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^ l 













(Associate Editors) 



(Department of Systematic Theology) 


{Department of Minor Denominations) 


(Department of Liturgies and Religious Orders) 


(Department of the Old Testament) 


(Department of the New Testament) 


(Department of Church History) 


(Department of Pronunciation and Typography) 

Complete in twelve IDolumes 



• *■ i- — 










(Associate Editor) 



(Department of Systematic Theology) 


(Department of Minor Denomination*) 


(Department of Liturgies and Religious Orders) 


(Department of the Old Testament ) 


{Department of the New Testament) 


(Department of Church History) 


(Department of Pronunciation and Typography) 








B 1MB t 



Registered at Stationers' Hall, London, England 

PrUUedin the United States of America 
PubUeked January, IBU 



(Editor-in-Chief. ) 
Professor of Church History, New York University. 


(Associate Editor.) 

New York, 

Formerly Professor of Biblical History and Lecturer on Comparative Religion, 

Bangor Theological Seminary. 




(Department of Systematic Theology.) 

Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological 



(Department of Minor Denomination*.) 

Secretary of Executive Committee of] the Western Section 
for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference. 


(Department of Liturgies and Religious Orders.) 
Rector of St. Gabriel's, New Rochelle, N. Y. 



(Department of the Old Testament.) 
Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, 



(Department of the New Testament.) 
Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New 
Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Maes. 


(Department of Church History.) 

.Professor of Church History. Southwestern Baptist 

Theological Seminary, Fort Worth, Tex. 


(Department of Pronunciation and Typography.) 
Managing Editor of the Standard Dictionary, etc., 

New York City. 



Mi s sion a r y in Bombay, India. 


Professor of Theology, University of Halle. 


Late Corresponding Secretary of the Prison Association, 

New York. 


Writer on Civil Church Law. 


Minister at Wick, Scotland. 



Professor of Systematic Theology, Chicago Theological 


GEORG BEER, Ph.D., Th.Lic, 

Extraordinary Professor of the Old Testament in the Evan- 
gelical Theological Faculty, University of Strasburg. 


Stated Clerk of the Synod of the Christian Reformed Church, 
Editor-in-Chief of The Banner, Grand Rapids, Mich. 


Professor of Church History, University of Konigsberg. 


GER, Ph.D., Th.Lic, 

and Vice-Consul for Holland in 


Pastor at St. Michael's, Hamburg. 


Author of Books on Missions, Washington, D. C. 


Writer on Missions. 


Member of Executive Committee of the American 
National Red Cross. 


Professor of Church History, University of Bonn. 



Professor of Church History, University of G6ttingen. 


Retired Pastor, Stuttgart. 



Reformed Minister and Chaplain at Buckeburg, Schaum- 


Late Professor of Church History, University of Breslau. 



Professor of Theological Encyclopedia and Symbolics, Union 
Theological Seminary, New York. 

Late Pastor at Rentham, Suffolk Co., England. 



BUDDEN8IEG (f), Ph.D., 

Late Director of the Teachers' Seminary in Dresden. 



Professor of Semitio Languages, University of Copenhagen. 

KARL BURGER (f), Th.D., 

Late Supreme Consistorial Councilor in Munich. 


Professor of Systematic Theology, Free Church College, 



Editor of St. Andrew* % Croat and General Secretary of the 
Brotherhood of St. Andrew, Boston. 


Writer on Psychical Research. 


Secretary of Executive Committee of the Western Section 
for the Fourth Ecumenical Methodist Conference. 

CASPARI, Ph.D., Th.D., 

University Preacher and Professor of Practical Theology, 
University of Erlangen. 


Pastor in Geneva. 

Consistorial Councilor, Hfeld, Germany. 

Late Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Delaware. 


Professor of Litunrics and Ecclesiastical Polity, Reformed 
Episcopal Theological Seminary, Philadelphia. 


Church Historian, New Brunswick, New Jersey. 


Professor of the History of Christianity, University of Am- 
sterdam, and Professor of Practical Theology, 
Mennonite Theological Seminary, Amsterdam. 


Professor of German Philology in the University of Cracow. 


Retired Consistorial Councilor, Berlin. 


Assistant Secretary of the Board of Education of the Pres- 
byterian Church in the United States. 


Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Macon, Georgia. 

JOHN D. DAVIS, D.D., LL.D., Ph.D., 

Professor of Oriental and Old Testament Literature, Prince- 
ton Theological Seminary. 


Church Inspector. Breslau. 

Late Congregational Clergyman and Author, Boston. 

Ph.D., Th.Lic, 

Archdeacon at Cross en , Germany. 


Professor of New-Testament Exegesis, University of Breslau. 


Head Preacher, N6rdlingen v Bavaria. 


Dean of Due West Female College, Due West, S. C. 


Professor of Practical Theology, University of Halle. 


Pastor of St. Gabriel's, New Rochells, N. Y. 

EMIL EGLI (f), Th.D., 
Late Professor of Church History, University of Zurich. 

ERDMANN (f), Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late Professor of Church History, University of Breslau. 


Professor in Trevecca College, Aberwystwyth, Wales 


(Professor of Theology in Augsburg Theological Seminary, 

Minneapolis, Minn. 


Professor of Church History, Strasburg. 


Professor of Law, University of Heidelberg. 


Professor of Systematic Theology, Cumberland Presbyterian 
Theological Seminary, Lebanon, Term. 


Late Professor of Dogmatics, Symbolics, and Christian 
Ethics, University of Vienna. 

Late Professor of Theology, University of Erlangen. 

Th.D., Dr.Jur., 

Professor of Ecclesiastical, Public, and German Law, 
University of Leipsic. 

Late Superintendent in Schleusingen, Prussian Saxony. 


Formerly Lecturer on Comparative Religion, Bangor Theo- 
logical Seminary, Associate Editor of The New 
Schaff-Herzoo Encyclopedia. 


Assistant Librarian, University of Bonn. 


Honorary Professor of Geography, Technical High School, 
and Professor at Military Academy, Munich. 


GOLTZ (f), Th.D., 
Late Professor of Dogmatics, University of Berlin. 


Professor of Reformed Church History and Liturgies, Cen- 
tral Theological Seminary, Dayton, Ohio. 



Author and Lecturer on Historical Subjects, Ithaca, N. Y. 


Pastor in Strasburg. 


Late Court Preacher in Stuttgart. 


Extraordinary Professor of Church History, University of 




Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock. 


Professor of Old-Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsic. 

HALL, D.D., LL.D., 

Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Vermont. 




Jur., M.D., 

General Director of the Royal library, Berlin. 

ALBERT HAUCK, Ph.D., Th.D., Dr. Jur., 

Professor of Church History, University of Leipsie, Editor- 
in-Chief of the Hauok-Hersog ReaUncyklopadie. 


Consistorial Councilor, Professor of New-Testament Theol- 
ogy and Exegesis, University of Greifswald. 


Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of New-Testament Exegesis, University of Leipeio. 

MAX HEINZE (f), Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late Professor of Philosophy, University of Leipsie. 


Ph.D., Th.Lic, 

Pastor at Betheln, Hanover. 


Dr. Jar., 
Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Marburg. 

Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late Professor of Reformed Theology, University of 



Lecturer in Biblical Literature, Teachers' College, 

New York City. 


Privat-dooent in New-Testament Exegesis, University of 



Professor at Berlin and Director for the Publication of the 
Monumenta Qermania Hittorica. 


Pastor of St. Nicolaikirche, Leipsie 


Pastor at Ahrensdorf , near Potsdam. 


Late Pastor in Bremen. 


Late Professor of Law, University of Konigsberg. 


Professor of Dogmatics, University of Halle. 


Consistorial Councilor, Professor of Practical Theology, and 
University Preacher, University f Breslau. 

OTTO KIRN, Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of Dogmatics, University of Leipsie. 

Professor of Old-Testament Exegesis, University of Leipsie. 

EARL RUDOLF KL08E (f), Th.D., 
Late Secretary of the Library, Hamburg. 


Dean of the Hartford School of Religious Pedagogy, 

Hartford, Conn. 


Late Professor of the Old Testament, University of Rostock. 

Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late Privy Councilor in Cannstadt, formerly Professor of 
Theology, University of Giessen. 


Prelate and Court Preacher, Ludwigsburg. 

KOLDE, Fh.D., Th.D., 

Professor of Church History, University of Erlangen. 


PhJX, Th.D., 
Professor of Church History, University of Giessen. 


Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of Systematic and Practical Theology, University 

of Greifswald. 


City Pastor, Leonberg, Wurttemberg. 

Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Heidelberg. 


Corresponding Secretary of the Prison Association and 

Secretary of the Finance Committee of the Charity 

Organisation Society, New York. 


Professor of Church History, University of Konigsberg. 

Late Studiendirektor, Munich. 


Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Strasburg. 


Professor of Church History, Evangelical Theological 
Faculty, University of Vienna. 


Professor of Church History, University of Halle. 


Clerk of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church 

in Ireland. 


Professor of Hebrew and Biblical Criticism, Theological, 
Hall of the Reformed Presbyterian Synod, Belfast. 


Pastor of Emmanuel Church, Boston, Mass. 

john Mcdonald, mjl, b.d., 

Clerk of the Reformed Presbyterian Synod in Scotland. 


General Secretary of the Presbyterian Alliance, London. 


Pastor of the Reformed Church, Leipsie 

OTTO MEJER (f), Ph.D., Th.D., 

Late President of the Consistory, Hanover. 


Supreme Consistorial Councilor, Hanover. 


Professor of Church History, University of Marburg. 


Professor of Systematic Theology and Church History in 
Original Secession Theological Hall, Glasgow, Scotland. 



Professor of Reformed Theology, University of Erlangen. 


Inspector of Schools, T<eipsio. 


Min iter of Glasgow Cathedral, Glasgow, Scotland. 


Professor of the Literature and Interpretation of the New 
Testament, Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass. 

Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor in the Theological Seminary, Maulbronn, 





Professor of Church History , Southwestern Baptist Theo- 
logieai Seminary, Fort Worth, Texas. 



Late Bishop of Aarhus, Denmark. 


Professor of Old-Testament Exegesis and History of Relig- 
ion, University of Basel. 


Pastor of St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran Church, Paris. 


Late Pastor in Hohenkirchen, Meoklenburg. 


Attorney, Marshall, Texas. 


Pastor at Hirschhorn-on-the-Neckar, Germany. 


Professor of Church History in Presbyterian Theological 
Seminary, Columbia, 8. C. 

Late Professor in Cologne. 


Pastor First Welsh Presbyterian Church, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 



Stated Clerk of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 

Church, U. S. A. 



Late Professor of History, University of Haarlem. 


Pastor at Birmensdorf and Lecturer at the University of 

Zurich, Switzerland. 


Honorary Professor of Philosophy, University of Bonn. 


Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Kiel. 


Head of the Deaconess Institute, Altona. 


Professor of Church History, Western Theological Seminary, 

Pittsburg, Pa. 


Late Professor of Church History, Union Theological Semi- 
nary, New York, and Editor of the Original Schajt- 
Herzog Encyclopedia. 


Professor of Theology, University of Giessen. 

Pastor in Oberholsheim, Wurttemberg. 



Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology, 
University of Greifswald. 



Professor of Systematic Theology, University of Rostock. 


Corresponding Secretary of Board of Ministerial Relief, 
United Presbyterian Church of North America. 

Professor of law, University of Berlin. 


Professor of Ecclesiastical and Commercial Law, University 

of Erlangen. 


Professor of Systematic Theology, Boston University. 


Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of {New-Testament Exegesis, University of Bonn. 


Professor of Systematic and Practical Theology in the 
Evangelical Theological Faculty, University of 



Clerk of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church 

in Canada. 


Editor of Olive T*ees, New York City. 


Professor of Egyptology, University of Leipsic. 



Glasgow, Scotland. 



Extraordinary Professor of Old-Testament Exegesis and 
Semitic Languages, University of Berlin. 


Professor of German and Ecclesiastical Law, University of 



Vineland, N. J. 


President of Western Reserve University and Adalbert 

College, Cleveland. 


Professor of Church History, University of Gottingen. 


Professor of Church History and Christian Archeology, 
University of Utrecht. 


Late Consistorial Councilor, Gottingen. 

FIELD, D.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Didactic and Polemic J Theology, Prinoeton 

Theological Seminary. 


Retired Public Schoolmaster, London. 

WIEGAND, Ph.D., Th.D., 

Professor of Church History, University of Greifswald. 


Late Pastor at Friedersdorf, Brandenburg, and Editor of the 
Evangcliache Kirchenzeitung. 


Retired Titular Professor in Dresden. 


Pastor, Third Reformed Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, 



Th.D., Litt.D., 

Professor of New-Testament Exegesis and Introduction, 

University of Eiiangen. 

OTTO ZOECKLER (f), Ph.D., ThJ>., 

Late Profrssor of Church History and Apologetics, Unite* 

sity of GreifswakL 


The following list of books is supplementary to the bibliographies given at the end of the articles 
contained in volumes I.-IX., and brings the literature down to November, 1910. In this list each title 
entry is printed in capital letters. It is to be noted that, throughout the work, in the articles as a 
rule only first editions are given. In the bibliographies the aim is to give either the best or the 
latest edition, and in case the book is published both in America and in some other country, the 
American place of issue is usually given the preference. 

Abbott, L.: Seeking after God, New York, 1910. 

Altar: A. Hartel, Attars and Pulpits; a Series of 
Examples of Ecclesiastical Work in the 
Gothic Style, taken mostly from the famous 
German Cathedrals and Churches of the 
Middle Ages, 3d ed., New York, 1910. 

Ammianus Makcellinus: Berum gestarum libri 
qui supersunt, ed. C. U. Clark, L. Traube, 
and G. Herseus, vol. 1, libri XIV.-XXV., 
Berlin, 1910. 

Apologetics: A. Kirchner. Die babylonische Kos- 
mogonie und der bibUsche Schdvfungsbericht. 
Bin Beitrag zur Apologie des bMischen 
Gottesbegriffes t Munster, 1910. 
A. R. Wells, Why toe believe the Bible; Outlines 
of Christian Evidences in Question and An- 
swer Form, Boston, 1910. 

Armenia: M. Ormanian, L'Eglise armenienne, son 
histoire, sa doctrine, son regime, sa discipline, 
sa liturgie, sa literature, son present, Paris, 

Athanasian Creed: T. N. Papaconstantinos, The 
Creed of Athanasius the Great, translated by 
H. C. J. Lingham, London, 1910. 

Atonement: J. B. Champion, The Living Atone- 
merit, Philadelphia, 1910. 

Avttub: H. Goelzer and A. Mey, Le Latin de Saint 
Avit eveque de Vienne US0-6B6), Paris, 1909. 

Babylonia: F. Delitssch, Handel und Wandel in 
Altbabyl&nien, Stuttgart, 1910. 
D. W. Myhrman, Sumerian Administrative 
Documents, dated in the Reigns of the Kings 
of the second Dynasty of Ur, from the Temple 
Archives of Nippur, preserved in Philadel- 
phia, Philadelphia, 1910. 

Bacheb, W.: L. Blau, Bibliographic der Schriften 
WUhelm Backers nebst einem hebraischen Sach- 
und Ortsnamen Register zu seinem sechsban- 
dtgen Agadwerke, Frankfort, 1910. 

Ballard, A.: From Text to Talk, Boston, 1910. 

Bamfton Lectures: W. Hobhouse, The Church 
and the World in Idea and in History, New 
York, 1910. 

Baptists: Seventh Day Baptists in Europe and 
America; a Series of Historical Papers writ- 
ten in Commemoration of the 100th Annir 
versary of the Organization of the Seventh 
Day Baptist General Conference, celebrated 
at Ashaway, Rhode Island, Aug. 20-26, 1902, 
2 vols., Plainfield, N. J., 1910. 

Barnes, W. E.: Lex in Corde: Studies in the 
Psalter, London, 1910. 

Baur, F. C: E. Schneider, F. C. Baur in seiner 
Bedeutunqfur die Theologie, Munich, 1909. , 

Beckbt, T.: W. H. Hatton, Thomas Becket, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, London, 1910. 

Beds: Lives of the First Five Abbots of Wearmouth 
and Yarrow, London, 1910. 

Bible Societies: A Popular Illustrated Report of 
the British and Foreign Bible Society, 1909-10, 
London, 1910. 

Benedict XIV.: Add to bibliography Heroic 
Virtue; a Portion of the Treatise of Benedict 
XIV. on the Beatification and Canonization 
of the Servants of God, 3 vols., London, 1850. 

Bible Text: A. B. Ehrlich, Randglossen zur hebra- 
ischen Bibel. Textkritisches, Sprachliches 
und Sachliches. Erater Band: Genesis und 
Exodus. Zweiter Band: Leviticus, Numeri, 
Deuteronomium, Leipsic, 1908-1909. 
H. H. Josten, Neue Studien zur Evangelien- 
handschrift. No. 18, Des heUigen Bernward 
Evangelienbuch im Domschatz zu Hildesheim, 
Strasburg, 1909. 
Agnes Smith Lewis, Old Syriac Gospels, or 

Evangelion Daynepharresht, London, 1910. 
H. F. von Soden, Die Schriften des Neuen Tes- 
taments in ihrer dltesten erreichbaren TexU 
gestalt hergestellt auf Grund ihrer Text- 
aeschichte, Berlin, 1905-10. 

Bible versions: W. J. Heaton, The Bible of the 
Reformation: its Translators and their Work, 
London, 1910. 
J. P. Hentz, History of the Lutheran version of 

the Bible, Dayton, O., 1910. 
S. McComb, The Making of the English Bible, 
London, 1910. 

Biblical Criticism: A. Duff, History of Old Testa- 
ment Criticism, New York, 1910. 
T. Engert, Das Alie Testament im Lichte modern- 
istisch-katholischer Wissenschaft, Munich, 

Biblical Introduction: A. C. Robinson, What 
about the Old Testament? Is it played out? 
London, 1910. 

Biblical Theology: E. von Dobschutz, The Es- 
chatology of the Gospels, London, 1910. 
P. Karge, Geschichte des Bundesgedankens im 

Alien Testament, Munster, 1910. 
A. F. Loisy: see below. 

C. G. Montefiore, Some Elements of the Religious 
Teaching of Jesus According to the Synoptic 
Gospels (Jowett Lectures, 1910), London, 


Biblical Theology: L. B. Paton, The Early Re- 
ligion of Israel, Boston, 1910. 

A. Schlatter, Die Theoloaie dee Neuen Testa- 
ments, vol. ii., Die Lehre der Apostel, Calw 
and Stuttgart, 1909-10. 

H. B. Swete, Studies in the Teachings of our 
Lord, London, 1910. 

Boniface: G. F. Browne, Boniface and his Com- 
panions, London, 1910. 

Brahmanism: The Parisistas of the Atharvaveda. 
Ed. G. M. Boiling and J. von Negelein, 
Leipsic, 1910. 
A. Roussel, La Religion vtdique, Paris, 1910. 

Buddhism: Alphabetical List of the Titles of Works 
in the Chinese Buddhist Tripitaka (Archeolog- 
ical Dept. of India). Being an Index to 
Bunyin Nanjio's Catalogue and the 1905 
Kioto Reprint of the Buddhist Canon. Pre- 
pared by E. Denison Ross, Bombay, 1910. 
H. Oldenburg, Aus dem alien Indien. 8 Auf- 
sdtze uber den Buddhismus, aU-indische Dichr 
tung und Geschichtschreibung, Berlin, 1910. 

Burma: A. Bunker, Sketches from the Karen Hills, 
New York, 1910. 
Shway Yor, The Burman, his Life and Notions, 
London, 1910. 

Canonization: Add to bibliography the work riven 
above under Benedict XlV. Also A. J3ou- 
dinhon, Les Proces de beatification et de canon- 
isation, Paris, 1908. 
T. F. Macken, The Canonization of Saints, 
Dublin, 1910. 

China: China and the Gostfel. An Illustrated Re- 
port of the China Inland Mission, London, 
E. Chavannes, Le T'ai Chan. Essai de mono- 
graphic d'un culte chinois. Appendice: Le 
Dieu du sol dans la chine antique, Paris, 1910. 

E. H. Parker, Studies in Chinese Religion, Lon- 
don, 1910. 

Church: W. Hobhouse, The Church and the World 
in Idea and History, London, 1910. 

F. I. Paradise, The Church and the Individual, 
New York, 1910. 

Church History: J. Felten, Neutestamentliche 
Zeitgeschichte oder Judentum und Heiden- 
tum zur Zeit ChrisH und der Apostel, 2 vols., 
Regensburg, 1910. 

F. X. Funk, A Manual of Church History, vol. 
ii., London, 1910. 

S. Lublinski, Der urchristliche Erdkreis und sein 
Mythos, vol. i., Die Entstehung des Christen- 
tums aus der antiken Kultur t Jena, 1910. 

Clement of Alexandria: J. Gabrielsson, Ueber 
die Quellen des Clemens Alexandrinus, vol. 
ii., Zur genaueren Prufung der Favorinus- 
hypothese, Leipsic, 1909. 

Cologne: W. Pelster, Stand und Herkunft der 
Bischbfe der Kblner Kirchenprovinz im 
MiUelalter, Weimar, 1909. 

Common Prayer, Book of: N. Dimock, The His- 
tory of the Book of Common Prayer in its 
Bearing on Present Eucharistic Controversies, 
London and New York, 1910. 

Comparative Religion: E. S. Ames, The Psy- 
chology of Religious Experience, Boston, 1910. 
A. S. Bishop, The World's Altar-Stairs in the 

Rdiaions of the World, London, 1910. 
C. C. Martindale, ed., Lectures on the History 

of Religions, St. Louis, 1910. 
R. M. Meyer, Altgermanische Religionsge- 
schichte, Leipsic, 1910. 

R. Quanter, Das Weib in den Religionen der 
Vdlker unter BerUcksichtigung der einzelnen 
Kulte. Mit vielen zeitgenossischen lUlus- 
trationen, Berlin. 1910. 
J. H. Randall and J. G. Smith, The Unity of 
Religions; a popular Discussion of ancient 
and modern Beliefs, New York, 1910. 
J. Schrimen, Essays en studien in vergelijkende 
Godsdienstgeschiedenis, Mythologie en Folk- 
lore, Venlao, 1910. 

Congregation alists: A. F. Beard, A Crusade of 
Brotherhood. History of the American Mis- 
sionary Association, Boston, 1909. 

Coptic Church: E. A. W. Budge, Coptic Homilies 
in the Dialect of Upper Egypt, ed. from the 
Papyrus Codex Oriental 5001, in the British 
Museum, London, 1910. 

Councils and Synods: F. Schulthess, Die syri- 
schen Kanones der Synoden von Niccea bis 
Chalcedon nebst einigen zugehorigen Doku- 
menten, Berlin, 1908. 

Crusades: W. S. Dun-ant, Cross and Dagger: the 
Crusade of the Children, London, 1910. 

Curia: F. Russo, La curia romana nella sua or- 
ganizzione e nel suo completo funzionamento 
a datare dal 8 novembre, 1908, Palermo, 1910. 

Dawson, W. J.: The Divine Challenge, New York 
and London, 1910. 

Deissmann, A. : Light from the Ancient East. The 
New Testament. Translation by L. R. M. 
Strachan, London, 1910. 

Doctrine, History of: P. Tschackert, Die Ent- 
stehung der lutherischen und der reforrnierten 
Kirchenlehre samst ihren inneren protestanti- 
schen Gegensdtzen, Gdttingen, 1910. 

Dogma, Dogmatics: G. R. Montgomery, The Un- 
explored Self; an Introductory to Christian 
Doctrine for Teachers and Students, New 
York, 1910. 

Egypt: W. M. F. Petrie, Arts and Crafts of Ancient 
Egypt, Chicago, 1910. 
P. Virey, La Keligion de VAncienne Egypte, 
Paris, 1910. 

Egyptian Exploration Fund: Thirtieth Memoir. 
The XI. Dynasty Temple at Deir-el Bahiri, 
Part 2 by E. Naville, London, 1910. 

England, Church of: C. S. Carter, The English 
Church in the Eighteenth Century, London and 
New York 1910. 
F. W. Cornish, The English Church in the 19th 

Century, 2 parts, London, 1910. 
F. A. Hibbert, The Dissolution of the Monas- 
teries, as Illustrated by the Suppression of 
the Religious Houses of Staffordshire, Lon- 
don, 1910. 
E. Stock, The English Church in the Nineteenth 
Century, London and New York, 1910. 

Epiklesis: P. M. Chaine, La Consecration et Vepir 
clese dans le missal fthiopien, Rome, 1910. 

Episcopate: R. E. Thompson, The Historic Epis- 
copate, Philadelphia, 1910. 

Erasmus: A. Meyer, 6tude critique sur les rela- 
tions oVErasme et de Luther, Paris, 1909. 

Eschatology: See above, Biblical Theology. 
Ethics: T. C. Hall, History of Ethics within Or- 
ganized Christianity, New York, 1910. 

Eudes, J.: M. Russell, The TAfe of Blessed John 
Eudes, London, 1910. 

Ezra and Nehemiah: G. Klamath, Ezras Leben 
und Wirken, Vienna, 1908. 
J. Heis, Geschichtlicke und literarkriiische 
Fragen in Esra 1-6, Munster, 1909. 



France: R. P. Lecanuet, Vtgiise de France sous 

la troisieme republique. Pontifical de Lean 

XIII. {1878-1903), Paris, 1910. 
Galilee: A. Reach, Das GalUda bei Jerusalem. 

Bine biblische Studie, Leipaic, 1010. 
Galileo: E. Wohlwill, Galilei und sein Kampffur 

die copernicanische Lehre, Hamburg, 1909. 
Gnosticism: W. Schultz, Dokumente der Gnosis, 

Jena, 1910. 
God: J. A. Hall, The Nature of God, Philadelphia, 

Gospel: F. C. Burkitt, The Earliest Sources for the 

Life of Jesus, Boston, 1910. 

F. K. Feigel, Der Einschluss des Weissagungs- 
beweises und anderer Motive auf die Leidens- 
geschichte. Ein Beitrag zur Evangelienkritik, 
Tubingen, 1910. 

W. M. F. Petrie, The Growth of the Gospels as 

shown by Scriptural Criticism, London, 1910. 
Gunkel, H. : Genesis, 3d ed., Gottingen, 1910. 
Hagenbach, K. R.: Ihr Brief wechsel aus den 

Jahren 1841 bis 1851, Basel, 1910. 
Hall, T. C. : See above, Ethics. 
Hannington, J.: C. D. Michael, James Hanning- 

ton, Bishop and Martyr, London, 1910. 
Harmonies: A. R. Whitham, The Life of Our 

Blessed Lord. From the Revised Version of 

the Four Gospels. The Bible Text only. 

London, 1910. 
Hebrews: F. Dibelius, Der Verfasser des Hebraer- 

briefes. Eine Untersuchung zur Geschichte 

des Urchristentums, Strasburg, 1910. 
Hellenism: P. Hauser, Les Grecs et les Semites dans 

Vhistoire de VhumaniU, Paris, 1910. 
Hellenistic Greek: G. Million, Selections from 

the Greek Papyri, ed. with Transl. and Notes, 

London, 1910. 

Hexateuch: See above, Gunkel. 

G. Hoberg, Die Genesis nach dem Literalsinn 
erkldrt, Freiburg, 1908. 

Leviticus and Numbers. Introduction; in the 
Century Bible, ed. A. R. S. Kennedy, Lon- 
don, 1910. 
HmTTEs: J. Garstang, The Land of the Hittites; 
an Account of the recent Explorations and 
Discoveries in Asia Minor; introduction by 

A. H. Sayce, New York, 1910. 
Holland, H. S.: Fibres of Faith, London, 1910. 
Holt Spirit: R. A. Torrey, The Person and Work 

of the Holy Spirit, London, 1910. 
Huss, J.: E. J. Kitts, Pope John the Twenty-third, 

and Master John Hus of Bohemia, London, 

Htmnologt: J. Duncan, Popular Hymns, their 

Authors and Teaching, London, 1910. 
Idealism: E. W. Lyman, Theology and Human 

Problems; a comparative Study of absolute 

Idealism and Pragmatism as Interpreters of 

Religion, New York, 1910. 
Immortality: S. H. Mellone, The Immortal Hope. 

Present Aspects of the Problem of Immor- 

tality, London, 1910. 
J. Paterson Smyth, The Gospel of the Hereafter, 

New York and Chicago, 1910. 
Indians of North America: David Zeisberaer f s 

History of Northern American Indians; ed. A. 

B. Hulbert and W. N. Schwarze, Columbus, 

Inspiration: W. J. Colville, Ancient Mysteries and 
Modern Revelations, New York, 1910. 

Ingram, A. F. W.: The Mysteries of God, London, 

Isaiah: M. G. Glazebrook, Studies in the Book of 
Isaiah, London, 1910. 
G. C. Morgan, The Prophecy of Isaiah, 2 vols., 
London, 1910. 

Israel, History of: A. Bertholet, Das Ends dee 
judischen Staatswesens, Tubingen, 1910. 

I. Blum, The Jews of Baltimore; an historical 
Summary of their Progress and Status as 
Citizens of Baltimore from early Days to the 
Year nineteen hundred and ten, Baltimore, 

L. Lucas, Zur Geschichte der Juden im vierten 
Jahrhunderts, Berlin, 1910. 

S. Oppenheim, The Early History of the Jews 
in New York, 1654-1664, New York, 1910. 

Jainism: Manak Chand Jaini, Life of Mahavira, 
London, 1910. 

Jefferson, C. E.: The Building of the Church, 
New York, 1910. 

Jerome : The First Part of the Epistles, ed. I. Hilberg, 
in CSEL, vol. liv., Vienna, 1910. 

Jerusalem, Anglican-German Bishopric in: Add 
to the bibliography: The Jerusalem Bishop- 
ric: Documents, with Translations relating 
thereto, published by Command of H. M. 
Frederick William TV., of Prussia, London, 

Jesus Christ: P. T. Forsyth, The Work of Christ, 

London, 1910. 
F. X. Steinmeyer, Die Geschichte der Geburt und 

Kindheit Christi und ihr VerhQltnis zur 

babylonischen Mythe, Monster, 1910. 
J. Weiss, Jesus von Nazareth Mythus oder 

Geschichte? Tubingen, 1910. 

John the Apostle: G. S. Barrett, The First 
Epistle General of St. John. A Devotional 
Commentary, London, 1910. 
Westminster New Testament. The Revela- 
tion and the Johannine Epistles. Introduc- 
tion and Notes by Rev. A. Ramsay, London, 
M. Seisenberger, Erkldrung des Johannesevan- 
geliums, Regensburg, 1910. 

John of Ephesus: Extracts from the Ecclesiastical 
History, ed. with grammatical, historical and 
geographical Notes by J. P. Margoliouth, 
Leyden, 1910. 

John XXIII.: See Huss, John, above. 

Kempis, Thomas a: Concordance to the Latin Orig- 
inal of the Four Books known as De Imita- 
tione Christi, Given to the World A.D. 1441 
by Thomas a Kempis. Comp. by R. Storr, 
London, 1910. 

Kierkegaard, S. A.: R. Hoffmann, Kierkegaard 
und die religidse Gewissheit, Gottingen, 1910. 

Locke, J.: E. Crous, Die religions-phUosophischen 
Lehren Lockes und ihre SteUung zu dem 
Deismus seiner Zeit, Halle, 1910. 

Loisy, A. F. : The Religion of Israel, London, 1910. 

Loisy, M.: M. Lepin, Les Theories de M. Loisy, 
Paris, 1908. 

McFadyen, J. E.: The Way of Prayer, Boston, 1910. 

McGiffert, A. C: History of Christian Thought 
from the Reformation to Kant, London, 1910. 

Manicheans: Chuastuanit, das Bussgebet der Mani- 
chder, ed. with German Transl. W. Radloff, 
Leipsic, 1910. 

Mathews, S.: A History of New Testament Times 
in Palestine, 176 B.C.-70 A J)., 2d ed., New 
York, 1910. 



Methodists: A. Leger, L'Angleterre religeuse et Us 
origines du rrUthodisme au xviii. siede. La 
Jeunesse de Wesley, Paris, 1910. 

W. Piatt Methodism and the Republic; a View 
of the Home Field, present Conditions, Needs, 
and Possibilities, Philadelphia, 1910. 

W. J. Townsend, H. B. Workman, and O. 
Eayres, A New History of Methodism, 2 vols., 
London, 1909. 

Miracles: J. Wendland, Der Wunderglaube im 
Christentum, Gottingen, 1910. 

Missions: W. H. J. Gairdner, Edinburgh 1 1910. An 
Account and Interpretation of the World Mis- 
sionary Conference, London, 1910. 

H. C. Lees, St. Paul and his Converts, a Series 
of Studies in Typical New Testament Mis- 
sion, London, 1910. 

J. J. MacDonald, The Redeemer* s Reiqn. For- 
eign Missions and the Second Advent, ed. 
G. Smith, London, 1910. 

Winifred Heston, A Blue Stocking in India, 
London, 1910 (on medical missionary work). 

W. E. Strong, The Story of the American Board; 
an Account of the first hundred Years of the 
American Board of Commissioners for For- 
eign Missions, Boston, 1910. 

Modernism: R. de Bary, Franciscan Days of 
Vigil: a Narrative of personal Views and 
Developments, New York, 1910. 
D. Mercier (Cardinal), Modernism, London, 

Mohammed, Mohammedanism: C. Field, Mystics 
and Saints of Islam. London. 1910. 

M. T. Houtsma and A. Schaade, EmyJdoptidie 
des Islam, Leyden and Leipsic, 1910. 

The Encyclopedia of Islam, part v., London, 

Zeitschrift far Oeschichte und Kultur des 
islamxschen Orients, ed. C. H. Becker, be- 
gun in Stra8burg, 1910. 

Morgan, G. C: The Study and Teaching of the 
English Bible, London, 1910. 

Mormons: S. W. Traum, Mormonism against it- 
self, Cincinnati, 1910. 

Moulton, W. F. and Whitley, W. T.: Studies in 
Modern Christendom — A Series of Lectures 
Delivered in Connexion with the Liverpool 
Board of Biblical Studies, Lent term, 1909, 
London, 1910. 

Mysticism: E. Lehmann, Mysticism in Heathen- 
dom and Christendom, London, 1910. 
The Call of Self-knowledge: seven early Enalish 
mystical Treatises printed by H. Pepwell in 
1521 ; ed. with an Introd. and Notes by E. O. 
Gardner, New York, 1910. 
A. Poulain, Die Fiille der Gnaden. Ein Hand- 
buch der Mystik, 2 parts, Freiburg, 1910. 

Mythology: P. Ehrenreich, Die aUgemeine Myth- 
olofie und ihre ethnologischen Grundlagen, 
Leipsic, 1910. 
J. E. Hanauer, Folkrtore of the Holy Land, 
Moslem, Christian, and Jewish, ed. M. Pick- 
thalL London. 1910. 

Naville, E.: See Egyptian Exploration Fund. 

Neoplatonism: K. S. Guthrie, The Philosophy of 
Plotinus; his Life, Times, and Philosophy 
(bound with this: Selections from Plotinus* 
Enneads), Philadelphia, 1910. 

Nestorians: Histoire Nestorienne (Chronique de 
Seert). Part I. Texts Arabe, ed. Addai 
Scher, traduit par P. Dib, Paris, 1910. 

Nestorius: L. Fendt, Die Christologie des Nesto- 
rius, Kempten, 1910. 

New Thought: Ella Wheeler Wilcox, New Thought 
Common Sense and What Life Means to Me, 
London, 1910. 

Nicholas I.: A. Greinacher, Die Anschauungen des 
Papstes Nikolaus I. uber das VerhSltnis von 
Stoat und Kirche, Berlin, 1909. 

Nietzsche, F.: H. Belart, Friedrich Nietzsches 
Leben, Berlin, 1910. 
J. M. ^Kennedy, The Quintessence of Nietzsche, 

New York, 1910. 
A. M. Ludovici, Nietzsche: his Life and Works, 
London, 1910. 

Papyrus and Papyri: G. A. Deissmann, Light 
from the Ancient East: the New Testament 
and the new and recently discovered Manu- 
scripts of the Graco-Roman World, New 
York, 1910. 

Passover: C. Howard, The Passover: an Interpre- 
tation, New York, 1910. 

Pastoral Theology: C. Durand Pallot, La Cure 
(fame moderne et ses bases religieuses et scien- 
tifiques, Paris, 1910. 

Paton, L. B.: See above, Biblical Theology. 

Paul the Apostle: H. Lietzmann, Die Brief e des 
Apostels Paulus. I., Die vier Haup&riefe, 
Tubingen, 1910. 
J. Strachan, The Captivity and Pastoral Epis- 
tles, New York and Chicago, 1910. 
A. L. Williams, Epistle to the Galatians, Lon- 
don, 1910. 
H. L. Yorke, The Law of the Spirit. Studies 
in the Epistle to the PhUippians, London, 1910. 

Philo: L. Conn, Die Werke Philos von Alexandria 
in deutscher Uebersetzung, Breslau, 1909. 

Polity: A. J. McLean, The Ancient Church Orders, 
London, 1910. 

Pragmatism: See above, Idealism. 

Pseudepigrapha: W. N. Stearns, ed., Fragments 
from Groxo-Jewish Writers, Chicago, 1908. 
E. Fisserant, Ascension d'Isaie, Paris, 1909. 
L. Gry, Les Paraboles d' Henoch et leur Messian- 
isme, Paris, 1910. 

Resch: See above, Galilee. 


»». f. .>»i 


Choky, J. E.: Became professor of church history 

in the University of Geneva, 1910. 
Dowden, J.: d. at Edinburgh Jan. 30, 1910. 
Eddy, M. B. G.: d. at Newton, Mass., Dec. 3, 1910. 
Faulhaber, M.: Made bishop of Speyer, 1910. 
Flint, R.: d. at Edinburgh Nov. 25, 1910. 
Friedberg, E.: d. at Leipsic Sept. 7, 1910. 
Giesebrecht, F.: d. at Stettin Aug. 21, 1910. 

Hoennicke, G.: Became extraordinary professor 
of the New Testament at Breslau, 1910. 

Hoyt, W.: d. at Salem, Mass., Sept. 27, 1910. 

Ince, W. : d. at Oxford Nov. 13, 1910. 

Juncker, A.: Became prof essor of the New Testa- 
ment in KGnigsberg, 1910. 

Maclagan, W. D.: d. at London Sept. 19, 1910. 




VoL L, p. 26, ool. 2: Insert " Acbb. See Phenicia, 

"T ft 1 »» 

, D.ZO, 

Vol. L 9 p. 413, ool. 1: Insert " Bacchus: Martyr 
of the fourth century. See Sergius and 

VoL ii., p. 31, col. 1 : Insert " Beirut. See Phe- 
nicia, I., | 6." 

Vol. ii., p. 256, col. 2, line 21: Read " Beach " for 

., p. zoo, © 

Vol. iii., p. 58, ool. 2, line 19: Read " Paine " for 


Vol. iii., p. 279, col. 1 : Insert " Coudrin, Pierre 
Marie Joseph. See Picpus, Congrega- 

tion of. 


Vol. iv., p. 46, col. 2. line 11 from bottom: Read 

" Polycrates of Ephesus " for " Polycarp of 

Smyrna " (important). 
Vol. iv., p. 192, col. 2, line 20: Read " ideals " for 

" Sola." 
Vol. v., p. 136, ool. 2, line 28: Read " prologue " for 

Vol. v., p. 186, col. 2, line 10 from bottom: Read 

" next " for " text." 
Vol. v., p. 235, col. 2, line 14 from bottom: Read 

lxxi. for " lxvii.", and line 13 from bottom, 

read " bnrii.," for " lxvii." 

Vol. v., p. 322, ool. 2, line 23: Read " Hansen " for 

Vol. v., p. 336, col. 2: Insert " Holyoake, George 
James. See Secularism." 

Vol. v., p. 412, col. 2, line 11: Read " i." for " xi." 

Vol. viii.,p. 85, col. 2, line 17 from bottom: Read 
11 Thomson " for " Thomas." 

Vol. viii., p. 151, col. 2, line 21 : Read " at St. Johns, 
was erected into a diocese in 1847, and into 
an archdiocese and metropolitan see in 1904." 

Vol. viii., p. 231, col. 2, line 9: Omit " Canadian." 

Vol. viii., p. 272, col. 2, line 3: Read " new " for 
" later." 

Vol. viii., p. 300, col. 2, line 6 from bottom: Read 
" Ricker " for " Rieker." 

Vol. viii., p. 358, col. 1, line 13 from bottom: Read 
11 Clerum " for " larum." 

Vol. viii., p. 393, col. 1, line 3 from bottom: Read 
" 81 " for " 72 "; bottom line, read " Stu- 
art " for " Stewart "; col. 2, line 2, read 
11 1884 " for " 1881." 

Vol. viii., p. 426, col. 2, line 23 from bottom: Re- 
move " the distinguished lexicographer." 

Vol. viii., p. 466, col. 1, lines 4-6: Omit all after 
" 18/9 sqq.)." 

Vol. viii., p. 489, col. 2, line 17 from bottom: Re- 
move t &om signature. 


Abbreviations in common use or self-evident are not included here. For additional Information con- 
cerning the works listed, we vol L, pp. vliL-xx., and the appropriate articles in the body of the work. 

ajp. . . 


jAOoemeine deut „. 

1 1875 no., vol. S3 1907 
. . advertu*. acainet " 

I Jwm) of PkHoloov, Balti- 

j Archill fUr katkolitcke* Kirchenrecht, 
 1 Innsbruck, 18*7-01. Maine. 1873 aqq. 
iA'chic far Littmtur- unci Kircheruje- 
i •chichi* da MiUelalUr*. Freiburg. 1885 


inwiHona Father*, Amsricu edi 
by A. Cleveland Coze, 8 vols, ud 
din, Buffalo. 1887: vol. ix., ed. A 
Meniias, New York. 1897 

SK".:::::::::lS33fta3? ,,M 

Arab Arabic 

ASB. . . 
4.SJ/ .. 


— n. ed. J. Holland and others, 

Antwerp, IMS ™. 
Acta eowtarum nijftjl S. Bensdidi. od. 

J. Mabillon, 9 vols., Paris, 1068-1701 



Bower, Popes . . 

. ! Authorised Version (of the English Bible) 

iJ. M. Baldwin. Dictionary of Philoeophi, 

I O. Bardenhewer, QemchidUt der aUkirek- 

1 UckenLiaeratur, 2 vols. .Freiburg, 1902 
J O. Berdeohewer, Patralogi*. 2d ed., Frei- 
1 bare. 1901 

{TV Diclionaiy Historical and Critical of 
Mr. Fttrr BayU, 2d ed.. 5 vols., London, 
1 I Bmibmr, Htbraitche Arshaologi*. 2d 
1 ed.. Freiburg. 1907 
J. Biugbaio. Origin** *cd**ia*tict*, 10 
vole., London, 1708-23; new ed., Ox- 
ford, ISSS 
M. Bouquet, Recueil ass kittorim* da 
Gaul** *t d* la Front*, continued by 
various handi. 23 vow.. Pari.. 1738-78 
Archibald Bower. History of Ik* Pop** 
... to J7«S, continued by 8. H. Cn, 
3 voli.. Philadelphia. 1845-47 

1867 -.,.| 

Cut! '.'.'.'.'.'..'.'.'.. Canticles, Book of Solo 

Situ. aJ^(KOSB*w, aSmtrt a\ 
i*uii«. Aunwt, ^{..Mli****, 10 t 
•"**"- f 1868-69 

ICorpue intcriptionum Orwcan tm , Berlin, 
1825 enq. 
Corpus irucriprkmuni Lafltiarum, Berlin, 
1803 aqq. 

ad T»™J 

Epistle to th< 
column, colin 
Conftuion**, ,. 

ICot. . Firat Epiatle to the Corinthian* 

D Oor Second Epistle to the Corinthians 

COT SaaSebnder 

COR. i "■• Church Quarterly Review, London, 

w t 187Saqq, 

ngs, Dirrionorv I 

, begun at Halle, 
. Berlin and Leipsio, 

. Craighton, A History of the Papacy 
from the Gnat Schien Id IK* Sack of 
Rome, new ed.. Tola., Mew York and 


lUa, 1M67 sqq. 

.'j.p.'i h,:t..r\.i- Bitiantina; 4Q 
l/ietory of RrHaiou* Order*. 

of Iht Bible. 

Edinburgh ai 

h'.« i<mm 

.1 s niwtiisTii, rh.-n,.,.,, 

.1 «ti<r< <''?*■ 2 vols., Loodc 

li. :■■'. ''■■■'w. ■-,-.,, 

L. Stephen and 8, Lee. Dictionary of 
National Biography, S3 volt, and 
Bupplement 3 ml-. I.r,n..lnn. l*S,",-l«iJI 

S. R. Driver. Intrtviurli-n la Ihr Uternturr 
of the Old Testament, 10th ed.. New 
York. 1910 


T. K. Cbeyrie and J. S. Black. Bneydo- 
padiil fiiOliro. 4 vols., London and 
New York 1899-1903 

Ecd**ia. " Church "; ecetesiaififbs, " co- 

. ciitir.ii; olUil.  fAU.-.i 
O.ri.-d,- (.. rt„. K,,!,,. „.■„,. 
'-■— 'a, EpUtata . •■"- = 

Eph . . 

Epi*i KpieM.i. !■: :,;•/,. :■■.  Ki.i-u.',"" Kpi-n.^  

Erach and Orn- ( J. H. Krwli and J. G. Urulwr, .Ilia™,,* 
bar, Encuhlo-] /■. , n,-:yW..p*/i> .i»r II'iihudWiii und 
pfldia ( liu.i.1,'. Leipiie, 1818 wiq. 

E. V . Knsjliah versions (of the Bible) 

Ex Eiodua 

Eaek Eaekiel 


Gee and Hardy, 

Gibbon, fieoli* 

j J. Friedrioh, Kirchengeechichle OeuUrn- 
i iawtt. 2 vols.. Bamberg, 1867-69 
Epiatle to the GaJatians 

)P. B. Gams, Serie* epiacoporum eccieeia 
Caiholica. Retrennburg. 1873, ami su[.- 
plemrnl. 1886 
, I H. Gee and W. J. Hardy, Dociimente 
'•i /UusfrahM of EnalUh Church Hi,lory, 
 |_ London, 1896 

Mnaitche OtiehrU Anatuan, OOttinnn, 
1824 aqq. 

Sibboo, W, 
and roll 

Grosa, Source*. . 

181. _,. 

E. Gibbon. Hillary of Ik* Dtdin. _.._ 
Fall of the Soman Empire, od. J. B. 
Bury, 7 voli. London, 1890-1900 


" Grose, The Source* and Literature of 
Ungiith ff'-*— " '--'-- 


Hislorv . 

. to H8S, I 

Stubba, Ccwi-l 


 to petristio works on heresies 
— etioa, TsrtulUan'i Dt prmtcriptic 
tbe Pros Aoireari* of Irenstus. 

J. H Herduii 

H Harnaok, Mutton of Dogma . . . Jrem 
tta M flmMii cHMon, 7 mill., Baton, 

u Hiunjtok, OMcAicAte dot aUchrietluJien 

LMtratur bit Ev—biui, 2 vol* in 3. 

Leipric 1893-11*04 
„ Hanek. Kirchtngttchicrite Dwutmck- 

land*, vol. L, Leipdo. 1904; toI. a. 

1900; ml. iii., 1900; voL iv„ 1903 

EauokHeriog, ] clooit and Kirdtt, founded fay J. J. 
RB. I HMjKJK^kl ed. by A. Hawk, Leipsio, 

Hob Epi.tle to the Hebrews 

Hebr Hebrew 

•"*"**■ I Tiii.-ix.. Freiburg, 1883-93 

Heiiobucfaer, Or- I M. HelmbuBher, Die Ordtn und Kongn- 

dVn und Ron- J aaHemen iler iattalischan Kirdn. 2d ed. 

gresaftensn. . . I 3 vols.. Paderbora. 1907 

n.i„„. n_>_ t P- Helyot, HiiUn da ordraa mono* 

™2**S^ 1 S*W relwi™ st mtfitai™, 8 vols.. 

HUMIinQIIH . . | p^ 171 f. 1B . M wed., 1839-42 
Heudemni. Dae- J E. F. Heudersou. Select Hieiurical Doeu- 
i* o/ As At iddk ^om, London, 1892 
■ry, Aubiin, " 





i/littoria . 
1 History 

ud A. C. 

J Jahriat (Yahwiat) 

J A Journal Ana&aue, Paris, 1822*. 

A Standard Bible Dictionary, ed. M. W. Je- 
J eobus. . . . B. E. Nouns, . . — ' ' " 
Zones, New York and Lom 
P. Jaffa, BMioOeta rerum 

emm, Tola., Berlin. 1864-73 
P. Jail*. Regales ponHJleum r 
' . . . od annuat 1109. Be 
2d ed.. Leipsic. 1381-88 

Jaffa, fit 


Now Haven, 1849 sqq. 
Journal of Biblical Literature and Eieoe- 
sis. first appeared aa Journal at Hit 
Society of Biblical lAteraturt and Bzo- 
t», Middletown, 1882-88, than Bos- 

Tlu imwith Kncitdojmdia. 13 Tola.. Now 

York, 1901-08 
Tha oouibiuod narrntlTe of the Jshvist 

(Yahwist) and Elohiat 

J Flavius Josephus, " Antiquitiaa c 
Apion .Fluvius Joaephua. " Airainrt Apion ' 

Lift. _ .T.W* tlVknin InaBiKM 

< .FkTiua 

LifeolFlavf .._._ 

Josephus, War. . .Flavnu Joaephua, " The Jewish War 

JPT .. 

her far 

ie, 1876 

Leipsio, 1876 aoq. 
The JevnA Quarterly Sning, London, 

1888 ago. 
Journal of tilt Royal Atiatic Society, Lon- 
don, 1834 aqq. 
,-. a I Journal of Theological Studies, London. 

JTB J 1866 sqq. 

Julian, IJym- LJ. Julian. A Dvlumary of Hymnatoay, 

notoo, I rcvi-*d cdiiii.ii, Loudon, 1907 

KAT SeeBohruder 


Labba, Concilia 

ed., by J. Hontenrbtber and f, Kaulen, 

12 vols.. Freiburg, 1882-1903 
G KrilRcr. Hillary of Early Christian 

l.ilruil «!■<■ in (!,■■ F*r,l Thrte Ctnturiet. 

Ntj-v York. 1897 
K. Knimbacfapr. 

lirtiiohcn Litteratur, 

P. Labt*. 



,-/^/i,,, 31 v 

, Florence 


. .Latin, Latinised 


B8R ,. T ^.'.. 
Lormia, DOQ .. 



F. Li ah tm barnr, BucuAauttia dm act- 
cm ntviaiuat, 13 nil.. Paria, 1877 

O. Lorena, DtuUeUands OmMcAtteud- 
lan im AfisaUar, Sd ad,, Bariia, 1887 

The Septuagint 

II Haoo 

Mai, Neva cot- 



A, Mai, Scriftorum Nkrni «*• «!- 
Iscfto, 10 Tob., Borne, 1836-88 

u.„n p__ IE. C. Mann, Lwat a/ H« Pep— in A« 
Mann, f-opaa ...< Elaiy JJJJ., iaM> Lonj,,^ 1002 „_ 

0. D. afanai, Sonttorum ometlio™-. 
IfMiai, Concilia. -j eaOaans now, 81 Tola., Fkmooa and 

•ubsertions ol Ihin work: Ant.. _4nfto»i- 
toau. " AatiquitiM "■ AucL ant.. Auo- 

■' ''naH 
ChroniclM M : Dip,. Diplomats, " Di- 
plomaa Documents "; Epiil.. Spit- 
tola. ■' Letters "; OeM. jwnt Ban, 
Gala ponliflcam Romanom-m. " Dead* 
of the Popes ol Rome "; Lee.. Loom. 
''Laws"; Lib. de lite. L&dli de lilt 

Germany "; 
Potto, Latini 

% m\\\*i 

Script., Bcrtploret. " Writer, 

jecta "; Scrip 

Carianamrji . . 
Hlrtrt, Qumum. 

. -. jm LarioobardtoD.. _ — _, 

" WHtere on Lombard and Italian 
gubjecu ''; Script, rcr. Menm.. Sorip- 
torei rerum Afrrorinoicorum, " Writan 
on Merovingian Subjeota " 

Mi can 

B. H. Milrnso, Hiitory of Latin CHria. 
lianitu. Indudino thai af the Pap— m 
. . . fcicAota. P.. 8 vols,, London, 

I" Mill 

i/nn ) J- P Migne. Patrolooin eurius cimvpUtuM, 

MPQ i lerici Gr<rca. 162 voli, Paris. 1857^rT 

Patralogin- curiu* amnlsta*. 

vol*., 1723-61 
| W*m tArxAiv^ oV floajO^Ao/( ftir oKtn 

■lcL no d»to of publication 

NaandeT (i ( 

A. r n~. t A. Neander, General Hietory of (a* Cnri*- 
r5.iS^"'i Kan Saliaion and CkureK, i mh.. and 
 fc *»"*-  I uidex, Boston, 1873-81 

■a.Mt-tR. P. Nlearon 

I Vhitloirm dmm 

Nlearon, Afamoiras p 

York. 1908 
F. Nippold. The _ _, 

Century, New Yorl 

Nippold, Pop**. 1 ^^^^ „„ l<l[t JM , 

yjrw J W ™ jtiroUieas ZeUechrift, Leiprio, 1890 

Nownck, Archa-\ 

W^liownot laarfruA dor hebraiichtn 
1 Arckdolona, 2 vola.. Freiburg. 1894 
. tio piano of publication 
I Tim Nicer* and PoX-rViom* Porta™, 1st 
{ series, 14 vols,, New York. 1887-02: 2d 
1 - -• i, 14 vols.. New York. 1890-1900 


can \°tJSi«» *•"•** " cw " r - Bt ' 

OTjd.'.'.'.'y.'.'.'.'.'.'.Btt Smith 

P Priestly document 

(I- Pastor, Ti* ffutorv of (A* Poj>s. from 
PuUf, Poms... J AiClM a/ Ms NM Aps*. 8 Tola., 

t London. 1801-1906 
poj } Palrm ectUeice Ancdicana, ed. J. A. Oiles, 

"" 1 84 Toto.. London, 183S-40 

PET Piuestine Exploration Fund 

1PM Firat Epistle o[ Peter 

II FM BeoondTSjBrtleofPetffl 

JB. Platina, Lias* o/ the Pont Ami . . . 
Q mmVtI. to . . . Pai5 /I, 2 Tola, 
London, n.ii . 
Pliny. If tit nat . - . Pliny, Miliaria natmvegkm 

Fottbttt. Wag-) J* KJWS durcA dU sSiSr 

"*" ) leer**. Berlin, 1890 

tt.. .'""".' .*.'.* "Pwlma 

""* 1 A rtAflofcm, London, 1880 sqq. 

o.*.. qq.t. - -quod {qua) vidt. " which na  

D..k. i„ J L. von Ranke, HUtaru of the Pope: 
Rank*. Pones. . . ( 3 Ji ^d,,^ 1B00 »— 

BD.W Gnu dr» dcur mtmda, Pahs. 1831 sqq. 

SK 8m Hnuek-Henog 

Reich. Docu- )E.B«wh.S<ii*IDociim*n(i/Hu«/ra.'.'ia.l/f 

■will ~, ditrral and Modrrn Hillary, London, 1905 

KEJ Rtvc dee Itudae juivm, Paris, 1880 «qq. 

Rettners. JtD. 1 ^ , ¥()1 « _ Qjit,;^ ts4(MS 

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BHB 1 ISSOmq. 

[ E, 0, Richardson, Alphabetic^ Subject In- 
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""' ' ed. by W. Kahl, Leipaie 1889 

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tarcMet [ of the whole. 3 vols,, 1867 

Robinaon. Euro- I .). II Kobinwn, AWiaos in European 

run Hittoru 1 /lute™, 2 * ols - BnMnn. 1904-06 
Hobuuoo and i J. H. Robinson, and C. A, Rennl. Iiri-,1,,,.- 

Beerd. Modern-^ mml of Modern Europe. 2 vols., Boston. 

Bnrope | 1907 

Bom Epistle to the Romans 

gj-p j Revue de tMotoaie el de phUoeophie, 

R.V. Bmeed Version (of the English Bible) 

I Bain....! I 8anii>3 

II Bam II Samuel 

•„. jthtnaeiberichU dec Berliner Akademie, 

BttA 1 BsrGn. 1882 aqq. 

iF. Max UOUer and other*, Th* Sacred 
Boat* of th* Bo*. Oxford, 1879 aqq„ 
TOL llTUL, 1904 ^* 

^ Sacred Booke of On Old Telawumi (" Rain- 
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fl,h.ff m„-ji- ( P- Scbafl, Hiuom of Ac CkruHan Church, 
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1ft_i, IP- Bchaff, TAa Crwdi o/ CAHalewloin, 
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u. w xr ) E. Schrader, Z>ir A'nlitucftrifton and da* 

■T, JUl . ) . ( , r< T „, nmrn ,_ _, ,.,,]„ _ ,i, .,.],,;. ivn- ()3 
iK. Srhrader, Kcilinechri/tliclu IS, '.,'(.. r.'i.l. 
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I VoHa Lin ZeilalUrJee^Chneli. 4tb ed., 

... | 3 vols.. Leipac, 1002iqq.; Eng. trnnnt., 6 

[ vol... New York, 1891 
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AM SerJentiu, " Sontenees " 

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omiu. i-ran»an.. ' ^ £ ^ A(A c.nlin,. Latidon, 18»5 

8mith. ReL oj.w. li. ,-..,.,,:,. u.l,„ ,/ th- *„;>;i.-: 

Bern 1 London, 18B4 

B P C E ' Society for the Promotion of Christian 

\ Knowledge 

B P O ) Society for the Propagation of the Ckupel 

1 in Foreign Farta 

«N and following 

flam... ...... . ..5tromofo, " Miaeellaniea " 

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Syr Byiiao 

Thatolwrand (O. J. Thatcher and E. H. Ucrleal. A 
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IThean Kiui l'[,i-:l.. I., the I'tirMaloniann 

IITbaai .*,..n-l l-.rn-.ik- t.. ihc ThcMalonianB 

nr ( TheUooirrhc TiiJtchrifr, Aim-lcrdam and 

'"' ' l,.'i-,!™, 1-liT >.(■!- 

L. B. le Nain de TiUetnont. Afrmciret 
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II Tim Second E pi jlle to Timothy 

iThcoioffiecher JaAretbrricAt. Leipaic, 1S82- 
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..» ! Ttuealooitehe Studim und Kritikm, Ham- 

TMl , bun. 1820 aqq. 

f Text* and Unln-tucAunam nr OteehieUt 
,,„ J dar nUtAriUficAen UUerahir, ed. O. von 

'" I Oabhardt and A. Harnaok, Leipaie, 

I 1882 aqq. 
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V. T.. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.. ...VetmtTmmoaMtletmi 

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Zahn, Konon., . ] IvAan Kanone, 2 vols.. Leipain, 1888-92 
IZsirseAri/l fur die vJUeetamntliche Wit- 
ZATW 1 —nechafl, Qieaseu. 1881 sqq. 

* uifc 1 adULilarana-, Berlin, 1870 aqq. 

I ZeilKhrift dor dluUchon morgenlOndilchen 

ZDMQ 1 OaasUscWI. Leipsio, 1847 aqq. 

ZDP j Zeitechrift fur deulecjie Phitologii, Halle, 

ZDPT \eWSSt dea dcuracBcn Polonino-Vsr- 

I dm, Ltipsic. 1878 aqq. 

East) .Zechnriah 

Zeph .Zvphaniah 

IZntorArift (Or die hiilorieche Theolooii. 
ZBT. , -i published auceesaively at Lejpaio, 

t llamhurE. and Gotha. 1832-75 
9vq } Zeitechrift fiir Kirchenaeethichte, Gotha, 

7 K b i Zeilxhrijl far Kirchenrecht, Berlin, To- 

aJl " 1 binaen, FraibutB, 1861 aqq. 

7rT jZeitechnlt f<,r :.!i). .:;.-. .'.. ihroloaie. Inns- 

ZKT - 1 bSok7l877aqq. " ' 

vBva j Zeitech-,f' (-■>■ ".■:■.-'■'-?.. '.l -'f/rntchajt und 

**" I k,rrhh.h- I.,w,k Lcip-if. 1880-89 

TMTW ' Ztit'rlirift fur ,li, nruttitamtnttiehe Wie- 

™* w 1 teneehaft. Giessea, 1900 sqq. 

,, PK tZnfschri.i'f hir rr,.t,-*l„„t;imueundKirche. 

*™ I Erlanifan. 1838-70 

IZeiUchnll fur uis,rr,*rhaftiitrhr Theotsaie, 
ZWT < Jena. 1858-00. Halle, I8B1-07, Leipaie. 

I 1808 aqq. 


The following system of transliteration has been used for Hebrew 

K = ' or omitted at the 

T = z 


of a 


n = fc 

3 = b 

B = t 

2 = bh or b 

* = y 

a = g 

3 = k 

J = gh or g 

3 = kh or k 

^l = d 


T = dh or d 

D = m 

n = h 

J = n 

1 = w 

D = s 

1> : 

V = 



ph or p 



thor t 

The vowels are transcribed by a, e, i, o, u, without attempt to indicate quantity or quality. Arabic 
and other Semitic languages are transliterated according to the same system as Hebrew. Greek is 
written with Roman characters, the common equivalents being used. 


When the pronunciation is self-evident the titles are not res pel led ; when by mere division and accen- 
tuation it can be shown sufficiently clearly the titles have been divided iuto syllables, and the accented 
syllables indicated. 

© as in not 


as in 

















pen 1 



























tt tt 

tt tt 

tt a 

a tt 

tt tt 

tt tt 

tt tt 

tt tt 

tt it 










iu as in duration 

c = k " " cat 

ch " " ctoirch 

cw = qu as in queen. 

dh (th) " " the 

f " " /ancy 

g (hard) " « go 

h " « loch (Scotch) 

hw (wh) " " why 

j " ";aw 

1 In accented syllables only ; In unaccented syllables It approximates the sound of e In over. The letter n, with a dot 
beneath It, Indicates the sound of n as in Ink. Nasal n (as in French words) Is rendered n. 
t in German and French names tt approximates the sound of u in dune. 





PETRI, LUDWIG ADOLF: German Lutheran; 
b. at Luethorst (a village of Hanover) Nov. 16, 
1803; d. at Hanover Jan. 8, 1873. He was edu- 
cated at the University of Gottingen (1824-27) and, 
after being a private tutor for some time, became, 
in 1829, " collaborator " at the Kreuzkirche in 
Hanover, where he was assistant pastor from 1837 
until 1851, and senior pastor from 1851 until his 
death. During the years 1830-37 his convictions 
gradually changed from rationalistic to orthodox. 
His power as a preacher was especially shown by 
his Licht des Lebens (Hanover, 1858) and Salz der 
Erde (1864). For the improvement of the liturgy of 
his communion he wrote Bedurfnisse und WUnsche 
der protestantischen Kirche im Vaterland (Hanover, 
1832); and still more important service was 
rendered by his edition of the Agende der hannover- 
schen Kirchenordnungen (1852). In behalf of re- 
ligious instruction he wrote his Lehrbuch der Re- 
ligion fiir die obcren Klassen protestantischer Schulen 
(Hanover, 1839; 9th ed., 1888), and later collabo- 
rated on the ill-fated new catechism of 1862. He 
likewise conducted for many years the theological 
courses in the seminary for preachers at Hanover, 
and in 1837 founded in the same city an association 
for theological candidates, over which he presided 
until 1848. In 1845^17 he edited, together with 
Eduard Niemann, the periodical Segen der evangeli- 
scken Kirche, and in 1848-55 was editor of the Zeit- 
blatt far die Angelegenheiten der lutherischen Kirche. 
In 1842 he founded an annual conference of the 
Hanoverian Lutheran clergy; and in 1853, together 
with General Superintendent Steinmetz and August 
Friedrich Otto Munchmeyer (q.v.), he established 
the well-known " Lutheran Poor-box " (see Gor- 


At the same time, Petri was firmly opposed 
to any amalgamation of the Lutheran and Re- 
formed Churches, and was thus led to assume an 
unfavorable position even toward the Inner Mis- 
sion (q.v.). 

In 1834 he helped to found the Hanoverian mis- 
sionary society, of which he was first secretary and 
then president, while he materially aided the cause of 
foreign missions by his Die Mission und die Kirche 
(Hanover, 1841). His opposition to all movements 
in favor of a union of Lutherans and Reformed 
IX.— 1 

found renewed expression in his Beleuchtung der 

Gdttinger Denkschrift zur Wahrung der evangelischen 

Lehrfreiheit (Hanover, 1854), an attack on the 

unionistic sympathies of the theological faculty of 

Gottingen. After this, Petri withdrew more and 

more from public life; and the only noteworthy 

work which he subsequently wrote was Der 

Glaube in kurzen Betrachlungen (4th ed., Hanover, 


Bibliography: E. Petri, L. A. Petri, ein Ltberubild, 2 vote., 
Hanover, 1888-06; J. Freytag, Zu PetrU Qed&chtni*, ib. 

English Egyptologist; b. in London June 3, 1853. 
He was educated privately, and in 1875-80 was 
engaged in surveying early British remains. Since 
1880 he has carried on excavations of the utmost 
importance in Egypt, while since 1892 he has been 
professor of Egyptology in University College, 
London, and also in London University since 1907. 
In 1894 he founded the Egyptian Research Account 
(q.v.), which became the British School of Archeol- 
ogy in Egypt in 1905, of which he is honorary di- 
rector; he is likewise on the committee of the 
Palestine Exploration Fund and the Royal Anthro- 
pological Institute. Among his works special men- 
tion may be made of the following: Stonchenge 
(London, 1880); Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh 
(1883); Tanis (2 parts, 1885-87); Naukraiis (1886); 
A Season in Egypt (1888); Racial Portraits (1888); 
Historical Scarabs (1889); Hawara, Biahmu, and 
Arsinoe (1889); Kahun, Gurob, and Hawara (1890); 
IUahun, Kahun, and Gurob (1891); Tell el Hesy 
(1891); Medum (1892); Ten Years' Digging in 
Egypt (1893); Student's History of Egypt (3 parts, 
1894-1905); Tell el Amarna (1895); Egyptian 
Tales (1895); Decorative Art in Egypt (1895); 
Naqada and BaUas (1896); Koptos (1896); Six 
Temples at Thebes (1897); Deshasheh (1897); Re- 
ligion and Conscience in Egypt (1898); Syria and 
Egypt (2 vols., 1898); Dendereh (1900); Royal Tombs 
of the First Dynasty (1900); Diospolis Parva (1901); 
Royal Tombs of the Earliest Dynasties (1901); Aby- 
dos (2 parts, 1902-03); Ehnasya (1904); Methods 
and Aims in Archeology (1904); Researches in Sinai 
(1906); Hyksos and Israelite Cities (1906); Religion 
of Ancient Egypt (1906); Janus in Modern Life 
(1907); The Arts and Crafts of Ancient Egypt 
(VJ09); and Personal Religion in Egypt before 
Christianity (1910). 




PETRIKAU, pe"tri-kau', SYNODS OP: Four 
Polish synods held at Petrikau (75 m. s.w. of War- 
saw), Russian Poland, in 1551, 1555, 1562, and 
1565. The Reformation early found welcome in 
Poland, especially in Posen and Cracow; and the 
first Protestant teachers were exclusively Lutheran. 
Calvinism was introduced during the reign of Sigis- 
mund August II. (1548-72), who stood in close re- 
lations to Calvin, and at the same time the Bohe- 
mian Brethren expelled from their own country 
took refuge in large numbers in Great Poland, es- 
pecially in Posen. At the Synod of Kozminek in 
1555 they united with the Calvinists, though the 
Roman Catholics, under the leadership of Stanis- 
laus Hosius, bishop of Culm and Ermeland, did all 
in their power to obstruct the extension of the 
Protestant movement. 

At the first Synod of Petrikau in 1551, a Roman 
Catholic confession of faith was drawn up, ex- 
pressly intended to answer the principles of the 
Augsburg Confession, and severe measures were 
taken against converts to the new teachings. The 
king and .the nobility, however, strongly favored 
the Protestant party, and the former added his 
voice to the demand made by the second Synod 
of Petrikau (1555) that a national council be 
convened to settle the religious controversies. Sigis- 
mund also sent representatives to the pope, re- 
quiring the administration of the chalice, the cele- 
bration of mass in the vernacular, the abolition of 
clerical celibacy, and the abandonment of annates. 
The pope, however, refused to accede to these de- 
mands, and sent a nuncio, Bishop Lipomani of 
Verona, to Poland to repress the Protestant move- 
ment. He entirely failed, but the success of the 
Polish reformers was rendered impossible by their 
own divisions, as became clear, at the third synod, 
held at Petrikau in 1562. There were constant dif- 
ficulties between the Lutheran and Reformed par- 
ties, and the situation was made still more compli- 
cated by the appearance of a Polish antitrinitarian 
movement. All attempts to secure harmony failed, 
and the antitrinitarians were formally excluded 
from fellowship with Protestants at the fourth 
synod of Petrikau, held in 1565, though neither this 
nor a royal command banishing all Italian antitrini- 
tarians (1654) was carried out. 

In the same year, at a diet convened at Petrikau, 
the antitrinitarian leaders secured the holding of a 
disputation with their opponents, though the Lu- 
therans held aloof, and only the Reformed and the 
Bohemian Brethren accepted. At this disputation 
Gregor Pauli, a Cracow preacher and the leader of 
the antitrinitarians, alleged the impossibility of 
reconciling the Catholic creeds concerning the Per- 
sons of the Trinity with the teaching of the Scrip- 
tures; while the trinitarians insisted on the his- 
toric agreement between the Scriptures and the 
teaching of the whole Church. After fourteen days 
of debate the two parties were farther apart than 
ever. The antitrinitarian representatives, more- 
over, disagreed among themselves, some denying 
the preexistence of Christ and the personality of 
the Holy Spirit, others accepting the preexistence 
of Christ and the reality of the Holy Spirit, and 
yet others assuming three Persons in the Trinity, 

but ascribing different values to them. The final 
outcome of the matter was the exclusion of the anti- 
trinitarians from the Reformed Church, so that 
henceforth they constituted a separate communion. 

(David Erdmannj-.) 

Bibliography: Besides the literature under Poland, 
Christianitt in, and the works of Dal ton and Kruake 
named under Lasoo, Johannm a, consult: A. Regen- 
volscius (A. Wengieraki), Syatema hittorico-chronolofficum 
eeeleeiarum Slavonicarum, pp. 180 sqq., Utrecht, 1652; 
8. Lubenski, Hietoria reformations Polonica, pp. 144 sqq., 
201 sqq., Freistadt, 1685; E. Borgius, Aua Posen* und 
Potent kirchlicher Vergongenheit, pp. 14 sqq., Berlin, 1898; 
and Q. Krause, Die Reformation und Oegenreformation in 
Polen, Posen, 1901. 

PETROBRUSSIANS. See Pbtsb of Bbuyb. 
PETRUS MONGUS. See Monophysites, §§ 5 sqq. 

PEUCER, pei'tser, CASPAR: Leader of the 
crypto-Calvinists (see Philippists) in the elector- 
ate of Saxony; b. at Bautzen (31 m. e.n.e. of Dres- 
den) Jan. 6, 1525; d. at Dessau (67 m. s.w. of 
Berlin) Sept. 2, 1602. He was educated at the Uni- 
versity of Wittenberg, which he entered in 1540, 
and where he became professor of mathematics in 
1554 and of medicine in 1560. Throughout the life 
of Melanchthon, whose son-in-law he was, he was 
his friend, counselor, physician, and companion, 
while after the Reformer's death he edited his col- 
lected works (Wittenberg, 1562-64), two books of 
his E pistol as (1570), the third and fourth volumes of 
his Selectee declamationes (Strasburg, 1557-58), etc. 
He likewise completed Melanchthon's revision of 
the Ckronicon Carionis, which had extended only to 
Charlemagne, by two books bringing it down to the 
Leipsic disputation (2 parts, Wittenberg, 1562-65); 
while among his independent writings mention may 
'be made of his De dimensione terroe (Wittenberg, 
1550) and De prcscipuis divinationum generibus 

Peucer was a favorite at the Dresden court, where 
he was appointed physician in 1570, though still re- 
taining his Wittenberg professorship. At his in- 
stance Melanchthon's Corpus doctrine? was officially 
introduced in 1564, thus marking the rise of Philip- 
pism; and vacancies in the university were filled with 
strict followers of Melanchthon. In 1571 he col- 
laborated in a school abridgment of the Corpus 
doctrines which sharply denied Luther's teaching 
of Ubiquity (q.v.), and with the death of Paul 
Eber (q.v.) in 1569 approximation to Calvinism 
became still easier. At the same time, the strict 
Lutheran party continued to have much influence 
at court because their side was taken by the elec- 
tor's wife, a Danish princess. Considerations of 
foreign policy, however, finally induced the elector 
to dismiss his favorite physician, especially as he 
was accused, though wrongly, of having a part in a 
Calvinistic exposition of the faith, Exegesis perspi- 
cua, published by Joachim Cureus in 1574. Peucer's 
correspondence was searched, and evidence was 
found which was construed as expressing his inten- 
tion to try to introduce the Calvinistic theory of 
the Lord's Supper into the Saxon Church. He ac- 
knowledged his fault when tried before the Saxon 
diet at Torgau, and was directed to restrict his in- 
terest to medicine. But the Elector August was 




not contented and had Peucer, whom he suspected 
of working to introduce the rival ducal house 
into Saxony, taken to Rochlitz. In 1576 Peucer 
was imprisoned in the Pleissenburg in Leipeic, 
where he suffered much hardship, but determinedly 
resisted all attempts to convert him, refusing to 
make any concessions contrary to Calvinism. Final- 
ly, when the Danish princess died, and the elector 
married a second time (Jan. 3, 1586), his father-in- 
law, Prince Joachim Ernest of Anhalt successfully 
pleaded for Peucer's release. This took place on 
Feb. 8, 1586, a few days before the death of August. 
Peucer now went to Dessau, where he was ap- 
pointed physician in ordinary and councilor to the 
prince. The remaining years of his life were peace- 
ful, spent partly in Dessau, partly in Cassel and the 
Palatinate, and partly in travels, and he was hon- 
ored by all. To the last he adhered to Melanch- 
thon's theology, and he was likewise busy with his 
pen. During his imprisonment he began his Hie- 
toria carcerum et liberationis divines (ed. after the 
author's death by Christoph Pezel, Zurich, 1605); 
and he also wrote in prison his Tradable hietoricue 
de PkUippi Mdanchthonis senieniia de controversia 
coena Domini (Amberg, 1596), as well as a poetical 
Idyllium, patria seu historic! Lueatice superiors 
(Bautien, 1594). (G. Kawerau.) 

Bibuoo&apht: For Peucer's letters consult CR, vols. vii. 
and ix.; J. Voigt, Briefwechsel der berOhmtesten OeUhrten, 
pp. 497 sqq., Kdnifsberg, 1841 ; and Zeitschrift fur preussi- 
sche Oeschiehte, xiv (1877), 00 sqq., 145 sqq. Early sources 
are the funeral sermon by J. Brendel, Zerbst, 1603; a 
memorial oration by S. Stenius, ib. 1003; and A. van de 
Corput, Het Leven ende Dood van ... P. Metanchton 
. . . Mitsgaders de . . . gevangenisse van . . . Cat/par 
Peucerus, Amsterdam, 1662. Biographies or sketches are 
by: J. C. Leupold, Budissin, 1745; H. C. A. Eichstadt, 
Jena, 1841; E. A. H. Heimburg, Jena, 1842; F. Coch, 
Marburg, 1850; E. L. T. Henke, Marburg, 1865. Con- 
sult further: R. Calinich, Kampf und Untergang des 
Melanchthonismus in Kursachsen, Leipsic, 1866; J. W. 
Richard, Philip Mdanchton, New York, 1898; J. Janssen, 
Hist, of the German People, vols, vii.-viii., St. Louis, 1905; 
N. MQller, Melanchthons letzte Lebenstage, 1910; Ersch 
and Gruber, Encyktopadie, III., xix. 435-460; ADB, xzv. 
552 sqq.; and the literature under Phujppxstb. 

PEW: Ecclesiastically, an enclosed seat in a 
church (not, in the modern sense, an open bench). 
Hie term (Old Fr. put, puy, puye, poi, peu, " an 
elevated place," " seat "; Lat. podium, " balcony ") 
in early English use meant a more or less elevated 
enclosure for business in a public place; this use 
was probably prior to its employment as the name 
for an enclosed seat for worshipers in a church. 
Indeed, the pew might be even a box in a theater. 
The pew is not, then, an original or primitive part 
of the church edifice, the floor of the structure be- 
ing in early times open and unobstructed, though 
in the chancel there came to be seats for the clergy 
and choir. This tradition is continued in modern 
times in Roman and Greek cathedrals in Europe, 
which are usually without pews, portable benches 
or chairs being furnished instead. In early times 
the attitude of worshipers was standing (or kneel- 
ing), and the provision of stools or benches prob- 
ably does not date back of the fourteenth century, 
though some English churches had stone benches 
along the walls and around pillars. 

The earliest known examples of regular benching 

is probably that of the church at Soest (34 m. s.e. 
of Munster, Westphalia) in the early fifteenth cen- 
tury. The church at Swaffham (25 m. w. of Nor- 
wich), England, was in 1454 provided with pews by 
private benefaction, and this was almost certainly 
not the first instance in England. The records of 
St. Michael's, Cornhill, London, prove the existence 
of pews in that church in 1457, the doors of some 
of which, at least, had locks, a fact which implies 
private ownership. It seems certain, however, that 
at first only parts of the edifice were provided with 
pews. The shape of these does not seem to have 
been uniform. While the oblong pew was naturally 
the most common, the seat facing the altar, other 
pews were square with the seats placed around 
three or all four sides, leaving space only for the 
door. These latter were often private, appropri- 
ated to the use of the lord of the manor or to a 
family an early member of which had in some way 
acquired a perpetual interest. In England the right 
to occupy a certain pew sometimes goes with the 
occupancy of a certain house in the parish. The 
acquisition of property-right in a pew is not confined 
to England; in quite a number of churches in the 
United States pews are held by families and may 
figure as property in valuation of assets. But the 
tendency is decidedly against this exclusive right, 
and where such cases exist, the policy of the church 
is usually to redeem the pew from private owner- 

It is not certain at what period pews were made 
a means of income to the parish. In St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, the records show payment of pew 
rents as early as the first part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The law of England gives to every parish- 
ioner a right to a sitting in the parish church if it 
was built before 1818, and this right is enforceable 
by civil procedure. In the United States custom 
varies greatly. Almost general is the practise of 
using the pews as a means of raising revenue for 
church purposes. In a considerable number of 
churches the pew rents provide the principal means 
of income, pews being rented by the year. In a 
large number of churches, however, the feeling 
exists that this is a limitation upon the " freedom 
of the Gospel," and the sittings are all free, the in- 
come being derived from collections or pledges of 
free-will offerings. 

Bibliography: J. M. Beale, Hist, of Pew; Cambridge, 1841; 
J. G. Fowler, Church Pews, their Origin and Legal Inci- 
dents, London, 1844; G. H. H. Oliphant, The Law of Pew 
in Churches and Chapels, ib. 1850; A. Heales, Hist, and 
Law of Church Seats or Pews, 2 vols., ib. 1872. 

PEZEL, pe'tsel, CHRISTOPH: German crypto- 
Calvinist; b. at Plauen (61 m. s.w. of Leipsic) Mar. 
5, 1539; d. at Bremen Feb. 25, 1604. He was edu- 
cated at the universities of Jena and Wittenberg, 
his studies at the latter institution being interrupted 
by his teaching for several years. In 1557 he was 
appointed professor in the philosophical faculty 
and in 1569 was ordained preacher at the Schloss- 
kirche in Wittenberg. In the same year he entered 
the theological faculty, where he soon became in- 
volved in the disputes between the followers of Me- 
lanchthon and Luther, writing the Apologia verm 
doctrines de definitione Evangdii (Wittenberg, 1571) 



and being the chief author of the Wittenberg cate- 
chism of 1571. He soon took a leading position as 
a zealous Philippist, but in 1574 he and his col- 
leagues were summoned to Torgau and required to 
give up the Calvinistic theory of the Lord's Sup- 
per. As they refused to subscribe to the articles 
presented to them, they were placed under surveil- 
lance in their own houses and forbidden to discuss 
or to print anything on the questions in dispute. 
They were afterward deposed from their professor- 
ships, and in 1576 were banished. Pezel, who had 
hitherto been at Zeitz, now went to Eger; but in 
1577, like his fellow exiles, received a position from 
Count John of Nassau, first at the school in Siegen 
and later at Dillingen. 

Pezel then definitely accepted Calvinism, and the 
Church in Dillenburg was united to the Calvinistic 
body. In 1578 he became pastor at Herborn, and 
in 1580 was permitted by Count John to go for a 
few weeks to Bremen to try to reconcile the Church 
difficulties between the Calvinists and Lutherans. 
His task was difficult, however, since the Lutheran 
Jodocus Glana?us refused to meet him in open de- 
bate. The civil authorities, construing this as con- 
tumacy, deposed Glanseus, and Pezel preached in 
his place. He soon returned to Nassau, but in 1581 
was permanently appointed the successor of Gla- 
nseus at Bremen, where, four years later, he was 
made superintendent of the churches and schools. 
At the same time he became pastor of the Lieb- 
frauenkirche, though he also retained his pastorate 
at the Ansgariikirche till 1598. He took an active 
part in improving and extending the work at the 
Bremen gymnasium, where he was professor of the- 
ology, moral philosophy, and history, being also the 
leader in all the theological controversies in which 
the Bremen church became involved. Pezel did 
away with Luther's Catechism, substituting for it 
his own Bremen catechism, which remained in force 
until the eighteenth century, removed images and 
pictures from the churches, formed a ministerium 
which united the clergy, and, by his Consensus min- 
isterii Bremensis ecclesiw of 1595, prepared the way 
for the complete acceptance of Calvinistic doctrine. 

Pezel was the editor of many theological writings, 
of which the most important were the Loci theo- 
logici of his teacher, Victorinus Strigel (4 parts, 
Neustadt, 1581-84); Philip Melanchthon's Con- 
sUia (1600); and Caspar Peucer's Historia carcerum 
et liberationi8 divinm (Zurich, 1605); while among 
his independent works special mention may be 
made of the following: Argumenta et objectiones de 
pracipuis articulis doctrince Christiana (Neustadt, 
1580-89); Libellus precationum (1585); and Mel- 
lificium historicum, complectens historiam trium 
monarchiarum, Chaldaicce, Persicce, Graces (1592). 
He is particularly interesting as showing the evolu- 
tion from Melanchthon's attitude toward predes- 
tination to the complete determinism of the Cal- 
vinistic concept of the dogma. (G. Kawerau.) 

Bibliography: Autobiographic material is contained in 
Peacl's Widerholie warhaffte . . . Erzehlung, Bremen, 
1582, in WiUenberger Ordiniertenbuch, ii (1895), 117. 
Consult: J. H. Steubing, Nassauische Kirchen- und Rc- 
formatumgeschichte, Hadamar, 1804; ZHT, 1866, pp. 382 
sqq., 1873, 179 sqq.; Iken, in Bremiachea Johrbuch, ix 
(1877), 1 sqq., x (1878), 34 sqq.; E. Jacobs, Juliana von 

Stotberg, pp. 286 sqq., Wernigerode, 1889; W. von Bip- 
pen, QeschichU der Stadt Bremen, ii. 199, Bremen, 1898; 
Erach and G ruber, Encyklop&die, III., zx. 63 sqq.; ADB, 
xxv. 575 sqq. 

man Lutheran; b. at Stuttgart Dec. 24, 1686; d. 
at Giessen Nov. 19, 1760. He was educated at the 
University of Tubingen (1699-1702), and became 
lecturer in 1705, but in the following year, at the 
command of the duke of Wurttemberg, traveled 
extensively in Germany, Denmark, Holland, and 
England, with special attention to the study of 
Semitic languages. Almost immediately on his re- 
turn he was directed to proceed to Italy with the 
heir apparent, with whom he spent three years in 
Turin. Here, as elsewhere, he was unwearied in 
searching through libraries, and was rewarded by 
the discovery of many fragments hitherto unknown, 
as of sermons of Chrysostom and portions of Hippo- 
lytus. In this way he also found the epitome of the 
" Institutes " of Lactantius, which he edited at 
Paris in 1712; and he aroused wide interest by the 
alleged discovery of four fragments of Ignatius 
which he published, with voluminous dissertations, 
at The Hague in 1715. Over these fragments an 
animated controversy was long waged. It is now 
generally held that they are not to be ascribed to 
Ignatius; though the question remains whether 
they were a forgery of Pfaff 's, or whether they were 
cut out of some Turin catena manuscript. Both 
contingencies were possible in the case of Pfaff, 
who is known to have mutilated a Turin manuscript 
of Hippolytus, and to have forged a document to 
establish the claim of the house of Savoy to the 
titular kingdom of Cyprus. 

In 1712 Pfaff returned to Germany and remained 
a year at Stuttgart, after which he visited Holland 
and France with the heir apparent, returning per- 
manently to Germany in 1716. Despite his youth, 
Pfaff was then appointed professor of theology at 
Tubingen, where he rose steadily, becoming chan- 
cellor of the university at the age of thirty-four, 
and retaining this dignity for thirty-six years. He 
was a man of great versatility and of encyclopedic 
learning, and at the same time was indefatigable as 
an author. He wrote a large number of disserta- 
tions, of which the De originibus juris ecclesiastici 
ejusdem indole (Tubingen, 1719) marked the begin- 
ning of a new epoch in its field, for in it, and in the 
Akademische Reden fiber das sowohl aUgemeine als 
auch teutsche protestantische Kirchenrecht (1742), 
he for the first time carried to its logical results the 
doctrine of Collegialism (q.v.). In the sphere of 
theology he wrote Constitutiones theologian dogmat- 
ics et moralis (Tubingen, 1719); Introductio in his- 
toriam theologian liierariam (1720); Institutiones his- 
torian ecclesiastical (1721); and Nota exegetica* in 
evangelium Matthasi (1721); while his pietistic sym- 
pathies found expression in such works as his Kurt- 
zer Abris8 vom wahren Christentum (Tubingen, 1720) 
and Hertzens-Katechismus (1720), and his general 
Biblical scholarship was evinced by his collabora- 
tion with Johann Christian Klemm in the prepara- 
tion of the " Tubingen Bible " of 1730 (see Bibles, 
Annotated, I., § 1). 

Pfaff was chiefly active, however, in endeavor- 



ing to unite the Protestant churches, and to this 
end he composed a long series of monographs which 
were collected in German translation under the 
title of GesammeUe Sckrifften, so zur Vereinigung der 
Protestierenden abzielen (Halle, 1723). Here again 
he was no innovator, and though his proposals at- 
tracted wide attention, Lutheran opposition ren- 
dered them fruitless. 

Henceforth Pfaff frittered away his energies, pro- 
ducing work more remarkable for quantity than 
quality, and plunging into countless trivial literary 
controversies. He lost his popularity and influence 
in the university, forfeited the interest of the stu- 
dents, and in 1756 resigned from the chancellor- 
ship. His departure from Tubingen was unmourned, 
but his intention of spending the remainder of his 
life in retirement at Frankfort was frustrated by a 
call to Giessen, where he became chancellor, super- 
intendent, and director of the theological faculty. 
Here he remained until his death, four years later, 
though here, too, the faults which dimmed his great 
talents gained him general enmity. 


Bibliography: The short Vita in GesammeUe Schrifften, ut 
sup., iL 1-9, was used by C. P. Leporin for his Verbeaaerte 
Nachricht von ...CM. Pfaff ens Liken, Leipsic, 1726, 
and this in turn was the basis of the account in Zedler's 
UniveraaUexicon, xxvii. 1198, ib. 1741 and other narratives 
in biographical works. Consult F. W. Strieder, Hes- 
iiche GeUhriengeachichte, x. 322 sqq., 21 vols., Gdttingen, 
1781-1868; A. F. Busching, Beytrage tu der Lebenage- 
schiehte denkwurdiger Peraonen, iii. 170-171. 287-288, 6 
parts, Halle, 1783-89; J. M. H. Doring, Gelehrte Theologen 
im 18. Johrhundert, iii. 249 sqq., 4 vols., Neustadt, 1831- 
1835; W. Gass, Oeachichte der proteatantiachen Dogmatik, 
iii. 74 sqq., 4 vols., Berlin, 1854-57; C. Weizs&cker, Lehrer 
and Unterricht von dem evangeliachen Fakultat, pp. 97 sqq., 
in Tubinger Festschrift, 1877; A. Ritschl, Oeachichte dee 
Pietismua, iii. 42 sqq., Bonn, 1886; Ersch and Gruber, 
Encyklopddie, III., xx. 101 sqq.; ADB, xxv. 587 sqq. 

PFAFFENBRIEF, pfOPen-brif': A compact, 
dated Oct. 7, 1370, whereby the cantons of Zurich, 
Lucerne, Zug, Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden united 
to oppose foreign spiritual and secular jurisdiction 
and to preserve national peace. The immediate 
cause of the compact was the attack upon and im- 
prisonment of Peter of Gundoldingen, head of 
Zurich's ally, Lucerne, and his party by Bruno 
Brun, provost of the cathedral of Zurich (Sept. 13, 
1370). The aggressor, an adherent of the Austrian 
party, refused to recognize the jurisdiction of a 
secular court, and was accordingly banished, while 
his prisoner was released. Such, however, was the 
fear that Brun might appeal to foreign, imperial, 
or ecclesiastical courts that, to avoid any such con- 
tingency in future, the Pfaffenbrief was drawn up. 
This document merely emphasized and guaranteed 
existing rights. It laid down two principles: all 
cases within the confederation, except matrimonial 
and ecclesiastical, must be tried before the local 
judge, who had jurisdiction even over aliens (thus 
ignoring both the imperial courts and foreign spir- 
itual courts); it contained resolutions relating to 
the public peace, and forbade waging wars without 
the consent of the government. At the same time, 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction was not annulled, and 
cases in which one of the clergy was defendant were 
usually tried in the episcopal courts. By requiring 
the oath of allegiance from the clergy, moreover, 

the Pfaffenbrief indirectly tended to subordinate 
the clergy to the State in matters applying equally 
to clergy and laity. By thus delimiting, in an im- 
portant sphere of law, what appertained to the 
State and what to the Church, and by favoring the 
claims of the former rather than of the latter, the 
Pfaffenbrief marked the first real and successful 
Swiss attempt to restrict by means of the secular 
law the unlimited extension of ecclesiastical power. 

(F. Fleiner.) 

Bibliography: A. P. von Segesser, Rechtageachichte der 
Stodt . . . Lutern, vols, i.-ii., passim, Lucerne, 1850-58; 
J. C. Bluntschli, Stoats- und Rechtageachichte . . . Zurich, 
i. 385 sqq., Zurich, 1838; idem, Oeachichte dea achweizeri- 
achen Bundearechta, i. 122 sqq., Stuttgart, 1875; T. von 
Leibenau, in Anteiger fur achweizeriache Oeachichte, 1882, 
p. 60; W. Oechsli, in Politiachea Johrbuch der achweix. 
Bidgenoaaenachaft, v (1890), 359-365; idem, QueUenbuch 
der Schweizergeschichte, Zurich, 1901; J. Dierauer, Oe- 
achichte der achweix. Eidgenoaaenachafl, i. 282 sqq., Gotha, 
1887; K. D&ndliker, Oeachichte der Schweiz, i. 545 sqq., 
632 sqq., Zurich, 1900; J. Hurbin, Handbuch der Schwei- 
zergeschichte, i. 197, Stans, 1900; Die Bundeabriefe der 
alien Eidgenossen, 1291-1613, Zurich, 1904. 

sionary to the Mohammedans; b. at Waiblingen 
(7 m. n.e. of Stuttgart), Germany, Nov. 3, 1803; d. 
at Richmond (8 m. w.s.w. of London) Dec. 1, 1865. 
His father was a baker, who, perceiving his aptitude 
for study and sharing his ambitions, sent him first 
to the Latin school in the town, then to Kornthal 
(q.v.), and finally to the missionary institute at 
Basel, where he studied from 1820 to 1825. He 
was a remarkable linguist and of indefatigable 
energy, and spent his life in the effort to convert 
Mohammedans. From 1825 to 1829 he labored in 
Shusha, in Transcaucasia, and neighboring lands; 
from 1829 to 1831 he was with Anthony Norris 
Groves (q.v.) in Bagdad; from Mar. to Sept., 1831, 
in Persia, but then returned to Shusha. In 1835 
the Russian government forbade all missionary op- 
erations except those of the Greek Church; conse- 
quently he had to leave Shusha. He went first 
to Constantinople, in 1836 was back in Shusha, but 
in 1837 started for India by way of Persia and ar- 
rived in Calcutta Oct. 1, 1838. As it seemed most 
promising to work henceforth under English aus- 
pices he, with the full consent of the Basel Society, 
became a missionary of the Church Missionary So- 
ciety, Feb. 12, 1840. He was in Agra from 1841 
to 1855, in Peshawar from 1855 to 1857, and in 
Constantinople from 1858 to 1865. His death oc- 
curred while on his furlough. 

He married first Sophia Reuss, a German, in Mos- 
cow, July 11, 1834, who died in childbed in Shusha, 
May 12, 1835; second, Emily Swinburne, an Eng- 
lishwoman, in Calcutta, Jan. 19, 1841, who bore him 
three boys and three girls, and survived him fifteen 
years. He wrote few books, and most of them in 
oriental languages. One that is in English was his 
Remarks on the Nature of Muhammedanism, Cal- 
cutta, 1840. But one of his books is a missionary 
classic. He drafted it in German in May, 1829, 
while in Shusha, then he expanded and perfected 
it. It bears in German the title Mizan id Hakk 
oder die Wage der Wahrheit, translations have been 
made of it into Armenian, Turkish, Persian, and 
Ordu, and it has been widely circulated among 


KohainilwdMH of many lands. There is an Eng- 
lish i r.iriskition of it under the title. The Mixan ul 
Haqq; or Balance [should be Balances] of Truth 
(London, 18(57, newed., 1910). It isacogentand in- 
cisive attack oil Mohammedanism and an explana- 
tion and application of Christianity, written in 
simple language but with deep conviction and 
amply knowledge. In recognition of tlie service he 
had thus rendered, the archbishop of (Vmtirliiirv 
(John Bird Sumner) made him a doctor of divinity 
in 1857. 

Biduoqupht: C. F. Epnler. D. Karl GoWitb P/ander, 
Hiwel. 11*; Kmilv fli-ji.lljiu-l. Skfteha otChvrth Milsion- 
ary Society Worker*, London, 1897. 

PFEFFIHGER, pfef'ing-er, JOHAHH: Saxon 
Reformer; b. at Wasserburg (31 m. e.s.e. of Mu- 

iiii'lu. Upper Bavaria, Dec. 27, 1493; d. at Leipsic 
Jan. 1, 1573. Devoting himself to the religion* life, 
lii' became an acolyte at Salzburg in 1515, and soon 
afterward iv:u made suhdeaeon and deacon. Re- 
ceiving a dispensation from the regulations con- 
cerning canonical age. ho was ordained priest and 
stationed al Heichenhall, Saalfcldcn, and Possau, 
where his clerical activity soon found great appro- 
bation. Suspected of Lutheran heresy, he went to 
Wittenberg in 1523, where he was cordially wel- 
comed by Luther, Melanchthon, and BugBObagBB, 
In 1527 he went as parish priest to Sonncnwalde: 
and in 1530, when cx|"«-lled by the bishop of Meis- 
sen, hi* removed to the monastery of Eicha, near 
Leipsic, where his services were attended by many 
outride the parish. In 1532 he went to Belgern, 
whence he was delegated, in 1539, to complete the 
Kefoimation in Leipsic. In 1540, he was perma- 
nently vested with the office of superintendent. 

He declined calls to Halle and Breslau, though 
he took part in completing the work of the Refor- 
mation at Glauchau in 1542. In his capacity of 
censor he prevented further printing of Scheuk's 
postUla. In 1543 he was graduated as the first 
Protectant doctor of theology, and became a pro- 
fessor of theology in ihe following year. In 1548 
"he was made a canon of Meissen. 

Duke Maurice of Saxony drew him into the ne- 
gotiations regurding the introduction of a Protes- 
tant church constitution and liturgy. Having been 
appointed assessor in the Leipsic consistory in 1543, 
he participated, in 1545, in the consecration of a 
bishop of Mersehiirg us one of the ordaining clergy. 
In the iollmving year he negotiated at Dresden with 
Anton Musa and Daniel (ireser, and took part in 
the deliberations concerning the Interim at the 
Diet of Meissen (July, 1548), at Torgau (Oct. 18), 
at Altzella (Nov.), and at the Leipsic Saxon Diet 
(Dec. 23). The Elector August, likewise sought 
formal expression* of opinion from Pfeffinger; and 
in tins conneetioM, in 1555, he proposed, with a view 
to securing religious uniformity, that the Interim 
liturgy of 15411 should again be Used. Melanchthon, 
however, opposed this suggestion, holding that, 
were it adopted, additional religious disunion would 
follow. Pfeffinger also took part in the deliberative 
proceedings of the delegates of the three consist ories 
in 1556, as well as in the Dresden convention of 

I'fclfi tiger's writings were ethical, ascetic, and 

polemic. His Propositiones de libera arbitrio (1555) 
occasioned the outbreak of the synergistic strife 
{see Si-nkhoism). Against Nikolaus von Amsdorf 
he wrote his Anlworl (Wittenberg, 1558), Demon- 
utratio mindarii (1558), and Nochmals grundliehcr 

Bericht; while he opposed Matthias Flactus in his 
Verantutortung, He embodied his tenets in five 
articles of the Formula der Bekendnus of June 3, 
l.i.'rfi, which he also submitted, in amplified form, 
to the Wittenberg theologians. Georg Mi'ller, 

Bnugnuni B. Sartorius, Ein/tltiaer . . . Bericht von 
JrnLtben . . . J. PfefflnerrM, Leipsic, 1873; F. Scifrn. 
in heft iv. of Hrilntfjt titr Mlrfi*i*chm Kirchenotaehichie, 
Loipsic. I SMS; ( ; ICQier, in heft i>. of the «gu, pp. 88. 
UN, 165, INI, and x. 210; ADB, xxv. 024-030. 

PFEILSCHIFTER, pfodl'shift-er, GEORG: Ger- 
man Roman Catholic; b. at Mering (7 m. s.e. of 
Augsburg], Upper Bavaria, May 13, 1870. He was 
educated at the universities of Munich (1889-93, 
1894-99; D.D., 1897) and Vienna (1899), inter- 

riijiting his studies to make a five months' tour of 
Italy in 1897. In 1900 he became privat-docent 
for church history at the University of Munich, 
but in the same year accepted a call to the Lyceum 
ul I 1 ' ivising an iisxicialc professor of ehureli liistory 
and pntristics Since I!M'I3 lie has lieen professor of 
ehureli history in the University of Freiburg. He 
lias written Drr Oslgotcnkonig Thtotlerich der Grant 
and die JbafJjntfwfa Kirrhr. (Milnsler, 1896); Die 
authentixchc Amigabt der i-'terzig EvangdienhomUien 
Gregors den Grossen, ein erster Beilrag zur Geschic.hJe 
der Ueberlieferimg (Munich, 1900); and Zur Entste- 
li'ing der Allegoric earn mystixchen Gotleneagen bet 
Dante Purgaiorio (Freiburg, 1904). 

PFEHDER, pfen'der or [F,] fon"dar', CHARLES 
LEBERECHT: French Lutheran; b. at Hatten 
in Alsaee (let. 2(>, 1834. He pursued his studies at 
Witieiiberg, the College de Pont-a-Mousson (B.Litt., 
IKoMi, under the faculty of theology at Strashurg 
(B.Tb., 1859), and at the universities of Heidelberg, 
i In! tingeu, and Berlin; he liecame vicar at. Witten- 
berg in 1860; at Paris, 1865; pastor of the Eglise 
du Batignolles. Paris. 1S6S, and of the Eglise Saint- 
Paul, same city, in 1874. He deseritie.s liim-e!f as 
theologically a confessional Lutheran. He is the 
author of La Confession d'Augsbourg, Tnirln/iion 
recite il'aprtx Ir lesle It phis autorine. Prccnlfe d'tinc 
introduction (Paris, 1S72); L'Agneau de Dieu. 
Kficit de In passion el de la rfmrreilion du Seigneur 
d'upres Irn t/iuitri- i'mitf/i'liste*. Sum de mitlita- 
tions, de prieres, et de cardiques pour la semaine 
sainte (1873); Vic de Martin Luther, publiir. a 
V occasion du qutifricme ccnttnaire de so naissance 
(1883). He is a contributor to the present work, 
and has written much for other standard publicu- 

PFLEIDERER, pflni'der-er, OTTO: German 
Protestant; b. atStelten (a village near Cannstadt, 
4 m. n.e. of Stuttgart), W (Intern berg, Sept. 1, 1839; 
d. at Grosslichterfelde, Berlin, July 19, 1908. He 
was educated at the University of Tubingen from 
1857 to 1861, and after being for a short, time vicar 
at Eniimen. a village near Iieiitlingen, traveled ex- 
tensively in North Germany, England, and Scot- 
land until 1864. He was then lecturer and privat- 



docent at Tubingen until 1868, after which he was 
a pastor at Heilbronn till 1870, when he went to 
Jena as chief pastor and university preacher. In 
1870 he was appointed professor of theology at the 
University of Jena, and from 1875 till his death he 
was professor of practical theology at the Univer- 
sity of Berlin. He was one of the most learned and 
vigorous defenders of the non-miraculous origin of 
Christianity. He lectured in England on both the 
Hibbert (1885) and the Gifford (1892-93) founda- 
tions. He wrote Die Religion, ihr Wesen und ihre 
Geschichte (2 vols., Leipsic, 1869); Moral und Re- 
ligion (Haarlem, 1870); Der Paxdinismus (Leipsic, 
1873; Eng. transl. by E. Peters, Paulinism, 2 vols., 
London, 1877); F. G. Fickle, Lebensbild einea 
deutschen Denkers und Potrioten (Stuttgart, 1877); 
RdigionsphtQosophie auf geschichtlicher Grundlage 
(Berlin, 1878; 2d ed., 2 vols., 1883-84; Eng. transl. 
by A. Stewart and A. Menzies, Philosophy of Re- 
ligion, 4 vols., London, 1886-88); Zur religidsen 
Verstdndigung (1879); Grundriss der chrisUichen 
Glaubens und Sittenlehre (1880); The Influence of the 
Apostle Paul on the Development of Christianity (Hib- 
bert lectures; London, 1885); Das Urchristentum, 
seine Schriften und Lehren (Berlin, 1885; 2d ed., 
1902; Eng. transl., Primitive Christianity. Its Wri- 
tings and Teachings, 2 vols., New York, 1906-09) ; 
The Development of Theology in (Germany since 
Kant, and its Progress in Great Britain since 1826 
(London, 1890; German ed., Der Entwickdung der 
protestantischen Theologie in Deutschland seii Kant 
und in Grossbritannien seii 1826, Freiburg, 1891); 
Die Ritschlsche Theologie krilisch beleuchtet (Bruns- 
wick, 1891); The Philosophy and Development of 
Religion (Gifford lectures; 2 vols., Edinburgh, 
1894); Evolution and Theology, and other Essays 
(New York, 1900); Das Christusbild des urchrist- 
lichen Glaubens (Berlin, 1903; Eng. transl., The 
Early Christian Conception of Christ: Its Value and 
Significance in the History of Religion, London, 
1905); Die Entstehung des Christentums (Munich, 
1905; Eng. transl., Christian Origins, London, 
1906); Religion und Religionen (1906; Eng. transl., 
Religion and Historic Faiths, London, 1907); and 
Die Entwicklung des Christentums (1907; Eng. 
transl., The Development of Christianity, London, 

PFLUG, pflug, JULIUS: Roman Catholic bishop 
of Naumburg; b. at Eytra (a village aear Zwen- 
kau, 9 m. s.s.w. of Leipsic) 1499; d. at Zeitz (23 
m. s.w. of Leipsic) Sept. 3, 1564. He studied at the 
universities of Leipsic (1510-17) and Bologna 
(1517-19), and returned to Germany in 1519 to be- 
come canon in Meissen. Disturbed by the relig- 
ious controversies at home, he returned to Bologna, 
whence he went to Padua, but in 1521, induced by 
offers of preferment from Duke George, he returned 
to his native state, first of all to Dresden, and then 
to Leipsic, where he still continued to devote him- 
self chiefly to humanistic interests. In 1528-29 he 
was again in Italy, and in 1530 he accompanied 
Duke George to the Diet of Augsburg. At this 
time he became a correspondent of Erasmus, and 
in his letters to him unfolded his plan for restor- 
ing religious peace to Germany. Everything could 

be done, he thought, by the influence of moderate 
men like Erasmus and Melanchthon. Erasmus re- 
plied that things had gone so far that even a coun- 
cil could be of no help; one party wanted revolu- 
tion, the other would tolerate no reform. In 1532 
Pflug became dean of Zeitz, where he had to grapple 
with the practical question of the Reformation, 
since not only was the bishop, who was also dioc- 
esan of Freising, continually absent, but the neigh- 
boring Protestant elector of Saxony was alleging 
claims of jurisdiction over the see. Pflug was in 
favor of lay communion under both kinds, the mar- 
riage of the priesthood, and general moral reform. 
He took part in the Leipsic colloquy in 1534, and 
as dean of Meissen prepared for the clergy of the 
diocese the constitutions reprinted in the Leges seu 
constitutiones ecclesice Budissinensis (1573). As 
one of the envoys of John of Meissen, Pflug en- 
deavored, in 1539, to secure from the papal nuncio, 
Alexander, who was then at Vienna, adhesion to 
his project for a reform of Roman Catholicism along 
the lines already indicated, only to be obliged to 
wait for the decision of the pope. 

The Reformation was now carried through in 
Meissen, and Pflug took refuge in Zeitz, later retir- 
ing to his canonry at Maintz, and thus rendering 
Zeitz more accessible to the Protestant movement. 
In 1541 he was appointed bishop of Naumburg, but 
John Frederick, the elector of Saxony, hating all 
men of moderation, forbade him to occupy his see. 
Pflug was uncertain whether he would accept the 
nomination or not; and meanwhile the elector, 
after vainly urging the chapter to nominate another 
bishop, turned the cathedral of Naumburg over to 
Protestant services and proposed to provide for the 
election of a bishop according to his liking. The 
elector's theologians, though exceedingly dubious 
regarding his course, finally yielded, and John 
Frederick selected Nikolaus von Amsdorf (q.v.) 
for the place and had him ordained by Luther. On 
Jan. 15, 1542, however, Pflug accepted his election 
to the bishopric, and sought to have his rights pro- 
tected by the diets of Speyer (1542, 1544), Nurem- 
berg (1543), and Worms (1545). At the latter diet 
the emperor directed the elector to admit Pflug to 
his bishopric, and to repudiate Amsdorf and the 
secular directors of the chapter. John Frederick 
refused, however, and the question was settled only 
by the Schmalkald War. 

Hitherto Pflug had been in favor of a Roman 
Catholic reform of a far-reaching character, as was 
shown by his part at the Regensburg Conference 
of 1541 (see Regensburg, Conference of); but 
political conditions and his troubles with the elec- 
tor of Saxony now made him a bitter opponent of 
the Reformation. In 1547, when the Schmalkald 
War closed, Pflug took possession of his bishopric 
under imperial protection. He was a prominent 
factor in the negotiations which resulted in the In- 
terim (q.v.), the basis of which was formed by the 
revision of his Formula sacrorum emendandorum 
(ed. C. G. Muller, Leipsic, 1803) by himself, Michael 
Helding, Johannes Agricola, Domingo de Soto, and 
Pedro de Malvenda. Pflug now entertained still 
higher hopes of realizing his reform of Roman 
Catholicism. He took part in negotiations in Pe- 


Pharisees and Sadduoees 



gau, continuing them in a secret correspondence 
with Melanchthon to induce him and Prince George 
of Anhalt to accept a modified sacrificial theory of 
the mass; and he was also concerned in the delib- 
erations between Maurice and Joachim II. and their 
theologians at Juterboch. The result was the first 
draft of the Leipsic Interim, which was submitted 
to the national diet in his presence. 

In his own diocese Pflug refrained from disturb- 
ing the Lutherans, restoring Roman Catholic wor- 
ship only in the chief church in Zeitz and the cathe- 
dral of Naumburg, and even permitting Protestant 
services to be held in the latter. There was almost 
an entire dearth of Roman Catholic clergy, nor could 
he secure a sufficient number from other dioceses. 
He was accordingly forced to allow the married 
ministers whom Amsdorf had placed in office to 
retain their positions, though without Roman 
Catholic ordination. In Nov., 1551, he was present 
for a short time at the Council of Trent. Even 
after the final success of the Protestants in 1552, 
he remained in undisturbed possession of his see, 
thanks to his popularity and moderation; and after 
the abdication of Charles V., he urged the best in- 
terests of Germany in his Orotic de ordinanda re- 
publics Germanics (Cologne, 1562). In 1557 he pre- 
sided at the religious conference at Worms, but was 
unable to prevent the Flacians from wrecking nego- 
tiations. To the last, however, he hoped that, when 
the Council of Trent reassembled, his moderate 
program would be successful in restoring religious 
peace. (G. Kawerau.) 

Bibliography: The earlier biographies are superseded by 
that of A. Jansen, in Neue MiUheilungen aua dem Gebiet 
histor.-antiq. Forachungen, x (1863), parts 1 and 2. Con- 
sult further: A. von Druffel, Briefe und Akten xur Ge- 
achichie dea 16. Johrhunderta, Munich, 1873 sqq.; L. Pas- 
tor, Die kirchlichen Reunionabestrebungen, Freiburg, 1879; 
Sixtua Braun, Naumburger Annalen, pp. 280 sqq., Naum- 
burg, 1892; Rosenfeld, in ZKO, xix (1898), 155 sqq.; E. 
Hoffmann, Naumburg im Zeitalter der Reformation, Leip- 
sic, 1901 ; J. Janssen, Mat. of the German People, vi. 147, 
182-187, 248, 366, 396 sqq., St. Louis, 1903. Scattering 
notices of his activity will be found in many works deal- 
ing with the Reformation. 

PHARAOH. See Egypt, I., 2, § 4. 


Importance; Sources of Knowledge (§ 1). 

Derivation of " Pharisee " (§ 2). 

Derivation of " Sadducee " (f 3). 

Date of Origin (§ 4). 

Relations of Pharisees and Scribes (§ 5). 

Sadducees as Aristocrats (§ 6). 

Relation of Pharisees to Jewish Nationalism (f 7). 

Relation of Sadducees to Nationalism (§ 8). 

Religious Characteristics (§ 9). 

Theological Differences (§ 10). 

Legal and Dogmatic Differences (§ 11). 

Relation of Pharisaism to Religion (§ 12). 

The great importance of a proper understanding 
of the two parties thus named for the history of the 
later Judaism and of primitive Christianity is not 
to be misconceived. The entire history of the 
Jews and of their literature from the Maccabean 
wars until the destruction of Jerusalem is domi- 
nated by this partizan antithesis. The history of 
Jesus himself and of the original Church are largely 
thereby conditioned, since it was particularly in 
conflict with the Pharisees that the doctrine, self- 

witness, and whole active career of Jesus took shape 

as they did, while over against a Pharisaism which 

pushed its way even into Christianity the Apostle 

Paul had to defend the right of his 

z. Impor- mission to the gentiles, and the uni- 

tance; versality of Christian salvation. All 
Sources of the more serious, then, that the sources 

Knowl- toward knowledge of those parties can 
edge. be utilized only under difficulties. The 
Old-Testament books of Ezra, Ne- 
hemiah, Chronicles, Esther, and Daniel, are perti- 
nent merely in relation to the preliminary history 
of the same. And only in sparing measure can even 
the Old-Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigra- 
pha (qq.v.) be employed; among the latter, chiefly 
the Psalms of Solomon (see Pseudepigrapha, II., 
1). In the Gospels and in Acts a few dogmatic 
differences are mentioned as between Pharisees and 
Sadducees; but this allows no certain deduction 
respecting the fundamental and distinctive charac- 
ter of either party. Even the invectives of Jesus 
against the Pharisees have had reference to out- 
growths of their trend, and are not to influence a 
judgment of their actual essence. What data Acts 
and the Pauline epistles contain by way of defining 
the Pharisaical anti-Pauline Jewish Christians, war- 
rant only slight a posteriori deductions regarding 
Pharisaism. Doubtless the most valuable intelli- 
gence concerning the Pharisees and Sadducees is 
given by Josephus, whose data are appreciably 
colored (cf. Baumgarten, Jahrbucher fur deutsche 
Theologie, IX., 616 sqq.; Paret, in TSK, 1856, pp. 
809 sqq.) by his own attenuated Pharisaism and by 
his effort to present Jewish conditions in the most 
favorable light before the Greek and Roman world. 
Patristic data are strongly dependent on Josephus, 
and are, furthermore, untrustworthy. The Jewish 
talmudic literature is of great significance in the 
study of Pharisaism since it is itself elicited by the 
Pharisaic spirit. Yet its anecdotal details about 
the history of the Pharisees and Sadducees are al- 
most wholly valueless, being conceived from the 
standpoint of the later Jewish scholasticism. Yet 
despite this dearth of sources, they still afford a 
fairly distinct portraiture of the two parties. 

The names of the two parties throw some light on 
the origin and character of both parties. Touching 
the meaning of the name " Pharisee " there can 
exist no doubt. The Pharisees are certainly desig- 
nated as the " separated " (cf. the 
2. Deriva- Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan on 

tion of Deut. xxxiii. 16; Josh. ill. 5) — those 
" Pharisee." who by their prescriptive and ascetic 
sanctity hedged themselves apart from 
not only heathenism but also from the rest of Juda- 
ism. This explanation occurs even so early as in 
Suidas, in the Homilies of Clement (xi. 28), in Epi- 
phanius (Hcer., xvi. 1), and Pseudo-Tertullian 
(Hcer., i.). The same is borne out by the ab- 
stract Pertihuth, in Talmudic writings, in the sig- 
nification of abstemiousness or exclusive ascetic 
piety; and by the Talmudic use of the term Peri- 
8chin, in the reproachful sense of separatists. From 
the latter use and the avoidance of the term Phari- 
sees in the thoroughly Pharisaic II Maccabees, one 
may infer that the name arose in hostile circles. 




Pharisees and Sadducees 

The same is also probably true of the name 

" Sadducees." It is a mistake to derive the same 

from the Stoics (Koster, TSK, 1837, p. 164); more 

plausible is it to explain the Sadducees as Zaddikim, 

" the just," from their stress upon the 

3. Deriva- simple law in contrast with Pharisa- 

tion of ical traditions (Derenbourg) ; or their 

"Saddu- strictness in dealing penal sentences 
cees." (Reville). Only on linguistic grounds, 
again, is there warrant for deriving the 
term (Gk. Saddaukaios, Heb. Zadduki), from a 
personal name of which no trace exists after the 
exile. Such a gratuitous hypothesis (Gratz, Mon- 
tet, Legarde) can be justified only by extreme em- 
barrassment. There is, on the other hand, great 
probability in favor of the hypothesis (Geiger), 
whereby the name is traced to that Zadok who was 
high priest in the time of David and Solomon, in 
whose line the high-priestly dignity continued dur- 
ing nearly the entire dominion of David's royal 
house (II Sam. viii. 17; I Kings i. 32; Ezek. xl. 
46; Josephus, Ant., X., viii. 6). In the period after 
the exile, not only the high priest Joshua (Neh. xl. 
11; cf. I Chron vi.; Josephus, Ant., X., viii. 6), 
but also, according to Josephus, all the high priests 
descending from him down to Menelaus, hence also 
all the high-priestly families of their lineage — be- 
longed to the house of Zadok. According to this 
view the name " Sadducees " denotes the descend- 
ants of the high priest Zadok, together with their 
adherents. Which theory is also favored by anal- 
ogy of the " Bo€thusians," who in the Talmudic 
writings appear as an offshoot of the Sadducees; or 
as a sect akin to them. For the " Bogthusians " can 
be named Sadducees only through the circumstance 
that Herod the Great adopted the line of the Alex- 
andrine Boethos, whose granddaughter he married, 
into the succession of the high-priestly families 
(Josephus, Ant., XV., ix. 3). If the name Sad- 
ducees denotes the Zadokites, it is impossible to 
deny all actual connection with the Zadokite high- 
priestly families, and to identify them with the 
Maccabean princes and their following, who had 
obtained that name only by way of reproach (Well- 
hausen). It is probable that the name Zadokites 
was given to the party by their enemies; but this 
was possible only in case the real Zadokite high 
priests formed the stock of the party; so that a 
partizan following could then readily join the same. 
In this light, the two party names of Pharisees and 
Sadducees are distinct in so far as that the former 
has reference to religious aims, the latter to con- 
nection with the high-priestly nobility. This does 
not controvert the correctness of the given deriva- 
tion; indeed, the point becomes thereby more 
prominent that the Pharisaical party structure took 
its departure from religious motives; the Saddu- 
cean, predominantly from aristocratic interests. 

Partizan opposition between Pharisees and Sad- 
ducees probably arose in the first decades of the 
Maccabean era. A Jewish tradition (in the Baraitha 
to Rabbi Nathan's Aboth), respecting the found- 
ing of the Sadducees' party through two pupils 
of Antigonus of Socho, would carry the origins 
back to the close of the second century b.c. But 
apart from other improbabilities in this account, 

which dates only from the Middle Ages, its chrono- 
logical correctness is precluded by the certified ex- 
istence of the Sadducees' cause at a considerably 

earlier period. According to Josephus 

4. Date of (Ant., XIII., x. 6), an open conflict 

Origin, between Pharisees and Sadducees 

broke out as early as toward the close 
of the administration of Hyrcanus, about 115 b.c. 
But this presupposes an antecedent and quiet 
development of both parties, and Hyrcanus him- 
self was brought up in the Pharisaic doctrine 
(Josephus, Ant., XIII., x. 5). Essentially oppo- 
site is the incidental remark of Josephus m his 
narrative of the last executive years of Jonathan 
(Ant., XIII., v. 9), that about that time there 
were three " sects " among the Jews: Pharisees, 
Sadducees, and Essenes. The origin of the 
Pharisees and Sadducees falls, therefore, at its 
latest, during the rule of Jonathan; but it can not 
be set back much further, since no trace of their 
names appears earlier to show that the parties were 
forming. The assumption is forbidden that they 
arose before the Maccabean insurrection. Nor may 
appeal be made to the presence of the Hasideans 
(see Hasmoneans, § 1) in the pre-Maccabean peri- 
od. For the Pharisees are not to be identified with 
these. While one can date the Pharisees and Sad- 
ducees as parties back to the beginning of the post- 
exilic period (A. Geiger, Ursprung und Uebersetz- 
ung der Bibel, pp. 26 sqq., 56 sqq., Breslau, 1857) 
only by resting upon conjecture, it is possible that 
the partizan antithesis but continued an older con- 
tention, such as might have taken shape prior to 
the Maccabean uprising; indeed, opposition of in- 
terests similar to these appeared in the pre-Macca- 
bean era. 

This first of all appears in the class distinction 
between the Pharisees and Sadducees. Soon after 
the return, there began to develop an opposition 

between the scribes, who insisted upon 

5. Rela- an absolutely strict prescriptive life, 

tions of and the adherents of the aristocratic 

Pharisees high-priestly lines, who favored the 

and Scribes, gentiles. This antithesis accentuated 

itself in the Syrian and Hellenistic era, 
and led to the formation of parties during the rule 
of Antiochus Epiphanes. At that time the rising 
party of radical Hellenism, which sought to sup- 
plant Mosaic Judaism by Greek manners and cus- 
toms, was withstood by the coterie of the Hasideans, 
who determined to adhere with the utmost rigor 
to the Jewish law as the unconditional norm of life. 
At that time the leaders of the former party were 
the high-priestly aristocrats; those of the second, 
the scribes. A similar clas* distinction formed the 
basis of the conflict between Pharisees and Sad- 
ducees. True, the Pharisees are not identical with 
the scribes. From Acts xxiii. 9, it appears that in 
the apostolic age not all scribes were Pharisees, 
but that there were also Sadducee or neutral scribes; 
and only a portion of the Pharisees consisted of 
scribes (Mark ii. 16; Luke v. 30). Indeed, a char- 
acteristic distinction comes forth in the very use of 
the two terms in the Gospels. Quite often they 
speak of the Pharisees, where only individuals of 
that sect are meant (Matt. ix. 19-34, etc.). On the 

Pharisees and Badduoeee 



other hand, where the matter turns on particular 
scribes, the text mentions " certain of the scribes " 
(Matt. ix. 3, xii. 38, etc.)* Only where the scribes 
are named in conjunction with the Pharisees is the 
general expression used for the former with refer- 
ence to individuals (Mark ii. 16; Luke v. 30, etc.). 
On the contrary, " the scribes," without other qual- 
ification, is never used of individuals, but every- 
where only of the entire category (Matt. vii. 29, 
xvii. 10, etc.). Hence the scribes are conceived as 
a class; the Pharisees as a compact party, such as 
is represented even in the case of individual mem- 
bers. Occasionally in the addresses of Jesus to the 
scribes and Pharisees there is to be remarked the 
distinctive reference to the learned legal science of 
the former and the prescriptive manner of life ad- 
vanced by the latter. So the scribes appear as 
theorists in contrast with the Pharisees as practi- 
tioners. For the most part, however, the two were 
likely to be united in one and the same person. 
This close affinity between Pharisees and scribes 
crops out alike in Josephus, in the New Testament, 
and in the Talmud. Where Josephus speaks of 
Jewish scribes, he generally implies that they are 
adherents of the Pharisaic school (War, I., xxxiii. 
2-3, II., xvii. 8; Ant., XVII., vi. 2). Conversely, 
where he brings the Pharisees into his narrative, 
he assumes that they make disciples and give in- 
struction in the law, hence are scribes {Ant., XIII., 
x. 6). Again, certain scribes well known and emi- 
nent in Talmudic sources, he designates as Pharisees 
(Ant., XV., i. 1, x. 4; Life, xxxviii.). In the New 
Testament, the scribes and Pharisees are now 
grouped together in the discourses of Jesus (Matt. 
v. 20, xxiii. 2 sqq.; cf. Luke vii. 30), and are in- 
troduced as acting in common (Matt. xii. 38, and 
elsewhere). Moreover, the two designations often 
vary in parallel passages, as well as in the relation 
of the same Gospel. Lastly, the post-Maccabean 
scribes of the Mishna speak of one another as the 
"Learned" (hakamim); whereas in the contro- 
versial objections of the Sadducees they are termed 
" Pharisees " (Judaim, iv. 6, 7, 8) and advocate 
Pharisaic views. From all this it is to be assumed 
that the Pharisees were composed of the leading 
scribes and their following, and were the practical 
exponents of the theoretical knowledge of the law. 
On the contrary, the Sadducees, like the Hellen- 
ists of the pre-Maccabean era, had their nucleus in 
the Jewish aristocracy. Those magnates (" mighty 
ones "; Josephus, Ant., XIII., vi. 2; cf. War, I., v. 

