiAppendiceaUadieeertanoneeuoli Abraxae, ih. 1874; E. 
Renan, Hietoire dee origineedu Chrietianieme, vi. 160, Paris, 
1870; C. W. King, The Onoetice and their Remaine, Lon- 
don, 1887; Hamack, GeMAieAl«,i. 161. The older material is 
listed by Matter, ut sup., and Wessely, i^pAema grammata, 




vol. u^.Vieniu, ISSO^ Worth ooosultiD^ ore B. de MoafatieozL. 
L'Antiquiti e^iquM, U. 356, Ft^m 171^24^ Ea£. trmiul.. 
IQ rollB.r LondoDp 1721-2fi; R. £. Rftape. Dencriptivv' cata- 
logue o/ . . . ^nffT&ved Qtma ^ , « &itt , , ^ i>if J. Tattie 
... 2 VQ^fl., Lctadon, 17Q1: J. M. A. Chmbouillet* Cata- 
lofftiM ff^nirat ft roiMonni deM cttmeet H pierrtM gratia 
d€ ta Bihtiothiriiut ImpMaU^ ParU. tB5S; DACL* i. 
127-165. Flfttei of the BonaUed Abraxi^a-gemfl »?« to be 
found in tKp worku of Count de Cay!iu, M&tter, KioK» 
snd in Ibe DjICL. 

ABRAVAIVEL. See Abrabanel, 

ABSALOM. See David. 

ABSALOPT (AXEL) : Arehbiahop of Lund (1178- 

1201), one of the prmcripal figures in BcandinaviaD 
medieval history; b. on the island of Zealand , 
then under his father's government, probably in 
OcL, 112S; d. in the abbey of Sor5 (on the isl&nd 
of Zeal&nd, 44 m. w^.w, of Ck>penhagen) Mar, 21, 
1201. He was brought up with the future king 
Waldemar, amid surroundingis which be^tted his 
birth. When he waa eighteen or nineteen, his 
father retired from the world to the Benedictine 
monastery of 3of5, whieh he had built^ and the lad 
went U> Paris to itudy theology and canon law. 
He came back to Denmark to find civil war raging 
among the partisanH of three princes. As he was 
already a priest, he probably took bo part in the 
bloody battle of Gradehede near Viborg (1157) 
which finally decided the strife in favor of hia old 
playmate Waldemar; but in the following «ipring 
he and his retainera tepelled an attack of Wendii^h 
pirates who were ravaging Zealand. When Bishop 
Asser of Roskilde died (on Good Friday ^ 1158)^ 
the chapter and the citixena quarreled over the 
choice of a successor; and the armed intervention 
of Waldemar became necessary. At an election 
held in his presence^ Absalon was unanimously 
chosen f and soon showed that he considered the 
defense of hia country not the least among his 
episcopal duties. The Danes now assumed the 
offensive against the pagan Wends, and two cam^ 
paigns were made against them in lliiB. The next 
year Waldemar joined forces with Henry the Lion, 
with the result that Mecklenburg waa added to the 
German territory, and the island of Ell gen to the 

All this time Absalon was busy building fort- 
resaes and provi<hng guards for the coafltSt some- 
times undertaking perilous winter voyagea to inspect 
the defenses, with the aspect of a viking but the 
spirit of a crusader. At the same time be was 
laboring for internal peace by endeavoring to attach 
the partisans of the defeated factions to the king, 
and busily providing for monastic reform and ex~ 
tenidon. He brought to Denmark bia old fellow 
student William, canon of St, Genevieve at Paris, 
and placed him over the canons of Eskils^ near 
Roskilde, whose house he later removed to Ebel* 
holt near ArresO, helping them to build their new 
church and richly endowing it. After his father's 
death (c. 1157) disciplme had decayed among the 
Benedictines of Sorf>t OJfid Absalon brought Cistei^ 
cian monks from Esrom to restore it, making it one 
of the richeai of Cistercian abbeys. He and his 
kinsfolk were buried in the great church there 
which he began to build after 1174. In 1162 he 
accompanied Waldemar to St. Jean de Laune on 

the Sadne, where Frederick Barbarossa solemnly 
recognised Victor IV. as the legitimate pope and 
banned Alexander IIL and his adherenta, Absa- 
lon was much dissatisfied with this result; he 
desired Waldemar to refuse the oath of allegiance 
to the emperor, and induced him to withdraw from 
the sitting in which Alexander was denounced. 
He also protested later when Victor IV. undertook 
to consecrate a bishop for Odense, and was sup- 
ported in his attitude by the bishops of Viborg and 
BBrglum and by most of the monastic communities, 
while Archbishop Eakil of Lund took the same 
position so strongly tliat he had to spend seven 
years in exile at Clairvaux, The bishops of Slea- 
wick, Ribe, Aarhus, and Odense were on the aide 
of the imperial pope. 

In the fresh campaigns against the Wends, 
between 1164 and 11S5, Absalon took an active 
part, mnning from his contemporaries the name of 
pai^ pairim. In 1 167 the king gave him the town 
of Havn {Ck>penhagen), and he erected a strong 
fortress, which was of gte^t imp»ortance for the 
development of commerce. He was active in es- 
tabhshing a system of tithes, which aroused much 
opposition. The disturbances in Eskil's juris- 
diction (he had now become reconciled with the 
Jdng) induced him to resign his archbishopric, 
naming Absalon as his succ^sor. The latter 
accepted his promotion unwiliingty, and was allowed 
to retain the see of Roskilde for thirteen years 
after his assumption of the higher oOice in 1178. 
As archbishop he withdrew more and more from 
political activity to devote himself to the. interests 
of the Church. The part taken by the Danes in 
the third crusade was no doubt due to his influence. 
He was a strong upholder of clerical celibacy, and 
the purity of hia own life was universally admired. 
He is also credited with having done much for 
liturgical uniformity; and it was at his wish that 
Saxo, one of his clergy^ undertook to write his 
Hisioria Danioif one of the most important sources 
for Danish history. (F, Nielsen.) 

fii9L(ooaAPHT: J. Langebek [continued by P. F. Buhm And 
ot herald Scriptamt riorum Danicamm medii trvi, voLs.i 
Copenhagen, t774-S7; H. J, F. E«tnip. LiU (in Danish), 
Bori5ti, 1S2S, GeraXi tmnil., Iveipitic, 1832; ^xo Ornmm&- 
tiouflt Hittoria Danicai part i.« ed. P. E. MQUer, psrt ii„ 

ABSOLUnOlf. See Confeb^ion or Sins. 
ABSXIHEirCK See Fasting j Total AbstI" 


ABULFARAJ (Abu al-Faraj ibn Hanin, com- 
monly called Bar Hebrmis ; his real name was 
Gregory): Syriac writer and bishop; b. in the 
Cappadocian town of Melitene (200 m. n.e. of Anti- 
och) 1236; d. at Maragha (60 m. a, of Tabriz), 
Azerbaijan, Persia, July 30, 1286. He belonged 
to a Jewish family which had gone over to Jacobite 
Christianity, but whether his father or a more 
remote ancestor made the change is uncertain. 
He finished his studies at Antioch and lived for a 
time there as a monk in a cave; he went to Tripoli, 
Syria^ to perfect himself in medicine (his father's 
profession) and rhetoric; became bishop of Gubos, 
near Melitene (1246), of Lakabhin (1247), of Aleppo 
(1253); maphrian (primate) of the Jacobites in 




Chaldea, Mesopotamia, and Afisyria, with his seat 
at Takrit on the Tigris (1264). It was the time of 
the Mongol inroads imder Hulaku, and the coimtry 
was sorely devastated; but by his discretion and 
the high repute in which he was held at the Tatar 
court, AbuLfaraj was able to do much to ameli- 
orate the condition of the Christians. As a writer 
his importance is due to his wide acquaintance with 
the knowledge of his time; his works are exceedingly 
numerous upon the most diverse subjects. A few 
of them are in Arabic, but the greater number in 

BiBuooaAnnr: E. Nestle, Suritehe Orammatikt *' LiUra- 
tura," pi». 46-60, Berlin, 1888 (givee published works of 
Abulfanj); life by T. Ndldeke, in OrientalUehe Skitun, 
pp. 250 sqq., Berlin, 1802. Eng. transl.. London. 1802; 
W. Wright. Short Hittory of Syriae LUeraiure, pp. 266- 
281, London, 1894 (reprinted, with additions, from Encyc. 
BriLt TTJi.; gives complete list of works of Abulfaraj); 
Hanek-Hersog, RE, i. 123-124, ii. 780; E. A. W. Budge. 
Th4 LauohahU StartM eolUcUd by Mar Or^gcry John Bar 
Htbrtnta, Syriae 7*cx< . . . and Eng. tranal., London, 

ABXJNA. See Abtssinia and the Abtssinian 
Church, {{ 2, 5. 

Worthlessnev of Trmditional History (S 1.) 

Introduction of Christianity (S 2). 

Cloee Connection with Egypt in Doctrine (| 3). 

The Canon and Creed (i 4). 

Organisation of the Church (| 5). 

Beliefs and Practises (| 6). 

The Falashas (| 7). 

Christian Missions (| 8). 

The modem Abyssinia is a coimtry of East Africa, 
between the Red Sea and the Blue Nile, to the 
southeast of Nubia. Its boundaries are not defi- 
nite, and its area is variously given from 150,000 
to 240,000 square miles. Estimates of the popu- 
lation vary from 3,500,000 to 8,500,000. In an- 
tiquity the term " Ethiopia " was used rather 
vaguely to signify Abyssinia (with somewhat 
wider extent than at present), Nubia, and Sennar. 
These were the lands of the Ethiopian Church, of 
which the Abyssinian Church is the modem rep- 
resentative. Christianity is now confined to the 
plateau and mountain regions of Abyssinia. 

Native tradition ascribes the name of the coimtry 

and the foundation of the state to Ethiops, the son 

of Cush, the son of Ham. The queen 

I. Worth- of Sheba who visited Solomon is 

lettness of identified with an Abyssinian queen. 

Traditional Makeda; and her visit is said to have 

History, led to the conversion of the people 
to Judaism. The tradition continues 
that she bore to Solomon a son, Menelik, who was 
educated in Jerusalem by his father. He then 
returned to the old capital, Axum, and brought 
with him both Jewish priests and the ark, which 
was carried away from the Temple in Jerusalem 
and deposited in the Ethiopian ci^tal; and from 
that time to the present Abyssinia is said to have 
been ruled by a Solomonic dynasty, the succession 
having been broken only now and then by usurpers 
and conquerors. Of course, all this has no historic 
value. That Judaism preceded Christianity in the 
land is not proved by the observance of certain 
Jewish customs (such as circumcision, the Mosaic 
laws about foods, the SiU)bath, etc.) ; these may 

have been introduced from ancient Egypt or the 
Coptic Church. A Jewish immigration, however, 
must have taken place, as it is proved by the 
presence in the land of numerous Jews, the so- 
called Falashas (see below, §7); but the time, 
manner, and magnitude of this immigration can 
not be ascertained. 

There is no independent native tradition of the 

conversion of the Abyssinians to Christianity. 

According to the Greek and Roman 

2. Intro- Church historians (Rufinus, i. 9; 
ductionof Theodoret, i. 22; Socrates, i. 19; 

Christi- Sozomen, ii. 24), in the time of Con- 
anity. stantine the Great (about 330), Fm- 
mentius and Edesius accompanied 
the imcle of the former from Tyre on a voyage in 
the Red Sea. They were shipwrecked on the 
Ethiopian coast and carried by the natives to the 
court at Axum. There they won confidence and 
honor, and wei^ allowed to preach Christianity. 
Edesius afterward returned to Tyre; but Frumen- 
tius continued the work, went to Alexandria, where 
Athanasius occupied the patriarchal see, obtained 
missionary coworkers from him, and was himself 
consecrated bishop and head of the Ethiopian 
Church, with the title Abba Salama, " Father of 
Peace," which is still in use along with the later 
Abuna, " Our Father." It is not improbable that 
Christianity was known to the Abyssinians before 
the time of Frumentius (whose date has been 
fixed by Dillmann at 341); but he is properiy re- 
garded as the founder of the Ethiopian Church. 
In the fifth and sixth centuries the mission received 
a new impulse by the immigration of a number of 
monks (Monophysites) from upper Egypt. 

The close connection between the Abyssinian 

Church and Egypt is very apparent in the sphere 

of doctrine. like the Coptic Church, 

3. Close the Abyssinian holds a monophysitic 
Connection view of the person of Christ. This 

with question has long been settled; but 
Egypt in it is still debated whether Christ had 
Doctrine, a double or threefold birth. The 
Abuna and the majority of the priests 
hold to the twofold view, which is the more purely 
monophysitic. The threefold view was introduced 
by a monk about 100 years ago, and is prevalent 
in Shoa (the southern and southeastern district). 
Also the questions of the person and dignity of 
Mary, — whether she really bore God, or was only 
the mother of Jesus; whether she is entitled to 
the same worship as Christ, etc., — are eagerly 
debated though it seems to be the general view- 
that an almost divine worship is due to the Virgin, 
and that she and the saints are indispensable 
mediators between Christ and man. Some even 
assert that the saints, who died not for their own 
sins, died like Christ for the sins of others. 

The church books are all in the Ethiopic language, 
which is a dead tongue, studied only by the priests, 
and not understood by them. For the Ethiopic 
Bible translation see Bible Versions, A, VIIL 
The Abyssinian canon, called Semanya Ahadu, 
" Eighty-one," because it consists of eighty-one 
sacred books, comprises, besides the sixty- five 
books of the usual canon, the Apocrypha, the 

Aoaoins of Oa 



Epistles of Clement, and the Synodus (that is, the 
decrees of the Apostolic Council of Jerusalem; 
cf. W. Fell, Canonea apostolorum 
4. The ^thiopice, Leipsic, 1871). Only a 
Canon and very slight difference, however, is 
Creed, made between this canon and some 
other works of ecclesiastical literature, 
— the Didaacalia or Apostolic Constitutions (text 
and transl. by T. P. Piatt, published by the Oriental 
Translation Fund, London, 1834); the Haimanot- 
Abo, giving quotations from the councils and the 
Fathers; the writings of the Eastern Fathers, 
Athanasius, CJyril, and Chrysostom; and the Fetha- 
Nagast, the royal law-book. On the whole, the 
tradition of the Church has the same authority 
as the Scriptures. Of the councils, only those 
before the Council of Chalcedon (451) are recog- 
nized, because at Chalcedon the monophysite 
heresy was condemned. The Apostles' Creed is 
unknown; the Nicene is used. 

At the head of the Church stands the Abuna, 
who resides in Gondar. He is appointed by the 
Coptic patriarch of Cairo; and, ac- 
5. Organ!- cording to a law, dating from the 
zation of thirteenth century, no Abyssinian, 
the Church, but only a Copt, can be Abuna. He 
alone has the right to anoint the king 
and to ordain priests and deacons. Both in secular 
and in ecclesiastical affairs he has great power. 
The duties of the priests are to conduct divine 
service three or four times daily and for three or 
four hours on Sunday, to attend to the church 
business, and to purify houses and utensils. Priests, 
monks, and scholars celebrate the Holy Com- 
munion every morning. The deacons bake the 
bread for the Lord's Supper and perform menial 
duties. Any one who can read may be ordained 
deacon, and a priest is merely required to recite 
the Nicene Creed. To learn the long liturgies, 
however, is often a matter of years. It is usual to 
marry before ordination, as marriage is not allowed 
afterward. Besides priests and deacons each 
church has its alaka^ who looks after church prop- 
erty and attends to secular business. The debturas 
sing at divine service; and the larger churches have 
a komofat who settles disputes among the clergy. 
Beside the secular clergy stand the monastic under 
the head of the Etsh'ege, who ranks next to the 
Abuna and decides many ecclesiastical and theo- 
logical questions in common with him. The num- 
ber of monks and nuns (living after the rule of 
Pachomius) is very great. At Debra Damo, one 
of the chief monasteries, about 300 monks live 
together in small huts. A part of their duties 
is the education of the young. The church build- 
ings are exceedingly numerous, generally small, 
low, circular structures, with a conical roof of thatch 
and four doors, one toward each of the cardinal 
points. Surrounding the building is a court, 
occupied diuring service by the laymen, and often 
serving at night as a place of refuge to travelers. 
The interior, dirty and neglected, is divided into 
two apartments, — the holy for the priests and 
deacons, and the holy of holies, where stands the 
ark. This ark is the principal object in the whole 
church. Neither the deacons, laymen, nor non- 

Christians dare touch it; if they do, the church 
and the adjacent cemetery become unclean, and 
must be piuified. Indifferent pictures of the 
numerous saints, the Virgin, the angels, and the 
devil adorn the interior; but statues are forbidden. 
Crosses are found, but no crucifixes. 

Service consists of singing of psalms, recitals 
of parts of the Bible and liturgy, and prayers, 
especially to the Virgin and the wonder-working 
saints; it is undignified and unedifying. They 
believe that every one has a guardian spirit and 
therefore venerate the angels. The 

6. Beliefs archangel Michael is consdered es- 
and pecially holy. They divide the good 

Practises, angels into nine classes, of which there 
were originally ten, but one fell away 
under Satanael. Relics are preserved and ven- 
erated as by the Roman Catholic Church. Of 
sacraments, the Church numbers two, baptism and 
the Lord's Supper. Both adults and children are 
baptized, the former by immersion, the latter by 
sprinkling. For boys the rite is performed forty 
days after birth; for girls, eighty days. The 
purpose of baptism is the forgiveness of sins. The 
Lord's Supper is preceded by a severe fast; and 
offerings of incense, oil, bread, and wine are usually 
brought. The Jewish Sabbath is kept as well as 
the Christian Sunday; and altogether there are one 
hundred and eighty holidays in the year. Fasting, 
observed with great strictness, plays a prominent 
part in the discipline, and about half the days of 
the year are nominally fast-days. 

Not all the inhabitants of Abyssinia are Chris- 
tians; and not all Christians belong to the State 
Church. The Zalanes, a nomadic tribe, consider 
themselves to be Jews, and keep aloof from the 
Christians, though they are described 
7. The as being really Christians. The Cha- 

Falashas. mantes are baptized, and have Chris- 
tian priests; but in reality they are 
nearly pagans, and celebrate many thoroughly 
pagan rites. The real Jews, the Falashas, live 
along the northern shore of Lake Tsana, in the 
neighborhood of Gondar and Shelga, where they 
pursue agriculture and trade. They are more 
industrious than the Christians, but also more 
ignorant and spiritually more forlorn. Moham- 
medanism is steadily progressing. In order to 
distinguish themselves from all non-Christians, 
the Christians receive at baptism a cord of blue 
silk or cotton, called maiebf which they always 
wear around the neck. 

The first missionary work which the Western 
Church undertook in Abyssinia was the Jesuit 
mission of 1555, which labored there for nearly 
a century; but the missionary activity of the 
Jesuits was deeply mixed with the politics of the 
country; and their main purpose seems to have 
been to establish there the authority of the Roman 
Catholic Church. At last they reached the goal. 
After a frightful massacre of the opposite party, 
King Sasneos declared the Roman Catholic Church 
the Church of the State. In 1640, however, the 
Jesuits, with their Roman archbishop, were com- 
pelled to leave the country, and the old religion 
with its old Church was reestablished. With the 



AoaoiuB of OsBi 

Dew Abuna who followed after this Roman Catholic 
inteiregnum, Peter Heyling, from Lilbeck, a Protes- 
tant missionary, came into the country, but his 
great zeal led only to small results. The Church 
Missionaiy Society had more success in the first 
half of the nineteenth century. The circiunstance 
that a pious Abyssinian monk, Abi-Ruch or Abre- 
ka, who had been guide to the traveler Bnice, 
translated the whole Bible into the Amharic lan- 
guage (1808-18), gave the first occasion to this 
attempt. The British and Foreign Bible Society 
bought and printed the translation, and in 1830 
the missionaries Gobat and Kugler 
8. Chris- were sent to Abyssinia. The latter 
tian Mis- was succeeded by Isenberg, and Gobat 
sions. by Blumhardt in 1837. Later came 
Krapf. The work was partly spoiled 
by the opposition of the native priests and the 
intrigues of newly arrived Roman Catholics, and 
the missionaries were expelled in 1838. Krapf 
then spent three years in Shoa, but was driven 
thence in 1842. The Roman Catholics were ex- 
pelled in 1854. In 1858 a Coptic priest who had 
frequented the school of a Protestant missionary 
in Alexandria, and favored the Protestant mission, 
became Abima, and the St. Chrischona Society of 
Basel now sent a number of Protestant missionaries 
into the coimtry. They labored with considerable 
success; but the disturbances of the reign of King 
Theodore overtook them, and almost destroyed 
their work. They were thrown into prison and 
were only released after the victory of the British. 
Since that time, few missionary attempts have 
been made in Abyssinia. The Swedes have one 
or two stations in the country; and during the 
past ten years there has been some effort to resume 
work on the part of the Roman Catholics (mainly 
French). There is a vicar apostolic for Abyssinia 
with residence in Alitiena, Tigre; and a Uniat 
" Geez Chureh " is said to number 10,000 members. 
See Africa, II., Abyssinia. 

Bducmrapbt: Makriai (d. 1441), Hi»toria Coptorum Ckrit- 
tiancrum^ ecL T. WOstenfeld. Gdttingen, 1845; H. Ludolf. 
Hialaria athiopica and CommeniariuSf Frazikfort, 1681, 
1093; J. Lobo. Voyage d'AbtfnnU (Eng. tnmsl., vHih con- 
hnuaiion of Ihe hiatory of Ahytinia . . . by M. Le Grand, 
. . . London, 1735; J. Stoecklein, AUerhand to Lehr- alt 
O^iairTeieheB Briefs nekriften und ReU-BeMchreibungen . . . 
9on denen Mianonariia der OetdUchaft Jeau, I. viii.. Augs- 
burg, 1728; V. de la Crose, HiaUriredu CkrUHanUme d'EfM- 
ope, . . . The Hagiie, 1739; J. Bruce, Travels to Discover 
the Sources of the NiU, 1768-1775, Edinburgh, 1790 (often 
reiMinted); O. A. Hoskms, Travels in Ethiopia, London, 
1835; C. W. Isenberg and J. L. Krapf, Journals de- 
knhmg tiieir Proceedings in the Kingdom of Shoa, London, 
1843; C. W. Isenberg, Abessinien und die evangelische 
Mission, Bonn. 1844; J. L. Krapf, Travels in East Africa, 
London, 1860; idem. Travels and Missionary Labours in 
Africa and Abyssinia, ib. 1867; Lady Blary E. Herbert, 
Abyssinia and ita Apostle, ib. 1868; J. M. Flad. The Fal- 
ashas of Abyssinia, ib. 1869; idem. Zw6lf Jahre in Abes- 
sinien, 2 vols., Basel. 1869-87 ; A. Dillmann, Die Anfdnge 
des axumiHsehen Reiches, Berlin, 1879; A. Raffray. Les 
tgHsee manoUOiee de la viUe de LaltbUa, Paris. 1882; T- 
Waldmeier, Autotiography, London, 1890; J. T. Bent, 
The Sacred City of the Ethiopians, ib. 1893; A. B. Wylde. 
Modem Abyseinia, ib. 1901; H. Vivian, Abyssinia, ib. 
1901; M. Fowler, Christian Egypt, oh. vii., ib. 1901. For 
the Htmgy. ete.: J. A. Giles, Codex apocryphus Novi Tes- 
tatmnti, ib. 1852; E. Trumpp, Das Taufbuch der athiopi- 
schen Kirehe, Monieh. 1878; C. A. Swainson. Greek Litur- 
gies, Oambridge, 1884; C. von Amhard, Liturgie sum 
Tmaf-Feet der mikiopisehen Kirehe, Munich, 1888. 

ACACIUS, a-k6'shi-u8, OF BERCEA : A monk 
of the monastery of Gindanus near Antioch, after- 
ward abbot of a monastery near Beroea (Aleppo), 
and from 378 bishop of that city; d. about 435. 
He took an active part in the ecclesiastical con- 
troversies of the East, and was one of the principal 
complainants against Chrysostom at the synod 
held in 403 in a suburb of Chalcedon known as 
Ad Quercum. For this reason he fell out with 
Rome, but was acknowledged again by Innocent I. 
in 415. In the Nestorian controversy he occupied 
a mediating position. The Syrian Balseus wrote 
five songs in his praise. His extant writings are 
a letter to Cyril of Alexandria and two to Alexander 
of Hierapolis, as well as a confession of faith (MPO, 
Ixxvii. 1445-48). G. KrOger. 

Biblioorapht: M. Le Quien. Oriens Christianus, ii. 782- 
783, Paris, 1763; G. Bickell, AusgewOhlte Gedichte der sy- 
riachen KirchenvfUer CyrUlonas, Baleeus, ... in Bib- 
liothek der KirchenvfUer, pp. 83-89, Kempten. 1872-73; 
Hefele. Conciliengeschichte, ii. passim; DCB, i. 12-14. 

ACACIUSOFCJESAREA: One of the most influ- 
ential bishops in the large middle party which opposed 
the Nicene Creed during the Arian controversy. He 
was the disciple of Eusebius, and his successor in 
the bishopric of Csesarea. He took part in the 
Eusebian synod at Antioch in the spring of 341, 
and in another at Philippopolis in 343. By the 
orthodox council of Sardica in the same year he was 
regarded as one of the heads of the opposing party, 
and threatened with deposition. Common oppo- 
sition to the Nicene doctrine held the party 
together until about 356. Thus, on the death 
of Maximus of Jerusalem (350 or 351), Acacius 
helped to get the vacant see for Cyril, who belonged 
rather to the opposite wing of the party, the later Ho- 
moiousians or Semi-Arians. That he fell out with 
Cyril and procured his deposition (357 or 358) was due 
partly to jealousy between the two sees, partly to the 
changed attitude of parties under 0)nstantius (351- 
361). The two wings fell apart, and Acacius became 
the leader of the court party, the later Homoians, 
in the East. In 355 he seems to have been one of 
the few Easterns who represented the emperor at 
the Council of Milan; and, according to Jerome, 
his influence with Constantius was so great that he 
had much to do with setting up Felix as pope in 
the place of the banished Liberius. After the so- 
called Second (IJouncil of Sirmium (357) had avoided 
the controverted terms altogether and said nothing 
about the ouaia (" substance ")» it was undoubtedly 
Acacius who at the Council of Antioch (358) influ- 
enced Eudoxius to accept this compromise for the 
East. At the Synod of Seleucia (359) he took a 
prominent part. In obvious concert with the im- 
perial delegates, he seemed to favor what Ursacius 
and Valens tried to carry in the Synod of Ri- 
mini, the acceptance of the so-called third Sirmian 
formula (" similar [homoioa] according to the Scrip- 
tures . . . similar in aU things "). He and his 
party, it is true, expressly condemned the anomoios 
C* dissimilar ") theory, but they omitted the " in all 
things," which agreed as little with the real views 
of Acacius as with those of the Western Homoians. 
The council ended in a schism; the Homoiousian 
majority, in a separate session, deposed Acacius 


-■■■, I of Constantinople 



and other leading Homoians. But he was in touch 
with the court; and at the discuBsionB in Ck>n- 
stantinople which continued those of Seleucia, 
the imperial wishes, represented by Acacius, 
UrsaduSy and Valens, prevailed. He was able to 
celebrate his victory the next year at the Council of 
Constantinople, and commanded the situation in 
the East. With the death of Constantius the day 
of this imperial orthodoxy was done; and under 
Jovian (363-!^) Acacius succeeded in accepting 
the Nicene orthodoxy which was now that of the 
court. His name appears among the signatures 
of those who, at the Synod of Antioch presided over 
by Meletius (363), accepted the Nicene formula 
in the sense of homoios kal* au8ian (" similar as to 
substance "). With the accession of the Arian 
Valens (364), the situation changed once more; 
and apparently Acacius changed with it. He and 
his adherents were deposed by the Homoiousian 
Synod of Lampsacus (365), after which he is heard 
of no more; probably he soon died. He was a 
voluminous writer, but nothing remains except 
the formula of Seleucia, a fragment in Epiphanius 
(Adveraua hoereses, bcxii. 6-10; MPOy xlii. 589-596) 
of his polemic against Marcellus, and scattered 
quotations in some of the Catens. (F. LooiB.) 

Along with Eunomius and Aetius, Acacius may 
be said to have given dialectic completeness to 
Arianism. In their polemics against the Nicene 
Symbol they laid chief stress on the fact that the 
Father was " unbcgotten," depending for his being 
neither upon himself nor another, which could not 
be said of the Son. They insisted also upon the 
complete comprehensibility of God. A. H. N. 

Bibuoorapht: Tillemont, Mhnairett vi. 1609; M. Le Quien, 
Orient ChriatianiUt iii. 559, Paris, 1740; Fabricius-Har- 
Um, viL (1801) 336. ix. (1804) 254. 256; James Raine. 
Priory of Hexham, vol. i., Newcastle, 1864; Hefele, Con- 
caienoe9chichte, i. 677, 712, 714 sqq., 721 sqq., 734-735; 
DCB, i. 11-12. 



ACACIUS OF MELITENE, mel-i-ti'ne: A bitter 
opponent of Nestorius in the Council of Ephesus 
in 431; d. after 437. A homily delivered by him 
at Ephesus and two letters to Cyril are in Af PG, 
Ixxvii. 1467-72. Melit^ne was a town of Armenia 
Secimda, the modem Malatie. G. KrCoer. 

Bibuoorapht: M. Le Quien. Orient ChriaHanuM, i. 441, 
Paris, 1762; Hefele. ConeUienoeschichte, ii. 271. 275. 314; 
DCB, i. 14-15. 

ACCAf akica: Fifth bishop of Hexham (18 m. 
w. of Newcastle, Northumberland); d. there 740. 
He was the devoted friend of Wilfrid of York (q.v.), 
shared his missionary labors in Friesland and 
Sussex, accompanied him to Rome in 704, and 
succeeded him as bishop in 709. He was also the 
intimate friend of Bede, who received help and 
encouragement from Acca in his scholarly labors, 
and dedicated to him his Hexameron and several 
of his commentaries. Acca seems to have been 
worthy of his friends. He completed and adorned 
the buildings begun at Hexham by Wilfrid and 
collected there a large and excellent library. He 
r/as a good musician, and induced a famous singer, 
liaban by name, to come to Hexham and instruct 

the rude Northumbrians. In 732 he was expelled 
from his bishopric for some unknown reason, but 
returned before his death. 
Bibuoorapht: Bede, Hiat ecd., v. 19-20; J. Raine, Priory 

of HexHamA. pp. xzx-xxxv., 31-36, Newcastle, 1864; W. 

Bright, Early Bngliak Church Hittory, pp. 447-448, Ox> 

ford, 1897. 

ACCAD (AKKAD). See Babylonia, IV., { 11. 

ACCEPTANTS: The name of that party which 
in the Jansenist controversy accepted the bull 
UnigenUus, See Janben, Cornelius; Jansenism. 

ACCOLTI, ak-kertt : The name of two cardinals 
who have sometimes been confused. 

1. Pietro Accolti: "The Cardinal of Anco- 
na "; b. at Florence 1455; d. at Rome Dec. 12, 
1532. He studied law, but later entered the Church, 
and was made bishop of Ancona and cardinal by 
Julius II. He was the author of the famous bull 
of 1520 against Luther. 

2. Benedetto Accolti : " The Cardinal of Ra- 
venna," nephew of the preceding; b. at Flor- 
ence, Oct. 29, 1497; d. there Sept. 21, 1549. He 
belonged to the college of abbreviators under Leo 
X., and was made a cardinal by Clement VII. in 
1527. In 1535 Paul III. for some obscure reason 
imprisoned him in the castle of St. Angelo; and 
he obtained his release after some months only by 
payment of a large sum of money. He left some 
Latin writings including a few poems (pubUshed in 
Quinque iUustrium poetarum carmina, Florence, 

Greek Philosophical and Theological Uaaces (| 1). 
Required by Ethics (S 2). 
Negative Accommodation (t 3). 
Poeitive Accommodation (t 4). 
Modern Theory of Accommodation (i 5). 
Untenableness of the Theory (t 6). 
When Accommodation is Admissible (i 7). 
Accommodation and the New Testament ((8). 
Controversy in the Roman Catholic Church (S 9). 

The word '' Accommodation" is used in the- 
ology in two senses : (1) the wider, that of 
a general ethical conception; and (2) the nar- 
rower, by certain writers of the latter half 
of the eighteenth century, in reference to a 
particular method of Biblical exegesis. 
I. Greek The ethical reserve denoted by this 
Philosoph- term was known to the Greek philoso- 
icaland phers as synkalabasis, and the same 
Theological word is used by the Greek Fathers 
Usages, for that method of teaching which ' 
adapts itself to the needs or to the 
preconceived ideas of the scholars; the expression 
kai* oikonomian didaskein is also employed, whence 
the word " economy " is often applied to this 
method by later writers. 

Such accommodation or economy is required 
by ethics in two cases*. (1) when, in a spirit of 
love, it spares a condition of ignorance 
2. Re- existing in another's mind, or (2) when, 
quired by in the same spirit, it keeps back some 
Ethics, truth which the imperfect state of 
development of the other is not ready 
to receive. Love bids to have patience with erring 
or weak consciences, so long as they are uncon- 
scious of their error or weakness, and therefore 



Aoaoins of Oonatautiiiople 

might be more injured than helped by a too hasty 
attack (I Cor. viii. 9-13). The aim must be im- 
provement, not punishment — that one may " by 
all means save some." This consideration, how- 
ever, is not due to conscious and obstinate sin- 
ners, in which case it would be a denial of duty 
for the sake of pleasing men. But this duty has 
it« limits; it imports and enforces certain ethical 
requirements and certain spiritual truths; and in 
both cases its action must be adapted to the ca- 
pacity of the receiver. The very nature of the 
human mind prescribes gradual progress in knowl- 
edge; and thus Christian teaching often requires 
reserve and silence, where strict enforcement of 
the command or full unfolding of the truth might 
give offense. Thus Christ kept back from his 
disciples certain things which they could not yet 
bear (John xvi. 12); and thus Paid does not exact 
the same requirements from all members of the 
churehes under his care (I Cor. vii. 17, 26, 35 sqq.), 
feeding the " babes in Christ " with " milk, and 
not with meat " (I Cor. iii. 2). The Christian 
teacher can not, indeed, preach a different 
gospel to different hearers; but the manner of 
the preaching and the selection of material will 
vaiy with the stages in spiritual growth attained 
by the hearers. To this manner belong such things 
as the popular exposition of the truth, the use of 
comparisons and examples, and argumerUa ad 
hominem. This kind of accommodation is not only 
not blameworthy, but is prescribed by the example 
of Christ. 

The iise of acconunodation in matter, as dis- 
tinguished from manner, is more disputable. It 
may be either negative, diasimulatio, when the 
teacher passes over in silence the existence of 
erroneous ideas in his scliolars; or positive, stmu- 
latio, when he distinctly approves such erroneous 
ideas or consciously sets them forth as the truth, 
with the purpose in both cases of thus leading by 
an indirect road to the truth. Negative accom- 
modation may be justified pedagogically by the 
fact that no teacher is in a position to remove all 
obstacles at one stroke, the gradual process being 
equivalent to a toleration of a certain amount of 
error for the time. Thus no reproach 

3. Nega- can lie against Christ because in some 
'tiTeAccom- particulars he allowed his disciples 
moda- to remain temporarily under the in- 
tion. fluence of false impressions, as long 
as he did this not by declared approval 
and with the distinct looking forward to the time 
when the Spirit of Truth should lead them into all 
truth; this covers the Jewish beliefs and prac- 
tises which they were allowed to retain in his very 
preeenoe. The apostles also tolerated the con- 
tinued existence of numerous ancient errors in their 
converts, being sure that these would fall away 
with thdr gradual growth in Christian knowledge 
(I Cor. ix. 20 sqq.; Rom. xiv. 1 sqq.; Heb. v. 11 

The ease is quite different, however, with regard 
to positive accommodation in the matter of the 
teaching. Theits is no purely objective system of 
commandments, the same for all alike. Ethical 
law is subjective, varying with the individual and 

his cireumstances — position, calling, age, sex, and 
the like. One is not to be a slave to prevailing 
customs, but is bound to take them into account, 
so as not to offend others. The same thing applies 
to prevailing beliefs and views; a 

4. Positive man has to consider that he will be 
Accommo- judged by his contemporaries accord- 

dation. ing to the standards of the time and 
place; nay, that if he is to be imder- 
stood by them at all, he must accommodate himself 
to their standpoint, and speak to a certain extent 
as they speak. This leads to a point which has 
been in the past vehemently discussed by theo- 
logians. The truth just stated was pressed by cer- 
tain writers for the purpose of rendering more 
acceptable their doctrines in regard to revelation. 
It is their attitude which gave rise to the narrower 
meaning of the word *' accommodation." 

A transition to the theory that many things in 
the Bible are to be taken as spoken only in this 
accommodated sense is to be found in the treatise 
of 2iacharia, Erkldrung der Herablasaung GoUes zu 
den Menschen (Schwerin, 1762): it asserted that 
the revelations of God in the Old Testament, the 
establishment of the old and new covenants, the 
incarnation of Christ — in other words, the facts of 
revelation in general — were only set forth as an 
** accommodation " of God to men. It was seen 
that this struck at the very root of the Christian 
faith; and the question was hotly discussed how 
far many Biblical expressions were mere conces- 
sions to the ideas prevalent at the 

5. Modem time. The controversy lasted imtil the 
Theory of rise of the modem critical school, 
Accommo- early in the nineteenth century, af- 

dation. forded an easier way of meeting the 
difficulties which these theologians 
had thus sought to avoid. With the help of their 
theory, such writers as Behn, Senf, Teller, Van 
Hemert, and Vogel sought to bring about a harmony 
between their views of reason and the Scriptural 
expressions. Thus, for example, they got rid of 
the Messianic prophecies which, they said, Jesus 
referred to himseU merely to convince the Jews 
that he was the Messiah, without himself believing 
that they were written of the Messiah; the doc- 
trine of angels and devils was simply a use of the 
common conceptions; that of the atonement be- 
comes only a condescension of the same kind to 
popular ideas, intended to reconcile the Jews to 
the loss of their sacrifices. 

In more recent times this theory has been in- 
creasingly recognized as scientifically and theo- 
logically untenable. It is, of course, 

6. tJnten- obvious that many expressions of 
ableness Christ and the apostles relate to merely 

of the local and temporal cireumstances, 
Theory. and do not contain permanent rules 
of conduct. The apparent contra- 
dictions between revelation and the facts of physics 
and chemistry offer no more difficulty; Christ did 
not come to teach natural science; and he was 
obliged to adapt himself to current forms of ex- 
pression in order to be imderstood, just as one 
speaks of the rising and setting of the sun, when 
he knows it is the motion of the earth and not that 




of the Bun which i9 referred to. But there is no 
case of conceBsion to real error^ still lees of assertion 
of errDr^ in any of this accommodation. 

As to the general ethical use of accommodation , 

a case may arise in which one 10 

7. When bound by liie law of love not to moke 

Accommo- uj^e of a liberty whicb in the abstract 

dation IB he possesses, lest the weaicer brethren 

AdmiBsible. should be scandalised. From this 

point of view Paul lays down his rule 
in regard to the eating of meats offered to idols 
(I Cor viii. 13). In like manner one may be bounds 
Uke Paul again f by the love of hia neighbor to 
do iora ©thing he would not othensiflc do (Acts 
xvi, 3^ Kxi. 17 sqq.), Paul's acceptance of Tim- 
othy's circumcision was no concession to error; 
he did not cease to teach that tlie rite was unnec- 
trssary for Gentile converts^ and he stoutly resisted 
an attempt to impose it on Titus (Gal. ii. S-5)- 
Limitationa which he willingly imposed on his own 
personal liberty in the accommodation of pastoral 
wisdom would have been unworthy weattiesa if 
he had yielded to them when imposed by others 
when the circumstances did not jm^tify them. 
This is the standpoint of the Fonrnda CtmcarditE 
(art. X.) in reference to the Adiaphora (q*v.)» ^^ 
such matters, what in itself is innocent and may 
be used with Christian freedom becomes, when it 
is sought to be impo^d as an obligation, an attack 
on evan^lical Uberty which must be resisted. 


The theory of theological accommodation^ so 
far as it is drawn from the New Testament, grows 
out of a particular conception of the knowledge of 
Christ and the scope of inspiration. (1) If one 
holds that Chrifit possessed complete knowledge 
of all matters relating to the natural 

8. Accom- world, the Old T<^tanient, the events 
™™J^^° of his own lime, and the futme of the 

Wbw Tos^- kingdom of God od earth, he may 
jn^„* affirm either that all of Chris t*s teach- 
ing on these subjects is authoritative 
and final , or else that in many instances he fitted 
his teaching to the immediate needs of his hearers; 
in the latter case, one could not be sure as to the 
precise nature of the objective fact, (2) If, how- 
ever, it be alleged that Jesus's intelligence followed 
the laws of hunum growth, that he shared the 
common aeientific, historical, and critical beliefs of 
hia day, and that for u» his knowledge is restricted 
to the spiritual content of reveSstion, then his 
allusions to the natural worid. to persons, eveats, 
books, and authors of the Old Testament, to demons, 
and the like are to be interpreted according to 
universal laws of human intelligence; thus the 
principle of accommodation drops away. (3) In 
like maimer, inspiration may be conceived of either 
as equipping the sacred writers with an accurate 
knowledge concerning all things to which they 
refer, and yet leading them to fit their communica- 
tions to the temporary prejudice or ignorance of 
their readers, or as quickening their eonscrousness 
concerning spiritual truths while they were left 
unillumined about matters which belong to literary, 
historical, or scientific inquiry. It is thus exndent 
tk«t- the question of theological accommodation in | 

the New T^tament turns in part on a aolution of 
two previous questions — -the content of our Lord 'a 
knowledge f and the scope of inspiration in the au- 
thors of the various books (cf . C, J, Ellicott, ChristuM 
ComfTobaior^ London, 1892; J. Moorbouse, The 
Teaching of ChrUt, ib. 1892; H. C, Powell, The 
Principte of the Incamalion, ib. 1896; G. B. Stev- 
ens, The. Theology of the New Te&Uiment, New York, 
1899; L. A. Muirheadi The Eachatology of Jesus, 
London, 1904), C. A. B, 

Under the title '^ Accommodation Controversy " 
is also frequently understood the long and 
bitter dispute between the JesuiM and the 
Dominicans as to the extent of lawful con* 
cessions to the prejudices of their 
9, Contro- pagan hejirens by missionaries- The 
versy in the Jesuits were the first to preach Chris- 
Roman tianity in China^Xa\ier went there 
Catholic in 1552. They were attacked by the 
Church^ Dominicans and Franciscans 1 when, 
forty years lat-er, these orders entered 
the same 6eld, on the charge of having made an 
improper compromise vnth Chinese beliefs, espe- 
cially in regard to the practise of ancestor worship 
and to the name adopted to designate the Supreme 
Being in Chinese. They maintaine^l, however, that 
such concessions were an inevitable condition of 
the toleration of Christian missions in the em- 
pire. Tlie " Chinese rites " were provisionally 
forbidden by Innocent X* in 1645, but were again 
tolerated by Alexander VIL in 1656, on the ground 
that they might be regarded as purely civil cere* 
monies. Clement IX* took a middle course in 
1669; but at the end of the century the controversy 
broke out with renewed violence, to be terminated 
only by a bull of Clement XL in 1715, absolutely 
prohibiting the " Chinese rites/' The legate 
Mezzabarba attempted to mitigate the strict en- 
forcement of this ruhng; but Benedict XIV- con- 
firmed it in 1742, with the result of provokirig a 
severe persecution which almost exterminated 
Christianity in Cliina. A somewhat similar contro- 
versy raged in the eighteenth century over the 
BO^alled Malabar rites^ terminated in the same 
sense by the bvdl Omnium BotficUitdinum of Bene- 
dict XIV. (1742), the pope refusingt even at the 
cost of imperihng the future of missions, to per- 
mit any compromise vnth paganism, A heated con- 
troversy on the general subject of accommodation 
w*as provoked in England by the publication of No. 
80 in the Oxford Tractji for the Times, On Bej^erve 
in Communk4Sling Religioits Knowledge, ttTitten 
by Isaac Williams {q.vO, which caused the author 
to be accused of Jesuitical and un-Englieh insin- 
cerity, and provoked additional antagonism to 
the Oxford movement. 

Biblioqhapht: On the eenenl iubiectt K, F. 8enBft Ver- 
wucK fldrr die Herahhmna Gott^ fu d^n Mmtchen, Leip- 
sic. 17»2; W, A. Teller, IN* Relioion der VfAUcammem, 
Eerlin, 1702; P. van Hemert. Attammodt^Umi Dortoiund* 
IT97. On the Acbommoflaiion Cbfitrovemy: G, Dmiuei* 
HUtoirt ^pologHujue dr la rumfuite det€9 df la Chine, 
m Retu^ det div^a aufratfa, voL iiL,3 void,, Parii*, 1724; 
T, M. Mftmarhi. Originum et ontiquitatum chrixtianamm 
tibri T3-* ii. 373. 424, 425-A2^, 441-442; 6 vols.. Rome. 
1743-551 0> Fni>\ Histana t^ntrorertiitrum de riHtvt 
«HcuUi Bud«p«al. urn. 




Church of Germany; b. at Bremen Jan. 13, 1838. 
He studied theology at Heidelberg and Halle from 
1857 to 1860, and was pastor successively at Arsten 
near Bremen (1860-62), Hastedt, a suburb of Brem- 
en (1862-75), and Barmen-Unterbarmen (1875- 
82). Since 1882 he has been professor of practical 
theology in the University of Marbiirg. He is 
president of the Marburg branch of the Evange- 
lischer Bundf a member of the Freie deuische evan- 
ffelische KonferenZf and since 1888 has been the 
representative of the University of Marburg at the 
Hessian General Synod at Cassel, while in 1897 he 
was appointed a royal Konsistorudrat. He was 
created a knight of the Order of the Red Eagle, 
fourth class, in 1896 and of the Order of the Prus- 
sian Crown in 1905. His theological position is 
that of " the ancient faith, but modem theology." 
His ^Titings, in addition to numerous articles in 
the Allgemeine detUsche Biographie and other stand- 
ard works of reference, as well as monographs in 
theological magazines, include: Die biblischen Thal- 
Bochen und die religiose Bedeutung ihrer Geschicht- 
lichkeU (Gotha, 1869); Der Krieg im LichU der 
christlichen Moral (Bremen, 1871); Die Bergpredigt 
nach Matthdiu und Lukas, exegetisch und krUisch 
uniersuchi (Bielefeld, 1875); Parteiweaen und Evan- 
gelium (Barmen, 1878); Die Entstehungszeit van 
Luthere geistlichen Liedem (Marburg, 1884); Die 
evangeliache Predigt eine Grosamacht (1887); A us 
dem akademischen Gottesdienst in Marburg (1888; 
a collection of sermons delivered in 1886-88); Die 
GestaUung des evangelischen GoUesdienstes (Herbom, 
1888); Gottfried Menkera HomUien in Auswahl 
und mii Einleitung (2 vols., Gotha, 1888); Chris- 
tusreden (3 vols., Freiburg, 1890-97; new edition, 
in 1 vol., Leipsic, 1898; collected sermons); Lehr- 
buck der praktischen Theologie (2 vols., Freiburg, 
1890-91; revised edition, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1898); 
Zur SymMfrage (Berlin, 1892); Grundriss der 
praktischen Theologie (Freiburg, 1893; 5th ed., 
1903); Achelis und Lachese : Die Homiletik und 
die Katechetik des Andreas Hyperius, verdeutscht 
und mil Einleitungen versehen (Berlin, 1901); 
Bjomsons Utber unsere Kraft und das Wesen des 
Christentums (1902); and Der Dekalog als kaU- 
chetisches LehrstUck (Giessen, 1905). 

ACHELIS, HANS: Reformed Church of Ger- 
many; b. at Bremen Mar. 16, 1865. He studied 
at Erlangen, Berlin, and Marburg (Ph.D., Marburg, 
1887); became privat-docent at Gdttingen in 1893; 
was appointed professor there in 1897; went to 
Kdnigsberg in 1901, and to Halle in 1907. His 
theological position is that of a '' modem repre- 
sentative of the ancient faith." He has published: 
Das Symbol des Fisches (Marburg, 1888); Acta 
sanctorum Nerei et AchiUei (TU, Leipsic, 1890); 
Die dltesten Queilen des orientalischen Kirckm" 
rechts, I. Canones Hippclyti (1891), II. Die syri- 
sehen Didaskalia, Obersetzt und erkldrt (1903; in col- 
laboration with J. Flemming); Hippdyt-studien 
(1897); Die Martyrologien, ihre Geschichte und ihr 
Wert (Berlin, 1900); Virgines subintroducta, Ein 
Beitrag zu I. Kor, vii (Leipsic, 1902); and an 
edition of the worics of Hippolytus, in collabora- 
tion with G. L. Bonwetsch (Leipsic, 1897). 

ACHERY, a^shft^'ri', JEAH LUC d' (Dom Luc 
d'Achery; Lat. Dacherius): Benedictine; b. at 
St. Quentin (80 m. n.e. of Paris), Picardy, 1609; 
d. in Paris Apr. 29, 1685. He entered the Bene- 
dictine order while still very young, and in 1632 
joined the congregation of St. Maur at Venddme. 
He was of weak constitution and suffered much 
physically, which led his superiors to send him 
to Paris. There he became librarian of St. Ger- 
main-des-Pr6s, and for forty- five years lived solely 
for his books and scholarly work. He took es- 
pecial delight in searching out unknown books 
and bringing unprinted manuscripts to publication, 
and was ever ready to help others from his vast 
store of learning. His chief work was the Spici- 
legium veterum aliquot scriptorum qui in GaUia 
bibliotheciSf maxime Benedictinorumf latuerant (13 
vols., Paris, 1655-77; 2d ed., by De la Barre, with 
comparison of later-found manuscripts by Baluze 
and Martdne, 3 vols., 1723, better arranged but less 
correct). He edited the fiirst edition of the EpisUe 
of Barnabas (1645), the life and works of Lanfranc 
(1648), the works of Guibert of Nogent (1651), 
and the Regula solitariorum of a certain priest 
Grimlaic (1656); he compiled a catalogue of ascetic 
writings (1648); and he gathered the material for 
the Acta sanctorum ordinis S. Benedicti, which was 
published by his scholar and assistant, Mabillon 
(9 vols., 1668-1701), and for which the latter has 
usually received the credit. (C. Pfender.) 

Biblioorapht: L. E. Dupin. Btblioth^que dea autmir§ ecclS- 
aiaatiquet, xviii. 1445, Amsterdam ed.; Tassin, HUUtim 
litUraire ds la congriffation d§ St. Maur, pp. 103 sqq.. Brua- 
sek, 1770. 

Hermes, Georo. 

ACCEMETI, a-sem'e-toi ora"cai-m6'ti,-t6 (" Sleep- 
less"): An order of monks who sang the divine 
praises in their monasteries night and day without 
cessation, dividing themselves into three choirs 
for the purpose and undertaking the service in 
rotation. A certain Alexander (ASB, Jan., i. 
1018-28) founded their first monastery on the 
Euphrates about the year 4(X), and a second at 
Constantinople. The abbot Marcellus spread the 
custom in the East. Monks from his monastery 
were transferred in 459 by the consular Studius 
to the monastery newly founded by him in Con- 
stantinople and called, after his name, the Studium, 
which later became famous. The members of the 
order are sometimes called Studites. In the con- 
troversy with the Theopaschites (q.v.) they opposed 
the views of the papal legate, and in 534 they were 
disavowed and excommunicated by Pope John II. 

G. KrCoer. 

ACOLYTE: A member of the highest of the 
minor orders of the Roman Catholic Church. The 
order was established in the fourth or fifth decade 
of the third century, at the same time as the other 
minor orders, probably by Pope Fabian (236-250), 
but was not known to the East. The name (from 
the Gk. akolouthoSf " a follower, attendant ") 
indicates that the acolyte was originally the per- 
sonal attendant of the bishop or of the presbyters. 
In this capacity he appears in (Dyprian's epistles, 
where acolytes carry letters and fraternal gifts as 




directed by tbeir biabop; and the same thing m 
seeo ill Augustine's time. This close connection 
with the higher cler^ explains the posit ioa of ibe 
acolytes at the head of the minor orders. In tbe 
year 25 1 tbe local Roman Church had not less than 
forty-two acolytes (Eusebius, Hist, €e(^., VI, xlili^ 
11). When the canonical age for the different 
orders was fixed^ acolytes were required to be under 
tbirty (Sirieius, Ad Himenum, xiii,; 385 a.i>0^ In 
tbe Middle Age-s tbe liturgical functions of the 
acolyte aj^umed greater prominence, including the 
charge of the altar-lights and the euchariatic wine. 
In Rome the acolytes were divided by special align- 
ment among tbe various churches and regiQne9 of 
tbe city. Since tbe clo^ of the Middle Ages, the 
order has bad only a nominal existence, tbougb 
tbe Council of Trent (Session xxiii., Be reform. ^ 
xviiO expressed a desire to see it restored to 
its former practical activity » In his investigation 
of the origin of the minor orders, Hamack has 
given Fabian as tbe founder of that of the acolytes; 
but he considers that it was an imitation of the 
pag^n ritual system ^ in which special attendants 
(calatGres) were aaaigned to tbe priests. However » 
this and the other minor orders may perfectly well 
have grown out of tbe needs of tbe Church without 
any copying of the pagan system, H. Acbeub. 

Since the Middle Ages tbe order heus been under- 
stood as conferring the right to act as official assist- 
ant of tbe subdeaoon in a solemn mass. No 
canonical age is now explicitly prescribed, but 
the requirement of a knowledge of Latin excludes 
tbe very young, J, T. C* 

Brst.tOdaArRT; Bin^bMm, Orioi7»e», book i.; J. MBbillun. 
MuKum lialwum^ ii. S4, Part^n 16£7-S&; U A. Muraton, 
Liturffia Romana vriuM, ii. 407, Vf^nic^, tT48; A. IlamAck:, 
IHb Q-urlkndrt iu^rnannien ^potUtliitJitsn Kirchenafdnung 
neb9t einer UnUrBuchung Qber dU Vrrprunff dej LectpraU 
Mfid d^ andtr^n ntttferm WtiJum, TU^ ii. 5 (1SS6), 94 aqq^; 
H. Bohm. Kirdienrecht, L 128^137« Leipsic, 1S02. 

ACOSTA, J0S£ DE: Jesuits b. at Medina del 
Campo ('J6 m. s.s.w. of Valladoljd)^ Spain, about 
1639; d. at Salamanca as rector of the univermty 
Feb, 11, 1600, He joined the Jesuits as early as 
1553. In 1571 he went to the West Indies and 
later became second provincial of Peru, He wrote 
Confestionario para loa curaa de Indios, in Kechua 
and Aymara (1583), perhaps tbe 6mt book printed 
at limia; a catechism in Spanish and tbe native 
tongues (Lima, 1585); Dc naltira n&vi orhis ei de 
prtfrnulgatione evangelii apud barbaros (Salamanca, 
15S9), which he afterward translated into Spanifsh 
and incorporated in tbe Hisioria nofuro/ y nuiral 
de h» Indias (Seville, 1590; Eng. transl, The Nat- 
ural and Moral History of tM East and Weei Indies, 
London, 16(M), one of the most valuable of ihe 
early works on America; De ChrUlo revelalo et de 
iemporibitt ruyviMtmie (Rome, 1590); Concilium 
pravindole Ldmense in anno MDLXXXllL ( Ma- 
drid < 1590); Condonum tomi Hi, (Ssiamanca, 1596) 

ACOSTA, tmiEL (ariginally Gabriel da Costa) - 
Jewish rationalist; b> at Oporto, Portugal, 1594; 
d, at Amsterdam 1647. He belonged to a noble 
family of Jewish origin but Christian confession, 
and was educated as a Roman Catholic, In early 
itiajihood he wished to return to tbe faith of hw 

fathers; aod^ as an open change from Chriatiaiiity 
to Judaism was not allowed in Portugal, tie fled to 
Amsterdam^ where he was circumcised and admitted 
to tbe synagogue. Disappointed in the teaching 
and practise of the AmBt4?rdam Jews, he critici*ed 
them unsparingly; in particular he aroused their 
resentment by declaring that the Law made no 
mention of the immortality of the soul or a future 
life. After the publication of bis Ezajnitfi dos 
tradi^oem phariaeas conferidas con a ley eserila 
(1624) they put him out of the synagogue and 
brought him to trial before the magistrates on a 
charge of atheism. He was imprisoned, fined, and 
his book was burned. After some yean be made 
pubUe recantation of bis alleged errors, wai scourged 
in tbe synagogue, and trampled upon at the door. 
According to rumor, he died by his own hand^ 
He left an autobiography, Exemplar hnmante vitiEt 
publiahed by Philip Limborch (Gouda, 1887; repub- 
lished in Latin and German, with introduction, 
Leipsic, 1847), 

BtsuoaftAPmr: T. Whiston, Th* RemarkabU Life of Uriet 
Ac&tta, a-n Eminent Frtt-Thinktr . London, 1740; H. Jek 
Unek, U. AtatUi'§ L«dcn itnd /^r«. ZerbAt, 1^7; L da 
CofftA^ l9r<Kl m da iroike^ Haarlem, 1B4^. Enj;. trantL, 
London, 1S60; H. Gnusti. GeKhickSt d^r Jud^n, 3d ed., x, 
120-128, 3M-40L 

ac'ta mflr'tei^uin, ac'ta sano"t6'ruro, 

J, Acta of Martyn. 

AvtH. mATtynim mncers {f 1). 

Legv^iidary Arts (f 2). 

CaJondiin* ttbd G^ta martynun (f 3). 
IL HbtqrieB of the SainU. 

In the Churchiss of th» Ea^t (f 1). 

In tbe WoBtern Church ((2). 

en«jiflb Uvea of Bninle (| 3), 

By Acta Martyrum and 4ctoSaw:^onim are meant 

collections of biographies of holy persons, especially 

of the older Chvjrch, The former title refers par* 

ticularly to those wbo have suffered death for the 

faith; the latter is more general, including all 

"saints," i,e., Christians canonic by tbe Church 

on account of their eminently pious and pure lives. 

1* Acts of Martyrs (Acta sim paseiortes mar- 

tyrum ; Martyrohgia): The oldest authentic 

sources for tbe history of the early martym are the 

court records of the Roman empire {Acta procon- 

aularia^ prt^eidi^ia). They are not preserved in 

tbeir original form, but more or less complete 

extracts from them constitute tbe kernel of tbe 

passion histories recorded by Christian hands; 

and they are acknowledged to be tbe authentic 

bsses of these histories (cf, the works of Le Blant 

and Egli cited below), which, so far as they are 

baaed upon these ofEcial documents and thus 

demonstrate that they belong to the 

I, Acta class of ada martyrum itincera, are 

Marty mm either written in the form of a letter 

Sincera* or are devotional narratives without 

tbe epistolary character {paeBione$t 

gtata mattytum). Tbe former clasa includes the 

oldest of these histories; the cliief examples are: 

the PoAsiiO Polycarpi, in a letter of the congregation 

of Smyrna^ of which extracts are given by Euse- 

bius (Hiat.eed.jW, xv\ while the complete text is 

handed down in five Greek manuscripts; tbe letter 

of tbe churches of Lyons and Yienne to the Chiis^ 




tians of Asia and Phiygia concerning their sufferingB 
under Marcus Aurelius in 177 (Eusebius, Hist. 
eecl,, V. i.-iii.); the report of the Alexandrian bishop 
Dionysius to the Antiochian Fabianus on the suf- 
ferings of the Christians of his church during the 
persecutions under Dedus (Eusebius, Hist, ecd., 
VI. xli.-xlii.); and certain reports concerning 
North- African martyrs and confessors of the same 
time, in Cyprian's collection of epistles (xx., xxi., 
xxii., xxvii., xxxix., xl., etc.). 

Passions in narrative form are more numerous. 
Among the oldest and historically most important 
are: From the second century, the Acta Justini 
philosopki et martyris ; the Acta Carpi, Papyli, 
et AgaihaniccB (cf. Eusebius, IV. xv. 48); the 
Passio sanctorum Scilitanorum of the year 180, a 
report of the martyrdom at Carthage of six Numidian 
Christians under the proconsul Vigellius Satumi- 
nus July 17, 180, distinguished by itB strictly 
objective form, reproducing the official proconsuhur 
acts without Christian additions; the Acta Apol- 
lonii, belonging to the time of Conunodus (cf. 
Eusebius, V. xxi.). To the third century be- 
long the Passio Perpetucs et Felicitatis, covering 
the martyrdom of certain Carthaginian Christians, 
belonging probably to Tertullian's congregation, 
Mar. 7, 203; the martyrdom of Pionius (cf. Euse- 
bius, IV. XV. 47), of Achatius, and of CJonon, all 
three belonging to the epoch of Decius; the Acta 
proconstUaria which record the trial and execution 
of Cyprian of Carthage under Valerianus, Sept. 14, 
258. Finally, belonging to the beginning of the 
fourth century (the time of persecution under Dio- 
cletian and his coemperors, 303-323), there are 
the records collected by Eusebius, which now form 
an appendix to book VIII. of his church history, 
and treat of the Palestinian martyrs of that time, 
as well as somewhat numerous martyria of the period, 
to which must be ascribed a greater or less histor- 
ical value (such as the TestamerUum xl martyrum 
from Sebaste in Annenia, belonging to the time of 
Licinius, the newly discovered Greek text of which 
has full doctmientaiy value). 

Much greater than the number of such acta mar- 
tyrum sincera sive genuina is that of the non-authen- 
tic histories of martyrs which contain 
a. Legend- little or nothing of contemporaneous 

aiy Acts, notices and have an essentially leg- 
endary character. To these belong, 
among others: two accounts of the martyrdom of 
Ignatius of Antioch; the Martyrium Colbertinum 
and the Martyrium Vaticanum; the Acta Nerei 
et AchiUei ; the Passio Felicitalis et septem filiorum ; 
the Acta S. Cypriani et Justinas ; the legends of 
St. Agnes, St. Cecilia, St. Catherine, St. Maurice 
(qq. v.), and others. 

After the cessation of persecutions the memory 
of the martyrs was cherished mainly by two kindis 
of written records: (1) calendaria, i.e., lists of the 
names of martyrs in calendar form for the purpose 
of fixing their memorial days for the liturgical use 
of individual congregations or greater church 
dioceses; (2) more detailed memorial books {gesta 
martyrum) for the purpose of private devotion and 
instruction, incorporating also longer passion nar- 
ratives, and avoiding as much as possible the 

putting together of mere names in calendary statis- 
tical form. Of the latter kind may have been that 
copious collection of martyrological material from 
all branches of the Church which Euseb\us com- 
posed in addition to the booklet on the Palestinian 
martyrs already mentioned (cf. his references to 
this collection. Hist, eccl.^ IV. xv. 47; V. Proem., 
iv. 3; also V. xxi. 5), but which was 
3. Calen- lost at a very early period (cf. Greg- 
dariaand ory the Great, Epist., yui. 29). Bio- 
Gesta Mar- graphical and other notices were 
tyrum. gradually added to the names of the 
martyrs in many of the calendaria; 
and by such inclusion of general hagiological matter 
they somewhat approached the character of the 
devotional reading-books. This enrichment of the 
calendaria with material not strictly martyr- 
ological in its nature (i.e., additions of a nar- 
rative character, not mere names) commenced in 
the West. While a calendarium of the Syriac 
Church from the year 412 (ed. W. Wright, 1865) 
still shows a strictly martyrological character, the 
old calendar of the Roman congregation from the 
year 354 (ed. ^gidius Bucher, Antwerp, 1633; 
T. Mommsen, in Abhandlungen der sdchsischen 
GeseUschaft der Wissenschaften, 1850) gives, besides 
the names of martyrs, those of Roman bishops 
(twelve in number). The same is true of the Calm- 
darium Africanum vetus from the year 500, 
edited by Mabillon (Vetera Analecta, iii. 398 sqq.). 
The martyrologium of the Church of Rome men- 
tioned by Gregory the Great in his epistle to Eu- 
logius of Alexandria (Epist., viii. 29) consisted of 
martyrological and non-martyrological (especially 
papal) elements, and had even admitted the older 
Roman festival calendar. The so-called Martyro- 
logium Hieronymianum is an enlarged revision of 
this Roman calendar. In its present form it is a 
compilation edited about the year 600 at Auxerre 
in Gaul; but it was previously recast in upper 
Italy, as is indicated in the correspondence of the 
alleged author Jerome, with the bishops Chroma^ 
tins of Aquileia and Heliodorus of Altinum, which 
stands at the beginning. It is a medley of names 
of places and saints, data of martyrs, and the like, 
collected from older local and provincial calendars. 
The Syriac calendarium already mentioned was 
used (in a somewhat enlarged form) by the com- 
piler as a source of information for the East; for 
North Africa a Calendarium Carthaginense (proba- 
bly from pre-Vandalic times) was used; and for 
Rome, no doubt, the Roman martyrologium to 
which Gregory the Great referred. Jerome proba- 
bly contributed nothing to the collection (cf. the 
critical edition of the work, ed. J. B. de Rossi and 
L. Duchesne, from numerous manuscripts, in 
ASB, Nov., ii., 1894, and the criticism of B. Krusch 
in Neues Archiv fur dltere deutsche Geschichtskunde, 
XX., 1895, 437-440). To still later times belong 
similar compilations ascribed to the Venerable 
Bede, to Florus Magister of Lyons (c. 840), to the 
abbot Wandelbert of PrUm (848), and others (see 
below, II., 2). 

II. Histories of the Saints (Acta sive vUcb sanc- 
torum) : From the end of the fourth century, 
under the influence of the Vita patrumt dissemi- 

Acta Martynun 



nated at first from the Eastern but soon also from 
the Western monasteries, true biographies of the 
saints became much more numerous. The bi- 
ographies contained in the Historia monachorum of 
Rufinus, the Historia Lausiaca of Palladius, the 
Historia religiosa of Theodoret, as well as in other 
works like the Praium spirituale of Johannes 
Moschus, and the VUcb patrum and Ldbri miracu- 
lorum of Gregory of Tours, furnish much more 
devotional matter than the histories of martyrs of 
former centuries. This hagiological literature, of 
monastic origin, had the advantage that it was not 
so much exposed to suspicion of falsification by 
heretics or the incompetent (tdiotce) as were pro- 
ductions of the older passion literature (the reading 
of which in divine service in the Roman Church 
was forbidden by edict of Gelasius I. in 494). 
Under the influence of the new kind of biographies 
of monks and hermits a general hagiological ele- 
ment entered also to an ever-increasing degree into 
the martyrological collections of the older type, 
and thus brought about their constant expansion. 

In the Churches of the East, the older calendary 

statistical form of the compilations, confining 

itself to martyrological material proper 

I. In the and serving only liturgical purposes, 

Churches was still cultivated, especially in the 
of the so-called menologiaf or montUy regis- 
East. ters, as well as in the liturgical arUho- 
logia (" collections "). But besides 
these arose hagiological collections of considerable 
copiousness: the mencBa arranged in a calendary 
form and divided according to months; and shorter, 
condensed synaxaria (from synaxis, " religious 
gathering ") or extracts. In the Byzantine Church 
the large collection of legends by Simeon Meta- 
phrastes (10th cent.), which is preserved in a 
greatly revised and corrupt form, exercised much 
influence (see Simeon Metaphrastes). Of the 
editors of the martyrologies and mencBa literature 
of the Syriac Church in the earlier time, Stephan 
Evodius Assemani (q.v.) deserves mention, more 
recently Paul Bedjan (Acta martyrum et sanctorum 
Syriace, 7 vols., Paris, 1890-97); of those of the 
Russian Orthodox Church, Joseph Simonius Asse- 
mani (q.v.), and in recent times J. E. Martinov 
{Annus ecdesiasticus Grceco-Slavicus, Brussels, 1863, 
—ASB, Oct., xi. 1-385) and V. Jagic (" The Menaea 
of the Russian Church from Manuscripts of 1095- 
97," St. Petersburg, 1886, Russian); of those of the 
Armenian Church, the Mekhitarists (q.v.), who 
published a martyrologium in two volumes at Venice 
in 1874; and of those of the Coptic Church, H. 
Hyvemat {Les Actes des martyrs de VjSgyptef Paris, 
1886 sqq.). 

In the Western Church, during the Middle 
Ages the hagiological literature, critically con- 
sidered, deteriorated. Ado of Vienne and Usuardus 
(both c. 870); the author of the Martyrologium 
Sangalense (c. 900); Wolfard of Herrieden (c. 910); 
later, especially Jacobus de Voragine (d. 1298), 
author of the so-called " Golden Legend," and Petrus 
de Natalibus (d. 1382), author of a Catalogue sane- 
torum (often reprinted since 1493), are the main 
representatives of the writers of this legendary 
literature, of whose eccentricities and extravagan- 

cies humanists and reformers often complain. 
Since the end of the fifteenth century c^orta 

have been made to publish critically 
2. In the genuine and older texts. Early at- 
Westem tempts were: the Sanctuarium of 
ChurclL Boninus Mombritius (Venice, 1474; 

Rome, 1497); the first (and only) vol- 
ume of the Martyrum agones of Jacobus Faber Stapu- 
lensis (1525); and the De probatis sanctorum his- 
toriis of the Carthusian Laurentius Surius (d. 1578; 
arranged according to the calendar; 6 vols, folio, 
Cologne, 1570 sqq.; 2d ed., 7 vols., 1581 sqq.). 
As concerns the abimdance of matter and critical 
treatment of the documents, these first labors of 
modem times are far surpassed by the gigantic 
hagiological work the Acta Sanctorum quotquot toto 
orbe coluntur, the publication of which began at Ant- 
werp in 1643. It was conceived by the Jesuit 
Heribert Rosweyde (q.v.); and after his death 
(1629) was imdertaken by Jan Bolland and others. 
From the name of the first actual editor it is gen- 
erally known as the Acta Sanctorum Bollandi or 
BoUandistarum (cited in this encyclopedia as ASB). 
With the exception of a period somewhat less than 
fifty years, consequent upon the disturbances of 
the French Revolution, the labor of preparation 
and publication has proceeded continuously to 
the present time, when the editors (following the 
calendary arrangement) are engaged upon the 
month of November (see Bolland, Jan, Bolland- 
istb). More or less valuable are the extracts from 
the Bollandist main work in collections like that 
of Alban Butler (The Ldves of the Fathers, Mar- 
tyrs, and Other Principal Saints, 4 vols., London, 
1756-59; see Butler, Alban), his French imitator, 
the Abb6 J. F. Godescard (Vies des Peres, des mar- 
tyrs et autres principaux saints, traduit librement de 
Vanglais d* AWan Butler, 12 vols., Paris, 1763 sqq.), 
and A. Rass and N. Weiss, the German successors 
of both Butler and Godescard (Leben der HeUigen, 
23 vols., Mainz, 1823 sqq.); mention may also be 
made of a later French work by Paul Gu^rin, Les 
Petits BoUandistes (7th ed., 18 vols., Paris, 1876). 
In lexical form the lives of the saints are treated 
by the Abh6 P^tin (Dictionnaire hagvographique, 
2 vols., Paris, 1850) and J. E. Stadler and F. J. 
Heim (Vollstdndiges HeUigen lexikon, 5 vols., Augs- 
burg, 1858 sqq.). There are also hagiological 
collections devoted to the members of particular 
orders, of which the Acta Sanctorum ordinis S. Bene- 
dicti of J. Mabillon and others (9 vols., Paris, 1668- 
1701) is the most important. O. Z5cKLERt. 

The best-known work in English is that of Alban 
Butler, already mentioned. It is written in a 
heavy eighteenth century style. Much pleasanter 
reading is the work of Sabine Baring-(>ould, The 
Lives of the Saints (15 vols., London, 1872-77; 
new illustrated ed., revised and enlarged, 16 vols., 
1897-98). The author is a High-church Anglican, 
not untouched by the modem critical spirit. He 
states in his introduction that his work is not 
intended to supplant Butler, being prepared on 
somewhat di£ferent lines. Butler " confined his 
attention to the historical outlines of the saintly 
lives, and he rarely filled them in with anecdote. 
Yet it IS the little details of a man's life that give 



Acta Kartirriun 

it character and impress themselves on the mem- 
ory. People forget the age and parentage of 

St. Gertrude, but they remember 

3« Eng- the mouse running up her staff.'' The 

lish Lives style is diversified by occasionally in- 

of Saints, troducing translations and accounts by 

other writers. The Sanctorale Catho- 
licum, or Book of Saints ^ by Robert Owen (London, 
1880), is a single octavo volume of 516 pages, pro- 
vided with critical, exegetical, and historical notes. 
The SamU in Christian AH (3 vols., London, 1901- 
04), by Mrs. Arthur George Bell (n^ Nancy Meu- 
gens, known also by the nam de plume " N. d'An- 
vera "), contains sketches of the lives of the saints 
treated, written with little discrimination as to 
sources and in an uncritical, credulous spirit. The 
Saints and Servants of God is a series of lives, origi- 
nal and translated, edited by Frederick William 
Faber and continued by the Congregation of St. 
Philip Neri (42 vols., London, 1847-56). A second 
series was begun in 1873, in which the lives for 
the most part are translations of those drawn up 
for the processes of canonization or beatification. 
Another series, consisting of single-volume lives 
of various saints, specially prepared by modem 
writers, is being issued in authorized English trans- 
lation imder the editorship of Henri Joly for the 
original (French) volumes, and of the Rev. Father 
George Tyrrell, S.J., for the translations (Paris 
and London, 1898 sqq.). 

A number of works are devoted to saints of the 
British Isles. As to the older works of this charac- 
ter Baring-Gould remarks (Introduction, i., pp. 
xxix.-xxx., ed. 1897): 

" With regard to England there is a Martyrology of Christ 
Church, Canterbury, written in the thirteenth century, and 
now in the British Museum; also a Ifartjrrology written 
between 1220 and 1224 from the southwest of England; 
this also IB in the Bntish Museum. A Saxon Martyrology, 
incomplete, is among the Harleian MSS. in the same museum; 
it dates from the fourteenth century. There is a transcript 
among the Sloane MSS. of a Martyrology of North-English 
origin, but this also is incomplete. There are others, later. 
of less value. The most Interesting is the Martilooe in Eng- 
ll/nht after the uss of the ehtrche of ScUiabury, printed by 
Wjmkyn de Worde in 1526. reissued by the Henry Brad- 
abrnm Society in 1893. To these Martyrologies must be added 
the Leoenda of John of Tynemouth, 1350; that of Capgrave, 
1450. his Nova leoenda, printed in 1516; Whitford's Martyr- 
olcnr. 1526; Wilson's Martyrolooe, 1st ed.. 1608. 2d. ed.. 
1640; and Bishop Challoner's Memorial of Ancient Britiah 
Pitt^, 1761." 

Bishop Challoner's larger Britannia Sancta, or the 
Lives of the Most Celebrated British, English, Scot- 
tish, and Irish Saints (2 parts, London, 1745) may 
also be mentioned. The Saints and Missionaries 
of the Anglo-^axon Era, by D. C. O. Adams (2 ser., 
Oxford, 1897-1901), is a collection of brief and 
popular lives brought down to Queen Margaret of 
Scotland (d. 1093). A Menclogy of England and 
Wales, compiled by Richard Stanton, priest of 
the Oratory, London (London, 1887; Supplement, 
1892), is probably the fullest list in existence of 
names of En^ish and Welsh saints, with brief bio- 
graphical notices. It is a scholarly work based upon 
sources (calendars, martyrologies, legends, his- 
tories, acts) many of which were previously in- 
edited. A somewhat wide interpretation is given 
to the tenns " English " and '' saint." The Lives 

of the Irish Saints, with Special Festivals and th9 
Commemoration of Holy Persons, by John O'Hanlon, 
is an exhaustive work, in somewhat florid style, 
arranged according to the calendar, one volume 
being devoted to each month (Dublin, 1875 sqq.). 
Scottish calendars have been edited, with brief 
biographies of the saints, by A. P. Forbes in his 
Kalendars of Scottish Saints (Edinburgh, 1874). 
For Wales there is W. J. Rees's Lives of the Cambro- 
British Saints of the Fifth and Immediate Succeeding 
Centuries (Llandovery, 1853). Cardinal John Henry 
Newman's L«>e« of the English Saints (15 vols., 
London, 1844-45, and often) is more interesting 
now for the history of the movement wliich called 
it forth than as a contribution to hagioiogy. See 
also the bibliography of the article Celtic Church 
IN Britain and Ireland. 

Biblioorapht: For elaborate bibliographical lists of acts 
and lives of saints: A. Potthast. Bibliotheca hvtonca tnedii 
etvi, pp. xxxii.-xxxv.. 1131-1646. Berlin, 1896 (the most 
complete list yet made in which the editions are accu- 
rately given); 3/G//, Index volume, Hanover. 1890; T. 
Ruinart, Acta primorum martyrum nncera et tdecta, Paris, 
1689 (latest ed., Ratisbon, 1859) ; Gross, Sources, pp. 
84-89. 213-222, 245-249, 390-400, 442, 617-626 ; R. 
Knopf. AtuoewOhUe M Artyrakten, Ttibingen, 1901; O. von 
Gebhardt, Acta Martyrum •electa, Leipsio. 1902. For 
history and criticism: A. Ebert. Allgemeine Oeechxchte der 
Literatur dee Mittelalter» im Abendtande, 3 vols., ib. 1874- 
87 (2d ed. of vol. i., 1889. perhaps the best survey of the 
subject); C. Jauningus, Apologia pro Actie Sanctorum, 
Antwerp, 1696; A. Scheler, Zur Getchtchte de» Werket 
Acta Sanctorum, Leipsic, 1846; J. B. Pitra, £tudee eur ta 
collection dee Actee dee SainU» publUa par lee BoUandiatee, 
Paris. 1860; J. Carnandet and J. F5vre, Lee BoUandtetee 
et Vhagioffraphie ancienne et moderne, ib., 1866; Dehaisnes, 
Lee Ortffinee dee Acta Sanctorum et lee protecieura dea Bol- 
landiatee dans le nord de France, Douai, 1870; A. Tougard. 
De I'hiatotre profane dana lea actea (jrecs dea Bollandiates, 
Paris. 1874; C. de Smodt, Introductw generalia ad hiat. 
eecl., Ghent. 1876 (contams a bibliography in pp. 111-197); 
E. le Blant. Acta Sanctorum et leur aourcea, Paris, 1880; 
idem, Lea Actea dea martyrea , suppUment aux Acta stn- 
eera de Dom Ruinart, ib. 1882; £. Eg,\i, Altchrutltche 
Martyrien und Martyrologien dltester Zeit, Zurich. 1887; 
A. Ehrhard. D\e aUchriatliche Litteratur und ihre Erfor- 
achuno, i. 639-692, Freiburg. 1900; Uamack, Litteratur, 
ii. 2, 463-482. 

first Baron Acton: Roman Catholic layman; b. 
in Naples, Italy, Jan. 10, 1834; d. at Tegem- 
see (31 m. s. of Munich) June 19, 1902. He was 
educated at Oscott College, Birmingham, from 
1843 to 1848, then at Edinburgh, finally at the 
University of Munich. At Oscott the president, 
Nicholas Wiseman, afterward archbishop and 
cardinal, greatly influenced him, but at Munich 
the greater scholar, Dr. DoUinger, still more. 
These men fostered his love of truth and passion 
for accurate historical knowledge. Being wonder- 
fully gifted and highly trained, he set forth upon 
a career of learned acquisition which made him 
the admiration of his associates. But in his own 
communion he soon became unpopular because he 
was a pronounced liberal. He conducted the 
" Home and Foreign Review " from 1862 to 1864 
m the interest of anti-Ultramontanism, and so was 
condemned by the hierarchy and his Journal vir- 
tually suppressed. He then pursued the same 
course in the " North British Review " from 1868 
to 1872. His chief object of attack was the doc- 
trine of papal infallibihty, and he did all he could 


Adalbert of Praffue 



to prevent its adoption, but when it was promul- 
gated by th6 Vatican Council of 1870 he did not 
follow his preceptor and friend Ddllinger into the 
ranks of the Old Catholics, but remained in the 
Roman obedience. He showed that he had neither 
altered his views nor would he give up his independ- 
ence when in 1874 he criticized with learning and 
candor the views of his patron and friend Glad- 
stone upon Vaticanism. From 1859 to 1864 he 
represented Carlow in Parliament. In 1869 Mr. 
Gladstone raised him to the peerage. In 1886 he 
founded " The English Historical Review." with 
Professor (afterward Bishop) Mandell Creighton 
as editor. In 1895 he was made regius professor 
of modem history at Cambridge. He planned the 
Cambridge Modem History series, but did not live 
to see any of it published. 

Lord Acton possessed vast stores of accurate in- 
formation, but he wrote very little except review 
articles and book-notices. So his list of separate 
publications is singularly short for so great a scholar. 
He edited Les MatirUea royales, ou Vart de regner, 
the work of Frederick the Great (London, 1863); 
made a great sensation by his Sendschreiben an 
einem deutschen Biachof des vaticanischen Concila 
(NOrdlingen, 1870); by his Zur Geachichie dea 
vaticanischen Concils (M\mich, 1871); and by his 
letters as correspondent of the London " Times " 
during the Coimcil. His lectures, The War of 1870 
(London, 1871), and especially those masterly 
ones on The History of Freedom in Antiquity and 
on The History of Freedom in Christianity (both 
Bridgnorth. 1877), fragments of that complete 
history of freedom which he dreamed he should 
one day write, and finally his inaugural lecture at 
Cambridge on The Study of History (London, 1895), 
show his range of knowledge and love of truth. 
Since his death his Letters to Mary [now Mrs. Drew], 
Daughter of the Right Honorable W. E. Gladstone 
(1904), edited with a memoir by Herbert Paul, 
his Cambridge Lectures (1906), and Lectures on 
Modem History (1906) have been published. 

Bibuoorapht: Wm. A. Shaw's Bibliography of Lord Acton, 
London, Royal Historical Society. 1903; Lord Acton 
and Hi* Circle, edited by F. A. Gasquet. London. 1906 (178 
letters, mostly on literary subjects, by Lord Aoton, with 
introduction by Gasquet). 

For Apocryphal Books of Acts, see Apocrypha, 

ish bishop; contemporary of Boniface (q.v.). He 
is known only from the letters of Boniface, who 
was his bitter opponent, and from the accounts of 
the proceedings instituted against him for heresy, 
which represent him as a dangerous misleader of 
the people, a skilful impostor, and arrogant block- 
head, who thought himself equal to the apos- 
tles, declared himself canonized before birth, and 
claimed the power of working miracles and of re- 
mitting sins. It is said that he pretended to have 
a letter from Jesus, which the archangel Michael 
had found in Jerusalem, and other relics brought 
o him by angels. He disregarded confession, not 
thinking it necessary for the remission of sins, and 
planted crosses and founded chapels on the hills 

and by the streams, inducing the people to come 
thither for service instead of going to the churches 
of the apostles and martyrs. In his prayers un- 
known and suspicious names of angels were foimd. 
At the instigation of Boniface two Frankish synods 
(744 and 745) deposed Adalbert and condemned 
him to penance as a " servant and forerunner of 
Antichrist." A Roman synod confirmed his sen- 
tence and added excommunication. In 747 a gen- 
eral Frankish synod received a command from 
the pope to apprehend Adalbert and send him to 
Rome. The major domus^ Pepin, burned his crosses 
and chapels; but the people seem to have sympa- 
thized with their bishop, who did not acknowledge 
the authority of his judges and who was not allowed 
to defend himself. His fate is unknown. Mainz 
tradition relates that he was defeated in a discus- 
sion with Boniface, that he was imprisoned at 
Fulda, and was killed by a swineherd while trying 
to escape. Opinions concerning him differ. Some 
look upon him as mentally unsound, as an impostor, 
or as a fanatic. Others see in him, as in his coim- 
tryman Clement (q.v.) among the East Franks, 
freedom from Rome, an opponent of the roman- 
izing tendencies of his time, and a victim of the 
ecclesiastical policy of Boniface. A. Werner. 
Bibuography: Rettber^. i. (1846) 314-317. 368-370; H. 
Hahn, JahrbUcher des fr&nkiachen Reidia, pp. 67-82, Ber- 
lin, 1863; Boniface, Epietola, in Jaff6, Monumenta Mo- 
Ountina, 1866; J. H. A. Ebrard, Die iroechotiieche Mie- 
aionakirche der «ecA«ten, aiebenten, und achten Jahrhund- 
erten, pp. 341, 432-434, GQteniloh, 1873; A. Werner. Boni- 
iatiua, pp. 279-297, Leipsic. 1876; DCB, i. 77-78; Hauck. 
KD, i. (1904) 507-613. 

often called Albert): Archbishop of Hamburg- 
Bremen 1045 (1043?)-1 072; d. at Goslar Mar. 16, 
1072. He came of a noble Saxon-Thuringian 
family, is firbt heard of as canon of Halberstadt, 
and followed the head of his chapter, Hermann, to 
Bremen when the latter was made archbishop, in 
1032; on Hermann's death, three years later, he 
returned to Halberstadt and became provost there 
himself. He is probably the Adalbert who early 
in 1045 was acting as chancellor for Henry III. in 
Italian affairs. Henry nominated him to the arch- 
bishopric of Hamburg, probably in 1045, though 
some recent historians have placed the date at 1043. 
He soon showed that he had a lofty conception of 
the dignity of his office; and his ambition was 
supported by many advantages — a handsome and 
imposing presence, intellectual force, and the repu- 
tation of singular personal purity and moderation 
at a time when such qualities were rare. The reign 
of Henry III. was the period of his success and 
domination. King and archbishop, endowed with 
similar gifts, were attracted to each other, and found 
it necessary to make common cause against the 
Saxon dukes of the Billung house, who had already 
troubled the Church of Hamburg. Adalbert's fre- 
quent absences from his diocese gave the Billungs 
opportunity to attack it; but the archbishop, often 
accompanied by his vassals, could not avoid spend- 
ing considerable time on the king's business. He 
accompanied Henry on his campaign of 1045, and 
went to Rome with him in the next year, taking 
part in the synods which deposed the three rival 




Adalbert of Frame 

claimants for the pi^>al see (Benedict DC., Sylvester 
III., and Qregoiy VI., qq.v.). Henry was minded 
to make him pope, but he firmly declined, and 
suggested the candidate on whom the choice finally 
fell, Suidger, bishop of Bamberg (see Clem- 
ent II.). 

Adalbert returned with Henry in Blay, 1047, 
and devoted himself to diocesan affairs. In the 
territories of the Abodrites (Obotrites) Gottschalk 
had gained supreme power, and worked with Adal- 
bert for the introduction of Christianity (see Gott- 
schalk, 2). Norway, Sweden, and Denmark had 
all recognised the spiritual jurisdiction of Hamburg; 
but an effort was now made to break away from it. 
Svend Estridsen, king of Denmark after 1047, 
made an alliance with Heniy through Adalbert's 
mediation, and brought forward a plan for the es- 
tablishment of a separate ecclesiastical province in 
Denmark, with an archbishop and seven suffragans. 
Adalbert naturally could not look with complacency 
on the withdrawal of so large a part of his juris- 
diction, after the sacrifices which the Church of 
Hamburg had made in the previous two hundred 
years for the evangelisation of the northern king- 
doms; and he feared that Sweden and Norway 
would follow. Yet he could not deny that there 
was some justification for Svend's desire. The em- 
peror and Pope Leo IX., who took part in the Coun- 
cil of Blainz in 1049, seemed not indisposed to grant 
it. Adalbert offer^ to consent, on condition that 
he should have the rank of patriarch for the whole 
north. This, he thought, would solve the difficulty; 
one archbishop could not be subject to another, 
but might be to a patriarch. The project grew on 
him; and he planned the establislunent of eleven 
new German sees to serve as a basis for his dignity. 
He did not contemplate any immediate rejection 
of Rome's suzerainty; but it was obvious that his 
plan might easily give him a position in the north 
not far short of that which the pope held in the 
south. Leo died in 1054, and Henry in 1056; 
and further thought of so far-reaching a scheme had 
to be postponed. 

Deprived of Henry's support, Adalbert suffered 
much at the hands of the Billung dukes. Henry's 
son and successor (but five years old at his father's 
death) in 1062 fell into the power of Anno, arch- 
bishop of Cologne (q.v.); but the latter was soon 
forced to share his power with Adalbert, and then 
to see it passing more and more into his rival's 
hands. Of the two, Adalbert had much the better 
influence on the young king. He reached the 
height of his power when he had the king pro- 
claimed of age at Worms (Mar. 29, 1065), and prac- 
tically held the government in his own hands. 
But in Jan., 1066, the princes, with Anno at their 
head, forced Henry to banish Adalbert from court; 
and his remaining years were clouded by many 
troubles. New assaults of the Billungs forced him 
to flee from Hamburg. Paganism once more got 
the upper hand among the Wends, who laid waste 
the neighboring Christian lands; in Sweden the 
Church had to fight for its very existence. He was 
recalled to court in 1069, but did not succeed in 
restoring the prestige of his position. He still 
worked for the consolidation of the royal power in 

Germany, but had to leave the Saxon problem 
behind him unsolved. He bore long physical 
sufferings with remarkable firmness, laboring to 
the last for the king and for his diocese. He wished 
to be buried at Hamburg; but the destruction of 
that dty by the Wends prevented this; and his 
body was laid in the cathedral of Bremen, the re- 
building of which he had himself completed. 

(Carl Bbrthbau.) 
Biblioobapht: Bmno, De hetto Saxowieo^ in MOH^ SeripLt 
y. (1844) 327-^84 (2d ed.. by W. Wattenbaeh. in Script, 
rer. Oerm,, aae.xi, 1880); Adam of Bremen, Oetia Hamma- 
burgenn§ BceUncB pontifieum, in MGH, Script., vii. (1846) 
267-380 (printed separately, Hanover. 1846; 2d ed., 1876), 
Germ, tranol. by J. C. M. Laurent (2d ed., by W. Watten- 
bach, Leipeic, 1888); Chronicon Ooteeenn», in MOH^ 
Script,, X. (1862) 140-167; (Dolmar GrOnhagen, Adalbert 
Brtbitchof van Hamburg, Leipeic, 1864; Lambert, Annalet, 
in MOH, Script., xvi. (1860), 646-660 (2d ed.. by Holder- 
Egger, in Script, rer. Oerm., 1804); E. SteindorfiF, Jahr- 
bUcher <2m detUadten Reidie unier Heinrich ilL, 2 yoIb., 
Leipeic, 1874-81, and in ADB, L 66-61; G. Dehio. 
Oaaekichie de§ ErMbietunu HamburthBremen, L 178-277. 
Berlin. 1876; R. Ballheimer, Zeittafdn eur KamburoiacKen 
OeedndUe, pp. 18-24, Hamburg, 1806; Hauck, KD, iii. 

ADALBERT OF PRAGUE (Czech, Waitech, 
" Comfort of the Anny "): An early German 
missionary, sometimes improperly csJled " the 
Apostle of the Slavs " or " of the Prussians "; b. 
about 950; murdered Apr. 23, 997. He was the 
son of a rich Czech nobleman named Slavemk, con- 
nected with the royal house of Saxony. He was 
educated at Magdeburg, but on the death of Adal- 
bert (981), first archbishop of that place, whose 
name he had taken at confirmation, he returned 
home and was ordained priest by Thietmar, the 
first bishop of Prague, whom he succeeded two 
years later. He received investiture at Verona 
from Emperor Otho II., his kinsman, and was con- 
secrated by WilligLs, archbishop of Mainz, his 
metropolitan. His troubles soon began. The 
attempt to execute strictly what he conceived to 
be his episcopal duties brought him into conflict 
with hifl coimtrymen, who were hard to wean from 
their heathen customs. After five years of struggle, 
he left his diocese, intending to make a pilgrimage 
to Jerusalem; but after a sojourn at Monte Cassino, 
he entered the monastery of St. Boniface at Rome, 
where he led a singularly devoted and ascetic life. 
In 992, however, he was required by the pope and 
his metropolitan to return to Prague. The con- 
flict with stubbornly persistent heathen customs — 
polygamy, witchcraft, slavery — proved as hard 
as ever, and he once more left his diocese, returning, 
after a missionary tour in Hungary, to the peaceful 
seclusion of his Roman cloister. 

In 996 WilligLs visited Rome and obtained fresh 
orders for Adelbert to return to his see, with permis- 
sion to go and preach to the heathen only in case 
his flock should absolutely refuse to receive him. 
He went north in company with the young emperor, 
Otho III., and in the next spring, through Poland, 
approached Bohemia. Things had grown worse 
than ever there: his family had fallen under sus- 
picion of treason through their connections with 
Germany and Poland; and the greater part of them 
had been put to death. His offer to return to 
Prague having been contumeliously rejected, he 




felt himself free to turn to the work which he desired 
among the heathen Prussians. Here he was killed 
by a pagan priest before he had succeeded in accom- 
plishing much. His body was brought by the Duke 
of Poland and buried at Gnesen, whence it was 
taken to Prague in 1039. (A. Hauck.) 

Bibliooraphy: J. CanapariuB, Vita AdalberH, in MOH, 
Script., iv. (1841) 674-620; Bruno, Vita Adalberii, ib. pp. 
605-612: Mvracuia AdelberH, ib. 613-616; PoMto Adal- 
berH. ib.. XV. part 2 (1888). 705-708; De SL AdaJberio, 
ib. pp. 1177-84; MPL, oxxxvii. 859-888 (life and 
miracles); H. Zeissberg. Die polniache Oeeehichtaeehrei' 
huTtg ds§ Mittelaltera, pp. 10 sqq.. Leipeic, 1873; H. O. 
Voigt, Adalbert von Prag, Berlin. 1808; Hauck« KD, iii. 
(1006) 1041 sqq. 

ADALBOLD, ad'al-b6ld: Bishop of Utrecht; 
d. Nov. 27, 1026. He was bom probably in the 
Low (Countries, and received his education partly 
from Notker of Li^ge. He became a canon of 
Laubach, and apparently was a teacher there. 
The emperor Henry II., who had a great regard for 
him, invited him to the court, and nominated him 
as Bishop of Utrecht (1010), and he must be re- 
garded as the principsd founder of the territorial 
possessions of the diocese, esj)ecially by the acqui- 
sition in 1024 and 1026 of the counties of Thrente 
and Teisterbant. He was obliged to defend his 
bishopric not only against frequent inroads by the 
Normans, but also against the aggressions of neigh- 
boring nobles. He was unsuccessful in the attempt 
to vindicate the possession of the district of Merwede 
(Mircvidu), between the mouths of the Maas and 
the Waal, against Dietrich III. of Holland. The 
imperial awiurd required the restitution of this 
territory to the bishop and the destruction of a 
castle which Dietrich had built to control the navi- 
gation of the Maas; but the expedition imder God- 
frey of Brabant which undertook to enforce this 
decision was defeated; and in the subsequent agree- 
ment the disputed land remained in Dietrich's 
possession. Adalbold was active in promoting 
the building of churches and monasteries in his 
diocese. His principal achievement of this kind 
was the completion within a few years of the 
great cathedral of St. Martin at Utrecht. He re- 
stored the monastery of Thiel, and completed that 
of Hohorst, begun by his predecessor Ansfried. 
To the charge of the latter he appointed Poppo of 
Stablo, and thus introduced the Cluniac reform 
into the diocese. 

Adalbold is also to be mentioned as an author. 
A life of Henry II., carried down to 1012, has been 
ascribed to him; but the evidence in favor of at- 
tributing to him the extant fragment of such a life 
(MGH, ScHpt., iv., 1841, 679-695; MPL, cxl. 87- 
108) is not decisive. He wrote a mathematical 
treatise upon squaring the circle (MPL, cxl. 1103- 
08), and dedicated it to Pope Sylvester II., who 
was himself a noted mathematician. There is 
also extant a philosophical exposition of a passage 
of Boethius (ed. W. Moll in Kerkhistorisck Archie f, 
iii., Amsterdam, 1862, pp. 198-213). The discussion 
Quemadmodum induhitanter musica consonantioB 
judicari possint (ed. M. Gerbert, in Scriptorea 
ecclesiaatici de musica sacra, i., St. Blasien, 1784, 
pp. 303-312; Af PL, cxl. 1109) seems to have been 
ascribed to him on insufficient grounds 

(A. Hauck.) 

Bibuoorapht: Van der Aa, AdeWoId, biMchap van UtredU, 
Utrecht, 1862; Hauok, KD, iii. 

