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Forbes Material at the American Antiquarian Society 7 

Questions and Answers 8 

Illinois Project 10 





Charleston & San Francisco 17 

With Appreciation 18 





by Betty Marie Bellous, 407 N Third, Mar- 
quette Ml 49855 

Shelters for the spirits of Indians are much 
in evidence inthe Upper Peninsula of Michi- 
gan. In this remote wilderness area lived 
and roamed the Chlppewas and Ojibways 
(branches of the Algonquin Nation). Al- 
though Sault Sainte Marie, on the eastern 
tip of the Peninsula, was founded early on 
by French missionaries, the balance of this 
peninsula remained Indian country until the 
late 1840s when expeditionaries discov- 
ered iron ore in the Marquette area. Thus, 
the history is much more recent than that of 
the Midwest. 

Some Indian burial grounds I have visited in 


AGS Wi-89/90 p 1 

the Upper Peninsula are located in the eastern Penin- 
sula in Bay Mills, Chippewa County; in the middle of the 
Peninsula in Assinins, Baraga County on the Keweenaw 
Bay; and an unnamed cemetery near the town of 

The Bay Mills cemetery had deteriorated 
badly when visited in 1973 and later was 
closed to the public. In contrast, the un- 
named Baraga cemetery has been main- 
tained beautifully and no signs of vandalism 
are in evidence here. Both of these locations 
are truly Native American in that they do not 
show signs of Christian customs. However, 
Indian burial grounds do disclose a belief in 
the immortality of the soul. The body of the 
deceased was dressed in his best clothes 
with new moccasins on his feet. Wrapped in 
a new blanket and then birch bark, it was 
placed in a crude coffin with a medicine bag 
under his head. In the coffin were placed his 
drum, axe and hunting tools, a pipe and 
some tobacco. If it was winter, then a canoe 
or an oar. All were intended to assist the 
spirit on the journey to the happy hunting 

Conversely, the Assinins cemetery, founded 
in the 1850s by the famous "snow shoe 
priest", Frederick Baraga, is a Catholic burial ground. 
No shelters stand here but rather hundreds of white 
crosses mark the gravesites of unnamed Indians and 
hundreds of stones mark later graves. The photograph 
of the Crebassa family stones shows white crosses in 
the background. Peter Crebassa was the second white 

Assinin's Catholic Indian Cemetery , Barago Co., Michigan, on shore of Lake Superior, Upper Peninsula 

AGS Wi'89/90 p 2 

man in charge of the furtrading company. It was he who 
lured Bishop Baraga to the area and convinced him to 
build a Catholic mission. A land patent dated February 
1 , 1 849, and signed by President James R . Polk granted 
certain parcels to Baraga. On July 2, 1863, for $150.00 
Baraga sold the church properties to Edward Assinnise, 
Chief of the Catholic band of Indians residing in the 
Township of L'anse. Fourteen acres were set aside for 
the building of the Church and a cemetery. Today, the 
old orphanage, school and a newer church stand on the 
south side of the cemetery. 

I feel that the Indian grave shelter was replaced by the 
tombstone when the natives were Christianized. There- 
fore I do not believe that the white men whose grave 
shelters were found further west had copied the Indian 

traditions. These men, for the most part, were God- 
fearing and would not have accepted a pagan tradition 
easily. Perhaps it would be safe to assume that these 
men married Indian women and that on their deaths 
their widows would have buried them according to the 
Indian tradition. 

I have photographed and transcribed the stones in the 
Assinins cemetery as well as all of the old stones found 
in the abandoned Marquette Catholic Cemetery in use 
from 1 853-1 900. I would be glad to help anyone wishing 
more information about pioneer families in the Mar- 
quette County area or who has a question about Indian 
burial grounds in the Upper Peninsula. 

Hopefully, this information will present new ideas to 
those wondering about grave shelters. 

for previous references to grave shelters, see AGS 
Newsletter Fall 1987, p. 7; Winter 1987, p. 25; summer 
1989, p. 19. 


Barre, VT— On Oct.—, 1 903, Elia Corti, an Italian stone 
carver lured to Vermont by its abundant supply of 
durable but soft-toned granite, walked into the local 
Socialist Hall only to find himself in the middle of a 
violent dispute between the socialists and a group of 
anarchists. A gun was drawn, a shot was fired and Corti 
slumped to the floor, mortally wounded. Thirty hours 
later, Corti, 34, was dead. Then his brother set to work. 
From a single block of stone, William Corti brought forth 
the lifesize form of his dead brother, exquisite in detail 
down to the smallest fold in his clothing. Today Elia 
Corti's cold stone eyes gaze languidly across the grave- 
studded landscape of Hope Cemetery, where Vermont's 
Italian-American artisans buried their loved ones be- 
neath painstakingly sculpted monuments of their own 

Carved from big blocks of creamy granite quarried from 
hillsides just a few miles away, many of the grave- 
stones, like Corti's, tell stories or portray scenes. A 
realistic, lifesize rendering of Guerino Bettini's favorite 
chair reminds mourners of the empty place left by his 
passing. A larger-than-life soccer ball, precise in every 
detail, is a token of another family's loss. A stone couple 
lies in bed, hand in hand, their long, gray grave covers 

^ rtss^y^^W^ 

stretching out from a granite headboard bearing the in- 
scription, "Set Me As ASealUponThine Heart For 
Love Is Strong As Death". 

AGS Wi'89/90 p 3 

"What we do is something that connects who's left in this 
world with who's gone," said Alcide Fantoni, 49, one of 
a handful of native Italian sculptors left in Barre today. 
"We are right in between," said Fantoni. "We are 
touching the living and we are touching the deceased." 

With about 6000 graves on 65 acres, Hope Cemetery 
has become a unique showcase of the area's geologi- 
cal and artistic assets: only Barre granite is allowed in 
the cemetery, and no monument can be duplicated 

In the 1800s, Barre's granite, now famous for its dura- 
bility, color and carving characteristics, was commer- 
cially exploited. Today, Barre's $65-million-a-year 
granite industry employs 1500 local residents, and 
pieces from "the granite capital of the world" can be 
found in cemeteries and on town greens across Amer- 
ica. Along the way, however, Barre paused to memo- 
rialize the workers who hoisted the granite, block by 
block, from the ground, and to honor the artists who 
conquered its unyielding hardness to put a final stamp 
of meaning on the lives of those they memorialized. 

At the Brusa monument, a grieving woman cradles the 
lifeless body of her husband — one of many carvers 

felled in their prime by the lung disease silicosis, caused 
by inhaling the thick granite dust that rose from the 
stone they carved. Today, the use of dust collection 
equipment has largely solved the problem of silicosis. 
But economic factors are now whittling away at the 
numberoftrue sculptors left in Barre. Cemetery crowd- 
ing, a a trend toward cremation and the upwardly 
spiraling cost of precious Barre granite have conspired 
to reduce the demand for the one-of-a-kind works 
produced by artists like Fantoni. Now, most of the 
markers cut in Barre are simple headstones that can be 
produced by machine, and Fantoni's delicate Italian 
calipers, handed down to him by his teacher, may even 
eventually end up as museum pieces. 

Fantoni said insurance regulations, labor laws and 
union rules make it virtually impossible for him to take on 
an apprentice, and he believes that the art of ornamen- 
tal stone carving is "almost dead". "Ten years ago, you 
could have gone into almost any shed and found an 
expert carver, an 'ornatista'." Fantoni said. "But today, 
they're gone. This skill is lost forever." 

from a UPI article by Steven Bredice, in the Woburn MA 
Daily Times Ciironicle . May 19, 1988. 

The Barre Granite Association, 51 Church St. , Box 481 , 
Barre VT 05641 , puts out a quarterly magazine Barre 
Life . Also available from the Barre Granite Association 
are a number of videotapes which sell for $25. apiece, 
including: "Artistry in Granite", (a look at beautiful Barre 
gray granite monuments); "Quarrying and fvlanufactur- 
ing", (the making of Barre monuments) and "The Story 
of the Barre Granite Industry" (the fascinating history of 
the Granite Center of the World). 

This grave markerdraws many visitors to Green Hill Cemetery 
in Bedford IN. It marks the burial plot of Louis Baker, a worker 
in the Lawrence County limestone industry. When Baker 
died, other workers in the stone mill carved a limestone replica 
of Baker's work bench just as he had left il. 

from tf\e Indianapolis Star . January 3, 1 9S9 
AGS Wi'89/90 p 4 


Is the relocating of graves for more profitable land 
use the way of the future? 


The Edwards-Attaway Cemetery will soon be no more. 
A ruling issued JanuaryQ, 1990 by JudgeGrant Brantley 
of the Cobb County (Georgia) Superior Court paves the 
way for removal of more than a dozen graves along 
Ernest W. Barrett Parkway, about one mile west of 
Interstate 75, approximately twenty miles northwest of 
Atlanta. The quarter-acre side dating from the mid- 
nineteenth century is part of a 73.4 acre parcel that will 
be the home of a dozen automobile dealerships in the 
near future. 

C.V. Nalley III, owner of the tract, has agreed to pay for 
all costs of relocating the remains and headstones to an 
undisclosed site that he will maintain, but deed over to 
descendents of those interred. He said that the layout 
of the new cemetery will match that of the old. 

Controversy began in September when Nalley leveled 
and graded most of the parcel, leaving the cemetery 
atop an embankment twelve feet above its surround- 
ings. Rezoning of the parcel was approved last year 
with the stipulation that the cemetery not be disturbed. 
When access to the cemetery was made virtually im- 
possible, relatives complained to the county commis- 
sioners and the latter obtained a temporary restraining 
order against Nalley. At the recent hearing family 
members told Judge Brantley they found acceptable 
Nalley's proposal to create a new cemetery for their 
loved ones. 

contributed by Dr. David Paul Davenport, Associate 
Professor of Geograptiy, Kennesaw State College, 
Marietta GA 30061, from articles in the Atlanta Journal 
& Constitution . Oct. 10, 1989, and tfie Marietta Daily 
Journal . January 10, 1990. 


In Chicago in May 1 989, developers unearthed portions 
of an old cemetery that contains the remains of 38,000 
people, including victims of the 1871 Chicago fire. The 
20-acre site was once the location of the Cook County 
poorhouse and a state mental hospital. Developers of 
a housing complex unearthed the site and must have 
the bones reburied before building can continue, a city 
health official ruled. "There's no specific health or 
disease problem at this point; it's basically just respect 
for the dead." Most of the land slated for an adjacent 
industrial development doesn't conflict with the ceme- 

from the Cf}icago Sun Times . May 6, 1989, sent by Jim 
Jewell, Peru IL; the Milwaukee (WD Journal . May 7, 
1989, sent by Phil Kallas, Stevens Point Wl; and the 
Chicago Tribune . July 3, 1989, sent by Jim Jewell. 


In Arlington VA the Arlington County Board stepped in 
to mediate a tug-of-war between local businessmen 
who wanted to move an abandoned family cemetery to 
allow some development and a south Arlington civic 
association that wanted to keep the cemetery in the 
neighborhood. At the heart of the debate was the 
Travers family cemetery of between 1 4 and 23 graves, 
some of them dating back to the 1830s. Developers 
bought the property todevelop two single-family houses. 
They offered to move the graves to the Oakwood 
Cemetery in Falls Church, saying the cemetery would 
reduce the marketability of their development. The 
County Board feels a compromise is possible. 

from the Washington Post . May 4, 1989, sent by Davyd 
Foard Hood, Historic Fredericksburg VA 

An article titled "Family Prays to keep Asphalt off VA 
Cemetery, Virginia Wants to Move Family Cemetery for 
Lee Highway Widening Project" describes a similar 
situation, wherethe Virginia Department of Transporta- 
tion wants to plow through a 200-year old cemetery 
sandwiched between a highway and a shopping center. 
Money was 'a primary factor' in the state's decision to 
disrupt the graveyard instead of the Exxon station on 
the opposite side of the road. By not touching the Exxon 
station, the state would save about $600,000. The 
Transportation Department has offered to pay $4000. 
for each grave it removes. While the state contends 
there are only about 1 graves on the grassy knoll, the 
family claim that 1 00 family members have been buried 

from the Washington Post . March 3,1989, sent by 
Davyd Foard Hood, Historic Fredericksburg VA 

AGS member Brian Conley, a librarian for Fairfax 
County, Virginia, Public library, has been coordinating 
the survey of Fairfax County cemeteries. He writes: 
"Fairfax County covers 399 square miles and is located 
in northern Virginia directly opposite Washington DC 
and is one of the fastest growing and most densely 
populated regions in the state. Our population in 1980 
was 596,000, as of January 1987 it was 705,000. As 
you can well imagine, this explosive growth rate is 
creating a high demand for both residential and retail 
development and is endangering many of this areas 
historic sites." He sent along an article on the "myste- 
rious disappearance" of an old family cemetery in the 

AGS Wi'89/90 p 5 

wake of residential development, and another which 
deals with the "careless (an attitude that is very preva- 
lent in this area when speaking of cemeteries) actions 
of a building contractor". From Centreview . Feb. 2, 
1989; and June 16, 1988. 


The San Joaquin County Board of Supervisors awarded 
a $699,000. contract to have 3519 bodies removed 
from the San Joaquin County Cemetery to make way for 
a new jail. After the bodies are exhumed, they will be 
cremated and stored at Lodi Memorial Park. 

from the Modesto (CA) Bee . March 25, 1989, sent by 
Virginia Marsh ofSacremento CA who comments: "I am 
mystified by the callousness of responsible people. " 

The data has been recorded exactly as it appears on the 
records. Names, dates and spelling are preserved to 
keep original entries intact. 

Where additional information concerning an individual 
appeared in the records, it is included in a separate 
section titled "Remarks." 

A section called "Miscellaneous Genealogical Informa- 
tion" contains data that appeared in a section of the 
original records listing the lot owners and location of 

The book has a paper cover with spiral binding and 
costs $22 plus $3 for postage and handling. Order from 
Karen Anklin, 3810 Sadler Road, Skaneateles, NY 

All profits from the book are to be used in the restoration 
of Burrows Memorial Chapel in the cemetery. The 
chapel was originally designed by the architectural firm 
of Carl Haug and Sons of Little Falls and constructed by 
Valentine and Purchase of Syracuse as a memorial gift 
to David and Ellen Burrows by their son, Charles H. 

from hierald American Stars, Skaneateles NY, October 22, 


Lake View Cemetety burial records compiled 

Lake View Cemeterv Burial Records. 1796-1988. 
Skaneateles. Onondaga Co.. NY. compiled by Karen 
Anklin and Barbara Spain, is a useful reference tool for 
genealogists, historians and family researchers. The 
result of two years' work, it is now available to the public. 

Because the only copy of Lake View Cemetery's burial 
records is faded, yellow and brittle, Anklin approached 
the Skaneateles Village Board of Trustees for permis- 
sion to preserve the burial records by computerizing 
and publishing them. Permission was granted and work 

The text includes a history of Lakeview Cemetery ; a part 
devoted to burial records arranged according to sec- 
tion, lot, name, with birth and birthplace, death date and 
last residence where available; an alphabetical index 
listing all names of those interred, with section and lot 
number; and a plat map of the cemetery in which family 
names are inscribed. 

Directory of Cemeteries from Ontario, Canada 

A vital tool for researching ancestors in York County is 
now available in a comprehensive guide to over 300 
cemeteries, a 100-page, soft cover book, Directory of 
Cemeteries in the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto 
and the Regional Municipality of York . Toronto Branch 
members of the Ontario Genealogical Society have 
done the research, covering family burial plots, church 
and churchyard burials, religious, community and 
commercial cemeteries. Vital information about each 
entry is listed — location, dates of operation, religious 
affiliation, etc. All cemeteries are located on fifteen 
specially-drawn maps of the areas. Each entry also 
includes information about the availability of transcrip- 
tions. Appendices include guides to the cemetery 
transcription holdings of the National Archives of Can- 
ada and the Archives of Ontario. Cost is $1 5 plus $3.25 
postage and handling for Toronto Branch members and 
$1 7 plus $3.25 postage and handling for non-members 
(US and overseas customers please pay in US funds to 
cover extra postage costs). Cheques or money orders 
should be payable to "OGS Toronto Branch" and mailed 
to Ontario Genealogical Society, Toronto Branch, Box 
147, Station Z.Toronto, ON CANADA MSN 2Z3. 

AGS Wi'89/90 p 6 


Angelika Kruger-Kahloula, an AGS member who lives 
in Germany, recently contributed an interesting 
pamphlet to the research files. The twelve page 
illustrated booklet is entitled "The Jewish Cemetery of 
Worms". Worms is one of the most ancient towns in 
Germany and was a center of Jewish intellectual life 
during the Middle Ages. The Jewish Cemetery there is 
considered to be the oldest in Europe, with surviving 
stones dating from 1 076. The booklet is designed as a 
guide for a walking tour of the old cemetery. The text 
and small photographs outline pertinent Jewish history, 
explain some common customs and illustrate a few 
symbols seen on the stones at Worms. If you would like 
to borrow this short pamphlet through the AGS Lending 
Library on a "first come, first served" basis, please send 
$.65 in US postage stamps (to cover cost of first class 
postage and the correct size envelope) to: 

AGS Lending Library 

Laurel K. Gabel 

205 Fishers Road 

Pittsford NY 14534 

Please return the borrowed pamphlet as soon as 
possible so that it can be sent on to the next person. 


In 1977, Harriette Merrifield Forbes' granddaughter 
donated some of her papers to the American Anti- 
quarian Society in Worcester MA. Here is a list, 
prepared by Ralph Tucker of Georgetown ME, of the 
material which may be of interest to students of 

American Antiquarian Society, Worcester MA 
Forbes, Harriette Merrifield, Papers, 1887-1951 
5 mss. boxes 

of interest to students of her work on gravestones: 


Vital Records on Emmes family, and some corre- 
spondence about her book. 

Box 4-Folder 1 : 

8 pps on violet slips. Notes on 1 645 Lady Fenwick 
stone in CT, and notes on carver Matthew Griswold. 
2 pps on blue slips. Re Matthew Griswold, a carver 
form England. 

5 pps on pink slips. List of 52 stones she attributes 
to William Mumford. [these should be in Folder 3] 
7 pps on green slips. List of 57 stones she attributes 
to Joseph Lamson. [these should be in Folder 3] 
5 pps on gray slips. List of 22 stones she attributes 
to J.N. [these should be in Folder 3] 

2 pps on blue slips. Notes on Griswold and CT. 

3 pps of notes on Lamson inventories. 

13 pps on rose lips. Alphabetical list of stones 
mentioned in John Steven's Book. 

1 1 pps on green slips, excerpts from "John Stevens, 

His Book". 

1 pg on green slip. Notes on the Stevens family. 

Box 4-Folder 2: 

5 pps on gray slips. Note on Stevens. 

7 pps on gray slips. Note on Stevens. 

3 pps on gray slips. Bennington County notes. 1792 
Thomas Carson pd for gravestones 2.12.9. 

18 pps. Plymouth County notes with probate ex- 

4 pps on canary slips. CT probate extracts. 

1 pg on purple slip. Shaftsbury CT probates. 

2 pps on green-blue slips. Hartford CT probates. 

3 pps on yellow slips. Windham and Lebanon CT 

pps on green slips of Middlesex Co. [MA] probates 

from Vol 1-78. 

pps on buff slips of Essex Co. [MA] probates from Vol 


Slips listing stones by carver, A-M & S-Y 

Box 4-Folder 4: 

Red notebook listing stones alphabetically that she 

had photographed. 

Box 4-Folder 5: 

Misc. notes on kinds of slate, quarries, etc. 

Notes on advertisements in "Boston Newsletter" 

relating to stonecutters, mostly the Geyers. 

CT stones listed by towns. 

List of "portrait" stones A-C. 

Box 4-Folder 6: 

Notes on furniture. 

List of 51 stone photographs sent to the Metropolitan 

Art Museum. 

Notes on George Allen and on Rehoboth MA. 

Misc. notes. 

14 pps on green slips. Members of the Ancient & 
Honorable Artillery Co. 

List of membersof "Gen. Society". 

Box 4-Folder 7: 

Suffolk Co. [MA] inventories & wills. Vol 2-97. 

AGS Wi'89/90 p 7 


Barbara Rofundo, of Laconia NH, writes that she is 
pretty sure that the wrought iron "cage" structure in 
Hope Cemetery, Galesburg IL, ( AGS Newsletter . Fall 
1989, p. 8) is "just an arbor forvines or climbing roses. 
I've seen a structure of the same design except for the 
canopy top, but I can't remember where! It's probably 
in some historic garden. Ms. Robison should inquire of 
the Winterthur Library to see if they have catalogues of 
cast and wrought iron garden structures from the nine- 
teenth or early twentieth centuries, when cemetery lots 
were treated as private gardens with garden furniture, 
and for many years having the grounds kept by the 
family gardener, ratherthan cemetery groundsmen, as 


MARKERS VII Now Available 

281 pages, 158 illustrations, index. The jour- 
nal opens with a trilogy of articles on cemetery 
gates and fences. Gravestones and monu- 
ments in Boston's historic graveyards, colo- 
nial tidewater Virginia, and among Canada's 
Tsimshian Indians are described. The work of 
VirginiacarverCharles Miller Walsh and stone- 
carvers of Monroe County, Indiana are high- 
lighted. Articles on the tree stones of the 
limestone belt of Indiana and Celtic crosses 
round out the volume. $15 members; $17 
others postage included. 



Nita R. Spangler, 970 Edgewood Road, Redwood City 
CA 94062, is looking for information and assistance on 
a Civil War statue in that city: 

This Union Soldier was placed in Union Cemetery in 
Redwood City in 1889. Heislifesize, made of zinc, and 
stood guard until 1 969 when he was vandalized. Once 
mended, he was again placed on his pedestal only to be 
knocked off again by vandals. His pieces are now 
hidden in a Redwood City garage until we can better 
identify what we have and decide how best to treat him. 

If he can again be mended, should he be returned to the 
cemetery which is now undergoing renovation as a city 
owned historic site, i.e. park? Should he go into a 
museum? Did he come from the Monumental Bronze 
works, orfrom Mullins in Salem, Ohio? Is there another 
like him extant? 

I believe Civil Warsoldier statues are unusual in Califor- 

The organization of the Union Cemetery Association in 
1859 resulted in the first legislation on cemeteries in the 
State of California. In 1963 Union Cemetery was 
named a California Historical Landmark (#816) and in 
1 983 it was placed on the National Register of Historic 
Places. It is the pioneer cemetery for the early lumber- 
ing and shipping community which gave Redwood City 
its name. There are more than 40 Civil War veterans 
buried there in a GAR plot. The most frequently asked 
question since the renovation began has been "Is the 
old soldier statue going back up?" 

AGS Wi'89/90 p 8 

I n the Fall 1 987 issue of the AGS Newsletter, Fred Boughton asked about the Supreme Royal Circle of Friends. 
In reading a report on an archaeological dig of a Black church cemetery that was being washed away by the Red 
River, Barbara Rotundo of Laconia NH found this information; 

Social life in the community centered around the church and, in the early part of this 
century, around a lodge called the Royal Circle. The organization of groups which 
provided burial insurance as well as fraternal associations was a common practice in 
Black society of this period. These lodges gave the Black community a measure of 
independence and stability at a time when segregation had been legalized and racially 
motivated violence was high. 

The Supreme Royal Circle of Friends of the World was a fraternal and benevolent society 
organized at Helena, Arkansas, in 1909 by Dr. R.A. Williams. By 1918 it had 25,000 
members in five states and was especially strong in the Red River Valley, possibly 
because W.T. Daniels, the Supreme Secretary, lived in Texarkana. According to church 
members who remember the Royal Circle, it cost $5 to join and the the dues were $1 
every two months. The Circle had separate organizations for men, women and children 
which had meetings and socials, and the children got special buttons to wear. As a 
benevolent society, the Circle paid hospital bills and burial expenses. 

Figure 9. Reiocatecf tombstone of Jeff Davis Richards 
(AAS 808221) 

Figure 10. In situ tombstone of Minnie WilKerson, after 
inttta! Site discovery, June 1980 (AAS 

This report comes from Gone to a Better Land , edited by Jerome C. Rose for the Arkansas Archaeological Survey 
Research Series. The book was no. 28 and was published in 1985. 

AGS Wi'89/90 p 9 


"Illinois Cemetery Project Completes Second Phase "by Floyd Mansberger, Coordinator, published in HIS TOPIC 
ILLINOIS, Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, Springfield, IL, April 1989. 

The Illinois Historic Preservation Agency initiated the 
Illinois Cemetery Project in December 1986 to evaluate 
the current status of cemeteries within the state. The 
original objectives were to inventory Illinois cemeteries, 
assess their state of preservation, and evaluate Illinois 
statutes relating to cemeteries. During the initial phase 
the project intended to document all of the cemeteries 
in the state, ranging from well-known large urban sites 
such as Chicago's Woodlawn Cemetery to small, rural 
family and pioneer plots that all too often are no longer 
maintained — or worse yet, completely erased from the 

The survey began when the Cemetery Project Coordi- 
nator mailed survey forms to local interest groups and 
county historical and genealogical societies. Respon- 
dents were asked to record the location of the cemetery, 
type of ownership, number of burials, types and styles 
of tombstones, and general condition of the cemetery. 
Information on nearly one thousand cemeteries repre- 
senting almost every county in the state was gathered 
during the first year. 

However, it became clear that to assess their state of 
preservation, a new approach was needed. A sample 
of Illinois counties was identified that would make it 
possible to quantify the number of known cemeteries 
and make generalizations as to the total number within 
those counties and their degree of preservation. Con- 
clusions cou Id then be drawn about cemetery preserva- 
tion throughout the state. As a result, the second phase 
of the Illinois Cemetery Project resulted in a more inten- 
sive survey of a select number of counties. 

First ten counties were selected in the northern, mid- 
section and southern portion of the state for which 
detailed survey information was available. Based on 
the intensive inventory of these cemeteries, three cate- 
gories of cemeteries, representing different degrees of 
preservation, were defined. The three categories are 
active, abandoned, and despoiled. An active cemetery, 
for the purposes of this research, is one that has 
received a burial during the past 30 years and is being 
actively maintained. An abandoned cemetery is a 
cemetery that is overgrown (not maintained) and has 
not received any burials within the past 30 years. In 
contrast, a despoiled cemetery — best described as 
"only a memory" — is a cemetery that not only has been 
abandoned but also has lost all of its above-ground 
A landscape features (tombstones, ornamental plantings, 

fences, etc.) that distinguish it as a cemetery. Although 
despoiled cemeteries are usually not identified as 
cemeteries because their landscape features are gone, 
they often retain their below-ground significances in the 
form of human burials. 

The number of cemeteries in eight selected counties 
(two were not used for this portion of the project since 
the survey of those counties had not recorded any 
despoiled cemeteries) were recorded, averaged, and 
applied to the entire state. Generalizations about the 
state of preservation were drawn and the differences 
between the pressures on the urban cemetery and the 
rural cemetery were noted. 

Most early Illinois communities generally had a small 
cemetery (whether municipal or secular) as well as 
many family plots located near the edge of the commu- 
nity. As the small Illinois village expanded, it gradually 
incorporated surrounding lands within the city limits. As 
the population increased and land use practices 
changed, the less desirable lands within the city core, 
(such as cemeteries), became more valuable. Gener- 
ally, cemeteries were moved to a more distant location. 
Andreas Simon, in 1 893, said of Chicago's experience: 
"It became necessary to dig out the remains of those 
laid to rest there but a short time before and to transfer 
them to cemeteries furtherdistant-the dead had to give 
way to the living." 

Urbanization promoted the abandonment and "reloca- 
tion" of early urban cemeteries to larger urban cemeter- 
ies located on the fringes of the more developed com- 
munity, in Illinois, this process began during the 1 840s 
and 1850s and continued throughout the nineteenth 
century. By the 1880s, most urban areas had a large 
private or municipal cemetery on their outskirts where 
the remains of thousands of individuals were reinterred. 

Although early cemeteries were often "relocated", the 
standards for relocation were not as stringent as they 
are today. Due to incomplete caretaker records as well 
as haphazard methods, human remains from small 
urban cemeteries often were not completely removed. 
It is not unusual for human remains to unexpectedly turn 
up in an urban setting where there was once a ceme- 
tery, even if that cemetery had been "relocated". 

Rural Illinois cemeteries are predominantly of two types- 
-churchyard or family. Rural cemeteries and their 

AGSWi'89/90p 10 

associated burial grounds were once fixtures in rural 
areas. Many were established fairly early, predomi- 
nantly in the period 1810 to 1870. But with improved 
transportation and changing dynamics of the agricul- 
tural community, the rural church and cemetery is 
quickly becoming a vanishing landscape feature. Once 
a rural church has been abandoned or demolished, the 
cemetery is often maintained only at a minimum leve. 
Those rural cemeteries also are often at high risk for 
vandalism. And with a shift towards larger urban 
cemeteries, the rural cemeteries are often abandoned 
and become overgrown. 

Many rural cemeteries were established for the burials 
of particular families. But after the passage of two or 
three generations, that family may no longer be living in 
the area. When some family members do remain in the 
community, often they no longer own the land associ- 
ated with the cemetery. Often farmers use as much of 
the land as they can, plowing closer and closer to the 
cemtery's edge, and sometimes removing all vestiges 
of the cemetery and planting over it. 

Both rural and urban settings appear to have had an 
equal amount of active cemeteries. The contrast is in 
the number of abandoned and despoiled cemeteries 
within those two contexts. In the urban environment, 
the abandoned cemetery is nonexistent and is com- 
pletely overshadowed by the despoiled cemetery. In 
contrast, in the rural setting, the percentages of aban- 
doned and despoiled cemeteries are almost equal. 
Traditionally, with the demand on land not as a great in 
the rural setting as in the urban, the abandoned ceme- 
teries have survived longer. However, with the chang- 
ing land use patterns in rural areas, more and more 
abandoned cemeteries are being despoiled each year. 

Current laws protecting Illinois cemeteries focus on 
active cemeteries; protecting the abandoned and de- 
spoiled cemeteries are not as stringent as they might 
be. The plight of the abandoned and despoiled ceme- 
tery rests in the hands of local governments, specifically 
the township and county. Next, the Illinois Cemetery 
Project will address potential changes in Illinois statutes 
that will further protect human burial sites. 


Providing for Private Cemetery Care 
When No Family Members are Living 

A recent issueof the /4GSA/ews/efferraised the question of how one might provide perpetual care for a private 
or family cemetery when no members of a family are living. Martha Wren Briggs of Williamsburg, VA suggests 
solving the problem by including provision for the cemetery in one's will. A lawyer has suggested the following 
wording which Martha shares with us: 

The writer of the will should first ascertain if such a provision is permitted by the laws of the state in which the 
cemetery is located. 

The will may direct that a certain sum of money be set aside as a fund for the perpetual maintenance of (name 

of cemetery — i.e. Smith Family Cemetery) located (i.e. on the Smith farm) in Magisterial District, 

County, State. The Executors shall have the power to name one or more trustees (preferably a family 

member or the spouse of a family member) and shall pay said funds to the trustee (ortrustees) who shall hold, 

manage, and invest same, using $ of the income from said fund for the maintenance, upkeep and 

preservation of said cemetery, the access thereto and all improvements, including the grave markers therein. 

The trustee or trustees appointed by the Executors shall have the power, in turn, to appoint their successor(s), 
such appointment to be made by writing duly acknowledged and to be affective as provided in the instrument 
making such appointment. Any such appointment may be revoked in the same manner prior to becoming effective. 
If at any time there shall be no trustee in office, appointment of same shall be made by the Judge of the Circuit 

Court of Countv. State. The person writing the will desires that this trust be administered to the maximum 

extent possible free from judicial control. It is also directed that to the extent that such control shall be required, 
same shall be under supervision of the Circuit Court of County, State wherein said cemetery is situated. 

contributed by Martha Wren Briggs, Williamsburg VA 

AGSWi'89/90p 11 


The following article, "Old Tombstones Give a Peek into History" by Parke Rouse, a well-known historical writer 
in the Williamsburg VA area, is reprinted from the Hampton. Newport News VA Daily News . October 29, 1989. 

Tidewater is full of old cemeteries, but the tombstones 
are flaking away, and most of the 1 7th century ones are 
illegible or gone altogether. 

Hampton VA has eight of America's oldest grave- 
stones — four unreadable and the other four identified 
by copper markers of recent date. They are located 
within a low brick wall at the foundations of the third 
church of Elizabeth City Parish on Pembroke Avenue 
near LaSalle Avenue. I suspect they're the oldest 
marked graves on the Peninsula, except for those at 

The oldest of the Hampton stones marks the remains of 
Vice Adm. John Nevill of the Royal Navy, who died on 
board the HMS Cambridge in Virginia waters on Aug. 

Nearby is the stone of Peter Heyman, collector of 
customs for the colony, who was killed while pursuing 
the pirate Louis Guittar on Chesapeake Bay in 1 700. 

Heyman's valor was originally marked by a stone tablet 
with a full inscription, now illegible. It told this story: 

"In memory of Peter Heyman, Esq., grandson of Sir 
Peter Heyman of Summerfield in the county of Kent. He 
was Collector of Customs in the lower district of James 
River and went voluntarily on board the King's ship 
Shoreham in pursuit of a pirate who greatly infested this 
coast. After he had behaved himself seven hours with 
undaunted courage, was killed with a small shot the 
29th day of April, 1 700. In the engagement he stood 
next the Governor [Francis Nicholson], upon the quar- 
terdeck, and was here honorably interred by his order." 

Near Heyman's grave is that of Thomas Curie, "Gent., 
Born Nov. 24, 1 641 , in Surrey England. Died May 30, 

The fourth marked Hampton grave is that of the Rev. 
AndrewThompson of Scotland, presumably thechurch's 
rector, who died in 1719. 

Hamptonian Eugene Stevens tells me the inscriptions 
on the other four stones are too faint to read, but, he 
writes, "They must have been very important people, as 
each has a crest." 

made an inventory of the graves at St. John's church- 
yard in Hampton and at Bruton Parish's churchyard in 
Williamsburg. Rector Richard May of Bnjton tells me 
that some of the Bruton inscriptions have already be- 
come invisible in the 13 years since Bishop Bentiey 
made his census. 

A new program at Bruton has re-opened the churchyard 
to cremated burials. Fees charged will be used to 
preserve the historic tombstones in the churchyard. 

Elsewhere, the Association for the Preservation of 
Virginia Antiquities and local societies have restored 
some tombstones. Other restorations have been paid 
for by descendants. At Abingdon Church in Gloucester, 
I have often admired the beautiful Bunnell family table 
tombs that were brought from rural plantations and 
reburied in Abingdon's well-kept churchyard. Family 
members paid for this upkeep. 

Maintaining gravestones is expensive. Talented stone- 
masons to repair or replace the beautiful monuments of 
Colonial times are few. Their work seldom matches the 
artistry of the originals, however. 

Genealogists, who have a field day in Tidewater's 
cemeteries, often find 1 7th and 1 8th century burials that 
have been moved from their original farm or plantation 
sites to a central churchyard or graveyard. A Virginia 
law in the 19th century encouraged this practice, al- 
though isolated graves can still be found in fields and at 
abandoned homesites. Williamsburg's Historic Area 
has a dozen or more family graveyards apart from 
Bruton. The city cemetery, Cedar Grove on South 
Henry Street, was started in the 19th century when it 
was feared that furtherin-town burials might spread epi- 
demic diseases. 

Our 17th and 18th century forefathers created flat, 
horizontal tombstones, often embellished with crests 
and sculptured decorations from England. Scholars, 
such as James Blair, buried at Jamestown, received 
Latin epitaphs, while important planters, such as the 
Burwells, were usually dignified by table tombs, rising 
four or five feet above ground. 

Clergymen and notables were often buried within the 
church, as at Bruton. 

Fortunately, the late Bishop John Bentiey of Hampton 

AGSWi'89/90p 12 

Vertical tombstones became almost universal in the 
19th century. In Victorian cemeteries, like Smithfield's 
Ivy Hill or Richmond's Hollywood, you'll find such con- 
ceits as obelisks, classical temples and sculptured 
iambs, hearts and ruined pillars. The poetic tributes 
there are touching. 

Sadly, however, everywhere I look in Tidewater, I find 
gravestones fading into illegibility. Sometimes they split 
or fall over. Occasionally vandals desecrate them. We 
who value history should preserve the old tombstones. 

contributed by Christine Sheridan, Brevard NC. 


Some time ago, Chris Sheridan of Brevard NC, pro- 
vided the Newsletter with a copy of a letter from J . Pau I 
Hudson. Hudson had retired after 30 years or more as 
curator with the National Park Service in Virginia, and in 
the letter he discussed the locations of some of the 
oldest stones in Virginia — notably the Major William 
Gooch stone at the U.S. Coast Guard Reserve Training 
Center at Yorktown ( 1 655) . 

Ransom B. True in his booklet "Jamestown: A Guide to 
Old Town", published in 1983, writes about the burials 
at Jamestown in the churchyard and outside the church: 

Since there is little natural stone in tidewater Virginia, 
tombstones were rare in the seventeenth) and eight- 
eenth cemturies. Almost all had to be imported, 
usually from England. Many of the people buried 
here afterthe 1690s were wealthy and their families 
could have afforded tombstones. Nineteenth cen- 
tury reports indicate that many did and the graveyard 
contained many tombstones. Sadly, most of these 
have been lost, stolen or destroyed by the ravages 
oftime. Onlytwenty-five remain. Some of these are 
not really tombstones, but merely gravemarkers 
erected in 1901 whentheA.P.V.A.conductedexca- 
vations here and found the graves. 

Hudson goes on to say that "in my opinion, the oldest 
dated grave extant in Virginia today is that of Sir George 
Yeardley, who was buried in the chancel of the 
Jamestown 1 61 7 church in 1 627. His tombstone was 
once ornamented with brasses, but they were stolen in 
the eighteenth century. 

The Fall, 1988 issue of VOCA NEWS contained a letter 
to the editor by Lynne Cassano of Bennington VT in 

response to a question on where the oldest inscribed 
gravestone in Vermont is located: 

The oldest cemetery in Vermont may be the 
Bennington Centre Cemetery. In 1935, when 
the Vermont Legislature declared the cemetery 
"Vermont's Colonial Shrine", they said "The 
burial ground. the first and oldest in the 
state." The oldest stone there is that of Bridget 
Hanwood, who died November 10,1 762. 

The following may also be of interest, and is 
quoted from an article written by Avon Neal: 

The earliest dated stone discovered thus far in 
New England was carved for Sara Tefft of 
Warwick, Rhode Island, who died in the same 
year the town was settled, it is a rough field- 
stone which reads: HERE LIETH THE BODIE 
OF SARAH TEFFT 1 642. Since the 1 860s this 
rare specimen has been housed in the Rhode 
Island Historical Society in Providence." 

If you l<now of an older stone than 1627, orifyouwant 
to discuss the oldest stone in your area, please drop a 
line to the Newsletter— a photo of the stone in question 
would be nice (you will get it back, eventually). 

AGSWi'89/90p 13 


From time to time we list the addresses of contact persons in tiie several state old cemetery associations for 
the benefit of researchers using graveyards in those particular states. 

Maine Old Cemetery Association 

Clyde G. Berry, Cemetery Records 

RO Box 971 , Bangor, ME 04401 

Vermont Old Cemetery Association 
Arthur L. Hyde, President 
RD 1, Bradford, VT 05033 

Wisconsin State Old Cemetery Society 

William H. Krause, President 

1562 North 1 19th Street, Wauwatosa, Wl 53226 

New Hampshire Old Graveyard Association 

Louise Taliman, Records Clerk 

PO Box 364, Rye Beach, NH 03871 

Southern Rhode Island Old Cemeteries Association 

Valerie Felt, President 

PO Box 383, Saunderstown, Rl 02874 

Ye Rhode Island Olde Cemeteries Association, Inc. 
Mrs. M. Michelle Clapham, Director 
PO Box 1205, Westerly, Rl 02891 


VOCA is conducting a statewide survey of all cemeter- 
ies and burial grounds which is nearly conipleted. Their 
Board proposes to have the information compiled and 
published in booklet form in time for the Vermont 

Bicentennial in 1991. The booklet will have maps of 
each town, showing the name, location, period of use, 
and approximate number of burials in each cemetery. 

Barney E. Daley of South Windsor CT has provided 
more information on the "frugal Yankee" stone illus- 
trated on p. 4 of the Fall 1987 issue of the Newsletter . 
"Here is the almost unbelievable tale of a woman who 
wouldn't lie about her age. Hepzibah Sadd, daughterof 
Thomas Sadd and Delight Warner, was born June 3, 
1 786, and married John Stoughton December 20, 1 809. 

She died December 1 8, 1 828, age 43. The carver cut 
her age upon the stone as 33, and the stone was re- 
jected. In 1831 the Rev. Henry Morris, preacher at the 
Wapping church in South Windsor, resurrected 
Hepzibah's stone, turned it around and upside down 
and used it to mark the grave of their son Henry. 

AGSWi'89/90p 14 


The September 7, 1989 issue of the Dunkirk Observer . 
NY carries a story by Kathy Metzger about AGS member 
Rebecca Jo Rosen of Jamestown, NY, an anthropolo- 
gist currently working to record the 1 35 public cemeter- 
ies in Chautauqua County and the gravestones from 
1800 to 1865 which they contain. 

Ms. Rosen is concerned about the heavy damage 
caused by vandalism, so she visits Jamestown schools 
and county historical groups, dressed in Victorian garb. 
"I try to get the students to feel what it was like to grow 
up in the 1 9th century, when death was a part of reality," 
she says. "Children need to be taught that cemeteries 
are really outdoor museums and they deserve as much 
respect as regular museums." 

Although she has always been interested in local his- 
tory, especially the 1 9th century, it was a field research 
project for an archaeology course at Fredonia State 
University College that began her gravestone study. 
She intends to place the results of her complete study, 
including photographs, rubbings and documentation 
forms in the local history room of Reed Library at 
Fredonia State University College. She also intends to 
publish a field guide book in about two years. In March 
1990 she will have an exhibit and presentation of rub- 
bings at the Fenton (NY) Historical Society. 

Ms. Rosen is also concerned about restoring the broken 
stones, but funding and New York legal requirements 
that descendants must be contacted before restoration 
can be done are obstacles she hopes to overcome. 

Sent in by Wayne A. Mori, Dunkirk, NY. 

The August 27, 1989 SACRAMENTO BEE article by 
Patty Henetz entitled "Archivist looks after long de- 
ceased" reports that AGS member Virginia Marsh is 
about to complete registering and indexing the New 
Helvetia graves in the City Cemetery archives. A 
project occupying most of her waking hours for nearly 
four years will be completed when she has resolved the 
final discrepancies between the data on the head- 
stones and that recorded in the archives. These are 
graves of the city's first settlers that were moved from 
their original site to make room for a school in 1956. 
When the indexing is done, Mrs. Marsh will get to the fun 
part of her job — researching the histories of these 
misplaced pioneers, a task that grew from a search for 
the history of her husband's father into what has be- 
come her post-retirement occupation. 

Mrs. Marsh has also arranged with the Sacramento 
Archeological Cooperative to probe for grave markers 
that may have been buried over the decades. One such 
probe last winter uncovered a carved marble angel on 
the grave of a former Sacramento saloon owner whom 
Marsh said was stabbed to death by a spurned suitor as 
she sang at her piano in 1857. "You just don't see 
cemeteries like this anymore," Marsh commented. 

For more information on this project, see the AGS 
Newsletter . Fall 1988, p. 16 


New AGS member Rodger Ruddick of Hayden, Indi- 
ana is chairman of the Trustees for Six Mile Cemetery, 
the earliest cemetery in Spencer County, Indiana. In 
recent years, the trustees have placed 140 bronze 
name plates at the base of markers that have faded to 
near-illegibility, preserving the name and dates of the 
deceased. Fifty more will be installed this year. 

"Mormon Gravestones: A Folk Expression of Identity 
and Belief" is an article appearing in the Winter 1989 
THOUGHT, Vol. 22, No. 4. Written by AGS member 
Carol Edison of Salt Lake City, Utah, and illustrated by 
her photographs , the article discusses the implications 
of the frequent use of the clasped-hand motif on 19th 
century Mormon gravestones and the temple motif's 
popularity on 20th century stones. Ms. Edison has also 
written "Motorcycles, Guitars and Bucking Broncos: 
Twentieth-Century Gravestones in Southeastern Idaho" 
which appeared in IDAHO FOLKLIFE READER: 
Attebery, Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 

Established as a private family burial ground for the 
Maynard family in 1 809, before Indiana was a state, it is 
the resting place of 14 Civil War veterans. Former 

AGS Wi'89/90p 15 

Indiana governor Edgar Whitcomb has ancesters bur- 
ied there, including his great-great-great-grandfalher, 
Jesse Whitcomb, born in 1773, who traveled from 
Stueben County, New York to settle at Six Mile in 1830. 
There are areas of the yard where no markers are 
found. The association assumes these were graves 
marked by wooden or creekrock stones that have, 
deteriorated through the year. There are 216 grave- 

In the fall of 1989, the Six Ivlile Cemetery Association 
gave its approval to a coordinated restoration and 
landscape project for its cemetery. Mr. Ruddick has 
contacted the Southern Regional office of the Indiana 
Historic Landmarks Commission and AGS for available 
information on carrying out such a project. 

New member Anne Stewart, of Comfort TX, has written 
about a recent development in her local cemetery: 
Comfort Cemetery, a predominantly German-Texan 
cemetery, founded in 1854, is an unincorporated com- 
munity. The cemetery is the responsibility of our local 
cemetery association and the families who own lots. In 
the last 4 or 5 years, a new solution has been found 
which solves several problems common to rural ceme- 
teries. People are taking medium-size honeycomb 
rocks (limestone rock with irregular holes formed by 
water pressure) and inserting artificial flowers or other 
decorative items into the holes. This is a no-cost way to 
keep the wind from blowing grave decorations away 
and keep the container from being broken by wild-life. 
As honeycomb rocks are easy to find, the decorative 
container is not stolen or vandalized. 

Besides placing the bronze plates beside deteriorated 
gravestones, tfie association is surveying the existing 
markers, leveling and repairing some of the broken 

Genealogists with roots or branches in Indiana may be 
interested to know of Mr. Ruddick's publications. In 
1981 he published History of Havden and Spencer 
Township . It has since sold out and is being reprinted. 

In 1986 a history of Spencer township residents who 
participated in the Civil War was published titled. From 
the Hayfields to the Battlefields . It includes a collection 
of 81 letters to and from some of the 200 soldiers who 
fought in the war. 


Harvey Medland, of Toronto, Ontario, writes: "On 
reading Betty Willsher's description of "Green Men" in 
the Fall 1 988 issue of the AGS Newsletter, I recalled a 
small gravestone which 1 had photographed nearGuelph, 
Ontario, an area settled by Scots in the 19th century. 
The four sides of the marker were identical. There was 
no written information, just a head with pointed ears, 
sunken eyes, beard and projecting tongue. A print was 
mailed to Betty Willsher in Scotland. 

His latest work will be a revised and expanded history 
of Hayden and the township, with information and 
photos that were not available to him earlier. Publica- 
tion will be sometime in 1990. For more information 
about the cemetery project orthe books, contact Rodger 
Ruddick, Rt. 4, Box 118, North Vernon, IN 47265, 
telephone 81 2/346-7779. 

In November she confirmed that the image was a 
'Green Man': 'There's no doubt, that is what it is.' She 
also suggested that it may be a footstone due to its size 
and the lack of information. We tried to follow-up on her 
idea, but could not due to winter's first blizzard. We'll try 
again in the spring, and will keep the Newsletter in- 

AGSWi'89/90p 16 



AGS member John Meffert, Executive Director of The 
Preservation Society of Charleston, reports that the 
cemetery art of Charleston did not fare well during the 
onslaught of hurricaneHugo. "In my churchyard alone," 
he writes, "over 100 stones were damaged by the 35 
trees that fell. This is typical of all the graveyards. We 
are now working on assessing the damage citywide and 
in the low country and hope to begin to repair the 
damage. It will be a long, slow process." 

Funding for restoration is being explored. Says Meffert, 
"There is some hope of FEMA assistance on the resto- 
ration of stones as part of our 'tourism resources.' The 
insurance industry has also been responsive to some 
extent. We have learned a great deal about what an 
insurance policy does or does not do in a very brief 
period of time!" 

Ruth Miller, of Charleston, sent the Newsetter a copy of 
a lettershe wrote totheeditorof the Charleston Evening 
Post about insured gravestones (see p. 20). "Mean- 
while," she writes, "I still have a leaky roof and uprooted 
trees to deal with at my house." 


Dale Edwyrd Suess writes from Oakland that he es- 
caped with a bit of minor damage and very frayed 
nerves. Dale is Historian for the Neptune Society 
Memorial Columbarium. 

Jo Hanson of San Francisco reports her house was 
unharmed in the 1 906 earthquake and survived this one 
unharmed as well. However, the words "shook up" have 
taken on new meaning. 

New member John H. Siegfried is 

the operations manager at Mountain 
View Cemetery in Oakland. Although 
the cemetery is only 5 miles from the 
Bay bridge it had no damage. Other 

cemeteries in the area also escaped damage, but the 
people in the area report frayed nerves. The cemetery 
administration building janitor was getting supplies from 
his van outside the Administration building when the 
quake hit. He says when he looked up at the building at 
that moment, it looked like it was breathing! John invites 
all AGS members to visit Mountain View Cemetery at 
5000 Piedmont Avenue in Oakland when you are in the 
area. Designed by Frederick Law Olmstead in 1 863, its 
200 acres encompass a garden cemetery with many 
ties to New England and Midwestern families who went 
West during the Gold Rush. Grounds and office are 
open 365 days a year. 

Timothy Bindner in Richmond, CA writes that he and 
his family "wobbled and shook" in the quake as did their 
house, but they escaped serious damage. Not satisfied 
with that, Timothy volunteered to be part of one of the 
rescue teams that crawled through the debris of the 
collapsed freeway searching for survivors. Timothy 
writes of this experience: 

"It has always been a lifetime dream for me — 
to save another person's life. So, crawling between the 
decks of the shattered freeway, looking for survivors, I 
knew I was, possibly, living adream inthe midst of death 
and destruction. I was also as scared as I have ever 
been, knowing even a small after-shock could bring the 
whole thing down on me. Several other people and 1 
helped pull an injured man out of a smashed car. Two 
people in the same car with him died. 

"Last week (the man) called me to thank me. 
This phone call added an element of completeness to 
my life's endeavor that I may not experience again 
. . . Life's uncertainty and tragedy has helped form a 
philosophy of love which I am trying to live. The eyes of 
little long-ago children looking out 
from photos on ceramic memorials 
in Catholic cemeteries make my heart 
cry, but also give me a simple mes- 
sage: Love while we can. Touch 
while we can." 

AGSWi'89/90p 17 


Many AGS members across the country have had the experience of searching out small, remote, hidden, 
abandoned, burial sites and can relate to the poems below written by our Tucson, Arizona member, Joe Schmalzel, 
a sculptor. The first, "I Bide My Time" is about his great grandmother who lived on a small ranch near what is now 
Patagonia AZ. She wrote a poem just before her death in 1893, excerps of which Joe has incorporated into his 
poem. He hikes in to that small ridge where she is buried at least once each year. 

The second poem, "Los Reales Graveyard"describes a graveyard near Tucson where strangers lie forgotten , their 
graves untended. He asks, "will it matter?," a question haunting many of us. Our sensibilities impell us to answer, 
"Yes!", and we continue our work to save, protect, repair, restore what we can. 


(with comment by Emma Levina, 

Ten years earlier, with map, 
A photo of the old ranch site 
And a little help from Blane 
We finally stood by their graves 
The graves of Emma and Katie. 

That ridge near Harshaw Creek 
So steep we went on knees 
Like Pilgrims to Guadalupe. 
Over paths not passed in summer 
When spirits and snakes will wander, 
Ground hard clay and rock 
And shovels unable 
To fill the sunken place. 

Red Rock in the distance. 
Three crow miles from Crittenden, 
C. C. and boys rode, mined, 
And carried supplies by wagon, 
Leaving the girls behind. 

"I bide my time whenever shadows 


Along my path I do but lift mine eyes- 

I bide — I bide my time." 

The ridge, beyond the well. 
First bore Emma's daughter. 
A barren spot, red clay and rock, 
Posts of mesquite, also 
Marking the minister's plot. 

Katie loved her trip to Gardner, 
The twenty some miles to their place. 
Climbing ladders and single ropes: 
". . . oh, it was a grand cave,. . . " 
Said Kate in a letter. 

Dry years, lean years, Indian years. 
Thirteen children years. 

Little did she know. 

When a Great Great Aunt, 

She'd have a namesake near. 

"This drop of rapture in a cup of pain. 
This wear and tear of body and brain, — 
I bide — I bide my time." 

Just a stroll east to the ridge: 

On April Fool's they dug 

That hard rock clay for Emma, 

Thankful it wasn't summer. 

And a distant paper read: 

"After long suffering of the wife and mother . . . .". 

"Let come what may I'll life my eyes and cry 

I bide — 1 bide my time." 

Three after Katie, then three after Emma, 
The ranch, bare and sold. 
Only wooden markers when 
Albert ordered the fence 
From someplace in Chicago 
Then Elwyn set a granite stone 
For both his sister and mother 
That cleariy says: 

1843-1893 1875-1890 

What do I learn 

From a ridge-top grave? 

Who will remember the place 

And how can we know 

Where rapture began? 

Who will have a walkabout 

To follow their ancestor's journey. 

To visit their favorite place, 

To celebrate the hundredth 

And show that graves 

Have friends about them? 

AGSWr89/90p 18 

Surviving Emma is clearly spirit 

But are other things 

Buried there with them? 

Who owns that micro site 

Where history shouts for existence? 

I find it a suitable place 
To induce a mood, 
To order feelings and thoughts 
About our desert family. 
And sitting on that ridge 
Looking at what was there 
I feel a rock and wonder 
If Emma or one of her boys 
Also felt it and wondered. 

Joseph Schmalzel 
May 1989 

And this poem by a member appeared at the 1989 
AGS conference: 


Walking through the graveyards 
Gazing at the stones 
I read the chiseled epitaphs 
Above the dust and bones 

Wondering what that man was like 
This woman and her son 
Were they happy in their lives? 
Had they any fun? 

Here lies buried Captain Leach 
Born across the sea 
At Concord fought the enemy 
To keep his new land free 


Graves, aesthetic issues 
drive my mind to where 
lie forgotten ones; 
neither ancient nor recent. 
The screen door lady 
with drifting chile pointed 
and two crypts torn, 
a twisted cross of iron, 
a hundred mounds found. 

Bones are bones 
that have no name or epitaph, 
no kin to guard them, 
the memory chain broken 
and no one has the money. 
We have a kind permission 
to dig the ancient ones, 
respectfully trim the recent 
but muddle about Reales. 

For you, forgotten, 
just a genealogy, 
marker gone, a spot, 
mounding no longer required, 
will it matter? 

Joe Schmalzel 

10 September 1989 

And there's Deacon Phineas Rowe 
His marker standing tail 
Did he keep his flock in tow? 
Cound he save them all? 

Zachariah Proctor 
A name that sounds so fair 
Was the village doctor 
Practiced love and care 

And here's Stacy Wilkinson 
He helped the colonies 
Was a lawyer of renown 
Fair and just was he 

In the cities and the towns 
On the hillsides or flatgrounds 
Where our Yankee fathers rest 
You will find our nation's best 

So, stop and read along with me 
Of our early history 

AGS Wr89/90 p 19 


New Book Available 

The Historic Tallahassee Preservation Board 
has recently published Florida's Historic Ceme- 
teries: A Preservation Handbook . Written by 
AGS member Sharyn Thompson with a special 
chapter on "Preservation and Restoration" by 
Lynette Strangstad, the 50-page book is de- 
signed to educate Florida citizens about historic 
cemeteries. Other chapters include "Florida's 
Cemeteries as Historical Resources," "Identifi- 
cation and Surveying,"and Research and Docu- 
mentation." Appendices include information 
about the Florida Master Site File, cemeteries 
that qualify for the National Register, and Flor- 
ida statutes affecting protection of cemeteries. 
While it is written for Floridians, it will be helpful 
to those in other states as well. The book is 
available for $7.95 postpaid from Historic Tal- 
lahassee Preservation Board, 329 N. Meridian 
Street, Tallahassee, FL 32303. 

This letter from AGS member Ruth M. Miller, Char- 
leston, SC appeared in the Letters to the Editor column 
in the Charleston Evening Post. November 18, 1989. 

Letters to the Editor 

I would like to pass on some information which will help 
one of the silent victims of Hurricane Hugo — the ceme- 
teries and gravestones in the hurricane's path. 

Some standard homeowner's policies carry an entry 
which reads: $1,000 on gravemarkers.! I am sure any 
burial ground with damaged markers would be glad to 
hear from families which have insurance money desig- 
nated for restoration. 

Ruth M. Miller 

169 Manchester Road 

Charleston, SC 


Of special interest to those studying Afro-American 
gravemarkers is the Afro-American Historical and 
Genealogical Society annual conference to be held 
May 3-5, 1990 at the Holiday Inn-Capitol in Washington, 
DC. Its theme will be "Exploring the Past to Appreciate 
the Future." The program will include a full day work- 
shop on beginning genealogy and sessions exploring 
ancient African civilizations, how to organize a family 
reunion, collecting African American memorabilia and 
genealogical sources in the Caribbean. A special 
session on The Underground Railroad features Charles 
Blockson, author of Black Genealogy and The Under- 
ground Railroad . For more information, write to the 
society at PO Box 73086, Washington, DC 20056- 

AGS Wi-89/90 p 20 

In a recent issue of the English NATIONAL TRUST 
MAGAZINE, an article, "Statues and Surgeons," by 
Anna Pavord describes the statuary workshop, headed 
by Trevor Proudfoot, created to maintain the vast col- 
lection of statues owned by the Trust scattered around 
nearly 200 castles and country houses. Some of the 
restoration techniques being used there may interest 
those of you who are preserving gravestones. 