3), who as counselors of Alexander 

6. Saddu- Jannaeus were by him endowed with 

cees as the highest honors, but were thrust 

Aristocrats, aside by Queen Salome Alexandra, 

were undoubtedly Sadducees. For 
their persecution took place under the Pharisees' 
rule of terror. In his general depiction of the Sad- 
ducees, Josephus says expressly that they had only 
the rich on their side, but not the common people 
(Ant., XIII., x. 6), that this doctrine won but few, 
but they the first in dignity (Ant., XVIII., i. 4). 
And in the Psalms of Solomon, wherein the joy of 
the Pharisaic circles over the downfall of the Sad- 
ducees in the year 69 B.C. finds distinct vent, the 
latter are described as eye-serving courtiers and un- 

just judges (iv. 1-10, ii. 3-5). Hence the Sadducees' 
aristocratic character is distinctive and proper. 
But if Josephus (Life, i.) designates the priests in 
general as the nobility of the Jewish people, at all 
events this does not apply in a social connection. 
And it is erroneous (Geiger, Hausrath, Montet) to 
suppose that the Sadducees represented the inter- 
ests of the priesthood on a preponderant scale; 
there lay no intrinsic objection in the nature of 
Pharisaism to the priesthood as such, and there ap- 
pear to have been not a few priestly Pharisees (cf . 
Josephus, Life, i. — ii., xxxix.; Mishna Eduyoth, ii. 
6-7, viii. 2; Aboth, ii. 8, iii. 2; Shekalim, iv. 4, vi. 
1). It was rather the high-priestly families that 
offset the rest of the priesthood in the manner of 
a distinctive aristocracy. Under the Maccabean 
Simon, the adherents thereof effected their recep- 
tion into the senate; while in the time of Pompey, 
they sat and voted in the sanhedrim (Ps. of Sol., 
iv. 2), which had grown out of the earlier senate, 
and represented a remnant of political independ- 
ence, while their influence here was limited by the 
unaristocratic assessors of the scribes' class, yet in 
a certain measure it was secured by the fact that 
the high priests, who now constantly belonged to 
their circles, held the presidency in the sanhedrim. 
These " chief priests," as the officiating and former 
high priests, together with their kindred, are called 
in the New Testament (Schttrer, in TSK, 1872, pp. 
614 sqq.), are therefore at once the most important 
element of the Jewish aristocracy, and the proper 
nucleus of the Sadducean party. Josephus men- 
tions only incidentally of Ananus that he belonged 
to the Sadducees (Ant., XX., ix. 1). In the Psalms 
of Solomon the Sadducee members of the sanhe- 
drim appear as unworthy directors of the temple 
worship (i. 8, ii. 1-5, viii. 12). In Acts the Saddu- 
cees are expressly designated as those empowered 
with dispensing penal correction (iv. 1-3), as also 
the high priest's party (v. 17). Certain reminders 
of the Sadducaic complexion of the high priest's 
retinue occur in talmudic sources (cf. Geiger, ut 
sup., pp. 109 sqq.). 

In keeping with this class distinction between 
Pharisees and Sadducees is the national attitude 
of the two parties. One may not think of the Sad- 
ducees as the national and patriotic 
7. Relation party; of the Pharisees, on the con- 
of Pharisees trary, as an unattached, international 
to Jewish society. To the Pharisees might better 
Nationalism, be applied the term " national "; they 
were more frequently the opposers of 
the oppressors of the people. It is to the Pharisees 
that Rabbi Hillel's word applies: " Do not sepa- 
rate thyself from the congregation " (Pirke Aboth, 
ii. 4); and they desired that the benefits of the 
theocracy should benefit all, without exception 
(II Mace. ii. 17). Hence the Pharisees had not only 
the women on their side (Josephus, Ant., XVII., 
ii. 4), but the masses generally (Ant., XIII., x. 
6). Yet on another side one may not perceive 
in them the healthy citizenship, the true kernel of 
the people, the truly national party. As a faction 
of the scribes, they pursued only distinctively re- 
ligious aims. It was merely in a religious connec- 
tion that they desired the welfare of the people and 



Pharisees and Sadduoees 

the maintenance of what was peculiarly Jewish. 
And if they sought to extend their leadership over 
all other spheres of life, their sole motive was that 
these might thus become dominated by the thor- 
oughly prescriptive form of their religious aims. 
There resulted an externally theocratic trend of 
policy, and this was naturally contradicted by a 
totally non-Jewish government; so that, theo- 
retically, the Pharisees did not concede the legality 
of tribute to such a regime (Matt. xxii. 17). They 
endured government by a heathen power as brought 
about by the divine providence, but only in the 
expectation of its future downfall. And the hatred 
latent in such an attitude easily converted itself 
into fanatical deeds. But yet again, they could 
sacrifice the theocratical idea to an untheocratical 
Jewish prince like Alexander Jannseus. Further- 
more, how little the Pharisees were disposed to 
bridge the gap between priesthood and people ap- 
pears from their especially strict precepts regard- 
ing the tithe and other dues in favor of priests and 
Temple. Indeed, they set themselves over against 
the people with the utmost exclusiveness as a spir- 
itual aristocracy, from which arose their party 
name, " the separated," the haughty behavior 
charged to their reproach by Jesus (Matt, xxiii. 5 
sqq.), and the contempt with which they looked 
down upon the rest of the people as ignorant, not 
knowing the law, and unclean (John vii. 49; cf. the 
" Letter of Aristeas," dating from the time of 
Herod, in E. Kautsch, Apokryphen, ii. 67, 140 sqq., 
Tubingen, 1900). So the Pharisees' popularity 
among the common people had yet its limits. 

Still less, however, is a national and patriotic 
attitude to be discerned in the case of the Saddu- 
cees. Their connection with the Hasmoneans 
(q.v.) came about only as the admin- 
8. Relation istration of the same lost its incipiently 
of Sad- Jewish national character. The goal 
ducees to of their political action was, first of ail, 
Nationalism, the strengthening of their aristocratic 
caste. Only as dictated to them 
through this class interest, did they stand on the 
national side. The circumstance that the first Has- 
monean who ruled after the transition of Hyrcanus 
to the Sadducees' party, Aristobulus I., was sur- 
named the " Philhellene," throws light on their 
Hellenistic tendency. Subsequently, they became 
servile friends of the Romans. All the more over- 
bearing and hard-hearted were they at that time in 
regard to the common people (Josephus, War, II., 
viii 14; Ant., XX., ix. 1). Hence their unpopu- 
larity was so great that, in order to " make them- 
selves possible " at all, they had to govern, in the 
administration of their offices, according to Pharisaic 
principles (Josephus, Ant., XVIII., i. 4). Never- 
theless, neither Pharisees nor Sadducees were of an 
antinational character directly. The Pharisees did 
not manifest that purely separatistic demeanor of 
the Hasideans or of the Essenes. Neither were the 
Sadducees willing, like the radical Hellenists of the 
pre-Maccabean era, to surrender the people's na- 
tional existence, its faith and its law. Obviously, 
then, after the founding of the legally national Mac- 
cabean state, the extreme elements of both the pre- 
viously existing tendencies were eliminated. The 

most partizan among the Hasideans receded into 
small groups, which led eventually to the forma- 
tion of the Essenes' order. And the radical Hellen- 
ists perished in the conflicts with the Maccabeans. 
Thus the more moderate elements were left over, 
and they merged, in turn, into the broad stream of 
the popular life whence they had originally issued. 

With this alteration of parties, however, the fun- 
damental religious trend persisted. The Pharisees, 

like the pre-Maccabean party of scribes, 
o> Religious assiduously cultivated a strictly legal- 
Character- istic piety, holding themselves aloof 
istics. from the world (Josephus, War, II., 

viii. 14; Ant., XVII., ii. 4; Life, 
xxxviii.; Acts xxiii. 3, xxvi. 5; Phil. iii. 5). Relig- 
ion determined all their aims. But they set the 
essence of religion in the knowledge and fulfilment 
of the law. From this one-sided and legal drift of 
their piety there emerged all the defects and ex- 
cesses of the same, such as are exhibited quite 
sharply in the New Testament. They built or gar- 
nished the sepulchers of the prophets (Matt, xxiii. 
29 sqq.), but had none of their spirit; they zeal- 
ously disputed over their prophecies (Luke xvii. 
20), but their belief in the same simply sanctified 
their venality. They labored zealously for the 
propagation of their faith (Matt, xxiii. 15), but only 
in behalf of outward results (cf . Sieffert, Die Heir 
denbekekrung im Alien Testament und im Juden- 
thum, pp. 43 sqq., 1908; see Proselytes). Their 
faith was no inwardly liberating power, so that for 
them the law was but an enslaving yoke (John 
viii. 32; cf. Gal. v. 1). Out of this came the mi- 
nute and anxious manner of fulfilling the law (Matt, 
xxiii. 23), the externalizing of the entire religious 
and moral life, the mechanicalism of their prayer 
(Matt. vi. 5 sqq.), the stress upon fasting (Matt, 
ix. 14); valuation of conspicuous borders to their 
garments, and broad phylacteries (Matt, xxiii. 5), 
the literalness of service in observing the sabbath 
(Matt. xii. 2, 9-13; Luke xiii. 10 sqq., xiv. 4 
sqq.; John v. 1 sqq., ix. 14 sqq.). From this source 
arose their prescriptions of cleanliness (Matt. xv. 
2, xxiii. 25; Mark vii. 2 sqq.; Luke xi. 38 sqq.), 
their preference for external acts of devotion above 
the plainest duties (Matt. xv. 5; Mark vii. 11 sqq.). 
This was indeed a straining at gnats and swallow- 
ing of camels (Matt, xxiii. 24). Of course, it was 
possible to practise all this in good faith and with 
honest sentiments. This is evidenced by the ex- 
amples of Nicodemus, Joseph of Arimathea, and in 
particular, too, by that of Paul, who even though 
recalling his bygone disquietude with aversion 
(Rom. vii. 7 sqq.), yet thinks back without shame 
to his Pharisaic past (Phil. iii. 5 sqq.; Acts xxiii. 
6, xxvi. 5). Only often enough that emphasis upon 
external acts led to complete self-satisfaction (Matt, 
xix. 16 sqq.; Luke xviii. 10) and to ostentation of 
piety (Matt. vi. 5 sqq., 16, xv. 7 sqq.; Mark vii. 6, 
xii. 40; Luke xx. 47), extending even to the en- 
deavor to conceal the lack of inner moral integrity 
by means of the outward show of devout deport- 
ment (Matt, xxiii. 25 sqq.; Luke xi. 39 sqq.). In 
the Talmud, besides, there occur not a few beau- 
tiful sentences, urging toward right thinking and 
true humanity (especially in Pirke Aboih). But 

Pharisees and Sadducees 



they stand isolated in a wilderness of external pre- 
cepts which smother the spirit of the law in their 
casuistical forcing of its letter. In distinction from 
all this, the Sadducees evinced a strong inclination 
toward other than Jewish manners; and, consist- 
ently with this trait, they were fain to guard the 
advantages of their social standing, their culture 
and possessions, from prejudice in the way of a 
troublesome piety. They were charged with lead- 
ing an effeminate mode of life (Josephus, Ant., 
XVIII., i. 3). The fourth of the Psalms of Solo- 
mon gives a picture, inspired by Pharisaism, of the 
worldly, even dissolute, life of the Sadducees and 
of their hypocritical show of pious ardor. And a 
late rabbinical tradition (Aboth of Rabbi Nathan) 
tells of their luxury in the article on tableware, and 
their scoffing at the economy of the worrying 

This also affords a ready key to the particular 
theological disputes between the Pharisees and 
Sadducees. From the different fundamental re- 
ligious trend of the two parties there 

10. Theo- most immediately results their anti- 
logical Dif- thetical relation toward that oral tra- 

ferences. dition which had been early created 
by the scribes of the past age, through 
exposition and application of the law, for a sort of 
hedge to the same (Josephus, Ant., XIII., xvi. 2; 
Matt. xv. 2; Mark vii. 3). This tradition was made 
of binding force by the Pharisees; by the Sadducees 
it was rejected (Josephus, Ant., XIII., x. 6). 
Through their endeavor to regulate the whole of 
human life, down to every detail, by means of the 
law, the Pharisees were led to lay great stress on 
enlarging the scope of the same by tradition, even 
to ascribe a paramount importance to the latter in 
comparison with the less exactly defined law (Mish- 
nah, Sanhedrin, xi. 3). Ultimately, therefore, tra- 
dition, like the law, came to be traced back to 
Moses (Pirke Aboth, i. 11 sqq.), and so came the 
possibility of invalidating a legal provision by vir- 
tue of a traditional precept (cf. Mark vii. 11). 
Moreover, the Sadducees did not altogether avoid 
developing an exegetical school tradition, partly 
diverging from the tradition of the Pharisees (Me- 
gillath Taanit, 10); partly, indeed, accordant with 
it (Sandehrin, xxxiii. 6. Horayoth 4a). But 
while they admitted no authority transcending the 
law, they so emphasized independence of judg- 
ment that they made it a boast to contradict their 
teachers themselves as far as possible (Josephus, 
Ant., XVIII., i. 4). But their principled rejection 
of legal tradition resulted partly from their op- 
position to the Pharisaic scribes, partly from their 
desire to be constrained as little as possible through 
legal regulations. Hence they repudiated all re- 
fining deductions from the law, and appealed sim- 
ply to the letter thereof, which was easier to cir- 
cumvent. Thus the letter of the law became for 
them their only categorical religious principle. 
Sometimes, again, they enforced the strictness of 
the letter, in contrast with its attenuation; par- 
ticularly in imposing penal sentences, they were 
" more hard-hearted than all other Jews " (Josephus, 
Ant., XX., ix. 1). Jesus himself experienced this 
hard-heartedness on the part of his Sadducee judges. 

This divergent attitude of the Pharisees and 
Sadducees in respect to the letter of the law and to 
tradition, also explains a number of the particular 
legal disputes which are attributed to 
zi. Legal them in Talmudic sources, many of 
and Dog- which are historical. In certain cases 
matic Dif- the Sadducees, as it appears, repre- 
ferences. sented the priesthood; in the rest, a 
definite principle of opposition is not 
to be ascertained. To be noted also are some dog- 
matic differences, among which the most important 
was the one touching the doctrine of resurrection; 
not, as Josephus presents it in Hellenizing fashion 
(War, II., viii. 14; Ant., XVIII., i. 3, 4), the doc- 
trine of the immortality of the soul. If the Saddu- 
cees rejected the doctrine in question, they advo- 
cated the older position of Judaism. For the like 
doctrine was not at all proposed in the earlier Old- 
Testament Scriptures, and not with complete dis- 
tinctness before its appearance in the Book of Dan- 
iel. The Sadducees' position was reinforced by 
their directly practical contemplation of earthly 
conditions. On the other hand, the fact that the 
Pharisees decidedly espoused the doctrine of resur- 
rection was quite in accord with their very dili- 
gent fostering of hopes in the Messiah, which hopes, 
like their doctrine itself, on account of their ava- 
ricious temperament, assumed a strongly sensual 
cast. In like manner the doctrine concerning angels, 
which had been elaborated by the Pharisaic scribes 
on the basis of the Old Testament, was rejected by 
the Sadducees (Acts xxiii. 8) consistently with their 
preoccupation with mundane affairs. According to 
Josephus the Pharisees and Sadducees also diverged 
in their conception as to the relation between des- 
tiny and human free-will (War, II., viii. 14; Ant., 
XIII., v. 9, XVIII., i. 3). This seems to indicate 
that the Pharisees, in their religious decisiveness, 
made everything dependent on divine providence; 
whereas the Sadducees, as men of practical affairs, 
deducted the elements of welfare and calamity from 
human transactions. 

The further development of the religious life 
could not attach itself to the materialistic and 
worldly bent of the Sadducees, but only to 
Pharisaism, which, however legalistic, 
12. Rela- traditional, and mercenary, was yet 
tion of distinguished by a certain religious 
Pharisaism potentiality, as appears from the rela- 
te Religion, tion of primitive Christianity to both 
parties. The contact between Chris- 
tianity and the Sadducees' party was but slight and 
external. Enraged at the Christian revival of the 
hope of resurrection, and threatened in their hier- 
archical position by the Messianic claims of Jesus 
and the accordant expectations of the Apostolic 
Church, the Sadducees persecuted both those teach- 
ings with scorn and violence. With Pharisaism, 
however, Christianity had to reach an understand- 
ing on inward grounds quite from the start. Pro- 
ceeding from the common platform of the law and 
the Messianic hopes, Jesus attacked the formal- 
ism of the Pharisees and their entire external- 
izing of the moral and religious life in that he 
coupled the profoundest vitalization of the same 
with the renovating forces which emanated from 


kia own person. The hatred thai he thereby brought 
Upon himself on the part of the Pharisees also fren- 
zied the popular masses. But when afterward in 
the apostolic congregation the proclaiming of 
Christ's resurrection pushed to the foreground, over- 
shadowing, in a manner, the content of his own 
preaching. Pharisaism's antithesis to Christianity 
needed so far behind the vehement persecution of 
the same through the Sndducees, that it now be- 
came feasible for Pharisaic elements to rur, k :  (heir 
way into the Christian assembly (Acts xv. 1 aqq,). 
It was only where the logical issues of Christianity 
became voiced in direct opposition to an absolute 
enforcement of the law (somewhat reservedly, at 
fint, by the deacon Stephen, afterward more vig- 
orously and with practical application by the Apos- 
tle Paul) that the Pharisaic enmity awoke, in utter 
bitterness. However, it was precisely his own Phar- 
i-aic training in youth that moved the Apostle Paul, 
after his radical breach with his past, to ciicaze in 
a conflict with the Pharisaic party, not only out- 
skle, but especially within Christianity; wherein lie 
prevailed to illustrate the peculiar principles nf 
Christianity in contrast with the legal religion of the 
Old Testament, in a degree equated by no other 
Apostle. F. SierFEHT. 

Bmuwumr: J. Wellhausen, Die Pharimier and die Sad- 
inciter, UreifiiwaJd, 1874; A. <i<-ieer, .•i.idduciler und Phnri- 
wtir. BroUu. 1863: ulna, in J udieche ZeiltcArifl, ii (1843), 
11-54: M. Friedlindcr. Die nlioiuttn Beucoun e m inner- 
iaB> da Judtnluim im Zeilalier Jeeu, Berlin, 1905. Cou- 
mit further: GnmnniD, De Judaarum dittiptina arrant, 
Leip.ip, 1833-41; id™. De phtiowtpkiti Saddm:<nirwn. ill. 
1836-38; De Phantrritmo Judaoram Alexandrine, ib. 
IMS- .50; Dr eolltaioPharaaonun, it,. Ifiol: A F. Gfrtnjr, 
Dot Jahthmdtrt dea Heiie, i. 309 sqo... Snaienrt. isb; 
J- A, B. Lutlerbeck. Die ntutcetamentlichtrn Lchrbcnrilfc, 
L 147-222. Main.. 1*52; I. M. Jcait. Gachichl, del Judcn- 
lliwi tad trine Seclen, L 197 «qo... 2111 nqq., Ulpidei 
1857-59; A. M Oiler, in the Sileunaeberichre of the Vianaa 
Academy, philoeaph.-bia Wheal elaas, uiiv [IME&, M- 
181; J. Dereuboum. Mirf. de la Palatine, pp. 75-78. 1 10— 
144. 432-158. Pare, 1867; Hume, in ZWT. 1887. pp. 
131-179, 239-1'o.t; A. linn-mil. Snil-.<laifiilliche Zrilyr- 
tehiehte. i. 129 aqq.. ItciiWl.cTi-. Isiis, En*, tnuud.. Hid. 
alike N.T.Tina, 4 vols., London, 1805; A. Kuonen. De 
Gadedientt ran Itratt. ii. 338 -.171 , l-"-i ■.■■['1-. 2 vob., Haarlem, 
1880-70; J. Cohen. Da Pharitimt. 2 vole.. Paris. IBWl 
A. M. Fairbairn. Studitt in the Life of ChriM. pp. 185 aqq., 
lj.i..].>n. I«l; Elunrth. in J/rj.-M.-i'i fur ,h.- II',' .,.<,/..,■•'.' 
dei Judentumt, ix (1882). 1-37. 61-95; J. Hamburger. 
Real-mevelopadU fur Bibtt und Talmud, ii. 10.18 nqq.. 
Slrdita, 18X1; E. Moatet. £wri no- la angina da par- 
tia tadueien el pharitien. Paris, 188J; idem, in J A. 1887. 
pp. 415-123; R. MoekuitoiJi, Vhriit and the Jeirieh Laic, 
pp. 39 eqq.. London. IMS; F. Weber, Die LeJiren dee Tal- 
mud. Leip»ic. 1888; idem. J udixhe TAeotoaie auf Grand 
da Talmud und wnoaMto Schriflm, pp. 10-14, 44-16. 
ib. 1897; E. Davaine. La Sadductiame. HontaubsD, 1888; 
A. JOlicher, Die Gleichnitreden Jeeu, ii. 54 aqq.. 649 sqq., 
Freibant. 1S.-S-K9; A. B. Bruce, Kingdom of 'jW. pp. 
187 wja. Edinburgh. 1889: J. L. N'urheJ. Etude eur le 
pnrti pAnriiien. Loiumnn.', 1891; H. E. Rylc, ud M. It, 
Judoi. Fnlni of Solomon, pp. xlviii. -lii. . r: ir „l,n,| L „.. 
1891; J. F. W. Bouraet. item PreditH in ihrrm GegentaU 
turn Judcnlum. Guttingca, 1892; idem, Die Rtlioion dm 
Judenlunu im nevleitamrnlHchen Zeilalter. pp. 161-168, 
Bmtin, 1903; Kroger, in TO. bunv (18941, 431-498; O. 
Holttmann. r \'eut,:yt.,'n-i,!U-'': Z. ■!,!"• ><"'■■>>■. po. 158 Hqq.,,n-. IS'i.-,; A HcTtholcl. Ill- .Sttllun,/ , I, r I, -rarHhn 
und det Juden ru den Premden, pp. 123-256, Tubingen. 
1898; I. Elboaen. Die Reliaiimtaniehnuuno dtr WUi Mar, 
i>riio, lt*)t: S. Sohwhlvr, Dkl'kattidim, Berlin, 1904; (i. 
Molscher. Der Saddtaaiimu*. Eint kritiecht Unleriuchvno 
tut tpalMren Jwirnreliainneoiiehirhlr, Lcipaia. 1906: B, 
Bunbuscr. SadduaieT in Area. Betiduaaen in Alexander 

Jannai und Salotne. Franklort. 1907; SchQrcr, QtwchieMe, 
It 380-119, Eng. . II.. ii. 1-13 (sontauu bibliog- 
raphy); DB. iii 82I-.-M. iv. rnu-,152; EB, iv. 4234-tO. 
4321-2B; JE. ix. 661-666. x. 830-833; KL. ix. 1990-98; 
Vlgouroux. Diclionnaire, part xxxi.. pp. 206-218; Jncobus. 
Diaianaru. pp. 886-688, 760-761. Magaiine literature ii 
indicated in Richardson. Encyclopaedia, pp. 848, 989; the 

life of Christ, such m ttiow of P«t«r (Emumusw IX - 
1 Keim. and In those on the history 

;,i„l (In, 


ilietiloKiaii 1 ci'cle-hstk-al statesman; b. at 

l.nrissM, Thessaly. Jan. 2. r >, ITS!; ii. at Athens Apr. 
21, I860. With but meager education, he Was or- 
dained deacon at Larissa in 1-SII2 and priest at Bu- 
charest it i INI I , after which he was in charge of t lie 
(Irvek church in Vienna for some eight years. Here 
he was brought into contact not only with his com- 
patriots who were interested in the revival of the 
Creek nation, hut also with the philhellcne Fred- 
crick North, fifth earl of Guilford, who wished him 
t'j accept a theological professorship in the pro- 
jected university of Corfu. Pharmakides accord- 
ingly studied for two years at Gottingen, but re- 
turned to (Ireece on the outbreak of the tireek war 
for independence. Here he was active until his 
death in the reorganization of the national church 
and the establishment of an educational system. 
Circumstances, however, hampered his efforts until 
IS:W when the liavariati regency made him presi- 
dent of the committee to investigate the condition 
of the Greek Church. As secretary of the Synod of 
Nauplia, he was the main factor in securing the 
declaration of independence of (he Greek Church in 
the same year. The conservative influence was, 
however, too strong for him, and after writing his 
" On Zechartah, son of Berechiah " (Athens, l.tlK), 
" The Pseudonymous Germao " (IS!W), and " On 
the t lath " 1 1 .SID), he was removed from his secre- 
tariate in 1S;W and a]i]Kiiuteil profess-or of philol- 
ogy. He now published in his own defense his 
" Apology " (Athens. IS-1IJ), and uti remit lingly con- 
tinued the stniggle for the freedom of the Creek 
Church. His program was finally carried out. aided 
largely by his " The Symwhc Volume: or, Concern- 
ing Truih " (Athens, lS.iL'), when, in 1 SS2, the Greek 
Church was made entirely independent except for 
et-cledastieal preroga lives of honor accorded to the 
patriarch of Constantinople. After this last work, 
I'liartuak tiles appeared little in public. At. the time 
of his death he was working on a large historical 
polemic against the Roman Catholic Church. Among 
his earlier public a1 ions mention may be made of his 
commentary on the New Testament (7 vols.. Athens, 
1844). (Pwupp Mevbh.) 

Iiiii].i'»ii[Appiv; liiiuiri|.li].-:il minor is found in tho " Anob 
ogy," ul «up. COMIlltt " E.-iiUgelicol Herald," pp. 203- 
216. Atl»™. 18IUI; Q. L von -Miiurer. Dos griechieelus 
Vol*, vol. U.. HeidcltierB. I83S| C. A. Bnmdis. MUtti- 
lunQtn ulier Griwhtnland. i-nl. lii , I-.i)-i.'. ]S4L'; R. Ni™- 
Ini. Ortchichle drr neunricchiirhen Literalur, it.. 1878; 
O. F. HertibM*. (7. ».-'nr -hi- tln..l„ntandt, vol*, iii.-iv.. 
Gotha. 187S; T.SK. 1841, pp. 7-63. 




at Bar Harbor, Me., Oct. 13, 1890. He graduated 
at the University of Pennsylvania in 1837, and 
studied at Andover and Union Theological sem- 
inaries; was pastor of Pine Street Church, Boston, 
1842-48, and professor of sacred rhetoric at An- 
dover Theological Seminary, 1848-79, and presi- 
dent from 1869. He was a master of English, and 
distinguished in his teaching and writing. He 
published The Still Hour (Boston, 1859); Hymns 

and Chairs (Andover, 1860); The New Birth (Bos- 
ton, 1867); Sabbath Hours (1870); Studies of the 
Old Testament (1879); The Theory of Preaching 
(1881) ; Men and Books (1882) ; My Portfolio (1882) ; 
English Style (1883); My Study (1885); and My 
Note Book (1890). 

Biblioorapht: E. S. Phelps, Austin Pftelps; a 
New York, 1891; D. L. Furber, in Btbliothtca Sacra, 
xlviii (1891), 545-585. 


I. Geography and Topography. 

General Description; Acre, Achiib 

Region South of lyre (| 2). 
Tyre (§ 3). 

Region between Tyre and Sidon (§4). 
Sidon (§ 5). 


Sidon to Beirut (| 6). 
Beirut to al-Shakkai (| 7). 
Tripolis and Environs (| 8). 
Extreme Northern Phenicia 
Names and Ethnology. 
Names (| 1). 
Ethnology (| 2). 


III. Religion. 
Deities (| 1). 
Cult (f 2). 

IV. History. 

Till the Assyrian Period (I 1). 
Assyrian to the Roman Period (1 2). 
Trade and Discovery (| 3). 

I. Geography and Topography: The term Sido- 
nions or Sidonians is employed in the Old Testa- 
ment to denote the Phenicians (cf. I Kings v. 6, 
xvi. 31), though their country is called Phenicia or 
Phenice (I* Esd. ii. 17 sqq.; II Mace. 

i. General iii. 5, etc.; Acts xi. 19, xv. 3, xxi. 2). 
Description; The boundaries of the country can 
Acre, not be determined definitely, for the 
Achzib. scanty allusions to the Phenicians do 
not tell how far inland their domains 
extended. That they did extend inland is certain 
(cf. I Kings v. 9), and Josephus states (Ant., XIII., 
v. 6; War, II., xviii. 1, IV., ii. 3) that the city of 
Cedasa or Cydyssa was a Tynan stronghold on the 
border of Galilee. The Phenician coast falls into 
three natural divisions: southern Phenicia, from 
Ras al-Abja(J to the Nahr al-'Awali, north of 
Sidon; central Phenicia, from the Nahr al-'Awali 
to al-Shakkai; and northern Phenicia, from al- 
Shakkai to Ras ibn Hani or to Ras al-Basit. In 
ancient history the southern and the northern di- 
visions are alone important. The Philistine con- 
quests permanently separated the southern cities 
from association with the Phenicians, and deprived 
them of such cities as Joppa and Dor; not until 
the Persian rule did the Phenicians again control 
these regions. Before discussing Phenicia proper 
brief mention should be made of two cities, Acre 
and Achzib. The former lies on a steep promontory 
extending southward into the sea and forming a 
natural haven of medium size with the eastern edge 
of St. George's Bay. Owing to deposits of silt the 
harbor is deserted, and trade is diverted to the 
neighboring Haifa. In ancient times this city was 
of importance because of its haven and the roads 
connecting it with the interior, especially the " way 
of the sea " (Isa. ix. 1). The city is mentioned by 
Sethos I. under the name of 'Aka about 1320 B.C., 
and about 380 Artaxerxes Mnemon made it his base 
in his expedition against Egypt. Ptolemy II. Phila- 
delphus refounded the city and named it Ptolemais. 
It passed into the possession of the Seleucids in 
198 B.C., and was an important military center in 
the Maccabean wars. In 65 B.C. Pompey brought 
it under the Romans, for whom it constituted the 
most important harbor of Palestine. In 1103 a.d. 
it was taken by Baldwin I., given to Saladin in 

1187, retaken by the crusaders in 1189, and des- 
troyed by Sultan Malik al-Ashraf in 1291. Rebuilt 
in 1749, the city has slowly increased, despite the 
attack of Napoleon in 1799 and the bombardment 
of the united English, Austrian, and Turkish fleet 
in 184(/, until it now contains a population of about 
11,000. Some nine miles to the north, and not far 
from the coast, lies the small village al-Zib, repre- 
senting the Achzib of Judges xix. 29. A quarter of 
an hour to the north is the spring of 'Ain al-Mas- 
hairfah, which has been compared with the Misre- 
photh-maim of Josh. xi. 8, xiii. 6. 

Here the Jabal al-Mushafcfrah approaches the 

coast, and the ascent to the promontory of Ras al- 

Nafcurah brings the traveler to Phenicia proper. 

To the north of the road stretches a small stony 

strip of coast in the form of a crescent 

2. Region to the second promontory, the Ras 

South of al-Abjafl, or "White Promontory." 
Tyre. The valley between the two promon- 
tories shows ruins of two ancient sites, 
Umm al-'Amud and Iskandarunah, the former per- 
haps being the ancient Ramantha or Ramitha, the 
Greek Leuke Akte, later called Laodicea, and the 
latter dating back, at least in name, to the Roman 
Emperor Alexander Severus (222-235). In 1116 
a.d. Iskandarunah was rebuilt by Baldwin I. as a 
base of operations against Tyre. The ancient road 
over the White Promontory runs for about forty 
minutes close to the declivity. In the course of 
centuries portions of it have been hewn in the rocks, 
and in especially steep places stone stairs have 
been cut, so that Josephus and the Talmud give as 
the ancient name of this road the " Tyrian Stairs." 

North of the Ras al-Abjad a small plain extends 
between the shores and the foot of the mountains 
of Galilee. The streams are shallow and have little 
water, though good springs are occasionally found, 
especially about an hour south of Tyre in the Ras 
al-'Ain and ten minutes to the north, both about 
a quarter of an hour from the shore. Three other 
wells and an aqueduct, the latter apparently of 
Roman architecture, are found about fifteen min- 
utes north of Ras al-'Ain. It was doubtless the 
springs of this promontory which first attracted 
the Phenicians, which they also used for their city. 

The distance from Ras al-'Ain to Tyre is an 




hour, and the plain with its sandy coast is one and 
a half miles broad. Modern Tyre, a town of some 

6,000 inhabitants, lies on the northern 
3. Tyre, side of a peninsula, while the ancient 

Phenician city was situated on an 
island. The prophet Ezekiel, like the Assyrian 
King Asshurbanipal, describes Tyre as built " in 
the midst of the seas " (xxviii. 2, cf. xxvii. 3-4, 
xxvi. 4), and the name itself means " rock." The 
island on which Tyre lay would seem to be the pres- 
ent peninsula where the modern town is situated. 
Of the buildings of the ancient city little is known. 
According to Menander of Ephesus (cf. Josephus, 
Apion, i. 18; Ant., VIII., v. 3), Hiram I., the con- 
temporary of Solomon, rebuilt the old temples. 
Special mention is made of the temple of Heracles 
(Melkarth) and Astarte, while Herodotus (ii. 44) 
refers to the temple of Thasian Heracles, which is 
probably identical with the Agenorium of Arrian 
{Anabasis, ii. 25-26). According to Menander and 
Dius, Hiram extended the city to the east and there 
constructed the great square, or Eurychorum. The 
ancient city had two harbors, the Sidonian to the 
north, and the Egyptian to the south. The former 
is now choked with sand, and the latter has en- 
tirely disappeared. On the main land opposite the 
island lay a city called Old Tyre by Menander, 
Strabo, Pliny, and others. It would seem, however, 
that the city in question was really called Ushu, a 
name occurring in the Amarna Tablets and the 
Assyrian inscriptions, and probably in the Authu 
of Egyptian monuments. The patron deity of the 
city was Usoos, who was said to have been the first 
to sail the sea on a tree trunk, while his brother, 
Samemrumus, built huts of reed in Tyre (see 
Saxchuniathon). This legend seems to imply 
that the island city of Tyre was settled from the 
mainland. The accounts of " Old Tyre " vary so 
widely that it is uncertain whether one or more 
places are meant, or whether sites are referred to 
which belong to different periods. Ancient Tyre, 
which seems to have had an important suburb at 
Ras al-Ma'ahufe, ceased to be an island city in con- 
sequence of the siege by Alexander the Great in 
332, when he constructed a vast mole, four stadia 
long and two plethra wide, from the mainland to 
the eastern side of the island (cf. Arrian, Anabasia, 
ii. 17 sqq.; Diodorus Siculus, xvii. 40). The walls, 
said to be over 150 feet high, rendered the mole 
useless at first, but the Greek fleet bottled up the 
Tynan ships in the harbors, whereupon the troops of 
Alexander were able to storm the relatively weaker 
ramparts on the south. In the taking of the city 
Arrian states that 8,000 fell, while 30,000 were sold 
as slaves, figures which imply a dense population. 
Tyre was not wholly destroyed, however, by the 
Greek conqueror, and in 316-315 it was besieged in 
vain by Antigonus for fourteen months. Coming 
under Seleucid control in 198, it apparently bought 
its autonomy in 126, later restricted by Augustus. 
On his journey from Miletus to Jerusalem Paul found 
Christians at Tyre (Acts xxi. 3-6), and a bishop of 
Tyre, Cassius, is mentioned at the Synod of Csesarea 
toward the end of the second century. The cru- 
saders were in possession of the city 1124-91 a.d., 
after which the Sultan Malik al-Ashraf occupied the 

place. The history of modern Tyre begins in 1766, 
when a sheik named Hanzar settled in the ruins and 
rebuilt them. After the destructive earthquake of 
1837 the buildings were reconstructed by Ibrahim 

The coast north of Tyre resembles that of the 
southern vicinity of the city. First the sandy shore, 
then a level plain stretching inland for about a 
mile, and then the beginning of the 
4* Region plateau of Galilee. Almost two hours 
between north of Tyre is the mouth of the Nahr 
Tyre and al-lfraaimiyah, after which the strip of 
Sidon. coast narrows, while the foothills are 
rich in tombs of various periods. At 
the foot of the range are traces of the old Roman 
road from Tyre to Sidon. North of the Wadi abu'l- 
Aswad is a ruined site called 'Adlun, apparently 
the town of Ornithopolis, mentioned by Strabo as 
a Sidonian colony. An hour farther north a prom- 
ontory and a village bear the name of ?arafand, 
the Zarephath of the Bible (I Kings xvii. 9-10; 
Obadiah 20; Sarepta, Luke iv. 26). The Crusaders 
made Zarephath an episcopal see, and the Wali al- 
Khicjr is held to mark the abode of the prophet 
Elijah. From Zarafand the coast bends westward, 
the first great rivers from the western slope of the 
Lebanon being found in the Nahr al-Zaharani and 
the Nahr Sanik. The gardens now begin, and be- 
come more numerous and more beautiful the closer 
the traveler approaches Zaida, the ancient Sidon. 

The modern city of ^aida is situated on a flat 
promontory between 200 and 300 yards wide, with 
a small rocky peninsula, 600 yards long. The north- 
ern quarter and a series of reefs and islands protect 
the inner harbor, while to the east- 
5. Sidon. ward stretches the outer harbor, which 
was used as an anchorage in summer. 
The peninsula bears the remains of ancient walls, 
and similar ruins are found on an island to the 
north of the harbor and on other reefs. The 
Phenician Sidon extended some 700 yards farther 
east than the modern town. The basalt sarcophagus 
of King Eshmunazar was discovered in 1855 ten min- 
utes southeast of the city; in 1887, near the village of 
al-Halaliyah, seventeen magnificent Phenician and 
Greek sarcophagi were found, among them those of 
Tabnit, father of Eshmunazar, and the alleged sar- 
cophagus of Alexander the Great. Excavations 
since 1900 have revealed a temple of Eshmun on 
the Nahr al-'Awali, also ancient aqueducts. In 
the Old Testament a " Great Sidon " is mentioned 
(Josh. xi. 8, xix. 28). This phrase is repeated on 
the Taylor cylinder with the words " Little Sidon " 
beside it, though the basis of the distinction is as 
yet unknown. The ancient city of Sidon was des- 
troyed by Artaxerxes Ochus in 348 B.C. Yet after 
Alexander and during the Roman period Sidon re- 
mained an important city. Paul, on his way to 
Rome, found Christians there (Acts xxvii. 3), and 
the bishop of Sidon attended the Nicene Council of 
325. Later the city declined and in 637-638 sur- 
rendered to the Mohammedans without resistance. 
During the crusades it was repeatedly taken and 
refortified, last by Louis IX. of France in 1253. 
Seven years later it was sacked by the Mongols, 
and in 1291 came under the control of Malik al- 




Ashraf. Early in the seventeenth century Sidon 
was revived by the Druse Prince Fakhr al-Din. It 
i ikewise enjoyed the protection of Ibrahim Pasha 
of Egypt, but in 1840 was attacked by the fleet of 
the European allies. 

The little plain about Sidon stretches to the north 

about to the Nahr al-'Awali, from the north side of 

which, about a half -hour from the city, the district 

of the Lebanon comprises the coast 

6. Sidon until near Tarabulus, or Tripolis, with 

to Beirut the exception of Beirut and its imme- 
diate vicinity. This valley and the 
comparatively low passes near by were doubtless 
used in antiquity as the shortest road from Sidon 
to Damascus. The coast now becomes more stony, 
with no coast plain. Between the Ras Jedrah and 
the Ras al-Damur the towns of Platanus (or Pla- 
tana) and Porphyreum must have lain, where An- 
tiochus the Great defeated the general of Ptolemy 
IV. Philopator in 218 b.c. North of the Ras al- 
Damur is the mouth of the Nahr al-Damur, the 
Damuras, Demarus, or Tamyras of the ancients. 
A conspicuous point on the coast is the promontory 
of Beirut (Ras Bairut), with the city of the same 
name at its foot. To the east is a small well-popu- 
lated plain on the banks of the Nahr Bairut, the 
ancient Magoras, as well as on the coast, which 
runs about six miles to the east and forms St. 
George's Bay. The background is formed by the 
steep terraces of Lebanon with green valleys, neat 
farm houses, and small villages on the lower slopes, 
higher up remnants of the once famous forests, 
and at the summit a bare sharp ridge. In ancient 
Phenicia the city was of no importance, though its 
name, which apparently means " wells," occurs in 
the Amarna Tablets, which designate the place as 
the seat of the Egyptian vassal Ammunira. Beirut 
attained prominence as the Roman Colonia Julia 
Augusta Felix Berytus. It was famed for its school 
of law and for its silk-weaving until it was damaged 
by the earthquake of 529. Its second period of 
prosperity began when the Druse Prince Fakhr al- 
Din (1595-1634) made it his chief residence. It is 
now the center of trade and commerce for the en- 
tire Syrian coast, especially as it has been con- 
nected with Damascus since 1895 by a railway. 
The city is the center of Syrian Christian culture, 
represented by American Presbyterian (The Syrian 
Protestant College) and Jesuit institutions of 
learning, and by German Protestant benevolent 
organizations. The British Syrian mission also 
maintains a series of schools, the Scotch mission 
works chiefly among Jews, Mohammedans, and 
Druses, while various French religious orders 
labor for the education of the natives and the care 
of the sick. This activity has spurred the non- 
Christian Syrians to establish schools. Beirut is 
the seat of a wali and contains about 120,000 

Some two and a half miles east of Beirut the 
coast resumes its northerly course and soon reaches 
the mouth of the Nahr al-Kalb, the Lycus of the 
classics. The mountains here touch the water, and 
are crossed by the coast roads. The present road 
and railway from Beirut to the north is the closest 
to the sea level. Some ninety feet higher is the 

Roman road constructed by Marcus Aurelius about 

176-180 a.d. Higher still three Egyptian and 

six Assyrian inscriptions or sculptures 

7. Beirut show that armies were led across this 
to al- promontory over a much steeper, but 

Shakkai. more accessible road, by Rameses 
II. about 1300, Tiglath-Pileser I. 
about 1140, Shalmaneser II. about 850, Senna- 
cherib in 702, and Esarhaddon in 670 (see Assyria, 
VI., 3, §§ 3, 7, 13). Later still, Greek, Roman, cru- 
sading, and Mohammedan armies passed over these 
roads, and finally the soldiers of the French expe- 
dition of 1860. The railway runs along the road 
to Ma'amiltain on the Bay of Juniyah. From this 
point the old road again follows the coast, and at 
the northern end of the bay is hewn through the 
rock. An hour and a half farther to the north is 
the Nahr Ibrahim, the classical Adonis, closely as- 
sociated with the Aphrodite legend. This goddess, 
the Astarte (q.v.) of the Phenicians, had her famous 
temple near the source of the river, which issues from 
a cavern under the steep high wall of the Jabal al- 
Munai(irah. The ruins of the fane, 90 feet long and 
fifty-five feet wide, may still be seen, and prob- 
ably represent the temple of Venus of Aphaka, des- 
troyed by Constantine the Great in the fourth 
century. The modern village of Affca is situated fif- 
teen minutes above the source. Near the village 
of al-Ghinah, on the southern bank of the river, 
sculptures were found by Renan representing the 
leaping goddess and the death of Adonis. The 
center of the Adonis cult, the Byblos of the Greeks 
and the Gebal of the Phenicians, the modern Jabail 
with about a thousand inhabitants, lies an hour 
and a half north of the mouth of the Nahr Ibra- 
him (see Gebal). The rocky road along the coast 
leads to the town of Batrun, the ancient Botrys. 
North of the Nahr al-Jauz rises a broad promontory 
now called al-Shakkai, but called by the Greeks 
" face of God," apparently translating its Pheni- 
cian name (cf. Gen. xxxii. 30; I Kings xii. 25). 

At al-Shakkai central Phenicia ends. The road 
along the coast now crosses some small promon- 
tories, and then enters the plain of Tripolis, which 
spreads out at the mouth of the Nahr abu 'Ali, or 
the Nahr ffadisha. The modern Tripolis consists 
of the court of al-Mina on the north- 

8. Tripolis era edge of a low but rocky promon- 
and tory, with a series of small islands 

Environs, enclosing the harbor, and the city 
proper, now called T&r&bulus. The 
latter is situated on both banks of the Nahr abu 
'Ali, about two miles from al-Mina. It owes its 
existence to the Mohammedans, who destroyed the 
former city on the coast in 1289. The city of the 
Phenicians and the crusaders, which probably occu- 
pied the site of the present al-Mina, had three dis- 
tinct quarters occupied by Tyrians, Sidonians, and 
Aradians respectively. Before the Persian period, 
however, the city is not mentioned, its origin being 
obscure. From Tarabulus the coast bends west- 
ward, the resulting bay being called Jun 'Akkar. 
The coast is less rugged, especially where the Nahr 
al-Kabir or Nahr Laftara (the Eleutherus of the 
Greeks) approaches the sea. Through the broad 
plain thus formed the road leads to Emesa and 




Hamath in the valley of the Orontes. Between 
Tripolis and the Nahr al-Kabir a number of ancient 
cities were located. On the southern bank of the 
Nahr al-Barid was Orthosia, the Arab Artusiah or 
Artusi; and on the north bank of the Nahr 'Arfca 
was Arka or Arke, the Roman Caesarea Libani, where 
Alexander Severus was born (now called Tell 'Arfca). 
The site is also brought into connection with the 
Canaanitic Arkites (Gen. x. 17). Scarcely half a 
mile north of the Nahr 'Arfea a village Syn existed 
in the fifteenth century, and this has been connected 
with the Smites of (Jen. x. 17; cuneiform inscrip- 
tions mention a site Sianu near Zimira and 'Arza. 
North of the Nahr al-Kabir rises the Jabal al-Anza- 
riyah, receiving its name from the Shi'ite sect of 
the Nu?airi, who live chiefly on this mountain. 

The coast of northern Phenicia is, in general, 
milder and more attractive than in the southern 
and central portions, so that its cities were numer- 
ous. The first is Simyra or Simyrus, the Zumur of 
the Amarna letters, probably to be 
9. Extreme identified with the modern 2umrah 
Northern between the Nahr al-Kabir and the 
Phenicia. Nahr al-Abrash. Two or three hours 
later the district of the ancient Aradians 
is reached, where, between the Nahr al-l£iblah 
and the Nahr Amrit, are extensive remains of 
the city of Marat, the Marathus of the Greeks, im- 
portant during the Persian period, but destroyed 
in the struggles following the downfall of the Seleu- 
cids. On the coast, an hour farther north, is Tor- 
tus, the medieval Tortosa and the ancient Antara- 
dus, first mentioned by Ptolemy in the second cen- 
tury a.d. The Phenician center on this part of the 
coast was the island city of Aradus (the Arvad of 
Ezek. xxvii. 8, 11, the modern Ru'ad or Arwad), 
situated between Amrit and Tartus on an irregu- 
lar rock some 800 yards long by 500 wide. Of the 
ancient city little remains. The present inhabi- 
tants, between 2,000 and 3,000 in number, are ex- 
pert boatmen (cf. Ezek. xxvii. 8). Arvad is men- 
tioned as a Phenician city about 1500 b.c, and on 
its ships Tiglath-Pileser sailed the Mediterranean. 
Later it is repeatedly mentioned in Assyrian in- 
scriptions as a place " in the midst of the sea." 
The nearest port on the mainland was Came or 
Camus, the modern £arnun, an hour north of 
Tardus, where ruins of fortifications are still visible. 
Other harbors reckoned to Arvad were Balanias or 
Leucas (the modern Baniyas), Paltus (the modern 
Baldah), and Gabala (the modern Jablah). Prob- 
ably the population of this northern district was 
not exclusively Phenician, and Phenicians hardly 
had centers beyond it. North of the promontory 
of Ras ibn Hani was a Heraclea, the name of which 
suggests Phenician origin; and the city of Rhosus 
(the modern Arsuz) north of the Ras al-Khanzir, 
and the city of Myriandrus (Myriandus) are ex- 
pressly said to have been in the hands of the Phe- 
nicians. The latter place was the predecessor of 
the modern Alexandretta or Iskandarun, but prob- 
ably lay somewhat farther to the south. 

i Names and Ethnology: The name Phenicia 

is derived from the Greek, occurring as early as 

Homer (Odyssey, xiv. 288, xv. 419) and Herodotus 

(i- 1-8, etc.). From this is derived the name of the 

IX.— 2 

country, Phenice {Odyssey, iv. 83, xiv. 291; 
Herodotus, ii. 44 sqq.), the form Phenicia being 
later. The meaning is uncertain. In 
i. Names, the twelfth century Eustathius of 
Thessalonica, with probable correct- 
ness, advanced the view that it denoted " red," and 
referred to the color of the people. Movers derived 
Phenice from the Greek phoinix, " date palm," 
but this tree is seldom found in Phenicia, and is of 
inferior quality there. Nor is there any reason to 
suppose that the name of the country is derived 
from the Egyptian Fenkhu; about 1500 b.c. the 
Egyptians termed the Phenician coast from Acre 
to Arvad Zahi or Zahe. The Babylonians reckoned 
Phenicia in the land of Amurru; and after Tiglath- 
Pileser III. Syria and Palestine were also called 
the " land of the Hittites." A special name for 
Phenicia does not occur. Late Greek writers state 
that the Phenicians named themselves Canaanites 
(see Canaan). The Phenicians seem to have called 
themselves after the names of their cities, Tyrians, 
Sidonians, etc. In the Old Testament, therefore, 
the name " Sidon " (Zidon) and " Sidonians," when 
not shown by the context to refer expressly to the 
city and its inhabitants (as in Gen. x. 19; Judges 
i. 31; II Sam. xxiv. 6; I Kings xvii. 9 [cf. Luke 
iv. 26]; Isa. xxiii. 2, 4, 12; Ezek. xxviii. 21-22), 
must be understood to connote Phenicia and the 
Phenicians in general (e.g., Deut. xiii. 9; Josh, 
xiii. 4, 6; Judges iii. 3; I Kings v. 6; Ezek. xxxii. 
30). This linguistic usage, found current and con- 
tinued by the Israelites, implies that Sidon was 
then the most important city of Phenicia. Later 
this usage disappeared, so that Herodotus (" His- 
tory," i. 1) uses " Phenicians " to denote the popu- 
lation of the country. In later passages of the Old 
Testament (as Jer. xxv. 22; Joel iv. 4; Zech. ix. 2; 
I Mace. v. 15), as well as in the New Testament 
(Matt. xi. 21-22; Mark iii. 8; Luke vi. 17; Acts 
xii. 20), the formal phrase " Tyre and Sidon " de- 
notes the Phenicians in general. 

The inhabitants of the Phenician coast can not 
be separated from the pre-Israelitic population of 
Canaan. This is shown, in the first place, by com- 
munity of language as evinced in in- 
2. Ethnol- scriptions, proper names, individual 
ogy. words cited by classic writers, and the 
sentences placed in the mouth of the 
Carthaginian Hanno in the Poenidus of Plautus, 
which show that the Phenician language was essen- 
tially identical with Hebrew. Though this linguis- 
tic affinity does not prove ethnological unity, 
the absence of opposing data renders it probable. 
In view of the natural contour of Canaan it would 
seem that the coast was settled from the southern 
mountain-district northward. The problem whether 
the Phenicians were indigenous in Syria is a part 
of the broader question of the original home of the 
pre-Israelitic population of Canaan. The most 
plausible answer seems to be that given by Herodo- 
tus (i. 1, vii. 80), who affirms that the Phenicians 
formerly dwelt by the Red Sea, whence they jour- 
neyed across Syria to the Mediterranean, thus im- 
plying an original home in Arabia and conforming 
with the general trend of Semitic migrations. 
Winckler (fieschichte Israels, i. 126-132, Leipsic, 




1895) has advanced the hypothesis that the Phe- 
nician and Canaanitic migration was the second to 
take place from Arabia, probably between 2800 
and 1600 b.c. While there are thus no ethnolog- 
ical or linguistic reasons for regarding the Pheni- 
cians as a separate people, the events of history 
render it possible to speak of them as a nation. In 
their home, between the open sea and the almost 
impassable mountains, they became navigators and' 
merchants, rather than an agricultural or pastoral 
people. Thus, on the one hand, their coherence 
with the Canaanites became ever more loose; and, 
on the other hand, their commercial interests de- 
veloped a fresh bond of union. In Syria they never 
unfolded a strict nationality, for there was always 
a number of central points, consisting of the larger 
cities. The Phenicians accordingly called them- 
selves Sidonians, Giblites, Carthaginians, and the 
like. To foreigners, however, they all seemed to be 
of one type, bold seamen, cunning and conscience- 
less traders. Through their enterprise and good 
fortune they brought the treasures of Babylonia 
and Egypt to the west, and thus essentially fur- 
thered the subsequent civilization of the Mediter- 
ranean lands. 

HI. Religion: The sources for a knowledge of 
Phenician religion and cult are scanty. The in- 
scriptions contain little but names of gods whose 
pronunciation is often uncertain, and many for- 
mulas the meaning of which is obscure. The eu- 
hemeristic treatise on the cosmogony and theogony 
of the Phenicians, the " Phenician history " of 
Sanchuniathon (q.v.), can be used only with cau- 
tion, if at all, for the older period. It is remarkable 
that in so maritime a people the cult of sea- 
gods was so slightly emphasized. Hesychius men- 
tions a " Zeus of the sea/' and at Beirut the eight 
Kabirs (" great ones, mighty ones ") were held to 
be the discoverers and patrons of navigation. The 
fact that in the names of the gods thus far known 
no allusions to trade or navigation appear seems 
to imply that the Phenicians developed their relig- 
ion not on the coast or as seafarers, but in another 
region where their life was not unlike that of the 
other Canaanites to whom they were akin. 

The Phenician divinities were primarily local 
gods. Besides the gods of the cities, there were 

gods of the mountains. As possessors 
z. Deities, they were called ba'al; as lords, adon; 

as rulers, melekh (see Moloch, Mo- 
lech). Their worshipers were gerim, " proteges," 
or 'abhadhim, " servants." Sexual antitheses were 
prominent in their religious system. The divinities 
were usually named after the place where they were 
honored: Ba'al %or, the god of Tyre; Ba'al Zidon, 
the god of Sid on; Ba'alath Gebal, the goddess of 
Byblus. When the Phenicians founded a new col- 
ony, they established there a new seat for the cult 
of their native gods, whose authority did not tran- 
scend the limits of the new settlement. In common 
parlance the Phenicians spoke of a ba'al or ba'alath 
without any qualifying phrase (cf. I Kings xviii. 
19 sqq.), but there was no divinity so named. The 
feminine form ba'alath was relatively rare, its place 
being taken by 'ashtart, so that Astarte, or Ash- 
toreth, appears in the Old Testament as the god- 

dess par excellence of the Sidonians (i.e., 
cf. I Kings xi. 5, 33, xxiii. 13; see Astarte; Ash- 
era; Baal). Few Phenician gods are known by 
specific names. The one most frequently men- 
tioned was Melkarth (Hercules), the " King of the 
City (of Tyre) ." Eshmun, greatly honored in Sidon, 
and compared with jEsculapius, seems to have been 
a god of health and healing. Proper names often 
contain the divine names Zd (" Hunter, Fisher "[?]; 
possibly connected with the name Sidon), Skn, Pmy, 
and P'm, as well as a goddess Tnt (usually pro- 
nounced Tanith). Among the foreign gods were 
the Egyptian Isis, Osiris, Horus, Bast, and Thoth; 
the Syrian Resheph and 'Anat; and the Babylonian 
Tammuz, Hadad, and Dagon. The Phenicians, 
like the Canaanites, were accustomed to place by 
the altars sacred stones as the abode of the deity, 
pillars being substituted later for natural stones. 
Such pillars were called maueba, natSb, or ham- 
manim (see Memorials and Sacred Stones), and 
were regarded as animate. In the cult of female 
divinities, the sacred stone was replaced by the 
sacred post (representing the sacred tree), called 
Asherah (q.v.). The two pillars in the temple of 
Melkarth at Tyre (Herodotus, ii. 44; Josephus, 
Apion, i. 18) doubtless connoted the dualism found 
in nature. Still other sacred sites had groups of 
three pillars, apparently typifying a threefold phe- 
nomenon of nature. 

The narrow local cults were later transcended by 

the widely worshiped Ba'al Shamem, or " Lord of 

Heaven," with his " goddess of the heaven of Baal " 

(cf. Herodotus, i. 105), who may be 

2. Cult compared with the " queen of heaven " 
of Jer. vii. 18, and with the Carthagin- 
ian Caelestis. The signification of the divinity El 
is uncertain. He seems to have been first honored 
in Byblus, and was equated with Kronos by the 
Greeks, who said that he was worshiped with sac- 
rifices of children in Phenicia, Carthage, and Sar- 
dinia (see Moloch, Molech). An important list of 
Carthaginian divinities is given in the deities in- 
voked by Hannibal to witness his treaty with Philip 
of Macedon (Polybius, vii. 9). In Phenician cult 
there was nothing to distinguish them from other 
Canaanites. Sacred enclosures with altars, stones, 
and trees (posts), a cell or larger house for the 
image of the divinity (the architecture strongly in- 
fluenced by Egypt), the firstlings of all productions 
for the deity, animal sacrifices, sacred dances, 
" votaries," priests, ablutions, and circumcision — all 
were present. The cosmogony presupposed a tri- 
partite division into heaven, earth, and sea. 

IV. History: The earliest mention of the Phe- 
nician coast thus far known refers to its conquest 
by Sargon, king of Agade, in the middle of the third 
millennium b.c. Whether, however, 
z. Till the this means the Phenicians proper is a 

Assyrian problem, and Winckler holds that the 
Period, campaign was waged against the pre- 
Phenician inhabitants, whose com- 
mercial activity and culture were later adopted by 
the Phenicians from the Arabian desert. About 
1400 b.c. the Egyptian power, to which Thothmes 
III. had subjected the Phenicians a century previ- 
ous, was waning, the Hittites were entering the 




country and the kings of the Amorites, Abdashirtu 
and Anru, were attacking the Phenician cities, 
whose kings wrote in vain to Egypt for aid. Sethos 
I. and Rameses II. restored the Egyptian power, at 
least for the southern portion of Syria; but the 
supremacy of the Pharaohs came to an end, and 
the Philistines definitely settled in the land. The 
first prosperity of the Phenician cities began about 
1000 B.C. Tyre became predominant, the suprem- 
acy of Sidon apparently being religious and civili- 
zing rather than political. Hiram I. of Tyre, after 
receiving a gift of twenty Israelitic cities from 
Solomon, engaged in trade with him (see Ophir; 
Tarshish) and founded the colony of Citium in 
Cyprus, naming the town Ifarta IJadasht, or " new 
city " (Carthage). Under King Pygmalion the 
famous colony of Carthage is said to have been 
founded from Tyre, when what was probably an 
existing city received a new lord, a new cult, and 
a new name. Winckler holds that the impulse to 
migration which led the Phenicians to Canaan sent 
other emigrants from Arabia along the northern 
coast of Africa, and possibly into southern Europe, 
so that the " foundation " of Carthage was, in 
reality, merely its subjugation by Tyre. However 
this may be, the subordination of Carthage to Tyre 
led to the supremacy in the western Mediterranean 
of Tyre, which seems to have extended its sway 
over a number of Syrian cities also. While Hiram I. 
is always termed " king of Tyre " (II Sam. v. 11; 
I Kings v. 15, ix. 10), Ethbaal is called " king of 
the Zidonians " (I Kings xvi. 31), thus implying 
that Tyre and Sidon had meanwhile been united 
under the hegemony of the former. This is con- 
firmed by the statement of Menander (cited by 
Josephus, Ant., VIII., xiii. 2) that Ethbaal founded 
Botrys (and also Auza in Lybia). The northern 
cities around Aradus, however, were unaffected by 
this predominance of Tyre. 

The invasions of the Assyrian kings Asshurbani- 
pal and Shalmaneser II. in the ninth century were 
averted by the payment of tribute; but in 738 Tig- 
lath-Pileser III. formed the Assyrian 
2. Assyrian province of Simyra from the cities in 
to the the Eleutherus valley. Sennacherib 
Roman vainly besieged Tyre five years (701- 
Period. 696), though it lost its possessions 
on the mainland, while Sidon became 
tributary and received a new king from Senna- 
cherib. Later Sidon revolted against Esarhaddon, 
only to be destroyed in 675 and replaced by an 
Assyrian city. Later still, Tyre was attacked and, 
with Aradus, forced to make peace with the Assyr- 
ians. The decline of the Assyrian power was prob- 
ably favorable to the Phenician cities, and Egyptian 
attempts to regain supremacy were unsuccess- 
ful. The Egyptians were driven from Syria by the 
Babylonians under Nebuchadrezzar II., who be- 
leaguered Tyre in vain (585-573). But internal 
strife broke out in Tyre, and after rule by suffetes, 
or " judges," the city was forced to ask Babylon 
for a king. Under Persian rule, which was accepted 
unresistingly by the Phenicians, Sidon became pre- 
dominant. In the days of Herodotus, Sidon, Tyre, 
and Aradus made the " Three Cities " (Tripolis), 
but in the reign of Alexander the Great the chief 

Phenician centers were Tyre, Sidon, Byblus, and 
Aradus. In the Persian period, Aradus extended 
its power along the coast farther than before; in 
the south Acre, Ashdod, Ashkelon, and Carmel be- 
longed to Tyre; Dor and Joppa to Sidon; and the 
entire coast to the fifth Persian satrapy. With the 
connivance of Nectanebo of Egypt, the Phenician 
cities, under Tennes of Sidon, revolted against Per- 
sia in 350, but were ruthlessly suppressed by Arta- 
xerxes III. Alexander the Great found resistance 
only at Tyre, which he succeeded in reducing (see 
above). On the emergence of the Ptolemies and 
Seleucids from the confusion ensuing on the death 
of Alexander the Great, the Phenician cities came 
under Seleucus I. His successors also held Aradus 
and its vicinity, while the cities south of the Eleu- 
therus were under the Ptolemies from 281 to 198. 
The kings of Sidon in the third century seem to have 
included Eshmunazar I., Tabnit, and Eshmunazar 
II., but on the death of the last-named Sidon appar- 
ently adopted a republican form of government, as 
Tyre did in 274. The other Phenician cities secured 
autonomy from the Seleucids, and these privileges 
were generally confirmed by the Romans. The Phe- 
nician language, however, was superseded by 
Aramaic, while the higher classes prided themselves 
on Greek or Roman culture. 

Phenician trade was carried on both by land and 
sea. Land traffic brought the products and treas- 
ures of Arabia, Babylonia, and Armenia, and later 
of Persia and India, to the Mediter- 

3. Trade ranean. Commerce with Egypt was 
and probably carried on chiefly by water, 
Discovery, though the maritime commerce of 
Phenicia was scarcely as extensive as 
is commonly supposed. Colonies proper were to be 
found only in Cyprus and northern Africa, Gades in 
southern Spain probably being settled originally 
from Africa. The Phenician commercial settle- 
ments or factories along the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean do not deserve the name of colonies. 

The Phenicians were primarily merchants, ever 
eager to adorn their markets with the best and 
newest (cf. Ezek. xxvii.). Such a people would 
not be likely to develop an individual art, and Phe- 
nician remains, dating at the earliest from the Per- 
sian period, show a mixture of Egyptian, Babylonian, 
Persian, and Greek elements. The Phenician coins 
were struck on Greek models, but in Aradus Persian 
weights were used, and Phenician in Byblus, Sidon, 
and Tyre. In architecture the Phenicians received 
their inspiration from the Egyptians, but they de- 
veloped a marked individuality in the treatment 
of stone. The Phenicians were skilled in con- 
structing aqueducts, as is shown by the stone pipes 
through which the island of Tyre was supplied with 
water. Their ability in building ships was famed in 
antiquity (cf. Ezek. xxvii.; Herodotus, vii. 96, 128). 
Their moral reputation, however, was indifferent, as 
the allusions of the Odyssey to their knavery amply 
prove. The Phenicians have won much unmerited 
fame as discoverers through the attribution to them 
by the Greeks of the invention of things which they 
merely transmitted. In Rome purple fabrics were 
called aarranns (from Sarra, " Tyre "), and the 
Tyrians are described as the best skilled in dyeing in 


purple. The art, however, was perhaps Babylonian. 

In like maimer the Greeks thought that the alphabet 

Originated in Tyre, especially in view of the power 

of the city about 1000 B.C. As a matter of fact 

Phenicia merely transmitted the alphabet, which 

probably originated in Babylonia like the cuneiform 

writing. Awl finally it may be noted that glass 

and faience, the invention of which was popularly 

HMcriUtl Ui the Phenicians, were known in Egypt 

earlier than in Phenicia. (H. Guthe.) 

BlBUoanAPHT: Tbe article! Id the dictionaries are general, 

covering thn whole topic. Tbe bent ana; DB, ui. 683- Sill-Nii.'). lis!) ssi- EB, iii. 37^0-65; Jf. 

ix.M7-670: Vigourom, DieJionnaire. partxixi. UMHl 

Jarobus. Dictionary, pp. 974-878. 

On llic jn-oKr-jphy consult: V. tiu*rin. Dmeriptvin de. la 
Palatine. III.. Galilee, part 2, Paris. 1880; Survey of 
Watrrn Pnlettint, Mrminr; vol. i.. Galilee, I«ndon, 1881: 
G. Elicrs nti.i H. Guthe, Pala^ina in Bild und Wort, vol. 
ii., .Stuttgart. 1894. 

On the. art, language, and inacripi iua : : Iii..vri|.iior:; m.- 
eoUnclwl in tho CIS, part 1. vola., I.— ii.. Paris, 1881-89. 
Consult: O. lVrrnt sukI U. <:hiuie», Hitoire de /'art dan. 
i'anliV;uiW. vol. 3. Phinicie, Paris. 1885. Eng. tfnnsl., Hisf. 
of AH in Phoenicia, 2 vola.. London. (885; W. Geoccius. 
Seriplura- linauatqu* Phmicia numumenta. Leipsic, 1857; 
I*. .s^hnVJ.T, Die ph.wLrix-hc Spmehe. HaUc. 1889 (gram- 
mar!; B. Slink, ilfiirirmMWiVfte Curse/, unnen, pp. 187 
aq.[., Lerpajo, 1875; C. Ck-nnoiit-ftiuineuu, Sctatu et 
cachH* pMn^irm, Paris. 1883; E. Led rain. Notice dm 
nu-numentt fMnJc&au (i ,e ., in the Louvre), Paria, 1888; 
A. Bloch, W„iunjf*f , .<',V.»wr. Ucrlin. Wjl); J. IJ. 10. Hnff- 
mann, f'c6(T finite JJ»<ifit4i»cAr Intehriflrn. flflltjlHI''. 
1HW1; A. Pellegrini. Aiutti ■fEpiyT'ifin frnicia, Palermo. 
18U1; O. Hamdi. Uni ytcrapole royal* /< Sidon, Paris, 
1892-98; M, Udibar-kj. IJaHavMI d<r noraVn ' " - 
Epigrapnii. Wiirar, 1X9S; idem. Ephemtrit fQi 
•che EpigraphH. Gicsoen, 1900 sun;.; A. Mayr. Aut aen 
ji/i.iniji.i'nTi \el.-ri:i«ilm r-m Malta. Muiiifli. 1 1 hi I .". ; S.-lir:.- 
der. HAT. pp. 128 sqq.. ct passim; W. F. «m LaBtjBU, 
Die phtmizitchen tntehrifttn, I^ipsie. 1007. 

On the alphabet; E. do Rouge, Mbnaira sur forwent. 
tuyptimnc dc I'aliihai...! pMnfnen, Poris, 187*; Deeeke. in 
ZfJ.Hi;, xxni (I.S77), ID.' s,|r,.; P., tfisr, rfe f*n- 
(IB-S dans rnnti;uM. I'firis, l-S'.li; Ball, in /'>7(,t. IS!!:;. 
pp. 392-108; C. 11. fonder, «/.'./.' and Mr Eos*, pp. 74 «nq., 
Edinburgh. 1SW5: II. /.iimi™i, in ZIlMG. I (1808), 667 
sqq.; J. Alvarci de Peralta. Iconagrafia dp to* At)-!l>>-!<>* 
frniein u hilimim. Madrid. 1898. 

On the hulnrv: It. t'i.'t.ii'hm.'mri. II. -,!ii-),tc der Ph„ni- 
tier, Berlin. 1880; ('!. Uawlin-rjn. //i\f. ../ rh,cnicia, Lon- 
don. ISS1I; idem, Phrtniriu. it.. 18W1; F. C. Movers, fJiV 
PA.-nisier, l(onn, 1841-50; J. Kenriek. Hi*, of Phwniria, 
Lnndun. 1855; E. Rcnan, ,1/iss.on de Phtnicil, Paris. 
1884; G. Maapero. /7iW. anritnar d« peoples de /'an'en/. 
Paris. 1875; idem. Struggle of the, I.uhIitl. isc'itl: 
H. Pruts. ,tu. Ph-ni^rn. I,-i;.sir. 18711; F. Bov,r. /■■,/.,;.(. 
Palatine, and Phoiaia. London, l.ssS; E, Oberhummer, 
Phlmilitr in .\him,mie<i. Muui.-h. 1HS2: E Mey.rr. ',',- 
tchiehte del Alrertume, vol. J., Stuttgart, 1884: A von 
Uulirlmiid, in iinr!trj,)]i,rtliii Hritanniea. <icrm. trans., in 
his A'friMs Schrijten. ii. :io-s(i. U-ipsip, 188S: W. M. 
Milller. .4«irn usd Eumpa, r.,i ;1 -.i r . ISM; f. Peters. Da, 
aoldene Opl-ir Salnmo't. Einr Slu/lie rur Gcehirhte iter 
pk-uik, ■«■*-■« IIV//j'..|iV,;,-, M,„,i,.|,, igi)5 ; H. Wincklcr. 
.Uf„fi.Tlfrd i ■-/,,■ Fur-c/innwin. i. 5 (]M>7). 4-'l »qq.. ii. 1 
(1898). 65-70, ii. 2 (IWM), 205 s-iq.; idum. Uetrl.ichtc 
IwracU, i. 10-1 sqi|.. Leipsic. 1885; W. von I-andiu, DA 
/'A. .airier. I>'ipair. 1SHII; i.lcia, ill. Brdeuluio del Ph.,ni- 
tier im ViilXcrleben. ib. 190.5; V. Berard, Let Phenicitn* 
It VOdymtr. 2 vols.. Paris. 1WI2-0:1; i.len., in (7HR. siiin. 
173-228. 4111-160; C. A. Brustoti. F.l.i,.h> iil.-,ai,;.-,i,:r- 
Pari,, I'JIH; W. M. Mliller. ,\Vur DarMrllunoen " BiaiBii- 
*r/lfr " Gexanttter untl ph..a\:\"-h. r S.-hijT. i/\ , j'f. .. 7. r/,r ..-.'■■ n 
l.-and.i.vN.i/./.-a, IVrlin. 1!1II4: A. D. Mordlmann. //."- 

/■"-j"-.Vr.- /.r/./.i- ■■...'[ ti""l>uilr.'. flarl L', I '..11 -1 ■.[,( inople, T.HIT; 

F. C. Eiseler, -Sidan: a .Sfudi/ in Orimlal HiMory. New 

Baudiiain. Sludieit rer •emiliscnin Rc/iawn»ofi»rau-i(e, 
Leipsic. 1878; F. Boethgen, Beitragr tur lenitime/um Ite- 
ligioniueiehi,-hle. Berlin. 1S88; P. D. Chantepie de uv 
Sauowye, i^AreucA drr RsIiinoruaucAicAji, i. 348-333. 
Tubingea, 1005; Smith, R.->. af Sem. Goiwult alsa the 

PHILADELPHA. See Asia Minob, IV. 

VICH DROZDOV): Rtiasiiui prelate; b. at Ko- 
lomna (58 m. s.a.e. of Moscow) 1782; d. at Moscow 
Dec. 1, 1867. He was educated at the seminaries 
of Kolomna and -St. Sergius Lavra, and on the com- 
pletion of hie atudiea was at once appointed pro- 
fessor in the latter. He became preacher at the 
monastery of St. Scrgius at Troitsk in 1806, and 
four years Iat«r was appointed professor of theol- 
ogy in the ecclesiastical academy of Alexander 
Xevsfci in St. IVUir^biirj;, iK't'ottunff archimandrite 
in 1811 and director in 1812. He took monastic 
vows in 1817, and after being bishop of Reval and 
episcopal vicar of St, Petersburg, became, in 1819, 
arrlihishop of Tver and a member of the Holy 
Synod. In the f'jlli.™iiic year Iil Mil.- lirchtii-hiip nf 
Varoslav, and in 1821 was translated to Muscdw, 
also becoming metropolitan in 1826. His dirinR 
utttTiiiicfs, liowt-v.T, br'.'upht him into iinp.ri'il dis- 
favor, and from !,S-1'> until t lie accession of Alexander 
II. in 1855 be was restricted to the limits of his 
diocese. He is said to have prepared Alexander'.-, 
proclamation freebg the serfs (Mar. 19, 18iil), and 
he enjoyed (lie reputation of being one of the lead- 
ing pulpit orators of his time and country. He was 
it prominent figure in preparing a Russian transla- 
tion of the Bible (see Bible Versions, B, XVI., , 2), 
and wrote " Colloquy between a Believer and a 
Skeptic im 'he True Doctrine of the Greco- Russian 
Church" (St. Petersburg, 1815); " Compend of 
Sacred History " (1816); " Commentary on Gene- 
sis " (1816); "Attempt to Explain Psalm Ixvti." 
( 1 S 1 8) ; "Sermons delivered at Various Times" 
(IS JO); " Extracts from the Four Gospel* and the 
Acts of the Apuslles for l"se in Nay Schools " (1X30); 
''■Ghrialhiii Catechism" (1823; Eug. transl. by 
R. W. Blackmore in his Doctrine o/ the Russian 
Churrh, Aberdeen, 1845; reprinted in Schaff, Crect!*, 
ii. .415-512); " Extracts from the Historical Kook, 
of the Old Testament. " (1828-30); " Pritici|ile.s „f 
Religious hislruetion " (1S28); and " New Collec- 
tion of Sermons " (I.S.'J0-3I>). An English version 
of some of his sermons was published at. London in 
1873 under the title " Select Sermons by tbe late 
Melropolitan of Moscow, Philaret," together with 
ii brief biographical sketch. 

BtnnooB.ii.Hv: fliojrannif unirrrseHs, miii. 4S-4B; La 
Grands Bneyclopedie, nvi. 045. 

PHILASTEK, fi-las'tcr (PHILASTRIUS) : Bish- 
op of Hrescin and eeelesiaslicul writer: b. possibly 
in I'^gypl in lite first half of the fourth century; d. 
before :ii>7. He had been consecrated before ISSI, 
for in that year he took part- in the Synod of Aqui- 
leia. Augustine knew him uliile at Milan; and his 
successor Gaudentiiis, who l)ecame bishop of Bres- 



Philip II. 

cia before 397, praised his orthodoxy and learning 
{MPL, xx. 957). According to the tradition cur- 
rent at Brescia, he died on July 18; but the Sermo 
devitaet obitu Philastri (MPL, xx. 1002), ascribed 
to Gaudentius, seems to date rather from the eighth 
or ninth century. About 383 Philaster wrote his 
Diveraarum hoereseOn liber (ed. J. Sichard, Basel, 
1528; also in MPL, xii.; CSEL, xxxviii.), a cata- 
logue containing twenty-eight pre-Christian and 
128 Christian heresies. The style shows lack of ed- 
ucation, and the matter lack of intellectual train- 
ing. It is fanciful and artificial, especially in its 
divisions of distinction. His source for heresies 
previous to Noetus was probably the lost Syntagma 
adversus amnes hcereses of Hippolytus, and for the 
Manicheans the Acta Archdai. The intrinsic value 
of the work is small. He was, however, cited by 
Augustine, and thus gained importance in the 
Middle Ages, and he is of some interest in tracing 
the history of the New-Testament canon, especially 
for the Epistle to the Hebrews, and the Letter to 
the Laodiceans. (R. Schmid.) 

Blbuoorapht: R. A. Lipsius, Zur QueUenkritik des Epi- 
phanios, Vienna, 1865; idem. Die QueUen der altesten Ket- 
seroeschiehte, Leipaic, 1875; A. Haraack, Queilenkritik der 
Oesehichte dee Gnosticismus, Leipsic, 1874; idem, LUtera- 
tur, L 150; J. Kunse, De histories gnosticismi fontibus, 
Leipdc, 1894; Kroger, History, passim; Schaff, Chris- 
tian Church, ili. 931; Ceillier, Auteurs sacris, v. 171-178, 
viii. 42-43; DCB, iv. 351-353. 

PHILEAS, fi-16'as: Bishop of Thmuis (the mod- 
ern Tmai, between the Tanite and Mendesian 
branches of the Nile) and martyr; d. at Alexandria 
305. According to Eusebius, he was distinguished 
for his wealth, noble birth, honorable rank, and 
philosophical training, and the same church his- 
torian also gives a fragment of a letter written by 
Phileas from his prison in Alexandria to his diocese 
at Thmuis (Hist. ecd. f VIII., x. 2-10; Eng. transl., 
NPNF, 1 ser., i. 330-331), holding up the example 
of the Alexandrian martyrs. Together with three 
other bishops imprisoned with him, Phileas wrote 
to Meletius of Lycopolis (q.v.), charging him with 
violating the rules of the Church by appointing 
other bishops in their places. The acts of Phileas, 
which are extant both in Greek and Latin, seem to 
have been known to Eusebius and to Jerome; and 
Rufinus (HisL eccl., viii. 10) states that they were 
Written by a Christian named Gregorius. The offi- 
cial who presided at the martyrdom of Phileas was 
Culcianus, who was succeeded by Hierocles appar- 
ently in 306, and at latest by 308. 

(N. Bonwetsch.) 

Bibliography: The letter is also in M. J. Routh, Reliquics 
sacrat, 5 vols., Oxford, 1846-48; Eng. transl. with intro- 
duction and notes is in ANF, vi. 161-164. The Acts of his 
Martyrdom are in ASB, Feb.,i. 450 sqq. (with commen- 
tary); R. Knopff, AusgewahUe Martyrakten, pp. 102 sqq., 
Freiburg, 1001; F. Combefis, IUuetriwn Christi martyrum 
lecti triumphi, pp. 145 sqq., Paris, 1660 (the Greek text). 
The older literature is given in ANF, Bibliography, p. 71. 
Consult: Jerome, De vir. ill., Ixxviii.; N. Lardner, Credi- 
bUxty of Gospel History, in Works, iii. 234-237, London, 
1838; J. M. Neale, Hist, of the Holy Eastern Church, i. 
97, 00-101, London, 1847; E. le Blaut, Les Pers&- 
ctdeurs et les martyrs aux premiers siecles, pp. 226- 
227. Paris, 1803; Hamack, LiUeratur, i. 441-442, ii. 2, pp. 
89-72, 74, 83; C. Schmidt, in TV, v. 4b (1001); O. Bar- 
denhewer, Gesehichte der aUkirchlichen LiUeratur, ii. 211- 
212, Freiburg, 1003; Krttger, History, p. 210; DCB, 
iv. 353; KL, ix. 1008. 

Apostle, II. 

PHILIP II. : King of Spain, son of the Emperor 
Charles V. and Isabella of Portugal; b. at Valla- 
dolid May 21, 1527; d. at Madrid Sept. 13, 1598. 
Educated under Dominican rather than Jesuit in- 
fluence, he perpetuated the Spanish idea of Roman 
Catholicism that underlay the policy of Ferdinand 
and Isabella and Cardinal Ximenes, which regarded 
Roman Catholicism as the only tolerable form of 
Christianity and as absolutely essential to the po- 
litical power of Spain. He had no sympathy with 
the humanistic popes and Curia, and would brook 
no interference of the papacy with Spanish admin- 
istration; on the other hand, he insisted upon con- 
trolling papal policy. The policy of compromise by 
which Charles V. had sought to reunify religion 
throughout his realm had been recognized by him- 
self as ineffective. 

Philip began his reign with the fixed resolve to 
exterminate Protestantism at whatever cost from 
every foot of territory that he con- 
Two Chief trolled. Closely connected with this 
Aims; aspect of his policy was a determina- 
Failure in tion to make his own will supreme 
England, throughout his vast realm. Protes- 
tantism had never been allowed to 
gain much headway in Spain and he spared no 
effort or expense to remove every vestige of anti- 
catholicism. With equal severity he dealt with the 
Moriscoes (professed Moorish converts still Moham- 
medan at heart) and with converts from Judaism 
whose sincere devotion to Roman Catholicism was 
suspected. He married Mary of England (1554) 
with the twofold object of bringing England under 
the domination of Spain and of exterminating her- 
esy in the British Isles. He even sought to ingratiate 
himself with the English people by putting aside 
his customary moroseness and reserve and as- 
suming an air of friendliness and suavity. His failure 
to win the hearts of the English, Mary's dissatisfac- 
tion with his private life, and the urgent need of his 
presence at home led to his leaving England for- 
ever (Sept., 1555). In 1556 by the abdication of 
Charles V. he became master of Spain, the Sicilies, the 
Milanese territory, Franche Comte", the Netherlands, 
Mexico, and Peru, thus becoming the greatest po- 
tentate on earth with seemingly unlimited resources. 
He was impatient to begin a crusade against 
Protestantism in which he sought to enlist all the 
Roman Catholic sovereigns of Europe, but was 
shocked by the discovery that the 
His Wars, pope had formed an alliance with the 
king of France and the sultan to de- 
prive him of his Italian possessions. He scrupled 
at going to war with the pope, but self-interest 
soon triumphed and he sent the duke of Alva to 
drive French and papal forces from Sicily and to 
seize the papal possessions, while he himself admin- 
istered a severe chastisement to the French at St. 
Quentin (Aug. 10, 1557) and at Gravelines (Apr. 2, 
1559). After the death of Mary of England he 
sought once more to gain a foothold in England by 
proposing to marry Elizabeth, her sister and suc- 
cessor. Failing in this project he married Isabella 

Philip n. 

Philip the ApoatU 


of France, daughter of Catharine de Medici, his 
main object being to bring his influence in favor of 
Roman Catholicism more powerfully to bear upon 
France for the destruction of the Huguenots and 
to prevent French interference with his measures 
against Evangelical Christianity in the Netherlands. 
As a preparation for the crusade against Protestant- 
ism, which he foresaw to be an undertaking of vast 
proportions, he began to gather rapidly into the 
treasury the wealth of his domain, ignoring com- 
pletely the customary and legal rights of the people. 
The revolt of the Netherlands and his unsuccessful 
efforts to suppress it depleted the well-filled treas- 
ury and led to extortionate and destructive taxa- 
tion in Spain, including ecclesiastical foundations. 
Portugal became his through failure of the direct 
male line of succession and through a successful mil- 
itary invasion (1580). The pope having bestowed 
England upon Philip, he undertook to take posses- 
sion (1588) by sending the armada, a fleet of 131 
vessels with 19,000 marines and 8,000 sailors, against 
a far inferior English fleet. Favoring winds and 
superior seamanship gave the victory to the Eng- 
lish, and Spain was well-nigh swept off the sea. 
Philip promoted and rejoiced in the massacre of St. 
Bartholomew's day in France (1572) and, when 
Henry of Navarre became heir apparent and was 
contending for the crown, Philip joined forces with 
the Guises. In the war that followed Philip was 
worsted and was obliged to sign the treaty of Ver- 
vins (May, 1598). By forty years of aggressive 
warfare, for the destruction of the political enemies 
of Spain and of the enemies of the Roman Catholic 
Church, he lost a large part of his hereditary pos- 
sessions, impoverished and degraded what remained, 
and at his death (1598) left Spain a secondary power 
and its people far behind the age in free institutions 
and in civilization. The inquisition of heresy was 
with him a favorite occupation, and it was carried 
on with the utmost cruelty wherever his authority 

While he regarded Roman Catholicism as the 
only valid form of Christianity and was convinced 
that the toleration of any other form of religion 
tended toward anarchy or at least 
Attitude toward destruction of monarchy, he 
toward was strenuous in resisting anything in 
the Papacy, papal or conciliar action that could be 
construed as infringement upon the 
prerogatives of the Spanish crown. His control of 
the Inquisition, his right to nominate bishops not 
only for Spain but also for the Netherlands, the 
regium exequatur (involving the right of the king 
to pass upon all papal bulls and briefs before their 
promulgation in his domains; see Placet), the 
right of the king to administer and control the 
affairs of the Hospitalers and other endowed eccle- 
siastical institutions, he persistently maintained. 
He exercised a controlling influence over the Coun- 
cil of Trent (1556 onward) and his representatives 
were keen to detect and mighty to defeat any or- 
dinance that trenched upon the rights of the Span- 
ish crown. The conciliar provision for episcopal 
visitation of the chapters of the monastic orders he 
resolutely and effectively opposed, as well as the 
council's proposed arrangement for provincial and 

diocesan synods. He greatly promoted the prog- 
ress of the monastic orders, especially the Domin- 
icans, Franciscans, the order founded by St. Peter 
Nolasco (see Nolasco), and Jesuits, and encouraged 
the multiplication of their establishments in Spain 
and the colonies. He took the keenest interest in 
papal elections and virtually insisted upon his right 
to nominate to the papal office or at least to defeat 
all candidates whom he disapproved. He promoted 
the Jesuit school at Douai for the education of 
Roman Catholic missionaries for England. 

Apart from his single-minded devotion to the 
maintenance and extension of the authority of the 
Spanish crown and the universal prevalence of the 
Roman Catholic religion, Philip had few of the 
qualities that mark a great ruler or statesman. He 
was egoistic, unsympathetic, cruel (the loss of tens 
of thousands of troops seems to have affected him 
only as a diminution of the resources available for 
the accomplishment of his purposes, and he fre- 
quently was present in person at the burning of 
heretics), taciturn, morose, distrustful, and reserved. 

A. H. Newman. 

Bibliography: A rich list of literature is furnished in the 
British Museum Catalogue. For English readers the best 
works directly on the subject are: W. H. Prescott, Hist, 
of the Reign of Philip II., many editions, e.g., in his Com- 
plete Works, Boston. 1005 (a classic); M. A. S. Hume, 
Philip II. of Spain, London, 1897; idem, Spain, its Great- 
ness and Decay, ib. 1898; idem. Two English Queens and 
Philip, ib. 1908. Further accounts of the life and reign 
of Philip are: C. Campana, 2 parts, Venice, 1605-09; 
G. Leti, 2 parts, Coligni, 1679; Robert Watson, 2 vols., 
London, 1808; A. Dumesnil, Hist, de Philippe II., Paris, 
1822; E. San Miguel y Valledor, 4 vols., Madrid, 1844- 
1847; F. A. M. Mignet, Antonio Perez and Philip II., 
London, 1846; C. Gayarrd, New York, 1866; R. Baum- 
stark, Freiburg, 1875; V. Gomes, Madrid, 1879; H. 
Fomeron, 4 vols., Paris, 1881-82; W. W. Norman, New 
York, 1898. Consult also more general works, such as: 
Cambridge Modern History, vol. iii., London and New 
York, 1905; S. A. Durham, Hist, of Spain and Portugal, 
5 vols., London, 1832 (the best general history in Eng- 
lish); M. W. Freer, Elisabeth de Valois, 2 vols., London, 
1857; F. W. Schirrmacher, Geschichte von Spanien, 6 
vols., Gotha, 1893; H. Watts, Spain, New York, 1893; 
C. A. Wilkens, Spanish Protestants in the 16th Century, 
New York, 1897; J. L. Motley, The Rise of the Dutch Re- 
public, ed. Bell, London. 1904; H. C. Lea, Hist, of the 
Inquisition of Spain, 4 vols.. New York, 1906-07; Robin- 
son, European History, ii. 168 sqq. Illustrative original 
documents are cited in Reich, Documents, pp. 593 sqq., 
and in Gee and Hardy, Documents, pp. 384 sqq. 

of France (1285-1314), eon of Philip III.; b. at 
Fontainebleau (37 m. s.s.e. of Paris) 1268; d. Nov. 
29, 1314. A contemporary Flemish monkish chron- 
icler, having in mind his persistent and unscrupu- 
lous efforts to subjugate Flanders, speaks of him 
as " a certain king of France . . . eaten up by the 
fever of avarice and cupidity." Guizot, quoting 
with approval this medieval characterization, adds: 

" And that was not the only fever inherent in Philip IV. 
. . . ; he was a prey also to that of ambition and, above 
all, to that of power. When he mounted the throne, at 
seventeen years of age, he was handsome, as his nickname 
tells us, cold, taciturn, harsh, and brave at need, but with- 
out fire or dash, able in the formation of his designs and 
obstinate in prosecuting them by craft or violence, bribery 
or cruelty, with wit to choose and support his servants, pas- 
sionately vindictive against his enemies, and faithless and 
unsympathetic toward his subjects, but from time to time 
taking care to conciliate them either by calling them to hit 


«. *nd thniat the kingship ir 
f tbat &TTOguDt mi J reckless 

i-'imiM ([!■:.- v. iiii ability and 

v'lii. I, i-i 

d fatal « 
•• Witi. of Fran 

scarcely as real as this 
ir while he was able to 
ultimately com- 

L 457. New York. 18S4). 
His political success 

characterization implie 
rob England of Guienne he was 
peiled to restore it, and while for 
Dated and oppressed Flanders, bis victory was fol- 
lowed by humiliating defeat. By his marriage to 
Johanna of Navarre (1284) he added Navarre, 
Champagne, and Brie to the royal possessions. 
Lyons was later (1312) subjected to the crown. 

In ecclesiastical matters his success was more 
marked and permanent; but even when he con- 
tended most effectively against papal usurpations 
he manifested no higher qualities or motives than 
those set forth above. His refusal to yield to the 
demand of Boniface VIII. (q.v.) that he make 
peace with the king of England was due not to a 
clearly defined view of the proper relations of 
Church and State, but to his determination lo have 
his own way and his willingness to defy what lie 
must have recognized as the highest spiritual au- 
thority on earth. The same may be said of his 
successful retaliatory measures in response to Boni- 
face's bull CUricit laicot (Feb. 25. 1296). He had 
gained so large a measure of authority in France 
that the French clergy, whether tiiry syni|i:ir|ji/cij 
with his defiance of the pope or not, dared not 
antagonize him, paid to the king the war subsidies 
demanded in spite of papal prohibition, ami nbvjed 
the king in withholding all papal dues. That Boni- 
face deserved to be cliastised for his arrogance does 
not moke of Philip a heroic champion of civil lib- 
erty in administering the discipline. This is true 
also of his defiant treatment of the bull Unam 
tantiam (q.v.). His burning of this most arrogant 
papal pronouncement, his confiscation of the es- 
tates of prelates who sided with the pope, and his 
response to the pope's bull of excommunication by 
throning the pope into prison, furnish no proof 
that he was a. reformer. The fact is that he re- 
garded neither God nor man when his own sup- 
posed interests were at stake. He manifested the 
same spirit in manipulating the college of cardinals 
so as to secure the election of a pope (Clement V.) 
committed to the interests of France and pledged 
to remove the papal capital to Avignon. He se- 
cured the removal of the papal seat to French ter- 
ritory not in older that he might bring about a 
reformation in the papal administration, but that 
he might prevent other sovereigns from using the 
organized power of the papacy against hhzUi If and 
ought be assured of papal and curia] cooperation 
for the aggrandizement of the French monarchy. 
He compelled the captive po[ie and Curia to coop- 
erate with him in the destruction of the Templars 
(q.v.), not because be believed that the order had 
become scandalously unmoral and blasphemously 
and diabolically irreligious, as members of the order 
*ere tortured into confessing, but because he was 

jealous of their political power and lack of sub- 
serviency, and covetous of their vast wealth. He 
persecuted the Jews not chiefly because he "anted 
them to become Christians, but as a means of ap- 
propriating their wealth. HIb avarice was also 
itLHiifested in his debasing of the coinage of the 
realm. It is not to be supposed that the well 
f'Oiiceivi-d : -i I m I urll e\>TU!ed measures fur consolida- 
ting : i in I iin.Ti.'']-ihg (In- ioii horny of the crown, over- 
coining civil ami ecclesiastical opposition, and en- 
riching ilie royal exchequer were the product of his 
own independent thinking. He was surrounded 
with able and unscrupulous Counselors (such as 
William of N'ugarct], who subserviently ministered 
to his consuming desire for power arid glory and 
who profited personally by his successful exploita- 
tions. See Boniface VIII.; and Clement V. 

A. H. Newman. 

Biblioobafhy: Imoortant source* an: Codex diplomatic** 
I, od. T. do L. Btinim. Bruges. 187B 
-■'■* dt Philippe h Bri. Touloupr, 


1 Lettre. 

i, band) 

. Bullet. HiK dn dtm/la 
du Papo Boniface VIII ai-ix Philippe It lit!. 2 porta, Paris, 
1718; M. Bouquet. Rrturil dm hittoriena dr, Gauttt, vol. 
ai., 23 vols., ib. 1738-76: J. Jolly. Philippe U Bel. i» 
dentin*. ™ acf«. son influence, ib. 1809; Milmau, Latin 
• i.: Pmtoi ~ 


t, VIII. i 

PHILIP THE APOSTLE: One of the twelve, 
usually named fifth in order in the lists of the apos- 
tles. Excepting in these lists, he is not mentioned 
in the Synoptic Gospels. In the narrative of the 
Fourth Gospel he occasionally apjiears individu- 
ally (John i. 14 sqq., vi. 5 sqq., xii. 21 sqq., xiv. 
8 sqq.). He '" was of lielhsaida, the city of Andrew 
and Peter" (John i. 44), after whom, and prob- 
ably owing to their common following of John the 
Baptist, Philip became acquainted with Jesus (John 
i. 14 sqq.), to whom he then brought Nalhanael. 
According to John vi. 5-8, xii. 22 (cf. Mark iii. 18), 
he appears to have stood close to his fellow coun- 
tryman Andrew; and John vi. 7, xii. 22, indicate 
that he possessed a reserved and circumspect dis- 
position. But neither his Greek name nor John 
xii. 22 warrants the inference that Philip was of 
Greek education. On another side, to explain this 
whole Johannme portraiture of the Apostle Philip 
as purely ideal (e.g., Holtzmann) is opposed by the 
very simplicity of the data. 

The patristic statements (Clement of Alexandria, 
Strom., iii. 4; Eusebius, Hist, era*., III., xxxl, 
Eng. transl., NPNF, 1 ser., lf>2) that the unnamed 
disciple of Jesus in Luke fx. 60; Matt. viii. 22, was 
Philip rests probably on a confusion with the evan- 
gelist of tliis name. This mistake, however, has 
both possible and rational evplaual ion, in case the 
apostle and the evangelist alike sojourned in Asia 
Minor (see Phiup the Evangelist). 

F. SiEryERT. 

BlBUOciRAPIlY . I ''iii-uill in kitiitiiJ: The {.-OEumpnturics oa 
the Gospels and Acts, and works oa the apostolic age. 
Abo A. B. Brw-c The Training of Ih. Ticrh-r. I,l,au-li, 

1871; J. II. Liutitfi-Hit, i'iitii itiirv oa Colossisas, pp. 

45-48. London, 1879; idem, Cambridge Sermon*, pp. 129 
sqq., ib. 1S90: G. Milligan. The Twtlve Apoillei. Lunclon, 
1804; Dfl. iii. 834-838; EB, Iii. 3897-3701; DOT, ii. 
3M-:j6(i: Visoiii-iui, t)ictivr,nnirr. part xai., cola. 267- 
270. For the apociypbal bistoiy consult; C. Tisebeu- 

Philip the Arabian 
Philip of Hesse 




dorf, Ada apostolorum apocrypha, pp. xxxi.-xl., 75-104, 
Lcipsic, 1851; W. Wright, Apocryphal Act* of the Apostle*, 
ii. 69 sqq., London, 1871; Apocryphal Gospels, Ads, and 
Revelations, Eng. transl. by A. Walker, pp. 301-324, Edin- 
burgh, 1873; R. A. Lipsius, Die apokryphen Apostdge- 
sehichten tend AposteUegenden, ii. 2, pp. 1-53, Brunswick, 
1884; Analeda Bollandiana, ix (1890), 204-240; T. Zahn, 
Oeschichte des netUestamentlichen Kanons, ii. 761-768, 
Leipeic, 1890; Stdlten, in JPT, 1891, pp. 149-160; Apoc- 
rypha Anecdota, in TU, ii. 3 (1893); A. S. Lewis, Mytho- 
logical Ads of the Apostles, in Horcs Semitica, iv„ London, 
1904; Harnack, Litteratur, i. 138. 

PHILIPPUS ARABS): Roman emperor 244-249; 
b. at Bostra (119 m. s. of Damascus) in the Roman 
province of Arabia Petraea (whence his epithet of 
"the Arabian"); killed in battle near Verona, 
Italy, in the autumn of 249. Elevated to the pur- 
ple by the murder of his predecessor, Gordianus 
III., he was able, during his reign, to subdue the 
Carpi who had ravaged Dacia, and, in 248, to cele- 
brate the millennial of the founding of Rome, 
but was, on the other hand, obliged to conclude a 
humiliating peace with the Persians. In 249 Philip 
became involved in civil war with his rival Decius, 
by whom he was defeated and slain, his young son, 
whom he had made coregent at the age of seven, 
being murdered by the Pretorian Guard at Rome. 

Philip the Arabian, whose high moral ideal is 
evinced by his earnest, though unavailing, efforts 
to suppress the practise of unnatural vice, is of in- 
terest theologically chiefly because of an ancient 
and wide-spread tradition which makes him the 
first Christian emperor of Rome. This tradition 
appears earliest in Eusebius (Hist, eccl., vi. 34), who 
states that, according to report, Philip had desired 
to attend divine service on Easter, but had been 
obliged to perform penance. Vincent of Lerins 
(fifth century), Dionysius of Alexandria, Chrysos- 
tom, Jerome, the first Valesian Fragment, and 
Orosius likewise either explicitly state or at least 
imply that Philip was the first Christian emperor. 
It is plain, however, simply from the coins and 
medals struck by him that he was a worshiper of 
the Olympic gods and that he was himself pontifex 

But though Philip was not a Christian, he was 
remarkably friendly to the new religion, and the 
tradition that he himself was an adherent of it was 
doubtless due, at least in part, to his tolerant atti- 
tude toward it. During his reign Origen could re- 
fute Celsus, and conversions could be made en 
masse; but he could not prevent Christians from 
falling victims to mob violence in Alexandria. 

(Franz GOrres.) 

Bibliography: Sources are: Zosimus, Hist., i. 17-22; Ju- 
lius Capitolinus, Oordiani tree, chape, xxii., xxvi.-xxx., 
ed. H. Peter, Leipsic, 1865; Sextus Aurelius Victor, De 
Casaribus, ed. J. F. Gruner, pp. 308-313, 429-430, Er- 
langen, 1787. Consult in general the history of the period 
in works on the Roman Empire, and in particular: B. 
Aube, Les Chritiens dans l' empire remain, pp. 467 sqq., 
Paris, 1881 ; P. Allard, Hist, des persecutions, ii. 216-256, 
474-478, Paris, 1886; K. J. Neumann, Der r&mische Stoat 
und die aUgemeine Kirche bis auf Diokletian, i. 231-254, 
330-331, Leipsic, 1890; Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chaps, 
vii., x., xvi.; DCB, iv. 355; KL, ix. 2008-09; Neander, 
Christian Church, vol. i., passim. 

PHILIP THE EVANGELIST: One of the seven 
named in Acts vi. 5 as chosen to direct the care of 

the poor, to " serve tables," and possibly to direct 
outward concerns generally. Their office was prob- 
ably different from the later diaconate (see Dea- 
con), being, in any case, dissolved with the perse- 
cution and dispersion of the congregation (Acts 
viii.) and later supplanted by the more comprehen- 
sive office of presbyter (Acts xi. 30, xv. 29). Since 
that earlier office was instituted because the Gre- 
cian members of the primitive congregation com- 
plained that their widows were neglected, it may 
be assumed that at least a contingent of the seven 
was chosen from the Hellenist members themselves, 
and probably one of these was Philip. Philip, like 
Stephen (Acts vi. 13), took a comparatively liberal 
stand in relation to the Jewish law and worship, 
and evolved from that liberal mode of teaching its 
practical sequel, in that after his flight from Jeru- 
salem he began an eventful missionary activity 
among the Samaritans (Acts viii. 5 sqq.), who were 
accounted nearly the same as heathen. Moreover, 
he baptized an uncircumcised half-proselyte, the 
queen of Ethiopia's eunuch (Acts viii. 26 sqq.). 
Next he journeyed, preaching the Gospel, "till he 
came to Caesarea." Here Paul took up his abode 
with him, together with his fellow travelers, on 
Paul's final journey (Acts, xxi. 8). And as this in- 
cident is related in Acts, Philip is designated not 
only with reference to his former office as " one of 
the seven," but also with reference to his mission- 
ary activity as " the evangelist " and as the father 
of " four daughters, virgins, which did prophesy " 
(xxi. 9). This is the last notice of him in the New 

The patristic tradition in regard to the subse- 
quent fortunes of Philip is of impaired value for the 
reason that he has been confused with the apostle 
of like name, as in Polycrates of Ephesus, who re- 
ports of the Apostle Philip (Eusebius, Hist. eccl. t 
III., xxxi. 3, V., xxiv. 2), that he rests in Hierapo- 
lis, as do two of his daughters, who grew old as 
virgins; whereas his third daughter, whose " walk 
and conversation were in the Spirit," lies buried in 
Ephesus. These family particulars so closely re- 
semble what is reported in Acts xxi. 9 of the evan- 
gelist that it is hardly tenable to think of two dif- 
ferent men of the same name in this connection. 
Error in the Book of Acts is the less likely since it 
is precisely there that the reports are from an eye- 
witness. It is evident that Polycrates erroneously 
held the Philip of Hierapolis to be the apostle, 
though this does not exclude the proposition that 
his particulars in regard to the Evangelist Philip 
are correct. In comparison with these details the 
statements of Gaius of Rome (Eusebius, Hist, eccl., 
III., xxxi.) are not so exact. It is probably duo 
to a confusion of the two named Philip that Clem- 
ent of Rome (Eusebius, Hist. eccl. f III., xxx. 1) 
asserts that the Apostles Peter and Philip had be- 
gotten children, and that Philip had given his 
daughters in second marriage. Neither are those 
communications of Eusebius himself quite clear 
(III., xxxi.) which have arisen from a combination 
of what is stated by Polycrates and by Caius. Con- 
fusion of the apostle with the evangelist may have 
been easier because of the possibility that the two 
lived at the same time in Asia Minor. The later 



Philip the Arabian 
Philip of Hesse 

tradition was that the evangelist died as bishop at 

Tralles; that the apostle died and was buried in 

Ephesus. F. Sieffert. 

Bibliography: Because of the confusion noted in the text, 
the literature named under Phi up the Apostle covers 
in large part the subject of this article. Consult the com- 
mentaries on Acts (e.g., G. T. Stokes, in Expositor's Bible, 
vol. L, chaps, xvii., xx., London and New York, 1891), 
and the works on the apostolic age (e.g., A. C. McGifFert, 
pp. 73-74, 95, 340, 424, New York, 1897); T. Zahn, in 
Foreehvngen tux Geachichte des ncutestamentlichen Kanons, 
vi (1900), 158 sqq.; DB, iii. 836-837; Vigouroux, Die- 
tionnairc, part xxxi., cols. 270-272; ASB for June 6; 
Hamack, LiUeratw, ii. 1, pp. 357-358, 368, 669. 

PHILIP OF GORTYWA: Christian apologist; 

flourished in the last half of the second century. 

He is mentioned with praise in the letter of Diony- 

sius of Corinth to the Christian community at Gor- 

tyna (Eusebius, Hist, eccl., IV., xxiii. 5; Eng. 

transl., NPNF, 2 ser., i. 201); and wrote in the time 

of Marcus Aurelius a reply to Marcion (mentioned 

only by Eusebius, IV., xxv., NPNF, ut sup., p. 

203). Jerome (De vir. ill., xxx.) is dependent upon 

Eusebius. (G. KrCger.)* 

Bibliography: The sources are indicated in the text. Con- 
sult further: Hamack, LiUeratur, i. 237; DCB % iv. 355; 
C. A. Bernoulli, Drr SchriftsUllerkataloQ dee Hieronymua, 
p. 334 et passim, Freiburg, 1895. 


Early Life and Embracing of Protestantism (f 1). 
Introduction of the Reformation in Hesse (| 2). 
Suspected of Zwinglianism (§3). 
Leader of the Schmalkald League (f 4). 
Bigamous Marriage (5 5). 
Overtures to the Emperor (| 6). 
Resumption of Hostility to Charles (| 7). 
Imprisonment of Philip and Interim in Hesse (§ 8). 
Closing Years (§ 9). 

Philip of Hesse, or Philip the Magnanimous, land- 
grave of Hesse from 1509 to 1567 and one of the 
most powerful promoters of the Protestant Refor- 
mation, was born at Marburg Nov. 13, 1504; d. at 
Cassel Mar. 31, 1567. His father died when Philip 
was five years old, and in 1514 his mother, Anna of 
Mecklenburg, after a series of struggles with the 
estates of Hesse, succeeded in becoming regent for 
him. The controversies still contin- 
i. Early ued, however, so that, to put an end 
Life and to them, Philip was declared to have 
Embracing attained his majority in 1518, his 
of ProteB- actual assumption of power beginning 
♦frntfonv in the following year. The power of the 
estates had been broken by his mother, 
but he owed her little else. His education had been 
very imperfect, and his moral and religious train- 
ing had been neglected. Despite all this, he de- 
veloped rapidly as a statesman, and soon began to 
take steps to increase his personal authority as a 

The first meeting of Philip of Hesse with Luther 
was in 1521 at the Diet of Worms, where he was 
attracted by the Reformer's personality, though he 
had at first little interest in the religious elements 
of the situation. It was only after his marriage 
with Christina, the daughter of George of Saxony, 
early in 1524, that he began to take an active part 
in forwarding the cause of the Reformation. The 
impulse to this activity came from his reading 
Luther's translation of the Bible, and his nascent 

Protestantism was fostered by meeting Melanch- 
thon in the spring of 1527. As early as 1524 he 
had encouraged the spread of the new doctrines in 
his territories and he now professed open adherence 
to the tenets of Luther, refusing to follow the coun- 
sel of the clergy, his mother, or his father-in-law, 
all of whom urged him to repress the spread of the 
new teaching by force. He openly approved of 
Luther's position in the Peasant War, declaring 
that it was not the result of the Protestant move- 
ment; he refused to be drawn into the anti-Lutheran 
league of George of Saxony in 1525; and by his 
alliance with the Elector John of Saxony, concluded 
at Gotha Feb. 27, 1526, showed that he was al- 
ready taking steps to organize a protective alliance 
of all Protestant princes and powers. At the same 
time he united political motives with his religious 
policy, aiming, as early as the spring of 1526, to pre- 
vent the election of Archduke Ferdinand as em- 
peror of the Holy Roman Empire. At the Diet of 
Speyer (1526) Philip openly championed the Prot- 
estant cause, rendering it possible for Protestant 
preachers to propagate their views while the 
Diet was in session, and, like his followers, openly 
disregarding ordinary Roman Catholic ecclesiastical 

Although there was no strong popular movement 
for reforming Hesse, Philip determined to organize 
the church there according to Protes- 
2. Introduc- tant principles. In this he was aided 
tion of the not only by his chancellor, the human- 
Reforma- is tic Feige (Ficinus) of Lichtenau, and 
tion in his chaplain, Adam Krafft (q.v.), but 
Hesse. also by the ex- Franciscan Francois 
Lambert (q.v.), a fanatical enemy of 
the faith he had left. While the violent policy of 
Lambert, embodied, at least in part, in the Hom- 
berg church order (see Hombero Synod and Chukch 
Order of 1526) was abandoned, and an essentially 
Lutheran type of organization was adopted, the 
monasteries and religious foundations were dis- 
solved; their property was applied to charitable 
and scholastic purposes; and the University of 
Marburg was founded in the summer of 1527 to be, 
like Wittenberg, a school for Protestant theolo- 
gians. Philip's father-in-law and the bishops of 
Wurzburg and Mainz were active in agitating 
against the growth of the new heresy, and the com- 
bination of several circumstances, including ru- 
mors of war, convinced Philip of the existence of a 
secret league among the Roman Catholic princes. 
His suspicions were confirmed to his own satisfac- 
tion by a forgery given him by an adventurer who 
had been employed in important missions by George 
of Saxony, one Otto von Pack; and after meeting 
with the Elector John of Saxony at Weimar Mar. 
9, 1528, it was agreed that the Protestant princes 
should take the offensive in order to protect their 
territory from invasion and capture. Both Luther 
and the elector's chancellor, Bruck, though con- 
vinced of the existence of the conspiracy, coun- 
seled strongly against acting on the offensive. The 
imperial authorities at Speyer now forbade all 
breach of the peace, and, after long negotiations, 
Philip succeeded in extorting the expenses for his 
armament from the dioceses of Wurzburg, Bamberg, 

Philip of HeaM 



and Mainz, the latter bishopric also being compelled 
to recognize the validity of ecclesiastical jurisdic- 
tion in Hessian and Saxon territory until the em- 
peror or a Christian council should decide to the 
contrary. The condition of affairs was, however, 
very unfavorable to Philip, who might easily be 
charged with disturbing the peace of the empire, 
and at the second Diet of Speyer, in the spring of 
1529, he was publicly ignored by the emperor. 
Nevertheless, he took an active part in uniting the 
Protestant representatives, as well as in preparing 
the celebrated protest of Speyer; and before leav- 
ing the city he succeeded in forming, on Apr. 22, 
1520, a secret understanding between Saxony, 
Hesse, Nuremberg, Strasburg, and Ulm. 

Philip was especially anxious to prevent division 
over the subject of the Lord's Supper. Through 
him Zwingli was invited to Germany, 
3. Sus- and Philip thus prepared the way for 
pected of the celebrated debate at Marburg 
Zwinglian- (see Marburg, Conference of). Al- 
ism. though the attitude of the Wittenberg 
theologians frustrated his attempts to 
bring about harmonious relations, and although 
the situation was still further complicated by the 
position of George, margrave of Brandenburg, who 
demanded a uniform confession and a uniform 
church order, Philip held that the differences be- 
tween Strasburg and the followers of Luther in their 
sacramental theories admitted of adjustment, and 
that the erring could not scripturally be rejected 
and despised. The result was that Philip was sus- 
pected of a tendency toward Zwinglianism. At the 
same time, the results of a conference with the elec- 
tor of Saxony and with Margrave George at Schleiz 
(Oct. 3), the anger of the emperor at receiving from 
Philip a statement of Protestant tenets, composed 
by the ex-Franciscan Lambert, and the landgrave's 
failure to secure any common action on the part of 
the Protestant powers regarding the approaching 
Turkish war, all tended to draw him closer to the 
Swiss and the Strasburg Reformers. He eagerly 
embraced Zwingli's plan of a great Protestant alli- 
ance to extend from the Adriatic to Denmark to 
keep the Holy Roman emperor from crossing into 
Germany. This association caused some coldness 
between himself and the followers of Luther at the 
Diet of Augsburg in 1530, especially when he pro- 
pounded his irenic policy to Melanchthon and urged 
that all Protestants should stand together in de- 
manding that a general council alone should decide 
concerning religious differences. This was supposed 
to be indicative of Zwinglianism, and Philip soon 
found it necessary to explain his exact position on 
the question of the Lord's Supper, whereupon he 
declared that he fully agreed with the Lutherans, 
but disapproved of persecuting the Swiss. 

The arrival of the emperor put an end to these 
disputes for the time being; and when Charles de- 
manded that the Protestant representatives should 
take part in the procession of Corpus Christi, and 
that Protestant preaching should cease in the city, 
Philip bluntly refused to obey. He now sought in 
vain to secure a modification of the tenth article of 
the Augsburg Confession; but when the position 
of the Upper Germans was officially rejected, Philip 

left the diet directing his representatives manfully 
to uphold the Protestant position, and to keep 
general, not particular, interests constantly in view. 
At this time he offered Luther a refuge in his own 
territories, and began to cultivate close relations 
with Martin Butzer, whose comprehension of po- 
litical questions constituted a common bond of 
sympathy between them, and who fully agreed 
with the landgrave on the importance of com- 
promise measures in treating the controversy on 
the Lord's Supper. 

In 1530 Philip was successful in accomplishing 
the purpose for which he had so long worked by 
securing the adhesion of the Protestant 
4. Leader powers to the Schmalkald League (see 
of the Schmalkald, League and Articles 
Schmalkald of), which was to protect their relig- 
League. ious and secular interests against in- 
terference from the emperor. The 
landgrave and his ally, the elector of Saxony, be- 
came recognized leaders of this union of German 
princes and cities. Philip kept clearly in view the 
necessity of an anti-Hapsburg policy, and was thor- 
oughly convinced that the Protestant cause de- 
pended on the weakening of the Hapsburgs both at 
home and abroad. 

Before engaging in hostilities, Philip attempted 
to accomplish the ends of Protestant policy by 
peaceful means. He proposed a compromise on the 
subject of the confiscated church property, but at 
the same time he was untiring in providing for a 
possible recourse to war, and cultivated diplomatic 
relations with any and all powers whom he knew 
to have anti-Hapsburg interests. A peaceful turn 
was, however, given to the situation by the ar- 
rangements made at Nuremberg July 25, 1532 (see 
Nuremberg, Religious Peace of), though this 
did not prevent Philip from preparing for a future 
struggle. He was untiring in trying to draw new 
allies into the league against Charles V. and Fer- 
dinand, who had been invested with the duchy of 
Wurttemberg; the battle of Lauffen (May 13, 
1534) cost Ferdinand his newly acquired possession; 
and Philip was now recognized as the hero of the 
day, and his victory as the victory of the Schmal- 
kald League. In the years following this coalition 
became one of the most important factors in Euro- 
pean politics, largely through the influence of Philip, 
who lost no opportunity of furtherLig the Protes- 
tant cause. Its alliance was sought by both France 
and England; it was extended for a period of ten 
years in 1535; and new members were added to it. 
On the other hand, the struggle between the two 
Protestant factions injured the advancement of 
their mutual interests, and Butzer, encouraged by 
Philip, was accordingly occupied in the attempt to 
bring Protestants together on a common religious 
platform, the result being the Concord of Witten- 
berg (see Wittenberg, Concord of). The em- 
peror's fears as to the political purpose of the league 
were, for the time being, set at rest; but at the 
same time a council which should include represen- 
tatives of the pope was rejected; and measures were 
taken to secure the permanence of the Protestant 
cause in the future. In 153&-39 the relations be- 
tween Roman Catholics and Protestants became 



Philip of Hesse 

strained almost to the breaking-point, and war was 
averted only by the Frankfort Respite (q.v.). The 
Protestants, however, failed to avail themselves of 
their possible opportunities, largely through the un- 
wonted docility and pliability of Philip. 

This unexpected course of the Protestant leader 
was largely conditioned by two factors: he was 
weakened by a licentious life, and his marital rela- 
tions were about to bring scandal on 
5. Bigamous all Protestantism. Within a few weeks 
Marriage, after his marriage to the unattractive 
and sickly Christina of Saxony, who 
was also alleged to be an immoderate drinker, 
Philip had committed adultery; and as early as 
1526 he had begun to consider the permissibility of 
bigamy. He accordingly wrote Luther for his opin- 
ion, alleging as a precedent the polygamy of the 
patriarchs; but Luther replied (Nov. 28, 1526) that 
it was not enough for a Christian to consider the 
acts of the patriarchs, but that he, like the patri- 
archs, must have special divine sanction. Since, 
however, such sanction was lacking in the present 
case, Luther advised against such a marriage, espe- 
cially for Christians, unless there was extreme ne- 
cessity, as, for example, if the wife was leprous, or 
abnormal in other respects. Despite this discour- 
agement, Philip gave up neither his project nor a 
life of sensuality which kept him for years from re- 
ceiving communion. He was affected by Melanch- 
thon's opinion concerning the case of Henry VIII., 
where the Reformer had proposed that the king's 
difficulty could be solved by his taking a second 
wife better than by his divorcing the first one. To 
strengthen his position, there were Luther's own 
statements in his sermons on Genesis, as well as 
historical precedents which proved to his satisfac- 
tion that it was impossible for anything to be un- 
christian that God had not punished in the case of 
the patriarchs, who in the New Testament were held 
up as models of faith. It was during an illness due 
to his excesses that the thought of taking a second 
wife became a fixed purpose. It seemed to him to 
be the only salve for his troubled conscience, and 
the only hope of moral improvement open to him. 
He accordingly proposed to marry the daughter of 
one of his sister's ladies-in-waiting, Margarethe von 
der Saale. While the landgrave had no scruples 
whatever, Margarethe was unwilling to take the 
step unless they had the approval of the theolo- 
gians and the consent of the prince elector of Sax- 
ony and of Duke Maurice. Philip easily gained his 
first wife's consent to the marriage. Butzer, who 
was strongly influenced by political arguments, was 
won over by the landgrave's threat to ally himself 
with the emperor if he did not secure the consent 
of the theologians to the marriage; and the Witten- 
berg divines were worked upon by the plea of the 
prince's ethical necessity. Thus the " secret ad- 
vice of a confessor " was won from Luther (see 
Luther, § 21) and Melanchthon (Dec. 10, 1539), 
neither of them knowing that the bigamous wife 
had already been chosen. Butzer and Melanchthon 
were now summoned, without any reason being 
assigned, to Rotenburg-on-the-Fulda, where, on 
Mar. 4, 1540, Philip and Margarethe were united. 
The time was particularly inauspicious for any | 

scandal affecting the Protestants, for the emperor, 
who had rejected the Frankfort Respite, was about 
to invade Germany. A few weeks later, however, 
the whole matter was revealed by Philip's sister, 
and the scandal caused a painful impression through- 
out Germany. Some of Philip's allies refused to 
serve under him; and Luther, under the plea that 
it was a matter of advice given in the confessional, 
refused to acknowledge his part in the marriage. 

This event had affected the whole political situa- 
tion. Even while the marriage question was occu- 
pying his attention, Philip was engaged in construct- 
ing far-reaching plans for reforming 
6. Over- the Church and for drawing together 
hires to the all the opponents of the house of Haps- 
Emperor. burg, though at the same time he did 
not give up hopes of reaching a relig- 
ious compromise through diplomatic means. He 
was bitterly disgusted by the criticism directed 
against him, and feared that the law which he him- 
self had enacted against adultery might be applied 
to his own case. In this state of mind he now de- 
termined to make his peace with the emperor on 
terms which would not involve desertion of the 
Protestant cause. He offered to observe neutrality 
regarding the imperial acquisition of the duchy of 
Cleves and to prevent a French alliance, on condi- 
tion that the emperor would pardon him for all his 
opposition and violation of the imperial laws, 
though without direct mention of his bigamy. The 
advances of Philip, though he declined to do any- 
thing prejudicial to the Protestant cause, were wel- 
comed by the emperor; and, following Butzer's ad- 
vice, the landgrave now proceeded to take active 
steps with the hope of establishing religious peace 
between the Roman Catholics and Protestants. 
Secure of the imperial favor, he agreed to appear 
at the Diet of Regensburg, and his presence there 
contributed to the direction which affairs took at 
the Regensburg religious colloquy (see Regens- 
burg, Conference of), in which Melanchthon, 
Butzer, and Johannes Pistorius the elder repre- 
sented the Protestant side. Philip was successful 
in securing the permission of the emperor to estab- 
lish a university at Marburg; and in return for the 
concession of an amnesty, he agreed to stand by 
Charles against all his enemies, excepting Protes- 
tantism and the Schmalkald League, to make no 
alliances with France, England, or the duke of 
Cleves, and to prevent the admission of these powers 
into the Schmalkald League. On the other hand, 
the emperor agreed not to attack him in case there 
was a common war against all Protestants. 

These arrangements for special terms led to the 
collapse of Philip's position as leader of the Protes- 
tant party. He had become an object of suspicion, 
and, although the league continued to remain in 
force, and gained some new adherents in succeeding 
years, its real power had departed. But while of 
the secular princes only Albrecht of Mecklenburg 
and Henry of Brunswick were still faithful to the 
Roman Catholic cause, and while united action 
might at the time easily have resulted in the tri- 
umph of Protestantism, there was no union; Duke 
Maurice and Joachim II. of Brandenburg would 
not join the Schmalkald League; Cleves was sue* 

Philip of Emm 



cessfully invaded by the imperial troops; and Prot- 
estantism was rigorously suppressed in Metz. 

In 1543 the internal dissensions of the league 
compelled Philip to resign from its leadership, and 
to think seriously of dissolving it. He put his trust 
entirely in the emperor's good faith, agreeing to 
help him against both the French and the Turks. 
At the Diet of Speyer in 1544 he championed the 
emperor's policy with great eloquence; the bishop 
of Augsburg declared he must be inspired by the 
Holy Spirit; and Charles now intended to make 
him commander-in-chief in the next war against 
the Turks. 

The situation was suddenly changed, however, 
and Philip was tardily forced again into the opposi- 
tion, by the peace of Crespy (Sept., 1544), which 
opened his eyes to the danger threatening Protes- 
tantism. He prevented the Roman 
7. Resump- Catholic Duke Henry of Brunswick 
tion of from taking forcible possession of his 
Hostility to dominions; he unsuccessfully planned 
Charles, a new alliance with German princes 
against Austria, pledging its members 
to prevent the acceptance of the decrees of the pro- 
jected Council of Trent; when this failed, he sought 
to secure the neutrality of Bavaria in a possible war 
against the Protestants; and he proposed a new 
Protestant alliance to take the place of the Schmal- 
kald League. But all this, like his projected coali- 
tion with the Swiss, was prevented by the jealousy 
prevailing between Duke Maurice and the elector 
of Saxony. Fearful of the success of these plans, 
the emperor invited Philip to an interview at Speyer 
(Mar. 28, 1546). Philip spoke plainly in criticism 
of the emperor's policy, and it was soon evident 
that peace could not be preserved. Four months 
later (July 20, 1546) the imperial ban was declared 
against John Frederick and Philip as perjured 
rebels and traitors. The result was the Schmalkald 
war, the outcome of which was unfavorable to 
Protestant interests. The defeat at Muhlberg (Apr. 
24, 1547) and the capture of the Elector John Fred- 
erick marked the fall of the Schmalkald League. In 
despair Philip, who had been negotiating with the 
emperor for some time, agreed to throw himself on 
his mercy, on condition that his territorial rights 
should not be impaired and that he himself should 
not be imprisoned. These terms were disregarded, 
however, and on June 23, 1547, both the leaders of 
the famous league were taken to south Germany 
and held as captives. 

