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Full text of "Newsletter of the Association for Gravestone Studies"

THE ASSOCIATION FOR 
GRAVESTONE STUDIES 



NEWSLETTER 



Volume 1, Number 2 Fall 1977 

ISSN: 0146-5783 



AGS ORGANIZED 
OFFICERS NAMED 

The Association for Gravestone Studies was 
organizationally developed during a two-day 
working session held at Dublin, N .H . in June. 
Through a series of working groups, immediate 
and long-range goals were considered and 
accepted, a constitution written and formally 
adopted, and the first officers elected. 

Three original members of the Temporary 
Executive Committee that spurred AGS 
organization were elected to top positions. 
Ralph Tucker was selected President; Jessie 
Lie, Secretary; and Peter Benes, Treasurer. 

So that AGS might deal effectively with the 
multiple goals it has set and with the various 
concerns of its members, several Vice Presiden- 
tial posts were established. Each officer's res- 
ponsibility is for a well-defined objective. These 
posts and their incumbents are: Archives, 
James Slater; Conservation, Edwin Connelly; 
Education, Joanne Baker; Grants, Gay Levine; 
Publications, Nancy Buckeye; Research, Tom 
Zaniello. 

Because the membership lives in all parts of 
the United States as well as Canada a system of 
Regional Representatives has been developed. 
These persons are charged with the task of 
coordinating activities and programs as they 
develop in specific geographic locations. Those 
named to date are: Mary Emhardt, Barrington, 
New Hampshire; Jo Hanson, San Francisco, 
California; Mary-Ellen Jones, Orinda, 
California; Robert Mackreth, Sequoia National 
Park, California; Jane Schoonmaker, 
Niverville, New York, and Sally Thomas, New 
London, New Hampshire. 

Members with a special interest in any aspect of 
organizational work are encouraged to contact 
officers or regional representatives with sugges- 
tions or to volunteer their services. The first 
semi-annual meeting of the Executive Board 
will be held in Boston, Massachusetts in 
January, 1978. 



^->. DANIEL FARBER ASSOCIATION ^^-~ 
(^^ HONOR AWARD RECIPIENT (^^1 

V^i^ IN DUBLIN, NEW HAMPSHIRE V^ 

The first AGS Honor Award was presented to 
Daniel Farber for his several contributions to 
gravestone preservation at the organizationed 
meeting in June. Many persons first recognized 
the beauty of the stones when they saw Farber's 
photographic studies of them at an exhibition. 
His work is now in the permanent collections of 
over 15 museums including the Library of 
Congress, Yale University Art Gallery, Ben- 
nington Museum, and Hopkins Center 
(Dartmouth College). And 1500 photographs of 
early Massachusetts stones forming an im- 
portant record of this historic sculpture have 
been deposited with the American Antiquarian 
Society in Worcester, Massachusetts. 

But Daniel Farber's important con- 
tributions to the work of stone conservation are 
perhaps not as well known. Farber has literally 
'saved' stones fi*om destruction by bringing 
damaged and decaying examples to the atten- 
tion of museums, historical societies, and 
governmental offices. He played a critical role, 
too, in relocating early Worcester gravestones 
that had been buried under the town green. 

As he accepted the award, Farber noted his 
predominant interest in nature photography. 
Certainly those who are acquainted with his 
studies of trees will appreciate his sensitivity to 
composition in nature. But his photographs of 
early gravestones mark that work as his great 
contribution to American art history. 

TABLE or COhJTEhrrS 

AGS Logo Stle.ctzd 5 
Vubtin SimlncUL 

PtUvUan Gfuivutone^ IT 2 

VfioczzdUnQi, , Svnlncui T 4 

FtatuA^ AjvUcIu 3,5 

Gfiave^tom Blbtiociw.phy 1 

PubticatlonA of, JnteAtit 3 

Copyright 1977 by the Association for Gravestone 
■ Studies; all rights reserved. 



RESOURCES FOR 
GRAVESTONE STUDIES 

One section of Ludwig's forthcoming collec- 
tion of essays will consist of an annotated 
bibliography which attempts to be as com- 
prehensive as possible. It is described as follows 
in the book proposal as accepted by the 
publisher. 



This list of resources represents all 
materials pertinent to research in early 
American stonecarving. There is, first, 
a bibliography which identifies and an- 
notates studies of the carvers; the 
technology of stonecarving; 
examinations of representative styles; 
considerations of iconography and of 
artistic intent; interpretations of the 
role of the stone in American fold art; 
reviews of the history of tomb 
sculpture; emd articles which serve 
primarily as pictorial resources. There 
are, too, materials which describe 
methods of stone reproduction, of stone 
restoration, and of graveyard 
preservation. Multidiciplinarian ap- 
proaches are included as well as studies 
on methodology. 

Many citations are of studies 
which do not have New England 
antecedents. These include 
publications and collections on 
English, Dutch, Canadian, 
Yugoslavian, and other traditions, 
while in the United States citations will 
be given for the literature dealing with 
carving in Pennsylvania and the 
South-west. In addition to the 
bibliography there is a list of the major 
photographic archives, their contents 
and locations. 



Contributions of citations (and copies of 
manuscripts where possible) of relevant sources 
are welcomed. In particular I am anxious to in- 
clude references to and descriptions of as many 
manuscript texts and newspaper articles and 
sources of photographic archives that can be 
identified. I'm working with a June, 1978 
deadline. 

In the course of my research during the past 
two years I have collected scores of cemetery 
records which will probably be too numerous to 
include in that text. It is possible that these may 
be published as a separate annotated listing or 
as an ongoing contribution to this pubUcation. 

N.B. 




DUBLIN SEMINAR 
PURITAN 
GRAVESTONE ART II 



"Puritan Gravestone Art II," the third Dublin 
Seminar on New England Folklife, will be held 
June 24-25, 1978, at Dublin, New Hampshire. 
Field, studies are being offered this year, in ad- 
dition to reports of current research on religious 
and secular symbolic studies, and discussions 
of individual stone cutters, their tools and 
quarrying techniques, and progress in stone 
conservation. These will allow participants 
'hands on' experience in rubbing, daubing, cas- 
ting, and cemetery recording. 

Further details will be published in the 
Newsletter or can be obtained by writing Peter 
Benes, Dublin School, Dublin, New Hampshire, 
03444 (603-563-8025) or the American and New 
England Studies Program, Boston University, 
725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, 02215 (617-353-2948). Suggestions 
for program topics and participants may be ad- 
dressed to Nancy Buckeye, Seminar Program 
Chairman, Park Library, Central Michigan 
University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan, 48859, 
or to the AGS editorial address. 



CONTRIBUTORS 

Carmine Prioli is Assistant Professor, 
Department of English, North Carolina State 
University/Raleigh. 

Harriot Tuttle's research was conducted in sup- 
port of her Senior Essay in the History of Art at 
Yale University. 

Mary-Ellen Jones is Manuscript Cataloger, 
Bancroft Library, University of 
California/ Berkeley. 



The Newsletter of the Association for Gravestone 

Studies. 

Published at the University Museum, State 

University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony 

Brook, New York 11794. 

Editor: Nancy Buckeye 
1210 Bruce St., 
Mt. Pleasant, Michigan 




RECENT PUBLICATIONS OF INTEREST TO MEMBERS 



The Old South Hadley Burial Ground, 1976 
includes 650 pages of photographs, castings, 
and rubbings. Each stone in the graveyard is 
depicted and accompanying text specifies its 
shape, dimensions, material of composition, 
and condition, and the carving on the stone. 
This book is a useful example of what can be ac- 
complished through group efforts. Copies of 
this limited edition are available for $15.00 from 
James B. Allen, South Hadley Historical 
Society, 55% North Main Street, South Hadley, 
Massachusetts 01075. 

Another Bicentennial effort, "The Newtown 
(Connecticut) Bee Gravestone Study" appeared 
as a supplement to "Antiques and the Arts 
Weekly," November 19, 1976. Although the 
Photographic illustrations are sometimes too 
poorly reproduced to be read, there is an abun- 
dance of useful maps, graphs, and text that 
cover relevant historical, sociological, and 
styUstic data. 




Thomas Zaniello has pubhshed "American 
Gravestone: An Annotated Bibliography" in 
Folklore Forum, 9:3-4 (December 1976). pp. 
115-137. It includes material relating to local 
history, folklore, popular culture, art history, 
sociology, and geography. Topical divisions 
emphasize regional studies, epitaphs, and 
methods of field studies. 

A stunning photo/essay "Silent Art of Our 
Past" by Francis Y. Duval and Ivan B. Rigby 
appeared in American Art Review, 3:6 
(November/December 1976), pp. 70-85. Over 25 
illustrations, some full-page, capture the 
variety and beauty of these early examples of 
American Craftsmanship. Text emphasized the 
history of the art and calls for stone 
preservation. 

A new study by Jean lipman co-authored with 
Helen M. Franc, Bright Stars: American 
Painting and Sculpture Since 1776 (E .P. 

Dutton, 1976), gives only the briefest attention 
to the work of early carvers. The Polly Combes 
stone (Bellingham, Massachusetts, ca. 1795) is 
the single example illustrated and discussed. 

CALIFORNIAN'S PHOTOGRAPHIC FIELOWORK 

I have visited over 150 cemeteries in some 30 counties and have photographed about 1000 
tombstones including those signed by 95 individual carvers or companies. My primary archive con- 
sists of 2 '^" X 2 Va" black and white negatives made with a RoUeiflex, supplemented for the last year or 
80 by a secondary archive of 35mm color slides made with a Canon FTb. 

In addition to field work, I am gathering data concerning stonecutters and marbleyards. 
Virtually no published information exists; primary source materials such as probate records, tsix 
records, newspapers, and church and cemetery records must be used almost exclusively. In the Ban- 
croft Library at the University of California at Berkeley and the Califormia State Library at 
Sacramento, I have gathered information relating to about 25 carvers. In addition, I have created a 
file of all stonecutters and marbleyards listed in all pertinent county directories in Bancroft (the 
largest collection extant). I am currently examining contemporary newspapers for ads and other 
data. Research based on documents found in courthouses and other repositories, without which my 
study cannot be completed, is quite slow because their hours coincide with my working hours. 
Fortunately, I work at Bancroft and usually devote lunch hours and such to my project. 

Information gathered to date is obviously far too sketchy to draw valid conclusions-only a few 
general observations. While the stonecutter was a necessary citizen of the community, he did not 
seem to become a prominent one. Many changed locations fairly often within a town or area and also 
changed partners a great deal. Changing locations within a town was probably due, at least in part, to 
the frequent fires that repeatedly destroyed entire blocks if not towns. Changing locations within an 
area was probably due to the rapid growth and decline of many mining towns. Changes in 
partnerships were perhaps due partly to the transitory nature of mining town populations. 

I feel a deep sense of great urgency (bordering on panic) to photograph as many tombstones as 
possible as rapidly as possible! This will accomplish one thing of increasingly vital importance, that 
is, the preservation on film of tombstones whose future in the original is far from assured. They are 
vanishing rapidly and permanently as the result of vandEdism, theft, normal disintegration 
accelerated by air pollution, and urban expansion. Califormia is a large state; often I must drive much 
of the weekend to photograph in only one or two cemeteries which makes field work costly and time- 
consuming. I sometimes used to sleep in cemeteries for economic reasons and to be there early in the 
morning when the light is usually ideal, but fear of being vandalized along with the stones has driven 
me to safer quarters. Mary-Ellen Bancroft University of California/Berkeley 



Questions & Answers 



To encourage the dissemination of information, tiie newsletter will print inquiries and replies 
on matters related to early gravestones. Please send such correspondence to the editor 



My main interest at the moment is the stonecarving of the Lamson family of Charlestown, Mas- 
sachusetts. If I were not at school most of the time, I would undoubtedly be doing most of my 
"research" in the cemeteries themselves. However, because of lack of time, transportation, and funds, 
I have done most of my work at Yale. My studies related to this paper thus far have included the 
following: reading books and articles at Yale; taking an American Art History course and a pre- 
Revolutionary History course last semester; studying the photograph collection of gravestones given 
to both Yale and the American Antiquarian Society by Mr. Daniel Farber; corresponding with Dr. 
Allan I. Ludwig, Ms. Nancy Buckeye, Mr. Peter Benes, Mr. Daniel Farber, the New York State His- 
torical Society at Cooperstoen, and the Rev. Ralph Tucker; discussing my project and collecting 
valuable advice from Mr. Daniel Farber, Rev. Ralph Tucker, and Mr. David Stannard; and finally, 
visiting the cemeteries of Andover, North Andover, Concord, and Boston during my short visits at 
home. 

The results of my work are still in note form. My goals for this paper are to illustrate the style and 
decorative motifs of Joseph Lamson, to relate his work to that of the Old Stonecutter of Boston, and to 
show the similarities and differences in Lamson stones over either two or three generations. 
Hopefully, the designs of these stones will have recognizable parallels in furniture and other 
decorative arts of corresponding periods as well. Harriot Tuttle Yale University 



The following note was received in response to 
Tom Zaniello's query from a Mr. Benjamin 
John Lloyd, Great Bedwyn, Marlborough, 
Wilts, United States. Mr. Lloyd identifies 
himself as a Master Mason. 

"The development of the WEEPING WILLOW 
TREE can be traced in the megalithic tombs of 
Brittany of some 4,000 years ago. Everything 
on it is in threes, suggesting that the deceased 
professed Godliness but was in fact otherwise 
interested as you can see by the shape of the 
tree. He grew up. He laid down and died and 
then descended into the bottomless pit." 



The Spring 1976 issue of the Journal of the 
New Haven Colony Historical Society (24:1) in- 
cludes a discussion by David J. Corrigan of 
"Symbols and Carvers of New Haven Graves- 
tones," pp. 3-15. Corrigan identifies the work of 
the Johnson family(8ee Caulfield, Bulletin, 
Connecticut Historical Society, 21:1 January 
1956, pp. 1-21), Michael Baldwin (AGS, 
New^sletter 1:1, "Questions and Answers." p. 
5), and Thomas Gold. 



Irma Melin of Fairview Park, Ohio, is interested 
in making contacts with others who wish to 
make field trips to gravestone sites in Ohio and 
nearby states. Of particular interest to her are 
stones in Central to Southwestern area. 



SEMINAR PROCEEDINGS AVAILABLE 




Proceedings of the first Dublin Seminar for 
New England Folklife are now available. 
Contents include the presentations of seminar 
faculty and discussion sessions of the first meet- 
ing devoted solely to Early American graves- 
tone studies, which was held on June 19-20 in 
Dublin, N .H . A selected bibliography which 
reflects the specialized interests of that seminar 
and its participants is appended. Copies may be 
secured for $6.00 either through Boston 
University or by contacting Peter Benes at the 
Dublin School, Dublin, New Hampshire, 03444. 



Suggestions for future newsletter contents and submission of brief articles, reviews, and reports of 
research in progress are welcome. Manuscripts should be typed, double spaced, and sent to' the editor 
at 1210 Bruce Street, Mr. Pleasant, Michigan, 48858 for review. 



AGS LOGO 




The figure of the EUzabeth Smith stone (Williamstown. MA, 1771) prominently displayed on this is- 
sue of the Newsletter has been adopted as the AGS logo. Members present at the June 1977 meeting 
selected it over several proposed designs as reflective of the broad appeal of gravestone art. They 
wished an emblem that would not be tied to any specific location or any particular period of stone art 
such as Puritan or Neoclassical. 

The carver of the Smith design has not yet been identified although stylistic and historical 
evidence supports the possibility that it is the work of Samuel Dwight (Vermont History, 43:3 
[Summer 19751, PP- 208-216). Nonetheless, it reflects the artistic elements in these early stones and 
underscores their folk origins. The logo will appear on official stationery and on all publications of 
AGS. 



A READING OF THE RUTH CARTER STON E / GRANARY, BOSTON 



In her interpretation of the significance of 
the skeletons flanking the Ruth Carter stone, 
Harriet Forbes speculates that one of the 
skeletons depicts the deceased as she lay in her 
coffin. The other, Mrs. Forbes contends, shows 
her "walking away with an upraised hand and 
a jaunty air as if, freed from confinement, she 
was going forth for a new life and a new work." 
(Gravestones of Early New England and 
the Men Who Made Them, 1655-1800 [1927; 
New York: Da Capo Press, 1967,] pp. 36-37 and 
plate opposite p. 24). 

Upon close examination of the skeletons, 
however, it becomes apparent that they are 
personifications of Death rather than bony ren- 
ditions of the deceased. As Allan Ludwig 
rightly points out, the skeletons are both stan- 
ding. (Graven Images: New England 
Stonecarving and Its Symbols, 1650-1815 
[Middletown, Conn., 1966,] p. 300). Moreover, 
the carver's attempt at modelling half-rounded 
forms creates a "new spatial effect" that 
represented a sophisticated advance over 
earlier Boston area stonecarving. 

If we look at the skeleton on the left 
(Ludwig, plate 168), we can see that the figure is 
standing upon a pedestal or, more likely, a 
sarcophagus. The cai^er's efforts at conveying 
a sense of depth are apparent in his 
arrangement of the skeleton's feet, the left 
angled outward, positioned slightly behind the 
right. Moreover, the right foot is well extended 
over the edge of the sarcophagus, and has the 
effect of leading the viewer's eye into the scene. 
Once captured, the viewer's attention is then 
brought upward toward the skeleton's right 
hand which exhibits an attempt to carve a 
forefinger pointed at the viewer. Crooked 
outward from the thumb, the finger appears 
only to be bent awry. 

Despite this unsuccessful attempt at 
foreshortening, the initial objective has been 
achieved: the viewer's attention is captured, is 
led left to right through the maze-hke floral 
patterns and Uly representing the risen soul of 
Ruth Carter, and is brought to rest in the right 
panel where the skeleton is seen again. 



(Ludwig, plate 169). This time, however, he is in 
motion, turning in the direction of the 
imaginary depths of the grave. 

As he turns. Death also beckons with his 
arm-the same he used in the opposite panel to 
point to the viewer. As he does so, the 
significance of both skeletons becomes clear: 
they are personifications of Death acting out a 
bizarre but familiar pantomime. It is a simple, 
two-step sequence in which the image evokes 
more than a sense of perspective and volume. 
Rather, what we have is a sense of movement, a 
lilting rendition of the danse macabre, the 
Dance of Death. And the carver's ac- 
complishment is that he has conveyed in purely 
visual terms a message whose expression by 
1698 had become something of a verbal redun- 
dancy: "Prepare for Death and Follow Me." 

Carmine Prioli 

University of North Carolina/Raleigh 



Membership Application 

Association for 



Gravestone 



To: The 
Studies 

Dublin School, Dublin, N.H. 03444 
Name Address 



Enclosed is my membership for the As- 
sociation for Gravestone Studies: 
Active/$ 10.00 
Student/$5.00 
Sustaining/$25.00 
Institutional Sub8cription/$5.00 

I would like to participate on the following 

committees: 

Archives Publications 

Grants Conservation Education 



'ai^^ ywncnt) 6uyfiynu ,nrdij7v)i^-ii0:i '1911 'ummiuifQ:TQns79-ip^0Vn)q 




^i5iii^.'^ ri^ 



University Museum 

Anthropology Department 

State University of New York at Stony Brook 

Stony Brook, New York 11794 



Nonprofit Org. 

U.S. POSTAGE 
PAID 

Stony Brook, N.Y. 
Permit No. 65 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium IVIember Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/newsletterofasso113asso 



V 



NEWSLETTER of the Volume 1. Sumhcr 1 

ASSOCIATION for GRAVESTONE STUDIES Spring 1977 



THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 

Early gravestones are important. 
They are disappearing rapidly. 



These two sentences are a summary of the situation which has brought forth the 
Association for Gravestone Studies, an organization proposed to promote the study and 
preservation of early American gravestones. The Association seeks a diverse group of 
persons interested in the study of grave markers - amateurs and professionals, students of 
archaeology, anthropology, history, genealogy, art history, iconography, and other fields - 
who share an appreciation of the importance of gravestones and a concern for their 
preservation in the face of the many forces that threaten them today. 

The idea for the Association was first put forth at the Dublin Seminar on Early New 
England Stonecarving in June 1976. A consensus was reached among seminar participants 
concerning the need for an organization that would work to bring wider public attention \o 
the significance of early gravestones, encourage conservation efforts, and promote study in 
the field. A preliminary meeting was held in Boston on December 20, 1976. to begin the 
planning; a temporary executive committee was established of those volunteers who 
attended, and a tentative statement of purpose was formulated for discussion at this summer 
summer's organizational meeting. (Text of the statement on page two). 

The members of this committee believe that such an association will be able to 
accomplish a number of important tasks. By facilitating communication among students of 
the subject, and by compiling and disseminating information, the Association can accelerate 
progress in the field. More importantly, perhaps, by working together Association members 
will be able to work more effectively for the preservation of this vanishing resource; hose 
who are familiar with the damage caused by wind and rain, by the bulldozers of developers, 
by vandals with spray paint and zealous groundskeepers with power mowers will understand 
the need for immediate action. 

s, 
MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION 

Membership in the Association tor Gravestone Studies is open to all who are 
interested in the study and preservation of early gravestones. Along with a subscription to 
the Newsletter, members will receive red ced rates on admission to all Association confer- 
ences and seminars, and reduced costs for Association publications, including the soon-to-be 
published Proceedings of the Dublin Seminar on Early New England Stonecarving. Members 
will be able to avail themselves of all other facilities of the A.G.S. as they are developed. 
Annual membership dues are as follows: SIO.OO - Active; $25.00 - Sustaining; $5.00 - 
Student. A membership application is supplied in this issue of the Newsletter. 



NEWSLETTER of the Voliwie I. \umhcr I 

ASSOCIATION for GRAVESTONE STUDIES Spring 1977 



THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 

Early gravestones are important. 
They are disappearing rapidly. 



These two sentences are a summary of the situation which has brought forth the 
Association for Gravestone Studies, an organization proposed to promote the study and 
preservation of early American gravestones. The Association seeks a diverse group of 
persons interested in the study of grave markers - amateurs and professionals, students of 
archaeology, anthropology, history, genealogy, art history, iconography, and other fields - 
who share an appreciation of the importance of gravestones and a concern for their 
preservation in the face of the many forces that threaten them today. 

The idea for the Association was first put forth at the Dublin Seminar on Early New 
England Stonecarving in June 1976. A conserisus was reached among seminar participants 
concerning the need for an organization that would work to bring wider public attention \o 
the significance of early gravestones, encourage conservation efforts, and promote study in 
the field. A preUminary meeting was held in Boston on December 20, 1976, to begin tile 
planning; a temporary executive committee was established of those volunteers who 
attended, and a tentative statement of purpose was formulated for discussion at this summer 
summer's organizational meeting. (Text of the statement on page two). 

The mem.bers of this committee beHeve that such an association will be able to 
accomplish a number of important tasks. By facilitating communication among students of 
the subject, and by compihng and disseminating information, the Association can accelerate 
progress in the field. More importantly, perhaps, by working together Association members 
will be able to work more effectively for the preservation of this vanishing resource; hose 
who are familiar with the damage caused by wind and rain, by the bulldozers of developers, 
by vandals with spray paint and zealous groundskeepers with power mowers will understand 
the need for immediate action. 



MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION 

Membership in the Association for Gravestone Studies is open to all who are 
interested in the study and preservation of early gravestones. Along with a subscription to 
the Newsletter, members will receive red- ced rates on admission to all Association confer- 
ences and seminars, and reduced costs for Association publications, including the soon-to-be 
published Proceedings of the Dublin Seminar on Early New England Stonecarving. Members 
will be able to avail themselves of all other facilities of the A.G.S. as they are developed. 
Annual membership dues are as follows: SIO.OO - Active; S25.00 - Sustaining; $5.00 - 
Student. A membership application is supplied in this issue of the Newsletter. 



c 



ORGANIZATIONAL MEETING 

Tlic first full mcctinj; ot the Associ;ition tor Gravestone Studies will bu luid on 
Saturday, July 2, and Sunday, July 3, 1^)77, at tlic Dublin School in Dublin, New Hampshire. 
This will be an orjiani/ational meeting; officers will be elected, and workshops are 
proposed on the following topics: 

Preservation and restoration of gravestones and graveyards: technology, legal aspects, 
community involvement, funding, etc. 

Development of archives: collections of books, papers, gravestone photos and 
reproductions, and so on. 

Research: on all facets of the field. 

Public education: on the importance of gravestones as art and artifact, on the 
problems of erosion, vandalism, etc. 

Publications: the establishment of a newsletter and a journal on the subject 
Organization and finaiue: constitution and bylaws of the Association, dues, grants 
available, and so on. 

'This meeting will be an opportunity for those interested to set the course of the 
Association for Gravestone Studies. No matter what direction your interest lies in - :imaleur 
or professional, expert or novice - if you have ever wandered through an old burying 
ground reading inscriptions, if you have marveled at the carving on the stones, if you have 
traced your ancestors' gravesites or made rubbings of old stones - tb< :n you know the value 
inherent in early gravestones, and your participation will help to make the Association for 
Gravestone Studies a more effective advocate for their preservation. ^ 

The cost of this meeting will be S40.00 per person, and will include meals and 
lodging at the Dublin School. Cost for students and those wishing to arrange their own 
accomodations will be S30.00. The membership application included in this issue can be 
used to indicate interest in attending the meeting; anyone interested in leading, participating 
in or suggesting specific workshops should specify on the membership form. 

PROPOSED STATEMENT OF PURPOSE 

OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES: 

Early grave markers are important as memorials, as historic and genealogical docu- 
ments, as art objects, and as material expressions of cultural attitudes. The value of these 
markers is not now widely appreciated, however, and natural erosion, the pressure of 
development, and vandalism in all its forms threaten to obliterate in a short time many 
monuments that have stood for centuries. In recognition of the need for immediate 
corrective action, the Association for Gravestone Studies has been organized as an el fort to 
encourage the study and preservation of this endangered cultural resource. 

The Association for Gravestone Studies will endeavour to educate the public on the 
historic and artistic importance of early gravestones and graveyards, and will encourage 
communities to protect, restore, and record their burying grounds. The Association will 
promote research into the technology of gravestone preservation, and will work toward the 
creation of model laws that would aid their protection. The Association for Gravestone 
Studies will cooperate closely with other organizations devoted to similar goals, and will 
provide guidance and assistance to individuals or groups interested in the study and preserva- 
tion of funerary art. 

To promote the study of gravestones, the Association will gather, record, and 
disseminate information through publications and meetings. The Association will publish a 
newsletter and plans to establish a journal devoted to gravestone studies; it will hold meetings 
and seminars where ideas and information may be exchanged. Finally, the Association will 
work toward the foundation of a center for gravestone studies, which will serve as a clearing- 
house for information on the subject and will house collections of books, papers, photo- 
graphs, and reproductions. 



NEWS 

-Two forthcoming publications promise to be valuable contnbinions to tiie Held ol" 
gravestone studies. One, a photographic record of tiie stonecutter's art. rellects the work 
and travels of Francis Y. Duval and Ivan B. Rigby. Frequent contributors of photo essays to 
journals. Duval and Rigby have mounted a number of impcrtant exhibitions, including major 
bicentennial displays. Some of these have been subsidized by foundations including both 
the New York and the Ohio Councils of the Arts. Of great interest to students of gravestone 
art is a technique they have developed for making three-dimensional replicas of important 
and endangered examples in hundreds of cemeteries. 

The book will include 220 pictures with captions that display specific styles and 
motifs, identifying the work of known stonecutters and the locaition of lesser-known 
examples. A bibliography is also projected. Specifics as to title, publisher, and price are not 
yet available, but will be announced in a forthcoming issue. Publication is expected for the 
fall of 1977. 

The second publication of note is tentatively titled Collecled Papers on Anglo- 
American Stonecarving: Origins. Symbolism. Morphology. Preservation, and Methods: 
1500 — ISOO. Edited by Allan I. Ludwig. whose earlier book Graven /mages (Middletown. 
Conn.. 1966) is the seminal contribution to gravestone studies, its publication is projected 
for 1978. This comprehensive volume will bring together the work of several authors 
currently working in this muki-disciplinary field. The text will include examinations of 
iconology. iconography and morphology, methods, historical preservation, and an annotated 
bibliography. 

Further details, including the names and topics of contributors, will be available in 
the near future. 



—The Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife is a continuing series of conferences 
devoted to the study of vernacular and folk culture in the northeastern United States. Last 
year's Seminar, dealing with the gravestones of New England, was the first large gathering of 
students of the topic, and provided the major impetus for the foundation of the Association 
for Gravestone Studies. The 1977 Seminar will be held on Saturday. June 25. and Sunday. 
Ji me 26 ^at the Dublin School. Dublin, New Hampshire. The title ot' this year's Seminar will 
be "New England Histork al Archaeolog y, 1977," and the stated purpose is to "bring 
together everyone who has sought clues to New England's past by digging below the soil." 
Talks, photos, and displays will focus on rural New England domestic sites, farmsteads, 
historic sites, and battle grounds. 1620 - 1850. A registration fee of approximately S40 - 
S50 will cover meals and lodging at the school. For further information, contact Peter Benes. 
History Instructor. Dublin School, Dublin. New Hampshire 03444, (603) 563-8025. 

.The 1978 Dublin Seminar will once again concentrate on early New England stone- 
carving. Those interested in presenting papers, placing exhibits, or otherwise participating 
are also invited to contact Mr. Benes. 



—Published recently was Journals from the Ghjucester Experiment, an account of a 
community project involving the restoration of a colonial Massachusetts burying ground. 
The work includes eight journals detailing the project from a number of viewpoints - 
archaeological, educational, preservationist, legal, and others, in paperback, the 86-page 
book can be obtained for S5.00 from the Gloucester Community Development Corporation, 
P. O. Box 15. Gloucester. Massachusetts 01930. 



-3 - 



Bennington Gravestones by William E. Harding, Jr. 
(unpuh. ms.), Benninglon Centre Cemetery Associa- 
tion, 1^75. 123pp, 18pp,') pp. lllus.,biblio. 
(Available at the Genealogical Library, Bennington 
Museum, Bennington, Vermont.) 

This study reports the results of a two month pro- 
ject undertaken with the financial support of the 
Bennington Centre Cemetery Association. Its 
purpose was to document and record photo- 
graphically the stones in the Bennington Centre 
Cemetery and to identify the stonecarvors. To 
accomplish this, the author visited and studied 
graveyards throughout Bennington County, 
Vermont. 

Harding's research convinced him that the combi- 
nation of spiritual and geographic independence 
enjoyed by Vermont, along with its newly dis- 
civered marbles, allowed the full development of 
gravestone design there. This idea is particularly 
exemplified in the work of Zerubbabel Collins and 
Samuel Dwight. The former was able to refine his 
skull-like angels heavily weighted with scrolls into 
softer cherubs surrounded with flower baskets, 
while the latter continued to carve his angel designs 
well beyond the date that they had been replaced 
by urns and willows elsewhere in New England. 
Such independence in design is especially striking 
considering the brief period of time (approximately 
25 years) during which stonecarving flourished in 
Vermont - after its late settlement and before the 
introduction of machine-produced gravestones. 

In his essay Harding carefully examines, identifies, 
and locates Collins' work and establishes the iden- 
tity of the stonecutter known as his apprentice 
through a variety of stylistic evidence. Other 
carvers receiving similarly detailed study include 
Roger Booth (eariier mentioned by Forbes) and 
Asa t^aldwin, whose signed work is located in the 
Dorset, Vermont, graveyard. Charts and graphs 
denoting stone shapes and chronological and geo- 
graphical distribution of stones are provided. A 
chapter is also devoted to the development of 
stonecarving as an industry and its demise as a craft. 

There arc three appendices. The tlrst identifies and 
documents, by means of signed stones and probate 
records, 36 stonecarvers who worked in Bennington 
County. The second is a catalogue of gravestones 
in Bennington County pertinent to this study 
listing name, date, carver if known, and style. For 
ease of use, Harding has included a chart of 63 
"stone types." The last appendix is a list of photo- 
graphs deposited with the paper. A selected biblio- 
graphy is included, and finally, following this, 
Harding provides 62 photographs which exemplify 
major styles and carvers. - N.B. 



Death in h'.arlv America: Tlie History and Folklore 
of Customs and Supcrsiiiions of Early Medicine, 
Funerals, Burials, and Mourning, by Margaret .M. 
Coffin. Thomas Nelson. Inc. 1976. LC 76-7513. 
252 pp., illus., biblio.. index. S7.95. 

This is a popular text that simply attempts to 
cover too broad a scope. In the space of 229 pages, 
Margaret Coffin ( ! ) deals with funeral customs. 
coffins and hearses, gravestones, epitaphs, mourn- 
ing customs, and memorials. The result is a dis- 
appointing hi' '.^lepodge of generalities. It is of 
little value tu liie student of gravestone art who 
will certainly require a more scholarly text; yet 
neither will it excite the curiosity of the uninitiated 
or expose them to the multiplicities and complexi- 
ties of the studies in this field. 

The initial chapter superficially examines the 
causes of early death - its concluding sentence 
gratuitously states "Insurance companies today 
tell us that we should expect to live to be over 
70" — while chapter two is an overlong series of 
excerpts from the family letters of a 19th century 
doctor. Although they do reiterate the constant 
confrontation with death the earlier Americans 
faced, they reflect a much later period in our his- 
tory than do the many illustrated gravestones from 
New England burying grounds. Even aside from 
the lateness of the letters. Coffin's choice of what 
is "early" may surprise some readers. Included in 
the book are a number of illustrations and dis- 
cussions of Victorian monuments and memorials 
along with a photograph of the funeral train of 
Abraham Lincoln. 

Gravestone illustrations are sometimes of poor 
quality and there is no specific reference to them 
in the text. Captions often omit the name of the 
deceased and never provide the date of death. This 
is especially unfortunate since Coffin includes 
many intriguing photographs of stones in southern 
states which show evidence of parallelism to the 
development of New England designs. There is 
even an example of a wooden "bed post" monu- 
ment such as that discussed b\ Peter Benes in his 
"Additional Light on Wooden Grave Markers" 
{Essex Institute Historical Collections. 111:1. 
January 1975, pp. 53 - 64). The bibliograph> is 
also disappointing — a number of easily located 
sources are not provided, including the works of 
Parker and Neal, Deetz, and the Tashjians. 

Perhaps the most useful sections of the book are 
those on mourning customs, coffins, and hearses. 
Illustrations included there are copious and will 
provide a good overview for readers unfamiliar 
with these artifacts. 

Those who wish to maintain complete collections 
in this field will, of course. bu\ this book. Others 
will probably tmd it superfluous. - N.B. 



-4 



QUESTIONS AND ANSWIIRS 

To encourage the dissemination of infonnation, the newsletter will print incjuiries and replies 
on matters related to early gravestones. Please send such correspondence to the editor at 
1210 Bruce St., Mt. F'leasant, MI. 18858. Answers will be forwarded or printed as space 
permits. 

—Thomas Zaniello of Northern Kentucky State College, Highland Heights. Ky.. is currently 
writing a paper on the use of Masonic symbols on gravestones, particularly during the period 
of transition from cherub/face designs to classic revival urn and willow styles. He is 
especially interested in central and southern Vermont, and would be glad to correspond with 
anyone who has information on the subject. 

- Robert Mackreth of Ridge, N.Y., would be interested in information on a Connecticut 
stonecarVer, Michael Baldwin. Although his name does not seem to appear in the literature 
on Cqnnecticut carving, the signature "Michael Baldwin. N. Haven" occurs on the 1775 
Martha Landon stone at Southold, N.Y. The marker is made of red sandstone, and displays 
a "hook and eye"-style cherub, similar to some Caulfield attributes to Peter Buckland. 
Are any other Baldwin stones known? 



MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION 

To: THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 

Dublin School. Dublin. N.H. 03444 

Name: . \ 



Address: 



. Enclosed is my membership fee for the Association for Gravestone Studies: 

.Active S 10.00 Sustaining S2S. 00 Student $5.00 

. V would like to attend the organizational meeting at Dublin. N.H. - July 2 and 3. 1977 
Enclosed is my fee: 

.With accomodations $40.00 Without accomodations - $30.00 

Student $30.00 

1 would like to participate in the following workshop(s): ^- 



Make checks payable to the Association for Gravestone Studies. 

- 5 ' 



The Newsletter of the Association for Gravestone 
Studies; 

Copyright 1977 by the Association for Gravestone 
Studies; all rights reserved. 

Pubhshed at the University Museum.. State 
University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony 
Brook, New York 11794. 

Submissions and suggestions for future issues 

are welcomed; send to the editor at 1210 Bruce St., 

Mt. Pleasant, Michigan 18858. 



Editor: Nancy Buckeye 

Associate Editor: Robert W. Mackreth 

The Association for Gravestone Studies 
Address: Dublin School 

Dublin, N.H. 03444 

Temporary Executive Committee; 

Peter Benes. Dublin. N.H. 

Nancy Buckeye. Mt. Pleasant, Mich. 

Gay Levine. Wading River, N.Y. 

Jessie Lie, South Hadley, Mass. 

Robert W. Mackreth, Ridge, N.Y. 

Rev. Ralph L. Tucker, West Newberry, Mass. 



University Museum 

Anthropology,' Department 

State University of New York at Stony Brook 

Stony Brook. New York 11794 



Nonprofit Org. 

U.S. POST.'\GE 
PAID 

Sfony Brook, N.Y. 
Permit No. 65 



■W 



THE ASSOCIATION FOR 
oiro^^ GRAVESTONE STUDIES 




Tl 



CKQS 



letter 



Volume 2, Number 2 



Spring 1978 ISSN: 0146-5783 



AGS ESTABLISHES ARCHIVE AT NEW ENGLAND 

GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY 



James A. Slater and Peter Benes of the archive committee are pleased to report that they will present to 
the AGS meeting at Dublin, New Hampshire a proposed agreement with the New England Historic 

Genealogical Society for the formation of a photograph and field note archive to be housed at the NEHGS 
Library at 101 Newbury Street, Boston, Massachusetts, 02116. The Association for Gravestone Studies 
Archive, as the collection will be called, will centralize in one location copies of all published materials on 
gravestone studies; unpublished BA, MA, and Ph.D. theses; unpublished surveys and conservation reports; 
negative, color-slide, and print collections of gravestones; probate and field research notes; site maps and 
drawings; and any other materials which will aid and encourage the study and preservation of early grave 
markers. 

As seen by its organizers, the principal purpose of this archive will be to re-create in a retrievable and 
condensed form, iconographic and genealogical data that is presently available only in the field, and which is 
subject to yearly attrition. To this end, the archive seeks to attract collections presently in the care of local 
libraries, state and local gravestone associations, and state and local historical societies, as well as those 
collections which are still in private hands. At the same time, it hopes to encourage individuals and groups to 
begin their own collections or to strengthen and develop ones they already have, with a view to transferring 
them to the AGS archive at some time in the future. The archive is seen as a cooperative, grass-roots effort 
which will be successful to the extent that it will attract widespread support. 

The latest archival and storage techniques (acid-free folders and containers) will be used to store these 
materials. Peter Drummey, who is the curator of manuscripts at the New England Historic Genealogical 
Society library, will supervise the storage and filing of the materials in consultation with the Association for 
Gravestone Studies. Because of space and storage limitations, the Association will not encourage gifts of 
rubbings unless they have b6en photographed on 35 mm or 120 mm film. 

In addition to collecting gravestone materials, the Association archive will attempt to systematize and 
distribute these materials for use elsewhere. Except for major special collections (those gathered by 
individuals over an entire lifetime of work) all photos and field notes will be arranged in a general location file 
arranged by state, county, town, and site. It is hoped that this will reproduce in an accessible form what 
actually exists or existed in the field, and that a researcher will be able to use the archive much as he might 
when going on a field trip. Resources permitting, specialized major collections owned by the archive will be 
reproduced and the duplicates incorporated into the general location file. In time, the principal file will be 
miniaturized on microfilm or microfiche and made available to other research and genealogical libraries 
across the country. 

An important benefit of the Association archive is the mutuality of interest shared by AGS and NEHGS 
members. Just as the epitaph collection at the NEHGS library will assist students of the historical and 
cultural aspects of early grave markers, the AGS gravestone archive will assist genealogists in reconstructing 
family ties where such epitaph collections are incomplete. The gravestone archive in effect will be a visual 
complement to the NEHGS epitaph records and will strengthen the library's genealogical resources. 

Continued on page 5 



AGS AND DUBLIN SEMINAR 
SPONSORS "PURITAN GRAVE- 
STONE ART II" 



As reported in our last newsletter, the 1978 annual meeting of the Association for Gravestone 
Studies is being held the day before a two-day conference on gravestone art sponsored jointly by 
the AGS and the Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife. The three day event will be held at the 
Dublin School June 23 — 25, 1978; and both will have events and programs interspersed 
throughout the three days. 

Plans for the Dublin Seminar portion of the program are moving ahead rapidly. Strong interest 
from individuals and from academic, community, and antiquarian groups is again accompanying 
the announcement of thi9 confv,ience, and we hope to be able to equal the 1976 attendance figures. 
We are receiving numerous suggestions for papers, exhibits, and presentations, so we look 
forward to a fine program. Our belief that two years is a proper interval between large-scale 
conferences on gravestone art appears to be justified. 

To date, twenty-three spjeakers and demonstration leaders have accepted invitations to make 
presentations. The featured speaker will be Dickran Tashjian, co-author with Ann Tashjian of 
Memorials for Children of Change, published by Wesleyan University Press 

in 1974. Dickran was present at the 1976 conference, but he did not have the opportunity to make a 
formal presentation. Another paper is being given by James A. Slater, Ralph Tucker, and Daniel 
Farber. The three have been working for the past year locating, recording, and photographing Lt. 
John Harshorn's stones in both Massachusetts and Connecticut. Dan Farber has promised a 
"roomful" of Hartshorn photographs. A report on Canadian stones will be given by Deborah Trask 
of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Harriot Tuttle will give a talk on the Lamson carvers of Charlestown. Bill 
Hosley will speak on the Rockingham, Vermont, stonecarvers. Peter Benes will describe 17th and 
18th century stones he has found in the Maidstone area of Kent, England. Carmine Prioli and Lance 
Meyer will address themselves to the recurrent problems of Puritan iconography. Allan Ludwig and 
David Hall will discuss aspects of early epigraphy. Joanne Baker will discuss how gravestones 
reflect popular attitudes toward death. 

Special emphasis is being given this year on carving technology, reproduction techniques, and 
the physical nature of stone itself. Bob Drinkwater \vill give a talk on quarrying; David Serette on 
slate-cutting tools; and Norman Weigs on stone chemistry. A demonstration of slate letter-carving 
will be made by Frances Bunyard of Arlington, Massachusetts, who has taught herself how to 
design and incise classical letters. 

Three field demonstrations will be offered in the areas of photography, rubbings, and 
reproduction. Ann Tashjian has agreed to take a group to a local burying ground and to 
demonstrate her dry daubing technique. Ivan Rigby and Francis Duval will demonstrate their 
model-making techniques. Daniel Farber will give a demonstration of the technique he so 
successfully described at the 1976 conference, and at the July, 1977 meeting of the Association for 
Gravestone Studies. 

Participants are urged to pre-register. Tearsheets for registration and for field trip participation 
appear on page 7. 



REVIEW OF RECENT PUBLICATIONS 



Benes, Peter, The Masks of Orthodoxy: Folk Gravestone Carving in Plymouth County 
Massachusetts, 1689 - 1805. (University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, MA, 1977) 
Illustrated, 273 pages. 

Uniformly facing west in the now-uneven rows of old New England burial grounds, colonial 
gravestones are adorned with some incredible carved faces. 

The vvinged skull is the common motif on these markers. With individual features fleshing out 
this basic skeletal form, the faces become animated and energetic. Some glare, while others 
actually grin. Stones dating from the difficult early days of the late 17th-century express a grim 
malevolence. By the mid-lSth century religious revivals, however, the bared teeth and threatening 
frowns give way to fancifully smiling spirit faces, which grin out from their slabs of slate or granite 
with good will and apparent good cheer. Around the time of the Revolutionary War, these stone 
faces become increasingly animated, and then transform into angel and fxjrtrait imagery. 

These expressive stone faces have long attracted people interested in history or intrigued by folk 
art. They have also, however, baffled scholars seeking to account for the faces' lively enthusiasm. 

Now, a book published by the University of Massachusetts Press offers a plausible explanation 
for the evolution of gravestone imagery. The Masks of Orthodoxy by Peter Benes focuses on 
gravestones carved in Plymouth County in the years 1689-1805. Benes sees gravestone carving as 
both a decorative art and a highly personal craft in old Plymouth and recognizes in these folk-art 
images reflections of religious, spiritual and folk beliefs of the Plymouth Colony. 

His presentation is scholarly: nearly one third of the 273 pages of The Masks of Orthodoxy are 
devoted to Appendixes, Notes, Bibliography and Index. Yet Benes' subject matter is so fascinating 
and his style so clear that the general reader is easily drawn in. The diagrams and photographs of 
the gravestone faces are a real delight. 

Skulls and Hearts 

Benes interprets the basic skull images not as a symbol of death — as scholars have usually 
defined it — but as the spirit that is released by death. He sees in the facial characteristics (even in 
the fanciful caricature) a deliberate but oblique representation of the sophisticated concepts of 
grace, salvation, and resurrection. (This is again a rejection of previous explanations which 
consider the lively expressions to derive from a combination of the carvers' naivete and lack of 
cutting technique.) Benes suggests that Puritan folklore and visual sign language is expressed in the 
gravestone imagery. 

A strange "mouth-mark" becomes the key to explaining the facial expressions on gravestones. 
Though the original meaning of the mark remains unknown, it was first used in 1675 by an artisan 
identified only as "The Stone Carver" of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Above the bared teeth on 
a standard winged skull, "The Stone Cutter" added lines in the shape of a triangle. This suggested a 
second mouth set in a mild frown though its original purpose may have been as an element of 
design. Whatever "The Stone Cutter" meant by it, this additional mouth, or mark, was widely 
imitated. Extremely flexible, its shape and expression altered according to the times. 

Jacob Vinal was the first stone carver in the Plymouth Colony known to have used the mouth- 
mark on his gravestone designs. He was the patriarch of the Vinal family carvers, who worked for 
generations in the Scituate area. Around 1720, Jacob Vinal added the mouth-mark; gradually, he 
re-worked the mark so it changed its suggestion of a mild frown to a gleeful smile. 



This seems a bizarre apparition on a gravestone in Puritan New England, but with Benes' 
explanation, the strangeness disappears. Benes interprets Vinal's smiling skulls as blissful spirits 
awaiting, or pjerhaps even experiencing, resurrection. The faces on these stones are confident of 
salvation because their patrons — the Plymouth Colony — were increasingly confident of their 
own state of grace and ultimate salvation. Anxious frowns and gloomy spirits no longer suited the 
optimistic religious attitudes of the Colony. 

Another family of gravestone carvers developed a different iconography based on the mouth- 
mark, but built around the shape and significance of the heart motif. 

Nathaniel Fuller worked in the Middleborough school of stone carvers and developed a style that 
was far more geometric than that used by the Vinals. Initially only on children's stones. Fuller 
curved the ends of the mouth-mark up and around to form a heart-shaped mark. This, suggests 
Benes, may have been a device to draw attention to children's stones and to show the child as being 
especially beloved. But he also offers a theological interpretation. The heart was a symbol of eternal 
life. On the gravestone, the heart symbolized confidence in an eternal after-life and optimism about 
salvation and resurrection. Later, heart-shaped skulls and heart-derived decorative designs 
appeared on adults' gravestones. 

Late in his own life, Fuller came up with another innovation in gravestone design. Little faces 
were placed within the mouth-mark. Benes suggests a link between these tiny faces and the 
symbols of evangelicalism. At the time Fuller was creating these images, the fervor of the Great 
Awakening religious revivals was at its peak. Fuller was undoubtedly affected by the revivalist 
emotions and the small faces may be interpreted as the "corporeal eyes" which re-animate the soul 
at resurrection. A complex religious concept is summed up and expressed in iconographic 
shorthand. 

While Benes' explanation of gravestone symbolism challenges previous scholarship, he seems 
well-prepared to issue those challenges. He has studied gravestones for a long time and from 
several perspectives. Founder and co-director of the Dublin (New Hampshire) Seminar for New 
England Folklife, he is also co-founder of the Association for Gravestone Studies. 

The research on which he bases his theories of gravestone symbolism seems exhaustive. In 
addition to delving into the history of the Plymouth Colony, Benes went through parish and 
probate records and took 4,000 photographs of New England gravestones. Using this information, 
he is able to attribute the gravestones (which in Plymouth Colony were always unsigned), identify 
three main families of carvers in the Plymouth Colony, examine the evolution of their carving styles 
and their symbolism and link the evolution of these, symbols to historical and ecclesiastical 
developments. 

Laura Holland 
Reprinted with permission of 
The Valley Advocate, Amherst, MA. 



Stannard, David E., The Puritan Way of Death: A Study in Religion, Cuhure and Social 

Change (Oxford University Press, New York, New York, 1977). 236 pages including illustrations, 
notes and index. 



David E. Stannard, Director of Undergraduate Studies in the American Studies Program at Yale 
University, has written a book which should be of great interest to members of the Association of 
Gravestone Studies. Turning to the study of Puritan death rituals from the point of view of lite'-ary 

and cultural history Stannard interprets the physical evidence of the gravestone as to suggest a 
decline in that 'old time religion' beginning almost simultaneously with the rise of the symbolic art. 
This attitude is, of course, the opposite of the one taken by such students of the subject as Forbes, 
Ludwig, Dethlefson and Deetz, the Tashjians, and Benes, although it comes closer to the implicit or 
explicit position put forth at various times by Caulfield, Foster, and Hall. Stannard's position has 
much to recommend it and it is well argued and documented throughout. On the other hand, to put 
forth such a provocative thesis concerning the interpretation of the physical evidence of the 
gravestones and then not take on the opposition seems to me a rather curious manner of 
composing a book. Moreover, the rich body of visual material is not used in disciplined manner and 
the author could use some boning up on art historical methods. I would strongly recommend the 
book for all those who wish to read about all the arguments we are currently having over Puritan 
modes of death. 

Allan !. Ludwig 

Trent, Robert F., Hearts and Crowns: Fold Chairs of the Connecticut Coast 1720 — 1840 
as viewed in the Kght of Henri Focillon's Introduction to Art Populaire. (New Haven Colony 
Historical Society, New Haven, Connecticut, 1977). 101 pages and 81 plates. 

While this book has nothing to do with gravestones as such, it is highly recommended to serious 
students of gravestone art as one of the most intelligent and lucid treatments to date of an 
American folk art topic. Beginning with a much-needed theoretical discussion of folk art, the author 
goes on to take a sharply critical look at the treatment of folk craftsmanship by American 
decorative arts scholars. The body of the book is very thorough, well-documented history of a style 
of chairmaking which can be traced back to a provincial English joiner who came to Stratford, 
Connecticut around 1719. In his treatment of this topic, Mr. Trent has been much influenced by the 
great French scholar cited in the title, who emphasized the "primacy of formal series and the 
disjunction of form and content" (p. 92) in folk art, an approach which might find him in violent 
disagreement with a number of writers on New England gravestones. 

Lance R. Mayer 

AGS ARCHIVE STORY continued from page 1 

If approved by AGS, the Association archive will be ready to receive materials after Jurrc, 1978. In an effort 
to standardize the format of materials in the collection, the AGS education committee is preparing a booklet 
outlining recommended procedures and a form for listing data from individual stones. A working draft of this 
document will be available at the June AGS meeting. 

No time or geographical limitations have been put upon this collection, but emphais is being given to early 
sites and early marke-rs which, in the judgement of the Association, are culturally important, and sites of any 
age which are endangered by rapid attrition. For further information please contact Peter Benes, Treasurer, 
AGS, Dublin, New Hampshire, 03444 (603 563-8025), or Peter Drummey, Curator of Manuscripts, 
NEHGS, 101 Newbury Street, Boston, Massachusetts, 02116 (617 536-5740). 



UNPUBLISHED SOURCE OF INTEREST TO MEMBERS 

Butler, Pat. H. Ill, This World and the Next in Old Deerfield, unpub. ms. Heritage Foundation, 
1966. 58pp. Biblio. (Available at the Memorial Libraries, Deerfield, Massachusetts.) 

Butler is concerned with the changing attitude towards death in Old Deefield from one of 
overridng preoccupation with the life to follow to a more worldly-directed interest in the "here and 
now." As background to his text he briefly traces the religious history of New England, drawing 
upon sources in antiquity. He reminds us of the views of colonial ministers and divines regarding 
death, and especially discusses on Solomon Stoddard. That divine is of concern here because the 
religious community of Old Deerfield was founded upon his principles, as exemplified in the 
Hampshire Association. 

The remainder of the text predominantly deals with Deerfield's first two ministers, John Williams 
(The Redeemed Captive) and Jonathan Ashley. These men, Stoddarian in outlook, influenced the 
local understanding of the religious meaning of death. 

Relying on William's diaries and the books in his personal library as well as upon the diary of his 
son Steven (himself a minister), Butler provides ample evidence of the dread preoccupation with 
death characteristic of that time. Excerpts from the funeral sermon for Williams further 
corroborate Butler's judgements and aptly summarize prevailing attitudes to man's destiny. 

One of Butler's greatest achievements in this essay is his ability to weave such documents into 
narrative. His conclusions rely on another group of wills which were completed after Ashley's 
death. They clearly indicate changing thought and provide yet another example of the local refusal 
to accept Johathan Edwards' New Calvinism. 

Also included in this essay is a limited discussion of funeral practices in Deerfield. Following that, 
Butler devotes some attention to the graveyard there and relates stone design to changes in 
religious attitudes both throughout New England and to the changing ministry in Deerfield itself. 

This is a manuscript copy which has several typographical errors. It is nonetheless readable, and 
an interesting discussion of religious change in a specific New England community. 

Nancy Buckeye 

LEGISLATION ON GRAVEYARDS 

Increasing interest in the value of old cemeteries has brought about recent legislation. Mary 
Emhardt reports that the following have been added to the New Hampshire Revised Statutes 
Annotated: 

RSA 289:27 STONE RUBBINGS. No person shall make gravestone rubbings in any cemetery 
without first obtaining the permission of the selectmen or cemetery trustees. Any person who 
violates the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a violation. 

RSA 289:28 LOGGING DEBRIS. Any p»erson who leaves debris in any cemetary as a result of a 
logging operation shall be guilty of a violation. 

RSA 289:5 UNCARED FOR CEMETERIES. Every town may raise and appropriate annually a 
sufficient sum to provide for the suitable care and maintenance of deserted and abandoned 
cemeteries within its confines which are not otherwise provided for, including family plots in cases 
where there are no surviving descendants. Such appropriation shall be expended under the 
direction of the selectmen of the town. 



REGISTRATION — Dublin Seminar — Puritan Gravestone Art II 

n I wish to register for the Dublin Seminar, June 24, 25. 
I enclose a check for: 

n Resident $40.00 (program, meals, dormitory accomodations) 
D Non-resident $30.00 (proram and meals) 

I wish to register for the combined AGS Meeting/Dublin Seminar, June 23, 24, 25. 
I enclose a check for: 

D Resident $55.00 
n Non-resident $40.00 

Make checks payable to the Dublin Seminar. 

Name 
Address 

Zip Phone 

Mail to Dublin Seminar, American and New England Studies Program, ~ 
Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, CLA223, Boston, MA 02215 



REGISTRATION — Field Practicums 

1 wish to participate in the following field experience(£) 

D Casting — Duval and Rigby 
D Photography — Daniel Farber 
D Rubbing — Ann Tashjian 



Name 
Address 



Zip Phone 

Mail this portion to Joanne Baker, 64 N. Main Street, Concord, NH 03301 



The Newsletter of the Association 
for Gravestone Studies 

®1978 by the Association for Gravestone Studies; 
all rights reserved. 

Published at the University Museum, State 
University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony 
Brook, New York 11794 

Submissions and suggestions for future issues are 
welcomed; send to the editor at the Dublin School. 



Guest Editor: Joanne Baker 

The Association for Gravestone Studies 

Dublin School 

Dublin, New Hampshire 

Executive Board 

President: Ralph Tucker, West Newbury, MA 

Vice President/Grants: Gay Levine, Wading River, NY 

Vice-President/Conservation: Edwin Connelly, Newport, RI 

Vice President/ Archives: James Slater, Mansfield Center, CT 

Vice President/Education: Joanne Baker, Concord, NH 

Vice President/Research: Thomas Zaniello , Highland Heights, KY 

Secretary: Jessie Lie, South Hadley, MA 

Treasurer: Peter Benes, Dublin, NH 

Regional Coordinators: 

Mary Emhardt, Barrington, NH 

Jo Hanson, San Francisco, CA 

Mary-Ellen Jones, Orinda, CA 

Robert MacKreth, Sequoia Natl. Park, CA 

Jane Schoonmaker, Niverville, NY 

Sally Thomas, New London, NH >■ 



University Museum 

Anthropology Department 

State University of New York at Stony Brook 

Stony Brook, New York 11794 





« 



Mary Anne Mrozinski 

1+7 Hammond Road 

Glen Cove, N.Y. 115^2 



ISSN: 0146-5783 




THE ASSXIATIQI FOR GRAVESTOC STUDIES 
NEWSLETTER 



anne g. gieseckey i^evjsletter editor archaeological research services 
University of Mew Hampshire^ Durham^ NH 03824 



Volume 3 Number 1 Winter 1979 



NEWSLETTER 

With this issue of the Newsletter , we are changing our format to 
reduce publishing costs and increase the amount of information we can 
present. 

We thank the people who have contributed and we are requesting con- 
tributions in any category from professionals and non-professionals. 
Please send material according to the following deadlines: 

Issue Editor's Deadline for Receipt of News 

April 1979 May 1, 1979 

July 1979 June 1, 1979 

October 1979 September 1, 1979 

January 1980 December 1, 1979 



CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS 

The Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife with the co-operation 
of The Currier Gallery of Art presents a Conference and Exhibition: 
NEW ENGLAND MEETING HOUSE AND CHURCH: 1630-1850. Conference: Dublin 
School, Dublin, NH, Saturda y, June 23 and Sun day, Jun e 24, 1979 . Exhi- 
bition: The Currier Gallery of Art, Manchester, NH, May 19. 1979, 
through July 15, 1979. 

NEW ENGLAND MEETING HOUSE AND CHURCH: 1630-1350 is a combined con- 
ference and exhibition designed to explore the larger cultural, social, 
and sacramental world of the New England meeting house during the colo- 
nial and federal periods. Based on the premise that traditional know- 
ledge has survived in a local context in families and in community and 
church groups, the conference and exhibition will attempt to pool the 
written, oral, and material resources of private individuals, church 
historians, town and parish librarians, as well as the expertise of pro- 
fessional historians, museum curators, and musical performers, in an 
effort to recreate and interpret the New England meeting house and church 
of the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. 

The exhibition at the Currier Gallery of Art has been awarded a 
grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities. Designed to com- 
plement visually the lectures and presentations given at the confe3cet\.ne. 



-2- 

the exhibition will open May 19 and will continue for approximately eight 
weeks. On display will be objects which were originally part of early 
meeting houses or were used within them - pulpits, pew doors, wainscotting, 
communion services, tithing sticks, and signal drums; paintains, prints, 
written records, or other period artifacts or documents which illustrate 
meeting houses; photographs and other contemporary visual resources. 

Conference lectures and presentations will deal with (1) architectural 
topics such as framing and raising techniques, porch and belltower designs, 
and exterior colors; (2) sacramental topics such as psalmody, communion 
furniture, and religious practices; (3) social topics such as seating cri- 
teria, pew societies, and site controversies; and (4) community topics 
such as horse-shed rights, Sabbathday houses, and public signboards. Con- 
ference participants will be encouraged to put up informal displays of 
their particular areas of expertise. Choral groups trained in 17th and iSth 
century psalmody and hymnody vrlll be invided to perform accompanied by 
instruments such as the bass-viol and melodeon. Interpretive field trips 
to meeting houses surviving in the Connecticut and the Merrimack valleys 
will be scheduled on the Friday of the conference weekend. 

Program and speakers at the conference to be announced in early 1979. 
Projected registration fee: $45-$55, which includes lodging, lunch and 
dinner Saturday, breakfast and lunch Sunday. Friday night lodging will be 
available . 

The Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife, Inc., is a continuing 
series of conferences devoted to the study of vernacular and folk culture 
in the northeastern United States. It is jointly sponsored by the Boston 
University American and New England Studies Program and by Dublin School, 
Dublin, New Hampshire. An edited transcription of papers given at each 
conference is published annually as the Proceedings of the Dublin Seminar. 

Peter Benes, DireatOT 

Philip D. Zimmerman, Associate Director 

THE DUBLIN SEMINAR FOR NEW ENGLAND FOLKLIFE, DUBLIN, NH 03444 



REQUESTS FOR INFORMATION 

APT Bulletin Editor SUSAN BUGGEY is compiling a list of courses of- 
fered in the history of building technology. She would like to know of 
all available courses and correspond with the instructors. Write to: 
Ms. Buggey, Head, Priority Sites Section,, Research Division, Parks Canada, 
Ottawa, Ontario KIA 0H4, CAN. 

CAROLE WHEELER would like information on American cemeteries (I'd 
send along info on those in other countries as well) presently undergoing 
preservation/restoration. Ms. Wheeler intends to publish a pamphlet con- 
taining specific information on cemeteries involved in preservation/resto- 
ration and interpretive endeavors. A short survey questionnaire is availa- 
ble. Contact Ms. Wheeler, Historic Oakland Cemetery, Inc., 248 Oakland 
Avenue SE, Antanta, Georgia 30312, USA; (404-688-0733). 

PHYLLIS McKOWN, 1651 D Iowa Street, Costa Mesa, California, is taking 
a leave of absence this year from her Colonial America social studies 
teaching to complete a book on old gravestones, mainly photographs, with 
the principal theme being "history in stone". She would love to corres- 
pond with anyone whose interests are similar. 

South Carolina is recently devoting a great deal of time to the 
study and preservation of old gravestones. The S.C. State Department of 
Archives has written several times asking us for information about legal, 
restoration, community involvement, preservation, etc. aspects of old 
cemeteries, ans we also have word from the Greenville Chapter of the South 
Carolina Genealogical Society that they are in the process of doing a com- 



-3- 

prehenslve survey of all cemeteries in their county. 

BARBARA BENOIT, RFD 1, Box 105, Centre Harbor, NH 03226 is interested 
in locating graves of the Hawkins family, moved from the Hawkins family 
graveyard in Center Harbor probably before 1900. Clement Hawkins, b. April 
1, 1770 died ?. Married Mehitable ? . Also, Jacob Davis, a Revolu- 
tionary War pensioner for Centre Harbor, married Deborah Tuttle of Centre 
Harbor. Died in Chelsea, Vermont about 1845. Need grave location and dates 
from stone. 

The Conservation Committee of AGS is planning a booklet, "The Care of 
Old Cemeteries", which is intended to serve as a guide for those entrusted 
with the care of old cemeteries, and for anyone who is interested in helping 
to preserve, old gravestones. A first draft has been t^ltten, and comments 
and criticisms by those with experience or expertise in this field are in- 
vited. A copy of the draft may be obtained by writing to the author at the 
following address; Lance Mayer^ Conservation Department ^ Cincinnati Art 
Museum^ Eden Parkj Cinoinnatij OH 45202. In addition, the Conservation 
Committee seeks information from readers about successful or unsuccessful 
restoration projects, and any general comments or ideas about the kinds of 
problems that AGS members would like to see addressed in a publication like 
this. 



ITEMS OF INTEREST 

The Rock County Historical Society , of Janesville, Wisconsin, writes 
to tell us that they are now completing an inventory of all gravesites and 
public and private burial grounds in their county. 

As a Bicentennial project, the Colonial Philadelphia Historical Society , 
financed, under the auspices of the National Park Service, the restoration of 
Philadelphia's oldest Jewish cemetery, Mikveh Israel. This cemetery was 
established by a grant from John Penn. In it are buried Revolutionary sol- 
diers and patriots, among them Nathan Levy, whose ship brought the Liberty 
Bell to America, and Haym Solomon, considered to be the financier of the 
American Revolution. 

The members of the Trinity Lutheran Church in Augusta County, Virginia, 
whose church . records date from 1772, are presently involved in a project to 
identify and restore all the old stones in their graveyard. 

The newly formed Johnson County Historical Society in Wrlghtsville, 
Georgia, will soon publish a book containing the cemetery records of the 
county. Their publication will contain many items of interest concerning 
burial . 

The Association For Gravestone Studies . Early gravestones are part of 
our heritage. They are disappearing radidly. These facts prompted the for- 
mation of the Association For Gravestone Studies. Organized at Dublin, NH, 
in 1977, and incorporated a year later, the Association creates awareness of 
the importance of gravestones in a variety of ways. It encourages local groups 
to preserve their gravestone heritage, promotes research into all aspects of 
gravestones, supports a program of public education through publications and 
conferences, and fosters liaisons with county and state genealogical societies. 
The AGS Newsletter , which all members receive, contains feature articles, 
book reviews and items of general Interest. 

In the summer of 1978 an agreement was made with the New England Histo- 
ric Genealogical Society for the foundation of a photographic and field note 
archive to be housed at the NEHGS library in Boston. This will be known as 
the Association for Gravestone Studies Archive, the principal purpose of v/hich 
will be to recreate, in a retrievable and condensed form, iconographic and 



-4- 

genealogical data that is presently available only in the field and which is 
subject to yearly attrition. All AGS members will have access to this col- 
lection. 

The Association seeks a diverse group of persons interested in the study 
of grave markers — amateurs and professionals, students of anthropology, 
history, genealogy, art history, religion and other fields — who share an 
appreciation of the importance of gravestones and a concern for their preser- 
vation in the face of both the natural and artificial forces that threaten 
them. 

AGS invites your membership and your active participation in the Asso- 
ciation. 



MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION 



Association for Gravestone Studies 
Mrs. Philip D. Thomas, Treas. 
82 Hilltop Place 
New London, NH 03257 



Date 



19 



Name 



Address 



City/Town 



Please check one ; 

_Individual $10 . 00 
__Institutional 10.00 

^Sustaining 25.00 

Student 5.00 



(full-time) 



State 



Zip 



I am interested in owrking on the 
following committee(s) : 

Archives Education 

Grants Conservation 

Research Publications 



"Tombstones Designed To Show Trademarks Of People They Honor" (from 
the New York Times, February 18, 1979, Charleston, IL - Wendell Adams and 
Bale Lawyer use their artistry to design and prodii<-« t-om^sLones that pre- 
serve the trademark of the people who lie beneath them. 

"We've put on everything from trucks and trains to telephones and a 
Studebaker," Mr. Adams said. "It couldn't be just any Studebaker, either; 
it had to be a '63." 

He does his work in a small shop that he opened in this central 
Illinois community in 1975, A third-generation stonecutter, he began work- 
ing with his father at the age of 15. He is now 28. He estimated that 
150 of every 1,000 tombstones produced in his shop were custom designs. 

One of the most recent creations was a highly detailed steam locomo- 
tive belching smoke and roaring down the tracks. The tombstone was done 
for Bradford Parker, a former railroad engineer. "I can't draw from memo- 
ry," Mr. Adams aaid. "I sent my wife to find a picture of the right loco- 
motive." 

The shop has also done a jeep, , animals for hunters and several tractor- 
trailer rigs for truckers. 



-5- 

One of the most difficult projects was for a woman who wanted a tomb- 
stone vd.th a boy on a motorcycle. 

"It couldn't be just any boy," Mr. Adams said. "It had to be her son. 
He was killed in a motorcycle accident." He did the boy's face from a photo- 
graph. 

Mr« Adams was also commissioned to make a double tambwtone for a woman 
who ijcrked for the telephone company. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

John D. Combes, 1972, Ethnography, Archae o logy and B urial Practices 
Amon ^ Coastal South Carolina Bl acks. Canfeicenoe on Eisiox-ic Sites Arohaeo- 
logy Papers 7:52-61. Describes Black burial practices in the Southeast that 
are characterized by irregular grave orientation, frequent absence of grave 
markers, and presence of grave offerings on the surface. The article also 
discusses associated beliefs and customs. 

Lance Mayer, 1972, The Churchyards Handbook; Advice on their Care 
and Maintenance . Second edution: revised for the Council for Places of 
Worship by !-he Rev. Henry Stapleton, FSA, and Peter Eurman, FSA . CIO Pub- 
lishing (Church House, Dean's Yard, London SWIP 3NZ) . Price $2.40. 
136 pp., 22 plates, bibliography. 

VJhile of limited interest, this book deserves mention because it seems 
to be virtually unknown in North America. It Is intended primarily for 
clergymen of the Church of England, and many of the civil and ecclesiastical 
regulations discussed will be unfamiliar to American readers. For example, 
we are told that any alteration to a churchyard or its tombstones must be 
approved in writing by a Diocesan Advisory Committee, which concerns itself 
with aesthetic and historic as well as legal and practical problems. 

Introductory chapters dealing with the history of England churchyards 
and gravestones provide a few Interesting facts V7hich may be little known 
to American readers, such as the tradition in Cheshire and Lancashire of 
using flat tombstones which eventually pave over the entire churchyard (p. 31) 
or the custom in the Home Counties, from the late eighteenth century on, of 
placing a "body stone" (in the shape of a corpse) between the headstone and 
the footstone (p. 31). It is said that the practice of erecting painted 
wooden grave boards, or rails, persisted in remote areas of the southeast 
until the last quarter of the nineteenth century (p. 32), and that in Shrop- 
shire, cast iron memorials were a substitute for local stone of mediocre 
quality (p. 11). Unfortunately, these tantalizing clues are undocumented and 
may prove frustrating to the serious echolar. 

The most important lesson of the book is one which cannot be over- 
stressed — this is the "duty to preserve" (pp. 30 ff .) for future genera- 
tions. Some might object to the authors' discrimination between monuments 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, which they say should all be 
preserved, and those of the nineteenth century', which only "may also be 
worth preserving" (p. 68). The suthors do point out, however, the value of 
even badly damaged gravestones (p. 65), and emphasize that careful considera- 
tion and consultation must be given to any proposed change or restoration 
in a churchyard. A procedure is suggested which would include announcing 
the plan in a local newspaper to encourage comments or criticism (p. 69). 

The importance of recording cemetery data is righly stressed, and a 
model form given. Information about ttfees and shrubs is mostly applicable 
to England J but the book's approach, which points out the importance of 
sensitive landscaping to the beauty of a churchyard, is noteworthy. Keep- 
ing grass cut uniformly short may not be the best solution, economically 



-6- 



or aesthetically, and the a 
includinc keeping sheep or 

The authors lament the 
craft, and encourage a revi 
iirith meaningful epitaphs, 
the erection of monuments i 
polished surfaces, birdbath 

More than in any of it 
the American reader as an e 
are facing the problem of c 
to hi^gh standards. Some re 
lack of "how to'' informatio 
other authorities, but your 
caution may be necessary fo 
of knowledge of many aspect 
importance of the task. 



uthors suggest sev 
geese in the churc 

present poor stat 
val of well-design 
They even encourap; 
n poor taste, such 
s, or open books ( 
s specific advice, 
xample of how peop 
emetery care with 
aders may be frust 
n and frequent ins 

reviewer believes 
r the present, giv 
s of cemetery cons 



eral alternatives, 
hyard (p . 56) ! 
e of the stonecutter's 
ed, hand-cut gravestones 
e clergymen to prohibit 

as stones with mirror- 
p. Ill) . 

the book is useful to 
le in another country 
unsvjerving dedication 
rated by the relative 
tructions to consult 

that this kind of 
en the limited state 
ervation, and the 



REGIONAL NEWS 



Clippings From^ Th^ _Gr 

Although tlie ASSOCIAT 
folk-art oriented, it embr 
the value of old graveston 
individuals and organizati 

From Maine to Califor 
of dedicated people, ^^fith 
inscriptions from gravesto 
and, in some cases, restor 
wide groups engaged in the 
pressive collections of tr 
genealogical societies hav 
gravestones which are bein 
are a few state-wide organ 
scribing gravestone record 
care of the old burying ya 
STUDIES welcomes all these 
that through this column i 
and achievements ..v«'^Llg;i;;;^us 
a comprehensive listing ca 
referred . 

In this issue of The 
of the state-wide Old Grav 
known to exist in New Engl 

1. VERMONT OLD CEMET 
The acknowledged 
the restoration and preser 
and often abandoned cemete 
among a state coordinator, 
Membership has grown to ov 
in various locations, and 
is published. Over the ye 
establish a fund, the inte 
modest matching grants-in- 
ance and/or encouragement. 



assroots by Mary C. Emhardt, 1973. 
TON FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES is primarily 
aces all disciplines which appreciate 
es, and it welcomes the input from all 
ons interested in preserving them, 
nia there are any number of small groups 
little or no funding, busily copying 
nes, locating abandoned burying yards, 
ing them. There are also many county- 
same effort which have com.piled im- 
anscript ions . Likewise, state-v;ide 
e chapters searching out records from 
g carefully indexed. And then there 
izations exclusively devoted to tran- 
s and encouraging the restoration and 
rds. The ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE 

people into the fold and anticipates 
t will keep abreast of their identities 
hear from your particular group so that 
n be compiled to which inquiries will be 



AGS Newsletter re 
eyard/Cemetery As 
and , viz . 
ERY ASSOCIATION ( 
leader, establish 
vation of the sta 
ries,' it has div 
county chairmen, 
er 1000. Two mee 
a quarterly newsl 
ars more than $50 
rest from which e 
aid to restoratio 



cognition is made only 
sociations presently 

VOCA) 

eu in 1958 "to encorage 
te's many old negleqted 
ided this responsibility 

and town reporters, 
tings are held each year 
etter. The VOCA BULLETIN , 
00 has been raised to 
nables VOCA to offer 
n groups needing assist- 



Dues ? only $1.00 are payable by November 1 to: 

Ethel M. Billings, Treas . 

R.D. 3 

Middlebury, VT 05 75 3 

2. MAINE OLD CEMETERY ASSOCIATION (MOCA) 

Established in 1969, it nov\r boasts over 1000 members in 
forty states. Its stated purpose is 'the stimulation of discovery, 
restoration, and maintenance of old cemeteries, and the preservation 
of records and historical information relating to them''. There are 
three raeetinfjs a year in various sections of the state, and a News- 
lette r is published quarterly. Its three ongoing projects merit 
national acclaim: 

MIP (MOCA Inscription Project) to date has amassed eight large 
volumes of cemetery inscriptions listed alphabetically by over 2000 
towns: SIP (Surname Indexing Project) has information sheets of over 
150,000 individuals living in Maine between 1650 and 1970; and BIP 
(Bicentennial Index Project) has indexed by computer the names and 
related information of more than 6000 veterans of the American Revo- 
lution who died in Maine. Another 1,500 submitted names are being 
researched. Information on 111? , SIP, and BIP may be obtained from: 
MOCA, P.O. Box 324, Augusta, ME 04330. 

Dues @ $3.00 are payable by December 31 to: 

Mrs. Amanda L. Bond, Treas 
8 Greenaway Street 
Soringvale, ME 040S3 

3. NEW HAMPSillRE OLD GRAVEYARD ASSOCIATION (NHOGA) 
Organized in April, 1976, its purpose, as stated in its 

bylav^s, is similar to the preceding. The New Hampshire Historical 
Society in Concord (open v;eekdays only from 9-4:30 and Wednesdays 
from 9-8) is presently serving as repository for NH cem.etery records. 
NHOGA has three meetings a year in various locations and issues a 
newsletter, NHOGA RUBBINGS, a month in advance of each meeting. 
Dues @ $3.00 are payable in April to: 

Mrs. Milton Pineo, Treas. 
84 North Main Street 
Star Route 1 
Vifolfeboro, NH 03894 
These organizations merit your support. If you have Rev. War 
ancestors buried in Vermont, Maine, or New Hampshire, a memorial 
gift in their names or active memberships in your own would make a 
fitting bicentennial gesture. 



Nev; Hampshire Old Graveyard Association will m.eet in July at Hinsdale, 
please contact sir. Burnham, Box 77, Hinsdale, NH 03451. 

Vermont Old Cemetery Association will meet May 5th, 10 a.m. at 
Dum-merston Center Congregational Church on the corner of East West 
Road. Contact Rev. Charles Parker, BoiS5201, R.F.D., Putney, VT 05346 



ARTICLES 



THF. ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 

RECOHMENDATIONS FOR JHE CARE OF GRAVESTOj-JES 

A serious interest in acquiring useful inforriation about preser- 



vation and restoration of gravestones should begin with a careful 
reading of Lance Mayer's "THE CARE OF OLD CEMETERIES.'' 

Mr. Mayer, conservator for the Cincinnati Art Museum, welcomes 
inquiries and is eager to assist individuals concerned with grave- 
yard care. Address him at the Cincinnati Art Museum, Eden Park, 
Cincinnati, Ohio 45202 

The follov/ing brief overview of the problem can only point the 
reader in the right direction for dealing with this important and 
complex subject. Jessie Lie Farber 

Experts all agreed that the science of gravestone conservation 
is in its infancy; that further testing and better date are required 
before thoroughgoing recommendations, for ^reservation and repair 
can confidently be made; and that i>fel 1- intended , amateur efforts to 
repair and restore often contribute to the destruction of old grave- 
stones. For these reasons, the first recommendations for graveston 
care are DON'TS. 

1. DON'T APPLY ANY FOREIGN HATTER such as enoxies, cleaners 

and sealers to the stones. There are not yet any time-proven materials 
one can safely apply for mending, preventing deterioration or even 
cleaning gravestones. 

2. DON'T USE ANY PROCEDURE WHICH CANNOT BE UNDONE, such as 
using metal bolts and braces, sinking stones into cement, or setting 
them into granite. 'Permanence' often means only that a harmful or 
inadequate procedure cannot be replaced by a new and better one. 

3. DON'T DO ANYTHING ABRASIVE TO THE STONES. Even careless 
brushing or rubbing the surface can damage some stones. 

IJHAT CAN YOU DO? A GREAT DEAL. 

1. BRING SOME STONES INDOORS. Bring damaged stones and fragments 
indoors for safe storage until better procedures for mending are 
available. Select for special protection any stone that is unusually 
important historically or artistically. Investigate the legal and 
financial aspects of replacing such a stone with a replica and housing 
the original in a museum, or historical society. Ask for information 
and advice about this procedure from museums in your area. They share 
your concern for the survival of these irreplaceable examples of early 
American folk sculpture. AGS can advise you about replicas. 

2. STORE ALL^ FRAGMENTS: DISCARD NOTHING. Fragments should be 
stored in labeled plastic bags ivith others from the same stone. 

3. DOCUMENT YOUR STONE and fragm.ents. Acquaint yourself with 
information about collecting and recording gravestone data so that 
the time and money invested in the effort will be best spent. (V/rite 
to AGS for 'Recording Cemetery Data' by Joanne Baker.) A good 
document will contribute to the well-being of the stones in several 
ways. Lost and stolen stones can be identified and claim.ed. 

As the stones inevitably deteriorate and disappear, the docu- 
ment remains as a friend. 

A document- - especial ly if it is part of a publicized com.-unity 
ef fort--inforras , creates interest in and encourages respect 
for the stones , 

A document will aid researchers in a variety of studies relating 
tothewelfareofthestones. 

4. EDUCATE THE PUBLIC TO APPRECIATE your graveyard. A major 
factor in the maintenance of an old graveyard is the attitude of the 
community toward it. The behavior of the uninformed but well-meaning 
public can be as damaging as deliberate vandalism, for neglect and 
carelessness encourage vandals. Pride and appreciation are also 



-9- 



contajious . Follov/ing are suggestions for promoting good behavior 
in your old burial ground: 

['lend v;alls and fences, but do not use them to keep the public out. 

Usually a locked graveyard restricts the law-abiding citizen and 

creates a protected meeting place for vandals. 

Provide good lighting. 

Post signs telling the public v/lio is in charge and what is per- 
mitted so that the visitor is informed and understands tltat the 
t^W%e¥3-id .«ls;^!g3.rred£^for. 

Prune dead tree limbs: trim or remove overgroi\fn bushes and vines. 
This concerns more than appearance. Dead limbs fall on stones; 
overgroivn trees and shrubs r)ush over and break stones; roots of 
vines damage the surface of stones. 

Keep the grass neat but take care to avoid damaging the stones 
with lawnffiowers . Use edgers that cannot hurt the stones. Some 
communities avoid raov/ing by planting a lov; growth grass or ground 
cover which gives the graveyard a charming rural but not a 
neglected appearance. 