"The workshop is housed at Cliveden in the old fives 
court and some outbuildings of the hospital set up by 
Nancy Astor during the First World War. Today mute 
patients are ranged along the walls between dust ex- 
tractors and electric drills. . . victims of vandals, storms 
or thieves. 

Other pieces are in for geriatric care, needing cleaning 
or a consolidant to prevent the stone surface from 
flaking away. One piece is swathed in cotton-wool. The 
carving, in Tadcaster stone, was suffering aftertwo and 
a halfcenturies of English weather which had eroded its 
surface. It is being treated by a new technique that 
Trevor Proudfoot heard about in Italy a couple of years 
ago. It had been very successful in treating the Arch of 
Septimus Severus in Rome. A solijtion of acrylic is 
suspended in lime water and applied to the carving on 
wads of cotton-wool. As the stonework becomes satu- 
rated it consolidates and hardens the carving without 
upsetting the supporting matrix of stone. 

Their research has helped them to find a treatment for 
the collection of Gandharan sculptures at Antony House 
in Cornwall, carved between the first and sixth centuries 
AD from a green-grey schist. These were mounted on 
an outside wall and a combination of salt spray and chill 
winds had affected the surface and caused the stone to 
shear like slate. Eventually the friable stone was treated 
with a mixture of salin and epoxy resins, developed for 
completely different purposes by Ciba Geigy and Union 

White Clover Graves 

John Brown was the grave-digger of a Scottish parish. 
He had his own ways, — like most Scotsmen, — and one 
of them was to sow the graves of little children with white 
clover. The new minister of the parish had noticed 
John's loving care of children's graves, and one day 
came upon him trimming the small resting-place of a 
child buried a few days before. The conversation which 
followed is reported in a volume of Scotch anecdotes. 

"John," said the minister, "why are you so 
particular in dressing and keeping the graves of chil- 

"Of such is the kingdom of heaven," answered 
John, looking at the sky. 

"And on this account you tend them with so 
much care?" remarked the minister, slowly, as if musing 
on John's answer. 

"Surely, sir," said the grave-digger, pausing in 
his work, "I canna make overbraw the bed-coverin' of a 
little innocent sleeper that is waiting here till it's God's 
time to wauken it, and cover it with the white robe. When 
sic grandeur is awaitin' it yonder, it's fit it should be 
decked out here. I think that He will like to see the white 
clover sheet spread above it; dae ye no think sae tae, 

From MADISON OBSERVER, Morrisville, Madison 
County, NY, February 5, 1896 (paper found in an 
antique shop by John Alden Haight). 

One of the most important projects on which the statu- 
ary workshop is currently engaged is the conservation 
of the classical sculpture collection at Petworth House, 
work that could take ten years to complete. A statue of 
Dionysus posed a number of interesting problems for 
the workshop team. Among others, the torso was bad ly 
stained with rust. Poultices of sepiolite and Dygon 
(magnesium silicate with sodium hydrosulphite) were 
applied to the stained shoulders and thighs and re- 
duced the disfiguring iron stains. 

For the entire text, contact the AGS Newsletter . 

Sent in by Barbara Rotundo, Laconia, NH 

"Instead of being stuck in a cold cemetery where few 
people visit, the deceased will be surrounded by friends." 
British tavern owner Colm O'Rourke, explaining his 
company's new offer to bury deceased patrons in pubs 
for an $8,000 fee. 

From "Overheard," NEWSWEEK, January 15, 

AGS Wi'89/90 p 21 





At the October 29 meeting of the Board of Trustees, 
Executive Director Rosalee Oakley gave notice of her 
intent to conclude her work with AGS effective no later 
than December 31, 1990. 

Citing a personal desire to move on to a different job and 
the Oakley's plan to move out of New England in the 
near future, Rosalee stressed the opportunity her leav- 
ing affords for the organization to grow in new direc- 
tions. "It will give AGS the opportunity to develop a more 
professional image by having a permanent office loca- 
tion. It gives us an opportunity to try to get the Archives 
under the same roof as the office, giving the archivist 
and the membership better access to the materials in 
the collection. It has the possibility of providing new 
opportunities for programming and services to the 
membership which are difficult to develop in the cramped 
quarters of a house office," she said. 

"A change in personnel is also a good time to re- 
evaluate procedures and programs to determine what 
is most productive, and to coalesce our energy in those 
areas, dropping what are proven to be less effective 
aspects of our work in the office." The timing of 
Rosalee's departure will afford her successor the ad- 
vantage of working with the current President at least 
six months before a new President takes office in June 


up a list of organizations to approach with an initial 
inquiry, to be followed up with a formal proposal if there 
was interest on both sides. These organizations are 
located in New England in towns generally at a center 
for most of the Trustees. Worcester, Northampton, 
Deerfield and Springfield, MA, and Hartford, CT. With 
first priority given to the consideration of historical 
societies or museums, groups with similar historic pres- 
ervation interests to our own, other possibilities to be 
considered are universities and churches. Should no 
facilities be found, it will be necessary to seek a new 
Executive Director who has the capability of housing the 
office and considerable inventory in his or her home. 

The 1990 Budget is being drawn up to include neces- 
sary funds for transition costs and rent. 

Once it is determined whether there is a possibility of 
locating the office in a specific site, an augmented 
Personnel Committee will begin seeking applicants for 
the position of Executive Director, either in the geo- 
graphical area near the office site or, in the event the 
new director must house the office in his/her home, the 
geographic areas of western Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut are most desirable locations. 


Early evidence shows that members are accepting the 
challenge to recruit new members. A number of new 
member applications bear the names of our recruiting 
members thus qualifying them for a reduction in next 
year's membership fee. If you want to do some recruit- 
ing, you can always get more brochures from the AGS 

For the past six years, the AGS office has been located 
in the Oakley's home. We have had the good fortune 
through this period of having no expense for rent or 
utilities. However, with the need to seek a new Execu- 
tive Director, we also have to find a new office location. 
To provide AGS with a more permanent base, the 
Planning Committee suggested to the Board in a spe- 
cial report that the first priority be to seek an established 
institution with a building where space would be avail- 
able for us to rent, possibly entering into negotiations to 
share basic operational expenses, equipment and/or 
clerical staff. 

The Trustees voted to authorize the Planning Commit- 
tee to investigate and negotiate the terms of an alliance 
with a host organization, subject to the approval of the 

During December the Planning Committee met, drew 


A change in the By-Laws at the last Annual Meeting 
makes it possible for all AGS members to vote on the 
candidates forTrustees. A Special Mailing will be along 
after March 1 with a ballot to be returned to Lance 
Mayer, Nominating Committee chair. Please exercise 
your voting privilege. 

Also included in the Special Mailing will be the confer- 
ence registration forms and information. Your confer- 
ence staff has worked hard to keep costs down and 
even though our costs will be higher, the cost to confer- 
ees is only $5 more than last year for full conference 
participation — $205 per person double, $220 for a single. 
We hope to see you all there. 

AGS Wr89/90 p 22 


The lovely classical figure ornamenting the Smith family 
monument in Waterbury CT was stolen in early Octo- 
ber, 1 989. The life-size bronze figure was made about 
1 885. There is a reward offered for information leading 
totherecoveryofthe figure. Contact: Robert Garthwait, 
(203) 574-2100 (days). 

from the Maine Antiques Digest . February 1990. 


After more than a decade of study in graveyards across 
South Texas, AGS member Scott Baird, a professor of 
Englishat Trinity UniversityinSan Antonio, believesthe 
dead speak very clearly about the state's linguistic 
future. "What we're seeing is a spread of Spanish 
northward, with parallel indications that English-Span- 
ish bilingualism is here to stay. That's what the tomb- 
stones tell us." 

There are morethan 500,000 recognized cemeteries in 
Texas, according to state officials. Mr. Baird acknowl- 
edges that his research hasn't extended to anywhere 
nearthat number, but he has read enough tombstones 
to see a cultural pattern being broken. Increasingly, 
Hispanic Texans state their deepest feelings of grief 
and loss in English, not Spanish. But they are not giving 
up the language of their ancestors, unlike other immi- 
grant groups in Texas. As other non-English speaking 
immigrant groups — German, Czech, Polish, Chinese — 
settled in Texas, they began writing tombstone inscrip- 
tions in English as they assimilated into American 
culture. Wilhelm became William. Ruhe in Grieden 
became Rest in Peace. Such a shift is not seen on the 
tombs and graves of Spanish-speaking resident, says 
Baird. Insteadthenumberof bilingual tombstones has 
increased dramatically. 

In San Antonio, where Hispanics make up more than 
50% of the population, San Fernando Cemetery No. 2 
on the west side has been the final resting ground for a 
wide range of ethnic groups since 1924. "In mortuary 
terminology, it is a "live cemetery" because there is still 

room for burials. A count of tombstone inscriptions at 
San Fernando, conducted by Mr. Baird and his student 
researchers, showed that90%of the headstones raised 

in 1 924 were inscribed solely in Spanish. English-only 
inscriptions amounted to 6% and bilingual 4%. How- 
ever, a cou nt of those raised 60 years later showed that 
Spanish-only dwindled to 58% while bilingual inscrip- 
tions rose to 13%. English-only rose to 29%. 

Mr. Baird also cites his findings to all-Spanish tomb- 
stones in Round Rock, north of Austin, dated 1985, and 
in Bee County near Temple, dated 1968, as evidence 
that English-Spanish bilingualism is moving northward 
up the state from the border regions, creating a 200- 
mile-wide cultural cushion. "You have roughly 300 
million Spanish-speakers on the same continent with 
200 million English-speakers. There's a cushion where 
these languages come together, and that cushion is the 
size of France. Spanish is moving northward and 
English is holding its own in this 200-mile-wide cush- 
ion," says Baird. "It's a prime example of what linguists 
call a diglosic, a region where two languages live 

Mr. Baird calls his research social linguistics, a school 
of study that examines the sub-conscious connections 
between language and daily life. He studies grave- 
stones for linguistic trends because they represent 
people's deepest emotions and, this, give the most 
accurate picture of their values. 

fromtlie Dallas TX Morning News . March 19, 1989, sent 
by Sybil Crawford, Dallas TX, and the Miami Herald . 
April 1 6, 1 989. Scott Baird will be presenting a paper at 
the American Culture Association, Cemeteries and 
Gravemarkers Session, March 7-10, 1990, in Toronto, 

AGS Wi'89/90 p 23 


Angelika Kruger-Kahloula, of West 
Germany, writes that it was with interest 
and amusement that she read "The 
Sedgewick Pie" (in spite of, as she points 
out, the typing error of an extra "e" in the 
title) in the Fail 1 989 issue of the News- 

I visited the Stockbridge cemetery in 
1 986 and was captivated by the atmos- 
phereof the Sedgwick section, which to 
me seemed enchanted rather than 
gloomy. How lovely to get a (prospec- 
tive) insider's view of the place! John 
Sedgwick stresses the exclusive char- 
acter of this family circle, the "club" 
(which, interestingly, includes the dog, 
but not a cousin's companion-nurse). It 
should be pointed out that the Sedgwicks 
did open their circle for a housekeeper, 

a former slave, in the nineteenth century. Her epitaph, 

on a simple marble marker, reads: 

known by the name of MUMBET 
died Dec. 28 1829. 
Her supposed age 
was 85 Years. 
She was born a slave and 
remained a slave for nearly 
thirty years. She could nei- 
ther read nor write, yet in 
her own sphere she had no 
superior nor equal. She nei- 
ther wasted time nor property. 
She never violated a trust, nor 
tailed to perform a duty. 
In every situation of domes- 
tic trial, she was the most effi- 
cient helper and the tender 
friend: Good motherfarewell. 

The daughter of African-born slaves, Elizabeth Free- 
man and her sister were the slaves of Col. John Ashley 
of Sheffield MA. After one particular instance of physi- 
cal abuse by her mistress, Elizabeth ran away and 
asked lawyer Theodore Sedgwick in nearby Stockbr- 
idge to claim her liberty at court. Having heard of the Bill 
of Rights and the new State Constitution, she consid- 
ered herself free and equal to any individual. The jury 
agreed to her claim and ordered her former owner to 
pay her 30 shillings damages, thereby marking the 
abolition of slavery in tvlassachusetts. She worked as 
a housekeeper and nurse for the Sedgwicks for several 

years. (Rayford W. Logan, Michael R. Winston. Diction- 
an/ of American Negro Biography . NY: 1982) 

AGS Wr89/90 p 24 


by Jim Jewell, Illinois Valley Community College 

On June 14, 1988, something happened that probably 
has never occurred in Lake Township, Allen County, 
Indiana, before or since: two individuals were photo- 
graphing in the tine Hadley Cemetery on the Yellow 
River Road east of Areola IN. One was L.C. Blessing, 
of Yuma, Arizona, who was searching for his grandpar- 
ents' graves. The other was this correspondent, return- 
ing to the cemetery that probably started it all — the 
cemetery where, thirty-four years earlier, he and his 
schoolmates used to play, being careful not to damage 
any stone. We hid behind them, dashed around them, 
and pretended we were burying each other. 

The town of Taw-Taw IN had its named changed to 
Areola in 1858, eight years before the village was 
platted by Benjamin Meiser, John L. Peabody and 
Patrick Ney. Located at the crossroads adjacent to the 
Peabody Steam Sawmill (established in 1 853) and the 
Fort Wayne and Chicago Railroad (1855), Areola is 
known for its rich farmland. Championship-calibre 
crop- and cattle-judging teams were commonplace at 
Areola High School, which was consolidated with nearby 
Huntertown High to form Carroll shortly after the cen- 
tennial of Areola's platting. 

The Hadley Cemetery is located four-tenths of a mile 
west of the Hadley Crossing, the railroad intersection at 
which Yellow River, Bass and Hadley Roads meet, 
about five miles west of the Fort Wayne city limits 
(Spring Street extended becomes Bass Road.) Most of 
the stones are dated from the 1 860s through the end of 
the century. Before the burial of Dale Lytle in 1 962, the 
most recent interment had been that of Mrs. M . F. Ander- 
son (May7,1882-February 11, 1910). 
(AUTHOR'S NOTE: A stop at Hadley in the mid-1 960s 
indicated that Lytle was indeed buried there; subse- 

quent visits reveal that the stone is gone, suggesting 
that Lytle was probably moved.) 

After introducing ourselves, Mr. Blessing and I began 
searching through six to eight feet tall weeds for his 
family's graves. Eventually, we located them near the 
cemetery's south border, the closest gravest to the 
crevice. Blessing wasn't sure his camera could get 
clear pictures. Mine did, however; and 1 sent two nice 
shots of the small stone to him. In his note of ac- 
knowledgement, he wrote, "Our meeting with cameras 
in the cemetery must have been a first." 

Thankfully, it wasn't the last graveyard encounter in 
Hadley. Almost a year later. Chuck Bragg, a former 
school superintendent who runs a management con- 
sultant firm in Fort Wayne, noticed a fallen Civil War 
markeras hedrove past Hadley. He returned with tools 
to stand the marker, as he had done with over fifty other 
similarly neglected Civil War markers. Bragg, whose 
work was featured in the May 29, 1989, Fort Wayne 
News-Sentinel, has been a Civil War student since 

Hadley Cemetery may be overgrown and neglected; 
but with enthusiasts like Chuck Bragg around, it won't 
be forgotten. Nor will the four Civil War veterans buried 

AGS Wi'89/90 p 25 

The photos on this page were provided by Donald F.Maclean of Halifax NS who took them in June 1989 in Vienna's 
Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery). He writes that '1he cemetery is one square mile in size and is the largest in 
Austria. It was opened in 1874, although numerous people who died prior to that date are buried there. Among 
these are, for instance, Beethoven, 1827, Gluck, 1787, Mozart, 1791 and Schubert, 1828. Mozart's grave is a 
commemorative grave only, for the precise location of his burial is unknown." 

Beethoven 1770-1827 

AGS Wi'89/90 p 26 

AGS member Michael Cornish of Dorchester MA re- 
cently sent the following letter to Sam Pennington, 
editor of the Maine Antiques Digest, which was pub- 
lished in the February 1990 issue: 

DearlVlr. Pennington: 

The advertisement on page 34-D of 

January's Maine Antique Digest for a 

"folksycast-irongate"evidences a disturb- 
ing trend I have noticed at recent shows 
featuring Americana, folk art, and architec- 
tural fragments. These iron gates are from 
cemetery plot enclosures, and the majority 
have not been procured legally. Motifs 
such as willows, lambs, and doves are 
typical, with the family name and plot es- 
tablishment date sand-cast in the design. 
Cemetery gates are not, by any sane defi- 
nition of the word, "folk art". Collectors with 
aconscience should condemn items of this 
nature from coming into the market. 

Similarly, I have noticed other decorative 
portions of monuments offered for sale, 
among them the iron tassels from chain 
swag plot fences and marble doves taken 
from atop obelisks and urns. The latter are 
identifiable by the sockets from bronze or 
iron rods that held them in place. 

There was a heated exchange of letters in 
these pages some while back (see AGS 
Newsletter, Fall 1985, p. 19-21) with re- 
gard to collecting colonial gravestones, in 
which I participated and do not wish to 
revive, but I fear these less obvious ex- 
amples of fragmentary sepulchral art are 
escaping the same rightful stigma. I doubt 
very much that satisfactory provenances 
can be provided for merchandise stolen 
from graveyards. 


Landscapes of Memory and Boston's Mount 
Auburn Cemetery 

by Blanche Linden-Ward 

is now available from Ohio State University Press 

180 Pressey Hall 


Columbus OH 4321 0-1 002 

400 pages, 324 illustrations, $49.50 
ISBN 0-8142-0469-4 



The state of Washington's estimated 1 ,000 cemeteries 
will soon be listed for the first lime in an unusual 
directory. "I've been getting information from little old 
ladies who've been crawling around on their hands and 
knees in cemeteries for 25 years," says Judy Barnes, 
who for the past five years has been computerizing 
huge amounts of cemetery data. The state centennial 
cemetery project began when Barnes was a clerical 
workeratGreenacres Memorial Park, Ferndale, where 
she also did part-time work for the State Cemetery 
Board. "Often we'd get phone calls from people asking 
if we knew where their mother or some other relative 
was buried," says Barnes. "So my boss and I decided 
that it would be nice to spend our spare time putting 
together a directory." 

The directory is a volunteer centennial project spon- 
sored by the Washington Interment Association and the 
Washington State Funeral Directors Association. Some 
states, such as Oregon, have passed laws that man- 
date such a state cemetery survey. (Oregon's law was 
passed in 1 977, and carried out by the state's transpor- 
tation department.) Coordinating the Washington proj- 
ect is B. David Daly, president of Evergreen-Washelli 
Cemeteries and chairman of the Washington State 
Cemetery Board. He and Barnes are soliciting informa- 
tion from sources including the state's funeral homes, 
cemeteries and genealogical societies. 

The state directory will list the various names of each 
cemetery, its location, whether it's abandoned or active, 
who has the records and control of the property, and 
snippets of miscellaneous historical information to show 
each cemetery's place in the community. 

For more information, contact Judy Barnes at 384- 
6492, or Carolyn Farnum, 1 6822 S.E. 2nd PI., Bellevue 
WA 98008. 

from the Seattle Times . August 15, 1989, sent by Margaret 
Jenks, Richardson TX 

A group of professional historians and interested citi- 
zens have formed the Arlington National Cemetery 
Historical Society. The group's goals are educating the 
public on the historic significance of the cemetery and 
the contributions of America's veterans as well as 
raising funds for preservation activities. The group held 
its first meeting in July, 1989. For more information, 
contact the U.S. Capitol Historical Society at (202) 543- 

sent by Anne G. Giesecke, Arlington VA 
AGS Wi'89/90 p 27 


The AGS Board is considering changing the AGS Newsletter masthead, 
and, while they're at it, the AGS logo as well. The logo of any organization 
is the symbol which identifies it to the world. There is some feeling that the 
AGS logo, taken from the Elizabeth Smith stone, Williamstown MA 1 771 , no 
longer clearly symbolizes the purpose and goals of AGS. It was chosen by 
the membership in 1 977 to reflect the broad appeal of gravestone art. At that 
time, they wanted an emblem that would not be tied to any location or period 
of stone art. If you have any ideas for a new logo, or thoughts on how AGS 
should be represented, please contact the AGS office! 

The AGS Newsletter is published quarterly as a service to members of the Association for Gravestone Studies. The 
membership year begins on the date dues are received and ends one year from that date. A one year membership en titles 
the members to four issues of the Newsletter and to participation in the AGS conference in the year membership Is current. 
Send membership fees (individual $20; institutional, $25; Family $30; contributing $30) to AGS Executive Director Rosalee 
Oakley, 46 Plymouth Rd. NeedhamMA02192. Back issues of the Newsletter are available for $3.00 per issue from Rosalee 
Oakley. The goal of the Newsletter is to present timely information about projects, literature, and research concerning grave- 
stones, and about the activities of the Association for Gravestone Studies. It is produced by Deborah Trask, who welcomes 
suggestions andshortcontributions from readers. The Newsletter is not intendedto serve as ajoumaL Journal articles should 
besenttoTheodoreChase, editor of Markers, the Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studies, 74 Farm St., Dover 
/W/4 02030. Address Newslettercontributions to Deborah Trask, editor. Nova Scotia hJluseum, 1747 Summer St., Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, B3H3A6, Canada. Order Markers (Vol. 1 $18; Vol. 2, $16; Vol. 3, $14.75; Vol. 4, $14.75; Vol. 5, $18; higher prices 
for non-members) from Rosalee Oakley. Send contributions to the AGS Archives to Jo Goeselt, 61 Old Sudbury Road, 
Way land MA 01778 Address other correspondence to Rosalee Oakley. 

46 Plymouth Rd. 
Needham MA 




Permit No. 410 
Worcester, fvlass. 







a graveyard tour itinerary 2 


two success stories from Vermont and New York City 6 

Tale of a Churchyard Sleuth 

by Michael Olmert 8 

A Millstone Marks His Grave 

by Helen Arbuckle 9 

Tree Stones 10 

Life and Death in the "research triangle" area of North Carolina 

essay by Peggy Hull 1 1 


Cemeteries of New Orleans - photos by Robert Wright 1 2 

BOOKS 1 4 




History of Congressional Cemetery 2 1 

Some Grave Understandings, by George Kackley 2 2 


Ritchie stone, Lundie, Scotiand, 1 759, east face 


Want to go? Here is a gravestone tour of Scotland, 
designed for Dan and Jessie Farber by Betty 
Willsher, co-author of Stones, 18th Century 
ScottistiGravestones(Nevj York: Taplinger, 1979) 

Greyfriars Burial Ground, Perth, 1 774 

Last summer, when Betty Willsher was in the 
United States to accept AGS's Harriette M. Forbes 
Award, my husband and I discussed with her our 
eagerness to see and photograph Scottish grave- 
markers. As a result, Betty developed for us a 1 0- 
day tour of Scotland designed to introduce us to her 
country's early stones, and until recently it was 
our intention to fly to Scotland this summer and 
follow her suggested route. 

Now we find we will not be able to make the trip. 
This is a disappointment, as Scotland's early stones 
are among the most interesting anywhere, and we 
feel this custom-designed tour for gravestone 
enthusiasts should not be wasted. Betty has 
suggested that we share it, and so I am using 
the Newsletteras a means of making the plans 
available to AGS members. 

The plan assumes arrival and departure at 
Prestwick and pre-booking car rental and 
bed-and-breakfast reservations. (Betty did 
not recommend our looking for overnight 
accomodations along the way.) Scotland's 
weather is mild up to December, but good 
sunlight is not dependable. She recommends 
June through early September dates. 


Day 1 : Early morning arrival at PRESWICK 
(there will soon be international flights ar- 
riving and departing from Glasgow) and rental car 

pick-up there. Drive through GLASGOW on the 
Glasgow Motorway, making a 2-hour stop to visit 
the Burrell fvluseum (somewhat like the Gardner 
Museum in Boston, in a wonderfully designed 
building with a cafe in the park). On to St. Andrews 
via the Kincardine Bridge Motorway; 1 1/2 - 2 
hours. Relax the balance of that day in ST. AN- 

St. Andrews, Fife, 17-? 

Day 2: ST. ANDREWS. Fine 17th-century 
stones at the cathedral, under shelter, and much 
else to see in this small medieval city (where golf 
was first played). 

Day 3: Take A91 to Dundee and A92 and B962 to 
KIRKTON ON MONIKIE (1 2 miles) wherethere 
is a parish churchyard with mostly east-facing 
stone carvings. Back on B962, cross A92 to 
IWONIFIETH on the coast with a churchyard of 
mostly west-facing carvings. Return to Dundee on 
A930. There are photogenic sights in Dundee, 

Kirl<ton of Monikie, Angus, 1 744 

AGS Sp '90 p. 2 

including Scott's "Discovery" in the dock by the 
bridge and the ancient ship "Unicorn". (The tall 
ship "Discovery" was built in Dundee tor Captain 
Scott's expedition to the North Pole in 1912.) On 
the way back to St. Andrews, if there is time, turn 
off the main road onto B945 for a 3 mile swing 
through TAYPORT for some good west-facers. 
(One could stay the night in Dundee instead of 
returning to St. Andrews, in which case you might 
visit Tayport in the morning on your way Ifi 

a few resurrection scenes. 

Leaving Ivleigle, take A94 to GLAMIS, which has a 
wonderful graveyard and is also the site of Glamis 
Castle, the Queen Mother's old home and one of the 
most interesting castles in Scotland. (A tour of the 
Castle takes 3 / 4 of an hour, and there are tearooms 
and shops.) Leave Glamis on A94 and drive to 
PERTH, "the Fair City" (25 miles) for a two 
night stay. Good restaurants. 

Day 5: In the centre of PERTH visit Greyfriars 
Burial Ground (open during office hours, 
Monday through Friday), which has hundreds 
of 18th-century stones, and an old monastery 
garden. A mirror is needed for morning pho- 
tography there. Then drive to KINNOULjust 
overthe river. A key, available at the Council 
Offices, High Street, Perth, must be obtained 
to enter either Greyfriars or Kinnoul church- 
yard. From Kinnoul, drive to OLD SCONE (2 
miles). Permission is required to take a car 
up into the graveyard, which is in the Scone 
palace grounds. If the weather is poor for 
gravestone study, one could, instead, take a 
tour of the Palace and its art treasures. 

Lundie, Angus, 1710 

Day 4: From Dundee, take A923 (Coupar-Angus 
Road), turning off it onto a country road to L U N - 
DIE (8 miles). After visiting the churchyard in 
Lundie, continue on to A927 through Newtyle to 
MEIGLE. Vistithe Pictish stone museumwith its 
very small and wonderful 7th-, 8th-, 9th, and 
1 0th-century folk art stones. The graveyard has 

Meigle, Perthshire, 1764 

Greyfriars Burial Ground, Perth, 1 778 

Day 6: Drive from Perth south on M90 to E D - 
INBURGH(1 1 /2 hours, maximum), stopping 
on the way to see the lovely collection of stones 
at CRAMOND, just outside Edinburgh. (The 
Edinburgh International Festival is in prog- 
ress for 3 weeks beginning mid-August.) 
Greyfriars Burial Ground in EDINBURGHhas 
^° a great 17th-century mural, and its grave- 
'^ stones are the grand prototypes, the earliest 
dated 1603. The prize yard is in TRANENT, 9 
miles east of Edinburgh on A1. Excellent! You 

AGS Sp '90 p. 3 

Greyfriars Burial Ground, Perth, 1 745 

might want to stay the night there in one of the 
places by the sea. 

Day 7: Four miles south of Tranent on B6371 is 
PENCAITLAND. After visiting the churchyard 
there, take A68 south through Lauder and Earlston 
to MELROSE ABBEY just off A68 on B6360 (23 
miles); it is the finest of the ruined Scottish 
abbeys. The museum has some good "green men:", 
and there are 3 stones of interest in the church- 
yard. Then take B6359 to BOWDEN (4 miles) 
where there are about a dazen very good stones. 
Then to the churhcyard in SELKIRK (4 miles) on 
A699, with about 4 good stones. 

the Queensbury family. From Durisdeer 
continue south on A702 through Thornhill to 
DALGARNOCK, where there are full figure 
portrait stones. Then to AYR. 

Days 9 & 10: in AYR see Ayr Auld Kirk with 
its curios stones; then ALLOWAY on B0724 
just outside Ayr; then KIRKMICHAEL, a 
shrot drive south on B742. (In Kirkmichael 
you must climb over a wall if the yard isn't 
open.) Iftheweatherisbad, CulzeanCastleon 
the coast nearby is worth a visit, but do 
return to Kirkmichael. The Ayrshire yards 
are a MUST. There are several more in a ten- 
mile radius of Ayr; it would be a great pity to 
miss any of them. 

Day 1 1 : Leave Scotland from PRESTWICK. 

Betty reminds us that Scottish stones are 
usually carved on both sides and that a mirror 
is therefore a great help in reflecting sun- 


If 1 

Day 8: Lovely drive southwest on A708 to St. Mary 
Loch; and through Moffat to A74 (22 miles); go 
north on A74 to A702, then south on A702 to 
DURISDEER with itw few fine stones and the 
wonderful Durisdeer marbles, the monument to 

The Faith Hope & Charity stone. Greyfriers, Perth. 1651 

AGS Sp VO p. 4 

light for viewing or ptiotographing the unlighted 
side. A flash will help make a photo-record if there 
is no sunlight. June, July and August are the best 
months for good light'. 

If anyone reading this decides to consider making 
the trip, I believe Betty would be please to try to 
help you, and with this in mind I shall include her 
telephone number (dial 011-44-0334-73023; 
at noon here is is 6 pm in Scotland). However, she 
is a busy person, and I suggest you make inquiries 
as specific as possible; and, unless she suggests 
otherwise, that you refrain from asking her to 
answer a letter. 

A good map showing highway numbers is The Scot- 
tish Touring Map , available for $8.95 in US book- 

Even if you do not expect to travel to Scotland, it 
seems appropriate to mention here that AGS 
members who do not know the handsomely illus- 
trated book. Stones, 18th Century Scottish 
Gravestonesby Betty Willsher and Doreen Hunter, 
will find it fascinating. It was published in 1979 
by Taplinger, New York , and was most recently 
available at Highly Specialized Promotions, 391 
Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn NY 11217. The accom- 
panying illustrations are from this publication. 

OldCalton, Edinburgh, 1756 

contributed by Jessie Lie Farber, Worcester MA. 

Kirkton of Monikie, Angus, Scotland, 1 778 


AGSSp '90 p. 5 


Long Search Results in Gravestones Going 
Back IHome 

by Charles Marchant, Townshend VT 

More than once in my capacity as Secretary of the 
Vermont Old Cemetery Association (VOCA) I have 
been asked why a gravestone which is not in a 
cemetery is in the particular place it is. Grave- 
stones have a habit of showing up on people's 
doorsteps, in their cellars as part of the floor, in 
a foundation, a stone wall, and on and on. I have 
investigated a gravestone counter top and also a 
gravestone coffee table. In all of these cases there 
was a duplicate markeror replacement stone in the 

On several occasions I have been the visitor at a 
house and have commented to the owners on how 
nice their marble gravestone walk looks. If they 
don't already know, they look at me in disbelief 
until they go get a shovel or bar and turn the piece 
over. I have never been wrong. What usually 
happens next is a search to see where the stone 
belongs. It has become a hobby and a challenge. 

Sometime in the mid-70s one of my students 
brought a rubbing to me telling me that it came 
from a gravestone in a neighbor's backyard. The 
rubbing looked interesting. Even though I was a 
local cemetery commissioner, I wasn't into rub- 
bings. For some reason I thought this stone was 
part of a small private cemetery, and at the time 
the town wasn't much involved with those. 

them with the intention of finding their true home. 
He agreed, and the two markers went to my yard. 

My search began with a letter to David Watters of 
AGS asking for help and ended with the return of the 
stones to Freehold NJ, where they had come from. 
The return wa completed in the fall of 1989. 

One look at the stones in detail told me that they 
didn't come from Townshend VT. They were much 
earlier (1785) than any carved stone in the 
Townshend area. They were of red sandstone — a 
material not used for gravestones locally. Finally, 
the carving was unlike anything around the area 
where I live. 

The search involved several people besides David. 
AGS member Bob Drinkwater helped pin down that 
the stones came from New Jersey. Joanne Nichols, 
a genealogist from Brattleboro VT and a member of 
VOCA, put a query in "Branches and Twigs" asking 
for information about the Clayton family. The two 
stones were for David and Esther Clayton. Mr. 
James Bellartsof Hillsboro, Oregon, answeredthe 
query and that pinned the stones down to Freehold. 
Finally, with the help of New Jersey people in- 
cluding Joe Wiswall, Elise Prayzich, Elizabeth 
Bowman and Ivars Perterson, the stones were 

I forgot about the rubbing until the Fall of 1983 
when another student told me there were two 
gravestones lying on the ground in a local 
contractor's storage area. One was the stone I had 
the rubbing of. By this time, the town, and myself, 
were much more interested in documenting all the 
local cemeteries. VOCA was also doing a state-wide 
survey of all Vermont's cemeteries and this one 
wasn't on my list. 

What I discovered was not a cemetery, but two 
stones piled behind a shed. The contractor said they 
had been removed from a job. One had been a step 
and the other was in afield. He brought them to his 
shop area because he didn't think burying them 
was the right thing to do. I asked him if I could take 

For all intents and purposes, these stones were 
"stolen" to save them from development. The 
Freehold Township Historical Commission now 
has the job of repairing one of the stones and 
finding a suitable place for them. VOCA has done its 



AGS Sp '90 p. 6 


In a new twist on an old story, Beverly Barone, of 
the First Precinct, 16 Ericson PI, New York City, 
was searching for the home of Orlando Kimble, 
deceased 1866, aged 2, whose gravemarker was 
left at the police station last October by a man who 

claimed he found it in the street. Barone recog- 
nized the historical value of the Victorian stone. 

which is signed by its sculptor, J. Keeley, of Mt. 
Holly, New Jersey. Aided by Lts. Heegan and 
Dignon of the precinct, she waged a valiant battle 
to keep the marker from being deposited in the 
City's Lost Property Room, until she could find an 
expert to examine it, and assist in returning it to 
its real location. 

Roberta Halporn, Director of the Center for Tha- 
natology in Brooklyn (and a member of the AGS 
Board), was called in to examine the piece, and 
stated that it was a very fine example of a Victorian 
marker, and that the efforts to locate the original 
site could also provide information on a local 
gravestone artist not previously known to her. 

She called several colleagues, and AGS member Pat 
Miller provided the name and address of Elizabeth 
Marren Perinchief, a certified genealogist in Mt. 
Holly. Perinchief has been able to identify Orlando's 
family, the cemetery in which he should have been 
interred, and has provided a vast amount of infor- 
mation on the stonecutter, Jackson L. Keeley. 

There is just one small mystery left. Ms. Per- 
inchief informs us that there was no standing stone 
for Orlando when the Burlington County Genea- 
logical Club charted the cemetery in 1978. One 
wonders where the little lost boy's stone has been 
for more than twelve years. 

contributed by Roberta Halporn, Brooklyn NY 



The estimated 50,000 outdoor sculptures in the 
U.S. suffer from neglect, vandalism and environ- 
mental pollution. Save Outdoor Sculpture! (SOS!) 
is a nationwide inventory of outdoor sculpture to 
determine the number, location and condition of all 
outdoor sculptures in the United States. At the 
completion of this three-year project, data will be 
added to a permanent, ongoing computerized data- 
base of indoor and outdoor sculpture in the United 
States. Municipal governments and civic and cul- 
tural organizations will receive guidelines forthe 
care and maintenance of their outdoor sculpture 

andsuggestionstoinvolvetheircommunities. SOS! 
is a joint project of the Smithsonian Institution's 
National Museum of American Art and the National 
Institute for the Conservation of Cultural Prop- 
erty. To add your name to the SOS! mailing list, 
contact SOS!: National Institute for the Conserva- 
tion of Cultural Property, 3299 K Street., Suite 
403, Washington DC 20007; 202-625-1495; 
FAX 202-625-1485. 

from the Newsletter of the American Association of 
Botanical Gardens and Arboreta, #185, May 1990, 
sent by George Kackley, Baltimore MD. 

AGS Sp '90 p. 7 


by Michael Olmert 

Reproduced from ARCHAEOLOGY, March-April 1990. 
(Contributed by Marjorie Fuller, Wellesley, MA.) 

Schleimann I'm not. Nor am I Leakey, Petrie, 
Woolley.oranyof therest. Indiana Jones? Hardly. 
Still, what I did on my summer vacation put me 
within hailing distance of their league. 

I teach Shakespeare, but poetry was the last thing 
on my mind in France last year. I was there to study 
Romanesque architecture. What I came back with, 
however, was a literary footnote, a few lines of 
tiny six-point type that will appear on, say, page 
70 of every edition of Romeo andJuliet even to the 
edge of doom. 

It all started one afternoon in a tiny village church- 
yard near Poitiers, at a crossroads hamlet called 
Fenioux along the pilgrim road from Paris to 
Compostella, Spain. The twelfth-century Roman- 
esque church was interesting enough, but my at- 
tention was drawn to the adjacent cemetery with a 
narrow, 35-foot-high, limestone tower in the 
middle of it. Bees and midges darted in front of my 
face as I made my way through the weedy and 
overgrown churchyard toward the tower. Accord- 
ing to my Blue Guide, the structure was a lanterne 
desmorts, a lantern of the dead. It loomed over the 
cemetery like some misplaced minaret. Atinydoor 
at its base led to a dank and dreary cavity inside. 
There was just enough room for me to squeeze 
myself up a stairway to the top. From the pinnacle 
I could look out over the countryside, and down the 
narrow roadway toward Compostella, along which 
centuriesofpilgrimsonce trudged. Inturn, Icould 
be seen from the road. Then it occurred to me: a 
lanterne des morts is like a bell tower, except that 
it's silent. It illumines the way from church to 
final resting place. Funerals took place at night. 
The Latin funus and funebris have to do with dark 
and forbidding processions led by torchlight. So 
the light acted not only as memento mori, it con- 
soled the living as well. 

Up in the lantern, however, no light switched on 
inside my head. That happened two months later in 
my Shakespeare class. Then lux facta est. Surely, 
I reckoned, my old Fenioux tower must have been 
the sort of lantern Shakespeare had in mind in 
Romeo and Juliet (V.iii. 83-84): 

/'// bury tfiee in a triumphant grave. 

A grave? Oh no, a lantern, slaughtered youth. 

Romeo says this in a cemetery, just after he's 
killed the unfortunate County Paris, a man who 
was merely in the wrong place at the wrong time. 
Oddly enough, every edition of the play that glosses 
"lantern" does so as if it were an architectural 
lantern atop a building, designed to let air and light 
into the upper floors. Even the brand new Oxford 
Complete Works interprets lantern as a "win- 
dow-turret." We're familiar with these in Amer- 
ica as the cupolas on Tidewater of Palladian build- 
ings. But that can't be the right reading. Romeo 
feels so sorry for Paris' death that he'll build him 
not just an ordinary grave, but a lanterne des 
morts. He's talking gravemarkers. The one at 
Fenioux soars over the churchyard, just the way 
Romeo would havewantedCounty Pariscommemo- 

Romanesque lanterns were common enough to have 
been known by Shakespeare and his contemporar- 
ies. (They were not, apparently, constructed in 
England.) In 1970, roughly a hundred lanterns 
were still standing in France, Germany, and Aus- 
tria, and some few remain in Switzerland, Eastern 
Europe, and Italy — yes, the land of Romeo and 
Juliet. Such towers would still have been the most 
imposing monuments in any Renaissance ceme- 
tery, occupying venerable and holy spots often 
associated with the graves of local saints. 

ForShakespearians, it would appearthe old archi- 
tectural interpretation of lantern should be dropped 
(it's been with us since George Steevens's 1773 
edition of the plays). The scene, after all, is in a 
cemetery. Question is, why did that senseless 
rooftop lantern hang around so long? Probably 
because we are familiar with only two kinds of 
lantern. Since this clearly wasn't the kind Dio- 
genes used to find an honest man, it must have been 
the kind that sits on a building. End of discussion. 

If Shakespeare had written "Oh no, a pyramid, 
slaughtered youth," there would have been a mad 
scramble to get to the bottom of it all. As someone 
(not Shakespeare) said: "It's not what you don't 
know that hurts. It's what you know that ain't so!" 

Michael Olmert teaches at the University of Mary- 
land and wrote the Guidebook to Colonial Wil- 
liamsburg . 

AGS Sp '90 p. 8 


by Helen Arbuckle 

On a grave in Oak Hill Memorial Park, San Jose, 
California, the state's oldest secular cemetery in 
constant use since 1839, stands a granite mill- 
stone inscribed: 


Dec. 5, 1800 

June 18, 1885 




FROM 1820 TO 1870 

It was placed there in the early 1940s by the 
youngest of Stephen Hobson's ten children, Ivan 
Benbow Hobson, who found it while on a visit to the 
old home in North Carolina, lying near the mill 
site, useless and forgotten. It occurred to him to 
have it converted to a monument for his father's 
grave. With family approval, the stone was shipped 
to California, inscribed, and placed in position. 

It is unique in that it is the only one of its kind in 
Oak Hill, and probably in any other California 
cemetery. Yet, on the eastern seaboard in colonial 
days, the use of millstones as gravestones, "for an 
unfortunate miller 'killled at his mill'," was 
fairly common. Millstones involved in a fatal 
accident were considered unlucky and often retired 
from milling. 

Antiquarians have uncovered millstones dated as 
early as 1636, which were used as cornerstones 
forfarm buildings in Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut. Many discarded millstones have ended up as 
stepping stones. 

Millstones in literature and Scripture symbolize 
exceptional traits of character but, in milling 
parlance, "hard as a piece of the nether millstone" 
refers to the bed stone or stationary block against 
which the millstone turned. 

Patterns or dresses were cut into the grinding 
surface of both stones and varied according to the 
product being ground. The pattern, identical in 
both stones, consisted of furrows extending from 
off-center to the outer edge, so that a shearing 
effect was obtained when the stone was in motion. 
Millstone dressing was usually done by itinerant 
craftsmen with a knowledge of stone-cutting and 

milling. To dress a pair of stones required two or 
three days. 

In 1632, five Hobson brothers came to America 
from England. Their progeny spread southward, 
between 1725 and 1775, from New England, 
Pennsylvania, and New Jersey into Virginia and 
the Carolinas in search of religious tolerance for 
themselves in the Society of Friends. 

About 1 820, Stephen Hobson acquired some 8,000 
acres of land in Yadkin and Surry Counties in 
northwestern North Carolina, which included iron 
mines, sawmills, grist mills, and good farmland. 
Plantation life to the south and east of him was 
geared to slave labor. As a Quaker, Hobson found it 
difficult to reconcile his beliefs with prevailing 
customs. To maintain his integrity, he employed 
only free men, buying slaves he thought were being 
mistreated and paying them to work for him. 

Such practice made him great difficulties with the 
Confederate government when the War between the 
States came on. He was even charged with treason 
and sentenced to hang. The sentence was commuted, 
as the Confederacy needed the iron from his mines. 
During the whole Civil conflict his ironworks ran 
day and night. After the war he turned his back on 
tensions, sold his holdings for a fraction of their 
worth, and moved to Indiana. 

By now his family had increased considerably. He 
had married four times, first to Miss Mary Bond, 
subsequently to widows with children. Altogether, 
including his own, Stephen had the responsibility 
of 23 children. 

Not finding Indiana to his liking, he moved to 
California in 1873. His eldest son, David, had 
joined the Gold Rush in 1850, and invested his 
findings in farmland in Santa Clara County. Stephen 
bought land adjoining David's property; there he 
lived and farmed until his death. 

Though Stephen Hobson never engaged in milling in 
California, his headstone symbolizes an era when 
east-west personal ties were very close, and speaks 
for the thousands of "everyday" men, strong in 
character, resolute in faith, and capable in achieve- 
ment, whom destiny chose to populate the new and 
shining West. 

From THE SPINNING WHEEL, July-August 1966, 
sent by Ton! Cook of Soutti Bend IN. 

AGS Sp '90 p. 9 

Frankfort IN Times - April 7, 1975. This article 
appeared in a regular column "The Hoosier Farm 
Wife Says:" by Mrs. R. F. D., pen name for Mrs. 
Rachel Peden who is now deceased. 



"They were all mechanics and dreamers and in- 
ventors" said 86-year old Erskin Hoadley with a 
gentle smile. His hair is white, silken and sparse; 
his blue-grey eyes are kind, showing flashes of 
humor or even anger at times; his voice is firm, 
young-sounding and pleasant to listen to. He was 
telling the story of his grandfather and great uncle, 
and of his father and three brothers whose monu- 
ment shop in Gosport produced the gravestones 
representing tree stumps. In Erskin, these same 
family characteristics cropped out in architec- 
ture and machine-improvement. By profession he 
was an engineer. 

William and John Hoadley, in England, were ap- 
prentice machinists and not satisfied. They came 
to America and for a while stayed in New Orleans 
making steamboats. Then they came to Indiana to a 
little place called [Mt. Tabor] that was on the verge 
of becoming a thriving town. The brothers had a 
sawmill and grist mill there, separated by a dam. 
"They cut logs all over the valley and floated them 
down to the sawmill," said Erskin. "They hauled 
logs from the other side on carts pulled by four 
oxen. Eventually they married local girls and each 
man had a big family." 

William's sons were: William (who became 
Erskin'sfather), Cyrus, Sylvester, Claude and Ed. 
His daughter Maggie married James Goss of nearby 

As steam mills began to compete, the Hoadley mill 
business dwindled. Also when the railroad was 
built through Stinesville instead of Taber, that 
ended [Mt. Tabor's] prosperity. From their mill 
the Hoadleys had hauled lumber enough, on horse- 
drawn log wagons, to build three houses in Gosport. 
The elder William and his wife and unmarried sons 
lived in one, which Erskin calls "the home place." 
When John Hoadley started a stone mill in nearby 
Stinesville, William Hoadley was its superinten- 
dent. From this mill, which eventually burned, 
came the stone for the Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Monument in Indianapolis. John and his family 
moved to another stone area. William's branch 
bought Clayt Dyer's monument shop in Gosport, 

then began the stump gravestone business. Having 
been lumbermen they knew wood and appreciated 
the beauty of trees and so chose the stump as a 
design for honoring the dead. 

Erskin said, smiling, "My father was the only 
brotherwith sales ability. He soldthe monuments. 
He was also an artist. When he sold a monument he 
learned the individual habits and characteristics 
of the person, so he could add special, expressive 
touches to the decorations." (Such as the spinning 
wheel and stack of books to one; the closely en- 
twined vines on another for a notably devoted 
couple; the bread-giving hand on the stone for a 
markedly generous person.) 

"Syl was the best carver," said Erskin. "He 
particularly liked to carve birds." He added, 
smiling, "A stone carver is just a stonecutter with 
an education." Syl was also an inventor. His self- 
computing scale, patented in July 1990, was 
manufactured and sold by the brothers for several 
years. Erskin has one in his basement. Stones for 
the stump monuments came, in 3-ton chunks, 
hauled on horse-drawn log-wagons, from Big Creek 
quarry. They were taken to the cemeteries for 
placing by the same means and young Erskin often 
went along. "I got so a cemetery has no dread for 
me," he said. The brothers didn't make a lot of 
money from the monuments. "That's what gave 
them pleasure, creating something," explained 
Erskin. "It didn't take much to live then. They had 
grapevines and gooseberries. They had a garden, a 
cow, two or three pigs. One year my father's 
income was $300." He paused, then added quietly, 
"We lived on it." 

The four brothers (Cyrus didn't like stone work 
and had gone to Indianapolis to work) worked 
harmoniously. When time came to settle up there 
was no argument, nor in fact even any comparison 
of accounts. In away, therefore, the stump grave- 
stones are also a monument to a family of pioneer 
stone men who worked creatively and happily 
together. — Mrs. R. F. D. 

Sent by Billy A. Stillwell, Stillwell Monumental Sales, 
Frankfort, IN 

Notefrom Warren E. Roberts, Bloomlngton IN: — "Notice 
that she uses the term "stump" In referring to the 
monuments because they are always called "tree- 
stump" gravestones by the people who made them and 
for whom they were made. This is reason enough for 
me to call them the same." Dr. Roberts has collected 
more information about the Hoadley brothers and 
photographs of the stones they carved which will be 
included in his forthcoming book, now in progress. 

AGS Sp '90 p. 10 

AGS member Mary L. Dexter, of Carrboro NC, sent an item from a weekly newspaper from ttie 
"triangle" area of North Carolina — Raleigh, Durham and Chapel Hill. RTP is the Research Triangle 
Park, "an area surrounded somewhat by the three cities and their various universities. Large national 
and international companies have their 'think-tank' complexes located here and draw on university 
brain trust and facilities in the area. " Mary writes that this is "one of those articles that you read and 
then read again put it down and days later read it again". 


by Peggy F. Hull 

The building I work in is one of those new ones on 
the edge of Research Triangle Park. It's a box of 
gleaming glass and brick, surrounded by neat 
plantings with pine straw spread aroundthem, and 
of course, BMWs and Saabs in the reserved parking 
spaces nearest to the front door. Everything is 
climate-controlled and all the windows are sealed 
forever shut, so the only breezes we feel are blown 
from vents in the ceilings. 

Since we moved into the building, I have been 
intending to take brisk walks during my lunch 
hour. But I found it hard to get into the habit of 
walking, until I discovered the cemetery. I found 
the cemetery behind a construction site. It's 
actually in the middle of a parking lot, on a little 
hill between two banks of cars. There are only four 
gravestones and a few trees. I climbed up to see it 
closer and read the tombstone on the left: 

Nettie Mae 

wife of CB Green 

July 28, 1877 

Aug 28 1907 

Sfie was the sunshine 

of our home. 

Then my eye went to the smaller one next to it, and 
I think I knew what it was before I read it: 

John p. 

Son of CB Green and NM Green 

Aug 14, 1907 

Sept 15, 1907 

Our loved one. 

My heart sank as I realized that Nettie, 30 years 
old, died two weeks after giving birth to her son. 

who died two weeks later. Did she she labor long on 
a hot August evening, on a bed in the front room? 
Was a granny midwife there to help? Was a doctor 
fetched, coming on horseback from Durham or 
Chapel Hill, with a black bag in hand? My thoughts 
ran inevitably to my own childbirth experiences: 
the white hospital sheets, the stirrups and the 
gowns, the doctors and the nurses and the interns, 
the fetal monitors, the ultrasound and the antibi- 

Irrepressible images swirled in my head: ourtiny 
baby in a plastic isolette, with tubes from her nose 
and mouth, surrounded by machines. Our Sally, 
who lived only four now-hazy days. At least little 
John was surely held and rocked and sung to by his 
family during his short life. The only time we were 
able to hold Sally was when it was all over and her 
tiny body was disconnected from the machines at 
last. Fortunately, I found a crumpled kleenex at 
the bottom of a pocket. Usually I manage to avoid 
these outpourings by staying away from baby 
showers and the baby products aisles of super- 

I feel a strange kinship with these people who lie 
here surrounded by this parking lot. There aren't 
many people these days who share my experience 
with infant death, who know this ache that never 
goes away. When I go for walks by the cemetery 
now I no longer feel overwhelmed by my sad events. 
In fact, it's kind of nice to think about these pals 
sleeping beside the gleaming new office building. It 
gives a new meaning to my lunchtime walks, and 
when I come back to my building and the phones are 
ringing and the computers humming, I am sure 
once again what's important and what is not. 

AGS Sp '90 p. 11 


essay and photographs by Robert A. Wright, Madi- 
son Wl, from an exhibition at the UWM Art Mu- 
seum, University of Wisconsin-Milwaul<ee, March 
21-May 20, 1990 

The funerary art and 
architecture of New Or- 
leans is more diverse than 
anywhere in America. Be- 
cause the water table is 
very close to the surface, 
below-ground burials are 
not possible there. So, for 
two hundred years, all 
interments inthe city have 
taken place in above- 
ground tombs, many of 
which are elaborate and 

In 1986 I made my first 
trip to New Orleans spe- 
cifically to photograph the 
cemeteries. I subsequently 
made three consecutive 
annual trips: in 1987, 
1988 and 1989. Although 
Louisiana photographers 
have often depicted these 
extraordinary cemeteries, 
I believe I viewed them 
with a fresh perspective 
since I am not a local resi- 

I first became aware of 
these remarkable places in 
1976. During my studies 
as an art major at Kenyon 
College in Ohio, I discov- 
ered the book, Clarence John Laughlin: The per- 
sonal Eye, an Aperture monograph published three 
years earlier. The range of subject matter in this 
book, loosely defined as Americana, is widely varied. 
Although many of the images are evocative, the 
photographs Laughlin made in cemeteries during 
the 1940s and 1950s especially captured my 
attention. The compelling frontispiece image, 
"The Unending Stream" (1941) presented a 
hauntingly beautiful scene that was unlike any- 
thing I had ever seen. A number of photographs in 
this exhibition were made in that same cemetery, 
Cypress Grove. 

Cypress Grove, 1987 

In 1979 I had the opportunity to visit New Orleans 
for a family vacation. During my brief stay as a 
tourist, I shot one roll of 35mm film in an easily 
accessible cemetery. Although I realized Laughlin 
lived on Jackson Square, I was too timid to call on 
him. Two years later, as a graduate photography 
student at the University of Oregon, I found myself 
unexpectedly writing a paper about Laughlin to 
fulfill the requirements for an art criticism 
seminar. Clearly, his work was etched into my 
visual memory. 

AGS Sp '90 p. 12 

After my resettlement to the Midwest in 1983, I 
became seriously engaged in phiotographing ceme- 
teries. A teacher had provided me with a name of 
another photographer who had a similar passion. I 
wrote to Harold Allen in Chicago. Luckily for me, 
Allen turned out to be a widely respected retired 
photography professor who had taught many years 
at the School of the Art Institute. Since demands on 
his time were not extreme after his retirement, he 
graciously offered 
to become my men- 
tor. My photo- 
graphic abilities 
improved greatly 
under his guidance. 
He also encouraged 
me to photograph 
the unparalleled 
wealth of funerary 
art and architec- 
ture in New Or- 
leans, because he 
had traveled there 
several years ear- 
lier to photograph 
glorious Egyptian 
tombs for his own 
monumental ar- 
chive, and he knew 
other riches 

awaited me. 

The skills I learned 
from Allen 

strengthened my 
devotional passion 
to photograph 
cemeteries. 1 em- ' 
barked by car on an 
exciting solo jour- 
ney to the "Cres- 
cent City" with a 

road atlas and my 4x5 camera gear, bursting with 
enthusiasm. It was 1986, a decade after I had first 
seen Laughlin's cemetery photographs. He had died 
the previous year, so sadly, I never did meet him. 
My original intention was to document aestheti- 
cally significant tombs and statues which are pre- 
cariously unstable because of their accelerating 
deterioration. However, I soon began to explore 
visually my intense personal response to the ceme- 
teries. To me, they represent much more than just 

a material repository of that city's culture. Rather, 
I believe the cemeteries of New Orleans superbly 
express the universal human longing to transcend 

Fortunately, artists produce work that reflect 
their own personality. At the beginning of the 
project I was overly concerned that my vision 
would mirror Laughlin's and Allen's work. This 

fear proved unneces- 
sary. Once inside the 
cemeteries, my pho- 
tography became di- 
rected by my own 
unique vision. 1 
quickly discovered 1 
could not duplicate 
theirwork even if that 
had been my purpose. 
However, 1 want to 
gratefully acknowl- 
edge the role each of 
these two photogra- 
phers has had on my 
artistic development. 

The exhibit at the 
University of Wis- 
Art Museum this 
Spring was a repre- 
sentative sample of 
the many hundreds of 
4x5 negatives 1 made 
during the last four 
years. After careful 
editing, this archive 
will yield a substan- 
tial body of work that 
1 want to publish as a 

Metairie, 1989 

Robert A. Wright is a frequent contributor to the 
AGS Newsletter, and to Stone in America , the beau- 
tiful, glossy, monthly magazine of the American 
Monument Association. 

AGS Sp '90 p. 13 




A Location Guide with Plat Maps 

compiled by Fonda D. Baselt and Josephine F. 
Moeller; available from Fonda D. Baselt, 707 Park 
Lane Drive, Champaign IL 61820, $12.50 plus 
$1.00 postage and handling (Illinois residents add 
6% sales tax). 

a review by Jim Jewell, Illinois Valley Commu- 
nity College 

A visit to the Champaign County in Illinois would 
make an interesting stop on any travels in the 
Midwest. The University of Illinois, one of 
Academia's more prestigious institutions, is lo- 
cated there; and there is always something going on 
at one of the many auditoriums at its Krannert 
Center for the Performing Arts. Lake of the Woods 
County Park is nearthe county's west border. The 
award-winning Centennial Theatre Company usu- 
ally has productions going on. And, there are one 
hundred and eleven cemeteries in the county's 
thirty townships! 

The cemeteries on Highways 57, 72 and 74 as well 
as those on State Roads 10 and 130 are easy to 
locate; but those on some of the back roads and side 
streets are often less obvious. Therefore, the 
gravestone enthusiast would be wise to have a copy 
of Cemeteries of Champaign County. Illinois along 
for the trip. Fonda D. Baselt and Josephine F. 
Moeller have compiled a useful location guide 
complete with plat maps. 

The book begins with a county map that has rather 
small lettering and road numbering, but each of the 
township maps is easily readible. The townships 
are alphabetically arranged; and all thirty are 
included, even the three — Raymond, Scott and City 
of Champaign — that have no cemeteries within 
their boundaries. Historical data, including deed 
information, transcription dates, and earliest 
interments are included in each description. 

Layout maps of each cemetery are also included, 
but these will be useful only if the visitor knows 
where he is and who he is looking for. Visitors who 
find something interesting on a day, say, when they 

forgot their camera or had bad weather could mark 
the location on the plat maps for future reference. 
These do give a good idea of the sizes of the ceme- 
teries, and give better indications of size and shape 
in the larger, newer cemeteries. 