The imprisonment of Philip brought the Church 
in Hesse into great trials and difficulties. It 
had previously been organized carefully by Philip 
and Butzer, and synods, presbyteries, 
8. Impris- and a system of discipline had been 
onment of established. The country was thor— 
Philip and oughly protestantized, though public 
Interim in worship still showed no uniformity, 
Hesse. discipline was not strictly applied, and 
many sectaries existed. The Interim 
(q.v.) was now introduced, sanctioning Roman 
Catholic practises and usages. Philip himself wrote 
from prison to forward the acceptance of the In- 
terim, especially as his liberty depended upon it. 
As long as the unrestricted preaching of the Gospel 

and the Protestant tenet of justification by faith 
were secured, other matters seemed to him of sub- 
ordinate importance. He read Roman Catholic 
controversial literature, attended mass, and was 
much impressed by his study of the Fathers of the 
Church. The Hessian clergy, however, boldly op- 
posed the introduction of the Interim and the gov- 
ernment at Cassel refused to obey the landgrave's 
commands. Meanwhile his imprisonment was made 
still more bitter by the information which he re- 
ceived concerning conditions in Hesse, and the rigor 
of his confinement was increased after he had made 
an unsuccessful attempt to escape. It was not until 
1552 that the Peace of Passau gave him his long- 
desired freedom and that he was able, on Sept. 12, 
1552, to reenter his capital, Cassel. 

Though Philip was now active in restoring order 
within his territories, new leaders — Maurice of Sax- 
ony and Christopher of Wurttemberg — had come to 
the fore. Philip no longer desired to assume the 
leadership of the Protestant party. 
9. Closing All his energies were now directed 
Tears. toward finding a basis of agreement 
between Protestants and Roman Cath- 
olics. At his direction his theologians were prom- 
inent in the various conferences where representa- 
tive Roman Catholics and Protestants assembled 
to attempt to find a working basis for reunion. 
Philip was also much disturbed by the internal 
conflicts that arose after Luther's death between 
his followers and the disciples of Melanchthon. 
He was never wearied in urging the necessity of 
mutual toleration between Calvinists and Lutherans, 
and to the last cherished the hope of a great Protes- 
tant federation, so that, with this end in view, he 
cultivated friendly relations with French Protes- 
tants and with Elizabeth of England. Financial 
aid was given to the Huguenots, and Hessian troops 
fought side by side with them in the French relig- 
ious civil wars, this policy contributing to the dec- 
laration of toleration at Amboise in Mar., 1563. 
He gave permanent form to the Hessian Church by 
the great agenda of 1566-67, and in his will, dated 
in 1562, urged his sons to maintain the Augsburg 
Confession and the Concord of Wittenberg, and at 
the same time to work in behalf of a reunion of 
Roman Catholics and Protestants if opportunity 
and circumstances should permit. (T. Kolde.) 
Bibliography: As a source employ: M. Lens, Briefwechsd 
Landgraf PhUipps des GrossmUthigen . . . mil Bucer, 
1641-47, 3 parts, Leipsic, 1880-91. Matter of pertinence 
is to be found in the literature under Butzer, Martin; 
Luther, Martin; Melanchthon, Phiupp; Reforma- 
tion; and the various articles named in the text. For 
the English reader the fullest account accessible is probably 
to be found in J. Janssen, Hist, of the German People, vols, 
v.-vii., St. Louis, 1903-05. Consult further: C. von 
Rommel, Philipp der Grossmuthige, 3 vols., Giessen, 1830; 
P. Hoffmeister, Das Leben PhUipps des GrossmHthigen, 
Cassel, 1846; P. A. F. WaJther, Landgraf Philipp von 
Hessen, Darmstadt, 1866; J. Wille, Philipp der Gross- 
muthige und die Restitution Ulrichs von Wirtemberg, 1626- 
16S6, Tubingen, 1882; S. Ehses, Landgraf Philipp von 
Hessen und Otto von Pack, Freiburg, 1886; A. Heidenhain, 
Die Unionspolitik Landgrafen PhUipps des GrossmUHgen, 
1667-62, Breslau. 1886; W. Falckenheiner, Philipp der 
GrossmUthige im Bauernkriege, Marburg, 1887; J. B. Rady, 
Die Reformatoren in ihrer Beziehung tur Doppdehe des 
Landgrafen Philipp, Frankfort, 1890; O. Winckelmann, 


Der x-Jimaitalditrne Bund. 1630-M, Straaburg. 

Turba. Veihajtang lend (ItfanatnjtcAaft da Landarajen 

PhMpp ton Hettrn, Vienna. IBM; B. Luloib, Die Oefana- 

awtiw da Landgrafen PhUipp von Ht/ism, Hmnum 

1890: Philipp da Groeemidiiie. Btilr&ec i 

nu 1-ebetu und leintr Ztil, Marburg. 

•thrift nan Qeiadtlni* Philipp* dtr Brawn i 

1004; Seheuk. PMlip dtr QnMMflNn fflBihlllJill ran 

Hmtn (ItOir-BT), Frankenberg. 1004; W. W. Hock- 

wett. Dw Doppttthe dtt Landgrafen Philipp 

lUibuIX' 1B04; Cambridai Modem History, 

aim. London and New York. 1905: A. von E 

Konuecke, Oil Hildnitv Philippe del Gramemotiatn, Unt- 

biUB. 1906; Sehaff. Christian Church, vol. vi. passim. 


PHILIP HEM, SAIHT. Sen Nbrj, Philip. 

PHILIP OF SIDE: Church historian; b. at Side 
(the modem Eski Adaliuh; 02 m. s.w. of Konieh, 
the ancient IcoDium), Pamphylia; flourished about 
413*. He si i.i'lii >l under I'.lit.idon at tin- catechetical 
■:!,'-il : .n Alexandria, and while slUI a young mmi 
became the head of the brunch school established 
by Rhodon. probably at Philip's suggestion, in 
Side about 405. Later he was a priest in Constant i- 
noplc, where be was an intimate friend of Chrysos- 

iid In c lidato for the patriarchate 

of Constant iin 'pic against Si-inn in- I I ",'■">), \i.-storius 
(428), and Maximianus (431). He seems to have 
Ix-en identical with the By/antine ph-sbytrr Philip. 
who was eommended by Cyril of Alexandria for re- 
fusing to associate with the herel ical Nest-onus, and 
whom the Alexandrine patriarch sought to recon- 
cile with Maximum us, when the latter succeeded 
the deposed hcresiarch. It is also very pnslbla 
that Philip may have spent some time in Antiocb 
and Amida. 

From the statements of Socrates (Hut. Met, 
VII., xxvii.), Photius (Bibliotheca, xxxv.), and 
Niccphorus (//w/. rrcL, xiv. 2<t) it is clear that Philip 
of Side was a man of extraordinary learning and 
diligence, but more diffuse than accurate. Among 
his [iiunerous books, which with many themes, 
the most important were his " History of ' 'liristian- 
ity " and his, polemic against the Emperor Julian. 
Of his writings, however, only scant fragments have 
survived, these being merely of an average charac- 
ter. A number of his fragments have been edited 
by Carl de Boor {ZKG, vi. 478-494; TV, v. 165- 
184), and his history seems also to have influenced 
the " Religious Conference at the Sassunid Court " 
(ed. Eduard Bratke, in TV, xix., part 3, 1899). A 
few other fragments of Philip's writings are known 
to exist, and it is possible that he was also the 
author of the still unedited D< titirturo arris Perxici 
d at tinetura oris Indiei. (E. Bhatke)-.) 

Bulioobaphi; A. Wirth. Ana orienlah'ichrn Chroniktn, pa. 
SOS »qq., FronkJort. IS'.'!; 0. [i;ifl.>i.l«ni-r. P„tnJ..,ii.-, 
jrp. 332-333. Freiburc. HXu , IJu; iraust, St, Loui", 1BIM; 
idem, in KL. ix. 2(iL'2-LM; F luimiient, Aleiandrr dtr 
Gruue und die Ida- r/o W'.'t><iii>>-ritf«* in Prophetic und 
&w.pp. 118-135. Freiburg, 1901; DCS, iv. 358; CeUlier, 

PHILIP THE TETRAECH (4 b.c. -34 a.d.): Son 
of Herod the Great and of Cleopatra, a woman of 
Jerusalem. He was educated in Rome For his 
tetr-jrehate und rule sec He hod and his Familv, 

II., § 3. He was a gentle and gracious prince, who 

always resided in his own territories and was ever 
ready to give aid and justice to his people. Philip's 
coins bear the representation of the emperor and 
the device of a temple, which is more probably ths 
temple of Augustus at Cn-sarea than the sanctuary 
at Jerusalem. His reign of thirty-seven years was 
almost contemporaneous, with lite life of Jesus, who 
sometimes traversed Philip's dominions. When the 
latter died in 33 or ,'S4 a.d., his land became a part 
of the province of Syria and was administered asJ 
atl imperhd domain. 

There is some difficulty in bringing Mark vi. 17 
(Matt. sic. 3) into agreement with Josophus, Ant., 
xviii. 137, where Philip is said to have married 
Salome, the daughter of his brother Herod Antipas 
and of his niece Herodias, while Mark makes Philip 
the first husband of Herodiaa herself, and states 
that she left him to marry Herod. Some interpre- 
ters suppose that two sons of Herod the Great bore 
the name of Philip, one of them being also called 
Herod; others airain think I hat I In- re must be some 
error either in Josephus or in Mark. It is probable] 
that the latter confused two brothers, one of whom 
was the father and the other I lie husband of Salome. 

E. von DobschOtz. 

Ii]ni.]i..aiM'i] v: < '(ui-iill I hi 1 Ei r.cni run- ija.trr Hi.inhj i\n 
inn Faiult. and add In thnt S. Mathews. Hit. of New 
Tatamtnl Timet in Palatine, New York, 1800. 


German Lutheran; b. at Berlin Oct. 15, 1809; d. 
at Rostock Aug. 29, 1882. Although a Jew by 
birth, he soon Itegun to consider the problem of the 
truth of Christianity. He became a convert when he 
was sixteen years old, but out of respect to his par- 
ents he was not baptized until four years later. 
After completing his education at the universities 
of Berlin (1M27-2!)) and Leipsic (1829-30), he 
taught at Dresden (1830-32) and Berlin (1.S33 34). 
hut withdrew from active life to devote himself to 
the private study of theology, especially dogmatics 
and exegesis. In 1S37 he became privut-dwent for 
theology in the University of Berlin, whence he was 
called to Dorpat in 1 >>I 1 as professor of dogmatics 
and moral theology. Here he took a lively interest 
in the ecclesiastical ipa-sl ions of the day, contribu- 
ting much to strengthen the position of l.ulheran- 
isni in Russian territory. In 1851 he was called to 
Rostock as professor of New-Testament exegesis, in 
which capacity lie successfully opposed the theology 
of Johann Hofmann and Michael Bamngarten 
(qq.v.). In addition to his professorial duties, 
Philippi was appointed a theological examiner in 
lS.'ili, and ;i eonsistorial councilor in 1S74. Among 
his writings are: De Celsi nilversarii Christianorum 
philosophandi gencre (Berlin, 1836); Der ttiatij/e 
tjrhormni Chrixti, di\ Beilrag zur liecfU/irli'./'iiiiis- 
khn: I IS-il); Conimrntar Hirer rle'i Brief Pauti an die 
ROmcr (3 parts, Krlangen and Frankfort. 1848 W>; 
Kng. trans!, by J. S. Banks, 2 vols., EdmbttTgb, 
1S78-7U); Kin-mi-lie filaiil.x'tiflfkre (6 vols.. Gtlters- 
loh, 1854-79): Fndigton urui Yortrdge (edited by 
F. Philippi, 1SS3); Symbulik, akiuiemimrkr. Vorlc- 
swigcii (edited by (he same, I8S3); and Erkt-intmj 
dirs Brie its I'oi'Ii nn 'lit' CuIiiIit (edited by the same, 

I8S4). (Ferdwano PitiLippif.) 

Philippine Islands 



Bibuoqrapht: MeckUnburgucJiea Kirchen- und ZeitMaU, 
1882, new. 19-21; M. A. Landerer, NeuetU Doomenge- 
echichU, p. 215 et passim, Heflbronn, 1881. 

PHILIPPI, JACOBUS: German Roman Catho- 
lic; author of the Reformatorium vita dericorum 
(Basel, 1494); b. at Kulchhoffen or Kilchen (now 
Kirchhoffen, a hamlet near Freiburg) about 1435; 
d. apparently after 1510. In 1463 he matriculated 
in the theological faculty at Basel. Here he edited 
a gradual (Basel, 1488) and a breviary (1492), and 
also lectured on various books of the Bible, espe- 
cially on the Pauline epistles. In 1464 he was a 
member of the committee of advisement on the 
university statutes. In scholastic philosophy he 
was a realist. Of his activity little is known; but 
it is evident that he was inclined toward the Breth- 
ren of the Common Life (see Common Life, Breth- 
ren of the), making his will in favor of their house 
at Zwolle in 1486. He was attracted to the com- 
munity primarily by his brother Ludwig, who had 
become one of their number at Zwolle in 1472, and 
who died there as rector of the Brethren in 1490. 
The statement in Johann Butzbach's Auctarium 
de 8criptoribu8 ecclesiasticis that Jacobus Philippi 
was still living after 1508 seems to be confirmed by 
a title-deed of 1510. 

Among Philippi's writings Butzbach makes spe- 
cial mention of the Sermons ad popidum (thus far 
undiscovered) and of the Prctcordialc sacerdotum 
devote celebrare cupientium utile et consclatorium 
(Strasburg, 1489). His chief work, however, was 
his Reformatorium (first printed at Basel, 1494, not 
1444, as a misprint led many to suppose), directed 
against evils in the life of the clergy. As a remedy 
Philippi recommended the community of the Breth- 
ren of the Common Life. The close of the book 
admonishes against the misuse of benefices accu- 
mulated in the hands of a single holder. In all his 
reform measures Philippi shows himself in harmony 
with many of his contemporaries. L. Schulze. 
Bibliography: Biographical material is to be found in the 
Reformatorium; scattered notices are collected by L. 
Schulse in ZKW, 1886, pp. 88 sqq., and by Schdngen 
in the " Chronicle " of Jacobus Trajecti published by the 
Historical Society of Utrecht, 1903. Consult further: 
J. Harbin, Peter von Andlau, Strasburg, 1897; idem, 
Handbuch der dchvmzeriachen QeechickU, ii. 87 sqq., Stans, 

the Apostle, II. 

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: The most northern 
group of the Malay Archipelago, situated between 
the Pacific Ocean on the east and the 
Geograph- Sea of China on the west and south of 
ical De- Japan and north of the islands of 
scription. Borneo and Celebes, and included be- 
tween latitude 4° 4& and 21° W north 
and longitude 116° 4C and 126° 34' east. The 
archipelago consists of 3,141 islands, most of which 
are very small; the total land area is 115,026 square 
miles; population, 7,635,426. The principal islands 
are as follows: Luzon (area, 40,969 square miles; 
population, 3,798,507), Mindanao (area, 36,292; 
population, 499,634), Samar (area, 5,031; popula- 
tion, 222,690), Negros (area, 4,881; population, 
460,776), Panay (area, 4,611; population, 743,646), 
Palawan (area, 4,027; population, 10,918), Min- 

doro (area, 3,851 ; population, 28,361), Leyte (area, 
2,722; population, 357,641); and Cebu (area, 
1,762; population, 592,247). 

The islands were discovered by Ferdinand Ma- 
gellan in 1521 ; were conquered by the Spanish from 
Mexico under Legaspi; and were sub- 
Historical ject to the crown of Spain, until, by 
and the treaty of Paris, Dec. 10, 1898, they 
Political were ceded to the United States by 
right of conquest and for the addi- 
tional consideration of $20,000,000. Upon taking 
possession the United States proceeded to reorgan- 
ise the civil and judicial administration of the 
islands. Religious liberty was guaranteed by the 
treaty of Paris. The general government is mod- 
eled after that of the United States. The executive 
is composed of the governor-general who is the head 
of a commission of eight members appointed by the 
president of the United States and assigned as 
heads of the different departments. The commis- 
sion serves as the upper house of legislation and the 
lower is elected by the people. The Supreme Court, 
composed of four American and three native judges, 
is also appointed by the American president. A 
limited franchise is granted to the natives outside 
of the Mohammedan islands. The population known 
as the Filipinos is not homogeneous, but consists of 
numerous tribes speaking many languages. The 
aborigines were the Negritos, who now number 
only 23,500; they are black, dwarfish, woolly- 
haired, thick-lipped, and dwell in the remote parts 
of the islands. The Malay or brown races consti- 
tute nine-tenths of the population, of which the 
principal are the Tagalogs, Visayans, Ilocanos, 
Moros, Bicals, and Igorrotes. There are small ele- 
ments of negroes brought by the Spanish from 
Africa and Papua; of Indians brought from Mexico, 
Mongoloids, and whites. Immediately after the 
establishment of American sovereignty, a system 
of free public schools was established. In 1905-06 
the average attendance per month was 375,554 out 
of a total of 1,200,000 between the ages of six and 
fifteen. In the latter year there were 3,340 schools 
(primary, intermediate, and high), 4,719 native, 
and 831 American teachers. The Roman Catholics 
in 1903 maintained 1,004 private schools with an 
enrolment of 63,545, and 325 religious schools with 
an enrolment of 26,478. 

When the Spanish took possession their design 
was the establishment of a politico-religious sover- 
eignty. The picturesque ceremonials 
Religious of the Roman Catholic Church ap- 
History; pealed to the natives, whose adherence 
Roman to their own religious beliefs was weak 
Catholics, while they were disunited by their 
diversities and rivalries. Great num- 
bers of missionary friars of the Augustinian, Fran- 
ciscan, Dominican, and Recollet orders came to the 
islands, to each of whom a charge was assigned. 
They labored with great success, the entire body of 
people yielding rapidly to conversion. At present 
only eight and one-half per cent of the inhabitants 
are classed as wild, while all the others are termed 
civilized. This was the result mainly of the devo- 
tion of the friars to parochial instruction and to the 
spiritual and physical welfare of the natives. The 



Philippine Islands 

Jesuits likewise participated in the work; but, be- 
coming the richest and most powerful order, they 
aroused the jealousy of the others and were re- 
called in 1767. In 1850 they were given permission 
to return. The bishopric erected in 1581 was made 
suffragan to Mexico, and in 1595 it was raised to 
metropolitan rank with three suffragan bishoprics; 
to which a fourth was added in 1867, which was, 
however, merged in one of the others in 1874. With 
these at the head of the Church stood the provin- 
cials of the four great orders named above. The 
members of these orders or regular clergy greatly 
preponderated in numbers and influence over the 
secular clergy composed mostly of natives. The 
domestic history of the archipelago, naturally se- 
cluded, was parochial; consisting of missionary ex- 
tension and political and industrial progress sub- 
ject to the religious interest and the will of the 
friars, with an occasional conflict between the arch- 
bishop and the latter. Finally, the leaven of west- 
ern forces finding various access bore fruit, and the 
insurrections of 1896 and 1898 constituted an up- 
heaval for the overthrow of the land-holding friars 
and the political and economic stagnation resulting 
from their long undisputed occupation. One of the 
demands of the revolutionists was their expulsion. 
With the insurrection of 1896 a priest, Aglipay by 
name, placed himself at the head of a seceding relig- 
ious or antipapal party, entitled Independent Cath- 
olic Church. After negotiations between the United 
States' government and Pope Leo XIII. in 1907 it 
was agreed that the United States pay $7,000,000 
for the friar lands and that the Church send no 
friar as priest into any parish after a final objection 
by the governor-general. The majority of the peo- 
ple are Roman Catholics of whom there are 
3,940,000, besides 3,000,000 Independent Catholics. 
Every village as established by the Spanish had its 
central church. Most of these buildings were of 
stone and many were elaborate structures. In 1903 
there were 1,608 churches of which 1,573 were Ro- 
man Catholic, and in the city of Manila alone there 
were 51. The Moros of the Sulu Archipelago, south- 
ern Mindanao, and Palawan in the southwest, who 
were the least affected by the Spanish occupation, 
about 270,000, are Mohammedan. Buddhists of 
Asiatic derivation number 75,000 and Animists 

Immediately after the Spanish cession, various 
Protestant churches in the United States took steps 
to enter the field by adopting in con- 
Protestant ference a plan of cooperation and union 
Missions, having in view the erection of " La 
Iglesia Evangelica Fitipina," as the 
national church of the Filipinos. The Presbyterian 
Church established a permanent mission in 1899; 
the Methodist Episcopal, the same year; the Bap- 
tist in 1900; the Protestant Episcopal and Chris- 
tian (Disciples) in 1901; the United Brethren in 
1902; and the Congregational in 1903. In Apr., 
1901, a federation of missions and churches was 
formed in Manila called " The Evangelical Union 
of the Philippine Islands." The field was to be 
mutually divided with Manila as the common cen- 
ter. The Presbyterian Board opened stations on 
Luzon, at Lagunaand Albay, in 1903, and at Taya- 

bas in 1906; at Iloilo, Panay, in 1900; at Duma- 
guete, Negros, in 1901; and in Cebu in 1902. The 
Ellinwood School at Manila became a theological 
seminary in 1907, conducted jointly by the Method- 
ist Episcopal bishop and the presbytery. In 1901 
the Silliman Industrial Institute was established 
at Dumaguete. In 1908, 63 outstations were opened 
and the 20 churches had 4,127 members. In 1900 
the Methodist Episcopal Church assumed the occu- 
pation of northern Luzon divided into three dis- 
tricts, which became a district conference in 1904. 
In 1908 there were 108 churches in the seven out- 
stations with 25,000 communicants and 35,000 ad- 
herents. The American Baptist Missionary Union 
occupied the Visayan islands of Panay and Negros 
in the south in 1900, with Iloilo as a center. The 
work has been extended into Cebu. By 1908 there 
were 25 churches with 2,838 members. The Broth- 
erhood of St. Andrew sent out two clergymen and 
two laymen in 1899, who established the Mission 
of the Holy Trinity. In 1901 Bishop Brent arrived 
and the islands became a mission district of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. A cathedral and 
settlement^house have been established at Manila 
for the English-speaking people, and stations scat- 
tered among the natives. The Foreign Christian 
Missionary Society (Disciples), with stations at 
Manila, Laoag, Vigan, and Aparri, laying much 
stress on evangelistic work, have 29 churches and 
2,505 members. The American Board planted a 
mission on Mindanao in 1901 and has a station at 
Davao and an outstation at Santa Cruz; and in 
1908 the Mindanao Missions Medical Association 
was formed [in New York. The missions of the 
various denominations generally combine the indus- 
trial, medical, educational, and evangelizing fea- 
tures. There are (1908) 7 societies with 212 sta- 
tions and outstations, 126 missionaries, 492 native 
helpers, 18 schools with 519 pupils, 8 hospitals, 194 
churches with 35,000 communicants and 45,000 
adherents, exclusive of Protestant Episcopalians. 

Theodora Crosby Bliss. 

Bibliography: For lists of literature consult: A. P. C. 
Griffin. Library of Congress, List of Work* Relating to 
. . . Philippine Islands, Washington, 1005; J. A. Rob- 
ertson, Bibliography of the Philippine Islands, Cleveland, 
1908; and Richardson, Encyclopaedia, p. 851. Workj on 
geography and description are: J. Montero, El ArchipiS- 
lago Filipino, Madrid, 1886; J. Foreman, The Philippine 
Islands, London, 1899; R. Reyes Lala, The Philippine 
Islands, New York, 1899; S. MacClintock, The Philippines, 
New York, 1903; H. C. Stunt*, The Philippines and the 
Far East, Cincinnati, 1904; F. W. Atkinson, The Philippine 
Islands, Boston, 1905; J. A. Le Roy, Philippine Life in 
Town and Country, New York, 1905; D. C. Worcester, Phil- 
ippine Islands and their People, New York, 1907. For eth- 
nology consult: D. G. Brinton, Peoples of the Philippines, 
Washington, 1898; A. B. Meyer, The Distribution of the 
Negritos in the Philippine Islands, Dresden, 1899; F. Blu- 
menthal. Die Philippinen. Eine Darstellung der ethnogra- 
phischen Verh&Unis des Archipels, Hamburg, 1900; F. H. 
Sawyer, The Inhabitants of the Philippines, London, 1900; 
G. A. Koese, Bijdrage tot de Anthropologic der Philippijnen, 
Haarlem, 1901-04; D. Folkmar, Album of Philippine Types, 
Manila, 1904; Ethnological Survey Publications, Manila, 
1905 sqq. On the history consult: M. Halstead, Story of 
the Philippines, New York, 1898; A. K. Fiake, Story of 
the Philippines, New York, 1899; J. Foreman, Philippine 
Islands, New York, 1899; A. March, Hist, of the Philippines, 
New York, 1899; E. H. Blair and J. A. Robertson, The 
Philippine Islands, 1493-1803, Cleveland, 1903; idem, 
The Philippine Islands, 1498-1898, 55 vols., ib. 1903-08 




(giving text and translation of innumerable documents — 
a monumental work) ; A. J. Brown, The New Era in the 
Philippines, New York, 1903; A. de Morga, Hist, of the 
Philippine Islands, 2 vols., Cleveland, 1007; D. B. Barrows, 
History of Philippines, New York, 1908. For the religious 
side consult: A. Coleman, The Friars in the Philippines, 
Boston, 1899; J. T. Medina, El Tribunal de la Inquisicidn 
en las Islas Filipinos, Santiago, 1899; F. Colin, Labor 
Evangelica, Ministeros de los Obreros de la Compafiia de 
Jesus . . . enlas Islas Filipinos, 3 vols., Barcelona, 1900- 
1902; E. Zamora, Las Corporaciones reliffiosas en Filipinos, 
Valladolid, 1901. For accounts of evangelical missionary 
work consult: H. O. Dwight, The Blue Book of Missions, 
pp. 68-69, New York, 1907; and the annual reports of the 
missionary societies at work there. 


Before Luther's Death (| 1). 
Opposition to Melanchthon (| 2). 
Open Conflict (ft 3). 
Lutheran Strictures (ft 4). 
Downfall of the Philippists (ft 5). 
Estimate of Philippism (ft 6). 

Philippists was the designation usually applied 
in the latter half of the sixteenth century to the 
followers of Philipp Melanchthon (q.v.). It prob- 
ably originated among the opposite or Flacian 
party (see Flacius, Matthias), and 
i. Before was applied at first to the theologians 
Luther's of the universities of Wittenberg and 
Death. Leipsic, who were all adherents of 
Melanchthon's distinctive views, es- 
pecially those in which he approximated to Roman 
Catholic doctrine on the subject of free will and 
the value of good w r orks, and to the Swiss Reform- 
ers' on the Lord's Supper. Somewhat later it was 
used in Saxony to designate a distinct party or- 
ganized by Melanchthon's son-in-law Caspar Peu- 
cer (q.v.), with George Cracovius, Johann S tassel 
(q.v.), and others, to work for a union of all the 
Protestant forces, as a means to which end they 
attempted to break down by this attitude the bar- 
riers which separated Lutherans and Calvinists. 
Melanchthon had won, by his eminent abilities as a 
teacher and his clear, scholastic formulation of doc- 
trine, a large number of disciples among whom were 
included some of the most zealous Lutherans, such 
as Matthias Flacius and Tileman Hesshusen (qq.v.), 
afterward to be numbered among the vehement op- 
ponents of Philippism; both of whom formally and 
materially received the forms of doctrine shaped by 
Melanchthon. As long as Luther lived, the conflict 
with external foes and the work of building up the 
Evangelical Church so absorbed the Reformers that 
the internal differences which had already begun 
to show themselves were kept in the background. 
But Luther was no sooner dead than the internal 
as well as the external peace of the Lutheran Church 
declined. It was a misfortune not only for Me- 
lanchthon, but for the whole body that he, who had 
formerly stood as a teacher by the side 
2. Opposi- of Luther, the real leader, was now 
tion to forced suddenly into the position of 
Melanch- head not only of the University of 
thon. Wittenberg but of the entire Evangel- 
ical Church of Germany. There was 
among certain of Luther's associates, notably 
Nikolaus von Amsdorf (q.v.), a disinclination to 
accept his leadership. When in the negotiations 
set on foot with reference to the Augsburg Interim 

(see Interim) by the Elector Maurice in 1548 he 
showed himself increasingly ready to yield and 
make concessions, he ruined his position with a 
large part of the Evangelical theologians for all 
time; and an opposition party was formed, in which 
the leadership was at once assumed by Flacius in 
view of his learning, controversial ability, and in- 
flexible firmness. Melanchthon, on the other hand, 
with his faithful followers (Camerarius, Major, 
Menius, Pfeffinger, Eber, Cruciger, Strigel [qq.v.]), 
and others saw in the self-styled genuine Lutherans 
naught but a narrow and contentious class, which, 
ignoring the inherent teaching of Luther, sought 
to domineer over the church by letter and name, 
and in addition to assert its own ambitious self. 
On the other hand, the Philippists regarded them- 
selves as the faithful guardians of learning over 
against the alleged " barbarism," and as the mean 
between the extremes. The genuine Lutherans also 
claimed to be representatives of the pure doctrine, 
defenders of orthodoxy, and heirs of the spirit of 
Luther. Personal, political, and ecclesiastical ani- 
mosities widened the breach; such as the rivalry 
between the Ernestine branch of the Saxon house 
(now extruded from the electoral dignity) and the 
Albertine branch; the jealousy between the new 
Ernestine University of Jena and the electoral uni- 
versities of Wittenberg and Leipsic, in both of 
which the Philippists had the majority; and the 
bitter personal antagonism felt at Wittenberg for 
Flacius, who assailed his former teachers harshly 
and made all reconciliation impossible. 

The actual conflict began with the controversy 
over the Interim and the question of Adiaphora 
(see Adiaphora and the Adiaphoristic Contro- 
versy) in 1548 and the following years. In the 
negotiations concerning the Leipsic 
3. Open Interim the Wittenberg theologians 
Conflict, as well as Johann Pfeffinger and the 
intimate of Melanchthon, George of 
Anhalt (q.v.), were on the side of Melanchthon, and 
thus drew upon themselves the violent opposition 
of the strict Lutherans, under the leadership of 
Flacius, who now severed his connection with Wit- 
tenberg. When the Philippist Georg Major (q.v.) 
at Wittenberg and Justus Menius (q.v.) at Gotha 
put forth the proposition that good works were nec- 
essary to salvation, or as Menius preferred to say 
" the new obedience, the new life, is necessary to 
salvation," they were not only conscious of the 
danger that the doctrine of justification by faith 
alone would lead to antinomianism and moral laxity 
but they manifested a tendency to bring into account 
the necessary connection of justification and re- 
generation: namely, that justification as possession 
of forgiving grace by faith is indeed not conditioned 
by obedience; but also that the new life is presup- 
posed by obedience and works springing out of the 
same justification. But neither Major nor Menius 
was sufficiently firm in his view to stand against 
the charge of denying the doctrine of justification 
and going over to the Roman camp, and thus they 
were driven back to the general proposition of jus- 
tification by faith alone. The Formula of Concord 
(q.v.) closed the controversy by avoiding both ex- 
tremes, but failed to offer a final solution of the ques- 




tion demanded by the original motive of the con- 
troversy. The synergistic controversy (see Syner- 
gism), breaking out about the same time, also 
sprang out of the ethical interest which had in- 
duced Melanchthon to enunciate the doctrine of 
free will in opposition to his previous predestinarian- 
ism. After the clash in 1555 between Pfefrlnger 
(who in his Propositions de libero arbitrio had held 
closely to the formula of Melanchthon) and Ams- 
dorf and Flacius, Strigel went deeper into the mat- 
ter in 1559 and insisted that grace worked upon 
sinful men as upon personalities, not natural objects 
without a will; and that in the position that there 
was a spontaneous cooperation of human powers 
released by grace there was an actual lapse into 
the Roman Catholic view. The suspicions now en- 
tertained against Melanchthon and his school were 
quickened by the renewed outbreak of the sacra- 
men tarian controversy in 1552. Joachim Westphal 
(q.v.) accused Melanchthon of agreement with Cal- 
vin, and from this time the Philippists rested under 
the suspicion of Crypto-Calvinism. The more the 
German Lutherans entertained a dread of the 
invasion of Calvinism, the more they mistrusted 
every announcement of a formula of the Lord's 
Supper after the form of Luther's doctrine yet ob- 
scure. The controversy on this subject, in which 
Melanchthon f 8 friend Hardenberg of Bremen (see 
Hardenberg, Albert Rizaeus) was involved with 
Timann (q.v.) and then with Hesshusen, leading to 
his deposition in 1561, elevated the doctrine of ubiq- 
uity to an essential of Lutheran teaching. The Wit- 
tenberg pronouncement on the subject prudently 
confined itself to Biblical expressions and fore- 
warned itself against unnecessary disputations, 
which only strengthened the suspicion of una vowed 
sympathy with Calvin. 

The strict Lutherans sought to strike a decisive 
blow at Philippism. This was apparent at the 
Weimar meeting of 1556 and in the negotiations of 
Coswig and Magdeburg in this and the following 
years, which showed a tendency to work not so 
much for the reconciliation of the contending par- 
ties as for a personal humiliation of Melanchthon. 
He, although deeply wounded, showed 
4. Lutheran great restraint in his public utterances; 
Strictures, but his followers in Leipsic and Wit- 
tenberg paid their opponents back in 
their own coin. The heat of partizan feeling was 
displayed at the Conference of Worms in 1557, 
where the Flacian party did not hesitate, even in 
the presence of Roman Catholics, to show their 
enmity for Melanchthon and his followers. After 
several well-meant attempts at pacification on the 
part of the Lutheran princes, the most passionate 
outbreak occurred in the last year of Melanchthon 's 
life, 1559, in connection with the " Weimar Confu- 
tation " published by Duke John Frederick, in 
which together with the errors of Servetus, 
Schwenckfeld, the Antinomians, Zwingli, and 
others, the principal special doctrines of the 
Philippists (Synergism [q.v.], Majorism, see Ma- 
joristic Controversy, adiaphorism) were de- 
nounced as dangerous errors and corruptions. It 
led, however, to discord among the Jena theologians 
themselves, since Strigel defended against Flacius 

Melanchthon's doctrine on sin and grace, and drew 
upon himself very rough treatment from the im- 
petuous duke. But the ultimate outcome was the 
decline of the University of Jena, the deposition of 
the strict Lutheran professors and the replacing of 
them by Philippists. It seemed for the time that 
the Thuringian opposition to the Philippism of 
Electoral Saxony was broken; but with the down- 
fall of John Frederick and the accession of his 
brother John William to power, the tables were 
turned; the Philippists at Jena were again dis- 
placed (1568-69) by the strict Lutherans, Johann 
Wigand (q.v.), Cdlestin, Kirchner, and Hesshusen, 
and the Jena opposition to Wittenberg was once 
more organized, finding voice in the Bekenntnis von 
der Rechtfertigung und guten Werken of 1569. The 
Elector August was now very anxious to restore 
peace in the Saxon territories, and John William 
agreed to call a conference at Altenburg (Oct. 21, 
1568), in which the principal representatives of 
Philippism were Paul Eber and Caspar Cruciger 
the younger, and of the other side Wigand, Cdlestin, 
and Kirchner. It led to no result, although it con- 
tinued until the following March. The Philippists 
asserted the Augsburg Confession of 1540, the loci 
of Melanchthon of the later editions, and of the 
Corpus Philippicum, met by the challenge from the 
other side that these were an attack upon the pure 
teaching and authority of Luther. Both sides 
claimed the victory, and the Leipsic and Wittenberg 
Philippists issued a justification of their position in 
the Endlicher Berichi of 1571, with which is con- 
nected the protest of the Hessian theologians in 
conference at Ziegenhain in 1570 against Flacian 
Lutheranism and in favor of Philippism. 

Pure Lutheranism was now fortified in a number 
of local churches by Corpora doctrinw of a strict 
nature, and the work for concord went on more and 

more definitely along the lines of elim- 

5. Downfall inating Melanchthonism. The Philip- 

of the plats, fully alarmed, attempted not only 

Philippists. to consolidate in Electoral Saxony but 

to gain ascendency over the entire Ger- 
man Evangelical Church, but met their downfall 
first in Electoral Saxony. The conclusion of the 
Altenburg Colloquy prompted the elector, in Aug., 
1569, to issue orders that all the ministers in his do- 
mains should hold to the Corpus doctrinw Philip- 
picum, intending thus to avoid Flacian exaggera- 
tions and guard the pure original doctrine of Luther 
and Melanchthon in the days of their union. But 
the Wittenberg men interpreted it as an approval 
of their Philippism, especially in regard to the Lord's 
Supper and the person of Christ. They pacified the 
elector, who had become uneasy, by the Consensus 
Dresdensis of 1571, a cleverly worded document; 
and when on the death of John William, in 1574, 
August assumed the regency in Ernestine Saxony 
and began to drive out not only strict Lutheran 
zealots like Hesshusen and Wigand, but all who re- 
fused their subscription to the Consensus, the Phil- 
ippists thought they were on the way to a victory 
which should give them all Germany. But the un- 
questionably Calvinistic work of Joachim Cureus 
(q.v.), Exegesis perspicua de sacra coma (1574), and 
a confidential letter of Johann Stossel (q.v.) which 




fell into the elector's hands opened his eyes. The 
heads of the Philippist party were imprisoned and 
roughly handled, and the Torgau Confession of 1574 
completed their downfall. By the adoption of the 
Formula of Concord their cause was ruined in all 
the territories which accepted it, although in some 
others it survived under the aspect of a modified 
Lutheranism, as in Nuremberg, or, as in Nassau, 
Hesse, Anhalt, and Bremen, where it became more 
or less definitely identified with Calvinism. It 
raised its head once more in Electoral Saxony in 
1586, on the accession of Christian I., but on his 
death five years later it came to a sudden and 
bloody end with the murder of Nicolaus Krell (q.v.) 
as a victim to this unpopular revival of Calvinism. 
Though it may be regretted that the moderate, 
pacific, and enlightened spirit of Melanchthpn him- 
self was not allowed to have more influence in the 

Lutheran Church and that his estima- 

6. Estimate ble points of departure from Luther 

of Philip- remained unrecognized, yet it can not 

pism. be denied that Philippism was only 

something halfway, while it claimed to 
guard the genuine religious ideas and motives of 
the Reformation better than the doctrine of the 
Formula of Concord. Nor must the fact be over- 
looked that where, after the promulgation of the 
Formula, Philippism still maintained its ground, 
it produced no results in the domain of theology 
which can be compared for a moment with those 
which proceeded from the stricter school. The lat- 
ter won its victory to a great extent because it gave 
birth to the greater number of popularly effective 
writings and powerful literary personalities. Me- 
lanchthon's spirit, however, yet remained operative 
in the seventeenth century, even though at the 
end of the sixteenth his influence was greatly super- 
seded by that of orthodox Lutherans. The move- 
ment initiated by Georg Calixtus (q.v.) shows not 
only considerable affinity with its tendency, but has 
a direct historical connection with it through his 
Helmstedt teachers, especially Johann Caselius 
(q.v.), who was a personal disciple of Melanchthon. 

(G. Kawerau.) 

Bibliography: Perhaps the best method of mastering the 
subject treated in the foregoing article is a study of the 
men mentioned in the text as active by means of the arti- 
cles in this work and of the literature appended to those 
articles. Especially valuable are the letters of Melanch- 
thon and the accounts of his life and activities. Much of 
the literature under Formula of Concord is valuable. 
The works on the history of the Church and of the doc- 
trine of the period are also to be consulted. Besides the 
foregoing consult: V. E. Ldscher, Historia motuum twi- 
schen den Evanodisch-LiUherischen und Reformirten, Frank- 
fort, 1723; G. J. Planck, Geschichte dor Entstehuna und 
der Veranderung . . . tensers protestantischen Lehrbe- 
griffs, vols, iv.-vi., 6 vols., Leipsic, 1791-1800; H. Heppe, 
Geschichte des deutschen Protestantismus 1666-81, 4 vols., 
Marburg, 1852-50; idem, Dogmatik des detdschen Protes- 
tantismus im 16. Jahrhundert, 3 vols., Gotha, 1857; A. 
Beck, Johann Friedrich der Mittlere, 2 vols., Weimar, 
1858; E. L. T. Henke, Neuere Kirchengeschichte, ii. 274 
sqq., Halle, 1878; G. Wolf, Zur Geschichte der deutschen 
Prolestanten 1666-69, Berlin, 1888; H. E. Jacobs, The 
Book of Concord, vol. ii., Philadelphia, 1893; W. Mdller, 
Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte, ed. G. Kawerau, 3d ed., 
vol. iii., Tubingen, 1907; Schaff, Creeds, i. 258-340. 

PHILIPPUS SOLITARIUS: Greek monk of the 
late eleventh century. In 1095 he completed, ap- 

parently at Constantinople, his mystic and devo- 
tional " Mirror/ 1 a dialogue in political verse which 
represents Body and Soul as setting forth their 
mutual relations as factors of human nature, and 
as making preparation for death. The Greek text 
is still unedited, except for scanty fragments (ed. 
P. Lambecius, Commentarii de bibliotheca Ccesarea 
Vindobonenei, v. 76-84, Vienna, 1778; C. Oudin, 
Commentarius de scripioribus ecdesice antiquis, ii. 
851, Frankfort, 1722; J. B. Cotelerius, on Apos- 
tolic Constitutions, viii. 42, in his Sanctorum Pa- 
trum qui temporibus apostolicis floruerunt opera, 2 
vols., Paris, 1672), but was translated into Latin 
prose by the Jesuit Jacobus Pontanus (Ingolstadt, 
1604; most convenient reprint in MPG, exxvii. 
701-902). Closely akin to the " Mirror " is the 
short poem " Lamentations " (ed. E. Auvray, Paris, 
1875; E. S. Shuckburgh, in Emmanuel College Mag- 
azine, vol. v.), which may in reality be the eighth 
book of the " Mirror," which was omitted by Pon- 
tanus. A new redaction of both poems was pre- 
pared by Phialites in the twelfth century, and the 
Vienna manuscripts of the " Mirror " contain note- 
worthy additions, especially on the dogmas and rites 
of the Armenians, Jacobites, and Romans (the two 
former portions ed. F. Combefis, Auctuarivm novum 
bibliothecoB Graco-Latinorum patrum, ii. 261, 271, 
Paris, 1648. (Phujpp Meter.) 

Bibliography: Krumbacher, Geschichte, pp. 742-744; 
P. Lambecius, Cornrnentarium de . . . bibliotheca Ccesarea 
Vindobonensi, v. 76-84, Vienna, 1778; KL, ix. 2023. 

PHILIPS, OBBE. See Mennonites, VI. 

PHILISTINES, fi-lis'tinz or toinz. 

Name and Territory (| 1). Early History (| 4). 
Origin (§ 2). Later History (§ 5). 

Not Semitic (§ 3). The Cities (§ 6). 

In the Hebrew the Philistines are known as Pel- 
i&htim or Pelishtiyyim, and their country as Pele- 
sheth. In the Greek they appear as Phulietieim or 
PhUistieim, Phulistiaioi, and sometimes as aUophu- 
loi, " foreigners "; and in the Vulgate as Ph&ia- 
thiim, Philistini, and PalaxHni, the last recalling the 
usage of Josephus (see Palestine, I., § 1). The 

expression aUophvloi dates from about 

i. Name the period of the beginning of the 

and Septuagint, has reference to a distinc- 

Territory. tion based on national and religious 

grounds, and designates all not Jews 
who are of oriental origin and dwell in Palestine, and 
particularly the Philistines. The territory occupied 
by the Philistines was the southern part of the coast 
of Palestine. Taking Joppa (the modern Jaffa) as 
the most northern and Raphia as the most southern 
Philistine city, the length of the territory was rather 
less than sixty miles, with a width varying between 
twelve and thirty-five miles. The eastern bound- 
ary was the hill country of Judea, and the whole 
territory was included within what was known as 
the Shephelah. The significance of the district lay 
in the coast cities, not so much because of their sea 
trade as of their importance for overland traffic, as 
they were situated on one of the principal trade 
routes between Egypt and Babylon. Their loca- 
tion brought them into relation with the two cen- 
ters of early culture and yet secured for them a rela- 




tive independence, removed from both as they were 
either by a great distance or by the desert. The 
coast is almost without natural harbors, the hinter- 
land possessed a few small plains, and toward the 
south the country gradually becomes transformed 
into pasture land. 

The first reports of this district come from 
Egyptian inscriptions and from the Amarna Tab- 
lets (q.v.). Thothmes III. (c. 1500 B.C.) reckoned 
the district to the land of Ham. The Amarna Tab- 
lets mention Gaza, Ashkelon, and Joppa. Espe- 
cially instructive is the portrayal at Karnak of the 

conquest of Ashkelon by Rameses II. 
2. Origin, (c. 1280), in which the defenders of the 

fortress are shown as distinct from the 
Philistines both in dress and countenance and as 
identical with Canaanites, proving that the inhabi- 
tants at that time were of the same race as those 
of Upper Palestine and that a foreign people had 
not yet intruded. This fact is confirmed by the 
names which come from this period, which are of 
Semitic-Canaanitic type. Deut. ii. 23 affirms that 
the Awim dwelt here until the Caphtorim entered 
and destroyed them; Josh. xiii. 3, cf. xi. 22, im- 
plies that the Awim and the Philistines lived along- 
side each other. The culture of the region was like 
that of other parts of Palestine, except that Egyp- 
tian influence was felt more strongly. The Old Tes- 
tament (cf . Amos ix. 7) thus agrees with other in- 
formation that the Philistines were intruders, and 
Jer. xlvii. 4 is in accord with other passages in de- 
riving them from Caphtor (q.v.), the identification 
of which is not yet settled. A connection of the 
Philistines with the Cherethites of I Sam. xxx. 14- 
15 and with the Carim, " captains/' of II Kings xi. 
4, 19 (cf. the gloss on Gen. x. 14), supposed to be 
from Caria in Asia Minor, has been attempted, but 
the combination is uncertain, even in view of I Kings 
i. 38, where Cherethites and Pelethites (or Philis- 
tines) are mentioned as part of the royal guard, and 
no certain datum is gained for determining the place 
of origin of the Philistines. The Egyptian monu- 
ments of the period of Rameses III. (1208-1180 
B.C.) speak of unrest in northern and central Syria 
caused by a foreign and hitherto unnamed people, 
whose names are read Purasati, Zakkari, Shak- 
rusha, Dane or Danona, Washasha, and Shardana. 
Of these the Purasati are always named first, and, 
it is assumed, were the leaders. The fact that these 
peoples marched with a great amount of baggage 
and with wives and children is taken by E. Meyer 
as proving that it was the migration of a people 
which pushed on to the borders of Egypt. W. M. 
Muller argues from the application to them of the 
name equivalent to " heroes " that they were pred- 
atory bands of soldiers plundering alike friend and 
foe. Rameses III. speaks of a land battle with 
them and also of a sea fight. The Golenisheff papy- 
rus relates that the Egyptian Uno-Amon journeyed 
in a ship to Dor in Palestine for timber during the 
fifth year of Herihor, the last king of the twentieth 
Egyptian dynasty, and that the city then belonged 
to the Zakkari, whose chief was named Bidir. It 
is noteworthy that this people's name occurs both 
in the time of Rameses and of Herihor, in the for- 
mer in connection with the Purasati, and that with 

Rameses the Egyptian hegemony of southern Syria 
begins to vanish; it is further probable that since 
the Zakkari made sure their footing, their associates 
the Purasati also did. With the Purasati the Egypt- 
ologist ChampoUion connected the Philistines be- 
fore 1832, and this identification has approved itself 
to later scholars. W. M. Muller supposed the pro- 
nunciation to have been Pulaesti, cf. the Assyrian 
Palastu, PUistu. This scholar has located their 
home on the southern coast of Asia Minor and in 
the islands of the ^Egean Sea. A sea people was 
known to the Egyptians as Ruku or Luku (Lycians). 
An attempt to derive the name from a Semitic root 
meaning " to wander " does not approve itself, 
since it is practically certain that the Philistines 
were not of Semitic stock, and the Egyptians gave 
to the peoples of Syria their own names, describe the 
Philistines and their associates as coming from " the 
end of the sea," and portray them as differing in 
feature and dress from Semites. It is not unlikely 
that between the Philistines and their associates 
and the " early Cretans " of Odyssey xix. 176 a rela- 
tionship existed, but definite proof is lacking. 

Proof from the language of the Philistines is lack- 
ing, since practically nothing is known of it, and the 
occurrence of persons and places in the Old Testa- 
ment and Assyrian inscriptions helps little, since 
the Philistines naturally adopted the language of 
the country after their settlement 
3. Not therein. The Semitic names of places, 

Semitic, upon which F. Schwally bases his ar- 
gument that the Philistines were Sem- 
ites proves nothing, since these names often remain 
unaltered in the East through successive waves of 
population. The Achish of I Sam. xxvii.-xxviii. 
has been placed alongside the Ikausu of the Assyrian 
Inscriptions (cf. Schrader, KAT, 3d ed., p. 473), a 
form " Ekasho of the land of Kefti " found in an 
Egyptian source, which seems to make a non-Sem- 
itic origin of this name clear. The Old Testament 
calls in several places (Josh. xiii. 3; Judges iii. 3; 
I Sam. vi. 4, 16) the rulers of the Philistines sera- 
ram, " lords," a word which does not yield readily 
to a Hebrew (Semitic) etymology, and Kloster- 
mann (on I Sam. v. 8) has equated it with the Gk. 
tyrannos. The deities of the Philistines appear to 
be Semitic — cf. Dagon, Ashtaroth, and Beelzebub 
(qq.v.). This people had images in their temples 
and took them when they went to war as did the 
Hebrews the ark (II Sam. v. 21); Isa. ii. 6 shows 
that their soothsayers were held in honor. Those 
who visited the temple of Dagon avoided stepping 
on the threshold (I Sam. v. 5; cf. Zeph. i. 9). But 
these observances are in accordance with Semitic 
custom. The general impression, however, received 
from a view of the facts is that the Philistines were 
not of Semitic stock, and were intruders into the land 
where they adopted Semitic customs and language. 
[The name of Goliath, with its Aramaic ending — 
ath, does not contradict the theory of the non- 
Semitic origin of the Philistines, since he is described 
as belonging to the Giants (q.v.; cf. II. Sam. xxi. 
15-19; I Chron. xx. 4-8; both in accord with Josh. x. 
22), who are recorded as descended from the 
Awim or Anakim. Descendants of the old 
stock would be reckoned by outlanders to the 




dominant people, even though their descent was 
not forgotten. G. w. G.] 

This is confirmed by the further fact that they did 
not practise circumcision (Judges xiv. 3, xv. 18; 
I Sam. xvii. 26, xviii. 25), with which should be put 
the fact that the " sea folk " of Merneptah were un- 
circumcised (W. M. M tiller, Aaien und Ewropa, pp. 
357-358, Leipsic, 1893), and with these the Pip- 
rasati of Rameses were connected. For the time 
when they entered Palestine the Golenisheff papy- 
rus (ut sup.) gives a suggestion, since the date of 
Herihor is about 1100. The Bidir of Dor had re- 
ceived an Egyptian embassy sixteen years earlier, 
and the Egyptians had bought timber of his father 
and grandfather. Hence the Zakkari had been set- 
tled in the region some fifty or sixty years before 
the time of the papyrus, and this goes back approxi- 
mately to the time of Rameses III. (ut sup.). This 
comes into close connection with the unrest caused 
by the dissolution of the Hittite realm in northern 
Syria. By 1100 the Philistines had at least partly 
subjected the Hebrews, and it would appear that 
shortly after they had firmly seated themselves in 
the lowlands of Judea they attacked the moun- 
tain region. Their success was won probably not 
through greater numbers but by means of better 
weapons and cleverer tactics. The Egyptian monu- 
ments show that they were equipped with felt hel- 
mets, coats of mail, large round shields, short spears, 
large swords, and war chariots. If they came from 
Asia Minor, they must have possessed the Mycenean 
culture and were by no means " barbarians/' 

When the Philistines came into touch with Israel, 
their territory was divided into five districts, the 
chiefs of which were called seranim, " lords." The 
capitals of these districts, named from north to 
south, were Ekron, Ashdod, Gath, Ashkelon, and 
Gaza. This fivefold division may correspond to 
tribal divisions. The Old Testament 

4. Early names the Cherethites as occupying 

History, the northwestern part of the Negeb, 
and these with the Zakkari may make 
up two outside groups of the same stock. Since 
Achish is called " king " in I Sam. xxi. 10 and else- 
where, he may have been the head of the Philistine 
confederation; an alternative supposition is that 
the Hebrew writer used the ordinary terminology. 
Inasmuch as during the reign of Rameses III. the 
Egyptian boundaries reached to Lebanon, while Dor 
was apparently in the possession of the Zakkari, it 
seems probable that their advance along the great 
highway of commerce by way of Carmel took place 
after the Egyptian power suffered a decline. It ap- 
pears strange that the region about Dor and the 
Plain of Sharon was not reckoned in with the five 
districts of the Philistines, for when the battle of 
Gilboa was fought, these regions must have been 
in their power. The southernmost limits of their 
territory had been attained when they reduced 
Israel. The mention of the Philistines which ap- 
pears in such passages as Gen. xxvi., cf. xxi. 22-23, 
are anachronisms, since the Egyptian monuments 
do not indicate settlement in what became their 
territory before the twentieth dynasty. The migra- 
tion of the Danites (Judges xviii.) may have been 
due to the Philistines. In the long contest between 

the Philistines and Israel, the former appear as the 
aggressors, with the purpose of conquering the high- 
land, the middle portion of which came into their 
power according to I Sam. v.-vi. The lower portion 
is shown by the story of Samson to have been al- 
ready under their control (Judges xiii.-xvi., cf. iii. 
31) . The fear of this people was so great among the 
Hebrews that many of the latter entered their ranks 
against their own kin (I Sam. xiv. 21). While Saul 
began the period of successful resistance, his reign 
was rather one of little contests with them than a 
serious campaign for freedom. At this time David 
(q.v.) became a beloved leader of his people (I Sam. 
xviii. 7) against the common foe. When Saul turned 
against David, the latter took refuge with Achish 
of Gath, who gave him Ziklag as his residence. The 
last battle between Saul and the Philistines took 
place at the foot of Mount Gilboa, where Saul and 
his sons fell, and the earlier hegemony of the Phil- 
istines was reestablished. Ishbosheth established 
his capital at Mahanaim, and David became king 
over Judah in Hebron (II Sam. ii.-iv.). When the 
latter became king over all Israel, the Philistines re- 
garded the act as one of revolt and sought to main- 
tain their mastery. David knew, however, the ad- 
vantage which was his in the possession of the high- 
lands, and in numerous great and small conflicts 
(II Sam. v. 17-25, xxi. 15-22, xxiii. 9-17) not only 
secured the freedom of his people but reduced the 
Philistines to a position of subjection, at least in 
part, though their position on the highway enabled 
them still to profit by overland commerce. Gittites 
(from Gath) were in David's army (II Sam. xv. 18), 
as well as the Cherethites and Pelethites, who were 
probably of Philistine blood. The theory of W. M. 
M tiller that the victory of David was due to the 
Philistines having at the same time to resist an at- 
tack by the Egyptians has little to sustain it; 
David's success was partly due to the advantage 
of position. In Solomon's time Egypt sought to 
reestablish her hegemony over the region (I Kings 
ix. 16), and to this may be due the fact that Dor 
was independent of Israel. But the result was such 
a weakening of the Philistines that the Plain of 
Jezreel and Carmel, the key to the trade route, fell 
into Solomon's hands and with it command of com- 
merce. When Shishak made his raid, the Philis- 
tines seem to have given him no trouble, since no 
mention is made of capture of plunder with 
reference to them. The territory of the Philis- 
tines, as it is reflected in the Old Testament, 
seems to picture the situation as it was after 
Solomon 's time. 

From that time there appears little which indi- 
cates an independent development of the Philistines. 
The conflicts between them and Israel have little 
significance. Rehoboam fortified his dominion 
against them by a line of strongholds (II Chron. xi. 
7-12). Nadab and Elan fought with 
5. Later them at Gibbethon (I Kings xv. 27, 
History, xvi. 15 sqq.); Jehoshaphat received 
tribute from them (II Chron. xvii. 11), 
but the harem of Jehoram was carried off by them 
(II Chron. xxi. 16-17). Gath seems to have been 
taken from Judah by Hazael (II Kings xii. 17), 
while Uzziah carried on a victorious campaign 




against them (II Chron. xxvi. 6), though against 
Ahab the Philistines became aggressive (II Chron. 
xxviii. 18), but were subjected under Hezekiah 
(II Kings xviii. 8). This people were included in 
the denunciations of the prophets (Amos i. 6-8; 
Jer. xxv. 15 sqq.; Ezek. xxv. 15, and elsewhere). 
They were subdued by the Assyrians, and in that 
period Gaza had especial importance because of the 
trade route to Arabia; and the region figures in the 
Assyrian annals with frequency. Sargon deported 
the inhabitants of Ashdod and Gath and settled 
foreigners in their place (711 B.C.). Zidka of Ash- 
kelon and Hezekiah united against the Assyrians in 
701, dethroned the Assyrian vassal king of Ekron, 
but the prior status was restored by Sennacherib. 
On the downfall of the Assyrians, the Egyptians 
once more tried to control the region, and Psam- 
meticus is said to have besieged Ashdod for twenty- 
nine years (Herodotus, Hist., ii. 157); about this 
lime that city is reported by the same author (i. 
105) to have been plundered by the Scythians. 
Necho II. made another attempt to control Syria, 
but Nebuchadrezzar was the victor. Neither at 
that time nor in the time of Cyrus do the Philis- 
tines appear as aggressive. Under Darius Philistia, 
Phenicia, and Cyprus belonged to the fifth satrapy. 
Gaza was an independent city flourishing through 
its commerce, but was taken by Alexander after a 
siege of two months, while under the Seleucidae its 
fortunes were frequently changed, especially in the 
contest between Egypt and Syria (see Ptolemies; 
Seleucidae). In the Maccabean contest for independ- 
ence, the cities of the Philistines were the centers of 
hard battles. Bacchides sought to shut the Jews out 
from the plain; Jonathan attacked and plundered 
Joppa, took Aahdod, received Ekron from Alexan- 
der, while Ashkelon surrendered (I Mace. v. 68, ix. 
50-52, x. 75-89); Simon took Joppa and settled 
Jews there, and also took Gezer (I Mace. xii. 33- 
34, xiii. 43-48); while Alexander Jann&us seems to 
have completed the reduction of the region (Jo- 
sephus, An*., XIII., xiii. 3, xv. 4; War, I., iv. 2). 
Pompey freed it from the Jewish yoke, but Caesar 
gave Joppa back to the Jews. Antony gave the re- 
gion to Cleopatra in 36 B.C., but in 30 through the 
gift of Augustus part of it was in Herod's hands. 
After the fall of Jerusalem, Jamnia became the cen- 
ter of Jewish Palestine. But long before this most 
that was distinctively Philistine had vanished. Dur- 
ing the Persian period Greeks had settled in the coun- 
try and cities and had gained control of commerce. 
It is significant that the coins of Gaza of the Per- 
sian period contain lettering partly Phenician and 
partly Greek, but of Greek workmanship. The gov- 
ernment was on Greek models, the gods bore Greek 
names, while the cities were centers of Greek cul- 
ture. While this is true, the rural population used 
the Aramaic tongue, as did the lower classes in the 
cities, at the end of the fourth century b.c. ; more- 
over, the Greek names of deities but concealed local 
conceptions; the chief temple of Ashdod in the 
Hasmonean period was Dagon's, Gaza's chief deity 
was Mamas (Aramaic for " Our Lord "). 

For Dor see Samaria. Japho (Joppa, the mod- 
ern Jaffa) was one of the border cities of Dan (Josh, 
ix. 46), later the seaport of Jerusalem (II Chron. ii. 

16), and seems to have been a city of great age, pos- 
sessing a Canaanitic population in the time of the 
eighteenth and nineteenth Egyptian dynasties. The 
Amarna Tablets show an Egyptian 
6. The governor for the place. Later it must 
Cities. have been in the hands of the Philis- 
tines. The New Testament speaks of 
it as visited by Peter (Acts ix. 36-43). It has re- 
tained its importance through the centuries because 
of its port, though the protection afforded is not of 
the best. The story of Andromeda centers at this 
place. In the fourth century it was the seat of a 
bishop. At the present time it is the seaport of Je- 
rusalem, with which it is connected by rail, has 
about 45,000 inhabitants, and is celebrated for its 
gardens. About twelve miles south of Joppa and 
about five miles from the coast is the modern Jebna, 
which corresponds to the Jabneh of II Chron. xxvi. 
6 and the Jabneel of Josh. xv. 11; it is the Jamnia 
of II Mace. xii. 8. About six miles inland the vil- 
lage of 'Akir probably locates the site of Ekron, 
variously assigned to Dan and to Judah (Josh. xix. 
43, xv. 45-46; cf. however Josh. xiii. 2-3). The 
name of Ashdod (Gk. Azotos) is preserved in the 
modern Esdud, a village with about 3,000 inhabi- 
tants situated on the trade route about midway be- 
tween Joppa and Gaza. The city was reckoned to 
Judah (Josh. xv. 47; but cf. xiii. 2-3). The account 
of the conquest of the city by Uzziah in II Chron. 
xxvi. 6 seems doubtful in view of Amos i. 7. [This 
rhetorical passage, however, does not imply the 
independence of Ashdod.] Neh. iv. 1 probably re- 
fers not merely to the inhabitants of the city but to 
those of the outlying territory which reached to the 
limits of Gezer. The Evangelist Philip visited Ash- 
dod (Acts viii. 40). In the early Christian centuries 
a distinction was made between Ashdod-on-the-Sea 
and Ashdod- Within, the former probably repre- 
sented by the ruins of Minet al-]£al'a. The name 
of Ashkelon is also preserved in the modern 'Asfca- 
lan, about ten miles south of Ashdod and about 
thirteen miles north of Gaza. The ruins on the site 
of the present village appear to date only from the 
Middle Ages; apparently there were two sites other 
than this, one near the sea and one inland, a dis- 
tinction which is supported by reports of a bishop 
of Ashkelon and one of Mayumas Ashkelon. Ruins 
exist quite near a little haven, and also others at 
the present El-Hammame and El-Mejdel to the 
northeast of the ruins of the time of the Middle 
Ages. It is in these last ruins that the sanctuaries 
of the early city are to be found. Ashkelon was a 
Roman colony in the fourth Christian century. 
Gaza is to be sought at the present Ghazze, situated 
a little over two miles from the coast, at the present 
a market place of some importance. Underground 
streams nourish fine groves of olive-trees and palms. 
Its haven was mentioned by Strabo and Ptolemy, 
and by Constantine the Great it was made a city 
with the name Constantia; its privileges were taken 
away by Julian, and it was known thereafter as 
Mayumas. Near one of the gates of the present city 
is a Mohammedan sanctuary dedicated to " the 
Strong one/' i.e., Samson. Walls which are found 
under the present town were built over the city 
founded by Gabinius, the commander of Pompey's 


Philo of Alexandria 



army, in 61 b.c. The earlier city lay somewhat to 
the north, and was destroyed by Alexander Jannseus 
96 b.c. Still farther to the south lay Raphia, the 
modern Tell Refah, about two miles from the sea 
and without a harbor. It marked the boundary be- 
tween the Egyptian and Syrian domains (Josephus, 
War, IV., xi. 5). Gath lay nearer the land of Judah, 
according to I Sam. xvii. 1-2, 52, near the Wadi el- 
Sun t, and according to Eusebius (Onomasticon, ed. 
Lagarde, 244, 127, cf . 246, 129) about four miles to 
the north of Eleutheropolis toward Lydda (Diospo- 
lis). Jerome (on Mic. i. 10) asserts that it lay on 
the way from Eleutheropolis to Gaza. It early 
ceased to be a Philistine city (II Kings xii. 17; cf. 
Jer. xxv. 20; Amos i. 7; Zeph. ii. 4). 

(H. Guthb.) 

Bibliography: The literature on Hebrew history should 
be consulted as indicated under Ahab; and Israjel, His- 
tory of. The older literature directly bearing on the 
subject is noted in K. B. Stark, Gaza und die philist&isehe 
Kuste, Jena, 1852. Consult: O. Baur, Der Prophet Amos, 
pp. 76-94, Giessen, 1847; V. Guerin, Description de la 
Palestine, ii. 36 sqq., Paris, 1869; A. Hannecker, Die Phil- 
istOer, Eichatadt, 1872; W. M. Thomson, The Land and the 
Book, vol. i.. New York, 1882; E. Meyer, Geschichte dee 
AUerthume, i. 317 sqq., 358 sqq., Stuttgart, 1884; F. 
Schwally, in ZWT, xxxiv (1891), 103-108. 265 sqq.; J. F. 
McCurdy, History, Prophecy and the Monuments, vol. i.- 
ii., passim, New York, 1894-96; idem, in The Expositor 
("Ussiah and the Philistines M ), 1890; G. A. Smith, His- 
torical Geography of the Holy Land, chap, ix., London, 
1897; R. Raabe, Petrus der Iberer, Leipsic, 1895; C. Cler- 
mont-Ganneau, Etudes d'areheologie orientale, x. 1-9, Paris, 
1896; W. M. M Oiler, in MiUheilungen der vorderasiaHschen 
Gesellschaft, v (1900), 1-42; also his Asien und Europa, 
cited in the text; R. Dussaud, Questions rnyceniennes, Paris, 
1905; M. A. Meyer, Hist, of the City of Gaza, New York, 
1907; E. Meyer, Der Diskus von Phaestos und die PhUister 
auf Kreta, Berlin, 1909; Robinson, Researches, vol. ii.; 
Schroder, KAT, passim; DB, iii. 844-848; EB, iii. 3713- 
3727; JE, x. 1-2; Vigouroux, Dictionnaire, fasc. xxxi 
(1908), 286-300. 

PHILLIPS, PHILIP: Methodist Episcopal Gos- 
pel singer; b. in Chautauqua Co., N. Y., Aug. 13, 
1834; d. in Delaware, Ohio, June 25, 1895. Brought 
up on a farm, he developed a talent for song; re- 
ceived some training in the country singing-school 
and later studied under Lowell Mason. He con- 
ducted his first singing-class at Alleghany, N. Y., in 
1853, and after that similar schools in adjacent 
towns and cities. In 1860 he changed from the 
Baptist to the Methodist Episcopal Church. He 

brought out Early Blossoms (1860). The next year 
he opened a music-store in Cincinnati, and published 
Musical Leaves (Cincinnati, 1862). During the Civil 
War he aided the Christian Commission by raising 
funds with his Home Songs and services of song 
throughout the country. He visited England and 
prepared The American Sacred Songster (London, 
1868) for the British Sunday-school Union, of which 
1,100,000 copies were sold. Later he made a tour of 
the world holding praise services in the Sandwich 
Islands, Australia, New Zealand, Palestine, Egypt, 
India, and the cities of Europe. Other published 
collections are Spring Blossoms (Cincinnati, 1865); 
Singing Pilgrim (New York, 1866); Day School 
Singer (Cincinnati, 1869); Gospel Singer (Boston, 
1874); Song Sermons (New York, 1877). He wrote 
also Song Pilgrimage around and throughout the 
World, with an introduction by J. H. Vincent and a 
biographical sketch by A. Clark (Chicago, 1880). 



PHILLPOTTS, HENRY: Church of England 
bishop of Exeter; b. at Bridgewater (50 m. s.w. of 
Bristol), Somerset, May 6, 1778; d. at Bishopstowe, 
Torquay (29 m. e.n.e. of Plymouth), Sept. 18, 
1869. He was educated at Corpus Christi, Oxford 
(B.A., 1795), was elected a fellow at Magdalen Col- 
lege, and prelector of moral philosophy in 1800. 
He became a deacon (1802), and priest (1804), pre- 
bendary of Durham (1809), dean of Chester (1828), 
and bishop of Exeter (1830). He was the recog- 
nized head of the High-church party, and, in the 
House of Lords, was upon the extreme Tory side, 
opposing every kind of liberal measure. He was 
also involved in several memorable controversies, 
especially with the Roman Catholic historians, John 
Lingard (q.v.; 1806) and Charles Butler (1822). 
But he is best known by the Gorham Case (q.v.). 
On the reversal of the lower courts' decision by the 
privy council, he published A Letter to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (London and New York, 1850), 
in which he threatened to hold no communion with 
the archbishop. 

Bibliography: Of the Life by R. N. 8hutte only vol. L ap- 
peared, London, 1863. Consult: H. P. Liddon, Life of 
. . . Pusey, 4 vols., London, 1893-07; DNB, xlv. 222- 

I. Life. 
II. Works. 

Lost and Spurious (ID. 

Exegetioal (5 2). 

Philosophical and Political (} 3). 


III. Doctrines. 

Relation and Scope (} 1). 
On God in Himself (5 2). 
God Revealed; Creation (5 3). 
Intermediate Potencies; the Logos 

Man (S 5). 
The Scriptures (| 6). 
Ethics (S 7). 
Eschatology (} 8). 
IV. Later Influence. 

L Life: Philo of Alexandria (b. about 20 b.c; 
d. about 42 a.d.) stands as the leading exponent of 
the Jewish-Alexandrine religious philosophy, and 
in its influence upon the literature of the Christian 
Church its foremost representative. The incom- 
plete biography of him is derived from statements 
in his own works and from incidental passages in 
Josephus (Ant., XVIII., viii. 1, XX., v. 2), Euse- 
bius (Hist, eccl.j ii. 4-5; Eng. transl., NPNF, 2 ser., 
i. 107-109; Praparatio evangelica, viii. 13-14; Eng. 

transl., 2 vols., Oxford, 1903), Jerome (De vir. ill., 
xi.), Isidore of Pelusium, Photius, and Suidas. 
From these it appears that Philo was of a rich, 
prominent family, brother of Alexander Lysima- 
chus, alabarch of the Jews at Alexandria. Whether 
he was of priestly descent (Jerome) and whether 
his name was Jedediah or this was merely a free 
rendering of the name Philo by later Jewish writers 
remain uncertain. In 39 or 40 a.d. he appeared 
as the representative of the Jews of Alexandria 




Philo of Alexandria 

before Caligula at Rome to regain the privileges 
lost through the acts of the imperial governor 
Publius Avilius Flaccus in conjunction with the 
bloody atrocities of the hostile Greek party. The 
mission secured no promise of relief; but the acces- 
sion of Claudius brought the restoration of their 
rights and the release of their imprisoned alabarch; 
and under Claudius, Philo wrote the report of the 
expedition to Rome. At what time he sojourned in 
Palestine is uncertain. 

IL Works: Of his works, Eusebius (Hist, eed., 
ii. 18; Eng. transl., ut sup., 119-122) gives a fair 
but incomplete enumeration; but some of the wri- 
tings mentioned thus, as well as others in the later 
accounts of Jerome, Photius, and Sui- 
i. Lost and das, are extant, if at all, in fragments 
Spurious, only. All but meager fragments is lost 
of the important work " Counsels for 
the Jews," no doubt identical with the " Apology 
for the Jews " mentioned by Eusebius; likewise 
three books of " Questions and Answers on Exo- 
dus," two books of the " Allegory of the Sacred 
Laws," one book of " On Rewards," and the same 
of " On Numbers." Peter Alexius refuted the charge 
brought by a forgotten Socinian theologian of the 
seventeenth century that a Christian author toward 
the close of the second century composed the col- 
lective writings of Philo and ascribed them to him. 
This untenable hypothesis was taken up in the last 
century by a hypercritic of Jewish descent, Kirsch- 
baum by name, who assumed, however, a gigantic 
fraud by several Christian authors. More considera- 
tion is due to recent attacks on individual works; 
such as, for instance, against the apparent com- 
posite character of De incorruptibUilate mundi, 
against the " Dissertations on Samson and Jonah " 
from the Armenian, the Interpretatio Hebraicarum 
nominum, and the Liber antiquUalum Biblicarutn 
printed in the sixteenth century in Philo's name. 
The last three are certainly not genuine. Weighty 
objections have been raised by recent critics against 
the authenticity of De vita contemplaiiva, some of 
whom claim its origin to have been from the monk 
Falsarius at the close of the third century; because 
(1) of its connection with the writing Quod omnis 
probus liber of which it is claimed to be a continua- 
tion; (2) the author is more limited in his cosmic 
view than Philo and has in mind the monastic mode 
of thought; and (3) it was never mentioned before 
Eusebius, who seeks to establish thereby the his- 
torical priority of the Therapeutce (q.v.). How- 
ever, this argument makes too much of the silence 
before Eusebius; besides, the diction is decidedly of 
the period of Philo, and the descent of the manu- 
script as well as the Jewish character of its con- 
tents speak also for its authenticity. 

The genuine or unquestioned works of Philo fall 
into three groups: the exegetical on the Pentateuch, 
the philosophical, and the political. The exegetical 
is the most replete and comprehensive 
2. Exe- and is subdivided as to contents into 
getkal the cosmogonical, historical, and legis- 
lative writings. Of the cosmogonical, 
De mundi opificio is an allegorical explanation of the 
creation in Genesis. The historical writings, called 
also allegorical or genealogical, present a historico- 

allegorical elucidation of Genesis chapter by chap- 
ter. Those of legislative content present ethical 
considerations with reference to the decalogue and 
Hebrew ritual based on the codes in Exodus, Levit- 
icus, and Deuteronomy. 

The philosophical works belonging to Philo's 

earlier period and challenged by the modern critics 

on account of difference of content with that of the 

later works are, De incorruptibUitate 

2. Philo- mundi; Quod omnis probus liber; and 
sophical and De vita contemplaiiva. To these be- 

Political. long the Qucestiones et solutiones in 
Genesin et Exodum, a brief catechetical 
explanation of the Pentateuch originally in five 
books, partly preserved in a Latin translation and 
partly recovered in an Armenian translation; and, 
from the Armenian, De providentia (2 books); and 
Alexander seu de ratione brutorum. The political or 
historico-apologetical writings for the cultured class 
of Jews and heathen in common, with an apologet- 
ical tendency in favor of the first, embrace, De vita 
Mosis; the " Counsels for the Jews "; " Unto 
Flaccus "; and " Embassy to Gaius " [Caligula], 
the last two important for autobiographical notices, 
and forming books iii. and iv. respectively of a more 
comprehensive work of five books, " On the Fate 
of the Jews under Emperor Gaius," the fourth and 
fifth of which bore the common title, " On the 

m. Doctrines: Philo stands as the most con- 
spicuous figure and the culminating point of a long 
development marked by the confluence of Jewish 
monotheism and Hellenic cosmogony. 
i. Relation This movement is represented at Alex- 
and Scope, andria in the middle of the third cen- 
tury before Christ by the peripatetic 
Aristobulus, who already shows the tendency of 
allegorizing and of abstracting the conception of 
deity from Biblical anthropomorphism by the in- 
trusion of intermediate entities. The allegorizing 
of Philo is said to have gathered up into a mighty 
basin all the streams of Alexandrine hermeneutics 
from the past and discharged them again into mul- 
tiple streams and rivulets of the later exegesis of 
Judaism and Christianity. He knew all the im- 
portant Greek philosophers, from whom he cited 
freely; but first for him was Plato, from whom he 
derived his philosophical content, while in his 
method of extravagant allegorizing he imitated the 
Stoics. These allegorized the Greek myths in the 
effort to philosophize the multiple forms of popular 
religion and reduce them to simple fundamental 
principles; so did Philo in dealing with the Biblical 
and legal forms and cultic prescriptions of the Jews, 
in the interest, however, of monotheism. In his ad- 
herence to a living personal Creator and Ruler of 
the universe, revealed through Moses, and choosing 
Israel from the world races as his peculiar posses- 
sion, he did not waver. Moses to him is the prophet 
of all prophets and his law the essence of all wisdom 
and doctrine of virtue; and waiving his privilege of 
constructing an independent cosmology he presents 
his cosmologies! views in the form of a great prao- 
tico-speculative commentary on the Pentateuch. 
He disapproves of the heretical sects of Judaism, 
and lavishes warm praise on the pious Essenes. The 


army, in 61 B.C. The earlier city lay aomvAlsl bo 

the north, and was destroyed by Alexander Jann.Tus 
96 b.c. Still farther to the south lay Raphia, the 
modem Tell Refali, about two miles from the sea 
ami without a harbor. It marked the boundary lie- 
tween the Egyptian an<t Syrian domains !,losi-(ihu>, 
War, IV., xi. 5). Gath lay nearer the land of Judah, 
according to I Sam. xvii. 1-2, 52, near the Wadi el- 
Siint, ami according to Eusebius {Onomasticon, ed. 
Lagarde, 244, 127, ef. 246, 120) about four miles to 
the north of Elcuthoropolis toward Lydda (Diospo- 
lia). Jerome (on Mic. i. 10) asserts that it lay on 
the way from Eleutheropolis to Gaza. It early 
ceased to be a Philistine city (II Kings xii. 17; cf. 
Jer. xxv. 20; Amos i. 7; Zeph. ii. 4). 

(H. Guthb.) 
Bibuucjhapht: The lilerntufs on Hebrew history should 
be consulted as indicated under Abas; nnd IwutL. His- 
tory or. The older literature directly bearing on the 
subject is noted in K. B. Stark. Con und die pkilulaixht 
Katte. Jena, 1862. Consult: (i. Bniir. Dcr PropM Amoi, 
pp. 70-04. Oiessen. 1M7; V. Guerin, Drtcriptien dt la 
Pa/mini, ii. 38 so.q... Ps™. 1869; A. Hanneeln>r, Mi Phit- 
utarr. Eicbstidt. 1872; W. H. Thomson. The Land and the 
Bonk. vol. i.. New York. 1882; E. Meyer, (ifrhichtt dr. 
AUerthunu. i. 317 sqq., 358 sqq.. Stuttgart, 1881; F. 
Schwally. in ZWT. ixiiv (1891). Iil.'i -ins, LIBS .-i.;.: J V 
McCurdy, History. Prophecy and the Monument*, vol. L* 
ii., passim, New York. 1894-00; idem, in Thi Expositor 
("Usiinh and Che Philistines"). 1800; G. A. Smith, Hit- 
lorical Grooraphy of the Holy Land. chap. in.. London. 
1897; R. Rasbe, Petna der Iberer, U'i|-ir, IHilS; (\ fler- 
mont-Gaoneau. Elude* d'arcMologie orimlalr. x. 1-0, Paris. 
1898: W. M. M,ill,.r, in Millluiluigeaderoordenuiatieehefi 
Cnttlachaft, v (1900). 1-42: also his Alien und Europa, 
cited in the te*t; R. Duasnud.tfwsfioMmiffSnimrtrs, Paris. 
Ktufl; It A. Meyer.Hi.1. of Ute City of Oaia. New York. 
1907: E. Meyer. Der Ditktu von PhaeMot ua.1 ih, FWi.Jc 
auj Kreta. Berlin, 1909; Robinson. Rfteanhr: vol. ii. : 
Schrniler. EAT. passim; DB, iii. 844-N48: EH. iii .17111- 
3727; JE. k. 1-2; Vigouroux. Diriionnoirr, fast juuj 
(1908). 288-300. 

PHILLIPS, PHILIP: Methodist Episcopal Gos- 
pel sii!.e;i.-r; !>. in Chautauqua Co., N. Y., Aug. 13, 
1834; d.inDelaware,Ohio,June25,1895. Brought 
up on a farm, he developed a talent for song; re- 
ceived some blaming in the country fktgfafrMhacA 
and later studied under Lowell Mason. He con- 
ducted his lir.-t sin uinjr- class al Allegheny, N. Y., in 
1N.V1, and after that similar schools in adjacent 
(owns and cities. In IHtXi he changed from the 
Baptist to the Methodist Episcopal Church. He 

brought out Early Blossoms (1860). The next 
he opened a music-store in Cincinnati, and pulili.-hi-d 
Aiusieal Lcarex (Cincinnati, 1S62). During the Civil 
War he aided the Christian Commission by raising 
funds with his Home Song* and services of song 
throughout the country. He visited England and 
prepared The American Sacred Songster (London, 
1868) for the British Sunday-school Union, of which 
1, 100,000 copies were sold. Later he made a tour of 
the world holding praise services in the Sandwich 
Islands, Australia, New Zealand, Palestine, Egypt, 
India, and the cities of Europe. Other published 
collections are Spring Blossoms (Cincinnati, 1865); 
Singing Pilgrim (New York, 1866); Day School 
Singer (Cincinnati, 1869); Gotpel Singer (Boston, 
1874); Song Sermons (New York, 1877). He wrote 
also Song Pilgrimage around and throughout the 
World, with an introduction by J. H. Vincent and a 
biographical sketch by A. Clark (Chicago, 1880). 

PHILLPOTTS, HEKRY: Church of England 

bishop of Exeter; b. at Bridgewater (50 m. a.w. of 
Bristol), Somerset, May G, 1778; d. at Bishopstowe, 
Torquay (29 m. e.n.e. of Plymouth), Sept. 18, 
IN 69. He was educated at Corpus Christi, Oxford 
(B.A., 1795), was elected a fellow at Magdalen Col- 
lege, and prelector of moral philosophy in 1800. 
He became a deacon (1802), and priest (1804), pre- 
bendary of Durham (1809), dean of Chester (1828), 
jowl bishop of Exeter (1830). He was the recog- 
nized head of the High-church party, and, in the 
House of Lords, was upon the extreme Tory side, 
opposing every kind of liberal measure. He was 
also involved in several memorable controversies, 
especially with the Roman Catholic historians, John 
Lingard (q.v.; 1806) and Charles Butler (1822). 
But he is best known by the Gorham Case (q.v.). 
On the reversal of the lower courts' decision by tho 
privy council, he published A Letter to (As Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (London and New York, 1850), 
in which he threatened to hold no communion with 
the archbishop. 

BnUOOuSBT; Of the Lift by R. N. Shutte only vol. t ap- 
peared. London. 1883. Consult: H. P. Liddou. Lift of 
. . . Pussy, 4 vols., Loudon, 1803-07; DNB, xlv. 222- 


mi (| 1). 

Philosophies! and Political (1 3). 

n and Scope (5 1). 


L Life: Philo of Alexandria (b. about 20 b.c; 
d. about 42 A.n.) stands as the leading exponent of 
the Jewish- Alexandrine religious philosophy, and 
in its influence upon the literature of the Christian 
Church its foremost representative. The incom- 
plete biography of him is derived from statements 
in his own works and from incidental passages in 
Josephus (Ant., XVIII., viii. 1, XX., v. 2), Euse- 
bius {Hist, ted., ii. 4-5; Eng. tranal., NPNF, 2 ser., 
L 107-109; Prarparatio evangelica, viii. 13-14; Eng. 

The Scriptures (f 6} 
Ethics (J 7). 
Eeohstolotf (18). 
IV. Later Ii ' 

tranal., 2 vols., Oxford, 1903), Jerome (De vir. ill-, 
xi,), Isidore of Peluaium, Photius, and Suidas. 
From these it appears that Philo was of a rich, 
prominent family, brother of Alexander Lysima- 
chus, alabarch of the Jews at Alexandria. Whether 
he was of priestly descent (Jerome) and whether 
his name was Jedediah or this was merely a free 
rendering of the name Philo by later Jewish writers 
remain uncertain. In 39 or 40 A.n. he appeared 
as the representative of the Jews of Alexandria 




Philo of Alexandria 

before Caligula at Rome to regain the privileges 
lost through the acts of the imperial governor 
Publius Avilius Flaccus in conjunction with the 
bloody atrocities of the hostile Greek party. The 
mission secured no promise of relief; but the acces- 
sion of Claudius brought the restoration of their 
rights and the release of their imprisoned alabarch; 
and under Claudius, Philo wrote the report of the 
expedition to Rome. At what time he sojourned in 
Palestine is uncertain. 

H. Works: Of his works, Eusebius (Hist, eed., 
ii. 18; Eng. transl., ut sup., 119-122) gives a fan- 
but incomplete enumeration; but some of the wri- 
tings mentioned thus, as well as others in the later 
accounts of Jerome, Photius, and Sui- 
i. Lost and das, are extant, if at all, in fragments 
Spurious, only. All but meager fragments is lost 
of the important work " Counsels for 
the Jews," no doubt identical with the " Apology 
for the Jews " mentioned by Eusebius; likewise 
three books of " Questions and Answers on Exo- 
dus," two books of the " Allegory of the Sacred 
Laws," one book of " On Rewards," and the same 
of " On Numbers." Peter Alexius refuted the charge 
brought by a forgotten Socinian theologian of the 
seventeenth century that a Christian author toward 
the close of the second century composed the col- 
lective writings of Philo and ascribed them to him. 
This untenable hypothesis was taken up in the last 
century by a hypercritic of Jewish descent, Kirsch- 
baum by name, who assumed, however, a gigantic 
fraud by several Christian authors. More considera- 
tion is due to recent attacks on individual works; 
such as, for instance, against the apparent com- 
posite character of De incorruptibilitate mundi, 
against the " Dissertations on Samson and Jonah " 
from the Armenian, the Interpretatio Hebraicorum 
nominum, and the Liber antiquilatum Biblicarum 
printed in the sixteenth century in Philo's name. 
The last three are certainly not genuine. Weighty 
objections have been raised by recent critics against 
the authenticity of De vita contemplaiiva, some of 
whom claim its origin to have been from the monk 
Falsarius at the close of the third century; because 
(1) of its connection with the writing Quod omnis 
probus liber of which it is claimed to be a continua- 
tion; (2) the author is more limited in his cosmic 
view than Philo and has in mind the monastic mode 
of thought; and (3) it was never mentioned before 
Eusebius, who seeks to establish thereby the his- 
torical priority of the Therapeutae (q.v.). How- 
ever, this argument makes too much of the silence 
before Eusebius; besides, the diction is decidedly of 
the period of Philo, and the descent of the manu- 
script as well as the Jewish character of its con- 
tents speak also for its authenticity. 

The genuine or unquestioned works of Philo fall 
into three groups: the exegetical on the Pentateuch, 
the philosophical, and the political. The exegetical 
is the most replete and comprehensive 
2. Exe- and is subdivided as to contents into 
getical the cosmogonical, historical, and legis- 
lative writings. Of the cosmogonical, 
De mundi opiftcio is an allegorical explanation of the 
creation in Genesis. The historical writings, called 
also allegorical or genealogical, present a historico- 

allegorical elucidation of Genesis chapter by chap- 
ter. Those of legislative content present ethical 
considerations with reference to the decalogue and 
Hebrew ritual based on the codes in Exodus, Levit- 
icus, and Deuteronomy. 

The philosophical works belonging to Philo's 
earlier period and challenged by the modern critics 
on account of difference of content with that of the 
later works are, De incorruptibilitate 
2. Philo- mundi; Quod omnis probus liber; and 
sophical and De vita contemplativa. To these be- 
Political. long the Qucestiones et selutiones in 
Genesin et Exodum, a brief catechetical 
explanation of the Pentateuch originally in five 
books, partly preserved in a Latin translation and 
partly recovered in an Armenian translation; and, 
from the Armenian, De procidentia (2 books); and 
Alexander seu de ratione brutorum. The political or 
historico-apologetical writings for the cultured class 
of Jews and heathen in common, with an apologet- 
ical tendency in favor of the first, embrace, De vita 
Mosis; the "Counsels for the Jews"; "Unto 
Flaccus "; and " Embassy to Gaius " [Caligula], 
the last two important for autobiographical notices, 
and forming books iii. and iv. respectively of a more 
comprehensive work of five books, " On the Fate 
of the Jews under Emperor Gaius," the fourth and 
fifth of which bore the common title, " On the 

HI. Doctrines: Philo stands as the most con- 
spicuous figure and the culminating point of a long 
development marked by the confluence of Jewish 
monotheism and Hellenic cosmogony. 
i. Relation This movement is represented at Alex- 
and Scope, andria in the middle of the third cen- 
tury before Christ by the peripatetic 
Aristobulus, who already shows the tendency of 
allegorizing and of abstracting the conception of 
deity from Biblical anthropomorphism by the in- 
trusion of intermediate entities. The allegorizing 
of Philo is said to have gathered up into a mighty 
basin all the streams of Alexandrine hermeneutics 
from the past and discharged them again into mul- 
tiple streams and rivulets of the later exegesis of 
Judaism and Christianity. He knew all the im- 
portant Greek philosophers, from whom he cited 
freely; but first for him was Plato, from whom he 
derived his philosophical content, while in his 
method of extravagant allegorizing he imitated the 
Stoics. These allegorized the Greek myths in the 
effort to philosophize the multiple forms of popular 
religion and reduce them to simple fundamental 
principles; so did Philo in dealing with the Biblical 
and legal forms and cultic prescriptions of the Jews, 
in the interest, however, of monotheism. In his ad- 
herence to a living personal Creator and Ruler of 
the universe, revealed through Moses, and choosing 
Israel from the world races as his peculiar posses- 
sion, he did not waver. Moses to him is the prophet 
of all prophets and his law the essence of all wisdom 
and doctrine of virtue; and waiving his privilege of 
constructing an independent cosmology he presents 
his cosmologies! views in the form of a great prac- 
tice-speculative commentary on the Pentateuch. 
He disapproves of the heretical sects of Judaism, 
and lavishes warm praise on the pious Essenes. The 

Philo of Alexandria 



emphasis of Philo is positive; faith and piety are 
the supreme virtues. His positive faith is saturated 
with an ardent mysticism; not that of absorption 
in divine contemplation, but rather that sustained 
on the one hand throughout his monotheistic eth- 
ical point of view and on the other throughout his 
philosophical consciousness, ever alert to penetrate 
to the nature of things. Philo was thus the first 
monotheistic theologian in this cosmopolitan sense 
and the predecessor of the Alexandrine school. 

In his doctrine of God he distinguished strictly 
between God in himself and God revealed, as de- 
manded by his Old-Testament theistic point of view 
as well as his Platonic dualism of spirit 
2. On and matter. On the one hand, he re- 
God in jects the pantheistic view and the dei- 

Himself. fication of creatures; on the other, the 
anthropomorphic and anthropopathic 
view. God in himself is absolute, incorporate, and 
outside of the material universe; comprehending 
all, yet uncomprehended. He is outside of time 
and space, and in his being unknowable. The only 
name by which God can be designated is therefore 
pure being (to on or ho on). Though without real 
attributes yet in contrast with created being certain 
marks can not be avoided, such as immutability, 
unity, simplicity, absolute freedom, and beatitude, 
without lack of anything, self-sufficiency, whereby 
he stands in relation to nothing and is none of the 
created beings. God is called " the Good " only in 
the sense that he is the source of all good; " Light," 
in the figurative, only as the divine source, as much 
brighter than the visible lights as the sun exceeds 
the darkness. 

God, as revealed, on the other hand, is also imma- 
nent in his relation with the universe and is the all- 
filling, all-penetrating, leaving no vac- 
3. God uum. He is the author of the universe 

Revealed; and first cause on whom depends the 

Creation, world of spirits and sense. A series of 
attributes arise from his relations with 
the universe; such as omnipotence, by virtue of 
which he is almighty and the efficient cause of all; 
omniscience, all-knowing the present and all-fore- 
seeing the future; and wisdom, whereby he tran- 
scends the counsel and reason of mankind. Three 
corollaries follow his creative power: the material, 
the means, and the object. (1) The stuff was the 
matter (hyte), the relative nothing (me on). Time 
is evolved from formless matter; and, not in time 
but with time becoming, heaven and earth were 
created. Creation in six days is to be taken figura- 
tively, six being a symbol of perfection and repre- 
senting the relative order and not time. This con- 
ception of creation taken from the Timceus of Plato 
is fundamentally nothing else than the absolute ra- 
tional plan of creation springing from the Logos of 
God (cf. Origen and Oriqenistic Controversies). 
This Logos is the means by which the universe was 
created and the object was God's beneficence as 
love and as free self-impartation to his creatures. 

Between God the Infinite and the finite, imper- 
fect universe there is a wide gap which is, however, 
removed by being filled with divine potencies (dy- 
nameis), which are peculiar mediating beings or con- 
cepts, represented on the one hand as active 

powers, self-revelations, or attributes of God; on 

the other, as personal beings of a spiritual kind. 

Incomprehensible in number they sub- 

4. Inter- mit to classification; namely, into the 
mediate well-doing and the primitive powers. 

Potencies; At the head of the former is the 
the Logos, ogaihotes through whom God made the 
universe and at the head of the other 
is the archS, through whom he rules it. But higher 
than these two at the summit of the series of all 
mediate beings, constituting their principle of unity, 
appears the divine Logos. He is their father and 
leader, the first-born. Are the others angels, he is 
the archangel. He stands in immanent relation 
with God and proceeds from him, whereas the others 
proceed from the Logos. He is sometimes called 
second God or image of God; his administrator, tool, 
and mediator. As mediator, through him the world 
was made. In him subsisted at the beginning of 
creation heaven and earth; i.e., the body of ideals. 
He is the seat of ideals which by partition or sepa- 
ration he projects from himself. Through him God 
imprints the intermediate potencies, which have 
their seat in the Logos, upon matter; hence his is 
called " seal of God." As the bond of unity, God 
holds together, supports, and directs all through 
him. He is also represented as the high-priest and 
advocate for men with God. The synonym " word " 
(hrtma ; Gen. i. 3; Ps. xxxiii. 6; Deut. viii. 3) used 
sometimes by Philo indicates that the Logos was 
to him equivalent to the Biblical term of the Old- 
Testament instrument of creation and governance 
of the world. 

At the conclusion of the work of creation, God 

made first the heavenly man through the Logos; 

i.e., the preexistent ideal man, in his pretemporal, 

spiritual, unsexual eternal state, un- 

5. Man. tainted by sin and truly in the divine 

image. Subsequently, the earthly 
man, made not by the Logos alone but with the aid 
of the lower potencies, was deficient in the perfect 
image of God and was, in advance, subject to the 
possibility of sinning. Indeed, his higher soul (nous) 
came from the creative, living breath of God, but 
in the creation of his lower soul (with its earthly 
reason, nous geinds) as well as his body, several an- 
gelic potencies or demiurges cooperated. After the 
earthly man had lived seven years in Paradise, or 
the realm of virtues, especially of piety and wisdom, 
he was sexually differentiated by the formation of 
woman from him and he entered the state of temp- 
tation and sin. The results of the fall are partly 
physical and partly ethical, the latter being the in- 
creasing degeneration of Adam's descendants, im- 
pure from birth. A partial image of God remains as 
freedom of will and rational perception; by these 
the fallen retain unbroken connection with God, 
particularly through the Logos through whom God 
reveals himself. Many men fail to apprehend God 
because of their guilt; only the consecrated who 
know how to rise above the earthly may enter into 
closer relations with him. In the special Scripture 
revelation, Moses is the earthly mediator of a rev- 
elation which shows Israel to be the chosen and the 
possessed of God, just as the Logos is the heavenly 



Philo of Alexandria 

The Scriptures — Philo having in mind the Septu- 
agintr- are capable of a double sense, and must not 
be understood otherwise than as allegorical. The 
immediate sense is the literal, fit only 
6. The for weaker minds; it is the outer in teg- 
Scriptures, ument which the mediate or allegor- 
ical sense penetrates and fills as the 
soul does the body. The formal criteria for prefer- 
ring the allegorical are, (1) when the literal repre- 
sents something unworthy of God; (2) when there 
is apparent contradiction; and (3) when the text 
itself is figurative. In a series of instances a deeper 
sense is implied, (1) by a duplication of expression; 
(2) a redundant word or words; (3) repetition with 
slight variation; and (4) play of words and the like. 
In the doctrine of the moral law Philo stands on 
strict monotheistic, Old-Testament ground; in the 
doctrine of virtue he adheres to Plato and the Stoics. 
The divine moral law appears to him 
7. Ethics, the entire natural and moral, world- 
comprehending order. The law of 
Moses is the visible transcript of the natural law. 
The Hebrew ceremonial law requires in all points a 
spiritual or allegorical interpretation. The virtues 
are arranged in the order of importance according 
to the Platonic-Stoic scheme, with the exception 
that piety is supreme. The strict ascetic retirement 
of the Therapeutse and Essenes is commended for the 
culture of the virtues. The Logos is given an im- 
portant place in the ethical sphere, as the teacher 
of virtues, the conqueror of evils, and the heavenly 
model for men. He operates on the one hand in the 
human conscience as judge; on the other, as medi- 
ator before God for man. 

In his doctrine on immortality and retribution, 
so far as it affects the individual, Philo stands on 
Hellenic ground; in his expectation for the future 
of the people of God, he is Jewish par- 
8. Efichatol- ticularist. Man is designed to be im- 
ogy. mortal by virtue of his godlike nature. 
Actual immortality is attained through 
virtue, especially piety; also by philosophy, appre- 
hended and realized in life. Though the life of the 
sinner continues after death, yet it is not really im- 
mortal; this property belongs to those only who 
carry their blessedness attained in this world into 
the highest ether of the world beyond, where they 
behold God. The fate of the godless is that the 
punishment which sin carries within itself in this 
world, such as fear, sadness, and strife, continues 
into the next. The misery involved in sin is the 
place of its condemnation and not the mythical 
Hades. Philo knows nothing of a trans-mundane 
hell as a place for torment, the devil, or malevolent 

IV. Later Influence: Philo's religious philoso- 
phy exerted a profound influence upon the early 
Christian theology and the development of Chris- 
tianity. It has been termed " an outline of the ker- 
nel of Christian history formed by the Jew Philo 
before it went into effect," and the Logos doctrine 
has been called " the Jewish prologue of Christian- 
ity." But such generalizations can be supported 
only so far as the coincidences of individual con- 
cepts and expressions of Philo with those of the 
New Testament and some of the early Christian 

writers. The teachings of Philo differ as much as 
possible from the fundamental doctrines of Chris- 
tianity regarding the person and work of Christ. 
In his treatment of messianic prophecies of the Old 
Testament he either preoccupies himself with ab- 
stractly spiritualistic allegory or with a one-sided 
national hope, stopping short of a deeper ethical in- 
terpretation. His Logos doctrine is one only in 
name with that of the New Testament; the former 
is a cosmic potency without true personal character, 
the latter is above all else a personal being of eth- 
ical godlike significance. The former is unrelated 
to the 'theocratic national expectations of Israel; 
the latter is the incarnate Son of the Father, the 
Messiah. However, this is not equally true of the 
influence of Philo upon the formal dogma and exe- 
gesis of the Fathers, which were both far-reaching 
and persistent. As already upon Josephus and upon 
the later exegetes of the Targum and the Midrash, 
the Cabalists, and the religious philosophers of the 
Middle Ages; so the influence of Philo's phraseology 
and allegorical exegesis shows itself upon a consid- 
erable number of the early Christian writers, par- 
ticularly of the Alexandrian school; and even in a 
certain sense upon New-Testament writers like 
Paul, John, and the author of the Epistle to the 
Hebrews. Of the Greek Fathers, especially Barna- 
bas, Justin, Theophilus of Antioch, Clement, Origen, 
Eusebius, and, among the Latins, Ambrose and Je- 
rome, show a similar influence. (O. ZttcKLERf.) 

Bibliography: The best ed. of the " Works " is by L. Cohn 
and P. Wendland, in an edilio major and minor, vols. i.-v. 
and ix., Berlin, 1896-1909. There is also an editio atereotypa 
in course of issue from Leipsic, vols, i., v., vi., 1898-1905; 
The editio princeps by A. Turnebus was issued Paris, 1552; 
an edition which has long been standard is that by T. 
Mangey, 2 vols., London, 1742. There is an Eng. transl. 
by C. D. Yonge, 4 vols., London, 1854-55; and a new 
Germ, transl. was begun under the editorship of L. Cohn, 
vol. i., Breslau, 1909. Special mention should be made 
of Neu enldeckU Fragmenta Philos, ed. P. Wendland, Berlin, 
1891; Fragments of Philo Judams, newly ed., J. R. Harris, 
Cambridge, 1886; and the Eng. transl., Philo about the 
Contemplative Life, by F. C. Conybeare, Oxford, 1895 
(contains a full bibliography). Very useful as covering 
the whole subject are: DCB, iv. 357-388 (a notable discus- 
sion); Schurer, GeschichU, iii. 487-562, Eng. transl., II.. 
iii. 321-381; DB, extra vol., pp. 197-208; and Vigouroux, 
Dietionnaire, fasc. xxxi., cols. 300-312. Consult further: J. 
Bryant, The Sentiment of Philo Judams, London, 1798; C. 
G. L. Grossmann, Quastiones Philonea, part 1, De theologia 
Philoni* fontibus et auctoritate, Leipsic, 1829; A. Gfrorer, 
Philon und die aUxandriniache Theoaophie, Stuttgart, 1831 ; 
A. F. Dahne, Geschichtliche Darstellung der judisch-alexan- 
drinischen Rdigionsphilosophie, 2 vols., Halle, 1834; F. 
Keferstein, Philo* a Lehre vom den goUlichen Mittelwesen, 
Leipsic, 1846; J. Bucher, Philoniache Studien, Tubingen, 
1848; C. Morgan, An Investigation of the Trinity of Plato and 
Philo, London, 1853; J. T. Delaunay, Philon d' Alexandria 
Paris, 1867; M. Heinse, Lehre vom Logoa, Leipsic, 1872; B. 
Bruno, Philo, Strauss und Renan, und das Urchristenthum, 
Berlin, 1874; J. W. Lake, Plato, Philo and Paul; or the 
pagan Conception of a " Divine Logos " the Basis of the 
Christian Dogma, Edinburgh, 1874; C. Siegfried, Philon 
von Alexandrien als Ausleger des Alien Testaments, Jena, 
1875; H. Soulier, La doctrine du logos chez Philon d' Alex- 
andria, Turin, 1876; F. Klasen, Dieolttestamentliche Weis- 
heit und der Logos der judisch-alexandrinischen PhUo- 
sophie, Freiburg, 1878; J. Reville, Le Logos d'apres Philon 
a" Alexandrie, Geneva, 1877; P. E. Lucius, Die Thera- 
peuten . . . Eine kritische Untersuchung der Schrift " De 
vita contemplative," Strasburg, 1879; J. Reville, La Doc- 
trine du logos dans le quatrieme evangile et dans les auvres 
de Philon, Paris, 1881; S. Weiss, Philo von Alexandrien 
und Moses Maimonides, Halle, 1884; J. Drummond, Philo 

Philo Byblius 



Judcsus, or the Jewish- Alexandrian Philosophy in its De- 
velopment and Completion, 2 vols., London, 1888; H. von 
Amim, Quellenstudien zu Philo von Alezandrien, Berlin, 
1888; L. Maaaebieau, Le Claeeement dee osuvres de PhiUm, 
Paris, 1880; M. Freudenthal, Die Erkenntnisslehre Philos 
von Alexandria* Berlin, 1891; P. Wendland and O. Kern, 
Beitrage zur Oeeehichte der griechischen Philosophic und 
Religion, pp. 1-75, Berlin, 1895; C. O. JQR, 
vii (1895), 481-545 (a florilegium); A. Aall, Oeeehichte der 
Logosidee in der griechischen Philosophic 2 parts, Leipsic, 
1896-09; E. Herriot, Philon le juif, Paris, 1898; S. Tiktin, 
Die Lehre von den Tugenden und Pfiichten bei Philo, Bern, 
1898; T. Simon, Der Logos, Leipeic, 1902; W. Bousset, 
Die Religion dee Judenthums im neutestatnenUichen Zeit- 
alter, Berlin, 1903; P. Kruger, Philo und Josephus ale 
Apalogeten dee Judenthums, Leipsic, 1906; J. Martin, 
Philon, Paris, 1907; P. Heinisch, Der Einfiuss Philos auf 
die alteste christliche Exegese, in Altestamentliche Abhand- 
lungen, ed. J. Nike], MQnster, 1908; Lee Idiee phUoso- 
phiques et reHgieuses de Philon d* Alexandria Paris, 1908; 
K. 8. Guthrie, The Message of Philo-Judams of Alexan- 
dria, Chicago, 1909; H. Windisch, Die Frommigkeit Philos 
und ihre Bedeutung fur das Christenthum, Leipsic, 1909; 
N. Bentwich, Philo-Judams of Alexandria, Philadelphia, 
1910; K. S. Guthrie, The Message of Philo Judatus of 
Alexandria, London, 1910; works on the history of Israel, 
e.g., H. Ewald, Oeeehichte, vi. 257-312, and on the history 
of philosophy. 

grammarian and historian; b. in 63 a.d. (not 42, 
as was usually given); d. after 141. Knowledge of 
him comes principally through Suidas, though he 
is mentioned not infrequently by the Church Fa- 
thers, particularly by Origen (Contra Celsum, i. 15; 
Eng. transl., ANF, iv. 403) and Eusebius (Pra- 
paraiio Evangelica, i. 9-10; Eng. transl., 2 vols., 
Oxford, 1903). Suidas makes him an ambassador 
to Rome in the time of Hadrian, and a friend of 
Herenniu8 Severus (from whom he took his name 
Herenniu8), consul in 141 a.d. Three of the many 
works ascribed to him are often referred to: " Con- 
cerning Cities and the Famous Men they have 
produced," " Phenician History " or " Things Phe- 
nician " (a professed translation of a work by 
Sanchuniathon, q.v.); and "Concerning Jews," 
about which it is debated whether it was an inde- 
pendent work or merely an excursus to or a chapter 
in the " Phenician History," with the probability 
inclining in favor of the former alternative. The 
quotations from his " Phenician History " are sup- 
posed to make him out to be a Euhemerist; but it is 
to be remembered that if this work is really a trans- 
lation from the putative author, Sanchuniathon, 
Philo can not be held responsible for the trend of 
opinion there expressed. Only fragments remain 
of his works in citations by Eusebius. 

Geo. W. Gilmore. 

Biblioorafhy: The fragments are collected in C. and T. 
Muller, Fragmenta historicorum Grctcorum, ill. 560-576, 
4 vols., Paris, 1841-51. Consult H. Ewald, in the Ab- 
handlungen of the Royal Society of G&ttingen, v (1853); 
E. Renan, in the Mhnoires of the Academy of Inscrip- 
tions, xxiii. 2 (1858), 241 sqq.; W. von Baudissin, Studien 
sur semitischen Religionsgeschichte, i. 3 sqq., Leipsic, 1878; 
Schurer, Oeeehichte, and Eng. transl., Introduction, $f 3, 
18; and literature under Sanchuniathon. 

PHILO OF CARP ASIA: Bishop who flourished 
in the fourth century. Polybius in his fanciful Vita 
Epiphanii (MPG, xli. 85) writes of a deacon Philo 
whom among others the sister of Honorius and 
Arcadius sent to Cyprus to Epiphanius to summon 
him to Rome to cure her of sickness by the laying 

on of hands and prayer. But Philo on account of 
his piety was consecrated by Epiphanius as bishop 
of Carpasia, Cyprus, and was entrusted with the 
former's official administration during his absence 
at Rome. With this has been combined the notice 
of Suidas that " Philo the Carpathian wrote a com- 
mentary on the Song of Songs "; but Carpathos ia 
the name of an island between Rhodes and Crete. 
Here there is either reference to different persons 
or a confusion of places; probably the latter, since 
the commentary mentioned by Suidas, preserved 
in a number of manuscripts, is provided with the 
superscription, " Commentary on the Song of Songs 
of Philo, bishop of Carpasia/' The commentary 
was first published by A. Giacomelli (Rome, 1772); 
was printed by A. Gallandius, BiUiotheca veterum 
patrum, vol. ix. Appendix, p. 713 (Venice, 1765- 
1781); and is in MPG, xl. 1 sqq. (A. Hauck.) 

Bibliography: Fabricius-Harles, Bibliotheoa Graca, ix. 252, 
Hamburg, 1804; O. Bardenhewer, Patrologie, p. 276, 
Freiburg, 1901, Eng. transl., St. Louis, 1008. 

PHILOPATRIS, fi'lo-pe'tris: A dialogue as- 
cribed by a single family of manuscripts to the Greek 
satirist Lucian. Formerly regarded as a satire on 
Christianity, it is now known to be a political pamph- 
let of the Byzantine period. It is divided into two 
parts: the first is theological and contains a refu- 
tation of heathen polytheism accompanied by an 
exposition of Christian doctrine; the second is po- 
litical and reveals the dissatisfaction felt in certain 
circles with the government of that period, though 
it closes with expressions of loyalty, and with the 
hope that the emperor would overcome his enemies. 

The Humanist editors of Lucian themselves per- 
ceived that this dialogue, which is inartistic both in 
form and execution, was not written by their author; 
and this view is undoubtedly correct, although nat- 
urally there have been some defenders of its au- 
thenticity, the latest of whom was C. G. Kelle, Lu- 
ciani PhUopatris (Leipsic, 1826). Some classicists 
sought at least to maintain that the dialogue was 
written in the time of Trajan, but the majority of 
critics allowed themselves to be influenced by J. 
M. Gesner (De estate et auctore dialogi . . . qui 
PhUopatris inscribUur, Jena, 1714) in favor of the 
period of Julian. A. von Gutschmid and others 
were inclined to refer the work to the time of the 
Persian wars of Heraclius. At present, however, the 
general opinion is in harmony with the view of B. 
G. Niebuhr, to the effect that the dialogue belongs 
to the second half of the tenth century, the time of 
Nicephorus Phocas (963-969) or to that of his suc- 
cessor, John Tzimiskes (969-976). If this be true, 
the whole first part must be regarded as a jesting 
religious controversy, introduced to give plausibility 
to the attribution of the dialogue to Lucian; 
although R. Crampe has argued that, if the work 
was written in the seventh century, political opposi- 
tion would be combined with a tendency toward 

The dialogue was expunged from the Aldine edi- 
tion of Lucian of 1522 by the Inquisition, and was 
placed on the Index by Paul V. in 1559. To what- 
ever period it may be assigned, the PhUopatris 
retains its interest from a theological point of view 
because of its combination of Christian ideas with 


Luoanic style, whether it proves the existence of 
r-e*"'"" in Byzantium in the seventh century, or 
whether it simply shows how frivolously the Human- 
ista of the tenth century treated questions of faith. 
Th* description of Paul borrowed from the Acts of 
Fsal and Thecla and the [illusion to II Cor. xii. 2 sqq. 
are also worthy of note. E. ton DobschOtx. 

RDUoflurflT: The work is printed in the eds. of Lucian'a 
~ Work* " of Florence. 1496. the Aldine, 1503 (expunged 
ia that of 1523), ZweJbrOoken. 1791, and Leipeie, 1839. 
Separate ianw an by J. H. Oemer. Jena, 1715: C. B. 
Baaa, ia La* Diaamut, CSBB, Bonn, 1828. Consult: 
Ftbhdm-Hules. BibliaUuca Grata, v. 344. Hamburg, 
1798; Krumbaeher. GexAichle. pp. 456 aqq.; idem, in 
ajawlfcMl ZtiUchriH. xi (1902), 578 sqq.: B. O. Nie- 
bohr. Urbrr dot Alter da DirUoat PhiiopalrU, Bonn, 1843; 

B. Cmnpe. rkiloaatrii, Halle, 1804; E. Rohde, in fluon- 
rnucU Zdttchnlt. v (189S), 1-15. vi [1898). 475-482; 

C. Stash. Dt P/nSopatride. Cracow, 1897: R. Oarnett, 
Alms for Oblivion, in CornAiU Maoaiint, May. 1901; B. 
BafcMab La Quation dv Philapalrin, in Herat aTchtalo- 
mw, 1902. 79-110. 

PHTLOPOSTJS. See Johannes Philoponus. 

PH1XOST0RGITJS, fil"o-ster'jius: Arian contro- 
versialist; b. at Borissus in Cappadocia about 
3S4; d. after 426. His father was the strict Arian 
Carterius, and he became a polemical writer in the 
same cause. At the age of twenty be repaired to 
Constantinople for study and met Eunomius on the 
way, whose works he studied. There is no further 
knowledge of the course of his life. The work for 
which he was famous was a church history in twelve 
books, intended to justify the Arian party and is 
unfortunately lost. Only excerpts by Photius and 
others who used it have come down, and these are 
unreliable except as they report mere facts. It is 
certain that he used the writings of Afitius and 
Eunomius and Arian documents as well as the his- 
tory of Eusebius, The history began with the con- 
troversy between Anus and Alexander and ex- 
tended to Valentinian III. It would scarcely be 
reliable in its partisan representation of persons and 
relations, yet the loss of so much historical matter 
dealing with an age so intensely controversial is to 
be deplored. The work was used and read during 
the Middle Ages; the excerpts of Photius are men- 
tioned, Suidas used it for his lexicon, Nicetes Akom- 
inatus possessed it, and Nicephorus seems to have 
used it. (Ehwtn Preuschen.) 

Bwjoohafbt: The fint issue of the excerpt* of Photius. 
ed. J. Qotoofredua. war, at Geneva, 1643; Valeaiue edited 
them next, Paris, 1873, after which there were several 
editions, principally the one by W. Reading, Cambridge, 
1720. reprinted at Turin, 1748, and in MfU. Ixv. New 
fragment* were edited by P. Batiffol in Romitche Qwxr- 
taueanA iii (1889), 134 sqq., of. his Qumttiona Phila- 
Mot/<na7i*, Paris, 1891, and tug articles in the Qvartalwchrifl, 
i» (1890), 134 aqq., ix (1895). 67 eqq. An Eng. tnuul.  
by Walford, London. 1865. Consult: Fabriciug-Harlea. 
BMiottuta Grtrra, vit. 609 sqq., Hamburg, 1801; J. R. 
Asmus, in BymnfinucAe Ztiuckrift, iv. 30 sqq.: L. Jeep, 
to JfAeiaucAH Jfuawn. Li (1897). 213 sqq.; TV, evil 
(1899J: CeOtier. Aulturi eocrai, viii. 509-514; DCB, iv. 
390; and the literature under Arianism. 

PnrtOXErTTJS, fl-iex'i-naB, (XENAIA, AXE- 
HAIA): Monophysite bishop of Mabug (Hierapo- 
li«); said to have been boroatTahal, a little place 
in the Persian district of Beth-Garmai, between the 
Tigris and the mountains of Kurdistan, in the sec- 
ond quarter of the fifth century; d. a violent death 

at Gangra in Paphlagonia, probably £23. He was 
probably of Syrian parentage, and not a slave, as 
was reported by Theodore the Lector; studied at 
Edessa while Ibas was bishop there (435-457), but 
was an opponent of Ibas and of Nestorianism. He 
left Edessa and went to Antioch, where, having 
accepted the Henoticon (q.v.), be came into con- 
flict with the Patriarch Calandio, who expelled him; 
but he returned and was by Peter Fullo (458) con- 
secrated metropolitan of Hierapolis (Mabug), when 
he took the name Philoxenus, sending a confession 
of his faith to the Emperor Xenos, to refute a charge 
of Eutychianism (q.v.). For the next thirteen years 
nothing is heard of him. It is not impossible that 
this was the period when the writings which made 
him famous were composed. In May, 498, he was 
in Edessa, being charged with undue leniency to- 
ward drunken carnival rioters. With the accession 
to office of Flavian in 498 (see Monophvbites) 
Philoxenus came more into publicity as the spokes- 
man of the Monophysites. He was twice at Con- 
stantinople, being summoned thither by Anastasius 
in 506 at the end of the Persian war. He was the 
animating spirit of the party which assailed Flavian 
as a Nestorian. At the Synod of Tyre Monophysi- 
tism was victorious; but a few years later came the 
reversal, and under Justin (successor of Anastasius) 
Philoxenus was banished to Philippopolis (518 or 
519), and then to Gangra. 

The eminent position and ability of Philoxenus as 
a writer are conceded. Hi» productions stamp him 
as a man of virile thought, strong will, and warm 
heart, while the " strife-seeking rioter " his op- 
ponents deemed him disappears in the spiritual 
curate of souls. Jacob of Edessa (q.v.) regarded 
him as one of the four great teachers of the Syrian 
church, Ephraem, Jacob of Sarug, and Isaac of 
Antioch being the others. He was held in equal esti- 
mation by the Armenians, who quoted and used 
his writings. Numerous manuscripts of his writings 
exist at Paris, Rome, Oxford, and particularly at 
the British Museum, but comparatively few have 
been published. For bis work on Bible translation 
see Bible Versions, A, III., 2. He wrote a partial 
commentary on the Gospels, and dealt with dog- 
matic subjects, liturgies, and the like, and a list of 
eighty writings is given by Budge (see below). 
Among the printed productions are thirteen ad- 
dresses on the Christian life, dogmatic treatises on 
matters dealing with a personal creed; on the Chal- 
cedonian creed; against Nestorius and Nestorian- 
ism; letters of theological content to Abraham and 
Orestes, priests at Edessa, on the pantheism of 
Stephen bar Sudaili to the monks at Teleda (be- 
tween Antioch and Aleppo); circular addresses to 
monks, with no particular ascription; letters to 
monks at Beth Gaugal near Amida, and to Em- 
peror Zeno; and two Anaphora, printed in E. Renau- 
dot, LUurgiarum orientatium colledio, ii. 370 (Paris, 

In considering his Cbristology, it is to be borne in 
mind that he stood for the same thing as Severus of 
Antioch (q.v.), with whom he fought shoulder to 
shoulder, the two being the foremost representatives 
of Monophysitism, ever energetically opposed to 
Eutychianism (q.v.) and Apollinarianiam (see Apol- 


L1N4BW of Laodicea). His letter to Zenn issued 
from u desire to purge himself of false sic-pieioti. 
"He who was complete d«ity assumed flesh ami 
became true man," he asserts in this letter. While 
the polemic against Nestorius gradually lost its in- 
terest, the effort continued to guard against the 
consequences of Docetisra (q.v.), and appears in the 
latest of iiis writings — to the monks of Teleda. In 
this the avowal of the reality of the manhood of 
l.'hri-t and of his undergoing (he experiences of hu- 
manity is explicit. Philoxouus emphasized the fact 
that all which Christ did was done both voluntarily 
and vicariously. In the hist phases of his thought 
he approached the position of Julian of Halieamassus 
(q.v.). Yet it must remain a matter of doubt 
whether I'hilo\euus had part in the strife between 
Julian and Severus, since this broke out while 1'hi- 
loxenus was in banishment in Thrace, though .Sev- 
erus expressly stated that Julian had not only pub- 
lished his hook in Alexandria but had distributed it 
broadcast. Possibly Philoxenus had received it, in 
whose earlier writings Severus " had found nothing 
foolish." The letter to the monks of Teleda and a 
work of unaligned authorship appear to be the only 
documents which contain an echo of the dispute. 

Early issue of some of bis works is to be found in 
S, E. Assemani, Bibliotheca orientatis (Rome, 1719- 
17'JS'l; and M.,LeQuien, Orient Christuinut (Paris, 
1740). Later issues are: The Discourses of Philoi- 
mmu, Bishop of Mabbogh A.D. 485-819, Ediiedfrom 
Syrhu Manuscripts . . . with an English Transla- 
tion by E. A. Watlis Budge, 2 vols. (London, 1SH4); 
Thru- Utters of PkUoxenia, Bishop of Mabbogh {486- 
SIB): being the Letter to the Monks, the first Letter 
to the Monks of Beth-Gougal, and the Letter to the 
Emjieror Zena . . . with an English Translation, 
an,l Ititrtolitctum, ... by A. A. Vaschalde (Rome, 
1902); the Letter of Mar Xinains of Mabug to Abra- 
ham and Orestes, in A. L. Frothinghum's Stephen 
bar Sudani (Leyden, 1SS0); and his Tractatus tret 
de trinitatc tl incamaiione, ed. A. Vaschalde. in 
CSCO, vol. xxvii., 1907. (G. KrCqeb.) 

BiBLloaHAPm: The early aourcoa are for the most part col- 
]pcti?d. nhalracinj. or uawl in J. H, Aasemani, BMiotAiea 
orientalii. i. L'tW, :il(l :i.W. 47.5, 470. ii. 10. 13, 17. 20. 
Con.ult further: W. Wrielir. Sliort Hi* of Surioc Lilrra- 
turf. pp. 72-76. London, 1894; idem. CMobaiM of Surioe 
MSN. in Mr British Jlfuwum, 3 purta. London. 1870-72; 
R. Duval, Hti. i>"Hl'-'fiir. "h:i\ei,KC rC titttrvirt d'Edctte, 
Pnrin, IK92; irlem. Iji LiUenUurt svriaque. il> 1000: E. 
Ter-MiaaMiaali, in TV, xivi <19Q4>: DCB, iv. 391-393. 

PHOCAS, SAINT: Christian martyr. He is said 
to have been a gardener at Sinope in Ponttts where 
he was famous for his lavish almsgiving and hos- 
pitality to strangers. He suffered martyrdom, as 
some hold, in the |*Tsecut. ion under Trajan (tt8- 
117); according to others, under Diocletian (284- 
305). fn the East he is the patron saint of mari- 
ners, who are accustomed to revere him with hymns, 
call upon him when in distress at sea, and share 
with him a part, of their prolils by giving them to 
the poor. A magnificent church Has erected to his 
honor at t 'oust ant inople l,y the emperor of the same 
name shortly before 610. The Phocas revered by 
Roman tradition as the bishop of Sinope must be 
the same person. Another Phocas must be a 
martyr of Antioch, a touch of the door of whose 

tomb, according to Gregory of Tout--, was a 
for serpent bites. (O. ZoCKLtaf) | 

Bibuoorapbt: The Aria, by Biahop AateriuB. at 
Sept.. vi. 393-290; in P. Combefia. Qroeo-LaL |<llUK,l nauum auOariiim. i. 189-182. Puis. 
L. Suriua, Vila lancttmtm. Sept., 22, 12 vol 
1617-18. The anoaymoua Uarlyrium 8. Pin 
H rpismpi Sinopt in Panto, is io ASB. July, i 
The Vita of Phocaa the martyr of Antioch la in A 
Mar.. I. 366-367, and in Suriua. ut sup.. Mar., S. " 
DCB. iv. 303-394. 

PHQvBADIUS, fi-be'di-trs (FCEGADIUS, 1 
DIUS:: Bishop of Aginnum, the modern J 
(73 m. s.e. of Bordeaux); d. after 392. ~ 
confuted the second Sirniian formula (see f 
ism, I., iii., § 6) in southern Gaul by means 
era orthodoxy, in his work Liber contra Ari 
the latter part of 357 or in 35S; MPL, xx. 
a work clear, animated, and occasiontilly ironical in 
argument and admirable and impressive in style. J 
The main thought is that if Christ is not God be a ( 
not real Son. Known after the beginning of tl 
sixteenth century is s tract, De fide orthodoxa ros- 
tra Arianos (MPL, xat. 31-50) with  
confession of faith, with which Phaebadius has been 
generally credited. At the Synod of Rinx 
Phaibadius obstinately defended orthodoxy, but . 
finally with -Servatio of Tongem was made to yield. 
These two bishops at a certain stage of the synod 
produced special formulas, " in which first Arius 
and all his unbelief are condemned, and secondly, 
the Son of God is not only pronounced to be equal 
with the Father but also without beginning." 
I'll, el.adius took part in the synods of Valence and 
Saragossa (380), and was still living in 392. 