ADALDAG, ad'ol-ddg: Seventh archbishop of 
Hamburg-Bremen (937-988); d. at Bremen Apr. 28 
or 29, 988. He was of noble birth, a relation and pu- 
pil of Bishop Adalward of Verden and became canon 
of Hildesheim. Otho I. made him his chancellor 
and notary immediately after his accession, and 
on the death of Archbishop Unni of Hamburg- 
Bremen (936) nominated him to the vacant see. 
None of the early incumbents of the see ruled so 
long a time; and none did so much for the diocese, 
though his success was partly the fruit of his pred- 
ecessors' labors and of peculiarly favorable cir- 
cumstances. Under Adaldag the metropolitan 
see obtained its first su£fragans, by the erection of 
the bishoprics of Ripen, Sleswick, and Aarhus; 
and that of Aldenburg was also placed under Ham- 
burg, though the Slavic territories of the present 
Oldenburg had formerly belonged to the diocese 
of Verden. He resisted successfully a renewal of 
the efforts of Cologne to claim jurisdiction over 
Bremen (see Adalgar). He gained many privi- 
leges for his see, in jurisdiction, possession of land, 
and market rights, by his close relations with the 
emperors, especially Otho I. He accompanied 
the latter on his journey to Rome, and remained 
with him from 961 to 965, and is mentioned as the 
emperor's chief counselor at the time of his corona- 
tion in Rome. Otho placed the deposed pope 
Benedict V. in his custody. After Adaldag's 
return to Hamburg, he still maintained these 
relations, and his privileges were confirmed by 
Otho II. and by the regency of Otho III. The 
later years of his life were troubled by inroads of 
the Danes and Slavonians on the north, and he 
may have witnessed the sack of Hamburg by the 
latter under Mistiwoi (if its date, as Usinger and 
Dehio think, was 983). (Carl Bertheau.) 

Bibuoorapht: Adam of Bremen, Oeata Hammenhvargeneie 
eccleeicB pontificum, in MGH, Script., vii. (1846) 267-380 
(issued separately, Hanover, 1846; 2d ed., 1876); W. 
von Giesebrecht, Oeechichte der deutachen Kaiaerzeit, i., 
Brunswick, 1874; R. Kdpcke and E. DQmmler, Kaieer 
Otto der Groaee, Leipsic, 1876; G. Dehio. Geachu^Oe dea 
Erzbiatuma Hamburo-Bremen, i. 66, 104-132, Berlin, 1877; 
Hauck. KD, vol. ii. 

ADALGAR, ad'ol-gflr: Third archbishoo of Ham- 
burg-Bremen (888-909); d. May 9, 909. When 
Rimbert, who was appointed in 865 to succeed 
Ansgar, the first archbishop of Hamburg, stopped 
at the abbey of Corvey on his way to his field of 
labor, the abbot Adalgar gave him his brother, 
also named Adalgar, as a companion. The younger 
Adalgar was then a deacon. Toward the end of 
Rimbert 's life he was consecrated bishop to assist 
the latter; and he succeeded him in the arch- 
bishopric (June 11, 888). During the latter half 
of his twenty years' rule, age and infirmity made 
it necessary for him also to have a coadjutor in the 
person of Hoger, another monk of Corvey; and 
later five neighboring bishops were charged to 
assist the archbishop in his metropolitan duties. 

Adalgar lived in troublous times. Although 
Amulf's victory over the Normans (891) was a 
relief to his diocese, and although under Louis the 
Child (900-911) it suffered less from Hungarian 




onslaughts than the districts to the south and east 
of it, yet the general confusion restricted Adalgar's 
activity, and he was able to do veiy little in the 
northern kingdoms which were supposed to be 
part of his mission. There were also new con- 
tests over the relation of Bremen to the archiepis- 
copal see of Cologne. Bremen had originally been 
under the jurisdiction of Cologne; but this relation 
was dissolved on the reeetablishment of the arch- 
bishopric of Hamburg in 848; and Pope Nicholas 
I. had confirmed the subordination of Bremen to 
Hamburg in 864 (see Anboar; Hamburo, Arch- 
bishopric of). In 890 Archbishop Hermann of 
Cologne wrote to Pope Stephen VI., demanding 
that the archbishop of Hamburg, as bishop of 
Bremen be subject to him. The course of the con- 
troversy is somewhat obscure; but it is known that 
Stephen cited both contestants to Rome, and when 
Adalgar alone appeared, Hermann being represented 
by delegates with unsatisfactory cr^entials, the 
pope referred the matter to Archbishop Fulk of 
Reims, to decide in a synod at Worms. In the 
mean time Stephen died; and his successor For- 
moeus placed the investigation in the hands of a 
synod which met at Frankfort in 892 under Hatto 
of Mainz. On the basis of its report, Fonnosus 
decided that Bremen should be united to Hamburg 
so long as the latter had no suffragan sees, but 
should revert to Cologne when any were erected, 
the archbishop of Hamburg meanwhile taking part 
in the provincial synods of Cologne, without thereby 
admitting his subordination. Little is known of 
Adalgar's personality. From the way in which 
Rimbert's biographer and Adam of Bremen speak 
of him, he seems to have been a man of some force, 
but perhaps not strong enough for the difficult 
times in which his activity was cast. 

(Carl Bertheau.) 

BnuoGRAPHT: Vita RimberH, in MOH, Script,, ii. (1829) 
764-776. and in AfPL. exxri. 091-1010; Adam of 
Bremen, Gesto HammenbrurQenM eedsaia ponHficum, in 
MGH, SaripL, vii. (1846) 267-389 (iomied separately. 
Hanover. 1846; 2d ed.. 1876); Jaff^. ReoMia, vol i. ; 
G. Dehio. OmdiidUe dM EnbUtunu HambwrQ-Brmnen, i. 
97-100. Berlin. 1877; Hauok. XD. vol. ii. 

ADALHARD AUD WALA, ad'ol-hOrd, waaa: 
Abbots of Corbie (10 m. e. of Amiens) from about 
775 to 834. They were brothers, cousins of Charle- 
magne, pupils and friends of Alcuin and Paul the 
Deacon, and men of much authority and influence 
in both church and state. The elder, Adalhard 
(b. about 751 ; d. Jan. 2, 826), was interested in the 
German language and the education of the clergy, 
and is especially famous for the establishment of 
diocesan colleges and the foimdation of the abbey 
of New Corbie (Corvey) on the Weser (see Cor- 
vet). He gave new laws to his monastery of 
Corbie (AfPL, cv. 535-550), and defended a^inst 
Pope Leo III. the resolutions de exUu SpirUu8 
Scmeti passed in the autunm of 809 by the Synod 
of Aachen (see Fiuoqub Controverst). When 
Charlemagne's son Pepin, king of Italy, died (810), 
Adalhard was appointed counselor of his young 
■on Bernard in the government of Italy. 

The younger brother, Wala ( Bobbio in Italy 
Sept. 12, 836), also enjoyed the confidence of 
Chariflmagne, and became chief of the counts of 

Saxony. In 812 he was sent to join Adalhard and 
Bernard in Italy and work for the choice of the 
last-named as king of the Lombards. After the death 
of Charlemagne and the accession of the incapable 
Louis (814), whom the brothers had always op- 
posed, they returned to Corbie, and fell into dils- 
grace for having favored Bernard. They were 
deprived of their estates and Adalhard was ban- 
ished. After seven years, however, a reconciliation 
took place between them and Louis. Wala, as suc- 
cessor of Adalhard at Corbie, continued his brother's 
work and gave especial care to the mission in the 
north. As head of the opposition to the repeal of 
the law of succession of 817 and a bold defender 
of the rights of the Church, he was imprisoned by 
Louis in 830, and regained his liberty only when, 
in 833, Louis's eldest son, Lothair, the future em- 
peror, came north with an army, accompanied by 
Pope Gregory IV. Wala's counsel was gratefully 
received by both Lothair and Gregory; and the 
former rewarded him with the abbey of Bobbio in 
northern Italy. Just before his death Wala became 
reconciled with Louis, and, at the head of an em- 
bassy sent to that monarch by Lothair, made peace 
between father and son. A. Werner. 

Biblioorapht: Pasohasius Radbertus. Vita Addhardi, com- 
plete in ASM, iv. 1. pp. 308-344; Vita Wala, ib. pp. 466- 
522; also in MPL, cxx. 1607-1650; extracts in MQH, 
ScripL, ii. (1829) 624-660; F. Funk. Ludurig der FromtM, 
Frankfort, 1832; Himly. Wala et LouiB-U-DAonnavre, 
Paris. 1840; Jaff^. Reoetta, vol. i.; A. Enck. De St. 
Adalhardo abbate Corbeia anHqua et novcB, MQnster, 1873; 

B. E. Simson, JahrhUcher dee fr&nkiechen Reiche urUer Lvd' 
trio dem Frommen, i.. Munich, 1874; Hauck, XD, vol. ii-: 
W. Wattenbach. DOQ, i. (1893) 260, u. (1804) 170; D. 

C. Munro and G. C. Sellery, Mediceval CivilietiHon, pp. 
319-320, New York. 1904. 


I. DootrinaL 

The Biblical SUtement Interpreted Literally (f 1). 
The Position of Adam to the Race (f 2). • 
The Orthodox Views (f 3). 
The Evolutionary Views (f 4). 

II. Historical 

The Use of '* Adam'' as a Proper Name (f I). 

Foreisn Influence in P (S 2). 

The Aim and Plan of P (f 3). 

The Narrative of J (S 4). 

Parallels in Other Literatures (( 6). 

The Literary Blaterial Mythical in Character (f 6). 

New Testament References (S 7). 

I. Doctrinal: According to the literal statement 
of Genesis (v. 2), the name "Adam " (Heb. adham, 
" man ") was given by God himself to the first human 
being. The important place occupied by man, ac- 
cording to the Biblical idea, is the 
I. The Bib- close, the appointed climax, of creation. 
lical State- Inanimate nature looked forward to 
ment Inter- man. To his creation God gave special 
preted care. It was sufficient for the Creator 
Literally, to order the other creatures into be- 
ing; but man was molded by the 
divine fingers out of the dust of the earth. Thus far 
he belonged to the created world; but into him 
God breathed the breath of life, and thus put him 
in an inmieasurably higher place; for the posses- 
sion of this breath made him the " image " of God. 
What this ** image '' was is learned from the Bible 
(Gen. i. 26, ii. 7); it was likeness to God in the gov- 
ernment of the creatures and in the possession of 



the same spirit (see Image of God). God, the ab- 
solute personality, reflects himself in man and, there- 
fore, the latterbecomes the lord of creation. Adam 
was the representative of the race — humanity in 
person. Opposite to the species and genera of beasts 
stood the single man. He was not a male, still less 
a man -woman; he was man. Out of him, as the 
progenitor of the race. Eve was taken. 

But man's true position can not be comprehended 
until he is considered in relation to Christ, the 
second man, as is most clearly expressed in Rom. 
V. 12 sqq.; I Cor. xv. 21-22, 45-49. By Adam's 
fall, sin and death entered into the world, and con- 
demnation has come upon all through him; but 
from the second Adam has come just the opposite — 
righteousness, justification, and life. Those who 
by sin are united to the first Adam reap all the 
consequences of such a \mion; similarly do those 
who by faith are united to the second Adam. Each 
is a representative head. 

Materialism sees in man a mere product of 
nature. It is difficult to see how it makes place 
for self-consciousness. The unity of the race is 
also given up; and so logically Darwinism leads 
to belief in a plurality of race origins. Theology, 
on the other hand, holds fast to the 
2. The Posi- personality of man, but has, from the 
tion of beginning of the science, wavered in 

Adam to regard to the position occupied by 

the Race. Adam toward the race. The oldest 
Greek Fathers are silent upon this 
point. Irenseus is the first to touch it; and he main- 
tains that the first sin was the sin of the race, since 
Adam was its head (III. xxiii. 3; V. xii. 3; cf. R. 
Seeberg, DogmengeschichUf i., Leipsic, 1895, p. 82). 
Origen, on the other hand, holds that man sinned 
because he had abused his liberty when in a pre- 
existent state. In Adam seminally were the bodies 
of all his descendants (Contra CeUum^ iv.; cf. C. F. 
A. Kahnis, Dogmaiik^ ii., Leipsic, 1864, pp. 107 sqq.). 
Gregory Nazianzen, Gregory of Nyssa, and Chrysos- 
tom derive sin from the fjJl. Tertullian, Cyprian, 
Hilary, Ambrose, and Augustine represent the 
Biblical standpoint. Pelagius saw in Adam only 
a bad example, which his descendants followed. 
Semi-Pelagianism similarly regarded the first sin 
merely as opening the flood-gates to iniquity; 
but upon this point Augustinianism since it was 
formulated has dominated the Church — in Adam 
the race sinned. (Carl von BucHRUCKERt-) 

The prominent orthodox views are: (1) The 

Augustinian, known as realism, which is that 

human nature in its entirety was in Adam when 

he sinned, that his sin was the act of human nature, 

and that in this sin human nature fell; 

3. The that is, lost its freedom to the good. 

Orthodox becoming wholly sinful and producing 
Views, sinners. " We sinned in that man 
when we were that man." This is 
the view of Anselm, Peter Lombard, Thomas 
Aquinas, and Luther. (2) The federal theory of 
the Dutch divines 0>cceius and Witsius is that 
Adam became the representative of mankind 
and that the probation of the human race ended 
once for all in his trial and fall in the garden 
of Eden. Accordingly the guilt of Adam's sin 

was imputed to his posterity. This is the theory 
of Turretin and the Princeton theologians. (3) 
The theory of mediate imputation (Placseus) is 
that the sin of Adam is imputed to lus descendants 
not directly, but on account of their depravity 
derived from him and their consent to his sin. (See 
Imputation; Sin.) 

According to the evolutionary view of man's 
origin, which is not necessarily materialistic, Adam 
may be designated as the first individual or indi- 
viduals in the upward process of de- 
4. The Evo- velopment in whom self-consciousness 
lutionary appeared or who attained such sta- 
Views. bility of Ufe that henceforth humanity 
was able to survive the shock of death. 
By some, the first man is conceived of as a special 
instance of creative wisdom and power; by others, 
as the natural result of the evolutionary process. 
Whether the human race sprang from one individual 
or from several is, for lack of evidence, left an open 
question. In this position the unity of the race 
is in no wise compromised, since this is grounded 
not in derivation from a single pair but in identity 
of constitution and ideal ethical and spiritual aim. 
This view of the first man brings into prominence 
the dignity of human nature and its kinship with 
the divine, yet at the same time profoundly modifies 
the traditional doctrine of original sin. In the 
disproportion between the inherited instincts, 
appetites, and desires of the animal nature and 
the weak and struggling impulses of the moral 
consciousness there arises an inevitable conflict 
in which the higher is temporarily worsted and 
the sense of sin emerges. By virtue of heredity 
and the organic and social unity of the race, all 
the descendants of the earliest man are involved 
with him in the common struggle, the defeat, and 
the victory of the moral and spiritual life. This 
conflict is a sign that man Lb not simply a fallen 
being, but is in process of ascent. The first man, 
although of the earth, is a silent prophecy of the 
second man, the Lord from heaven. 

C. A. Beckwith. 
n. Historical: The sources of knowledge of 
Adam are exclusively Biblical and, indeed, wholly 
of the Old Testament, since the New Testament 
adds nothing concerning his personality and his 
doings to what is recorded of him in the Book of 
Genesis. The main inquiry, therefore, must be 
as to the place occupied by Adam 
I. The Use in the Old Testament. Here several 
of "Adam" striking facts confront us: (1) There 
as a is no allusion to Adam direct or in- 
Proper direct after the early genealogies. 
Name, In Deut. xxxii. 8 and Job xxviii. 28 
the Hebrew adham (adam) means 
" mankind." In Hos. vi. 7 the reading should be 
" Admah " (a place-name). The latest references 
(apart from the excerpt in I Chron. i. 1) are Gen. 
iv. 26 (Sethite line of J) and Gen. v. 1, 3 (Sethite 
line of P). (2) Outside of the genealogies there is 
no clear instance of the use of the word as a proper 
name. The definite article, omitted in the Mas- 
oretic text, should be restored in Gen. iii. 17, 21 
(J) in harmony with the usage of the whole context, 
which reads " the man " instead of " Adam." 



Eve (Gen. iii. 20; iv. 1) is the first proper name 
of our Bible. (3) Whatever may have been the 
origin of the proper name " Adam/' its use here 
seems to be derived from and based upon the 
original generic sense. Even in the genealogies 
the two significations are interchanged. Thus 
while Gen. v. 1 substitutes '' Adam " for ** the man " 
of i. 27, chap. v. 2 continues: " Male and female 
created he them , . . and called their name Adam." 
It is a fair inference that the genealogies are in part 
at least responsible for the individual and personal 
usage of the name. When it is considered that 
all Semitic history began with genealogies, of which 
the standing designation in the early summaries 
is " generations " (Heb. toledhath), the general 
motive of such a transference of ideas is obvious. 
The process was easy and natural because in the 
ancient type of society a community is thought 
of as a imit, is a proper name without the article, 
and is designated by a single not a plural form. 
The first community having been '' man ** (*' the 
adam ")» its head and representative was naturally 
spoken of as " Man " (" Adam ") when there was 
need of referring to him. On the etymological 
side a partial illustration is afforded by the French 
on (Lat. homo) and the German man, which express 
individualization anonymously. 

The secondary character of the notion of an 

individual Adam is also made probable by the fact 

that the genealogical system of P is artificial and 

of foreign origin or at least of foreign 

2« Foreign suggestion. The whole scheme of the 

Influence ten generations of Gen. v. is modeled 
in P. upon and in part borrowed from the 
Babylonian tradition of the first ten 
kings of Babylon. Of these lists of ten there are 
five names in either list which show striking corre- 
spondences with five in the other, ending with the 
tenth, which in either case is the name of the hero 
of the flood story. These Babylonian kings also 
were demigods, having lives of immense duration, 
two of them, moreover (the seventh and the tenth), 
having, like Enoch and Noah, special commu- 
nications with divinity. 

In brief, as regards P, the matter stands as 

follows: — His first theme was the process and 

plan of creation according to an ascending scale 

of being. At the head of creation 

3- The Aim were put the first human beings, 

and Plan "man" or mankind (Gen. i. 26). 
ofP, The second leading thought in P's 
"generations of the heavens and the 
earth" was the continuance of the race or the 
peopling of the earth. Expression was given to 
it by the statement that " the man " was created 
" male and female " (i. 27). The third stage in the 
narrative is reached when the descent of Abraham 
from the first man is established, in order to pro- 
vide a necessary and appropriate pedigree for the 
house of Israel. At the head of this line was placed 
the individual " Man " or " Adam." 

Turning now to the story of Paradise and the Fall, 
which, as has been seen, speaks of the first man 
only as " the man " and not as " Adam, " 
the main motive of Gen. ii.-iv. is to account for 
certain characteristics and habits of mankind, 

above all to set forth the origin, nature, and 
consequences of sin as disobedience to and alien- 
ation from Yahweh. Man is presented 
4. The first as a single individual; next as 
Narrative being mated with a woman, with and 
of J. for whom he has a divinely constituted 
afiinity; then as the head of the race 
upon which he brings the curse due to his own 
disobedience. At first sight this might seem to 
imply a preconception of the individuality and 
personality of the first man, who may as well as 
not have borne the name " Adam," which J him- 
self gives him in the fragmentary genealogy of 
Gen. iv. 25-26. But the inference is not justified. 
The pictures drawn by J and the conceptions they 
embody are not spontaneous effusions. They are 
the result of careful selection and of long and pro- 
found reflection, and when the problems which J 
sets out to solve and the incidents which convey 
and embody the solution be considered, it must 
be concluded that the answers to the questions 
could have been arrived at only through the study 
of man, not in individuals but as a social being. 
In other words, this " prophetic " interpreter 
worked his way backward through history or tra* 
dition along certain well-known lines of general 
human experience, and at the heart of the story 
appears not a single but a composite figure, not 
an individual but a type, while the story itself is 
not history or biography but in part mythical and 
in part allegorical. Thus the imhistorical char- 
acter of Adam is even more demonstrable from 
the narrative of J than from that of P. 

Some of the primitive mythical material in 
Genesis has analogies in other literatures. Not 
to mention the more remote Avesta, attention must 
again be called to some of the Babylonian parallels. 
It is now indisputable that Eden is a Babylonian 
name; that the whole scenery of the region is 
Babylonian; that the tree of life, the cherubim, 
and the serpent, the enemy of the gods and men, 
are all Babylonian. There is also the Babylonian 
story of how the first man came to forfeit immor- 
tality. Adapa, the human son of the good god 
Ea, had offended Anu, the god of heaven (see 
Babylonia, VII., 3, § 3), and was simimoned to 
heaven to answer for his offense. 
5. Paral- Before his journey thither he was 
lels in warned by his divine father to refuse 
Other the "food of death" and "water 
Liters- of death" which Anu would offer to 
tures. him. At the trial, Anu, who had been 
moved by the intercession of two 
lesser gods, offered him instead " food of life " 
and " water of life." These he refused, and thus 
missed the immortality intended for him; for Anu 
when placated had wished to place him among the 
gods. Some such story as this by a process of 
reduction along monotheistic lines may have con- 
tributed its part to the framework of the narrative 
of the rejection of Adam. It is indeed possible 
that Ad^ and Adapa are ultimately the same 

An important element in the whole case is the 
general character of the literary material of which 
the story of Adam forms a portion. Apart from 




the conceptions proper to the religion of Israel, 

which give them their distinctive moral value, 

the events and incidents related 

6. The belong generically to the mythical 
Literary stories of the beginnings of the earth 

Material and man, which have been related 
Mjrthical among many ancient and modem 
in Char- peoples, and 8i)ecifically to the cycle 
acter. of myths and legends which reached- 
their fullest literary development 
in Babylonia, and which undoubtedly were orig- 
inally the outgrowth of a polytheistic theory of 
the origin of the universe. Much weight must also 
be attached to the fact that the story of Adam 
is practically isolated in the Old Testament, above 
all to the consideration that prophecy and psalmody, 
which build so much upon actual history, ignore it 

The New Testament references show that Jesus 

and Paul used the earliest stories of Genesis for 

didactic purposes. The remark is 

7. New often made in explanation that their 
Testament age was not a critical one and that 

Refer- the sacred authors did not in their 
ences. own minds question the current belief 
in the accuracy of the oldest docu- 
ments. This is probably true, at any rate of Paul 
(cf. especially I Cot. xi. 8-9; I Tim. ii. 13-14). His 
view of the relation between the first and second 
Adam (I Ck)r. xv. 22, 45; Rom. v. 12 sqq.) is the 
development of an idea of rabbinical theology, 
and has a curious primitive analogy in the relation 
between Merodach, the divine son of the good god 
Ea, and Adapa, the human son of Ea (cf. Luke iii. 
38). Jesus himself does not make any direct ref- 
erence to Adam in his recorded 8a3rings. 

Bibliooraphy: I. §§1.2: Joa.But\eT,Sermon» on Human Na- 
ture, in vol. ii. of his Work*, Oxford, 1844; S4BAird, The Firet 
Adam and the Second, Philadelphia, 1860; J. Mailer, 
Chrietliche Lehre von der SUnde, Breelau, 1867, Eng. transl.. 
Doctrine of Stn, Ekiinburgh, 1868; Chas. Hodge, Syttematie 
Theology, ii., ch. v., vii., viii.,New York, 1872; R.W. Lan- 
ddB,Ori{final SinandlmpiUaHon, Richmond, 1884; W.G.T. 
Bhedd, Dogmatic Theoiogu, ii. 1-257. iii. 249-377. New 
York, 1888 (vol. iii. gives catena of citations from early 
Christian times to the middle of the eighteenth century); 
H. B. Smith. Syetem of Chriatian Theaiogy, pp. 273-301, 
ib. 1890; W. N. Qarke, OuUine of Chriatian Theology, pp. 
182-198, 227-259, ib. 1898; R. V. Foster, SyatemaiU 
Theology, pp. 348-355. 363-381. Nashville. 1898; A. H. 
Strong, Syetematic Theology, pp. 234-260. 261-272. New 
York. 1902. 

I. § 3: H. B. Smith. Syetem of Chriatian Theology, New 
York. 1886; G. P. Fisher. Diacuaaiona in Hiatory and 
Theology, pp. 355-409. ib. 1880; cf. Calvin, InatitiUea, book 
ii.. ch. i.. §§ 6-8. 

I. § 4; H. Dnimmond, The Aacent of Man, New York, 
1894; J. Le Conte. Evolution and Ha Relation to Religioua 
Thought, ib. 1894; J. Fiske. The Deatiny of Man Viewed in 
tht Light of hia Origin, Boston, 1895; idem. Through 
Nature to Ood, ib. 1899; J. M. Tyler. The Whence and the 
Whither of Man, ib. 1896; C. R. Darwin. The Deacent of 
Man, pp. 174-180. New York. 1896; J. Deniker. The 
Racea of Man, London. 1900. 

II. §§ 1-7: If. Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Aa- 
ayria, pp. 511. 544 sqq.. Boston, 1898; idem, in DB, sup- 
plement vol.. pp. 573-574; H. Gunkel, Schdpfung und 
Chaoa, pp. 420 sqq., G5ttingen. 1895; idem, Oeneaia, pp. 
5 sqq.. 33. 98 sqq., ib. 1902; Schrader, KAT, pp.397, 520 

Old Testament, II., 39. 


ADAM OF BREMEN: Author of the Gesta 
Hammenburgenns eceletia poniificum, a history of 
the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen extending 
down to the death of Adalbert (1072). The work 
itself tells of its author only that his name began 
with " A/' that he came to Bremen in 1068 and 
ultimately became a canon there, and that he wrote 
the book between the death of Adalbert and that 
of King Svend Estridsen of Denmark (1072-76). 
But there is no doubt that this is the work referred 
to by Helmold and assigned to a M agister Adam ; 
in which case the author must be the Adam magtster 
seholairum who wrote and was one of the signatories 
to an extant document of Jan. 11, 1069, and also 
the same whose death on Oct. 12, year not given, 
is recorded in a Bremen register. 

It may be conjectured from scanty indications 
that Adam was bom in upper Saxony and educated 
at Magdeburg. His education was in any case a 
thorough one for his time. His book is one of the 
best historical works of the Middle Ages. Not only 
is it the principal source for the early history of 
the archbishopric and its northern missions, but it 
gives many valuable data both for Germany and 
other countries. The author was unusually well pro- 
vided with documents and with the qualities nec- 
essary for their use. His general credibility and 
love of truth have never been seriously challenged; 
and his impartiality is shown by the way in which 
he records the weaknesses of Adalbert, with whom 
he was in close relations and whom he admired. 
The best edition of Adam's book is by J. M. Lappen- 
berg, in MGH, Script,, vii. (1846) 267-389 (issued 
separately, Hanover, 1846; 2d ed., with full intro- 
duction and notes, 1876); the work is also in MPL, 
cxlvi. 451-620. There is a German translation by 
J. C. M. Laurent (2d ed., revised by W. Wattenbach, 
Leipsic, 1888). (Carl Bertheau.) 

Bibuoorapht: J. H. a Se«len, De Adamo Bremenai, in 
his Miaeellanea, ii. 415-493, LQbeolc, 1736; L. Giesebreoht. 
Hiatoriache und liUrariache Ahhandlung der K&nigeberger 
dmOachen Oeadlaehaft, ed. F. W. Schubert, iii. 141. Kdnigs- 
beiE. 1834; W. Giesebreeht, OeachiehU der deutachen Kai- 
aeraeit, i. 762. Brunswick, 1874; G. Dehio, Oeachickte dea 
Srabiatuma Hamburg-Bremen, i. 17fr-177, Berlin, 1877; 
W. Wattenbach, DOQ, iii. (1894) 78-82; Hauok. KD, iiL 

ADAM, MELCmOR, melHd-er: Protestant bi- 
ographer; b. at Grottkau (35 m. s.e. of Breslau), 
SUesia; d. at Heidelberg, where he was rector of 
the city school, Mar. 23, 1622. He is remembered 
for his series of 136 biographies, mostly of Ger- 
man Protestant scholars, especially theologians (5 
vols., Heidelberg and Frankfort, 1616-20; 2d ed., 
under the title Dignorum laude virorum immortali- 
Uu, 1653; 3d ed., 1706). 

ADAM OF SAINT VICTOR: One of the most 
important of the liturgical poets of the Middle Ages; 
his nationality is described by the Latin word Briio 
(" Breton "?), and he was canon of St. Victor of 
Paris in the second half of the twelfth century. 
From his sequence upon Thomas Becket of Canter- 
bury it is inferred that he survived the latter's 
canonization (1174). His poems do not include 
all of his writings, but are the most important. 
From the ninth century it was customary to set 
words (called prosa and uqumJtia) to the melodies 




{jvbili, tequmtUa) with which the Hallelujah of the 
gituiual in the mass dosed (see Sbqusncs). In 
the twelfth century a more artificial style of com- 
position, according to strict rules, took the place of 
the freer rhythms of the earlier time, and for this 
period of sequence composition Adam has an im- 
portance comparable to that of Notker (q.v.) for 
the former period. He shows a real talent in lus 
mastery of form; and his best pieces contain true 
poetry, although as concerns power to excite the 
emotions and the higher flights of the poetic fancy, 
his compositions are not equal to a Salve caput, 
Stabai mater, or Lauda Sion. S. M. Deutbch. 
Bxbuoobapbt: L. Gautier, <Bwrm poihqun d'Adam d« 8t 
Vidar, 2 toIb., P»rii, 1858 (eomplete and oritieal ed., with 
USm in toL i.; 8d ^d., 1804), reprinted in AfPL, exevi. 
1421-1534 (Eng. inauL by D. 8. Wrancham, Th4 LOur- 
aieal Poetry of Adam of 8L Victor, 3 vols., London, 1881); 
K. Barteeh, Die latoiniaehon Soquonton dot MttUialien, pp. 
170 eqq., Rottook, 1808; Hiotovro littirairo do ta Franco, 
XT. 30-45; £. Miaaet, PoMo rythmiquo du moifon Ago ; 
oooai . . . rar loo iMworoo poHiq^oo d'Adam do SLVietor, 
Paris. 1882. 

ADAM THE SCOTCHlCAlf (AdamuB Scotua, 
called slso Adamus Anglicus): A mystic-ascetic 
author of the twelfth century. According to his 
biographer, the Premonstrant Gkxiefroi Ghiselbert 
of the seventeenth century, he was of north-English 
origin, belonged to the Premonstrant order, was 
abbot at Whithorn (Casa Candida) in Galloway 
toward 1180, and about the same time also lived 
temporarily at Pr6montr6, the French parent 
monastery of the order. He seems to have died 
soon after. It is highly improbable that he was 
living in the thirteenth century, as Ghiselbert 
thinks, who identifies him with the English bishop 
of the Order of St. Noibert mentioned by Csesarius 
of Heisterfoach (Miraculorumf iii. 22). The first 
incomplete edition of Adam's works was published 
by JSgidius Gourmont (Paris, 1518). It contains 
his tluiee principal writings of mystic-monastic 
content: (1) Ltber de ordine, habUu, et profeuione 
Pr€Bman8tratensium, fourteen sermons; (2) De (npor- 
tiio tabemaeulo; (3) De tripliei genere eontempla- 
Honia. The eciUtion of Petrus Bellerus (Antwerp, 
1659) contains also Ghiselbert's life and a collection 
of forty-seven sermons on the festivals of the church 
jrear, which seem to have belonged to a larger 
collection of 100 sermons comprising the whole 
church year. In 1721 Bemhard Pes {Thesaurue 
aneedoiorum, i. 2, 335 sqq.) published Soliloquia de 
mstrudiane diaeipuli, sive de inatruetione anima, 
which has been ascribed to Adam of St. Victor, 
but belongs probably to Adam the Scotchman. 
AH of these works with Ghiselbert's life are in MPL, 
excviii. 9-872. O. ZocKLERf. 

BDUOoBArar: Qodefroi Ghiselbert, Vita Adami, in MPL, 
czeriii.; C. Oudin, Do 9eriptorilmo ocdooict, ii. 1544 
■qq., Frankfort, 1722; A. Minsus, Chronteon ordinia 
I^mmonotraionoio, in M. Kuea. CoUoctio 9eriptorum vario- 
rwm ToUoiooorum ordinum, ri. 38. 38, Ulm, 1768; O. Ifao- 
kensie, TTks Livoo amd Charaetoro of f^ moot Bminont Wri- 
UnofOio Seoto Nahon, L 141-146. Edinburgh, 1708. 

ADAMITES (ADAMIANI): 1. Epiphanius (Hcer,, 
Iii.) gives an account of a sect of " Adamiani,'' 
that held their religious assemblies in subterranean 
chambers, both men and women appearing in a 
state of nature to imitate Adam and Eve, and call- 
ing their meetings paradise. Since Epiphanius 

knew of them only from hearsay, and is himself 
doubtful whether to make of th^ a special class 
of heretics, their existence must be regarded as 
questionable. There are further unverifiable no- 
tices in John of Damascus {Opera, i. 88; following 
the AruMkephalaioaia, attributed to Epiphamus), 
in Augustine (Hcer., Ixxxi.), and in HcBreticarum 
fatnUarum epitome, i. 6). G. KrCoer. 

d. Charges of community of women, ritual 
child-murder, and nocturnal orgies were brought 
by the heathen world against the early Christians, 
and by the latter against various sects of their own 
number (Montanists, Manicheans, Prisciilianists, 
etc.). Similar accusations were made against 
almost all medieval sects, notably the Cathari, the 
Waldensians, the Italian Fraticelli, the heretical 
flagellants of Thuringia in 1454, and the Brethren 
of the Free Spirit. All of these allegations are to 
be regarded with much suspicion. The doctrine 
of a sinless state, taught by the Brethren of the 
Free Spirit, and, in other cases, extravagant acts 
of overwrought mystics may have furnished a 
basis, which, without doubt, was often elaborated 
from the accounts of '' Adamites '' mentioned 

3. The name " Adamites " has become the per- 
manent designation of a sect of Bohemian Tabor- 
ites, who, in Mar., 1421, established themselves on 
an island in the Luschnitz, near Neuhaus, and are 
said to have indulged in predatory forays upon 
the neighborhood, and to have committed wild 
excesses in nocturnal dances. They were sup- 
pressed by Ziska and Ulrich von Neuhaus in Oct., 
1421. It is probable that they were merely a 
faction of the Taborites who carried to an extreme 
their belief in the necessity of a complete separation 
from the Church and resorted to violence to spread 
their principles. The charges against their moral 
character are in the highest degree suspicious. 
Even in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 
certain religious sectaries were persecuted in Bo- 
hemia as '' Adamites.'' 

4. An Anabaptist sect in the Netherlands about 
1580 received the name " Adamites '* because they 
required candidates for admission to appear un- 
clothed before the congregation and thus show that 
physical desire had no power over them. Mem- 
bers of an Amsterdam congregation who in 1535 
ran through the streets naked and crying wo to 
the godless were probably insane. The followers 
of Adam Pastor (q.v.) were called " Adamites " 
from their leader. SiUy stories of orgies by so- 
called devil-worshipers (the " black mass ") are 
sometimes heard at the present time. 

(Herman Haupt.) 
BiBUOORAPirr: (1) I. de Beausobre, Di»oortahon our U» 
Adamitoo do Bohhno, in J. Lenfant. Hutovrt de la gutrrt 
doo HuooUoo, ii. 355-358. Amsterdam. 1731; C. W. F. 
Walch, SrUwurf oinor volUt&ndioen Hutorxo der Ketxoreien, 
L 327-336, Leipsic, 1762. (2) J. Nider. Formicanua, 111. 
▼i., Cologne. 1470; C. Schmidt. Hiotovre et doctrine de la 
$octo doo Caiharea, ii. 150 sqq.. Paris. 1849; W. Prefer. 
Ooeehichto der deutacKen Myatik, i. 207 sqq.. 461 sqq.. Leip- 
sio. 1874; A. Jundt. Hiotovre du panthHome popuiavre, pp. 
48-4Q. 56. Ill sqq.. Pans. 1875; H. Haupt. in ZKO. vi. 
(1885) 552 sqq.; H. C. Lea. Hxotory of the Inquxoxhon, i. 
100 sqq.. New York. 1888; K. MQUer, KvrchenoeechiehU, 
\. 610, Freiburg, 1892. (3) J. Dobrowsky, Geechtchte der 
bdhmuchen Pikarden und Adamtton, m Abhandlungon dor 




bdhmUchtn GetelUchaft der iV utenMchaften van 17SSt pp* 

Bttweffunff in BsKmen, i. 452, 499 aqq. {FonU* rtrum Aum- 
triacarvm. I. u,t Vienna, 1855), u. 336, 345 (lb. I. vi., 
1B65); F. Pftla^ky. Gۤchidiie von B^^hmen, Lit. 2. 
227 aqq., 23a nqq.. Pnisue. 1851, jv. 1 {1857). 462; A, 
Giadely, GtMchichU da- bohmitcKen BrUd*r, i. IS, 36, 56- 
57, 07-9B, Pr&fue* 1856; Beauwbre, ut rup.; J. Goll. 
QueUen und UivterMUchtinc^n xut GewtJi\^U6 det btihmin^hen 
BrOdir,!. 119, Pr««u^> 187^; ii. (1^2) lOaqq.; H. Haupt. 
Watdtn^ertkum und Iwjuintwn im mdaiilicKen Deutxch- 
iand, pp. 23. 100. note I, Ytvihntg, 1890, (4) Pmtedu!!, 
D* tiHt him-eticofu-m^ L, Colc^ne, 1560; C. 5ch]Qs»elburg, 
C^tah^ii* hirretie<rrumt x'a, 29, Frajjkfort, 1 509; F. Nip- 
pold in ZIITy jEiiiiiH (1863) 102; C. A. Cornfsliuji, Id Ab- 
hamilunfftn of the Royal EavAriiin Academy, Hittoriache 
elatmt u. 2, 67 9q<i., Hunicsb, 1872; NA-tvlis Alexander, 
l/ial. *eeL, xriu 183, P&rut 1009; J. Bobi, Lt Satanitmt 
£i la moffi^, ^l^' 1895. 

ADAMITAIf (''little Adam"): Kinth abbot of 
lona (679-704); b. probably at Drum home in the 
south weat part of County Donegal, Ireland (50 m. 
B.w. of Londondany), c, 625 j d. on the mland of 
lona Sept. 23 ^ 704, He was a relative of Ck>lumba 
and the greatest of the abbots of lona after its 
illustrious founder, famed alike for learning (he 
had eome knowledge of even Greek and Hebrew), 
piety, and practical wiadom. He was a friend 
(and perhaps the teacher) of Aldfrid, king of North- 
umbria (685-705), visited hii court in 6S6 and 
again in 6S8| and waa converted there to the Ro- 
man tonsure and Easter computation by Cwjlfrid 
of Jarrow, He was unable, however, to win over 
his monks of lona, but had more success in Ireland, 
where he spent considerable timOj attended several 
tynods, and warmly advocated the Roman usages. 
Many churches and wells are d«?dicated to him in 
Ireland and Scotland^ and his name appears cor^ 
rupted into various forms, as '* Ownan/^ *' Eunan " 
(the patron of Raphoe), " Dewnan," " Thewnan," 
and the like. 

The extant writifjga of Atiamnan are: (1) Arcidfi 
reUUio de hcis Sanctis f written down from informa- 
tion fumjflhed personally by Arculf, a Gallic bishop 
who w^aa driven to England by stress of weather 
when returning from a visit to Palestine, Syria, 
Alexandria, and Constantinople, Adamnan added 
notes from other sources known to him, ^md pre- 
sented the book to King Aldfrid, Bede made it 
the basis of hia Dc hds sandi^ and gives extracts 
from it in the Hwt. eccL, v, 16, 17, (2) Vila S. 
Columbia f written between 692 and 697, not so much 
a life as a presentation without order of the saint's 
prophecies, miracles, and visions, but important 
for the information it gives of the customs, the land^ 
the Irish and Scotch tongues, and the liistory of 
the time, (3) The '*Vbionof Adamnan/* in old 
Irish, describing Adamnan's journey through 
beaven and hell, is probably later than his time, 
but may present liis real spiritual experiences and 
his teaching. Other worki are ascribed to him 
without good reason. H. Hahn. 

BiaLicK]RA,PEtT: For workd eotiAult MFL, htxxvui^; 
Arrkd^ relaiw^ m ihntra Hieramiymitana heilia §ae- 
ru antmora, i„ pp, xxx.-jcxsrui., 139-210,238-340,392- 
418 {PubticaiumM ^f ike SocitU tl« VOrieM laHn. Sfrte ^^ 
ffrapkiqu*,i'. G^ncrviL, 1879), uid In /lifvra Hiero*ottfmitfina 
gt^culi uit-vtu.. etl. P. Geyer, pp, 21^207 iC^EL, mxxix., 
1898); Eq«. tmnitl. by J. E. MAcpher»n {P&1«9tine PiJ- 
frinu' T«xt Eot!hly. 1SS9); Vila S. Coiumbte, «i. W. 
Rii«V6«, Dublin, 1857 (new ed., vtth Enjr. transL and au 
unfortunate rttatt^agemeai of the tjotus, by W. F. Skene, 

Edinburgh. 1 874): abo by J. T. Fowler, Oxford, ISM 
(Eng. tran&l.H 1895); the text of tbe Vinon, with Bug, 
transl.p haa bfwa publiahed by Wbitiey Stokefi, Fit Ai^m- 
nain, Simla, 1870; E, Wiudisch, Irische Texte, pp. 166- 
196, Lelpaic, 1880 (contains the text}« For AdamnAQ's 
Ufe: Lani^n, EccL Mitt., paAfilm; lieeveij in hi» e>d^ o{ tbe 
Vita Citiumba, pp. xI'.Lxviu., Dublin, 1857; A, P, 
Forbea, KaUndara of Scottiih Sainta, Edmburgh, 1872; 
DCB, i. 41^3; W. F, flkene, Celtic Scvtiand, d. 170- J 75, 
Edinbuj^h, 1877; DNB. i. 02-93: J. Heidy. tfumla 
Sanctorum, pp. 334-^47, Dublin, 1890; P. Gcyer, Adam- 
nan, AugAbuTis< 1895; T. Olden, Church of Inland, pp, 50, 
77, 104, 119, London 4 1895; Cain Adamnany an old tritk 
TreaHmon ^ Law of Adamnain^td. Kuao Meyer, in 4ii- 
ecdota Oxanieiva^ O:xiord, I90d. 

alist; b, at Castine, Mc, July 7, 1824; d. at Au- 
bumdftle, Mass,, Jan. H, 1906» He was educat^Ki 
at Bowdoin College (B,A., 1S44), Bangor Theological 
Seminary (1S44-46), the universities of LcipsiCi 
Halle, and Beriin (1847-49), and Andover Theo- 
logical Seminary (1849-50). He held succc^ve 
pastorates at Oonway, Mass, (1851-63); Ports- 
mouth, N. H. (186X^71); and HoUiaton, Mass. 
(1873-89), and alao acted as supply at Mentham, 
Mass. (1890-01), md Waban, Mass. (1905), although 
after 1889 be was engaged chiefly in literary work* 
In his theological position he was a Trinitarian 
Congregationalist, Fie was historian of the New 
England Historic-Genealogical Society and a mem- 
ber of its Council, a member of the Board of Over- 
seers of Bowdoin College, the treasurer of the 
Trustees of Donations for Education in Liberia 
and of the Mount Coffee Association for the pro- 
motion of education in Liberia, and in 1903 was 
made Knight Commander of the Liberian Humane 
Order of African Redemption. In addition to a 
number of briefer studies and occasional addresses, 
he revised the Biblical Mttgcum of James Comper 
Gray (8 vols,. New York and London, 1871-81) 
under the title of The Biblical Encyclopedia (5 vols., 
Cleveland, O., 1903), 

ADAJHS, JAMES ALONZO; CongregationaliBt; 

b. at Ashland, O., May 21, 1S42, He was educated 
at Knox Cbllege (A,B., 1867) and Union Theological 
Seminary (1870), after having served in the C^vil 
war as a member of Company D^ 69th Illinois 
Volunteer*. He was pastor of the Congregational 
Church at Marehfield, Mo., in 1870-71 j of the 
Plymouth Congregational Church, St. Loms, in 
1880-86; of the Millard Avenue Congregational 
Church, Clucago, in 1887-88; and of the Warren 
Avenue Congregational Church in the fiame city 
in 1889-^95. In 1891 he was a delegate from the 
Congregational churches of IlUnois to the Inter- 
national Congregational CoimcLl in London, and 
has also been their representative at a number of 
national councils. He was profesj^or in Straight 
University, New Orleans^ 1873--77, and president 
in 1875-77, and then became editor of the DolUa 
Daily Commercialj Dallas, Tex. Prom 1887 to 
IdOii he was editorial wTiter on the Chicago Ad- 
vance, becoming its editor-in-chief in the latter year» 
His principal works are Colonel Hunger ford's 
DaughUr (Chicago, 1896) and Life of Queen Vic- 
toria (190\). 

ADAJIS, JOHH COLEBiAH: Univcrsalist; b. at 

Maiden, Mass., Oct. 25, 1849. He was educated 




&t the high schooU of Provideneei H- 1^, and Lowell, 
Mass,, and at TuftB CcUege (A.B., 1870) and Divin- 
ity achool (B.D., 18X2), He has held paat^ratea 
at the Newton UniversaHflt Church, Newton, Maea. 
tlS72-80); First Universalkt Church, Lynn, Mass. 
C18S0-nS4); St. Paul's Univeraaliiit Church, Chicago, 
111. (ISS4-90); AR Souk' UniversaUst Church, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. (IS0O-19O1); and Church of the 
Redeemer, Hartford, C<inn,, from 1901 to the 
present time. He has been a trustee of Tufta 
College since 1880 and of the Univerealist General 
Convention Bince 1^5, In his theological position 
he IB a pronounced Univerealist, His works in- 
clude The Fdtherhood of God (Boston, 1888); 
Chnstimi, Ti^pes of Heroism (1891); The Leisure 
of God (1895); Naiure Studies in the Bcrkshires 
(New York, 1899); and Life of WUiiam IlamiUon 
Gibson (1901). 

Unitamn; b, at Harlow (25 m. n.e* of London), 
Esae^c, Feb. 22, 1805; d. in London Aug, 14, 1848, 
Her father wai Benjamin Flower (1755-1829), 
printer, editor, and political writer, and, Sept. 24, 
1834, she married William Bridges Adams {1797- 
1872), an inventor and engineer of distinction, also 
a writer on political subjeetfl. She w*as a highly 
gifted woman, much esteemed by a circle of friends 
which included, among others, W. J. Linton, 
Harriet Martineau, Leigh Hunt, and Robert Brown- 
ing. Inherited deafness and a weak constitution 
prevented her from following the stage as a profes- 
sion, which she had chosen in the beUef that '' the 
dmma is an epitome of the mind and manners of 
mankind, and wise men in all ages have agreed to 
make it^ what in truth it ought to be, a supplement 
to the pulpit;" She wrote poems on social and 
pohtical subjects, chiefly for the Anti<bm-Law 
League; contributed poems and articles to the 
Monthly Repository dining the years 1832-53^ 
when it was conducted by her pastor W, J, Fox 
(q,v.}^ and published a long poem, The Royal 
ProgrtM, in the lHuminaled Mogazine in 1845* In 
book form she published ViiHa Perpetua, a Dra- 
jnaiic Poem (London, 1841; reprinted with her 
hymns and a memoir by Mrs. E. F. Bridell-Fox, 
1803), and The Flock at the Fountmn (1845), a cat- 
echism. In addition, she furnished fourteen original 
hymns and two translations to Hymns and An- 
themM (1840), a collection for Fox's chapel at Fins* 
bury, including her best -known production, N carers 
my God, to thee. Her sister, Eliza Flower (1803^ 
46)^ possessed much mu-stcal talent and furnished 
the original music for this hymn as well as for others 
in the book. 

BrBUoomAPnT: DNB. L 101: 8, W. DtiffieH, EftjJiaA 
iivmnM. pp. 382-386, New York, 188^; Julian, Nymna- 
t>gif. E>- 13; N, Sciutb. H]/mn9 RittaricaUi/ Famaut^ pp. 174- 
1S2, ChicsffD. 1901. 

ADAHSi THOMAS: English preacher and com- 
mentator of the seventeenth century, called by 
Southey " the prose Shake«!peare of Puritan theo- 
logians . V . scarcely inferior to Fuller in wit or 
to Taylor in fancy," little is known of his life 
beyond what may be gathered from the title-pages 
and dedlcationa of bis books. He wa8 preaching 
in Bedfoidfihiie in 1612; In 1614 became vicar of 

Win grave, Bucks; from 1618 to 1623 preached in 
London; he was chaplain to Sir Heniy Montagu, 
lord chief justice of England, in 1653 was a ** neces- 
sitous and decrepit " old man, and died probably 
before the Restoration. He published many oc- 
casional sermons (collected into a folio vohime, 
London, 1 630) » besides a commentary on the Second 
Epistle of Peter (1633; ed. J. Sherman, 1839). 
His works, ed. Thomas Smith, with life by Joseph 
AnguSf were published in Nichol's Smea of Stand* 
ard Divitics (3 vols,, Edinburgh, 1862-63). 

ADAMS, WILLIAM : American Presbyterian; 
b. at Colchester, Conn., Jan. 25, 1807; d. at Orange 
Mountain, N» J., Aug. 31, 1880. He was graduated 
at Yale (1827) and at Andover Theological Semi- 
nary (1830); was pastor at Brighton, Mass. (1831- 
34); of the Broome Street (Central) Presbyterian 
Church, New York (1834-53); and of the Madison 
Square Presbyterian Church, formed from the 
Broome Street Church (1853-73), From 1873 
till his death he w^as president and professor of 
sacred rhetoric and pastoral theology in Union 
Theological Seminary. He was one of the leading 
clei-gymen in New York in his time, and his influ- 
ence was not bounded by his own denomination or 
land. Besides many individual sermons be pub- 
lished an edition of Isaac Taylor's Sjnrit of HebTetif 
Poetry, with a biographical introduction (New York, 
1862); The Three Gardens (1856); In the World and 
not of the Wi>r£d (18^7); Con^^er^atiojtM of Je^v^ 
VhHst with Representoiim Men (1868); Thanks^ 
giving (1869), 

ADAMS, WILLIAM FORBES: Protestant Epis^ 
copal bishop of Eaaton (Md.); b. at EnniskiUen 
(70 m. s. w. of Belfast), County Fermanagh, 
Ireland, Jan, 2, 1833. He came to America at 
the age of eight, wa€i educated at the University 
of the South, and was admitted to the Mis- 
sissippi bar in 1854, but subsequently studied 
theology, and was ordained deacon in 1859, and 
priest in the following year. He was rector of 
St. Paul's Church, WoodviUe, Mass., from 1860 to 
1S66, when he was called to the rectorate of St, 
Peter's, New Orleans, but w*ent in the following 
year to St. Paiirfl in the same city, w^here he re* 
mained until 1875. In that year he w^as conse* 
crated first missionary bishop of New Mexico and 
Ariiona, but was compelled by illness to resign. 
He then accepted the rectorate of Holy Trinity 
Church, Vicksburg, Miss,, where he remained from 
1876 to 1887, when he was consecrated bishop of 

ADAMSON, PATRICK: Scotch prebtei b. in 
Perth Mar. 15, 1537 (according to another account, 
1543); d. at St. Andrews Feb. 19, 1592. He was 
educated at the University of St. Andrews; preached 
for two or three years in Scotland; was in France 
as private tutor at th^* time of the Massacre of St. 
Bartholomew; returned to Scotland and to the 
ministry; and was made archbishop of St. Andrews 
in 1576. Thenceforth his life w^as a continual 
struggle with the Presbyterian party, and he died 
in poverty. His enemies have assailed his charac- 
ter» but all agree that he was a scholar and an able 
preacher and writer. He composed a Latin cate- 




chism for the young King James, translated the 
Book of Job into Latin hexameters, and wrote a 
tragedy on the subject of Herod. His collected 
works were published by his son-in-law, Thomas 
Wilson (London, 1610), who also added a life to 
an edition of his treatise De pastoria muneref pub- 
lished separately the same year. 

ADAMSON, Wn^LIAM: Evangelical Union; b. 
at New Galloway (20 m. w. of Dumfries), Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, Aug. 29, 1830. He was educated 
at Glasgow and St. Andrews Universities and at 
EvangeUcal Union Theological Hall. He was pastor 
in Perth eleven years and in Edinburgh twenty- 
seven years, and also conducted a public theological 
class in the latter city for eighteen years. He was 
for several years a member of the B^dinburgh School 
Board, and took an active interest in politics and 
movements for reform. He is now pastor of the 
Carver Memorial Church, Windermere, Westmore- 
landshire. His writings include The Righteousness 
of Qod (London, 1870); The Nature of the Atonement 
(1880); Religwus Anecdotes of Scotland (1885); 
Knowledge and Faith (1886); Robert MiUigan : 
A Story (Glasgow, 1891); Missionary Anecdotes 
(1896); Argument of Adaptation (London, 1897); 
Life of the Rev, James M orison (1898); Life of the 
Rev. Fergus Ferguson (1900); and Life of the Rev. 
Joeeph Parker (1902). He is also the editor of 
The Christian News. 

ADDICKS, GEORGE B. : Methodist Episcopalian ; 
b. at Hampton, lU., Sept. 9, 1854. He was 
educated at the Central Wesleyan College. War- 
renton. Mo., and at the Garrett Bible Institute, 
Evanston, 111. (1876-77). He taught in the pre- 
paratory department of the Central Wesleyan Col- 
lege in 1875-76, and in 1877-78 preached at Gene- 
seo, 111., being ordained to the Methodist Episcopal 
ministry in the latter year. From 1878 to 1885 
he taught the German language and literature in 
Iowa Wesleyan University and German College, 
Blount Pleasant, la., and from 1885 to 1890 held a 
pastorate at Pekin, HI. In 1890 he returned to the 
(Central Wesleyan College as professor of practical 
theology and philosophy, and since 1895 has been 
president and professor of philosophy of the same 
institution. In 1900 he was a delegate to the Gen- 
eral Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
and was a member of the University Senate of the 
same denomination from 1896 to 1904. 

land; b. at Edinburgh May 9, 1844. He was 
educated at Glasgow University and Balliol 
College, Oxford (B.A., 1866). Originally a member 
of the Church of England, he became a convert to the 
Roman Catholic Church in 1866, and was ordained 
to the priesthood in 1872 at the London Oratory, 
being parish priest of Sydenham from 1878 to 1888. 
In the latter year he renounced this faith and be- 
came minister of the Australian Church, Melbourne, 
Australia, an undenominational institution, where 
he remained until 1892, when he took a similar 
position at the High Pavement Chapel, Nottingham 
(1893-98). In 1899 he was appointed Old Testament 
lecturer at Manchester College, Oxford, and shortly 
afterward returned to the Chiurch of England. 

His college accordingly attempted to expel him and 
to declare itself officially non-confonnist, but the 
movement was proved illegal, and he still retains 
his position, although the hostile attitude of the 
trustees of Manchester College prevents him from 
resimiing his work as a priest of the Church of 
England. He has written A Catholic Dictionary 
(London, 1883; in collaboration with Thomas 
Arnold); Christianity and the Roman Empire (1893); 
Documents of the Hexateuch (2 vols., 1893-98); and 
Hebrew Religion to the Establishment of Judaism 
Under Ezra (1906). 

Episcopalian; b. at Wheeling, W. Va., Mar. 11, 
1863. He received his education at Union Col- 
lege and the Episcopal Theological School, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. (1886). He was curate of Christ 
Church, Springfield, Mass., in 1886-89 and rector 
of St. Peter's Church, Beverly, Mass., in 1889-95, 
while since 1895 he has been rector of All Saints' 
Chiurch, Brookline, Mass. He is examining chap- 
lain to the bishop of Massachusetts, director of the 
Church Temperance Society, member of the execu- 
tive committee of the archdeaconry of Boston, 
president of the New England Home for Deaf -Mutes 
and the Brookline Education Society, vice-presi- 
dent of the Trustees of Donations for Education 
in Liberia, and a trustee of the College of Monrovia, 
Liberia, and of the Brookline public library. In 
1904 he was made Knight Conunander of the Li- 
berian Humane Order of African Redemption. He 
has written: Lucy Ijorcom^ Life^ Letters and Diary 
(Boston, 1894); Phillipa Brooks (1894); Life and 
Times of Edward BasSy First Bishop of Massachu- 
setts (1897); AU Saints' Church, Brookline (Cam- 
bridge, 1896); The Clergy in American Life and 
Letters (New York, 1900); and The Episcopalians 

ADELBERT. See Adalbert. 

ADELMANN : Bishop of Brescia in the eleventh 
century. The time and place of his birth are un- 
known, and the date of his death, as well as that of 
his consecration as bishop, is uncertain. Gams (Series 
episcoporumf Regensburg, 1872, p. 779) assigns the 
latter two events to 1053 and 1048, respectively. 
Adelmann himself states that he was not a German; 
he has been commonly taken for a Frenchman, but 
may have been a Lombard. The first certain fact 
of his life is that, together with Berengar of Tours, 
he studied under Fulbert at Chartres. Afterward 
he studied, and later taught (probably from 1042), 
in the school of Li^ge, then at Speyer. The 
works which have made him known are: (1) a 
collection of Rhythmi alphabetici de viris lUustrQms 
sui temporiSf devoted to the praise of Fulbert and 
his school, and (2) a letter to Berengar on his 
eucharistic teaching; the letter was written before 
Berengar's first condemnation, but after his de- 
parture from the traditional doctrine was noto- 
rious (both works in MPLy cxliii. 1289-98). The 
letter ia not so much an independent investigation 
as a solemn warning to his friend against the danger 
of falling into heresy. Adelmann treats the sub- 
ject from the purely traditional standpoint, and 
considers it settled by the words of institution. 





The change (he uses the words trans ferret 
irammutare) of the bread and wine id to the 
body and blood of Christ takes place invmbly in 
order to afford an opportunity for the exercise of 
faith; such oceurrences, accordingly, can not be 
inveetigated by reaaon, but must be believed, 

(A. Hauck.) 
Bnuooa^niT: Hiatoin H^irain dt la Frana^ tH. 542; 
U&udc, KD, vaL iij„ p. &63. 

ADELOPHAGI, ad"el'Of'a-j(ii ot -g^ (" Not Eating 
in Public "): Certain people^ mentioned in Pra- 
ttesiinaiuM {L 71), as thinking it imseemly for a 
Cbmtian t.o eat while another looked on. They 
are also referred to by Augustine (Har.AxxL), who 
€opiei; Philastriufl {H(^.,]xxvi,) and is uncertain 
whether their scruple included members of their 
own sect or appUed only to others. Further state- 
ments in pTade^inatu^ are to be acceptetl with ex- 
tt^eme caution. G- KrCger. 

tionaliitt; b. at Ealing {9 m. w. of London ), Mid- 
dlesex, Eng., Mar. 14, 1849. He received hb edu- 
cation at New College and University College, 
London. He was minister of the Congregational 
Church at Acton^ London, from 1872 to 1889, and 
from 1887 to the same year was lecturer in Biblical 
and syBtetnattc theology at New College^ London. 
Ixk 1889 be was appointed professor of New Testa- 
ment estegesis and church histoiy in the same 
institution, holding ibis position until 1903, as 
weD BS a lectureship on church history in Hackney 
College, London^ after 1898. In 1903 he wait chosen 
principal of LancaistershiTe CoOege, in the ll^niver- 
aity of Manchester^ and two years later was ap- 
pointed lecturer on the hiatory of doctrine in the 
same university. As a theologian, he accepts the 
resullii of BibUeal criticism which he feels to be 
warranted, and welcomes seientihc and philosophic 
inveetigation and criticism of religion, although he 
seeks to adhere finnly to basal Christian truths and 
to harmonise them with what he holds to be other 
ascertained verities. His works include, in addition 
to numerous articles m magazines and HEU^tings's 
Didi&nary of the B&ie, as well as in nine volumes of 
the PulpU Cvmntentary (1881-90), The Hdrrew 
Ui^ypia (London, 1877); From Christ to Constan- 
tino (1^6); From CoMt^tniino io Charki tht Great 
(1888): two volumes in the Es-poiiior's Bible 
(1893-94; the first on ^%t&, Nehemiah, and Esther; 
and the second on EcclesiaMes and the Song of 
Solomon); The Theology of the New Te^tameni 
(1894); ffaw to Read the BibU (1896); Women of 
the New Tt^^ammi (1899); the iection on the New 
Testament m the Biblical Introduction written by 
him m collaboration with W. H. Bennett (1899); 
and A Century's Proffrest (1901). He is likewise 
editor of The Centtiry B^te, to which he himself 
baa omtnbuted the volumes on Luke (London, 
1901) and the Epistles to the Tbessaloniana (1902). 

ADEODATUS, ttd't-S-da'toa: Bishop of Rome 
from Apr, II, 672, to his death, June 16, 676, His 
pontificate was unimportant. The lAber potdifi' 
ealis (ed. Duchesne, i. 346) afienbes to Mm the 
restoration of the basilica of St. Peter at Campo 
di Merio^ near La Ma^ana (7^ m, from Rome), 

and the enlargement of the monastery of St. Era^ 
mus in Rome, where he had been a monk. The 
only documents of his extant (Af PL, bcxxvii, 1139- 
46) are concessions of privileges to the churchets 
of St. Peter at Canterbmy and St. Nfartio at Tours. 
For his participation in the Monotbelite contro- 
versy, flee MoNDTHELiTES. He is sometimes kno^n 
as Adeodatuf II., because the form ** Adeodatus -' 
is used also for the name of a former pope Deusdedit 

ADIAPHORA, ad"i-af'o-Ta, AHD THE ADI- 
Clanieal Greek Ueafic {f 1 ). 
Chriflt'«Uflo«fl (I 2). 
Pfitira Usace (j S). 
Patriiitjc mad Mpdievml Unga (M). 
Luther's Uea^e tf 6>. 
Firfct AiliBphcmtic Controveniy (10). 
FIaciuh's H««trictkiti of Adliiplioni i| 7>. 
Second ContTDveray (f 8). 
R»o«nt DincuHioa (f OK 

In the history of Christian ethics the term " adi- 

aphora " (pi, of Gk., odiuphoroni " indifferent ") 
signifies flctions wliich God neither bids nor forbida, 
the performance or omission of which is accordingly 
left as a matter of indifference. The term wafl 
employed by the Cynics, and borrowed by the 

Stoics. To the latter that only was 

I. Cla^ ^^^^ or evil which waji always iK> and 

ttcal Greek which man could control. Such mat- 

U&sfe, tera as health, riches, etc., and their 

opposites were ehuised as adiaphora, 
being regarded for this purpose, not as actions, 
but as things or conditions, Adiaphora were 
divided into absolute and relative; the former being 
such as bad to do with meaningless distinctions, 
while the latter involved preference, as in the case 
of sickness versus health. The Stoics did not, 
however, from the adiaphoristic nature of esctemal 
thingis deduce that of the actions connected there- 

Jesus 's ideal of righteousness as devotion of the 
entire person to God revealed as perfect moral 
character, signified, on the one side, freedom from 
every obligation to a Htatutory law, particularly 
precepts concennng worship* He regarded the 
observance of external rites as a matter of indif- 
ference BO far as re^l personal purity was concerned, 
and, with his disciples observed the Jewbh ritea 

as a means to the fulfilment of his 

3. Christ's mission to Israel when they did not 

Usage. interfere with doing good (Mark iu.4). 

Yet this ideal involved such a sharpen- 
ing of moral obligation that in the presi'nce of its 
unqualified earnestness and comprehensive scope 
there was no room for the question, so important 
to legalistic Judaism^ how much one might do or 
leave undone without transgressing the Law, The 
slightest act, like the individual word, had the high- 
est ethical significance to the eictent that it was an 
expression of the " abundance of the heart " (Matt. 
xii. 25^7). 

Paul emphasizes^ on the one hand, the compre- 
hensive character of Christian ethics and, on the 
other, the freedom which is the Chrisstian^fi; and 
he concludes that the obf^er\'ance or disregard of 
dicta pertaining to external things ia a matter of 




indifference in its bearing on the kingdom of God 

(Rom. xiv. 17; I Cor. vi. 12, viii. 8; Gal. v. 6; 

Col. ii. 20). He recognizes, with the exception of 

the Lord's Supper, no forms for Chris- 

3. Paul's tian worship, but merely counsels 
Usage, that '' all things be done decently and 
in Older " (I Cor. xiv. 40). From the 
fact that the Christian belongs to God, the Lord of 
the worid, Paul deduces the authority (Gk. exousia) 
of Christians over all things (I Cor. iii. 21-23), espe- 
cially the right freely to make use of the free ^ts of 
God (I Cor. X. 23, 26; Rom. xiv. 14, 20). Abilitjr to 
return thanks for them is made the subjective 
criterion of their purity (Rom. xiv. 6; I Cor. x. 30). 
Those things also arc permissible which are left 
free by implication in the ordinances of the Church, 
or are expressly allowed. But action in the domain 
of the permissible is restricted for the individual 
by ethical principles according to which he must 
be bound (Rom. xiv. 2 sqq.; I Cor. vi. 12, viii. 
9, X. 23). Concrete action in all such cases he re- 
gards as not at the pleasure of the individual, but 
as bidden or forbidden for the sake of God. 

In place of this view of freedom, combining obli- 
gation with unconstraint, there soon arose one of 
a more legal cast. At the time of Tertullian there 
was in connection with concrete questions a conflict 
between the two principles (1) that what is not 
expressly permitted by Scripture is forbidden; and 
(2) that what is not expressly forbidden is permitted. 
The restriction of the idea of duty by that of the 
permissible, and the recognition of an adiaphoristic 
sphere were further confirmed by the distinction 
between prcBcepta and consUia and by the doctrine 
of supererogatory merits. The question of adi- 
aphora was argued by the schoolmen. Thomas 
Aquinas and his followers held that 

4. Patrifl- there were certain actions which, so 
tic and far as being intrinsically capable of 

Medieval subserving a good or an ill purpose. 
Usage, were matters of indifference; but they 
recognized no act proceeding from 
conscious consideration which was not either dis- 
posed toward a fitting end or not so disposed, and 
hence good or bad. Duns Scotus and his adherents 
recognized actions indifferent in individuOj i.e., those 
not to be deemed wrong though without reference, 
actual or virtual, to God. The early Church at 
first appropriated the Cynic and Stoic opposition 
to culture, holding that it interfered with the con- 
templation of God and divine things. But with 
large heathen accessions, this attitude was no longer 
maintained. The primitive Christian ideal was, 
to be sure, preserved; but its complete fulfilment 
was required of only those bound thereto by the 
nature of their calling. 

Luther based his position on that of Paul. He 
appears, indeed, to determine the idea of adiaphora 
(the expression does not occur in his works) accord- 
ing to a legalizing criterion when he distinguishes 
between things or works w^hich are clearly bidden 
or forbidden by God in the New Testament and 
those which are left free — to neglect which is no 
wrong; to observe, no piety. But he further says 
in the same connection that under the rule of 
faith the conscience is free, and Christians are 

superior to all things, particulariy externals and 
precepts in connection therewith. In accordance 
with this view he considers that an 
5. Luther's external form of divine worship is 
Usage. nowhere enjoined (the Lord's Supper is 
SLbeneficiunif not an officium); and he 
distinguishes between the necessaiy and the free 
in churchly forms by their effects. Prayer, the 
Lord's Supper, and preaching are necessary to 
edification; but the time, place, and mode have no 
part in edification, and are free. His standpoint, 
then, was not simply that there were certain things 
left free, but that the assertion of freedom (or adi- 
aphorism) applied to the whole realm of externals. 
In individual cases, however, a limitation was im- 
posed by ethical aims and rules. Christians were 
to take part in the external worship of God to fulfil 
the duty of public confession and that they 
might " communicate " (Heb. xiii. 16). Ceremonial 
forms served to perpetuate certain effective modes 
of observance; but they were not to be idolatrous, 
superstitious, or pompous. Luther, in opposition 
to Carlstadt, urged that in the forms of worship 
for the sake of avoiding offense to some, whatever 
was not positively objectionable shoidd be suffered 
to remain. He was ready to concede the episcopal 
form of church government and other matters, 
if urged not as necessary to salvation, but as 
conducive to order and peace. He wished, also, 
to maintain Christian freedom against stubborn 
adherents of the Law. 

The churchly adiaphora formed the subject of 
the first adiaphoristic controversy. The Witten- 
berg theologians believed that the 
6. First concessions on the basis of which 
Adiapho- the Leipsic interim was concluded 
risticCon- could be justified by the principles 
troversy. enunciated and exemplified at the 
outset of the Reformation. They 
held that, despite formal modifications, they 
had smrendered only traditional points of church 
government and worship, and even then only 
such as were unopposed by Scripture, had 
been so recognized in the primitive Church, and 
had seemed to themselves excellent arrangements, 
conducive to order and discipline. Further, they 
maintained that every idolatrous usage had been 
discountenanced, and that from what was retained 
idolatrous significance had been excluded. It 
may be mentioned, by way of example, that the 
Latin liturgy of the mass was admitted, with lights, 
canonicals, etc., though with commimion and some 
German hymns; also confirmation. Corpus Christi 
day, extreme unction, fasting, and the jurisdiction 
of bishops. 

Before the interim had been authentically pub- 
lished there arose a controversy in which the attack 
was led by Flacius. In his Z>e verts et falna 
adiaphoria (1549), he raised the question by not 
only maintaining that preaching, baptism, the 
Lord's Supper, and absolution had been conmianded 
by God, but even by concluding from I Cor. xiv. 40 
that the ceremonial usages connected therewith 
had been divinely ordained in genere. He also 
sought to limit the Lutheran indifference to detail 
by insisting on what he deemed seriousness and 




dignity in the liturgy, as opposed to the canonioaLs, 
music, and spectacles of the Catholic Church. In 
addition he protested that what might be called 
the individual character of the Church 
7. Flactns's was to be conserved, and that existing 
Restriction means of edification should be altered 
of Adi- only in favor of better ones. Under 
aphora. the circumstances obtaining at the 
time, he said, even a matter in itself 
unessential 'sould not be treated as permissible, and 
the concessions of the interim were an act of treach- 
ery: they were occasioned by the endeavors of the 
emperor to restore the Catholic Church, the pro- 
mulgators being moved by fear, or at best by 
lack of faith; and in effect they were an admission 
of past errors, strengthening their opponents, while 
the rank and file, looking at externals only, would 
see in the restoration of discarded usages a rever- 
sion to the old conditions. The dispute sontinued 
after the peace of Augsburg; and the Formula 
Concordia not only drew the distinction (art. X.) 
that in time of persecution, when confession was 
necessary, there should be no concession to the 
enemies of the Gospel, even in adiaphora, since 
truth and Christian freedom were at stake, but to 
some extent appropriated Flacius's restriction of 
the idea of adiaphora. 

In the so-called second adiaphoristic controversy 
the Lutheran and Calvinistic systems came into 
conflict. Luther had maintained the right of 
temperate enjoyment of secular amusements. Cal- 
vin, on the other hand, stood for fundamentally 
different principles, in accordance with which he 
enforced his Genevan code of discipline. Voetius 
carried these principles still further. On the Lu- 
theran side was Meisner, who is in this respect the 
classic opponent of the Calvinists. He puts secu- 
lar amusements under the head of adiaphora as 
being actions neither right nor wrong per se but ^ 
aliud, — the person and the purpose especially to 
be considered, — and in concrete instances becoming 
always either right or wrong. The controversy 
began at the close of the seventeenth century, 
when secular amusements were attacked per se 
by several writers, such as Reiser and Winkler, 
the Pietistic theologians of Hamburg, Vockerodt, 
Lange, and Zierold. Lange, for example, contended 
that in the light of revealed law there 
8. Second are no indifferent acts. Those actions 
Contro- alone are right which are under the 
yersy. influence of the Holy Spirit for the 
honor of God in the faith and name of 
Christ; and he holds that the divine will exercises 
a direct and inunediate control. Hence actions 
not bidden of God are necessarily actions which 
profit not and are therefore coUecti^y wrong. 
He enumerates nineteen separate reasons why 
Christians should take no part in secular amuse- 
ments and would exclude from the Lord's Supper 
those who do. He regards the defense of adiaphora 
as a heresy which abrogates all evangelical doc- 
trine. Spener's theory was equally severe, but his 
practise was wisely modified. He counseled that 
those who participated in secular amusements 
should be dissuaded therefrom not harshly, but 
by indirect exhortations to follow Christ; and he 

would not refuse absolution to such, since many 
of them did not really appreciate the wrong of 
those things. Rothe, Wamsdorf, and Schelwig 
were the principal champions of the previously 
existing Lutheran teaching; but their defense was 
far less resolute than the attack. 

The question of adiaphora has subsequently 
been a subject of discussion. The first to intro- 
duce a new point of view of any con- 
9. Recent siderable value was Schleiermacher 
Discussion. {KrUik der bisherigen SitterUehre, 2d 
ed.; Werke zur Philoaophie, ii.), who 
contested the ethical right of adiaphora on the 
basis of the necessity in the moral life of unity and 
stability. Only in the realm of civil law, and in 
the moral judgment of otherp, whose actions must 
frequently, for lack of evidence, remain unexplained, 
does he admit of adiaphora. Most later evangelical 
authorities, for example Martensen, Pfleiderer, 
Wuttke, and, most closely, Rothe, are in substantial 
agreement with this position, though introducing 
some variations and modifications. 

Among British and American Christians no adi- 
aphoristic controversy has found place; but the 
types of religious and ethical thought that imderlay 
the opposing forces in the controversies above con- 
sidered have been in conflict at all times and every- 
where. English Puritanism and early Scottish 
Presbyterianism, as well as New England Puritan- 
ism, either rejected adiaphora wholly or reduced 
them to the smallest proportions. The English 
Tractarians in seeking to overcome the difii- 
culties involved in uniting with the Church of 
Rome gave earnest attention to adiaphora. A 
sign of the times is the watchword of the Evan- 
gelical Alliance, " In essentials, unity; in non- 
essentials, liberty; in all things, charity." The 
Lambeth articles proposing the Nioene and Apos- 
tles' Creeds, the two sacraments, the open Bible, 
and the historic episcopate as the basis of union 
with non-conforming Churches treated as adiaph- 
ora the Atl^anasian Creed, uniformity of worship, 
and use of the Prayer Book. The Prcftestant 
Episcopal Church in America has settled the chief 
point in dispute between Churchman and Puritan 
by eliminating the State from necessary union 
with the Church. In the union of religious bodies 
both in Great Britain and America, for which there 
is a growing tendency, minor differences are ig- 
nored in favor of essential principles. In all 
Churches some dogmas once deemed essential to 
the integrity of truth are laid aside never to regain 
their former position (cf. the Westminster Con- 
fession with the "Brief Statement of Faith" 
published by authority of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States). With reference to conduct 
prescribed by ecclesiastical bodies or recognized 
as belonging to personal responsibility — the " per- 
sonal instance " — two diametrically opposite ten- 
dencies are evident. In the first case, the spirit 
of democracy and of enlightened public sentiment 
is rapidly withdrawing many actions once regarded 
as legitimately under church jurisdiction, as 
amusements and the like, from such supervision. In 
the second case, if life is to be ruled by moral • 




maxiniB, many actions must be left morally inde- 

ternunate, yet when every deed ia seen to be not 

fttomiatic but ai^ integral part of seLf-realization, 

then all actioni^ take their organic place in the 

aeriouB or happy fulfilment of life's aim. In both 

inBtaneca alike, however^ the moral adlaphora 

disappear, C. A. B. 

Bl«i,joQa4PHTt For the ethical aad theological treatment 

of Adiaphora conflult in general: the trtjatMes on ethics. 

CftSUJHtry, dogmatica^ And tho history of philgpophy, Spe- 

DJAt treatment will be found in C. Cr E. Sohmid, Adieephora, 

wiueiytr^hajtlifh und hiAttrriach unttraurhtt I^ipate^ ISOQ; 

J. SchiJIer. Prohleme dar chrUUichen Etkik, BeHxQ, 1888: J, 

H. Blunt. Dietwnarjf of Scctt. Herena. . , . s.v., Phihi- 

detphia> !S74; KL, I 223-233. On the Adiapborvtie 

GoiitrDVeffly eoosult: Sehmid, C&nirovcFtnia dM adiapharU, 

Jena, 1807; J, L. v. BUosheim, FnvtituUt of Ecd. HitL. ed. 

W. Stubh>i, a. 574-670. London, 1863; KL, L 232-335* 

769; iv. 152$; v. 769; luL 156B. 1710. 

ADLER, CYRUS J American Jewish Hcholar; 
b. at Van Buren, Ark.. Sept. 13, 1863. He was 

educated at the Philadelphia High School, the 
University of Pennsylvania (B.A., 1S83) and Johns 
Hopkins (Ph.D., 1887). He woa fellow in Scm- 
iticaat Johns Hopkins in 1885-S7, and waJ* appointed 
instructor in the same subject in 1887, and asao- 
ciate professor five years lat^r. In 18S7 he was 
also made assistant c\irator of Oriental antiquities 
in the United States Museum, Washingrton, and 
custodian of tho section of historic religious cere- 
monials in 18S9. In 1905 he was appointed as- 
sistant secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 
He was virtually the founder of the American 
Jewish Hiatorical Society in 1892 and has been it^ 
president since 1898, and was likewise one of the 
reorganizers (190*2) of the Jewish Theological Sem- 
inary of America (New York City)> of which he 
is a life trustee, besides serving as president 
in 1902-0*5. He haa edited the American Jewish 
Year Book since 1899, has been a member of 
the editorial staff of the Jewish Enq^chpediUt in 
which he had charge of the departments of post- 
Biblical antiquities and the hist^iry of the Jews in 
America, and has published, in collaboration with 
Allan Ramsay, Toid in ike Coffee Htmse (New York, 

ADLER, FELDCi Founder of the Society for 
Ethical Culture; b. ut Alzey (20 m. s.w. of Maijiz) 
Aug. 13, 1851. He came to America in 1857, when 
his father was called to the rabbinate of Temple 
Emanu-Elj New York City, and was educated at 
Columbia College (A.B,, 1S70), the Hochschule 
fflr die Wiasenschaft des Judenthums at Berlin 
and the university of the same city, and the Univer- 
sity of Heidelberg (Ph.D., 1873).' From 1874 to 
1876 he was professor of Hebrew and Oriental 
literature at Cornell, but in the latter year went to 
New York and established the Society for Ethical 
Culture, a noti-religio^is association for the ethical 
improvement of its members, of which he has since 
been the head. He has been active in various 
philanthropic enterTirises and in popular education, 
being a member of the State Tenement Committee 
in 1884 and of the Committee of Fifteen in 1901, 
and in 1902 was appointed professor of poUtical 
and social ethics at Columbia University. He is a 
member of the editorial board of the Iniemationat 
Jaumol of Ethics and haa written Vretd and Deed 

(New York, 1877); The Moral Imtru^tkm of Chii- 
dren (1898); Life and Desiiny (1903); Marriage 
and Div&rce (1905); Religion of Uhdjf (1905), and 
EMeniiak of Spirituality (1906). 

ADLER, HERJllAinf NATHAIT: Chief rabbi 
of the United Hebrew Congregations of the British 
Empire; b. at Hanover, Germany, May 30, 1839. 
He was educated at the Univeraity College School 
and University College, London (B.A.^ 1859), and 
also at the universities of Prague and Leipesic 
(Ph.D., Leipsic, 1861). He received the rabbinical 
diploma at Prague in 1862, and in the following year 
waa appointed principal of Jews^ College, Lon^ 
don. In 18C4 he became minister of the Bayswater 
Synagogue, London, but continued to be tutor in 
theology in Jews' College until 1879, when he 
was appointed delegate chief rabbi to relieve his 
father, Nathan Marcus Adler^ w^hom age had ren- 
dered unable to perform all the duties of chief rabbi. 
On the death of his father, Adler was chosen his 
successor as chief rabbi in 1891, and at the same 
time was elected president of Jews* College, where 
he had already been chairman of the council since 
1887. He is also president of Aria (Allege and the 
London bcth din, vice-president of the National 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children 
and the Mansion House Association for Improving 
the Dwellings of the Poor, governor of University 
College, and a member of the committee of the King 
Edward Hospital Fund and the Metropolitan 
Hospital Sunday Fund. He has likewise been 
president of tlie Jewish Historical Society, vice- 
president of the Jewish Religious Educational Board 
and the Anglo-Jewish A^ociation, and represen- 
tative of the RusBo- Jewish Committee at Berlin 
(1889) and Paris (1890). In addition to numerous 
briefer contributions, he has written Salomon ^m 
Gabirol and his Influence upon Seholaalie Philosophy 
(London, 1865) and Sermons on the Biblical Ftis- 
sagm adduced by ChrUixan Theologians in Support 
of the Dogmaji of their Faiih (1869). 

ADLERp I7ATHAIV BIARCUS : English chief rabbi; 
b. at Hanover, Germany, Jan. 15, 1803; d. at 
Brighton (50) m. s. of London), Sussex, England, 
Jan. 21, 1890. He was educated at the univer* 
sitiea of Gdttingen, Eriangen (Ph,D., 1826), WUr^ 
burg, and Heidelberg, and in 1830 was appointed 
cliief rabbi of Oldenburg. Before a year had passed 
he was made chief rabbi of the kingdom of Han- 
over, and in 1845 he was installed in the far more 
important post of chief rabbi of the British Empire. 
In 1845 he received the assistance of a deputy 
delegate chief rabbi, but retained his own position 
until his death. Active both in philanthropic 
and educational measures, he was the founder of 
Jews' College, London, in 1855, brides being the 
real originator of the Hospital Sabbath among his 
ooreligionists. He was the author of many works 
in English, German, and Hebrew, including Die 
Lvdbe zum VoterlaTwte (Hanover, 1838) ; The Jewish 
Faith (London, 1867); and Neihinah la-Ger (com- 
mentary on the Targum of Onkelos, Wilna^ 1875), 

ADO, a"dO': Archbishop of Vienne 860-875; 
b. near Sens about 800; d. at Yierme I>ec. 16, 875. 
He was considered one of the principal upholders 




of the papal hierarchy, and wrote a Martyrologium 
(best ed. by D. Giorgi, 2 vols., Rome, 1745), which 
surpasses all its predecessors in richness of materiU, 
and a Chronicon de sex cBtatibtu mundi (Paris, 1512; 
Rome, 1745 et al.; extracts in MOH, Script., ii., 
1829, pp. 315-323) from the creation of the world to 
874. His works are in MPL, cxxiii. 1-452. 

ADONAI. See Yahweh. 

ADONAI SHOMO. See Communibm, II., 1. 


Old Testament Conoeption The Apologists (f 6). 

(f 1). Aucustine (f 6). 

TheConeeption of Jesus (f 2). Scholasticism (f 7). 
Paul's Conception (f 3). Luther (f 8). 

The Gospel and Epistles of Later German Theology (f 0). 

John (f 4). Two Views Held at Present 

(I 10). 

Adoption is a term of theology denoting the new 
relation to God which Jesus experienced and into 
which he brings his followers. In tracing the his- 
tory of this conception, attention is to be paid to 
the different senses in which the analogy is used 
in religion, — the idea of homogeneousness with 
God, of the relation to him, and the divine basis 
of both. 

In the Old Testament, the people, the king, 
and individual pious men and women are called 
children of God. The people become children 
of €k)d by their introduction into the promised 
land, the Idng by his election, individual persons by 
their physical creation. It is only with regard to 
the heavenly spirits that the state of being a child 
of God (GoUeskindsehaft) expresses 
I. Old homogeneousness of being. The rela- 
Tettament tion is one in which God helps, par- 
Con- dons, educates, even through suffering, 
ceptioiL and in which men have to obey God and 
trust in him. But the obedience of chil- 
dren is not different from that of servants, and their 
trust is paralysed by God's inexplicable disposition 
to wrath. In later Judaism the relation became 
one of right, — ^the pious man must secure his reward, 
which is a matter of natural desire, by his own 
merits and sacrifices, and he always wavers between 
self-righteous security and anxiety. 

Jesus as seen in the synoptic Gospels, knows God 
as the lofty lord to whom men are subjected in 
service, and as the just judge; but by inner ex- 
periences he recognizes this God as his father who 
discloses to him his love, and he encourages men 
to believe not that they are God's children, but that 
they become such by conducting themselves and 
feeling as children. The innovation lies in the 
quality of the idation. In spite of God's physical 
and spiritual superiority, man is free from the feeling 
of oppression and insecurity, in the first place, 
before the demanding will of God. Throu^ the 
recognition of God as Father, Jesus 
a. The knows himself urged to the service of 
Concep- saving love, renouncing every worldly 
tkm of desire, but this service means for him 
Jctoa. freedom and blessedness (Matt. xi. 
28-30), because he feels it as the ful- 
filment of his own desire (Matt. ix. 36-38), and even 
as a gain in greatness and power (Matt. xx. 25-28), 
because in it be is raised above the Mosaic law (Matt. 

V. 22). In the same way he delivers those whom 
he encourages to believe in God's fatherly love 
and forgiveness, from the oppression of the law by 
showing them as its innermost core (Matt. v. 9, 48) 
the imitation of the example of the perfect God in a 
love which surpasses all bounds of human love. 
From this conception of the divine law all hedonistic 
elements have been removed; it expresses a rev- 
erent and cheerful devotion to an ideal. Where 
Jesus also uses God's retribution as an ethical 
motive and thus seems to substitute a relation of 
right for the relation of adoption, he deepens and 
purifies the traditional view. Reward goes hand 
in hand with conduct; a childlike disposition is 
rewarded with the dignity due to God's children 
(Matt. V. 9) and with physical homogeneousness 
(Luke vii. 36); justice is rewarded with justice 
(Matt. V. 6; vi. 33). He promises the kingdom 
(Matt. X. 13-16) to the unassuming childlike dis- 
position, and promises reward, not to individual 
performance, but to the spirit which reveals itself 
in it (Matt. vii. 15, xxv. 23), excludes the equiva- 
lence between work and reward (Matt. xx. 1-16), 
and appeals to fear not as dread of physical evil, 
but as anxiety lest the life with God (Matt. x. 18) be 
lost. In the second place, the trust in God's 
fatherly guidance which Jesus himself proves and 
encourages, is of a singular surety and joyfulness. 
Whoever through fear of God is kept in his way, 
may be certain of the acquisition of salvation (Luke 
X. 20) and may hope not only to gain eternal life 
(Luke xii. 32), but already here on earth he knows 
himself to be lifted above all oppression of the 
world since he may be sure that his prayers are 
granted (Matt. vii. 7) and may expect from God 
his daily bread and know himself protected by God 
in every way (Matt. x. 28-31) and may venture 
even that which seems impossible (Mark xi. 22) 
and be sure of the forgiveness of his sins and of his 
protection in temptation (Matt. vi. 12, 13) and 
triumph over all hostile powers (Luke x. 19). 

In opposition to philosophy, this idea is new 
in so far as God in the current systems of philos- 
ophy was represented as father only as the shaper 
of the world, and the capacity of becoming a 
child of God was merely a general function of 
reason. The religious importance of the ideal is 
here only secondary; it originates rather in per- 
sonal dignity and is an altruism which does not ex- 
tend to the love of enemies. As faith in a fatherly 
providence, it beheves only in an order of the world 
which offers an opportunity to prove one's strength 
of will, and thus does not attain submission as 
expressed in Christian adoption, but only resig- 

Jesus speaks of adoption only in the imperative, 
— we must become children of God by imitation of 
God and trust in God; but he admonishes to be- 
come such by pointing to God's disposition and 
promise. His word receives additional emphasis 
from his personality which lives in God; and he 
judges the conduct of God's child in the last analysis 
as an effect of God (Matt. xi. 28, xv. 3; Mark x. 27). 
Therefore it is the natural expression of the ex- 
perience of the Christian Church when in the New 
Testament the awakening of the child's life by the 




effect of divine grace is considered fundamental 
(II Cor. V. 17; I Pet. i. 3, 23; John iii. 5). 

This effect, according to Paul, is juridical, i.e., 
a real adoption, a granting of the ri^t of children 
(Gal. iii. 26-27), synonymous with justification; but 
it is also a real change through the overwhelming 
influence of the Holy Spirit as an unconscious power 
like the impersonal powers of nature (Rom. viii. 11; 
Gal. V. 22). Paul bases the certainty of the right of 
children upon the fact that through faith and baptism 
believers belong to Christ, but also upon the ex- 
perience of the liberating effect of the 
3. Paul's spirit. The right of children means 
Concep- for him the claim upon the future 
tion. heritage of the kingdom of God; 
namely, the participation in God's 
fatherhood (Rom. iv. 3) and the spiritualization 
of the body in conforming it to the tfody of Christ, 
the first of the sons of God (Rom. viii. 29-30). 
These figures express the idea that the prevening 
grace of God establishes a personal relation of love 
which has an analogy in the intimate communion 
between father and child. As I am certain that God 
is on my side and that I am called to eternal life, 
I may surely trust that he will grant me everything 
(Rom. viii. 31-32), not only eternal life, but also 
everything in the world which is not against God 
(I Cor. iii. 21-22) and that he will lead me through 
all temptations to that sanctity which belongs to 
the kingdom of God (I Thess. v. 23). The faith 
which corresponds on our part to God's intention of 
love remains secure even against troubles and hos- 
tile world powers because the latter can not separate 
from the love of God (Rom. viii. 38-39) and the 
former must subserve the upbuilding of the inner 
man (II Cor. iv. 16-18). Thus the essential feature 
of this child-life is not fear, as under the Law and 
its curse, but rather unshakable joy which ex- 
presses itself in gi^^ng thanks as the key-note of 
prayer. The unconscious impulse which the ethical 
life of the Christian assumes if he puts the impulse 
of the spirit in place of the Law, he modifies by 
bringing to expression also conscious ethical motives; 
namely, the love of God as exfftrienced by him, 
and his call to the kingdom of God, which demand 
a conduct worthy of both. Even an overpowerful 
desire of his nature he begins to transform into an 
impulse for consciousness if he guides it into the 
channel of experienced love (II Cor. v. 15; Gal. ii. 20). 
But in all joy, happiness, and freedom with relation 
to God, the Christian is prevented from excesses 
by that humility which in all progress and success 
gives due honor to God (I Cor. xv. 10). It seems 
a contradiction when Paul in spite of all speaks of 
a retribution on the part of God according to works 
and awakens fear of the judgment. The seeming 
relation of right is only an expression for the fact 
that the relation of father and children, although 
resting upon God's free love, is mutual. The re- 
ward is a success of mutual effort (Gal. vi. 7, 8). 
It is attained, not by a sum of individual works, 
but by a sanctified personality (Thess. v. 23) which 
is absorbed in a uniform activity of life (II Cor. v. 
10; I Cor. iii. 13). The fear of which Paul speaks 
is the fear of watchfulness which takes possession 
of us in looking at the world and the flesh, but this 

disagreeable feeling is immediately conquered by 
the joyful trust that God will protect and perfect 
us (I Cor. XV. 2; Rom. xi. 20-21). 

The Gospel and Epistles of John trace adoption 
back to the testimony of God (Gospel iii. 5; First 
Epistle ii. 19). According to them, adoption con- 
sists in a close and intimate life in and with God 
by which there is vouchsafed, on the one hand, the 
impossibility of sinning and the self-evidence of 
justice and love to God and our brethren, and, on the 
other hand, the victory over the world and blessing 
and the future homogeneousness with God (I John 
iv. 3; V. 4, 18). However natural all this may 
sound, these expressions are only figures for an 
ethico-personal communion with God, analogous 
to that between father and child which has its basis 
in the influence of (Christ upon our consciousness, 
not in a reflected, but spontaneous 
4« The way. The knowledge of God or the 
Gospel and word of Christ (I John ii. 3; Gospel 
Epistles XV. 3) is parallel to the seed of God 
of John, which remains in the regenerated per- 
son and guarantees his sanctity (I John 
iii. 9). Unity of life with God is an analogon for 
that unity which on earth exists between the Father 
and Jesus (John xvii. 21-22), where the Father in 
preceding love discloses to his Son his whole work 
and the Son remains in the love of the Father 
(John XV. 10) by speaking and acting according to 
the commandment of the Father and being solely 
concerned with his Father's honor (John v. 44) and 
yet enjoying full satisfaction, eternal life (John iv. 
34, xii. 50), and at the same time fully trusting that 
the Father is with him and always hears him and 
in spite of the world brings his work to perfection 
which through death leads to glory (John viii. 29, 
xvi. 32, xvii. 4). Correspondingly there follows for 
his disciples from the certainty of the love of God 
the duty to love one another and to show the self- 
evident love of children by keeping the command- 
ments (I John iv. 11, V. 3) which are freedom and 
life because the disciples are not slaves, but friends 
of the son of God (John xv. 15) and continuators 
of his work (John xviii. 18). In this tendency of 
life they may possess joyfulness (I John ii. 28, iv. 17, 
18) in a world full of temptations and enemies and 
in face of death and judgment and may count upon 
the return of their love on the part of God through 
the gift of the spirit and the help of God which is 
always near, upon the forgiveness of accidental 
sins, purification, hearing of their prayers, and a 
place in the heavenly mansion of the Father (John 
xiv. 2, 3; xiii. 21-22; xv. 2; xvii. 17; I John i. 9). 

According to Jesus, Paul, and John, the child of 
God is independent of men and yet he must seek 
communion with men. Jesus teaches to pray 
" Our Father "; and according to Paul and John, 
the spirit communicates with the individual through 
baptism and makes him a member of the com- 

The Church has not always maintained this ideal. 
When its growth necessitated a stricter inculcation 
of the ethical conditions of salvation, the relation 
of children was changed under the influence of the 
Jewish idea of retaliation, of philosophical moralism, 
and the ideas of Roman law. According to the apolo- 




getic writers, to be a child of God means subjectively 
the ethical resemblance with God which man realizes 
in himself by his free action on the basis of the knowl- 
edge of God as taught by Christ. Since ethics was 
absorbed in individual practise of virtue and con- 
sciousness of moral freedom, the desire for a coun- 
terbalance against the moral checks from the world 
was not felt so much. Irensus follows Paul by 
conceiving adoption as the specific effect of redemp- 
tion; but he understands it, in the 
5. The first place, in a moralistic sense, as a 
Apologists, call to the fulfilment of the deepened 
law of nature, not only in increased 
love, but fear; in the second place, in a physical 
sense, as the sacramental elevation of the spirit to 
deification or imperishableness. This combination 
remains a characteristic feature of the Greek Church. 
Augustine deepened the physical change into an 
ethical change which governs ethical actions. 
Because God's nature is first of all justice, and only 
secondarily inunortal, adoption, as being deifica- 
tion, is in the first place justification, infusion of 
love (amando Deum efpcimur dii — " by loving God 
we are made gods"; again — "he who justifies 
also deifies, because by justifying he makes sons of 
God"), which takes place under the influence of 
faith, i.e., hopeful prayer, or through baptism. 
Thus man faces the task — Reddite dtem, efficimini 
spvrUus (" Do your part, and become spirit "). 
Adoption becomes a reality in a process in which 
the capacity for it increases by continual forgive- 
ness and inspiration of love imtil after death the 
second adoption occurs, the liberation from the 
body which contains the law of sin. 
6. Augmk Our life is a relation between cliild 
tine. and father in so far as love to God, 
childlike fear, and hope rule in it. 
But the idea of the New Testament is curtailed in 
so far as forgiveness concerns always only past 
sins, and hope is bound to rely upon one's own 
consciousness of love to God and upon merit, and 
forgiveness becomes 'uncertain in consequence of 
predestination, and in so far as, with the task to 
serve God in the world, the New Testament manner 
of trusting in God is also done away with, and a 
holy indifference takes its place. The relation of 
God seems to be intensified in so far as there is added 
as a new element the highest stage of divine love — 
the mystical contemplation of God; but the appar- 
ent plus discloses itself as a mintts, since love to 
God is now conceived of by analogy with that 
between man and woman instead of that between 
father and child. Mysticism, it is true, elevates 
man to freedom from the Church, but it effects also 
indifference toward men; however, in the premystical 
stage there shows itself lack of independence of 
the Church. 