There are photographs of al least one cemetery 
from each township, usually a long shot including 
the entrance and sign. I would have preferred 
photographs of the cemeteries' more interesting 
stones, but since the book is geared for genealogists 
and historians, this is a minor criticism. The 
photographs did not always copy well; but some are 
quite nice, expecially the striking Mattingly stone 
with an angel on a cross in Champaign Township's 
St. Mary's Cemetery and the lovely Greek columns 
at the entrance to Woodlawn in Urbania Township. 

The authors also include known former burial 
sites in the county, many on private property, and 
give information on reburials. These references 
provide historical data of the area. Many of these 
sections include genealogical data of the families. 

One interesting cemetery included is the Homer 
G.A.R. Cemetery in South Homer Township. The 
authors state that "this is the only G.A.R. cemetery 
in the state and probably. the United States 
which is operated by an American Legion Post." An 
impressive Civil War statue dominates the ceme- 
tery, and it appears to be a stopping place any Civil 
War buff would enjoy. 

The book includes informative sections on ceme- 
tery research tips, a check-list for research, 
cemetery record forms, and a bibliography for 
Champaign County research. This is a volume of 
primary interest to Illinois researchers, and 
possibly other midwestern cemtery visitors. But 
it is a good volume for others to emulate. If other 
counties in other states provided such a volume, we 
could have a national network of guides, which 
would make our AGS endeavors easier, and save 
time as well! 

AGS Sp '90 p. 14 

Silent City on a Hill, Landscapes of Memory and 
Boston's Mount Auburn Cemetery 
by Blanche Linden-Ward 

Ohio State University Press, 1989; hard cover 

Silent City on a Hill, Landscapes of Memory and 
Boston's Mount Auburn Cemetery by Blanche 
Linden-Ward is a richly illustrated history of the 
founding and early development of Mount Auburn 
Cemetery, the nation's first rural cemetery, and 
of the intellectual, social and aesthetic movements 
from which it sprang. The author examines the 
role of the rural cemetery movement in the United 
States and its effect on the growth of landscapes up 
and down the eastern seaboard during the late 19th 
century. Linden-Ward looks back to England and 
France and explores the ideas lying behind both a 
new way of commemorating the dead and the crea- 
tion of quasi-public open spaces for the living. 
Hundreds of black and white illustrations accom- 
pany the text, including historic engravings, 
contemporary photographs of Mount Auburn and 
photographs of related sites around the world. 

from the Newsletter of the American Association of 
Botanical Gardens and Arboreta, #185, May 1990, 
sent by George Kackley, Baltimore MD. 

Edgar County IL Genealogical Records 

Mrs. A. Joyce Brown of Brocton, IL has written 
indicating publications of burial records which 
are available from her and from the Edgar County, 
Illinois, Genealogical Society. She has for sale a 
book on the Edgar Cemetery compiled from origi- 
nal burial records, not tombstones, an index to 
Edgar County estates and wills (1823-1963), 
and an index to Edgar County miscellaneous pro- 
bate records (1823-1963). The Edgar County 
Genealogical Society has for sale records of Cook's 
Funeral Home (1892-1902), Edgar County 
marriages (1823-1877), and Prairie Township 
Chapel Cemetery. Mrs. Brown will do genealogical 
research in Edgar, Clark, Coles, Douglas Counties, 
Illinois and/or Vigo County, Indiana. For more 
information, send a SASE to Mrs. A. Joyce Brown, 
RR1, Box 165, Brocton, IL 61917, tel. 217/ 


The Nova Scotia Museum has developed a guide and 
standards for the computer entry and use of data in 
a graveyard inventory. Use of this dictionary by 
those intending to establish newgraveyard inven- 
tories, will aid in understanding the database and 
ensure that the graveyard information is main- 
tained in a standard and consistent form. The field 
definitions have been constructed such that these 
fields could be used for any cemetery or graveyard 
related inventory. The fields used in this inven- 
tory and their corresponding field definitions are 
based on standards set by the Canadian Heritage 
Information Network (CHIN). 

In 1984, Deborah Trask, of the Nova Scotia Mu- 
seum staff, adapted the "individual marker record 
card" explained in the AGS publication Markers I 
("Recording Cemetery Data" by F. Joanne Baker 
and Daniel Farber, field tested by Anne Giesecke), 
for one cemetery recording project. This was later 
refined for typical Nova Scotia cemeteries, and is 
currently in use in recording projects around the 
province organized through county historical or 
genealogical societies. Now these groups want to 
computerize their data, and so the NS Museum has 
developed this Inventory Guide and Data Diction- 

The database structure defined in the data diction- 
ary provides a comprehensive system for the 
recording of graveyard inventory information. 
Graveyard inventories can be developed using all 
or only a portion of the defined fields. In this way, 
a database system can be custom tailored to fit the 
requirements of individual institutions. Most 
commercially available computerized database 
management systems (DBMS's) will allow easy 
development of the fields described in this guide 
and permit the data type and indexing require- 
ments specified. The index classes assigned have 
been chosen based on which fields are most likely 
to be frequently searched in routine use of a 
graveyard inventory. 

For more information, contact: 

Paul Collins 


Nova Scotia Museum 

1747 Summer St. 

Halifax, Nova Scotia 

B3H 3A6 


(902) 429-4610. 




AGS Sp '90 p. 15 


by Estella K. Bryans-Munson 

Walking through the woods on a sunny afternoon, 
you stumble upon a small collection of grave stones 
nestled amongst the trees. You wonder if any one 
else knows that this cemetery exists. Upon re- 
turning home, you call the library in search of 
further information. This is your lucky day, 
because one of the best sources for information 
about Fairfax County cemeteries is Brian Conley, 
a librarian in the Virginia Room of the Fairfax City 
Regional Library. Since 1986, he has informally 
been keeping an inventory of cemeteries in the 
county, the purpose of the inventoryis to preserve 
the historical record which cemeteries represent. 
When he began to keep the inventory, there were 
174 known cemeteries in Fairfax County. As of 
February 1989, the total had jumped to 266. The 
increase in the number of known cemeteries has 
resulted largely from citizen reports. 

Interest in local cemeteries is not a new phenome- 
non. In the 1920s, Carrie White Avery surveyed 
cemeteries in various southern states. Two of her 
four notebooks, now at the Library of Congress, 
deal exclusively with Virginia, and one of these 
includes a section on Fairfax county. In 1977, 
Jane Kirkpatrick Wall surveyed a total of ninety- 
four Fairfax cemeteries. Finally, in 1986 Terry 
Middleton, then an intern at the Heritage Re- 
sources Branch, used information from the inven- 
tory to create a database to assist Heritage Re- 
sources staff with land use planning. 

Wall's 1977 survey forms the core of the ceme- 
tery inventory. Additional sites have been located 
through the examination of county tax maps and 
U.S. Geological Survey maps, local histories, the 
Virginia Historic Landmarks Inventory, and the 
1936 Historic American Buildings Survey. Ar- 
chaeologists from the Heritage Resources Branch 
of the Fairfax County Office of Comprehensive 
Planning have located about fifty additional ceme- 

What happens when a cemetery is located and 
reported? First, the report is checked against the 
list of inventoried sites. If the cemetery is already 
listed, information on file about it is shared with 
the informant. If the cemetery is not on the 
inventory, Conley records any information which 
the informant can provide. The location of the 

cemetery is especially important. 

For each cemetery on the inventory, a file is 
created, the ideal file would contain the precise 
location of the cemetery on the County quad map, a 
description of the location, the name of the ceme- 
tery (if known), a description of the cemetery, an 
inventory of al known graves in the cemetery, a 
brief history of it, a chain of title for the land, the 
name of the person who first reported the site, 
copies of any published references to the site, and 
photographs of the cemetery. The Heritage Re- 
sources database is also updated with this infor- 
mation. Unfortunately, few files of this caliber 
actually exist. 

Whenever possible, field surveys of newly re- 
ported cemeteries are conducted. This allows 
Conley to determine whether or not the reported 
location is correct, to record the condition of the 
site, to record information from grave markers, 
and to photograph the site. Conley prefers to 
survey in the fall and winter, when defoliation of 
deciduous trees and seasonal die-back of ground 
cover allows better access to sites. Such seasonal 
conditions also make it easier to assess the condi- 
tion of a cemetery, as some features (broken grave 
stones lying flat on the ground, for example) are 
more easily located with less vegetation present. 
In some cases, survey reveals that the site is 
actually much larger than reported, as only a 
small portion of the site was visible at the time of 
"discovery." Size differences usually are the 
result of the presence of unmarked graves. 

The size and location of cemeteries, as well as any 
inscriptions on grave markers within a given 
cemetery are especially important to historians 
and anthropologists because of the information 
they can relate about local populations. Marker 
inscriptions contain a variety of information that 
is useful to both genealogists and historians. This 
information ranges from simple names and dates to 
more complex narrations of family connections, 
major accomplishments of the deceased, and brief 
inspirational messages. Location and size of ceme- 
teries can tell us when and where various families 
were living in Fairfax County, and can also tell us 
how those families interacted within a specific 
area of the country. This information is essential 
to genealogists and helps us to understand social 
relationships and community interactions. Within 
cemeteries, the condition of grave markers can 
tell us about the economic position of families over 
time. For example, a cemetery with a large central 

AGS Sp '90 p. 16 

marker surrounded by a number of individual 
markers, such as the Talieffaro Cemetery, is an 
indication of greater wealth than a cemetery where 
the graves are either unmarked or marked simply 
by pieces of field stone. Changes to family fortunes 
over time may be indicated by the condition of the 
markers, such as those at the Mason Cemetery at 
Gunston Hall Plantation. The layout of cemeteries 
and the orientation of graves within a cemetery 
often reflects our religious and cultural heritage. 
A cemetery which is well maintained is generally 
indicative of the continued presence of family 
members within the community, while a cemetery 
which is abandoned may indicate the disappearance 
or financial decline of that family. 

limits his or her activity to breaking, uprooting, 
and scattering grave markers. The second group 
does that and more. The line between relic hunting 
and grave robbing is an extremely fine one. Re- 
gardless of what the activity is called, the Code of 
Virginia (Title 18, sections 2-125 through 2- 
127) classifies "violation of a sepulcure" as a 
class four felony, "trespass at night upon a ceme- 
tery" as a class four midemeanor, and "injuries to 
cemeteries, burial grounds, etc." as a class one 
misdemeanor. Unfortunately, the state code is 
difficult to enforce since the "willful intent" of 
the offender must be demonstrated. This is a 
problem which will grow along with pressures to 
develop Fairfax County. 

Conley is especially concerned about the recent 
increase of vancalism and willful destruction of 
cemeteries in Fairfax County. Cemeteries are 
non-renewable resources, and once disturbed, 
lose the potential to educate or serve as community 
landmarks. The case of the Saint Timothy's ceme- 
tery, as reported in the CentreView newspaper is 
but one example. Although weather and time take 
their toll on cemeteries, especially when graves 
are marked with soft stones such as marble or 
sandstone or with perishable materials such as 
wood, the main agent of cemetery destruction is 
people. Generally, cemetery vandals seem to fall 

into two groups; those who vandalize for "fun," 
and those who are unscrupulous souvenir and/or 
relic hunters. The first sort of vandal usually 

As a citizen, you can take an active part in combat- 
ting ignorance and increasing our knowledge of 
local history. Several local historical societies, 
including the Fairfax Genealogical Society and the 
Historic Centreville Society, are currently sur- 
veying county cemeteries. Finally, if you know of 
a cemetery that should be placerd on the cemetery 
inventory, you can help by contacting Brian Con- 
ley at (703) 246-2123. 

history, archaeology and preservation newsletter 
published by the Heritage Resources Branch of the 
Office of Comprehensive Planning, Fairfax County, 
VA. The author is a historian with the Heritage 
Resources Branch. 

Brian A. Conley, Librarian at the Fairfax City Regional Library, Fairfax, VA, and AGS member, has sent 
two items for the Archives. One is the draft of a Guide to the Cemeteries of Fairfax, Arlington and Al- 
exandria, Virginia. This is scheduled to be published by the end of 1 990. The other is Senate Document 
No. 31 , "The Problems of Small Community Family-Type Cemeteries," a report of the Department of 
Historic Resources to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia. 



AGS Sp -90 p. 17 


'1 IF13@IM1 

© (L© © 


MOCA Publishes Update of Maine Cemetery 

The Maine Old Cemetery Association has published a 
six-page paper describing some of the state laws 
pertaining to cemeteries in Maine. These are current, 
having been revised as of April 12, 1990. Major 
headings pertain to maintenance and repair of burying 
grounds, their protection and preservation, the use of 
unoccupied interment spaces, burglary and criminal 
trespass, desecration and defacement, illegal posses- 
sion or sale of gravestones, sentences of imprison- 
ment, and fines. 

Additional sub-chapters are listed which deal with 
some general provisions for burying grounds, opera- 
tion of public cemeteries, and the supervision of 
mausoleums and vaults. 

For a copy, send a self addressed, stamped envelope to 
MOCA President Otto W. Siebert, PO Box 823, Au- 
gusta, ME 04332-0823. 


Last year F. A. C.S.I, received a monetary grant from 
the Staten Island Council on the Arts, Inc. to document 
early gravestones that have lost their inscriptions to 
erosion or vandalism. The work has been carried out 
during the past year and now nears its conclusion. 

Their goal was to photograph approximately 700 early 
gravestones and to mount the prints into hard cover 
books. A 1923 work done by local historians who 
copied all gravestone inscriptions in cemeteries they 
feared threatened provided the illegible inscriptions 
from the photographed stones. Each inscription has 
been mounted with its proper photograph, thereby 
providing full data for the researcher. Since the entire 
work is indexed, it is possible for any person attempt- 
ing to locate a particular gravestone will not only be 
able to recognize that stone in its present state but will 
have the inscription in hand. 

Marge Johnson and Fred Crane located, identified and 
photographed well over 1,100 eighteenth and nine- 
teenth century white marble and brownstone grave- 
stones in ten abandoned and operating cemeteries. 
Janis Kiernan has typed the inscriptions for each. The 
book is nearly completed and will soon be available. 
For more information write F. A. C.S.I, 140 Tysen 
Street, Staten Island, NY 10301. 

Fromthe F. A. C.S.I. Newsletter, Vol. 7, No. 1 , Jan-Mar 
1990. Several AGS members belong to FACSI. 


New member Martha Reamy, previously from Mary- 
land and now from Waipahu, Hawaii is launching a 
cemetery project which she would like to publicize and 
issue an invitation to AGS members to assist. 

The purpose of this project is to document, in the form 
of a bibliography, the U.S. cemeteries which have had 
their gravestone inscriptions and epitaphs recorded, 
both published and unpublished. The data on the ceme- 
teries is arranged by state, thereunder by county; so 
that persons doing research can easily ascertain 
whether or not a cemetery in the area they are 
researching has ever been recorded and where they 
can get a copy of the documentation. The data listed is 
the author's name, specific name of publication, city 
published, publisher's name, date published, number of 
pages and if indexed. Also a short description giving 
names of cemeteries included and other data contained 
in the publication, such as mortuary, church or obitu- 
ary records. In the case of periodicals, the name of the 
periodical, where published and the volume and page 
numbers where the records are given. 

How can you help? Many cemetery readings have been 
published in various local society newsletters overthe 
years. Most of these records are not easily available 
to Martha. Anyone with access to such newsletters 
could be helpful. If you wish to dispose of old catalogs 
or any periodicals containing this type of data, please 
send them to Martha who will reimburse you for the 
postage required. Please write to her first to deter- 
mine that she does not already have them. When 
Martha finishes with them, she will donate them to a 
society which will put them on the shelf. 

If you know of a similar project being done for a 
specific area, Martha would appreciate your contact- 
ing her with that information as it would help her avoid 
duplicating work already being done. 

Please write to Mart ha Re amy, 94-106 Man awa Place, 
P-204, Waipahu, HI 96797, giving the geographical 
location of the area you can help with or the kind of 
materials to which you could give her access. 

AGS Sp W p. 18 



Donna LaRue, Somerville MA, lead a session for the 
Boston Adult Education Program on April 21 . She 
showed her slide program of the Old Burial Ground 
at Harvard Square, Cambridge, MA and followed it 
by a walking tour of Granary and King's Chapel 
Burying Grounds. 

Cornelia Jenness, Spofford NH, was a speaker at 
the annual meeting of the Association of New 
Hampshire Historical Societies on April 28 in 
Keene, NH. She spoke on "Compiling a Cemetery 

Toni Cook, South Bend IN, was speaker in May for 
the Indiana Genealogical Society. Her topic was 
"Cemetery Sleuthing." 

Dr. Blanche Linden-Ward, Assistant Professor at 
Emerson College led a walking tour on May 5 at 
Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge MA. The 
tour was titled "The Cultural History of Mount 
Auburn's Landscape." 

D. Lindsay Pettus, President of the Lancaster County 
[SC] Society for Historical Preservation, reports 
that the society conducted a historic cemetery 
preservation seminar on March 17, 1990 at the 
Old Waxhaw Presbyterian Church in Lancaster, 
South Carolina. AGS member Lynette Strangstad of 
Stone Faces in Charleston was the principal speaker 
on a program of information regarding the repair, 
documentation, and long-term preservation of the 
area's historic burial grounds. Attendance was 
open to those responsible for maintaining older 
cemeteries throughout the county. 

The Lancaster County Society is responsible for 
and has ownership of a Community Cemetery and 
the former Presbyterian Church building in Lan- 
caster. Since 1976 they have been maintaining 
and gradually restoring this site which is on the 
National Register of Historic Places. A Society 
member, Andee Steen, chairof the LancasterCounty 
Historical Commission, has made a plant survey in 
the cemetery, listing all the various wild plants 
found growing there. Fifty-four varieties were 
listed in the fall of 1988 and spring of 1989. 

The Foundation for Field Research in Alpine CA 
invites interested people to join them as field 
assistants working closely with scientists on 
worldwide expeditions during 1990 and 1991. 
Lodging and meals, ground transportation, most of 
the field gear, a grant to the researcher, admini- 
stration costs, preparatory booklet, and a final 
report from the researcher are included in a tax- 
deductible contribution cost. Airfare is not in- 
cluded, yet is tax-deductible in many situation. 

Some of the projects include: 

the excavation of a Roman grave site located 
in the fertile German farmlands, 
the historic excavation of a unique commu- 
nity in Connecticut once populated by a 
seemingly disparate group of outcastsf rom 
mainstream Early American culture, 
excavation on the island of Grenada, West 
Indies at one of the Caribbean's oldest and 
largest archaeological sites, 
an architectural survey of the Romanesque 
crypt which lies underneath the Gothic 
cathedral in Chartres, France, 
the excavation of a 15th century vessel 
which shipwrecked off the Oregon coast and 
now lies buried in a sandbar — 
and much, much morel 

For a 48 page catalogue listing all expeditions 
through 1991 send to Foundation for Field Re- 
search, PO Box 2010, Alpine, CA 92001 or call 


Catherine Andrews is researching stone walls — 
the dating of stone walls, the construction tech- 
niques that were used in various parts of the 
country and at various times in history, types of 
stone, etc. If you have any material on or interest 
in this topic, please contact her at 71 Ardmore 
Avenue, Providence, Rl 02908. 

Sybil Crawford reports she is traveling to London 
in the Fall and hopes to purchase a copy of Victorian 
Valhalla if it can be had. If any other AGS members 
would like her to pick up a copy for them, she will 
try to purchase several. Write: Mrs. Thomas E. 
Crawford, 10548 Stone Canyon Road - #228, 
Dallas, TX 75230-4408. 

AGSSp '90 p. 19 


The Margaret Woodbury Strong Museum in Roch- 
ester NY has recently acquired the approximately 
one thousand post-mortem photographs and 
mourning-related objects which make up the 
Walter Johnson Collection. Johnson, who for- 
merly taught photo history and photography at 
Ohio State University, compiled a nationally known 
collection of mourning materials that document 
this country's nineteenth and early twentieth 
century's attitudes about death. 

This collection provides us with an intimate look at 
mourning practices of the past. Contrary to today's 
"Forbidden Death" attitude, these photographs 
represent an era in which death was romanticized 
and dramatized. Often, these images were the only 
means of preserving a beloved family member's 
likeness. The Johnson Collection of posthumous 
portraits, memorial cards, mourning jewelry, 
advertisements and prints is now available for 
study. Contact curator Deborah Smith at the Strong 
Museum for further information. 


The AGS Research Clearing House has been coordi- 
nated by Laurel Gabel for a number of years. As 
time has gone by, she has accumulated various 
kinds of records. AGS members should be aware of 
the excellent resources that are available through 
a simple call or letter to Laurel. To reach her 
write 205 Fishers Road, Pittsford, NY 14534, 
telephone 716/248-3453. 

1. The Farber Collection 

This is a photographic resource provided to 
Laurel by Daniel and Jessie Lie Farber of 
close to 1 5,000 photocopies of mostly pre- 
1820 New England and East Coast grave- 
stones with a sampling from Virginia, 
Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, 
North and South Carolina, and Nova Scotia. 

These are indexed by name of deceased, 
date, location and carver, if known. 

2. File of articles on gravestones, death and 
dying, burial customs of the 17th, 18th 
and 19th centuries. 

3. Computer data base of more than 7000 
records from four Boston, MA burying 
grounds (Kings Chapel, Granary, Copp's 
Hill and Eliot in Roxbury). Soon to be added 
are additional Boston yards, Salem, New- 
ton and Charlestown, MA. 

Every gravemarker is recorded with ge- 
nealogical information on the stone. Epi- 
taphs are on the original inventory but 
seldom part of the computer report. 

4. A list of known carvers of the 17th, 
18th, and 19th centuries. Retrieval by 
name, date, place of the signed stone, and 
additional data when known. These are 
from around the country, not just New 
England. This is an ongoing collection. If 
you have information to add, please contact 

5. Fraternal organizations — pictures or 
descriptions of fraternal, military, and 
occupational society emblems found on 
gravemarkers. This is a new file, so addi- 
tional information is always welcome. 

6. A list of people with research in prog- 
ress and their subjects. If you have not 
recorded your research subject with Lau- 
rel, we hope you will so she can put people 
with similar subjects in touch with each 
other or engage your expertise when in- 
quiries come in relating to your subject. 

Markers editor, Theodore Chase recently dis- 
covered some more things at the Massachusetts 
Historical Society which may interest members. 
The Society has a small quatro volume containing 
both drawings and epitaphs of Watertown (1858- 
9) and Waltham (1867) done by Frank W. Bige- 
low. Are there epitaph collections much earlier 
than this? 

There is also a monograph on the gravestones in 
Boston and vicinity by Charles Allerton Coolidge 
done in Boston in 1919 and consisting of about 10 
typed pages and a collection of perhaps 175 4"x5" 
photographs of 17th- and 18th-century stones, 
including selected pictures at King's Chapel, the 
Granary and Copp's Hill in Boston, North Dorch- 
ester, Cambridge, Phipps Street in Charlestown, 
Pylmouth, Concord, Salem, the Old Ship Church in 
Hingham and many others. 

AGS Sp '90 p. 20 

History of Congressional Cemetery 

ing the funds for the construction of a new fence. 

Congressional Cemetery was established by a group 
of private citizens on April 4, 1807. The founders 
enclosed the square, appointed a sexton, and began 
selling sites for $2.00. Free of debt in 1812, it was 
ceded to the vestry of Christ Church, Washington 
Parish, and became known as Washington Parish Burial 

From the beginning the cemetery enjoyed a close 
association with the Capitol and its environs. The first 
interment -April 11, 1807-was of WilliamSwin ton, 
regarded as the finest stonecutter in Philadelphia, who 
had been recruited the previous August by Benjamin 
Latrobe to work on the Capitol Building. On July 19, 
1897, Sen. Uriah Tracy of Connecticut became the 
first legislator to be buried here. 

In 1816, as a gesture of good will, the vestry set aside 
100 burial sites for the interment of Members of 
Congress. Later the privilege was extended to their 
families and to heads of departments and their fami- 
lies. Periodically, other sites were donated to or 
purchased by the government, eventually totaling 
924. Generally, those sites were used for the inter- 
ment of officials who died in office. Other dignitaries 
lie in private plots scattered throughout the cemetery. 

In 1835, a receiving vault was built to hold remains 
until either the gravesite could be prepared or trans- 
portation arranged to another city. The bodies of 
Presidents William Henry Harrison, John Quincy 
Adams, and Zachary Taylor and First Ladies Dolley 
Madison and Louisa Adams were held here pending 
removal to their home states. Journals of the nine- 
teenth century are replete with accounts of funeral 
processions from the Capitol which conclude at the 
Public Vault. 

With the increased use of the cemetery by the govern- 
ment, it became more commonly known as Congres- 
sional Cemetery. Although unofficial as the resting 
place for Members of Congress, some Members were 
re inter red here from other cemeteries as far away as 
New York. Over each grave the Congress erected a 
monument designed by Benjamin Latrobe, architect of 
the Capitol. For those Members who died in office and 
were buried elsewhere, the Congress erected ceno- 
taphs, or "empty tombs," of the same Latrobe design 
to commemorate their service. 

From time to time, application was made to the Con- 
gress for funds for improvements to the cemetery. It 
provided for a brick wall, a keeper's house, a receiv- 
ing vault, and other repairs and improvements. In 
1857, a request for the transfer of the fence sur- 
rounding the Capitol grounds to the cemetery was 
denied as the cemetery was not public ground. Instead, 
the Congress purchased 500 sites for $5, 000, pro V id - 

By 1876, advances in transportation had made it 
easier for Members of Congress to be returned to their 
home states for burial; the construction of cenotaphs 
was deemed too costly and the Congress' participation 
inthecemetery was greatly diminished. Few Members 
have since been interred on government ground, al- 
though some have been buried in private family plots. 

In spite of its private and unofficial status. Congres- 
sional Cemetery can be considered the first national 
cemetery. It is more diverse than most in its inclusion 
of non-military citizenry among the 60,000 inter- 
ments which continue to this day. 

In addition to the elected Members and officers of the 
Congress, there are many who rest here who contrib- 
uted to the building of the Capitol and to the operation 
of the Congress. Here are architects and carpenters, 
artists and stone masons, clerks and pages. 

The names listed in this brochure, while significant, 
represent fewer than 200 of the 60,000 people in- 
terred in Congressional. Peoplefrom all walksof life — 
Cabinet members. Generals, merchants, indigents; 
native Americans and foreign diplomats; from the 
earliest residents of the city to the present day, all lie 
here side by side. Most numerous of all are the 
children: with the high infant mortality of the 19th 
century, there are more children here than adults. For 
more information about interments not listed here, 
please contact the Congressional Cemetery Associa- 
tion at the address below. 

In 1 976, The Congressional Cemetery Association was 
formed to administer whatthen was acemetery nearly 
abandoned and bankrupt with 33 acres in great disre- 
pair. Gradually, the Association has been able to 
upgrade the grounds and to restore the Chapel. The 
Association, independent and nondenominational, re- 
lies on individual contributions to provide it the means 
to maintain and improve this historic site. Tax- 
deductible contributions are gratefully accepted 

The Association for the Preservation of 

Historic Congressional Cemetery 

1801 E Street, Southeast 

Washington, DC 20003 

Telephone (202) 543-0539 

from a booklet entitled "The Congress of tfie United 
States Congressional Cemetery. In addition to the 
brief history of the cemetery, there are lists of 
/Members of the Senate and House of Representatives, 
and officers of the Congress that are interred in the 
cemetery, and a list of cenotaphs. This was sent to us 
by Toni L. Cook, South Bend, IN. 

AGS Sp '90 p. 21 


by George Kackley 

An article in the New York Times about Mozart's 
gravel reminds me that my experience as super- 
intendent of a 19th century garden (or "rural") 
cemetery offers some understandings that I might 
share with other "diggers". The article tells us 

The persistent legend that his body was thrown 
into a mass grave is disproved by documen- 
tary evidence. The composer actually re- 
ceived what was known as a third-class bur- 
ial, meaning individual interment with a mini- 
mum of ceremony, such as was accorded to the 
poorest. (Mass graves were dug only in times 
of epidemic or war.) When the grave-digger 
was questioned much later he could remember 
only that Mozart's coffin was lowered into a 
shaft near a lilac shrub. 

It seems probable that an old gravedigger of Vi- 
enna, confronted by awed and important pilgrims, 
would cover up more than the body, by saying a 
coffin was lowered into the shaft. It is equally 
probable that he did not use the word "coffin" and 
is misquoted. If he did, he was just clothing 
Wolfgang with a little needed dignity. 

Continuing the urge to add respectability, a re- 
porter tells us that l^ozart's was an "individual" 
interment, so we are led to think of him in a grave 
site that contains only one body. The contrast with 
enormous mass graves leads us to think of the 
antithesis, one body in a grave. The shaft graves in 
urban cemeteries were not that kind of mass grave 
we see at those [Moscow and Leningrad necropolises 
of World War II. Notice that Mozart "was lov;ered 
into a shaft". 

Americans are apt to think of there being only one 
body in one grave site. This could be done in rural 
and suburban America, where there has been ample 
space. I made possible an ideal of one marker for 
each person. This has not been the practice in 
crowded countries and in urban burial grounds 
that fill up very quickly. 

For centuries, there have been various tactics to 
make the burial grounds take more bodies. One, 
used for the common people (the "poorest") was 
to stack a dozen or more bodies in one grave shaft. 
The first body was lowered into the deep grave. 
Lime was shoveled over it; then a thin layer of 

earth. The deep grave was left open, and (soon 
enough in an urban cemetery) the next body came 
with more lime and another thin layer of earth; 
etc. Such a grave could take more than one body for 
each foot of depth (not counting the top one or two 
feet). I have heard of such graves dug twenty feet 
deep; howeverthe problems of raising the soil and 
avoiding cave-ins make me question the efficiency 
of that depth. I have accomplished digs twelve and 
fifteen feet deep. 

There are a good many people today who want their 
bodies to decay and become a part of the earth. The 
profits in metal and unbiodegradable caskets and 
grave liners, with laws and cemetery regulations 
requiring them, bother these people, because they 
do not allow the body to return to the earth. Some 
of the most dignified burials I have witnessed have 
had the wrapped body, without casket or hearse, 
carried by the bearers on a stretcher to the grave. 
These were in Greece. I feel sure that Mozart's 
body was buried sans casket, in the same reverent, 
unsentimental manner. Its burial scene helped 
make Amadeus one of the great movies. 

I am equally sure that a third-grade burial was 
into a shaft that took a number of bodies, for that 
was a common and honorable expedient in city 
cemeteries long before Mozart died and much later. 
After all, these members of the community could 
not afford individual graves, caskets, grave lin- 
ers, monuments and careful record of who lies 
where in the cemetery office. They are, in death, 
very much as they were in life, getting services to 
which they were accustomed. 

* * * * 

Now, where is the "documentary evidence" of the 
New York Times article? After reading and pon- 
dering AGS publications, one gets the idea that the 
only records of old tombstones is on the stones 
themselves and in probate archives, plus a few 
surviving letters and newspapers. Cemeteries 
kept detailed records of who went where (though 
sometimes only the whos of proper importance) 
and who set markers where. Such records evi- 
dently exist for St. Marx2 Cemetery in Vienna. 
That is the place for the cited documentation. 
Unfortunately, cemetery management often hides 
these records and denies their existence, to avoid 
being bothered by AGS types and genealogists. AGS 
members should be tracking down these records, 
which sometimes include much information about 
markers and often correct information on the 

AGS Sp '90 p. 22 

markers. Don't believe cemetery offices when 
they tell you they don't have the records you 
need. Reason with a management that might 
welcome an opportunity to buck to us their un- 
wanted burden. 


This matter of Mozart's grave points to another 
problem in gravestone studies: a "marker" does 
not always mark the place of burial. There is a 
marker for ivlozart — a nineteenth century work — 
at approximately the site of the burial. Isn't 
that "appropriately" just as apt in many New 
England cemeteries? — where stones have cer- 
tainly been moved for one reason or another, to 
turn the stew of Puritan burial ground into a 
more ordered place, to facilitate mowing, etc. ' 
The New York Times photograph of the Ivlozart 
grave shows a bronze plaque and a marble angel, 
both pointing to the burial site, a definite burial 
site, usually strewn with flowers. No one really 
pretends that it is definitely the right spot. Does 
it matter? 

1 . "Where Mozart Made Music and a Life in Vienna: Ahead of 
the Bicentenary of His Death, Visiting the Composer's 
Haunts", by Paul Hofmann, New York Times, Sunday April 
19, 1990, section XX, pages 19, 31, illustrated. 

Gregory Hazelden, an art history student at Skid- 
more College, Saratoga Springs NY, served an 
internship with the Saratoga Springs Preserva- 
tion Foundation (SSPF) last summer. Among many 
tasks he completed during his internship was 
research on the lives of early Saratogians buried 
in the Gideon Putnam Burying Ground in downtown 
Saratoga Springs. The city's first municipal burial 
yard, the Franklin Street plot is being rehabili- 
tated as a public green space and outdoor classroom 
for the study of local history. Hazelden used an 
1878 county history and personal reminiscences 
found in local libraries to construct a map of the 
cemetery, plotting gravesites from the 1820s to 
1 840s. Also, he wrote accounts of the tradespeople 
buried there: blacksmiths, grocers, a milliner, 
and servants. From these materials, Hazelden 
worked with SSPF staff members to produce three 
curriculum units on local history for third- and 
fourth-grade students. 

from the Skid more College alumni magazine ^KM:: 
more Scope . April 1990, sent by Evelyn Hansen, 
Southampton NY. 

Mozart memorial in St. Marx Cemetery 
2. Sic. as with Karl before it! 

George Kackley, Baltimore MD, is a former cemetery 
superintendent and a frequent contributor to the AGS 

Janet Bartow of Woodbury, CT writes: 

Last year, I discovered an abandoned burial ground 
in Southbury, CT. In it was a table stone to the 
memory of Thomas Solley erected by his descen- 
dants in 1912. The epitaph read thus: 

Thomas Solley - First ancestor of the 
Connecticut branch of the Solley family in 

Born in England, Aug. 14, 1759. Died in 
Southbury CT, June 1, 1829. 
Captured when aged 19 with other lads at 
sport by the royal press-gang of King 
George III. He was sent with the British 
Army to America to suppress the Revolu- 
tionary War 

Deserted and enlisted in Washington's army 
in 1781, where he served 2 years and 
seven months. 

Advanced to rank of Sergeant. Revolu- 
tionary War pensioner." 

I informed the Southbury Historical Society of its 
location. A group of members inspected the long- 
neglected plot. John Holland, a Boy Scout of 
Southbury, took on the project of reclaiming the 
cemetery, doing rubbings of the stones, clearing a 
path and other repairs. This project went toward 
his Eagle Scout badge. 

AGS Sp '90 p. 23 


An article titled "Mississippi officials ponder 
grave case", originally published in the Jackson 
MS Clarion-Ledger, was spotted in the Atlanta GA 
Journal and Constitution, February 18, 1990, 
and sent to AGS by David Paul Davenport of Mari- 
etta GA: 

George Thompson was walking around the Univer- 
sity of Mississippi Medical Center campus when he 
saw them in a gully: broken slabs of marble and 
granite. "There's just tons and tons of debris 
dumped back there," says Mr. Thompson, who has 
talked to 25 people in government agencies to try 
to solve the mystery. He suspects he discovered 
headstones from an old cemetery shoved aside to 
make room for new medical center buildings. 
Michael Beard, a state historian investigating the 
case, believes the stones could be part of a ceme- 
tery attached to the old State Insane Hospital, 
located on the site through 1935. 

Archives department records call the cemetery 
Asylum Cemetery or Old Mississippi State Hospi- 
tal Cemetery. The cemetery also is described as a 
paupers' field in Ttie Old Cemeteries of Hinds 
County MS from 1811 to ttie Present, a book by 
Mary Collins Landin of Utica. Ms. Landin thinks 
the stones represent people whose families could 
afford to buy markers — most likely patients who 
died at the tuberculosis hospital also located on the 
site. She says most of the tombstones still were in 
place as part of the marked cemetery, on higher 
ground above the gully, when she conducted her 
survey in 1979. She was able to copy inscriptions 
from the only five stones, the oldest one of which 
was dated 1888. At least three of those now lie in 
the dump. 

"We're trying to find out if the burials were 
moved," Mr. Beard says. A permit could be ob- 
tained through the county coroner's office to move 

a grave, he explains, but the stones' historical 
value was destroyed when they were toppled. 

An "Across the Atlantic", regular feature in the 
Halifax NS Ctironicle-Herald, by Michael Cope in 
London, June 2, 1990, titled "Turning Karl Marx 
into a tidy profit" featured Highgate Cemetery. 

It has been a hallmark of Margaret Thatcher's long 
occupancy — 11 years now — of the British prime 
ministership that everything publicly owned should 
be privatized, or denationalized. Even the ceme- 

Not too many feathers were ruffled; municipal 
authorities for the most part were not sorry to get 
rid of the maintenance costs to private developers 
and charitable organizations which have made 
something of a killing (pun intended!) selling 
burial plots and exacting ongoing service charges 
for keeping sites trimmed and tidied. 

There is even a modest bonus for those running the 
Highgate cemetery in north London where Karl 
Marx is buried: those who want to view the 
ideologist's ostentatious grave (surmounted by a 
bigger than life-sized sculpture of his head and 
shoulders with the exhortation "Workers of all 
lands unite"), are now required to pay $2 to gaze 
upon it. 

Marx died in London, where he spent the last 33 
years of his life, mostly impoverished, in March 
1883 and his grave has since become a shrine for 
socialists of all hues, especially communists, as 
well as a powerful tourist attraction for the curi- 
ous but politically uncommitted. Hundreds still 
flock there each week, mostly foreign visitors, 
who the Friends of Highgate Cemetery, the chari- 
table organization set up to take it over six years 
ago, see as a steady source of income. 

The Maine Old Cemetery Association (MOCA) Spring 
1990 A/eivs/effer mentions two articles of inter- 
est, both about Skowhegan ME. One article relates 
the work done by volunteers in the Bloomfield- 
Weston Cemetery. They cleaned, righted and re- 
stored the stones, smoothed paths and encouraged 
new grass. It relates the beginning of the town by 
Eli Weston and Isaac Smith. Eli's father, Joseph 
Weston, assisted the soldiers of Benedict Arnold's 
expedition in 1775. Skowhegan taxpayers set 

aside $15,000 for each of the past two years for 
help in the reclamation project. 

The second article is about an art exhibit of the 
work of Algis Kemezys, former resident of Skow- 
hegan. Kemezys has been working for over six 
years, photographing all the important cemetery 
statuary in North America. This is his way of 
preserving the many beautiful objects with which 
our ancestors decorated their graves. 

AGS Sp -90 p. 24 

May 23, 1962 The Daily News. Tarrytown, NY 


In the year of 1776, British troops were advanc- 
ing rapidly on New Rochelle after the Battle of 
Pell's Point. As a result the Coutant Cemetery in 
New Rochelle was begun. Mrs. Isaac Coutant Sr., 
mother of Isaac Coutant, the cemetery's founder, 
died in October of that year and had to be buried on 
the Coutant farm as military regulations forbade 
the use of the public cemetery. Later Isaac Coutant 
permanently established it as a family cemetery. 

Since then, burial in this cemetery, located at 
Eastchester Road and Webster Avenue, has been 
restricted to direct descendants of fvlr. Coutant and 
their husbands and wives. To date, more than 200 
of these descendants have been buried in this two- 
acre cemetery. In the last 20 years, burials have 
occurred about once a year. 

Those eligible for interment number almost 100 
and are scattered throughout the nation. Known as 
proprietors, they elect five of their number every 
five years to see to the care and maintenance of the 
grounds. Of these five, three are elected officers. 

In 1 928, the Huguenot Heights Association, a neigh- 
borhood improvement group, erected on the outer 
wall of the cemetery a bronze tablet with a his- 
torical inscription. Unfortunately, they did not 
get theirfacts straight and some errors are appar- 

Isaac Coutant, called "The Huguenot" in the in- 
scription, was not a French religious refugee. It 
was his grandfather, Jacob, who escaped from 
France and settled here. Another error is the date, 
"Circa 1700-1780". It is inapplicable to either 
the person buried, Isaac's mother; the house, 
property or cemetery. A third mistake is the 
statement that Isaac's homestead stood near the 
cemetery. Actually, it was nearly two blocks west. 

After the burial of Mrs. Coutant Sr., Mrs. John 
Hudson, Isaac's daughter, was interred in 1778. 
Memorial stones for both were put up in the 
cemetery late in the 19th century, long after the 
cemetery had been permanently established. 

This clipping, first published in Westchester newspapers 
in 1 962, was sent by Victor Dupont from the archives 
of the Tarrytown NY Daily News . 

Power Company Takes Responsibility for 
Historic Site on tlieir Property 

From the Woodsdale Generating Station newsletter 
put out by the Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company, 
March 1990, we learned of the company's plans to 
build the Woodsdale Generating Station on a site 
where there are several historical resources that 
are part of a National Register of Historical Places 
Thematic District. These resources were part of 
the first Amish/Menonnite settlement in Butler 
County, founded by Christian and Katherine 
Augspurger. The Augspurger family cemetery, 
summer kitchen, house (circa 1874) and bank 
barn still stand on the generating station site. 
CG&E is currently investigating what can be done 
with each of these historical resources. 

It has already been decided that CG&E will clean up, 
protect, and maintain the Augspurger family 
cemetery. Currently, the cemetery is overgrown 
with weeds, part of the fence is broken down, and 
a large portion is not even enclosed in the present 
fence. This was discovered when an archaeologist 
who studies historical sites used a special instru- 
ment to determine the boundaries of the cemetery. 
They plan to place a new fence around the cemetery 
and leave a buffer zone of trees and grass to 
separate it from the remainder of the property. 

Care of the structures is also being explored. They 
have been inspected by a building inspector spe- 
cializing in historic structures who found the 
summer kitchen to be in unsalvageable condition. 
An architectural record will be made (consisting 
of photographs and building measurements). The 
barn and house, however, may be able to be re- 
turned to a useful purpose. The house has been 
cleaned out, windows boarded up and the roof 
temporarily repaired to keep out the rain. A new 
furnace has been installed to keep a low level of 
heat in the house which will help protect the 
plaster and foundation from cold winter weather 
damage. Security measures have also been taken to 
protect the buildings from further vandalism. 

According to Thomas F. Stander, an AGS member in 
Hamilton, Ohio, the special instrument used to 
determine the boundary of the cemetery was a 
Geonics EM-38 Earth Conductivity Meter. For 
more information on this equipment, contact Mr. 
McElfresh at 513/632-3885. 

We commend Cincinnati Gas & Electric Company 
for their sensitivity in taking responsibility for 
the preservation of these historic artifacts. 

AGS Sf:) '90 p. 25 



Amid the many gracious temples of CJiiang Mai, still 
one of the most charming cities of booming Thailand, 
there is a bit of consecrated ground presided over not 
y the Buddha but by an equally plump representation of 
a more earthly suzerainty, Queen Victoria. 

Her bronze statue stares out over the Chiang Mai 
Foreign Cemetery, a verdant triangle of land whose 
occupants commemorate the British imperial impulse 
and the American missionary one. The impact of both 
has been dwindling, but the lives of those buried here 
are a testament to the sacrifice called forth, mostly 
not in vain and hardly unmixed with pleasure. 

They number teachers and ministers, soldiers and 
spies, diplomats and bureaucrats, infants and eccen- 
trics, come to what was a remote market town held by 
the Burmese until 1774, and essentially independent of 
a distant Bangkok for another 100 years, when Thai- 
land began to be opened up to foreign trade. The 
foreigners followed, with the American Presbyterian 
Mission opening in 1867 and a British Consulate in 
1884, serving the interests of the British companies 
and subjects who dealt mostly in teak after the British 
conquered the reaches of Upper Burma. 

The forests had their dangers, with fever, malariaand 
dysentery, and by 1898, King Chulalongkorn, 

Rama V, had granted the British Consul General 
custodianship in perpetuity "for the burial of the 
bodies only of foreigners". 

When Queen Victoria herself died in 1901, the British 
her — "Her loyal subjects of every race", as it says on 
her plinth — commissioned this memorial statue to be 
cast in England and shipped to Bangkok. From there, it 
would come up river 500 miles or so, ideally in time 
for the traditional Christmas meeting of the timber 

When it became apparent that she would not arrive in 
time, a telegram was sent asking that the statue be 
unloaded in Rangoon, from where she journeyed by rail 
to a northern terminus. Then, by porters and ele- 
phants, she was hauled through the Shan states to 
arrive in Chiang Mai for a ceremony outside the 
consulate in December 1903. 

There she stood, on the banks of the Mae Ping River to 
the eastof the original walled and moated city, until the 
British Consulate wasclosed in acost-cutting measure 
in 1978. 

Major R.W. Wood, who fought with the Burma Rifles in 
World War II, is the author of an affectionate and 
instructive tribute to those buried in the cemetery, 
"De Mortuis". 

from an article by Steven Erlanger in thie New Yori< 
Times. January 27, 1990, contributed by Robert Van 
Benthuysen, Long Branch NJ. 


An AP story from New London CT reports that the use 
of tombstones for patios or walkways is illegal. Carolyn 
O. Brotherton says she likes having part of New 
London's history outside her house. But police say 
even though its not her fault, the history she's got 
there is illegal. Brotherton's patio and a walkway 
leading to it are made up of more than 50 19th-century 

The stones were put in place sometime in the 1 930s by 
a prior owner. A state law passed in 1984 makes it 
illegal to possess or sell grave markers. Now police 
are in the unusual position of investigating a 50-year 
old case in which no one appears to have done anything 
wrong, even though there is a violation of the law, Det. 
Lt. William C. Gavitt said. Although police do not plan 
to charge anyone, they have a duty to return the stones 
to their graves if the graves can be located, Gavitt 
said. Police are working with historical officials to 
determine where the stones came from and what 

should be done with them. 

The tombstones have been traced back to a man named 
Asa Goddard who moved into the home in 1931. 
Walking around his property one day shortly after- 
ward, he found a bunch of old tombstones lying scat- 
tered on the edge of Cedar Grove Cemetery, said his 
widow. He decided they would make a good walkway 
in his yard and carried the brown stones back one by 
one. Cemetery officials no longer wanted the stones 
and were aware that he took them, she said. Mrs. 
Goddard understood that the stones came from an old 
cemetery that was moved to Cedar Grove. The stones 
marked the graves of people who no longer had family 
members to care for the gravesites, and so they were 

from tfie l-tartford CT Courant . May 7. 1990 

AGS Sp '90 p. 26 

The Vandalism of Cermak's Crypt 

by Jim Jewell, Peru IL 

A recent series of acts of vandalism at Chiicago's 
Bohemian National Cemetery has focused interest 
on Mayor Anton Cermak. Coincidentally, the acts 
commenced on January 30 — the 108th anniver- 
sary of the birth of Franklin D. Roosevelt. 

Elected mayor of Chicago in 1931 , Cermak began 
a cleanup of the system of spoils politics that had 
permeated the city. The process was short-lived, 
however, as Cermak was shot by a criminal anar- 
chist, who was attempting to assassinate President 
Roosevelt, in Miami, March 6, 1933. Cermak was 
interred in a crypt at the Bohemian Cemetery 
(5255 North Pulaski) in Chicago. 

On January 30, 1990, the cemetery's office was 
broken into and a camera and other pieces of 

equipment were taken. On February 6, the gate- 
house was broken into, locks were cut off the metal 
grating doors of six crypts (including Cermak's), 
thecrematoriumwas vandalized and severalgrave- 
stones were overturned. 

Police charged an eighteen-year-old Chicagoan 
with the vandalism after a snapshot of the youth 
and another suspect was found. The alleged vandals 
were unable to open Cermak's coffin after break- 
ing into the crypt. The suspect admitted that he and 
his companion wanted to take photographs of each 
other with the late mayor's remains. 

Police speculate that neither youth knew who 
Cermak was or his significance in recent history. 
This makes the coincidence of the dates even more 
amazing. Had Cermak's murderer been more ac- 
curate, the course of history over the past fifty- 
seven years could have been significantly altered. 



Dr. Tom Malloy, AGS member at Mount 
Wachusett Community College in Gardner MA 
writes in response to the article "More on the 
Sedgwick Pie" AGS Newsletter . Winter 1989/ 
90, p. 24: "A source in the article states that 
the slave Elizabeth Freeman won a suit 
'thereby marking the abolition of slavery in 
Massachusetts'. I would like to point out that 
historians agree that it was the Quok Walker 
case that set the precedent for the abolition of 
slavery in Massachusetts. Quok (sometimes 
spelled Quock) Walker was a slave in Barre, 
Massachusetts, who sued his master for his 
freedom in 1 783. When the court agreed with 
the suit, Massachusetts, the first of the thir- 
teen colonies to legalize slavery, became the 
first state to abolish the institution. 

It is not known where in Barre that Quok 
Walker is buried. However, the grave of his 
son Prince Walker has been identified, about 
one half mile off Hubbardston Road in Barre." 

from the Gardner (MA) News . 


G R AN 1 T e --M H R K ER , \_ 0(.F\TE 




AGSSp '90 p. 27 


The "Cemeteries and Gravemarkers" Permanent Section of the American Culture 
Association is seeking proposals for its paper sessions scheduled for the ACA's 1991 
Annual Meeting, to be held March 27-30 in San Antonio, Texas. Topics are solicited from 
any appropriate disciplinary perspective. Those interested are encouraged to send a 
250-word abstract or proposal by September 1, 1990 to the section chair: 

Richard E. Meyer 

English Department 

Western Oregon State College 

Monmouth, Oregon 97361 


The AGS Newsletter is published quarterly as a service to members of the Association for Gravestone 
Studies. The membership year begins on the date dues are received and ends one year from that date. A one 
year membership entitles the members to four issues of the Newsletter and to participation in the AGS 
conference in the year membership is current. Send membership fees (individual $20; institutional, $25; 
Family $30; contributing $30) to AGS Executive Director Rosalee Oakley, 46 Plymouth Rd. Need ham bAA 02192. 
Back issues of the Newsletter are available for $3.00 per issue from Rosalee Oakley. The goal of the 
Newsletter is to present timely information about projects, literature, and research concerning grave- 
stones, and about the activities of the Association for Gravestone Studies. It is produced by Deborah Trask, 
who welcomes suggestions and short contributions from readers. The Newsletter is not intended to serve 
as a journal. Journal articles should be sent to Theodore Chase, editor of Markers, the Journal of the 
Association for Gravestone Studies, 74 Farm St., Dover MA 02030. Address Newsletter 
contributions to Deborah Trask, editor, Nova Scotia Museum, 1747 Summer St., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 
3A6, Canada. OrderMarkers (Vol. 1 $18; Vol. 2, $16; Vol. 3, $14.75; Vol. 4, $14.75; Vol. 5, $18; Vol. 6, 
$18; Vol. 7, $1 5; higher prices for non-members) from Rosalee Oakley. Send contributions to the AGS Archives 
to Jo Goeselt, 61 Old Sudbury Road, Wayland MA 01778 Address other correspondence to Rosalee Oakley. 

46 Plymouth Rd. 
Needham MA 


Permit No. 410 
Worcester MA 






"Death Mask" Cemetery in Alabama 2 

by Ed Williams 

Catalog of Landscape Records Seeks Information 4 


Abstracts of Papers 5 

Forbes Award to Ted Chase 7 

Tours , 10 

Annual Meeting 1 4 

President's Report 1 5 

Executive Director's Report 1 6 

Treasurer's Report 1 7 

1990-91 Board of Trustees 1 9 

Special Contributions 2 


Silent Cities 2 2 

This Silent Marble Weeps 2 5 

Best of Gravestone Humor 2 5 


Generations - Family Fun! 2 7 

from left: Tom Graves, Phil Kallas and Joe Edgette inspect 
Benjamin Goddard stone, Newport Rl, June 22, 1990, 
photo by Jim Jewell 

AGSSu'90 p.1 


by Ed Williams 

Stopping for directions at the combination post 
office/grocery store off County Road 15 in lower- 
most Clarke County, [Alabama] is the best way for 
the unacquainted visitor to find what is perhaps the 
most unusual cemetery in southwest Alabama, if 
not in the state. And curious motorists do some- 
times stop at Joan Thompson's "Country Store" in 
Carlton seeking directions to "that cemetery we've 
heard about with those faces on the tombstones." 

Mrs. Thompson, who also serves as postal clerk to 
the 109 boxholders and rural route customers of 
this sparsely populated community nearthe Tom- 
bigbee River, says she obligingly directs the way 
down the winding dirt road that makes several 
twists before it narrows and finally dead ends at 
the Mt. Nebo Baptist Church. 

Before the final turn leading to the isolated wood- 
frame church is a sign pointing the way, mis- 
spelled "Mt. N-e-i-b-o Baptist Church." It is the 
cemetery adjacent to this rural black church in 
south Clarke County near Jackson, Alabama, that 
attracts the occasional sightseers who say "they've 
never seen anything like it," says Mrs. Thompson. 
"I've never seen anything like it myself." Carlton 
folk call it the "death mask cemetery." 

Fewer than 40 members, most of them elderly, 
attend the Mt. Nebo Church weekly services, and 
not much is known about the nearby tombstones 
except that they were made by a Carlton native, Ike 
Nettles, who died in Detroit a number of years ago. 
Several tombstones in Mt. Nebo's cemetery carry 
the mortar faces, or death masks, of the deceased. 
The eerie faces mark a lasting tribute to Nettles, a 
man who was "making history," according to a 

"Ike was a smart man," said 80-year-old Hilda 
Jackson, a lifetime resident of Carlton whose 
mother was first cousin to the mask maker. A 
member of the Mt. Nebo Baptist Church since 
childhood, Mrs. Jackson said she recalls stories 
from her mother and grandmother that Mt. Nebo 
started as "nothing more than a brush arbor in 
slavery time." "I knew Ike well, but how he got the 
idea of making the faces on the tombstones I don't 
know," said Mrs. Jackson. "He was just making 
history, I guess." 

On one of the tombstones are the faces of a woman 

and her two young daughters. "That's Ike's wife, 
Cora, and theirtwo girls, Clara and Poilene," said 
Mrs. Jackson. Time has taken its toll on Nettles' 
handiwork. Another grave was once a full-figure 
statue of his mother, Celina, whodiedin 1940. The 
statue has long since crumbled to the ground, but 
the cracked face of Celina Nettles is recognizable 
even today, said Mrs. Jackson. "That mask of 
'Aunt' Celina looks just like her — it was the first 
one that Ike ever made," said Mrs. Jackson. "Other 
folks saw it and wanted one, too. ike kept right on 
making them." 

statue of Nettles' mother, Celina, has fallen to the 
ground (all photos by Ed Williams) 

Celina Nettles' mortar arms and legs are missing, 
supposedly kicked off by deer ambling by and 
stopping to back scratch. The headstone at one time 
was said to be graced by the deceased's own hair, 
but the birds long since have used it to build nests. 
"Celina was a big woman, and she used to look so 
natural out there in the cemetery," Mrs. Jackson 
said of the portly mortar statue. Celina was "so 
large that she could carry a five-gallon bucket of 
water on her rump and never spill a drop." 

Another headstone carries the likeness of Estella 
"Sis Dollie" Netties, a relative of the death mask 
maker. The headstone of Manul Burrell, who died 
in 1946, is marked with the inscription, "He is at 


Manul Burell, who died in 1946, requested the 
'death mask' marker 

much myself, even though my daddy and mama are 
buried there." 

It has been said that the "folks around Mt. Nebo are 
a very superstitious lot — that they never go near 
the cemetery, only to bury one of their dead," 
according to Kay Nuzum of Spanish Fort. IVIrs. 
Nuzum, an authority on the history of nearby 
Baldwin County and surrounding area who has 
researched the f^t. Nebo Cemetery and Carlton 
area, said that two death mask headstones, also 
made by Nettles, may be found in the "quarters 
cemetery" of the nearby Payne Plantation. 

Were the dead really buried face down in Mt. Nebo? 
Church deacon Arsaw Fuller believes he knows 
how that tale originated. "I remember one time 
when I was a boy, before I was married or even 
thought about getting married," the 87-year-old 
Fuller recalled as he ambled through the cemetery 
one day. "Being a young boy, I was being taught by 
the men how to dig a grave. I^y shovel hit a rotten 
coffin, and I dug into some bones. The skull was 
facing down ... let me tell you that I come out of that 
hole quick!" Fuller now believes the bones may 
have been those of an Indian. 

rest." "Old l^r. Manul wanted Ike to make himthat 
headstone," said Mrs. Jackson, "and Ike asked if he 
could make me one." It was an offer Mrs. Jackson, 
a young woman of 21 at the time, said she fearfully 
refused. "Ike would make the masks from cement, 
paper and wire while you were still alive," she 
said. "It scared me when he said I'd have to press 
my face in a box of sand to make the impression for 
the mask. I knew I couldn't stand to put my face in 
that sand. I thought I might smother." 

Superstition abounds concerning the Nebo Ceme- 
tery, where strange happenings have been re- 
ported. Teenagers from nearby Jackson High School 
and Jackson Academy consider it an adventure to 
travel the long dirt road after dark to visit Nebo. 
Voices are reported to have been heard coming 
from the graves. 

Mrs. Jackson believes that story probably evolved 
from an incident that is said to have happened some 
years ago. "A man's wife had just been buried 
there, and he went to the cemetery one night soon 
afterthe funeral. He heard hollering coming from 
her grave, he thought." The bereaved husband 
rushed home for a shovel, intending to excavate the 
grave, "but the sounds had stopped when he re- 
turned," said Mrs. Jackson. "It was nothing but 
his imagination, I believe. But I don't go there very 

Nettles' wife, Cora, and their two daughters 

AGSSu'90 p.3 

Nothing new, death masks have been found on 
Egyptian mummies. Belief in an afterlife was 
widespread in many parts of the world, and death 
masks often were placed upon the faces of the 
deceased to preserve the personality and help the 
soul on its travel. 

What could have been Nettles' reason for making 
the headstone masks, for which he received no 
monetary compensation? Some say that if the 
Lord, looking down on the Mt. Nebo Cemetery, could 

see the faces of the deceased they would be recog- 
nized and get into heaven much faster. Others 
believe that Nettles fashioned the homemade head- 
stones for relatives and friends who simply could 
not afford conventional cemetery markers. 