(Edgar Hennecke.) 

Bibuogbafht: K. Schoncmiuin. Bibliotheca . . . patrun 
Lotinorum. i. 30B-312. Leipiic. 1792; Tulemout, Htm- 
oira, vi. 427-428; Gallia Christiana, ii (1720), 895-897; 
J. Drflaeke, in ZWT, 1890. pp. 78-98: F. W. F. Katten- 
buseh. Dan apottoliteht Symbol, i. 171-173, Leipaic, 1894: 
(Villier. Auieun lacrii. v. 372-377; DCB. ii. 647 (under 
" Fcegadiua "J. 

PHOTIHUS, fryti-nos: Bishop of Sirmium; b. 
in Ancyra in Galatia; d. in Galatia 376. He was a 
pupil of Marcellus of Ancyra and bishop of Sirmi um 
in Pannonia, near the modern Milrovicza. He first 
appears ut the Synod of Antioch in 344, where the 
Eastern Church condemned him and Marcellus. 
This judgment was approved by a Synod at Milan 
in 345, and Photinus was deprived of his bishopric 
by a Synod of Sirmium in 351. According to 
Epiphamus be appealed to the Emperor Constan- 
tius, was granted a hearing, and disputed with Basil 
of Ancyra before his judges. Socrates and Sozomen 
correctly refer this disputation to the Synod of 
Sirmium in .151, and stale that he was exiled. The 
Synod of Milan, 355, renewed the anathema. That 
he returned for a season appears from the friendly 
letter of Emperor Julian to hun and from the fact 
that Jerome knows liim to have been banished by 
Valentinian (364-375). His heresy obtained little 
influence in the East; but in the West, especially 
on the Balkan peninsula, Phot in ions continued for 
a longer period. They were known at Sirmium in 
381, and at the beginning of the fifth century a 
Photinian Marcus, driven from Rome, found refuge* 
in the diocese of Senia, Dalmatia. Augustine refers 



them frequently not as a sect but as persons in 
who think after the Photinian manner; i.e., 
who regard Christ as a mere man. 
Photinus was a dynamic monarchian (see Mon- 
im) who, without denying the virgin 
regarded the person of Christ as essentially 
and denied a hypostatic distinction of the 
from the Father and a hypostasis of the Spirit. 
attached himself to the Marcellian doctrine and 
, argumentation: " the Son is known simply accord- 
:iag to his appearance in the flesh " and Daniel (vii. 
>13) speaks " prophetically, not as of the Son exist- 
ing. w His most significant writings, according to 
were Contra genies and Libri ad Valen- 
Socrates knows of a book " Against All 
" and Rufinus of a tract on the symbol 
(MPL, xxL 336). (F. Loops.) 

BnwooRAPHT: The principal sources are Epiphanius, Hear., 
bad.; Hflaiy, Fragments 1-3, and De Trinitate, vii. 3-7; 
Socr a t es , Hist, ted., ii. 30, Eng. transl., NPNF, 2 ser., ii. 
44-45, 56-68; VigOius of Thapsus, MPL, lxii. 179 sqq., 
and MPL, xxxv. 2213-2214. These are mostly collected 
in If . de Larroque, Dissertatio duplex, Geneva, 1670. Con- 
sult, besides the literature under Arianism and Monarchi- 
imwm, especially that under Diodorus and Marcellus of 
Aneyra; DCB, iv. 394-395; C. R. W. Klose, GeschichU und 
Ltkn da MareeUus und Photinus, Hamburg, 1837; C. W. 
F. Waleh, Historie der Ketzereien, iii. 1-70, Leipsic, 1766; 
Fabrichxs-Harles, Bibliotheca Graca, be. 222-226, Ham- 
burg. 1804; Tillemont, Mhnoires, vol. vi.; Hefele, Concili- 
engesehichte, vols, i.-ii., Eng. transl., ii. 188-189, Fr. transl., 
voL i., passim; Hamack, Dogma, vols. i.-v. passim; 
Neander, Christian Church, vol. ii. passim. 

PHOTIUS, fo'shi-us. 

I. life. 

Early Life (5 1). 
First Patriarchate (5 2). 
Decisive Break with Rome (f 3). 
Years of Retirement (f 4). 
Second Patriarchate (5 5). 
II. Writings. 

Bibliotheca (5 1). 
AmphUochia (§ 2). 
Polemical Works (5 3). 
Other Writings (f 4). 
Editions (§ 5). 

Photius, twice patriarch of Constantinople in the 
ninth century, enjoys an almost unparalleled pre- 
eminence in both the Greek and the Russian Church 
of the present day. Though in his own time he had 
enemies, and though circumstances clouded his 
fame at Rome and at the Byzantine court, he took 
deep hold among his people from the first, and soon 
after his death his Church put his name in her calen- 
dar of saints. To judge his character is not easy. 
He was not the tyrant that his opponents repre- 
sented him to be, though he could be hard and 
domineering. He was crafty, double-tongued, and 
▼ain, but to be so lay in the character of his time 
and in the atmosphere of the Constantinople in 
which he lived. He was a sort of universal genius 
— phflologian, philosopher, theologian, jurist, mathe- 
matician, man of science, orator, and poet; no 
original thinker but of powerful memory, of iron 
industry, of good esthetic sense, of great dialectic 
skfll, far-seeing and clever in practical matters, of 
commanding will-power, a profound judge of men, 
and true in friendship, though also always exacting 
the return. His piety in its way was real. To him 
the Orthodox Church owes her understanding and 
appreciation of her distinction from the Latin. 

Proud already of her inheritance, Photius intensified 
and confirmed her self-consciousness, and gave her 
the pregnant catchwords which have never been 

L Life: Photius was born at Constantinople, 

probably between 815 and 820, and died in the 

Armenian monastery of Bordi Feb. 6, 897 or 898. 

He was of a family of quality, rigidly 

z. Early orthodox, and friendly to images. His 
Life. parents died early, " adorned with the 
martyr's crown," this probably mean- 
ing that, as friends of images, they were despoiled of 
their property and honors. It is known that they, 
with Photius, were excommunicated by an icono- 
clastic synod, but Photius himself appears never to 
have been in pecuniary straits. It is not possible to 
follow the course of his life closely before he became 
patriarch. When hardly more than a boy he began 
to give public lectures, first on grammar, then on 
philosophy and theology — an activity which was in- 
terrupted by an embassy " to the Assyrians/ ' men- 
tioned without further explanation in the preface 
to the Bibliotheca (see below, II., § 1); probably 
a visit to the court of the calif in Bagdad is meant. 
After the death of the Emperor Theophilus in 842, 
the Empress Theodora became regent for her young 
son, Michael III., called the Drunkard, assisted by 
her brother, Bardas, who from his sister's counselor 
speedily developed into her rival. Learning was 
now held in higher esteem than it had been by the 
preceding iconoclastic emperors, and Photius' rela- 
tions with the court became very intimate. He 
was first secretary of state and captain of the body- 
guard, and his brother Sergius was married to Irene, 
a younger sister of Theodora and Bardas. Photius 
himself was never married nor was he a monk. 
Bardas succeeded in entirely supplanting Theodora 
as regent, probably in 857, and, to nullify her influ- 
ence, which was feared by the young Michael as 
well as by his uncle, it was proposed to immure her 
in a convent. The Patriarch Ignatius, however (see 
Ignatius op Constantinople), was a partizan of 
Theodora and refused to lend himself to this plan, 
so that, on Nov. 23, 858 (or, according to others, 
857), Bardas deposed him and chose Photius for his 

Photius undoubtedly belonged to a powerful party 

antagonistic to Ignatius, which included Bardas 

and was led by a certain Gregorius Asbesta. He 

was not a cleric, but the elevation of a layman to 

the patriarch's chair was not unprece- 

2. First dented. On five successive days (Dec. 
Patriarch- 20-24, 858) Gregorius hurried the can- 
ate, didate through the five grades neces- 
sary for the 'assumption of the patri- 
archate, and on Christmas Day he was enthroned. 
Ignatius, however, did not retire quietly, in spite 
of the efforts of Bardas and Photius to make him 
yield, and he had a large following, the monks be- 
ing especially hostile to Photius. The ill-treatment 
of Ignatius and his friends was doubtless exagger- 
ated, and, so far as it really occurred, was due to 
Bardas rather than to Photius. Photius exerted 
himself to secure episcopal sees for his friends and 
accomplished Ignatius' deposition, in apparently 
canonical form, by a synod in 859. Ignatius went 




to Rome and sought aid from Pope Nicholas I. 
(q.v.)- At first Photius ignored this move, but ul- 
timately he sent a particularly impressive legation 
to Nicholas with a notification of his enthroniza- 
tion which completely concealed the real situation. 
A letter from the emperor went with it asking for 
recognition of Photius and requesting that legates 
be sent to a council in Constantinople to settle the 
few remaining problems connected with the icono- 
clastic disorders. At the same time Photius wrote 
to the Eastern patriarchs concealing the facts even 
more than in his letter to the pope and evidently 
wishing to secure recognition from them before the 
pope's legates should arrive in Constantinople. 
The council (called " first-second " — prima-secunda) 
met in May, 861, and from the very first the papal 
legates, Rodoald of Porto and Zacharias of Anagni, 
espoused Photius' side. Ignatius was very summa- 
rily treated and his deposition was confirmed, al- 
though he received more support from the assem- 
bled bishops than the emperor and Photius had 

Nicholas seems to have hoped that Photius would 
recognize the primacy of jurisdiction, which he had 
assumed from the first. But Photius had no such 
intention, however much he may have been will- 
ing to flatter. The pope proceeded slowly, but on 
Mar. 18, 862, he issued an encyclical to the Eastern 
bishops in which he disavowed the acts of his legates 
at the council and declared: " We do not consider 
Ignatius deposed nor do we recognize Photius as in 
episcopal orders." He wrote to the emperor and 
to Photius to the same effect, and a year later (Apr., 
863), when it had become evident that writing ac- 
complished nothing, he had his judgment confirmed 
by a synod in Rome and threatened Photius and 
his adherents with excommunication. Meanwhile 
Photius found unexpected support from certain 
Western bishops who had fallen out with Nicholas 
over the divorce of Lothair II. (see Nicholas I). 
He drew up a reply from the emperor to the pope 
in which he adopted a very lofty tone, even ad- 
dressing Nicholas as the emperor's subject. The 
document is lost, though its tenor is evident from 
certain letters of Nicholas. The pope answered 
with spirit, but he failed to measure public opinion 
in Constantinople. The new Rome looked down 
with scorn on the old and its " barbarians' tongue," 
and Photius all his life disdained to learn Latin (see 
below, II., § 1). Constantinople regarded the con- 
nection of the papacy with the Carolingian empire 
as a manifestation of revolt. There was a firm de- 
termination to insist that the pope should at least 
respect ecclesiastical boundaries, and feeling on this 
point was excited at the time by the case of the Bul- 
garians, who, converted by eastern missionaries and 
placed under the jurisdiction of the ecumenical pa- 
triarch by the Council of Chalcedon, were showing 
some disposition to go over to Rome (see Bul- 
garians, Conversion of the). Photius, appar- 
ently in 865, addressed a long letter to the newly 
converted Bulgarian Bogoris; but the latter, doubt- 
less for political reasons, turned to the pope, who 
sent two legates and a number of priests, as well as 
a voluminous pastoral epistle to the prince. At the 
same time Nicholas sent three messengers with no 

less than eight letters addressed to the emperor, 
Bardas, Photius, and all concerned, even the sena- 
tors of Constantinople, requiring the execution of 
his judgment. The emperor, however, turned tin 
pope's envoys back at the border, and the Letten 
were not delivered. 

Photius now executed the master stroke whiek 
really separated East and West. As the pope had 
attacked the validity of his ordination and position, 
so he called in question the pope's own position, de- 
claring the pontiff to be a patron of heresy. The 
encyclical to the patriarchs of the East in whiek 
Photius made the charge and sought to prove it Ii 
rightly regarded as the magnacharta of 
3. Decisive the Orient in all its subsequent attitude 
Break with and conduct toward the Occident 
Rome. Leaving personal matters quite out of 
account, and not hinting at the rela- 
tions between Nicholas and himself, Photius spoke 
only of the danger which threatened from Rome, 
making the sending of Roman priests to the Bul- 
garians his starting-point and ending with an attack 
on the Filioque (see Filioque Controversy), con- 
cerning which he wrote a minute theological discus- 
sion with fourteen arguments against the doctrine 
of double procession. He wished to hold a synod 
in Constantinople to counteract the work of the 
West, and it actually met in the summer of 867. 
The acts are lost, but Photius secured the decrees 
which he wished, and he then allowed his personal 
resentment to appear when he retaliated for his own 
excommunication by Nicholas with anathemati- 
zing the pope. He seems even to have attempted 
to exalt the new Rome over the old and to have 
thought of claiming the primacy for Constantinople. 

Photius' triumph was short-lived. Bardas had 

been murdered in 866, and Basil the Macedonian 

had succeeded him as joint ruler with Michael. In 

Sept., 867, Basil had Michael murdered 

4. Years and became sole ruler. He thought it 

of Retire- would strengthen his position if Ig- 
ment natius were restored. Accordingly, 
Photius was expelled from his palace a 
few days after Basil's accession, and on the anni- 
versary of his deposition, Nov. 23, 867, Ignatius was 
reenthroned, ten days after the death of Nicholas I. 
Basil deemed a break with the West inopportune, 
and, after negotiating for a year with Rome, he 
called a council (the Fourth Constantinople, Oct 
5, 869-Feb. 28, 870; the eighth general council of 
the West) which brought about the full restitution 
of Ignatius, at the same time officially deposing and 
condemning Photius. It was dominated by the 
Pope Adrian II. (q.v.), but his triumph was more 
apparent than real. In the West this council is re- 
garded as the settlement of the controversy over 
images; but Photius could claim with reason that 
he had finally allayed this strife by the council of 
861; and when the papal legates at the council de- 
manded recognition of the claims of Rome concern- 
ing the Bulgarians, the Orientals protested in words 
which showed how the alliance of the pope with the 
West rather than with the East burned in all Greek 

Photius lived at Stenos, on the European side of 
the Bosphorus, under strict surveillance and de- 




prived of his books. Direct association with his 
friends was forbidden, but he was allowed to corre- 
wpood with them freely. His following among the 
clergy was so great that at first scarcely twenty 
bishops appeared at the council which condemned 
kirn, and, in spite of the strenuous exertions of his 
enemies, only a little over 100 were present at the 
final session. Harsh measures against his adherents 
Bade it easy for him to organize a sort of antihier- 
archy, and he well knew how to hold his party to- 
gether and to animate all with his own unyielding 
spirit, which steadily refused to hear of compro- 
mise. Gregorius Asbesta and a whole company of in- 
fluential metropolitans stood by him faithfully. At 
the same time he carefully refrained from attacking 
the emperor in all that he wrote, and the time came 
when he could move more freely. His requests for 
favor to his friends were listened to, the emperor 
even consulted him on theological questions, and 
finally (probably in 876) he was recalled to Constan- 
tinople as tutor to the princes royal. It was evi- 
dent that after the imminent death of Ignatius, 
Photius would again ascend his throne. 

Ignatius died Oct. 23, 878 (according to others, 

877), and three days later Photius was installed in 

his place. The relations between Photius and Basil 

were thenceforth of the best. Basil asked Pope 

John VIII. (q.v.) to recognize the re- 

S Second instated patriarch, and this time the 
Patriarch- pope, needing imperial support for his 
ate. schemes in Italy, showed a disposition 
to comply. He declared Photius' first 
elevation illegal, however, criticized the second be- 
cause it had taken place without his knowledge, 
and stipulated that Photius should ask pardon be- 
fore a synod. This was not at all to Photius' mind, 
and he accordingly contrived that a council should 
meet in Constantinople (the " Synod of St. Sophia/' 
Nov., 879-Jan. 26, 880, the eighth general council 
of the East), attended by three times as many bish- 
ops as the council of 869. From this he obtained all 
that he desired, and the acts read as though the papal 
legates did not fully comprehend what they were 
doing. Photius was very amiable and apparently 
submissive to " his beloved brother," John, but he 
obscured the full meaning of his demands, and, re- 
maining in the background himself, spoke in the 
council through others. The emperor kept away 
from the council; but after it was officially closed, 
he presided, at the instance of Photius, over two 
supplementary assemblies, at the first of which 
those present, including the papal legates, declared 
their adherence to the old creed. In the second 
Photius had one of the bishops deliver an address 
which in no veiled terms put him above the pope. 
Later, for political reasons, John rather outbid 
his legates than disavowed them. 

Photius was now at the zenith of his power and 
glory, but relations with Rome soon became strained 
again. In 882 John VIII. was succeeded by Mari- 
nas I., the first pope who had previously been bishop 
of a non-Roman see and who had not been chosen 
directly from the Roman clergy. That he himself 
bad made many translations did not deter Photius 
from using this technical irregularity against his 
Roman rival. Though his pontificate was too brief 

for any real results, Marinus renewed the ban against 
Photius, whereupon the latter stirred up afresh the 
strife over the procession of the Holy Spirit (see be- 
low, II., § 3). On Aug. 29, 886, the Emperor Basil 
died unexpectedly. His successor, Leo VI., had 
been Photius 1 pupil and originally was devoted to 
him, though for unknown, reasons he had been the 
patriarch's bitter enemy since 880. Like Basil at 
his accession, Leo determined to be rid of Photius. 
He was ruthlessly deprived of his office and was ban- 
ished to the monastery of Bordi in Armenia, where 
he lived probably a full decade or more. With 
his second downfall, however, Photius disappears 
from history. 

It should be noted that Photius' contest with the 
popes did not absorb all his powers. He always 
found time for learning and art. He promoted mis- 
sions to the Bulgarians and Russians; he sought re- 
lations with the Saracen princes, primarily for the 
good of the Christians under their rule and because 
of the holy places in Palestine; and he watched and 
endeavored to convert the Paulicians and other 
heretics both within and without the empire. 
Though some of his acts may be criticized, he had 
a lofty concept of his duty both as " watchman " 
against the West and as supreme shepherd of the 
East, and he performed it with zeal and energy. 
The Greeks are right when they reckon him among 
the foremost of all their spiritual leaders. 

H. Writings: Measured by the standard of his 
time, Photius ranks very high as scholar; in the 
ninth century he is a phenomenon of learning and 
good judgment. Even when measured by a more 
exacting standard, he is still far from contemptible; 
his books were literary treasure-houses 
i. Biblio- for the later dark ages of his people and 
theca. have their value even now. The best- 
known and most important for the 
present time is that commonly called the Biblio- 
theca or Myriobiblon, which presents summary ac- 
counts (cited as " codices ") of 280 books read and 
studied by Photius, put together without apparent 
plan of arrangement and varying much in length 
and method of treatment. Some codices are mere 
brief synopses of contents; others contain excerpts, 
which steadily grow longer as the work proceeds; 
and some include critical remarks, which also vary 
from superficial opinions to carefully weighed and 
exact judgments. Possibly the book epitomizes 
Photius 1 academic lectures or gives specimens from 
them. It purports to have been written at the re- 
quest of " our dear brother, Tarasius," who asked 
Photius, when he was preparing for his journey 
" to the Assyrians " (see above, I., § 1), to leave 
behind on his departure a description of books which 
he had read with his scholars at times when Tara- 
sius could not be present. In its present form the 
work can hardly have been composed under such 
conditions; perhaps it originated as indicated at 
Tarasius' request and was elaborated later. It 
takes account of both heathen and Christian wri- 
ters, and includes not a few works which are now 
lost. Historians, theologians, philosophers, gram- 
marians, physicists, as well as acts of councils, mar- 
tyrs, and saints, are reviewed. The rhetoricians 
appear to have been particularly interesting to Pho- 




tius. Of theologians the dogmaticians proper are 
preferred. The poets hardly appear, and the great 
philosophers of ancient Greece are scarcely men- 
tioned, perhaps from an evident intention to treat 
only less-known works. Thucydides, Polybius, Plu- 
tarch, and writers like Hippocrates and Pausanias 
are also left out of account, and the more famous 
theologians are treated briefly. Athanasius, Chrys- 
ostom, Gregory Nazianzen, and Basil are often 
mentioned, but only their rarer works receive ex- 
tended notice. The summaries are often excellent, 
and Photius' remarks on the style of his authors 
show good and cultivated taste. For his biograph- 
ical notices he used an abridgment of a work of 
Hesychius of Miletus. Latin writers he knew only 
in translation. 

The Amphilochia is so called because it is dedi- 
cated to Amphilochius of Cyzicus, one of the truest 
friends and oldest disciples of Photius, who had 
propounded certain questions to his teacher and 
who is often mentioned in the work. It consists of 
a series of questions and answers (300 

2. Amphi- in number according to the prologue; 
lochia, in existing manuscripts and editions 

the number is greater and variable, 
and the order is not the same), chiefly relating to 
Biblical topics, but including some which belong to 
dogmatics and philosophy and some which hardly 
appertain to theology at all. The Bible questions 
generally relate to passages which appear to be con- 
tradictory, the so-called enantiophanies of Scripture, 
and some of the answers are merely exegetical ex- 
positions. Many passages are treated more than 
once. As in the Bibliotheca, the answers vary 
greatly in length, some being mere notes, others al- 
most treatises, and there is no apparent plan. Most 
of the answers evidently belong to the time of the 
first exile of Photius, and may have been commu- 
nicated by letter. It is possible that Photius col- 
lected them later, and probably the work was 
expanded with time. The author shows little orig- 
inality, excerpting whole sections from Chrysos- 
tom, Polychronius, Germanus of Constantinople, 
John of Damascus, and others, and elsewhere being 
dependent on Athanasius, Basil, Gregory Nazian- 
zen, Dionysius the Areopagite, Maximus Confessor, 
and others without directly copying them. In no 
less than thirty-two passages he repeats Theodoret 
almost verbally. The long, minute, and keen first 
answer addressed to Amphilochius may, however, 
be original. 

The best-known of Photius' polemical works is the 
" Treatise on the Mystagogy of the Holy Spirit, ,, 
written against the Filioque. It was an incident of 
the renewed strife with Rome begun by Marinus (see 
above, I., § 5) and belongs to the years 885 or 886. 

It is throughout an independent prod- 

3. Polem- uct of Photius. It was he who gave 
ical Works, the doctrine of the procession of the 

Holy Spirit the sharp and precise defi- 
nition which it ever afterward had in dogmatics. 
It is significant that the doctrine is not mentioned 
in the Amphilochia; it had no immediate interest 
for Photius, and only the need of points of attack 
upon the West led him to elaborate it. After a brief 
introduction he fixes on John xv. 26, as the locus 

cUusicus of the doctrine, where Christ says that 
the Spirit proceeds " from the Father." To add 
that he proceeds also from the Son is held to lead 
to absurdities; it makes the Spirit a " product of 
the Son," and it destroys the unity of the three 
Persons of the Trinity (iii., iv.). The latter argu- 
ment remained the leading one of all Eastern po- 
lemics against the West in the Filioque controversy. 
The consequences of the addition are further con- 
sidered in chaps, vi.-xix., xxxi.-xlvii., and bri.-briv. 
Such passages as John xvi. 14 and Gal. iv. 6 are 
declared to be invalid arguments against the posi- 
tion of Photius (xx.-xxx., xlviii.-ix., xc.-xciv.). 
In chap. v. he asserts that the Fathers and councils 
are unanimous against the addition; and in chaps, 
lxv.-lxxxix. he examines the utterances of such 
western authorities as Ambrose, Augustine, and 
Jerome, and the popes from Damasus to Adrian 
III., and maintains that they support the conten- 
tion of the East. The " Dissertation on the (New) 
Sprouting of the Manicheans " is a work against 
the Paulicians (q.v.). It consists of four books, of 
which the first gives a historical account of the 
Paulicians as New Manicheans, and the remainder 
a dogmatic and Biblical refutation of their doc- 
trines. Books ii.-iv. do not fully accord with the 
plan as laid down in book i., and it has been sug- 
gested that they are a working-over of twelve lec- 
tures against the Manicheans. The fourth book ap- 
pears to be an independent work and later than ii. 
and iii. If genuine, it probably belongs to the time 
of the first exile, since in it the author complains of 
being deprived of his books. The first book is 
closely related to the Historia ManichfBorum as- 
cribed to Petrus Siculus (MPG, civ. 1240 sqq.). 
The " Precise Conclusions and Proofs," in the form 
of questions and answers, furnishes a compendium 
of historical documents (acts of synods, etc.) re- 
lating to metropolitans, bishops, and the like; and 
it has been held that Photius wrote it as an indirect 
defense of his elevation and his opposition to Rome, 
as well as a refutation of the arguments advanced 
by his opponents against his legitimacy. 

Hergenrdther knew of twenty-two addresses by 
Photius, of which only two were printed (MPG, 
cii. 548 sqq.). Eighty-three " addresses and homi- 
lies" are now offered by Aristarches (see below, 
§ 5), but the greater number of these are composi- 
tions of the editor rather than of Photius. No 
doubt Photius 1 works contain passages 
4. Other which were originally parts of spoken 
Writings, discourses; but it may well be ques- 
tioned whether it is possible to select 
these fragments and put them together so as prop- 
erly to reproduce the original addresses. At the 
same time, the collection offers some important 
inedita which are attested by manuscript evidence 
as real specimens of Photius' homiletic manner and 
skill. In general his thought follows the old and 
familiar channels of his Church. He is fluent and 
figurative, soars not seldom in a real flight, but more 
often shows mere floridity and phrasing. Photius 1 
letters are the most important source for his char- 
acter and type of thought. Migne arranges them in 
three books: political letters to popes, patriarchs, 
bishops, emperors, and other princes (24 numbers); 






private letters to bishops, clerics, monks, etc., 
mostly letters of encouragement, recommendation, 
admonition, and the like (102 numbers, many of 
them very short) ; and letters to laymen, especially 
high officials (67 numbers). Valettas (see below, 
i 5) gives a larger number disposed in five books: 

dogmatic and hermeneutic letters " (84 numbers) ; 

parenetic letters 11 (57 numbers); "consolatory 
letters " (15 numbers); " letters of censure " (64 
numbers); and " miscellaneous letters " (40 num- 
bers, mostly brief friendly notes). 

Photins' other writings include: Bible commen- 
taries, of which only fragments are preserved (cf. 
MPG, ci. 1189-1253). A lexicon intended as a help 
to the understanding of authors whose diction was 
no longer current in the ninth century; it shows 
little originality and perhaps belongs to Photius' 
youth; probably he had help in composing it. 
Poems, of which three odes on Basil and a hymn of 
nine odes on Christ are known (the former in MPG, 
cii. 577 sqq., the latter in the Ekklesiastike Aletheia, 
Constantinople, 1895). An " Exhortation by Means 
of Proverbs " is published by J. Hergenrdther in his 
MonumerUa Groeca ad Photium ejusque historian 
pertinenHa (Regensburg, 1869, pp. 20-52), as well 
as some fragments of philosophical writings (pp. 12 
sqq.) and a not uninteresting extract from a work 
"On the Holy Liturgy" (pp. 11-12). For lost 
works of Photius (against the Emperor Julian, 
against Leontius of Antioch, and probably also a 
study on contradictions in the Roman codes) cf. 
Krumbacher, GescJtichte, p. 522. 

Photius was not the author of the Nomocanon, 
the standard law-book of the Eastern Church (see 
Nomocanonb). It is older than his time, though 
it was supplemented during his patriarchate (in 883, 
according to the preface), and his councils of 861 
and 879 had a part in this work. Whether Photius 
himself prepared the new edition is uncertain; but 
it is at least evident that he had a good knowledge 
of canon law, for some of his letters expound legal 
points in an illuminating manner. The canons of 
his councils were certainly Photius 1 work, and the 
Bibliotheca proves his acquaintance with the legal 

Photius' writings are collected in AfPO, ci.-civ. The 
last two volumes contain the Bibliotheca, the text being that 
of Immanuel Bekker (2 vols., Berlin, 1824). Migne's text 

of the AmphUochia (vol. ci.) was furnished 
5. Editions, by Bishop Jean Baptist* Malou, with the 

help of Hergenrdther, from a Vatican manu- 
script and without knowledge of the manuscript of Mt. 
Athos, which is the basis of the more valuable edition pub- 
lfchedby Constantinus (Economus (Athens, 1858). The 
"llystagogy of the Holy Spirit" was first edited by 
Hergenrdther (Regensburg, 1857); his text is reprinted 
with copious notes in Migne (cii.). The " Dissertation 
on the Manicheans " was first published in complete 
form (four books) by Johann Christoph Wolff in his 
Aneedota Groxa, i.-ii (Hamburg, 1722), whence it was 
reprinted by Migne (cii. pp. 15 sqq.). The work referred 
to above as " Precise Conclusions and Proofs " is given by 
Migne (civ. 1219 sqq.) under the title " Ten Questions and 
Answers." The most complete collection of Photius' ad- 
dresses and sermons (or of what purport to be such; see 
above, II., f 4) is S. Aristarches' " Eighty-three Addresses 
and Homilies of Photius " (2 vols., Constantinople, 1900). 
The letters (reprinted from older works) are in M PL, cii., 
as well as in the much better and more complete edition by 
Johannes Valettas, " Letters of Photius" (London, 1864); 
as supplements, Valettas prints the " Ten Questions and 


Answers " mentioned above and a similar " Five Questions 
and Answers." A. Papadopoulos-Kerameus has attempted 
to supplement Valettas in his Sancti Patriarchs Phoiii epis- 
tola xlv. (St. Petersburg. 1896), though in his Photiaka 
(1897) he states that only the first twenty-one letters really 
belong to Photius, the others being properly ascribed to 
Isidore of Pelusium. The best edition of the lexicon is by 
8. A. Naber (2 vols., Leyden, 1864-65). Certain fragments 
and treatises of lesser moment are published in J. Hergen- 
rdther, MonumerUa gratca ad Photium ejusqe historiam per- 
tinentia (Regensburg, 1869), and in A. Papadopoulos-Kera- 
meus, MonumerUa groica et latina ad historiam Photii patri- 
archal pertinentia (2 parts, St. Petersburg, 1899-1901). 
The writing " On the Franks and the Other Latins," printed 
by Hergenrdther in the first of these collections (pp. 62 
sqq.), is shown in his Photius (iii. 172 sqq.) to be spurious; 
it is probably subsequent to the time of Michael Caerularius. 
For the Scripta canonica (including the Nomocanon), cf. 
MPG, cv. (p Kattenbusch.) 

Bibliography: The most accessible compend of epistolary 
and conciliar sources is Mansi, Concilia, xv. 159 sqq., xvi. 
1 sqq., 209 sqq., 295 sqq., 413 sqq., 425 sqq., xvii. 365 
sqq.; to this may be added the material in MPG, cv. 
509 sqq., cviii. 1037 sqq., cix. 155 sqq., 663 sqq., 985 sqq. 
The work of first rank is J. Hergenrdther, Photius, sein 
Leben, seine Schriften, una doe griechische Schisma, 3 vols., 
Regensburg, 1867-69. Exceedingly useful is Krum- 
bacher, Geschichte, 73 sqq., 515 sqq., 971 sqq., where an 
excellent list of literature is found, including a very full 
statement of editions of the works. Consult further: 
Fabricius-Harles, Bibliotheca Or oca, x. 670 sqq., xi. 1 
sqq., Hamburg. 1807-08; J. N. Jager, Histoire de Pho- 
tius, Paris, 1854; L. Tosti, Storia delV origine dello edema 
greco, 2 vols., Florence, 1856; H. Lammer, Papet Nikolaue 
und die byzantinieche Staatekirche seiner Zeit, Berlin, 1857; 
A. Pichler, Oeechichte der kirchliche Trennung zwiechen 
dem Orient und Occident, i. 180 sqq., Munich, 1864; R. 
Baxmann, Die Politik der Pdpste von Oregor I. bis auf 
Oregor VII., ii. 1 sqq., Elberfeld, 1869; A. F. Gfrorer, 
Byzantinieche Geschichten, vols, ii.— iii.. Gras, 1873; B. 
Jungmann, Diseertationes select a, iii. 319-442, Regensburg, 
1882; A. Gasquet, V Empire byzantin et la monarchie 
franque, pp. 348-372, Paris, 1888; G. Bernhardy, Grund- 
riee der griechischen Litteratur, vol. i., Halle, 1892; F. W. 
F. Kattenbusch, Vergleichende Konfessionskunde, i. 118 
sqq., Freiburg* 1892; A. H. Hore, Eighteen Centuries of 
the Orthodox Greek Church, 365-369. 376-383, London, 1899; 
idem, Students Hist, of the Greek Church, ib. 1902; W. F. 
Adeney, The Greek and Eastern Churches, pp. 209, 235 
sqq., 279-280, New York, 1908; Ceillier, Auteurs eacres, 
xii. 719-734; Schaff. Christian Church, iv. 636-642; 
Neander, Christian Church, iii. 561-578 et passim; Har- 
nack. Dogma, vols, ii.-v.; the literature under the arti- 
cles on Popes John VIII., Martin II., Adrian III., Stephen 
V. and VI., and Formosus II., also contain matter that is* 
pertinent; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, vol. iv.; KL, ix. 
2082 sqq. 

PHRYGIA, frij'i-a: A region of fluctuating 
boundaries occupying the central portion of Asia 
Minor. At the beginning of the Christian era the 
name had merely an ethnological and no geograph- 
ical significance. There was no Roman province of 
the name Phrygia until the fourth century. In the 
northern part were the cities of Ancyra, Gordician, 
Doryleum; in the southern, Colossse, Hierapolis, 
Laodicea. The region is of great importance for 
the history of religion after about 200 B.C., the 
cults of the West imported from the East receiving 
a profound impress from the primitive usages still 
current in Phrygia. Especially is this the case 
with the mysteries so strongly renascent in tht 
century before the Christian era. See Asia Minob. 

PHUT. See Table op the Nations, § 6. 

PHYLACTERY. See Tepillin. 




PIARISTS, pai'a-rists: A Roman Catholic order 
of men having as its aim the giving of free juvenile 
instruction es[>eei:illy to poor hoys. The members 
are variously known hy other names, such as Piar- 
ians, Srolopians, and Paulinists. Their beginning 
-was an independent brotherhood founded at Rome 
in 1507 by the Spanish nobleman Jose 1 Calasanze; 
they received their constitution as a congregation 
for their present function in 1617, and were pro- 
moted to an order by Gregory XV. in ItiJl, with 
the title, io l J ni]lirLii clericonim rejrulariiim 
pauperum matris I li-i solmlnruru piarum. The order 
ranks second in importance as a religious brother- 
hood for the instruction of boys. 

Jose' Calasanze (Josephus a Mat re. Dei) was born in 
the Castle, t'alasunze near Petralta de la Sal in Ara- 
gon Sept. 1 1, 1556; arid died at. Home A up. 2~>, I 01 S. 
He studied law at Leridu and theology at Alcala 
and became a priest in 1583. Tn 1592 he went to 
Home, win-re us n strict, arfetie and a member of 
four religious brotherhoods lie dovotfd himself it, 
the care of the sick and the instruction of youth. 
In 1012, the number of scholars was 1,200. Soon 
n into popular and higher schoola waa re- 
quired; in 11)31) (.'alasanze established tin; Nazarene 
College at Rome for noble youths; and in Hi.'J'J 
Pope Urban VIII. made him general for life. The 
order extended its work from Italy, so that nfter 
11)31 it had spread over Germany, Poland, Hungary, 
and other lands; but ou account of its ped.igoeicid 
rewnlls ii aroused the jealousy of the Jesuits, ■, .- 1 j i i  1 1 
led to C'alaaanze's downfall. In 1646 the order was 
reduced to a secular brotherhood without vows. 
Alexander VII. restored it in 1660 to a congrega- 
tion, yet without its fourth vow; Clement IX. 
granted this in 1069, and raised it to a formal order; 
and Innocent XII. in 1098 restored its mendicant 
pin ilecL-s. Calasan/e was canonized by Clement 
XIII. in 1767. The order, distributed in nine prov- 
inces, consisrs of 121 houses and 2,11X1 members and 
is strongest in Spain. {O. ZQCKUBf.) 

BlBUooturiiTi Among the skeUhca of the life of the 
founder mav he nnmeii thoM by J. Timon-Daviil. 2 vol".. 
HsneQln, 1884 (best): A. dell* Concrttjnrir. Itnim-, Hint: 
F. J. Lipowoky, Munich. 1720: W. E. Hubert. Main*. 
1S80; N. Tijtmnaseo. Rome. ISM) D. M. Casaanovns y 
Sani, Snragosna. 1804; and J. C. Hculciirrirh. Vienna, 
1907. For tho Constitution a consult L. Holnttn, Ciuln 

nieh un^nof^ch icktr. 

■Viu-.Imh-it. 17V.-. C ill-'.i 

enealuatcn. iii. 2S7-20B: L. Kellnc 

tn Skizien und Bildern, i. 327 »qq., timon, Vim); H. 
Z. r fi'.t.k'.. in'.. t'xot'viache atudien der kaViotitrl,m /vir.'ir 
in Outerreich, Vienna. 1804: A. Brtn.ller, D,i. Wirkm 
der . . . Piarirten. Vienna, 1806: F. Endl, in Mitlhril- 
itngen der GttrAicht? fur d'-uUrr"- ErrirfiunffB- und Schul- 
auKhiehtr. VIII,, 117 aqq., Helyot, Ordre, moruutitfrct, iy. 
281-282; KL, a. 20-flfi aqq. 

PI-BESETH, pi-be'seth: An Egyptian city men- 
tioned in Ezek. kxx. 17, together with Aven (On); 
called by the Greeks (and the Beptuaginl) Boulias- 
tos, or, more rarely, Boubastist. It was situated in 
the Delta on the right bank of the eastern arm of 
the Nile. The Hebrew name represents the K<rvp- 
tian 1 V r- Baste (t), " House of Bast," the local god- 
dess who was represented aa a eat or as a woman 
with :i feline head. The real name of the city was 
Bast, from which the name of the goddess was de- 
rived. Pi-beeetb. waa the residence of the Lybian 

kings of the Twenty-second Dynasty, including 
Shisbak; and in Christian times was an episcopal 
see-city. The extensive ruins of its temples are at 

Tell Basta, near the modern Zakazik. 

(G. Steindohff.) 

BiBLioQHiPHY : The Eighth Memoir [for 1889-00) of the 
Earpr EiPLDUTiaN Fund (q.v.); the literature under 
Lbontofous, and part of that (on exploration and dis- 
covery) under Eotpt. 

PICABDS (PICKAHDS): A corruption of " Bcg- 
hards " (see Beoharbb, Beguines), applied as a 
term of reproach to the Bohemian Brethren {q.v., 
I., S 4), 

PICE, BERHARD: Lutheran; b. at Kempen 
(27 m. s.s.w. of Esaen), Prussia, Dec. 19, 1842. He 
was educated at the utiivcn-ii ie.s of and Ber- 
lin, and at Union Theological Seminary, from which 
he was graduated in 1868. He was then pastor at 
New York City (1868-09), North Buffalo, N. Y. 
[186B-TO), Syracuse, N. Y. (1870-74), Rochester, 
N. Y. (1874-81), Allegehany, Pa. (1881-95), Albany, 
N. Y. (1895-1901). Since 1905 he has occupied a 
pastorate in Newark, N. J. He has translated F. 
lielii/seh's Jewish Artisan Life in the Time of Christ 
(New York, 1883) and H. Cremer's Essence of Chris- 
tianity (1903); has edited Luther's "Bine Feste 
Burg" in Nineteen Languages (New York, 1SS3); 
and has written Luther as a Hymnisl (Philm k'liihin, 
1875); Judisches Volkslebcn tar Zeit Jesu (Roches- 
ter, N. Y., 1880); Historical Sketch of the Jew 
since the Destruction of Jerusalem (New York, l*s7j; 
The Life of Jesus according to extra-canonical Source* 
(1887); The Talmud, what it is, and what it knows* 
about Jesus and his Followers (1888); Historical 
Sketck of the Jews since their Return from Babylon 
(Chicago, 1892); Vadc Mccum HomUeticwn, i. 
(aeons, Pa., 1899); The Extra-canonical Life of 
Christ (New York, 1903); Extra-canonical New 
Testament Writings of tlie First 7W Centuries (1905); 
Lyra Gerhardti: A Selection of Paul Gerkardt'a 
Spiritual Songs (Burlington, la., 1900); Hymns 
and Poetry of the Eastern Church (1908); Para- 
lipmncna: Remains of Gospels anil Sayings of Christ 
(1908); and The Apocryphal Acts (Chicago, 1909). 

PICK, ISRAEL: Founder of the Amenian Con- 
gregation; b. about 1880. Baptized as a Christian 
at llresUui in 1854, he professed that by so doing 
he did not renounce his Judaism, but became a Jew 
in the truest sense. AH the law and ordinances of 
the (.'Id Testament were included with the Chris- 
tian sacraments as the ordinances of the new con- 
jrretpitiou f unruled hy him, which lie styled Amenian 
because in Christ (Elohim-amen; Isa. lxv. 16) all 
the promises of God are yea and amen (II Cor. i. 
20). He gathered about 800 adherents, mainly at 
Munchen-Gladbach. In 1859 he went to the Holy 
Land in search of a place of settlement for his fol- 
lowers and was never heard of again. His principal 
literary work was Der Gott der Synagoge und der 
Gott der J udenchristen (Breslau, 1854). 

(O. ZOcKLBHt.) 
Biduoohaprt: Consult Pick's Brirfe an meine Stamma- 
ffciuiiirn. Hamhunj, 1S54; Holleotierg. in DeuUrAc Zril 
schrift fur diritaicht Wuttntchaft und chrittlicha Ltbm, 
18o7, nog. 8-S; J. B. Jonj, Qnchid-U da t\ «HHiMftitUI 
in triner neuatm Enlurictulung, ii. 2D-I-300, Froiburg, 1SS7. 


PICKETT, JAMES: Primitive Methodist; b. 
it Berwick Baasett (27 m. n. of Salisbury), 
England, Dec. 19, 1853. He received his educa- 
tion at Wootwn Bassett, Wiltshire; was in busi- 
M in London, 1870-76; entered the Primitive 
Methodist ministry, and served at Bognor, 1876- 
!»; Southwark, 1878-81; Forest Hill, 1881-85; 
Lacester, 1885-97; and at Hull, 1891-1903; De- 
fame general missionary secretary in 1903; and was 
dieted president of the conference of his denomi- 
I nation, 1908. 

PICO DELLA MTRAHDOLA, pi'co del'lo mi"ron- 
do"fa, GIOVANNI: Italian philosopher; b. at 
Mirandola Feb. 24, 1463; d. at Florence Nov. 17, 
HW. He studied at the University of Bologna 
(1477-7!<i, and then visited the principal univer- 
stir* of Europe, pursuing the studies of philosophy 
and ™l'|j learning as a means to this end He- 
brew, Aramaic, and Arabic. In this arduous course 
of di.i ; [>lhie he became a follower of Mnrsilio Ficino, 
and their common aim was to demonstrate the fun- 
damental agreement of heathen philosophers with 
eacli other and with Christian scholasticism and 
myMi i.m. The root idea of this propaganda was 
that all truth is one and all science is one. Yet the 
sub-tincture of Pico's system was derived from the 
Cabala. In 1487 he went to Rome where he pro- 
posed to hold a disputation covering the domain 
of knowledge, to which he invited the loading 
achtilars as participants. As the themes of the dis- 
cusfrioi) he issued 900 theses " in dialectics, morals, 
physics, mathematics, metaphysics, theology, magic, 
and cabalism." In publishing these he declared 
that he did not intend to defend anytliini; regarded 
by the Church or its head as untrue or improbable. 
But the theologians declared some of the theses 
heretical at least in tendency, and the pope (Inno- 
cent VIII.) prohibited the disputation. Pico com- 
posed an apology, and went to France. He was 
later, through the intervention of Lorenzo de' 
Medici, permitted to return to Italy, and took up 
bis residence near Florence, a member of I lie brilliant 
circle which gathered about Lorenzo. In 1403 a 
brief of the new pope, Alexander VI., relieved him 
<rf the taint of heresy. The humiliation suffered 
through the interdiction of the disputation led his 
tboii^iii> Inward celibacy, and when he died hr had 

been en me in plat tug reiiftiuei.i I" a nxsitast#r\, mil 
for this he prepared by ascetic practises. He trans- 
ferred his estates to his nephew, Giovanni Fran- 
cesco, and bestowed his personal property on the 

BtMuoaatrai ; Pico's Opera were published. 2 parts. Vpnire, 


,. IJ57: 

nclu'lims the works of his nephew, 2 vols., Basel, 1572- 
1573. sad (bat) 1601. His EpiMela were very often ed- 
ited sad published, e.g.. Puis. 1500, 1520; Cologne, 1518. 
On his life and work consult: G. DreydoriF, Dai Si/ttrm 
dee JoAann Pico, Orafrn von Mirnndula und Concordia, 
Hjrbunj. 1B6SI W. H. PwtOt Stadia! in Ihe Hitt. of the 
fLenaiunntf, London, 1873; Pastor, Poors, v, 151, 154. 
M2-344, 389; Creighton. Papacy. W. 164-166. 173; KL, 
viiL 1549-55. The life by his nephew, with three of big 
letters, his " Interpn-lnrion ol P=. tut" his " Twelve Rales 
of  Christian Life." " Twelve Points of  Perfect Lover." 
sad hit " Hymn to God," ttanst. into Bug, from the Latin 
of Sir Thomas Mora, cd. J. M. Rigs, appeared London, 

gregation oE the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary): 
A Roman Catholic congregation founded at Paris 
in 1805. The founder, Pierre Marie Joseph Coudrin 
(b. 1768; d. Mar. 27, 1837) was led to undertake 
the work by contemplation of the effects of the 
French Revolution on morals and religion. He de- 
sired an organization the purjxjse of which should 
be the conversion and moral and religious instruc- 
tion of both sexes, and should commemorate by 
suitable services four phases of the life of Christ — 
his childhood by free instruction of children, his 
private life by Perpetual Adoration of the Blessed 
Sacrament ('|.v.) p his public life by preaching arid 
missions, and bin suffering and death by the praci ise 
of austerities. He was encouraged und assisted by 
liislmj) .1, II. Chabol of Meiuie, ntnl the coiinvcga- 
tion took its name from the street and buildings 
in Paris in which it was instituted. In 1817 con- 
firmation was granted by Pius VII., after, which 
seminaries were founded and preaching to the peo- 
ple was begun. In 1S26 missions to the heathen 
were sent out, six priests going to the Sandwich 
Islands. In 1833 Gregory XVI. entrusted to the 
aaagragttf&m the mission for eastern Oceania. 
Kruin that time the two branches of work, educa- 
tion and preaching, were greatly extended. Mis- 
sionaries went to various parts of Oceania arid 
Ausl i alasia, to North and South America, and to 
Africa, while in all these par's as well as in Europe 
(■I I i.ii-.i ! tonal'!! is ivi-tv established, there 
being 200 with 12,000 scholars in Oceania alone. 
The celebrated Father Damien (see Vbubter, Jo- 
seph nr.) was n member of the congregation, and a 
Lame number "i 1 " pi. illy devoted lull less celebrated 
missionaries have contributed to success, and have 
adtled to the sum of knowledge by books dealing 
with the languages und ethnology of the i.-hnds 
and lauds where they have labored. 

There is a branch of the congregation for women, 
The Skvcs of tin; Sacred Heart of Jesus arid Mary. 
the foundation of which was laid in IS00 by Coudrin 
and Henriette Aymer de la Chevalerie (d. 1834). 
Prior to the separation of Church and Stale in 
France, the sisters had establishments in France, 
and such are still found in Belgium, Holland, Spain, 
England, and South America. 

Hi ii aiil'HIT The Conttitulinn* wm> print/'d I 'a r i-  . IS HP. 
Consult: A. Coudrin. Vie de (MoM Coudrin, Paris, IMOl 
H. Perron. Vie de . . . Pierre Uarie-Jam-ph (W™, ib. 
1B00; E. Keller, Lei CtmoretiationB r/lioieusei en France, 
pp. 372, 434, ib. 1880: Helyot, Ordrei mmmpJsw*, It. 
1277 sqrj.. Paris. 1B5U: Heinibuchor. Orden und nTonore- 
t/alionen, Lii. 47H73; KL, bt. 2102-Ofi. 

PICTET, pic"te', BENEDICT: Swiss Reformed; 
b. at Geneva May 30, 1655; d. there June 10, 1724. 
After receiving his education in the university of 
his native city, he made an extensive tour of Europe, 
after which he assumed pastoral duties at Geneva, 
and in 1680 was appointed professor of theology. 
In the domain of systematic theology, Pictct pub- 
lished two great works: Theologia Christiana (3 
vols., Geneva, 1G96; Eng. transl., Christian Theol- 
ogy, London, 1834) and Morale ckrRienne (2 vols., 
1692), in which lie sought to revive the old and 
somewhat stagnating orthodox theology, though he 
was unable to prevent the Genevan " Company of 




Pastors " from adopting a new formula of subscrip- 
tion in 1706. Pictet also distinguished himself as 
Christian poet, his hymns soon becoming popular 
conjointly with the Psalms, and some of them still 
being found in French hymnals. Mention should 
likewise be made of Pictet's Huit sermons sur I'ex- 
amen des religions (3d ed., Geneva, 1716; Eng. 
transl., True and False Religion examined; the 
Christian Religion defended; and the Protestant Ref- 
ormation vindicated , Edinburgh, 1797) and of his 
Dialogue entre un catholique et un protestant (1713; 
Eng. transl., Romanist Conversations, London, 1826). 

Eugene Choisy. 

Bibliography: E. de Bud6, Vie de Benedict Pictet, Lau- 
sanne, 1874; J. Gaberel, Hist, de Veglise de Geneve, vol. 
iii., Geneva, 1862; G. Borgeaud, Hist, de runiversiU de 
Geneve, ib. 1900; Lichtenberger, BSR, x. 699-600. 

PICTURES, MIRACULOUS: Certain pictures or 
images believed by the Roman Catholic Church to 
confer special graces upon those who look at them, 
on the intercession of the saint represented in them, 
and on condition of more or less subjective sus- 
ceptibility on the part of the beholder. Among 
these graces are recovery from illness, discovery of 
secrets, inspiration to good works, and the like. 
The popular notion ascribes miraculous powers to 
the pictures themselves; but theologians take pains 
to explain that God alone is the wonder-worker, 
and the picture only the locality and occasion of the 
miracle, by means of the intercession of the saint, 
or sometimes the means by which the miracle is 
worked, as in cases where the image is supposed to 
speak, to weep, or to open and close its eyes. 

(C. GRttNEISENf.) 
Bibliography: Council of Trent, session XXV., Latin and 
English in Schaff, Creede, ii. 199-205; M. Chemnits, Ex- 
amine concilii O Tridentini . . . Opus, Frankfort, 1565- 
1573, reprint, ed. Preuas, Berlin, 1861, Eng. transl., Lon- 
don, 1582; J. Marx, Das WaUfahren in der katholischen 
Kirche, Treves, 1842. 

PIE (PYE), poi: The name given to the index- 
table on which prior to the Reformation in England 
the directions for worship were written, and to the 
early ordinal or directory for priests, containing a 
table of daily services and a summary of the mass 
rubrics. The arrangement was complicated and 
obscure, and the investigation required to discover 
the proper order was sometimes extended. The re- 
sult was great confusion in the services. The name 
is perhaps derived from pica, " magpie/ 1 and is the 
result of the " pied " appearance of the book caused 
by the printing of initials in red and the body in 
black type on white paper. 

Bibliography: W. Maskell, Montimenta ritualia ecclesim 
Anglicana, 3 vols., London, 1846-47; M. E. C. Walcott, 
The English Ordinal; Us Hist., Validity, and Catholicity, 
ib. 1851; idem, Sacred Archaology, p. 445, ib. 1860; J. H. 
Blunt, The Annotated Book of Common Prayer, pp. 101 
sqq.. New York, 1908. A transl. of a pie is given in The 
Roman Breviary, transl. by John, Marquess of Bute, i. pp. 
xi.-L, Edinburgh, 1879. 

PIEPER, pf'per, ANTON: German Roman Cath- 
olic; b. at Ludinghausen (16 m. s.w. of Munster), 
Westphalia, Mar. 20, 1854. He was educated at 
the universities of Munster, Innsbruck, and Rome 
from 1874 to 1883 (D.D., Freiburg, 1883), and in 
1890 became privat-docent for church history and 
Christian archeology at the University of Munster, 

associate professor of church history in 1896, and 
full professor of church history and Christian arche- 
ology in 1899. He has written Papst Urban VIII. 
und die Mantuaner Erbfolgefrage (Freiburg, 1883); 
Die Propago^da-CongregaHon und die nordlichen 
Missionen in siebzehnten Jahrkundert (Cologne, 
1886); Zur Entstehungsgeschichte der stdndigen 
Nuntiaturen (Freiburg, 1894); Die pdpetlichen 
Legaten und Nuntien in Deutschland, Frankreich 
und Spanien seit der Mitte des secheehnten Jahr- 
hunderts (Munster, 1897); Die aUe University 
Munster 1773-1818 (1902); and Christentum,rcmi- 
sches Kaisertum, und heidnischer Stoat (1907). 

b. at Carwiti (85 m. w. of Danzig), Pomerania, 
June 27, 1852. After studying at the gymnasium 
of Colberg, Pomerania, he graduated in 1872 at 
Northwestern University, Watertown, Wis., and in 
1875 from Concordia Theological Seminary, St. 
Louis, Mo. He was Lutheran pastor at Manitowoc, 
Wis. (1875-78), professor of theology in Concordia 
Seminary (1878 to 1887), since president of the 
same institution, and also president of the Lutheran 
Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and other states since 1899. 
In addition to his work as, editor of Lehre und Wehre, 
he has written Das Grundbekenntnis der evangeliscK- 
lutherischen Kirche (St. Louis, Mo., 1880); Lehre 
von der Rechtfertigung (1889); Oesete und Evan- 
gelium (1892); Distinctive Doctrines of the Lutheran 
Church (Philadelphia, 1892); Unsere SteUung in 
Lehre und Praxis (St. Louis, 1896) ; Lehrstellung der 
Missouri-Synode (1897); Christ's Work (1898); 
and Das Wesen des Christentums (1903). 

PIERCE, LOVICK: Methodist Episcopal South; 
b. in Halifax County, N. C, Mar. 24, 1785; d. at 
Sparta, Ga., Nov. 9, 1879. With very limited edu- 
cation, he entered the ministry in South Carolina 
in 1804, and served as chaplain in the war of 1812, 
after which he studied medicine and practised at 
Greensborough, Ga., until about 1821, when he per- 
manently resumed the ministry. He was abundant 
in labors; possessed remarkable physical endur- 
ance, and was a man of great intellectual force and 
moral power. He was a strong advocate of the 
Wesleyan doctrine of sanctification; and was one 
of the first to encourage, and did much to advance, 
the cause of higher education in his church. He 
was a member of the first delegated general confer- 
ence of Methodism in 1812; and remained one of 
its chief representatives in its conferences as well as 
before the country until his death. 
Bibliography: J. M. Buckley, in American Church History 

Series, vol. v. passim, New York, 1895; and toe other 

works cited under Mbthodibts which cover his locality 

and period. 

PIERIUS, pi-erf-us: Presbyter of Alexandria. 
According to an excerpt from the " Christian His- 
tory " of Philippus Sidetes by H. Dodwell, Disser- 
tatio in Irenceum (Oxford, 1689), it appears that 
Pierius was the head of the catechetical school at 
Alexandria, the successor of Dionysius, and prede- 
cessor of Theognostus [c. 265 a.d.]. Photius also 
names Pierius as master of the school and teacher 
of Pamphilus. Eusebius (Hist, eccl., VII., xxxii. 
26, 27, 30, Eng. transl. in NPNF, 1 ser., i. 321-322, 




cf. note 42) names Achillas, later bishop, as con- 
ductor of the school at that time, and if this is cor- 
rect, the two might have been jointly at the head. 
At any rate his character, according to Eusebius, of 
ascetic, philosopher, ezegete, and preacher, would 
present him as amply qualified. Sidetes also states, 
on the authority of a lawyer, Theodore, that Pierius 
and his brother Isidore were martyrs and had a very 
large church at Alexandria, which is also reported 
by Photius. Jerome (De vir. ill., lxxvi.; also his 
second Epist. ad Pammachium, Eng. transl. in 
ANF, vi. 157) states that, after the persecution of 
Decius, Pierius lived at Rome. The work (Bib- 
lion) of Pierius to which Photius refers (Codex 
cxix.) consisted of twelve treatises or addresses, of 
which also Sidetes makes mention. One of these 
was an extemporaneous first Easter sermon, men- 
tioned by Photius. The address upon the martyr- 
dom of his pupil Pamphilus which contains exe- 
getical elements is to be distinguished from the Bib- 
lion, and the representation of Jerome that he was 
the author of a commentary on I Corinthians is not 
substantiated. Pierius was a follower of Origen, 
was indeed called " the younger Origen/' and his 
writings were studied with those of Origen. 

(N. Bonwetsch.) 

Bibliography: For Philippua Sidetes consult C. de Boor, in 
TU, v. 2 (1889), 169 sqq.; for Photius, use M. J. Routh, 
Reliquim sacra, iii. 423 sqq., 5 vols., Oxford, 1846-48, 
MPG, x. 241 sqq., and the Eng. transl. in ANF, v. 157. 
Consult further: ANF, Bibliography, pp. 70-71 (contains 
detailed list of notices); Palladius, Hist. Lausiaca, chaps, 
xii., cxliii., in MPO, xxxiv.; Harnack, Litteratur, i. 439- 
441 (collects the passages), ii. 2. pp. 66-69, 71, 105, 123; 
idem. Dogma, ii. 95-96, 116, iv. 41; Bardenhewer, Go- 
schichU, ii. 168 sqq.; Kruger, History, pp. 217-218; L. B. 
Radford, Three Teacher* of Alexandria, Cambridge and 
New York, 1908. 

b. at New York City Mar. 6, 1837. He was gradu- 
ated at Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. (A.B., 

1857), and Union Theological Seminary (I860), 
being minister of the Congregational Church at 
Winsted, Conn., in the summers of 1859 and 1860. 
He was then pastor at Binghampton, N. Y. (1860- 
1863), Waterford, N. Y. (1863-69), Detroit, Mich. 
(1869-82), Indianapolis, Ind. (1882-83), Bethany 
Church, Philadelphia (1883-89), Metropolitan Tab- 
ernacle, London (1891-93), and Christ Church, 
London (1902-03). In 1889-90 he made a mission- 
ary tour of the British Isles. Since 1888 he has been 
editor of the Missionary Review of the World, and 
was lecturer on missions in Rutgers College in 1891 
and Duff lecturer in Scotland in 1892. He has 
written The Crisis of Missions (New York, 1886); 
Many Infallible Proofs: Chapters on the Evidences of 
Christianity (1886); Evangelistic Work in Principle 
and Practise (1887); Keys to the Word: or, Helps to 
Bible Study (1887); The Divine Enterprise of Mis- 
sums (1891); Miracles of Missions (4 vols., 1891- 
1901); The Divine Art of Preaching (1892); From 
the Pulpit to the Palm-Branch: Memorial of Charles 
H. Spurgeon (1892); The Heart of the Gospel (ser- 
mons; 1892); New Acts of the Apostles (1894); Life- 
Power: or, Character Culture, and Conduct (1895); 
Lessons in the School of Prayer (1895); Acts of the 
Holy Spirit (1895); The Coming of the Lord (1896); 
Shall we continue in Sint (1897); In Christ Jesus: 
or, The Sphere of the Believer's Life (1898) ; Catharine 
of Siena, an ancient Lay Preacher (1898); George 
Mailer of Bristol and his Witness to a Prayer-Hear- 
ing God (1899) ; Forward Movements of the last half 
Century (1900); Seed Thoughts for Public Speakers 
(1900); The Modern Mission Century viewed as a 
Cycle of Divine Working (1901); The Gordian Knot: 
or, The Problem which baffles Infidelity (1902); The 
Keswick Movement in Precept and Practice (1903); 
God's Living Oracles (1904) ; The Bible and Spiritual 
Criticism (1906) ; The Bible and Spiritual Life (1908) ; 
and Godly Self-control (1909). 


Philipp Jakob Spener. 

Early Life and Education (ft 1). 

Frankfort and the Collegia Pietatis 

The Pia Desideria (ft 3). 
Attacks on Teachings and Collegia 

(J 4). 

Stormy Career at Dresden (ft 5). 

Call to Berlin; Real Rise of Pietism 
(ft 6). 

Spener" s Closing Years (f 7). 

Personality and Theology ($8). 

Part in Pastoral Reform (f 9). 

Promotion of Lay Religion (f 10). 

Cooperating Forces (§ 11). 

Pietism at Halle. 

Prestige of Francke and h» Institu- 
tions (ft 1). 


Unsuccessful War on Pietism 
(ft 2). 

One-sided Nature of the Movement 
(ft 3). 

Effect on Theological Study (ft 4). 
III. Pietism in Wurttemherg. 

Pietism Cordially Welcomed (ft 1). 

Separatism and Tubingen Influence 
(ft 2). 

Attitude toward Moravians (ft 3). 
IV. The Spread of Pietism. 
V. The Nature and Influence of Piet- 

Complexity of Pietism (ft 1). 

Lutheran Orthodoxy and Pietism 
(J 2). 

Disadvantages of Pietism (ft 3). 

Influence on the Church (ft 4). 

Religious Training and the Bible 
(ft 5). 

Effect on Theology and Union (ft 6). 

Forerunner of Religious Freedom 
(ft 7). 

Conventicles and Lay Cooperation 
(ft 8). 

Separatists Tendencies (ft 9). 

Rigid Austerity (ft 10). 

Philanthropic and Missionary Ac- 
tivity (ft 11). 

Pietism and the Enlightenment 
(5 12). 

Development and Origin (ft 13). 
VI. Later Development. 

Factors and Growth (ft 1). 

Character of Modern Pietism (ft 2). 

Estimate of the Movement (ft 3). 

The term Pietism connotes a movement in be- 
half of practical religion within the Lutheran Church 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Es- 
tablished at Halle by Philipp Jakob Spener, and 
following distinct and individual courses of develop- 
ment in Halle, Wurttemberg, and Herrahut, it re- 
ceived a bond of union in its conviction that the 
type of Christianity then prevailing in Lutheran- 
ism stood in urgent need of reform, and that this 

could be brought about by " piety," or living faith 
made active and manifest in upright conduct. 

L Philipp Jakob Spener: Philipp Jakob Spener, 
the founder of Pietism, was born at Rappbltsweiler 
(33 m. s.w. of Strasburg), Upper Alsace, Jan. 23, 
1635; d. at Berlin Feb. 5, 1705. His parents gave 
him a devout education, and he received still more 
lasting religious impressions from his godmother, 
the widowed Agatha von Rappoltstein (d. 1648) 




and her chaplain, Joachim Stoll (1615-78), finding 
additional spiritual nourishment in such works as 
the Vom wahren Christentum of Johann Arndt 
(q.v.) and German translations of the English 
devotional writers Emanuel Sonthomb (Emanuel 
Thompson?), Lewis Bayly, Daniel Dyke, and 
Richard Baxter. 

Spener began his university studies at Strasburg 

in May, 1651, devoting himself primarily to history, 

philosophy, and philology, and receiv- 

i. Early ing his master's degree in 1653. He 

Life and later gained a reputation as a student 
Education, of genealogy and heraldry, particularly 
through his voluminous Opus herald- 
icum (2 vols., Frankfort, 1690). His theological 
teachers were Johann Schmidt (1594-1658), Sebas- 
tian Schmidt (1617-96), and especially Johann 
Konrad Dannhauer (q.v.). It was to the latter 
scholar that Spener was chiefly indebted for his 
living interest in the writings of Luther and the 
assertion of the religious rights of the laity, as well 
as for his subsequent avoidance of separatistic 
tendencies. As a student he lived a quiet, reserved 
life; his acquaintance confined itself to a few 
sympathetic friends; and his Sundays were de- 
voted to serious reading and singing hymns with 
these friends, as well as to the composition of his 
Soliloquia et meditationes sacroe. He terminated 
his formal studies in 1659, and spent the next three 
years at Basel, Geneva, and Tubingen. Here his 
chief object was further knowledge of languages, 
literature, and history, but at the same time his 
religious development was profoundly influenced, 
notably by his acquaintance with Jean de Labadie 
(see Labadie, Jean de, Labadists), whom he 
met in Geneva. Though many desired Spener 
to remain in Wurttemberg, he accepted, in Mar., 
1663, the position of assistant preacher at the 
cathedral in Strasburg, an appointment which was 
particularly attractive to him, since it allowed 
him time to pursue his studies and to attend 
lectures; and in the following year he received his 
theological doctorate. 

Spener now planned to live a quiet scholar's life, 
and eventually to become a professor of theology. 
In 1666, however, he was called as senior to Frank- 
fort, where he not only found that his 

2. Frank- new office restricted his customary and 
fort and the congenial scholastic leisure, but also 

Collegia that his Lutheran orthodoxy was 

Pietatis. doubted, and that he was accused of 
Calvinistic tendencies. Accordingly, 
on the eighth Sunday after Trinity, 1667, he de- 
livered a sermon on " necessary caution against 
false prophets/ 1 among whom he classed the Re- 
formed, who had a small congregation at Frank- 
fort. Spener afterward regretted the attitude here 
taken against the Reformed, however, and sought 
as far as possible to prevent the circulation of his 
sermon. Very different, and far happier, were the 
results of his sermon on July 18, 1669, on the " vain 
righteousness of the Pharisees." Here he described 
this ineffectual righteousness of the Pharisees as 
that superficial security which is content with an 
external subscription to the orthodox Lutheran 
Church, and which is satisfied with a merely intel- 

lectual attachment to pure doctrine, outward par- 
ticipation in divine service and the sacraments, 
and abstinence from gross sins and vices. Most of 
his hearers were disposed to feel that Spener de- 
manded too much from frail men, but others were 
startled into a salutary dread and were aroused to 
serious repentance. 

It was those thus affected who, a year later (1670), 
participated in the Collegia pietatis, or private 
devotional gatherings, which Spener assembled 
twice a week in his house, this course being a de- 
cided innovation, though at first the meetings es- 
caped attack. At the same time, Spener by no 
means restricted himself to the care of his little 
band of conventicle people, but strove to arouse and 
maintain personal and vital Christianity by preach* 
ing, by ecclesiastical discipline, and, most of all, by 
improving and animating the catechizingg held each 
Sunday. His catechetical sermons and his catechism 
itself, the Erkldrung der chrisMchen Lehre nach der 
Ordnung des kleinen Kateckismus Luther* (Frank- 
fort, 1677), were a fruit of these endeavors, as well 
as several annual series of sermons. 

The event that formed an epoch in Spener's life 
and attracted wide attention was the publication of 
his little Pia desideria (Frankfort, 1675). In this 
work Spener first depicted the Christianity of his 
period, which left much to be desired in every rank 
and station. Nevertheless, God had 

3. The Pia promised better times for the Church 
Desideria. militant, which were to begin when 

Israel should have become converted 
and papal Rome should have fallen. Meanwhile 
he proposed the following helpful measures: the 
word of God must be more widely diffused among 
the people, this end being furthered by discussions 
on the Bible under the pastor's guidance; the es- 
tablishment and maintenance of the spiritual priest- 
hood, which is not possessed by the clergy alone, 
but is rather constituted by the right and duty of 
all Christians to instruct others, to punish, to ex- 
hort, to edify, and to care for their salvation; the 
fact must be emphasized that mere knowledge is in- 
sufficient in Christianity, which is expressed rather 
in action; more gentleness and love between de- 
nominations are needed in polemics; the univer- 
sity training of the clergy must be changed so as to 
include personal piety and the reading of books of 
edification, as well as intellectual knowledge and 
dogmatic controversies; and, finally, sermons 
should be prepared on a more edifying plan, with 
less emphasis on rhetorical art and homiletic erudi- 

Concretely regarded, these fundamental ideas of 

the Pia desideria were not new, but the very fact 

that Spener's treatise made so great a stir, and 

within a few years evoked a complete literature of 

its own, shows how imperative it was 

4. Attacks to emphasize such principles afresh, 
on Teach- But amid much approval, there was, 

ings and from the very first, no lack of opposi- 

Collegia. tion. This turned especially on the 

reiterated recommendation of private 

devotional gatherings in the Pia desideria. It was 

only now that the Frankfort conventicles became 

a center of general observation, visited by many! 




copied by many, and also distrusted by many. 
[But while Spener hoped that the small bands of 
earnest Christians thus formed within the general 
congregation would serve as a spiritual leaven for 
lite larger body, they possessed from the start the 
two inherent dangers of separatistic tendencies and, 
as being composed preponderatingly of laymen as- 
sociated on the theory of the universal priesthood 
of all believers, of opposition to the clergy proper. 
Both these dangers proved real perils; and as early 
as 1677 complaints were lodged against the collegia 
pietatis by the police of Frankfort, while on Jan. 
26, 1678, the Darmstadt consistory warned all pas- 
tors under its jurisdiction against them.] Spener 
defended his innovations, however, in his Das geist- 
liche Priestertum (Frankfort, 1677), and finally 
transferred the meetings from his house to the 
church, only to be confronted with fresh difficul- 
ties. His assertion that conversion and regenera- 
tion were indispensable for the right study of the- 
ology was contested by Georg Konrad Dilfeld in his 
Thedogia HorbioSpeneriana in 1679, only to be 
easily refuted by Spener in his AUgemeine Gottes- 
gelehrtheU aller gldubigen Christen und rechlschaffenen 
Theologen (Frankfort, 1680). 

Spener now hoped to proceed unmolested in his 
work, but his plans were abruptly frustrated in 1682 
by the secession of a number of his most zealous 
friends and adherents from all connection with the 
Church. With the utmost reluctance Spener broke 
with the separatists for love of his church and his 
pastoral office, and even opposed them openly in 
his Der Klagen aber das verdarbene Christentum 
Missbrauch und rechUr Gebrauch (Frankfort, 1685). 
A portion of these Frankfort separatists emigrated 
to Pennsylvania in 1683; and Spener's position was 
still further complicated by misunderstandings with 
the municipal council, which proved little disposed 
to comply with his wishes in combating public 
offenses, regularly inspecting catechetical examina- 
tions, and effecting a better organization of the 
parishes and of the practise of confession. 

Under these circumstances Spener decided, in 
the summer of 1686, to accept a call to Dresden as 
first chaplain to Elector John George III. of Saxony. 
Still greater conflicts awaited him here. 
5. Stormy The morals at the Saxon Court were 
Career at crude and licentious, and Spener fell 
Dresden, into disfavor with the elector by re- 
proaching him, as his confessor on a 
fast-day, for his intemperance. The Saxon clergy, 
moreover, received Spener with distrust as a stranger, 
and his Dresden colleagues were offended when he 
began catechetical exercises in his house, deeming 
such a course beneath the dignity of a first court 
chaplain. In addition to all this, Spener alienated 
the Saxon universities of Leipsic and Wittenberg by 
his criticism of university conditions and the de- 
fective training of theological students in his De 
impedimentis studii theologici (1690). The con- 
flict between the old orthodoxy and the new spirit 
represented by Spener became acute at Leipsic in 
1689, when Spener's friends and pupns, who in- 
cluded August Hermann Francke and Paul Anton 
(qq.v.), organized, for purposes of edification, the 
so-called collegia biUica. [Three years previous, on 

July 18, 1686, at the instance of Johann Benedikt 
Carpzov (q.v.), their subsequent opponent, Francke 
and Anton had established a similar institution, the 
collegium philobiblicum, an association of eight mas- 
ters who met at the house of Valentin Alberti (q.v.) 
for the study of the Bible. Gradually, under the 
influence of Spener, the devotional element gained 
ascendency over the technical theology that had 
been the purpose of the original society; but no 
open disturbance was created until Francke started 
the collegia biblica. His pietistic lectures now caused 
such a sensation among the students, however, as 
well as among the townsmen of Leipsic, that " doubt- 
ful conventicles and private assemblies " were for- 
bidden by an electoral edict on Mar. 10, 1690, and 
Francke was eventually obliged to leave the uni- 

A lively literary controversy now began concern- 
ing the merits of Pietism, but in 1691 Spener, who 
was deemed the spiritual leader of the Pietists, who 
were themselves opposed as sectaries, accepted a 
call to Berlin as provost of the Nikolaikirche. At 
Berlin, unlike Saxony, Spener and 
6. Call Pietism were to a certain extent pro- 

to Berlin; tected by Elector Frederick III. (King 

Real Rise Frederick I. of Prussia after 1701); 
of Pietism, for the Reformed elector, desiring to 
establish peace in his land between 
Lutherans and Reformed was opposed to strict Lu- 
theranism, and perceived in the practical and union- 
istic trend of Pietism an ally to his plans. In Bran- 
denburg, accordingly, Spener exercised a profound 
influence over ecclesiastical conditions through his 
powerful patrons. He utilized this influence, after 
1692, primarily to further the creation of a theo- 
logical school after his own liking at the new Uni- 
versity of Halle, its first significant exponent being 
A. H. Francke (q.v.). 

Meanwhile the Pietistic movement had attracted 
wide circles and divided Lutheran Germany into 
two camps, organizing itself into a kind of party 
which, though claiming to be entirely orthodox and 
repudiating all attributes of heresy or sectarianism, 
was forced to struggle for existence against ortho- 
doxy. The situation was still further complicated 
by the incorporation, after 1691-92, of certain 
chiliastic, enthusiastic, and ecstatic phenomena 
with the Pietistic movement. [As early as 1691 an 
unnamed opponent of Spener (probably C. A. Roth 
of Halle), in his Imago Pietismi, brought essentially 
the same charges against Pietism which were after- 
ward constantly repeated in polemics against it.] 
Between 1691 and 1698 Spener alone exchanged 
some fifty controversial treatises with his antago- 
nists. His chief opponents were Carpzov and Al- 
berti in Leipsic, and such Wittenberg theologians 
as Johann Deitschmann (q.v.) and Johann Georg 
Neumann, the former of whom, in his Christluiheri- 
sche Vorstellung (1695), written in behalf of the Wit- 
tenberg theological faculty, charged Spener with 
283 erroneous teachings. Besides these opponents, 
there were Johann Friedrich Mayer (q.v.) in Ham- 
burg, Samuel Schelwig (q.v.) in Danzig, and Au- 
gust Pfeiffer in Lubeck, the latter especially charg- 
ing Spener with heterodox chiliastic views because 
of the Behauptung der Hoffnung kUnftiger besserer 




Zeiten, which he had published in 1092. The con- 
troversy was the more bitter since Spener's oppo- 
nents feared, not without reason, that Pietism rep- 
resented a new religious tendency, though they were 
unable to grasp its true nature, much less to under- 
stand its relative justification. 

After 1698 Spener withdrew both from contro- 
versial writing and from public advocacy of 
Pietism, deeming further debate useless and his 
opponents as altogether incapable of 

7. Spener's amendment. In 1700-02, under the 
Closing title Theologiache Bedenken, he pub- 
Years, lished at Halle four volumes of selec- 
tions from his correspondence with 

both men and women, princes and statesmen, 
theologians and scholars, nobles and common- 
ers, through which he had for decades exercised a 
profound influence on Germany. During his closing 
years his mood fluctuated between hopes for his 
cause and a dejection which was increased by many 
extravagances of his friends and followers. Never- 
theless, from first to last he conscientiously fulfilled 
his duties as preacher and catechizer. His last liter- 
ary labor was his anti-Socinian Verteidigung des 
Zeugnis8es von der evrigen Gottheii Christi (Frank- 
fort, 1706). He spent May, 1704, at Grosshenners- 
dorf in Saxony, where he dedicated his godson, Zin- 
zendorf, then four years old, to the advancement 
of the kingdom of God. After a severe attack of 
illness, Spener passed his seven last months tran- 
quilly and with patience, though growing more and 
more feeble until his death, Feb. 5, 1705. 

Spener's was no heroic nature. He lacked bold 
initiative, as he himself knew; timidity and hesita- 
tion were inborn in him; and he was 

8. Person- drawn into active life only by his living 
ality and devotion, his moral earnestness, and 
Theology, his strong faith-born sense of duty and 

responsibility. Nevertheless, his Chris- 
tianity was somewhat one-sided, restricted, and 
narrow; and, like his style, he was dry, prosy, and 
heavy. But notwithstanding this, his personality 
made a profound impression on many because of 
his unswerving earnestness, his conscientiousness 
and fidelity to duty, his ingenuous modesty, and his 
irenic temper. 

Neither was Spener's importance inherent in his 
theology. He meant to be simply an orthodox Lu- 
theran, and persistently dwelt on his harmony with 
the doctrinal standards of the Lutheran Church. 
At the same time, he shifted the center of interest 
from the maintenance of orthodox doctrine to con- 
duct and practical piety, and from the objective 
validity of the verities of salvation and means of 
grace to the subjective conditions connected with 
them, their subjective ethical accountability then 
following as a necessary corollary. Spener was con- 
cerned, above all, with the true personal faith of the 
heart, which, he maintained, might coexist with 
serious doctrinal errors. At bottom, however, this 
meant a far graver revolution in existing dogmatic 
and theological tenets than Spener himself had sur- 
mised, and led, in practise, to connivance at all 
sorts of erroneous teachers, sectarians, and fanatics. 
This laxity afforded Spener's opponents a ground of 
attack, but their unskilful, superficial, and impas- 

onslaughts not only lightened Spener's task 
of defense and substantiation, but also, unfortu- 
nately, helped to obscure his perception of the real 
consequences of his position. Spener's activity as a 
practical theologian and reformer may be summar- 
ised as efforts, on the one hand, to reform the clergy 
and their official ministration; and, on the other 
hand, to regenerate the ecclesiastical, religious, and 
moral life of the congregations and their members. 

In his attempted reform of the clergy, Spener 

justly discerned and combated the great defects 

in the theological studies of his time, especially the 

neglect of Biblical exegesis, undue 

o> Part in stress on formal rhetoric and polemics, 

Pastoral and, most of all, the worldly life of 

Reform, those busied with theology. He main- 
tained that it was neither sufficient nor 
even the chief essential for a pastor simply to hold 
pure doctrine, stressing instead the importance of 
Christian character in the pastor with relation to 
his office and his official activity. He set forth the 
principle that the first and foremost object of preach- 
ing is to edify, to induct the hearers into the word 
of God, and to awaken and foster personal piety and 
Christian living, all erudition and fine rhetoric, un- 
less they subserve that end, being from the realm 
of evil. The rise of Spener, therefore, betokened an 
advance in the cause of preaching and homiletics, 
even though he himself fell far short of realising 
the ideal of a plain, Scriptural, and edifying style of 
preaching. He was an important factor in securing 
recognition of the great importance of the religious 
instruction of the young; and by his direct exam- 
ple he revived the languishing condition of catechet- 
ical training, combated the mechanical system of 
memorizing, emphasized the serious duty of relig- 
ious tuition, strove to secure a practical method of 
catechetical instruction, introduced the Bible as 
a school text-book, and contributed largely toward 
the spread of confirmation in the Lutheran Church 
of Germany. The improprieties and misuses con- 
nected with private confession at the time of Spener 
were felt by him to be a heavy pastoral burden and 
responsibility, especially as he had little sympathy 
with the custom. He had, therefore, no direct per- 
sonal interest in its retention or improvement. Any 
reform of it seemed to him possible and desirable 
only in connection with the formation of boards of 
elders who should share the responsibility of church 
discipline. Since, however, such an institution ap- 
peared impracticable at the time, Spener's influ- 
ence on confession and ecclesiastical discipline was 
little more than negative. The importance of de- 
tailed pastoral care was taught by Spener more by 
precept than by example, though in private life, es- 
pecially in association with the clergy, candidates, 
and students, he exerted a profound and pervasive 
influence in this direction, while his extensive cor- 
respondence made him known as the " father con- 
fessor of all Germany." 

In his endeavor to reform the ecclesiastical, relig- 
ious, and moral life of Germany Spener combated, 
among both clergy and laity, inert, conventional 
Christianity and reliance on mere external ortho- 
doxy, unceasingly preaching the necessity of con- 
scious, personal, vital, active, and practical Chris- 




tian life. For the furtherance of this type of Chris- 
tianity he recommended household devotions, 
extempore prayer, and Bible readings, 
xo. Pro- as well as a stricter observance of Sun- 
motion day. He labored earnestly in behalf 
of Lay of Christian discipline and morals, 
Religion, not only assailing current offenses in 
public and private life, but also rais- 
ing the standard of conscience and refining the 
moral sense. In his reaction against the prevail- 
ing laxity and licentiousness which the Lutheran 
clergy judged too leniently as things indiffer- 
ent, Spener's stress on Christian and moral earnest- 
ness was no less wholesome than justifiable. He 
also emphasised the rights, and still more the 
obligations, of the laity in the Church; opposed 
the monopoly of the clergy; energetically revived 
the theory of the common spiritual priesthood of 
all believers; promoted the cooperation of the laity 
in ecclesiastical administration; and procured both 
recognition and free scope for the spontaneous 
activity of laymen in the life of the Church, even 
though in the latter direction he merely gave ex- 
pression to general ideas and wishes. He created 
no actual organizations, for neither was he the man, 
nor was the time yet ripe. Nevertheless, in an age 
of sharp denominational cleavage, Spener awoke 
the Protestant sense of fellowship between all com- 
munions that rested on the common basis of the 
Reformation. He helped pave the way toward 
friendly relationship between the Lutheran and Re- 
formed Churches in Germany, both fortifying union- 
istic sentiment and preparing the means of union 
though rejecting any artificial and precipitate at- 
tempts at union. On the other hand, he was far 
more firmly convinced than most of the statesmen 
and clergy of his time that Roman Catholicism had 
deviated fundamentally from the Gospel of Christ, 
and that the " Roman peril " was real. He gave re- 
peated expression to the thought of missions among 
Jews and heathen, and emphasized the missionary 
duty of Protestant Christianity at a time when the 
Lutheran Church had almost no conception of any 
such duty; and it was Spener's Pietistic friends, 
pupils, and disciples who went out from Halle in 
1705 to the work of the Evangelical mission among 
the heathen, they being the first in Germany to at- 
tempt that field. 

In all these lines, indeed, Spener did not stand 
entirely alone among his contemporaries. He had 
his forerunners and colaborers. He was not the 
" Father of Pietism " in the sense that 
xx. Coop- it emanated exclusively from him. He 
erating was met half-way, as it were, by a 
Forces, widely diffused sentiment in the Lu- 
theran Church of Germany, and he 
was aided in many phases of the situation by the 
change which took place in the general spirit of the 
age. There were also cooperative influences proceed- 
ing from England, Holland, and Switzerland. For 
the Lutheran Church of Germany, however, Spener 
was the acknowledged and honorable protagonist; 
he was the most eminent advocate and the spiritual 
center of all those forces which so vigorously sought 
to reform the Lutheran Church in the last quarter 
of the seventeenth century. Paul Grunberg. 

CL Pietism at Halle: A new epoch in the de- 
velopment of Pietism was marked when, for a time, 
the University of Leipsic closed its doors to the 
movement, whereupon the theological faculty of 
the newly founded University of Halle 
i. Prestige was filled, under Spener's influence 
of Francke with men of his own type. From ths 
and his In- first the dominant spirit was August 
stitutions. Hermann Francke (q.v.), who, though 
professor of Hebrew and Greek in the 
philosophical faculty until 1698, immediately began 
to lecture on exegesis. His colleagues were Joachim 
Justus Breithaupt, Johann Wilhelm Baier, Paul 
Anton, Johann Heinrich Michaelis, Joachim Lange 
(qq.v.), and Johann Daniel Hernschmied. The uni- 
versity was also profoundly affected by Francke *s 
establishment of the famous Halle orphan asylum 
and affiliated schools and institutions. Many stu- 
dents of theology here received not only support, 
but preparation for their studies; the publishing 
house facilitated the literary propagation of Halle's 
cause; the collegium orientale afforded opportunity 
for linguistic training; and in the infirmary attached 
to the orphan asylum the medical faculty found 
compensation for the lack of a university clinic. 
Since Francke was both the dominant power in the 
faculty and the director of the orphan asylum, the 
former organization soon became so closely bound 
up with the interests and aims of these various in- 
stitutions that the Halle phase of Pietism derived 
its peculiar nature from this very combination. 
This state of affairs was undeniably advantageous 
in many ways to the faculty, which gained prestige 
from the growing recognition of Francke 's organiza- 
tions, while the number of theological students at 
Halle rapidly increased; though, at the same time, 
these very factors caused a decided loss of independ- 
ence and freedom of action in the faculty. 

In its command of an assured position, the Halle 
school of Pietism quickly assumed the aggressive, 
and deemed itself called to be the censor of diver- 
gent tendencies, views, and modes of life. This atti- 
tude rendered it still more difficult for its opponents 
to recognize its good intent, and contributed much 
to the degeneration of the controversies into per- 
sonal animosities to the prejudice of 
2. Unsuc- real explanation and mutual under- 
cessful standing. This turn of events was the 
War on more unhappy since even without them 
Pietism, the mass of conflicting elements would 
have resulted in open rupture. In 
1698 strife broke out between Francke and the clergy 
of Halle, followed by a series of clashes between the 
theological faculty and the law professor, Christian 
Thomasius (q.v.), who had enthusiastically espoused 
the cause of Francke at Leipsic, all these controver- 
sies, however, being eclipsed by the attitude of the 
theological faculty toward their colleague, the phi- 
losopher Christian Wolff, who was deposed from his 
office by King Frederick William I. (see Wolff, 
Christian, and the Wolffian Theology). Of 
still greater moment were the literary battles be- 
tween Pietism and its opponents outside of Halle. 
The most significant of these was the Wittenberg 
theological professor Valentin Ernst Loscher (q.v.), 
with his VoUsUfadiger Timotheus Verinus (Witten- 




berg, 1718). Loscher was no fanatical assailant of 
Pietism; he recognized some good in the move- 
ment, and by a threefold classification of its adher- 
ents (the Halle Pietists being reckoned as midway 
between the radical and conservative wings) he 
sought to do justice to its several gradations. At 
the same time, his estimate of conversion, his con- 
cept of the pastoral office, and his stress on pure 
doctrine rested on a theological basis so wholly and 
fundamentally at variance with that of the Halle 
school that the harmony which he desired proved 
impossible, despite long correspondence and a per- 
sonal interview with Francke and Hernschmied in 
May, 1719. The orthodox Lutheran attacks on 
Pietism, however, neither distracted the Pietists 
from their cause nor checked its wider development. 
Francke 's educational institutions grew and multi- 
plied; the Canstein Bible Institute was founded 
(see Canstein, Karl Hi lde brand, Baron von); 
union was effected with the Danish mission in Tran- 
quebar; and Francke also found time to interest 
himself in behalf of the captive Swedes in Siberia. 
His death, in 1727, was a serious loss for his faculty, 
which soon was greatly changed. 

Many of the institutions and organizations created 
by the Pietism of Halle exercised a deep influence 
on the Lutheran Church in Germany. Even before 
Francke f s death, however, the movement had 
reached its zenith; and it had only been his power- 
ful, energetic, and influential personality which had, 
in many ways, lessened the dangers of one-sidedness 
and extravagance in Pietism at Halle, and kept its 
darker side comparatively inconspicuous. At the 
same time, the flaws in the movement did not orig- 
inate altogether in the second generation, but were 
innate in the Halle type of Pietism from the first. 

One obvious characteristic of the movement at 

Halle was its lack of appreciation of the diversity 

and wealth of development in the 

3. One- growth of piety. " Conversion," as 
Sided Francke experienced it, was not viewed 
Nature in the light of an individual phenom- 
of the enon, but as the normal way to salva- 
Movement tion, regardless of other experiences 
taught by the history of the religious 
life. The question then arose as to the distinguish- 
ing marks of real conversion, and whether this must 
include a conviction of sin and the experience of 
ictic conversion at a precise moment. The affirma- 
tion of these demands also afforded a standard for 
gaging the Christianity of others; and in applying 
this the Pietists of Halle were no very lenient judges 
where they lighted upon the " unconverted." Their 
one-sided insistence on the religious tone in educa- 
tion was not above criticism, admirable as were the 
results which it produced, for in some cases it was 
the cause of spiritual pride, and in others of hypoc- 
risy. Francke, himself, however, in his inculcation 
of intense Christianity, clearly recognized the claims 
of practical life. Among the subjects of instruction 
he included botany, zoology, mineralogy, anatomy, 
physics, and astronomy, as well as such mechanical 
crafts as turning and glass-grinding, thus preparing 
the way for the modern trade schools. But notwith- 
standing all this breadth of judgment, which Francke 
also evinced in many other directions, he was 

strangely ignorant of the needs and feelings of the j 
young. The incessant surveillance of the pupils in 
all of his institutions clogged the development of 
independence and was an obvious pedagogical error, 
and the same statement holds true of the restriction 
of harmless amusements. 

The practical religion taught by the Pietism of 
Halle exerted a significant influence upon the atti- 
tude of the university toward technical theology. 
Since Francke was convinced that living faith and 
sincere conversion were indispensable postulates to 
a knowledge of God, independent value 
4. Effect on was denied mere intellect, and the 
Theological entire curriculum of studies was ax- 
Study, ranged accordingly. First of all, the 
development of personal religion was 
furthered; all academic lectures assumed the char- 
acter of devotional sessions and revival sermons; 
every lecture was opened and closed with prayer. 
In addition to all this, the faculty met twice each 
week at the dean's house, where the students had 
to report on their studies and receive advice. Hie 
study of the Bible in the original was the center of 
the entire course. The darker side of this concept 
of theology, however, was shown in the Halle fac- 
ulty's unproductiveness in the field of strict scholar- 
ship. Francke's own ability for scientific activity 
was undeniable, but he was far too much engrossed 
by his institutions to have time for research, though 
he never felt that this curtailed his efficiency as a 
teacher. There was, however, no perception of the 
fact that the new foundation of theology upon con- 
version and the edifying study of Scripture needed 
to be harmonized with orthodox theology, or that 
the entire body of systematic theology must be re- 
constructed, any more than there was recognition 
of the desirability of reaching a scholarly under- 
standing with extremists in the Pietistic camp 
itself and with the Wolffian philosophy. Since these 
problems lay within the scope of the faculty's duties, 
the fact that they were ignored was an act of re- 
missness that brought speedy vengeance. The 
faculty grew torpid and, after the death of Francke, 
lost its influence over the student body. 

H. Pietism in Wttrttemberg: The entrance of 
Pietism into Wurttemberg was particularly mo- 
mentous for the subsequent develop- 
i. Pietism ment of the movement, since it there 
Cordially not only attracted many adherents, 
Welcomed, but also acquired a distinct character 
which was both independent of Spener 
and sharply distinguished from the Halle and Mora- 
vian Pietistic types. The movement received its 
first incentives in Wurttemberg from Spener him- 
self, who visited Stuttgart in May, 1662, and later 
spent four months in Tubingen. Not only were the 
general conditions of religious life in Wurttemberg 
favorable for the growth of Pietism, but special 
welcome seems to have been accorded it because of 
contemporary political burdens, which rendered 
men more open to the preaching of a gospel of the 
heart. The movement was also aided by the fact 
that the princes of the land did not oppose it; while 
it received direct encouragement from the Church 
authorities, who had early begun to turn Spener's 
views to practical account in favor of true Chris* 




tian life. The influence of the Halle Pietist was 
veiy evident in the efforts to raise the standard of 
theological education; and as early as 1694 an edict 
was issued declaring that even a comprehensive the- 
ological training did not lead to a true knowledge 
of God if the heart clung to the world, and urging 
professors to educate not only learned, but devout 
and godly men . At Stuttgart the consistory success- 
fully sought to obviate conflicts with Pietism on 
Wurttemberg soil; the controversial Considered 
tmum iheologicarum decas of the Tubingen profes- 
sor Michael Muller was confiscated; and on Feb. 
28, 1694, appeared an edict joyfully hailed by Spener 
/or, while assuming the inviolable validity of the 
symbolical books and the existing agenda, it con- 
ceded a whole series of details to Pietism. There 
iris, however, no uniform attitude on the part of 
the ecclesiastical authorities toward private devo- 
tional meetings, which had become popular in Wurt- 
temberg as early as the ninth decade of the seven- 
teenth century. Where these meetings lacked 
clerical direction, they were at first partly forbidden ; 
and it was only long afterward, in consequence of 
the organization of collegia pietatis by some lecturers 
at Tubingen in 1703, that the conventicles were 
regularly sanctioned, though even then it was de- 
sired that they be held in the churches. Moreover, 
this favorable disposition of the consistory had ref- 
erence only to that section of Pietism which con- 
tinued strictly within the bounds of the Church 
and did not favor the separatistic tendencies to which 
Wurttemberg was peculiarly predisposed. 

The early stages of Pietistic separatism may be 
traced back to the initial stages of the movement 
itself. It found particular support among clergy- 
men of marked devoutness and gravity, and firmly 
ensconced itself in various places, including the 
country districts. The conflict with this growing 
separatism was opened by the Edict of 1703; a sec- 
ond edict, forbidding all conventicles held by sec- 
taries, followed in 1706; and the third, 
x. Sepaxa- or general, rescript of Mar. 2, 1707, 
tism and added certain drastic measures, threat- 
Ttibingen ening to banish those separatists who 
Influence, should refuse to attend Church and 
communion within three months. This 
course was abandoned, however, in a few years, so 
that the decree of Jan. 14, 1711, showed a milder 
attitude toward the separatistic Pietists. It came 
to be more and more the practise to abandon all 
forcible measures in the case of such separatists as 
behaved themselves quietly, until finally the general 
rescript of Oct. 10, 1743, permitted all private de- 
votional meetings that did not involve breach of the 
peace. This leniency toward the separatists, which 
was in sharp contrast to North German practise of 
the period, became possible since it involved no 
danger to the Church, and since there was no con- 
tentious orthodoxy to misconstrue its spirit. At 
the same time, this policy prevented the Church 
from putting down separatism, which persisted 
throughout the eighteenth century and broke out 
afresh at its close. 

Lastly, the attitude of the University of Tubingen 
was important for implanting Pietism in Wurttem- 
berg. While the influence of Tubingen's theolog- 

ical faculty upon this development was far from 
equal to that of Halle, nevertheless, the plan of fill- 
ing professorships with men who took their inspira- 
tion from Spener showed its practical effects in more 
ways than mere modification of the aims and meth- 
ods of instruction. Besides Johann Wolfgang Jager, 
who imparted a new spirit to the faculty, the teach- 
ing force included Johann Christian Pfaff, Andreas 
Adam Hochstetter, Christoph Reuchlin, and Chris- 
toph Eberhard Weismann. The Pietism evolved 
under these conditions showed certain distinctive 
features. Its adherents were predominantly among 
the clergy, among the middle classes in the towns, 
and in the rural districts; not, as with Pietism in 
North Germany, among the nobility. This insured 
a far more popular character for the movement, so 
that Pietistic Stunden, or prayer-meetings, have sur- 
vived to the present time. On the other hand, the 
Wurttemberg phase of Pietism preserved the church 
ideal more largely than was the case at Halle, this 
attitude doubtless being strengthened by the mod- 
erate and reasonable course adopted by the ecclesi- 
astical authorities, as well as by the absence of a 
contentious type of orthodoxy. In Wurttemberg, 
moreover, Pietism enjoyed a distinct advantage 
through its intimate sympathy with scientific the- 
ology, the resultant combination being shown, for 
example, by the New-Testament critic and exegete 
Johann Albrecht Bengel (q.v.), who constantly 
sought to unite the two. In view of the influence 
exercised by Pietism on the life of the Church in 
Wurttemberg this attitude toward scientific method 
was not without moment for theology; and its 
influence on Pietism itself was still more profound, 
since it served to maintain its intellectual mobility, 
and fostered that spirit of independence and self- 
restraint which preserved it from the decline which 
overtook the movement at Halle. Finally, Wurt- 
temberg Pietism was characterized by a range and 
scope of religious life far wider and more diverse 
than the stereotyped form of the movement which 
prevailed at Halle; and while it is not always easy 
precisely to define the new elements introduced by 
Swabian individualism, it is certain that there were 
many direct points of contact between the Swabian 
movement and the Pietism of Halle. 

Though Wurttemberg never became entirely in- 
dependent of Halle, a distinct sense of the diver- 
gence between the two schools was 

3. Attitude eventually evolved. This became clear 
toward in the position taken by the Wurttem- 

Moravians. berg Pietists with regard to the 
Moravians. Count Nicholas Louis von 
Zinzendorf (q.v.) exercised a considerable influence 
from the time of his first visit in 1729, and induced 
many young theologians to enter the Moravian com- 
munion. Nevertheless, he was denied the fruit of 
great and permanent results, since men like Georg 
Konrad Rieger, and especially Bengel (qq.v.), who 
disapproved the formation of independent congre- 
gations, Count Zinzendorf s personality, and many 
other things, opposed the further inroads of Mora- 
vianism. Yet though they thus blocked its advance 
in Wurttemberg, this rebuff did not entirely break 
off friendly relations with the Unity of the Breth- 
ren, with whom harmony is still preserved, chiefly 




because of Lutheran appreciation of Moravian mis- 
sionary activity. The third main division of Piet- 
ists was the Unity of the Brethren (q.v.), or Mora- 
vians, founded by Zinzendorf . 

IV. The Spread of Pietism: Statistics of the 
spread of Pietism can scarcely be given with any 
approximation to completeness until preliminary 
studies, such as have already been begun, shall have 
been made of the history of the movement in the 
various localities in which it took root. Such 
studies, moreover, would doubtless aid in distin- 
guishing the frequently interchanging tendencies 
proceeding from Herrnhut and Halle respectively. 
Spener himself, like Francke, sought to find inter- 
ests in common with other religious bodies and lead- 
ers, while Zinzendorf surpassed them both in this 
regard. The triumph of Pietism over all obstacles, 
and its spread not only throughout Germany, but 
even into Switzerland, Holland, England, Denmark, 
and Russia, was partly due to the wide-spread indif- 
ference toward dogmatic formulas that had been 
discredited through theological wrangling, though 
it owed its real success to the fact that it was able 
to offer something not then supplied by the State 
churches. In addition to preaching, the personal 
association that was facilitated by the private de- 
votional meetings, and an extensive correspondence 
dating from the time of Spener, the spread of Piet- 
ism was furthered by the influence exerted in filling 
pastorates and professorships with men sympathetic 
with the movement. This was particularly the case 
at Halle, which had a thousand theological students 
about 1730, while in 1729 an edict of Frederick 
William I. required all candidates for the ministry 
in his dominions to study there for two years. The 
university, therefore, together with Francke 's in- 
stitutions in Halle, developed a powerful influence 
in behalf of Pietism up to the middle of the 
eighteenth century; and Francke 's journey to 
South Germany in 1718 still further promoted the 

V. The Nature and Significance of Pietism: The 
wide diversity of opinion, even at the present time, 
regarding Pietism is due not only to the fact that 
the movement, as a peculiar concept of Protestant 
Christianity, is naturally judged according to the 
dogmatic position of each individual critic, but also 

to the very nature of the Pietistic tend- 
i. Com- ency. The mere question of authori- 
plexity of tative sources for a determination of the 
Pietism, essence of Pietism involves great diffi- 
culties, since the movement produced 
neither official doctrinal writings nor any principles 
which, when acknowledged everywhere and at all 
times, should constitute regular affiliation with the 
Pietist cause. The sole recourse, therefore, is to the 
private literature of the movement, which is pre- 
dominantly devotional. It must, however, be used 
with caution because of its subjective, transient 
tone, which is shared by its opponents as well; and 
purely biographical sources are lamentably scanty. 
Moreover, Pietism embraced very heterogeneous 
phenomena, so that it assumed extremely diver- 
gent phases in different individuals living at the 
same time but in different regions, with different 
antecedents, and under different conditions. It like- 

wise underwent the most diverse combinations, to 
say nothing of the variations which distinguished 
the chief phases of the movement from each other, 
or of the development which each of these phases 
worked out independently. 

Claiming possession of pure doctrine, the right 
administration of the sacraments, and a well-organ- 
ized establishment as a national Church, Lutheran- 
ism had embarked upon a course of development 
during the seventeenth century in 
2. Lutheran which, though the Bible was recognised 
Orthodoxy as the sole authority and as the first 
and and highest source of knowledge, 

Pietism, its essential content was held to be 
summarized and contained in defin- 
itive dogmas. Where these boons and institu- 
tions were unmutilated, the Church professed to 
supply such a degree of perfection as obviated 
the necessity of any further development, whether 
inward or outward. The sole requirements laid 
upon church-members, accordingly, were recogni- 
tion of the doctrine of the Church as an authori- 
tative presentation of divine revelation, reception 
of the proffered Word and sacraments, and obedi- 
ence to the several ordinances affecting church life. 
In opposition to this institutional Christianity of the 
Lutheran Church, which assumed to stand for evan- 
gelical Christianity while actually permitting the 
spiritual life to languish, Pietism emphasised the 
duty of striving after personal and individual re- 
ligious independence and collaboration, and de- 
clared that religion is something altogether per- 
sonal, that evangelical Christianity is present only 
when and in so far as it is manifested in Christian 
conduct. In the nature of the case, this assertion 
of the right and of the necessity of personal Chris- 
tianity implied no attack upon any special doctrines 
or institutions of the Church, but was rather a pro- 
test against Lutheran absolutism. Notwithstand- 
ing this, Pietism assumed many phases on the basis 
of accentuation of personal Christianity. With 
Spener and Francke, the core of religious life was a 
firm faith in Providence. The clergy whose train- 
ing was received at Halle laid the chief stress on 
conversion. Another principle widely diffused, es- 
pecially in Moravian circles, was deep love for Jesus, 
this leading to a revival of the well-known ideals of 
medieval mysticism. All Pietistic trends and types, 
moreover, found a common bond in their tendency 
to seek the normal realization of living piety in a 
life of intense religious emotion, and to give a per- 
manent place to the keen realization of individual 
sinfulness and guilt. 

Pietistic devotion achieved great and successful 

results, which were well merited in so far as the 

movement represented a justifiable reaction against 

an exaggerated ecclesiasticism. On 

3. Disad- the other hand, it was unconscious of 
vantages of the dangers attending its championship 

Pietism, of the rights of individual personalities. 
In proportion as the experience of 
regeneration was exalted, the more expedient it 
seemed to produce, or at least te facilitate, this 
event by systematic courses of action. But the as- 
sumption that religious development was essentially 
fulfilled in the sphere of religious emotion prepared 




the way for an artificial excitation of this feeling, 
tins involving the danger of insincerity, self-decep- 
tion, and sentimentalism, which, in the absence of 
self-discipline and sobriety, formed an easy transi- 
tion to still worse aberrations. The extreme im- 
portance attached to individual experiences and to 
spontaneous prayer led to a communicativeness 
often bard to distinguish from loquacity. More- 
over, those who underwent no such experiences 
came to be regarded with disdain by others. It is 
significant that Alberti, at Leipsic, early reproached 
the Pietists with self-complacency; and the thought 
of standing in a peculiarly intimate relationship to 
God was by no means unusual in Pietism at Halle. 
These principles were also adopted and amplified by 
the Moravians, or Unity of the Brethren. This atti- 
tude, which was the chief factor in estranging non- 
Pietistic from Pietistic circles, may seem to con- 
tradict the facts that Pietism was characterized by 
anxiety and depression, that it was cankered with 
introspection, that it never attained to inward rest, 
that one " awakened " must ever be awakened 
anew, and that he sought for indications of the grace 
which he had received, but enjoyed his prize only 
occasionally. Yet the contradiction is merely 
apparent, for the attitude in question was the 
necessary consequence of the dominating Pietistic 
consciousness of sin. It was, in other words, the 
result of an exclusively transcendental concept of 
the theory of blessedness, which in turn explains 
why Pietism looked so radically askance upon the 

By strongly emphasizing personal Christianity in 
the cultivation and development of pastoral care 
Pietism supplied abundant and mo- 
4. Influence mentous incentives which were heartily 
on the welcomed by Lutheran orthodoxy. 
Church. The desire to unite the clergy more 
closely, and thus to facilitate an ex- 
change of professional experiences, led Johann Adam 
Steinmetz, then general superintendent of the arch- 
diocese of Magdeburg, to organize pastoral confer- 
ences in 1737; while by the systematic diffusion of 
devotional treatises he opened new ways for relig- 
iously influencing the masses. The fact that Jo- 
hann Kaspar Schade's formal protest against the 
compulsory introduction of private confession was 
so thoroughly approved by the elector of Branden- 
burg that he abandoned the usage in 1698 (his ex- 
ample being followed by other State churches) was 
the result of serious disorders in the practical work- 
ing of the system, though voluntary private con- 
fession still prevailed widely. The victorious ad- 
vance of Pietism was also bound to affect public 
worship, which, as part of a State institution, en- 
joyed such protection in various districts that neg- 
lect of it might be punished by fines and other legal 
means. Not only was the mere existence of private 
devotional gatherings prejudicial to the position 
of authority enjoyed by the Church, but she was 
also obliged to find that the Pietistic emphasis on 
personal Christianity acted to the detriment of her 
liturgy. Nevertheless, while Pietism succeeded in 
mftlring the entire Bible available for homiletic pur- 
poses, as contrasted with the compulsory pericopes, 
the movement failed to produce an epoch in the 

history of German preaching. It was, on the other 
hand, conspicuously successful in the sphere of 
hymnology, for which it was peculiarly qualified 
because of its cultivation of the emotional side of 
religion and its tenderness and warmth of religious 
expression. Though most of the hymns that ema- 
nated from Pietistic circles were pitched in too sub- 
jective, and even unwholesome and sentimental, 
a strain to be suitable for congregational use, some 
of the Pietist composers, such as Johann Jakob 
SchQtz, Johann Anastasius Freylinghausen, Johann 
Jakob Rambach, Carl Heinrich von Bogatzky, Ernst 
Gottlieb Woltersdorf, Philipp Friedrich Hiller, and 
Nicholas Louis von Zinzendorf, have won a secure 
place in Lutheran hymnals; and not only did the 
wealth of poetry produced by Pietism exercise a 
profound influence in the furtherance of its own 
extension, but it also stimulated religious poetry 
beyond the circle of its own adherents. 

In his high appreciation of religious and moral 
training for the people through the channel of relig- 
ious instruction Spener followed the lines laid down 
by Luther in his catechisms, and espe- 
5. Religious cially advanced the task undertaken 

Training by Duke Ernest I. of Saxe-Gotha in 

and the the middle of the seventeenth century. 
Bible. It was owing to his efforts, indeed, that 
an electoral ordinance of Feb. 24, 1688, 
provided for the holding of weekly catechetical ex- 
aminations for children and adults alike throughout 
the country; and it is not improbable that Spener 
was the ultimate inspiration of the Prussian elec- 
toral edict of 1692 requiring Sunday catechization 
in the rural congregations. Spener's purpose was 
the inward assimilation of religious truth rather than 
mere imparting of knowledge; and his efforts to 
advance practical piety among the masses were in- 
timately associated with his interest in confirma- 
tion, which became an integral part of the usage 
of the Lutheran Church largely through the coopera- 
tion of Pietism. Still more eventful than Spener's 
energy, however, was the educational activity of 

One of the main characteristics of Pietism was 
the fact that it claimed to be founded exclusively 
on the Bible. This might seem to be a mere repe- 
tition of the assertions of Lutheranism from the 
very first, but Pietism showed its independence of 
Lutheran orthodoxy both in its unswerving return 
to the Bible and in its application of Scriptural 
truths. The Lutheran Church was bound, as Piet- 
ism was not, by the creeds in which it had summar- 
ized its understanding of the Bible, and which it 
regarded as authoritative. The Pietistic reestab- 
lishment of the authority of the Bible was, there- 
fore, a direct return to one of the cardinal princi- 
ples of the German Reformation, and by granting 
the " awakened " Christian full capacity for inde- 
pendent study of the Bible Pietism restored Jto lay- 
men the right which they had lost. Accordingly, 
Francke insisted that even children should read the 
Bible and made Biblical history a theme of study 
at school; while for the same reason he sought to 
gain wide circulation for the Bible, especially 
through the Canstein Bible Institute at Halle. On 
the other hand, Pietism impaired the salutary fea- 




tures of this return to the Bible when it ignored the 
influence of the facts and conditions of history in 
its system of exegesis. The result was unbridled 
subjectivism; the Bible became a magical book 
from which prognostications and counsels were 
sought; the gloomy views on the conditions pre- 
vailing in the Church and the world turned men's 
thoughts to the future and gave the prophecies and 
apocalyptic writings a preeminence which fostered 
only too well the Pietistic tendency toward fanati- 

While the practical character of Pietism forbids 
it to be considered a theological movement, it did 
not preclude points of contact with scientific theol- 
ogy. Unfortunately for both sides, 
6. Effect on however, these were predominantly 

Theology antithetic; yet at the same time the 
and Union, development of Pietism had two re- 
sults which were widely welcomed. In 
the first place, it became clear that the official 
Church and theology were not so deeply implanted 
among the people as had been supposed; and the 
recognition of this fact involved the task of seeking 
closer touch with the needs and longings of the 
time. Furthermore, by unsettling post-Reforma- 
tion scholasticism and combating excessive ap- 
preciation of the creeds, Pietism cleared the way 
for new theological investigation in which the Bible 
was made the first field of labor, while the presen- 
tation of new points of view supplied corresponding 
problems for solution. The fact that even these 
incentives produced no marked change in theol- 
ogy, but served only as a preliminary for its re- 
vival in the nineteenth century, was due not only 
to immobility and want of receptivity on the 
part of the orthodox theology of the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries, but also, in great 
measure, to the Pietistic lack of appreciation of 
the nature and import of learning, its failure to 
perceive the concept and task of theology apart 
from preaching, and its absence of conscious need 
of exact formulation. 

When Pietism once came to power, it renounced 
the claims to freedom which it had once emphasized, 
and rapidly declined into externalism and torpidity. 
The movement undoubtedly resulted in a consider- 
able depreciation of dogma and dogmatic docu- 
ments; for though they were not explicitly assailed, 
the stress laid by Pietism on Christian life and its 
use of the Bible deprived dogma of the preeminence 
which it had formerly enjoyed. The practical effect 
of this process appeared in a change of view regard- 
ing the relation of the Lutheran to the Reformed 
Church. It was obvious that living, personal Chris- 
tianity was not confined to the membership of the 
Lutheran Church; but, this being so, both denomi- 
nations were fundamentally equal. This disregard 
of sectarian distinctions was actually realized by 
Pietism when it was confronted with the task of 
founding a new church, the Unity of the Brethren. 
In this case, the first attempt at union was success- 
ful; though there is no doubt that other factors 
besides Pietism entered into the formation of the 
Moravian communion. It was undeniable, more- 
over, that the excessive stress of Pietism on per- 
sonal religion might possibly lead to a deprecia- 

tion of the differences separating Protestantism and 
Roman Catholicism, a tendency which might have 
found some support in certain aspects of the Halle 
system of education, in specific forms of Pietistic 
mysticism, and in much that is reported of Zinien- 
dorf . Pietism did not, however, yield to this allure- 
ment, but adhered to its essentially Protestant 
character. Spener was an uncompromising foe of 
the Roman Catholic Church. In 1676 he urged the 
elector to make no concession to the pope; the re- 
vocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685 called forth 
his unsparing condemnation; and the attempts of 
Cristoval Rojas de Spinola (q.v.) to unite Protes- 
tants and Roman Catholics received no sympathy 
from him. In 1694, as the spokesman of the Berlin 
clergy, he discussed the method of most effectually 
resisting all overtures of the Roman Catholic Church, 
and his entire attitude toward the Latin commu- 
nion was too intensely bitter to permit him to be 
suspected of any pro-Roman tendency. The exam- 
ple of Spener was followed in general by both the 
Halle and the Wurttemberg phases of Pietism; and 
though the age of orthodoxy witnessed many con- 
versions from the Lutheran to the Roman Catholic 
Church, Pietism was responsible for none of them. 
It was not until toward the close of the eighteenth 
and the beginning of the nineteenth century, when 
the Enlightenment had dulled sectarianism, that 
Pietists began to fraternize with Roman Catholics 
of similar tendencies. 

By weakening the antagonism that had previ- 
ously existed between the Lutherans and the Re- 
formed, Pietism became the vehicle of 

7. Fore- an idea which, when realized, pro- 
runner of duced far-reaching results. While the 
Religious concept of freedom in faith and con- 
Freedom, science did not attain full clearness and 

expression until the nineteenth cen- 
tury, Pietism was an important factor in this de- 
velopment; and to that movement was mainly due 
the wide diffusion of the conviction that it had be- 
come necessary to break with the restrictions on 
religious freedom contained in the treaties of Augs- 
burg and Westphalia. Pietism likewise fought 
against the external constraint which it encoun- 
tered from both Church and State because of the 
establishment, and secured legal sanction for its 
own organizations; and though this was but an iso- 
lated violation of the maxim that the State had the 
right of forcible intervention in case of deviation 
from the State Church, this infringement of the 
principle of territorialism marked a distinct ad- 
vance toward complete emancipation from the 
medieval concept of religious compulsion. 

Yet another constituent force in Pietism was its 
union of its adherents into a life of intimate relig- 
ious fellowship. The formation of circles of this 

type began the Pietistic movement 

8. Con- under Spener, and in Wurttemberg 
venticles they developed into lasting institutions, 
and Lay Wherever Halle's influence reached, 

Cooperation, such meetings were organized; and 
Zinzendorf's entire activity was sub- 
servient to the fellowship ideal. Pietism, therefore, 
fought unceasingly for the privilege of private as- 
sembly, and its opponents rightly deemed its con- 




ventides one of the most important manifestations 
of its peculiar genius. The diversity in the outward 
form of these conventicles, however, indicates that 
the movement sought merely to adapt given condi- 
tions to the practical development of active relig- 
ious intercommunication, with scant regard to ex- 
ternal organisation as an end in itself. In forming 
hk collegia pietatis Spener took his stand on the doc- 
trine of the universal priesthood, a theory which 
Luther had opposed to the Roman Catholic dis- 
tinction between clergy and laity, and which Lu- 
theranism had never renounced. The tenet had, 
however, received no practical application, for the 
old twofold classification of Christians had still con- 
tinued, except that the laity were now subjected to 
temporal rulers and theologians instead of being 
guided by bishops and priests. It was, then, only 
the revival of a fundamental idea of the Reforma- 
tion when Pietistic conventicles procured for every 
Christian the right and opportunity of testifying to 
his experience in free address and free prayer. The 
enlistment of laymen for cooperation in the active 
work of the Church, moreover, meant the winning 
€i new forces. This was a momentous advance, 
for though it was restricted chiefly to the " awa- 
kened," it still remained a vital force. The single- 
ness of aim in the highest concerns of life and the 
mutual interest in common edification produced so 
dose a bond of fellowship among Pietists that class 
distinctions of civil life either lost their significance 
or at least were much obscured. On the other hand, 
this very fact naturally afforded opportunities for 
base motives, as well as for vanity, greed, and hy- 
pocrisy; yet despite such abnormal phases of the 
movement, the increasing approximation of high 
and low on the basis of mutual religious edification 
at a time when such free contact was otherwise im- 
possible exercised a noteworthy influence on social 
life. Spener clearly saw and boldly faced the evils 
arising from the fact that the government of the 
Church was exclusively in the hands of the secular 
rulers in various governments, and that the laity 
were excluded from it. He accordingly urged the 
appointment of lay elders to cooperate with the 
preachers. The plan of instituting presbyteries 
gained favor in Wurttemberg and was realized in 
the Moravian congregations. Nevertheless, Spener 
was unsuccessful in securing a general participation 
of the laity in the administration of the Church, for 
this was impossible unless the above-mentioned 
secular rulers should voluntarily curtail their pre- 
rogatives, a thing inconceivable in the eighteenth 
century. Furthermore, the formation of separatis- 
tic bodies for the realization of his ideals was as 
opposed to Spener's ecclesiastical mind as was the 
act of the Peace of Westphalia in granting tolera- 
tion in Germany to those churches alone which 
were explicitly recognized by the treaty in question. 
But though Pietism found no way wholly to recon- 
struct the organization of the Church, the move- 
ment was not without significance in relation to 
subsequent efforts in this direction. There was a 
close affinity between Pietism and the chief expo- 
nents of Collegialism (q.v.), apparent, for instance, 
in the latter system's leading advocate, Christoph 
Matth&us Pfaff (q.v.), and also implied in the cir- 

cumstance that both causes had their headquarters 
at Halle. 

So far as the orthodox opponents of Pietism un- 
derstood and recognized the revival of the theory of 
the universal priesthood, they considered its benefi- 
cent results to be far outweighed by accompany- 
ing dangers and disadvantages. A far 

o> Sepa- • more vulnerable point of attack, how- 
ratistic ever, was the relation of Pietism to 
Tendencies, separatism. This tendency was en- 
tirely unintentional, and the Moravian 
branch of Pietism was the only one to form a sepa- 
rate communion. Yet even here both the attendant 
circumstances and the character which the sect as- 
sumed show that it was not a product of a separa- 
tistic spirit. On the other hand, it must be con- 
ceded that Pietism was peculiarly open to the 
charge of separatism; and the very fact that the 
adherents of the movement were not conventional 
in their bearing immediately aroused suspicion. 
Though the Pietists themselves denied that there 
was such a thing as " Pietism/' the outsider noticed 
that the friends of the movement kept together and 
supported each other, that the sense of union 
with sympathizers in other localities was a living 
one, that the adherents of the cause evinced un- 
usual energy in pursuit of their aims, and that they 
exercised a potent influence. In short, Pietism had 
become a " party " as early as 1691; and during 
its golden age at Halle it manifested every evil of 
factionalism: greed for power; one-sided condem- 
nation of opponents; and failure to censure friends. 
It seemed, therefore, both consciously and distinctly 
a tendency toward separation from fellow Lutherans 
in religious and in social life; and the very fact that 
its measures were designed to further the religious 
interests of its adherents alone caused it to be sus- 
pected of tendencies toward separatism and even 

Not only did Pietism thus become a faction of 
Lutheranism, but it was also joined and besieged 
by many of separatistic tendencies. As an opposi- 
tion movement it naturally possessed a strong at- 
traction for all those elements which were dissatis- 
fied with existing conditions in the Church. Here 
they looked for sympathy and shelter, doubtless 
hoping, at the same time, to make the Pietistic 
circles instrumental to their own aims. They were 
cordially welcomed, but Pietism had to atone for 
excessive leniency toward many an enthusiast and 
" prophet " of doubtful character or of radical views. 
This ambiguous attitude of Pietism toward radical- 
ism and separatism naturally increased current mis- 
trust of the movement, and explains why its oppo- 
nents might honestly assume an actual agreement 
between the two groups. Pietism itself, moreover, 
became fruitful soil for separatist movements 
through its attacks on contemporary Church condi- 
tions, its conventicle system, and its predilection for 
chiliasm and the like. At the same time, a sharp 
distinction must be drawn between Pietism and 
separatism. The former sought to achieve its proj- 
ects of reform inside the Lutheran Church, and 
took current dogma and recognized organization 
as its bases; while the latter had lost all hopes 
of the future of a Church which it assumed to 




be moribund, and accordingly on principle took 
up a position outside the existing status of the 

The chief characteristics of Pietism also in- 
clude intense moral earnestness and the stern aus- 
terity that it sought to realize in 

10. Rigid practical life. The conditions which 

Austerity, confronted it demanded a* policy of 
energetic aggression. Morality was low, 
especially at the courts and among the nobility, 
and conditions in the middle classes and the peas- 
antry were little better. The effects of the Thirty 
Years' War, which had shaken German civilization 
to its very foundations, were visible in immorality, 
luxury, riotous living, and contempt for the rights 
of others. How far Pietism effected the moral ele- 
vation of the masses must remain a problem until 
deeper researches shall have been made in the his- 
tory of eighteenth-century Lutheranism, particu- 
larly with regard to the confessional. It is certain, 
however, that the adultery and drunkenness com- 
mon among Lutheran pastors before the rise of Piet- 
ism were checked by it; and that it distinctly raised 
the moral tone of the Wurttemberg clergy. Its 
moral effect upon the nobility is equally demon- 
strable, even though its darker sides were shown at 
the court of more than one Pietistic count. The 
labors of Pietism were, therefore, by no means in 

Pietism not only combated worldliness, but 
viewed the world itself as a vast organism of sin 
which every " awakened " Christian must shun 
under jeopardy of salvation. This attitude, how- 
ever, gave rise to controversy because of the demand 
of Pietism that public morality be transformed to 
accord with its peculiar tenets, so that the theater, 
dancing, cards, smoking, and jesting were not to be 
considered Adiaphora (q.v.), but must be avoided 
by the Christian as sins and abominations before 
God. This austerity came to prevail not only among 
the more humble adherents of the movement, but 
also among the Pietistic nobility, so that Henry II. 
of Reuss-Greitz even attempted, though with scant 
success, to give official recognition to these princi- 
ples by a decree dated Sept. 17, 1717. Pietism itself, 
however, was unswerving in its attitude, and all its 
branches retained the conviction that the converted 
Christian must exercise renunciation regarding the 
points at issue. This position was deeply significant 
in the development of Pietism, for by shunning the 
world it was led to feel either no interest or an en- 
tirely inadequate interest in art, science, and secu- 
lar culture. This aloofness involved the surrender of 
all real influence upon intellectual life in general; 
it forced Pietism into a position of isolation, and 
was also bound to restrict its religious and moral 

The final conspicuous attribute of Pietism was its 

 To those who do not regard separatism as an unmixed 
evil, but as a thing sometimes demanded by way of protest 
against intolerable State Church conditions, the above criti- 
cism will seem to lack force. If conditions in Germany in the 
seventeenth and the eighteenth century had made possible 
the rise ot denominations, as in England, the religious life of 
the nation might have attained to and maintained a higher 
standard, and the triumph ot rationalism in the Enlighten- 
ment (q.v.) might have been averted. a. h n. 

practical benevolence, which led the movement in- 
to the midst of active life and made it the vehicle 
of an evangelical comprehensivenesi 
iz. PhUan- hitherto unknown in Germany. Hie 
thropic and impulse to undertake such tasks was 
Missionary inherent in the nature of Pietism. 
Activity. Just as Luther had taught that good 
works must necessarily proceed from 
living faith, so the intense religious life of Pietism 
inspired its followers to share the blessings of their 
salvation with others, to testify to their faith, and 
to give proof of it by upright life and brotherly love. 
In harmony with this attitude they naturally sought 
out the wretched and the needy as proper objects 
of beneficence. Attention was given first to their 
own countrymen and was begun by Spener himself, 
who took an active part in building a combination 
of a poorhouse, orphan asylum, and workhouse at 
Frankfort in 1679. The importance of all this, how- 
ever, was overshadowed by Francke's establish- 
ment of the orphan asylum at Halle in 1694. The 
new element in this event was the fact that one 
man alone, relying on divine help, should under- 
take to found such an institution on broad lines, 
and that it should be maintained by the voluntary 
contributions of a circle bound by mutual sympathy. 
Thus Pietism won the distinction of permanently 
pledging the Lutheran Church to works of active 
benevolence, so preparing the way for the ultimate 
establishment of the inner mission (see Innbre Mis- 
sion). The orphan asylum at Halle was also the 
point of departure for foreign missions, the second 
form of benevolent activity created by Pietism, 
Spener himself had had appreciation for this cause, 
though the actual bond between Pietism and mis- 
sions was Francke. Through him Halle became the 
psychic center of the Danish mission, he supplied 
the missionaries that went to India, he founded the 
first German missionary journal, he raised money 
for missionary purposes, and he led Protestant Ger- 
many to include missions in its scope of activity. 
A distinct step in advance was made shortly after- 
ward when Zinzendorf turned the attention of the 
Moravians to this field of labor, not only because 
the Moravians embodied an independent type, and 
were more adaptable than the Halle Pietists, but 
also because they struck into new paths, utilized 
the services of laymen, and as a church sent mis- 
sionaries with astonishing rapidity to various parts 
of America and South Africa. Germany was led, 
therefore, to share in spreading Protestantism among 
non-Christian nations and peoples through the direct 
influence of Pietism; and since this movement con- 
trolled the mission work until late in the nineteenth 
century, the details of the system adopted clearly 
showed the peculiar genius of Pietism. Under Zin- 
zendorf s direction, the Moravian type of mission- 
ary preaching, unlike that of the Danish and Halle 
mission, took the noteworthy course of preaching 
simply the Gospel of Christ, and not Lutheran dog- 
ma. It was, moreover, the interest of German 
Pietism in the diffusion of the Scriptures that led 
the missions to make the Bible accessible in trans- 
lation to the Christian congregations among the 
heathen. The pioneer in this cause was Bartholo- 
maeus Ziegenbalg (q.v.) with his Tamil version of 




the Bible (Tranquebar, 1714-28). In certain re- 
spects, however, the adoption of Pietistic views 
worked unfavorably, as in the attempt to concen- 
trate converts from paganism into small congrega- 
tions analagous to the Pietistic circles within the 
Church at home. At the same time, extraordinarily 
strict rules were laid down regarding the admission 
of converts to the Church, and baptism was given 
onjy when conversion had been proved; while the 
same antipathy toward amusements and popular 
customs was manifested by the Pietists in the mis- 
sion field as was shown by them in Germany. The 
Pietists were also lacking, to some degree, in proper 
self-restraint, as in their choice of fields of labor, the 
practise of drawing lots in connection with weighty 
decisions, and the sentimentalism characterizing 
many of their reports. Pietism also inaugurated 
systematic missions among the Jews. Spener had 
recognised the need of such missions and had done 
much to rouse interest in them. The Moravians 
also took an active part in this work through the aid 
of Samuel Lieberkuhn, although their extensive 
foreign missions prevented them from applying their 
fuD energy to this difficult branch of Christian ac- 
tivity. On the other hand, an important center for 
these efforts was created by Pietism at Halle, where 
Johann Heinrich Callenberg (q.v.) founded, in 1728, 
an Institutum Judaicum, which continued in opera- 
tion till 1792. Pietism likewise aided those who 
sympathized with its tenets, even though they were 
not within its own communion or in its own land. 
Zinzendorf found opportunity to intercede for the 
Protestants in Moravia; he protected the Sen wen ck- 
fekiians who had fled from Saxony to America; and 
he made spiritual provision for the German emi- 
grants to Pennsylvania. 