Keep the grounds clean. Acculated broken glass, beer cans and 
other trash invite vandalism. Provide trash cans. 

. Encourage neighborhood alertness to undesirable behavior and 
enlist pojLdce cooperation when acts of vandalism are reported. 

Encourage visiting. Publicize the graveyard's treasures, welcoming 
researchers, photographers, geneologists , rubbers (Send for the 
AGS Information Sheet dealing with the controversia- activity, 
gravestone rubbing) and others v/ho will be respectful of the 
stones. Municipal clubs, historical societies and school, college 
and church groups are all potential assistants in your efforts 
to care for your old graveyard. Isolation invites trouble. 

Project Director Anne Armstrong 

This is a preliminary repor t on the restoration and r ecording 
B.,f tae jSncft feii^ bulial g^r^jufedf X^^Sted iil Haverhill and Bradf ord, 
Massachusetts. The project is being conducted by the Haverhill 
Historical Commission and the field work was done during the summ.er 
and fall of 1973 under a CETA Title VI Grant. This $56,000 grant 
provided tvjelve laborers, two recorder/mappers, and a recorder/typist 
for fourteen v/eeks of work. It also funded all equipment and asso- 
ciated costs. 

The Commission was concerned with achieving two goals. First, 
we wished to put the burial grounds in good physical condition so 
that they could be maintained by routine mowing and trimming. Years 
of neglect had resulted in their being overgrown v;ith brush, vines, 
and poison ivy as well as filled with dead trees and stumps. Ue 
wanted to clean them up thoroughly including digging out stumps, 
filling holes ana seeding new grass. We also wished to set up fallen 
stones, straighten leaning stones^ and repair and preserve stones. 



Second, we wished to make maps of the two burial grounds and 
record information about each stone. !7e were primarily interested 
in meeting the need for the type of information sought by genea- 
logists - who was buried in each place and where the headstone was 
located. However, because of the age of the burial grounds and the 
nature of their stones, we felt that data regarding them would be 
of interest to a voider audience. 

Dating from the 1660' s, the Pentucket and Bradford Burial 
Grounds contain a large number of stones by local carvers. These 
include John Hartshorn and the Hullican family v;ho were instrumental 
in creating and spreading the Essex County style, as well as the v^ork 
of the Marble's, the Park's, and other carvers of later periods. 
Bradford contains 712 identifiable graves and just over 700 headstones 
Pentucket in Haverhill contains 1091 headstones representing over 
1200 burials. 

On August 21, the labor crew went to work in the Bradford Durial 
ground. As soon as a sufficient area had been well cleared, the 
clerical crevi? entered the field and began laying down a 5 meter grid. 
This vjas done by driving wooden stakes into the ground and stringing 
ropes betv/een them to create a pattern of 5 meter squares which 
eventually covered the entire burial ground. Each head and footstone 
as well as all Bhysical features such as trees, raised plots, stone 
walls, steps, fences, etc., v;ere then mapped in relation to the 5 
meter grid. A map of each burial ground was drawn on graph paper 
using a scale of 5 centimeters to 5 meters. General mapning conven- 
tions used were those suggested by The Association for Gravestone 
Studies . 

A gravestone record sheet was developed using suggestions from 
the Association. Each sheet contained the name of the burial ground, 
its location, the number assigned to the gravestone on the map, and 
the name on the stone. 

The material of the stone was recorded (schist, slate, sandstone, 
marble, or other plus the color of the stone). The size (height, 
width, and thickness) of each stone was recorded in centimeters. 
The height was measured from the top of the stone to the base of the 
carved area or bottom border if one was present, whether that was 
considerably below or above the ground level. The thickness and 
width ivere recorded at a point where the least erosion was apparent. 

The shape of the stone and its primary design were recorded. 
lie developed a consistant method of identifying stone shape and pri- 
mary design and felt it would be useful and possible to standardize 
such vocabulary as well as a vocabulary for dealing with secondary 
design features. Obviously, such standardization of vocabulary 
needs to utilize data from a much larger number of burial grounds. 



iJext, the condition of the stone v\/as recorded 



fe selected the 



following catagories: broken, stained, flaking, lichen or moss 
growth, as well as a blank space for other data. He later felt it 
would have been useful to add chipped and weathered (this last 
particularly as it related to the wearing-away of the face of marble 
stones) . 

A space was provided for indicating the presence or absence of 
a footstone and the inscription on the footstone. VJe later felt 
that we should have provided sttace to indicate the shape and design 
of the footstone. 



-11 



Next, the direction the headstone faced was indicated and space 
was giiven to indicate the carver. \Ie du.-^ at the base of each stone 
to see if it was si,'^ned by the carver and if the price was given 
since this data is often below ground level. The carver of some 
stones has been identified from probate records or other documentary 
sources. Others we could recognize from design and lettering 
characteristics. The source of the carver's name was also indicated 
on the sheet as well as the price, if found. 

At the bottom of the sheet a space was provided for giving the 
name of the person completing the sheet (recorder) and the date on 
which the material was recorded. 

Finally, the inscrintion was copied, EXACTLY AS IT IMS ON THE 
STONE. VJe soon discovered that no natter how careful we thought we 
were being, we all had certain charateristic«»methods of making letters 
and numerials, e.vjen la^fthe-. ca^iVeirsphad characteristics methods of 
carving letters and numerials. IVe tried to develop the attitude 
that we were copying a paicture rather than letters but each inscrip- 
tion, along v/ith all other data recorded, was checked four times 
to be sure that it vjas recorded pricisely as carved. Where inscrip- 
tions were difficult to read, we observed them in varying light, 
used mirrors to highliglit the carving, and in the case of some 
marble stones, did rubbings of sections to aid deciphering. 

Ue are also checking our record sheets against all other known 
recordings of these inscriptions, principally against the 1901 
publication of the Essex Antiquarian of all inscriptions in these 
burial grounds on stones dated prior to 1300. We are also checking 
our data against the vital records (many of v;hich were taken from 
the headstone) . Where we feel that an error has been made in an 
earlier recording and we select to stand by our transcription, this 
fact has been noted. 

After the hand-written sheets have been carefully checked, 
the data is being typed on clean record;, sheets , checked again, and 
filed in notebooks numerically. The data is also being typed on 
5'' X 3' index cards v^rhich are filed alphabetically. All Bradford 
data is currently typed and the Pentucket data is in process. 

The maps which ivere hand-drawn in the field were copied on clean 
graph paper and photographed by Advanced Reproductions of North 
Andover. This provided us with a full-scale map on m.ylar of each 
burial ground from which reproduction can be made on a blueprint 
machine. It also yielded a photographic negative of each map from 
which smaller copies can be made. In both sizes, these are made by 
Shawsheen Press of Andover. 

It was decided that the best method of preservation of stones 
currently available to us was to photograph each headstone and all 
significant footstones. This is currently being done using 35 mm. 
Minolta with Kodak Tri-X black and white film. A telephoto lens is 
being used because it produces a sharp image of the stone against 
a blurred background. The photos will be Ih' x 3's"' and printed 
on archival quality paper (Kodak Kodabromide light weight - A). 
The negatives will be cut in series of five frames and placed in 
plastic storage sleeves. 

Currently, all field data has been collected and analysis of 
this data coupled v/ith data from documentary sources has begun. 
iJe are exploring the possibility of computerizing our data so that 
it may not only be more easily retreived and analysized but so that 
it can be more readily comoared with data from other burial grounds. 

As i: '■ ' ' i. •■••"::■'.■" 



-12- 

As soon as the Conimission knew funding for the project was 
availablCj we began to seek advice about what sort of data we should';, 
gather and how best to go about it. We also consulted Norman VJeiss 
about the best steps to take in repairing and conserving the stones. 
His advice was to initiate some selective testing if possible but 
generally to await developments in this area. 

In regard to the type of data we might hope to retrieve from 
the burial grounds^ we sought the advice of Anne Giesecke. Vie also 
asked her to consider conducting an archeological dig in the Brad- 
ford Burial Ground during tlie spring of 1973. She organized and 
supervised this effort using students from her class at Bradford 
College as well as assistance from UNH and MECCO, Test pits were 
dug across the front of the burial ground where records indicated 
the first two meeting houses^ the first school, and the first town 
pound had been located. Soil samples were taken from a variety of 
locations to study patterns of disruption in the area. Data from 
this dig is now becoming available and a similar dig is planned for 
the Pentucket Burial Ground in 1979. 

lis. Giesecke also nlans to use data from our project in her 
T)hysical anthropology class at Bradford College during the spring of 
1979. .-' ■ . ' 

The Commission asked the Rev. i'?r. Ralph Tucker to help us learn 
about the carvers of our area and how to recognize their v;ork. Ke 
shared with us his wide knowledge of this field as well as his :■..■•;■ 
methods of gathering and analysizing data, and his technique of 
photographing stones. lie is currently supplying us with documentary 
data from Essex County Probate records indicating what carvers were 
paid for which stones and advising us on the handling of our data. 

As work progressed, pieces of broken stones were (after seeking 
permission from the Secretary of State's Office) removed from the 
burial grounds for safekeeping. Pieces which contained designs 
or lettering were stored for study and identification; pieces with- 
out designs or lettering were turned over to John Roberts, the 
geologist on the faculity of Bradford College, for study. In each 
case, the piece of stone was labeled as to the location in which it 
was found. If we could identify the actual stone from whcih the 
piece came this data was attached to the stone. Mr. Roberts hopes 
to identify areas in Nev\r England from vi/hich the materials used in 
making these headstones came, We have provided him with the avail- 
able data from documentary sources on the location of early stone 
quarries . 

Data gathered from the burial grounds is being supplemented 
by a large body of information from documentary sources. The 
Commission Chairman, Hov;ard VJ . Curtis, has done extensive research 
in the local records and family histories. Although not yet complete, 
the scope of this work may be indicated by noting that we can 
currently shov/ the family relationships of all persons buried in 
the Bradford Burial Ground prior to 1300. This includes 371 persons 
for whom stones are still extant plus a number of early settlers 
for whom no markers exist. 

i/e hope that analysis of our data on the ancient burial gounds 
of Ilverhill and Bradford will yield a wide range of data and look 
forward to sharing it with you as it emerges. 






TH^ASSPCIATIOi, FOR L-RAViLS'lOiii; STUDIES 
1! fi I'/ S L EJ T T E R 



A;.MkE L.. uIESEClCE, i.E./S LETTER EDITOR Al^CHAEOIDuICAL RiiSEARCH SEffyiGES 
UiiTvERSITY OF uiM HAi'iPSHIRE, DURHAi-i, i.H 0382^)- 

v'olume 3 Lumber 2 Spring, 1979 

GOi\FEREi.GES AlD i<ORKSHOJ:-S 

..ew En; l and iiee tinf. House and Church 1630 - 1850 

The Dublin Seminar for r.ew En{^land Folfclife with the cooperation of The 
Currier uallery of Art Dublin School, Dublin, liH, Saturday, June 23 and Sunday, 
June 24, 1979- Contact 1-eter Jienes = 

THE iiSSOClATIOx, FOR t:RAVjiS TO i-.E STUDIES 

THE 1979 AiiifUAL OOiiFEREi.CE OF THE /iSSOCIATIOi, FOR L:RAVI£TOi:E STUDIES, 
i-;E¥PORT, RHODE ISLAi'D, JULY 7-8, 1979. Two dajrs (11a.m. July 7 through lunch 
July 8) in historic x.ewport, on the beautiful ocean front campus of Salve Retina 
ColleA^e. 1 ear 7 important t.raveyards and the John Stevens Shop, where t^.raves tones 
are still beinf-. cut by hand, hake a vacation weekends Arrive a day early and 
stay over a day after the conference. 

Conference Site s i.ewport, Rhode Island, on the oceanftont campus of Salve 
Retina Colle(.,e. The college offers comfortable, inexpensive housing and excellent 
facilities for our meetings, films, slide shows, exhibits, and informal ^atherin^s. 
Conferences will have the opportunity to visit nine i.evfport burying grounds, to 
study some of i'ew En£:lands finest stones, and to visit the John Stevens Shop 
where gravestones have been cut by hand since the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. Scenic i;e>rport offers additional attractions to visitors — historic sites, 
the I.ewport mansions, antique shopping,,, excellent dining, and ^ood beaches. 

Conferees will be housed in a modem dormitory ^^[here the dining, hall and 
exiiibit space are also located. Conference presentations vrill be held in the 
modern college classroom building,, lieals will be seirved cafeteria style and will- 
include choices of entrees, salads, desserts, and beverages. Assure yourself of 
accommodations by making- your reservations early. See the enclosed pink regis- 
tration sheet for details . 

J'ho Attends Al.S Conferences? Anj^one with an interest in f^raves tones . AC^ 
encourat_es the study of .gravestones from all points of view, vfe have tried oo 
desicn the procram so that it will appeal to persons xiith a variety of interests. 
Equally welcome are the academician and the layman, the professional and the 
amateur, Ue appreciate the questions and the fresh perspective of the new 
enthusiast with yet unfocused interests as well as the knowledge and expertise 
of the scholar. And, we welcome the varied perspectives that come with a broad 
geographic representation. 

The Conference Pro r ram The conference planning committee has made a commit- 
ment to satisfy members' requests for time to meet each other informally, for 
time to visit exhibits, and to talk with the exhibitors, and for more hands-on. 



-2- 



workshop experiences. At the same time, we feel it is vital for the conference 
to provide a platform for those who have work to report, ideas and opinions to 
share, and q_uestions to ask. To accoitunodate all these needs, we haves 
..e Limited the nuiriher of featured speakers to four. They are iirs, John Howard 
Denson of the John Stevens Shops Jonathan Fairbanks, Curator, Department of 
American Decorative Arts, the huseuiu of Fine Arts, Boston^ James Slater, 
Professor, University, of Connecticuts and Mwin Connellj'-, Cemeteries Director 
for the State of i:iliode Island. 
...Offered a Saturday night program of short papers and slide presentations. 
Tliis program, will begin at 9 P«m. and continue as long as there are both 
presenters and audience. If you have slides to share, or if you have an 
inquiry, a discovery, a theoxy, or research findings to report briefly, you 
should ask for a segment of the Saturday night program. 
. . .Scheduled time for visiting exhibits and for meeting conferees with similar 
interests in an informal, workshop setting. i-Jhatever your interest may be — 
conservation, attributions, docuiiientation, rubbing, photography, geneology — 
there will be opportunities to explore it with others. 
. . .Scheduled visits to the John Stevens Shop and to local graveyards where 
resource people will be available to explain the graveyard's significance 
and. to hell? you discover its treasures. 

Saturday idg ht Speakers . \Ie have had excellent response to this segment of 
the conference program. The following papers will be presented! 

iiitchell Alagre, "Youth, Conservation, Cemeteries s Using Cemetery 
Hestoration to teach Conservation." 

John Braunlein, i.iadison County (i:Y) Historical Society, will use the material 
collected ''oj Frank ncKelvey, Curator of the wechanical Arts Eleuthesian iiills, 
to discuss the work of Peter Jcaies, an 05 ye&r stonecutter from Cooperstown,i-iY 

Robert Pc liJnlen, Bhode Island Historical Society? Problems connected with 
private and institutional collection of actual stones 5 including legal and 
ethical aspects, and the need for preservation vs. the collectors* greed. 

Becky Hoskins, "liautical Spibols on gravestones" (if ready) 

G. H. Jones, i;ex\r York State Historical Association, Gooperstowns "Ithamar 
Spaulding, Stonecarver of Concord, iiassachusetts, l^yO's." 

Blanche Linden, Instructor, Boston Architectural Center, and graduate 
student, Harvard University, "The iJilloxf Tree and Urn iiotif." 

Vincent F. Lute, "The ijarragansett School(s) of Stonecarving.'= (the Stevens, 
the Aliens, the i.evjs, the Hartshorns, John Anthony Angel, an unlisted Bristol 
carver, and others , ) 

William iicC-reer, '-uethods of Replications Care of the Stones in liaking 
Replicas and Rubbings." 

Daniel Patterson, Gurriculura in Folklore, University of r:orth Carolines 
"Eighteenth Century Presbyterian Stone Carving in i-^orth Caroline." 

James Mcharc).son, Chainaa;.i, Department of Anthropology, University of 
Pittsburgh, and Chief Curator, Carnegie nuseui;;, of iiatural Historys "The 
Archaeological Significance of iiausoleujnsg An Example from the Allegheny 
and Homewood Cemeteries of Pittsburgh." 

James Tibensky, "Colonial Stone ilotifs in Connecticut" (if ready) 

David Watters, Un^^ersity of Uew Hampshire! "Tlie J. ii. Carver, His Identity 
anf the Themes of His liork." 



-3- 



iielvln L . Williams, "Use of the Local Lrraveyard as a Source of Hands-On 
Historical Hesource for School Gliildren.'- 

Paul Y. Z\il^asj "Oriir,in and Development of Central Connecticut Stonecutting 
Styles? 1720-1800." 

iiost of the papers will be illustrated VTith slides. At this time, vre have only 
two presentations of slides alone. Tliey are offered by Ruth Cowell and by Francis 
Duval and Ivan Pdgby. Others are welcome. Use the enclosed pinl^ sheet to volun- 
teer a short slide presentation. 

A strict order and time schedule will be established and followed so that you 
can studjr ,the offerings in advance and select the presentations which most 
interest j/'ou. life expect to publish a conference proceedin^is which could cut^Tn 
more complete findinQ:s. Speakers vrho wish to have their work cons.iriprp'5 for 
inclusion in this voluiae should prepare a typescript to be submitted by the 
close of the conference. 

Exhibitio n Hij-^hlif^ts (many of the esdiibited works will be for sale.) 

Rubbin£,s and photographs, always a conference higlildfiht, will again dominate 
the exhibits. Of special interest are rubMngs of Pennsylvania Lerman stones 
by Aileen Sechler and photographs of iiorth Carolina stones pierced through by 
their decorative carvings. These photographs are the viork of Ivan Pdgby and 
Francis Duval, whose beautiful new book. Early American (_ raves tone Art^Jx 
Photog-raphs . will be on display and available for purchase, and for autographing 
by the authors. An unusual rubbing technique will be seen in the works of helvin 
G. viilliams, well known for his courses in rubbing, iir. i/illiams, a professor of 
English at American International College, Springfield, liA, and author of The Last 
Uord, raay also exl:iibit books and Oldstone rubbing materials. Others who have 
volunteered photograph and rubbing exhibits are Dan Farber, who has 7000 E^ave- 
stone photographs in museums 5 i.ichael Cornish, vrhose work is currently exhibited 
at the iiassachusetts School of Art? Susan Kelly and Anne liilliams, partners in 
the enterprise, A L.PtAVE BUSIi.ijBSs and Paul v. Zucas, ^^^hose exhibit of photographs 
and rubbings will support his paper. A new exhibitor, IJilliam Sargent, will show 
bisque molds, viilliam ncueer will again bring an exliibit of his castings, which 
now include two large composites of the works of several stone carvers 

ASSOGIATIOi: FOR C-MViIBT0i:S STUDIES 

1979 COivFEREi.CE SCHEDULE 
Salve Regina College, ilei-rport, PJ 
Saturday, July 7 - Sunday, July 8 

FRIDAY July 6 Check in for persons who will spend a day and a night 

in iiewport before the conference begins. 

SATURDAY July 7 
9 5 00 a.m. Pre-conference meeting of AL-S Executive JBoard. 
9 s 00 - 11 8 00 Check into rooifis. 

Set up ejdiibits. 

Registration for those not pre-registered by mail. 
llsOO - lls'^5 Opening Session. Ralph Tucker presiding. 

Speakers ri3:s . John Howard Lenson of the 
John Stevens Shop, i-eTiport. 
12s 00 - Is 00 Lucch (Several tables xiill be designated by interest 

subjects so that conferees with the same interests may 
sit together.) 
Is 15 Bus leaves for Common Burying Ground. 

Is 30 - 38 35 Introduction to the Common Burying Ground by Edwin 

Connelly, Cemeteries Director for the State of RI. 



.1^- 



lOO ~ 305 l.uided visits to four I;e>rport frraveyards . You may 

elect to visit all four or stay at any one. 
Luided visits to the John Stevens Shop . 
305 Bus retunis to confez'ence headquarteax . 
4s00 - ^■i^■5 Films "The Art of the Stonecutter" (tentative title of 

this film alxjut the John Stevens Shop, the- work of two 
cinematographexB at the Miode Island School of Design.) 
kil-'S - OS 00 Free time to visit the exhibits and the conference book 

sales table, to meet with interest groups, and to ejcplore 
the Salve Regina campu?. 
5s 15 - 6s 00 Gash bar 
6s 00 - 7s 00 Dinner 
7s 00 - 7530 Free 

7530 Presentation of the 1979 Harriette lierrifield Forbes 

Award for Outstanding Contribution to Cravestone Studies 
to Peter iienes, Dublin School, Dublin, .i';H. ur, Benes, 
author of significant publications on the iconography of 
gravestones, is founder and Director of The Dublin Seminar 
for i,ew iUngland Follilife, Inc., the pa.r^Ilt organiization to 
the Association for Gravestone Studies. 
8s 00 p.m. Speakers Professor James Slater, University of Connecticut. 

Subjects Color ^n Lravestones (a spoof with a moral.) 
9s 00 on... iiember's iiarathon. Short papers, slide presentations and 

coffee breaks, continuing as long as there are presenters 
and audience. 
Sm.!DAy July 
9s00 a.m. Second General Session. Speakers Edwin Connelly , 

Cemeteries Director for the State of lihode Island. 
Subjects The Ehode Island Cemeteries Program, including 
recent legislation, documentation and conservation 
techniques , 
10s 00 - 105^!'5 AGS Annual aeetlng. lilection of officers. The Association 

welcomes new blood. Tills is the time to make knoT'in your 
ideas for the organization, 
lis 00 into the lunch hour 

Informal meetings with interest groups for technique and 
idea sharing. 
Interest goraup leaders 

Conservation - Lance i layer 
Documentation - Edwin Connelly 
Teaching Resources - Gaynel Levine 
i;ewsletter talent search - Jessie Lie Farber 
Photography - Francis Duval and Ivan Piigby 
Public Jid.ucation - Joanne Baker 
Attributions - Ralph Tuclcer 
lobbing - Glo Klrby 
Archives - Jim Slater or Peter Lenes 
iiolds and castings - iJilliam iicl.,eer 
Others? Suggestions welcome. 
12s 00 - Is 00 Lunch 
Is 00 Third., final general session. Election results announced! 

new officers installed. 

Speakers J onathan Falr banlcs , Curator, Department of American 
Decorative Arts, iiuseuia of Fine Arts, Boston, inc. Fairbanlsis 
will relate the carving on gravestones to other early American- 
art. 



-5- 

liEiiBfilBHIP POM PRli;_REC.ISTPATIOi': FOffii fiOOil & liEAL RESER'ATIOi.S 

liail this form with a check made out to Association for Gravestone Studies tos 

Joanne Baker 
AC'S Conference Chair 
6k i'-Jorth Lain Street 
Concord, i<H O33OI 

liEllBEllSHIP lb THE ASSOCIATIOii FOR G RAVES TOliE STUDIES 
Dues are :j)10. Conferees must be ACtS raerabers. 

( ) 1 want to join ACS. 

( ) Please brini^ my membership up to date. $ 

( ) I am a iaeraber in cood s "banding. 

COi^FEREl^CB Rlil.ISTMTIQi-! FEE 

( ) I want to pre-rec,ister at $9 • $ 

( ) I expect to register at the conference at $12. 

COKFEREIiCE HOUSIIjC- Al.D iJEAIS (Rooms are not available without meals 1 
meals are available without room . ) 

( ) Please reserve a room and meal tickets for the conference 
(lunch, dinner and overni/^ht July 7s breakfast and lunch 
July 3 ) ' $ 

Single occupancys room and 4 meals - $29-25 
Double occupancys room and U- meals - $24.25 

( ) I expect to share my double room T'dth 

I'd like you to assign a roommate, 

I do not need housing but want to take my meals at the 

conference dining room, four meals for $13« ... ......••.•• • •$ 

PRE Al-iD POST COi:FEREr.CE HOUSILl- (no meals included) 
Send $10 deposit or full payment. 

Please reserve a room for the nights of 
( ) Friday^ July 6 ( ) Single ( ) Double... $ 

( ) Sunday, July 8 ( ) Single ( ) Double. ........... .$ 



Single occupancy - $16 

Double occupancy - $11 TOTAL Eli CLOSED $_ 

r.AiiE ^ 

ADDRliBS ____^_ 

IhSTITUTIOi-i (if any)_ 

COl-ulEKTS? SUGGjSTIOiS? PAl-^EiS, SLIDES, EXIilBITS TO COiJTRIBUTE? 



-o- 



SUGGESTIOi-iS FOR POST COi'.FEEiiEGE ACTIVITY 
Continued work with interest {^roups 

Visits to nine Hex-rport graveyards. A mai? and visitors' £^;uide will be provided. 
Visits to Kevrport's liansions and other aites. 
Chamber of Gonmerce inforraation will be provided. 

An interview with Mwin <J. Connelly of hewport, Rliode Island by Ilar y C. Emhardt. 

1. How and when did the office, Cemeteries, Director For The State of iiiiode Island 
come into beinj^:? 

The Graves Re£;istration Unit of the State Office of leterans Affairs, since 19579 
was directed; to record, and mark with a siyi the burial grounds of JRIiode Islands 
to record the £rave sites of war veterans. 

In 1975 state af.encies were directed by the governor to exaiaine potential areas 
vrhich could influence iHhode Island's celebration of the Bicentennial, iiany volun- 
teer efforts in burial ground clean-up began throughout the State. The office of 
Veterans Affaiis because the central clearing house for these volunteers efforts. 
The docuiv.entation and restoration of the Common Buryint, C-romid, Newport, because 
the model for a state wide effort. In 1975 Edwin l/ilmot Connelly was hired to 
coordinate this state wide effort and clean-up projects by boy and girl scout 
troops, Army Reserve Units, CETa employees, local groups and individuals were 
begxin. 

2. When were you appointed Director and what are your state duties? 

The Rhode Island Cemeteries Program became a unit of the Office of Veterans Affairs 
in 1977. The duties of the Cemeteries Director include:" The Docmuentation and 
Restoration of Rliode Island Historical Cemeteries, The Craves Registration Unit, 
and The Rhode Island Veterans Cemetery. '■-■ •;, ;■/.■ '■■■.■; 
llork-time Allotment of Rhode Island Cemeteries Director 

a. l^Oya Historical Cemeteries 

b. kCf/b Rliode Island Veterans Cemetery, Exeter, RI 

c. 20^;; Graves Registration 

a. ^■0r- - Historical Cemeteries s The State does not have a maintenance department 
for cemeterir management, i/e, however, assist cities, toims and private owners 
with their management problems when requested, lie often are informed of 
problems by individual citizens and will attempt problem solving though volun- 
teer help as well as CElA, Public Work Department emploj^ees. 

With over 2000 recorded cemeteries located throu£;Jiout the state of Rhode 
Island, it would require a large full time staff of .over 50 employees just to 
cut the grass and do some minor maintenance tasks. A basic question to the 
problem iss uhen does tax exempt private property become the responsibility 
of the government? Is management of abandoned and neglected property the 
responsibility of the tax payers? 

b. kOfo - Rliode Island veterans Cemetery, Exeter s The state Veterans Cemetery 
was dedicated in 1974 and has become a major responsibility of mine. In 
five years ^^re have recorded 1400 graves ites and average six interments per 
week. The development and management of the 65 acres. Rhode Island veterans 
Cemetery is an irapor-tant segjuent of the Rhode Island Cemeteries Program. 



-7- 



3. How laxge is your staff? 

State emplo y ^ , CET A 5 i Voluntee r varies 

4. How many hours do you spend per vreek on this work? 50 hours 
In the office 25 In the fiel d 25 

5. How have you set up liaison betwen your office and the towns? 
And is funding from the state available for town i/orkers? 

Through? Town clerk, Public Works Department, iiayors, Police. 
No state funds are available, 

6. How many cemeteries have been recorded to date? 
Communal 120 Privat e I9OO iCst, number of stones 22.000 

7. What percentage of these cemeteries receive annual upkeep? 
Private mone y 10% Est, Tomi/Cit y 2% Est, State mone y \.% jUst. 

8. Are there any of these cemeteries being restored? Yes 
If so J hovf funded? 

Federal, State, City, and Private liHinding 

9. Viihat will be the final disposition of the records amassed in your vrork, 
and will they be available to the general public? 

Records are hoiised at the state Office of Veterans Affairs, 46 Aborn Street, 
Providence, HI O2903. Tliese records are open to the public with staff assistance. 

10. Give some of the details leading to the enactment of House j3ill -,t^WL2, 
being an ACT relating to Cliineteries , etc. 

79H-54I2 - The intent of this J3ill is the protection of recorded cemeteries 
through the placing of the symbols CiOii on the tax plat or any instrument the 
cities and toxms use in establishing property omiership. uTnen property is trans- 
fered from the present oirner to the buj'-er. The buif^er will be made aware of the 
presence of a historical cemeteiy located within the property being sold, 

10a, In this ACT xrhat, specifically, constitutes a "historic" cemetery? 

■ The state of Phode Island in recording the burial grounds has designated each 
burial ground "Historical Cemetery''. The designation Historical is based on: 
people of the past showing the development or evolution in a chronological order. 
The biirial grounds provide a historical account of Iiihode Island. 

10b, ufhy weren't all cemeteries included? 

All record.ed Rhode Island Burial t rounds are classed '-Historical". 



-8- 



The John Steveiis bhop, i..ewf)OTt, liliode Island by Anne C iesecke 
John Stevens s ''But somethinG happened as he began to use the chisel in the 
native Levrport stone. He began to invent with it. Since certain kinds of lines 
and- curves are the most natural ones to carve, these lines and curves becarae his 
vocabulary. A series of brisk, easy strokes forra a flowered Ixirder. Stems and 
platforms create a natiiral letter form. He had a strong innate design sense 
perfectly suited to his nevf medium; birds and floTfeiB came out of his fingers; 
an hourglass to fill the arch of a headstone top; placid cherubs to replace the 
chattering death's heads of the early stones." 

The Stevens worked in the shop from the early I700's until 192? when the shop 
wets bought by John Howard Benson, xiensons have continued the tradition of hand 
letterin{; in stone from the Boston Public Library to the John and Robert Kennedy 
l.emo rials in Arlington Cemetery. 

According to the current Hohn Benson «=There only are twenty-six letters, or 
fifty- two counting both upper and lower case, and ten numerals, Sven throwing 
in punctuation vre can only get a total of about seventy characters, Seventjr little 
mariis, dominating the lives of nine generations of hard-working people for nearly 
three hundred, years. It aLmost seems like some sort of dementia. But, of course, 
there is a catch. Just vrhat is a good, letter? That's the rub. Letters are lilie 
any other article of applied design. Their excellence depends, at any time in 
history, on their fulfillment of a series of requirements within a more or less 
rigidly structured framework. It is an interesting aspect of the field that, 
over the years, this framevrork has become less and less well-defined. iJe have 
reached a point toda3'- where the art directors of i.adison Avenue, or the sign 
mariners of Las Vegas have at their disposal an almost infinite variety of letter 
forms; any on of vrhich, depending upon the cleverness of its user, can be made, 
by context and application, into a workable letter. This is the main reason why 
large-scale lettering of our time is in such a chaotic state. The framework is 
too wide. It's like opening one's closet and having to pick from a thousand pairs 
of shoes," 

See the shop when you attend the conferxiece or during any visit to liewport. 

Con versation s with Katharine Brskin e by Jessie Farber 
Katliarine iirskine is the daughter of Harriette i.errifield Forbes, She lives in 
the house, and sleeps in the ver^r room in which she i^as born 89 years ago. Dan - 
and Jessie Lie Farber have been tallying with her about her famous mother, and 
recording her remarl^ on tape. A transcription of these conversations will be 
for sale at the lievrport conference at a nominal price. 

Here are excerpts from some of her stories s 

Oftentimes someone would come buzzing up to mother and say "Oh, lirs, 
Forbes, I know how interested you are in gravestones and you might 
like this epitath." And then they'd recite one of those supposedly 
amusing ones, and they very often xfere amiisiug. uy mother couldn't 
care less. iCverybody was interested in epitaths and. she iras almost 
the only one \<iho had got onto the idea that the early gravestones 
were really irorlis of art, 

I think she appreciated humor, but I don't thinJc she was one to 
repeat anecdotes, i.y father would do that. He'd be the one to tell 
some kind of a tale. I remember many a time people saying to me that 
they liked to sit beside my father at a, say, d.inner party because he 
was so interesting to tall?: to. They never said that to me about my 
mother. 



-9- 



I'irs. Ersklne tells about the tine Teddy Roosevelt came to Worcester to tallt, and 
so many people came to i;echanics Hall to hear him that there was no room for all 
of then, so the women, x\rho hacl no vote were told to wait outside. Harriett e 
Forbes, alon^^ with all of those other women, hung around on liain Street, without 
money to even buy a soda, because in those days the men carried the cash. iirs. 
Erskine recalls, "r'o, we weren't mad at my father because we linderstood that he 
and my brother wanted to be sure they c,ot in. iJe were mad that they thought 
women didn't count. . .Liother always believed in suffrare. She was staunch for 
votes for women, thou^i she wasn't the kind that went out and smashed windows." 

She related that her parents had. the tjrpical standards that you associate with 
the New England family. "They took it for granted that you never told a lie. 
That you never stole. You did good to the poor and went to church and looked 
after your nei{:,hbor if the neighbor need it....iJe were i^rimarlly not an emotional 
farnil^. . .That was a i^ew England tradition". 

In answer to a question about physical appearance, she said, "hy mother vras short 
and little, a very dainty type of build... She was very white-haired...! can't 
remember when she ever had gray hair. It was alwaj^ white. I remember her 
saying one time that she found her first white hair when she was, I thijjl^, 16... 
I thinic she was about five feet, or five feet two.«= 

For breakfast, she said, the family usually had tripe or liver or creamed codfish 
on toast. Eggs and bacon or ham were not usual breaJcfast foods. Surprisingly 
enough, for breakfast my mother only had a little dish of trapenuts . She ate 
them with no sugar or cream. That was her whole breakfast. . .hy mother never 
took meat. She ate everything in the vray of vegetables though." 

She tells s I remember one time mother had a d.ress made and it cost about $100. 
That wasn't as much as it may seem because dresses were all made by hand and vrith 
all the trimming and. the underlining and whatever, it was a work of many, many 
hours, iiy father said, "VIell, Its a lot of money to put into one dress," and my 
mother said, ''Yes, but I'll get a lot of wear out of it." 'So then, being tjrpical 
of her, she kept a record. Eyery time she wore the dress, she made a mark, and 
eventually it got to where she'd worn the dress enou^ji times so that it was down 
to 50 cents a tine, out of the $100. It must have been 200 times she'd worn the 
dress, and she was still x-rearing it. 

And many, many more stories~25 pages of them. 

Biogra,phy of Peter Benes 

A doctoral candidate in the American and Liexj England Studies Program at Boston 
University, Peter i3enes teaches history at the Dublin School in Dublin, i.iew 
Hampshire, and at Keene State College. He is the founder and co-direc-tor of the 
Dublin Serainar for i;ew England Follclife, a conference series sponsored jointly 
by the Dublin School and Boston University, and a co-founder of the Association 
for Gravestone Studies. His articles on kew England his'tory and material culture 
have appeared in Old Time i:ew Bnr:land . Historical i'iew Hampshire , ifesex Institute 
Historical Collections . Connecticut Historical Society Bul letin , and Proceedinf-s 
o f the Dublin Semina r for J-'ew Eligj^ajid^qjjy^ife. He is currentn.y editing the 
gravestone papers of Dr. Ernest Caulfield of Connecticut. 

ITBiiS OF I l'iTEREST 

Forbes negatives by Daniel Farber 



-10- 



Harriette iierrifield Forbes made her photorraiDhs of gravestones on 5 x ? 
f;:lass negatives, which are in the possession of the Araerican Antiquarian Society. 
In order to insure their perraanence, the Aiat Antiqu. Soc, has had them copied 
onto modern film, and are offering the £;lass originals for sale. Hie Association 
for Gravestone Studies will have a numher of these on display, -and. for sale, at 
the i^ewport conference. The price will be $10,00, half of which £,oes to the Am. 
Antiqu. Society, and half for L raves tone Studies. 

iiost of the negatives are still in Harriette Forbes' envelopes, marked in 
her handxncitinr; with the najiie, of the deceased, location and date of death, and 
the date on which she mad.e the picture.- 

iiews letter brief item by Lance i^ayer 

A nationally-circulated antiques newsletter recently featured an advertise- 
ment in which a iiew York dealer offered, for sale a fragment of an eighteenth- 
century gravestone, laounted on a lucite base, presumably foT display as a coffee 
table ob.jet d'art . This writer had heard ixuiiors of dealers looking for grave- 
stones to sell, but was franJ<;ly shocked, by this exaraple, and is afraid that it 
could be the beginning of a dangerous trend. 

So many early stones are stolen each year that the private posgssion of any 
gravestone or fragment is obviously a very dubious ethical proposition. ALS 
believes that every effort should be made, in such cases, to return stones to 
the cemeteries from which they came, or, in the case of frag^aents or untraceable 
stones, to deposit them in appropriate public institutions. 

Action on the local level, by individuals who are concerned about problems 
lil'ce this, can malie a difference. If cemeteries are properly documented, stolen 
stones can be identified and returned. Interested groups can reset loose, easily 
stealable stones, and consider the possibility of storing fragments in a safe 
place, such as a church or historical society. (Local laifs should always be 
investigated firstJ) Tliese topics are discussed further in an AGS pamphlet, 
Recomiaendatlon.s for the C are of l:ravestones , and, at greater length, in an AGS 
handbook on cemetery care which ia in preparation, 

lastly, the voice of the x^ublic can be brought to bear upon those who would 
mal<:e a profit from the sale of part of our cultural heritage. Several years ago, 
a proposed auction of privately-owned gravestones in Lew England had a happy 
ending when public outcry was such that the sale wais cancelled and the stones 
donated to a museuju. Cases like this and the- i:ew York example may become more 
frequent, and their outcome will be determined by whether ind.ividuals can make a 
concerted effort to resist them. • 

The Venanr,o iiaster by i,alcoLm A. r:elson 

The quiet glow of antiquity, and. our mortal respect for the survivors of 
tliiie and. mutability, make an appreciation of uJarly American gravestones natural 
to thoughtful people. A pleasant adjunct to this is the study of unusual modem 
stones. 

Lost modern memorials are, of course, mass produced, and uninteresting, as 
representative of modem thought and art cis loaves of IJonder Bread. Tlie occa- 
sional distinctive stone is delightful for its rarity as well as for its character 
or beauty. As we often do, we stopped at a graveyard to look for early, good, 
rubbable stones. Our local area (ifestem Lew York state and Lorthem Pennsyl- 
vania) is not a particularly good site for fine stones of an3'' vintage. Thus, 
thougli we have had occasional good luck, we never expect much. We stopped in a 
very small tox-m called Venango, Pennsjrlvania, and poked, about until we found 
the graveyard. After an hour or so of m.oderately interesting looking, we were 
ready to leave. 



-11- 

Then, in the last and newest comer of the graveyard, we saw a dazzling, 
heart shaped pink stone inscribed with the Boy Scout Insignia, and apparently 
given by Pack 236, Den 2, to its former Den hother, Gertrude Lewis iicClearn. 
We enjoyed it somewhat irreverently, ajid the hcCleam stone by itself would have 
made the sidetrip worthwhile. But Serendipity led us from it to another imme- 
diately behind it, and thus to one of the most unusual modem stones we have seen. 

It is a large (more than two by three feet), severe, dark memorial to Gerald 
("Jerry") Armel, I93O-I974, presumably placed there by his still living wife, 
Dorothy ("Kitty"), 1931- • Its decoration is simple and stark, only two 

conventional flower motifs, except for its astounding central device: a perfect 
eighteen-irich replica of a steel-hauling, five-axle, diesel semi-trailer, chisel- 
led in bas relief, with "Diamond Reo" proudly emblazoned on the hood. 

We know no more than this. It pleases us to attribute it to "the anonymous 
Venango haster, " as we do some hedieval plays. We intend to investigate Venango 
and other nearby towns to discover the identify of the stonecutter, and to find 
other examples of his work. There are a few other unusual stones in Venango 
which may also be his work, but they are not necessarily unique, as this must 
siirely be. 

When we ask ourselves what of beauty or wit or originality will survive 
from the cookie-cutter memorial art of recent decades for students of American 
art and folk culture a century from now, we like to think they will be nearly 
as intrigued by stones of this sort as we are by the folk art of Puritans l>iew 
England. We would welcome information on other unusual modem stones. 

Practical Experience In Archaeology . " 

Session I s July 9 - 20, I979 
Session II: July 23 - August 3, 1979 

A field school for amateurs or paraprofessionals: Be part of the coastal 
Zone survey of bew Hampshire - course will include one week of excavation deter- 
mining parameters and significance of an historic site in Exeter, NH. Week two 
will offer opportunities for archival research, site survey, mapping 
or laboratory methods. A background lecture will be presented on 
Sunday evening (July 8/22. Field work will begin on Monday morning 
(July 9/23) . 

Course will offer 2 graduate or undergraduate credits/inservice 
training for teachers/audit. 

For further details contact: Billee M. Hoornbeek, archaeolo- 
gical reasearch services. Department of Sociology § Anthropology, 
Horton Social Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, 
New Hampshire. Phone: (603) 862-1547 

REGIONAL NEWS 

Clippin gs ^rom the Grass roo^ts by MajnLJ?^'- ^i^l^A^u^t. 
As it turns out I have only the dates for Maine Old Cemetery 
Association (MOCA) spring meeting as yet: Registration 9 a.m. @ 
$2.00 per person at Maine Maritime Academy in Castine, Maine in the 
Magaret Chase Smith Gymnasium. 
Saturday, May 19 Program 

9:00 a.m. Registration, Coffee and donuts 

10:00 Announcements 

10:30 Eastern New England Historical Backgrounds 

Dr. Gardner E. Gregory of Castine 
11:30 Business Meeting 

1:15 p.m. "The Penobscot Expedition Re-reenactment" 

Col. Eugene R. Johnson of Stockton Springs 
Sandwiches for sale - Free coffee and donuts. Baby-sitting service. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



12- 



Duval, Francis Y. and Ivan B. Rigby. Early American Gravestone Art 
in Photographs . New York: Dover Publications, 1978. 133pp. 



Th 
article 
work is 
201 pho 
motifs , 
19th ce 

So 
usual m 
example 
the aut 
Later, 
attribu 
a black 
are art 
emphasi 
Stevens 
ments o 
as that 
the Kil 
effect . 

On 
the cho 
picture 
of the 
The tec 
present 
graphy 
her inv 



ose who 
s of Fr 

now av 
tograph 

and a 
nturies 
me of t 
eticulo 
s , howe 
hors de 
a three 
tes of 

backgr 

forms 
zed and 

II pea 
f the c 

used o 
burn ch 



hace admired the stunning photogra 
ancis Duval and Ivan Rigby will be 
ailable in book form. Their Dover 
s, a list of burial grounds, a list 
list of documented stonecarvers of 



he photograph 
us attention 
ver, are phot 
scribe a proc 

dimensional 
the original, 
ound under st 
in themselves 

subtle detai 
cock is visib 
arver's work, 
n a crowned e 
ildren stone 



s were ta 

to lighti 

ographs o 

ess where 

replica c 

is produ 

udio ligh 

In som 

1 made ev 

le, for e 

In othe 

ffigy fro 

(cover ph 



ken 
ng a 
f ca 
by t 
onta 
ced 
t . 
e ca 
iden 
xamp 
r ca 
m Ha 
oto) 



in t 
nd d 
stin 
hey 
inin 
and 
The 
ses , 
t. 
le, 
ses , 
dley 
ere 



he fi 

etail 

gs. 

make 

g all 

photo 

resul 

ston 
Every 
revea 

bott 
, Mas 
ates 



phic exhibits and 
delighted that their 
publications contain; 

of gravestone 
the 17th, 18th, and 

eld with the author': 
The most dramatic 
In the Forward, 
a mold in the field. 

the textural 
graphed against 
ting photographs 
e texture is 

feather of a John 
ling the refine- 
om lighting, such 
sachusetts oy on 
an almost surreal 



e might argue that extreme lighting distorts reality or that 
ice of only the most unique examples gives an incomplete 

of gravestone art. Such observations, however, lose sight 
book's purpose: to interest the reader in gravestone art. 
hnical excellence of the photographs and their striking 
ation accomplish this magnificently. Moreover, the biblio- 
and various lists give the reader the tools to continue his/ 
estigation. 



NHPRC Directory: 



Commiss 
and Man 



ion announc 
u script Rep 



The N 
es th 
osito 



tion on 3,250 instituti 
historical records, was 
of more than 11,000 lib 
institutions. The 905- 
contain documents, phot 
interviews, and other s 
alphabetically by state 
ing includes name of re 
service, availability o 
descriptions of the ins 
of historical source ma 
graphic references. Ot 
hensive index to subjec 
tutions by type (such a 
and state historical so 
records programs within 
The Directory , may 
Archives and Records Se 
Branch (NEPS) , National 
20408 



ationa 
e publ 
ries . 
ons th 

compi 
raries 
page D 
ograph 
ource 
, town 
posito 
f copy 
tituti 
terial 
her f e 
ts and 
s corp 
cietie 

each 

be or 
rvice . 

Archi 



1 Historical 

ication of i 

The Directo 



roughout the 
led by means 
, archives, 
irectory rep 
s, architect 
materials . 
, and reposi 
ry, address, 
ing faciliti 
on ' s acquisi 
s, and citat 
atures of th 

proper name 
orate archiv 
s) , and desc 
state . 
dered for $2 

Fund, from 
ves and Reco 



Publications and Records 
ts 19 78 Directory of Archiver 
ry , which contains informa- 
United States housing 
of a nationwide survey 
museums, and similar 
orts on repositories that 
ural drawings, oral history 
Entries are arranged 
tory name. A typical list- 
telephone number, hours of 
es, restrictions on access, 
tion policy and holdings 
ions to published blblio- 
e volume include a compre- 
s, special lists of insti- 
es, religious archives, 
riptions of local public 

5, payable to the National 

the Publications Sales 

rds Service, V/ashington , DC 



-13- 



ARTICLSS 

Making Photographic Records Of Gravestones by Dciniel Farber, for Association 
for Gravestone Studies 

Photographs of gravestones should be made only in bright sunlight. Hazy and 
cloudy conditions produce inferior pictures. The sunlight should fall across the 
face of the stone at a raking angle, that is, from the side or top, at an angle 



of no more than 30 degrees. ^i^^ 



^ ^<-ac<^ <rf \\c-r<C- 



If the sun is in front of tne stone, instead of to the side or top, the 
details of the stone ♦s design will not show prominently. 

Jo' 



C-^ 



-Y-V^;^, »v-.c^^x<;. ^ fOOr- j^iC-Vuv^c 



The sunlight strikes any one stone at this favorable angle for a period of about 
1-2 hours each day, so the photographer must know when to be there. In most New 
England burying grounds the stones face West, so that they are in position for 
photography ?t about 1200 to 1:30 P.M. standard time. Stones that face South are 
in favorable position all day in midsummer, but are lighted from the front at all 
other seasons. -^Jli" 



A. 



<^.C^ 5.' .../•> 






Dependance on the postion of the sun can be avoided by the use of a mirror. 
Sears Roebuck sells a 20"x60" float-glass door mirror for $22.99 which is tall 
enough to light most stones. If you are interested in photographing only a por- 
tion of the gravestone a smaller mirror, perhaps one from your home, is sufficient. 
To prevent breakage the mirror should be framed. The frame can be made of plain 
pieces of lumber — framing with picture frame by a custom framer is expensive. The 
frame should cover the bevels of the Sears mirror, otherwise they will produce 
difficult lighting effects. The mirror can be used to light any shaded stone, 
provided the mirror is in bright sixnlight. For stones shaded by trees, etc., the 
mirror can be positioned as far away as 100 feet. 

For best results, plate glass mirror should be used. 

Good pictures can be made with a 35 mm. camera. For black-and-white Tri-X 
can be used at i/250 or 1/500 second. For color Ektachrome ASA 200 can be used 
at 1/250. At these speeds a tripod is not necessary. To make closeup details a 
+1 portra lens, costing about $5.00, can be attached to the front of the camera 
lens. 

The camera should be positioned so that the sides of the stone are seen pa- 
rallel with the sides of the viewer. If the camera is pointed upward or downward 
the picture of the stones will be distorted. The camera should be positioned close 
enough to the stone so that it fills the whole picture. Bird-dimg should be washed 
off with brush and water. Wire brush will damage the stone and should not be used. 



Irrelevant and disagreeable objects in the background can be eliminated by 
the use of a backboard. Formica in any medium color is suitable. Gray should be 
avoided, as it will tend to merge with the color of the stone. The formica should 
be mounted on t" plywood. The plywood should be enough wider than the formica on 
one side so that a hand -hole can be cut into it. The backboard should be cut as 
large as will fit through your car door, and as wide as your car will accommodate. 
For a shop to make this boazrd, look under "Kitchen Counters" in the yellow pages 
of the phone book. 



Cu^'i>^'''Of\ 




■CXKf^i 



t e.P'C^iz 




^-jfyi tCf^ 



If you have a companion, he/she can hold the backboard in place. If alone, 
it is wedged in place with a light angle iron 48" long, A cushion is placed bet- 
ween stone and board to prevent scratching of the board. Stains and scratches 
can be removed from the board with furniture polish. A piece of urethane foam 
can be used as the cushion, and be secured from the scrap pile of an upholstery 
shop, probably at no cost. 

Pictures cannot be made when snow is on the ground. Reflection of the sun- 
light from the snow destroys the raking effect on the face of the stone. 

Please note that all the above information applies to only the documentation 
of gravestones. For artistic photography there are no rules, other than your own 
taste and judgement. 

USE OF LIGHT MTER— If a hand meter is used, it should be brought close to 
the stone while leading, so that only the stone and none of the backgroimd is 
included. If your camera is equipped with a meter, while making the reading the 
camera should be brought close to the stone in the same way. 

Essex County Probate Records by Ralph Tucker 

Harriette Forbes went thixiugh various county probate records seeking infor- 
mation relating to tombstone. Recently her notes were given to the American Anti- 
quarian Society and from these we have extracted the notations relating to named 
or known carvers as well as the prices paid for the stone and in some cases other 
related costs. In a few instances the names were uncertain and hence placed in 
parentheses. In some cases dates were uncertain so the range of dates contained 
in the given volume of records are given. Prices up until 1796 are given in lbs., 
shillings, pence. At the conclusion of the Essex County records we will publish 
the Middlesex County records and then others. 



ESSEX COUNTY PROBATE RECORDS 

Volume 304 Robt. Savory Bradford I69I 

p. 422 To Robert iiulligan 2.19.0 

Volume 3O8 Mis. Ann Woodberry Beverly I703 

p. 37 To stones for my father & mother's grave OI.I9.O 

Volume 309 i'trs. Mary Shute ? 1708 (Buried in 

p. 341 To 2 grave stones Salem) 0.^5.0 

Volme 310 Samuel (Bradle) Salem 1708 

p. 14 To a grave stone 2.10.0 

Voliome 311 Joshua Woodman 1714 

p. 172 To grave stones O.36.O 

Volume 315 John Currier ' ' Haverhill (1722-31) 

p. 45 John I'iullakin 0.5. 6 



-15- 



Volume 315 

p. 233 

p. 284 
p. 294 

p.374 

p. 396 
Volume 321 
p.98 

p.103 

P»129 

p. 271 

p. 290 

P«338 

p. 369 
Volume 327 

p. 474 
Volume 329 

p,144 

p,l70 
p,205 

p. 339 

Po401 

p. 441 

p. 488 
Volume 335 
p. 39 

p. 260 
Volume 339 
p. 68 

p. 95 
P«137 
p. 234 
p. 265 



Hannah Smith 

Funeral Charges & gravestones 
Nathaniel Newhall 

1 pr. gravestones 
John (Haixaden) 

To wath. Emmes 
John Knight 

To gravestones 
Rev, Thomas Symmes 

Robert hullikln & John Mullikin 
Joseph Ashton 

John Hollaman 
V/m Gage 

To a pr gravestones 
Francis Richardson 

To a pr. of gravestones 
Caleb Hopkinson 

John ilullikin & Robert Mullikin 
William Jones 

To gravestones 
vailiam Butler 

To gravestones 
John Conajit 

John Holland for Gi^vestones 
Samuel Sedden 

To the gravestones 
Thomas (West) 

Gravestones 
Boanerges Rayment 

To John Holliman 
John Kimball 

Robert hulliken & other liullikins 
Richard Palmer 

John Holliman 
Samuel Osgood 

A pr. gravestones 



Ipswich (1722-31) 

10.15.9 
Lynn 1725 

0.60.0 
Gloucester 1725 

0.80.0 
Newbury (1722-31) 

0.25.0 
Boxford 1726 

0.8.4 & 0.51.2 
harblehead I726 

0,60.0 
Ipswich 1731 

2.10,0 
Harblehead 1730 

3.10„0 
Biadford 1732 

6.13.4 & 0,40.0 
? 1734 

0.65.0 
Ipswich - 

2,17=0 
I'iarblehead 1746 

10,0,0 
Wenham 

0.45.0 
Beverly 1747 

5»1.10 
Beverly 1749 

9.8.0 
Bradford 1750 

12.18.6 
Salem 1750 

0.60.0 
Andover 1750 

35.O0O 
Beverly 1750 

2.15.0 
Beverly 1750 



Robert Woodberry 

To Wm. Codner for a pr, gravestones 
Jonathan Gonant 

Funeral charges to John Orne & gravestones 17»9«0 

Gideon (Rea) Salem 1750 

To Henry Emmons for gravestones 1.6,8 

John Basset liarblehead 1757 

Gravestones 0.83.4 

Abel Huse Newbury (1757-58) 

To 2 pr, of gravestones for father A mother 1.12.0 

John Weed Newbury I762 

John Homer 0,3.4 

Benjamin Thurston Bradford I762 

To Robert Mullikin 3.10.0 

John Sawyer Haverhill (1764-5) 

Joseph Lamson 1,12.0 

Capt, James Basson Gloucester 1762 

To a pr. of gravestones for sd Dec»d widow 2, 5 •4 

John Stone Beverly (1764-5) 

For gravestones 1,12.0 



-16- 



Volume 339 
p.339 

Volime 350 
Po2l 

P0I6O 
p. 209 
P.319 

Volume 352 
P0I33 

P0I69 

p. 197 

p. 255 

p. 3^ 

Volume 35^ 
P»35 

p. 249 

Volume 360 

P.174 

p. 174 

Po260 
Volume 361 
p. 69 

P.85 

p. 168 

p. 228 

Po279 
p. 304 
p. 328 

P037 
p. 362 
p. 366 
P.374 
p. 399 



Ifon. John Turner, Esq. 

To Holliman work at tomb 
Thomas Carlton 

Joseph iiarble 
Ezekiel Woodward 

Giraves tones 
Jacob Kewhall 

Pd for gravestones 
Stephen Bartlett 



Salem I762 

3.l2o0 
Bradford 1773 

0,10.0 
Gloucester 1773 

0.60.0 
Lynn 1773 

2.0.0 
Ames bury 1774 



Newbury 1776 

0.24.0 
Haverhill 1776 

1.4.0 
Manchester I776 

3.12.0 
Bradford 1777 



2.14.0 



Beverly 1777 



To pad for gravestones & carrying them from Newburyport 

1.6.0 
John Homan 

Pd Joseph Marble 
Edward Barnard 

To pd Joseph Marble for gravestones 
Dea. John Tewkbury 

To pd James Ford 
Abraham Burbank 

To pd. Joseph tlarble for Gravestones 

for the deceased and his wife 
Rev . John Chipman 

To a pr. of gravestones 6.13.4 

To pd. freight from Boston & setting the same 0.6.8 
Capt. Thomas Saunders Gloucester 1779 

To pd for gravestones & hauling 0.60,0 

Ebenezer Webster Bradford I78O 

Pd, Joseph Marble 0,20.0 

John Ela Haverhill I789 

To pd. John Marble for gravestones 0,88.0 

Johnathan Frye Andover 1789 

To pd, James Woodberry for gravestones 1,14,0 

William Babcock Manchester I789 

To pd. James Woodberry 11.0,0 

Elizabeth Byles Beverly 1790 

To pd Thomas Park for gravestones 0,18.0 

William Atkins Newbury 1790 

To 2 pr gravestones fior self and brother 4,18.0 
Capt. Joseph Newman Newburyport 1791 

To pd Paul No yes for gravestones 3«9'0 

Richard Ober Beverly 1791 

To pd Thomas Barker for gravestones 0.27«0 

James Brown 

To pd Joseph Marble for gravestones 
Jedidiah Holt 

To pd John Dwight for gravestones 
Josiah Breed 

To pd TheophiliAs Batchelder for gravestones 
Thomas Gage Rowley 1791 

To pd John Marble for gravestones 0.54.0 

Abigail Brown Salem I79I 

To pd John Homer's a/c for gravestones 3' 0.0 

Hugh Smith Salem 1791 

To pd Hosea Roberts for gravestones 2,6,0 

Dea. Joshua Beckford Salem 1791 

To pd Aaron Woodbury for gravestones 1,4.6 

Joseph Hardy Bradford 1791 

To pd John Marble for gravestones 0,3^.0 



Newbury I79I 
Andover I79I 
Lynn 1791 



2.8.0 

3.12.0 

2,4,0 



-17- 



Volume 361 
p. ^27 

P.515 

Volpme 362 

p. 22^ 

p. 403 

P.^13. 
p. 460 

p.494 
Volume 363 
p. 2 

p. 21 

p. 210 
p. 2^ 
p. 272 

P.367 
p. 368 

p. 374 
p. 385 
p. 453 
p. 460 
. p. 481 
p. 509 
p. 529 
P.543 
P=543 

p. 553 
Volxime 364 
P.43 

p. 142 
p. 165 



Aaron Day 

To pd John Marble for gravestones 
Zebulon Reed 

To pd Caleb Lamson 
Aj na Poor 

To pd Paul Noyes for gravestones 
John Lovell 

To pd Thomas Park for gravestones 
Ralph Cross 

To John Park 3 pi". gravestones 
Isaac liansfield 

To lir. Park for gravestones 
John Newman 

To pd Paul Noyes for gravestones 
Jacob Stevens 

To pd Joseph Marble for gravestones 
Ezra Upton 

To pd Mr. Park for gravestones 
John Fletcher 

Sept 10 to Paul Noyes 1 pr. gravestone 
Zebadiah Abbot 

To pd Caleb Lamson for gravestone 
John Burrage 

To pd Mr. (Martin) for gravestones 
Nathaniel Balon 



Ipswich 1791 

lol6,0 
Gloucester 1792 

0.15.10 
Newbury 1792 

1.14.8 
Beverly 1793 

2.0.0 
Newburyport 1793 

16.10.0 
Marblehe^d 1793 

2,8.0 

1.13.6 
Salisbury 1793 

1.17.6 
Danvers 1793 

0.30.0 
Newburypori, 1794 

0.52.0 
Andover 1794 

3.12.0 
Lynn 1794 

2,10,0 
Newburyport 1794 



Pd, Mr. Noyes for gravestones & for setting 



1.11.6 



Ipswich 1794 

7,10,0 

5»18,9 
Newburyport 1794 

0.57.9 
Salem 1794 

0.40.6 
Rowley 1795 

0,36,0 
Ipswich 1795 

0.36.0 
Ipswich 1795 



Michael Farley 

To pd Abraham Martin 

To pd Abraham Martin 
John Stone 

To pd Paul Noyes 
Joseph Sampson 

To pd Levi Maxey for gravestones 
Mary Jewett 

To pd« Paul Noyes for gravestones 
Jacob Goodhue 

To pd Thomas Park for gravestone 
John Appleton 

To pd Thomas Park for Gravestones & for setting up 2.9.6 
Solomon Parsons Gloucester 1795 

To pd for gravestones, freight from Boston & setting up 9. 0.0 
Thomas Lambert Rowley 1795 

To pd John Marble for gravestones 3«3.6 

Hannah Treadwell Ipswich 1795 

To pd Mr. Park for gravestones 2.8.0 

Phebe Upton Danvers 1795 

14 May 1793 for cash pd ThonEtS Park his a/c 1,7.0 
vailiam Dodge Ipswich 1795 

To pd Thomas Park for gravestones O.36.O 

William Gage Bradford 1795 

To pd John Marble for gravestones 2«2.0 

William Chapel Mrblehead 1796 

To pd Paul Noyes for gravestones 7»0»0 

John Choate Ipswich 1?95 

To pd Thomas Park for gravestones 0,30.0 



-18- 



Volume 36^ 
p. 272 

, . p. 307 

: p.355, 

p.390 

p. 399 

p. ^13 

p.it60 

P>467 

p. 480 

p.481 
Voliime 365 
p. 12 

p*188 
p. 217 
P-237 
p. 3^2 

P.345 
p. 384 
p. 420 
p. 449 

p,488 

p. 494 
p. 537 
p. 538 



Isaac Spofford 

To pd Thomas Park for gravestones 
Benjamin Fellovfs 

To pd Thomas Park for gravestones 
Joseph (Slocter?) 

To pd Levi Maxey for gravestones 
William Hoyt 

To pd Daniel ¥eed for gravestones 
Abraham Day 

To pd John Marble for gravestones 



Beverly 1796 

$12.00 
Ipswich 1796 

$7.92 
Lynn I796 

$16.00 
Ames bury 1796 

$16.00 
Bradford 1796 

$20.83 
Topsfield 1796 



Anna Gummings 

To pd Jacob Kimball acct for a pr of gravestones $6.50 
Cristopher (Bubier?) Harblehead I796 

April 1790 to cash pd the sexton setting gravestones .56 



Edmund Kimball 

To pd John I-iarble for gravestones 
Dr. Samuel Haseltine 

To pd John Marble for gravestones 
William Kimball 

To pd John Marble for gravestones 
Sarah Ober ■ 

To pd Thomas Parks for gravestones 
Abner CSieever 

To pd Mr. Lamson for gravestones 
Wigglesworth Toppan 

To pd Paul tiloyes for gravestones 
Patty Day 

To pd i'ir. Marble for gravestones 
John Baptiste Dutan 

To pd Paul Wo yes for gravestones 
Joseph Titooms 

Pd. Paul No yes 



Bradford I796 

$13.00 
Methuen I796 

$8.50 
Bradford 1796 

$12.00 
Beverly 1797 

$4.83 
Lynn 1797 

$10.00 
wewbury 1797 

$10.00 
Bradford 1797 

$6^00 
IMewburyport 1797 

$4.00 
wewbuiryport 1797 

$8.00 
Gloucester 1797 



Thomas Griffin 

To pd Paul No yes for 6 pr gravestones ageable to wjll 25.97 

Tabitha Barnard Ames bury 1797 

To pd Paul No yes for gravestones $6.00 

Henry Titcomb - Newburyport 1797 

2 January 1787 to pd for 1 pr gravestones to 

Joseph Lamson ' 3 "600 

James Parsons Gloucester 1797 

( ) $12.50 

To pd Thomas Gage for carting gravestones from Ipswich $2.76 



Peltiah Kinsman 

To pd Thomas Park for gravestones 
James Lovett 

Pd Thomas Park for gravestones 
Rebecca Lovell 

To pd Thomas Park for gravestones 



Ipswich 1797 
Beverly 1798 
Beverly 1798 



$21.00 

$3.33 

3 

$3.75 



Essex County Probate 

Robert Mulligan 
John Mulligan 
Nath. Emmes 
Henry Emmes 
John Holliman 
Jn Holland 
Mr. Lamson 



1691,1726,32,50,62 

1722-31,1726,32 

1725 

1750 

1726,49,50,62 

1746 

1734/1797,97 



-19- 



Caleb Lamson 1792,9^ 

Jos Lamson 1764-5 

VJm. Codner 1750 

Jn, Homer 1762,91 

Jos Marble 1773,76,76,77,77,80,91,93 

Jn Marble 1789,91,91,95,95.96,96,96,96 

Mr. Marble 1797 

Thos Park 1790,91»93,95,95,'95,95,95,96.96,97,97,98,98 

Jn Park 1793,93,93 

Mr. Park 1793,93,95 

Paul Noyes 1791, 92, 93,94,9'+,94,95.96, 97,97,97,97 (6), 97 

Jas. Woodberry 1789,89 

Aaron Woodbury 1791 

Thos, Barker 1791 

Theophilus Batchlor 1791 

Hosea Roberts 1791 

Abraham Martin 1794,9^,9^ 

Dan. Weed 1796 

Levi Maxey 179^,96 

Jacob Kimball 1796 

Jn Dwight 1791 

Jas Ford 1776 



1) 




NEWSLETTER of the 

ASSOCIATION for GRAVESTONE STUDIES 



Volume 3, Number 3 
Fall 1979 
ISSN: 0146-5783 



CONTENTS 

Heavenly Imps / Evil Demons / Little Men. An article 1 

by Ralph Tucker 

STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS. First Installment of a series 3 

Jonathan and John Loomia of Coventry , Connecticut . 
by James Slater 

BOOK REVIEWS 5 

Life How Short Eternity How Long. 
by Deborah Trask 
Reviewed by Francis Duval 

Stones: 18th Century Scottish Gravestones. 
by Betty Willsher and Doreen Hunter 
Reviewed by Peter Benes 

REGIONAL NEWS .' 7 

ITEMS OF INTEREST 8 

REQUESTS (for information, materials, what-have-you?) 9 

NEWSLETTER deadlines, etc 9 

CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS 9 

AGS OFFICERS AND CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS 10 

AGS MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION 11 



HEAVENLY IMPS / EVIL DEMONS / LITTLE MEN 



Ralph Tucker 



^-J 



In the Boston area there are forty-one tombstones located by the author 
whose borders contain apparently naked figures, each performing a death-related ac- 
tivity. These stones were carved by the "Old Stonecutter" (5 stones dated 1671 to 
1688) and by Joseph Lamson (36 stones dated 1686 to 1712). What do these figures 
represent? 

Harriette Forbes, the first person to seriously study the carvings on co- 
lonial tombstones, simply refers to them as "little men" and as some sort of Heavenly 
creatures who "...help the soul on its way to Paradise." While she states that they 
all have wings, only twenty-eight of the one hundred and ten figures do. Even this 
number, however; would justify the figures as representing some sort of Heavenly being. 
On the other hand, the overwhelming majority of the figures are engaged in activities 
usually associated with human burial rites; some carrying palls (cloth coverings for 
caskets), some carrying or lifting/lowering caskets, some carrying arrows, scythes or 
hourglasses. 

Allan Ludwig, the contemporary scholar, refers to these figures as "evil 
demons armed*with arrows of death" (actually only 10 of 110 figures have arrows), as 
"imps of the underworld," "imps of death," and "the demons of New England symbolism." 
While the figures are undoubtedly associated with death, the underworld or demonic 
association is not obvious from the stones themselves. As for being "imps," a care- 
ful survey shows that only four of one hundred and ten creatures are identifiable as 
being diminutive in size. One also must stretch one's imagination to see cup id-like 
putti in these strange characters, who are neither chubby nor coy. 

More recently, authors Ann and Dickran Tashjian used the term "messengers 
of death," which seems closer to the facts, and "...man in his nakedness..." which, 
while accurate in noting the absence of clothes, ignores the presence of wings. 

A survey of the stones shows that there are six varieties of creatures: 

(1) Twenty-six stones have wingless figures carrying or supporting palls. This type 
is not only the most frequent, it is also the earliest used and the only style to 
survive after 1706. It is the only type used by the "Old Stonecutter." It was then 
used sparingly by Lamson until 1706, when in a burst of popularity it shines forth 
on nineteen stones dated to 1712. 

(2) Six stones have figures carrying caskets or holding cords as they either raise, 
lower or carry caskets. The figures on four of these stones are winged while the 
others are not. The time range of these stones is 1689 to 1703. 



- 2 - 



(3) Two early stones (1686 & 1688) have these figures atop winged skulls with ar- 
rows pointed at the top of the skull. These examples are the only ones which make 
it clear that the figures are to be seen as "tiny" or diminutive. In the previous 
types the figures were apparently intended to be life size in comparison with the 
size of the caskets or palls they are handling. While these "head punchers" are 
the most nearly malevolent, they are all looking directly out of the stone at the 
viewer with an expression that does not appear to the author to be at all demonic. 
These two stones are the earliest by Joseph Lamson, and while the two are nearly 
identical, Lamson never returned to this style in his numerous works. 



r 





(4) Another pair of early and atypical stones (1691 & 1692) have wingless figures 
in the side panels, full length and in profile, measuring about one foot in actual 
carved height. Each figure holds in one hand an hourglass or scythe and in the 
other an arrow (a "dart of death"?). These crudely carved figures, while strange 
in appearance, seem more sjmibolic than overtly evil. It may be significant that 
these stones and those of Type 3 appear shortly before the witchcraft of 1692, and 
neither is ever found again, reflecting perhaps an association of these figures 
with the spirits and witches of the day. 

(5) A late style (1701 to 1705) used on only five stones has the figures supporting 

a central hourglass, a somewhat neutral activity, being neither demonic nor Heavenly. 
These stones are the first to appear after the witchcraft craze (with the exception 
of two in 1694 of the earlier Type 2). The earliest four are winged, but that of 
1705 is not. 

(6) A single stone of 1706 has a pair of these wingless figures facing each other 
holding spears. A small stone for an infant daughter, this stone is unlike all the 
rest . 

An overall view is now in order. The Type 1 stones are by far the most 
common, having started in 1671 (although this first stone may be backdated) with 
the five early stones of the "Old Stonecutter" and continued by Lamson up to 1692. 
The style is then discontinued for eleven years, when it resumes abruptly. Then 
after a prolific flourish they cease in 1712, ten years before Joseph Lamson's death. 
Stones of Types 3 and 4 were apparently experimental and quickly discontinued, per- 
haps because these types may have seemed more obviously associated with the nega- 
tive aspects of death or with the demonic. The Type 2 stones were also experimental, 
but their dates extend over a longer period. The carver's inability to decide 
whether to use wings and his indecision as to whether to carry/lower/raise the cof- 
fins is reflected in this type. Type 5 stones appear briefly following a notable 
near-absence of stones with these figures during the witchcraft period, ^nd the 
single Type 6 stone appears to be another unfruitful attempt for a new style. Re- 
verting to the original Type 1, Lamson ends with a burst of enthusiasm, producing 
the bulk of his overall output of stones on which are found these curious figures. 

As in much religious art and symbolism, we find not only ambiguity but 
ambivalence. We have "little men" who are also life sized; sometimes winged, yet 
engaged in human tasks of the current burial rites; symbolic in their attitudes, 
yet mistaken by some as representations of Indians! It is perhaps best to withold 
judgment as to exactly what was in the carver's mind except to speculate that he 
may have been "impish" when he carved these stones. 

A study in depth of these carvings and others when discovered may give 
sufficient data to enlighten us concerning colonial beliefs and folk customs — be 
they Heavenly or demonic — and release interpretative clues to some of their meanings. 



The Rev., Ralph Tuoker is Past president of the Association 
for Gravestone Studies. He lives in West Newbury, Massachusetts . 



D 



Following is the first installment of a 
Newsletter feature identifying 

STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS 




JONATHAN AND JOHN LOOMIS OF COVENTRY, CONNECTICUT 



James Slater 



One of the fascinating aspects of gravestone study is the attempt to 
discover who carved the old colonial stones. In addition to the famous carvers 
whose work is well known, widespread and much appreciated, there are many more car- 
vers whose work is relatively little known and is usually restricted to a limited 
geographical area. 

The Loomis family of Coventry, Connecticut, is such a group. While I 
was studying the work of eastern Connecticut's early master carver, Obadiah Wheeler, 
I was struck by the presence in several cemeteries of stones that had somewhat the 
appearance of Wheeler stones but were obviously not the work of his hand and were 
also dated somewhat later. 

When one is interested in discovering who carved Connecticut gravestones, 
one always turns to the great wealth of unpublished material accumulated by the late 
Dr. Ernest Caulfield, and one usually finds that Caulfield had important information. 
Thanks to the generosity of Peter Benes, Caulfield ',s information was made available 
to me. The biographical data given below and the first identification of the carvers, 
as is so often the case, was painstakingly worked out by Dr. Caulfield. 

In the two major Coventry cemeteries there are seventy-one schist stones, 
often of large size, with rather sleepy, half-closed eyes, that Caulfield, in his 
usual, inimitable way, called "hybrid -stones. " The "hybridization" is due to the 
stones usually incorporating a face pattern in the lunettes and a horizontal border 
below the lunette consisting of a central heart and lateral six-rayed rosettes that 





BARTLETT BORDER WITH "DOUBLE ANCHORS" 



WHEELER 'DERIVED HEART AND ROSETTES 



are obviously derived from the style of Obadiah Wheeler. At the same time, the stones 
have a series of three to six curl-like wings in the lunette (see figure at the top 
of this page) and frequently a series of what I somewhat facetiously refer to as dou- 
ble anchors in the border panels. These last motifs are just as obviously derived 
from the style of Gershom Bartlett,, the famous "hook and eye" carver. Indeed, the 
earliest of these stones (in the Coventry South Cemetery) have somewhat swollen noses, 
even further strengthening their resemblance to the stones of the old "hook and eye" 
man. Dr. Caulfield was able to establish by probate evidence from the stone for 
Joseph Miner (1774) that the carver of most of these "hybrid" stones was Jonathan 
'Loomis of Coventry, Connecticut. 

Jonathan Loomis was born (1722) and raised in Lebanon, Connecticut. He 
moved to Coventry in 1744 with his wife Margaret, and there his three children were 
born. In 1750 he bought an acre of quarry land in Bolton "at a place commonly cal- 
led the notch of the mountain." Interestingly, this land was purchased from Edmund 
Bartlett, brother of the carver Gershom Bartlett. Gershom owned adjacent land and 
Dr. Caulfield believed that Jonathan Loomis probably worked for him. Little else is 



known about Jonathan Loomis other than land purchases he made in the Coventry area. 

He died in 1785 and his son John inherited the quarry. r 

There is no probate evidence nor any signed stone to directly prove that 
John Loomis was a stonecutter. His probate papers indicate that he surely was. When 
he died in 1791 his estate contained compasses, chisels, two stone hammers, a stone 
pick and six pairs of gravestones. Dr. Caulfield believed he was also a woodworker 
as his estate contained eighty feet of maple boards and some joiner's tools. 

Evidence from the Coventry stones themselves support the belief that John 
Loomis succeeded his father as a gravestone carver. Loomis-style stones continued 
to be carved after the father's death in 1785 until 1790, when production abruptly 
stopped. A total of eight stones were made in that five year period, three of them 
in 1790. Loomis stones began to change stylistically in the 1770' s, when serrated 




UNDULATING ROPE-LIKE BORDER 



HAIR-LIKE 
STREAKS 



SNOWFLAKE-LIKE DESIGNS 



and undulating rope-like borders began to supersede the double anchor, and strange 
hair-like streaks appeared above the face and snowf lake-like designs below the 
lunette, all indicating that a second carver (presumably John) had entered the 
trade with his father. 

John's widow Irene sold the quarry to John Walden, jr. John's son 
Amasa was left the stone hammers, compasses and chisels. Amasa also became a well 
known carver, who will be discussed in a subsequent article. 

The graves of Jonathan Loomis and John Loomis are both in the South 
Street Coventry Cemetery. Their stones appear to have been carved by Thatcher 
Lathrop. It is difficult to understand why John Loomis did not carve his father's 
stone. That he did not suggests that both stones may have been produced after 
John's death in 1791. His son Amasa, born about 1773, may not have been an active 
carver by 1791. Stones attributable to Amasa show no stylistic influence from 
Jonathan or John but are influenced by the Manning School. 

I am in the process of studying these stones in detail to trace the 
evolution of style and, if possible, to separate the work of Jonathan from that of 
his son John. As always, interesting problems of attribution arise with certain 
stones. Also involved may be an additional and as yet unidentified earlier carver 
who appears to have influenced Jonathan Loomis. Possibly this carver was Julius 
Collins, the son of Benjamin and brother of Zerubbabel Collins. 

Loomis stones occur in eastern Connecticut in Scotland, Colchester, 
Columbia, Lebanon, Andover, Storrs, Mansfield (three cemeteries: Pink Ravine, 
Mansfield Center and Storrs), Tolland, Hebron, Windham Center, Hanover and New 
London. 

The probated Joseph Miner stone is in poor condition in a small cemetery 
on Silver Street, Coventry, just south of the junction with Route 44a. 



Bv. Slater is Professor of Entomology at the University of Connecticut , Storrs. 




Angels discovered recently by Daniel and 
Jessie Lie Farber in Moosup, Connecticut. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Life How Short Eternity How Long: Gravestone Carving and Carvers in 

Nova Scotia. 

By Deborah Trask 

Illustrated. 100 pp. Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: 

The Nova Scotia Museum. 1978, Hardcover $10.85; softcover $6.50. 

Review by Francis Duval 

Gravestone art buffs and scholars alike will delight in this illustrated 
study. Its publication is most welcome because data on and photographs of Nova 
Scotia gravestones were previously unavailable in book form. Author Trask, an Assis- 
tant Curator in the History Section of the Nova Scotia Museum, photographed exten- 
sively throughout the Province and its environs; her diligent research of probate re- 
cords and historical documents resulted in the identification of several families of 
stone carvers, of their styles, and of the whereabouts of their shops. She further 
enlightens the reader on the points of origin of gravestones found within the Province, 
stones that were in fact imported from the American Colonies before and after the 
Revolutionary War. Among the many illustrated sections are those devoted to primi- 
tive carving, Scottish and German stones. Masonic imagery and to the still unidenti- 
fied "J. W. " carver , whose initials appear prominently on many stunning memorials. The 
near-square format volume contains 130 photographs of gravestone art in addition to 
several reproductions of period advertisements pertaining to local gravestone-making 
and allied trades. Maps, a listing of local and foreign carvers as well as a bib- 
liography are also included. 

The book's underwriting by the Nova Scotia Provincial Government in co- 
operation with the Nova Scotia Museum should inspire all U. S. state governments to 
likewise sponsor a comprehensive documentation of their respective early gravestone 
art before it vanishes altogether. 

The volume may be ordered from the Nova Scotia Government Bookstore, 
Post Office Box 637, Halifax, N. S. B3J 2T3, Canada. The prices quoted above include 
postage but not exchange, which would lower the price about 15%. Make checks pay- 
able to: Minister of Finance. 

Fvanois Duval is co-author with Ivan Rigby of American Gravestone Art in Photographs. 



Stones: 18th Century Scottish Gravestones 

By Betty Willsher and Doreen Hunter 

Illustrated. 140 pp. New York: 

Taplinger Publishing Company, 1979. Softcover $7.95. 

Reviewed by Peter Benes 

Stones , whose modest subtitle A Guide to Some Remarkable Eighteenth 
Century Gravestones does not reflect the true scope of the book, is the most impor- 
tant work on early Scottish gravestones since the 1902 publication of D. Christison's 
"Carvings and Inscriptions. . .of the Scottish Lowlands." An American edition of a 
book published in England in 1978, Stones brings modern photographic recording to 
bear on what its authors call Scotland's unrecognized "national treasure." The re- 
sult is impressive, indeed, and a fine contribution to the field of gravestone stud- 
ies and to local history. 

To read the introduction is to recognize at once that the struggle for 
gravestone preservation is not confined to New England. We learn with some shock, 
for example, that there are cases of Scottish kirkyards being bulldozed by land de- 
velopment work. The destructive effects of weather and tampering are visible on 
numerous of the illustrated stones, as are the effects of lichen and heavy moss. 

Following the introduction, chapters are arranged by emblems: one is de- 
voted to mortality themes ("The King of Terrors," "The Coffin"); the second to themes 
of immortality ("The Crown," "The Winged Soul"); the third to emblems of trade ("Ham- 
mermen," "Weavers," "Bakers"). Additional chapters deal with epitaphs and multi-sym- 
symbol stones. As we read, we begin to discern the essential features of Scottish 
gravestone making of the eighteenth century — a trade whose features share some par- 
allels iffiith its counterpart in New England. As a rule, Scottish stones of the per- 
^ iod are more "plastic" or dimensional than we find them here. Much of the artwork — 
the emblems, decorative borders and S3nnbolic motifs — is articulated through remaining 



stone rather than incised grooves. (The authors note with some regret that making a 
rubbing is impossible under these circumstances.) This technique required consider- 
ably more professional skill than many New England carvers could have commanded. It 
reinforces our perception of Scotland as a stone-oriented culture, and of New England / 
as a wood-oriented culture. 