Ike Nettles, the death mask maker, who was "making 
history" when he gave friends and loved ones a bit 
of immortality in mortar, is also burled at Mt. 
Nebo — in an unmarked grave. 

Originally titled "Cemetery Art", this article is reprinted from EnviroSouth. Vol. 9, No. 4, Fall 1985, 
with permission of the author. Ed Williams is Assistant Professor of Journalism at Auburn University. 

The Catalog of Landscape Records in the United States Seeks Information 

The Catalog of Landscape Records in the United 
States is the cumulative index to all documentation 
for landscapes, past and present. It describes the 
scope and content of public and private collections 
of landscape records in this country. The Catalog 
is the first national finding aid for landscape 
records. It is a project of the American Garden and 
Landscape History Program at Wave Hill in Bronx, 

landscapes), for the initial phase of the project, 
principle emphasis is on designed landscapes. 

Goals of the Catalog include serving as a national 
clearinghouse for information on the location of 
landscape records and the publishing a quarterly 
Newsletter which will announce findings, circu- 
late inquiries, and report on current research and 
activities in the field. 

Records of cemeteries are also included in this 
collection. They have asked that we inform our 
membership of their organization and their desire 
for any landscape records we may possess or know 

What are "landscape records?" They may be 
graphic or written documents. They are maps, 
personal correspondence, drawings, plans, slides, 
photographs, film, diaries, postcards, advertise- 
ments, plant lists, paintings and prints, govern- 
ment records, oral histories. . . Forthe purpose of 
the Catalog, information is primarily sought on 
documentation of designed, manipulated or man- 
aged landscapes in the United States: from small 
private gardens to national parks; from parkways 
to college campuses; from urban parks to private 
estates; from earthworks to historic restorations; 
from planned communities to reserved lands. 
Although the Catalog accumulates information on 
all documents or collections that relate to land- 
scape (including rural, vernacular, or cultural 


All leads to the location of landscape records are 
welcome, but to be most helpful, the following 
should be included: 

- Full name and address of repository or 
private collector 

- Name of collection(s) in which landscape 
records are located 

- Check lists or finding aids to the 

- Staff contact person 

You are invited to include more information if you 
have it. All contributions to the Catalog are greatly 
appreciated. Send information orcontributions or 
write for further information to Karim Tiro, 
Wave Hill, 675 West 252nd Street, Bronx, NY 
10471 (212-549-3200). 



June 21-24, 1990 


ELIA, Richard J. 

"Silent Stones in a Potter's Fieid: Grave 
Mariners at the Uxbridge Almshouse Burial 
Ground in Uxbridge, Massachusetts" 

Gravestonesfrom the Uxbridge, Massachusetts Alms- 
house Burial Ground are described and analyzed within 
the social and political context of 19th century poor 

FREEMAN, James A. 

"Strangers In a Strange Land: The Protes- 
tant Cemetery In Florence, Italy" 

British and Americans buried in the Protestant Ceme- 
tery of Florence, Italy, have monuments that defy 
standard motifs and illustrate conventional Anglo- 
American attitudes toward Italy. Travel books, jour- 
nals and paintings of the time demonstrate how Flor- 
entine grave markers confirm certain widespread 
cultural pre-suppositions that also inspired colonial- 

GABEL, Laurel K. 

"Bostones: A Computer Aided Analysis of 
6868 Gravestone Records Based on Data 
Abstracted from King's Chapel, Copp's Hill, 
Eliot and Granary Burying Ground Invento- 
ries — An Ongoing Study" 

The computer can be an invaluable tool for processing 
and evaluating the enormous amount of information 
commonly available on early gravestones. It enables 
researchers to define statistically significant trends 
over time and to combine many variables to provide a 
more complex picture of a given burying ground. 

GARMAN, James C. 

"'Faithful and Loyal Servants': The Reflec- 
tion of Pre- and Post- Emancipation Attitudes 
in Newport, Rhode Island's Material Culture 
of Death" 

The clients for gravestones in the African-American 
cemetery at Newport were at first the slave owners; 
after emancipation, the freed slaves themselves be- 
came the clients. What are the differences and simi- 
larities in African-American gravestones before and 
after Rhode Island abolished slavery in 1 787? To what 
extent do the changes reflect changing African -Ameri- 
can and white cultural attitudes about ethnicity, as- 
similation and identity? 

GRAVES, Thomas E. 

"Work, Politics, and Art in Contemporary 

Ukrainian-American Gravestones" 

Besides language and ethnic images, Ukrainian-Ameri- 
cans use several means to display on contemporary 
gravestones what it means to be a Ukrainian and the 
importance of keeping their heritage alive. These 
include information on occupation, personal attributes 
and military accomplishments. Further, many mark- 
ers are designed and signed by contemporary Ukrain- 
ian artists. 

LUTI, Vincent F. 

"An Overview of Narragansett Basin 18th 

Century Carvers" 

To prepare conferees for the Saturday Bus Tours, 
some of the carvers whose work will be identified on 
the tours will be discussed, highlighting their biogra- 
phies and showing slides of their gravestone carving. 

AGS Su'90 p.5 

NORRIS, Darren A. 

"Nineteenth Century Gravestones In Upstate 

New York" 

Upstate New York gravestones would presumably echo 
the wave of New England migrants' material cultural 
norms in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centuries; and secondly, as a crucible of American 
innovation, radical experiment and avant garde taste, 
upstate New York could be expected to spearhead 
shifts to nineteenth century taste. Both these assump- 
tions will be explored. 

REX, Donald 

"From Gravestone to Monument: Evolutions 

In Shape, Material, and Technique" 

Donald Rex comes to us from the Rex Monument Works 
in New Bedford. He has been the subject of many 
articles relating to his interesting monument commis- 
sions and is exhibiting several contemporary grave- 
stones at the 1990 AGS Conference. 

ROMOTSKY, Jerry and Sally 

"Temple in the Garden: The Huntington 


Erected at the highest area of the Huntington Library, 
Gallery and Gardens, the mausoleum of Henry E. and 
Arabella D. Huntington, designed by John Russell Pope, 
is integrated into the previously existing architecture. 
This memorial blends classical garden motifs with a 
beaux arts interpretation of an ancient temple. 

VOSE, Margaret L. 

"Empty Tombs and Moby Dick: Cenotaphs In 
the Seamen's Bethel, New Bedford, Massa- 

The marble slabs in the Seamen's Bethel are the only 
markers for the watery graves of many New Bedford 
whaling mariners. This paper explores the epitaphs on 
them and the context in which they occurred. 


" Folk Elements of New Hampshire Grave- 

Grave markers in the settlements on the New Hamp- 
shire side of the Merrimac River took on a distinctive 
ethnic identity with the arrival of the Scotch-Irish 
immigrants beginning in 1719. This paper examines 
the relationship among gravestone designs, epitaphs, 
and other features of early graveyards that bolstered 
the ethnic identity of these settlements. 

WRIGHT, James R. 

"Resurrection Men, Anatomists, and the 
Rise of the Cemetery Movement in the Early 
Nineteenth Century" 

Burke and Hare were murderers and took pride in the 
acknowledged freshness of their product: corpses 
from the cemeteries for medical schools. The case of 
Burke and Hare in the early nineteenth century con- 
tributed to the modern cemetery movement and illumi- 
nates attitudes toward death. 


At the first annual conference of The Association for Gravestone Studies, it was resolved that an 
award should be made periodicallyto honoreitheran individual or an organization in recognition 
of exceptional service to the field of gravestone studies. This award, known as The Harriette 
Merrifield Forbes Award, recognizes outstanding contribution in such areas as scholarship, 
publications, conservation, education, and community service. 

Past honorees are: 

1 977 Daniel Farber 

19 78 Ernest Caulfield 

19 79 Peter Benes 

19 80 Allan I. Ludwig 

1982 James A. Slater 

1983 Hilda Fife 

19 84 Ann Parker & Avon Neal 

1985 Jessie Lie Farber 

1986 Louise Tallman 

1987 Frederick & Pamela Burgess 

1988 Laurel Gabel 

1989 Betty Willsher 

AGSSu'90 p.6 

1990 Harriette Merrifield Forbes Award 

Presented by W. Fred Oakley, Jr., President 

The award being presented tonight commemorates 
the work of Harriette Merrifield Forbes, the pio- 
neer in New England Gravestone Studies, whose 
book Gravestones of Earlv New England and the Men 
Who Made Them , published in 1927, marks the 
beginning of contemporary gravestone study and 

This occasion is special in our corporate life. It 
sustains our spiritual and emotional connections 
to Mrs. Forbes and it recognizes people whose work 
continues to advance the understanding and appre- 
ciation of this unique art form. 

In recognition of his outstanding contributions to 
the Association for Gravestone Studies, I am pleased 
to announce Ted Chase as this year's Forbes Award 

Early on, Ted Chase developed an appreciation for 
art in its many forms. His introduction to grave- 
stone art followed an experience in England while 
rubbing brasses. Apparently this brought the 
genie out of his knowledge lamp and gravestone art 
claimed another proponent. Returning home he 
quickly developed an interest in Colonial grave- 
stones here in his native Massachusetts. 

as a Trustee. It was a crucial time in AGS's 
corporate life. His sensitive, competent leader- 
ship pulled the organizational structure together, 
elevated its goals, and put it on the stable track it 
enjoys today. It is possible that his leadership at 
the crucial seventh year of a non-profit volun- 
teer-run organization's life has brought us to our 
present, recognized standing in the field of grave- 
stone studies. 

Following his exemplary three-year presidency, 
another opportunity arose, that of editing our 
scholarly Journal, Markers . All of us can appre- 
ciate the serious work produced by our authors 
simply by reading the articles. Few of us, though, 
are even vaguely aware of the immense sustained 
effort necessary to produce this journal. Ted has 
been tireless in soliciting materials and standard- 
izing their journalisticformat. Working with his 
editorial board which demands voluminous corre- 
spondence, he has caused to be produced one volume 
in each of the last three years and currently has 
three more volumes in the works. His philosophy 
regarding Markers is that when all is said and 
done, the lasting legacy of the Association will be 
these volumes of Markers still on the shelves of li- 
braries across the country. 

Ted's professional life as a lawyer has been im- 
mense benefit to the Association. He worked on the 
original By-Laws, drafted model legislation for 
protecting cemeteries and has advised the Trustees 
on numerous occasions regarding legal matters. 
Moreover, his former law firm has responded on 
several occasions with pro bono services for the 

Additionally, as a Trustee of New England Historic 
and Genealogical Society, he was instrumental in 
negotiating the storing of our Archival material in 
their facility where it receives the same care as 
their collections. 

Ted served as President of AGS during his six years 

Ted's latest achievement is co-authoring with 
Laurel Gabel a just-printed book. Gravestone 
Chronicles: Some Eighteenth Centu ry New Enland 
Carvers and their Work. This work is being 
published by New England Historic Genealogical 

Beyond the visible evidence of his scholarly works 
Ted has given unstintingly of his time and accumu- 
lated knowledge to others, members and non- 
members alike. 

For these many reasons the General Membership 
and your Board of Trustees are honored to present 
the 1990 Harriette Merrifield Forbes Award to 
Theodore Chase. 

AGSSu'90 p.7 


Thank you, Fred, for your generous remarks. I am 
delighted to receive this award, particularly in 
view of the distinguished company I now join. 

Let me comment on some aspects of my connection 
with AGS that Fred has mentioned. 

Three things stand out in recollecting my 3-year 
presidency from 1983 to 1986. The first is the 
fact that, immediately after my election, the Treas- 
urer resigned and since there would not be another 
board meeting for three or four months to fill the 
position, I had to undertake the responsibilities of 
the Treasurer. In those days all dues came in at the 
same time, and this was the time. So I had to devote 
many hours to making entries in the checkbook, 
making deposits in the bank and sending out mem- 
bership cards. There was no responsibility for 
handling an endowment in those days, because 
there wasn't any endowment. 

The choice of my successor as President readily 
fell upon Jessie Farber. This had all been arranged 
when I received a telephone call from Dan Farber. 
Could he come and see me? I thought I knew what 
was coming. Sure enough, Dan said that Jessie 
really didn't feel uptothe job (not at all like her!). 
However, Dan realized the position that her deci- 
sion put us in and offered to take on the job for one 
year. This was surely the greatest example of 
conjugal sacrifice I had ever known! 

Dan and Mike Cornish and I were appointed a 
committee to choose an Executive Director, filling 
a new position created by a generous gift made to 
the Association for that purpose. We talked with a 
number of people, and then Laurel Gabel suggested 
a lady who lived in Needham who was interested in 
genealogy, was very competent and might take the 
job, though she had no demonstrated interest in 
gravestones at that time. When we interviewed 
Rosalee Oakley, of course we all fell in love with 
her. I think that Rosalee's appointment was cer- 
tainly the most important event for AGS that has 
occurred in the last seven years. She has been 
gracious, efficient and beloved by all who have had 
any contact with her, which means practically 
every member of AGS. When Fred joined her as 
President, it made the marriage a perfect mar- 
riage of board and staff — and so far as 1 can see — it 
has not damaged their marriage as husband and 

Jessie Farber brought out the first issue of Mark- 
ers , an expensive and handsome volume, so pupo- 

lar it has been reprinted. David Watters built a 
solid foundation of scholarly writing in the next 
three numbers. I brought out Markers V. VI and 
VII . the last published by AGS itself instead of by 
the University Press of America. It is the longest 
and glossiest issue so far, handsomely produced by 
the Heffernan Press — but far more expensive than 
our more modest arrangements with UPA had been. 

We are now working on Markers VIII and \X. VIII 
will be a collection of all of the Caulfield papers — 
some 1 6 or 1 7 articles — edited and updated by Jim 
Slater and including Jim's earlier work with Dr. 
Caulfield and the papers edited by Peter Benes. 
Markers IX will return to the earlier format — 
eight or nine articles on a variety of subjects. This 
will be my last effort as editor. 

I have enjoyed this work: seeking out authors and 
coaxing them to submit articles; the joy of receiv- 
ing a good submission; helping new authors with 
their work; and sometimes the satisfaction of 
improvements which I like to persuade myself I 
have made. I have worked with an excellent and 
helpful Review Board, with Rosalee and with Carol 
Davidson, who has done the secretarial work and 
the layout for each of the volumes. 

Editing has its discouraging aspects too. Articles do 
not flow in as they may to The New Yorker . Authors 
have to be found and coaxed. There is the disap- 
pointment of an occasional poor manuscript. There 
is the problem of translating my views and the 


views of the Board in diplomatic fashion to the 
authors, some few of whom are sometimes out- 
raged at our suggestions. Most of all, I wish that 
Markers had a wider distribution. I wish that 
every member would buy a copy for $15 or so. 
Better still, I wish that Markers would come to 
every member as part of his or her membership, 
like the National Geographic or the New England 
Historic Genealogical Society Register , although 
unfortunately and inevitably that would mean an 
increase in ourdues. For, as Fred has already said, 
I like to think that in the long run Markers will be 
the most lasting and useful of all of the accom- 
plishments of AGS. 

My interest in gravestone studies started, I sup- 
pose, with brass rubbings made in England in the 
early 1950s, a technique which I was quick to 
transfer to New England gravestones. But it was 
Laurel Gabel who got me interested in AGS some ten 
years ago. She described the circumstances of our 
meeting delightfully when she receivedthis Award 
two years ago. During those ten years we have 
written seven articles, five of them already pub- 
lished in various shcolarly magazines and all to be 
included in a book soon to be published by the New 
England Historic Genealogical Society. This book 

was inspired by Ralph Crandall, the Director of 
that Society. We had a number of articles pub- 
lished in the Society's Register , and Ralph sug- 
gested that when we had collected six or seven, the 
Society would be glad to publish them. So that is 
what is happening. The book will be available this 
summer and I hope that each of you will buy a copy! 

For me, perhaps the best part of AGS has been the 
preparation of these studies: visits to hundreds of 
New England graveyards, to town clerks' offices 
and to Registries of Deeds and of Probate in every 
New England state; the interest of people who have 
helped us like Vincent Luti, Michael Cornish, and, 
of course, the Farbers; correspondence with gene- 
alogists and other members of AGS; the fun of 
writing and editing; the digging to make sure that 
footnotes are accurate. 

And always there has been the anticipation that we 
might discover something new and interesting. 
And sometimes, perhaps rarely, the excitement of 
discovery. This, it seems to me, isthe very essence 
of gravestone studies! 

Thank you. 



At the April 1989 Board meeting, the Trustees 
voted to open the nominations of the Forbes Award 
recipients to the general membership. 

Nominations must be made in a typewritten or 
handwritten paragraph of not more than a half- 
page. The person doing the nominating must indi- 
cate how the nominee fulfills the requirements of 
the award (see requirements below). 

The award is not made in absentia and no award will 
be made if the person chosen by the Board cannot be 
present at the last minute. So it is important for 
the nominator to ascertain whether the nominee 
would be able to be present at the conference to 
accept the award in person should they be chosen as 
the recipient. The conference in 1991 will be held 
at Keene State College, Keene, NH, June 27-30 
with the award being presented Saturday evening, 
June 29. 

Please send your half-page nominations to the AGS 
Office, 46 Plymouth Road, Needham, MA 02192. 
Deadline for nominations to reach the 
office is January 1. 

These are the requirements for the Forbes Award: 

The honor is given to an individual 
or an organization in recognition of ex- 
ceptional service to the field of gravestone 

The award recognizes outstanding 
contributions in such areas as schoiar- 
ship, publications, conservation, educa- 
tion, and community service. 

The recipient must be present to 
accept the award on Saturday, June 29, 
1991 at Keene State College, Keene, NH. 

AGSSu'90 p.9 


Two excellent tours of the Naragansett Basin area 
were planned for Saturday, June 23 for the 1990 
Conference at Bristol Rl. Vincent Luti, author of 
the /AGS Regional Guide #1, Naragansett Bay Area 
Graveyards was the Tour Chair. He also led a 
mini-tour on Friday to: Bristol East Burying 
Ground, Juniper Hill, Kickemuit Cemetery in 
Warren, Old Baptist Cemetery in Swansea, and 
Burial Place Hill in Rehoboth. 



Tour A stopped first at the Newman Cemetery in 
East Providence, which has hundreds of stones 
from the late 1 660s on; some work of the Stevens', 
a number of interesting John and James New works 
including the only probated stone to John New, a 
few Hartshorn works, but the bulk of the stones 
come from the hand of George Allen (d. 1774) 
whose shop was a mile up the road. His famous Lt. 
John Hunt stone, 1716, has been removed to the 
Town Hall for security. People on Tour A had the 
opportunity to file past some startled bureaucrats 
and librarians to view the fabulous Hunt stone. 
Lunch was at Swan Point Cemetery in Providence, 
followed by a slide talk and drive-through tour of 
this fine example of a 19th century garden ceme- 
tery. The last stop was at the North Burial Ground 
in Providence. 



provided by Vincent Cherico (1!) 

From the North Burial Ground, 
Providence Rl: 










Tour B went to Newport to the huge 18th century 
Common Burial Ground. Optional walkbys of the 
Stevens shop and home, and Governor's Cemetery 
were mapped out. Lunch was served at the 1699 
restored Quaker Meeting House in Newport, fol- 
lowed by a bus trip to the small rural Platform 
Cemetery in North Kingstown and the Platform 
Meeting House of 1707 and its cemetery in 
Wicksford. Torrential rains did impede this tour, 
a bit! 

Vincent Luti (Vincent I) was ably assisted as tour 
leader by Vincent Cherico (Vincent II) of Cranston 















THE 23 OF APAEL 1753 


















APRIL 1ST, 1811, 



















from North Burial Ground, Warren Rl: 





WHO DIED MAY 25, 1806. 


















AD. 1796. 





BORN AUG. 17 1832. 


DEC. 21, 1864. 












OF AUGUST, AD. 1804, 




from Kickemuit Cemetery, Warren Rl: 





1801. AGED 20 YEARS. 







Eloise West, rubbing at North Burial Ground, Provi- 
dence, piioto by Jim Jewell 

AGSSu'90 p.11 

Quick Reference of helpful hints to the carvers: 75^ efficiency 

dates of 
ma.ior work 




I cense 



always 0'\ 

7 5 

early *1 . 


for info 

George Jr 



eyma as 
not as 




•^ 5 






II. soft 









after 1790 


loop nostrils 







ally -"iT^iii^j-^ rose 
button r^^ ring ^ 
acanthus/lipped crimp 








O^ 7^22 

I. flinty 

II. gray 











reverse w 


.ng effigii 



flinty stare squii^t 



AGS Su'90p.12 






■{;q^^-^ ch erubi c 



broad (irillholes 




y^ P- 



John & 

any any 
effigy male 
with wigged 
bonnet effigy 
(not New 




often in 

carver of 




John I 







KnoDS ev( 
II. heavy relief 






John II 







II. ^-~~^ 




John III 


early work 
like late work 
of John II: 
frontal "exothalmic 

II. 3/4 view portraits 
exothalmic eyes 


J.Stevens Jili 
J. Stevens 



II. Ill 
low scoop 


fig & 

a. bald 

b. coil 

c. rope 

d. cap 




■^ full 

William & 





5ady _ 

with! . 
Wm. Jr// 

bullneck.brillo pad 


Wrentham l]a 




AGSSu-90 p.13 


June 24, 1990 

President, Fred Oakley, called the meeting to order 
at Roger Williams College, Bristol, Rhode Island 
on June 24, 1990. 

A quorum was declared by the Secretary pro tem at 
8:35 AM. 

Minutes of the 1989 Annual Meeting, published in 
the Summer 1989 Newsletter and included in the 
Annual Meeting and Agenda material provided to all 
conferees was declared accepted there being no 
additions, corrections or changes desired by 
members present. 

President Fred Oakley called attention to his writ- 
ten report included in the meeting materials. 
Additional comments focused on the need for vol- 
unteers to assist Conference '91 Chairperson 
Cornelia Jenness in planning, organizing and 
managingthe event scheduledforKeene, N.H. Other 
comments related to the effect on the budget when 
moving to rented office space and the effect on 
member services when office hours are limited to 
staff availability. 

Executive Director Rosalee Oakley called attention 
to her written report included in the meeting 
materials. Additional comments focused on AGS 
acquiring technology (Macintosh 512 ) and desk- 
top publishing software to provide "in-house" 
capability for publishing the Newsletter. News- 
letter Editor Deborah Trask was commended for 
herwillingnessto learn and usethenewtechnology 
and master Pagemaker software which led to the 
change in Newsletter format this past March. 
Deborah Trask's effort was recognized with sus- 
tained applause. Other comments related to the 
consideration by the Board of a new logo design 
which would represent a more common bond to ail 
our members — not just New England. The one being 
used is found on only one New England stone. 
Rosalee expressed sincere thanks to the Trustees, 
the President and the entire membership fortheir 

President Oakley called attention to two correc- 
tions that should be made to the Treasurer's Re- 
port. In the section titled Comparison Of Fiscal 

Years 12/31/89, '88 And '87 all entries on the 
line Net Operating Income should be in parentheses 
like that shown in the column marked FY '89. 

Ralph Tucker moved to file the report until an 
audit could be made and subsequently withdrew it. 
Fred Sawyer moved to accept the Treasurer's 
report; seconded by Barbara Rotundo. The report 
was accepted with one negative vote. 

Vice President Bob Drinkwater reported for the 
Nominating Committee the results of the Trustee 
election. This year a ballot was used instead of a 
proxy, with the ballots due by June 1. Two new 
trustees were elected for two years and seven 
others were re-elected to additional two year 

President Oakley introducf J Trustees that were 

Dr. James Slater, retiring after six years of 
service as a Trustees, was recognized "in absen- 
tia." (He was absent due to a recent operation.) 
Fred Sawyer moved that we convey our condolences 
to Jim and wish him a speedy recovery via a letter. 
Seconded by Ralph Tucker. Carried by acclama- 

Other Business 

Deborah Trask, Newsletter Editor, was invited to 
address the meeting. Deborah explained how the 
new equipment enabled her to work at home on the 
Newsletter. She receives news items from mem- 
bers by mail as well as from the AGS office on 
computer disk. She expressed concern about 
complaints received on the newsletter content. 
While everyone would like to see something ap- 
pealing to their interests on every page, this is 
impossible to provide. She does try to include as 
broad a variety as possible from across the coun- 
try and beyond. She explained that she does not 
actively solicit articles — all are sent in voluntar- 
ily so it is up to the membership to provide the kind 
of articles they want to see in the Newsletter. 
Deborah makes the final decision for the articles 
and graphics used. Any articles not used are sent 

AGS Su'90 p.14 

to the Archives. Jessie Farber commented that 
often the only comments received by an editor are 
pointing out a mistake. She encouraged members 
to correspond with Deborah even if only to say they 
enjoyed the newsletter. 

in recognition of this being the last Annual Meeting 
she will attend as Executive Director, Rosalee 
Oakley made a farewell statement. In October 
1989 she informed the Board she would be con- 
cluding her work by December of 1990. In her 
seven years as Director she stated that AGS has 
gradually outgrown their home office space and the 
impending change in directors gives ACaS an oppor- 
tunity to seek office space in a compatible institu- 
tion which offers more programming possibilities 
than a home office can. She gave a final challenge 
to all to return home with the enthusiasm gained 
here at Conference to finish the many projects we 

have all started so as to contribute to the pioneer- 
ing work being done at this stage of our develop- 

Roberta Halporn introduced the following resolu- 
tion, seconded by Laurel Gabel, which was adopted 
by acclamation: To formally extend our apprecia- 
tion to Rosalee for all her patience, work, and 
support on behalf of The Association For Grave- 
stone Studies. 

James Jewell moved to adjourn. 

Adjournment declared at 9:26 AM. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Lorraine Clapp 
Sec pro tern 


This has been a very active and productive year. 

Your Association has been represented at two major 
national conferences that were held in Boston: the 
Monument Builders of North America in February 
1990 and Partners for Sacred Places in June 
1990, the latter hosted by Historic Boston, Incor- 

Promoting the work of our Association and Confer- 
ence '90 involved numerous trips to Rhode Island, 
principally to participate in state and local his- 
torical society programs. An all day conference in 
Providence sponsored by the League of Rhode Is- 
land Historical Societies provided a major oppor- 
tunity to publicize our activities to in-state his- 
torical, preservation, genelogical and similiar 

Three mini -conferences were planned, staffed and 
managed in the interval since our '89 Conference. 
These mini-conferences had two primary objec- 
tives. The first was to train volunteers; the second 
wasto develop a replicable model. We have learned 
a great deal from these three events. One major 
learning experience is that any type workshop 
involves a great deal of time and some financial 

Progress was made on the project to re-design our 
Newsletter. Long desired changes in format, har- 
bored by our Newsletter Editor, are being imple- 
mented. The support of these changes by your 
Trustees relieved some anxieties. A September 
1989 meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia involving 
the Editor, Executive Director and President was 
helpful in resolving several critical issues which 
paved the way for the transition. All comments 
received on the new format have been positive. 

Staffing for Conference '91 in Keene, New Hamp- 
shire, is nearly complete. Long Island or the 
Upper Hudson River Valley are being investigated 
as possible areas to site Conference '92. For 
Conference '93 we must seriously consider a loca- 
tion outside the New England. Chicago has good 
potential for attracting our mid-western and 
Canadian members. We would forfeit participa- 
tion by some members residing in the Northeast 
but those who do go would be amply rewarded with 
a variety of different carving styles and several 
ethnic cemeteries. 

Our product inventory has been enlarged with the 
publication of Markers VII in February 1990. 
Photocopied materials and kits have been updated 
and their appearance improved. As soon as we get 

AGSSu'90 p. 15 

a new address, we will print them on a laser 
printer further enhancing their appearance and 
readability. We are now selling video cassettes and 
slide shows of our program "Early New England 
Gravestones and the Stories They Tell." Several 
additional media products are being developed and 
thought is being given to producing and selling 
"how to" videotapes on such subjects as rubbing, 
documenting, cleaning, resetting and mending 

The financial condition of the Association is good as 
attested to by the Treasurer's Report. 

Two major issues will dominate your leadership's 
activities in the coming six months: locating 
affordable office space and employing a new execu- 
tive director and administrative assistant. These 
are daunting issues. They will be successfully 
managed given the excellent support and coopera- 
tion of our Trustees and members. 

W. Fred Oakley, Jr. 


The AGS office has been a busy place all through 
this past year. Our membership statistics show us 
at 934 members at the writing of this report with 
240 new members joining during the year from 
June 1989 through the present. In the Fall a 
Membership Drive was launched, encouraging the 
present membership to find new members, moti- 
vated by the financial reward of deductions at the 
next renewal time. Seventeen people took advan- 
tage of the offer and 21 new members have joined 
as a result. One new member persuaded three 
others to join and has received a year's free 
membership for his efforts. This activity, while 
gaining new members, cost about as much as will 
be yielded in first year membership revenue. 
Experience indicates we can expect 1 of these new 
members to renew and therein lies the economic 

Our correspondence over the year has shown a 
great deal of interest in the restoration of neglected 
or abandoned graveyards. Several magazine, 
newsletter and newspaper articles listed AGS as a 
resource for information regarding restoration. 
This resulted in a flood of inquiries requiring a 
response but few memberships were realized. Of 
course, during the process, we have spread the 
word that AGS exists, that it has helpful materials 
to offer, and that it can make referrals to stone 
conservation professionals. 

The activity taking the largest block of the 25 
hours per week alloted to your Executive Director, 
both in planning and executing, is the Conference. 
We are now able to design all our announcements, 
program books, annual report, nametags and most 
handouts on our own computer which lowers the 
conference typesetting costs considerably. Plan- 
ning for the Teaching Workshop accounts for an- 

other block of preparation time. In addition, our 
conference publicity this year has entailed nu- 
meroustripsto Rhode Island and aroundthe Boston 
area to speak to historical societies promoting the 
conference and to attend planning meetings with 
the conference staff. 

Sales of our publications, especially the newest 
f^arkers and the Primer , and rental of our slide 
show and video on "New England Gravestones" 
have been steady. Fifteen video rentals and five 
video sales took place during the year and eleven 
rentals of the slide show. One slide show has been 
purchased to date. 

As you know, last October I informed the Trustees 
that I would be concluding my work as Executive 
Director no later than December 1990. As the 
Planning Committee began to work on the task of 
locating possible sites for the AGS office, at times 
I have been asked to participate. This has involved 
trips to Worcester and Springfield with other 
committee members to view available office space 
and discuss the needs we have for storage of sales 
items and our Archives. This fall the move will be 
made to one of these sites, and when a new Executive 
Director is selected, there will be a period of time 
during which I will work as a consultant to ensure 
that services continue smoothly. 

The Trustees have been most supportive and en- 
thusiastic throughout the year. 1 wish to thank 
them all for their collective and individual efforts 
throughout the year on behalf of the Association. 

Rosalee F. Oakley 
Executive Director 



Statement of the income, expenses and changes in fund balance for the year ending December 31, 1989. 










Office rent/utilities - non-cash 












Staff salary 

Administrative expenses 




Media Development 




Payroll deposit 

Office rent/utilities - non-cash 





17,1 14 







Beginning 12/31/88 
Ending 12/31/89 

May 10, 1990 


December 31, 1989 





Needham Shawmut Bank 

Bank of New England 

Matures 5/13/91 at 8.72% 

Eliot Savings Bank, Needham 

Matures 11/08/90 at 8.65% 

Assets Totaled 

Fund Balance (above) 

AGSSu'90 p. 17 

$ 4,857 




FY '89 FY '88 FY '87 

Income 35,763 41,332 37,648 

Expense ' 37,845 51,201 41,498 

Net Operating Income (Loss) (2,082) (9,869) (3,850) 

Conference Net 7,380 4,958 6,362 

Excess of Income over Expense 5,298 (4,911) 2,512 

Fund Balances 32,857 27,558 32,469 


The Nominating Committee invites your recommendations for nominations to the Board 
of Trustees. We are looking for candidates who have the ability and willingness to take 
leadership positions within AGS, and are available to serve at least one term of two years. 

A member may recommend him or herself, or may recommend another member if that 
person is contacted first to confirm his or herwillingnessto serve if chosen as a nominee. 
We also ask that both the person making the recommendation and the person recom- 
mended send a brief statement describing the candidate's experience and abilities, and 
how that person could contribute to the growth of AGS and its programs. 

The Nominating Committee reserves the right to interview recommended candidates, and 
to limit the number of nominees and/or indicate the Committee's recommendations for 
certain candidates when the names of the nominees are published in the Newsletter . 

Please send recommendations to: 
C. R. Jones, Chair 
Nominating Committee 
PC Box 800 
Cooperstown, NY 13326 

Deadline for these recommendations Is January 1, 1991. 

It is once again possible to purchase AGS bumperstickers. This time they are blue and white with the 
words "1 BRAKE FOR OLD GRAVEYARDS" above and Association for Gravestone Studies below. They are 
available from the AGS office for $1 . We hear many stories about members with bumperstickers being 
approached by people who ask about the sticker and indicate their own interest in graveyards. So keep 
a supply of AGS brochures handy in the glove compartment! 

AGS Su'90p.18 


Lorraine Clapp 

1693 John Fitch Blvd., So. Windsor, CT 06074 

Tel: (h) 203/289-9026 

Michael Cornish 

195 Boston Street, Dorchester, MA 02125 

Tel: (h) 617/282-3853 

Robert Drinkwater (Vice-President) 

6 Village Hill Road, R. 81, Williamsburg, MA 01096 
Tel: (h) 413/268-7920 

Dr. J. Joseph Edgette 

509 Academy Avenue, Glenolden, PA 19036 

Tel: (w) 215/499-4341 

Daniel Farber 

31 Hickory Drive, Worcester, MA 01609 

Tel: (h) 617/755-7038 

Jessie Lie Farber 

31 Hickory Drive, Worcester, MA 01609 

Tel: (h) 617/755-7038 

Alfred Fredette 

PO Box 37, Scotland, CT 06226 

Tel: (h) 203/456-8582 

Jo Goeselt (Archivist) 

61 Old Sudbury Road, Wayland, MA 01778 

Tel: (h) 617/358-2155 

Roberta Halporn 

391 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11217-1701 

Tel. (h) 718-858-3026 

William Hosley 

Old Abbe Road, Enfield, CT 06082 

Tel: (h) 203/627-5508 (w) 203/278-2670 

Cornelia Jenness (Treasurer) 

HCR10, Box 643, Spofford, NH 13462-0643 

Tel: (h) 603/363-8018 

C. R. Jones 

Nysha, PO Box 800, Cooperstown, NY 13326 

Tel: (h) 607/547-8151 (w) 607/547-2535 

Lance R. Mayer (Secretary) 

Lyman Allyn Museum, 625 Williams Street 

New London, CT 06320 

Tel: (h) 203/464-9645 (w) 203/443-2618 

W. Fred Oakley, Jr. (President) 

46 Plymouth Road, Needham, MA 02192 

Tel: (h) 617/444-6263 (w) 617/455-8180 

Dr. Barbara Rotundo 

48 Plummer Hill Road, Unit 4, Laconia, NH 03246- 


Tel: (h) 603/324-1092 

Frederick W. Sawyer III 

8 Sachem Drive, Glastonbury, CT 06033 

Tel: (h) 203/633-8655 (w) 203/275-5956 

The Rev. Ralph Tucker 

Box 414, Georgetown, ME 04548 

Tel: (h) 207/371-2423 

Jonathan Twiss 

230 Farmington Ave., A-1, Hartford, CT 06105 

Tel: (h) 203/278-6958 (w) 203/273-4667 

William Wallace 

40 Central Street, Auburn, MA 01601 

Tel: (h) 508/832-6807 (w) 508/753-8278 

Richard F. Welch 

55 Cold Spring Hills Road, Huntington, NY 11743 

Tel: (h) 516/421-5718 

Gray Williams Jr. 

32 Gray Rock Lane, Chappaqua, NY 10514 

Tel: (h) 914/238-8593 

Harvard C. Wood III 

6400 Baltimore Avenue, Lansdowne, PA 19050 

Tel: (w) 215/622-0550 

Ex officio members 

Theodore Chase (Markers editor) 

74 Farm Street, Dover, MA 02030 
Tel: (h) 508/785-0299 

Deborah Trask (AGS NEWSLETTER editor) 

Nova Scotia Museum Complex, 

1747 Summer Street, Halifax, NS B3H 3A6 

Tel: (w) 902/429-4610 


AGSSu'90 p.19 


The following firms and individuals gave exceptional financial support to AGS during the period June 
1989 to May 1990. They contributed funds over and above the basic membership fee which are 
exceedingly important to AGS. We extend our appreciation to these special contributors: 


Barre Granite Association, Barre, VT 

Ellen H. Bennet-Alder, Natick, MA 

Brian K. Blakeley, New Haven, CT 

Alice Bunton, Bethany, CT 

Center for Thanatology Research, Brooklyn, NY 

Theodore Chase, Dover, MA 

Vincent V. Cherico Jr., Cranston, Rl 

William Clendaniel, Mt. Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, 


Mary M. Cope, New York, NY 

Dedham Historical Society, Dedham, MA 

Mary R. Dernalowicz, Newport, Rl 

Robert Drinkwater, Williamsburg, MA 

Empire Granite Corporation, Richmond, VA 

Josiah M. Fowler, West Roxbury, MA 

Laurel K. Gabel, Pittsford, NY 

Thomas E. Graves, Orwigsburg, PA 

Ellis B. Hayden, Jr., Norfolk, MA 

Daniel A. Hearn, Monroe, CT 

Davyd Foard Hood, Plymouth, NC 

William Hosley, Enfield, CT 

Janet G. Jainschigg, Darien, CT 

Dr. Gregory Jeane, Birmingham, AL 

Cornelia P. Jenness, Spofford, NH 

James C. Jewell, Peru, IL 

Mary-Ellen Jones, Orinda, CA 

William B. Jordan, Jr., Portland, ME 

Phil Kallas, Stevens Point, Wl 

Angelika Kruger-Kahloula, Rodermark, W. Germany 

Miriam W. Lewis, Scotia, NY 

Lance R. Mayer, New London, CT 

Cynthia I. McQueston, Haydenville, MA 

Robert H. Mohr, Apollo Beach, FL 

Nat'i Cemetery Restoration Fund, Steamboat Springs, 


New Hampshire Old Graveyard Assn., Rochester, NH 

Oak Woods Cemetery, c/o Bruce Holstrom, Chicago, IL 

Oldstone Enterprises, Boston, MA 

Carol A. Perkins, Fairport, NY 

Kenneth A. Perry, Greenwich, NY 

Stephen Petke, East Granby, CT 

Diane Psota, Sebastopol, CA 

Richard Thomas Purkins, Manassas, VA 

K. H. Reeson, Remco Memorials Ltd., Regina, SK, 


Rex Monumental Works, Inc., New Bedford, MA 

Lawrence D. Riveroll, San Diego, CA 

Nancy Porter Rothwell, Marblehead, MA 

Harriet R. Ryan, Middletown, Rl 

Edwina Seeler, Waban, MA 

Michael Selvaggi, Stratford, CT 

Otto W. Siebert, Augusta, ME 

Silbaugh Memorials, Ron Silbaugh, Shrewsbury, PA 

Miriam S. Silverman, New York, NY 

Deborah A. Smith, Rochester, NY 

Martha Smith, Carrboro, NC 

Gaynell Stone, Wading River, NY 

James Tibensky, Chicago, IL 

Ronald Tracy, Chicago, IL 

Margaret Vose, Mansfield Ctr., CT 

William D. Wallace, Auburn, MA 

Richard F. Welch, Huntington, NY 

Eloise P. West, Fitchburg, MA 

Wilbraham Historical Commission, Wilbraham, MA 

Mary Z. Williams, Northport, NY 


Allen County Public Library, Fort Wayne, IN 

American Inst/Commemorative Art, Grand Rapids, Ml 

Amite City Cemetery Committee, Amite, LA 

Archaeological Research Consultants, Inc., Raleigh NC 

Archival Services Branch, Raleigh, NC 

Benton County Historical Museum, Philomath, OR 

Bergen Co. Div./Cult & Hist Affairs, Hackensack, NJ 

Boston Athenaeum, Boston, MA 

Bostonian Society, Boston, MA 

Bradford Derustit Corp., Clifton Park, NY 

Brooklyn Historical Society, Brooklyn, NY 

The John Nicholas Brown Center, Providence, Rl 

Burial Sites Preservation Program, Madison, Wl 

Richard T. Burton, Burton's Monument Shop, Inc., 

Waterbury, CT 

Center for Historic Preservation, Frederickburg, VA 

John W. Chaveriat, Chicago, IL 

Connecticut Historical Society, Hartford, CT 

Connecticut State Library, Hartford, CT 

Conservation Library of Fine Arts, New York, NY 

Daily Industries, Kent, OH 

Dakota Monument Company, Fargo, ND 

Dept. of Archaeology, University of York, England 

Division of Historic Preservation, Fairfax, VA 

Ralph B. Draughon Library, Auburn Univ., AL 

Dukes County Hist. Society, Edgartown, MA 

Erickson Monuments, Denver, CO 

Essex Historical Society, Inc., Essex, MA 

Mr. & Mrs. Dale D. Evans, Wagner Memorial Co., 

Hutchinson, KS 

Family History Library, Salt Lake City, UT 

Vance Ferguson, Benton Harbor, Ml 

Fort Hamilton Hist. Society, Brooklyn, NY 

Geortia Dept. of Nat. Resources, Hist. Pres. Sec, 

Atlanta, GA 

Georgia Genealogical Society, Atlanta, GA 

Georgia State Archives & Records, Atlanta, GA 

Rev. Msgr. John L. Gerety, St. Mary's Church, So, 

Amboy, NJ 

AGS Su'90 p.20 

Glenmount Memorials, Inc., Pt. Colborne, ON 

Gwinnett Historical Society, Lawrenceville, GA 

J. Wynne Harl<less, Rippowam-CisquaSchool, Bedford, 


Healdsburg Historical Society, Healdsburg, CA 

Hist. Blandford Gem. Foundation, Petersburg, VA 

Hist. Florida Keys Preserv. Bd., Key West, FL 

Historic Burying Grounds Initiative, Boston, MA 

Historic Charleston Foundation, Charleston, SC 

Hist. Deerfield Lib., c/o Sharman Prouty, Deerfield, 


Historic Oakland Cemetery, Inc., Atlanta, GA 

Historic Resources Branch, Winnipeg, MB, Canada 

ICCROM Library, Rome, Italy 

Indiana University Libraries, Bloomington, IN 

Knox Co. Old Gray Cem., Knoxville, TN 

Lancaster Co. Hist. Society, Lancaster, PA 

Lancaster Co. Society/Hist. Pres, Inc., Lancaster, SC 

Lancaster Mennonite Hist. Soc, Lancaster, PA 

Landmark Commission-Twp of Hanover, Whippany, NJ 

Landmarks Committee, Randolph Township, Randolph, 


Rufus Langhans, Town Historian, Huntington, NY 

Library of Michigan, Lansing, Ml 

Los Angeles Public Library, Los Angeles, CA 

Mahomet Twp. Cem. Trustees, Anita Hodge, Chairman, 

Seymour, IL 

Mantor Library, Farmington, ME 

Mashpee Historical Commission, Mashpee, MA 

McFall Monument Company, Galesburg, IL 

Middletown High School, Middletown, CT 

Middletown Historical Society, Middletown, Rl 

Ministry Library, Municipal Affairs, Recreation & 

Culture, Victoria, BC, Canada 

Mississippi Dept. of Archives & History, Jackson, MS 

Mount Holly Cemetery Assn., Little Rock, AR 

Mountain View Cem. Assn. , Oakland, CA 

Mus. of Amer. Folk Art, 61 West 62nd Street, New 

York, NY 

New Milford Youth Agency, New Milford, CT 

NSDAR Library, Serials Librarian, Washington, DC 

Ohio County Hist. Society, Rising Sun, IN 

Ohio Historical Society, c/o Tom Starbuck, Columbus, 


Old Burying Ground Foundation, Halifax, NS, Canada 

Parish of Trinity Church, Archives, New York, NY 

Parks Canada, Halifax, NS, Canada 

Peerless Rockville Historic Preservation, Ltd., 

Rockville, MD 

Preservation Soc. of Newport Co., Newport, Rl 

Queens Borough Public Library, Jamaica, NY 

Ridgefield Graveyard Committee, Ridgefield, CT 

Riverside Cemetery, c/o Cecil R. Coke, Jr., Macon, 


Sandwich Historical Commission, Sandwich, MA 

Saratoga Springs Preservation Foundation, Saratoga 

Springs, NY 

Sawyer Free Library, Gloucester, MA 

St. John's Epis. Church, c/o Neill E. Goff, Richmond, 


St. Paul's Nat'l Historic Site, Mount Vernon, NY 

St. Raymond Cemetery, New York, NY 

Wm. Smith & Son Monument Co., Ashtabula, OH 
State Hist. Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wl 
SUNY/Stony Brook Library, Stony Brook, NY 
Stoneham Historical Commission, Stoneham, MA 
Thistledo, Inc., Dick & Becky Strachan, Columbia, SC 
Toronto Branch, Ontario Gen. Society, Toronto, ON, 

Town of Yorktown Museum, Yorktown Heights, NY 
University of Illinois Library, Urbana, IL 
Vermont Hist. Soc. Library, Montpelier, VT 
Wakefield Historical Commission, Wakefield, MA 
J. S. Warner, Dundee, IL 

Winthrop Cemetery Association, Deep River, CT 
Wood County Genealogical Society, Bowling Green, OH 
Yarmouth County Museum, Yarmouth, NS, Canada 


These people made special contributions above and 
beyond their annual dues: 


Brian Blakeley 

Center for Thanatology Research 

Charles E. Chambers 

Lorraine Clapp 

Dorothea E. deZafra 

Barbara Dudley 

Irene Forbes 

Laurel Gabel 

Joseph W. Glass 

Paul Glatzer 

June Goemer 

Richard & Jo Goeselt 

Geraldine Hungerford 

Thomas F. Kane 

John Kaufold 

Peter Krell 

Virginia Marsh 

Pat Miller 

Caroline S. Morris 

Rosalee Oakley 

Roberta Palen 

Floyd and Beth Rich 

Margaret Vose 

Wheaton Wilbar 

Dr. Gregory Jeane 
Michael Selvaggi 
Ralph Tucker 

OVER $150 
Theodore Chase 
Fred Oakley 
Barbara Rotundo 

Matching Gifts 


New England Telephone 

Duval Fund 
James Tibensky 
Selma Trauber 
Betty Willsher 

AGSSu'90 p.21 

other Gifts of time and kind 

Theodore Chase - hours spent editing Markers 

Deborah Trask - hours spent editing the Newsletter 

Cornelia Jenness - posting of AGS books and preparation of financial reports 

Jo Goeselt - cataloging AGS Archives acquisitions 

Laurel Gabel - managing the AGS Research Clearinghouse and Lending Library 

Fred Oakley, Vincent Luti, Dan Goldman, Rob Fitts, Barbara Rotundo, Edwin Connelly - Conference '90 


Board of Trustees - personal expense, time and support at Board meetings 

The Nova Scotia Museum Complex, Department of Education, Province of Nova Scotia - postage, photocopying, 

and telephone expenses, Macintosh SE computer, and other materials related to the preparation of the 

Newsletter . 


Review of S//enf Cities by Jackson and Vergara 
from The Philadelphia Inquirer, f^ay 27, 1990 


by Thomas Hine 

Inquirer Architecture Critic 

The manager of a small Western Pennsylvania 
borough was explaining how the stores in his 
central business district were competing suc- 
cessfully with a large mall only a few miles away. 
"We keep the sense of community strong," he said. 
"Why, we're the last town in our area that still has 
a Memorial Day parade." 

That statement woke me up. Although I haven't 
participated in a Memorial Day parade in more 
than 20 years, I had, I suddenly realized, been 
assuming that small towns all over the country 
were keeping the tradition going. 

As the speaker unfurled his zoning map, I lapsed 
into a reverie of Memorial Day parades past. I was 
wearing my high school band uniform, made of 
heavy blue material festooned with gold braids, 
with a plumed hat that was too small. As I pretended 
to be able to walk and play the clarinet at the same 
time, I marched with the band up Boston Street, 
delaying those who were on their way to the first 
beach day of the season. 

We arrived at the town cemetery, a high spot in the 
salt meadows, where there was a small clot of 

elderly people with flowers to decorate the graves, 
and there were men in ill-fitting military uni- 
forms who seemed to welcome this occasion to shoot 
off rifles in public. It ended with the playing of 
"Taps,"which was answered by a bugler, a member 
of our band, who had been dispatched outside the 
cemetery walls to play among the cattails. Much 
against my will, I was moved. 

Lest this sound too nostalgic, I should note that I 
hated Memorial Day parades, and only now, decades 
later, feel grateful to have participated in so 
profound and endangered a ritual. I thought at the 
time that it was for those old soldiers, little 
realizing that it was designed to make mean Ameri- 
can. Its lesson is that our lives are not neatly 
arrayed as products on shelves but involve deep 
and horrible sacrifices. Teenagers don't like to 
think about death, but Memorial Day made us do it. 

But at the same time that it was a symbol of 
inclusion in the community, it was also a demon- 
stration of separateness. The ceremony was held at 
the town cemetery, which, as a Catholic, I thought 
of as the Protestant cemetery. Catholics or Jews 
might play in the band and die in wars, but the band 

AGS Su'90 p.22 

would never march to their graves on Memorial 
Day. The pretense of pluralism disappears in 
death, as cemeteries are segregated by religion, 
race and income. Today, we no longerdiscriminate. 
We forget the dead, all of them, and banish mortal- 
ity from our minds. 

But earlier ideas of life and death, the persistence 
of memory and fleshly decay continue to be ex- 
pressed, in every city, town or hamlet in the 
country, in the form of cemeteries. A recent book. 
Silent Cities by Kenneth T. Jackson and Camilo 
Jose Vergara (Princeton Architectural Press) 
surveys the diversity and complexity of American 
landscapes of death. Unlike other books on the 
subject, which tend toward a Deathstyles of the 
Rich and Famous approach, this one included 
ethnic cemeteries, ordinary urban cemeteries and 
places such as New York's Hart Island, where the 
indigent dead are interred by convicts. 

Jackson, a professor at Columbia University, is 
best known as a historian of post-World War II 
suburbanization, while Vergara, who took the 
book's 350 color photogrpahs, has been working 
for many years to document the contemporary 
urban ghetto. They are thus, in a sense, experts on 
the ways in which our culture has broken its 
connections with itself. 

The decline of a sense of family tradition and 
responsibility, of community and of the apparent 
power of religion has brought a decline of the 
places that express such values. But they remain, 
often sufficiently neglected and picturesque to 
appeal to romantic sensibilities. 

The general deterioration of old cemeteries is 
obvious enough, as is the utilitarian character of 
newer burial sites, which are designed for quick 
burial and easy mowing rather than visitation, 
contemplation or decoration. (The Vietnam Veter- 
ans Memorial in Washington is the one great fu- 
nerary monument of our time, and impersonal as 
it seems, it attracts individual tributes. Perhaps, 
despite our millions of memorials, we have only 
enough psychic energy left for one.) 

We may live in a post-cemetery time, but Jackson 
and Vergera remind us that there was also an era 
before cemeteries were recognized as community 
institutions and richly adorned. Indeed, on one of 
the first pages of the book, there is a quotation 
describing the burial place in the very town where 
I used to sweat through Memorial Day parades. In 
1800, my town's graveyard was called "an un- 
kempt section of the town common where the 

graves and fallen markers were daily trampled 
upon by people and cattle." 

As the quotation indicates, people were buried 
before there were cemeteries, and the sites of the 
graves were close to everyday life, but not monu- 
mentalized. Although the book does not state this 
explicitly, it shows an evolution from a view of 
death as an everyday event, to an occasion for 
exalted contemplation, and finally to something 
we'd rather not think about at all. 

Many of the earliest tombstones illustrated in 
Silent Cities show images of death and decay, 
including such grisly motifs as winged skulls, 
with inscriptions that offer pointed reminders to 
the viewers that they will be in the ground them- 
selves before too long. 

By the mid-1800s, the art and architecture of the 
more privileged cemeteries were becoming grander 
and decidedly more optimistic. There were clas- 
sical motifs: temples, free-standing columns and 
columns that had been broken to symbolize inter- 
rupted lives. There were Egyptian motifs, recall- 
ing the grandest and most persistent of funerary 
architecture, including the forest of obelisks at 
Philadelphia's Laurel Hill, and the pylon gate of 
New Haven, Conn.'s Grove Street Cemetery, which 
was founded in 1 796 and was, the book says, "the 
first cemetery of the modern genus." 

There were monuments and mausoleums in the 
Gothic style, which was considered more appro- 
priate for Christian remembrance, but had the 
drawback of being more expensive than other 
styles. And there was figurative sculpture: ge- 
neric sculptures of babies; grieving though some- 
times voluptuous women and female angels; and 
reliefs, busts and standing figures of righteous 
ministers and prosperous businessmen. 

The book is best when it leaves these familiar 
categories and elite cemeteries and moves into 
what it calls "the vast democracies of the dead." 
These places, open to the vast majority of Ameri- 
cans, are remindersthat industrialization enabled 
the masses forthe first time to purchase their bits 
of immortality. These less opulent places offer 
moving, very personal glimpses of ordinary life. 

There are, for example, the monuments to mar- 
riage, in which wives are shown as fully equal to 
their husbands, and sometimes as a bit more vir- 

Photographic representations of people were in- 

AGSSu'90 p.23 

corporated into tombstones beginning late in tlie 
19tli century, providing a relatively inexpensive 
way of personalizing the grave. The book shows an 
evolution from formal portraits, made when pho- 
tographs required extensive preparation, to more 
recent snapshot headstones, including one of a 
husband and wife, each of whom is holding a bottle 
of beer. 

The authors attribute the decline of cemeteries to 
many factors, including increased mobility and its 
attendant rootlessness. Moreover, photograph 
albums make it unnecessary to go to the cemetery 
to provoke recollection of the dead. Pepole live 
longer lives, which means that the shocking loss of 
young people, the most common theme of the most 
elaborate and moving monuments, is not nearly so 

These are good explanations, but this attractive 
picture book raises some very serious questions. 
Can our civilization afford to ignore death as we try 
to do? Doesn't environmental consciousness at 
some point demand recognition that people are 
made of the same things as their environment and 
are recyclable, dust to dust? In a world where 
there is AIDS, shouldn't teenagers be reminded 
that they're not immortal? 

The cemetery, once a powerful device for commu- 
nicating values, is now just a remnant. And the 
state of mind, the discipline and the sense of 
obligation that made me and my schoolmates, against 
our wills, march each Memorial Day, is mostly 
gone. But the awareness that life has an end might 
provoke people into making sure it has a meaning. 
Life's too short to spend it at the mall. 

contributed by Harvard Wood III, Lar\sdowne PA 







available from Princeton Architectural Press 
37 East Seventh St. 
New York NY 10003 

ISBN: 0-910413-22-3 

AGS SuVO p. 24 

This Silent Marble Weeps: 

The Cemeteries of Stoddard, New Hampshire 

Compiled by Alan F. Rumrill, director of the His- 
torical Society of Cheshire County in Keene, New 
Hampshire, this work should be of interest to 
genealogists, libraries, researchers, historical 
societies and anyone interested in the town of 

The book contains gravestone records of people 
buried in Stoddard's six cemeteries and numerous 
private family burial plots. A map of Stoddard 
shows the location of each of the cemeteries and 
maps of the six cemeteries show the location of 
each gravestone. Brief histories of the six ceme- 
teries are included and the index covers over 1 000 
names. All the legible epitaphs have been recorded. 
The book includes photographs of the cemeteries, 
selected gravestones, and the town's nineteenth 
century horse-drawn summer and winter hearses. 

Containing 1 00 pages, this 8x11 softbound book 
will be a limited edition of 200 copies. The cost of 
the book will be $10.00 plus $1.50 per book for 
postage and handling. Make the check payable to 
Alan Rumrill. Order from: 

Historical Society of Cheshire County 

PO Box 803 

Keene, NH 03431. 

/ Sufannaii, Ewns. 

W>« Iferi Sep*- ;?I 
&23,179S. ledy. 
in the •}* year of 
her Age- nernfln 
in k's Z'^yeat. 

From the stone of Henrietta Curtice, New (Stoddard) 

"Lo where this silent marble weeps 

A friend, a wife, a mother sleeps 

A heart within whose sacred cell 

The peaceful virtues loved to dwell." 

AGS Su' 

Best of Gravestone Humor 

by Louis S. Schafer, illustrated by Elise Chanow- 
itz, 130 pp 

Published 1990 by Sterling Publishing Co. Inc., 387 
Park Ave. South, New York NY 10016; distributed in 
Canada by Sterling Publishing c/o Canadian Manda 
Group, P.O. Box 920, Station U, Toronto, Ont. M8Z 
5P9; distributed In Great Britain and Europe by Cassell 
PLC Artillery House, Artillery Row, London SW1P 
1RT, England; distributed in Australia by Capricorn 
Ltd., P.O. Box 665, Lane Cove, NSW 2066. 
$5.95 paperback ($7.95 in Canada) 
ISBN: 0-8069-7274-2 

A new publication, Best of Gravestone Humor, by 
Louis S. Schafer, has been published by Sterling 
Publishing Inc., New York. In the tradition of such 
publications as Comic E pitaphs from the Verv Best 
Old Graveyards (Mount Vernon NY: Peter Pauper 
Press, 1957): The Last Laugh (Kansas City : Hall- 
mark Editions, 1968); and A Small Book of Grave 
Humour fLondon: Pan Books, 1971), Schafer lists 
humorous epitaphs from the English speaking 
world. Although the back cover states that the 
epitaphs included are "all true, all authentic", no 
attempt is made to justify this claim. No one 
reading this book will be able to locate any stone 
cited with such vague provenance as "found near 
Lebanon, Connecticut". These publications make 
great bathroom reading. I may sound jaded because 
I know my well-intentioned friends knowing of my 
interest in gravestones, will seize on this book as 
the perfect gift for me. I already have several 
copies of The Last Laugh for that very rea.qnn. Oh 
well. Best of Gravestone Humor may not be very 
informative, but it is entertaining. DT 

90 p. 25 


Exhibition Announcement 

Conference and Exhibition: 
"The Future of Jewish Monuments" 

An international conference on the preservation of 
historic Jewish sites and structures will be held at 
the Brookdale Center of Hebrew Union College - 
Jewish Institute of Religion, 1 West 4th Street, 
New York, NY, on November 17 (evening) - 19, 
1990. The conference is organized by the Jewish 
Heritage Council of the World Monuments Fund. 