In the Occident the curtailment of the childlike 
in Christian life was still further indulged in by 
bringing to prominence the ideas of 
7. Schoks- the natural, juridical, and mystical; 
tidsm. of the natural in so far as according 
to the scholastics a habit of grace is in- 
fused into the secret recesses of the soul, the exist- 
ence of which can only be surmised by way of infer- 
ence from one's own ethical transformation; of the 

juridical in so far as the provenience of hope from 
merit (" spea provenit ex mentis ") is more strongly 
emphasized; of the mystical inasmuch as the 
higher stage of the love of God seems realizable 
only in a thorough separation from occupation 
with worldly matters (the lower stage is identified 
with childlike fear) and inasmuch as even the 
mysticism of calmness and resignation over against 
an arbitrary Lord is far inferior to trust in the 

It was Luther who again conceived the relation 
of Christians to God as that of children to a 
father in the full sense of the word. For Luther Christ 
is the " mirror of the fatherly heart of God," the 
revelation and security of God's gracious disposition, 
and he draws from this " image of grace " faith 
and individual trust. He differs from Paul in so 
far as he understands by the inner testimony of the 
Holy Spirit the personal certainty of faith which 
has its basis in Christ. As for Paul, so for Luther, 

forgiveness of sins or justification or 
8. Luther, adoption is a declaration of the will of 

God that he adopts us as children. 
It is more than the remittance of past sins, it is the 
reception of the whole personality into the grace 
of God, the transposition into a permanent state 
which always has to be seized again by faith. Thus 
it is shown to be an error that meritorious works 
are necessary in order to obtain grace and eter- 
nal life. In this way Luther does not destroy 
the ethical quality of adoption, but makes it more 
prominent. For secure trust unites the will with 
God's entire will in love and thus spontaneously 
produces, without needing the instruction and in- 
culcation of the law, the free and cheeriul fulfilment 
of the will of God which takes place without any 
thought of reward and in which eternal life is en- 
joyed. This psychological derivation of morality 
from the nature of faith actually invalidates Lu- 
ther's other derivation from the natural or uncon- 
scious impulse of the Holy Spirit. Only his oppo- 
sition to the doctrine of merits made him forget 
to do justice to the eschatological motives of mo- 
rality as they are found in Jesus ar.d Paul, although 
he might have done so, considering his premises; 
for will needs an aim and for the will united with 
God in faith and love, this aim can only be the com- 
pletion of that which was begun here. Faith gives 
him new courage and power for trust in the guidance 
of the whole life by the Father in which again the 
joy of eternal life is anticipated, and thus lays the 
basis for the freedom of the Christian or his royal 
dominion over all things which manifests itself in 
fearlessness and pride and defiance of Satan, world, 
and death as the counterpart of humble submis- 
sion to God and which through the certainty of the 
blessing of divine guidance surpasses mysticism — 
ecstasies as well as resignation in God. This atti- 
tude of children is a life which is homogeneous to 
that of the Father, in the first place, to his dispo- 
sition, in so far as our trust is a reflex of God's 
disposition toward us and our love corresponds 
to the love of God since it is not borrowed from 
the amiability of men, but is spontaneous, and not 
a divided love like that of men, but an all-com- 
prehending one; in the second place, to the nature 




of God, becauae this love is superhuomiii divina^ 
and because faith conquers for itself the power of 
divine oiompotence. Thk life of adoption, accord- 
ing to its whole character, can only originate by a 
birth from above which^ aceording to Luther^ takes 
place since adoption, aa vouchsafed by Christ, pro- 
duces faith and with it new life, Luther also 
traces back the new life to a problematic effect of 
the Spirit, like the working of the impersonal poW' 
ers of aature^ which God according to his predesti* 
nation adds to the word of Christ in the inner life. 
During the x>eriod of orthodoxy in Germany 
trust in God on the part of his children wai regarded 
as natural religion. Pietism subor- 
9. Later dinated adoption to regeneration - 
German In theology as influenced by Hegel, 
Theology, childlike union with God after the 
example of mysticism was traced 
back to an inner self 'manifestation of the absolute 
spirit. It was Ritschl who renewed the specific 
ideas of Luther J. Gottbchick. 

At the present time two ideas of adoption are 
advocated: (1) Resting back on Calvin, it is held 
that the primary relation of God to man was that 
of Creator and Governor, Man is son of God, 
not by virtue of anything in his con- 
io# Two stitution as a creature of God, nor 
Views Held on account of a natural relation to 
at PreMUt bim as subject of the divine govern- 
ment^ but solely by reason of gra- 
cious adoption. The only essential sonship is 
that of Christ primarily aa the eternal Son^ and 
secondarily aa his humanity shares this prerogative 
through union with the divine nature. Through 
adoption the elect in Christ become partakers 
of Christ's sonship. Adoption is grounded neither 
in iustificatioa nor in regeneration, but in God's 
free and sovereign grace alone* Thro^jgh justifi- 
cation the legal and judicial diaabilitiea caused 
by sin are removed; through regeneration the na- 
ture is changed so as to become filial. Thus a 
basis is laid for the distinction between the state 
of adoption and the spirit of adoption (R. S. Cand- 
lish, The Fath&rhood of God, London, 1870: J. Mac- 
pherson, Christian Dogmatic, Edinburgh* 1898). 
(2) According to the other view^ man's filial relation 
to God is archetypal and inalienable- Adoption, in 
order to be real, necessarily involves the esaential 
and univeniai Fatherhood of God and the natural 
and inherent sonship of man to God. By becom- 
ing partaker of the spirit of Christ, who, as Son, 
realized the filial ideal of the race, one passes out 
of natural into gracious sonship; that is, ia adopted 
into the ethical and spiritual family of God, and 
ao enters upon his ideal filial relation to God and 
his brotherly relation to men (A. M. Fairbaim, 
The Place of Christ in Modem Theohgy, New York, 
1893; J. S. Lidgett, The Fatherhood of God. pp, 
20-2 K Edinburgh, 1902: James Orr. Progress of 
Dogma, pp. 325-327, New York, 1902). C. A. B. 

BraijoQaAJTrr: J. Oerbarrf, LoH Thmt^in, Ir. 311. 374, vfL 
21^222. is. 296-297, BtTlin, 186^^75; It K Dabney, 
SvliabuM of , . . 3v*Urrryatic and Polemic Theology, pp. 627 
iqq., St. Louift. 1S7S: B. W^im, Bihlieal Th^lo^ a/ tt# 
itf#w TtAkmeni, Hl7. 20-21. 45. 71. S3, 100. 11 & 150, 
Edinbuiih, lasa-SSi W. BoUHct, Jciu Pnd^fi in ihfrm 

G^otnAoU cum Judtntitm, pp, 41-42, Q^ttjDgeii. 1892; H. 
ahiilt«. Old Ttttamtnt Thsol&ffy, u. 2S4 aqq.. EdJoliurih* 
IS92; R. A LipiLua, L^hrbuch der ^anti«Iitch-prQteMtan- 
titclun Dogrruttik, pp. 1 26-129, 6iH-506. <J63-703. Bmna- 
wiek^ I8&3; J, McU Campbell, Nature of the AUm^mtni^ 
pp. 298 nqq., LoodoD. 1S95; A TittuA. Die neutetismt^$' 
fidU Lehn ton da- SelifjkeU. i. 103-lCM. li. 27-28. 13^* 
139, 266-267. Tabiogen. 1895-1900; W. BayicblflLg. Ntw 
Testament Theolofft/. i. 60^70, 241. 3I0» u,41fi-419. 4S0, Edia* 
burxh. 1S96; E. H&tch. GrceJt Ideat and Uwe€*. their tn^ 
/futnce upen the Christian Church. LoDdoHn 1897; R, V. 
Foflter, Siftttmoiit Th^loffu. p. B79. KubvUle. Ift98; B, 
Cremprt Die paulinieche RtcMfertiffunfftUhrc, pp. 71-781, 
224-233. 24 7-248 p 265-26^, 369-370. GClterfiloh. 1S99 ; A. 
Ritdchl. ChriMhan Doctrine of Jueti^aUian and RtconcUt^ 
UoH, pfi. 75, 96, 507, 534, 603, New York, llMlO, 

The Oantrover&y of the Eiffbth Century, It* Eoota (f IJ, 

ElipBij4u». Biflhop of Toledo (f 2). 
FelU, Bwbop of Ursel (f 3). 
Recftntation q( Felix (( 4), 
Later Adoptiooipt Tendendes (| G), 
Explu&tbn (I 6). 

AdoptioniBm — a hereay tnAmtaining that Chriat 

ifi the Son of God by adoption— is of interest chiefl^r 

for the commotion wliicli it produced in the Span* 

iflh and Frankish Churches in the latter part of 

the eighth century ^ although the foi^ 

I. The Con- mulaa around which the conflict raged 

troverey of can indeed be traced back to the 

the Eighth earliest period of Western theology; 

Century* but the spirit of the controversy and 

Its Roots, the result showed that the orthodoxy 

of the eighth century could no 

longer entirely accept the ancient formulas. The 

phrase in which such writers as Novatian, Hilary^ 

and Isidore of Seville had spoken not merely of the 

assumption of human nature by the Soei of God, 

but also of the assumption of Enan ar the 3on of 

man^ led by an easy transition to words which 

seemed to imply that Christy according to his 

humanity, was the adopted son of God; and fonnu- 

la£ of this kind occur not infrequently in the old 

Spanii»h liturgy. 

The Spanish bishops of the eighth century^ and 
especially their leader, Elipandua (b. 718^ bithop 
of Toledo from about 7 SO), so used Buch phrases 
aa to provoke criticism and disapproval first in 
Asturifl, then in the neighboring Prankish kingdom, 
and finally at Rome. A certain Migetius (q.v.)^ 
preaching in that part of Spain which w^aa held by 
the Moors, had given a very gross exposition of the 
doctrine of the Trinity, teaching that there were 
three bodily pereons, and a triple manifestation 
in history of the one God, Against him Elipandus 
wrote a letter vindicating the orthodox idea of the 
immanence of the Trinity, but at the same time 
establishing a very sharp distinction between the 
Becond person of the Trinity and the 
a. Elipan- human nature of Christ. The person 
du8, Bishop of the Son was not that made accord- 
of Toledo* ing to the fleshy in time, of the seed 
of Daxnd, but that begotten by the 
Father before all worlds; even after the incarnation, 
the second person of the Godhead is not the bodily, 
of which Christ eays " My Father is greater than 
1," but that of winch he says " I and my Father 
are one,'' Blipandu8 did not mean to do violence 
to the orthodox teaching by this distinction; but 
if the expressioii were pr^sedi the biunan nature 




appeared a different person from the person of the 
Eternal Word, and the single personality of Christ 
disappeared. Elipandus defended himself in letters 
in which he used the expression that Christ was 
only according to his Godhead the true and real 
(proprius) Son of God, and according to his manhood 
an adopted son. The opposition to this view was 
voiced by Beatus, a priest, and the monk Heterius 
of Libana. Elipandus wrote in great excitement 
to the Asturian abbot Fidelis, bitterly attacking 
his opponents, who first saw the letter when they 
met Fidelis in Nov., 785, on the occasion of Queen 
Adofiinda's taking the veil. In reply they wrote a 
treatise, discursive and badly arranged, but strong 
in its patristic quotations, emphasizing the unity 
of Christ's personality. The conflict was com- 
plicated by political circumstances and by the 
efforts of Asturia to attain independence of the 
most powerful Danish bishop. Complaints were 
carried to Rome, and Adrian I. pronounced at 
once against Elipandus and his supporter, As- 
caricus, whom he judged guilty of Nestorianism. 

At what period the most prominent represente>- 

tive of Adoptionism, Felix, bishop of Urgel in the 

Pyrenees, firat took part in the strife is unknown. 

At the sjmod of Regensburg in 792, he defended 

the heresy in the presence of Charle- 

3. Felix, magne, but the bishops rejected it. 
Bishop of Felix, although he had retracted his 
UrgeL doctrine, was sent by the emperor to 
Rome, where Pope Adrian kept him a 
prisoner until he signed an orthodox confession, 
which on his return to Urgel he repudiated as forced, 
and then fled to Moorish territory. In 793 Alcuin, 
just back from England, wrote to Felix begging 
him to abandon the suspicious word '' adoption," 
and to bring Elipandus back into the right path; 
and he followed this up by his controversial 
treatise Advenus hctresim Felicis. About the same 
time Elipandus and the Spanish bishops who 
belonged to his party addressed a letter to the 
bishops of Gaul, Aquitaine, and Asturia, and to 
Chariemagne himself, asking for a fair investigation 
and the restoration of Felix. Charlemagne com- 
municated with the pope, and caused a new inves- 
tigation of the case in the brilliant assembly at 
Frankfort (794). Two separate encyclicals were 
the result — one from the Prankish and German 
bishops; the other from those of northern Italy — 
which agreed in condemning Adoptionism. Charle- 
magne sent these, with one from the pope (repre- 
senting also the bishops of central and southern 
Italy) to Elipandus, urging him not to separate 
himself from the authority of the apostolic see and 
of the universal Church. Strong efforts were put 
forth to recover the infected provinces. Alcuin 
wrote repeatedly to the monks of that region; 
Leidrad, bishop of Lyons, and the saintly Abbot 
Benedict of Aniane worked there personally, sup- 
porting Bishop Nefrid of Narbonne. In 798 Felix 
wrote a book and sent it to Alcuin, who replied in 
the following spring with his more extended treatise 
Advemu Felieem, Felix must by this time have 
been able to return to Urgel, as he wrote thence to 
Elipandus. Leo III. decisively condemned him in 
a Roman synod of 798 or 799. Alcuin received a 

contumelious answer, and was anxious to cross 
swords personally with his antagonist. 

Leidrad induced Felix to appear before Charle- 
magne, with the promise of a fair hearing from the 
bishops. They met at Aix-la-Chapelle 

4. Recan- in June, 799 (others say Oct., 798). 
tationof After a lengthy discussion Felix ac- 

Felix. knowledged himself defeated and 
was restored to communion, though 
not to his see, and he was placed in Leidrad 's charge. 
Felix then composed a recantation, and called on 
the clergy of Urgel to imitate his example. Leid- 
rad and Benedict renewed their endeavors, with 
such success that Alcuin was soon able to assert 
that they had reclaimed 20,000 souls. He supported 
them with a treatise in four books against Eli- 
pandus, and prided himself on the conversion of 
Felix. The heretical leader seems, however, to 
have quietly retained his old beliefs at Lyons for 
the rest of his life, and even to have pushed them 
logically further, since Agobard, Leidrad 's succes- 
sor, accused him of Agnoetism, and wrote a 
reply to some of his posthumous writings. In the 
Moorish part of Spain, Elipandus seems to have 
had a numerous following; but here also he found 
determined opponents. The belief was gradually 
suppressed, though Alvar of Cordova (d. about 
861) found troublesome remnants of it. 

With the rise of scholastic theology there was a 
natural tendency of rigid dialectic to lead away 
from the Christology of Cyril and Alcuin toward a 
rational distinction between the two natures, not 
so much with any wish to insist on this as from a 
devotion to the conception of the immutability of 
God. This caused the charge of Nestorianism to 
be brought against Abelard. Peter Lombard's 
explanations of the sense in which God became 
man leaned in the same direction. A German 
defender of this aspect of the question, Bishop 
Eberhard of Bamberg, in the twelfth century, 
accused his opponents roundly of Eutychianism. 
In fact, the assailants of Adoptionism, starting 
from their thesis that Christ is really and truly the 
Son of God, even according to his human nature, 
because this nature was appropriated by the Son 
of God, came ultimately, for all their intention of 
holding the Church's doctrine of the 

5. Later two natures and the two wills, to a 
Adoptionist quite distinct presentation of an 
Tendencies, altogether divine Person who has 

assumed impersonal human substance 
and nature. They really deserted the posi- 
tion taken by Cyril, though he was one of 
their main authorities. If one seeks the his- 
torical origin of this late form of Christological 
controversy, distinguishing it from the immediate 
cause, it must be found in the unsettlement of mind 
necessarily consequent upon the attempts of the 
ecclesiastical Christology to reconcile mutually 
exclusive propositions. 

The intellectual mood which led directly to this 
distinction between the Son of God and the man in 
Christ has been variously explained. Some as- 
cribe it to the siuTounding Mohammedanism, 
making it an attempt to remove as far as pos- 
sible the stumbling-blocks in the doctrine of Christ's 




nature; but thia may be doubled ^ since the main 
difficulties from the Moslem standpoint^ — the Trinity, 
and the idea of a God who begets 
6, Eipla- and is begotten — remain untouched, 
natioo. Others see in it a survival of the 
spirit of the old Germanic Ananbm^ 
which is excluded by the adherence of the Adop- 
tiont&ta to the orthodox Trinitarian teaching. The 
obvious relation with Nestorianism and tlie 
theology of the school of Antioch has led others 
to asHume a direct influence of the writings of 
Theodore of Mop^uestia; but there is as Uttle evi- 
dence for this 03 ihere is for the theory that thoie 
whom ElipanduB calls his " orthodox brethren *' 
in Cordova^ and whom Alcuin supposes to be 
leeponsible for these aberrations, were a colony of 
ea&tem GhriBtians of Nestorian tendencies who had 
come to Spain with the Arabs. (A. HAUCit.) 
BiBLioo&APfiT: Th<Q writia^B cif £Upikadu», F«lix» Had H^ 
tenuB id, MPL, tlcvL: Paulinu^i. Vita tt LUUrffy tb. ^ifix.: 
AlcuJD^ Opera^ Lb. c.hji.; Monumenta AlcuininTia. in J&S6, 
Biblioihem ferum Germanitwum, vol. vi.,: Herlin^ IWT$; 
MQIi, EpitL. iv., IS05; Agdbftjti. Viia et Opera, in 
MPL^ civ.; the Ada of tbe Synodd of Nm-boEme, Ratij)- 
boDn Frfljukfort, mnd Aiit-Io-DiapcUp. in Hiundoin^ Con^ 
ciliii^ iv,, in Mp-nj^i, Crttwiim, jEiii.. in Gallandi, 
Bibtiatheea, xiii., and MGH, C&ncilia, ii.. t9<M; C. W. 
F. WftLcht Hist&ria Ad&ptianorum. Gut tinmen ^ 17fi£ ; 
ideiQp Enhifurf tiner vatUiAmii^n HiMiorie dcr K^txerti^n, 
vtiL Jii.. It vols,. Leipsic. I7fl2-S5; F. C. Buar, Di* Chrutt- 
lithe Lehre son der DreitiniffkeU und MenMchwerdung Gotief, 
3 vuli., Berlin, 1841-43: Rettber«, i. (184«) 428; X CJlob- 
nrtHOQ, HUtsry of 0ve Chrinhaii Churchy 500-1 1 22^ Lad don . 
1856; A. H^'IffehcliT Dcr u:9*UiothUche ArianUmu* und 
die tpaniacht Keti^rff^chichie. Btrlin^ 1S60; J^ llach^ 
D<:fffmena09ihickle d'«s Mia^laltera, i. 102 sqq.. Vienna, 
1873; K' Werner, Aituin und «nn Jahrhundert, Ptider- 
bom^ 1876; C. J. En G&skiiia^ Alcuin. pp. 70 »qq.. Lon- 
don, 1904; DCB, I 44-47; HefelcH CoTurLlianffeiuJiichii, iii. 
642^&3. 721-724: Ha\ick. KD. ii. 289 a^^q. 

term of the Roman CathoUc Church, where, in 
consequence of the doctrine of tmnsubstantiation 
which affirms the presence of Christ in the Eucharist 
under the species of bread and mne, divine womlup 
is paid to the Sacrainent of the altar, a worship 
that includes adoration. This adoration is mani- 
fested in various ways, especially in genu flexions 
and, if the Sacrament be (solemnly exposed, in 
prostrations. Certain forma of devotion are in- 
tended to promote adoration of the Sacrament^ 
notably the ceremony called Benediction of the 
Blesscil Sacrament, the Forty Hours Devotion, 
and the practise of perpetual adoration which 
secures the presence of adorers before the altar 
at all hours of the day and night, A congregation 
of priests, the Society of Priests of the Most Holy 
Sacrament, is devoted particularly to the wor»lup 
of Christ on the altar. John T. Creagp, 


ADRAMMELECH, a-dram'el-cc: 1, Name of 
a deity worshiped with child^^acrifice by the colo- 
nista whom Sar||;on. king of Assyria, transplanted 
from Sepharvaim to Samaria (II Kings x%ii. 31; 
cf. xviii. 34; Isa. xxxvi. 19, xxxvii. 13), Since 
Sepharvaim is probably the Syrian city ShabGTa'in, 
mentioned in a Babylonian chronicle im having' 
been destroyed by Shalmaneser IV., the god A dram- 
xnelech is no doubt a Syrian divinity* The name has 
been explained as meaning " Adar the princcj'' 

" splendor of the king," and " fire-king," while 
others think that the original reading waa '" Adad^ 
melech/' Since the name is Aramaic, the last is 
to be preferred, 

2. According to H Kingi xix. 3/ and Isa. xxxvii. 
3S, Adrammeleeh was the name of the son and 
murderer of the Assyrian king Sennacherib* The 
form corresponds to the '* Adramelus " of Abyde- 
nus in the Armenian chronicle of EusebiuB (ed* A, 
Sch6ne, i., Berlin, 1875, p, 35) and the '* Aidumuea- 
nus '' of Alexander Polyhiator (p. 27). 

Bibuoqkap^t: (H Schmder, KAT, It. 406, 450: P. Sfibok, 
GitUendiefutt und Baabmtimfn hei d*n alien H^Sernt pp. 
401 -lOa. Rutisibon. 1877. <2> H. Win cider, Dtr Mirrdtr 
Sanheribt, in ZA, ii. {1887) 392-300. 

ADRIAlfi Author of an extant Intr&dudum 
to the Holy Scriptures, wTitten in Greek. He was 
evidently a Greek-speaking Syrian; but nothing 
is to be learned of his Ufe from the book. There 
is no doubt, however, that he is identical vdth the 
monk and presbyter Adrian to whom St. Nilus 
addreased thr^ letters (ii. 60, iii. 118, 266, in MFG, 
Ixxix. 225-227, 437, 616^517), and who hved in the 
first half of the fifth century. Thin work b no 
introduction in the modem sense, but a piece of 
Biblical rhetoric and didactics, aiming to explain 
the figurative phraseology of the Scriptures, ea- 
pecklly of the Old Testament, from numerous 
examples. It closes with hints for correct exegeeia. 
The hermeneutical and exegetlcal principles of 
the author are those of the Antiochian school. 
F, G5aaling edited the Greek text with Gemi&D 
translation and an introduction (Berlin, 1887). 

G. KrUqeiu 
BiBuonnA^ar: A. Idenc, Rtd^ wm Atal^en. pp. 04-67, 

Halle. 1879. 

ADRIAN: The name of six popes. 

Adrian I,: Pope 772-795. A Roman of noble 
birth, he entered the clerical state under Paul I., and 
waa ordained deacon by Stephen IlL, whom he 
succeeded Feb. 1, 772, not, apparently, by as unani- 
mous a choice as the official record of his election 
asserts; for soon afterward he encountered vehe- 
ment opposition from the Lombard party in Rome 
led by Paul Afiarta. His adherence to the Frankish 
faction, his hesitation to crown the sons of Karl- 
man, w^ho had fied to Pa via, and thus to set them 
up as pretenders against Charlemagne, and the 
imprisonment of Afiarta by Archbishop Leo of 
Ravenna at his ordens incited the Lombard king 
Desiderius to invade the Roman territory, and 
finally to march on Rome itself. Adrian appealed 
for help to Charlemagne, who arrived in Italy in 
Sept., 773, and forced Desiderius to abut himself 
up in Pavia* 

During the siege of that town, which lasted till 
the following June, Charlemapie suddenly appeared 
unannounced in Rome. Adrian, though ^rmed, 
gave Mm a brilliant reception. On Apr» 6 a meet- 
ing took place in St, Peter's, at w^hich, according 
to the VUa Hadriani, the emperor 
Aided by was exhorted by the pope to confirm 

Charle- the donation of his father, Pepin, 

magne. and did so, even making some ad- 
ditions of territory, Thia donatioD, 
which rests solely upon the authority of the Vila 




(xli.-xlm.)» if substantiated, has a great importance 
for the development of the temporal sovereignty 
of the popes. Thequestion has received much atten- 
tion, and its literature is scarcely exceeded in bulk 
by that of any other medieval controversy. No 
sure and universally recognized result, however, 
has been reached. Some modem historians (Sybel, 
Ranke, Martens) consider the story a pure inven- 
tion; others (Ficker, Duchesne) accept it; and a 
middle theory of partial interpolation has also 
been upheld (Scheffer-Boichorst). All that can 
be maintained with certainty is that Charlemagne 
gave a promise of a donation, and the geographical 
delimitations give rise to difficult problems. 

In the years inmiediately following Charlemagne's 
return from Italy, his friendly relations with Adrian 

were disturbed by more than one 

Disagree- occurrence. Archbishop Leo of Ra- 

- ments venna seized some cities from the 

withCharie- pope, who complained to Charlemagne; 

magne. but Leo visited the Prankish court to 

defend himself, and met with a not 
unfavorable reception. Charlemagne's keen insight 
can not have failed to read imperfectly masked 
covetousness between the lines of Adrian's repeated 
requests for the final fulfilment of the promise of 
774; e.g., in the hope held out of a heavenly reward 
if he should enlarge the Church's possessions; in 
the profuse congratulations on his victory over the 
Saxons, which was attributed to the intercession of 
St. Peter, grateful for the restitution of his domain; 
in the comparison drawn by Adrian between Charle- 
magne and " the most God-fearing emperor Con- 
stantine the Great," who " out of his great liberality 
exalted the Church of God in Rome and gave her 
power in Hesperia [Italy] "expressions which 
have caused a subordinate controversy as to whether 
the so-called Donation of Constantine (q.v.) is 
referred to. How far Adrian's consciousness of 
his own importance had grown is evident from the 
fact that while in the beginning of his reign he had 
dated his public documents by the years of the 
Greek emperors, from the end of 781 he dated them 
by the years of his own pontificate. 

Yet Adrian could not afford to despise the Greeks; 
they joined the Lombard dukes of Benevento and 

Spoleto, and forced him once more 
Charle- to turn for help to Charlemagne, who 
magne made a short descent into Italy in 
Again 776, put down the revolt of the 
Helps. duke of Friuli against both him and 

the pope, but did nothing more until 
780. In 781 he visited Rome again when his sons 
were anointed as kings — Pepin of Italy and Louis 
of Aquitaine. Charlemagne came to Italy for the 
fourth time in 786 to crush Arichis of Benevento, 
and Adrian succeeded in obtaining from him ad- 
ditional territory in southern Italy. But various 
misunderstandings in Adrian's last years gave rise 
to a report that Charlemagne and Offa of Mercia 
had taken counsel together with a view to the pope's 
deposition. The iconoclastic controversy (see 
Images and Image-worship, II., § 3) brought fresh 
humiliations from Charlemagne and from the Greek 
emperor Constantine VI. and his mother, the em- 
press Irene. When the last-named was taking steps 

to restore the veneration of images in the Eastern 
Church she requested Adrian to be present in person 
at a general council soon to be held, or at least to 
send suitable legates (785). In his reply, after 
commending Irene and her son for their deter- 
mination respecting the images, Adrian asked for a 
restitution of the territory taken from the Roman 
see by the iconoclastic emperor Leo III. in 732, 
as well as of its patriarchal rights in Calabria, 
Sicily, and the Illyrian provinces which Leo had 
suppressed. At the same time he renewed the 
protest made by Gregory the Great against the 
assumption of the title of univeraalia patriarcha 
by the Patriarch of Constantinople. 

When, however, the council met at Nicsea in 
787, while it removed the prohibition of images, 
it paid no attention to any of these demands. The 
acts of this council, which Adrian sent to Charle- 
magne in 790, provoked the emperor's vigorous 
opposition, and led ultimately to the drawing up 
of the Caroline Books (q.v.), in which 
Coun- the position of the Fnmkish Church 
oil of with reference to both the Roman and 

NicsBain the Greek was made plain, and the 
787. decisions of the Council of Nicsea were 
disavowed. Although Adrian, after re- 
ceiving a copy, took up the defense of the council 
with vehemence, Charlemagne had the contention 
of the Caroline Books confirmed at the Synod of 
Frankfort in 794. It may, however, have been 
some consolation to Adrian's legates that the same 
synod publicly condenmed Adoptionism (q.v.), 
against which the Roman as well as the Prankish 
Church had been struggling. Adrian died not long 
after (Dec. 25, 795). 

Throughout his long pontificate Adrian had been 
too exclusively dominated by the one idea of 
gaining as much advantage as possible iii lands and 
privileges from the strife between the Franks and 
Lombards. He rendered no slight services to the 
city of Rome, rebuilding the walls and aqueducts, 
and restoring and adorning the churches. His 
was not a strong personality, however, and he never 
succeeded in exercising a dominant or even a 
strongly felt influence upon the policy of western 
Europe. (Carl Mirbt.) 

Bibuoorapht: Vita Hadriani, in Liber pontificali», ed. 
Duchesne, i. 486-623; Einhard, Vita Caroli, in MQH, 
Script., ii. (1829) 426-463; Vita Caroli, ed. G. Waits, in 
Script, rer. Oerm., 4th ed., 18S0; also in Jaff^. Regeata, 
iv.. Eng. transl. in Thatcher and McNeal, Source Book, 
pp. 38-46; Codieie Carolini epiatola, in Jaff^, I.e. iv. 
and in MPL, xovi.; one of Adrian's letters, in verse, 
dated 774, in MGH, Poet, lot, cevi Caroli, i. (1881) 
00-01; Jaff^. Reoeeta, i. 280-306, Leipsic. 1886; De eancto 
Hadriano papa I an III NonantulcB in editione Mutinenai, 
in A8B, July, viii. 643-640; P. T. Hald, Donatio 
Caroli Magni, Copenhagen. 1836; T. D. Mack. De dona- 
tione a Carolo Magna, MQnster. 1861 ; J. Ficker, Forechun- 
Oen nw Reiche- und Rechta^eechichte Italiene, ii. 320 sqq., 
347 sqq., Innsbruck. 1860; A. O. Legge. Growth of the 
Temporal Power of the Papacy, London. 1870; W. Watten- 
bach. Oeechichte dee rdmiechen PapsUhuma, pp. 47 sqq.. Ber- 
lin, 1876; O. Kuhl. Der Verkehr Karle dee Oroeaen mit Papat 
Hadrian /., Kdnigsberg, 1870; R. Genelin. Daa Schenkunpa- 
veraprechen und die Schenkung Pippina, Vienna, 1880; 
W. Martens. Die r&miache Frage unter Pippin und Karl 
dem Groaaen, pp. 120 sqq.. 368-387. Stuttgart, 1881; 
idem. Die Beaetzung dee p&patlichen Stuhlea unter den Kair 
•em Heinrich III. und IV., Freiburg, 1886; idem, Beleuch- 
tung der neueaten Kontroveraen liber die rdmiache Frage 



ttfiler Pippin und Karl d^m Oro99en, Munich, 1898; H. ron 
Sybel, Di€ Schenkuno^n der KaroUnger an die POptte, in 
Klein€ hi$ton$ehs SdirifUn, iii. 0&-116, Stuttgart. 1881; 
Liber PonHfiealie, ed Duohasne, i.. pp. eoxzziy.-oexliii., 
Paris, 1884; J. von Pflugk-Harttung, Ada p<mHfieum 
Romanorum inediia, ii. 22 sqq., Stuttgart, 1884; P. Sohef- 
fer-Boiohorst, Pippina und KarU dee Orouen Schenkunoe- 
verepridiuno* pp. 103-212, Innsbruck, 1884; L. yon 
Ranke, Weltoeechiehie, v., part 1, p. 117, Leipaic, 1885; 
S. Abel, JahrbUcher dee frUnkiechen Reichee unter Karl dem 
Oroeeen, L 768-788. Leipaic, 1883 (and u. 780-814. by B. 
Simaon, 1888), and for donation of Charlemagne, ib. i. 
160 aqq.; P. Kehr, Die eogenannte karolingiedten Sehen- 
kung von 111*, in Sybel's Hietorieche Zeiiechrift, Izx. (new 
■er., 1803) zxxiv. 385-441; Hefeie.Caneaienoeeehiehte, vol. 
iu.; Eng. transl., vol. v.; Hauck, KD, vol. ii.; Mann, 
Popee, I., vol. ii. 305-407. 

Adrian n.: Pope 867-872. He was the son of 
Talanis, of a Roman family which had abready 
produced two popes, Stephen IV. (768-772) and 
Sergius II. (844-847). He was a married man 
before entering the clerical state. Gregory IV. 
made him a cardinal. His great benevolence won 
the hearts of the Romans, and he twice refused the 
papacy, after the death of Leo IV. (855) and of 
Benedict III. (858). A unanimous choice by both 
clergy and people, however, forced him at the age of 
seventy- five to accept it in succession to Nicholas I. 
(d. Nov. 13, 867). The election was confirmed by 
Emperor Louis II., and Adrian's consecration fol- 
lowed on Dec. 14. 

His predecessor had left him a number of un- 
finished tasks. In the first place, it was necessary 
to arrive at a final decision concerning 
Forces a matter which had long and deeply 
Lothair XL troubled the Prankish Church; namely, 

to Take the matrimonial relations of King 
Back His Lothair U. Adrian firmly insisted 
Wife. that Lothair should take back his 
legitimate wife Thietberga, at the 
same time releasing his mistress Walrade from 
the excommunication pronounced against her by 
Nicholas, at the request of Louis II., on condi- 
tion that she should have nothing more to do 
with Lothfidr. The last-named visited Rome in 869 
for the purpose of gaining the pope's consent 
to his divorce from Thietberga. Adrian promised 
no more than to call a new council to investigate 
the matter, but restored Lothair to communion 
after he had sworn that he had obeyed the command 
of Nicholas I. to break off his relations with Wal- 
rade. The king's sudden death at Piacenza on his 
homeward journey, a few weeks later, was con- 
sidered to be a divine judgment. The efforts of the 
pope to enforce the claim of Louis II. to Lorraine 
were fruitless; immediately after Lothair 's death 
his uncle, Charles the Bald, had himself crowned at 
Metz, though less than a year later he was forced 
by his brother, Louis the German, to divide the 
inheritance of Lothair in the treaty of Meersen 
(Aug. 8, 870). 

Adrian's attempts to interfere in Prankish affairs 
were stubbornly resisted by Hincmar of Reims 
(q.v.), who wrote (EpisL, xxvii.), ostensibly as the 
opinions of certain men friendly to the West- 
Prankish king, that a pope could not be bishop 
and king at one and the same time; that Adrian's 
predecessors had claimed to decide in ecclesiastical 
matters only; and that he who attempted to 

excommunicate a Christian unjustly deprived him- 
self of the power of the keys. When a sjmod at 
Douzy near Sedan (Aug., 871) ex- 
Opposed communicated Bishop Hincmar of Laon 
by on grave charges brought against him 
Hincmar both by the king and by his own 
of Reims, uncle, the more famous Hincmar, the 
pope allowed an appeal to a Roman 
council, and brought upon himself in consequence 
a still sterner warning from Charles the Bald by the 
pen of Hincmar of Reims (MPL, cxxiv. 881-896), 
with a threat of his personal appearance in Rome. 
Adrian executed an inglorious retreat. He wrote 
to Charles praising him for his virtues and his 
benefits to the Church, promised him the imperial 
crown on Louis's death, and offered the soothing 
explanation that earlier less pacific letters had 
been either extorted from him during sickness or 
falsified. In the matter of Hincmar of Laon, he 
made partial concessions, which were completed 
by his successor, John VIIL 

Another conflict which Nicholas I. had left to 
Adrian, that with Photius, patriarch of Constan- 
tinople, seemed likely to have a hap- 
Conflict pier issue, when Photius was con- 
with demned first by a Roman synod 
Photius. (June 10, 869), and then by the 
general coimcil at Constantinople in 
the same year, the papal legates taking a position 
which seeaied to make good the claims of the 
Roman see. But Emperor Basil the Macedonian 
dealt these claims a severe blow when he caused 
the envoys of the Bulgarians (see Buix^arians, 
Conversion of the) to declare to the legates that 
their country belonged to the patriarchate not of 
Rome, but of Constantinople. Adrian's protests 
were in vain; a Greek archbishop appeared among 
the Bulgarians, and the Latin missionaries had to 
give place. Moravia, on the other hand, was firmly 
attached to Rome, Adrian allowing the use of a 
Slavic liturgy, and naming Methodius archbishop 
of Sirmium. After a pontificate marked princi- 
pally by defeat, Adrian died between Nov. 13 and 
Dec. 14, 872. (Carl Mirbt.) 

Bibuoorapbt: The Letters of Adrian in Manai, CclUcHo, 
XV. 819-820; in MPL^ oxxii., cxxix., and in Bouquet. 
AeaieiJ, vol. vii.; VUa Hadrianill., in Liber pontifiealie,ed. 
Duchesne, ii. 173-174. and in L. A. Muratori. Rerum ItaU- 
carum Scripioree, III. ii. 306, 25 vols., Milan, 1723-51; 
Ado, Chronicon, in MOH, Script., ii. (1829) 315-326; 
idem, in MPL, cxxiii.; Annalee Ftddeneee, in MGH, 
Script., i. (1826) 375-395, and separately in Script rer. 
Oerm., ed. F. Kurse, Hanover, 1891; Hincmar, Annalee, 
in MGH, Script, i. (1826) 455-515, and in MPL, cxxv.; 
Hincmar, Epietola, in MPL, cxxiv., cxxvi.; Regino, 
Chronicon, in MOH, Script, i. (1826) 580 sqq.; idem, in 
MPL, cxxxii. (separately ed. F. Kurse, Hanover. 1890); 
P. Jaff^ Regeeta, L 368, 369, Leipsic, 1885; Bower. 
Popee, ii. 267-282; F. Maassen, Eine Rede dee Papetee 
Hadrian II. von Jakre 869, die erete tanfaeeende Benute- 
uno der faleehen Decretalen, in Siieunoeberichte der Wiener 
Akademie, Ixxii. (1872) 521; Hefele. Concilienffeeehiehte, 
vol. iv.; P. A. Lapotre, Hadrian II. et lee faueeee dS- 
crHalee, in Revue dee queetUme hietoriquee, xxvii. (1880) 
377 sqq.; B. Jungmann, DieeerUUionee edecUe in hiet 
eed., iii., Ratisbon, 1882; Milman, Latin ChriaHamiy, 
iii. 35-80; H. Schrdrs, Hinkmar, Freiburg, 1884; J. 
J. B5hmer, Regeeta imperii, I. Die Regeeten dee Kaimr- 
reiche unter den Karolingem, pp. 751-918; idem, ed. E. 
MQhlbacher, i. 460 sqq., Innsbruck, 1889; Hauck, KD, 
ii. 557 sqq., 699-700; J. Langen, Oeeckiekte der rOm- 




uchtn KvKh0 V6n Nikaiaut I. bit Grtgor V'//.« pp. 113-170. 
Bonn, 1892; E. HQMbachert D^ruUch^ GewchichtM unUr den 
Karoiin^fm^ 1S0fl; K. DQjimiler, Vbrf dne Synodairedm 
Paptt IladriaTUt //.. BerUn. IS&9; Treat]/ c! Mtersen. Eng. 
lraiie<1. in Thalciber »iid McNeai, Source Book^ pp. 64-65. 

Aitrian m. ; Pope 884-8S5. He wtu a Roman 
by birth, tbe eon of Benedict. The story of severe 
punishments bflicted by him points to revolts in 
the city during his nJe. The assertion of the un- 
trustworthy Martinus Polonus that he decreed 
that a newly electa V^V^ might proceed at once 
to coQSecratJon without waiting for imperial con- 
finnation^ and that the imperial cfo^ti ehould 
thienceforth be worn by an Italian prince, are con- 
firmed by no contemporary evidence. He died 
near Modeim Aug., SS5, on his way to attend a 
diet at Worms on the invitation of Cliarlea the Fat, 
and was buried at Nonontula, [He was tbe &rst 
pope to change his name on election, having pre- 
viously been called AgapdvA.] (Carl Mirbt.) 
BiBLioaa>LFBrr: BpiMfol^t iu Boiit^uft^ Reoixit, is. 200, find m 
MPLt «prvi,; Bidla ^nni ES5, m JVeuet Arehiv der Ge- 
aeOtthaft iiir d. d. GachicKte, xi. (1885) 374. 370; Vita, in 
Liber Ponfijlfoiu, ed. Duchesne, il. (1S02> 225. And in h, 
A- Mtir»t<iri. Return I taitcttrum Script/ore* y 11!. ii. 440— *46. 
25 vola.* Milan, 1733-51; Anmtlet FuldtJiMs, in MGli, 
SaipL^ U (1S26) 375^305 (Kpuntely in Script rcr. Germ., 
•d, F. Kuru. HaiiOTPr, 1891): Chronica Ben^itti. in 
UGH, ScripL, iiL (1839) 190: J. M. Wnttorich, Pontifi^m 
Romanorum viim. i. 20. 050. 718. Leipsic, 1862; F. Jaff^, 
R*0e*ta. i. 420-^27: Bowpr, Popet, a. 203-204; R. 
B&xmajii], Die Foliiik der PAptle vcm Gregor L bU tmf 
Greoar VII., il 60 pqq.. Elberfeld, 18«0: £. iKktnmlerp 
GaekichU 4e* Oetfr&nkiechen Reiche*, ii. 247, 248. Berlin* 
18SS; J^ LjLDgon, Gf4chichff d^r rfymitchen Kirchm ran 
NiJcrlautl.bitGrt^or ViL. pp, 298 pqq„ Bonn. 1802; T.R. v. 
StckeU Die Vila Hmifiani Nonaniidana utvd die tHurytut 
Handackrift^ in Kruet Ar^iv der GeeelUehaft f^r d. d. Ge- 
tckiihU, Wfui. UB92) 109-133. 

Adrian IV> (Nicholas Breakspeare ; the only 
ijigiiehman in the liist of the popes ): Pope 
1154-59. He was bom in England about the 
beginning of the twelfth century. He went to 
France as a boy, studied at Paris and Aries, en- 
during severe privationfi^ and finally settled down 
in the monastery of St, Rufus near Avignon. Here 
he became prion tben abbot (1137), but met with 
bitter opposition from the monks when he attempted 
to introduce reforms. Eugenius IIL made him 
cardinal bishop of Albano, and chose him (1152) 
for tbe difficult mission of regulating the relations 
of Norway and Sweden to the archbishopric of 
Lund. Returning to Rome, be was welcomed 
with high honors by Anaatasius IV.^ whom he 
succeeded on Dec. 4, 1154. 

His first troubles came through Arnold of Bre!i^ 

cift (<].Vp)r who, besides bia ethical opposition to the 

hierarchy, aimed at reefitabhfihing the 

Arnold of ancient sovereignty of Home and its 
Brescia and independence of the papal see. Adrian 

Frederick strove to secure Arnold's banishment, 
Barbarofiaa' and succeeded in 1155 only by pro- 
nouncing an interdict on the city. 
He made Arnold's capture and delivery to the ecclesi- 
astical authoriti^ a condition of crowning Frederick 
BariDarossa, who thus sacrificed a man who might 
have been a powerful auxiliary in his conflicts 
with this veiy pope. The first meeting between 
Frederick and Adrian (June 9^ 1155) was marked 
by friction; but Frederick maoagied, in return for 

substantial concessiaos, to secure his coronation 
nine days later. The Romans, however, whose 
fiubjection to the papal see the new emi>eror 
had promijN2d to enforce, refused their recog- 
nition; and when Frederick left Rome, the 
pope and cardinals accompanied Imn^ practically 
as fugitives. Frederick had also promised to sub- 
due William I, of Sicily* and was inclined to carry 
out his promise, but the pressure of the German 
princes forced him to recross the Alps. 

Adrian theti attempted to pursue his confiict 
with William, and, by the aid of the latter's dis- 
contented vassals J forced him to offer 
William I. terms. When^ however, these were not 
of Sicily, accepted the king rallied liis force,^, the 
tide turned, and Adrian was obliged 
to grant his opponent the investiture of Sicily, 
Apulia, and Capua, and to rcno\mce important 
ecclesiastical prerogatives in Sicily (Treaty of 
Benevento June» 1156), In consequence of this 
settlement, he was enabled to return to Rome at 
the end of the year, but the emperor resented this 
apparent desertion of their alliance, as well as the 
injury to his suxcrainty by the papal investiture. 
An open breach came when, at the l>iet of Besanijon, 
in Oct., 1157, the papal legates (one of them the 
future Alexander IIL) delivered a letter from their 
chief wliich spoke of the conferring of the imperial 
crown by the ambiguous term beneficium. The 
chancellor^ Reginald, archbishop of Cologne, in his 
German rendering, gave it the sense of a fief of the 
papal see; and the legates thought it prudent to 
leave the assembly and retreat speedily to Rome, 
Imperial lettem spread the same indignation 
among the people; and when Adrian required the 
prelates of Germany to obtain satis- 
Rebuffed faction from Frederick for his treat- 
by ment of the legates, he was met by 
Frederick the decided expression of their dis- 
Barbarossa. approval of the offending phrase. 
Adrian's position was rendered more 
difficult by the appearance of a Greek expedition 
in Italy and by a revolt in Rome; he offered the 
concession of a brief in which he explained the ob- 
jocrionable word in tbe innocent sense of " benefit." 
Frederick took this as a confession of weakness, 
and when he crosped the Alps to subdue the Lom- 
bard towns (1158), he required an oath of fealty 
to himself, as well as substantial support from the 
Italian bishops, .\ttaining the summit of his 
power with the conquest of Milan in September, two 
months later he had the imperial rights solemnly 
declared by the leading jurist^s of Bologna. This 
declaration constituted hiiri the source of all secular 
power and dignity, and was a denial equally of the 
political claims of the papacy and of tbe aspirations 
of the Lombard towns. The breach with Adrian 
was still further widened by his hesitation to con- 
firm the imperial nomination to the archbishopric 
of Ravenna; and an acute crisis w^as soon reached. 
An exchange of communications took place, whose 
manner was intended on both sides to be offensive; 
and Frederick was roused to a higher pitch of anger 
when the papal legates, besides accusing him of a 
breach of the treaty of Constance, demanded that 
he should thenceforth receive no oath of fealty from 




the Italian bishops, that he should either restore 
the inheritance of Countess Matilda, Spoleto, 
Sardinia, Corsica, Ferrara, etc., to the Roman see, 
or pay a tribute for those lands, and that he should 
recognize the right of the successor of St. Peter to 
•jomplete and unlimited dominion in Rome. These 
claims he met by declaring roundly that on any 
strict interpretation of his rights the pope also 
would be bound to take the oath of fealty, and that 
all the latter's possessions were but imperial do- 
mains held in consequence of Sylvester's investi- 
ture by Constantine. 

Both the opponents sought for allies in the im- 
pending struggle. Adrian, who was the sworn 
foe of the Roman republic and its 
Impending liberties, joined hands with the Lom- 
Conflict bard conunimes who were struggling 
Stopped by for their own. The emperor, who 
Adrian's was doing his best to abolish com- 
Death. munal liberty in the north of Italy, 
aided the Romans to uphold the prin- 
ciples of Arnold of Brescia. Adrian was already 
taJdng coimsel with the cardinals as to the advisa- 
bility of pronouncing a sentence of excommunica- 
tion against Frederick when death overtook him 
at An£^ Sept. 1, II59. 

Adrian was a ruler who grasped clearly the ideal 
of a papacy striving for universal domination, and 
contended passionately for its accompUshinent; 
but John of Salisbury (who, as ambassador of the 
king of England, had opportunity to study him at 
close range) records that there were moments when 
the terrible burden of his office weighed almost un- 
bearably upon him. (Carl Mirbt.) 
Bxbuoorapbt: EpUtola ei priviUffia, in Bouquet, Recueil, 
XY. 666-603; idem, in MPL, clxxxviii.; Bulla, in Nmiu 
Archiv der OeadUcKaft fUr A. d, QethichU, ii. (1876) 211- 
213, XY. (1889) 203-206; KOa. in Liber PonHfiealu, ed. 
Duchesne. 1802, ii. 388 sqq.; Otto of Frisengen, Outa 
Frideriei /.. in MOH, Script, xx. (1868) 403 sqq.; Raderi- 
cus of Frisencen, ConHnuaHo [of Otto's CTesto], ib. pp. 
454 sqq.; Jaff^, RtgMia, i.; J. M. Watterich, Romano- 
rum ponHficum vita, i. 323-336, Leipeic, 1823; Bower, 
PopM, 1845, ii. 487-502; R. Raby, Hiatorical Sketch of 
Pope Adrian IV., London. 1840; H. Reuter. Gee<Aichte 
Alexander'8 III., vol. i., Leipsie, 1860; Fr. v. Raumer,(?e- 
•ehichte der HoKenetaufen, ii., ib. 1871; Milman, Latin 
Chrietianity, London, 1883; DNB, i. 143-146; Hefele, 
Concilienoeechichte, v. 527-566; J. Langen, Oeeckichte der 
r&miechen Kirche von Oregor VII. hie Innocent III., pp. 
417-438. Bonn, 1803; Eng. transl. of Letter to Barbaroeea 
(Sept. 20, 1157), Manifeeto of Frederick I., Letter to the 
Oerman Biehopa and their Letter to Adrian, and Letter to 
the Emperor (Feb.. 1158). in E. F. HendevBon, Select Hie- 
iorieal Documentt of the Middle Affea, London. 1802; J. 
Jastrow and O. Winter. Deutache Geechichie im Zeitalter 
der Hohenetaufen, vol. i., Stuttgart, 1807; 8. Malone, 
Adrian IV. and Ireland, London. 1800; O. J. Thatcher. 
Studiee Concerning Adrian IV., Chictigo, 1003; Hauck, 
KD, iv. 35, 100-227; Eng. transl. of Treaty of Con- 
etanee. Stirrup Epieode, Treaty of Adrian IV. and William 
of Sicily, Letter* of Adrian (1157-58). and Manifeeto of 
Frederick I., in O. J. Thatcher and E. H. McNeal. Source 
Book for Mediaval Hietory, New York. 1005. 

Adrian V. (Ottobuono de' Fieschi) : Pope 1276. 
He was the nephew of Innocent IV., and as car- 
dinal deacon had been sent to England by Clement 
IV. to mediate between Henry III. and his barons. 
He was elected July 12, 1276, in a conclave on which 
Charles of Anjou had enforced all the rigor of the 
regulations of Gregory X.; and one of Adrian's first 
acts was to abrogate them as oppressive to the cardi- 

nab. Before he could promulgate any new system, 
however, and even before he had been ordained 
priest, he died at Viterbo Aug. 18, 1276. 

(Carl Mirbt.) 

Biblioqeapht: A. Chroust. Bin Brief Hadriane V., in Neuee 
Archiv der Geeelhchaft fOr A. d. Oeeehichte, xx. (1804) 233 
sqq.; Bower, Pope*, iii. 24; A. Potthast, Regeeta pontic 
fieum Romanorum, ii. 1700, Berlin, 1875; Milman. Latin 
Chrietianity, vi. 134. 

Adrian VL (Adrian Rodenburgh or Dedel, 
more probably the latter): Pope 1522-23. He 
was bom in Utrecht, was educated by the Brethren 
of the Conmion Life and at Louvain, and became 
professor and vice-chancellor of the university. 
During this period he composed several theological 
writings, including a conmientary on the SerUentug 
of Peter Lombard. In 1507 Emperor Maximilian 
I. appointed him tutor to his grandson, (]!harles of 
Spain, and in 1515 Ferdinand the Catholic made 
him bishop of Tortosa. In 1517 he was created 
cardinal by Leo X. When Charles was made 
German emperor and went to the Netherlands in 
1520, he appointed Adrian regent of Spain. In 
1522 the cardinals almost unanimously elected him 

The vexation of the Romans at the choice of a 
German, moreover a very simple man who was not 
inclined to continue the splendid traditions of the 
humanistic popes, lasted during his entire pontifi- 
cate; more serious minds, however, looked forward 
to his reign with hope. In spite of the fact that he 
consented to the condemnation of 
Friend Luther's writings by the Louvain 
of theologians, and although as inquisitor- 
Reform, general he had shown no clemency, 
yet Erasmus saw in him the right 
pilot of the Church in those stormy times, and hoped 
that he would abolish many abuses in the Roman 
court. Luis de Vives addressed Adrian with his pro- 
posals for reform; and Pirkheimer complained to 
him of the opposition of the Dominicans to learning. 
Even in the college of cardinals, the few who favor^ 
a reformation looked up to him hopefully, and 
iEgidius of Viterbo (q.v.) transmitted to him a 
memorial which described the corruption of the 
Church and discussed the means of redress. 

Adrian fulfilled these expectations. Concerning 
indulgences he even endeavored to find a way which 
might lead to a reconciliation with Luther's con- 
ception, viz., to make the effect of the indulgence 
dependent on the depth of repentance on evi- 
dence of it in a reformed life. But here Cardinal 
Cajetan asserted that the authority of the pope 
would suffer, since the chief agent would no longer 
be the pope, but the believer, and the majority 
agreed with the cardinal. Nothing was done in 
the matter, no dogma was revised, and the com- 
plaints of the Germans increased. Nevertheless, 
Adrian simplified his household, moneys given for 
Church purposes were no longer used for the sup- 
port of scholars and artists, he sought to reform the 
abuse of pluralities, and opposed simony and nepo- 
tism. His effort to influence Erasmus to write 
against Luther and to bring ^wingli by a letter to 
his side shows his attitude toward the Reformation 
in Germany and Switzerland. 




When the diet at Nuremberg was opened in 
Dec., 1522, he complained in a brief of the rise of 
hereey in Germany and asked the diet, since mild 
measures could not be effectual, to employ the 
means formerly used against Hubs. But in his 
instructions to his legate at the diet, Bishop Chiere- 
gati, he took a different tone, and acknowledged 
that " wantonness,'' " abuses,'' and " excesses " 
were found at the curia. This is the only instance 
where such a confession received official sanction. 
An answer was prepared by a conmiittee, which 

took notice of the confession, refused 

His to execute the edict of Worms before 

Confession, an improvement was visible, and 

asked for the meeting of a council in 
a German city, promising to prevent Luther from 
publishing his polemical writings and to see to it 
that the preachers proclaimed the pure gospel, 
but " according to the teaching and interpretation 
of the Scriptiu-es approved and revered by the 
Christian Church." Chieregati accepted neither 
this nor any other answer, but left Nuremberg in 
haste. In strict papal circles Adrian's confession 
has not yet been forgiven. He died at Rome 
Sept. 14, 1523. K. Benrath. 

Bibuoohapht: P. Bumuumus, Hadnanua VI. nv€ anaUcta 
kittoriea, . . . Utrecht. 1727; Q. Moriii«u8. Vita Ha- 
driani VI., Louvain, 1536; Bower, Pope; iii. 299- 
302; L. P. Oachard, Corretpondanee de Charlea V. et 
d'Adritn VI., Brussels, 1869; J. 8. Brewer, Letten and Pa- 
pen . . . o/lA«Aei^o/^enry V///., 4 vols., London, 1862- 
1901 (espedally vol. iii.); G. A. Bergenroth, Calendar . . . 
rrioHng to the NegoHatione between England and Spain, ii., 
London. 1866; idem. Supplement to vols. i. luid ii. (18iS8); 
M. Broach, OeeehidUe dee Kirchenetaatee, vol. i., Hamburg, 
1880; C. V. HOfler, Papat Hadrian VI., Vienna, 1880; A. 
Lapitre, Adrien VI., Paris, 1880; L. v. RanJce. Deutsche 
O^chiehte im Zeitalter der Reformation, ii., Leipsic, 1880; 
idem. Die r&miedien Ptipete, i., ib. 1889; Eng. transl.. i. 
71-74, London, 1896; Milman. Latin Chrietianity; Hefele, 
Coneiiiengeeehicihte, ix. 271-299; Creighton, Papacy, vi. 

ADSO: One of the more prominent of the 
reforming abbots of the tenth century. He be- 
longed to a noble family in the Jura Mountains, 
became a monk at Luxeuil, and went later to the 
monastery of Montier-en-Der (120 m. e.s.e. of Paris), 
in the diocese of Chfilons-sur-Mame, reformed 
about 935 by the abbot Albert, whom he succeeded 
in 967 or 968. He laid the foundation for a splendid 
new basilica, remains of which are still standing 
(cf. Sackur, Die Climiacenaer, ii. 391), and under- 
took to reform other monasteries, e.g., St. Benig- 
nus at Dijon. Like his friends Abbo of Fleury and 
Gerbert of Reims (cf . Havet, Les Lettres de Gerhert, 
pp. 6, 74, Paris, 1889), he was interested in learning 
and investigation; and his library included the 
writings of Aristotle, Porphyry, Terence, Csesar, 
and Vergil. He was often ur^d to write books, 
especially the lives of saints, and several works 
of this class by him may be found in ASM (ii. and 
iv.; copied in AfPL, cxxxvii. 597-700). 

The most famous of Adso's writings is the earliest, 
an Epistola ad Gerhergam reginam, de vita et tempore 
Antickristi, composed before 954, in which he 
oppoeee the prevalent notion that the appearance 
of Antichrist was near at hand. The work was 
much read, and suffered greatly from mutilations 
and interpolations (cf. MPL, ci. 1289-98); its 

original form has been restored by E. Sackur, in 
Sibyllinische Texte und Forechungen, pp. 104-113, 
Halle, 1898. S. M. Deutbch. 

Biblzoqrapht: The chief source for Adso's life is an addi- 
tion of the eleventh century to his Vita S. Bercharii, the 
patron saint of Montier-en-Der, oh xi., in MPL, cxxxvii. 
678-679. and in MGH, Script, iv. (1841) 488. Consult 
also the Hietoire UtUraire de la France, vi. 471-492; A. 
Ebert,* AUgemeine Oeachichte der Litteratitr dee Mittelaltere 
im Abendlande, iii. 472-484, Leipsic, 1887; and, especially, 
E. Sackur, Die Cluniacenaer, vol. i., Halle, 1892. 

ADULTERY. See Mahriaqe. 

ADVENT: The first season of the church year. 
The celebration of Advent in the Western Church 
was instituted toward the close of the fifth century, 
in Gaul, Spain, and Italy [but traces of it are found in 
the Council of Saragossa, 380]. The term was first 
understood as referring to the birth of Christ, and 
so the Advent season was a time of preparation for 
Christmas. Since it commenced at different periods 
(e.g., at Milan with the Sunday after St. Martin 
[Nov. 11]; in Rome with the first in December), 
the number of Sundays in Advent differed in the 
individual churches. The term adventua was also 
taken in the wider sense of the coming of Christ 
in general; hence the lessons for Advent which 
refer to the second coming of Christ and the last 
judgment. With it was also connected the notien 
of the coming of the kingdom of heaven. Thus 
originated the idea of the triple coming "to man, 
in man, and against man " or, corresponding to 
the number four of the Sundays which afterward 
became general, the notion of the quadruple com- 
ing '' in the flesh, in the mind, in death, in majesty." 

In the medieval church the Advent season was a 
time of fasting and repentance. Hence one finds in 
it the figure of John the Baptist, as the precursor 
of Christ and the preacher of repentance. The 
whole season from Advent to the octave of Epiph- 
any was a tempue clausum (q.v.) until the Council 
of Trent, which took off the last week. In the 
Church of Rome Advent has still the character of 
a penitential season. The color of the vestments 
then worn is violet. This character of earnest and 
serious devotion appears in more preaching, teach- 
ing, and insistence upon attendance at communion. 
Fasting during Advent is not a general ordinance 
of the Church of Rome [being required only on all 
Fridays, the vigil of Christmas, and the three em- 
ber-days in the last week of the season]. 

With the adoption of the medieval church cal- 
endar, the Protestants also accepted the Advent 
season and Advent lessons. Thus the season 
retained its double character, preparation for the 
Christmas festival and contemplation of the dif- 
ferent ways of the coming of Christ. Since it has 
become customary to separate the civil and ecclesi- 
astical chronology and to distinguish between the 
civil and church years, the first Sunday of Advent 
has been dignified as the solenm beginning of the 
new church year. These various relations of the 
first Sunday of Advent and the whole Advent 
season explain the variety of the contents of the 
Advent hymns and prayers. Among Protestants 
also the Advent season has a twofold character, 
that of holy joy and of holy repentance. The 
first Sunday in Advent is no church festival in a 

Advent Ohrlstiaiui 
AdTooatos Dei 



full Beiifl«, but the relationi referred to lift it and 
the succeeding Sun days above oi\linary Sundays, 
See Chdrch Year, W. Caspari. 

In tha present usage of the We^t^ the ieaaon 
begins on the nearest Sunday to St, Andrew's day 
(Nov. 30), whether before or aft4*r. In the Anglican 
prayer-book the service for the first Sunday em- 
phasize the second coming; tlmt for the second ^ 
the Holy Scriptures; that for the third, the Christ iun 
ministry; while only the fourth relates specific- 
ally to the first coming. Advent in the Eastern 
Church begins on Nov. 14, thua making a season of 
forty days analogous to Lent, 

Biblioor^hitt: Tbe lecticiiumfli in Liber eomieui, i., Oxford, 
1893, and in Socrawieniarium Q^iananum pabUiiUeti in L. 
Ah Mur«tori, Lit^rffia rofnanum vetut, voL i., TeDice. 1748^ 
ftad ja MPL, Ixxiv,; 8inAra£du5» in MPL^ cii,; Ama- 
tuiuB Mc tenuis, D^ r^rl^ioBticiM afficiix, ib. n^. ; Bemo of 
H«i{?henjiU, r>e ceUbratione aJventu*^ MFL^cjtJli.; laldore 
of Seville!, De afficiiB^ cd. CcKililapiiA, Lcjpaic, 1534, &Dd in 
SI. do U Rigne, Afactni tnbliatAeca reiirum patrum, x,, FuritH. 
16M: ^. Mart^D?^ Dt arUiquU ecclf*itt ritiiiiia, Houen, 


ABVENTISTS; The general name of a body 
embracing several branches, whose members look 
for the proximate personal coming of Christ* Will- 
iam MiHor (q*v.), their founder, i^as a converted 
deist, who in 1816 joined the Baptist Church in 
Low Hampton, N. Y. He became a close student 
of the Bible, especially of the prophecies, and soon 
satisfied liimjielf t!iat the ,4dvent was to be personal 
and premillennial, and that it was near at hand. 
He began these studies in ISIS, but did not enter 
upon the work of tbe ministry until 1831. The 
year 1843 w*as the date agreed upon for the Ad vent j 
then, more specifically, Oct, 22, 1S44, the failure 
of which divided a body of followers that had 
become quite nvjmerous. In the year of his death 
(1849) they were e«timated at 60,000, Many who 
had been drawn into the movement by the preva- 
lent excitement left it, and returned to the churches 
from which they had withdrawn. After the second 
failure, Miller and some other leaders discouraged 
attempts to fix exact dates. On this question and 
on the doctrine of the immortality of the soul there 
bave been divisions. There are now at least six 
distinct branchps of Advent jsts, all of which agree 
that tbe second coming of Christ is to be personal 
and premillennial, and that it is near at hand. 
The Seventh-day Adventbts and tbe Church of 
God ate presbyterial, the others congregational 
in their polity, AU practise immersion as the mode 
of baptism. 

1« Evangelical Adventtsts; This is the oldeat 
branch, indeed the original body. The members 
adopted their Declaration of Frincijilcs in confer- 
ence in Albany, N. Y,. in 1845* and in 1858 formed 
the American Millennial Association to priat and 
circulate literature on eschatology from their point 
of view. Their organ was the weekly paper The 
Signji of the Times, which had been established in 
Boston in 1840; subpequently its name was changed 
to The Advent HerM, and later still to Messiah's 
Herald, its present (1906) title. The paper has 
always been published in Boston, The Evan- 
gelical Adventiflta differ from all tbe other branches 

in maintaining the consciousnefls of the dead in 
Hadea and the eternal sufferings of tbe loat. 
BlblioO'Iiapst: H. F. Hill, Thm Soint'9 ifAerUanjCM^ Bottoc, 

tS52: D. T, Taylor. The Reign of ChrUi, Peaoedale. R. I., 

IS55. and Boston, 138«. 

3* SeventliHUy Adventists: This branch dateia 
from 1845^ in which year, at Washington, N, H-, 
a body of Adventists adopted the belief that the 
seventh day of the week is the Sabbath for Chris- 
tians and is obligatory upon them. In 1850 their 
chief organ. The Advent Review and Sabbath Herald ^ 
was first issued at Battle Creek, Mich.^ which waa 
made the headquarters of the body: and there in 
1830 a publishing association, in 1862 a general 
annual conference, tn 1866 a health institutej and 
in 1874 an educational society and a foreign mission 
hoard were establiBhed. In 1903 the publishing 
business and the general headquarters were re- 
moved to Washington, D. 0, Their organ is now 
styled The Review and Herald. Besides tbe tenet 
which gives tbem their name they hold that man 
is not immortalj that the dead sleep in uncon- 
iiciousness, and that the unsaved never awake. 
They practise foot-waehing and accept the charia- 
mata^ maintain a tithing system, and pay great 
attention to health and total abstinence. They 
accept Mrs. EUen G, White aaan inspired prophetess, 

Btni.tcK}fiyvpi}T: J, N, Andnswa. Hittartf of (ht Sabbath and 
Pint Day. Battle Creek. 1S73 {3d ed.« 18&7>: Life Sketchet 
of Eldrr Jams9 White artd kit wife Mrt, EtUn Q. WhUt, 
1 390^ J.N. Lou^hboroush * Rite and Progrett cf the Serenik- 
Day Adx^enti^U, ib. 1S92, 

3. Advent Christiana: The organization under 
this name datea from 1861, when a general asso- 
ciation was formed. The organ of these Advent- 
ists is The World's CHeu and Seemid Advent Mes- 
Benger^ published in Boston, Their creed is given 
in the Deelaraiian &f Principles, approved by the 
general conference of lEKX). They believe that 
through sin man forfeited immortality and that 
only through faith in Oirist can any live forever; 
that death is a condition of unconsciousness for 
all persons until the resurrection at Christ's second 
coming, when the righteous will enter an endless 
life upon this earthy and the rest will suffer com- 
plete extinction of being; that this coming is near; 
that church government should be congregational; 
that immersion is the only true baptism; and that 
Sunday is the Christian Sabbath. 
Bibljoohafht: 1. C Wellroiritf, HiMt&ry of the Eeeond Ad' 

vent SfeMtag*. Y'armouih, Me., 1S74. 

4» Life and Advent Union: This may be said 
to have existed since 1S48| but it waa not until 
1862 that it was organized, at Wilbraham. Mass., 
under the leadership of Elder George Stores, Its 
organ is The Herald of Life and of the Coming King- 
dom, published at Springfield, Mass.^ weekly sin06 
1862, It holds that all hope of another life ta 
through Jesus Christ, and that only believers in 
him, who have manifested in their daily lives the 
fruits of the Spirit, attain to the resurrection of tbe 
dead, which will take place at Christ's comings 
and that such coming will be personal, visible^ and 
literal, and is impending. The Union holds four 
camp-meetinga annually: two in Maine, one in 
Connecticut, which is the principal one, and one in 



Advent Christians 
AdTooatus Dei 

BlKUOObAfTiT: O. B. Halttfid. The Theohajf of the BtbU, 
N«w&rk. 1360; DUcusnon bitvv^n M^a Grant and J. T. 
Cwry. Boston, 18fi3. 

fi. Church of God: This is a branch of the 
8evetitb-day AdventistH, which eeceded in 1866 
because its members denied that Mn. Ellen Gould 
White was an inspired prophetess. Their organ 
is The Bible Advocate and Herald of ike Coming 
Kingdom r published at Stanberry, Mo.^ which is 
their center. Like the parent bodyt the Church of 
God has tithes, sanatorium s, and a publishing house. 

BifluoonArnr: A. F. Dueger, Foit^ of tHfftftnae 6^fwren 
£IW Church ^ God and S^ven^Day Adveniisti, ^taaberry. 
Mo.; J. Bdnkerhofff Mr». White'§ ViticfnM. Comparison 
e/ ih« tarty WriHnif ef MrM. E. O. WhiU with later PaWira- 
tums^ lAcnctrv £A« Sujtpresn-onM made in them ta dent/ their 
trrvtteou* Teadiittg; D. Nield. The Good Friday Prob- 
Ivm-t whfnjnnij from Scriptta^t AMtranomy and Hittoru that 
ttd Cruci/Lzion tff Christ took PLot^t on Wtdneaday,, and hit 
RensTtction on Saturday. 

6^ Churches of God in Christ Jesus ^ jxipuJarly 
kikown as the Age-to-come Adventista : Tiiese have 
esdsted since 1851 , when their organ ^ The Rentiiu- 
Hon (Plymouth, It><1.), was established, but they 
were not organized till 1888, when the general 
conference was formed. They believe in the res- 
toration of Israel, the literal resurrection of the 
dead, the immortalisation of the righteous^ and 
the final destruction of the wicked, eternal life 
being through Christ alone. 

BiauoGBArsT:: J. F« Weetl»a, Tht Comino Aift^ Chiim^Q, 


The statistics of the Adventista are thus given 
1^ H. K. CarroU in The Chriiiian Advocate for 
Ju, 25, 1908: 


Nftrnft. Mlniiten. Churebeft^ DicAuti, 

ET^n^elJcml 3-4 30 1,U7 

8*vemh^diy, 486 1.707 60,471 

Advent Chiistuioj 912 filO 26,500 

life ujri Advpnt Union 60 28 3,SO0 

Churcb of God 10 £0 047 

Churcbea of Ood in CSirist 

J^iitt. 64 05 a,872 

ToUl Advetttjstii ... l.&6fi 2,400 ft|j,437 

commonly applied to the regulations promulgated 
m 1566 by Matthew Parker, archbishop of Canter- 
bury^ for the purpose, as alleged, of securing uni- 
formity and decency in public worship, against 
the teadenctes of the extreme Protestant party 
(see Puritans, Pvritakism, j 6). It is now 
generally admitted that, though they represented 
Elizabeth ^s poEcy in ritual matters, they never 
received her formal sanction* They assumed some 
importance in the ritual controversies of the nine- 
teenth ecntuiy, the Higb-church party contei^iing 
ibat they were merely an archiepiBcopal injunction 
enforcing an irreducible minimum of ritual, while 
their opponents attempted to show that they were 
a legal prescription of a positive kind, which made 
the surplice the only lawful vestment of the clergy 
in parish churches. 

BrBt40GitAf^T : The text of the Advert iBements u fiven in 
G«e and H^ndy » Document, pp. 4fl7-475. Co iiffult : J . St rype. 
Life and Ade of MaWirw Parktr, London, 1821; CAurdk 
QmUrly Jitview. :K¥ij. a SSI) 54-60, 

or Defensor Ecclesiw}: An officer charged with 
tha aectilar affairs of an ecclesiastical establishment, 

more especially its defense, legal or armed. The 
beginnings of the office appear in the Roman em- 
pire. From the end of the fifth centuiy there were 
defensorea in Italy, charged with the protection of 
the poor and orphans as well as with the care of 
Churctt rights and property. In the Merovingian 
kingdom legal representalives of the churches had 
the title. In the Carlo vingian period, in accord* 
anca with the effort to keep the clergy as far as 
possible from worldly affairs, bishops, abbots, and 
other ecclesiastics were required to have such nn 
officiaL The development of the law of immunity 
made such odi^oro/i necessary — on the one band, 
to uphold Church rights against the State and in 
court., on the other hand to perform judicial and 
police duties in ecclesiastical territory* The Carlo- 
vingtan kings had the right of appointment, but 
sometimes waived it in individual cases. These 
officers were at first generally clerics, later laymen, 
and finally the ofHce became hereditary. Often 
this advocate of the Church developed into a tyrant, 
keeping the establishment in absolute submission, 
despoiling and plundering it. He usurped the 
whole power of administration, limited the authority 
of the bishop to purely spiritual affairs, absorbed 
the tithes and all other revenues, and doled out to 
the clergy a mean modicvnn only. Innocent ITL 
CI 198-1 21 6), however, succeeded in checking the 
growing importance of this institution, and soon 
the office itself disapp>eaTed. 
BtPLiooaA]*nr: R. Happ, De adv^caOa eeclmoMtica, Bonn, 

1870; H. BrilnQe»r, Deutsche BechtMyetchichie^ ii, 302, Leip- 

kic, 18«2. 

who outrank all the advocates in the papal court. 
They trace their origin from the close of the sixth 
century, when Gregory the Great appointed seven 
defensores in the city of Rome to plead the cause 
of poor litigants who would otherwise be without 
le^ counsel, Sixtua IV, increased the number by 
the addition of five junior advocates, but the 
memory of lb© historical origin of the body was 
preserved by reser^'ing to the seven senior mem- 
bers certain privileges, among them the right to 
constitute the college proper of consistorial advo- 
cates. This college at the present time is made 
up of two clerics and five laymen, one of the latter 
being dean* The name *' consistorial '' comes from 
the fact that their principal duties— presenting the 
claims of candidates for canonization and petition- 
ing for the pallium — are performed in papal con- 
sistories. John T, Cheaoh* 

tion of Roman Catholic jurists formed on the 
occasion of the episcopal jubilee of Pius IX. in 1876, 
for the purpose of asserting and vindicating the 
rights and teaching of the Church and of the Holy 
See. The organization, which was blessed by 
Pius IX*, received a signal mark of approbation 
from Leo XIII, in 1878, when its constitution was 
approved in a papal brief. From Home, where 
its beadquartei^ were established, it has spread into 
all the countries of Europe, but is unknow^n in the 
United States. John T, CreagH- 





ADVOWSON: In the Church of England, the 
right of nomination to a vacant ecclesiastical 
b^fice, vested in the crown, the bishop, one of 
the universities, or a private person. Such nomi- 
nation, or presentation, as it is called, is the rule 
in England, election by the congregation being 
almost unknown. 

jEDITUUS, i-dit'a-us: A term applied to a 
person having the care of ecclesiastical property. 
Among the Romans it described one who, with the 
local priest, if there was one, had charge of a temple. 
The Roman customs in regard to this office had their 
influence on the development of similar functions 
in the Christian Church. They were at first dis- 
charged by the ostiarivs (q.v.), to whom the term 
(Ediluua was sometimes applied (cf. Paulinus of 
Nola, Epist./i.). By degrees, as the major and 
minor orders developed, and Church property 
became more valuable, permanent subordinate 
officials were required to look after it. The func- 
tions and designations of these officials varied, 
however, in different provinces. The name cedituus 
fell into disuse, probably from its original associa- 
tion with heathen worship. It was employed in 
the Vulgate version of Ezek. xliv. 11; Hos. x. 5; 
Zeph. i. 4; and Durand (Rationale, ii. 5) says of 
the ostiarii that their functions resemble those of 
the csdUui. In the Middle Ages the execution of 
the less dignified functions, which were thought 
incompatible with the clerical office, was committed 
more and more to subordinates, and by the end of 
that period almost entirely to laymen. The name 
<BdUuu8 was still used for these officials, being thus 
equivalent to the later sacristan. But this was 
principally in central Europe, especially in Germany, 
where conciliar decrees show that their duty was 
to ring the bells, to open and close the church, etc. 
In the more western countries the asditui became 
rather identified with the procuratores or provisores 
(qq.v.) who had charge of the ecclesiastical prop- 
erty, though this included in some degree the main- 
tenance of the building and the provision of 
vestments, candles, incense, and the like. In 
America during the nineteenth century the name 
has been not infrequently employed in Roman 
Catholic ecclesiastical terminology for the trustees 
who administer the temporal concerns of a parish. 
(Johannes Picker.) 

JEGIDIUS, i-jid'i-us, SAINT. See Giles, Saint. 

JEGIDIUS D£ COLUMNA (Egidio Colonna): A 
pupil of Thomas Aquinas and reputed author of 
the bull Unam sanctam; b. at Rome 1245 (7) ; d. at 
Avignon 1316. He joined the Augustinian eremite 
monks, studied at Paris, and taught there for many 
years, being called Doctor fundatissimus. From 
1292 to 1295 he was general of his order. In 1296 
he was made archbishop of Bourges, but continued 
to reside in Rome. He defended the election of Boni- 
face VIII. in his De renuntiatione papce, showing 
that the abdication of Celeatine V. was not against 
the canon law, and followed the court to Avignon. 
His numerous writings (mostly unpublished) deal 
with philosophy (commentaries on Aristotle), 
exegesis (In Canticum Canticorum ; In epistolam 
ad Romano»)f and dogmatics (In sententias Longo- 

hardi; QuodHbda), A portion of his work on 
ecclesiastical polity, De poteeUOe eccUnastiai, was 
published in the Journal de Vinstruction pMique 
(Paris, 1858). K. Bbnrath. 

Bzbuoobapht: C. R du Boulay, Hiatoria umvarnlaHa Pari- 
•iefMit. iii. 671-672. Paru, 1666; W. Cave, Scriptorum 
ecdencuHeorum liUerttria, ii. 339-341. Oxford, 1743; J. A. 
Fabridus, BMiotheea LaHna, i. 19-20, Florence, 1858; 
F. X. Kraus, jSgidiua van Rom, in OetterreidiUehs Viertd- 
jakreuachrift fUr katholiaeht Theologie, i. 1-33, Vienna. 
1862; F. L(ajard], OilUt de Rome, rtHgieux, iiti^iMlin, 
thtologien, in HuUrire litteraire ds la France, xxx. 421-566, 
Paris. 1888. 

iEGIDIUS OF VITERBO : General and protector 
of the order of Augustinian eremite monks to which 
Luther belonged; d. as cardinal at Rome 1532. 
Of his many theological writings (for list cf . Fabri- 
cius, Bibliotheca Latina, i., Florence, 1858, p. 23) but 
few have been published. His address at the open- 
ing of the Lateran council of 1512 may be found in 
Hardouin (ConcUiorum coUedio, vol. ix., Paris, 1715, 
p. 1576), and a memorial on the condition of the 
Church, which he presented to Pope Adrian VI., 
was published by C. Hofler (in the Abhandlungen 
of the Royal Bavarian Academy, hist. cL, iv., Mu- 
nich, 1846, pp. 62-89). K. Benrath. 
Bxbuoorapht: T. Kolde, Die deuteehe AugueHnet-ConQre- 

gaUon, Gotha, 1879. 

iELFRED, iELFRIC. See Alfred, Alfric. 

iENEAS, i-ni'os, OF GAZA, gd'za: A pupil of the 
Neoplatonist Hierocles at Alexandria, and teacher 
of rhetoric at Gaza. Before 534 he wrote a dia- 
logue, Theophrastus (in MPG, bcxxv. 865-1004). 
in which he opposes the doctrine of the preexistence 
of the soul, but asserts its immortality and the 
resurrection of the body; the perpetuity of the 
world is rejected. Twenty-five of his letters may 
be foimd in R. Hercher, Epietolographi Gr<Bci, pp. 
24-32, Paris, 1873, and several of his treatises are 
in M. de la Bigne, Bibliotheca veterum paJtrum, 
viii. (8 vols., Paris, 1609-10); Magna bibliotheca, v. 
3 and xii. (15 vols., Paris, 1618-22); and Maxima 
bibliotheca veterum patrum, viii. (28 vols., Lyons, 
1677-1707). G. KntGER. 

Bibuoorapht: G. Wemsdorf. Diapulalio de jSnea Oasmo, 
Naumburg, 1816; K. Seits. Die SehtUe von Oaza, pp. 23- 
27. Heidelberg, 1892; K. Krumbaoher. Oetchichte der hy- 
tantiniechen Litteratur, p. 432. Munich. 1897; G. Schalk- 
hauser, JBneae von Oasa ale Philoeoph, Erlangen. 1898. 

MJXEAS OF PARIS: Bishop of Paris 858-870; 
d. Dec. 27, 870. He is best Imown as the author 
of one of the controversial treatises against the 
Greeks called forth by the encyclical letters of 
Photins. His comprehensive Liber adversus GrcBCoe 
(in D'Achery, SpicHegum, Paris, i., 1723, 113-148; 
AfPL, cxxi. 681-762; cf. MGH, Epist., vi., 1902. 
p. 171, no. 22) deals with the procession of the 
Holy Grhost, the marriage of the clergy, fasting, 
the consignatio infantium, the clerical tonsure, the 
Roman primacy, and the elevation of deacons to 
the see of Rome. He declares that the accusations 
brought by the Greeks against the Latins are 
" superfluous questions having more relation to 
secular matters than to spiritual." [The work is 
mainly a collection^ of quotations or " sentences," 
from Greek and Latin Fathers, the former trans- 
lated.] (A. Hauck.) 




n., P6pe. 
^POfUS. 6^pt'niiB, JOKAFtTES (JohAnn Ho«ck} ; 

The fii^t Lutheran supcrint'endent of Hamburg; 
b- at Zieear or Ziegesar (29 m. e^,e. of M^deburg), 
in the march of Brandenburg, 1499; d. in Ham- 
burg May 13^ 1553. He was a diligent etudent as 
a boy, and was under Bugenhsg^n^s instruction ^ 
probably while the latter w*ae roctor of the monaa- 
tery of Belbuck. He took his bachelor's degree 
At Wittenberg in 1520; here he became the friend 
of Luther and Melanchthon. Then he ht\d a school 
in BrandeDburg, but waa persecuted and imprisoned 
for bis reforming activity, and had to leave home. 
Partly on account of the malice of his enemies^ 
he adopted the modified form of the Greek word 
oipeinoi {'* lofty ^'), by which he is generally 
known, and which be claimed was a translation of 
his real name (Hoeck=^u>cA). He spent some time 
in Pomerania^ in dose relations with the leaders of 
the Refannation there. From about 1524 to 1528 
be was in Stralsimd^ in charge of a school (probably 
private). The local authorities asked him to draw 
up an order of eccl^iastical di^pUne (Kirchen- 
ordnung)t w^hich went into effect Nov, 5, 1525. In 
Oct., 1520, he micceeded Johann Boldenan aa pastor 
of St. Peter *s in Hamburg, He carried on vigor- 
ously the work of his teacher and friends Bugen- 
hagen, and was chiefly instnimental in introducing 
hi» order of discipline in Hamburg, His contest 
with the catbedrcd chapter, which etill adhered to 
the old faith, gave occasion to the earUeet of tiis 
eitant wrilinp, Pinacidisn de Roman,(E ea^tee 
mposturia (1530). On ilay 18, 1532 he was ap- 
pointed to the highest office in the Lutheran Church 
of Hamburg, that of superintendent according to 
Bugenhagen's order of discipline. In 1534 he 
visited England at the request of Henry VI 11., 
to advise him as to his divorce and as to the carrying 
forward of the Reformation there. He returned 
to Hamburg in the following January, and sub- 
aequently made numerous journeys as a represent- 
ative of the city in important affairs. He took 
part in all the church movements of tbe time^ and 
frequently had the deciding voice in diluted mat- 
ters, Melancbtbon considered his work on the 
interim (154S) the best that had been written^ 
though it did not agree with his own \iews. 

In all bis writings ^pinus displays great theo- 
logical learning and equal genfleneas of temper. 
He gave weekly theological lectures^ usually in 
Latin, which were attended by the preachers 
and other learned men, and spent much time on 
the Psalms, taking up especially the questions 
which at the moment were agitating men's minds. 
He u b^t known by the controversy which a rone 
over his teaching as to tbe df^cent of Christ into 
Hades. In 1542, finding that the article of the creed 
on this subject was frequently explained as mean- 
ing no more than the going down int<i the grave, 
in his lecture on the sixteenth psalm, he put for- 
ward tbe view, already given in Luther'a explana- 
tion of the Psalms, that Christ had really gone down 
into hell, to deliver men from its power* Garcffius^ 
his successor at St, Peter^s, called him to account 
for this teacbingj but left Hamburg in the following 

year and did not rettim until 1646, Meantime 
vEpinus*B commentary on Ps, xvi* had been pub- 
lished by his aeiiriritant Jobann Freder, so that hia 
view was widely known. 

The controversy became a public and a bttter one 
after Oarceeus's return, and both sides sought to 
gain support from Wittenberg, Melancbtbon could 
only say that there was no agreement among the 
doctors on this point, and counsel peace. j£pinus's 
opponents in Hamburg were so turbulent that their 
leaders were deprived of their offices and banished 
from the city in 1551, The principal monument 
of ^^pinus's activity in Hamburg is his ordinances 
for the church there, w*hich be drew up in 1539 
at the request of the council. It was a necessary 
ampliGcation of that of Bugenliagcn, and seems 
to have remained in force until 16D3, 

(Carl BEftTHfiAU,) 

ttAichte, 11, L, Hartiburs. 1T29: A. Greve, Afmonn J.Mpini 
if^ataunUa, ib* 1730; N. WilckeoSp HamburgUcher EHrtn^ 
tgmpel, pp, 248-280, tb. 1770; F. H. IL Fr&nkp Thtoloffie 
dte KoiJc€rrdienform0l, 4 vqIb.* E^lmn^D. LS3S"ti5; ScrJiaff, 
Creeds, i. 295-298, 

AIRIUS, a-^'ri-tjs: Presbyter and director of 
the asylum for strangers, maimed^ and incapable, 
in Sebaste in Pont us in the fourth century. He 
was one of the progressive men of the time who 
protested against the legalistic and hierarchic 
tendencies of the Church, Supporting his con* 
tention by tlie Scriptures, he objected to the in- 
equality of presbyters and bishops, denied the value 
of prayers for the dead, and opposed strict ordi* 
nances concerning fasting, wliich he wished to 
leave more to individual judgment. About 360 
he resigned his position. He bad many followers, 
who constituted a party of " Aerians''; they were 
severely persecuted and soon disappeared. The 
only souree is Epiphanius (Htrr. , Ixxv .; cf. Gieiseler, 
Church History, i., section 106, note 3), who treata 
him in a very pttrti;san spirit. Philipp Meykr, 
Bibuoohafht: J. Olaa, Monograph on (he Herettf of AeriuM^ 

Fertli, 174fi; C. W. P, W^leh, Hulorit der X«£Hreicn, iii, 

321 «q(|r* Leip«ie, 1766. 

AETIUS, See Arjanism, 1„ 3, §6, 

AFFRE, DEIfIS AUGUSTE: Archbishop of 

Paris; b. at St, Rome de Tarn (55 m. n.w, of Mont- 
pellier), Aveyron, France, Sept. 27, 1793; d, at 
Paris June 27, 184 S. He studied at the Seminary 
of St, Snlpice and taught theology there after having 
been ordained priest ( 1 818) ; he became vicar-general 
of the diocese of Lu^on 1821, of Amiens 1823, of 
Paris I834j archbishop of Paris 1840. As arch- 
bishop he was aealous and faithful ^ and lost his 
life in the performance of duty. During the revo- 
lution of IMBr hoping to induce the insurgents to 
lay down their arms, he mounted a barricade at 
the Faubourg St. Antoine and attempted to address 
the mob, but had hardly begun to speak when he 
was struck by a musket ball and mortally wounded. 
He was one of the foundera of La France chr^lienne 
(1820), wrote much for it and other periodicals, 
and published several treatises of value on edu- 
cationalj historical, and religious subjects. 
BiBUDOKArHT: F. U. Cruice, Vit de D. A. Affrtt F»ria, 184i 

Cftbrid«v*d« 1&50}; E, CAatAn. Hi»kj4t« de la vie et d* ia mort 

de Ms/t D, A, Affrm, lb. 186& 




AFRAy SAINT: An early female martyr, con- 
cerning whom all that can be confidently asserted 
is that she suffered at Augsburg. This fact is 
attested by Venantius Fortunatus (Vita Martinif 
iv. 642-^3) and the mention of her name in the 
older martyrologies, and there is no reason to 
question it since the importance of Augsburg makes 
the early introduction of Christianity there prob- 
able. Her Acta (ed. B. Krusch, MGH, Script., Rer. 
Merov,, iii., 1896, 41-64) consist of two independent 
parts, Converaio and PasaiOj of which the latter is 

the older. It is said that she was dedicated by 
her mother to the sendee of Venus and lived an 
immoral life in Augsburg until she was converted 
by a bishop and deacon, who, in time of perse- 
cution, took refuge in her house, not knowing 
her character. She boldly confessed her faith in a 
general onslaught on the Christians and died by 
fire Aug. 5. 

Biblioobaprt: Rettberx, KD, i. 144-149; Friedrich. KD, i. 
186-109. 427-430. ii. 663-654; L. Duchesne. Ste. Afra 
d*Aug»bouro, in BulUUn critique^ ii. (1897) 301-305. 

I. The Continent as a Whole. 

1. Geographical Description. 

2. The Races of Africa. 

3. The Opening of Africa. 

The Arabs and Portuguese (i 1). 
The General European Invasion (i 2). 


The Prohibition of the Slave-Trade 

Later Explorations and the Partition 
of Africa (i 4). 
4. Religion and Missions. II. 

Native Religions (i 1). III. 

Mohammedanism (| 2). 
Protestant Missions (i 3). 
Colonists and Missions (I 4). 
The "Ethiopian Movement" (i 5). 
The Political Divisions of Africa. 
African Islands. 

L The Continent as a Whole : 1. Oeoffraphlcal 
Description: Africa extends southward from the 
Mediterranean Sea nearly 5,000 miles. The equator 
crosses it nearly in the middle of its length; but 
by far the greater part of its mass lies north of the 
equator, the breadth of the continent from Cape 
Verde to Cape Guardafui being about 4,600 miles. 
Its area is about 11,500,000 sq. miles; and the 
adjacent islands add to this 239,000 more. Easily 
accessible to Europe by the Mediterranean Sea 
through 2,000 miles of its northern coast, and touch- 
ing Asia at the Isthmus of Suez, this continent has 
ever invited investigation, and has received notable 
influences from both of its active neighbors. The 
Sahara Desert, however, severing the Mediterranean 
coast regions from the southern and equatorial 
regions of the continent, has proved for centuries 
a bar to extended intercourse. " Had it not been 
for the River Nile," says Sir H. H. Johnston, " the 
negro and the Caucasian might have existed apart 
even longer without coming into contact." In 
fact, the great rivers of Africa are quite as impor- 
tant as aids to foreign intercourse in these days as 
the Desert has been an obstruction to it in the past. 
The greatest of the African rivers are the Nile, the 
Kongo, the Niger, and the Zambesi. Closely con- 
nected with the rivers, again, are the great lakes of 
central Africa, namely, Victoria, Tanganyika, and 
Nyassa, which belong, respectively, to the Nile, the 
Kongo, and the Zamb^i systems. A further 
characteristic of the continent, noteworthy for all 
who seek entrance to its interior districts, is the 
insalubrity, one might say the deadliness, of the 
dunate of its coasts both east and west throughout 
its tropical zone. The low-lying coast regions, 
extending in some cases 200 miles inland are sown 
with the graves of white men, germs of strange and 
fatal fevers lying in wait as it were for all strangers 
who venture to set foot imprepared upon that black 
and seething soil. The greatest moimtains of 
Africa are all in its east central section. Kilima- 
Njaro in German East Africa, east of the Victoria 
Nyanza, is 19,600 feet high; Mweru, close by, is 
about 16,000 feet; and Ruwenzori, west of the 
Victoria Nyanza and on the border of the Kongo 
Independent State, is over 20,000 feet. Among 
tha high lands of the interior the most notable 

section is a broad causeway of elevated plateaux 
which stretches from Abyssinia southward almost 
to Cape Colony, and which offers to the white man 
an almost ideal residence at a height of from 5,000 
to 6,000 feet through a long range that is hardly 
broken save by the Zambesi River. 

2. The Bafies of Afirica: The puzzle of the races 
in Africa which the casual visitor classes under the 
comprehensive term negroes is insoluble at this 
day. But the key to the puzzle may probably be 
foimd in the repeated mingling of Asiatic and 
European blood in varying degrees and at divers 
distinct epochs with the blood of the African of the 
projecting jaw and the woolly locks. The history 
of Africa is practically the history of Egypt and then 
of her Carthaginian rival until well toward the 
Christian era. Only then did the Mediterranean 
coast of North Africa begin to have a tale of its 
own. The mention of this is significant; it sug- 
gests the repeated entrance of Asiatics into Africa 
through the whole period when Egypt was a world 
power, and of various sorts of Europeans into North 
Africa during a thousand years before the Moham- 
medan era. 

The races now inhabiting Africa are a perpetual 
subject of discussion and theory because of the dif- 
ficulty of accounting for the resemblances as well 
as the differences between them. Along the Mediter- 
ranean coast of North Africa the Arab race rules; 
but in all the countries of this coast from the west 
frontier of Egypt to the Atlantic Ocean the Berber 
race forms the larger part of the population, and 
even extends into the Sahara. A little further south , 
negroes of a low and degraded type are found on 
the west of the Nile; and they appear at different 
points throughout the continent as far west as the 
Atlantic coast. In Egypt the larger part of the 
population is a mixti];^ of Arabs with the ancient 
Egyptian race, commonly classed as Hamites. 
This name distinguishes tUs people from the Sem- 
itic races, without throwing light on their origin. 
Arabs appear also at intervals along the coast of 
E^t Africa as far south as Portuguese East Africa 
in considerable numbers. In the northern section 
of this coast, along with the Arabs is found a race 
of negroes commonly called Nubians, the result 
apparently of mixtures of Arab, Egsrptian, and 




negro noes. Abyssinia, the Somali coast, and the 
GidU country contain a large block of people of 
the Hamite race, divided into groups, however, 
by language as well as by reli^on. Along the 
Upper Nile as far as the borders of Uganda and 
eastward well toward the coast are found tribes of 
another type of negroes generally called the Nilotic 
group. The negroes of the western part of Africa 
north of the equator are not all of the degraded type 
that appears along the western coast. The Fulahs 
are of an entirely different race, resembling the 
Hamites, excepting in language. The Mandingoes 
of the interior of Sierra Leone, Liberia, and the 
Ivory Coast, are also of a higher type, although 
their languages show no traces of northern or 
Asiatic influence. 

Throughout Africa north of the equator small 
detached bodies of Arabs are found at different 
points; and in general the religious control of this 
whole great region is with the Mohammedans. 
For this reason north Africa is frequently spoken 
of as '' Mohammedan Africa." It should be borne 
in mind, nevertheless, that throughout the region, 
many pagan tribes exist under Mohammedan rulers. 
South of the equator, generally speaking, the inhabit- 
ants of central Africa, and indeed to the borders 
of Cape Colony, are of the Bantu stock, often warlike 
and of a much higher type of intelligence than the 
negroes of the western coast. In the southwestern 
part of the continent are remnants of the Hotten- 
tots and Bushmen, once numerous in Cape Colony, 
while throughout Cape Colony proper the natives 
are known as " colored people," and represent a 
residue of mixtures of races during centimes. A 
considerable number of Dutch and of British are 
found in South Africa; and Portuguese, as well as 
many Portuguese half-breeds, are numerous in 
Angola and Portuguese East Africa. European 
colonists are slowly entering the country on all sides 
and from all nations, but more than half of the 
continent can never be a fit residence for Euro- 
peans and must remain in the hands of the negro 

This mixture of races stands in the place of a 
historical record concerning the people of Africa. 
Neither the Africans nor any others can read the 
record. It is the misfortune of the people of this 
continent to have no history except as appendages 
to the outside world; and the whole mass of allu- 
sions to them in ancient history has the vague 
quality of tradition. Even the Roman records 
lack precision, and remain generalities which throw 
little light on the history of the actual people of 
the continent. 

8. The Openiziir of AiMca: The Mohammedan con- 
quest, beginning about 640, added little to knowl- 
edge of the continent, although the 

1. The Arabs in time gave to the rest of 
^Portu!^ the world information about the fertile 

ffneae.* negro land beyond the desert in the im- 
limited region to which they gave the 
name Sudan, ** the Country of the Blacks." Eight 
hundred years later the Portuguese undertook a won- 
derful series of explorations of the African coasts, 
which between 1446 and 1510 began the process of 
stamping the continent as a possession of Europe. 

Portugal named every important feature of the Afri- 
can coast as though she owned the whole continent, 
which in fact she did as far as the coasts were con- 
cerned. She ruled the west coast and the Cape of 
Good Hope from Lisbon, and the east coast, as a 
part of India, from Goa; and there were none but 
the Arabs to dispute her sway. She introduced 
missions also into her African possessions. But, 
after the fashion of the times, a mission had no 
objections to raise against maltreatment of the 
people to whom the land belonged. 