As a rule, too, a greater degree of uniformity is found in Scottish carv- 
ings than those in New England. Most of the angel heads illustrated in the section 
titled "The Winged Soul and The Angel" have identical eyes and mouths; even the wings 
have a "Scottish" look to them. The wide stylistic and artistic differences found, 
for example, between a Hartshorne-derived design in Essex County, Massachusetts, and 
the work of the Stevens family in Newport, Rhode Island, simply do not appear to ex- 
ist. Nor, regrettably, does the naive and captivating wit of rural New England mark- 
ers, as found in the work of the "Indian Man" of Hampton, Connecticut, or of Samuel 
Dwight of Arlington, Vermont. 

Conversely, the entire body of trade-related emblems that are so rare in 
New England are present on virtually every stone illustrated in this book. The 
Plympton, Massachusetts, carver Nathaniel Fuller, who produced upward of three hun- 
dred gravestones in his lifetime, was known to have included only one trade emblem 
in his designs (a pair of scissors on the stone of a Middleborough, Massachusetts, 
physician). By way of contrast, the trades of beer-brewers, gardeners, millers, 
tailors, soldiers, fishermen, farmers, shoe-makers and school teachers are routinely 
identified on eighteenth century Scottish headstones in a variety of conventionalized 
s3Tnbols worked into the larger design framework of the stone. 

Aside from its value as a guide to gravestones in Scotland, the strongest 
contribution of Stones is its superb photographs. These were made without the bene- 
fit of the mirror techniques pioneered in New England by Daniel Farber. They are so 
good that one suspects they represent the best of what must have been many, many 
years of effort by Betty Willsher, who did the photography. Most are taken with the 
sun casting oblique lights and shadows on the face of the stone, a technique which 
requires patience and a repeated willingness to come back when the sun is "just right." 

The publication suffers from a number of weaknesses, the most important of 
which is a lack of maps. While the names of most Scottish counties and parishes may 
be household terms to English and Scottish readers, few Americans will be able to dis- 
tinguish Kirkcudbrightshire from West Lothian, or know from memory the unique struc- 
ture of Scottish geo-topography which inevitably played a key role in the dissemina- 
tion of styles and motifs. A serious reading of this book requires the continual 
assistance of an atlas that contains a detailed map of Scotland. A second drawback 
is the lack of what might be termed a scholarly underpinning to the work. Footnotes 
are rare and do not specify pages; the bibliography is incomplete and needs a com- 
mentary. The absence from the bibliography of Angus Graham's brilliant monograph, 
"Headstones in Post-Reformation Scotland," {Prooeedings of the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland 1957-58) is a serious omission; New England gravestone studies, whose 
methodology after 192 7 has always been well in advance of those of European grave- 
stone studies, is represented only by Edmund Gillon's Early New England Gravestone , 
Rubbings . 

More serious still, th^ authors have made no real attempt to identify the 
carvers of the stones other than to suggest that the men buried under stones bearing 
mason's emblems probably were stone carvers. Without knowing the accessibility or 
organization of Scottish probate and inventory records of the eighteenth century, we 
cannot assume that the research methods pioneered by Harriette M. Forbes and Dr. Ermest 
Caulfield could have been put to use successfully here. However, the attempt does not 
appear to have been made. 

Lastly, one would wish that the authors had developed more systematically 
their demonstrated sensitivity to geographic regionalism: we are charmed to learn that 
Angus was named by them "Coffin Country," and Kincardineshire "Heart Territory," but 
we are left dangling. The only motif to which the authors applied any real methodol- 
ogy was the Adam and Eve symbol, which held a special fascination for them. ' The date 
and location of every such stone in Scotland is listed in the back of the book. Of 
"Heart Territory" and "Coffin Country," however, we are told little. 

Despite these flaws, there are major pleasant surprises in store for those 
who read Stones from an American or New England background. Page 17 illustrates a 
1724 grave marker whose winged effigy is held between two bird-like serpents. We are 
reminded immediately of the disputation between the bird and serpent interpretations 
of Hartshorne designs, and the existence of a Scottish de&ign with both on the same 
stone makes the interpretation of the Hartshorne image all the more problematic. Page 
110 reveals a 1756 portrait stone that is remarkably similar to portraits executed 
by William Park of Groton, Massachusetts, 1770-1780. William Park's move from Scot- 
land to Groton in 1756 and the arrival of his sons in the following decade assumes a 
new significance. Page 48 illustrates a winged angel-head which is similar in almost 
every detail to those of Noah Cushman, a carver active in Middleborough, Massachusetts, 



1765-1770. Future studies of New England gravestone art cannot ignore the implications 
of these parallels and the likelihocrd of pattern-borrowing across the Atlantic in both 
directions. 

Stones is moderately priced and is well worth the investment. 

Vetev Benes is author of Masks of Orthodoxy and is the 1979 recipient of the 
Harriette M. Forbes award for outstanding contributions to gravestone studies. 



CORRECTIONS 

The authors of The Churchyard Handbook: Advice on their Care and Maintenance, which 
was reviewed on page 5 of the winter Newsletter (Vol. 3, No. 1), are Henry Stapleton 
and Peter Burman. Lance Mayer, conservator for the Cincinnati Art Museum, was in- 
correctly listed as the author. Mr. Mayer wrote the review. 

The Book Review Section of the spring Newsletter (Vol. 3, No. 2, page 12) omitted 
the name of the reviewer of Francis Duval and Ivan Rigby's book, Early American 
Gravestone Art in Photographs. The reviewer was AGS President, Dr. Joanne Baker. 



REGIONAL NEWS 

Introductions to THREE WESTERN GRAVESTONE PHOTOGRAPHERS 

NANCY WARREN , 537 Hillside, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501 

Nancy Warren is making a photographic record of the primitive designs 
on early gravemarkers in New Mexico and "looking into their meaning." She is par- 
ticularly interested in the wood markers in her area, some of which are ornately 
carved and painted. Ms. Warren has a background of experience with gravestones 
of the east; she lived in Delaware before moving to New Mexico, and she has family 
in Boston. 

PHYLLIS McKOWN , 1651 D Iowa Street, Costa Mesa, California 92626 

In 1978 Phyllis McKown, then a Colonial America Resource Teacher, came 
east on a grant to photograph New England gravestones and to attend the AGS Con- 
ference. She subsequently changed careers and is now a professional color photo- 
grapher and also a teacher of photography in a secondary school alternative edu- 
cation program. Her gravestone photography is presently concentrated on the stones 
of northern California. According to Ms. Warren, New Englanders settled along the 
northern California coast and there they carved designs that are both similar to 
and different from those in the northeast United States. 

JAMES MILMOE , 14900 Cactus Circle, Golden. Colorado 80401 

James Milmoe's interest in gravestone photography goes back to 1952 in 
Ohio. Now he has written his Master's Thesis (1978, University of Colorado, Denver) 
on the cemetery as a source of photographic imagery, and he is on the faculty there, 
teaching photography and the history of photography. He estimates that he has photo- 
. graphed markers in two hundred cemeteries around the world, including eleven in 
Mexico, six in France, five in Ireland, ten in Italy, four in Scotland, five in 
Switzerland, one in Bermuda, and five or six in Barcelona and Spain's Balearic Is- 
lands. Of special interest to him in this country are the wooden gravemarkers in 
the ghost towns of Colorado. According to Professor Milmoe, these markers, which 
date to the late 1800 's, were originally painted. Erosion has textured the wood 
slabs, etching around the painted areas so that the lettering and other areas that 
were protected by paint have been left standing in relief. 

Gravestone photography for Milmoe is a form of self-expression. His 
interest is in the sculptural qualities of markers rather than in epitaphs or in 
the persons for whom the markers were made. 

PLEASE NOTE 

Regional Representatives are needed to help AGS keep its continent-wide 
orientation. Representatives function as clearing houses for information from their 
geographic areas, reporting to the Newsletter and to the AGS Board their areas' 
gravestone-related activities and concerns. If you wish to serve as a Representative 
of your region, please send your name and address with any current items of interest 
from your area to the Newsletter before December 1, 1979. Names and addresses of AGS 
Regional Representatives will be listed in the next issue of the Newsletter . 



ITEMS OF INTEREST 



Artist Jo Hanson has produced a slide-tape presentation, Western Graveyards , which is 
available on loan from Mary Anne Mrozinski, 47 Hammond Road, Glen Cove, New York 11542. 
$6.50 plus return postage. 



r 



Persons interested in Martha's Vineyard's gravestones 1688-1804 are advised to get a 
copy of the Dukes County Intelligencer , February, 1979, Volume 20, Number 3, from the 
Dukes County Historical Society, Cooke and School Streets, Edgartown MA 02539. It con- 
tains Joseph J. larocci's interesting historical study about the stones of that period. 

We also have come across a 1908 book entitled The Story of Martha's Vineyard , published 
by Hine Brothers, New York. We were surprised to find in it pictures of gravestones in 
the West Tisbury Cemetery protected by "hats" of what appear to be malleable sheets of 
lead foil. We encountered these in person some six years ago while making rubbings in 
Chillmark but had no idea that they had been used for so long. It is refreshing to 
know that conservation is not a new idea to the "Islanders." 

Contributed by Ruth Cowell, Corresponding Secretary 



Roberta Halporn invites readers to write for her bibliography on Death and Dying. In- 
cluded is her own work. Lessons from the Dead : The Graveyard as a Classroom for the 
Study of the Life Cycle . The book is illustrated with Ms. Halporn 's rubbings. Write 
her at 228 Clinton Street, Brooklyn, New York 11201 mentioning any specific interests. 



Lewis Decker, 187 Bleeker Street, Gloversville, New York 02178, has a grant to record 
the inscriptions on the stones in ten towns and two cities in New York State's Fulton 
County. He and his workers have completed their recording in the two cities and in 
four of the ten towns, and he has distributed copies of the data thus far compiled to 
area libraries and to historical and genealogical societies. Mr. Lewis reports that 
he used CETA youth for some of the recording, with results that required some check- 
ing and correction of errors. 



The Newsletter has had requests for a listing of back issues. Here it is. 

Available (25c) from Jessie Lie Farber 



Spring 1977 (Vol. 1, No. 

Fall 1977 (Vol. 1, No. 

Spring 1978 (Vol. 2, No. 

Winter 1979 (Vol. 3, No. 

Spring 1979 (Vol. 3, Nq. 

Fall 19 79 (Vol. 3, No. 



1) 
2) 
2) 
1) 
2) 
3) 



Available (25c) from Anne Giesecke 
Available (25c) from Anne Giesecke 
Available (25c) from Jessie Lie Farber 



Other available AGS materials (see page 10 for addresses): 

Two-page Information Sheets on four subjects @ 25c each from Ruth Cowell. 

Making photographic Records of Gravestones 
Recommendations for the Care of Gravestones 
Gravestone Rubbing for Beginners 
S3rmbolism in Gravestone Carvings 



Bumper stickers (brown and white) 
$1.30 from Sally Thomas. 



"I Brake for Old Graveyards." 



The AGS logo design is taken from 

Massachusetts 




the carving on a Williamstown, 
footstone. 



L 



REQUESTS 



REQUESTS FOR INFORMATION 

Readers are asked to send information about 



The symbolic meaning of the shell 
design on gravestones 



Ms. A. Toplovich & Mr. V.Hood 
TO Tennessee Dept. of Conservation 
4721 Trousdale Drive 
Nashville TE 37220 



Canadian gravestone studies 

[Does anyone know how to reach 
Canadian gravestone photographer 
Berryll (or Derryll) White?] 



TO Anne Giesecke, Editor 
AGS Newsletter 

Archaelogical Research Services 
University of New Hampshire 
Durham NH 03824 



REQUESTS FOR ARCHIVAL MATERIALS 

Have you books, published or unpublished papers, photographs, negatives, 
transparencies, drawings, transcriptions from stones, field notes or other materials 
that might be useful additions to our Association archives? See the next issue of 
the Newsletter for more information about the kinds of items needed and about the 
procedure for making your tax deductible contribution to the AGS collection. 

Members are invited to use as well as contribute to the archives. Our 
collection is housed by the library of the New England Historic and Genealogical 
Society (NEHGS) , 101 Newbury Street, Boston. Show your AGS membership card to the 
NEHGS receptionist to have the library's $3 admission fee waived. 



REQUESTS FOR NEWSLETTER CONTRIBUTIONS 

Contributions to all sections of the Newsletter are welcome. Especially 
welcome is information about gravestone markers outside the New England area. Send 
information, news, ideas and suggestions to Anne Giesecke, Editor. 

Readers interested in contributing a piece for the Newsletter 's new 
feature which introduces carvers and their work (page 3 this issue) should write 
a note to the Newsletter Editor (1) mentioning the carver of your interest, and 
(2) Asking for a copy of the guidelines to be followed. 

Another feature series scheduled to begin in the next issue will offer 
information about the work of unidentified carvers. Send your suggestion for 
WHO IS THIS CARVER? to the Newsletter Editor. 

A future issue of the Newsletter will focus on research and recording 
programs currently being conducted in old graveyards. Please write us about work 
in your area. 

The next deadline for contributions is December 1^ 1979. 
Other deadlines are Majcoh 1^ June 1 and September 1^ 1980. 



CONFERENCES AND WORKSHOPS 



The 1979 Annual Meeting of the Association for Gravestone Studies was 
held July 8 in conjunction with the Association's two-day (July 7,8) conference at 
Salve Regina College, Newport, Rhode Island. 

The membership voted to accept the bid from Bradford College, near 
Eaverhill, Massachusetts , to host the 1980 conference. Watch for the dates of 
this THREE-DAY event. 

The names of AGS officers elected at the Annual Meeting and the names 
of one hundred and nineteen Conference participants, with addresses, are listed on 
the following two pages. The Conference Planning Committee was pleased with the 
representation from seventeen states and Canada. Because of the gasoline shortage 
that existed prior to and during the Conference, the Committee anticipated a seri- 
ous drop in attendance, which, fortunately, we did not experience. 



AGS OFFICERS, elected at the 1979 Annual Meeting of the Association 



r 



President 

Vice-president/ 
Archives 

Vice-president / 
Conservation 

Vice-president / 
Education 

Vice-president/ 
Grants 

Vice-president/ 
Publications 

Vice-president/ 
Research 

Recording 
Secretary 

Corresponding 
Secretary 

Treasurer 



JOANNE BAKER 51 South St., Concord NH 03301 
(603) 228-0680 (home) (603) 271-3747 (business) 

PETER BENES Dublin NH 03444 
(603) 563-8025 

LANCE MAYER Conservation Dept. Cincinnati Art Museum, Eden 
Park, Cincinnati OH 45202 
(513) 721-5204 (home) (513) 321-9456 (business) 

MARY ANNE MROZINSKI 47 Hammond Rd., Glen Cove NY 11542 
(516) 759-0527 

GAYNELL LEVINE rr 2, Box 205, Wading River NY 11792 
(516) 929-8725 

JESSIE LIE FARBER 11 Moreland St., Worcester MA 01609 
(617) 7557038 

ANNE G. GIESECKE 173 Kingsley St., Nashua NH 03060 
(603) 883-6428. 

RALPH TUCKER 928 Main St., W. Newbury MA 01985 
(617) 462-4244 

RUTH COWELL 21 Dogert PI., Westwood N 07675 
(201) 664-3618 

SALLY THOMAS 82 Hilltop PI., New London NH 03257 
(603) 526-6044 



1979 CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS: 



Bethany CT 06525 



Mitchell R. Alegre, 33 Brooklyn St., Warsaw NY 14569 

C. Vance Allyn, Box 186, Charlestown RI 02813 

William F. Alsop, Jr., 1 Exeter Rd., Rutland VT 05701 

Janet S. Aronson, 50 Barnsbee Lane, Coventry CT 06238 

Norbert S. Baer, 1 East 78th St., New York NY 10021 

Joanne Baker, 51 South St., Concord NH 03301 

Peter Benes, Dublin NH 03444 

Margaret Berg, 1956 Hobron Ave., Glastonbury CT 06033 

Charles Bergeron, 1917 Main St., Glastonbury CT 06033 

Pat Bernard, Mattapoisett Neck Rd., Mattapoisett MA 02739 

Richard Birdsall, 9 Winchester Rd., New London CT 06320 

James P. Black, 4 Newbrook Dr., Barrington RI 02806 

Judy Boss, 10 B Rolling Green, Newport RI 02840 

Alice B. Bunton, c/o Geraldine Hungerford, Hilldale Rd., 

Frankie Bunyard, 791 Tremont St. W-111, Boston MA 02118 

John & Rosemary Cashman, 315 Marlborough Rd., Brooklyn NY 11226 

Theodore Chase, 74 Farm St., Dover MA 02030 

Dale Clement, c/o Mark Pride, RFD #5, Drew Rd., Derry NH 03038 

Josephine Cobb, 6 Hunts Point Rd. , Cape Elizabeth ME 04107 

Edwin & Beverly Connelly, 67 Coggeshall Ave., Newport RI 02840 

Michael Cornish, 62 Calumet St., Roxbury MA 02120 

Ruth 0. Cowell, 21 Bogert PI., Westwood NJ 07675 

Robert Drinkwater, 30 Fort Hill Terr., Northampton MA 01060 

Francis Duval, 405 Vanderbilt Ave., Brooklyn NY 11238 

Barbara & Linda Ellis, 417 Washington St., PO box 79, N. Pembroke MA 02358 

Mary C. Emhardt, Star Route, Barrington NH 03825 

Rob & Julia Emlen, 110 Benevolent St., Providence RI 02906 

Jonathan Fairbanks, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston MA 02115 

Daniel & Jessie Lie Farber, 11 Moreland St., Worcester MA 01609 

Lynn E. Farnsworth, 191 Park Dr., Boston MA 02217 

Peggy Friedland, 20 Temple St., Apt. 4, Boston MA 02114 

Edward & Joan Friedland, RFD #3, Ross Hill Rd., Lisbon CT 06351 

Claudette Gendreau, 55 Alice Rd, Raynham MA 02767 

Anne Giesecke,- 173 Kingsley St., Nashua NH 03060 

Mary Hocken Goar, 137 Fairview Way, Amherst MA 01002 

Sheila Godino, 56 Christy Hill Rd., Gales Ferry CT 06335 

Ruth Gray, 70 No. 4th St., Old Town ME 04468 

Carol A. Grisson, Box 1105, Washington University, St. Louis MO 63130 

Barbara & Edward Hail, 220 Rumstick Rd., Barrington RI 02806 



( 



Roberta Halporn, 228 Clinton St., Brooklyn NY 11201 

Dr. & Mrs. Thomas J. Hannon, Geography Dept., Slippery Rock College, Slippery Rock PA 
Elizabeth G. Haskell, 85 Jarolembn St., Brooklyn NY 11201 16057 

Eugene T. Horton, PO box 102, 130 Blue Point Ave,, Blue Point NY 11715 
Bert Hubbard, Box 84, Gibbsboro NJ 08026 
Geraldine Hungerford, Hilldale Rd., Bethamy CT 06525 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Janssen, PO box 55, Peacham VT 05862 
C.R. Jones, New York State Historical Assn., Cooperstown NY 13326 
Sue & Philip Jones, 913 Mt. Vernon Ave., Haddonfield NJ 08033 
Mary Lou Kelley, PO box 34, Charlestovm MA 02129 
Barbara M. Kelly, 231 Feustal St., West Babylon NY 11704 
Susan Kelly, 83 Haywood Rd., Darien CT 06820 
Jym Knight, 3312 Long Blvd., Apt. C-1, Nashville TN 37203 
Patricia C. Lane, 9924 Cherry Tree Lane, Silver Spring MD 20901 
Rufus Langhans, 228 Main St., Huntington Long Island NY 11743 
Gaynell S. Levine, RR 2, Box 205, Wading River, NY 11792 
Blanche M. G. Linden, 11 Peabody Terr. #802, Cambridge MA 02138 
Vincent F. Luti, Box 412, Westport MA 02790 
Lane H. Mann, 7 Carriage Lane, Hamilton MA 01982 
Annette Marquis, 48 Michael Rd., Raynham MA 02767 
Nancy G. Martino, 10804 Pearson St., Kingsington MD 20795 
Lance Mayer, Eden Park, Cincinnati OH 45202 
Julaine A. Maynard, 617 demons Ave., Madison WI 53704 
William McGeer, 48 Harwood Ave., Littleton MA 01460 
Thomas & Deborah McGraft, 36R West St., Beverly Farms MA 01915 

Sheila McNally, Dept. of Art History, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455 
Anna T. Merz, 7 May St., Hartford CT 06105 
Mary Anne Mrozinski, 47 Hammond Rd., Glen Cove NY 11542 
Jane Northshield, 226 Mt . Airy Rd., Croton-on-Hudson NY 10520 
Don & Betty Odle, 30765 Adair Center, Franklin MI 48025 
Daniel W. Patterson, 309 Briar Bridge Valley, Chapel Hill NC 27514 
Charlotte Pattison, 7 Carriage Lane, Hamilton MA 01982 
Pauline Pero, 6 Hunts Point Rd. , Cape Elizabeth ME 04107 
Anna V. Pustello, 1200 Prospect Ave., Hartford CT 06105 
Judith S. Pyle, 245 Baltimore St., Gettysburg PA 17325 
Richard S. Reed, Prospect Hill Rd. , Harvard MA 01451 
x^Ivan Rigby, 405 Vanderbilt Ave., Brooklyn NY 11238 

Mr.& Mrs. Allen G. Sechler, Jr., 3 Johnson Dr., Apt. 5, Gettysburg PA 17325 
Virginia Shepherd, 636 Douglas Pike, RFD #1, No. Smithfield RI 02895 
Miriam Silverman, 300 West 55 St., Apt. 16 V, New York NY 10019 
James & Elizabeth Slater, 373 Bassettes Bridge Rd., Mansfield Center CT 06250 
Carolyn E. Smith, 22 Brentford, Berwick Ledyard CT 06339 
Robert & Anne Smith, 107 Woodland Rd., Madison NJ 07940 
Mary & Rick Stafford, 26 Wadsworth St., Allston MA 03134 
Ona C. Street, 40 Westfair Drive, Westport CT 06880 
Philip & Sally Thomas, 82 Hilltop Place, New London NH 03257 
Deborah Trask, 1747 Summer St., Halifax NS B3H 3A6 Canada 
Jerry & Selma Trauber, 142 Langham St., Brooklyn NY 11235 
Robert Trim, 116 R Trim St., Rehoboth MA 02769 
Ralph Tucker, 928 Main St., W. Newbury MA 01985 
Trish Walsh, 10 B Rolling Green, Newport RI 02840 

David Watters, Dept. of English, Hamilton-Smith Hall, University of N.H. , Durham NH 
Linda Wesselman, 41 Main St., Somerville MA 02145 03824 

,,^''Eloise P. West, 199 Fisher Rd, Fitchburg MA 01420 

Betsy Widirstky, Box 523, 140 Founders Path, Southold NY 11971 
- Jane Wilson, 62 Calumet St., Roxbury MA 02120 
Anne Williams, 83 Haywood Rd. , Darien CT 06820 
Louise Williams, 178 Pond Hill Rd., Rochester NH 03867 
John Wilson, 15 New Hampshire Ave., Natick MA 01760 

Anita C. & H. Merritt Woodward, Box 51, Thompson Rd., Princeton MA 01541 
Robyn C. Zimmerman, 2101 Cascade Rd. , Silver Spring MD 20902 

Please send name and address corrections and additions to Anne Giesedke, Editor^ 
before the next Newsletter deadline, December 1. 

AGS MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION 

AGS membership runs from annual conference to annual conference. Please check your 
records to see if you have overlooked paying your 1979-80 membership fee, due in 
July 1979. The Association's mailing list is being brought up to date. Be sure 
your name is not removed! If you are not paid up, use the membership form on the 
reverse and mail your dues today. If you are paid up, pass the form on to a pros- 
pective member. Dues and other contributions to AGS are tax deductible. 



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EARLY GRAVESTONES ARE PART OF OUR HERITAGE, 
THEY ARE DISAPPEARING RAPIDLY. 

These facts prompted the formation of the Association for Gravestone 
Studies. Organized in 1977 and incorporated a year later, the Association creates 
awareness of the importance of gravestones by encouraging local groups to preserve 
their gravestone heritage, promoting research into a wide variety of gravestone- 
related areas, supporting a program of public education through publications and 
conferences, and fostering liaisons with county and state historical and genealo- 
gical societies and cemetery associations. Members receive the AGS NEWSLETTER , 
which contains feature articles, book reviews and items of general interest. 

Through an agreement with the New England Historic & Genealogical Society 
the AGS archives are housed in the NEHGS Library in Boston. This archive recreates 
in a retrievable and condensed form iconographic and genealogical data that is 
otherwise available only in the field. AGS members have access to this collection. 

The Association seeks a diverse group of persons interested in the 
study of gravemarkers — amateurs and professionals, students of anthropology, his- 
tory, genealogy, art history, religion and other fields — who share an appreciation 
of the importance of gravestones and a concern for their preservation in the face 
of both the natural and the artificial forces that threaten them. 

AGS invites your membership and your active participation. 



MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION 

Association for Gravestone Studies 
Mrs. Philip D. Thomas, Treasurer 
82 Hilltop Place 
New London, NH 03257 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY /TOWN 



STATE 



ZIP 



Please check one; 



I am interested in working on the 



Individual 


$10 


t 


□ixowing commit 


i;ee(.s; : 


Institutional 


$10 




Archives 


Education 


Sustaining 

Student [f"l^ 
time 


$25 
$ 5 


(Includes AGS Journal) — 


Grants 


Conservation 


Research 


Publications 







^ 




NEWSLETTER of the 

ASSOCIATION for GRAVESTONE STUDIES 



Volume 4, Number 1 

Winter 1979-80 
ISSN: 0246-5783 



CONTENTS 

ARTICLES: Using the computer to study gravestones 

MOCA 'a Computerized Data Project 1 

by Ruth Gray 

The Evolution of Motife on Colonial Graveetonea in Central 

and festers Connecticut 3 

by James Tibenski 

PHOTO-ESSAY 

Pennsylvania : Adame County Colonial Stonecarving 4 

by Francis Duval and Ivan Rigby 

BOOK REVIEW 

English Churchyard Memorials 5 

by Frederick Burgess 
Review by Peter Benes 

FILM / SLIDES / TAPES 7 

EXHIBITIONS 8 

NEWSPAPER and MAGAZINE ITEMS 9 

FEATURES 

CEMETERY CITATIONS 9 

STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS. Second of a series 

William Young of Tatnuck, Massachusetts 10 

by Mary and Rick Stafford 

WHO IS THIS CARVER? 11 

REGIONAL NEWS, VIEWS 11 

REQUESTS 13 

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS OF INTEREST 14 

ASSOCIATION NEWS, Conferences, Workshops, Meetings 15 

NEWSLETTER NOTES Corrections, Amplifications, Deadlines .... 16 

AGS MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION 18 



MOCA's COMPUTERIZED DATA PROJECT 

INDEX TO REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS BURIED IN MAINE 



Ruth Gray 



Maine Old Cemetery Association (MOCA) undertook as its Bicentennial 
Project the locating of burial places of Revolutionary War soldiers in Maine. A num- 
ber of lists of these soldiers have been compiled, but no attempt has been made before 
to combine these lists and check for burial places, or to include all soldiers known to 
have settled in Maine. This work entailed the study of published obituaries, pension 
records, town records, and various lists, including those developed by Flagg, House, 
Porter, the D.A.R., S.A.R., and others. It also required checking cemeteries for 
names of men whose ages made them likely participants in the Revolution, and search- 
ing to discover if they had military records. 

This ambitious project was undertaken by volunteers. The State was di- 
vided by counties with a chairman and helpers to search each town within the county. 
All data was sent to a central collection point. As this data came in, it was apparent 
that duplication was inevitable with the many changes in county and town lines since 
Revolutionary War days. It was decided that all locations would be translated into towns 
as presently delineated. There were a number of men with the same names. A method 
was needed to delete duplication. It was necessary to record as many vital records and 
wives' names as could be found. Many soldiers had no gravestones, or the stones had 
been lost, and many were buried in family plots long since obliterated. As the project 
progressed, it became clear that the actual burial places for many of the men would 
never be found. It seemed reasonable, nevertheless, to include their names in the 
study, listing the town in which they either died or were last recorded. 

A deadline was set for compiling the data in a usable form, with a plan to 
incorporate additional data as it became available. 

The MOCA researchers' project, then, was to identify a man as a soldier 
in the Revolutionary War and to find his burial place or last residence in Maine. They 



Soldier's name: 


county 




born : date, piece 

died; date, place, cemetery 






mnrried: (!) date, place, wife's name 






(3) 






Service record; 






Sources: 






additional data 




ide 



needed a system for recording this information, presenting it in usable form, and 
for making additions and corrections. 

The information found on each soldier was recorded on a 4"x6" card 
with a designed format. 

It was obvious that with limited 
resources it would be impossible to print all 
the information on these cards. The decision 
was made to computerize an index of the sol- 
diers and place the original cards in the Maine 
Collection of the Fogler Library of the Uni- 
versity of Maine, in Orono. Here the cards 
could be viewed by those who might like to 
know more about a soldier and the sources of 
the information. 

A computer was used to present this information because of its versa- 
tility. The computer makes possible the accumulation of knowledge and its syste- 
matic arrangement. Here information can be recorded, stored, compared, and repos- 
sessed with accuracy and speed. An index of .soldiers by name only would not pro- 
perly present MOCA's project to the public. It was essential to computerize enough 
data on each soldier to clearly identify him. 

For data to be accepted by the computer it is key-punched on a special 
card which has spaces for eighty characters, divided into zones. Similar information 
for each soldier is punched within a specified zone: code number, name, birth date, 
birthplace, death date, place of death, cemetery name and town, marriage date and 
place, and his wife's name. With all this information gathered, coded, and stored 
in the computer, a method of retrieval is formulated. This is done by writing direc- 
tions which say how the information is to be handled. The computer then prints out 
this information according to the instructions. 

When MOCA started this project, it was estimated that between 3,000 and 
3,500 soldiers would be identified. The first computer printout contains 6,115 names. 
Another 1,000 soldiers needed further research before they could be included. Six 
copies were made of the INDEX to REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS BURIED in MAINE. Four of 
these went to libraries, where they are available to the public: the Fogler Library at 
the University of Maine in Orono, the State Library in Augusta, the Maine Historical 
Society in Portland, and the Library in Farmington. The remaining two copies are 
used by those working on additions and corrections. Included with each copy are 
pads of Addition Slips with the request that additional information known to the reader 

be sent to MOCA to be included in an up-dating 
of the INDEX . Additions are easily made by 
using a punch-card to key-punch the soldier's 
identifying number and the new information. 
The computer is then programmed to add the 
new information in the appropriate place. The 
Addition Slip is then filed with the original re- 
search card in the Fogler Library. 



ADDrrilHI- ILIP 



You] Noma & Addmi 



The response from the public has been gratifying. With the public's help 
and the continuing work of MOCA researchers, the data for another 2,000 soldiers is 
ready to be added to the INDEX. It is hoped that funds will be available to update the 
INDEX in 1980. 

This computerized index offers many opportunities for further studies. 
It is of particular value to historians and genealogists. With so much of a soldier's 
vital records in the computer, one is able to program the computer to print a list of 
all men born in a certain town in New England and find where they settled in Maine , 
thus establishing migratory patterns. Should anyone want to know the origins of 
soldiers settling in a particular town or district in Maine, it is possible to write a pro- 
gram to get this information. A genealogist searching a Revolutionary soldier's family 
would find this index invaluable. By adding recipients of Bounty Lands in the State 
to the computer, a match could be made to see if a soldier settled on his land or moved 
elsewhere. If a soldier's war records included the battles in which he fought, these 
records could be added to his computerized data. It would then be possible to create 
a battle list. Likewise, a list of men who fought in a certain battle could be programmed 
into the computer to find if some of the men settled in Maine. 

These are only a few of the many studies made possible by MOCA's com- 
puterized INDEX to REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIERS BURIED in MJ/l/fi" together with the original 
research cards filed at the University of Maine. 



Ruth Gray serves on the Executive Board of MOCA 
and is active in volunteer work in Old Town^ Maine. 



THE EVOLUTION OF MOTIFS ON COLONIAL GRAVESTONES , ^., , 

IN CENTRAL AND WESTERN CONNECTICUT '^^^^ iit^ensKy 

My study concerns gravestones in Litchfield, Middlesex, New Haven, 
Hartford, and Fairfield counties in Connecticut. Every pre-1800 stone in every major 
cemetery except the Grove Cemetery in New Haven was photographed, and the name 
of the deceased, the stone material, date of death, and orientation of the stone was 
recorded. One hundred and thirty-nine cemeteries were covered. Computer codes 
were devised for style-motif, epitaph, preface, stone material, cause of death, sex, 
kinship, titles, and exit statement. These factors were compared to each other in 
various ways, such as motif to year. The Statistical Analysis System was used. Of 
the over 12,000 stones surveyed and photographed, 10,493 were coded for computer 
analysis. 

Earlier studies of New England gravestones have suggested that there 
was an evolution of motifs from skull image to soul image , with an intermediate , tran- 
sitional design combining some aspects of both. This progression has been described 
as being both stylistic and chronological. 

In central and western Connecticut, this motif change occurs, but not in 
a regular, chronological pattern. The combination or part-skuH-part-soul motif 
reached its peak of popularity between 1750 and 1780, the same time period in which 
the soul images reached their peak of popularity. 






Examples of intermediate or transitional part-skull -part-soul motifs 

in central and western Connecticut dpowings by Benes 



Most of the combination style motifs in the study were produced by only 
three workshops. Of the approximately 400 such stones, about half were produced 
by the Bartlett workshop, about seventy by the Buckland workshop, and another 
forty by an unidentified shop in Windsor. It is only in this Windsor shop that a 
chronological evolution occurs from skull to a transitional, combination design to a 
winged angel face or soul motif. The other two workshops seem to have made com- 
bination style designs either out of preference for the particular motif (in the case 
of Bartlett) , or (in the case of Buckland) as an alternative to the more popular soul 
images. 

James Tibensky is a U.S. Pretrial Service Officer in the U.S. Courts Chicago. 



AGS Research Committee Makes Recommendation 

After a one and one-half year study of computer programs suitable for 
use in gravestone analysis, the AGS Research Committee recommends as a landmark 
a paper by Bill Mayhew, Director of the Center for Advanced Public Computing for 
The Children's Museum, Boston. Mayhew's thirteen page paper, "Computerized 
Museum Information Management," describes the Museum's investigation of "tra- 
ditional" approaches to catalog computerization, its finding that a new approach 
was required, and its far-reaching decision to design and implement an inter- 
active system appropriate for use by cultural organizations. Anne G.Giesecke, 
AGS Vice-president /Research, believes that members interested in developing com- 
puter programs for gravestone study will find this article useful. For a copy, send 
75<f to AGS Publications, c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester MA 01609. 

Readers with questions about writing programs for computer analysis of gravestone 
data are invited to communicate with: 

James Tibensky 1510 S. Lombard Avenue, Berwyn IL 60402 

Gaynell Levine RR 2, Box 205, Wading River NY 11792 

Anne Giesecke 9224 Oklahoma Drive, Fairfax VA 22031 

Ruth Gray 70 North 4th Street, Old Town ME 04468 



PENNSYLVANIA: ADAMS COUNTY COLONIAL STONECARVING 



Francis Y. Duval and Ivan B. Rigby 








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Jane Waugh, 1770 



A unique 18th century carving style can be found on gravestones near 
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania: in Hunterstown and, New Chester to the northeast, in 
Abbottstown to the east, and in Fairfield to the southwest. The burial yard of the 
Lower Marsh Creek Presbyterian Church, near Fairfield, offers more examples of 
this style than the other locations combined, and all the stones illustrated here are 
from that location. Fortunately, the gravestones are for the most part in excellent 
condition, and all the churchyards are well worth a visit. 








Samuel Reynold, 1758 



James Ramsey, 1757 







Abraham Agnew, 1753 




John Leard, 1776 




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Jean Brownfield, 1760 



These mid-eighteenth century- 
slate carvings are probably the work of 
a local carver or family of carvers. A 
different talent may have been responsible 
for the 1770 Jane Waugh stone. 

With a few exceptions, the up- 
right memorials are small and without 
borders. The horizontal edges are rolled 
back, and each stone has an overall con- 
tour different from the others. The five 
mid-century stones shown here are boldly 
carved on a dark slate with intricate de- 
tailing. The later light gray Jane Waugh 
stone displays a more delicate touch, sim- 
ilar to the lightly incised carvings found 
in southern Vermont. 

The designs consist mostly of 
bird, animal, flower , foliate , coat-of-arms , 
and effigy motifs. In addition, the Jane 
Waugh memorial offers an unusual rendi- 
tion of a formally attired gravedigger 
performing his duties, and the John Leard 
stone presents an amorial shield , gruesome 
in its depiction of the severed limbs which 
caused Leard's demise while lumbering. 

A distinct similarity in the 
carving style is seen in the inscriptions 
of the earlier examples shown here : an 
elaborate uppercase alphabet style, with 
an unusual mix of uppercase ("capital") 
and lowercase ("little") letters. When 
the inscription is lettered in lowercase, 
the first letter of each word is often 
carved in the handsome, elaborately 
decorative uppercase alphabet, but in 
the same size as the lowercase letters 
(j{£f£,) . When the inscription is carved 
in uppercase, the letters used are very- 
simple in style, with the first letter of 
most words somewhat larger in size 
(Here:) . Swash letters are used oc- 
casionally, as well as a playful letter d 
(* O) ^^d numeral six «5» ) , the latter 
sometime united with the following nu- 
meral(^^). The inscriptions are always 
introduced with "Here Lyes" or "ly's" 
and each passing is noted with the phrase 
"who departed this life." YE is used al- 
most exclusively for THE, while the use 
of the long S is inconsistant . On the 
whole, the orthography is excellent. 

The masterpiece of this area 
is the Jane Waugh memorial, a definite 
"must see" for gravestone art devotees. 

Lower Marsh Creek Presbyterian 
Church is located some five miles southwest 
of Gettysburg on Rt. 116. The yard, how- 
ever, is about four miles from the church. 
One should proceed from the church's 
historic marker on Rt. 116, bear right, 
that is, north, on Fairfield Road to its 
end; bear right again at the junction, 
eastward, until a small, handpainted sign 
(easily missed) indicates a left turn to the 
yard. That semi-private road leads to a 
farmhouse where to the left of the barn 
one gains access to the old burial yard 
behind the farm. Good hunting! 

Francis Duval and Ivan Righy 

are frequent contributors to 

AGS activities. 



BOOK REVIEW 



ENGLISH CHURCHYARD MEMORIALS 

By Frederick Burgess 

Illustrated with drawings and photographs. 325 pages. 

Hardcover, London: 1963; softcover, London: SPCK, 1979 i7.50. 

Review by Peter Benes 

A recent item that should interest serious students of gravestone art is 
the softcover re-publication of English Churahyard Memorials by Frederick Burgess, 
which has been out of print for many years but which is now available through an 
English publisher. First printed in 1963, Burgess's generously annotated and illus- 
trated work represents a continuation of a centuries-old tradition of genealogical and 
historical studies of English tombs and memorials . These studies date as early as 
John Weever's Ancient Funerall Monuments (1631), written in response to widespread 
Puritan vandalism of memorials, and continue through Richard Cough's Sepulahural 
Momonents of Great Britain (179^) and Charles Stothard's Monumental Effigies of 
Great Britain (1812) . 

Burgess, who wrote and published widely in the general field of English 
antiquities and antique objects, undertook the field work for his study in the post- 
war years 1948-1963. As we re-read this seventeen-year-old work of scholarship, we 
are impressed by the chronological range and depth and sophistication of Burgess's 
interests. At the same time, however, it is easy to see how far gravestone studies 
have come from the early 1960's and how much we owe to recent students such as 
James Deetz and James Slater, who put the study of gravestones into an anthropo- 
logical and systemic framework. Like his predecessors. Burgess approached English 
churchyard memorials from the conventional viewpoint of an art historian. He offers 
what is essentially history of English monument-making from the prehistoric period 
to the nineteenth century. He traces the origin and meaning of symbols and contrasts 
the varieties of ornamentation and lettering found on them. His final chapter deals 
with masonry as a craft, apprenticeship systems, and quarries. An index, list of 
English carvers and masons, and a glossary of terms are appended at the conclusion. 
Every page is a tightly-written, informative mine of knowledge concerning English 
cultural, burial, and memorial practices. Each chapter is supported by a copiously 
detailed body of notes whose detail rivals that of James G. Frazier's Golden Bough. 

Lacking, however, are the cultural, geographic, and ethnic perspectives 
that characterize the best of American and European folk studies, which were pio- 
neered by men such as Sigurd Erikson, founder of the Swedish periodical Folk-Liv. 
Burgess's focus is on the best or most curious tombstones rather than on culturally 
relevant groups or schools; he fails to perceive that naive folk traditions, such as 
those followed by the Maidstone carvers* are at work concurrently with educated, 
high-style mannerisms. 

This aaveat aside, English Churchyard Memorials remains the most im- 
portant study of grave markers in the British Isles, and its availability is a signi- 
ficant publishing event. For those who for many years have had available to us 
only the Boston Public Library's non-circulating copy of this fine book, and who 
made copies of entire chapters on the Library's coin-operated copy machines, the 
paperback edition comes as a welcome contribution to the field. At the same time, 
it will strengthen our perception of English iconography and our use of English pre- 
cedents and practices to understanding early American gravestone art. The Burgess 
book is a fitting companion to the study of Scottish stones by Betty Willsher and 
Doreen Hunter, which was reviewed in the Fall, 1979, NEWSLETTER. 

The copy read by this reviewer was made available through the courtesy 
of the author's widow, who actively lectures about her husband's work. The book 
may be obtained by writing SPCK, Holy Trinity Church, Marylebone Road, London 
NWl 4DU. 



Peter Benes is Director of the Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife. This 
summer he will lead a three-week institute at Boston University on early New 
England folk culture. 

*Editor's note: See Bene's Masks of Orthodoxy, pages 118-190, for information about 
the Maidstone carvers, referred to above. 



f 



^ 







FILM / SLIDES / TAPES 

A Slide-and-Tape Program Reviewed 

"Burial: Western Style" 

Script and Photography: Jo Hanson and Ellen Jones; Voice: Ruth Tepper 

Production: Jo Hanson, 1979 

Time: 22 minutes; Rental fee: $6.50 plus return postage 

Review by Mary Anne Mrozinski 

While Joseph Lamson III and Amasa Loomis were carving in New England, 
folks were also dying and being buried in the West. The graveyards of California 
are filled with markers that relate the stories of pioneers and immigrants. 

Jo Hanson and Ellen Jones begin their fascinating and revealing program 
with slides of stones and bronze markers from the cemetery at the Mission Delores in 
San Francisco. They also show some rare examples of the wooden markers that were 
common in the. early days of California's settlement. 

They turn then to the story of the Gold Rush, written in the markers at 
the cemetery at Coloma, east of Sacramento. Many of the motifs on the stone and 
metal markers are Victorian and quite stylish for the period, due to Coloma's prox- 
imity to Sacramento and the Sacramento River trade. With these stones is a marker 
that captures the character of the Old West, a wooden obelisk with a glass-enclosed 
window that displays a paper memorial identification. 

The presentation ends with slides of contemporary California memorial 
parks, a striking contrast and a statement of our time. 

"Burial: Western Style" is a professional production presenting eighty color 
slides assembled in a Kodak Carousel Tray with a cassette tape (pulsed on a WoUensak 
sync tape recorder with inaudible beep) . A transcript is included to give the operator 
cues for changing slides if a sync tape recorder is not available. In the absence of an 
ordinary tape recorder, the operator can read the transcript aloud. 

The program is excellent for use by historical societies and is also suitable 
for use at the high school and college level. This slide-and-tape program, a gift to 
AGS from Jo Hanson, is available to members. Address this reviewer at 47 Hammond 
Road, Glen Cove, New York 11542. 



Mary Anne Mrozinski is AGS Viae-ipresident /Education. 
She teaches art at Sagamore Junior High School, Eoltsville, L.I.N.Y. 

A Request for Slides 

The AGS Committee for Public Education is preparing a slide-and-tape pre- 
sentation which will be made available to individuals and organizations for introducing 
gravestones as an important and rapidly disappearing national heritage. A collection 
of excellent slides is vital to this project, and Mary Anne Mrozinski, the Committee's 
Chair, urges the membership to contribute to this good cause. Please send to her the 
best color slides from your collections which illustrate the use of gravestones to study: 

"calligraphy trade networks names from the past symbolism 

genealogy early occupations carvers and carving styles education 

archaeology stone conservation sources of design elements linguistics 

geography cemetery upkeep death, attitudes toward customs 

art history literature /poetry cemetery landscape designs dress 

folk art political views rhetoric /spelling /demography disasters 

folklore wit and wisdom social status of men, women religion 

wars immigration patterns movement of settlers 

medical history /research: common diseases, epidemics, life expectancy, childbirth 
effects on gravemarkers of weathering, pollution, ignorance and neglect, and vandalism 

One or two quality slides from each AGS member would do much to give this 
project the diversity and scope that is needed. Please do not send original slides: have 
a duplicate made for your contribution, and remember that contributions to AGS are tax 
deductible. 

Send slides, questions, and comments to Msiry Anne Mrozinski, 47 Hammond Road, Glen 
Cove, New York 11542. 



A New Film 

"Final Marks: The Art of the Carved Letter," was premiered by the Newport 
Art Association on September 21, 1979. This is the documentary film that was origi- 
nally scheduled to premier at the AGS conference last July. It is an excellent work 
by two Rhode Island School of Design film makers, Frank Muhly, Jr. , and Peter O'Neill, 
who spent two years developing this ninety minutes of sensitive documentation of the 
art of stone carving as practiced by the John Stevens Shop of Newport, Rhode Island. 
The film, which is in color, rents for $75 and sells for $525. We hope the AGS Con- 
ference Committee can arrange to show it at the 1980 conference in Haverhill, Mass. 



EXHIBITIONS 

The Rhode Island Historical Society plans a multi-faceted exhibition . 

The Rhode Island Historical Society is. preparing an exhibit of Dan Farber's 
photographs of Narraganset Basin gravestones. It will open March, 1980, in the John 
Brown House, 52 Power Street, Providence. According to Rob Emlen, Associate Curator 
of the Society, the show has generated several tangent offerings: the showing of "Final 
Marks," a film about stone carving; an exhibition of the archives of a nineteenth century 
monument company, including account books and original drawings of carved designs; a 
demonstration of stone cutting; and a display of the 1642 Sara Tefft stone, thought to be 
New England's oldest existing gravestone with decorative carving. (It was placed in the 
Society's museum over 100 years ago, and the replica which replaced it in the graveyard 
has since disappeared.) Brown University graduate students will undertake a study of 
the stones in the exhibited photographs — the history of the deceased, the carving tra- 
ditions and styles, and the symbolism. This broad and thorough approach to the exhi- 
bition is expected to draw "all sorts of people who might never have noticed us without 
the diverse elements we're beginning to assemble," says Emlen. 

Art Resources of Connecticut sponsors shows exhibiting the work of Anne Williams and 
Susan Kelly . 

A full page illustrated story in the Arts Review Section of the Hartford 
Courant (September 16, 1979) relates the adventures and achievements of Anne Williams 
and Susan Kelly, who traveled the length of the Connecticut River by canoe to make rub- 
bings of the eighteenth and nineteenth century art on gravestones. The results of this 
410 mile, two-year intermittent adventure are being shown in two separate Connecticut 
exhibitions. Twenty-six rubbings were exhibited in "Three Centuries of Folk Art," a 
major show at Hartford's Wadsworth Atheneum, which opened in September. The show 
left Hartford in late November and is now traveling to museums in Bridgeport, New 
London, New Haven, and Litchfield. Another 130 of the Williams and Kelly rubbings, 
presented as "A Grave Business," opened at the newly restored Old State House in 
Hartford in late October. 

Joseph MacLaughlin, Director of Art Resources of Connecticut, which spon- 
sored both shows, writes that he views the early gravestone carvings as an integral part 
of Connecticut's folk art and is "excited at how effectively they can teach as well as de- 
light the eye . " 

Alexandra Grave, curator for the Atheneum exhibition, spent two years search- 
ing for outstanding folk art and organizing the show of 250 works, which includes early 
tavern signs, weather vanes, portraits, quilts, needlework, and the twenty-six grave- 
stone rubbings. She comments that gravestone carvings are our earliest folk art form 
and that rubbing, besides being a graphic art, has the advantage of showing the actual 
size and texture and character of the stone. 

The Maine State Commission for the Arts and Humanities sponsors a touring show . 

Peter Finlay and Betty Daniel are preparing an exhibit of fifty New England 
gravestone rubbings for a touring show sponsored by the Wider Activities Program of 
the Maine State Commission for the Arts and Humanities. Reproductions in the form of 
note cards, post cards, silk screen fabrics and some larger prints for framing will be 
offered for sale. The exhibiting institutions keep 50% of the income from the sales. 
Free to viewers will be an illustrated booklet. An Art of the People , which explains 
the historical, artistic, and sociological implications of the work exhibited. Artists 
Finlay and Daniel will arrange exhibition bookings for schools, libraries, historical so- 
cieties, and museums in Maine and elsewhere in New England. 

Address Betty Daniel, National Institute for Transition, 22 Monument Square, 
Suite 601. Portland, Maine 04111. Telephone (207) 773-7123. 



NEWSPAPER and MAGAZINE ITEMS 



Richard F. Welch is the author of "Folk Art in Stone on Long Island," a 
photo-essay in the June, 1979, issue of Early American Life, the Magazine of the 
Early American Society. The article features excellent color and black and white photo- 
graphs of Long Island gravestones and an enlightening test. Back issues of the pub- 
lication may be ordered for $2.00 from the Early American Society, P.O. Box 1J31, 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17105. Welch, a new AGS member, teaches History at Glen 
Cove High School and is a doctoral candidate at the State University of New York at 
Stony Brook. 

George B, Griffin, a reporter for the Worcester Telegram and Gazette, 
wrote a one-page article for his paper's Sunday magazine section, October 28, 1979. 
His piece quotes a few typical and a few amusing epitaphs and offers some simple phi- 
losophy about the subject matter of the decorative carving. From the article it is not 
possible to determine if Griffin has a serious or merely a cursory interest in grave- 
stones, but his- article reached a large audience, wJiich was educated by the article to 
view the old stones as "books that, with a little study, tell volumes in a few brief lines. 
Articles of this sort, while superficial, can nevertheless open doors to the public's in- 
terest in early gravestone study. We sent Mr. Griffin a NEWSLETTER. 




mGHlVSP€CMLIZ€D 

PRQjIOTIOfiS 
228ajmaisrR8€r 

DgC>0KLVri.f1.V11901 

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RODOTIH/ILPORn 




According to Time Magazine reporter 
Melvin Maddocks, "Death education courses now abound 
all over the country for college and high school and ele- 
mentary students." In the lead article of the December 3, 
1979 issue of Time, Maddocks describes the activities of a 
group of Gainesville, Florida, ten year olds as they visit 
a local graveyard with their teacher, Judith Shaak. Ms. 
Shaak wrote her master's thesis on the way children's 
books deal with death ("Grandfather's gone on a long trip"). 
For courses on dying, the article mentions Death Out of the 
Closet as one of the standard texts. 

Time ' s article prompts us to mention again 
the book by AGS member Roberta Halporn, Lessons from 
the Dead: The Graveyard as a Classroom for the Study of 
the Life Cycle, published by Highly Specialized Promotions 
and illustrated with gravestone rubbings from the author's 
collection. 




CEMETERY CITATIONS 
for 




EXEMPLARY CARE 



NEGLECT 



ENFIELD, CONNECTICUT 



DORCHESTER, MASSACHUSETTS 



Readers are invited to recommend cemeteries for citation. Address NEWSLETTER, 
c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester MA 01609. CONSIDERATIONS WHEN MAKING 
YOUR RECOMMENDATION : scattered stone fragments, debris, lawnmower damage to stones, 
unpruned trees and broken limbs on ground, overgrowth of vines and bushes, stones 
upright, attempts at conservation/restoration, general maintenance of grounds and 
fences and walls, a sign or signs to instruct public. 



STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS 

Second of a Series 




Rev. David Thurston, Auburn 1777 



Drawing by M.J. Spring 



WILLIAM YOUNG OF TATNUCK. MASSACHUSETTS 



Marij and Rick Stafford 



The Man . William Young came to Worcester from Ireland in 1718 at the age of seven 
with his parents David and Martha, and his paternal grandparents John and Isabel. 
The family settled in nearby Tatnuck and prospered. William grew up, became ac- 
tively involved in the political life of Worcester, married and raised a family, which 
was to number twelve children, of whom eight were alive when he died in 1795 at age 
84. His active profession was farmer; he acted as head of many Revolutionary com- 
mittees and was a Justice of the Peace after the Revolution. He was Worcester's 
Town Surveyer and Moderator of the Town Meetings. His gravestone cutting seems 
to have been an avocation rather than a true profession, but it was a lifelong interest . 

His Work . The earliest stone that can be attributed to him is that of Joseph Ayres of 
Brookfield, 1740; the latest is that of Irenna Wiswall of Worcester, 1792. The latter 
is among those dug up in 1968 (see Editor's note, next page) and placed in a little en- 
closure on Worcester Common. More than 145 stones in the Worcester County area 
have been attributed to him, although there may in some cases be a stylistic con- 
fusion between the work of Young and that of the Soule family. 





TOWNS WITH WILLIAM YOUNG GRAVESTONES 



In general, characteristics of Young's carving style are: round-faced effigies with 
simple, almost helmet-hke hair (men's effigies wear a wig; women's a bonnet); round, 
staring eyes; straight-line mouths; frequent use of thistle-like floral designs to the 
sides of the effigies; and, in the text, a capital A with a "v" for its cross-bar .Young 
was an unusually creative carver. There is a great deal of variety in his designs; no 
two are alike. In addition to stylistic points, the stones of William Young can often be 
recognized by the quality of the stone: a rough, rusty slate that breaks easily. 

Authentication Three wills show payment to Young for gravestones. One is that of 
Samuel Crawford of Rutland, and the stone can still be seen there in the small neg- 
lected yard behind the Fire Station. The other two are James Tanner of Worcester, 
whose stone was dug up and reburied; and Robert Goddard of Sutton, where the 
graveyard seems to have been lost to industrialization. 

Sources of Additional Information . Harriette Forbes documents the life of Young ad- 
mirably in her book, Early New England Gravestones and the Men Uho Made Them, and 
in a monograph delivered to the American Antiquarian Society. Given the prominence 
of the man in his time and the relative lack of mention of him in any later historical 
works, some extended research in diaries of the area at his period would be of interest. 
Another source of information could be probate wills of all those gravestones presumed 



to be of his hand. Although payment -is probably not recorded, Young often acted as 
executor or surveyor of the decedent's property. Much information on his life and 
friendships might be amassed from this research. 



Mary Stafford is Administrative Assistant for the Surgical Residency Program at 
University Hospital , Boston. Rick is photographer for the Fogg Museum, Harvard. 



Editor's note: In 1853 the gravestones on Worcester Common were laid flat and cover- 
ed with earth. In 1968, when a portion of the Common was excavated to make way for 
a shopping center, the Wiswall and Tanner stones were among those exhumed. The 
Wiswall stone and a few others were re-erected on the Common. The others, includ- 
ing the Tanner stone, were moved to Hope Cemetery and reburied. While above ground, 
the Tanner stone was photographed by Daniel Farber, and a copy of that picture can 
be seen at the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester. The photograph confirms 
Harriette Forbes' identification of Young's work. 



WHO IS THIS CARVER? 

The "Springfield Carver" was a skilled, prolific, relatively unimaginative 
carver whose work is found in abundance in graveyards in and around Springfield, 
Massachusetts. His spare, clean-cut effigies are handsome in their simplicity. The 
designs are characterized by oval faces, almond-shaped eyes, and curved, linear 
headdresses and wings. Overhead are scalloped, cloud-like shapes. The most fre- 
quent border design is a stylized vine motif. 





Although the majority of the Springfield Carver's stones are incised with 
a strong line in low relief, many are carved in a very high relief. The orthography-- 
lettering, spelling, grammar, spacing, punctuation — is exceptionally good, and the 
straightforward dignity of his designs make up for what they may lack in wit and in 
naive charm. The stones are of a rich, red sandstone and they tend to be somewhat 
larger than those of other cutters in the area at that time. The majority date from 
the I790's into the first decade of the nineteenth century, after which a nicely shap- 
ped urn and willow design replaced the effigy. 

Carvers are identified by signature, by carving style, and through probate records 
which show, for example, payment by an estate to a named stonecutter for a grave- 
stone. Is there a carver you would like to have identified? Send us a description 
of his work. Have you information which might lead to the identification of the 
Springfield Carver? Address: AGS Newsletter, c/o American Antiquarian Society, 
Worcester MA 01609. 



REGIONAL NEWS 



AGS has established ties with a number of regional cemetery associations. 
Our members are encouraged to support regional association activities and to make use 
of regional associations' resources. The simplest methods for exchanging information 
and encouraging cooperative efforts among associations are to: 

Join our newsletter exchange . Regional cemetery associations which place 
AGS on their mailing lists will be put on the AGS mailing list. Send your 
regional newsletters and announcements to AGS Publications, c/o The 
American Antiquarian Society, Worcester MA 01609. 

Contact AGS Regional Representatives or AGS Corresponding Secretary, Ruth O. 
Cowell, 21 Bogert Place, Westwood NJ 07675. 



REGIONAL NEWS 

Some Varied Approaches to Gravestone Studies 
From North, East, South, West 

LAWRENCE R. HANDLEY , Department of Anthropology and Geography, University 
of New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana 70122 . 

Professor Handley has two interesting research projects in progress. He 
is writing his dissertation on the role of the cemetery in urban evolution and its re- 
lationship to the way the city developed, as seen in transportation patterns, physical 
size, population, racial and ethnic groupings, and urban renewal. He is, he says, 
"looking at the city using the cemetery as criteria." Among the cities studied are 
San Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, St. Louis, Rock Island Illinois, Pittsburgh, 
and New Orleans. As part of this research he has developed a bibliography which 
is more complete than any other he has found on cemeteries. 

Handley 's other project, a study of the cemetery as a cultural institution 
in the Ozark Mountains, began when he was teaching at the University of Arkansas. 
After two years of "mulling and puttering," Handley sees these burial grounds as 
cultural ties between isolated areas, bringing people together and strengthening loy- 
alties and family ties. 

DAVID LAWSON, 460 North 6th Street, Laramie, Wyoming 82070 

David Lawson, a member of the English faculty of the University of 
Wyoming teaching American Folklore, has completed a 150 page manuscript, a com- 
prehensive collection of and sensitive commentary on Wyoming gravestone epitaphs . 
The AGS Publications Committee has asked Professor Lawson's permission to use a 
section of this work, titled The Final Voice, in the 1980 AGS Jovamal. 

BEN J. LLOYD , Bedwyn Stone Museum, Great Bedwyn, Nr. Marlborough, Wilts, England 

and 

JOHN HOPKINS , The Stoneyard, Mill Street, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, England 

Ben Lloyd is a practicing stonemason who has made a life study of grave- 
stones. He has been a member of AGS since the organization was formed, and he hopes 
one day to attend an AGS conference. Mr. Lloyd writes that if one of our members is 
traveling in England, he would be pleased to show him/her around in exchange for 
hospitality in the United States. Perhaps there is a member in the Haverhill area who 
could offer housing to him next June 20-22, our 1980 conference dates. 

Corresponding Secretary Ruth Cowell reports that AGS has a new inter- 
national member, Mr. John Hopkins of Gloucestershire, England, who writes, "I am 
a working stonemason. Past President of the Stone Federation, which is our national 
trade body, a lecturer for Bristol University Historical Department in Saxon and 
Norman Architecture, and a member of our local archaeological society." 

JOHN J. (JACK) CASHMAN , 315 Marlborough Road„ Brooklyn, New York 11226 

Last spring a story in the Bew York Times introduced us to New York Police 
Department Sargent Jack Cushman arid his extraordinary collection of slides of the 
gravestones of celebrities. Now a member of AGS, Cushman writes, "Although we 
Association members share the same general interest in cemeteries, some of us have a 
specific interest in the people interred as well as in their gravestones . I have a slide 
collection of the gravestones of famous (and infamous) Americans. If any AGS mem- 
ber has photos or slides of well-known personalities' gravestones, please contact me." 

CHARLES E. MOHR , Lake Club Apartments B-26, Dover, Deleware 19901 

"My interest in cemeteries is essentially that of a naturalist," says Dr. 
Charles Mohr, Past President of the American Nature Study Society (and also of the 
National Speleological Society!). Mohr has for two decades presented Audubon lee- — 
tures in the United States and Canada, and he is the recipient of the National Science 
for Youth Foundation's Distinguished Naturalist Award. For the National Science for 
Youth Foundation he developed "View from the Bus: an Environmental Awareness Pro- 
gram for School Bus Riders," which is distributed by the Deleware Audubon Society 
in support of its Operation Cemetery Discovery. Through this program, Mohr encour- 
ages the exploration of the sanctuary /open space resources of the cemeteries. Survey 
sheets to be filled out by youthful participants ask for observations about the age, 
number and kind of trees and other growth, including lichen, about animal life in 
the cemetery, the degree of audio distraction or noise, as well as the more usual ob- 
servations about the stones and cemetery maintenance. Ruth Cowell, AGS Corres- 
ponding Secretary writes that Mohr's survey sheets inspire us to "tuck your Peter- 
son's Field Guide in your kit of rubbing or photographic material on your next ceme- 
tery excursion. Let's not forget the live experience that can await us there." 

For more information about Operation Cemetery Discovery, write Deleware Audubon 
Society, John Shield, Presider:-; , 9 Croyden Rd. Newark DE 19702. Or write Dr. Mohr. 



AGS REGIONAL -REPRESENTATIVES 



Canada 



Maine 



Massachusetts 



DEBORAH TRASK 
1747 Summer Street 
Halifax NS B 3H 3A6 
Canada 

RUTH GRAY 

70 North 4th Street 

Old Town, Maine 04468 

ANITA C. WOODWARD 
Box 51, Thompson Road 
Princeton MA 01541 



New Hampshire MARY C. EMHARDT 
Star Route 
Barrington NH 03825 



New York MITCHELL R . ALEGRE 

138 W. Buffalo Street 
Warsaw NY 14569 
and 

JANE NORTHSHIELD 
226 Mt. Airy Road 
Croton-on-Hudson NY 10520 

Oklahoma CATHERINE H. YATES 

303 S . Mercedes 
Norman OK 73069 

Pennsylvania Dr. THOS. J. HANNON 
Geography Department 
Slippery Rock College 
Slippery Rock PA 16057 



New Jersey ROBERT F. VAN BENTHUYSEN Wisconsin 

147 Wall Street 
West Long Branch NJ 07764 



JULAINE A.MAYNARD 
617 demons Avenue 
Madison WI 53704 



Members willing to collect and report news from unrepresented areas, please volunteer to 
AGS Newsletter c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester MA 01609. 

Report from Massachusetts : Share Genealogical Information . 

Nearly everybody in the western states can trace his/her genealogy to New 
England. Ron Bremer of Utah is interested in publishing genealogies and wants the 
names of New England genealogists. His address: P.O. Box 1644, Salt Lake City, Utah 
84416. 

Closer to home, genealogists should consider exchanging information with 
Downeast Anaestry, P.O. Box 398, Machias, Maine 04654, and the Vermont Genealogi- 
cal Society, Mrs. Carol Church, Westminster West, RFD #3, Putney, Vermont 05346. 

Contributed by Anita Woodward, Regional Representative for Massachusetts 

Report from New York : A Restoration Project and a Record of Inscriptions. 

The village of Medina, New York, sponsored a 2^ month project this past 
summer to rebuild foundations for gravestones and repair broken monuments in the 
oldest section of the village cemetery. The project utilized CETA personnel. Tentative 
approval has been received to continue and complete the project during the summer of 
1980. 

Over thirty years ago the Wyoming County (New York) Historian's Office 
launched a quarterly local history magazine entitled Histovioat Wyoming. One of the 
most popular sections of each issue is the record of gravestone inscriptions from local 
cemeteries. This is especially helpful to genealogists and has provided a written rec- 
ord to insure the preservation of the content of gravestone inscriptions. 

Contributed by Mitchell Alegre, Regional Representative for New York State 



AUTHORS' (AND OTHERS') REQUESTS 
for Inf ormati on , Papers ,What-have-you? 



Gina Santucci, a graduate student in historic preservation at Columbia 
University, is gathering information for her thesis, A Model Financial Program for 
Restoration of a Large Victorian Cemetery. She says that because her field of re- 
search is so small and so specialized, she would like the NEWSLETTER to "spread the 
word about the project." She asks readers to let her know of studies pertaining to 
the financial management and restoration of historic cemeteries. Address: Ms. Gina 
Santucci, 500 Riverside Drive, #511, New York NY 10027. 



A note in the Newsletter of the Vermont Old Cemetery Association reads: 
"I am a graduate student working on my doctorate at Indiana University in the field 
of folklore. I am working on a project dealing with the symbols found on gravemark- 
ers. . .Any information you may be able to provide me with will be very much appre- 
ciated." Address: Mr. Ricardas Vidutis, 1106 North Jackson, Bloomington IN 47401. 



( Requests continued ) 

A request forwarded to the NEWSLETTER from the State House, Concord, 
New Hampshire, is from Linda J. Eversole, a Canadian Government employee who is 
"researching legislation concerning historic cemeteries, particularly in regard to their 
designation as historic sites." She wants to know how other governments have dealt 
with this and what problems may have been encountered regarding criteria for des- 
ignation, maintenance, etc. Address: Ms. Linda J. Eversole, Research and Planning 
Division, Ministry of Provincial Secretary and Government Services, Victoria, B.C., 
Canada. 



AGS members Dr. Diana Hume George (Pennsylvania State University) and 
Dr. Malcom A. Nelson (State University of New York at Fredonia) are chairing a panel 
session on Gravestone Studies at the American Culture Association conference, April 
16-19, in Detroit. If you have a paper to submit for presentation, send it to: Diana 
George and Mac Nelson, 120 West Main Street, Brocton, New York 14716. Topics are 
open: carvers, carving styles, epitaphs, conservation, symbols, etc. Suggested 
length: 10-12 pages, 20-25 minutes presentation time. Deadline for submission: 
March 1, 1980. You are encouraged to send letters of inquiry which describe your 
proposed paper or presentation by January 30, earlier if possible. Other things be- 
ing equal, preference will be given to those who respond early. 



Donna N. Carlson asks if anyone knows of any stones carved by J. B. 
Slutson. She says that Slutson carved and signed stones in the Fredonia, New York, 
area in the 1820's, but that he may well have migrated west from New England. 
Address: Ms. Donna N. Carlson, P.O. Box 142, Fredonia, New York 14063. 

# 

Roberta Halporn is eager to get in touch with "the creative woman who 
described, informally, how to take rubbings with melted craypas and airplane paper" 
at the Newport conference. She says that the method is so seductive that she does 
not want to do anything else, but she needs to know "how to keep the melted waxes 
from shattering after they cool, so they will stay in the nice neat cake she had." 
She asks for the name of the Crapas Rubber or a description of the technique. 
Address: Roberta Halporn, 228 Clinton Street, Brooklyn, New York 11201. 



ITEMS OF INTEREST 



Information about New York City Area Graveyards 

Roberta Halporn has completed a "moderately thorough" study of the Colo- 
nial cemeteries in the New York City vicinity, all of which can be reached without a 
car. There are eight, she says, all in remarkably good condition, and she will send 
her compilation of information about them to members who send her a 28<t stamped en- 
velope. Address her. at 228 Clinton Street, Brooklyn, New York 11201. 



member 
AGS 



I BRAKE FOR OLD GRAVEYARDS 



G 



AGS Bumper Stickers 

Color, brown and white. 

Price, $1.30 

Available from AGS Treasurer, Sally Thomas, 82 Hilltop Place, New London NH 03257 

Post Script 

As this issue of the NEWSLETTER was going to press, we learned from Edward 
Bryant, Director of Colgate University's Picker Gallery, that the subject of the annual 
conference of The College Art Association concerns problems in conservation of American 
art, and it focuses on works of national interest that are not being given prop'er con- 
servation attention. The Association convenes January 31-February 3 in New Orleans. 
On February 1, Mr. Bryant will read his paper, "Some (almost) but not (quite) Forgot- 
ten Problems of Art in Our Cemeteries." On the same panel is Mary Louise Christovich, 
who spearheads the Save Our Cemeteries movement in New Orleans. Bryant's personal 
interest is in nineteenth and turn-of-the-century cemetery art. He and his wife and 
son lived nine months of his last sabbatical in a trailer, traveling down the Alleghney, 
Ohio, and Mississippi Rivers and back, studying cemetery art along the way. He has 
approximately 3000 photographs, some of which will illustrate the book he is working 
on. We asked him to report to the NEWSLETTER on the conference. 

•^» Cory your AGS Membership Card. It is useful when cemetery aaretdkers , *^ 

oity offiaials, potiae^ or interested neighbors I 

question your activity in their burial grounds. 



(Items of Interest continued) 

ANNOUNCING "Grave Faces," a broadside poem by Martin Booth 

During the summer of 1979, the young British poet 
Martin Booth spent two weeks visiting in New Hamp- 
shire. On one of his excursions, he came upon the 
old cemetery in Jaffrey Centre, where the faces on 
the stones first impressed, then haunted him. The 
masterful poem "Grave Faces" is the result of that 
encounter. 

Booth, who has won several major awards, is one of 
the best writers working in England today. He has 
published four volumes of poetry and one novel. A 
second novel and two additional volumes of verse are 
due for publication in 1980. 

"Grave Faces: was published to accompany the fall 
1979 issue of the Friends of the University of New 
Hampshire Library NOTES. A collectors' edition of 
100 numbered copies signed by the poet have been 
printed on special paper (9"xl2") and are suitable 
for framing. The stone design is by Joann Brady. 

S has been able to reserve fifty of these for its members. They are being offer- 
on a first come, first served basis at $15 plus $1.50 for postage and handling. 

order, send your check or money order to Mrs. Philip D. Thomas, Treasurer, 
Hilltop Place, New London, New Hampshire 03257. Make checks payable to AGS. 




AG 
ed 

To 
92 



ASSOCIATION NEWS 
Conferences, Workshops, Meetings, and other Activities & Business 

AGS BOARD MEETING 

The AGS Board, which is comprised of the ten elected officers of the Association, met 
in Boston on November 2, 1979. Two items on the adjenda are of special interest to 
NEWSLETTER readers. 

The recommendation of the Conference Planning Committee 
concerning dates, location, and program for the 1980 an- 
nual conference. 

The recommendation of the Publications Committee concern- 
ing a new Association publication. 

The Board's decision on each of these items is announced below. 

AGS CONFERENCE 1980 

The 1980 Annual Conference of the Association for Gravestone Studies will 
be held at Bradford College, Haverhill, Massachusetts, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday, 
June 20-22, 1980. The conference theme will center on "Above Ground Archaeology," 
"with special attention given to the carvers of the Merrimack River Valley School. The 
conference site will have the special appeal of an historical area which has recently 
been restoring, documenting , and integrating its historic buildings and sites, includ- 
ing shoe factories, a tavern, as well as two seventeenth century graveyards. The two 
burial grounds have been cleaned, mapped and intensively studied. There has also 
been extensive research into the five families of stone carvers having their origins in 
the town. These carvers are all of the folk art tradition and their relationships and 
comparative styles will be of interest to AGS members. 

The conference program will include sessions on mapping, data recording, 
and other archaeological techniques, stone repair, geneology, as well as rubbing and 
photography. Emphasis will be given to "hands on" activities, field tripes, and dem- 
onstrations. It is hoped that speakers will introduce work from the western United 
States and from Scotland, and that wooden as well as stone markers will be studied. 

The Bay State Historical League will hold its annual conference at the same 
time and place, and the two groups may share some sessions. It is expected that the 
organizations will find a creative overlap of interest among their members, and that 
they will use the opportunity to enlarge their perspective. 



Reserve June 20-22, 1980, for an engoyahle weekend with others 
who are interested in and knowledgeable about gravestones. 



NEW AGS PUBLICATION 

AGS will produce a yearly publication to be called MARKERS: The Journal 
of the Association for Gravestone Studies. It will present the most interesting and 
significant papers written during the year. The 1980 issue of MARKERS will be ready 
for sale at the 1980 conference in Haverhill, Massachusetts, June 20-22. Details for 
placing advanced orders will be announced in the next (Spring) issue of NEWSLETTER. 

AGS Publications Committee: Chair Jessie Lie Farber 

MARKERS Review Board. . Joanne Baker, Dan Farber, 

James Slater 
Design Francis Duval, Ivan Rigby 

SOCIETY FOR HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY Annual Conference, Gravestone Symposium 

The annual meeting of the Society for Historical Archaeology will be held 
in Alburquerque , New Mexico, January 8-11, 1980, at the Hilton Sun. As is the cus- 
tom, the Conference on Underwater Archaeology will convene at the same time and 
place. Room rates have been discounted for those attending, and a wide variety of 
tours of the area have been arranged. Of speqial interest to AGS members is the 
symposium, "Gravestones as a Material Culture Data Base." A description of this 
symposium subject states that early gravestones provide information not available 
from other sources and are therefore a valuable resource for a variety of disciplines 
and that the multidisciplinary use of this unique source of cultural information sug- 
gests that a photographic recording of this body of information before it disappears 
should be a national priority. The need for a suitable system for recording wide re- 
gional variations and for the retrieving of information will be discussed by Gaynell 
Stone Levine, Anthropology Department, State University of New York at Stony Brook. 
For reservations and information, write: American Anthropological Association 

Society for Historical Archaeology 
1073 New Hampshire Avenue, NW 
Washington DC 20009 

THE DUBLIN SEMINAR FOR NEW ENGLAND FOLKLIFE (AGS's Parent Organization). 

The 1980 Dublin Seminar will be held June 28-29 at the Dublin School, 
Dublin, New Hampshire. The subject of this year's meeting will be: Maps, Place 
Names, and the Historical Landscape. More information about this meeting in the 
Spring issue of the NEWSLETTER. 



NEWSLETTER NOTES 
Corrections, Amplifications, Deadlines 

The AGS logo was taken from the carving on the 1771 Williamstown, Massachusetts, 
headstone for Elisabeth Smith, not, as reported in the last issue of the NEWSLETTER, 
from the footstone. Both stones, which are white marble, are shown below. 




XJ^Mi 




The first reader to call our attention to the error was Francis Duval, who noted an- 
other error, the omission of the first word of the title of the book. Early American 
Gravestone Art in Photographs, v/ritten by himself and Ivan Rigby. Our thanks and 
our apologies to Mr. Duval, who has also called our attention to two photographs on 
page 111 of Allan Ludwig's Graven Images. They show angels like the "Moosup angels' 
illustrated in the Fall NEWSLETTER. Ludwig's angels are in Plainfield, Connecticut. 
Since publication of the Fall NEWSLETTER, another "Moosup /Plainfield angel" has been 
discovered in faraway Granby, Connecticut. Does anyone know where home base for 
this carver is? 



(Corrections, Amplifications, Deadlines Continued) 

The Fall NEWSLETTER lists the names and addresses of AGS members who attended the 
AGS conference in Newport . Some readers misread this to be a list of all AGS members, 
Because there is an interest in membership statistics, we will publish a membership 
statement (not a list of names and addresses) in the Spring NEWSLETTER itemizing the 
number of members in each catagory: Regular, Student, Institutional, and Sustaining. 

There are a few errors and some changes in the list of conference participants. You 
may want to note them on your list. The correct listings are: 

Mitchell R. Alegre, 138 West Buffalo Street, Warsaw NY 14569 

Ruth O. Cowell, 21 Bogert Place, Westwood NJ 07675 

Anne G. Giesecke, 9224 Oklahoma Drive, Fairfax VA 22031 
(703) 323-6502 (home) (703) 273-3166 (business) 

Lance Mayer, Cincinnati Art Museum, Eden Park, Cincinnati OH 45202 
(513) 321-9456 (home) (513) 721-5204 (business) 

Aileen P.. Sechler, 3 Johnson Drive, Apartment 3, Gettysburg PA 17325 



We have had reports from several readers that they cannot find Willsher and Hunter's 
book. Stones: A Guide to Some Remarkable Eighteenth Century Gravestones, which was 
reviewed by Peter Benes in the Fall NEWSLETTER. According to the publishers, Stones 
is available at all B. Dalton Bookstores. Also, it can be ordered direct from Taplinger 
Publishing Company, 200 Park Avenue South, New York 10017. It comes in both hard 
cover ($14.95) and paperback ($7.95). Add 81<t postage. NEWSLETTER readers will be 
interested to know that Betty Willsher has slides she is willing to show or have shown 
at the 1980 AGS conference. Her address, for members who may want to communicate 
with her, is Orchard Cottage, Greerside Place, St. Andrews, Fife, Scotland KY 169 U. 

Contributions to AGS Archives ^ 

The last issue of the NEWSLETTER stated that the Winter issue would give you details for 
making (tax deductible) contributions to the AGS archives, which are housed at the 
New England Historic and Genealogical Society in Boston. We now ask you to wait for 
the Spring issue for this information. The development of an excellent collection of re- 
trievable data is so important and so complex that the AGS Archives Committee requires 
more time to formulate its long-term policies and procedures. Meanwhile, we are very 
grateful for contributions we have received. We repeat our request to members to 
look and think through materials you are willing to contribute, but we ask you to wait 
for the Committee's announcement before putting any contributions in the mail. 



NEWSLETTER Editor, Anne Giesecke has left the Archaeological Research Services of the 
University of New Hampshire to become Chief of Service, Historic Archaeology, for the 
Iroquois Institute. Her new address is listed above. 

Because almost every issue of the NEWSLETTER has involved a change of address, and 
because our new publication MARKERS (see page 16) needs an address, we have arrang- 
ed with the American Antiquarian Society for a permanent, easy-to-remember address 
for both publications . We hope this will make it easy for our members to respond and 
contribute. 



k\)\i?.^SS NEWSLETTER and MARKERS COMMUNICATION to 



AGS Publications 

c/o American Antiquarian Society 

Worcester MA 01609 



THE DEADLINE FOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO TEE SPRING NEWSLETTER IS MARCH 1. 







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■ MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION 

Membership in the Association for Gravestone Studies supports the study of an important 
and rapidly disappearing heritage. Other benefits of membership are subscription to the 
NEWSLETTER , waiver of the $3 fee for admission to the library of the New England Historic 
and Genealogical Society, and a reduced advanced-order price for the journal,. ^•ff-S^^'fl-S'. 
The membership year extends from annual conference to annual conference . Membership 
is required to attend the conference. 

Rates are tax deductible: Individual $10; Institutional $10; Student $5; Sustaining $25. 
Sustaining membership includes MARKERS. 

Tear and send with membership fee to Mrs. Philip D. Thomas, AGS Treasurer 

82 Hilltop Place, New London CT 03857 

Name 



Address 



Special interest(s) and/or organizational affiliation, if any. 




NEWSLETTER 

OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 



Volume 4, Number 2, Spring 1980. ISSN : 01U6-5783 



CONTENTS 



ASSOCIATION NEWS : 1980 Conference Information 

EXHIBITS, FILM, SLIDES, NEWSPAPER S MAGAZINE ITEMS 

REGIONAL NEWS; AGS REPRESENTATIVES 

WORKS IN PROGRESS / AUTHORS' REQUESTS 

STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS. Third & fourth installments 
John Hartshorne and the Muh'cken Family 
by Ralph Tucker 



• illiiliiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 



CEMETERY CITATIONS 
REVIEWS 

"^ ■■■iillllllllllilliiiilllltliillilililllliiiililllliliill 

Souls in Stone. Review by David Watters 

"Leaving No Stone Unturned" and id- u, i ^;l „^ 

,, , ? ^ X ^ ^- ] Review by Lance Mayer 

Manual for Gravestone Conservation. 