The conference will provide the setting for histo- 
rians, architects, preservationists, and members 
of the larger Jewish community to address the 
issues of preserving monuments of Jewish heri- 
tage, and to compare their activities, and learn 
from each others' experiences and expertise. 

Though primarily focused on the built environ- 
ment, there will also be several presentations on 
cemeteries and cemetery documentation and pres- 

An exhibition, held in the Joseph Gallery of the 
Brookdale Center will accompany the conference. 
Photographs, drawings and objects will be used to 
illustrate many of the issues which affect the 
preservation of Jewish monuments. The exhibi- 
tion will travel through 1991. 

Advance registration is $50 (students $30 — proof 
of matriculation required). Registration includes 
admission to opening reception, closing reception, 
and all sessions. Space is limited. 

For further information write Samuel Gruber, 
Jewish Heritage Council, World Monuments Fund, 
174 East 80th Street, New York, NY 10021. 

There will be an exhibition of early New England 
gravestone rubbings titled "Graven Images" at the 
Carpenter Museum in Rehoboth MA from Septem- 
ber 8 to December 30. TheMuseumisopen every 
Sunday from 2-4 PM orby appointment during the 
week. For more information or directions to the 
Museum, call Lydia Carswell, (508) 252-9482. 

Friends of Center Cemetery 

A new group, the Friends of Center Cemetery of 
East Hartford CT has enlisted more than 60 mem- 
bers and begun to make a photographic record of 
the 18th and 19th century stones in the town- 
owned burying ground. A first tour in April, 
guided byAGS Board member William Hosley of the 
Wadsworth Atheneum of Hartford, drew more than 
100 persons. The event was supported by the 
Connecticut Humanities Council. The cemetery 
includes the grave of colonial Connecticut gover- 
nor William Pitkin. The group is looking for his 
living descendants. A demonstration of gravestone 
photography was held during the summer by AGS 
Board member Fred Sawyer of Glastonbury. More 
tours are planned - for more information contact 
Mary Goodwin, secretary, 130 Peach Tree Rd., 
Glastonbury CT 06033 (203)659-2845. 

The Elgin (Illinois) Area Historical Society and 
Museum is again sponsoring an Historic Elgin 
Cemetery Walk, Sunday. September 23, at Bluff 
City Cemetery. This is a walking tour/dramatiza- 
tion which takes you back in time to hear citizens 
from Elgin's past tell their own stories at their 
gravesites. Last year, 630 people attended. For 
more information, contact Jerry Turnquist at 
(708) 888-4226 or the Elgin Area Historical 
Society at (708) 742-4248. 


Originally planned for Keeno State College In Keene NH, our Conference '91 site has 
been changed due to Keane's withdrawal. Nell Jenness, Conference '91 Chair, 
passed this unwelcome news to your President on July 25. Arrangements were 
quickly made to visit Northfleid Mt. Hermon School (NMH) in Northfield MA. The 
tour of the campus established that ail the facilities we require are available and 
in buildings in about the same relative proximity as we experienced at Roger 
Williams College. NMH's summer conference schedule of pricing is about the same 
as offered at Roger Williams College though we have been assured of some facilities 
rate reductions once our requirements are clearer. So, It'soffto Northfield Instead 
of Keene! 

AGS Su-90 p.26 


On Sunday, October 14, .1990 at 12 noon, members of 
Historic Oal<land, a support group for Oal<land Ceme- 
tery in Atlanta GA will hold SUNDAY IN THE PARK AT 
HISTORIC OAKLAND, a Victorian picnic and festivities. 
Last year more than 1600 people attended, many 
visiting Oakland Cemetery for the first time. Basket 
lunches will be sold with a "Turn of the Century" 
menu. Lastyeareach picnic basket contained two large 
pieces of cold fired chicken, an apple, a slice of pound 
cake, 4-6 oz. of cole slaw, a roll and a small chocolate 
goodie, all for $5. Much of the food is donated by stores 
and restaurants. 

In a joint effort between the City of Atlanta, Historic 
Oakland Cemetery Inc. (HOC!) and Oakland's Atlanta 
Junior League volunteers, a lot needing restoration in 
Oakland Cemetery was restored. HOC! raised enough 
money through a special project to fund the restoration 
of a lot with retaining walls deteriorating and the 
coping falling away. The City of Atlanta brick masons 
rebuilt the walls and replaced and realigned the coping 
that had fallen. Joining the effort were the Junior 
League volunteers who, with the assistance of the 
Oakland maintenance crew, unearthed the buried cra- 
dling on the four gravespaces. After cleaning all the 
pieces and grading the lot, the cradling was properly 



In July, AGS was contacted by LeEarl Bryant of 
Richardson, TX who is the creator of the board game 
TORY. Ms. Bryant wants to donate $5 of each 
purchase to a fund for cemetery preservation. She 
asked AGS to receive and manage these funds and to 
guarantee that would be spent for cemetery restora- 
tion projects across the nation. 

The game is a new one, has only been on the market for 
three years, and it will possibly take some timeforthe 
game to catch on and the fund to build up to a useable 
amount. AGS was delighted to have been approached to 
begin such a fund and readily agreed to manage the fund 
and to report back to Ms. Bryant the use of such 
proceeds when the time comes. 

Anyone who has ever enjoyed the board game CLUE ™ 
will also enjoy GENERATIONS '"'. It is based on the 
same methodology of finding information. Only this 
time, «ach player is looking for an ancestor, his 
birthplace, and either his career or his lifestyle. It is 
advertised for2 to 6 players aged 8 through adult. The 
players move tokens around the board to seven differ- 
ent geographical regions within the United States 
searching for hints regarding lifestyle, career, and 

kind of person their ancestor was. Deductive reason- 
ing is used to create a fictional family tree. The winner 
is the individual best able to separate rumor from fact. 

GENERATIONS ^"allows for several interesting vari- 
ations including playing in teams (especially useful 
when a smaller child wants to be included in the fun.). 

The game is also available in a classroom edition 
(GENERATIONS ED). Classroom teachers have written 
excellent reviews after using it with their students as 
a free-time activity or as part of classroom history 
courses. In the Education version, students draw a 
number placing their ancestor in one of five genera- 
tions on a Family Tree Chart and three cards containing 
"facts" about their ancestor's U.S. region of birth, 
career and lifestyle. The Family Tree Chart is filled in 
with the names students invent for their ancestors and 
with the facts they have drawn for each one. Students 
create imaginary stories about each ancestor placing 
him or her in the appropriate historical context. 

John Franklin, an eighth grade history teacher in 
Friendship, TX, introduces GENERATIONS ^"at the 
beginning ofthe school year. Heand hisclasses develop 
the family tree, adding generation tocover all the time 
periods in his U.S. history course. As the year 
proceeds, they flash back to the family to examine 
their possible reactions to the various historical events 
they are discussing. John has students who, from time 
to time, return to discuss the family and events in their 

The game is handsomely packaged and includes tokens 
representing various professions such as an 
artist(palette), farmer (milk bottle), carpenter(gold 
hammer), and lifestyles such as a hero (blue star) and 
criminal (rat). The game board is sturdy, yet folds for 
easy storage. Authentic-looking ancestor charts are 
also provided so each player (researcher) can record 
results and statistics. 

So when you are thinking of holiday giving, consider 
who on your list would enjoy a different kind of game 
that stimulates imaginations to bloom and turns dusty 
history into a fascinating web of intrigue. And know 
that part of your purchase price will go into the "AGS 
Restoration Fund." The game is available from 
Genealogy for Fun, Inc., PO Box 850061 , Richardson, 
TX 75085. Cost is $24.95 plus $2 state tax for Texas 
residents, plus 3.50 for shipping and handling. Addi- 
tional instructions for classroom use may be ordered 
for $5. 


AGSSu'90 p.27 


Seventeen members were credited with recruiting 
twenty-one new members by the June 1, 1990 
deadline. Several recruited two members, earning 

deductions on next year's membership, and one, 
David Via of Round Hill, VA, recruited three new 
members, earning himself a free year's member- 
ship. Our thanks and congratulations go to these 
resourceful members, and our welcome to the new 

I Please inform the office if you plan to move. The Newsletter is sent 3rd | 

I class and the post office will not forward 3d class mail. Your Newsletter i 

_ is then destroyed and AGS must bear the cost of mailing you another. So . 

■ please send in your new address. ' 

The AGS Newsletter is published quarterly as a service to members of the Association for Gravestone 
Studies. The membership year begins on the date dues are received and ends one year from that date. A one 
year membership entitles the members to four issues of the Newsletter and to participation in the AGS 
conference in the year membership is current. Send membership fees (individual $20: institutional, $25; 
Family $30; contributing $30) to AGS Executive Director Rosalee Oakley , 46 Plymouth Rd. Need ham MA 02192. 
Back issues of the Newsletter are available for $3.00 per issue from Rosalee Oakley. The goal of the 
Newsletter is to present timely information about projects, literature, and research concerning grave- 
stones, and about the activities of the Association for Gravestone Studies. It is produced by Deborah irask, 
who welcomes suggestions and short contributions from readers. The Newsletter is not mtended to serve 
as a journal. Journal articles should be sent to Theodore Chase editor of Markers, the Journal of the 
Association for Gravestone Studies, 74 Farm St., Dover l\/IA 02030. Address Newsletter 
contributions to Deborah Trask, editor, Nova Scotia h^useum, 1747 Summer St., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 
3A6, Canada. OrderMarkers (Vol. 1 $18; Vol. 2, $16; Vol. 3, $14.75; Vol. 4. $14.75; Vol. 5, $18; Vol. 6, 
$18; Vol. 7, $15: higher prices for non-members) from Rosalee Oakley. Send contributions to the AGS Archives 
to Jo Goeselt, 61 Old Sudbury Road, Way land MA 01778 Address other correspondence to Rosalee Oakley. 

46 Plymouth Rd. 
Needham MA 
02 192 




Permit No. 









Montparnasse Cemetery, Paris 

notes from George Kackley 2 

Alaska's Old Valdez Cemetery 

by Harvey Medland 3 

A Morning In Indiana 

by Jim Jewell 5 



Creative Use of Gravestone Motifs 11 


Unearthed Cemeteries 16 


Gravestone Chronicles, reviewed by Michael Cornish 20 

EXHIBIT - Almand Rubbings of Texas 22 




Miranda Levin of Sutton, Massachusetts lias been selected to be the new Executive 
Director. She was the top choice of the Personnel Committee which received ten 
applications for the position. The Board of Trustees voted to accept the Committee's 
choice at its October 27th meeting. 

Mrs. Levin is a 1982 graduate of Smith college, Northampton MA. In her employment 
as a manager of sales and marketing for Hampton Hill, Inc. of Framingham MA and as 
vice-president, operations of Wayfarer Wines, Inc. of Haydenville MA, she has had 
experience in managing personnel, finances, sales, advertising and marketing strate- 
gies. She is also a freelance writer and has done public speaking in both commercial and 
educational settings. 




notes from George Kackley, Baltimore MD 

The New York Times of July 8, 1990 had an 
article about Montpamasse Cemetery and its lively 
neighborhood. It introduces the "second ceme- 
tery" of Paris as a quiet respite from the partying 
of its area. The article, by Julian More, includes 
a map of the 42-acre park, showing nearby streets 
and MeUo stations. 

The article notes that the cemetery was founded by 
the Brothers of St. Jean de Dieu, an ancient order 
of hospitalers and was opened as a public cemetery 
in 1824, over the objections of the tres gai citi- 
zens of RueGaite. (Permanent ParislansleWs 
us that the l^ontparnasse Cemetery is known as 
Cimetiere du Sud and that it was created from three 
farms in 1824). 

The New York Times article tells us that we can 
get a map of the cemetery, showing location of 

Tomb of the inventor Charles Pigeon 

graves of the celebrities, from the Bureau de Con- 
servation, to the left of the main entrance on the 
Boulevard Edgar-Quinet, that the Michelin Guide 
is clearer about their positions, and that the gar- 
deners are helpful. It does not mention Perma- 
nent Parisians, an Illustrated Guide to the 
Cemeteries of Paris, by Judi Cuthbertson and 
Tom Randall (1986, $15.95: Chelsea Green Pub- 
lishing Co., P.O. Box 130, Post Mills VT 05058- 
0130 FAX: 802/333-9092) which has a plat of 

the Montparnasse Cemetery showing location of 
notable burials. 

The Permanent Parisians plat shows location 
of the graves of Frederic Bartholdi (Statue of Lib- 
erty), Alfred Dreyfus, Cesar Franck, Guy de 
Maupassant, Constantin Brancusi (his marker 
being a major work by him), Camille Saint- 
Saens, Jean Seberg, Jean-Paul Sartre, Chiam 
Soutine, Pierre Laval, Charles Baudelaire, in- 
ventor Charles Pigeon, painter Gustave Jundt, 
composer Vincent d'Indy, Admiral Dumont 
d'Urviile, Andre Citroen, and Honore Champion 
(notable only for his tomb by sculptor Paul Albert 
Bartholme). The guidebook's text adds the graves 
of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, "Father of Anar- 
chism", Clara Haskil, Romanian pianist; sculptor 
Henri Laurens (with a handsome sculpture by him 
as his marker); Tristian Tzara, a Romanian founder 
of dadaism; the painter Henri Fantin-Latour; the 
astronomer Urbain Jean Joseph le Verrier; critic 
Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve; painter Gustave 
Jundt; and Nicholas Cont6, inventor of the pencil. 
The New York Times article makes the following 
additions to the list of Permanent Parisians: Simone 
de Beauvoir, buried with Jean-Paul Sartre; 
Mexican president Porfirio Diaz; the sculptor 
Zadkine, who worked at La Ruche (the Montpar- 
nasse artists' colony that launched Chagall, L^ger, 
Modigliani and Soutine); the eighteenth-century 
sculptor Bourdelle; and one J. Ottavi, a Corsican 
orator whose noble tombstone states that it was 
erected to this "Relation of Napoleon" by his 
"Friends and Admirers". 

The New York Times article has photographs of 
the massive granite double bed containing the in- 
ventor, Charles Pigeon and his wife, in bedtime 
conversation, and the horizontal inscription on the 
grave of the Dreyfus family. The guidebook has 
better photographs of markers (including those of 
Pigeon, Baudelaire, de Maupassant, Brancusi, 
Sainte-Beuve, Laurens and Jundt), with inter- 
esting write-ups about these notable persons that 
make good bedtime reading. 



The community of Valdez, Alaska, has an opportune 
location at the north end of Prince William Sound. 
Its excellent harbour is now the terminus for both 
the Richardson Highway and the Trans-Alaska Oil 
Pipeline. Aside from the "old" cemetery, little 
remains of the original townsite. It was mangled 
and flooded in 1964s Easter earthquake. The 
"new" community" was subsequently erected 
further west. 

In 1896 Valdez did not exist. Two years later, 
however, it had a population of 3500 prospectors 
struggling across the Valdez Glacier in order to 
reach Dawson City, scene of the Klondike Gold 
Rush. Very few made it. Many died on the Glacier. 
The survivors who returned to Valdez were sick, 
destitute and disillusioned. During this tragedy, a 
large copper deposit was discovered nearby. It 
wan't gold, but it was enough to convince some to 
saty in Alaska. They worked the mine, constructed 
a permanent town and laid out the "old" cemetery. 

Today that burying ground enjoys an attractive 
setting amid tall evergreen trees. Its well-main- 
tained grave markeres are an assortment of posts, 
planks and crosses. A summary of their inscrip- 
tions illustrates the worldwide appeal of the Yukon 
Gold Rush and the cosmopolitan background of the 
founders of Valdez: 

- A. Gravelle, born Belgium 1864, died 1924 

- J. Erickson, born Norway, died 1928 

- F. Gustafson, born Sweden 1877, died 1928 

- Emma Nelson, born Sweden 1854, died 1926 

- Walter Holland, born New Zealand 1866, 
died 1918; Life Member of Igloo #7 Alaska 

- John Rueby, bom Switzerland 1870, died 

- George Cook, bom Stockton, California 1870, 
died 1920 

- Dolatmurza Bogoff (bom Russia) died 1918, 
age 31 years 






contributed by Harvey Medland, Toronto, Ontario. 


Barbara Rotundo of Laconia NH writes that she has 
several times been asked, including by a group at our 
June conference, about the derivation of "Potters 
Field" as a name for the burial place of the poor. "I can 
now answer authoritatively-nothing as authoritative as 
the Bible! The reference given is usually Matthew 
XXVII: 6-7 but I think the whole chapter through verse 
10 is important because it shows why so many people 
were so emotional about not being buried 'by the 
town'. It was more than just the disgrace of being poor. 

"To summarize: After the chief priests had bound 
Jesus and delivered him to Pontius Pilate, Judas 
repented and tried to return the thirty pieces of silver, 

the price of his betrayal, to the chief priests and elders, 
but they wouldn't take his money. Then he threw 
down the pieces of silver 'and went and hanged 
himself. The chief priests said it was unlawful to keep 
the money because it was 'the price of blood'. 

V. 7 'And they took counsel, and bought with 

them the potter's field, to bury strangers in. 

V. 8 Wherefore that field was called. The field 

of blood, unto this day. ' 
The last two verses describe how this was a fulfillment 
of Jeremy's prophecy. 

All those burial societies, and the priority given to 
having money for one's burial, becomes a lot clearer-- 
those people knew their Bible better than I did." 

AGS Fa'90p.4 


by Jim Jewell, Peru IL 

With our continual quest for scientific, historical 
or academic knowledge about gravestones, it is 
often refreshing to realize that the gravestone can 
still be an object capable of provoking honest 
emotions — beyond intellectual ones. 

On a visit to Indiana this past June, I drove out of 
my way to photograph the stones of two Hoosiers, 
buried in cemeteries less than an hour from each 
other. Both died young; both died tragically. Both 
have stones that have been both revered and van- 

James Dean and Ryan White. Jimmy and Ryan. 
From Fairmount to Cicero is less than an hour's 
drive. From Jimmy's fiery death to Ryan's final 
breath is thirty-five years. From rebel film idol 
to teenage AIDS victim is a lifetime of change and 
redistribution of priorities. 

But from a simple stone hidden in the middle of 
Fairmount's Park Cemetery to an ornate focal 
point along the main road next to Cicero Cemetery 
is a short span — almost nonexistent — of emotional 

I knelt at James Dean's stone and recalled the 
outpouring of grief at his passing in 1955. And, 
although I was a few years from being a teenager, 
it seemed as if a portion of what I aspired to was 
suddenly gone. As it is with all tragic demises, it 
was gone without a word, without a sensible rea- 
son. In the morning sun — reflected off nearby 
polished granite — I wept. I wept for those who left 
as suddenly as Jimmy did on a California highway. 
I wept for Terry Fullis, my Louisville drinking 
buddy. For Linda Varner from my first summer 
stock company. For my Uncle George, whose death 

on a road near the Mississippi River prevented 
him from seeing his four-year-old grand-daugh- 
ters grow to be the young mothers they are today. 


It was harder to find the Cicero Cemetery, but 
easier to see the White stone than the Dean marker 
in Fairmount. And it was easy for the emotions — 
for very different reasons — to flood back. Again I 
wept. I wept for Matthew Hoffman, my Chicago 
designer friend. For Jim Canady, talented musi- 
cian and instructor at Indiana University. For 
Bobby Duncan, former student and compassionate 
friend. I wept for those who left us because of a 
senseless affliction as lacking in logic as a car 
crash. I knelt in the grass — still damp with morn- 
ing dew — and 1 wept. ..for us all. 

Jim Jewell is a frequent contributor to the Ne ws let- 
ter. His photo of the Ryan White gravestone was 
published in the Bucks County AIDS Awareness 
Ne wsletter, accompanying an interview with Ryan's 

AGS Fa'90p.5 


AGS member Jennifer Sexton sent several photos 
of "head and shoulder" stones found in Winona 
TN. She wonders if these are common elsewhere. 
If you have seen similar stones in your area of the 
country, please contact AGS Research with the 
information. (Laurel Gabel, 205 Fishers Road, 
Pittsford NY 14534). 

Jim Miller, who saw Jennifer's photographs 
posted on the Conference Bulletin board, sent in 
information from Terry Jordan's book Texas 
Graveyards, A Cultural Legacy(\Jr\\\jers\\y 
of Texas Press, 1982). The "head and shoulder" 
stones pictured in Texas Graveyarc/s were re- 
putedly fashioned in the 1840s by a slave artisan 
for an East Texas white couple. Terry Jordan be- 
lieves that '1he human effigy shape may be of 
African origin, since it appears, generally in 
wood, among blacks in Texas, Georgia, and per- 
haps elsewhere in the South." AGS member Bob 
Longcore from Hamburg NJ sent photocopies of 
eight head and shoulder style stones similarto the 
Winona TN stones that Jennifer Sexton inquired 
about. The eighteenth century stones, whose 
inscriptions are all in German, are located in 
Sussex County NJ, and span the years 1748- 
178? If you know of any other "head and shoul- 
der" stones, please tell us about them! 

Two members have sent drawings/rubbings of 
the following emblem found on gravestones in 
Tennessee. One example appears on the stone for 
a woman who died in 1905. The other is from a 
double marker for husband and wife, both of 
whom died in 1 927. Although both husbands were 
Masons, AGS Research co-ordinator Laurel Gabel 
did not find a description of this emblem in Ma- 
sonic reference books or histories, nor was it 
familiar to researchers at the (Masonic) Mu- 
seum of Our National Heritage in Lexington, 
Massachusetts. Laurel suspects that the symbol 
may represent membership in a local fraternal/ 
benefit organization, religious circle or women's 
auxiliary. Have any other AGS members seen this 
emblem on gravestones? Does anyone know its 
affiliation or what the letters F.N.D.O.Z.T.K.C and 
A.M.R.Y. stand for? 

emblem drawing by Carol Perkins 


Harvey Medland of Toronto, Ontario, writes: 

While exploring cemeteries along the north shore 
of Lake Erie, we discovered several markers for 
British immigrants. Each concluded with, 
"drowned in Lake Erie at the burningof theWorfrt- 
ern Indiana, July 17, 1856". It appeared that 
each of the deceased had been buried in proximity 
to where he or she had been washed up on shore 
over a distance of twenty miles. In order to learn 
more of the Northern Indianalragedy, we contacted 
several museums and libraries, but to no avail, 
until the University of Western Ontario's Regional 
Room advised us to write to the Dossin Great Lakes 
Museum — "It's the best resource on Great Lakes' 

Several weeks later, "the Dossin" mailed to us a 
reproduction of the front page of the July 18, 
1856 Detroit Free Press. Its detailed description 
of the accident, plus lists of the passengers, crew 
and missing served as an excellent resource. One 
of the marble markers was in memory of Frank 
Akeroyd of Manchester, England. The newspaper 
clipping placed his drowning in an even more 
tragic perspective. His wife, Harriet, survived 
the accident near Point Pelee, but lost her mother, 
father, husband and two children. 

For anyone wishing information on gravestones 
which refer to Great Lakes' mishaps, we recom- 
mend you contact the Dossin Great Lakes' Museum, 
100 Strand/Belle Isle, Detroit Michigan, 48207. 

Dr. Charles Letocha, an opthalmogist from York 
PA, wrote to inquire whether AGS members might 
be aware of any gravestones which depict spec- 
tacles or eyeglasses. He recently visited the 
Science Museum in London where they have a 
plaster cast of a Scottish gravestone on which two 
skulls are wearing eyeglasses. The original grave- 
stone, dated 1727, is in Kirkliston, Scotland. Has 
anyone seen anything similar? If so, we would 
like to hear about it. 


AGS member Kevin Ladd, director of the Wallis- 
ville Heritage Park in Texas, writes that the 
Texas Historical Commission is actively seeking 
funding to create a position that would be solely 
responsible for historic cemeteries in Texas. If 
approved by the legislature, this person would 
assist individuals, associations, and county his- 
torical commissions that are working to preserve 
cemeteries. He/she would also seek to codify laws 
governing cemeteries and help to establish a 
central clearing house for all information on the 
cemeteries in the state's 254 counties. Anyone 
wishing to write a letter of support for this 
position should address their comments to Mr. 
Curtis Tunnell, Executive Director, Texas His- 
torical Commission, P.O. Box 12276, Austin TX 

Rare Book for Sale 

This rare and unusually fine book will be useful and 
interesting to people who study and appreciate 
funerary monuments. The page size is 11 x 15", and 
there are over 200 full-page plates of highly-detailed 
drawings of memorials. Although many countries and 
areas are illustrated, the primary focus is on Ireland, 
Britain and France. There are extensive sections on 
Celtic crosses and cathedral sarcophagii. The book's 
condition is as follows: no cover, very slight foxing on a 
few pages, no torn or missing pages, original end 
papers. This is a beautiful item that should be rebound 
or placed in an archival storage box. 

$100.00 + $4.00 for packing and stripping 

Robert Wright 
830 Terry Place 
Madison Wl 5371 1 












Can AGS members help locate the original site of 
any of these gravestones? 

A badly weathered oak graveboard is currently in 
the possession of a Fall River, Massachusetts man 
who for the past twenty-plus years has used it for 
a coffee table. (He "protected" it with several 
coats of polyurethane.) Traces of paint are still 
visible and some of the inscription is legible. It 
was probably hand made. The inscription reads: 
"In Memory of Mary, wife of John Bradley, died_, 

1888 ^fever." An epitaph (?) follows. The 

marker was given to the current possessor by a 
friend, who moved away long ago. Were Mary and 
John Bradley from Rhode Island? Massachusetts? 
Might a more permanent marker have eventually 
replaced this wooden graveboard? 

A worn marble gravestone (36" x 12" x 2") for 
"Isaac Johnson died January 7, 1819 at 1 .25 Yr., 
1 M, 19 D." This stone was used as part of an 
outdoor patio for a Berea, Ohio home. There is no 
decorative motif. It appears to have been profes- 
sionally carved. 

A small (10x7 1/2" x 3") marble gravestone "In 
Memory of Kate McCartney, died August 20th, 
1884 at age 17 (or ?11) years, 10 mo." This 
stone, in the shape of a closed book, was purchased 
for $3.00 at a suburban Rochester NY garage sale 
by a woman who was distressed to see it advertised 
as a Halloween prop. She wants very much to 
restore it to Kate McCartney's grave. Can you 


Vii^tWi HTOE-v' 

from left to right: Patricia Ely, Neptune NJ, Elizabeth Lovell 
Bowman, Toms River NJ, and Elise Prayzich of Freehold 
Twp. NJ look over one of the stones returned to New Jersey 
from Vermont. 

A follow-up to the story reported in the Spring issue of 
the Newsletter (V.14 #2), p. 6, on the stones from 
Freehold NJ found in Townshend VT: Elizabeth Lovell 
Bowman of Toms River NJ and Ludlow VT got in touch 
with Patricia Ely, a genealogist. Much to Mrs. Ely's 
surprise, the stones were for some of her own 
ancestors. The next step was what to do with them as 
the cemetery is now a housing development. Mrs. Ely 
and other descendants decided that the best place for 
the stones was the Monmouth County NJ Historical 
Association Museum. 

from the Asbury Park Press, sent by Elizabeth Lovell 
Bowman, Toms River NJ and Ludlow VT, and Janis Ramoth, 
Wood-Ridge NJ 

An AP photograph, captioned "No stone unturned" 
shows Frank Natsuhara of Auburn WA holding the 
gravestone of his sister, lyu, who died in 1911 at 
age 3 but whose gravestone was stolen in 1945 in 
the bitterfinal days of World War II. The stone was 
recently unearthed at a construction site and will 
be returned to the cemetery. 

sent by Dr. James Ramoth, Beach Haven NJ, and from 
the Baltimore Sun, July 15, 1990, sent by Jack 
Lynch of Baltimore MD. 


AGS member Barbara O'Neill, chairof the Beaufort 
NC Historical Association's Old Burying Ground 
committee, (P.O. Box 1709, Beaufort NC 28516) 
is trying to locate descendants of a person whose 
grave marker recently was found after a severe 
storm. The marker consists of two inscriptions, 
one on the front and one on the back, which read: 
"G.L. Willis, borned 10-15-1860, died 7-27- 
30", and "L. Willis, borned 10-15-1863, died 
7-10,1927." The cedar grave marker belongs in 
the Old Cemetery on the Point in Markers Island, 
which is now abandoned. Mrs. O'Neill is in search 
of Willis descendants who will accept responsibil- 
ity of the grave marker and return it to its original 
site. Barbara O'Neill writes: "...the 'lost' grave- 
marker is somewhat of a dilemma — I know where 
it belongs, but the area is abandoned and really 
trashed. The area looks like a garbage dump and 
access is limited. I hate to put it back where it 
belongs because it will just be either destroyed or 
removed again. The area is by a marina and our 
local fishermen don't seem to have any feelings 
about not littering. I put an article in the local 
paperthinking it might stimulate something but to 
no avail. Not one call!" 

chcr^t/ HtnnQumsamar 

This "Lost and Found" has a happy ending 

An eighty year old Toledo OH man hit 
a buried gravestone while digging in 
his backyard this past April. A pho- 
tograph of the stone and the accom- 
panying newspaper story of its dis- 
covery started a far-reaching search 
for the gravestone's original home. 
The unearthed slate marker was for 
Martha Gardiner, wife of Col. Tho- 
mas Gardiner, who died February 
21, 1793, in the 62nd year of her 
age. In the end, more than fourteen 
people from five states contributed 
to the research project to find 
Martha's burial place. The grave- 
stone, apparently carved by John 
Bull of Newport, will soon be re- 
turned to its original site in Rhode Island Cemetery 
#92 on Stony Fort Road in South Kingston Rl. It is 
still not known how the stone found its way, some- 

Stoae ssseartheci >n 

time in the late 1960s or early 
1970s, from South Kingston to 
Toledo OH. Although we didn't know 
it at the time, the mystery had al- 
ready been solved when AGS mem- 
ber Vincent Luti, of Westport Rl, 
first heard of it and quickly identi- 
fied the tiny cemetery from which 
the stone had been taken. 

To begin a search for the grave site 
when only the name and date of death 
are known, family genealogies, lo- 
cal histories, census records, vital 
records and burial ground invento- 
1 ic.kd:) pjgg gre useful resources. A good 
photograph or description of the 
stone and its recent history can also prove valu- 
able, especially if the carver or the regional 
carving design can be identified. 

AGS Fa'90p.9 

AGS member Lance Mayer of New London CT has 
provided further information on the "Patio Stones" 
issue reported in the Spring 1990 issue of the News- 
letter {V. 14 #2, p. 26) based on an article in the 
Hartford Courant, and on his discussions with the 


Gravestones have become a topic of controversy in 
New London CT, according to an article in the 
Hartford Courant on May 7, 1990. A New 
London city building official recently visited the 
home of Carolyn Brotherton to look into a request 
for a building permit, and found that a 10-by-12 
foot patio in Brotherton's backyard and a walkway 
leading to it are made from more than fifty tomb- 
stones. The city official notified police, who cited 
a 1984 lawwhich makes it illegalforan individual 
to possess or sell grave markers. The police have 
investigated and found that the stones were re- 
moved from nearby Cedar Grove Cemetery by a 
previous owner of the house, Asa Goddard, at some 
time during the 1930s. According to Goddard's 
widow, Mercia Goddard, the stones had been lying 
scattered at the edge of the cemetery, and cemetery 
officials allegedly did not object to their removal. 

According to police, some of the stones have in- 
scriptions which date to the nineteenth century, 
but most of the stones are brown and are inscribed 
only with names. This would indicate that they are 
footstones from the eighteenth or early nineteenth 

The story has been picked up by newspaper wire 
services, and has provoked the anger of descen- 
dants of some of the families whose gravestones 
have been removed, which include such prominent 
New London names as Hempstead, Starr and Coit. 

Police say that no one will be charged with a crime, 
but they have an obligation to attempt to return the 
stones to their proper location. But there is still 
confusion about howoreven whether this will take 
place. The present owner of the property is 
concerned about having her backyard torn up, and 
cemetery officials are concerned about the cost of 
transporting and re-erecting the stones. Police 
have consulted AGS, as well as William Hare of the 
New London County Historical Society and Lance 
Mayer at the Lyman Allyn Art Museum, but police 
are reluctant to spend a great deal more time on a 
case which will not involve a criminal prosecu- 

More details will follow as they develop. 


Here Lies America: A Collection of Notable 
Graves, Nancy Eilis & Parker Hayden, New York: Hawthorn 
Books, 1978. 
out-of-print $20.00 

Pioneer Cemeteries of Door County Wisconsin, 

text by John M. Kahlerl, photographs by Albert Quinlan, 
Baileys Harbor Wl: Meadow Lane Publishers, 1981. 


Death In Early America, Margaret M. Coffin, New York: 

Elsevier/Nelson Books, 1976. 

out-of-print, hardbound $18.00 

Permanent Address: A Guide to the Resting 
Places of Famous Americans, Jean Arbeiter & Linda D. 
Cirino, New York: M. Evans & Co., 1 983. $ 8.00 

Project Remember: A National Index of Gravesltes 
of Notable Americans. Arthur S. Koykka, Algonac Ml: 
Reference Publications, Inc., 1986. 
Hardbound. Comprehensive, almost 600 pages $40.00 

Shipping cost is $2.00 for the first book and $1.00 for each 
additional one. Send orders to: 

Robert Wright 

830 Terry Place 

Madison W! 5371 1 

New member Jeff Miller, of Huntington Station 
NY, spotted Nita Spangler's request for informa- 
tion about a civil warsoldierstatue (AGS Newslet- 
ter, V. 14, #1, 1990, p. 8). "When I saw the one 
pictured, 1 thought 'I know that soldier!' He is 
guarding the town green in Chambersburg, Fran- 
klin County, Pennsylvania. Here is a photo I took 
on a recent trip to Chambersburg. I'm sure you see 
the resemblance to Nita's soldier. I really have no 
information as to where the Chambersburg soldier 
was cast. Perhaps someone in a Chambersburg 
Historical Society or something could lend more 
insight. 1 know the statue was erected, looking 
south, to guard Chambersburg against attack from 
the Confederates after the city was burned to the 
ground in 1863." 

AGS Fa'90 p.10 


The guidelines forthe Salem witch 
trials logo design were clear. "If 
you were interested in winning," 
says Sarah Bennett, a Leicester 
MA resident who did just that, 
"you were supposed to avoid gal- 
lows humor and broomsticks." 
Bennett played by the rules and 
is $1000. richerfor it. Thatwas 
the grand prize awarded by the 
Salem Witch Trials Tercentenary Committee, 
which was formed to commemorate the 300th an- 
niversary of the Salem Witch Trials. 

The Tercentenary will recall the frenzied summer 
of 1 692 in Salem of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, 
when 1 9 people were hanged at the gallows and one 
person was pressed to death for practicing witch- 



Three tombstones were used to create the image for 
the logo; two provided the dates, and a third be- 
longing to Samuel Jenison, who briefly served as 
a minister in Rutland in 1721, contributed the 
facial image. The logo is now officially the prop- 
erty of the city of Salem. 

irom Inside Worcester, September 1990 




u I 

The logo design competition, which was advertised 
in New England Adweek, attracted more than 70 
entries from throughout New England. Bennett 
says she got the idea for her design, which is a 
combination of impressionsfrom 17th- and 18th- 
century gravestone rubbings, after visiting the 
Old North Cemetery near her childhood home in 
Wayland. "I spent a very enjoyable Sunday morn- 
ing poking around gravestones at the Old North 
Cemetery," Bennett says. "I wanted to get the feel 
of the old-style type[face]." 

This stone, photographed by Dan Farber in 1974, is 
similar to the Wayland stone from which the logo was 
derived. It was carved (for himself) by Jonathan 
Worster, and is at Harvard MA, 1754. 

AGS Fa'90p.11 

Gravestone Images In the Christmas 

The molds from which the reproductions were cast 
were made in the 1970s by William McGeer, of 
Holland MA, author of Reproducing Relief Sur- 
faces: A Complete Handbook of Rubbing, Dabbing, 
Casting and Daubing (Concord MA: Minuteman 
Press, 1972). The Newsletter has learned that 
Bill has religuished control over these molds and 
someone else [Facsimiles Ltd. of Groton MA] is now 
making and selling the reproductions to gift shops, 
mail order houses, etc. 

No. Fiih 555.00 

available from Cahill & Company, A Division of Regn- 
ery Gateway Inc., Federalsburg, Maryland, 21632- 

C. Gravestone Reproductions. 

available from: 

W.M. Green & Co., P.O. Box 278/Highway 64 East, 

Robersonville NC 27871 


The dilapidated family cemetery of a former United 
States president will be restored thanks to the 
efforts of three Ohio Historical Society staff 
members. Architect Theresa Andre, Objects Con- 
servator Laurie Booth and Scheduling Coordinator 
Melanie Pratt are working together to ensure the 
protection of Congress Green Cemetery in Hamil- 
ton County OH, the family cemetery of ninth U.S. 
president, William Henry Harrison. The ceme- 
tery, established in the late 1700s, was last used 
in 1903. 

Plansforthe site's preservation began with a land 
survey of the area and "readings" of the tomb- 
stones by Pratt, who spent the summer of 1988 
deciphering inscriptions and recording and re- 
searching data. Pratt and her co-workers evalu- 
ated the condition of each stone and filled out 
individual survey forms for each of the cemetery's 
more than 100 gravestones. The society's staff 

members then recommended measures for clean- 
ing, repairing and resetting the stones. In addi- 
tion, they developed guidelines for maintenance of 
the grounds that will ensure preservation of the 

Andre said that conservation experts will be cho- 
sen to perform the preservation work, which will 
take several months. "The conservation consult- 
ants will set up an off-site workshop in order to do 
the actual stone repair," she explained. "They 
need near-laboratory conditions in order to prop- 
erly restore the stones. ..Our project will serve as 
a prototype for future conservation work. Local 
historical organizations will be able to learn to 
conservetheirowncemeteries by using ourplans." 

from tfie Ohio Historical Society publication Ectioes, 
V. 29 #4, April 1990, sent by C.R. Jones, Cooper- 
stown NY 

AGS Fa'90p.12 

The Phantom In Nunhead Cemetery 

AGS's Victorian authority, Barbara Ro- 
tundo of Laconia NIH, ^ent tfie following item 
from thie Friends of Nunfiead Cemetery 
(London, England) Newsletter (#30, 
Winter 1989-90). "Tfiis is a kind of 
vandalism I've never encountered else- 
where. Unlike Highgate, which is run by 
the Friends, Nunhead is run by Southwark 
Borough, which ignores the many acres 
devoted to pre-World War I stones. That 
has become the Friends' territory." 

On the first Sunday of every month a band of 
between eight and twenty Friends of Nun- 
head Cemetery (F.O.N.C.) volunteers under- 
takes the only maintenance work now car- 
ried out in the cemetery (except for the new 
burial area). We like to think that the sign of good 
maintenance work is that its effects are hardly 
visible to the casual visitor — the absence of litter 
or rubbish around the entrance or on the paths, 
litter bins regularly emptied, a monument previ- 
ously broken now repaired, paths overgrown by 
brambles once again passable, banks of crocuses, 
wood anemones or other Spring flowers appearing 
because the grass and bramble were cut the pre- 
vious winter, holes in the boundary fence patched 
and mended, and so on. 

Unfortunately F.O.N.C. members are no longer the 
only people working in the cemetery. If you have 
visited it recently you may have seen the engraved 
lettering on many memorials newly painted in 
garish colours — red, blue, orange. This is defi- 
nitely not the work of F.O.N.C. For the past 12 
months the 'Phantom' has been at work in the 
cemetery. At first her was relatively harmless, 
only ripping ivy off memorials and hacking at 
small trees, leaving them dumped on the path for 

photo of Nunhead, "nature invading", from London 
Cemeteries, an Illustrated Guide and Gaz- 
etteer, by Hugh Meller (Avebury, 1981) 

US to clear away on F.O.N.C. workdays. He then 
moved on to paint lettering on a handful of monu- 
ments with gold paint, and now in the past few 
weeks he has run riot with colours. 

He only works at weekdays, when the cemetery is 
nearly deserted, which is why he is difficult to 
catch. One or two members of the Friends have 
spoken to him to try to persuade him to work with 
us rather than against us but he appears unwilling 
to listen. 

The greatest harm is often done by those with the 
best intentions. The 'Phantom' believes he is a 
'friend' of the cemetery and has a deep interest in 
all things Victorian. But what he is doing is just as 
much vandalism as the more obvious thug who 
smashes a stone, orthe antique dealerwho steals an 
angel's head to sell in his shop. 


The cost for attending Conference '91 took a dramatic turn for the better when a 
calculation glitch in our Cray Super Computer was discovered. To demonstrate how 
superior we mortals are, compared with computers, you are ivited to change the two 
entries shown in the CONFERENCE COST column (Conference '91 Special mailing) as 

$260.00 becomes $210.00 

$265.00 becomes $225.00 
Your president apologizes for the error of his ways. 

AGS Fa'90p.13 


Many people write to the AGS office asking wfiat 
tfiey can do wfien ttiey find a gravestone in a cellar 
or a burial ground ttiat is being neglected. Here are 
two stories illustrating what dedicated people can 

During the past year Lawrence Riveroll of San 
Diego, CA was given a gravestone that was l<nown to 
have been been removed from a particular ceme- 
tery in San Diego. His work to return it to its 
original location has developed into a significant 
cemetery restoration project involving the nearby 

El Campo Santo is the second oldest cemetery in San 
Diego and dates back to 1 849. Its size is about 1 20 
by 140 feet. More than 250 people were buried 
there, although to look at it today, one would think 
only 15 or 20 people are buried there. It is 
situated in a section of the city called Old Town 
where thousands of tourists pass by the cemetery 
every year. Yet no sign exists to explain its 
history. The cemetery has changed hands over the 
years from the Roman Catholic Church to the City 
of San Diego. Some restoration was done in 1933 
by the San Diego Historical Society and recently 
the city Parks Department replaced three of the 
wooden fence enclosures and repaired a cast iron 
fence around one of the graves. However, there is 
much more to be done. 

Mr. Riveroll began by contacting the Parks and 
Recreation Department about returning the grave- 
stone to the cemetery. In the meantime, another 
gravestone was found and it, too, will be returned 
to its original location. Then he got the backing of 
the Historical Shrine Foundation, a non-profit 
organization which runs a museum in Old Town 
known as the "Thomas Whaley House." They have 
been helpful and encouraging, and they have pledged 
some money for the restorations. Mr. Riveroll 
says, "This is the first time the Foundation has 
sponsored an outreach program for other histori- 
cal projects and they feel honored to help." 

A map of the cemetery dating back to 1 933 was re- 
cently located by Mr. Riveroll, with many more 
exact locations of graves and markers than were 
available to him at the outset of the project. There 
are now seven markers that he is planning to reset. 
These reinstalled markers will be rededicated on 
November 2 when the annual "Day of the Dead" is 
celebrated. Mr. Riveroll explains, "On this day 
families and friends go to cemeteries to visit the 

dead. The graves are decorated with flowers and 
candles, and there is music and food for the living. 
It is a pious way to pay respects to the dead and to 
pray for them that they rest in peace." 

Mr. Riveroll included two epitaphs from El Campo 
Santo. From a marble tombstone: 

Sacred to the memory of Edward L. Greerie, 

born Nov. 11, 1836, died Nov. 28, 1873 

aged38years, native of County Longford, Ireland 

Rest, dear husband, rest, 

Thy Annie mourns for thee. 

But when we meet again, dear one, 

From pain and sorrow we'll be free. 

Erected by his affectionate wife, Annie L. Greene. 

From a wooden slab: 
In memory of John A. Dill 
a mariner of Boston, f^ass. 
died Nov. 8, 1876 
aged 26 yrs S 2 mos. 

Our second story takes place in Jamaica, New York 
in the Borough of Queens. It begins one night when 
area resident Amy Anderson, a legal secretary, 
was looking for some abandoned puppies in one of 
the many garbage-filled vacant lots in the city. As 
she and two companions picked their way through 
splintered furniture, oldtires and othertrash, the 
beam of her flashlight fell on a tire hanging on a 
small upright stone. 

It was a gravestone with the year 1888 inscribed 
on it. Moving on gingerly, Ms. Anderson moved on 
gingerly. Everywhere amid the trash and weeds 
were old gravestones, some dating to the 1700s. 
What she had stumbled on was Prospect Cemetery, 
an official New York City landmark dating from the 
1660s, now located in a run-down part of town 
behind a stone-walled elevated Long Island Rail 
Road structure. 

The city's chief archaeologist, Dr. Sherene 
Baugher, said it is the fourth-oldest surviving 
cemetery in the five boroughs. Despite the his- 
toric and cultural value that led it to be designated 
a landmark in 1977, the four-and-a-half acre 
site was carpeted with refuse, thick with under- 
growth and weeds up to six feet high, and scarred 
by intruders who had vandalized many of the 500 
gravestones, nearly half of which are from the 
pre-Revolutionary War era. 

The problem Prospect Cemetery had is the same as 
many early cemeteries — once the cemetery was 
filled, no new revenue was raised to continue 


maintenance. The cemetery's fund produced only 
Ms. Anderson was horrified and furious that the 
cemetery had been allowed to fall into such decline. 
She made more than 300 telephone calls to finally 
locate ten descendants of those named on the tomb- 
stones. As a result of her perseverence, a new 
board of trustees was formed and the cemetery is 
in the process of being reclaimed. Henry F. Lud- 
der, the Queens borough historian, is coordinating 
the restoration effort. Much of the cleanup is being 
done by members of the City Volunteer Corps, a 
city-sponsored program for people 17 to 20 years 

So, if you have a similar situation, know that with 
perseverence one person can accomplish a great 
deal. Getting city officials, descendants and pres- 
ervation organizations involved can provide a base 
for making plans, raising funding and recruiting 
volunteers. You can make a difference! 

from New sd ay, Octobers, 1989, and the New 
York Times, December 19, 1989, contributed by 
Chris Sweeters, New Yorl< NY. 

Newburgh NY - St. George's Cemetery on Washington 
St. holds a great many war dead, among other 
historically noteworthy people. But that hardly means 
the cemetery should look like a war zone, say a group 
of St. George's Church members and neighborhood 
residents attempting to clean up the site after years of 
neglect. "It looks like a Civil War battlefield," remarked 
Catherine Kolb, chair of the church's cemetery 
committee and organizer of the restoration effort. 

The cemetery was founded in 1838 by the Rev. John 
Brown and remains in use today. But when Kolb and 
others undertook the restoration last fall, the 7.4 acre 
site was badly in need of repair and covered with trash. 
"We found sofas here, and parking meter heads, and 
luggage. ..all sorts of things," Kolb said. The group 
also found some 550 tombstones toppled or defaced. 

As the historical wealth of the cemetery becomes 
increasingly apparent, more and more people have 
been contributing to the clean-up campaign, Kolb said. 
The results have already begun to show. 

Outside the cemetery gate, neighborhood children 
have planted red and white flowers, beside which 
stand two brightly colored trash cans bearing the 
phrase "Let there be peace on earth, not pieces of 
litter on the earth." The wrought iron fence around the 
cemetery has also seen improvement. Kolb explained 
that a bow in the fence was straightened and painted 
by a welding class from Newburgh Free Academy. 

Perhaps most importantly, many of the tombstones 
have been put back upright, thanks to the volunteer 
efforts of Warren Trent of Trent Memorials and George 
Mocko of Cedar Hill Cemetery. 

contributed by Patricia Miller, Cold Spring NY, from the 
Evening News, September 12, 1990. Pat 's letter to the 
paper thanking them for covering these important issues and 
informing the public of availability of help and advice from 
AGS was printed September 25, 1990. 

There's a scene in the 1969 movie Easy Rider 
where Peter Fonda and Dennis Hopper, tripping on 
LSD, cavort amid surreal marble tombs. The 
backdrop is a New Orleans graveyard, one of thirty- 
one historic cemeteries in the city. The jumbled 
maze of elaborately carved brick and marble 
mausoleums, built above ground because of New 
Orleans' below sea-level foundations, often di- 
rectly reflect the city's architectural history. 
The trouble is, a lot of them are falling down from 
neglect. Now the city's Catholic archdiocese — 
along with a local group. Save Our Cemeteries— is 
taking advantage of a 1974 law to pressure de- 
scendants to restore their ancestors' resting places. 
"If the heirs don't take care of theirfamily tombs, 
they should go to someone who will," says Bert 
Clesi, SOC's president. Under the ordinance, 
unmaintained tombs may be resold and their ten- 
ants moved to unmarked graves. Over forty de- 
scendants have been traced and confronted with 
restoration costs that range from $2000 to 
$30000 and up. If you don't want great-great- 
grandpa's bones put, well, you know, somewhere 
else, maybe you could do some of the work yourself. 

from Arts & Antiques, October 1990, sent by 
George Kackley, Baltimore I^D. 

AGS FaVOp.15 


A disturbing trend is emerging through the news- 
paper clippings sent in by AGS members. Because 
AGS is devoted to gravestone studies, the News- 
letter has tended top shy away from items on 
graves. But more articles are surfacing on the 
discovery of graves in land slated for development. 
How communities deal with this sensitive issue 
will have long-term repercussions for AGS, so 
three such articles are included here: 

Unearthing of graves on Northwest Side 
raises haunting questlonsabout reverence 
and neglect 

An article from the Chicago Tribune, Monday July 
9, 1990, by Bill Stokes 

Chicago's destitute and insane of a century ago, 
those disadvantaged souls excised from polite soci- 
ety like vermin, have literally resurfaced to taunt 
the living. It has been happening for more than a 
year now on the Northwest Side, and nothing quite 
like it has been seen before. 

officially found at the Dunning site were discov- 
ered by sewer excavators on March 9, 1989. 
Among them was the mummified torso of a man so 
well preserved that he showed the handlebar 
mustache and ;mutton-chop sideburns of the 
1890s. There were other remains: several bas- 
kets of bones, perhaps representing the bodies of 
several dozen people, according to a pathologist's 
report. Thediscovery halted construction of homes 
and condominiums by Pontarelli Builders and 
Realtors of Park Ridge. It threw city, county and 
state officials into a tizzy over how such a thing 
could have happened, who was to blame, and what 
should be done about it. 

Now, more than a year later, many questions 
remain. The biggest, of course, is how through the 
years city and state authorities could have so 
completely lost track of the tens of thousands of 
bodies interred at Dunning. (Today, the bodies of 
the 450 or so destitute and unidentified men, 
women and children who die each year in Cook 
County are trucked to Homewood Memorial Gar- 
dens near Thornton for burial in a mass grave.) 

Barry Fleig, cemetery chairman for the Chicago 
Genealogical Society, said that the dead have always 
had a knack for getting in the way of the living, and 
that when this involves institutional or municipal 
cemeteries, records are not always complete enough 
to keep things straight. In the draft of a book titled 
Chicago and Cook County Cemetery Guide that Fleig 
is preparing for fall publication, he details the 
somewhat confusing history of Chicago cemeter- 

"It" is the highly awkward discovery of a lost 
cemetery that, by one estimate, holds the remains 
of as many as 38,000 people. How a community the 
size of Chicago managed to forget the final resting 
place of so many of its departed brethren says a lot 
about the way the living relate to the dead, and to 
one another. 

The cemetery, behind the Dunning Square Shop- 
ping Center at Irving Park Road and Narragansett 
Avenue, was used for at least sixty years as a public 
burial ground forthe indigent and the mentally ill, 
people who tend to be forgotten even before they 
die. The graveyard was part of a large piece of land 
on which sat a municipal poorhouse and insane 
asylum built in the 19th-century that later be- 
came known simply as Dunning. 

Although rumors of human bones being found during 
earlier construction projects have circulated in 
the neighborhood for years, the first remains to be 

With the discovery of the remains, construction 
was halted and various public agencies began to 
search for a solution. Rev. William Brauer of 
nearby Portage Park Presbyterian Church alleged 
that "to ruthlessly rip this burying place apart in 
order to cater to purchasers of luxury homes is 
hypocritical and contemptuous." Brauer rallied 
the Church Federation of Greater Chicago, made up 
of 2,1 09 congregations, which wrote to Gov. James 
Thompson asking that the state protect the Dunning 
cemetery. "Those persons interred there had 
precious little of this world's goods when they 
passed from our midst," the letter said. "We urge 
that their final resting place be exactly that, and 
that no further desecration. . . take place." 

Loyola University archaeologist David Keene was 
hired to carry out some digging tests and to study 
old records. "It's a difficult site to sort out," 
Keene said. "The soil has been disturbed and filled 
numerous times in some places, and we are not 


dealing with a typical cemetery situation." Keene 
and a crew of diggers worked through the winter 
and spring, and submitted a preliminary report to 
state officials that locates a five-acre cemetery 
straddling the property Pontarelli is developing 
and a parcel of land to the north slated forcommer- 
cial development but still under the control of the 
state's Central Management Service. 

John Brataitis of that agency said it has been 
suggested that the five acres be sodded over and 
made into a memorial park with some type of 
marker to designate it a former cemetery. Brauer 
said a decision on the land's future could be made 
better by a court than by state administrators. He 
said the five acres could not hold all the bodies 
known to have been buried at Dunning. 

Fleig agreed: "There is no way that this five acres 
and the five acres of 'new' ground under the park- 
ing lot could contain all the burials that we have 
documented. If the state takes the position that the 
old cemetery is limited to the designated five acres, 
it could be embarrassing when bodies start show- 
ing up in subsequent development outside this 
acreage." Even under the most crowded condition, 
Fleig said, no more than 10,000 bodies could be 
buried in single graves on a five-acre plot. He 
added that county records show the original size of 
the Dunning cemetery to have been 20 acres. 
Keene said it's possible that burial ground was 
used over and over and that this would not be shown 
in records. 

Fleig's prediction of embarrassing discoveries 
came true recently when the remains of 100 to 
150 people were unearthed outside the five-acre 
tract. Phil Gonet, deputy chief of staff for Th- 
ompson, said those remains will be buried within 
the designated cemetery site, as will any other 
remains unearthed. "It's disappointing that state 
records were so incomplete that nobody knew 
about the cemetery," Gonet said. "But now that the 
information is available, we want to do the right 
thing by everyone." He added that the state feels 
something of a responsibility to the developers, 
who knew nothing about the cemetery when they 
bought the land. He emphasized at the same time 
that when the state declared the five-acre tract 
surplus property and allowed its transfer to pri- 
vate hands, it had limited knowledge of the land's 

Gonet suggested that a swap in which the state 
would give the developer another tract of surplus 
land for the property on which the bodies have been 
found might satisfy both sides. If a trade is nego- 

tiated, he said, the state might convert the burial 
ground into open space suitable for public use. A 
memorial of some kind would likely be created to 
signal the site's history as a graveyard, he said. 
Future developers, he said, may have to be given 
some assurance that should more human remains 
be found, the state would assume some responsi- 
bility for their disposition. "And, of course, the 
state has some responsibility to the memory of the 
people buried there," Gonet said. 

Said Fleig: "I don't think anyone is being unrea- 
sonable about this. People just want some respect 
and dignity to be shown to the dead." 

contributed by Carol Shipp, and by Jim Jewell. For 
previous references to this on-going story, see AGS 
Newsletter Winter 1989/90 (V. 14 #1) p. 5 



by Robyn Kontny, Sun Staff Writer 

San Bernardino CA and state park officials have 
ordered a three-month archeological examination 
of a Seccombe Lake site where six bodies were un- 
earthed last August. 

City parks and recreation department officials are 
preparing to solicit bids from firms interested in 
doing the study to determine whether any addi- 
tional bodies are buried at the site, believed to have 
been a Mormon burial ground. Officials said they 
don't know how much the project will cost. The 
study will mean plans to complete a second baseball 
field at the site will remain on hold, said Annie 
Ramos, director of the city's Parks, Recreation 
and Community Services Department. 

San Bernardino already has spent $6,000 on a 
150-page report on the graves conducted by two 
Riverside historians. Professor Ronald Tobey and 
graduate student Kevin Hallaran of the University 
of California, Riverside. Theirwork was commis- 
sioned last December and was to take one month. 

Hallaran, who conducted the research, had hoped to 
determine the size of the cemetery, how many 
more people might be buried there, when it was 
used and whether it was a family, church or 


community cemetery or a potter's field. "I didn't 
go into the report thinl<ing I was going to identify 
ttie bodies," said Hallaran, who graduated from 
UCR this year. He requested an extension of the 
time limit so he could go to Salt Lake City, Utah, and 
research the IVIormon church archives. The skele- 
tal remains are believed to be those of members of 
a fvlormon colony that settled in San Bernardino in 
the 1880s. 

Hallaran concluded the bodies probably had been 
buried in a potter's field. He speculated the re- 
mains were overlooked when other bodies buried 
there were disinterred in the 1860s and moved to 
Pioneer Memorial Cemetery. 

The site at Seventh Street and Waterman Avenue in 
the northern part of the park has been a trash 
dump, a trolley car yard and a cemetery. The 
bodies were found during construction of a ball 
field, concession stand, bleachers, restrooms, 
scoreboard and fencing, f^/lore than $200,000 has 
been spent on the project, which has been delayed 
for nearly a year. City officials want to see the 
project completed, but state officials are con- 
cerned about the long delay. 

to complete. That was three months ago. 

"That was a naive estimate I made last spring," 
said Jerry Henderson, the archaeologist oversee- 
ing the project forthe Department of Highways and 
Public Transportation. The task has mushroomed 
into a major undertaking that may take more than 
a year to complete. 

The lot is dotted with patches of transparent plastic 
laid over portions of caskets, wooden markers and 
gravestones cracked by a backhoe clearing the path 
for highway improvements through the heart of 
Dallas. The grave count will likely exceed 2,000 
by the time the excavation ends, Henderson said. 
But she said no more than 500 graves will have to 
be moved to make room for the expansion of North 
Central Expressway. 