At last in the seventeenth century began what 
may be called the third period of the opening of 
Africa, the Arab invasion and the Por- 
2. The tuguese occupation having been the 
»aSopeaii ^^ ^^ second. The characteristic 
Invasion, of this third period was a rush by every 
European nation that could handle 
ships to make the most money possible out of 
a vast territory whose inhabitants had not the 
ability to object. The Dutch took the Cape of 
Good Hope; and the British, the French, and the 
Spaniards all gained foothold in different parts of 
the western coast, and imprinted the nature of their 
enterprises upon the region by names which persist 
to this day; such as the " Gold Coast," the " Ivory 
Coast," the ** Grain [of Paradise] Coast " and the 
" Slave Coast." When the slave-trade began, in 
the seventeenth century, the Germans, the Swedes, 
and the Danes also made haste to acquire territory 
whence they could despoil the continent. North 
Africa, however, remained in the fierce grip of Is- 
lam. The history of Africa was still a history of 
outsiders working their will upon the country. 
At the end of the eighteenth century the nations 
of the lesser European powers had all been dis- 
possessed. Portugal held to her ancient acqui- 
sitions about the mouths of the Kongo and the 
Zambesi and began to try to discover what lay 
back of these; Great Britain had replaced the Dutch 
at the Cape of Good Hope, thus securing an exten- 
sive region in which white men could live and 
thrive; while France and Spain had some small 
settlements on the northern part of the west coast 
of the continent. 

The slave-trade, during nearly 200 years as far 
as Europe is concerned, and during uncounted cen- 
turies as concerns the Asiatic countries, sums up 
history for the African people. They know little 
else of their past; but they know that. That fear- 
ful traffic transported Africa westward, imtil from 
the Ohio River in the United States away south- 
ward to the valley of the Amazon in Brazil and 
throughout the West Indies, the population be- 
came strongly and often predominantly African. 
A fourth era begins for Africa with the prohi- 
bition of the slave-trade by Denmark, Great Britain, 
Holland, France, and Sweden (1792- 
8. Prohl- 1819). It was the slave-trade and its 
of the horrors which tumed Protestant mis- 
Slave- sionary activity toward Africa in the 
Trade, earliest days of the nineteenth cen- 
tury; and it was the discussion which 
preceded the prohibition of slave-trading which 
suggested the beginning of a systematic exploration 
of Africa. 




A fifth period of African history is that of effect- 
ive exploration of the intenor by Europeans 

4 Later '^*^^®®'^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^' ^^ *^ 
Sxplora- period the missionary Livingstone 
tions preceded Stanley. But Stanley, fol- 
and the lowing Burton and Speke and Grant 
j^f^l^^ and Cameron, and seeking to find Liv- 
ingstone, turned the attention of the 
world to the vast commercial value of Africa. A sixth 
period is the period of partition, beginning when Great 
Britain, after taking possession of many of the best 
territories in the southern part of the continent, 
occupied Egypt in 1882. In the eager rush of the 
European powers which followed, the great conti- 
nent has been parceled out as a gold-field is parceled 
out by prospectors who protect by men with guns 
the stakes they have hastily driven into the soil, 
and who only then sit down to estimate the value 
of what they have secured in the scramble. So 
to the present day the history of Africa is a history 
of what outsiders have done in the continent rather 
than of what the people of the country have done 
or thought or planned. 

4. Beliffipn and Kisaions: A rapid survey of the 
modem political divisions of Africa will be given 
under the name of each. It seems 
■iliSi*^^* well, however, to make here a few 
*®^^®'^* general remarks upon some religious 
and social peculiarities of the people of the 
continent as a whole. The religion of Africa in 
its untouched and natural condition is not prop- 
erly idolatrous. There is almost always some sense 
of a supreme being, who is a spirit, and from whom 
all power has originally proceeded. The actual 
religious observances of the people, however, except 
where they have been affected by Mohammedanism 
or by Christianity, are forms of spirit-worship 
connected with the use of fetishes (see Fetishism). 
Mohammedanism has become an indigenous 
religion in Africa. It rules absolutely the religious 
thought of nine-tenths of the people 
yj^' ^?i ^^ ^^® northern parts of the continent, 
^^^J^" and controls in a less degree millions 
south of the Sahara from the Nile 
to the Niger. As a civilizing force Mohammedan- 
ism has value. The first thing the awakened negro 
does under Mohammedan influence is to obtain 
a decent robe wherewith to cover himself. Islam 
wherever it goes ends cannibalism. Its scheme of 
religious motive in life is to commend religion by 
making it " easy " to those who find restraint hard. 
It teaches a certain proportion of the people to 
recite Arabic litanies of praise to God, and to read 
Arabic; but to the great mass of the negroes its 
effect includes neither knowledge of Arabic nor 
information on the dogmas of Islam. It encourages 
war in a positive and very real sense; its slave- 
raids know no amelioration through the change 
from tne tenth to the twentieth century; and they 
are barely less brutalizing than the man-eating 
raids which they have displaced. The weakness 
of Mohammedanism as a civilizing force is that it 
can not raise men to a level higher than the old 
Arabian civilization which it is proud to represent. 
And it is a fact of the deepest meaning, from the 
missionary point of view, that negroes who have 

become Mohammedans are equipped with an 
assurance of righteousness and knowledge which 
makes them almost impervious to Christian in- 

The Protestant missions, on the other hand, 
bring to their converts the Christian civilization 

of the twentieth century with its 
^ tflLttt**" ^^®®®^°8s *"^^ enlightenment. The 
KlBsions. ^l^cf ^^^^ ^^6 commonest man will 

be elevated by study of the Bible, 
makes the literary culture of African languages 
a first principle in every mission. More than 
100 of the tribal dialects have been reduced 
to writing, and have been given an elementary 
Biblical study apparatus which improves as the 
capacity of the people develops. In the process 
the language itself becomes in some degree purified, 
and its words enriched by more profound mean- 
ings, imtil the language receives power to express 
feelings. In South Africa hundreds of native 
Protestant churches lead independent ecclesiastical 
lives under native pastors. It is perhaps too soon 
to claim that anything is proved by the moderate 
successes of a century of Protestant missions; but 
at least it is not out of place to emphasize the wide 
difference of aim between the two great branches 
of the Christian Church now working for the regen- 
eration of the tribes of Africa. 

African missions encoimter difficulty from the 
European colonists. Their aim is quite different 
from that of the colonists. This alone would make 
friction and mutual opposition probable. But 

the aim of the colonist is sometimes 
4. Colo- aggressively opposed to that of the mis- 
Missions, sionary. That aim was frankly stated 

by the German Koloniale Zeitachrift 
early in 1904 as follows: " We have acquired this 
colony not for the evangelization of the blacks, 
not primarily for their well-being, but for us whites. 
Whoever hinders our object must be put out of the 
way." Such assumption of the right of might 
is foimd not only in German Southwest Africa; 
but in the Portuguese colonies, where the slave- 
trade is still brut^y active; in some of the French 
colonies, where the cruelties of the local adminis- 
tration broke De Brazza's heart; and in the Kongo 
Independent State, where mutilations and other 
cruelties mark the Belgian rubber trade and are 
glossed over by the assurance that the cutting off 
of hands is an old native custom. The same spirit 
often appears in British colonies in Africa, but 
there it is repressed by the government. Where 
the colonist acts on the " might is right " principle 
the missionary works a stony soil. 

The colonist has had occasion from the very 
beginning of missions in Africa to complain that 

one effect of them is to make the people 
*<-/^: ^? self-assertive. This is not a fault, 
"IttWoplan p^^j^ j^g seU-aasertion does not 

ment." pa^ the limits of mutual right. Dur- 
ing the last five or six years a move- 
ment among the native Christians of South Africa 
has attracted much attention. It is what is known 
as the " Ethiopian movement." Its watchword 
is " Africa for the Africans "; and its aim is to place 
all African churches under strictly African leader- 




ship. There is a political sound in some of the 
utterances of the " Ethiopian " leaders; and the 
local governments are on the alert to check any 
developments along that line, more especially since 
American Africans have taken a hand in the move- 
ment. There appears to be some connection 
between this movement and the revolt of the tribes 
in the south of German Southwest Africa. What- 
ever the final outcome, it appears certain that as 
the African tribes learn to think for themselves 
they must assert their manhood; and, however 
foolish and futile some of the manifestations of this 
growing manhood may be, the fact itself is a token 
that ought to be welcomed. Through it Africa 
may yet have a history of its own. 

n. The Political Divisions of Africa: Abyssinia: 
The only Christian country of Africa which resisted 
the Mohammedan irruption. It consists for the 
most part of a mountain knot in which rise the 
Atbara River and the Blue Nile, and lies between 
the Egyptian Sudan and the Red Sea. Area about 
150,000 sq. miles; population about 3,500,000; 
religion, a debased form of the Coptic Church with 
over 3,000,000 adherents. There are also between 
60,000 and 100,000 Jews (called Falashas, " ex- 
iles ")» and about 50,000 Mohammedans, besides 
300,000 pagans. The prevailing language is the 
Amharic with dialects in different sections. The 
sacred books of the church are in Ethiopic or Geez. 
The Gallas in the south have a language of their 
own. In 1490 Portuguese explorers introduced 
the Roman Catholic religion into Abyssinia. In 
1604 a Jesuit mission was established which finally 
won the adhesion of the emperor. Intrigues led 
to their expulsion after about thirty years. The 
Carmelites and Augustinians also engaged in the 
work, but with no lasting results; the mission was 
entirely abandoned in 1797. All attempts to reestab- 
lish Roman Catholic missions were thwarted imtil the 
eariy part of the nineteenth century. The Lazarists 
succeeded about 1830 in gaining a foothold in vari- 
ous provinces. They were again expelled from the 
interior provinces, and now have their headquarterst 
in the Italian territory of Eritrea (see below). A 
strong missionary advance intoHarrar is also being 
made from Jibuti. 

The earliest effort to establish a Protestant 
mission in Abyssinia was that of Peter Heyling, 
a law student of Ltlbeck. He went there in 1640, 
won favor with the Abyssinian court circles, and 
began to translate the Bible into colloquial Am- 
haric. He was captured by Turks in 1652, and, 
refusing to become a Mohammedan, was decapitated, 
leaving no trace of his work. In 1 752 Christian Fred- 
erick William Hocker, a Moravian physician, began a 
persLstent effort to establish a mission in Abyssinia. 
But the mission got no further than Egypt, and was 
recalled after the death of Hocker in 1782. In 
1830 the Church Missionary Society established a 
mission in Abyssinia, which was broken up in 1838. 
Later the London Society for Promoting Chris- 
tianity among the Jews sent missionaries to the 
Falashas. Suspicions of political designs ham- 
pered the missionaries; and in 1863 they were im- 
prisoned by the emperor. A British military 
expedition stormed Magdala, the capital, in 1868 

and freed the captives; but the mission was not 
again imdertaken. In 1866 the Swedish National 
Missionary Society began a mission in the border 
of the province of Tigr^, near Massowah. For 
fifteen years the mission made little progress, 
suffering through the hostility of the people and 
through attacks of disease. Then the earliest 
converts were baptized, the first a Galla slave, 
and next a Mohammedan. In 1904 the society 
had ten stations in Eritrea (see below) and had 
succeeded in sending, with the consent of the 
authorities, native preachers into the southern 
Galla country west of Gojam. The Bible has a 
limited circulation in Abyssinia in several versions. 
The old Ethiopic Church version has been revised, 
and printed by the British Bible Society. The 
whole Bible has been translated into Amharic 
(1824), and into the southern Galla dialect (1898). 
The New Testament has been rendered (1830) into 
the Tigr^ dialect of the Geez, and single Gospels 
into Falasha, into two Galla dialects, and into 
Bogos. See Abyssinia and the Abyssinian 

Algeria: A French possession in northern Africa 
extending southward from the Mediterranean a 
somewhat uncertain distance into the Desert of 
Sahara. Area about 184,474 sq. miles; population 
about 4,739,000. The Algerian Sahara has about 
198,000 sq. miles in addition, with a population 
estimated at 62,000. Although Algeria is regarded 
as a part of France, it still remains a Mohammedan 
country. The Mohammedan population is rather 
vaguely estimated at about 4,100,000, considerable 
uncertainty existing as to the number of inhabitants 
of the military district in the hinterland. The 
Christian population of Algeria is chiefly Roman 
Catholic (527,000). There are also about 25,000 
Greeks, Armenians, and Copts, and about 30,000 
Protestants. The number of Jews is 57,000. The 
language of the country outside of the European 
colonies is Arabic with several dialects of the Berber 
language known here as Kabyle (i.e. " tribesman "). 
Algeria forms an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic 
Church, and is the seat of the Algerian Missionary 
Society organized through the energetic efforts of 
Cardinal Lavigerie (q.v.), for missionary enter- 
prises on the edge of the Sahara and in Senegambia 
and other African districts as far south as Lake 
Tanganyika. Protestant missionary enterprises 
are represented in Algeria by the following: two 
French societies working among the Jews; Miss 
Trotter's educational mission; the Plymouth 
Brethren, who have ten missionaries in different 
cities in Algeria, but publish no statistics; a small 
Swedish mission; and the North Africa mission, 
which occupies four stations and carries on a num- 
ber of small schools for Mohammedans. None of 
these missions has a very large following among 
the natives. In fact missionaries are not allowed 
by the French authorities to engage in open evan- 
gelization among Mohammedans. The Arabic 
version of the Bible has a limited circulation in 
Algeria. A colloquial version of some of the Gos- 
pels has been prepared for the use of the common 
people who have difficulty in understanding the 
classical Arabic. Some parts of the Bible have 




been translated into the Kabyle dialect; and this 
version, too, has a steady though small circulation. 
A painful historical interest attaches to the town 
of Bugia in Algeria as the scene of the martyrdom 
in 1315 of Raymond Lully (q.v.), the missionary 
to the Mohammedans. 

An«rola: A colony of Portugal in West Africa, 
with a coast-line extending from the mouth of the 
Kongo River to the borders of German Southwest 
Africa. It extends into the interior to the Kongo 
Independent State. Area 484,000 sq. miles; 
population about 4,000,000, of whom 1,000,000 are 
rated as Roman Catholics. The Portuguese carried 
Roman Catholic missions to Angola in the last 
quarter of the fifteenth century, and a century later 
established a full ecclesiastical hierarchy in the old 
kingdom of Kongo, which lay on the left bank of 
the Kongo. Large numbers of the people of the 
old kingdom were converted to Christianity, even 
the king of the Kongo tribes being baptized in 1490. 
The residence of the king was at the place now 
known as San Salvador, in the northern part of 
Angola. This was the seat of the first Roman 
Catholic bishops. The residence of the bishop 
was afterward removed to St. Paul de Loanda on 
the coast, and the buildings at San Salvador fell 
into ruin as well as the human edifice of the Church 
in that region. During a hundred years or more 
the Church gave its blessing to the slave-trade, 
even the missionaries engaging in it and the bishop 
encouraging it. This confusion of missionary and 
mercantile enterprises perhaps accoimts for the 
little progress made by early Christianity in Angola. 
The present Roman Catholic missionary force is 
in connection with the Congregation of the Holy 
Ghost and Sacred Heart of Mary, the mission being 
connected with the ecclesiastical province of Lisbon 

Protectant missions in Angola were conmienced 
in 1879 by the Baptist Missionary Society of Eng- 
land, which occupied San Salvador and the northern 
part of the Loanda district as a part of its Kongo 
mission. The American Board opened a mission 
partly supported by Canadian Congregationalists, 
in the Benguela district in 1880. In 1882 the 
Livingstone Inland Mission (English) established a 
station, in connection with its Kongo mission, in 
Portuguese territory at Mukimvika on the left 
bank of the Kongo. This mission was turned over 
to the American Baptist Missionary Union two 
years later. In 1886 Bishop William Taylor (q.v.) 
opened seven missionary stations in the district 
of Loanda, which are now carried on by the Ameri- 
can Methodist Episcopal Church. The Plymouth 
Brethren also have a mission in Angola, and the 
Swiss Phil-African Mission under Heli Chatelain 
has a single station in Benguela, called Lincoln. 
All of these missions make use of education, indus- 
trial training, and medical aid to the suffering as 
instruments for evangelizing and elevating the 
people. Together these various Protestant mis- 
sions report (1904) 65 missionaries (men and 
women), 142 native workers, 50 schools of all classes, 
4,235 pupils, with about 4,000 reputed Christians. 
These pSt>testant missions have the commen- 
dation of the higher and the secret execration of the 

lower Portuguese officials; they are also hampered 
by the open hostility of the Portuguese traders 
and colonists; but they are encouraged by the 
growing desire of the natives to learn to read and 
to be men. The native tribes of the interior are 
numerous, and often separated by barriers of lan- 
guage, although chiefly of Bantu stock. Parts of 
the Bible have been tnmslated into the Kimbundu, 
and the Umbundu dialects, and printed respectively 
at the presses of the Methodist Episcopal and the 
American Board missions. 

Basutoland: A native protectorate in South 
Africa, governed by native chiefs under a British 
commissioner. It lies north of Cape Colony, with 
the Orange River Colony and Natal forming its 
other boundaries. Area 10,293 sq. nules; popu- 
lation (1904) 348,500, of whom 900 are whites. 
No white colonists are admitted to this territory. 
The Basutos belong to the Bantu race; and their 
language is closely allied to the Zulu-Kafir language. 
About 300,000 of the people are pagans; about 
40,000 are Protestant Christians; and about 5,000 
are Roman Catholics. The capital of the territory 
it Maseru, where the British commissioner resides. 
The Protestant missions in Basutoland are main- 
tained by the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society, 
which entered the coimtry under Rolland and 
Semu^ in 1833, and by the Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel, which began its work in 1875. 
These two societies have about twenty-eight prin- 
cipal stations and more than 200 outstations with 
schools, seminaries, printing establishments, etc. 
The Roman Catholic missions are erected into a 
prefecture apostolic. They have 6,000 converts. 
The missions are carried on by Oblates of Mary the 
Immaculate. Statistics are difficult to obtain, 
since the reports do not separate work in Basutoland 
from that of the Orange River Colony and Griqua- 
land. The Bible has been translated by Casalis 
and Mabille of the Paris mission into the language 
of the Basutos, generally spoken of as Suto or 
Lessuto (1837). There is also quite a Christian 
literature in the same language. 

Beohuanaland Protectorate: A British protector- 
ate in South Africa, lying between the Molopo River 
and the Zambesi, with German Southwest Africa 
on the west, and Transvaal and Rhodesia on the 
east. Area 275,000 sq. miles, much of it being 
desert; population (1904) 119,772, besides 1,000 
whites. It is governed by native chiefs, Khama, 
Sebele, and Bathoen, each ruling his own tribe. 
The British commissioner, who supervises all, 
lives at Mafeking. 

The country is traversed by the railway leading 
from Cape Town northward. Among the regula- 
tions is one which forbids the granting of licenses to 
sell liquor. Somewhat over 100,000 of the people 
are pagans, and about 15,000 are Christians. The 
Bible has been translated into the language of the 
chief tribes, which is called Chuan or Sechuan (1831) 
and single Gospels into Matabele and Mashona. 
Roman Catholic missions in this territory are under 
the charge of the Jesuits connected with the Zam- 
besi mission. Statistics are very difficult to ob- 
tain, but the Roman Catholic Church seems to have 
about 3,000 adherents. Protestant missions are 




carried on by the London liissionaiy Society, which 
extended its work to this territory in 1862, and by 
the Hermannsburg Missionary Society of Germany, 
which entered the territory in 1864. It is difficult 
to obtain the exact statistics of either of these 
societies, since the mission reports of both cover 
land b^ond the borders of the Bechuanaland 
Protectorate. It is estimated, however, that the 
number of their adherents is not far from 12,000. 

British Bast Afidoa Protectorate: A territory 
under British control in the eastern part of Africa, in- 
cluding coast lands ten miles wide nominally belong- 
ing to Zanzibar. The protectorate extends inland to 
the borders of Uganda. Area about 200,000 sq. miles. 
While the coast regions are on the whole not health- 
ful, there is a broad belt of highland 300 miles back 
from the coast which is most suitable for Eim)pean 
habitation; and it was upon this belt of highland 
that the British govenunent invited the Hebrew 
Zionists to establieii a colony. A railway has been 
constructed from Mombasa to Kisumu on the 
Victoria Nyansa. The population is estimated at 
4,000,000, of whom 500 are Europeans and about 
25,000 Hindus, Chinese, Goanese, and other Asiatics. 
Many Arabs are found in the coast districts, es- 
pecially in the northern part of the territory; and 
with them are the mixed race called by the Arabs 
Suahili (" coast people ")• Inland the larger part 
of the population is of the Bantu race; but there 
are some powerful tribes like the Masai and Nandi 
who are of Nilotic stock. In the northern part of 
the country Gallas and Somalis are found. The 
capital, Mombasa, has had a checkered history. 
It was founded by the Arabs, who were in possession 
when the Portuguese arrived in 1498. The Portu- 
guese continued in power with various vicissitudes 
until their colony was destroyed 200 years later 
by the Arabs. The actual British acquisition of 
this territory dates from 1886 to 1890. 

Roman Catholic missions were established on this 
coast by the Portuguese in the fifteenth century, 
the stations being treated as an outlying district 
of the ecclesiastical province of Goa on the west 
coast of India. The missions followed the fortunes 
of the Portuguese occupation. They were reestab- 
lished in 1860 at Zanzibar. Protestant missions 
began with the arrival of Johann Ludwig Krapf , of 
the Church Missionary Society, in 1844. They were 
followed by the United Methodist Free Church in 
1861, the Leipsic Missionary Society in 1886, the 
Neukirchen lifissionary Institute in 1887, the Scan- 
dinavian Alliance Mission of North America in 
1892, and the African Inland Mission, an American 
enterprise, in 1895. The Church of Scotland 
Foreign Missions Committee is preparing to enter 
the country also. All of these societies together 
report 172 missionaries, 92 stations and outstations 
with schools and hospitals, and about 11,000 ad- 
herents. The languages of the tribes of this terri- 
tory differ greatly from each other; and several 
versions of the Bible will have to be prepared for 
them. A beginning has been made in translating 
the Gospels into the Suahili, Nandi, Masai, Somali, 
and GaUa languages. 

The islands of Zanzibar and Perriba, lying off 
the coast of German East Africa, politically bdong 

to this territory. Area of the two islands 1,020 
sq. miles; population 200,000, including 10,000 
East Indians and about 200 Europeans. Zanzi- 
bar has played an important part in the history of 
East and Central Africa since the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, when the region was occupied 
by Arabs of Muscat. It became a great center of 
African trade, including the slave-trade. The 
domains of the Sultan of Zanzibar extended along 
the whole coast from Mozambique nearly to the 
Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. Since the beginning of 
the nineteenth century the influence of Great 
Britain has been gradually increasing, and so leading 
up to the present protectorate. Germany obtained 
the southern part of the possessions of Zanzibar on 
the mainland; Italy bought in 1905 its possession 
on the Somali coast; and a strip ten miles wide on 
the coast of British East Africa alone remains to 
the sultan of all his domains on the mainland, he 
himself being under the tutelage of a British official. 
Zanzibar is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, 
with missions conducted by the Congregation of 
the Holy Ghost, in both islands and on the main- 
land. The mission has about 3,500 adherents. 
There are ten stations. Schools and hospitals, 
conducted by Roman Catholic sisters, have been 
built in the city of Zanzibar. Protestant missions 
are represented by the Universities Mission which, 
after abandoning the Shir^ country in 1861, moved 
its headquarters to the city of Zanzibar. Here Bish- 
ops William George Tozer, Edward Steere, and 
Charles Alan Smythies prepared the way for ad- 
vance into the interior. The mission has a very fine 
cathedral and hospitals and schools in the isUmd of 
Zanzibar, besides a line of stations on the mainland 
in German East Africa, which extends to Lake 
Nyassa. What has already been said of versions 
of the Bible in British East Africa applies to Zan- 
zibar also. The city of Zanzibar itself is a Babel 
of all African nations and tribes. 

Cape Colony: A British colony occup3ring the 
southern part of the African continent; bounded 
on the north by German Southwest Africa, Bechu- 
analand, the Orange River Colony, Basutoland, 
and Natal. The colony was foimded by the Dutch 
in 1652, was taken by the British in 1796, was 
again given up to Holland in 1803, was reoccupied 
by the British in 1806, and, finally, was ceded to 
Great Britain in 1814. Area (1904), including 
native states and Walfisch Bay on the coast of 
German Southwest Africa, 276,995 sq. miles; 
population (1904) 2,405,552, of whom 580,380 are 
white, and 1,825,172 are colored. Of the colored 
population about 250,000 are a mixture of various 
races; 15,000 are Malays; and the rest are Hotten- 
tots, Kafirs, Fingoes, Bechuanas, etc. About 
1,118,000 of the population are Protestants; 23,000 
are Roman Catholics; 20,000 are Mohammedans; 
4,000 are Jews; while 1,226,000 are pagans. Ro- 
man Catholic missions were represented in the 
colony before the English occupation, by two 
priests residing in Cape Town. In 1806, when the 
British captured the colony, these priests were ex- 
pelled. Sixteen years later two priests were again 
stationed at Cape Town, without liberty, however, 
to go into the surrounding country. The existing 




miflsion in the colony did not commence until 1837, 
when Raymond Griffith arrived. He had been an 
Irish Dominican monk, was appointed vicar apos- 
tolic and consecrated bishop by the Archbishop of 
Dublin, Aug. 24, 1837. Roman Catholic missions 
now occupy about 100 stations and outstations 
in the colony. There are two vicariates and a 
prefecture apostolic. 

Protestant Christians do not seem to have worked 
among the native population during the Dutch 
period. In 1737 the Moravian George Schmidt 
was sent to Cape Town, at the request of certain 
ministers in Holland, to try to benefit the Hotten- 
tots and the Bushmen. His success only served 
to anger the colonists; and he was sent back to 
Europe in 1742. Fifty years later, in 1792, the 
Moravians were permitted to reopen their mission 
in Cape Colony and it has been continued and 
expanded until the present time, now extending 
to the east and west. From 1822 to 1867 it had 
charge of the leper settlement at Hemel en Aarde 
and Robben Island. About 20,000 native Chris- 
tians are connected with the Moravian mission. 
The London Missionary Society began a mission in 
Cape Colony in 1799 with Vanderkemp as its first 
missionary, and with such men as Moffat, Living- 
stone, Philip, and Mackenzie as his successors in a 
long and brilliant history which through many 
pains has added some 70,000 natives to the Chris- 
tian body within the colony. The society has 
moved its missions northward into Bechuanaland 
and Rhodesia, one single station being still retained 
at Hankey in Cape Colony as an educational center. 
The Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society of 
England commenced a mission in the colony in 
the year 1814 with Barnabas Shaw as its first 
missionary. This mission afterward spread over 
the whole of the colony, and extended into Natal, 
Transvaal, Bechuanaland, and Rhodesia. The 
care of the native congregations within the colony 
now rests with the South African Methodist Church, 
which has connected with it native Christians to 
the number of 113,600. The Glasgow Missionary 
Society in 1821 sent two missionaries into Kaffraria 
which has since been annexed to Cape Colony. 
The Scottish missions have been greatly extended 
and are now conducted imder the United Free 
Church of Scotland, having given to missionary 
history such names as Ross and James Stewart, 
the latter called by the British High Commissioner 
" the biggest human " in the region. They extend 
through KafTraria into Natal and have a native 
following of some 30,000. Their most prominent 
work is in the great educational establishments of 
Lovedale and Blythwood, which have tested and 
proved the ability of the Kafir-Zulu race to become 
civilized and useful. The Society for the Propa- 
gation of the Gospel began a mission in Cape Colony 
in 1821. This mission is now practically merged 
into the diocesan work of the Anglican Church 
which reports some 20,000 baptized native Chris- 
tians. The Paris Missionary Society felt its way 
into Basutoland from a station at Tulbagh (1830). 
The Berlin Missionary Society (1834) with 38 
stations and 10,000 adherents, and the Rhenish 
(1829) and the Hermannsburg (1854) missionary 

societies of Germany also have extensive and suc- 
cessful missions in Cape Colony. The African 
Methodist Episcopal Church, the National Baptist 
Convention, the Seventh-day Adventists, all from 
the United States, the Plymouth Brethren, and 
the Salvation Army are also engaged in missionary 
work at various points in this great colony. 

Among the achievements of missions must be 
reckoned the success of the Rev. Dr. John Philip of 
the London Missionary Society in securing attention 
on the part of the government to the infringement 
of ordinary rights of natives in the midst of a rush 
of colonists inclined to regard the natives as mere 
obstacles to be removed. Dr. Philip was calum- 
niated and persecuted; but the authorities finally 
understood that righteous treatment of the blacks 
is a necessity to the prosperity of the colony. The 
appearance in recent years of the " Ethiopian move- 
ment" (see above, I., 4, § 5) has aroused much sus- 
picion; nevertheless, the authorities aim to secure 
justice to all, and more and more rely on mis- 
sions to raise the moral standard of the negro 
community. See Cape Colony. 

Central Africa Protectorate (British): A territory 
lying west and south of Lake Nyassa, and popu- 
larly called Nyassaland. Its southern portion in- 
cludes the Shir^ highlands and extends southward 
along the Shir6 River as far as to the mouth of the 
Ruo. Area 40,980 sq. miles; population estimated 
at 990,000. Religion chiefly fetish-worship. About 
300,000 of the people are Mohammedans, and about 
18,000 are Christians. There is, however, no 
regular census, and these figures are mere estimates. 
Europeans living in the protectorate number about 
500; and there are about 200 East Indians con- 
nected with the military establishment. The lan- 
guage of the Angoni hiUmen is a dialect of Zulu; that 
of the lake people is in several dialects of which that 
known as Nyanja {** lake'')> is becoming prevalent; 
that of the eastern part of the Shir^ district is Yao. 

Lake Nyassa was discovered by Dr. Livingstone 
in 1859. The country then was a select hunting- 
ground of Arab slave-raiders from Zanzibar and of 
the Portuguese from the Zambesi. Until 1895, 
when the slave-raids were stopped by the British 
authorities, it is said that about 20,000 men, women, 
and children each year were seized and made to 
carry ivory to the coast. There they were sold 
along with the ivory which they had painfully 
borne for 500 miles. Into such an environment 
missionaries went at the instance of Livingstone, 
risking, and with disheartening frequency sacri- 
ficing, life because they believed that the people 
could be saved by teaching them the principles of 
manhood. The Arabs and the Yao savages were 
against them, the climate sapped their strength, 
and even wild beasts attacked them. Yet the 
missionaries won the day, with their Bible, their 
practical lessons in kindliness, and with their 
schools, their industrial training, and their high 
moral principles. The story of the founding of 
the protectorate is a story of heroism and of the 
power of the Bible which the devoted missionaries 
gave to a people whose very speech was illiterate. 

The Universities Mission, established at Living- 
stone's request, entered the Shir6 territory under 




Bishop Charles Frederick Mackenzie in 1861. The 
hostility of the slave-raiders and the rigors of the 
climate broke up the mission for a time, but it is now 
thoroughly established at Likoma Island in Lake 
Nyassa, and in some sixty viUages on the east shore 
of the lake and among the Yao tribesmen in the 
eastern part of the Shir6 district. The Livingstonia 
Mission of the Free Church of Scotland, entered 
the country in 1875 and established its head- 
quarters first at Cape Maclear at the south end of 
the lake, moving afterward to high land well toward 
the northern end of the lake, where the Living- 
stonia Institution now stands in a most salubrious 
spot overlooking the western shore. This mission 
has about 240 stations and outstations. The 
schools, printing-house, hospitals, and industrial 
training establishments of this mission are note- 
worthy for completeness and beneficent influence 
quite as much as for their conquest of the chaos 
which existed when the missionaries arrived on the 
field. The Church of Scotland founded a mission 
in the Shir^ highlands in 1876. The site was 
chosen because the missionaries were too ill and 
exhausted to go farther than the little group of 
native huts which seemed a haven of rest. Close 
by that miserable village has arisen about the 
mission the little town of Blantyre, whose post- 
office is now a recognized station of the Universal 
Postal Union. This mission has about forty stations 
and outstations and a fine group of schools and 
hospitals. The Zambesi Industrial Mission has 
taken up a large tract of land lying to the north- 
west of Blantyre and is teaching the natives to 
cultivate coffee and other valuable crops. It has 
about thirty schoob in connection with its various 
settlements. The South African (Dutch) Ministers' 
Union of Cape Town established a mission in 1901 
in the Angoni hill-coimtry west of Lake Nyassa. 
It has seven stations and is winning favor among the 
people. All of these missions have been greatly 
aided by a conmiercial enterprise known as the 
African Lakes Corporation, formed in 1878 by 
Scottish business men with the definite purpose of 
cooperating with the missions in civilizing the 
people of the protectorate. It has organized a 
regular steamboat service on the lake and the 
Shii^ River to the coast at Chinde, and is at last 
on a paying business basis. The formal establish- 
ment of the British protectorate over the lake 
district took place in 1891. It is one of the marks 
of progress in the civilization of the tribes of the 
region that in 1904 a large section of the fierce 
Angoni tribe volimtarily accepted British control 
and British regulations. The missions named 
above have about 190 missionaries (men and wom- 
en), 985 native preachers and teachers, 25,000 chil- 
dren in their schools, and about 16,000 professing 
Christians on their rolls. Several of the languages 
of the protectorate have been reduced to writing 
and the Bible is in process of publication in the 
Nyanja, several dialects of which, the Yao, the 
Konde, and the Tonga, are now being unified. 
The Angoni tribe, in the western part of the 
protectorate, being of Zulu race, are able to use the 
Zulu Bible, of which a considerable nimiber of 
copies are brought from South Africa every year. 

Nyassaland is carried on the lists of the Roman 
Catholic Church as a provicariate confided to the 
care of the Algerian Missionary Society. But 
beyond 10 missionaries, 2 schools, and 1,000 ad- 
herents little can be learned of the progress of the 

Dahomey: A French possession in West Africa 
having a coast-line of seventy miles between Togo- 
land and the British colony of Lagos, and extending 
northward to the French territory of Senegambia 
and the Niger. The French gained their first 
footing on this coast in 1851. Area 60,000 sq. 
miles; population estimated at about 1,000,000, 
commonly of unmixed negro stock. Capital, Por- 
to Novo on the coast. About sixty miles of rail- 
way have been built and 400 miles are projected. 
It is worth noting that of the whole value of the 
annual imports into Dahomey one-fourth represents 
the liquor traffic. A Roman Catholic mission has 
existed for some years under the direction of the 
Lyons Seminary for Missions in Africa. There 
are twenty-two missionaries and fifteen schools. 
The number of the Roman Catholics in the mission 
is estimated at about 5,000. The only Protestant 
mission is that of the Wesleyan Missionary So- 
ciety with a central station at Porto Novo. It has 
two missionaries who are of French nationality 
and it occupies ten outstations in the interior. 
The number of professing Protestant Christians is 
about 1,000. 

Effypt: A tributary province of the Tiu'kish em- 
pire lying on the Mediterranean Sea east of Tripoli, 
and touching Arabia on the east at the Isthmus 
of Suez. Area (excluding the Sudan) about 400,000 
sq. miles, of which the Nile Valley and Delta, 
comprising the most of the cultivated and inhab- 
ited land, cover only about 13,000 sq. miles. The 
country is ruled by a hereditary prince called the 
Khedive, under British tutelage and control. 
Population (1897) 9.734,405. Capital, Cairo. The 
Mohammedan population of Egypt numbers about 
8,979,000. Of the Christians 648,000 belong to 
the Oriental Churches, 608,000 being connected 
with the Coptic or Old Egyptian Church. There 
are also 56,000 Roman Catholics and 27,000 Protes- 
tants. About 25,000 of the population are Jews. 
The Roman Catholic establishments in Egypt date 
from the beginning of the seventeenth century, 
being at that time connected with the orders in 
charge of the holy places at Jerusalem. The 
present apostolic vicariate of Egypt was established 
in 1839. Roman Catholic missions in Egypt are 
imder the minor Franciscan friars and the Lyons 
Seminary for Missions. There are also I^azarists, 
Jesuits, and Sisters of the Order of the Good Shep- 
herd, Sisters of the Order of the Mother of God, 
Sisters of the Order of San Carlo Borromeo, and 
Sisters of Our Lady of Sion. There are about ninety 
schools, besides orphanages, hospitals, and other 
benevolent establishments. Protestant missions 
are carried on by the American United Presbyterian 
Mission (1854), the Church Missionary Society 
(in its present form 1882), the North Africa Mission, 
the Egypt General Mission, the Church of Scotland 
Committee on Missions to the Jews, the London 
Jews Society, the American Seventh-day Adventist 




Medical Missions, the (German) Sudan Pioneer 
Mission, and the (German) Deaconesses of Eaisers- 
werth (1857). The United Presbyterian Mission 
is the largest of these missions, occupying stations 
throughout the Nile Valley and in the Sudan. All 
together these missions report 166 stations and 
outstations, 154 missionaries, with 515 native 
workers, 171 schools, with over 14,000 pupils and 
students, ten hospitals and dispensaries, two pub- 
lishing houses, and about 26,000 adherents. Under 
British control religious liberty is more or less 
assured. As a consequence Mohammedans are 
also included in small numbers among the mission 
converts. The Church Missionary Society's mis- 
sion publishes a weekly paper in Arabic and English 
expressly for Mohammedans. The Bible in Arabic, 
translated and printed at the expense of the 
American Bible Society in Beirut, is circulated 
throughout Egpyt, Arabic being the language of 
the people. See Egypt. 

Brltrea: An Italian possession in Africa extending 
670 miles along the coast of the Red Sea and inland 
to Abyssinia and the Egyptian Sudan. Area about 
85,500 sq. miles; population (estimated) 450,000, 
of whom about 3,000 are Europeans. The capital 
is Asmara. The native population of Eritrea is 
chiefly nomadic. In religion more than 100,000 
may be reckoned Mohammedans; 17,000, Roman 
Catholic; 12,000, of the Eastern Churches; 1,000, 
Protestants; and 500, Jews. The remainder of 
the population is pagan, belonging to different 
races. Roman Catholic missionaries have made 
this region a basis of operations in Abyssinia for 
nearly three centuries, having been expelled from 
Abyssinia proper a number of times. Their cen- 
tral establishments are now at Massowah (Massaua) 
and Keran, where they have a hospital, schools, 
and two or three orphanages. Protestant missions 
in Eritrea also directed toward the Abyssinian 
population are carried on by the Swedish National 
Society. They have 10 stations on the borders of 
Tigr6 and in the province formerly known as Bogos 
with about 15 schools, a hospital, a dispensary, 
and a small but growing band of evangelical Chris- 
tians. The Swedish missions have done good 
service in securing a translation of the Bible into 
the Galla language (1898), and throu^ trained 
native workers have succeeded in establishing 
themselves among the Galla people in the south 
of Abyssinia. 

French Ghiinea: A territory forming a part of the 
newly organized administrative region known as 
French West Africa. It lies on the coast between 
Portuguese Guinea and the British colony of Sierra 
Leone, extending inland some 400 miles to the 
district of Senegambia and the Niger. Area about 
95,000 sq. miles; population estimated at 2,200,000. 
About 1,000,0CK) are Mohammedans; more than 
1,000,000 are pagans; 1,000 are Roman Catholics, 
and 500 are Protestants. The capital is Konakry; 
from which place a railway is now under construc- 
tion to the Niger River. French colonization in 
this district began as long ago as 1685, but its 
development has only been of recent date (1843). 
The government is undertaking in this, as in ^ 
other parts of French West Africa, to introduce 

a uniform system of education. This, if carried 
out, wiU prove of inestimable advantage to the pop- 
ulation. The Roman Catholic mission in French 
Guinea is carried on by the Lyons Congrega- 
tions of the Holy Ghost and of the Lnmacu- 
late Heart of Mary. There are about 10 mis- 
sionaries with 12 schoob. A Protestant missionary 
enterprise, following one commenced in 1804 by 
the Chureh Missionary Society, is carried on in 
the Rio Pongas region by West Indian Christians 
aided by the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel. The missionaries are colored men from 
the West Indies specially chosen for this work, 
which has been undertaken with the thought of 
making amends to Africa for the wrongs inflicted 
upon its people by England and her colonies. The 
New Testament has been translated into the Susu 
language (1858). 

French Xon«ro: A French colonial possession 
which occupies the west coast of Africa between 
the Spanish possessions of the Rio Muni on the 
borders of the Kongo Independent State and Kam- 
erun, and which extends inland to Lake Chad. 
The French occupation began in 1841 in a small 
colony on the Gabun River. Its extension to the 
Kongo River followed the explorations of De 
Brazza, between 1875 and 1880. Area about 450,- 
000 sq. miles; population estimated at from 8,000,- 
000 upward. Capital, Libreville on the Gabun. 
Adjoining this territory in the Lake Chad region, 
Bagirmi, comprising some 20,000 sq. miles, and 
Wadai, with 170,000 sq. miles, in 1903 submitted 
to the French control. These two territories are 
strongly Mohammedan. French Kongo proper 
has about 3,500,000 Mohanmiedans in its northern 
sections, the remainder of the people being pagans 
of the usual African type. In race the people of 
the coast are not of the Bantu stock found in the 

Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the 
Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary and the 
Algerian missionary order. The ecclesiastical cen- 
ter is Santa Maria on the Gabun, where is the vicari- 
ate, erected in 1842 under the name, at first, of 
" the apostolic vicariate of both Guineas." In the 
Roman Catholic mission there are about fifty priests 
and about thirty schools with about 5,000 adherents. 
Protestant missions were established in 1842 by 
missionaries of the American Board. The mission 
was afterward transferred to the American Presby- 
terian Board (North), and later for political reasons 
the interior stations were passed over to the French 
missionaries of the Paris Evangelical Missionary 
Society. Together these two missions have 23 
missionaries and about 1,200 adherents. The 
languages having been reduced to writing by mis- 
sionaries, the Bible has been translated into Mpon- 
gwe (1850-74) and Benga (1858-88), and various 
parts have been translated into Dikele, Fang (also 
called by the French Pahouin), Bulu, and Galwa. 

Gambia: A British colony and protectorate lying 
on both sides of the Gambia River, extending some 
250 miles inland from its mouth and closely hemmed 
in by the French West African territory. The 
colony was commenced in 1662. Area, estimated 
(1903), 3,061 sq. miles; population, estimated 




(1903), 163,781; capital, Bathurst on the Island 
of Saint Mary. There are about 90,000 Moham- 
medans in the colony, 56,000 pagans, 4,000 Roman 
Catholics, and 2,000 Protestant Christians. All 
of these figures, however, are estimates, excepting 
as to the colony proper. The Roman Catholic 
mission is under the care of the Lyons Seminary 
for Bfissions in Africa, and carries on two or three 
schools. The Protestant miasion is carried on by 
the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society which 
entered the colony in 1821. It has 7 outstations, 
4 schools, and about 2,000 adherents in the colony. 
The Society of Friends established a mission in 
this colony in 1822, and schools were carried on by 
Hannah Kilham until her death in 1832, when the 
mission was given up. The history of the Protes- 
tant missions here includes |a very considerable 
loss of life among the missionaries, due to the un- 
healthfulness of the country. The Arabic Bible 
is used to a limited extent, and parts of the Bible 
have been translated also into the Wolof and Ifan- 
dingo languages. 

German East Africa: A German colony .and 
sphere of influence lying on the east coast of Africa, 
between British East Africa and Portuguese East 
Africa, and extending inland to Lakes Nyassa and 
Tanganyika. Area about 384,000 sq. miles; 
population (estimated) 7,000,000, including 1,437 
Europeans. There are about 15,000 Arabs, In- 
dians, Chinese, and other Asiatics in this territory. 
A railway has been built from Tanga on the coast 
about eighty miles inland to Korogwe; it is to be 
carried ultimately to Lake Tanganyika. In relig- 
ion the people of the country are: pagans, about 
6,500,000; Mohammedans, for the most part near 
the coast, 300,000; Hindus, Buddhists, etc., 12,000; 
Roman Catholics, 20,000; Protestants, 7,d00. 
Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the 
Congregation of the Holy Ghost, the Trappists, 
the Benedictines, and the Algerian Missionary 
Society. They have extensive establishments about 
the northern and eastern shores of Lake Tanganyika, 
and report 58 stations, 195 missionaries, 77 nims, 
and 295 schools with 17,823 scholars. It is possible 
that a part of the figures here given refer to mis- 
sions l3ring beyond the border of the Kongo Inde- 
pendent State. Ecclesiastical jurisdiction centers 
at Zanzibar. The Protestant missions are carried 
on by the Church Missionary Society, the Univer- 
sities Mission, the German East Africa Mission, 
the Leipdc Missionary Society, the Moravian 
Church, and the Berlin Missionary Society. The 
two last-named societies are active at the north 
end of Lake Nyassa; and the Moravians are ex- 
tending stations thence northward. The Univer- 
sities Mission has stations along the Rovuma River 
and on the eastern shore of Lake Nyassa. The 
Beiiin society has a station at Dar-al-Salam on 
the Indian Ocean; and the other German societies 
have their stations mostly along the northern 
boundary and in the foothUls of Mounts Kilima- 
Njaro and Mweru. All these societies together 
report 60 central stations, 123 missionaries, and 
230 schools with about 11,000 scholars. The 
Leipdc society has a printing-press, and publishes 
a newspaper at one of the Kilima-Njaro stations. 

The Suahili version of the Bible is used along the 
coast (completed in 1892). The New Testament 
has been translated into Yao (1880) and Gogo 
(1887). Some of the Gospels have been translated 
into Bondei, Chagga, Kaguru, Nyamwezi, Sagalla, 
Shambale, and Sukuma, and the translation is 
progressing in several of these as the people acquire 
a taste for reading. 

Oerman Southwest Africa: A German colony and 
protectorate on the west coast of Africa, lying south 
of Angola and bounded on the east and south by 
Cape Colony and the Bechuanaland protectorate. 
Area 322,450 sq. miles; population about 200,000, 
composed of Namaquas (Hottentots) and Damaras, 
with Hereros and Ovambos in the north, who are 
of Bantu stock. The European population num- 
bers 4,682. Walfisch Bay on this coast is a British 
possession belonging to Cape Colony. The seat of 
administration is Windhodc. The chief seaport is 
Swakopmund, whence a railway of 236 miles 
leads to Windhoek. The Hereros in the north 
and the Namaquas in the south have been 
at war against the German authorities since 1904, 
and the colony has suffered much in consequence. 
Roman Catholic missions are carried on by the 
Oblates of HOnfeld, and the Oblates of St. Francis 
of Sales (Vieima). The latter have 2 missionaries 
and 4 nuns. The other missions have been dis- 
tiu-bed by the war, and statistics are not given. 
Protestant missions are carried on by the Rhenish 
Blissionary Society of Germany, and the Finland 
Missionary Society. Together these societies had 
about 16,000 adherents before the war; but recent 
statistics are lacking, a number of the stations 
having been destroyed. The Bible hafi been trans- 
lated into Namaqua (1881), and the New Testa- 
ment into Herero (1877). Some Gospels have 
been completed in Kuanyama and Ndonga 

Oold Coast Colony: A British crown colony and 
territory stretching for 350 miles along the Gulf 
of Guinea, in West Africa, between the Ivory Coast 
and Togoland. Area 119,260 sq. miles; population 
1,500,000. About 32,000 of the people are Moham- 
medans; 35,000, Protestants; 6,000, Roman Catho- 
lics; and the rest are pagans of the animist type 
with deep veneration for fetishes. The Roman 
Catholic nussions are connected with the Lyons 
Seminary for African Missions, and have 16 mis- 
sionaries with 13 schools. Protestant missions 
were commenced in 1752 by the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel. As a result of this mis- 
sion an African, Philip Quaque, was taken to 
England, educated, ordained, and returning to 
the Gold Coast, preached there for some fifty years. 
The missions now existing are those of the Basel 
Missionary Society, the Wesleyan Methodist Mis- 
sionary Society (England), the National Baptist 
Convention (U. S. A.), and, since 1905, the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel. These missions 
together report 875 places of regular worship, 82 mis- 
sionaries (men and women), 1,088 native workers, 
235 schools with 11,557 scholars, and 34,835 Chris- 
tian adherents. The missions make steady prog- 
ress; but, at the same time, they point out that 
Mo hf>.Tnm e dftn)*"Ti is also making progress among 




the pagans. Kumassi, the former capital of Ashan- 
tiland, is now connected with the coast by a railway 
168 miles long; and light steamers are used on the 
Volta River. An artificial harbor is being con- 
structed at Sekondi, the coast terminal of the rail- 
way. The Bible has been translated into Akra 
(1844-65) and Otshi (1870). The New Testament 
has been translated into Fanti (1884) and Ew6 
(1872). Progress has been made toward com- 
pleting the Bible in both of these dialects. 

Ivory Coast: A French territory included in the 
great administrative region known as French West 
Africa. It has its coast-line between Liberia and 
the British Gold Coast Clolony, and extends inland 
to the territory of Senegambia and the Niger. The 
French first obtained possessions on this coast in 
1843. Area 200,000 sq. miles; population about 
3,000,000, of whom 300 are Europeans. In religion 
about 200,000 are Mohammedans; about 1,000, 
Roman Catholics; and the rest, pagans. The 
capital is Bingerville. A railway is being con- 
structed inland from Bassam, of which 110 miles 
are nearly finished. The only missions in the 
ooimtry are carried on by the Lyons Seminary for 
Missions in Africa (Roman Catholic). There are 
said to be 16 priests, who have 7 schools and some 

Kamerun: A protectorate and colonial possession 
of Germany, occupying the west coast of Africa 
between French Kongo and Nigeria. Inland it 
extends in a northeasterly direction to Lake Chad. 
Area about 191,000 sq. miles; population (esti- 
mated) 3,500,000, of whom (in 1904) 710 were 
whites. The native population is largely of the 
Bantu race, with tribes of Sudan negroes inland. 
Capital, Buea. The German annexation took 
place in 1884. Roman Catholic missions have been 
active in this region since 1889, and are in charge 
of the Pallotin Missionary Society of Limburg. 
They report 7 stations, 34 missionaries, 20 nuns, 
2,418 pupils in their schools, and 3,780 Roman 
(jatholic Christians. Protestant missions were 
commenced by Alfred Saker of the Baptist Mission- 
ary Society (England) in 1844, he having been 
expelled from Fernando Po by the Spanish govern- 
ment. With the German colonization of Kamerun 
(1880-82) difficulties arose, and the Baptist mission 
was turned over to the Basel Missionary Society, T. 
J. Comber and G . Grenf ell of the Baptist mission going 
south to foimd a mission on the Kongo. A con- 
siderable body of the native Baptists declined to 
accept the transfer, and the German Baptists of 
Berlin sent missionaries to care for them. The 
German Baptist mission reports 14 missionaries, 
1,400 pupils, and 2,170 professed Christians. The 
Basel Society's mission, established in 1885, has 
extended inland, and reports (1905) 64 missionaries, 
163 native workers, 6,452 pupils, and 6,422 pro- 
fessed Christians. The eagerness of the natives 
to learn to read is remarkable. The American 
Presbyterians (North) opened a mission in the 
southern part of the country in 1885-93, which 
has 30 missionaries, 27 stations and outstations, 
15 schoob, a hospital, and about 3,000 professing 
Christians. The entire Bible was translated into 
Oualla by the Baptists in 1868, and a version of 

the New Testament in the same language, which 
others than Baptists can use, was issued in 1902. 
The Benga Bible, used in the Rio Muni colony, is 
circulated to some extent in the south of Kamerun, 
and parts of the Bible have been translated into 
Isuba and Bala. 

Xonsro Independent State: A region occupying in 
general the basin of the Kongo River and its tribu- 
taries in West Central Africa. It touches the 
seacoast by a narrow neck that extends along the 
right bank of the river to its mouth. The left 
bank is held by Portugal. By international agree- 
ment in 1885 the state was placed under the sover- 
eignty of King Leopold II. of Belgium. H. M. 
Stanley, who first explored the region, was its 
first administrator. International resolutions de- 
clare the navigation of the Kongo and its branches 
free to all, and proclaim the suppression of the 
slave-trade and the protection of the native inhab- 
itants. The region has highlands well adapted to 
the residence of Europeans, and its natmtd wealth, 
although but slightly developed, is probably very 
great. The state appears to be administered 
upon the ancient coloxual theory of deriving reve- 
nue from it at all hazards. Great tracts of its 
territory have been passed over to trading com- 
panies, the first condition of whose concessions is an 
obligation to pay the king of Belgium from 40 to 
45 per cent, of their gains. The result has been 
abuses. The trading companies are charged with 
forcing the natives to work, treating them in fact 
as slaves, flogging and killing or mutilating them 
when they fail to obey orders. Missionaries made 
facts of this nature known, and King Leopold 
appointed a commission to examine the situation, 
with the result that many terrible outrages were 
found to be habitually committed by the armed 
guards organized by the trading companies. The 
coDunission, while inclined to justify severe meas- 
ures, as necessary to lead the natives to work, 
recommended that the trading companies be for- 
bidden to use armed guards or to require forced 
labor from the people of the districts which they 
administer. There is some hope of an amelioration 
of conditions in consequence. The capital is 
Boma, at the mouth of the Kongo River. 

The area of the state is estimated at about 900,- 
(XX) sq. miles; population estimated at from 15,- 
000,000 to 30,000,000. The white people number 
2,483. For the most part the people of the Kongo 
are of the Bantu race. Every tribe has its own 
dialect, so that the nimiber of dialects is consid- 
erable. Roman Catholic missions were established 
in the Kongo region in the latter part of the fifteenth 
century. It should be remembered, however, that 
these early missions were almost entirely in what 
is now still Portuguese territory. Nothing seems 
to have been undertaken at that time in the interior 
of what is now Kongo State. At the present time 
the Roman Catholic missions extend along the river 
and in the Ubangi district. They have founded 
a number of stations also in the Tanganyika region. 
Schools, industrial work, and agricultural opera- 
tions are carried on with considerable success. 
Some of the natives have been trained by the mis- 
sionaries in Europe as physicians, and render good 




service as such. Statistics of the missions are not 
deariy given, but seem to show about 20,000 con- 
verts. Protestant missions in this region quickly 
followed the explorations of H. M. Stanley. The 
Livingstone Inland Mission from England com- 
menced work on the lower Kongo in 1878, but 
their stations were shortly transferred to the 
American Baptist Missionary Union. The Baptist 
Missionary Society of England established a mis- 
sion on the upper river in 1879 having for its pio- 
neers Grenfell, Comber, and Bentley; the Plymouth 
Brethren, led by F. S. Arnot, in the Garenganze region 
in 1881; the Regions Beyond Missionary Union, 
in the Balolo district of the upper Kongo in 1889; 
the American Presbyterians (South), led by S. N. 
Lapsley, on the Kassai River in 1891 ; the Swedish 
Missionary Society on the right bank of the lower 
Kongo in 1882. These missionary societies have 
about 200 missionaries and nearly 1,000 native 
workers, with schools, hospitals, industrial estab- 
lishments, including printing-houses, and about 
15,000 adherents. Several missionary steamers 
ply on the great river. Educational work is rapidly 
expanding, the natives showing the greatest eager- 
ness to learn to read. The Belgian commission 
of inquiry in its report (1905) paid a high tribute 
to the value of these missions in singling out the 
field of the Baptist Missionary Society as a district 
where the natives have been taught to work 
and are noticeably industrious. Several of the 
dialects of the region have been reduced to writing 
by the missionaries. The whole Bible has been 
printed in Fioti (completed 1904); the New Testa- 
ment, in Kongo (1893); and parts of the New Testa- 
ment, in the Teke, Laba, Bopoto, Bolegin, Bangi, 
Nsembe, and Balolo. These latter translations 
are more or less tentative, and will hardly be en- 
larged more rapidly than the increase of readers 
may demand. In the mean time the Fioti Bible 
can be imderstood by people usin^ other dialects 
in ordinary speech. 

LaflTos: A British colony and protectorate in 
Western Africa lying on the coast between Dahomey 
and Southern Nigeria, and extending inland to the 
French territories of the middle Niger. Area, 
including Yorubaland and the protectorate, 25,- 
450 sq. miles; population (estimated) 1,500,000. 
The great mass of the population are pagan fetish- 
worshipers. There are some 7,000 Mohammedans, 
15,000 Roman Catholics, and 32,000 Protestants. 
A railway has been built from Lagos to Ibadan in 
the Yoruba country, with a branch to Abeokuta. 
The Yoruba chiefs are allowed to govern their 
land imder British supervision. 

Roman Catholic missions are under the Lyons 
Seminary for African Missions. They report 27 
priests, 24 schools, and several charitable institu- 
tions. The Protestant missions are carried on by 
the Church Blissionary Society and a native pastor- 
ate in cooperation with it; by the Wesleyan Metho- 
dist Bilissionary Society; by the Southern Baptist 
Convention (1856); and by the National Baptist Con- 
vention (U. S. A.). The whole Protestant mis- 
sionary body has 189 stations and outstations, 55 
missionaries (men and women), 317 native workers, 
110 schools with 7,000 scholars, and 3 hospitals 

and dispensaries. The government maintains 
Mohammedan and pagan schools, but the pupils 
availing themselves of this privilege of non-Chris- 
tian education in 1902 were only 192. Abeokuta 
was evangelized in the first instance about 1842 
by freed slaves who had been taught Christianity 
in Sierra Leone, 1,000 miles to the westward, and 
who led the people of the city to invite the Church 
Missionary Society to send missionaries there. 
This was done in 1846. A remarkable man con- 
nected with this mission in its early days was 
Samuel Crowther (q. v.) , rescued as a boy from a Por- 
tuguese slaver, educated, and sent as a preacher to 
Abeokuta where he found his relatives. He after- 
ward was consecrated bishop of the Niger in Canter- 
bury Cathedral, and rendered admirable service 
to the mission during a long life. The assistant 
bishop of Yorubaland, now, is a full-blooded African. 
In 1903 the paramount chief of Abeokuta visited 
London to do homage to the king, and at the same 
time called at the offices of the Church Missionary 
Society and the Bible Society to express thanks 
for great services rendered to his people. The 
Bible has been translated into Yoruban (1850), 
and the New Testament into Hausa (1857). One 
of the Gospels has been tentatively translated into 

Liberia: An independent republic in Western 
Africa which has grown out of an effort to colonize 
freed slaves from America. The first settlement 
was made in 1822. The repubUcan government 
was organized in 1847. The coast of the republic 
extends from Sierra Leone to the Ivory Coast 
Colony. The territory extends about 200 miles 
inland, and is henuned in on the east by French 
territory. Only a region extending about 25 or 
30 miles inland from the coast, however, is effect- 
ively administered by the republic. Area about 
45,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 2,000,000, 
about 20,000 of whom are of American origin. 
The language of the republic is English. Several 
native dialects are found among the tribes of the 
interior. It is estimated that there are about 
850,000 Mohammedans and somewhat over 1,000,- 
000 pagans in Liberia, with about 500 Roman 
CathoUcs and 25,000 Protestant Christians. Ro- 
man Catholic missions are dependent upon their 
headquarters at Free Town in Sierra Leone. 
The missionaries belong to the Congregation of the 
Holy Ghost and Sacred Heart of Mary. Since 
1903 there has been a separate missionary juris- 
diction confided to the Marist Fathers. Protes- 
tant missions in Liberia were conunenced by the 
American Baptist Convention through the Rev. 
Lott Carey, who went to Monrovia in 1822. After 
disease had carried off many victims among the 
missionaries the mission was given up. The 
Presbyterian Church (North) established a mission 
in Liberia in 1833, which was also given up on ac- 
count of the ravages of disease among the mis- 
sionaries. The American Methodist Church estab- 
lished a mission at Monrovia in 1833, of which the 
Rev. Melville B. Cox was the pioneer. This 
mission is still carried on with a great measure d 
success. The American Protestant Episcopal 
Church established a mission at Cape Palmas in 




1834, with the Rev. John (afterward Bishop) Payne 
as one of the first missionaries. This mission is 
still carried on with considerable success, about 
twenty of the mission clergy being from the Grebo 
tribe of natives. The American Board established 
a mission at Cape Palmas in 1834, the Rev. J. L. 
Wilson being one of the earliest missionaries. On 
account of the unhealthfulness of the region the 
missionaries and a number of their adherents 
removed in 1842 to the Gabun district in what is 
now the French Kongo colony, transferring their 
buildings and other inunovables in Liberia to the 
Protestant Episcopal Mission. The National Bap- 
tist Convention established a mission in Liberia in 
1853, and the Evangelical Lutheran General Synod 
of North America also ebtabUshed a mission in 
1860 which is doing good industrial work. These 
societies together report 92 missionaries and 182 
native workers operating at 168 stations, with 
schools, hospitals, printing-presses, and industrial 
institutions. Parts of the New Testament have 
been translated into Grebo (1838). See Liberia. 

Moroooo: An independent Mohammedan empire 
in Northwest Africa having a coast-line on the 
Mediterranean and on the Atlantic Ocean. The 
coimtry is gradually falling under the direction of 
France. Area 219,000 sq. miles (the southern 
frontier, however, is not definitely fixed); popu- 
lation (estimated) 5,000,000, being composed of 
Berbers, Tuaregs, and .^bs. In name, at least, 
the greater part of the population is reckoned as 
Mohammedan. There are about 150,000 Jews 
and about 6,000 Christians of the Roman Catholic 
and Eastern churches, with a few Protestants. 
An apostolic prefecture of the Roman Catholics 
was established at Tangier in 1859, and imder it 
are about forty priests in different cities of Morocco. 
Protestant missions are carried on by the North 
Africa Mission (1881), the Gospel Mission Union 
(U. S. A., 1894), and the Southern Morocco Mis- 
sion (1888); besides some workers among the 
Jews in Tangier. There is little religious lib- 
erty in Morocco, and there seems to be but little 
growth of the Protestant community. 

Natal : A British colony in South Africa lying on 
the eastern coast between Cape Colony and Portu- 
guese East Africa. It ia bounded inland by the 
Transvaal, the Orange River Colony, and Basuto- 
iand. Area 35,306 sq. miles; population (1903) 
1,039,787. Of these, 877,388 are Zulu-Kafirs; 
97,857, Asiatics; and 82,542, Europeans. About 
850,000 of the population are pagans, 30,000 are 
Hindus, 14,000 are Mohammedans, 15,000 are 
Buddhists or Confucians, 22,000 are Roman Catho- 
lics, and 73,000 are Protestants. The coimtry 
takes its name from the whim of Vasco da Gama, 
the Portuguese navigator, who happened to arrive 
at the coast on Christmas day. Roman Catholic 
missions are under the care of the Oblates of Mary 
the Immaculate; they report 50 missionaries 
and 7 native clergy, with 55 schools and several 
orphanages and hospitals. Their ecclesiastical 
center is at Pietermaritzburg, the seat of a vicar 
apostolic. The local Anglican, Wesleyan, and 
Ehitch Reformed congregations all carry on mis- 
sionary work; and, besides these, the following 

eleven missionary societies are at work in Natal: 
the American Board (1835), whose early misaion- 
aries were, Daniel Lindley, Robert Adanaa, Aldin 
and Lewis Grout, and Josiah T^der; the United 
Free Church of Scotland; the Society for the 
Propagation of the Gospel, both of which en- 
ter^ Natal as an extension of work in Kaffraria; 
the Berlin Missionary Society; the Hermannsburg 
Missionary Society; the Norwegian Missionary So- 
ciety; the Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant; 
the Free Methodists of North America; the South 
Africa General Mission; the National Baptist 
Convention; and the Plymouth Brethren. All 
these societies together report 192 stations and 
outstations, 106 missionaries (men and women), 
612 native workers, 161 schools with 7,016 pupils, 
2 hospitals, and one printing-house. Many of the 
native churches formerly connected with the older 
missions are now independent and self-supporting, 
and do not appear on the mission statistics because 
reckoned as churches of the country. Many of the 
tribal chiefs, who are pagans and polygamists of 
a rank order, but who nevertheless treat mission- 
aries as benefactors, oppose the Christian Church 
with all their might as tending to make their " sub- 
jects " think for themselves and question the 
commands of hereditary despots. The British 
authorities are inclined to hamper the freedom of 
the missions on account of their suspicion of " Ethi- 
opiamsm." At present a native preacher may not 
officiate in a church unless under the immediate 
supervision of a responsible white clergyman. 

The Bible has been translated into Zulu (1851- 
83). This is one of the most important of the 
African versions published by the American Bible 
Society. It has a range of circulation extending 
to Lake Nyassa and into Bechuanaland. 

Nigeria: A British territory and sphere of influ- 
ence in West Africa lying on the coast between 
Lagos and Kamerun, and extending inland between 
the German and the French possessions as far as 
Lake C^ad. It is divided into Northern and 
Southern Nigeria. Lagos with its protectorate 
is naturally a part of the region, but at present is 
separately administered. Area: Northern Nigeria, 
315,000 sq. miles; Southern Nigeria, 49,700 sq. 
miles; population (estimated for the whole great 
region) 23,000,000. It is estimated that the 
Mohammedan part of the population nimiberB 
about 10,000,000, and the pagan part about 13,- 
000,000. This is mere guesswork, since the country 
is not even explored. In all the coast regions the 
pagans, of the most degraded class of fetish-wor- 
shipers, predominate. In Northern Nigeria the 
Mohammedan element is the ruling one (under 
British restraint), but there are large sections 
occupied by pagan tribes. Christians are for the 
most part in Southern Nigeria, and their nimiberB 
are given as: Roman Catholics, 18,000; Protes- 
tants, 6,000. The seat of government in Northern 
Nigeria is Zungeru on the Kaduna River; that of 
Southern Nigeria is Old Calabar. Steamers ply 
on the Niger about 400 miles from its mouth. 
A railway is being constructed in Northern Nigeria 
from Zungeru toward Kano, a great trading center 
south of Lake Chad. 




Roman Catholic missionB are carried on by the 
Congregation of the Holy Ghoet and the Sacred 
Heart of liary. Ten missionaries are reported 
with 6 schools. Protestant missions are those of 
the United Free Church of Scotland in the Calabar 
region in Southern Nigeria (1846) and of the Church 
Missionary Society in the Niger delta (1857) and 
in Northern Nigeria (1902, after a failiu^ in 1890), 
the Qua Ibo Mission on the Qua River (1887), 
and the African Evangelistic Mission (1901) and 
the Sudan United Mission (1903) in Northern 
Nigeria. The missions in Northern Nigeria are 
stiU in the eaily stage, with little more to show 
than the names of Wilmot Brooke, J. A. Robinson, 
and W. R. S. Miller who sacrificed life for that 
land. In Southern Nigeria there are 82 mission- 
aries (men and women), and 157 schools with 2,482 
scholars. The Anglican bishop of this region is 
assisted by a bishop who is a full-blooded negro. 
The Bible has been translated into Efik (1862); 
and tentative translations of single Gospels have 
been made into Akunakuna, into three or four 
dialects of Ibo, into Idso, and into Umon. These 
are all dialects of Southern Nigeria. Gospels have 
been translated into the Igbira and Nup^ lan- 
guages besides the Hausa language, all in Northern 

Oranffe Biver Colony: A British possession in 
South Africa. It has the Transvaal on the north. 
Natal and Basutoland on the east, and Cape Colony 
on the west and south. During forty-six years it 
was the Orange Free State and was annexed to the 
British crown in May, 1900, in consequence of its 
participation in the Boer attack on the adjacent 
British colonies. Area 50,100 sq. miles; popidation 
(1904) 385,045, of whom 143,419 are whites and 
241,626 are colored. Capital, Bloemfontein. About 
220,000 of the inhabitants are pagans. The pre- 
dominating Christian body is the Dutch Reformed 
Church. The whole number of Protestants is 
about 100,000; of Roman Catholics, 5,000. The 
ooimtry is an excellent agricultural region. Dia- 
monds and other precious stones are found in some 
sections; and the population tends to increase and 
to become more and more varied in its constituent 
elements. Roman Catholic missions are in charge 
of the Oblates of Blary the Immaculate. The 
statistics of their work in the colony are not sep- 
arately given, but there seem to be 14 missionary 
priests and 2 native priests, with 13 schools. Prot- 
estant missionary activities are largely in the hands 
of the local churches. The Dutch Reformed Church 
has here shown, much more than elsewhere used 
to be the case, a purpose to work for the evan- 
gelisation of the native pagans. The Wesleyan 
Church and the Andean Church both have mis- 
sions locally supported; but the work for whites 
and blacks is not separately reported. Besides 
this local church work, in beginning which the Paris 
Missionary Society had a part (1831), the Berlin 
Missionary Society (1834) is at work in the colony 
with 33 stations and outstations, 18 missionaries, 
148 native workers, 27 schools, and about 8,000 
professed Christians connected with its stations. 
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
(1863) has 4 stations among the natives, but its 

statistics are not separately given. The Zulu 
Bible, the Chuana version, and the Lesuto version 
used in Basutoland supply the needs of the people 
in this colony. 

Portuguese East AiHca: One of the oldest Portu- 
guese possessions in Africa, situated on the east 
coast between German Elast Africa and Natal. 
It extends inland to British Central Africa, and on 
both banks of the Zambesi River to Rhodesia. 
It is composed of the districts of Mozambique, 
Zambesia, and Lourengo Marques. Area 293,400 
sq. miles; population (estimated) 3,120,000. Much 
of the territory is in the hands of trading companies, 
which administer the laws in their respective dis- 
tricts. Delagoa Bay is connected by railway 
with Pretoria in the Transvaal, and another rail- 
way runs from Beira in Zambesia to Buluwayo in 
Rhodesia. The Portuguese began their colonies 
on this coast in 1505, and the Roman Catholic 
Church has had strong missions in the region ever 
since. The ecclesiastical organization was effected 
in 1612. At present missions in this territory are 
in the hands of the Society of Jesus, with stations 
extending along the Zambezi River into the interior. 
About 30 missionaries are reported. Protestant 
missions are carried on by the American Methodist 
Episcopal Church at Inhambane, by the Wesleyan 
Methodists of England in the Delagoa Bay district, 
by the Swiss Romande Mission in the south, and 
by the American Board among the Gaza tribes 
and at Beira, the chief seaport of the district of 
Zambesia. The Universities Mission has one station 
in this territory adjoining its field in Nyassaland. 
These societies together have 40 missionaries (men 
and women), 103 native workers, and about 7,000 
adherents, with hospitals and schools. A printing- 
press at Inhambane is beginning to form a litera- 
ture in two native languages. The New Testament 
has been translated into Tonga (1890), and the 
Gospels into Sheetswa (1891). A Gospel has been 
translated into Ronga by the Swiss Romande 

PortQffuese Guinea: A Portuguese possession 
adjoining French Kongo on the West African coast, 
and surrounded by French territory on the land 
side. It is included in the administration of the 
Cape Verde Islands. Area, including the islands, 
6,280 sq. miles; population, including the islands, 
1,000,000. The population is generally given as 
including 260,000 Roman Catholics; and there are 
about 170,000 Mohammedans and over 500,000 
pagans on the mainland. Roman Catholic missions 
were established on the mainland in 1832, and are 
connected with the ecclesiastical province of Lisbon. 
They comprise eight Roman Catholic parishes. 
No Protestant missions have been established in 
this territory. 

Bhodesla: An inunense territory in South Africa, 
lying between the Transvaal and the Kongo Inde- 
pendent State, and having as its eastern boundary 
Portuguese East Africa, and as its western boundary 
Angola and German Southwest Africa. It is ad- 
ministered as British territory by the British South 
Africa Company under a British resident com- 
missioner. In its northeastern portion, where it 
touches Lake Tanganyika, police duties are cared 




for by the Nyassaland protectorate. It is divided 
into Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia 
by the Zambesi River. Area about 246,000 sq. 
iniles; population about 900,000, of whom 12,000 
are Europeans and about 1,100 are Asiatics. There 
are about 5,000 Roman Catholics and 20,000 
Protestants in this country. The Roman Catholic 
missions are not conterminous with the boundaries 
of this territory, and it is impossible to give their 
statistics. The missionaries are of the Algerian 
Society with a certain numbei* of Jesuits in the 
Zambesi region. Protestant missions in this region 
were commenced by Robert Moffat of the London 
Missionary Society in 1830. Livingstone explored 
the whole region for the same society and unsuc- 
cessfully attempted to establish stations among 
the Mashonas. John Mackenzie was a worthy 
successor of such pioneers. At present the Protes- 
tant missionary societies in Rhodesia are: the 
London Missionary Society in Matabeleland and 
at the southern end of Lake Tanganyika; the Wes- 
leyan Methodist Missionary Society in Mashonaland 
and Matabeleland; and the Paris Missionary 
Society in Barotseland in the territory north of the 
Zambesi, which F. Coillard entered in 1885 as an 
extension of the Society's work in Basutoland, the 
Barotses having the same speech as the Basutos. 
The Methodist Episcopal Missionary Society (U. 
S. A.) and the American Board have missions in 
the eastern part of Southern Rhodesia, near the 
Portuguese frontier. These societies together have 
112 stations and outstations, 70 missionaries (men 
and women), 6,000 pupils in their schools, and 
15,000 professed Christians. The construction of 
railways, connecting Rhodesia with Cape Town and 
the Portuguese seaports and opening up the coun- 
try beyond the Zambesi, is bringing many colonists 
into the coimtry; and their advent implies that 
a testing time of the reality of the Christianity 
of the native churches is at hand. The people 
use the Bible in Zulu, in Sechuana, and in 
Lesuto. Tentative translations of Gospels have 
been made in the Matabele and the Mashona 

Bio De Ore: A Spanish possession in North Africa 
stretching southward along the shore to the Atlan- 
tic Ocean from the Morocco frontier and extending 
inland to the French possessions of the Sahara. 
Area about 70,000 sq. miles; popula|.ion (estimated) 
130,000, almost all Mohammedans. The territory 
is administered by the governor of the Canary 
Islands. Roman Catholic missions ecclesiastically 
connected with the Canary Islands are established 
at the points occupied by Spanish traders. There 
are no Protestant missions in the country. 

Bio Muni: Spanish possession in West Africa 
adjoining the German Kamerun colony and sur- 
rounded on the east and south by the territory of 
the French Kongo. Area 9,800 sq. miles; popu- 
lation (estimated) 140,000, including about 300 
whites. Roman Catholic missions have existed 
here since 1855 and are carried on by the Spanish 
Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary, being 
ecclesiastically connected with the island diocese 
of Annobon and Fernando Po. A Protestant mis- 
sion has been carried on in this territory by the 

American Presbyterians (North) who established 
themselves in 1855 on the island of Corisco, and 
later on the Benito River. They have 4 stations 
and outstations, 7 schools, and about 300 professed 
Christians. The Bible has been translated into 
the Benga language (1858), which has a somewhat 
extensive domain in the coast regions. 

Senegal: A French colony in West Africa between 
the Gambia and the Senegal rivers. It consists 
of a narrow strip of coast land, forming the colony 
proper, together with certain ports on the Senegal 
River. Area 438 sq. miles; population (1904) 
107,826, of whom 2,804 are Europeans. The 
people of the colony proper are citizens, having 
the right to vote, and being represented by a deputy 
in the French parliament. The capital of the colony 
is St. Louis, on the seacoast. Roman Catholic 
missions have long existed in Senegal, and were 
placed under an ecclesiastical prefecture in 1765. 
There are about 5,000 native Roman Catholics 
in the colony. The only Protestant mission work- 
ing in Senegal is that of the Paris Evangelical 
Missionary Society, which has a station at St. 
Louis (1863) and two or three small congregations 
in the vicinity. Besides the Arabic Bible, which 
is occasionally called for, some of the Gospels have 
been translated into the Wolof and Mandingo 
languages (1882). 

Sene^ambia and the Niffer: An immense French 
protectorate comprising the territories formerly 
called Western Sudan, with the larger part of the 
Sahara, having the colony of Senegal on the west, 
the colonies of the Ivory Coast, the Gold Coast, 
Dahomey, and Togoland on the south, and extend- 
ing on the north to the Algerian Sahara. Area 
2,500,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 10,000,- 
000. The prevailing religion is Mohammedanism. 
Many pagan tribes exist who serve Mohammedan 
rulers and furnish slaves for the markets of Tripoli 
and the Barbary States. The capital is Kayes, 
on the Senegal River. This great territory, with 
the French colonies of Senegal, French Guinea, 
Ivory Coast, and Dahomey, forms a single region 
known as French West Africa, of which the govern- 
or-general resides at Dakar on the coast of Senegal. 
Steamers run regularly on the Senegal River some 
400 miles to Kayes; and a railway has been con- 
structed from Kayes 650 miles to some important 
points on the upper Niger. A feature of this re- 
gion is that the French government has planned 
a universal system of education which it is en- 
deavoring to apply throughout the territories 
effectively occupied. Roman Catholic missions 
have been carried on for a number of years at several 
of the posts on the Senegal and Niger rivers; the 
number of converts is reported as 10,000. No 
Protestant missions are reported in this great 

Sierra Ijeone: A British colony and protectorate 
in West Africa, lying on the coast between Liberia 
and French Guinea, and extending inland about 180 
miles, limited by the boundaries of the French 
possessions and of Liberia. Area about 34,000 sq. 
miles; population about 1,100,000. Of the people 
about 1,000,000 are pagans, 20,000 are Mohammed- 
ans, 5,000 are Roman Catholics, and 50,000 are 




Protestants. The colony proper is limited to the 
Sierra Leone peninsula. It was the place whence 
in 1562 the first slaves were taken to the West 
Indies under the British flag. After slaves in 
England had been set free, in 1772, a district in 
Sierra Leone was set apart to be colonized by 
liberated slaves. Here, from 1786 on, freed slaves 
were landed and almost abandoned to their own 
resources except as to food — a great crowd of 
debased creatures from all parts of Africa, knowing 
no common language and having no principle of 
life except such evil things as they had picked up 
during davery among Europeans. The situation 
of these freed slaves had a powerful influence in 
turning E^nghsh missionary zeal to West Africa. 
The Roman Catholic establishment is imder an 
apostolic vicariate erected in 1858 at Freetown. 
The missionaries are of the Congregation of the 
Holy Ghost and the Sacred Heart of Mary. The 
number of Roman Catholics is 2,800. 

The Protestant missionary enterprise was com- 
menced in the latter part of the eighteenth century 
by missionaries from Scotland; three having died 
soon after their arrival, the mission was given up. 
The Church Missionary Society sent missionaries 
to Sierra Leone in 1804; but they were instructed 
to go north and begin their mission in the Susu 
country on the Rio Pongas in what is now French 
Guinea. They were all Germans, chosen because 
of the difliculty of securing ordination of English- 
men for this society. The mission came to naught 
through the hostility of the slave-dealers, and was 
finally transferred (1814-16) to Sierra Leone. 
Here a solid work was soon organized among the 
freed slaves, and has grown ever since. The Prot- 
estant missionary societies now working in that 
field are: the Church Missionary Society, the 
Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, the Wes- 
leyan Methodist Connection of America, the United 
Brethren (U. S. A.) in the Mendi region, and the 
Christian and Missionary Alliance (U. S. A.) in the 
eastern part of the protectorate. The Church 
Missionary Society field is almost wholly in the 
protectorate, the congregations in Sierra Leone 
being self-supporting and independent. Together 
the mission stations and outstations niunber about 
131. There are 42 missionaries (men and women), 
117 schools, and about 45,000 professed Christians 
connected with the missions. The English Bible 
is used in the colony. The New Testament has 
been translated into Temn6 (1866); parts of the 
New Testament into Mendi; and single Gospels, into 
Bullom and Kuranko. The Yoruba mission of the 
Qiurch Missionary Society was an outgrowth of 
the society's work among freed slaves at Sierra 
Leone. See below, HI., Laoos. 

Somali land (British) : A British protectorate on 
the east coast of North Africa, lying between Abys- 
sinia and the sea and between French Somaliland 
and Italian Somaliland. It is administered by 
a consul-general. Area about 60,000 sq. miles; 
population (estimated) 300,000; religion, Moham- 
medan. Most of the people of this district are 
nomads and very fanatical in their intolerance 
of Christians. The English government has been 
at a considerable expense in money and men to 

pacify the tribes of the interior, who have attempted 
to drive the E^nglish from the coimtry on religious 
groimds. No missions are reported in this district. 

Somaliland (French) : A French protectorate on 
the eastern coast of North Africa, near the Straits 
of Bab-el-Mandeb, between the Italian colony of 
Eritrea and British Somaliland, extending inland 
to the Abyssinian border and including the colony 
of Obock. Capital, Jibuti. Area about 46,000 
sq. miles; popidation about 200,000, mostly Mo- 
hammedans, with some 40,000 pagans, and in the 
colony of Obock about 8,(XX) Christians. A rail- 
way has been constructed from Jibuti to the Harrar 
frontier in Abyssinia. There has been for many 
years a Roman Catholic mission conducted by the 
French Capuchins who have two or three schools 
at Obock and Jibuti, and are reaching out toward 

Somaliland (Italian): An Italian possession on 
the eastern coast of North Africa, lying between 
the Gulf of Aden and Abyssinia, and between 
British Somaliland and the mouth of the Juba 
River, the frontier of British East Africa. The 
sovereign rights of the Sultan of Zanzibar over 
this coast region were bought by Italy in 1905. 
Area about 100,000 sq. miles; population (esti- 
mated) 400,000, chiefly Mohammedans, with about 
50,000 pagans. There are no records of missions 
established in this wild territory. 

Sudan: This term is here limited to the Egyptian 
Sudan, the Western and Central Sudan being ab- 
sorbed in the main into French spheres of influence 
to which other names have been given (see 
Seneqambia and the Niger, above). The Egyp- 
tian Sudan is a territory extending south from 
the frontier of Egypt to Uganda and the Kongo 
Independent State, and west from the Red Sea to 
the immarked boundary of the French sphere of 
influence. It is nominally a possession of Egypt, 
but in fact is ruled for Egypt by the British. Eng- 
lish and Egyptian flags are used together through- 
out the territory. Area about 950,000 sq. miles; 
population (estimated) 2,000,000. The population 
of the coimtry was much reduced during the six- 
teen years' rule of the Mahdi and his dervishes, 
who as ardent Mohammedans wished to show the 
world how a country ought to be governed. Gen- 
eral Gordon having been killed by the Mahdi's 
party in 1885, one of the first acts of the English 
on recovering the land in 1898 was to found a 
great " Gordon Memorial " College at Khartum, 
the scene of his murder, and now the seat of the 
new administration. The majority of the people 
are Mohanmiedans, with an uncertain number of 
pagan tribes in the southern districts. A consider- 
able number of Greek, Coptic, and Armenian 
traders is found in the Khartum district. Roman 
Catholic missions exist at Khartum and Omdurman 
and among the pagans at Fashoda; a mission of the 
American United Presbyterian Church has been 
founded on the Sobat River; and the Church 
Missionary Society has established missionaries 
(1906) at or near Bor in the vacant pagan 
country between the two first-named missions. 
All of these missions are too newly established to 
have any visible fruit except attendance at schools. 




The Arabic Bible is circulated in the Moham- 
medan parts of the Sudan. Gospels have been 
translated into the Dinka language. 

Toffoland: A German colony in West Africa, 
occupying the coast of the Gulf of Guinea between 
the Gold Coast Colony and Dahomey. It extends 
inland to the French territory of Senegambia and 
the Niger. Area about 32,000 sq. miles; population 
(estimated) 1,500,000, chiefly pagan; capital, 
Lome. The German government carries on several 
schools for the instruction of the natives, and is 
training them for administrative posts. Roman 
Catholic missions here are conducted by the Steyl 
Society for Divine Work. The missionaries num- 
ber 28, with 9 nuns, 52 schools, 2,119 pupils, and 
2,203 Roman Catholic Christians. Protestant mis- 
sionary work is carried on by the North Germau 
Missionary Society (1847), and by the Wesleyan 
Methodist Missionary Society, which employs Ger- 
man Methodists for this field. The two societies 
report 78 stations and outstations, 31 mission- 
aries (men and women), 69 schools with 3,111 pupils, 
and 4,600 professed Christians. The Ew^ New 
Testament ia used here, and a special translation 
of one of the Gospels, to satisfy local variations, 
has been tentatively prepared. 

Transvaal: A colony of Great Britain in South 
Africa, lying north of the Orange River O)lony 
and Natal, and west of Portuguese East Africa. 
Area 111,196 sq. miles; population (1904) 1,268,- 
716, of whom 969,389 are colored, including Chinese 
and Hindus, and 299,327 are whites. The colony 
was settled in 1836-37 by Dutch who emigrated 
from Cape Colony. In 1899 dissensions with Great 
Britain respecting sovereignty culminated in war, 
and in 19(X) Great Britain formally annexed the 
territory to her South African domains, the Boers 
accepting the annexation after two years. The 
capital is Pretoria. The religious statistics show 
the pagans to number nearly 1,000,000; Roman 
Catholics, 10,000; Protestants, 256,000; Jews, 
10,000; Buddhiste and Confucians, 15,000. The 
Dutch churches form the largest single group of 
Protestants. Chinese laborers at the mines are a 
recent addition to the population. Numbers of 
negroes from all parts of Africa are also drawn to 
Johannesburg for work in the mines, about 75,000 
natives and other colored people being gathered 
there by opportunities for work. The Anglican, 
Wesleyan, and Dutch Reformed local churches 
all carry on missions among the natives. Other 
Protestant missions are those of the American 
Board (1893), the Berlin Missionary Society (1859) 
opened by A. Merensky and Knothe, the Hei^ 
mannsburg Missionary Society (1857), and the 
Swiss Romande Mission led by H. Berthoud 
(1875). These societies together report (not 
including the enterprises of the local churches) 
112 missionaries (men and women), 2,344 na- 
tive workers, 300 schools with 14,674 pupils, and 
84,000 professing Christian adherents. Efforts 
to improve the character of the workers in the 
mining compounds of Johannesburg are meet- 
ing with some success. The Zulu Bible is much 
used in the Transvaal as well as the Chuana 
and Lesuto versions. The New Testament has 

been translated into Tonga and Sepedi, both in 

Tripoli: A possession of Turkey on the north 
coast of Africa west of Egypt. It extends south- 
ward to the Sahara and includes the oasis of the 
Fezzan, but its southern limits are indefinite. 
This territory was seized by Turkey in the sixteenth 
century. Area about 400,000 sq. miles; population 
about 1,000,000, chiefly Berbers. There are about 
6,000 Europeans (Maltese and Italians), who are 
mainly Roman Catholics; and there are also about 
10,000 Jews. There is an extensive caravan trade 
with the Sudan and Timbuctoo; and the slave- 
trade is quietly fostered by this means. The only 
Protestant mission in Tripoli is that of the North 
Africa Mission, which has 1 station with 4 mis- 
sionaries, a hospital, and 2 dispensaries. Arabic 
and Kabyle are the languages of the country. 

Tanla: A French protectorate on the northern 
coast of Africa lying between Tripoli and Algeria. 
Area about 51,000 sq. miles; population (estimated) 
1,900,000, mainly Berbers and Arabs, with a foreign 
population (1901) of 39,000 French, 67,500 Italians, 
and 12,000 Maltese. The Tunisian ruler, called 
the Bey, is from a family which has been in power 
since 1575, and governs the coimtry under the con- 
trol of a French resident. The Roman Catholic 
Church in Tunis is imder direction of the arch- 
bishop of Carthage, the see having been restored 
in 1884. There are 53 priests, 2 bishops, and 
several schools. Tunis was the scene of some of 
Raymond Lully's efforts to convert Mohammedans 
in the thirteenth century. Protestant missions 
are carried on in Tunis by the North African Mis- 
sion, the Swedish Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation, and the London Jews Society. Together 
these societies have 5 schools, 2 hospitals or dis- 
pensaries, and about 250 persons imder instruction. 
Arabic is the prevailing language. 

Ugranda: A British protectorate in East Central 
Africa, lying between the Egyptian Sudan on the 
north, German East Africa on the south, British 
East Africa on the east, and the Kongo Independ- 
ent State on the west. Within its boundaries 
lie part of the Victoria Nyanza and lakes Al- 
bert and Albert Edward. It comprises the native 
kingdom of Uganda and several smaller districts 
ruled by native . kinglets under British control. 
Area 89,400 sq. miles; population about 4,000,000, 
of whom about 1,000,000 are in the kingdom of 
Uganda. The religious divisions of the population 
in the whole protectorate are: pagans, 3,500,000; 
Mohammedans, 50,000; Roman Catholics, 146,000; 
and Protestants, 250,000. A railway connects 
Mombasa on the coast of British East Africa with 
Kisumu, formerly called Port Florence, on the 
Victoria Nyanza. The seat of the British admin- 
istration is Entebbe, and that of the kingdom of 
Uganda is Mengo. Henry M. Stanley visited 
Uganda in 1875, and found the king Mutesa a recent 
convert to Islam but inclined to ask questions on 
the religion of the Christians. He gave the king 
some instruction and had the Lord's Prayer trans- 
lated for him into Suahili written in Arabic char- 
acters. At this time Uganda was like any other 
African kingdom a place of superstition, degrada- 




tion of women, and bloodthirsty cruelty and op- 
pression. Stanley was really the first of Christian 
missionaries there; for the dight teachings that he 
gave the king were not forgotten, and his transla- 
tion of the Lord's Prayer was copied and recopied. 
On leaving Uganda Stanley wrote a letter to the 
London Telegraph describing Uganda and the 
willingness of King Mutesa to receive Christian 
instruction. He then addressed the missionary 
societies in these words: '* Here, gentlemen, is 
your opportimity. The people on the shores of 
the Nyanza call upon you." This challenge was 
at once taken up by the Church Missionary Society; 
and in^l876 its first missionaries reached Uganda. 
The firet converts were baptized in 1882, and perse- 
cution soon set in, when a nimiber of the Christians 
were burned aHve. Alexander Biackay, a layman 
and a member of the mission, was a man of indom- 
itable energy and wonderful devotion; and upon 
him rested to a great degree the responsibility for 
the defense of the mission. Several of the mission- 
aries were murdered, including Bishop James Han- 
nington (1885), by order of King Mwanga, Mutesa's 
successor. Roman Catholic missionaries appeared 
on the scene; and quarrels and strife ensued between 
the two denominations. Mohanunedans also inter- 
vened, trying to profit by the dissensions between 
the Christians. The British protectorate was 
declared in 1894. In 1897 the Sudanese troops in 
British employ revolted and attempted to seize 
the coimtry in the Mohammedan interest. The 
valor of the Christians weighed largely in deciding 
this fierce little war against the mutineers. In it 
George Laurence Pilkington, a notable lay mission- 
ary lost his life. With the defeat of the mutineers 
and the assignment of the Mohammedans to separate 
reservations peace was finally established, and the 
whole protectorate is in a prosperous condition. 

The Church Missionary Society has now in the 
protectorate 90 missionaries (men and women), 
2,500 native workers, 170 schools with 22,229 
scholars, and 53,000 baptized Christians. It had 
established a considerable industrial enterprise 
for the development of the people; but in 1904 
this department of its work was turned over to the 
Uganda Company, a commercial body chartered 
in England to develop the coimtry. The Roman 
Catholic missions were established by the Algiers 
Society for African Missions. There are now 88 
stations and about 80,000 baptized Roman Catho- 
lic Christians. At Kaimosi, about twenty-five 
miles north of Port Florence, is a mission of the 
American Society of Friends, which is instruct- 
ing the people in various industries. Altogether 
Uganda is alter thirty years of missionary labor a 
remarkable instance of the change in a people which 
can be produced by the attempt to follow the prin- 
ciples of the Bible. The overthrow of barbarism 
in the native customs was effected before any 
outside political forces entered upon the scene. 
The Bible has been translated into Ugandan (1888), 
and Gospels have been rendered into Nyoro and 

m. African Islands: 

Annolxm. See Fernando Po. 

Canaiy Islands: A group of islands lying north- 

west of Africa and belonging to Spain, of which 
they form a province. Area 2,807 sq. miles; popu- 
lation 358,564, reckoned as entirely Roman Cath- 
olic, the first Roman Catholic see having been 
erected here in 1404. 

Cape Verde IslandB: A group of fourteen islands 
lying off the west coast of Africa and belonging 
to Portugal. Area 1,480 sq. miles; population 
(1900) 147,424, of whom about two-thirds are 
negroes and nearly one-third of mixed blood. The 
religion is Roman Catholic. 

Gomoro Isles: A group of small islands about 
half way between Madagascar and the African 
coast. Area 620 sq. miles; population about 47,- 
000, chiefly Mohammedans. The islands are 
ecclesiastically imder the jurisdiction of Mayotte, 
but it does not appear that any mission exists upon 

Gcrlsoo. See Fernando Po. 

Fernando Po, Annobon, Gcrlsoo, and Elobey: 
Islands in the Gulf of Guinea, belonging to Spain. 
The area of these islands taken together is about 
780 sq. miles; population 22,000. Roman Catholic 
missions are carried on in the islands by the Spanish 
Congregation of the Sacred Heart of Mary. Nine- 
teen clergy are reported in Fernando Po, with about 
4,000 Roman Catholics. There is a Protestant 
mission in Fernando Po, established by the Prim- 
itive Methodist Missionary Society in 1870, a mis- 
sion established by the Baptist Missionary Society 
of England having been driven from the country 
by Spanish intolerance a number of years before. 
One of the Gospels was translated into Adiya, a 
dialect of Fernando Po, in 1846. It is now obso- 
lete. There is a station of the American Presby- 
terian Church on the island of Corisco (see above, 
under Rio Muni). 

Madaflrasoar: An island off the southeastern coast 
of Africa, from which it is separated by the Mozam- 
bique Channel at a distance of 240 miles, measuring 
between nearest points. It is 980 miles long, and 
360 mile£ in its greatest breadth. It is a possession 
of France, whose claim dates from a concession 
made to a trading company by the king of France 
in 1642. The claim was not recognized by the 
native rulers. After a struggle lasting intermit- 
tently from 1882 to 1896 the formal annexation to 
France took place. Area 224,000 sq. miles; popu- 
lation (1901) 3,000,000, mcluding 15,000 Europeans 
and some hundreds of Africans and Asiatics. The 
people are of Malay stock with an infusion of 
African blood. The principal tribe, which ruled 
the larger part of the island until the French occu- 
pation, is called Hova. Sakalava, Betsileo, and 
Sihanaka are the names of other important tribes. 
The history of Madagascar during many years is 
connected with the story of its evangelization 
through the London Missionary Society, beginning 
in 1818. The mission had great success during 
fifteen years. The language was reduced to writing; 
schools were established; the New Testament was 
translated and printed; and numbers of the people 
professed Christianity. In 1835 the reigning queen 
drove out the missionaries and proscribed Chris- 
tianity. After bloody persecutions it was made 
a capital crime to profess the religion of Christ. 




Thifl proecriptioD ended in 1861; the missionaries 
returned: and i^ 1^^ the then queen made public 
profession of Chiifltianity* At the time of the 
French occupation there were about 450,000 Protes- 
tants and 50,000 Roman Cathohcs in the island. 
Roman Catholic missions were commenced in 
Madagascar in 1844, having their center in the island 
of Nossi-B§ and the adjacent islands until 1850, 
when the care of the missions was entrusted to tbe 
Jesuits, There are now 348 Roman Catholic mission 
stations in the inland with nearly 100,000 adherents. 
At the time of the French occupation the Protee* 
tant missions were looked upon with great suspicion » 
In anticipation of being obliged to withdraw from 
the islandfi, the Ijondon Missionaiy Society invited 
the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society to take 
over some of its stations. 

After a period of misunderstanding and friction 
with the Jesuit missionaries, reUgious hberty was 
made efTcetive, and difficulties have gradually been 
removed. The Protestant societies now laboring 
in the island are: the London Missionary Society 
(1818), tbe Society for the Propagation of the Gos- 
pel (1843), the Friendfl Foreign MifiHlonary Asso- 
ciation (1867), tbe Norwegian Society (1867), 
the United Norwegian Lutheran Church in America 
(1892), the (Free) Lutheran Board of Missions 
(U. S. A., 1895), and the Paris Evangelical Mission- 
ary Society (1896)» These societiefl together report 
196 missionaries, 4,914 native w^orkers, 2,729 schools 
with 133,262 pupils, and about 200,000 baptised 
Christians » The efTect of the French school laws 
may probably affect the higher missionary schools; 
but on the w^hole conditions are rapidly taking a 
satisfactory form. The Bible was translated into 
Malagasy in 1S35 and revised in 1886. 

Madeira: An island forming a province of Portu- 
gal and lying west of North Africa. Area 505 eq. 
miles; population 150,574. The island w^as colo- 
nized by the Portuguese in 1420, and has been 
Roman Catholic for tw^o centuries, the ancient inhab* 
itants being entirely extinct. The American Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church has a mission in Madeira. 