Here Lies America. Review by Nancy Eills £ Parker Hayden 

Lessons from the Dead. Review by Anne Giesecke 

WHO IS THIS CARVER? 



iiiiiiliiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii* 



1 

5 

8 

11 

13 



14 
15 



19 



By Susan Kelly and Anne Williams 

NEWSLETTER corrections, additions, deadlines , , , , 20 

A CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT TO POST 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiii 



21 



A MESSAGE FROM AGS PRESIDENT JOANNE BAKER 

This year, AGS is holding its conference concurrently with the Bay State 
Historical League, There will be several speakers who will address joint sessions 
of both groups. The balance of each organization's program will be held separate- 
ly. Essex County, Massachusetts, our conference site, is an area rich in material 
culture. It contains numerous fine houses, early mills and factories, and was the 
working place of five important gravestone carving families. Joint conference ses- 
sions will focus on the importance and uses of our material culture; the AGS pro- 
gram will feature the carvers of the area and the model restoration of two important 
burial grounds in Bradford. 

The Bradford and Pentucket burial grounds are among the finest examples 
of community restoration efforts in the country. Not only have the graveyards 
been cleaned and the stones recorded but the yards have been mapped and com- 
plete genealogical profiles have been assembled for each person buried there. These 
restoration efforts will be described by Anne Armstrong, the Director of the An- 
cient Cemetery Project, in a talk entitled "Restoration of Historic Bradford Ceme- 
tery: Organization and Implementation." Anne Giesecke, AGS Vice-president for 
Research, will speak on "Archeology in the Bradford Cemetery." To continue the 
theme of restoration and preservation, Norman Weiss, a world authority on stone 
conservation, will speak on "Resetting and Repair of Gravestones in Historic Ceme- 
teries. " 

Conference participants will have ample opportunity to become personally 
familiar with the Bradford graveyards. The Association is planning to have shut- 
tle transportation to them during a large portion of the conference. Moreover, 
Saturday afternoon is being devoted to a series of hands-on workshops and dem- 
onstrations in the graveyards. Sessions will be held on rubbing, recording in- 
formation, making a measured and gridded diagram, making archeological tests, 
and photography. Norman Weiss and Lance Mayer will demonstrate the repair of 
a stone, and Frankie Bunyard will show the art of letter carving. 



- 2 - 



The Essex County gravestone carvers will receive major conference at- 
tention. Ralph Tucker, whose particular interest has been the Essex County 
carving tradition, and Francis Duval, noted author and photographer, are pre- 
paring a major presentation on the carvers of the region and the dissemination of 
their styles. 

Peter Benes, Director of the Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife, 
parent organization of ACS, will speak on "Plagues, Earthquakes, and Doom in 
Merrimack Valley Craveyards." 

The cultural and historical significance of the American graveyard will be 
addressed by one of the keynote speakers, Edwin Dethlefsen, Professor of Anthro- 
pology, The College of William and Mary. Dethlefsen's address will formally open 
the conference Friday night, June 20, in a joint session on "Material Culture and 
Human Beings: Messages from the Crave." Another joint session will feature Thomas 
Schlereth, Director of the Craduate Program in American Studies, University of 
Notre Dame, who will consider the significance of our material heritage in general. 
Finally, there will be a series of discussion groups on how persons in particular 
disciplines such as genealogists, demographers, art historians, and educators may 
best utilize the material objects of the past. 

A regular feature of the ACS conference has been the presentation of new 
and relevant information in all areas of gravestone study. This year, Pamela Burgess, 
wife of the late Frederick Burgess, author of the definitive work on English grave- 
stones, will speak of "English Churchyard Memorials." Also, Betty Willsher, author 
of Stones: 18th Century Scottish Gravestones, will present an illustrated lecture on 
"Scottish Stones." Michael Cornish will offer new information in his talk, "Joseph 
Barber and Ebenezer Winslow : Newly Discovered Carvers." Charles Mohr will give 
a talk entitled, "An Audubon-inspired Study of Craveyards." Francis Duval and 
Ivan Rigby will show slides of twentieth century Swiss stones. 

Other regular conference events are again scheduled — the evening slide 
presentations in which members show slides from their collections, mini talks about 
research In progress, and the presentation of The Harriette Merrlfield Forbes Award 
for outstanding contribution to the field of gravestone studies. The exhibit space 
at Bradford College is superior to that of our previous sites. Mary Ann Mrozlnskl, 
ACS Vice-president for Education, who is directing the exhibits, reports that the 
displays will be outstanding. The ACS sales table will again offer a complete selec- 
tion of literature on gravestone study. 

Finally, there will be opportunities to explore the area. For early arrivals, 
there will be a Friday, 10 am to 4 pm bus trip/box lunch to significant seventeenth 
century burying grounds in the Merrimack Valley area: Ipswich, Rowley, and Newbury. 
Friday afternoon a local bus will circulate to and from the Haverhill graveyards. 
There are also tentative plans for a Friday afternoon boat trip up the Merrimack 
River. 

The first formal session will begin at 8:15, Friday evening, June 20. We 
look forward to seeing you there. 




CONFERENCE PRE-REGISTRATION FORM 



To pre-register for the conference, reserve room and meals, and renew your AGS 
membership, return this form with your check made out to Association for Grave- 
stone Studies to 

Rev. Ralph Tucker, Conference Chair 

928 Main Street 

West Newbury, MA 01985 

Registration for the THREE DAY AGS CONFERENCE, Bradford 

College, Haverhill, Ma. (Registration at the conference will be $20) $15 

1980-81 AGS membership (required for attending conference sessions) $10 

NOTE: Accompanying family members who will not be attending 
conference sessions are not required to pay registration fee or 
to join the Association. 

Conference housing and meals 

FULL CONFERENCE: 3 days, 2 nights, 6 meals 

Single occupancy - $60 $ 

Double occupancy - $50 per person $ 

Triple occupancy - $40 per person $ 

[ ] I plan to share a room with 



[ ] Please arrange a roommate for me. 

PARTIAL CONFERENCE: one night lodging, 3 meals 
Single - $35 $_ 

Double - $30 per person $_ 

Triple - $25 per person $_ 

[ ] Friday 

[ ] Saturday 

I will not be staying at the College but would like meals 
as specified below. 

[ ] Friday dinner - $8 per person $_ 



[ ] Saturday lunch & dinner - $12 per person $_ 

[ ] Sunday lunch - $5 per person $^ 



[ ] I would like to participate in the Friday afternoon trip to Haverhill graveyards. 

[ ] I would like to take the Friday afternoon Merrimack River Boat Trip. 

[ ] I would like to take the Friday 10 AM - 4 PM bus trip with box lunch to important 
area graveyards in Rowley, Ipswich, and Newbury. 

^ I 

OJ TO W >. ^ 

%-^lH NAME 

ct^^^^ ADDRESS 

^ ll I '^ - INSTITUTION (if any) 

— O 0) "U 3 O 

— -^ u ^ cr-Q Comments? Suggestions? Papers, slides, exhibits 

rn <u E 2! .;i! to contribute? 

h- E S >■ ^ .E 



OTHER ASSOCIATION NEWS 

FUNDING NEEDED. Gaynell Levine, Vice-president/Grants, is looking for financial 
backing for AGS publications. In addition to the NEWSLETTER , AGS is publishing 
MARKERS , a handsome illustrated journal which will present the year's best writing 
on gravestone studies. The American Cemetery Association is among the organiza- 
tions Levine hopes will help support these publications. She would welcome funding 
suggestions from readers. If we depend entirely on sales to finance our publications, 
the purchase prices will be too high to reach the wide audience we want to reach. 
Send ideas to Mrs. Gaynell Levine, RR 2, Box 205, Wading River, NY, 11792, or to 
AGS Publications, c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA 01609. 

ACS ARCHIVES. The development of the best procedures for collecting, storing, 
and retrieving our archival materials is proving to be a complicated and time-con- 
suming operation. Readers with experience and interest in this area are urged to 
volunteer their expertise. Also, inexperienced, Boston-based readers willing to 
give time to cataloging are also needed. Write or telephone Dr. Joanne Baker, AGS 
President, 51 South Street, Concord, NH 03301, (603) 271-3747. Meanwhile, the 
Association gratefully acknowledges receipt of contributions of important materials. 
We trust that many more of you have materials you are willing to contribute to the 
Association archives. Please know that AGS needs and will be asking for your 
contributions as soon as we have our storage and retrieval systems ready to go. 

EXHIBITION SPACE . A popular feature of AGS conferences is the exhibition area. 
Members' exhibits of their work are an integral part of the conference, and the work 
of amateurs and professionals is equally interesting and welcome. Items may be la- 
beled "for sale." To reserve space, drop a note or card to Mary Ann Mrozinski, 47 
Hammond Road, Glen Cove, NY 11542, telling her what you will show and what kind 
of space you need. The Bradford College exhibit area is exceptionally good, so 
that conferees who show up with exhibit items without having reserved space will 
be able to show. But dropping Ms. Mrozinski a line will help her organize the over- 
all presentation. 

MARKERS , The Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studie s. The first issue 
is scheduled to be ready for the ACS conference in June. It is full of interesting 
and informative articles and illustrations that you will want for your library. This 
first issue is being printed in a limited edition of only 500. In order for us to get 
the books from the printer and binder and into your hands, we need to raise some 
prepublication funds. A prepublication investment from you will help AGS initiate 
this new publishing venture and at the same time be a savings to you. Save $U (may- 
be more; the final price is not settled) by ordering now at the prepublication price 
of $8. This issue of MARKERS is something you will not want to miss. Make checks 
payable to AGS Publications, c/o Worcester Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA 01609. 



AGS SALES . (Postage is included in prices.) 

Notecards . Photos of gravestone carvings by Dan Farber. The photo on page 5 is 
a life-size example. Order from AGS Publications, c/o American Antiquarian Society, 
Worcester, MA 01609. Packet of 24 cards and envelopes, each card of a different 
stone, $5.50. Packet of 8 cards and envelopes, all Rhode Island stones, $2.50. 

Bumper Stickers reading, "I BRAKE FOR OLD GRAVEYARDS/ Member Ass'n Grave- 
stone Studies." $1.30. Order from Sally Thomas, 82 Hilltop PI. New London, NH 03257 

Information Sheets . "Photographing Gravestones," "Gravestone Symbolism," and 
"Gravestone Rubbing for Beginners." 25C each. Order from Ruth Cowell, 2t Bogert 
PI., Westwood, NJ 07675. 

Illustrated Broadside with poem, signed by English poet Martin Booth. Limited one- 
time edition, size 9" x 12", suitable for framing. $16.50. Order from Joanne Baker, 
51 South Street, Concord, NH 03301. 

NEWSLETTER Back Issues . We have exhausted our supply of back issues except for 
the last issue. Winter '79/80 vol. 4, no. 1. This is available for $1.00 from Ruth 
Cowell, 21 Bogert Place, Westwood, NJ 07675. 



EXHIBITIONS 




Detail of the David Melvill gravestone, 1793 
Newport, Rhode Island 



The Rhode Island Historical Society opened its show entitled "'Sacred 
to the Memory' , Early Rhode Island Gravestones" on Sunday, March 2, 1980, at the 
Aldrich House, 110 Benevolent Street, Providence. According to Ann LeVeque, Rob 
Emien, and Candace Heald, who organized the show, attendance has been excellent 
and enthusiastic. The exhibit features 30 photographs of early Rhode Island grave- 
stones by Dan Farber, with several actual stones from the Society's collection as il- 
lustration. Vincent Luti and Brown University provided consulting and research as- 
sistance in the preparation of the excellent notes which accompanied the exhibits. 

Two featured performances were presented in conjunction with the open- 
ing. A demonstration by Robert Lamb, graduate of Rhode Island School of Design 
and former employee of the John Stevens Shop in Newport, provided first hand ex- 
posure to the art of carving letters in stone. The award winning film, "Final Marks: 
The Art of the Carved Letter," was shown twice, each time to capacity attendance. 
Also on exhibit are photographs and other documents from the archives of the Smith 
Granite Company of Westerly, Massachusetts, which operated from 1846-1954. 

This exhibit continues into October. The hours are: Tuesday through 
Saturday, 11am-4pm; Sunday, 1-4pm. Admission is free. 

Peabody Museum of Salem . Last summer, inmates at the Salem House of 
Correction made a series of gravestone rubbings in three of Salem's historic ceme- 
teries. Its purpose was to give inmates a means for creative seif-expression while 
providing the community with a valuable record of Salem history, framed in the folk 
art of gravestone imagery. Ordinarily rubbing is not permitted in the city's ceme- 
teries, but in this case special permission was granted. The rubbings are now on 
exhibition in the Garden Gallery of the Peabody Museum. Seventeenth, eighteenth, 
and nineteenth century gravestone styles are represented in the fifteen exhibited rub- 
bings, which were selected for their beauty as folk art, for the symbolic significance 
of their motifs, and their importance as memorials to some of Salem's most prominent 
families. The exhibition will continue through mid-May. Museum hours: Monday 
through Saturday, 10am-5pm; Sundays and Holidays, 1-5pm. Admission: $1.50 for 
adults; 75C for children, for students with I.D., and for senior citizens. 

A Grave Business . This exhibition, sponsored by Art Resources of 
Connecticut, is a survey in wax crayon rubbings on rice paper of the art of Connec- 
ticut gravestone carving from the late seventeenth to the early nineteenth century. 
In the show are 125 rubbings by Anne C. Williams and Susan H. Kelly. An illustra- 
tive catalog is available. Rental dates available through Art Resources, 85 Willow 
Street, New Haven CT 06511. 



Three Centuries of Connecticut Folk Art is a smasliing show which ex- 
amines the folk art of Connecticut from earliest times to the present — a history lesson, 
a civics lesson, and a social lesson, all exuberantly illustrated by 300 objects, includ- 
ing gravestone rubbings by Anne C. Williams and Susan H. Kelly. A comprehensive 
catalog accompanies the show. This show is completely booked. It showed at the 
Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, September 20 to November 18; at the Museum of Art, 
Science and Industry, Bridgeport, November 29 to January 13; and at the Lyman 
Allyn Museum, New London, February 3 to March 15. Ahead are showings at the New 
Haven Colony Historical Society's Creative Arts Workshop, New Haven, March 30 to 
May 11; and the Litchfield Historical Society, Oliver Wolcott Library, Litchfield, June 4 
to July 12. 

" Historic Westwood ," an exhibit of early Americana from the collection of 
the Historical Society of Westwood, Massachusetts, opened January 8 in Westwood at the 
William Underwood Gallery, According to a news item from Westwood's Daily Transcript , 
"visitors to the exhibit saw some of Westwood's past through the camera lens of Daniel 
Farber of Worcester. Farber is a businessman who pursues photography as a serious 
avocation. More than 23,000 of Farber's photographs are in the collections of 115 mu- 
seums, including the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, the Metropolitan Museum in New 
York, the Museum of Modern Art, and the Library of Congress. Farber and his wife, 
Jessie, came to Westwood about 20 months ago and photographed some of the gravestones 
in Westwood's cemetery. They donated these photographs to the Historical Society, and 
they are part of the Underwood exhibit. The Farbers work as a team, producing photo- 
graphs on eight by ten negatives. By using a full length mirror, they manipulate natu- 
ral light to bring out the most expressive textural qualities of the stones." 

FILM 

" Departed This Life " is a fifteen minute documentary film about New 
Jersey gravestones, combining history, the humanities, and the arts of New Jersey. 
It was produced in October, 1977, for New Jersey public TV by Louis Presti and Al 
Kochka. Mr. Kochka is executive Director of the New Jersey State Council on the Arts, 
27 West State Street, Trenton NJ 08625. 

SLIDES 

Rehoboth illustrated lecture . "Gravestones Vividly Chronicle New England 
History" is the heading for a story by Carolyn Otterson, correspondent for the Provi- 
dence Journal about ''an elegantly illustrated slide show and lecture on the art of an- 
cient New England gravestones presented by Mr, and Mrs. Daniel Farber at this month's 
meeting of the Rehoboth Antiquarian Society .. .The speakers made a plea for towns, es- 
pecially towns like Rehoboth which are rich in history, to take active steps to preserve 
their old cemeteries from the ravages of neglect, weather and vandalism." 

Dan and Jessie Farber have presented their illustrated lecture to a number 
of organizations this winter, contributing their lecture fees to AGS. 

AGS Slide Show . Mary Anne Mrozinski is disappointed by the response 
she has had to her request for slides (Winter 1979/80 NEWSLETTER) . She needs a 
large selection for the AGS slide program she is developing for distribution to schools, 
clubs and community groups. We know you have the slides she needs, and we think 
you are willing to contribute to this good cause. It is asking a lot of you — to select 
the slides, get copies made (and paid for!) and into the mail to her — so she is alter- 
ing her request. Please select from your collections your most interesting and beauti- 
ful slides. Have them copied and bring them with you to the conference in Haverhill, 
where Ms. Mrozinski will reimburse you for the cost of having them reproduced. She 
needs slides illustrating many areas of gravestone study. We hope you will help AGS 
develop this project. Address Mary Anne Mrozinski, 47 Hammond Road, Glen Cove NY. 






The NEWSLETTER thanks Peter Benes for permission to use 
drawings from Masks of Orthodoxy of carvings in the Haverhill area. 



Boston by Foot . Laurel Cabel is working on a three session slide pre- 
sentation and walking tour of Boston, area burying grounds in connection with Jubilee 
350, Boston's birthday celebration. Mrs. Gabel is a docent for Boston by Foot, a non- 
profit educational organization founded in 1976 to promote public awareness of Boston's 
architectural and cultural heritage. Boston by Foot docents, all graduates of an in- 
tensive training program, offer regularly scheduled walking tours of the "Heart of the 
Hub" and "Beacon Hill," as well as a participatory children's tour, called Boston by 
Little Feet. The Boston by Foot course on area graveyards (to be called Boston by Six 
Feet) will feature a slide lecture followed by walking tours of King's Chapel, Granary 
and Central Burying Grounds and the Mt. Auburn Cemetery. The class will be held 
on October 18th and 25th and November 1st from 2:00 to 3:30 pm. Tuition is $15 for 
members of Boston by Foot and $20 for non-members. Enrollment is limited. 

Mrs. Gabel is eager to hear from members willing to contribute copies of 
slides for the initial lecture. She hopes to use 80 slides in a presentation that details 
the progression from the Puritan's earliest wooden graveboards through the ornate 
memorials of the Victorian garden cemetery. Examples of the best work of the Boston 
area carvers, unique motifs, or stones that make some statement of the social, political, 
or religious attitudes of the time would be especially welcome. If you have slides she 
may copy, write Laurel Gabel, 323 Linden Street, Wellesley MA 02181. 617-237-3828. 



NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE ITEMS 

" Acid from the Skies ." This article in the Environment Section of Time 
Magazine , March 17, 1980, tells of "a newly recognized and increasingly harmful kind 
of pollution, invisible and insidious: acid rain, a corrosive precipitation that actually 
consists of weak solutions of sulfuric and nitric acids... Acid precipitation is apparent- 
ly caused largely by sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-burning power plants, smelters 
and factories. . .The acids fall to earth in the form of rain or snow that can damage any- 
thing from monuments to living organisms. .. It can also corrode stone statues. .. Para- 
doxically, one tactic in the fight against air pollution has contributed to the increase 
in acid rain. To keep the air clean in the immediate neighborhoods of factories, indus- 
try has been building ever taller smokestacks. These belch gases that are out of sight— 
and out of mind — for local communities, but not for those downwind. The farther the 
gases go, the more time they have to combine with moisture and form acids. The Clean 
Air Act of 1970 gives states a liberal hand in controlling their own emissions to meet 
federal air quality standards. But it does not assign any responsibility for blights one 
state may inflict on another. The result has been a see-no-evil attitude that may well 
require more federal intervention. . .and the problem is likely to worsen as the country 
turns increasingly to its vaunted ace in the energy hole, coal." 

The oldest rubbings . An old (1978) news item has come to our attention. 
It is from the Arts Section of The Trib , New York, and features Cecily Barth Firestein, 
and her collection of rubbings of New York City tombstones. Mrs. Firestein, accord- 
ing to the article, traced the historical background of the graphic art of stone rubbing. 
The oldest rubbings, she found, date back to 300 BC in China, where ancient journal- 
ists carved the news in stones, which were rubbed by travelers who in turn posted 
the rubbings. The rubbing bug, says Mrs. Firestein, made its way to America via 
England, where rubbing the Medieval monumental brasses is a national pastime. 

For a 1970 exhibition of her rubbings at the Museum of the City of New 
York, she wanted to include all ingredients that made up the New York melting pot, and 
to accomplish this she set about finding a Chinese tombstone. "I asked my Chinese 
doorman and he didn't know. I called the Chinese Benevolent Association, and they 
couldn't understand what I wanted. Finally, the director of Evergreen Cemetery in 
Queens took me to a corner of the cemetery, and there were Chinese stones." Among 
other ethnic stones rubbed for this exhibit are some seventh century Dutch stones, em- 
bossed with cherubs and rosettes, which mark the passing of New York's earliest 
settlers. 

An Associated Press release, dateline Providence, features Edwin 
Connelly, Cemeteries Director for the State of Rhode Island. In the article Connelly 
says there is a growing need to protect burial grounds from vandalism, natural ero- 
sion and from being uprooted by companies wanting to put the land to commercial use. 
"It is time," he says, "for New Englanders to fight for the right of still another neg- 
lected group: the dead." Connelly is "pushing for a Bill of Rights for the Deceased,' 
but politicians tell him there are no votes in cemeteries. "Laws to protect the dead 
are especially needed in New England," he says, "because there are so many small 
family graveyards." He says he has been contacted by about a dozen states for ad- 
vice for protecting cemeteries. (Ed Connelly was one of the group which met in Dublin, 
New Hampshire, in 1977 to organize AGS.) His address: 67 Coggeshall Ave., New- 
port, Rl 02840. 



REGIONAL NEWS. VIEWS 

FROM CALIFORNIA 

After ten years on the West Coast, Ann and Dickran Tashjian, authors 
of Memorials for Children of Change , will return for a short stay in New England. 
Mr. Tashjian has been awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship, and the family will live in 
New Haven, Connecticut, from July, 1980, to January or February, 1981, before 
going on to Paris. Although the Tashjians arrive East too late to attend the AGS 
conference in Haverhill, Massachusetts, Ann does expect to get into the Connecti- 
cut graveyards this summer. Many ACS members will remember her demonstration 
at the 1979 conference of the sensitive rubbing technique she used to take the 
beautiful rubbings which illustrate Memorials. The Tashjians are now busy "trying 
to find housing in New Haven." 

FROM ENGLAND 

Ben J. Lloyd of Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire, England, is a practicing 
stonemason who has erected edifices in city squares all over Britain. He contributes 
the following information about the early British stonemason: "A mason first served 
an apprenticeship and then went as a journeyman on different sites until he made 
enough money and fell in love. He then either became a monumental mason in a small 
town or became the maintenance mason on an estate where, during inclement weather, 
he made gravestones. Vi/hen a wealthy landowner's son had some improper love affair 
or otherwise became an embarrassment to the family, it was customary to make him 
emigrate, and with him he would take some of the younger estate hands. Thus have 
the sons of many English masons come to America. Generally speaking, the young 
mason was a copier of his father's designs and also of designs that had been destroy- 
ed during the Reformation." Lloyd adds, "However, I see very few well known English 
mason's names in your lists of carvers, except EMMS, Harry Emms was a journeyman 
who started a fine carving business in Exeter around 1850 and exported all over the 
world." (Editor's note: In Gravestones of Early New England , Forbes lists three 
Boston carvers named Emmes — Henry, d. 1716, Joshua. 1718-1792, and Nathaniel, 
1690-1750.) 

MORE FROM ENGLAND 

Ruth Cowell, ACS Corresponding Secretary, forwarded to the NEWSLETTER 
a letter from Colin R. Chapman, General Secretary of Britain's Federation of Family 
History Societies. Mr. Chapman writes, "We are the main organization in the British 
Isles concerned with monumental inscriptions and the memorials on which they appear. 
With our membership are the major family history societies interested in British ances- 
try, both in this country and overseas, and such bodies as the Ancient Monuments 
Society, Local Population Studies groups, and others are also Member Societies of the 
Federation. In August, Mr. Chapman will speak in Salt Lake City. He asks for infor- 
mation about AGS "in order to establish some links between the two organizations in- 
terested, I believe, in a common cause." Persons requesting information from the 
Federation, he adds, should enclose a self-addressed envelope and two international 
Postal Reply coupons. Address Federation of Family History Societies, The Drovers, 
Cambridge, Gloucester GL2 7AN, England. 

FROM DELAWARE 

According to The Winterthur Newslette r, the Friends of Winterthur have 
voted financial support for staff research trips to Germany to prepare for a 1982 ex- 
hibition and catalog of Pennsylvania German arts being developed in cooperation with 
the Pennsylvania Museum of Art. We wonder if the organizers of this exhibition and 
catalog will overlook a particularly interesting Pennsylvania German folk art form: 
gravestone carvings. These carvings are probably the only examples of early Penn- 
sylvania German folk art which are all in their original locations and dated. 

Another item from Winterthur: One of three recipients of fellowships 
from the National Endowment for the Humanities doing research at the V\/interthur 
Museum and Library is Neil R. Grobman. Mr. Grobman is a folklorist and Assistant 
Professor of English at the University of Kentucky. His research is in ethnic and 
religious folk art and he is looking at religious art and its alteration by the ethnicity 
of community or region of the country. We hope he is studying the gravestones of 
communities and ethnic groups he is investigating. In any case, his research when 
complete should be of interest to students of gravestones. 

FROM MASSACHUSETTS 

Anita Woodward reports that over 4000 tombstone inscriptions from 
Provincetown burying grounds have been recorded, indexed, and mapped and that 
this information will be published in book form by Heritage Books, Inc., of Bowie, 
Maryland. The introduction to the book. Cemetery Inscriptions. Provincetown, 
Massachusetts , begins, "Nowhere is one struck more tangibly by a sense of one's 



FROM NEW YORK 

Mitchell R. Alegre reports that Family Heritage, a history and genealogy 
magazine issued out of New York City, is beginning its third year of publication. He 
suggests that AGS members may find the June, 1978, issue of particular interest for 
the article by Karen Stinehelfer entitled, "Finding Your Ancestors in the Cemetery." 
For more information, write Family Heritage, P.O. Box 1809, New York NY 10001. 

MORE FROM NEW YORK 

David Watters, who reviewed Souls in Stone for this issue of the NEWS- 
LETTER, reports that Bart C. Ferrell, a student at the University of New Hampshire, 
has completed a survey of the Point of Graves cemetery, Portsmouth's oldest burying 
ground. Ferrell studied 105 stones, with death dates ranging from 1682 to 1802. A 
copy of his survey can be consulted at the University of New Hampshire Library or 
at the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities. 

Watters plans to study gravestone iconography in England this summer 
and has a request concerning these plans. See page 12. 

FROM OHIO 

We have been sent an illustrated article from the Cincinnati Enquirer 
about Adele Blanton, who is recording information on tombstones in Montgomery. The 
shapes of the old stones shown in the newspaper photograph are interesting. We in- 
vite readers to write to us about the markers in that area. Mrs. Blanton's address: 
10495 Deerfield Road, Montgomery 45242. 

FROM OKLAHOMA 

Catherine H. Yates writes about Oklahoma stones: "Although the markers 
here are much later in time than those in New England, there are several interesting 
aspects of markers in this state. . .Problems dealing with ethnic group acculturation 
are especially applicable to this area because there are communities still in existence 
that began as settlements of separate cultural groups. There are all-black communities 
begun by freed slaves (both those who emigrated from the east and those who had 
been held by Indian farmers in Indian Territory), there are settlements of most of the 
Indian tribes found originally in the southeast and midwest; and there are Europeans, 
particularly German, Czech, and Italian. There are also Mennonite settlements in the 
western part of the state and isolated Mexican-American influences, although not as 
wide-spread as in Texas. Missionaries from almost every Christian group were active 
among the Indians from the early nineteenth century. Although most of the markers 
show this Christian influence, many retain aspects of the original burial practices of 
the group that erected them. For example, the southeastern groups who had origi- 
nally interred the deceased with gravegoods continued to do so. However, instead of 
placing dishes with food, drink, etc., along with weapons, tools, or items of adorn- 
ment inside the grave, they began to put these articles on top of the ground over the 
deceased and then, to prevent theft, built a house over the mound and offerings. 
This practice is still carried on today. Now, however, the houses are often made 
with stone tablets with a headstone on the top and at one end. The markers here are 
generally of marble, sandstone, or granite, with a surprising number of zinc memori- 
als... Our markers are similar to the ones in Texas, Arkansas, parts of Kansas, Mis- 
souri, Nevada and New Mexico. The Southern Plains seem to share a lot of tradition, 
both prehistorically and historically...! have a number of slides and black and white 
photographs as well as field notes from Texas and Oklahoma that I would like to put 
in the archives. . .After living here for a year, I am finally finding people with some 
interest in gravestones. I have recorded a number of cemeteries in Oklahoma that 
did not appear on U.S.G.S. maps... These have all been assigned site numbers and 
included in the site files in the office of the State Archeologist. . .Going back to fully 
document the located cemeteries is difficult because settlements are spread out. Lo- 
cal participation would be ideal for collecting this sort of data, and I am trying to 
get some sort of organized program going here. I would be interested in corre- 
sponding with anyone who has tried to set up such a program as there is a chance 
that the Oklahoma Historical Society might back the program." Ms. Yates adds that 
she was pleased to attend the symposium on gravestones at the Society for Historical 
Archaeology in Alburuerque. (See page 10.) Ms. Yates' address: 303 Mercedes, 
Norman, OK 73069. 

FROM TEXAS 

Beverly A. Kremenak is a graduate student and teaching assistant in 
College of Geosciences at Texas A&M University. She became interested in grave- 
stones four years ago while studying art history and iconography as an undergraduate. 
Her interests in iconography expanded to keeping records of the maintenance, or- 
ganization and landscaping of the cemeteries she visits (mostly in East and Central 
Texas, but also in Oklahoma, Arkansas, Iowa, Ohio, and Virginia), which in turn de- 
veloped into a thesis topic. (See page 11.) Although her interest is focused on the 
community relationships associated with cemetery associations, she is interested in a 
variety of gravestone studies and is eager to find others with this interest in her area. 
To write, address Geography Dept., Texas A&M University, College Station 77843. 



own mortality than when standing alone in a quiet cemetery," and concludes, "As 
individuals we have ties of blood and /or affinity with these past generations of 
Provincetown. When they were laid to rest in these cemeteries, it was certainly 
with a hope of lasting remembrance, a hope that today seems to be threatened by 
the passage of time. By preserving these cemetery inscriptions we are trying to 
extend that remembrance into the future." For more information about this pub- 
lication, write Lurana H. Cook, author and one of the four recorders: P.O. Box 54, 
Cooper Road, Truro MA 02666. 

FROM MICHIGAN 

We have a paper by Sandra A. Poneleit which will interest a special 
segment of our membership. Ms. Ponteleit is a consultant for Interpretive Associ- 
ates, a company which "Assists Partes, Zoos, Aquariums, Museums, Industry, His- 
torical Societies and Interpretive Centers." She is also a graduate student and a 
Teaching Assistant in the Department of Park and Recreational Resources at Michi- 
gan State University. The title of her excellent paper is, "The Recreational and 
Interpretive Potential of Urban Cemeteries." She can be reached at Box 95, East 
Lansing Ml 48823. 

FROM NEW MEXICO 

Anne Giesecke and Gaynell Levine organized and chaired Session 2 of 
the program for the Society for Historical Archaeology, which convened January 9-11 
in Alburquerque, New Mexico. "Gravestones: Material Culture Data Base," examined 
one item of material culture — early gravestones — as they are analyzed from various 
perspectives to elicit cultural information. The abstract of the session states that 
"multidisciplinary use of this unique source of cultural information suggests that the 
photographic recording of this invaluable body of information before it disappears 
should be a national priority, and that a system suitable for recording wide national 
variation and retrieving a breadth of information is essential." Papers were read by: 

Thomas J. Hannon, Slippery Rock State College: "The Cemetery as a Data Base in an 
Assimilation Study." While preparing a doctoral dissertation entitled, "The Process 
of Ethnic Assimilation in Selected Rural Christian Congregations, 1800-1976: A Western 
Pennsylvania Case Study," Hannon found the cemetery an invaluable alternate data 
base in the absence of published material. 

Anne Yentsch, Brown University: "Gravestones Revisited." This paper, written with 
James Deetz, University of California at Berkley, uses information from buryinggrounds 
to analyze the varying English cultural identities of early settlers of Massachusetts, 
Maine, and Rhode Island. It assesses evidence that regional variation in gravestones 
was linked to regionally based English subcultures. 

Anne G. Giesecke, University of New Hampshire: "Settlement Pattern: The First Meet- 
ing House, Cemetery, School and Pound." Giesecke analyzes the spatial relationships 
between a cemetery and other town structures to study the population structure of the 
period. 

Gaynell S. Levine, State University of New York, Stonybrook: "Gravestones: Material 
Culture Data Base." Levine introduces a system for analyzing and recording grave- 
stone data from photographs of the stones. The system assures a uniform categoriza- 
tion format suitable for analyzine any gravestone of any period. 

James Tibenski, University of lllinios: "The Evolution of Motifs on Colonial Gravestones 
in Central Western Connecticut-" A report on the computer analysis of data from 10,493 
stones in 139 cemeteries in 5 Connecticut counties. Style-motif, epitaph, preface, stone 
material, cause of death, sex, kinship, titles and exit statement are compared in var- 
ious ways. 




The Alice Hart stone^ 1682, Ipswiah, Massachusetts, 

from a rubbing by Ann Tashjian, page 296, Memorials for Children of Change. 

Used with permission- of Mrs. Tashjian. 




TWO NOTICES: 

Regional associations . Readers are asked to report to their Regional 
Representatives the names and addresses of associations they may know to be concerned 
with gravestone repair, restoration, preservation, study, and cemetery care — on the 
community, state, or national level. ACS wants to coordinate its efforts with those of 
other interested organizations. 

Laws concerning gravestones . Is there a member who would like to take 
on the job of compiling the existing laws concerning gravestones? ACS recognizes the 
need for this research. The NEWSLETTER will help find regional volunteers to look up 
the laws on the books in their states. Readers interested in this important project, 
please write ACS Publications, c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA 01609. 

RECIONAL REPRESENTATIVES 

CANADA Deborah Trask 1747 Summer St., Halifax NS B 3H 346 

MAINE Ruth Cray 70 N . 4th St. , Old Town, 04468 

MASSACHUSETTS Anita Woodward Box 51, Thompson Rd., Princeton, 01541 

NEW HAMPSHIRE Mary Emhardt Star Route, Barrington, 03825 
NEW JERSEY Robert Van Benthuysen 147 Wall St., W. Long Branch, 67764 

NEW YORK Mitchell Alegre 138 W. Buffalo St. , Warsaw, 14569 

Jane Northshield 226 Mt. Airy Rd., Croton-on-Hudson, 10520 

OKLAHOMA Catherine Yates 303 Mercedes, Norman, 73069 

PENNSYLVANIA Thomas J. Hannon Slippery Rock College, Slippery Rock, 16057 

RHODE ISLAND Joseph J. larocci Box 2127, Brown Univ., Providence, 02912 

TEXAS Beverly A. Kremenak Ceography Dept., Texas ASM, College Station, 

WISCONSIN Juliane A. Maynard 617 demons Ave. , Madison, 53704 77843 ^ 

Regional Representatives function as clearing houses for bringing news and views of 
their areas ' problems and successes to the attention of the membership. Representa- 
tives may spearhead projects in their areas and promote membership in AGS and other 
cemetery associations. Members willing to serve unrepresented areas are encouraged 
to volunteer by writing Dr. Joanne Baker^ President, 51 South Street, Concord, NH 
OSSOl, or c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA 01609. The views of Re- 
gional Representatives are needed at the Executive Board Meeting to be held during 
the AGS conference in Haverhill, Massachusetts , June 20-22, 1980. Try to be there. 



WORKS IN PROGRESS / AUTHORS^ REQUESTS 

Beverly A. Kremenak is studying cemetery associations in the south 
and southwest as a thesis topic. These associations, organized in many rural com- 
munities, function to finance the care of their cemeteries, and, Ms. Kremenak reports, 
they also serve a social function by drawing people together for homecomings, even 
years after they have moved away from the area. Her address: Dept. Ceography, 
Texas A&M University, College Station TX 77843. 

For the past several years Sherry Stancliff has been studying the carv- 
ings on Connecticut gravestones, especially those carved by members of the Stancliff 
family. She has information about the Stancliff family carvers to share and at the same 
time welcoms information from members. Write Mrs. Robert C. Stancliff, 7415 Fourwinds 
Drive, Cincinnati OH 45242. 

Cina Santucci is collecting plans of Victorian tombstones (does she mean 
graveyards?) for her thesis topic at Columbia University. Her advisor is Norman 
Weiss. (Weiss was a featured speaker on stone conservation at the 1978 ACS confer- 
ence, and he will speak also at the 1980 conference in June.) Ms. Santucci's address: 
500 Riverside Drive, #511, New York NY 10027. 

Brad Dunbar, on the staff of the American Antiquarian Society in Wor- 
cester, Massachusetts, is indexing the Society's collection of 3000 photographs of early 
gravestones. Dunbar is identifying each stone in the collection by date, location, car- 
ver, and subject matter. When the index is complete, researchers will be able to re- 
trieve and compare photographs of stones from these four catagories. 



Vincent Luti has documented over 650 stones in the course of his study 
of the family of John and James New of Wrentham, Massachusetts. He would welcome 
information about this family of carvers. Address Box 412, Westport MA 02790. 

The February 28 Providence Journal published a lengthy article about 
Mr. Luti and his work on early Rhode Island cutters, from which the following ex- 
cerpts are taken: "Luti speaks passionately about these stones and the men who 
carved them back in the late 1600's and early 1700's. He says it is a period of un- 
usually rich artistry, but one that has been neglected by experts in the fairly spe- 
cialized field of gravestone study... In the past year or so, though, Luti has spent 
more hours than he cares to count, poring through records at City Hall, trying to 
piece together the puzzle of who carved the earliest stones... To date he has un- 
covered a half-dozen important carvers — one a creator of carvings with crazy-eyed 
figures and ornate columns. . .Luti said he finally unmasked the identity of this mys- 
terious carver after stumbling upon the will of a German immigrant, John Anthony 
Angel. The document specified that Angel's stonecutting tools were to be given to 
his brother-in-law Seth Luther, and with a bit of cross-checking, Luther did indeed 
turn out to be the eccentric stonecutter." 

Luti's findings on Seth Luther will be published in an article in the 
Spring issue of Rhode Island History , available from the Rhode Island Historical So- 
ciety, 110 Benevolent Street, Provicence 02906. Anthony Angel is another stone- 
cutter recently authenticated by Luti. We have asked him to introduce Angel to 
NEWSLETTER readers in a future installment of "STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS." 

The NEWSLETTER is pleased to pass on to its readers Luti's suggestion 
for researchers working with probate records: Copy and file all records found of 
payments for gravestones , even records which do not give the name of the person 
to whom the payment was made. Just the date of the payment can be a valuable tool. 
For example: A researcher is seeking the name of a carver. He finds a record of 
payment by an estate for a gravestone, but the recipient's name is not mentioned. 
Instead of passing over the record, he copies and keeps it with other similar data. 
He or someone else may subsquently look for and find the stone to which the payment 
refers and on it may be carving of interest to the researcher. Having both the date 
on the stone and the date from the probated record of payment establishes time limits 
for determining when the stone was carved. A stone can not have been carved earlier 
than the date on the stone (though it might well have been carved years later) , and 
it would not have been carved later than the date of payment. Having these two dates 
can help to establish the working period of its carver and be significant in identify- 
ing him or his work. Luti would like to see ACS develop a clearing house for filing 
data of this kind — another project for the AGS Archives Committee. 

Michael Cornish is gathering information about the work of Ebenezer 
Winslow of Uxbridge, For examples of Winslow's work, see plates 133 and 137b in 
Early New England Gravestone Rubbings by Edmund Gillon. Cornish says Winslow's 
work proliferates in Uxbridge, Douglass, Milford, and Mendon and is also found in 
Franklin and South Bellingham, all in Massachusetts. He has located two signed stones: 
an angel design in Douglas and twin setting suns in Mendon. 

Cornish has authenticated another carver--the ingenious and inventive 
"Polly Coombes Cutter." For examples of this carver's work, see plates 3U and U4 and 
179b in Gillon's book, or page 90 in Tashjian's Memorials for Children of Change . The 
"Polly Coombes Cutter" will be the subject of a paper to be delivered by Cornish at 
the conference in Haverhill, Massachusetts, June 20-22. Cornish's address: 62 Calu- 
met Street, Roxbury MA 02120. 

Christopher Clemens and Mark Smith are writing a book for Harlin Quist 
and The Dial Press entitled The Death Catalog: A Guide for the Living , to be published 
later this year. The book will be a miscellany of information about persons and groups 
with special interests relating, however obliquely, to death and dying. Mr. Smith 
asked us for information about AGS "for the benefit of readers who might not be aware 
of the organization and who share an interest in gravestone study I' For more infor- 
mation about The Death Catalog , write Christopher J. Clemens/Mark Smith, P.O.Box 
88, Milton PA 17847. 

David Watters will be in London this summer researching English seven- 
teenth century backgrounds of New England iconography. He wants to hear from 
"anyone who will also be in England this summer, or who can offer leads for investi- 
gation in England of this topic." Address Prof. Watters, English Department, Uni- 
versity of New Hampshire, Durham NH 03824. 

Nancy Bethune has attributed a stone to Samuel Hinsdale. She would 
welcome information about this cutter and his work. Address: 295 North Street, Med- 
field MA 02052. 



13 



STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS 

Third of a Series 

The carvers featured in this segment were chosen 
because they worked in Essex County, Massachusetts, 
where the 1980 ACS Conference will be held, June 20-22. 




LT. JOHN HARTSHORNE (1650 - 1738) 



Ralph Tucker 



Born in Reading, Massachusetts, and an early settler of HaverFiill, 
Massachusetts, John Hartshorne was a weaver, a tailor, and a clerk. He became a 
lieutenant in the militia and was active in the Indian Wars. A step-brother of the 
carver Joseph Lamson, John at about the age of fifty began carving gravestones in 
Haverhill, where he was that town's first carver. His early stones all have elon- 
gated unframed faces in the top of the stone, with solid bars of varied design on 





Elongated unframed Bell-like 
face /solid bars shapes 



Framed face with 
segmented bars 



"Rabbit-ear" 
bars 



THE MERRIMACK RIVER VALLEY 



either side of the face. The side border design is usually a series of crude bell- 
like shapes. About 1708 the faces become more round and are framed, and the bars 
become segmented and more delicate. The side borders also become more varied and 
lighter. Large circled rosettes then enter the top alongside the face and the seg- 
mented bars are pushed to the corners. 

About 1723, Hartshorne went to Connecticut where his work is de- 
void of the rosettes and the face is decorated with either halo-like bars or "rab- 
bit-ear" bars, for the most part. 

His work is interesting in that it does not portray a death-head (skull 
with wings) but is simply a face or "soul-mask" and thus is not a copy of the tradi- 
tional gravestone design of his day. His best work is found in Haverhill and Ipswich, 
Massachusetts, and in Lebanon, Connecticut. 

The probate authentication and further 
details about this carver and his work can 
be found in three articles: 

Slater, James, and Ralph Tucker, "The 
Colonial Gravestone Carvings of John Hart- 
shorne," Puritan Gravestone Art II: The 
Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife 
Annual Proceedings, 1978, Boston Univer- 
sity Press, pp. 65-79. 

Benes, Peter, "Lt. John Hartshorn: Grave- 
stone Maker of Haverhill and Norwich, Es- 
sex Institute Historical Collection, April, 
1973. pp. 152-161. 

Caulfield, Ernest, "Connecticut Gravestones 
XII," The Bulletin of the Connecticut His- 
torical Society, July, 1967. pp. 65-79. 




BOSTONB 



^ 



See Hartshorn and Muliaan carvings in Haverhill, 
the site of the 1980 AGS Conference, June 20-22. 




STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS, continued from preceding page. 



THE MUUCKEN FAMILY: 

Robert, 1665-1741; Robert Jr., 1688 



Ralph Tucker 
1756; John, 1670-1737; Joseph, 1701-1768. 





The Bradford (now Haverhill), Massachusetts family of Robert Mulicken 
learned carving from Lt. John Hartshorne* and filled the Merrimack Valley towns with 
their stones for over fifty years. After the Indian raid in 1708, when Hartshorne's 
wife, son, and three grandsons were killed, Hartshorne removed to Salisbury, and 
while he occasionally made stones for the Haverhill-Bradford area, the Mulicken fam- 
ily became the prominent cutters. Their stones resemble Hartshorne's with a cen- 
tral framed face. They add a connecting band from the top of the face to the border 
of the stone and a variety of tree shapes immediately under the chin. 
They do not use segmented bars as Hartshorne did, but they do use 
rosettes and other emblems in circles on either side of the face. The 
corners of the tympanium usually have some simple decoration. They 
rapidly develop a variety of side borders. While their stones are omni- 
present in the Merrimack valley and are easily recognized, the Mulic- 
kens occasionally produced an atypical stone recognized only by a border design or 
the lettering. Some of the earlier lettering is quite good, but some of the late letter- 
ing is a confused mixture of upper and lower case letters with abominable spelling. 

In the 1740's, a winged variety of face appears in both a round and an 
inverted pear-shaped variety. This is apparently an effort to copy the popular Bos- 
ton style of death- head, but it remains more like the folk style than the sophisticated 
work of the urban carvers. 

Mulicken stones can be found from Concord, New Hampshire, downstream 
to the Atlantic and on the North Shore south to Hamilton, Massachusetts. While pro- 
bate records documenting this family have been found, the research is incomplete, 
and articles about the Mulickens have yet to be written. 

The Rev. Ralph Tucker is Past-president of ACS. He lives in Newburyport, Essex 
County, Massachusetts, where the work of John Hartshorn and the Mulicans abounds. 

"^Editor's note: It -is oorrmon to find move than one spelling of aotonial surnames. 
Hartshorn is spelled both with and without the E, and Mulioan is spelled Mulioken- 
and also Muliakon. 




CENETERY CITATIONS 
for 




EXEMPLARY CARE 

BERCSTRASSE LUTHERAN 
CEMETERY, EPHRATA, PA. 

ROCKINGHAM, VT. 



NEGLECT 

EASTERN CEMETERY, PORTLAND, ME. 

PLAINFIELD, CT. 

BELLINGHAM, MASS. 

SOUTH BELLINGHAM, MASS. 



Readers are invited to recommend cemeteries for citation. Address NEWSLETTER, 
c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA 01609. When making your recommen- 
dation, consider: scattered stone fragments, debris, launmower damage to stones, 
unpruned trees and broken limbs on ground, overgrowth of vines and bushes, stones 
leaning rather than upright, general maintenance of grounds and fences and walls. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

SOULS /A/ STONE: European Graveyard Sculpture 

Photographed by Anne de Brunhoff; Introduction by Thomas B. Hess. 95 pages. 

New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978. Softcover. $7. 

Review by David H. Walters 

Souls in Stone contributes to the rediscovery of Victorian art, which was 
swept out of fashion by Modernism early in this century. In ninety-three exquisite 
photographs, Anne de Brunhoff demonstrates her sympathy not only for the art but 
also for the sentiment of Victorian graveyard sculpture, as the lugubrious tones of 
her photographs recall the physical, if not erotic, image of the dead during the Vic- 
torian era. 

Americans are familiar with the excesses of Victorianism through John 
Morley's Death, Heaven and the Victorians , which catalogs the paraphernalia of death, 
from mourning cards to photographs of dead children, and through Michael Lesy's 
journey into the grotesque, Wisconsin Death Trip. The strength of de Brunhoff's 
book lies in its unprejudiced presentation of the art that appealed to middle class 
Europeans. We see good sculpture and bad, but what impresses is the variety of forms 
present, from the expected angels to eclectic architectural fantasies and to the trou- 
bling realism of family groups sculpted in granite down to the most minute detail of 
lace, corduroy and button. The cover identifies what is both attractive and troubling 
about this art. The angel Gabriel, carved by Guilio Monteverde, attracts the viewer 
with its adolescent fleshiness, evoking an awakening of life and sensuality, only to 
startle us with the stare of the eyes of an old man with heavy, grief-stricken lids. 
And there are photographs of the overtly sensual sculptures of women lying half-naked 
on beds of death, and of the impassioned kissing of a new corpse. 

Another strength of the book is the focus on the middle class, which helps 
American readers place their Victorian sculpture in perspective. While there are great 
American moments such as St. Gaudens' tomb for Marian Hooper, Henry Adams' wife, 
more commonplace art dots the Rural Cemeteries of New England. Thomas B, Hess' 
short introduction is informative, but the book's weakness lies in its lack of documen- 
tation. There is only the briefest listing of location for most of the plates, a regret- 
table omission. Nevertheless, at the price this is a good visual introduction to a gen- 
erally neglect area of study. 

Professor Waiters is on the English faculty. University of New Hampshire , Durham. 

Excerpts from another review of Souls in Stone 

Under the heading, "Sculpture is in Graveyards," Souls in Stone was 
reviewed by Joyce Saenz, staff writer for the New York Tribune, July 23, 1978. 
Saenz writes: "Here is what must certainly qualify as one of the more unusual art 
books you will ever see. Though its subject is graveyard sculpture, it is not a ghoul- 
ish or macabre collection, nor is it even especially solemn. The sculptures are largely 
in the Beaux-Arts monumental style; nearly all were photographed in the churchyards 
of Paris, Milan and Genoa. Some are statements of profound mourning. . .But others 
seem to be memorials to moments, saying: 'This is how we remember him. '...This sort 
of art book is obviously not for everyone. But those who find graveyards peaceful 
rather than terrifying may find Souls in Stone a peculiar celebration : a monument to 
epic funereal splendors from an era gone by." 

"LEAVING NO STONE UNTURNED: Procedures for Cleaning and Restoring a Grave- 
yard," an article published in Pioneer America Society Transactions , 1979. pp. 81-95. 
by Marian Krontz 

MANUAL FOR GRAVEYARD CONSERVATION 

by Gordon Kinsman, Deborah Trask, Harry Nelson, and Leslie Blackburn 

Illustrated with 12 figures and 4 plates. 20 pages. 

Published by the Colchester Historical Museum. 29 Young St., Truro, Nova Scotia. 1979. 

Review of two publications by Lance Mayer 

Both these publications are responses to the growing demand for "how-to" 
information by a public which realizes that old cemeteries have been neglected and 
which wants to do something about it. This is an area in which there is virtually no 
published information, and about which it is difficult to find advice because there are 
too few experts, and often many different opinions. In such a new field there is a 
danger that popular enthusiasm for doing something may race ahead of consciousness 
of proper conservation principles, or may lead to the oversimplification of /-S^^T"^*-, 



complex issues. The issues are so important that 1 hope the authors will forgive me 
for what may seem a very picky review, and trust that the criticisms are meant in 
the best spirit of sharing and discussing ideas. 

Marian Krontz begins her article by properly stressing documentation 
as a first step in a restoration project. However, this is such an important principle 
of modern conservation that "it is worth while and perhaps even necessary" (page 84) 
should be changed to, "it is necessary" to document any work done with written rec- 
ords and photographs. 

On page 86, Ms. Krontz suggests that monument dealers be consulted 
for advice on the cleaning and repair of gravestones. Although monument dealers 
are of course very familiar with the problems of modern types of granite gravestones, 
a museum conservator would probably be more knowledgeable about problems involv- 
ing the deterioration of old gravestones, or could recommend someone with that kind 
of expertise. The problem remains, however, that at this point there is a severe 
shortage of stone experts in America. 

Cement is recommended, on page 86, for the resetting of gravestones. 
This is a drastic step, one which cannot easily be undone if, for instance, further 
conservation treatment were necessary. I have talked with enough conservators and 
other knowledgeable people who have strong reservations about the use of cement 
to believe it should not be recommended. 

Ms. Krontz writes that the advice or assistance of a professional con- 
servator should be sought for "ambitious" projects (page 87). I would go somewhat 
further: Ideally, several conservators should be consulted. There are many shades 
of opinion about stone repair, and in a completely unlicensed profession like conser- 
vation, one finds that some experts are more knowledgeable than others. The conse- 
quences of an improper treatment may not show up for five or ten years, so the in- 
tegrity of the conservator is extremely important. 

Advice on cleaning gravestones (page 87) is a little contradictory. The 
author writes that dirt removal may not be necessary, and she is properly cautious 
in warning against the use of detergents, but she advocates the use of scouring 
cleanser, which may contain detergents and bleaches as well as abrasives which could 
remove a little of the stone's surface along with the grime. Even more serious is the 
recommendation of wire brushes and putty knives for lichen removal (pages 87-88). 
These instruments could easily scratch a smooth slate stone, or detach pieces from a 
sandstone or marble marker. Water and wooden sticks are much safer, if slower, 
materials for removing lichen, if removal is judged to be necessary. Whether lichen 
removal is advisable is a controversial question in itself. 

On pages 91 and 92, Ms. Krontz repeats a common misconception by im- 
plying that rubbings are as good or better than photographs as documents of grave- 
stones. A good photograph is a much more objective and valuable document. More- 
over, it is not mentioned that some stones are so fragile that they should not be 
rubbed. 

The concluding paragraph (page 92) makes the important point that a 
conservation project is not complete until a continuing maintenance program has been 
drawn up. 

The manual published by the Colchester Historical Museum is very clear- 
ly outlined and divided into short chapters. The section on photography (page 2) 
rightly stresses the importance of the negative as a permanent archival record. 

Chapters three through five are very informative in their discussion of 
the construction of various kinds of nineteenth and twentieth century monuments. 
The methods used to attach the components of modern granite markers, with lead 
pads and an unidentified "setting compound," are discussed, as are techniques for . 
safely moving the heavy blocks with pry bars. Curiously, the type of old grave- 
stone with which most of us are familiar, made of a single slab of stone and having 
a "tail" below ground level, is not mentioned. As discussed above, I have reserva- 
tions about the use of cement, which the authors recommend for both resetting 
gravestones (page 12) and encasing badly-broken fragments (page 14). 

Metal straps, which are recommended for repairs (page 13), have a 
number of disadvantages. Drilling into an already damaged stone is always danger- 
ous, the straps are disfiguring, and even galvanized straps and bolts can even- 
tually rust and stain a stone. 

Epoxy repairs (pages 13 and 14) are perhaps more difficult and complex 
than the Colchester manual indicates. A mistake, such as dripping epoxy onto the 
stone surface, is easy to make and often difficult to correct. Choosing a proper 
masking material to protect the face of the gravestone is therefore important, as is 
choosing an appropriate adhesive, for epoxies vary widely in their properties. Re- 



search on epoxy stone adhesives is presently being conducted by several individuals . 
One of them is Norman Weiss, who "will speak at the ACS meeting in June, 1980, about 
his work in this area. 

In the section on cleaning memorials, the authors give conflicting advice. 
On the one hand, wire brushes (page 15) and acids (page 16) are condemned, but em- 
ery paper, which is an abrasive, is recommended. Worst of all is the recommendation 
of sandblasting (page 16). By removing a layer of stone from the surface, sandblast- 
ing will make a gravestone look clean, but at the cost of softening the contours of the 
carving, possibly changing the texture of the surface, and exposing fresh layers of 
stone to the forces of deterioration. The authors warn of possible damage from sand- 
blasting, but these warnings are weak considering the serious danger involved, and 
they assume an unlikely degree of understanding of old gravestones on the part of the 
company contracted to do the work. 

A minor point compared to the previous one is the reference on page 16 to 
diluted ammonia and to household bleach and water as if they were the same thing, 
which they are not. In fact, if ammonia and bleach are mixed, they can produce chlo- 
rine gas, which is poisonous. 

The Colchester manual concludes, as does the Krontz article, by stress- 
ing the importance of following up any conservation project with a maintenance program. 

Both papers are sincere efforts to encourage groups to take an interest 
in the proper care of old cemeteries, a goal which all will agree is an extremely im- 
portant one. My concern is that these publications may leave readers with the impres- 
sion that the solutions to conservation problems are simpler than they actually are. On 
the other hand, the forthcoming ACS handbook. The Care of Old Cemeteries , which I 
authored, may displease readers by reflecting the variety, the complexity, and fre- 
quently the uncertainty of current conservation opinion . It is my hope that it will pro- 
vide a groundwork which will be built upon in the future. In the meantime, most pro- 
fessional conservators would agree that a cautious approach to the treatment of old 
gravestones is in order. In fact, an important alternative which neither of the review- 
ed publications mentions is to bring some of the most important and fragile old grave- 
stones indoors until there is more solid information about their best care. 

Lance Mayer, AGS Vioe-pvesident/Consei'vation, is conservator for the Cincinnati 
Museum of Art. Be and Norman Weiss will demonstrate stone repair at the AGS con- 
ference in Haverhill, Massachusetts, June 20-22. 



HERE LIES AMERICA: A Collection of Notable Craves 
By Nancy Eills and Parker Hayden 
Illustrated with photographs. Paper. 179 pages. 
New York: Hawthorn Books, 1978 

Excerpted from a review by John Maass published by the Pennsylvania Magazine of 
History and Biography, a publication of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 1978. 

There is growing interest in the history of cemeteries; about ten books 
on the subject have appeared in the past decade. The topic can be discussed from 
the viewpoints of ritual, thanatology, sociology, economics, local history, iconography, 
art history, landscape architecture, and perhaps others as well. This aptly titled 
book has no thesis and makes no claims to scholarship. The authors have simply en- 
joyed looking up the burial places of some American notables and folk heroes. They 
point out that "a cult of death exists" and attracts hords of admirers to the tombs of 
celebrities. 

The volume pictures the graves of eighty-two persons. They range in 
date from 1809 to 1974, in location from Maine to California. ,.A few of the tombs are 
in accord with our mental image of the occupant: Thoreau rests beneath a stark stone 
with the single word "Henry"; Luther Burbank is buried under a big tree in his gar- 
den; the gaudy financier and ladies' man Jim Fisk is memorialized by an obelisk and 
four nude statues of voluptuous women. Most monuments could not be predicted: we 
are surprised to find that F. W. Woolworth of the five-and-ten lies within an imposing 
mausoleum in the ancient Egyptian temple style; Samuel Morse, one of the most famous 
Americans of his time, has only a marker with his initials "S.F.B.M," Some burial sites 
are also surprises: Bat Masterson, the western gunfighter, is buried in The Bronx... 
That sophisticated New Yorker, Cole Porter, rests in his birthplace of Peru, Ind... 
Thomas Wolfe, the son of a tombstone carver, could go home again to Ashville, N.C. 

The authors had the notion to show the graves of some noted teams: 
Chang and Eng Bunker, the Siamese Twins, share a headstone in North Carolina; we 
also see the tombs of Wells and Fargo (both in Upstate New York), Currier and Ives, 
the bearded Smith Brothers, and Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner S Beane (Merrill and 
Lynch were two men despite the absence of the comma between their names). 



The breezy mini-biographies facing the pictures are in the featherweight 
class but the handsome photographs display a nice sense of time and place. These il- 
lustrations also demonstrate that the ancient and noble art of designing and carving 
memorials has virtually died out. Most of the newer specimens are of remarkable ba- 
nality and ugliness. This reviewer awards the booby prize to the tomb of Babe Ruth: 
the deceased is portrayed as a small boy who is being patted on the head by Jesus. 

This album barely qualifies as a historical study but it provides some 
more evidence for the endless variety of total unpredictability of Americana. 

LESSONS FROM THE DEAD: The Graveyard as a Classroom for the Study of the Life 

Cycle. 

By Roberta Halporn 

Brooklyn: Highly Specialized Promotions, 1979. 

Review by Anne G. Giesecke 

Death and graveyards are difficult subjects to discuss in twentieth 
century America. We abstract death. The questions of how we are to deal with 
the dying and the dead are important to us and will be important to those who follow 
us and make decisions about us. Lessons From the Dead is an attempt to use the 
art and understanding of the past to help us deal with death in the present. 

The book is divided into three sections. The first deals with what can 
be learned in a cemetery. An introduction reviews past and present attitudes and 
symbolism. The graveyard is then used as a classroom to study demography and 
individuals. Topics include: life expectancy, child mortality and death awareness, 
medical information, family conflicts, death as a leveller, and our roots. The sec- 
ond section describes "How to Rub Gravestones." Some caution in dealing with 
weathered stones is advised, but is not adequately stressed. The third section is 
a discussion guide which develops topics such as: the life cycle, burial and crema- 
tion, history, causes of death, concepts of after-life, epitaphs, and art. Discussion 
questions are presented and written exercises are suggested. The bibliography is 
excellent and is divided by topical subheadings, including: background, historical 
attitudes, funerals, cross cultural customs, cemeteries, gravestones, and others. 

Lessons From the Dead could be used as a text by middle or high 
school students and would be a good guide for elementary school teachers. Educa- 
tors and parents trying to help young people understand life and death will find 
this book a useful tool and reference. 

MORE ABOUT BOOKS 

Cordelia Rose, Exhibitions Coordinator for Art Resources of Connecticut, 
asks us to inform our readers that an exhibition catalog for the Kelly-VVilliams travel- 
ing exhibition of rubbings (see page 5 ) is available. The forty-two page softbound 
publication, illustrated with ten line drawings and twelve handsome rubbings, has an 
interesting and informative text. Its title: A Crave Business. Order from Art Re- 
sources of Connecticut, 85 Willow Street , New Haven, CT 06511. Price: $3.75 plus 
$1.50 postage and handling. 

How to Record Graveyards, written by British archaeologist Jeremy Jones, 
edited by Philip Rahtz, and published by the Council for British Archaeology and 
RESCUE (The Trust for British Archaeology) in 1976, is an important discovery for 
many American students of gravestones. Little known, we think, m this country, the 
publication was brought to our attention by Blanche M.G. Linden, American Studies 
Department, Brandeis University, who will review it for a future Newsletter issue. 
The editor's preface calls the reader's attention to "a crisis in gravestone archaeol- 
ogy" and points out that most recording does not "meet the needs of archaeological 
research, which demands a total record." Distributed by the Council for British Ar- 
chaeology, this forty page booklet, illustrated with twelve diagrams and charts, is 
available from the Council, 7 Marylebone Rd., London NW 1 5HA, or from RESCUE, 
15A, Bull Plain, Hertford. 

Two additional publications which have recently come to our attention: 

1. Discovering, Restoring and Maintaining Old Cemeteries, an eight page, illustrated 
publication by Theodore L. Brown, edited by Jonathan D. McKallip, and published 
by the Maine Old Cemetery Association. Available from MOCA, P.O. Box 324, Au- 
gusta, ME 0U330. $1.30. 

2. The Cemetery, an Outdoor Classroom, a thirty-one page, illustrated student work- 
book by Edward L, Stranix, published in cooperation with Project KARE. It is avail- 
able from Con-Stran Productions, River Park Building, Suite 2108, 3600 Conshohocken 
Avenue., Philadelphia, PA 19131. 



SUSAN KELLY & ANNE WILLIAMS ASK 
WHO IS THIS CARVER? 




This is a Connecticut carver whose wide and unusual distribution of work has caught 
our fancy. There are 28 of his stones in Montville, and we have noticed others in 
Ledyard, New Milford, Greens Farms, Ansonia, Seymour, and Hampton, to cite a few 
diverse locations. Works we have found so far have been dated between 1729 - 1750's. 



The following are characteristics of his work: 
1. Rather small stones, simple in shape. 2. 




Light incising on two basic types of 
stone: one a tan /pinkish stone (pos- 
sibly feldspar) , the other a dark but 
rather fine-grained granite/fieldstone. 
Many are in terrible condition and al- 
most illegible. 

Frequent use of a simple vine/ 
leaf border design. We have 
noted occasional use of a sim- 
ple 6-pointed asphodal. 



3, Predominantly lower 
case lettering with 
fair spelling, the in- 
scription area often 
set off by lines. 

5. A spirit design on the tympanum as illustrated above. 

We are doing some research on the identity of this carver, and we would be grat 
to learn of the specific locations of other examples of his work. Address respons 
to Susan Kelly and Anne Williams, 83 Maywood Road, Darien, CT 06820. 




Editor's note: The Winter 1979/80 NEWSLETTER asked readers for clues to the iden- 
tity of the "Springfield Carver." Dr. James Slater of Mansfield Center, Conn., 
tells us that the Springfield Carver is probably John Ely of Springfield, Mass. 
Slater says that records and notes kept by the late Dr. Ernest Caulfield include 
a photograph of a Suf field. Conn., stone for John Rowe, 1795, carved in the Spring- 
field Carver's style. Caulfield' s notes say that there is a probate record of pay- 
ment by the estate of John Rowe of Suffield, Conn., for this stone "to John Ely 
for Grave Stone 1 - 10 sh - 0." 



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prepublication investment helps ACS initiate this publishing venture and is a 
savings to you. Make your check payable to ACS. 

Your name Address 



DEADLINE 
for contributions to 

NEWSLETTER NOTES "^^* '""^- -"""^ ^• 



CORRECTIONS^ ADDITIONS^ DEADLINES 

The winter issue of thie NEWSLETTER asked for tfie name of the woman who 
used melted craypas to take rubbings at the Newport conference. Corresponding 
Secretary Ruth Cowell writes that the Mystery Rubber is Margaret Berg, and that 
Mrs. Berg will demonstrate the technique as part of the 1980 conference program in 
Haverhill, Massachusetts, in June. Meanwhile, she can be reached at 1956 Hebron 
Avenue, Glastonbury, CT, 06033. 

In the article on stonecutter William Young on page 10 of the winter issue 
of the NEWSLETTER, Rick and Mary Stafford write that the will of Samuel Crawford 
of Rutland shows payment to Young for a gravestone. By curious coincidence, there 
happens to be another Samuel Crawford stone, also obviously the work of William 
Young. Dated 1770, this stone stands in the nearby Oakham cemetery. Since in 
those days Oakham was part of Rutland, and the 1770 date is closer to the date of 
the probate record, it is likely that the Oakham stone is the one referred to in the 
record. This note comes from Dan Farber, 11 Moreland St., Worcester, MA 01609. 

The winter NEWSLETTER erred twice in its story about the Sara Tefft stone, 
thought to be New England's oldest gravestone, which is now on exhibit at the Rhode 
Island Historical Society (see page 5 ). We said it was the oldest stone with decora- 
tive carving in New England. The Tefft stone has no decorative carving — just prim- 
itive lettering. This stone was placed in the Society's museum for safekeeping over 
100 years ago and a replica was erected in its place in a small burying ground at 
Mark Rock, in Rhode Island. Our NEWSLETTER story said the replica had since 
disappeared. We should have said it has been destroyed. Actually it is there, 
on the ground in four pieces, evidently the victim of vandals. 

How many prospective members were frustrated, we wonder, by a crucial 
misprint in the last issue of the NEWSLETTER. Under the heading, MEMBERSHIP 
INFORMATION, there were typographical errors in both the state and the ZIP code 
of the address given for joining the Association. Below is the item as it should have 
read . 

MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION 

The winter NEWSLETTER promised to give readers some membership sta- 
tistics. Sally Thomas, Treasurer, reports that membership has grown from 81 in 
1977, the year AGS was formed, to 221 paid memberships in 1979. Addtothis several 
member cemetery associations with whom AGS swaps newsletters. Our 1977 organi- 
zational meeting in Dublin, New Hampshire, was attended by 37 people; the 1978 
meeting in Dublin and the 1979 meeting in Newport were attended by 93 and 119 
members, respectively. 

Just to put this in perspective, however, consider the following member- 
ship figures given in newsletters from regional associations: The Madison County 
Historical Society has "over 1000" members, and the Maine Old Cemetery Associa- 
tion's membership now totals 1100! 

Recent new members: Mrs. Paul B. Mossman, 1713 Lafayette Dr., NE, 
Albuquerque, NM 87106; Mrs. Robert C. Stancliff, 7415 Fourwinds Dr., Cincinnati, 
OH 45242; and the Huntington Historical Society, Ted Corbett, Director, P.O.Box 
506, Huntington, NY 11743. 



Membership in the Association for Gravestone Studies supports the study of an im- 
portant and rapidly disappearing heritage. Other benefits of membership are sub- 
scription to the NEWSLETTER, waiver of the $3 fee for admission to the library of 
the New England Historic Genealogical Society, and a reduced advanced-order price 
for the Association's journal, MARKERS. Membership for persons joining now extends 
to the date of the 1981 conference. To receive the next NEWSLETTER, new member- 
ship dues must be received by June 1. Rates are tax deductible: Individual $10; 
Institutional $10; Student $5; Sustaining (includes Af/4«/<:E/?S) $25. 

Tear and send with membership fee to Mrs. Philip D. Thomas, AGS Treasurer -^"^ 

82 Hilltop Place, New London, NH 03257 /^=-^ 

Your name Address _^">-.^ — 

Special interest(s) and/or organizational affiliation, if any. 





NEWSLETTER 

OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 



Volume 4, Number 3, Summer 1980 ISSN: 0116-5783 



CONTENTS 

CONFERENCE PROGRAM j 

WORKS IN PROGRESS / AUTHORS' REQUESTS -j 

EXHIBITIONS / ARTICLES / PAPERS 3 

BOOK REVIEW 4 



■ llllliili 



■ ■•iiiiiiiiiiil 



Camposantos: A Photographic Essay 
by Dorothy Benrimo 
Review by Michael Cornish 

REGIONAL NEWS 5 

STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS Fifth installment .... 7 

John Anthony Angel 
by Vincent Luti 

ASSOCIATION NOTICES 8 

CEMETERY CITATIONS . 9 

NEWSLETTER NOTES 9 

LIST OF CONFERENCE EXHIBITORS 10 



WORKS IN PROGRESS / AUTHORS^ REQUESTS 

Allan Ludwig is collecting hymnals and trying to link the poetry of Watts 
with the kind of epitaphs found on so many late eighteenth century New England 
stones . He is "surprised to find so much taken from Watts. The hymnal collection 
just keeps growing, as does the collection of books of poetry by Watts. One day 1 
will put it together." 

Mr. Ludwig is also studying "Naive and Visionary Art"--wild and wonderful 
twentieth century environmental creations built by inspired laymen. Ludwig's inter- 
est in this poorly documented, little studied area of American folk art began with 
his discovery of Holy Land U.S.A. on Pine Hill in Waterbury, Connecticut, a creation 
of John Greco, which Ludwig photographed. His article, "Holy Land U.S. A, A Con- 
sideration of Naive and Visionary Art," was published in the Summer, 1979, issue (pages 
28-39) of The Clarion: America's Folk Art Magazine, an organ of the American Museum 
of Folk Art in New York. Ludwig plans to write on this subject for the 1981 issue of 
MARKERS. This area of folk art is a kissing cousin to gravestone art. It can offer 
a new viewpoint from which to study gravemarkers. 

For readers who may not be familiar with Ludwig's seminal work on grave- 
stone art. Craven Images, New England Stonecarving and its Symbols 1650-1815 was 
published in 1966 by Wesleyan University Press. Most of the research for the book 
was done while he was studying at Yale. About this early work of his, Ludwig, now 
a professor of the History of Art at Bloomfield College, Upper Montclair, New Jersey, 
writes : 

/ tried very hard in those years to do the best job I could, but I did not 
have very much money and there were many loose ends. The project cost 
me about $25,000 out of my own pocket in spite of the many grants I had. 
Having started out with it at about 22 years of age and working over the 
next 10 years you can see why things were not done better! I am over- 
joyed , however, that I did have a part in the revival of interest in old 
gravestones. Lots of the younger people are taking pot shots at Graven 
Images, but they don't understand that history is a developmental thing 
and that one book builds upon another. Moreover, they forget that Graven 
Images was the first big book on the subject in over 30 years. Save for a 
few of us, the Forbes book was literally forgotten. And so I see my work 
as a key to the revival of interest in the subject beginning in the 1960's. 



Anneliese A, Pontius, Assistant Clinical Professor in Psychiatry, Harvard 
Medical School, asks two questions: 1) What percentage of eighteenth century stone- 
cutters are known by name? 2) Is it true that some of the deceased had their grave- 
stones engraved and stored them under their beds as Roy M. Kahn (Fogg Museum 
Library FA 5388. 1.5) claims? Dr. Pontius is working on gravestone-related research; 
we do not know the specific area. Address 115 Mill Street, Belmont, MA 02178. 

Wanted to purchase, for an educational presentation: Slides that illustrate 
any of the following: 

Above-ground burial vaults in Louisiana 

Eighteenth century Masonic stones with a good variety of symbols 

Recut or reused gravestones 

Defaced soul effigies and portrait stones 

Representative examples of the work of carvers: Stevens, Bull, Soule, 

Allen, Emmes. 
Unique markers or unusual motifs from anywhere in the United States. 

Telephone Laurel Gabel, collect, at (617) 237-3828, or write her at 323 Linden Street, 
Wellesley, MA 02181. Or see her at the conference in Haverhill. 

Mitchell R. Alegre, Regional Representative for New York State, makes this 
request for Mary L. Shedlock, a researcher for the Rochester Museum & Science Cen- 
ter. Ms. Shedlock is interpreting the cultural history of the Cumming Nature Center 
in South Bristol, New York, researching the family that owned the property. Her 
search began with the discovery of a solitary tombstone dated 1865 and inscribed 
with the name of the property owner. There is a community cemetery nearby. Ms. 
Shedlock would like to know how common a single grave would have been in 1865, 
whether it would have been fenced off or in some other way isolated, and to what 
extent religious services would have been involved in a secular, private burial. She 
also seeks information concerning mid to late nineteenth century rural burial prac- 
tices, cemetery layout and appearance, and any sources of information pertaining 
to gravestones, graveyards, and burial customs in western New York State. Her 
address: Rochester Museum & Science Center, Box 1480, Rochester, NY 14603. 

Diana Hume George, Pennsylvania State University-Behrend College, and 
Malcom A. Nelson, State University of New York-Fredonia, are completing the manu- 
script of a book which is tentatively titled "A Field Guide to the Old Burying Grounds 
of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket." The book is intended for both the 
scholar and for the interested tourist. AGS members may recall George's and Nelson's 
paper, "Alms for Oblivion: The Old Burying Ground in Brewster, Massachusetts," 
read at the 1978 AGS conference. In a different form this paper is being published 
in Kentucky Folklore Record. Another George-Nelson publication has been devel- 
oped from a Phi Beta Kappa address delivered at SUNY-Fredonia in February. An 
extended form of the address is being published in The Journal of American Culture 
under the title, "Grinning Skulls, Smiling Cherubs, Bitter words." 



r 




Tombstone Inscription 
Brings Award for Libel 



BALTIMORE, Feb. 22 (UPI) — Ber- 
nard Gladsky has been ordered by a Su- 
perior Court jury to pay $2,000 dam- 
ages to his sister for an inscription that 
he ordered carved on their father's 
tombstone. 

The inscription reads, "Stanley J. 
Gladsky, 1895-1977, abused, robbed and 
starved by his beloved daughter." 

The daughter, Gloria Kovatch, who 



discovered the inscription when she 
visted her father's grave, had asked for 
$500,000 in a libel suit that charged her 
brother had sought to cause her public 
ridicule. 

Mr. Gladsky said that the inscription 
was in jest but conceded he should have 
used words that were less harsh. He 
said that his sister once sent his father 
to the hospital on a bus and that a hospi- 
tal doctor had told him his father suf- 
fered from malnutrition and dehydra- 
tion. 

ICirby L. Smith, who carved the in- 
scription, agreed to pay Mrs. Kovatch 
$3,000 as part of a settlement of her suit 
against him. 



EXHIBIT-IONS / ARTICLES / PAPERS 

A Time to Mourn: Expressions of Grief in Nineteenth Century America 
is, as stated in its catalog, "tine first major exinibition to trace comprehensively 
the development and decline of nineteenth century American mourning traditions." 
The exhibit runs through November 17, 1980, at The Museums at Stony Brook, on 
Long Island, New York, and from January 17 to May 17, 1981, at the Brandywine 
River Museum, Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania. 

The collection of extraordinary and unusual objects exhibited includes 
costumes, mourning jewelry, paintings and drawings by American artists Charles 
Wilson Peale and William Sidney Mount, memorial lithographs by Currier and Ives, 
elaborate silk embroideries, books on ettiquette, hearse design (and a hearse!), 
and photographs. But alas, only a few photographs are of gravemarkers. Never- 
theless, this excellent exhibition "provides a broad historical and cultural context 
in which to interpret" the nineteenth century attitudes toward death, and it pro- 
vided this viewer with additional insight into the gravemarkers and cemeteries of 
the period. 

The exhibition catalog may be ordered through The Museum Store, The 
Museums at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11790. Cost per copy is $11.95 (plus 
$2.50 postage and handling). New York State residents add 7% sales tax. 

This review was contributed by Mary Anne Mrosinski^ AGS Vice-President /Eduoation. 

"Folklore and Graveyard Design" is a fascinating article by John R. Stilgoe, 
whose field is landscape architecture at Harvard University. The article was pub- 
lished in Landscape , Summer, 1978, Volume 22, Number 3 (pages 22-28), and we re- 
commend it to all students of gravestones, especially those with a special interest in 
burial s/tes. Professor Stilgoe traces the customs and beliefs and the physical de- 
velopment associated with places of burial from prehistoric sites to nineteenth cen- 
tury cemeteries, places "designed not really for remembrance but for forgetting." 
For the reader whose interest is primarily in markers there are a few tantalizing 
references to unusual markers, such as hand carved wooden markers found only in 
tiny New Mexico villages, Chinese stones capped with fluttering banknotes, and rural 
Pennsylvania graves dressed with greens and ribbons at Christmas. 

Carmine A. Prioli has written "A Review Essay: Early New England Grave- 
stone Scholarship," published in Early American Literature, Volume XIV (pages 328- 
336). Mr. Prioli reviews Ludwig's Craven Images, the Tashjian's Memorials for 
Children of Change, and Benes' The Masks of Orthodoxy , and he gives each a good 
mark — for good reasons, we think. 

Sue and Philip Jones have sent the NEWSLETTER a mind-boggling article 
about old gravemarkers in Hungary. "The Sign Language of Hungarian Graveyards" 
by Tunde Zentai was published in Folklore, Volume 90, Number 2, 1979 (pages 131- 
140). It describes practices used in a number of rural regions of Hungary where 
gravemarkers without epitaphs make known the sex, age, family relationship, occu- 
pation, religion, and manner of death of the deceased by way of their size, shape, 
carving, color, and placement in the graveyard. An interesting facet of the piece 
is the discussion of the symbolism of some of the designs. Despite the great dif- 
ferences in their shape, color, and materials from those used in American markers, 
the two countries' old markers do have some common symbols. Seventeen Notes ref- 
er the reader to what should be interesting source material, for examples, 
L. Timaffy's "Anthropomorphic Headboards and Crosses in Small Plain Graveyards" 
and K.Kos's "Love and Death in the Folk Art of Szilagysag," 

An article by James M. Smith of the Medical College of Virginia will be of 
interest to students of gravestone symbolism. "Puritanism: Self Image Formation 
Through Gravestone Form, Style, and Symbols" was published in the Daughters of 
the American Revolution Magazine, April 1980 issue (pages 470-486) and sent to 
us by AGS Corresponding Secretary, Ruth Cowell. Symbolism, an area fraught with 
broad conjecture and flights of the imacination, is given a scholarly, matter-of-fact 
treatment by Smith. A good bibliography is included. 



BOOK REVIEW 

CAMPOSANTOS: A Photographic Essay 

Photographed by Dorothy Benrimo 

Commentary by Rebecca Salsbury James; Historical Notes by E. Boyd. 76 pages. 

Fort Worth, Texas: The Amon Carter Museum of Western Art, 1956. Out of print. 

Review by Michael Cornish 

Camposantos: A Photographic Essay is the catalog for an exhibition of photo- 
graphs of nineteenth and early twentieth century wooden, iron, and stone Spanish- 
American grave crosses found in the "blessed fields" of northern New Mexico by 
Dorothy Benrimo. 

For this catalog, E. Boyd, curator of the Spanish Colonial Department of 
the Museum of New Mexico, has written a short history of the memorial crosses. He 
attributes the development of the craft of making these crosses to factors such as 
fortified protection, which allowed for outside burial without fear of desecration by 
Indians (previously, burials had been made exclusively beneath the floors of churches), 
and to the importation of pig iron and of better stoneworking and woodworking tools 
by traders from the East. Some vague attributions to individual woodworkers are 
made. 