Hie exact relation of Pietism to the Enlighten- 
ment (q.v.) is a problem which receives most diver- 
gent answers. Some declare that the two move- 
ments are absolutely antithetical, and others hold 
that the Enlightenment is a product of Pietism. In 
reality, however, the relation between 
12. Pietism these two trends was neither one of 
and the mere antithesis nor yet one of cause 
Enlighten- and effect. Though there were many 
rnent. fundamental deviations between Piet- 
ism and Enlightenment, such as the 
divergent attitudes toward revelation, the essence 
of piety, and the Bible, the two movements still had 
points in common, not only through such men as 
Christian Thomasius, Johann Christian Edelmann, 
and Johann Konrad Dippel (qq.v.), but also through 
their opposition to Lutheran orthodoxy, their in- 
sistence on the religious rights of individuals, and 
their practical Christianity. On the other hand, 
the theory that the Enlightenment was derived 
from Pietism is inadequate, for it assumes that those 
degeneracies and excrescences of the separatists 
and radical forms of Pietism, which Pietism itself 
rejected as alien elements, must be regarded as 
characteristic features of the movement; and this 
hypothesis also overlooks the fact that the premises 
underlying Enlightenment were extremely mani- 
fold, and in their initial stages were far anterior to 
the rise of Pietism. Enlightenment and Pietism 
should rather be considered two distinct movements 
IX.— 5 

with a mutual goal in the destruction of clericalism, 
though diverging from each other in their subse- 
quent evolution. At the same time, the since rest 
Pietism indirectly aided the rapid growth of En- 
lightenment in Germany, not only, in its contempt 
for culture, by giving the younger generation no 
adequate training to cope with Enlightenment, but 
also, through its neglect of such education, by dri- 
ving those of scholarly inclinations into the rational- 
istic camp. 

It is extremely difficult to fix the precise limits 

of Pietism in point of time. Each of its chief phases 

passed through a distinct development and reached 

its climax at a different period. At 

13. Devel- Halle Pietism was on the decline by 

opment and 1730; and when Francke died in 1769, 

Origin, the old position of Halle as the citadel 
of Pietism in central and northern Ger- 
many was practically lost. Wurttemberg Pietism 
never exercised such wide-spread influence as that 
of Halle, but on the other hand it enjoyed a tran- 
quil and steady development; and it also had the 
advantage of not owing its prosperity to any one 
individual, so that the death of Bengel in 1769 had 
no such effect as that of Francke. By overcoming 
the " Storm and Stress period," which they styled 
their " winnowing-time," the Moravians had w T on 
such internal and external tenacity that the decease 
of Zinzendorf in 1760 no longer menaced their status, 
and August Gottlieb Spangenberg (q.v.) could 
begin his activity. When Valentin Ernst Loscher 
(q.v.), the famous opponent of Pietism, died in 1749, 
the Pietistic controversy had ceased to attract at- 
tention; the age of aggressive Pietism was past; 
its message to Protestantism had been delivered. 

Great differences of opinion likewise prevail con- 
cerning the beginnings of Pietism. It is well known, 
however, that long before the time of Spener a re- 
action had begun against the ruling tendencies in 
the Church and in theology, as well as against their 
effect on Christian life. Yet despite all this, the 
Pietistic movement was adjudged by its own con- 
temporaries to be something new, this view being 
justified by the fact that Pietism welded together 
the scattered projects of reform, deduced their prac- 
tical conclusions, and endeavored to realize them. 
This was Spener's achievement, and in this sense 
he may be considered the founder of Pietism. The 
preparation for Pietism, like its history, shows clear 
analogies to similar phenomena within the Reformed 
Church; and long before Spener's movement the 
sects which had broken off from the Church of 
England had manifested a kindred spirit which 
exercised a marked influence on the continent, 
including Germany, through its rich devotional lit- 
erature. In western Germany contact with the Re- 
formed Church of Holland was an important factor. 
The Pietistic tendencies in the Reformed Church, 
which also appear in the Reformed phase of Protes- 
tantism in northern Germany, are in entire accord 
with Lutheran Pietism in their emphasis upon prac- 
tical Christianity, their attitude toward the dom- 
inant orthodoxy of their time, and their tendency 
toward a closer union among the faithful. These 
points of agreement between Lutheran Pietism and 
its parallels on Reformed soil imply the existence of 




an international movement, even as Enlightenment 
was later to pervade all Europe. Yet even though 
many an incentive may have reached Germany from 
the Puritans, the Labadists, and the Dutch, Pietism 
was essentially a German movement, not a product 
of foreign Calvinism. 

VL Later Development: Among the numerous 

and divergent factors which finally brought about 

the fall of Enlightenment, Pietism was one of the 

foremost. Though it could bring to bear neither 

theological nor philosophical learning, and though 

it was without influence either on great 

i. Factors masses or on the rulers of Church and 

and State, it at least possessed the power 

Growth, which is ever inherent in firm religious 
convictions and the inward strength of 
the Christianity for which it stood. Pietism thus 
became the center for multitudes of members of the 
State Church who had failed to find in the official 
clergy, dominated by Enlightenment, the aid to re- 
ligion which they desired. The new movement, on 
the other hand, was able to give all who joined it a 
definite and inspiring aim in the propaganda for the 
old faith; and there accordingly arose a Pietistic 
reaction which, hidden at first, grew until it be- 
came a potent factor among the national, literary, 
theological, and ecclesiastical elements which com- 
bined for the spiritual and mental regeneration of 
Germany during the period of the Napoleonic wars. 
So powerful, indeed, was its influence that it was 
little less than that which had been exercised by 
the Pietism of the eighteenth century, even though 
the changed conditions of the times rendered its ex- 
ternal forms less striking. The bond between the 
Pietism of the eighteenth and that of the nineteenth 
century was supplied by survivals of the older move- 
ment, by the Moravians, and by the Christentums- 
gesellschaft (see Christentumsgesellschaft, Die 
Deutsche). From this latter organization German 
Lutheranism gained an assistance which marked 
an epoch in its history, especially in view of the 
foundation of the Basel Bible Society, the Basel 
Missionary Society, and other religious and philan- 
thropic institutions. The Moravians, or Unity of the 
Brethren (q.v.), perhaps never exercised a greater 
influence upon German Protestantism than during 
the era of Enlightenment. The very remoteness of 
their settlements gave them protection against the 
tendencies of the age, and the further they pro- 
gressed in their tranquil development, the greater 
was the'confidence of others in their cause. Even in 
Zinzendorf 's time auxiliary societies were formed in 
England and Holland for the support of their mis- 
sionary labors, and they were aided by their friends 
in Germany, especially about the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, when " awakened " circles be- 
came filled with the missionary spirit. Zinzendorf 
also showed himself disposed to cultivate religious 
friendship with non-Moravian sympathizers, and 
from his tours for the furtherance of this end was 
developed missionary activity among the Lutheran 
DiuHpora, the object being not secession from the 
State Church, but the formation of circles of Mora- 
vian sympathizers within it. In 1775 these affiliated 
adherents numbered 30,000. The revival type of 
preaching also renewed the conventicles of the older 

Pietism. In Wurttemberg, indeed, prayer-meeting 
had never lapsed entirely, but had been conducted 
chiefly by laymen until a number of pastors, among 
whom Ludwig Hofacker (q.v.) was prominent, like- 
wise joined the movement. In 1828 the number 
of those attending conventicles was estimated at 
30,000. Swabian Pietism was also powerfully aided 
by its close affiliations with the Basel Missionary 
Society, which still finds its chief subsidiary district 
in Wurttemberg, whence it is accustomed to call its 
leaders. So important a center as Basel was bound 
to affect all German Switzerland; Barbara Juliana 
von Krudener (q.v.) gave some incentives of a tran- 
sient kind in this region; and the " awakening " in 
French Switzerland likewise became a factor as H 
spread eastward. Besides Bern and Zurich, St. Gall 
may be noted as the center of a large Pietistic circle 
formed by the talented Agnes Schlatter. The re- 
vival in Bavaria found some Roman Catholic ad- 
herents, and Nuremberg also became a Pietistic 
focus, largely through the merchant Johann Tobias 
Kiessling. In Baden, the rise of Pietistic sentiment 
was observed from the time of the " famine years " 
1816-17, and it made rapid progress after the union 
of 1821. In northern Germany, on the other hand, 
Pietism, except for small scattered groups, suc- 
cumbed to Enlightenment; and even when this 
latter movement was approaching its end, the Piet- 
istic cause had no firm hold that could be compared 
with Pietism in Wurttemberg. The Reformed 
Pietism of Rhenish Westphalia, however, ex- 
perienced a powerful revival through Samuel Collen- 
busch, Johann Gerhard Hasenkamp, Friedrich 
Arnold Hasenkamp, Johann Heinrich Hasenkamp, 
Gottfried Menken, Friedrich Adolf Krummacher, 
and Gottfried Daniel Krummacher (qq.v.). At the 
same time the Lutherans at Elberfeld were headed 
by a pastor, Hilmar Ernst Rauschenbusch, who had 
been won for Pietism while a student at Halle; the 
valley of the Wupper remained one of Pietism's 
surest domains in the nineteenth century; and the 
movement even gained entrance at Berlin, a center 
of German Enlightenment, notably through the 
efforts of the Silesian Baron Ernst von Kottwiti 
(q.v.) and the preacher Johann Janicke. 

It is even more difficult to define modern Pietism 
than the corresponding movement of the eighteenth 
century. It forms no organized ecclesiastical body; 
its individual groups have no fixed mutual relation; 
it has no distinct theological tendency; 
a. Charac- and large numbers of its adherents do 
ter of not term themselves Pietists. The old 
Modern Halle school of Pietism has entirely 
Pietism, disappeared. The Moravians have 
formed a distinct church, and have so 
largely divested themselves of earlier Pietistic char- 
acteristics that only in a very limited sense can they 
now be considered Pietists. The Wurttemberg 
branch alone survives, but though it preserves most 
purely the connecting bond with early Pietism, the 
territorial limitations of its activity prevent it from 
serving as a standard to determine the nature of 
modern Pietism. The transfer of the term Pietism 
to phases of church life of the nineteenth century 
shows that the word has lost its original definiteness 
of meaning. In many instances the modern use of 




the word indeed connotes ideas in harmony with the 
older Pietism; in other instances there are only 
alight suggestions of such affinities; and in yet other 
eises there are absolutely no points in common. 
The Pietism of the nineteenth century may, how- 
ever, be defined as that tendency in German Prot- 
estantism which represents the devotional type of 
the older Pietism, as well as its views of life and its 
altitude toward the world, so that it may be re- 
garded as a continuation of the earlier school. 
Nevertheless, only the fundamental ideas of primi- 
tive Pietism have been retained, for the revolutions 
in political, social, and ecclesiastical affairs have 
caused the movement to assume new forms and ac- 
tivities and to adopt new constituent elements. It 
thus implies a further stage of development and 
allows scarcely an instance of mere repetition. It 
no longer fosters religious life by prayer-meetings, 
bat finds a wider sphere of activity in foreign and 
domestic missionary societies. A noteworthy char- 
acteristic of the revival period of the early nine- 
teenth century was the sense of fellowship with simi- 
lar circles within the Roman Catholic Church, while 
the two churches cooperated in Bible societies, but 
the rise of ultramontanism, after the second decade 
of the nineteenth century, ended further association, 
although in Pietistic circles the sentiment of spir- 
itual affinity with kindred spirits in the sister church 
persisted long, and exercises some influence even at 
the present time. The syncretism of Pietism, 
moreover, in combination with the decay of de- 
nominational barriers during the period of the 
Enlightenment, rendered the movement as liable to 
sectarianism and separatism in the nineteenth cen- 
tury as it had been in the hundred years preceding; 
but, on the other hand, these dangers were lessened 
by the fact that the relations of the new Pietism to 
the Church and to orthodoxy experienced an essen- 
tial transformation. Their united stand against 
their common foe rationalism produced close affilia- 
tions which outlasted the conflict. Pietism became 
reabsorbed in the Church, and orthodoxy grew 
susceptible to Pietistic modes of thought and feeling. 
This change in the situation of Pietism was essen- 
tially aided by the fact that the Church now ac- 
corded due recognition to practical benevolence 
both at home and in the foreign mission field. Since, 
however, Pietism had from the first laid special 
claim to these spheres of activity, the altered atti- 
tude of orthodoxy toward it was a distinct tribute 
to its ability and enabled it to retain all essentials 
of its missionary position. When, moreover, the 
Church developed an increasing interest in domestic 
and foreign missions, there was a marked augmenta- 
tion both of the influence of Pietism and of the con- 
fidence shown it by orthodox circles. 

A comprehensive verdict on the significance of 
modern Pietism for German Protestantism, whether 
favorable or unfavorable, can not be given in a sin- 
gle sentence. It is a far more complex 
3. Estimate phenomenon than the older system, 
of the full of heterogeneous elements, and not 
Movement only varying in different parts of the 
country and changing with the lapse 
of time, but also showing divergent phases in cities 
and in rural districts. In addition to its mission 

work, Pietism was an important factor in the relig- 
ious revival of Germany during the first third of the 
nineteenth century, even though it was not the sole 
source of the movement. The enlargement of its 
sphere of activity and its coalescence with the State 
Church doubtless aided Pietism to escape from its 
conventicle-like bonds. On the other hand, its in- 
nate tendency toward small coteries, which cuts it 
off from all comprehension of the wealth of intel- 
lectual, national, and cultured life, prevents it from 
becoming a great popular movement; nor has it 
proved able to resist the tendency toward party 
schemes and uncharitable depreciation of those 
holding different opinions. The movement has re- 
cently been forced into a critical position by the 
rise of the modern associations! tendency based on 
Anglo-American Methodism; for even though Piet- 
ism and Methodism were closely akin in origin, the 
tendency in question is directed toward ends which 
have no reference to Pietism. Carl Mirbt. 

Bibliography: A. Ritschl, Geachichte dea Pietiamua, Bonn, 
1884-86; J. Q. Walch, Einleitung in die ReHgionaatreitig- 
keiten der evangAutheriachen Kirche, 5 vols., Jena, 1730-39; 
F. W. Berthold, in Raumera hietoriachen Taechenbuch, 3 
eer., in. 131-320, iv. 171-390, Leipsio, 1852-53; M. Gdbel, 
Geachichte dea chriatlichen Lebena in der rheiniach-west- 
foliachen Kirche, vols, ii.-iii., Cobleni, 1852-60; A. Tho- 
luck, Der Qeiat der lutheriachen Theologen Wittenberga . . . 
dea 17. Johrhundertea, Hamburg, 1852; W. Gasa, Geachichte 
der proteatantiachen Dogmotik, ii. 374-449, Berlin, 1857; 
H. Schmid, Die Geachichte dea Pietiamua, Ndrdlingen, 1863; 
H. L. J. Heppe, Geachichte dea Pietiamua und der Myatik 
in . . . der Niederlande, Leyden, 1879; W. Bender, Jo- 
hann Konrad Dippel, Der Freigeiet aua dem Pietiamua, 
Bonn, 1882; F. Nippold, Zur Vorffeachichte dea Pietiamua, 
in TSK, 1882, pp. 347-392; idem, Handbuch der neueaten 
Kirchengechichte, in. 114 aqq., iv. 173 sqq., Berlin, 1901; 
E. Sachoe, Ur sprung und Weaen dea Pietiamua, Wies- 
baden, 1884; L. Renner, Lebenabilder aua der Pietiaten- 
text, Leipsic, 1886; G. Freytag, Bilder aua der deutachen 
Vergangenheit, vols, iii.-iv., Leipsic, 1888; J. H. Kurts, 
Church History, pp. 159. 162, 176, New York, 1890; W. 
Habner, Der Pietiamua, Zwickau, 1901; C. Kolb, Die An- 
fonge dea Pietiamua und Separotiamua in Wurttemberg, Stutt- 
gart, 1902; T. Kolde, in Beitroge zur bayeriachen Kirchen- 
geachiehte, viii. 266-283, Erlangen, 1902; J. Batteiger, 
Der Pietiamua in Bayreuth, Berlin, 1903; J. Jungst-Stettin, 
Pietieten, Tubingen, 1906; H. Stephan. Der Pietiamua ola 
Troger dea FortachriUa, Tubingen, 1908; W. G. Goetere, 
Die Vorbereitung dea Pietiamua in der reformierten Kirche 
der Niederlande, Leipsic, 1909; Troltsch, Leibniz und die 
Anfange dea Pietiamua, ed. C. Werckshagen, i. 366-375, 
Berlin, n.d.; the literature under Francks, August Her- 
mann; Kruxdenzr, Barbara Juliana von; especially 
that under Mysticism; Spenbr, Philipp Jakob; and 
Thomasius, Christian; and the works on the church 
histoxy of the period. 


GHE): Dutch Roman Catholic controversialist; 
b. at Kampen (9 m. n.n.w. of Zwolle) c. 1490; d. at 
Utrecht Dec. 26, 1542. He studied philosophy and 
mathematics at the University of Louvain and com- 
pleted his theological studies at the University of 
Cologne in 1517. He was canon (1524-35) and prov- 
ost (1535-42) at the Church of St. John the Bap- 
tist, Utrecht. Pope Hadrian VI. called him to 
Rome in 1523 and he took part in the diets of Worms 
and Regensburg, the issue of which were his publi- 
cations: Controversiarum prcecipuarum (Cologne, 
1541); Ratio componendorum dissidiorum (1542); 
and Apologia adversus M. Buceri (Mainz, 1543). 
Pighius was one of the most resolute defenders of 





the papacy, and in his comprehensive principal 
work, Hierarchies ecclesiastical assertio (Cologne, 
1538), he unfolded most conclusively the papal sys- 
tem from a substructure involving a critical survey 
of the sources of Christian truth. He was the first 
to make tradition a basis of knowledge alongside of 
Scripture, in order to cut off Protestant argument 
in advance. On the other hand, his zeal of argu- 
ment almost betrayed him as an unconscious dis- 
ciple of Protestantism. The freedom of the will he 
asserted to such an extent, in De libero hominis ar- 
bitrio (1542), that original sin seemed to him scarcely 
as actual corruption but rather the imputation of 
the sin of Adam. This view carried with it the con- 
sequence of regarding justification as the imputation 
of the righteousness of Christ. 

(E. F. Karl MCllbr.) 

Bibliography: Bayle, Dictionary, iv. 637-641; A. Schwefoer, 
Die protcstantischen Centraldogmen, i. 180 sqq., Zurich, 
1854; Linsenmann, in TQ, 1866, pp. 571 sqq.; K. Werner, 
Geschichtc der apologetitchen taut polemischen Litteratvr, 
iv. 241 sqq., 275 sqq., Schaffhauaen, 1865; Hefele, Con- 
ciliengeschichte, ix. 936 sqq. 

PIGOU, pi-gQ', FRANCIS: Church of England; 
b. at Baden-Baden, Germany, of English parent- 
age, Jan. 8, 1832. He was educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin (B.A., 1853), and was ordered deacon 
in 1855 and priested in the following year. He was 
curate of Stoke Talmage, Oxfordshire (1855-56), 
chaplain of Marbceuf Chapel, Paris (1856-58), cu- 
rate of Vere Street Chapel, London (1858), and of 
St. Philip's, Regent Street, and St. Mary's, Ken- 
sington (1858-60), incumbent of St. Philip's (1860- 
1869), and served as vicar of Doncaster (1869- 
1875), being also rural dean of Doncaster after 1870; 
he was vicar of Halifax (1875-88), where he was 
likewise rural dean, and became dean of Chicester, 
a dignity which he held three years. Since 1891 he 
has been dean of Bristol, and was appointed a chap- 
lain-in-ordinary to the queen in 1890. He is widely 
and favorably known as a missioner, and has held . 
missions not only throughout England, but also in 
the United States, which he visited in 1885. His 
writings include Faith and Practice (sermons; Lon- 
don, 1865); Early Communion Addresses (1877); 
Addresses to District Visitors and Sunday School 
Teachers (1880); Addresses delivered on various 
Occasions (1883); Manual of Confirmation (1888); 
Phases of my Life (1898); Odds and Ends (1903); 
and The Acts of the Holy Ghost. Thirty-two Years of 
Experience of Conducting Parochial Missions (1908). 

PILATE, ACTS OF. See Apocrypha, B, I., 7. 

PILATE, PONTIUS: Known only as the fifth 
Roman procurator of Judea, under whose adminis- 
tration Jesus was executed. He probably succeeded 
Gratus 27 a.d. and ended his procuratorship early in 
37; it is not likely that Pilate required more than a 
year for his return journey to Rome, whither he was 
summoned by Tiberius to give an account of his ad- 
ministration, and he arrived there after Tiberius' 
death, which took place Mar. 16, 37, and it appears 
that Vitellius, the legate of Syria, his accuser, was 
in Jerusalem in 36 as well as in 37, at the time of the 
Passover. Regarding the position of the procura- 
tor, see Govxbnob. A copper coin struck in Csesarea 
under Pontius Pilate is represented in DB, iii. 424- 

428. The judgment regarding Pilate's 
tion is chiefly based on the statements of PhUo 
(Legatio at Caium, xxxviii.), who calls him inflexible 
and ruthless and reproaches him with venality, vio- 
lence, peculation, ill-treatment, insult, the repeated 
infliction of punishment without trial, and with end- 
less acts of cruelty — the well-known accusations 
brought by the Jews against every energetic Roman 
functionary. The only fact adduced by Philo, the 
setting up in the palace at Jerusalem of the golden 
shields dedicated to Tiberius, testifies only to the 
extreme sensitiveness of the Jews. Josephus (if or, 
II., ix.; Ant., XVIII., iii.-iv.) judges mors indul- 
gently, although he charges the procurator with 
introducing into Jerusalem banners bearing the 
emperor's image, and with using the funds of the 
temple for the construction of an aqueduct. The 
fact that Pilate energetically repressed every re- 
volt is also proved by the massacre of the Galileans 
(Luke xiii. 1) and of the Samaritans (Josephus, 
Ant, 9 XVIII., iii. 1, iv. 1). It was on account of 
this latter act that Pilate was removed by Vitellius, 
who was very friendly toward the Samaritans as well 
as the Jews. It is quite natural that there were fre- 
quent disputes between the imperial procurator and 
the Jewish princes as to their respective fields of 
authority. Of the cause of the enmity between 
Pilate and Herod alluded to in Luke xziiL 12, 
nothing is known. That Pilate was not an incom- 
petent functionary is proved by the long duration 
of his rule under Tiberius. 

In the trial of Jesus, Pilate acted from the stand- 
point of a functionary for whom public order was 
more important than the life even of an innocent 
man. According to Mark, the only question at 
issue was the confirmation of a sentence passed by 
the Sanhedrin. The fact that death occurred so 
quickly is the cause of his curiosity for the moment. 

In Matthew and in Luke various points are added 
which bear an apologetic stamp; Pilate's wife and 
he himself acknowledge the innocence of Jesus. In 
John, where the main action of the trial is trans- 
ferred from the Sanhedrin to the proceedings be- 
fore Pilate, he becomes almost a mediator between 
Jesus and the Jews. Subsequently, along this 
apologetic tendency, the responsibility for the death 
of Jesus is more and more laid upon the Jews, and 
Pilate is made a witness to his innocence. Later 
Pilate is even represented as a Christian; the Copts 
and the Abyssinians rank him among the saints; 
and the Greeks do the same for his wife Prokla. 
In the third century arose the legend of Pilate's 
suicide under Caligula, of which Origen knows noth- 
ing. After the fourth century the estimation of 
Pilate, especially in the west, became more and 
more unfavorable; but recent historians have been 
more just in their treatment. 

E. von DobschCtz. 

Some interest attaches to the apocryphal account 
of the death of Pilate (Eng. transl., ANF t viii. 466- 
467). According to this the Emperor Tiberius was 
afflicted with a serious disease. Hearing that there 
was in Judea a wonderful physician who healed 
by power of a word, he sent to Pilate an order to 
have the physician come to Rome. To the messen- 
ger Pilate confesses that he has had the healer cm- 





cified because he was a malefactor. The messenger 
in returning meets Veronica, who sends by him the 
miraculous handkerchief (see Jesus Christ, Pic- 
tubes and Images of, III., 1, §§ 1-2), by which 
the emperor was healed. So Tiberius was enraged 
at Pilate and had him brought to Rome, but was 
restrained miraculously from upbraiding him by 
the fact that Pilate wore the seamless coat of Jesus. 
In a second interview, the anger of the emperor dis- 
solved in the same unaccountable manner. By im- 
pulse or on advice, Tiberius had Pilate deprived 
of the coat and then sentenced him to the most dis- 
graceful death possible. To avoid this, Pilate com- 
mitted suicide. His body was weighted and sunk 
in the Tiber, but the demons which inhabited the 
body caused the water to boil as if in a storm. The 
body was then raised and sent to Vienne in France 
(etymologized as Via Gehenna), where the phenom- 
enon was repeated. The body was then sent to 
"Loeania" (Lausanne or Lucerne?) and buried. 
Thus Pilate was brought into connection with Mont 
Pilatus, near Lucerne, the name of which is, however, 
rather to be derived from Mons PUeatus, " the 
hatted mountain/' referring to the cloud cap which 
forms so often around the summit in midday. 

Bibliography: As sources, besides the references in the 
Gospels, consult: Philo, Legatio ad Caium, xxxviii.; Jo- 
sephus, War, II., ix.; idem. Ant., XVIII., iii.-iv.; and the 
apocryphal material with comment on it, as follows: J. C. 
Thilo, Codex apocryphus N. T., i. 118-119, 487-488, Leip- 
sic. 1832; C. Teschendorf, PUati circum Christum judicio 
quid lucis afferatur ex Actis Pilati, Leipsic, 1855; idem, 
Bvangelia apocrypha, lb. 1876; R. A. Lipsius, Die Pilatus- 
Akten, Kiel, 1871; Clemen, in TSK, 1894, pp. 759 sqq., 

F. C. Conybeare, in Studia Biblica et ecclesiastica, iv. 59- 
132. Oxford, 1896; Harnack, Litteratur, i. 21-24, 907- 
909, ii. 1, pp. 603-612; M. R. James, Apocrypha Artec- 
data, in TS, vol. ii.; E. Hennecke, Handbuch tu den neu- 
testamentlichen Apokryphen, pp. 143 sqq., Tubingen, 1904; 
idem, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen, pp. 74-76, ib. 1904. 
Eng. transls. of the apocryphal materia! are in: ANF, 
▼in. 416-467 (see Apocrypha, II., 7); Acta Pilati, ed. 
Geo. Sluter, Shelby ville, Ind., 1879; Qesta Pilati: or 
the Report*, Letters and Acts of Pontius Pilate . . . , ed. 
W. O. Clough, Indianapolis, 1880; Apocryphal Gospels, 
Acts, and Revelations, translated by A. Walker, pp. 125 
sqq., Edinburgh, 1873; Apocryphal New Testament, pp. 
50-79, Boston, n.d. Consult further: J. Langen, Die 
ietxten Lebenstage Jesu, pp. 261-294, Freiburg, 1864; 

G. Warneck, Pontius Pilatus der RichterJesu Christi, Gotha, 
1867; G. A. Mailer, Pontius Pilatus der funfte Prokurator 
von Judaa, Stuttgart, 1888 (gives earlier literature); 
P. Waltjer, Pontius Pilatus, eene Studie, Amsterdam, 1888; 
A. Schaab, Pontius Pilatus, ein Zeitbild, Carlsruhe, 1892; 
T. Kommsen, R&mische Qeschichte, v. 508 sqq., Berlin, 
1894; J. Stalker, Trial and Death of Jesus Christ, pp. 43 
sqq., London, 1894; A. T. Innes, Trial of Jesus Christ, a 
Legal Monograph, Edinburgh, 1899; S. Mathews, Hist, of 
N. T. Times, 2d ed.. New York, 1910; J. Belser, Die 
Geschichte Leidens und Sterbens . . . des Herrn, pp. 323- 
339. 346-372, Freiburg, 1903; G. Roeadi, The Trial of 
Jesus, London, 1905; The Archko Volume, transl. by Mc- 
intosh and Twyman, chap, viii., 2d ed., Philadelphia, 1905; 
SchQrer, Qeschichte, i. 487-492, Eng. transl., i. 2, pp. 81-86; 
DB, iii. 875-S79; EB, iii. 3772-74; DCO, ii. 363-366; JB, x. 
34-35; Vigouroux, Dictionnaire, part xxxii., columns 429- 
434; especially in the literature on the life of Christ the 
works of Keim, Holtsmann, Lange, Weiss, Stalker, An- 
drews, and Edersheim; also the commentaries on the 
Gospels, at the passages where mention of Pilate occurs. 

PILGRIMAGES: Journeys to holy places for the 
sake of devotion and edification. They are a com- 
mon feature of religious devotion, not peculiar to 
Christianity. In the last-named religion the custom 
began early. In the middle of the fourth century, 

after Constantino and his mother Helena had visited 
Golgotha, Bethlehem, and other places, and had 
built churches there, pilgrimages to the Holy Land 
became quite frequent. In the eighth century 
Charlemagne made a treaty with Haroun al Rashid 
to procure safety to the Christian pilgrims in Jeru- 
salem, and founded a Latin monastery in that city 
for their comfort. In the eleventh century it was 
the outrages to which the Christian pilgrims were 
exposed in Palestine which, more than anything 
else, contributed to bring about the crusades. But 
in the mean time the Church had taken the matter 
in hand, and pilgrimages changed character. They 
became " good works," penalties by which gross 
sins could be expiated, sacrifices by which holiness, 
or at least a measure of it, could be attained. The 
pilgrim was placed under the special protection of 
the Church; to maltreat him, or to deny him shel- 
ter and alms, was sacrilege. And when he returned 
victorious, having fulfilled his vow, he became the 
center of the religious interest of the village, the 
town, the city, to which he belonged, — an object of 
holy awe. Thus pttgrimizing became a life-work, a 
calling. There were people who adopted it as a vo- 
cation, wandering all their life from one shrine to 
another. Places of pilgrimage sprang up every- 
where — at the tombs of the saints and martyrs (St. 
Peter and St. Paul in Rome, St. Thecla in Seleucia, 
St. Stephen in Hippo in Africa, the Forty Martyrs 
in Cappadocia, St. Felix at Nola in Campania, St. 
Martin at Tours, St. Adelbert at Gnesen, St. Willi- 
brord at Echternach, St. Thomas at Canterbury, St. 
Olaf at Drontheim, etc.), or at the shrine of some 
wonder-working relic or image. At the Reforma- 
tion, this practise was ridiculed by Protestants, 
but was retained by the Roman Catholic Church. 
In very recent times two new places of pilgrimage 
have excited the Roman Catholic world — Lourdes 
(q.v.) in the south of France, near the Pyrenees; 
and Knock, near Dublin, Ireland. In both places 
the Virgin Mary, it is claimed, revealed herself. 

Among the most celebrated shrines toward which 
the currents of pilgrimage have been chiefly di- 
rected are the holy places of Palestine, which since 
the fifteenth century have been under the guardian- 
ship of the Franciscan order. Sanctuaries of the 
Virgin in various parts of the world, e.g., Loreto 
(q.v.) and Genezano in Italy, Chartres, Fourvidres 
(in Lyons) and especially Lourdes (q.v.) in France, 
Einsiedeln (q.v.) in Switzerland, Mariazell in Aus- 
tria, Guadeloupe and Montserrat in Spain, Walsing- 
ham in England (of which Erasmus wrote an ac- 
count; Eng. transl., Pilgrimages to Saint Mary of 
Wokingham and Saint Thomas of Canterbury, 2d 
ed., London, 1875), etc. Among the sanctuaries of 
the angels and saints may be mentioned the 
" Limina apostolorum " on the Vatican hill, Monte 
Gargano, in Italy, in honor of St. Michael (it was 
the devotion of Norman pilgrims to this shrine that 
led to the Norman conquest of Naples); Czensto- 
chau in Russian Poland, Compostella in Spain, in 
honor of St. James the Apostle, Mont St. Michel on 
the northern coast of France, to say nothing of the 
reputed tombs of Lazarus and his two sisters in the 
south. In North America the most noted place of 
pilgrimage is the shrine of St. Anne on the St. 




Lawrence, a few niiles below Quebec, where a re- 
puted relit- ill" Si. Aniii', mother of the Virgin, is 
preserved, hiving been brought from one of the 
sanctuaries dedicated to St. Anne in France. In 
general, all the tombs of prominent sainta, or local- 
ities intimately connected with their careers, have 
at one time or another been centers of pilgrimages 
on the part of the pious faithful, even though the 
claims of many of them to such honor could not 
stand the test of critical in ves ligation. 

James F. I 'Kiacou,. 

BiBMOottu'Hr; 1. Mori. Oat WaUJahrtn in dtr kalholitchm 
AVr.V. Treves. Ia42: A. Moller, Dot Hetiiee DrvltcAiami, 
UacfticlUe untl ttachrnibuna dtr WatlJahrUaru. Cologne, 
lBB7i H. von Kuilniki. Die brr lilt ml, ilea Walljtih'ttort' drr 
ErJr, PHjeAom, WOT; L. Oepnol, FUmnagrt. Paris. 
1902; OCA. ii. 1835-ta (a detailed .lU-u^.a, wlie.r.. the 

«S-i8l>: \'I.. iii. 1HKI !■."!!: JK, <_ :io-:w. An im'por- 

I:il)l i-riiH 11 thill of lln> i'.,l.::linr l'-h. i'ik' T...-I ,-Vi.r,. 

IS vols, and laden, London, 1887 (to the different W* 
una of the Hrin valuable iu traductions an prefixed). 
For the Roman Catholic position on Iho >ubject, d. Coira- 

PILIGRIM: Bishop of Passau; d. May 20, 991. 
He was a kinsman of Friedrich, archbishop of Salz- 
burg; was brought up at the Benedictine monas- 
tery of Niederaltaich; became a canon of the dio- 
cese; and was bishop of Passau, 971-091, For 
supporting Otto II. against Duke Henry he was 
rewarded with the monastery of St. Mary, a part 
of the revenue of Passau, and a confirmation of his 
title. The emperor approved his control of the 
monastery of Krcms in I'T.'j, of St. Florian and St. 
PSltW i" '.'TO, and later of Otting and Mattsee. The 
bishopric li:i<l no real claim on any one of these, but 
I'iliniim knew liuiv 1" estublish one on forged docu- 
ments. His inordinate ambition included the ele- 
vation of Passau into an archbishopric. This effort 
was advanced by means of the reoccupution of 
Ostmnrk situ I I he. heuinnint; "f 'I"' mission to Hun- 
gary, and Piligrim forwarded the most embellished 
reports to Pope Benedict VI. in 'J73 or 974, to the 
effect that about 5.1KK1 persons had been baptized; 
countless, rhristian captives of war had openly con- 
fessed; thai, the heathen offered no hindrances; 
and that he was convinced that, the erection of sev- 
eriil bishoprics in Hungary was necessary in order 
to conserve and intend what had Ix'i'ti accomplished. 
He advanced the fable to ISenetliel that at one time 
Lorch, which he represented to be the original seat 
of the bishopric of Passau. was the metropolitan 
seat for seven bishoprics in Pannonia and Moesia; 
and had a number of sources forged representing 
tie' relations of earlier popes with the arc hi lisliopne 
of Lorch. lie asked, therefore, for the pallium and 
the mil ln.iri/.-i I ton to creel, the bishopric* in Hungary. 
His dependence upon fraud may have been due to 
the slurbs importance attache,! by the emperor and 
the pope to this enterprise. Failing in this effort, 
he succeeded in 1*77 in having :i statement inchi'lf-d 
in a document of Otto IT., which declared Lorch to 
have been an ancient seat of primacy. But evi- 
- 1   : 1 1 I; Archbishop i rii drich indw ed ihe pt>[>e to 
confirm his right over Bavaria and Pannonia, and 
Piliiriim had to abandon his plans. But Piligrim's 
care for his district was great, and churches were 
organized and synods were held. He was a man 

distinctly ahead of his times in bis freedom (mat 
superstition, and made a marked impression upon 
his age. (A. Havck.) 

BlBUoaaaPHT: E. Dflmmler. PMgnm »n Pauau and rfu 
frabiatum Lorch. Loipric, ISM; 8. Riexler, Ut.rt.khn 
Baitrtu. i. 301 aqq.. Golba. IS78: K. Sehrtdl. Pohom 
•ocro. i. 77 sqq.. Panau. 1S79; Hauok, KD, ill MtatV 
tional supernatural guide and guard of the Hebrews 
during the desert wanderings. Beginning at Etharn 
(Ex. xiii. 20 aqq.) the Hebrews were accompanied 
by a pillar of cloud by day and fire by night which 
went before them to show the way. When the 
Egyptians pursued, the pillar (Ex. xiv. IS aqq.) 
passed behind the people serving as an obstructing 
bank of cloud toward the enemy and as light toward 
themselves. According to the adduced passages 
and other statement* of the Bible, it was the Lord 
himself that went before Israel; theology regards 
it as " his angel," i.e., the agent of his manifestation 
(Ex. xxiii. 20 aqq.). This cloud also covered the 
tabernacle after its erection (Num. ix. 15 sqq.), and 
filled it (Ex. xl. 34 sqq.) as the habitation of God. 
On important occasions it descended upon the 
tabernacle, stood before it (Num. xii. 5) while the 
people worshiped, and regularly when Moses was 
to receive revelations (Num. xxxiii. 8-11). The 
glory of the Lord concealed in the cloud appeared 
at supreme moment* to all the people (Ex. xvi. 10; 
Num. xiv. 10, xvi. 19, xvii. 7). The ascent of the 
cloud from the tabernacle meant the breaking of 
the camp; its resting upon a place the sign of 
pitching camp (Ex. xl. 36 sqq.; Num. be 17-23). 
There is no doubt that there were not two but one 
and the same pillar which appeared by night as fire, 
by day as cloud. It is also clearly stated that this 
cloud was the covering of God when he descended 
upon Sinai (Ex. xxiv. 15 sqq.). 

As to its physical nature, this mysterious cloud, 
like wonders in general, attaches itself to natural 
conditions and phenomena. However, two efforts 
to materialize that theophany must be rejected. 
One derives the pillar of cloud from the caravan-fire 
which was borne before the march. Reference is 
made to Alexander's march (E. Curtius, tirifhixt-he 
Gewhirhif, V., ii. 7, Berlin, 1868-74; Eng. transla- 
tion, History of Greece, London, 1868-73), which 
shows how great armies made use of lire for guid- 
ance, just as caravans do to-day. But this is con- 
tradicted by the materials of the narrative noted 
above, and the divinity of the cloud demands a su- 
pernatural phenomenon. Such a cloud lay preg- 
nant with lire on Sinai where God most positively 
offered his majesty to the gaze of the people. For 
the same reason, the view of Ewald (followed by 
Riehm and Uillman) must also he rejected, who 
supposed that the altar-fire was the kernel of the 

The cloud in the mean time became a subject for 
theological speculation. The author of the Wisdom 
of Solomon saw in it the divine wisdom (x. 17; of. 
xviii. 3, xix. 7); Philo, the divine Logos (Opera, 
ed. T. Mangey, 501, London, 1742). 

C. von Orelli. 

BiBuooaapB'T: The iubjeet ia beat d 

is O.T.oilod under Biau 




ud in those on the history of lame] (boo under Arab; 
nullum. Him-onr or). Consult farther tbe nrticl™ in 
the Bible dictionaries, e.g., SB, iii. 3775-78; JE, i. 39. 

PILOT, WILLIAM: Anglican; b. at Bristol, 
England, Dec. 30, 1841. He was educated at St. 
Boniface's College, Westminster, and tit. Augus- 
tine's College, Canterbury, and was ordered deacon 
h 186" and advanced to the priesthood in 1868. 
From 1867 to 1875 he was vice-principal of Queen's 
CbUege, St. John's, Newfoundland, as well as incum- 
bent of Quidi Vidi, Newfoundland, and in 1883-84 
na principal of Queen's College. Since 1875 he has 
been superintendent of education in Newfoundland 
toti ui 1!t05 m also appointed commissary to the 
bishop of Newfoundland. He is a canon of the 
Anglican at St. John's. In theology he is 
■n ' 'Anglican of the old type, " and has written essays 
OB nomenclature and folk-lore of Newfoundland, 
also the geography of Newfoundland, and sketches 
of early church history of Newfoundland. 

P1BYTDS: Bishop of Cnossus, Crete, in the sec- 
ond century, according to Eusebius (Hist, eccl., iv. 
21, 23, Eng. trans!., NPNF, 2 aer., i. 11)7-198, 200- 
202), and contemporary of Dionysius of Corinth 
(q.v.). Eusebius gives some extracts from the cor- 
respondence of the two. Dionysius, it appears, 
wrote to the bishop of Cnossus asking him not to 
impose too strict a yoke of chastity upon his breth- 
ren. But Pinytus was unmoved by this counsel 
and replied that Dionysius might impart stronger 
doctrine and feed his congregation with a more per- 
fect epistle inasmuch as Christians could not always 
sub-i-l on milk or tarry in childhood. It may be 
that Pinytus was influenced by Montanistic views; 
however, Eusebius vouches for his orthodoxy and 
his care for the welfare of those placed under him. 

(A. Hauck.) 
Bnuocunn: Tbe reference* are collected iu Hamnck. 

PIOHIUS: Christian martyr of the middle of the 
third century. Eusebius {Hist, eccl., IV., iv. 47; 
Eng. transl., NPNF, 2 series, i. 192) refers to his 
own lost " Collection of the Ancient Martyrdoms " 
as containing accounts of martyrdoms in the time 
of Polyearp. Among the martyrs referred to was 
& certain Pionius, of whom an account was given in 
Eusebius' source and used by him, whieh included 
a report of his confessions, his courageous defense 
of the Christian faith before people and authorities, 
his friendly reception of the fugitives from persecu- 
tion, and his encouraging address to the brethren 
who visited him to prison, as well as his endurance 
of sufferings, nailings, and burning. In spite of 
sonie uncertainties in particulars, the genuineness 
of the account seems evident and presents a good 
picture of events during the Deciau persecution 
(see Dears, Caius Messjus Qrivrus Trajanus), 
The " Acts " from which Eusebius draws points dis- 
tinctly (ii. 1, ix. 4, 23) to the persecution of the 
year 250 under the consuls Decius and Gratus; 
the reference to the time of Marcus Aureliua by 
EuMbius is explained by the connection with the 
''Acts of Polyearp." Pionius was sewed at the 
anniversary of the martyrdom of Polyearp. Feb. 23, 
which day also was a Sabbath in 250, and he was 

burned with a certain Metrodorus on Mar. 12. The 
Pionius of this article must be distinguished from 
Pionius, author of Vita Polyairpi (350-400). 
Bihuoqb»phy; Monroes an: T. Hainan. Acta Marturum. 
pp. 1S5-ISS. Kiwust.urn. is.l'j; ASB, Feb.. i. 37-40; 
F. Mikloaicb, Mvnumtnta lingua nataoaimienicit, pp. 04 
Bqq., Vienna, 1851; O. van Uobhnnll. in Arr*iv far afari- 
tche Phiiotoffie, xviii (tSBB), 150 nqt]., in A itsgeviUhtte Mar- 
ti/raktcn. pp. BO »■)((.. Tiitiiiwu. 1;mi], Mul in Acta mariyrum 
•■..'.,■:.;. i>ji. in ..;., . ii, ■In., iwj. Consult further: Krogor, 
Hitter,/, pp. a85-JSfl: B. Aubrf, L'^eiitr <f i'ttal dam la 
tcamde moitif du 3. titrtt. pp. 140 sqq.. Paris. 1885; J. B. 
Lujhifooi, ApottM.- F,u>„t>. i d2L'-fliii), 695-702. London. 
1889; T. Zahn, in Fortcliunecn i-ur OrachirkU da nrvlc- 
UamtnttKhtn Kanent. iv. 271 A 4. Leipsie, 1891; J. A. F. 
Gregg. The Drcian Pmtcutitm, pp. 242 sqq., ib. 1887; 
BnnJonhcwer, GttchvMt, ii. 031-032: DCB. iv. 3B7, 428; 
Ceuuer, Jmiuri tarrti, ii. 113-114. 

man church historian ; b. at Stralsund (120 m. n.w. 
of Berlin) May 7, 1811; d. at Berlin Nov. 28, 1889. 
Hi 1 studied theology at the universities of Berlin 
and Gottingen, 1829-33; was tutor in theology at 
the latter institution, l,H.'«-40; privat-docent in 
church history at the University of Berlin. IslJ; 
and associate professor alter 1842. As church his- 
torian he belonged to tile Kchool of Neander. His 
earlier literary activity dealt with chronology and 
resulted in the publication of the " Evangelical 
Calendar" (1850-70), in which he substituted for 
the names of saints, those of Christian worthies, and 
furnished annually biographical sketches. His 
principal pursuit became the investigation of Chris- 
tian monuments of art, as a source for church his- 
tory. The first important product appeared as the 
first part, of the projected work. Mylhotogie and 
Siimhnli.k f/.r I'hri'lHi-iifi Kuiiti (2 vols., Weimar, 
1847-51) setting forth the influence of pagan myth- 
ology upon Christianity. The intended second part 
was never prepared. His next great work was Ein- 
leiiung in die moniunenlate Theoloyie (Gotha. 1867). 
Other works are: U titer den ckristlwhcn Midi rl:n i's 
(lierlin, 1862} j ami Die Kalendarien unit Marty- 
rologi-en dcr Angel such sen (1S02). Piper dues not 
treat art for art's sake; form and style are almost 
ignored. He always seeks to present the content 
for his s|iecific purpose. He was the founder of the 
Christian museum at the diversity of Berlin and 
us director from [80 till his death. (A. Hauck.) 

PIPPIH, DOHATIOH OF. See Papal States. 

PIRKE ABOTH, pir-ke' fl'bot [" Sayings of the 
fathers "): The ninth tractate of the fourth order 
(" Damages") of the Mishna. An especially val- 
uable translation, with excellent notes, is found in 
C. Taylor's Sayings of the, Jewish Fathers, 2d ed., 
Cambridge, 1899. See Talmud. 

PIRKHEIMER, pirk-huim'er, CHARITAS: Sis- 
ter of Wilibald I'lrkheimer ((].v.) ami abbess of the 
nunnery of St. Clara at Nuremberg; b. at Eich- 
etatt (42 m. w.s.w. of Regensburg) Mnr. 21, 1466; 
d. at Nuremberg Aug. 19, 1532. At the age of 
twelve she entered the nunnery of which she be- 
came abbess in 1503. In tbe same year she in- 
duced her sister Clara, who succeeded her in the 
heinl.-hij> nl the eli.iister iii 1532. to enter as a sister 
and to undertake the work of secretary and assist- 
ant. She was especially faithful in the mainte- 




nance of discipline and nurture of those committed 
to her care. By her brother she was led to the 
study of patristics, but was never reconciled to the 
Reformation, being a devoted daughter of her 
church. Her character was necessarily developed 
in a one-sided direction through her early entrance 
into the nunnery, and she was apparently quite 
morbid through continued contemplation of her 
Bins and weaknesses. Her Denkwurdigkeiten pic- 
tures the misfortunes of her cloister (given in C. 
Hofler's Franki&chen Studien, vol. iv., part 2, 
Vienna, 1853). 

Bibliography: F. Binder, Charitae Pirkheimer, Freiburg, 

PIRKHEIMER, WILIBALD: German humanist; 
b. at Eichstatt (42 m. w.s.w. of Regensburg) Dec. 
5, 1470; d. at Nuremberg Dec. 22, 1530. He re- 
ceived his elementary education from his father 
and then studied at the universities of Pa via and 
Padua the classics, music, and jurisprudence for 
seven years. He was city councilor at Nuremberg, 
1496-1523; was entrusted with diplomatic charges 
by his city; and served in the war with the Swiss 
as imperial counselor to Maximilian I. and Charles 
V., as a result of which he wrote Historia belli 
Suitensis sive Hdvetici (in Pirckheimeri opera poli- 
tico, pp. 63-92, Frankfort, 1610), which secured 
him the appellation of the German Xenophon. 
But Pirkheimer was famous for his versatile scholar- 
ship; he was identified with the revival in Germany 
of the humanities from Italy and shared the leader- 
ship with Erasmus and Reuchlin. He translated 
into Latin wholly or in part the works of Euclid, 
Xenophon, Plato, Ptolemy, Theophrastus, Plutarch, 
Lucian of Samosata, Gregory of Nazianzus, and 
John of Damascus, and possessed a large library 
gathered in the cities of Italy and freely thrown 
open to friends of learning. 

Though in conflict with crystallized scholasticism, 
he was not inimical to the Church. However, he 
was a part of the movement which prepared the 
way for the coming division. At the beginning of 
the Reformation he took his position with Luther; 
called himself " a good Lutheran " in 1522; and 
for his Eckiit8 dedolatus (ed. S. Szamatolski, 1891) 
and for a defensive polemic for Luther he drew upon 
himself a bull at the instigation of Johann Eck 
(q.v.) in 1521, but was absolved the same year. 
After 1524 he gradually fell away from Protestant- 
ism and turned more and more toward the Roman 
Catholic Church, mainly through his relation with 
the monastery of the Poor Clares (see Clare, 
Saint, and the Poor Clares) at Nuremberg the 
abbess of which (1503-32) was his famous sister 
Charitas (q.v.). When the innovators in that city, 
Hieronymus Ebner, Caspar Niitzel, and Lazarus 
Spengler, went so far in 1524 as to induce a volun- 
tary abandonment of the monastery by the nuns, 
Pirkheimer's tender relation with his sister impelled 
him to advance to the defense. He appealed to Mel- 
anchthon through whose influence the abolition was 
stayed. His last work was in defense of the monas- 
tery, the Oraioria Apologetica (1529; ed. G. J. 
Gretser, Opera omnia, xvii., Regensburg, 1734-41). 

(F. LiSTf.) 

Bibliography: An inoomplete edition of the Opera, ed. 
M. Goldast, was issued Frankfort. 1610, with the basal 
life by K. Rittenhausen. Pirkheimer's " Autobiog- 
raphy " is given by K. Rack in his Wilibald Pirekheuner'* 
Sehweizerkrieg, Munich. 1895. There are biographies by 
F. Roth. Halle. 1887; in ADB, zxxv. 118-122; and m 
E. Munch. Wilibald Pirkheimere Sehweizerkrieg und Bhren- 
handd mil seinen Feinden zu Nurnberg, Basel, 1826. Con- 
sult further: R. Hagen. Wilibald Pirkheimer in eeinem 
VerhaUnie sum Humanitmut und zur Reformation, Nurem- 
berg. 1882; O. Markwart, Wilibald Pirkheimer alt Of 
achichUchreiber, Zurich. 1886; P. Drews. Wilibald Pirk- 
heimere SteUung zur Reformation, Leipaie. 1887; P. Kalk- 
off, Pirkheimere und Spenglere Lbeung vom Bonne Ml, 
Breslau, 1896; H. Westermeyer. Zur BannangetegenheU 
Pirkheimere und Spenglere, in Beitrage zur bayerieehen 
Kirehengeechiehte, ii. 1-8. Erlangen, 1896. 

and missionary in southern Germany; d. at the 
monastery of Hornbach (75 m. n.n.w. of Strasburg) 
Nov. 3, probably in 753. According to Rabanus 
Maurus (q.v.) he was a foreigner, and being a Bene- 
dictine, it is concluded that he was an Anglo-Saxon. 
He was first known as rural bishop of Meaux, where 
he preached in Latin and Frankish, during the reign 
of Theodoric IV. (720-737) and was called thence 
as missionary to the people about Lake Constance. 
There he first established the monastery of Reich- 
enau on an island in the western arm of Lake Con- 
stance. When the Alemanni under Theobald rose 
against Charles Martel, Pirmin was compelled to 
leave his see, and repaired to Alsace, where, under 
Count Eberhard, he completed the monastery of 
Murbach in the Vosges. He is also said to have 
founded the religious houses of Altaich in Bavaria 
and Pfaefers in Switzerland, of Schuttern and Gen- 
genbach in Offenburg, Schwartzach near Lichtenau 
in Baden, Maurmunster and Neuweiler in Alsace, 
and finally the abbey of Hornbach near Zwei- 

There still exists a document of Pirmin entitled 
Dicta abbatis Pirminii, de singulis libris canonicis 
scarapsus; first published by J. Mabillon in Vetera 
analecta, iv (Paris, 1723); ed. by A. Gallandi in 
Bibliotheca veterum patrum, xiii., pp. 277-285 
(Venice, 1779); MPL, lxxxix. 1030 sqq. Scarap- 
sus is evidently a corruption for excerptus. These 
sayings written in barbarous Latin are directed to 
baptized Christians, offering instruction in faith 
and morals and supported by abundant Scripture 
citation. Man was created to fill the vacancy made 
by fallen angels. Satan is vanquished by the hu- 
mility of the Son of God and sin by the cross. The 
vocation of the Christian is to follow Christ and 
shun evil. Of elementary sins there are eight: lust, 
gluttony, fornication, wrath, despair, recklessness, 
vainglory, and pride. He warns against the fleshly 
sins: divorce, which should not be permitted ex- 
cepting with the consent of both parties and for the 
love of Christ; fornication, covetousness, untruth- 
fulness, and sorcery. Actual sins are to be atoned 
for by almsgiving. (A. Hauck.) 

Bibliography: Early Vita and other documents, with com- 
ment, are in ASB, Nov.. ii.. 1, pp. 2-54, and, ed. Holder- 
Egger, in MOH, Script., xv (1887-38), 21-35. Consult: 
M. Gdrringer, Pirminius, Zweibrucken, 1841; P. Heber, 
Die vorkarolingischen chrisUichen Glavbenahelden am Rhein, 
pp. 212-248. Frankfort. 1858; J. H. A. Ebrard, Die iro- 
eehottieche Mizsiontkirche, pp. 344 sqq., 453 sqq., Gutenv 
loh, 1873; J. Weicherding, Der St. Pirminzberg . . . umd 




der heilioe Pirmin, Luxemburg, 1875; C. P. Caspari, 
Kirckenhistorische Anecdote, i. 149 sqq., Christiania, 1883; 
E. Egli, KirchengeschichU der Schweix, pp. 72-82. Zurich, 
1803; Friedrich, KD, ii. 580 sqq., Rettberg. KD, ii. 50- 
84; Hauck, KD, i. 346; DCB, iv. 405. 

PERSTMGER, BERTHOLD. See Puerstinqer. 

PISA, COUNCILS OF: The council of Pisa in 
1409, standing as a moment in the tendency to es- 
tablish an episcopal oligarchy in place of a papal 
monarchy, was occasioned by the great schism in 
the western Church and the need of reforms. There 
had been since 1378 two popes in western Christen- 
dom and it was imperative to put an end to the 
confusion incident to a double system of bishops, 
priests, and sacraments. The two popes themselves, 
Gregory XII. of Rome and Benedict XIII. of Avig- 
non, were opposed to arbitrating their claims. A 
majority of the cardinals of both parties resolved to 
ignore their obstinate chiefs and came together at 
Iivorno in 1408 and invited the representatives of 
the Church to a general council at Pisa on Mar. 25, 
1409. A large number of church dignitaries besides 
representatives of the sacred orders, universities, 
and secular kings and princes obeyed the summons 
of the cardinals. The claims of both papal pre- 
tenders were considered, and after ten days the car- 
dinals entered into a conclave at the archiepiscopal 
palace at Pisa, and, on June 26, chose unanimously 
the Cardinal Peter Philargi, archbishop of Milan, as 
pope. He was a native Greek of the island of Crete, 
and reputed to be of a conciliatory disposition. He 
assumed the name of Alexander V. The cardinals 
had not taken pains to find out whether the several 
Christian states would accept their election as valid. 
The consequence was that instead of a two-headed 
papacy they had created a three-headed one, a re- 
sult foreseen by such men as Pierre d'Ailly (q.v.). 
Rupert of Germany, Ladislaus of Naples, and cer- 
tain other minor princes stood by Gregory XII.; 
Spain and Portugal supported Benedict XIII. The 
cause of union was thus unsuccessful. The cause 
of reformation, on the other hand, fared no better, 
for it proved that the great assembly was unpre- 
pared to deal with so great a problem. The refor- 
mation of the Church, both head and members, was 
postponed to the next council, to which both Pope 
Alexander V. and Council agreed. The materials of 
reformation were to be first discussed at provincial, 
diocesan, or chapter synods; but later developments 
proved that no one had in mind a reform of the 
hierarchical structure. The only consequence was 
the testimony to the world that there was a Church 
universal strong enough to withstand the strain of 
even a thirty-years schism. (P. Tschackert.) 

The second Council of Pisa was called by nine 
cardinals under the Spanish Cardinal Carvajal, 
three of whom, however, had not formally given 
assent, to convene Sept. 1, 1511. The council was 
a political step aimed at Pope Julius II., who was 
involved in conflict with Ferrara and France. It 
was of an abortive nature, attended by only a small 
contingent, and soon adjourned to Milan on ac- 
count of popular opposition, where it declared 
Julius II. suspended, Apr. 21, 1512. Soon after, it 
dispersed to France from fear of the Swiss invasion, 
and died of inanition at Lyons toward the end of 

the year. Pope Julius II. retaliated by depriving 
the four leading schismatic cardinals of their dig- 
nities and calling a Lateran Council which met May 
3, 1512, and excommunicated the members of the 
second Pisan Council. The whole matter was a 
futile attempt to galvanize into activity the con- 
ciliar movement of the previous century (ut sup.) 
and to employ it for political purposes. 

Bibliography: The sources most accessible are Hefele, Con- 
ciliengeschichte, vi. 992 sqq.; Mansi, Concilia, xxvi. 1136 
sqq., 1184 sqq., xvii. 1-10, 115 sqq., 358 sqq.; E. Mar- 
tene and U. Durand, Thesaurus norma anecdotorum, ii. 
1436 sqq., Paris, 1717; P. Tschackert, Peter von Ailly, 
appendix, 31-41, Gotha, 1877; and Reichstagsakten, vol. 
vi., ed. J. Weizs&cker, Gotha, 1888. Consult J. Lenfant, 
Hist, du concile de Pise et de ce qui est passe de plus mem- 
orable depuis ce concile jusqu'au concile de Constance, 2 
vols., Amsterdam, 1724; Pastor, Popes, i. 175-207; 
Creighton, Papacy, i. 223 sqq., iv. 269, v. 160-161; J. B. 
Schwab, Johann Gerson, Wurzburg, 1858; C. Hdfler, 
Ruprecht von der Pfalt, Freiburg, 1861; Lehman, Die 
Pisaner Condi von 1 611, Breslau. 1874; Q. Erler, Dietrich 
von Nieheim, Leipsic, 1887; F. Stuhr, Die Organisation 
und Geschaftsordnung des Pisaner . . . KonzUs, Schwerin, 
1891; H. Roesbach, Das Leben und die . . . Wirksam- 
keit des Bemaldino Lopez de Carvajal, vol. i., Breslau, 1892; 
J. Haller, Papsttum und Kirchenreform, vol. i., Berlin, 
1903; KL, x. 23 sqq.; Milman, Latin Christianity, vii. 
312-320; and the literature under Gregory XII.; Bene- 
dict XIII. (1). 

German theologian; b. at Strasburg Mar. 27, 1546; 
d. at Herborn (32 m. n.e. of Nassau) July 26, 1625. 
He was educated at Tubingen; became professor of 
theology at Strasburg in 1573; and of philosophy at 
Heidelberg in 1574 as a follower of Peter Ramus; 
was made scholastic rector at Siegen in 1577; pro- 
fessor of theology at Neustadt-on-the-Haardt in 
1578; rector at Moers in 1581; and was instructor 
at the high school at Herborn, in 1584-1625. Tire- 
less in industry, Piscator prepared Latin commen- 
taries collectively of the New Testament (Herborn, 
1595-1609) and the Old Testament (1612, 1618), 
and a German translation of the Bible (1605-19). 
He followed with Anhang des herbonischen biblischen 
Wercks (1610), noted for its wealth of archeological, 
historical, and theological material. He left a mul- 
titude of text-books in philosophy, philology, and 
theology, of which Aphorismi doctrines Christiana 
(1596) was much used. His significance for theol- 
ogy was his opposition to the doctrine of the active 
obedience of Christ. " Whoever denies that Christ 
was subject to the law, denies that he was man." 
If the imputation of the active obedience were suf- 
ficient man would be free from obedience as well as 
from the curse. [From being an advocate of supra- 
lapsarianism in the most extreme form, as in his 
controversy with Conrad Vorstius (cf. extracts in 
A. H. Newman, Manual of Church History, ii. 338- 
339, 3 vols., Philadelphia, 1900-03), Piscator be- 
came a pronounced Arminian. a. h. n.] 

(E. F. Karl MUller.) 

Bibliography: Steubing, in ZHT, 1841, part 4, pp. 98 sqq.; 
F. C. Baur, Die christliche Lehre von der Verstihnung, pp. 
352 sqq., Tubingen, 1838; W. Gass, Oeschichte der protes- 
tantischen Dogmatik, i. 422 sqq., 4 vols., Berlin, 1854-67; 
A. Ritschl, Die christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung und 
Versdhnung, i. 271 sqq., Bonn, 1889, Eng. transl.. Critical 
Hist, of the Christian Doctrine of Justification and Recon- 
ciliation, Edinburgh, 1872. 

PISGAH. See Moab. 




PISIDIA. See Asia Minor, VII. 

PISTIS SOPHIA. See Ophites. 

PISTOJA, SYNOD OF. See Ricci, Scipione de', 

of two persons, father and son, who were influential, 
though widely divergent, figures in the religious 
controversies of the sixteenth century. 

1. Johannes Pistorius the Elder: First Protes- 
tant pastor at Nidda, Hesse; b. in the latter part 
of the fifteenth century; d. 1583. In company with 
Butzer, he appears to have attended the Diet of 
Augsburg in 1530, and in 1541 he became superin- 
tendent of the diocese of Alsfeld. Landgrave Philip 
accorded him the utmost confidence. In 1540 he 
was one of the Hessian delegates to the convention 
at Hagenau, and soon afterward he 

Contro- was delegated to attend the colloquy 
versies with at Worms, in 1540-41. He accom- 

Roman panied the landgrave to the Diet of 
Catholics. Regensburg, where the emperor ap- 
pointed him to speak on the Protestant 
side, along with Melanchthon and Butzer. He stood 
loyal to Melanchthon, who esteemed him highly. 
In 1543, at the request of Butzer, the landgrave 
sent him to Cologne, to support attempts of the 
elector to introduce the Reformation there. He 
preached to large throngs, and to Melanchthon's 
complete satisfaction. In 1545-46, again as a col- 
league of Butzer, he took part in the religious con- 
ference at Regensburg. When it was purposed to 
introduce the Interim (q.v.) in Hesse, he headed a 
brave, though moderate, resistance, even being 
ready to resign his office. After the reaction brought 
about by the Elector Maurice, the landgrave, in 
1557, despatched Pistorius to the princely diet at 
Frankfort; and not long afterward he was one of 
the speakers at the great religious conference in 
Worms (q.v.). 

From this time on, Pistorius was busied more by 

the controversies raging among the Protestants than 

by the struggle against the Roman Catholic Church. 

He then deeply influenced the Hessian position, and 

his constant aim was either to preserve 

Activity or to restore peace. Together with his 

in Inter- colleagues at the Synod of Ziegenhain, 
Protestant in 1558, he gladly accepted the Frank- 
Controversy, fort Recess (q.v.). Owing to illness, 
he was unable to accompany the land- 
grave to the princes' conference at Naumburg in 
1561, although he declared, in a formal expression 
of opinion, that the revised Augsburg Confession 
contained no doctrinal deviation from the original. 
It was most probably Pistorius who composed the 
important Hessian opinion, dated Oct. 19, 1566, 
regarding the " final answer " of the Wurttemberg 
theologians to the Heidelberg divines (Tubingen, 
1566). This document takes a very decided stand 
against the Heidelberg party with their Calvinistic 
teaching regarding the Lord's Supper, and it recog- 
nizes the doctrine of Ubiquity (q.v.). At the mo- 
mentous eighth general synod of 1576, when the 
Torgau Book (see Formula, op Concord) was under 
advisement, Pistorius approved its basal creed, its 
various doctrinal statements and antitheses, its 

teaching concerning the Lord's Supper, and, pend- 
ing deeper investigation, its Christology. At the 
same time, he shared the scruples urged by the ma- 
jority against emphasizing the Invariata, the " dam- 
nation " of the Calvinists, and the subtlety of the 
doctrine of ubiquity; and he was, therefore, the 
first to sign the treatise explanatory of these points. 
At the general assembly in Treysa (Nov., 1577), 
Pistorius and the majority voted to reject the Book 
of Bergen (see Formula of Concord). It is thus 
evident that Pistorius undervalued the significance 
and range of the dogmatic questions of the period. 
He intensely disliked doctrinal polemics, and always 
treated dogmatic questions from a practical point 
of view. Administratively he evinced a very influ- 
ential activity in organisation and polity, as well 
as in public worship, discipline and education, dur- 
ing his entire term of office. At his death he left 
an unfinished work on the diets and colloquies that 
he had attended from 1540 to 1557. 

2. Johannes Pistorius the Younger: Roman 
Catholic convert and apologist; b. at Nidda (19 m. 
s.e. of Giessen), Hesse, Feb. 4, 1546; d. at Frei- 
burg Sept., 1608. He studied first theology and 
then medicine, and in 1568 published at Frank- 
fort the peculiar cabalistic treatise: 
Early Life De vera curandce pestis ratUme, which 
and Con- he followed by his Artis cabalia- 
version of licce acriptores (Basel, 1587). During 
Margrave the life-time of Charles II. (d. 1577), 
Jacob, sole regent of the margravate of 
Baden-Durlach, Pistorius became court 
physician, though he was continually taking part in 
theological affairs. Meanwhile he had gone over from 
Lutheranism to Calvinism; and shortly afterward, 
in 1588, became a convert to the Roman Catholic 
Church. He now wrote a number of open letters 
which opened a controversy on the nature of the 
Church, an issue that he henceforth deemed the 
most important point under discussion. At the 
same time he made earnest, though unsuccessful, 
efforts to convert Margrave Ernest Frederick. With 
the Margrave Jacob, at Hochberg Castle, he had 
better fortune. This chivalrous, learned, and trav- 
eled prince had frequently received foreign Protes- 
tants, although in 1585-86, when in the Spanish 
military service, he had fought against the adher- 
ents of the new teachings in the archdiocese of 
Cologne. He was very accessible, moreover, to 
Roman Catholic court influences, and now became 
a convert to the ancient Church. To justify this 
step he arranged a religious conference at Baden, 
the residence of his cousin, Margrave Eduard For- 
tunatus, who had himself become a Roman Catholic 
in 1584. Margrave Jacob appeared with his coun- 
cilor, Pistorius, his chaplain, Johann Zehender, the 
Jesuit Theodor Busoeus, and others. Duke Christo- 
pher of Wurttemberg, who had been invited, did 
not attend in person, but sent certain councilors 
and theologians, Jakob Andrea, Jakob Heerbrand, 
and Gerlach. The debate (Nov. 18-19) occupied 
four sessions, though it did not turn on ubiquity, as 
the margrave had purposed, but on the visible and 
invisible Church, as Pistorius had arranged. The 
conference proved fruitless, however, and was soon 
broken off. Andrea and Pistorius parted in enmity, 


and their oral dispute was prolonged in writing. 
Jtirpave Jacob, dissatisfied with the Baden con- 
ference, and continually influenced by the duke of 
Biwia, ordered a second religious colloquy, this 
tin* at hk Emmendingen residence. The Roman 
Cithclic debaters were the chaplain Zehentler and 
the rector Oeorg Hanlin of Freiburg. The mar- 
pare had wished for the debate to turn on the doc- 
trineof justification; and at his command Pistorius 
tad prepared 300 theses on that subject, but again 
leded in making the theory of the Church the 
topic of argument. After seven sessions (June 3- 
7, 1500), tie margrave finally authorized the pro- 
nouncement that " Luther's church was a new 
ehtirch, and therefore a false church." Without 
further delay, the margrave solemnly became a 
member of the Roman Catholic Church in the 
monastery of Thennenbach (July 15), Busceus 
gl*utii!s him absolution. Great joy reigned in 
Bome, and Pope Sixtus V. appointed a feast of 
thank -giving. Before it could be held, however, 
Margrave Jacob, after a brief illness, had died (Aug. 
7, 1590). Immediately after his death, Ernest Fred- 
erick appeared at Emmendingen and forbad n any 
change in religious conditions, but when this prince 
waa later about to force Calvinism upon his domain. 
he, too, died a sudden death (1604). The entire 
margravate now devolved on George Fn ■dcrii jk, 
whom neither Pistorius nor Ernest Frederick had 
been able to win from Lutheranism. 

Pistorius outlived these events, but not in Baden, 

He took orders, became vicar general to ih>- hishup 

of Constance, and resided for the most part in 

Freiburg, devoting himself zealously to writing 

polemics. Soon after his removal from 

Clerical Baden, he published Wahrha/le Be- 

Career and schreibung, was sich bri tlwigrqf 

Writings. Jakobs Ittiler Krankkeit und Ableben 

verlauffen (150O) and Orationts dc vita 

tt marie Jaccbi (1591). 

Of great note among his many and widely pub- 
lished controversial writings was his Analomia 
LvtAeri (2 parts, Cologne, 1595-98), in which he 
sought to prove from Luther's writings that the 
Reformer was possessed of the seven evil spirits 
(lust, blasphemy, etc.), and that he was an utter 
abomination. The constructive counterpart to this 
work wus his Wcgwtiser fur all vcrfuhrUn Christen, 
da* iit, ein wahrhaftiger Bericht von vienehn dureh 
die unrechiglaubigcn in Streil gezogenen Ar!ii;tln, 
dam ua jeaermann der Tdmischen Kirrhe Wiilirlwit 
erkennen kann (Miinster. InOil). Pistorius rendered 
lasting service through his works on history and 
gent-ahisry, particularly by his edition of the Betlp- 
Urrft 'rr*,m tirrinanKan.m it v<Ar . F mnk f t,>rt . 1;«M- 
1607) and by his historiir corpus (3 vols., 
Basel, 1583). His zeal was recognized by his 
church, for he was appointed imperial and Bavarian 
councilor, apostolic prothonotary, provost of the 
cathedral at Breslau, and domestic prelate to the 
abbot of Fulda. Carl Mirbt. 

BauooiiFm: For 1. besides the literature under Cohta- 

partiDeat. consult: H. Heppe. Kirckenaefhichte. derbeiden 
Beam. vol. i . Marburg. 18T6; idem. Grschichle drr her- 
mstken GauraUvnoden 166S-8t, 2 vols., Camel, 1847; 
PkHippt del CrwmufAiflm AciiiarAr Kirehenreformationi- 

Ordnung. ed. K. A. Credner. pp. ccmvi. "iq.. QlMBMi 
1S52: P. W. HuHorsmp, Hatiache KirehatgrtehiiJUe. 2 
vola., Frankfort, 1884; P. Vetter. Die Rdieionmerhand- 
Ittnfffn avfdem fteiehtfag tv lieeenebura, pp. 71 sqq., Jena, 
1889; F. Hemniuin, Dos Interim in Hesscn, Marburg, 

For 2: K. F. Vierordt, GetchieMe drr tvongtluehai 
Kirehe in drm Grwtheniatutn Baden, ii. 21 aqq.. Carls- 
ruhe. 1856; A. Rasa, Die Kanverttim frit drr Reformation, 
ii. 488 aqq , iii. S3 sqq., Freiburg. 1S80; J. Jaameo. Qe- 
tchichte del drultclien Volktt. v. .'189 suq., 30.1 Hqq.. Frei- 
burg, 1880. Eog. Initial,, ij. 144-145. it, passim. St. Look* 
1908; F. von Weech. Baditche Gestliichte, pp. 27U sqq.., 
Carls rube. 1800. 

PITHOM: A treasure city built for Rumeses II. 
by the Israelites (Ex. t, 11), It has been identified 
by Hrnir^ch with Succolh, ihe first, encampment on 
the route of the exodus, the starting-point being 
Rameses (Ex. xti. 37, xtii. 30), and by Naville with 
the present Tell al-Maskbuta in the Wady ai-Tutn- 
ildt on the line of the Sweet-Water ('and, between 
Ismullia and Tell al-Kebir. See Eqypt, I., i, 5 

PITRA, pi"tra. JEAN BAPT1STE: Cardinal; b. 
tit Charapforgeuil, near Autun (230 m. s.e. of Paris) 
Aug. 12, 1812; d. at Rome Feb. 9, 1889. He stud- 
ied at the seminary at Autun, became priest in 
1836, entered the order of St.. Benedict in 1840, and 
lived in the abbey of Solesmes. In 1843 he was sent 
as prior to a new monastery at Paris, whence he 
made journeys throughout Franee, Switzerland. 
Holland, Belgium, und Knglaud, in the interest of 
hia order. He devoted himself to historical re- 
search and at Paris ho helped to project the Pa- 
trnlifjiii ip|" tin- Abbe \1 i.L'ne, a j el a~-i"ied in the pub- 
lication uf the first four volumes. In 1858 Pope 
Pius IX. senl him to Russia in the hope of effecting 
a union with the <ircek Church, and lie took occa- 
sion to prosecute his researches in archives, monas- 
teries, and libraries. ' In 1861 he entered the service 
of the Propaganda; two years later he was made 
a cardinal priest; in ISli!' he became librarian of 
the Vatican; in 1S7!I, cardinal bislmp of Fraseati; 
and in 1884 he retired to the bishopric of Porto. 
He was an earnest advocate of the papal suprem- 
acy. He was the author of Etudes trur la collection 
ties ades dot saints par (<■« /W/,/n./iJ« (Paris, 1850); 
mid Histoire .(<■ Saint Leger (1846). His greatest 
work is f>i.tit;Ut'!!>.u>ii .Snli-xnu'iisv. (4 vols., 1S53-5-S), 
followed by Analeda sacra Bjrieiitgio Solrsmensi 
parala (8 vols., 1876-91), and Analeda novissima 
(2 vols., 188.>-«S); the whole munumental work is of 
immense value as it is a treasure-house of hitherto 
imprinted documents relating to ecclesiastical his- 
tory. To be added are the Juris eccUsiastici Gra^ 
conim historia el monumenta (Rome, lKfU~tiS), and 
Trillion katnnactiam (1879); both the fruit of four 
years of travel and special study after 1858, when 
the pope directed him to devote his attention to the 
ancient and modern canons of the eastern churches; 
and Hymnographie de. I'fglise grecque (1867). 
Bibliogbafht: Biographies arc by A. Batbuidicr. Para. 
1893; and F. Cabrel, ib. 1893. 

b. at Salem, Roanoke County, Va., Sept. 14, 1834; 

studied at Virginia Collegiate Institute (now Roan- 
oke College, 1S4S-51); graduated at Harapden- 
Hidncy College, Va, (1854); studied at Union Tbco- 

Pius in 



logical Seminary, Va. (1854-55), and at Danville 
Theological Seminary, Ky. (1855-57); was pastor 
at Leavenworth, Kan. (1857-61); Sparta, Ga. 
(1862-65); Liberty, Va. (1866-67); organized Cen- 
tral Presbyterian Church, Washington, D. C, in 
1868, and has since been its pastor. He was also 
professor of Biblical history and literature in 
Howard University in the same city (1876-90). 
He is the author of Ecce Deus Homo, published 
anonymously (Philadelphia, 1867); Christ, Teacher 
of Men (1877); The New Life not the Higher Life 
(1878); Confidence in Christ (1889); Manifold Minis- 
try of the Holy Spirit (1894); and Predestination 

PIUS, poi'us: The name of ten popes. 

Pius I. : Bishop of Rome 140-155. According to 
the Muratorian Canon (q.v.) he was a brother of the 
Hernias who was the author of " The Shepherd." 
Tertullian (" Against Marcion," i. 19) declares 
that Marcion in the time of this pope went to 
Rome for the purpose of establishing his sect 
there. According to Irenseus, Valentinus and the 
Syrian Cerdon were active there at the same time. 
Thus the pontificate of Pius I. was a stormy one. 
What part Pius took in these conflicts and contro- 
versies is not known, but one of the ablest of his 
champions and allies was Justin Martyr (q.v.). 
Pius I. was canonized and his festival is July 11. 

(H. BOhmer.) 

Bibliography: Sources are Iremeus, Hctr., III., iii. 3, Eng. 
transl., ANF, i. 416; Eusebiua, Hiat. eccl., IV., xi., Eng. 
trans 1., NPNF, 2ser., i. 182 sqq.; Liber pontificalia, ed. 
Duchesne, i. 4-5, Paris, 1886, ed. Mommsen, in MGH, Geat. 
port. Rom., i (1898), 14. Consult, Jaflte, Regeata, i. 7-8; Har- 
nack, LiUeratur, i. 789, ii. 1, pp. 70 sqq. (where literature 
on the lists of Roman bishops is fully given); J. Langen, 
Geachichle der rdmiachen Kirche, i., iii. sqq., Bonn, 1881; 
Bower, Popca, i. 12-13; Platina, Popea, i. 27-29. 

Pius n. (iEneas Silvius, Enea Silvio de' Piccolo- 
mini) : Pope 1458-64. He was born in Corsignano, 
the present Pienza (100 m. n.n.w. of Rome), Oct. 
18, 1405. He studied at the University of Siena, 

came under the spell of the penitential 
Early Life, appeal of Bernardino of Siena (1425), 

and was with difficulty restrained from 
joining the Franciscan order. At Florence he began 
the study of law, in deference to his father's wishes, 
but against his own inclination; he was fortunate, 
however, in finding a position as secretary # in the 
employment of the bishop of Fermo. The latter 
took him to the Council of Basel (q.v.), already 
under the shadow of suspension at the hand of 
Eugenius IV. (1431). Like his master, whom Picco- 
lomini before long exchanged for one offering higher 
pay, he joined the opposition; though leaving Basel 
and making a journey in the political service of Car- 
dinal Albergati, first to the Netherlands, then to Scot- 
land, and not returning to Basel until 1436. Though 
still a layman, Piccolomini soon managed to gain 
a certain esteem in connection with the council. 
His cleverness and rhetorical talent procured him 
the post of abbreviator, and caused him to be com- 
missioned on various embassies. But when it was 
proposed to nominate him as conclavist in behalf 
of electing a successor to Eugenius IV., whom the 
council had pronounced to be deposed, he declined 

this honor, as he wished to avoid consecration in 
order that he might still indulge in pleasures not 
permitted to the clergy. In the year 1438 or 1439, 
Piccolomini began his CommentorU on the Council 
of Basel; in 1440, he wrote the Libellus diologonm 
de auctoritote consilii generalis. Wide prospects 
were disclosed to him when, in 1442, he attended 
the imperial diet at Frankfort as envoy. It was 
there that the bishops of Chiemsee and Treves rec- 
ommended him to King Frederick III., who crowned 
him with the laurel, poet of scandalous verses though 
he was; and then took him into his own service as 
secretary. An index to his mood and frame of 
mind at that time is found in a letter addressed to 
his father from Vienna, Sept. 22, 1443. He asks 
him to receive in his home one of his own (Piccolo- 
mini's) illegitimate sons; and adds by way of ex- 
cuse, that he, " of course, was no capon, nor did he 
belong to your cold natures/' casting at his father 
the shameless comparison: " You know what sort 
of a chanticleer you were yourself." If, therefore, 
a " conversion " of Piccolomini is supposed to have 
occurred in the following year still this hindered 
him not from publishing so lascivious a tale as 
" Euryalus and Lucretia "; and the play Chrysis f of 
which one critic observes that it " shows brilliant 
wit and intimate familiarity with the indecencies 
and obscenities of the Roman poets, and is worthy 
to be produced in a brothel." And if he writes 
under date of Mar. 6, 1446: " I am a subdeacon; 
something I once thoroughly abhorred to be. Lev- 
ity has left me/' the latter acknowledgment need 
not be taken for very serious repentance. The 
mainspring rather appears in what he writes two 
days later: " I own to you, dearest brother, I am 
satiated, surfeited; I have grown disgusted with 
Venus . . . Venus even shuns me more than I 
abominate her." This is not the note of a peni- 
tential mood. 

Simultaneously with his " conversion," as secre- 
tary of Frederick III. he changed the direction of 
his ecclesiastical statecraft. While Felix V. and the 
Council of Basel still regarded him as the advocate 
of their interests, he posed even in Vienna as one of 

the " neutrals," and as such openly 
Diplomacy, appeared at the Nuremberg diet of 

1444. The resolution passed by this 
diet, that the status of " neutrality " should last 
till 1445, but that Pope Eugenius IV. should then 
be requested to convoke a new council, was conveyed 
to Rome by Piccolomini in person; and if, indeed, 
he did not there contrive to gain approval for his 
errand, he still gained the entire favor and pardon 
of Eugenius IV. as far as his own course was con- 
cerned. Thus the political variation was effectually 
reversed; while in order to set aside the animosity 
still prevalent in Germany he supported the king 
with all his diplomatic art. Nor was reward from 
Rome lacking. After Eugenius IV. had appointed 
him papal secretary, there followed, upon his re- 
turning to Vienna subsequently to the papal elec- 
tion of 1447, his nomination as bishop of Trieste, 
and, in 1450, as bishop of Siena. At this time Pic- 
colomini conceived a new " mission " for himself, 
designed to carry him still higher and to obliterate 
all disagreeable souvenirs of his Basel period. He 



Pius i-n 

endeavored to unite all Europe against the Turks, 
who already held in their control the citadel of 
daaacal Greek culture. So upon his urgent appeal, 
t Nicholas V., on Sept. 30, 1453, issued the crusading 
boll, and Piccolomini, at the diets of Regensburg and 
Frankfort in 1454, delivered lofty orations against 
the hereditary foe of Christendom. The circum- 
stance that, following the new papal election of 
1455, Piccolomini transcended his commissioned 
authority, and in the name of the emperor acknowl- 
edged the obediency of Calixtus III., although the 
promises of the deceased pope had not so much as 
been rehearsed, let alone approved, finally brought 
him the greatly desired red hat, in Dec., 1456, 
though his thanks for its bestowal were cold. 
Thenceforth he remained at Rome in close alliance 
with Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, later Alexander VI. 
He it was, at the conclave after the death of Calix- 
tus III., in 1458, who carried through the election 
of Piccolomini. 

Rome joyfully acclaimed the election of the 
worldly-fashioned humanist. Nevertheless, his elec- 
tion proved a disappointment to the mendicant 
literati, who beset him with all sorts of petitions. 
To his teacher alone, the aged Filelfo in Florence, 
was he accessible, and to him he granted a pension, 
though this was irregularly paid, and 
His Work thus eventually gave occasion to in- 
ss Pope, vectives against the donor. However, 
Pius II. expended considerable sums 
in the acquisition of manuscripts and for the copy- 
ing of valuable codices, besides employing artists 
of every kind, particularly architects, at Rome, 
Siena, and Corsignano. The first project which the 
new pope desired ,to carry out, was that of a cru- 
sade to recover Constantinople. An assembly of 
Christian princes, convened at Mantua, was opened 
by Pius II. himself; but the proposition to impose 
a general tithe for the purpose was withstood on the 
part of Venice and France, and also met with 
obstruction in the case of the Austrian Duke Sigis- 
mund's delegate, Gregory of Heimburg (q.v.). It 
was in course of the strife with him (for he appealed 
from the pope to a general council) that the noto- 
rius bull ExeerabUis appeared, Jan. 18, 1460, which 
even thus early applied the ban against an appeal 
of that kind. This reveals the extreme of contrasts 
expressed in the man who formerly at Basel had 
championed the superiority of the councils over the 
popes. The action that emanated from Mantua, 
and even evoked a bull declaring war and issuing 
summons for a crusade (Jan. 14, 1460), had no 
practical result, because meanwhile, at Naples, the 
conflict which broke out between the Spanish and 
the French pretenders for the sovereignty rendered 
all procedure against the Turks impossible. The 
pope then turned his attention to other objects. 
He endowed with affluence his nephews and other 
favorites at Siena; he sought to annul the prag- 
matic sanction of Bourges (1438); in Germany, the 
opposition of the archbishop of Mainz, Dieter of 
Isenburg, necessitated measures of the utmost 
stringency, including that prelate's deposition (1461) 
followed next by the ban, which was not revoked 
until 1464. It was in Bohemia, however, that the 
strife became hottest. In 1458, King Podiebrad 

had been forced to promise, in conjunction with his 
oath of obedience to Calixtus III., that he would 
" lead back the Bohemian people from all errors 
and heresies to the true Catholic faith and into obe- 
dience toward the Roman Church/' which prom- 
ise Podiebrad was unable to meet because the Utra- 
quists (see Huss, John), under Rokyczana, were 
too strong. On the contrary, at the national diet 
of May 15, 1461, he was compelled to guarantee 
them the perpetuation of the articles compacted 
at Prague. Accordingly, Pius II. stepped in with 
absolute power, and annulled the concession by the 
Council of Basel in favor of the Bohemians, although 
he himself had advised its adoption. Podiebrad, 
who personally was a Utraquist, now sided openly 
with that party. His subsequent citation to Rome, 
under date of June 15, 1464, on charge of heresy 
was rendered inoperative by the pope's death. 

A matter of less moment was involved in a con- 
flict with Duke Sigismund of Tyrol, mentioned 
above as Duke Sigismund of Austria. For years the 
latter had stood at odds with the bishop of Brixen, 
the famous cardinaTof Cues (Cusanus), 

Conflicts who claimed the suzerainty over Tyrol, 
and Cusanus had been commissioned dur- 

Failures. ing the convention at Mantua as gov- 
ernor of Rome, for he was an old friend 
of Pius II. But when he returned to Tyrol, Sigis- 
mund waylaid him and took him prisoner. Ban and 
interdict were the sequel (1460). On promising to 
procure at Rome the repeal of the church penal- 
ties, Cusanus recovered his freedom; but as never- 
theless he failed to effect the desired repeal, he did 
not return to Tyrol. Neither did he survive the 
conclusion of subsequent negotiations between 
Pius II. and the duke (1461). With all these con- 
flicts and cares, the pope was not permitted to com- 
pass his favorite plan. Even his marvelous attempt 
miscarried whereby the Sultan Muhamed II. was 
to be converted by epistolary persuasion. Above 
all, there was dearth of money. Within the papal 
domain, and but eight miles from Rome, the rich 
and sumptuous camp of the Alouni was discovered; 
whereupon Pius II. once again convened envoys of 
various powers, and in 1463 promulgated a new 
bull in behalf of a crusade. But except at Venice, 
which had a twofold interest in the enterprise, and 
Hungary, which was immediately menaced, the 
war against the Turks found no response. Then 
the pope headed affairs in person. In June, 1464, 
he journeyed to Ancona; and had the satisfaction, 
on August 12, when already gravely ill, of outliv- 
ing the arrival of the Venetian fleet. But three 
days later he died, in his last words earnestly com- 
mending to those about him the crusade and the 
dependent members of his family. He seemed to 
have realized what had been his strongest motive 
in connection with this undertaking, to expiate, by 
means of a " good death," an evil life. " We think," 
for so had he said in the discourse wherewith he 
proclaimed the beginning of the crusade, " it might 
go well with us if God should please to have us end 
our days in his service." 

The tremendous chasm which seams his life Pius 
II. himself attempted to cover under a still greater 
equivocation. All that he formerly assailed at 

Pius n-vi 



Basel, and what he wrote to the praise of the coun- 
cil, he retracted by appeal to Augustine in the 
bull In minoribus of Apr. 26, 1463. 
Character. Even previously, in the Epistola retrac- 
tationis (cf. F. H. Reusch, Der Index 
der verbotenen Bucher, i. 40, Bonn, 1883), he had 
expressed himself in similar terms. And as touch- 
ing his Commentarii on the Council of Basel, which 
during the sixteenth century found their way to the 
Index, he offset the same, in the years 1448-51, 
with a work advocating the papal point of view. 
Again, with reference to his obscene writings, about 
the period of 1440, the pope exclaims to his read- 
ers: " Away with that iEneas, and now receive 
Pius! " He brought his autobiography down to 
1464; and it was issued in elaborated form by his 
friend Campano. Sundry historical, geographical, 
and ethnographical writings belong to the second 
period of his development, among them the history 
of Frederick III., wherein events of the years 1439^ 
1456 are set forth in piquant style, also, the " Bo- 
hemian History," and the works " Europa " and 
" Asia." The vindictiveness of the aggrieved hu- 
manist Filelfo attributed to Pius crimes against 
nature such as not even Piccolomini had committed. 
His life in the papal office appears to have been un- 
objectionable; although the charge of nepotism 
was well founded. Withal he was eager to eradi- 
cate heresy, even though he laid himself open to 
a charge of heresy: " With reason was marriage 
taken away from priests; but with weightier rea- 
son it ought to be again allowed them. 1 ' In the 
case of Bishop Pecock of Chichester (q.v.), this prel- 
ate had first denied the infallibility of the Church 
in comparison with Holy Scripture, but had after- 
ward renounced that " false doctrine." However, 
when still again he opposed the Church's infallibil- 
ity, the pope (1459) commanded his legate to see 
to it that the apostate be burned, together with his 
writings. And under date of May 11, 1463, he urged 
the bloodthirsty and avaricious inquisitors to allow 
no human consideration to prevail as against the 
Waldenses. Thus even with him, no sooner was 
the interest of the ecclesiastical authority at stake 
than everything else that stamps his nature— clas- 
sical culture, creature benevolence, liberality of a 
richly endowed intellect — was thrust aside. 

Upon the death of Pius II. at Ancona on August 
15, his body was conveyed to Rome, and first be- 
stowed in the (older) Church of St. Peter; subse- 
quently (1614), sarcophagus and monument were 
lodged in the Church of S. Andrea della Valle. 

The pope's writings were printed in a collective 
edition at Basel, 1551 and 1571. His LUerce ap- 
peared in many separate editions 
Writings. (Cologne, 1478; Nuremberg, 1481, 
1486, 1496.) They were classified, 
with many accessions, by G. Voigt in Archiv fur 
Kunde dsterreichischer GeschichlsqueUen (1856); 
some supplements appear in Pastor's Rdmische 
Pdpste, vol. ii., appendix (Freiburg, 1894; Eng. 
transl., vol. iii.); a new ed. was begun by R. Wol- 
kan in the Forties rerum Austriacarum, of which two 
volumes have appeared, Vienna, 1909-10. There 
is a Frankfort edition (1614) of his Commentarii 
rerum memorabttium, also, ed. G. Lesca, Pisa, 1894. 

The Commentariorum . . . de conaHo flaat&ati 
appeared at Cologne, 1521; his Epistola Retracta- 
tionis is in C. Fea, Pitts II. a calumniis vindicate* 
(Rome, 1823); the Historia Frideriei III. is in A. 
F. Kollar, Analecta . . . Vindobonensia, vol. n. 
(Vienna, 1762); his "Addresses" were issued by 
Mansi (3 vols., Lucca, 1755-59); supplements by G. 
Cugnoni, Opera inedita Pii II. (Rome, 1883). 

K. Benhatb. 

Bibliography: Creighton, Papacy, iii. 202-358; K. R. 
Hagenbach, Erinnerungen an JEneas SUvius Piccolomimi, 
Basel. 1840; C. H. Verdiere, Bssoi sur Mnea Silvio Pic- 
colomini, Paris, 1843; J. M. Dttx, Der deutscke KardML 
Nicolaus von Cusa, i. 160 sqq., ii. 119 sqq., 142 sqq.. Re- 
gensburg, 1847; G. Voigt, Eneas SUvius . . . und smm 
ZeUalter, 3 vols., Berlin, 1856-63; idem. Die Wiedetbe- 
lebung de* klassiscken Altertkums, 2 vols., Berlin, 1880-81; 
H. G. P. Gengler, Ueber Mneas Sylvius in seiner Bedevtung 
fUr die deutscke Recktsgesckickte, Eriangen, 1860; F. 
Palacky, Oesckickte von Bdkmen, iv. 2, pp. 80 sqq., Prague, 
1860; A. Jager, Der Streit dee Nikolai* von Cusa mit dem 
Herzog Sigmund von Oesterreick, i. 317 sqq., ii. 44 sqq., 
Innsbruck, 1861; C. A. H. Markgraf, Ueber das Ver- 
kaUniss dee Kbnigs Oeorg von Bdhmen tu Papmt Pius //., 
Breslau, 1867; A. von Reumont, Oesckickte der Stadt Rem, 
iii. 1, pp. 129 sqq., 387 sqq., Berlin, 1868; F. H. Reusch, 
Index der verbotenen Backer, i. 36, 40, Bonn, 1883; A. Frind, 
Die Kirckengesckickte Bokmens, iv. 46 sqq., Prague, 1878; 
G. W. Kitchin, Life of Pius II., London, 1881; A. Beeg, 
Pius II. in seiner Bedeutung als Oeograpk, Halle, 1901; 
W. Boulting, Mneas Silvius (Enea Silvio de Piccolomini — 
Pius II.), Orator, Man of Letters, Statesman and Pope, 
London, 1909; Schaff, Christian Church, v. 2, passim; 
Mirbt, QueUen, pp. 169-170; Ranke, Popes, i. 28-29. 306; 
Pastor, Popes, vols, ii.— iii. passim; Bower, Popes, iii. 241- 
244; Platina, Popes, ii. 257-275, Milman, Latin Christian- 
ity, vii. 565, viii. 64-122. 

Pius HL (Francesco Todeschini): Pope 1503. 
He was a nephew of Pope Pius II. and was born 
at Siena in 1439. His uncle had him educated at 
Perugia, and influenced him to adopt the name and 
arms of the Piccolomini. He also created him 
archbishop of Siena in 1460, cardinal in 1462, and 
governor of Rome in 1464. By the following popes 
the " cardinal of Siena " was largely employed on 
diplomatic missions. That he possessed courage 
was evinced by his vigorous opposition, in 1497, 
restraining Alexander VI. from erecting a duchy 
out of portions of the States of the Church in be- 
half of his son, the duke of Gandia. He is supposed 
to have owed his election in Sept., 1503, not so 
much to his unstained reputation as to his mani- 
festly impaired health. In fact, he died on the tenth 
day after his enthronement, Oct. 18, 1503. He had 
permitted Csesar Borgia to return, and thus left the 
city of Rome in grievous confusion under the strife 
between him and the Orsini and Colonna. 

K. Benrath. 

Bibliography: Pastor, Popes, vi. 185-206; Creighton, 
Papacy, v. 61-67, F. Petruccelli della Gattina, Hist, dip- 
lomatique des conclaves, i. 435 sqq., Paris, 1864; F. Gre- 
gorovius, Oesckickte der Stadt Rom, viii. 4 sqq., Stuttgart, 
1874; A. von Reumont, Oesckickte der Stadt Rom, iii. 2, 
pp. 7 sqq., Berlin, 1878; Piccolomini, in Arckwio storica 
Italico, v. 32, 102-103, Florence, 1903; Bower, Popes, iii. 

Pius IV. (Giovanni Angelo Medici): Pope 1560- 
1565. He was derived not from the Florentine Me- 
dici but from a Milanese family, was elected pope 
at the age of sixty years in Dec., 1559, and was 
enthroned as Pius IV. on Epiphany, 1560. 

Unlike his predecessor Paul IV. (q.v.), whose 



piu» n-vi 

' policy had been passionately hostile to Spain, he 
f turned toward the Austro-Spanish house. By na- 
ture he was the counterpart to that somber man 
who had reorganized the inquisition at Rome, per- 
ceiving therein the best instrument of his domina- 
tion. . Pius IV. was affable, benevolent, and of 
ample manners. Yet it was his lot, soon after his 
ascension to the throne, to inflict the extreme penalty 
of the law upon the two nephews of his predecessor. 
One of them, the duke of Paliano, besides other 
deeds of violence, had caused thirty vassals of the 
hostile Colonna family to be imprisoned, and atro- 
ciously made away with his wife's paramour, as well 
as herself. The evidence against him inculpated in 
like degree his brother, Cardinal Caraffa. When 
the trial proceedings had lasted eight months, the 
pope himself gave the decision, in a sealed order at 
the final session, imposing the death sentence upon 
both, which was carried out Mar. 6, 1561. Under 
Pius V., however, the trial was reviewed, the stig- 
ma upon the two brothers was removed, and the 
promoter of the trial was himself condemned to 

Nepotism in the Curia was radically abolished 
by Pius IV., who contrived to extract large sums 
of money from the States of the Church and from 
the ecclesiastical administration, and allotted con- 
siderable amounts to his adherents, though he never 
yielded to them special influence in State or Church. 
His weightiest concern was the reopening of the 
Council of Trent (q.v.), the result of which was no 
less gratifying to the Curia than it was disappoint- 
ing to Emperor Ferdinand. For even though the 
emperor refused to acknowledge its decrees, and 
though not until later, and subject to the guaran- 
teed rights of his crown, were these decrees acknowl- 
edged by King Philip II., while the French parlia- 
ment assumed an expectant stand, yet during the 
council and by virtue of it, Pius IV. removed all 
dangers that threatened the papal absolutism with- 
in the Church. When, in 1564, he solemnly pub- 
lished the council's decrees and imposed upon the 
bishops the Pro/essio fidei Trideniina (see Triden- 
tinb Profession op Faith) as a matter of obliga- 
tion, he could do so in the consciousness that the 
papal theory had now conquered effectually. Hence 
the contingency of apostasy without was indemni- 
fied within the Church by a centralization of ecclesi- 
astical economy such as laid all the lines of admin- 
istration, jurisdiction, and doctrinal finality in the 
sole hands of the pope. 

Destiny placed Pius IV. between two popes who 
stand as the most impassioned persecutors of here- 
tics in that century, Paul IV. and Pius V. For he 
is not the equal of these in furtherance of the in- 
quisition and in persecution of heretics. Yet w T here 
opportunity offered, he showed himself ready for 
that object; and it was he who facilitated the con- 
flict in the literary arena by devising the expedient 
of the Index librorum prohtbitorum, so named by 
him in 1564. K. Benrath. 

Bibliography. Onuphriua Panvinius, De summis ponti- 
ficQnt* continuatio, Bonona, 1599; Ranke, Popes, i. 241 
•qq., iii. nos. 31-40; M. Brosch, Geschichte des Kirchen- 
staalee, vol. i., Gotha, 1880; F. H. Re use h. Index der ver~ 
boten Backer, passim Bonn, 1885; Bower, Popes, hi. 319- 
320; and the literature under Trent, Council of. 

Pius V. (Michele Ghislieri): Pope 1566-72. He 
was born at Boeco near Alessandria (48 m. e.s.e. 
of Turin), and both as cardinal and as pope con- 
ceived his main task to be the detection and anni- 
hilation of heresy. He belonged to the Dominican 
order, to which this activity was particularly com- 
mitted. After some earlier inquisitorial service about 
Milan, he was drawn to Rome by Caraffa in 1550 (see 
Paul IV.), who conferred on him the cardinalate 
and appointed him director of the Roman inquisi- 
tion. He owed his election as pope (Jan. 8, 1566) to 
Cardinal Borromeo and other exponents of the very 
strictest trend in the sacred college. The Roman 
populace felt due fear on hearing that " Fra Michele 
dell' Inquisizione " had ascended the papal throne. 
In fact, no pope applied so indefatigably every 
agency for annihilating the heretics. Both in and 
out of Italy, he was incessantly exhorting or threat- 
ening governments to make them accommodating 
to this end. And the consequence was favorable 
to him, especially in the Italian peninsula. During 
the six years of his pontificate, Protestantism in 
Italy was deprived of its last vestige of strength; 
its prominent advocates being either killed or driven 
away (see Italy, Reformation in). In France, 
Catherine de' Medici and Charles IX. were at his 
command. He fortified the Spanish king in his 
measures against the Netherlands, and sent to the 
duke of Alva the consecrated hat and sword. 

Yet according to Roman Catholic apprehension, 
this foe of " heretics " was a very pious man, and 
in Rome he insisted on the most stringent ecclesi- 
astical discipline, imposing heavy penalties for des- 
ecration of festival days. No physician was to 
continue treating a patient critically ill, unless that 
patient's certificate of confession be produced on 
the third day for inspection. Whoever, among the 
higher clergy, combined an ascetic life with strict- 
ness toward the nether clergy, was regarded as the 
right man, as in the case of Carlo Borromeo. 

Toward the close of his labors he was destined 
also to achieve a notable success in statecraft. Like 
so many of his predecessors, he headed an action 
against the Turks, which Venice and Spain assisted 
with their naval forces, and the work was crowned 
by the brilliant victory of Lepanto (Oct. 7, 1571). 

Pius V. died on May 1, 1572, and was canonized 
by Clement XI. K. Benrath. 

Biduoqraphy. G. G. Catena, Vita del . . . Papa Pio V. t 
Rome, 1587; Ranke, Popes, i. 269 sqq., iii., no. 43; J. 
Quetif and J. 6chard, Scriptores ordinis Pradicatorum, 
ii. 220, Paris, 1721; J. Mendham, Life and Pontificate of 
. . . Pius V., London, 1832; A. F. P. Comte de F»Lioux, 
Hist, de ... Pie V., 2 vote.. Angers, 1844; T. M. Gran- 
allo, Fra Michele Ghislieri, o San Pio V., Bologna, 1877; 
F. H. Reusch, Index der verbotenen Backer, Bonn, 1885; 
C. A. Joyau, Saint Pie V., pape du rosaire, Poitiers, 1892; 
P. A. Farochan, Cheypre et Lifante, St. Pie V. et Don Juan 
(TAutriche, Paris, 1894 (profusely illustrated); U. Papa, 
Un EHssidio tra Venetia e Pio V.. Venice. 1895; B. A. H. 
Wilberforce, St. Pxus V., London, 1896; Bower, Popes, 
iii. 320, 484-489; Pastor, Popes, viii. 432 sqq. 

Pius VI. (Giovanni Angelo Braschi) : Pope 1775- 
1799. He was born at Cesena (57 m. n.e. of Flor- 
ence) Dec. 27, 1717. After a course in jurispru- 
dence, he entered the clerical vocation, and in 1740 
went to Rome with his uncle, auditor to Cardinal 
Ruffo. Years later, he reappears as secretary to 

piub vi- vn 



Benedict XIV. and canon at St. Peter's. He was 
created cardinal in 1773 by Clement XIV., with 
whom he did not sympathize in the 
Election principal ques on connected with his 
and Policy, name, that is, suppression of the Jesuit 
order in 1773 (see Jesuits, II., § 8). 
When the conclave assembled after Clement's death, 
the cardinal's election was vigorously resisted from 
several quarters which employed even personal cal- 
umniation, and his election was reached only after 
the conclave had sat for four months. The Romans 
received him coolly. Yet though the more zealous 
faction hoped for immediate restoration of the Jesuit 
order, Pius VI. considered himself circumscribed to 
a policy of expectation and waiting in order not 
to become involved in disputes with Spain, France, 
and other states. 

At first, the pope turned his attention to the ele- 
vation of the morality of the clergy in Rome. Be- 
fore long, however, he was diverted to affairs at a 
distance, first, in Germany. In that 
German and country the movement which was as- 
Austrian sociated with the work of Febronius 
Difficulties, (see Hontheim, Johann Nikolaus 
von) had circulated extensively, 
though it had been placed on the Index in 1764. 
Meanwhile the true authorship, concealed under the 
pseudonym, had become known. Inasmuch as Pius 
VI. had correctly described, in an address dated 
Sept. 24, 1775, the bearings of the movement upon 
the Roman Church, he now commissioned the elector 
of Treves to constrain the author to retract, and the 
form of retraction was to comprehend the statement 
of its purely voluntary character. This experiment 
proved successful, for the author was a broken old 
man, then (1778) nearly fourscore years old. How- 
ever, in other quarters there asserted itself the 
spirit which had prompted Hontheim, in the form 
of Josephinism (see Joseph II.). 

But though Pius VI. perceived things clearly and 
was prepared to retaliate, he neither approved nor 
yet abruptly reversed the first procedure of Joseph 
II., who withdrew the Austrian cloisters from sub- 
mission to the supreme control of foreign generals 
of monastic orders. Even when Garampi, his nuncio 
at Vienna, in Dec., 1781, met with a brusk rebuff 
from Count Kaunitz, on the score of his instructive 
Promemoria to the emperor — the pope still believed 
he could attain every purpose through personal in- 
tervention. So in the spring of 1782 he journeyed 
to Vienna, but every attempt to draw the emperor 
and his minister from the path of reform continued 
fruitless. The enthusiastic speeches, in turn, which 
the Roman Catholic population addressed to the 
pope on occasion of his awe-commanding appear- 
ance in Vienna, Munich, and Augsburg nowise 
availed to console him over the miscarriage of his 
attempt. This is apparent from the brief to the 
emperor, dated Aug. 3, 1782, with its rather patent 
affirmation that " those who lay their hands on the 
goods of the Church belong to hell." He seemed 
afterward more conciliatory; but in Sept., 1783, he 
was provoked afresh by the emperor's arbitrary 
course in appointing, as though he were the sole 
authority, a bishop for Milan. When, therefore, 
Joseph II. was confronted with the prospect of ex- 

communication, he answered that his holiness might 
anyhow deign to visit the becoming punishment 
upon the individual who had made so bold as to 
misuse his name by forging a document. Without 
awaiting reply, the emperor next announced his 
visit to Rome, which came to pass in January, 
1784. And at last Pius gained the point which 
had been so vehemently contested, namely, that 
the appointment to the episcopal sees in Lombardy 
be conceded to him. He continued the reforms in 
church conditions in Austria. After the Congress 
of Ems (see Ems, Congress of) had completed its 
sittings, and the electors transmitted to the em- 
peror the Ems Proviso, Joseph II. made answer that 
they could reckon upon his cooperation in execu- 
tion of the same. And yet they had there decidedly 
emphasized the sole prerogative of the archbishops 
in matters of reform. At all events, the pope easily 
became master of the Ems resolutions, as not only 
the bishops in Germany, but even one of the mem- 
bers of the Congress, the archbishop of Mainz, went 
over to the papal camp. In order to secure the 
Curia's acquiescence in the election of a coadjutor, 
he offered the Ems Proviso by way of exchange; 
wherein he was followed, down to 1789, by the other 
participants in the Congress. In short, they trans- 
formed the drafted resolutions into very modest pe- 
titions. In the case of the king of Prussia, Frederick 
William II., who had been accommodating to the 
pope in connection with Mainz, Pius VI. accorded 
him the reward of no longer thenceforth withhold- 
ing from him the title of king. 

Even while premonitory signs of the French 
Revolution were perceptible, the pope still gained 
a victory over Joseph's reform attempts. In what 
was then Austrian Belgium, the clo- 
Affairs in sure of the episcopal seminaries (1786) 
Belgium had evoked great agitation, also ac- 
and Italy, tively fomented by the papal nuncio. 
And though Joseph II. dismissed the 
nuncio from that country, this measure did not stay 
the outbreak of actual insurrection any more than 
did the repeal of the closure itself, together with a 
propitiatory word from the pope. For the prov- 
inces proclaimed their independence, and there 
stepped to the front as president the pope's thor- 
oughly devoted cardinal-primate Frankenberg. 
Joseph II. died in 1790. Subsequently, church con- 
cerns in the Austrian hereditary lands were once 
again made thoroughly conformable to papalistic 
grooves, barring some slight provisional modifica- 
tion at the hands of Emperor Leopold II. Still 
more serious for Pius VI. appeared to be the trend 
of ecclesiastical conditions in Tuscany under the 
Grand Duke Leopold I. The latter, under date of 
Jan. 26, 1786, issued a circular to the Tuscan bish- 
ops proposing fifty-seven reforms; for instance, 
convocation of diocesan synods, improvement of 
clerical studies, segregation of suspicious relics, 
diminution of processions, and the like. Seven 
bishops assented on principle, among them Ricci 
of Pistoja (see Ricci, Scipione de'), who then also 
submitted these points to a synod convening at 
Pistoja in Sept., 1786, and effected their immediate 
acceptance. On the other hand, a protest was 
raised by the bishops generally, through the chan- 


Pius vi- vn 

ml of the Tuscan Council (Apr. -June, 1787). And 
as Leopold I. kept adhering to his plans of reform, 
tiere ensued a conflict with the pope; while, in 
lorn, the Tuscan envoy was recalled from Rome. 
It mi only when Leopold ascended the imperial 
throne (1790) that these complications reached an 
end; Ricci resigned, and Ferdinand III. receded. 
JTor was the situation less grave, as affecting the 
pope, b the kingdom of Naples. In 1770, the royal 
OBjualur was refused to quite a series of papal 
briefs; in 1780, the king claimed a general patronal 
tight over the benefices, then over the bishoprics; 
in 1782, the tribunal of the inquisition was dis- 
jolved in Sicily; while from 1788, the custom was 
discontinued, of long centuries' duration though it 
had heen. of offering a tent imd the so-called " feu- 
dal tribute " at the festival of 8S. Peter and Paul. 
By and by the number of unoccupied bishoprics 
became so large that in 1791 the pope at last con- 
ceded the king's right of presentation of three 
candidates, whereupon sixty-two episcopal sees 
were supplied. 

The outbreak of the French Revolution (q.v.) 
involved most incisive consequences for the Church. 
The " civil constitution of the clergy," still proposed 
for acceptance under Louis XVI., was 
Conflict rejected by Pius VI.; and, in fact, 
with France. .*>n,!Ht(J priests following the precedent 
of 130 bishops, refused the oath in con- 
nection with this new ruling. Thereupon, in Sept., 
1791, the National Assembly answered by annex- 
ing Avignon and Venaissin. Then when a secretary 
of the French embassy in Rome had been assas- 
sinated there by the rabble, in 1793, and when the 
pope took part in the coalition against France, 
Bonaparte declared war on him, advanced upon 
Rome, and. compelled Pius VI., during the truce of 
Bologna, 1706, to relinquish a large part of the 
States of the Church (see Papal States). When 
disturbances wen' renewed, General Berthier occu- 
pied Rome in 1798; and had Pius VI., who was ill, 
transported first to Florence, then to Valence, 
where he died Aug. 20, 1799. K. Bevrath. 

Bmii i.KApnti For his bulk atB» consult either N. 3. 
Cuillon's !,,,'),.-;,,,„ otnrrole -I,  hrtlt *f inttrvttiun. de . . . 
PU VI., 2 votj-,, 1 7!>s : tbo fW/rrtio brevivm ... of 
L. H. Halot, 2 parU. Rome, 1800: or the Colltrtio bid- 
lorum. brerium .... London, 1803. For his life nod 
ICU consult: Rankr. Pope*, ii. 453 ftqq., fii. no. 105; 
P. P. Wolf, GtKhichlt dtr ri-niKa-katnolitcben Kircnt 
mfcr . . . Pis* VI.. 7 vols,, Zurich. 1703-1802; C. do 
Novace. Storia oV tommi Pontifiri. Rome. 1822: P. Bal- 
duuri. WCaf. de rrnlevemrnl el de la raplivM de Pit VI., 
Parn. 1830: P. Beccatini. Storia di Pin VI., 4 vols,. 
Venice. 1841; G. C. Cordate, Di Prvftdu PU VI. ad 
avium Viametuxm, eti. J. Boerus. Rome, 1865; F. Petrn- 
collk detlA Gattina. Hist, diplomatique dea conclaves, iv. 
211 mq.. Puris. 1S66; A. von Roumont, G-rAichlc der 
Stadt Rom, iii. 2, pp. 660 «.qq., Berlin. 1870; A. M. de 
Pn&nrliou. Pic VI. rfyint let priionn du Dauphini. Grenoble. 
IS7B; I. Bertnwd. Le Pontifical de Pie VI. et Valbeitme 
rtxaivtumnairi, Pimn. 1879; P. H. Reuseh. Index dtrr str- 
MMrn Bather, vol. ii.. Bonn. lW.i: H. Schlettor. Dit 
Reitr da Papttet Pin* VI. nach Win. and Pint VI. and 
Jtmeffl., 2 vols- Vienna. I»v;-!i4 tvuliinble (or the litera- 
ttuo n»n.ed>: Pit VI.. m vie. ton pontifical 0717-90), 
Pari*. 1907; Nippold. Pawn,, pp. 20. 36: Bower. Poprt, 
aL 390H19. 

Pius Vn. (Luigi f 'luaramonti) : Pope 1800-23. 
He was bom at Cesena (57 m. D.e. of Florence) 
Aug. 14. 1740. At the age of sixteen he entered the 
IX.— 6 

He hit lie tine order, became a lecturer in the cloister 
at Parma and later in Rome. His predecessor 
made him bishop of Tivoli, then of Imola, and in 
I 7S.i, cardinal. When I he French army approached 
Imola. he still iii.-iiiii allied hi., residence in hi. epis- 
copal city. On that occasion (1707), he contrived 
to save the town from spoliation and even main- 
tained good terms with Republican powers. 

Shortly before he was taken captive, Pius VI. 
had prescribed that the conclave should be held in 
that city in the neighborhood of which the most 
cardinal!! might happen to In- at his death, only not 
in Rome. So they assembled in Venice, and on 
Mar. 14, 1S00, Chiaramonli was elected unanimous- 
ly, and in July he entered Rome us Pius VII. For 
secretary of state he appointed Cardinal Ercole 
Consaivi (ij.v.j, whose first achievement of note was 
the conclusion of the concordat with France (see 
Concordats and Delimiting Bulia, VI., § 1), 
which restored most of its rights to the Roman 
Catholic Church, and annulled episcopal power in 
favor of the paptd absolute supremacy. However, 
in virtue of the "Organic Articles" (1802), the 
first consul deprived these concessions of nearly all 
.-i^nitieanee, insomuch that the pope protested. 
Yet both siihs wished to avoid a rupture, and in the 
fnlluwirig year, Pius VII. appointed the consul's 
uncle (Joseph Fesch, q.v.) a cardinal. 

Meanwhile in Cermany, when by terms of tha 
peace of Lunfville, in 1801, the left bank of the 
Rhine had fallen to France, the secularization of 
the temporal dominions of the Church was brought 
to pass despite every protest; and the Flector Pal- 
berg of Maim, against the will of the Curia, was 
elected primate of Germany. Even thus early. 
Napoleon pui forth still greater demands, as. mIici, 
the senate had named hint hereditary ruler of 
France, he desired the pope to consummate the im- 
perial coronation. Heluelantly. but yet in the hope 
of thereby gaining concussions for the Church, Pius 
VII. performed the ceremony of anointing (Dec. 
2, 1804), but when he was about to place the crown 
on the sovereign's head, Napoleon forestalled him. 
crowned himself, ami placed the diadem on the head 
of his consort. Josephine. All demands by the pope 
on occasion of this journey came to naught; what 
satisfaction he felt was on account of the deport- 
ment of the French people, who were charmed by 
his presence. At Florence, on his return journey, 
he receiver.! the full submission of Bishop Rieei of 
Piatoja (see Rjcci, Scipionb de'). 

But heavy clouds were gathering from France. 
The emperor demanded the dis.soltit ion of hi- brot Iter 
Jerome's marriage, desiring Jerome to marry a prin- 
cess — a prelude to his own course later. When the 
pope firmly refused. Napoleon declared the mar- 
riaire dissolved. Ill IStllS. he managed to find occa- 
sion to occupy Rome; in 1809, he declared it a 
French city; and when for this reason he was put 
under the ban,' he had the pope and Cardinal Parea 
earrieil captive to Savona. But even here Pius VII. 
would not bend, and refused the confirmation of the 
French bishops appointed by the emperor until 
finally the enervating torments of his captivity ni- 
di a him to an oral assent. But when, owing (o 

eonlimieil confinement at Fontaineblcail, the tor- 

Pius vn-x 


mented old man, on Jan. 25, 1813, agreed to a 
concordat both surrendering Rome and voicing the 
confirmation of the bishops designated by the em- 
peror, Cardinals Consalvi and Pacca, who hastened 
to the spot, succeeded in moving him to solemn 
retraction. Napoleon's own fate had meanwhile 
turned; the year 1814 gave the captive his freedom 
again; and on May 24 he triumphantly entered 
Rome. The restoration of the Jesuits and of the 
Congregation of the Index, together with Consalvi 's 
activity at the Congress of Vienna, effectually re- 
instated the Roman Catholic Church both within 
and without; while by the terms of sundry favor- 
able concordats, the pope guaranteed large advan- 
tages to the states of Central Europe. 

At the close of his life, Pius VII. found himself 
once again involved in conflict, this time with Spain 
and Portugal. In that quarter, the revolution and 
the liberal government of 1820 had not only abol- 
ished the settlements of the Jesuits, but also those 
of most of the remaining orders, and ruptured dip- 
lomatic relations were the result. The French, 
however, suppressed the revolution, and King Fer- 
dinand VII. proclaimed the abrogation of all acts 
against the Church (1823). This happened also in 
Portugal, where Dom Miguel, at the same time, put 
an end to liberalism. 

The Rome of the second phase of the pontificate 
of Pius VII. became the goal of artists of all na- 
tions. Crowned heads, as well, sought the city, and 
the venerable pontiff was visited by Emperor Francis 
II. of Austria (1819) ; by the king of Naples; and by 
King Frederick William III. of Prussia, while Charles 
IV. of Spain and Emanuel of Savoy made Rome 
their permanent residence. The city was thus en- 
veloped with new splendor; and Pius VII., who 
died on Aug. 21, 1823, is commemorated still by that 
part of the Vatican sculpture museum which bears 
his name Chiaramonti. K. Benrath. 

Bibliography: The bulls are in the BuUarii Romani con- 
tinuatio of Barberi, vols, xi.-xv., Rome, 1846-53. Con- 
sult: Ranke, Popes, ii. 461 sqq., 466 sqq., 539 sqq.; £. 
Pistolesi, Vita del . . . Pio VII., 2 vols., Rome, 1824; 
H. Simon, Vie politique et privie de . . . Pie VII. , 2 vols., 
Paris, 1823; Jager, Lebensbeschreibung dee Papstes Pius 
VII. mil Urkunden, Frankfort, 1824; A. F. Artaud de 
Mori tor. Hist, du pape Pie VII., 3 vols., Paris, 1839; 
B. Pacca, Historical Memoirs, 2 vols., London, 1850; 
idem, Memoircs star le pontifical de Pie VII., 2 vols., Paris, 
1884; N. P. S. Wiseman, Recollections of the last Four 
Popes, London, 1858; A. Gavaszi, My Recollections of the 
last Four Popes, London, 1858; J. Bohl, Pius VII. en 
tijn Tijd, 2 vols., Rotterdam, 1861; F. Petrucelli della 
Gattina, Hist, diplomatique des conclaves, iv. 282 sqq., 
Paris, 1866; A. Theiner, Hist, des deux concordats de la 
r&publique francaise et de la republique cisalpine, 2 vols., 
Bar-le-Duc, 1869; A. von Reumont, Qeschichte der Stadt 
Rom, iii. 2, pp. 665 sqq., Berlin, 1870; O. Mejer, Zur 
Geschichte der romisch-deutschen Frage, vols. 1. — iii. passim, 
Rostock, 1871-73; D. Bertollotti, Vita di Papa Pio VII., 
Turin, 1881; F. H. Reusch, Index der verbotenen Bucher, 
vol. ii., Bonn, 1885; H. Chotard, Le Pape Pie VII. a 
Savone, Paris, 1887; Mary H. Allies, Pius VII., London, 
1897; F. Nippold, Handbuch der neuesten Kirchengeschichte, 
ii. 15-70, Berlin, 1901; L. Konig, Die Sakularisation und 
das Reichshonkordat, Innsbruck, 1904; H. Welschinger, 
Le Pape et Vempereur, 1804-16, Paris, 1905; Nielsen, 
Papacy, Nippold, Papacy, passim; Pastor, Popes, viii. 
299; Bower, Popes, iii. 419-434; and the literature under 
Concordats and Delimiting Bulla. 