Mauritius: An island colony of Great Britain, 
lying in the Indian Ocean BOO miles east of Mada- 
gaaear. Area 705 sq. miles; population (1901) 
378,195, The religious classification under the 
census of 1^1 was as follows: Hindus ^ 206^131; 
Mohammedans, 41,208; Roman Catholics, 113,224; 
Proleatants, 6,^44. Besides the parish priests 
there are 5 Jesuit missionaries and 11 from tbe 
Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Sacred 
Heart of Mary. Protestant missions are carried 
on by the Church Missionary Society^ the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel, and the Church 
of England Zenana Missionary Society, A large 
section of the population is of African or mixed 
blood, and the number of Chinese in business In 
the island is increasing. 

Mayotte: An island belonging to France, situated 
between Madagascar and the African coast. It 
IB under the governor of Reunion. Area 140 sq. 
miles; population 11,640, which is diminishing. 
There are 6 Roman Catholic priests and about 
3|000 Roman Catholics in the island. 

Benzilon: An island belonging to Francej situated 

about 420 miles east of 5iadagascar. Area 945 sq. 
miles; population (1902) 173,395, of whom 13,492 
are British Indians, 4,496 are Eiatives of Madagascar, 
0^457 are Africans, and 1,378 are Chinese. The 
rest of the inhabitants are reckoned as Roman 
Catholics. Tbe island is the seat of a Roman 
Cathohc bisbop> and it forms a part of the eode* 
siastical province of Bordeaux in France* 

Saint Thomas (Thomd) and Principe ; Two islands 
in the Gulf of Guinea, belonging to Portugal, of 
which they are reckoned as a province. Area 
360 sq, mil^j population (1900) 42,000, of whom 
41,000 are negroes. These islands are a source of 
revenue to the Portuguese government, producing 
quantities of coffee^ cocoa, and cinchona. The 
products are cultivated by slave labor still imported 
by the Portuguese " under contract " through 
Ajigola from central Africa. About 4,000 of these 
*^ laborers ** are carried to the islands every year; 
and it is said that none return. A Roman CathoUc 
diocese was established in these islands in 15S4, 
and a large part of tbe population is reckoned as 
Roman Catholic. There are no Protestant mis- 
sions in this colony, 

Zanadbart See British East Africa Photect- 
ORATE, above. Henhy Otis Dwioht.* 

BrBLiooRApHT: l^ CqlleetiQQH til titles: J. Gay^ Bihtu^fra- 

phM de* auvraffet r^atift hVAfriqueHu I' Arabia ^ Saa Remo. 

lS7fi; P, Paulitschke. Bit AfrikQ-IMiratur in der ZtU 

1600-1750, VicMiDs, IE82\ Q. KAymt, BibHoffrnpHw d« 

I'Afriqus. BniAselfl, 1SS9. 

Geo^apUy and Atlases: P. Faulitsahke* Die ffeagraphitchtt 
ErfcTMchung de# afrikanischcn ConiineniMj Vienna. ISSO; 
idem^ Uw BtotrmphUKhts Erforwchuni/ d^ Adal-Liinder in G*l- 
Afrika, Lejpsic^ 1884^ A^ H. Keane, A!ru^. 2 Tob,, Loadom* 
ISftS (a oompend); A. PoBfcin* L'Afrique Sqfimtat-udii. Chm^ 
^logis^ mwilotri^, kpg^hte, Poris^ 1S97 vth& one book on tb« 
piibject); R. GmndeiiLann. Ntfuer M lotions- Ati^s^ Stutteart* 
1S96 (German miasionii only); K* Heilmatiti. Mi«tbmaliwte 
der Erde, GQterMoh, 1S97; H. P. Btaeh. Gtography and Ai- 
ta9 Qf Ftoitiia^nt MiMtiojin, New York^ 1903. 

Ethnolosy : T. ^ ^\tz, An^r^poloaie dtr Naturv^er, vol, ii, 
Leipak. ISflO; H, Uartmnnii, Die Nigriti^. BerUtip 1877(arsueA 
for unity of Africma peoplea); idem. Die VoiknrAfnkaM^ Leip- 
■iCt 1870; H. Spencer, DetcripHve Soct&Ioffj/t port iv,, Afri- 
tan Racet, LoTidon, IS82; A^ Featherraan, ^oriat Ititiary ef 
the Haca of Mankind: Nigriliatu. ih. 1S&6: F. RatEeUV^-- 
kerk^nde, 2 vols., Letpmc* 1S86-S8, Eng. tranjil., HuBt^ry vf 
Mankind* London, IS96-97; Natiret of South Afrio&^ Lon- 
don* 1901. 

Ls-nfftiagAs: R. N. Cofftt A Sketch of the Modem Lan^voffe* 
^t Afriait 2 vota., ib. 1883 (by a master); C. R. LepaiiUt 
Nubiache GnammohJt mit einer Binieitur^/ iiber die VHkei' 
ujtd Sprachm Afrik^, Berlin » 1880, 

Bxploration: D. Livingatone^t Travel* and Retearchn in 
South Africa, London, 1857; J. H. fipeke, J&ufnal of tha Di*- 
etr^ery of the Sourct of the Nils. ib. 1S33: R, F, Burton. Wan- 
derino» in Weai Africa. 2 vols., ib. 1S64; H, M< Stanley* 
Hov I Found Limngstone, ib. 187-1; idem, 7a Dark^Ai Africa* 
ib. 1S74; V. L. Cameron. Aetott Africa, ib. 1877: C. E, 
Bourne, Heroea of African Discovery, 2 vols** ib. 1882; IL 
Dove, Vom Kap turn NU* B«rUn, lSfl8: J. Brye«H Imprte- 
tiont of South Afrwa* wUh thr^ map*, London. I8fi©; C. A. 
TOO G5tien, Durch Afrika pen Oat pmmA Wftt, Berlin, 
1899' A. B, Lloyd^ In Dwarf Land and Cannibal Country^ 
London, 1899; L. Lamer* L'Afrtque^ Parie. ISOO (geom^ph- 
ic*l, biHtoncaU bibliofrraphical); F. B. du}u,lnAfr%can 
F&reat and Jungle, Nf^w York, IMS: A. H. Keane. South 
Africa. A Compendium of Qeaffraphy and Travtl, Lond<iDt 

African partition and colom«attoo: J. 8. Keltje, Tht Par* 
Htion of Africa, 21 m«,pb* London, 1£03 («x«Ueni, suocmet); 

* Part of the in format ion concern mg Roman CaiboUo 
miitaions in tbia onick ha» been fumubed by Prof. JoaN T. 




Holub, Die ColoniaoHon Afrtkas, Vienna, 1882; H. H. John- 
ston. Hilary of the CoUmixation of Africa by Alien Races, in 
Cambridoe Hietorical Series, Cambridge. 1804; H. M. Stan- 
ley. Africa: Ita Partition and Ita Future, New York, 1898. 

Miaaione: D. Macdonald, Afrtcana: Heathen Africa, 2 
▼old.. London. 1882; R. Lovett. Hilary of the London Mie- 
eionary Society, 1796-1896, 2 vols., ib. 1899; F. P. Noble. 
Redemption of Africa, New York. 1899; £. Stock. Hietory 
of the Church Mieeionary Society, 3 toIs., London, 1899; 
Ecumenical Miaeionary Conference, New York, 1900, Reports, 
New York, 1900; C. F. Paacoe, Tvn Hundred Years of the 
SFG, London, 1901; J. Stewart, Dawn in the Dark Conti- 
nent; or Africa and its Missions, ib. 1903; H. O. Dwight, 
H. A. Tupper, £. M. Blias, Encyclopedia of Missions, New 
York. 1904. 

Catholic Minions: M. de Montroud, Les Missions catho- 
ligues dans les parties du Monde, Paris, 1869; L. Bethune, 
Les Missions catholuptes d'Afrique, ib. 1889; O. Werner, 
Orbis terrarum catholieus, Freiburg, 1890 (geographical and 
statistical); Missiones CatholicoB, Rome. 1901. 

Native religion: T. Hahn. Tsunv^goam, the Supreme 
Being of the OhoirOhoi, London, 1882; A. B. Ellis. Tshi- 
speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast, ib. 1887; W. Schneider, 
Die Religion der afrikanischen Naturv6lker, MQnster. 1891; 
J. Macdonald. Religion and Myth, London, 1893 (on religion 
and society); M. A. Kingsley, Travels tn West Africa, ib. 
1897: idem. West African Studies, ib. 1901; R. H. Nassau. 
Fetichism in West Africa, New York, 1904 (covers native re- 
ligion and society). 

II. Algeria: R. L. Plasrfair. Bibliography of Algeria, Lon- 
don. 1888 (covers 1541-1887); A. Certeux aud E. H. Car- 
noy, L'Algtrie tradHionneUe, 3 vols., Algiers, 1884 (on cus- 
toms and superstitions); (3astu, Le Peuple Algirien, Paris, 
1884; R. L. Playfair. The Scourge of Christendom: Annals 
of British Rdations with Algeria, London, 1884; £. C. E. 
Villot. McBurs et institutions des tndigines de I'Algirie, Al- 
giers. 1888; F. A. Bridgman. Winters in Algeria, New York. 
1890; F. Klein. Les Villages d'Arabes chrftiens, Fontaine- 
bleau. 1890; A. E. Pease. Biskra and the Oases , , . of the 
Zihane, London, 1893; J. Lionel, Races Berbbres, Paris, 1893; 
A. Wilkin. Among the Berbers of Algeria, London. 1900. 

Angola: J. J. Monteiro, Angola and the River Congo, 2 
vols., London, 1895 (the one book); F. A. Pinto, Angola e 
Congo, Lisbon, 1888; H. Chatelain, Folk-Tales of Angola, 
Boston. 1894. 

Basutoland: J. Widdicombe. Fourteen Years in BasiUo- 
land, London, 1892; E. Cosalis. My Life xn Basutoland, ib. 
1889; Mrs. Barkly, Among Boers and Basuios, ib. 1893; E. 
Jacottet, Conies populatres des Bassoutos, Paris, 1895; M. 
Martin, Basutoland; Its Legends and Customs, London. 1903. 

Bechuanaland: L. K. Bruce, The Story of an African 
Chief, Khama, London, 1893; E. Lloyd, Three African Chiefs, 
Khami, Sebeli, and Barthang, ib. 1895; J. D. Hepburn, 
Tv?enty Years in Khama's Country and the Batauna, ib. 1895; 
W. D. Mackensie. John Mackenete, South African Missum- 
ary and Statesman, ib. 1902. 

British East Africa and Zansibar: J. Thomson. Through 
Masai Land, London. 1885; Handbook of British East Africa 
including Zanzibar, ib. 1893 (English official publication); 
H. S. Newman, Banani; the TVonstlum from Slavery to Free- 
dom in Zanzibar, ib. 1899; S. T. and H. Hinde, Last of the 
Masai, ib. 1901. 

Cape Colony: G. McC. Theall. History of South Africa, 4 
vola., London, 1888-89 (exhaustive); E. Holub. Seven Years 
in South Africa, ib. 1881; A. Wilmot, Story of Oie Expansion 
of South Africa, ib. 1895; A. T. Wirgman, History of the Eng- 
lish Church in South Africa, ib. 1895; South African Year 
Book far ISOS-S, ib. 1902 (official); J. Stewart, Dawn in the 
Dark Continent, ib. 1903; H. A. Bryden, History of South 
Africa, 1662-1908, ib. 1904; D. Kidd, The Essential Kafir, 
ib. 1904. 

Central Africa Protectorate: H. H. Johnston, British 
Central Africa, London, 1897; J. Buchanan, The Shiri High- 
lands as Colony and Mission, ib. 1885; D. J. Rankin, Zam- 
besi Basin and Nyassaland, ib. 1893; A. E. M. Morshead, 
History of the Universities Mission to Central Africa, ib. 1897; 
W. A. Elmslie, Among the Wild Ngomi, Chapters . . , of 
Livingstonia Mission, ib. 1899; J. W. Jack, Daybreak in 
Linngstonia, New York, 1901. 

Dahomey. A. Pawlowski, Bibliographie raisonnie . . . 
concemant le Dahomey, Pans, 1895; Aspe-Fleurimont, La 
Guinie frangaise. ib. 1890; E. F. Forbes, Dahomey and the 
Dahomeans, 2 vols.. London, 1851; J. A. Skertchley, Da- 
homey as it is, ib. 1874^ A. L. d'Alb^ca, La France au Da- 

homey, Paris, 1895; E. Fo&, Le Dahomey, ib. 1895 (on his- 
tory, geography, customs, etc.); R. S. Powell, The Down- 
fall of Prempeh, London, 1896. 

Egypt (for missions): G. Lansing, Egypt's Princes. A 
Narrative of Missionary Labor in the Valley of the Nile, New 
York, 1865; M. L. Whately, Ragaed Life in Egypt, London. 
1870; idem. Among the Huts in Egypt, ib. 1870; A. Watson, 
The American Mission in Egypt, Pittsburg. 1898; M. Fowler. 
Christian Egypt, London. 1900; and see Eotft. 

Eritrea: La Colonia Eritrea, Turin. 1891; E. Q. M. Ala- 
manni. UAveflire della colonia Eritrea, Asti, 1890; M. 
Schveller, Mittheilungen aber meine Reise in . , . Eritrea, 
Berlin. 1895. 

French Kongo: A. J. Wauters and A. Buyl. Bibliographie 
du Congo, 1880-96, Paris. 1895 (3.800 titles); P. Eucher. 
Le Congo, essai sur i histoire religieuse, ib. 1895; A. Voulgre, 
Le Loango et la vcUUe du Kouilou, ib. 1897; and see below 

French Guinea: L. G. Binger, Du Niger au golfe de Ouinie, 
2 vols., Paris, 1891; C. MadroUe, En GuinSe, ib. 1894; P. 
d'Espagnat, Jours de GuinSe, ib. 1898. 

(jerman Africa: DeiUsch-Ost-Afrika. WissensthafUicher 
Forschungsresidtate Hber Land und LeiUe, Berlin, 1893 
and later (exhaustive); P. Reichard, Deutsch-Ostafrika, 
Land und Bewohner, Leipsic, 1892; H. von Schweimts, 
Deutsch-OsUAfrika in Krieg und Frieden, Berlin. 1894; Ch. 
R6mer, Kamerun; Land, Leu/e und Mission, Basel. 1895; 
E. Zintgraflf, Nord-Kamerun, 1886-92, Berlin, 1895; F. J. 
von BOlow, Deutsch-Sitdwestafrika . . . Land und Leute, 
ib. 1897; K. Hdrhold, Drei Jahre under deutsche Flagge in 
Hinterland von Kamerun, ib. 1897; M. Dier, Unterden Schwar- 
ten, Steyl, 1901 (missionary); F. Hutter, Wanderungen und 
Forschungen in Nord-Hinterland von Kamerun, Bnmswick, 
1902; and see below, Kamerun. 

Gold Ck>ast: A. B. Ellis. History of the Gold Coast, London. 
1893; F. A. Ramseyer and J. KOhne. Four Years in Ashan- 
tee. New York, 1877 (missionary); C. Buhl, Die Easier Mis- 
sion an der GoldkUsU, Basel. 1882; C. C. Reindorf. History 
of the Gold Coast and Ashanti from c IftOO, London, 1895; 
G. Macdonald, Gold Coast, Past and Present, ib. 1898; D. 
Kemp, Nine Years at the Gold Coast, ib. 1898. 

Ivory Coast: Bonneau, La Cdie dlvoire, Paris, 1899 (his- 
torical and geographical); M. Mounier, France noire, Cdte 
d'lvoire et Soudan, ib. 1894. 

Kamerun: In G. Wameck, History of Protestant Missions, 
bransl. from seventh Germ, ed., London, 1901; E. B. Under- 
bill, Alfred Saker, Missionary to Africa, ib. 1884; and see 
above, German Africa. 

Kongo Independent State: H. M. Stanley, Congo and the 
Founding of the Free State, 2 vols., London, 1878; W. H. 
Bentley, Life on the Congo, ib. 1890; idem, Pioneering on the 
Congo,2 vols.. New York, 1903; Mrs. H. G. Guinness, The New 
World of Central Africa; the Congo, London, 1890; F. S. 
Amot, Garenganxe; or Seven Years* Pioneer Mission Work in 
Central Afrika,ih. 1889; idem,BHie andGarenganse, ib. 1893; 

8. P. Vemer, Pioneering in Central Africa, New York, 1903; 
E. Morel, King Leopold's Rule in Africa, London. 1904. 

Lagos: R. F. Burton. AbeohUa and the Cameroon Moun- 
tains, 2 vols., London, 1863; Miss C. Tucker, Abbeokuta: the 
Yoruba Mission, ib. 1868; J. A. O. Payne, Table of EvenU 
in Yoruba History, Lagos, 1893. 

Liberia: J. H. T. MoPherson, African Colonization: 
History of Liberia (Johns Hopkins University Studies, series 

9. No. 10), Baltimore. 1891; G. S. Stockwell. The Republic 
of Liberia, New York. 1868 (historical and geographical); J. 
Buettikofer, ReisebUder aus Liberia, Leyden, 1890; F. A. 
Durham, The Lone Star of Liberia, London, 1892; E. W. 
Blyden, A Chapter in the History of Liberia, Freetown, 

Morocco: R. L. Plasrfair and R. Brown. Bibliography of 
Morocco . . . to end of 1891, London. 1893; R. Kerr, Pio- 
neering in Morocco; Seven Years' Medical Mission Work, 
ib. 1894; E. de Amicis. Morocco, Its People and Places, New 
York. 1892; W. B. Harris. The Land of an African Sultan, 
London. 1879; Geographic ghifrale de Maroc, Paris. 1902; 
A. J. Dawson. Things Seen in Morocco, London. 1904; Mo- 
rocco painted by A. S. Forrest and described by S. L. Bensu- 
san, ib. 1904. 

Natal: R. Russell, Natal, the Land and Its Story, London, 
1900; L. Groat, Zululand, or. Life among the Zulu-Kafirs, 
Philadelphia, 1864; H. Brooks. The Colony of Natal, Lon- 
don, 1876; T. B. Jenkinson, Amazulu, the Zulus, ib. 1882 
(on people and country); J. Bird, AnruUs of Natal, 2 vols., 
Pietermaritaburg, 1888-89; J. Tyler, Forty Years among 




ikt ZulvM, BoHton. 1801; F, W, von Wernsdorff. Ein Jahr 
in Bhodtxia, Uetlin^ 1HQ9; J^ HubiiUfCiii, A lAJthme in S&utk 
Africa. LodiIdd, 1900. 

NlE^iia: C^ H. Robinfion, Hanxilandi hottdon, 1897; 
Idem, Nigtria, 1900 (both KiithDtit&tive); H. Goldie, Cala- 
bar aTid Its Mittum. ib. 1S90; IL H. Bacon, Benin, the City 
cf Bk>^. ih, l8tJ7; U. llindlon*. fn the Nioer County, ib. 
1399; W. K, Miller, Flaustt jWoUt, ib. 1901. 

Orange River Colony: Sottth African Repuhtic^ Official 
DacumenU, PhUftcielpbin, IWXJ; G. MeC. Tbeai, The Botr; 
or EmitffajU. Farmurt, London, 1S8S; A. H, Kea&e. Africa, 
in E. Bdnrord/fl Compendium of Geographyt 2 toIb.. ib. 1893'; 
H. Cicete, Hiatory of the Great Boer Trtk, Qnd th* Ori^n of 
iht South AfHmn Republia, ib. 1899. 

Portuguese Africa: W. B, W&rfield, Portitg%wee Nyovn- 
tand, Londf^n., l8Wl K. MontaiJciD, Dela^oa Bay, its Natifea 
and Natural Htetaryt ib. 1891; P. Gilimoi«» Thn/uffh Gata 
Land, ib. 1891; J. P. M. We&le, Truth about the Fortu^w^e 
in Africa, ib. 1^1, 

Rbodeu&: H. HenemiLn. HisUrry <kf Rhodeaia, London » 
1900; E. F. Ki)i«ht, Rhodewia of To-day; Conditwn and 
ProwpeeiM af Maiaheldand and Mathonatand, ib, 1S95; A. O, 
IieouArd« HmD ve Made Rhodeeiai ib. 1690'; A. Bos^e^ /7w- 
tory of Bhodeaia and the MntabeJe. ib. 18^7; 8^ J. Du Toit, 
AJUflena FaAt and Pvneent, ib. 1^97; H. L. Tangye, /n New 
^oitljk Afrira ; . . . Tranrnvaal and ilhod^eia, ib, 1900. 

tJieiTB Leone: J, J, CrcMukB, flimtary of th^ Colony of ^inrti 
iMme, London t 1903; D. K. Flickinger, Ethiopia, or TiDtittu 
Yeara of Mwion Work in W eat/em Africa, iJaytflHf 1877; 
£. G. IngbiLTn, Sierra Leone after One Hundred Years, Lon- 
don, 181^4; T. J. AUdridgc. The Sherhro and its Hinitrlandt 
ib. 1901 ; a George, The Rise of BrLtUh Wext Africa, ib. 1904. 

Sonudii&nd: H- L. Swiiyne, Seventeen Tfipa through Somu- 
iOand, London, 1903; C. V. A. Peel, Smnaliiand . . . Tu^ 
Expeditions into the Far /nienor, ib. 1903; F. S. Brereton, 
in the Grip of JAj! Mullah, ib. 1903. 

Sudan: A. B. Wbito» Expansion of Egypt tinder An^lo- 
Egyptian Condomtntan, New York. 1900; C. T. Wilson and 
H. W. Felkin, Uganda und der /i^yptische Sudan^ 2 vo]&, 
Stuttgart, 18S3; Slatib Pafiba, Fire and Sword \n the Sudan ^ 
LnndoD. t&96; D. C. Boulger* Life of Gordon, tb. 1897; H. 
8. Alford ond W. D. Sword, The E&yptisn Sudan, Ite Lota 
and Its Recovery, ib. 1^9^; H. H. Austin, Among Swampa 
end Giants in Kquaiorial Africa, ib. 1902. 

Transvaal: E. Fannei-, Transvaal as a Mission Field, 
Londoti, 1903; W. C. Willoughby, Native Life on Oie Trana- 
vaal Border, ib. 1900; J. H. Bovill, Natives under the Trans- 
V€tal Flag, ib. 1900; D. M. WiLion, Behind the Scenes in the 
Tranai^ial. ib. 1901. 

Tripoli and Tuni*: G. E. TbomiMon, Life in Tnpoli, 
Londoa. 1893; De H. Wartegg. Ttinit. Land atid People, ib. 
1S99; M. Foumel, La Tunieis ; te christianiame at tishim 
dans VAfrique septenirijmt^, Paris, 1886; V. Guerin. La 
France catholi^^ en Tuniaie . . . et en Tripolitaine, ib. 
1S86; A. Perry ► O^cial Tour ahng the Eastern C<tast of . . . 
Tunis, Providonw, 1891; D. BniUQ. The Cave Dwetters of 
Southern Tunisia, Ekiinburgb^ 1898; H. Vivian. Tuniata and 
the Modem BuHtary Pirates, Londoa, 1899; J. L. Cuthcart, 
TriBoH r First War utith ths United State*. La Porte, 1902. 

Uganda: B. H. Jobn^ton, Uganda Protectorate., Londan, 
1904: W. J. AnapPgB, Under the African Sun: A Destrip- 
HoHof Native Races in Uganda^ tb. 1899; Mackau of [Uoanda ; 
Story of hi* Life by his Sisier, ib. 1899; U. P. Afihe, Two 
King* of Uof^nda ; nr Ltfs by the Shores of Victorvi Nyama, 
ib. 1890 (missioiuuT); B. G. Stock, Uganda and Vidoria [ 
Nvanza Miaaiont ib. 1892; F. Jh Lugard, Rise of our East 
African £mpvv, , , . Nyaaatdand and Uganda, 2 vols., 
Ediubufgb, 1893; Idem, Story of the Uganda Pr&tsctarate, 
London, 1900; C. F. Hw^ord-Battereby, Pilkington of 
Vifanda, tb. 1899; A. R. Cook, A Doctor and his Dog in 
Uganda, ib. 1903 {an luedical mi^vions). 

III. African Islands: Madm^rAjtj^r; j^ Sibree. The Great 
African t^nd, London, 1879 (tbe best book); idem^ Mada* 
Oaacar before tht Conquest, ib. 189fl; W. Elli#. Tlie Martyr 
Church, ib. 1869; W. E. Couiinjt, The Madagascar of To-day, 
ib. 18^95; H. H&nMu, Beitrag mr Geschichte der tnsel Mada- 
Oaskar, GQtersloh, 18901 J. J, K. Fietcher, Sign of the Cron 
in Madagascar, London, 1901; T. T. Jdattbflws, Thirty 
Yearg in Madagascar, tb. 1904. 

Other Islands: A. B. Ellis, The West African Islands, 
London, 1885; C. KeUert Madagaaear, Mauritius^ and other 
African Islanda, ib, 1900; N. Piks, Suh^ropicial Bamhka in 
tiW Land of the Aphanapteryi, ib. 1873 ton Mfiuritlus): J. 
C. Melliji, at Helena, ib. 187£ (AdenUSc); H. W. EHtndee, 

Sir Yeart in Seychelles, ib. IS8£; A. S. Brown, Madeira a-nd 
the Canary ItUs. tb. 1B90, 

AFRICA, THE CHUItCH OF. See Abtssinta 
ANU THE Abybsiniah Churcb; Ck)PTic Chubch; 
Eotpt; MisaioNe, Roman Catisolic, Pbotestant; 
North African Church, 

See METHODisTa, 

AFRICAHUS, JULIUS. Seo JuuuB Atkicanus* 

AGAPE p fig'a-pt or -p& 

Primitive Foim of Celebration (f 1 ) , 
FioaI Form of the Agape (jf 2). 
I>isaa»ociation of Agape and Eucharist (| 3), 

The Greek word agapd (" love," pL tigapai, Lat. 
ogaptB) was used in the early Cbureb, both Greek 
and Latuif to denote detinita manif stations oi 
brotherly love between believers^ and particularly 
certain meals taken in common which had more 
or less of a religious character. The earliest mention 
of such meaU is found in Jude 12 (possibly in U 
Pet. ii. 13), Distinct history begins with Ter- 
tullian, in the passage {ApohgelicuSf xxjdx.) com- 
mencing: " Our supper bears a name which teUa 
exactly what it is; it is called by the word w^hi^ih 
in Greek means ' affection.' " The agape served 
for the refreshment of the poorer brethren, as well 
as for tbe general edification. It was opened and 
closed with prayer, and after its conclusion one and 
another gave song^ oC praiser cither from the Bible 
or of their owti composition, Th^e meetings were 
under the direction of the clergy, to whom (with 
reference to I Tim, v, 17) a double portion of food 
and drink was allotted. They were beld at the time 
of the principal meal, and frequently were prolonged 
until dark. In the period for which 
X. Priml- Tertullian bears witnesSr they were 
tive Form not connected with the eaerament 
of Cele- of the Eucharist; bo says expressly 
bration, (De carona, m,) that tbe Lord instituted 
the sacrament on the occasion of a 
meal, while the Chureh does not so celebrate it, 
but rather before daybreak. Even apart from the 
secret nocturnal services of the times of persecution 
and the observance of the paschal vigil, the Eucha- 
rist was regularly celebrated before any meal. 
Notably was this rule, which is found referred to in 
C^rian {Ejn^t,f Ixiii. 16), establish^ in Tertullian 's 
time, but — which is decisive for the distincti<m 
between Eucharist and agape — it existed in many 
parts of the Chureh as early as that of Justin 
{Apologia, i, 65, 67)* The principle, that the 
Eucharist should be received only fasting, which 
would exclude any relation with a preceding com- 
mon meal, and especially with the agape, taking 
place toward evening, is indirectly evidenced by 
Tertulhan (Ad uiotctt, ii* 5); Augustine found it 
so universally recognised that he was incUned to 
refer it to one of the oidimtnces promised by Paul 
in I Cor, xi. 34; and Chrysuetom waa so convinced 
of the antiquity of the rule that he supposed the 
custom of following it by an ordinary meal to have 
prevailed in CJorinth in Paulas time. In any case, 
in the third and fourth centuries the development 
of the agape w*as more and more away from any 
connection with public worship. 




From the indications of the Syriac Didascalia 
and the Egjrptian liturgical books, as well as the 
canons of the Councils of Gangra and Laodicea it 
may be inferred that the giving of these feasts and 
the inviting to them of widows and the poor was, 
in the East, one of the forms usually taken by the 
benevolence of the wealthier mem- 
a. Tmsl bers of the Church. The bishop and 
Form of other clergy were invited, and, if they 
the Agape, appeared, were received with special 
honor and charged with the direction 
of the assembly. These feasts were given at irreg- 
ular times and in various places, sometimes in the 
church itself. This was forbidden by the twenty- 
eighth canon of Laodicea, at the same time that the 
fifty-eighth prohibited their celebration in private 
houses. Secular festivities in connection with the 
agapse, which brought upon them the condenma- 
tion of the ascetic Eustathians (against whom the 
Coimcil of Gangra defended them), caused them to 
be regarded more and more among the orthodox 
also as incompatible with the dignity of divine 
worship, so that they graduaUy became entirely sep- 
arate from it, and thus tended to fall into disuse. 

How popidar these feasts were in Africa, in the 
churches, in the chapeb of the martyrs, and at the 
graves of other Christians, may be seen from the 
often renewed canon of Hippo (393), which forbids 
clerics to eat in churches except in dispensing hos- 
pitality to travelers, and commands them . as far 
as possible to restrain the people from such meals. 
The same thing appears in Augustine's descriptions 
as wen as in the great pains he took to repress grave 
abuses and, with reference to the practise of the 
Italian and almost all the other churches, to sup- 
press the agapse altogether. 

It is not clear what caused the disassociation of 
the agape from the Eucharist in the first half of the 
second centuiy. It is a misunderstanding of Pliny's 
letter to Trajan (Epist., xcvi.) to suppose that in 
consequence of the prohibition of hetceruB {** broth- 
erhoods^") the Christians then abandoned their 
evening feasts and transferred the Eucharist to the 
morning; but it is very probable that the constant 
accusation of impious customs which recalled the 
stories of Thyestes and of (Edipus were the main 
reason for the separation of the Eucharist, which 
was an essential part of their public worship, from 
the connection, so liable to be mis- 
3. Bisasso- understood, with an evening meal 
dation of participated in by both sexes and all 
Agape and ages. The fact that at one time the 
Eucharist, two were connected is evidenced not 
only by Pliny, but about the same time 
by the Dtdache, in which, whatever one may think 
about the relation of the eucharistic prayers to the 
acccHupanying liturgical acts (chaps, ix.-x.), the 
opening passage of the second prayer (Gk. meta de 
to empUsthinai) shows that a full meal belonged to 
the rite there referred to. Just as here the Greek 
word eueharigUaf which from Justin down is em- 
ployed as a technical term for the sacrament, at 
least includes a common meal, which is found 
separated from the sacrament after the middle of 
the second century, so Ignatius, with whom euchor- 
rittia is a usual d^gnation of the sacrament, also 

employs agapi and agapan to denote the same 
observance. It is accordingly safe to conclude that 
in the churches, from Antioch to Rome, with which 
Ignatius had to do, the so-called agape was con- 
nected with the Eucharist, as Pliny shows at the 
same time for Bithynia and the Didache for Alex- 
andria. The same may be inferred of the two 
Scriptural passages cited above; and one is led 
further back by I Cor. xi. 17-34. While Paul 
distinguishes as sharply as possible the eating of 
the one bread and the drinking of the blessed chalice 
from common food and drink (I Cor. x. 3, 16; xi. 23- 
29), he shows at the same time that in Corinth 
the two were connected in thought. While he 
rebukes the disorder of one drinking too much 
and another going hungry, so as to injure the 
dignity of the following sacrament, and lays 
down that eating for the mere satisfaction of 
himger ought to take place at home and not in the 
assembly of the brethren, he is not disposed (as I 
Cor. xi. 33 shows) to abolish altogether the connec- 
tion of the sacrament with an actual meal. This 
connection, then, existing into the first decades of 
the second century, forms the basis of the history 
for both Eucharist and agape which diverge from 
that time on. (T. Zahn.) 

The agape or love-feast is practised at present 
by Mennonites, Dunkards, German Baptists of 
the Anglo-American type, and other religious 
bodies. For an able, but not wholly successful, 
attempt to prove that the Lord's Supper in the 
apostolic time was identical with the agape, i.e., 
that it was nothing but a social feast for the mani- 
festation of brotherly love, consult Norman Fox, 
Christ in the Daily Meal (New York, 1898). 

A. H.N. 
Bibzjogbapht: See Lord's Supper. 

AGAPETUS, ag'Vpi'tus: The name of two popes. 

Agapetus I.: Pope 535-536. He was the son 
of a Roman priest named Gordianus, who had 
been killed in the disturbances under Synmaachus. 
Six days after the death of John II. he was chosen 
to succeed him, probably by the wish of Theodahad, 
king of the Ostrogoths. He began his pontificate 
by reconciling the contending factions among the 
Roman clergy and annulling the anathema pro- 
nounced by Boniface II. against the antipope Dios- 
corus. His decision, induced by the decrees of the 
North African synod, forbidding the entrance of 
converted Arians to the priesthood, and his defense 
of this measure in a letter to the emperor Justinian 
show him to have been a zealous upholder of ortho- 
doxy. In 536 he was sent to Constantinople by 
Theodahad to try to establish peace with the em- 
peror, and was obliged to pledge the sacred vessels 
of the Roman Church to obtain money for his 
journey. He did not succeed in the ostensible 
purpose of his mission, but accomplished more for 
the orthodox cause. Anthimus, patriarch of Con- 
stantinople, a secret adherent of Monophysitism, 
had, by the aid of the empress Theodora, the 
patroness of the Monophysites, been allowed, in 
defiance of the canons, to exchange the see of 
Trapezus (Trebizond) for the patriarchal throne. 
Agapetus refused all communion with him, and 
persisted so strenuously in his attitude, in spite of 





threats from the court, that be finally convinced 
Justmian that AnthimuB had deceived hinij and 
had bim deposed, and replaced by Meonaa. Aga* 
petus himself consecrated Mennaa by wish of the 
emperor, and appareoily witb the assent of the 
pnncipal orthodox Eastern bishops, after he had 
pre^nted a confession of faith which the pope 
considered satisfactory. The emperor, fearing lest 
be himself should be accused of sympathy with the 
former Mono phy site patriarchy placed a confession 
of faith in the pope's hands, which Agape tus ap^ 
proved in a letter plainly showing how important 
he felt his triumph to be. Almost immediately 
afterward he fell ill and died in Constantinople 
Apr, 22, 536, his body being brought to Rome and 
buried in 9t, Peter^B, (A. Hauck.) 

BiBLJOORiLFffT: EpiMtola, in MOH, Epiti.,m. (1891) 54-57, 
in MPL, Irri., mod io Jaf!^. Begata, i. U3-11J»; Librr 
Fanhn^i*, ed. Duchean?. i. 2g7-2Sd, Fane, 1888; ASB, 
«, 163-180; Bower, PopfM, i. 337-344; Hefelep ConcUi- 
tnff&ch%chi€, Eng. trmnal- iv. 181-i94* 

Agapetus IL,i Pope 94&-955. He was a Ro- 
man by birth, and, like his predecessor Marin ua 
II , owed his elevation to the pjapal throne (May 
lOf 946) to Alberic, the secular master of Rome* 
Though hampered at home by Al be He's power, he 
asserted the claims of hia sets successfully abroad. 
He intervened in the prolonged contest over the 
archbishopric of Reims, from which Heribert of 
Vermandois had expelled the legitime te incum- 
bent, Artold^ to give it to his own son Hugh. The 
contest between the friends of the tivo ptielatea 
attained the dimensions of a civil war, Artold being 
supported by Loiiis IV. of France. Agapetus 
also took Artold 'a side at fit^t; but he w^as deceived 
by the representations of a cleric from Reims into 
reversing his decision. After Artold had succeeded 
in enlightening him, the affair wae referred to a 
synod held at Ingelheim in ^S, w^hose final verdict 
in favor of Artold was confirmed by Agapetus in a 
Roman synod (949). [When Berengar IL, Mai^ 
quia of Ivreaj attempt^ to unite all Italy under 
his scepter, the pope and other Italian princes 
appealed to Otho L, who went as far aa Pavia, 
expecting to be crowned emperor; but Agapetus, 
infiyenced by Alberic, turned away from him.] 
In 954 Alberic took an oatb from the Roman nobles 
that at the next vacancy they w^ould elect as pope 
his eon and heir, Octavianj and when Agapetus 
died in December, 955, Octavian did in fact succeed 
him as John XII. (A. Haock.) 

BtbuoohArift; Epi$k>lm et PriviUsri^n ui MPL^ cxxxiii., 
in Bouquet, Reeutit^ ix, 226-234 < and in Ja£r^, BegettOt 
L 45&-4fl3; Bower. Popet. ii. 3l*-3l5; R. K6piu> ^d E. 
Ddmrnlerf Kaiarr Otto d^r 6ri>i»e. Lejpaic, 1S70. 

AGAPIOS MOWACHOS, a^gfl'pi-os mo-nfl'kos 
C" Agapios the Monk " \ Athanasio Lando) : As- 
cetic writer of the Greek Church; b. at Candia, 
Crete, toward the end of the sixteenth century; 
d, between 1657 and 1664. After a wandering Ufe 
he took up his al>ode in the monastery on Mt, 
Atho8, but he found it hard to submit to the strict 
discipline there. He is one of the most popular 
rehgious writera of the Creeks. By his excellent 
translations from the Latin, ancient Greek, and 
ItiUian into the vernacular he made many devotional 
works of the nations accessible to his people. He 

meant to be orthodox, but was influenced by Rc^ 
man Catholiciim} and in his works he unsuspectingly 
quotes Peter Damian and Albertus Magnus besides 
Ambrose, Augustine , and others. In penance bn 
distinguishes between the CfmirUiOt satis fadio, and 
confe^no ; and in the Ix>rd's Supper he a^cepta 
the doctrine of transubstantiation ^nithout using 
that term. The question of his ortbodo?^ waa 
seriously debated in the seventeeivth century by 
the fathers of Port Royal and repreeentativea of 
the Reformed Church (cf, J. Ayroon, Monumerm 
authentiquss de la Religion tfw Greet, The Hague, 
I70S, pp. 475, 599). 

The most important of the works of Agapios is 
the ^'Salvation of Sinners" (1641 )^ a devotional 
book for the people. His *' Sunday Cycle " (1675), 
a collection of sertnons, was also much prized. 
His writings went through many editions ^ especially 
those containing biographies of the aainU; as the 
''Paradise" (1641), the *' New Paradise" (c, 1664), 
the " Selection'* (1644), and the "Summertide" 
(1656). The first three contain translations from 
Symeon Metaphrastes, PmuPP Meter. 

BuiuooRAfwri r^Utaw, "O 'Adwf, Cdiatantiijople, 1855; E. 

Legrsjid, B^iiographie HeUen^tu, 3 t^I*., FifiB, ISDJ^ 


AGATHAp ag^Q-tha, SAIIfT: Virgin and martyr 
in the Roman Catholic calendar. The accounts of 
her given in the Latin and Greek Acta {ASB^ Feb., 
i. 595-656) are so largely made up of legendary 
and poetical matter that it h impossible to extract 
solid historical facts from them. The fact of her 
martyrdom is, however, attested by her inclueion 
in the Carthaginian calendar of the fifth or sixth 
century and in tiie so-called M artyrologium Heroi- 
nyntianum ; and she is mentioned also by Dama- 
sus^ bishop of Rome from 366 to IJS4 {Carmen ^ 30)* 
There seema no reason to doubt that she sufTered 
at Catania on Feb. 5; but the year of her death can 
not be detennined. She is venerated particularly 
in southern Italy and in Sicily, where, in many 
places, Ehe is invoked as a protectress against 
eruptions of Mount Etna, The cities of Palermo 
and Catania still contend for the honor of being 
her birthplace. (A, Hauck.) 

AGATHISTS. See CHiusTtAX Do ctrine , Bo ci ett op 
AGATHO, ag'a-tho: Pope 678^MK He waa a 
Sicilian monk, and in June or July^ 678, succeeded 
Don us after a vacancy in the papacy of two and 
one-half months. He is especially celebrated for 
the decisive part which he took in the Monotbelite 
controversy (see Mokotheute&). He succeeded 
also in inducing Theodore of Ravenna to acknowl* 
edge the dependence of his church on that of Home. 
At a synod held in Rome at Easter. 679, he decreed 
the reitomtion of Wilfrid, archbishop of York 
(q,v.), who had been deposed by Theodore of Tar- 
BUS, archbishop of Canterbury, The financial 
resources of the Roman see appear to have been 
very limited during hjs pontificate; for he not only 
att<^mpted to administer in pereon the office of 
arcaHus or treasurer of the Roman Church, but 
he persuaded the emperor to renounce the payn>ent 
which had been demanded for the confirmation of 
a fx>f)e, though the imperial approbation was still 
required. Agatho died Jan. 10, 631; the Roman 




Cliurch boQois his memoiy on that day; the Greek 
on Feb. 20. (A. Hauck.) 

Bibijookapeit: Litera^ in MPL. Ixxxrii.; Liber ponti^- 
coJu. ed. DuGbeniifl. i. 3S0-358. Paria. lS&6r Bower » PopM, 
L 4ea-4S£l: H. H. Biilman, Hinturu of iMtin CArit- 
Uamiit; Hef«)et Cvncilitngeackickte, iii. p&aim, ^ng. 
tmo^t., Y. iad-144: R. C. Maqq, Liv« i?/ C/i4 Popei in 
the Eariy MiddU AgeM, L ii. 24-S8. 

AGDE, Qg4, STNOD OF: A synod which met 
8ept. 11, 500, at Agde (Lat. Agatha), a town on 
the Mediterranean coast of France (90 m, w. of 
Marseilles, of which it was originally a colony). 
The town is unimportant, though it claimed to pos- 
Beas the relics of St. Andrew. The synod met with 
the permisdon of Alaric IL, king of the We^^t 
Goths, and thirty- five bisbopa from the south of 
France attended, Cijesarius of Aries presiding. 
It passed forty-eeven canons relating to qtiestions 
of discipline, the guardianship of church property, 
the devout life, and^a matter of no sUght inipor- 
tADce for the south of France — the position of the 
Jews. An attempt was made to enforce clencal 
celibacy- and an almost suspicious attitude was 
assumed in regard to female monasticism (nuns 
were not to take the veil before the age of 40; no 
new convents were to be founded without the per- 
mi^on of the bishop; and the Bolitary life was 
disapproved). Provision was made for the main- 
tenance of several traditional customs, stich as the 
strict fast in Lent, the Iraditut s^mbdi on the 
Saturday before Easter, the communion of the 
Luty at Christmas^ Easter, and Pentecost; an 
effort was made to secure liturgical tmiformity. 
In regard to the Jeviisb question, it is observable 
that here, as elsewhere, there was no distinction in 
oocial life between Jews and Christians, but that the 
Church c^sapproved of intercourse i^'ith the Jews, 
and looked with some distrust on converts from 
Judaism, The canons of the synod are based upon 
older and not exclusively GaUic foundations: 
Spanish and African conciliar decisions are ttsed, 
ss well as tbe letter of Pope Innocent I. to Exsu- 
perius of Toulouse, In like manner the canons 
of the First Fran Irish Synod at Orleans (511) and 
the Burgundian Synod at Epao (517) depend 
upon those of Agde. The latter were early in- 
cluded in the collections of church law, and Gratian 
incorporated a large part of them in his Decrelum, 

(A, Hauck*) 

BtBUDGKAnrr: Mansi. CtmcUia, viii, 3T9j Htfcle, Coneilien^ 
g€Mrhiehl€, it. &I&-G60. Eng, lri&Ui»L. iv. 76-SO; C. F. Ar^ 
nokl* Cajwnu* von /ineioi*, Leipaic^ 1394- 

AGE, CAKORICAL: Tbe ag@ tequimi by the 
canons of the Cliurch for ordination or for the 
performance of any particular act. The require- 
ment of a defimto age for entering the priestly 
order is first found in the eleventh canon of the 
Synod of Neocsesarea (314 or 325): " No one is 
to be ordained priest before be is thirty years old 
. , , for Jesus Christ when thirty years old was 
baptised and entered ui>on his ministry." The 
first canon of the second series of eanons of the 
Synod of Hippo in 393 required the completion of 
tbe twenty-fifth year for the reception of deacon ^s 
orders. These decisions were frequently repeated, 
U by the Synods of Agde (506, canon xvi . ), of Aries 
{B2i, esLium L), thu Third Synod of Orleans (538, 

canon vi.), and the Fourth of Toledo (633, canon 
XX. }j and the later repetitions were included in tbe 
canonical collections of the early Middle Ages, 
but in detail they were frequently changed. Urban 
II. at the CJouncil of Melfi (1089, canon iv.) laid 
down the law thai no one should be ordained sub' 
deacon before his fourteenth year, or deacon before 
his twenty-fourth. For the priesthood, though the 
thirtieth year still remained the minimum in the 
written law, the practise grew of ordaining at 
twenty- five. The Synod of Ravenna (1314, canon 
ii,) fixed the sixteenth year for subdeacons, the 
twentieth for deacons, and the twenty-fourth for 
priests. Finally the Council of Trent (1563, session 
xxiii.) settled the minimum at twenty-two, twenty- 
three, and twenty-four years, respectively, for 
these offices. It is sufficient to have begun the 
year specified in the Council. For tonsure and 
minor orders the Council simply requires the recep- 
tion of the sacrament of confirmation and a certain 
degr^j of learning. In the Protestant Churches 
the attainment by the candidate of his majority 
is usually considered sufficient, though here and 
there the twenty-fourth year is still required. 

In the Roman Catholic Church the canonical 
age is reckoned from the day of birth. Canonically 
the age of discretion is put at seven years, and then 
the sacraments of penance and extreme unction 
may be received because the child, being supposed 
to be capable of conscious choice, can commit 
a mortal sin; also the child is then subject to the 
regulations of the Church re8i:iecting abstinence 
and attendance on mass, and may also, as far as 
law is concerned, contract a marriage engagement. 
A marriage may not be contracted before puberty 
(except in case of extraordmat/ development of 
mind and body), i,e., before fourteen for boys 
and twelve for girls; nor may confirmation and the 
Lord's Supper be received till the child has been 
properly instructed. From twenty-one to sixty 
is the period when fasting at certain seasons is 
obligatory. The lowest canonical age for a bishop 
is thirty years completed » The minimum age 
at wiiieh simple vows may be taken is sixteen 
years completed. Clerics may not profess solemn 
vow^s before they have entenKl on their twentieth 
BttiC-tonRAF^r: HTL, t. fi33-63S; E. Fiiedbo?, L$hr^mdi (fat 

katholUtJien und n^ngelisth^n Kirchinrcchi*, pp. 151, 330, 

Leip#ic. 1903: W. E. Acidic and T. Arnold, Catholic Dk^ 

tionartjy Londloji, 1903. 

AGELLI, a-jclli, ANTOinO (Lat. AgeUius): 
Roman Catholic scholar; b. at Sorrento, s. of 
the Bay of Naples, 1,532; d. at Acerno, 14 m. 
e.n,e. of Sorrento, 1608. He joined the order of 
the Theatins, became bishop of Acerno in 1593, 
but after a few years returned to his monastery. 
He w*a3 famed for liis knowledge of the lan- 
guages of the Bible, under Gregoiy XIIL and 
Sixtus V. was member of the commission for the 
publication of the Septuagint (1587), and as- 
sisted also in the publication of the Vulgate 

Agelli wToto commentaries on the Book of Lam- 
entations (Rome, 1598); the Psalms and Canticles 
(1600); Proverbs (Verona, 1649); and Habakkuk 
(Antwerp, 1697). 




AGEin)A, Q-jen'da. 
The Term; its Equivalents Before the Reformation (f 1). 
Lutheran Changes in Roman Catholic Agenda (f i2). 
Decline of Lutheran Agenda in Eighteenth Century (f 3). 
The Agenda in the Reformed Church (f 4). 
Revival of Agenda by Frederick William IIL (f 5). 
The Agenda in the Modem Lutheran Church (f 6). 
American Liturgies (f 7). 

The name Agenda (" Things to be Done "; Germ. 
Agende or Kirchenagende) is given, particularly in 
the Lutheran Church, to the official books dealing 
with the forms and ceremonies of divine service. 
It occurs twice in the ninth canon of the Second 
Synod of Carthage (390; Bruns, CanoneSy i., Ber- 
lin, 1839, p. 121), and in a letter of Innocent I. 
(d. 417; MPL, XX. 552). The name was frequently 
employed in a more specific sense, as agenda mis- 
sarum, for the celebration of the mass; agenda diet, 
for the office of the day; agenda morttuyrum, for the 
service for the dead; agenda maiutinat and agenda 
vespertinaf for morning and evening prayers. As 
the designation of a book of liturgical formulas it is 
stated by Ducange to have been used by Johannes 
de Janua, but in the only published work of Johan- 
nes (c. 1287) the name does not occur. There is no 
doubt, however, that with the development of the 
ritual of the Church the classification of liturgical 
formulas for the use of the parochial clergy became 
common. Such books of procedure 
I. The were known by various names; e.g., 
Term; manuale, obsequiale, benedictionalef ri- 

its Equiv- tuale^ and agenda. The last title was 

alents Be- given especially to the church books of 
fore the Ref- particular dioceses wherein the gen- 

ormation. eral ritual of the Church was supple- 
mented by ceremonial features of 
local origin, as the agenda for Magdeburg of 1497, 
or the Liher agendarum secundum ritum ecclesue et 
diocesis Sleawicensis of 1512. The use of the term 
in the Roman CathoUc Church, however, practi- 
cally ceases with the Reformation, though a few 
instances occur in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. In the Evangelical Churches, on the 
contrary, with the title Kirchenbuchf it speedily 
came to be the accepted designation for authorita- 
tive books of ritual. In the early days of the Ref- 
ormation the agenda not infrequently constituted 
part of the Kirchenordnung or general church con- 
stitutions of a state (see Church Order); but in 
the course of time the separation of the formulas of 
worship from the legal and administrative codes of 
the Church was efTected. 

The earliest attempts at a reformation of the 
Roman ritual were naturally concerned with the 
mass. The innovations consisted of the omission 
of certain parts of the Roman ceremonial and the 
substitution of German for Latin, instances of the 
use of the vernacular in the celebration of the mass 
occurring as early as 1 521 -22. In 1 523 
2. Lutheran Luther pubhshed his Latin mass, revised 
Changes in in accordance with evangeUcal doc- 
Roman trine; and three years later he gave to 

Catholic the world his Deutsche Messe und Ord- 

Agenda. nung des GoUesdiensts, the use of which, 

however, was not made obligatory. 

In the same year appeared his " Book of Baptism,'* 

in 1529 probably his "Book of Marriage," and dur- 

ing the years 1535-37 the formula for the ordination 
of ministers. In the Kirchenordnungen of the time 
orders of worship occur, as in Thomas MQnzer's 
Deutzsch kirchen amptj of 1523, and the Landesord- 
nung of the duchy of Prussia in 1 525. From this time 
to the end of the sixteenth century the Protestant 
states of Germany were busied with the task of re- 
modeling their ecclesiastical systems and formularies 
of worship, the work being carried on by the great 
theologians of the age. The church constitutions and 
agenda of this period may be divided into three 
classes: (1) those following closely the Lutheran 
model; (2) those in which the ideas of the Swiss Ref- 
ormation were predominant; and (3) those which re- 
tained appreciable elements of the Roman ritual. Of 
the first type the earliest examples are the constitu- 
tions drawn up by Bugenh^en for Bnmswick, 
1528; Hamburg, 1529; Lttbeck, 1531; Pomerania, 
1535; Denmark, 1537; Sleswick-Holstein, 1542; 
and Hildesheim, 1544. Justus Jonas formulated 
the church laws of Wittenberg (in part), 1533; 
of the duchy of Saxony (where the name *' agenda " 
is first adopted), 1539; and of Halle, 1541. Han- 
over received its laws from Urbanus Rhegius in 
1536; Brandenburg-Nuremberg, from Osiander and 
Bren2 in 1533; and Mecklenburg, from Riebling, 
Aurifaber, and Melanchthon in 1540 and 1552. 
Among the states which adopted constitutions of 
the Reformed type were Hesse and Nassau, between 
1527 and 1576; more closely, Wtirttemberg, 1536; 
the Palatinate, 1554; and Baden, 1556. In the so- 
called " Cologne Reformation," drawn up largely by 
Butzer and Melanchthon and introduced by Arch- 
bishop Hermann in 1543, the agenda of Saxony, 
Brandenburg-Nuremberg, and Cassel served as 
models. The Roman ritual was retained to some 
extent in the church ordinances of the electorate 
of Brandenburg, 1540; Pfalzneuburg, 1543; and 
Austria, 1571. Of this type, too, were the ordi- 
nances drawn up by Melanchthon, Bugenhagen, 
Major, and others, for the electorate of Saxony in 
1549; but these never went into effect, giving place 
in 1580 to a constitution Lutheran in character. 

The Thirty Years' war exercised a disastrous 
influence on the entire ecclesiastical system of 
Germany, and particularly on church discipline. 
The work of restoration, however, was begun 
almost immediately after the cessation of hostil- 
ities, but so great was the moral degradation in 
which the mass of the people was plunged, so low 
was the standard of education and general intelli- 
gence, that in the formulation of new ecclesiastical 
laws the governments, of necessity, assumed a far 
larger share of authority over the affairs of the 
Church than they had possessed before the war. 
This increased power of the government was appar- 
ent not only in a closer supervision over the eccle- 
siastical administration, but also in the enforcement 
of a stricter adherence to the formulated modes 
of worship. Of the agenda promulgated after 
the war, the most important were those of Mecklen- 
burg, 1650; Saxony and Westphalia, 1651; Brun»- 
wick-Ltineburg, 1657; Hesse, 1657; and Halle, 1660. 

The eighteenth century witnessed a marked 
decline in the importance of the official liturgies 
in the religious life of the nation — a loss of infiu- 




ence so great as to make the books of the Church 
practically obsolescent. This was due to the rise 
of the pietistic movement which, in its opposition 
to fonnula and rigidity in doctrine, was no less 
destructive of the old ritual than was the ration- 
alistic movement of the latter half of the century. 
Both pietism and rationalism were wanting in 
respect for the element of historical evolution in 
religion and worship; and the former, in laying 
stress on the value of individual prayer and devotion 
without attempting any change in the forms of 
divine service, led to their general abandonment 
for the spiritual edification that was to be obtained 
in the societies organized for common improve- 
ment, the so-called collegia pietatis. Rationalism in 
lending its own interpretation to the ritual, deprived 
it of much of its practical bearing, and necessitated, 
in consequence, a radical reconstruction of the 
prayers and hymns of the Church. But a no 
less important cause of change in 
3. Decline of liturgiccd forms is to be found in 

Lutheran the growth of social distinctions and 

Agenda in the rise of a courtly etiquette which 

in the sought, with success, to impose its 

Eighteenth standards of manners and speech on 

Century, the ceremonies and language of the 
Church. The etiquette of the salon 
entered the Church, and the formula " Take thou 
and eat," at the Lord's Supper, was altered to 
" Take ye and eat " when the commimicants were 
of the nobility. The consistory of Hanover in 
1800 granted permission to its ministers to intro- 
duce during public worship such changes in lan- 
guage, costiune, and gesture as would appeal to 
the tastes of their *' refined audiences.'' As a 
result the old official agenda passed generally out 
of use and were replaced by books of worship rep- 
resenting the views of individual ministers. 

In the Evangelical Churches outside of Germany 
books of ritual were drawn up during the early 
years of the Reformation. In 1525 Zwin^ pub- 
lished the order of the mass as celebrated at Zurich 
and a formula of baptism based on the ** Book of 
Baptism," issued by Leo Judse in 1523. A complete 
agenda, including the two Zwinglian codes, appeared 
at Zurich in 1525 (according to Hamack and others, 
but more probably in 1529), imder the title Ordnung 
der Ckri^enlichen KUchenn zH ZUrichf and was 
often revised during the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. Bern received its first formulary in 
1528; Schaffhausen, in 1592, and St. Gall in 1738. 
NeuchAtel, in 1533, was the first 

4. The French-speaking commmxity to adopt 

Agenda a definite ritual; its authorship has 

in the been attributed to Farel. At Geneva, 

Reformed Calvin published in 1542, La Forme 

Church, des pribree eccUsiagtiqties, based on 
the practises he had found among the 
French of Strasburg during his sojourn in that 
dty from 1538 to 1541. The Strasburg ritual was 
followed also by the French in London, and by 
many churches in France itself. Deserving of 
special mention are the constitutions drawn up in 
1550 by Johannes a Lasco for the fugitives from 
the Netheriands resident in England. They form 
the first comprehensive formulation of the ritual 

of Calvinistic Protestantism, and are still in force 
in the Netherland Church. 

In Germany the return to a uniform, authorita- 
tive mode of worship was begun by Frederick 
William III. of Prussia in the early years of the 
nineteenth century. After 1613 the royal family 
of Prussia were adherents of the Reformed creed, 
but the king's personal beliefs were entirely Luther- 
an. After the campaign of Jena (1806) he entrusted 
the task of drafting a ritual to Eylert, whose work, 
however, failed to receive the king's approval 
because the author had fallen into the then common 
error of the writers of liturgies, namely, of paying 
httle regard to the historical develop- 
5. Revival ment of the evangelical forms of wor- 
of ship. Frederick William protested 

Agenda by vehemently against these newly fabri- 
Frederick cated rituals, and asserted the neces- 
William in. sity of '' going back to Father Lu- 
ther." With this purpose he devoted 
many years to the personal study of ritualistic 
history and attained an expert knowledge of the 
subject, particularly of its phases in the sixteenth 
century. The refusal of the great mass of the clergy 
to lend themselves to his efforts in favor of imity, 
he met with the determination to make use of the 
power vested in him by law to bring about the 
desired end. In 1822 he published the agenda 
for the court and cathedral church of Berlin; 
and two years later this formulary, increased 
and revised with the aid of Borowsky and Bunsen, 
was submitted to the various consistories. Before 
the end of 1825, out of 7,782 churches within the 
Prussian dominions, 5,243 had adopted the proposed 
regulations. In spite of a bitter polemic, in which 
Schleiermacher led the assault on the king's inno- 
vations, the new regulations were introduced in all 
the provinces before 1838. 

The king's agenda, however, did not cease to be 
the subject of much criticism. In 1856 it was 
improved; and in 1879 the General Synod deter- 
mined upon a thorough revision. The work was 
entrusted to a committee of twenty-three, among 
whom were the theologians Goltz, 
6. The Kleinert, Hering, Meuss, Renner, 
Agenda in Rtibesamen, K5gel, and Schmalen- 
the Modem bach; and in 1894 their draft of a new 
Lutheran ritual was adopted with slight changes 
Church, by the General Synod. The lead of 
Prussia was followed by the other 
members of the German Empire, and most of the 
states have now revised their agenda or have the 
work in progress. Bohemia and Moravia (both Lu- 
therans and Calvinists), Denmark, Norway, Poland, 
Russia, Sweden, and Transylvania have also late 
revisions. In France, after much agitation, a book 
of ritual, Ldiurgie des ^glises reJomUes de France 
reviaies par leSynode g^rUraly was adopted in 1897. 
(Georq R1ET8CHEL.) 
The Church of England adopted the Book of 
Common Prayer under Edward VI., which, with 
slight revisions, has been made imiversally obliga- 
tory by acts of uniformity. It is used with modi- 
fications by the Protestant Episcopal Church 
of the United States (see Common Prayer, Book 
of). H. M. Muhlenberg prepared a hturgy which 




was adopted by the Lutheran Synod that he had 
organi^icd (1748) and approved by the German 
Lutheran authorities at Halle, whose missionary 

he was. It waa based ypon those 

7. Ameri- in use in Ltlneburg (1643 onward), 

can Cakaberg (156& onward), Braiulen- 

Liturgies, burg- Magdeburg (1739 OQward)j and 

Saxo uy ( 1 7 1 2 on w ard) . The liturgy of 
the Savoy Lutheran Church of London was the only 
one, apparently, actually in hand^ the others 
exerting their infiuence through MtJhlenbcrg's 
memory (for text cf, H. E. Jacobs, A History of 
ihe Lutheran Chtirt^h in the United Stoles ^ New York, 
1893, pp 26fl"275: ef. also Seh mucker, in the 
Luiheran Church Review, i., pp. 16-27, 161-172). 
Forms for baptism and the marriage ceremony 
were taken from the Prayer- Book of the Church 
of England In 1795 Kun^ published A Hymn 
end prayer Book for tkc use of suck L^Uher^in 
Churches as use the English Language^ which bas 
by successive revisions developed into the present 
English Church Book, In 1806 the New York 
minis terium adopted a liturgy modified by Episco- 
pal influence, and in 181 8 the Philadelphia minis- 
terium adopted a liturgy in w^hich extemporaneous 
prayer was allowed as well as freedom lo electing 
the Scriptures to be read. In 1885 after much 
controversy and conference the General Synod 
adopted a '* Common Service," which hajs been 
widely accepted by the Churches, but is not re- 
garded a& obligatoi:y. 

The Dutch Reformed Chyreb in the United States 
adopted (1771) along with the Belgte Confession, 
the Heidelberg Catecliism, and the Canons of the 
Sytiod of Dort, the liturgical forms that were at 
that time in use in the Netherlands, The Nioene 
and Athanasian creeds are appended to the liturgy, 
which has undergpne little change. The German 
Reformed Church in the United States seems to 
have used the Palatinate liturgy^ with local modi- 
fications. In 1$41 the Eastern Synod published 
a Uturgy prepared by Lewis Mayer, w^hich, how- 
ever, failed of general approval. A ** Provisional 
Liturgy p" prepared by Philip Sehaff and others 
(1857), likewise proved unacceptable. The *^ Order 
of Worship" was allowed by the General Sjmod 
(1866) as was also the ** W^^tem Liturgy '* (1869). 
The ** Directory of Worship "was adopted in 1887 
(cf, E. T. Corwin, History of the Reforntcd Churchy 
Dutdit and J. H, Dubbs, Hi$lory of the Reformed 
Church, Gcrmanj New York, 1895), A book of 
liturgical forms, prepared by Henry Van Dyke 
and otbers appointed by the General Assembly, 
for use in Presbyterian ChurcheSj but in no way 
obligatory, was published in 1906, It aroused 
considerable opposition, A. H. N. 

BiBLiOGKAPBt: J* A, Schmid. Di^Eertittia de Agtndis Bif* 
ordinationibut rccJ^aiaMtid^, Hebn^tadt, 1718; J. L. Funk, 
iHe Kirchtnafdnun(f d^ fvunff^liM-h-ltiiktritchm Kirchf 
DeutjichlatuiM in iktem ertten Jahrhundfrt, 1824; icltm^ 
HUUxrUchM Bdruchtunff drr Apenden^ Neupt*dt, 1827; A. 
E, Rif^hter, Die ct>angrti»chen Kirchenffrdn^nffen da tech»- 
tehnitn JfthrhutuierfM^ 2 vols., Weimar, t&4Gi H* A, D&ruel, 
Coder iitiavicia eccUvia univertm in epitom^n redartw* 
4 rcils.,Leipi»ic, 1&17' 53; J, H. A. Kbr^rd, Reffjrrnitte* Kiffh- 
entuek.ZuTich, IS47; A. Nordineior,P™teflfeinfuicA* Aofnda* 
Gera, 1879; K, A. Dlc^hsel. Affend^ for dU *Mn<^iticAe iTtr- 
cA*, FlPT'lifj, 1880; K^Sehlinir, Die t^*an^liMdktn Kircherufrd- 
Hungen de* 9«xh9*thnten JakrhunJgrt&t vol. i., heipmOf 1903. 


ISTS, 6, 

AGIER, a"ahy6', PIERRE JEAN i French law- 
yer; b, in Paris Dec. 28, 1748i of a Janscm^ 
family J d. there Sept. 22, 1S23. He held high 
potsitionH in the French courts during the Revo- 
lution and imdcr Napoleon and the Bourbons, 
but was early led into comprehensive theo- 
logical studies. He learned Hebrew at the age of 
forty. His principal work is Lcs ProphHcs nou- 
vdiemeni iraduils de Vh^breu avec des explicaiiim>$ 
et des notes critiques (S vols., Parw, 1820^23), Among 
Ilia other works are: Le JurisamsulU nationtd (3 
vols., 1788); Vue^ &iir la r{ formation de» his citnlei 
( 1 7 9!i ) J Traiti $ur he man'ajyc ( 2 vols ., 1 800) ] Psaumes 
nouvellemjetU traduHs (3 vols., 1S09); Vues sur le 
second avenemenl de Jfsm-Chrisi (ISlS); PropMtie^ 
concernani JtMuB-Chri&i et V&glise (1819); and Com- 
mj^nlaire sur V Apocalypse (2 vols., 1823). 

AGILBERt, Q^'zliil-bar': Second bishop of the 
West Saxons (Dorchester) and aftens^ard of Paris; 
b, in Gaul, probably in Paris; d, at Jouarre (35 m, 
e. of Paris) Oct. 11, 680; be studied in Ireland, and 
went U> Wesseit about 650^ where King CenweaJh 
appointed bim bishop to succeed Birinus (he bad 
received consecration before leaving Gaul). As 
he could not speak English, Ctjnwealh chose another 
bishop. Wine, whom he located (probably in 663) 
in bis royal city, Winchester, 'where he had founded 
a church soon after his conversion in 646. ,\gilbert 
then returned to Gaul, passing tlirough Northum- 
bria and attending the Synod of Wliitby (q.v.) on 
the way. He became bishop of Paris not before 
666, He assist^ at the consecration of Wilfrid 
as biiihop of York (694 or 665), and entertained 
Theodore of Tarsus while on his way to Canterbury. 
After a time C^nwcalh invited him to return to 
We^sex; but he decUned, and sent his nephew 
Hlothhere, or l^utherius, w^ho w^aa consecrated 
in 670 by the archbishop of Cant*rbury» 
BiblzoobjLfeit: Bede. HifL tfd„ iiL 7, 25-28: ir. 1, 12: ▼. 10. 

AGLIARDI, a''gh"ar'di, AlfTOinO: Cardinal; 

b. at O>logno al Serio (S m. s,s.e. of Ber- 
gamo), Lombardy, Italy, Sept, 4, 1832, After 
a pastorate of twelve years in his native city, he 
was called to Rome and appointed administrator of 
East Indian a^airs in the College cf the Propagaada^ 
as well as profcBsor of moral theology in the Colle- 
gium Urbanum. In the former capacity he was sent 
to India as apostolic delegate in 1884, after being 
consecrated titular bishop of Csesarea in Palestine. 
Ill health forced him to return to Italy, but he waa 
ioon in India once more, and made a tour of the 
country w*hich lasted five months- In 1887, after 
finally leaving India, he was for a time secretary 
for extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs, and waa 
then successively papal nuncio at Munich and 
Vienna. In 18^ he was sent to Russia as am- 
bassador extraorcUnary to attend the coronation 
of the czar, and in the same year received the 
cardinars hat, while in 1809 he was made suburban 
bishop of Albano. In 1902 he was placed in charga 
of the estates of the College of the Propagandat 
and since 1903 has been vice-chancellor of the Hdy 
Roman Churctu 




AGNELLUS, ag^'neiaus (called also Andrew): 
The historian of the Church of Ravenna; b. in that 
city early in the ninth centuiy [some authorities 
say in 805, of a rich and noble family]; the year of 
his death is unknown. He entered the clerical 
state very early, and became abbot of the monas- 
teries of St. Mary ad Blachemas and St. Bartholo- 
mew, both in Ravenna. He was ordained priest 
by Archbishop Petronacius (817-835). His repu- 
tation for learning induced his brother clergy to 
ask him to write the history of the local church, 
and he began his LSber porUificalis Ecclesice Raven- 
natis before 838, and finished it after 846. It 
follows the model of the Roman Ldber porUificaliSf 
giving a series of biographies of the bishops of 
Ravenna, beginning with Apollinaris, said to have 
been a disciple of St. Peter and to have died as a 
martyr July 23, 75 (or 78), in whose memory the 
Basilica in Classe at Ravenna was dedicated in the 
year 549. The last bishop mentioned is George, 
whose death falls apparently in 846. The charac- 
teristics of the work are its strong tendency to the 
expression of local patriotism, and the interest 
which it shows in buildings, monuments, and other 
works of art. It is one of the earliest historical 
works to make an extensive use of architectural 
monuments as sources. Agnellus had little com- 
mand of written documents; he availed himself of 
oral tradition wherever possible, and supplied its 
deficiencies by a well-meaning imagination. 

(A. Hauck.) 
Bibuoorapht: Hia history, edited by O. Holder-Egger, is 
in MGH, Script, rer. Lang., 1878, pp. 265-391, also in the 
continuation to 1296 by an unknown writer and to 1410 
by Paul Soordilii, in MPL, cvi. 429-840; A. Ebert, AUge- 
meine Geachichte der Litteratur de9 MiUeldUera, ii. 374-377, 
Leipsic, 1880. 

AGNES, SAINT : A saint commemorated in 
the Roman Church on Jan. 21 and 28 (the Ge- 
lasian Liturgy giving the former; the Gregorian, 
the latter date), and in the Greek Church on Jan. 
14 and 21 and July 5. Since the oldest documents 
(the Calendarium Romanumf the Calendarium Ajrir- 
canunif and the Gothic and Oriental Missale) agree 
in fixing Jan. 21 as the day of her death, Holland 
has rightly assigned to that day the acts of her 
martyrdom. The year of her death, according to 
Ruinart, was about 304. The cause and manner 
of her martyrdom are given in a very legendary 
manner by an undoubtedly spurious Passion in 
the older editions of the works of St. Ambrose, 
which states that, having made a vow of perpetual 
virginity while still a child, she successfully resisted 
the wooing of a noble youth, the son of Symphro- 
nius, the city prefect, and embellishes the narrative 
with many wonders. Her hair suddenly grew so 
long and thick as to serve for a cloak; a light from 
heaven struck her importunate lover lifeless to 
the ground; when she was bound to the stake the 
flames were extinguished in answer to her prayer. 
After she had been beheaded at the command of 
the prefect, and had been buried by her parents 
in their field on the Via Nomentana, outside of 
Rome, she appeared to her people in glorified form 
with a little lamb at her side, and continued to 
perform miracles, such as the healing of the princess 
Constantia, for which, it is said, she was honored 

under Constantino the Great by the erection of a 
basilica at her tomb (Sanf Agnese fuori le Mura). 
Evidence of the high antiquity of her worship is 
given by Ambrose in several of his genuine 
writings, by Jerome (Epist., cxxx., ad Demetriadem), 
by Augustine, by the Christian poets Damasus 
and Prudentius, and by others. 

In medieval art St. Agnes is usually represented 
with a lamb, which indicates her character as 
representative of youthful chastity and innocence, 
but may have been derived from her name, which 
is to be connected with the Greek hagnf., " chaste " 
(cf. Augustine, Sermones^ cclxxiii. 6). Two lambs 
are blessed every year on Jan. 21 in the Agnes 
basilica, mentioned above (one of the principal 
churches of Rome, after which one of the cardinal 
priests is called), and their wool is used to make 
the archiepiscopal pallia which are consecrated by 
the pope (see Pallium). O. ZdcKLBRt. 

Biblioorapht: For life and legenda: Ambrose, Vita glori- 
09a virginit Agnetia, in folio 115 of his works, Milan, 1474; 
ASB, Jan., ii. 350-363; T. Ruinart, Acta Martyrum, Am- 
sterdam, 1713, Ratisbon, 1859; A. Butler, LivtM of the 
Saints, under Jan. 21, London, 1847; L. Santini, £«6en 
der heUigen Agnea, Ratisbon, 1884; P. Franchi de' Cava- 
lieri, Santa Agneee nella tradieione e nella leggenda, Rome. 
1899. For representations in Christian art: H. Detsel, 
Chriatliche Ikonographie, voL ii., Freiburg, 1896. For the 
Catacombs of St. Agnes: J. S. Northoote and W. C. Brown- 
low, Roma Sotterranea, London, 1879-80; M. Amellini, II 
Cimtterio di S. Agneae, Rome, 1880; W. H. Withrow, 
Catacomba of Rome, London, 1888; V. Schultse, ArchOolo- 
gie der altchriatlichen Kunat, Munich, 1895. For the mys- 
tery play of St. Agnes: Sancta Agnea, ProvenMaliachea geiat- 
lichea Scfutuapid, Berlin. 1869. 

AGNOET^, ag"no-l'tt or -^'t6 (Gk. agnoUai, 
" ignorant '0: 1. Name of a sect of the fourth 
century, a branch of the Eunomians (q.v.), who 
followed the lead of Theophronius of Cappadocia. 
They were so named because they limited the divine 
omniscience to the present, maintaining that God 
knew the past merely by memory, and the future 
by divination (Socrates, Hist, eccl., v. 24). 

2. The name was borne also by the sect of the 
sixth century, founded by Themistius, a deacon of 
Alexandria, and sometimes called Themistians. 
They consisted chiefly of the Severian faction of the 
Monophysites, and maintained that, as the body 
of Christ was subject to natural conditions, so also 
his human soul must be thought of as not omni- 
scient. In support of their view they quoted Mark 
xiii. 32 and John xi. 34. The heresy was revived 
by the Adoptionists in the eighth century. 

AGNOSTICISM: A philologically objectionable 
and philosophically unnecessary but very con- 
venient term, invented toward the end of the 
nineteenth century (1869) as a designation of the 
skeptical habit of mind then quite prevalent. It 
is defined in the Oxford Dictionary as the doctrine 
which holds that " the existence of anything be- 
yond and behind natural phenomena is imknown, 
and (so far as can be judged) unknowable, and 
especially that a First Cause and an unseen world 
are subjects of which we know nothing." It is 
thus equivalent to the common philosophical term, 
skepticism, although expressing the phase of thought 
designated by both alike from the point of view 
of its outcome rather than of its method. Some 
have held, it is true, that the true agnostic is not 



he who doubts whether human powers can attain 
to the knowledge of what really is, or specifically 
to the knowledge of God and spiritual things, but 
he who denies this. But there is a dogmatic skep- 
ticism, and there is no reason why there may 
not be a more or less hesitant agnosticism. The 
essential element in both is that the doubt or 
denial rests on distrust of the power of the human 
mind to ascertain truth. It is common, to be sure, 
to speak of several types of agnosticism, di£Pering 
the one from the other according as the basis of the 
doubt or denial of the attainability of truth is 
ontological, generally psychological, definitely epis- 
temological, or logical. But useful as this dis- 
crimination may be as a rough classification of 
modes of presenting the same fundamental doc- 
trine, it is misleading if it suggests that the real 
basis of doubt or denial is not in every case episte- 
mological. When it is said, for example, that God 
and spiritual things are in their very nature imknow- 
able, that of course means that they are unknow- 
able to such powers as man possesses; nothing that 
exists can be intrinsically imknowable, and if un- 
knowable to men must be so only because of limi- 
tations in their faculties of knowledge. And when 
one is told that the sole trouble is that the balance 
of evidence is hopelessly in equilibrium, and the 
mind is therefore left in suspense, that of course 
means only that such minds as men have are too 
coarse scales for weighing such delicate matters. 

Agnosticism is in short a theory of the nature and 
limits of human intelligence. It is that particular 
theory which questions or denies the capacity of 
human intelligence to attain assured knowledge, 
whether with respect to all spheres of truth, or, in 
its religious appUcation, with respect to the par- 
ticular sphere of religious truth. As mankind has 
universally felt itself in possession of a body of 
assured knowledge, and not least in the sphere of 
religious truth, — nay as mankind instinctively 
reaches out to and grasps what it unavoidably 
looks upon as assured knowledge, and not least in 
the sphere of religious truth, — agnosticism becomes, 
in effect, that tendency of opinion which pronounces 
what men in general consider knowledge more or 
less misleading, and therefore more or less noxious. 
Sometimes, no doubt, in what we may, perhaps, 
call the half-agnostic, these illusions are looked 
upon as rough approximations to truth, and are 
given a place of importance in the direction of 
human life, under some such designation as ** regu- 
lative truths " (Mansel), or " value judgments " 
(Ritschl), or " symbolical conceptions " (Sabatier). 
The consistent agnostic, however, must conceive 
them as a body of mere self-deceptions, from which 
he exhorts men to cleanse their souls as from cant 

In effect, therefore, agnosticism impoverishes, 
and, in its application to religious truth, secularizes 
and to this degree degrades life. Felicitating itself 
on a peculiarly deep reverence for truth on the 
ground that it will admit into that category only 
what can make good its right to be so considered 
under the most stringent tests, it deprives itself 
of the enjoyment of this truth by leaving the cate- 
gory either entirely or in great psut empty. Re- 

fusing to assert there is no truth, it jet misses what 
Bacon declares " the sovereign g^xxi of human 
nature," viz., " the inquiry of truth, which is the 
love-making or wooing of it, — ^the knowledge of 
truth, which is the presence of it, — and the belief 
of truth which is the enjoying of it." On the 
ground that certain knowledge of God and spiritual 
things is unattainable, it bids man think and feel 
and act as if there were no God and no spiritual 
life and no future existence. It thus degenerates 
into a practical atheism. Refusing to declare there 
is no God, it yet misses all there may be of value and 
profit in the recognition of God. 

Benjamin B. Warfield. 
Biblioobapht: Modem agnofltidsm takes its etart in the 
philoflophy of Kant and runs its course through Hamil- 
ton and Mansel to culminate in the teaching of Herbert 
Spencer; its most authoritative exposition is given in 
their writings and in those of their followers. Good select 
bibliographies of the subject may be found in A. B. Bruce, 
Apologetica, p. 146, London, 1802. in F. R. Beattie. Apol^ 
0etic9, or the Rational VindieaHon of Ckri&Hanity, L 621, 
631. Richmond, 1003, and in R. Flint, AgnotHeiam, Lon- 
don, 1903, foot-notes, especially that on p. 643, where the 
titles of works on the oognoscibility of God are collected. 
Consult, besides the above, from the Christian dogmatic 
standpoint, J. Ward, Naturalitm and AgnotHeitm, ib. 
1903; C. Hodge, SyaUmaHe Theoloov, I. i., ch. iv.. New 
York, 1871; B. P. Bowne, The PhOoeophy of H. Spencer, 
ib. 1874 (a criticism of Spencer's agnosticism); J. Owen, 
Eveninga with the Skeptica, 2 vols., London, 1881; J. Mo- 
Cosh, The AgnoeHeiem of Hume and Huxiey, New York, 
1984; J. Martineau, Study of IMyfiont I. i., ch. i.-iv., Lon- 
don, 1889; H. Wace, Chrietianity and Agnoetieiem, Edin- 
burgh, 1895; J. Iverach, le God KnowMe t London, 1887. 
The agnostics' position is set forth in H. Spencer, Firat 
Prineiplee, ib. 1904 (called ** the Bible of Agnosticism "); 
J. Fiske, Outlinea of Coamic PhUoaophy, Boston, 1874; K. 
Pearson, The Ethic of Freethought, London, 1887; R. Bit- 
hell, Agnoatie Problema, ib. 1887; idem. The Creed of a 
Modem Agnoatie, ib. 1888; idem. Handbook of Scientifie 
Agnoaiieiam, ib. 1892; Chrietianity and Agnoatieiemt a 
Controveray conaiating of Papera by H. Waee, T, H, Hu^ 
ley, Biahop Magee, and Mra, Ward, New York, 1889 (this 
discussion aroused wide interest); L. Stephen, An Agnoe^ 
tic'a Apology, London, 1893; T. Huxley, Collected Eeeaye, 
vol. v., 9 vols., ib. 1894 (contains his side of the con- 
troversy with Dr. Wace); W. Scott Pahner, An Agnoatic'a 
pTogreee, London, 1906. 

AGNUS DEI, ag'nus dd'i ("Lamb of God"): 
1. An ancient liturgical formula in the celebra- 
tion of the Eucharist, found in some manuscripts of 
the Sacramentary of Gregory the Great after the 
Lord's Prayer and the Libera. The full text, based 
on John i. 29, is " Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mun- 
di, miserere nobis." It is found also in the ancient 
Eastern hymn which was annexed to the Gloria 
in ExceUia (see Lituroical Formulas, II., 3) 
and was early introduced into the Western Church 
in Latin translation, where the form is " Domine 
Fill unigenite, Jesu Christe, Domine Deus, Agnus 
Dei, Filius Patris, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere 
nobis; qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe depreca- 
tionem nostram." When the Second Trullan 
Council (692) undertook to forbid the representa- 
tion and invocation of Christ under the figure of 
the lamb, Pope Sergius I., to express the opposition 
of the Roman Church, decre^ that the Agnus 
should be sung by priest and people at the Com- 
munion. After 767, under Adrian I., it was sung 
by the choir only. The ritual of the mass, based 
in this particular on a custom which can be 
traced to the beginning of the eleventh century, 




prescribei that the pnest^ before taking the sacra- 
ment, ehall reeite the Agnus Dei three times, bow- 
ing and beating his bre^ist to express contrition for 
mn, the tbird time with the addition of ''dona 
nobis pacem/' The consecration precedes, the 
Lord's Ptayer ia sung with the Libera nos ; a piece 
of the consecrated and broken bread is then 
thrown into tbe eup, and the Agnus folio we. At 
the Cbureh festivals it ii accompanied with tilling 
effect by soft and tender music. In tbe mass for 
the dead the words " give them rest '* are substi- 
tuted for ** have mercy upon us," the third time 
with the addition of " eternal." 

The Agnus was accepted in the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church at the bepnning^ either in the 
transition of Nicolaua Decius, " O Lamm Gottes 
unschuldig/^ or in the more exact fonn, ** Chris te, 
du Lamm Gottes, der du trfigst/' In the days of 
rationalism it was often omitted, or the phrase 
" Son of God " was aubstituted for ** Lamb of God/' 
tbe latter being thought to imply an unchristian, 
Xie^itical sacrificial conception. It was afterward 
restored, and i* now used in numerous musical 
Bettings. In the Church of England the Agnus 
was incorporated in the Litany, but only to be 
repeated tw^ice; and the last form (ending with 
" grant us thy peace ") was placed first. In the 
first prayer-book of Edward L it was included in 
the communion office* but w*as omitted in that of 
1552 and all subsequent revisions. Nevertheless^ 
it is almost invariably sung by congregations of 
High-church affiliations* M, Hebold. 

BibliOgrapht: K* A, DftuicU Codex lUurfficus, votn, I, ii., 
L^jpsic, 1847-48; L- SehOberleiOt SchaU drt liturffiKhen 
CJur^und Gwneinde^MinoM, pp. 3&& sqg.^ GOttingen, ISSQ: 
G. H«t«hel, Uhrbu^ der LiUnvik, p. 386, Berlin. 1900. 
Uuaie&l BettingAt by Victoria, PM^estrma* F. Burai«ist«r 
CieOl), F. Decker <1004), M. Pnptoiiua (d, 1621), Moiort, 
mxxd atheni; cooault K* YOa LilieDcron* ChorordnujiC, GO- 
teralob, 1900. 

2. Name given to a wax medallion, bearing the 
figure of a lamb, made from the remains of the 
paechal taper^ and consecrated by the pope in the 
special ceremonira on the Sunday after Easter in 
the fiiat year of each pontificate and every Bcven 
years thereafter. These medallions are presented 
to distinguished individual or to churches, are 
ofleti enclosed in cases of costly workmanship, 
and are carefully preserved, almost hke relics. 

A.GOBARDf ag'o-bOrd: Archbishop of Lyons 
816^840 [b,. probably in Spain, 779j d. in Sain- 
tonge (an old province of western France) June 6, 
840]. Nothing certain is known of his youth. He 
went to Lyons in 792, and probably owed bis educa- 
tion to Leidrad, archbishop of Lyons, one of the 
most diligent of Charlemagoe's helpers in liis civil- 
iiixkg work. Later he became Leidrod's assistant^ 
and then his successor. When the order of suc- 
cession established by Louis le D^bonnaire in BI7, 
largdy through ecclesiaetical influence, was set 
aside at the instigation of the empress Judith (829), 
Agobard was one of its most xealous defenders. 
He seems to have taken no part in the rising of S30; 
but in 833 he appears among the professed op- 
pooeats of Louis. He approved the deposition of 
the emperor, and was one of the bishops who forced 
Kim iQ hifl humiliating penance at Soissons. Con- 

sequently in 835, when Louis had recovered his 
power, Agobard was deprived of his ofHce. He 
regained it later^ being reconciled with Louis, 

Agobard takes a foremost place in the annala of 
Carolingian culture. In strictly theological trea- 
tisefi such as the Liber adversius dogma FeiicU^ 
against Adoptionism, and another, against image- 
worship, he is as much a mere compiler as any of his 
contemporaries. When, however, in a polemic 
against FnKlegis, abbot of St. Martin at Tours, he 
deals with the question of inspiration, he speaks 
out boldly against the doctrine of verbal inspiration^ 
while still declaring himself to be governed by the tra- 
dition of orthodoit teachers. In his political wn- 
tings he was leas governed by traditional views. He 
was not afraid to touch one of the most difficult 
queatioaa of the time, that of the restitution of 
Church property J at the diet held at Attigny in 822; 
and he renewed the demand in the tractate De 
dinpenBoimne ei^clmiarum rerunt. His Comparaiia 
utHusque regiminis ecck^ioBtici et politici (B33) is 
one of the firat writings in wliich the claim is out- 
spokenly made that the emperor must do the bid- 
ding of the pope. He wrote a book against the 
popular superstition that storms could be caused 
by magic f basing liis argument on rehgious grounds, 
yet making appeal to sound reason. In advance 
of his age, again J he denied absolutely the justice 
of the ordeal by battle, and wrote two tractates 
against it. He was also to some extent a hiur^eal 
scholar; and in the preface to his revised antiph- 
onary laid down the principle that the words of Holy 
Scripture should alone be used. (A. Haock.) 

RiBUtKiBAPUY: A. €ave. Stripiarum e4!cl*8ia€tic<trum hvtaria 
tiierariat voL ii., London, 168& CcontflinH list of the works 
of AjsobanI); Opera, e<\. K. Buluje, 2 vol*.. Pari», I56fl, 
and thBfioe ia AfpL, cW.; nl»o tti MGIL Legem, i. {1S35> 
360. MGH, EpiaL. v, (1300] 150-230. and in AfG/f, ScripLt 
5CV. J (ISS7), 274-2T&. 

For his iife and timiM: M6 Destrier* Hittoire civile de la 
^nlie de Lttonsp 3 partft, LyoDS. 1000; K- B. IluDde«Use6ii» 
C<fmmenhiHo de Agabardi ri£a ift acripH*. GteA»Q. 1831; 
p. Chevailardf L'EgltAA e( Vl<at en Frtance au neuvihnM 
eiicle. Saint Agobard. Lyons, ISflfti T. Ffi rater, Drri Bte- 
HKhAfe vor IGOO Jahrtm, Gdteriloh, 1374; B. BimsoD. 
Jahrbaeher dea frdnkianKen Reich* unter Ludxrio dem FTtrnt- 
men, i, 3G7 sqq., Leipeic, 1874; U. Heuter. OiiKhichie dir 
religi^ven Aufklamnff im Mitielalter, i. 24-41, Berlin, 187S; 
DCB, L 63-64; A. Ebert. Getchickte der Litterahir de* Mit- 
lelaltera. ii. 200-222, Uipwe, 18S0; J. F. Marckn. Die poli- 
tittah-kirchliirhe Witktaa^eU de* . . . Aoohard^ Vicr^en, 
1888; Ilauck, KD, ii. 463 atiq.; Wntt^nbach. DGQ, L 232, 
Berlin, 1004; F. Wi^Bjidi Ag<ibtmi von Lttort* und die 
JwienfTQae, Leipwc, 1001. 

AGOIflZAirrS (Agony Fathers; Fathers of tlie 
Good Death, CamiUianB, Cierici rcguhrts minis- 
trajdea infirmis)'. A fraternity founded at Rome 
in 1584 to care for the sick and miniater to the 
djing. Tbe founder was a pious prieet Camillus 
de LelUfl (b. at Buchiamcot in the NeapoUtan 
province Abruzizo, May 25, 1550; d. at Rome 
July 14 J 1614), whOp after a wild life as a eoldier, 
entered the hoapifcal of St. James at Rome in 
1574, suffering from an incurable wound. Becom- 
ing converted, he devoted the remainder of bis life 
to heroic service in the hospitals of Rome, Naples, 
and elsewhere. He waa canonized by Benedict 
XIV. in 174S, and his statue now stands, among 
those of great founders of orders, in St. Peter's 
between the atatues of Bt. Peter of Alcantara and St, 




Ignatius Loyolii, The society was con finned by 
SixtiM V, in 1586 ; five years later^ aft*!r the 
members had distingnished thenrnelves dunng the 
plague of 1590, it was created by Gregory XIV. an 
otder with Auguatinian rule. It grew rapidly in 
numbers and wealth during the founder's lifetime, 
and in 1605 was divided by Paul V. into five prov- 
inces, Rome, Milan ^ Bologna, Naples, and Sicily. 
Afterward the ordtr spread beyond Italy, especially 
in Spain and Portugal, and later in France and 
America. During the nineteenth century it met 
with opposition in certain countries (including 
Italy, where it had thirty- four houses); but it was 
favored by Leo XllL, who made St. CamiUus and 
St. John of God (see Ciiahity, Brothers of) 
patrons of all Roman Catholic uo^pitals, and in- 
aerted their names in the litany of the dying. 

BrDUOGEiAPHT : C Solfi, Compendio hiatorira delta rciiotone 
de' chi^rici r*&oiari minittrt dtffli infermi, &1ondovi, lQ3@t 
F^vre, t't* d£ SL CamUU tfe Ldlit, ^tU, J885: W. Baym- 
ktr, Der htitige ComiUu^ ^on Ltilia und attn Ordtn, Fr&iik- 
fort-on- the- Main, 18S7; Hdmbudis', Ordm ujid Konffn- 
CaHojusn. ii. 264-271. 

AGRAPHA, ag'ro-f a (" Unwritten " ) : Name 
given to eo-called aayings of Jesus not recorded 
in the Gospejs^ but reported by oral tradition* The 
term was &rat ujsed by J. G. Kdraer in liis De ser- 
monibus Chtisti ayjiQ^of^ (Ldpsic, 1776), in which 
he gives sixteen such agraplm. Since tliat time 
several collections of agrapha have been made; 
and the material seemed to liave reached a climax 
in the work published by Alfred Resch, Agraphu: 
aussercanoniachs EvangeUcn-Fragmente in mitglich- 
aier VoUsidndigkeU nmammcngeMil und quelkn- 
kritiach untersueJu (Tt/,v. 4, 1889; cf. J.H. Ropes, 
i>ie Sprfiche Jemt . * . emc krilische Bearbeitung 
des von A. He^ch gesammeUen Materials, xiw 2 of 
the same series, 1896). In 1897 Drs. B. P, GrcnfeU 
and A, S* Hunt discovered a papyrus page contain- 
ing eight ** anyings of Jesujs " which are known as 
"the OTcyrhynchus Logia/' In Feb., 1903, they 
come upon another papyrus fragment of a sorae- 
what similar character, containing five additional 
** sa3angB of J^us.'^ Hopes divides the material 
found in Reach into five etasses: (I) sayings which 
tradition has not con.^der^ agrapha; (2) passages 
erroneously quoted as sayings of the I^rd; (3) 
wort hlcfes agrapha ; (4 ) eventually val uable agrapha ; 
(5) valuable agrapha. Such a classification Ia 
arbitrary and impossible; and even as to the num-^ 
ber of agrapha schokrs differ. 

Among the more noteworthy of the agrapha are: 

1. The nealencet " It i» more bleased to eive than to re^ 
otive" quoted by P*ul (Aeta xx 35J ab the " wordji of the 
Lord JeffUB." Nt> such myiog i^ menilcined id the canooJca! 
GoiiiM^lQ. In tho TeachifiQ of the Apoathat ih &) IB foiuiid 
^^ b-appy IS he that giv«tta accord inf to the commiLOilment ": 
BUd it] the ApQitolical CanitiiutionM {iv^ 3); " 61 nee e^eQ the 
Lord say a, ' tbo gt^er waa happier ihan tbo receiver. ^ *^ la 
Clement of Roma {EpiaL, L 2), Xha oam^ sAyiax wemi to be 
referred, to under the form *' more wiUing to give than to 

2, '* On the Aam« dsiy, iiAvintt aeen one working on th& 
Sabhatht he wdd to him, * O man^ if mdeed thou k no went 
wb»t thou do^t, thou art bleAwd; but if thou knoWMt i)ol« 
thou art accui^ied and a traadfire^aor of the law.' " This 
Tery Tiemtu-kubte sayisg occurs after Luke vi. 4 in Cod. D 
&tid in Cod. Gfsc. 0. Rob. Stepbani- 

3* *' But ye aeok to iocrfladie from httle^ and from greater 
to len. Wh«n ye go atid an btdd«a to diaiter. Hit not dovrn 

in Chj& highest se&ti, i^t one grander thim thou arrive^ and 
the giver of the fea^t come and na.y to thee, * Take a lover 
■cat/ and thou be siAhamed. But if thau pit dovn in the 
meaner place, uid one meaner th&n tboti arrive, the giver 
of the feast will my to lhee» ' Go up higher ^ ai&d thia shall 
be profitable to thee." This Baying ia found after Matc« 
XX. 28 in Cod D. and in some othef codiooi tcf» tbe New 
Tefitamenta of Grleftbach Tiji&headorf ad. loe.). 

A* '" Je^us WLid to bis diiciplea ' Ajsk croat thingt^ and the 
BEiudl iihali be added unto you; and aak beAvenJy things 
and the earthly shall be lidded unto you ' ** tClement of Aleat- 
andria, Stromaia, j, 24; Origen, De Orat libdl.^ iL; ef. Am- 
broae> BpUi , utxvi. 3). 

5, " Rightly, therefore* the Scripture in it? deelne to m^ke 
ui suoh dialect J ciAJu* exhart« u»: ' Be ye AJdlful mooey- 
cbangerB/ rejecting Home tblng!!, but retaining what bgood " 
(Clement of Alexiuidjia* Stn>m., L 28). Tiib ia the ino4t 
frequently quoted of PkLI tri^tional eayingt. Reach givea 
eixty-nine paHmge^. 

0^ "Let ua reaifltall iniquityiond hold it in hatred/' quoted 
as the words of Christ by Bitmaboft {BpUL^ jvj. J a EpiML^ 
vii. ifl found: " They who wiAh to hia m« and lay hold of tny 
kingdom must receive me by affliction and BuSeriag.'* 

7. " Our Lord Jeeusi Christ oaid, * In whatsoever I may 
Bud you, in this will 1 alf^o judge you,' " Thia nayingt found 
in Juat in Martyr (Tn/P^o^^'^^^jl^^rJ*. p. 219), is Bacribcrd 
by Clement of Alexandria (Quit diva, xl.) to God; by Jo* 
hanne« Clinuuzu^ (Scala parading vii. 150; Vila B* Ani&nHt 
L 15; VttuE polruin, p. 41 ) to tho proplwt Eiekiei (ct E*ek. 
vii^ 3, 8- xviii. 30; Tudv^ 14; atxxiii^ 20. with Fabhciun, 
Cod. AjxkTh, L 333)h Thrae pa^iagea in Eiekielp however, 
do not justify the quotation, and some apocryphal goapel 
is probably the authority for this ssyiiw. 

S, Among the wayinga fomid in 1003 wtA the following; 
" Jeaufl nitht ' I^t not hLm who Beek« , . . cea^e untU he 
fin da, and when he findfi he Aball be afltoniahed; a«toni«hed 
be ahotl r^Lch the kingdom; and having reached the king* 
dom he «hall ro»t.* " Another, with conjectuf*! itwtoration 
of missing portions, i»: '* Jesui aaith, ' f\'e aak, who a^ 
thow] that di*aw ua [to the kingdom^ if] the kingdom ia to 
heaven T ^ ^ , The fowb of tlie air, luid all bea«itii that are 
under the earth or upon the earthy and the 1ash&- of the aea 
[those are they which draw] you, and the kingdom of beavoti 
ii witliio you; and whoever ihail know himaetf shall find 
it. iStrive therefore] to know yoursclvieiB. and ye Bhall be 
aware that ye arc tho bom of the UlnJighty] Father; [and J 
ye Hhall know that ye are in |the city of GodJ^aud ye are [th« 
city]/ " B. Pice. 