Rebecca James' commentary is essentially romantic. Her description of the 
honesty and integrity of the crosses shows her Plastic Age Primitive Bias; her descrip- 
tion of their weathered beauty ignores the fact that inevitable aging has altered 
the original conception; and her admiration of their appropriateness to their environs 
does not recognize that this is a coincidence, if Boyd's speculation that the cross form 
was introduced to the region by Eastern traders marking their dead en route is correct. 
She writes of the metaphysical quality she feels Benrimo has captured in the photo- 
graphs. James' view is basically a nostalgic one, with no insight into the original 
motivation. She is simply attracted by the melancholy spectre of these ramshackle, 
laboriously and naively worked memorials standing in the parched desert crust, 
surrounded by barbed wire, under skies which are attuned to her poetic vision. 

But what the book is really about is photographs. Alas! They intimate a 
great deal more than they deliver. Although a handfull of the sixty-five plates are 
truly wonderful, many more are simply frustrating as documents. Some are com- 
pletely out of focus. Some crosses and many of the cerquftas , or picket enclosures, 
are badly composed, rendering them baseless and robbing them of an understand- 
able space in the photographic composition, which is hard to accept in view of the 
book's avowed intention to show these artifacts in relation to the landscape. Dusty 
prints have been ineptly retouched, which in this type of publication I find inex- 
cusable. Most of the skies have been burned in, giving them a dramatic and un- 
natural darkness, a befitting background, perhaps, for the stark white wooden 
crosses, but tiresome when repeated page after page. Most of the crosses on which 
there is carving or relief decoration are presented in a good, raking light. 

The inadequacy of these photographs as documents is especially tragic 
because, according to Boyd's notes, these "crude" markers had been almost wholly 
replaced by new concrete ones by the time the catalog was published. Benrimo's 
pictures, taken fifteen to twenty years previously, are probably in most cases 
unique records. The austere beauty of the crosses, the astute sense of design 
often exercised in their manufacture, the holy purpose which clearly shines through 
their shabby forms, the astounding settings in which they are found--all are reasons 
the camposantos deserve a better recording than this. The frontispiece of a sprawl- 
ing camposanto mysteriously illuminated under a dark sky cannot help calling to 
mind the similar composition by Ansel Adams, and the comparison is sorry. One 
can only wish that this project had been undertaken instead by Adams. 



Michael Cornish is a Boston picture framer. His research on a newly attributed 
Massachusetts carver will be featured in the fall Newsletter. 

Editor's note: Camposanto is Italian for holy field, that is, a oemetery. 



REGIONAL NEWS 



FROM CONNECTICUT 

Connecticut State Police are seeking information concerning a red sandstone 
grave marker with this inscription: In Memory of Mr. Gideon Gale, Jr., who died 
October 8, 1786, aged 32 years. The marker is FOR SALE by a Connecticut antiques 
dealer, and the police have asked for assistance in determining the stone's home base. 
We think the stone is carved by Thatcher Lathrop, who worked in the Somers, Conn., 
area. The following is excerpted from the letter written by Dan Farber to Police Com- 
missioner Donald J. Long (Box 306 
Uncasville, CT 06382), who asked for 
information about the Gideon stone: 

It seems to us that the posession of a 
gravestone with intent to sell is a prima- 
facie crime, and further evidence is not 
needed. Antiques dealers are just be- 
ginning to realize the bonanza which 
awaits them in the historic graveyards, 
and it is important to stop these first 
violations before these important pieces 
of American history disappear. 




From a police snap-shot 
of the Gideon Gale stone. 



FROM MASSACHUSETTS 

An item in the Boston Herald, April 5, 1980, reports that a gang of youths 
desecrated at least two graves in Copp's Hill Burial Ground, Boston's second oldest 
cemetery. Four police cruisers responded to a call from a resident near the burial 
ground, scattering about 20 young men at the grave site, one of whom was caught 
and arraigned in Boston Municipal Court. The gang had dug through four feet of 
soil over the red bricks that form the roof of tunnel-connected burial chambers in 
which members of more than one family were buried. The gang had crawled 22 feet 
to get to the chamber they desecrated and then dug their way up through a second 
grave site. Alfred Morelli, superintendent of the city's ten historic burial grounds, 
said the vandals could easily have been buried alive by a cave in. 

According to the newspaper account, "it was not clear whose ancient bones 
were disturbed because more than 200 years of weather have worn out the names on 
the slate markers." 



FROM MICHIGAN 

Presenters at a session on Gravestone Studies at the American Culture 
Association conference in Detroit, April 17, were: James Tibensky, "The Evolution 
of Motifs on Colonial Gravestones in Central and Western Connecticut;" David Taylor, 
Ohio Historic Preservation Office, "The Necrogeography of the Allen Springs, Kentucky 
Quadrangle;" Maureen Otwell, Minnesota Historical Society, "Gravestone Art in Minne- 
sota, 1840-1920." The session was chaired by Diana George and Mac Nelson. This 
is the second year that gravestone studies have been represented. The Chairperson 
for next year's panel will be David Taylor, Ohio University, 1425 Newark Road, 
Zanesville, Ohio, 43701. Write to him if you are interested in reading a paper. 

FROM NEW HAMPSHIRE 

The spring issue of the New Hampshire Old Graveyard Association's news- 
letter. Rubbings , announced NHOGA's annual meeting, held at Franklin Pierce College, 
in Rindqe on April 26. The program featured papers by two Franklin Pierce Department 
of Anthropology professors: Howard R. Sargent, "Historical Archaeology in New Hamp- 
shire," and Dennis Wright, "Research Potentials in Colonial Graveyards." 

Rubbings is edited by Mary Emhardt, who is active in AGS. We appreciate 
her announcing the AGS conference dates to NHOGA members. 

Also in Rubbings is a short report from Philip A. Wilcox (Old Landing Road, 
Durham, NH; telephone (603) 868-7433) about a graveyard /cemetery mapping project 
begun by Wilcox in 1978. Using an 1892 Atlas of New Hampshire, he traced the town 
maps, had them reduced to 8^"x11" size, made four copies of each, and on the reverse 
listed known yards from each town — these lists acquired from a variety of sources. 
The maps were sent to key people in the towns, with a request that they locate the 
burial grounds on the map and answer a series of questions about the yards' size, 
location, condition, and age. Wilcox reports that to date 2332 graveyards and ceme- 
teries have been recorded, with, however, many towns yet to be heard from. 

FROM NEW JERSEY 

Bert Hubbard sends us an article by Carlton Brairton from the September/ 
October, 1979, New Jersey Outdoors. "The Historical Legacy of Three Village Hj^^ 



Churches" describes the historic Zion Lutheran Church in Oldwick, the First 
Presbyterian Church in Mendham, and the Presbyterian Church in Basking Ridge. 
Near each of the churches is an old burying ground. Oldwich's oldest legible mar- 
ker date is 1761. Mendham's oldest is 1777/78, marking the graves of twenty-seven 
smallpox victims. Basking Ridge's oldest legible stone is dated 1739. Brairton's 
description of the three graveyards does not mention the iconographic carving on 
the stones. We would like for readers who know these burial grounds to tell us 
about the carving, stone material and shapes of these markers. 

FROM NEW YORK 

The Department of Anthropology at SUNY-Albany is offering a nine weeks 
summer program in Historic Demography. The purpose of the program is to intro- 
duce students to the methods and theory of demography as the discipline is used by 
anthropologists, to formulate a series of testable hypotheses relating to demographic 
patterns in small populations, and to gather and analyze data necessary to test the 
hypotheses. Part 1 is a three week pre-session, June 2-20, which introduces the 
basic concepts and methods. Part 2, June 23-August 1, will be devoted to field 
trips to local historic sites and cemeteries and to the collection and analysis of data. 
Although it is too late to enroll in the course, there may be Newsletter readers who 
want to know more about this course. Write Richard C. Wildinson, Department of 
Anthropology, SUNY-Albany, NY 12222; or call (518) 457-8404. 

MORE FROM NEW YORK 

"A Cemetery Garden Calls for Volunteers" is the heading for a New York 
Times item (April 17, 1980). According to the article, Edwin Casey, manager of the 
138 year old Trinity Church Cemetery, which stretches between Riverside Drive and 
Amsterdam Avenue at 155 Street, feels that "Cemeteries shouldn't be just places that 
people walk by and bow their heads and feel sol mn and glum about." He plans to 
put the site to horticul ral use and make the area "central to the community." The 
exotic trees there are being identified, money is being supplied by the church, and 
volunteers and professionals are hard at work. "This is an experimental thing," 
says Casey. "We'll see how it goes." His telephone: (212) 285-0837. 

AND MORE FROM NEW YORK 

Gaynell Levine, SUNY-Stoney Brook, has sent us a Long Island newsletter 
which quotes a couple who bought a seventeenth century house on the Island. 
"When we pulled up the floorboards in the east parlor we also lifted the huge mar- 
ble hearthstone that was part of the fireplace in that room. This turned out to be 
the gravestone for the first Elisha Mulford to own the house. We realized that the 
fireplace in the east bedroom also had a marble hearthstone, so we rushed upstairs 
to investigate this stone and found that it was the original tablet for Elisha's wife 
Damaris. There is a family monument erected in the village cemetery which lists all 
the Mulford family members, including the two whose tablets we found in the Old 
House. We conjecture that the gravestones were taken up when the family monument 
was erected — but they were saved — taken home, as it were. Later on, when work 
was done on the fireplaces, the stones were utilized... I cannot help wondering how 
many other such hearthstones there are on eastern Long Island. Was this a one-of- 
a-kind situation or were there other families who were equally frugal in using 
whatever was at hand to do a job? Have you looked under your hearthstone?" This 
account is signed by Elinor Latham Williams, Old House at Oysterponds. 

FROM OHIO 

The Fairfield County District Library has received a grant from the Ohio 
Program in the Humanities, a state based agency of the National Endowment for the 
Humanities. The grant has funded an exhibit of Fairfield County gravestone rub- 
bings and two public programs about the area stones, Sarah Long is the library 
director. Charles Goshen, historian, naturalist, and author, selected the stones 
for rubbing. Alan Govenar, Columbus College of Art and Design, made the rub- 
bings. Mr. Govenar is a member of the Ohio and the American Folklore Societies, 
has served as sponsor of the Ohio Arts Council, and has taught courses in grave- 
stone significance and stone-rubbing technique at Ohio State University. The ex- 
hibit opened in May and closed June 14. 

FROM PENNSYLVANIA 

John Francis Marion is featured in an illustrated story in the Philadelphia 
Courier Post, April 26, 1980. Marion, author of Famous and Curious Cemeteries 
and several books about historic cities and houses, is teaching a summer course for 
the University of Pennsylvania called "Legacies of the Past; Old Cemeteries around 
Philadelphia." Classes will meet in Philadelphia cemeteries. Marion's address is 
1836 Delancy Street, Philadelphia. 



STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS 
Fifth of a Series 




Composite of characteristic Angel lettering 
and design styles 



JOHN ANTHONY ANGEL (1701-1756) 



Vincent F. Luti 



In her book. Early New England Gravestones , Harriette Forbes speaks 
briefly of John Anthony Angel, a stonecarver of Providence, Rhode Island. At the 
time her book was published in 1927, Mrs. Forbes had seen Angel's will, but she 
did not know his work. Today the man himself remains somewhat obscure but his 
work is fairly easy to identify. 

From his own gravestone in the North Burial Ground in Providence, we learn 
that he died April 6, 1756, at the age of fifty-five. He carved the design of this stone 
himself, and his epitaph states that he came from the "Citty of Coplins in ye Electore 
of Trear," which would be the modern city of Koblenz, Germany, His will calls him 
a stonecutter, and the inventory of his meager estate lists tools and gravestones. 
His tools were left to Seth Luther, his "brother-in-law," a clue that led to the dis- 
covery that Luther, too, was a stonecarver. 

Most of Angel's stones date from the 1750's. A few, some of which may be 
backdated, have dates in the 1740's. We do not know when he arrived from Germany. 
His unusually clumsy lettering and spelling, which single his stones out, indicate that 
he struggled with the English language. 

The identification of Angel's carving style is based on the carving on two 
probated stones* and on the design carved on his own marker. A significant aid in 
spotting his work is his poor spelling and his lettering style, which mixed upper and 
lower case letters at random. His stones are found principally in Providence. Others 
radiate to surrounding towns as far north as Medfield, Massachusetts, and extend 
south to Bristol, Rhode Island. 



f^i 



The typical New England "bedboard" tripartite shape | fis uncommon m 

Angel's work. His usual overall stone shape is either rectangular or has sloping, 
curved shoulders. Occasionally the outline of the stone shape is Baroque in style. 

Generally, the stones are carved in a very low to medium relief with little 
or no modeling, which in combination with the peculair, crumbling, black bituminous- 
like stone he used, make them easy to overlook. But they are decidedly distinctive. 
One striking characteristic of Angel's stones is the almost complete absence of fig- 
urative effigies, human and angelic. On the other hand, his stones do share a com- 
monality with the designs of other carvers in the Narragansett Basin and New England 
in general. A handful of his stones have helmet-like skulls in profile, usually in flat 
relief. In Providence there are a few — less than a dozen — stones with heraldic designs. 
But what relates his work most closely with that of his contemporaries in the Basin is 
his taste for foliate material in his designs. A curled, unfolding acanthus leaf pre- 
dominates in the borders and often around the tympanum arch. Another floral motif, 
occuring often at the top or bottom of the stone, is one or more large, spread, rough- 
ly triangular acanthus leaves, suggesting wings. Sometimes the border design is a 



8 - 



kind of tulip vine. Heavily cut petaled rosettes, often within a ring, occur regu- 
larly in the upper areas of the stones. Simple classical Creek foliate undulations or 
"crimping" is not uncommon around the edges of the stones. 






Helmet-like skull Spread, triangular 
in profile acanthus leaf 



Tulip vine 
border 







Petaled rosettes 
within a ring 



* The estates of John Edwards, Attleboro, and of Peter Maroney, Providence, show 
payment to Angel for gravestones. 

Vincent Luti is on the music faculty at Southern Massachusetts University. 



ASSOCIATION NOTICES 



AGS committees need you. Think about what the Association is doing or is not 
doing in the area(s) of your interest and volunteer your ideas, your time, your 
skills, your leadership — or your followership! Areas of work: 

Conference '81 planning Archives 

Keeping an Association Historian's record Education /promotion 

Publications Crants-finding funds 

Conservation Awards committee 

Research 

Regional Representatives who could not attend the conference should write to ACS 
President Joanne Baker (51 South Street, Concord NH 03301) about your area and 
any projects and problems you may know about. For ACS to represent a wide geo- 
graphic area, your views are needed. Members willing to represent areas not yet 
represented should volunteer to Dr. Baker. We have representatives for Canada, 
Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, Texas, and Wisconsin. 

If your name is not on our paid member list, it is not on the NEWSLETTER mailing 
list. ACS membership runs from July 1 to June 30. Those who attended the con- 
ference paid the membership fee when they registered. Others must join or renew 
membership by mail. To receive the Fall issue of the NEWSLETTER , get your name 
on the new membership list right away by sending your $10 membership fee to: 
Mrs. Philip Thomas, ACS Treasurer, 82 Hilltop Place, New London, NH 03257. 

Corresponding Secretary Ruth Cowell reports that her Diesel Rabbit was stolen and 
that in its trunk was a briefcase of ACS correspondence. If you are waiting for a 
reply from Mrs. Cowell, it may be that your letter was among those lost. 




CEI^ETERY CITATIONS 




EXEMPLARY CARE 

Highland Cemetery* 
DOVER, MASSACHUSETTS 

The Old Burying Place 

WALPOLE, MASSACHUSETTS 

"Excellent caretaker" 

WELLINGTON, CONNECTICUT 

Cemetery on Ciderville Road 
TOLLAND, CONNECTICUT 



NEGLECT 

The Old Town Cemetery 
UPTON, MASSACHUSETTS 
"Smashed stones in the woods" 

CHARLESTOWN, MASSACHUSETTS 

NORWOOD, MASSACHUSETTS 
'Hangout for beer-drinking vandals' 



*We had three nominations for this "pristine cemetery. " Thanks to Professor Paul 
Tedesco, Northeastern University, for the following specifics: Cemetery Commis- 
sioners Philip Luttazi, Harry Bertschey , and Charles Reheault have had a short 
history of the cemetery published and distributed to all townspeople. Mr. Bertschey , 
who wrote the history, has taken the responsibility for personal upkeep of the grounds, 
particularly that portion containing the pre-1830 stones. The cemetery has been sur- 
veyed by Dr. Tedesco and filed by him with the Massachusetts Historical Commission . 



NEWSLETTER NOTES 



Not getting your NEWSLETTERl The Post Office does not forward bulk-rate mail, 
so be sure we have your current address. And be sure your membership is current. 
AGS membership is from July 1 through June. The person to check with about your 
address and your dues is Mrs. Philip Thomas, AGS Treasurer, 82 Hilltop Place, New 
London, NH 03257. Telephone, (603) 526-6044. 

Would you like for us to send the Fall issue of the NEWSLETTER to a friend who might 
be a prospective AGS member? Give us the names and addresses before September I. 
Address AGS Publications, Jessie Lie Farber, editor, c/o American Antiquarian Society, 
Worcester, MA 01609. 

We call your attention to our new masthead, first used on the Spring 1980 issue. It 
was designed by Francis Duval, who altered the old logo to show the shape of "our 
logo stone" (Elisabeth Smith, 1771, Williamstown, Massachusetts). 

In the Fall 1979 issue of the NEWSLETTER are illustrations of three trumpeting angels 
by an unknown gravestone cutter. James Slater now reports finding a bevy of these 
angels in the Plainfield, Connecticut, area, two of which are signed "F. Warren, sculpt. 
Warren is a carver with a bold and imaginative style; we look forward to learning who 
the man was. Have we a reader who is interested in this research? Write James 
Slater, Bassettes Bridge Road, Mansfield Center, Connecticut 06250. 

The Spring 1980 Newsletter mentioned on page 12 that Dial Press is publishing The 
Death Catalog, A guide to the Living and that authors Mark Smith and Christopher 
Clemens asked us for information about AGS, which we sent. We were amused to 
receive a further request from Mr. Clemens, for permission to use an illustration of 
one of the Association items. Which item? Our masthead or our logo? No. The cover 
of MARKERS '801 A photograph of a stone? Guess again . They want to reproduce 
our BUMPER STICKER! They have our permission. For more information about The 
Death Catalog, address the authors: P.O.Box 88, Milton, PA 17847. 

The deadline for contributions to the Fall NEWSLETTER is September 1. 





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EXHIBITORS 
AGS Conference 1980, Bradford, Massachusetts 



Margaret Berg 

1956 Hebron Avenue 

Glastonbury, CT 06033 

Gravestone rubbings 



Michael Cornish 
62 Calumet Street 
Roxbury, MA 02120 

"Continuity and Invention": 
Gravestone designs of Joseph 
Barber, Jr., West Medway, MA. 



Roberta Halporn 
Highly Specialized Promotions 
228 Clinton Street 
Brooklyn, NY 11201 

Rubbings of New York City 
Colonial gravestones 

Susan Kelly and Anne Williams 
83 Maywood Road 
Darien, CT 06820 

Rubbings of signed stones 



Peter Finlay and Betty Daniel 
National Institute for Transitiot 
22 Monument Square, Suite 601 
Portland, ME 04101 

Gravestone rubbings and Finlay graphics. 
For sale: postcards, notecards, matted 
prints, silk-screened T-shirts and tote 
bags, and an illustrated booklet. 

Francis Y. Duval and Ivan B. Rigby 
405 Vanderbilt Avenue 
Brooklyn, NY 11238 

Photographs of exhibits from previous 
AGS conferences 



Glo Kirby 

250 West 94th Street 

New York, NY 10025 

Two-toned gravestone rubbings 



Lance Mayer 

Conservation Department 
Cincinnati Art Museum, Eden Park 
Cincinnati, OH 45202 

Photographs: "Deterioration of 
Connecticut Gravestones" 



Daniel Farber 

11 Moreland Street 

Worcester, MA 01609 

Photographs of New England 
gravestones 



NEWSLETTER OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR 
GRAVESTONE STUDIES 

This rs Part II of the Fall, 1980, NEWSLETTER. Mitchell 
Alegre will be guest editor of the Winter, 1981, issue. 
Address NEWSLETTER contributions to ACS Publications, 
in care of The American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, 
Massachusetts 01609. 



A RESTORATION PROGRAM FOR YOUTHS , Mitchell R. Alegre 

Wyoming County, New York 

A gang of teenagers armed with axes and shovels invade a rural pioneer 
cemetery. This could mark the beginning of a nightmare of destruction. In Wyoming 
County, New York, however, teenagers in cemeteries have become a welcome sight 
because for two recent summers they came to restore rather than destroy. 

During the summers of 1977 and 1978, one hundred young men and women 
from the ages of fifteen through eighteen restored nearly a dozen neglected burial 
grounds from this six hundred square mile agricultural heart of Western New York State. 
These young people were employed for up to eight weeks each summer as part of the 
federally funded Youth Conservation Corps administered locally by the Community Re- 
source Development program of the Wyoming County Cooperative Extension. 

Administered by the United States Department of the Interior, the Youth 
Conservation Corps (YCC), funded under the Environmental Education Act of 1970, 
focuses on accomplishing needed conservation work on public lands, providing youth 
employment, and developing an understanding and appreciation of the nation's natural 
environment and heritage. The Wyoming County program sponsored not only cemetery 
restorations but also forest and stream management projects. 

One of the reasons for Wyoming County's decision to include cemetery res- 
toration in the YCC program was that it could be easily adapted to fulfill both the en- 
vironmental and historical components of the federal guidelines. The restorations would 
also give the program high public visibility. 

There also was public pressure to clean up the pioneer burial grounds. The 
townships, which have the responsibility for care of the old cemeteries, had neglected 
that charge, leaving the graveyards to the ravages of the elements and of vandals. The 
county historian was receiving requests from local historians and genealogists to have 
the early cemeteries preserved. He was able to persuade the Cooperative Extension to 
include the restoration of cemeteries in their YCC plan. With the help of the town his- 
torians, cemeteries in need of work were identified throughout the county. 

It is easy for historians and genealogists to recognize the importance of pre- 
serving cemeteries and gravestones. For teenagers, though, a cemetery is often little 
more than a convenient hang-out. To successfully mobilize them to restore a cemetery, 
it is necessary to educate them to the importance of burial grounds. 

This process began by training the staff responsible for supervising the 
YCC enrollees. Supervisors and crew leaders were introduced to local history, the 
history of burial practices and cemeteT"ies, the value of the gravestones, restoration 
techniques, and the reasons for the project. Staff members did their own additional 
research, which included consultations with historians and preservationists. 

ThVyoung people were then introduced to local and cemetery history and 
given reasons for preserving cemeteries. This introduction was supplemented with in- 
formal talks at work sites by historians and YCC staff. Although the enrollees found 
these sessions enlightening, their enthusiasm did not blossom until actual restoration 
work began. It was then that they came to appreciate what they had learned. The 
element of discovery played an important role in keeping enthusiasm high. Staff, en- 
rollees, and the public were all surprised when a small cemetery hidden by decades of 
wild growth was discovered only ten feet from a well-traveled highway. In another 
long forgotten graveyard, a buried stone was discovered by accident. Soon rows of 
lost markers were uncovered. 

Conservation ethics and techniques were taught throughout the project. 
Upon arriving at a site, workers identified the flora. They learned what growth was 
to be removed and what was to remain, and why. The only trees removed were those 
threatening markers. Stumps, brush, and small trees that were removed were used 
to create animal habitats. The workers were taught weed and pest control, the ef- 
fects of various pesticides, erosion control, and soil analysis. A session on tree dating 
proved helpful in determining the age of a cemetery fence that had become partly en- 
veloped by an aged tree. 

The YCC enrollees gained a respect for historic preservation. They 



learned what information can be extracted from cemeteries by studying tlie inscriptions 
on tine stones, the type of stone used, and the relationship of the markers to each other. 
The enrollees repaired stones, made rubbings, and recorded inscriptions. To simplify 
and standardize the recording of inscriptions in the field, forms were printed that pro- 
vided space for recording names, dates, and epitaphs for each stone , as well as other 
information, such as descriptions of decorative carving, fences, or other features of the 
grave site. The locations of stones were mapped. This data was deposited with the 
Cooperative Extension and is being used by students and by researchers. 

Community involvement was encouraged. There was never a shortage of 
curious visitors of all ages at the work sites. The workers enjoyed sharing their know- 
ledge with the visitors, while old-timers contributed background information and folklore 
about the grounds and the deceased buried there. Neighbors brought refreshments. 
One grateful neighbor of a restored cemetery took on the maintenance responsibility of 
mowing the cleaned up site. 

The most difficult task was to interest town governments or private organi- 
zations in maintaining the restored grounds. The enrollees find it discouraging to see 
any of their hard labor quickly undone by nature. Although not all the renovated ceme- 
teries are being maintained, the project has had a lasting impact. Genealogists, who 
eagerly followed the workers from cemetery to cemetery, uncovered new information. 
Through the wide publicity that the project received, the public was made more aware 
of the heritage contained in our burial grounds. A few students extended their in- 
volvement after returning to school, focusing on their summer's work as subjects for 
term papers. And ail the Youth Conservation Corps participants came away with a 
greater appreciation of cemeteries and what can be learned from them. 

Mitchell alegre, an editorial consultant in Warsaw, New York, will be guest editor of 
the Winter issue of the ACS NEWSLETTER. Address P.O. Box 266, Warsaw, 14569. 





CEMETERY CITATIONS 
EXEMPLARY CARE NEGLECT 

ALBANY RURAL CEMETERY^ CROTON, NEW YORK 

Menands, Albany County, N.Y. Photographs sent with the 



HUNTINGTON (L.I.), N.Y. 2 



recommendation confirm 
this citation 



OLD BURYING GROUNDS 
BEAUFORT, NORTH CAROLINA HARTFORD, CONNECTICUT** 

Beautifully maintained by the Old burying ground 

Beaufort Historical Society 

OAKWOOD CEMETERY^ 
WACO, TEXAS 

1 This 467 acre cemetery founded in 1847 has recently been listed with the National Regis- 
ter of Historic Places. The Newsletter of the Preservation League of New York State 

(January, 1980) describes it as "one of the most beautiful expressions of the Rural Ceme- 
tery Movement. . .an outstanding example of nineteenth century landscape design. . .given 
added significance by the high architectural quality of buildings and the artistry of 
monuments. . . " 

2 John Plackis (who will be remembered from the AGS conference for the "Support Your 
Local Cemetery" buttons he and Mark Coscia wore) reports that in July, 1980, the town 

of Huntington, New York, amended its zoning and designated forty-six cemeteries as 
Historic Sites. Plackis hopes AGS members will be encouraged to take similar steps in 
their communities. 

3 We thank Walter O'Connell for three newspaper stories and other published materials 

describing this remarkable cemetery. According to the cemetery bylaws, only women 
serve on the board of directors, "one reason Oakwood is so beautiful." It contains over 
20,000 grave sites, many of celebrities. The squares of plots and the life-size sculptured 
human figures, obelisks, and mausoleums have been compared to a giant chessboard and 
chessmen. The 147 acre cemetery, established in 1878, is maintained by a crew of twelve 
men. One of the newspaper articles sent by Dr. O'Connell (3406 Yalkum Blvd., Houston, 
77006) includes a photograph of a sculpture of Dr. O'Connell, with the caption, "Monument 
in Advance. Dr. Walter E. O'Connell still alive." No explanation accompanied this statement. 

4 James O'Brien recently wrote an article for The Hartford Courant lamenting the condition 
of the stones in the Hartford burying ground and the poor uses to which the area is cur- 
rently being put. His address: 135 Bloomfield Avenue, Windsor, CT 06095. Thanks to 
Michael Cornish, AGS Vice-President/Archives, for this item. 



CONSERVATION 

PUBLICATIONS^ PROJECTS^ NEWS ITEMS 



Acids deluge earth on dry days, too . This is the caption for an article from the East 
Lansing State Journal , June ^9. 1980, sent to the NEWSLETTER by Sandra Ponteleit. 
The news item states that scientists are finding that acid failing to earth on dry days 
may be as damaging as the more publicized "acid rains" because dry particles, once they 
become wet, have more penetrating power than do the acids falling in rain. It is esti- 
mated that at least half of the sulfuric and nitric acids that collects on the ground fell 
in dry particles rather than in rain. (See other items about acid rain on page 9, Part I 
of this NEWSLETTER and on page 7 of the Spring, 1980 issue.) 

Museum care for endangered stones . The complexity of the problem of preserving an 
important and endangered gravemarker is illustrated by a letter written by the director 
of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission to Francis Duval (co-author with 
Ivan Rigby of the Dover publication. Early American Gravestone Art in Photographs) . 
Mr. Duval had written urging the removal to a museum of the 1797 Maria Catharina 
Stahlneckerin stone. The letter he received in response explains that all objects in the 
museum's collections must be given or purchased, and acquisition of gravestones is ob- 
structed by questions of legal title. The letter commended Duval and Rigby for making 
a cast of the Stahlneckerin stone before its carving is lost through deterioration. 

Is this stone eligible for museum care ? We have learned that the gift shop in the base- 
ment of Boston's Faniuel Hall houses the 1778 Sara Hooker stone. The owner of the shop 
explains that the stone was left there by the proprietor who preceded him. It is a nicely 
carved stone by a Boston carver. Perhaps a reader can tell us where it came from. As 
for where it belongs, we suggest that the gift shop present it to the Boston Museum of 
Fine Arts. 

Gravestone destruction in Pennsylvania and Michigan . 

Charles E. Mohr has sent us an item from the Philadelphia Bulletin about mass de- 
struction in the Montefiore Cemetery, a seventy acre Jewish cemetery in Abington Town- 
ship, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. There appeared to be no anti-Semitism in the 
desecration of 110 stones that were pushed over and smashed, just pure vandalism. A 
list of the damaged stones was compiled and the families were notified. We were interest- 
ed in a quoted comment by one of the cemetery officials that damage to gravestones is 
covered by most homeowners' insurance policies. 

From Sandra Ponteleit comes a similar news clip, this one about a "senseless smash- 
ing" of fifteen stones in North Cemetery, a small, remote burying ground in Lansing, 
Michigan. "What time and weather failed to do in more than a hundred years, vandals 
accomplished in one night... and the history of the community and of the pioneer North 
family was lost," said the director of the city parks, which administers the graveyard. 
A follow-up article on this story suggests that some of the damage to the stones may 
have been the work of careless work crews who were trimming trees and vegetation In 
and around North Cemetery at about the same time that the cemetery was vandalized. 

Cemetery census, Chatauqua County, New York . Mac Nelson, State University of New 
York-Fredonia, reports that the Chatauqua County (New York) Genealogical Society in 
Dunkirk will conduct a census of the county's graveyards. Professor Nelson, who Is 
helping the Society plan the project, spoke at its June meeting. 

Documenting the headstones of the Defenders of New London . The Ledyard (Connecti- 
cut) Historic Commission and Ledyard's Town Historian, Helen Vergason, are compiling 
a book to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Groton Heights and the 
burning of New London, September 6, 1781. To be Included are photographs of as 
many of the headstones of the defenders as can be located. Fifty percent of the stones 
have now been photographed. The majority are of schist and Connecticut Valley red 
sandstone. The schist stones are thought to be the work of Josiah Manning or of his 
sons, Rockwell and Frederick, from the Norwich, Connecticut, vicinity. Many of the 
sandstone headstones are probably the work of Thomas Johnson of Chatham. Further 
research Is needed to locate probate evidence that will confirm or deny these attribu- 
tions. Serious deterioration of the sandstone has made identification difficult. Many 
stones can be identified only by comparing the deteriorated stone with sketches of the 
defenders' stones from a book published in 1881. The project is scheduled to be com- 
pleted In the fall of 1981. For this item the NEWSLETTER thanks Carolyn Smith (22 
Brentford-Berwich, Ledward, Connecticut 06339), Rob Schlssler, and Sheila Godlno. 



Columbia University training program in conservation . "Learning about tine Real 
World" is the title of an illustrated article by Kay Holmes published in a recent issue 
(we do not have the date) of Historic Preservation . It describes Columbia University's 
pioneer program in historic preservation in that institution's Graduate School of Arch- 
itecture and Planning. Two dictums of good preservation basic to the program are 
Don't do anything irreversible, and Repair rather than replace. One of the School's 
research projects that is applicable to gravestone conservation involves the use of 
acrylic polymers for consolidation of deteriorating brownstone. An aspect of the 
article of interest to us is a photograph of Assistant Professor Norman Weiss, who was 
a featured speaker at the AGS conference in Haverhill, Massachusetts, in June, 1980. 

Four MOCA documenting project s. The Maine Old Cemetery Association (MOCA) is 
conducting four long-term projects. The Surname Index (SIP) is an alphabetical list- 
ing of over 214,000 persons who lived and died in Maine. The Bicentennial Project 
(BIP) is a listing of graves of Revolutionary veterans who lived in Maine (see AGS 
NEWSLETTER, Winter 1979, Volume 4, Number 1, Pages 1,2). The Marble Records 
is an index of the ten volumes of inscriptions used on the gravestones cut by the 
Victorian stonecutter Edwin W. Marble, and of the business records of the three gen- 
eration Marble family business. The MOCA Inscription Project (MIP) is an orderly 
listing of all stones in any given cemetery in the state. Thus far, 13,000 cemeteries 
have been catalogued. Work on these projects is done by unpaid volunteers. The 
body of information developed is shared through cooperation with the Maine State 
Library, historical societies, and town and university libraries. For more information 
about MOCA projects, write Hilda M. Fife, 6 Sherwood Drive, Eliot, ME 03903. 

Landmark Status, Massachusetts . As a step in applying for Historic Landmark Status 
for an old burial ground, Massachusetts residents ask for and fill out "Form E — Burial 
Grounds," obtained from the Massachusetts Historical Commission, Office of the Sec- 
retary, State House, Boston. The one-page form is simple. It asks for information 
such as dates of the earliest and most recent stones, condition, and a map showing 
the graveyard's location, and where and what kind of further information is available. 
Filling out this application is uncomplicated if the graveyard has been carefully re- 
corded, as has the old burial ground in South Hadley, Massachusetts. James B. Allen, 
of the South Hadley Historical Society, who was a key person in the documenting of 
that town's graveyard in 1976, reports that with the help of their graveyard record, 
getting the site included in the town's inventory of old and important buildings and 
places, a precondition to receiving Landmark Status, was a smooth procedure. 

A big undertaking . Best wishes to Mrs. Donna McBride of Eaton Rapids, Michigan, 
who (according to a newspaper item in the July 16, 1980, Lansing State Journal) has 
volunteered to help the local Historic Commission index the fifty-four cemeteries in 
Eaton County. Eighteen have been indexed and filed previously with the Commission. 
Mrs, McBride has completed five. This leaves her with thirty-one to go! 

Canadian conservation . Mrs. Lorraine Folds Crawford of Toronto, Ontario, writes of 
her "amateur interest" in old gravestones and of her special concern for stones crafted 
by Samuel Gardner in the mid- to late 1900's in the Southern Ontario region. She tells 
us that the carved surfaces of most of these slate stones are in remarkably good con- 
dition but that the center layers of the stones are deteriorating and the faces are be- 
coming detached. She plans to make a photographic record and welcomes advice. We 
referred her to two articles which appear in the 1980 issue of MARKERS : "The Care 
of Old Cemeteries and Gravestones," by Lance Mayer, and "Recording Cemetery Data." 
The latter article, written by Joanne Baker, Dan Farber, and Anne Ciesecke, contains 
a section on gravestone photography. Mrs. Crawford's interest in the conservation 
of Canadian stones has been met with indifference and she seeks contact with Cana- 
dians who share her concern. Write: 7 Crescent Place, Apartment 2118, Toronto, 
Ontario M4C 5L7. See Page 3 for the address for ordering MARKERS. The AGS 
Regional Representative for Canada is Deborah Trask, 1747 Summer Street, Halifax 
Nova Scotia B3H 3A6. 



TREE MARKERS , a follow-up. James Slater, whose paper about tree-shaped monuments 
intrigued members at the AGS conference, writes that he has received photographs of 
similar tree design markers in Ohio cemeteries, and also that The Hartford Courant 
recently published a story about markers of this type. Despite the wide disbursement 
of these markers. Slater suspects that they were all carved in a single location, prob- 
ably Bedford, Indiana. 



WORKS IN PROGRESS 

Photographic record of documervted stones . Kevin M.Sweeney, a doctoral candidate 
at Yale University and the new Administrator-Curator of the Webb-Deane-Stevens 
Museum in Wethersfieid, Connecticut {ZIP 06109), met on July 11, 1980, with the 
Friends of Historic Deerfield (Massachusetts) in that village's old burial ground, 
where Sweeny talked about the Deerfield stones and their carvers. As a result of 
this meeting, he and museum photographer Dan Farber, who heard Sweeney's talk, 
have made plans to work together to produce a photographic record of documented 
stones in the Northampton-Hatfieid-Deerfield area of Massachusetts. Also, NEWS 
LETTER editor, Jessie Lie Farber, has asked Mr. Sweeney to write a piece about tTie 
man who carved the handsome slates which dominate the Northfield, Massachusetts, 
burial ground. "The Northfield Carver, "Sweeney says, is in all probability Ebenezer 
Janes II (c, 1730-1810), a noted gravestone carver and a lifelong resident of Northfield. 

The monument industry on conservation . Elyse Bass, public relations representative for 
the monument industry (SuTte 1600, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611) 
is preparing an article for publication by the industry on preservation and conservation 
of gravemarkers. She requested information about AGS's position in these areas and 
was referred to Lance Mayer, ACS Vice President/Conservation, and to his position 
paper published in the 1980 issue of the Association's journal, MARKERS. 

Eastern Connecticut carvers . James Slater has organized information about eastern 
Connecticut gravestones, their distribution, and their carvers, and he is combining 
this information with a guide to the eastern Connecticut burial grounds. Slater's grave- 
stone scholarship is well known by AGS members, who will surely look forward to this 
contribution to gravestone studies. 

REQUESTS FOR INFORMATION 

Melvin Williams , Professor of English, American International College, Springfield, 
Massachusetts, is collecting a list of rubable stones of ministers for a show he is 
preparing. He welcomes suggestions. 

Ben J. Lloyd of the Bedwyn Stone Museum, Wiltshire, England, asks for information 
to fill out this story: 

After the Crimean War, the middle of the last century, the Houblon family of 
Hartford, England, who owned the Bank of England, arranged with their cousins 
Heublein of Hartford, Connecticut, to export goods to England, and the amount 
of merchandise exported was so large that Connecticut adopted the Houblon crest, 
three vines growing up poles. (Originally the vines were hops; Heublein means 
hops.) Stone was too heavy a commodity for a very large trade in it to develop, 
but token quantities were sent back to the old country. Thus we find that the 
people of New London, Connecticut, floated a block of slate colored stone with one 
white vein running through it, weighing about H tons, down the river Thames 
and across the Atlantic and up the original river Thames, where it was unloaded 
at Pimlico Warf. From there it was delivered to Ruddocks, the stonecarvers of 
Edbury Street, Victoria, where William Lloyd carved a font. Mr. Ben Lloyd tells 
us that he has a plaster model of this font and that the design was taken from West 
Wellow, the home of Florence Nightingale of Crimean War fame. The font is still to 
be seen at St. George the Martyr at Southward, which is in the older part of London 
where Shakespeare had the Globe Theater. 

One detail of this story remains to be filled in: the name and location of 
the Connecticut quarry the stone came from. Readers with information about 
this should write to Mr. Lloyd at the address above. Also, Mr. Lloyd plans 
to attend the 1981 ACS conference and would like to arrange housing in the 
University of Connecticut area with a member. 

CALL FOR PAPERS : Session on American grave- 
stone studies at American Culture/Popular Cul- 
ture Association meetings, March 25-29, 1981, 
Cincinnati. Short (15-20 minute) papers dealing 
with gravestones and /or graveyards from geo- 
graphical, literary, sociological, folkloristic, etc., 
perspective. Abstracts by 1 February to David 
Taylor, Ohio University, 1425 Newark Road, 
Zanesville, Ohio 43701. 




Detail from a Pennsylvania fraktur. 



- 18 - 

INTERPRETATION: Stepping Stone to Public Awareness Sandra A . Poneleit 

Communicating with the general public is often much like crossing a brook — 
some steppingstones may be needed. The physical and psychological distances between 
the public and the work of the ACS are being bridged in part by education. Annual 
conferences, the Association's journal Markers, newsletters, and a planned slide/tape 
program are educational activities and materials that can help span the gap. Inter- 
pretation, an ally of education, is another communication link which can be used. It 
can promote public sensitivity, awareness, appreciation, enthusiasm, and commitment 
with respect to the Association's work and the cultural/historical resources represented. 

Many agencies and organizations are involved with interpretation in such 
diverse settings as parks, historic sites, museums, zoos, and even industrial sites. 
Interpretation, in this context, refers to: 

A communication process designed to reveal meanings and 
relationships of our cultural and natural heritage to the 
public through [primarily] first-hand involvement with an 
object, artifact, landscape, or site (Pearl, 1978:5*) . 

Professional and volunteer interpreters (spelled with an "or" to distinguish him/her 
from the foreign language translator) use first-hand involvement to motivate interest 
in an environment or subject matter (Scanlon, 1971; Cherem, 1975). Though based 
primarily on-site , interpretation is also used to extend a site into the community through 
outreach services. As an informal type of education, interpretation serves voluntary, 
non-captive audiences "who are in a leisure frame of mind and who anticipate an enjoy- 
able experience" (Cherem, 1975; 1977:6). 

The main intent of interpretation is not instruction, but rather provocation 
based on factual information (Tilden, 1967:9). Interpreters use the technique to com- 
municate messages to the public in a provocational manner. Both personal services 
(such as illustrated talks, conducted walks or hikes, living history or cultural programs, 
demonstrations, etc.) and nonpersonal services (such as signs, labels, exhibits, pub- 
lications, self-guided facilities and tours, etc.) are subject to this approach (Sharp, 1976) 
The key elements of interpretive technique are Tilden's ]_nterpretive Principles, or the 
tip's:* 

1. Provoke the attention or curiosity of your audience. 

2. Relate your message to the everyday life of your audience. 

3. Reveal the essence of your subject through a unique viewpoint. 
U. Address the whole : that is, show the logical significance of an 

object to a higher level, concept, or story line. 
5. Strive for message unity: that is, use a sufficient but varied 
repetition of cues to create and accentuate a particular mood, 
theme, aura, or atmosphere. 

*Modified from Tilden (1967) by Cherem (1977). 

Active or figurative language and nonverbal languages are also important components of 
interpretive technique. Training in the skillful use of these communication tools together 
with a knowledge of the topic(s) and audiences involved can help to maximize the effec- 
tive and benefits of interpretation. 

Whether in the form of personal or nonpersonal interpretive services, in- 
terpretation can play a major role in promoting public awareness of ACS programs and 
the cultural resources its members seek to study and preserve. In concert with the 
Association's objectives, varied interpretive services/techniques could complement and 
be incorporated into the educational activities and materials available. For example, in- 
terpretive brochures, leaflets, and talks could further extend the work of ACS into 
local, national, and international communities. Encouraging the involvement of museums, 
parks, historic sites and centers, and cemetery associations in resource interpretation 
through interpretive programming,exhibits, publications, demonstrations, etc. is an- 
other avenue with good potential. These and other practicable approaches could aid 
in sparking public interest in historic preservation, conservation, artistic/cultural, 
and other aspects of early gravestones and graveyards. Interpretation is just one of 
many steppingstones which can be used to bring public interest and support to ACS 
programs. 

Sandra Poneleit and her husband John Veverka are interpretive consultants for 
Interpretive Associates, P.O. Box 95, East Lansing, Michigan 48823. She is editing 
the papers presented at the 1980 conference and preparing a Conference Proceedings, 

*Space did not allow our printing Mrs. Ponteleit's bibliography for this piece. It 
can be obtained by writing either her or the NEWSLETTER. 




WHO IS THIS CARVER? 





THE JB TAUNTON RIVER BASIN CARVER 



Vincent F. Luti 



There is a group of gravestones in Massachusetts' Taunton River Basin 
on three of which are the initials JB. Are they the work of John Bull (1734-1808) of 
Newport, Rhode Island? Circumstantial evidence points to him although on casual ob- 
servation the rpugh-hewn designs do not look much like Bull's later elegant work. Is 
it possible thafthese stones are his missing early work as an apprentice in Newport? 

The biography of John Bull's son Henry says that his father, John, was 
apprenticed at an early age to the William Stevens Shop in Newport, where he was a 
stonecarver and part-time helper in the grocery store. According to Henry's bio- 
graphy, John ran away and went to sea, returning between 1762-4, when he was 28-30 
years old. The earliest of the stones generally attributed to John Bull date about 1770, 
when John was in his late 30's. Are the JB stones the work of his early 30's? 

The JB-type stones in the Taunton Basin date from ca . 1750 to 1761, at 
which time John Bull would have been 16-17 years old and, according to Henry's 
account, away at sea. So the theory does not jibe with Henry Bull's record. 

Stones from Newport, easily shipped by water to Taunton River Basin 
towns, predominate in the Basin area until about 1760, when a native carving school 
takes over. For this period, we know of no local craftsman who could have been the 
carver of these stones; there was one minor (but interesting) skull carver who worked 
in this area at the time, but his stones bear no resemblance to those of the man signing 
himself JB . 

The rugged JB stones probably would not have suited the sophisticated 
Newport trade, but they found a ready market in the rural inland. The wonderfully 
rjch, aggressive, bold designs, heavily cut in strong light and shade, appear to be 
struggling adaptations of William Stevens' basic tympanum and pilaster designs (of 
which there are in the Taunton Basin fine examples and ample documentation) . The 
lettering on the stones has the same uninhibited creativity that John Benson speaks of 
in referring to the work of John Stevens I. Not until an accurate biographical chro- 
nology is established for John Bull, will we be able to see whether these JB stones of 
1750-61 fit neatly into Bull's apprentice period in the William Stevens Shop. 

Vincent Luti, a member of the music faculty of Southern Massachusetts University, is 
presently studying the New family, cutters of eighteenth century gravestones. His 
address: P.O. Box 412, Westport, Massachusetts 02790. 



A NEW NEWSLETTER FEATURE? A story in the June 3 Holyoke (Mass.) Transcript 
about Melvin Williams describes his introduction to old gravestones. In 1962 he was 
working on a photo story about old churches. Backing away from the churches to 
make his photographs, he often found himself in an old graveyard, studying the 
stones. He has been studying them and photographing and rubbing them and lectur- 
ing and writing about them ever since. 

The NEWSLETTER wogld like to hear from ACS members about their introduction to 
gravestones. In a few short paragraphs, tell us how you got interested. Maybe we 
will start a series. We would also like to have your accounts of unusual experiences 
you have had while in the graveyard pursuing your interest. 



20 



THE FATE OF PETER NITY 



James Slater 



Students of eighteenth century gravestone carvers consider the discovery 
of a signed stone by a previously unidentified carver to be a high point of their work. 
These signed stones become the "platinum rods" with which other stones are compared 
when attempting to establish the correct carver attributions of unsigned and non-pro- 
bate-recorded stones. 

It was my good fortune some years ago, through my interest in discovering 
the identity of Allan Ludwig's enigmatic "Collins Master," to make the acquaintance of 
the late master of Connecticut stonecarver students. Dr. Ernest Caulfield. I had writ- 
ten Dr. Caulfield to ask him about comments he had made in an article on Benjamin 
Collins, published in The Bulletin of the Connecticut Historical Society ("Connecticut 
Gravestones IX", page 23). He had stated, "In those towns where Collins stones are 
found most frequently, one also finds a few stones. . .that appear... to have been cut 
by someone else, probably Obadiah Wheeler." I told Dr. Caulfield that his descrip- 
tion of the work of Obadiah Wheeler sounded to me like the work of the "Collins Master." 
This brought a rapid reply inviting me to come for a visit which eventually resulted in 
our collaboration on a paper about Wheeler (a paper not complete when Dr. Caulfield 
died in 1972 while I was engaged in field work in Austrailia). 

Dr. Caulfield was nearly blind when I first met him, but his mind was razor 
sharp. On my second visit he loaded me down with manila envelopes full of Obadiah 
Wheeler information. Included was a pile of 3x5 cards with sketches and notes on in- 
dividual stones. On many, probably most, of these cards was scribbled, "Peter Nity" 
or "Peter Nity stone" or "Probably a Peter Nity." The name also appeared here and 
there in various pieces of his manuscript. But wherever Dr. Caulfield discussed 
Wheeler in his notes and manuscript, Peter Nity's name never seemed to appear. I 
finally began to feel that Dr. Caulfield had originally thought that the "Collins Master" 
was Peter Nity and later decided he was wrong and that the "Collins Master" was 
really Obadial^ Wheeler. Now this was important to me because the work of this car- 
ver is quite varied and I had spent many hours of study before reaching the conclu- 
sion that these variations are an evolution of the style of a single carver. If two 
carvers were involved, my theory would be knocked into a cocked hat. Also, I was 
puzzled that nowhere in Dr. Caulfield's notes could I find any reference to the source 
of the Peter Nity attributions — no mention of a signed stone nor of any probate rec- 
ord indicating that Peter Nity had been paid for one of the gravestones under con- 
sideration. 

The next, and unfortunately the last, time that I saw Dr. Caulfield I 
asked him about this curious situation. He assured me that only a single carver 
was involved, that the documentation for Obadiah Wheeler was solid and I was not 
to worry at all about Peter Nity. I remember the rather elfish grin that came over 
his face at that point as he said, "If you will go to the old Colchester burying ground 
and look near a big mound of earth, you will find a small stone for Mary Jones, 1729. 
If you can visualize the left side of this stone, below the face, with dirt and lichen 
on it, you will understand the story of Peter Nity." 

Thus, one raw early March day Betty and I drove to Colchester and 
found the old cemetery with its gigantic ancient spruce tree sighing in a blustery 
wind. In a short time we found the Mary Jones stone — clean and pristine, without 
a trace of lichen left on it. It was a perfect example of Obadiah Wheeler's simple 
stones for children. We both stared at it briefly. Then I began to laugh. There, 
sure enough, was "Peter Nity," but like the Chesire cat, the more you stared at him, 
the more he disappeared. 



James Slater, Professor of Entomology, 
University of Connecticut, Storrs, is 
a frequent contributor to gravestone 
scholarship. 



SAVE JUNE 26-28 
for the 
1981 ACS CONFERENCE 
Storrs, Connecticut 




ri-CTCD 



M I' 



MISCELANEOUS 

Want to buy an old gravemarker? It's legal. The Monument Builders News, June, 1980, 
carries a photo-story about a 5'6" handcarved sculpture of a young female "beautifully 
gowned in classical attire, holding a torch over her head... She is enclosed in a new 
wooden crate, ready for shipping, along with an extra arm, in case the original is 
broken." The marker was cut in 1910 along with three duplicates which are set on 
graves in Aberdeen, Scotland. This example of Victorian cemetery art is owned and 
for sale by Mr, James D. Rust, Boxord Property Co., Ltd., 60 Kings Gate, Aberdeen, 
Scotland AB2 6BP. 

New Zealand stones . Also from the Monument Builders News, September, 1980, is a 
story about Hugh Francis, Executive officer of New Zealand Master Monumental Masons 
Association, who described NewZealand's stones. The modern stones are set along a 
common foundation or berm which runs down a line of lots, making a very regimented, 
uniform, formal appearance. The stone material is usually African black granite or 
Scandinavian granite. Brightly colored fiberglass markers are popular in certain eth- 
nic sections. New Zealand markers often bear enameled photographs of the deceased, 
and they use quite a bit more gilding in their lettering than one sees in the U.S. Al- 
though the stones are significantly smaller than those in the U.S., there is usually 
much more lettering. "When I look at a typical upright monument in New Zealand," 
says Francis, 'M know much more about the deceased person." 

Modern stones, U.S.A. We thank Francis Duval and Robert Van Benthuysen for clips 
of an Associated Press story from The New York Times and The Asbury Park (III.) 
Press, July 27, 1980, about changes in the faces of America's gravestones. "It is a 
rebellion against getting lost in the shuffle," said David Quiring of Quiring Monuments 
of Seattle, whose assembly line and two computer-run sandblasters can turn out twenty 
"personalized" markers a day. According to the article, John Dianes of Evanston, III., 
and Executive Vice-president of the Monument Builders of North America, feels that 
personalized gravestones are reminders of the gravestones of American Colonists. "We 
are going back to epitaphs that said something about the person, that he was a farmer 
or that she was a teacher and a mother." He estimates that of the markers produced in 
the United States each year, ten percent are "customized." 

(Mr. Duval, 105 Vanderbilt Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11238, is Artistic Director for 
MARKERS . Mr. Van Benthuysen, Monmouth College Library, West Long Branch, NJ, 
is AGS Regional Representative for New Jersey.) 

Connecticut promotes its burial grounds . "Far from being a goulish experience, a tour 
of graveyards can often yield a wealth of historic information and prove a fascinating 
diversion. One state in particular, Connecticut, has outlined a tour of cemeteries and 
other burial sites. . .Further information on Connecticut cemeteries, other state attrac- 
tions and a free map are available from the Department of Economic Development, 210 
Washington Street, Hartford 06106." This item was excerpted from the July 27 New 
York Times travel section. 



INERNHOJSEILEREHEHERELIESJOHNRENI 
NERNHOJSIELEREHEIEHERELIESJOHNREN 
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REHEINERNHOJSEILELIESJOHNRENIEHER 
EHEINERNHOJSEILERELIESJOHNRENIEHE 
HEINERNHOJSEILERERELIESJOHNRENIEH 
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EHEINERNHOJSEILERELIESJOHNRENIEHE 
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NERNHOJSEILEREHEIEHERELIESJOHNREN 
INERNHOJSEILEREHEHERELIESJOHNRENI 



A curiosity in the churchyard of 
Priory Church, Monmouth, Gwent, 
England, is the stone for John Renie, 
1932. "Here lies John Renie," can 
be read horizontally and vertically. 
It also reads correctly when the read- 
er changes directions at any letter. 

This item was published with a photo- 
graph of the stone in the May 1 issue 
of Country Life, sent to the NEWS- 
LETTER by Sue and Philip Jones. 



HI1131SM3N 



sseyy 'j3]S33jo^ 
OL^ ON iiuijaj 

a I V d 

3DViSOd s n 
3iva >nn9 



60910 ssvw J3;saDJO/v\ 

■A43POS uvjjvnbnuv u\?D!Jaujvo/D 

suouPDliqnj SDV 




- 22 



Three organizations with concerns similar to those of AGS 

The Society for Folk Arts Preservation, Inc. (SFAP) is a new preservation society 
whose aims parallel some of AGS's. Founded in 1977, SFAP is a non-profit tax ex- 
empt, educational organization which acts as a repository for visual craft techniques 
that are in danger of disappearing. By means of film and tape produced by SFAP, 
it seeks to document and preserve and disseminate these techniques for use by 
artists, scholars, and the interested public. The Society welcomes contributions 
to its newsletter. Write SFAP, 308 East 79th Street, New York, NY 10021. 

Another organization with similar concerns is Saving and Preserving Arts and Cul- 
tural Environments (SPACES). Nationwide, SPACES is devoted to the recognition 
and preservation of America's folk art environments such as Simon Rodia's Towers. 
For more information, write SPACES, 1804 North Van Ness, Los Angeles, CA 90028. 

The International Society for the Study of Church Monuments aims to promote the 
study, care and conservation of funerary monuments and related art of all periods 
and countries. Their flyer, sent to us by Pamela Burgess, who showed slides of 
English churchyard memorials at the 1980 AGS conference, reads: "Church monuments 
commemorate the dead, but they are also part of a living past which is our heritage. 
They fascinate those interested in the history of art, dress, religion or society it- 
self, those who are practising masons and sculptors, and those who study heraldry 
and genealogy, lettering or petrology. These people have often been unknown to 
each other, but now at last a society has been formed to bring them together. . .The 
Society holds a Symposium every two years and keeps its members in touch with 
recent publications and research through the medium of a Bulletin. . .Material for 
inclusion should be sent to the Editor, Mr. Nigel Ramsay, 15 Charlbury Road, 
Oxford 0X2 6UT." The membership fee is ^2.50. Overseas members are asked to 
send sterling drafts payable in London to ISSCM, The Membership Secretary, Mr, 
Philip Lankester, c/o Museum and Art Gallery^ Kelvingrove, Glasgow G3 SAG. 



Graveyard nature study. The March and April, 1980, issues of The Audubon Journal, 
published by the Delaware Audubon Society, include articles by Charles Mohr which 
could open new facets of gravestone study. One article calls attention to special photo- 
graphic opportunities and to the variety of photographic subjects provided by nature 
in cemetery settings. The Delaware Camera Club's assigned subject, "Cemeteries," 
generated a heightened awareness of graveyards and proved to be one of th6 most pop- 
ular subject assignments in the club's long history. Mohr offers many pertinent photo 
tips Among them: Repeat visits to the same cemetery (each visit brings new discoveries; 
and. Beware of distracting backgrounds (distracting backgrounds, an ever-present 
hazard, are at their worst in cemeteries). 

Dr. Mohr's other piece concerns a study of the wildlife potential of cemeteries. He 
says the next step will be to enlist the support of local committees, establish coopera- 
tion with responsible cemetery officials and public and private school personnel, and 
initiate inventories of the varied historical and natural history features of the best 
wildlife sites. Preliminary findings will help to formulate evaluation procedures and 
guidelines for organized visits and studies. Materials developed will be shared with 
other Audubon chapters and similar interested groups. Dr. Mohr's address: LakeClub 
Apartments B-26, 400 North DuPont Highway, Dover, DE 19901. 




NtWbLtTTtR 

OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 



Volume U, Number 4 Fall 1980 



ISSN: 0146-5783 



CONTENTS 

The NEWSLETTER has mofe material than can be used in one mailing. 
PART I 



This ie: 



Markers 



1 

2 

2-k 
3 
5 



A LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT about our new journal 

INTERESTING EPITAPHS (a new feature?) 

ASSOCIATION NEWS 

ASSOCIATION ADDRESSES 

BOOK REVIEW 

Famous and Curious Cemeteries 
by John Francis Marion 
Review by Edwin Dethlefsen 

MORE ABOUT BOOKS 6 

RECENT RESEARCH, MEETINGS, AND PAPERS 7.9 

EXHIBITIONS 10 

STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS. Sixth installment U 

James Standi ft, 1630-1712 
by Sherry Stancliff 



PART II will be mailed to members in November 

A Restoration Program for Youths. An article 

by Mitchell Alegre 

CEMETERY CITATIONS 

CONSERVATION. Publications, projects, news items 

WORKS IN PROGRESS / REQUESTS FOR INFORMATION . . . , , 

Interpretation: Stepping Stone to Public Awareness. An article 
by Sandra Poneleit 

WHO IS THIS CARVER? 

by Vincent Luti 

The Fate of Peter Nity. A short, sweet story 

by James Slater 

MISCELANEOUS 



13 
14 

15.15 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21.22 



Dear AGS Members, 



One of the most important accomplishments of the Association during the 
previous year has been the publication of MARKERS , the handsome, soft-bound 
journal which not only presents the latest scholarship and new gravestone "finds" 
but also sets forth the official position of the Association on conservation, record- 
ing, and museum custody of gravemarkers. One hundred and eighty two beauti- 
fully and profusely illustrated pages of interesting articles dealing with many fa- 
cets of gravestone study, it is a valuable contribution to gravestone literature. 

The book is the result of the hard work of a number of skilled and dedi- 
cated persons who volunteered their talents in the service of the Association. We 
are now in the process of marketing the publication. Because the printing of this 
first issue is small (only 500 copies), our primary concern is to get the copies into 
the hands of those who will make the best use of the book, such as historic and 
genealogical societies, museum and college libraries, and of course individuals with 
a serious interest in gravestone scholarship. 

If you have not already purchased your copy, we urge you to do so without 
delay. The member's non-profit price is $15, postage included. Others pay $25. 
Please spread the news about MARKERS. Mention it at meetings of your historic 
or genealogical society. Order it for your departmental or college library. Ask 
for it at museum and historical society bookshops. Show your copy to interested 
colleagues and organizations. 

We are mailing descriptive brochures to professional organizations and 
libraries. If you would like several of these to distribute, they are available 
upon request from : 

AGS Publications 

c/o The American Antiquarian Society 

Worcester, MA 01609 

The above is, also, the address for ordering MARKERS. 

When people know of the book's existence, it will 



sell 



Thanks for your help, 
itself. 



Sincerely, 



Joanne Baker, President 



INTERESTING EPITAPHS 

A New Feature 

When you behold this stone Epitaph on the stone for Samuel Osborn 1756, 

That guards my sleeping dust who died in his 72 year. East Windsor, Conn. 

Prepare to come and lie with me. Contributed by James Slater, Mansfield Center, 

Perhaps you'l be the first Connecticut. 

Readers are invited to send the NEWSLETTER their favorite epitaphs. Please 
include location of the marker and the name and death date of the deceased. 



ASSOCIATION NEWS 

THE ANNUAL MEETING 

The annual meeting of the Association for Gravestone Studies was held at Bradford 
College in Haverhill, Massachusetts, June 22, 1980. Items on the agenda included: 
1) Reports from the officers; 2) Announcement of the site for the 1980 conference; 
3) Election of officers to fill vacancies on the Executive Board. 

^» The following are excerpts from President Baker's Annual Report : 

The Constitution of the Association for Gravestone Studies charges the organi- 
zation to promote the study and preservation of old gravestones, to inform the 
public about their importance through conferences and publications, and to es- 
tablish a repository where information can be available to all interested persons. 
In the three years since the founding of the Association, important steps have 
been taken toward these goals. Among them are: 

The establishment of an AGS Archive at the New England 
Historic Genealogical Society. 

The regular publication of a newsletter. 

The publication of a journal. 

The development of Association position statements on stone 
conservation, the recording of cemetery data, and the role 
of the museum as repository of endangered stones. 

The holding of annual conferences. 

The production of a slide-tape program on Western graveyards. 

Growth of the membership from just over 30 to nearly 300. 

This is encouraging progress. Much needs to be done, however. The Executive 
Board has reviewed the status of the Association and developed a list of activi- 
ties which will receive priority time and funds. 

To continue publication of the NEWSLETTER and MARKERS. 

To continue holding an annual conference in varying locations. 

To involve a large percentage of the membership in the 
work of the 'Association. 

To actively solicit material for the Association Archive. 

To make ACS recommendations known to the general public. In particular, 
to have a positive impact on community restoration programs by festering 
orderly and systematic recording practices. 

To secure funding for AGS programs, 

I invite AGS members to take part in these activities. Send your ideas and vol- 
unteer your services directly to me, Joanne Baker, 51 South Street, Concord, 
New Hampshire 03301. 

^^ The site announced for the 1981 conference is the University of Connecticut, Storrs. 

(Annual Meeting continued on following page) 



•V Association officers comprising AGS's 1980-81 Executive Board: 

President JOANNE BAKER 51 South St., Concord NH 03301 

(603) 228-0680 (home) (603) 271-3747 (business) 

Vice-President MICHAEL CORNISH 62 Calumet St., Roxbury MA 02120 

Archives (617) 731-5919 

Vice-President LANCE MAYER Conservation Dept., Cincinnati Art Museum, 

Conservation Eden Park, Cincinnati OH 45202. 

(513) 321-9456 (home) (513) 721-5204 (business) 

Vice-President MARY ANNE MRQZINSKI 47 Hammond Rd., Glen Cove NY 11542 

Education (516) 759-0527 

Vice-President ANNE ARMSTRONG 327 South Main St., Bradford MA 01830 

Grants (617) 374-8945 (home) (617) 373-5663 (business) 

Vice-President JESSIE LIE FARBER 31 Hickory Dr., Worcester MA 01609 

Publications (617) 755-7038 

Vice-Presidents RUTH GRAY 70-B Fourth St., Old Town ME 04468 

Research (207) 827-3508 

JAMES TIBENSKY 1510 South Lombard Ave., Berwyn IL 60402 
(312) 795-7680 

Recording RALPH TUCKER 928 Main St., West Newbury MA 01985 

Secretary (617) 462-4244 

Corresponding RUTH COWELL 21 Bogert Place, Westwood NJ 07675 

Secretary (201) 664-3618 

Treasurer SALLY THOMAS 82 Hilltop Place, New London NH 03257 

(603) 526-6044 

PLEASE NOTE : AGS has no physical headquarters. Correspondence should be 
addressed to the appropriate board members listed above, or, depending on the 
nature of your AGS business, to one of the following 

A GS ADDRESSES 

To join AGS , send dues directly to AGS Treasurer, Sally Thomas. Address above. 

$10 - Individual $5 - Full-time student $10 - Institutional 
$25 - Sustaining (includes MARKERS , the AGS journal). 

To change your mailing address , drop a card giving your name and both your old 

and new addresses, with ZIPS, to Sally Thomas, AGS Treasurer. 
Address above. Because we use third and fourth class mail to 
sendyour journal and newsletters, these items are not forwarded. 
Keep your address current with us! 

To contribute to the NEWSLETTER , address Jessie Lie Farber, editor, AGS Pub- 
lications, c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester MA 01609. 
Publication deadlines: Dec.1, March 1, Junel, and Sept. 1. 

To order MARKERS (the AGS journal) , send check to AGS Publications, c/o The 

American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA 01609. Prices: 
$15 to members; $25 to non-members. 

To contribute to MARKERS , address David Watters, editor, English Dept., Hamilton- 
Smith Hall, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824. 
Manuscripts will be accepted until March 1, 1981. 

To contribute materials to the AGS Archive at the New England Historic Genealo- 
gical Society, Address AGS Archives, c/o American Antiquarian 
Society, Worcester, MA 01609. 

To order bumperstickers ("I brake for old graveyards"); notec ards (with photos 

by Dan Farber); signed and numbered broadsides by English 
poet, Martin Booth, suitable for framing. Address AGS Pub- 
lications, c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA 01609. 
Bumperstickers $1.30; 1 doz. cards $5; broadsides $15. 

To request general AGS information , or to order information sheets (three titles: 

"Conservation," "Photography," and "Symbolism"-25<;: each) , 
address Corresponding Secretary Ruth Cowell. Address above. 

To contribute to, inquire about, and order the 1980 ACS Conference Proceedings , 

address Sandra Poneleit, P.O. Box 95, East Lansing, Ml 48823. 



THE 1980 CONFERENCE PROCEEDING S. Many conferees asked when the Proceedings 
would be available. The answer at the time of the conference was that no publi- 
cation of the conference presentations was planned, that a newsletter and journal 
are the Association's present publication limit. We are therefore pleased indeed to 
report that, thanks to the initiative of one of our new members, a conference pro- 
cedings will be published. Sandra Poneleit felt so strongly that the papers read at 
the conference should be made available that she volunteered to gather and dup- 
licate and distribute them. V/atch the winter NEWSLETTER for announcements 
about the progress of Poneleit's Proceedings. Any conference presentations not 
now in her hands should be sent immediately, please, to Sandra Poneleit, P.O. Box 
95, East Lansing, Michigan 48823. Papers published in the Proceedings are auto- 
matiaally reviewed for vubliaation in MARKERS . 

AGS SLIDE SHOW/LECTU RE. Mary Anne Mrozinski, Vice-President/Education, is 
develoJDing a slide show toacquaint the public with old gravestones, their cultural 
importance, their beauty, and the threats to their survival. She needs all kinds 
of help from every section of the United States. Can you help her gather repre- 
senative slides from your area? She needs a narrator, and she needs help with a 
few legal considerations, such as drafting release forms, and obtaining a copyright. 
If you are interested in this project, Ms. Mrozinski would like to hear from you. 
Write her at the address given on page 3 . ■ 

MEMBERSHIP PROMOTION . If you have friends or colleagues who are interested in 
gravestone studies, send us their names and we will mail them a sample NEWSLETTER. 
AGS depends on its members for Association work and for financial success of its 
projects. 

DUES ARE DUE . Past due. It gives us pain to remove anyone's name from the 
NEWSLETTER mailing list — we feel sure that most of our members intend to renew. 
But please get your dues to Sally Thomas right away. 



LIST OF MEMBERS . Last year the NEWSLETTER published the names and addresses 
of members who attended the 1979 conference. This list was useful, but Pmcomplete, 
because it ignored those members who did not attend the conference. As a result, 
we have had numerous requests to publish the names and addresses of the entire 
membership. We have decided not to use the limited NEWSLETTER space that way. 
However, members who would like to have a list of the names of ACS members and 
their addresses may order the list from AGS Treasurer Sally Thomas, 82 Hilltop Place, 
New London, NH 03257. Price, $3.00. 



AGS ARCHIVES ARE READY to receive contributions. The small AGS collection in 
the library of the New England Historic Genealogical Society has been indexed. Con- 
tributions are now being solicited. To build the collection into a useful reference 
library, we need ; 

1) An exhaustive bibliography of gravestone-related books and articles, preferably 
annotated. Members interested in working on this, please contact Michael Cornish, 
AGS Vice-President/Archives . Address below. 

2) Published literature . Please donate your duplicate copies of published books, 
articles, monographs, cemetery records. 

3) Unpublished literature, photographs . 

4) Help with indexing . Volunteers should be from the Greater Boston area. (NEHGS 
is an elegant library in a handsome part of Boston. It should be a pleasure to work 
in such a setting. ) 

Address contributions to: Address inquiries, descriptions of 

Association for Gravestone Studies materials, etc., to: 

c/o American Antiquarian Society Michael Cornish 

Worcester, MA 01609 62 Calumet Street 

Roxbury, MA 02120 

Please Note : ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ materials or letters directly to NEHGS. 
^g^^\ Make photocopies on archival, acid-free paper. 

■HT"' ) Contributions are tax-deductible. 



BOOK REVIEW 

FAMOUS AND CURIOUS CEMETERIES 

By John Francis Marion 

Illustrated with 256 photographs and prints, xii + 256 pages 

New York: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1977. Hardcover $12.95 

Review by Edwin S. Dethlefsen 

I have often thought that the key to American culture is somewhere in the 
second half of the 19th century, all mixed up with industrialism and the emergence of 
a competitive middle class. FAMOUS AND CURIOUS CEMETERIES reminds me that the 
cultural evolution game continues throughout our kind, and that graveyards may be use- 
ful for keeping score. The book won't lead the reader anywhere near eternal truth, but 
a trip through its pages can't help but reward even the most sophisticated of graveyard 
buffs with a good selection of experiences in the best known post-medieval and contem- 
porary cemeteries of the western world. 

Full of pictures (most of them not artistically distracting nor printed with 
disturbing clarity) , the large-format volume is also full of descriptive and anecdotal 
verbiage. It has a pleasing lack of intellectual pretension (although the reference to 
somebody's "in-depth studies" somewhere in the Acknowledgements is painful) , freeing 
the reader to explore a gamut of stimulating tidbits of graveyard gossip and to spin the 
most outrageous of generalizations, or just to wander visually among the plethora of pleas- 
ant places this collection represents. 

I had lots of fun wallowing in this book. It would have been much nicer with 
bigger and better illustrations, but then it would have cost more. As it is, the text is 
just right, and it's really a terrific book at half the price, which is what most discount 
houses are charging for it. One needn't even feel cheated to pay the marked price. 

Part III impressed me the most, perhaps because I tend to think of military 
cemeteries as dull places. "American Military Cemeteries Overseas" is an extensive re- 
minder of a little known and less understood, but uniquely significant aspect of American 
culture history. It makes me curious to know what post-WWII military graveyards are 
like. The reader is toured to WWI and WWII cemeteries in England, Belgium, France, Italy, 
Luxembourg, Netherlands, Tunisia, Mexico and the Philippines. It was interesting to read 
that Lindbergh flew The Spirit of St. Louis over Flanders and dropped poppies on the Me- 
morial Day ceremonies in 1927; I wonder what that meant to Americans and Belgians in 1927, 
and how that meaning might have been conveyed today. It is hard to imagine such poppy- 
dropping on a similar scene in modern Korea or Vietnam, but the institution must have out- 
lasted whatever function it had, even if the function has changed faster than the institution, 

The military cemeteries are spectacular masterworks of landscape and architec- 
tural design. They are not really "better" esthetically than other cemeteries I have known, 
but they are distinctively and categorically different. The photographs and descriptions 
leave no doubt that military cemeteries were poc/coged- -deaths, landscapes and monuments — 
which gives food for thought about the real cultural function of these packages. Here 
alone is a good afternoon's worth of speculation. 

Part IV, "A Selection of Other Interesting Cemeteries," is unabashed author's 
whimsey. So is the whole book, but this is even less abashed than the more organized 
pages that precede it. The choices are intriguing, and I shall never forget that in vault 
16 of St. Peter's Churchyard, in Salzburg, are the bones of the Mozart family's landlord. 
If that does not impress you, bear in mind what we learn about the Straschnitz Cemetery, 
in Prague, which contains the mortal remains of Franz Kafka and his parents. We are told 
that the dying Kafka called to his doctor, "Don't leave me," and that on the doctor's re- 
assurance that he would not, Kafka retorted, "But I am leaving you." That is all we are 
told of Straschnitz Cemetery, but perhaps it is enough. 

Many of the cemeteries in this section are listed only as devices on which to 
hang anecdotes, so while there are few pictures here, there are plenty of pretty good 
stories. One photograph, selected to represent St. Philip's Churchyard, Charleston, 
South Carolina, is of a schisty green death's head from mid-18th century eastern Massa- 
chusetts (the deceased is James Legare) , which is a reminder that some of us ought serious- 
ly to be collecting data on exportation of New England gravestones outside New England. 

In Part IV the accent ranges from a photo of Alexander Hamilton's gravestone 
in St. Croix, to the fact that Janis Joplin bought Bessie Smith a gravestone 33 years after 
Bessie was laid in her unmarked grave. That was a highly anecdotal thing to do. 

The "substance" of this book is in Parts I ("Europe and the West Indies") 
and 11 ("The United States"). The illustrations, including plenty of old photographs and 
prints as well as recent photos, are from a variety of commercial and archival sources; it 
is uncertain and probably irrelevant how many of the cemeteries the author actually visited. 
The collection of cemetery and funeral -related local anecdotes really sets the tone of the 
book. The introduction avows the author's purpose is to recall for us the time before me- 
morial lawns and parks made anomie the western way of death. I take issue with the remark 



that in the latter, "We all represent the least common denominator," because it is non- 
sense: but the remark is made in the introduction, where authors should be allowed some 
indefensible emotional license. The book is deliberately non-historical, the author's goal 
being to give us glimpses of the cultural role of cemeteries in the recent past, mostly after 
1850. In all this he has shown fair to above-average resistance to pedantry. 

In Parts I and II the time- and space-begotten differences in practically every 
aspect of the illustrations is a constant prick to the anthropoloqical imagination. The In- 
dustrial Revolution and its consequent social phenomena lambaste us here all the more be- 
cause the author did not purposefully arrange these contrasts. And just compare Parts 
I and II with the handiwork of "Big Brother" in Part ill. 

There are few photos and anecdotes of the colonial period, but nevermind; a 
more than adequate supply of those can be found elsewhere. FAMOUS AND CURIOUS 
CEMETERIES , by its emphasis on anecdotal interests in the 19th and 20th centuries, pro- 
vides us a rare perspective on the latter-day ideosyncratic, the "unique," and it circum- 
scribes some vague outlines around the limits of cultural permissiveness as these bound- 
aries change from time to time. It is easy to idle through this book and close it again 
feeling that one has moved closer to what the term "folk" ought to mean — "everybody." 

Turning the pages, the reader can meander in imagination from one country 
to another, back and forth between centuries, and often from one small geographical region 
to another, looking at cultural differences and similarities in the cemetery that are often 
striking, as in the differences between Russian and Italian gravestone styles, or between 
New England and Louisiana, or the similarities among Anglican cemeteries everywhere. 

I recommend FAMOUS AND CURIOUS CEMETERIES as the most eclectic and 
entertaining book about cemeteries-in-general to be found on any current coffee-tables. 
It may not be expensive enough for some tastes, nor scholarly enough for others, but it 
is good, stimulating involvement for anyone with the slightest mortuary inclinations. 

Dr. Dethlefsen, professor of anthropology at The College of William and Mary, Williams- 
burg, Virginia, and a pioneer in gravestone scholarship, was Keynote Speaker at the 
1980 AGS oonference. 



nORE ABOUT BOOKS 



NEW PUBLICATIONS 



Die Laughing by Larry Kane, Murray Stein, and Kristi Kane is an indescribable 
collection of sixty cartoons depicting fictional gravestones for well known person- 
alities, both living and dead. Published by Doubleday in February, 1980, this 
little book is sure to give you some good laughs unless your interest in grave- 
stones is entirely too serious. The price is a modest $4.95. You will enjoy it, we 
think, and you will also have a chance to be creative yourself: In anticipation of 
the sequel to Die Laughing , the authors offer a reward of $25 in cold cash for 
each entry used in Volume II. You can send your ideas directly to the authors, 
but we suggest NEWSLETTER readers send them instead to the NEWSLETTER, 
which will offer them to Die Laughing II and, if you are a winner, keep your $25. 
Seriously, it is a great way to contribute to AGS, which is a needy, non-profit, 
organization, contributions to which are, of course, deductible. Doubleday has 
kindly given the NEWSLETTER permission to reprint cartoons from Die Laughing. 
For starters, we offer these: 



^52«f^^^S^^^^^ 




,1 tiA'di, ' \ f,«-H>;«y''' 



NEW PUBLICATIONS 

Churchyards is an attractive booklet written by Pamela Burgess "as an introduction 
to the subject of churchyards and grave memorials for the uninitiated." It is a well 
illustrated fifty-five page pocket-size publication, obtainable for seventy-five shillings 
from SPEC, Holy Trinity Church, Marylebone Road, London NW1 4DU (which is also 
the publisher of the 1963 classic, English Churchyard Memorials by Frederick Burgess. 

Death: Grim Realities and Comic Relief by Christopher Clemens and Mark Smith will be 
released in October, 1980, by Harlin Quist Books (The Dial Press, 1 Dag Hammarskjold 
Plaza, 245 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017). Topics which touch on gravestone 
studies: a tour guide to the "best cemeteries," funeral customs through the ages, and 
unusual monuments. 192 pages with 150 illustrations. $9.95 paperback. 



IN PRESS 

The Archaeology of Us: The Cemetery and Culture Change, edited by Richard Gould 
and Michael Schiffero, will be published in April, 1981, by Academic Press. This book 
contains a chapter by Edwin Dethlefsen, "What Can Gravestones Tell Us about Com- 
munity?" In this chapter, Dethlefsen looks at the shape, the material, the design motif 
size, inscription, and the geography of gravestones in north central Florida, dividing 
them into five time periods from the Federal period to the 1960's. He sees in the exam- 
ination of a community cemetery a remarkable array of available cultural data, and he 
makes general, cultural-historical interpretations of the data. He concludes that, "We 
may begin to give very practical attention to the historical and philosophical applica- 
tions of data such as these from the graveyard." The reader is intrigued by questions 
he poses (for example, "Why does the Southeastern Irish gravestone almost inevitably 
include the town of the deceased's nativity, while American gravestones hardly ever 
do except for foreigners! What does this observation have to do with understanding 
differences in our ways of seeing community?"). The imagination is stimulated by his 
"miscelaneous observations" concerning gravemarkers made of wood, hollow cast metal, 
cast concrete, pottery, and metal stakemarkers; also gravemarkers decorated by flag- 
decked iron standards, plastic flowers, mason jars (which "breed mosquitoes among 
the brown stalks of last year's geraniums"), children's toys, seashells, periwinkles, 
and marbles or colored pottery pressed into homemade concrete. Dethlefsen observes 
that "practically all of it is meaningful in terms which reflect the cognitive systemic 
evolutionary history of the community." 

RECENT RESEARCH 

Stone deterioration in Prague . Attention is called by Gaynell Levine (RR 2, Box 205, 
Wading River, NY 11792) to a paper entitled, "Determination of the source of surface 
deterioration on tombstones at the Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague," by Jirf Sramek, 
published in Studies in Conservation, the Journal of the International Institute for 
Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, May, 1980, Volume 25, Number 2, Pages 
47-53. The address of this journal: 11C, 6 Buckingham Street, London WC2N 6BA. 

Children's stones . Deborah Smith, a graduate student in the V\/interthur Museum's 
advanced study program (in Winterthur, Delaware, ZIP 13735), completed a Master's 
thesis which examines Victorian perceptions of childhood and death. She used eighteen 
churchyard cemeteries in northern New Castle County as her primary resource, gather- 
ing a statistical sample of 911 children's tombstones, plus other funeral forms of the 
material culture of the period. 

Bird sanctuary, recreational area . The March, 1980, Audubon Journal mentions a study 
by two U.S. Forest Service researchers. They studied fifty cemeteries in southeastern 
Massachusetts, recording twenty types of recreational use of the areas. They also made 
records of bird habitation, which show a tremendously varied count — 95 species! 