Pius VUL (Francesco Saverio Castiglioni) : Pope 
1829-30. He was born at Cingoli (102 m. e.s.e. of 

Florence) Nov. 20, 1761. The principal event of his 
brief pontificate was the Emancipation Act of Apr. 
23 [13], 1829, in favor of English Catholics, though 
this did not have the pope's cooperation. In the 
case of the contest just then breaking out with 
the Prussian government, Pius VIII. allowed the 
clerical assistenHa passiva, where there was no 
guaranty for the bringing up of all the children as 
Roman Catholics. This concession was revoked by 
his successor. When the Bourbons were expelled 
from France in the July revolution, and Louis Phil- 
ippe was instituted king, the pope reluctantly ac- 
knowledged the reversal. K. Benrath. 

Bibliography: The bulk are in the BuUarii Romani over 
tinuatio of Barberi, vol. xviii., Rome, 1856; for the Brief 
of Mar. 25, 1830, of. Mirbt, QueUen, pp. 350 sqq. Con- 
sult: A. F. Artaud de Montor, Hist, du pape Pie VIll^ 
Paris, 1844; A. Gavaasi, My Recollections of the last Four 
Popes, London, 1858; N. P. S. Wiseman, Recollections of 
the last Four Popes, London, 1858; M. Broach, Oeechkhte 
des Kuxhenstaates, ii. 316 sqq., Ootha, 1882; F. H. Reosch, 
Index der verbotenen Bucher, voL ii passim, Bonn, 1885; 
F. Nippold, Handbuch der neuesten Kirchengeschichte, n. 
79 sqq., Berlin, 1901; Bower, Popes, iii. 464-170; Nip- 
pold, Papacy, passim; Nielsen, Papacy, passim. 

Pius IX. (Giovanni Mastai Ferretti): Pope 1846- 
1878. He was born at Sinigaglia (70 m. s.e. of 
Ravenna) May 13, 1792. He studied in the Col- 
legium Romanum, was made priest, and labored 
for several years in Chile. In 1827 he became bishop 
of Spoleto, then of Imola, and obtained the cardi- 
nalate in 1840. Elected by 34 (37 ?) votes, in the 
conclave following the death of Gregory XVI., Pius 
IX. found himself confronted with extremely dif- 
ficult tasks. The administration of the Papal States 
(q.v.) had everywhere aroused the utmost dissatis- 
faction ; and the cities of the eastward half — Ancona, 
Bologna, and Ravenna — clamored for reforms. 
The pope's character and presence appeared to war- 
rant such progress, and it was hoped that he might 
even assist in the unification of the entire nation, 
which was demanded on every side. 

Good will for the amelioration of existing condi- 
tions attended him from the outset. He curtailed 
the expenses of the papal court, though in connec- 
tion with the civil administration he could not per- 
suade himself to break with the system according 
to which the governing officials were to belong al- 
most without exception to the clerical body. He 
refused the patriots' demand for some action toward 
eliminating the Austrians from the Italian penin- 
sula, resolving not to declare war on Austria, al- 
though his troops were already united with the Pied- 
mont troops; but, in his address of Apr. 29, 1848, 
he took shelter behind the pronouncement that 
" conformably to our apostolic rank, we embrace 
all nations with like love." 

Though it proved not feasible to laicize the ad- 
ministration of public affairs throughout the Papal 
States, in Rome the lay element was to be more 
strongly represented in the common council; some 
non-clerics also took seats in the council of state 
(consulta). This did not meet the impetuous de- 
mand for a constitution and for institution of secu- 
lar ministers. Yet on May 4, 1848, upon adjust- 
ment of the membership of the Consulta in the 
proportion of six laymen to three clerics, a patriotic 
president of council was accepted in the person of 



Pin» vn-x 

Terezuo Mamiani; but in view of the conflict that 
mm ensued with the Curia's executive experience 
and wisdom, Mamiani perceived himself constrained 
to withdraw. His successor, Count Rossi, was as- 
fluonated, and in order to escape the tumult, Pius 
IX. fled from Rome to Gaeta. From that base he 
rejected the suggestion of the Piedmontese that he 
•flow them to restore the Papal States as a consti- 
tutional monarchy. This was done by the French 
in 1849, but not under those conditions. Hardly 
had Pius IX. returned (Apr., 1850) when he in- 
augurated an era of uncompromising reaction, 
marked, for instance, by the incident that in Bo- 
logna alone, down to 1856, the " court of summary 
justice " had executed by shooting 276 " culprits/' 
The administration of the Papal States was now 
conducted by Antonelli (q.v.) on a thoroughly cleri- 
cal basis. In the department of finance, individuals, 
including Antonelli, enriched themselves; nothing 
was done in the matter of public instruction to re- 
duce the scandalous illiteracy of the land; while 
in the department of justice arbitrary ruling was 
rife. In short, the Papal States remained the worst 
administered political fabric in Europe, while trade 
and industry were in wretched condition. In the 
distinctly ecclesiastical sphere, wherein Pius IX., 
in 1854, conceived the dogma of the Immaculate 
Conception of Mary (q.v.), without taking counsel 
of the Church, he tested the point as to how far the 
bishops would conform to his bidding. At the 
same time, in relation to civil governments, he car- 
ried most of his demands through the medium of 
concordats (with Spain, 1851; Austria, 1855; also 
with lesser German States; see Concordats and 
Delimiting Bulls). In Italy, however, the uni- 
fication project, supported by Piedmont, now so 
successfully asserted itself against the pope that its 
several stages were completely accomplished (vic- 
tory over Austria, 1859; Victor Emanuel, king of 
Italy, 1860; September treaty, 1864) even down to 
the conquest of Rome, in 1870. It is memorable 
that the last step in the process was achieved 
shortly after the momentous date when the Vatican 
Council (q.v.) had declared the infallibility of the 
pope, July 18, 1870. 

To be sure, the occupation of Rome by the Italian 
army was by no means intended to banish the pope 
from that city thereafter. They suffered him the 
narrowly circumscribed " sovereignty " of the Vati- 
can; and even offered him, in the stipulation law 
of 1871, an annual income of 3,250,000 francs. But 
Pius IX. rejected this offer, feigned a state of cap- 
tivity, and a limitation upon his action which soon 
became subjects of derision; for it appeared, as in 
the contest with Prussia, that the Curia had grown 
more free than formerly in the matter of safeguard- 
ing its ecclesiastical interests. The last years of 
Pius' pontificate are largely filled with this contest, 
he himself having given the challenge in that ad- 
dress of the spring of 1871 wherein he threatened 
Prussia with the " stone " of her destined shatter- 
ing. Yet even this contest (so grave in its results 
and not finally appeased until Leo XIII., q.v., 
came into power) did not prevent the brilliant cele- 
bration of two jubilees of Pius IX. In 1871 he cele- 
brated the twenty-fifth anniversary of his pontifi- 

cate, whereby he had attained to the " years of 
Peter "; and in 1877 his jubilee proper, or fiftieth 
year in the priesthood. On this occasion he beheld 
the whole Roman Catholic world at his feet. In- 
deed, he surpassed the " years of Peter " by seven 
years, dying on Feb. 7, 1878. He and his secretary 
of state Antonelli did not achieve the restoration 
of the temporal sovereignty, but they bequeathed 
such a heritage to the following pontiff as he well 
understood how profitably to occupy to the Church's 
advantage. K. Benrath. 

Bibliography: Sources of information for the pontificate 
are the Acta Pie IX., 4 vols., Rome, 1854 sqq.; Acta 
sanctm sedis, ib. 1865 sqq.; Ada et decreta sanctorum con- 
cUiorum, vol. vi., Freiburg, 1882. A collection of this 
pope's encyclicals was published in Freiburg, 1881 sqq., 
and of his " Apostolic Letters," 2 vols., Paris, 1893. A 
large literature is indicated in the British Museum Cata- 
logue, under " Rome, Church of," cols. 332 sqq., and under 
Pius IX. Consult: Mi*bt, Quellen, pp. 360-390 sqq.; 
M. Marocco, Storia di Pio IX., 2 vols.. Turin, 1856-59; 
H. Reuchlin, Oeschichte Italiens, vols, i., iii., iv., Leipsic, 
1859-73; F. Liverani, II Papato, Vlmpero e il Regno- 
a" Italia, Florence, 1861; A. Gennarelli, Le Sventure ital. 
durante il Pontificato di Pio IX., Florence, 1863; A. O. 
Legge, Pius IX., 2 vols., London, 1872; Abbe Gillet, 
Pie IX., sa vie et lee acts de son pontifical, Paris, 1877; 
T. A. Trollope, Story of the Life of Pius IX., 2 vols., Lon- 
don, 1877; J. G. Shea, Life of Pius IX. and the Great 
Events of ... his Pontificate, New York, 1878; J. M. 
Stepischnegg, Furstbischof von Lavant, Papst Pius IX., 
2 vols., Vienna, 1879; A. M. Dawson, Pius IX. and his 
Times, Toronto, 1880; C. Sylvain, Hist, de Pie IX., 3 
vols., Lille, 1883; F. H. Reusch, Index der verbotenen 
Backer, passim, 2 vols., Bonn, 1885; A. Pougeois, Hist, 
de Pie IX., 6 vols., Paris, 1886; J. F. Maguire, Pius IX, 
and his Times, London, 1893; M. Pages, Pie IX., sa vie, 
ses ecrits, sa doctrine, Paris, 1895; £. Gebhart, Moines 
et papes (Alexander VI. and Pius IX.), Paris, 1896; F. 
Nippold, Handbuch der neuesten Kirchengeschichte, ii. 102— 
155, Berlin, 1901; J. Fernandei Montana, El Syllabus 
de Pio IX., Madrid, 1905; J. H. Robinson and C. A. 
Beard, Development of Modern Europe, vol. ii. passim. 
New York, 1908; R. de Cesare, The Last Days of Papal 
Rome, 1860-70, Boston, 1909; Nippold, Papacy, pp. 113 
sqq.; Nielsen, Papacy. Use also the literature under In- 
fallibility of the Pops; Ultbamontanism; and 
Vatican Council. 

Pius X. (Giuseppe Melchior Sarto): Pope since 
1903. He was born at Riese (a village near Castel- 
franco, 25 m. n.w. of Venice), Italy, June 2, 1835. 
His parents were in humble circumstances and their 
family was large, but such were the talents of the 
future pope that every effort was made for his edu- 
cation. His early training was received in the 
gymnasium at the neighboring town of Castel- 
franco, and in 1850 he entered the Seminary of 
Padua, where he remained seven years, being or- 
dained to the priesthood in 1858. He was immedi- 
ately appointed curate in Tombolo, in the diocese 
of Treviso, where he remained until 1867, when he 
was called to take control of the parish of Salzano. 
In 1875 he was made canon of Treviso, and three 
years later was appointed director of the episcopal 
chancellery and vicar general of the diocese. Mean- 
while his talents were rapidly gaining recognition, 
and in 1882 he was consecrated bishop of Mantua, 
where he found an evil condition of affairs, made 
still worse by the attacks of the Italian government, 
which from 1871 to 1879 had rendered exercise of 
episcopal functions impossible. Within the eleven 
years of his bishopric, Sarto transformed the dio- 
cese of Mantua into a model see, and his labors 

Pius Societies 



found their fitting reward in 1893, when he was 
created patriarch of Venice and cardinal priest of 
San Bernardo. There he remained until in 1003 
he was elected pope to succeed Leo XIII. (q.v.). 
The most striking features of the new pope's reign 
thus far have been the official promotion of the use 
of the Gregorian chant throughout all churches of 
the Roman Catholic communion, the separation by 
the French government of Church and State (1905; 
see France), the attack upon critical tendencies 
in the Church (see Modernism; and cf. Los von 
Rom), and a serious dispute with Spain, one object 
of which on the part of the Spanish government is 
the control of the religious orders necessitated by 
the settlement of monks and nuns exiled from 

Bibliography: Pie X-Actea-encycliquea-motu proprio, brefa, 
allocutions, etc. Texte latin avec la traduction francaiee en 
regard prectdee d'une notice biographiaue euivi d'une table 
generaU alphabttique, 3 vols., Paris. 1906-09; A. de Waal, 
Papat Piue X.: Lebenebild, Munich, 1903, Eng. transl., 
Life of Pope Piue X., Milwaukee, 1904; A. Marcheaan, 
Papat Piua X. in Leben und Wort, Einsiedeln, 1906; N. 
Peters, Papat Piua X. und doe BibelMudien, Paderbora, 
1906; A. Hoch, Papat Piua X. Bin Bild kirchlicher Re- 
formthatiohrit, Leipsic, 1907; W. £. Schmits [Didier), The 
Life of Pope Piua X., New York, 1908; B. Sen tier, Piua 
X., Gras, 1908; N. Hilling, Die Reformen dee Papatea Piua 
X. aufdem Oebiet der kirchenrechtlichen Geaettaebung, Bonn, 
1909; and the literature under Modernism. 

PIUS SOCIETIES: Certain religious associations, 
composed of clergy and laity, formed in Germany 
after the revolutionary disturbances of 1848, the 
object of which was the defense and promotion of 
Roman Catholicism in Germany. The bishops of 
the Roman Catholic Church assembled at Wurz- 
burg in 1848, agreed to support the Pius Societies, 
so called after Pius IX. (q.v.), to maintain the su- 
premacy of the pope in Germany and to keep na- 
tional education in the hands of the Church. In 
Oct., 1848, a meeting representing many local unions 
was held at Mainz in which all the Pius Societies 
throughout the country were incorporated in one 
collective union which took the name of the " Cath- 
olic Union of Germany." The object of this asso- 
ciation was declared to be the treatment of all so- 
cial and religious questions from a Roman Catholic 
standpoint, and especially the preservation and 
promotion of the Church's welfare and independ- 
ence. The union was pronounced by the bishop of 
Limburg to be " a powerful lever for the Christian 
restoration of Germany." At this meeting were 
formed the Vincent societies for domestic mission- 
ary work, and later Boniface societies, which, to- 
gether with a host of societies either new or previ- 
ously in existence, became adjuncts of the Pius 

The assemblies were always made occasions for 
commenting on the condition of the Roman Catho- 
lic Church in Germany, for preaching Ultramontan- 
ism (q.v.), and inveighing against Protestantism. 
During the trials of the so-called Kulturkampf (see 
Ultramontanism) the Pius Societies at their an- 
nual meeting at Wttrzburg, 1877, resolved: "We 
will fight not with the sword but with the cross." 
This peaceful attitude gave way after 1880 to a 
more stormy program, including the ultramontane 

policy of Pius IX., the readmittance of Roman 
Catholic orders, particularly the Jesuits, and the 
temporal supremacy of the pope. The Pius So- 
cieties do not aim at a parity of privileges among 
all religious bodies, but at the total catholicisation of 
the German nation in accordance with the intro- 
duction of that future ideal when, in the words of 
Baron von Loft uttered in the Roman Catholic As- 
sembly at Bonn in 1881 : " Germany shall be a 
Catholic country and the Church the leader of the 
nations." (O. ZOcKUsnt.) 

Bibliography: From the Roman Catholic aide may be 
adduced: H. Menne, Ueber den Zweck und Nututn der 
kotholieche Vereine DeutacJOonda, Osnabruck, 1848; T. 
Palatini!*, Bntatehung der Generoherwammtung der Katko- 
liken DeuUchlanda, Wursburg, 1893; H. Brtlek, Oeeehickte 
der kotholiachen Kirche im 19. Jokrhundert, iiL 511-637, 
Monster, 1905. For the Protestant side read: H. Schmid, 
Geechichte der kotholiachen Kirche Deutechlonda, pp. 667, 
758 sqq. f Munich, 1874; F. Nippold, Hondbuch der new 
eaten Kirchengeechichte* ii. 707 sqq., Berlin, 1901. 


PLACEMAKER'S BIBLE. See Bible Versions, 
B, IV., § 9. 

PLACET, pltfset, or pta'set (PLACETUM RE- 

EATIS): Formal state approval of measures of 
ecclesiastical adniinistration, or state provision that 
only ecclesiastical administrative measures thus ap- 
proved shall be civilly recognised and maintained. 

This presupposes that both State and 

Develop- Church are mutually independent. In 

ment of the the case of a church governed, as t!ic 

Placet Reformed state church came to be, by 

the civil power, the placet is meaning- 
less; and it is equally inapplicable where the State, 
in ecclesiastical affairs, is completely dependent on 
the authority of the Church, as was the case in the 
Middle Ages from the time of Gregory VII. The 
placet, therefore, first becomes a part of the ma- 
chinery of the State when the latter begins to re- 
volt from the Church and to deem itself independ- 
ent. Concomitantly with the development of royal 
power, this occurred first in Spain, during the reign 
of Alfonso XI. (1348). In that country, the placet 
had already been formulated in a series of royal 
ordinances when the Emperor Charles V. ascended 
the throne and made decisive use of this device 
with the aid of the Cortes. In France the placet did 
not arise till nearly a century later, there assuming 
a distinct character through the practical bearings 
of the French parliaments. The rule that papal 
bulls gained legal validity only by virtue of the 
royal placet was practically current in France be- 
fore becoming established by legislation in 1475. 
In the Netherlands, while the rudiments of the 
placet are very old, it was only in the Spanish period 
that it was legislatively established (1565), its form 
here receiving marked influence from Spanish juris- 
prudence and from the French culture dominant 
in the Walloon portion of the country. 

In so far as these developments arose prior to the 
Reformation, the Church, like the modern Roman 
Catholic communion, never acknowledged the civil 
placet, but, in virtue of her divine commission, as- 
serted the prerogative of sole power to prescribe 



Pius Societies 

whatsoever might be deemed necessary for her best 
interests even in secular affairs, particularly of a 
legislative character. She accordingly held ecclesi- 
astical requirements to be binding in 
Mutual their very nature, and regarded the 
Attitude of State as unreservedly pledged to lend 
Church and her the support of the secular arm. 
State. The bull In coma Domini (1568) pro- 
nounces excommunication on all who 
obstruct the publication and execution of papal 
bulls and briefs. By the brief Pervenerat (June 30, 
1830) Pius VIII. rejected the placet in dealing with 
the estates of the ecclesiastical province of the 
Upper Rhine; and Pius IX. followed the same 
course in his allocution Meminit unusquisque (Sept. 
30, 1861), as well as on other occasions, and em- 
phasized it in the Syllabus (§ 30). The Roman 
Catholic Church denies categorically that the State 
any jurisdiction over things which the 

Church has declared spiritual, and the Curia and its 
sympathizers view the use of the placet by the State 
as an act of compulsion to which they must sub- 
mit so long as there is no feasible way to overcome 
it. By the State these ecclesiastical pronounce- 
ments were long disregarded. When the bull In 
atna Domini (q.v.) was published in Spain without 
royal approbation, Philip II. retaliated with most 
stringent measures; and the placet was also upheld 
by his successors. In France, jurisprudence and leg- 
islation alike developed this legal instrument even 
down to concrete details; and only when the enact- 
ment of the Church was concerned with religion 
alone was there no need of State approval. The 
French theory, modified by the Belgian develop- 
ment of Hispano-Gallican theory and practise, was 
also of essential influence upon the evolution of 
German jurisprudence. 

As a logical consequence of the social freedom 
guaranteed by a constitutional government, asso- 
ciations for religious purposes regulate and, so far 
as their social means permit, control their own 
affairs. Similar freedom is enjoyed by the Roman 
Catholic Church. Here the placet has 
The Placet no place as long as the State is not 
in Modern bidden to transcend its own sphere, 
Times. which it alone can gage, and to pro- 
tect the special interests of the Church; 
or so long as its own interests do not lead it to re- 
strict the freedom of the Roman Catholic Church. 
The Church, on the other hand, neither recognizes 
any limitations of this character, nor does it con- 
cede to the State the right to decide how far to 
further the interests of the Church, but it demands 
implicit obedience. This double relation of Church 
and State, which was clear to the former from the 
first, but only gradually became evident to the lat- 
ter, conditioned the development of the controversy 
concerning the placet in Germany from the time 
when constitutional government came to have a 
distinct meaning. 

German states retaining the placet are Bavaria, 
Saxony, Wurttemberg, Baden, Hesse, Saxe- Weimar, 
Brunswick, and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, as well as the 
imperial provinces of Alsace and Lorraine; though 
the several state codes diverge considerably as re- 
gards details. Officially the Roman Catholic Church 

never recognizes the placet; and in Bavaria, for in- 
stance, the church dignitaries have simply ignored 
it when publishing the Vatican decrees, thus re- 
peatedly giving rise to severe controversies not only 
regarding the validity of the placet in general, but 
also concerning its validity in the case of dogmas in 
particular. The theory advanced by influential 
ultramontane leaders, that the placet should be ab- 
rogated since Church and State are independent of, 
though coexistent with, each other, would be cor- 
rect if the Church were willing to see her ordinances 
preserved intact simply by the social agencies of 
her rule in the sphere of conscience. But since, to 
secure this end, she lays claim, either directly or in- 
directly, to civil means, this ostensible coexistence 
practically becomes the Gregorian elevation of the 
Church above the State. If, therefore, the modern 
State freely concedes to the Roman Catholic Church 
the right of regulating its own religious concerns, it 
can do so only in the sense in which it concedes 
autonomy of any character, on condition of State 
supervision, and of the State's consequent right 
either to approve or to forbid. 

Those states which still enforce the placet as a 
special institution make it apply to Protestants as 
well as to the Roman Catholic Church. Even the 
states which no longer take cognizance of the placet 
as such are not content with the fact that the sanc- 
tion of church laws rests in the hands of the terri- 
torial sovereign; for in the case of such laws, they 
require either the countersignature of a minister of 
state, or preliminary approbation by ministers of 
state for drafts of such laws. See also Nominatio 
Regia. E. Sehling. 

Bxbuoorapht: The one book of value here is E. Friedberg, 
Die OrHruen swiachen Stoat und Kirche, Tubingen, 1872. 
But see Church and State, and the literature there ad- 

PLACETTE, pla"set', JEAN LA: French Prot- 
estant theologian and moralist; b. at Pontacq (118 
m. 8.S.W. of Bordeaux) Jan. 19, 1639; d. at Utrecht 
Apr. 25, 1718. He studied theology at the Protes- 
tant academy at Montauban; became pastor at 
Orthez (1660), and at Nay (1664), where he earned 
a brilliant reputation as an orator; after the revo- 
cation of the Edict of Nantes (1685) he became 
pastor of the French church at Copenhagen, where 
he labored fruitfully as pastor and as writer till 1711, 
when he retired and went to live at Utrecht. His 
writings fall into three classes, those on systematic 
theology, on morals, and on practical theology. 
Among those in the former class to be named are: 
Observationes hisUyrico-ecdesiastica (Amsterdam, 
1695); Traitt de la fox divine (1697); and Rtponse 
a deux objections . . . sur Vorigine du mal et sur le 
mystere de la Trinite (1707). In the second class 
mention may be made of Nouveaux essais de morale 
(1692); a second series with the same title (6 vols., 
The Hague, 1715); Le Morale chrUienne (2 vols., 
Cologne, 1695) ; and Divers traitis sur des maHeres de 
conscience (Amsterdam, 1696). In the third class 
are: La Mori des jusies ou maniere de bien mourir 
(1695; Eng. transl., The Death of the Righteous, 2 
vols., London, 1737); La Communion devoU (2 
vols., 1695); Traitt de la conscience (1699; Eng. 
transl., The Christian Casuist, London, 1705); and 

Plaoetum Rectum 


thi' posthumous .-In* *nrla manure dr. /itMht (I(o<- 
tcrdani, 1733; contains a biography). 
JiiauoaKAFHt: Beside the life in Arie .... lit sup., eon- 

Licbleoberger, ESR, vii. 741 

See Pu.cET. 

PLACE): French theologian; h. at Saumur (30 m. 
B.e. of Angers) probably in 15W; d. there Aug. 17, 
1065 or 1655. He became pastor at Nantes in 1828 
and was professor of theology ;it his native city 
from l')-!-itil] his death. 1'lareus together with M. 
Aniyraiil (i].v.) mil 1 I., t !;ipt*llus belong, as followers 
of John Cameron (q.v.), to that theological move- 
s;i>ri i :it Sjiimur which in con trust with the orthodox 
school of Sedan sought to moderate the Calnnistic 
doctrine by emphasizing the ethical and common 
human elements, without, however, departing from 
the fundamental principles. From the supreme 
value of the accountability of every human soul, 
I'laceus especially dtni the conclusion against the 
imputation of Adam's actual sin. In defense of the 
doctrine that the sin of Adam could be reckoned 
to his descendants only as mediated by the in- 
herited sinful subjective state he pointed out that 
Calvin knew nothing of an immediate imputation 
find that the same was denied by Peter Martyr and 
Daniel Chnmier (q.v.), hut did not go so far as to 
justify himself hy the view of Zwingli that heredi- 
tary guilt was no more than the guilt of every in- 
dividual. The national synod of Charcnton (IG-14) 
Urnl'T tIii- leadership nf Autoine !',:iris.solcs (q.v.], 
representing the over- zealous constituency of Mon- 
taulian, opposed this assertion hy adopting a decree 
to be subscribed by all pastors and fiflllfttri'ltfflif 
i'laceus issued later his vindication, Disputatio de 
iniji'ilnt'iiiim primi prrcnt!. Adami (Saumur, lii.ja). 
The national synod of Loudon, in HwO, withdrew 
nil threatening measures of discipline, hut tin- Zurich 
orthodoxy did not. rest content until in the Formula 
consensus Helvetia of 1675 it repudiated with 
Hauinuri-m as a whole the mere " imputation medi- 
ate and consequent." (E. F. Karl MCu-er.) 
BiBLioaiuFHi: The Optra omnia were published in 2 vols., 
Franeker. 100(1, AubcnciL 1702. Commit; E. onrl E. 
HuiK, 1m France pruttdanlr, ed. H. L. Bonliar, vi. 309 
■qq„ Paris. 1S80; J. G. Waloh. BMritwm in die Reti- 
j/j',,fi ■, >:ir.iiiQkciten . . . auuer der evanaditeh-lutlirrim-hm 
Kirrhe. iii. SUO «o,q.. Jena. 1734; Burt hoi mi™, in Hull/tin 
de la ooeitte de thiol, da protetanliome frincai,. ISM; 
S:iiei.'V. in Revue de thfolaoie, Oct.. 1S.~!,">: I.iilii< i.l,erv r, 
HSR, xi. 4SQ sqq. 

PLAGUE. See Diseases and thb Healing 
Akt, Hebrew, IV., ££ 4-6. 

PLAGUES OF EGYPT. See Moses, £ 3. 

PLAIH-SOHG. See Sacred Music, 

theran and church historian; b. at Niirtingen (IS 
m.s.s.e. of Stuttgart). Wurtteraberg, Nov. 15, 1751; 
d. at Gottingen Aug. 31, 1833. He was educated 
at the University of Tubingen (1769-74), where he 
was a lecturer in 1775-80, after which he went to 
Stuttgart ns vicar, being preacher and associate 
[jroh-'or at the Karlsschule in the same city, 1781- 
1784. Here he completed the Brat two volumes of 

his Getchichle der EnUtehitng, der VerSnderungen 
u nd der Biidung untcres proteislanlisckrn Lekrbegngn 
von Anfang der Reformation bit iur EinfQhnmg der 
Konkordienformel (6 vols., Leipsic, 1781-1800). So 
favorable was the reception accorded these volume* 
that, on the death of Christian Wilhelm Fran* 
Walch in 1784, Planck was chosen to succeed him 
as professor of church history at Got linger.. II'- 1- - 
came a member of the consistory in 1791; ephor of 
the Hanover theologians in 1800; general superin- 
tend eat of the principality of tiijttingen in 1805; 
abbot of Bursfelde in 1828; and supreme eonsL*- 
torial councilor in 1830. 

Planck himself described his theological stand- 
point as " rational supernaturalism." He held to 
the divinity as well as to the reasonableness of 
Christianity, to the necessity as well as to the com- 
prehetisibility of a, direct divine revelation. He 
was essentially a historian, and the historical point 
of view and method colored his whole personality. 
The first of his two most important works, the Ge- 
tckichte . . . unaerc* proteatantiachm Lchrbtqriflt, 
has already been mentioned. His second great 
work was his Geachichle der ehrUdich-kirchiichtn 
GeeeUscha/ttver/aaxung (5 vols., Hanover, 1803-09). 
The first of these two works was undoubtedly 
Planck's masterpiece, and marked an epoch in the 
writing of Protestant church history, since it was 
the earliest attempt at an unpartiian account of 
the Reformation and of the rise of Lutheraniam. 
Planck has been criticized for emphasizing too 
strongly the subjective, personal part in the devel- 
opment of ideas. He paid too little attention to 
general influences and currents of thought that pro- 
vailed throughout entire historic periods, though 
he went deeply and carefully into hia sources, and 
used the knowledge of details thus obtained in pre- 
senting extremely graphic delineations of charac- 
ter and motives. 

Among tho numoroiw writings nf Pbincli, in addition to 
those already mentioned, special mention may be nude at 
(he following: continuations of the NruaUt RelioionrGe- 
erhichte of Christ hui Wilhelm Fnuii Walch (q.v.; 3 vole.. 
Lemgo, 1787-9.1) and the Bibliothot dn Kirr-lirnwrtamm- 
lunam da rirrlen iwl /BnJTii Jahrk-underU of Georg Daniel 
l-'a-l.i drfirnii-. I7MJ, ai well m. a new edition of the Qrund- 
riu der Kirdumamoafhl* of Ludwig Timotheua Spittlar 
(q.v.; Oflttingcn, 18121; Qntndrim einer Getchichle der 
I: in->/[ ;,-'.• 'i \~,:t.i :.,.ni. I. :/-.-<.! {,-',,■<, It^iicrunQ umi dem Jcanoni- 
k*oi RecM* (1700); finleiiuno in die (AwfuoiV-Am Wi st en 
tchajtm (2 part*. Leirmic, 17B4-0S; E^ig. tranal., Intro- 
.!;.■!, ",m l.i Stirred PSifoiomy and Interpretation, Edinburgh, 
ISM); Ulbtt Trennuna unj Vrreiniovno der gttrtnnltn 
chrittlirhm llauplporlhriien (Tuhingen, 1S03): Bttraehtunae* 
i/'.rr .!<<■ 'i, '/•*>'■■" \'i r'/'ulimnom in item Zwtund der deutfrbm 
tnU^Vi KitU Hwu«.w. I-OMI, Woru dot FrvdtMi 
nut ,ln !..,tli.-l '( .,■■!., n K.'.-h. (I M.tli'ii'iTi, 1SJ.I0 1 ; (Inmdriu dor 
tnealooixhen Bncitklopildio (1813); GeerkicnU dee CArulm- 
thumi in der Periode seiner erettn Binfilhrmg in die WiM 
dare* Jeoum und die Apoetrt '2 vols.. 1818); Ueber die Be- 
handluno. die Haltbarkeit und den Worth dn hietorite/icn Bo- 
"•"" far die r„,lllKhheit dee ChriHenlhum* (ISL'l); sod 
'„., ' i.-'.l,' drr protretantiechen Theolooi* eon der Konkordim- 
formel an 6ii in die MiOo do, aekHehnien Janrnundertt (1831). 

He was, throughout, judicial and conciliatory, re- 
fraining as much as possible from taking sides, and 
preferring painstaking investigation of facts to 
pas-ing judgment. 

Besides his historical works, Planck also wrot« 
three quasi -romances, the first two anonymously: 
Tagebuch eines neaen Ehemanncs (Leipsic, 1779); 


Jmotfan Asntey'a Briefe (Bern, 1782); and the 
inrmelltary Das erstc Anilsjahr des Pfarrers von S. 
in Ataivgen aus seincm Tagebueh, cine Pastoral- 
ViaLox in Form ciner Geschiehie (Gottingen, 1823). 

(Paul Tschackekt.) 
Bauoanrai: J. S. Patter, GtWuiengachiditt von der 
, . . fmivtniUt lit G'itingcn. continued by SaiklfcJd and 
OnHrtey.ii. 121. iiL 283 sqq.. tv, 27tj. 4 ports. CBttingeo, 
1IB-1S3S (for list of works by snd on Plnock) ; G. C. F. 
IMm, Dr. O. J. Planet. Ein bioorapkitchrr I'mrurA, ib. 
1SB; NtUoioa der DeuUcAat, lor 1833. li. HI sqq.; ZH7\ 
183«,i.3]3mq. (by Mobnickc). IBU. iv. 75 sqq. (by E. 
Basel; G. Franck. GtuchicMt dsr protalantitehen Then- 
lew. lit- J53 sqq., LeiiMie, 1S7S. 

man Lutheran; sou of the preceding; b. at Got- 
iiajen July 19, 1785; d. there Sept. 23, 1831. He 
ifcs educated at the university of his native city 
(1803-06), where he became lecturer in 1806. Four 
years later he was appointed associate professor of 
theology in the same institution, and in 1823 was 
promote! to a full professorship. He devoted him- 
self particularly to New-Testament exegesis, and 
kmc; labored on a lexicon of the Greek Testament, 
which he did not live to complete. Among his wri- 
ting- *|*?t-ial mention should be made of the follow- 
hag; Bemerkungen uber I Timollieus (Gotnn^en. 
180c\; in answer tn Schleiermacher'n attack on the 
authenticity of the epistle); Entumrf einer neuen 
syju  ■.-.-. rM-litihtj dtr drr-i crxtrtt Eron- 

geii. : .-h Gruiidsdtien der adherer Kritik (1809); 

De vera notura atque indole oralionis Grata Nori 
Tex (1810; Eng. transl. by A. S. Patereon, 

Edinburgh, 1833); and Abrixs der philosopHschen 
Rttigimdehre (Gottingen, 1821). 

(Paul Tbchackebt.) 

BraLioaiuFBT: Consult the liteniturc under the preceding, 
G. C. ¥. I.ueke, Dr. C J. Planck, pp. 153 sqq.. 
.__, 1835; ud tho Ntktoloa for 1831. It 303: also 
F. Sehlegel. Kirdien- ™l RrformalioatgitcMU-litr, 
vol hi., Huwver, 1832; G. Uhlhom, HannovttKhe Kir- 
ehtnaerJiitnlt. Stuttgart. 1902; ABB. nvi. 227; Vigour- 
oux, Dittionnaire, fast, ixiii.. col. 457. 

Lutheran promoter of foreign missions; b. at Bum- 
berg (69 m. n.e. of Posen) Sept. 8, 1829; d. at Ber- 
lin July 10, 1901. He was educated at Halle and 
Bonn (1849-53), and at Wittenberg Theological 
Seminary (1854-56); wins preacher arid religious in- 
structor at Halle (1856-63); third secretary of the 
Society fur Foreign Minions, Berlin (1863-71) and 
also instructor at the mission seminary, field-lec- 
turer and author of missionary literature; first sec- 
retary of Gossner's Mission, after 1871; lecturer at 
the University of Berlin on missionary urn I n-ligitms- 
history after 1867; and ftill professor after 1882. 
He visited India in 1S77-7S on behalf of Gosaner's 
Mis-ion and twice afterward. He was author of 
LAen dot Freiherm von Canstein (Halle, 1861); 
Siebrri Zruge.n des Herrn am allnln Voile (Berlin, 
1867); Die Erwahlung dtr VoVcer im Lichte der 
MiBsumxgtxchichlf. (1867); Drci new Mission sfragct 
(1868; Eng. transl., The Subject of Missions Co»- 
Mertd wider Three New Aspects, Edinburgh, 1873)  
Die Mitnonagedanken de» Freiherm von Leibnitz 
(1869); Missiont-Stiidien (1870); and F&nfaig 
Jahre Gosanerscher Mission (1886). 

ear. O. PUth. ffnrt Piatt, liuptklor der Oatf 
Minion, Sahwerin, 1904. 

SACCH1): Italian humanist, theologian, and his- 
torian of the popen; l>. at I'indciiu (17 m. e. of Cre- 
mona) 1421; d. at Rome 1481. After studying at 
Mantua, he went to Florence in 1457 to learn Greek 
of Argyropulos, and in 1462 migrated to Rome, 
where he obtained a position at the Curia in the 
College of Abbreviators. When Paul II. ascended 
the throne in 1464, Platina, like many others, lost 
his position, and then headed a sharp reaction 
UKitinxt the pojav lie was arrested and imprisoned 
for four months in the Castle, of St.. Angelo, and did 
not obtain a new office until Sixtos IV. appointed 
him director of the Vatican library, a position which 
he held until his death. The same pope gave him 
the incentive for the preparation of his most im- 
portant work, his Opus in Vitus summorum ponHfi- 
cum ad Sixtum IV. (Venice, 1479; translated into 
the principal languages (J f | ; uro|ic; Eng. transl s., 2 
vols., Lives of the Popes, London. 1685, 1888). In 
the main, Platina repeat**! the statements of his 
preileerssors Damasus, Anastasius, Pandulphus, 
I'tolesnieus of Lucca, and others, though he fre- 
quently made independent investigations. At the 
same time, like his precursors, be utilised forged 
decretals without sii-peetini; their real nature. 

In addition to Platina 'a Opus, mention should also 
be made of bis Historia indytw orbit Mantua et 
serenissima: fuittiliu Uo^yuin liliri » x (Vienna, 1675). 

K. Be K BATH. 
BiBLiooB«»Ht; On the editions, etr., of PUtina's work on 
the popes consult Mollor, Dittrrttitia it B. PlaHna, Alt- 
dorf. 1694, with which may he compsted TinboKhJ, 
Storia delta Ltttcralura Italiana, vol. vi., 11 vols., Modeu, 
1772-95; pjid Hutorin inili/la urbts Mantua, ed. Lun- 
becias, Vienna. 1675. Consult; Pastor, Popa, vols, ii.- 
i». (use the- Index); ' 'niitliton. Pn<»v» (use the Index): 
S. BiBsolnli. l.r Yu, di dur itlialri Cr, r«n«n, Milan, ISoB; 
G. Voigf, Pi-r Wiatrrbrttbuni/ i/m khs^tKam AUtrAamt. 
ii. 237 sqq.. Rcrtin. 1881 ; J. liurekhnrdt. Die Kullur dtr 
Aewriuiniai. ii. 277-27H. I,ei,, iv. is, Eng. Inisl, Tn* 
Ciciliialion of tht Rtnaxener of Itaty, London. I8S8. 

gregatiomdist; b. at Lee, Mass., May 15, 1865. He 
was educated at Yale College (A.B., 1885), and after 
being a private tutor for five years entered Union 
Theological Seminary, from which he was graduated 
in 1893. He then studied at the University of Ber- 
lin for two years, after which he was an instructor 
at Union Theological Seminar}' for a year; he was 
assistant professor of ecclesiastical history at Har- 
vard (1896-1901), and since 1901 has been professor 
of the same in Audover Thcologic;d Seminary. 

PLATO. See Platonism and Christianity. 

Archbishop of the Orthodox Russian Church in the 
United States; b. at Kursk (275 m. s. of Moscow), 
Russia, 1866. He became a priest in 1887 and a 
monk in 1894, and in 1902 was consecrated bishop 
hi" ('lii;ri;'in. lirst- auxiliary bishop of the archdio- 
cese of Kief, and superior of the monastery of the 
Kpipliany in Kief. He was a reactionary member of 
the second Duma, and in 1907 wad elevated to the 
archbishopric of Alcutia and North America, with 
residence in New York City. 

PL ATOM, pla'ton (PETER IXVCHTH): Metro- 
politan of Moscow; b. near Moscow June 29, 1737; 


Platonism and Christianity 



d. at Moscow 1812. He was the son of a psalmo- 
dist, and was educated at the seminary and the the- 
ological academy of Moscow. In 1757 he was ap- 
pointed instructor in Greek and rhetoric at the 
latter institution, and became distinguished as a 
pulpit orator. Within the year he was called to be 
instructor in rhetoric at the famous monastery of 
the Holy Trinity near Moscow. Here he became a 
monk, adopting the name of Platon, and in 1761 
was made rector of the seminary of the monastery. 
A sermon preached by him in Oct., 1762, produced 
so favorable an impression on the Empress Cath- 
erine II. that she summoned him to court to be the 
religious instructor of the eight-year-old heir ap- 
parent, Paul Petrovitch. Here he came into close 
contact with Voltaire and the encyclopedists, but 
without injury either to his faith or his character. 

Platon remained at the Russian court, winning 
the admiration of even Voltaire, until the marriage 
of the heir apparent to Maria Feodorovna, daughter 
of Duke Eugene of Wurttemberg, in 1773. During 
this time he published, for the use of his royal pupil, 
his " Orthodox Doctrine: or, A short Compend of 
Christian Theology " (Moscow, 1765; Eng. transl., 
The Present State of the Greek Church in Russia: or, 
A Summary of Christian Divinity, by R. Pinkerton, 
Edinburgh, 1814), in which the influence of Western 
thought, and even of rationalism, may be distinctly 
traced. At the same time, Roman Catholic doc- 
trines are mercilessly attacked, while the Lutheran 
tenet of ubiquity and the Reformed theory of pre- 
destination also receive their share of criticism. 
This catechism was followed, a year later, by the 
" Exhortation of the Orthodox Eastern Catholic 
Church of Christ to her former Children, now on the 
Road to Schism," pleading, though with scant suc- 
cess, for lenient treatment of dissenters from the 
Orthodox Church. 

In 1768 Platon became a member of the synod, 
and in 1770 was made bishop of Tver, though he 
still remained at St. Petersburg, finally being the 
religious instructor of the new grand duchess. In 
1775 he was enthroned archbishop of Moscow, and 
throughout the reigns of Catherine II., Paul, and 
Alexander I. diligently promoted the religious, 
moral, intellectual, and material welfare of his arch- 
diocese, maintaining meanwhile an unceasing liter- 
ary activity. In 1775 he issued a catechism for the 
use of the clergy, and in 1776 a short catechism for 
children, as well as one in the form of a dialogue, 
while his brief history of the Russian Church (1777) 
is the first systematic treatise of its kind in the 
Russian language. 

In 1787 Platon reluctantly consented to become 
metropolitan of Moscow. He visited the city but 
seldom, however, passing the winter in the Triotzki 
monastery and the summer in the Pererva Monas- 
tery close to Moscow. Here he supervised person- 
ally the studies of the seminarians, who included 
three destined to succeed him as archbishop of Mos- 
cow. It was Platon who crowned both Paul (1797) 
and Alexander I. (1801); but despite his close and 
cordial relations with the court he preserved to the 
last his firmness and his independence. Shortly 
before his death he aided in preparing the way for 
the foundation of the Russian Bible society which 

was established in the year in which he died. The 
collected works of Platon were published at Moscow 
in twenty volumes in 1779-1807, the greater portion 
of these writings being sermons, of which there are 
about 500. An abridged English translation of 
Platon *s catechism was prepared from a Greek ver- 
sion of the Russian original (London, 1867), and his 
sermon preached at the request of the empress to 
celebrate the victory of Tschesme also appeared in 
English (London, 1770). (H. Dalton.) 

Bibliography: A life in Russian by Snegirew was published 
at Moscow, 1857, while incidents of the life, also in Rus- 
sian, was by Barsow, ib. 1891. Consult: L. Boissard. 
Utgliee de Ruesie, ii. 348 sqq., Paris, 1867; A. H. Hore, 
Eighteen Centuries of the Orthodox Greek Church, pp. 690- 
691, New York. 1899. 


Christian Estimate of Plato (f 1). 

Platonic Philosophy Spiritual (f 2). 

Platonic Philosophy Theistic (f 3). 

Platonic Philosophy Teleological and Ethical (f 4). 

Religion, Rewards, and Punishment in Plato (f 5). 

Merits and Defects (f 6). 

Later Platonic Schools ((7). 

" The peculiarity of the Platonic philosophy," 
says Hegel, in his " History of Philosophy " (vol. 
ii.), "is precisely this direction toward the super- 
sensuous world, — it seeks the elevation of conscious- 
ness into the realm of spirit. The Christian religion 
also has set up this high principle, that the internal 
spiritual essence of man is his true 
i. Christian essence, and has made it the universal 
Estimate principle." Some of the early Fathers 
of Plato, recognized a Christian element in Plato, 
and ascribed to him a kind of propae- 
deutic office and relation toward Christianity. 
Clement of Alexandria calls philosophy " a sort of 
preliminary discipline for those who lived before 
the coming of Christ," and adds, " Perhaps we may 
say it was given to the Greeks with this special ob- 
ject; for philosophy was to the Greeks what the 
law was to the Jews, — a schoolmaster to bring them 
to Christ (cf. Strom., I., v.-xx.; Eng. transl., ANF, 
ii. 305-324). " The Platonic dogmas," says Justin 
Martyr, " are not foreign to Christianity. If we 
Christians say that all things were created and or- 
dered by God, we seem to enounce a doctrine of 
Plato; and, between our view of the being of God 
and his, the article appears to make the only dif- 
ference " (cf. // Apol., xiii.). " Justin " (says 
Ackermann, Das Christliche im Plato, chap, i., Ham- 
burg, 1835; Eng. transl., The Christian Element in 
Plato, Edinburgh, 1861), " Justin was, as he him- 
self relates, an enthusiastic admirer of Plato before 
he found in the Gospel that full satisfaction which 
he had sought earnestly, but in vain, in philosophy. 
And, though the Gospel stood infinitely higher in 
his view than the Platonic philosophy, yet he re- 
garded the latter as a preliminary stage to the 
former. And in the same way did other apologetic 
writers express themselves concerning Plato and his 
philosophy, especially Athenagoras, the most spir- 
ited, and philosophically most important of them 
all, whose ' Apology ' is one of the most admirable 
works of Christian antiquity." The Fathers of the 
early Church sought to explain the striking resem- 
blance between the doctrines of Plato and those of 




Platonism and Christianity 

Christianity, principally by the acquaintance, which, 
as they supposed, that philosopher had with learned 
Jews and with the Jewish Scriptures during his so- 
journ in Egypt, but partly, also, by the universal 
light of a divine revelation through the " Logos," 
fthich, in and through human reason, " lighteth 
every man that cometh into the world," and which 
illumined especially such sincere and humble seekers 
after truth as Socrates and Plato before the incar- 
nation of the Eternal Word in the person of Jesus 
Christ. Passages which bear a striking resemblance 
to the Christian Scriptures in their picturesque, para- 
bolic, and axiomatic style, and still more in the 
lofty moral, religious, and almost Christian senti- 
ments which they express, are scattered thickly all 
through the dialogues, even those that treat of phys- 
ical, political, and philosophical subjects; and they 
are as characteristic of Plato as is the inimitably 
graceful dialogue in which they are clothed. A 
good selection of such passages may be seen in 
the introductory chapters of Ackermann's work (ut 
sup.)- A still more copious and striking collection 
might be made. 

Perhaps the most obvious and striking feature of 
the Platonic philosophy is that it is preeminently 
spiritual. Hegel speaks of " this direction toward 
the supersensuous world/' this " eleva- 
2. Platonic tion of consciousness into the realm of 
Philosophy spirit," as " the peculiarity of the Pla- 
SpirituaL tonic philosophy." There is no doc- 
trine on which Plato more frequently 
or more strenuously insists than this, — that soul is 
not only superior to body, but prior to it in order of 
time, and that not merely as it exists in the being 
of God, but in every order of existence. The soul 
of the world existed first, and then it was clothed 
with a material body. The souls which animate the 
sun, moon, and stars, existed before the bodies which 
they inhabit (Timceus). The preexistence of hu- 
man souls is one of the arguments on which he re- 
lies to prove their immortality (Pkcedo, 73-76). 
Among the other arguments by which he demon- 
strates the immortality of the soul and its exalted 
dignity are these: that the soul leads and rules the 
body, and therein resembles the immortal gods (ib. 
80); that the soul is capable of apprehending eter- 
nal and immutable ideas, and communing with 
things unseen and eternal, and so must partake of 
their nature (ib. 79); that, as consciousness is sin- 
gle and simple, so the soul itself is uncompounded, 
and hence incapable of dissolution (ib. 78); that 
soul, being everywhere the cause and source of life, 
and every way diametrically opposite to death, can 
not be conceived as dying, any more than fire can 
be conceived as becoming cold (ib. 102-107); that 
soul, being self-moved, and the source of all life and 
motion, can never cease to live and move (Phadrus, 
245) ; that diseases of the body do not reach to the 
soul; and vice, which is a disease of the soul, cor- 
rupts its moral quality, but has no power or tend- 
ency to destroy its essence (" Republic," 610), etc. 
Spiritual entities are the only real existences: ma- 
terial things are perpetually changing, and flowing 
into and out of existence. God is: the world be- 
comes, and passes away. The soul is: the body 
is ever changing, as a garment. Soul or ideas, which 

are spiritual entities, are the only true causes; God 
being the first cause why every thing is, and ideas 
being the secondary causes why things are such as 
they are (Phcedo, 100-101). Mind and will are the 
real cause of all motion and action in the world, 
just as truly as of all human motion and action. 
According to the striking illustration in the Phcedo 
(98, 99), the cause of Socrates awaiting death in the 
prison, instead of making his escape as his friends 
urged him to do, was that he chose to do so from a 
sense of duty; and, if he had chosen to run away, 
his bones and muscles would have been only the 
means or instruments of the flight of which his 
mind and will would have been the cause. And just 
so it is in all the phenomena of nature, in all the 
motions and changes of the material cosmos. And 
life in the highest sense, what we call spiritual and 
eternal life, all that deserves the name of life, is in 
and of and from the. soul, which matter only con- 
taminates and clouds, and the body only clogs and 
entombs (Gorgias, 492, 493). Platonism, as well as 
Christianity, says, Look not at the things which are 
seen, but at the things which are not seen; for the 
things which are seen are temporal, only for a sea- 
son; but the things which are not seen are eternal 
(cf. II Cor. iv. 18). 

The philosophy of Plato is eminently theistic. 
" God," he says, in his " Republic " (716 A), " is 
(literally, holds) the beginning, middle, and end of 
all things. He is the supreme mind or reason, the 
efficient cause of all things, eternal, un- 
3. Platonic changeable, all-knowing, all-powerful, 
Philosophy all-pervading, and all-controlling, just, 
Theistic. holy, wise, and good, the absolutely 
perfect, the beginning of all truth, the 
fountain of all law and justice, the source of all 
order and beauty, and especially the cause of all 
good " (PhUebus, Phcedo, Timceus, " Republic," 
and " Laws," passim). God represents, he imper- 
sonates, he is the true, the beautiful, but, above all, 
the good. Just how Plato conceived these " ideas " 
to be related to the divine mind is disputed. In 
discussing the good, sometimes it is difficult to de- 
termine whether he means by it an idea, an attri- 
bute, a principle, a power, or a personal God. But 
he leaves no doubt as to his actual belief in the di- 
vine personality. God is the reason (the intelli- 
gence, Phcedo, 97 C) and the good (" Republic," 
508 C) ; but he is also the artificer, the maker, the 
Father, the supreme ruler, who begets, disposes, and 
orders all (cf. Timceus, with places just cited). He 
is Theos and Ho Theos (Phcedo, 106 D, and often 
elsewhere). Plato often speaks also of gods in the 
plural; but to him, as to all the best minds of an- 
tiquity, the inferior deities are the children, the 
servants, the ministers, the angels, of the supreme 
God (Timceus, 41). Unity is an essential element 
of perfection. There is but one highest and best — 
the Most High, the Supreme Good, God in the true 
and proper sense is one. The Supreme God only is 
eternal, he only hath immortality in himself. The 
immortality of the inferior deities is derived, imparted 
to them by their Father and the Father of all, and 
is dependent on his will (Timceus, 41). God made 
the world by introducing order and beauty into 
chaotic matter, and putting into it a living, moving, 

Platoniam and Christianity 



intelligent soul; then the inferior deities made man 
under his direction, and in substantially the same 
way. God made the world because he is good, and 
because, free from all envy or jealousy, he wished 
everything to be as much like himself as the creature 
can be like the creator (Timceus, 30 A). Therefore 
he made the world good; and when he saw it he 
was delighted (ib. 37 C; cf. Gen. i. 31). God is the 
author of all good, and of good only, not of evil. 
•' Every good gift cometh down from the Father of 
the celestial luminaries "; " for it is morally impos- 
sible for the best being to do any thing else than 
the best " {Timcnis, 30 A; cf. Jas. i. 17). God ex- 
ercises a providential care over the world as a whole, 
and over every part (chiefly, however, through the 
inferior deities who thus fulfil the office of angels, 
11 Laws," 905 B-906), and makes all things, the 
least as well as the greatest, work for good to the 
righteous and those who love God, and are loved 
by him (Phcedo, 62; " Republic," 613). Atheism is 
a disease, and a corruption of the soul; and no man 
ever did an unrighteous act, or uttered an impious 
word, unless he was a theoretical or practical athe- 
ist (" Laws," 885 B), that is, in the language of the 
indictment at common law, he did it, '* not having 
the fear of God before his eyes." 

The Platonic philosophy is teleological. Final 
causes, together with rational and spiritual agen- 
cies, are the only causes that are worthy of the study 
of the philosopher: indeed, no others deserve the 
name {Ph<Bdo t 98 sqq.). If mind is the cause of all 
things, mind must dispose all things for the best; 
and when it is known how anything may best be 
made or disposed, then, and then only, is it known 
how it is and the cause of its being so (Phcsdo, 97). 
Material causes are no causes; and in- 
4. Platonic quiry into them is impertinent, unphil- 
Philosophy osophical, not to say impious and ab- 
Teleological surd. Thus did Plato build up a 
and Ethical, system of rational psychology, cos- 
mology, and theology, all of which are 
largely teleological, on the twofold basis of a priori 
reasoning and mythology, in other words, of reason 
and tradition, including the idea of a primitive rev- 
elation. The eschatology of the Phcedo, the Gorgias, 
and the " Republic," is professedly a mythos, though 
he insists that it is also a logos (" Republic," 523). 
His cosmology he professes to have heard from some 
one (Phasdo, 108 D) ; and his theology in the Timceus 
purports to have been derived by tradition from 
the ancients, who were the offspring of the gods, 
and who must, of course, have known the truth 
about their own ancestors (40 C). Yet the whole 
structure is manifestly the work of his own reason 
and creative imagination; and the central doctrine 
of the whole is, that God made and governs the 
world with constant reference to the highest possi- 
ble good; and " ideas " are the powers, or, in the 
phraseology of modern science, the " forces," by 
which the end was to be accomplished. The philos- 
ophy of Plato is preeminently ethical, and his 
ethics are remarkably Christian. Only one of his 
dialogues was classified by the ancients as " phys- 
ical," and that (the Timceus) is largely theological. 
The political dialogues treat politics as a part of 
ethics, — ethics as applied to the State. Besides 

the four virtues as usually classified by Greek mor- 
alists, — vis., temperance, courage, justice, and wis- 
dom, — Plato recognized as virtues humility and 
meekness, which the Greeks generally despised, and 
holiness, which they ignored (Euthyphron) ; and he 
teaches the duty of non-retaliation and non-resist- 
ance as strenuously, not to say paradoxically, as 
it is taught in the Sermon on the Mount (Critias, 
49). That it is better to suffer wrong than to do 
wrong is a prominent doctrine of the Gorgias (479 
£, 508 C). But as the highest " idea " is that of 
the good, so the highest excellence of which man 
is capable is likeness to God, the supreme and ab- 
solute good. A philosopher, who is Plato's ideal, is 
a lover of wisdom, of truth, of justice, of goodness 
(" Republic," book vi.), of God, and, by the con- 
templation and imitation of his virtues, becomes 
like him as far as it is possible for man to resemble 
God (ib. 613 A, B). 

Plato is preeminently a religious philosopher. 

His ethics, his politics, and his physics are all based 

on his theology and his religion. Natural and moral 

obligations, social and civil duties, duties to parents 

and elders, to kindred and strangers, 

5. Religion, to neighbors and friends, are all relig- 

Rewards, ious duties (" Laws," ix. 881 A, xi. 
and Punish- 931 A). Not only is God the lawgiver 

ment in and ruler of the universe, but his law 
Plato. is the source and ground of all human 
law and justice. " That the gods not 
only exist, but that they are good, and honor and 
reward justice far more than men do, is the most 
beautiful and the best preamble to all laws" 
(" Laws," x. 887). Accordingly, in the " Repub- 
lic " and the " Laws," the author often prefaces 
the most important sections of his legislation with 
some such preamble, exhortation, or, as Jowett 
calls it, sermon, setting forth the divine authority 
by which it is sanctioned and enforced. Plato gives 
prominence also to the doctrine of a future state of 
rewards and punishments. At death, by an in- 
evitable law of its own being, as well as by the ap- 
pointment of God, every soul goes to its own place; 
the evil gravitating to the evil, and the good rising 
to the supreme good. When they come before their 
judge, perhaps after a long series of transmigrations, 
each of which is the reward or punishment of the 
preceding, those who have lived virtuous and holy 
lives, and those who have not, are separated from 
each other. The wicked whose sins are curable are 
subjected to sufferings in the lower world, which 
are more or less severe, and more or less protracted, 
according to their deserts. The incurably wicked 
are hurled down to Tartarus, whence they never go 
out, where they are punished forever as a spectacle 
and warning to others (Gorgias, 523 sqq.; Phctdo, 
113 D). Those, on the other hand, who have lived 
virtuously and piously, especially those who have 
purified their hearts and lives by philosophy, will 
live without bodies (Phcedo, 114 C), with the gods, 
and in places that are bright and beautiful beyond 

Allusion only may be made to other characteris- 
tic features of Plato's philosophy, such, for exam- 
ple, as his doctrine of " ideas," — the true, the 
beautiful, the good, the holy, and the like, — which, 



Platonlsm and Christianity 

looking at them now only on the ethical and practical 
aide, are eternal and immutable, and not dependent 
even on the will of God (the holy, for 
6. Merits instance, is not holy because it is the 
and will of God, but it is the will of God 
Defects, because it is holy, just, and good — Eu- 
thyphron, 10 D) ; the indispensable ne- 
cessity of a better than any existing, not to say bet- 
ter than human, society and government (like the 
ideal republic, which is not so much a state as a 
church or a school, a great family, or a man " writ 
large "), in order to the salvation of the individual 
or the perfection of the race; the degenerate, dis- 
eased, carnal, and corrupt state into which mankind 
in general has fallen since the reign of Kronos in 
thegolden age (" Laws," 713 C; " Politics," 271 D; 
Critica, 108 D), and from which God only can save 
any individual or nation (" Republic," vi. 492, 
493); and the need of a divine teacher, revealer, 
healer, charmer, to charm away the fear of death, 
and bring life and immortality to light (Phcedo, 78 
A, 859). 

But a passing glance may be given to the rad- 
ical defects and imperfections of Plato's best teach- 
ings—his inadequate conception of the nature of 
sin as involuntary, the result of ignorance, a mis- 
fortune, and a disease in the soul, rather than a 
transgression of the divine law; his consequent 
erroneous ideas of its cure by successive transmi- 
grations on earth, and protracted pains in purga- 
tory, and by philosophy; his philosophy of the 
origin of evil, viz., in the refractory nature of mat- 
ter, which must therefore be gotten rid of by bod- 
ily mortification, and by the death of the body 
without a resurrection, before the soul can arrive 
at its perfection; his utter inability to conceive of 
atonement, free forgiveness, regenerating grace, and 
salvation for the masses, a fortiori for the chief of . 
sinners; the doubt and uncertainty of his best re- 
ligious teachings, especially about the future life 
("Apology," 40 E, 42; Phoedo, 107 C); and the 
utter want in his system of the grace, even more 
than of the truth, that have come to us by Jesus 
Christ, for, after all, Platonism is not so deficient 
in the wisdom of God as it is in the power of God 
unto salvation. The " Republic," for example, pro- 
poses to overcome the selfishness of human nature 
by constitutions and laws and education, instead of 
a new heart and a new spirit, by community of 
goods and of wives, instead of loyalty and love to a 
divine-human person like Jesus Christ. 

In the Middle and the New Academy, there was 
always more or less tendency to skepticism, grow- 
ing out of the Platonic doctrine of the uncertainty 
of all human knowledge except that of " ideas." 
The Neo-Platonists (see Neo-Platon- 
7. Later ism), on the other hand, inclined 
Platonic toward dogmatism, mysticism, ascet- 
Schools. icism, theosophy, and even thaumat- 
urgy, thus developing seeds of error 
that lay in the teaching of their master. After the 
Christian era, among those who were more or less 
the followers of Plato, were, at one extreme, the de- 
vout and believing Plutarch, the author of " Delay 
of the Deity in the Punishment of the Wicked," 
and the practical and sagacious Galen, whose work 

on the " Uses of the Parts of the Human Body " 
is an anticipation of the Bridgewater Treatises, both 
of whom, as also Socrates, would have accepted 
Christianity if they had come within the scope of 
its influence; and, at the other extreme, Porphyry 
and the Emperor Julian, who wielded the weapons 
of philosophy in direct hostility to the religion of 
Christ; while intermediate between them the major 
part of the philosophers of the Neo-Platonic and 
eclectic schools who came in contact with Christian- 
ity went on their way in indifference, neglect, or 
contempt of the religion of the crucified Nazarene. 
But not a few of the followers of Plato discovered 
a kindred and congenial element in the eminent 
spirituality of the Christian doctrines and the lofty 
ethics of the Christian life, and, coming in through 
the vestibule of the Academy, became some of the 
most illustrious of the Fathers and Doctors of the 
early Church. And many of the early Christians, in 
turn, found peculiar attractions in the doctrines of 
Plato, and employed them as weapons for the de- 
fense and extension of Christianity, or cast the 
truths of Christianity in a Platonic mold. The doc- 
trines of the Logos and the Trinity received their 
shape from Greek Fathers, who, if not trained in 
the schools, were much influenced, directly or indi- 
rectly, by the Platonic philosophy, particularly in 
its Jewish-Alexandrian form. That errors and cor- 
ruptions crept into the Church from this source can 
not be denied. But from the same source it de- 
rived no small additions, both to its numbers and 
its strength. Among the most illustrious of the 
Fathers who were more or less Platonic, may be 
named Justin Martyr, Athenagoras, Theophilus, 
Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, 
Minutius Felix, Eusebius, Methodius, Basil the 
Great, Gregory of Nyssa, and St. Augustine. Plato 
was the divine philosopher of the earlier Christian 
centuries; in the Middle Ages Aristotle succeeded 
to his place. But in every period of the history of 
the Church, some of the brightest ornaments of 
literature, philosophy, and religion — such men as 
Anselm, Erasmus, Melanchthon, Jeremy Taylor, 
Ralph Cudworth, Henry More, Neander, and Tayler 
Lewis — have been " Platonizing " Christians. 

Bibliography: No attempt can be made here to give a 
complete list of works on Plato, the works now cited being 
those which probably best illustrate the subject of the 
article. A notable bibliography, covering editions, trans- 
lations, and critical treatises, is to be found in Baldwin, 
Dictionary, iii. 1, pp. 404-423, to be supplemented by the 
list entered under " Philosophy " in Fortescue's Subject 
Index of Modern Works . . . of the British Museum, 
London, 1902 sqq. For the works of Plato the best eds. 
for general use are that on the basis of Stephens by C. D. 
Beck, 8 vols., Leipsic. 1893-99; and the ed. by J. Burnet, 
vols. i.-v., Oxford, 1900-07. The classical Eng. transl. is 
that of B. Jowett, The Dialogues, 3d ed., 5 vols., Oxford, 
1892, with E. Abbott's Index, ib. 1895, The Republic, 2 
vols., 3d ed., ib. 1908. Of prime importance are the 
works on the history of philosophy by Ueberweg, ed. 
M. Heinze, 9th ed., Berlin, 1901-05, Eng. transl. of the 
4th ed., London, 1875-76; W. Windelband, 4th ed., 
TQbingen, 1907, Eng. transl. of 1st ed.. New York, 1893; 
J. E. Erdmann, 2 vols., Berlin. 1895-06, Eng. transl., 3 
vols., London, 1892-98; and E. Zeller, new ed., Tubingen, 
1892, Eng. transl., London, 1897. Consult: O. C. B. 
Ackermann, Das Christliche im Plato und in der platoni- 
schen Philosophic, Eng. transl.. The Christian Element in 
Plato, Edinburgh, 1860; F. Schleiermacher, Introduction 
to Dialogues of Plato, translated by W. Dobson, Cambridge 
and London, 1836; E. Zeller, Platonischen Studien, Tu- 




bingen, 1839; J. F. Simon, fitudea sur la theodicie de 
Platan et dCAristate, Paris, 1840; C. B. Smyth, Christian 
Metaphysics, or Plato, Malebranche, and Oioberti Com- 
pared with the Modern Schools of Psychology, London, 
1851; C. Morgan, An Investigation of the Trinity of Plato, 
Cambridge, 1853; D. Becker, Das philosophische Sys- 
tem Platans in seiner Beziehung gum christlichen Dogma, 
Leipsic, 1862; R. D. Hampton, The Fathers of Cheek 
Philosophy, Edinburgh, 1862; G. Grote, Plato and the 
Other Companions of Socrates, London, 1865, 2d ed., 1867; 

B. F. Cooker, Christianity and Greek Philosophy, New 
York, 1870; A. £. Chaignet, La Vie et Us ecrits de Platon, 
Paris, 1871; J. W. Lake, Plato, Philo and Paul, Edin- 
burgh, 1874; E. Zeller, Plato and the Old Academy, Lon- 
don, 1876; S. W. Mendenhall, Plato and Paul, or Philoso- 
phy and Christianity, Cincinnati, 1886; E. W. Simson, Der 
Begriff der Seele bei Plato, Leipsic, 1889; J. Lipperheide, 
Thomas von Aquino und die platonische Ideenlehre, Munich, 
1890; J. H. Stirling, Philosophy and Theology, Edinburgh, 
1890; C. Benard, Platon: sa vie et sa philosophic, Paris, 
1892; W. Pater, Plato and Platonism, London and New 
York, 1893; J. W. G. van Oordt, Plato and the Times he 
Lived in. The Hague, 1895; H. Roeder, Platans philoso- 
phische Entwickdung, Leipsic, 1905; E. Reich, Plato as 
an Introduction to Modern Criticism of Life, London, 1906; 

C. Bitter, Platon, sein Leben, seine Schriften, seine Lehre, 
Munich, 1909; idem, Neue Untersuchungen uber Platon, 
ib., 1910; A. E. Taylor, Plato, New York, 1909. Much 
that is illustrative from a historical point of view will be 
found in the literature under Scholasticism. 

PLEASURE: An agreeable and gratifying feel- 
ing or desire which awakens in the person experi- 
encing it a wish for its continuance or renewal. 
Neither the feeling nor the impulse is necessarily 
sinful, for desire and its gratification are essential 
to a complete life. Just as the man who takes pleas- 
ure in nothing is unhealthy, so one who seeks and 
desires nothing is in danger of becoming both men- 
tally and morally a nonentity. Ethically, pleasure, 
both as feeling and desire, is determined by its re- 
lation to the ego, by the free personality of man, 
and by its object. Where, as in the ethics of De- 
mocritus, Epicurus, Protagoras, and others, the ego 
exalts its own natural sensations and desires into 
a norm of life, pleasure decides what is good and 
what is bad. On the other hand, the personality 
that has submitted itself to the divine will deter- 
mines for itself what shall be pleasure and pain. It 
is divine revelation that guides man here, so that 
the Psalmist can say, " Delight thyself also in the 
Lord; and he shall give thee the desires of thine 
heart " (Ps. xxxvii. 4; cf. i. 2, lxxiii. 23-28, cxi. 
2, cxii. 1, cxix.); and the New Testament makes 
communion with God the highest and most perfect 
pleasure of the Christian (cf. II Cor. v. 15; Gal. ii. 
20; John xvii. 23). This pleasure, however, does 
not exclude the enjoyment of other pleasures. 
Pleasure in the true (science) and the beautiful 
(art), and even bodily pleasures in moderation, as 
in eating and in general comfort, are proper and 
consistent with the Christian life. Extreme as- 
ceticism is unchristian (I Tim. iv. 3-5; Col. ii. 16- 
23). Pleasure becomes sin only when the accom- 
panying desire becomes lust, overpowers the will, 
and enslaves the personality. As a guard against 
this the moderate asceticism of Paul may be rec- 
ommended (I Cor. ix. 27; Phil. iv. 11-13). 

While desire is an essential element of human 
nature, it requires a curb. According to Roman 
Catholic doctrine, this was a special gift of grace 
bestowed upon Adam, without which man would 
be completely given up to sensuality. Desire in 

the first man was originally directed by God; but 
Adam renounced this guidance, and desire became 
concupiscence and lust, this depravity being trans- 
mitted by man's first parents to the entire human 
race. At times Paul uses " lust " as synonymous 
with " sin " (Rom. vii. 7); but in New-Testament 
usage the ethical character of desire, whether good 
or evil, depends upon the subject rather than upon 
the object (cf. John viii. 44; Rom. i. 24; Gal. v. 16; 
I John ii. 16). The duty of the Christian toward 
sinful natural impulses is set forth in Gal. v. 24 and 
Col. iii. 5. 

The doctrinal difference between Roman Catholi- 
cism and Protestantism regarding original sin de- 
pends chiefly on their divergent interpretation of 
desire, the Council of Trent maintaining that, after 
the loss of the special gift of grace, man's nature 
was weakened, though neither the loss of his orig- 
inal righteousness nor the desire which remains even 
in the regenerate is necessarily sinful. Protestant- 
ism, on the contrary, holds that desire is evil in 
itself. (Karl Burger.) 

PLENARY {Liber plenarius): The term applied 
in the early Middle Ages to a missal containing all 
the liturgy appertaining to the mass, thus combi- 
ning what was usually scattered through the sacra- 
mentary, gradual, and lectionary. Though such 
plenaries existed in the ninth century, the extant 
manuscript copies are not older than the eleventh. 
Later in the Middle Ages the plenaries were trans- 
lated into German with various additions explana- 
tory of the mass. The name was likewise applied 
to lectionaries containing the epistles and Gospels 
for Sundays and feasts, with glosses or postils on 
the Gospels; and the plenaries came to be called 
simply Gospel books or postils. With the Reforma- 
tion the plenary vanished, none being known to 
have been issued after 1521. (P. Drews.) 

Bibliography: J. Alsog, in Freiburger Didcesan-Archiv, 
viii (1874), 255 sqq.; M. F. A. Q. Campbell. Annates de 
la typographic neerlandaise au 16. siecle, The Hague, 1874; 
F. Falk, Die Druckkunst im Dienste der Kirche, pp. 29 sqq., 
Cologne, 1879; R. Cruel, Geschichte der deutschen Predict 
im MittelaUer, pp. 533 sqq., Detmar, 1879. 

PLITT, GUSTAV LEOPOLD: German Lutheran; 
b. at Genin, near Lubeck, Mar. 27, 1836; d. at 
Erlangen Sept. 10, 1880. He studied theology at 
the universities of Erlangen (1864-56, 1857-58) 
and Berlin (1856-57), and early in 1861 became 
privat-docent at the former institution, lecturing 
chiefly on church history and especially on the Ref- 
ormation period and the life of Luther, and also on 
exegesis. At the same time he developed his liter- 
ary activity, publishing Melanchlhons Loci com- 
munes in ihrer Urgestalt (Erlangen, 1864) and soon 
after his main work, Einleitung in die Augustana 
(2 vols., 1867-68). In 1867 Plitt was appointed 
associate professor. Besides continuing his work 
as an author, evidenced in his Aus Schetting's Leben, 
in Brief en (3 vols., Leipsic, 1869-70) and Kurze 
Geschichte der lutherischen Mission, in Vortrdgen 
(Erlangen, 1871), he took an active part as preacher 
at the university and in influencing practical church 

In 1867 he became the head of the Bavarian 




Veron fur Judenmission, and was equally energetic 
in behalf of home missions and philanthropic enter- 
prises, being also one of the founders of the institu- 
tion of army deacons in the Franco-Prussian war. 
In 1875 he was advanced to a full professorship, 
and in the same year published his Grundriss der 
SynboUk fur Vorlcsungen (Erlangen, 1875), which 
hid been preceded by Die Apologie der Augustana, 
oacidMich erkUtrt (1873). Meanwhile he had con- 
tinued his studies on the period of the Reformation, 
and contemplated combining them into a biography 
of Luther which should appeal to the cultured pub- 
lic as well as to scholars. This work, begun by him, 
was completed after his death by his friend E. F. 
Petersen of Ltibeck, appearing under the title, 
Martin Luthers Leben und Wirken (Leipsic, 1883). 
In 1877 he became associated with Johann Jakob 
Henog (q.v.) in the preparation of the second edi- 
tion of the Realencyklopddie fur protestantische The- 
ologie und Kirche, a task for which wide theological 
knowledge, unwearying energy, and breadth of view 
rendered him peculiarly adapted. He had been 
able, however, to help to finish only half the work 
when he died. (F. Franx*|\) 

father of modern socialism "; born at Zierikzee 
(35 m. n.w. of Antwerp) about 1600; d. in German- 
town, Pa., about 1674. Becoming interested in 
pUns for the realization of the Christian ideal 
through the best social and industrial methods, he 
crossed to England and had two interviews with 
Cromwell, who was greatly interested in his project. 
On the decease of the protector, Sept. 3, 1658, 
Plockhoy discussed his scheme with parliament, but 
owing to the breakdown of government in England 
was not able to secure cooperation. He printed in 
English at London in 1659 a pamphlet of fourteen 
pages, with an advertisement or an invitation of the 
same bulk, setting forth A Way Propounded to make 
ike Poor in these and other Nations happy by bring- 
ing together a fit, suitable and xvell qualified People 
into one Household Government or little Common- 
walth, wherein Everyone may keep his own Property 
find be employed in some Work or other , as he shall 
tufit, without being oppressed.' * 

He proposed to assemble in a common lot and 
housing four sorts of people: husbandmen, handi- 
craftsmen, mariners, and masters of arts and sci- 
ences, who were to be industrial, yet cultivated and 
of good character, that is, " only rational and im- 
partial persons." " All intractable persons, such 
m those in communion with the Roman see, usuri- 
ous Jews, English stiff-necked Quakers; Puritans; 
fool-hardy believers in the Millennium; and obsti- 
nate modern pretenders to revelation," were to be 
exduded. Those not of the elect or limited num- 
ber could join the community as servants or assist- 
ants. Two houses were deemed necessary, one for 
the living occupants and one for a warehouse, fac- 
tory, and shops. Rents were to be cheap and there 
**s to be no overcharging. In the living-house, 
the sexes were to sit on opposite sides of the table, 
*nd dwell in mutual courtesy, using no titles. They 
TOe to acknowledge none but Christ as head and 
faster. A president was to be elected annually to 

be the executive, but he was to have no salary or 
remuneration. In the large hall at the religious 
and devotional exercises, which included singing 
and Bible-reading, each was to take turns in speak- 
ing, and each was to make his discourses short. 
Then the business of the court began. No clergy- 
man or capitalist was allowed. One hundred fam- 
ilies were to be associated, so that, for example, in- 
stead of the work of one hundred women toiling 
as in separate families, only twenty-five could do 
the housework, while seventy-five were set free for 
other productive labors. In like manner, instead 
of 100 fires, four or five furnaces could heat the 
whole habitation. Each was to work six hours a 
day for the benefit of the colony, the rest of the 
time could be devoted to private interests. The 
profits were to be divided equally among all over 
twenty years and to others in proportion. 

After the fall of the Netherlands West India Com- 
pany the city of Amsterdam financed Plockhoy's 
project after a contract of 117 articles had been 
made, giving 100 guilders to each colonist twenty- 
four years old and free from debt. Colonists were 
to be ready by Sept. 15, 1662. The settlement was 
made on Hoorn Kill on the Delaware River, near 
Swannendaal (New Castle). It seems to have flour- 
ished until 1664, at the conquest of New Netherland 
by the English. Then Sir Robert Carr seized and 
plundered the Delaware settlements, sold the 
Dutch soldiers as slaves in Virginia, stripped the 
colonists bare, and took " what belonged to the 
Quaking Society of Plockhoy, to a very naile." It 
is not known what became of his colonists, but ten 
years later Plockhoy, now blind and his wife lead- 
ing him, came into Germantown, Pa., where the 
couple were given a house during the ten years of 
his remaining life. Some of Plockhoy's ideas, once 
novel, are now commonplace. His pamphlet in 
Dutch, Kort en klaer ontwerp . . . door een Volck- 
planting . . . aan de Zuytrevier in Nieuw Neder- 
land (16 pages, Amsterdam, 1662), is described and 
discussed by E. B. O'Callaghan, History of New 
Netherland; or, New York under the Dutch, ii. 461- 
469, New York, 1848; J. R. Brodhead, Hist, of the 
State of New York, i. 697-699, ib. 1853; G. M. Asher, 
Bibliographical and Historical Essay on the Dutch 
Books and Pamphlets Relating to New Netherlands, 
pp. 205-208, 2 parts, Amsterdam, 1854-67; W. E. 
Griffis, The Story of New Netherland, pp. 131, 138, 
Boston, 1909. W. E. Griffis. 

PLOTTOUS. See Neoplatonism, II. 

PLUMER, WILLIAM SWAN: Presbyterian; b. 
at Greersburg (now Darlington), Beaver Co., Pa., 
July 26, 1802; d. at Baltimore, Md., Oct. 22, 1880. 
He was educated at Washington College, Lexing- 
ton, Va., where he graduated in 1825; and at Prince- 
ton Theological Seminary in 1826; and was or- 
dained in 1827. 

After working in various fields he was pastor at 
Petersburg, Va. (1831-34), Richmond (1835-46), 
Baltimore (1847-54), and at Allegheny, Pa. (185£- 
1862), where he served at the same time as pro- 
fessor of didactic and pastoral theology in the West- 
ern Theological Seminary. He supplied the pulpit 
of Arch Street Church, Philadelphia (1862-65); 

Plymouth Brethren 


WM poster .it Pottsville, Pit. (1865-66); and pro- 
fessor in the theological seminary :il Columbia, S. (.'. 
(1867-80). He possessed u singular impress] WBtm 
in the pulpit and a gift for teaching. His writing! 
are praeliral anil didactic and of mi ullra-Calvmis- 
tic cast. He founded The Watchman of the South 
in 1837 and was sole editor, 1837-15. Some of his 
works are The Bible True and Infidelity Wicked 
(New York. 1848); The Saint and Ihe Sinner (Phila- 
delphia, 1851); The Grace of Christ (1853); The 
Law of God us Contained in the Ten CoWUUWuJtilenit 
(1864); Sermons for the People (1871); and Com- 
militaries on Romans (1870), and on Hebrews 

PLTJMMER, ALFRED: Church of England; b. 
at Heworth (near Gateshead, opposite Neweastlc- 
on-Tyne), Durhamshire, Feb. 17, 1841. He was 
educated at Exeter College, Oxford (B.A., 1863; 
M.A., 18fl6), and was ordered fauna in 1866, but 
hiis never been ordained To the priesthood. He was 
fellow of Trinity College (1865-75), and was tutor 
and dean of the same college (tS67-74); he was 
master of University College, Durham (1874-1902), 
where he was junior proctor of the University of 
Durham (1875-77), senior proctor (1877-93), and 
snbwarden (1896-1902). He was one of the last 
pupil- of J. J. 1. von Doll inner, and translated that 
(hi'ol<i»ian's Fables renpirliiig the Popes of the Mid- 
dle Ages (London, 1871); Prophecies and (he Pro- 
phetic Spirit in the Christian Era (187:!); and Hip- 
polytus and Callisl'is: or, The Church nf Home in the 
first Half of the third Century (Edinburgh, 1876). 
He has prepared Peter and Jiuie for The ,\'<-u' Testn- 
inr-iii Commentary jar English Headerx ( London, 
1879); the Johannine Gospel and Epistles for The 
Ctiititinihlp Bible far Schools (Cambridge, 2 vols., 
1880. 1883) and for The Cambridge Greek Testa- 
ment (3 vols., 1882, 1886), and II Corinthians for 
the same series (2 vols., 1903); The Pastoral Epis- 
tles. James, and Jude for The Expositor's Bible (2 
vols., London, 1888, 1890); Luke for The Inter- 
national Commentary (Edinburgh, ISOtii; and an in- 
dependent commentary on Mult \v\\ ! HMIfl). He has 
also written the historical introduction to Joshua, 
Nehemiah, and the Johannine Epistles in The Pul- 
pit Commentary (3 vols., London, 1881, 1889), and 
is the author of The Church of the Early Fathers 
(London, 1887): English Church History ficto tlie. 
Death of Henry 17/. la the Death of William HI. (3 
vols., Edinburgh, 1904-07); and The Church of 
England in the Eighteenth Century (1910). 

England; b. at London Aug. 6, 1821; d. at Wells 
Feb. 1, 1891. He was scholar of University Col- 
lege, Oxford (B.A., 1844; M.A.. 1847); and fellow 
of Brasenosc College (1844-47); assistant preacher 
At Lincoln's Inn (1851-58); Beleet preacher at Ox- 
ford (1851 -53, 1864-66, 1872-73): chaplain of King's 
College, London (1847-68); professor of pastoral 
theology there (1853-«3j; dean of Queen's Col- 
lege, London (1S55-75); prelicndary of Portpool, 
in St. Paul's Cathedral (1S63-81); professor of 
exegesis in King's College. London (1863-81); ex- 
amining chaplain to the bishop of Gloucester ,inrl 
Bristol (1865-67); Boyle lecturer (ISftW-OT); rec- 

tor of Plucklev. Kent (1SIW-73); Grinfield lecturer 
on the Septuagint at Oxford (1872-74): examiner 
in school of theology at Oxford (1872-73); vicar of 
Bickley, Kent (1873-S1); principal of Queen's Col- 
lege, London (1875-77); and examining chaplain 
to" the late archbishop of Canterburv (1879-82). ( U 
Dec. 21, 1881, he was installed dean of Wells. He 
was a member of the Old-Testament company 
of revisers, 1870-74, and is known also as a 
hymnist. For The Bible ("Speaker's") Com- 
mentary he wrote the comments on The Book 
of Proverbs (1873); for C. J. Ellicott's New-Testa- 
ment Commentary fur English Readers, those on the 
first three Gospels, the Acts, and II Corinthians 
(1877); for the Old-Testament Commentary by the 
same general editor, those on Isaiah. Jeremiah, and 
Lamentations (1882-84); for The Cambridge Bible, 
those on Ecclosiasles, James, Peter, and Jude; and 
for Philip Sehaff's Popular Commentary on the Mm 
Testament, those on I Timothy and II Timothy 
(1883). He edited The Bible Educator |4 vols., 
London anil New York, 1874). He likewise pub- 
lished The Calling of a Medical Student, four ser- 
mons (1810); T lie Study of Theology and the Minis- 
try nf Sauls (1853); King's Colby Sermons (1R50); 
Sophocles (a translation; 1865): .Esehyhis (a trans- 
lation; 1868); St. Paid in Asia Minor and the 
Syrian Antioch (1877); The Epistles to the Seven 
Churches (1877); HMical Studies (1870; 4th ed., 
1884); Introduction to the New Testament (1883); 
things .Veto and Old (1884) ; Theology and Life, ser- 
mons (1866); Spirits in Prison, and other Studies 
on Life after Death (1SS-1I: Life and Letters of 'Thomas 
Km, Bishop of Bath and Wells (2 vols., 1888); Laza- 
rus and Other Poems (1864); Master and Scholar 
(poems; 1806): Christ and Christendom (Boyle 
Lectures; 1867; new ed,, 1899): The Cnmmrdia 
and Canzoniere of Dante Alighieri (new transla- 
tion, with notes, life, and portraits, 3 vols, 1887); 
and Wells Cathedral and Us Deans (1888). The two 
hymn* by him which are most widely known are 
' Kejoiee, ye pure in heart," and "Thine arm, O 
Lord, in days of old." 

BiBMooftAPRT: Julian, Hymrmtooy p. 897; S. TV. Duffleld. 
English Humns, pp. 209-209. New York. 1880; DNB, 
xlv. 437-138. 


of Ireland archbishop; b. at Dublin, Ireland, Aug. 
26, 1828; d. there Apr. I, 1897. Graduated at 
Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1853; M.A., 1864); 
was ordained deacon (1857), und priest (1858); wsa 
rector of Kilmoylan and Cummer, Tuam (1858 -04); 
chaplain and private secretary to the bishop of 
Tuam, and treasurer of St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Dublin (1864-07); precentor of St, Patrick's (1888- 
1877); consecrated lord bishop of Mealh (1876); 
and translated to the joint archbishopric of Dublin, 
Glendalough. ami Kildure, in 1884. He was a leader 
or the Evangelical party in the Irish Church; stren- 
uously opposed its disestablishment prior to 1868; 
fostered a sympathy for struggling Protestant com- 
munities, and took an active part in the Protestant 
movements in Spain and Italy; reorganised what 
is now the Church of Ireland Training College (Kil- 
dare Place); and for his activity in educational 
nutlets was nominated in 1895 a member of the 



Plymouth Brethren 

board of national education. In 1871 he succeeded 

his father in the peerage. 

BaiiociiPHT: F. D. How, William Conyngham PlunkH, 
...,a Memoir, London, 1900; DNB, Supplement, iii. 

PLURALITIES: A term in canon law for the 
holding, by a clergyman, of two or more livings at 
the same time. The canon law forbids it; but Ro- 
om Catholic bishops granted dispensations to com- 
mit the offense until by the general council of 1273 
the right was taken from them. The popes still 
exercise this right. In England the power to grant 
dispensations to hold two benefices with the care 
of souk is vested in the monarch and in the arch- 
bnhop of Canterbury. The benefices thus held must 
not be farther apart than three miles, and the an- 
nual value of one of them must be under a hundred 

PLUTARCH OF ATHENS. See Neoplatonism, 
IE., § 3. 

PLUVIAL. See Vestments and Insignia, 


I. History. 
Foundation; Record till 1845 (| 1). 
The Newton Episode (§ 2). 
Defection of Cronin and Kelly (§ 3). 
Further Divisions (§ 4). 
Present Status (J 5). 
II. Doctrines. 

L History: The Plymouth Brethren, called by 
others Darbyites or Exclusive Brethren, and by 
themselves " Brethren," are to be distinguished 
from Bible Christians and Disciples of Christ (qq.v.). 
Tney took their origin in Ireland about 1828 after 
a movement under the leadership of John Walker 
which was a revolt against ministerial 
i. Founda- ordination, and in England the origin 
tfen; Rec- is connected with the interest in proph- 
ordtill ecy stimulated by Edward Irving 
1845. (q.v.). Conferences like those under 
the Irving movement were held from 
1828 at Powerscourt Mansion, County Wicklow, 
Ireland, at which John Nelson Darby (q.v.) was a 
prominent figure. Prior to this, from 1826 private 
meetings had been held on Sundays under the 
leadership of Edward Cronin, who had been a Ro- 
man Catholic and later a Congregationalist, for 
" breaking bread," at which Anthony Norris Groves, 
John Vesey Parnell (second Lord Congleton), and 
( John Gilford Bellett, a friend of Darby, were attend- 
ants. In 1827 John Darby resigned his charge and 
in 1828 adopted the non-conformist attitude of the 
men named above, prompted by the Erastianism 
of a petition of Archbishop Magee to the House of 
Commons, and issued a paper on The Nature and 
Uwity of the Church of Christ (in vol. i. of his CoU 
fafai Writings, London, 1867) . This served to swell 
the ranks of the Brethren, so that in 1830 a public 
u assembly " was started in Aungier Street, Dublin, 
which emphasised " the coming of the Lord as the 
present hope of the Church and the presence of 
the Holy Ghost as that which brought into unity " 
■ad "the heavenly character of the Church," and 
used as the golden text Matt, xviii. 20. Through 
Francis William Newman (q.v.), Darby had become 

acquainted with Benjamin Wills Newton (a lay 
fellow of Exeter College) and George Vicesimus 
Wigram at Oxford. He also visited Plymouth 
(whence the name for the Brethren), where Robert 
Hawker had been active in Evangelieal ministry, 
and held meetings there, the outcome of which was 
the first English gathering of the Brethren (1831). 
The basis of communion was the acceptance of 
" all that are on the foundation " and rejection of 
" all error by the Word of God and the help of his 
ever present Spirit," recognizing that " degeneracy 
claimed service, and not departure." Before the 
appearance of Darby's Liberty of Preaching and 
Teaching (1834), the Brethren had taken their stand 
upon a free ministry, while other weighty papers by 
Darby and Newton appeared in the new magazine, 
The Christian Witness, edited by J. L. Harris. Re- 
cruits of note were Henry Craik and Georg (Fried- 
rich) M idler (q.v.), coming from the Baptist denom- 
ination. The latter had been in the service of the 
London Society for Promoting Christianity among 
the Jews, but became convinced that assemblies 
should consist only of the converted and joined the 
Brethren, beginning pastoral work at Bristol in 
1832 on the lines of their policy, and developing the 
other activities for which he became famous. Other 
noted converts to the denomination were Samuel 
Prideaux Tregelles (q.v.) and Robert Chapman. 
Darby continued his work in London, then went to 
the continent, where in French Switzerland he pro- 
moted the movement by personal and literary ac- 
tivities, opposing a regular ministry as ignoring the 
privilege of every believer to direct access to God. 
While there he became aware of a tendency toward 
isolation manifesting itself in Newton, shown in his 
revival of restricted ministry together with doc- 
trinal divergencies, e.g., Newton's adherence to the 
Reformation teaching of justification, inclusion of 
the Old-Testament saints in the apocalyptic Church, 
and belief that the second advent would not pre- 
cede the " great tribulation," to which the Church 
would be subject. Failing to secure satisfaction 
from Newton and his adherents, in 1845 Darby 
started a separate assembly. 

Newton remained at Plymouth for two years. 
The dispute so far had concerned the special " tes- 
timony " of Brethren as such. According to notes 
of a lecture by Newton acquired by Harris in 1847, 
Newton's position as to our Lord's 
2. The person was unsound: Christ by his in- 
Newton carnation and as a descendant of Adam 
Episode, entered upon a relation of distance 
from God, and as an Israelite incurred 
from birth the condemnation attaching to the 
broken law. Tregelles shows that the personal sin- 
lessness was maintained through the seal at Christ's 
baptism, although lifelong suffering was entailed 
by his relationship. Newton withdrew the first part 
of his statement, but did not satisfy Darby, and a 
definite alienation separated the two men. New- 
ton severed his connection with the Brethren, but 
continued till his death (1898) to write on prophet- 
ical subjects. Tregelles is reported by Scrivener to 
have died in the communion of the Church of Eng- 
land. In 1848 the Bristol company did not refuse 
fellowship to the adherents of Newton, and one of 

Plymouth Brethren 



their number, George Alexander, seceded on the 
ground that " blasphemers were sheltered/' taking 
occasion for this action in a paper intended to ap- 
ply to the special circumstances but construed as a 
statement of a general policy. After debate and 
several assemblies, it was decided that no one up- 
holding Newton's views should be received into 
communion, and several to whom this applied with- 
drew, though it appeared that they were afterward 
readmitted. Darby insisted upon the fundamental 
of " separation from evil " as " God's principle of 
unity "; the result was a breach between him and 
the Bristol company, his followers insisting upon his 
statement as the watchword, while the opponents' 
formula was " the blood of the Lamb is the union 
of saints." Wigram charged Craik with statements 
concerning Christ's physical ailments which sa- 
vored of Newtonianism; but Darby sent a farewell 
message to Craik on his deathbed (1866), which did 
not, however, heal the breach. A new magazine, 
The Present Testimony, edited by Wigram, became 
the organ of the exclusives, followed in 1856 by 
the monthly Bible Treasury, for which William 
Kelly (q.v.) was responsible, and to this also Darby 
contributed papers on the sufferings of Christ, in 
which he argued that Christ endured certain non- 
atoning sufferings, in addition to those borne vicari- 
ously in death, due to his voluntary position in 
Israel (John xi. 51), in fulfilment of prediction of his 
participation in the sorrows of the godly remnant 
in the last days. This had no affiliation with the 
Newtonian doctrine, which affected the whole life 
of Christ; but some of his followers, unable to dis- 
tinguish between Darby's position and Newton's, 
withdrew from fellowship with him. Darby offered 
to abstain from ministry, but was counseled not to 
do so by his prominent supporters. Meanwhile he 
had worked on German soil, where he had met 
Tholuck, and had visited the United States, Canada, 
and other British colonies lecturing and writing. 

In 1879 a gathering at Ryde, Isle of Wight, failed 
to deal with depravity in the midst, and Darby's 
old Dublin associate Cronin, desiring to end the 
scandal, founded a new " assembly " in the place. 

Darby regarded this as a breach of 

3. Defection unity, and called upon Cronin's home 

of Cronin congregation at Kensington, London, 

and Kelly, to discipline the offender, and to 

" judge " his " indiscretion." Cronin 
was defended by use of Darby's avowal that the old 
assembly was " rotten " and that for thirty years 
he himself had avoided it. A crusade was never- 
theless directed against Cronin by the leaders at 
Park Street, Islington, and additional matters con- 
nected with baptism entered into the controversy. 
Finally, although Darby had asked only for a stern 
rebuke, Cronin's stubbornness widened the breach 
and he was excommunicated. About the same time 
there was disruption at Ramsgate, Kent, one of the 
rival parties at which supported Cronin while the 
other strongly condemned him, the assemblies at 
Blackheath, where Kelly resided, and at Islington 
also taking opposite sides. The result was a split 
in 1881 at Park Street like that which had occurred 
in the Bethesda affair. Each side charged the other 
with " independency," and Darby described the sit- 

uation as a struggle between intelligence and the 
Spirit, by " intelligence " referring to Kelly's en- 
deavor to give intellectual expression to the policy 
hitherto pursued and thereby to maintain the 
" unity of London." The man who had so long 
led meditated withdrawing altogether from the 
Brethren, feeling that the encroachments of the 
world had marred " the testimony "; but his faith 
reasserted itself. Darby's survival of this poignant 
situation can be counted only by months, as he died 
the next year. He was little disposed to learn from 
others, and claimed to have " the mind of the 
Spirit." He united Roman Catholic with Evangel- 
ical ideas, though his own apprehension of Scrip- 
ture dominated his mind. He regarded himself as 
the beginning of the Plymouth Brethren, which was 
true at least so far as the English branch was con- 
cerned. Where he was iconoclastic, it was not, as 
he expressed it, " with an Edomitic attack but 
with Jeremianic sorrow." 

The year 1885 was notable for concurrent divi- 
sions among Darby's last associates on both sides of 
the Atlantic. In the United States Frederick Will- 
iam Grant, of Plainfield, N. J., alienated rivals in 
the Islington party by his candidly independent 
attitude toward some of their cherished doctrines. 
He was an ex-clergyman of Canadian 

Further origin, a man of much erudition, and 
Divisions, highly esteemed in his section. He 
held that the saints of the old dispen- 
sation possessed eternal life, and agreed with the 
interpretation of Rom. vii. which holds that the 
apostle there describes the moral condition of be- 
lievers even after receiving the seal of the Spirit. 
The English leaders detached their adherents from 
fellowship with him. At Reading, England, Clarence 
Esme Stuart, an accomplished Biblical scholar who 
had sided with Darby in 1881, came into collision 
with James Butler Stoney, an unbalanced teacher 
who was no longer held by the restraint imposed 
by Darby's presence. Stuart's primal offense was 
that at Reading he had not adopted the hymn-book 
last revised by Darby; second, that he unduly dis- 
tinguished between the standing and state (or condi- 
tion) of believers, holding that the Pauline expression 
" in Christ " sets forth condition alone, and that in 
this are to be sought such distinctions as obtain 
fundamentally between believers of the different 
dispensations. With these doctrinal issues was 
combined a social breach between him and a local 
female ally of the Stoney school. Upon this last 
matter the Reading assembly refused to give judg- 
ment, though with some dissent against the order of 
procedure, supported by the Stoney faction domi- 
nant in London, which separated from Reading 
and carried many assemblies with them. Those in 
Great Britain who disowned the interference of the 
London adherents continued to recognize the Grant 
contingent in America. Stuart gave color to the 
new departure by shortly afterward emphasizing 
his view of atonement, according to which Christ, 
as high priest only after death, made propitiation by 
blood not on the cross but in heaven, in the inter- 
val between death and resurrection. This view was 
not unknown in theology (e.g., Professor George 
Smeaton), but was regarded by Stuart's critics as a 



Plymouth Brethren 

novel inference from Darby's teaching. The year 
1890 witnessed a further division among the " ex- 
claves " of the party formed in 1885. Frederick 
Edward Raven of Greenwich became prominent 
through teaching doctrines which were reprobated 
by the old Darbyites. He questioned the claim of 
believers in general to have had eternal life imparted 
to them, in doing so seeming, as an Apollinarian, to 
impair the glory of Christ's person. He held also that 
Scripture is not as such the word of God but the 
record of it, to which resort is to be had for con- 
firmation of oral ministry. Reconciliation he re- 
garded, with Calvin, as a continuous process which 
believers undergo. In the division which ensued a 
majority of Stoney's associates and a small band in 
the United States stood with Raven, but the con- 
tinent of Europe was lost to them. From 1881 to 
bis death in 1906 Kelly continued to be revered as 
a sound teacher of the first order, possessed of great 
capacity as a leader and controversialist. He was 
unremitting in his ministry and in writing, defend- 
ing the truth as he conceived it against all innova- 
tion, in particular against the higher criticism. With 
him passed away the last survivor of the golden age 
of the Brethren. 

This community has, then, resolved itself into the 
following sectional fellowships. (1) Brethren fully 
recognizing the existing congregation at Bethesda 
(Bristol) and regarding, with Westcott, 
5. Present the primitive unity of the Church as 
States, that of a federation; adhering to Bap- 
tist views; open in communion; and 
existing in Great Britain and the colonies, Europe, 
North and South America, India, and China. It 
has the largest following. (2) Those who fol- 
lowed Darby more or less closely, in five branches, 
(a) Brethren chiefly in France, Switzerland, and 
Germany, with a remnant in England and the 
United States, committed to Darby's ecclesiastical 
position as defined since 1881. (b) Associates of 
Kelly, adhering to Darby's doctrinal views, with 
the exception of pedobaptism, and to the system 
prevalent in 1848-81 ; mainly in England, (c) As- 
sociates of Stuart and Grant, loath to abandon 
anti-Bethesda discipline, but standing for elasticity 
in doctrine, (d) Associates of Raven, opposed to 
Bethesda, favoring expansion of doctrine of their 
own type, but including some independent of this; 
m Great Britain, the colonies, and the United States. 
These have since 1908 composed two sections, sep- 
arated from one another by disciplinary policy and 
views of evangelization and redemption. On the 
other hand, there has been for several years a 
moTement, originating v\ America, for abatement 
of the alienation between the various types of bodies. 
Some adherents of Grant have lowered the barriers 
b e t ween themselves and " open " Brethren, while 
not giving themselves this name; and since 1906 a 
co rresp on ding movement has gathered force in Great 
Britain. These " eclectics " repudiate the distinction 
between " open " and " close," and seek, by a blend- 
ing of the Pauline and Johannine aspects of the 
Church, to revive the unity first realized at Dublin 
untrammeled by formal federation of either open 
or dose types, which is favored by neither element. 
A hopeful feature of the situation is the absence of 

IX.— 7 

a pronounced leadership. No denominational sta- 
tistics exist for Great Britain. In the United States 
there are over 300 assemblies with about 7,000 com- 
municants. The denomination has drawn its mem- 
bership from all ranks of society — the nobility, the 
army and navy, the judiciary, and scholars in vari- 
ous spheres. It has had notable Evangelists like 
Charles Stanley and Denham Smith; missionaries 
like Baedeker and Arnot have propagated its teach- 
ings in the world field; while C. H. Mackintosh is 
the writer whose works are most widely used. 

II. Doctrines: A full epitome of the doctrine 
developed among the Brethren could be obtained 
only from the writings of Darby, who was the chief 
teacher. So lar^e was his authority in his denomi- 
nation that for most Athanasius, Augustine, Luther, 
and Calvin were mere ciphers. On the Godhead 
and the person of Christ the teaching is that com- 
mon to Catholic Christianity. On human nature it 
is held that Adam was first sinless, not virtuous or 
holy; the fall spelled unqualified ruin. The atone- 
ment has two sides: God ward it is propitiation; 
man ward, substitution ; the purchase of all, the re- 
demption of the believer, and Christ's death under 
wrath. Predestination is held as the election of 
individuals, the assured acceptance of believers, to- 
gether with denial of free will and reprobation. 
Justification implies the righteousness of God (not 
of Christ specifically) displayed in the resurrection 
of the Savior, with dissociation of his life from the 
process. Sanctification is positive and practical; 
in the latter aspect it involves self-judgment and 
confession to God, insuring a sense of forgiveness 
through Christ's priesthood, which preserves from 
sin, as his advocacy restores. Cleansing by his 
blood is once for all, cleansing by the Word con- 
tinues. Not the law, but the Second Man's risen 
life is the believer's rule. The Church was prim- 
itively one visible, closely organized community. 
The " assembly," in view of grace, is the body of 
Christ; in view of government is the house of God; 
one is the product of the Spirit, the other is the 
product of man, marked by failure and ruin. Na- 
tional churches art too broad, non-conformity is too 
narrow. Darby denies what has been suggested by 
critics — that the " gathering " is held to be coex- 
tensive with ** the Church of God on earth "; he 
also repudiates the further assertion that for eight- 
een centuries there has been no church. The or- 
dinances are (1) bapt ; :m, which is required for fel- 
lowship. Among the exclusives mutual toleration 
is practised by baptists and pedobaptists. Darby's 
view was based on the recognition of privileged 
position (outward as distinct from inward, essential 
baptism). Other pedobaptists practise household 
baptism. (2) The Lord's Supper is observed weekly 
in the forenoon, at which leavened bread and fer- 
mented wine are taken by the members seated. 
The institution is commemorative only. Partici- 
pation in this is jeal^uslv guarded; in theory it is 
the privilege of all Vlievers, but in practise the the- 
ory is overborne by the notion of full fellowship. 
The special m^ans of grace are the Holy Scriptures 
according to the canon of the Reformers. The book 
is infallible; consequently the idea is condemned 
that the Church and the Bible stand or fall to- 

Plymouth Brethren 
Poems, Anonymous 


gether. The higher criticism is not recognized; de- 
velopment is disowned, and the truth is recovered 
by reversion to St. Paul (not, as the Quakers hold, 
to the " historical Christ "). Since Darby's dying 
recommendation not to neglect the Johannine doc- 
trine, the center of gravity is increasingly sought in 
that. The Bible version favored is Darby's own (in 
English, French, and German) ; he rejected the Re- 
vised Version with the words, " They have not had 
the mind of God at all." In the matter of the min- 
istry Darby did not begin by questioning the valid- 
ity of Anglican orders. His conception of the office 
was service in the Word, the faithful exercise of a 
special gift, for which the individual is responsible 
to the Lord alone. A distinction is made between 
"gift" and "office"; the latter came through 
apostolic appointment and is no longer available. 
The " assembly," while not being the source of the 
ministry, since it is the taught and not the teacher, 
may or may not accredit the ministry as profit- 
able. Anything beyond the moral influence of the 
Spirit is regarded as delusion. In theory, all godly 
men are possibly competent, whether in formal 
fellowship or not; but in practise such fellowship is 
presupposed, and the flock is discouraged from 
" wandering." The public ministry of women is 
disallowed. Worship is conducted, as among the 
Quakers, by " waiting on the Lord," and conven- 
tional collections of hymns are used in praise and 
prayer. The Lord's Prayer is discarded, as symbolic 
of the position and desires of the inchoate Church 
and typical of the Jewish remnant. The local as- 
sembly acts through non-official organs, men of 
moral weight whose personal influence is encour- 
aged as commanding confidence. As discipline ex- 
communication is practised for grave delinquency 
and for lapse into fundamental error in doctrine. 
With the exclusives I Cor. v. 6; II Tim. ii. 19 sqq.; 
and II John 10 have furnished the rule of action. 
While this has been the object of criticism, in prac- 
tise its influence has been salutary, restraining 
tendencies to antinomianism. For eschatology, it 
is held that believers at death go not to Hades but 
to a heavenly paradise with Christ. Within the 
present dispensation Christ will at an initial com- 
ing gather all his people to his tribunal for re- 
ward according to conduct, and will subsequently 
visit the earth in an appearance for judgment of liv- 
ing nations (Newton denied the distinction between 
the two and the interval). The second beast of 
Rev. xiii. is regarded as the Antichrist. No Chris- 
tian will pass through the great tribulation (New- 
ton expected that Christ will be revealed before the 
parousia), while the Church with Christ will reign 
over the earth for a millennium, with Israel, the 
earthly bride, as administrative assessor. The final 
judgment is of the wicked dead, with endless pun- 
ishment of such. So much of the foregoing as 
Brethren deem part of their special testimony they 
describe as " recovered truth." The germinant 
idea is that of the Church's ruin. In their principal 
points of doctrine they have been anticipated by 
other bodies or by individual thinkers; but they 
believe that men such as Darby have presented 
these with more light and power. 

E. E. Whitfield. 

Bibliography: For the authoritative literature of the 

nomination use the writings named in the articles on J. N 

Darby, W. Kelly, Q. Mueller, and B. W. Newton as theirs 

productions, together with the works cited in the btbliog 

raphies there appended. A considerable literature, mainly — 
controversial and antagonistic to the Plymouth Brethren, 
is given in the British Museum Catalogue under " Plymouth 
Brethren." Consult further: W. B. Neatby, Hist, of the 
Plymouth Brethren, London, 1902 (critical and accurate); 
J. J. H[eraog], in Evangelische Kirchenteitung, xxxiv (1844), 
nos. 23-26, 28-33 ; S. P. Tregelles, Three Letters to the Author 
of " A Retrospect of Events . . . among the Brethren" 
London, 1849; Memoir and Correspondence of A. A'. 
Groves, by his wife, London, 1855; F. Esteoul, Le Ply- 
mouthisme & autrefois el le Darbyisme d'aujourdhui, Paris, 
1858; H. Groves, Darbyism: its Rise and Development, 
London, 1866; E. Dennett, The Plymouth Brethren, Lon- 
don, 1871; J. Grant, The Plymouth Brethren, their His- 
tory and Heresies, London, 1875; E. J. Whately, Plymouth 
Brethrenism, London, 1877; T. Croekery, Plymouth- 
Brethrenism: a Refutation of its Principles and Doctrines, 
London, 1879; J. C. L. Carson, The Heresies of the Plym- 
outh Brethren, London, 1883; W. Reid, Plymouth Breth- 
renism Unveiled and Refuted, Edinburgh, 1883; J. S. 
Teuton, The Hist, and Teaching of the Plymouth Brethren, 
London [1883]; Life among the Close Brethren, London, 
1890; J. R. Gregory, The Gospel of Separation, London, 
1894; A. Miller, Plymouthism and the Modern Churches, 
Toronto, 1900. 

PNEUMATOMACHL See Macbdonius and the 
Macedonian Sect. 

POACH, ANDREAS. See Antinomianism, II., 

1, §5. 

PNEUMATICS: The highest of three classes of 
natures (pneumatic, psychic, and hylic) assumed 
as human by Gnostics. The superiority of the pneu- 
matics is regarded as resting upon the ground that 
to them had been communicated the higher truths 
of the world of eons because they alone were capa- 
ble of understanding such truths. Those possess- 
ing the pneumatic nature were known also as " the 
elect," and were regarded as not under the domin- 
ion of the archon or world-ruler and also not sub- 
ject to the restraints of the demiurge. They there- 
fore live on as strangers in the world, perceiving as 
from afar the reality of the things of a higher world. 
Their innermost characteristic is their essential re- 
lationship with God, resulting in a life of undivided 
unity, exalted above the antithesis of rest and mo- 
tion. Their blessedness is described as due to a 
union between the sStir (savior) and wisdom 
(sopkia). They are to be found not only in the 
Christian Church, but are scattered in the pagan 
world, the evidence of this being found in the agree- 
ment of much of pagan doctrine with Christian 
truth. In the Christian Church, they are its salt 
and its soul, the real propagators of Christianity. 

The name has at various times in the history of 

the Christian Church been adopted because of its 

signification (" the spirituals ") by parties or sects, 

as by the followers of a French Anabaptist named 

Ambrose (fl. c. 1559), who professed to have received 

revelations which transcended in value those of the 


Bibliography: Besides the literature under Gnostics, con- 
sult Neander, Christian Church, vol. i. passim. 

POBIEDONOSTSEV, p6"bi-e"do-ne« / tseff, KON- 
STANTIN PETROVICH: Greek Orthodox; b. 
at Moscow 1827; d. at St. Petersburg Mar. (10) 23, 
1907. After completing his studies at the Imperial 
Law School at St. Petersburg, he was successively 


Plymouth Brethren 

sccretsjy and chief secretary of the Senate of Mob- 
cow, later becoming professor of civil law at the 
university of the same city. In I860 he was ap- 
pointed tutor to the princes of the blood royal, in- 
cluding the future Emperor Alexander III., and in 
IS6.1 accompanied another of the princes in his 
travels through Russia. Pobiedonostsev was cre- 
*ial a senator in 1868 and in 1872 became a mem- 
ber ot the cabinet. His chief activity, however, 
began in 1880, when he was made chief procurator 
of the Holy Synod, a position which he retained 
noU his retirement from active life in 1905. In 
thia high office, his devotion to the principles of 
tulocratic government and his firm adherence to 
the welfare of the GrMfc Orthodox Church exposed 
turn to the enmity of the revolutionary factions and 
the attacks of rationalists and Protestants of all 
shades. Nevertheless his course was unswerving 
and .■' nsislent throughout — personally fearless and 
deeply impressed with the righteousness of his 
cause, he acted with a severity whii:h could not fail 
to bring upon him the hatred of those whom his 
mea-.iT.--. affected. Besides a Russian translation 
of the Imtintio Christi (St. Petersburg, 1869), he 
wroth  " Letters on the Travels of the Imperial Heir 
Appin nt in Russia " (in collaboration with I. K. 
Bast; Moscow, 1864); " Course of Civil Law " (3 
»ola-. St. Petersburg, I86S-91); and "Historical 
Investigations on the State " (1870). His Reflex- 
ions of a Russian Statesman have been translated 
into English by R. C. Long (London, 1898]. 

b. at Oxford Nov. 8, 1604; d. there Sept. 10, 1691. 
He was educated at Oxford (B.A., 1622; H.A., 
1826; B.D., 1636); elected fellow of Corpus Chriati 
College, 1628; became chaplain to the English fac- 
tory at Aleppo, 1630-36 (during which time he made 
a collection of Greek and oriental manuscripte and 
coins on commission of Archbishop Laud); pro- 
fessor of Arabic at Oxford, 1636-40; was in Con- 
stant inople to seek for manuscripts, 1637-40; rec- 
tor of Chiidrey, Berkshire, 1642-47; professor of 
Hebrew and canon of Christ Church, 1647-18; lost 
the canonry and the two lectureships in 1650; 
though in the same year the lectureships were re- 
stored to him, and in 1660 the canonry; and in spite 
of opposition from Roundheads, and the indiffer- 
ence of Cavalier-. In- retained these [nisi I ions till la- 
death. He was one of the foremost orientalists in 
boa day. His works are numerous and valuable. 
His Tiicological Works were published with a Life 
by the editor, Leonard Twells (2 vols., London, 
1740). They embrace Porta Motrin (a Latin trans- 
lation of Maimonides' six discourses prefatory to his 
commentary upon the Minima, 1655), Commen- 
taries on Hosea (1685). Joel (1691), Micah and 
Halachi (1677), and a Latin treatise upon ancient 
weights and measures. The commentaries formed 
part (if Fell's projected commentary upon the entire 
Old Testament. They are heavy and prolix, but 
learned. Pocock took a prominent part in Walton's 
Polyglot, furnished the collations of the Arabic 
Pentateuch, and «;n I'l.insult.'il hy Walton at every 

step (see Bibles, Polyglot, IV.). Be translated 
Crotiu-' Dc vertiate Christiana: rctigioitia (ItJOO) ninl 

the Church of England Liturgy and Catechism into 
Arable (1674). His chief work was his edition of 
Qregorii Abul Farajii hisloria dynastiarum, Arabic 
text with Latin translation (2 vols., Oxford, 1663). 
BiaLloaHAPHT: Besides the Lift in the Titnlooieal Worti, 

ulsup., rcprinUwJ in The Urn of Dr. Etticard Pocock, . . . 

Dr. Zachory Pearce. etc.. ed. L. Twells. 2 vofa., London. 

1818, consult: The Bemaimof John Locke, fit., 1 . Memoirs 

of the Lift of Dr. E. Pocockt. London. 1714; DNS, xlvi. 


GEORGE OF: King of Bohemia (14.18-71); b. at 
Podebrad (30 m. c. of Prague) Apr. 23, 1420; d. at 
Prague Mar. 22, 1471. From 1444 he had beeo the 
leader of the utraquist party (see Hubs, John, 
Hussites, II., £$ 3, 7). On the death of Ladislas 
he was elected king of Bohemia by the diet, and his 
reign mark* the derisive period in the religious his- 
tory of Bohemia. The Hussites had been in a man- 
ner reconciled to the Church by the compacts made 
with the Council of Basel (1433; see Huss, John; 
Hrssrn-.s, II.. 5 •>>. The papacy neither accepted 
nor disavowed the compacts, and hoped to bring 
back Bohemia to Roman Catholicism. Podebrad 
wished to unite Bohemia and organise it into a 
great power; but this was impossible so long as it 
was rent by religious discord and, through want of 
papal recognition, was isolated from European poli- 
tics. He accordingly tried to accomplish his pur- 
pose by skilful iliploraacy with the pope?. Cnlixtiis 
III. and Pius II. At last Pius II, was alarmed at 
his increasing influence in Germany, and in 1462 
disclaimed the compacts, and demanded I'm !el, rail's 
unconditional obedience. At first Podebrad tem- 
porised, and, when he proposed to the various courts 
of Europe the summoning of a parliament of tem- 
poral princes, Pius II. excommunicated him in 1406. 
His successor, Paul II., authorized the formation 
of a league of discontented nobles, anil called Ma- 
thiaB Corvinus, king of Hungary, to the aid of the 
Church; but Podebrad was not conquered, and, 
after his death, the Bohemian crown was given by 
the diet to Ladislas II. 

BlRUoaRAFHT: Croighton, Papacu, vol. iii. passim; Pastor, 
Popes, iv, 134-140; II, Jordan, Dai Kdniethvm Ctorpt 
eon PodxArad, Leineic. 1381: F. Pnlacky, GacKichte am 
Behmsn, vol. iv., Prrmuo, 1857; idem, Urkundtiche Bti- 
tr/lgt >n ZtitaUtr Geargt con Poditbrad, Vienna. I860; 

E. H, Gillelt, Life and Times of John Hum, ii r„',0-.x, I , 
M2-583. New York. 1870; E. J. Wbntely. The Gospel 
in Bohemia, London, 1877; H. Ermiach, Gachirhtc dcr 
atchMch-bohmitthtn Bttichunatn H6i-7I, Dresden. 1S81  

F. LuaWow, Bohemia. London, 1888: C. E. Maurice. Bo- 
hemia. London mil N'ew York. 1896: Monumenta Valicana 
m aest™ Bohcmiat Muslranti.1. Premie. 1903; H. Apianus, 
Gachithte Bahmcnu. Ix'in-k, KW5; E. Srhwitiky, Dtr 
curopaitche Flirttrnbund Georgi von Podicbrad, Marburg. 
1907; Hefelr. Conriliengrschichu, vol. viii. passim; and 
the literature under Pius II. 

CHURCH: A small group of compositions of un- 
known authorship and of relatively small poetic 
excellence, though not without interest for the his- 
tory of literature, dogma, and culture. 

1, Carmen adversus Marcionem: A refutation of 
Miirciijnis'ii' dualism in (ivv hfmks, containing 1.30- 
elumsy ln\:imelers. The lir.-l bunk attacks heresy 
in general and Marcionism in particular; the sec- 
ond shows the harmony of the Old and the New 


Poems, Anonymous 



Testament; the third demonstrates the unity of 
Church doctrine with the teaching of the Old Tes- 
tament, of Christ, and of the apostles; the fourth 
refutes Marcionistic tenets one by one; and the 
fifth considers the antitheses. The place, date, and 
authorship of the poem are too problematical to 
admit of even plausible solution, though the impli- 
cation of the anonymous De duodecim scriptoribus 
ecclesiasticis that the poet was a certain Bishop Vic- 
torinus (most likely Victorinus of Pettau [q.v.]) de- 
serves serious consideration. 

2-3. Carmina de Sodoma; Carmen de Jona: 
Two poems of 166 and 105 hexameters respectively, 
ascribed by a number of manuscripts to Tertullian 
or Cyprian. Their use of the Itala shows that they 
can scarcely have been written later than 400. They 
may be fragments of some longer poem, and are 
characterized by a considerable degree of artistic 

4. Carmen de Genesi: A fragmentary composi- 
tion in hexameters, often printed in the works of 
Tertullian and Cyprian, and representing the first 
part of a poetic version of the Heptateuch con- 
tained in a few manuscripts. It has been suggested 
that the poem was wTitten by a Cyprian who lived 
in Gaul early in the fifth century, though others 
have distinguished two authors in the fragment. 

5. Carmen de Judicio Domini, or Ad Flavium 
Felicem de resurrectione mortuorum: A poem 
variously ascribed to Tertullian and Cyprian, though 
showing close affinities to Commodian and the Car- 
men adversxis Marcionem. On the basis of Isidore 
of Seville {De vir. ill., vii.), it may not improbably 
be ascribed to Verecundus of Junca in Byzacene (d. 
about 552), despite certain differences in style. 

6. Carmen ad Senatorem ex Christiana Religione 
ad Idola Conversum: A poem of eighty-five hex- 
ameters ascribed by the manuscripts to Cyprian, 
expressing the hope that a renegade senator, pos- 
sibly Flavianus, prefect of the city of Rome (late 
fourth century), might ultimately return to Chris- 

7. Carmen de Pascha: An allegorical composition 
of sixty-nine hexameters, also called De cruce and De 
ligno vitce. It gives the history of Christianity from 
the crucifixion to the sending of the Holy Ghost, 
and though assigned both to Cyprian and to Vic- 
torinus Afer, probably dates from the fifth century. 

8. Carmen de Passione Domini: A poem of 
eighty hexameters printed with the works of Lac- 
tantius, but probably written between 1495 and 
1500, perhaps by its anonymous first editor (Venice, 

9. Carmen de Laudibus Domini: A panegyric in 
148 hexameters, composed in Gaul, probably be- 
tween 316 and 323, by a contemporary of Juvencus, 
perhaps resident in Flavia JEdxm (the modern 
Autun) . 

10. Carmen adversus Flavianum: A poem of 
122 hexameters, polemizing against the advocates 
of paganism, especially Clavianus, prefect of Rome. 
Since the latter fell in the 'rebellion against Theodo- 
sius I., the poem was written in or shortly after 394. 

11. Carmen de Fratribus Septem Macchabaeis 
Interfectis ab Antiocho Epiphane: A poetic version 
of II Mace. vii. in two recensions, one of 394 hex- 

ameters, and the other of 389. It has been ascribed, 
though without sufficient reason, both to Hilary of 
Aries and to Victorinus Afer. 

12. Carmen de Jesu Christ© et de Homine: A 
poem of 137 hexameters on the redemptive work of 
Christ, conjecturaUy assigned to Victorinus of 
Pettau or to some later Christian grammarian. 

18-14. Carmen de Lege Domini and Carmen de 
Nativitate, Vita, Passione et Resurrectione Domini: 
Two poems, one of 106 and the other of 216 hex- 
ameters, ascribed to a certain Victorinus. They 
treat of the Old and New Testaments respectively, 
and are a cento from the Carmen adversus Mar- 
cionem (see above). 

1 5 . Carmen de Procidentia Di vina : A long poem 
seeking to refute skepticism regarding the divine 
governance of the world. It was composed in south- 
ern Gaul about 415, but though in phrase and versi- 
fication it resembles the work of Prosper of Aqui- 
taine (q.v.), to whom the manuscripts ascribe it, 
its tendency toward semi-Pelagianism makes such 
an identification impossible. 

16-17. Metrum in Genesin and De Evangelio: 
Two poems ascribed by the manuscripts to Hilary 
of Poitiers (apparently an error for Hilary of Aries). 
The first poem is a paraphrase of Gen. i.-ix. in 204 
hexameters; the second is a mere fragment. 

18. Christos Pashon, or Christus Patiens: A 
Greek drama of 2,640 iambic trimeters erroneously 
ascribed to Gregory Nazianzen, really written at 
earliest in the eleventh century by an unknown 
author. It is a cento from the Greek tragedians 
(especially Euripides), the Bible, and such older 
apocryphal writings as the Protevangelium of 
James. The prologue, spoken by the Virgin, an- 
nounces the author's intention of narrating the pas- 
sion in Euripidean style; and the dramatis persona 
are Christ, the Virgin (the leading rdle), Joseph of 
Arimathea, St. John the Divine, Mary Magdalene, 
Nicodemus, a messenger, Pilate, the high priests, a 
chorus of maidens, a semi-chorus, young men, and 
the watch. The whole is a closet drama, and is the 
only known instance of a Greek attempt to produce 
a passion play. (G KrCger.) 

Bibliography: Works to be used in general are: J. F. C. 
Bahr, Die chriatliche Didder und Geechichtaachrtiber, 
Carlsruhe. 1872; A. Ebert, AUoemeine Geachichie der Lil- 
teratur dee MiUelaUera, Leipsic, 1889; M. Manitius, Ge- 
achichte der chrisUich-loteiniachen Poetic, Stuttgart, 1891. 
For editions of the works under discussion: Q. Fabricius, 
Poetarum veterum eccleaiaaticorum opera Christiana, Basel, 
1564; F. Oehler, TertuUiani Opera, Leipsic, 1854; G. 
Hartel, Cypriani Opera, Vienna, 1871; R. Peiper, Cy- 
priani Gaili poeia Heptateuchoe, Vienna, 1891. 

On 1 consult for editions: Fabricius, ut sup., pp. 257- 
286; Oehler, ut sup., 781-798; and for discussions: Bahr, 
ut sup., pp. 21-22; Elbert, ut sup., p. 312, no. 1; Mani- 
tius, ut sup., 148-156; E. Huckst&dt, Ueber daa paeudo- 
tertullianiache Gedichi adv. Marcionem, Leipsic 1875 (cf. 
A. Hilgenfeld, in ZWT, xix (154-159); A. Oxe, Pro- 
legomena de carmine adv. Marcionitae, Leipsic, 1888; J. 
Ziehen, Zur Geachichte der Lehrdichtung in der apatrbm- 
iachen Litterotur, in Neue Jahrbucher fur doe kloaaiache 
Altertum, i (1898), 409. 