BiaL.ioaftA.FBT; C-oUectioiui of agrraptla are found in J> H. 
Grabe* Spi^inle^um. Oniord^ ifi9S; J. A, Fabrieiui, Ci>d«3c 
ApooTfphus AVpi TeaiajTKnti. Hamburg, 1703? R. Hoff- 
mann, Dov Lehtn Jem nach den Apocrj/ph^, Leiptsid, 
I SSI; E. F. We8tcott« introduction t& ttu Study of the 
GospeU. London, I860; Schaff, Christian Chvreh. L ]fi2- 
ie7; A. Rescb. Agrapfka. in TU, v. 4 1S91: J. H, 
Ropes, in TU, xiv. 2, 1896; E, Nestle* Nmft Tetta- 
menJi Grind Suppiemenium, pp. 89-92, Leipaic, 1S&6; 
B* Pick, The Afffopha : or, Vnr^mdjed Saifingtt of 
Jenu CAritJ. in Th» Open Court, xi. i 189T) 525-541; idem. 
The Exttu^anoniail tAfe of Chritt, pp. 250-312, New 
York, 1903 (ineludinj^ a Hat of articles on the O^cyrhyn- 
cbu« Logia publlshiHl in 1897); C. Taylor, The O^yrhynfAue 
Loifia and t^ Apotrj^phttl Gutpels, London, 1890; E. Preu- 
{«hen« Antile^fomena^ pp. 43-47, Qiesien, 1901: The Ntv 
Satflnc9 of Jeeu9^ and FraffmeTtt of o Loet Oo^pel were ptib- 
lifihed by B. P. Grenfell and A. B. Hunt, Oxford and New 
York, 1904. H? vie wed jn Btbtical Worlds Jcxiv. (19041 3fil. 
in Saturday Revirw. xcyi'n. U904) 133. and Chttrek Q%iar* 
terly^ Iviii. (1904) 422. For iayinga of Jesus in Moham- 
tnedan writetB eoimult D, S, Marnolioutht in The Expomi- 
lortf TifMM, v. C1&93) 69. 107. 177; W Lock, in The Ex^ 
pomkir^ 4th Bedett, yk. US94) 97^90; and for eayinga of 
JesUK in the Talmud cvinmlt Pick, ut aup. 
AGREDA, BCARIA DE. See Maria de AoRE&il* 
AGRICOLA: Pelagian writer; under the date 
429 in his Chtonicon^ Prtjsper of Aquitaine meo- 
tiofis a British theologian of tJiiA name, the son of 
SeveriannSj a Polagian bifibop, ^ying that he cor- 
rupted the churches of Britain by his teaching, until 
Pope C^lestine sent Germaims, Bishop of Auxerre 
(q.vO, to undo the miBchief and bring back the 




Britons to the Catholic faith (cf. Bede, Hi8t ecd., 
i. 17). Caspari has printed five unsigned letters 
and a tract on riches which are obviously all by 
the same Pelagian author, and has shown it to be 
probable that this is Agricola. From them it is 
learned that the author on his way to the East to 
learn the true ascetic life, heard the Pelagian ascetic 
teaching from a Roman lady in Sicily, and became 
a zealous preacher of it. The value of these wri- 
tings lies in the glimpse which they give of the 
ethical side of Pelagianism. (A. Hauck.) 

Bibliography: 0. P. Ca8i>ari, Briefe, Ahhandlunoen, und 
Predigten €nu den Mwei letzUn Jahrhundtrten dea kirch- 
lichen AUertum$ und dem An fang dee MiitelaUere, Christi- 
ania, 1890. 

AGRICOLA, JOHANN : An associate of Luther, 
and the originator of the antinomian controversy 
of the German Reformation; b. at Eisleben Apr. 
20, 1494 (according to his own account; others 
give 1492 or 1496); d. at Berlin Sept. 22, 1566. 
His real name was Schneider, first Latinized into 
" Sartor," then, from a corruption of " Schneider 
(Snider)" to " Schnitter," into "Agricola." He 
entered the University of Leipsic in the winter of 
1509-10, with the intention of studying medicine, 
but Luther attracted him to theology. After 
taking his bachelor's degree, he went, in the winter 
of 1515-16, to Wittenberg, where he came wholly 
under Luther's influence. He witnessed the famous 
promulgation of the theses; and at the Leipsic 
disputation (1519) he acted as Luther's secre- 
tary. He soon became friendly with Melanchthon 
also, and an influential member of the little 
group of Wittenberg tl^eologians. A modest in- 
come was provided for him by the position of 
teacher of grammar and the Latin classics in the 
Psedagogium; and before long he lectured on 
dialectics and rhetoric, and later on the New 

On the outbreak of the Peasants' War (1525), 
Agricola accompanied Luther to the Hartz Moun- 
tains, and gained from Count Albert of 
Schoofanas- Mansf eld the nomination as head of the 
ter in Latin school to be opened at Eisleben. 

Eisleben. This work, after a visit to Frankfort, 
as Luther's deputy, to help settle the 
ecclesiastical affairs of that place, he took up in 
Aug., 1525; and two catechetical books grew out of 
it, the second of which (1528) already exhibits the 
opposition between the Law and the Gospel which 
was to develop into his antinomian convictions. 
A commentary on the Epistle to Titus (1530) and 
a translation of Terence's Andriay with notes (1544), 
are doubtless other results of his school work. At 
Eisleben also he began his three collections of Ger- 
man proverbs, with explanations, which have ever 
since been popular. Certain critical remarks about 
Ulrich of WQrttemberg in the first of these collec- 
tions involved Agricola in difficulties both with 
Ulrich and with his protector, Philip of Hesse, 
which were ended only by two successive apologies, 
prevented Luther from taking him to the Marburg 
conference, and influenced his bearing in the Schmal- 
kald strug^e. He had opportunities of preaching 
at St. Nicholas's church in E^isleben, and acquired 
the reputation of being one of the strongest pulpit 

orators of the Wittenberg circle, so that he 
was asked to attend the Diet of Speyer in 1526 
and 1529 and preach before the court. At this 
period also he made himself useful as a trans- 
lator from the Latin, rendering among other 
things Melanchthon's commentary on several Paul- 
ine epistles. 

His relations with Melanchthon were seriously 
disturbed in 1526. Soon after his departure from 
Wittenberg a new theological profes- 
Contro- sorship was founded there, on which, 
versies. with Melanchthon's encouragement, 
he set his heart. When it was 
conferred on the latter, Agricola's vanity received 
a wound which put an end to the cordiality of their 
friendship; and it is easy to understand why he 
began the antinomian controversy in 1527 with an 
attack, not on Luther, but on Melanchthon. Luther, 
however, whose relations with Agricola were still 
friendly, succeeded in effecting an apparent agree- 
ment. Agricola now fell out with Albert of Mans- 
feld. Differences arose over the measures to 
be taken for defense against the emperor and with 
regard to the treatment of matrimonial questions; 
and in 1536 Agricola was treating with Luther to 
secure a recall to Wittenberg. The elector prom- 
ised him a speedy appointment to a university 
position, and meantime invited him to come to 
Wittenberg to give his counsel on the question of 
the Schmalkald articles. Agricola removed thither 
at Christmas, 1536. Albert, annoyed at the manner 
of his departure from Eisleben, accused him to the 
Wittenberg group as the founder of a new sect 
antagonistic to Luther, and to the elector as a 
turbulent fellow of the Mtinzer type. Luther stood 
by him, however, and even gave him and his family 
shelter in his own house; and when Luther went to 
Schmalkald in 1537, Agricola took his place both 
at the imiversity and in the pulpit. Expressions 
used in some of his sermons, and the rumor that 
he was privately circulating antinomian theses 
containing attacks on Luther and Melanchthon, 
made him an object of suspicion. His antinomian 
disputes with Luther himself began; and after each 
apparent settlement they broke out with fresh 
violence (for details of the controversies see Anti- 


found employment in the newly founded Witten- 
berg consistory until Feb., 1539, when he formally 
accused Luther before the elector, who practically 
put him under arrest. Before the matter was 
settled he escaped to Berlin (Aug., 1540). At Me- 
lanchthon's suggestion and through Bugenhagen's 
mediation, he was allowed to retract his accusation 
and to return to Saxony. Cordial relations be- 
tween the two men could, however, no longer 
exist: Luther never trusted Agricola again; and 
the latter, on his side, held that he remained true to 
the original cause, from which Luther had fallen 

Joachim II. of Brandenburg gave Agricola a 
position as court preacher, and took him to the 
Conference of Regensburg (1541), the interim drawn 
up at which he considered a useful basis of unity. 
He followed his prince in the inglorious campaign 
against the Turks in 1542, and gained more and 




more InBuence over him, in spite of the efforts of 
Joachim's mother. He became general superin- 
tendent and visitor of Brandenburg, 
Later Life, administering confirmation and ordi- 
nation, though he himself had never 
received any kind of ordination. When the 
Schmalkald League took up arms against the em- 
peror, Agricola attacked them in his sermons as 
disturbers of the peace, and gave thanks for the 
emperor's victory at Milhlberg, utterly failing to see 
the danger to the evangelical cause. It flattered 
his vanity when he was chosen as the Protestant 
theologian on the commission appointed at the 
Diet of Augsburg (1647-48) to draw up an interim; 
and he had the thankless task of endeavoring to 
persuade his fellow Protestants to accept it. The 
more strongly and increasingly they rejected it, 
the more animosity was concentrated on Agricola, 
who attempted to vindicate his Lutheran standing 
by the part which he took in the controversy with 
Osiander (q.v.); and the common cause brought 
him once more closer to Melanchthon. It fell to 
him to give judgment between Stancaro and An- 
dreas Musculus (q.v.); and he pronounced in favor 
of the latter. The controversy on the necessity 
of good works raged for years in Brandenburg, 
and Agricola stoutly opposed the Philippists. 
For a while they seemed to prevail with Joachim, 
but the court swung round again to Agricola's side; 
and in 1563 he was able to hold a thanksgiving 
service in Berlin for the final victory over his op- 
ponents — a victory for strict Lutheranism won 
mainly by the man whom Luther had despised. 
He died three years later, during an epidemic of 
the plague. He was undoubtedly a gifted man, 
though his rightful development was hindered by 
his vanity, which brought about the breach with 
Luther, and by the temptations of court life, which, 
as he himself recognized when too late, he had not 
sufficient strength of mind to resist. 

(G. Kawerau.) 
Biblioorapht: Q. Kawerau, Johann Agricola von Ei»ld>ent 
BerUn, 1881. 

AGRICOLA, STEPHAN (origmally Castenpauer) : 
A follower of Luther; b. in Abensberg (18 m. s.w. 
of Regensburg), Bavaria; d. at Eisleben Easter, 
1547. He studied at Vienna, joined the Augustinians, 
gained fame as a preacher and teacher, and was 
promoted doctor of theology in 1519. Imitating 
St. Augustine, he preached on entire books of the 
Bible in Vienna in 1515, as lector in the Augus- 
tinian monastery at Regensburg in 1519-20, and in 
other places. His sermons brought him under 
suspicion. He was accused of preaching heretical, 
inflammatory, and offensive dogmas; of having 
recommended Luther's writings on the Babylonian 
captivity and on the abolition of the mass; of 
having spoken offensively of the Roman see, bishops, 
and clergy; and of having demanded the abolition 
of all ceremonies. He was imprisoned in 1522; 
thirty-three charges were made against him; and 
his answer, denying dependence upon Luther and 
making appeal to Augustine and the Scriptures, 
was of no avail. He prepared for death, and wrote 
Ein kdaUicher gutter notwendiger Sermon vom Sterben 
(1523), which his friend Wolfgang Russ published. 

He escaped, however, found a home with the Car- 
melite Johann Frosch of Au^burg in 1523, and 
preached there from time to time. Not long after 
1523 he published under the name of " Agricola 
BoiuB " Ein Bedencken trie der wahrhajftig GoUes- 
dienet von OoU selba geboten und aussgeeetzt, mdchi 
tnit beseerung gemeyner Ckristenheyt widerumb auf- 
gericht werden, a Idnd of reformation-progranmie. 
Protected by the city council, he labored with 
Rhegius and Frosch for the Reformation in Augs- 
burg, and became pronounced in his adherence to 
Luther's views as against Zwingli. By translating 
into German Bugenhagen's polemical treatise 
against Zwingli's Contra novum errorem de sacra- 
mentis (1525), he won over the Augsburg congrega- 
tion to the Lutheran side. At the invitation of the 
landgrave Philip, he took part in the Marburg 
Colloquy and signed the articles agreed upon. In 
1531 he left Augsburg as he was opposed to Butzer's 
Zwinglian tendency and. went to Nuremberg, where 
he stayed with Wenceslaus Link. In 1537 he 
attended the Schmalkald Diet and signed Luther's 
articles. When the Reformation was introduced 
into the Upper Palatinate, he accepted a call to 
Sulzbach where he preached the first evangelical 
sermon June 3, 1542. He afterward went to Eis- 
leben. (T. KOLDE.) 
Biblioorapht: C. Spangenberg, Wider die bdee Sieben in 
Teufela KctmdffeUpiel, Eisleben. 1562; H. W. Rotermund, 
Getchichte dee auf dem Reichetage eu Augeburg im Jakre 
1690 . . . Glaiiben^)ekenninis$ee, Hanover, 1829; Dat- 
terer, Dee Kardinala und Erzbieehofe von Saldnirg Mat- 
thAu9 Lang Verhalten zur Reformation, Erlangen, 1892. 

AGRICULTURE, HEBREW : Palestine is praised 

in the Old Testament as a " land flowing with 

milk and honey "; and, indeed, with 

Field and little labor it yielded what the in- 
Garden habitants needed. Of cereals, wheat 

Products, was and is the most important product ; 
the Ammonite country appears to 
have been specially noted for it (II Chron. xxvii. 
5). The best wheat to-day is that of the Hauran 
and Belka, and of the high table-land between 
Tabor and the Lake of Tiberias. Much wheat was 
raised by the Hebrews in the time of Solomon, and 
then and later it was one of the chief articles of 
export (I Kings v. 11; Ezek. xxvii. 17). Barley 
was equally common and in the earlier time was the 
chief material for bread (Judges vii. 13; II Kings 
iv. 42). With progress in culture and the settled 
life its use was limited to the poorer classes (John 
vi. 9, 13; Josephus, War, V. x. 2). To-day it is 
used for fodder only; it was also so used in the 
ancient time (I Kings iv. 28), and its value appears 
to have been about one-half that of wheat (II Kings 
vii. 1). There is no evidence in the Old Testament 
that beer was made from it. A third and less 
important cereal ^eb. kuseemeth; LXX, otyra, 
Ex. ix. 32; Isa. xxviii. 25; Ezek. iv. 9; erroneously 
rendered " rye " in A. V.) was probably spelt. 
Rye and oats are not mentioned. The chief legume- 
bearing plants were beans (II Sam. xvii. 28; Ezek. 
iv. 9) and lentils (Gen. xxv. 34; II Sam. xvii. 28, 
xxiii. 11; Ezek. iv. 9). Both were ground into 
meal, and were used for bread in time of scarcity 
(Ezek. iv. 9). Leeks, onions, and garlic were used 
as seasoning and to give relish to bread. Cucum- 




bers and melons are also mentioned as delicacies 
of which the Israelites were deprived in the wilder- 
ness (Nimi. xi. 5). Both are particularly refreshing 
in hot countries, and the poor live for months on 
bread and cucumbers or melons alone. Of condi- 
ments and spices the Old Testament mentions two 
varieties of cimiin (Heb. kammon, l^e^y Isa. 
xxviii. 25; the former used also as medicine) and 
the coriander (Ex. xvi. 31; Num. xi. 7, often men- 
tioned in the Talmud). The New Testament adds: 
dill (Eng. versions, '' anise/' Matt, xxiii. 23), mint 
(ib.; Luke xi. 42), rue (Luke xi. 42), and mustard 
(Matt. xiii. 31, xvii. 20; Mark iv. 31; Luke xiii. 
19, xvii. 6). The mustard-seed was proverbial as 
the smallest of seeds. The mustard plant grows 
quickly and reaches a height of ten feet. To these 
food-producing plants must be added flax (Josh. ii. 
6; Isa. xix. 9; Hos. ii. 5, 9, and elsewhere) and 
cotton. The former of these is not much cultivated 
to-day; but it was of great importance to the 
ancient Israelites, as, together with wool, it sup- 
plied the material for their clothing. In the Greco- 
Roman period it was one of the chief articles of 
trade. The importance of the flax-cultivation 
can be inferred from the statement of the Talmud, 
that it was permissible to put a flax-bed imder 
water on semi-holy days in order to destroy injuri- 
ous insects {Mo*ed ^atan i. 6). Linen-manufacture 
was carried on especially in Galilee. How early 
the cotton-plant was introduced into Palestine is 
not known. The Hebrew terms ahesh and buz 
do not necessarily mean linen, but include cotton 
cloth, or a mixed material like the Greek bysaoa. 
The foreign word karpaa (Gk. karpaaoa) is used for 
cotton in Esther i. 6 and in the Tsdmud. In Greco- 
Roman times cotton was grown and exported (cf. 
Pausanias, V. v. 2). For wine and oil see the 
separate articles. 

Palestine is praised in Deut. viii. 7, xi. 10-11, as 

a " land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths 

that spring out of valleys and hills," 

Climatic which has no need of artificial irriga- 
Conditions. tion because it ** drinketh water of 
the rain of heaven." Compared with 
the neighboring countries, it can not, indeed, be 
called poorly watered. In normal years the natural 
precipitation suffices for a great part of the fields. 
Land thus naturally watered is called in the Mish- 
nah " house of the Baal " or '' field of the house 
of the Baal," and the name is kept to this day 
(cf. Smith, Rel, of 5em., p. 97). But the ancient 
Israelites knew that watercourses and underground 
water were indispensable (cf. Ps. i.; Deut. viii. 7; 
Isa. xxxii. 20; Ezek. xvii. 8), and that the rain 
alone was not always sufficient; they therefore 
appreciated the pools made by the Canaanites and 
added to them (see Water Supply in Palestine). 
For these favors of nature the Israelite ever felt 
his immediate dependence upon Yahveh (cf . Deut. 
xi. 14; Jer. iii. 3, v. 24; Joel ii. 23; Zech. x. 1). 
Yahveh's blessing shows itself in his sending the 
first rain and the latter rain in due season; in 
the rain his mercy is seen, in the drought his 
anger. Thus he proves himself indeed the Baal of 
the land, who waters and fertilizes it (cf . Smith, 


The Israelites learned agriculture from the 
Canaanites. How rapidly they made the tran- 
sition from the nomadic stage can not 

Cultiya- be determined; it seems to have been 
tion. practically complete at the beginning 
of the regal period (cf. I Sam. xi. 6; 
II Sam. xiv. 30, which indicate that high and low 
were then engaged in the cultivation of the soil), 
although certain tribes of the south and the East- 
Jordan country retained more or less of the nomadic 
character till the Exile. That the religious obser- 
vances, preeminently the great festivals, rest upon 
an agricultural basis is significant. Irrigation was 
not the only artificial improvement that was neces- 
sary. The land had to be cleared of thorns and 
weeds, and stones had to be removed (cf. Isa. v. 2; 
Matt. xiii. 3-7), although the fellahs to-day often al- 
low the stones to remain because they help to retain 
moisture. Extensive terracing was indispensable 
to retain the thin soil on the steep hillsides. Manur- 
ing and burning were practised (Isa. v. 24, xxv. 10, 
xlvii. 14; Joel ii. 5; Ob. 18), but probably neither 
extensively nor annually. Dried dimg is more 
valuable to-day as fuel, and it was so used in the 
ancient time (Ezek. iv. 15). The usual method of 
renewing the strength of the soil was fallowing 
(Ex. xxiii. 11, and elsewhere). The winter crops 
(wheat, barley, lentils, etc.) were sown as soon as the 
early rain had softened the ground — from the end 
of October to the beginning of December. The 
sowing of the summer crops (millet, vetches, etc.) 
followed, and lasted (in the case of cucumbers) till 
after the winter harvest. Well-watered fields bear 
two crops. The surface of the soil was scratched 
by a very primitive plow, drawn by oxen or 
cows (Judges xiv. 18; I Kings xix. 19; Job i. 14; 
Amos vi. 12), sometimes in light soils by an ass 
(Deut. xxii. 10; Isa. xxx. 24). The furrow to-day 
is from three to four inches deep. The driver's 
goad (Judges iii. 31) served also to break the clods. 
According to the usual assumption, the field which 
a yoke of oxen (Heb. zemedh) could plow in a day 
was the unit of land-measurement, as the present 
unit, the feddQn (22-23 acres), represents a season's 
plowing. It is more probable, however, that they 
measured land by the amount of seed sown, as is 
done in the Talmud, and that i^emedh is properly a 
measure of capacity and then designates a piece 
of ground of such size that it required a zemedh 
of seed. The surface was evened with an imple- 
ment resembling a stone-boat or with a roller 
(Job xxxix. 10; Isa. xxviii. 24-25; Hos. x. 11). 
The seed was sown by hand; wheat, barley, 
and spelt were often carefully laid in the fur- 
row. In the time of the Mishnah, as at pres- 
ent, it was plowed in. At present, seed is sown 
rather thinly. An estimate of the amoimt of 
land under cultivation in ancient times is im- 
possible. Large tracts in Palestine can never 
have been used for anything but pasturage; the 
" deserts " were extensive, as their frequent men- 
tion shows ; and there was more wooded land 
than now (Josh. xvii. 15, 18; II Kings ii. 24). 
These facts make it probable that the extent of 
cultivated land did not materially exceed that of 




In the Jordan valley the barley-harvest begins 

from the end of March to the first half of April; 

in the hill-country, on the coast, and 

Harvest, in the highlands, from a week to a 
month later. The cutting of the 
barley opens, that of the wheat closes, the harvest 
season. Altogether it lasts about seven weeks 
and from of old it has been a time of joy and fes- 
tivity (Ps. iv. 7; Isa. ix. 3). The Feast of the First- 
Fruits, on which, according to the Priest Code, a 
barley-sheaf was offered (Lev. xxiii. 9-14), ushered 
in this festive time; the Feast of Weeks, seven 
weeks after the opening of the harvest, when an 
offering of two wave-loaves of the new wheat (Lev. 
xxiii. 17-21) was made, closed it. The grain was 
cut with a sickle (Deut. xvi. 9, xxiii. 25; Job xxiv. 
24; Jer. 1. 16; Joel iii. 13). With the left hand 
the reaper grasped a bimdle of ears (Isa. xvii. 5; 
Ps. cxxix. 7), and with the right he cut them fairly 
close to the head. The binder followed, gathering 
the cut grain into his arms (Ps. cxxix. 7) and making 
it into sheaves (Gen. xxxvii. 7; Lev. xxiii. 10; 
Deut. xxiv. 19; Ruth ii. 7; Ps. cxxvi. 6), which 
were then collected in stacks (Judges xv. 5; Ruth 
iii. 7; Job v. 26). The harvesters refreshed them- 
selves during their toil by eating parched com and 
bread dipped in a mixture of vinegar and water 
(Ruth ii. 14). According to old custom and the 
Law, forgotten sheaves and the privilege of gleaning 
after the reapers belonged to the poor (Lev. xix. 9, 
xxiii. 22; Deut. xxiv. 19; Ruth ii. 2); the Priest 
Code provided also that the comers of the field 
were not to be wholly reaped (Lev. xix. 9, xxiii. 22). 
In like manner it was permissible to pluck ears from 
another's field to eat (Deut. xxiii. 25; Matt. xii. 1). 

The reaping was inmiediately followed by the 
thrashing. Small quantities of grain, and dill, 
cumin, and the like, were beaten out with a flail 
(Judges vi. 11; Ruth ii. 17; Isa. xxviii. 27); but 
in most cases wheat, barley, and spelt were taken 
to the thrashing-floor, which, if possible, was placed 
on high ground so that the wind might carry off the 
chaff. The kernels were trodden out by cattle 
or were separated by means of a rude thrashing- 
sled or wagon (II Sam. xxiv. 22; Isa. xxviii. 27-28; 
Amos i. 3). Both custom and the law forbade the 
muzzling of an ox in treading out the grain (Deut. 
xzv. 4); and to-day it is commonly estimated that 
an ox will consume from three to four pecks of the 
grain daily during the thrashing-time. Winnowing 
was accomplished, with the help of the wind, by 
means of a shovel or a wooden fork having two or 
more tines (Isa. xxx. 24; Jer. xv. 7). The chaff is 
now used as fodder; according to Matt. iii. 12, it 
seems in ancient time to have been burned. The 
grain was sifted (Amos ix. 9) and shoveled into 
heaps. It was usually stored in cistern-like pits 
in the open field, carefully covered (Jer. xli. 8). 
Real bams are not mentioned till late times (Deut. 
xxviii. 8; II Chron. xxxii. 28; Jer. 1. 26; Joel i. 17). 
In general, Palestine may be called a fertile land, 
but its productivity has been greatly overestimated. 
To-day the mountain-lands of Judea yield on an 
average from two- to threefold; the valleys of 
Hebron, with fertilization, from four- to fivefold; 
the very fertile Plain of Sharon, carefully culti- 

vated by German colonists, eightfold for wheat 
and fifteenfold for barley. There is no reason to 
believe that the average return was greater in 
ancient times. 

Some of the laws have already been mentioned. 
Of greater importance in their ^ect upon agricul- 
ture were the laws aiming to prevent 
Laws. the alienation of landed property. 
The ancestral field was sacred (cf. I 
Kings xxi. 3). This provision explains the law of 
Lev. XXV. 25, according to which, if an impover- 
ished Israelite had to sell his field, his kinsman had 
the first right of purchase (cf. Jer. xxxii. 6-12). 
The law also gave the original owner a perpetual 
right of redemption, and restored the field to him 
in the year of jubilee without compensation to the 
purchaser; a city house could be redeemed only 
within a year, and did not return in the year of 
jubilee (Lev. xxv. 27-34). The underlying thought 
here is that the land is not the private property of 
the Israelites, but belongs to God, and the Israel- 
ites have only the right of use. It may be ques- 
tioned how far such laws were carried out; they 
are closely connected with the year of jubilee (see 
below). The same desire to preserve family pos- 
sessions shows itself in the law of inheritance. In 
ancient time daughters did not inherit; if there 
were no sons, property passed to the nearest rela- 
tive of the father, with the obligation to marry the 
widow (cf. the Book of Ruth). The Priest Code 
allows daughters to inherit when there are no sons, 
but they must marry within the family or, at least, 
within the tribe of the father (Num. xxxvi.). Still 
more important in its effect upon agriculture was 
the development of the Sabbath idea. It was an 
old custom and a law of the Book of the Covenant 
that every field should lie fallow one year in seven 
(Ek. xxiii. 10-11). The custom fell into disiise and 
Deuteronomy knows nothing of it. But the Priest 
Code revived it, imposed it upon the entire land at 
the same year (cf. Josephus, Ant., XII. ix. 5), and 
added the theoretic and impracticable year of jubilee 
(see Sabbatical Year and Year op Jubilee). 
Lastly, laws arising from ideas of ceremonial im- 
purity must be mentioned, such as the prohibition 
of sowing unclean seed (Lev. xi. 37-38), of plowing 
with an ox and an ass together, and of sowing 
different kinds of seed in one field (Lev. xix. 19; 
Deut. xxii. 9-10). Of the age of these customs 
nothing is known. The Mishnah developed and 
added to these laws with great detail. 

I. Benzinger. 
Bibuoorapht: J. L. SaalschOti, Da» mo»&i9ehe Rechi, Ber- 
lin, 1863; £. Robinson. Phyneal Geography of the Holy 
Land, Boston, 1865; J. G. Wetxstein. in F. Delitzsch, 
Commentar nt Je^aia, pp. 389-699, 70&-711, 2d ed.. Leip- 
sie, 1869 (treats of winnowing; neither in last ed. nor in 
Eng. transl.); idem. Die tyritche Dreachtafel, in ZeiUchrift 
for Ethnologie, v. (1873) 270-302; F. Hamilton, La Bo- 
tanique de la BiUe, Nice. 1871; H. B. Tristram. Natural 
Hi$tory of the Bible, London, 1873; idem. The Fauna and 
Flora of Paleetine, in Survey of Weetem Paleetine, ib. 1884 
(authoritative); J. Smith, Bible PlanU, their Hietory and 
Identification, ib. 1878; C. J. von KUngsrftff, PaliUHna 
und 9eine .Vegetation, in Oeaterreiehieche botaniache Zeit- 
achrift, XXX., Vienna. 1880; W. M. Thomson, The Land 
and the Book, 2 vols.. New York, 1880-82; I. Lfiw, Ara- 
nUtieehe PfUtntennamen.IjeipsiclSSl; E. Boissier, Flora 
orientalie, Geneva, 1884; J. H. Balfour. The Plante of the 
Bible, LondoD. 1885; G. Anderlind. Aekerbau und Tier- 




Muehi in Syrien, inthe9ondere in PaHXtHna^ in ZDPV^ iz. 
(1886) 1-73; S. Schumacher. Der anbi$che Pflug, ib. iv. 
(1881) 70-84, ix. (1886) 1-73. xii. (1889) 167-166; A. E. 
Knight, Gleaninga from BibU Landn . . . OceupaHona of 
their InhabitanU, London, 1801; V. Hehn, KuUurpflanxen 
und HauttUre, Berlin, 1894; H. VogeU&in, Die Land- 
urirUchaft in PalOtlina zur Zeit der Miachna, ib. 1894; H. 
C. Trumbull, Shtdiea in Oriental Social Life, Philadelphia, 
1894; DB, i. 48-61; EB, L 76-89; JE, i. 262-270; E. 
Day. Social Life of the Hebrewe, New York, 1901 
(a useful book, based largely on a study of the book of 
Judgies). Consult also the works on antiquities and 
archeology by De Wette-R&biger, Leipsic. 1864; H. 
Ewald, GkSttingen, 1866, Eng. transl., London. 1876; C. F. 
Keil. Frankfort, 1876; Schegg-WirthmQller, Freiburg. 
1887; I. Bensinger. ib. 1894; W. Nowack. ib. 1894; and 
PEF, QxLorterly Reports, particularly the earlier numbers. 

A6RIPPA I. AND n., kings of Judea. See 
Herod and his Family. 

A6RIPPA CASTOR: Christian author who lived 
in the time of Hadrian, and was perhaps an Egyp- 
tian. Eusebius (Hist, eccl., iv. 7) speaks of him 
very highly. He wrote a refutation of the Gnostic 
Basilides, which, according to Eusebius, showed 
independent knowledge of the latter's teaching. 

G. KrCger. 
Bibuoobapht: MPG, vi; M. J. Routh. Reliquict eacra, 

i: 85-^, Oxford, 1846. 

HEUIRICH CORNELIUS: Scholar and adven- 
turer; b. at Cologne, of noble family, Sept. 14, 1486; 
d. at Grenoble 1535. He studied at Cologne and 
Paris, and took part in some obscure enterprise in 
Spain (1507-08); lectured at the University of D61e, 
in Franche-Comt^, on Reuchlin's De verbo mirifico 
(1509), and aroused the opposition of certain monks; 
was sent to England on a political mission by the 
emperor (1510); returned to Cologne and lectured 
on quoRstiones quodlibetales ; served in the imperial 
army in Italy from 1511 to 1518, and during the 
same period went to the Council of Pisa as a theo- 
logian (1511), and lectured on medicine, jurispru- 
dence, and Hermes Trismegistus in Pavia and Tiirin. 
He was appointed syndic at Metz in 1518, but had 
to flee from the Inquisition two years later. He 
entered the service of the Duke of Savoy, practised 
medicine at Freiburg (1523); became physician to 
the queen mother of France, but was expelled and 
fled to the Netherlands (1529); was appointed his- 
toriographer to Charles V. and lived for some years 
under the protection of Archbishop Hermann of 
Cologne, but finally returned to France, where he 
died. Of his two most celebrated works, the De 
occulta phUosophia (written 1509-10; first printed, 
book i., Antwerp, 1531; books i.-iii., Cologne, 
1533) is a compilation from the Neoplatonists and 
the Cabala and gives a plan of the world with an 
exposition of the " hidden powers " which the 
learning of the time thought it necessary to assume 
for the explanation of things; the other, De incertUu- 
dine ei vanitate scientiarum et ariium (written 1526; 
printed 1527), is a compilation from the Humanists 
and Reformers, and gives a skeptical criticism not 
only of all sciences, but of life itself. A collected 
edition of Agrippa's works was published at Lyons 
in 1600. 
Biblioorapht: H. Morley, The Life of Henry Corneliua 

Agrippa von Netteeheim, 2 vols., London. I860. 

AGUIRRE, a-gir're, JOSEPH SAENZ, sonz, DE: 
Spanish cardinal; b. at Logrofio (60 m. e. of Bur- 

gos), Spain, Mar. 24, 1630; d. in Rome Aug. 16, 1699. 
At an early age he. entered the Benedictine order, 
and became abbot of St. Vincent at Salamanca, 
and in 1666 professor of theology in the university 
there; he was also a consultor of the Spanish Inqui- 
sition, and ultimately superior-general of the 
Spanish congregation of his order. In 1686 Inno- 
cent XL made him cardinal as a reward for uphold- 
ing the papal authority against Gallicanism in his 
Defensio cathedrcB S, Petri adversus dedarationem 
cleri GaUicani anni 16S2 (Salamanca, 1683). The 
most important of his numerous theological and 
philosophical writings are his CoUedio maxima 
concUiorum omnium HispanicB ei novi orbis (4 vols., 
Rome, 1693; new Catalani, 6 vols., 1753) and 
his unfinished Theologia S. Anselmi (3 vols., 1679- 
85; 2d ed.,' 168^90). (A. Hauck.) 

Biblioorapht: H. Hurler, Nomenclator literariiu reoentiorie 
theologice catholicce, ii. 621-652, Innsbruck, 1893. 

AGUIL See Proverbs. 

AHAB, 6'hab: Seventh king of Israel; son and 
successor of Omri. His dates are variously given — 
918-897 B.C., according to the older chronology; 
878-857, Kamphausen; 875-853, Duncker; 874- 
854, Hommel; d. about 851, Wellhausen. His 
history in I Kings xvi. 28-xxii. 40, is based upon 
two main sources, from which long extracts are 
given; the one, which furnished the account of the 
wars with the Arameans (ch. xx. and xxii.), may 
be described as a popular history of the kings of the 
northern realm and their wars; the other, from 
which the Elijah narratives are taken, evidently 
originated in prophetic circles. Both were Of the 
ninth century and of Ephraimitic origin. The 
Monolith Inscription of Shalmaneser II. of As- 
syria (see Assyria, VI., § 8) states that in the army 
defeated by Shalmaneser at Karkar (854 B.C.) were 
10,000 men and 2,000 chariots furnished by Akhab- 
bu Sir'laaif by whom in all probability Ahab of 
Israel is meant (for another view, cf. Kittel, 233- 
234; Kamphausen, 43, note). The Moabite Stone 
(q.v.) also states that the subjection of Moab to 
Israel, established by Omri, lasted for " half of his 
son's days." Ahab's reign was a time of pros- 
perity. The long war with Judah was ended, and 
Ahab's daughter Athaliah was married to Jehoram, 
Jehoshaphat's son. A marriage alliance was also 
made with the Phenicians, Ahab taking to wife 
Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal of Tyre. The Moab- 
ites remained subject to Israel and paid a con- 
siderable tribute (II Kings iii. 4). Jericho was 
rebuilt, and other cities were fortified or built. 
Ahab erected a palace at Jczreel (probably the 
" ivory house " of I Kings xxii. 39). In later years 
he had to fight with the Arameans of Damascus, 
who laid siege to Samaria, but were defeated and 
driven off. In the following year both armies met 
at Aphek in the plain of Jezreel, and Ben-hadad, 
the Syrian king, was captured and magnanimously 
treated by Ahab; with the promise to give up the 
conquests of his father and to allow Ahab's mer- 
chants to have bazaars in Damascus, he was set free. 
After three years Ahab undertook a new war 
against Damascus to capture Ramoth-gilead, which 
probably was to have been delivered to Israel after 
the covenant at Aphek. This time he had the help 



of Jehcwahaphat of Jttdah, whose son m&f have 
married Ahab*» daught<?r at this time. The battle 
waa lost and Ahab was mortally woimded. 

Ahab's wagn is of great importance in the relig- 
joua development of Israel^ and ia marked by a 
bitter contest between the throne and the proph- 
eti. That Ahab had no intention of apostatizing 
from Yahweh, the god of his people, is shoisTi by 
the nomas he gave his children; but to nde right- 
eously, according to the conception of the propheta^ 
did not suit hia policy. He tolerated the calf- 
irorship instituted by Jeroboam (1 Kings xii. 26- 
33), and, influenced by his Phefiician wife, intro- 
duced into Samaria the worabip of the SjTian Baal 
(Melkarth)^ for whom he built in his capital a great 
temple with all the necessary paraphernalia. No 
donbt ceitain circles in Israel were shocked by this 
heathen worship; but the great majority aaw in it 
no inconsistency with the Mosaic reUgion. It fell 
to Elijah to rebuke the people for ** halting between 
two opinions "; but his voice, like that of other 
prophets who protested, had little effect. Jescebel 
tried to silence them by bloody peraccuUona; and 
EUjah complained tliat be was the only prophet 
of Yahweh left. It must not be imagined, however, 
that all so-called prophets of Yahveb had been 
killed; for Ahab, who still regarded himself as a 
wofshiper of Yahweh, would hardly have per- 
mitted such an act. Those who did not oppose the 
worship of Baal were doubtless left alone j but in 
the eyen of EUJab they were not much better than 
the prophets of Baal. After the event on Mount 
Carmel (I King? xviii.) Jeaebel saw the futility of 
trying to suppress the opposition to the worship [ 
of Baal, and the prophets who bad kept in , 
hiding could come and go freely. Ahab and 
hia wife were also denounced by EUjah for the 
crime committed against Nabotb and his family ^ 
which led to signa of contrition on the king's 
part and to a postponement to his son's days 
of ttie threatened retribution {I Kings xxi.; cf. 
II Kings ix, 21-26). Ahab's character and achieve- 
ments are differently estimated. He was un- 
doubtedly an able roan, and desired to promote 
the welfare of his people; he was a brave warrior, 
and died manfully. But in the estimation of many 
these virtues are outweighed by bis weakness 
toward Jezebel^ bis short -^ghted optimism after 
the victory at Aphek, and his lack of deep religious 
conviction and eameetneas. (W, Lotj.) 

BtsLioG&APitT: On the chroaologyt A. K»mplutuen, Ckn^- 

nohffie drr Ae&rflucJUm KuniiQe^ Booq^ 1883; ChronQi- 
Offu of the Kinfft of Ivuet ond Judah compared with the 
Mofium^ntM^ in Chia-ch Quarterly Rcricw, Jan.^ 1S80; Ei. 
Alaider. B^iiithe Chronoloffi^ und Ztvtrechntino dtr Heb- 
rOer, Vieuiia* 18S7; DBA. 397-*03; EB, I 773^19; and 
nectioDB on chmno^jogy in the following n&nud worku^ 
On the history: H. Ewald, Oesckichie d«i Volkta iwrael. 7 
Tob.* GOttin^n, ISd+'flS (Eur, traiml, 8 vpb«*, London, 
L8«7-s:3); M. DundusT. GitchUUe d£d AUtrthutM, il. Leip- 
B Of 1878; B. 8tade, QtMchidiU dt* Votket lamel, 2 voU.. 
Berlin, 1884-^9; E. H«ii&ii, Histotrv du peupU Ivrorl, 5 
Yoli,* P^nH. 1S87-04, Eng. tnmeLi London, iaB$-9l; 
R. Kit lei Q€tdii£hle der Hda-c^^ 2 vols., Gotba^ 18$8- 
92, Eng. tranat, 2 vols., London, 18&5-0a; H. Ometi, Gt- 
§€hichte dfr Juden, 1 1 votf. , Lfipi^it^, ISSS-lfiOO, Eu^. tr^nsl , 
flvols.j l^ndon, ISfll; tl. RawHnfton4,A''tn0«r}/ twa^iond Ju- 
dah, London, 1 SBft; S mi th » O rJC; i dam, Propkttv; HM\iic\i- 
ler,G«icAtcJU0/«rael9,2 voIb., Leipiic, 1895^1900; C. F. Kent. 
HiMii»T/ of the H^n^w P^opU, 2 ¥ob., New Vark« lS9i^^7; 

Idbta, StudmiM* Old Tettament. il.. Lb. 11904; J. Wf^Uhfriineb, 
iwaeiitueht und jMitche Owtchi^iUt Berlm> 1897; idem, 
ProUvomena rur Geechithtt lemelit^ Berlin. 1899 (in 
Enff.« Fri}tegomena to the fiiMiOTy of ftrael, with a reprint 
of the article ' Itrael * from, th^ " Enct/^^pfudia Bntannita,'* 
Edinbui^h, 18S6); C. H. Comill, OAMchkht* den Volke9 
lemeU J.«ip0ic. 1898* Eng. transL, Chicago, 1898; DB, 
ii, 606-618S EB, ii. 2317^9: H- R amith, OM Tatamerd 
Biete^, New York, 1903^ Further Enaierial is to be 
found io the commentariei on the Books of Ki^es and 
Chronicler. On indi est ions from Ihe monuments: Schrn- 
dfiT, KB, a vol*., Berlin, 1889-1901; himm, KAT, 3d cd., 
by H. Zimmem and H. Winc-kler, 2 vols., Berlin, 1903* 
Eng. traasl. of l&t ed., London* 1^5^83; H. Winckler. 
AitarienUU^chm ForMchuntten^ J.-yi.^ Leip^r. 1893-97 (new 
bene:*, 3 vols., 1^98-1601; 3d serici, 2 voIa., 1901-D5); A. 
H. Hayce, ' Higher Criiittem ^ and the Monuments. Londoa, 
1894; J, F. McCurdy^ Hittory, Prophecy and the Monu^ 
mentt, 2 voln., New York, 1 894- 1901; W, St, C. Boseawen, 
The Bihle and the Monnmentt* London, 1B95; S. R. Driver, 
ID D. G. Hogartb» Auihoritj/ and Archaologj/, London, 

AHASTTERUS, o-hai'yu-I'ruB; A name given in 
the Oy Testament to two kingp. 1« The father of 
Darius the Mede (Dan. ix. I). Since Darius is 
mentioned before Cyrua, be can be no other than 
AfltyageSp and Ahasuerus would then be Cyaxarea. 
Phonetically the name lA juBt aa little connected 
ai Qyaxaree with the name which that king has in 
the Persian cuneiform inscriptions, and wMcb must 
probably be read Iluvakhshlra. It is also often 
jfound that the Median and Persian kings are differ-^ 
ently named in the sources^ a difTerence which is 
to be explained by the fact tbat after their accessioD 
to the throne they took new names. In Tob. xiv, 
15 ** Asueroa " ia Astyages^ since he is mentioned 
as the conqueror of Nineveh bedde Nebuchad- 

2* A king mentioned in the book of Eethen the 
Khahayarsha of the Persian inscriptions and the 
Xerxes of the Greeks^ who ruled from 485 to 455 
B.c*, and was the son of Dariua Hystaspes. Thia 
is indicated by the identity of the name and the 
agreement in character as that is given by Herodo- 
tua. With thi^ agrees alEH) the mention of Shuslian 
(Stisa) as his residence, and the statement in Esther 
i. that the kingdom extended from India to 
Etlnopia — a statement which is confirmed by the 
enumeration of the provinces of the Persian empire 
in the epitaph of Dariua at Naksht Rustem, which, 
however^ would not a ait the time before Dariua, 
With Xerxes, not with Cambyses^ the Ahasuerus 
of Ezra iv. 6 is no doubt identical, to whom the 
Samaritans presented a bill of indictment against 
the eadlee who returned to Jerusalem. 

(B. Lindner J 

BlBLtooRAPRT: T. Benfey^ Die pernechen KeiiinMchriftettf 
LaipRio, 1847; F, Spie^. Erani*che Altrrthtifnekundef 
3 vols., ib. lSn-78; Sehradcr. KAT; A. II. Stiyce, 
Hipher Criticism and the Mitnumenttt pp. fi43 sciqh, 
London, 1804; W. St. G. Boacftw^n, Tho Bible and 
the Mrniumenti^ lb, 18&5^ 

AHAUS, <l"hauz', HEnmiCH VON (Hen- 
drik van Ahuis) * Founder of the Brethren of 
the Common Life in Germany j b. in the princi- 
pality of Ahaus, near Mfuister, 1370; d. in Mlin- 
ster 1439. He wa?? deecended from a noble family 
whoae ariccstors dated back to the ninth tjentury, 
and who took their name from their territories on 
the River Aa. In 1396 he took religious orders and, 
in^ueneed by his aunt^ fortnerly abbess of Vreden in 



Gelderland, then a member of the Sisterhood of the 
Common Life at Deventer, affiliated himself with 
the followers of the new teaching in that town. 
He remained at Deventer probably till the year 1400, 
living in close association with the companions and 
successors of Groote, the founder of the fraternity, 
such as Florentius Radewyns, Brinckerink, Ger- 
hard Zerbolt, and Thomas a Kempis. Having 
mastered the principles and the organization of the 
Brethren, and imbued with their zeal, he returned 
to Westphalia and in the year of his arrival founded 
a brotherhood at MOnster. The death of his father 
left him with ample means with which he erected 
a house for the accommodation of the Brethren. 
Later he ceded to them his magnificent residence 
and estate at Springbnmnen, which became the 
seat of the general chapter of the fraternity. Liv- 
ing without vows or written regulations, and given 
up to the practise of the hiunble Christian virtues, 
the Brethren, nevertheless, met with opposition 
from many of the clergy and laity. The former 
looked askance at their close intermingling of the 
ascetic and spiritual with the secular life, and 
resented the influence which they speedily began 
to exert in the field of education, while the citizens 
of MUnster regarded the activity of the fraternity 
in the production of beautiful books, which con- 
stituted the chief source of their livelihood, as un- 
welcome competition. The Dominicans were the 
most zealous of their opponents and at the instance 
of one of that order, Matth^eus Grabow, complaint 
against the Brethren was lodged with the Council 
of Constance. Owing to the intercession of Gerson 
and Pierre d'Ailly, however, they obtained a com- 
plete vindication (1418), and the persecution served 
only to hasten the rapid spread of their influence. 
Ahaus was one of the representatives sent to Con- 
stance to defend the cause of the brotherhood. 

In 1416 Ahaus established at Cologne the second 
great house of the fraternity; and in 1428 a union 
was effected between the chapters of Cologne and 
Milnster whereby the two houses were constituted 
practically one body. In 1441 this union was 
joined by the chapter of Wesel in Cleves, which 
had been foimded by Ahaus in 1435. To the end 
of his life Ahaus busied himself with the erection 
of new chapters and the active supervision of the 
established houses; and, in addition to the three 
great chapters mentioned, many smaller foundations 
were established in the dioceses of Mtinster and 
Osnabrilck. Communities of Sisters of the Common 
Life also were established at Emmerich, Herford, 
Hildesheim, and other places, aside from the mother 
house at MQnster, with the foundation of which 
Ahaus was not connected. The labors of Ahaus 
exercised a beneficent influence upon the condition 
of the Church in Germany. The standard of learn- 
ing among the clergy was raised, and monasticism 
was purified of many of its evils, while its ideals of 
a spiritual life received wide extension through the 
founding of secular communities. The Brethren 
were also influential in the establishment of schools, 
in the diffusion of literature both in manuscript and 
in printed form, and in the extension of the use of 
the vernacular for religious purposes. 


I.— 7 

Bxblioorapbt: L. SchuUe, Heinrieh von AhauM, in ZKW, 
iii.. 1882. 

AHAZ, d'haz: Eleventh king of Judah, son 
and successor of Jotham. He ruled, according to 
the older computation, 742-727 B.C.; according to 
Kdhler, 739-724; according to Kamphausen, 734- 
715; according to Hommel, 734-728. The most 
important political event of his reign was the sub- 
jugation of Judah to Assyria as a result of the 
Arameo- (S3rro-) Ephraimitic war. Pekah, king 
of Israel, and Rezin of Damascus had conspired 
against Judah before the death of Jotham (II Kings 
XV. 37), but war was not actively carried on unUl 
after the accession of Ahaz. The latter could not 
maintain himself in the field and retired to the 
fortified Jerusalem. According to the Chronicler, 
he was defeated in pitched battle at some stage of 
the war. Rezin captured Elath on the Red Sea, 
which had been in possession of Judah since the 
days of Amaziah and Uzziah (Azariah, II Kings 
xiv. 7, 22), and restored it to the Edomites (xvi. 
6, where the reading should be " Edomites " in- 
stead of " Syrians ")f perhaps in return for help in 
the war (cf. II Chron. xxviii. 17). Judea was laid 
waste and partly depopulated (cf. Isa. i. 5-9). 
Ahaz in his need applied for help to Tiglath-pileser 
II. of Assyria, who forced the enemies of the Judean 
king to retire; but, as the price of this deliver- 
ance, Judah became an Assyrian vassal state, the 
king's treasure and the treasure of the Temple being 
carried to Nineveh, and a yearly tribute imposed. 
Few kings of Judah are represented as having so 
little inclination to the true Yahveh-religion as 
Ahaz. He sacrificed " on the hiUs, and under 
every green tree," and set up molten images of the 
Baalim. In a time of great distress he even offered 
his son to Molech in the Valley of Hinnom; and 
it may be inferred from 11. Kings xxiii. 11-12 that, 
under Assyrian influence, he built altars for the 
worship of the heavenly bodies in the vicinity of 
the Temple. The religious and moral deterioration 
of the people under Ahaz is the frequent theme of 
Isaiah's prophecy. (W. Lotz.) 

It is now generally held that the reign of Ahaz 
extended from 735 to 719 B.C. The dates are 
important not merely as fixing the time of the 
accession of Hezekiah with his change of policy 
toward Assyria, but also their correlation with 
other events. Thus Ahaz is seen to have survived 
the fall of Samaria (722 B.C.) and the Assyrian 
expedition against Ashdod (720 B.C.) with its 
consequences to Judah (cf. Isa. xx.). J. F. M. 
Bulxoorapht: Oozunilt the worlu mentioned under Arab, 

and C. P. Caspari, Utberden SvrucK-^phraimitUeKen Kritg 

urUer Jotham und AKoi^ Christiania, 1840. 

AHAZIAH, 6"ha-zai'a: 1. Eighth king of Israel, 
son and successor of Ahab. He reigned about two 
years (856-855 b.c, according to Kamphausen; 
for other views, see the dates given for the close of 
his father's reign in the article Ahab). Little is 
known of his reign. Doubtless he ended the war 
with Ben-hadad (see Ahab) by treaty. After 
Ahab's death, the Moabites rebelled successfully; 
but Ahaziah seems to have undertaken no war 
against them. He had the misfortune to fall from 
a window and received serious injury; being a 





worshiper of Baal, he sent to Ekron to fieek coun^ 
■el from B&al-Eebub; and his meeaengeis were met 
on the way hy Elijah^ who foretold a fatal iBsue of 
his fiicknees as a puniabment for sending to Baal. 
Hifi huitocy b found in I Kings %xii. 49^ — II King^ 1. 

The death of Ahab and accession of Ahaaiah of 
Israel fell in 853 B.C. (see Ahab)^ as iis now generalljr 
agreed. Jehu acceded in S42 B.C., for in that year 
he paid homage to Shalman^er II. according to 
the statement of the Latter on his Btack Obelisk. 
But Joram, who corner between AliAfiab and Jehu, 
leigned '' twelve yeais'* (II King^ iii. 1). This 
term seems to fill up the whole time between S53 
and 842| ineluaive. Accordingly the sickness of 
Ahaziah and active regency of Joram began just 
after the accession of the former, whose very brief 
reign could have had no significanee whatever 

J. F. M. 

2. Sixth kingof Judah, son of Jehoram. He reigned 
one year (S84 b.c.^ according to the older computa- 
tion; 843, according to Kamphausen; 842^ accord- 
ing to Hommel). He married a daughter of Ahab, 
and it is therefore not surprising that he was a 
Baal- worshiper. His relation inith the house of 
OmH caused liis early death. He joined bis brother- 
in-law^ Jonun of Israel, in a campaign against 
Hazae) of Damascus^ and the two alUefi attacked 
Ramoth-gilead. Joram was w^ounded and returned 
to Jeireeli whither Ahaziah went to visit bim, and 
there he fell into the bands of Jehu, who killed bim 
&B a member of the house of Omri. The accounts 
of bis death in Kings and Chronicles can not be 
fieconciled. His history is found in II Kings vlii. 
25-^ix. 29; II Chron, xxii. 1-9. (W. Lorz.) 

Bmt'ioaiiAFHT: Coxuiult th* works mcDtioned under Ahab. 

AMI J AH, Q'hd'jQ: A prophet, bving al Sbiloh, 
mentioned in I Kings xi. 2^-39, xii. 15, xiv. 1-18; 
II Chroii. ix. 29, x. 15. All these passages in the 
Book of Kings are Deutert>nomic, or at least have 
been worked over by a Deuteronomic editor. In 
ibe latter part of Solomon's reign Ahijab seems to 
have enjoyed great authority as Yahweh's prophet. 
Next to Samuel and EUsba he is the most striking 
escample of the fact that the prophets of Israel, 
besides promoting tbe religious life, meddled with 
political affairs. He gave voice to the deep dissatis- 
faction which all true Yahweb- worshipers felt in 
the latter part of Solomon's reign, and foretold to 
Jeroboam that he would become king over ten tribes. 
Years later, when Ahijah was an old man, dim of 
eyesigbtT Jeroboam sent his wife to the prophet in 
disguise to obtain help, if possible^ in the severe 
aicknesa of his son. Again the prophet declared 
the misfortune to be tbe consequence of unfaith- 
fulness to Yahweb; be foretold the death of the 
prince and the extinction of the house of Jeroboam. 
The Chronicler J according to his custom, made 
Ahijah also a historian of bis time, 

(R. KiTTEL.) 

AHJHELECH, u-him'e-lec: Higb priest at the 
tabernacle in Nob. He gave tbe sbowbread and 
Goliath's a word to David, not knowing that the 
latter was fleeing from Saul^ and for this reason be^ 
together with the entire priestly family of eighty- five 

peiwins (LXX, thirty- five) and the whole city of 
Nob, wat slain by Doeg the Edomite at Saul's com- 
mand (I Sam. xxi,-xxii.). Only his son Abiathar 
escaped and w^ent to David. Abimelech is called 
tbe son of Ahitub (I Sam. \jdi. 9, 20), and was 
therefore great-grandson of Eli and a descendant of 
Itbamar. ** Ahiah ** (I Sam, xiv, 3) ia probably 
another name for Ahimelech; if not, Ahiah must 
have been an older brother of tbe latter who offi- 
ciated before him, or possibly the father of Ahime- 
lech, whOt in this case, should be called the grand- 
son of Ahitub. Abiathar served David as priest 
during the latter 's exile (I Sam. xxii, 20-23^ xxiii. 
5-12, XXX. 7-8) and throughout his reign, although 
Zadok of another priestly line is always mentioned 
first (II Sam, XV, 24, xvii- 15, xix. 11, xx. 25). 
He was deposed by Solomon for having favored 
tbe succession of Adonijab (I Kings ii^ 26-27, 35), 

C. VON Orelli. 

AHITHOPHEL^ a-hitb'o-fel: A counselor of 
David. He ia called " the Gilooite,'^ i.e., from 
Giloh* a city in the south of Judah (II Sam. xv, 12), 
David esteemed him highly for his great wisdom 
(II Sam. xvi. 23). When Absalom revolted, Ahith^ 
ophel faitldessly betrayed David in the expectation 
that the rebellion would be successful (II Sam. 
XV. 12, 31, xvi. 21, xvii. I sqq.). He soon per- 
ceived, however, that his authority was not para- 
mount with the young prince; and when the 
latter rejected his Eidvice to attack Da^id at once, 
be went home and hanged himself (II Sam. xvii. 
23). Some think that Ps. xli. 9, Iv. 12 sqq. have 
reference to David *s sad experience ^itb Ahithophel. 
Eliam, a son of Ahithophel, was one of David's 
heroes (II Sam, xxxiii. 34); it is hardly possible 
that he was the Eliam mentioned as the father of 
Batb-sheba (II Sam, xi. 3), C, von Obellt. 


Lutheran; b. at Mehringen (in the Harz. near Bern- 
burg, 25 m. n.n.w. of Halle), Anhalt, Nov. 1, 1810; 
d. at Leipstc Mar. 4, 1SS4. His father was a carpen- 
ter, and be owed some of his later power to the 
fact that be was brought up with an intimate knowl- 
edge of the nature and needs of the mass of the 
people. From 1830 to 1833 he studied at Halle, 
For a year he was a private tutor, and then be 
taught in the ^tnnasium at Zerbst. His preaching 
at this time was influenced by rationalism^ At 
the beginning of 1837 he was appointed rector of 
tbe boys' school at WOrlit*; and here he came under 
the influence of Schubring, a man of simple faith , and 
his views changed. In 1838 he became pastor of 
Alsleben, on the Saale, a village of sailors where 
ho worked bard and exercised a powerful influence, 
folding time, however, for literary work, and vigor- 
ously defending the old-fashioned faith against 
rationalism. He was called to Halle in 1847 
through Tboluck's endeavors, and did his duty 
nobly in the troublous times of the Revolution and 
of the cholera epidemic of 1849. He took posi- 
tions of more and more prominence^ and in 1850 
was chosen pastor of St. Nicholas's Church in Leip^ 
sic. In 1881 he retired from active work. 

As a preacher Ahlfeld gained and maintained a 
remarkable populanty. Abstract speculation waa 




not hk etroQg pomt. He was at home in the con- 
crete, and knew bow to narrate with great eS'ect 
etoriea from Holy Scripture, from the history of the 
Chtirch, and from hk own or others' experience. 
Beeidee preachingj. be taught in the Leipsic Theo- 
logical Seminaiy, and for many years did good 
Bervice on the commission appointed to revise 
Luther's vereion of the Old Testament. He left 
& lasting memorial of his labors in more than one 
cbaritable foundation witb whose origin be bad 
much to do. Of the numerous collections of his 
diflcoursefl may be mentioned: Fredigten iiber 
die evangeliAch^n Perikoptn (Halle, 1848; 12th ed., 
1892); Das Leben im LichU tks Wortts Gotiea (1&61; 
7th ed,, 1886); Frtdigieti u6ef die cpi&iolischen 
Penkt^pm (1867; 5tb ed., 1899); Cmfirmaiimsr^- 
den (2 series, Leipsic, 188Q). (A. Hauctk.) 

BtBuoaa A put : Fritdrich A klhidt ^s9Uand PuMtor ru St. iViJb- 
loi tn Lttfoio: tin Lebentinld, Hailfr, 188^* 

PELT): A common designation (from his birtb- 
place, A^peltj near Luxembourg) for Peter, arch- 
bishop of Mainz (1300-20); b. between 1240 
and 12^0^ d, at Mainx June 4, 1320. He is an 
important figure in the politics and history of his 
time^ but of leas interest for religion or theology. 
Of bumble origin^ he was ambitious and adroit^ 
and sought his advancement with skill and success. 
A knowledge of medicine helped bim to win the 
favor of princes and popes. He was chancellor to 
Weneeelaufl II, king of Bohemia (1296-1305), and 
during this time quarreled with Albert of Austria 
and thenceforth was an opponent of tbe bouse of 
Hapfiburg, He promoted the election of Henry 
of Luxembourg ai^ emperor in 1308^ and under him 
was all-powerful m German affairs. He was mode 
bisbop of Basel in 1296, arehbisbop of Mainz in 
1306, and proved himself efficient and praiseworthy 
in his diocese. 
BlAUOOKArSY; J. Hcidenuum, P«lrr v^n A»pdt aU Kirchenr- 

fi^^ uiuf Staattmann^ B«rlia. 1B75. 

AIDAir, oi'don, SAUfT; First bishop of Lindis- 
fame; d. at Bamborough (on the coast of Northum- 
berland, 16 m. B.e. of Berwick) Aug. 31 » 651. When 
Oswald, king of North umbria (634-642), wished to 
introduce Christianity into his dominions (sea 
OswAii>, Saint; Celtic Church in Britain ano 
iRZLLAJfn), he applied to Segbine^ abbot of lona, 
for missionaries, and a certain Corman was sent, 
who soon returned, declaring it was impossible 
to Christianixe so rude a people. Aidan, then a 
monk of lona, suggested that Corman bad failed 
to adapt his teaching to their needs and bad ex- 
pected too much, forgetting tbe Apostle's injunc- 
tion of " milk for babes." Whereupon Aidan was 
at once ordained and sent to Oswald in Corman 's 
place (635). He established himself on tbe island 
of Lindisfame, near Bamborough, brought fellow 
Workers from Ireland, and founded a school of twelve 
Englisb boys to provide future priests. CJonsiat- 
ently exemplifying in bis daily life the doctrines 
he taught, he gained great influence with Oswald 
and, aftet his death, with Oswin, king of Deira, 
while the people were won by his mildness, humility, 
and benevolence. He could not preach in the 
Saxon language at first and Oswald acted as inter- 

preter. His work in North umbria was continued 

by Finan (q.v.). All information about Aidan 

comes from Bede {Hist, eccl., iii. 3, 5-17, 26), who 

praises bim and tells marvelous stories about him* 

BiBUOoftAFHT: J. H. A. Ebmrd^ Du tmicAoC«udU M-Uutmm- 

kirch0, Qutenloh, 1873; A. C. Fryer, Aidan, 0u ApaaliM 

of ihe North, London. IEM\ J. B. L^btfwt, Lwd^M in 

the Nijrth^rti Church, iK 1S90; W. Bright « Early Eruftuh 

Church Hiatory, 163-16S, 1SS-1S9, Oxford, lSfi7. 

Presbyterian; b. at Manchester, Vt., Oct. 30, 1827; 
d. at Princeton, N. J., Jan. 14, 1892. He was grad- 
uated from Dartmouth College in 1846 and from 
Andover Theological Seminary in 1853; entered 
the Congregational ministry, and became pastor 
at Yarmouth, Me., lS54j became profesBor of Latin 
in Dartmouth 1859; in Princeton 1866, president 
of Union College 1869, professor of ethics and 
apologetics in Princeton Theological Seminary 1871; 
was transferred to the chair of Oriental and Old 
Testament literature 1882. He was a member of 
the Old Testament re vision company, and tran&* 
la ted Zdckler'a commentary on Proverbs in the 
Lange series (New York, 

AHLY, PIERRE D', pyir dfl"lyi' (Lat. Pttme 
de AUiaco): Chancellor of tbe Univenity of Paris, 
later bishop of Cambrai and cardinal, one of the 
difjtinguished churchmen who sought to restore 
unity to tbe divided Cburcb during tbe great papal 
schism (1378-1429; see Schism) by means of a 
general council; b., probably at Ailly-le-haut- 
c tocher (20 m. n.w. of Amiens), in the present 
department of Somme, 1350; d. at Avignon Aug, 
9, 1420. He was brought up in Compidgne in the 
midst of the desolation caused by the war with 
England and an insurrection of tbe peasants (the 
Jacquerie}; to this was no doubt in part due the 
strong national feeling and tbe prejudice against 
England which he showed later. He entered the 
University of Paris as a student of theology in the 
College of Navarre in 1372, and began to lecture 
on Peter Lombard in 1375. His lectures (printed 
as Quce^tianes super libros s^n£en£iarum, Strasburg, 
1490)j gained for him the reputation of a clear 
thinker, and helped to make the nominalism of 
Occam predominant in the university. He al»o 
distinguished himself as a preacher. 

On Apr, 11, 1380, Ailly was made doctor of the- 
ology and professor. His treatise on this occasion, 
and other essays written about the same time (pub- 
lished as appendix to tbe Qufsstiones; also in 
Gersonii opera , ed. Du Pin, i. 603 iqq., Antwerp, 
1706), show his position concerning the doctrine 
of the Church, which was brought to the front by 
the schism. The Christian Church, he said, is 
founded on the living Christ, not an tbe erring Peter, 
on the Bible, not on the canon law. The existing 
evilfl can be cured by a general council. Against 
those who opposed this idea of a council he wrote 
in 13S1 a satirical epistle ** from the devil to his 
prelates " (text in Tschackert, Appendix, pp. 15 
sqq.). In 1384 he became director of the College 
of Navarrej where he bad among bis pupils Jean 
Gereon, who became his faithful friend. In 1389 
Ailly w*as made chancellor of the university and 
almoner of Charles VL of France, a position whicb 




brought him in close relation with the court at 
Pariii. When the Avignonese pope, Clement VII., 
died (1394), Ailly'a influence secured the recog- 
nition by France of hm succeasor^ the Spaniard 
Peter de Luna (Benedict XI 11.)* As a reward 
Benedici made Aiily biahop of Puy (1395), and 
two years later bishop of Cambrai* In 1398 
Charles VL of France and Wenceslaus of Oerraaziy 
sent him upon unsuccesaful misi^ionR to both Boni- 
face IX. and Benedict J to try to induce them to 
resign their office. Benedict was then kept a pris- 
oner in Avignon by French troops till he escaped to 
Spain (1403), In 1398 and again in 1408 France 
withdrew its obedience from Benedict, without^ 
however, declaring for his rival* The attempt to 
nationalize the French Church failed because the 
civil authorities of the time conducted Church 
affairs worse than the pope. In 1408 Aally finally 
abandoned the caune of Benedict, The addition 
of a new element of discord by the choice of a third 
pope at the Council of Pisa Cq*v.) in June, 1409^ 
waa not in accord with Ailly's wishes; but in the 
main he stood by the council (cf. hia Apohgi^i 
concUii PUanh in Tachackert, pp* 31 sqq-), though 
he continued to write m favor of rt^form by another 
council. John XXII L (the Roman pope) eiought 
to conciliate him by an appointment (June 7, 1411) 
as cartUnal, with the title Cardinalis Sancii Chryso^ 
ffoni^ though he himself preferred t<i be called " tlifl 
Cardinal of Cambrai.'* He attended the council 
called in Rome by John in 1412, where he interejsted 
himself in a reform of the calendar. In 1413 he 
traveled through Germany and the Netherlands as 
papal legate, and at the same time waa active as a 

Ailly's most important Bervic^s in church hiBtory, 
however, were rendered at the Cbuncil of Constance 
(met Nov. 5, 1414; see Const ance, Covncii* or). 
Here be maintained the superiority of a general 
council over the pope, but at the same time defended 
the privileges of the college of cardinals against the 
council. It was due to Gerson and AHly that after 
the ftight of John XX III* from Constance (Mar, 20h 
1415), the council was not adjourned. He had the 
courage to preside over the first popeless session 
(Mar, 2d, 1416), and to carry out the order of busi- 
ness of that important gathering. The council 
had to decide three points; (I) The catisa itnionis 
(aboUtion of the schism); (2) the caw^a re forma* 
twnk (reformation of the Church in capHe et in 
membris); and (3) caitsa fidei (the case of John 
Hu9b). ADly was very active in the laat two. 
As pr^ident of the coEnmission on faith^ he ex- 
amined Huss (June 7 and 8^ 1415; Doeumenla 
J. Hub., ed. F. Palacky, Prague, 1S69, pp. 273 sqq.), 
and was present at bis oondemnarion (July 6). 
He expressed his ideas on reform, as deputy of the 
college of cardinals, in the cominiasion on refonn 
and in a writing of Nov,, 1416, De TeformsUione 
ecclana (in H. von der Hardt, MagnMm acumeni- 
eum. CanstaTitiense cfmcUium, i., part viii,, Frankfort, 
1700), Hia views on the power of the Church be 
had already published (October) in his Ik potestaie 
eccUm^. When, in November, the council pro- 
ceeded to the choice of a new pope. Ailly waa a 
candidate; but the opposition of the English pre- 

vented his election. He lived on ^xkI terms with 
his successful competitor, Otto di Colonna, and as 
his legate at Avignon continued influential in the 
French Church till his death. Ailly was always faith- 
ful to the interests of his country, although he was 
more churchman than Frenchman, He influenced 
the young Luther by his doubts concerning the 
doctrine of transubstantiation (cf. Lo therms De 
captnritate Babytonicat Erlangen ed., var, urg*, v. 
29), In 1410 he WTOte a geograpiiical work Imago 
mundi ( n,p., n.d,), which has interest as hav- 
ing been one of the sources from wluch Columbus 
drew Ins belief in the possibility of a western pas- 
sage to India (cf. Tschackert, 334 sqq,), 

Paul Tschackert. 

BiBLrooBAPVT: F, TatrliAckert, Ptttr turn A^IL Goiha, lfi77 

(fivtfi bibUdErapby of Ailly 'a works» pp. 348-366); L, Sa- 

l«mbirr< Fftrut dt AUiacQ, Lille, 1880 (bLso gives bib Liiiffra- 

phy of hM wijrkji^ pp, 2 aq^.]; G, Erler^ DietritX ^on Nw- 

Aftm, LeipPtc, 1837; H, Finke, F&ritciiu.ngtn vnd Quttlm 

lur GeKhichU dea Konttanwr KonxiU* pp, ia3-l32, Patler- 

bdrti^ 1880 (irivca the dinxy oT AiHy's ei>LleaKUP. Caniinnl 

FilJiLatre, pp. I6^itqg.): B. Bern, Zur Geschichte de* Kon- 

tftanz^ K&fiJtiUt, voL i.t Marburg, 1891, 

AILRED, ^I'red (jELRED, ETHELRED ) : Abbot 

of the Cistercian abbey of Ri(*vaulx in England 

(20 m, n, of York); b. at Hexham (20 m. w. of 

Newcastle-upon-Tyne), probably in 1109; d, at 

Rievaulx Jan. 12^ 1166. He spent his youth at the 

court of Scotland, entered the abbey of Rievaulx 

in 1131, became abbot of Reve&by, Lincolnslure 

and returned to Rievaulx as abbot in 1146, H 

wrote historical and theological works, the former 

of which include hves of St, Edward the Confessor 

and St. Ninian, while among the latter are: Ser- 

mones; Specuitim chariiatu ; De ipirUuali amicUia ; 

De duodecimo anno Chrijsii; Regula sit^ in^tUutio 

indusamm^ and Dt naittra cTumcp. Ail of his 

printed works, with life by an anonymous author, 

are in MPL, cxcv. 

B[BLiDGaAj>ffT: Tho9. Wright i Biographia BrUannioa liU- 
tTfriat ii. 187-106, LondoQ, 1846; J. H. N«win&Ei, Livtt of 
iht Englith SainU, 2 vdU.. ib. 1845-4^; A. T. Forb«e, in 
Live* &f St. Niniar^, *SV, Kent^t^m. SL Coiumba^ iDtroduo- 
tion. ib, 1875; Eth^trtd, id DNB, xviii. 33-35 {oontaiiu 
list of hb writings). 

iUUOIIf, ^"mwQn': The name of two French 
monks, both known as historians. 

1. Aimoin of St Germain: Teacher in the 
monaatery achool of Saint-Germain-des-Pr^s near 
Paris, He seems to have be^n his literary career 
about 865, and to have died at the end of the ninth 
century or in the beginning of the tenth. Hie 
workSf all of a hagiographical naturer are in MPLf 
C3ucvi, 1009-56. 

39 « Almoin of Flettry; A disciple of Abbo of 
Fleury (q.v,), at whose suggestion, and therefore 
not later than 1004, he w*rote a Historia Fran- 
corum, from their origin to the time of Clovis 11. 
(d, 657), His life of Abbo has greater historical 
valuer and his account of the tranalation of the 
relics of St. Benedict to Fleury contains numerous 
data for French hiatory of the tenth century. Hia 
works are in MPL, cxxxix, 375-4 14» 617-S70; 
and there are extracts in MGH, Script., ix, (ISSl) 
374-376. (A. Hadck.) 

BiBLiooajLPirr: (1) A, Ebeirt, G*$chicht$ dw Lititr^tur d4* 

MitiMiaUm-M. tl, 3^53-^65; W, W&tUttibai^h> DOQ. i. (1004 7 

330, {2) W. Wftttuibaobf ut sup.r pp. 1^1* 464^70, 





AIN6ER, ALFRED: Church of England; b. 
St London Feb. 0, 1837; d. there Feb. 8, 1904. 
He was educated at King's College, London, and 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge (B.A., 1860), and was 
ordered deacon in 1860 and priested in the follow- 
ing year. He was successively curate of Alrewas, 
Staffordshire, in 1860-64, assistant master of Shef- 
field College School in 1864-66, and reader at the 
Temple Church, London, in 1866-93. From 1894 
until his death he was Master of the Temple. He 
was likewise made canon of Bristol in 1887, and 
was elected honorary fellow of Trinity Hall in 1898, 
being also select preacher at Oxford in 1891 and 
1898, as well as honorary chaplain to the queen 
in 1895-96 and chaplain in ordinary to the king 
after the latter year. In addition to a number of 
monographs on EInglish authors, and besides con- 
tributions to the Dictionary of National Biography, 
he wrote Sermons preached in the Temple Church 
(London, 1870). He is best known for his biog- 
raphy of Charles Lamb (London, 1882) and his 
editions of Lamb's works (1883 sqq.). His genial 
humor and whimsical temperament peculiarly fitted 
him to be the editor of Lamb, and, with his un- 
common personality and exquisite literary taste, 
made him one of the most popular clergymen of 
London. He attracted to the Temple Church per- 
haps the most distinguished congregation in the 
Bikjoobapht: E. Siobel, Life and Lettsrt of Alfred Aingert 

New York, 1006. 

AINSWORTH, HEIVRY: English separatist; b., 
probably at Swanton, near Norwich, 1571; d. at 
Amsterdam 1622 or 1623. Driven from England, 
about 1593 he went to Amsterdam, and in two or 
three years became " teacher " of the congregation 
of which Francis Johnson (q.v.) was minister. He 
and Johnson could not agree and the congregation 
divided in 1610. In 1612 Johnson went to Emden, 
and thenceforth Ainsworth had the field to himself. 
It has been inferred that he lacked a imiversity 
training from a statement of Roger Williams, that 
" he scarce set foot within a college walls " {Bloody 
Tenet, 1644, p. 174; cf. Dexter, 270, note 68); 
but the register of Caius College, Cambridge, shows 
that he was admitted there Dec. 15, 1587, and was 
in residence there as a scholar for four years. He 
was unquestionably a learned man, wrote excellent 
Latin, and had a knowledge of Hebrew (perfected 
by association with Amsterdam Jews), equaled by 
that of few other Christians of his time. He was 
earnest and sincere in his faith, conciliatory in 
spirit, and moderate in controversy. He had the 
chief part in drafting the Congregational Confession 
of 1596 (entitled A True Confeeeion of the Faith, 
and Humble Acknowledgment of the Allegiance 
which toe, her Majesty*8 subjects, falsely called 
Brownists, do hold towards God, and yield to her 
Majesty and all other that are over us in the Lord; 
cf. WaUcer, pp. 41-74, where the full text is given). 
He wrote many controversial works (for full list con- 
sult DNB, i. 192-193) and a series of Annotations 
upon the books of the Pentateuch, the Psalms, and 
the Song of Songs (1612 sqq.; collected ed., London, 
1626-27; reprinted, 2 vols., Glasgow, 1843), which 
have still some value. 

Bxbuoobapht: H. M. Dexter. Coimreoaiionalimn of the Laat 
Throt Hundred Yoara, New York, 1880; W. Walker. Creede 
and PlatformM of Congrttfaaonaliam^ p. 43, note 1, New 
York. 1803. 

TER: Church of England; b. at Liverpool Sept. 
21, 1841. He was educated at Wadham College, 
Oxford (B.A., 1865, M.A., 1867). He was presented 
to the curacy of St. Jude's, Mildmay Park, London, 
in 1865, and was ordained priest in the following 
year. From 1871 to 1875 he was incumbent of 
Christ Church, Liverpool, but resigned to become 
a mission preacher. The next year he founded, 
in memory of his father. Rev. Ilobert Aitken, the 
Aitken Memorial Mission Fund, of which he was 
chosen general superintendent, and which later 
developed into the Church Parochial Missionary 
Society. He twice visited the United States on 
mission tours, first in 1886, when the noonday 
services for business men at Trinity Church, New 
York, were begun, and again in 1895-96. Since 
1900 he has been canon residentiary of Norwich 
Cathedral. Two years later he was a member of 
the Fulham Conference on auricular confession. 
He has been a member of the Victoria Institute 
since 1876. In theology he is a liberal Evangelical, 
but has never been closely identified with any 
party. He adheres strongly to the doctrines •f 
grace, although he repudiates Calvinism. While not 
an opponent of higher criticism in itself, he exer- 
cises a prudent conservatbm in accepting its con- 
clusions. In his eschatology he is an advocate of 
the theory of conditional inmiortality. His wri- 
tings include: Mission Sermons (3 vols., London, 
1875-76); Newness of Life (1877); What is your 
Lifer (1879); The School of Grace (1879); God's 
Everlasting Yea (1881); The Glory of the Gospel 
(1882); The Highway of Holiness (1883); Around 
the Cross (1884); The Revealer Revealed (1885); 
The Love of the Father (1887); Eastertide (1889); 
Temptation and ToU (1895); The Romance of 
Christian Work and Experience (1898); The Doc- 
trine of Baptism (1900); The Divine Ordinance of 
Prayer (1902); and Life, Light, and Love: Studies 
on the First Epistle of St, John (1905). 


tist; b. at Nottingham Aug. 27, 1864. He 
was educated at Midland Baptist College and 
University College, Nottingham, after having 
passed the early part of his life as an auc- 
tioneer. He was then pastor at Syston, Leicester- 
shire, in 1886-88, and at St. Helens and Eailstown, 
Lancashire, in 1888-90, and from 1890 to 1906 
was minister of Pembroke Chapel, Liverpool. In 
the latter year he was elected pastor of the Fifth 
Avenue Baptist Church, New York City. From 
1893 to 1906 he made yearly visits to the United 
States as a lecturer and preacher, and was also vice- 
president of the United Kingdom Alliance and one 
of the founders of the Passive Resistance League. 
In addition to numerous sermons and pamphlets, 
he has written Changing Creeds and Social Struggles 
(London, 1893) and Courage of the Coward, and 
other Sermons in Liverpool (1905). 





AKIBA, a-kfba: Jewish rabbi, said to have 
lived in Jerusalem in the time of the Second Temple, 
and to have devoted himself to the study of the law 
when somewhat advanced in years. After the 
destruction of Jerusalem he retired to the neigh- 
borhood of Jaffa and also undertook extensive 
travels. He was executed during the Jewish insiu> 
rection under Hadrian (c. 133); but there is no 
proof that he was active in the revolt, or took any 
part in it except to recognize Bar-Kokba as the 
Messiah (in accordance with Num. xxiv. 17). 
Jewish tradition assigns as the cause of his death, 
that he taught the law when it was forbidden to 
do so. 

Many sayings are transmitted in Akiba's name. 
He defended the sacred character of the Song of 
Songs, which he interpreted allegorically (cf. F. 
Buhl, Kanonand Text, Leipsic, 1891, pp. 28-29; £. 
Kdnig, Einleitung in das AUe Testament , Bonn, 1893, 
p. 450). He paid special attention to the develop- 
ment of the traditional law; a Mishnah is known 
under his name; and to his school no doubt belong 
the fundamental elements of the present Mishnah. 
His exegetical method found meaning even in the par- 
ticles and letters of the law (cf . M. Mielziner, Introduc- 
tion to the Talmud, CJincinnati, 1894, pp. 125-126, 
182-185; H. L. Strack, Einleitung in den Thalmud, 
Leipsic, 1894, pp. 100-104). The Greek translation 
of the Old Testament by Aquila (said to have been 
Aldba's pupil) seems to have been influenced by 
such an exegesis (Buhl, Kanon und Text, pp. 152- 
155). The midrashic works Siphra on Leviticus, 
and Siphre on Deuteronomy, contain much material 
from Akiba's school. (G. Dalman.) 

Biblxoorapht: H. Or&ts, O09ehiehto der Juden, toL it., 

Leipfdo. 1893; H. Ewald. OeachichU dec Volkea Itrael, vii. 

867, Gdttingen, 1868; Akiba ben Joteph, in JB, I 304 aqq. 

AKKAD. See Babylonia, IV., { 11. 
AKOMINATOS. See Nicetas. 

Heart of Jesus, Devotion to. 

ALANUS, a-la'nus: Name of at least three 
writers of the twelfth century. 

1. Alanus of Auzerre: Cistercian, abbot of 
Larivour from 1152 or 1153 to about 1167, bishop 
of Auxerre, and then for about twenty years monk 
at Clairvaux. He wrote a life of St. Bernard (in 
AfPL, clxxxv.). 

d. Alanus: Abbot of Tewkesbury. He wrote 
a life of Thomas Becket (ed. J. A. Giles, in PEA, 
1845; MPLf cxc), letters {MPL, cxc), and ser- 

8. Alanus ab Insulis (Alain of Lille; often 
called M agister Alanus and M agister universalis): 
A native of LiUe who taught in Paris. He was a 
man of wide and varied learning, and, combining 
philosophical studies and interests with strong 
adherence to the Church, forms an important con- 
necting link between the earlier and the later scholas- 
ticism. His writings include: (1) Regulcs calestis 
juris (called also RegidcB de sacra theologia or maxima 
theologuB), Like other sciences which have their 
principles, the supercalestis scientia Is not lacking in 
maxims. These are here laid down in a series of 
brief sentences, partly put in paradoxical form 

with minute elucidations. The work has a strong 
leaning toward Platonism, and contains some very 
peculiar thoughts. (2) Summa quadripartita adver- 
sits kuius temporis hcsreticos, which indicates by 
its title the ecclesiastical position of the author. 
The first book is directed against the Cathari, 
opposes their dualism and docetism, and defends 
the sacraments of the Church. The second book 
denies (chap, i.) the right (claimed by the Walden- 
sians) to preach without ecclesiastical commission; 
insists upon the duty of obeying implicitly the 
ecclesiastical superiors, and of making confession to 
the priest (chaps, ii.-x.); justifies indulgences and 
prayers for the dead (chaps, xi.-xiii. ) ; and denies that 
swearing in general is prohibited and that the killing 
of a person is under all circumstances sinful (chap, 
xviii.). (3) De arte prcBdicandi, a homiletic work 
which starts with the definition that " preaching 
is plain and public instruction in morals and faith, 
aiming to give men information, and emanating 
from the way of reason and fountain of authority." 
It tells how to preach on certain subjects, as on 
mortal sins and the virtues, and how to address 
different classes. (4) Less certainly genuine are the 
five books De arte catholica fideif whose style is 
somewhat different. The work makes the peculiar 
effort to demonstrate the ecclesiastical doctrine not 
only in a generally rational but by a strictly logical 
argumentation in modum artis. The fundamen- 
tal thought is striking; but the execution is some- 
times weak, and the definitions are so made that the 
inferences become what the author wishes to prove. 
(5)De planctu natures, in which Alanus gives, partly 
in prose, partly in rhyme, a picture of the darker side 
of the moral conditions of the time. (6) Antidau- 
dianuSf a more comprehensive work, deriving its title 
from the fact that the author wished to show the 
effects of virtues as Claudian showed those of vices. 
It is a kind of philosophico-theological encyclo- 
pedia in tolerably correct hexameters which are 
not devoid of poetic feeling. S. M. Deutsch. 

Bdlioorapht: (1) L. Janauflohek, Oriffines Ciatercienaet, 
Vienna, 1877; (3) Opera, in MPL, oox.; the oldest notices 
are in Otto of St. Bladen, Chronicant under the year 1194, 
MGH, Script, xx. (1868) 326, Alberio of Trois-Fontaines, 
ib. xxiii. (1874) 881, Henry of Ghent, De ecripioribue 
ecdeeiaaticia, oh. xxi.; cf. Oudin, Commeniariue de eerijh- 
toribtu ecdeaia, ii. 1387 sqq., Leipsic, 1772; Hietoire lit- 
Uraire de la France, xvi. 396 sqq.; C. B&umker, Hand- 
eehrifUichee su den Werken dee Alanite, 1894 (reprinted 
from the Philoeophiechee Jahrbuch of the (Sdrres-Oesell- 
schaft. vi and vii., Fulda, 1893-94); M. Baumgartner, 
Die PkOoeophie dee Alanue ab Ineulie, MQnster, 1896; J. 
E. Erdmann, OrundrieederOeechichte der Philoeophie, f 170. 
2 vols., Berlin, 1895-96. 



ALB: A vestment worn by Roman Catholic 
priests in celebrating mass, and prescribed also for 
the Church of Englimd by the first prayer-book of 
Edward VI. (" a white albe plain, with a vestment 
or cope "). See Vestments and Insignia, Eccle- 
siastical. The name was applied also to the white 
garments worn by the newly baptized in the early 
Church; and from this, since Easter was the usual 
time for baptism, came the name for the Sunday 
after Easter, Dominica in aOns (sc. deposiiis). 





ALBAH, SAINT, OF IfAINZ: Alleged martyr 
of the fourth or fifth century, whose existence is 
somewhat doubtful. The oldest form of the story 
(Rabanus Maurus, Martyrclogium, June 21; MPL, 
ex. 1 152) is that he was sent by Ambrose from Milan 
in the reign of Theodosius I. (379-395) to preach 
the gospel in Gaul, and was beheaded at Msdnz on 
the way. Numerous details were added later. 
On the supposed site of his burial, to the south of 
the city, a church was erected in his honor, which 
is mentioned as early as 758. In it in 794 Charle- 
magne buried his third wife, Fastrade. The edifice 
was subsequently rebuilt (796-805); and probably 
at this time it was made a Benedictine house. In 
1419 it was changed to a knightly foundation, to 
which Emperor Maximilian I. in 1515 gave the 
privilege of coining golden florins (called ** Albanus- 
gulden "), with the effigy of the saint arrayed in 
eucharistic vestments and carrying his head in his 
hand — a not uncommon method of representing 
martyrs who had been beheaded, to indicate the 
manner of their death. The foundation was de- 
stroyed when Margrave Albert of Brandenburg 
ravaged Mainz in 1552. (A. Hauck.) 

Biblioorapht: Qo8win (canon of Maim), Ex pauione 8. 

Albani martyria Moffunhni, in MGH, Script., xv. 2 (1888), 

984-990; J. Q. Reuter. AlbanagukUn, Mains, 1790; Rett- 

berg. KD, L 211; Friedrioh. KD, i. 314. 

the Britons, often mistakenly called ** the proto- 
martyr of the English." Bede (Hist, ecd., i. 7), 
doubtless following some imknown acts of St. 
Alban, says that while still a pagan he gave shelter 
to a fugitive clerk during the Diocletian persecution; 
impressed by his guest's personality, he embraced 
(Christianity, and when the clerk was discovered, 
wrapped himself in the fugitive's cloak and gave 
himself up to the authorities in his stead; he was 
scourged and condemned to death, performed 
miracles on the way to execution, and suffered on 
June 22; the place of his martyrdom was near 
Verulamium (St. Albans, Hertfordshire), and after 
the establishment of Christianity a magnificent 
church was erected there to his memory. Later 
accounts elaborate the narrative, and confuse the 
saint with others named Albanus or Albinus. It 
IB said that the martyr served seven years in the 
army of Diocletian, and the name of the clerk is 
given as Amphibalus (first by Gieoffrey of Mon- 
mouth), probably from his cloak (Lat. amphibolua). 
It seems certain that a tradition of the martyrdom 
of some Albanus existed at Verulamium as early 
as the visit of Grermanus in 429 (Oonstantius's 
life of (jermanus, i. 25), and there is no reason to 
deny its truth. But that the martyrdom took place 
in the Diocletian persecution is first intimated by 
Gildas (ed. Mommsen, MOHf Chronica minora^ 
iii. 31) and is probably a guess. For Aaron and 
Julius of (3arleon-on-Usk, whose names are joined 
by Gildas with that of Alban, no local tradition 
can be shown earlier than the ninth century. 
Biblioo&apht: Haddan and Stubbs. CounciU, i. 5-7; Wat- 

tenbaeh, DOQ, u. 497; W. Bright. Chaptera of Early Eno- 

lUh Church History, pp. 6-9. Oxford, 1897. 

ALBANENSES, ar'ba-nen'stz or -s^s: A faction 
of the Cathari. They derived their name from Al- 
bania, and maintained, in opposition to the Bogo- 

miles of Thracia and the Ck)ncorezense6 of Bulgaria 
and Italy, an absolute dualism, by which good 
and evil were referred to two eternally opposite 
and equally potent principles. See New Mani- 


ALBATL See Flagellation, Flagellants, II., 
8 5. 

ALBER, aVbeT, ERASMUS: Theologian and poet 
of the German Reformation; b. in the Wetterau 
(a district to the n.e. of Frankfort) about 1500; 
d. at Neubrandenburg (75. m. n. of Berlin) May 5, 
1553. He studied at Mainz and Wittenberg, and 
was much influenced by Luther, Melanchthon, and 
Carlstadt. After teaching in several places, in 1527 
he became pastor at Sprendlingen (15 m. s.w. of 
Mainz), in the Dreieich, where for eleven years he 
worked diligently for the extension of Reformation 
doctrines and made himself known as a writer. 
He was an extravagant admirer of Luther, and 
possessed a very sharp tongue, which he used as 
unsparingly against Reformers who did not agree 
with him as against Roman Catholics. Erratic 
tendencies grew upon him with years, and, after 
leaving Sprendlingen, he moved about much and 
was at times in want. Shortly before his death he 
was made pastor and superintendent at Neubran- 
denburg. ELis writings, though often rude and coarse, 
were forceful and popular. They include: a rhymed 
version of .£sop's Fables, made at Sprendlingen 
(ed. W. Braune, Halle, 1892); Der BarfOaser Mdnche 
Eulenapiegel und Alcoran (with preface by Luther, 
Wittenberg, 1542; Eng. transl., 1550), a satire 
directed against the Minorites, based upon a work 
of Bartolomeo Albizzi (q.v.); and Wider die 
verfluchte Lehre der Carlstadter, Wiedertduter, Rotten- 
geiateTf Sakramentldstererf Ehesch&ndeTf Muaic- 
ver&chter, BilderetUrmeT, Feyerfeinde, und Ver- 
wHsUr oiler guten Ordnung, published three years 
after his death. Of more permanent value are his 
hynms (ed. C. W. Stromberger, Halle, 1857), of 
which Nun freui euch Oottes Kinder all is used in 
German hymn-books and in English translation (O 
Children of your Oody rejoice). (T. Koldb.) 

Bibuooraphy: F. Schnorr von CarolBfeld, Eratnua AWer, 

Dreaden, 1886: Julian. Hymnology, pp. 34-35; H. 

BargOf Andreas Bodenatein von KarUtadt, i. 370 8qq.,491 

sqq., ii. 512 sqq.. et passim. Leipsic, 1905. 

ALBER, MATTHJEUS: The ''Luther of Swa- 
bia''; b. at Reutlingen (20 m. s. of Stuttgart) Dec. 
4, 1495; d. at Blaubeuren (30 m. s.e. of Stuttgart) 
Dec. 2, 1570. He was the son of a well-to-do gold- 
smith, took his master's degree at Ttibingen in 1518, 
and was immediately called as pastor to his native 
city. On Melanchthon's recommendation he re- 
ceived a scholarship, enabling him to continue his 
studies for three years longer. Dissatisfied with 
the scholastic theology at Tubingen, he went to 
Freiburg in 1521, but soon returned to Reutlingen, 
where he boldly preached Luther's doctrine and 
established the new teaching. At Elaster, 1524, 
he abolished the Latin mass and auricular con- 
fession. The same year he married, and when 
brought to account at Esslingen secured an acquittal 
by skUful management, although the bishop con- 
tinued to trouble him because of his marriage till 
1532. The Reformation made steady progress in 




Reutlingen; and in 1531 a church order with pree- 
byterial government was introduced. During the 
Peasant's War Reutlingen was unmolested. The 
fugitive Anabaptists from Esslingen were won over 
by instruction and mildness. Zwingli endeavored 
to bring over Alber to his view of the Lord's Supper, 
but the latter adhered to Luther, preserving his 
independence, however, and remaining on friendly 
terras with Zwingli's friends, Blarer, Butzer, Capito, 
and others. In 1534 Duke Ulrich of WUrttemberg 
called Alber as preacher to Stuttgart with a view 
of introducing the Reformation there. In 1536 
Alber went to Wittenberg, where he preached 
(May 28) and assisted in finishing the Concordia. 
In 1537 at the Colloquy of Urach he advised cau- 
tious procedure with regard to the removal of the 
images. As he opposed the introduction of the 
interim in 1548, he was obliged to give up his office 
and leave the city. For a time he lived at Pful- 
lingen, protected by Duke Ulrich who in Aug., 1549 
called him as first preacher of the collegiate Church 
of Stuttgart and general superintendent. He took 
an active part in the preparation of the Wilrttem- 
berg Confession and the church order of 1553, and 
he attended both the latter part of the Second Col- 
loquy at Worms (1557) and the Synod of Stutt- 
gart. Toward the end of 1562 he was made abbot 
of the reformed monastery at Blaubeuren. 

Bxbuoorapht: J. Fision, Cronika von ReuUingen, ed. A. 
Baomeister, Stuttgart, 1862; F. G. Qayler, DenktoUrdig- 
keiten der ReiehMladt ReuUinoen, Reutlingen, 1840; J. 
Hartmann, MatthAut Alber, TQbingen, 1863; G. Bosaert, 
Der ReuUinoer Sieg, 16SU, Barmen, 1804; idem, Interim 
in WUrttemberg, Halle, 1895; R. Schmid, Reformatione' 
geeehichte WOrUemberge, Heilbronn. 1004. 

ALBERT OF AIX: A historian of the twelfth 
century, designated in the manuscript of his HiS' 
toria expeditionia HierosolymiiancB as canonicus 
Aquensis, but whether he was a canon of Aix in 
Provence or of Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen) is uncer- 
tain. It IB likely, however, since he dates events 
by the years of Henry IV., that he was a Lorrainer 
rather than a Provencal. He may be the custos 
Adalberttu who is mentioned for the last time in 
1192, and, in this case, he must have written his 
history in early youth. His work teUs nothing of 
his personality, except that he had an ardent desire, 
wihich was never fulfilled, to visit the Holy Land. 
As a sort of compensation, he determined to write 
the events of the years 1095-1121 from the narra- 
tives of actual crusaders. His credibility was 
generally accepted until the middle of the nine- 
teenth century, but since then it has been seriously 
questioned. It is probable that the work is based 
upon mere hearsay. The Historia ia in MPL, 
clxvi., and in RecueU dea historiens dea Croisadea, hiat. 
occid., iv. (Paris, 1879) 265-713. (A. Hauck.) 
Biblioorapht: H. von Sybel, Oeachiehle dee erelen Krewt- 
euge, pp. 62-107, Leipsic, 1881; B. Kugler. Albert von 
Aachen, Stuttgart, 1885; F. Vercruysse, Eeeai erUique eur 
la ehronique d'AVberi d*Aix, U6gfi, 1880; Wattenbaeh, 
DGQ, ii. 178-180. 

ALBERT, antipope, 1 1 02. See Paschal II., pope. 

of Bavaria (b. Feb. 29, 1528; d. Oct. 24, 1579), 

was the son of Duke William IV., whom he suc- 
ceeded in 1 550. The rulers of Bavaria had remained 
faithful to the Roman Catholic Church during the 
progress of the Reformation; but in spite of their 
endeavors the new ideas gained many adherents 
among both the nobility and the citizen class. 
Albert was educated at Ingolstadt under good 
Catholic teachers. In 1547 he married a daughter 
of Emperor Ferdinand I., the union ending the 
political rivalry between Austria and Bavaria. 
Albert was now free to devote himself to the task 
of establishing Catholic conformity in his domin- 
ions. Incapable by nature of passionate adher- 
ence to any religious principle, and given rather to 
a life of idleness and pleasure, he pursued the work 
of repression because he was convinced that the 
cause of Catholicism was inseparably connected 
with the fortunes of the house of Wittelsbach. 
He took little direct share in the affairs of govern- 
ment and easily lent himself to the plans of his 
advisers, among whom during the early part of his 
reign 'were two sincere Catholics, Georg Stock- 
hammer and Wiguleus Hundt. The latter took an 
important part in the events leading up to the treaty 
of Passau (1552) and the peace of Augsburg (1555). 
The real beginning of the Ounterreformation in 
Bavaria may be dated from 1557, when the Jesuits 
first established themselves in the duchy. In sum- 
moning them to Bavaria Albert and his advisers 
were actuated by the desire to use their services 
as educators in raising the mass of the clergy from 
their condition of moral and intellectual stagnation. 
The Jesuits speedily made themselves masters of 
the University of Ingolstadt and through the 
chancellor, Simon Thadd&us Eck, exercised a pre- 
dominant influence at court. Eck was ably 
seconded by his associates, who obtained control 
of the education of the youth and of the clergy, 
and by their preaching and writings checked the 
spread of the reformed ideas among the masses of 
the people. Till 1563 concession still had a part in 
the progranune of the leaders, who hoped that the 
bestowal of communion in both kinds upon the 
laity and the abolition of celibacy in the priesthood 
would bring back many to the fold. Political 
events, however, led to an abandonment of the 
conciliatory policy. In 1563 Joachim, Count of 
Ortenburg, introduced the Augsburg Confession 
in his dominions, which he held as a direct fief of 
the empire. Albert discerned in this act a serious 
menace to the integrity of Bavaria, and took pos- 
session of the principality. Thenceforth the 
reformed religion, as closely connected with political 
insubordination, was made the object of a ruthless 
persecution. The opposition of the nobility was 
speedily overcome, and conformity to the teachings 
of the Church was enforced under pain of exile. 
By means of frequent visitations among the clergy 
and the people, the reorganization of the school 
system, the establishment of a strict censorship, 
and the imposition upon all public officials and 
university professors of an oath of conformity 
with the decisions of the Ouncil of Trent, heresy 
was completely stamped out in Bavaria before 
1580. The progress of the Counterreformation in 
the empire was materially helped by Bavaria. 