Two Rhode Island studies . "Seth Luther, Stonecarver of the Narragansett Basin" by 
Vincent Luti, and "From the Collections: Rhode Island History Carved in Stone" by 
Robert Emien are excellent, beautifully illustrated articles published in the February, 
1980, issue of Rhode Island History. Luti's piece identifies a previously overlooked 
carver who worked in and around Providence, Seth Luther; EmIen gives the background 
events concerning three early Rhode Island stones which, fortunately, have found their 
way into the collection of the Rhode Island Historical Society. Both articles are of un^ 
usual interest to students of gravestone iconography and conservation. Rhode Island 
History is published by the Rhode Island Historical Society, 52 Power Street, Providence. 




Forbes papers transcribed and indexed 

Serious students of gravestone iconography know that the notes made by 
Harriette Forbes of probate records she found while preparing her 1927 book. 
Gravesto nes of Early New Engla nd and the Men Who Made Them, are in the library 
of the American Antiquarian Society, available to scholars. Unfortunately, these 
valuable records have been little more than a frustration to those who would like to 
use them. Being handwritten, personal notes, they are difficult to read. More im- 
portant, they are not indexed or arranged in an easily usable order. 

In 1979, the NEWSLETTER published Mrs. Forbes' records from Essex county, 
Massachusetts ( Spring issue. Volume 3, Number 2). Transcribing and organizing 
this list was the work of Ralph Tucker, past President of AGS. Now we have an 
important addition to Tucker's work. With the Reverend Tucker's moral support 
and the help of her daughter. Laurel Cabel of Wellesley, Massachusetts, has tran- 
scribed from the handwritten notes Mrs. Forbes' collection of references to grave- 
stones, stonecutters, funeral expenses, etc., from the Middlesex county (MA) pro- 
bate records. Volumes 1-79. To facilitate use of the compilation, Mrs. Gabel has 
organized the records by township and has indexed the work alphabetically by the 
name of the deceased. 

Bound copies of this fifty-three page compilation of 566 probated records have 
been given to the AGS Archives and to the American Antiquarian Society. The work 
is an outstanding personal achievement and an important contribution to gravestone 
studies. 

Gravestone Iconography in the Carolinas . A grant of $35,000 from the National 
Endowment for the Humanities will support a two-year investigation of gravestone 
iconography in the Carolinas by Ruth Little-Stokes and Charles G. Zug of the 
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The existence of rich iconographic 
traditions in North Carolina has already been established by Bradford Raushenberg 
for one German community and by Daniel W. Patterson for three localities settled 
by the Scotch-Irish. Zug and Little-Stokes will extend this work by systematically 
scouting for, photographing, and documenting stones imported from eighteenth- 
century Northern workshops into the coastal region, early stones carved locally 
in the Piedmont counties, and twentieth-century folk markers of pottery and on 
concrete. Ms. Little-Stokes has previously carried out extensive fieldwork on 
North Carolina housing and historic preservation and has published three books 
and other studies of this field. Professor Zug is currently completing a book on 
North Carolina pottery and teaching a course on material culture for the University 
of North Carolina Curriculum in Folklore. 

Cemetery prairies . The following item is reprinted from the 1975-76 Biennial Report of 
the Illinois Nature Preserves Commission, sent to the NEWSLETTER by James Slater, 
University of Connecticut, Storrs. For a copy of a more detailed report of this study, 
send $1 to AGS Publications, c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA 01609. 



CEMETERY PRAIRIES 

The pioneers established many small cemeteries 
in the prairie before the natural vegetation was 
destroyed by farming. Pioneer cemeteries that 
have been left alone through the years contain 
some of the finest examples of prairie vegetation 
left in the State. .Jh^^^j^y^Jj^se^g^J^ 



^jT^jj^^Jaiin^ig^,4jijjjjxa^t^p 



rte 



ecolo^^^^Ugg^Ui^^^^^lUi^j^^. 
^"^fie best prairie is in cemeteries that were 
fenced off from cultivation and grazing and were 
left unmowed. Even some mowed cemeteries still 
have good quality prairie vegetation that would 
ifecover if mowing were stopped. 

These small remnants of the once vast prairies 
of Illinois are all that remains of the original 
vegetation in some highly agricultural counties. 
They represent the only native prairie found on 
some soil types, and they provide refuge for many 
rapidly vanishing prairie plants, insects, birds, 
and small mammals. 

During 1976, the Illinois Natural Areas Inven- 
tory project checked almost 3,000 cemeteries 
throughout the State to locate cemetery prairies. 
Volunteers visited cemeteries located from maps 



and made a list of the prairie species present. 
Volunteers worked over 2,900 hours and travelled 
over 35,000 miles in search of these remnants. In 
addition, the Inventory compiled information on 
935 cemeteries surveyed by Dr. Robert Betz of 
Northeastern Illinois University. 

The inventory discovered 27 cemeteries with 
intact prairie vegetation and an additional 111 
areas with high potential for rehabilitation. 
These small remnants are only a few acres out of 
the vast acreage that once covered much of the 
State, but are precious because of the extreme 
rarity of prairie. 

Three cemetery prairies have been dedicated as 
nature preserves: Beach Cemetery, Ogle County; 
Weston Cemetery, McLean County; and Prospect 
Cemetery, Ford County. Prospect Cemetery, a 6- 
acre tract of some of the best black-soil tall- 
grass prairie in east-central Illinois, was de- 
dicated as a nature preserve by the Patton Town- 
ship Cemetery Trustees as part of Ford County's 
bicentennial observance. 

The Nature Preserves Commission is continuing 
to contact owners of cemetery prairies to discuss 
making them nature preserves as memorials to the 
pioneers who are buried there. 



ACID RAIN. The following item is reprinted from the May, 1980, issue of Environment, 
Volume 22, page 11. 



WHA T CAN WE LEARN FROM THE STONES? 

EPA 's Office of Research and Develupment is currently participating in an 
interagency and international study of the effects of acid precipitation on 
stone monuments aiul statuary, and ways to protect against such damage. 
Because of the many variables associated with material damage to stone, 
the evaluation of field data and its correlation with atmospheric pollutant 
levels is very difficult. The ideal subjects for analysis should be uniform 
materials produced under controlled conditions, placed in a variety of 
climates and environments over a continuous period of time, and accom- 
panied by accessible, high quality documentation. All of these conditions 
are met by the marble headstones and markers placed nationwide under 
the direction of the Veterans Administration ( VA). 



wm^ 





Since an 1875 Act of Congress, the VA has provided over 2.5 million 
tombstones to various National Cemeteries. These tombstones have been 
relatively standardized, being of just a few basic shapes, and arc made 
from stone taken from only three quarries. These nearly ideal conditions 
offer researchers an excellent opportunity to document the effects of 
acid precipitation on stone. Approximately one dozen National Cemeteries 
have been selected in three climate zones for initial study: Appalachian, 
Far West, and Northeast. Tombstones will be examined for such effects 
as measurable loss of detail, rounding of edges, and surface erosion to 
develop quantitative estimates of damage. This damage will then be 
correlated with data on the stone's history from Veterans Administra- 
tion records and data on air pollution and meteorological patterns from 
the National Weather Service. 

from EPA Research Summary : Acid Rain 
ft'PA-600/8-79-0281 



MEETINGS AND PAPERS 

Society of Historical Archaeology . Edwin Dethlefsen (Department of Archaeology, College 
of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia) will be chairing a session on "Interpreting 
Material Culture" at the Society of Historical Archaeology meeting in New Orleans next 
January. He welcomes contact with persons who have been interpreting gravestones in 
cultural context. 

NHOGA's summer meeting . The summer issue of Rubbings, the newsletter of the New 
Hampshire Old Graveyard Association, contains a report of NHOGA's summer meeting at 
Franklin Pierce College in Rindge. The faculty of the Franklin Pierce Archaeology Depart- 
ment spoke about the importance of gravestone records to the archaeologist. According to 
Dr. Dennis Vi/right, gravestone records were often superior to those he found in town offices 
in his demographic studies of four early Connecticut towns. Professor Howard Sargent, 
whose subject was New Hampshire historical archaeology, told of the tragic loss in the 
United States to the bulldozer of about 200 Indian burial sites every week. (For informa- 
tion about NHOGA and Rubbings, write Mrs. William Emhardt, who edits Rubbings, at 
Star Route, Barrington, NH 03825. Mrs. Emhardt, who has served on ACS' s executive 
board, comments in Rubbings that when she arranged furniture in her new house, she, 
"quite without conscious thought," placed the headboard of her bed toward the west so 
that when she rises she will face east.) 



College Art Association . The following is excerpted from the College Art Association 

Newsletter, New York, April, 1980. 

For the first time at an annual meeting of the College Art Associa- 
tion, (New Orleans, January, 1980) there was a session devoted to the 
conservation /preservation of works of art. 

Several specific cases were presented: nineteenth-century American 
cemetery sculpture (Edward Bryant, Colgate University, and Mary Louise 
Christovich, Save Our Cemeteries, Inc.), the Simon Rodia Towers in Watts, 
Los Angeles (Seymour Rosen, Committee for Simon Rodia's Towers), and 
several murals in Harlem Hospital (Gerta Berman, Metropolitan Museum of 
Art). 

Throughout the session, discussion returned to the preservation of 
works in the public domain, be they murals, bronze sculpture or cemetery 
art. The concern of Edward Bryant that we document nineteenth-century 
sculpture as a major resource for the taste, sentiment, and values of the 
period was reiterated by Mary Louise Christovich, who argued that ceme- 
teries should be for the living and maintained as public parks. 

Both speakers underscored the unstated: that greater public aware- 
ness and ultimately more dollars are needed for preservation of this fast 
disappearing aspect of our artistic and cultural heritage. 



EXHIBITIONS 

ENGLIS H BRASSES 

A collection of rubbings of English monumental brasses opened this summer 
at the Woodstock Opera House near Chicago. It is now on a two year tour of uni- 
versities and museums, sponsored by the International Exhibition Foundation. The 
collection of 75 rubbings dating from 1277 to 1631 is the work of Mark Horowitz, a 
doctoral candidate in English history at the University of Chicago, and his wife, 
Barbi, done while studying abroad in 1976. The largest rubbing in the collection 
measures eight feet. Horowitz's research gives the exhibition unusual depth; for 
each rubbing, the historical background of the deceased is detailed. 

Monumental brasses are plaques with images carved by amorers, secured to the 
floor, altar, or a wall of the church in which the deceased is buried. They are 
usually countersunk in marble or other stone. The earliest English brass, from the 
fourteenth century, is considered to be the finest, according to Horowitz. England 
imported the art from Germany and Flemish centers. 

Of an estimated 40,000 to 100,000 monumental brasses once thought to have 
existed in English churches, and perhaps another 100,000 in France, only about 4000 
remain today. Most were vandalized or removed and melted down during religious 
wars. In recent years, brass rubbing in England has become so popular that churches 
with the best and most popular brasses now refuse to allow further rubbing. As a re- 
sult, centers have opened in England and also in some cities in the United States where 
the public can rub replicas. 

According to a news story in the East Lansing (Michigan) State Journal (sent to 
the NEWSLETTER by Sandra Poneleit, P.O. Box 95, East Lansing, Ml 48823), Horowitz 
declines to place a dollar value on his collection, though others have estimated its 
value at $250,000 or higher. He says simply, "it's worth a lot of money." 

"A GRAVE BUSINESS" ' 

This is a traveling show of 125 wax rubbings by Anne V/illiams and Susan Kelly 
which will open at the Old Lyme Historical Society, Old Lyme, Connecticut, October . 
(See the winter 1979 and spring 1980 NEWSLETTER , Volume 4, Number 1, page 8, and 
Volume 4, Number 2, page 5.) AGS members who saw the Kelly-Williams rubbings of 
signed stones exhibited at the Association's 1980 conference in Haverhill, Massachusetts, 
can appreciate the treat in store for those able to attend "A Grave Business." Accom- 
panying this show will be seven photographs of Old Lyme stones made for the Historical 
Society by Daniel Farber. 

"IMAGES IN STONE, IRON, AND CLASS" 

The Greater Ridgewood Historical Society, Ridgewood (Long Island), New' York, 
with the help of funds from the New York State Council on the Arts, has organized a 
traveling exhibit, "Images in Stone, Iron, and Glass." The subject of the show is the 
ethnic cemeteries of Greater Ridgewood, whose monuments of Greek, Roman, and 
Egyptian style. Tiffany windows, wrought iron gates and doors, and sculptured land- 
scapes are an index of the artistic taste of the period. Featured in the exhibit are a 
photo essay by Hazel Hamilton and an interpretive narrative by Barbara Lekalsas. 
Gaynell Levine and Marvin Schwartz are the exhibit consultants, and Shirley Margolin 
is exhibit coordinator. The exhibit will travel throughout Queens and Long Island. 



STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS 

Sixth of a Series 




The Richard Smith Jr. Stone 
1703, Glastonbury 



JAMES STANCLIFT 1639-1712 Sherry Standi ff 

The Man 

James Stanclift was the first permanent settler of East Middletown, Connecti- 
cut, lateir named Portland. He is listed on the Middletown records as an English stone 
mason. James first lived in Lyme, Connecticut, about 1676. He married the widow 
Mary (Tinker) Waller about 1685. Mary was born July 2, 1653, in Boston, the daugh- 
ter of John and Alice (Smith) Tinker, James and Mary had two daughters and two sons. 
Both of the sons, William, born 1686, and James, born 1692, became stonecutters. 

In an effort to attract artisans to their area, the selectmen of Middletown of- 
fered James Stnaclift a grant of land "upon the rocks in est Middletown" in return for 
his services to the town. James purchased additional land adjacent to the grant and 
opened the Stanclift Brownstone Quarry in 1690. 

The earliest date I have found on a stone cut by James is 1676. This stone 
was cut for Lt. Reynold Marvin and is located in the Duck River Cemetery in Lyme, Con- 
necticut. James continued to cut gravestones until the time of his death in 1712 at age 73. 

The Characteristics of His Work 

James Stanclift preferred a simple rounded arch shape with a chamfered back 
edge on his brownstones. Occasionally he used a square shoulder, sloping shoulder, 
and the traditional tripartite shape. He always used large capital letters with serifs 
and covered the entire face of the stone. He frequently made dots or tiny diamonds 



Canopy on the A 



No hook on J 




Curved leg on R 
Diagonals on M 
intersect high 

THE, never used 
the thorn y^ 



■Slanted 6 and 9 



Crossed 



Wide N "^ 
Chopped off C 



Op T^ G.OS PEUr' -Nested double L 

"' \/p P " Chopped off G 



Combined ■ 
letters 



XRlD PA ST VR.E" 
RCH 



OF CHRIS 



wide H 
Awkward S 




The George Denison Footstone 
1694, Hartford 

between the words. The letter A is the most distinctive of his letters, having a hori- 
zontal bar or canopy at the top. James abandoned the canopy on a few stones cut be- 
tween 1700 and 1711, but most of his work bears this mark. Additional identifying 
points are found on the sketch of the stone of the Reverend Thomas James in East- 
hampton. Long Island, New York. 

According to Dr. Ernest Caulfield, James Stanclift was the first Connecticut 
artist to depict a skull. At first glance, these skulls seem primitive, but study of his 
work as a whole reveals a surprising sophistication of design. The decorations used 
by James were an integral part of the shape or over-all design of each stone. The 
skull on the stone of Richard Smith, Jr., 1703, in Glastonbury, Connecticut, creates 
an almost abstract effect with an admirable economy of line. The footstone for George 
Denison, 1694, in Hartford is badly deteriorated, but the initials G.D. are formed in a 
way that suggests a skull with wings. His decorative carving designs were not limited 
to skulls. He used a portion of the Howell coat-of-arms on the stone for John Howell, 
1692, in Southanpton, Long Island. On the tablestones for Lt. Col. John Ailyn, 1696, 
in Hartford and for Joseph Conklyn, 1694, in Southold, Long Island, James used the 
inscription to form a border around the outside edge of the stone and finished the in- 
scription in the center in the usual way. 



V11111SM3N 



Ol.f ON m^^d 

a I V d 

30ViSOd s n 

OUO lUO^d NON 



60910 VW 'JaisaojOM 

Xjapos uBuenbiiuv ueouaoiv o/d 

suoiiBDiiqrid SDV 




12 



Suffteld 



Wethersf ield 



Middle town 



MASSACHUSETTS 



, Windsor 

CONNECTICUT 

T(7) Glastonbury v 



The Amount and Location of His Work 

To date, I have found about sixty 
stones cut by James Stanclift. The majority 
of these are in the Middletown and Hartford 
area. A number are in Lyme, Glastonbury, 
and Wethersfield, Connecticut, and in South- 
old, Southampton, and East Hampton, Long 
Island, New York. There are single stones 
in Suffield, Preston, Saybrook, Stonington, 
and Windsor, Connecticut. 

Authentication of His Work 

Research to provide authentication 
of the work of James Stanclift has been dif- 
ficult. James used agents to conduct his 
business: in Middletown it was John Hamlin 
and in Lyme it was Matthew Griswold. I 
have found entries in the diary of Manasseh 
Minor of Stonington that provide further 
evidence that James did cut the stones at- 
tributed to him. Minor wrote "March 12. 
1702 Rebeccah Minor died. . . Apraill 29, 1702 

Saciant (an Indian) brote Grave Stons, . .Apraill 30, 1702 We sat grave Stones on Rebeka 
her grave. ..June 17, 1703 payed Stancleef . " The stone for Rebbecah Minor is located 
in the Wequetequock Cemetery, Stonington, Connecticut. It is typical of stones cut by 
James Stanclift. 

James Stanclift used the mark i- to sign his documents and to identify the stone 
boundarymarkers of his land. I have searched without success, but hope one day to 
find this mark on one of his gravestones. 

Mrs. Stanaliff's study of her husband's family genealogy lead her to the study of the 
stones out by the Stanoliff carvers. James Stanclift is her husband's seventh great 
grandfather. She says she has found the gravestone research "as addictive as the 
genealogy . " She lives at 7415 Fouruinds Drive, Cincinnati, Ohio 45242. 





NEWSLETTER 

OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 

Jessie Lie Farber, editor 
Guest editor - Mitchell Alegre 



Volume 5, Number 1 



Winter 1980/81 



ISSN: 0146-5783 



CONTENTS 

Modern Markers by Pitassi. An article 1 

by Robert Prestlano 

ASSOCIATION NEWS 3 

BOOK REVIEW 4 

How to Record Graveyards 
by Jeremy Jones 
Review by Lance Mayer 

MORE ABOUT BOOKS 5 

WORKS IN PROGRESS / REQUESTS 6 

DISTINCTIVE COLLECTIONS IN THE ACS ARCHIVES - #1 7 

Old Tombstones 
by C. A. Weatherby 

STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS. Seventh installment 8 

Daniel Hastings of Newton, Massachusetts 
by Dan Farber 

REGIONAL NEWS ^'10 

EXHIBITIONS 11 

CONSERVATION NEWS 12 

INTERESTING EPITAPHS 13 

CEMETERY CITATIONS 14 

NEWSLETTER NOTES, deadlines 14 

ACS 1981 CONFERENCE, Storrs, Connecticut, June 26-28 15 




MODERN MARKERS BY PITASSI 



Robert Prestiano 



Unfortunately, most contemporary cemetery memorials lack the individuality 
and creative expression apparent in many older stones. Because of the desire for large 
volume sales, the approach to memorial art has generally degenerated into a process of 
selecting stock patterns and arranging them in an uninspiring and often arbitrary man- 
ner on a flat stone surface. Such an approach essentially denies the three dimensional 
nature of sculpture and ignores the opportunity for individualized symbolic design and 
emotive power. 

Regardless of this trend, designer and sculptor D. Aldo Pitassi has, through- 
out his career, sought creative alternatives within the capabilities of the local monument 
company for people of ordinary means. Pitassi's early work is located in Pittsburgh, 
where he established himself as a memorial artist. He now lives in the Southwest and is 
chief designer for Birk Monumental MFC. in San Angelo, Texas. 

A recent example of his work, the Hubbard Memorial in the Belvedere Ceme- 
tery of San Angelo will be used here to introduce the handsome modern style of his de- 
signs. The forms of this memorial are related to the stele or traditional slab shape, but 
they have been significantly reinterpreted. Pitassi calls this style "modified traditional." 

As one approaches the Hubbard Memorial, its most singular innovative fea- 
ture immediately becomes apparent. Each of the six markers, four of which are located 
in front of and two behind the surname-piece, is carried above ground on a centrally 
placed stainless steel post measuring one and one-half inches in diameter. Since the posts 
are firmly imbedded in concrete foundations hidden below ground, the markers seem to 
challenge gravity. Yet, the memorial is actually more secure than its more traditional 
neighbors, and the narrow posts allow for easier ground maintenance. 










The resultant feeling of weightless, air-borne liberation is reinforced by 
the upward tapering lateral contours of each die. In addition, the front of each mar- 
ker is slanted slightly back. This additional "shaping" of the stones encourages the 
viewer to draw closer and increases an awareness of the interplay between forms. 
Symbolically, each marker represents an individual family member, head raised, as it 
were, in dialogue with the others. 

Larger dimensions, a wider support, and the singular use of white Sierra 
granite were reserved for the central surname-piece, establishing it as the formal ma- 
trix of the dialogue. The lower contour of the die complements this concept by gradually 
angling upward from the center, as if reaching out in a protective embrace. 

The arrangement of the stones implies a sense of family bond; the incised 
designs give each an individual symbolic meaning. The designs were sandblasted into 
the granite under the artist's supervision. Though some of the designs were borrowed 
from publications of the Carnegie Institute, the final versions have a sensitivity of 
expression and a clarity of execution not present in the originals. Further, all are 
articulated brilliantly with goldleaf, a decorative approach to memorial art largely pio- 
neered by Pitassi. By using previously existing symbols but individualizing their 
expression, Pitassi has in his work associated himself with the traditional carver. The 
epitaphs are intimately related to the symbols, also as in traditional work. 

At the lower section of the surname die, a singular line reads, "THERE ARE 
MANY WAYS TO TRAVEL FROM ONE POINT TO ANOTHER," and because railroading 
had been the family's major occupation for three generations, an image of a steam lo- 
comotive was worked into the base below the die. To animate this image, Pitassi added 
a trail of billowing smoke. It was the intention of the artist and the clients to extend 
the meaning of the train into a symbol of modern-day pilgrimage. Its significance, 
therefore, becomes transcendental as well as personal, traditional as well as individual. 

William Hubbard, the head of the family, spent most of his life working for 
the Santa Fe Railroad in West Texas. The stylized image of a locomotive is engraved 
onto the front face of his marker, and on the simplified map of 

Hubbard's railroad route. 

Train imagery pervades the entire ensemble. One can imagine the repeti- 
tion, shape, and seeming suspension of the individual markers as stylized boxcars 
speeding along with the locomotive. This was Pitassi's intention, as was the choice of 
coal-grey colored granite as an abstract reference to train smoke. 




During those early days, when a job applicant would call in for work on the 
railroad, the train-master would turn over an hourglass, and no other candidate would 
be considered until the sand ran out. In reference to this, the inscription on the front 
of William Hubbard's marker reads, "TIME IS CROWING SHORT," above a stylized hour- 
glass design. The implication goes further, of course, for the train may be seen as a 
symbol of the journey of life and the hourglass as the traditional memento mori. 

Naomi Hubbard's marker occupies the prominent position at the right of the 
foreground pieces. She is the wife and mother who nurtured the family, and it is her 
marker which contains the most extensive symbolism. The central image is of a plant, 
the blossom of which resembles the rising sun. To the left of the plant are the male 
and female symbols, and to the right, raindrops. Although these images imply fruitful- 
ness, the latter two are also bittersweet in connotation, for there is a disparity in the 
placement of the male/female signs, and the shape of the raindrops is also that of tears. 
Two more symbols complete the imagery of this stone. The more surprising is that of 
a crouching frog. Its eye peers intensely, curious and cautious, but the stylized limbs 
remain taught, tense, and unpredictable. The consequent tension draws one to the 
back of the marker on which is cut the image of a bird with wings drawn forward in a 
hurried embrace. While the frog reflects the calculating wit of the woman, the bird 
expresses her exuberance. (continued, next page) 








The second marker from the left of the foreground pieces represents the 
only deceased member of the family, Guy Hubbard— son, teacher, and part-time railroad 
employee. Representing him on the front of his stone, inserted almost as in a contem- 
porary reliquary, is a small, oval .brass relief of an elephant from Guy Hubbard's col- 
lection of sculptured elephants. Also representative is the epitaph below it, "STRENGTH 
POWER-INTELLIGENCE." In a sense, these qualities have become the fruit of Naomi's 
garden and the goal of William's many journeys. 

Dr. Prestiano is Associate Professor of Art in the Department of Art and Music, Angelo 
State University, San Angelo, Texas. 



ASSOCIATION NEWS 

Information Sheets : Mimeographed material on the following subjects is 
available: 1) Gravestone Rubbing for Beginners; 2) Making Photographic Records 
of Gravestones; 3) The Care of Old Graveyards and Gravestones; 4) Symbolism in 
Gravestone Carving. Others are being prepared and will be announced In the 
NEWSLETTER when they are available. Please address requests for information 
sheets to Ruth 0. Cowell, Corresponding Secretary, 21 Bogert Place, Westwood, NJ 
07675, and enclose one dollar per copy to cover mailing and duplicating costs. 

A limited number of copies of the 1979-80 MARKERS , the AGS journal, 
is still available. This handsome 182 page softbound volume includes the year's 
most significant papers dealing with gravemarkers, illustrated with over one hun- 
dred photographs and drawings. The cost per volume is $25 ($15 to AGS members), 
postage included, and should be sent to AGS Publications, c/o American Antiquarian 
Society, Worcester, MA 01609. 

It's confusing . The American Antiquarian Society, the oldest national 
historical society in the United States, allows AGS to use the Society's address for 
our publications. AGS has no physical headquarters and the addresses of our edi- 
tors and officers change frequently, so we are grateful to the Society for providing 
us with a permanent address — and such a good one! The address is AGS's only 
official connection with the Antiquarian Society. It is in Worcester, Massachusetts. 

The AGS archives are housed by the New England Historic Genealoqical 
Society. NEHCS is located in Boston at 101 Newbury Street, and your AGS membership 
gives you the privilege of using the NEHGS library without paying their non-member's 
fee of three dollars. Both AAS and NEHGS are distinguished institutions with col- 
lections of interest to students of gravestones. The AAS provides our address. 
The NEHGS houses our archive. It is confusing, and especially when we ask you 
to send contributions to our archival collection to ACS, in care of AAS in Worcester 
rather than directly to NEHGS! 

The National Trust for Historic Preservation will include information 
about ACS in its new publication. The Whole Preservation Catalogue, to be released 
by Preservation Press. The book will include a section on cemeteries, listing pub- 
lications, organizations, and other information of interest to our readers. 

Wanted : Enthusiastic person who likes to write letters and meet new 
people, to act as membership chairperson for AGS. The activities of the person 
holding this position include writing letters of welcome to new members, informing 
members when their membership is due for renewal, sending information about AGS 
to prospective members, and answering requests for membership information. We 
estimate that this job will take three or four hours per month. Interested members 
please contact Joanne Baker, 64 North Main Street, Concord, NH 03301. 





The Assooiation 's most important oonaern right now is its 1981 aon- 
ferenoe, to he held at the University of Conneatiaut, in Storrs, June 26-28. 
Plan now to he there. Use the registration form on page 15 , or, if you have 
already registered, please post the extra form at your local museum, historical 
or genealogical society or college campus. If you will not he attending the 
conference , remember that our membership year is from conference to conference , 
and all members' fees are due before July 1 . 

„, ( ) beqin .^-. . . . in time for me to receive the spring NEWSLETTER. 

^'^^^^ ( ) renew ""^ ^^^ membership ^^ j^,y ^ ^^ ^^^^^ .^ ^^ j^^^3,^ .^ ^^^^ip^ ^fNSLTR. 

Membership - $15 Sustaining membership (thank you!) - $25 

NAME ADDRESS 



Detach and mall to Mrs. Philip Thomas, 82 Hilltop Place, New London, NH 03257 



BOOK REVIEW 

HOW TO RECORD GRAVEYARDS 

By Jeremy Jones 

Illustrated with 11 line drawings, vii + 40 pages. Bibliography. 

London: The Council for British Archaeology, 7 Marylebone Road, London NW1 5HA. 1976. 

Obtainable from the publisher or from RESCUE (The Trust for British Archaeology), 

15A Bull Plain, Hertford. Softcover, /0.75. 

Review by Lance Mayer 

Serious students of gravestones will want to use Jeremy Jone's booklet to 
complement the recent ACS publication on recording (Baker, Farber and Ciesecke, 
"Recording Cemetery Data," MARKERS, 1979/80, pages 99-117). Jones is an historian 
and archaeologist interested in demographic, religious, and other information to be 
gleaned from gravestones, and the strengths of this publication lie in his descriptions 
of precise archaeological methods for recording and analyzing data. 

Some parts may be confusing to American readers. Jones assumes that his 
readers know that most English gravestones are under the control of the Church of 
England and that, unlike United States practice, their care is governed by various 
church laws. A serious recent problem there is "redundancy," that is, if a church is 
no longer in use, ecclesiastical authorities may permit the church and the associated 
churchyard to be destroyed and the land used for other purposes. 

This explains the urgency of Jones's pleas for the preservation of old 
gravestones and for extremely thorough recording of those that still remain. The 
author recognizes, however, that the demanding procedures he recommends may not 
be feasible in some situations, as when a churchyard is threatened with imminent de- 
struction. In such circumstances, he recommends an "emergency survey" consisting 
of only a sketch map and photographs of each monument (pages 27-28). 

But when circumstances permit, Jones recommends very thorough surveying 
and recording methods. He gives detailed instructions for laying out a survey grid 
(pages 10-12) and instructions for making maps using plastic film and drawing pens 
(pages 13-15). 

The section on photographs is less useful, primarily because the recom- 
mended methods of lighting (flash, photofloods with extension cords, and aluminum 
foil reflectors) are made obsolete by the development of a procedure using mirrors to 
reflect and control sunlight, as described by Baker, Farber and Ciesecke (page 111). 
Although Jones recommends the use of color film in some instances (page 16), he does 
not warn that color photographs are not true or permanent and suggest that black- 
and-white photographs and detailed color notes (or Munsell references) should there- 
fore be taken as well. Finally, I regret that he advocates the attachment of numbers 
to gravestones (page 15) and the application of papier mache to weathered inscrip- 
tions to facilitate reading them (page 22). Either procedure can injure a fragile 
stone's surface. 

Jones stresses that records should be made on printed forms to ensure 
thoroughness and standardization of information.. He gives a sample recording form 
and another which was adapted for a particular churchyard, as well as a sample 
"persons index form" to aid in the collating of demographic data. I have only one 
criticism of this section: his failure to mention that records which are intended to be 
permanent should be made on good quality paper, either all-rag or buffered wood-pulp 
(for example, Permalife) , which can be obtained from an archival products company. 

A four page section entitled "After the survey" gives detailed lists of 
topics worthy of research. These would be of great use to a team trying to decide 
which gravestone characteristics should be recorded during a survey. A number of 
tips are also given for the use of computers to analyze data (pages 33-36). 

As a bonus, a few nuggets of information not bearing directly upon re- 
cording are scattered throughout the text, such as the references to polychrome stones 
in Wales (page 16), and to varying orientations of burials in churchyards (page 7). 
The bibliography lists some intriguing titles as well, including articles by A.A. S.Butler 
on regional schools of medieval gravestone carvings and J. Birmingham on nineteenth - 
century Austrailian monuments. 

How To Record Graveyards is a generally excellent publication on a most 
important topic. As gravestones continue to deteriorate, the need to record will be- 
come even more urgent, and as our knowledge of old gravestones expands, so does 
the need for sophisticated analysis as described by Mr. Jones. 

Lance Mayer, a conservator and ACS Vice President/Conservation, welcomes readers' 
comments and questions. Address him at the Cincinnati Art Museum, Eden Park, 
Cincinnati, OH ^5202. The editors thank Blanche Linden, American Studies Dept. , 
Brandeis University, for bringing How to Record Craveyards to our attention. 



MO RE ABOUT BOOKS 

AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS 

Readers are reminded that publications reviewed in the NEWSLETTER 

are available at the advertised prices plus postage from 

Highly Specialized Promotions, 395 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11217. 

NEW PUBLICATION 

A Celebration of Death , by James Stevens Curl, offers information on every 
design aspect of the sculpture, architecture, and planning of large cemeteries and smaller 
private burying places. A New York Times review praises the 404 page illustrated volume 
as "one of the most detailed books on the subject." Published by Charles Scribner's 
Sons, the book sells for $35. 

FOR YOUR INFORMATION 

Laughter and Tears, by Robert E. Pike, is a 120 page privately printed (1971) 
volume consisting of 112 (generally poor) photographs of gravestones with unusual in- 
scriptions and carvings. A few lines of text accompany each photograph. The markers 
included are from thirty-six states and three foreign countries. A Minnesota stone reads, 
"None Of Us Ever Voted For Roosevelt Or Truman," and an Illinois marker states, "Talked 
to death by Friends." Selling for $10 postpaid, this hardcover book may be ordered 
from H-H Press, 365 Pine Street, Eatontown, NJ 07724. 

The Folk Classification Newsletter is now available for a $5 annual subscrip- 
tion. The publication "seeks an interchange of diverse perspectives on the processes 
and substance of human conceptual organization as it is abstracted from or imposed on 
the world of experience in the earth's cultures. Folk classification in this sense in- 
cludes cultural objects, natural phenomena, etc," Subscription fees should be sent to 
The Folk Classification Newsletter, c/o Dr. Eugene Hunn, Rt. 1, Box 1554, Toppenish, 
WA 98948. 

"Discovering, Restoring and Maintaining Old Cemeteries," by Theodore L. 
Brown, is issued by the Main Old Cemetery Association to aid Maine residents in doing 
what the title states. The eight page pamphlet may be obtained for $1.30 from MOCA, 
P.O. Box 324, Augusta, ME 04330. 

HIGHLY RECOMMENDED 

Puritan Gravestone Art II , edited by Peter Benes, is familiar to many ACS 
members, but the appearance of two recent reviews of the book (in News & Notes from 
The Connecticut Historical Society, volume 6, number 1, 1980, and in Folklore, volume 
91, number 1, 1980) prompts us to introduce this publication to those who have not yet 
seen it. The volume is a collection of papers presented at the 1978 conference co- 
sponsored by ACS and The Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife. The transcripts 
are organized under the headings, "Cultural Interpretations," "Studies of Individual 
Carvers," and "Abstracts of Conference Papers and Bibliography." The Connecticut 
Historical Society review calls the publication "an excellent compilation of readable 
text, clear photographs, and useful diagrams and maps" and commends Benes "for fit- 
ting the output of this joint venture. . .between the covers of a most informative and 
attractive little book." Folklore reviewer Emily Lane opens her review by noting that 
"The subject of Puritan gravestones is attracting attention from scholars in the United 
States and Canada," and concludes a critical analysis of each paper with the comment 
that "the volume as a whole is a valuable addition to our knowledge. . .Gravestones 
offer such a direct and vivid glimpse into religious belief at the vernacular level that 
a question like that which exercises so many of the authors — whether they 'can ac- 
curately be construed as folk art'--really ceases to matter." Puritan Gravestone Art II 
is published by and may be obtained from Boston University Scholarly Publications, 
25 Buick Street, Boston, MA 02215. Softcover, $7. 

This is a good time to mention to NEWSLETTER readers that Puritan Grave- 
stone Art I , the proceedings of the first (1976) Dublin Seminar, is available from the 
same source, also for $7. For about a year it has been out of print. 

NOTECARDS 

Illustrated here is one of four New England gravestone rubbings by Barbara 

Moon that decorate 4^" x 5^", two-tone tan notecards. 

On the back of each card is a "history." The price is 
$3 plus 50<;: mailing charge per package of twelve cards 
with envelopes, or $13 for four packages, mailing cost 
included. Send check with order to: Barbara Moon, 
1936 Stony Hill, Hinckley, OH 44233. 



Polly Coombes, 1795, Bellingham, Massachusetts 




- 6 - 

WORKS IN PROGRESS / REQUESTS 

Ann Parker and Avon Neal , who have published in a wide variety of folk 
art areas, are preparing a book on gravestone art for Sweetwater Editions, a New 
York publishing house that limits its publications to three fine-arts books a year. 
The Neals' book will be printed in an edition limited to five hundred leather bound 
copies containing fifty rubbings, each one accompanied by a photograph of the stone 
and about five hundred words of text. The volume will have to sell at a very high 
price, but the Neals hope that a less expensive edition will follow the first small 
edition. 

The Neals' rubbings, works of art in their own right, are in the permanent 
collections of many museums. The NEWSLETTER has the address of an ACS member 
who owns three of their signed, framed rubbings which, because of a long and com- 
plicated move, must be sold. Prospective purchasers should write for further in- 
formation to AGS Publications, c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA 01609. 

Ralph Tucker (928 Main Street, West Newbury, MA 01985)- is analyzing 
photographs of stones attributed to an unknown carver in the Boston area. Someone 
living in that locale, knowledgeable about carved letters, is needed to help identify 
the carver. Frankie Bunyard , a professional carver, has the knowledge but not the 
time. She has offered to instruct a volunteer in the fundamentals of carving and 
lettering techniques so that he/she can help Rev. Tucker. Interested readers please 
write to Rev. Tucker (who is Past President of ACS) or apply to Frankie Bunyard, 
Bunyard Studio, 791 Tremont Street, Boston, MA 02118. 

In a local burial ground in western Kentucky, Thomas E. Finley, Jr. 
(P.O. Box 87, Windsor, CT 06095) found a group of small, circular gravemarkers 
made of cast concrete and bearing unusual and seemingly meaningless arrangements 
of letters. Mr. Finley would like to hear from anyone who may know the meaning 
of the inscriptions. 

Charles Bergenqren (505 South U5th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104) is 
collecting photographs, especially early ones, of traditional graveyard types around 
the world. He would welcome readers' contributions. 

Kirsten Mullen, editor of the Society of Architectural Historians, Texas, 
is seeking information about black (ethnic) gravestones or Mexican-American stones. 
Please contact her at SAH/TX, Capitol Station, P.O. Box 12392, Austin, TX 78711. 

One of our English members plans to attend the 1981 ACS Conference in 
Storrs, Connecticut, June 26-28. He wonders if one of our readers is interested in 
entertaining him while he is in this country, and he offers to reciprocate by sharing 
his house for a two week vacation. For further details, write to Sally Thomas, 82 
Hilltop Place, New London, NH 03257. 

Every year, the American Antiquarian Society invites applications from 
qualified scholars for several short- and long-term Visiting Research Fellowships. 
The stipends range from $1000 to $22,000. Recipients are expected to be in regular 
and continuous residence at the Society's library during the periods of the grants, 
which vary from six weeks to a year. Gravestone study would be an appropriate 
subject for consideration for some of these awards. 

The deadline for the receipt of completed applications is February 2, 1982. 
Announcements of the awards will be made by March 16, 1982. If you think you are 
interested, write for a flyer. Address John B. Hench, Research and Publication 
Officer, American Antiquarian Society, 185 Salisbury Street, Worcester, MA 01609. 

For a forthcoming bibliography of gravestone studies, Nancy Jean Melin 
seeks citations and copies of unpublished and other manuscript materials as well as 
descriptions of slide, photographic and other collections. Reports which may not 
yet have appeared in any bibliography or in an AGS notice are especially welcome, 
as are papers given at ACS meetings and on deposit at the ACS Archives. The bib- 
liography will be serial in nature, available on subscription, and will include all 
known items on both popular and scholarly gravestone-related subjects. It will be 
thematically organized and fully annotated. The final cumulation will contain over 
six hundred items. "Part One: Studies of Stonecutters" will be available for pur- 
chase at the 1981 ACS converence. Inquiries are welcome. Address Nancy Jean 
Melin, 215 West 75th Street, #10E, New York, New York 10023. 

George Kackley , superintendent of the Oak Hill Cemetery Company in 
Washington, D.C. , (and a new member of ACS) has been asked to prepare a list of 
cemeteries for inclusion in a guide of gardens open to the public. The guide will be 
published by the American Horticultural Society. Criteria for his list: cemeteries 
designed by a notable landscape architect; cemeteries that could qualify as arboreta; 
and cemeteries that employ a gardner trained in ornamental horticulture. Send your 



DISTINCTIVE COLLECTIONS IN THE AGS ARCHIVES 

To acquaint readers with the AGS Archives, Michael Cornish has offered 
to describe, from time to time, items of special interest in the collection. 

#1 OLD TOMBSTONES , by C. A. Weatherby 

This collection , assembled in the 1920's, consists of original gravestone photographs 
with transcriptions of epitaphs and comments by the author, mounted in eight loose- 
leaf notebooks labeled: "Death's Heads," "Winged Cherubs" ( 2), "Wingless Cherubs," 
"Portrait Stones, " "Designs and Willows, " and "Index. " It is composed of non-archival 
materials and is in poor-to-fair condition. NEHCS catalog number: 7815732. 

Mrs. Weatherby made this collection of New England gravestone photo- 
graphs at the same time that Harriette Forbes was making her collection. That the 
latter woman's work was selected for publication is appropriate and fortunate, for it 
is vastly superior. 

The photographs in the Weatherby collection suffer a wide variety of tech- 
nical ills, including bad focus, poor contrast, cockeyed framing and double exposure. 
A handful are beautifully sharp, though, and the majority are legible. Compounding 
the distressing state of these photographs is the fact that the mounting adhesive has 
dried and become brittle so that many of the pictures have loosened or detached from 
the pages. In places the glue has bled through, creating ugly brown blotches. Many 
photographs were imporperly "fixed" and have yellowed. 

It sounds like a mess, but it is, at the same time, a fascinating collection, 
the document of a pioneer. Mrs. Weatherby was obviously obsessed for a number of 
years with her study, and the result is a body of work well worth study by students 
of gravestones, and deserving of storage and maintenance by the Association for 
Gravestone Studies. 

Mrs. Weatherby's choices of gravestones to document can only be described 
as eclectic; they tend toward the odd, the unique, and the photogenic. She shows a 
bias for the less sophisticated country product and includes a good selection from 
Connecticut and up the Connecticut River through Massachusetts. Her commentary 
tends to be judgmental, making subjective appraisals of the carvings' relative quality. 
Often a comment offers no more than a defense of a stone's being placed in a partic- 
ular catagory of the overall organization. With our hindsight, we can see that she 
consistently missed obvious connections between related gravestones in the collection, 
and just as often she jumped to wholly unlikely ones. The text is, in fact, made up 
of slightly informed speculations and imaginative theories. The value of the text is 
not in its scholarly contribution, which is minimal, but, like a curiosity cabinet be- 
tween covers, the collection as a whole is of interest as the record of a woman who 
pursued her admiration of an overlooked American craft at a time when no systema- 
tic study had yet been published. 

The Weatherby collection's usefulness to the AGS is twofold: first, as a 
pioneer document and a forerunner of current research; second, and much more im- 
portant, as an index of gravestone attrition and erosion. By tracing Mrs. Weatherby's 
itineraries and making comparisons site-by-site, it should be possible to determine 
which stones in her collection have disappeared and which have suffered defacement 
through natural causes or vandalism in the fifty-odd year interim. M.C. 

Mr. Cornish is ACS Vice President / Archives. He says that it is unfortunate but 
almost inevitably true that much if not most of America's gravestone sculpture is 
destined to be lost. The most logical solution to this situation, but the least likely 
to be implemented, he believes, is museum storage of important endangered stones. 
There is a valuable alternative to saving the stones themselves. Collections of 
photographs, castings, and rubbings are of great value as a record of this vast 
body of stonecarving, as are published and unpublished studies and other grave- 
stone literature. The ACS Archives can become a viable repository of such a record. 
Cornish points out that early investigations like that of Mrs. Weatherby preserve 
some of what we have already lost, and he urges readers to contribute to the ACS 
holdings. Address inquiries and descriptions of contributions to Michael Cornish, 
62 Calumet Street, Roxbury, Massachusetts 02120. 



From Memorials for Children 

of Change, by Tashjian 

a rubbing of the ,^ii 



Sarah Hart 1752 stone. 
East ford, CT, 

near Storrs. 




STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS 
Seventh of a Series 




Capt. Nathaniel Maynard, 1779 



DANIEL HASTINGS OF NEEDHAM, MASSACHUSETTS 



Daniel Farber 



Daniel Hastings of Newton, Massachusetts, made gravestones from about 
1770 to about 1797. In her book. Gravestones of Early New England, Harriette Forbes 
shows as his work the stone for John Holyoke, 1775, of Newton. From that likeness, 
a large group of gravestones in central and eastern Massachusetts has been attributed 
to Hastings. Some doubt exists as to the credibility of these attributions, all based on 
resemblances to that one stone. However, in 1980, Laurel Cabel discovered that con- 
cealed on the back of many of these stones are what appear to be initials, in two forms. 
One form is a large, roughly cut capital letter "H" hiding among the chisel markings. 
The other is a combination of the lower case letters "d" and "h" placed sideways, as 
shown, next page, in a detail from the back of the gravestone for Capt. Nathaniel 
Maynard, 1779, Wayland, Massachusetts. If these letters are accepted as Hasting's 
signatures, they confirm many attributions credited to him. 




Effigies on stones for John Holyoke, 1775, (left) and Hannah Rice, 1794, (right) 



Mystery surrounds Hastings' late work. Suddenly, in 1790, his typical 
carving disappears, and a new design which could be described as "lowbrow" appears. 
There is considerable evidence that "lowbrow" stones are not the work of Hastings: 
the appearance of the design is different, a geometric border is often used which 
never before was employed by Hastings, and the stone itself is a much lighter color 
and a finer grained slate. However, probate records found by the writer and Charles 
Bouley show that payment for the stone for Hannah Rice, 1794, Millbury, Massachusetts, 
was made to Daniel Hastings. The Rice stone is a typical "lowbrow" design. 

( continued, next page) 





Hastings' signature 



Hastings' stones are concentrated in the Newton area and have been seen 
by the writer as far north as Ipswich, Massachusetts, and as far west and south as 
North Brookfield, Massachusetts and West Woodstock, Connecticut. 

Nothing has yet been published about Hastings the man. It would be good 
to know the personal and professional background of the individual responsible for 
those large, beautifully executed stones, those handsome faces with their furrowed 
brows and powerful dignity, and those earnest, straight-haired, wide-eyed angels. 

Dan Farber is a retired Worcester, Massachusetts, businessman. For pleasure, he 
photographs art objects, including gravestones, for the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. 
He also prooofs copy for the NEWSLETTER. 



REGIONAL NEWS 



FROM DELAWARE 



Charles E. Mohr, an AGS sustaining member, wrote an illustrated "Cemetery 
Survey Supplement" to the October, 1980 Audubon Journal, published by the Delaware 
Audubon Society. The supplement illustrates the value of cemeteries in the study of 
art, archaeology, botany, landscape architecture, orinthology, and other wildlife areas. 
(One photograph is of "a scholarly tour being conducted by the Association for Grave- 
stone Studies.") Dr. Mohr tells us that there is a big overrun of the supplement and 
that NEWSLETTER readers who send a supply of mailing labels can have this eight page 
publication sent direct from The Delaware Audubon Society, P.O. Box 1713, Wilmington, 
DE 19899. Dr. Mohr is a photographer, lecturer, and former Chief Naturalist for Dela- 
ware. He spoke about cemeteries at the 1980 annual meeting of the Photo Ecology Foundation, 

FROM MAINE 

Among the 1981 officers of the Maine Old Cemetery Association are two AGS 
members. Evelin Grover is MOCA president, and Hilda Fife is corresponding secretary. 
MOCA is dedicated to the preservation of Maine's neglected cemeteries. Membership is 
three dollars yearly. Dues are paid to Mrs. Amanda L. Bond, 8 Greenaway Avenue, 
Springvale, ME 04083. 

MORE FROM MAINE 

Eighty-one-year old Orland "OIlie" Mayberry has devoted his retirement 
years to the care of Dunstan Cemetery in West Scarborough, ME. Actually, Mayberry 
says, "I retired twenty years ago and haven't found it out yet." His cemetery work 
was featured in the Portland Evening Express. The cemetery's earliest marker dates 
back to 1757. 



FROM MASSACHUSETTS 

The Boston Globe (September 2, 1980) reported that the trustees of historic 
Mt. Auburn Cemetery are having the 1844 iron fence surrounding the grounds replaced 
with a vinyl-coated chain link fence. A Globe editorial termed the decision an act of 
"desecration," and an angry exchange followed in the paper's letters to the editor (Sep- 
tember 14, 1980). Mt. Auburn is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. It 
contains monuments to such notable Americans as Mary Baker Eddy, Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow, Charles Bulfinch, and Oliver Wendell Holmes. The park-like burial ground 
was founded in 1831 by Dr. Jacob Bigelow in collaboration with the Massachusetts Horti- 
cultural Society. 

FROM NEW YORK 

The cover story for the January-February, 1980, issue of Small Town maga- 
zine features the Wyoming County cemetery restorations accomplished by county youths. 
An article about this project appeared in the Fall, 1980, NEWSLETTER. AGS member, 
Mitchell R. Alegre wrote and illustrated the article for Small Town, a national publica- 
tion of the Small Towns Institute. 



AGS members Evelyn C. Hansen and Jean Cann have, over the years, made 
rubbings of all the old markers in six cemeteries around Southampton and Water Mill. 
Twelve of their rubbings have been sent to the John Judkyn Memorial in England as a 
gift from the Southampton Historical Museum, A letter from Ms. Hansen explains that 
"the John Judkyn Memorial is associated with the American Museum in Bath, England, 
whose work is to send exhibits all over the United Kingdom and, I believe, sometimes 
to the Continent, where displays of things pertaining to American history are wanted. 
I understand that a great many exhibits go to schools. . .Jean and I were asked if we 
would do rubbings for them, and we did." She adds that she recently alphabetized 
a 1920's record of the epitaphs in Southampton's largest cemetery and put copies in 
the local library, village office, the Southampton Museum, and the Suffolk County His- 
torical Society. Both women teach museum-sponsored summer classes on gravestone 
rubbing. 

AND MORE FROM NEW YORK 

Trinity Church Cemetery in New York City was recently awarded an Apple 
Polisher Award from WOR-TV in cooperation with the Association for a Better New York. 
The cemetery was cited for opening its grounds to the community for historical, horti- 
cultural, and educational uses. The cemetery issues a newsletter entitled "Pilgrim." 
To be added to the mailing list, write Trinity Church Cemetery, Mausoleums and Crema- 
tory, 74 Trinity Place, New York, NY 10006. 

Further indication of the public spiritedness of this cemetery association 
comes from Ruth Cowell, AGS Corresponding Secretary, who tells us she received an 
invitation to attend a Christmas concert of the cemetery's Annual Caroling Procession 
to the grave of Clement C. Moore, author of "T'was the Night Before Christmas." 

FROM NEW JERSEY 

AGS Corresponding Secretary Ruth Cowell, who is also a New Jersey 
Executive Director of Community Mental Health Services, has learned that the Essex 
County Center for Environmental Studies (612 Eagle Rock Avenue, Roseland, NJ) 
sponsors a program called "Cemetery Investigation: an environmental study of a 
cemetery involving the traditional disciplines of art, geology, geography, social and 
cultural history, math, science, religion, and health." A telephone call from Mrs. 
Cowell to their program director, Michael Ware, was enlightening to both and will 
result in several cooperative ventures. 

FROM OHIO 

A little-publicized issue that faces President Regan is the care of Presi- 
dent's Cemetery near Lancaster, Ohio. Nathaniel Wilson, III, (d.1839), who "deserves 
mention in the annals of American eccentricity," according to an item in the Columbus 
Dispatch, deeded a portion of the Wilson family burial plot to President James Monroe 
"and his successors in fee simple forever in trust." AGS member Francis Duval, who 
has visited the President's Cemetery, tells us that the plot is circular and about forty 
or fifty feet in diameter, and that its most interesting aspect is its monumental twelve- 
sided stone wall. Monroe and his successors have ignored both their opportunity to 
use and their responsibility to see to the care of the cemetery. What care it now gets 
comes from the Fairfield County Heritage Association, no thanks to the men in the 
White House. 

FROM WISCONSIN 

On September 14, 1980, the people of Montello gathered in Greenwood 
Cemetery graveyard to celebrate Truth Day in honor of a boy who died a violent death 
in 1851. Eight-year old Emmanuel Dannan witnessed his foster father slay an itinerant 
peddler. The story goes that when Emmanuel refused to abide by his foster father's 
instructions to lie about what had happened, the man whipped the boy until the boy 
uttered, "Pa, I'm so cold," and died. The man was convicted of first degree man- 
slaughter and imprisoned. A 1950's story in the Milwaukee Sentinel noted the hun- 
dredth anniversery of Emmanuel's death and prompted the Bittman Monument Company 
of Milwaukee and the Montello Granite Works to join together and build a red granite 
memorial to Dannan's life. Inscribed to "The Boy Who Would Not Tell A Lie," the 
monument inspired the first Truth Day Ceremony. This item from the September 14, 
1980 Milwaukee Journal was sent by AGS member, Bert Hubbard. 



THE NEW YORK TIMES. SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 2, 1980 



2 Cemeteries in Illinois Reflect Past Political Feud 



tury. The Carlock family joined the Re- 
publican Party and even buried one 
member of the family on the Republi- 
can side of the road 
CARLOCK. III. Nov. 1 (UPI) — Most Carlock. a staunch Democrat who dis- trust fund for its care was established. There are few burials in the ceme- 

people in the quiet bedroom com- liked Republicans. John Benson, a Republican rival. teries now. The most recent ones were 

munity of Carlock know nothing of the "He took his politics very seriously quickly offered land for a new grave- in the larger, more elaborate, lakeside 

days when Democrats and Republicans and didn't feel any need to talk with Re- yard. grounds where once only Democrats 

feuded so fiercely that they refused to publicans." said Donald E. Carlock, a The village people took it, and for were buried. Mr. Carlock said resi- 

bury their dead together. descendant of the founder and lifelong years Democrats were buried in the dents "just kind of laugh" now when 

The cemeteries in this central UUnois resident of the town of 450 people. "He first cemetery while Republicans w^e they hear about the cemetery's history, 
town. 10 miles northwest of Blooming- made only one exception. When Abra- buried a quarter of J mile! dawn the "Anybody buries there now," he 
ton, offer evidence that the two parties ham Lincoln was an attorney running road In the second. When Mr. Carlock added, 
literally took ttieir political battles to the Illinois circuit, he used to put Lin- died in 1889, he was buried in the land 
the graveyard: Republicans were coin up for the night." He had donated, and this inscription 

buried on one side of the road. Demo- There was only one cemetery then, a was chiseled on his monument: "Here 

crats on the other. The battle began parcel of laftd donated by Mr. Carlock. sleeps the Ql4Qfiinoc«at." 
with the town's founder. Abraham W. But when he refused to expand it until a A lot has changed since the 19th cen- 



EXHIBITIONS 

CONNECTICUT SHOW PLANNED, 

The Windham Historical Society, Windham, Connecticut, is developing an 
exhibition, "Windham Gravestone Carvers of the 18th Century." Tentative plans are 
to run the exhibit from May 1st, 1981, through November, 1981, at the Jillson House 
Museum in Willimantic, Connecticut. An experienced research team is gathering bio- 
graphical information on the carvers and has located a wealth of information which will 
become part of the exhibit and exhibition catalog. Stonecarvers from the surrounding 
areas whose works are found in Windham will also be included. Representative grave- 
stone rubbings and photographs are being collected. Another segment of the exhibi- 
tion will feature the cemetery as a source of primary reference material. 

According to Alfred M. Fredette, a serious student of Connecticut grave- 
stones and a member of ACS, "The major purpose of the exhibition is to educate the 
general public and students to the fact that our early cemeteries are museums worthy 
of our attention on an esthetic and historic level, and also worthy of preservation 
before they, too, become the deceased." Mr. Fredette's address: R.F.D. #1, Baltic, 
Connecticut 06330. 

SHOWING AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MAINE 

"New England Gravestones," a one-man exhibition of forty-four photographs 
by Daniel Farber in the permanent collection of the University of Maine, Orono, is be- 
ing shown there through March. Farber has had numerous one-man shows of his nature 
and gravestone photographs, 23,000 of which are in the collections of 11 5 American 
museums. 

THE MEDICAL COLLEGE OF OHIO 

"Graven Images," an exhibition of gravestone art and epitaphs, showed at 
the Mulford Library of the Medical College of Ohio in Toledo through February. The 
exhibition was organized by Carol Perkins, artist in the college's department of audio- 
visual services, and the items on display are the work of three AGS members. Photo- 
graphs by Daniel Farber of Worcester, Massachusetts, and rubbings by Barbara Moon 
of Hinckley, Ohio, were arranged to coordinate with epitaphs collected by Ms. Perkins. 
Gravestone literature, including Perkins' collection of epitaphs, was available in the 
library's rare book room during the period of the exhibition. 

WILMINGTON, DELAWARE 

In November and December, the Delaware State Arts Council and the Dela- 
ware Camera Club co-sponsored a one-man show of Charles Mohr's work, in Wilmington 
at the State Arts Building. The exhibit was comprised of sixty-eight cemetery photo- 
graphs and four large panels presenting teaching resource materials, one of which 
featured the AGS journal, MARKERS. Also presented were Mohr's slide shows, "Ceme- 
teries are Forever" and "Cherubs, Skulls and Crossbones: A Tour of Old Cemeteries." 




Tree Silhouette in Stone, by Charles Mohr. 
Dendritic formation, Berks County, Pennsylvania 
(The "trees" are rust stains on a marble stone 
which has eroded around the iron support pins 
at its base. ) 




- 12 - 

CONSERVATION NEWS 

Professor Norbert S. Baer of the Conservation Center of the Institute of 
Fine Arts, New York University, has been awarded a contract by the Environmental 
Protection Agency to study the deterioration of marble gravestones in Veterans Ad- 
ministration cemeteries. Because the marble was taken from only three quarries and 
cut in a few standardized shapes, these cemeteries provide an almost perfect labora- 
tory for measuring the rate of damage from environmental factors. 

For the past two years the cemetery of the Greenwich (New Jersey) Presby- 
terian Church has been under restoration by some fifty student members of the Jersey- 
men Club. ^r\ article by Robert C. Davis, pastor of the church and a Research Asso- 
ciate of Princeton Theological Seminary, describes the project, which involved the re- 
pair and cleaning of stones and the creation of a marker which will display a map of the 
cemetery with the locations of all of the gravestones. Funding came through a grant 
from the New Jersey Historical Commission. Completion of the project is scheduled for 
late August. Thanks to Robert Van Benthuysen for this item from the Cumberland 
Patriot, a publication of the Cumberland County Historical Society, Greenwich, NJ. 

Harry Person , one of the founders of the large Worcester, Massachusetts, 
firm. Person Monuments, Inc., has designed and hand carved many gravestones in his 
long career. Today, when there is an occasional order for hand carving (as opposed 
to sandblasting), Mr. Person, who is semi-retired, takes on the job himself. In his 
office is a first edition copy of Harriette Forbes' Gravestones of Early New England, 
which he thumbs through when helping a customer select a lettering style. 

We invited Mr. Person to attend the AGS conference. He had to decline, 
but a paragraph from his letter to us will interest our readers. He wrote: "The best 
reason for going [to the conference] happened in a local cemetery two weeks ago. 
Because of my deafness I did not hear a loud bang, but my partner did and we looked 
over at a large power mower that had knocked down a small headstone. As we helped 
reset it, the mower operator said, 'It's nothing, only an old headstone.'"! 

Angered by excesses, the city of Boston recently posted warning signs to 
protect time-worn gravestones in historic Granary Burying Ground, which dates back 
to 1660. Careless tourists have defaced stones when rubbing impressions to take home 
as mementos; graphic artists have monopolized certain stones by rubbing whole editions 
of prints to sell; and vandals have destroyed and even stolen some of the ancient markers. 
The signs read : 

VISITORS. . . PASSERS-BY NOTICE 

PLEASE REPORT NO 

ANY PERSON WORKING ON. GRAVESTONE RUBBING 
HANDLING OR REMOVING 

ANY HEADSTONE IN THIS VIOLATORS SUBJECT TO ARREST & MAX. FINE 

HISTORIC CEMETERY. - POLICE TAKE NOTICE 

CALL 911 • pq^ order Anthony Fordione, Commissioner 



ARE YOU IN DEBT? 

If you asked to be billed when you ordered MARKERS _, please ahesk to 
see if you ever paid. Thebill you asked for was included with the book you re- 
ceived. We can bill you again^ but AGS has no paid staff and no wish to squander 
Association time and money by getting iyito monthly billing procedures. So make 

sure you paid, and if you didn't, please COME ACROSS. , ., 

"^ An unpavd message from 

lour friendly publications staff 

A GEWIBE GENEALOGICAL OFFER 

Betty Willsher, author (with Doreen Hunter) of STONES, writes that she 
"is busy with family research" and adds, "If you hear of anybody I could do some 
for, please give them my address. " Here it is: Orherd Cottage, Greerside Place, 
St. Andrews, Fife KY 169TJ, Scotland. 



INTERESTING EPITAPHS 

Many books of epitaphs mention one inscribed "I told you I was sick," 
but the epitaph is never substantiated. Now, from Francis Duval, author (with 
Ivan Rigby) of Early American Gravestone Art in Photographs , we have a news- 
paper story and two photographs of the headstone on the grave of Mary Pearle 
Warren in the Harrison Township Cemetery near South Bloomfield, Ohio. Accord- 
ing to a niece quoted in the news item, Mrs. Warren talked a lot about being sick, 
but neither her husband nor anyone else took her seriously until one morning he 
found her dead in bed. She had told him to inscribe "I TOLD YOU I WAS SICK" 
on her gravestone, and he did. 



From a tablet in St. Andrew's Church, Plymouth, 
Devonshire. Contributed by Richard H. Brown, 
54 Fletcher Avenue, Valley Stream, NY 11580. 

To the precious memory of that truly virtuous gentlewoman 

Mrs. MARY SPARKE 

daughter of Jonathan Sparke of this town, Esq. 
Who departed this life XXX day of December 

anno domini 1665 

Life's but a sparke, a weak uncertain breath 
No sooner kindled than put out by Death. 
Such was my name, my fame, my fate, yet I 
Am still a living sparke, though thus I dye. 
And shine in Heaven's orbes a star most bright 
Though death on Earth so soon eclipst my light. 



From the old burial ground behind the fire 
station, Claremont, NH. Contributed by 
Robert Dakin, 3 Hodgkins Terrace, Clare- 
mont, NH 03743. 

In memory of 

Chester an Elisha Putnam 
Sons of the late Capt. Solomon 
Putnam who, on the morning of 
the 29th of JanV 1814 in the same 
bed were found suffocated 
a kettle of common coals having been 
placed in their room for comfort proved 
the fatal instrument of their death. 
The former in the 27th, the latter in 
the 19th year of his age. 

How many roses perish in their bloom 
How many suns, a, lass, go down at noon. 



From the gravestone of Solomon 
Holbrook (d. 1807), Wellfleet Old 
Burying Ground, Wellfleet, MA., 
this variant on "Stranger Stop 
and Cast an Eye" includes a bit 
of probably undeliberate humor, 
at least for the contemporary 
reader. Sent by Diana H.George, 
The Pennsylvania State University, 
The Behrend College, Station Road, 
Erie, PA 16563. 

Now he's dead and cannot stir. 
His cheeks are like the fading rose: 
Which of us next must follow him 
The Lord Almighty knows. 




Fr^nm Hid I piinhinn h\/ Knnp '^tpi'n and Knnt^. A nnuhle^Hnu Dnlnhi'n Rnnk 



EXEMPLARY 




- 14 - 

CEMETERY CITATIONS 



for the excellence of the 

publications that have been 

produced about them 

GROVE STREET CEMETERY 
New Haven, Connecticut 



FAIRMOUNT CEMETERY 
Denver, Colorado 



THE CEMETERIES OF 
HOUSTON, TEXAS 




"THE OLD BLACK CEMETERY" 
Haitom City, Texas 



History of Grove Street Cemetery , edited and il- 
lustrated by David L. Daggett IV; produced and 
researched by the Junior League of New Haven 
in cooperation with the Proprietors of the New 
Haven Burying Ground and Malcolm Munson, 
superintendent. Brief, scholarly. Thanks to the 
New Haven Historical Society for acquainting us 
with this publication. 

Walk into Historic Colorado, a description of monu- 
ments commemorating Denver's celebrated men and 
women of its historic past and a walking tour guide 
through the cemetery; written by the cemetery's 
professional historian, David E. Halaas; published 
by the Fairmount Cemetery Association, 1976. This 
cemetery is the only natural arboretum in Colorado. 
There is so much interest in it that Historic Denver 
(the largest local non-profit preservation organiza- 
tion in the country) holds an annual picnic there 
and offers tours and instruction in stone rubbing. 
This citation was recommended by Roy Erickson 
of the Erickson Memorial Co., Speer Boulevard at 
Ninth Avenue, Denver, CO 80204. 

Our Ancestors' Craves: Houston's Historic Cemeteries, 
a 28 page, handsomely illustrated, slick-paper pub- 
lication written by Douglas Milburn; one of a series 
of publications prepared by the Houston Public Li- 
brary's Learning Library Program, 1980. Excellent 
descriptions of 53 cemeteries plus information about 
a number of lost burial grounds. Thanks to Sue and 
Philip Jones and Tory Schmitz for this publication. 



Approximately twenty acres of collapsed graves 
with markers hidden in dense, shoulder-high vege- 
tation at the busy intersection of Twenty-eighth and 
Beach Streets, in sight of downtown Ft. Worth. Jim 
Trinkle and Don Harrison of the Ft. Worth Star-Tele- 
gram have written about its condition without suc- 
cess in improving its care. Recommended for our 
citation by Phil Kallas, who sent documentary photo- 
graphs to be contributed to the AGS archives. 



NEWSLETTER NOTES 

Thanks to Mitchell Alegre for his fine work as guest editor of this issue 
of the NEWSLETTER. Because working with a guest editor was a pleasure and the 
result good, we are encouraged to experiment again. Richard Welch will be guest 
editor of the spring issue. Send NEWSLETTER items and suggestions to him at 55 
Cold Spring Hills Road, Huntington, New York 11743; or address AGS Publications, 
c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609. Deadlines for 
the spring, summer, and fall issues are March 15, June 1, and September 1. 

The NEWSLETTER is eager to publish an index by subject and author of 
the items from its previous issues and from MARKERS . A member who is eminently 
qualified to prepare such an index has indicated an interest in taking on the job, 
but we do not have a definite commitment. Cross your fingers. 




NtWbLLTTtK 

OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 



Editor, Jessie Lie Farber 



Guest Editor, Robert F. Welch 



Volume 5. Number 2, Spring 1981 ISSN: 01U6-5783 



CONTENTS 

ACS Conference Update .1 • 

by President Joanne Baker 

ASSOCIATION NEWS 

Memorial Images in Three Presbyterian Yards, 
Charlotte, North Carolina. A photo-essay , . . . 
by Francis Y. Duval and Ivan B. Rigby 

Preserving Early Sandstone Markers. An article 
by Robert T. Silliman 

CONSERVATION 

EDUCATION 

RESEARCH AND WRITINC 

BOOK REVIEW 

The American Life Collector, Funerary Art 
Edited by Larry Freeman 
Review by Michael Cornish 

CEMETERY CITATIONS 

STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS. Eighth installment . . . 

Samuel Dwight: Vermont Gravestone Cutter 
by Nancy Melin 

INTERESTING EPITAPHS 

An Introduction to Gravestone Study. A true life adventure 
by Diana Hume George 

MISCELANEOUS 

NEWSLETTER NOTES, corrections, additions, deadlines . . . 

CONFERENCE REGISTRATION FORM 



1 

2 

3.4 

5 

6.7 
7 

8.9 
10 



10 
11.12 

13 

m 
m 

15 
15 



AGS CONFERENCE UPDATE 

The site of the 1981 AGS Conference, the University of Connecticut, Storrs, 
is located in the center of one of the richest regions for the study of early gravemarkers. 
This is the area in which Ernest Cauifield carried on his research in the 1950's and the 
1960's, and the one in which James Slater is now working. 

Appropriately, a number of conference activities will take advantage of this 
superb location. A field trip on Friday, June 26, will feature the work of the granite 
carvers of eastern Connecticut. James Slater will introduce the trip with a short slide 
preview before guiding participants through selected burying grounds of the region. 

Three major papers relating to the region will be read. Mr. Slater will pre- 
sent "The Mannings and Their Influence in Eastern Connecticut: A Study in Dominance." 
David Watters' subject is "Eleasar Wheelock's Lebanon Crank Congregation." Kevin M. 
Sweeney will present "Where the Bay Meets the River: An Analysis of Gravestone Carv- 
ings and Carvers in Six River Towns in Massachusetts, 1680-1800." 

Two major exhibits will also concentrate on the gravestones of eastern Con- 
necticut. Susan Kelly and Anne Williams will show a selection of their rubbings of stones 
from the area. Janet Aronson's exhibit will document the Old Storrs Burying Ground, 
which is located near the conference site. Her exhibit includes photographs and rub- 
bings of each stone, a grid of the burial sites, a catalog, and an index. Not specifi- 
cally connected with the conference, but available to conferees, will be a show of Dan 
Farber's 16" x 20" photographs of eastern Connecticut stones, which will be in progress 
at the University of Connecticut library at the time of the conference. 

As in the past, the 1981 conference will also present studies and exhibition 
materials from regions outside the conference area. Among these will be displays by 
Ruth Cowell and Roberta Halporn of items related to old Jewish cemeteries, and an ex- 
hibition by Carol Perkins of her photographs and epitaph collection. Norman S. Baer, 
conservator at the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, will speak about "The 
National Cemetery as Environmental Laboratory." Charles Bergengren will discuss the 
differences between academic and folk gravestone carvings of the seventeenth and the 
eighteenth centuries in a talk entitled, "The Folk Aesthetic in Gravestones: The 



Glorious Contrast." Vincent Luti will bring conference participants up to date on his 
continuing study of Rhode Island Carvers in a paper, "Stonecarvers of the Narragan- 
sett Basin: The New Family." Laurel Gabel and Barbara Rotundo will speak on "The 
Effect of the Colonial Revival on Gravestones." Mrs. Gabel will also show photographs 
initialed by Daniel and Nathan Hastings, and a group of unattributed stones she is study- 
ing. Frankie Bunyard will show slides illustrating stonecarving techniques, after 
which she will demonstrate letter cutting and offer instruction to those who would like 
to try their hand at it. 

An important purpose of this conference will be the gathering of information 
from AGS members regarding the future of the organization. The Association has been 
in existence since July, 1977, when a group of about thirty-five persons met in Dublin, 
New Hampshire, to formulate the organization and chart its direction. Now, four years 
later, it is time to examine our accomplishments, reassess our purposes, and set goals 
for the future. Members' opinions will be sought at an open meeting. 

For three years, AGS conference planners have been promising conference 
programs with blocks of unscheduled time for the informal sharing of mutual interests 
and for exploring local burying grounds. Past conference committees have been frus- 
trated in their efforts to allocate this time by the quantity and quality of papers offered 
and the resulting temptation to overschedule the number of speakers and slide shows. 
This year we are making a determined effort to provide the long-promised free time. 

A final mailing, which will give last-minute program information and travel 
and check-in directions, will be sent to those whose registrations are received by Junel. 

CONFERENCE DATES: June 26-28, 1981 

Address inquiries and registrations to: 

Dr. Joanne Baker, Conference Director, 
64 North Main Street, Concord, NH 03301 

Conference Exhibition Space 

A highlight of each AGS conference has been the exhibition area. Members' exhibits of 
their work are an integral part of the conference, and the work of amateurs and profes- 
sionals is equally interesting and welcome. "For Sale" items are welcome and may be so 
identified by the exhibitors. There is good exhibit space for showing as many displays 
as are offered, and reservations for space are not required. It will be helpful, however, 
if exhibitors will take the time to drop a note describing their exhibit material to Exhibit 
Coordinator Mary Anne Mrozinski so that the choice spaces can be reserved and a logical 
overall arrangement planned. Address Ms. Mrozinski at 47 Hammond Road, Glen Cove, 
New York 11542. 

Notes to Connecticut Members 

1. For those who plan to commute to the conference, individual lunches and dinner tickets 
may be purchased at the door of the dining hall. Lunches, $5.25; dinners, $6.75. (The 
box lunch for the field trip is included in the $12 trip-fee.) 

2. This year conferees will again enjoy the privilege of meeting one of our English mem- 
bers. Ben J. Lloyd of the Bedwyn Stone Museum, Great Bedwyn, Marlborough, Wilts, 
England, will arrive at Bradley Field on Thursday, June 25. We need a volunteer to 
meet him and to escort him to the campus. We also need someone to take him to the air- 
port the following Monday. If you can help on either of these days, please contact 
Joanne Baker at the address above. 

ASSOCIATION NEWS 

Correction . The fee for AGS membership is still $10, not $15 as was erroneously stated 
in the last issue of the NEWSLETTER. To keep your membership in good standing and 
avoid interruption in the receipt of your NEWSLETTER , send fees, before July 1 , to: 
AGS Treasurer, Mrs. Philip Thomas, 82 Hilltop Place, New London, New Hampshire 03257. 

Membership promotion . A newsletter published by the Friends of Mt. Hope Cemetery in 
Rochester, New York, included an item about AGS, mentioning the Association's purposes, 
its two publications, and giving membership information. Carol Perkins of Toledo, Ohio, 
is responsible for acquainting the Rochester organization with AGS. We encourage other 
members, particularly those who lecture and teach, exhibit, or hold office in related or- 
ganizations, to introduce AGS to individuals and groups with similar or allied interests. 
We still need a membership chairman to organize membership promotion. Volunteer to: 
AGS President Joanne Baker, 51 South Street, Concord, New Hampshire 03301. 

e%3 




n^ 




FIRST SUGAW CREEK CEMETERY, 1790: high relief carving of the Campbell 
family arms, with lateral lions over a banner calling for familial fortitude. 



J 



MEMORIAL IMAGES IN THREE PRESBYTERIAN YARDS, CHARLOTTE, NORTH CAROLINA 

Francis Y, Duval and Ivan B. Rigby 

Three Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, cemeteries contain the carving 
styles illustrated on this and the following page. These cemeteries are: the Settlers 
Cemetery in downtown Charlotte, which functions also as a park, and two of the three 
burial grounds of the Sugaw Creek Presbyterian Church, founded in 1755. The Second 
Sugaw Creek Cemetery faces the church across Tyron Street, while the First (Craighead) 
Cemetery hides on Craighead Road, a short distance away. Although these two yards 
are chain-linked and padlocked, any serious gravestone researcher may obtain access 
by applying at the church office. 

These fascinating memorials are far from abundant — at these three locations 
there are only about a dozen examples — but for the student of gravestone art consider- 
ing a visit, their rarity is offset by their unusual beauty. Unfortunately, other carv- 
ing styles found alongside them are of relatively little artistic interest. 

Generally, the stones are incised lightly and present the tripartite configura- 
tion typical of early New England markers, except for the absence of border designs. 
The alphabet characters are beautifully handled, with utmost care given to letterforms 
and orthography. A mixture of uppercase and lowercase lettering predominates. Epi- 
taphs, when used, are placed low, often near the ground line. The heights of the stones 
vary from two to five feet, and widths and thicknesses vary with the heights. They 
are fashioned out of a pale, gray stone, slightly granular in texture, similar in appear- 
ance to steatrite, which facilitated the development of the openwork style used in 
Davidson County (see MARKERS, the Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studies, 
volume I, pages 62-75, Duval-Rigby, "Openwork Memorials of North Carolina"). 

The stones date from the 1780's to the first decade of the nineteenth century. 
Their carvers and /or workshops remain unidentified. The area in which they are found 
was settled during the 1750's by Scotch-Irish immigrants from Ulster who trekked to the 
area via Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and other Middle Atlantic Colonies, and for 
whom Presbyterianism formed a cherished heritage. 

Some of the memorials show worrisome symptoms of natural erosion in the 
form of fissures and splitting. The writers urged the church authorities to move the 
threatened stones to indoor safety. Although we were assured that the matter would be 
given consideration, our experience leads us to expect that the memorials will probably 
remain in their outdoor locations until further natural deterioration or an unfortunate 

act of vandalism either destroys them or prompts belated action. ^ ^. •, 

' I- r- Continued > 




SETTLERS CEMETERY, 1798: flanking stags compliment the McComb arorial swords, 
crested with a unicorn bead. The Latin motto croclaims the righteousness ot virtue. 





SECOND SUGAW CREEK CEMETERY, 1801: the only ettigy carving in the area bears this late date, on the Isabella Shields 
marker. SECOND SUGAW CREEK CEMETERY, 1798: an eagle ntotit, rendered here as the Federal emblem, adorns 
William Wylie's memorial. 




SECOND SUGAW CREEK CbMHTERY, 1786: modiiiea tlywl designs appear on the shoulders o( this high reliet 
carving of the Alexander family emblem. 



- a - 

CONSERVATION 

PRESERVING EARLY SANDSTONE MARKERS Robert T. Silliman 

What does one do when faced with an accelerating rate of deterioration of 
our beautiful seventeenth and eighteenth century sandstone gravemarkers? i began 
by visiting most of the old cemeteries in north-central Connecticut to compare the con- 
dition and the rate of deterioration of the early stones. I was amazed by the dramatic 
difference between those cemeteries located in heavily populated areas and those in less 
densely populated areas, away from heavy highway traffic. This seemed to confirm the 
widely held belief that air pollution is a major cause of gravestone deterioration. 

To my limited knowledge, the only way to prevent the disintegration of sand- 
stone markers is to coat them with a commercial sealer. I directed my inquiries about 
such an approach to the Raylite Company, Wilmington, Delaware. After much corres- 
pondence and telephone conversation, Raylite recommended a two-coat treatment. The 
actual chemical product used in the treatment was made by the Permagile Corporation, 
Plainview, New York. This is an epoxy bonding material that proved to be very con- 
venient to mix and use on location. 

To clean the stones I experimented with high pressure hot and cold water 
and with steam cleaning. Steam cleaning proved superior. A small truck was purchas- 
ed and fitted with water tanks containing four hundred gallons, an electric generator, 
pump, steam cleaner, pressure garden sprayer to apply the cleaner, and an airless 
spray gun and numerous small tools. A cleaner containing trisodium phosphate, hydro- 
clorite, and detergent was sprayed on the surface of the stone and allowed to pene- 
trate a few minutes before the steam cleaning operation began. The entire operation 
consisted of four steps: 

1. The application of the cleanser 

2. The steam cleaning. 

3. A pause of 72 hours to permit drying, then the application of an under- 
coat sealer with an airless spray gun. 

4. Another 24 hour wait, after which the finishing coat of sealer was 
applied. 

The most important part of the whole operation was the thorough cleaning of the stones 
before the first coat of sealer was applied. 

We started our work in the summer of 1978 at the Old Poquonock Burying 
Ground, Windsor, Connecticut, and from there moved on to the Old Burying Ground 
in the rear of the Palisado Cemetery, also in Windsor. Another section of the Palisado 
Cemetery was completed in the fall of 1979, and the entire project was completed in the 
fall of 1980. All together, we cleaned and treated over 1100 gravestones in the two 
cemeteries. 

As part of the first project, at the Old Poquonock Burying Ground, I re- 
corded all work done on each and every stone, including how it was found and the 
steps taken in treatment, from the initial cleaning to the final application of sealer. In 
addition, I prepared a map of the entire cemetery, numbered each stone, and listed 
each marker both numerically and alphabetically. Inscriptions were copied and re- 
corded. My research turned up newspaper clippings describing major preservation 
efforts dating to 1915 and 1930. Photographs were taken throughout the work period 
and these were included with the other material to form a complete record of the pro- 
ject, which was presented to the Windsor Historical Society. I personally financed the 
first part of the project; a local trust paid for the work in the larger Old Burying 
Ground in the Palisado Cemetery. 

Anyone interested in our preservation project is invited to visit the ceme- 
teries on Palisado Avenue (Route 159) and Marshall Phelps Road (off Route 75), both 
in Windsor. I can be reached at 1207 Poquonock Avenue, V\/indsor, Connecticut 06095. 
Telephone (203) 688-2756. 

Mr. Silliman is President of the Windsor Historical Society. He will be available for 
questions and discussion of this project at the 1981 ACS conference ^ Storrs, Connecticut. 