On 2-4, for editions consult: the edition of 2 by G. 
Morelius, Paris, 1560; Fabricius, 298-302; Oehler, ut 
Hup., 769-776; Hartel, ut sup., 283-301 ; Peiper, ut sup., 
1-7, 212-226; for discussions consult. Bahr, ut sup., pp. 
34, 41; Ebert, ut sup., 118-224; Manitius. ut sup., 51- 
54, 167-170; H. Best, De Cypriani qua feruntur metria in 
Heptoteucham, Marburg, 1891. 



Poems, Anonymous 

On 5 for editions consult: Fabricius, ut sup., pp. 286- 
294; Oehler, ut sup., pp. 776-781, Hartel, ut sup., pp. 
308-325; and for discussions: Bahr, ut sup., p. 23; Mani- 
tius, ut sup., 344-348; O. Bardenhewer, Patrologie, Frei- 
burg. 1901, Eng. tranal., 8t Louis, 1908. 

On 6 for editions consult: Hartel, ut sup., pp. 302-305; 
Peiper, ut sup., 227-230; for discussions, Bahr, ut sup., 
p. 24; Ebert, ut sup., pp. 313-314; Manitius, ut sup., pp. 

For the rest the works already cited are available. Ad- 
ditional sources for one or more are: S. Brandt, Ueber 
das dem Lact. Mvoeschriebene Oedicht, Leipsic, 1891; W. 
Brandea, Ueber die fruhchrisUiche Oedicht Laudes Domini, 
Brunswick, 1887; (on 10) Q. Delisle, in Bibliothegue de 
VhcoU dee ehartss, ser. 6, vol. iii., pp. 297 sqq., Paris, 1867, 
and T. Mommsen, in Hermes, iv (1869), 350-363; (on 
13-14): A. Mai, Classici auctores, v. 382-385, Rome, 
1S33, and A. Oxe, Victorini versus de lege Domini, Cre- 
feld, 1894. For editions of 18 that of Bladus, Rome, 
1542, and that in MPO, zxxviii. 131-338 may be named; 
and the later ones of F. Dubner, Paris, 1846; J. G. Brambs, 
Leipsic, 1885; A. Ellison, ib. 1885 (Greek and German; 
useful for the list of literature and the introduction); 
Germ, tranal. by E. A. Pullig, Bonn, 1893. Consult 
Krumbacher, Oeschichte, pp. 746-748 (also with lists of 

POESCHL, pO'shl, THOMAS: Austrian chiliast; 
b. at Horitz (20 m. s.w. of Budweis), Bohemia, Mar. 
2, 1769; d. at Vienna Nov. 15, 1837. He was edu- 
cated for the Roman Catholic priesthood at Linz 
and Vienna, and after ordination became, in 1804, 
cooperator, catechist, and director of the school at 
Braunau-on-the-Inn. In 1806 he attended the 
Protestant Johann Philipp Palm at his execution, 
and became filled with wild hatred of Napoleon, 
while his impassioned sermons caused some to regard 
him as a saint and others as a maniac. At this crisis 
he came into contact with the mystic and chiliastic 
Roman Catholic " Brothers and Sisters in Zion," 
and was accordingly removed to Ampfelwang, 
whither the " Brothers and Sisters " also trans- 
ferred their headquarters. The great battle of Leip- 
sic, however, caused his insanity to become unmis- 
takable. Supported by the revelations of a certain 
Magdalena Sickinger, he now proclaimed himself 
called to convert the Jews and to found the true 
Judeo-Catholic Church. In spite of all efforts to 
suppress him, he continued to promulgate his doc- 
trines at Vocklabruck and Salzburg. Finally, in 
1817, he was committed to the hospital for the 
clergy at Vienna, where he remained until his death. 

Under the leadership of a peasant named Johann 
Haas, the followers of Poschl went on to still wilder 
vagaries than their leader, though without falling 
into sensuality or giving a single addition to Prot- 
estantism. Even when deserted by Haas and Mag- 
dalena Sickinger, they remained true to Poschl, 
who had adherents a generation later, not only in 
Bohemia, but also in Baden, Franconia, Hesse, and 
Frankfort, while in 1831 some fifty emigrated to 
Louisiana, where they made an unsuccessful at- 
tempt at communism. His three great tenets were 
the indwelling of Christ in the heart through faith, 
the conversion of the Jews, and the repentance of 
the Christians; and he likewise advocated the use 
of the vernacular in the liturgy, the administration 
of the Eucharist under both kinds, and the rejection 
of images. (Georg Loesche.) 

Bibliography: L. Worth, Die protestantische Pfarrey V6k- 
labruck (181S-18B6). Bin Beitrag *w Kenntnias . . . der 
Poscktouur, Marktbreit, 1825; M. Hiptmair, Thomas 

Poschl im Lickte seiner Selbstbiographie, Vienna, 1893; 
T. Wiedemann, Die religidse Bewegung in Oberdsterreich 
. . . beim Beginne dee 19. Jahrhunderts, Innsbruck, 1890; 
ADB, xxvi. 454-455; KL, x. 118-121. 

POETRY, HEBREW. See Hebrew Language 
and Literature, III. 

POHLE, pS'le, JOSEPH: German Roman 
Catholic; b. at Niederspay (7 m. s. of Coblenz) Mar. 
19, 1852. He was educated at the Gregorian Uni- 
versity, Rome (1871-79; Ph.D., 1874; D.D., 
1879), and the University of Wurzburg (1879-81); 
was teacher in the intermediate school at Baar, 
Switzerland (1881-83), professor of dogmatic the- 
ology in St. Joseph's College, Leeds, England, 
(1883-86), professor of philosophy at Fulda, Prussia 
(1886-89), professor of apologetics at the Catholic 
University of America (1889-94), and professor 
of dogmatic theology at the University of Monster 
(1894-97). Since 1897 he has been professor of 
the same subject at the University of Breslau. He 
has been one of the editors of the Philosophisches 
Jahrbuch der G&rresgesellschaft since its establish- 
ment in 1888, and has written P. Angelo Secchi, S. /., 
Ein Lebens- und KuUurbUd aus dem neunzehnten 
Jahrhundert (Cologne, 1883) ; Die Sternenwelien und 
ihre Bewohner, zugleich als erste Einjuhrung in die 
moderne Astronomic (2 vols., 1883-84); and Lehr- 
buch der Dogmalik jwr akademische Vorlesungen und 
zum Selbstunterricht (3 vols., Paderborn, 1902-05, 
new ed., 1908). 



POIRET, pwQ"re', PIERRE: Prominent French 
mystic; b. at Metz Apr. 15, 1646; d. at Rijnsburg 
(3 m. n. of Leyden) May 21, 1719. After the early 
death of his parents, he supported himself by the 
engraver's trade and the teaching of French, at the 
same time studying theology, in Basel, Hanau, and, 
after 1668, Heidelberg. At Basel he was captivated 
by Descartes' philosophy, which never quite lost its 
hold on him. He read also Thomas a Kempis and 
Tauler, but was especially influenced by the wri- 
tings of the Dutch Mennonite mystic Hendrik Jansz 
van Barneveldt, published about that time under 
the pseudonym of Emmanuel Hiel. In 1672 he be- 
came pastor of the French church at Annweiler in 
the duchy of Deux-Ponts. Here he became ac- 
quainted with Elisabeth, abbess of Hereford, the 
granddaughter of James I. of England and a noted 
mystic, with the Theologia Germanica (q.v.), and 
with the writings of Antoinette Bourignon (q.v.), 
which last supplied exactly what he wanted. The 
desire, to make the acquaintance of this gifted woman 
took him to Holland in 1676. He settled in Am- 
sterdam, and published there in the following year 
his Cogitationes rationales de Deo, anima, et malo, 
which gained him an immediate reputation for 
scholarship and philosophic insight. It is Cartesian 
in form; the Trinity is conceived in mathematical 
terms; all knowledge is to rest on evidence — but 
the end of this knowledge of God is practical, to 
lead distracted Christendom back to unity. The in- 
fluence of Thomas a Kempis and Tauler is plainly 

From Holland Poiret went on to Hamburg, still 




in quest of Antoinette Bourignon, was completely 
won by her at the first meeting, and until her death 
in 1680, he was her faithful disciple. He accom- 
panied her in her wanderings, traveled several times 
as f ar as Holstein in connection with her exceed- 
ingly confused affairs, and returned to Amsterdam 
to see to the publication of her complete works, to 
which he prefixed a thoroughgoing defense of her 
and added a translation of the Gdttliche Gesichi of 
Hans Engelbrecht (q.v.), the Brunswick enthusi- 
ast. He defended her character and divine mission 
in a Afemoire touchant la vie de Mile. A. Bourignon 
(1679), and championed her cause against Bayle 
and Seckendorf. He was also a warm admirer of 
Jane Lead (q.v.)- In 1688 he settled at Rijnsburg, 
where he busied himself on his own works and in 
multifarious labors for the Dutch booksellers, such 
as in the Dutch edition of Ruinart. Among his 
original productions may be mentioned V&conomie 
divine, ou systeme universel et d&montri des ctuvres et 
dee deeseins de Dieu envere lee hommes (Amsterdam, 
1687; Eng. transl., The Divine (Economy, 6 vols., 
London, 1713), which purports to reproduce the 
visionary notions of Antoinette Bourignon, but at 
least gives them in intelligible and consistent form. 
Another work, La Paix dee dmes dans tous lee partis 
du Christianisme (1687), disregards the formal 
creeds of the various churches, and appeals to the 
minority of really sincere Christians, urging them 
to an inner union without the abandonment of their 
external affiliations. In De eruditione solida, su- 
perficiaria et falsa (1692), he distinguishes between 
superficial knowledge of the names of things and 
real or solid knowledge of the things themselves, 
which latter is to be attained by humble renuncia- 
tion of one's own wisdom and will. He continued 
to make contributions to the philosophical and re- 
ligious controversies of the time, as, for example, 
against Bayle and his " hypocritical " opposition 
to Spinoza. The work which probably ran through 
the most editions was the little treatise on the ed- 
ucation of children which first appeared in 1690 in 
a collection of his shorter writings, was frequently 
translated, and influenced the Pietistic controversy 
at Hamburg. His most permanently valuable con- 
tribution was Bibliotheca mysticorum seleeta (1708), 
which displays an astonishing acquaintance with 
ancient and modern mystics, and contains valuable 
information on some of the less-known writers. He 
also published a large number of mystical writings 
both from the Middle Ages and from the French 
Pietists of the seventeenth century. In 1704 he 
brought out a new edition of Mme. Guyon's wri- 
tings, with the addition of a treatise printed for the 
first time and an introduction. In spite of his de- 
votion to her, he was not a Quietist in the ordinary 
sense of the word. He would not have man's rela- 
tion to God one of pure passivity but of receptiv- 
ity. He repudiated predestination, and condemned 
Pelagianism because it suppressed the feeling of in- 
herent sinfulness in man — just as he opposed So- 
cinianism because it did not ascribe the whole of 
salvation to the operation of God's grace. Mystic 
as he was, he knew how to combine with his own 
peculiar attitude a firm insistence on certain dog- 
matic definitions, such as that of the Trinity. He | 

continually appealed to the authority of Scripture. 
Though after 1680 he led a quiet and retired life, he 
was recognised widely by the scholars of his time, 
such as Thomasius and Bayle, Le Clerc and Walch, 
as a man of great learning; and his zealous partici- 
pation in the cause of Antoinette Bourignon did 
not injure his good name as a devout mystic and 
an honorable man. His influence persisted after 
his death, not merely through the work of his spir- 
itual son Tersteegen, but through the respect which 
his writings won for mysticism, forcing the regu- 
lar theology, as represented by Le Clerc, Lange, 
Buddeus, Walch, and Stapfer, to take account of it. 

S. Cramer. 
Bibliography: The one source, contemporary, exact, and 
detailed, sent by Point himself to Ancfllon and after 
Poiret's death printed in Latin in the Bibliotheca Bremeneie, 
iii. 1, Bremen, 1720, is printed as Kort Verhad van dee 
Schryvere Petrue Poirete leven en Sehriften in De godddyke 
Huiehouding. ii. 31-66, 1723. Next to this the best refer- 
ences are to A. Ijpeij, Oeechiedenie van de KrieUlyke Kerfc 
in de achttiende Eeuw, x. 510-531, Utrecht, 1809; idem, 
Oeechiedenie der eyetemaHeche OodgeUerdheid, iii. 46-61; 
and M. Gobel, Geechichte dee ehrietlichen Lebene in der 
rheiniech-weatph&liechen evangeliachen Kirche, vol. iii., 
Coblena, 1860. The more general works on Mtbticibm 
(see the bibliography there) have practically nothing ad- 
ditional to what is contained in the preceding — of. R. A. 
Vaughan, Howe with the Mystic*, ii. 290, 8th ed., London, 

OF: A conference held in Sept., 1561, between 
Protestants and Roman Catholics at Poissy (10 m. 
n.w. of Paris). The wide diffusion of Protestantism 
in France led the queen regent, Catherine de Medici, 
to seek to establish some peaceable understanding 
between the two confessions. After 
Purposes the assembly of notables at Fontaine- 
and Pre- bleau in Aug., 1560, and the general 
liminaries. assembly of the estates at Orleans 
(Dec. 13, 1560-Jan. 31, 1561), the no- 
bility and the third estate gathered at Pontoise, 
while the court and the clergy met at the abbey of 
Poissy. The assembly, which was partly to pre- 
pare for the expected reopening of the Council of 
Trent, partly as a sort of national council to pro- 
mote the reformation of the French Church, and 
partly to diminish the debt of the State out of the 
treasury of the Church, was convened July 28, 1651. 
The assurance, in the king's name, of the Chan- 
cellor Michel de L'H6pita1 (q.v.) to the bishops and 
archbishops that there was to be a reformation not 
only of abuses but also of doctrine, received a very 
limited approval, and still more so that the Re- 
formed also were to be heard. A review of the pre- 
liminaries is necessary properly to understand the 
call of colloquy. Theodore Beza (q.v.) and col- 
leagues came to Worms in 1557 in behalf of the 
Evangelicals imprisoned by Henry II. at Paris, and 
when the Germans requested a confession of faith, 
the French returned a statement of entire agree- 
ment with the Augsburg Confession with the ex- 
ception of the article on the Eucharist, holding out 
the prospect, however, of future agreement. The 
result was that Elector Otto Heinrich interceded 
with the French king. Meanwhile relations became 
more strained: Frederick went over to Calvinism, 
and strict Lutheranism was emphasized in Wurt- 
temberg. When King Antoine of Navarre, for the 




French kingdom, demanded intercessory delega- 
tions to the court in behalf of the Protestants, he 
was advised to accept the Augsburg Confession, 
especially on the Eucharist. Duke Christopher of 
Wurttemberg, on June 12, sent to Antoine and to 
the duke of Guise an envoy with copies of the Augs- 
burg Confession, the new Wurttemberg Confession, 
and various books of the Lutheran theologians. 
Christopher's envoy found the convention of prel- 
ates already in prospect, and the duke's suggestion 
that Protestant theologians take part in the pro- 
ceedings obtained royal approval. The Roman 
Catholics, in their turn, expected to refute the Prot- 
estants by the Bible and the Church Fathers and 
drive the Reformed to the wall. Beza and Peter 
Martyr Vermigli (q.v.) were the Reformed theo- 
logians invited to attend the colloquy. The Ger- 
man princes were also asked to send theologians, 
but they were unable to agree on any uniform in- 
structions to their delegates and the plan was con- 
sequently abandoned. Beza enjoyed a cordial wel- 
come both at Paris and the court at St. Germain, 
and on the Sunday evening after his arrival was in- 
vited by Antoine to an assembly which included 
Catherine, Condi, and the cardinals of Bourbon 
and Lorraine. Here a conversation was carried 
on between Beza and the cardinal of Lorraine, 
in which the latter minimized the differences of 
Eucharistic doctrine between himself and Beza, 
concluding by inviting the Reformed theologian to 
visit him that they might cooperate for some agree- 
ment between Roman Catholics and Protestants. 
Shortly afterward it was invidiously rumored at 
St. Germain and abroad that Beza had been worsted 
in argument by the cardinal. Some days before 
Beza's arrival the Reformed preachers had pre- 
sented a memorial thanking the king for their safe 
conduct and requesting him to submit to the con- 
sideration of the prelates the French Reformed con- 
fession (see Galxjcan Confession). This petition 
was graciously received by the king on Aug. 17, 
and on Aug. 26 the prelates, yielding to the wish of 
Catherine, decided to hear the Reformed. Attempts 
were made to keep the king himself from attending, 
but in vain; and on Sept. 9 the conference began 
in the refectory of the great Nunnery at Poissy. 
There were present the king, his mother, the princes 
and princesses royal, high dignitaries of the crown, 
and many courtiers; while from among the lords 
spiritual were present the cardinals of Tournon, 
Lorraine, Chatillon, Armagnac, Bourbon, and 
Guise; the archbishops of Bordeaux and Embrun, 
thirty-six bishops, representatives of absent prel- 
ates, many deputies of abbeys and monasteries, 
and theologians and professors of the Sorbonne. 
The Reformed were represented by twenty dele- 
gates and fourteen elders. 

After preliminary addresses by the king and 
chancellor, Beza delivered a long address in which 
he sought to demonstrate the patriotism and peace- 
fulness of his party and gave a brief 
The summary of the Reformed doctrines 

Sessions, to show that they differed in very 

essential points from tenets previously 

held, and that they did not reject each and every 

fundamental principle of Christianity so as to be 

on a plane of those of Jews and Mohammedans. 
This presentation contained many citations for 
authority from the Fathers. When, however, Beza 
spoke of the Eucharist, and declared that the body 
of Christ was as far from the bread as the highest 
heaven is from the earth, he was interrupted with 
vehement disapproval. He was followed by Car- 
dinal Tournon, who expressed his entire disapproval 
of Beza's attitude and concluded the session by 
demanding a written copy of the Reformed leader's 
address, which was apparently altered by Beza be- 
fore it was printed. For the second session the 
prelates entrusted the cardinal of Lorraine with 
the refutation of Beza. The Roman Catholic reply 
was to comprise the following four doctrines: the 
Church and her authority; the powers of councils 
to represent the entire Church, which includes not 
only the elect, but also the non-elect; the author- 
ity of the Scriptures; and the real and substantial 
presence of the body and blood of Christ in the 
Eucharist. This was to be followed by the presen- 
tation of a creed controverting the Reformed con- 
fession and by pronouncing condemnation on the 
preachers if they should refuse to accept it, after 
which the conference was to be closed. The Prot- 
estants, learning of this, protested to the king, who 
obliged the prelates to defer their proposed con- 
demnation and adjournment. The second session 
took place on Sept. 16, and was opened by the 
cardinal of Lorraine. Expressing the pleasure of 
the prelates to learn that the Reformed were in 
harmony with the Apostles' Creed, he yet called 
attention to other points in which they deviated 
from Roman Catholic teaching. In his discussion 
of the Eucharist, the cardinal carefully avoided all 
offensive phraseology, and even avoided references 
to transubstantiation and the mass, speaking of 
the real presence in a quasi-Lutheran sense. Dis- 
cussion and a copy of the address were denied, to 
Beza's disappointment. On the following evening 
Catherine summoned Beza and Peter Martyr, the 
latter of whom expressed his hope of reaching an 
understanding if the Eucharistic problem were omit- 
ted from discussion and each one were permitted to 
believe and preach according as he was convinced 
by the word of God. The queen expressed her in- 
tention of doing all in her power to bring about 
such an understanding. [It is a significant fact that 
at the conference while the Roman Catholic prelates 
were seated, the Protestants were required to re- 
main standing.] 

The further course of events was determined by 
the intervention of the papal legate, the cardinal 
of Ferrara, uncle of the duchess of Guise. He ad- 
vised the queen to restrain the king, the cardinal of 
Tournon, and the majority of the prel- 
Results. ates, from attending further confer- 
ences, pleading that an agreement 
might the more easily be reached if the irreconcil- 
able spirits were absent. On Sept. 24, therefore, a 
conference was summoned with twelve represen- 
tatives of each party; and the debate, which was 
without result, concluded with the question of the 
cardinal of Lorraine whether the Reformed were 
ready to subscribe to the Augsburg Confession. On 
the following day Montluc, bishop of Valence, and 


Poland, Christianity in 



D'Espence conferred, at the queen's command, with 
Beza and Nicolas dee Gallards on a compromise 
formula. The result was as follows: " We believe 
that the true body and the true blood of Jesus 
Christ really and substantially, that is, in their 
proper substance, are, in a spiritual and ineffable 
manner, present and offered in the Holy Commu- 
nion and that they are thus received by the faith- 
ful who communicate." When, on Sept. 26, nego- 
tiations were continued publicly, Beza declared 
that the Reformed could not accept this formula. 
The ultimate failure of compromise is perhaps due 
to the Jesuit general Lainez, who hitherto played 
his part under cover but, admitted to the colloquy 
on Sept. 26, vehemently and scurrilously attacked 
the Protestants, to whom Beza replied. The debate 
continued until late at night; and for further dis- 
cussion a committee of five on each side was ap- 
pointed; among the Roman Catholics being Montluc 
and D'Espence, and among the Reformed Beza and 
Peter Martyr. After three conferences (Sept. 29, 
Oct. 1, and Oct. 3) a formula was reached teaching 
the real presence, of which the substance was given 
through the operation of the Holy Ghost, the body 
of Christ being received spiritually and through 
faith. All at court were satisfied, but when the 
formula was submitted to the assembled prelates 
on Oct. 9, the majority declared the formula heret- 
ical. A rigidly Roman Catholic formula was im- 
mediately drawn up, and it was resolved to give 
no further hearing to the Reformed after their re- 
fusal to subscribe, and to urge the king to banish 
the recalcitrants. Negotiations were broken off at 
Poissy on Oct. 9. Ten days later five German theo- 
logians arrived at Paris, Michael Diller, Peter 
Bouquin, Jakob Beurlin, Jakob Andrea (qq.v.) and 
Balthasar Bidembach, summoned to explain the 
Augsburg articles. Their leader Beurlin died on 
Oct. 28 and on Nov. 8 the rest were received in 
audience by the king of Navarre, who expressed a 
wish that they would bear witness to the harmony 
between the Augsburg Confession and the com- 
promise formula at the conclusion of negotiations 
at Poissy. After many futile conferences on the 
union of German and French Protestantism, and, 
after having explained to the king the meaning of 
the Augsburg Confession and urged him to accept 
it, the envoys were finally dismissed on Nov. 23. 
The conference at Poissy had shown that reconcilia- 
tion between Roman Catholics and Protestants on 
the basis of mutual concession was entirely impos- 
sible, and that the only alternatives were mutual 
toleration or a war for existence. 


Bibliography: H. M. Baird, Hist, of the Rise of the Hugue- 
nots, i. 505-546. London. 1880; Theodore Besa, Hist. 
eccUsiastique des fglises rifornUes . . . de France, Geneva, 
1580, new ed., ©d. P. Vowon, 2 vols., Toulouse, 1882-83. 
and, in 3 vols., od. J. W. Baum and A. E. Cunits, Paris, 
1883-88; J. W. Baum, Theodor Beza, vol. ii. f Berlin. 
1852; O. de F61ice, Hist, des protestanis de France, pp. 
131 sqq., Toulouse, 1850, new ed., 1861, Eng. transl., 
2 vols., London, 1853; G. von Polcns, GeschichU des 
framttsischen Calnnismus, ii. 47 sqq., Gotha, 1859: N. A. 
F. Puaux, Hist, de la reformation francaise, ii. 101 sqq., 
Paris, 1860; H. Klipffel. La Colloque de Poissy. Paris, 
1868; A. de Ruble, he Journal de Claude cTEspence, in 
Mhnoires de la sociiU oVhistoire de Paris, xvi., 1889; H. 
Amphoui, Michel de VHdpital, pp. 185 sqq.. Paris, 1900. 


I. Before the Reformation. 

Slavic Foundations (| 1). 
German Influence and Organization ({ 2). 
Reaction and Turmoils (§ 3). 
Ecclesiastical Independence ({ 4). 

II. The Reformation and After. 
Need and Preparation (| 1). 
Reformation (§ 2). 
Counter-Reformation (| 3). 
Later History (| 4). 

L Before the Reformation: When Poland re- 
ceived Christianity in the tenth century, it com- 
prised the territory between the Russian grand- 
duchy in the east, Prussia and Pomerania in the 
northeast and north, the Wendish 
x. Slavic tribes in the northwest, the German 
Founda- empire as far as the Oder in the west, 
tions. and Moravia in the south and south- 
west. After Duke Mieczyslaw of Po- 
land had been defeated in 963 by the Wends, he 
sought protection from them by submission to the 
German emperor. But in spite of the favorable op- 
portunity thus afforded for the introduction of 
Christianity from Germany, no efforts were made 
in this direction. Christianity was introduced as a 
resultant of the Slavonic mission of the Greek- 
Oriental Church; and, in particular, according to 
the oldest and most reliable reports from Bohemia, 
where it had obtained a permanent foothold under 
Duke Boleslaw I. the Pious. Duke Mieczyslaw mar- 
ried in 066 Dambrowka, the sister of Boleslaw II., 
duke of Bohemia, and in 967 accepted Christianity, 
followed immediately by the nobles and a part of 
the people. Further expansion was promoted by 
priests from Bohemia; and at the order of the duke 
all his subjects were baptized. All idols were to be 
broken, burned, or thrown into the water. 

At this point Germany began missionary work 
in Poland. Under the protection of the emperor, 
Jordan, a German priest, worked with great zeal 
and under many difficulties, as missionary. The 
Poles had indeed accepted Christian- 
2. German ity after the example of their duke, 
Influence nominally; but in secret they were 
and Organ!- still attached to their old gods, and at 
zation. a later time heathenism was yet strong 
enough to produce a reaction. The 
ecclesiastical organization of the country soon fol- 
lowed the acceptance of Christianity by the duke. 
This could not possibly have been accomplished by 
the efforts of the Slavonic-Greek mission; but the 
close political connection of Poland with Germany 
and the feudal relation of the duke to the emperor 
effected in the course of time close relations with 
the German-Occidental Church, and from these a 
firm foundation and organization of Polish Chris- 
tianity proceeded. Mieczyslaw, in 977, after the 
death of bis first wife, married Oda, the daughter 
of the Saxon Margrave Dietrich, under whose in- 
fluence the Greek rite gave way to the Roman 
forms of church service (see Roman Catholics, 
" Uniate Churches ")• Otto the Great conceived 
comprehensive plans for a permanent Christianiza- 
tion of the Slavonic people who were compelled 
to submit to bis power. At his instance and with 
his cooperation, the first Polish bishopric, Posen, 




Poland, Christianity in 

was founded in 968. At first included under the 
archbishopric of Mains, it was later incorporated in 
the archbishopric of Magdeburg. Thus the con- 
nection of the Polish Church with the Roman 
Church was established, and under the influence of 
the political conditions the Roman Church gained 
the ascendency over the unwilling Greek element. 
As the Roman missionaries from Germany did not 
speak the Polish language, they could not gain that 
influence over the people to which the Slavonic 
missionaries owed most of their success. Conflicts 
arose, and it became very difficult to introduce the 
institutions of the Roman Church. The pope found 
it necessary to make temporary concessions; and 
preaching and liturgy were allowed in the vernacu- 
lar. Until his death in 992 Mieczyslaw remained a 
faithful adherent of the imperial power. Under his 
son from his first marriage, Boleslaw Chrobry, " the 
Brave " (992 to 1025), one of the most powerful 
and valiant of the old Polish dukes, the tie of Po- 
land with the Roman Church became still closer. 
Although Poland had not been fully Christianized 
even externally, it became under him a center for 
the further expansion of Christianity among the 
neighboring peoples, in that he made the mission 
serve his warlike undertakings. Boleslaw Chrobry 
had safeguarded St. Adalbert (see Adalbert of 
Prague) on his missionary tour to Prussia and 
afterward redeemed his remains; and over his 
grave in Gnesen he contracted an intimate friend- 
ship with Emperor Otto III. Gnesen became an 
archbishopric and the center of the Polish Church. 
Seven bishoprics were placed under its jurisdiction, 
among them Colberg, Cracow, and Breslau; and 
thus there was established the first comprehensive 
organization of the Polish Church. But with the 
foundation of the archbishopric of Gnesen Poland's 
connection with the archbishopric of Magdeburg 
and with the German Church and empire was 
loosened, and there gradually grew up a more im- 
mediate connection with Rome. As he had pro- 
tected Adalbert on his missionary tour to Prussia, 
so Boleslaw aided powerfully the bold undertaking 
of Brun of Querfurt, the enthusiastic disciple of 
Adalbert, to bring the Gospel to the wild people of 
the far east. Boleslaw also sent to Sweden mis- 
sionaries whose efforts were very successful. The 
further he extended his power over the neighbor- 
ing Slavonic people, the stronger became his desire 
for a great Christian-Slavonic kingdom, the crown 
of which he asked from the pope. In 1018 the 
Greek empire in Constantinople feared its power 
and the Russian kingdom, in the capital of which, 
Kief, he erected a Roman Catholic bishopric, suc- 
cumbed to it. 

After the external reception of Christianity, the 
people still clung tenaciously to heathenism. The 
annual celebration of the destruction of the old 
gods at which their images were thrown into the 

water, took place for a considerable 

3. Reaction time with the singing of dirges. Only 

and by harsh penal codes were the uncul- 

Turmoils. tured minds of the people turned to 

the observance of Christian morals 
and church usages. Adultery and fornication were 
punished with mutilation, and eating of flesh dur- 

ing Lent with the knocking out of teeth. Mieczys- 
law II. carried out his father's policy for the main- 
tenance and extension of the Church. He built 
churches and founded a new bishopric, Cujavia, 
in the territory of the Wends on the Vistula. But 
the terrible disorders in Poland following his death 
in 1034 involved also the Church. The external 
and forced Christianization had been so ineffective 
that the very existence of the Church was threats 
ened. Many of the nobility and the people fell back 
into heathenism; cities and churches were des- 
troyed, and the laity rebelled against the clergy. 
From Germany efforts were no longer made to aid 
and strengthen the Polish Church. Under Conrad 
II. the archbishopric of Magdeburg had forgotten 
its missionary duty to the east and especially to 
Poland. Since 1035 its influence upon the Polish 
church and the latter's connection with the Ger- 
man Church ceased. The bishopric of Posen was 
placed under the archbishopric of Gnesen; Gnesen 
was destroyed by the duke of Bohemia; Casimir, 
the son of Mieczyslaw II., found refuge in Germany, 
and after the recovery of his inheritance reestab- 
lished the Church by placing land and church under 
the protection of the royal power of Germany. But 
a long time passed before the old order was rees- 
tablished. Under Boleslaw II., who had regained 
the throne, a terrible civil war ensued. In the fol- 
lowing period the progress of the Church was hin- 
dered by political disturbances, so that prosperous 
development by the planting and fostering of Chris- 
tian life was impossible, though the missionary 
activity of the Polish Church was revived under 
Boleslaw III. From Poland in the second quarter 
of the twelfth century the Christianization of 
Pomerania was accomplished by Otho of Bamberg, 
while Pomerania became politically dependent 
upon Poland. Strenuous efforts were made to ex- 
pand the church in Prussia in order to subjugate 
it the more securely to the dominion of Poland. 
Such missionary efforts, however, did not indicate 
vigorous life in the Church so much as political 
energy in the sovereigns. The division of the king- 
dom after Boleslaw's death (1139) among his four 
sons wrought new ecclesiastical troubles and dis- 
turbances; and before the time of the Reformation 
peaceful developments did not obtain. The princes 
either showered possessions and privileges upon 
the clerpy from selfish or party interests at the ex- 
pense of the nobility and the people, whose hatred 
was thus intensified while the moral condition of 
the clergy was corrupted, or they violently attacked 
the rights and property of the bishoprics. A synod 
at Leucyka in 1180 forbade princes to appropriate 
the property of deceased bishops under penalty of 
excommunication. The favors of the princes to the 
clergy involved the latter in continual battles with 
the nobility; violent dissensions between clergy on 
the one side and nobility and laity on the other 
were caused by the payment of tithes to the Church, 
and by the arbitrary extension of clerical jurisdic- 

In close connection with the national element 
and the opposition of Slavism to Romanism and 
Teutonism, the opposition to the popes is one of 
the characteristic features of the Polish church. 

Poland, Christianity in 



The princes energetically guarded their right to fill 
bishoprics, granted them by Otto III. Pope Martin 

V. complained in letters to the king of 
4. Ecclesi- Poland that the rights and liberties of 
astical In- the Church were trampled under foot 
dependence, and that the authority of the Holy See 

was not obeyed. The clergy shared 
with princes this desire for independence of the 
pope. Hence the complaint of Gregory VII. in a 
letter of 1075, " the bishops of your land are abso- 
lutely independent and unsubmissive to regula- 
tion." A bishop of Posen dared to refuse to an- 
nounce an interdict of Innocent III. against one of 
the dukes. Marriage of priests had come in through 
the Greek origin of the Polish church; thence came 
general opposition to the law of celibacy among 
the Polish clergy. About 1120 all priests in the 
diocese of Breslau were married. In the middle of 
the twelfth century the majority of the Polish 
clergy were the same; and a synod of Gnesen (1219) 
complained that the former prohibitions of the 
marriage of priests had remained without effect. 
The appeal of the Polish nation from the pope to 
a general council at the time when Pope Martin V. 
did not condemn the work of John of Falkenberg, 
the Dominican monk who in the interest of the 
Teutonic order had preached murder and rebellion 
against the Polish people and their king, was a 
memorable protest against the absolutism of the 
papacy. The immorality of the clergy, their simony, 
unchastity, political intriguing, and lack of church 
discipline produced an anticlerical and antiecclesi- 
astical movement among the people. The relig- 
ious needs of the country, which had been so shame- 
fully disregarded by the clergy, were so urgent that 
the Reformation found open doors among the Poles. 

(David Erdmann1\) 

II. Reformation and After: In the middle of the 

fifteenth century Poland bordered in the west upon 

Hungary, Bohemia, and Silesia; in the north on 

the Eastern Sea from Danzig to Courland; in the 

east it included Lithuania and the 

1. Need greater part of White Russia; and in 

and Prepa- the south, Red Russia, Volhynia, Po- 

ration. dolia, and Kief; while its influence 

spread over Moldavia and Walachia 
(Roumania), and the Crimea. A grandson of Ladis- 
las Jagieilo (1348-1434) was king of Bohemia and 
Hungary. Relations by marriage brought neigh- 
boring dominions under the kings of Poland, which 
was now at the zenith of its power and extent. 
Three sons of Casimir (1444-92) became kings of 
Poland; the third one, Sigismund (1513-48), taking 
for second wife the Italian princess Bona Sforza, 
who wrought an influence detrimental to Poland 
and the Reformation. The heart of the kingdom, 
namely, Little Poland, was Slavic, and thus mild, 
peaceable, and deeply religious. Cyril and Metho- 
dius, the Slavic apostles of the ninth century, had 
translated a part of the Scriptures into the mother 
tongue; the pious people held firmly to worship in 
the vernacular and to ecclesiastical independence; 
and thus the foundation for the Reformation spirit 
was laid. The king was only the chief of the nobles, 
who in a century of strife had risen to an eminence 
of independence and power which stood also in de- 

fense of the bishops and resisted the popes. The 
bishops had been appointed by the lords for cen- 
turies and stood by their side; for they were first 
of all Poles. An archbishop of Gnesen had been 
regent. In 1176 Waldensians from the south of 
France and later the Hussites found refuge in Po- 
land, in spite of the individual opposition of the 
bishops, the synods, and the Inquisition; and they 
were protected. As elsewhere so in Poland the re- 
vival of learning and humanism prepared the way 
for the Reformation. The classics were read by 
nobles and clergy; German and Italian scholars 
were welcomed; multitudes of young Poles re- 
turned from schools abroad, bringing back the spirit 
of the humanities; and Erasmus obtained the most 
enthusiastic admirers. But perhaps nowhere else 
was the moral and spiritual destitution so great as 
in Poland. The law of celibacy was generally vio- 
lated among the priesthood; nepotism prevailed 
among the bishops; and ecclesiastical positions 
were sold to the highest bidder. 

The fires of the Reformation first broke into 
flame along the German border. As early as 1520 
the Dominican Andreas Samuel at the cathedral of 
Posen and later John Seklucyan, a preacher at the 
church of Mary Magdalen, preached the Gospel, 

emphasizing the need of a reformation 

2. Refor- of the Church. In 1519, Jacob Knade, 

mation. a vicar at the church of Peter and Paul 

in Danzig, married; and this step, to- 
gether with his fearless reform preaching, met with 
wide public approval. In Posen, the castellan 
Lukas of Gorka received the Evangelical preach- 
ers under his protection against the bishop. The 
archbishop of Gnesen hurried to Danzig to suppress 
the movement but the magistrate upheld his right, 
even against the king, to permit Evangelical preach- 
ing and the entrance of the Reformation. From 
here it spread by way of Elbing into Prussia ; George 
of Polentz, bishop of Samland, joined it; Albert of 
Brandenburg, Grand Master of the German Order 
in Prussia, called as preacher to Konigsberg Jo- 
hann Briessman (q.v.), Luther's follower (1525); 
and changed the territory of the order into a heredi- 
tary grand duchy under Polish protection. From 
these borderlands the movement penetrated Little 
Poland which was the nucleus for the extensive 
kingdom. All measures on the part of the church 
powers and king to stem the tide proved ineffective. 
In spite of the prohibition, especially against Wit- 
tenberg, the nobility continued to send its sons to 
the universities of Bologna, Padua, Orleans, and 
Paris, and even to Strasburg and Geneva, whence 
Calvin's " Institutes " were welcomed in Poland. 
The Italian Lismanin, confessor to Queen Bona, 
joined the Reformation; and placed himself as wefc 
as Prince Radziwil, chief reformer in Lithuania, in 
communication with Calvin. The latter dedicated 
his commentary on Hebrews to the king of Poland 
(1549), which honor the latter accepted. From 
1545 a constantly widening circle of spiritually 
awakened Poles collected at the house of the emi- 
nent and wealthy Andreas Traecieski of Cracow; 
among these were Wojewodka, later prefect of 
Cracow, Orzechowski, Przyluski, author of the 
" statues of the realm," and, in particular, Rej and 



Poland, Christianity in 

rricius Modrevius. From this source the move- 
ment spread everywhere among the minor as well 
as the greater nobility; but the prime cause of the 
Reformation is to be sought in the deep religious 
sense of the Slavic people, who eagerly accepted 
the preaching of the Gospel in place of the means 
of the deteriorated Church. In the mean time the 
movement proceeded likewise among the nobles of 
Great Poland; here the type was Lutheran, instead 
of Reformed, as in Little Poland. Before the Ref- 
ormation the Hussite refugees had found asylum 
here; now the Bohemian and Moravian brethren, 
soon to be known as the Unity of the Brethren 
(q.v.), were expelled from their home countries 
and, on their way to Prussia (1547), about 400 
settled in Posen under the protection of the Gorka, 
Leszynski, and Ostrorog families. During 1553- 
1579, this band increased to seventy-nine congrega- 
tions, due to their industrious and sane activity, 
during the quarter-century leadership of George 
IsraeL In Little Poland, owing to political condi- 
tions, there was for a long time a lack of organic 
home leadership. The churches could not continue 
successfully under the control of Geneva and the 
Rhine. Efforts were made to import proper men 
from abroad, which resulted most wisely in the 
choice of Johannes a Lasco (q.v.). He was a Pole, 
acquainted with the Reformers of his native land, 
a fugitive first in East Friesland and then in Eng- 
land, and one who had specially proved his fitness 
for organization and leadership. His return was 
delayed and the Synod of Kozminek (1555), under 
the pressure of threatened disorganization, adopted 
a plan of union, the result of which would have 
meant absorption into the Unity of the Brethren. 
A year later, upon his arrival, Lasco insisted upon 
the integrity and independence of the home church. 
In the fifth decade of this century the movement 
entered into its final tests in the struggles of the 
bishops and the nobles of the Reformation in the 
diets. In the diet of 1552, Leszynski refused to 
bow the knee and remove the hat at the opening of 
the mass. This diet secured freedom of conscience 
by granting the Roman Catholic Church the right 
of judgment on heresies but not of penalty. The 
Diet of Warsaw (1556) provided that every noble 
was free to establish in his house and on his estate 
that worship which seemed to him fitting, if it 
were grounded on the Scriptures. It also voted 
an address to Pope Paul IV. demanding of the 
Council of Trent worship in the vernacular, com- 
munion in both forms, consecration of priests, aboli- 
tion of the papal contributions, and the calling of 
a national council for the correction of abuses and 
the unification of church bodies. However, the 
king was weak. He sent the bishop of Przenysl as 
delegate; the diet was unrepresented and never 
accepted the resolutions of the council. King 
Sigismund August died in 1572 without heir, and 
unfortunately at this stage the country was thrown 
into the strife of electing a sovereign. The choice 
fell upon Prince Henry of Valois, duke of Anjou, 
who had been recommended by Coligny before 
Sigismund's death. In spite of the division, united 
action was taken at the Diet of Warsaw (1573) 
under the Reformed leadership of Crownmarshal 

Firley of Little Poland, guaranteeing equal rights 
and freedom to all creeds. The Reformed repre- 
sentatives of Poland also exacted a pledge from 
the king of France before they cast their votes for 
his brother, guaranteeing freedom of faith and 
worship and a safe return of the fugitives to his 
kingdom. Until the time of coronation the Jesuits 
plotted to make this oath void, and when Henry 
showed signs of weakening before reaffirming the 
oath at the coronation, Firley fearlessly stepped 
forward, seized the crown in his hand, and cried 
out in a loud voice, " If thou wilt not swear thou 
shalt not reign." The frightened king forthwith 
took the oath. 

This episode was an outward mark of a Counter- 
Reformation which had been developing for some 
time. Two movements within the bosom of Prot- 
estantism exposed it the more to the reaction. 
First, antitrinitarianism, imported from Italy, 
toward which even Lismanin inclined, had its sup- 
porters and centered itself at Pinczow. 
3. Counter- Against this, Lasco (q.v.) placed him- 
Reforms- self in energetic and successful oppo- 
tion. sition. In the second place was the 
irreconcilable division of the three 
Protestant bodies over against the united front of 
the Jesuit Roman Catholics. The Church of Little 
Poland and Lithuania was Calvinistic; that of 
Greater Poland and Prussia, and, with occasions, 
that of Courland and Livonia, was Lutheran, the 
churches of which were early intermingled with 
many congregations of the Unity of the Brethren. 
Lasco strove for such a union with his last energy, 
but failed. Ten years after his death a general 
synod at Sendomir (1570) adopted a consensus 
identifying themselves in a union against the Ro- 
man Catholic Counter-Reformation. It was shaken 
by conflict as soon as it had been adopted. The 
general synod at Thorn (1595) reendorsed the con- 
sensus of Sendomir, making it binding upon all the 
clergy and subscriptions necessary under the pen- 
alty of dismission. Yet the measures fell into ob- 
livion. In 1728 the general synod of Danzig re- 
called it from obscurity and resolved to adhere to 
it; but though never revoked, it was in time for- 
gotten. Meanwhile the Counter-Reformation pro- 
ceeded, conducted sagaciously by Rome, not only 
by availing of these internal divisions of Protestant- 
ism, but also by following its own independent de- 
signs, regardless of the survival of the Polish na- 
tion. The foreigner Stanislaus Hosius (q.v.), bishop 
of Ermland, was the leader and an irreconcilable 
antagonist of the dissidents. The Jesuits who 
worked by his side did perhaps nowhere else so 
effective and pernicious a work. While these laid 
their insidious plans in the houses of the nobles, 
Hosius knew how to make the most of the dissi- 
dent polemical writings for the cause of Rome. A 
further aid was the papal nuncio at Cracow, Com- 
mendone, but most of all the king, Sigismund III. 
(1585-1632), called by contemporaries " king of 
the Jesuits." The Evangelicals lost their rights 
and liberty of conscience. The Jesuits also directed 
their efforts against the Eastern Church so that in 
1599, at Wilna, a compact of Evangelicals and 
Greek adherents was made to which either side 

Poland, Christianity in 



made appeal from time to time until the final dis- 
memberment of Poland. After a decade of warfare 
the Jesuits came out victorious, and the Evangel- 
ical cause and the kingdom went down together. 
Two centuries more, however, ensued before the 
victory was complete. 

The correspondence of Hosius reveals the return 
of the descendants of the illustrious fathers of the 
Information to Roman Catholicism. At an assem- 
bly in the palatinate of Cracow, in 1606, a warning 
call went up from the knighthood, re- 
4. Later f erring to the compact, for the king 
History, to heed the senate; but the Protestant 
party was vanquished in that body, 
though at a diet in 1609, freedom from penalty and 
the right of legal appeal were obtained. The Jesuits 
continued their machinations; the king was wholly 
in their power, and in Cracow, Posen, Wilna, and 
elsewhere, they incited the populace and students 
to destroy the churches of the dissidents. At the 
close of Sigismund's reign, Poland was in rapid de- 
cline; the Jesuits had smothered the spiritual life 
and obtained complete possession of the schools; 
the people had lost a sense of their rights; and 
abroad the nation had fallen from its rank of in- 
fluence. Wladislas IV. (1632-48), just and irenic, 
who called a colloquy at Thorn in 1645 looking 
toward the union of all churches, would not re- 
strain the Jesuit activities. August II. (1696- 
1733) lent himself to their policies, having himself, 
as king of Saxony, apostatized to Roman Catholi- 
cism, in order to secure the throne of Poland. At 
the Diet of Grodno (1719) Casimir Ancuta, the 
Jesuit lawyer of Wilna, secured unlawfully the ex- 
pulsion of the last dissident, Piotrowski. W T ith the 
triumph of the Counter-Reformation is associated 
also the doom of the once glorious kingdom. The 
further history of Poland is involved in that of the 
countries among which its territory was divided. 

(H. Dalton.) 

Bibliography: On I. as sources consult: Chronica Polo- 
norum, ed. J. Szlachtowski and R. Kdpke, xnMGH, Script., 
ix (1851), pp. 423 sqq.; Chronica Polonorum, in Stensel, 
Scriptores rerum Silesiacarum, vol. i. t Cracow, 1872-88; 
Acta historica res oestas Polonict Ulustrantia, issued by the 
Cracow Academy, 1878 sqq.; Thietmar, Chronicon, most 
convenient in the ed. of F. Kurze, Hanover, 1889; A/onu- 
menta Polonict historica, 6 vols., Lwrtw, 1864-93. Con- 
sult further: C. G. Friese, Kirchengeschichte des Kimig- 
reichs Polen. vol. i., Bre^lau, 1786; C. Meyer, Geschichte 
des Landes Posen, pp. 383 sqq., Posen, 1881; C. Schie- 
mann, Geschichte Polens, Berlin, 1884-85; W. R. Mor- 
fill, Poland, London, 1893; W. P. Angerstein, Der Kon- 
fiikt des . . . Boleslaus II. (1068 80) mit dem Bischof 
Stanislaus, Thorn. 1895; K. S. Krotoski, St. Stanislaw, 
Bishop Krakowski, Torun, 1(K)2; K. Schmidt, Geschichte 
des Deutschtums im Lande Posen, Bromberg, 1904; Hauck, 
KD, iii. 202-204, 272 sqq., 029 sqq. On II. consult: the 
literature under Lamco, Johannes a; Acta conventus 
Thorun., Warsaw, 1646; D. K. Jablonski, Hist, consensus 
Sendom., Berlin, 1731 (rf. H. Dalton, D. E. Jablonski, 
ib. 1903); ('. (J. Frieze, tit sup., vols, ii.-iii.; S. Lubienski, 
Historia rt formation is Polonxc.a, Antwerp, 16S5; C. V. 
Krasinski, Hist, of Rise, Progress and Decline of the Polish 
Reformation, 2 voN., London, 1838-40; idem. Religious 
Hist, of the Slavonic Nations, Edinburgh, 1851; J. Lu- 
kasiewitsch, Die Reformation in Gross- Polen, Darmstadt, 
1843; G. W. T. Fischer, Versuch einer Geschichte der 
Reformation in Polen, 2 parts, Grata. 1855-56; Schnaase, 
Die bahmischen Briider in Polen, Gotha, 1866; J. Sem- 
brzycki. Die polnischen Reformirten und Unitarier in 
Preussen 164$, Kdnigsberg. 1893, E. Borgius. Aus Posens 
und Polens kirchlicher Vergangenhett, Berlin, 1898; O. 

Koniecki, Geschichte der Reformation in Polen, 3d ti, 
Posen, 1901; G. Krause, Die Reformation in Polen, Pom, 
1901; Wotschke, Andreas Samuel und J oh. Sekkcm* 
Posen, 1902; K. Vdlker, Der Protestantismus in Bd*\ 
Leipsic, 1910; and the list of important periodical litem* 
ture in Richardson, Encyclopaedia, p. 862. ^ 

POLANUS, VELERAlfDUS: Leader and pas- 
tor of Walloons in the middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. All that is known of him is that with Jo- 
hannes a Lasco (q.v.) he led his congregation with 
two others from England, whither they had fled 
from the Netherlands, to settle at Frankfort. Then 
he met the persistent opposition of Hartmam 
Beyer (q.v.) because of his adherence to the Re- 
formed creed and polity, and was deprived of hit 
church, while ultimately the right to hold service 
was forbidden to the congregation. 

POLE (POOLE), REGINALD: English cardinal 
and statesman; b. at Stourton Castle (13 m. w. of 
Birmingham), Staffordshire, Mar., 1500; d. in 
Lambeth Palace, London, Nov. 17, 1558. On his 
mother's side he was of the blood royal, and, after 
his father's death, was educated by Henry VIII. 
In 1517 he obtained the benefice of Roscombe, 
which was supplemented by other benefices as he 
rose in the prelacy. In 1521 he went to Italy to 
complete his studies at Padua. In Paris, at the 
close of the third decade of the century, he was 
successful in obtaining an opinion 
Life Pre- from the University of Paris favorable 
vious to the to the king's divorce. He then returned 
Cardinalate. to England to devote himself to theo- 
logical studies in the cloister of Sheen. 
In 1531 he declined the proffered archbishopric of 
York, and in the following year he returned to Italy 
by way of Avignon. In Italy he lived a number of 
years in close friendship with Bembo, Contarini, 
Matteo Giberti, Alvise Priuli, and Giovanni Morone. 
Until 1535 Pole was regarded as neutral in the 
divorce question, and had received from England 
the incomes of his benefices. Now, however, the 
king demanded Pole's opinion in writing, and after 
considerable delay he complied in his De unitate 
ecclesice, which brought about a total change in his 
position, since he became a decided partisan of the 
opposition. The king demanded that Pole should 
give an explanation of his treatise in person, but 
at this juncture he was called to Rome by Paul 
III., chiefly to take part in preparing the Consilium 
de emendanda ecdesia. 

Pole was created cardinal of Santa Maria in Cos- 
medin on Dec. 22, 1536, and now wrote an Apologia 
ad Angliat Parlamentum, firm in substance, but 
moderate in tone. In 1537 he was sent 
Pole as by Paul III. as legate to the Nether- 
Cardinal, lands, whence he was to fan the insur- 
rection in England. The rebellion, 
however, was crushed, and the king declared Pole 
guilty of high treason. The cardinal now left the , 
Netherlands, but neither the emperor nor Francis 
I. would receive him, and it was only in Italy that 
he felt safe. But the pope rehabilitated him by 
again employing him as legate, this time to the 
emperor; but his family in England suffered heav- 
ily, for Henry arrested the cardinal's brothers and 
mother, and when the younger brother gave evi- 



Poland, Christianity in 

against the others, they were brought to the 
fold. Meanwhile, in 1541, Pole had been ap- 
[pointed legate of the patrimony, i.e., governor of 
fife Papal States, and was thus led to fix his resi- 
at Viterbo. There certain colloquies on re- 
igjous questions were held, the participants inclu- 
ding Vittoria Colonna, Pietro Carnesecchi, and 
Marco Antonio Flaminio. These discussions, how- 
ever, were afterward deemed heretical by the In- 
qoation, because both the point of departure and 
the mainstay of the argument lay in the doctrine 
of justification by faith, the merit of good works 
being excluded. 

After the death of Edward VI., Pole, in 1554, 
again beheld his native land, this time as papal 
legate. He found Queen Mary already married to 
Philip II., and the reaction in full swing. He took 
active part in the work and urged the enforcement 
of the stern ancient laws against the Protestants. 
But all his zeal could not induce his enemy, Gio- 
vanni Pietro Caraffa, who, in 1555, ascended the 
papal throne as Paul IV. (q.v.), to forget that Pole 
himself was at one time under suspicion of heresy. 
The new pontiff recalled the English legation, and 
summoned Pole before the tribunal of the Holy 
Office in Rome. Only his procrastination, and then 
his death, delivered him from appearing there. 

K. Benhath. 

Bibliography*: Among the works of Pole the following are 
most significant: Ad Henricum Octavum BrittanitB regent, 
Pro ecclesiastical unitatis defensione, Rome, 1554 (extract in 
English, The seditious and blasphemous Oration of Cardinal 
Pole, . . . Translated . . . by Fabyane Wythers, London, 
1560); De concilia, Venice, 1562; De summo pontificeChristi 
in terris vieario, Lou vain, 1569; Reformatio Anflia. London, 
1556; A Treatise of Justification, Louvain, 1569. 

The one authoritative life was written in Italian by 
Beccatelli, Lat. transl. by A. Dudith, found in Ital. and 
Lat. in Epistolm Reginaldi Poli, 5 vols., 1744-57, an Eng. 
transl. is by P. Pye, London, 1760. A life still worth con- 
sulting is that in English by T. Phillips, Oxford, 1764. 
Consult further: the anonymous life prefixed to Christ. 
Longolii Orationes, E pistol ce et Vita, Florence, 1524; W. 
F. Hook, Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, vol. 
viii., London, 1869; N. Pocock, Records of the Reforma- 
tion, 2 vols., Oxford, 1870 (contains original documents); 
N. Sander. Rise and Growth of the Anglican Schism, Lon- 
don, 1877 (Roman Catholic); F. G. Lee, Reginald Pole 
. . . an historical Sketch, London, 1888 (deals only with 
the beginning and end of the cardinal's career); A. Zim- 
merman, Kardinal Pole, Sein Leben und seine Schriften, 
Regensburg, 1893 (accurate); W. Clark, The Anglican 
Reformation, New York, 1897; F. A. Gasquet, Henry 
VIII. and the English Monasteries, London, 1899; J. 
Geirdner, The English Church in the Sixteenth Century, 
London, 1903 (many details); Cambridge Modern His- 
tory, vol. ii. passim, Cambridge, 1903; C. M. Antony, The 
Angelical Cardinal Reginald Pole, London, 1909; M. Haile, 
Life of Reginald Pole, London and New York, 1910; J. 
GOlow. Biographical Dictionary of English Catholics, v. 
336-341, London, n.d.; DNB, xlvi. 35-46. 


Nature, Place, and Function (SI). 

Pie-Reformation and Roman Catholic Polemics (8 2). 

Protestant Polemics (S3). 

The Modern Phase (S 4). 

In Great Britain and America (S 5). 

Polemics is that department of theology which is 
concerned with the history of controversies main- 
tained within or by the Christian Church, and with 
the conducting of such controversies in defense of 
doctrines held to be essential to Christian truth or 
in support of distinctive denominational tenets. It 

is, however, a question whether polemics belongs to 

the special departments of dogmatics, ethics, or 

practical theology, or whether it con- 

x. Nature, stitutes an independent branch of 

Place, and study. Christianity has had, from the 

Function, first, to battle with scientific weapons 

against Jews, heathens, heretics, and 

schismatics, so that a rich and varied controversial 

literature was early developed in all branches of 

theology; though the means and the methods have 

varied according to the nature of the subject under 

discussion and the persons engaged. 

Theoretically there is no distinct department of 
theological polemics; but practically there is a 
very real need of an independent branch of this na- 
ture. Theological polemics, therefore, scientifically 
combats erroneous conceptions and mistaken atti- 
tudes toward Christianity in its various phases, 
with the aim of defending the position of the com- 
munion to which the controversialist belongs. As 
the ancient Church had to fight against the classes 
of opponents already named, so modern polemics 
must defend the spirit of Christianity against non- 
Christian philosophies, sectarianism, indifferentism, 
and separatism. The problem next arises as to 
what place is occupied by polemics in the general 
field of theology. Schleiermacher divided theology 
into " philosophical," " historical," and " prac- 
tical," and subdivided " philosophical theology " 
into " polemics " and " apologetics," apologetics 
being directed outwardly, and polemics inwardly. 
This division, however, is unsatisfactory. In the 
first place, polemics is applied dogmatics, for the 
polemic starts with certain dogmatic presupposi- 
tions. Again, it is applied symbolics, since dog- 
matic conceptions develop best in the orderly 
growth of a communion fully conscious of its dis- 
tinctive organization. Theologically, therefore, 
polemics finds a place after dogmatics and apolo- 
getics. If, in addition to questions of doctrine, it 
takes into consideration the conduct of life, it be- 
comes related to ethics, and may extend to or- 
ganization and law, as well as to liturgies, missions, 
science, and art. The limits of the subject depend 
upon practical circumstances, the needs of the pe- 
riod, and the disposition of the controversialist. 
False doctrines were combated by the apostles, 
and the Church Fathers followed along the same 
lines, so that polemic literature has existed since 
the time of Justin Martyr (q.v.), though his work 
" Against all Heresies " has been lost. 
2. Pre- Extant polemic literature begins with 
Reforma- the " Against Heresies " of Irenaeus 
tion and (q.v.). The Apologeticum and De 
Roman prcBscriptione hcereticorum of Tertullian 
Catholic (q.v.) followed; and Hippolytus (q.v.) 
Polemics, continued in the third century with 
his work on heresies. The dogmatic 
theology of the Greek Church was strongly 
polemic from the fourth to the eighth cen- 
tury; and during the same period the theology 
of the west assumed a polemic character through 
its strife with Donatism, Pclagianism, Semipela- 
gianism, and Manicheism, a large number of Augus- 
tine's writings being of this character. The polemic 
literature of the Middle Ages against heretics, Jews, 





and philosophical freethinkers was dogmatio in 
character from Agobard of Lyons to Savonarola's 
Triumphu8 cruds. Then came, in the sixteenth 
century, the controversy between Roman Catholi- 
cism and Protestantism. The writings of the Jesuits 
especially were polemic. Alfonso de Castro wrote 
Adver8us omnes harreses libri quatuordecim (Paris, 
1534), being followed by Franciscus Coster's En- 
chiridion controversiarum (Cologne, 1585) and Gre- 
gorius de Valentia's De rebus fidei hoc tempore con- 
trover sis (1591). The chief work here, however, 
was the Disputationes de controversiis Christiana 
fidei (3 vols., Rome, 1581-91) of Bellarmine (q.v.), 
who was followed by Martin Becan (d. 1624) with 
his Manuale controversiarum hujus temporis (Mainz, 
1623). Jesuit polemics against Protestantism have 
continued without intermission, one of the most 
noteworthy works of this character in recent years 
being the II Protestantesimo e la regola di fede (3 
vols., Rome, 1853) of G. Perrone (q.v.). More pop- 
ular circles had already been reached by Bossuet' 
Exposition de la doctrine de I'tglise catholique sur 
Us matieres de controverse (Paris, 1671). 

The Protestants, in their turn, were no less active 

polemically from the sixteenth to the eighteenth 

century. Here special mention may 

3. Protes- be made of Martin Chemnitz, Examen 
tant concilii Tridentini (Frankfort, 1565); 

Polemics. Konrad Schlusselburg, Hareticorum 
catalogus (1597-99); Nicolaus Hun- 
nius (d. 1643), Diaskepsis de fundamentali dissensu 
doctrinal Lutherana et Calviniana (Wittenberg, 
1616); Abraham Calovius, Synopsis controversi- 
arum (1685); and Johann Georg Walch, Einleitung 
in die polemische Gottesgelehrtheit (Jena, 1752). 
Interest in polemics ceased with Friedrich Samuel 
Bock's Lehrbuchfur die neueste Polemik (1782). In 
the Reformed wing mention should be made of 
Rudolf Hospinian, Concordia discors (Zurich, 1607) ; 
Daniel Chanier, Panstratia catholica (4 vols., Geneva, 
1626); Johann Hoornbeck, Summa controversiarum 
(Utrecht, 1653); Francesco Turretini, Institutio 
theologice elenchticai (Geneva, 1681-85); and vari- 
ous writings of Friedrich Spanheim, the elder and 
the younger (qq.v.). 

Polemics entered upon a new phase with Schleier- 

macher, whose classification of polemics among the 

branches of theology has already been 

4. The described. He was followed by Karl 

Modern Heinrich Sack, with his Christliche 
Phase. Polemik (Hamburg, 1838), who de- 
fined polemics as that branch of the- 
ology which detects and refutes errors that endanger 
Christian faith and the purity of the Christian 
Church; and by Johann Peter Lange, whose Christ- 
liche Dogmatik (3 parts, Heidelberg, 1849-52) calls 
polemics and irenics " applied dogmatics." Theo- 
retically, since the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, polemics has not been regarded as a distinct 
department of theology. Practically, however, a 
new era in polemics was begun by the sharp cri- 
tiques of Protestantism by Roman Catholic scholars 
of recent times. This movement was inaugurated 
by Johann Adam Mohler's Symbolik (Mainz, 1832), 
essentially a polemic against Protestantism from 
an idealistic Roman Catholic point of view; and 

this work was followed by the great 
polemic of Johann Joseph Ignaz von Dollinger, 
Reformation, ikre innere Entwickelung und 
Wirkungen (3 vols., Regensburg, 1846-48). 
ultramontane spirit there displayed was equally 
manifest in Johannes Janssen's GesdrichU 4mm 
deutschen Volkes seit dem Ausgang des Mittdabrm 
(8 vols., Freiburg, 1877-94; Eng. transL, Hid. & 
the German People, 12 vols., St. Louis, 1896-1907>* 
and Heinrich Suso Denifle's Luther und Luthertmmr 
in der ersten Entwickelung (2 vols., Mainz, 1904-10)-* 
The Protestants replied vigorously to these attacks 
with Ferdinand Christian Baur's Gegensatz des 
iholicismus und Protestantismus nach den 
und Hauptdogmen der beiden Lehrbegriffe (Tu- 
bingen, 1834), Carl Immanuel Nitzsch's Protettanti- 
sche Beantwortung der Symbolik Dr. Mdhlers (Ham- 
burg, 1835), and a number of other works. While 
the books just mentioned are necessarily limited 
in scope, a thoroughgoing, though purely negative, 
discussion of the chief points of difference between 
Roman Catholicism and Protestantism was supplied 
by Karl August von Hase's Handbuch der protes- 
tantischen Polemik gegen die rdmisch-katholitcks 
Kirche (Leipsic, 1862, 7th ed., 1900, Eng. transL, 
London, 1906) which discusses the Church (clergy 
and papacy), salvation (faith, works, sacraments), 
and accessories (ritual, art, science, literature, poli- 
tics, nationality). Paid Tschackert followed this 
with his Evangelische Polemik gegen die romisch* 
Kirche (Gotha, 1885; 2d ed., 1888), which not only 
criticizes the Roman Catholic system in detail, but 
also affords a substitute for each point criticised by 
presenting the Protestant teaching on the tenet in 
question. Finally, mention should be made of the 
anti-Roman Catholic propaganda carried on by 
the Schriften des Vereins fur ReforrnoMonsgeschichls 
(Halle, 1883 sqq.) and by the Evangelischer Bund 
zur Wanning der deutsch-protestantischen Inte- 
ressen (founded in 1886). (Paul Tschackert.) 

In Great Britain and America polemics has taken 

a different course from that which it assumed on 

the continent. Several causes have contributed to 

this. Theological encyclopedia has 

5. In Great been far less exact in its divisions, and 

Britain and where polemics has not been recognised 

America, as a separate discipline, it has been in- 
corporated into the body of theolog- 
ical construction. There has, moreover, been but 
little interest in the history of this branch of theo- 
logical discussion. Again, toleration has been a 
marked feature of English and American religious 
thought (cf. Milton, Areopagitica; and Jeremy 
Taylor, Liberty of Prophecying, which unfortunately 
he did not exemplify later). Still further, the edge 
of the controversial spirit has been dulled by the 
practical nature of the Anglo-Saxon mind, the dis- 
position to compromise, the lack of thoroughgoing 
intellectual consistency, together with a rationali- 
zing tendency which has tempered criticism of the 
positions of others. Polemics has appeared quite 
as often in apologetics as in doctrinal discussions. 
Only a few of the historical occasions of polemics 
and names of the chief persons involved are here 
indicated. (1) The deistic controversy (1648-1775; 
see Deism), in which among the pamphleteers and 




dignified defenders of supernatural religion appear 
Richard Bentley (q.v.), Remarks upon a Late Dis- 
arm of Free Thinking (London, 1713), a reply to 
Anthony Collins, Discourse of Free Thinking (ib. 
1713); Thomas Sherlock, Trial of the Witnesses of 
fk Besurrection of Jesus Christ (ib. 1729), against 
Woofaen, Discourse on Miracles (ib. 1727-29); and 
W. Warburton, Divine Legation of Moses (ib., vol. 
L, 1737-38, vol. ii., 1741). (2) Against the Armin- 
ians— also including the Arians — of whom were 
Daniel Whitby, Discourse concerning . . . Election 
end Reprobation (ib. 1710); Samuel Clarke, Boyle 
Ledum, 1704-05, and Scripture Doctrine of the 
Trinity (ib. 1712); and John Taylor, The Scripture 
Doctrine of Original Sin (ib. 1740), which gave rise 
to many rejoinders by D. Waterland (cf . Works, 
id i. " life " by Van Mildert, Oxford, 1823) and 
others in Great Britain, and in New England by 
Jonathan Edwards (q.v.), Inquiry into tfie Freedom 
efthe Will (Boston, 1754). (3) The Unitarian con- 
troversy in NewEngland was ushered in by the elec- 
tion of Henry Ware as Hollis professor of divinity 
in Harvard College in 1805. The principal writers 
from the side of orthodoxy were Moses Stuart (q.v.), 
professor of sacred literature in Andover Theological 
Seminary, Letters to Rev. William E. Channing, D.D., 
an the Divinity of Christ (Andover, 1819) ; Samuel 
Worcester, Letters to Rev. Dr. William E. Channing 
(three pamphlets, Boston, 1815); and Leonard 
Woods (q.v.), also professor in Andover, Letters 
to Unitarians (Andover, 1820), Reply to Dr. Ware* 8 
Letters to Trinitarians and Calvinists (ib. 1821), and 
Remarks on Dr. Ware's Answer (ib. 1822). (4) The 
Tractarian Movement in Great Britain (1833-41; 
see Tractarian ism), brought to a crisis by John 
Henry Newman's Tract No. 90, provoked a steadily 
rising storm of opposition first from the Christian 
Observer (Mar., 1834), and at last from Archibald 
Campbell Tait (Archbishop of Canterbury, 1868- 
1882) who, with three other Oxford tutors, signed 
a protest against Newman's tract. Owing to the 
violent controversy which ensued the series was 
" discontinued." (5) The Liberal Movement in 
the established church centered in Frederick Deni- 
aon Maurice (q.v.), whose Theological Lectures (ib. 
1853) was vehemently opposed by R. W. Jelf, 
principal of King's College; and by Henry 
Ifansel, Man's Conception of Eternity (ib. 1854); 
Maurice's What is Revelation t (ib. 1859) was sub- 
jected to severe criticism by Mansel's Examination 
of the Strictures on the Bampton Lectures, 1858 (ib. 
1859). (6) In America the (N. W.) Taylor- (Ben- 
net) Tyler controversy (see New England Theol- 
ogy) involved the questions of depravity, the self- 
detennining power of the will, regeneration, and 
the divine permission of sin. (For Taylor, cf. The 
Quarterly Christian Spectator, New Haven, 1832- 
1833; also, G. P. Fisher, Discussions in History and 
Theology, New York, 1880. For Tyler, cf . The Spirit 
of the Pilgrims, Boston, 1832-33; also, Letters on 
the New Haven Theology, ib. 1837.) (7) In 1835- 
1837 there culminated in the Presbyterian Church 
a heated discussion, in which a fierce attack was 
made upon Albert Barnes and Lyman Beecher, oc- 
casioned by their view of the atonement and re- 
lated subjects. (8) In the latter part of the last 

century (1882-93) the so-called " Andover her- 
esy," originating in a chapter in Progressive Ortho- 
doxy (Boston, 1886), advocated probation after 
death for those who had been deprived of probation 
in this life. The controversy focused on the policy 
of the A. B. C. F. M., whether those who main- 
tained this view were eligible to appointment as 
missionaries of the board. It was permanently 
settled in 1893 by instructions to the Prudential 
Committee to commission one who held to this 
position. It is possibly significant that Andover 
Theological Seminary, which was founded in part 
to combat Unitarianism among other heresies, cele- 
brated its centennial, 1908, by affiliation with the 
Harvard Divinity School whose history had been 
identified with the Unitarian body. 

C. A. Beckwith. 

Bibliography: G. B. Crooks and J. F. Hurst, Theological 
EncyclopcBdia and Methodology, pp. 437 sqq.. New York, 
1894; P. Schaff, Theological Propadeutic, pp. 411-412, ib. 
1904; J. B. Rdhm, Protestantische Polemik, Hildesheim, 
1882; W. G. T. Shedd, Dogmatic Theology, i. 15, New 
York, 1891; S. J. Hunter, Outlines of Dogmatic Theology, 
6, 84, ib. 1894; A. Cave, Introduction to Theology, pp. 521 
eqq., Edinburgh, 1896; L. Emery, Introduction a Vitude 
de la thiologie protestante, pp. 182-183, Paris, 1904; and 
the literature under Theolooy ajs a Science. 

POLENZ, GEORGE OF. See George of Polenz. 


GRAUMANN): German Reformer; b. at Neustadt- 
on-the-Main (42 m. s.e. of Frankfort) July 5, 1487; 
d. at Konigsberg Apr. 29, 1541. Educated at the 
University of Leipsic (B.A., 1506; M.A., 1516), he 
was first teacher and then rector at the Thomas- 
schule in the same city. In 1519 he acted as aman- 
uensis of Eck at his disputation with Luther and 
Carlstadt, and in consequence of Luther's argument 
he went to the University of Wittenberg in the 
autumn of the same year, where he was intimately 
associated with Luther and Melanchthon. Re- 
turning to Leipsic in the following year, he lec- 
tured on the Bible on the Wittenberg model. His 
success as a scholar and teacher brought Conrad, 
bishop of Wurzburg, to cause his appointment as 
cathedral preacher at Wurzburg in 1522, where he 
came into conflict, in 1524, with the monastic 
preachers because of his views on the veneration of 
the saints with the result that he was relieved of his 
position. He was then preacher to the Poor Clares 
(see Clare, Saint, and the Poor Clares) at Nu- 
remberg and preacher at Mansfeld. In 1525 he 
accepted the call of Duke Albrecht of Prussia to 
Konigsberg, where he became pastor of the Alt- 
stadt, and together with his friends Paul Speratus 
and Johann Briesmann (qq.v.), the two other 
14 evangelists of the Prussians," he established Prot- 
estant foundations in Prussia. Besides preaching 
he lectured publicly on the Bible. He also composed 
" Nun lob mein Seel den Herren " and probably 
the " Frohlich muss ich singen," thus being one of 
the first Protestant hymn-writers. It is probable 
that he took part in compiling the first two collec- 
tions of Protestant hymns for Konigsberg (1527). 
In consequence of his pedagogical experience, Al- 
brecht entrusted him with the organization of the 
new Protestant schools; and in 1531 he was one of 


Polity, EoolMiastioal 



the general ecclesiastical visitors who divided the 
country into parishes, regulated the income of the 
ministers and the new ecclesiastical conditions. At 
the same time he was active in combating the sec- 
taries brought from Silesia by Schwenckfeld. At 
the colloquy of Rastenburg in 1531 Poliander was 
the decisive factor in the victory over the Anabap- 
tists. Until his death he stood in intimate relations 
of counselor and friend with Albrecht. 

(David ErdmannI*.) 

Bibliography: For sources consult: T. KoJde, in B»» 
trage but bayeriachen KirchengeschichU, vol. vi M parti I 
and 5, Erlangen, 1899; P. Tachackert. PvbUkatione* m 
den kdnigl. preuM. Staataarchiven, vols, xliii.-xlv. 
sic, 1890-91. Consult further: F. W. E. Host, Mt 
Poliandri, Leipsio, 1806; idem. Was hat die 
Thomastchule fUr die Reformation gethant ib. 1817; J. a 
Cosack, P. SpercUut Leben und Lieder, pp. 77 sqq., Bran* 
wick, 1861. 

POLITI, LANCELOTTL See Catharinus, Am- 


I. Introduction. 

II. Monarchical Type (Roman Ca- 

Papal Authority Absolute (f 1). 
Roman Doctrine of Church and 

State (S 2). 

III. Aristocratic Type (Eastern 


IV. Conaistorial Type (Lutheran). 


Luther's Doctrine of the Church 

(* 1). 
The Prince and the Consistory (ft 2). 
V. Episcopal Type (Church of England, 

Protestant Episcopal Church). 
VI. Presbyterian Type. 

Rise and Extension (| 1). 
Divine Right; Characteristics (§ 2). 
VII. Congregational Type. 

Distribution (f 1). 
Essentials; Divine Right; 
Church and State (f 2). 
VIII. Eclectic Types (Methodist 
Constituent Elements (§ 1/. 
Resultant Forms of Government 
(5 2). 
IX. Conclusion. 

I. Introduction: The emphasis in this discussion 
falls upon the developments which have occurred 
within the modern period, and upon the grounds of 
induction relative to the probable future of a church 
polity which are supplied by these developments. 
The Roman and Greek types in their pre-Reforma- 
tion form were the product of a lengthened histor- 
ical evolution, and only by sweeping dogmatic as- 
sumptions can they be identified with the primitive 
constitution of the Church. Some germs of them 
doubtless were on hand at an early date, but as 
they appeared at the opening of the sixteenth cen- 
tury they were remote from anything that was out- 
lined by Christ or known to his immediate follow- 
ers. It is to be noted that, while forms of polity 
may appropriately be named after certain leading 
characteristics, they are not likely to be adequately 
described by the titles thus affixed. In a theoret- 
ical point of view it makes a great difference whether 
a given polity is supposed to subsist by divine right, 
or simply on the basis of human discretion. Prac- 
tically it is of large account whether a given polity 
is operated independently, or in close connection 
with the State. Furthermore, it is of consequence 
in judging a given polity to observe whether it is 
appreciably modified by the incorporation of some 
element from a different type. The subject is 
obviously one of great complexity. 

II. Monarchical Type (Roman Catholicism): 
Since the promulgation of the decrees of the Vatican 

Council (q.v.) and the acceptance of 

i. Papal those decrees as having ecumenical 

Authority authority, it can not be denied that the 

Absolute, constitution of the Roman Catholic 

Church is emphatically monarchical. 

Prior to the Vatican legislation it was permissible 

to assume that in the general body of the episco- 

* In connection with the following treatment the reader 
should consult the articles on the various churches and de- 
nominational bodies of which mention is made in the course 
of the discussion, which Articles usually contain accounts 
of the principles and the details of church government pre- 
vailing within the several bodies. »See also such articles as 
Church, the Christian; Chi-rch Government; Church 
and State; Colleoiaurm; Territoriaurm; Bishop; 
Deacon; Episcopacy; and Organization op the Early 

pate there resided an authority at least coordinate 
with that of the pope. This assumption was widely 
current in the early part of the nineteenth century. 
But reaction from the disintegrating work of the 
French Revolution, powerfully seconded by pope 
and Curia, prepared for the enthronement of the 
opposing ultramontane theory. 'This result was 
consummated at the Vatican Council. The two 
decrees of that council relative to the papal office 
— the one declaring that the pope possesses the 
fulness of the supreme power of jurisdiction over 
the universal Church, together with the right of im- 
mediate exercise of it over all the faithful, and the 
other asserting his independent infallibility — to- 
gether constitute a formidable declaration of undi- 
vided and irresponsible rule. In the light of these 
decrees one may express the outcome in the equa- 
tion: In point of authority the pope plus the Church 
equals the pope minus the Church. As complete 
in itself and exempt from all lawful restriction or 
arrest, the authority of the pope rules out the very 
notion of a supplement. Roman apologists, it is 
true, disclaim the application of the term " abso- 
lute " to the papal monarchy. By divine ordinance, 
they say, bishops have a place in ecclesiastical ad- 
ministration. The pope is bound by this fixed ele- 
ment in the constitution. Furthermore, he is bound 
by the ex cathedra decrees of his predecessors on 
matters of faith and morals. Consequently, the 
papal monarchy is not of the absolutist type. But 
while the pope must consent to the existence of 
bishops, no bishop can enter upon his office with- 
out the permission of the pope, from whom, or 
through whom, comes all power of jurisdiction, and 
who has also the right either to appoint bishops or 
to determine the mode of their appointment. No 
bishop in office can go counter to the expressed will 
of the pope without being guilty of a misdemeanor. 
No bishop can remain in office against the will of 
the pope. No council of bishops can be assembled 
contrary to the will of the poDe, and no assembled 
council can pass any authoritative decree asrain^t 
his judarment. As respects the ex cathedra decrees 
of predecessors the pope alone interprets them 
with full authority, and no one has the legal pre- 




Polity, Ecclesiastical 



nptto to gainsay his interpretation. The pope is 
absolute in the same sense in which the divine head 
raid be absolute if visibly enthroned over the mil- 
itant Church. Roman orthodoxy accepts in their 
full significance these words of Palmieri, " The 
jurisdiction of the Roman pontiff is the vicarial 
jurisdiction of Christ." 

Roman Catholic deliverances in recent times on 
the proper relation between Church and State show 
a very scanty abatement from the 
2. Roman medieval platform (see Chubch and 
Doctrine State, §§ 3-6). The separation of 
of Church Church and State is declared to be ab- 
tnd State, normal. The most that is conceded is 
that the scheme of separation can be 
condoned for the time being where the conditions 
are such as to make it practically necessary. " The 
Gnircb," says Philipp Hergenrother, " rejects on 
principle the system of the separation of Church 
and State " ; and in saying this he but expresses the 
plain import of the Syllabus of Errors of Pius IX., 
toe encyclical on the Christian Constitution of States 
of Leo XIII., and the encyclical Pascendi gregis of 
Pius X. Recent teaching promulgated by pontiffs, 
canonists, and theologians pronounces that Church 
and State are not related as equals, but that the 
Church, as representing the supernatural order and 
being the infallible guardian of morals, has a pre- 
eminence of rightful authority. The authority of 
the Church, it should be observed in this connec- 
tion, means the authority of the hierarchy. As 
Phillips wrote near the middle of the last century, 
" the clergy is the sanctifying, the teaching, the 
ruling Church; the laity is the Church to be sancti- 
fied, to be taught, to be ruled." Very recently Pius 
X. in his encyclical against Modernism (q.v.) has 
strongly emphasized this sentiment by classing 
among reprehensible errors the contention that a 
" share in ecclesiastical government should be given 
to the lower ranks of the clergy and even to the 
laity," and by ordaining, as a condition of the as- 
sembling of congresses of priests, " that absolutely 
nothing be said in them that savors of Modernism, 
Presbyterianism, or Laicism." Herein the pontiff 
undoubtedly speaks in perfect conformity to the 
postulates of the Roman system. 

In the practical exercise of ecclesiastical sover- 
eignty the Roman Congregations constitute an im- 
portant factor. At a recent date they numbered 
nineteen. The scheme of reorganization put forth 
by Pius X. in 1908 provided for reducing them to 

TH. A r i s to cr atic Type (Eastern Church): In one 
point of view it is more appropriate to speak of the 
Orthodox Eastern Churches than of the Orthodox 
Eastern Church (see Eastern Church, I.). While 
those who claim the title of " Orthodox " hold a 
common creed, make use of the same liturgy, and 
acknowledge bonds of intercommunion, they con- 
stitute in respect of government a number of in- 
dependent bodies (in 1907, sixteen, namely, the 
churches of the four patriarchates of Constanti- 
nople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem: the 
national churches of Russia, Greece, Servia, Monte- 
negro, Roumania, and Bulgaria; the church of 
Cyprus; the churches of Carlowitz, Hermannstadt, 

Czernowitz, and Bosnia-Herzegovina within the 
Austro-Hungarian monarchy; the monastery of 
Mount Sinai). The model of church constitution 
which the Orthodox Eastern Church brought down 
to the modern period was that recognized by the 
ecumenical councils of the fourth and following cen- 
turies, which knows no ecclesiastical monarch. The 
highest dignitaries are patriarchs set over the major 
provinces of the Christian world. The sole legiti- 
mate authority standing above them is the ecu- 
menical council. Among the patriarchs of the east- 
ern division the one resident at Constantinople was 
understood to be vested by conciliar decrees, espe- 
cially those of Chalcedon, with a certain primacy. 
Mohammedan conquests interfered not a little with 
the working of the patriarchal constitution, but in 
its general framework it survived to the modern 
era. The power which has wrought most effect- 
ively to modify this constitution has been the 
example and the influence of Russia. Since more 
than four-fifths of the entire membership of the 
Orthodox Eastern Church is included within that 
empire, naturally the ecclesiastical scheme espoused 
and supported by Russia claims the right of way. 
The Russian state has eliminated within its terri- 
tory the jurisdiction of an outside party like the 
patriarch of Constantinople. In 1589 it instituted 
the patriarchal office at Moscow. In 1721 it did 
away with the patriarchate and organized the Holy 
Synod (made up now of eight or nine bishops with 
the addition of two priests) to serve as the supreme 
ecclesiastical authority, being entrusted with over- 
sight of doctrine, worship, and matters of admin- 
istration. Again, the policy of the Russian state 
was to keep a firm hand upon the management of 
church affairs. And this is done through provisions 
which secure that the Holy Synod shall not antag- 
onize the will of the sovereign. The czar appoints 
a part of the members and controls in no small 
degree the selection of the rest. In the meetings 
of the synod he is represented by a lay official styled 
the chief procurator. The Russian code recognizes 
him as the overlord in preserving good order in the 
Church and directing its legislation. While he is 
not credited with power to make dogmas, it falls 
within his prerogative to bring measures before the 
synod, and the conclusions of that body are sub- 
ject to his judgment. In Greece and the other na- 
tional churches in the domain of Eastern Orthodoxy 
both of these features — the independent relation to 
the patriarch at Constantinople and the prominence 
of State authority — the Russian model is largely 
followed. In all the branches of the Eastern Church 
the former feature is exemplified. Outside of his 
patriarchate proper in European Turkey and Asia 
Minor the patriarch of Constantinople enjoys at 
most some trivial tokens of an honorary primacy. 

The hierarchy of the Orthodox Eastern Church is 
not widely distinguished as to its enumeration of 
ranks from the Roman Catholic, except that it 
stops short of monarchy. It includes patriarchs, 
metropolitan bishops, ordinary bishops, priests, 
and deacons. Below the deacon are the four minor 
orders of subdeacon, reader, exorcist, and door- 
keeper. A distinguishing feature is that the title 
" metropolitan " is in most instances simply honor- 

Polity, Bccleauaatical 



ary. Only a few metropolitans have suffragans. 
Another point of contrast with the Roman system 
is that the diaconate is not treated as a mere step- 
ping-stone to the priesthood. Many deacons remain 
such all their lives and serve as curates in the 

IV. Consistorial Type (Lutheran): While 

divine right is claimed both in Roman Catholic and 

in Orthodox Eastern theory for prominent features 

of the hierarchical system, Luther re- 

x. Luther's pudiated the notion of the jus divinum 

Doctrine in the domain of church polity. He 
of the was disposed to regard polity as resting 

Church, upon human election, and having its 
sanction in practical demands. It was 
contrary to his emphasis on the universal priest- 
hood of believers to exalt the pastor over the con- 
gregation as either a necessary medium of grace or 
embodiment of sovereignty. Aptness to teach he 
rated as the great pastoral credential, and the minis- 
tration of Word and sacrament as the great pas- 
toral function. Ordination meant for him simply 
a solemn public recognition of ministerial standing. 
On these points — the optional character of church 
polity and the non-sacerdotal standing of the Chris- 
tian minister — Luther supplied a permanent stand- 
ard to his followers (see Church, The Christian, 
IV., § 2; Luther, Martin, §§6, 14). With his 
stress upon the primacy of the Evangelical message 
in the Church Luther could easily have reconciled 
himself to any form of external arrangements com- 
patible with normal opportunity for that message. 
He had no objection to episcopacy as such. Had a 
larger proportion of the bishops been friendly to 
the Evangelical movement, episcopacy might have 
had a fair chance to survive in the Lutheran do- 
main. As it was, it maintained only a transient 
existence in any part of Germany. The Scandi- 
navian countries took an exceptional course in 
uniting Lutheranism with the episcopal form of 

It was not long before Luther's somewhat ideal- 
ized conception of the Church as essentially a teach- 
ing institute, governing and molding men by the 
power of the Word, submitted to prac- 
2. The tical modification under the pressure 
Prince and of circumstances. The disturbances 

the Con- wrought by the Peasants' War, the 
sistory. ignorance and wildness of the people, 
and the readiness of the nobles to 
make spoil of church property emphasized the need 
of a directing and disciplining power. The one 
power available for the exigency seemed to be the 
Evangelical prince, the secular ruler who had es- 
poused the Reformation. So he stepped into the 
position of control, and theory was speedily accom- 
modated to his actual standing by his being rated 
as heir, within his own territory, to the old episco- 
pal authority. The resulting type of polity was 
distinctly Erastian. The government of the Church 
became very largely a matter of territorial sover- 
eignty. The prince was not indeed expected to as- 
sume the spiritual office of administering the Word 
and the sacraments, but in the general ecclesias- 
tical management he was accorded a preeminent 
function. The foremost organ of administration, 

under the temporal ruler, came at an early stage to 
be the consistory. Composed of theologians and 
jurists appointed by the State this body served a* 
a constant tribunal to pass on disputed points of ad- 
ministration, to supervise property and educational 
interests, and to render judgment in the majoff 
cases of discipline. In the next grade of offidaml 
importance came the superintendents, who wer« 
usually pastors, selected by the secular govero- 
ment to exercise a species of oversight over neigrj— 
boring pastors. In the settlement of the pastor* 
the deciding voice belonged to the State and to tbe 
local patron. The prerogative of the congregation 
was usually limited to the right of objecting to » 
presented candidate. The development, on the 
whole, may be described as being toward an em- 
phatic preponderance of State authority, it being 
understood that the consistory was very largely the 
instrument of the State. Such germs of preeby- 
terial or synodal organization as were witnessed by 
the first generations of Lutherans were in no wise 
fostered and brought to maturity. 

A serious and partially effective attempt to mod- 
ify this consistorial polity was first made in the 
latter part of the nineteenth century. An incentive 
in this direction was derived from the wide-spread 
movement toward the principle of constitutional 
rule which was started in 1848. Enlarged preroga- 
tive on the part of the general body of citizens nat- 
urally suggested enlarged privilege on the part of 
the membership in the government of the Church. 
The result was an extension of the rights of the local 
congregation in the management of its own affairs, 
and the granting of more or less important func- 
tions to representative bodies or synods meeting 
at stated intervals. 

V. Episcopal Type (Church of England, Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church) : Among the communions 
which emerged from the Reformation movement 
the Established Church of England was specially 
distinguished by the extent to which it conserved 
the medieval polity. It retained the hierarchical 
constitution, only cutting off the papacy at one 
end of the official line and the orders below the dia- 
conate at the other end. Also in the scheme for the 
parishes, the cathedral chapters, and such aids to 
diocesan administration as archdeacons and rural 
deans much of the old system was retained. It is 
noticeable, however, that English Churchmen did 
not in the earlier period claim divine right, or ex- 
clusive validity, for their polity as against that of 
other Protestant communions. The statements of 
such eminent representatives as Jewel, Hooker, 
and Whitgift amount to a disclaiming of that right. 
The wide currency which is now accorded to the 
theory of a necessary episcopal organization and 
apostolical succession is attributable in large part 
to Laud and other Carolinian divines, to the Non- 
jurors (q.v.), and to the Tractarians (see Trao 
tarianism). The royal " supremacy " over the 
Church of England as originally asserted in the 
reign of Henry VHI. included a full complement of 
substantial prerogatives. In the succeeding period 
also, so long as the Court of High Commission sub- 
sisted, the sovereign was capable of interposing very 
efficiently in the management of the Church. For 



Polity, Ecclesiastical 

the most part since the revolution of 1688 the royal 
supremacy has signified little else than a chief share 
in dispensing ecclesiastical dignities. As for the 
lay body in general, outside of the function of par- 
liament in relation to the establishment, it has had 
ray scanty recognition in the plan of government 
of the Church of England. It has been wholly shut 
out from the houses of convocation (q.v.), which 
however cannot perform any real work of ecclesias- 
tical government without being favored with " let- 
ters of business " from the sovereign. In the view 
of not a few thoroughly devoted members of the 
Church of England the situation calls for remedy. 
It is urged that in order to be inspired with due in- 
terest in the Church laymen must be associated 
nth the clergy in the management of affairs in 
pariah councils, diocesan councils, and the houses 
of convocation. Only when the lay element comes 
to this measure of recognition, it is argued, will the 
nation have any disposition to grant the Church 
due autonomy by enlarging the prerogatives of its 
own proper assemblies. This feature has become 
well-established in the daughter communions. In 
the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United 
States the laity has been represented from the start 
in the house of deputies, which, with the coordinate 
house of bishops, forms the General Convention, 
which constitutes the highest legislative authority 
in that Church (see Protestant Episcopal 
Church). Laymen have seats also in the diocesan 
conventions with equal right of voice and vote. 
Usually laymen help to make up the diocesan com- 
mittee which serves the bishop as an advisory body ; 
they have also a large function in the settling of 
pastors and in determining the period of their in- 
cumbency. Thus in the polity of this communion 
episcopalianism has been united with a considerable 
Presbyterian element. Partly owing to the influ- 
ence of this American example a similar polity has 
gained wide currency in the churches affiliated with 
the Church of England. Laymen have been mem- 
bers of the governing assemblies of the Episcopal 
Church of Ireland since 1871. The same has been 
true of the Scottish Episcopal Church since the re- 
vision of its constitution in 1876. The principal 
colonial churches — in Canada, South Africa, and 
Australia — as they enjoy practical autonomy have 
adopted in like manner the plan of governing as- 
semblies composed jointly of clergy and laity. 

VL Presbyterian Type: This form of polity, 
which received its initial impulse from Calvin and 
the Genevan model, was represented 
i. Rise and before the end of the sixteenth century 
Extension, in Poland, various parts of Germany, 
Holland, France, and Scotland, and 
gained a standing later as an appreciable factor 
throughout the English-speaking world. The Cal- 
vinian conception of the Church from which the 
Presbyterian type proceeded has some points of 
distinction from the original Lutheran conception. 
In the former a less exclusive stress was placed upon 
the Church as a channel of grace through the saving 
ministry of the Word. Prominence was also given 
to the office of the Church as an instrument for pro- 
moting the rule of God in the world. Proceeding 
from this standpoint, the Calvinian communions 

naturally made larger account of discipline than 
did the Lutheran, and were somewhat more ready 
to carry a militant spirit into their religion. The 
training of the elect to give practical effect to God's 
sovereign right was relatively a conspicuous feature 
in their ecclesiastical scheme. In the Calvinian 
theory State and Church were rated as coordinate 
powers, having each its own province. The extent 
of the alliance which might be consummated be- 
tween them was regarded as determined by the 
possibilities of mutual serviceableness. At Geneva 
Calvin thought it appropriate to give considerable 
scope to the prerogatives of the State in ecclesias- 
tical management as being best suited to achieve 
the aim of the Church, the practical rule of God 
over the community. In Holland also Presbyte- 
rianism made connection with the State, and in 
Scotland it has held the status of an " established " 
religion. It received legal establishment in Eng- 
land under the Long Parliament, but did not have 
opportunity to enter largely into the standing as- 
signed in the legislation. Generally, a rather jeal- 
ous attitude toward State interference has been 
characteristic of Presbyterian bodies. In the Amer- 
ican version of the Westminster Confession the 
legitimate function of civil magistrates in relation 
to ecclesiastical matters is denned to be the im- 
partial protection of all denominations of Christians. 
The claim of divine right for their polity has had 
considerable currency among Presbyterians. Its 

advocates, however, have never meant 

2. Divine by this claim what is asserted for the 

Right; papal constitution in the bull Unam 

Character- Sanctam (see Boniface VIII.) and im- 

istics. plied in the anathemas of the Vatican 

Council. It has not been held at 
any period that the acceptance of presbyterial rule 
is a condition of salvation. In the Westminster 
Assembly there were stanch Presbyterians, and 
enough of them to constitute a respectable minor- 
ity, who opposed the theory of the jus divinum. 
In later declarations it has often been affirmed that 
the presbyterial form of church government is 
agreeable to and founded on the Word of God. 
But no violence is done in construing these state- 
ments in the sense of this declaration in the Book 
of Church Order of the Presbyterian Church South 
(1879) : " The scriptural doctrine of presbytery is 
necessary to the perfection of the order of the visi- 
ble Church, but is not essential to its existence." 
The central feature of Presbyterian church con- 
stitution is a series of governing assemblies, con- 
stituted on the principle of representation, in which 
series the decisions of a lower assembly are subject 
to revision by a higher, up to one vested with su- 
preme jurisdiction though not free in its exercise 
from certain constitutional restrictions. A second 
prominent feature is the parity of ministers, or the 
exclusion of all hierarchical gradations. A third 
feature is the union of ministers and laymen in the 
governing assemblies. According to a typical 
arrangement the governing assemblies are of four 
kinds, namely, church session, presbytery, synod, 
and general assembly. The first, which is entrusted 
with the supervision of the spiritual interests of the 
local church, is composed of the pastor and the lay 

Polity, Ecclesiastical 



officials called ruling elders. In the mode of insti- 
tuting these officials, a congregational element 
comes into play. Both the pastor and the ruling 
elders, as is also the case with the board of dea- 
cons, are elected by the members of the local church. 
In respect of the pastor elect, however, the appro- 
bation of the presbytery must precede his installa- 
tion, and the like sanction is requisite in connec- 
tion with the transfer of a minister to a new 
pastorate. Within the group of churches, between 
which it serves as the immediate bond of connec- 
tion, the presbytery fulfils a highly important and 
responsible function. It has been characterized as 
being the most important unit in the presbyterian 
system. Ministers and elders make up the presby- 
tery as they do also the synod and general assembly. 

The presbyterian type obtains in the Dutch Re- 
formed and the German Reformed communions 
(see Reformed [Dutch] Church; Reformed 
[German] Church) as well as in the numerous 
bodies bearing the Presbyterian name. The polity 
of Lutheran communions in this country is essen- 
tially Presbyterian. There is some distinction, how- 
ever, as respects the legal authority of the highest 
assembly. While in the Iowa Synod it may ap- 
proach the Presbyterian standard, it is very much 
below that standard in the Synodical Conference, 
and also below it in theory in the General Synod, 
the General Council, and the United Synod of the 
South. In the " Meetings " of the Friends — yearly, 
quarterly, and monthly — the scheme of a hierarchy 
of assemblies is illustrated. Still the divergence of 
their polity from the usual Presbyterian type is by 
no means slight, since they have no general assem- 
bly, and all the meetings are democratic in com- 

VII. Congregational Type: While the dis- 
tinctive features of the Congregational polity were 
anticipated in some measure by the 

i. Dis- Anabaptists (q.v.) on the continent, 

tribution. it was in England at the extreme of 
the Puritan reaction against prelacy 
that this polity began in the more positive sense its 
record in modern history. From the days of Rob- 
ert Browne, Jeremiah Burroughes, John Greenwood, 
and John Robinson (qq.v.), in the latter part of the 
sixteenth century, it has had a continuous succes- 
sion of earnest adherents. The Pilgrims brought it 
to Plymouth in 1620, and it remained the distinc- 
tive form of church order in New England during 
the entire colonial period. The Baptists in all fields 
have been almost universally its stanch advocates. 
It is represented furthermore by the Disciples of 
Christ, the Christian Connection, the Unitarians, 
and most branches of the Adventists (qq.v.). The 
polity of the Universalists lies between the Congre- 
gational and the Presbyterian form. 

The most pronounced feature of Congregational- 
ism is the autonomy of the individual church. The 
various churches of a communion may have, very 
appropriately, means of fellowship and interaction, 
such as councils, associations, or conventions. But 
none of these are properly accorded any legislative 
or judicial authority over the local church. They 
are assemblies for conference, and their action is 
ever advisory rather than mandatory. Ecclesias- 

tical sovereignty begins and ends with the loc&l 
church. [Congregationalist8 hold as a second fun- 
damental of their polity the fellowship 
2. Essen- of the churches as exercised in tbe 
tials; conventions, associations, and councils 
Divine referred to.] Within the individual 
Right; congregation, according to the original 
Church New-England scheme, the proper offi- 
and State, cers were the pastor, the teacher, the 
ruling elders, and the deacons. The 
second and third, however, were not long re- 
tained. At present, within communions of the 
Congregational order, the regular officers are very 
commonly enumerated as simply pastors and dea- 
cons. The principle of the separation of Church 
and State was contained in initial Congregational- 
ism as represented by the teaching of Robert Browne 
(q.v.). Baptists have always been earnest advo- 
cates of that principle. The peculiar conditions, 
however, in New England, where at first the com- 
pany of citizens and that of church members were 
substantially identical, led to a somewhat intimate 
connection between Church and State. While in 
important respects the churches continued to exer- 
cise the functions of self-governing societies, State 
patronage and control ran through no insignificant 
range (cf. W. Walker, in American Church History 
Series, in. 249, New York, 1894). The last rem- 
nant of this scheme of Congregational " establish- 
ments " disappeared in 1833. 

In recent years there has been relaxation in the 
advocacy of the divine right of Congregational pol- 
ity. Representative writers of the Congregational- 
ists repudiate the notion that an exclusive right 
can be asserted for any given form of church con- 
stitution, and affirm that their own polity is happily 
conformed to New-Testament principles. Among 
Baptists the teaching is not uniform. The question 
occurs whether communions which adhere to the 
Congregational polity have been able to maintain 
the scheme of direct democracy, or autonomous 
local churches, without substantial modification. 
One indisputable fact is that within the last cen- 
tury instrumentalities for giving expression to the 
collective sentiment and enterprise of the whole 
group of churches of like name have been greatly 
multiplied. Very frequently the advocates of the 
Congregational polity declare that the style of col- 
lectivism which has thus been evolved works no 
detriment to the Congregational principle, since 
the councils or associations which have been insti- 
tuted are engaged to respect the autonomy of the 
local church. On the other hand, some admit that 
the introduction of these bodies and the enlarge- 
ment in various respects of their functions amount 
to the intrusion of a Presbyterian element into the 
actual administration. 

Vm. Eclectic Types (Methodist Churches): 

Among communions which illustrate a union of 

Presbyterian and Episcopalian ele- 

x. Con- ments a prominent place is occupied by 

stituent the Methodist Episcopal Churches (see 

Elements. Methodists). There is also a union of 

Presbyterian and Episcopalian elements 

in the church order of the United Brethren in Christ. 

of the Evangelical Association, and of the Unity of 



Polity, Ecclesiastical 

the Brethren (qq.v.). The Congregational element 
(in certain features of local self-government) dis- 
coverable in the churches mentioned is relatively 
inconspicuous. Recent developments in these com- 
munions have been largely in the direction of en- 
larging the sphere of popular government. By the 
last part of the nineteenth century all had come to 
include laymen in the higher governing assemblies. 
The same kind of development has been illustrated 
in non-episcopal Methodism, as, for instance, among 
the English Wesleyans (see Methodists, I., 1, §§ 
6, 8). In the Methodist Protestant Church lay 
delegation has been a feature from the start (see 
Methodists, IV., 3). 

Within the principal Methodist churches the list 
of assemblies includes quarterly, annual, and gen- 
eral conferences. Between the first 
2. Resultant and the second the district conference 
Forms of is often interposed. Where existing 
Govern- it assumes various functions which 
ment otherwise would fall to the quarterly 
conferences. The latter are made up 
of the officials of the individual church — its resi- 
dent ministers, local preachers, trustees, stewards, 
class leaders, Sunday-school superintendent, etc. 
The district conference consists of ministerial and 
lay delegates. The annual conference of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church is (1910) a ministerial body; 
that of the Methodist Episcopal Church South in- 
cludes, besides the ministers, four laymen from 
each presiding elder's district. The general confer- 
ences of both churches are made up of ministers 
and laymen in equal numbers. Among the United 
Brethren in Christ (q.v.) laymen are accorded a 
place in all the governing assemblies. The gen- 
eral conference is the supreme tribunal in the entire 
group of communions under consideration. Within 
certain constitutional limitations it exercises full 
legislative and judicial authority. A special feature 
in the constitution of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church South is the provision that the board of 
bishops may challenge the constitutionality of a 
rule or regulation passed by the general conference, 
and hold it suspended until it has been approved 
in the use of the regular method for amending a 
" restrictive rule " (that is, one of the cardinal lim- 
itations imposed by the constitution) . As a Presby- 
terian element finds illustration in the governing 
assemblies of the Methodist economy, so an Epis- 
copalian element is exemplified in its ministerial 
ranks. In that economy deacon and elder (or pres- 
byter) are related much as they are in the Church 
of England and in the Protestant Episcopal Church 
(q.v.). Methodist episcopacy, on the other hand, 
has a special character as being non-diocesan. It 
is also free from the aristocratic assumptions often 
connected with the episcopal form of organization. 
Methodist bishops are simply the foremost rank of 
executives in their respective communions. In the 
Book of Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church a note prefixed to the form of episcopal 
consecration implies that bishops represent a dis- 
tinct office rather than a distinct order. It remains 
true, nevertheless, that in the larger Methodist 
bodies very weighty official (executive, not log : s- 
lative) responsibilities are devolved upon the bish- 

ops. The legal prerogative is with them to station 
all the ministers (outside the limited circle of gen- 
eral conference appointees), though the advice of 
the presiding elders and the preferences of the in- 
dividual churches are practically of great moment. 
Methodist communions generally which have an 
episcopal organization, as also the United Breth- 
ren in Christ and the Evangelical Association (qq.v.), 
make use of a kind of subepiscopate embodied in 
presiding elders or district superintendents, who 
are placed over divisions of the territory of the 
annual conferences. Among the Unity of the Breth- 
ren the Presbyterian feature is prominent, the bish- 
ops, aside from the function of ordaining, having 
ex officio no administrative significance, and com- 
ing in practise to possess such significance only as 
being customarily elected to the governing boards 
and conferences. 

Connection with the State has been foreign to 
Methodist history, and the same is true of the doc- 
trine of the divine right of a specific form of ecclesi- 
astical polity. On this theme Methodists stand 
with Lutherans, and only insist that in its spirit 
ecclesiastical administration is obligated to be con- 
formable to the demands of the New-Testament 
conception of Christian citizenship. 

IX. Conclusion: In view of the enthronement 
of an extreme dogma as respects ecclesiastical mon- 
archy in the Roman Catholic Church, and the prop- 
agation of a radical type of sacerdotalism through 
a considerable section of the Church of England, 
it can not be said that recent movements in the 
field of church polity have been uniformly in a sin- 
gle direction. There has been an undeniable ad- 
vance in the line of the most pronounced High- 
church assumptions. But some rather significant 
tokens of reaction are already apparent. The uni- 
versal movement toward constitutional rule in the 
secular sphere tends to make men restive under the 
demands of a pretentious sacerdotalism. In the 
ecclesiastical sphere generally, outside of the speci- 
fied domains — not to mention the comparatively 
stationary Orthodox Eastern Church — the develop- 
ment in recent times has been almost uniformly in 
favor of popular government. Whether it has been 
in the interest of the specifically democratic form 
of ecclesiastical polity, with its emphasis oh the 
autonomy of the local church, is a question which 
is likely to elicit different answers. Probably 
the balance is not on that side, but rather on the 
side of some form of representative government, 
though in constructing this form it may not be out 
of place to give a larger scope to the proper Con- 
gregational element than is done ordinarily in Pres- 
byterian communions or in those which combine 
Presbyterian with Episcopalian characteristics. 

On a couple of points the development has been 
quite pronounced. The doctrine of divine right, 
in anything like a stringent form, has been con- 
signed to a diminishing constituency. A close union 
of Church and State, or one which makes either 
essentially a dependency of the other, has become 
through a widening circle a matter of distinct op- 
position. Henry C. Sheldon. 

Bibliography: Richard Hooker, Ecclesiastical Polity* Ton- 
don, 1594-1662, best ed. by J. Keble, 3d ed., 3 vols., 




1845 (frequently republished); Bingham. Origines (these 
two books are standard and with their constant citation 
of historical sources may not be overlooked). Consult 
further the works on church law (Kirchenrecht) by P. 
Hergenrdther, Freiburg, 1905; Q. Phillips, Regensburg, 
1845-89; J. Winkler, Lucerne, 1878; R. Sohm, Leipsic, 
1892; J. B. SagmQller. Freiburg. 1904; and E. Friedberg, 
6th ed. v ib. 1909 (contains an extensive and classified 
list of works, pp. 5-12). Also: S. Davidson, Ecclesi- 
astical Polity of the N. T. Unfolded and its Points of Coin- 
cidence or Disagreement with Prevailing Systems Indicated, 
London, 1850; F. Wayland, Notes on the Principles and 
Practices of Baptist Churches, New York, 1857; T. Har- 
nack, Die Kirche, ihr Ami, ihr Regiment, Nuremberg, 1862; 
W. Cunningham, Discussions on Church Principles, Edin- 
burgh, 1863; O. Mejer, Die Orundlagen des lutherischen 
Kirchenregiments, Rostock, 1864; W. L. Clay, Essays on 
Church Polity, Loidon, 1868; T. Witherow, The Apos- 
tolic Church, which is it? An Inquiry . . . whether any 
existing Form of Church Government is of Divine Right, 
new ed., Belfast, 1869; G. A. Jacob, Ecclesiastical Polity 
of the N. T., London, 1871; W. Pierce, Ecclesiastical Prin- 
ciples and Polity of the Wesleyan Methodists, ib. 1873; 
E. M. Goulburn, The Holy Catholic Church; its divine 
Ideal, Ministry, and Institutions, New York, 1875; C. 
Hodge, Discussions in Church Polity, ib. 1878; E. Hatch, 
Organization of the Early Christian Churches, London, 
1881; G. T. Ladd, The Principles of Church Polity, New 
York, 1882; A. A. PeUiccia, The Polity of the Christian 
Church of Early, Mediaeval, and Modern Times, London, 
1883; E. D. Morria, Ecclesiology, ib. 1885; W. D. Killen, 
The Framework of the Church; a Treatise on Church Gov- 
ernment, Edinburgh, 1890; D. Palmieri, Tractatus de 
Romano pontifice, Rome, 1891; F. Markower, Die Ver- 
assung der Kirche von England, Berlin, 1894; W. J. Sea- 
bury, An Introduction to the Study of Ecclesiastical Polity, 
New York, 1894; A. Leroy-Beaulieu, The Empire of the 
Tsars and Russians, part 3, ib. 1896; C. Gore, Essays in 
Aid of the Reform of the Church, London, 1898; K. Ricker, 
GrundsaUe reformierter Kirchenverfasaung, Leipsic, 1899; 

E. L. Cutta, A Handy Book of the Church of England, Lon- 
don, 1900; G. M. Boynton, The Congregational Way, New 
York, 1903; H. Gallwits, Die Grundlagen der Kirche, 
Eisenach, 1904; J. J. Tigert, A Constitutional Hist, of Ameri- 
can Episcopal Methodism, 'Nashville, 1904; E. C. Dargan, 
Ecclesiology, Louisville, 1905; H. H. Henson, Moral 
Discipline in the Christian Church, London, 1905; A. 
Fortescue, The Orthodox Eastern Church, ib. 1907; W. 

F. Adeney, The Greek and Eastern Churches, pp. 132- 
146, 325-354, 404-133, New York, 1908; H. C. Sheldon, 
Sacerdotalism in the 19th Century, ib. 1909. For the 
details of polity the reader is referred to the Books of 
Discipline and Church Order issued by the various eccle- 
siastical bodies, and to the literature under the articles 
to which reference is made in the text, especially the 
bibliographies attached to the various denominational 

POLLOCK, BERTRAM: Church of England 
bishop; b. at Wimbledon (7 m. s. of St. Paul's, 
London) Dec. 6, 1863. He received his education 
at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1885; M.A., 
1889; B.D., 1902; D.D., 1903); was made deacon 
in 1890 and priest in 1891; was assistant master 
at Marlborough College, 1886-93; master of Well- 
ington College, 1893-1910; and became bishop of 
Norwich in 1910. He served also as select preacher 
at Cambridge in 1895, and at Oxford in 1907-08; 
examining chaplain to the bishop of Litchfield, 
1900-10; and chaplain in ordinary to the king, 

POLLOK, ALLAN: Presbyterian; b. at Buck- 
haven (15J m. s.w. of St. Andrews), Fifeshire, Scot- 
land, Oct. 19, 1829. He was educated at the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow (M.A., 1852), was sent by the 
Colonial Committee of the Church of Scotland to 
Nova Scotia, where he was minister of St. Andrew's, 
New Glasgow (1852-75), professor of church his- 
tory and practical theology in the Presbyterian 

College, Halifax (1875-1904), acting also as prin- 
cipal (1886-1904). He still lectures occasionally 
in the college, and in theology is a " moderate Cal- 
vinist, holding the doctrines of the Westminster 
Confession in all essentials." He has written Lec- 
tures on the Book of Common Order (New York, 1897), 
and Studies in Practical Theology (Edinburgh, 1907). 

POLLOK, ROBERT: Scotch poet; b. at North 
Moorhouse, Eaglesham Parish (8 m. s. of Glasgow), 
Renfrewshire, Oct. 19, 1798; d. at Shirley Common, 
near Southampton, Sept. 18, 1827. He graduated at 
Glasgow University (M.A., 1822); and studied 
theology at Union Secession Hall and Glasgow Uni- 
versity (1822-27). He is famous for The Course of 
Time, a religious poem, projected on a stupendous 
scale, in ten books, on the destiny of man (London, 
1827; seventy-eighth thousand, 1868; many edi- 
tions in the United States) . He was the author, also, 
of Helen of the Glen (Glasgow, 1830), The Perse- 
cuted Family (3d ed., Edinburgh, 1829), and Ralph 
GemmeU (1829); the three republished separately 
and together under the title, Tales of the Covenan- 
ters (Edinburgh, 1833; later ed., 1895). 

Bibliography: D. Pollok, The Life of Robert PoUok, . . . 
with Selections from his Correspondence, Edinburgh, 1843; 
a Memoir prefixed to later issues of The Course of Time; 
and DNB, xlvi. 69-70. 

POLYCARP: Bishop of Smyrna and martyr; 
b. in the second half of the first century; d. at 
Smyrna Feb. 23, 155. He is first mentioned in the 
letters of Ignatius to the Ephesians (xxi. 1; Eng. 
transl., ANF, i. 58) and to the Magnesians (xv.; Eng. 
transl., ANF, i. 65) and to Polycarp. The Epistle 
of Polycarp to the Philippians, however, is a letter 
written to accompany the transmission of the let- 
ters of Ignatius and was requested by the Philip- 
pians (xiii.; Eng. transl., ANF, i. 36). Those who 
dispute the letters of Ignatius as genuine would 
have to reject this also as an interpolation; yet it 
should not be overlooked that Irenseus had this 
letter in mind as a witness of Polycarp's faith and 
his preaching of the truth (Har., iii. 3-4, Eng. 
transl., ANF, i. 416). The charge that it was falsi- 
fied together with the letters of Ignatius is excluded 
by the peculiar character of the epistle and the 
charge of interpolation is contradicted by the use 
of I Clement, equally distributed throughout all 
the parts. The desire of Ignatius expressed in " To 
the Smyrneans," xi. (Eng transl., ANF, i. 91) and 
" To Polycarp," viii. (Eng. transl., ANF, i. 100) 
throws light on the letter or letters of the Philip- 
pians to be transmitted to the Syrians mentioned 
in xiii. of Polycarp's letter. This letter of Polycarp 
was therefore written at the time of the martyrdom 
of Ignatius in the reign of Trajan (98-117). It is 
preserved in Greek only together with the Epistle 
of Barnabas as far as ix. 2; the remainder, in an 
inaccurate Latin translation (ix. and xiii. also in 
Eusebius, Hist, ecd., III., xxxvi. 13-15; Eng. 
transl., NPNF, 2 ser., i. 168-169). The points of 
recognition of the letter through Irenseus are sub- 
stantiated by the contents: Christ, who has Buf- 
fered for us and as the risen one is exalted, will also 
raise us if we do the will of God. Its admonitions 
deal plainly with the Christian walk in life, in reli- 




ance upon the New-Testament Scriptures, espe- 
cially I Peter. The apostasy of a presbyter Valens 
ia deplored (xi.). He writes of the Smyrnean con- 
gregation, whose representative he and the presby- 
ters in whose name he writes are, that (in contrast 
with the Philippians) in the time of Paul they knew 
not yet God (xi.; Eng. transl., ANF, i. 35). This 
does not show that he and the presbyters lived at 
that time, but that the Philippians turned to him, 
and Ignatius considers his intercourse with him as 
worthy of mention and writes to him personally, 
inasmuch as Polycarp must have been by 110-115 
a widely known personage. 

This is corroborated by the letter which the 
Smyrnean congregation directed to the congrega- 
tion at Philomelium and all the congregations of 
the Catholic Church concerning the martyrdom of 
Polycarp, less than a year later (xviii. 2; Eng. 
transl., ANF, i. 43), which points not only to the 
esteem in which he was held in his own congrega- 
tion but to his fame also outside of the Church 
(xvi., xii.; Eng. transl., i. 43; cf. Eusebius, Hist. 
ecd., Eng. transl., NPNF, 2 ser., i. 18&-193). The 
accounts of his martyrdom have received confirma- 
tion from inscriptions discovered since 1880 (cf. 
J. B. Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, i. 613 sqq.) which 
also prove the reliability of the additional chap- 
ter xxi. not known to Eusebius; for they prove 
Philip the asiarch (xii.) and high-priest of Tralles 
(xxi.) to have been asiarch in 149-153, and high- 
priest and agonothete at Tralles since 137 for life. 
From this additional chapter, the Acts of Pionius, 
and the ancient martyrology it is seen that Polycarp 
was martyred Feb. 23, on a greater Jewish Sabbath 
(viii. 1, xxi.; perhaps feast of Purim; cf. Light- 
foot, ut sup. 692 sqq.) during the proconsulship of 
Statius Quadratus, fixed by Waddington, using the 
representations of the rhetorician Aristides, at 154- 
156, during which the 23d of February occurred as 
a Sabbath only in 155. W. Schmid attempts to 
show that the Quadratus of Aristides, evidently A vil- 
lius Urinatius Quadratus the consul suffectus of 156, 
was proconsul in 165-166 under Marcus Aurelius, in 
accordance with the chronicle of Eusebius delivered 
by Jerome, Feb. 23, 166, being also on a Sabbath. 
In all probability, however, the Statius Quadratus of 
the time of Polycarp's martyrdom is identical with 
the consul of that name in 142, who, in the course of 
advancement, must have been the proconsul in 155. 
The Asiarch Philip also would have been too aged 
to be high-priest and asiarch in the time of Marcus 
Aurelius. At the time of his martyrdom Polycarp 
had been a Christian for eighty-six years (ix. ; Eng. 
transl., ut sup., i. 41). Irenseus relates how and 
when he became a Christian and in his letter to 
Florinus (Eusebius, V., xx.; Eng. transl., i. 238- 
239) stated that he saw and heard him personally 
in lower Asia; in particular he heard the account of 
Polycarp's intercourse with John and with others 
who had seen the Lord. Irenseus also testifies 
{Hcer., iii. 3-4; Eng. transl., ANF, i. 415-417) 
that Polycarp was converted to Christianity by 
apostles, made a bishop, and had intercourse with 
many who had seen the Lord. He repeatedly em- 
phasizes the very old age of Polycarp (ut sup.). If 
the supreme recognition of Polycarp was due to his 

old age and former intercourse with the apostles, so 
were likewise his presence in Rome under Anicetus 
and his success in the conversion of heretics (154). 
In the disagreement with Anicetus, Polycarp ap- 
pealed for authority to his intercourse with John 
and other disciples (Eusebius, V., xxiv. 16, Eng. 
transl., i. 415-416). Irenseus makes mention of 
several epistles to neighboring churches and indi- 
vidual Christians which are not extant (Eusebius, 
V., xx. 8, Eng. transl., i. 239). The Vita Polycarpi 
auctore Pionio, knowing chapter xii. and many 
letters and homilies of Polycarp, is corrupted with 
so many fables that to extract the historical is im- 
possible. Feuardentius, in his notes to Irenseus, 
Hcer, iii. 3 (Cologne, 1596), gives several fragments 
ascribed to Polycarp which were preserved in a 
catena of Victor of Capua in his Liber responsorum, 
to which T. Zahn (Forschungen, vi. 103, Leipsic, 
1900) admits the possibility of a partial genuine- 
ness. The statements of the learned Armenian 
Ananias of Shirak (600-650) in his " Epiphany of 
our Lord " also must speak for themselves. See 
Papias. (N. Bonwetsch.) 

Bibliography: The editions of Polycarp beat worth noting 
are those of T. Zahn in Gebhardt, Harnack, and Zahn's 
Patrum apostolicorum opera, ii. 109-133, Leipsic, 1876; 
F. X. Funk, Opera patrum apostolicorum, 2d ed. t Tubingen, 
1901; J. B. Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, 1885, 2d ed., 
1889, with Eng. transl.; and A. Hilgenfeld, Berlin, 1902. 
The Eng. transl. most available after that of Lightfoot, 
is in ANF, i. 33-36. For eds. of the Martyrium consult 
ASB, Jan., ii. 705 sqq.; E. Amelineau in PSBA, x (1888), 
391-417; the eds. of Zahn, Funk, and Lightfoot, ut sup.; 
R. Knopf, AugsewahUen Martyracten, Tubingen, 1901; 
and O. von Gebhardt, Acta martyrum selecta, Berlin, 1902. 
Eng. transls. are by Lightfoot, ii. 1057-67. ed. of 1885; 
and in ANF, i. 39-44. The Vita Polycarpi of the 4th or 
5th century by Pionius (said by Funk to be " worthless ") 
has been edited by L. Duchesne, Paris, 1881 ; J. B. Light- 
foot, ut sup., ii. 1005 sqq., 1068 sqq.; and F. X. Funk, 
ut sup., ii. 291 sqq.; and is in ASB, Jan., ii. 695 sqq. A 
detailed list of literature is in ANF, Bibliography, pp. 
7-10. Discussions of the first importance are in the edi- 
tions and translations noted above, either as preface, 
prolegomena, or notes. Consult further: Irensus, Har, 
III., iii., Eng. transl. ANF, i. 416; Eusebius, Hist, eccl., 
IV., xv., Eng. transl., NPNF, 2 ser., i. 188-193; Jerome, 
De vir. ill., xvii., Eng. transl., NPNF, 2 ser., iii. 
367; A. Ritschl, Entstehung der aUkatholischen Kirche, pp. 
284 sqq., 584 sqq., Bonn, 1857; J. Donaldson, Hist, of 
Christian Literature, i. 154-200, iii. 306-310, Oxford, 
1864-66; idem, Apostolical Fathers, pp. 191-247, ib. 1874; 
T. Zahn, Ignatius von Antiochen, pp. 494 sqq., Gotha, 
1873; idem, Forschungen zur Oeschichte des neutestament- 
lichen Kanons, iv. 249 sqq., vi. 72 sqq., 94 sqq., Leipsic, 
1891-1900; [Cassels], Supernatural Religion, i. 274-282, 
ii. 267-271, iii. 13-15, London, 1875; B. F. Westcott, 
General Survey of the Hist, of the Canon of the N. T„ pp. 
36-40, ib. 1875; T. Keim, Aus dem Urchristenthum, pp. 
90-133, Zurich, 1878; G. A. Jackson, Apostolic Fathers, 
pp. 77-S7, New York, 1879; F. Piper, Lives of the Leaders 
of Our Church Universal, cd. H. M. MacCracken, pp. 14- 
22, Philadelphia, 1879; A. H. Charteris, Canonicity, pas- 
sim, London, 1880 (references are very numerous); J. 
Nirschl, Lehrbuch der Patrologie und Patristik, i. 121-131, 
Mains, 1881; W. F. Adeney, in British Quarterly, lxxxii 
(1886), 31-67; O. Bardenhewer, Geschichte der aUchrist- 
lichen Literatur, i. 146 sqq., ii. 615-616, Freiburg, 1902- 
1903; E. Sch warts, De Pionio et Polycarpo, Gfittingen, 
1905; O. Pfleiderer, Das Urchristentum, ii. 256 sqq., Ber- 
lin, 1902, Eng. transl., Christian Origins, London, 1906: 
H. Mailer, Aus der V eberlieferungsgeschichte des Polykarp- 
Martyrium, Paderborn, 1908; Harnack, Oeschichte, i. 
69-74, 817, ii. 1, pp. 325 sqq., 334-356, 381-406, ii. 2, 
pp. 303, 466-467; KrQger, History, pp. 25 sqq., 380; 
Ceillier, Auteurs sacris, i. 392-398, 406 sqq., DNB, iv. 
423-431; the literature under Ignatius op Antooch, and 
the church historians on the post-apostolic period, e.g., 


Schaff. ChrMan Chunk, i. 100-111. 399. 335. 486. 061, 
077. 0*). On the date of the martyrdom oonnut: R. A. 
Lipaiua, iaJPT, 1878. pp. 751-768; K. Wieaeler. Chrit- 
nticrSolguTHfen. pp. 34-87. GuteraLoti. 187S: idem, in 
TVS A'. Lii UWSOi. 141-)6.'j; T. Randoll, in Stadia BOtica, 
PP. 175-207, Oxford. 188G; W. M. Rainaay in EzvolUotv 
Tima, Jan., 1907, pp. 188-189. 

POLYCHROME BIBLE. See Bible Tbxt, I., 3, 
5 4- 

POLYCHRONIOS: Bishop of Apamea; flourished 
in the first half of the fifth century. Of his life 
nothing is known except thiit he was the brother of 
Theodore of Mopsuestia (q.v.), that he was bishop 
after US, mid lliat lie was one of the most distin- 
trui-1 jH.'ii i*M-eetf*s of the Antiochiiiii school. Though 
never expressly anathema tiled, Polychronius was re- 
garded as u heretic in later times, so of his. excgclical 

works only fragments have been preserved in va- 
rious catenas. It may be regarded as certain that 

IV>!\clironius wrote exhaustive commentaries on 
Job, Daniel, and Enekiei. The greater part of the 
fragment.- preserved are from Daniel, which he in- 
terpreted as referring to Antiochus Epiphanes in- 
stead of Antichrist, and saw in the fourth mon- 
archy of the world the Macedonian empire, and in 
the ten heads the Diadochi. He sought always to 
establish the historical moaning and polemized 
:iljailist allciMrieul exi-gesis. as Well as against the 
theory of a twofold sense. As a critic, however, lie 
seems to have been more conservative than his 
brother. His knowledge of philology, antiquities, 
;iiid history was considerable, but he shows ft com- 
paratively slight a<i[ii;iiutaiiee with the Semitic 
laii^uai.-''S. His Cliristology was apparently that of 
his brother, though probably less pronounced. 