The relocation is difficult because most of the 
graves are bunched together in what appear to be 
families, Henderson said. "We don't want to dis- 
rupt the internal integrity of the organization," 
Henderson said. "For example, we don't want to 
move the mother right here and then move the baby 
over there." 

Options for the six bodies include moving them to 
Pioneer Memorial Cemetery at Seventh Street and 
Waterman Avenue. "I would like to give them a 
nice burial across the street," said San Bernar- 
dino Mayor Bob Holcomb. "That way they will be 
adequately safeguarded and it will be proper to do." 

Ramos hopes the archeological study will be com- 
pleted on schedule. "After we bid for an archeology 
firm, we are allowing 90 days for the work to be 
completed to have the whole thing resolved in time 
to finish the ball park for Little League season next 

Sent in by Frances J. Skalet, Highland CA. From The 
Sun, San Bernardino CA, Friday June 29, 1990. 


The sensitivity Henderson and her crew have dis- 
played is one of the reasons the excavation hasn't 
sparked a controversy. In fact, local historians 
and preservationists say they're excited by the 
prospects. "The thing that impresses ;me about 
the project is that the people working with it have 
gotten some input from the community that has 
more of a relationship with that cemetery," said 
Harry Robinson Jr., director of Museum of Afri- 
can American Life and Culture. 

Funerary objects such as shells, ceramic figu- 
rines, glass vials, marbles and even a watch have 
been found atop some graves. Items unearthed at 
the site will eventually be put on display, Robinson 

The project will provide more immediate benefit 
to a group of youngsters. "This summer we have 
a junior archaeological camp where kids will help 
to wash the finds," Robinson said. 

by Rod Richardson, Associated Press 

DALLAS — Archaeologists are toeing a sensitive line 
as they prepare to relocate hundreds of unmarked 
graves belonging to generations of former slaves 
and black settlers. The evacuation was supposed to 
uncover fewer than 30 graves and take a few weeks 

There is little written record of the cemetery, but 
Henderson estimates that most Dallas blacks were 
buried there from 1861 to 1925. The cemetery 
was converted into a city park in the mid-1960s. 

Sent in by Kevin Ladd, Director of the Wallisville 
Heritage Parl< in Wallisville, TX. From the Houston 
Chronicle, Friday, July 27, 1990. 




New Publications List Now in Effect 

Carved In Stone: Cemeteries and Burial 
Sites In Manitoba, published by the Manitoba 
Genealogical Society is expected to be available in 
mid-October, 1990. The book contains an inven- 
tory of cemeteries and burial sites within the 
Province. Cemeteries and burial sites are listed 
by location (section, township and range). There 
are more than 1,700 entries, plus maps and 
photos. The cost is about $15-$20. To order, 
contact fvlanitoba Genealogical Society, Inc., South- 
west Branch, PO Box 1332, Brandon, Manitoba 
R7A 6N2 Canada. 

Cast In Stone: Selected Albany, Rensselaer 
and Saratoga County (NY) Burials, by Diane 
Snyder Ptak, 1990. This collection of over 120 
cemeteries includes thousands of inscriptions from 
the following towns: Albany County — Coeymans, 
Cohoes, Knox, New Scotland, and Westerlo; Rens- 
selaer County — East Greenbush and North 
Greenbush; Saragota County — Clifton Park. The 
vast majority of these records have been previ- 
ously unpublished. Most death dates preceed 1 881 , 
the year in which the formal civil vital records 
began in New York State. The text also contains an 
every name alphabetical index. The cost is $33 
plus $3 postage and handling. A 10% discount is 
given for orders of 4 or more copies. To order, 
contact Diane Snyder Ptak, 12 Tice Road, Albany, 
NY 12203. 

Gravestone Records: Village Cemetery, 
Bennington, VT. A complete list of all grave- 
stone inscriptions in the Bennington Village Ceme- 
tery up to March 1 , 1 988. The 2,593 entries are 
arranged alphabetically with birth and death dates, 
epitaphs, and a location for each. Maps of each 
section of the cemetery are included as a finding 
aid. Women are cross-indexed by their maiden 
names when available. The 8 1/2" x 11", 272- 
page book will be bound in two volumes. The price 
is $30 including shipping and handling plus 4% 
sales tax on orders shipped to Vermont addresses. 
Available from The Bennington Museum, West 
Main Street, Bennington, VT 05201. 

University Press of America and AASLH have raised 
prices on our earlier issues of Markers and the 
Primer, so we have also had to raise our prices. 
The following schedule is now in effect for mem- 
bers. Non-members prices for Markers only are 
$2 higher. 

Markers I - 
Markers II - 
Markers III - 
Markers IV - 
Markers V - 
Markers VI - 
Markers VII 

paper $20 
cloth $32.50 
paper $20 
cloth $35 
paper $18.50 
cloth $33.50 
paper $20 
cloth $33.50 
paper 20 
cloth $34.50 
paper $23 
cloth $36.50 
paper $15 
no cloth 

Graveyard Preservation Pr/mer $1 4.95 

We have lowered the price on Early American 
Stone Sculpture Found in ttie Burying 
Grounds of New England by Avon Neal and Ann 
Parker. It is now available for $100 plus $3.50 

Gravestone Chronicles, a new book by Ted 
Chase and Laurel Gabel is available for $16.50 
post paid. 

OurKit of nine Information Leaflets is now avail- 
able for $7.50 ($8.50 for non-members). A new 
kit, this one of eleven Teaching Resource Leaflets, 
sells for the same prices. 

The slide program "Early New England Grave- 
stones and the Stories They Tell" rents for one 
week for $25 and the video cassette rents for one 
week for $10. The slide program sells for $65 and 
the Cassette for $25. 

Bumperstickersare available for $1 .00 mem- 
bers; $1 .35 to others. Sets of 8 gravestone note 
cards are $4 to members; $4.50 others. Grave- 
stone postcards are $.25 each to members; $.30 

AGS Fa'90p.19 


Gravestone Chronicles: Some Eighteenth-Century New England Carvers and Their 
Work, by Theodore Chase and Laurel K. Gabel, Boston: New England Historic Genealogi- 
cal Society, 1990. 262 pp 

reviewed by Michael Cornish 

Most AGS members are familiar with Ted and 
Laurel's reports identifying early New England 
stonecarvers, compelling investigationsthey have 
shared over the past several years through the 
Newsletter, in Markers, and by well-received 
presentations at our annual conferences. Those 
who keep their library up-to-date will know that 
this research team has also published articles in 
the New England Historic Genealogical Reg- 
isterandXheConnectlcut Historical Society 

Gravestone Chronicles collects these writ- 
ings, adding an introductory essay and the impres- 
sive, previously unpublished history of the Emmes 

At the outset, it must be noted that this volume is 
not a general-interest text. Despite its initial 
overview, "Why Gravestones?", the reader is 
assumed to be fairly well informed on the subject. 
The meaning, significance and sculptural qualities 
of the carvings, analyzed at length elsewhere, are 
generally neglected here. Gravestone Chron- 
icles con\a\ns several highly detailed examina- 
tions into the lives and relations of some grave- 
stone makers who have piqued the authors' curi- 
osity, challenging their ability to discover remote 
bits of relevant information revealed through 
familial connections, painstaking analysis of archi- 
val material, and countless visits to early burying 

As noted by Mr. Crandall in his preface, this book 
listsfar more people than one might suppose, They 
are related to the carvers through direct family 
ties, marriages, employment, legal transactions 
and litigation, business dealings, and military, 
civil and ecclesiastic service, making it a valuable 
resource for the genealogist. 

Just the information found in very extensive notes 
following each article comprises the makings of 
another entire book! Here the reader will find 
delineations of ancestry, lists of documented arti- 
facts, extensive references to records in private 
and municipal collections, and evidences that reveal 
traits in these truly obscure artisans that, cumu- 

latively, flesh them into knowable characters. 

The various articles, however, are not of even 
quality. This may reflect the proportional amount 
of time spent upon each, or, more likely, the 
varying quantities of information existing about 
these nearly-anonymous craftsmen. "Seven ini- 
tial Carvers" is the weakest entry, because it 
remains so tentative and inconclusive. Addressing 
only the fledgling period in several stonecarvers' 
careers, it includes "J.N.",who coincidentally 
initialed several mature examples, in a discussion 
of apprentice proving pieces. Strongest, and most 
satisfying, are"JamesWilderof Lancaster, Stone- 
cutter", and "The Colburn Connections: Mollis, 
New Hampshire, Stonecarvers 1780-1820". 
These paint sympathetic and fascinating portraits 
of their subjects and, especially the latter, suggest 
myriad directions for further studies. 

Obviously inspired and guided by the pioneering 
work of Harriette Forbes, the authors often refute 
or question her earlier conclusions and supposi- 
tions. As articles like these become more specific 
and exacting, the model for scholarly achievement 
becomes increasingly sophisticated. 

In Gravestone Crtron/c/es, TedChasehastapped 
resources, especially in the realm of legal rec- 
ords, hitherto ignored by students of early grave- 
stones. Some information contained in "The Emmes 
Family" becomes almost digressive and tangen- 
tial, especially during the discussion of Henry, 
Sr., but is ultimately valuable for understanding 
the intermeshed family relationships as they af- 
fected relocations and the carvings. 

The inclusiveness of his notes, roaming through 
several generations and connecting key players in 
unexpected ways, fully justifies their arcane 
nature. They found the basis for conjuring to our 
imagination whole, vital people, functioning (not 
always successfully) in an imperfect society and 
subject to the full host of human foibles. We learn, 
for instance, that John Gaud was an alcoholic and 
beat hiswifefromformal complaints lodged against 

AGS Fa'90 p.20 

Laurel Gabel brings to thee articles her methodol- 
ogy for extending solid attributions through un- 
documented bodies of work by carefully comparing 
minute details of lettering and carving. Her knack 
for sorting out the homogeneous products of many 
Boston shops by searching out the few probated 
examples and contrasting tiny discrepancies be- 
tween them is a godsend, for no one else has dared 
tackle this. 

There is no seminal master carver discussed in 
this volume; in fact, much of the urban work is 
quite mundane, and most of the rural monuments 
are blatantly imitative. It is a testament to the 
authors' inquisitiveness - and stubbornness - 
that these studies have been completed. 

The illustrations are quite clear and useful, and 
generally well-reproduced. Text and pertinent 
illustration are, thankfully, adjacent. However, 
rather than assume that the reader will know 
where to look for discretely hidden letters in the 
designs of rubbings used to illustrate "Seven Ini- 
tial Carvers", the authors should have superim- 
posed arrows pointing to these critical details. 

Some of the art-historical terms used do not seem 
to acknowledge conventions of that discipline, and 
could be readily exchanged for better choices, but 
the authors have happily avoided, in almost all 
instances, those colorful, trivializing adjectives 
that have compromised the seriousness of other 
writings on the subject. And I am delighted to find 
the passage subjectively noting "placid bemuse- 
ment" on a carved effigy, for many of these crea- 
tions are truly emotive and demand the response of 
emotional language. Still, I wonder at the credi- 
bility of a "cuneiform" background cut by a 
"wedge-shaped chisel". 

All in all. Gravestone Chronicles is superbly 
written, conveying the authors' excitement with 
the material and catching the reader up in their 
quest to solve these minor mysteries of the past. 
How tantalizing to have identified a distinctive 
body of work and be stymied again and again from 
naming its creator, a in the case of Ebenezer 
Howard! Empathy for hapless James Wilder, a 
man not "endowed with those facilities through the 
exercise of which money is added to the purse", 
becomes inescapable as we read of his life. We get 
a strong impression of the courage it took to settle 
our broad land form the story of Paul Colburn's 
family rafting down rivers, trecking through mud, 
and finally settling where they found an empty 
cabin, being too fatigued to go farther. 

Where Forbes evoked the circumstances of these 
men's lives vaguely, instinctively, sometimes even 
by inference from the quality of their work, Ted 
and Laurel have sleuthed out and delivered many 
gems of clear-cut evocative detail. These articles 
are filled with accounts of reckless mortgaging, 
unpaid bills, and half-baked plans, but there is 
always affection and genuine admiration for the 
old-time stonecutters, because the authors really 
love their subject. In fact, "labor of love" was 
never applied more deservedly. 


Order your copy of Gravestone Chronicles: 
Some Eighteenth-century New England 
Carvers and Their Work, by Theodore Chase 
and Laurel K. Gabel, from the AGS office, 30 Elm 
St., Worcester I^A 01609, for $15.00 plus $1.50 
postage and handling. 

cover photo of Chelmsford MA cemetery, by l\Aichael Cornish 

AGS Fa'90 p.21 

New Book Contributed to Archives 

rubbings highlight the beauty of the stones. 

Memoirs of the Dead and Tomb's Remem- 
brancer, published by Family Line Publications, 
Westminster, Maryland, 1806, reprinted in 1989 
by Martha Reamy and Marlene Bates. 30 page 
index, map of Baltimore showing location of ceme- 
teries, along with historical notes about the ear- 
liest burying grounds in Baltimore. 

The editors of Memoirs of the Dead and Tomb 's 
Remembrancersay this is the first work of its 
kind to be connpiled in this country. While it was 
their intention to record all tombstones in the 
state, this would have made the book too large. So 
they decided to include a selection of some Balti- 
more tombstones and some from rural areas. If the 
book becomes popular, the editors intend to issue 
a second volume which would include the entire 

The introduction provides us with an account of 
George Washington's death, a eulogy by l^r. Fox, a 
poem by f\/Ir. Paine of Boston, a Portrait of General 
Washington by Marquis Chastelleux, and a de- 
scription of the funeral procession in Baltimore 
and the services at the public square and at Christ 

The book then proceeds with the recording of 
epitaphs from Baltimore's cemeteries arranged in 
alphabetical order by last name of deceased. Each 
epitaph is coded with a capital letter denoting the 
congregation in whose burying ground the deceased 
is buried, i.e., C for Catholic, M for Methodist. 

For those interested, copies of the reprinted book 
are available from Genealogy Etc., 2812 Lit- 
tiestown Pike, Westminster, MD 21157. 



Robert Almand's tombstone rubbings of famous 
Texas figures are like the pages of a history book. 
They remind us of the lives of such persons as 
Stephen F. Austin and Texas Ranger "Big Foot" 
Wallace, and they offer a condensed history lesson 
that may inspire us to learn more. 

In addition to supplying information useful to 
genealogists, historians, and other researchers 
interested in Texas' varied populations, Almand's 

Almand's collection Includes stone rubbings of 
John O. Meusebach, who founded the German colo- 
nies of New Braunfels and Fredericksburg, and 
Anson Jones, last president of the Republic of 
Texas. A rubbing of the tombstone of Abner Cook, 
the famous Texas architect who designed the 
Governor's Mansion, also was, until recently, in 
Almand's collection. He gave this one away to a 
friend, which he will occasionally do. But he will 
never sell his rubbings because he considers them 

Almand has been collecting rubbings of pioneer and 
famous Texans on and off for about 20 years, since 
his first year as a student at Texas Lutheran 
College in Seguin. Almand's collection reflects the 
settlement patterns of diverse ethnic cultures In 
Texas. Many of the stones are from pioneer Immi- 
grants' graves and are inscribed in native lan- 
guages, including Spanish, Czech, French, and 

The San Antonio native, who has forsaken big city 
life for rural living in the small town of Hochheim 
(a few miles west of Yoakum), is most interested 
in stones of the Texas founders. He's also inter- 
ested in those that employ native material and are 
carved locally because they predate the advent of 
commercially produced markers and theirdeslgns 
reflect unique regional and cultural differences. 
Examples of differences include variations In stone 
textures, lettering, and carved designs. Protes- 
tants, for example, rarely used the shape of the 
cross, but Catholics often did. A star symbol on a 
German tombstone was meant to ward off the devil 
in the afterlife, according to Almand. 

A selection of some of Almand's 100 tombstone 
rubbings was featured at the Fayette Heritage 
Museum in LaGrange last year. The rubbings were 
selected from various Texas cemeteries, including 
several of markers found in Fayette County. His 
show and an accompanying exhibit, which included 
a display of stone mason's tools, stone work 
samples, and photographs of various tombstone 
types and decorations, stimulated an unusual 
amount of local interest in Fayette County ceme- 
teries, according to Kathy Carter, Fayette Heritage 
Museum curator. The exhibit encouraged volun- 
teers to help complete an ongoing survey of the 
county's burial grounds. 

Because Almand's tombstone rubbings and the 
Fayette County cemetery exhibit were so popular 
with museum visitors, the Fayette Heritage Mu- 

AGS Fa'90 p.22 

seum is planning a similar show from October 1 
through December 31. For more information 
contact the museum at 855 S. Jefferson, LaGrange, 
TX 78945, 409/968-6418. 

From The Medallion, newsletter of the Texas His- 
torical Commission, August 1990 issue. Sent in by 
AGS member Kevin Ladd, Director of the Wallisville 
Heritage Park in Wallisville TX. 




signed "P. Nugent War. ", photo by Harriette M. Forbes, 1934 

An item on "Points of Interest" in the Worcester 
MA Monthly Magazine mentions the Grizzly Adams 
grave, Bay Path Cemetery, Route 31, Charlton 
Center. P.T. Barnum ordered the headstone of this 
grave commemorating John Capen Adams, the famed 
bear-tamer who died after a fatal encounter with 
one of his bears. The illustrations are from 
photocopies of pictures of the stone made by Har- 
riette Forbes and from the Farber collection. Note 
the erosion which has occurred between 1934, 
when Mrs. Forbes photographed the stone, and 
1987, when the Farbers photographed it. 

AGS Fa'90 p. 23 



New York state has the grave of the last survivor 
of the Boston Tea Party. George Robert Twelve 
Hewes lies interred in Lakeview Cennetery at Rich- 
field Springs. The inscription on the tombstone 
reads: "George R. T. Hewes, one who helped drown 
the tea in Boston. Died Nov. 5, 1840, aged 109 

The life of Hewes was buried in obscurity until a 
book was sold at a recent New York City auction. 
The volume is dated 1830 and entitled Retro- 
sped of the Boston Tea Party with a Memoir 
of George R. T. Hewes. The author tells of 
traveling to Richfield Springs to interview the 
aged patriot, then 99 years old. He found the old 
soldier with a keen memory. While his education 
had been very limited, his intellectual powers 
were well preserved. Neighbors swore his integ- 
rity to be unimpeachable. 

Hewes was born in Boston, September 5, 1 731 . It 
seems that his mother had a great uncle whose 
Christian name was Twelve and it had pleased her 
to add this singular nomenclature to that of her son. 
The younger Hewes was excitable and as an ardent 
Son of Liberty had engaged in numerous ante- 
Revolutionary disturbances priorto the Tea Party. 
Heeding the cry of "a teapot tonight," the five- 
foot-one Hewes appeared at Boston's Griffin's 
Wharf, dressed in an Indian blanket. He reported 
to Lendall Pitts and under his command boarded the 
brig BeaverXo rip open and drown tea. 

Although Hewes with his tomahawk struck the 
first blow in the foundation of our national gov- 
ernment, so tardy was the progress of Congress 
that he failed to receive a miserable pittance of a 
pension until he was eighty years old. 

While Hewes was fighting our battles in the first 
American war, he was faithfully engaged in pro- 
viding recruits by raising a family of fifteen. He 
supported them by being a fisherman, a shoe- 
maker, and a farmer. For more than sixty years 
Hewes lived at Richfield Springs. Once, in 1825 
when he was 94, he returned to his home town as 
a guest of the City of Boston to attend the laying of 
the cornerstone of Bunker Hill Monument. 

Boston would like to have kept this man who 
immersed tea in its harbor. Boston would like to 

have his grave today along with those of John 
Hancock, Paul Revere, and Samuel Adams. But it 
remains for upstate Yorkers to point proudly to the 
grave of the last of that illustrious band that 
started the fight for independence which we cele- 
brate every July 4th. 

from information provided by Mary H. Teal of Lyons 
Falls NY 

Hospital's cemetery a relic of earlier 

MIDDLETOWN— About half-way down Silvermine 
Road, on the east side of the bumpy path, autumn's 
leaves dance lightly in the breeze and fall to rest 
alongside the worn tombstones of a desolate ceme- 

Row after row, the identical squat brown markers 
stand at attention like an army of midget soldiers. 
The plots are not marked with flags, flowers — or 
names. Here, death has no name, only numbers. 
Into each of the 1,686 tombstones, a number has 
been carved. Body 663 lies in eternal rest next to 
body 664. Next in line is body 665. On and on, a 
sprawling sea of mysteries. They are the graves of 
patients who lived and died many years ago at 
Connecticut Valley Hospital, a state psychiatric 
institution. Sent away and forgotten in life, the 
patients who lie in the cemetery along Silvermine 
Road are anonymous in death. 

Numbers were used instead of names to shield the 
identity of those who had been driven from their 
communities into the cloistered world of a mental 
institution — and to protect the families who sur- 
vived them from the stigma associated with mental 

"You and I haven't lived long enough to know what 
it must have been like," said Edna Jacobs, presi- 
dent of the Connecticut Alliance for the Mentally 
III. "Then, you weren't talking about state hospi- 
tals. You were talking about insane asylums where 
people were just shunted off." 

The hospital keeps a list of the names that goes 
along with the numbers, but guards it from view. 
Not many people are interested anyway; few visi- 
tors stop by the two-acre cemetery. Dr. Patrick 
Lee, a former assistant superintendent, said only 
four or five families made inquiries about rela- 
tives buried in the numbered plots during the ten 
years his responsibilities extended to the ceme- 

AGS Fa'90 p.24 

A few exceptions stand out from thie graveyard's 
sweeping symmetry. Some families tiave replaced 
the anonymous markers with granite headstones, 
complete with names and dates. Other patients 
have been disinterred and moved to different 
cemeteries, some to a veterans' cemetery. 

Connecticut Valley Hospital opened in 1868. Inthe 
late 19th century experts believed insanity was 
caused by riotous living, sunstroke, masturbation 
and disappointed affections, among other factors. 
The first person was buried in the cemetery in 
1878— in plot No. 1. 

Before psychotropic drugs and community treat- 
ment centers changed the way mental illness was 
handled, the hospital was a virtually autonomous 
community. Patients farmed and raised livestock; 
they made clothing, furniture and rugs. The doc- 
tors believed in "moral therapy," a treatment 
strategy that involved keeping patients busy. The 
hospital was a place where people lived, worked — 
and died. Many of the patients were poor; some had 
no survivors. A cemetery became a natural feature 
of the community. 

Overthe years, the role of mental hospitals changed. 
Patients were hospitalized for shorter periods, 
and towns began to take greater responsibility for 
residents who became institutionalized. The last 
patient was buried at Connecticut Valley Hospital 
in 1 957. Tucked in behind a wire fence and framed 
by shady trees dappled with the fiery hues of 
autumn, the cemetery is a memorial to earlier 

Inventory of American Sculpture Update 

In 1986 an Inventory of American Sculpture (IAS) 
was begun. It is a joint project of the Smithsonian 
Institution's National f^useum of American Art and 
the National Institute for the Conservation of Cul- 
tural Property. Its goal is to build a database 
listing American sculpture hidden in private 
collections and little-known repositories as well 
as public art. 

(In 1988 Save Outdoor Sculpture! (SOS!) was 
created to collect data specifically about outdoor 
sculpture which will be added to the IAS database. 
It was then that AGS was asked to help with the 
inventory. Through the Wews/effer (V. 12 #4, 
Fall I988)we encouraged AGS members to par- 
ticipate by identifying outstanding three-dimen- 
sional sculpture in cemeteries. AGS Trustee Bar- 
bara Rotundo agreed to be our interface with SOS!, 
receiving all submissions from AGS members and 
passing them along. 

In 1990, a nationwide corps of volunteers from 
service clubs, alumni associations, art and his- 
tory courses, historical and preservation socie- 
ties and other civic and cultural organizations will 
fan out in communities to conduct an on-site in- 
ventory of outdoor sculpture. Volunteers will be 
trained to assess the sculpture and make observa- 
tions about its condition. SOS! will provide guid- 
ance for municipalities in caring for and main- 
taining their outdoor sculpture. Business and 
civic organizations will be encouraged to accept 
responsibility for the continuing care of monu- 
ments through such programs as adopt-a-sculp- 

from an article by Andrew Julien in the Hartford 
Courant, Sunday Oct. 21, 1990, sent in by Freder- 
ick Sawyer III, Glastonbury CT 

Since 1986 the IAS has collected descriptions of 
more than 32,000 sculptures in public and pri- 
vate collections. They still welcome all contribu- 
tions. They are including on the computer record 
the artist, title, date, media, dimensions, foundry 
identification, cast numbers, subject or thematic 
descriptions, inscriptions, owner, location and 
provenance. If you know of an outdoor sculpture 
that should be included on this list, please contact 
Barbara Rotundo, 48 Plummer Hill Road, Unit 4, 
Laconia, NH 03246, giving as much of the above 
data as you have at your disposal. For more 
information about the inventory, contact: Christine 
Hennessey, Inventory of American Sculpture, 
National fvluseum of American Art, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 (202) 786- 

AGS Fa'90 p.25 


by James A. Percoco 

West Springfield l-ligh School, Springfield, Vir- 

As a social studies teacher with ten years of expe- 
rience in curriculum development, I have inte- 
grated my long-standing interest in outdoor sculp- 
ture into the syllabus of my American civilization 
class offered to high-school juniors. I teach the 
students history, literature and cultural heritage 
and, for one month, they concentrate on the outdoor 
public sculpture of the late-nineteenth and early- 
twentieth centuries. I use slide presentations, 
journal entries, films, selected readings and clay 
modeling to convey the historical and aesthetic 
significance of outdoor sculpture. 

I guide the class through a variety of issues per- 
taining to outdoor sculpture during our four-week 
unit, in addition to studying different artists, the 
class focuses on the roles the client, patron and 
architect play in creating outdoor monuments. 
Other questions we cover include the use of public 
space, the function of outdoor sculpture in a de- 
mocracy and the role of and need for consensus 
when commissioning, creating and maintaining 
public art. 

I introduce the sculpture unit to the students by 
studying several examples of memorials to Viet- 
nam veterans. We then compare contemporary 
works with post-Civil War era memorials. We 
look at the works of sculptors Thomas Crawford 
and Horatio Greenough and the outdoor works of 
sculptors Clark Mills and Henry Kirke Browne. 
The major part of the unit focuses on three of 
America's greatest sculptors: John Quincy Adams 
Ward, Augustus Saint-Gaudens and Daniel Chester 

ously-heid notion of "anyone can do that" quickly 
transforms into a period of reflection on the genius 
of the artist. 

A trip to Washington, D.C. culminates our study of 
outdoor sculpture. Pairs of students visit a 
memorial or monument not studied in class. Using 
information learned in the unit, each student writes 
a research paperthat includes critical analysis as 
well as historical background about the statue. 

It is a real treat for me to read about the students' 
adventures in locating monuments scattered across 
the city. However, I most enjoy hearing directly 
from them their discoveries about both them- 
selves and outdoor sculpture during the unit. The 
deep personal satisfaciton I derive from experi- 
encing outdoor sculpture is enhanced by the class- 
room success that the students and i share. The 
students express their thoughts and feelings in 
their journals during the course of the unit. The 
remarks recorded in one student's final journal 
entry reveal the success of the unit: 

In the sculpture unit, I learned about things that 
I had seen before, but never understood. I feel 
educated when I look at sculpture. I used to not 
like sculpture, now I realize that I fell into that 
'we don't like what we don't understand' cate- 
gory and now that I understand sculpture, I like It. 

1990 newsletter put out by the National Institute for 
the Conservation of Cultural Property, Washington DC 

Percoco has touched on teaching about cemetery 
sculpture. Any teacher who has taught students 
specifically about cemetery sculpture may want to 
sentthe Weivs/effer a similar article about their 

The importance of critical thinking is emphasized 
when the class views slides of sculpture depicting 
different artists' approaches to a common theme. 
For example, how is the image of Nathan Hale 
portrayed by Frederick MacMonnies and Bella 
Pratt? How is the subject of death handled by 
Saint-Gaudens in the Adams l^emorial versus 
French's memorials to Milmore and Melvin? 

From the students' point of view, the highlight of 
the unit is the class they call "clay day." The class 
members receive one pound of clay and are free to 
model an image of their choice. They learn to 
appreciate the difficulty of sculpting; the previ- 

AGS Fa'90 p.26 


1991 ANNUAL 




June 27 through 30, 1991 

Northfield Mt. Hermon School 
Northfield, Massachusetts 




General inquiries and exhibit information: 

Cornelia Jenness, Conference Chair 


Spofford,NH 03462-0643 

(603) 363-8018 


Proposals for 20-30 minute presentations on any aspect of gravestone art and history, or 
ethnic tradition studies are invited. 

Presenters must be members of AGS ($20) and will be expected to pay the conference 
registration fee as well as other costs associated with full conference or partial conference 

Submissions of a title that clearly indicates the paper content, a one-page abstract and a short 
professional biography should be submitted by January 15, 1991 to: 

Robert Drinkwater 
6 Village Hill Road, Rt. 81 
Williamsburg, MA 01096 

AGS Fa'90 p.27 


Beginning November 15, the AGS office will move to its new space at 30 Elm Street, 
Worcester MA 01609. This is the home of the Worcester Historical Society which has 
contracted with us to provide a space for an office, for storage of our inventory and for 
our Archives. Duringthat week, furniture and supplies will be moved from the Needham 
office to Worcester and shortly thereafter, Miranda Levin, the new Executive Director, 
will begin her work with us. 

The AGS Newsletter is published quarterly as a service to members of the Association for Gravestone 
Studies. The membership year begins the month dues are received and ends one year from that date. A one year 
membership entitles the members to four issues of theNewsletter and to participation in the AGS conference 
in the year membership is current. Send membership fees (individual $20; institutional, $25; family $30; 
contributing $30) to The Association for Gravestone Studies, 30 Elm Street, Worcester MA 01609. Back issues 
of the Newsletter are available for $3.00 per issue from the AGS office. The goal of the Newsletter is to 
present timely information about projects, literature, and research concerning gravestones, and about the 
activities of the Association for Gravestone Studies. It is produced by Deborah Trask, who welcomes 
suggestions and short contributions from readers. The Newsletter is not intended to serve as a journal. 
Journal articles should be sent to Theodore Chase, editor of Markers, the Journal of the Association 
for Gravestone Studies, 74 Farm St., Dover MA 02030. Address Newsletter contributions to Deborah 
Trask, editor. Nova Scotia Museum, 1747 Summer St., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3A6, Canada. Order 
Markers (Vol. 1 $20; Vol. 2, $20; Vol. 3, $18.50; Vol. 4, $20; Vol. 5, $20; Vol. 6, $23; Vol. 7, $15; higher 
prices for non-members) from the AGS office. Send contributions to the AGS Archives to Jo Goeselt, 61 Old 
Sudbury Road, Wayland MA 01778 Address other correspondence to Miranda Levin, Executive Director, at the 
AGS office at 30 Elm Street, Worcester MA 01609. 

30 Elm Street 
Worcester MA 
01 609 




Permit No. 









The Story Behind the Stone That Isn't There: Jack Johnson 

by James Jewell 2 

Cemetery Habitats 

by Nancy Hugo 4 

Stones Which Need Care In Dating 

by Ralph Tucker 5 




Death Sentence for Graveyards? 1 9 

Gravestone Art Given to Museum 2 

BOOKS 2 1 

American Culture Association Abstracts 

San Antonio TX, March 27-30, 1991 23 



John Carney, a farmer whose homestead was near 
what is today State Road 60, near Brandon, Flor- 
ida, was a victim of the Third Seminole War. In 
their book Plant City: Its Origins and History, local 
historians Quintilla Geer Bruton and David E. 
Bailey Jr. write that there were only a few Semi- 
noles in Hillsborough County in 1856, but those 
who remained were concerned about the growing 
numbers of white settlers. The rights of the 
Indians, the authors note, were not always re- 
spected by the white men. In fact, it was an 
uncalled-for provocation by a survey team in 
December 1855 that started the third Seminole 
War. On April 18, 1856, Carney's "bullet- 
ridden body" was found near where he had left his 
plow and mule. Eleven Indians were later shot for 
his murder. The memorial to this bit of Brandon's 
violent history remains where it was placed on the 
family farm, now a residential front yard. 

from the Tampa Tribune, October 5, 1990, contrib- 
uted by Juanita Reynolds, Brandon FL 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 1 


by James Jewell, Illinois Valley Community College 

Chicago's Graceland 
Cemetery (4001 
North Clark) is noted 
for its beautiful 
memorials: the Pot- 
ter Palmer Greek 
columns; the Loredo 
Taft sculpture 
"Eternal Silence" 
marking the Graves 
plot; Louis Sullivan's 
Getty Mausoleum; the 
life-size statue of 
young Inez Clarke 
preserved in a glass 
case; plus the graves 
of George Pullman, 
Louis Sullivan, car- 
toonist John T. 
McCutcheon, inven- 
tor Cyrus 
McCormick, Chief 
Justice Melville 
Fuller, law officer 

Allen Pinkerton, as well as two Illinois governors 
and three Chicago mayors. 

Also interred there are two boxing champions: Bob 
Fitzsimmons, whose flat stone is adorned with a 
porcelain portrait of the 1897-1899 champion; 
and Jack Johnson, the first black heavyweight 
champion, who reigned from 1908-1915. De- 
spite a large family marker, Johnson is buried in 
an unmarked grave. 

Johnson (1878-1946) won the title December 
26, 1908, kayoing Tommy Burns in the four- 
teenth round of the championship bout in Sydney, 
Australia. Thebout was stopped by police. Within 
the first year of the first black champion's reign, 
he successfully defended his title against Jack 
O'Brien, Tony Ross, Al Kaufman and Stanley Ketchel. 

On July 4, 1910, Johnson kayoed former cham- 
pion Jim Jeffries, who had come out of a five-year 
retirement. Johnson's next title defence was two 
years to the day later when he defeated Jim Flynn 
in a round stopped by the police. In 1913 he 
defeated Andre Spaul (November 28) and Jim 
Johnson (December 1 3) — the closest two champi- 
onship bouts in boxing history. In 1914 he de- 
feated Frank Moran before surrendering his title 

the Johnson plot, Graceland Cemetery, Chicago IL 
(Etta's marker on right) 

to Jess Willard on April 5, 1915, in Havana. 
Shortly before his defeat, he is reported to have 
said, "The bigger they are the further they fall!" 

Johnson later said straight out that he took a dive 
to throw the fight in order to get back in the good 
graces of those who had hated him. Johnson was the 
first black champion in any sport, and the racism 
of the time made his accomplishment appear to be 
much less than it was. He also fell in love with — 
and married — three white women and was once sent 
to jail on a Mann Act charge. The term "great white 
hope", later the basis for an award-winning play 
by Howard Sackler, became common as a search for 
a white contender grew. 

One of Johnson's wives committed suicide. Fol- 
lowing the Mann Act charge, he fled to Europe 
where he lived during much of his championship 
reign. Following his defeat, the Texas-born Johnson 
lived until 1946 and was buried next to Etta Terry 
Duryea Johnson, the second of his white wives, in 
a plot in Graceland purchased by the family thirty- 
four years earlier. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 2 

Interest in Johnson peaked again when Sackler's 
play won the Triple Crown of theatre : Tony Award, 
Pulitzer Prize and New York Drama Critics Circle 
award. When a touring company came to Chicago, 
news of Johnson's burial there became more 
commonly known, as well as the fact that no grave- 
stone had ever been placed in his honor. Joe Rein, 
executive sports editor of the Chicago Daily News, 
wrote in May 1969: 

...if you visit find nobody 
really cares. Jack's buried there, in a 
pleasant lot. ..The place is about the size of a 
1 6-foot ring, hemmed in by lilacs with fading 
blossoms and guarded by a sentinel maple. 
There's a headstone alright. It says 
'Johnson', but that alludes to Etta. ..There's 
a headstone to mark her grave, but he has 
none. Just grass, common grass. ..out at 
Graceland Cemetery, you stand around and 
wonder.. .What would have happened if Jack 
Johnson had been born half a century later? 

In November of 1969 the cast of the Chicago 
company of The Great White Hope arranged a 
ceremony at Graceland in which the installation of 
a gravestone (financed by both the Chicago and New 

York companies of the play) would finally mark 
the champion's grave. Inscribed on it were his 
name, his nickname (Li'l Artha), and his birth and 
death dates. The eulogy was to be delivered by 
Brock Peters, who played the character based on 
Johnson in the Chicago company. 

Attorney Elmer Gertz, representing Johnson's 
heirs-at-large, issued warnings to the cast against 
possible possible grave desecration because the 
heirs opposed the placing of a marker. "The 
family", according to Gertz, "doesn't approve of 
making Jack Johnson a hippodrome in the play or 
at the graveside." 

The ceremony took place on Tuesday, November 4, 
1969— but the headstone was never placed on the 
grave. And to this day — forty-four years after his 
death and twenty-one years after the play was 
staged in Chicago — Jack " Li'l Artha" Johnson, the 
heavyweight champ who served time because he 
fell in love with a white woman, the champ who died 
in an auto accident in Raleigh NC, rests in an 
unmarked grave among some of the most beautiful 
markers in the midwest. 

An article titled "Blacks find 'roots' in cemetery" 
described the uncovering in Dallas TX of the largest 
known graveyard of slaves and freed slaves in 
America. When work began in May of 1990, 
archaeologists expected to find and move 20 graves 
to make way for an expressway-widening project. 
Instead they have discovered 1155 graves, and 

they're not finished. Burials on the site date back 
to 1 861 . The cemetery was officially dedicated in 
1869 and closed in 1925. Black leaders in Dallas 
are demanding landmark status so that the ceme- 
tery will never again be disturbed. 

from ffteCfilcago Tribune, October 28, 1990, 
contributed by Jim Jewell, Peru IL 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 3 


by Nancy Hugo 

Every July, the Midwestern naturalist Aldo Leo- 
pold watched forthe blooming of a single surviving 
Silphium plant in a corner of a country graveyard 
near his home. As long as the plant lived, he knew 
the prairie epoch survived with it, but one July a 
road crew had removed the fence protecting his 
plant, and he knew his plant, and the part of 
Wisconsin's history it represented, would be 
mowed away. 

"It is easy now to predict the future;" said Leo- 
pold, "for a few years my Silphium will try in vain 
to rise above the mowing machine, and then it will 
die. With it will die the prairie epoch." 

That graveyards protect more than the souls of the 
departed, biologists have known for years, but 
cemetery habitats are getting renewed attention 
not only because they sometimes provide habitat 
for rare species but also because they represent a 
significant proportion of the only open space left in 
some urban areas. 

Think about it. Not only are cemeteries usually 
protected from development, they are often home 
to old trees and shrubs. Not for spook value alone 
do owls choose cemetery habitats. Even bats in the 
belfry, lichens on tombstones, and rare plants that 
like the high sandy lawn areas around grave sites 
are being studied by biologists. "If people continue 
to die, cemeteries may turn out to be a natural 
habitat longer than woods and prairies," says the 
University of Michigan's W.H. Wagner who has 
been searching old cemeteries for rare plants for 

Dr. Wagner's friend and colleague Dr. R. Dale 
Thomas of Northeast Louisiana University was one 
of the first to appreciate cemeteries as valuable 
habitats. Thomas, a biologist who also happens to 
be an ordained Methodist minister, has spent 25 
years searching churchyards and cemeteries for 
rare plants. He has spent many an afternoon 
crawling on his hands and knees between tomb- 
stones to find the tiny 1-2" plants that are his 
specialty. His searches have led him to the discov- 
ery of extensive occurrences of five species of 
adder's tongue ferns and three species of grape 
ferns, all previously considered extremely rare. 
He found the only known colony of stalked adder's 
tongue in Virginia in a church lawn near Norfolk. 

"He once told me you could find more adder's 
tongues in Baptist cemeteries than anywhere else," 
jokes Wagner. "That's because so many fire and 
brimstone preachers are buried there." 

Bird-watchers in the Northeast have long been 
aware that cemeteries serve as refuges for mi- 
grating birds. Two hundred bird species have been 
recorded on the wildlife-rich grounds of Mount 
Auburn Cemetery near Boston. Mount Auburn, the 
Congressional Cemetery in Washington DC and an 
increasing number of other cemeteries are ac- 
tively managed for wildlife, with mowing heights 
adjusted to benefit wildlife and landscape plants 
chosen for their value to wildlife. Wildlife biolo- 
gist Louise Dove argues that owners and managers 
or cemetery lands should be made aware of the 
opportunities available to provide habitat for 
wildlife in these areas. "With a few changes in 
planning and vegetation management," she argues, 
"more wildlife can be encouraged without re- 
stricting human use of the area." 

Researchers have also studied cemetery habitats to 
see the degree to which they may function as 
"habitat islands". Isolated by the surrounding 
city in much the same way that island habitats are 
isolated by water, cemetery habitats have been 
found to exhibit some but not all of the principles 
of biogeography that apply to islands. We can't 
expect to find unusual species evolving in urban 
cemeteries the way they have in the Galapagos, but 
what we can expect, according to Louise Dove, is 
for cemeteries to contain some of the last examples 
of plant and animal communities that existed 
before the city grew up around them. If we can 
reduce to isolation of cemetery habitats and con- 
nect them to corridor systems allowing dispersion 
of plants and animals in and out of these refuges, 
cemetery habitats can also help replenish wildlife 
populations in other natural areas and accommo- 
date species that require large home ranges. 

What better way to serve wildlife — and prove 
there's life after death — than by inviting rare 
plants to grow on our grave sites and songbirds to 
perch on our tombstones? 

from Virginia Wildlife, January 1991. p. 31, 
contributed by Brian Conley, Fairfax VA, and by 
hAartha Briggs, Williamsburg VA. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 4 


by Ralph Tucker 

When one studies a given stonecarver's work, it 
soon becomes evident that the date on the surface of 
the stone is sometimes suspect. This may be 
because of one of several reasons which will be 
dealt with in this article. 


In Many locations where there were previously no 
stonecutter and where wooden markers or simple 
boulders had been used to mark a grave, the arrival 
of a carver in the area was the occasion for requests 
for a carved gravestone to replace the old marker. 
The carverthen produced a stone dated some number 
of years before it was actually carved. One ex- 
ample is the William Paddy stone in King's Chapel 
Burying Ground, Boston. The stone is dated 1658, 
but carved on the footstone is found "erected 1 672". 
Another example is that of the John Stevens stone 
in North Andover which is dated 1662 and which 
was carved by Robert Mullicken, Sr. who was born 
in 1 668. It is obvious that Robert did not carve the 
stone when he was five years of age (1658??) In 
a study of the Lamson family stones one finds the 
use of a fig as a decoration begins about 1712, yet 
there are a few stones dated twenty or even thirty 
years earlier using the fig. Thus by observing the 
development of a carver's style one can sometimes 
spot a late style stone bearing an early date. 


Palimpsest stones are at the opposite end of the 
spectrum being stones dated much later than the 
date of carving. In other words, they were re-used 
stones. This is most often realized where early 
stones had the inscription area scraped down and a 
new inscription for another person added. The 
William Grimes stone in Lexington MA is dated 
1766 and in the tympanum the initials "CL" are 
carved. This stone is an excellent example of Caleb 
Lamson's work, except that he had been dead five 
years before the date on the stone. Upon examina- 
tion one can still see traces of letters which have 
not been completely scraped off, and that the whole 
inscription area has been scraped down below the 
plane of the rest of the stone. Fortunately the 
footstone in this case gives us an additional clue in 
that it is a different kind of stone and made in the 
style of the Park family of carvers. We must 
conclude that we have here a stone carved by Caleb 
Lamson that was, at a later date, scraped down and 
given a new inscription, and a new footstone made. 

Our New England ancestors knew about re-cy- 


Old inventory stones are stones of an early style 
that were used at a later date when their style was 
no longer used. It is known that a carver often, in 
not usually, had a stock of stones with blank 
inscription areas which, if not sold for a consider- 
able time, might result in an early style stone with 
a late date. 


Replacement stones are sometimes found where old 
stones have deteriorated and the descendents have 
had a copy made. Often the replacements are exact, 
but some stones were so far gone that the replace- 
ment stones are only rough copies. Usually these 
stones are rather obvious misfits in the graveyard 
and the new stones are so new that they can not be 
mistaken for old stones. A second variety of re- 
placement stone is one where the original has been 
removed from the graveyard for its protection and 
a replica made from a cast is put in its place. 
Usually one will find on the rear of the stone a note 
to this effect. Depending upon the worker, these 
stones can be almost exact duplicates. 

I call these examples to the attention of our readers 
because several writers have developed theories of 
the development of styles found on gravestones 
based upon such stones. As in other forms of art, 
it is possible to trace the development of an artist 
through time. While each artist has recognizable 
traits, these vary over time and can be used to see 
a progressive development. Care must be used, 
however, to avoid errors. Backdated and palimp- 
sest stones must be recognized for what they are. 

Ralph Tucker of Georgetown ME is a founding 
member and past president of AGS . He is continu- 
ing his work on the Lamson family of carvers. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 5 


AGS member David Willis McCullough of Hastings 
NY writes that the jacket design of his new mystery 
novel, Think On Death (Viking Press, January 
1 991 ) was greatly influenced by the 1 795 Wake- 
field MA stone for Elizabeth Emerson. The design 
is by Yvonne Geysurowsky-Stansbury of Ronsav- 
ille-Wood, Inc. 

Warren Roberts of Bloomington IN sent along an 
abstract of an article by his friend Wilbur Zelinsky. 
"What the abstract does not say is that GNIS stands 
for the U.S. Geological Survey's computerized 
Geographic Names Information System; further, 
the system (i.e. GNIS) includes most named fea- 
tures on all of the maps in the USGS topographic 
map series except roads and highways. Anyone who 
has used the USGS "topo" maps will appreciate the 
incredible amount of labor that went into this 
compilation. Finally, Zelinsky used 84,102 
cemetery names for his analysis." 


The recent availability of the GNIS data base makes it 
practical to study the names of features throughout the 
United States, for example the names of cemeteries. 
One way of classification identifies ten categories: 
family, location, standard terms, hagiolatrous, bibli- 
cal, nationalistic, "upbeat", religious denominations, 
ethnic communities, and fraternal organizations. The 
first seven of these provide an interesting look at a 
significant part of the name-cover in America. 

from Namos, Vol. 38, #3, September 1990. 


Mary- Ellen Jones, AGS member in Orinda CA is 
making a presentation to the California History 
Institute, April 18-21, 1991 at University of the 
Pacific, Stockton CA. She has shared an abstract of 
her paper with the Newsletter: 


During the California Gold Rush of 1848-1856, 
thousands came to California, abandoning homes 
and jobs in their frantic search for gold. Many 
perished, some made fortunes and returned home, 
and hundreds remained to establish new lives and 
resume former careers. 

Among those who abandoned mining and settled In 
California were numerous stonecarvers who set 
up marbleyards and began supplying tombstones 
for the rapidly growing state. As a result, the 
initial period of the Gold Rush in which no marker 
or a crude wooden marker characterized most 
burials soon gave way to an era of sophisticated, 
contemporary cemetery sculpture. The new Call- 
fornians expected to obtain the same kinds of 
gravestones they would have been able to purchase 
back home. This demand was met more than ade- 
quately by craftsmen who had learned their trade 
in the Eastern United States or in Europe. 

Some carvers remained in the mines, changing 
locations frequently as towns declined and new 
ones appeared. Several continued mining while 
making occasional tombstones when the demand 
arose. Others left the mines to set up shop In 
established cities such as Sacremento, Stockton, 
Marysville and Sonora, becoming successful, 
sometimes prominent members of the community. 
Wherever they chose to follow their trade, these 
stonecarvers had a major impact on the culture of 
post-Gold Rush Northern California. To trace the 
lives and careers of a few of these carvers-turned- 
miners-turned-carvers again is to tell the story 
of the establishment and growth of one of the most 
vital commercial enterprises of any community. 

Pat Miller, formerly of Connecticut, is now in Cold 
Spring NY. She writes that she's sorry she had to 
miss the last two AGS conferences, in 1990 be- 
cause of the too recent loss of her son. "It took me 
awhile to enjoy life again— I will be at the AGS 
1991 conference or dead!" She notes that there 
are old gravestones in her new area (across the 
Hudson Riverfrom West Point), but no slates, and 
"mostly written in Dutch!" AGS members might 
be amused to know she is looking for another 
hearse. You can reach Pat at R.R. 1 , Box 20A, Cold 
Spring NY 10516. 



Pat Miller, Cold Spring NY, followed up on "Grave- 
stone Images in the Christmas Catalogues" (AGS 
Newsletter, Fall 1990, p. 12) by contacting one 
of the mail order companies, W.M. Green & Co. 
They get their reproductions from Facsimiles, 
Ltd., 1-B Pine St. Ext. N., Nashua NH 03060, 
phone (603) 889-8880. Please note the Nashua 
NH address, not Groton MA as mentioned in the 
Newsletter Thanks to Pat for tracking this 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 6 


Dear Friends: 

I thought of you all in June 
during the time of the 
Conference and was sorry 
I was not with you. I read 
the account of it with great 
interest. At that time an 
exhibition was on at the 
local Arts Centre of fifty 
of my photographs of Green 
fvlen. It is now on a Scot- 
tish tour. There is a sud- 
den burst of interest from 
the south of England in the 
Green Man - but not yet of our gravestone ones 
here. A new book is coming out by a William 
Anderson, and there is to be a BBC TV program soon. 
It is called The Green Man, as was the excellent and 
very scholarly one by Kathleen Basford. It is 
heralded by an article in H'or/dMagaz/ne( Novem- 
ber 1990) in which there is some confusion about 
sources, and some dubious statements. I enclose 
copies of two of Francis Duval's photographs, one 

from Duval & Rigby's Early American Gravestones 
(NY: Dover, 1978), p. 8. The Green Man is at the 
bottom of the tympanum of the Sarah Nisbet slate, 
Milford CT, 1698, The other was on a Christmas 
card they sent some years ago. 

All good wishes, 

Betty Wilisher 

St. Andrews, Scotland 


Evelyn L. Williams, 46 Ryders Lane, East Brun- 
swick NJ 08816 writes that she is interested in 
acquiring books on epitaphs. "If anyone has any 
books on epitaphs which they would like to sell, I'd 
appreciate hearing from them. I have tried my 
local bookstores and cannot get them to order even 
the more recent publications." Let her know the 
title you wish to sell, and the asking price. 


From Robert Emien, Providence Rl, comes a note 
from the Maine State Museum Broadside, V. 12, 
#1 (Fall 1989) about the recent acquisition by 
the museum of a collection of stone working tools, 
donated by Morse Memorials, which began opera- 
tion in Dexter in the mid-nineteenth century and 
moved to the Oakland area in 1909. There is a 
sample kit which includes five granite and one 
marble sample in a leather case. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 7 


New England carvers in earlier centuries. 

by George Kackley 

I have called attention to New England and other 
"markers" that no longer mark the site of the 
grave, in connection with the calculated guess that 
places Mozart's grave in St. Marx cemetery in 
Vienna, Austria (AGS Newsletter...). We need to 
keep in mind that many people have felt no need to 
point to the exact place where a body was put, some 
because of sound religious understanding. So, we 
might be misleading ourselves and others in our 
use of the word "marker". 

It was a standard in the nineteenth-century garden 
cemeteries that a family lot should have one cen- 
tral monument and no "markers" for individual 
graves. The rule was all too often honored by its 
breach. Still, the "rural" cemetery saw an at- 
tempt to avoid marking specific grave sites. The 
inscription can very well be on one side of that 
monument while the body is at the farthest corner 
of the lot, on the other side of the monument. Only 
the cemetery's written records know where the 
body was put. 

There are many "markers" with no burial be- 
neath them, for one reason of another. Is that a 
problem? Only if we insist on finding "markers". 


Have you realized that graves are mounded to 
counter the inevitable singing of the soil there? A 
great problem for cemetery managers is that of 
sunken graves. Soil shoveled back into a grave 
compacts slowly, so the top of the grave becomes a 
bowl, unless that is countered by the mound. As the 
body decays it takes less room, so there is more 
lowering of the soil level above. When a casket is 
used, it decays and shrinks too; and there is a lot of 
air space in the casket, so there is much more of a 
sink-hole. Actually there is a cave down there for 
decades, with its ceiling shaling off periodically, 
until eventually the top layer of soil collapses 
during prolonged wet weather. 

The garden cemeteries used a tactic to avoid these 
sinkholes. They built a grave liner. A brick wall 
was laid at the bottom of the grave shaft, just big 
enough to embrace the casket (which was made 
overnight, like a suit, to fit the measurements of 
that body). When the casket was lowered into this 
brick structure, sheets of slate were laid on as a 
flat roof, supported by those low brick walls. So, 
here is continued use of the slate that supplied the 

At the cemetery I managed, this type of grave liner 
was used until the end of World War II. By that time 
we were discovering that the slate tends to give way 
after bearing its load for a century, so sink-holes 
began to appear, larger because those brick and 
slate liners had been built about more air space. 
Indeed, that collapse is such that rather large 
twentieth-century stones have been known to topple 
into the sink-hole and disappear overnight! Such 
a marker can fairly well fill the cavern below, and 
soil topples in after it, so only the sunken grave is 
noticed and repaired with added fill and sod, and no 
one quite misses the monument until there is no 
longer evidence of the sunken grave. 

In many modern cemeteries a double concrete 
vault is put into each site, when the area is laid out, 
so two bodies go into that site. A practice of the 
nineteenth-century that still continues in some 
burial grounds is to permit up to three burials in 
a site. The first burial in the site could be ordered 
at "triple depth". The second burial in the site is 
put at "double depth" above it and the third and last 
burial in the site goes above that. 

Public health concerns that led to the revolution- 
ary garden or "rural" cemeteries brought con- 
current laws requiring three feet of earth above a 
burial. So, it was a rule that a single-depth grave 
was dug six feet deep. This accommodated coffin, 
grave liner and that three-foot layer of earth 

In the cemetery I managed, I inherited mid-nine- 
teenth-century rules that a double-depth order 
calls for digging a shaft nine feet deep and a triple- 
depth burial requires a dig that is twelve feet deep. 
Now, the twentieth-century has seen inflation in 
size of caskets, right along with inflation of money 
and college grades. Those inner-spring mat- 
tresses take up space. In the twentieth-century 
massive grave liners, made of reinforced con- 
crete, have been lowered into each grave. They 
have domed tops. Cemeteries are eager to acquire 
them, trusting that they will avoid future cave- 
ins. They take up much more vertical space. Some 
earth is left between the liners, too, to attempt to 
seal out odors from below. So the triple-depth 
burial was put in at twelve feet, the double depth 
burial went in at eight feet, and (perhaps fifty 
years later) the single-depth grave is shoe-horned 
in at four feet. This leaves a foot or less of earth 
above the last burial; and those public health laws 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 8 

are still in place! This is one of the little tensions 
that make a cemetery manager eager to retire, 
especially since the sacred mowers are causing 
erosion of those few inches of soil over the last 

George Kackley, Baltimore MD, is a former cemetery 
superintendent and a frequent contributor to the AGS 

An article in the Fort Wayne IN News Sentinel, 
July 21 , 1990 concerns a project where the city 
of Fort Wayne wants to move about 40 graves 
within a Civil War-era cemetery so that it can 
widen a section of road. When a nearby church 
moved about 32 years ago the decision was taken to 
turn the cemetery over to the lot owners. The 
present association of lot owners is interested in 
selling the land to raise money to start a cemetery 
maintenance fund. All survivors of people buried 
in the lots and the cemetery association have to 
agree for the deal to be completed. 

sent by Jim Jewell, Peru IL 

A research project on early Marine Corps uni- 
forms led William N. Moss, Officer in Charge, 
Marine Detachment 1797, Harvard MA, to search 
forthe gravesite of Lt. Jonathan Church. He located 
the stone in the village cemetery in (Old) Weth- 
ersfield CT, broken in two pieces. The stone is 
marble, which Captain Moss feels is a much later 
replacement. It was the custom in Wethersfield in 
the early 1800s to use brownstone for grave 
markers, as indicated by the stones surrounding 
the Lt. Church grave. The replacement stone was 
likely broken in the 1960s. 

Desiring to repairthe stone. Captain Moss secured 
estimates from local contractors that were in the 
$2300 range. He spoke with AGS seeking guidance 
and was encouraged to purchase a copy of 4 Grave- 
yard Preservation Pr/merand consider re- 
storing the stone himself. After further discus- 
sion with AGS, Captain Moss secured appropriate 

materials described in the Primer a\ong with 
Barre-Pak epoxy and proceeded to mend the stone 
himself. It is now back in its original position 
with a U.S. Government supplied granite marker 
at its base to supplement the marble stone's in- 
scription, which is eroded. 

The cost, exclusive of numerous trips from 
Bedford MA to Wethersfield CT came to $24 for 
bonding materials, $10formiscellaneoustools, 
$2 for marble dust and $10 for wood framing, 
a grand total of $46.00. 

Captain Moss documented his work in text and 
photographs proving that interested, commit- 
ted non-professionals using appropriate meth- 
ods and materials can be successful at restoring 
grave markers. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 9 



Bagni di Lucca, in northwest Tuscany, in the foot- 
hills of the Apuan Alps has been a spa since Roman 
Times. By the 1 6th century it was fashionable and 
beginning to attract the English and French. 
Montaigne spent much time there; Milton was a 
visitor. In 1722 James Stuart, Pretender to the 
English throne set up court there. From that time 
on, there was a parade of well-known people: 

Montesquieu and Lord 

Josephine Bonaparte 

Elise Baciocchi 

Shelley and Byron 




Hugo and Flaubert 


Sir Walter Scott 

Chesterton Dumas 

the Brownings 


Walter Savage Landor 

F. Marion Crawford 

Wm. Wetmore Story 


Mark Twain 


the Trollopes 

The Anglican Church in Bagni di Lucca, the second 
Protestant one (the first is in Leghorn) to be 
founded in Italy, was completed in 1840. The 
church itself resembles a Venetian palace, having 
no steeple or cross. It was sold in 1982 to the town 
and has been restored as a concert hall. 