EDITOR'S NOTE: The NEWSLETTER welcomes information about other aonservation efforts 
as well as comments on the procedures used in Windsor. 



CETA cuts strike home . AGS members who attended the 1980 conference will remember 
John Plackis, who sold "Support Your Local Cemetery" buttons to raise money for a 
cemetery restoration program in Huntington, New York. This program, initiated by 
Town Historian Rufus Langhans, provided for the clearing, mapping, cataloging and 
restoration of sixty-nine historic burial grounds. With town funds obtained through 
CETA, Langhans hired Plackis on a full-time basis to work on the project. Now, re- 
cent CETA program cuts have forced Langhans to let Plackis go, with only thirty of 
the cemeteries explored and mapped. Though Plackis is finishing up some of the work 
on a voluntary, unpaid basis, the large project has been effectively halted. Langhans 
hopes the town's innovative "Adopt a Cemetery" program may take up some of the slack. 
Through this program, local groups and individuals agree to assume the responsibility 
for restoring and maintaining a cemetery. So far, fifteen have been "adopted." Para- 
doxically, at the same time that Huntington had to cut back on its cemetery restoration 
program, one of its cemeteries, the Old Town Burial Ground, located just behind the 
Historian's office, was chosed for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places. 

Greenwood Cemetery . Gina Santucci reports that the New York City Landmarks Preser- 
vation Commission has begun a series of hearings dealing with the proposed designation 
of Brooklyn's Greenwood Cemetery as a City Landmark. Greenwood, founded in 1834, 
is considered to be one of the nation's "top three" Victorian cemeteries, the others 
being Mt. Auburn, in Boston, and Laurel Hill, in Philadelphia. Greenwood Cemetery's 
gates, designed by Richard Upjohn and Son in 1861, were designated Landmarks in 
1966. The recommendation of the entire cemetery as a Landmark was precipitated by 
the report that the 1911 Gothic Revival chapel was in danger of imminent demolition. 

Wisconsin State Old Cemetery Society . Wisconsin appears to be the most active Mid- 
western state in the areas of gravestone study and gravestone preservation. The 
major vehicle for this activity is the Wisconsin State Old Cemetery Society. With a 
membership of 800, the Society is engaged in the restoration /maintenance of the state's 
small, neglected cemeteries. It also encourages the preservation of Indian burial mounds 
not protected by state or federal statues. The Society maintains a listing of all state 
cemeteries and keeps a file of the location of the records of each of these cemeteries. 
Inquiries should be directed to the Society's president, F. Winston Luck, U357 North 
74th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53216. Prospective members contact Julaine Maynard, 
617 Clemens Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53704. 

Gravestone thieves apprehended . With gravestone theft an increasing problem, readers 
will be heartened to know that not all such thieves go uncaught. According to a news 
item in the March 21, 1981, Asbury Park (N.J.) Press, when two Manalapan, N.J. men 
were stopped in the early hours of March 20 for a traffic violation, the police officer 
observed two old gravestones with early nineteenth century dates on the back seat of 
the men's car. The stones had been illegally removed from Old Scott's Burial Ground 
in Manalapan Township, and the two men were charged with theft and malicious damage. 
What they intended to do with the stones was not reported. We hope Robert Van Ben- 
thuysen, who sent the clipping, will report to us the final disposition of this case. 

Conservation research. New York University . Professor Norbert S. Baer, of the Con- 
servation Center of the Institute of Fine Arts, New York University, has been awarded 
a contract by the Environmental Protection Agency to study the deterioration of marble 
gravestones in Veterans Administration cemeteries. Because the marble was cut from 
only three quarries and fashioned into standardized shapes, these cemeteries provide 
an almost perfect laboratory for measuring the rate of damage from environmental fac- 
tors. (For another item about this research, see the AGS NEWSLETTER, volume 4, 
number 4, page 9. ) 

Maine Old Cemetery Association featured . The Maine Old Cemetery Association, a prime 
mover among advocates of cemetery preservation, was spotlighted in the November, 1980, 
issue of Down East magazine. The nine-page, illustrated article details the history of 
the organization from its founding in 1969 by Dr. Hilda M. Fife, to the present. MOCA 
boasts 1200 members, described by one of them as "forward- (as well as backward-) 
looking people." Down East recounts MOCA's tireless activity in the discovering and 
preserving of abandoned burying grounds, as well as its development of an inscription 
list and a surname index, both housed in the Maine State Library at Augusta, and avail- 
able there to researchers. 

AGS Archives. Michael Cornish reports good progress with the Association's archive col- 
lection at the New England Historic Genealogical Society. Jim Green, NEHGS curator of 
rare books, is purchasing two copies of the major works of available gravestone litera- 
ture, using a bibliography prepared by Cornish. The NEHGS Library is at 101 Newbury 
Street, Boston; presentation of the AGS membership card waives the $3 fee otherwise 
charged non-NEHGS members. Readers are urged to contribute to the AGS collection. 
Write Michael Cornish, 62 Calumet Street, Roxbury, Massachusetts 02120, about art or 
literature you can offer (tax deductible) to the collection. 



J 



CONSERVATION:, aontinued - 7 - 

Laser cleaning . The December 28 issue of Parade magazine features an article describing 
physicist John Asmus' spectacular success in cleaning historical monuments with a laser. 
Asmus, who works at Maxwell Laboratories in San Diego, has restored such diverse arti- 
facts as vandalized American Indian pictographs in Utah and Rennaissance architecture 
in Venice. He uses lasers (an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of 
Radiation) to produce an intense burst of light which, according to the article, "heats 
the surface it is directed toward and vaporizes any material that absorbs the heat. In 
the case of the Venetian statuary, the black crust absorbed the energy and vaporized, 
but the white marble surface underneath reflected the laser beam, so it remained un- 
affected by the intense heat." We read of this new technique with interest in the pos- 
sibility of its being applied to the conservation of important gravemarkers . 

Gravestones for sale. Those who have read MARKERS , volume 1, will be interested to 
learn that the advertisement for the fragment of a Connecticut Valley stone shown on 
page 146 originally appeared in the March, 1979, issue of Main Antique Digest. Its ap- 
pearance in that publication prompted Douglas M. Doughty of Saginaw, Michigan, to 
write to the Digest a letter of protest, warning that "this kind of advertising will lead 
to even more plundering of our early cemeteries." The accuracy of this prediction was 
born out in the August, 1980, issue of the same publication, which contained a photo- 
graph of a gravestone carved with a dove symbol to be offered at auction in Morrisville, 
New York. The caption beneath the photograph read, "We know there is a controversy 
about gravestones and grave ornaments being on the market. Trouble is, once they 
are on the market, what do you do about them?" The Digest answered its own ques- 
tion. The "...dove in marble brought $165." The NEWSLETTER thanks Fred Fredette, 
Box 37, Scotland, Connecticut 0626U, for these news items. 

EDUCATION 

High school in the cemetery . One of the most positive results of gravestone studies in 
recent years is the growing appreciation of gravestones and cemeteries as teaching re- 
sources. A story in the Monument Builders News, January, 1981, tells of the use made 
by Nancy Roll and Robert Manly of the local cemetery in Seward, Nebraska, as a primary 
resource. Dr. Manly, historian and former professor at the University of Nebraska, 
Lincoln, led Ms. Roll's American history class through the Seward cemetery, pointing 
out significant inscriptions and epitaphs and explaining that the story told by the stones 
is the story of the town, and a reflection of the nation's history as well. By interesting 
coincidence, one of the photographs illustrating the article showed a tree marker simi- 
lar to thoise discussed by James Slater at the 1980 ACS conference. 

ACS slide program for public education . The ACS slide program for public education 
is developing admirably, thanks to education committee members Sandra Poneleit, Mary 
Stafford, Richard Welch, Eloise West, Miriam Silverman, Juliane Maynard, and Deborah 
Trask, who actively solicited slides from the membership. The committee extends its 
thanks to those who donated slides to this important Association project. For readers 
who have color slides to contribute, it is not yet too late. For more information, write 
Mary Anne Mrozinski, ACS Vice President/Education, 47 Hammond Road, Clen Cove, 
New York 11542. 

Slide program for rent . Is your historical or genealogical society looking for an in- 
teresting program? Would you like a glimpse of gravemarkers west of the Mississippi? 
Burial: Western Style, a 22 minute slide/cassette tape program is available to members 
on request for $6.50 plus return postage. Order from Mary Anne Mrozinski at the 
address above. 

Newton's educational blockbuster . The historical society in Newton, Massachusetts 
(called The Jackson Homestead) has organized a very ambitious series of events, all 
dealing with gravestone-related subjects. Between May 2 and 13 the open-to-the-public 
offerings scheduled include a walking tour, an open house and exhibition of mourning 
clothes and accessories, an exhibit of photographs of distinguished Newtonians, a slide 
presentation, a lecture, "Mourning Customs of Different Faiths and the Philosophy Be- 
hind the Customs," and a slide-lecture, "Eighteenth Century Stone Cutters of Newton." 
The photographs are by Dan Farber; the lecturer is Rabbi Murray Rothman; the slide- 
lecture is presented by Laurel Cabel. Publicity for the series has been excellent. Our 
compliments and best wishes for Newton's success with this fine educational venture. 

Cood show . The exhibition of photographs, rubbings and collected epitaphs recently 
shown at the library of the Medical College of Ohio broke the attendance record for ex- 
hibits there, which have included a display of portraits by Karsh. According to Carol 
Perkins, who organized the show, the response to the items exhibited was excellent, 
although there was some questioning comment concerning the showing of tombstones at 
a medical school! 



- 8 



RESEARCH AND WRITING 

Jewish gravestones. AGS members with an interest in Jewish gravemarkers will want 
to study D. DeSola Pool's Portraits Etched in Stone: Early Jewish Settlers, 1682-1831 , 
published by Columbis University Press in 1952. The book is based on a history of 
the Sephardic Chatham Square Cemetery in New York City. Though long out of print. 
Portraits can sometimes be found through second hand book dealers. 

Regicides' gravestones . Increased research continues to unearth previously published 
material relating to early gravestones. Robert Emien, associate curator of the Rhode 
Island Historical Society, calls our attention to John Warner Barber's Connecticut 
Historical Collections, containing a General Collection of Interesting Facts, Traditions, 
Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, etc.. Relating to the History and Antiquities of 

Every Town in Connecticut, published in 1836. 
The section on New Haven. (pp. 150-157) re- 
counts "traditionary anecdotes" about the two 
judges, or "Regicides," who sentenced Charles I 
to death and who, by this account, fled to the 
New Haven area after the Restoration. Illus- 
trating the piece are four line drawings of sim- 
ple, initialed fieidstone markers believed by the 
author to be the Regicides' gravestones. They 
are described as standing in the rear of the 
Center Church in the old burying ground in 
New Haven where, in former times, they were 
"threatened by numerous sycophantic crown 
dependents with indignity and ministerial ven- 
geance. " Mr. EmIen sent the NEWSLETTER a 
Xerox copy of the complete story with the sug- 
gestion that an interested reader with access 
to the New Haven burial ground sort it all out — 
it is filled with marvelous detail — and present 
the story together with information concerning 
the authenticity of the Regicides' gravemarkers at the AGS conference in Storrs. For 
a copy, address the NEWSLETTER editor, c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, 
Massachusetts 01609. 




Presumed gravestone of the 

Regicide Edward Whalley , 

New Haven, Connecticut 



" Winged Skulls and Weeping Willows ," by Virginia Warren Allen, originally appeared in 
the June, 1936, issue of Antiques. It is more recently available in a 1979 anthology 
published by Antiques entitled Folk Art in America. The most interesting part of the 
article is the photograph of the stone of Sidney Breese, which stands in Trinity Church- 
yard, New York City. Breese, a stonecarver by trade, fashioned the marker before 
his death in 1767 and inscribed it thus: Sidney Breese June 9 1767 I Made by himself I 
Ha Sidney Sidney I Lyest thou here I I Here Lye I Till time is flown / To its Extremity. 
In the tympanum is carved a winged skull, now badly damaged. The entire stone has 
been encased in concrete. Folk Art in America includes also Daniel Farber's photoessay, 
"Massachusetts Gravestones." 

Long Island gravestones . "New York - New Jersey Gravestones on Long Island," by 
Richard F. Welch, is featured in the winter, 1981, issue of the Journal of Long Island 
History. The twenty-two page article with sixteen photographic illustrations treats 
the markers and carvers of the Lower Hudson Valley school of gravestone carving. 
Copies can be obtained from: The Seated Indian Shop, Long Island Historical Society, 
128 Pierrepont Street, Brooklyn, New York 11201. 

A Grave Business project . Anne Williams and Sue Kelly, whose rubbings of Connecticut 
gravestones have been widely exhibited by Art Resources of Connecticut (42 page cat- 
alog available from Art Resources of Connecticut, 85 Willow Street, New Haven, 06511), 
are deep into a new project, which grew out of their exhibit at the 1980 AGS conference. 
That exhibit featured rubbings of signed eighteenth century stones. Mrs. Williams and 
Mrs. Kelly now have collected data on 226 signed stones, representing the work of sixty- 
nine carvers, and they are making rubbings of the best of these for publication in AGS' 
MARKERS, volume II, and for a book they are preparing. They seek the help of read- 
ers who have found signed stones. Send the name of the deceased, the date, location 
(town and cemetery), stone material, and condition (excellent, good, poor) to A Grave 
Business, 83 Maywood Road, Darien, CT 06820. 

Wisconsin gravestones . The December, 1980, issue of Wisconsin Academy Review con- 
tains Phil Kallas' article, "Images Graven in Stone." Focusing on memorials found in 
Wisconsin, Kallas discusses the evolution of gravestone symbolism from colonial times 
to the present. The article is illustrated with several fine photographs of nineteenth 
century and contemporary memorial designs. 



RESEARCH AND WRITING, sont-inued 



- 9 - 



Research and hokum . Serious cemetery research and historical hokum are curiously 
combined in the old cemetery of "ghost town" Calico, California. Thanks to Francis 
Duval and Ivan Rigby for calling to our attention the following item from the A/eiv York 
Times, March 22, 1981. 



Old Graveyxird Yields 
Only Part of Its Secrets 
To Coast Researchers 



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A photo-story with a somewhat similar theme was featured in Republic Airlines' in- 
flight magazine. Republic Scene, August, 1980, pages 62-65. One of the photographs 
showed wooden markers in Boot Hill Cemetery, Dodge City, Kansas, which appeared 
to us to be reproductions or fabrications. This suspicion is given weight by the story, 
according to which the original Boot Hill Cemetery was bulldozed to make space for a 
new city hall, and the present Boot Hill was developed to interest tourists. 

Pretty Polly Coombes . From Ann Parker we have an interesting item about the Polly 
Coombes stone in Beliingham, Massachusetts. Published in the Bellingham Historical 
Society's "Crimprill Comments," the article tells of Polly's "discovery" by Ann Parker 
and Avon Neal and its subsquent fame through the wide distribution of the Seal's rub- 
bings and photographs of the carving. Polly has been shown in exhibitions, hung in 
permanent museum collections, used to decorate postcards and notecards and to illus- 
trate numerous articles and books. Perhaps its most impressive appearance is in the 
catalog (written by Jean Lipman and Alice Winchester) for the 1974 show, "The Flower- 
ing of American Folk Art, 1776-1876," at the Whitney Museum of American Art. From 
the Bellingham article we have a new wrinkle in the story of this stone. Polly is the 
nickname of the deceased; the "real" name, listed in the vital records, is not mentioned. 
Polly Coombes' stone was carved by Joseph Barber, authenticated in 1980 by Michael 
Cornish. (For a look at Polly, see Ann Tashjian's rubbing on page 90 of the Tashjians' 
Memorials for Children of Change. Barbara Moon's rubbing of the Coombes' tympanum 
was illustrated on page 5 of the previous issue of the SEiVSLETTER. We take this op- 
portunity to apologize to her and to our readers for the too-black printing of it, which 
obliterated much of its detail, including Polly's charming smile. The Moon notecards 
are available for $3.50, including postage, from Ms. Moon, at 1955 Stony Hill, Hinckley, 
Ohio 44233.) 

Long Island cemetery study . A superb example of the possibilities offered by grave- 
stone research is found in Constance KopF>elman's "Dead Men /Women Do Tell Tales," 
published in Long Island Forum, XLIV, 1, January, 1981. The article is the result of 
research conducted by Ms. Koppelman in conjunction with the Suffolk County Museum's 
"A Time to Mourn" exhibit. Working with the Smith Rudyard burial ground, situated 
on the Museum's premises, Koppelman used the gravestones, dating mostly from the late 
eighteenth to mid-nineteenth century, to trace family history, social and familial relation- 
ships, mortality rates, and changes in attitudes toward death. The article provides a 
clear illustration of the detailed and significant information which can be extracted from 
even a small burial ground. 

The book, .4 Time to Mourn . The exhibition, "A Time to Mourn: Expressions of Grief 
in Nineteenth Century America" (reviewed in the \EliVSLETTER, volume 4, number 3, 
page 3), was accompanied by the publication of a volume of the same name treating 
death and funerary customs in Victorian America, This book, strongly recommended to 
both the serious student and the interested layman, will be reviewed in the summer 
issue of the NEWSLETTER. It sells for $11.95, softbound, and is available from The 
Museums at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York, or from Highly Specialized Promo- 
tions, 391 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11217. 

Reader's are rem-indsd that ALL publ-iaat-Cons I'evieued have ax-e available 
from HSPj axaeTpting, of course^ any that may be out of prnnt. Note that 
the address is 391 (not 395 } A.tlanti-a Avenue^ BTK/oklifn, Sew lopk 11217. 



10 



BOOK REVIEW 

THE AMERICAN LIFE COLLECTOR, FUNERARY ART, Number 10 

Edited by Larry Freeman 

Illustrated with photographs and engravings. 120 pages. 

Watkins Glen, New York: The American Life Foundation and Study Institute. 1970. 

Review by Michael Cornish 

The American Life Collector is, or was, an annual journal published by 
the American Life Foundation and Study Institute. Prior to this single-subject issue, 
this journal had endeavored to treat a wide variety of areas of American decorative 
arts, especially Victorian Americana. The concentration on Victorian antiques is 
evident in the volume considered here, as most of the artifacts and "collectibles" 
featured in the issue are of the nineteenth century. The works treated are, for the 
most part, manufactured items, products turned out en masse, with elaborate over- 
decoration, collectible only by virtue of their surviving eighty or a hundred years. 
Among the subjects dealt with are funeral customs (New England) , the tombs of 
American presidents, engraved designs for cast iron memorial enclosures, coffins, 
coffin plates, mourning jewelry, and mourning garb. 

Funerary Art is decidedly amateurish in quality. The text is full of typo- 
graphical and grammatical errors; epitaphs, for example, are sometimes referred to 
as epithets. Illustrations are frequently misidentified, and rubbings from Edmund 
Cillon's Early New England Gravestone Rubbings and Allan Ludwig's Craven Images 
are uncredited. Freeman's material contains some black humor of questionable taste 
and his comments about gravestones are often seriously misinformed, as in his state- 
ment that the earliest gravestones were ordered from Europe. In other instances. 
Freeman demonstrates an unfamiliarity with his subject, as seen in his description of 
Colonial carving styles. His material on early gravestones appears to have been taken 
from Graven Images, but while he adopted Ludwig's terminology and nomenclature, he 
clearly lacks an understanding of his subject and is unable to provide his reader with 
a coherent synopsis of Ludwig's thesis. 

Some of the problems with this volume can be excused in that they reflect 
the generally poor understanding of the subject common among devotees of related 
decorative arts as recently as 1970. Nevertheless, The American Life Collector, 
Funerary Art cannot be recommended except as a novelty. It does contain many very 
good old engravings of Gothic style mausoleums and photographs of some extraordin- 
ary nineteenth century mourning jewelry using woven and embroidered hair. A 
short, incisive history of American Rural Cemeteries entitled "Weep Willow Weep," 
by John Crosby Freeman, is a cut above the balance of the text. 

Michael Cornish, AGS Vice President I Archives, is active in attribution research and 
has exhibited his gravestone rubbings and photographs. 




CEMETERY CITATIONS 



EXEMPLARY CARE 




NEGLECT 



Hopewell Cemetery 
MONTGOMERY, OHIO 
(Greater Cincinnatti) 

South End Burying Grounds 
EAST HAMPTON, NEW YORK 

Basking Ridge Presbyterian Churchyard 
BASKING RIDGE, NEW JERSEY 

Readers may have observed that the 
drawings used to illustrate Cemetery 
Citations are taken (with permission 
and thanks) from Peter Benes' The 
Masks of Orthodoxy. The two used 
here are of the work of eighteenth 
century Connecticut carvers William 



Congressional Cemetery 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

This cemetery was the subject of a short 
program on PBS, Channel 13,. New York. 
It is overgrown, overcrowded, completely 
untended. The last appropriation for its 
upkeep was made in 1951. 

Riker Cemetery 
ASTORIA, QUEENS, NEW YORK CITY 

Apparently abandoned by both the Rikers 
and the City (though it adjoins a New 
York City landmark), this burying ground 
is a jungle of seeds, saplings, trash and 
broken and disintegrating stones. (^ 



Buckland and Ebenezer Drake, whose work may be seen in the 1981 conference site area. 



11 



STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS 

Eighth of a Series 




Jedediah Aylesworth, 1795, Arlington, Vermont 



SAMUEL DWIGHT: VERMONT GRAVESTONE CUTTER 



Nancy Jean Melin 



Discovering the identity of the witty and imaginative carver of the 1771 
Elisabeth Smith gravestone has been an intriguing challenge to students of gravestone 
art, particularly since 1977, when AGS adopted the effigy carving from this Williams- 
town, Massachusetts, marker as the Association's logo design. Although no probated 
data has yet been found which links the Vermont carver Samuel Dwight with this stone, 
a great deal of factual and circumstantial evidence does. Whether or not the distinc- 
tion belongs to Dwight, his place of importance among early gravestone carvers is 
secure, and his story as a stonecutter is an interesting one. 

He grew up in Thompson, Connecticut, 
the grandson of one Josiah Dwight, who 
played an important role in the town history 
of nearby Woodstock. That part of eastern 
Connecticut is just north of the region where 
stonecutters Obadiah Wheeler and Benjamin 
Collins adapted and fostered the Essex Coun- 
ty Style, brought there by John Hartshorn 
from Massachusetts' Merrimack River Valley. 
Characteristics of this inventive and ingen- 
ious style are prominent in Dwight's work. 

The Dwight family genealogy notes that 
Samuel was a twin and that through his 
grandfather, Josiah, he was related to Timo- 
thy Dwight, a president of Yale. Samuel was 
himself a student at Yale College, graduating 
In 1783, in the class with Nathan Hale. Fol- 
lowing his graduation, Dwight remained in 
the New Haven area. His activities there are 
for the most part unknown, although he is supposed to have composed a song for a later 
graduating class. Records show that during this period he married the widow of one 
Michael Todd, and Dexter' s Biographical Sketches of the Graduates of Yale College re- 
cords with an admonition that he "absconded" and left her in New Haven when he moved 
to Vermont. 

His name appears in the Vermont census for 1790, the same year he an- 
nounced in the Bennington Vermont Gazette the "reopening of Clio Hall, an academy for 
youth." He described that institution as offering training in Greek, Latin, logic, arith- 
metic, grammar, and "all other branches which are usually taught in academies." Dwight's 
career as a schoolmaster there was brief; before 1792 the school was closed again. Aside 
from a signed gravestone in Manchester, Vermont, another one further north in Rutland 
County, Vermont, and a notice in the 1800 Vermont Gazette disavowing further associa- 
tion with a second wife, few certain signs of him remain other than his charming yet so- 
phisticated stonecarving in the graveyards of Bennington County. The greatest con- 
centration of his mature work is in the Arlington and Shaftsbury, Vermont, burial grounds. 




- 12 - 

Dwight's work is identified by its distinctive lettering style and tiie repetitive 
use of symbolic heart, hand, vine, and flower motifs. His stones are of white marble, 
large in size, excepting those for children, and the tympanums are usually cut in a char- _. 
acteristic double S curve configuration. This tympanum contour may have been borrowecf^ 
from Zerubbabel Collins, another prominent carver working in the area. Dwight's earliest 
effigy carvings (1790-1796) resemble the simple stick and cylindrical figures common to 
children's drawings. Some of his stones are back-dated, evidenced by his frequent use 
of two dates on a stone, one the death date and the other presumed to be the date of the 
stone's commission. Dwight's second phase (1796-1800) was characterized by the use of 




f 4 



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ir 



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Shaftsbury Center, Vermont, 1801 



Arlington, Vermont, 1796 



rounded, more developed portrait-like effigies, the addition of border designs, and the 
continued use of the tympnaum contour described previously. Dwight's work entered a 
third phase (1800-1810) in which he further simplified his style while retaining his fa- 
vorite symbolic motifs. His last markers, which date to the 1820's, are noteworthy ex- 
amples of the popular urn and willow genre. 

I believe the Elisabeth Smith stone to be a back-dated example of Samuel 
Dwight's early period. My attribution of this stone to Dwight is based largely upon 
lettering pecularities, the distinctive ampersand sign, and the elaborate AD (Anno Domini) 
used with the birth and death dates. The Smith stone bears a resemblance to other stones 
in the same northwest Massachusetts area. One of these is the South Williamstown stone 
for Dwight's brother. Captain Hamlin Dwight, who died in 1786, the year Samuel left 
Connecticut for Vermont. That stone's lettering and its unusual effigy design — a profile 
portrait — are carved in the characteristic Dwight style. 

The last probated record of Samuel Dwight is in the Vermont Census of 1830, 
where he is listed as a resident of Sunderland, Vermont. Town records note that he 
signed over his property — one red cow, one feather bed and bedding — to the township 
in exchange for continued public support. Dwight appears to have died a single man, 
childless and destitute. Ironically, despite his formidable contribution to gravestone 
art, no stone marking his gravesite has yet been found. 



Nancy Jean Meli'n is Chief Serials Librarian at the City University of New York Graduate 
School. She has agreed to compile for the NEWSLETTER a much needed subject-author 
index of items that have appeared in this publication. Mrs. Melin is also preparing an 
annotated bibliography of gravestone related literature, for which she welcomes con- 
tributions concerning books and articles which have not been noted in any previous 
bibliography in this field or in the NEWSLETTER. Her address: 215 West 75th Street, 
Apartment #10E, New York, New York 10023. 

The photographs in this issue of the NEWSLETTER are from the Duval-Rigby collec- 
tion, 405 Vanderbilt Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11238. The rubbing on the previous 
page is taken, with permission, from MEMORIALS FOR CHILDREN OF CHANGE, by 
Dickran and Ann Tashjian. 

For a photograph of the Elisabeth Smith headstone and footstone, see NEWSLETTER 
volume 4, number 1, page 16. 

e%5) 



- 1:$ 



INTERESTING EPITAPHS 



Behold Me here as you Pass By 
Who bled and dy'd for Liberty 
From British Ty rents now am free 

Nicholas Parcell, 1780, Shorthills, 
New Jersey. Parcell was killed in 
an encounter with Hessian troops 
at the Battle of Connecticut Farms. 



This Life is a Dream 
and an empty Sho 
Into the Wide World 
We must go 

Richard Lawrence, 1781, 
Steinway, New York. 

Contributed by Cyril Bassett, 
Manhasset, New York. 



She lived 
A dutiful child, a virtuous wife, a tender 
Parent, a faithful Friend, a pious Christian, 

and died 
In chearful hope of everlasting bliss. 

"Henceforth my Soul in sweetest union join 

The two supports of human happiness. 

Which some erroneous think can never meet; 

True Taste of Life, and constant thought of Death! " 

Phebe Corham, 1775, Lothrop Hill Burying Ground, 
Barnstable, Massachusetts. Contributed by Diana 
Hume George, who seeks a literary source for the 
poem. Address her at the Division of Arts and Hu- 
manities, Pennsylvania State University-Behrend 
College, Stanton Road, Erie, Pennsylvania 16563. 



Behold vain mortals 

Poor feeling worms 

Beneath this clay cold sod 

Here lies a prey to nauseous worms 

the noblest work of God. 

Col. John Sands, 1811, Sands Point, 
New York. Contributed by Anthony 
J. Miracolo, Jr. , Plainview, New York 



Cone to be an angle. 
Gertrude Walker, White 



Horn, Tennessee. 

From Quesf Magazine, April, 1981 



Lord, she is Thin! 

Susannah Ensign, 
Cooperstown,New York 



Here lies Jane Smith, 
Wife of Thomas Smith, Marble Cutter 
This monument was erected by her 
husband as a tribute to her memory 
and a specimen of his work. 
Monuments of this same style are 
two hundred and fifty dollars. 



John Cowan died 1856 
R. C. Russell 1808-1872 

Abigail 
Their Wife 
1813-1909 



From Prescott, Massachusetts, one of several Massachusetts villages removed in the 
1930's to make a site for the Quabbin Reservoir. Gravestones removed from the vil- 
lages are now in Quabbin Cemetery, near Belchertown. The above two and other 
epitaphs recorded in the book, Quabbin — The Lost Valley, were contributed by Larry Hott. 




m r t r 

Amasa and Amy West's three children, 1755. Signed, "Made by W' ' Buckland. lu. Harfo " 

Detail of a rubbing of the whole stone by Williams /Kelly 



14 



AN INTRODUCTION TO GRAVESTONE STUDY Diana Hume George f 

In 1972 I was a high school teacher looking for a way to attract my less 
academically motivated students to the beauty and loveliness of language. The local 
burying grounds in Fredonia, New York, seemed a good prospect for such a purpose. 
By taking my students there, I could give them a sense of local history, a look at 
some fine artifacts, and an understanding of how stunning and effective a few words 
can be. I decided to do some preliminary research, driving through the grounds in 
my car. I stopped frequently and took notes. Gradually, I became aware that the 
groundskeeper was watching me, and had been for quite a while. I was stunned when 
he ordered me to leave. The burial ground was open and I was not violating any regu- 
lations. I explained what I was doing, to no avail, and I left, frustrated and angry. 
I parked my car out of sight, hopped the fence, and went back to work copying epi- 
taphs in another part of the cemetery. The wasted time meant I had to hurry because 
it would soon be too dark to see. I sped down the hill toward the fence at a run, 
carrying my large bag-type purse containing my notepad. Just as I took off in a jump 
I was blinded by flashing blue lights (Cops? Cops! ) and a single, unflashing spot 
aimed directly into my face. "Hold it right there!" (no kidding, that's what the man 
said). I could not comply immediately, but as soon as I landed, I held it right there. 
Again I explained that I was a teacher at the high school, that they could telephone 
the principal for verification. They wanted to know what I had buried. After an 
exchange of the "Sure you were, lady" variety and considerable misunderstanding, 
I learned that this was the night of the biggest drug bust in this college town's his- 
tory. The cemetery groundskeeper had reported a person with a case engaged in 
suspicious activity. To the police it added up to a frightened drug dealer trying 
to bury the evidence. I was ordered to stay away from the cemetery, presumably un- 
til I would be obliged to enter it permanently. I have not followed these orders, of 
course. But now, when I visit any graveyard, I am quick to flash identification and 
neighborly smiles, and I tend to seek out the authorities before they seek me out. 
Perhaps all of this defensive action has been unnecessary. I have never had any 
trouble since. 

Diana George, a frequent contributor to gravestone studies, teaches at The Pennsyl- 
vania State University, Erie, Pennsylvania. She has received a National Endowment 
for the Humanities fellowship to aid the research for her second book on William Blake, 
effectively delaying her gravestone research on Cape Cod epitaphs. She has, however, 
volunteered to serve as guest editor of the winter NEWSLETTER (see NEWSLETTER 
NOTES, page 5 ;. 

Readere are invited to oontribute half-page accounts of their unusual experiences 
or of their initiation to qravestone study. 



jf their initiation to gravestone study. 



MISCELANEOUS 

Gravestone insurance . The Monument Builders News, November, 1980, contains a brief 
piece explaining the Monument Builders of North America (MBNA) vandalism and theft 
program. These policies, sold at $1 per $100 of protection, insure gravemarkers against 
vandalism and theft for a five year period. Presumably, this is renewable. The upper 
limit of coverage is $2000 with a $25 deductible. This insurance is available through 
MBNA retailers only. 

The ultimate epitaph ? According to an item in Newsday, March 3, 1981, a California 
electrical engineer, Stanley Zelazny, has developed a sound system to be built into 
gravemarkers. The system allows the deceased to deliver a recorded message. Adver- 
tised as "weather and vandal proof," the system runs on solar power. Zelazny deve- 
loped the recording device because "Everyone has his say at funerals except the 
mournied one. " 

Cast monuments . The January, 1981, Monument Builders News features an article 
celebrating the hundred year old tradition of monument carving by members of the 
Cast family of Chicago. Engelbet Cast, a Bavarian immigrant, founded the business 
in 1880,and it has continued as a thriving family concern. The Casts are responsible 
for the Mies Van der Rohe and the Richard J. Daley ledger stones, and for the Stackley 
mausoleum, considered by some to be among the finest of its kind. The accompanying 
photographs attest to the Cast's skill and creativity and demonstrate that contemporary 
funerary art need not be mediocre and unappealing. ^ 



■NEWSLETTER NOTES 

CORRECTIONS. ADDITIONS. DEADLINES 

We are indebted to Richard F. Welch for his enthusiastic and thoroughgoing 
work as guest editor of this issue of the NEWSLETTER. Mr. Welch, who is 
in the graduate program in history at the State University of New York at 
Stony Brook, teaches history at the secondary level at Glen Cove on Long 
Island, and does free-lance writing for popular historical magazines and for 
historical journals. 

Summer issue . The guest editor of the summer issue of the NEWSLETTER is Cina Santucci, 
a 1980 graduate of Columbia University's program in historic preservation, now landmarks 
preservation specialist in the Survey Department of the New York City Landmarks Pre- 
servation Commission. Ms. Santucci's issue will feature Victorian Rural Cemeteries and 
Victorian monuments and mausoleums of the 1835-1895 period. She invites readers' con- 
tributions to all the regular NEWSLETTER features. Articles on memorials and landscape 
design of the period that she is featuring are especially welcome. The deadline for the 
receipt of contributions is June 1. Address Cine Santucci, 8 Gramercy Park, #4H , New 
York, New York, 10003 (telephone 212-228-1587), or use the permanent NEWSLETTER 
address: AGS Publications, c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA 01609. 

Fall issue . Donna N. Carlson, assistant curator/photographic archivist for an historical 
museum in Fredonia, New York, will be guest editor for the fall NEWSLETTER. The dead- 
line for that issue is September 1, 1981. Her address; P.O. Box 142, Fredonia, NY 14063. 

Winter issue . Diana George and Mac Nelson, professors at Pennsylvania State University- 
Behrend College, and State University of New York, Fredonia, respectively, will be 
guest co-editors of the winter ' 81-' 82 NEWSLETTER, in which they will feature the epi- 
taph. Contributions to that issue are due before December 1, 1981. Address contribu- 
tions to George/Nelson, 120 West Main Street, Brocton, New York 14716. 

Corrections . (1) The address given in the previous issue of the NEWSLETTER for Betty 
Willsher, author of Stones, should have been: Orchard Cottage, Greerside Place, St. 
Andrews, Fife KY 16 91 J Scotland. She offered to do research for readers interested 
in Scottish geneology. (2) The correct address for Highly Specialized Promotions, Inc., 
through which readers can order books reviewed on these pages, is 391 Atlantic Avenue, 
Brooklyn, New York 11217. (3) The fee for joining or renewing membership in AGS is 
still $10. Send it before July 1 to Sally Thomas, 82 Hilltop PI., New London, NH 03257. 

Response . In response to the NEWSLETTER piece on stonecutter Daniel Hastings (volume 
5, number 1, page 8), Vincent Luti has sent probated data on another Hastings stone. 
We forwarded it to Laurel Gabel, who is preparing a paper and an exhibition of Hastings' 
work. Luti is studying Rhode Island carvers and has sent a NEWSLETTER contribution 
on the carver William Throop. 

BRIEFLY NOTED 
AS WE GO TO PRESS 

A show of rubbings by Anne Williams and Sue Kelly is being shared by the New Canaan 
and the Wilton, Connecticut, historical societies, where Williams and Kelly have recently 
lectured and will offer rubbing workshops in May. 

Art history professor Robert Prestiano , whose article about the contemporary work of 
D. Aldo Pitassi was featured in the previous issue of the NEWSLETTER , would like to 
Rear from readers who know of other good contemporary gravestone work. Prestiano's 
address: 1105 North Van Buren, San Angelo, Texas 76901. On the same subject is a 
letter from Francis Duval calling our attention to the fine "and honest" contemporary 
work of Jerry Trauber , 142 Langham Street, Brooklyn, New York 11238. 

William Hosley , whose research on the Rockingham, Vermont, carvers was published in 
the proceedings of the 1978 AGS/Dublin Seminar, is now adjunct curator at the Wadsworth 
Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut. We want him to write a piece for us on those carvers. 

Preservation News has asked Elizabeth Morse Cluley , on the English faculty of the Uni- 
versity of Rhode Island, to write a piece about gravestones for that publication. 

New Jersey's Wayne Adult School offers a course, "Gravestones, Epitaphs and History," 
taught by Bill Moir . Mr. Moir's rubbings were shown in September at the Israel Crane 
House, Montclair, New Jersey, where he is curator of exhibits, and in March he present- 
ed a slide/lecture at the Maplewood (New Jersey) Historical Society. Moir is a delegate 
to the Museums Council of New Jersey and the League of Historical Societies. 

We have just received a full report of the accidental destruction and subsquent cutting 
of replicas of many eighteenth century stones in Shaftsbury Center, Vermont. This 
story--both shocking and heartening — will be reported in the summer NEWSLETTER. 



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Name. 



Address 
Town _ 



State 



Zip 



Institution (if you represent one) 



Please reserve the following (circle appropriate amounts) 
Room and Meals 

Double occupancy (Friday, Saturday), 2 breakfasts, 3 lunches, 2 dinners 
Single occupancy (limited number, first come, first served) 
Room only (no meals) Thursday night 



Tour — Granite Carvers of Eastern Connecticut 



Registration 

Registration if paid by May 1 

Membership 
Sustaining Membership 



75 ea. 
85 

5 




I have 



color slides I would like to show at the Members' Slide Show. 



1981 AGS CONFERENCE 

UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT^ STORRS 

JUNE 26-28 



MAIL REGISTRATION TO 



DR. JOANNE BAKERy CONFERENCE DIRECTOR 
ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 
64 NORTH MAIN STREET 
CONCORD^ NEW HAMPSHIRE 03301 



C 




NEWSLETTER 

OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 



Editor, Jessie Lie Farber 



Guest Editor, CIna Santucci 



Volume 5, Number 3, Summer 1981 ISSN: 0146-5783 



CONTENTS 

DISCOVERING ROMANTIC FUNERARY MARKERS AND LANDSCAPES 1 

by Blanche M.G. Linden 

THE VICTORIAN GARDEN CEMETERY 3 

by George Kackley 

VICTORIANS AT HOME IN THEIR CEMETERIES 5 

by Barbara Rotundo 

THE MOUNT AUBURN CEMETERY FENCE CONTROVERSY 6 

by Patricia Casler 

THE VANDERBILT CEMETERY AND MAUSOLEUM 7 

by Nancy Coeschel 

BOOK REVIEW 8 

A Time to Mourn 

Edited by Martha V. Pike & Janice Gray Armstrong 

Reviewed by Gina Santucci 

VICTORIAN ERA MEMORIAL ART IN RURAL CEMETERIES, a photo essay. , , 9' 
by Francis Y. Duval S Ivan B. Rigby 

MANHATTAN'S RURAL CEMETERY, Trinity 11 

byJay Shockley 

STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS. Ninth installment 12 

Crawford, Saint-Caudens & Frencli 
by Dorothy L. Cogswell 

SOME 19th-CENTURY REFERENCES; books, articles, associations 13 

CONSERVATION. Lance Mayer responds 1^1 

For a variety of reasons, eighteenth century New England gravestones have been given more space in this publication than 
have the markers of all other periods and geographical areas combined. This issue is a welcome change. It features grave- 
stones and cemeteries of nineteenth century America, a period of special interest to Gina Santucci, guest editor of this issue. 
Ms. Santucci is a 1980 graduate of Columbia University's program in Historic Preservation , now working for the New York City 
Landmarks Preservation Commission. Her enthusiasm and diligence in preparing this NEWSLETTER elicited a landslide of 
contributions which overwhelmed your regular editor, who spent too much of her summer exploring French cemeteries to deal 
promptly with this deluge and get the issue to press on schedule. Because of the wealth of nineteenth century material con- 
tributed, we ore saving for the fall issue our report on the Association's annual conference, held in June, as well as most of 
the news items we have on hand. We were obliged to make another hard choice: either cut the number of articles we could 
use or cut the length of each article. We opted for the latter and ask our authors to accept our apologies. 

Donna Carlson, P.O. Box 142, Fredonia, New York 14063, is guest editor of the fall NEWSLETTER. Send contributions to her 
or to : ACS Publications, do American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609. 




DISCOVERING ROMANTIC FUNERARY MARKERS AND LANDSCAPES 

Blanche M. C. Linden 

he creation of the "rural" or garden cemetery in the three decades be- 
fore the Civil Vifar hastened changes in gravestones which began in the 
late eighteenth century. This new institutional and landscape form be- 
came national in scope. The imagery of the willow tree and urn motif 

from gravestones and mourning pictures became reality as Americans 

adapted the commemorative, melancholy landscape of the English country garden to 
the functional act of burying the dead of their increasing urban population. 

Nineteenth-century Americans consciously wanted to create new cultural forms 
and material evidence of a past derived from the Revolution rather than Colonialism. 
Marble became the new stone of choice, followed at mid-century by granite. The trus- 
tees of Boston's Mount Auburn, the country's first rural garden cemetery, actually 
banned slate slabs placed in the traditional vertical position. Individual stones became 
three dimensional. The messages engraved on many stones exhorted the viewer to 
remember the identity of the deceased rather than to remember death- -memento mori — 
the lesson of the Colonial stone. Proprietors of family plots often erected major monu- 
ments before burials took place. The stones became tributes to family, including in 
their inscriptions the names of the living members as well as the deceased. Often they 
bore the names and dates of ancestors who were not even buried on the site. They 
served as genealogical documents, much like the family Bible, and also as symbols of 
status. 

Complex factors determined choice of monument form. The diversity of styles re- 
flected varied economic means, religious views, ethnicity, and "taste cultures." The 
origins of the various monument styles were eclectic, and many had generalized historic 
associations, favoring most often the neo-classical styles of Greece and Rome along with 



Egyptian and Gothic styles. Both the stones and the cemetery landscape had a literary 
basis, related to. the new notions of death. 

Consequently, most of the old gravestone motifs disappeared or were greatly al- 
tered. Proprietors of lots in the new pastoral cemeteries rejected the death's head along 
with the use of slate. The cherub became a sculptural, three-dimensional motif, even- 
tually evolving into the full-length allegorical figure. Occasionally bas reliefs of angels 
bearing the deceased to heaven appeared. Statues of women and children, either singly 
or together, can be considered variations on the "spirit portrait" of the previous cen- 
tury. With the growth of artistic training, individual portraiture became more refined. 
Portraits ranged from busts to full-size statues, some of the first products of patronage 
of the professionalized artist in America. The willow tree and urn motif recurred on 
stones and on ornate cast iron gates, urns, and fences; and it recurred in the landscape 
itself as proprietors of family plots, recapitulating the gravestone motif, planted willows 
and other weeping trees over their neoclassical monuments. 

New and varied iconography appeared on gravemarkers, indicating the symbolic 
consciousness of the times. Occupational symbols and lodge emblems added a new de- 
gree of personalization. The anchor of hope was used more frequently than the hour- 
glass, the symbol of mortality. Butterflies appeared as a new symbol of the soul and as 
evidence of growing taste for Nature. Plant motifs bore complex significance. Cut flow- 
ers, particularly the morning glory, the rose, and the lily, indicating a life cut short, 
were used frequently on women's stones. Laurel joined carvings of military gear to sig- 
nify victory. Motifs served to differentiate the sexes and ages of the deceased. A 
sheaf of wheat represented death of the mature or the aged. Treestones in the form of 
a severed oak trunk and limbs indicated either the death of the individual or cumulative 
cuttings from the family tree. This intricately sculptured form was especially prevalent 
in cities with a strong German heritage, and its meanings can be traced to Teutonic folk- 
lore. Stones in the form of open books or scrolls provided a surface for epitaphs, scrip- 
tural quotations, and melancholy verse like that found in popular periodicals of the roman- 
tic era. The motif of the finger pointed heavenward testified to faith, especially among 
Baptists and Methodists, and the cross, a sign rejected by the Puritans as papist, re- 
appeared with the rise of Episcopalianism. Inverted torches harmonized well with neo- 
classical styles favored by Unitarians. 

Taste varied from city to city. Bostonians favored simple styles with minimal icon- 
ography. Philadelphians filled Laurel Hill Cemetery with rows of opulent mausolea and a 
forest of obelisks, each vying to be tallest. German sculptors and craftsmen in Cincin- 
natti and Louisville created elaborate statuary for Spring Grove and Cave Hill Cemeteries. 

Adolph Strauch, superintendent of Spring Grove after 1855, formulated the "lawn 
plan," which stipulated that each family plot could have only one major monument, with 
individual markers nearly flush with the level of the sod. Thereafter, families invested 
in the central monument, making it large enough to combine information formerly dis- 
tributed among a number of smaller, individual gravestones. Other cemeteries tried to 
implement similar guidelines, but few fully succeeded in subduing the trend toward 
overcrowding of monuments, fences, and mausolea. By the end of the Civil War, the 
garden cemetery landscape had become as "thingy" as the cluttered Victorian parlor. 

The cultural wealth of the "rural" cemetery is perhaps even more endangered 
than that of the Colonial graveyard. Marble, especially vulnerable to acid rain, deter- 
iorates more rapidly than other gravestone materials, and much of the fine craftsman- 
ship of romantic gravestones has already been lost to time and the elements. Vandal- 
ism and neglect, resulting from lack of interest in Victorian monuments and lack of 
funds for their upkeep, are also responsible for the deterioration of these cemeteries. 
Much remains intact, however, inviting the attention of the modern scholar and the 
gravestone connoisseur just as strongly as it appealed to the public of the nineteenth- 
century, when the garden cemetery served the double purpose of burying ground and 
pleasure ground and was one of the city's chief attractions. 

MAJOR EXAMPLES OF THE "RURAL" CEMETERY 



Mount Auburn 
Laurel Hill 
.Creen-Wood 
Mount Hope 
Greenmount 
Rosehill 
Cypress Grove 
Woodland 
Rural 
Allegheny 
Spring Grove 
Swan Point 
Holly-Wood 
Green Lawn 
Cave Hill 



Cambridge, Mass. 


1831 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


1836 


Brooklyn, N.Y. 


1838 


Rochester, N.Y. 


1839 


Baltimore, Md. 


1839 


Syracuse, N.Y. 


1841 


New Orleans, La. 


1841 


Dayton, Ohio 


1813 


Albany, N.Y. 


isat 


Pittsburgh, Pa. 


iBnn 


Cincinnati, Ohio 


1845 


Providence, R.I. 


1846 


Richmond, Va. 


1847 


Columbus, Ohio 


1848 


Louisville, Ky. 


1848 



Sleepy Hollow 


Tarry town, N.Y. 


1848 


Forest Lawn 


Buffalo, N.Y. 


1849 


Oal< Hill 


Washington, D.C. 


1849 


Bellefontaine 


St. Louis, Mo. 


1849 


Magnolia 


Charleston, S.C. 


1849 


Evergreen 


Savannah, GA. 


1850 


Oak Hill 


Minneapolis, Minn. 


1850 


Woodland 


Cleveland, Ohio 


1851 


Elmwood 


Memphis, Tenn. 


1852 


Evergreen 


Portland, Me. 


1852 


Green Mount 


Montpelier, Vt. 


1854 


Sleepy Hollow 


Concord, Mass. 


1855 


Mount Olivet 


Nashville, Tenn. 


1856 


Lone Mount 


San Francisco, Ca. 


1859 


Graceland 


Chicago, III. 


1860 


Crown Hill 


Indianapolis, Ind. 


1863 



Blanche Linden is an Instructor of American Studies at Brandeis University and a doc- 
toral candidate in the Program of History of American Civilization at Harvard 



THE VICTORIAN GARDEN CEMETERY George Kackley 

In the history of artistic conservation, the Victorian garden cemetery is 
sadly neglected. Those of us who are responsible for the care of nineteenth-century 
garden cemeteries are custodians of works of art more important than is generally 
recognized. Our nation's great city parks are extensions of these cemeteries, which 
were, in fact, our first public parks. 

The Romantic Movement . 

To appreciate these cemeteries, we must understand the mood of the 
nineteenth-century Romantic Movement. The Romantic Movement is best understood 
through familiarity with its major products: the poetry and novels of Wordsworth, 
Scott, Byron, Shelley, Keats, Bryant, Pushkin, Cooper, Poe, Hugo, Lermontov, 
Sand, and Melville (it is no accident that the first of these cemeteries got its name. 
Mount Auburn, from Wordsworth); paintings by Watteau, Blake, Turner, Delacroix, 
and the Hudson River school; the music of Rossini, Weber, Berlioz, Chopin, Verdi, 
Wagner, and Liszt; and the informal, natural-style gardens modeled after the English 
estate gardens. 

The Victorian romantics valued the emotional experience. The art of the 
period displayed the domination of heart over head, of emotion and instinct and im- 
agination over intellect and reason, of Dionysus over Appolo. In harmony with these 
values, landscape architects preferred the wild to the cultivated, the lush to the 
trimmed, the profuse to the sparse, the exuberant to the restrained, the mystic to 
the rational, and the "spooky" to the explicable. They loved the "ivy-covered ruins 
and cold moonlight." They were rapt by deserted cemeteries. 

The romantics were fascinated by the past, searching for historical and 
mythic roots in fairy tales, folk dances, and other folklore. They glorified their 
heroes. The past was exotic, and the charm of the exotic brought Egyptian, Japanese, 
and other styles to the architecture and art of the period. Romantic taste was unbound; 
it was eclectic. 

Victorian romanticism rejected urban civilization in favor of a "return to 
nature," glorifying the uncivilized landscape of Rousseau's "noble savage." Nature 
was acclaimed as the ultimate source of reason. The better romantic paintings are 
apt to be landscapes or seascapes featuring small human figures overwhelmed within 
stupendous or eerie natural settings. Romantics were prone to bathos, to meglomania, 
to the macabre, to "saccharine pornography." Almost all of these characteristics are 
found in America's Victorian garden cemeteries, of which Washington's Oak Hill, in 
the care of this writer, is a fine example. 

Oak Hill Cemetery . 

Oak Hill Cemetery was established in 1849 as a gift of the national Capitol's 
major nineteenth-century philanthropist, William Wilson Corcoran. He later gave us 
the Corcoran Gallery, setting the pattern for privately built public art collections for 
the nation. Corcoran obviously intended his cemetery to be another kind of gallery, 
exhibiting the finest and latest in landscape architecture, in buildings, and in sculpture. 

William Corcoran copied the ideas and profited from the experiences of the 
first of the Victorian garden cemeteries, the seminal Mount Auburn, built outside of 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1831. An interesting example of the influence of Mount 
Auburn on Oak Hill concerns their fences. In the 1860's, the management of Oak Hill 
tried unsuccessfully to discover the origin of the magnificent cast-iron fence sur- 
rounding Oak Hill. One hundred and ten years later, the writer discovered that it 
is the same fence that enclosed Mount Auburn, designed by Jacob Biglow, the creator 
of Mount Auburn, and cast in Boston. 

It has been supposed that Oak Hill's handsome gate piers and gates were 
brought from the Smithsonian Institution or from the Capitol grounds, but recent 
research uncovered in the Smithsonian archives the plans for Oak Hill's piers and 
gates. They are the work of James Renwich, architect of the Smithsonian "Castle." 
Renwich rebuilt Corcoran's mansion on Lafayette Square, and he later designed the 
original Corcoran Gallery. His versatility is proved by the antipodal church build- 
ings he produced, from St. Patrick's Cathedral opposite Rockfeller Plaza to the chapel 
at Oak Hill. 

Oak Hill's grounds and gatehouse were constructed by a latter-day I'Enfant, 
George Francis de la Roche. Circumstantial evidence suggests that both were designed 
by or at least strongly influenced by Andrew Jackson Downing, who had the commission 
to lay out the Smithsonian grounds. A search of Corcoran's papers should prove or 



- u 



disprove this thesis and might also identify the artist responsible for the chapel 
windows. 

Problems of Preservation . 

Because we of the twentieth century have chosen to discredit the Vic- 
torians, and because we are confused by the similarity of the garden cemeteries of 
the nineteenth century to the memorial parks of the twentieth century, we tend to 
ignore the Victorian garden cemetery. When well designed, twentieth-century memo- 
rial parks do have some of the features of their nineteenth-century progenitors, the 
Victorian garden cemeteries. Both are major contributions of landscape architects. 
Both can be arboreta and beautiful parks, where the public can enjoy nature and be 
edified. Both display some fine sculpture and architecture. Those twentieth-century 
cemeteries which are designed as gardens are a clear continuation of some of the Vic- 
torian cemeteries. It is therefore something of a paradox that the survival of the 
Victorian garden cemetery is threatened because important differences between these 
two types of cemeteries are largely ignored. The Victorian masterpieces are being 
destroyed by attempts to treat them as though they were memorial parks. 

In a very significant sense, the design of the twentieth-century memorial 
park is a direct result of the demands and neeids of twentieth-century mechanization. 
When the industry that designed equipment for the care of golf courses needed new 
markets, new markets were created to satisfy the industry. Our twentieth-century 
memorial parks were planned to facilitate the use of the new lawnkeeping equipment. 
Their sites were chosen to suit the turf-keeping and automatic grave-digging ma- 
chinery. The Victorians were not limited by these restrictions; they chose sites for 
their beauty and dramatic impact. Green-Wood in Brooklyn and Laurel Hill in Phila- 
delphia, for examples, were built on promontories, high points of land and rock. 
Almost all of the graves in Oak Hill are on narrow terraces of steep hills. The ver- 
ticality of this dramatic high-rise cemetery is pure romanticism. Its favorite monu- 
ment is the tall obelisk. Its trees are tall and spectacular. These are sites on which 
most of the new lawnkeeping equipment is destructive. Mowers bruise and kill dog- 
wood. They destroy moss and other groundcovers. Professional groundskeepers, 
souls sold to daemon grass, hate that most difficult weed, the violet. But violets 
provide a long-lasting greenness that rivals grass, and they join with the spring 
beauty, claytonia, to provide a gorgeous show that lasts for weeks. Vinca minor, 
which combines with daffodils to produce the nicest of all groundcovers, is featured 
in song in the description of a graveyard clearly influenced by the garden cemetery — 
the wild-west burial place of "My Darling Clemantine." 

In the graveyard, in the canyon, (The dramatic site) 
Where the myrtle doth entwine, (That's vinca minor) 
There grow roses and other posies 
Fertilized by Clemantine. 

Groundskeeping experts are agreed that the most expensive plant to 
maintain per square yard is grass. On the theory that the more a bureaucrat spends, 
the more he is apt to be paid, managers of Victorian cemeteries have been eager to 
become captains of lawn maintenance crews with their array of foul-smelling, ear- 
splitting, destructive machinery. With the advent of power mowers, all the steep 
banks of Oak Hill were mowed, and much of this beautiful garden is now at the bot- 
tome of the Potomac. Victorian cemeteries displayed the novelty of closely clipped 
lawn only at the entrance gates; they had more sensible plantings elsewhere. When 
the writer put a stop to some of the ruthless mowing at Oak Hill, ferns, hosta, day- 
lilies, and spring bulbs, which had survived the decades of mutilation, reappeared. 
When they were allowed to mature. Oak Hill got a springtime reward: hillsides blue 
with scilla, polka-dotted carpets of crocuses, snow drops, wild tulips, Dutchman's 
breeches. When allowed to go to seed, these beauties spread and thickened. Against 
their greenery, the grasses are forlorn. But to many, the masses of ferns, hosta, 
and day-lilies that come back when the mowing stops are ragged and disorderly. 
Many mourn the loss of the crew-cut cemetery. 

Grass is our twentieth-century fetish, and grass is destroying the Vic- 
torian cemetery. Grass brings erosion to hilly sites, the most deplorable consequence 
of which is the uprooting of our healthiest old white oaks after they lose the weight 
of the topsoil that anchors them. Crass does not like shade, so trees are sacrificed. 
The picturesque trees in Victorian cemeteries present other problems, and there has 
been a great pressure to remove them. Fallen limbs and fallen trees damage and 
destroy irreplaceable monuments. Maintenance of large trees is complex and expen- 
sive. And twentiety-century culture abhors funeral shade. (While Victorians could 
not bring themselves to speak of sex, they found death and its symbols fascinating. 
We are reticent where they were loquacious; we avoid their favorite subject and are 
glib about their taboo.) 

Twentieth century culture has so conditioned us that many people will 
never appreciate the flamboyance, the disorder, the avoidance of symmetry, and the 



extravagance of Victorian taste as expressed in nineteenth-century garden ceme- 
teries. Others whose tastes are more catholic would like to see the Victorian 
cemeteries restored to reveal again the taste and exuberance of our forefathers, to 
renew the flair and the spirit of Victorian romanticism. 

George Kackley is superintendent of Oak Hill Cemetery in Washington, D.C. 



VICTORIANS AT HOME IN THEIR CEMETERIES 



Barbara Rotunda 



In the first decades of the nineteenth century, Americans came to accept a 
new concept of the family. With the growth of cities, the church and community lost 
some of their influence on everyday life; instead, social and emotional ties were centered 
in the family. The Victorians glorified the role of mother and saw the home as the source 
of the finest moral conduct, a blessed haven from the wickedness of the competitive out- 
side world. This new importance of the family was reflected in every aspect of nineteenth 
century life and, not surprising to readers of this bulletin, it was reflected also in the 
artifacts and rituals connected with death. 

In Colonial America an individual death was a loss to the community, which 
shared the mourning and made room for the burial in the often crowded community burial 
ground. This emphasis on community loss was diminished with the advent of the large 
rural or garden cemetery, which developed in part as a response to the shift in thinking 
about the family. 

Today, the nineteenth century garden cemetery is an oasis of green in an ur- 
ban area, but in its beginning it was truly rural. The charter obtained from the Massa- 
chusetts legislature for America's first rural cemetery. Mount Auburn, across the river 
from Boston on the outskirts of Cambridge, stated that the purchasers of plots would 
own the land in perpetuity. This legal provision was a radical departure from the cus- 
tomary procedure used by church and community graveyards. Soon legislatures in all 
the eastern states were writing similar stipulations in charters, as towns and cities rushed 
to establish one of the popular, innovative rural cemeteries. With perpetual ownership, 
the familv — or the patriarch of the family — could provide for the interment of all descend- 
ants without fear of removal later, or of thesubsequentburial of strangers above the 
original graves of family members, long an accepted practice in both Europe and the New 
World. 

Visitors to twentieth century cemeteries are accustomed to seeing open, mani- 
cured green lawns with an occasional garden, tree, or clump of shrubbery, and with mar- 
ble or granite gravestones rising in rows or irregular patterns. Far different was the 
view of visitors one hundred or more years ago. At that time most of the family plots were 
surrounded by a fence or a hedge or retaining wall. The enclosure not only signaled that 
the land so marked was private property, but when the hedge grew tall enough, or the 
woodbine or climbing roses covered the fence, there was even a physical privacy for the 
family visiting its lot. Families often chose land in forested areas, where their lots were 
as darkly romantic and mysterious as their houses with their heavily draped windows, 
and their gardens in which they planted hanging evergreens, erected trellises, and 
trained vines ud the sides of their summer houses (those charming gazebos that have all 
but disappeared). The isolation provided by their houses and gardens protected family 
life, preserving its privacy from the outside world. They treated their cemetery lots ex- 
actly as they treated their gardens, with trellises as well as fences. Often the cemetery 
had a large gazebo for a well or pump-house that served as a shelter in case of a summer 
shower. Garden nurseries developed a large variety of weeping trees, considered appro- 
priate for cemetery planting. The same cast-iron furniture used in gardens was used in 
cemeteries; benches, chairs, tables, and urns filled with flowers. These secluded lots 
were outdoor sitting rooms where the family met to talk about the past and plan the future. 

Victorians knew how to enjoy their cemeteries, making them popular goals for 
family outings in the country. These same outdoor sitting rooms, though usually without 
their handsome fences and furniture, are there for us to enjoy and study today, offering 
the visitor a unique view of nineteenth century family life. 

Specializing in nineteenth-century New England, Barbara Rotundo teaches American 
literature at the State University ^r*^^ of New York at Albany. 



,iA< •AlAi«/*l 




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ASHES TO ASHES, RUST TO RUST : Patricia Caster 

The Mount Aubuhn Cemetery Fence Controversy 

If any Cambridge property seemed secure from disfigurement, it was Mount 
Auburn Cemetery, America's first rural garden cemetery. Founded in 1831 by the 
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, it offered a romantic landscape alternative to the 
neglected, crowded urban burying grounds then prevalent. At the dedication of the 
cemetery. Judge Story warned the board of trustees that Mount Auburn was "...a sacred 
...an eternal trust. It is consecrated ground. May it remain forever inviolate." 

- — This mandate had been faithfully fulfilled by a long succession of trustees from 
Boston's most respected families. Thus, when demolition of Mount Auburn's 1844 peri- 
meter cast iron fence began in early August of 1980, many onlookers assumed that the 
work was part of a restoration program. In fact, the fence was being replaced by vinyl- 
clad chain-link fencing. 

Although the cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places 
in 1975, no governmental constraints existed to prevent the trustees from demolishing 
the fence. Located along a busy and poorly controlled intersection, it had been peri- 
odically hit by cars, accelerating the deterioration already existing due to deferred 
niaintenance. Facing increased operating costs and a shrinking endowment, the trus- 
tees voted to remove the fence and redesign the entrance gates. 

Demolition was well under way when the Cambridge Historical Commission 
(CHC) learned of the action. Together with the Society for the Preservation of New 
England Antiquities (SPNEA), the Commission contacted cemetery officials and local 
preservationists in an attempt to halt demolition. 

It soon became apparent that the public interest in the fence was not clearly 
understood by the trustees. The fence itself is an intricate combination of Egyptian 
emblems including winged globes, inverted lotus flowers and torches, and banded cyl- 
inders. Standing ten feet high and running 2,600 feet along Mount Auburn Street, it 
is a strong physical and visual boundary seen and appreciated by laymen, motorists, 
pedestrains, and joggers, as well as by scholars. 

By the time public pressure and the threat of a lawsuit temporarily halted 
demolition, half of the fence had been demolished. A September 2 Boston C/obe editorial 
listed the trustees by name and commented that "the extraordinary thing about the trus- 
tees' action is that, during the decade they have been pondering this problem, and de- 
spite the national standing of the facility they hold in trust, the cemetery's guardians 
have never sought help from the city; they have never applied for a federal grant, nor 
have they considered raising private funds or consulted the 1200-1500 proprietors who 
receive their annual report... It is high time they opened the door and called for help." 

The trustees did open the door at their September 16 meeting, reviewing a 
proposal presented by SPNEA and CHC proposing interim stabilization of deteriorated 
portions of the fence, installation of bollards and a traffic signal, restoration of a sam- 
ple stretch of the fence, and investigation of long-term fund raising for general re- 
storation needs. The trustees agreed to undertake interim stabilization and take the 
other proposals under consideration. 

In the short run, the fence has been saved from further demolition and a 
communications link established between the trustees and concerned preservationists. 
The more important questions, however, concern the long-term preservation of the ceme- 
tery. The fence is only the first impact of the financial problems faced by the trustees 
which will determine Mount Auburn's future. The trustees' initial solution to this prob- 
lem has been reoriented, and they are more acutely aware of the value placed on the re- 
source they manage. 



From the Boston Clobe, October 9, 1980 

Mt. Auburn Fence, Mt. Auburn Fence, 

Brave barrier of consequence. 

Your straight, symmetric, sculptured style 

Is mecca for the fenceophile. 

You spark in him a primal lust. 

Bleeding flakes of foundry rust 

From auto grilles you've bashed and slaughtered. 

Which left you somewhat drawn and quartered. 

And that, old friend, is the awkward nub — 

Your deshabille; for us the rub 

Is not your worthiness or grace; 

You're too expensive to replace. 

Or so we thought until your friends 

Began to run our Trusteed ends. 

By press, by moil, they came in waves 

Uprooting votes, old friendships, graves. 

Charging WASP benign neglect 

Causes your bones to lie there, wrecked. 

Reprise: 

Old friend, accept this, we're contrite. 

Somehow, some way, we'll set you right. 

Francis W. Hatch, trustee 
Mount Auburn Cemetery 



Response : 

Mr. Hatch, Mr. Hatch, 

1 have to answer with dispatch 
Your Paean to Mount Auburn's fence. 
For us it is some recompense. 
Although one half is gone already, , 
To know the rest will soon be steady. 
Rust and flake con be subdued. 
Battered surfaces renewed. 

Help with funding can be found 
To fence with grace your ancient ground. 
Mount Auburn's charm is more than trees. 
Or lakes, or monuments, but these 
Must all be well enclosed, we think. 
Cast iron is better than chain link. 
However smoothly clad with vinyl. 
That choice, we trust, will not be final. 
The fence's friends have come in hordes — 
It's nice to know they con reach Boards. 

We urge you to complete your mission 
With the help of the Cambridge 
Historical Commission. 

Cynthia Zaitzevsky , President 
Cambridge Historical Commission 



Before her recent move to Chicago, Patricia Caster was Assistant Director of the 
Cambridge Historical Commission. 



THE VANDERBILT CEMETERY AND MAUSOLEUM Nancy Coeschel 

In 1884, an aging and ailing William Henry Vanderbilt decided to create a 
private family cemetery. He had retired from business the previous year, having 
headed the vast railroad empire founded by his father. Commodore Cornelius Vander- 
bilt. The Commodore had died seven years earlier at the age of eighty-three and had 
been buried on his native Staten Island in the Moravian Cemetery at New Dorp. William 
H. at first thought to enlarge the Vanderbilt family plot within that cemetery, but the 
owners of the adjacent plots demanded such extortionate prices that he purchased, 
instead, fourteen acres just above the Moravian Cemetery, high on a hillside, command- 
ing a panoramic view of New York Harbor's Lower Bay. He engaged the foremost land- 
scape architect of the day, Frederick Law Olmsted, to design the grounds as a pic- 
turesque park. Richard Morris Hunt, at the time emerging as the favored architect of 
American millionaires, was selected to design a massive family mausoleum, which Vander- 
bilt wanted "roomy and solid and rich." In early December of 1885, Vanderbilt traveled 
to Staten Island to survey the work in progress. Only a week later, while at home in 
his recently completed Fifth Avenue mansion, he suffered a stroke and died. He was 
buried on Staten Island at a temporary gravesite, and it was not until several years had 
Passed and the mausoleum was completed that he came to his final rest in the luxurious 
setting he had planned. 

In selecting this site for the family tomb, Vanderbilt had probably been in- 
fluenced by two circumstances — first, the family's Staten Island heritage, dating back 
to the early eighteenth century, and second, his desire for security. In 1878, the re- 
mains of the New York City merchant prince, A.T. Steward, had been stolen from a 
church graveyard and held for ransom, and Vanderbilt feared a similar desecration. 
V\/hile the vast majority of New York's wealthy residents were content with family plots 
within the city's large rural cemeteries, such as Green-Wood in Brooklyn and Woodlawn 
in the Bronx, Vanderbilt desired a site not publicly accessible. Originally, the Vander- 
bilt Cemetery and Mausoleum was guarded around the clock. 

Although it is much smaller than the Romantic rural cemeteries which had 
become increasingly popular in nineteenth-century America from the 1930's on, the Van- 
derbilt Cemetery and Mausoleum belongs within that tradition. Olmsted and Hunt con- 
ceived a naturalistic park which for the most part conforms with the original topography 
of the site. A rather steep winding road leads up from the entrance gates to a relative- 
ly level area with gently sloping grassy lawns. Tree and shrub planting was in the 
picturesque English park manner which Olmstead favored. The single formal element in 
the design is the large terraced setting for the Mausoleum, which also serves as a van- 
tage point for the splendid bay view. Since the mausoluem was restricted to family mem- 
bers with the Vanderbilt surname, married daughters and their husbands and offspring 
are buried at other sites within the cemetery, reached by curving paths. 

Vanderbilt probably selected Hunt as architect on the evidence of the re- 
cently completed Fifth Avenue mansion of his son, William Kissam Vanderbilt. This house 
introduced the sumptuous Francois I chateau style to America and caused a popular as 
well as critical sensation. Hunt's first submitted plans for the mausoleum must have 
called for an elaborate structure indeed, for William H. fired off this reaction: 

You entirely misunderstand me; this will not answer at all. We 
are plain, quiet, unostentatious people and we don't want to be 
buried in anything as showy as that would be. The cost of it is 
a secondary matter and does not concern me... I don't object to 
appropriate carvings or even statuary, but it mustn't have any 
unnecessary fancy work on it. 

Hunt's revised plan nevertheless called for a distinctly imposing building, a Romanesque 
Revival design executed in Quincy granite with limestone facings on the interior and 
elaborate wrought-iron gates. The church-like facade is composed of three round-arched 
portals punctuating two "superimposed" temple fronts. The crypt has two main bays 
surmounted by large domes on pendentives, lit by stone fish-scale roofed cupolas which 
project from the hillock, under which the crypt is buried. The "appropriate carvings" 
which Vanderbilt was willing to concede are executed in a very shallow relief and are 
simultaneously rich and subdued. Intricate floral moldings and column capitals surround 
the portals, and a diaper work of squares encloses foliate panels on the wall surface sur- 
rounding the center portal. The three tympana have acanthus leaf "peopled scrolls," 
more Byzantine than Romanesque in spirit. Although these depict subjects appropriate 
to a funerary context — Christ in Majesty, a butterfly-winged soul arising to heaven, a 
soul in heaven — the overall effect is more decorative than iconographic. 

Vanderbilt's youngest son, George Washington Vanderbilt, oversaw the work 
after his father's death. By the time the cemetery and mausoleum were completed, in 
1889, he had come to admire both Olmstead and Hunt, and he subsquently commissioned 
additional work from both, culminating in the Biltmore estate in Ashville, North Carolina, 
for which Olmstead planned the 6000 acre grounds and Hunt designed an enormous chateau. 



The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission is currently consider- 
ing the Vanderbilt Cemetery and Mausoleum for Landmark status. While the Vanderbilt 
descendants recognize the architectural significance of their property, their representa- 
tives oppose official designation, fearing that such designation would attract the attention 
of not only lovers of architecture but of decidedly less sympathetic individuals. Although 
the cemetery is now surrounded by a high cyclone and barbed wire fence, vandals are a 
continuing problem, recalling the fears expressed by William H. Vanderbilt nearly a cen- 
tury earlier. Regardless of how the question of Landmark designation is resolved, the 
Vanderbilt Cemetery and Mausoleum remains one of America's most interesting and beauti- 
ful nineteenth-century private Romantic cemeteries. 

Nancy Coeschel fs an architectural historian with the New York City Landmarks Preser- 
vation Commission Research Department. 



BOOK REVIEW 

A TIME TO MOURN : Expressions of Grief in Nineteenth Century America 

Edited by Martha V. Pike and Janice Gray Armstrong 

Profusely illustrated in black and white, some color. 192 pages 

Published by The Museums at Stony Brook, New York, with a grant from the National 

Endowment for the Humanities, 1980. Softcover $11.95 + $2.50 postage and handling. 

Review by Cina Santucci 

"Nineteenth century Americans mourned well." Thus begins A Time to Mourn, 
a sumptuous exhibition catalog* and an illuminating series of essays on the Victorian way 
of death. The book is divided into three sections. The first, "Customs and Change," 
investigates the socio-economic and cultural changes affecting Victorian attitudes toward 
death. The second, "The Cemetery and the Funeral," discusses "the rural cemetery as 
an institution of symbolic importance," using Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, New 
York, as a case study. The rural cemetery as a precursor of the public parks movement 
is also examined. The third section, "In Memoriam," introduces the vast material culture 
that flourished as a result of Victorian mourning practices. Fashion, portraiture, jewel- 
ry and related decorative arts are thoroughly examined. The essays are the work of 
seven authors, among them American studies professor David Stannard, historian Harvey 
Green, anthropologist Lawrence Taylor, and costume historian Barbara Dodd Hillerman. 

To mourn well may not mean to mourn wisely. It can be argued that the best 
way of coming to terms with grief is the twentieth-century way — to put it behind us quick- 
ly, to hurriedly shove it into a dark corner to be steadfastly ignored. Perhaps the Vic- 
torians had the healthier way. By creating a blanket of practices with rituals and objects 
to surround it, the natural process of healing and resolution of grief was allowed to take 
place in its own time, with the sanction of society. However little we choose to express 
our grief publicly in 1981, privately we may be as lavish and involved in our reactions to 
death as the Victorians were. To understand their perspective on this subject can be an 
edifying experience. 

A Time to Mourn provides a solid background of information for anyone in- 
terested in Victorian attitudes toward death. What really distinguishes this book, how- 
ever, is the quality, quantity and significance of its illustrations. Full color reproduc- 
tions include Currier and Ives lithographs and mourning portraits by American naive 
painters. There are nineteenth century photographs of mourners and tombstones and a 
number of wonderful engravings of rural cemeteries produced in 18U7 by James Smillie 
and Nehemiah Cleveland. All the mourning necessities and accessories that were display- 
ed at the exhibition are handsomely illustrated and described in full. Included also is a 
selected reading list of eighteen widely available publications used in the preparation of 
the exhibition. 

For those seeking a well written, well illustrated primer on the Victorian way 
of death, A Time to Mourn is an excellent place to start. 

* Published for the exhibition of the same name which ran at The Museums at Stony Brook 
May 24 through November 16, 1980, and at The Brandywine River Museum, Chadds Ford, 
Pennsylvania, January 17 through May 17, 1980. 

Cina Santucci, gtiest editor of this issue of the NEWSLETTER, lives and works in New 
York City (see page 1). 




Mystic symbols often seen on Masonic memorials. Maysville, Kentucky, 1895 

VICTORIAN ERA MEMORIAL ART IN SMALL RURAL CEMETERIES 

Francis Y. Duval & Ivan B. Rigby 

The Victorian era memorial style is well represented outside the landscaped settings 
of urban cemeteries. While such expanses at Mount Auburn in Cambridge, Green-Wood 
and Woodlawn in New York City, Laurel Hill in Philadelphia, and other nineteenth cen- 
tury cemeteries in our large cities are justly famous for their impressive statuary, 
mausoleums, crypts, and chapels, many modest rural burial grounds offer a fine samp- 
ling of some of the simpler and more honest funeral art of the period. 

Nineteenth century cemeteries, both urban and rural, display seemingly endless 
rows of impersonal, lackluster marble tablets influenced by the period's antiseptic 
attitude toward death. And few of them escaped the memorial bombast of oversized 
oblisks and over-carved tombs that confirm the ostentatiousness of the wealthy who 
knew the price of everything and the value of nothing. On closer scrutiny, however, 
one is often rewarded by the discovery of inspired images, some similar in their sim- 
plicity and charm to those of the eighteenth century. 

Nineteenth century memorials present configurations and sizes different from 
those of the preceding century. Most are carved of Vermont or Georgia marble rath- 
er than the slate and sandstone popular in the eighteenth century, although limestone, 
sandstone, granite and even metal are used occasionally, depending on locale. The 
alphabets are more elaborate, the epitaphs longer and often lachrymose. When used, 
the imagery consists of urns, willows, lambs, doves, roses, wreaths, sleeping babes. 
The Divine Hand, and other motifs of similar sentiment. Often depicted is professional 
status, cause of death. Masonic symbolism, as well as military emblems for those who 
fell during the Civil War. 

From our extensive photographic collection of Victorian cemetery art, we have 
selected for the NEWSLETTER photographs of seven unusual rather than typical me- 
morial carvings of the period, which we hope will generate further interest in and 
study of this often misunderstood and unappreciated facet of the memorial art form. 




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The split-second moment before the night-time collision that killed 
a young railroad engineer. Near Rural Retreat, Virginia, 1892 





Left A lighthouse, symbolic beacon of survival , erected to the memory of a seafaring family. Essex, Conn., 1880 
Right A symbolic tankard and cups for partaking of the sacramental wind. Signed. "A. Cory. " Barre, Mass., 1850. 




Military emblems, with rare carving of sentry and field artillery piece, memorializing a Civil War hero. 

Brownsville, Ohio, 1861. 







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^e/t A superb, unscathed example of a reposing infant and symbolic, canopied shell. Kutztown, Penn., 1891. 



MANHATTAN'S RURAL CEMETERY Jay Shockley 

Manhattan has its own "rural" Victorian cemetery--Trinity Cemetery — 
located between Amsterdam Avenue and Riverside Drive from 153rd to 155th Streets. 
Under the auspices of Trinity Church in lower Manhattan, the creation of Trinity 
Cemetery came out of practical necessity in the early nineteenth century. Lower 
Manhattan had suffered a number of epidemics, and there was concern that a link 
existed between places of burial and disease. As a result, an 1832 ordinance forbid- 
ding burials south of Canal Street closed the graveyards of both Trinity Church and 
St. Paul's Chapel. To establish a cemetery away from the city. Trinity Church a- 
greed to purchase part of Green-Wood cemetery, founded in 1838 in Brooklyn, but 
this agreement was withdrawn, possibly due to the distance. In 1842, Trinity Church 
purchased its own land, a hilly twenty-three acre tract of farmland along the Hudson 
River in the area then known as Charmanville. This tract, which adjoined the farm 
of John James Audubon, was the site of a redoubt that had been constructed by the 
American Army in 1776 and defended under George Washington in the Battle of Wash- 
ington Heights. 

The first burial in the new Trinity Cemetery took place in 1843, and in 
1844, the cemetery was advertised as open to all denominations. In time. Trinity 
Cemetery became the favored resting place of different classes of New Yorkers, in- 
cluding many prominent families of New York society. Among the better known who 
are buried there are John Jay Audubon, John Jacob Astor, Mme. Eliza Jumel, and 
Clement Clarke Moore. It became a popular visiting place, and regularly scheduled 
coaches and steamboats conveyed visitors to the site. 

In 1868, Broadway was extended northward, bisecting the cemetery, and 
in 1871, the highly esteemed architectural firm, Calvert Vaux, Frederick C. Withers, 
and Company, was hired to construct a Gothic Revival suspension bridge to link the 
two halves. The English-born Vaux had worked with Frederick Law Olmsted, the 
foremost landscape architect of the period, in designing Central and Prospect Parks. 
For Trinity Cemetery, working with a number of partners including George K. Radford, 
also an English-born architect and engineer, Vaux was responsible for the landscap- 
ing of the grounds, in 1881; for designing a decorative stone and iron fence-wall and 
gates, most of which were built from 1872 to 1875; and for the design of a gate lodge, 
built in 1882-83 

The twentieth century has brought a few changes. The suspension bridge 
was removed in 1911. In 1912-14, the Gothic Revival Chapel (now Church) of the 
Intercession was constructed by Cram, Goodhue, and Ferguson, the foremost twen- 
tieth century Gothic Revival architects in the United States, who also designed 
Manhattan's Church of St. John the Divine. And a modern, functioning mausoleum 
building was added in the early 1970's. With the above exceptions, the appearance 
of Trinity Cemetery today is much as it was in the nineteenth century. The eastern 
half is mostly flat, with a small hill to the south side and curvilinear looping roads. 
This section contains the Church, gate lodge, the small gravestones of the parish 
ground, and a number of prominent mausoleums set around the hill. The western 
division is characterized by a hill sloping steeply from the river and a road snaking 
back and forth to create a series of terraces. Mausoleums are set into the earth lin- 
ing the road, and monuments are regularly spaced in between. 

Although Trinity Cemetery is on a small and compact site, it displays most 
of the features of the traditional rural cemetery: the hill site with river views, curved 
paths and roads, the arboretum aspect, and the pattern of social stratification. And, 
with its surrounding fence-wall and gates, its monuments, sculpture, gravestones, 
and mausoleums in a wide variety of styles, its fine iron fencing and curbstones a- 
round the plots, and a number of surviving cast-iron seats and urns. Trinity Ceme- 
tery is also a veritable treasure- trove of Victoriana. 