(A. Habnack.) 

Bibliwirapht: Thoodorct. Hut. reel., v. 39. Eug. tnuu]., 
NPXF. 2 aer.. iii. 159; O. Harden hewer. Foluchnmiwi 
Brudrr Throdar: FreiViure, 1879; Fabricius-Hnrlei. Bib- 
liothan Crirca. viii. 638-600, ■. 302-363. Hamburg, 1802- 
1S07; DNB, iv. 434-436; Ceillier. Aulruri •acrfi, i. 60. 

POLYCRATES, pe-lic'ra-tU: Bishop of Ephesus; 

flouii-hcd ill tlie seen] id cent ury. He is kninn only 
bration of Easter (about 190) [to whom he wrote a 
Setter, i-iven in Euscbius, Hi"!, red., V., Xxiv., Eng. 
transl in NPXF, 2 sor, i. 242-244]. The contro- 
versv, according to Eusebius, took place under 
Com'modus (A. Dec. 31, 192), and to Maximin of 
AntliK'h (whom Serapion succeeded in 15)0-191) let- 
ters are said to have been directed. At this time he 
had been a Christian sixty-five years, coming of a 
Christian finiiily which had already furnished seven 
bishops. Vir-tor had requested him to eall a synod 
1o decide the Easter problem (see Easteh); but 
f hi- -vi'..i. I'- 1 by i'.,ly crates a|i|H-aliriE to the usage 
of Asia Minor, decided in favor of Nisun 14tli, where- 
upon the pope made an unsuccessful attempt to 
excommunicate the church of Asia Minor. 

(N. Bonwetsch.) 
TiiHi.i'i-.HAiHv: EuKbiua. Hi*, eaj.. V.. xxii.. xxiv.. Eng. 

tntnsl.. XP\'F. 2 m, i. 210-244 (cf. n(J lc !l .>.. V nii.l; 

Hamaek, Liltcratur. i. 260. u. 1, p. 323; T. Zahn. Far- 

iii. 1H7. vi. 162-163. liia -ai. 20* Mqq., Leipoic, 1890-^ 
1900, O. Banlenhowpr. QhoMAM drr ilTII ftiJllfnftiii Lit- 
teratvr, i. 5SO. Frcihuru, 1902; R.Vtf. iv. 436-437; Ceillier, 
Aulrurs merii, i. 535, ii. 642-543. 

POLYGLOT BIBLES. See Bibles, Polyglot. 


I. Scope and Definition. '■*■■■ (I 3). 

Meaning in Scripture (1 1). Mabiiain (| 3). 

Lapse from Mouotheimi III. Develop 

(f 2). A Com . 

tt. CiueifioMion. theum (| 1). 

Fetiahiam (| 1). IV. Ethical EitimaQon. 

I. Scope and Definition: Polytheism or the 
doctrine and belief that there are more gods thin 
one is the more scientific term for what is otherwise 
known as idolatry and heathenism, and refers to 
those religions which are in contradistinction to the 
monotheism of Judaism, Christianity, and Moham- 
medanism. It is based on the natural 

i. Hean- tendency of man to seek religious rela- 
ing in tjons with deity in the light of the 

Scripture, revelation of natural religion alone. 
In the evolutionary process nature 
proceeds from plurality to unity, and even panthe- 
ism appears as a philosophical elaboration and in- 
spiration of primitive polytheism. The verdict of 
both the Old and the New Testament on the na- 
ture and value of polytheism is essentially the 
same. Polytheism is the lapse from the living God 
to the worship of vain idols and the perversion of 
divinely revealed truth in order to smuggle in false- 
hood, darkness of spirit, and association with de- 
mons. The gods of the heathen are powerless (Jer. 
ii. 28; Isa. xli. 29, xlii. 17, xlvi. 1 sqq.), and made 
by man from perishable material (especially Isa. 
xli., xliv.; Pa. oxv. 4 sqq., exxxv. 15-18). So far 
as they really exist, they arc demons (Deut. xxxii. 
17; cf. Deut. x. 17, jocrii. 17; Ps. xcvi. 15, cvi. 
27). In the New Testament idols are vain, and 
are not really gods (Acts xiv. 15, xix. 26; I 
Cor. viii. 5; Oal. iv. 8), and he who eats of their 
offerings eats the meat of demons (I Cor. x. 
19-21; Rev. is. 20). 

In considering the origin of polytheism, the usual 
development of pantheism from on earlier polythe- 
ism, illustrated in India by Brahman ism and in 
Greece by the Eleatic and Stoic systems, would 
naturally lead one to consider the primitive form 
of all religion to consist in the worship of a plural- 
ity of gods from which even Biblical 

3. Lapse monotheism was developed. Never- 
from theless, neither the Pentateuch nor the 

Monothe- prophetic writings contain any traces 
ism. whatsoever of an earlier polytheism, 
and the Old Testament very definitely 
ivcirds the polytheism of the heathen as caused by 
a fall from primitive monotheism in the account of 
the tower of Babel (Gen. xi. 1 sqq.). The gradual 
development of polytheism from on original mon- 
otheism is supported by the history of Abraham 
(Gen. xiv. 18-20; Josh. xxiv. 2 aqq.); of Jacob, 
who saw the introduction of Teraphim (q.v.) into 
his household (Gen. xxxi. 19-20, xxxv. 2-3); of 
Joseph, who married the daughter of an Egyptian 
priest of the sun (Gen. xli. 50), and of Hoses who 
was able to keep his people true to the God of the 
covenant only by bitter struggle against the pagan- 
ism of Egypt and Midian (cf. Num. xii. 1 aqq.; 
Deut. xxxii. 15 sqq.; Amos v. 25-26). Similar 
views are presented in the New Testament, as in 
Rom. i. 21 sqq.; Acts xiv. 16, xvii. 29. 



Polychrome Bible 

E Classification: Granted that the theory of 
evolution is legitimate in the domain of natural 
science, the question arises whether it applies as 
well to this sphere in view of the facts of religious 
history. From the time of David Hume (q.v.) and 
the English deists and of the German G. L. Bauer, 
the theory of the origin of monotheism from poly- 
theism has passed through three definite stages : gods 
were derived either from fetishes, dead ancestors or 
other spirits, or from the heavenly bodies. These 
three theories may conveniently be termed fetish- 
ism, animism (with its varieties of spiritism, Shama- 
nism, q.v., ancestor worship, hero cult), and Sabaism. 
The theory of Fetishism (q.v.), dating from the 
period of Voltaire and Hume, was essentially estab- 
lished by Charles De Brosses in his Du 
I. Fetish- cults des dieux f Miches (Paris, 1760), 
and was further developed by Auguste 
Comte (especially in the fifth volume of 
his Court de philosophie positive (Paris, 1830-42), 
who assumed that from the worship of rude ob- 
jects of a childlike superstition in magic, or fetishes, 
was developed first the polytheism of more civilized 
pagan nations, while from the latter was evolved 
monotheism as the highest ethical form of religion. 
This has become a favorite dogma of positivists in 
France, England, and North America as well as 
Germany, as illustrated by Lord Avebury's Origin of 
Civilization (London, 1870); S. Baring Gould's 
Origin and Development of Religious Belief (1869); 
C. Meiners, who held, in his AUgemeine kritische 
Geschichle der Religionen (Hanover, 1806), that 
fetishism was not only the oldest but also the most 
general form of worship; G. P. C. Kaiser in his 
Biblische Theologie (Erlangen, 1813-21); Hegel in 
his Vorlesungen uber Philosophie der Religion (Ber- 
lin, 1832) maintaining that magic, constantly 
changing its objects of worship in the form of 
fetishism, creates the first and lowest type of re- 
ligion; and T. Waitz, in his Anthropologic der 
Naturvdlker (Leipsic, 1859-65). The fetishistic 
theory was developed into a formal system by 
F. Schultze in Der Fetischismus, ein Beitrag zur 
Anthropologic und Religionsgeschichte (Leipsic, 1871), 
in which an interpretation of the individual tend- 
encies of fetishism is attempted, on the assumption 
that the rudest fetishism of modern aborigines is 
necessarily the closest in approximation to the primi- 
tive type of all religions. This theory of fetishism 
has exercised more or less influence on historians 
of civilization like K. Twesten and F. von Hell- 
wald, natural philosophers likeC. Sterne, E. Haeckel, 
and investigators of religions like A. Wuttke, whose 
Geschichle des Heidentums (Breslau, 1852-53), while 
proceeding from a rigidly monotheistic basis, re- 
gards fetishism as the oldest and most primitive 
type of religion known to history; and G. Roskoff 
in Geschichle des Teufels (Leipsic, 1869) and Re- 
Kgionswesen der rohesien Naturvdlker (1880). In 
opposition to the frequent assumption after Dar- 
win that there are numerous primitive peoples 
without any trace of religion, so that absolute athe- 
ism is alleged to be the real basis and starting 
period of the entire religious and ethical develop- 
ment of mankind, Roskoff, in the latter work, mar- 
shaled an array of facts confirmed by a company 

of scholars; but he falls in also with the naturalistic 
view, regarding magic as the prototype of all re- 
ligious activity. The theory of fetishism is scien- 
tifically false. The fetish is not, according to De 
Brosses and the other naturalists, an enchanted 
and therefore prophetic object (as if from fori, 
fanum, or fatum), but is something artificially 
made (Portuguese, feitico — Latin facere) especially 
for religious purposes, such as an amulet, cross, or 
idol. Properly speaking, fetishes are devotional or 
cultic objects which imply a relatively developed 
stage of religion, and are even typical of an incipi- 
ent decay of religious life. They are invariably 
relics of an older and more perfect concept of the 
deity; for some sort of an idea of a higher being to 
be invoked must have been present before steps 
could be taken to make a fetish. The stone, block, 
bone, or rag, which forms such a magic idol for the 
African, was never anything but an idol capri- 
ciously adapted to a long developed, even though 
rough and vague, concept of God. The worship of 
fetishes forms a rude parallel to the veneration of 
relics and objects of superstition like the tooth of 
Buddha in Ceylon, Mohammedan talismans, Greco- 
Roman amulets, or the teraphim or earthern ser- 
pents of the peoples with whom the Israelities came 
in contact. Far from belonging to the childhood of 
religion, as Meiners, Hegel, Lord Avesbury, and 
others have held, on the ground of the puppet 
shape of the fetishes and the childish homage of 
dances and drummings in their honor, fetishism is 
decadent, even as senility frequently assumes an 
appearance of childishness. Neither fetishism nor 
the primitive atheism assumed by Avesbury can 
rationally be made the foundation of religious de- 
velopment either of mankind as a whole or of indi- 
vidual stocks or peoples (cf. J. Happel, Die Anlage 
des Menschen zur Religion, pp. 112, 134 sqq., Leyden, 
1877; O. Pfleiderer, Religionsphilosophie, pp. 318- 
319, 742-743, Berlin, 1878; F. M. Muller, Lectures 
on the Origin and Growth of Religion, especially vol. 
ii., London, 1878; P. Schanz, Apologie des Chris-' 
tentums, 2d ed., ii. 37, 297, and passim, Freiburg, 
1887-88; and C. von Orelli, AUgemeine Religions- 
geschichte, pp. 15, 265-266, 84VS42, Bonn, 1899). 
[For another view of the subject, see Fetishism.] 

The animistic hypothesis, or soul-cult, as the 
source of all religious development is considerably 
later than that of fetishism. As introduced into 

comparative religion by E. B. Tylor 
2. Ani- in his Primitive Culture (London, 1871 ; 
mism. new ed., 1903) and Anthropology (1881) 

animism denotes a belief, wide-spread 
among the primitive peoples throughout the world, 
in more or less powerful souls or spirits dwelling in 
material objects, in a word, " spirit worship " (cf. 
J. Lippert, Der Seelenkult nach seinen Beziehungen 
zur hebrdischen Religion, Berlin, 1881 ; O. Seeck, Ge~ 
schichte des Untergangs der antiken Welt, pp. 339- 
377, Berlin, 1901). Logically, this form of religion 
is a grade higher than fetishism, regarding its cultic 
objects as filled with, or possessed of, certain spir- 
itual beings, which human magic can cause to ap- 
pear and become operative. At the same time, 
cruder fetishistic views and usages are found in 
animism, especially in the magic character of the 




priests of both types. Three forms of animism may 
be distinguished: physiolatric, anthropolatric, and 
pat riarchola trie. Physiolatric animism is the wor- 
ship of certain nature spirits residing in wells or 
rivers (nymphs, nixies), in hills or rocks (cobalds), 
in trees (hamadryads), or in animals, and the like, 
the two chief subdivisions being the two last, phy- 
tolatry and zoolatry, the latter comprising ophiol- 
atry. Anthropolatric animism is the worship of 
the dead, whether regarded as being in some 
inanimate medium or in some living animal from 
simple inhabitation to metempsychosis; this type 
is the darkest of spiritism issuing in necro- 
mancy and fanatical Shamanism. Patriarchol- 
atry, or ancestor worship, is the worship of 
the ancestors of special families or entire stocks, 
this frequently passing over among wild tribes into 
totemism, in which the ancestors are held to have 
been certain beasts or birds, which thus become 
fixed emblems of the families or stocks in question. 
All attempts to make any or all of these types of 
animism the source of the development of religion 
have failed. Ancestor worship in particular, de- 
fended by H. Spencer in his Principles of Sociology 
(London, 1876-82), J. Lippert (ut sup.), and others, 
is rendered nugatory because the pious regard of 
ancestors presupposes too long a development and 
too ripe a civilization to be regarded as the primi- 
tive source of religion; as, for instance, the Chinese 
cult and the Pitris and Rishis of India and the 
Greeks. Sec Comparative Religion, VI., 1, a, 
§§ 1-6; Heathenism, §§ 2-4, 6. 

The Sabaistic theory, or the assumption that the 
cult of the heavenly bodies is the source of religion, 
seems to go back, strictly speaking, to such Church 
Fathers as Clement of Alexandria, and Firmicius 
Maternus, who held that, while monotheism was 

the original religion, the stages of de- 
3. Sabaism. cline had begun with the worship of 

the heavenly bodies. They were closely 
followed by Moses Maimonides (q.v.), and, among 
more recent students, by those who investigate 
mainly religions possessing an astronomical basis, as 
the Egyptian, Babylonian, and Phenician. A chief 
exponent of this theory was the French astronomer 
C. F. Dupuis, who, in his Origine de tons les cultes 
ou religion (12 vols., Paris, 1795), sought to prove 
that worship first of the sun and then of the other 
heavenly bodies was the point of departure for all 
religious evolution. Similar attempts were made 
by J. A. Kanne in Neue Darstellung der Myihologie 
der Griechen (Leipsic, 1805), J. G. Rohde in Versuch 
Uber das Alter des Tierkreises und den Alter der 
fUernbilder (Breslau, 1809), E. von Bunsen in his 
Einheit der Religion (Berlin, 1870) and Die Plejaden 
und der Tierkreis (1879), and C. Ploix in La Nature 
des dieux (Paris, 1888), in which he blended Saba- 
iim and fetishism. If, however, a stellar cult de- 
veloped into adoration of the zodiac, the planets, 
and other celestial objects, it presupposes a degree 
of culture which is incompatible with the primitive 
period of mankind. The truly primitive forms of 
worship of the heavenly bodies seem rather to be 
monotheistic, the divine element being regarded 
not so much as the sun, moon, or " host of heaven," 
as the heaven itself as the symbol or manifestation 

of the highest beneficent power, in comparison with 
wliich the individual stars constituted mere sub- 
deities. A number of adherents of primitive mono- 
theism have accordingly regarded Sabaism as the 
mediate stage through which man passed in his de- 
cline from monotheism to the baser forms of poly- 
theism. Criticism of Sabaism leads necessarily to the 
positing of a primitive monotheism though not in 
its absolute form. 

III. Development: A relative monotheism, con- 
sisting of a theistic basis with pantheistic elements, 
was assumed as the basis of all religious develop- 
ment by Schelling in PkUosophie der 
1. A Cor- Metologie und Offenbarung (Stuttgart, 
ruptionof 1856-59), and he was followed by 
Monothe- many others. This relative monothe- 
ism, ism of the earliest historic period was 
termed kathenotheism or henotheism 
by Max Muller; and though restricted by him only 
to certain characteristics of the Vedic religion, yet 
it may well be applied, mutatis mutandis, to the 
earliest periods of the religion of various other peo- 
ples of similar antiquity. This henotheism is de- 
fined by Muller as a naive faith in individual powers 
of nature which alternately appear as supreme. The 
religion of the Chinese seems to be an unfolding of 
the cult of heaven, and early Iranian religious rec- 
ords show similar traces of a relatively pure primi- 
tive monotheism, since between the supreme crea- 
tor of the universe, Ormazd, and his subordinate 
deities, the six Amshaspands, a considerable inter- 
val is held to exist. The oldest religious concepts 
of the other Indo-Germanic peoples were richer in 
polytheistic elements, though even in them the sky- 
god was dominant. Among the religions of south- 
western Asia, the ancient Arabs and the Phenicians 
had a basis of primitive monotheism, consisting in 
the worship of a supreme god of the light or of the 
sun (Ilah or Shamsh in North Arabia, Bel among 
the Sabeans of South Arabia, and Baal Hamman 
among the Phenicians), though even in the earliest 
records this basis had received many accretions of 
stellar polytheism. The same statements hold good 
of the religion of ancient Babylonia. The most 
ancient supreme sky-god Anu must early have re- 
ceived by his side a Bel and an Ea, their number 
later being increased by various younger nature 
deities, such as the moon-god Sin and the sun-god 
Shamash, as well as the five planetary deities Mar- 
duk, Ishtar, Adar, Nergal, and Nebo. Many of the 
most competent Egyptologists agree in placing at 
the head of the development of the Nilotic religion 
a creative celestial " king " or " father " of the 
gods, who was called Amon-Ra by the Thebans 
and Ptah at Memphis; and Le Page Renouf, in his 
Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion, p. 
119 (London, 1880), declares: " The sublimer por- 
tions [of the Egyptian religion] are not the com- 
paratively late results of a process of development 
or elimination from the grosser. The sublimer por- 
tions are demonstrably ancient; and the last stage 
of the Egyptian religion, that known to the Greek 
and Latin writers, was by far the grossest and most 

It must not be supposed, however, that this proc- 
ess of degeneration from monotheism everywhere 


took the same course or passed through the same 
phases. In like manner, various motives entered 
into the creation of early myths; and neither the 
une-tided interpretation of mytha as personifica- 
tions of meteorological phenomena nor the one- 
sided anthropology of the euhemerists nor the opera- 
tion of diabolical forces as held by early orthodoxy 
isinweord with the actual state of affairs. 

IT. Ethical Estimation: Regarding the relation 
of polytheism to morality, the stem judgment niuat 
told which the Old and the New Testament alike 
pronounce upon idolatry without distinction of its 
wrious forms or gradeB. Idolaters are evildoers 
punished by the law with the severest penalties, 
'■i ■■'. tij'lirjiilcd liy tin- prophets for their enormi- 
ties. In the New Testament sinners and heathen 
ire parallel (Matt, xviii. 17; Gal. ii. 15; I Cor. v. 
It while idolatry is classed among the " works of 
lie flesh." being placed between Inseiviousness and 
f sorcery (Gal. v. 20), and repeatedly designated as 
belonging to the worst abominations I Romans ii. 2'2; 
Rev. ii. 15, 20, ii. 21, xvii. 4-5, xviii. 22) and as 
lading to the gravest sensuality (Rom. i. 24-28). 
And this judgment not only holds true of classical 
antiquity, but of modern primitive peoples as well. 

(O. ZfiCKLERt.) 

The conclusions reached by the author of the 
preceding article are nut those of the mo, lorn school 
of comparative religionists. Every linn of evidence 
exhaustively examined by these students leads to 
results that arc in complete accord with the science 
of anthropology, which regards man himself as a 
development. Religion appear* distinctly and un- 
mistakably as a growth, in which monotheism is 
the choicest fruit, not the root. Wherever the lus- 
tory of religion can lie traced for long periods, as 
in Babylonia and China, and now in Greece, the 
farther back one searches the more diffused is the 
worship, until the god* are lost in spirits or demons. 
This is confirmed by the study of primitive religion, 
where the objects of worship are spirits, not gods, 
with rare exceptions, and these exceptions afford 
D-o support, to the theory of monotheism as original. 
Similarly in the organized religions, the irrational 
and animistic elements, for instance of ritual (in 
which are always preserved (oncst the traces of 
origin), are clearly derivable from the earlier stages 
and point to polytheism 
monotheism. While there may be 
people from monotheism to polytheism (;is in the 
decadent period of Jewish history), 'he ease can 
always be shown to be reversion and not degenera- 
tion. The background of Hebrew religion is now 
recognized by the entire critical school :is not only 
polytheistic but animistic. A case of this is the 
action of Jacob in anointing the stone (an act of 
worship) on which he slept while he saw his vision 
(Gen. xxviii. 18), which action was precisely that 
which Arab tribes directed to the stone deities 
which they worshiped (Smith. Rel. of Sun., pas- 
sim). The first commandment is an explicit recog- 
nition of the existence of other deities. 

The conclusions of comparative religionists as to 
the order of development in religion are briefly in- 
dicated in Comparative Religion (q.v., especially 
VI, 2, dj- Geo - w - C-ilhore. 

of tl 

f fint 

Retiaianen i 

a Africa. China. 
-, Gesthichle da 

vols.. Breslau, 1852-53; K. Werner. Die 
Kuliur dee vorckriitlirhcn tleutcnlumi, 

871; E. L. Fischer. Hridcntum und Offm- 
barang. Miiini, 1878; J, Legge, Religions of China, Lon- 
don. 1881; E. G. Meude, Lin FrMrm dcr allgemcincn 
Rttiaion.wit!*rn*c>i,ift, I,e[;,.ic.; (;. HiiB-IJnson. The 
Religions of Ihe Anrienl lYorld. London, ISSi; !'. F. 
Reman. Dcr Urtprung dcr Religion, Buscl. (SSC; W. 
Schneider. Die KalurviiiArr, 3 vols., Monster, 1885-81; 
idem, Oeschichlc dcr Religion im Murium. 2 purU. Oottm, 
IH95-98; K. von Orelli, Mlgim.'n, l/,ligi.ia. •(!■■•. -lui-hli, 
Bonn, ISM; «. -Slowh. Dim fl,:idcntiii« ah r.-ligi»*r* 1'rv 
blent, GQleralob. 1803; W. Murult. I'WJitk* 1-,4-yi, . 
Leipsic, 1904 sqq.; W. Iloussct. What ie Religion t Now 
York. 10(17; A. Bros, La lUtioion de* pevpict nan cioi- 
liete. Faria. 1007; F. X. K..rr],,o,.r. U- ,-lglhcimuitaii- 
verto tt guibasdam due formie apod Hebrao, finitimaegue 
gentes uaibUM. Inn-hni.k. 1«W; (i. Fnucirl, l.n,„,lr. 
comparative dune Vhintoire dee religions, Pali?, 1909; L. 

Frulienius, The Child! I '-f Man. l....i.|on. !!»«>; A. Le 

Roy, La Religion dee prinndj". Paris, H*'J9; J. 11 Lrutui. 
Psychological Origin ami .V.j(ujt .>/ krtivien, London, 1008; 
S. Roinooh, Orpheus. Met. generate dee religion*, Paris. 
1809, Ens. tranal.. Orpheus. London. 1909; W. St. C. 
Twd;i]l. Mulhi,- ry,ri..l.h an,! Ihr Tim-: a Criticism .)/ .sum.: 
modern Theories, Luiiilon. 190SI; H. Ii. Underwood, Re- 
liaione of Eastern Asia, New York, 1010. 

POMEBIUS, JTJLIANUS: GaUican presbyter 
of Moorish descent; d. about 490. He ia said by 
t.'yprian to have been the teacher of famous Ca-sarius 
of Aries (q.v.), and according ti> the s|iuriou* addi- 
tion to Gennadius' De vir. ill. (\cviii.) and Isidore* 
De seriptinibu* eeilrsuisticix (iv.), he wrote a dia- 
logue De animie nalura (or De nnlura anima. et 
ijimliliili- vjnK) in eight books and a treatise Dr rila 
.-mill miiliilini (or Vh- cwilrmptti tumuli) in tlu:eo 
books. The first Irook of the latter work {MPL, lix. 
415-y2(l) treats of the value of the conleuiplnlivn 
life, the second of the active life of the Christian, 
and the third of vices and virtues. The entire works 
are full of the spirit of Augustine. The similarity 
of the latter treatise to the eschalolojrical medita- 
tions of St. Julian, bishop of Toledo, early led to 
Julian's identification with I'nmerius, who flour- 
ished fully two centuries before him. Julian, a con- 
vert from Judaism, was archbishop from Jan. 29, 
680, to Mar. 8, 690, and was zealous in defending 
and extending the faith and reformation of the 
clergy, at the same time maintaining a firm attitudo 
toward Benedict II. when the pope criticized his 
creed. Hi* apuloiry addressed to Benedict, to- 
gether with some of his other works, has been lost; 
but his Pregiioxlirfirum futvri srcidi libri tr,:. (Leip- 
sie. 1535); De ilrman*lratione. seitiv iriatix (Heidel- 
berg, 1633); and BistotW Waiabtt regi.x Tnlilnvi 
[MPL, xcW.) are extant. He probably took part 
in the final redaction of the old Spanish liturgy and 
nf the Visigothic canon law. (O. ZdCKLEHt.) 

Eiiiuoohapbt: Bitknre HSIiraire de la Franer, ii. M6-flM: 

J. Nirechl. l.thrbaeh tier I'iili:il;gi-: na.l Pntrietik. in. i!SS 
"qq.. Mniui, 1831: F. Arnold, Clsaritis oon Arelale, pp. 
BO-M, 184-129, Lei[»ic. 189<; O. Banlenhiwer. Pntro- 
logic, p. 640, FrciV.un. 1001, En*, tran.-l . St.. I.oui-. lWlK; 
O, Zocliler, Die Tugmdlihrf dee Chriilenlvme, pp. 93-95, 

On Julian of Toledo conaullr Patrum Tolrlanorvm. . . . 
Opera, ed. F Lon-rimno, pp. 3-;l.»S. llndri.l, 17S5; J. .le 
Mariana, Historic de rAus Hiepaniir. vi. 248-240, Maim, 
1605. Enu. tranal.. T)„: (,'.vi.-™/ lli.'t. »i Spain. 2 parts, 
London, 1800; P. B. Gams, Kirc/iengejchidtic von Spanien. 


ii. 2, pp. 176-338. 3 vol»., Kegenaburt. 1862-TSi F. Dtba. 

Vm-ZauulB da- Wtdeote*, pp. 473-100, Wilribun, 1870. 
A. Ebsrt, Qachithit der LiUrratur da MiiicbitUn. i. 750- 
751, Leiptio, 1B74; P. von Wougcn. Julian, linbi*Ju>. 
vm Tolrdo, St. Gall, 1801: R. Hunow, De Juliana ToU- 
(ana, Joan. 1881; DSB. iii. 477-481 (exhaustive). 

PONCE DE LEOH, LOIS DE. See Leon, Luis de. 

POND, ENOCH: Congregationahst; b. at 
Wrentham, Mass., July 29, 1791; d. at Bangor, 
Me., Jan. 21, 1882. He was graduated from Brown 
University (1813), studied theology under Nathan- 
ael Emmons (q.v.), was licensed (1814), and or- 
dained pastor of the Congregational Church in Ward 
(now Auburn), Mass. (1815). He was editor of Tht 
Spirit of the Pilgrims (Boston), an orthodox relig- 
ious monthly which played an important part in 
the Unitarian controversy (1828-32); professor of 
systematic theology in the Bangor Theological Sem- 
inary (1832-58); professor of ecclesiastical history, 
lecturer on pastoral theology, and president from 
1858 till his death. He was active in the building 
up of the institution and was a voluminous writer. 
Among his works are: Christian Baptism (Boston, 
1817); Morning of the Reformation (1842); The 
Mather Family (1844); Swedenborgianism Exam- 
ined (New York, 1861); The Ancient Church (1851) 
Lectures on Pastoral Theology (Andover, 1866) 
Lectures on Christian Theology (Boston, 1868) 
and A History of God's Church from its Origin to the 
Present Times (Hartford, 1871). 

POHTIAHUS: Pope probably from July 21, 230, 
to Sept. 28, 235. During his pontificate the circu- 
lar letter of Demetrius, bishop of Alexandria, con- 
demning Origen, was approved by a synod at Rome 
(sea Origen; and Ohigenistic Controversies). 
Pontianus, together with the antipope Hippolytus, 
was exiled to Sardinia under the persecution of 
Maximums Thrax, where he resigned. 

(A. Hahnack.) 
Biblioqbapht : Liber pontifical*!, ed. L. Duchesne, vol. i., 
Paris, 1880, ed. T. Mommaen, in MGH, Oat. pant. Rom,, 
i (181181, 24-2S: Haraack. Gachichu, i. 648. ii. I, pp. 107 
kih.; Bower. Papa, L. 23-23: Platina, Popa, i. 43-45; 
Milmnn, Latin Chrwtianitv, i, SO. 

PONTIFICAL: In the literal sense of the term, 
all that pertains to the bishop, especially his vest- 
ments and those functions that he alone may per- 
form; more specifically, the term applied by the 
Roman Catholic Church to the book containing the 
ritual of those rites which may be celebrated only 
by bishops or by priests especially delegated by 
them to act as their representatives. At an early 
period the Roman Catholic Church took particular 
pains to prevent any deviations in specifically epis- 
copal functions from the forms usual at Rome; and 
on Feb. 10, 1596, the new Pontificale Romanum was 
approved, while at the same time all previous pon- 
tificals were declared to be superseded. Since, how- 
ever, this edition was not free from errors, Urban 
VIII. ordered a new official edition (June 17, 1644) 
which should be the definitive model for all subse- 
quent copies. The Pontifical was enlarged by Bene- 
dict XTV. in 1752. The standard edition author- 
ized by Leo XITI. is entitled Pontificale Romanum 
a Benedido XIV. et Leone XIII. recognitum et 
castigatum (Regcnsburg, 1898). The Pontifical con- 

sists of two parte, the first part containing toon 
rites which relate to persons, and the second than 
which relate to things. E. Sehijno. 

POflTOPPIDAfl, pen-tep'pt-dfln, ERIE: Dan]* 
bishop; b. at Aarhus (on the eastern shore of Jut- 
land) Aug. 24, 1698; d. at Copenhagen Dec 20. 
1764. He was educated at Fredericia (1710-18), 
after which he was a private tutor in Norway, and 
then studied in Holland, and at London and Ox- 
ford, England. In 1721 he became informiUor of 
Frederick Carl of Carlstein (later duke of Plan), 
and two years later morning preacher in the castle 
and afternoon preacher at Nordborg. From 1726 
to 1734 he was pastor at Hagenberg, where he so 
protected the pietists as to find it advisable to de- 
fend his course against the Lutherans with Dialogue; 
oder Unterredung Severi, Sinceri, und Simplidt bob 
der Religion und Reinheit dtr Lehre (1726) and HeOer 
Gtaubenespiegel (1727). During this same period 
he laid the foundation of his later topographical 
and historical works in Memoria Hafnia (172B); 
Theatrum Dania (1736); and Kurzgefasste Refer- 
mationshistorie der ddnxschen Kirehe. Pontop- 
pidan became successively pastor at Hillerod and 
castle preacher at Frederiksborg (1734), Danish 
court preacher at Copenhagen (1735), professor ex- 
traordinary of theology at the University (1738), 
and a member of the mission board (1740), mean- 
while writing his Everriculum fermenti veteris (1736) 
and Bone SpriehwSrter (1739). 

In 1736 Pontoppidan was directed by royal 
rescript to prepare an explanation of the catechism 
and a new hymnal, and through these two works — 
Wahrheti *ur Gottesfureht (1737) and the hymn- 
book (1740) — the pietistic cause in Denmark re- 
ceived powerful assistance. He likewise continued 
bis historical investigations in his Marmora Danica 
(3 vols., 1730-41; a collection of noteworthy epi- 
taphs and ecclesiastical monuments) and his un- 
critical Annates eeclesias Danicas (4 vols., 1741-52); 
and also wrote a novel, Menoea (3 vols., 1742-43), 
a critique of the religious conditions of Denmark 
and other countries. In 1747 he was appointed 
bishop at Bergen, where he introduced many edu- 
cational reforms, and wrote Gloesarium Norvagieum 
(1749) and Versuch einer naturiichen Geschichts 
Norwegens (Copenhagen, 1752-53), while his pas- 
toral letters formed in part the basis of his later 
Collegium pastorale practicum (1757). The antagon- 
ism which Pontoppidan roused at Bergen, however, 
obliged him to go in 1754 to Copenhagen, where he 
became prochancellor at the university in the fol- 
lowing year. But all his plans in this capacity were 
thwarted by his opponents, and he sought consola- 
tion in writing, the results being his Origines Haf- 
nienses (1760) and the first two parts of bis Den 
danske Adas (1763-67), of which the last five vol- 
umes were edited posthumously. He was also 
active as a political economist, being the editor of 
Danmarks og Korges okonomiskc Magaein (8 vols., 
1757-64). (F. Nnuwt.) 

Bihuiwbipbi: The Literature (In Danish) in indicated in 
Hauck-Hanog, RE, jv. 651. 

POOLE, MATTHEW: B. at York, Eng., 1624; 
educated at Emmanuel College, in Cambridge; he 



Ponoe de Leon 
Poor Men of Lyons 

became minister of St. Michael-le-Quernes, Lon- 
don, in 1648, and devoted himself to the Presby- 
terian cause. In 1654 he published The Blasphemer 
Sain with the Sword of the Spirit, against John 
Bkkfle, the chief Unitarian of that time. In 1658 
he published a Model for the Maintaining of Stur 
faii, and raised a fund for their support at the 
universities. In the same year he published Quo 
warranto; or, a moderate Enquiry into the Warrant- 
dknes* of the Preaching of unordained Persons. In 
1062 he was ejected from his charge, for non-con- 
formity, and devoted himself to Biblical studies. 
The fruit of these was produced, in 1669, in the 
Synopsis Criticorum (5 vols., folio), a monument of 
Biblical learning which has served many genera- 
tions of students, and will maintain its value for- 
ever. Many subsequent editions have been pub- 
lished at Frankfort, Utrecht, and elsewhere. He 
was engaged, at his death, on English Annotations 
on the Holy Bible, and proceeded as far as Isa. 
Iviii. His friends completed the work; and it was 
published (London, 1685, 2 vols., folio), and passed 
through many editions. Poole also took part in 
the Romish controversy, and published two very 
effective works: The Nullity of the Romish Faith, 
or, A Blew at the Root, etc. (London, 1666), and 
Dialogues between a Popish Priest and an English 
Protestant (1667). On this account he was greatly 
hated by the Papists, and his name was on the list 
of those condemned to death in the Popish Plot. 
He retired to Amsterdam, and died in Oct., 1679. 
Few names will stand so high as Poole's in the Bib- 
lical scholarship of Great Britain. 

C. A. Briggs. 

Bibliography: A. & Wood, Athena Oxonienses, ed. P. Bliss, 
iL 205, 4 vols., London, 1813-20. A sketch of his life 
and writing* appears in the English Annotations, ut sup., 
vol. iv., Edinburgh, 1801; S. Palmer, Nonconformist's 
Memorial, i. 167, London, 1802; DNB, zlvi. 09-100. 

POOR CLARES. See Clare (Clara), Saint. 

POOR LAWS, HEBREW: Poverty was un- 
known in the earliest Hebraic age. The nomad has 
few needs, and those are provided for by the tribe, 
since pasture-land is common property. Even after 
the conquest of Canaan there was at first no neces- 
sity for legal provision in behalf of the poor. But 
as soon as the people settled in the cities, the usual 
results of urban development followed. As the old 
simplicity disappeared, especially after Saul and | 
David, national independence came in, politics be- 
gan to have force, property became private, social 
distinctions arose, and with them the need of pro- 
tecting the weak from those having the advantage 
in wealth. 

The first efforts in that direction are found in the 
ancient law known as the Book of the Covenant 
(Ex. xx.-xxiii.). Very significant are the injunc- 
tions regulating the relation between debtor and 
creditor. To take usury from any of the people 
was forbidden (Ex. xxn. 25). A garment taken as 
pledge was to be returned before the sun set for 
the debtor to use as a covering (Ex. xxii. 26-27). 
The Hebrew slave was to be set free in the seventh 
year together with his wife and children (Ex. xxi. 
2 sqq.). Field, vineyard, and olive-grove were to 

lie fallow the seventh year, and all that grew of 
itself during that year belonged to the poor (Ex. 
xxiii. 10-12). These enactments were no doubt 
observed by the right-minded in Israel, but there 
are reasons for believing that selfishness knew how 
to evade them. But even where they were ob- 
served, they did not suffice to check poverty. Under 
Solomon Israel began to engage in commerce. The 
riches which came into the country influenced all 
conditions of life. Prophets like Hosea, Amos, and 
Isaiah complained of the luxury of the rich, of their 
greediness, and of their usurious oppression of the 
poor. The rich land-owners joined house to house 
and field to field, till there was no place for the 
poor (Isa. v. 8, 22 sqq.; Mic. ii. 1 sqq.), and the 
usurer was not afraid to sell the poor for a trifle 
(Amos ii. 6-7, cf. iv. 1 sqq., v. 11, viii. 4). Natu- 
rally under these circumstances the well-meaning 
in Israel sought to find new means for the protec- 
tion of the poor. So the law-book known as Deu- 
teronomy came into existence during the later re- 
gal period and its author belonged to the prophetic 
school of thought. The legislation of Deuteronomy 
is in part social. Humaneness to the weak, considera- 
tion for widows, orphans, Levites, and strangers, are 
fundamental in the book. Former protective enact- 
ments are repealed, new ones are added (cf. Deut. 
xiv. 28 sqq., xv. 2 sqq., 12 sqq., xxiii. 20, 25-26, 
xxiv. 6, 10). The great priest^code, which obtained 
canonical authority after the exile, continued this 
effort to give protection and relief to the poor (Lev. 
xix. 9, xxiii. 22, xxv.). But with the decline of 
the monarchy, the executive authority to carry out 
these and like regulations vanished, and it is no 
wonder that they became a dead letter. Aside from 
laws which were impracticable (Deut. xv. 2 sqq., 
Lev. xxv. 2 sqq.) other laws were ignored. Such a 
law was the prohibition of usury, probably often 
kept, but just as often neglected- Though the im- 
mediate result of this legislation was not great, it 
must not be overlooked that the ideals which it 
expressed were not in vain. They produced their 
effects and promoted the knowledge that poverty 
and riches are differences which do not prevail be- 
fore God but which as realities afford a field of 
labor for the highest ethical forces. The declara- 
tion of Jesus that the poor (in spirit) are blessed 
had its root in this legislation, which propounded 
the principle that the poor in spite of his poverty is 
a member of the people of God, and on account of 
it enjoys God's special protection. 

(R. Kittel.) 

Bibliography: D. Cassel, Die ArmenverwaUuna im alien 
Israel. Berlin. 1887; F. E. KQbel, Die sotiale . . . Oe- 
seboebuna des A. T., Stuttgart, 1891; W. Nowack, Die 
sotialen Probleme in Israel, Strasburg, 1892; idem, Archa- 
ologie, i. 350 sqq.; C. H. Comill, Das A. T. und die 
Humanitdt, Leipsic, 1895; E. Schall, Die Staatsverfassung 
der Juden auf Grand des A. T., ib. 1896; E. Day, Social 
Life of the Hebrews, New York. 1901; C. F. Kent, Stu- 
dents* O. T.. iv. 126-133, ib. 1907; DB, i. 579-580, iv. 
19-20. 27-29. 323-326. Extra volume, pp. 357-359; EB, 
iii. 3808-11; DCO. ii. 385-386; JE, iii. 667-671. 

POOR MEN OF CHRIST: Name assumed by the 
followers of Norbert (see Premonstratensians) 
and by the Waldenses (q.v.) 

POOR MEN OF LYONS. See Waldenses. 

Poor Belief 



POOR RELIEF. See Social Service of the 


I. Development of the Papacy. 

Roman Catholic Theory of the Papacy (f 1). 

Papacy in Pre-Carolingian Times (f 2). 

In Merovingian and Carolingian Periods (f 3). 

Tendency to Absolutism Checked (f 4). 

Spiritual and Temporal Supremacy Claimed (f 5). 

Primacy of Jurisdiction (ft 6). 

Primacy of Honor (J 7). 

II. Election of the Pope. 
Development of Present Method (f 1). 
The Conclave (( 2). 

The Election (5 3). 
Procedure after Election ((4). 

I. Development of the Papacy : Pope (Gk., pappas, 
" father ") designates the bishop of Rome in his 
position as supreme head of the Roman Catholic 
Church. According to the doctrine of that church, 
when Christ founded the Church as a visible insti- 
tution, he assigned to the Apostle 
z. Roman Peter the precedency over the other 
Catholic apostles — making Peter his vicar, and 
Theory of constituting him center of the Church 
the Papacy, in that he conveyed to him alike the 
supreme priestly authority (see Keys, 
Power op the), the supreme doctrinal authority, 
and the supreme direction of the Church (Matt, 
xvi. 18, 19; Luke xxii. 32; John xxi. 15-17). But 
since the Church is a perpetual institution, Peter 
must needs have a successor, and the ecclesiastical 
succession is to be secured in that position for all 
futurity. On account of Peter's connection with 
the bishopric of Rome, which he is held to have 
established, this succession, with its derivative 
rights and titular primacy, is permanently attached 
to the Roman see; though not, perforce, to its local 
site in the city of Rome. The succession devolves 
upon the actual bishop of Rome; and so Peter as 
vicar of Christ lives on in the Roman bishops, the 
popes. The doctrines thus outlined are dogmas of 
the Roman Catholic Church; and therefore they 
become immutable and fundamental principles of 
its formal constitution. 

But in the light of objective historical contem- 
plation, the pope's primacy appears to be solely 
the product of evolutionary centuries. It is not to 
be denied that even from the second century and 
in the third century the Roman con- 
2. Papacy gregation and the Roman episcopal 
in Pre- see enjoyed a significant and positive 
Carolingian esteem in the West. The Roman 
Times, church not only stood accepted as 
founded by the Apostle Peter, but was 
also the sole church in the West which could boast 
of apostolic establishment, let alone the fact that 
its site was the pivot of the ancient world, and thus 
facilitated a vast range of communication with the 
other churches and congregations. Yet though 
even so early as in the third century the peculiar 
distinction and the precedency of the Roman 
church were based in Rome upon succession to the 
rights of Peter; nevertheless, not even the Council 
of Nicsea knows of a Roman primacy over the whole 
Church. But what really proved of decisive influ- 
ence in winning legal prerogatives for the Roman 
bishop were the issues of the dogmatic controver- 

sies that agitated the Church from the fourth 
tury forward; since in these controversies the posi- 
tion of the bishop of Rome was of determining 
weight for the very reason of the high respect 
joyed by his church, because Rome supported 
due maintenance of orthodox doctrine. The Syno& 
of Sardica (343) permitted a bishop who had 
deposed by the metropolitan synod to appeal to 
bishop of Rome. Just as this implied a right o4T 
supreme jurisdiction on the part of that dignitary^ 
to uphold which appeal could soon be made to that 
Council of Nicaea, because the decrees of Sardica. 
became consolidated with the canons of that coun- 
cil, so did Innocent I. (404) lay claim to a supreme 
right of adjudication in all " the more grave and 
momentous cases "; and about the same time, he 
claimed the right of issuing obligatory regulations 
for the several districts of the Church. At the out- 
set, however, these were mere assumptions; nor 
could the bishops of Rome bring them to practical 
effect beyond Italy or in such countries as Illyria 
and southern Gaul, where the local situation hap- 
pened to be favorable, and where there happened 
to be voluntary overtures in behalf of close connec- 
tion with Rome. As a matter of fact, in the year 
445, Leo I. obtained of Valentinian III. by an im- 
perial law (Novella Valentiniani, iii.. til. 16), recog- 
nition of primacy, in particular that of the su- 
preme judicial and legislative right of the Roman 
see. However, this law was binding only on the 
West; and it involved neither a renunciation of 
the emperor's right of exercising the imperial pre- 
rogative to legislate in ecclesiastical affairs, nor any 
abolishment of the rights of councils convened under 
imperial authority. It was not by legislation, but 
principally by interfering in this or that special, 
important concern that, both before and after this 
law, the Roman bishop was able to substantiate 
his assumed supreme control of the Church, and 
even in the fifth century to play a deciding hand in 
affairs of the East. Still more significant becomes 
the status of the Roman bishop from the close of 
that century, when the Germans found separate 
kingdoms in Italy. But, at the same time, his 
local sphere of power became narrowed by the es- 
tablishment of the Germans in Gaul, Spain, and 
England; a condition that arrested the progress of 
the centralizing process already started in those 

Especially in the most notable of these new 
states, in Merovingian " France," the direct con- 
trol of ecclesiastical affairs through the Roman 
bishop was legally debarred. Any- 
3. In thing of that kind could come about 
Merovingian only subject to royal approbation, al- 
and though the pope was acknowledged to 
Carolingian be the first bishop in Christendom, 

Periods, and the preservation of communion in 
the faith with him was accounted in- 
dispensable. But the king alone possessed the de- 
ciding authority respecting the law of the Church, 
jointly with the royal or national synod by him 
convened, the decrees of which could become bind- 
ing on the state only by the king's approbation. A 
change in this respect did not set in till in course of 
the eighth century; when the Carolingian major- 



Poor Belief 

domoe, closely allied as they were with Boniface, 
endeavored to cooperate in his project of reorgan- 
tiing and effectually reforming the secularized 
rtankish church. The same situation persisted 
under Charlemagne. In the universal Christian 
commonwealth, such as his empire came to be re- 
garded, he exercised not only the chief temporal 
sovereignty but also the control of ecclesiastical 
affairs, though he evinced even greater zeal than his 
predecessors in assimilating the order of the Frank- 
ish church to the Roman canons and praxis. For 
Charlemagne, the pope ranks merely as the first 
bishop of Christendom and of the emperor's domin- 
ion, who possesses certain prerogatives above the 
other bishops, and is especially called, in view of 
ids station, to watch over the spiritual side of the 
Church and over the proper maintenance of its 
canons and doctrine; yet who may not assume, in- 
dependently of the emperor, any right of control 
over the church of the Frankish realm. Several 
things conspired to bring about a transformation 
of the earlier situation. These were the weakness 
of Charlemagne's successors; the political compli- 
cations provoked through the struggles in the fam- 
ily of Louis the Frank; and the strifes among the 
Frankish bishops. The imperial and royal power 
was no longer in a position to preserve intact its 
ecclesiastical leadership, while the essentially moral 
influence exercised hitherto by the pope, merged 
into an encroachment upon ecclesiastical and po- 
litical ground in proportion as he became repeatedly 
invoked by the wrangling parties themselves to 
decide the issue, while they sought to strengthen 
themselves through his authority. Above all, it 
was Nicholas I. (858-867) who contrived to employ 
all these conditions to the furtherance of his policy 
of subordinating princely and temporal power to 
the Church, of quashing autonomy of the ecclesias- 
tical primary courts in the various countries, and 
of vesting deciding control in the bishop of Rome. 
Pope Nicholas I. found material support for his 
efforts in the opportunely originated Pseudo-Isi- 
dorian Decretals (q.v.) just then coming to the 

But the dissolution of the Carolingian empire and 
the resulting confusion which involved even Italy, 
together with the comparative decline of the pa- 
pacy, soon hindered the prosecution of that policy. 
To raise the papacy out of its degra- 
4. Tend- dation, there needed nothing less than 
ency to the renovation of the German empire 
Absolutism under Otto I. Indeed, the empire, 
Checked, even as late as the eleventh century, 
did wield its own sovereignty over the 
pope and the Church, and at the same time endeav- 
ored to reform the Church internally, being 
supported in this by the bishops whom it had inde- 
pendently invested, who were therefore subservi- 
ent to the imperial will. The dynasty of Otto did 
not, indeed, reassert the maxim of the Carolingian 
civil code, that the supreme authority or power in 
ecclesiastical matters, especially in legislation, be- 
longed exclusively to the emperor. On the con- 
trary, the house of Otto took practical cognizance 
of the theory then already established, that just as 
the universal State had its apex in the German em- 

peror, so the universal Church had its center in the 
pope. In fine, the emperors disposed of momentous 
measures in Church administration, such as the 
creation of new bishoprics, the revival of earlier 
canon laws, and the execution of reforms in accord 
with the pope, largely through synods that were 
held with the pope conjointly. By this policy the 
emperors cooperated in speeding the way to the 
general recognition of the pope's primacy in the 
Church, and to that course of events which began 
to prevail shortly after the middle of the eleventh 

About that time there loomed up in Rome the 

domination of a party in the Church which sought 

to free it from the influence hitherto exercised by 

the temporal power; not only to place 

5. Spiritual the guidance of the Church in the 

and hands of the pope, but also to subject 

Temporal the temporal rulers, above all, the Ger- 

Supremacy man emperor, to the papacy as being 
Claimed, the directive secular force, the defini- 
tive world power. This party's princi- 
pal exponent, Hildebrand (see Gregory VII.), as- 
sumed as a privilege of the pope to be subject to no 
judge, and even claimed the right to depose em- 
perors, to bear the imperial insignia, to decree new 
laws, to hold general councils, to erect new bishop- 
rics, to divide and combine the same, to depose 
bishops, translate them, consecrate clerics of all 
churches, receive appeals in all cases, and to have 
sole decision in all weighty matters of every Church. 
Under Gregory's leadership of the Curia, and his 
subsequent pontificate, the influence of the Roman 
nobility and people upon the papal election became 
debarred; the imperial right of nomination, with 
attendant right of confirmation, was abolished; 
while ecclesiastical reform was accomplished through 
successive synods convened by the pope alone, and 
composed of his own loyal supporters. These synods 
acted as a papal senate, and did away with the im- 
perial synods. Gregory also repeatedly decreed the 
deposition of bishops, and ultimately annulled the 
emperor's antecedent right of appointment or in- 
vestiture to the episcopal sees, over which the con- 
flict issued between the German empire and the 
papacy (see Investiture), and this terminated in 
the emancipation of the papacy from the imperial 
overlordship. So the papacy became the court of 
last resort in the concerns of the Church, and also 
strove to win authoritative and leading power in 
the contemporary civil fabric of Europe. This was 
achieved under Innocent III.; though at the same 
time and by the same process the independence or 
autonomy of the local church tribunals, in particu- 
lar the episcopal, was broken. Yet the bishops 
themselves had, for the most part, promoted the 
policy inaugurated by the Curia in the middle of 
the eleventh century, although with the under- 
mining of the imperial and princely power they 
forfeited the essential support of their own freedom 
in relation to the papacy. The pope, who there- 
after was regarded as the vicar of God, or of Christ, 
and from the time of Innocent III. designates 
himself as such, laid claim to the supreme sover- 
eignty over the Church and the world alike, though 
the temporal rule is committed for practical execu- 




tion to the emperor and other princes subject to 
the pope's control. In the Church the pope alone 
commands the supreme and summary power — 
which exalts him above all accountability before 
any human judge and above and before a general 
council. This was claimed not in virtue of the an- 
cient canons, but solely through the dogma of di- 
vine right. The pope claimed a general right of 
dispensation and absolution; he alone could trans- 
late and remove bishops; whereas the archbishops 
and such titular bishops as he consecrated were re- 
quired to render an oath of obedience patterned 
after the vassal's oath of allegiance. He heard 
cases of appeal from all quarters of the Church, 
and even decided primary cases. He reserved bene- 
fices for his own disposal; he assessed particular 
churches and the clergy for general ecclesiastical 
objects; and he sent abroad his delegates to all 
parts of the contemporary Roman Catholic world 
to carry out his rightful behest, overruling the or- 
dinary local church tribunals. These theories reach 
their high tide at the beginning of the fourteenth 
century, are collectively termed the " papal sys- 
tem," and found their classic expression in the 
much-quoted bull of Bonifacius VIII., Unam sane- 
tarn ecclesiam (q.v.; text in Reich, Documents, pp. 
193-195; Eng. transl. in Thatcher and McNeal, 
Source Book, pp. 314-317). At the same period, and 
primarily in France, the temporal power began to 
react against the excessive stretch of papal power, 
and its encroachments upon the temporal jurisdic- 
tion, while toward the close of the same century, 
evoked by the great schism (see Schism) which 
began in 1378, there cropped out a new trend, the 
so-called " episcopal " system, canceling or deny- 
ing the " papal," which was dogmatically rejected 
by the Vatican Council of 1869-70, and that deliver- 
ance has been accepted by the Roman Catholic 
Church as complete and final. 

The present canon law doctrine distinguishes the 
pope's rights under two heads, " primacy of juris- 
diction " and " primacy of honor." In virtue of 
the primacy of jurisdiction, there ac- 
6. Primacy crues to him the supreme power over 
of Juris- the Church in government and leader- 
diction, ship; and in the execution of his charge 
he is bound only by dogma and the 
divine right. As touching any other law that has 
force in the Church, he is to respect the same so 
long as it exists. The most important rights in- 
volved in the primacy are the supreme right of 
legislation ; the supreme direction and final decision 
of matters affecting ecclesiastical offices; the su- 
preme judicial competency in cases of dispute, 
correction, discipline; regulation of the various 
religious institutions, particularly the orders and 
congregations; the supreme control of the ecclesias- 
tical exchequer and assets of property; the right to 
uphold unity in the liturgy, as also in the adminis- 
tration of the sacraments and use of sacramentals; 
to direct the festivals in the Church at large; the 
right of beatification and canonization; the right 
of according indulgences and regulating fasts; and 
that of reserving for himself the absolution from 
sins pertaining to the sphere of conscience. Fur- 
thermore, the primacy carries with it the supreme 

doctrinal authority. And when the pope voices his 
decisions in this respect, speaking or publishing ex 
cathedra; when in virtue of his apostolic authority 
as pastor and teacher of all Christians he defines a 
proposition affecting faith or morals in the inter- 
ests of the whole Church, his pronouncements are 
then informed with infallibility by reason of divine 
assistance, without need of any further assent on 
the part of the Church, as in a general council (in 
the ConstUuUo Vaticana of July 18, 1870, the bull 
Pastor aternus, iv.). It is in virtue of this doctrinal 
authority that he can issue spiritual decrees in the 
cause of enlarging the dogma, and of defining ques- 
tionable dogmatic subjects; that he can condemn 
errors of doctrine, institute and direct missions, 
found educational establishments, and watch over 
the instruction therein dispensed. According to 
this " Vatican Constitution " the pope is not only 
empowered to exercise all these rights which his 
primacy conveys, in the manner of a supreme court, 
but he is also, by virtue of the same primacy, the 
universal bishop in all the Church. That is, he has 
an immediate, complete and canonical episcopal 
power over all churches, dioceses, and believers. 
For although it is an exaggerated statement to say, 
as do the Old Catholics, that under this Vatican 
dogma the bishops have become legally dwarfed 
into mere vicars or attorneys of the pope, yet the 
Ultramontanists may deny that any change what- 
ever has been brought about in the status of the 
bishops by force of the Vaticanum. While the Vat- 
ican Council by no means put aside the episcopal 
office as a distinct, or " independent " office, yet 
the bishops are in fact reduced to the same position 
as the vicars dependent on the pope directly. Ow- 
ing to his supreme directive authority over the 
Church, the pope also represents the Church abroad, 
particularly in relation to civil governments, and 
this with a standing recognized in international 
law. But this is not to imply that, even in the 
states where Roman Catholics are in the majority, 
he enjoys a sovereignty over Roman Catholic citi- 
zens on like terms with the civil power; nor that 
his position in respect to civil governments is to be 
deemed equivalent to that between two independ- 
ent sovereigns and states. 

The pope's " primacy of honor " finds expression 
as follows: (1) In certain specified designations, 

titles, and forms of address appertain- 

7. Primacy ing to him alone: such as papa, ponti- 

of Honor, fex maximus, or summus pontifex; 

vicarius Petri, vicarius Dei or Christi; 
serous servorum Dei; and in the forms of address, 
SancUtas tua t or vestra, or sanctissime pater. (2) In 
the insignia of the papal dignity: the tiara, a head- 
dress evolved from the combination of miter and 
crown, with three golden bands about the miter; 
the pedum rectum (straight pastoral staff); and 
the pallium, which, in distinction from the arch- 
bishops, he wears at all times and places, when 
officiating at mass. (3) The pope is entitled to tho 
so-called adoratio, the homage due to him by the 
faithful in genuflection and kissing the papal font, 
now restricted solely to ceremonious audiences and 
formal acts of homage; while with ruling princes, 
it consists merely in kissing his hand. Apart from 




his position as leader of all the Church, the pope is 
eoinridently bishop of Rome, also archbishop of 
the church province of Rome, primate of Italy, and 
patriarch of the West. Finally, the pope was also 
temporal sovereign of the Papal States (q.v.), while 
they existed, and as such he occupied, in view of 
international law, the highest rank among Roman 
Catholic princes. 

H Election of the Pope: In early times the 
bishop of Rome, like the diocesan of any other see, 
was chosen by the local clergy and people, assisted 
by neighboring bishops. Later the Roman em- 
perors and the Ostrogothic kings exercised an in- 
fluence, particularly in deciding disputed elections. 
After the fall of the Ostrogothic king- 
i. Develop- dom in Italy, vacancy of the sec of 
ment of Rome was formally announced to the 
Present exarch at Ravenna, and a new pope 
Method, was elected, usually on the third day 
after the burial of the former pontiff, 
by the clergy, the nobles, and the people of Rome. 
The exarch, after receiving the official report of the 
election, secured the approbation of the emperor, 
whereupon the newly elected pope was duly con- 
secrated. During the decline of Lombard power in 
Italy, secular rulers exercised no supervision over 
papal elections, and at the Lateran synod of 769 
the laity were restricted to mere acclamation of an 
election made by the clergy and to confirming the 
protocol. While the story that Adrian I. con- 
ferred on Charlemagne the privilege of filling the 
papal throne is now acknowledged to be untrue, it 
is still a moot question whether the Frankish kings 
and emperors were merely informed by a new pon- 
tiff of his election and consecration, or could con- 
firm the election and require an oath of fealty. It 
is certain, however, that after 824 a new pope was 
usually consecrated only after taking the oath of 
allegiance to the emperor, while the Roman council 
of 898 enacted that a pontiff should be consecrated 
only in the presence of imperial envoys. 

With the restoration of the Holy Roman Empire 
(q.v.) by Otto I. the Romans were obliged to prom- 
ise that no pope should be elected or consecrated 
without the approval of himself or his son, thus 
giving the emperors an influence on papal elections 
which was hitherto unprecedented. Though the 
old forms were preserved, the election became a 
mere form of choosing the candidate designated by 
the emperor, this power being held, despite all ef- 
forts of the Roman nobility, until the death of Henry 
III. in 1056. At the Roman Synod of 1059, how- 
ever, Nicholas II. issued a decree which placed the 
election in the hands of the cardinal bishops, aided 
by the other cardinals, while the remaining clergy 
and the laity were allowed only the privilege of 
acclamation. The king, on the other hand, received 
from Nicholas the right of confirming subsequent 
elections, or at least of vetoing undesirable candi- 
dates before election. This arrangement proved 
impracticable, however, and at the third Lateran 
council, in 1179, Alexander III., tacitly presup- 
posing in the abrogation of imperial prerogatives 
the absence of any share of clergy and laity in 
papal elections, enacted that the vote of two-thirds 
of all the college of cardinals was necessary for the 


lawful election of a pope. This forms the basis of 
the present laws governing papal elections, the 
principal supplements and modifications being 
enactments of the second council of Lyons (1274) 
and Clement V. (1311?), and the constitutions of 
Clement VI. (1351), Julius II. (1505), Pius IV. 
(1562), Gregory XV. (jEterni patris of 1621, and 
the Cceremoniale in electione Romani pontifids ob- 
8ervandum of the same year), Urban VIII. (1626), 
and Clement XII. (1732). 

Until the most recent regulations under Pius X. 

(q.v.), after the pope's death, the next ten days are 

devoted to preparations for the funeral ceremony 

and to preliminaries of the election; especially to 

the institution of the conclave. This 

2. The interim serves at the same time to en- 
Conclave, able cardinals at a distance to reach 

Rome for participation in the election. 
The conclave, an apartment in which the cardinals 
must proceed with the election guarded and ex- 
cluded from the outer world (which they are not 
allowed to leave before the election is completed), is 
made ready in the Vatican, and comprises a chapel 
(for the elective transaction), together with a suite 
of halls in which cells are fitted up for the cardinals 1 
and the conclavists' lodgings. The conclavists are 
persons who have to attend the cardinals in the 
conclave; such as their servants, two physicians, a 
sacrist, two masons and carpenters, and others. 
The cardinals and conclavists occupy this apartment 
on the eleventh day, after a solemn high office. 
Hereupon the constitutions on papal election arc 
read forth, and sworn to by the cardinals, and the 
conclavists are sworn in. At evening, all unauthor- 
ized persons must leave the conclave; and now the 
entrances are all walled shut except one, through 
which food for the persons in the conclave is 
daily introduced; and this one entrance is strictly 

For participation in the election, only those car- 
dinals are of qualified authority who have received 
consecration to the diaconate. Neither is such a 

one debarred by excommunication, 

3. The suspension, or interdict. Absentees 
Election, can deliver their vote neither by letter 

nor by substitute. Theoretically every 
Catholic male Christian, even a layman, who has not 
lapsed into heresy, is eligible. But since Urban VI. 
(1378-89), previously archbishop of Bari, none but 
a cardinal has been elected (cf. G. Berthelet, Muss 
der Papst ein ItaLiener seint Leipsic, 1894). The 
states of Austria, France, and Spain have the right, 
for each state as affecting one candidate, of declar- 
ing a cardinal passively ineligible; but the election 
of an " excluded " candidate can not be challenged. 
In regard to the election itself, it is forbidden, under 
penalty of forfeited vote, to engage in " electioneer- 
ing." Every cardinal present is bound, under pain 
of excommunication, to take part in the business 
of election, which is in order twice a day, forenoon 
and afternoon, till the result be achieved. Where 
voters are sick and unable to leave their cells, their 
vote is of necessity sent for, and this by the hand 
of cardinals expressly selected for the purpose by 
lot. The only admissible kinds of election are (a), 
the elecHo quasi per inspirationem, election by ac- 



clamation; (b) the dectio per compromissum, in 
which the cardinals, instead of electing the pope in 
a body, unanimously transfer the elective preroga- 
tive to a specified quorum of their colleagues (two 
at least), and then instruct them in detail as to the 
steps next to be observed in the matter: for in- 
stance, whether unanimity or simply majority shall 
be required; save that no unlawful forms, e.g., 
election by lot, are allowed to be adopted; (c) the 
dectio per scrutinium, or by ballot. In this case all 
the electors must write the name of their candidate 
on one of the specially prepared voting tickets, con- 
taining printed directions and to be folded; which 
ballots they must deposit in order in a chalice upon 
the altar, within view of the three appointed scru- 
tineers. Next follows the counting of the ballots. 
Should their number fail to tally with that of the 
cardinals present, the balloting must be stopped, 
and the votes are burned. Otherwise the result of 
the voting is reckoned up, and the election is ended 
— provided a candidate has received more than the 
requisite two-thirds majority. Should it so happen, 
however, that he has received only just that ma- 
jority, it is ascertained by opening his ballot whether 
he has not cast his vote for himself; which is against 
the rules and nullifies the election. Ballots con- 
taining the names of several candidates are void. 
Where the balloting fails to yield the prescribed 
majority for some one of the candidates, a special 
procedure is still in order, the so-called accessus, 
with the object of testing whether a contingent of 
the voters will not surrender their candidates and 
declare themselves for one of the others. This 
amounts to a supplementary balloting to the first 
ballot: in other words, the votes already cast stand 
effectual, and the accessil votes are counted with 
them. In order that a result may be reached by 
this process, and yet that the vote of the individual 
voter shall not be twice counted for his candidate, 
the following regulations are in force with the ac- 
cessit balloting. No one is allowed to repeat his 
vote in the accessit, in favor of the candidate whom 
he has already named in the ballot, but he can re- 
tain his choice by writing on his ticket, Accedo 
nemini. Nor can anv one receive a vote of accessit 
who has not yet been nominated in the original 
balloting. If the accessit yields no result, the whole 
act of election stops, and the balloting must be 
begun anew at the next elective session. More 
than one accessit is inadmissible. 

Pius X., who was elected in consequence of em- 
ployment of the exdusiva (see Exclusion, Right of), 
through the constitution Commissum nobis of Jan. 
20, 1904, prohibited the cardinals, under penalty 
of excommunication, to allow in the future the 
veto of any government, even though expressed 
merely in the form of a wish. Thus the exdusiva 
is abolished. It is not yet known what attitude 
the affected states will take in the matter. Through 
the constitution Vacante sede apostolica of Dec. 
25, 1904, this pope regulated the entire course of 
papal election and at the same time introduced the 
following innovations: the funeral rites for a de- 
ceased pope are to last nine days, after which the 
cardinals shall enter the conclave. But on the day 
after the death of the pope the first session of the 

Holy College is to be held, the rules for papal 
tion in the conclave are to be read, and the oath 
the cardinals and conclavists is taken. If the 
loting leads to no result, there takes place no 
cessory meeting, but a second balloting, under tbe 
same conditions as the first. Simony no longer nulli- 
fies election. Directions concerning the feeding of 
conclavists are wanting, hence the rule of Leo XILT. 
concerning the erection of kitchens within the con- 
clave chambers remains unchanged. Secrecy after 
the end of the conclave in respect to official affaire 
is specially enjoined. 

The elected candidate, upon confirmation of the 
result of the election, is solemnly asked by the sub- 
dean whether he accepts the election. With the 
acceptance, he receives the papal office. 
4. Proce- At the same time, and in accordance 
dure after with a custom constantly in effect 
Election, since the eleventh century, he an- 
nounces what name he will bear as pope. 
Thereupon the elected candidate is robed with the 
papal vestments, and now begins their first adora- 
tion on the part of the cardinals. Meanwhile the 
sealing of the conclave has been canceled, and the 
first cardinal deacon forthwith proclaims to the 
people the proper name and papal name of the new 
pope. In the afternoon of the same day there en- 
sues first in the Sistine Chapel and then in Saint 
Peter's the second and third adoration on the cardi- 
nals' part, this time in public. If the pope elect is 
not as yet dignified with the episcopal consecration, 
but only with one of the lower grades of consecra- 
tion, he receives the orders which are still owing 
to him inclusive of the priestly consecration, by 
the office of one of the cardinal bishops. The epis- 
copal consecration, which in former times was per- 
formed coincidently with the coronation, is now 
usually appointed on a Sunday or festival preced- 
ing. It is consummated by the dean of the college 
of cardinals. If the pope elect was of episcopal 
rank already, then a benediction takes the place of 
consecration. After the consecration or benediction, 
there follows the coronation by the dean of the cardi- 
nal deacons with the triple crown in Saint Peter's, 
and on some subsequent day the formal occupancy 
of the Vatican. 

Incumbency of the papal chair by any other 
process than that of election by the cardinals is not 
recognized by the present positive canon of the Ro- 
man Catholic Church; and in particular it is held 
to be unlawful for the ruling pope to appoint his 
own successor; although attempts of that kind re- 
peatedly came about in former centuries, and al- 
though the competency of the pope to alter the 
prevalent law in this respect can hardly be doubted. 

E. Sehling. 

According to the claim of the Roman Catholic Church the 
Apostle Peter was the first pope and reigned from 41 to 67. 

(67-79?) Linus 

(79-91?) Cletus, or Anacletus 

(91-100?) Clemens I. 

(101-109?) Evarestus 

(109-119) Alexander I. 

119-126 Sixtusl. 

? 128-137 Telesphorua 

? 138-142 Hyginua 

? 142-156 Pius I. 


704-707 John VII. 


716-731 Gregory II. 

731-741.. Oratory III. 


i2 (3 di«: 
753-757 ... 
767-797 Paul I. 




796-819 Leo III. 

815-817 Stephen V. 

I . Peechell. 



837-844 Gregory IV. 

844-847 Serfiua II. 

847-856 ... L» IV. 

865-868 Benedict m. 

884-885 Adrian III. 

885-891 Stephen VI. 

801-896 fbnnoeus 

896 (15 <Uys Boniface VI. 

895-897 Stephen Vn. 

913-M.y. 914 . 

a in. 

John X. • 

935-939 . . Leo VI. 

929-931 Stephen VIII. 

931-936 John XI. 

939-939 Leo VII. 

939-942 Stephen IX. 

942-949 Mexinus II. 

945-956 Acnpetua 

956-994 John Xll.f 

993-966 Leo VIII. 

964-905 Benediet V. 

906-872 . . . .. John XIII. 

973-974 Benedict VI. 

974-983 Benediot VII. 

983-984 John XIV. 

984-986.. Boniface VII. 

985-W6 John XV. 

996-999 Gregory V. 

997-998 John XVI. 
Silvester II. 

003 JohnXVII. 

009.. John XVIII. 

Herfius IV. 
Benediot VIII. 

1013 Gregory VI.. Antipope 

1034-1033 John XIX. 

1046 Benedict IX. (deposed) 

046 Silvester III. 

040 Gregory VI. 



is II. 

-1057 Victor II. 

Stephen X. (deposed) 
Benedict X. 

t removed 993. 




1099-1118 .... 


Paaohal It. 







Aibertus, Antipope 

1118-11 19 ... 


Oratory VIII., Antipope 



tine). Antipope 

1124-1130 ... 


Innocent IX. 



Anastaaius IV 

Adrian IV 

Viator IV.. Antipope 


Alexander VDI. 

. . Cahxtus III.. Antipope 





. Imiooeut XIII. 
Benedict XIIL 
Clement XIL 

. Benedict XIV. 

M-: i:.i ... 

, Gregory VIII. 

Clement III. 



. Pius VT. 

1316 1227 . 

. . . Honoriue III. 

. Celestine IV. 

1241 . 


. Leo XII. 



Gregory XVI. 

Pim IX. (kingial reign) 


Urban IV. 

Clement IV. 

Gregory X. 

Innocent V. 

Adrian V. 

John XXI. 

1278 . 

Bhhjoqhaphy: For the 
papacy aa for a mass 

attached. The chief i 
saigas* treatise*, in v 
when urn noted the I 
tor. Cieiahton. Von t 
Milman, and Mirbt: o 

A. H-J.-.J; , 
Berlin. 1873-7*; R.-i. 
Kehr. vols., i.-iv.. Be. 

245, and others are so 

McNe»l. .S,)„r,.-floo*. 

Book of Mrtt-rvil II,- 
For (he history of 
consult: F Mnassen, 
find dw tlttrn / h .rfr/,:rr 
wood. Cathalm fetri: 
Patriarchal*, 6 vols.. 
Do* Papmhum in ah 
1867-89: A. von Ret. 
vols., Berlin. 1X07-7 
Pop-it*. 2 vols., Elb. 
PapauU, It* premier* 

nington. Epoch* of tt 
quain. La PapauU a 

Giwelbrerht. <;,:vli»-l. 
Brunswick. 1881 eqq 
tchel Kirch*. 4 vols. 

1886-90. Eim. tnuul. 
Die PapttwahUn von , 
wick. 1888; II. Dopffc 
dm Karolinetm. Frail 
Pttriiu Claim*. Lond 

detaik of the deralopment of taa* 
of literature the reader ia leferasJ 
■Asaa i-ihi>* and the bibUograplueesa" 

12HS-12K7. . 



St. Celestine V. (ebdieat 


1.1  UH 



1352-1362 ,. 
1382-1370 ... 
1370 1378 . 

Benedict XI. 

John XXII. 

... Benedict XII. 
Clement VI. 

Gregory XI. 

nd Ui/ntAUomMfilnM. Theeouroce 
tMsBK Jaffe, Rcgcla; J. M. TCmt- 
Uificum Vila; 2 vols.. Leipsic, 1802; 
tmlifirum ftamanorwn, parts i.-aii., 
«o PontifirwH romanorum, ed. P. F. 
lit.. 1900-09; and the various coi- 
ned in Reich. Document*, pp. 127- 

ittered in other porta of tho work: 

.f theae-are found in Thatcher and 

.p. 83-250, .309-340; also, in Hon- 

1406-1415. . . 

!>■ hi" . . 
1410 Ml  ... 
111. II . 


Innocent VII. 

Alexander V. 

John XXIII. (deposed) 

Martin V. 

Clement VIII. 

267 aqq.; end in F A. On. Aran. 
an,, pp. 78 sqq., 261 sqq., 380 eqq, 
he papacy id its various nlatioaa 
D<rr Prima* di* BUckof, son Bom 

halkirchrn. Bonn. 18S3; T. Greeo- 
o political Hi*tory of the gnat Latin,, ]■.:.'. \ \\ eetermayer, 

ii  :ir. . . 
1447-1455 . . 
HSd 1458 . . 
1458-1464 . .. 

Felix V. 

Nicholas V. 

Calixtus III. 

Pius II. 

trxicn .1- J ■■■. Scheflhausen, 
ntont. Qfchickli dcr Stadl ft.'-*. 3 
; R. Baxmann. Die Pahtii dcr 
rfeld, 1868-60; E. Duroont. La 
rmprrvur* r-/ir*fi™ tt It* premier. 


Sixtus IV. 

, 1877; P. Lanfrey. Hi*t. politvpt* 
ris, 18S0; B. Jungmaim, DittrHa- 

Paparv, London. I8S1; F. Hoc- 

mojfvn Aqc. Paris, 1881; W. ran 


Leo X. 

* drr deuttchm Kaitmdt, ml.'., 
J. Langen, OttchichU dcr r"-f 

1534 1532 . 

Clement VII. 

Bonn, 1881-93; F. Gregorovhia, 
m im AfiXetalier, 8 vols.. Stuttgart. 

 Clement V. moved the papal see to Avignon u 
and his sue Bass, org continued to reside there for 
yean, till Gregory XI. After that data ansa a f ort> 
eohiani between the Roman popes and the Avignon 

i 1309; 

mifa* VIII. bio Urban VI.. Bruns- 
, Kaitettum und Pa p*ttr*ch*d unlit 
urg, 1880; R. F. LittledsJe. Tht 
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the First Councils of the Church, St. Louis, 1910; A. C. 
Jennings, The Mediaval Church and the Papacy, London, 
1909; W. J. Simpson, Papal Infallibility and its Roman 
Catholic Opponents, London, 1909; G. F. Young, The 
Medici, 2 vols.. New York, 1910; W. E. Beet, The Rise 
of the Papacy, A.D. 886-461, London, 1910; H. Koch, 
Cyprian und der rOmische Primat, Leipsic, 1910; J. 
Schnitser, Hat Jesus da* Papsttum gestiftet, Augsburg, 
1910; J. S. Vaughan, The Purpose of the Papacy, London, 
1910; and the works on church history, e.g., Schaff, Chris- 
tian Church, ii. 154 sqq., iii. 299 sqq., iv. 203 sqq., v. 
passim, vi. 252 sqq. 

On elections consult: W. C. Cartwright, On Papal Con- 
claves, Edinburgh, 1868; R. Zopffell, Die Papstrcahlen und 
die mit ihnen im nachsten Zusammenhange stehenden Cere- 
momeninikrer Entwickelung, Gdttingen, 1872; O. Lorenz, 
Papstwahl und Kaiserthum, Berlin, 1874; M. Heimbucher, 
Die Papstwahlen unter den Karolingem, Augsburg, 1889; 
A. R. Pennington, The Papal Conclaves, London, 1897; 
H. J. Wurm, Die Papstwahl. Ihre Geschichte und Ge- 
brauche, Cologne, 1902; G. Berthelet, Conclavi pontefici 
e cardinali nel secolo, Turin, 1903; P. Herre, Papsttum und 
PapstwahU im Zeitalter Philippe II., Leipsic, 1907 (im- 

POPE, WILLIAM BURT: Methodist; b. at 
Horton, N. S., Feb. 19, 1822; d. at Hendon, Lon- 
don, July 5, 1903. He studied theology at Rich- 
mond College, England; was a Methodist pastor 
(1841-67); and professor of theology in Didsbury 
College, Manchester, from 1867. He published The 
Words of the Lord Jesus, a translation from the Ger- 
man of R. £. Stier (10 vols.; Edinburgh, 1855, and 
later); Discourses on the Kingdom and Reign of 
Christ (London, 1869) ; The Person of Christ (Fern- 
ley Lecture, 1875; later ed., 1899); A Compendium 
of Christian Theology (3 vols.; 1875-76); Discourses, 
chiefly on the Lordship of the Incarnate Redeemer 
(1880); Sermons, Addresses, and Charges of a 
Year (1878); and A Higher Catechism of Theology 

PORDAGE, JOHN: English mystic; b. at 
London 1607; d. there Dec., 1681. He studied 
theology and medicine at Oxford, probably with- 
out taking a degree, at least in course. In 1644 he 
became curate of St. Lawrence, Reading, and in 
1647 was made rector of Bradfield, Berkshire, be- 
ing apparently recommended chiefly by his knowl- 
edge of astrology. He soon began to examine Eng- 
lish translations of Jakob Bbhme, and on the night 
of Jan. 3, 1651, received a number of visions, to the 
reality of which his wife testified. A band of about 
twenty quickly gathered around the two vision- 
aries, and for some three weeks there was no ces- 
sation of apparitions. Under the Commonwealth, 
Pordage was accused of heresy, the charges involv- 
ing a sort of mystical pantheism, but he was ac- 
quitted on Mar. 27, 1651. The accusations were re- 
newed, however, by the Presbyterians John Tickel 
and Christopher Fowler, and on Dec. 8, 1654, Pord- 
age was ejected as " ignorant and very insufficient 
for the work of the ministry." He was reinstated 
in 1663, but about 1670 seems to have retired to 
London, where he spent the remainder of his life. 

About 1652 Pordage became acquainted with 
Jane Lead (q.v.), introducing her to Bohme's mys- 
ticism, and being won in turn as her adherent by 
her own visions. In Dec, 1671, he received new 
revelations, in which his spirit, detached from 
sense and reason, was translated to the mountain 
of eternity; and this experience evidently formed 
the basis of his system of mysticism. Though deeply 
influenced by astrology and alchemy, Pordage, like 
Bohme, sought to make room in his speculative 
system for everything essential in Biblical revela- 
tion. In God he recognizes the being of all beings, 
and the primal cause of all causes. The Father is 
the generator of the Son, or Word, who constitutes 
the center, or heart, of the Trinity. The Holy Ghost 
is the life and force which executes the will of the 
Father through the Son. Next comes the cosmic 
sphere of eternity with three distinct categories of 
space: outer court, sanctuary, and holy of holies. 
In the center of this sphere, God's residence proper, 
dwells the eye that represents God himself; in the 
outer court it is closed; in the sanctuary, open; in 
the holy of holies, revealed with full splendor. The 
body of God, moreover, is eternal cloud, and its 
outline that of Noah's ark. 

An important place is assigned in Pordage's 
scheme to a kind of intermediate being termed 
Sophia, or heavenly wisdom, which he regarded as 
the radiance from the eye of eternity, and as the 
consort and attendant of the Trinity. He likewise 
affirmed a series of emanations or spirits possessed 
of the same substance as the Godhead. A lower 
sphere is occupied by the eternal spirits of angels 
and men; but while Adam's eternal spirit bore the 
spirits of his sons, the souls and bodies of angels 
and men are not immediately from God, but cre- 
ated from the essence of eternal nature. This eter- 
nal nature was not born of God, as was the eternal 
world, but was created by him from the divine chaos 
which concealed within itself the forces of the worlds. 
He also taught a coalescence of the inner man with 
the transfigured person of Christ, and had no sym- 
pathy with conditions in the Church of his time. 


The principal works of Pordage were as follows: 
Truth appearing through the Cloud* of undeserved 
ficandal (London, 1655); Iniutrency appearing 
through the dark Mats of pretended Guilt (1655); A 
just Narrative of the Proceeding* of the Commission- 
er* of Berk* . . . against John Pordoge (1655); and 
the posthumous Theologia Myttica. or the Mystic 
Divinitie of the Mternal Indivisible (anonymous; 
1083). From his manuscripts was translated Vier 
TractStlein . . . Von der Aeusseren Gebuhrt und 
Fleischwerdung Jesit ChrisK . . , Von der My%- 
tischen und innern Gebuhrt . . . Vom Getste de* 
Glaubens . . . Experimental* Entdeckungcn von 
Vereinigung der Naturtn, Essenzen, Tinduren, Lei- 
her (Amsterdam, 1704). A number of other works 
never published in English are mentioned in an ad- 
vertisement appended to Jane Lead's Fountain of 
Gardens (London, J697; cf. DNB, xlvi. 151). 

A. RrKoa. 

Bibuoqiufbt: The prima] sources for a biography are 

meridionals. Btino a . . . Relation of the I'roceidina' 

rami Aninadteriiont . . . upon a Book of ... J. Por- 
aage. Lundon, 1655. Consult further; Q, Arnold. F nv 
ttviiche KiitKrn- und KetterMitorie. iv. BIB. FtuJtSi 

171* P. Poiret, BiWiofAsra «a| 


PORETE, MARGARETA. See Fres , Spirit, 


PORPHYRY: Bishop of Gasa; b. at Thessalonica 
ft 347; d. at Gaza. Feb. 26, 420. After spending 
five years in the Scetic desert in Egypt, he passed 
nn equal period in Palestine under privations which 
impaired his health, visiting the sacred sites and 
living in Jerusalem, where Bishop Praylius nnLiined 
liiru pri'Nliytor and made him custodian of the wood 
of the cross. Early in 305 he was consecrated bishop 
of Gaza, where he increased the scanty number of 
Christians, but at the same time met with bitter 
pagan opposition, bo that he twice appealed to the 
court to close and destroy the heathen temples: 
Snt £398} through his deacon Marcus, and second 
(401-402) in person together with the archbishop 
of Cmuea, The temple of the god Mamas was es- 
ju'eiilly offeri-ivi- to the Christians, and on his sec- 
ond appeal the intervention of the Empress Eudoxia 
secured the destruction of the shrine. On the site 
was erected a magnificent church, the Euduxiurui. 

(E. Hknnkcke.) 
BnuaalMR! Thn YOa, by the draeon Hanoi. »ns edited 
Willi comiiientnrv by M. Hiuipt for the Ilerlin Academy, 
in the AMandtunaen, 187*. pp. 171-215, and published 
separately. 1S75; it is also in AUB. Feb.. iii. 843-661: 
in MPil. mv. WimV.M; ami e,I. by [he Bonn sociely for 
philology, Leipaie. IH05; the dissertation of A. Nulh, De 
Mam diaconl rilo Porphiirii. Bonn. 1897, Is important, 
cf. Draseke, in ZWT. mi (lSsK), 352-374. Consult 
further: Tillemont. Mtmoini, x. 703-7)6; Ceilher. 
Auteuri taerft, vi. 329-330; DNB. iv. 444-445. 

FLATONI8M, III., $ 1. 

PORST, JOHArTlt: German Pietist and hym- 
nolonist; b. at Oberkotzau (28 m. n.e. of Bayreuth), 
Dec. 11. 1668; d. at Berlin Jan. 10, 1728. After 
completing his education at the University of Leip- 

aie, he became private tutor at Neustadt-on-the — 
Aisch in 1602. Becoming; deeply interested in thses 
writings of Spener (q.v.), three years later he n — 
moved to Berlin, where he attended the lectures* 
of the distinguished Pietist. In 1608 he was called 
to be paster of Maichow and Hohen-Schonhausem 
near Berlin, and six years later he became second, 
preacher at the Friedericb-Werdersche und Doro— 
tbeenst&dttsche Kirehe, in both positions remain- 
ing true to the principles of Spener, and being a. 
forerunner of certain later tendencies of the Ianere 
Mission. In 1700 he became the chaplain of Sophie 
Louise, the second wife of Frederick 1., and the 
king invited him in 1713 to become provost of Ber- 
lin. After some hesitation, Porst accepted, and be- 
came at the same time senior of the Berlin clergy 
und inspector of the Gray Friars Gymnasium. 

Porst's independent literary work was inferior in 
value to his practical activity as preacher and pas- 
tor. Although twenty-four books of his have been 
enumerated, many of these were only sermons, and 
others excerpts from larger works written by him- 
self. He devoted much energy to the collecting 
ami editing of edicts and enactments in the inter- 
ests of church government At the same time, be 
wrote several larger works, especially the Theo- 
logia practice regenitorum (Halle, 1743), and Theo- 
logia viaiorum practica (1755), both ascetic treatises 
conspicuously Pietistic in tendency. Porst is best 
known, however, for the hymnal, prepared orig- 
inally for Berlin but later used throughout Bran- 
denburg, which is one of the chief repositories of 
hymns breathing the Pietism of Spener and the 
earlier Halle school. The hymnal first appeared 
anonymously with the title Geisiliche liebtiche Lie- 
der (Berlin, 1708), containing 420 hymns. A sec- 
ond edition, with 840 hymns, including a special 
rubric " on the hope of Zion," pertaining to hymns 
of Chiliastic import, was issued as the Nun vermehr- 
tex geintrdrhes Gcmngtruch (1711).. The third edi- 
tion, Geistlichc und tieUiche Lieder (1713), Porst 
issued in his own name. It contained 906 hymns. 
The latest revision was that of J. F. Bachmann, of 
the edition of 1728 (1855; last edition, 1901) 
from which sixty-two hymns of a false subjectivity 
were dropped, and an appendix containing 210 
earlier or later good hymns was affixed. 

(E. Idi 


liehe Fahrung dtr Sttlen. Stuttgart, 1SSI. Consult fur- 
ther: J. F. BachmMiQ. Zur OeneSichlr itrr Berliner Gt- 
tangbarlitT. Berlin. ISM: idem. Die CnanabOrhrr Ber- 
lin, ib. 1857; E. E. Koch, Otucliiehu da rftuVulHaJl. 
voL iv.. Stuttgart, 1863. 

PORT-ROYAL: One of the most famous of 
French nunneries, noted for the influence which it 
exercised in the seventeenth century on the Ro- 
man Catholic Church and society of France during 
the struggle against the Jesuits. It 
Found*- was founded for the Cistercian order 
tion: in 1304 by Mathilde de Garlande in a 
Angflique. swampy unhealthy valley of the Yvette 
about eight miles southwest of Ver- 
nailles. Through the favor of the popes it was 
made exempt from the jurisdiction of the arch- 




bishop of Paris, and in 1223 Honorius III. gave it 
the privilege of the Eucharist even if the whole 
country might be under the interdict, and the privi- 
lege of asylum for such of the laity as might wish, 
without taking the vows, to retire from the world 
md practise penance. Though the nunnery early 
became popular and wealthy, while its abbesses in- 
cluded members of the most distinguished families 
of France, it did not become important in the his- 
tory of the Church until Jacqueline Marie Arnauld 
was made its abbess. She was the daughter of 
Antoine Arnauld (adopted name, Angelique de Ste. 
Madeleine) and from a distinguished family bit- 
terly opposed to the Jesuits (see Arnauld). Be- 
coming abbess in 1602 at the age of eleven, she pro- 
ceeded with a rigorous reformation and set on foot 
a movement of far-reaching effect on the Roman 
Catholic Church of France. At Port-Royal fast- 
ing, mortification of the flesh, rigid seclusion, and 
renunciation of all property were required; and 
the practical works of love, such as the care of the 
fl'ck, as well as exercises of self-sanctification and. 
devotions, were cultivated with equal fervor. She 
succeeded in winning her distinguished family to 
iier position, nineteen members of which entered 
Port-Royal. In 1618 Angglique went, at the re- 
quest of the abbot of Clairvaux, to Montbuisson 
to reform the decayed nunnery there. Five years 
later she returned to Port-Royal accompanied by 
thirty nuns. On account of the unhealthful situa- 
tion Angelique in 1625 purchased the building 
which is now the Hospice de la maternite* near the 
Luxembourg, Paris, calling it Port-Royal de Paris 
to which she transplanted the nunnery. In 1627 
the joint nunnery passed from the jurisdiction of 
the abbot of Citeaux to that of the archbishop of 
Paris, and the abbesses were now chosen only for 
periods of three years. In 1630 Angelique resigned, 
thus meeting the wishes of Sebastian Zamet, bishop 
of Langres, who (1626-33) was the spiritual direc- 
tor of Port Royal, giving to it an entirely different 
trend by substituting magnificence for simplicity. 

In 1633 Zamet opened a nunnery near the Louvre 
for the perpetual adoration of the blessed sacra- 
ment, of which the archbishop of 
St Cyran Paris made Angelique mother superior. 
and The Shortly afterward Jean du Vergier de 
Male Com- Hauranne became chaplain and con- 
munity. feasor; he had been abbot of St. Cyran 
since 1620, and was accordingly known 
as St. Cyran (see Du Vergier, Jean). A close 
friend of Jansen since his student days, an equally 
uncompromising foe of the Jesuits and admirably 
adapted to be a confessor, he was a man of com- 
manding personal influence. In 1633 a small book 
of Agnes, the sister of Angelique, the Chapelet se- 
cret du St. Sacrement, discussing eighteen virtues of 
Christ, was condemned by the Sorbonne. Zamet, 
however, approved it, as did Saint Cyran and 
Jansen. In gratitude for his aid, Zamet introduced 
St. Cyran into the nunnery of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment, whose inmates had been much offended by 
the book; and through his influence the seculari- 
sing tendencies of Zamet vanished more and more 
until, May 16, 1638, this nunnery was abandoned 
and its property and privileges were transferred to 

Port-Royal. In 1636 Angelique returned to Port- 
Royal, where her sister Agnes was chosen abbess. 
St. Cyran became here, too, the spiritual guide. 
Under his influence not only was there a marked 
renewal of the deepest Roman Catholic piety in 
the nunnery of Port-Royal, but a community of 
male ascetics was formed, among whom were the 
three brothers, Antoine Lemaistre, Louis Isaac 
Lemaistre de Sacy (q.v.), and Simon de S6ricourt, 
and also Robert Arnauld d'Audilly (see Arnauld). 
The last was the eldest brother and the three broth- 
ers were nephews of Angelique. The community 
numbered only twelve in 1646, when it was at its 
height. These new anchorites, who did not sever 
themselves utterly from the world, alternated be- 
tween their annual duties and diligent study of 
the Bible and Church Fathers (especially Augus- 
tine) together with meditations and conversations 
on religious themes. Great attention was devoted 
to the education of the young; and in 1646 regu- 
lar schools were opened in Paris, and in 1653 in the 
country. The entire number of pupils can not have 
been more than 1,000. In 1660, however, the 
schools were suppressed, and from 1670 to 1678 
only young girls could be educated. The method 
was characterized by individual training with 
moral and religious emphasis, leading to the hap- 
piest results. The aim was to awaken and promote 
the minor powers and to conquer evil propensities. 
The discipline was marked by vigilance, untiring 
patience, gentleness, and prayer. The divine image 
and the human fallibility of the pupil were to be 
constantly kept in view. Racine was the most dis- 
tinguished pupil and the " Petites £coles " made 
a famous contribution to pedagogical history. 

The prominence of Port-Royal could not fail to 
expose it to opposition. A book on virginity, which 
exhibited independence of thought, caused Riche- 
lieu to imprison St. Cyran on May 14, 1638, in 
the tower of Vincennes; where, directing his fol- 
lowers uninterruptedly in his correspondence, he 
remained until his release on Feb. 6, 1643, two 
months after Richelieu's death. His great achieve- 
ment during this period was his con- 
Conflict version of Angelique's youngest broth- 
er, Antoine Arnauld (1612-94; q.v.), 
the greatest theologian of Port-Royal. In 1643 
Arnauld's De la frequente communion (Paris, 1643), 
with its protest against careless communing, its in- 
sistence on repentance, and its warning against the 
opus operatum, was a practical application of Jan- 
senistic principles and the manifesto with which 
Port-Royal openly declared war on the Jesuits. 
Arnauld was cited to appear at Rome, but he did 
not go, remaining for several years in concealment. 
The period of 1648-56 was that of the greatest pros- 
perity for Port-Royal. During the warfare of the 
Fronde, the monastery was on the royal side; but 
when, in his bull of May 31, 1653, Innocent X. con- 
demned five theses of Jansen (see Jansen, Cor- 
nelius, Jansenism) the war on Port-Royal as 
the French citadel of Jansenism broke out. Arnauld, 
expelled from the Sorbonne, Sacy, Fontaine, and 
Nicole sought hiding in Paris. The community 
obeyed the command to retire from Port-Royal, 
but the threatened blow was averted by Pascal's 




defense of Jansenism in his Lettree provinciates 
(see Pascal, Blaise) and by the miracle of the 
holy thorn, four days after the retirement, which 
was the alleged cure of an ulcer in the eye of Mar- 
guerite Perier, Pascal's niece, effected by touching 
the holy thorn, and which was exalted by Port- 
Royalists as a confirmation of their faith and by 
the wonder-struck Jesuits as a new divine respite 
for the Jansenists. The following years formed a 
period of peace; but upon his accession in 1660, 
Louis XIV. determined to annihilate both Jansen- 
ism and Protestantism in France, and in April of 
the following year both monasteries were com- 
pelled to dismiss their pensioners, postulants, and 
novices. Antoine Singlin, superior of the nuns, 
barely escaped the Bastile and again sought hiding 
with Arnauld in Paris. On June 8, 1661, the first 
pastoral letter that by equivocations was to make 
subscription possible appeared; which, not with- 
out severe inner struggles, the nuns signed. On 
Aug. 6 Angglique died at Paris. Port-Royal was 
obliged to accept the Molinist Louis Bail as su- 
perior, and neither Arnauld, Pascal, nor Singlin 
dared to return. Bail's rigid examination of the 
nuns one after another in both convents from 
July 11 to Sept. 2, 1661, resulted in finding no sup- 
port for the allegations against them. Neverthe- 
less, on Nov. 28, 1661, they were forced to sign the 
formula unreservedly. The controversies of Louis 
XIV. with the Curia now gave a brief respite to 
Port-Royal, but an attempt to reach a peaceable 
understanding was thwarted by the stubbornness of 
Arnauld. With the enthronement of H. de Pe*r6- 
fixe as archbishop of Paris in 1664, the persecu- 
tions were reopened, and on Aug. 21 he denied the 
nuns the reception of the Eucharist. Twelve of the 
nuns were then scattered in other nunneries and 
nuns were brought from these convents to Port- 
Royal in Paris. On Nov. 29 more nuns were re- 
moved; and a few days after the archbishop ex- 
communicated the entire monastery of Port-Royal 
des Champs. Sacraments were denied; no novices 
could be received; the sound of bells and common 
worship ceased; and there was forced seclusion 
from outside friends, until, early in 1669, Pope 
Clement IX., by permitting an apparent ambiguity 
in the subscription, enabled most of the Jansenist 
party, including Arnauld, De Sacy, and Pierre 
Nicole (q.v.), to sign the formula. The nuns were 
finally persuaded to sign a petition of surrender 
repudiating the five theses, to the archbishop of 
Paris, and, Mar. 3, 1669, the interdict was formally 
raised. Thus ended the long controversy in the 
humiliation of Port-Royal, and its financial ruin 
soon followed. Port-Royal de Paris and Port- 
Royal des Champs were separated, the former se- 
curing two-thirds of the properties. 

Until 1679 Port-Royal enjoyed tolerable peace, 
and the polemics of the leaders of the party were 
now directed against Protestantism. Arnauld and 
Nicole published their La PerpetuiU de la foi de 

Vfylise catholique touchant VEuchar- 
Decline. istie (Paris, 1669), and Arnauld also 

thoroughly approved the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes. During this period of 
peace the nunnery again increased in numbers; the 

hermits returned; Pascal wrote his Peneiet, and 
Nicole his Eseaie de Morale (25 vols., Paris, 1741, 
1755). When, however, in 1677 Nicole implored 
Innocent XI. to condemn the lax teachings of the 
casuists, the king regarded his act as a violation of 
the truce; and in the bitter controversy over the 
regalia he was offended that the Jansenists sided 
with the pope. Arnauld and Nicole were forced 
again to flee from France, and on June 17, 1679, 
Archbishop Harlay brought the royal mandate to 
dismiss the pupils and the hermits and to admit 
no more nuns until the number had fallen to fifty. 
When this took place, the privilege was, however, 
denied; the monastery began to die out; and in 
1706 the last abbess of Port-Royal des Champs, 
Elisabeth de Ste. Anne Boulard, died. The bull 
Vineam Domini of Clement XI. (July 15, 1705), 
with its summary condemnation of Jansenism, 
hastened the catastrophe. The nuns signed it only 
with a reservation. They were forbidden to re- 
ceive novices or to elect a new abbess. On Nov. 22, 
1707, the convent was again excommunicated, and 
the king secured the issuance of a papal bull on 
Mar. 27, 1708, which permitted the dispersion of 
the nuns. On July 11 of the following year a de- 
cree of the archbishop of Paris declared the con- 
vent of Port-Royal des Champs suppressed and 
gave its estates to Port-Royal de Paris. On Oct. 
29 the remaining twenty-two nuns, ranging in age 
from fifty to upward of eighty, were expelled by 
military force; and, being thus dispersed, all sub- 
scribed to the bull except two. The royal disap- 
proval extended even to the buildings of Port- 
Royal; and by a mandate of Jan. 22, 1710, the 
convent and church were destroyed and even the 
dead were removed and interred in a neighboring 
cemetery. (Euqen Lachenmann.) 

Bibliography: C. A. Sainte-Beuve, Port Royal, 5 voU.. 
Paris, 1840-60, new ed., 7 vols., 1908 (the best work, 
though unsympathetic); Fontaine, Mhnoiree . . . de 
Port Royal, 2 vols., Utrecht, 1736; Du Fosse. Mimoirts 
. . . de Port-Royal, Utrecht, 1739; P. LeClerc. Vies in- 
Ureseantee ... des reHgieuses de Port Royal, 4 vob., 
Utrecht, 1750; idem, Vies intereeeantee ... des ami* de 
Port-Royal, ib. 1751; J. Besoigne, Hiet. de tabbaye de 
Port-Royal, 6 vols., Cologne, 1754-53; P. Guflbert, MS- 
moiree historiquee . . . extr Vabbaye de Port-Royal, vols, 
i., iii., Utrecht, 1752-69; H. Qregoire, Lee Ruinee de Port- 
Royal, Paris, 1809; H. Reuchlin, Geeehiehte von Port- 
Royal, 2 vols., Hamburg, 1839-44; J. M. Neale, Hiet. 
o/ the eo-called Janeeniet Church of Holland, Oxford, 1858; 
Mrs. M. A. Schimmelpenninck, Select Memoir e of Port 
Royal, 5th ed., London, 1858; J. Stephen, Eeeaye in 
Ecclesiastical Biography, pp. 279-336, 4th ed., London, 
1860; C. Beard, Port Royal, 2 vols., London, 1861; C. 
Clemencet, Hist. litUraire de Port-Royal, vol. i.. Para, 
1867; A. Ricard, Lee Premiere Jansenistee et Port-Royal, 
Paris, 1883; E. Fenot, Port-Royal et Moony, Paris, 1888; 
L. Seche, Lee Demiere Jansenistee (1710-18*0), 3 vols., 
Paris, 1891; R. AUier, La Cabale dee divots 1627-1666. 
pp. 159-192, Paris, 1902; W. R. Clark, Pascal and the 
Port-Royalists, London, 1902; A. Malvault, Repertoire 
alphabUique dee pereonnee et choeee de Port-Royal, Paris, 
1902; Ethel Romanes, The Story of Port Royal, London, 
1907; A. Oasier, Abregi de Vhistoire de Port Royal cfapree 
un manuscrit prepare" pour C impression par Jean-Bap- 
tiste Racine, Paris. 1908; M. E. Lowndes, The Nuns of 
Port Royal ae eeen in their own Narratives, New York, 
1909; the literature under Pascal, Blaisb. 

PORTAIIOVA, GENNARO: Cardinal; b. at 
Naples Oct. 11, 1845; d. at Rome Apr. 25, 1908. 
He was educated at the Jesuit College in his native 


| oly, and nt the archiepiBOopal lyceum of Naples, 
J itare be was professor of theology, 1877-83, be 
' Ida being professor of philosophy in various Noa- 
1 pcftu institutions 1875-83. In 1883 he was con- 
' Mated titular bishop of Rosea and appointed 
"'$ coadjutor of Ischia, to which see he suc- 
ed on the death of his diocesan two years later. 
Id [888 be was translated to the metropolitan see 
d Btggio di Calabria, of which he was archbishop 
ti3 his death. He was likewise apostolic adminis- 
trator of the diocese of Bova from 1889 to 1895 and 
ofOppdo in 1898-99. In 1899 he was created 
anWl-priest of San Clemente in Rome. He 
wrote Srrori r. deliri del Danninismo (Naples, 1872); 
St la distinsione delta paralogia daUa Jisiolofia e su 
lr nubie loro attinenze (1875); Oil Kvoluzionitti e 
Is hn morale (Rome, 1881) ; Evolusione e miraculo 
(%les, 1882); and La Filotofia tpeculativa 

PORTER, EBErTEZER: Congregationalist ; b. 
li Cornwall, Conn., Oct. 5, 1772; d. at Andover 
Apr. 8, 1834. He was graduated at Dartmouth 
College, 1792; ordained 1796, pastor in Washing- 
ton, Conn.; Bartlett professor of sacred rhetoric 
in the Andover Theological Seminary, 1812-32, 
and president, 1827-34. He was the author of 
Young Preacher'* Manual (Boston, 1819); An 
Analysis of the Principle* of Rhetorical Delivery 
(1827; 8th ed., by A. H. Weld, Boston, 1839); 
Rhetorical Reader (Andover, 1831; 300th ed., New 
York, 1858); Lecture* on Homiletics, Preaching, 
and on Public Prayer (Andover, 1834); and Lec- 
tures on Eloquence and Style (Andover, 1836). 

Bnuosunr: W. B. Spncue, Amaii of the American 
Pulpit, ii. 351-381, Now York, 1856; L, Woods. Hit. of 
Ike Antlorrr TlmoiogKai Seminary, lb. ISM. 

gationalist; b. at Beloit, Wis., Jan. 5, 1859. He 
was educated at Beloit College (A.B., 1880) and 
the theological seminaries at Chicago (1881-82), 
Hartford (1884-85), and Yale (B.D., 1886; Ph.D., 
1889). He was teacher of mathematics and Greek 
in the Chicago High School (1882-84), and instruc- 
tor in Biblical theology in Yale Divinity School 
(1889-61), while since 1891 he has been Winkley 
professor of Biblical theology in the same institu- 
tion. In Biblical study he " advocates a strictly 
historical method (in contrast to a dogmatic)," 
while in theological position he is a liberal Evan- 
gelical. He has written The Yecer Hara: A Study 
in the Jewish Doctrine of Sin, in the Biblical and 
Semitic Studies of the Yale Bicentennial Series (New 
York, 1903) and The Messages of the Apocalyptic 
Writers (1905). 

terian; b. at Burt, County Donegal, Ireland, Oct. 
4, 1823; d. at Belfast Mar. 16, 1889. He graduated 
at Glasgow (B.A., 1841; H.A., 1842); was or- 
dained, 1846; studied theology at the Free Church 
College and University, both Edinburgh, 1842-44; 
pastor at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1846-49; missionary 
of the Presbyterian Church of Ireland in Damascus, 
1849-59; professor of Biblical criticism in the Pres- 
byterian College, Belfast, Ireland, 1860-77. He 
was especially prominent by reason of his connection 

with Irish educational institutions and interests. 
He was the author of Five Years in Damascus (2 
vols., London, 1855; 2d ed., 1870); Hand-book for 
Syria and Palestine (2 vols., 1858; 3d ed., 1875); 
The Pentateuch and the Gospels (1864); The Giant 
Cities of Bashan, and Holy Places of Syria (1865); 
The Life and Times of Henry Cooke, D.D., LL.D. 
(London, 1871); The Pew and Study Bible (1876); 
Jerusalem, Bethany and Bethlehem ( 1887) ; and 
Through Samaria to Galilee and the Jordan (1888). 
He edited J. Kitto's Daily Bible Illustrations (Edin- 
burgh, 1867) and J. Brown's Self-Interpreting BibU 
Bivlioobafht: DNB, ilvi. IS7-18S. 

PORTER, H0AH: Congregationalist; b. at 
Farmington, Conn., Dec. 14, 1811; d. at New 
Haven, Conn., Mar. 4, 1892. He graduated at Yale 
College (1831), was master of Hopkins Grammar 
School, New Haven (1831-33); tutor at Yale (1833- 
1835); pastor at New Milford, Conn. (1836-43); 
at Springfield, Moss. (1843-46); Clark professor of 
metaphysics and moral philosophy at Yale College 
(1846-71); and president of Yale College (1871- 
1886). TTii presidency was a period of great ex- 
pansion and progress, and bis wide fame as a scholar 
was equalled by bis popularity and influence at 
home. He was the author of Historical Discourse 
at Farmington, Nov. 4, 1840, commemorating the 
two-hundredth anniversary of its settlement (Hart- 
ford, 1841); The Educational Systems of the Puri- 
tans and Jesuits compared (New York, 1851); The 
Human Intellect (1868, and many others); Books 
and Reading (1870; 6th ed., 1881); American Col- 
leges and the American Public (1870); Elements of 
Intellectual Science (1871); Sciences of Nature ver- 
sue the Science of Man (1S7 1); Evangeline: thePlace, 
the Story, and the Poem (1882); The Elements of 
Moral Science, Theoretical and Practical (1885); 
Bishop Berkeley (1885); Kant's Ethics, a Critical 
Exposition (Chicago, 1886); and Fifteen Years in 
the Chapel of Yale College (Sermons, 1871-86; 
New York, 1887). He wsa the principal editor of 
the revised editions of Webster's Unabridged Dic- 
tionary (Springfield, 1864, 1880). 

Bibtjoorapht: O. S. Merrism. Noah Porter: a Memorial by 
Priendt, Now York, 1303 (contains bibliography); W. 
Walker. Creeds and Platform* of ConorBBationalitm, pp. 
B50-M1, ib. 1893. 

PORTETJS, BEILBY: Church of England 

bishop; b. at York May 8, 1731; d. at Fulham (6 
m. s.w. of St. Paul's, London) May 8, 1808. He 
received his preliminary education at York and at 
Ripon, and then entered Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge (B. A. and fellow, 1752; D.D., 1767); he was 
made deacon and priest, 1757, and in 1759 won the 
Seatonian prize for a poem on death; he became 
domestic chaplain to the archbishop of Canterbury 
(Thomas Seeker, q.v.) in 1762, from whom in 1765 
he received the livings of Rucking and Wittersham, 
Kent, soon after exchanging them for Hunton, of 
which he became rector; he received a prebend in 
Peterborough, 1767, in 1769 became chaplain to 
the king, and in 1776 bishop of Chester, being trans- 
lated in 1787 to the see of London. As preacher 
he was noted for marked ability and directness; as 
bishop his excellencies were many. ~ 

Portlunoul* Indulgence 



the rising evangelicalism of the times, took great 
interest in fostering the comfort of the poorer clergy 
of his dioceses by securing funds for the increase of 
their emoluments and also by procuring the abolish- 
ment of the evil practise of making them sign bonds 
to resign when requested; he was deeply interested 
in the question of slavery and the welfare of negroes; 
he promoted the cause of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, acting as its vice-president; and 
was efficient in preventing the abuse of religious 
holidays. He opposed the spread of the principles 
of the French Revolution and equally the doctrines 
of Paine's Age of Reason. He was himself possessed 
of ample means, and these he used generously in 
support of various of the interests noted above. 

He was the author of many occasional sermons, 
as well as of volumes of sermons, e.g., Sermons on 
Several Subjects (London, 1784; 14th ed., 1813); 
also of Review of the Life and Character of Archbishop 
Seeker (1770; twelve editions); The Beneficial Effects 
of Christianity on the Temporal Concerns of Man- 
kind Proved from History and Facts (1804; 9th ed., 
1836) ; Summary of the Principal Evidences for the 
Truth and Divine Origin of the Christian Revelation 
(1800; 15th ed., 1835); and Lectures on the Gospel 
of St. Matthew (2 vols., 1802; 17th ed., 1823). His 
Complete Works were often published (best ed., 6 
vols., 1816; really not " complete "). 

Bibliography: His Life, by R. Hodgson, is prefixed to 
vol. i. of his Works. Consult: C. J. Abbey, The English 
Church and iU Bishops, 2 vols., London, 1887; J. H. 
Overton, English Church in the 10th Century, ib. 1894; J. 
H. Overton and F. Helton, The English Church {1714- 
1800), ib. 1906; DNB, xlvi. 195-196. 

plenary indulgence granted to all who should de- 
voutly visit the Portiuncula Church (St Mary of 
the Angels; see Francis, Saint, of Assisi, I., § 1), 
near Assisi, at the request of Saint Francis of Assisi 
by Honorius III. in 1223. This pope confined it to 
Aug. 2; Gregory XV. in 1622 made it good for all 
churches of the Observantist Franciscans on that 
day; Innocent XI. in 1678 made its benefits ap- 
plicable to souls in purgatory. In 1847 the Congre- 
gation of Indulgences made it applicable to every 
Franciscan church. 

PORTO RICO. See West Indies. 


I. History and Statistics. 
II. Evangelical Work. 
The Conditions (f 1). 
Anti-Roman Tendencies (f 2). 
Evangelical Activities (§ 3). 
Agencies Employed (§ 4). 
Results and Prospects (f 5). 

I. History and Statistics: Since October, 1910, 
Portugal has been a republic. It is situated in 
southwestern Europe, between Spain on the north 
and east and the Atlantic Ocean on the south and 
west; area, including the Azores and Madeira, 35,491 
square miles; population, 5,423,132. The present 
boundaries were established in 1255. At that time 
began the struggles between the royal sovereignty 
and the clergy, owing to the clergy's opposition to 
royal taxation, or following measures against par- 
ticular bishops. The Jesuits very early gained in- 
fluence at court, became a ruling force in the edu- 

cational establishments of the country, and through 
them the Inquisition (q.v.) was introduced. This 
development prevailed so that, in the first half of the 
eighteenth century, the aggregate of the clergy and 
nuns amounted to ten per cent of the population. 
Under John V. (1706-50), with very great pomp, 
the archdiocese of Lisbon was exalted to the rank 
of a patriarchate, and the king of Portugal ob- 
tained the title of rex fiddissimus. The property 
of the Church increased more and more through 
the donations of real estate, so that from the twelfth 
century the cathedral churches have received one- 
third of the parish church tithe. King Joseph 
Manuel (1750-77), however, indorsed his minister 
PombaTs demand for the expulsion of the Jesuits, 
1759, and the secularization of a great part of the 
church estates. The clergy grew very powerful 
again under the next king and continued so by vir- 
tue of the repeal of the constitution of 1821. But 
a strong reaction set in again in the period 1834- 
1836. The Jesuits, who had been recalled, were 
again expelled; the tribunal of the papal nuncio 
was abolished; not a few bishops and cloister clergy 
were dismissed from their positions, and the assign- 
ment of parishes was defined to be a function of 
the civil government. All the monasteries for men 
and their educational establishments were declared 
abolished. This, however, was not practically en- 
forced, and a concordat in the year 1842, failing 
only in receiving the final state acknowledgment, 
gave evidence of a new reaction. It obtained a 
lease of existence both by the extension of orders 
and congregations and by the multiplication of fra- 
ternal organizations. These brotherhoods are sup- 
ported largely by gifts; because they serve to es- 
tablish orphanages and the like. In 1862, indeed, 
most of the church estates were sold; but the pro- 
ceeds were turned over to the clergy, and a consid- 
erable yearly provision for the entire spiritual body 
(700,000 milreis; $752,500), on the part of the 
State, was fixed by statute. Though, in 1878, the 
civil class-list was introduced on account of the 
marriage of non-Roman Catholics, yet every other 
innovation undesired by the clergy was omitted. 
The hierarchy consists of the three ecclesiastical 
provinces of Lisbon, Braga, and Evora, under which, 
on the mainland, there are nine bishoprics cover- 
ing twelve diocesan districts and upward of 3,800 
parishes. The constitution of 1821, which long 
since recovered its validity, declares the Roman 
Catholic to be the only authorized church. No 
building of worship may be erected by those of an- 
other faith. [On the proclamation of the republic 
action was taken looking to the elimination of the 
religious orders.] 

Education is retarded; only about one-fifth of 
the population can write. Of the forty-one colleges, 
eighteen belong to the clergy. There are German 
Evangelical congregations at Oporto, Lisbon, and 
on Fayal Island. Congregations of the Church of 
England and of the Free Church of Scotland are at 
Corunna, Oporto, Lisbon, and Porta-Legre. 


n. Evangelical Work: Of all European coun- 
tries Portugal is the only one that was never touched 
by the Reformation. At the beginning of the six- 



Porttanoula Indulgence 

tenth century Portugal was enjoying the most 
brilliant period of her whole history, and by reason 
of her maritime and colonial enterprises 
x. The was rapidly advancing to the front 
Cwdftimw. ranks of European powers. Neverthe- 
less, in the sphere of religion, she seems 
to have escaped the stimulus which came to all other 
European countries! during this or the following 
centuries, from the Protestant Reformation. Sev- 
en! reasons may be offered in explanation: (1) The 
relative isolation of Portugal and her remoteness 
torn the centers of the religious movement, to- 
gether with the lack of easy means of communica- 
tion in that period, precluded the possibility of the 
Portuguese coming in contact with the followers or 
the literature of the Reformers. (2) The absence 
of that preliminary preparation which came to other 
countries through the preaching of such early Re- 
formers as Wyclif in England, Huss in Bohemia, 
Savonarola in Italy, and Lefevre in France, had 
left untilled the seed-plot in which the seeds of the 
Reformation might have taken root. (3) The most 
important factor, perhaps, in closing Portugal 
Against the influences of the Reformation was the 
political despotism, united with that of the Church, 
which prevailed in Portugal at that time. This 
union was further strengthened in 1536 by the 
formal establishment of the Inquisition, and still 
more firmly cemented in 1540 by the admission of 
the Jesuits, into whose hands were committed the 
destinies of the nation for the two centuries that 
followed. Whatever the reasons may be, it is to be 
remarked that Portugal has continued down to 
modern times the most exclusively, if not the most 
intensely, Roman Catholic of all the Latin nations; 
and until to-day there has been no serious effort at 
religious reform. 

Through all the stormy history of the little king- 
dom, Roman Catholicism has remained the State 
religion, and but few crises have arisen in which 
the voice of the Roman Catholic 
Church has not determined the policy 
of the nation. The only considerable 
defection from that church so far may 
be traced either to educational or po- 
litical movements, rather than to the desire for re- 
ligious reform. Toward the close of the eighteenth 
century the gradual infiltration of the ideas of the 
French philosophers inaugurated a " liberal " 
tendency among the cultured classes, which has 
steadily grown until to-day about fifty per cent of 
the educated Portuguese, if not professedly infidel, 
are in open opposition to the clergy. This move- 
ment away from the Church has been limited some- 
what by the dense ignorance of the great mass of the 
people and the scant attention paid to education. 
In 1878 the illiterates were 82 per cent of the popu- 
lation and in 1909 they still comprised 78.6 per 
cent. In 1900 there were only 240,000 pupils in the 
elementary schools of Portugal, though education 
has been declared compulsory since 1844. Like- 
wise in the political affairs of Portugal the nine- 
teenth century marked a persistent struggle by 
certain elements of the population for " liberal " 
principles. The pernicious interference by the Ro- 
man Catholic clergy to defeat the aims of this move- 

2. Anti- 

ment attracted a constantly increasing hatred from 
the working classes and has developed a strong anti- 
clerical party among the masses themselves. In- 
deed, the overthrow of the monarchy in October, 
1910, with the flight of young King Manuel, seems 
to indicate that liberal principles have now won to 
their support the majority of the people. And 
Senor Sebastiano Magalhaes Lima, one of the lead- 
ers in the new republic, has announced that " the 
program of reform will include the separation of 
Church and State." On the other hand, the most 
recent statistics indicate that the secular clergy in 
Portugal numbers 93,979 parish priests in a total 
population of 5,423,132, an average of one priest 
to every fifty-seven inhabitants. 

The foregoing facts would lead to the anticipa- 
tion that the history of Evangelical Protestantism 
in Portugal does not begin until the 

3. Evan- nineteenth century, and that it owes 
gelical its origin not to any stimulus received 

Activities, from the Reformation of the sixteenth 
century, but to the missionary activ- 
ity of Protestant denominations during the last 
century. As far as can be learned, it was not be- 
fore 1845 that the Gospel was for the first time per- 
sistently proclaimed in Portugal. Meetings were 
commenced almost simultaneously in Lisbon and 
in Oporto. In Lisbon it was Mrs. Helen Rough- 
ton, wife of an English merchant, who first, with 
her husband's assistance, held private meetings in 
her house and established a school for Protestant 
instruction. The Roughtons belonged to the Church 
of England, and their humble efforts resulted in the 
establishment of the Anglican Church of the Taipas, 
Lisbon. Mrs. Roughton lived until 1885, but a few 
years before her death adopted the views of the 
Plymouth Brethren (q.v.). At Oporto the first 
Evangelical worker was Miss Frederica Smith, who 
began work privately in 1845. She was born of 
English parents in Oporto and was subsequently 
married to James Cooley Fletcher, United States 
consul at Oporto. At Oporto there labored also 
about this time, Rev. A. de Mattos, one of the con- 
verts of a mission in Madeira, a naturalized Ameri- 
can and probably the first Portuguese Protestant to 
preach in Portugal. Since these early beginnings 
several British societies have opened stations at 
Lisbon and Oporto, as well as at several other of the 
principal cities of Portugal. The Plymouth Breth- 
ren have considerable strength, especially in Lisbon. 
The Scotch Presbyterians also have a mission there. 
The Wesleyan Methodists have an important work 
in Oporto, under charge of Robert H. Moreton, who 
has spent thirty-seven years at this post. The 
strongest Evangelical church in Portugal is the 
Anglican. It has several stations in both Lisbon 
and Oporto. Besides this there are independent 
Protestant churches at Oporto and Porta-Legre, 
supporting their own pastors, while all over Portu- 
gal there are little bands of believers, without or- 
ganisation or a pastor, which are centers of influence 
thoroughly Protestant in spirit. 

It has been remarked that the first Evangelical 
work in Portugal was done in connection with the 
school. It is hardly necessary to state that this 
method has been largely adhered to by the foreign 




societies. In connection with almost every station, 
schools have been organized as the basis of opera- 
tion, there being at least a dozen Prot- 

4. Agencies estant schools in the two cities Lisbon 
Employed, and Oporto. Scarcely less important 

than the work of the missions and 
schools has been that of the great Bible and Tract 
societies. Says a writer from the field: " Represent- 
atives of the union of Protestantism, the British and 
Foreign Bible Society, and the Religious Tract So- 
ciety have done and are doing the widest and deep- 
est, though the least apparent, Gospel work. Their 
general agent, Rev. Robert Stewart, with head- 
quarters in Lisbon, keeps constantly employed six 
or eight colporteurs, canvassing the different prov- 
inces in Portugal and distributing Scriptures, tracts, 
and Christian literature." Of the Portuguese ver- 
sions of the Scriptures, only two have become gen- 
erally known: a Roman Catholic version by Anto- 
nio Pereira de Figueiredo in twenty-three volumes 
(1778; see Bible Versions, B, XIV.; reedited in 
seven volumes and greatly improved in 1804), and 
a Protestant version by Joa6 Ferreira d'Almeida 
(1693, for use in the Portuguese colonies; revised 
and republished in Lisbon in 1874, and again in 
1877). Besides, the American Bible Society pub- 
lished a version of the New Testament in 1859, and 
more recently the committee representing the Epis- 
copalian, Presbyterian, Baptist, and Wesleyan 
churches, has prepared, under the superintendence 
of Rev. Robert Stewart, a complete new version of 
the Bible. In connection with the mission and 
Bible agencies there have been established at Lis- 
bon and Oporto several Protestant papers, which 
have a relatively wide circulation and have proved 
valuable adjuncts in spreading the word of truth. 

The latest official census of Portugal credits the 
Protestants with something less than 500 members, 
including foreigners. But this is obviously inac- 
curate; no complete statistics are available from 
the several societies, but conservative estimates 
place the number of communicants at over 1,000, 
with possibly 3,000 adherents. 

It will be seen that the record of evangelistic 
work in Portugal is brief, uneventful, and to the un- 
sympathetic student uninspiring; in- 

5. Results deed, measured in terms of adherents 
and won, churches built, and schools or 

Prospects, colleges opened, it must be admitted 
that the results have hardly justified 
the expenditure of money and toil and the sacrifice 
of life at which they have been secured. Neverthe- 
less, to the intelligent student of missions, who has 
an adequate grasp of conditions in Portugal, the 
Protestant propaganda conducted there does not 
appear so fruitless, nor the outlook so hopeless as 
the bare statistics seem to indicate. So far, the 
work in Portugal has been preparatory merely, and 
it has encountered those obstacles which are inci- 
dent to pioneer efforts at evangelism in all Roman 
Catholic countries, namely, the ignorance, irrelig- 
ion, and intolerance of the people. It may be that 
in Portugal these conditions have been more acute 
than in other Latin countries. The large percent- 
age of illiteracy has already been noted, and when 
it is considered that the uneducated classes are the 

only portion of the population that are Accessible, 
ordinarily, to evangelistic effort, it will be seen that 
the growth of Protestantism must depend almost 
entirely upon the educational facilities which tfcw 
missions can offer. In particular the ignorance o( 
the Portuguese concerning Protestantism is am£* 
zing. Both the peasant and the educated, the law- 
man and ecclesiastic are wholly ignorant of £"to 
nature. The peasant and the layman confound 
Protestants with Jews, Moors, and unbelievers, aa*3, 
taught by their priests, they have associated wifcA 
Protestantism everything that is despicable aim^ 
immoral. As for skepticism, it is not confined t>^> 
the educated but, as in other nominally Romav^Ei 
Catholic countries, practical infidelity prevails fc^3 
a distressing extent among the priests and peopl^^=» 
and gives rise to the most appalling vices and inm- — 
moralities in all walks of life. The Portuguese peopU^^ 
know nothing of tolerance as Protestants under*—- 
stand it. A clause providing for religious tok 
ance has long been in the national constitution, but 
it has no reference to Protestantism. To the peoples 
the only representative of Christianity is the Ro- 
man Catholic Church, and tolerance means noth- 
ing more than the right to oppose the Roman 
Catholic clergy. It has not infrequently happened 
that the people incited by the Jesuits and priests 
have indulged in violent persecu