The cemetery, about a mile from the church, dates 
from the same time. The first burial took place in 
August, 1842; the last conducted by an Anglican 
chaplaintook place in 1 953. Only a few burials are 
dated after 1953. 

The cemetery, which is of about two acres, was sold 
to the town in the early 1980s "to be maintained 
in perpetuity." On a well-traveled road leading to 
much visited Italian towns. The Bagni di Lucca 
Anglican cemetery has been abandoned and is now 
overgrown with many stones dislodged by roots. 
Names are difficult to distinguish beneath the 
moss. The stone wall around the site is beginning 
to crumble and the cast iron gate has rusted off its 

The Institute Storico Lucchese is willing to accept 
responsibility for the upkeep of the cemetery. 
There are in the cemetery gravestones of numer- 
ous distinguished people; the most beautiful is an 
effigy of the British author "Ouida." Many Ameri- 
cans also are buried there, including the sister of 
Grover Cleveland, President of the United States. 


"Made by loving hands at home" is an apt descrip- 
tion of the pictured grave shelter. Located in a 
black cemetery on Mount Nebo Road, near Dardan- 
elle. Yell County, Arkansas, some of the shelter's 
construction elements are quite out of the ordi- 

photo by Mrs. George Rose Smith, a member of the 
Board of Mount Holly Cemetery Association, Little 
Rock Arkansas. 

The uprights are metal reinforcing bars of the type 
used in concrete work. The corrugated tin roof, 
ridge pole and baseboard (for lack of a better 
word) were presumably cut with tin snips. Al- 
though the materials are crude, construction was 
obviously painstaking. There is a single narrow 
entrance to the interior of the shelter at the foot of 
the grave. A profuse growth of blooming honey- 
suckle, both inside and outside the shelter, softens 
the harshness of its appearance, but has also made 
it impossible to determine if there is any identi- 
fication of the deceased inside or on the ground 
below the matted vines. A number of World War II 
veterans are buried at this site, but there are very 
few cemetery markers. 

Sybil Crawford, 1 0548 Stone Canyon Road - #228, 
Dallas TX 75230-4408, welcomes additional 
photographs of grave shelters, accompanied by 
date photo was made, location, size and apparent 
age of cemetery, any indications of ethnicity, and 
shelter construction materials. 

Sent by Mrs. Robert H. Brodt (Betty J.), New York NY 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 10 


Mary Teal of Lyons Falls NY has sent more infor- 
mation on the last survivor of the Boston Tea 
Party, George Robert Twelve Hewes (see AGS News- 
letter, Fall 1990, p. 24). She had the stone 
photographed, as well as an adjacent DAR bronze 
plaque. The stone itself reads: 

George R. T. Hewes 

one who helped drown 

the Tea in Boston 1 770 

Died Nov. 5, 1840 

Aged 109 Years & 2 mos 

The plaque reads: 

George Robert Twelve Hewes 

member of the Boston Tea Party 

born in Whentham, Mass. 

Nov. 5th, 1731 

Died in Richfield Springs N. Y. 

Nov. 5, 1840 

Friends of Center Cemetery 

38 Forest Lane 

East Hartford, CT. 06118 

The Friends of Center Cemetery in East Hartford CT 
have received a grant from the Hartford Founda- 
tion for Public Giving to restore the brownstone 
monument of a pre-Revolutionary governor of 
Connecticut, William Pitkin. 

Pitkin, who died in 1769, belonged to a famous 
political family in colonial Connecticut, many of 
whom are buried in Center Cemetery. The monu- 
ment is a large inscribed tabletop standing on 
fluted legs. It is threatened with the erosion that 
often damages brownstone, according to Doris 
Suessman, president of the Friends. It is hoped to 
remove the stone from the cemetery for restora- 
tion before spring. 

Pitkin became governor in 1766 at the age of 72 
after a long career as a legislator, speaker of the 
house, judge of the superior court, chief justice 
and deputy governor of the colony of Connecticut. 
He is described on the monument as"zealous and 
bold for the Truth, faithfull in distributing 
Justice. ..a Patron of his Country." 

The Friends of Center Cemetery were formed in 
1989 to promote the preservation of the town 
cemetery, whose stones date back to the early 1 8th 
century, and recognition of its artistic and his- 
toric importance. A systematic photographic record 
of the early stones has begun. Membership in the 
Friends is open to all interested persons. For 
information, write Friends of Center Cemetery, 
38 Forest Lane, East Hartford CT 06118. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 11 

An article in the November 12, 1990 issue of 
Forbes Magazine, sent by Phyllis Laking Hunt of 
Falmouth MA, titled "Tale of Two Tombs" com- 
pares the condition of the Karl Marx monument at 
Highgate Cemetery, London with that of Adam Smith 
in Edinburgh: 

"This summer was the bicentenary of Adam Smith's 
death on July 17, 1790, so Fortoes decided to pay 
its respects to the author of The Wealth of 
Nations. We found the cemetery in an industrial 
area of Edinburgh, which in most respects is one of 
Europe's loveliest cities. The air around the 
cemetery was sour with the smell of the neighbor- 
ing breweries' mash; gulls screeched overhead. 
There was only one dead flower and a dead wreath 
on Smith's grave. Elsewhere in the cemetery, 
walls crumbled, candy wrappers and bottles lit- 
tered the paths, a Marks & Spencer plastic bag was 
picked up by the wind and rolled across the graves. 

We went to see George Bell, Edinburgh's Principal 
Cemeteries, Crematorium and Mortuary Officer, 
to inquire about this sad state of affairs. Bell, his 
shirttail hanging out of his suit pants, said defen- 
sively that it cost the state around L2500 (nearly 
$5000) to clean up a gravestone, which basically 
means scrubbing off the algae. 

To prove that his department had done its duty by 
Adam Smith, Principal Cemeteries, Crematorium 
and Mortuary Officer Bell showed us a letter from 
Edinburgh's Assistant Director of Technical Serv- 
ices. In 1986 the state had painted the rails, 
scrubbed off the algae and laid fresh gravel on Adam 
Smith. 'There is a limit to what can be done," 
huffed the bureaucrat." 

Karl Marx (1818-83) rests in a different kettle 
of coffins. Not far from the great bust of Marx, 
glowering above dozens of fresh wreaths and bou- 
quets, repose the remains of Charles Dickens' 

A sinfjfe (JeOii ureath f<.yr \(h.mi Smith 

71l«/Btfter f^cttpltolisiR /taunted h^ rhc s4tate. 

family and Queen Victoria's midwife. 

The pro-capitalism Forbes author, Richard C. 
Morals, goes on to note the perceived irony that 
Highgate, which houses Marx' monument, is pri- 
vately owned and produces a tidy profit, while 
Adam Smith's cemetery is state-owned and is in a 
terrible state of neglect. "In death, Karl Marx has 
benefited far more from capitalism than has Adam 

The Last Call 

Recent news from London brings an announcement 
from the Little Pub Co. This company is offering 
eternal rest at the Pack Horse, the Little Tumbling 
Sailor or any of its ten pubs in western England. 
Customers can have their ashes rest under their 
favorite bar stool or beneath the bar where they 
bent their elbows. Owner of the company, Colm 
O'Rourke says "Instead of being stuck in a cold 
graveyard where few people visit, the deceased 
will be surrounded by friends who will have a 

permanent reminder of the good times enjoyed." 
While it is rumoured to be an April Fool's Day 
joke, the company's lawyer Jack Haywood attests 
to the validity of the scheme. Haywood plans to be 
"buried" in the Pie Factory pub in Tipton and he 
says "Since my wife always finds me there she will 
be used to visiting me there!" Cheers! 

from f/7eNewfoundland Ancestor, contributed by 
Julie Morris, Halifax NS 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 12 

Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire, England 

News of an unusual conflict comes to us from Ellen 
Glueck of Towanda PA. A friend sent Ellen a 
clipping from a Britisfi newspaper, dated Decem- 
ber 15, 1990, which features a story about Ben 
Lloyd, age 67 of Great Bedwyn, Wiltshire, Eng- 

Lloyd's family have been stonemasons in Great 
Bedwyn for two centuries, and many of his rela- 
tives are buried in the churchyard of the twelfth- 
century St. Mary's Church there. Some years ago, 
when the yard's volunteer caretaker moved away, 
the yard was neglected and became run-down un- 
til, four years ago, Mr. Lloyd retired from his 
business and took over the care of the churchyard. 
According to the newspaper article, he spent many 
hours a week, unpaid, cutting grass, trimming 
borders and keeping the stones neat, "an abso- 
lutely first class job." But then, "having got it 
right, he started making improvements." 

The improvements are the root of the present 
controversy. Lloyd planted tulips in orderly rows, 

which the churchwarden felt were not in keeping 
with the feel of the old yard. Lloyd did a wonderful 
job removing a fallen cedar tree, but he went on to 
severely prune an old yew, again distressing the 
churchwarden. Mr. Lloyd is also accused of using 
bleach to clean lichen from the stones, discoloring 
the stones in the process, and, most seriously, of 
painting some gravestones in garish colors. Lloyd 
claims there is scriptural authority for painting 
the stones. 

The churchwarden has now obtained an injunction 
to keep Mr. Lloyd out of the churchyard. "We're 
trying to stop him doing damage to it," the church- 
warden said. 

This story Is of special interest to AGS members 
who have met Ben Lloyd at the two AGS conferences 
he has traveled to the U.S. to attend. While here he 
extended open invitations to the membership to 
visit St. Mary's -Churchyard, and Ellen Glueck, 
Dan & Jessie Farber, and Jim & Betty Slater are 
among those members who have subsequently 
visited the yard. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 13 

Oral History In Ontario Is Source for 
Black Cemetery Reclamation and Restora- 

by Harvey Medland, Toronto, Ontario 

In the early 1 930s, children hanging onto a school- 
yard fence across the road from a Black cemetery 
watched as a farmer ploughed under more than 
fifty gravestones in order to plant potatoes. The 
scene took place a few miles west of Flesherton, 
Ontario, Canada. One of the boys who witnessed the 
desecration was the father of historian-researcher 
Les MacKinnon. The elder MacKinnon also recalled 
that a few markers had been tossed into a nearby 
rockpile and that at least twenty others were 
buried under County Road 14. 

Adrienne Shad of the Ontario Black Historical 
Society estimates that 30,000 Black pioneers 
from the United States settled in Upper Canada's 
Niagara District in the late 1700s. Among them 
was Jesse Hardy, who emigrated to Canada shortly 
after 1790 with 5000 freed slaves and United 
Empire Loyalists. He may have been a member of 
Niagara's Black "C" Corps which fought the U.S. 
during the War of 1812. We do know that he later 
moved to the Erin-Fergus district before receiv- 
ing a land grant for property along the Old Durham 
Road near present-day Priceville. Thus the Hardys 
moved up the Garafraxa Trail to homestead within 
sight of that cemetery. 

The 1851 census reveals that "almost every fifty- 
acre lot along the Durham Road was settled by a 
Black family with parents stating their birthplace 
as the United States. Children as old as 17, how- 
ever, were born in Canada". Unfortunately, not all 
settlers who received crown grants of land subse- 
quently fulfilled th "settlement duties" required 
for the deed, thus creating problems for Les MacK- 

Howard Sheffield, however, does have the deed of 
his ancestor, James Hardy, for property on the Old 
Durham Road. During his twenty years of research 
into his family's past, Sheffield had developed an 
intense interest in Priceville's history. He con- 
cluded: "If 350 pioneers lived, raised families and 
died in the area, there must be cemeteries." 

He shared this interest with Les MacKinnon, who 
began the reclamation process of the Priceville 
cemetery in 1989. The extent of the 100 foot x 
1 50 foot site was determined with a metal detector. 
It signalled "myriads of metal fragments in the 
soil" which are assumed to be coffin nails. The 

burial site was later donated by the landowner to 
the co-operative Artemesia township. The Pio- 
neer Cemetery Committee then fenced it off and 
began to "dig" underthe guidance of archaeologist, 
Barry Gray. 

On June 1 1 , 1990, fragments of four gravestones 
were uncovered in nearby rock rubble. After 
piecing the marble markers together, MacKinnon 
recognized the engraved names of former Black 
residents of the township. The tombstones dated 
from 1854 to 1863. The last recorded burial on 
the site was dated 1880. One of the four grave- 
stones was in memory of the aforementioned James 
Hardy, who died in 1863, aged 95 years. 

An elated Howard Sheffield was working on the 
"dig" at the time and witnessed the recovery of the 
treasure for which he had been searching for so 
many years. But his quest continues. He hopes to 
find the gravestones of his great-grandparents, 
whom he believes lived in the same location. 

Les MacKinnon speculates that there are six more 
Black cemeteries in the area which he hopes will 
be found and restored in the future. He stressed, 
"I'd like to see them all taken into public domain 
and cleaned up. That would give people a better 
perspective on the history of this area and give the 
dead the respect they deserve." 

On October 1, 1990, Lieutenant-Governor Lin- 
coln Alexander unveiled a memorial on the ceme- 
tery site to perpetuate Priceville's Black heri- 
tage. The event was a very satisfying one for 
MacKinnon, Sheffield and the Pioneer Cemetery 
Committee, but the encouraged researchers con- 
tinue their work. They are confident and deter- 
mined that with the continued co-operation of the 
township executive, the remaining Black ceme- 
teries will be restored with equal respect. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 14 


C.R. Jones of Cooperstown NY sent a couple of 
letters wfiich were published in the New York State 
Historical Association publication Weiv York His- 
tory in 1939: 

In every community in the state of New York and, in 
fact, in all the Eastern States, are found forlornly 
abandoned burying grounds that deserve intelligent 
care and preservation. A great many people have 
given thought to the problem; others have devoted time 
and effort to a conscientious endeavor to effect a 
solution. Much remains to be done. 

New communities not only have few traditions and 
little history, but also are lacking in most of the 
material reminders of the past which go far to make the 
older states settled in their habits; serene in their 
out, look and individual in their attractiveness. Among 
the relics that every community ought to find worthy 
of their careful preservation are their old cemeteries; 
sacred acres to which have been consigned the mortal 
remains of those who once were a part of the living 
fabric of the community. 

Aside from the sentimental interest which ought to 
attract to all disused burial plots, practical reasons 
should move a community to safeguard and care 1or 
such places. The preservation of the markers alone 
would be worth the time and effort necessary, if, for 
no other reason than the evidencethey furnish regard- 
ing the family and individuals who once played their 
part in the neighborhood. 

Now and then a marker of this sort has been sought 
diligently, but in vain, by the living members of the 
family whose records are complete except for that 
link. More than one student of history or biography has 
proved his thesis and rewritten the story of the past 
by uncovering the blurred inscription of some forgot- 
ten headstone resurrected from under a pile of moss or 
leaves. The progressiveness of a city or a community 
can usually be judged by the care taken of their burying 
grounds. (Elizur Yale Smith) 

"Cemeteries Suffer," 

Cement urns, metal wreaths and other lawn deco- 
rations - if light enough to be portable - are being 
hidden under bushes, thrown over walls and carted 
off to local flea markets. State associations of 
cemeterians in New England have united to ex- 
change information on thefts of such cemetery 

Inventories, including photographs, are being set 
up. New methods of inconspicuous marking are 
being tried. The goods, once identified, remain of 

My dear Mr. Editor: 

In New York Histoky for January, 1939, I notice a communi- 
cation from Elizur Yale Smith relalivc to the preservation of old 
burial places. This, to my mind, is a matter worthy of the con- 
sideration of all, but especially should it be regarded as a duty of 
every historical society to work for legislation providing for the 
care and preservation of these "sacred acres." 

Here in Jersey, the Genealogical Society of New Jersey is doing 
a wonderful work in copying tombstone inscriptions all over the 
state. They have a group termed the "Tomb Stone Hounds" who, 
under the able leadership of Russell Bruce Rankin, of Newark, go 
on frequent "Grave Yard Prowls" copying tombstone inscriptions 
for the files of the Society. In between times certain ones of the 
"Hounds" amuse themselves in their spare time by copying small 
forgotten burial grounds in out of the way places, or in checking 
work previously done, for meticulous accuracy is Mr. Rankin's 
aim before anything is published and the best will make mistakes at 

Not every one is "educated" in the technique of tombstone copy- 
ing, or has the ability, or, may I say, the mental quirk, to be a good 
"Tomb Stone Hound." A real "Hound" goes forth armed for 
the fray. He will carry two wire brushes, one coarse and one fine. 
He will have a brick of pumice stone and a good supply of white 
and blue chalk for rubbing on the face of weather-worn stones to 
bring out indistinct inscriptions. He should have a pocket mirror 
to reflect light on the face of the stone from dififerent angles, and 
a photographic focusing doth to shield the stone from direct light. 
Often, by the use of these, a series of meaningless depressions on 
the face of a stone may, be rendered quite legible, where the inex- 
perienced copyist would have written it off as "indecipherable." 

A stout crowbar, a few wooden blocks, and plenty of masculine 
brawn are useful where heavy stones have fallen face downward; 
and a good stout trowel with which to dig down for the inscriptions 
on sunken stones. Several of the "Hounds" have bayonet trowels. 

vicious looking instruments of forged steel about a foot long, 
strongly reinforced, that can be used with a short or long handle 
as desired. 

A good strong sickle and a hatchet often come in handy, and of 
course there are other accessories which are often useful, such as 
leggings and heavy gloves to protect against briars and the ever- 
present poison ivy. 

Yes, these places should be preserved, but do what we may to 
preserve them, their records will be lost by the ravages of time un- 
less there are more "Tomb Stone Hounds." 

Louis L. Blauvelt, 
20 Birchwood Avenue, 
East Orange, New Jersey. 


course the property of the plot owner and 
must be returned without recompense. And who 
wants to be made into a possessor of stolen goods? 

We suggest that all Green Industry firms urge 
their clients to insist on (and to keep on file) a 
signed, letterhead, bill-of-sale tor any garden 
ornament they buy. We think items new from a 
manufacturer are safer than old ones bought in tag 
sales or at flea markets. 

from TREE NEWS, University of Massachusetts Coop- 
erative Extension, August 9, 1990 issue, contributed 
by Jo fin Slavinsify, Belmont MA 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 15 



Deirdre Morris of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
writes of tfie successful conclusion of her attempts 
to change Massachusetts statutes to protect the use 
of unoccupied gravesites and the reuse of occupied 

In the Fall 1988 AGS Newsletter (Vol. 12 #4, p. 
8) the account was recorded of Deirdre Morris's 
findings of bones, gravestones and coffin orna- 
ments in trash bins in the Cambridge burying 
ground. Her discovery that the cemetery workers 
were reusing occupied graves and disposing of the 
previous remains on the site raised little concern 
with Cambridge town officials since they felt they 
were properly interpreting the Massachusetts 
statute covering such activity. Deirdre then began 
workon legislation to clarifythe present statute so 
that it could not be interpreted as giving cemetery 
corporations the right to disinterr bodies and 
reuse the graves. The new statute was passed by 
both the Massachusetts House and Senate on No- 
vember 28, 1990, and was signed into law by 
Governor Dukakis on December 10, 1990. 

The new statutes stipulate that no cemetery corpo- 
ration shall take over ownership of an unoccupied 
grave unless a minimum of seventy-five years has 
elapsed after issuance of a license for the grave, 
and the license holder cannot be located after 
making a diligent search. If the license holder is 
ascertained, the cemetery corporation shall pay 
the fair value of the license to the holder. Also no 
cemetery corporation "shall reuse an occupied 
grave except: upon the request and with consent of 
a relative or descendant of the decedent occupying 
the grave, providing no other descendant objects; 
to provide for the burial of a relative or descendant 
of the decedent occupying the grave; and if the 
remains of the decedent occupying the grave will 
remain in the grave." 

Deirdre concludes: "Now the road of education and 
implementation stretches ahead." Congratula- 
tions to Deirdre Morris for her perseverence, and 
now, success in seeing this legislation passed. 

The Newsletter receives mar)y newspaper items 
from vigilant AGS members across the continent. 
These are not always included in the Newsletter 
because of space limitations or repetative story 
lines, or because they refer more to the study of 
death than to gravestones. All contributions do go 
to the AGS Archives, however, and so here Is a 
partial list in summary form: 

From Sybil Crawford, Dallas TX, an article from 
the Dallas f^orning News, c. May 1990, titled 
"Looting History, Archaeologists decry 'pothun- 
ters' who raid Indian graves for treasure", about 
the continuing desecration of Indian graves in 
Arkansas. For other references to this widespread 
problem, see AGS Newsletter V. 12#1, Winter 
1987-8, p. 14-15 & V. 13 #2. Fall1989, p. 22 

From the Norfolk VA Pilot-Ledger Star, a May 9, 
1990 item "4 Rare Grave Markers Found in 
Beach" about cast iron grave markers with side 
posts in the shape of castle turrets discovered at 
Virginia Beach as bulldozers prepared land for 
townhouse construction. 

From the American Planning Association journal 
Planning, February 1990, an article by Ruth 
Eckdish Knack titled "The Ultimate Open Space" 
about the fact that cemeteries have not been con- 
sidered by the planning profession in the recent 
past, but that planners need to be aware of current 
trends. "A combination of factors — the aging of the 
baby boomers, clashes over land use, a nascent 
preservation movement — is reviving interest in 
U.S. cemeteries." 

From the Halifax N.S. Chronicle Herald, May 14, 
1990, two Reuters articles: "French unite in 
ceremony of grief over desecration of Jewish 
cemetery" and "Israeli graves vandalized; may be 
linked with French attack". In the French town of 
Carpentras unknown assailants defaced graves with 
Anti-semitic slogans and dug up and mutilated a 
corpse in one of France's oldest Jewish cemeter- 
ies. In Haifa, Israel, vandals daubed 250 Jewish 
graves with anti-Israel graffiti, apparently in- 
spired by the French incident. 

From Pat Miller, Cold Spring NY, a report from 
the A/eivs-r/znes about lecturer William Stockdale 
entertaining senior citizens of Southbury CT with 
anecdotes about famous graveyards he has visited. 

Look for more archives contributions in the Spring 
issue of the Newsletter. (Yes, I really am cleaning 
up! DT) 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 16 


-From the Chicago Sun-Times, May 27, 1990, 
"Tales from the Crypt" about a fourth-grade field 
trip to Chicago's Graceland Cemetery. Each child 
prepared a biographical report of a famous Chica- 
goan buried at Graceland, and when the appropri- 
ate grave was located the group gathered and the 
student gave an oral presentation. 

-From the Fort Wayne Indiana News-Sentinel, 
July 6, 1990, a report of the discovery of human 
bones at a downtown Indianapolis excavation site. 
The excavation was on the site of the former Green 
Lawn Cemetery, the city's first public burial 
ground in the 1800s and early 1900s. An archae- 
ologist with the Indiana Department of Natural 
Resources said he had been told that all of the 
remains from Green Lawn had been moved around 
the turn of the century. 

-From the LaSalle IL News-Tribune, July 6, 
1990, a photo of Larry Carlson of Spring Valley 
examining a stone he uncovered while clearing the 
Ottville cemetery of waist-high grass and trees. 

-An AP item from the July 8, 1990 edition of the 
Fort Wayne IN Journal-Gazette, by Leslie Dreyf uss 
about plans to landscape the mass gravesite on Deer 
Island in Boston Harbor by 1995, the 150th 
anniversary of the Irish potato famine. The graves 
are for about 4,100 mid-1800s immigrants to 
the United States whose American dreams ended in 

-An article in the LaSalle IL News-Tribune, July 
28, 1 990, titled "Genealogy group traces roots in 
graves" about AGS member Carol Shipp and the 
Bureau County Genealogical Society project to 
transcribe gravestone inscriptions in the county. 

-From the Fort Wayne IN A/ewsSenf/ne/, August 1, 
1990, an AP item from Silver Spring MD about 
animal interments at Aspin Hill Memorial Park, 
including 7 of J. Edgar Hoover's beloved dogs and 
"Jiggs" the canine mascot of the old "Our Gang" 
comedies, who died in 1938. 

-A photo in the Fort Wayne IN News Sentinel, 
August 1, 1990, shows a backhoe with tackle 
assisting in the resetting of toppled headstones at 
the New Mount Moriah Cemetery, near Haubstadt. 

-A brief note in the Chicago Tribune, August 12, 

1990 about teenagers in the Netherlands being 
arrested for looting graves for skulls. 

-From the Chicago Tribune, September 6, 1990, 
a reference to the desecration of 43 graves at a 
Jewish cemetery at the cemetery in Horbourg- 
Wihr, near the city of Colmar in eastern France. 

-From the LaSalle IL News-Tribune, September 
7, 1990, an item about a quiet prairie cemetery 
west of Mount Palatine IL. "It looks abandoned and 
untended, yet a variety of concerned specialists 
are interested in its preservation both as a ceme- 
tery and a prairie." Naturalists have a list of 
almost 80 native prairie plants growing within 
this tiny tract. The earliest grave marker is dated 

-An "Outings" item in the Chicago Tribune, Octo- 
ber 28, 1990 titled: "Walk among tombstones for 
an historical journey" includes an interview with 
gravestone "expert" Kathleen Shaughnessy of 
Plainfield IL and a listing of local pioneer ceme- 

-From the Chicago Sun-Times, October 30, 1990, 
a Halloween story about concerns that the Chan- 
ning Memorial Elementary school in Elgin IL is 
haunted. The school and park were built on the site 
of Elgin's first graveyard. One marked grave, that 
of William Hackman, sits in the far corner of the 
park, guarded by a low fence. All the graves at the 
site were supposed to have been moved to Bluff City 
Cemetery when the school was built in 1968. 

-A photo of Halloween vandalism in a Griffith IN 
cemetery, from the Chicago Tribune, November 2, 

-An article from the Chicago Tribune, November 
5, 1990, about the Illinois Pet Cemetery. Pet 
owners can have their ashes buried alongside their 
pets, but headstones for humans are not allowed. 

-A note from the November 6, 1 990 edition of the 
Chicago Sun-Times, refers to vandalism of over 
80 monuments in Mount Olivet Cemetery, Chicago. 
Vandals cut a three-foot hole in a chain-link fence 
to gain entry. This item was also contributed by 
John Chaveriat, Chicago IL. 

-From the Chicago Tribune Magazine, November 
11, 1990, a "First Person" article about Bert J. 
Gast of Gast Monument Co., Chicago. In addition to 
his monument work, he teaches memorial design 
through a correspondence course certified by the 
Monument Builders of North America. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 17 

-An article in the Chicago Sun-Times, November 
12, 1990 describes Camp Douglas, a prisoner- 
ot-war camp built on Chicago's South Side during 
the Civil War. The first Confederate prisoner 
passed through its gates in February 1862. Of 
about 26,000 prisoners, one in five would die 
there. At Oak Woods Cemetery, 1035 E. 67th St. 
they get two or three calls a week asking for 
information about prisoners of war in the so- 
called "Confederate Mound". The mound is marked 
by a towering monument of Georgia granite and 
aged brass name-plates. On top is a statue of an 
unarmed Confederate soldier. Beneath are 4,275 
Confederate bodies. Twelve white tablet stones 
marking the graves of prison guards, line the 
front. In the Oak Woods archives a faded green 
ledger lists the dead from "Able, Ezekiel", a Texas 
infantryman to "Zollicoffer, J.L.", from Missis- 

1990, a note that Matt Lamb, chairman of the 
board of Blake-Lamb Funeral Homes, donated dozens 
of funeral home journals, from as far back as the 
1850s, to the Chicago Historical Society. In addi- 
tion to Blake-Lamb, the collection includes the 
records of C.H. Jordan and John Carroll Sons, two 
firms that became subsidiaries of Blake-Lamb. 
The funeral particulars of many of Chicago's found- 
ing fathers are included in the volumes, including 
arrangements for Abraham Lincoln's last train 
ride through Illinois. The archives will be avail- 
able to scholars only on a selective basis because of 
privacy concerns. 

-From the Fort Wayne IN News Sentinel, Novem- 
ber 14,1 990, an article on vandalism at Lake view 
Cemetery, Kendallville IN. Jim Jewell notes that 
there has been a real rash of vandalism in Indiana 
cemeteries lately. 

-From the LaSalle IL News-Tribune, November 
13, 1990, an article about a family-owned busi- 
ness since 1913 - Mendota Monument Company. 

-From the Chicago Sun-Times, November 14, 

-From the Fort Wayne IN Journal- 
Gazette, December 12, 1990, a note about vandals 
charged with felony criminal mischief for alleg- 
edly chipping and braking 131 memorials in 
Waterloo Cemetery, Auburn IN, causing an esti- 
mated $125,000. damage. 


Archie A. Arnold 

by James Jewell, Illinois Valley Community Col- 

As a reminder of both the flight of time and what 
remains behind, the gravestone of Archie A. Arnold 
(Oct. 18, 1920-April 21, 1982) in the Scipio 
Cemetery (Allen County, Indiana) is flanked by 
two parking meters— both with red "expired" 
signs prominent. 

"You had to know Archie", said Arnold's attorney, 
adding that his client always believed in a good 
laugh. It was Arnold's last wish for the meter 

The stone has been featured in Ripley's Believe It 
or Not! and has also been photographed for several 
national news publication. On the reverse of the 
stone is the epitaph "Fear the Lord and tell the 
people what you want." 

Scipio Cemetery is in Scipio Township, Allen 
County, Indiana, on Highway 37, just a few miles 
from the Ohio state line. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 18 


An article discussing safety in cemeteries in the Canadian province of Ontario. "Death Sentence for 
Graveyards?" by Bill Gladstone, appeared in the national edition of the TorontoGlobo & Mall, December 27, 
1990. This disturbing "solution" to the problem of falling gravestones was first brought to the attention of 
AGS members by Susann Myers in the AGS Newsletter (Vol. 13 #2), Spring 1989, p. 3. 

The tranquility of some Ontario cemeteries may soon 
be rudely shattered, thanks to Bill 31, an amendment 
to the province's Cemeteries Act. The bill has yet to 
be proclaimed into law and sources at the Ministry of 
Commercial and Corporate Affairs indicate that may 
not happen until the spring. Still, heritage groups claim 
it has already inadvertently led to the wanton — but 
perfectly legal — destruction of several cemeteries. 

"I heard of a case where the church just got so worried 
that they would be sued if anything went wrong that 
they just went out and knocked all the stones down," 
says Dorothy Duncan, executive director of the On- 
tario Historical Society. "The bill is very strong on 
closing cemeteries, moving or disposing of the stones 
and making the land available for other uses," Ms. 
Duncan says. "And it fails to do one important thing. 
It does not spell out that a cemetery or burial site is 
considered to be an educational, historical and sacred 
resource. doesn't even allude to that." The histori- 
cal society has requested that the bill be withdrawn. 

The proposed law was sparked by a coroner's inquest 
after an accident in which a young girl named Kristie 
Vandescheur, who was playing in an abandoned ceme- 
tery near her home near London (Ontario), was pinned 
beneath a monument and killed. The bill makes munici- 
palities responsible for keeping all abandoned grave- 
yards within their bounds in good repair. It also 
compels cemetery owners to do "whatever is neces- 
sary by way of repairing, resetting or laying down" 
tombstones that may endanger public safety. 

The consumer and corporate affairs ministry wrote to 
every Ontario municipality after the Vandescheur 
death, warning that liability for such accidents would 
rest with them, says Gail Suss man, a technical advisor 
in the heritage branch of the Ministry of Culture and 
Communications. "Some cemeteries were bulldozed 
right away as a result," she says. "I saw it happen in 
Port Hope, and I've heard of it happening in other 
places. Today I visited a cemetery and the tractor 
marks were still there. Some obelisks were only three 
feet high; they had been bulldozed down, and they were 
just scattered about like so many logs." 

In the past, pressure to close cemeteries came pri- 
marily from real-estate developers, she notes, but 
now the government seems to be exerting an unprece- 
dented force toward closing. 

At a cemetery in Markham, Ms. Sussman claims, the 
bodies were moved to another site in amannerthatwas 
insensitive to archaeological methods and the cultural 

and religious traditions of the deceased, as often 
happens. In addition, she says, "there was a record of 
1 7 people being buried there, but they only moved 13. 
Where are the others?" 

Ms. Sussman, one of several culture and communica- 
tions officials who have been advising the Ministry of 
Commercial and Corporate Affairs on heritage mat- 
ters, says that municipalities face "tremendous eco- 
nomic pressure toward closure." The MCCA, she 
adds, usually grants permission to close graveyards 
almost automatically. 

"There are all kinds of little burial grounds scattered 
aboutthe countryside, and Ithinkthey mayjustquietly 
disappear, "says Marjorie Stuart, executive director 
of the Ontario Genealogical Society. "Many stones say 
'rest in peace' but right now, they're not resting in 

The MCCA's mandate is consumer protection. "The 
heritage component is something that's brand new," 
acknowledges Gary Carmichael, registrar of the 
ministry's cemeteries branch. He maintains that the 
heritage concerns can be handled in regulations to the 
bill or in the Heritage Act, which is also under review. 
The legal responsibility for cemeteries belongs to his 
ministry, he explains, owing to a 1955 arrangement 
for a fee levied on all burials to go into a trust fund to 
provide perpetual care and maintenance for cemeter- 
ies. Because no central trust fund existed before 
1955, few dollars are allocated to older cemeteries 
which were largely filled before then. Also lacking 
perpetual care are burial mounds sacred to native 
people and early farmyard graves of pioneers. 

In recent months, heritage group volunteers have 
spent thousands of hours helping draft the regulations 
that are to accompany the bill. The Ontario Historical 
Society has described the process as "an exercise in 
futility". However, since third reading of the bill, the 
government of Ontario has changed. It will be a test of 
the still-honeymooning New Democratic Party gov- 
ernment to see how it responds. 

contributed by Dr. Neville Elwood and Allan Dunlop, 
both of Halifax NS. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 19 

Gravestone Art Given to Museum 

An outstanding collection of materials relating to 
early American gravestone art has been presented 
to the Museum of American Folk Art by Ivan B. 
Rigby, professor emeritus of industrial design at 
Brooklyn's Pratt Institute in New York in memory 
of his late friend Francis Y. Duval, a freelance 
photographer and designer. Included in the gift are 
approximately 20,000 photographic slides and 
prints, some 500 casts of individual tombstones, 
and about 1 00 books and articles relating to grave- 
stone art. 

Duval and Rigby not only did their own photogra- 
phy, but developed a method for making plaster 
casts of the tombstones. Sites represented range 
from New York City's Trinity Churchyard to grave- 
yards of the Bogomil sect in the Balkans, though the 
great concentration of the collection is on early 
cemeteries of the Eastern seaboard of the United 
States. The collection provided the basis for Duval 
and Rigby's book. Early American Gravestone Art 
inPhotograpfis(N.y., Dover, 1978), andfortheir 
numerous periodical articles and contributions to 
the publications of the Association for Gravestone 
Studies. The collection has also been featured in a 
numberof gallery exhibitions. Withthe Museum's 
Daniel and Jessie Lie Farber collection of grave- 
stone photographs and the Farbers' promised 
bequest of the original glass plate negatives of 
Harriette Merrifield Forbes, the Duval/Rigby 
collection makes the Museum of American Folk Art 
one of the nation's richest repositories of materi- 
als for this fascinating field of study. 

from The Clarion, Museum of Americar\ Folk Art, 
NYC. Winter 1990-1991, Vol. 15 No. 5. 

On January 2, 1991 , Sue Kelly and Anne Williams 
hand delivered their original New England Grave- 
stones exhibition to the Museum of American Folk 
Art. Sue writes: "We planned this exhibition of 
138 rubbings in 1979 with Cordelia Rose and Jay 
McLaughlin of Art Resources of Connecticut. The 
idea evolved from a show "300 Years of Connecti- 
cut Folk Art", to which we contributed a number 
of rubbings. This was one of the first shows which 
had included gravestones as a form of folk art. Alex 
Graves, who curated that show, planted the seeds of 
a larger exhibition. The timing was perfect for us, 
as we had recently completed our canoe trip all the 
way down the Connecticut River, rubbing the his- 
tory and character of the valley all the way. So, 
"New England Gravestone Rubbings - A Selection" 

opened, with catalogue and poster, and did quite a 
bit of traveling for a few years - Hartford, Old 
Saybrook, New London... and then it was accepted 
for travel for another few years with NEFA (New 
England Foundation for the Arts). It went to 
Virginia, to Greenfield MA, to the Edgar Alien Poe 
House in Baltimore, and several other spots. Anne 
and I have also used it extensively for talks to 
historical societies, libraries and especially 
schools. We'd pull rubbings from it to amplify a 
certain format of all the things that can be learned 
from gravestones. But it has been at rest for a 
while in Anne's cellar. We kept musing intermit- 
tently as to what we might do so that the rubbings 
could be available to be seen and used. 

Eunice Marsh, Mansfield Center CT, 1766, from A Grave 
Bu»lne»», New England Gravestone Rubbing*, 1979. 

Then at the conference last summer, in a conver- 
sation with Dan [Farber] we learned that Ivan 
Rigby had donated most of his and Francis' collec- 
tion to the Museum of American Folk Art in New 
York. Dan was in the process of donating a few 
things himself and felt they might be interested in 
our collection. After many months and much 
correspondence, we were pleased to be informed 
that they wanted to accept our collection. And so, 
it now rests there. We are pleased that it is in a 
spot where it will be cared for and where it will be 
made available to both the public and to private 
researchers. It looks as if the Museum is becoming 
somewhat of a central authority and repository for 
gravestone work. Our hope is that sometime in our 
lifetimes we see our collection on exhibit once 
more! It's a bit like shoving a child out of the nest 
and off on its own! Lest anyone think that Kelly & 
Williams have given away all their rubbings, 1 
hasten to add that we still have a few hundred more 
in Anne's basement, and are, selectively, still 
doing more rubbings." 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 20 


The Cemeteries of Maries County MO; A 

Personal History is a 450-page volume containing 
all the information from all tfie gravestones in 
every cemetery found in Maries County, spanning 
the period from 1811 to 1985. There is a history 
and description of 122 burying grounds (public 
and private cemeteries, church cemeteries, aban- 
doned graveyards and family plots on private land), 
along with several pages of old newspaper ex- 
cerpts, obituaries, maps, selected references and 
a full index. All epitaphs and other writings have 
been transcribed from the markers, and all in- 
scriptions are listed as surveyed, which will aid 
researchers to identify family relationships. Those 
studying gravestone styles and their carvers will 
also find much of interest here. 

The earliest date inscribed in a marker in Maries 
County is for Jane Creekpaum who died in 1812. 

Offset printed on high quality book paper. The 
Cemeteries of Maries County \s illustrated 
by 67 photographs and supplemented by an index 
of all 11,325 inscribed markers. The book is 
divided into sections according to the townships of 
the county. A county map showing the divisions of 
townships has been included, as has a fold-out 
county highway map marking the location of each 

Martha Bailey, 1871 

Fresh roses in thy hand. 

Hasted from this dark land, 

Where flowers fade. 

I said the dove 

I mourn for my love 

In Memory of Mary Ann Kidd, wife 

of John S. Kidd died Sept 10, 1863 

Aged 40 years 

The spirit's flown to its future home, 

The body's entered here. 

This rock was got to keep the spot 

Least men should dig too near 

hand-carved , 1863, Dry Creek Twp. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 21 

The Cemeteries of Maries County is priced 
at $25.00 Copies may be ordered from Mozelle 
Hutchison, Rt 1 Box 27, Vienna MO 65582 (phone 
314-422-3301) or from Gail Howard, Star Rt 
3 Box 5A, Vienna MO 65582 (phone 314-422- 
3008). There is an additional $3.00 charge for 
postage and handling. Proceeds above the cost of 
production will go toward the maintenance of the 
Old Jail Museum in Vienna, and also for various 
cemetery projects throughout the county. 

Mozelle Hutchison has donated a copy of The 
Cemeteries of Maries County to the AGS 
Archives. Look for more on Maries County, Mis- 
souri, in the Spring issue of the Newsletter. 


Gravestone Art of Rockland County 

by (AGS member) Dorothy W. Mellett 

From Town Historian Maria Mackay, Orangeburg, 
NY: It is with pride that I announce the publication 
of a book by Dorothy W. Mellett of Blauvelt NY 
entitledGravesfone Art of Rockland County. 
Specific to Rockland, the book's contents can be 
used in any area. 

Dorothy was stimulated by a burning desire to save 
part of our heritage which is being destroyed. She 
spearheaded a drive to restore two abandoned 
cemeteries: Clauseiand in Orangeburg and Sickel- 
town in Nauraushaun. It was a request by students 
at Rockland Community College that initiated the 
writing of this book. 

Sixteen cemeteries have been chosen out of over 
1 25 burial grounds, to represent the immigration 
of the early Dutch, northei-n European, and free 
Blacks who signed the Tappen Patent in 1986. 
With the use of photographs, rubbings, plaster- 
casts, and sketches, each marker is studied in 
chronological sequence. 

The book can be ordered at a cost of $22.50, plus 
$2 for postage through the Hudson Valley Press, 
Box 123, Tappan, NY 10983. 


1 987 

by Sylvia F. Ferguson, edited by Irene M. Lindsey; 
published by the Smith Library of Regional History, 

The 1 60-page illustrated book includes the histo- 
ries of Oxford, Ohio's, cemeteries and undertaking 
establishments, and lists names of war veterans 

buried in the graveyards. There are stories about 
the cholera epidemic and the removal of bodies 
from the old burial ground when the railroad came 
through. Cost is $15.00 plus $4.00 postage and 
handling. Checks should be made payable to Lane 
Public Library and sent to Smith Library of Re- 
gional History, 15 S. College Ave., Oxford OH 

LAST POST - Gerald Weland. A guide to the National 
Cemetery System with its over one hundred sites. 
Provides a brief history of the origins of the system, 
and of each cemetery with particular reference to the 
reasons for its creation and particular location. Also 
includes interesting historical vignettes on famous 
(and infamous) people burines in many of the sites. 
Appendices provide addresses of all national cemeter- 
ies in the system, a list of cemeteries maintained by 
the U.S. governemtn overseas, government concern- 
ing maintenance of cemeteries, sample cemetery lay- 
outs, eligibility requirements, etc. 1989, 228 pp., 
index, illus., paper, $21. SOT #W140 


Lee M. Cross & Larry Spurling. A collection of about 
9,700 inscriptions from over 70 cemeteries. 1986, 
222 pp., index, paper, $13.50 #C500. FOR MORE 
1540E Pointer Ridge Place, Suite 106, Bowie, MD 
20716 Phone:301-390-7709 

From Boston's Historic Burying Grounds Initia- 
tive newsletter "Update", Fall 1990, comes no- 
tice of several new publications: 

The Boston Experience: A Manual for Historic 
Burying Grounds Preservation. Summary of 
Historic Burying Grounds Initiative planning and pres- 
ervation methods. 100 pp. $7.50 (postage included). 
Send cheque to Fund for Parks and Recreation in 
Boston, 1010 Massachusetts Ave., Boston MA 021 18 
[phone (617) 725-4505] 

Tour de Graves: A self-GuldIng Bicycle Tour 
of Boston's 19 Historic Cemeteries. Guidebook 
to the City of Boston's historic cemeteries with maps 
and appropriate commentary. 20 pp. $5.00 (postage 
included). Make cheques payable to Fund for Parks and 
Recreation in Boston, 1 01 Massachusetts Ave., Boston 
MA 02118 [phone (617) 725-4505] 

Here Lies an Important Part of America's 
Past: Boston's Historic Burying Grounds. 
Brochure. Free. 

Places to Remember; Places to Enjoy: Boston 's 
Evergreen, Falrvlew and Mt. Hope Cemeter- 
ies. Brochure. Free. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 22 


1991 Annual Meeting 

March 27-30 

Marriott Rivercenter Hotel 

San Antonio, Texas 

Cemeteries and Gravemarkers Section 

Section Chair: Richard E. Meyer 
English Department 
Western Oregon State College 
Monmouth OR 97361 


BAIRD, Scott: Department of English, Trinity Univer- 
sity. San Antonio TX 78284 

ESCH, Darcy Lynn: Department of Anthropology, 
Trinity University, San Antonio TX 78284 

"Sex in Cemeteries: Spousal References on 
Women's Gravemarkers In South Texas" 

English-language gravemarkers in the San Antonio 
City Cemeteries employ numerous linguistic variables 
in referring to married women. Using as data only 
gravemarkers shared by husband and wife, we have 
found no correlation between social and linguistic 
variables. Maiden names, "Mrs.", "Wife" and the 
lack of such terms are unpredictable. 

BARBER, Russell J.: Department of Anthropology, 
California State University - San Bernardino, San 
Bernardino CA 94207-2397 

" Cerqultas\n Cemeteries ofthe Mexican Folk 

This paper will utilize fieldwork and other research 
results to examine the cerquita, a small fence sur- 
rounding a grave or family plot in a cemetery of the 
Mexican folk tradition, in terms of its origin, distri- 
bution, symbolism and relationship to social organiza- 

CLARK, Edward: English Department, Winthrop Col- 
lege, Rock Hill SC 29733 

"Heraldic Shields/Family Crests on 18th- 
century Gravestones: A Transatlantic Phe- 

This presentation will compare gravestones using 
heraldic shields/family crests occurring in selecting 
locations in Northern Ireland during the latter half of 
the 18th-century with gravestones using similar 
devices cut by the Bigham family of carvers of Get- 
tysburg, Pennsylvania, and Charlotte, North Carolina, 
during the same time period. 

EDGETTE, J. Joseph: Master of Liberal Studies Pro- 
gram, Widener University, Chester PA 19013 

"Personality and the Pet Epitaph: Correla- 
tive Link Between Owner and Pet" 

Previous research has shown how epitaphs can reveal 
the personality of the deceased. Animals too have 
personality. Her a theoretical case will be made for an 
existing correlation between the personality of the pet 
and owner as revealed through the epitaph created for 
the animal by its human counterpart. 

ELLIS, Caron Schwartz: Department of Religious 
Studies, University of Colorado - Boulder, Boulder CO 

"So Old Soldiers Don't Fade Away: 
Vietnam Veteran's Memorial" 


The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is our national grave- 
marker where survivors mourn the wardead. Vietnam 
casualties must be mourned in public, not "to heal a 
nation" but to ensure that this nation remains wounded. 
By letting the collective wound of Vietnam fester, 
misbegotten wars like it will remain unresolved and 

FRANCAVIGLIA, Richard: Local History Office, Ohio 
Historical Society, Columbus OH 43211-2497 

"Beyond the Cemetery: The Persistence of 
Commemorative Architecture on Main Street" 

Traditionally, the cemetery has been one of the strong- 
est visible community links between the everyday and 
the eternal, but two others — the monument dealer and 
the civic commemorative monument — have also been 
important factors. Though both might be found on 
"Main Street", their roles have differed in significant 

GABEL, Laurel K.: The Association for Gravestone 
Studies, 205 Fishers Road, Pittsford NY 14534 

"BOSTONES: The Computer-Alded Analysis 
of Gravestones from the Early Burying 
Grounds of Boston, Roxbury, and Salem, 

The computer can be an invaluable tool for processing 
and evaluating the enormous amounts of information 
commonly available on early gravestones. This paper 
will highlight the information being generated through 
the on-going, computer-assisted study (BOSTONES) of 
more than 7000 pre-1 830 markers in Boston, Roxbury, 
and Salem, Massachusetts. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 23 

GRADWOHL, David M.: Department of Sociology and 
Anthropology, Iowa State University, Ames IA5001 1- 

HILDENBRANDT. Daniel R.: Center for Intercultural 
Studies in Folklore and Ethnomusicology, University of 
Texas, Austin TX 78712 

"Intra-Group Variations In the Jewish Ceme- 
teries of Lincoln, Nebraska" 

Jewish settlers arrived in Lincoln, Nebraska, during 
the 1870s. Reform Jews established Temple B'nai 
Jeshurun and Mount Lebanon Cemetery, while Otho- 
dox/Conservative Jews founded Tifereth Synagogue 
and f^iount Carmel Cemetery. Cemetery locations and 
gravestone inscriptions reflect different historical, 
linguistic and theological dimensions within Judaism in 
the United States today. 

HALPORN, Roberta: The Center for Thanatology Re- 
search and Education, 391 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn 
NY 11217-1701 

"Angels and Broken Blossoms: The Grave- 
yard Speaks of Life and Loss" (Video) 

This video presentation, developed by the Center for 
Thanatology Research and Education as a non-threat- 
ening teaching device, presents the subject of death 
and dying through the use of memorial artifacts of the 
past which may be found in communities across the 
United States. 

HANNON, Thomas J. Department of Geography and 
Environmental Studies, Slippery Rock University, 
Slippery Rock PA 16057 

"Here and There, Then and Now: Hungarian 
Monu mentation In Trans- Dan ub la and the Penn- 
Ohlo Area" 

Trans-Danubia, or Western Hungary, represents a 
major source area for immigrants who came to our 
shores early in this century. Man settled in commu- 
nities from Cleveland to Pittsburgh. This research 
compares monumentation in Western Hungary with 
that used for deceased immigrants of the Penn-Ohio 

HARDY, Sandra J. Hammond: Department of History, 
University of Houston, Houston TX 77204-2091 

"Pennsylvania Germans and Their Grave- 
stones: Lancaster County, 1770-1810" 

One of the largest minorities of colonial America, the 
Germans of Pennsylvania, left a rich sculpted legacy 
of decorated gravestones. This paper looks at eight of 
these stones erected in Lancaster County, Pennsylva- 
nia, between 1770 and 1810, exploring their artistic 
styling, motifs, and the people for whom they were 

"Grave Painting 

In Southwest Louisiana' 

Throughout the Cajun region of Southwest Louisiana 
there are specific grave painting traditions which are 
centered around the Catholic Feast Day or Holy Day of 
Obligation known as All Saints' Day. This videotape 
presentation consists of interviews conducted with 
practitioners of the tradition in St. John's Cemetery, 
located in Lafayette, Louisiana. 

HORTON, Loren N.: Field Services, State Historical 
Society of Iowa, Iowa City lA 52240 

"Cemeteries: Expendable Public Spaces" 

Many Midwest frontier towns devoted some land to 
public purposes, butfew allotted much for cemeteries. 
Early burial places were near churches or business 
districts, and, as economic pressures grew, they 
were often abandoned and moved to the edge of town. 

JEANE, Gregory: Department of Geography, Samford 
University, Birmingham AL 35229 

"The English Lych Gate: Origin of the South- 
ern Rural Graveshelter" 

A definitive culture trait of the rural Southern ceme- 
tery is the presence of small houses or shelters over 
graves. The hypothesis attributing the tradition to 
Native American influence is not convincing. The 
traditional English lych gate is the closest structural, 
and functional, equivalent and is most likely the true 

MALLOY, Thomas A.: Social Sciences Department, 
Mount Wachusett Community College, Gardner MA 

"Last of the Lollipop Markers: The Shaker 
Cemetery at Harvard, Massachusetts" 

This presentation treats the history and uniqueness of 
one of the few Shaker cemeteries remaining in the 
United States with individual markers, and the last to 
contain cast iron medallions. 

MEYER, Richard E.: English Department, 
Oregon State College, Monmouth OR 97361 


"'Gone to Graveyards Every One': Markers 
for Young Americans Who Died In War" 

Throughout its history this country's wars have con- 
tributed significantly to the population of its cemeter- 
ies. Personalized gravemarkers for young men who 
died in combat have traditionally featured a number of 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 24 

distinctive traits, but the experience of Vietnam has 
brought a new, heretofore rarely seen, emphasis to 
the messages they convey. 

RICHARDSON, Robert: Department of Anthropology, 
University of Houston, Hpuston TX 77204-5883 

"Who's Who in the Cemetery: An Archaeo- 
logical Perspective" 

it has been claimed that the social persona of the 
deceased is reflected in the archaeological record. 
This proposition involves several assumptions that 
should be tested for validity. This paper presents 
original research that suggests mortuary treatment 
during the historic period is a complicated and contex- 
tuaily sensitive phenomenon. 

ROTUNDO, Barbara: The Association for Gravestone 
Studies, 48 Plummer Hill Rd., Unit 4, Laconia NH 

"Who Controis the Product, Artist or Pa- 

This paper will use the work of two black Mississippi 
folk artists and their gravestone art to discuss the 
age-old problem enumerated in the title. The material 
should also cast light on the folk artists responsible for 
the colonial slate carvings. 

SMITH, Bruce: Department of History, University of 
Notre Dame, Notre Dame IN 46556 

"Daniel E. Hoffman: 
Maimer's Legacy" 

An Indiana Monument 

This paper explores the life and work of Daniel E. 
Hoffman, a monument maker who practisced his craft 
in Winchester, Indiana, from 1858 until 1923. Using 
marble in his first thirty, Hoffman switched to granite 
when it became more popular, and his signed markers 
demonstrate how his work changed over time. 

WELLS, Robert V.: Department of History, Union 
College, Schenectady NY 12308-2365 

"Neighborhoods and Status in the 'City of the 

YOUNG, Bradley J.: Departmentof History, Utah State 
University, Logan UT 84321 

"The Ellis County Volga-German Gravemarl(- 
ers, 1876-1920" 

This paper examines the emergence, use and discon- 
tinuation of gravemarkers as cemetery art by the Ellis 
County, Kansas, Volga-Germans from the years 1 876 
to 1920. During this time period, these German 
immigrants from Russia artistically fashioned iron as 
opposed to stone to mark the sites of their dead. 


Experiences In Cemetery 

Cemetery fieldwork, in most instances a methodical 
and somewhat predictable process, always has the 
potential for not only those rare instances of discov- 
ery and insight, but also for unique experiences rang- 
ing from the humorous to the threatening to the 
mystical. The forum elicits a sharing of such unex- 
pected escapes from the ordinary. 

TOURS: San Antonio City Cemeteries and 
San Fernando Cemetery #2 

This special tour of some of San Antonio's most 
significant historic and cultural burial sites will be 
arranged and conducted by San Antonio-based section 
members Scott Baird and Lynn Gosnell. Space (on the 
tour, not in the sites) is limited: those interested 
should contact Baird, Gosnell or the section chair. 



Vale Cemetery, Schenectady, New York, was founded 
in 1858 as part of the rural cemetery movement, and 
in 1851 published a list of lot owners. By linking lots 
within the cemetery to city directories for the same 
year, it is possible to examine whether socio-eco- 
nomic stratification continued after death. 

Cincinnati Gas & Electric continues to protect and 
maintain the historical cemetery and buildings on 
our project site (for the Woodsdale Generating 
Station) . The Augspurgercemetery has been cleaned 
up and fenced in for protection. A buffer zone of 
trees and grass has been left around the cemetery 
to protect the site and to preserve its historical 

from CG&E, December 1990, contributed by Thomas 
Stander, Hamilton OH 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 25 


Courses sponsored by the 

Institute for Folklore Studies In Britain 

and Canada 

Preservation and Interpretation 

The International Summer School at Harlow, Eng- 
land, in conjunction with Memorial University of 
Newfoundland, Dept. of Folklore, June 26 to Au- 
gust 10, 1991. 

Of particular interest to those in gravestone stud- 
ies is the course, "Folklore and Folklife of the 
Parish Church," taught by Dr. Gillian Bennett. 

The Parish Church is one of the glories 
of the British heritage which, with Its 
graveyard, provides a visible history 
of traditional arts, architecture, 
customs and beliefs stretching from 
the seventh century to the present 
day. This course, based on visits and 
lectures, will study the effect of 
function, materials, and building tech- 
niques on the style and structure of 
the buildings of succeeding architec- 
tural periods and will examine the 
interaction of "elite" and vernacular 
building styles. It will also look at folk 
arts and crafts In the church - brasses, 
stone and wood carvings, wall paint- 
ings, etc. - documenting techniques 
and styles and considering the Inter- 
action of Christian and pagan Imagery. 

Finally, the course will explore the 
functional and ceremonial aspects of 
the Parish Church. Focusing on Rights 
of Passage, with an emphasis on the 
customs, beliefs and material culture 
associated with death and burial, we 
will look at the folklore of death, dying 
and the afterlife, and contrast the role 
of the churchyard, as intended by the 
religious authorities, with Its folk- 
narrative aspect - as a setting for 
macabre and supernatural events. 

Two courses of interest to students of gravestone 
art and historians in general are being offered In 
July, as a part of the 44th Annual Seminars on 
American Culture. "Setting it Right: The Preser- 
vation of Graveyards" will deal with the history 
and types of gravestones and memorials and how to 
preserve them. It will be taught by C.R. Jones, 
Conservator of the New York State Historical As- 
sociation. Darrell Norris, Associate Professor of 
Geography at SUNY Geneseo, will conduct the 
seminar, "Interpreting the American Cemetery" 
which will teach systematic inventory and analy- 
sis of gravestones, illustrated with case studies 
drawn from American settings. For more infor- 
mation and catalog, write: Seminars on American 
Culture, Dept. GS, The New York State Historical 
Association, P.O. Box 800, Cooperstown, NY 




',"'-'*■ '^"'"^"'-' ""■ -- 









— 1989 

"Famous Last Words" 

A second course, "Foodways of the British Isles" 
with Dr. Paul Smith will also be given. 

Both courses are offered at the undergraduate and 
graduate level. For further details contact: Paul 
Smith, Department of Folklore, Memorial Uni- 
versity of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfound- 
land A1C 5S7 Canada. Telephone: (709) 737- 
4434 or 8402. 

A five-foot tall marble headstone for Mel Blanc 
was unveiled at Beth-Olam Cemetery near Los 
Angeles on the first anniversary of his death. 
Blanc, the voice of Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky 
Pig and a platoon of other beloved cartoon charac- 
ters, died in 1989. 

The epitaph: "That's All Folks". 

from a number of newspapers, July 11. 1990. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 26 

Students learn history, art, writing from 

Lately, some third-graders at Daniels Elementary 
School have been gravely serious about their class- 
work. They've been taking field trips to cemeter- 
ies, creating their own gravestones, and even 
setting up a graveyard inside the school. It's not a 
ghoulish post trick-or-treat ritual, though Hal- 
loween did have something to do with it, says 
Thomas M. Julius, third-grade teacher. 