Jay Shockley is a member of the Survey Department of the New York City Landmarks 
Preservation Commission, speciah'zing in the preservation of historic landscapes. 



Editor's note: For earlier NEWSLETTER references to Trinity Cemetery ^ see 
volume 4, nwriber S, summer, 1980, page 6, and volvme 5, number 1, winter, 1980/81, 
page 10. 





STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS 

Ninth of a Series 

THREE NINETEENTH CENTURY SCULPTORS: 

Thomas Crawford (1814-1857), Augustus Saint-Gaudens 

(1848-1907), and Daniel Chester French (1850-1931) 

by Dorothy L. Cogswell 

In the latter part of the nineteenth century some of 
America's most distinguished sculptors were commission- 
ed to design and execute sepulchral monuments. The open 
landscaped areas of the Victorian cemetery formed ideal 
backgrounds for the shift in fashion from gray slate 
markers to finely carved white marble statues. 

Among the gifted sculptors using the Neo- 
classic style, derived from study in Rome, was 
Thomas Crawford. Although he is remembered 
primarily for his bronze equestrian statue of 
George Washington for Capitol Square in Rich- 
mond , Virginia, and for his huge figure of 
"Freedom" for the dome of the United States 
Capitol in Washington, cemetery monuments 
were important and lucrative commissions for 
Crawford. 

Another important nineteenth century 
sculptor whose work includes fine sepul- 
chral monuments is Augustus Saint-Gaudens. 
The epitome of sorrow is seen in his brooding 
"Grief," shown on this page. It was commis- 
sioned by Henry Adams for his wife in 1886 
and dedicated in 1891 in the Rock Creek Ceme- 
tery, Washington, D.C. As a universal concept 
for the personal funeral monument, it embodies in 
its flowing bronze drapery the majesty of Michelangelo, and in the shadowed face of 
Grief, the mystery of eternity. Saint-Gaudens' skill developed at an early age from 
cameo cutting to advanced study in Europe, where the French influence for bronze 
was stronger than the Italian one for marble. A particularly American strength is 
realized in Saint-Gaudens' rugged standing figure of Lincoln, 1886, for Lincoln Park, 
Chicago, and in the sculpture of the stern Deacon Samuel Chapin, 1887, known as "The 
Puritan," now standing near the library of the Museum Quadrangle in Springfield, Mass- 
achusetts. Very moving, both in sentiment and design, is his bronze memorial for Ro- 
bert Gould Shaw and his black regiment (1884-1897). This large work in low relief 
standing on Boston Common, across from the State HoQse, has been in the news recent- 
ly because of the high cost of its needed restoration. In 1964, Saint-Gaudens' studio 
and home, "Aspet," in Cornish, New Hampshire, was designated a National Historic 
site and is maintained as a memorial. 

For pure sentiment and sheer beauty, perhaps the outstanding monument of 
the Victorian era was designed by Daniel Chester French. This monument was initiated 
by a will written by another sculptor, Martin Milmore (1844-1883). Milmore (with his 
brother, Joseph) had executed "The American Sphinx" in 1872 for Mount Auburn Ceme- 
tery in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and French conceived for Martin Milmore's memorial 
the idea of the Angel of Death moving in to stay the hand of the young sculptor finish- 
ing his sphinx. Although French's sculpture is a relief panel, he modeled the figures 
of the Angel and sculptor almost in the round, but showed the profile of the sphinx in 
very low relief. The plaster model of the work was sent to Paris to be cast in bronze. It 
was exhibited there in the Salon de Champs Elysees of 1892, where it won a medal. In 
1893 it was displayed at the World's Columbian Exposition, again to great acclaim. After 
four casts were made, the original bronze was placed in the Forest Hills Cemetery, Jam- 
aica Plains, Massachusetts. French is remembered for many works, from his early 1875 
Minuteman of Concord, Massachusetts, to the great Lincoln Memorial in Washington. He 
was elected to membership in the National Academy of Design in 1901 and was made a 
chevalier of the French Legion of Honor in 1910. Today his home and studio, "Chester- 
wood," can be seen in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, where five hundred casts and models 
of his work are available for study. 

Dorothy Cogswell is Professor Emeritus of Art History, Mount Holyoke College, South 
Hadley, Massachusetts. 

Editor's note: AGS members who attended the 1979 oonferenoe in "Newport, Rhode Island, 
saw examples of Saint-Gaudens' work in the Victorian cemetery adjoining the Common 
Burying Ground. 



SOME REFERENCES OF INTEREST 
to Students of Nineteenth Century Gravestones and Cemeteries 

A three-page annotated bibliograpliy of landscape design and planting references for 
American rural cemeteries, by landscape architect C. Michael Hubartt. The books, 
articles and essays were all published in America between 1839 and 1902. In his 
introduction to the bibliography, Mr. Hubartt writes: 

The rural cemetery was probably the most influential man-made landscape 
of the nineteenth century in America. An expression of the Romantic tra- 
dition, these planned landscapes combined nature and art to evoke a sense 
of natural beauty and contemplative solitude. The progressively evolved 
designs of these rural cemeteries may be classified "wooded," "garden" and 
"lawn." 
Most of the references are available Columbia University's Avery Architectural Li- 
brary. Photostats of some of them may be obtained from the compiler, 20 Vesey 
Street, New York City 10007. The bibliography is available at the same address, 
or from AGS Publications, American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA 01609. 



Books 



Inventing the American Way of Death, 1830-1920, a 287 page book by James J. 
Farrell published by Temple University Press, Philadelphia, 1980. This history 
traces the ways in which middle-class Victorians rejected the harshness of the 
Puritan way of death and describes their attempt to assuage their fears by making 
death natural, beautiful, and, finally, inconspicuous. The author analyzes the in- 
fluence of scientific naturalism and religious liberalism on changes in funeral practices. 

A Time to Mourn: Expressions of Grief in Nineteenth Century America, edited by 
Martha V. Pike and Janice Gray Armstrong. This book is reviewed on page 8. 

The Victorian Celebration of Death, by James Stevens Curl, published by David 
& Charles, Newton Abbot, 1972. (Curl's most recent book, the widely acclaimed 
A Celebration of Death , published by Charles Scribner's Sons, 1980, will be review- 
ed in a forthcoming NEWSLETTER.) 

Souls in Stone: European Graveyard Sculpture, by Anne de Brunhoff; 96 pages of 
photographs published by Alfred A. Knopf. (Reviewed by David Watters in the 
NEWSLETTER, Volume 4, Number 2, Spring 1980, page 15.) 

Victorian Cemetery Art, by Edmund V. Gillon, Jr.; 173 pages of photographs pub- 
lished by Dover Publications, 1972. 

Articles 

"At rest in Mount Auburn," a four-page illustrated article by Shirley Moskow, pub- 
lished in Garden magazine, November /December 1978. 

"Stone Cemetery Sculpture: A Survival Crisis," a three-page illustrated article by 
Edward Bryant published in 19th Century magazine. Volume 5, Number 4, 1979. 

"The Rural Cemetery," a four-page illustrated article by Naomi R. Remes, curator 
of American decorative arts at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, published in 19th 
Century magazine. Volume 6, Number 2, 1980. 

"The Rural Cemetery Movement" by Barbara Rotundo, a ten-page article published 
in the Essex Institute Historical Collection , Essex institute, Salem, Massachusetts. 

Victorian cemetery preservation organizations (For its exchange mailing list, the 
NEWSLETTER would like to have the names and addresses of other such organizations.) 

The Friends of Mt. Hope Cemetery, 791 Mt. Hope Avenue, Rochester, New York. 
A $15 membership fee (or ten hours of volunteer service) includes a newsletter. 

The Friends of Laurel Hill Cemetery, 3822 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia. The $15 
membership includes a newsletter and guided cemetery tours. 

CONSERVATION 

Lance Mayer Responds 

The spring issue of the NEWSLETTER (Volume 5, Number 2, Page 5) asked 
for reader comment on an article, "Preserving Early Sandstone Markers," by Robert T. 
Silliman. In this article, Mr. Silliman describes a procedure which involves cleaning 
and sealing the surfaces of sandstone gravemarkers. Lance Mayer, Associate Curator 
for the Cincinnati Art Museum and AGS Vice-president for Conservation, in a response 
to the NEWSLETTER, expresses serious concern that the NEWSLETTER, by publishing 
the article without editorial comment, "publicized a method which will almost certainly 
not work and which may, in fact, do harm to the gravestones." 

Protecting sandstone and similar materials, Mr. Mayer writes, is a problem 
which has vexed scientists and conservators for decades. When dealing with a problem 



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of this complexity, it is not, he points out, better to do something than nothing. Too 
often the unproved, experimental procedure accelerates decay, the ill effects showing 
up years or even decades later. He cites the experience of the British Commonwealth War 
Graves Commission, which found, after treating half a million headstones with surface 
sealers over a period of thirty years, that the stones which had been treated were gen- 
erally in worse condition than those which had not. 

Mr. Mayer takes issue also with the cleaning procedure described in the 
article, noting that it is directly opposed to recommendations in conservation literature. 
He explains that the chemicals used to clean the stone could attack the calcareous bin- 
der in sandstone as it is known to do in marble. The procedure for allowing the chemi- 
cals to soak into the stone and then applying steam would probably drive the chemical 
substances into the stone's interior, where they might produce destructive salts which 
would be very difficult to remove. 

But Mayer's most serious reservation comes back to the use of a surface 
sealer, which, he tells us, often intensifies deterioration instead of affording protec- 
tion. "This is because water and salts can be concentrated behind the hardened surface 
if their exit is blocked [by the sealer], eventually causing large pieces of crust to be- 
come undercut and ultimately detached." Moreover, he cautions, some epoxy sealers 
form a white chalky surface or turn yellow upon long exposure to sunlight, and, more 
serious, some epoxy sealers actually increase the stone's reactivity to carbon dioxide and 
sulfur dioxide gases, common air pollutants. 

Mr. Mayer emphasizes that the procedure described in the article is not en- 
dorsed by ACS. Sympathizing with Silliman and others who are eager to protect early 
gravemarkers, he urges those in charge of the care of old cemeteries, "impatient as 
they may be with the slow pace of conservation research," to direct their energies toward 
expediting proper research projects which involve the guidance of professional stone con- 
servators, rather than toward isolated experimentation. He concludes: "It has been the 
primary purpose of the Conservation Committee of AGS to help facilitate such information- 
sharing by inviting recognized specialists to speak at AGS meetings, by reviewing con- 
servation publications in the AGS NEWSLETTER, and by publishing a basic article in 
MARKERS, which contains an extensive annotated reading list." 

The full six-page text of Lance Mayer's response includes a wealth of detailed, fully 
documented information on stone conservation. It is available, free of charge; from 

ACS Publications 

c!o American Antiquarian Society 

Worcester, Massachusetts ol609 

Address questions to Mr. Mayer at 47 Elm Street, Stonington, Connecticut 06378. 

MARKERS, the 182-page journal of the Association for Cravestone Studies, may be or- 
dered from the ACS Publications address above for $15. it contains fifteen excellent 
articles on a wide variety of gravestone-related subjects. Besides Lance Mayer's divi- 
nitive article, "The Care of Old Cemeteries and Cravestones," we recommend to those 
interested in saving gravemarkers, "Protective Custody: The Museum's Responsiblity 
for Cravestones," by Robert P. Emien , and "Recording Cemetery Data," by Joanne 
Baker, Daniel Farber, and Anne Ciesecke. . 



t 




NEWSLETTER 

OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 



Editor, Jessie Lie Farber 



Guest Editor, Donna N. Carlson 



Volume 5, Number ^, 



Fall 1981 



ISSN : 0146-5783 



CONTENTS 



ACS CONFERENCE INFORMATION 1-5 

ACS EXECUTIVE BOARD, ACS ADDRESSES 3 

AGS ITEMS FOR SALE 4 

CONSERVATION, PRESERVATION . . . , 5-/ 

EDUCATION 7 

RESEARCH AND WRITINC. New publications. Authors' requests , 8-10 

BOOK REVIEW H 

September 6, 1781. North Groton's Story 
by Carolyn Smith and Helen Vargason 
Reviewed by James A. Slater 

WORKSHOPS, CONFERENCES, LECTURES 11,12 

STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS. Tenth installment 13 

Stonecutter of the Narragansett Basin: William Throop 
by Vincent F . Luti 

JOHN STEVENS, JR.: A signed stone, an 1787 advertisement , , 14 

A POEM by Louis Phillips 14 

MISCELLANEOUS 15 

NEWSLETTER NOTES, deadlines 15 

CEMETERY CITATIONS IB 



AGS CONFERENCE INFORMATION 



THE FIFTH ANNUAL ACS CONFERENCE was held at the University of Connecticut, 
Storrs, June 26-28, 1981. For readers with an interest in AGS's brief history, the 
previous four conference sites were: 

1977 - Dublin, New Hampshire (to organize the Association) 

1978 - Dublin, New Hampshire (held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the 

Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife) 

1979 - Newport, Rhode Island 

1980 - Haverhill, Massachusetts (held in conjunction with the annual meeting of 

the Bay State Historical League) 




THE 1982 CONFERENCE WILL BE HELD JUNE 25-27 AT WILLIAMS 
COLLEGE, WILLIAMSTOWN, MASSACHUSETTS. Details will be 
announced in the winter and spring issues of the NEWSLETTER. 



PAPERS READ AT THE 1981 CONFERENCE 

David Watters, "Eleazer Wheelock's Lebanon Crank Congregation" 

Kevin Sweeney, "Where the Bay Meets the River" 

Charles Bergengren, "The Folk Esthetic in Gravestones: The 'Glorious Contrast'" 

Barbara Rotundo and Laurel K. Gabel, "The American Centennial and its Effect 

on New England Gravemarkers" 
Norbert Baer, "The National Cemetery as Environmental Laboratory" 
James A. Slater, "The Mannings and Their Influence on Eastern Connecticut 

Carving: A Study in Dominance" 
Vincent J. Luti, "Stonecarvers of the Narragansett Basin: The New Family" 
Ben J. Lloyd, "Comparisons of American and British Gravestone Design" 
Frankie Bunyard, "Stonecarving Techniques" 



(Conference Information) 



ALLAN I. LUDWIG NAMED RECIPIENT OF THE HARRIETTE M. FORBES AWARD . 

Dr. Ludwig's Graven Images: New England Stonecarving and its Symbols, 1650-181 5, 
published in 1966 by Wesieyan University Press, is a contribution to gravestone studies 
upon which all subsequent study in this field has drawn heavily. The first book pub- 
lished on the subject in the thirty years following Forbes' seminal work, Ludwig's Graven 
Images inspired the current surge of scholarship in early American gravestone art and 
is largely responsible for the many fine contributions which have followed it. AGS mem- 
bers, and the very existence of the Association, owe much to Allan Ludwig and his im- 
portant contribution. 

Previous recipients of the Harriette M. Forbes Award are: 

Daniel Farber, whor? gravestone photographs are in the collections of numerous 
museums and historical societies, including the Yale University. Art Library and 
the American Antiquarian Society, which house duplicate sets of the complete 
collection of approximately 6000 photographs of 3700 stones. 

Ernest Caulfield, pioneer researcher of Connecticut gravestones, much of whose 
work is published in the Bulletin of the Connecticut Historical Society. 

Peter Benes, author of The Masks of Orthodoxy , editor of Puritan Gravestone Art I 
and Puritan Gravestone Art II, and organizer, in 1976, of a conference for students 
of gravestone art, out of which AGS developed. 



OTHER CONFERENCE HIGHLIGHTS were James Slater's excellent guided tour of the 
Storrs area graveyards; two fine and varied evenings of members' slide presentations, 
organized by Michael Cornish; Joanne Baker's qoal-setting session; and, as always, the 
exhibits, organized again this year by Mary Anne Mrozinski. 

Presenting slides were: Michael Cornish (the carvings of Joseph Barbur, Jr.), GayneM 
Levine (ethnic immigrant gravestones), Julaine Maynard (Wisconsin tree stones), Carol 
Perkins (Ohio tree stones), Charles E. Mohr (environmental and recreational aspects of 
the city cemetery), Barbara Rotundo (Mount Auburn Cemetery), Ann Parker (campo- 
santos of New Mexico), and Deborah Trask (Nova Scotia cast and wrought iron markers). 

The exhibits were popular and book sales were brisk, in spite of cramped quarters which 
barely accommodated the sixteen displays. The exhibitors were: 

Books Highly Specialized Promotions, Inc. HPS had on exhibit and for sale most 

of the available gravestone literature. 

Ruth Cowell : Books about Jewish Cemeteries in Prague and New York City. 

Roberta Halporn : Books about Jewish stones from early America to the present. 

Magazine Peggy Anne Campbell: Information about Stone in America. 

Leaflets Ben J. Lloyd: British gravestone design interpretations. 

Documents Janet S. Aronson : Grid, catalog and index of stones in Old Storrs Burying 
Ground. Photographs and rubbings of each stone. 

Photographs Michael Cornish : Local stones. 

Charles E. Mohr: Illuminated transparencies of stone designs showing 
the occupation of the deceased. 

Laurel K. Gabel : Daniel/Nathan Hastings quarry marks and signatures; 
also stones by unidentified carvers. 

Carol Perkins: Photographs of the 1980 AGS conference; also of an Ohio 
show of photographs and epitaphs she organized. 

Ann Parker and Avon Neal : A photo essay of Old Norwich Town graveyard. 

Dan Farber: Fifty New England photographs 

Rubbings Susan H. Kelly and Anne C. Williams: Eastern Connecticut stones. 

Clo Kirby: The Kirby two-tone rubbing technique. 

Selma and Jerry Trauber: Assorted collection. 

Barbara Moon: Rubbings on notecards. 



(Conference Information) - 3 - 

An election of AGS officers was held to fill openings on the executive board. Appointed 
positions were filled at two board meetings held since the conference, the first, im- 
mediately following the conference, at Storrs, and the second, held October 3, 1981, 
at the library of the New England Historic and Genealogical Society, Boston. 

THE 1981-81 ACS EXECUTIVE BOARD 



President SALLY THOMAS 82 Hilltop Place, New London CT 03257 

(603) 526-6044 

Vice President MICHAEL CORNISH 62 Calumet St., Roxbury MA 02120 
Archives (617) 731-5919 

Vice President LANCE MAYER 47 Elm St., Stonington CT 06378 
Conservation (203) 535-4051 

Vice President JOANNE BAKER 51 South St., Concord NH 03301 
Education (603) 228-0680 (home) (603) 271-3747 (business) 

Vice President JERRY TRAUBER 142 Langham St., Brooklyn NY 11235 
Grants (212) 743-9218 

Vice President JESSIE LIE FARBER 31 Hickory Drive, Worcester MA 01609 
Publications (617) 755-7038 

Vice Presidents RUTH GRAY 70-B Fourth St., Old Town ME 04468 
Research (207) 827-3508 

JAMES TIBENSKY 1510 South Lombard Ave., Berwyn IL 60402 
(312) 795-7680 

Directors-at- THEODORE CHASE 74 Farm Road, Dover MA 02030 
Large (617) 785-0299 

MARY ANNE MROZINSK! 47 Hammond Road, Glen Cove NY 11542 
(516) 759-0527 

Corresponding ELOISE WEST 199 Fisher Road, Fitchburg MA 01420 
Secretary (617) 342-0716 

Recording ANITA WOODWARD Box 51, Thompson Road, Princeton MA 01541 

Secretary (617) 464-2320 

Membership CAROL PERKINS 1233 Cribb St., Apt. 204, Toledo OH 43612 

Secretary (419) 476-9945 

Treasurer NANCY JEAN MELIN 215 West 75th St., Apt. 10E, New York NY 10023 

(212) 496-9140 

Historian HAZEL PAPALE 105 Wallace Ave. , Auburn MA 01501 

************* 

1982 Conference ELIZABETH HAMMOND 34 Old Connecticut Path, Wayland MA 01778 
Chairman (616) 358-2517 

MARKERS II DAVID WATTERS Department of English, Hamilton Smith Hall, 

Editor University of New Hampshire, Durham NH 03824 

(603) 659-2925 (home) (603) 862-1313 (business) 

MARKERS BETTY SLATER 373 Bassettes Bridge Road, Mansfield Center CT 06250 

Sales Manager (203) 455-9668 

Please note that ACS has no physical headquarters. Correspondence should be addressed 
to the appropriate board members listed above, or, depending on the nature of your ACS 
business, to one of the following. 

ACS ADDRESSES 

MEMBERSHIP DUES and CHANGES OF ADDRESS: Nancy Jean Melin, Treasurer, 

215 W. 75th St., Apt. 10E, New York, NY 10023. Dues are $10 for 
individual membership; $25 for sustaining membership. 

MARKERS I ORDERS: Betty Slater, 373 Bassettes Bridge Road, Mansfield Center, CT 
(Volume 1) 06250. Prices are $15 to members; $25 to non-menbers, 

NEWSLETTER CONTRIBUTIONS AND CORRESPONDENCE: Jessie Lie Farber, editor, 

AGS Publications, c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester MA 01609. 

ALL OTHER CORRESPONDENCE AND ORDERS: Eloise West, Corresponding Secretary, 
199 Fisher Road, Fitchburg, MA 01420. 



(Conference Information) - 4 - 

ASSOCIATION GOALS 

A lively and productive session at the 1981 AGS Conference was centered around planning 
for future AGS activities. Conference participants were divided into small groups and 
asked to brainstorm a list of answers to the question: "If AGS has been an effective or- 
ganization, what will it have accomplished by 1990? Each group was then asked to select 
and report the four most important items on its list. A tabulation of these items indicated 
that the following are considered high priority goals by those participating in the session. 

Many threatened gravestones will be preserved, possibly by placing some of 
the most important stones in museums. 

Gravestones will be better protected by law. 

Data on gravestones will be recorded in an easily retrievable form. 

AGS will have a much larger membership. 

The public will recognize the importance of gravestones and the information 
they bear. 

AGS will be financially solvent. 

There will be greater Association involvement with its members through 
programs involving local groups. 

At its October meeting, the AGS executive board discussed these priorities and selected 
realistic targets for the 1981-82 membership year. The following actions were taken by 
the board to address priority areas. 

In order to expand institutional memberships in AGS and to educate the public, 
a letter will be sent to historical societies and libraries offering a packet of 
informational materials for public distribution. 

The board agreed that before sample legislation can be drafted which witll 
either provide for the removal of stones from graveyards or for the protection 
of gravestones in graveyards, more information is needed concerning existing 
laws. A major project of the board will be to gather this information. 

In order to improve the Association's financial status, two actions were taken. 
The board voted to raise regular membership dues to $15, beginning June, 1982. 
Sustaining memberships will remain at $25, but will not include a copy of the 
Association's journal, MARKERS . Action will be taken to seek support from 
small private endowments, from various agencies, and from businesses within 
the monument industry. 

In order to educate the public, AGS will actively advertise in magazines which 
attract those interested in historical artifacts. In addition, the board voted 
to expand the circulation of its slide-tape of Western burial practices and to com- 
plete a planned slide-tape on gravestone preservation. 



AGS PUBLICATIONS AND OTHER ITEMS FOR SALE 

Order from Corresponding Secretary Eloise West 
199 Fisher Road, Fitchburg MA 01420 

"The Care of Old Cemeteries and Gravestones" by Lance R. Mayer. 23 pages. . .$2.75 

Four information sheets by Dan and Jessie Lie Farber $1.00 ea, 

"Symbolism in the Carvings on Old Gravestones" 3 pages 
"Making Photographic Records of Gravestones" 2 pages 
"Gravestone Rubbing for Beginners" 2 pages 
"Recommendations for the Care of Gravestones" 2 pages 

Back issues of the NEWSLETTER. Available only from Vol. 5, #3 ."$1.00 ea. 

"Grave Faces," an illustrated poem by Martin Booth: 9"x11" broadside, 

signed and numbered, suitable for framing. $15.00 

AGS patch, 3i" diameter. See illustration page 16 $3.00 

$1.50 



AGS Bumper stickers 



'"aGS^'^ I BRAKE FOR OLD GRAVEYARDS 



MARKERS: The Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studies. 

182 pages, softbound. 15 articles, 100 illustrations. 

Non-member's price, $25; AGS member's price $15 

Order this item from Sales Manager Betty Slater, 
373 Bassettes Bridge Bd. , Mansfield Center -CT 06250. 



(Conference Information) - 5 - 

NOVA SCOTIA FOR THE 1983 CONFERENCE? 

With the announcement that the site of the 1982 AGS Conference is Williams College, 
Wiliiamstown, Massachusetts, we should begin to ask ourselves when we are going 
to venture outside New England for our annual meetings. Are we ready? Specifi- 
cally, are we ready for Nova Scotia in 1983? 

For two years now, the Association has received enthusiastic invitations to hold its 
conference in this beautiful easternmost province of Canada. 

Nova Scotia was settled in the seventeenth century by farmers from France. As 
these settlers gradually became a threat to the English colonies in the south, and as 
the French and Indian War got underway, the French "Arcadians" of Nova Scotia were 
unceremoniously shipped off, mainly to Louisiana, there to be immortalized by Long- 
fellow. No grave markers are known to remain from the pre-expulsion period. 

To Insure that the French never return. New Englanders swarmed into the vacated 
province, and the area abounds with their early stones. A few of these markers were 
imported from New England, but most were carved by the settlers . 

in addition to the lure of interesting gravestones and the historic interest of this pro- 
vince, the magnificence of the area itself tempts us to consider meeting there, combin- 
ing an early summer vacation or an extended field trip with our conference, either on 
an individual or a group basis. 

There are a number of universities where we may be agreeably and inexpensively housed 
and fed, and the provincial government has generously offered to partially subsidize 
our visit. However, because the provincial government prepares its budget a year in 
advance, it will be necessary for us to indicate to them by next June our probable ac- 
ceptance of their offer. Therefore, we must have a response from ACS members in- 
dicating interest and probable attendance. If the decision is then made to schedule 
the 1983 conference in Nova Scotia, we will investigate the possibility of booking charter 
flights or busses. 

AGS member Deborah Trask is Assistant Curator of the Nova Scotia Museum in Hali- 
fax, as well as author of an excellent book about the stones of that area*. She has of- 
fered to answer questions from members. Address her at the Nova Scotia Museum, 
1747 Summer Street, Halifax, Canada B3H 3A6, or telephone (902) 429-4610. 

Please notify Corresponding Secretary, Eloise West (199 Fisher Road, Fitchburg, MA 
01420) as soon as possible and no later than next June, of your interest in a Nova 
Scotia meeting in 1983. 

* Life How Short Eternity How Long: Gravestone Carving and Carvers in Nova Scotia. 
100 pages, illustrated. Published by the Nova Scotia Museum. $10.85 Hardcover; $6.50 
Softbound. 



Obituary : Mary C. (Mrs. William H.) Emhardt of Barrington, New Hampshire. 
Mrs. Emhardt, a widely recognized historian, served as librarian for the Barrington 
Public Library. She was a founding member of AGS. The family suggests that memorial 
gifts be made to the Barrington Public Library. 



CONSERVATION. PRESERVATION 

Professional help available . Before you inventory /research /document /restore your 
historic burying ground, discuss your plans with a professional . With even a small 
amount of professional guidance, you will avoid mistakes and save time and effort 
and money. With professional help the efforts of voluntary workers will be more pro- 
ductive and satisfying, and your completed project will be more valuable and useful. 
You won't go wrong if you begin your work by writing or telephoning both Lance R 
Mayer, a conservator and AGS officer, and Elizabeth Durfee Hengen, a consultant 
in historic preservation. Both have a special interest in historic graveyards. 

Lance R. Mayer, 47 Elm St., Stonington CT 06378, (203) 535-4051, 

Elizabeth Durfee Hengen, 45 Cabot St., Winchester MA 01890. (617) 729-1042. 



(Conservation, Preservation) 



6 - 



Cemeteries and Gravestones included in survey . Caynell S. Levine (RR 2, Box 205, 
Wading River NY 11792) reports success in her efforts to persuade the New York City 
Landmarks Preservation Commission to include cemeteries and gravestones in its com- 
puterized Urban Cultural Resources Survey. Tlie Commission will use her recording 
and retrieval system and has written applications for grants to enable her to work 
part-time as a consultant for recording and entering the data in the Commission's data 
bank. 

The Congressional Cemetery . The Congressional Cemetery, a small, nearly forgotten 
burial ground a mile east of the Capitol, dates to the Republic's early years when, in 
effect, it became the first National burial ground. Its prominence faded a century ago 
with the opening of Arlington National Cemetery, but, according to an article in the 
May 20, 1981, New York Times, its headstones and 225 four-feet-high commemorative 
cenotaphs have long been required reading for knowledgeable tourists. The article 
covered the May 19 dedication of a cenotaph to Louisiana Representative Thomas Hale 
Boggs, Sr., who disappeared in 1971 in Alaska. 

In late September, vandals roamed through historic Congressional Cemetery des- 
troying more than 120 tombstones and monuments and causing an estimated $30,000 
damage. This story, reported in Preservation News, November, 1981, points out that 
the cemetery, burial place for architects Robert Mills and William Thornton and composer 
John Philip Sousa, was the object of a restoration fund drive at the time of the desecration, 

Editor's note: The Congressional Cemetery received the NEWSLETTER'S Cemetery 
Citation for Neglect in the Spring , 1981, issue. 

Cemetery found . Bernard Young of Little Valley, New York, literally uncovered the 
first established cemetery in the Town of Dayton while searching for the grave of an 
ancestor, a Revolutionary War soldier. Mr. Young located the abandoned cemetery, 
with several of its marble markers sunk into pastureland, five hundred feet off an inter- 
section. In response to a letter from Mr. Youmg, the Town of Dayton has assumed res- 
ponsibility for the proper care of the cemetery, including fencing and adequate access. 

Stupidity . American Cemetery Magazine, April, 1981, carries an article about another 
gravestone mystery solved. A backhoe operator turned up several gravestones in 
Turlock, California. Police traced the markers to Turlock Memorial Park, from which 
the stones had been legitimately removed, replaced with more elaborate memorials, and 
then used for fill. The Detective Sergeant involved on the case was prompted to ask, 
"Do you know how much time and money it cost the taxpayers and the City of Turlock 
for us to drop everything and go out and investigate something as stupid as that? There 
ought to be a law." 

Gravestone returned . While serving a search warrant on a case in Manchester, Connecti- 
cut, police found the gravestone of a two-year-old girl who died in 1794. The Glaston- 
bury (Connecticut) Historical Society, thanks to a 1930's New Deal WPA project, has the 
records of names, inscriptions and locations of pre-1930's gravestones and was able to 
return Emelie Risley's stone to its proper place in Old Eastbury Burial Ground. It will 
be reset after removal of the orange, black and green paint that had been applied to 
make the stone more decorative in the Manchester house-. 

Gravestones in the front yard ? Robert Van Benthuysen of West Long Branch, New 
Jersey, sends an article from the Shrewsbury (N.J.) Sunday Register describing the 
efforts of a group of Port Monmouth, New Jersey, residents to prevent a developer 
from building a subdivision on the site of a 170-year-old graveyard. The developer 
claims that he has never intended to disturb the burial ground and that it would be 
fenced. We will report on this development if Mr. Van Benthuysen keeps us informed. 

Replicas of Collins, Dyer and Dwight stones . Anne Williams and Susan Kelly (A Grave 
Business, 83 May wood Road, Darien, Connecticut 06820) contribute a full-page feature 
article with photographs which appeared in the Bennington (Vt.) Banner in April, 1981. 
The article describes an unfortunate winter automobile accident in which a car swerved 
off Route 7A and plowed through the oldest section of the Center Shaftsbury Cemetery. 
Eleven historic stones were irreparably smashed into a 1500-piece puzzle. Two addi- 
tional stones were badly damaged but could be joined and pinned. Exact replicas of 
the eleven, carved 200 years ago by stonecutters Zerubbabel Collins, Benjamin Dyer 
and Samuel Dwight, were commissioned from Dino and Derno Ambrosini of the McCue 
Memorial Company in Rutland, Vermont. After the pieces were assembled, the Italian- 
trained Ambrosini brothers began cutting the replicas. According to the Banner story, 
when the replicas are erected, the originals (the youngest of which is dated 1809) will 
be mounted in wooden frames and displayed in the historical society, housed in the 
meetinghouse adjoining the cemetery. Ranney Galusha, coordinator of the replacement 
project, points out that they will last longer there than outside. Mrs. Williams and 
Mrs. Kelly, who have visited the graveyard twice since the accident, are impressed 
with the care and attention being given the restoration, and also with the enthusiasm 
of Mr. Galusha, who refers to the accident as an "intrusion." 

See "Samuel Duight: Vermont Gravestone Cutter, " by Nancy Jean Melin, NEWSLETTER, 
Spring, 1981, page 11. 



(Conservation, Preservation) - 7 - 

Save Our Cemeteries: New Orleans Cemeteries are national treasures . The July, 1981, 
issue of Preservation News features'an article by Mary Louise Christovich about New 
Orleans cemeteries. New Orleans' below sea-level water table prevented secure burial 
throughout most of the eighteenth century. As a result. New Orleanians built above- 
ground tombs designed and used for single burials until yellow fever epidemics forced 
multiple burials within existing crypts. Unfortunately the brick masoieum walls with 
vaulted three- and four-"story" high crypts, graceful masterpieces of space-saving 
ingenuity, were built without foundations on loamy soil. Can they still be used? An 
organization one thousand strong and calling itself Save Our Cemeteries (SOC) says 
yes. SOC was founded in 197U to initiate the protection, preservation and restoration 
of all New Orleans cemeteries, which record the city's history from the 1870's to the 
present. The organization, using its slogan, "Cemeteries are for the living," is trying 
to awaken in both the monsignors and the secular Orleanians an interest in cemetery 
preservation. Preservation strategies proposed include reuse of deserted tombs, con- 
struction of new tombs in complementary styles, and legislation to prevent demolition. 

The President of SOC is Mary Louise Christovich, an architectural historian and co- 
author of several volumes in the series New Orleans Architecture. Membership dues 
for SOC (900 Amethyst Street, New OrleansLA 7021U) are $2.00 and include a copy of 
"The Care and Maintenance of Ancient Tombs" by New Orleans architect Henry Krotzer. 



Another MOCA project . The Maine Old Cemetery Association (MOCA) is updating 
and revising its listing of graves of all known Revolutionary War veterans living 
in Maine before, during or after the War. A January, 1982, date is targeted for 
publication. See the AGS NEWSLETTER, Fall, 1980, Part II, page 16, for other 
MOCA documenting projects. 

Living gravestones . Elizabeth McClave, Bicentennial Chairman, Stephentown, New 
York 12168, writes us that the Stephentown Historical Society has recorded all in- 
formation available from deeds, wills, letters, diaries, assessors, etc., about persons 
buried in local cemeteries. This "Living Gravestone" file is open for use by the 
interested public. 



EDUCATION 

N.Y.U. to offer a Master's in Folk Art . The Museum of American Folk Art and New 
York University have announced a Master's Degree program in folk art studies, to 
be offered in 1981 by N.Y.U.'s Department of Art and Art Education. It is the first 
American university program of its kind. The two-year program is intended to help 
fill a need for knowledgeable curators and critics of folk art collections and will at- 
tract students who want to work with folk art as both an academic endeavor and a 
visual art. Dr. Robert Bishop, the Museum's director, defines folk art as material 
made by a self-taught artist. "The objects are usually practical things," he says, 
"made beautiful by embellishment." 

Center for Historic Preservation . Mary Washington College, in Fredericksburg, 
Virginia, has recently established a Center for Historic Preservation which will serve 
the degree program in historic preservation instituted by the College in 1979 as well 
as the broader preservation public throughout Virginia. According to Associate Di- 
rector Philip D. Spiess, II, the Center will maintain reference files on preservation 
organizations and on other national organizations in fields related to preservation. 

Address inquiries to Mr. Spiess at Mary Washington College, Center for Historic 
Preservation, 915 Monroe Street, Fredricksburg, Virginia 22401. 

Spread the word. Mention AGS . Richard Welch is the author of an article, "Early 
American Gravestones: A Folk Art Legacy," published in The Spinning Wheel, Novem- 
ber/December, 1981. The five-page illustrated article represents the best of its genre: 
writing for the general public. It introduces early American gravestone carving as folk 
art, describing the origins and decline of the dominant designs. It mentions the key 
literature and notes areas of needed study. Welch does an admirable job of describing 
the threats to the survival of these artifacts, lists select graveyards in nine states for 
his readers to visit, and recommends AGS to those with a serious interest. Anyone 
concerned with introducing gravestone art to the general public will find this article 
extremely useful. AGS should request reprints for distribution. 

Richard F. Vleldh edited the Spving, 1981, issue of The NEWSLETTER, and this is 
a good time to apologize belatedly to him for getting his name wrong on the mast- 
head of that issue. JLF 



8 - 



RESEARCH AND WRITING 

NEW PUBLICATIONS 

Stonington graveyards . The Stonington (Connecticut) Historical Society announces 
the publication of Stonington Graveyards, a 18U-page guide locating and describing 
sixty seven burying grounds. It names the 12,000 townspoepie buried there between 
1649 and the mid-1930's, identifies veterans and the wars in which they served, and 
includes local history, lore of gravestone designs and their carvers, pen-and-ink 
illustrations and maps. The sewn, softcover edition is printed on acid-free paper and 
sells for $14.75 plus $1.00 postage. Order from Stonington Historical Society, Post 
Office Box 103, Stonington, Connecticut 06378. 

Welcome Joy . Of interest to students of gravestones is the April, 1,981, publication. 
Welcome Joy: Death in Puritan New Enalgnd, by Gordon E. Geddes. This study of 
the way New England Puritans experienced death is based on evidence from diaries, 
sermons, poetry and epitaphs. It explores the Puritans' response to pain and suf- 
fering, and it shows how they prepared for death and how they behaved when faced 
with death. Partial contents include: Ideas of Death, The Funeral (in two parts). 
The Mourners' Cordial, Boundaries of Death, and Bibliography. The 270-page book 
is available at $39.95 from Research Press, an imprint of University Microfilms Inter- 
national, Box 1467, Ann Arbor Ml 48106. Research Press carries numerous other 
books on American history and culture. 

Iconography . UMI Research Press announces the publication of "With Bodilie Eyes": 
Eschatological Themes in Puritan Literature and Gravestone Art, by David H. Watters. 
The announcement in UMI's publication New Books in the Arts, says that "by dealing 
with texts, sermons and carvings, Watters' insights illuminate an important connec- 
tion between the printed and spoken word and the visual image." The 250-page book 
has 62 plates and is tentatively listed at $37.95 by UMI Research Press, 300 N. Zeeb 
Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106. David Watters was a contributor to Volume I of 
the ACS Journal MARKERS and editor of the forthcoming MARKERS II. 

A beautiful book . A handsome, lavishly illustrated prospectus from Sweetwater Editions 
(114 East 72nd Street, New York, New York 10021) announces the publication of " A 
limited edition devoted to a unique American art form, which is only now being recog- 
nized and studied as a significant chapter in our national heritage." The book is Ann 
Parker and Avon Neal's EARLY AMERICAN STONE SCULPTURE Found in the Burying 
Grounds of New England. It is a big book, and stunningly beautiful. The pages meas- 
ure 11"x32". There is a double page spread for each of the forty-two stones included, 
with a rubbing of the tympanum on one page. On the facing page is the full epitaph 
from the stone, text giving information about the stone and its carver, and a photo- 
graph of the whole stone in situ. The complete edition of 475 copies is comprised of 
smaller editions, each differing in the binding, in boxing, and in the number of origi- 
nal, signed rubbings and photographs included. The Grand Extra-Illustrated Edition 
of 75 copies, for example, "contains the complete text and illustrations of the 42 grave- 
stones bound in full calf with raised bands on the spine, which also carries a gilt leather 
label. A bas-relief gravestone carving is embossed into the front cover in blind stamp- 
ing. The volume is encased in a cloth-covered folding box, which also houses: One 
original gravestone rubbing taken directly from the stone and signed by Ann Parker 
and Avon Neal, and two original photographs (selenium-toned silver prints) processed 
and mounted by Ms. Parker to museum archival standards and signed by her on the 
mount." In early December, 1981, The Gallery of Graphic Arts, Ltd., (1601 York Ave., 
New York City 10028) presented two editions of the Neal's book in conjunction with an 
exhibition of the Neal's "Rubbings From Around the World." The prices of these editions 
are $650 and $475. 



Rubbing from headstone of 
MRS. KATHERINE BARTLET 

Haverhill. Mass, 
1761 




(Research and Writing) 



Gravestone studies called isolated . Three books well known to our readers have been 
reviewed by The Journal of American Folklore: 

The Masks of Orthodoxy by Peter Benes was reviewed by Ormond H. Loomis 
in the January-March, 1980, issue, pages 96-98. 

Early American Gravestone Art in Photographs by Francis Y. Duval and Ivan 
B. Rigby, and Puritan Gravestone Art II, edited by Peter Benes, were re- 
viewed by Gerald L. Pocius in the July-September, 1981, issue, pages 381, 382. 

The final paragraph of Pocius' review deserves careful thought. He writes that "much 
needs to be done in other regions [than New England] and with other cultural groups. 
Several of the essays in Benes' book address symbolic issues, but overlook the large 
body of recent work in semiotics and anthropology dealing with artifacts. These lacks 
point to the isolation of much gravestone research even today, an isolation that must 
end if the study of these particular objects is to advance beyond its frequent anti- 
quarian associations." (Thanks to Susan Jones of The Institute for Scientific Informa- 
tion [iSI], Philadelphia, for finding these reviews for THE NEWSLETTER. ) 

American attitudes toward death . The Spring, 1981, issue of The Journal of Popular 
Culture was guest-edited by Diana Hume George and Mac Nelson (who are currently 
editing the next issue of the NEWSLETTER) . The issue of JPG is devoted to essays, 
interviews, poems, cartoons, and editorial pieces on American Attitudes Toward Death. 
Included are several articles of interest to our readers: "Ideologies in Stone: Meanings 
in Victorian Gravestones," by Kenneth Ames; "Grinning Skulls, Smiling Cherubs, 
Bitter Words," by George and Nelson (the written version of their presentation at the 
Popular Culture Association conference in March, 1981); and "Poetry as Epitaph in 
Emily Dickinson," by Karen Mills Campbell. Other items in this issue which may be 
of peripheral interest include a briefdiscussion of infanticide by Leslie Fiedler, an 
examination of newspaper memoriams by Richard L. Sandler, an article on image 
making and advertising in the funeral industry by Robert A. Armour and J. Carol 
Williams, and an endpiece on the hospice movement by Thomas T. Frantz. This issue 
of The Journal of Popular Culture is available for $6.00 from The Popular Culture 
Center, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403. 

America's native sculpture fights for life . An article in the July/August, 1981, issue 
of Historic Preservation is by Elizabeth Morse-Cluley of Kingston, Rhode Island, who 
teaches rhetoric at the University of Rhode Island and is a free-lance writer and artist. 
The article, "Cemetery Art Fights for Life," focuses on preservation efforts of Edwin 
Connelly, the Rhode Island State Cemetery Director and one of the founders of AGS, 
and on AGS itself. Photographs document recent restorations and the conditions that 
made them necessary. Connelly's words in the final paragraph sum up the article: 
"...who in hell is going to be responsible for protecting these very fragile works that 
reflect our heritage?" Reader response (through letters to the editor. Historic Pre- 
servation, September/October, 1981) to the Morse-Cluley piece was enthusiastic, calling 
the article timely and asking for more information about AGS. 

Historic Preservation and Preservation News are publications of the National Trust for 
Historic Preservation, 1785 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20036. 

Long Island Indians . Gaynell S. Levine (RR 2, Box 205, Wading River NY 11792) 
sent us a copy of an impressive publication of the Suffolk County (N.Y.) Archaeolo- 
gical Association, Languages and Lore of the Long Island Indians, which she edited. 
This 320-page, illustrated book, which is Volume IV of the series Readings in Long 
Island Archaeology and Ethnohistory, contains several entries of interest to students 
of gravemarkers. 

Wisconsin Indians . From Phil Kallas (308 Acorn St., Whiting, Stevens Point Wl 54481) 
we have copies of two articles concerning protection of archaeological sites, epecially 
Indian burial sites, which are applicable to gravestone study. They are: 

"Cemetery or Burial Site, Equal Protection for Wisconsin's Indian Heritage," by Gene 
Connor of the Burnett County (Wisconsin) Historical Society. 

"Protecting Archaeological Sites," by William Green, Staff Archaeologist, Historic 
Preservation Division, State Historical Society of Wisconsin. 

Both items appeared in Exchange (March/April, 1981), a bimonthly publication of the 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin. 

For a future issue about burial sites and markers of Amerioan Indians ^ we welcome 
additional contributions. 



(Research and Writing) - 10 - 

Martha's Vineyard gravestones . From Elsa Slocum (RFD, Vineyard Haven MA 02568) 
we have a copy of The Duke's County Intelligencer^ February, 1979. The 35-page 
lead article is an excellent one entitled "Martha's Vineyard Gravestones from 1688 to 
1804: An Historical Study," by Joseph J. larocci (381 Old Boston Road, Topsfield, 
Massachusetts 01983). Three cemeteries were used for his study: Tower Hill in 
Edgartown; the West Tisbury Cemetery; and Chilmark Cemetery. Included is a dis- 
cussion and timeline of Vineyard stonecutters (and/or those whose work is on the 
Vineyard), photographs of gravestones and graphs of seriations using data from the 
three cemeteries, as well as a combination graph. Mr. larocci concludes that the 
death's head reached its peak of popularity there from 1730-34 and that the rise in 
popularity of the cherub correlates with a change in orthodox Puritanism. He des- 
cribes interior and off-island influences and thoroughly documents the the means by 
which "gravestones can be projected against known historical data, detailing the 
dynamics of change." 

Joseph larocci, a June graduate in anthropology from Brown University, wrote this 
paper in 1977. Back issues of The Duke's County Intelligencer may be obtained at 
cover price ($1.25) from the Duke's County Historical Society, Inc., Cook and School 
Streets, Edgartown, Massachusetts 02539. The Intelligencer is published quarterly 
by the Historical Society, and subscription is through membership in the Society. 

Segregation in death . "Segregation in Life, Segregation in Death: Landscape of an 
Ethnic Cemetery," is the title of an article by Yvonne J. Milspaw in the Autumn, 1980, 
issue of Pennsylvania Folklife. The article describes the development of the town of 
Steelton, Pennsylvania, which grew from a community of six families in 1866 to an 
ethnically diverse city of more than 13,000 people from more than ten ethnic cultures 
by 1920. The Baldwin (the original name of Steelton) Cemetery, according to the 
author, clearly reflects the ethnic development of the city through the locations of 
the graves, the kinds of markers used, and the upkeep provided. The landscape of 
this early twentieth century cemetery "emerges with ethnic, racial and religious seg- 
regation as its major premise." Six photographs illustrate the interesting Bulgarian- 
Macedonian Feneri (lanterns), small, hand made metal boxes which house candles and 
occasionally other grave offerings. Ms. Milspaw points out that everyday life con- 
tinued the ethnic isolation begun by language and culture, that death was no leveler 
and was not permitted to erase ethnic identifications. 

Yvonne Milspaw is an Associate Professor of Folklore and American Studies at the : 
Pennsylvania State University, Capitol Campus. She has assisted with the production 
of a television series, "Ethnic Minorities in the Keystone State." 

AUTHOR'S REQUESTS 

Civil War monument . For an article about the ubiquitous Civil War monument of a 
soldier at rest atop a granite shaft, Mary E. Dimock is seeking information about the 
carver, designer, producer, seller and the model. James G. Batterson of New Haven 
supplied the granite; Darius and Cyrus Cobb developed the design; W. N. Mossman 
and the Ames Works in Chicoppee, Massachusetts, cast a bronze version. Send in- 
formation to Ms. Dimock, 14 Monroe Street, Northborough, Massachusetts 01532. 

North Carolina stonecutters . A project of the University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill being funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities is entitled "The North 
Carolina Cemetery as Cultural Artifact." Ruth Little-Stokes is conducting fieldwork 
in selected areas of North Carolina to obtain a statistical sampling of the major ethnic 
and religious gravestone traditions. She finds that in the eastern part of the state, 
where no native stone exists, the markers in wealthy cemeteries and private burying 
grounds were imported, and often signed. The stonecutters she is interested in worked 
c. 1800-1850. They are: 

Abner Sweetland, Connecticut Witzell & Cahoon, New York 

Ebenezer Price, New Jersey F. Price 6 Son, Norwalk, Connecticut 

R. Hart ? New York Thomas Norris, 417 Bowery, New York 

Readers with information about these or other early cutters who may have worked in 
North Carolina are asked to write : Dr. Ruth Little-Stokes, 7408 Ebenezer Church Rd., 
Raleigh, North Carolina; or c/o The Curriculum-in-Folklore, Department of English, 
Greenlaw Building, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill NC 17514. 

Southern studies . For an investigation of gravestone carving executed in the South 
prior to 1820, Catherine H. Roe, a Field Researcher for the Museum of Early Southern 
Decorative Arts (MESDA, Salem Station, Winston-Salem NC 27108), asks if there are 
any active studies being conducted in the South other than MESDA's and the work of 
Dr.'s Patterson and Little-Stokes at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 
Address her at 133 West End Street, Chester, South Carolina 29706. 



- 11 - 

BOOK REVIEW 

SEPTEMBER 6, 1781: NORTH GRO TON'S STORY 

By Carolyn Smith and Helen Vergason 

Illustrated with maps and photographs. 227 pages. Softbound. $11.50. 

New London, Connecticut. Funded by the Ledyard Historical Society and the 

Ledyard Historic District Commission; printed by New London Printers, Inc. 

Review by James A . Slater 

September 6, 1781 North Croton's Story contains gravestone information far more 
important than the title suggests. The Smith-Vergason books gives a detailed ac- 
count of the massacre of the defenders of Fort Griswold and the burning of New 
London (Connecticut) by British troops under Benedict Arnold on September 6,1781. 

Anyone who has spent time in the old burial grounds of southeastern Connecticut is 
aware of the bitterness engendered by the British attack. The stones from those 
burial grounds bear grim and biting statements, such as "killed by traitor Arnolds 
murdring corps," "fell victim to British inhumanity," "inhumanly massacred by 
British troops," and "does not my blood for vengeance cry?" 

The book is exhaustively researched, well organized and concisely written. It is a 
pleasure to read. It is much more than an account of the battle and its aftermath. 
Included are photographs of the houses of the families involved in the battle, de- 
tailed genealogical information, and extensive accounts of some of the historical areas 
in the Groton-Ledyard area. 

The primary importance of the book to gravestone studies is the extensive treatment 
of the markers of the men killed at Fort Griswold and of the burying grounds where 
the stones are found. A valuable feature is a legible map and detailed directions to 
nineteen early, difficult-to-locate graveyards. The illustrated material is extensive — 
four general cemetery views and eighty-five individual stones. Each stone pictured 
has a complete accompanying text which is particularly valuable since many markers 
made from Connecticut Valley sandstone are now partially or completely illegible. 

There is an additional three-page discussion of stone deterioration, stone origin, and 
stone carvers, particularly the Manning and Johnson families and Jonathan Loomis. 
Of interest, also, is a list of all Fort Griswold soldiers engaged in the battle, arranged 
by cemetery, and a valuable bibliography. AGS readers will be pleased to find the 
address of the Association given as a source for further information, and MARKERS 
cited as a valuable resource. 

This well-written book sold out within a month of its publication and is, unfortunately, 
unavailable for purchase. More unfortunate, copyright litigation may prevent addi- 
tional printings. However, it is available in libraries, and it is recommended to every- 
one interested in Connecticut gravestones or in American Revolutionary War history. 

James A. Slater, Professor of Entomology at the University of Connecticut, Storrs, 
is currently organizing information about eastern Connecticut gravestones and deve- 
loping a guide to that area's historic burial grounds. 

Readers ave reminded that all pubtioations reviewed on these pages are 
available from Highly Specialized Promotions (HSP)^ excepting any that 
are out of print. Address ESP, 392 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn NI 11217. 

WORKSHOPS. CONFERENCES. LECTURES 

Federation of Historical Services . In June, 1981, the Federation of Historical Services 
in Old Chatham, New York, offered a workshop, "Theories and Methodology of Ceme- 
tery Research." Speakers were Gaynell Levine, Teaching Assistant, Anthropology De- 
partment, State University of New York, Stony Brook; Margaret Coffin, Historical So- 
ciety of Early American Decoration; Warren Broderick, New York State Archives; Kay 
Burgess, Chatham Town Historian; and Clinton Merrow, Sr., Investigator, New York 
State Division of Cemeteries. 

Conference of New York State History . Gaynell Levine presented a paper, "Ethnicity 
and Ideology in Stone: Queen sborough. New York, Immigrant Gravestones, 1880-1980," 
at the Conference of New York State History held at the State University of New York, 
New Paltz, in June, 1981. 

Quincy Historical Society . In May and June, 1981, the Quincy (Mass.) Historical Society 
offered a series of five illustrated lectures, "The Folk Tradition: Art of America's Com- 
mon People." Lecturers for the session on early New England gravestone carvings were 
Dan and Jessie Lie Farber. Other subjects treated in the series included figureheads 
and sternboard carvings, itinerant painters, Yankee weathervanes, and quilts. 



(Workshops, Conferences, Lectures) - 12 - 

American Culture and Popular Culture Associations . In March, 1981, the combined 
conference of the American Culture and Popular Culture Associations sponsored a 
session on Gravestone Studies in Cincinnati. Chaired by David Taylor of the Ohio 
Historic Preservation Office and Lance Mayer of the Cincinnati Art Museum, the ses- 
sion included papers covering many facets of gravestone study. Speakers were 
George Ceib, Butler University, Indianapolis, Indiana; Glen M. Johnson, University 
of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky; Diana Hume George and Mac Nelson, Pennsyl- 
vania State University /Behrend College and The State University of New York, 
Fredonia; Thomas J. Hannon, Slippery Rock State College, Slippery Rock, Pennsyl- 
vania; and Pamela Miller, , Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania. 
Gravestone studies and related studies of death are now a regular offering of the two 
associations. Send suggestions for papers to be read at the Spring, 1982, conference 
to ''Pamela Miller, Department of English, The Pennsylvania State University, Univer- 
sity Park, Pennsylvania 16802. 

Cemeteries in context . From Robert L. Schuyler, Associate Curator, American His- 
torical Archaeology Section of the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 
we have the abstract of a symposium to be held at the annual meeting of the Society 
for Archaeology in January, 1982. The symposium, "Cemeteries in Context," was 
organized by Schuyler and Dr. Elizabeth A. Crowell of The University of Pennsylvania 

Abstract: 

Archaeologists, historians, geographers and other scholars have been investi- 
gating American historic mortuary art for nearly two decades. Almost all of 
these studies had a common starting point — the individual gravestone. It was 
expectable and logical that initial research on mortuary patterns would be in- 
itiated on the level of individual artifact, but more recently the scope of "grave- 
stone studies" has been expanded by placing the data preserved on monuments 
in a much broader context. The presentations in this symposium suggest two 
important aspects of this expansion. First, the primary focus of field research 
is shifting from the grave marker, either as a single object or as an item in a 
statistical count, to the entire cemetery as part of the cultural landscape. 
Cemeteries, as part of the overall settlement pattern, rather than isolated 
gravestones, are the natural unit of field work. Second, the raw data de- 
rived from both stones and the internal and external arrangements of ceme- 
teries are being analysed within a contemporary cultural setting that takes 
into account the impact of class, ethnicity and denomination. Questions of 
general style or specific information, such as the origin of Individual carvers, 
continue to be significant as subjects in themselves, but such data can also 
serve on a broader level as preliminary steps toward chronological control 
and establishment of specific historic reference points. Cultural context in- 
volves much more, including the basic economic, social and ideological sys- 
tems which controlled mortuary practices at specific points in time and space. 
Eventually, even such a complete cultural matrix will, when adequate case 
studies are available, be viewed as partial reflections of the evolution of 
traditional and industrial societies in the modern 01500-1980) world. 

The symposium will be comprised of thirty-minute presentations. The NEWSLETTER 
has abstracts of each of these preseintations, which we may be able to include in our 
next issue. Or you may write for a Xerox copy to ACS Publications, c7o American 
Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609. Please enclose 50<: handling 
and postage. . 

The presentations: 

"Cemeteries in the Cultural Landscape: an Example from the Desert West," 
by Robert L. Schuyler, University of Pennsylvania. 

"Ethnicity in the Graveyard," by Conrad M. Goodwin, The College of William 
and Mary. 

"Cross-Cultural Variation in Modern Cemetery Assemblages," by Edwin S. 
Dethlefsen, The College of William and Mary. 

"Cape May: Uncarved Images and Migratory Gravestones; Problems In 
Cemetery-Gravestone Studies," by Elizabeth A. Crowell, University of 
Pennsylvania . 

Discussant, James Deetz, University of California, Berkeley. 



A catalog of the AGS collection at the New England Historic Genealogical Society, 
newly compiled by archivist Michael Cornish, is available from him upon receipt of 
60C in U.S. postage to cover printing and mailing costs. Address: 62 Calumet St. 
Roxbury, Massachusetts 02120. 



13 - 



STONECUTTERS AND THEIR WORKS 
Tenth of a Series 




Betse Burr, 1792, Warren, 
STONECUTTER of the NARRACANSETT BASIN: 



WILLIAM THROOP Vincen 




In the Massachusetts and Rhode Island towns bordering the head of the Narragansett 
Bay stand a considerable number of stones carved by William Throop. Throop, son of 
Thomas and Mary, was born June 13, 1739. He was married twice, first to Althea Fales, 
and then to a Mary. A son, William, born 1771, probably carved stones in the early 
nineteenth century. 

From 1776 to 1781, Throop served in the Bristol, Rhode Island, company of militia, earn- 
ing the rank of lieutenant. He died February 26, 1817. A Bristol deed refers to him 
as "yoeman." His stonecarving career seems to have begun after his military service. 

Documentation for Throop's markers is found on signed stones for Elizabeth Bullock, 
1786, Rehoboth, Massachusetts, and Hanna Thomas, 1790, Swansea, Massachusetts. 
Probate records show payment to Throop for gravestones for: 

Mary Allen, 1786, Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Probated 1788. 
Lois Martin, 1787, Rehoboth, Massachusetts. Probated 1789. 
Abigail Burr, 1803, Warren, Rhode Island. Probated 1806. 
Caleb Barton, 1809, Warren, Rhode Island. Probated 1813. 

The death date on a stone and the probate date fix the period during which each of 
these stones was carved. 






Hannah Thomas 
I'/ I 



El izabeth 
Bullock 



Mary Al len 



Hannah 
Thomas 





Lois Martin 



The signed Elizabeth Bullock stone and the probated Mary Allen stone clearly show 
Throop to be working with or copying the designs of John and James New, of Grafton, 
Massachusetts. The similarity of Throop's work to the News' work led me to question 
my attribution of half a dozen other stones which had seemed, on first impression, to 
be the work of the News. Even before my discovery of William Throop, the design 
and lettering on these stones had led me to surmise that the News may have had an 
imitator. Confined to Rehoboth, Massachusetts, these New-type Throop markers 
are for: Annah Bullock, 1771 ; Hannah Moulton, 1778; Simon Burr 1783; Daniel Barney, 
1784; and Seth Bullock, 1784. 

In time, Throop developed his own characteristic designs, one of which strongly resem- 
bles the "Brillo hair" design used by John Stevens, Jr., of Newport. 

Vincent F. Luti, the foremost researcher of Narragansett Bay area gravestone car- 
vers, is professor of music at Southeastern Massachusetts University, Articles by 
him have appeared in the NEWSLETTER [Summer, 1980) and Rhode Island History 
(February, 1981). 



14 



Stonecutter John Stevens, Jr., of Newport, Rhode Island . Robert P. Emien, Asso- 
ciate Curator of the Rhode Island Historical Society, has forwarded to us an adver- 
tisement placed by John Stevesn, Jr., in an issue of the 1772 Newport Mercury. 
According to Mr. EmIen, Stevens' advertisements are very rare. We reproduce it 
here, together with a copy of a rubbing of a Newport stone signed by Stevens. 



J 



H N S r E F E N :S, jun. 

STONE-CUTTER, 
In Thames- Smet, near L I BE R 1' Y - T R E E, 

Hereby informs the' P U B L I C^ 
^Tp HAT he carries on tb.e Ston e-Cutteks buli- 

J. nefs in all its branches, (generally carried ou iri 

Ameiica) in the neateft manner. All perfons who 

pleafe to favour him vvich iheir cullom, raay depend up- 
on being fervcd with iidelity and deipatch, ac a reaiou- 
ble rate. — All favours received will be melt gr;Ueiuily 
acknowledged by laid STEVENS. 

N. B. Any one at a dillance IhaU be as well fer- 
vcd, by letter, as if prefent. — (349 — ) 



Above: Advertisement from The Newport 
Mercury, Monday, October 26, 1772. 

Right: Newport, Rhode Island gravestone 
signed by John Stevens, Jr. 







rV T^l.<s r>oH Ti^\ iciht^PT.'^nf: 



, tliR J\g>^;; ■ 1 0^4ATJrlAN 

--eft part of her y/cyy. ufe =. 

fliPwl l^ite . She died 8it NlanvP 

'■'■■•'^'. ; .-.-.v-..'.; • ■,.. '.■■■ ■ >'vi. .■■•■ 

its eve rLeulVin rt l\eni cinbr^ricie 








W 

M^:?^ 



CRAVE RUBBING FROM THE 
OLD GRANARY BURYING GROUND 

by Louis Phillips 

We tape rice paper to the face 
of the dead. 

One infant, 8 months old, the 
doctor bled. 

If there are underground souls. 

They enter through our knees. 

My hands, black from coal. 

Take life from stone. Infant & old folks. 

Life chokes us at both ends. 

Sarah Potter. God bless measles. 

Whooping cough, all diseases 

That plague these mosses in a round. 

Such a stalwart name. Potter . 

We carry it away with us. 

In our car, dates & ail. 



From All That Clows Sees ^ Poems by Louis Phillips, published by Prologue Press j 
447 East 14th Street, New York, New York 10009, 1981. Used here with permission 
from and thanks to Louis Phillips, who spent his youth in Lowell, Massachusetts, 
sometimes doing rubbings. Now living in New York City, Mr. Phillips is a poet, 
playwright, novelist, and author of numerous books for ahildren. 
The two rubbings reproduced on this page are by Susan H. Kelly and Anne C. Williams. 



- 15 - 

.MISCELLANEOUS 

Artists and architects create urban cemetery . The Saturday Review, March, 1981, 
carried a review of a New York Architectural League show, "Collaboration: Artists 
& Architects," which opened in March at the New York Historical Society. Among 
the eleven projects (rendings, models, bits of buildings), was one designed by 
trompe-l'oeil painter Richard Haas and architect Edward Mills. Their plan for a mas- 
sive urban cemetery, a necropolis for Roosevelt Island, was shown in counterpoint 
to the Manhatten skyline in the background. The catalog essay compares the Haas- 
Mills design to Detroit's Renaissance Center. 

Bargain-price tombstone . Earl Rife, a former coal miner from West Virginia, found a 
new occupation when he was taken out of the mines because of black-lung. He saw 
a need in his Appalachian area for inexpensive gravemarkers. According to a story 
by Garret Mathews in the Bluefield, West Virginia, Do /Vy Telegraph , reprinted in the 
Dunkirk, New York, Even /ng Observer, Rife mixes his own concrete and pours it into 
hand-made molds. When the concrete is nearly set, he inserts plastic letters from 
Hong King to form a birth and death record in "lettering more or less straight and in 
spelling more or less correct." At first Rife did not charge families for the tombstones. 
Later he began charging a small fee, and as the cost of concrete has increased, his 
prices have gone up. He gets $60 for a large marker and $35 for a smaller one. Most 
of his stones are simple and rounded on top, but he has added a few crosses, and 
once a tintype of a husband and wife. Says Rife, "I even add a little limestone dust 
if someone wants me to get fancy." Any poetry? He says he has not been asked but 
he'd squeeze the space to get it on. The only thing he says he won't do is deliver. 

An innovative proposal . The April 27, 1981, Rochester, New York, Times Union 
features an illustrated front page story about Rochester's Mt. Hope Cemetery. Because 
of the cemetery's landmark designation, the city cannot demolish or drastically alter 
the cemetery buildings, and at the same time, it cannot afford to restore them. Ac- 
cording to the story, the 120-member Friends of Mt. Hope Cemetery, organized a year 
ago to help preserve the cemetery where Susan B. Anthony is buried, plans to hire a 
consultant to suggest ways to run it in a business-like fashion that will turn its op- 
erating deficit into a surplus. An innovative step slated for approval by the City 
Council is the leasing of the vacant second floor of the office-crematory building to 
23 year-old Paul Knoke for $1 per month for three years. Knoke, a graduate of the 
University of Rochester with a degree in art history, restores and tunes musical in- 
struments for a living. He says the arrangement will facilitate his work in the areas of 
his major interests, music and history. He will be provided with an historic place to 
live and he can use the cemetery chapel to house his collection of antique musical in- 
struments, in return, Knoke will install plumbing and electrical facilities and redec- 
orate the apartment. He will begin restoration of the Gothic revival chapel built in 
1862-63, and will keep an eye out for vandals. The city estimates his services to be 
worth $7200, fair market value for the rent, and sees the arrangement as part of a 
long-term effort to improve the cemetery at low cost to the financially strapped city. 

NEWSLETTER NOTES 

I wish to express my personal thanks to Donna Carlson for her fine work as guest 
editor of this issue. Her copy was so thoroughly and expertly prepared that I 
had only to read and en^oy it and pass it on to the printer. Mrs. Carlson, who 
is Assistant Curator and Photograph Historian for the Historical Museum of the 
D. E. Barker Library, Fredonia, New York, has expressed an interest in editing 
an issue which concentrates on gravestone conservation. Send contributions for 
an issue with this emphasis to AGS Publications, c/o American Antiquarian Society, 
Worcester, Massachusetts 01609. JLF 

Guest editors of the AGS NEWSLETTER Winter issue are Diana Hume George and 
Mac Nelson. Dr. George is on the English faculty of The Pennsylvania State Uni- 
versity /Behrend College, Erie, Pennsylvania, Dr. Nelson is Professor of English 
at The State University of New York, Fredonia. 

Deadline immediately . Readers who have information about epitaphs, or interesting 
(that is, meaty, tough, funny, profound, angry, or just plain awful) examples of 
epitaphs are invited to send them to Diana George and Mac Nelson, 120 West Main 
Street, Brocton, New York 14716. Please identify your epitaph's location and the 
name and death date of the deceased. Short pieces about individual epitaphs — dis- 
cussions of meanings or of literary sources, for example — or about the epitaph as 
genre are also welcome. Because the NEWSLETTER is running behind schedule 
(and trying to catch up!), we are working on the "epitaph edition" now, so send 
your contributions without delay. 




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CEMETERY CITATIONS 



EXEMPLARY CARE 

GREEN-WOOD CEMETERY 
BROOKLYN, NEW YORK 

Frequently cited for its natural beauty, 
historical importance and monumental 
splendor, Green-Wood is cited here for 
the excellence of its care and supervision. 
(Contributed by John Cashman of Brooklyn, 
who volunteers time to conduct cemetery 
tours and show slides to those unable to 
visit Green-Wood. ) 

Founded in 18S8 and sometimes called "the 
queen of Amevioan Cemeteries , " Green-Wood 
has been recommended for official land- 
mark status by the New York City Land- 
marks Preservation Commission. 



AGS Patch, designed 
by Carol Perkins. $3. 
See page 4. 



NEGLECT 

MOUNT PROSPECT CEMETERY 
NEPTUNE TOWNSHIP, N.J. 

Once admired for its beauty and its in- 
novative underground water system, 
this cemetery's graves are now over- 
grown with ragweed and honeysuckle 
vines and its monuments are broken. 
It has financial problems, and its early 
records were destroyed in an 1890 fire. 
The Township claims no responsibility 
for its care. (Contributed by Robert 
Van Benthuysen of Long Branch, N.J.) 




THE AGS NEWSLETTER is published four times a year as a service to members of the Association for Gravestone Studies. 
The membership year is from June to June. Send membership fees (Regular Membership, $10; Sustaining Membership, $25) 
^o ACS Treasurer Nancy Jean Melin, 215 West 75th St. . Apt. WE. New York, NY 10023. Order MARKERS, The Journal of 
the Association for Gravestone Studies (Members' price, $15; Non-members' price, $25) from Betty Slater, 373 Bassettes 
Bridge Rd., Mansfield Center, CT 06250. Address NEWSLETTER contributions to ACS Publications, do The American 
Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA 01609. Address all other Association correspondence to ACS Corresponding Secretary 
zioise West, 199 Fisher Rd., Fitchburg, MA 0U20. 



NEWSLETTER 

OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 



The following index to the first five volumes of the AGS Newsletter was 
compiled by George Kackley, Baltimore MD. Spanning the years 1977 - 
1981, the first five volumes are from a formative period of the Association. 




Back issues of the AGS Newsletter are available from 



Rosalee Oakley 

Executive Director 

Association for Gravestone Studies 

46 Plymouth Road 

Needham MA 

02192 

U.S.A. 



VOLUMES 1 - 3 
VOLUMES4-7 
VOLUMES 8 - 9 



$8.00 (for the whole package, including postage) 
$10.00 
$12.00 



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Association for Gravestone Studies, 
c/oAmerican Antiquarian Society, 
Worcester, Mass. 01609 



NON PROFIT ORG. 
U. S. POSTAGE 

PAID 

Permit No. 410 

Worcester, Mass. 



NEWSLETTER 



Ms. Beth Rich 

43 Ryhary HilLMJAy 

Needham. MA 02192 



:+: 



"^ 




NEWSLETTER 

OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR GRAVESTONE STUDIES 



Editor, Jessie Lie Farber 



Guest Editors, Diana Hume George 
Malcolm A . Nelson 



Volumes, Number 1, Winter 1981/82 ISSN: 0146-5783 



CONTENTS 

A CONFERENCE REMINDER and two Williamstown epitaphs 1 

ASSOCIATION NEWS , 2 

Epitaphs with Literary Sources, an article , , i . i i 3 

by Diana Hume George 

Gravestone Inscriptions : Their Unappreciated Beauty, a photo essay 5 

by Francis Y. Duval and Ivan B. Rigby 

BOOK REVIEWS 

The Hour of Our Death ,,,.,, i ,,,, i ,,, i i i ■ ■ i J 

by Philippe Aries 

Review by Malcolm A. Nelson 

Over Their Dead Bodies and Sudden and Awful • • • 8 

by Janet Greene and Thomas C. Mann 
Review by Avon Neal 

How I Carve a Headstone • • • . ■ ■ • 9 

by Frankie Bunyard and Robert B. Stephenson 

RESEARCH AND WRITING. Requests, published articles, current research 11-13 

Bay Colony Tendril Carvers, a report i t ■ . 13 

by Michael Cornish 

MISCELLANEOUS 14,,16 

NEWSLETTER NOTES , 15 



The first mailing of details about the 

1982 AGS CONFERENCE 

will arrive in early February. Watch for it and 
mark your calendar 

JUNE 25-27, WILLIAMS COLLEGE, WILLIAMSTOWN, MASSACHUSETTS 



"Since creation was spake into existence, have not 
all ages, sex or condition been constantly maturing 
for the shafts of death ..." 

— from the Ezekiel Buck stone, 
Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1812 



Her bereaved husband has caused this stone to be 
erected to designate the spot where she reposes, 
and not in the unnecessary attempt to commemorate 
her worth; for with those who knew her (and perhaps. 
Reader, thou art one) her virtues need no remembrancer, 
and with those who knew her not, the simple Records 
of truth would be mistaken for the language of 
panegyric. 

— from the Rachel Talcott stone, 
Williamstown, Massachusetts, 1817 



- 2 - 



ASSOCIATION NEWS 

Conference inquiries and contributions . The 1982 Conference Chairman is Elizabeth 
Hammond. Direct inquiries concerning program participation, exhibit space, hous- 
ing, etc., to her at 3U Old Connecticut Path, Wayland, Massachusetts 01778. 

Two hours needed . Laurel Gabel, who is handling registration for the June confer- 
ence at Williams College, needs volunteers for two hours Friday morning, June 25, 
two hours Friday afternoon, and two hours Saturday morning, June 26. Registering 
conferees is a good way to meet your fellow members, as well as to contribute to the 
conference. Please offer your two hours of service by dropping a line to Mrs. Gabel 
at 323 Linden Street, Wellesley, Massachusetts 02181. 

Speaking of help . Want to help ACS and don't know how? Let us count the ways. 

Solicit members. If you lecture or publish or belong to a gravestone-related or- 
ganization such as a historical or preservation society, mention ACS . Carol Per- 
kins, AGS Membership Chairman ( 1233 Cribb Street, Apt. 204, Toledo, Ohio 43612), 
will send you information for distribution. 

Pay your dues on time. Membership is from June to June. AGS has no foundation 
grants or other outside funding. It supports itself, with modest dues. Dues for 
1982/83 are $15. Pay them in June to Nancy Melin, Treasurer, 215 West 125th St., 
New York, New York 10023. Better yet, push yourself a little and take out a $25 
Sustaining Membership, which amounts to contributing $10 over and above the bare- 
bones membership fee. 

Participate. Respond when you can to requests published on these pages. (For 
example, write Mike Cornish, 62 Calumet Street, Roxbury, Massachusetts 02120, 
about books, articles, photographs, records or rubbings you may be willing to 
place in the AGS archives.) Or make suggestions to us that will help AGS bet- 
ter serve your needs. 

Get to the grass roots. Take AGS philosophy and principles to your community 
through activity in your local educational institutions and community organiza- 
tions, and then report your activity' — successes and failures — through AGS pub- 
lications and conferences. 

And finally, really try to make a financial contribution. AGS publications, con- 
ferences, and consulting services either pay for themselves or require contribu- 
tions — or they fail. Markers II , for example, is ready for press, but we are 
still raising the necessary publication funds. A $5 gift is welcome (so is $5000), 
and it is tax deductible. For it you receive a heart-felt thank you letter which 
you can file for the IRS. Besides that, you will have a nice feeling, we think. 
AGS officers and staff are all voluntary and unpaid. There are no physical head- 
quarters to pay for. All our budget goes into our projects. This is one organiza- 
tion in which you get back 100% of what you put in. Contributions go to the AGS 
treasurer, Nancy Meiin, 215 West 125th Street, New York, New York 10023 — the 
same place you send your dues. 

Speaking of gifts , AGS recently received two gifts which are of unusual interest. One 
was a $5000 donation made by a member who has made other annonymous contributions. 
The other gift is, one might say, priceless: two numbered first edition copies of Har- 
riette Merrifield Forbes' Gravestones of Early New England and the Men Who Made Them. 
We assume that everyone seriously interested in gravestone art knows that copies of 
this edition of the Forbes book are much sought after and are, actually, almost impos- 
sible to come by. The books were discovered in Worcester, Massachusetts, last summer 
by Margaret Erskine, who is the wife of Linwood Erskine, Harriette Forbes' grandson. 
The Erskine's were preparing to move into the house in which Mrs. Forbes wrote the 
book, and during these preparations, the two volumes turned up. Margaret Erskine, an 
active antiquarian and herself an author, was well aware of the importance of this find, 
and that libraries and booksellers are eager for copies of the book. AGS is delighted 
to be the recipient, and word of the gift has traveled speedily in the New England area, 
where there is much speculation concerning the use to which they should be put. One 
copy, it seems obvious, will go to the ACS archives at the New England Historic Genea- 
logical Society Library. But the other? Among our membership are the persons who 
would most appreciate owning the Forbes book; we know of individuals who have had the 
title on the search list of antiquarian book stores for years. Should we auction it at the 
conference--perhaps taking write-in bids from members unable to attend? Or conduct a 
raffle? Or present it to a recipient of the Harriette Merrifield Forbes Award (Ludwig, 
Benes, or a future recipient?) If you have a suggestion, send it to AGS Publications, 
c/o American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, MA 01609. We welcome your ideas. 



- 3 - 



EPITAPHS WITH LITERARY SOURCES Diana Hume George 

It is often difficult to trace the literary source of a fine epitaph. Sometimes, however, 
the carver lends direct assistance, as did the carver of the Samuel Jones, Jr. stone in 
Concord, Massachusetts. This is a large, elaborately carved neoclassical stone with 
the following epitaph: 

"Men drop so fast, 'ere life's mid-stage we tread 
Few know so many friends alive as dead. " 

Young 

The carver has simplified the search for a literary source by supplying both quotation 
marks and an attribution. "Young" is Edward Young, author of The Complaint and the 
Consolation; or Night Thoughts . Young was a member of the so-called "Graveyard 
School" of English poetry, which also includes Blair's The Crave. Apropos, to be sure, 
but does it tell us anything useful? Indeed it does. Night Thoughts was written in the 
lyiO's, and before 1844 it had been translated into twelve languages. Young's name was 
a household word in much the same way as were Milton's and Shakespeare's. By the mid- 
nineteenth century. Young had fallen into deserved disfavor, and Night Thoughts is 
saved now only by a few examples of fine poetry among its more than 10,000 blank verse 
lines, most of which sound maudlin and banal to the modern ear. For a century, how- 
ever, he was counted among the great. Young's text is a pious exhortation to the liv- 
ing to live properly and to think seriously on death. His theology was attractive to the 
early American audience, partly because it eschewed the pleasures of the flesh, and 
partly because its piety is tempered by a lively regard for the delights of life; and, per- 
haps most significantly, because it includes an unabated remonstrance against the hypo- 
crisy of institutionalized religion and government. Night Thoughts sold very well in 
America, and gravestone researchers should be aware that more than the occasional in- 
stance of graveyard iambic pentameter may have its source in Young's text. See, for 
instance, Forbes' discussion of stonecarver William Young's book collection in Grave- 
stones of Early New England and the Men Who Made Them, page 81. William Young owned 
a number of books on various subjects, but only one book of poetry, Edward Young's 
Night Thoughts . According to Forbes, Young used Young (no relation) as a source 
both for epitaphs and for verse of his own. 

Evidence of borrowings from literature in early American epitaphs is not limited to lit- 
erature that is no longer counted great, nor is it limited to the work of poets cum theo- 
logians. The Abigail Adams stone in Truro, Massachusetts, records her death "in Child- 
bed" at the age of twenty-four, and concludes with this short epitaph: 

Oh death all eloquent you only prove 

What dust we dote on when we creatures love 

This couplet has a literary ring that led us to search for its source. There are no help- 
ful quotation marks or other indications of attribution, but the couplet is full of literary 
devices. Certainly our articulate forefathers could have written this fine couplet, but 
precisely because many were fairly well-read, we can assume a familiarity with literature. 
In this case, the epitaph is from a somewhat surprising source: Alexander Pope's E/o/se 
and Abelard, lines 335-336, which read: "Oh death all eloquent you only prove / What 
dust we dote on when 'tis man we love." The adaptation of Eloise and Abelard to the 
gravestone of a New England woman who died "in Childbed" presents interesting ironies. 
We have seen similar adaptations of these lines on other New England stones. 

The Jedidiah Dewey stone in Bennington, Vermont, (1778) records that the "First Pas- 
tor of the Church in Bennington .. .Resigned his Office in God's Temple For the Sublime 
Employment of Immortality" at the age of sixty-five. Expect great things from a stone 
that begins so well. (The phrasing is not by any means unique. Similar puns occur 
on many stones and stand as delightful testimony to the good humor that was one ele- 
ment of our forefathers' celebrated piety.) The epitaph proper follows: 

Of comfort no Man Speak! 
Let's talk of Craves and worms, 
and Epitaphs. Make dust our 
Paper, and with Rainy eyes. 
Write Sorrow in the bosom 
of the Earth. 

The line-breaks and punctuation are skewed, and "of worms" is changed to "and worms," 
but the quotation from Shakespeare's/?/c/iorcf the Second (Act III, scene ii) is nearly ex- 
act, and as effective in stone as on stage — perhaps more so since the words of Shakes- 
peare's rhetorical King Richard are here turned to their ultimate literal use. 

The interplay of epitaphs carved in stone, and literature printed in texts is complete and 



- 4 - 

Epitaphs with Literary Sources, continued 

subtle, and we do not hope or need to separate them. Poets have always written epi- 
taphs, some meant for carving in stone, more meant to be set in type. These epitaphs 
often borrow from literary sources. The relationship is reciprocal and happy, even 
when it presents difficulties for the researcher. 

For discussions of other stones with literary sources, see Diana Hume George and Mal- 
colm A. Nelson, "Resurrecting the Epitaph," in MARKERS. 1979-80, pages 8