Albert made his territory a refuge for Catholic sub- 
jects of Protestant rulers and was urgent in coun- 
seling Emperor Maximilian II. against concessions 
to the Protestants. At his death Bavaria was the 
stronghold of the Catholic reaction in Germany, 
and next to Spain, the most formidable opponent 
of the Reformed faith in Europe. 

Wamtbr Goetz. 
Bibuoorapht: J. O. J. Aretin, Bayema auawdrtioe VerhOl- 
nine, Paaaau, 1830; S. Sugtenheim, Baiema Kirehen- 
und Volka-ZtutAnde, Giessen, 1842; M. Lossen. Kdlnitehe 
Krieg, Gotha. 1882; C. Rappreoht, Albneht V. von Baiem 
und mine St&nde, Munich, 1883; M. Ritter, DetU§che Ot- 
aehichte tm ZeitaUer der Oegenreformation, L 238 sqq., 300 
sqq.. Stuttgart, 1880; A. Kndpfler, Die Kelehbeweouno in 
Bayem unter Herzog AJJbrecht V., Munich, 1891; 8. Ries- 
ler, Zur WUrdiguno Henoo* AVbrechU V. v<m Bayem, ib. 
1801; W. Goets, Die bayerieehe PoliHk im ertten Jahrsehnt 
der Regierung Albrechte F., ib. 1806; idem, BeitrAge eur 
Geech. Henog AJhrechU F., ib. 1808; C. ScheUhass. Die SUd- 
deutache NunHatur dee Orafen BartholonUiue von Portia^ 
Berlin, 1806; S. Rieiler, Oeechiehte Baieme, vol. v., Gotha. 
1003; K. Hartmann. Der Prozeee gegen die proteetantUehen 
Landetdnde in Bayem unter . . . Albrecht F., Munich, 
1004; W. Goet>, Die angebliche AdeleverMchwdrung gegen 
AUfredU F., in Forechungen zur Oeechiehte Baieme, xiii., 

Main2 and archbishop of Magdeburg; b. June 28, 
1490; d. at Mainz Sept. 24, 1545. He was the sec- 
ond son of Johann Cicero, elector of Brandenburg, 
and brother of the future elector, Joachim I. 
Through family influence he became canon of Mainz, 
at the age of eighteen. In 1513 he was made arch- 
bishop of Magdeburg and administrator of Halber- 
stadt, and in 1514, having received holy orders, arch- 
bishop and elector of Mainz. Having promised to 
pay personally the sum of at least 20,000 gold gulden 
for the pallium, he was forced to borrow from 
the Fuggers in Augsburg. To recoup himself, he 
obtained (Aug. 15, 1515) from Pope Leo X. the priv- 
ilege of preaching indulgences — ostensibly decreed 
for the building of St. Peter's in Rome — in his 
province for eight years, making a cash payment 
of 10,000 gulden and promising for the future one- 
half of the annual revenues. He admitted that the 
transaction was a money-making affair, and when 
the preaching began commissioners representing the 
Fuggers accompanied the preachers to collect their 

Albert was a child of the Renaissance, interested 
in art, with a decided fondness for costly buildings, 
and deserves praise as a patron of the new litera- 
ture. He admired Erasmus, protected Reuchlin, 
and drew Hutten to his court. Nevertheless, on 
May 17, 1517, he issued an edict against the press 
and appointed the reactionary Jodocus Trutvetter 
inquisitor for his entire province. When the way 
indulgences were preached raised a storm, his action 
was characteristic. On Oct. 31, 1517, Luther sent 
to him a respectful letter on the subject, and his 
ninety-five theses. Albert put the matter aside 
and left the letter imanswered; he had no con- 
ception of Luther*s motives and views, and desired 
not to be troubled. Later, when he tried to inter- 
fere, he found that his influence was gone. At 
the Diet of Augsburg in 1518 he was made cardinal. 
After the death of the Emperor Maximilian (1519) 
he worked effectively for the election of Charles V. 
As regards Luther he continued to follow the 

advice of Erasmus (in a letter of Nov. 1, 1519), to 
have as little as possible to do with him, if he cared 
for his own tranquillity. So long as his personal 
interests did not suffer, he found it easy to be 
tolerant. When Luther, at the wish of his elector, 
wrote a second letter (Feb. 4, 1520), Albert replied 
quite in the spirit of Erasmus. He did not inter- 
fere when Hutten issued his anonymous anti- 
Roman pamphlets, and he showed himself unfriend- 
ly to the mendicant friars. But when papal 
legates brought him (Oct., 1520) the Golden Rose 
and definite orders concerning Hutten and Luther, 
he was ready at once to expel the former from his 
court and to bum the latter's books. 

After the Diet of Worms (1521) Albert pretended 
to favor certain reforms, and many, like Carlstadt, 
put confidence in him. Luther, however, ad- 
dressed to him a letter from the Wartburg (Dec. 1, 
1521), threatening to attack publicly his '' false 
god," the indulgences, if the sale did not cease, 
and to expose him before the world. Albert 
yielded as a matter of policy, and because no other 
course was open to him. He was also unable to 
prevent the introduction of the Reformation into 
Erfurt and Magdeburg. He was not on good 
terms with his chapter in Mainz, and during the 
Peasants' War the city made a compact with the 
peasants. It was suspected that he had in mind to 
follow the example of his cousin in Prussia (see 
Albert of Prussia) and to secularize his bishopric 
— a course which Luther openly (in a letter of June 
2, 1525) called upon him to take. On the same 
day, however, the peasants were defeated at 
Kdnigshofen, and the immediate danger being over, 
Albert made an alliance with Luther's most deter- 
mined opponents, Joachim of Brandenburg and 
George of Saxony, for mutual protection and for 
the extermination of the Lutheran sect. For a 
time he continued to oppose the evangelical move- 
ment in a half-hearted way, requesting his subjects 
to abide by the old teaching of the Church. He 
introduced some outward changes in opposition 
to the Reformation, but without effect; his territory 
became smaller; and his influence in the kingdom 
grew less. The so-called alliance of Halle with 
his brother Joachim and other Catholic princes in 
1533 could not retard the movement. His oppo- 
sition in Dessau was in vain (1534). Even in Halle, 
his own city, he could not hinder the victory of the 
Reformation proved by the call of Justus Jonas in 
1541. As early as 1536 Albert anticipated coming 
events, by removing his valuable collections of 
objects of art to Mainz and Aschaffenburg; and 
in 1540 he left Halle forever. In 1541 he urged 
the emperor at Regensburg to proceed against the 
Protestants with arms, if he really meant to be 
emperor; otherwise it were better if he had stayed 
in Spain. Albert had become, possibly under 
Jesuit influence, the most violent of the princely 
opponents of the Reformation. He met with con- 
tinual disappointments, however, and steadily 
became more isolated. He took a deep interest 
in the Council of Trent, and appointed his legates 
in Apr., 1545, but did not live to see its opening. 
His last years were harassed by quarrels with his 
chapter and the importunities of his creditors, and 




he died, after long sufferings, alone, forsaken, and 

almost in want. The fine buildings which he 

erected at liainz and HaUe and his monument by 

Peter Vischer, in the abbey church at Aschaffen- 

burg were the only memorials of his life which he 

left to posterity. (T. Kolde.) 

Biblxoorapht: J. H. Hennes, Albr^eht von Brandenburg, 

Mains, 1858; J. May. Der KwrfHrtt, Kardinal und ErMbi- 

ukof AlbrtdU II. von Mainz und Brandenburg^ 2 toU., 

Munich, 180fr-75: A. Woltera. Der AbgoU eu HaUe, Bonn. 

1877; H. Gredy. Kardinal und Erabiechof Albreehi II. von 

Brandenburg in eeinem VerhAltnieee su den Olaubenaneuer- 

ungen. Mains. 1891; G. F. Hertsberg. Oeachichie der Stadt 

HaUe, vol. ii.. Halle. 1801; P. Redlioh. Cardinal AJbrecht 

von Brandenburg und doe neue SHft su Halle, Mains, 1000. 

ALBERT THE GREAT. See Albertus Magnus. 


Early Life and Conversion to Protestantism (f 1). 
Intercourse with Luther and Melanchthon and Aid to 

the Reformation (f 2). 
Progress of the Reformation (f 3). 
Reorganisat.on of Ecclesiastical Affairs (f 4). 
Bis Visitation and its Consequences (f 5). 
Ordinances of IMO and 1544 (f 6). 
Later Efforts in Behalf of the Reformation (f 7). 

Albert, margrave of Brandenbxirg-Ansbach, last 

grand master of the Teutonic order, first duke of 

Prussia, founder of the Prussian na- 

X. Early tional Church, was bom at Ansbach 

Life and (25 m. s.w. of Nuremberg) May 17, 
Conversion 1490; d. at Tapiau (23 m. e. of K6n- 
to Protes- igsberg) Mar. 20, 1568. He was the 

tantigm. third son of the Margrave Frederick 
the Elder of Brandenburg-Ansbach, 
received a knightly education at various courts, and 
was made a canon of the Cologne Cathedral. In 
1508, with his brother Casimir, he took part in 
the Emperor Maximilian's campaign against 
Venice. He was elected grand master of the Teu- 
tonic order Dec. 15, 1510, was invested with the 
dignity of his office in 1511, and made his solemn 
entry into KOnigsberg in 1512. £Us efforts to make 
his order independent of Poland (to which it had 
owed fealty since the peace of Thorn, 1466) in- 
volved him in a war with the Polish king, which 
devastated the territory of the order until a truce 
for four years was made in 1521. Albert then 
visited Germany and tried in vain to obtain the 
help of the German princes against Poland. 
While attending the Diet of Nuremberg in 1522-23 
he heard the sermons of Andreas Osiander (whom 
he afterward called his " father in Christ ")» and 
associated with others of the reformed faith in that 
city. By such influence, as well as by the writings of 
Luther from the year 1520, he was won to the new 
teaching and openly avowed his convictions. 

In June, 1523, he addressed a confidential 
letter to Luther, requesting his advice concerning 
the reformation of the Teutonic order and the 
means of bringing about a renewal of Christian 
life in its territory. In reply Luther advised him 
to convert the spiritual territory of the order into 
a woridly principality. In Sept., 1523, he visited 
the Reformer at Wittenberg, when Luther again 
advised him, with the concurrence of Melanchthon, 
to put aside the foolish and wrong law of the 
order, to enter himself into the estate of matri- 
mony, and to convert the state of the order into 
a worldly one. This interview was the beginning 

of an intimate connection between Albert and the 
two Reformers of Wittenberg, and was immedi- 
ately followed by Luther's Ermahnung an die Herren 
DeiUschm Orderu falsche KeuschheU 
a. Inter- tu meiden und tu rechten eheltchen 
couTBe with Keuschheit tu greifen. With the advice 
Luther and and help of Luther, Albert provided 
Melanch- pure Gospel preaching for his capital 
thon and by calling thither such men as Johann 
Aid to the Briessmann and Paulus Speratus 
Reforma- (qq.v.). Johannes Amandus, called 
tion. about the same time as Briessmann, 
while a popular and gifted preacher, 
proved a fanatic and agitator, and was obliged to 
leave the city and country in 1524. His place was 
taken by Johannes Poliander (q.v.). Authorized 
by Albert, Bishop George of Polentz (q.v.), who 
favored the Reformation, sent learned men to 
preach through the country; and evangelical wri- 
tings, supplied by Albert's friend, Georg Vogler, 
clumcellor of his brother at Ansbach, were care- 
fully disseminated. At Christmas, 1523 George of 
Polentz openly embraced the new faith; and the 
next year, with the consent of his sovereign, he 
advised the ministers not only to preach the pure 
Gospel, but also to use the German language at 
the administration of baptism and the Lord's 
Supper. At the same time he recommended the 
reading of Luther's writings, and declared excom- 
munication to be abrogated. 

The cause made steady progress in K6nigsberg. 
Briessmann delivered free lectiures to the laity 
and ministers, aiming to promote a 
3. Prog- knowledge of the gospel; Speratus 
ress of preached to large crowds; and a newly 
the Refor- established printing-office published 
mation. various evangelical writings, especially 
the sermons and pamphlets of Briess- 
mann and Speratus. Abuses and unevangelical 
elements in divine service and in the inner con- 
stitution of the churches, images and altars serv- 
ing the worship of saints, the multitude of masses 
and the sacrifice of the mass, were abolished. A 
common treasury was established for the aid of 
the poor. The reformatory movement acquired 
new impetus from the conversion of a second Prus- 
sian prelate, Erhard of Queiss, bishop of Pome- 
sania, who, under the title Themata issued a 
Reformation-programme in his diocese for the 
renewal of the spiritual life on the basis of the pure 
Gospel. The most important of all, however, was 
the carrying out of Luther's advice with regard to 
the transformation of the territory of the order 
into a hereditary secular duchy under the suzerainty 
of Poland, after the period of the truce had expired 
and peace had been made with Poland. On Apr. 
10, 1525, the formal investitiu« of Albert as duke 
of Prussia took place at Cracow, after he had sworn 
the oath of allegiance to King Sigismund. Toward 
the end of the following month he made his solemn 
entry into KOnigsberg and received the homage 
of the Prussian prelates, the knights of the order, 
and the states. On July 1, 1526, he was married 
in the castle of KOnigsberg to the Danish princess 
Dorothea, like himself a faithful adherent of the 




A reorganization of ecclesiastical affairs on the 
baaiB of the existing episcopal constitution now 
took place. The two bishops, George 
4. Reor- of Polentz and Erhard of Queiss, who 
ganization were separated from Rome by their 
of Ecde- evangelical faith and reformatory 
•iastical activity, married. As the first evan- 
AffaiiB. gelical bishops they confined them- 
selves to pm^ly ecclesiastical functions 
—ordination, visitation, inspection, and the cele- 
bration of marriage. The duke, as evangelical 
sovereign, felt himself obliged in publicly professing 
the Reformation and reserving the right to call a 
diet for regulating the affairs of the Church, to 
issue a mandate (July 6, 1525) requesting the 
ministers to preach the Gospel in all purity and 
Christian fidelity, and to testify against the pre- 
vailing superstition, as well as against the wide- 
spread godless and immoral drunkenness, lewdness, 
cursing, and frivolous swearing. The first diet to 
regulate the affairs of the Church was held in Dec., 
1525, at Kdnigsberg. The result was the Landea- 
ordnung, which regulated the appointment and 
support of ministers, the filling of vacancies, the 
observance of the feast-days, the appropriation of 
moneys received for the churches, for pious 
foundations, and for the poor. The Landesordr 
nung contained also regulations for divine service, 
drawn up by the bishops and published by Albert 
(Mar., 1526) under the title Artikel der Cerenumien 
und andere Ordnung. 

For the better regulation of existing evils, Albert, 
in agreement with the bishops, appointed a com- 
mission of clerical and lay members, 
5. His Visi- to visit the different parishes, to inves- 
tation tigate the life and work of the minis- 
and Its ters, and, where necessary, to give 
Goose- them instruction and information. 
quences. The result of this visitation, the first 
in Prussia, was such that in a 
mandate dated Apr. 24, 1528, Albert recom- 
mended the two bishops to continue such visita- 
tions in their dioceses and to impress upon 
the ministers their task with reference to 
doctrine and life. That such supervision might 
be permanent he ordered the appointment of super- 
intendents. For the benefit of the many non- 
Germans, the ministers were supplied with trans- 
lators of the preached word. Albert reconunended 
Luther's PostiUa as pattern for the preaching of 
the Gospel and caused a large number of copies to 
be distributed among the ministers. He also or- 
dered quarterly conferences imder the presidency 
of the superintendents, and in July, 1529, he author- 
ized the bishops to arrange synodical meetings, at 
which questions pertaining to faith, doctrine, mar- 
riage, and other matters of importance to the 
pastoral office were considered. He induced Spera- 
tus (who had succeeded Queiss as bishop of Pome- 
sania) to prepare an outline of doctrines, which 
was published under the title Chriatliche statiUa 
aynodalia, and distributed among the ministers 
as the sovereign's own confession, as is indicated 
by the preface, dated Jan. 6, 1530. This precursor 
of the Augsburg Confession the bishops assigned to 
the ministers in 1530 as their canon of doctrine. 

It was of special importance during a crisis 
brought on by the duke. Influenced by his friend 
Friedrich von Heideck, he favored the teachings 
of the enthusiast Kaspar Schwenckfeld (q.v.), 
whom he met at Liegnitz, and gave appoint- 
ments to his adherents. The new orcUnances 
of the bishops were at first not heeded. A col- 
loquy held at Rastenburg in Dec., 1531, under 
the presidency of Speratus brought about no satis- 
factory results. Luther's representations, at first 
unsuccessful, finally evoked the duke's prohibition 
of the secret or public preaching or teaching of the 
enthusiasts; at the same time he stated that he 
allowed his subjects liberty in matters of faith, 
since he would not force a belief upon the people. 
His eyes were finally opened by the Anabaptist 
disorders at MOnster (see MCnbter, Anabaptistb 
in) and he saw the political danger of such fanat- 
icism. In Aug., 1535, he issued a mandate to Spera- 
tus enjoining him to preserve the purity and unity 
of doctrine. He renewed his assurance to his 
brother, Margrave George, ** that he and his country 
wished to be looked upon as constant members in 
the line of professors of the Augsburg Confession," 
and to this assurance he remained faithful to the 

In 1540 Albert issued an ordinance treating of 
the many evils in the life of the people and their 
cure, and another concerning the 
6. Ordinan- election and support of the ministers, 
068 of 1540 their widows and orphans, as a supple- 
and 1544. ment to the Landtsordnwig of 1525. 
Assisted by the two bishops, he made 
a tour of inspection in the winter of 1542-43 to 
obtain a true insight into the religious and moral 
condition of the country. Toward the end of this 
tour, he issued (Feb., 1543) a mandate in the 
German and Polish languages, exhorting the people 
to make diligent use of the means of grace and 
admonishing those of the nobility who despised 
the word and the sacrament. Each house had to 
appoint in turn an officer to keep watch, from an 
elevated place, over the church attendance. Be- 
sides the Sunday pericopes the minister was to 
spend a half-hour in explaining the catechism. Diu> 
ing the week devotional meetings were to be held 
in the houses, at which the people were to be ex- 
amined as to their knowledge of the word of God. 
To maintain the episcopal constitution Albert, 
in a memorandum of 1542, assiu*ed the continuance 
of the two ancient bishoprics with the provision 
that godly and learned men should always be chosen 
for them. To promote Church life he issued an 
Ordnung vom dusaerlichen Gottesdienst und Artikel 
der Cerenumien (1544), supplementing the Artikel 
of 1525. To improve the service in the churches 
he required the schools to train the children in 
singing, and had a hymn-book prepared by Kugel- 
mann, the court band-master. 

Albert continued to correspond with Luther and 
Melanchthon, and many notes from his hand, 
remarks on the Psalms and the Pauline epistles, 
show how deeply he endeavored to penetrate 
into the Scriptures. To promote Christian culture 
he established a library in his castle, the basis of 
the public library founded by him in 1540. For 




the benefit of a higher evangelical education he 
established Latin high-schools, and founded at 
K6nig8berg a school which in 1544, 
7. Later £f- with the assistance of Luther and 
forts in Melanchthon, he converted into a uni- 
Behalf of varsity. As first rector he called Georg 
the Refor- Sabinus, son-in-law of Melanchthon, 
mation. but his character rather hampered 
the development of the institution. A 
still greater impediment was the appointment, in 
1549, of the former Nuremberg reformer Andreas 
Osiander as first theological professor, his doctrine 
of justification calling forth controversies (see Osi- 
ander, Andreas). After Osiander 's death (1552), 
' his son-in-law Johann Funck (q.v.) gained such in- 
fluence over the duke that he appointed none but 
followers of Osiander, whose opponents, headed 
by J. M5rlin, were obliged to leave the country. 
The political and ecclesiastical confusion finally 
became so great that a Polish commission was 
forced to interfere, and in 1566 Funck and two of 
his party were executed as " disturbers of the peace, 
traitors, and promoters of the Osiandrian heresy." 
The former advisers of the duke were then rein- 

These painful experiences caused Albert to long 
for rest and the restoration of peace in Church and 
coimtry. He recalled M5rlin and Martin Chemnitz, 
and, in consequence of a resolution of the synod, 
which met in 1567, to abide by the corpus doctrina 
of the Lutheran Church, he caused them to prepare 
the Corpus doctrina Pruthenicum (or Wiederholung 
der Summa und Inhalt der rechten allgemeinen christ- 
lichen Kirchenlehre-repetitio corporis doctrince chris- 
tiance) in which the Osiandrian errors were also 
refuted. This symbol, which was approved by 
the estates, Albert published with a preface, dated 
July 9, 1567, in which it was stated that '' no one 
shall be admitted to any office in Church or school 
who does not approve of and accept it." 

After the settlement of the doctrinal questions, a 
revision of the former church-order was undertaken, 
the outcome of which was the Kirchenordnung und 
Ceremonienj published in 1568. The vacant epis- 
copal sees of Pomesania and Samland were filled 
by the appointment of G. Venediger (Venetus) and 
J. Mdrlin, respectively, after arrangements had been 
made with the estates as to the election, juris- 
diction, and salary of the bishops, whereby the old 
episcopal constitution of the Prussian Church was 
established and assured. Thus, notwithstanding 
the trials of his last years, Albert saw the full 
development of the Evangelical Church in the 
duchy of Prussia, and quiet and peace restored 
before his death. He left a beautiful testimony 
of his evangelical faith in his testament for Albert 
Frederick, his son by his second wife, Anna of 
Brunswick, whom he had married in 1550. His 
last words were: " Into thy hands I commit my 
spirit, thou hast redeemed me, O Lord God of 
l^uth." David EaDMANNf. 

Biblxoorapht: Sources: M. Luther. Briefe, ed. by W. M. 
L. de Wette and J. K. Seidemann, 6 vols.. Berlin. 1826- 
73; P. Melanohthon. Brief e an AVbreeht Hertog von Preu*- 
Mn, ed. by K. Faber. Berlin, 1817: J. Voigt. Brief weehtel 
der berUhmteeten Oelehrter dee ZeitaUere der ReformaHon 
wnt Hertog AWreeKi von Preueeen, KOniffsberg, 1841; T. 

Kold«. Anaieda lutKerana, Qotha, 1883; P. Tschaokert, 
Urkundenifueh sur Reformationeffeaehiehle dee Heraofftum* 
Preueeen, vols, i.-iii. (vols, zliii.-zlv. of Publikationen aue 
den k. preueeiechen StaaU-Archiven, Berlin, 1890). Gen- 
eral Literature: D. H. Arnold, Hietorie der KOnigeberger 
Univereit&t, vol. i., Kdnigsberg, 1746; idem, Kvrsgefaeete 
KircKengeeehichie von Preiteeen, ib. 1760; F. S. Bock, Leben 
und Thaten Albreehte dee Aeltem, ib. 1760; L. von Bacsko, 
Oeechichte Preueeene, vol. iv., ib. 1795; A. R. Gebser and 
C. A. Hagen. Der Dom su K6nigeberg, ib. 1836; L. von 
Ranke, Deuteche Geechichte im ZeiiaUer der ReformaHon, 
vol. ii., Berlin, 1843, Eng. transl., new ed., Robert A. 
Johnson, London, 1905 (very good); W. M6Uer, Andreae 
Oeiander, Elberfeld. 1870; ADB, vol. i.; K. A. Hase. Her^ 
tog Albrecht von Preueeen und eeine Hofprediger, ib. 1879 
(an elaborate monograph); K. Lohmeier, Hertog Albrechi 
von Preueeen, Dansig, 1890; H. Pruts, Hertog Albrecht 
von Preueeen, in Prtueeieche Jahrbdcher, Ixvi. 2, Berlin, 
1890; E. Joachim, Die Politik dee leteien Hoehmeietert in 
Preueeen^ Albrecht von Brandenburg, 3 vols., Leipsic, 1892- 
94; P. Tschaokert. Hertog Albrecht von Preueeen ale refor- 
maiorieche PereOnlichkeit, Halle. 1894. 

ALBERT OF RIGA: Founder of the German 
power among the Esthonians and Letts; d. at 
Riga Jan. 17, 1229. He was a nephew of Hartwig, 
archbishop of Bremen, and is first mentioned as 
canon in that city. In 1199 he was ordained bishop 
of UexkOU, in the territory of the livonians, as the 
successor of Bishop Berthold (see Berthold of 
Livonia) who had perished the previous year in 
an uprising of the pagan inhabitants. Though or- 
ganized missionary work had been carried on among 
the Letts and the livonians since 1184, they had 
shown themselves hostile to the new creed, and it 
fell to Albert to maintain his episcopal title and to 
spread the Gospel by the sword. Aided by a papal 
bull he succeeded in raising a large force of crusa- 
ders, and in the year 1200 appeared on the shores 
of the Dwina, where he met with little resistance 
from the livonians. In 1201 he founded the town 
of Riga, and for the protection of his dominions and 
the extension of his conquests organized the Order 
of the Brothers of the Sword (q.v.), whose grand 
master was made subordinate to his authority. The 
diristianizing of the country was promoted by the 
introduction of Cistercian and Premonstrant monks, 
and by 1206 almost the entire Livonian population 
had been baptized. In 1207 Albert received Livo- 
nia as a fief from the German king, together with 
the title of " Prince of the Empire." Three years 
later he was confirmed by Innocent III. as bishop 
of the territories of the livonians and the Letts, 
and, without receiving the dignity of archbishop, 
was granted the right to nominate and ordain 
bishops for such territorial conquests as might be 
made from the heathen peoples to the northeast. 
He now met with formidable rivalry from the 
Brothers of the Sword, whose grand master desired 
to make himself independent of the bishop. The 
Danes, also, by the acquisition of Lilbeck in 1215, 
became a powerful factor in the politics of the 
eastern Baltic. Though forced for a time to make 
concessions to both, Albert by courage and a wise 
use of circumstances, succeeded in retaining his 
power unimpaired. From 1211 to 1224 vigorous 
campaigns were carried on against the heathen 
Esthonians to the northeast, who, although aided by 
the Russian rulers of Novgorod and Pskov, were 
compelled to submit to the German power. The 
Danish influence speedily disappeared, and the 




BTothers of the Sword were forced in time to take 
their lMid# in E^thonm aa a fief from Albert and 
from hiB brother Hermanii, whom he had made 
bbbop of southern Esthonia, i^idth his seat at Dor- 
pat. In 1227 the island of Oesel, the last strong- 
hold of the heathen resistance and the refuge of 
pirates who held the eastern Baltic in terror, was 
overrun by a crusading army^ and the conversion 
of the CDtmtiy was completed. Albert is a striking 
type of the militant ecclesiastic of the Middle Ages, 
In spite of his great semees in the spread of Chris- 
tianity in the Baltic lands^ it ia as the warrior^ 
prince, and diplomat, rather than as bishop, that 
he staoda out most prominently. (F. Le^ius.) 

Bjmuookapbt: HeiDrieiu de Lettiat Chroni&>n lAvonia, 
1126^1227. in MOH, Scripi., JtxiU. {IS74) 231-332; K. 
VDi) ScbiOs^r, Lirtumi und die AnfOnife d^uiseken L«5ffiM 
un \ord^, BerLin, 1S50; F. Wint«r. Die Fr&m&nstfoten^ 
HT det twalfUn Jahrkund^U^ ib. 1865; idem. Die CitUsr-^ 

HausmaniiH Do* Ringcn drr Deutachtn und Datten um den 
BeaiU E»tiiindM. Leipnic, 1870; G. Dehian Gctchichit dew 
Er^biMtumt Hamburg- 11 rvmen, u, 160 aqq.^ BeKiTip 1877; 
T. BchiemanQp RuMaiand. Palm\ und Liviaf^, in AUiQemieine 
Gachichte, it. I aclQ-. ib. 1887. 

ALBERTI, Ol-bar'-ti, VALEHTIN: Lutheran; b, 
at LHhn (60 m. w.s.w. of Bresku), Silesia, Deo. 15, 
1535; d. in Leipsie Sept. 19, 1597. He studied 
in the latter city and spent most of his life there, 
being profeasor extraordinary of theology from 
1672, As a representative of the orthodoxy of 
his time he wrote against Pufendorf and Scheff- 
ling (qq.v.)* but is notewortliy chiefly for his part 
in the Pietistic controversy. In Feb., 1687, he 
furnished a meeting-place in his house for the col- 
let phUobiblka, wMch brought on the controversy 
in Leipsic (see PluTmid). Nevertheless, in 1606 
he published an AusfuhtUchet GtQenajdwort auf 
Spener* sogencnnU grUndliche VefiheuOgung %ein^ 
und dtr Pi€tiMtn Untchuld. 

ALBERimi, m"ber-U'ni, JOHAim BAPTIST 
VON; Moravian bishop; b. at Neuwicd (on the 
Rhine: 8 m. n,n.w. of Cobleni) Feb. 17, 1769; d. at 
Bertbelfldorf, near Hermhut, Dec. 6, 183L He 
was educated at Neuwied, at Niesky (1782-86), 
and at the theological seminary of Barby (1785-88). 
From 1788 to 1810 he taught in the school at Niesky; 
from ISIO to 1S21 he was preacher and bishop in 
Niesky^ Gnadenberg, and Gnadenfrei (i^ilesia); in 
1821 he became a member, and in 1 S24 president ^ 
of the Elders' Conference in the department for 
Ch urch and sc hool . H e published : Predigi^n ( 1 805) ; 
Geudliche Licder (1821); and Rtdai (1832). Some 
of hia spiritual songs are of rare beauty. He was 
a fellow student and friend of Schleiermacher. 

ALBERTUS MAGWUS ('' Albert the Great"): 
Founder of the most flourishiiig period of echolas- 
tict«m; b. at Lauingen (26 m. n.w. of Augsburg), 
Bavaria. 1193; d, at Cologne Nov. 15, 12S0. He 
studied at Padua, entered the order of St. Dominic 
there in 1223^ and served as lector in the %'arious 
convent eehools of the order in Germany^ especially 
in Cologne. In 1245 he went to Paris to become 
master of theology. In 1248 he returned to Cologne 
as primartti# fector and rtgena of the school in that 
city. In 1254 a general chapter of the Dominican 
order at Worms chose Mm general for Germany^ 

in which capacity he traversed the country on foot 
from end to end, visiting the monast^nce and en~ 
foricing discipline. In 1260 Alexander IV. made 
him bishop of Regensburg; but this office was so 
little in harmony vAih. his character and habits 
as a teacher and writer that, after the lapse of two 
yeans, he was allowed to resign. He retired to his 
monastery in Cologne, where he spent the rest of 
his hfe, making many brief visits, however^ to other 
places; as when he went to Paris after he had 
reached the age of 80 to vindicate the orthodoxy 
of his late pupil, Thomas Aquinas. 

P>lb an author Albert evinced a many-sidedness 
which procured for him the title of doctor uni' 
v^fSialis^ while hifl knowledge of natural science 
and its prajctical applications made him a sor- 
cerer in popular estimation. His works fill 
twenty-one folio volumes as published by P* 
Jammy (Lyons, 1651; reedited by A. Borgnet, 
38 vols., Paris, 1890-1900). They embrace logic, 
physics, metaphysics and psychology, ethics, and 
theology. By the use of translations from the 
Arabic and Greco-Latin versions ^ he expounded 
the complete philosophical system of Aristotle, 
excepting the ** Pohtics," modifying his interpre- 
tation in the interests of the Church. Thus the 
influence of Aristotle came to superseile Platonism 
and Neoplatonism in the &ater scholasticism. At 
a time when dialectic was in sore need of a new 
method, the introduction of the Aristotelian logic 
provided a subtle and searching instrument for 
investigation and discussion. For Albertua^ logic 
was not properly a science, but an organon for reach- 
ing the unknown by means of the known. Follow- 
ing Avic^nna whom he regards as the leading 
commentator of Aristotle » he afErms that universais 
exist in three modes: (1) Before the individualSj 
as ideas or types in the divine mind (Plato). (2) In 
the individuals, as that which is common to them 
(.\ristotle). (3) After the individuals^ as an ab- 
straction of thought (conceptual is ta and nominal- 
ists )< Thus he seeks to harmonize the rival teach- 
ings concerning universal s. In expounding the 
physical theories of Aristotle, he showed that he 
partook of the rising scientiflc spirit of the age, 
eijpecially in his criticism of alchemy and in De 
vegetabitibun et planlu, which abounds in brilliant 

The chief theological works of Albcrtus were a 
commentary (3 vols.) on the "Sentences*' of 
Peter Lombard^ and a Sumjnuin theologiw in a 
more didactic strain. Already the " doctrine of 
the twofold truth '* had been accepted by his con- 
temporaries — -what is truth in philosophy raay 
not be truth in theology, and %nce venta. Christian 
thinkers were, however, profoundly perplexed by 
the sharp opposition between ideas drawn from 
Greek scientific and philosophical sources and 
those derived from religious tradition, Albert us 
sought to soften this antinomy by establishing the 
distinction between natural and re%^ealed religion, 
which became henceforth a postulate of medieval 
and later theology. Since the ioul can know only 
that which is grounded in its own nature, it rises 
to the mystery of the Trinity ^ the Incarnation, and 
other specifically Christian doctrines through 




■upematural iUmmnation alone. Hence the well- 
Wiwn dictum: " Revelation is above but not 
contrary to reaeonJ' On the one bandi the attempt 
to "rationalize" the contents of revelation must 
be abandoned; on the other handt philosophy 
must be modified in the interests of faith. The 
merit which belongs to faith consists in its accepting 
truth which comes only through revelation. In 
his entire discussion concerning the being and 
attributes of God, concemmg the world as created 
in time in opposition to the eternity of matter as 
maintained by Aristotle, concerning angels r miracles, 
the soul, ein and free- will, grace, and finally, original 
and actual sin, the Aristotelian logic is applied in 
the most rigid manner, and when thie fails Albertus 
retires behind the distinction thrown up between 
philosophy and theology. With all his learning 
and subtlety of argument, he made it evident 
that with his presuppositions and by his method 
a final adjudication of the claims of reason and 
faith, that is^ a ui>tty of intelligence, is impossible. 
Apart from his vast erudition, his significance lay 
first, in bis profound infiuence upon scholastic 
and the subeequent Pro tea tan t theology through 
his substitution of tbe Aristotelian logic and meta- 
physics for Platonic and Neoplatonic ideas, and 
secondly; in the fact, that to a degree never before 
attempted, he set in clear light and organized in 
the thought of the Church the ancient opposition 
between Jewish supematuralism and Greek ration- 
alism. By the false antithesis thus raised between 
reason and revelation, he prepared the way for the 
long conflict of theology and science, of reason 
and dogma, of naturalism and supematuralism, 
of individual judgment and collective authority, 
which is still unsettled. C. A. Beckwith. 

BiBuoaRAPBT: J. Sighart, A^bertiut MoffnuMt wein L^ben und 

«rtne il'isMerwchaft, RAtbbon, 1S57, En^. tranflJ,, Lcitidoti, 
1870; B. Gaiulinua. Atbertu* Maonm, Venice, 1G30; F. 
A. PciUcbet, H^ttaire dem iciencv* naturetleM au mayen-Agv^ 
eu Albert U Grand el §on fpoque. V&Tifi. \%5^; M. Stmi. 
Vm'Ktiitnimt AQteri de* OrosKfi mu Mo«e* Maif7v>nide$, Hrei- 
Iau, 1S63: O. d Am^illy, Albert le Grand. F&riA. 1S70: 
W. Preger, GacKidtte der deutMchtn ^fJfMWe im Mitt*laiter, 
LellMic, 1S74: AibertUM Magtiut in Qea€hi£hte und Saffc, 
Colosne, ISSD; O. von Hertlin^. ^i&ertut Afttffnu^t ib. 
1880; R, dc Uechty, Aii>a't h Grand et S. Tkofniud^Aquin, 
Pftfia. ISBO; J. Bacb, Z>et AlbertuM Magnus VerhAltniu tu 
der ErkenntniuUhre dvr Grmchtrit I^te n*r, ^Iroder und 
Jvd^n, VientLA, ISSl; A- Schtutider, Di£ PtyehoioirM AtbertM 
dn Qronvn , M Qnnter . ] 903 . For bu pbiJoeop by : A . Bt^ek U 
O^ehi^tUt der arhotastixhen FhiJoBophie, 3 vols,, M&inii, 
l864-6d; J. E. Erdr^iann, Grumiritt der Ge*chic?Ue der Phi- 
tompkittL, 4th ed.H ISSS/Kng;. tnuinL^ voL i,, lyondon, 1893, 

ALBIGENSES. See New Majucheaks, II. 

ALBI2ZI, OJ-bit'si or Ol-btt'dr A5T0NI0: Ital- 
ian priest; b. in Florence Nov. 25, 154T; d. at 
Kempten {BO m. s.s.w. of Augaburg), Bavaria, 
July 17, 1626. He became secretary to Cardinal 
Andrew, archduke of Austria (1576), but after the 
death of the latter (1 591 ) embraced Protestantism, 
left Italy, and resided thenceforth in Augsburg 
and Kempten He wrote: Prindpium ChrUiiano- 
Tum stemnwia (Augsburg, 1 60S); S^rmones in 
Maiihmum (1609); De prtncipiiB rtUgianiR Chrui' 
tianm (1612); and ExmvUaHones iheohgicis (Kemp^ 
ten, 1616). 

ALBIZZI, BARTOLOHEO (Lat. BartholomtFiis 
AWiciuB Pisaniis) : Franciscan monk; b. at Riva- 

no, Tuscany; d, at Pisa Dec. 10, 140L He be- 
came a celebrated preacher, and taught theology 
in several monasteries, chiefly at Pisa. He wrote 
a famous book, Lxber conformHatum vUa Sandi 
Frandsci cum vUa Jtsu Chriiti^ which waa ap' 
proved by the general chapter of his order in 1399 
and was first printed at Venice toward the close of 
the fifteenth century. It ia of great value for the 
history of tbe Franciacans, but is marred by exag- 
gerations and lack of judgment and good taste 
(e.g., he states that Francis was foretold in the Old 
Testament by prototypes and prophedea, that he 
performed miracles and prophesied, and that he 
was cruciiied and \& exalted above the angels). 
In subsequent editions many paasagies were modi- 
fied or omitted. Erasmus Alber (q.v,) made it 
the basis of his Barfusser Mimcke Eulenspitgel nnd 
Ak^an (published at Wittenberg, with an intro- 
duction by Luther, 1542). Albizzi published also 
sermons and a life of the Virgin Mary (Venice, 

ALBOj JOSEPH: The last noteworthy Jewish 
religious philosopher of the Middle Ages; b* at 
Monreal (125 m. e.n.e, of Madrid), Spain, about 
1380; d. about 1444. He was one of the principal 
Jewish representatives at the disputation held in 
1413 and 1414 at Tortosa, under the auipicea of 
Benedict XIII., between selected champions of the 
Jewish and (Christian religions, with the view of 
convincing the Jews, from the testimony of their 
own literature, of the truth of Christianity. About. 
1425, at Soria in Old Castile, he wrote his principal 
work of religious philoaophy, Sepher ha^ ^Ikkarim 
{** Book of the Roots," i.e., " Fundamental Prin- 
ciples ^^). He finds three ideas fundamental in 
any religion, viz., God, Revelatioh, and Retribu- 
tion, [In the idea of God he finds four secondary 
principles, unity, incorporeality, eternity, and per- 
fection; in the second of his fundamentals he finds 
three secondary principles, prophecy, Moses as the 
unique prophet, and the binding force of the Mosaic 
Lraw; and from his third fundamental he derives 
secondarily the belief in the reeiu-rection of the 
body.] He diecusaee also the distinguishing marks 
of the historic religions, attempting to prove that 
Judaism is differentiated from Christianity by its 
greater credibihty and conm>tiance with reason. 
Belief in a Messiah he considers an essential part 
not of Judaism, but of Christianity. There is a 
German translation of hiji work by W. and L. 
ScMeeinger (Frankfort, 1S44). (G, Dalman.) 
BioLioaHAFBT: M^ Euler. VoriaufiQan Hhtr die jaditchm 
PkUotopKie dta MiXUtaUerM. iii. 180-234. Vlennft, lg76; 
H. Grfttt, GMchichie der Judtn, ^ ed.. riii. 108-178. Ber- 
liti, iSOO. En It- triLnsl.. LoDdon* 1891-98; A. T&ii»r« 
Die Rel%{iv>iyf-Pfiilo»pkie Joseph AJba*M, Fmukfort. 1890; 
JE,l 324-^27. 

ALBRECHT, Ql'breHt. See Ai^ert. 


German Lutheran; b. at AngermUnde (42 m. n.e. 
of Berlin) Dec. 2, 1S55. He was educated at the 
gymnasium in Potsdam, at the University of Halle 
(1873-77), and at the Wittenberg seminary for 
preachers. He was assistant pastor at Wittenberg 
in 1S80-^1, and pastor at Stftdten in 18S1-S4, at 
Dachwig in 1884r-92, and at Naumborg (Saale) 




from 1892 to the present time. He was elected a 
correspoiiding member of the K6nigtiche Akademie 
gemeinnuiriger WiBsenschafien in 1S95. His theo* 
logical position is that of a modem Lutheran, His 
writings include Geschichi€ der Magd^surger Bi- 
bdgeselhchaft (1892); Die ei?angeli»ch€ Gtmeinde 
Mikcnbtfg'undihT€rsterFT^dig€r{RBSl'tA^W^; Pre- 
digten (Got ha, 1899); Geackichi^ der Ma^ien-^fag- 
dalenenkirche ru Naumburg a. S. (1902); and Dom 
Enchiridion LuiherB vom Jahre 1536 h^ausgegeben 
urtd untersuchi (1905). He has alao been a col- 
laborator on the Weimar edition of the worka of 
Luther, to which he has contributed the fifteenth 
and twenty-eighth volumes^ cootaining the refor- 
mer's writings of 1524 and his semnona on John in 
152^29 (Weimar, 1898-1903). He is likewise a 
collaborator on the Brunswick edition of Luther, 
and is the author of niimerouB briefer monographs 
and contributions. 

ALBRIGHT, 61'brait, JACOB: Founder of "the 
Kvangelieal Association of North America; '* b. 
near PottstowTi, Penn,, May 1, 1759; d. at MUhl- 
bach, Lebanon Couatyj Penn., May 18j ISOS. His 
parents ware Pennsylvania Germans of the Lu- 
theran Church, in which denomination he was 
him^self trained. His education was defectivej and 
bis early surroundings were uninteUectual. After 
marriage he moved to Lancaster County and carried 
on a successful tile and brick businesa. Grief over 
the death of several children in one year (1790) and 
the counsels of Anton Hautz, a German Reformed 
minister^ led to bis conversion^ and he became a 
Methodist lay preacher. At length his concern 
for his German Lutheran brethren led him to give 
up business and devote himself entirely to mis- 
sionary efforts. As the Methodist Church did not 
desire to enter upOQ the GennAH field be founded 
a new denomination. Its members are often called 
the ** Albright Brethren.** See Evangelical Asao- 


ALCAHTAltA, Ql-can'to-ra, ORBER OF: A 
■piritual order of knightSj with Cistercian rule, 
founded for the defense of the frontier of Castile 
against the Moor^ under Alfonso VII L, the Noble 
(1158-1214). Its name at firist was Order of San 
Julian del Pereiro (** of the pear-tree ''). from a 
Castihan frontier citadel^ the defense of which was 
entrusted to two brothers, Bnarez and Gomes 
Barrientos, who with Bishop Ordonius (Ordodo) 
of Salamanca (1160-66) founded the order. When 
Alcantara in Estremadura was taken by King 
Alfonso IX. of Leon in 1213^ the aeat of the order 
was transferred to that place. Alfonso committed 
the defense of this important fortress at first to the 
knightly order of Calatrava (q.v.), but five years 
later he transferred the service to the Order of San 
Julian, which now (1218) took the name of the 
Order of Alcantara, being still subject, however, 
to the grand master of the Calatrava order. Taking 
advantage of a contested election, it separated from 
the Calatrava order, and elected its fir^t independ- 
ent grand master in the person of Diego Sanchez, 
During the subsequent struggles with the Moors^ 
in which the Alcantara knighta distinguished them* 
selves by their braveryj Ihey had on their flag the 

united arms of Leon and Castile^ with a cross of 
the order and the ancient emblem of the pear-tre6« 
The number of their commanderies in their days of 
prosperity was about fifty. When Juan de 2u6iga, 
the thirty-eighth grand master (1479-95) reigned 
his office to become archbishop of Seville^ the grand- 
mastership passed to the king of Castile (Ferdinand 
the Catholic). With its independent existence the 
order lost more and more its spiritual character. 
In consequence of the disturbances in the Spankh 
monarchy, it was abolished in 1873, but was re* 
estabUehed in 1874 as a purely military order of 
merit by Alfonso XII. O. ZdCKLERf. 

BlBUtKiiiAPffT: Radeft da Andrmd^, Cronica de la* trtt Or^ 
dines y Ct^mlhrian de Santiago, Calatrava u Ah^nUfra, 
Toledo, 1572; DiitnieUmjc^ de la tirden y oa^NsUcna de Air- 
cantara, Mticlrid» lO&rJ; H^lyoti Ordret monoi^^iuft, vi. 53- 
&fi: P. B. Gmnji, KirtMnQeMchkhi* v^n Spanim^ iii. 65-S^ 
H&tiflbon, lS7e. 

ALCnmS. See Hias Phii»t. 

ALCUXN^ al'cwin (English name, Ealhwine; Lat. 
Flat'eux Alhinus)i The most prominent adviier 
of Charlemagne in bis efforts lo promote learning ; 
b, in Northumbria (perhaps in York) 735 (7307); 
d. at Tours May 10, 804. He was of good birth and 
a relative of Willibrod. He was educated in the 
famoua cathedral school of Archbishop Egbert of 
York (q.v.)* under a master* Ethelbert (Albert), 
who seems to have been a man of many-sided learn- 
ing and who is often praised by Alcuin. With himp 
or commissioned by him, Alcnin made several 
visits to Rome, and on such journeys became ac- 
quainted with Prankish monasteries and with men 
like Lul of Mainz and Fulrad of St- Denis, He 
succeeded Ethelbert as head of the echool when the 
latter was made archbishop (766) ^ and, after Ethel- 
bert'^s retirement and the ele%'ation of Eanbald to 
the archiepiscopal throne (773)^ was also custos of 
the valuable cathedral library at York. He went 
to Rome to obtain the pallium for Eanbald, and 
at Parma (7$1) met Charlemagne to whom he was 
already know*n. Shortly after his return to Eng- 
land he accepted a call from the Prankish king, 
who was then gathering scholara at his court, and, 
with the exception of a visit to his native land on 
political business in 790-793, spent the rest of his 
life on the Continent. Charlemagne gave him the 
income of several abbeys, and till 790 he acted tB 
head of a court school, where not only the sons of 
the Prankish nobles, but Charlemagne and his 
family as well, profited by bis instruction, 

A true scholar and teacher^ Alcuin seldom med' 
died in worldly afTatris, and his letters (more than 
300 in number) give little historical information, 
though they are rich in personal details. He took an 
active part in the Adoptionist controversy, ivrotetwo 
treatises against Pelix of Urgel, and opposed tuB 
colleague. El i pan d us. At the Synod of Prankfort 
in 794 he assisted in the condemnation of Felix, 
and later, at the Synod of Aachen in 799 (800?), 
induced him to recant (see Aooptionibm). Prom 
793 he was the constant and efficient helper of 
Charlemagne in founding schools, promoting the 
education of the clergy^ and like undertakings. 
He was also in close association with con temper 
raries like Amo of Sabburg, Angilbert, abbot of 




Centula, and Adalhard of Corfoie. In 796 his pa^ 
iron gave him the abbey of St. Martin, near Tours, 
and several other monasteries. Under his guid- 
ance the school of Tours became a nursery of 
ecclesiastical and liberal education for the whole 
kingdom. His distinguished pupils there included 
Sigulf, who supplied the information for his biog- 
raphy, Rabanus Maurus, and perhaps the litur- 
gist, Amalarius of Metz. When old and feeble and 
almost blind, he left the management to his scholars, 
but he continued to be the counselor of his royal 
friend till lus death. 

Alcuin was mild in spirit, adverse to discord, 
orthodox in faith, equally interested in promoting 
the authority of Rome and the royal priesthood of 
Charlemagne. His great service was his part in 
the so-called Carolingian renaissance, his wise and 
efficient efforts to elevate and educate the clergy 
and the monks, to improve preaching, to regulate 
the Christian life of the people and advance the 
faith among the heathen, always by instruction 
rather than by force. His theology, while not 
original, rests on an intimate acquaintance with 
the Fathers, especially Jerome and Au^tine. 
To ecclesiastical learning he added classical, but 
in such manner that it was always the servant of the 
former. He was able to give his master informa- 
tion concerning astronomy and natural science 
but, as he considered grammar and philosophy 
auxiliary to religion, so he regarded these branches 
of knowledge primarily as a means of knowing 

HiB theological writings include a work on the 
Trinity which contains the germs of the later 
scholastic theology. His authorship of a lAbellua 
de processu SpirUtta Sancti and of some other works 
which have been attributed to him is doubtful. 
He wrote commentaries on Genesis, the Psalms, 
the Song of Songs, John, and other books of the 
Bible, based upon the Church Fathers and following 
the current moral and allegorical exposition. At 
Chariemagne's request he revived the text of the 
Vulgate according to the best available sources. 
£Us skill as a teacher is evident in text-books on 
grammar and orthography, as well as in treatises 
on rhetoric and dialectics which resemble Cicero. 
His Latin poems, including epigrams, friendly 
letters, hynms, riddles, poems for special occasions, 
and the like, show more skill in versification than 
poetic gifts. The most important, the De ponti- 
ficibua et Sanctis ecdesicB EhoracensiSj gives valuable 
information concerning the state of culture in his 
native land and his own education [and contains 
(11. 1530-61) a catalogue of the cathedral library 
at York, which is the earliest existing catalogue 
of an EInglish library]. With the exception of the 
hymns, all his poems are partly in heroic and partly 
in elegiac verse. He prepared lives of Willibrod, 
Vedastus, and Richarius, which are mainly recasts 
and amplifications of older works. Of a liturgical 
and devotional character are a Liber sacramentalis 
and the De psalmorum usu. Intended more par- 
ticularly for the laity are the De virtidibus et vUiis 
and a p63rchologico-philo8ophical treatise on ethics, 
De animcB ratione ad Eulaliam virginem (i.e.. Gun- 
trade, the sister of Adalhard). H. Hahn. 

BrBUOORAPHT: Souroes: Alcuin, Opera, ed. by FrobeniuB 
Forater, 2 vols., RatiBbon, 1777, oontaiiu anonymous life 
written before 820 a.d. on data furnished by Sigulf; re- 
printed in AfPL, o.-ci.; Monumenta Alcuiniana, ed. by 
W. Wattenbach and E. DOmmler, in BRO, vi., Berlin, 
1873 (contains life of Alcuin, his life of Willibrod, and his 
De ponHfieibue); Alcuin, Epietolce, in MOH, Ejnat., iv. 
1-481 {Epiet Caroli ctvx, ii.), 1895, and in BRO, 1873. vi. 
144-897; idem, Carmina, in MOH, Poetce latini cevi Caroli, 
i. (1881) 160-350; idem, De ponHfieibue, in Hietoriane of 
the Chttrch of York and ite Archbiehope, ed. by J. Raine, 
i. 349-398 (cf. pp. Ixi.-lxv. of Rolle Seriee, No. 71, Lon- 
don, 1879); Martinus Turonensis, Vita Alcuini Abbatis, 
in MOH, Script., xv. 1 (1887). 182-197. General: Rivet, in 
Hietoire littSraire de la France, iv. 295-347; F. Lo- 
rents, Aleuine Leben, Halle, 1829. Eng. transl., Lon- 
don, 1837; J. C. F. B&hr, Oeechichte der rdmiecKen Litera- 
tur im karolinoiechen Zeitalter, pp. 78-84. 192-196, 302- 
354, Carlsruhe, 1840; J. B. Lafor^t, Alcuin, reetaurateur 
dee eeiencee en Occident eoue Charlemagne, Louvain, 1851; 
F. Monnier, Alcuin et eon influence litUraire, religieuee et 
poUtique ehet lee Franke, 2d ed., Paris. 1864; A. Dupuy, 
Alcuin et VSeole de Saintr-Martin de Toure, Tours. 1876; 
idem. Alcuin et la eouverainetS pontificale au huitihne ei^le, 
ib. 1 872; F. Hamelin, Eeeai eur lavieellee ouvragee d'A Icuin, 
Rennes.1874; .4Z>B,i. 343-348; T. 8ieke\, Alcuinetudien,i. 
92, Vienna, 1875; J. B. Mullinger. The Schoole of Charlee 
the Oreat, ch. i.-ii.. New York, 1904; DCB, i. 73-76; A. 
Ebert, AUgemeine Oeechichte der Litteratur dee Mittelaltere, 
ii. 12-36, Leipsic, 1880; K. Werner, Alcuin und eein Jahr- 
hundert, 2d ed., Vienna, 1881; S. Abel and B. Simnon, 
JahrbUcher dee fr&nkiechen Reiche unter Karl dem Orotaen, 
2 vols., Leipeic. 1883; A. Largeault, Ineariptione mitriquee 
eompoeiee par Alcuin, Poitiers. 1885; DNB, i. 239- 
240; L. Traube, Karolingieche Dichtungen, Berlin. 1888; 
Hauck, KD, ii. 119-145; W. S. Teuffel. OettehichU der 
rOmieehen Literatur, p. 1090, No. 8. p. 1305, No. 3. Leip- 
■ic, 1890; Wattenbach, 2>GQ. 1893, pp. 148, 152. 159-163; 
A. West, Alcuin and the Riee of the Chrietian Schoole, New 
York, 1893; C. J. B. Qaskoin, Alcuin, hie Life and Work, 
Cambridge, 1904. 

ALDEBERT. See Adalbert. 

Bishopric of. 

Abbot of Malmesbury and first bishop of Sher- 
borne; b. probably at Brokenborough (2 m. n.w 
of Malmesbury), Wiltshire, between 639 and 645; 
d. at Doulting (7 m. s.e. of Wells), Somersetshire, 
May 25, 709. He was of royal family on both his 
father's and mother's side, studied with Maildulf 
(Maelduib), an Irish hermit, at Malmesbiuy (Mail- 
dulfsburg), and remained there as monk for fourteen 
years. In 670 and again in 672 he attended the 
school of Canterbiuy and laid the foimdations of 
his many-sided knowledge imder the instruction 
of Archbishop Theodore and his associate Hadrian. 
In 675 he succeeded Maildulf as abbot at Malmes- 
bury, and as such increased the possessions of the 
monastery, spread abroad the faith, and founded 
many stone churches, after the fashion of Canter- 
biuy, in place of the small wooden ones. In 705 
the bishopric of the West Saxons was divided, 
Aldhelm being made bishop of the western part 
with his seat at Sherborne (in northwestern Dorset- 
shire, 18 m. n. of Dorchester). He retained his 
abbacy. He was buried at Malmesbiuy, but his 
remains were often translated. He was canonized 
in 1080. 

Aldhelm was one of the most learned men of his 
time, and he occupies a distinguished place among 
early British scholars. He represented both the 
Iro-8cottish and the Roman ecclesiastical culture, 
and had an acquaintance with classical authors 




like Homer and Arigtotle, aa well as with neo- 
Chnsttan writers such as PnxdeDttus and Sedulius. 
His worka abound in Greek and Latin words, and 
his style is boixibafltic* Besides plulology, poetry* 
mtisic, astronomJca) calciilatiQn.&, and the like oc- 
cupied him^ and he is said to have written popular 
bymnj9. He made Malmesbury a rival of Canter- 
bury as a seat of learning, and princes, abbesses, 
monks, and nuns from far and near were among 
his admirers. He is said to have visited Rome 
during the pontificate of Sergius (687-701) and 
to have returned with relics, books, and a grant of 
privileges for his monastery. He supported Wil- 
frid of York (q^v.) against his etienues, and was 
prominent in urging the Britons to conform to the 
Roman tonsure and Easter, 

Besides briefer letters, preserved (often only in 
fragments) by Lul of Main^, Aldhelm's works in* 
elude treatises in epistolary form and poems, vi£.: 
(1) an Epistola ad Acircium (King Aldfrid) con- 
cerning the ntimber seven, riddles, versification, 
and the likej (2) an Epistola ad Gemntium (a Welsh 
prince^ Geraint) concerning the Easter question; 
(3 and 4) a proi^ work and a poem in praise of 
virginity, addressed to the abbess and nuns of 
Barking, closing with a description of eight vices, 
which contains thrusts at Anglo-Saxon conditions. 
To his treatise on riddles he added 100 specimens 
dealing with nature and art^ which are full of a 
feeling for nature, being herein a prototype of such 
of his cotmtrymen as Tat win and Boniface. In 
his letter to Geraint he holds as wortlilass good 
works without connection with the Roman Church. 
His poetry is flowery^ involved, and alUterative* 
His chief merit waa the extension of the faith in 
the south of England, the education of his native 
land, and his literajy influence on the Continent. 

H. Hahn. 

BtauooRiLPBT^ AidhMmi opera, ia PEA^ Sa, 5$3t Oitford, 
I&44, repdnted in MPL, Ixjtsix.; Epitt&ifr. in P, Jaffrf. 
BHQ. iii. 24-2S, Berlin, 1 80(J, and rnMUH, EpUt.. iii. ( i892> 
231-247; William of Mp-lmeabury, Dr ffettii ponti^um 
Ariffhrum^ od. N. 1l. 8. A, UmmLltoni in RoiU Srriett No. 
52, pp, a32-#43, London, 1870. and in MPL, cUxm-, 
idem. Dt Gettis Hrffum Anolorum, t £87-^9. in RotLt Seniea, 
No. ]K»; FuriduP. VUa Aldhtlmi. io J, A. Gilc&, Vita gu^ 
rundam Anglo-^axmkttm. LfnuJon, 1854, and in MPL, 
IxxxiiL (Fnriciun wui nn Italian^ phyflidan to Jiedi-y K 
of En^lanfJ, a monk of Malmeeburyk &nil abbot of Abing- 
fc^rd): Bede, HUt tcct., v. 18; J. M. Kemble, Codo: dip- 
lomaticua mi-i Sai:oniri, LobdDH. 1839;: T. Wright, Bio- 
graphia Britannii^ iitifmnia, i. 20^222^ ii. 47, ib. 
18^1; Eidoffium historiarum, J 858. m Rolis SerieM, No, 9\ 
An(}la-Staon CkronUU, 1S6K ib. No. 23; ^^t^t^Mtn Mal- 
PMwfrufwnw. i87&, ib. No. 72: DNB. i. 78^79. 245-247; 
}i, HaJii9i Boniface und t,iil, \hrt angrlM^lehti^hen Korr^- 
pondgnten. Lcipaic, IS^; M. Manititts, Zu Aldhelm und 
Bade Vienna. 1!IS6 {on Aldfaelm'a Literary workli; L. 
Trnubfli /fpruJin^MfAe Dirhtvngtn, Berlin, 1888; W, R 
TpuSkI, OticMehte drr r/>mtachen LUeratur, 1304. 5 500. fio, 
2, Leipeic, 1890; L. BcwnhoB. Aldhelm von Afaim^Mhvrv, 
DreiMien. 1894; W. Bright, Early Enoii'h Church Huktry, 
pp. 204-2B7, 444-446, 462^69. 471-474, Oxford, 1807; 
W. B. Wildman, Lift &f St. Eatdhelm. Sherborne, 1905. 

ALEANBRO, GIROLAMO, ft"l&-iln'dr6 ii-r5'la-m5 
(Lat, Hieranymus Aleander) : Itahan humanist and 
cardinal- b. at Motta (30 m. n.e. of Venice) Feb. 
13, 1480; d, in Rome Jan. 31. 1542. He studied 
in his native town and in Venice, settled in the 
latter city as a teacher in 1496, and became a con- 
tributor to the presa of Aldujs Manutius* In 1508 
I.— 8 

he went to Paris and tbene attained great reputa- 
tion aa a claaaical scholar, being chosen in 1513 
rector of the univereity. In the following year he 
went to U^gc where the influence of Bishop Erard 
made him chancellor of the see of Chartres. Aa 
Erard's representative he went to Rome in 1516 and 
won the favor of Cardinal Giulio de' Medici, whose 
private secretary he became. Later, Leo X* ap- 
pointed him librarian to the Vatican. Li 1520 he 
went aa nuncio to the court of Emperor Charles V,» 
charged with the task of combating the heretical 
teachinga of Luther. He procured Luther's con- 
demnation at the Diet of Worms in 1521, and is 
sup[X)sed to have been the author of the edict issued 
agsinst the great reformer. He was made arch* 
bishop of Brindiei in 1524 and waa sent aa nuncio 
to the court of Francis I. of France, with whom hfi 
was taken prisoner at Pavia. 

Till 1531 Aleandro lived without employment, 
in Venice for the greater part of the time, a refugee 
from Rome on account of his debts. In 1531 he 
was sent as papal representative to Charles V., 
w*hom he accompanied to the Netherlands and 
Italy, zealous in inciting the emperor to action 
against the Protestants. After residing as nuncio 
in Venice from 1533 to 1535 he was summoned to 
Rome by Pope Paijl lU., who, in preparation for 
a general council, wished to avail himself of Alean- 
dro 's historical learning. His services gainotl him 
a cardinal's hat in 1538, in which year he went as 
legate to Venice where the projected council was 
to be held* Thence ho w^aa sent to the court of 
the German king Ferdinand where he at first ex- 
erted liimseU in favor of a conciliatory policy to- 
ward the Protestants, and, when his efforts failed, 
demanded their ruthlesa destruction. Of his wri- 
tings the reports covering lu* various diplomatic 
missions are of extreme value for the hifstory of the 
Reformation. His letters also are of importance, 
among liis correspondents being Aldus Manutius, 
Erasmus, Ulrich von Hutten, Bembo^ Contarini, 
and Cardinal Pole. His diaries are remarkable for 
their frank revelation of a life of indnVgence in cosDr 
plete contrast Mith his priestly character, 

(T. BntEOEa.) 

Bl&UOQRAMIt: His pftperfi, declamtionfl. and letters an 
Hcattered in A. Mai, Spiciit?ffium Romanu-m. ii. 2^1-240, 
Rume, 1^9; H. La^mm^r^ Monumenia Vaiicana, pp. 77 
eqq,. 223-24 U Freihure. ISfll; J. J. I. von Dftllirigcr. 
Btt^Affe rur politUchen, kirchiicKtn und CuUujvt:tchieht^^ 
iji. 243-284, VienoA. 1^82; P. Balan* MonumenUi lf#- 
fonaatianig Lutheranfs, 1 Km** 335 pQQ^; P- de NoihaOt 
Studi e Oocnmenti di Staria e DiriUo^ 1%. 20S-217, 
Ronw, 188S; B. Morsolin. H ConcUio di Vieema, Vcaiw^ 
1SS9; W. Frieden9bur|F, Le^atian AUar^dera. ir*it3-S9, m 
t^unHaturberidUe aua Dtutufklatvi, vqIa. iii-iv,, Gotha, 1^93; 
H, Omontf Journal autobioffrfiphujue da . . . J. Att^ndre, 
pp. 35-98, 113 pqq., Paris. 1895. The foregoiae are im- 
portuDE for tbe liisttory of the Iteformation. For his tife: 
W, FriedensburiE, ut RUf).. iii. 2S-4L 44* aiid PrefftM. pp. 
v.-vij.; C Peroeco, BuiQmfio det cardimdg G. Alcandri, 
Venice. 1839. In Eenerftl: K, J&n»n. Aleandrr am RHch^- 
ioQe ru Wonfti. KieK 1S83- O. M. AtAiJiu^h^ni. Gli ^cnf- 
tori d' Italia, I. i. 408-424* Bt^sri*, 17fi3: T. Brie^^r. 
ALgandrr und Luther l&fl, part I, Gotha, 18S4. 

ALEGAMBE, Q"l^gQnib', PHILIPPE B* : Je- 
suit theologian and Uterary historian; b, in Brus- 
sels Jan. 22, 1592; d* in Rome Sept. 6, 1652. 
He entered the Jesuit order at Palermo in 1613, 
taught theology at Graz, and accompanied the son 




of Prince von Eggenberg, the favorite of Ferdinand 
II., on his travels. Then he returned to Graz for 
a time, but in 1638 was called to Rome as secretary 
for German affairs to the general of his order. Here 
he remained until his death, acting in later years 
as spiritual director of the Roman house. Of his 
writings the most noteworthy is the Biblioiheca 
scriptorum 8ocietatis Jeau (Antwerp, 1643), based 
upon an earlier catalogue of Jesuit writers by Peter 
Ribadeneira (1608, 1613), but much surpassing it 
in learning and thoroughness. Though betraying the 
Jesuit spirit, it shows, on the other hand, signs of 
an attempt at impartiality, proving, for example, 
that various books against the royal power, the 
episcopate, and the Sorbonne, the authorship of 
which the French Jesuits had tried to deny, were 
really written by them. A new and enlarged 
edition by an English Jesuit, Nathaniel Southwell, 
appeared at Rome in 1676. The work is now super- 
seded by the Btbliolkkque dea ^crivaina de la Com- 
pagnie de Jiaus of Augustin and Aloys de Backer 
(7 vols., Li4ge, 1853-61; new ed. by C. Sommer- 
vogel, 9 vols., Brussels, 1800-1900). 

(A. Hauck.) 
ALBHAlflll, a'l^-mOn^ni: An important Ger- 
manic tribe, first mentioned by Dio Cassius as 
fighting a battle with Caracalla near Mainz in 213. 
Accor(£ng to Asinius Quadratus, they belonged to 
the confederacy of the Suevi. They came from the 
northeast, where the Semnones held the territory 
between the Oder and the Elbe. They had varying 
success in their struggle against the Romans, but 
about 260-268 they occupied the Tithe Lands, 
north of the Danube, and advanced south as far as 
Ravenna and east into what is now 
Early Austria. They fought with Maximian 
History, in 290, and obtained permanent pos- 
session of the territory extending to the 
Alb and the Neckar about 300. By 405 or 406 they 
had conquered the southern plains of Upper Swabia 
and the neighboring lands of northern and eastern 
Switzerland, as far as the Vosges. In the fifth 
century the region from the Iller to the Vosges and 
from the lower Main to the St. Gothard bore the 
name of Alemannia. They were a fierce and stub- 
bom race, hostile to Roman civilization, and pos- 
sessing a religion closely connected with the powers 
of nature. In the Tithe Lands they must have 
met with at least weak Christian congregations, 
which fell with the Roman power. 

The numerous captives who were led away from 
Christian Gaul had little influence after they were de- 
prived of Christian nurture. The Alemanni, however, 
learned Christian views. Their prince. 
Conversion Gibuld, was an Arian, probably con- 
to Chris- verted by Goths. The Augsburg bish- 
tianity. opric was maintained ; but the Ale- 
manni in general continued heathen till 
they were overcome at Strasburg in 496 by Clovis, 
king of the Franks. He took their northern territory 
and established royal residences there. A part of 
the people went into the country of the Ostrogoth 
Theodoric, probably the present German Switzer- 
land, whero the bishoprics of Windisch and Augst 
(Basel) existed and the Roman population was 
Christian. In 536 Vitiges ceded this territory to 

the Prankish king Theodebert. Effective mission- 
ary work was carried on by the newly converted 
Franks from St. Martin's Church at Tours as a cen- 
ter; and churches dedicated to Saints Martin, 
Remigius, Brictius, Medard, Lupus, Antholianus, 
Clement, Felix, and Adauctus indicate the Prankish 
influence. In the courts the Prankish priest ruled 
beside the royal administrator. As early as 575 
the Greek Agathias hoped for a speedy victory of 
Christianity among the Alemanni, because the 
" more intelligent " of them had been won by the 
Franks. Duke Uncilen (588-^5) was probably, 
and his successor Cunzo was certainly, a Christian. 
The oldest law of the Alemanni, the so-called padia 
of c. 590-600 recognizes the Church as the protector 
of slaves. The episcopal see of Windisch was trans- 
ferred to Constance, nearer Ueberlingen, the ducal 
seat; and the Augsburg bishopric was separated 
from Aquileia, that of Strasburg coming again into 

But heathenism was still powerful. Many of the 
new converts still sacrificed to the gods. The Prank- 
ish Churoh was not influential enough to permeate 
the popular life of the Alemanni. But 

Irish efficient help came from the Celtic 
Mission- missionaries of Ireland. In 610 Co- 

aries. lumban (q.v.), on the suggestion of 
King Theodebert, ascended the Rhine 
with monks from Luxeuil and settled at Bregenz, 
but had to leave after two years. His pupil Gsdlus, 
however, the founder of the monastery of St. Gall 
(q.v.), remained, and in connection with the native 
priests labored for the cause of Christ. From 
Poitiers came the Celt Fridolin (q.v.), founder of the 
monastery of S&ckingen. Tnidpert built a cell in 
the BrelBgau. As the Merovingians sank lower 
and lower the desire of the Alemanni for independ- 
ence grew, and they found need of the support of 
the Churoh in their struggle for liberty. Unwilling 
to see themselves surpassed in devotion by the 
despised Franks, they made rich donations to St. 
Gall. The Lex Alemannorunif drawn up probably 
at a great assembly under Duke Lantfried in 719, 
gave the Churoh and its bishops a position of dig- 
nity and power, though the life of the people was still 
far from being thoroughly influenced by its moral 
teaching. The effort for independence was crushed 
by the strong arm of the mayor of the palace. 
To balance St. GaU, which had favored it, Charles 
Martel, with the help of Pirmin (q.v.), founded the 
monastery of Reichenau in 724. Pirmin was ex- 
pelled in 727, and his pupil and successor Heddo 
a few years later. The entire people were then bap- 
tized, but they had no clear knowledge of the 
Christian faith and were still influenced by heathen 
customs. The organizing work of Boniface was 
at first opposed in Alemannia, but by 798 the peo- 
ple had begun to make pilgrimages to Rome. 
Several small monasteries were established, and, 
besides St. Gall and Reichenau, the royal monas- 
teries of Weissenburg, Lorsch, and Fulda received 
rich gifts. The distinguished Alemanni who filled 
bishoprics under the Carolingians, and Hildegard. 
the queen of Charlemagne, with her brother, Ceroid, 
evidence the ultimate triumph of Christianity. 






Bzbuoorapht: C. F. St&lin, Wlirttemberif%$ehe OetehiehU, 
ToL i.. StutticArt. 1841; Rattbers, KD; Friedrieh. 
KD; H. Ton Sehubert, Die UnUrvmfuno der Ala- 
mannen, Straabuxs, 1884; Q. Booert, Die AnfOnge dee 
Chrieteniume in WOrUemberg, Stutttcart, 1888; A. Bir- 
linger, Reehterheiniechee Alamannien; Orensen, Sprtidu, 
Sigenart, Stuttgart. 1890; E. Egli. KirehengeeehicfU^ der 
Schweit bie auf Karl den Oroeeen, Zorioh. 1893; WHntem- 
bergiecKe Kirchenoeeekiehie of the Calwer Verlagsverem, 
1893; Hauck. KD, i. 2; F. L. Baiimann, Fofchungen zur 
Sckwabiedun OeechiehU, 600-^85, Kempten, 1899. 

ALESIUS, a-li'shi-us, ALEXANDER (Latinized 
form of Aless; known also as Alane): Protestant 
reformer; b. in Edinburgh Apr. 23, 1500; d. in 
Leipsic Mar. 17, 1565. He studied at St. Andrews 
and became canon there. In 1527 he tried to in- 
duce Patrick Hamilton (q.v.) to recant, attended 
him at the stake the next year, and was himself 
converted to the reformed doctrines. To escape 
from the harsh treatment of the provost of St. 
Andrews he fled to Germany (1532). Commended 
to Henry VIII. and Cranmer by Melanchthon, he 
went to England in 1535. For a short time he 
lectured on divinity at Cambridge, studied and 
practised medicine in London, and was much es- 
* teemed by the reforming party there till 1540, 
when he went back to Germany and became pro- 
fessor at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, removing three 
years later to Leipsic. He was closely associated 
with the German reformers, especially Melanchthon, 
and was honored and trusted by them, although 
a desire to conciliate and a belief that concord was 
possible where differences were irreconcilable made 
him sometimes appear vacillating and paradoxical. 
He wrote several exegetical works on different books 
of the Bible, and a large niunber of dogmatic and 
polemical treatises, such as De scripturis legendis 
in lingua matema (Leipsic, 1533); De autorUate 
verbi Dei (Strasburg, 1542), against Bishop Stokes- 
ley of London concerning the number of the sacra- 
ments; De ju8tificatione contra Osiandrum (Witten- 
berg, 1552); Contra Michaelem Servetum ejusque 
bkuphemiaa dispulationes tres (Leipsic, 1554). 
Bibuographt: J. Thomasiua, Oratio de Alexandra Aleeio, 
in hia OraHonee, Leipsic, 1683; T. Besa, Iconee, Geneva, 
1580; C. WordBWorth, Ecdeeiaetical Biography, vol. ii., 
London, 1853; T. McCrie. Life of John Knox, Note 1, 
London, 1874; DNB, i. 254-259. 

ALEXANDER: The name of eight popes. 

Alexander I. : Bishop of Rome in the early years 
of the second century, successor of Evaristus and 
predecessor of Xystus I. The statement of the 
Liber poniificalis (ed. Duchesne, i. xci.-xcii., 54) 
and the Acta Alexandri {ASB, May, i. 371-375) 
that he died a martyr, with two companions, 
Eventius and Theodulus, and was buried on the 
Via Nomentana, is improbable. The excavations 
made on the spot designated by the Liber pontifi- 
calis have indeed led to the discovery of a fragment 
of an inscription concerning a martyr Alexander, 
but he is not called a bishop. The year of Alex- 
ander's consecration is variously given: Eusebius 
names 103 in his Chronicon, and 108 in his Historia 
eccUaiaatica; the Catalogus Liberianus, 109. The 
year of his death is given as 114, 116, and 118. 
Three letters falsely ascribed to him are in the 
Pseudo- Isidore (ed. Hinschins, Leipsic, 1863, pp. 
94-105). (A. Hauck.) 

BrsuGORAPHT: lAber jHmHficalie, ed. Duchesne, i. zoi. 
sqq., 54, Paris, 1886; Bower, Popet, i. 10; R. A. Lipsius. 
Die Chronologie der rdmiechen Bieehnfe, pp. 167 sqq., Kiel, 
1869; B. Jungmann, Dieeertationee electa in HieL eed., 
i. 134 sqq., Resensburg, 1880; J. Langen, Oeechidite der 
rdmiechen Kirche, Bonn, 1881; Jaff^, Regeeta, i. 5. 

Alexander II . (Anselm Badagius, sometimes called 
Anselm of Lucca): Pope Sept. 30, 1061-Apr. 21, 
1073. He was bom of a noble family at Baggio, 
near Milan. When the Patarene movement for 
reform began in 1056 (see Patarenes), he seems 
to have joined it. The archbishop Guido removed 
him by sending him on an embassy to the imperial 
court. Here he won the confidence of Henry III., 
which gained for him the bishopric of Lucca (1057). 
He was sent to Milan in 1057 and 1059 as legate in 
connection with the questions raised by the Pataria. 
On the death of Nicholas II. (1061), he was elected 
pope through Hildebrand's influence. This was 
in direct contravention of the imperial rights, 
confirmed by Nicholas II. himself in 1059. The 
empress Agnes, as regent, convoked an assembly 
of both spiritual and temporal notables at Basel, 
and Cadalus of Parma was chosen pope by the 
German and Lombard bishops. He assumed the 
title of Honorius II., and had already defeated the 
adherents of his rival in a bloody battle under the 
walls of Rome, when Godfrey of Lorraine appeared 
and summoned both claimants to lay the election 
before the young king Henry IV. At a synod of 
German and Italian bishops held at Augsburg in 
Oct., 1062, Hanno of Cologne, now regent, arranged 
that his nephew Burchard of Halberstadt should 
be sent to Rome to examine the case and make 
a preliminary decision. Burchard decided in favor 
of Alexander, who returned to Rome in the begin- 
ning of 1063, and held a synod at Easter, in which 
he excommunicated Honorius. The final decision 
of the contest was to be made at a synod of German 
and Italian bishops called for Pentecost, 1064, 
at Mantua. This was in favor of Alexander. See 
Honorius II., antipope. 

Honorius did not abandon his pretensions until 
his death in 1072, though his power was confined to 
his diocese of Parma. Even during the contest 
Alexander had exercised considerable authority 
over the Western Church, and after the decision at 
Mantua he extended his claims in Germany, and 
put Archbishop Hanno of Cologne to penance for 
having visite4 Cadalus on a secular errand. Henry 
IV. himself was made to feel the papal power. 
When he desired to effect a divorce from his wife 
Bertha, Peter Damian threatened him with the 
severest ecclesiastical penalties at a diet held in 
Frankfort Oct., 1069. Alexander also came into 
conflict with Henry over several ecclesiastiacal ap- 
pointments, of which the most important was the 
archbishopric of Milan, and when the king persisted 
in having his candidate Godfrey consecrated, though 
the pope had adjudged the latter guilty of simony, 
the royal counselors were excommunicated as having 
endeavored to separate their master from the unity 
of the (^urch. This was but the beginning of the 
long struggle which was left to the next pope, 
Gregory VII. 

Alexander dealt in a similarly determined man- 
ner with other nations. He supported the Nor- 



mans, both in the north and south of Europe, in 
their career of conquest, and aided William the 
Conqueror to consolidate his newly gained power 
in England by directing his legate to appoint 
Normans to the episcopal sees of that country; 
the archbishopric of Canterbury was given to Lan- 
franc, abbot of Bee, under whom Alexander himself 
had received his early training. His wide claims 
of universal jurisdiction wero in sharp contrast 
with his wea^ess within Rome itself, where the 
turbulent factions maintained an unceasing struggle 
against him as long as he lived. His letters and 
diplomas are in MPL, cxlvi. 1279-1430. 

(A. Hauck.) 
Bibuoorapht: Liber pontifiealtB, ed. Duchesne, ii. 281, 
PariB, 1892; Jaff«, Reoeata, i. 566-692, ii. 760; Ge9ta 
AUxandri //.,in Bouquet. Reeueil, xiv. 626-631; W. Giese- 
brecht, Die KireherupaUuno nach dem Toete Nikolaiu 11.^ 
appended to his Annaisa AUahenaeat Berlin, 1841; Bower, 
Pope$, ii. 370-377; M. Watterich, Romanorum ponHfi- 
ciim . . . vita, L 236-236, Leipaic, 1862; C. Will. Beruoa 
Panaoyricut auf Heinrteh IV. mii . . . RUckMicht auf den 
Kirehenetreii AUxandere II. und Honoriue II., Marburg, 
1863; R. Baxmann, Dte PoltHk der P&pete von Qregor I. 
M« a%if Qregor VII., 2 vols., Elberfeld, 1868-69; Hefele, 
ConeUiengeechiehie, iv. 851-893; B. Jungmann, Die- 
MHoHonee eeUetm in Hiet. eed., iv. 242 aqq., Ratisbon, 
1880; J. Langen. Oeachichie der rOmieehen Kirche, pp. 532 
•qq., Bonn, 1892; Milman, Latin ChriaHanity, iii. 321- 
858; W. ICartens, Die Beeetsung dee PUpeUiehen Stuhlee 
unter den Kaieem Heinrieh III. und Heinrieh IV., Frei- 
burg, 1886; C. Fetier, Voruntereu/ehungen tu einer Oe- 
eehiekte AUxandere II., Strasburg, 1887; Hauck, KD, 
Ui. (1906) 704-753. 

Alexander IH (Roland Bandinelli): Pope 1159- 
81. He was bom at Sienna and lectured in canon 
law at Bologna, leaving a memorial of this part 
of his career in the Summa Magiatri Rolandi, a 
oommentary on the Decretum of Gratian. Eugeni- 
us 111. brought him to Rome about 1150, and made 
liim a cardinal. In 1153 he became papal chancel- 
lor, and during the reign of Adrian IV. was the 
moving spirit of the antiimperial party among the 
eardinals, who advocated a close alliance wi^h 
William of Sicily. His determined opposition to 
Kmldriok Barbarossa led to a deep personal enmity 
on tiie emperor's part, which was not appeased 
whvn Roland appeared at the Diet of Besan^on in 
UA7 M impal legate, and boldly proclaimed that 
the eintKtror held liis lordship from the pope. 
Adrian IV. died Sept. 1, 1159. Six days later all 
the oanlinalN b\it three (some say nine) voted for 
Holaiul as his suooessor, and he was consecrated 
Hi^pt. <K). The minority chose the imperialist 
eartliual Ootavian, who assumed the title of Victor 
IV, KitKleriok, naturally disposed toward his own 
imrtiaau. ealloil a council at Pavia which, as was 
U% lie t)X|ieoteil. declared Octavian the lawful pope 
(K0l>, U, 1160), and two days later proclaimed 
Alexander an enemy of the empire and a schismatic. 
Alexai\der answered from Anagni on Mar. 24 by 
exiHunuuuiioating the emperor and absolving his 
ii\il^eet« from their allegiance; the antipope had 
lieei\ exeommunioated a week after Alexander's 

Al«»xander had not the power to carry his hos- 
liUty Uirlher. It is true that in Oct., 1160, at a 
iHiuiioii at Toulouse, the kings of England and 
l*Vaiu^ and the bishops of both countries declared 
fi>r him: and Spain, Ireland, and Norway followed 

their lead. But he was imable to maintain a foot- 
hold in Italy. By the end of 1161 he was forced 
to leave Rome, and in the following March fled 
across the Alps to take refuge in France. The 
conflict might have come to an end with the death 
of Victor IV. at Lucca in Apr., 1164, had not Reg- 
inald, archbishop of Cologne, the imperial repre- 
sentative in Italy, without either the emperor's 
sanction or a regard for canonical forms, set up 
another antipope, Guido, bishop of Oema, under 
the title of Paschal III. In the diet held at WUrz- 
burg at Pentecost, 1165, Reginald (possessed by 
the conception of a German national Church inde- 
pendent of every one but the emperor) talked 
Frederick and the magnates into the irrevocable 
step of taking an oath never to recognize Alexander 
III. or any pope chosen from his party, and to 
support Paschal III. with all their power. But on 
the whole Alexander's cause was gaining. In the 
autumn of 1165 he left France, and by Nov. 23 he 
was able to reenter Rome. A year later, Frederick 
crossed the Alps to unseat him, and by the following 
summer was able to take possession of St. Peter's 
and install Paschal there. Alexander fled once 
more, but Frederick's triumph was short-lived. 
The plague robbed him of several thousand soldiers 
and drove him from Rome; in December the prin- 
cipal Lombard cities formed a league against the 
oppressive dominion of the empire, and found a 
protector in Alexander, in whose honor they named 
the new city of Alessandria; finally the antipope 
died (Sept. 20, 1168). The Roman partisans of 
Frederick, without waiting for instructions, set up 
a new pope in the person of John, cardinal-bishop 
of Albano, under the name of Calixtus III. But 
Frederick was weary of the strife, and hardly five 
months had passed before he was negotiating with 
Alexander. Nothing resulted, however, and the 
emperor took up arms once more against the pope 
and the Lombard League; but the battle of Le- 
gnano (May 29, 1176) was so decisively against him 
that he was obliged to yield on any terms. He 
began fresh negotiations with Alexander at Anagni 
in October; and at Venice the disputed matters 
were discussed also with the cities, as well as with 
William II. of Sicily and the Eastern emperor, 
both of whom had joined Frederick's opponents. 
Peace was made Aug. 1, 1177, the emperor acknowl- 
edging Alexander's title and abandoning Calixtus, 
who was to receive an abbey in compensation. 
Both sides agreed to restore whatever possessions 
they had taken from each other. 

A still greater triumph was won by Alexander 
over Henry II. of England. From 1163 onward 
the English king was involved in a more and more 
acute contest with Rome, growing out of his difli- 
culties with Thomas Becket. He demanded the 
deposition of the archbishop, and, on the pope's 
refusal, opened negotiations with Frederick, and 
was represented at the Diet of Wilrzburg, with a 
view to supporting Reginald of Cologne's far-reach- 
ing plans. But threats of excommunication and 
interidict brought him back to an apparently peace^ 
f ul attitude. The murder of Becket (Dec. 29, 1 170) 
brought things to a crisis. The king was forced 
to do humiliating penance at Becket's tomb and 




to submit wholly to the papal demands. The cul- 
minating point of Alexander's success was marked 
by the Third Lateran Council (Mar., 1179). Be- 
sides approving the crusade ag^unst the Cathari 
of southern France, which had been inaugurated 
by Rajrmond of Toulouse with the support of Louis 
WL, the pope's friend and protector, the 300 
bishops of this brilliant assembly passed an impor- 
tant canon regulating papal elections, which con- 
fined the electoral power to the cardinals, excluding 
the lower clergy and the laity and making no men- 
tion of imperial confirmation, and required a two- 
thirds vote to elect. 

In spite of his apparently complete trimnph over 
his enemies, Alexander never really conquered the 
Roman people. Soon after the close of the council 
they drove him once more into exile; and a month 
after Calixtus III. had formally renounced his 
pretensions, a new antipope was set up, who took 
the name of Innocent III. Alexander succeeded 
in vanquishing this rival, but never returned to 
Rome, and died at Civita Castellana Aug. 30, 1181, 
his corpse being followed to its sepulcher in the 
Lateran by cries of implacable hostility from the 
populace. His letters are in MPL, cc; his Summa 
was edited by F. Thaner (Innsbruck, 1874), and 
his SenterUia by A. M. Gietl (Freiburg, 1891). 

(A. Hauck.) 

Bibuoobaprt: Liber poniifiealit, ed. Duohesne, ii. 397-446, 
Pans, 1802; Oesta AUxandrt III., in Bouquet, Recueil, 
XV. 744-077; Jaff«. Reo^Mia, H. 145 sqq., 761; M. Wat- 
terich, Rofnanorum pontifieum . . . vitoB, ii. 377-451, 
Leipsic, 1862; K. L. Ring, Friednch I. im Kampf gegen 
Alexander III., Stuttgart. 1838; Bower, Popee, ii. 502; 
H. Renter, Oeachichie Alexandert III. und der Kirche eeiner 
ZeU, 3 vols., 2d ed., Leipsic, 1860-64; P. Scheffer-Boi- 
chorst, Kaiter Friedriche I. letzter Streit mit der Kurie, 
Berlin, 1866; J. Langen, Geechiehte der rOmtachen Kirche , 
pp. 430 sqq., Bonn, 1803; Milman, LaHn ChriaHantiy, 
IT. 288-438; G. Wolfram. Frtedrich I. und doe Worm- 
eer Coneordai, Marburg, 1883; Hefele, ConeilienQeechiehte, 
T. 571-722; J. R. Green, Hiatory of the Engliah People, 
vol. i.. London, 1888-02; A. M. Gietl, Ihe Sentefuen Ro- 
land; naehmale Papaiee Alexander III., Freiburg, 1801; 
Hauok, KD, iv. 227-302. 

Alexander IV. (Rinaldo de Conti): Pope 1254- 
61. He was made a cardinal-deacon in 1227 by 
his uncle, Gregory IX., and in 1231 cardinal-bishop 
of Ostia. As a cardinal, he does not seem to have 
been stronglyanti-imperialistic, and Frederick II. is 
found in 1233 and 1242 writing in a tone of friendship 
to him. On the death of Innocent IV. (Dec. 13, 1264), 
Alexander was elected to succeed him, and at once 
began to follow the policy of his predecessors. 
Conrad IV., on his death-bed, had commended to 
the guardianship of the Church his two-year-old 
son Conradin, heir to the duchy of Swabia and the 
kingdoms of Jerusalem and Sicily. Alexander 
accepted the charge with the most benevolent prom- 
ises, but less than two weeks later he demanded 
that the Swabian nobles should desert Conradin 
for Alfonso of Castile. On Mar. 25, 1255, he ex- 
communicated Manfred, Conradin's uncle, who 
had undertaken to defend the kingdom of Sicily 
in the child's name, and on Apr. 9 he concluded an 
alliance with Henry III. of England, on whose son 
Edmund he bestowed Sicily and Apulia, to be held 
as papal fiefs. When some of the German princes 
talked in 1254 of setting up Ottocar of Bohemia 

as a claimant of the throne in opposition to William 
of Holland, the papal prot^g^, he forbade them to 
take any steps for the dection of a king in William's 
lifetime; and when William died, he forbade the 
archbishops of Cologne, Treves, and Mainz to place 
Conradin on the throne of his father. In the con- 
test for the crown which now arose between Alfonso 
X. of Castile and Richard of Cornwall, brother of 
Henry III. of England, the pope, whose support 
was asked by both, took the side of the latter, 
promising him (Apr. 30, 1259) not merely the sup- 
port of his legates in Germany, but holding out 
hopes of the imperial crown. In this he was influ- 
enced by the English king's money, which was 
necessary to him in his contest against Manfred. 
In Aug., 1258, on a rumor of the death of Conradin, 
Manfred himself assmned the crown of Sicily, and 
was recognised in northern and central Italy as 
the head of the Ghibelline party. After the deci- 
sive victory of Montaperto had put Florence, the 
Guelph bulwark, in Manfred's power, Alexander 
excommunicated every one who should help him in 
any way, and laid all his dominions under an in- 
terdict (Nov. 18, 1260). This was all he could do, 
since an appeal to the kings of fkigland and 
Norway to undertake a crusade against Manfred, 
and a demand for a tenth of the income of the 
French clergy for the same purpose had both proved 

Alexander had better luck against the notorious 
Ezzelino da Romano, son-in-law of Frederick II. 
and leader of the Ghibellines in northern Italy. 
An army raised by the pope for a crusade against 
this monster had accomplished little, but finally 
in 1259 he succumbed to a combination of princes 
and cities. In Rome, however, the party of Bian- 
fred was gaining strength, and in 1261 he was 
elected to the highest office in the gift of the people, 
that of senator. How terribly Italy suffered from 
the demoralization which followed this relentless 
warfare is evident from the spread of the Flagel- 
lants (See Flaoellation, Flagellants), whose 
fanatical processions took place even in Rome 
(1260). A council was called to meet at Viterbo 
for the purpose of setting on foot a crusade against 
the Tatars, but before it convened Alexander died 
in that city (May 25, 1261). (A. Hauck.) 

Bibuoorapht: Bouret da U Ronei^re, Lee Regiatree d*AUx^ 
andra I V., parts 1-4, Parii, 1806 sqq.; MOH, Eptat. aaculi 
xiit., ill. (1894) 314-473, 720-730. and Leg., iv.. 1800; W. 
H. BlisB, Calendar of Entriea in the Papal Regiatera relating 
to Great Britain and Ireland, Papal Lettera, i. 300-376, Lon- 
don, 1803; A. Potthast, Regeeta,u. 1286 sqq., Berlin, 1876; 
G. J. de Chemer, Uiatoire de la ItUte dee papee et dee empereura 
de la maiaon de Souabe, Paris. 1858; O. Poaae, Analeda 
vatieana, 1 sqq.. 120 sqq., Innsbruck, 1878; G. Digard, 
La Strie dee regiatrea poniificaux du treisihne eiicle. Pans. 
1886; E. Engeknann, Der Anapruch der PApate auf Con- 
firmation und Approbation, 1077-1379, pp. 63 sqq., Bres- 
lau, 1886; Bower, Popes, ii. 667-671. 

Alexander V. (Peter Philargi): Pope 1409-10. 
He was an orphan boy from Crete, brought up by 
the Minorites, which order he afterward entered. 
After traveling in Italy, England, and France, he 
acquired a name as a teacher of rhetoric in the 
University of Paris. Later he held a dignified 
position at the court of Gian Qaleaszo Visconti 
in Milan, of which see he became archbishop in 




1402. Innocent VII. made bmi a cardinal. In 
1408 he was one of those who deserted Gregory 
XII. with a view to compelling an end of the scfcdsm, 
and in the same year he had invited the pope to the 
Council of Pisa as a representative of the cardinals. 
After both Gregory XII. and Benedict XIII. had been 
deposed, he was unanimously elected pope by the 
influence of cardinal Balthasar Cossa (July 26, 
1409). Like all the other cardinals present, he 
had signed an agreement that, if he should be elected 
pope, he would continue the council until the 
Church had received a thorough reformation in 
head and members; but, once crowned as pope, he 
dismissed the members to their dioceses, there to 
take counsel on the points which needed reform. 

The schism was not ended by his election; Bene- 
dict XIII. was still recognised by Spain, Portugal, 
and Scotland; Gregory XII., by Naples, Hungary, 
the king of the Romans, and some other German 
princes. The greater part of Germany, with Eng- 
land and France, declared for the choice of the 
council, as well as the reforming leaders Gerson and 
Pierre d'Ailly. Alexander was more concerned with 
the recovery of the States of the Church than with 
reform. Rome and Umbria were in the possession 
of Ladislaus of Naples, the protector of Gregory 
XII. Alexander excommunicated him, declared 
his crown forfeit, and transferred it to Louis II. of 
Anjou, who, with Cardinal Cossa, commanded the 
force sent against Rome. Though this expedition 
was unsuccessful, Alexander's adherents succeeded 
in the last few days of 1409 in getting the upper 
hand in the city. Alexander, however, did not 
return, but remained in Bologna, a pliant instru- 
ment in the hands of his Franciscan brethren and 
Balthasar Cossa. The friars induced him to 
issue a bull (Oct. 12, 1409), which confirmed all the 
extensive privileges of the mendicant orders in the 
confessional and practically crippled the jurisdic- 
tion of the parish priests. When he indicated his 
intention of extending this ruling to France, the 
University of Paris, with Gerson at its head, 
threatened to retaliate by excluding the friars from 
the platform and pulpit. Alexander died before 
this ultimatum reached Rome (May 3, 1410). By 
modem Roman Catholic historiaEs, as the creation 
of the illegitimate council of Pisa, he is not con- 
sidered strictly a lawful pope, though included in 
their lists. (A. Hauck.) 

Bibuooraprt: Vita^ in L. A. Muratori, Rer, Ital. aeript, 
iii 2. p. 842. Milan; Bower. Popea, iii. 167-171; Hefele. 
Coneilienoesehiehte, vi. 1033; Creishton. Papacy, i. 257- 
205 (the best); Pastor. Popea, i. 190-101 (from the Roman 
Catholic side). 

Alexander VL (Rodrigo Lanzol): Pope 1492- 
1503. He was bom at Xativa, near Valencia, in 1430 
or 1431 and was adopted by his uncle, Calixtus III., 
into the Borgia family and endowed with rich 
ecclesiastical benefices. In 1455 be became apos- 
tolic notary; in 1456, a cardinal-deacon; and in 
1457, vice-chancellor of the Roman curia. He 
held also the bishoprics of Valencia, Porto, and 
Cartagena. These positionb brought in vast wealth, 
which he spent in ostentatious luxury and riotous 
living. A glimpse of his life at this period is afforded 
by a letter of Pius II. (June 11, 14i60), reproaching 
him for his participation in an indescribable orgy I 

at Sienna, and rebuking him for having no thought 
but pleasure. At least seven — ^possibly nine — 
children were bom to him as cardinal, four of whom, 
Giovanni, Cesare, Gioffrd, and Lucreria, the off- 
spring of his favorite mistress Vanozza Catanei, 
were the objects of his special love. On the death 
of Innocent VIII. he reached the height of his 
ambition by his election to the papacy (Aug. 11, 
1492), won, it was generally believed, by simony 
and other corrupt practises. 

Alexander was unquestionably a man of great 
gifts, able, eloquent, versatile, strong in mind as in 
body; but all these gifts were defiled by the im- 
morality of his life, which was in no respect different 
as pope from what it had been as cardinal. So 
much may be safely said, even if certain specific 
accusations made by his contemporaries, such as 
that of incest with his daughter Lucrezia, are 
shown to be calumnies. The remonstrances of 
secular powers like Spain and Portugal against the 
inmiorality of the papal court were as vain as the 
denunciations of Savonarola. The former were 
put off with promises; the latter 's mouth was 
stopped by excommunication (May 12, 1497), when 
he was endeavoring to arouse all Italy against the 

Alexander's main aim, outside of the gratification 
of his passions, was the elevation of his children to 
power and wealth. While still a cardinal, he had 
obtained the Spanish duchy of Gandia for his eldest 
son, Pedro Luis, who was succeeded, on his early 
death, by Giovanni. Alexander invested the latter 
with the duchy of Benevento, together with Ter- 
racina and Preticorvo; but a few days later (June 
14, 1497) he was mysteriously murdered. For 
a moment the pope was shocked into penitence, 
and talked of a reform of his court and even of 
abdication, but no lasting change resulted. The 
making of a brilliant match for Lucrezia was long 
an important factor in his policy. The first con- 
nection attempted was with the Sforza family. 
Lodovico il Moro, governor of Milan for his nephew 
Giangaleazzo, desired the sovereignty for himself, 
but was hindered by the grandfather of Giangaleaz- 
zo's wife, Ferdinand of Naples. To get the better 
of him, Lodovico planned a league into which the 
Pope should be drawn by a marriage between 
Lucrezia and Giovanni Sforza of Pesaro. The 
league was founded April 25, 1493, and included, 
besides Lodovico and Alexander, Venice, Sienna, 
Ferrara, and Mantua. Ferdinand, however, suc- 
ceeded in detaching the pope from this aUiance, 
probably through the influence of Spain, and 
married the natural daughter of his son Alfonso to 
Gioffrd, Alexander's fourth son. The alliance with 
Naples, however, brought the pope into difficulties. 
Lodovico, deserted, sunmioned (Jharles VIII. of 
France to take the crown of Naples for himself and 
try a simoniacal pope at the bar of a general coun- 
cil. Charles descended into Italy in autumn, 1494, 
and on the last day of the year, Alexander being 
unable to oppose him, made a magnificent public 
entry into Ilome. The pope agreed to allow his 
army free passage toward Naples, and to reinstate 
the cardinals of the opposition faction. In return 
Charles paid him all the outward signs of homage, 




and continued his journey toward Naples, where 
be was able to be crowned on May 12, Alfonso II. 
having fled. Alexander, however, joined the league 
founded at Venice (March 31) to drive him out of 
Italy and to support the house of Aragon in recon- 
quering Naples. In return Alexander asked the hand 
of Carlotta, Princess of Naples, for his son Cesare, 
whom he had made archbishop of Valencia imme- 
diately after his own elevation and cardinal a year 
later. It was necessary to divorce Lucrezia from 
her husband Giovanni Sforza and marry her to a 
natural son of Alfonso II., the Duke of Bisceglia, 
which was accomplished in 1498. Cesare 's marriage 
fell through, however; and, after resigning as car- 
dinal, he married Charlotte d'Albret, sister of the 
King of Navarre, being made Duke of Valentinois 
by Louis XII., who received in return permission 
to divorce his wife. 

Cesare went on with designs for an extensive 
temporal lordship by fair means and foul. The 
ruling families of the Romagna having been ex- 
pelled or assassinated, Alexander gave him the 
title of Duke of Romagna in 1501. The hatred of 
father and son for the house of Aragon went further. 
Lucrezia's second husband was murdered by Ce- 
sare 's orders in 1500; and a year later Alexander 
joined the league of Louis XII. and Ferdinand of 
Spain for the division of the kingdom of Naples 
between them. The years 1502 and 1503 mark 
the height of this dominion founded on blood. 
Alexander was already thinking of asking the 
emperor for Pisa, Sienna, and Lucca for his son and 
making him king of Romagna and the Marches, 
when death cut short his plans, through an attack 
of malarial fever (Aug. 18, 1503). 

Of what his contemporaries thought Alexander 
capable may be seen from the story, long believed, 
that he was the victim of poison prepared by his 
orders for one of the cardinals whose estates he 
coveted. In recent years Alexander has been 
regarded by some as an unselfish pioneer of the 
unification of Italy, and attempts have even been 
made to represent him as a true follower of Christ; 
but his unworthiness is generally admitted, even 
by Roman Catholic writers. (A. Hauck.) 

Bibuoorapht: Creighton, Papacy, iv. 183-end, t. 1-57 
(very full, valuable appendices of documents); Pastor, 
Popes, V. 375-623, vi. 1-180 (the Romanist side, with ap- 
pendices of doctmients); A. (jordon. The Lives of Pope 
Alexander VI. and . . . Caear Borffia, 2 vols., London, 
1729 (has appendix of doonments); Bower, Popes, iii. 
250-277; J. Fave, £tudee criHquet »ur Vhietoire d'Ale- 
xandre VI., St. Briene, 1850; M. J. H. Oliivier, Le Pape 
Alexandre VI., Paris, 1870; F. Gregorovius, Liurezia 
Borffia, 2 vols., Stuttgart, 1875. Eng. transl., London, 
1004; Kaiser, Der vMverleumdete Alexander VI., Ratis- 
bon. 1877; V. Nemec, Paptt Alexander VI., Klagenfurt, 
1870; J. Burchard. IHarium eive rerum t^banarum com- 
mentarii, 3 vols.. Paris, 1883-85 (consult Index); Hefele, 
ConcOiengeeckiehie, viii. 300; C. G. Robertson, Caaar 
Borgia, London, 1801; Ranke. Popee, i. 35-36; F. Corvo. 
Chronidee of the Houee of Borgia, New York, 1001. On 
Lucresia Borgia consult F. Gregorovius, LuarHia Borgia, 
ib. 1003. 

Alexander VH (Fabio Chigi): Pope 1655-67. 
He was nuncio in Cologne from 1639 to 1651, and 
took part in the negotiations which led up to the 
peace of Westphalia, but declared that he would 
enter into no communications with heretics, and 

protested against the validity of the treaties of 
Monster and OsnabrQck. Innocent X. took a 
similar view, and on his return from Germany he 
made Chigi cardinal and finally secretary of 
state. It was due to the influence of Chigi that 
Innocent condemned the famous five propositions 
alleged to have been extracted from the Augustin-ua 
of Jansen. Innocent died Jan. 7, 1655, and a strong 
party in the conclave favored Chigi as one who 
would be likely to be free from the reproach of 
nepotism; but, though Spain supported him, the op- 
position of France (Mazarin had been for years his 
personal enemy) delayed the election until Apr. 7. 
Alexander VII. had the satisfaction of seeing the 
daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, Christina of Swe- 
den, enter the Church, though her prolonged resi- 
dence in Rome became a burden to him later. 
He was a consistent supoorter of the Jesuits, 
whom he succeeded in restoring to Venice, from 
which city they had been excluded since the 
conflict with Paul V. He took their side wholly 
in the struggle with the Jansenists (see Janben, 
CoRNELiUB, Jansenism). He became embroiled 
with Louis XIV., first through the refusal of the 
French ambassador in Rome, the Duke of Cr^ui, 
to pay certain conventional civilities to the rel- 
atives of the pope, and then through an attack 
on the ambassador's servants and palace made by 
the Corsican guards of the pope. Louis was already 
displeased with Alexander for his consistent sup- 
port of Cardinal de Retz against Mazarin, and for lus 
retention, in spite of Louis's intercession in their 
behalf, of certain possessions to which the Famese 
and fiste families laid claim. In such a mood he 
took up the Corsican affair hotly, and wrote to 
Alexander of a breach of the law of nations, a crime 
whose parallel could hardly be found among bar- 
barians. The papal nuncio was obliged to leave 
Paris, and French troops occupied Avignon and the 
Comtat Venaissin and threatened to invade the 
Italian states of the Church. Alexander, unable 
to find any allies, saw himself compelled to accede 
to the most humiliating demands of France in the 
treaty of Pisa (1664). He was obliged not only, 
by a special mission of two cardinals to Paris, to 
beg the king's pardon, but also that of the Duke 
de Cr^ui, and to erect a pyramid in a public place 
in Rome, with an inscription declaring the Corsi- 
cans incapable of serving the Holy See. 

Since Alexander, like his predecessor, was closely 
allied with Spain, he was obliged to carry Innocent's 
policy still further when a struggle with Portugal 
arose. Innocent had refused to recognize Portugal 
as an independent monarchy when in 1640 it broke 
away from Spain under the house of Braganza; 
and had declined to confirm the bishops nominated 
by King John IV. Alexander took the same course 
in regard to the bishops; the king accordingly 
allowed the bishoprics to remain vacant, and divided 
their estates and revenues among his courtiers, 
even thinking at one time of the extreme measure 
of an absolute breach with Rome and the estab- 
lishment of a national Church, whose bishops should 
need confirmation from no one but the metropol- 
itan. The conflict was finally settled by Clement 
IX. in 1669. 



Much as he had had to do with affairs of state 
before his elevation to the papacy, Alexander found 
them wearisome, and left their administration 
as much as possible to the congregation of cardinals 
entrusted with their consideration. He was a 
cultiured friend of literature and philosophy, and 
took much pleasure in his intercourse with learned 
men, among whom Pallavicini, the historian of the 
Council of Trent, was conspicuous. He tried his 
own hand at literature; a collection of his verses, 
under the title PhUometi labores juveniles appeared 
in Paris in 1656. He died May 22, 1667. 

(A. Hauck.) 
Biblxoorapht: Ranke. Popett ii. 33 sqq.; J. Bargraye, 
Pope Alexander VII 1. and the CoUege of CardinaU, in Pub- 
Keatione of tke Camden Society, xcii., London, 1867; R. 
Chmutelsuie, Le Cardinal de Retx et eee mieeione diploma' 
Hquea h Rome, Fmris, 1879; A. G^sier. Let Demiirte Anniee 
du Cardinal de ReU, Paris. 1879; A. Reumont. Fabio 
Chigi in DeutecMand, Aachen. 1885; G^rin. VAmbaeeade 
de Crequy h Rom* et le traiti de Piee, 166f-166U, in Retme 
dee queeOone hietoriquee, xzviii. (1893) 670; Bower, Popee, 
iii. 331-332. 

Alexander Vm. (Pietro Ottoboni): Pope 1689- 
01. He came of a Venetian family, was made 
cardinal by Innocent X., and, later. Bishop of 
Brescia and datariua apostolicua. When Innocent 
XI. died (Aug. 11, 1689), much depended on the 
choice of his successor, both for Louis XIV. and 
for the League of Augsburg, formed to oppose him. 
His ambassador, the Duke de Chaulnes, succeeded 
on Oct. 6 in accomplishing the election of Cardinal 
Ottoboni. Louis, whom the coalition had placed 
in a critical situation, believed that he would find 
the new pope more complaisant in some disputed 
points than his predecessor had been. He attempt- 
ed to conciliate the curia by restoring Avignon, 
and abandoned the right of extraterritorial im- 
munity which he had so stubbornly claimed for the 
palace of his ambassador in Rome. Alexander 
showed a friendly spirit, and made the Bishop of 
BeauvaiB a cardinal. The coalition urged the pope 
neither directly nor indirectly to approve the four 
articles of the " Gallican liberties " of 1682, on which 
the strife had turned between the king and the 
clergy of his party, on one side, and Rome, on the 
other. Alexander might have been willing to con- 
firm the bishops whom Louis had nominated in 
return for their part in bringing about this declara- 
tion, if they woiild avail themselves of the pretext 
that they defended the articles only in their private 
capacity. Louis rejected this accommodation, 
and the pope condenmed the declaration and dis- 
pensed the clergy from the oath they had taken to 
uphold it. 

Alexander made his name memorable in Rome 
by many benefits to the city, and showed his love 
for learning by the purchase for the Vatican library 
of the rich collection of Christina of Sweden. He 
18 reproached, however, for yielding completely 
to the inroads of nepotism, which his predecessors 
had driven out. He died Feb. 1, 1691. 

(A. Hauck.) 
Biblxoorapht: G^rin. Pape Alexandre VIU. et Louie XIV. 
d*aprie documente inMiie. Paris. 1878; Petnioelli della 
Gattina. Bietoire diplomaHque dee eondavee, iiL 213. Paris. 
1806; A. Reumont. OeeehidUe der Stadt Rom, iii. 2. 639, 
Berlin. 1870: Bower. Popee, iii. 834-336; Ranke, Popee, ii. 
424. iii. 461. 

ALEXANDER: Patriarch of Alexandria 319- 
328. See Arianism, I., 1. 

ALEXAIfDER BALAS. See Seleucidjb. 

ALEXANDER OF HALES (Halensis or Almsie, 
Halentu or Aleaiua; called Doctor Irrefragabilia 
and Theologorum Monarcha): Scholastic theolo- 
gian; b. at Hales, Gloucestershire, England; d. in 
Paris Aug. 21, 1245. He was educated in the 
monastery at Hales, studied and lectured at Paris, 
and acquired great fame as a teacher in theology, 
and entered the order of St. Francis in 1222. His 
Summa universce theologuB (first printed at Ven- 
ice, 1475) was undertaken at the request of Innocent 
IV., and received his approbation. It was finished 
by Alexander's scholars after his death. It is an 
independent work giving a triple series of author- 
ities — those who say yes, those who say no, and 
then the reconciliation or judgment. The author- 
ities are chosen not only from the Bible and the 
Fathers, but also among Greek, Latin, and Arabic 
poets and philosophers, and later theologians. 
It treats in its first part the doctrines of God and his 
attributes; in its second, those of creation and sin; 
in its third, those of redemption and atonement; 
and, in its fourth and last, those of the sacraments. 
Among the doctrines which were specially developed 
and, so to speak, fixed by Alexander of Hales, 
are those of the ihesawms supererogationia perfec- 
torum, of the character indeltbUia of baptism, con- 
firmation, ordination, etc. 
Bibuogbapht: J. B. Haur^u. De la philoeophie ecolaeHque, 

Toli.. Paris. 1860; A. 8t6okl,Geechichteder Philoeophie,ro\. 

iL. Mains. 1866; A. Neander. CAristian CAt4reA; iv. 420-610; 

J. £. Erdmann, Oeechichte der Philoeophie, i. 133. 431. 

Berlin. 1877. Eng. transl.. 3 vols.. London. 1803; Moeller. 

Chrietian Church, ii. 328. 414. 428. 

ALEXANDER OF HIERAPOLIS, hai''e-rap'6-lis: 
Bishop of Hierapolis and metropolitan of the prov- 
ince Euphratensis. He was prominent at the third 
ecumenical council (Ephesus, 431) as a fierce 
opponent of Cyril and leader of the left wing of the 
^tiochians. He persisted in his opposition even 
after the more moderate had acknowledged the 
orthodoxy of Cyril, and, in consequence, was finally 
deposed and banished to Famothis in Egypt. 
Suidas ascribes to him a treatise: ''What Did 
Christ Bring New into the World ?" 

G. KrCoer. 

Bibuooraprt: Mansi, Concilia, iv. 1330-31, t. 861-(KS5 
(letters from him or to him or concerning him); Hefele 
ConcUienoeeehichte, ii.. Eng. transl.. vol. iii. passim; DCB, 
i. 83-86. 


lic"ep'6-lis: Alleged author of a work against the 
doctrines of the Manicheans, written in Greek, 
probably about 300. He was therefore contem- 
porary with the first apostles of Manicheism in 
Egjrpt. Photius (Contra Manichaos, i. 11) calls 
him bishop of Lycopolis (in the Thebaid), but the 
work (which is an important source for the Mani- 
chean system) does not even justify the inference 
that the writer was a Christian, and nothing is 
known of his life. The work was published by F. 
0)mbefis in his Auctarium novissimum, ii. (Paris, 
1672) 3-21, and is reprinted in MPG, xviii. 409-448. 




It h&s been edited, with a good mtroduction, by 
A* Brinkmaim (Ldpsie, 1SD5); Eng. transl, in ANF, 
vi, 239-253, G. KrCger. 

Easieni Church; b. at Vladimir (110 m. e* by n, of 
Mcw9<^w) 1218; d. at Goroditch (360 m. s.e. of Mos- 
cow) Nov. 14^ 1263. He wa« the second son of 
Grand Duke Jaroelav II, of Novgorod. In 1240 he 
defeated the Swedes on the Neva^ wbenee his title, 
" Nevski/' Two years later he repelled the Livo- 
nianfl, who had the support of Rome. The popes 
of the time were making great efforts to bring about 
B union with the Eastern Church, and, to further 
their plana, they tried to induce Alexander aod 
Fiince Daniel of Galitch to undertake a crusade 
against the Tatars, Innocent IV. addressed letters 
to Alexander (Jan, 23 and Sept, 15 ^ 1248)^ ^u-ging 
him strenuousiy to submit to the Roman see, to 
which the duke and liis advisers replied: ^' We know 
what the Old and New Testaments say, and we 
are also acquainted i^ith the teaching of the Church 
of Constantine and from the first to the seventh 
council; but your teaching we do not accept." 
Nevertheless, Innocent and his successor, Alexander 
IV., pursued their plans and appointed a legate 
for Russia, hoping that Roman bishoprics might 
in the course of time be established there. Grand 
Duke Alexander defended his Church as ably as he 
did his country. He won the favor of the Tatar 
khans^ and in 1261 a bishopric was established at 
Sarai on the lower Volga, the residence of the Khan 
of the Golden Horde. Alexander died on one of his 
many journeys thither. He was canonized by the 
Church and the day of hln burial (Nov, 23) was 
consecrated to him. His remains were trans* 
ferred on Aug. 30, 1724, to the Alexander Nevski 
monastery in St- Petersburg, which had been found- 
ed by Peter the Great in 1711 on the supposed 
scene of Alexander's victory over the Swedes in 


ALEXAITDER SEVERUS (Marcus Aurelius Alei- 
ander Severus): Roman emperor 222-235; b. at 
Arce in Phenicia, most probably 205; murdered 
by the army, probably near Mainz ^ at the beginning 
of a campaign against the Germans in Gaul, Mar.t 
235, He was a noble character^ conscientious, 
almost scrupulous, meek, and well inclined toward 
all gods and men. The religious policy which lie 
inherited was one of electicism and syncrctiiim. 
Alexander and his two immediate predecessors^ — 
CaracaBa, 211-217, son and successor of Septimius 
Beverus (q.v.), and Ekgabalus, 218-222, reputed 
son and successor of Caracalla^— may be called the 
Syrian emperors. They were much influenced by 
Julia Domna, wife of Septimiufl and daughter of 
a prietit of the sun at Eme^a; Julia Mjesa, her sbter; 
and the two daughteni of the latter, Soeemias, 
mother of Elagabalus, and Julia Biamiea, mother 
of Alexander. About these women gathered a 
circle of piulosophers and scholars who took a deep 
interest in religioua questions. There was nat- 
uraUy here no inclination to the Roman religion 
and the claims of Christianity were, in part at least , 
FecogniKed. There was a disporition to attempt 
to revive heathenism by importing the good in the 

new religion. Elagabalus (q. v,> had sought to unite 
the religions of the empire, but in fantastic manner, 
aiming to make all gods subordinate to the sun-god 
of Emesaj whose priest he was. Alexander con- 
tinued his syneretisin in nobler fashion. He was 
susceptible to all good and had respect for all re- 
ligions. The image of Christ stood in his lararium 
with those of Orpheus, Abraham, and ApoUoniua 
of Tyana, and he is said to have wished to erect 
in Rome a temple to Jesus, The Christian ethics 
also attracted him, he often quoted the precept 
" what ye will not that others do to you, that do 
not ye to them " and had it inscribed on public 
buildings. Mamiea was even more favorable to 
Cliristianily; Eusebius (HisL eccL, vi, 21 ) calls her 
*" a most pious woman, if there ever was one, and 
of religious life," but the assertion that she was a 
Christian (first made by Oreiaius, vii, 18) is un- 

Tliat the Chureb had peace under Alexander, 
as under his predecessors, was the natural conse- 
quence of his training and his character. Lam* 
pridius says expressly that Alexander " sufi"ered 
the Christians to exist," and Pirmiliant bishop of 
Ceesarea in Cappadocia^ in a letter to Cyprian 
(Kpisf., Ixxv. [Ixxiv,]), wTitten about 256, spe^ of 
** the long peace." To bo sure, individuals may 
have been brought to trial here and there, but the 
later accounts which make Alexander a cruel 
persecutor under whom thousands of Chriiitianfl 
suffered death are false, and the reputed martyr- 
doms under him, as of the Roman bLBhops Callistus 
and Urbanus and of St. Cecilia, are un historic, 

(A, Hauck.) 

Brsuoo&jLFHT: Origin a,! nounwi an: Dion Cusiua, IIi*t, 
RaiTu, Ixidv., Ixxvirt Ixxx.; iELiuA LampridiuA, Aiexapder 
Sev^a*t bcfct in M. Ni»rd, ifiwtoiw, pp. 463-4S2, PAtis^ 
1^83; Eiuebiui, Hitt. ««J., v, 2(t, vi 1; NFNF, 2d oeruH, 
L. 245, 249. CoofluJC; 0. Uhlhorap Dm- Kampf tU» ChrU- 
U7%lumt, pp. 2S4 BQq.. Stutt«Bj-t, IS75r B. Aub6, La CkrS- 
Hena dant I'empire romain^ pp. 53 sqq., Farjji< 18S1; J. 
KcviLle, Lq Reliffion t Ritmt «t7Uf Ut Sipbr&t, ib. ISSdl F. 
AIIai^^ NiMtaim de* pgtfecutivn* . , . du Hi. nMe. pp. 
79 sqq., 171 iqq.. ib. iSSfl; W, Soflith, ZHcHoimry of Ondt 
and Roman Bio(raphff, iii. 802-804. London. iBfiO: Ne&o- 
der, ChH^tian ChircK. i. 1 25^1 27 ef passim; JScbaff* Chrit* 
(ian Chwrch, ± 58-S9- Moeller, Chrittian Chur^, L 101, 

ALEXAITOER, ARCHIBALD; Presbyterian cler- 
gyman, and first professor in the Pnnoeton Tbe<^ 
logical Seminary; b. about 7 m. e. of Lexington, 
in Augusta (later Rockbridgie) County, Virginia, 
Apr. 17, 1772; d. at Princeton Oct, 22, 1851. He 
received aa good schooling as the place and time 
afforded, mcludjng attendance from the age of 
ten at the Liberty Hall Academy of the Rev. 
William Graham, near Lexington. He was eon^ 
verted in the great revival of 1789, studied theol- 
ogy with Mr. Graham, was Ucensed in 1791 and 
ordained in 1794, and became president of Hamp- 
den Sydney College 1796^ and pastor of the Third 
Presbyterian Ghurch(Pine Street), Philadelphia, 1S06. 
In 1812 he was entrusted by the General Assembly 
with the organization of the Princeton Theological 
Seminary. For the first he taught all depart^ 
ments^ but as other professors were added be con- 
fined himself to pastoral and polemic theology. 
His chief books were: A Brie) OutUne of tim 



BridencM of the Christian Rdigufn { Ftinceton, 1S25) ; 
The Camm of the Old and New TcsiamenU Aaeer* 
iain&i (IS26); A Pocket Dictumary of the Bible 
(Fbiladetphia, 1829); Biographical Sketches of the 
Founder and Prindpol Alumni of the Log College 
(Pnnceton, 1S45>; and OuUines of Moral ScieTiu 
(New York, 1852). 

BiU4oaitAFST: J, W. AJ«x&tider, Idf* of Arehibald Ataan- 
ii^T, New York. 1S54. 

vivaliitt; b* at Meadow, Tenn., Oct. 24, 1867. He 
was educated at Maryville College^ MaryviUo, 
Tenn., but left in 1887 without taking a degree, 
and, after being musical dircetor for a time in the 
lame mstitution, prepared him self for evangelmtic 
work at the Moody Bible Institute, Chicago^ having 
^rmady been singing aaaodate of the Quaker 
evangelist John Kittrell for three months. Dur- 
ing a part of the period of study in the Moody 
Bible Institute he was chQirm aster of the Moody 
Sunday-school, and in 1893 was associated with 
Dwight L, Moody in the revival services connected 
with the World's Fair at Chicago. From 1894 to 

1901 he was singing associate of the revivalist 
Milan B, Williams, working in Iowa for the first 
five years and in other parts of the United States 
during the remainder of the time. At the con- 
clusion of this period Mrr Willi ama went for a short 
visit to Palestine^ and in the interval Alexander 
was asked by Rev. Dr. R. A. Torrey to accompany 
him to Australia. They began their work in 1902, 
and for six months traveled throughout Australia, 
Tasmaniat and New Zealand, after which they 
conducted a revival for six weeks in Madura, 
Madras, Calcutta, Bombay, and Benares. They 
then went to England ^ where they remained from 

1902 to 1904, and in 1905-06 conducted successful 
revival services in Canada and the United States. 
In regard to the Bible Mr. Alexander takes the most 
conservative position, for he declares that he 
'* believes in the absolute reliability of every states 
ment " in it. Re has issued Revival Sojigs (Mel- 
bourne, 1901); Revival Hymmi (I^ondon, 1903); and 
Reeiwd Hymne (another collection; Chicago, 1906). 
BiBLiooRAPEtT: G, T, B. DaviB^ Torrgff and jlirjandWr, Chi- 

ALEXAITDER, GEORGE: Presbyterian; b. at 
West Charlton, N. Y., Oct. 12, 1^3. He received 

his education at Union College and Princeton 
Theological Seminary (1870), He was pastor 
of the East Avenue Ptesbyterian Church, Schenec- 
tady, N, Y., from 1870 to 1884, and in the following 
year waa called to the University Place Church, 
New York City, where he has since remained. 
While at Schenectady, he waa likewise professor 
of rhetoric and logic at Union Cbllege in 1877^3. 
He is president of the Presbyterian Board of For- 
eign Missions and of the board of trustees of Silo 
Paulo Ckallege, Brazil, as well as of the New York 
College of Dentistry. He is also vice-president 
of the Council of New York University, a trustee 
of Union College, and a director of Princeton 
Theological Seminary, 

ALEXAITDER, GROSS: Methodist Bpisoopar 
lian; b, at BcottsviUe, Ky., June 1, 1852. He waa 

educated at the University of Louisville (BA,, 
1871) and Drew Theological Seminary (B.D., 1877), 
after having been a tutor at the University of 
Lottisville in 1871-73 and professor of classics at 
Warren College, Ky., in 1873-75, He held sucs- 
oeosive pastorates in New York State (1875-77) 
and Kentucky (1877-84), and from 1885 to 1902 
was professor of New Testament exegesis in Van- 
derbilt University, Since the latter year he has 
been presiding elder of Louisville. He was also 
a secretary of the general conferences held at 
Memphis (1894), Baltimore (1898), and Dallas 
(1902), and has written, in addition to numerous 
briefer contributions. Life of jS. P. Holcfmbe (Louis- 
ville, 1888); Hutory of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, Souih (Mew York, 1894); The Beginnings 
of Methodism in the South (Nashville, 1897); and 
The San of Man : Studies in His Life and Teaching 
(1899), besides editing Homilies of Chrysastom on 
Galatiansand Ephesians (New York, 1890). In 1906 
he became editor of The Methodist Quarterly Review. 

rian; b. near Gordonsville, Louisa County, Virginia, 
Mar. 13, 1804, eldest son of Archibald Alexander 
(q, vO; d. at Red Sweet Springs, Virginia, July 31, 
1859. He was graduated at Princeton in 1820, 
studied theology there and served as tutor, was 
licensed in 1824j and was pais tor in Virginia till 
1828, when be became pastor at Trenton, N. J. 
He was editor of The Presbyterian^ Philadelphia 
(1832), professor of rhetoric and belles-lettres at 
Princeton (1833), pastor of Duane Street Presby- 
terian Church, New York (1S44), professor of ec- 
clesiastical history at Princeton Sejninary (1S49), 
recalled to his old church in New York, now reor- 
ganiated as the Fifth Avenue Church (1851), 
Perhaps the best known of his writings were 
the Plain Words to a Young Cammunicanl (New 
York, 1854) and Thoughts on Preaching C1864L 
Some of his translations of German hymns (such 
as rJerhardt*B O Sacred Head now Wounded), first 
published in Schaff's Deutsche Kirchenfreund.luvve 
passed into many hymn-books. 

Bltt^lCKilti^FtlT: Fffftv Ytart' Famittar LtUert of Jdmei tT, 
Altiatwirr^ed. Hay. John Hall of TrcntoD, 2 ToliLr New 
York* 1860, 


Presbyterian; b, at Philadelphia Apr. 24, 1809, third 
son of Archibald Alexander (q. v.); d, at Princeton, 
N, J., Jan. 28, I860. He was graduated at Prince- 
ton in 18!^; became adjunct professor of ancient 
languages and literature there in 1830; studied 
and traveled in Europe in 1833 and 1834; on 
his return to .\merica, became adjunct professor 
of Oriental and Biblical literature in Princeton 
Seminary. He was transferred to the chair of 
church history in 1851 and to that of New Testa- 
ment literature in 1869^ He was a remarkable 
linguist, assisted in preparing the first American 
edition of Donnegan's Greek lexicon (Boston, 
1840)^ and did much to introduce German theolog- 
ical learning into America, He wrote commentaries 
on laaiah (2 vob,, New York, 1846-47; ed, John 
Eadie, Glasgow, 1875) and the Psalms (3 vols., 
ib, 1850); with Prof, Charles Hodge he planned a 
series of popular commentaries on the books of the 




New Testament, of which he himself contributed 
those on the Acts (2 vob., 1857), Mark (1858), and 
Matthew. The last-cited was published posthu- 
mously (1861), as well as two volumes of sermons 
(1860) and NoUs on New TeatamerU Literature 
(2vob., 1861). 

Bibuooiiai*ht: H. C. Alexander, Li/« of J. A. AUxaruUr^ 2 
▼ols.. New York. 1860. 

ALEXAIfDER, WILLIAM: 1. Anglican archbish- 
op of Armagh and primate of all Ireland; b. at Lon- 
donderry, Ireland, Apr. 13, 1824. He was educated 
at Tunbridge School and Exeter and Brasenose 
Colleges, Oxford (B.A., 1854). After his gradua- 
tion he was successively curate of Deny Cathedral 
and rector of Termonamongan, Upper Fahan, and 
CamusnJuxta-Moume (all in the (tiocese of Deny), 
while in 1863 he was appointed dean of Emly. 
Four years later he was consecrated bishop of Deny 
and Raphoe, and in 1896 was elevated to the arch- 
bishopric of Armagh and the primacy of all Ireland. 
He was select preacher to the University of Oxford 
in 1870-71 and Hampton Lecturer in 1876. He has 
written Leading Ideas of the Ooepela (Oxford ser- 
mons, London, 1872); The Witnese of the Psalms 
to Christ and Christianity (1877); commentaries 
on Colossians, Thessalonians, Philemon, and the 
Johannine Epistles, in The Speaker's Commen- 
tary (1881); The Great Question and Other Ser- 
mons (1885); St. Augustine's Holiday and Other 
Poems (1886); Discourses on the Epistles of St. 
John (1889); Verbum Crucis (1892); Primary Con- 
victions (1893); and The Divinity of Our Ijord (1886). 

2. American Presbyterian; b. near Shirleysburg, 
Pi., Dec. 18, 1831; d. at San Anselmo, Cal., 
June 29, 1906. He was educated at Lafayette 
College and Jefferson College (B.A., 1858), and 
at Princeton Theological Seminary (1861). He was 
ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 1862 and 
was pastor at Lycoming Church, Williamsport, Pa., 
in 1862-63. From 1863 to 1865 he was president 
of Carroll College and stated supply at Waukesha, 
Wis., and then held successive pastorates at 
Beloit, Wis. (1865-69) and San Jos^, Cal. (1869- 
71). From 1871 to 1874 he was president of 
the City College, San Francisco, in addition to 
holding the professorship of New Testament Greek 
and exegesis in the San Francisco Theological 
Seminary, of which he was one of the founders in 
1871. From 1876 until his death he was pro- 
fessor of church history in the latter institution. 
He was a member of the committee to revise the 
Westminster Cx>nfession of Faith in 1890-93 and was 
one of the editors of the Presbyterian and Reformed 
Review (now the Princeton Theological Review). 
In addition to a number of contributions of minor 
importance, he prepared the commentaries on the 
International Sunday-school lessons in 1881-^3. 

Congregationalist; b. at Leith Aug. 24. 1808; d. 
near Musselburgh (5 m. e. of Edinburgh) Dec. 20, 
1884. He stu(Med at Edinbiurgh and at St. An- 
drews (1822-27); began the study of theology at 
the Glasgow Theological Academy; and was clas- 
sical tutor at the Blackburn (Lancashire) Theo- 
logical Academy, 1827-31. He was minister in 
Liverpool, 1832^34; was called to the North 

College Street Congregational Church, Edinburgh, 
1834, and remained with the same congregation 
until 1877. In 1854 he became professor of theol- 
ogy in the Congregational Theological College at 
Edinburgh, and was its principal 1877-81; he 
was made examiner in mental philosophy of St. 
Andrews in 1861, and was a member of the Old 
Testament Revision Company from its formation 
in 1870. He was a frequent contributor to the 
periodicals and edited The Scottish Congregational 
Magazine 1835-40 and 1847-51; he wrote for the 
eighth edition of the Encyclopcedia Britannica; 
translated H&vemick's Introduction to the Old Tes- 
tament (Edinburgh, 1852) and the first division of 
Domer's History of the Development of the Doctrine 
of the Person of Christ (1864); prepared Deuteronomy 
for the Pulpit Commentary (London, 1880); and 
brought out the third edition of Kitto's Biblical 
CyclopcBdia (3 vols., Edinburgh, 1862-66). His other 
works include: The Connection and Harmony of the 
Old and New Testaments (Congregational Lecture, 
7th series, London, 1841, revised ed., 1853); Anglo- 
Catholicism not Apostolical (Edinburgh, 1843); 
The Ancient British Church (Ix)ndon, 1852, new 
ed., revised by S. G. Green, 1889); Christ and 
Christianity (Edinburgh, 1854); Memoirs of the Life 
and Writings of Ralph Wardlaw (1856); Christian 
Thought and Work (1862); St. Paul at Athens (1865); 
Zechariah, his Visions and Warnings (London, 1885) ; 
A System of Biblical Theology (published posthu- 
mously, 2 vols., Eklinburgh, 1888, ed. James R,oss). 
Biblioorapht: J. Rohs, W. L. Alexander, . . . hit Life 

and Worka, with Illuatrationt of hit Teachinott London, 



the most important episcopal sees of the early 
Church, traditionally believed to have been founded 
by the evangelist Mark. It originally had metro- 
politan jurisdiction over the whole of Egypt, and 
gradually became recognized as holding an even 
A^-ider or patriarchal authority, next to that of 
Rome, until Constantinople took second place in 
the fourth century. For its early history in this 
connection, see Patriarch. The rise of heresies 
and divisions in the Church, so zealously combated 
by famous incumbents of this see, such as Athana- 
sius and Cyril, led to schisms. The Monophysites 
contested the see with the orthodox or occupied it 
through a large part of the fifth and sixth centuries, 
and from the seventh century the Melchites and 
Copts continued the same conflict. The Coptic 
patriarchs maintained close relations with the 
Jacobite patriarchs of Antioch, and enjoyed the 
larger share of the favor of the Mohammedan rulers. 
In the fourteenth century, however, they as well 
as their Melchite rivals were subjected to severe 
persecutions. When the city was conquered by 
the crusaders in 1365, the Melchite patriarch was 
living in Constantinople under the protection of 
the patriarch of that see, whose influence continu- 
ally increased in Alexandria, until the Alexandrian 
patriarchs came to be regularly chosen either from 
the clergy of Constantinople or from Alexandrian 
clergy resident there. 

The seat of the patriarchate was for a long while 
in Old Cairo, but in modem times the incnmbent 




has usually resided in Constantinople. Since 1672 
he has had only four metropolitans under him; 
namely, those of Ethiopia (purely titular), Cairo 
(the former Memphis), Damietta (transferred from 
Pelusium), and Rosetta. The Coptic see was 
transferred to Old Cairo still earlier, under Chris- 
todoulos (1045-76), and claims jurisdiction over 
thirteen bishoprics. See Coptic Church; Eotpt. 


Origin (f 1). 

Its Development from Hellenism and Judaism (f 2). 

Christian Modifications (f 3). 

Siffnificance and Achievements (f 4). 

Organisation (f 5). 

Later Developments (f 6). 

Representatives of the LAter School (f 7). 

The term '' School of Alexandria " is used 
in two different senses: (1) The catechetical 
school was an institution which grew up not 
later than the last half of the second century, 
and lasted to the end of the fourth, with a regular 
succession of teachers like the schools of philosophy. 
(2) By the same name is also understood a group 
of theologians of the fourth and fifth centuries, 
the most important of whom was Cyril of Alex- 
andria. They were in general opposition to the 
school of Antioch (q.v.), and were the progenitors 
of Monophysitism and of the anti-Nestorian inter- 
pretation of the decrees of Chaloedon, thus origina- 
ting in the order of intellectual development the 
decisions of the third and fifth councils. It will 
be convenient to treat both meanings of the term 

Nothing certain is known of the origin of Chris- 
tianity in Alexandria, but it is noteworthy that 
tradition refers the first preaching 
z. Origin, of the Gospel there and the founda- 
tion of a group of ascetic philosophers 
to one and the same period, and practically 
to the same man, Mark the Evangelist — which 
indicates that the school dates from the ear- 
liest days of Alexandrian Christianity. At the 
end of the second century, it emerges into light 
as an established institution under the teacher 
Pantsenus, thus confirming the observation, gen- 
erally true, that Christianity adapted itself every- 
where to local characteristics. The oldest Gnostic 
schools are met with in Egypt, and the oldest 
school found in direct relation to the Church (Jus- 
tin, Tatian, and others had what might be called 
private schools) is that of Alexandria. If one may 
judge from the later period, in which the relations 
between the school and the Church, between the 
bishop and the teacher, were frequently strained, 
the school grew only gradually into close connection 
with the Church; but the Alexandrian Church 
itself shows, at the transition from the second to 
the third century, a freer, less rigidly orthodox 
habit of thought, which gave place to the settled 
Catholic forms only in the episcopate of Demetrius, 
under Caracalla and Elagabalus. 

The catechetical school had forerunners in the Hel- 
lenistic " Museum " on one side, and in the Jewish 
schools (batte midraahol) on the other. The de- 
velopment of Helleno-Judaic learning, as seen in 
Philo, is a direct step to the Christian, which took 
up its inheritance. The speculations of the Egyp- 

tian Gnostics, the schools of Basilides and Valen- 
tinus, and those of the Church theologians proceed 
from the same source. Its theology is the science 
of interpreting the written documents; 
3. Its De- it is extracted from the divine oracles 
▼elopment by means of the exegetic-pneumatic 
fromHel- method. But access to the highest 
lenism and secrets is possible only by passing 
Judaism, through various anterooms, designated 
on one side by the different disciplines of 
Greek philosophy, and on the other by special divine 
revelations. This progressive enlightenment cor- 
responds to the constitution of nature and the himian 
organism, with their long course of progressive de- 
velopment. The path thus marked out leads, how- 
ever, naturally to apologetics, just as the preparatory 
study, in metaphysics and ethics, in knowledge and 
in divine love, leads to the laying of a foundation for 
the theological gnosis. All this has appeared al- 
ready in Philo; and so has the essentially Platonic 
attitude toward the whole world of thought, the 
energetic effort to surpass Plato's idea by a hyper- 
noeton (thus offering religion access in the form of 
the transcendental to a lofty region peculiarly its 
own), and the alchemistic process with the Bible by 
which it is made to yield not only the highest 
gnosis but also, when interpreted literally and 
morally, the theology of the preparatory stages. 

The Christian school made no radical change in this 
way of looking at things; but it modified the earlier 
views by giving the revelation of God 
3. Christian in Christ precedence over the Old Te&- 
Modifica- tament law, which it placed practically 
tions. on a level with Greek philosophy, 
and by accepting the Pauline^ohan- 
nean conception of the appearance of the Godhead 
(the Logos) on earth. The mystery of God coming 
down to his creature, or of the deification of the 
created spirit, now became the central thought of 
theology, and served to strengthen the long-existing 
conception of the essential affinity of the created 
spirit with its creator. The fundamental question 
whether the return of souls to God is only an ap- 
parent return (since really all the time they are in 
him), or a strictly necessary natural process, or the 
historical consequence of a historical event (the 
Incarnation), was never satisfactorily answered 
by the teachers of the catechetical school. The 
Alexandrian orthodox teachers are distinguished 
from the heretical by their serious attempt to save 
the freedom of the creature, and thus to place a 
boundary between God and man and to leave some 
scope for history; but the attitude of the Christian 
Gnostic, which Origen praises as the highest, leaves 
room neither for the historic Christ nor for the Lo- 
gos, in fact for no mediator at all, but conceives 
everything as existing in calm immanence and 
blessedness — while this very teacher, as soon as he 
placed himself on one of the numerous steps which 
lie between man as a natural being and man as a 
blessed spirit, became the theologian of redemption, 
atonement, and mediation. 

The catechetical school of Alexandria has a great 
significance as well for the internal history of the 
Church as for its relation to the worid outside. It 
furnished the Church with a dogmatic theology; it 




taught it sdentific exegesis, in the sense then under- 
stood, and gave it a scientific consciousness; it 
overthrew the heretical school; it laid down the 
main problems of future theology; and 

4. Signifi- it transformed the primitive spirit of 
cance and enthusiastic asceticism into one of con-^ 
Achieve- templative asceticism. In regard to 

ments. the outer world, it forced the Hellenic 

mind to take account of the message 

of Christianity, it led the conflict with the last phase 

of Greek phUosophy, Neoplatonism, and defeated 

its enemies with their own weapons. 

The school had a settled organization under a 

single head. A knowledge of the course of study is 

obtained from the great tripartite work 

5. Organi- of Clement (the '' Exhortation to the 
zation. Heathen," the "Instructor," and the 

" Miscellanies **) and from accounts of 
Origen's teaching. The main subjects of the older 
philosophy were taught, but the principal thing, to 
which the whole course led up, was the study of Scrip- 
ture. The school seems to have had no fixed domi- 
cile, at least in Origen's day, but to have met in the 
teacher's house. There were no fixed payments; rich 
friends and voluntary offerings from such as coidd af- 
ford them provided for its needs. The list of heads is 
as follows : Pantsenus, Clement, Origen, Heracles, 
Dionysius (the latter two afterward bishops), 
Pierius (Achillas), Theognostus, Serapion, Peter 
(afterward bishop), Macarius (?)... Didymus, 
Rhodon. The last-named, the teacher of Philip- 
pus Sidetes, migrated to Side in Pamphylia about 
405, and the school, shaken already by the Arian 
controversy and by the unsuccessful struggle of 
Theophilus with the barbarous monastic orthodoxy, 
became extinct. 

The theology of the Cappadocians, especially Greg- 
ory of Nyssa, is a product of the influence of the Alex- 
andrian school, and in so far as this theology, with 

its echoes of Origenistic teaching, has 

6. Later never wholly died out, the work of 

Develop- the school has remained effective. It 

ments. lived on also in the learning of Jerome, 

Rufinus, and Ambrose, and was valu- 
able to the Western Church. Athanasius has nothing 
directly to do with the catechetical school, but his 
teaching on the incarnation of the Logos and his 
conception of the relations of God and man were in 
touch with one side of Origenistic speculation. 
By carrying through the Homoousios he brought 
about at the same time a view of the person of 
Christ according to which the divine nature has so 
absorbed the human, has so made the latter its own,' 
that a practically complete imity of nature exists. 
He did not work this consequence out thoroughly; 
there are many imcertainties both in him and in 
the Cappadocians, his and Origen 's disciples; but 
his teaching and his theological attitude led up to 
what was later called Monophysitism, in its strictest 
and most logical form. This attitude did not 
change when the Church felt obliged to repudiate 
the attempt of Apollinaris of Laodicea to represent 
Christ as a being in whom the Godhead took the 
place of the reasonable human soul. On the con- 
trary, it was felt that the theoretical assertion of 
the complete and perfect human nature of Christ 

in opposition to Apollinaris was a sufficient pro- 
tection against any dangers incurred in free specu- 
lation on the '' one nature of the Word made flesh." 
These speculations were based on the conception 
of the possibility of a real fusion of the divine and 
himian natures. This conception might be regarded 
in a twofold aspect, either from the standpoint of 
historic realism (the divine plan of salvation has 
historically brought together the two separate 
natures), or from that of philosophic idealism (the 
divine plan of salvation declares and makes plain 
what lies already in the nature of things, in so far 
as the intellectual creature is in the last resort 
substantially one with the Godhead). The con- 
nection of this with the later teaching of the 
school is evident; this connection, rooted as it is in 
Platonism, comes out in the pneumatic exegesis, 
although Origen's expositions, which seemed to 
offend against the rule of faith and Biblical realism, 
were rejected. 

The theologians who represented this line of 
thought, and who from the beginning of the fifth 
century are found in conflict with the 
7. Repre- school of Antioch, are called the Alex- 
sentatives andrian school. After Macarius, the 
of the most important of them is Cyril, who is 
Later known by his numerous commentaries 
SchooL and polemical treatises, as well as 
by the victorious boldness of the 
position which he took in these controversies. 
While there may be two opinions about his 
character, there can be no doubt of the soterio- 
logical tendency of his theology. He succeeded 
in following up the partial victory which he won 
at the Ck>uncil of Ephesus (431 ) and converting it 
into a complete one. His successor, Dioscurus, 
accomplished the entire defeat of the theology of 
Antioch, and at Ephesus in 449 the " one nature 
of the Word made flesh " was proclaimed to the 
East. At Chalcedon in 451 came the reaction, 
but it was brought about not so much by any 
opposition in the Eastern mind to the formula as 
by the despotic bearing of its champion. That 
which was adopted at Chalcedon roundly contra- 
dicted, indeed, the Alexandrian theology, but in- 
asmuch as Cyril's orthodoxy was expressly recog- 
nized there, the new Byzantine-Roman Church, 
in spite of its teaching on the two natures, found 
a place for the Alexandrian school. In the sixth 
century Leontius and Justinian showed (Second 
Council of Ck>nstantinople, 553) that its influence 
was not dead — that, on the contrary, the expo- 
sition of the decrees of Chalcedon must be deter- 
mined in accordance with it. No fundamental 
difference appeared in the attitude of the sixth 
council (Ck)nstantinople, 680-681); and after the 
Adoptionist controversy the Western theology also 
became consciously Alexandrian. It has never 
been able to do more than theoretically to assert 
the real humanity of Christ, or to reduce it to very 
narrow limits; it is, after all, essentially ApoUi- 
narian and docetic. Ck>nsequently in all its phases 
it has left room for mystical speculations on the 
relation of the Godhead and humanity, in which 
the human factor tends to disappear and history 
to be forgotten. (A. Harnack.) 




Biblxoobapht: J. F. Baltus, Diftiae det aainta pkre» aect/^ 
uz <b PlaUmimne, Paris. 1711; H. E. F. Guericke. Z>0 
uhoia gucp AUxandHa floruit eaUeh^tiea, Halle, 1824; C. 
F. W. Haaaelbach, De achola qua floruit eaUcheiieat Stet- 
tin, 1824; E. R. Redepenning. Origenet, i.. Bonn, 1841 ; 
J. Simon, Hiatoire critique de Vicole d'AUxandrie, Paris, 
1845; E. Vacherot, HieUnre critique de Vicole d'Alexan^ 
drie, 2 vols., Paris, 1846; C. Kingsley, Alexandria and 
her Schoole, Cambridge, 1854; C. Bigg, Chrietian Plato- 
niete of Alexandria, Oxford, 1886; A. Harnack, Lehrbuch 
der Dootneno9chiehle, i.. ii., Freiberg. 1894, Eng. transl.. 
7 Tols.. London. 1895-1000. 

held in Alexandria in 320 or 321 and 362, see Arian- 
ISM I., 1, §2; I., 3, §6; for the synod in 400, see 
Origenibtic Controversies; for the synod in 430, 
see Nestgrius. 

ALEXIANS: An order, aiming to care for the 
sick and bury the dead, which originated in the 
Netherlands at the time of the black death about 
the middle of the fourteenth century. The mem- 
bers were at first called CeUitcB (Dutch, GeUebroe- 
dera, ** Cell-brothers ") and Lollards, or Nollards, 
on account of their monotonous intoning at burials. 
When and where they chose St. Alexius — accord- 
ing to the legend, a son of rich parents who gave 
all his possessions to the poor, lived for many years 
unrecognized as a beggar in his father's house, and 
died July 17, 417 — as patron is not known. The 
place may have been Aiitwerp, or Cologne, or else- 
where in Lower Germany. A certain Tobias is 
said to have had a part in their foundation, and the 
name Fratres voluntarie pauperes, which is some- 
times applied to them, may have been their oldest 
and chosen designation. From the fifteenth cen- 
tury they were found in great niunbers in Belgium 
and western Germany. In 1459 Pius II. permitted 
them to take the solemn vows. To avoid being 
taken for Beghards, and to escape persecution, 
they adopted the monastic rule of St. Augustine 
(with black cassock), and Sixtus IV. confirmed 
the arrangement in 1472. Later they appeared in 
the four provinces of the Upper Rhine, Middle 
Rhine, Flanders, and Brabant, without central 
government or priests at the head of the different 
monasteries. Jan Busch (q.v.), the monastic refor- 
mer of the fifteenth century, took note of their 
illiterate and deficient lay character. A reform 
of the order, which was verging on decay, was under- 
taken in 1854 by the monastery of Mariaberg in 
Aachen, and was confirmed by Pius IX. in 1870. 
About fifteen houses, for both sexes, scattered over 
western Germany, are affiliated with Aachen, and 
there are others in Belgium. O. Z6ckler f. 

Bibuographt: Helyot, Ordree monaeiiquee, iii. 401-406; G. 

Uhlhom, Die chrieUiehe LuheeUUiokeit im MittelaUer, pp. 

390 sqq., Stuttgart. 1884; W. Moll. Vorreformatorieche 

KircKenoeechichtederNiederlande,u. 250 sqq.,Leipflic. 1895; 

Heimbucher. Orden und Kongregaiionen i. 479-481 . 

ALEXIUS L, a-lex'i-UB, COMNENUS: Emperor 
of Constantinople 1081-1118, founder of the Com- 
nenus dynasty. He was the nephew of Isaac 
Comnenus, who as emperor (1057-59) had tried 
through the army to save the state from the selfish 
tyranny of the official class, but had been put to 
death, with the result that for two decades nulitary 
weakness, administrative demoralization, and the 
loBB of provinces to Turks and Normans had brought 
the empire into an almost hopeless condition. 

During this period Alexius won considerable re- 
nown by defeating a Norman mercenary captain 
named Ursel, who attempted to found a kingdom 
in Asia Blinor, and two pretenders to the imperial 
throne. He was adopted by the empress Maria, 
but found himself so zealously watched in Constan- 
tinople that his only safety was to seize the crown 
for himself, which he accomplished by a masterly 
conspiracy. New dangers, however, threatened 
him. Asia Minor was largely in Mohammedan 
hands; the sovereignty of the empire in the Balkan 
peninsula was scarcely more than nominal; and 
Robert Guiscard menaced the Adriatic provinces, 
having already taken the south Italian ones. 
Alexius summoned his forces, and ratified the 
burdensome treaty with Venice which his pred- 
ecessor had made, but he was defeated, and the 
Normans occupied Durazzo, the western gate of 
the empire. He tried to create a diversion by 
inciting the German king, Henry IV., to an attack 
on southern Italy, which afforded only temporary 
relief, and nothing but Robertas death in 1085 
saved him from this determined foe. 

Steady pressure from the half-barbarous hordes 
of the Balkans made a new danger, and at one 
time it seemed likely that the Turkish pirates of 
Asia Minor and the Sultan of Iconium would join 
them in an attempt to effect the complete over- 
throw of the empire. By the aid of the Cumans, 
however, they were defeated with horrible slaughter 
(1091). The lack of military force inspired Alexius 
with the idea of gaining assistance from the West. 
The first crusade (1095-99), partly due to his appeals 
for the expulsion of the Turks, assumed far different 
proportions from those which he had expected; 
but he might have welcomed it, had it not been 
that the participation of Bohemund, Robert Guis- 
card's son, gave it the appearance of a mere episode 
in the old Norman inroads. At first all went 
peaceably, but mutual distrust soon showed itself. 
At the siege of Nicsea (1097), Alexius did not wait 
to see if the crusaders would fulfil their agreement 
to restore to him the territory which had but 
recently belonged to the empire, but gained the 
city by a secret agreement with the Turkish gar- 
rison. When Antioch fell (1098), it was not re- 
stored to the emperor. This marked the crisis of 
the undertaking. The Turks threatened to recap- 
ture Antioch, and Alexius was entreated to send 
the help he had promised. He saw that by giving 
it he would make the Turks his irreconcilable foes, 
without finding submissive vassals in the crusaders, 
and he drew back, seizing the opportunity to recover 
possession of the coasts of Asia Minor, with the large 
maritime cities and the islands, and then using 
this recovered territory as a base of operations 
against the new Norman principality in Syria. 
Bohemund found himself obliged in 1104 to seek 
help from the pope and the kings of England and 
France. He spread the belief that Alexius was the 
enemy of Christianity and a master of all deceits 
and wiles. A new crusade, led by Bohemund, 
sought to pass through the Eastern empire, but 
its purpose was perfectly understood in Constan- 
tinople. Preparations were made in time, and 
in the winter of 1107-08 Alexius won the greatest 




triumph of his reign. Bohemund was forced to 
lubmit to the humSiating conditions of the treaty 
of Deabolis, and to hold Antioch as a fief of the 
empire, without the right to transmit it. The last 
ten years of Alexius's reign were years of struggle 
for the maintenance of his recovered dominion in 
Asia Minor, and for the consolidation of his power 
at home. To gain the help of the ecclesiastics, as 
well as to atone for the sins of his youth, he regu- 
lated the life of his court with great strictness, and 
did his utmost to repress the sects (Paulicians, 
Armenians, Monophysites, and Bogomiles) which 
had flourished in the anarchy of the time imme- 
diately preceding his own. 

It is difficult to arrive at an unprejudiced view 
of Alexius's character, so much have the one-sided 
views of the Western historians prevailed. His 
success in making the weakened empire once more 
a power must be admired. He was a man of infi- 
nite resource, of tremendous energy, of an inde- 
fatigable readiness to avail himself of circumstances, 
not wanting in physical courage, but even greater 
in moral steadfastness. (C. Neumann.) 

BnuooBAPHT : Sources : Nioephonu BryenniuB, Com- 
m^niarii, in CSUB, yiii., 1836; Amut Comnena, Alexiad, 
ibid, iii., 1878, and ed. by Reiffencheid, 2 yoIb., Leipiic, 
1884; also iTheophylact. CSHB, Iy., 1834. cf. Knim- 
bacher. Oetehichte, pp. 133 sqq., 463-464. Constilt G. 
Fkday, Hiat. of the BytarUine and Greek Empiree, 2 vols., 
London, 1854; A. F. GfrOrer, BytafUinxBche Oeech., 3 vols., 
Gras. 1872-77; B. Kugler, OeeckidUe der KrewuOife, Berlin, 
1880; H. E. Toxer, The Chiarh and the Eaetem Empire, 
London, 1888; C. W. C. Oman, Byzantine Empire, New 
York, 1892 (popular but useful); Gibbon, Decline and Fall, 
T. 232, vi. 79, 1896; F. Harrison, Byzantine HieU in the 
Early Middle Agee, London, 1900; F. Chalandon, Eeeai 
eur . . . Alexie I. Comnenue, Paris. 1900. 
ALFORD, HENRY: Dean of Canterbury; b. in 
London Oct. 7, 1810; d. at Canterbury Jan. 12, 1871. 
He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 
1832), and was ordained deacon in 1833, priest in 

1834, and elected a fellow of Trinity the same year; 
he became vicar of Wymeswold, Leicestershire, 

1835, minister of Quebec Chapel, Marylebone, 
London, in 1853, and dean of Canterbury in 1857. 
He was a many-sided man, a good musician, a 
wood-carver and painter of some skill, a good 
preacher, and for many years a successful teacher 
of private pupils. His publications include ser- 
mons, lectures, essays and reviews, poems, hymns, 
a translation of the Odyssey in blank verse (London, 
1861), an edition of the works of John Donne (6 
vols., 1839), The Queen's English (1864>, and even 
a novel, NetherUm on Sea (1869), written in col- 
laboration with his niece (Elizabeth M. Alford). 
He was Hulsean lecturer for 1841-42 and published 
his lectures under the title. The Consiatenq/ of the 
Divine Conduct in Revealing the Doctrines of Redemp- 
tion (2 vols.). He was the first editor of the Con- 
temporary Review (1866-70). The great work of 
his life, however, was his Greek Testament (4 vols., 
London, 1849-61 ; thoroughly revised in subsequent 
editions), which introduced German New Testa- 
ment scholarship to En^ish readers, and involved 
a vast amount of patient labor. An outcome of 
this woric was The New Testament for English 
Readers (4 vob., 1868) and a revised English 
version (1869). He was one of the original mem- 
bers of the New Testament Revision Committee. 

Near the close of his life he projected a commentary 
on the Old Testament, and prepared the Book of 
Genesis and part of Exodus, which were published 
posthumously (1872). 

Bxblxoorapht: H. Alford, hie Life, Joumale, and Lettere, 
by hie widow, London. 1873; DNB, i. 282-284. 

the West Saxons 871-901; b. at Wantage (60 m. 
w. of London), Berkshire, 849; d. at Winchester, 
Hants, Oct. 28, 901. He was the youngest son of 
Ethelwiilf and Osbiu^, and succeeded his brother 
Ethelred on the throne. His reign, with its recur- 
ring conflicts with the Danes, contained many 
vicissitudes; nevertheless, he succeeded in estab- 
lishing his power, enlarged the borders of his realm, 
and advanced the spiritual and intellectual welfare 
of his people. He remodeled the political and 
ecclesiastical organization of his kingdom, rebuilt 
the churches, monasteries, and schools burnt by 
the Danes, and founded new ones. He invited 
learned men to his country and provided for them 
there, and through the intimate connection which 
he maintained with Rome he was able to procure 
books and form libraries. Of still greater import 
were his personal exertions to arouse among his 
countrymen a desire for knowledge and culture. 
He translated Boethius's De consolatione philosophies 
and the history of Orosius. Both works are treated 
with great freedom, much change was necessary 
to adapt them to the needs of the rude Saxons, 
and Alfred himself did not always fully understand 
his text. There are many omissions and additions. 
The work of Orosius (an attempt to write a history 
of the world from a Christian standpoint) is sup- 
plemented by a geographical and ethnological 
review of Scandinavia and the Baltic countries 
from the reports of Othhere and Wulfstan. Of 
greater importance from a religious point of view 
is Alfred's translation of the Liber pastoralis cures 
of Pope Gregory I. (590-604), a book well adapted to 
influence the spirit of the Saxon clergy. A para- 
phrase of Bede's Historia ecdesiastica gentis An- 
glorum has been erroneously ascribed to Alfred; 
it may, however, have been prepared under his 
direction. Translations or paraphrases of the Dior 
logus of Gregory I. and of the '' Soliloquies ** of St. 
Augustine have also been ascribed to him. His 
millennary was celebrated at Winchester in 1901, 
and commemorative exercises were held in America 

Biblxgorapht: The Whole Worke of King Alfred, with pre- 
liminary essay, were published in a " Jubilee Edition,'' 
3 vols., Oxford, 1862-63. Separate editions are: Of the 
Orosius, text and LAtin original, ed. H. Sweet, London, 
1883; of the Boethius, text and modem English, ed. 
W. J. Sedgefi Id, Oxford. 1899-1000; of the Gregory, 
text and translation, ed. H. Sweet, London, 1871-72; of 
the Bede, text and translation, ed. T. Miller, ib. 1890- 
98, and J. Schipper. 3 parts, Leipsic, 1897-M; of the 
"Soliloquies " of St. Augustine, ed. H. L. Hargrove {Yak 
Studiee in Englieh, No. 13), New York, 1902. For Alfrwl's 
laws, consult Ancient Lawe and Inetitutee of England, ed. 
B. Thorpe, London, 1840. The chief sources for Alfred's 
life are: The De rtbue geetie JSlfredi of the Welsh 
bishop Asser, ed. W. H. Stevenson. Oxford, 1904; the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ed. B. Thorpe (Rolle Seriee, No. 
23), 1861. and C. Plummer. Oxford. 1892; translations of 
both Asser and the Chronicle by J. A. Giles in Bohn's 
Antiquarian Lt6rary. iv.; of Asser by A. S. Cook, Boston, 
1906. Of the many modem lives of Alfred the following 





mxy be meDtiooed — in Gertn^n: Ft. Faiili. Berlin, lS5i. 
Eng- truul., London^ 18S3. and J, B, Weiss, Fiviburff^ 
1853; in EncUah: T. Hiishp»* London » 1878; E. Cony- 
bfloro, lb. 1900; W; Bontint, Tkt Stary of Kine Aijtisd, ib. 
1001; C» Plummer, Q&mbridgf. 1902; and the Tolumo of 
trntiyv hy dJfFerent writers, ed. A. Bowker, London » 1899- 
Conault also LappenbefK, Otschichi* von England, vol. i., 
Hamburg, 1834» Ed^. tranel. by B. Thorpe^ ii., London, 
1845: W. Stubbs, ConttihitioTi^ Hittarv uf Enotand, v^L 
i.t Oxford, 1880; E, A. Fraemiui* Hittary of IA« Morman 
Cffn^^uue, vol 1., lb. 1880} A. Bowker. Thi King Alfrtd 
MHUnarVt London, 1902. 

ALFRIC, al'fric (^LFRIC) {AlfHtui OramTnali- 
cwt): Anglo-Saxon abbot. He waa a Bcholar 
and friend of Athelwold of Abingdon, afterward 
bishop of Winchester (c, 963 )» and was abbot of 
Ceme in I>oraetshire and of Ens ham (c, 1006). 
He has been identified^ probably with inaufScient 
reason r with Alfric^ archbishop of Canterbury 
(996-1006), and T^ith Alfric, archbishop of York 
(1023-51). He did much for the education of 
d^rgy and people, and hia name is second only to 
that of King Alfred as a writer of Anglo^axon 
prose. He was a strong opponent of the doctrine 
of transubfitantiation. His writings include a 
grammar with glossary, a collection of homilies, 
and a translation of the &rst seven books of the 
Old Testament. The jElfric Society was founded 
in London in 1S42 to publish bi$ works as well as 
others. For this society B. Thorpe edited two 
books of the homilies (2 vols., London, 1S44-46); 
the third book has been edited by W. Bkeat {jElfric's 
Lives of SaifU^, London, ISSl). The grammar 
may be found in the Sammlung englischer Denk- 
mMer, Berlin, 1880; the Hepialeuchus, in C. W, M. 
G rein J Bibliolhek der ang^dchsuchen Proaa, i. 
(Cassel, 1S72). 
BiBLiOQRAPST: DNB, i, 164-166; Ckmliae L. Wbtt«» Mifric 

{Y^ Sttidisa in £n^iiA. No. iij, Boston, 1898. 

Al^erus Schotasticuaf and Algems MagUier): Theo- 
logical writer of the twelfth century; d* at Cluny 
1131 or 1132. He enjoyed the instruction of the 
best teachers in the cathedral achool of Li^ge, 
which was then the great school of northwestern Ger- 
many ^ and a nursery of high-chtirch notions. Alger, 
afterward BckoloAticus at the cathedral, does not 
aeem to have been a champion of this tendency. 
After the death of Bishop Frederick, in 1121, he 
retired to the monastery of Cluny, where he lived 
on very friendly terms ^ith Abbot Peter. He is 
described as a man of great intellect, a wise coun» 
aelor, faithful in every respect, of wide learning, 
y^t modest and unassuming. The most noteworthy 
of his wri tinges are: (1) De »acrammiti$ corporis 
$t aanguinu donnni Itbri m,, which occupies a 
prominent place among the rejoinders to Beren- 
gar's doctrine of the Eucharist. The fiTsi book 
treats of the doctrine of the substantial presence of 
Christ in the Eucharist, aiming to prove it from 
Scripture and tradition; it then treats of the recep- 
tion of the sacrament, especially of worthy partic- 
ipation. The second book treats of different con- 
troversies respecting the matter, form, and efficacy 
of the sacraments. The third oppoaea especially 
those who make the legality and efficacy of the 
sacrament dependent on the worthiness of the dis- 
penser. The difficult questions are treated cl^rly 

and acutely; In the main Alger follows Guitmund 
of Aversa, but not without expansion of hia doc- 
trine in some points. He was the first to assert 
the two propositions that the human nature of 
Christ because of its exaltation above all creatures 
has the faculty of remaining where it pleases and 
existing at the same sime undivided in every other 
place and that the sensual quatiti^ of the elements 
exist after the trsnj^ubstantiation as occideniia 
per se, i.e„ without subject, (2) In the Traciatus 
de niisericordia tt justUia, important for the history 
of canon law and Church discipline, Alger attempts 
to explain and harroonbe the apparent contra- 
dictions between the different laws of the Church. 
Each proposition is given in a brief thesis or title, 
followed by numerous quotations from Scripture, 
the Fathers, councils, and genuine and spurious 
papal decretals as proofs; the authorities which 
seem to oppose each other, are put in juxtaposition; 
and a reconciliation is attempted, Hany patristic 
passages as well as many of the explanatory chapter- 
headings are copied from this work in the Decretum 
Graiiani. Alger, however^ was not the only pred- 
ecessor and pattern of Gratian, as the whole de- 
velopment of ecclesiastical and canonical science 
was in that direction. S. M. Deitibch. 

EisuooaAPiTTt Altt^** wQTltM ATfl In MPL^ ctxxi. Can- 
lult tbe Hiatoir^ lUUraire de la Frmna, xi. 1&8 aqq.; A. 
L. Richter* Beitragf rur Kenntnitt dcr QudUn de* kawiO- 
nxMcMn HecJUa, pp. 7-^17. Leipsic, 1834; H. Htlffer. Btitrii4fe 
Mur Gt*ch%chit der Quellen d€» Kirch^nrErMa, pp. 1-Cfl, MQn- 
Bter, 1862; Watloob*ch, DOQ, ii. (1894) 145, 613. 

tarian; b. at Freetown, Mass,, Dec. 30, 13^22; d, in 
Boston Feb. 7, 1005, He was a graduate of Harvard 
Divinity School, 1847, and held various pa^^t orates 
(Roxbury, Mass., 1848-&5; Boston, as successor 
of Theodora Parker, 1855-73), but after 1882 lived 
in Boston without charge. His b<^t-known books 
are The Poeiry of the Orient (Beaton, 1856, 5th ed., 
1883); The GeniuA of Sotiiade (1865, lOth ed., 1884); 
Friendships of W<m€n (1867, lOth ed., 1884), and 
particularly A Criiic^ HisUyry of the Dodrine of a 
Future Life (Philadelphia, 1863, I2th ed., Boston, 
1885), to which Eira Abbot furnished his famous 
bibliography of books on esehatology (see Abbot, 

ALGERIA. See Africa, II. 

ALLARD, ol'lor', PAUL: Layman, French Chris- 
tian areheologist; b. at Rouen Sept. 15, 184L He 
was educated at the Collc>ge Libre de Boi&-Guillaume 
(near Rouen) and at the Faculty de Droit of 
Paris, He was admitted to the bar, and for many 
years has been a judge in the civil court of his native 
city. He is a member of the Rouen Academy, ss 
well as of the Acad^mie de Relitfion CtUhotique and 
the Acad&m^ Pontificale d'Archiologief both of 
Rome. He is likewise a cor^'esponding member 
of the Sociiii des Ardiquaires de France j and the 
editor of the iEctn** de^ trodUions kisioriqiAes of 
Paris. His chief works are; Les Esdavet chrdiens 
depuis les premiers temps de VEglise jusqu^d fa fin 
de la dominaiion romaine en OccidtrU (Paris, 1876; 
crowned by the French Academy); L^4ri paien 
sou* les emperturs chrHiens (1879); Escl^veSf serfs 
et mainmartobtes (1884); Hisioire des persicuii&ns 




(4 vols., 1882-00); Lb ChriaUanitme «C Vempin 
Twnam de N&nm d Tkiodom (1807); SauU BagiU 
(1808); AudM d'hiaiain d d'arckioloffie (1808); 
JtiHan VApoBiat (3 vols., 1000-03; crowned by the 
French Academy); Let CkriHeiu d PineauHe de 
Rome tottf N&ran (1003); Let Pen^evHtnu ei la 
entique modeme (1003); and Dix Ufotu sur U 
martyre (1006). He has also made a transUtion, 
with additions and notes, of the Roma Sotterranea 
of Northoote and Brownlow under the title Rome 
Mouterraine (Paris, 1873). 

ALLATIUS, al-l^'shins or -shns, LEO (LEOHE 
ALACCI): Roman Catholic scholar; b. on the island 
of Chios 1586; d. in Rome Jan. 10, 1660. He was 
brought to (Calabria at the age of nine, and in 1600 
went to Rome, where he became one of the most 
distinguished pupils of the Greek College founded in 
1577 by Gregory XIII. He studied philosophy and 
theology, and later also medicine at the Sapienza, 
and became a teacher in the Greek College and a 
scriptor in the Vatican library. When Maximilian 
of Bavaria presented the Heidelberg library to the 
pope (1622), Allatius was chosen to superintend 
its removal to Rome, and he spent nearly a year 
in the woric. The death of Gregory XV. just before 
his return deprived him of a fitting reward; and 
he was even suspected of having iH>propriated or 
given away part of this charge. He was supported 
by the liberality of some of the cardinals, especially 
FVancesco Bait>erim, who made him his private 
librarian (1638). Alexander VII. appointed him 
keeper of the Vatican library in 1661, and he 
lived the retired life of a scholar until his death. 
Allatius's contemporaries regarded him as a prodigy 
of learning and (tiligence, though apparently some- 
what narrow and pedantic, and without much critical 
judgment. His literary productions were of the 
most varied kind. The interests which lay nearest 
to his heart were the demonstration that the Greek 
and Roman Chiutshes had always been in substan- 
tial agreement, and the bringing of his fellow 
countrymen to acknowledge the supremacy of 
Rome. His principal writings, the De ecdesia 
oeciderUalis ei orientalia perpetua consensione (Co- 
logne, 1648), and the smaller De tUriiuque eccUsus 
in dogmaU de purgatorio consensume (Rome, 1655), 
bear upon this subject; his Confuiatio fabulae 
de papissa (1630) aims to vindicate the papacy. 
He was vigorously opposed by Protestant schol- 
ars, such as Hottinger, Veiel, and Spanheim, 
and some Roman Catholics (as R. Simon) ad- 
mitted that his treatment of history was one- 
sided. He found an ardent helper in the German 
convert B. Neuhaus (Nihusius), the pupil and 
then the opponent of Calixtus. Allatius pub- 
lished many other works of a similar tendency, 
e.g., on the procession of the Holy Ghost (1658), 
the Athanasian Creed (1659), the Synod of Photius 
(1662), and the Council of Florence (1674). He 
also edited, annotated, or translated a niunber of 
Greek authors, both ecclesiastical and secular, and 
contributed to the Paris Corpus ByzarUinorum, 
He left behind him plans and preliminary studies 
for still more extensive undertakings, such as a 
complete library of all the Greek authors. His 
literary remains, and an extensive correspondence, 

comprising more than 1,000 letters in Grade and 

Latin, came in 1803 into the possession of the 

library of the Gratorians in Rome. (A. Haucx.) 

BuuooaAnrr: a Gnwiius. Vita Lmmu AUatU, 6nt pablMhed 

in Mai, tfot»a patrum biblioik^ea, tL. part 2. pp. v.-zxriiL. 

Rome. 1853; Fabricio»-llmiies. BibHotk^ea Ormem, id. 4S5 

sqq.; J. M. Sehr&ckh. Kirektnfftaekidkit amf <Ur RMfcrma- 

Hon, ix. 21. LeipMc. 1810; A. Theiner. Dm Sektnkuno dm' 

HwidOmomr BMiotktk ... mil QHgt— /■cAn/lgn. Mimieb. 

1844: H. Laemmer. Ih L. AUaiii eodieUm; FiviburE. 1864; 

H. Hurtor. Somendaior tiiawriua, ii. 110 sqq., Innabniek. 


OEBiB OR Hermenectigs, III., {{ 2-5. 

ALLEGRI, Ol-l^'gr!, GREGORIO: Italian com- 
poser; b. in Rome, of the family of the Gorreggios, 
most probably about 1585; d. there Feb. 18, 1652. 
He studied music under Nanini (16(X)-07), and after 
1629 belonged to the choir of the Sistine diapel. 
He was one of the first to compose for stringed 
instruments. His most celebrated work is a Af ise- 
rere for two choirs, one of five and the other of four 
voices, which, as given at Rome during Holy Week, 
acquired a great reputation. For a long time 
extraordinary efforts were made to prevent the pub- 
lication of the music; but Mozart at the age of 
fourteen was able to write it down from memory, 
and Dr. Charles Bumey (author of the History of 
Mueie) procured a copy from another source and 
published it in Lo mueica che si carUa annttalmente 
neUe ftmzioni delta eettimana santa, nella eappeUa 
pontificia (London, 1771). The effect of the Mise- 
rere as given in Rome seems to be due to the asso- 
ciations and execution rather than to any inherent 
quality in the music, as presentations of it else- 
where have proved distinctly disappointing. 
Bibuoorapht: F. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Letten from 

Italy and SwiUerland, irantl. by Lady Wallace , pp. 133- 

134. 168-191. Philadelphia. 1863. 

ALLEINE, al'en, JOSEPH: EngUsh non-con- 
formist; b. at Devizes (86 m. w. of London), Wilt- 
shire, 1634; d. at Taunton, Somersetshire, Nov. 17, 
1668. He was graduated at Oxford in 1653 and 
became chaplain to his college (Corpus Christi); 
in 1655 he became assistant minister at Taunton, 
whence he was ejected for non-conformity in 1662; 
he continued to preach and was twice imprisoned 
in consequence, and his later years were troubled 
by constant danger of airest. He was a learned 
man, associated as an equal with the fellows of the 
Royal Society, and engaged in scientific study and 
experimentation. He is now remembered, however, 
as the author oi An Alarm to Unconverted Sinners 
(London, 1672; repubUshed in 1675 imder the title 
A Sure Guide to Heaven). He published several 
other works, including an Explanation of the As- 
sembly's Shorter Catechism (1656). 
Bibuoorapht: G. Stanford, Companiona and Tim€9 of 
Jo»eph AUeine, London. 1861; DNB, i. 29(K300. 

ALLEINE, RICHARD: English non-conformist; 
b. at Ditcheat (18 m. s. by w. of Bath) 1611; d. at 
Frome Selwood (11 m. s. by e. of Bath) Dec. 22, 
1681. He was educated at Oxford and was rector 
of Batcombe (15 m. s. by w. of Bath) from 1641 
till ejected for non-conformity in 1662, when he 
removed to Frome Selwood, only a few miles 
away, and there preached. His fame rests on his 




VindicicB pietatis, or a vindieatum of godliness, in four 
parts, each with a different title (London, 1663-68). 

Archbishop of Aries and cardinal; b. of noble family 
at the casUe of Arbent (in the old district of Bugey, 
55 m. n.e. of Lyons), department of Ain, 1380 or 
1381; d. at Salon (28 m. w.n.w. of Marseilles), 
department of Bouches du Rh6ne, Sept. 16, 1450. 
While quite young he was made canon of Lyons; 
he became magisier and decretorum doctor and as 
such took part in the Council of Constance; in 1418 
he became bishop of Magelone, in 1423 archbishop 
of Aries, and in 1426 cardinal with the title of St. 
Cecilia. During the council at Basel, he became 
the center of the opposition against pope Eugenius 
IV., and when in 1438 the rupture occurred be- 
tween the council and the pope, Allemand was the 
only cardinal who remained at Basel and directed 
the transactions. Eugenius declared that Allemand 
and all who had taken part in the council had 
forfeited their dignities, but Allemand continued 
to work in favor of the council and in the interest 
of the election of Felix V. When, however, this 
antipope resigned (1449), and the Fathers of Basel 
submitted to Pope Nicholas V., Allemand also was 
restored. He died in the odor of sanctity, and was 
buried at Aries. Clement VII. beatified him in 
1527. Paul Tbchackert. 

Bxblzoorapht: ASB, Sept., y. 436 sqq.; G. J. Eggs, Pur- 
pura doeta, libri iii and iv., p. 50 sqq., Munich. 1714; 
D. M. Manni, DMa vUa e del cuUo del beato Lodovieo Ale- 
manni, Florence. 1771; KL, i. 473. 

Protestant Episcopalian; b. at Otis, Mass., May 4, 
1841. He was educated at Kenyon College, Gam- 
bier, O. (B.A., 1862), and Andover Theological 
Seniinary (1865), and was ordained priest in the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in 1865. He was the 
founder and first rector of St. John's Church, 
Lawrence, Mass., in 1865-67, and in the latter year 
was appointed professor of church history in the 
Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass., 
where he still remains. Since 1886 he has been a 
member of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 
His principal writings are: Continuity of Christian 
Thought (Boston, 1884); Life of Jonathan Edwards 
(1889); Religious Progress (1893; lecture delivered 
at Yale University); Christian Institutions (New 
York, 1897); and Life and Letters of PhiUips Brooks 

ALLEN, HENRY: Founder of the Allenites; 
b. at Newport, R. I., June 14, 1748; d. at North- 
hampton, N. H., Feb. 2, 1784. Without proper 
training he became a preacher, and while settled 
at Falmouth, Nova Scotia, about 1778, began to 
promulgate peculiar views in sermons and tracts. 
He held that all souls are emanations or parts of 
the one Great Spirit; that all were present in the 
Garden of Eden and took actual part in the fall; 
that the human body and the entire material world 
were only created after the fall and as a consequence 
of it; that in time all souls will be embodied, and 
when the original number have thus passed through 
a state of probation, all will receive eternal reward 
or punishment in their original unembodied state. 
He denied the resurrection of the body, and treated 

baptism, the Lord's Supper, and ordination as 
matters of indifference. He traveled throughout 
Nova Scotia and made many xealous converts. 
The number of these, however, dwindled away 
after his death. 

Bibliography: Hannah Adams, View of ReUgiona^ pp. 478- 
470. London, 1806. 

ALLEN, JOHN: 1. Archbishop of Dublm; b. 
1476; murdered at Artaine, near Dublin, July 27, 
1534, during the rebellion of Lord Thomas Fitz- 
gerald. He studied at both Oxford and Cambridge; 
was sent to Rome on ecclesiastical business by Arch- 
bishop Warham, and spent several years there; 
held various benefices in England, and became an 
adherent of Cardinal Wolsey and his agent in 
the spoliation of religious houses; was nominated 
archbishop of Dublin Aug., 1528 (consecrated Mar., 
1529), and a month later was niade chancellor of 
Ireluid. He was involved in Wolsey's fall, im- 
poverished by it, and lost the chancellorship. 
He was a learned canonist, and wrote an Epistola 
de paUii significaiione, when he received the pal- 
lium, and a treatise De consuetudinibus ac statutis 
in tutoriis causis obseroandis. He compiled two 
registers, the Liber niger and the Repertorium viride, 
which give valuable information regarding his dio- 
cese and the state of the churches. 

Bibuooraphy: Q. T. Stokei, Calendar of the " Liher niger 
Alanit'* in the Journal of the Royal Society of ATiiiguariee 
of Ireland, aer. 5. iU. (1803) 303-320. 

2. Dissenting layman; b. at Truro, Corn- 
wall, 1771; d. June 17, 1839, at Hackney, where 
for thirty years he kept a private school. His 
chief work was Modem Judaism: or a Brief 
Account of the Opinions , Traditions ^ Rites , and 
Ceremonies of the Jews in Modem Times (London, 
1816); he published also (1813) what was long the 
standard English translation of Calvin's Institutes 
of the Christian Religion. 

ALLEN, JOSEPH HENRY : American Unitarian ; 
b. at Northborough, Mass., Aug. 21, 1820; d. at 
Cambridge, Mass., Mar. 20, 1898. He was gradu- 
ated at Harvard in 1840, and at the Cambridge 
Divinity School in 1843, and became pastor at 
Jamaica Plain (Roxbury), Mass. (1843), Washing- 
ton, D. C. (1847), and Bangor, Me. (1850). In 
1857 he returned to Jamaica Plain, and thenceforth 
devoted himself to teaching and literary work, 
often supplying the pulpits of neighboring towns, 
and with brief pastorates at Ann Arbor, Mich. 
(1877-78), Ithaca, N. Y. (1883-84), and San Diego, 
Cal. After 1867 he lived in Cambridge and was 
lecturer on ecclesiastical history in Harvard Uni- 
versity, 1878-82. He was editor of The Christian 
Examiner (1857-69) and of The Unitarian Review 
(1887-91); with his brother, W. F. Allen, and J. B. 
Greenough he prepared the Allen and Greenough 
series of Latin text-books. He translated and 
edited an English edition of certain of the works 
of Renan {History of the People of Israel^ 5 vols., 
Boston, 1888-95; The Future of Science, 1891; 
The Life of Jesus, 1895; Antichrist, 1897; The 
Apostles, 1898); and published, among other works, 
Ten Discourses on Orthodoxy (Boston, 1849); He- 
brew Men and Times from the Patriarchs to the 
Messiah (1861); Our Liberal Movement in Theology, 




chiefy 05 ahown in rccolkcti^mA of the I^i&tory of 
UnUariani^rTi in New England (1SS2); Christian 
History in ils Three Great Fervjds{^ vols., 1S83-S3); 
Poaitive Religion (1892); Historwal Sketch of the 
UnHarian Movement tince the Refarmaiion {Amer- 
ican Church History Series, New York, IS94); 
Sequel to * Our Liberal Mo^^ement ' ( Boston » 1897)* 

ALLEN, WILLUM : 1. " The cardinal of Eng^ 
land; " b. at Rosaall (36 ni. n. of Liverpool), Lan- 
cashire, 1532 J d. at Rome Oct. 16, 1594. He 
entered Oriel College, Oxford, in 1547 (B,A. and 
feilow, 1550; M.A., 1554), and after the accession 
of Mary decided to devote himwlf to the C'hiirch. 
He became principal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, 
and proctor of the univcxaity in 1556, canon of York 
in 1558» His zeal for the Roman religion soon 
attract eti the notice of the authorities under Eliza- 
beth, and in 1561 he left Oxford for the University 
of Ijouvain* In 1562 he came home, much broken 
in health, and spent the next three years in England, 
constantly encourtiging the CathoUcs and making 
converts. He left his native land for good in 1565, 
was ordained priest at Mechlin ^ and lectured on 
theology in the Benedictine college there. He con- 
ceived the idea of a college for English fitndentfl on 
the Continent, and in 1568 opened the first and most 
famotus of such institntions, that at Douai (q.v.)- 
He continued to administer and serve the college till 
15S8, although in 1585 he had removed to Rome. 
Pope Sixtua V* raised him to the cardinalate in 
1587. Philip IL nominated him archbishop of 
Mechlin, 1589, but he wajs not preconized by the 
pope. Gregory XIV. made him prefect of the 
Vatican library. 

The great aim of Allen's life was to restore 
England to the Churcli of Rome. This aim he 
pursued persistently. Until his fiftieth year he 
contented himself with penruasive measures alone 
('^ scholastical attempts,-' in his own words), and 
met with no inconsiderable success. Had it not 
been for the missioners who were continually going 
into the country from his schools, probably the 
Roman Catholic religion w^ould have perished as 
completely in England as it did in Scandinavian 

About 15S2 Allen began to meditate force and to 
interfere in poUtics, He was closely associated with 
Robert Parsons (q.v.), Tias cognizant of the plots 
to depose Elizabeth, and became the head of the 
" Spanish party " in England. It wa.*5 at the 
request of Phihp 11, that he was appointed cardinal; 
and the intention was to make him papal legate, 
archbishop of Canterbury, and lord chancellor, 
and to entrust to turn the organization of the eccle- 
Biastiefll affairs of the country, if the proi>osed in- 
vasion of England should succeed. Just before 
the Armada sailed he indorsed, if he did not write, 
An Admonition to the Nohiliiy and People of Eng- 
land and Ireland cj^nceming the preeent wars, made 
for the executimi of hijs Holiness^s aenience^ by the 
King Catholic of Spain (printed at Antwerp), and 
an abridgment of the samef called A Decluralion 
of the Sentence of Depmition of Elizabeth, the Usurper 
and Pretenaed Queen of England ^ which was dis- 
seminated in the form of a broadside. Both pub* 
lic&tiona were violent and ecunilous, as well as 

treasonable from the English point of view, and 
roused great indignation in England, even among 
the Catholica, who, unlike Allen, very generally 
remained true to their country and sovereign, 
AUen's conduct, however, it should be borne in 
mind, was consistent with his belief in papal su- 
premacy and with his viewi concerning excom- 
munication and the right of the spiritual authorities 
to puniE^h. He is described as handsome and 
dii^nified in person, courteous in manner, and en- 
dowed with many attractive qualities. Stories 
concerning lus wealth and the princely style in 
which he lived in Rome are not true. 
BisMOCRAPnT : The mon impcjrt&ut qf b)!i msny wri'- 
tiags are: Certain Brief ReoKmM C^tK^minff Catholic Faith, 
Douai, I5B4: A Defence avd Dectaratictn of iha CathoHe 
Cfiurch'w Doctr\ne Touchittjg PurQatorf^ owi Prayer* for the 
Soul* Departed, Antwerp, 15G5; A Tr€€ttite A fade in De- 
fence of the Lawful Fow*r and Authority of Priesthood to 
Remit Hine, tjouvoinp 154}7; De eacrameniiu in trmcre, tie 
aOfTnTnenio euckuriatiitf de Macrificio mieei^t Antwerp, 1573; 
And A Brief Hietort/ of the Martj/rdom of Tuxtre Bev^rend 
Prif*(f, 1582. He helped m&ke the Eni^Ujob Bible Irem^- 
btJDQ known oa tbo Ektuai BibJa, nnd wiu* cme of the com- 
mJHSion of c&rdiim]* and mtIioIbj-h who cair^fted the ediUon 
(nee BiP[.t-; Vkrhjo^ch, B, IV., | 5, A, IL, 2, f 5]. At the 
titne, of hie death be wnM engaged upon fui edition tif 
Auji^ustlnc'ift work^H 

On hjH life consult: Firtt and Second EHarie* of 
the Bngtith College, Dttuay, Londoti, 1878; Letietit 
atid AfrmitriaU of WiUitim Catdinat AUen, 1S82 (oonsti- 
lilting with the ffirri^iu^ vols. i. and li. of RecordM of the 
Entftiah Catholia, edited hy fathers of the CktiocrQK&tioEi 
of the London Oratory)* The fiiahrical In^vduciionM to 
tbenB workfln by T* F. Knox, eive much vaiii&blo infonuA- 
tioD^ and hin life ( n l>atin) by Nii^hota^ Fitsherbort, pub- 
liahed DriginaJLy in De antujuitate et (xmtinuatione catho- 
lica reliffioni* in Anglia^ Rome, 1606, iA reprinted m the 
taAt-upjned^ pp. 3-20; J. Gillow, Diriionarp of English 
Catholict. i. li-24, London, ISSB: DNB, i, 314-322, ffive# 
excellent liat of noUfqea, 

2, American CongregationiUist ; b. at Pitts- 
field, Ma^., Jan. 2, 17S4; d. at Northhampton, 
Masts. f July 16, 1868. He was graduated at Har- 
vard in 1S02; w^as licensed to preach in 1804 
and soon after became assiBtant Ubrarian at Har- 
vard. He eucceeded his father as pastor at Pitts- 
field in 1S10» In 1817 he wa.*i chosen president of 
the reorganized Dartmouth College, but two years 
later the Supreme Court of the Unit^ States 
declared the reorganization invaUd. He was 
president of Bowdoin College, 1820^30. He wrote 
much and was an industnoua contributor to die* 
tionaries and encyclopedic works. His American 
Biographical and Hisiorieal Dictionary (Cambridge, 
1809, containing 700 names; 2d ed., Boeton, 1S32, 
l,i800 names; 3d ed., 1857, 7,000 names) was the 
firfit work of the kind published in America, 

ALLEY, WILLIAM : Bishop of Exeter; b, about 
1510 at Chipping Wycombe, Bucks, England; 
d. at Exeter Apr, 15, 1570, He was educated at 
Eton, Cambridge, and Oxford, ©spoused the cause 
of the Reformation, but kept in retirement during 
the reign of Mary, Eliiabeth made him divinity 
reader in St, Paul's, and in 1560 Bishop of Exeter. 
He revised the Book of Deuteronomy for the 
Bishops' Bible, and published an exposition of 
1 Peter, with notes which show wide reading (2 
vols., London, 1565). 



AU Souls* Dar 




A voluntary organization formed in London in 
1875, on the model of the Evangelical Allianoe, 
but confined to Churches of presbyterial polity 
and more churchly in the character of its repre- 
sentation. The official name is " Alliance of the 
Reformed Churches Holding the Presbyterian 
System" and popularly the Alliance is known 
as the " Presbyterian Alliance." The 
Origin* calling of the Council of Trent sug- 
gested to Cranmer a synod of Protes- 
tants to make a union creed, and in the spring of 
1552 he wrote to Melanchthon, Bullinger, and 
Calvin on the subject and received favorable 
responses but nothing came of it. Beza in 1561 
made a similar proposition, with as little results. 
So also in 1578 in the Scottish Second Book of 
DUcipline and in 1709 in the collection of Scottish 
church laws, place is given to the idea. But it 
was not till 1870, when President James McCosh 
of Princeton College, first, and Rev. Prof. William 
Garden Blaikie, of Eklinburgh, second, proposed 
that the different Presbyterian and Reformed 
Churches should get together in a conference, that 
tangible results followed. In 1873 the General 
Assembly of the Presbtyerian Church in Ireland 
and that of the Presbyterian Church of the United 
States simultaneously appointed committees to 
correspond with other Chm*ches on the subject. 
This led to the holding of a meeting in New York, 
Oct. 6, 1873, during the sessions of the Sixth Gen- 
eral Conference of the Evangelical Alliance, at 
which a committee was appointed to bring the 
matter before the Presbyterian Churches through- 
out the world and to obtain their concurrence 
and cooperation. This committee issued an address 
in which they distinctly stated that what was pro- 
posed was not that the Churches ** should merge 
their separate existence in one large organization; 
but that, retaining their self-government, they 
should meet with the other members of the Pres- 
byterian family to consult for the good of the 
Church at large, and for the glory of God." The 
proposal met with such general approval that in 
July, 1875, a conference was held at the English 
Presbyterian College in London. At this meeting, 
which lasted four days, and where nearly one 
hundred delegates, representing many Churches, at- 
tended, a constitution for the proposed Alliance was 
prepared, from which the following are extracts: — 

** 1. ThiB Allianoe shall be known as Thb Aujancb of the 
Reformed Churches throughout the world holding the 
Presbyterian stbtkii. 

** 2. Any Church oivaniied on Presbyterian principles, 
which holds the supreme authority of the Scriptures of the Old 
and New Testaments in matters of faith and morals, and whose 
creed is in harmony with the consensus of the Reformed 
Qkurohes, shall be eligible for admission into the Alliance." 

It was also proposed that there shoud be a 
triennial council of delegates, ministers and elders, 
in equal numbers, to be appointed by the different 
Churches in proportion to the number of their 
congregations; and that this council, while at 
liberty to consider all matters of common interest, 
should " not interfere with the existing creed or 
constitution of any Church in the Alliance, or 
with its internal order or external relations." 

The Alliance which was thus proposed was one, 

not of individual church members, but of Reformed 
and Presbyterian Churches as such. Its consti- 
tution met with great favor. It ^furnished an 
opportunity for the di£ferent church organizations 
to come into close fraternal relations with each 
other while retaining their separate existence and 
independence. Since its formation, the Alliance 
has held a General Council in each of 
Aims and the following cities, Edinburgh (1877), 
Achieve- Philadelplya (1881), Belfast (1884), 
ments. London (1888). Toronto (1892), Glas- 
gow (1896), Washington (1899), and 
Liverpool (1904), at all of which questions of 
doctrine, polity. Home and Foreign Missions, and 
other forms of Christian activity have been fully 
discussed, the papers read with the subsequent 
discussions being published in a volume of pro- 
ceedings. The Alliance is the rallying-point of 
the Reformed and Presbyterian Churches of the 
world, all of these with one or two exceptions 
having joined its fellowship. Its membership 
thus embraces not only the English-speaking 
Churches of Great Britain and America and the 
historic Churches of the European Continent, but also 
the Churches in the colonial and other territories of 
Great Britain, with the newly formed Churches 
which are the fruit of missionary labor among non- 
Christian peoples. Through the Alliance the special 
conditions of each Church have become better 
known to sister Churches than they had been pre- 
viously, and hence, not only by sympathy and 
oounse', but also by large financial aid, the Alliance 
has sought to assist the weaker communities. 

The General Councils of the Alliance are neither 
mass-meetings nor conferences open to al , but 
consist exclusively of delegates appointed by the 
several Churches; yet neither are they sjmods or 
church courts, for they have no legislative authority 
of any kind and can only submit to all the Churches 
or to such as may be specially interested, any con- 
clusions which they have reached. For adminis- 
trative purposes, the Alliance has divided its 
Executive Commission or Business Committee 
into an Eastern Section located in Great Britain, 
and a Western Section located in the United States, 
but working in harmony with each other by con- 
stant intercorrespondence. As representing about 
thirty millions of souls, holding a common system 
of doctrine and adhering to a common polity and 
whose voluntary contributions for church purposes 
were reported at the Liverpool Council in 1904 
as amounting in the previous year to consider- 
ably more than thirty-eight millions of dollars, the 
Alliance forms to-day one of the most closely 
united and influential organizations of Christendom. 

G. D. Mathews. 
Bibuoorapht: The Proceedings and Minvtee of each of the 
General Councils have been published — of the first by J. 
Thomson, of the second by J. B. Dales and R. M. Patterson, 
and of the third and succeeding by G. D. Mathews. Con- 
sult also the Quarterly Reouier of the Alliance, 1886 to date. 

Catholic; b. at Midsomer Norton (14 m. n.e. of 
Glastonbury), Somersetshire, Feb. 12, 1813; d. at 
St. John's Wood, London, June 17, 1903. He was 
first class in classics at Oxford, 1832. He took or- 
ders in the Anglican Church in 1838, serving for two 




AU 8oiiU>Day 

years as chaplain to the bmhop of London and for 
ten years as rector of Launton. In IS50 he was re* 
oeived into Che Roman Catholic Church by hiB 
frieiid, Cardinal, then Father, Newman. He wrote 
extensively on theological eubjecte, his principal 
works beingj St, Ptier, hw Xamc and Office (London, 
1852): The Forrfiaiion of Christendom (8 vols,, 1861- 
0&); Per crucem ad tucem (2 vols., 1879); A IAfe^9 
Decision (1880); Church and Slate (1882), a oon- 
tinuatioQ of The Fcrmation of Chriatendom ; and 
The Throne of the Fvihemian ( 1887). 

ALLIOLI, al"li-6ll, JOSEF FRAHZ: Roman 
Catholic; b. at Snlxbach, Austria, Aug. 10, 1793; d. 
at Augsburg May 22, 1873. He studied theology at 
Landsbut and Regensburg, and Oriental languages 
at Vienna^ Rome, and Faiij». In 1823 he became 
profeasor of Oriental languages and Biblical exe- 
gesis and archeology at Landshut, and went to 
Munich when the university was removed thither 
in 1826. In 1835, being compelled to give yp 
teaching through throat trouble, he beeame a 
member of the cathedral chapter at Munich and, 
in 1838, provost of the cathedral at Augsburg. 
He was active in charitable work and promoted 
the Franciscan Female Institute of the Star of 
Mary. The most noteworthy of hia numerous 
publications was Die heUige Schrift dea AUen und 
Neuen. TestarnenU aus d