The topic arose unexpectedly. Interest was sparked 
by a rash of gravestone-tipping at several ceme- 
teries in the weeks before Halloween. Afterteach- 
ing all about cemeteries, Julius and fellow third- 
grade teacher Judith M. Finkfeel they've stumbled 
onto something good. Graveyards bring together 
nearly every subject area his class covers, and 
puts them into a framework students can under- 
stand: math, science, history, art — you name it, 
gravestones have it Julius was pleased. Finding a 
subject kids enjoy — and one that relates to many 
subject areas — is an educator's equivalent of dis- 
covering the Holy Grail. 

The impromptu but in-depth look grew out of a 
lesson on the early history of Keene that Julius 
teaches each year. For this year's edition, he made 
some rubbings of old gravestones in a cemetery 
across from his Gilsum home and brought them to 
class. The next day, over half the stones — some 
nearly two centuries old — were broken or de- 
stroyed by vandals. Students couldn't stop talking 

about it, so Julius worked that interest into the 
history unit. 

"I thought of it as an alternative to the horror 
movie image" most kids have of gravestones, Ju- 
lius says. The class hiked to a nearby cemetery on 
Court Street, and worked on math skills by adding 
and subtracting dates to find out ages. 

Art teacher Gill Warner had students design mock 
gravestones. They worked on reasoning skills by 
tracing a family's history and the relationships 
between family members in a cemetery, Julius 
says. They worked on writing projects about 
people listed on the stones. Julius says students 
weren't interested in deeper issues of death and 
dying, though several had lost their grandparents 
or other close family members. "Death is still a 
pretty difficult concept for them to grasp," he 

For f^elanie L. White, 8, the graveyard field trip 
was the first time she'd actually set foot in a 
cemetery. "It was fun," she says. But it was a 
little spooky when one girl came across a grave- 
stone with her name on it; the woman had died on 
the girl's birthday. 

From an article by Jeff Rapsis in tiie Keene Senti- 
nel, Keene, NH, November 16, 1990, reprinted with 
permission, contributed by NeilJenness, Spofford NH. 

AGS Wi '90/1 p 27 


Miranda Levin, AGS Executive Director, is settling into the new office at 30 Elm Street, 
Worcester MA 01 609 [phone (508) 831-7753]. This is the home of the Worcester Historical 
Museum. For security reasons, Miranda can only be in the building when the Museum is open, 
so her hours have been adjusted accordingly. Please note that the AGS office will be open: 
Mondays 9:00 AM to 4:45 PM; Tuesdays 1 2:30 PM to 4:45 PM and Wednesdays 9:00 AM to 4:45 
PM. The office will be closed April 15, 1991 (Patriots' Day in Massachusetts), and May 27, 
1991 (Memorial Day). 


The AGS Newsletter is published quarterly as a service to members of the Association for Gravestone 
Studies. The membership year begins the month dues are received and ends one year from that date. A one year 
membership entitles the members to four issues of theNewsletter and to participation in the AGS conference 
in the year membership is current. Send membership fees (individual $20; institutional, $25; family $30; 
contributing $30) to The Association for Gravestone Studies, 30 Elm Street, Worcester MA 1 609. Back issues 
of the Newsletter are available for $3.00 per issue from the AGS office. The goal of the Newsletter is to 
present timely information about projects, literature, and research concerning gravestones, and about the 
activities of the Association for Gravestone Studies. It is produced by Deborah Trask, who welcomes 
suggestions and short contributions from readers. The Newsletter is not intended to serve as a journal. 
Journal articles should be sent to Theodore Chase, editor of Markers, the Journal of the Association 
for Gravestone Studies, 74 Farm St., Dover MA 02030. Address Newsletter contributions to Deborah 
Trask, editor. Nova Scotia Museum, 1747 Summer St., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3A6, Canada. Order 
Markers (Vol. 1 $20; Vol. 2, $20; Vol. 3, $18.50; Vol. 4, $20; Vol. 5, $20; Vol. 6, $23; Vol. 7, $15; higher 
prices for non-members) from the AGS office. Send contributions to the AGS Archives to Jo Goeselt, 61 Old 
Sudbury Road, Wayland MA 01778 Address other correspondence to Miranda Levin, Executive Director, at the 
AGS office at 30 Elm Street, Worcester MA 01609. 

30 Elm Street 
Worcester MA 
01 609 


Permit No. 410 
Worcester MA 







Who Knows About the Origin of Early New England Markers In Marble? 

by William Hosley 1 

Mother George 2 

The Organ Marker of Parke County, Indiana 

by Jim Jewell 3 

Gravestone Studies In Maries County, Missouri 

by Mozelle Hutchison and Gail Howard 4 

Rare Slave Stone in Connecticut 5 

Granary Burial Ground 

by Susan Wilson 6 





Gravestone Art in Rockland County, New York 

review by Jessie Lie Farber 23 

Allegheny Cemetery: A Romantic Landscape in Pittsburgh 

reviewed by Robert A. Wright 24 

Sleeping Beauty: Memorial Photography In America 
Scoring in Heaven 

review by Maddy Miller..... 26 

Seasons of Life and Learning: Lake View Cemetery: An Educator's Handbook 

review by Laurel Gabel and Barbara Rotundo 27 


by William Hosley 

I recently stumbled across this gravestone in the Old Feeding Hills 
Cemetery in Agawam, Massachusetts. It is a good early stone marking 
the grave of Joseph Flower (or Fowler), dated 1769 and, for those 
interested in carvers, a classic example of one of several styles practiced 
by the East Windsor CT stonecutter Ebenezer Dral<e (1739-1803). A 
stone very much like this (illustrated in The Great River: Art & Life in the 
Connecticut Valley) marks the grave of Abiel Grant (d. 1762) of South 
Windsor, whose estate paid Drake fifty shillings for a marker made of 
locally quarried brownstone. All of that is fine and this might appear to 
be just another example of Drake's work except for one thing; it is made 
of marble! 

Accounts of the origins of the marble industry in New England vary. 
Some place the first quarries in the Berkshires of Western Massachu- 
setts and others in Bennington County, Vermont. Although Vermont's 
first marble quarry was supposedly opened in Dorset in 1785, students 
of gravestone art know of many stones by Zerubbabel Collins, Samuel 
Dwight and others with dates from the 1770s that were almost certainly 
made before 1785. Or were they? Back-dating is a persistent problem 

AGSSp'91 p.1 

in gravestone studies. But Drake's stone for Joseph 
Flower is a double-whammy. Could a stone dated 1769 
in a style developed as early as 1760 really have been 
made a quarter century later? Drake was still making 
gravestones in the 1 790s and it is possible he made this 
stone, out of style as it might have been at the time, after 
marble became widely available in the 1 790s. More likely 
is that Flower or his heirs specifically requested the 
material and that Drake did actually make the stone 
before 1785. If so, when did New England stonecutters 
begin using marble, and why? 

Marble eventually displaced all other materials as the 
stone of choice for grave markers. Its prestige and 
beauty were emblematic of the romantic era ( 1 790-1 850) 
and remained the material of choice in most parts of New 
England right down to the granite age. It is therefore 

worth learning more ab)0ut the origin of New England's 
marble industry. 

Besides the well-known early Vermont carvers, where 
elsecan wef ind eighteenth-century marble gravestones? 
Did other carvers use the material for the occasional 
special commission, as Drake appears to have done? 
Where and who? Where is the earliest dated marble 
stone in New England? Where is the earliest made 
marble stone in New England? Who was the first New 
England carver to make a marble gravestone? Where 
was the first quarry? These are just a few of the 
unanswered questions. If you have any thoughts or 
answers, please let me know. I'll report back in a future 
issue of the AGS Newsletter. 

William Hosley, Old Abbe Rd., Enfield CT 06082 



When Ray Michael read about Fort Wayne IN native Elizabeth 
Vermont George's role in the Civil War, he was intrigued. That 
intrigue has led him and other members of the American Legion 
Lincoln Post 82 to honor the grave of the pioneering woman known 
to Civil War fighters as "Mother George". 

Mother George was a woman in her 50s who helped local soldiers 
fight for the Union in the Civil War. Although there were not yet 
nurses in the army, George went out into the field to provide the 
troops with supplies and support. At the war's end, George contracted 
a serious disease from 
soldiers in North Caro- 
lina and died, forgotten 
or unknown by many. 
Not for much longer, 

Although there had been 
a marker on Berry 
Street showing the ap- 
proximate location of 
Mother George's origi- 
nal home, Michael said 
there has never been a 
marker on her grave in 
Lindenwood Cemetery. 
He and fellow veterans 

petitioned the government to have a veteran's marker placed on her 
grave. The headstone was dedicated in a ceremony July 28, 1990. 

from the News Sentinel, Fort Wayne IN, August 1, 1990, sent by Jim 
Jewell, Peru IL, who notes: "f^rs. George's memorial does NOT mark her 
grave — which is several feet away in the plot of Col. Sion Bass. ' 

AGSSp'91 p.2 

Parke County's Organ Marker 

by Jim Jewell 

Parke County, Indiana, is best known 
for its annual Covered Bridge Festival, 
which takes place each fall shortly 
after the annual Little Italy in 
neighboring Vermilion County and be- 
fore Homecoming Weekend at Indiana 
State University in nearby Vigo County. 
But graveyard explorers should jour- 
ney to Marshall in Parke County to see 
one of the area's most striking and 
unusual markers — the Swaim parlor 

Albert R. Swaim was born October 28, 

1843, near Marshall, the oldest of 

eleven children of John and Amanda FitzAllen Cannon 

Swaim. He was considered a "blind musician", as 

his eyesight was very bad. Still, he taught music, 

played for the Baptist Church, and played at home — 

his brothers and sisters, according to a family gene- 

organ's rack is "It's So Sweet to Trust in Jesus". 
The cost to carve and set the monument was $900. 00. 

Today the marker is lichen-covered and darkened 
with age. The attention to detail is still evident, 

however, and the stone remains an impressive 


Jim Jewell, a frequent contributor to the Newslet- 
ter, is on the faculty of Illinois Valley Community 

Albert R. Swaim monument, 1893, Bethany Cemetery, 
{Marshall IN. Carved by Theodore F. Gaebler. 

alogy, "spent many happy hours singing". He drove 
his two-wheel buggy throughout the area to give 

After his death at the age of forty-nine, on January 
10, 1893, Swaimwasinterredat Bethany Cemetery 
east of Marshall. The family decided that a replica of 
a reed organ would make a suitable marker. The 
monument was ordered from the Theodore F. Gaebler 
dealership in Rockville, Indiana. Using a reed organ 
as a model, Gaebler duplicated the exact dimensions, 
and the title on the sheet music featured on the 

AGSSp'91 p.3 


Studies In Maries County, 

by Mozelle Hutchison and Gail Howard 

The majority of the gravestones erected in Maries 
County between the 1850s and the early 1920s 
were rich in symbolism and expressed sentiment. 
Most were made of marble or sandstone and both of 
these materials were soft enough to be sculpted. 
Even after many decades of being exposed to the 
elements, the carving of the symbols and lettering 
on these markers is often legible and sometimes 
exquisitely detailed. 

The designs chosen were usually traditional sym- 
bols: the shell symbolizing rebirth and the Christian 
symbol for resurrection, the scroll symbolizing 
the victorious, spiritual life of the mind, and others 
being reminders of the transitory nature of earthly 

The clasped hands was an extremely popular sym- 
bol, as was the hand with the index finger pointing 
upward. They were often accompanied by the words, 
"Farewell," "Meet Me In Heaven," or "Gone Home." 

In the early days of our county times were often hard 
and, either for that reason or personal reasons of 
the family, a great many graves are not marked with 
an inscribed marker; a field stone was chosen and 
placed as a headstone, and often as a footstone also. 
Sometimes these rocks were smoothed and shaped, 
and occasionally they were inscribed by those same 

The early 1850s saw several colonies of German 
settlers in Maries County, and many of the tombstones 
they erected contain writing in their native language. 
Sometimes German and English will both appear on 
the same marker. 

Throughout the county can be found evidence of the 
ingenuity of the people in the creation of homemade 
markers. Most were cast of concrete and embellished 
with a remarkable variety of material: bits of 
colored glass, sea shells, glass marbles, etc. Mussel 
shells from the river beds were frequently used to 
decorate the graves, and even after all these years, 
many are still there in the cemeteries. A great many 
graves in Maries County are marked and beautified 
only by nature, their inhabitants long since for- 

In 1983 when we began our research to make a 
record of all the gravestones in Maries County, we 
couldn't envision the task that lay ahead. At the end 

Mary Ann Kidd, 1863, Dry Creek Twp. Maries County MO 
(see AGS Newsletter Winter 1990/1, p. 21). 

of three years we had located 122 burying grounds 
and transcribed well over 11,000 headstones. It 
was a shared learning experience, and a great ad- 

Mozelle Hutchison is a long time AGS member. She and 
Gail Howard are a mother and daughter team who 
undertook this recording project in 1983. The fruit of 
theirlaboris in a book. The Cemeteries of Maries County 
MO, which is available from them (Mozelle Hutchison, Rt 
1 Box 27, Vienna MO 65582 [phone 314-422-3301] or 
Gail Howard, StarRt3 Box 5A, Vienna MO 65582 [phone 
314-422-3008]) for $ 25.00 plus $3.00 postage S 
handling. A copy was donated to the AGS Archives. 



The 1991 APT Annual Conference in New Orleans 
LA, September 22-28 will feature a training 
session by AGS member Frank C. Matero, Asso- 
ciate Professor of Architecture and Director of 
the Architectural Research Laboratory at the 
University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of 
Fine Arts, and Dennis Montagna, Mid-Atlantic 
Regional Office of the National Park Service, and 
others. "Intended for managers of public monu- 
ments and cemeteries, design professionals, Main 
Street managers and contractors; this course 
will present a broad overview of cur rent research 
and practice In the conservation of outdoor 
monuments and ornamental art of stone, bronze 
and iron. For more information, contact APT 
International, P.O. Box 8178, Fredericksburg VA 



AGSSp'91 p.4 


MIDDLETOWN CT- Tucked between the railroad 
tracks and the Connecticut River, in a locked cem- 
etery crowded with history, lies the body of a slave 
who died April 24, 1 776. His gravestone is cracked 
in half and chipped. The decay is turning the stone 
back to the original raw brownstone hacked from the 
quarries across the river. 

More is at stake than just a squat marker with a 
serene cherub on the top. The memorial is one of the 
few remaining reminders of the state's black Colonial 
population, a group of men and women whose lives 
were rarely memorialized in stone. "The guy lived 
and he was somebody; he's about ail Middletown's 
got in terms of that piece of heritage," said William 
Hosley, curator of American decorative arts at the 
Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford. "If we don't fix 
this thing, it will be gone permanently - forever. 
That's it. The time is now," he said. 

Hosley discovered the marker in a back corner of 
Middletown's Riverside Cemetery - the city's oldest 
- during a tour. He and Dione Longley, director of 
the Middlesex County Historical Society, were 
alarmed by the stone's deterioration. The society 
decided to restore the stone, using as a guide a 
picture taken before time and weather robbed the 
stone of its features. The organization has started a 
campaign to raise about $2,500 to pay for the 
repair. The campaign has its own special problems. 
The slave's name was Sambo, a name that originally 
came from the Hausa people in Africa, but is now 
offensive because it is associated with derogatory 
stereotypes of blacks. "We don't want to sugarcoat 
history. We don't want to say there were never any 
slaves in Middletown," Longley said. "There are 
very few traces of that left, so any vestige is im- 
portant to pursue." 

Sambo, who was about 70 when he died, was owned 
by Thomas Hurlbert, who lived across Hartford 
Avenue from the cemetery. Hurlbert died a year 
before Sambo did and is also buried in Riverside 
Cemetery. Slavery was abolished in the state in 

1848. Longley said the servant must have been an 
important member of the Hurlbert family. 
Gravestones were expensive in the 18th century. 

and it was rare for slave owners to mark the resting 
places of their servants, she said. There are only a 
handful of blacks' gravestones from before the 1 800s 
in the state, including another at Riverside Cemetery. 

The lack of information about the state's early black 
community also marks the bias of the times, Hosley 
said. "I'm not talking about three or four people," 
he said. "I'm talking about tens of thousands of black 
people who lived in Connecticut. They're totally 
forgotten." The gravestone is now in the studio of 
John T. Zito Jr. and his son, JohnT. Zito 111, Hartford 
monument specialists, who are planning to restore 
the stone for the society. The Zitos removed it from 
the cemetery this fall to prevent further erosion. 

from an article titled "Group Tries to Preserve Rem- 
nant of Black History," by Andrew Julien, in the 
HARTFORD COURANT. December 12, 1990. sent by 
Raymond Cummings, Avon CT. 

AGSSp'91 p.5 


by Susan Wilson. 

In 1816, a bell was hung in 
the tower at King's Chapel. 
Not just any bell, mind you. 
But a wonderfully resonant 
bell, the largest ever cast in 
the family foundry of Paul 
Revere. Two years later, that 
same bell tolled a curious 
reunion. As it rang three, 
then 83 more times, the 
beloved patriot himself - 83 
year old Paul Revere - made 
his way to a soggy little plot 
of land off Tremont Street. 
There, he joined many of his 
prestigious Revolutionary- 
era cronies, like John 
Hancock, James Otis, Sam 
Adams, Robert Treat Paine, 
Ben Franklin's family, a pile of Revere relatives, 
and the five fellows slain in the Boston Massacre. 

The five fellows slain in the Boston Massacre?! 
Curious indeed. Until you realize that the "soggy 
little plot" Paul Revere came to that day in 1818 
was the Granary Burial Ground. The event, of 
course - tolled out by Boston's official "passing 
bell" - was Revere's own funeral, making him one 
of the last of the famed Colonial characters to enter 
eternity via this historic downtown graveyard. 

The robust Revere's death came so much later than 
the others, in fact, that he missed inclusion in his 
family plot, and almost missed burial in the star- 
studded Granary altogether. The two-acre grave- 
yard, opened in 1 660 to accommodate the overflow 
from the Puritan burying grounds at King's Chapel, 
was evidently filled to the brim by 1738. At that 
time, John Chambers and other local gravediggers 
complained theywere already burying the dead here 
four deep. Despite that unholy glut and an in- 
creasingly sickening stench, bodies were lumped 
one upon another at the Granary well beyond Revere's 
death. Not until 1879 did the Board of Health close 
the premises to burials. 

Today, as visitors wander through the ancient 
Granary's well-worn paths, it's easy to forget 
those dismal old days, or that 12,000-or-more 
anonymous souls rest below. Despite generations of 
neglect and decay, there's still so much to see and 
intrigue in this popular Freedom Trail site that 

some 3,000 visitors wander in daily during the 
busy summer months. There are 2,345 grave 
markers and 137tombs still standing -orslumping, 
as the case may be - many decorated with cryptic 
verse and deathly images of skulls, crossbones, 
winged cherubs and urns - intricate vestiges of the 
American folk art of stonecarving. Boston City 
Rangers offer periodic tours, while informative 
plaques guide guests through the graveyard's his- 
tory, which includes Revere and his pals, three 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, nine 
governors of Massachusetts, and even a woman some 
call the real "Mother Goose." 

Despite the years and its constant use, things are 
actually looking better for the Granary, Thanks to 
the city's 1985 Historic Burying Ground Initiative 
and boosters like the newly-formed Friends of the 
Granary, much-needed repairs and renovations to 
the site and stones are in the works. In October 
1990, Boston Parks and Recreation sponsored its 
first annual "Tour de Graves," a day-long bicycle 
tour through the city's historic graveyards. The 
$15 registration donation went to benefit the city's 
$6.1 million program to restore its historic 

On Common Grounds - When the Puritans of the 
Mass. Bay Colony first arrived to settle Boston in 
1630, life was tenuous at best. Survival was a skill 
mastered only by the quick. The dead, on the other 
hand, were tucked away info the town's first burial 
ground. Within three decades that graveyard - 

AGSSp'91 p.6 

known today as King's Chapel Burial Ground - was 
near full. Hence, in 1659 and 1660, two new sites 
were opened for Puritan Interment, the first at 
Copp's Hill, and the second on the edge of Boston 

I^odern visitors may find it hard to visualize that 
this third Boston burial ground, now known as the 
Granary, was clipped from Common grounds. Nestled 
behind an iron fence and neo-Egyptian granite gates, 
off the bustling section of Tremont Street between 
Park and Beacon, today's tree-shaded Granary is 
penned in by tall buildings on three sides. Imme- 
diately blocking the graveyard from the Common, 
moreover, is the graceful Park Street Church and 
the two-way traffic of Park Street. 

During much of the 17th and 18th centuries, 
however, none of these barriers or paved byways 
existed. Boston Common, opened forthe common use 
of local citizens and grazing cows in 1 634, stretched 
well beyond today's 48 acres. Modern Tremont and 
Park Streets were but primitive pathways to, and 
through, the Common. The existence of Park Street 
Church next to the Granary, of course, adds another 
element of confusion to this setting. Many folks 
assume that the church and graveyard - much like 
the church and graveyard at King's Chapel - are 
related. In both cases, they are wrong. 

For early Puritan settlers, death and burial were 
adamantly non-religious affairs. Any staunch 
Puritan would have rolled over in his proverbial 
grave had he known the Anglican King's Chapel 
(1688) or the Congregational Park Street Church 
(1809) would be constructed here years later. 

Some Grave Matters - The two acres borrowed 
from the Common for the Granary Burial Ground - 
also known, during various eras, as the New, the 
South, the Central and the Middle Burying Place - 
were not the best of plots for burial purposes. Fed 
by underground springs and plagued by poor drainage 
and spongy soil, the land was useful in a backhanded 
sort of way. Such constant moisture, added to New 
England weather, decomposed bodies quickly. 
Meanwhile, these wetlands posed some serious 
aesthetic and structural problems. Sharing, or re- 
using, an existing tomb was always permitted for 
family members and friends. Diarist Samuel 
Sewall's family tomb at the Granary, for example, 
hosted some 40 occupants even before the American 
Revolution had begun. 

The case of the Sullivan-Bellingham tomb, however, 
was not a family matter. In 1782, Judge James 
Sullivan expropriated the tomb where the remains 

of Gov. Richard Bellingham had lain since 1672. If 
a family died out, or could no longer care for its 
tomb, Boston selectmen could offer the space to 
whomever would provide needed repairs. Alas, 
when Judge Sullivan entered Bellingham's tomb, he 
found the late governor's remains floating in the 
water-soaked vault. Undaunted bythe mess, Sullivan 
cleaned up the premises, became governor himself, 
and died in 1808. The Tomb of the Two Governors 
still bears the name of both Bellingham and Sullivan. 

According to City Park Ranger George Bistransin, 
the earliest burials at the Granary rarely included 
coffins. The dead were merely wrapped in a pall or 
linen cloth, with perhaps some lime thrown in on 
top. While wealthier families often bought the 
tombs or vaults that extend around the periphery of 
the graveyard, simplerfolks placed slate gravestones 
in the site's central section. The oldest extant stone 
here is the 1667 marker of John Wakefield, though 
he was hardly the first Granary interree. 

Originally, these chiseled slate markers were 
randomly scattered about the graveyard's center. 
They generally included a headstone and a footstone 
- making each gravesite resemble a bed - and were 
deliberately placed facing east, so that the dead could 
face the rising sun on Judgement Day. The inscription 
on the headstone faced away from the body, pre- 
sumably to prevent readers from standing atop the 

Beginning around 1830, the Granary's randomly- 
scattered gravemarkers were shuffled two or three 
times, ending in the neat little rows we find today. 
Needless to say, the interred were not shuffled along 
with them, inspiring one eloquent observer to note: 
"Epitaphs were never famous for truth, but the old 
reproach of 'Here lies ' never had so wholesale 
illustration as in these outraged burial places, 
where the stone does lie above and the bones do not lie 

Though many sources suggest this straightening was 
necessitated by new lawnmowing devices, historian 
Blanche Linden-Ward disagrees. In her book-in- 
progress, called "Museums of Memory," Linden- 
Ward argues that the symmetrical stone lineup 
began as part of a general beautification of the 
Granary during the 1830s, which included the 
laying of paths and planting of trees and shrubs. 
Such finery was in turn inspired by the early 19th 
century development of Beacon Hill into a "dense, 
elite residential and cultural area," and by the 
lavish new garden cemetery that had opened in 
Cambridge in 1831 - Mount Auburn. 

AGSSp'91 p.7 

There Goes the Neighborhood - Today, the area 
around the Granary is filled mainly with commer- 
cial properties. It's a far cry from the posh resi- 
dential neighborhood that flourished there through 
much of the 19th century. In the 17th and 18th 
centuries, however, this section of Boston had yet 
another incarnation: downright dismal. Since the 
Common was a public ground - used for everything 
from pastureland to public gallows - it was a logical 
spot to erect dingy public buildings from time to 
time. Hence, during the Granary Burial Ground's 
first century, it shared the immediate neighborhood 
with an Almshouse for the poor. A "Bridewell" for 
the criminal and insane, and a Workhouse for the 
dissolute and indigent. The graveyard itself was also 
periodically rented out for grazing bulls, cows, or 

Another public 
building that stood 
where the Park 
Street Church rests 
today was the long 
wooden Granary, 
from which the 
burial ground took 
its "modern" name. 
From 1737 until the 
American Revolu- 
tion, the building 
was used to store 
grain, which was 
sold cheaply to the 
poor. In 1796, the 
famous old eyesore 
was removed to 

Commercial Point in Dorchester, and converted into 
a hotel. Although the Park Street Church was 
erected in its place in 1809, the name "Granary" 
has remained. 

Throughout all these changes in neighborhood style, 
the Granary Burial Ground remained a beacon of 
sorts - an accessible, though sometimes under- 
appreciated, outdoor museum of Boston and American 
history and folk art. The headstones and tombs alone 
provide a telling glimpse of early America's changing 
views of life, death, and eternity. During the Pu- 
ritan's first century here, for example, life was 
especially harsh, and their view of death was bleak. 
Hence, death's heads, winged skulls, crossbones and 
soul effigies were often carved into these slate 
stones, executed by talented local artisans. Linden- 
Ward finds the area to the right of the imposing 
Franklin family obelisk particularly rich in early 
iconography, including the stern skulls and such on 
the graves of Deborah Cobham, Lydia Green, Jonathan 


The Mary Goose and child stone, 1690 

Belcher and Sally May. 

As Boston life became easier, and old Puritan ways 
faded, the stonecutters' symbols start to speak more 
of spiritual regeneration than physical decay. 
Cherub faces and harvest scenes begin to appear on 
later stones, while urns and willows - classical 
Greek and Roman motifs - tend to emerge in the 
"Republican era" that followed the Revolution. 

Them Bones Gonna Rise Again - The Granary's 
greatest renown comes from harboring the remains 
of more famous Colonial-era heroes than any other 
Boston burial ground. Countless guides and guide- 
books can lead visitors through the tales of elaborate 
funeral corteges, crowds of thousands, bold oratory 
and general pomp and circumstance that accompa- 
nied the funerals of folks like Crispus Attucks, Sam 

Adams, or John 

Equally interest- 
ing, however, are 
the tales of who, or 
what, is not here, 
or might not be 
here, as the case 
may be. Ben 
Franklin is not 
here, for example. 
His remains lie in 
though the Grana- 
ry's 2 1 -foot 
Franklin obelisk 
houses his family. 
Peter Faneuil of Faneuil Hall fame is here, though 
the original inscription on his tomb has been changed. 
It used to read, "P. Funel," but was corrected in 
lateryears. IvIotherGoose is not here, orat least her 
gravestone is nowhere to be seen. Boston's Mother 
Goose was Elizabeth Foster (d. 1757), the second 
wife of Isaac Goose, or Vergoose. Elizabeth raised 
and told stories to 20 children for Isaac- 10 of their 
own, and 10 from his first wife, Mary - and may 
have had her children's stories published. Still, the 
evidence is shaky, and other rhyming "Mother 
Goose" contenders existed before her in France, and 
perhaps England as well. The gravemarker of Mary 
Goose, Isaac's first wife, remains today, and is often 
mistakenly noted as "Mother Goose's" own. 

The great orator Wendell Phillips (d.1884) was 
once buried here, next to his father, Boston Mayor 
John Phillips. But when Wendell's widow died two 
years later, his body was moved to her gravesite in 
Milton. Another migratory corpse was Gen. Joseph 

AGSSpVI p.8 

Warren, who began eternity in the group grave 
where he died at Bunker Hill. Warren's body was 
exhumed, then spent 1776 to 1824 in the Minot 
family tomb at the Granary. Exhumed again, the 
body was brought to a Warren family tomb under St. 
Paul's Church, then to a family vault at Forest Hills 
Cemetery in 1855. 

Legend has it that the remains of John Hancock may 
not be all here, since his hand might have been 
severed by graverobbers the night after he was 
interred in 1793. Others suggest that when his 
tomb lay open during some 1 9th century construction 
on a nearby wall, someone made off with Gov. Hancock 

New Life to an Old Graveyard - All of these 
stories of exhumation, alteration and graverobbing 
point to the fact that American concepts of death and 
burial have significantly altered overthe centuries. 
Not until the 1830s, in fact - with the advent of 
garden cemeteries like the bucolic Mount Auburn - 
did Americans begin thinking of cemeteries as places 
to memorialize the departed, rather than just dump 
the dead. 

The look and feel of the old Granary began to respond 
to these changes in attitudes in the 1830s and '40s, 
though most of its burying days were done by then. 

It was after 1830, for instance, that the grave- 
stones were neatly realigned, numerous trees and 
winding paths were added, a sturdy new iron fence 
was built, and a bold granite Egyptian gateway was 
constructed at the entrance. The latter is generally 
credited to Solomon Willard of Bunker Hill Monu- 
ment fame, though Linden-Ward believes it was 
instead designed by Isaiah Rogers. 

The Granary experienced no major changes or 
concerted overhauls in this century, until the burst 
of enthusiasm and funds of the past decade, generated 
especially by the public-private partnership of 
Boston's Historic Burying Ground Initiative. In the 
last few years, however, stones have been repaired 
and reset, inventories taken, historic markers added, 
Ranger tours begun, and a Master Plan developed. 
According to Kathy Kottaridis, Boston Parks De- 
partment's Coordinatorof Historic Burying Grounds, 
the city's $6.1 million program to refurbish its 16 
historic graveyards will also renovate walkways, 
add wheelchair access, and deal with landscaping, 
erosion, and other problems of access and decay. 

The old Revere bell at King's Chapel still tolls, by 
the way. But hopefully, it will never toll the end of 
the Granary Burial Ground, one of Boston's great 
historic treasures. 

From THE BOSTON GLOBE Calendar. October 1 1, 1990. 


The Connecticut Historical Society is conducting three tours of central 
Connecticut graveyards this year: 

May 4 Cedar Hill Cemetery, Hartford 

"Death of the Rich and Famous" lead by Peter Grant 

September 28 Ancient Burying Ground, Wethersfleld 

"The Stone and the Spirit". Price: $6.00 for CHS members, $9.00 for non- 
members (transportation to Wethersfleld on your own). Reservations and 
payment required by Friday, September 13. 

October 31 Ancient Burying Ground, Hartford 

"Back From the Dead", a lunch-hour Halloween walking tour with Bill 
Hosley. Price: $4.00 for CHS members, $6.00 for non-members 
(transportation to Ancient Burying Ground on your own). No reservations 

Send reservation form and check, made payable to CHS, to: Maxine Kates, The 
Connecticut Historical Society, 1 Elizabeth Street, Hartford CT 06105. 

AGSSp'91 p.9 


The restoration of the tomb marker of Captain John 
Foster Williams, founder of the United States Coast 
Guard, was dedicated on July 30, 1990, at the 
Granary Burying Ground, on Tremont Street in 

Captain John Williams, first master of the U.S. 
Revenue Cutter, Massachusetts, was born in Boston 
in 1743. In 1776 he was commissioned captain of 
the Massachusetts State Sloop Republic. During the 
remaining years of the American Revolution,, he 
commanded several other vessels with distinction. 
In 1790 he was appointed captain of the Massa- 
ctiusettsby President George Washington. Captain 
Williams commanded that vessel until his death on 
June 24, 1814. 

The Revenue Cutter Service ensured the collection 
of custom duties which were vital to the survival 
and growth of the early republic. It is from the 
period of the establishment of the Service that the 
United States Coast Guard traces its origin. 

Fannin-Lehner, preservation consultants, were 
instrumental in the restoration of the tomb marker 
of John Foster Williams. The restoration was 
initiated by the United States Coast Guard (observing 
its 200th anniversary in 1990) and approved by 
the Historic Burying Grounds Initiative, a program 
of the Boston Parks and Recreation Department. 


the brownstone; and Stephen Striebel of Warwick 
Carpenters, who performed the masonry restora- 

Ms. Fannin is chair of the Senate Art Committee 
which oversaw the restoration of the Senate reception 
room and the Office of the Senate President. She is 
also a member of the Board of Trustees of the Boston 
Preservation Alliance. Fannin-Lehner continues to 
be dedicated to the preservation and restoration of 
historic resources such as the Captain Williams 

Fannin-Lehner oversaw the careful restoration 
which involved removing the brownstone top, dis- 
assembling outer wythes of brick, building footing 
for the the tomb, and cleaning and protecting the 
bronze plaque. Assisting in the project were pres- 
ervation consultant Sara B. Chase, conservator of 

from the Massachusetts Historical Commission 
Preservation Advocate, Fall 1990, V. 1 7 #3 & 4). 

Minxie and James Fannin of Fannin-Lehner are leading 
the Restoration Workshop at the AGS 1991 Conference 
at yWf. Hermon School, Northfield, Massachusetts, June 


The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has recently 
arranged to lease the lodge at Cypress Hills National 
Cemetery in Brooklyn NY to the Cypress Hill Local 
Development Corporation in orderto restore the building. 
The lodge was built in 1887 and was used as the office 
and residence of the cemetery director until 1 974 but has 
since fallen into disrepair. It will be rehabilitated for use 

as a museu m that will focus on the history of the cemetery 
and the lives of the 20,000 veterans and family members 
buried there. 

VATION NEWS, Winter 1990-1991 contributed by Debbie 
Moran, Mount Vernon NY. 

AGSSp'91 p.10 

The Developer and the Historical Society: 
Preserving the Endlcott Burying Ground 

by Penny Dumke 

The Endicott Burying Ground lies in the section of 
Danvers, Massachusetts known as "The Port" 
(originally Danversport), the site of the original 
land grant from Charles I to John Endicott, first 
governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Situated 
in the center of a 13 acre plot formerly owned by 
Creese and Cook Leather Company, the land had been 
purchased by developers planning to build condo- 
miniums on the site. 

Since there were no longer any Endicott family 
members living in the area the burying ground had 
fallen into neglect, largely cared for by neighbors 
and, periodically, the Town. Though many of the 
stones were missing and the iron gates and iron 
posts and chains surrounding one of the graves had 
been given to the World War II metal drive, William 
C. Endicott, Jr. had, in 1924, written a book tracing 
the history of the plot, complete with detailed maps 
of the gravestones, their composition and inscrip- 
tions. In the 1930s, remains of Indian gravesites 
were excavated by Massachusetts Historical Com- 
mission just outside the high granite walls of the 
burying ground. Two British Revolutionary War 
soldiers were interred within the walls and the 
graves of Endicott slaves are said to lie near the 
northerly wall of the cemetery. 

The Danvers Historical Society and the Danvers 
Preservation Commission (at that time the His- 
torical Commission), concerned about the future of 
the burying ground in light of the impending de- 
velopment, determined to do whatever necessary to 
protect the property. Through an Endicott family 
member it was discovered that a trust fund had been 
established with a Salem cemetery association in 
1958 for perpetual care of the burying ground. 
Contact was made with the trustees of the cemetery 
association, with the help of Theodore Chase of the 
Association for Gravestone Studies, and, after 
considerable negotiation, they agreed to turn over to 
the Danvers Historical Society the original $10,000 
plus $12,000 in interest. With the assurance that 
the burying ground would not be a financial drain, 
the Society entered into discussions with the legal 
owner of the plot, whom, it was discovered, was a 
granddaughter of William Endicott, living in Maine 
and unaware of her ownership. She was, however, 
willing to consider deeding the property to the 
Society. At present, the ownership still rests with 
the Endicott heir, but the trust fund and maintenance 
are managed by the Society. 

At the same time as the Society was protecting the 
property financially and legally, the developers 
were preparing site plans for approval of various 
Town Boards. A "beam house" approximately 200 
feet from the burying ground was a site where toxic 
materials in the leather tanning process had been 
used and disposed of ; therefore test pits had to be dug 
to determine, for EPA purposes, the extent of the 
ground contamination. Some test pits were dug in 
areas outside the cemetery walls known to have 
burials. Notified by the Danvers Historical Com- 
mission of the digging activity, Rhona Simon of the 
Massachusetts Historical Commission contacted the 
developers and acquainted them of the laws regulating 
the disturbing of ancient burying grounds and the 
possibility of up to two years delay in development 
if bones were discovered. 

The Danvers Planning Board, and the EPA required 
the developers to redraw plans to locate one building 
further away from the burying ground. Throughout 
the Environmental Impact Study phase, and during 
the removal of the toxic ground, the EPA was most 
helpful in considering the protection of the Endicott 

The Danvers Historical Society, the Historical 
Commission, and neighbors of the burying ground 
generally favored residential, as opposed to in- 
dustrial, development but felt that the developer, 
and ultimately the condominium association, should 
assume responsibility for maintenance and cosmetic 
upkeep. In a meeting with legal representatives of 
the developer, members of the Endicott family and 
the Society, it was agreed that the developers would 
replace the long missing iron gates and plant new 
trees both in the cemetery itself and as a buffer 
outside the walls. The developers also agreed to the 
Society's unlimited access to the site. The agreement 
became part of the Planning Board's Site Plan Ap- 
proval and is shown on the plans submitted to the 
Town by the developer. Unfortunately, the agree- 
ment was not legally filed as deed restrictions and, 
since the property is as yet undeveloped, and up for 
sale, the Society and Commission will have to re- 
negotiate withthe new owners. However, the ground 
work has been laid, a precedent established and the 
future protection of the site assured. 

Editor's Note: If you are associated with a cemetery 
in similar jeopardy to the Endicott Burying Ground 
and would lil<e to talii with someone about the work 
of the Danvers Historical Society and Historical 
Commission in this regard, you may contact Peggy 
Dumke at 774-4732 (home), or 777-2228 

AGSSp'91 p.11 

Do you have a Hiker statue In your town? 

rtK; 1/02-0, fiid-hiirg. Mafs.. he/ore Irnumcni. 

An article by Susan Shenwood in the Save Outdoor 
Sculpture! newsletter, SOS! Update, (Winter 1 991 , vol. 2 
#1), tells of the research on environmental damage to 
cultural properties which is being sponsored by the 
Preservation Assistance Division of the National Park 
Service. In one study, the 51 statues in The Hiker statue 
series sculpted by Theodora Alice Ruggles Kitson are 
being analyzed to study the effects of acid precipitation 
on bronzes. Erected primarily in the eastern half of the 
United States, The Hiker commemorates Spanish- 
American war veterans. The bronze castings of the 
statue were made by the Gorham Foundry in Providence 
Rl between 1921 and 1966. 

Quoting from the article, 'To study pollution's effects on 
bronze, twenty-five of The Hiker statues were photo- 
graphed in detail; the surface con-osion characteristics of 

twelve statues in New England and the Mid-Atlantic 
region were examined closely. Researchers investi- 
gated the alloy composition, overall corrosion patterns, 
streaking characteristics, chemical composition of the 
corrosion layers and the statues' surfaces in corroded 
and cleaned states. Surface pitting and metal loss were 
determined by casting the surface with a dental molding 
material; those surface replicas were examined with a 
scanning electron microscope to measure surface ir- 
regularities which indicate the severity of the corrosion. 
Because the composition of seven statues cast over a 
fifteen-year period was confirmed to be the same, corro- 
sion variations were attributed to differing environmental 
exposure. Corrosion produced by pollutants has ren- 
dered some areas of each of the statues black while 
others turned various shades of green." 

"Specific location was an important indicator of the stat- 
ues' condition. TrteH/'/cef statues sited away from streets 
seemed to be less corroded than those located in traf- 
ficked locations." 

Further analysis is still underway. If you would like to 
know if one of The Hiker statues by Kitson is located near 
you, please contact SOS! for a map of The Hiker statue 
locations. Additional photographs will enhance research 

from SOS! Update (Winter 1991, V. 2 #1. p. 3). Save Our 
Sculpturelis apint project of the National Museum of American 
Art, Smithsonian Institution, and the National Institute for the 
Conservation of Cultural Property, Inc. For further information, 
contact: SOSI, NIC, Suite 403, 3299 K Street, N. W., Washing- 
ton DC 20007. Telephone (202)625-1495; Fax (202)625-1485. 

The Spring 1991 issue (No. 41) of the anthropo- 
logical journal Man in the Northeast contains an 
article by Robert K. Fitts of Brown University titled 
"Gravestone Inscriptions as a Source for Colonial 
History: A Case Study on the Transition from Puri- 
tan to Yankee New England". The abstract 
reads:"While scholars have often examined colonial 
gravestone icons, gravestone inscriptions have 
anthropological linguistics, these inscriptions 
received little attention. By using the methods of 

provide valuable data on colonial American society. 
I nan effort to trace the transformation from Puritan 
to Yankee society, Noam Chomsky's rules of syntactic 
structure are applied to a sample of gravestone 
inscriptions from southeastern New England. A 
comparison between inscriptions and epitaphs in- 
dicates that a changing grammatical pattern of in- 
scriptions represents a shift in attitudes toward 
death that developed with the emergence of Yankee 
New England." 

AGSSp'91 p.12 



At Painesville's Evergreen Cemetery, she is known 
as "Hard Luck Annie." Tiie marble sculpture of a 
woman serves as a memorial to Annie E. Gage, who 
died at the age of 36 on Oct. 6, 1873, following her 
infant daughter and son to the grave. Over the years, 
maintenance workers dubbed the statue "Hard Luck 
Annie" because of her tough life. Now it seems hard 
luck has followed Annie E. Gage beyond the grave. 
Vandals recently used a slab of marble from another 
grave to lop the head, right arm, and hand off the 
117-year-old sculpture, in a random vandalism 
spree that caused more than $250,000 damage. 

On the evenings of Jan. 14 and 16, 1991 , vandals 
went on a rampage through the 34 acre cemetery, 
damaging 168 headstones the first night and 111 
during a return visit. They toppled and destroyed 
ornate, irreplaceable marble and granite headstones, 
some more than 100 years old. Norman L. Eager, 
superintendent of Painesville's cemeteries and 
parks, said the city would now try to notify de- 
scendents of original plot owners and tell them about 
the damage. He doesn't know how much success he 
will have. Eager's office spent some time poring 
through records to search out lot locations and grave 
numbers for the 279 headstones that were damaged. 

Evergreen opened in 1860. More than 17,500 
people have been buried there, including Samuel 
Huntington, the second Ohio governor; Paul E. 
Tillotson, an Indians pitcher and owner of Tillotson 
Oil Co.; and Clifton N. Windecker, who was in- 
strumental in the development of Diamond Aikalai 
Co. In century old, yellowed journals in Eager's 
office, each burial is recorded, along with a notation 
of the deceased's origin or cause of death: Irish, 
whooping cough. American, scarlet fever. German, 

Repairs to battered headstones and monuments are 
the responsibility of the owner, not the city, Eager 
said. "There are many that cannot be repaired," he 
said. "I don't think we will have any choice in the 
matter. We will have to remove the pieces and 
dispose of them." 

from an article titled "Damage in Cemetery Estimated 
at $250,000," by Deborah A. Winston. in THE CLEVE- 
LAND (?) PLAIN DEALER, January 24, 1991, contrib- 
uted by Barbara R. Moon, Kennebunkport ME. 

Ten thousand 
bear disquiet- 
ing epitaphs, 
says Univer- 
sity of Dela- 
ware geogra- 
Meierding. His 
study reveals a 
history of air 
t^eierding and 
his students 
40,000 miles 
visiting urban 
and small- 
town U. S. 
They found the 
worst cases in 
the heavily 
polluted Ohio 
River Valley, 
(see illustra- 
t i n ) . 
Meierding saw 
little damage 
in the Great 
Plains and 
Florida but 
severe effects 


• irj.7 ],' 

W. ■ "* ''Vi 


An eroded 1878 marble stone near Marietta, Ohio, 
(foreground) contrasted with a century-old headstone 
in Hawaii of the same Vermont marble, which remains 

in Illinois and western Pennsylvania. Deteriora- 
tion increased between 1930 and 1960, then eased 
due to pollution controls and the decline of heavy 

He discovered that acid rain, his initial suspect, 
dissolved only a thin surface layer. The real damage 
came from sulfur dioxide gas — released by burning 
high-sulfur coal — which forms gypsum within the 
marble and forces the stone apart. 

from National Geographic, April 1991 , Earth Al- 
manac section, contributed by Chris Sheridan, Brevard 

AGSSp'91 p.13 


DURHAM CT - The old tombstone 
stands erect, its elegantly carved 
surfaces surrounded by rows of 
slanted stones that are beginning 
to crumble. Nathaniel Sutlief's 
1760 marker appears immune to 
the weathering and agingthat has 
afflicted many of the 18th cen- 
tury gravestones nearby. The 
lettering is crisp, the crossed 
swords and crown at the top still 
striking, and two tiny skulls stare 
from the base of the stone. But 
historian sf ear t he Sutlief marker 
- considered one of the finest 
examples of Colonial stone carv- 
ing in the state and possibly New 
England - may deteriorate, leav- 
ing at least a small void in history. 

To preserve a bit of that history, 
Durham Cemetery Co. met in 
March to discuss removing some 
of the stone markers. The com- 
pany, which managesOld Durham 

Cemetery and two others in town, also wants to map the 
graves and photograph the markers that are there now. 
There were more than 900 gravestones at one time, but 
some have broken or have sunk into the ground, or their 
faces have disintegrated. If the company doesn't act, 
many of the ornately carved epitaphs will end up in 
chunks on the ground, leaving only a weathered, tomb- 
stone- shaped marker with no words on it, no identifi- 
cation and no clue to its history. 

"I think gravestones are one of the best sources we have 
for teaching about traditional art and history, " said 
William Hosley, curator of American decorative arts at 
the Wads worth Atheneum in Hartford. "They are works 
of art that are also historical documents." 

The gravestones and their images depict the cultural 
beliefs of the time and area, and the social status of 
those buried. In Puritanical Boston, a winged death's 
head might be carved on a stone; but in the south, where 
religious beliefs were more relaxed, the same artist 
might have cut a cameo portrait on a marker. 

Sutlief's graveyard neighbors are less aristocratic, but 
still memorable. Not far from his marker are the 
tombstones of six unmarried women, all daughters of 
the town's stonecarver, John Johnson. Almira Johnson, 
at 82, died after all of her sisters. Her tombstone 
simply says, "The Last One." A similar stone overlooking 
the fields of Durham marks the grave of one of Yale 
College's first graduates, Nathaniel Chauncey. Chauncey, 
who was the town's first Congregational minister, lies 
not far from Ann Goddard, the wife of a Tory whose 
property was taken by the Revolutionary government. 

hisSorians. fear it wiH d«^*?nDoit« ai OM iiurh^m Cemetsry, 

And at the edge of the cemetery 
lies a modest stone marking the 
grave of one of the few Indians in 
town to receive a stone. In 1770, 
the town probably had to vote on 
whether to allow the marker for 
Ann Cornelius, 10. It reads, "A 
Indian Girl." 

"These few super examples 
should be brought inside. They're 
works of art," said James Slater, 
author of The Colonial Burying 
Grounds of Connecticut and the 
Men Who Made Them. The stone- 
work represents some of the first 
sculpturing done in North 
America, "and you had your very 
best craftsmen doing this," Slater 
said. Morethanfiveaccomplished 
craftsmen, each with a distinctive 
style, carved the stones in the 
Old Durham Cemetery. TheSutlief 
stone, one of the finest remaining 
in the New England area, was done 
by noted carver William Holland, 
Slater said. 

Cemetery keepers who tend to the Old Durham Cemetery 
are wary of yanking the marker from its owner's 
resting place. The process probably would be expen- 
sive, and would involve duplicating the stone and placing 
the copy on the gravesite, as well as contacting any 
descendents for permission, said Francis Korn, a mem- 
ber of the Durham Cemetery Co. "Hopefully, the stones 
can be preserved on site," he said. 

Silicon resins tried as preservatives have caused 
crumbling. Another preservative is being developed in 
England, but the tombstone could disintegrate before a 
solution is found. Slater said. Maurice Arcand, presi- 
dent of the Durham Cemetery Co., doesn't want to risk 
disintegration. "Temporarily, I'd like to see them taken 
out," he said. "I think they can deteriorate out in the 
weather. The sooner we move on this, the better." 

Most of the stones in the Durham cemetery and in 
eastern Connecticut are carved of brown sandstone, 
most probably from Portland quarries. It is a soft stone 
that cracks and breaks off when moisture seeps into the 
rock. The stone is not as hard as slate, which was used 
for gravestones in the Boston area and in many of 
Connecticut's coastal towns. Arcand suggests placing 
the better stones in the town Historic Building next to 
town hall. But he understands why some people might 
not want them moved. "It is someone's headstone, 
after all," he said. 

from an item titled "Plan Would Preserve Historic 
Tombstones," by Linda Loranger. in THE HARTFORD 
COURANT. February 19. 1991, contributed by Ray 
Cummings. Avon CT 

AGSSp'91 p.14 

Congregation Charting Its Hallowed Grounds 

Thanksgiving brought some surprising news for 
Helen Sandifer. When the Fairfax VA resident tried 
to get more information on family burials in the 
cemetery of Potomac United Methodist Church., 
Edward E. Long, the cemetery's manager, couldn't 
tell her how to find the unmarked graves. She was 
incredulous. "They just have to know where these 
people are buried," said Sandifer, "They have to 
have a record somewhere." In fact. Long has plenty 
of records, including a detailed log of the nearly 700 
burials at the cemetery since 1943. But locating 
people interred in preceding decades has long meant 
turning to a mishmash of records - ledger books and 
card files recording gravesite purchases and tissue- 
thin maps of family plots. 

"This was a family cemetery," said C. Dixon 
Ashworth, chairman of the church board of trustees. 
"They didn't have computers in the 1800s." But 
they've got them now, and they're using them to 
come up with a comprehensive, cataloged list of 
who's buried at the l^ethodist burial ground. The 
seven acre cemetery is a Potomac landmark. It has 
at least 1 ,500 graves, Ashworth estimates. Legend 
has it that Civil War soldiers are among those 
buried there. 

The graveyard is about equally divided between an 
older section, which surrounds the church, and a 
newer section in back, which opened in 1933. The 
church stopped selling plots for the older section 
when it opened the new. From the onset, the newer 
section has been subdivided by a detailed grid system 
that assigns numbers to each plot, making it easy to 
find out who's buried where. The other half is a 
different story - but maybe not for long. 

In an interview, Long and Ashworth described the 
church's three year efforts to create a detailed 
register of the "old cemetery." They expect to be 
finished by next fall. "There is a tremendous effort 
being undertaken," said Long, a church volunteer 
who has managed the cemetery for five years. 

In 1987, a surveying firm grouped and mapped the 
cemetery's older half into five sections - complete 
with 183 visible family plot markers. The sur- 
veyors then divided the old graveyard into a grid of 
1 ,373 plots, each measuring 4 feet by 10 feet (the 
standard burial site) . Long estimates that half those 
gravesites are filled. He and two other volunteers, 
Paul Guild and Bruce Hartsworth, have been working 
to match the plots with the names. Church records 
have helped, but most of the information has come 
from hours of field work - recording names and 

dates from tombstones and probing the ground for 
sunken family plot markers and unknown coffins. 

Ashworth is turning that data into an alphabetized 
list of people buried at the old cemetery - complete 
with newly created grid coordinates. "No other 
cemetery that I know of has gone to the efforts we 
have to update our records," Long said. With at least 
1 ,500 graves - some dating to the 1700s - placed 
on seven hilly acres along Falls Road, Potomac 
United Ivlethodist Church has the area's largest, 
most visible and oldest known cemetery. 

From the Potomac Almanac, December 12, 1990, 
contributed by Dorothea de Zafra, Arlington VA. 

New York State Assemblyman Dov Hikind was ap- 
palled recently when he learned from a constituent 
that a Brooklyn resident was surrounding his private 
lot with a fence made of 1 30 tombstones. According 
to a newspaper report, "the fancily decorated 
monuments are inscribed with the names of the dead 
and their survivors," and were placed there to 
discourage the dumping of garbage. 

Hikind found the use of tombstones for such a purpose 
outrageous, and launched an investigation into the 
matter. His inquiry revealed that surviving family 
members were totally unaware that headstones of 
their departed loved ones were being used to fence in 
a private lot. They were shocked and full of anguish 
that the memories of deceased family members were 
being desecrated in such a profane manner. 

Hikind brought the issue before Attorney General 
Robert Abrams and the Director of the Division of 
Cemeteries, Pierce O'Callaghan. Both made in- 
vestigations and reported that no illegality had oc- 
curred, as there is no legislation at the present time 
which prohibits the desecration of unclaimed or 
discarded tombstones. 

Hikind stated that he is considering drafting legis- 
lation which would require the written consent of 
family members before a cemetery or stone mason 
removes a head or foot stone from a grave site. 
Further, in the event that a stone is never set at a 
grave site and remains with the stone mason, the 
name on the stone would have to be erased, or the 
stone be demolished, in order to prevent any dis- 
respect to the memories of the deceased. 

From Assemblyman Dov Hikind Reports to the 
People, November 1990 

AGSSp'91 p.15 


Exhibition: IMAGES IN STONE 

Photographs and rubbings by Daniel and Jessie Lie 

An exhibition of photographs and rubbings made in 
the Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague was displayed at 
Temple Israel in Boston, Massachusetts from April 
14 to May 17, 1991. The public was invited to the 
opening on April 1 4 to meet the Farbers and view the 

The Farbers visited Prague in the summerof 1989. 
The cemetery in Prague is said to be the oldest 
Jewish cemetery in Europe, dating from the fifteenth 
century and used for over 300 years. Below its 
stone-crowded surface lie twelve layers of burials. 
The old stones were removed and placed among the 
newer ones on each level so that the Farbers were 
able to capture venerable stones as well as newer 
ones. These IMAGES IN STONE offer a key to un- 
derstanding the life and times of a once-flourishing 
Jewish community in Central Europe. 

Sculptor and designer Casimer Michalczyk, of 
Glastonbury CT and Oak Bluffs MA, carved a slate 
memorial stone in the summer of 1990 to highlight 
the 300th anniversary of the GRISWOLD family of 
America.. "Something new to go with something old, 
it is set next to the stone of Mrs. Edward Griswold - 
Margaret - in the Indian Hill Cemetery in Clinton 
CT, on the shoreline. Clinton was our home for ten 
years, around 1942-1952, and while living there 
I recarved lettering, sharpening the letters on old 
stones for the Kelsey family. It was a personal and 
family pleasure to discover, as genealogical studies 
accompany the study of historic tombstones, that 
some of my wife's ancestors were Griswoids." 
Edward Griswold settled in Windsor CT in 1639, 
then founded Killingworth in 1 663, and was a First 
Deputy to the General Court and First Deacon of 
First Church. 

from the Glastonbury (CT) Citizen, November 1990, 
and correspondence from Casimer Michalczyk. 

AGSSp'91 p.16 

On this and the following two pages is a 
by Vincent Luti 

It will be entered into a book of tributes and memorabelia to be presented 
to retiring ACS Executive Director, Rosalee Oakley, at the ACS conference 
in June. Members wishing to contribute to the book are invited to send 
letters, notes, photos, drawings, etc., to Jessie Farber, 31 Hickory 
Drive, Worcester, Massachusetts, 01609. 


gave so many years of timeless 
and tireless energy... 

was never grumpy... 

and never said "I give up" and 
always had the answer... 

AGSSp-91 p.17 

and mothered us all with quiet devotion and affection... 

while listening with timeless patience to so many tiresome speakers. 

and suffering the outrageous slings & darts of fussbudget members. 

AGSSp'91 p. 18 


still managing a smile in the most grim situations. 

the picture of refined couture at all times... 

please, in dear affection, accept my humble bouquet! 

Vincent (for all of us) 

AGSSp'91 p.19 


AGS member John Johnston sent this photograph to 
illustrate the very interesting gravestone can/ing done by 
his great-great-grandfather, Larkin Johnston, who worked 
in Belmont County, Ohio, in the mid-1 800s. Although it 
may not be clearly visible here, the carver's signature 
appears at the bottom of the sandstone marke r carved for 
John Hawn (1 849) : "LARKIN JOHNSTon." John Johnston 
has found several other stones signed by his ancestor. 
He would like to learn more about Larkin Johnston's life 
and work as a gravestone carver. Larkin Johnston was 
born in Pennsylvania about 1806 and died circa 1875 in 
Ohio. Perhaps significantly, a check of the list of known 
carvers turned up an entry for Joshua (or A.J. H. ?) Larkin 
who carved gravestones in Westmoreland County, 
Pennsylvania in the early 1 9th century. Were Larkin and 
Johnston somehow related? If anyone can supply further 
information about Larkin Johnston or Joshua (or A.J.H. 
?) Larkin or can provide examples of their work, please 
contact AGS Research. It would be nice to locate more 
of Johnston's stones in Ohio and to be able to document 
their roots in Larkin's Pennsylvania shop, IF indeed the 
two men were connected by more than a name? 



R.T. & 



DEC. 20, 1854 

FEB. 20, 1921 


Concerning the odd emblem and its cryptic letters 
shown and discussed on page 6 of the Fall 1990issue 
of the AGS /Veivs/e»er(V. 14 #4) Eric Brock, of 
Shreveport LA, writes that although he cannot solve 
the riddle, he can add another bit of mystery to it. He 
found a stone at Simsboro LA (shown at left). 

A biblical epitaph is on the base of the monument in 
an italic script. Unlike the stones mentioned in the 
Newsletter, there is a slight variation in the letters 
on this one, and they do not have the circular device 
around them, also they are followed by an exclamation 
point. Also, unlike the others mentioned, Hattie Goff 
was apparently unmarried as her family's graves 
are in the same lot but there is not one for her 
husband or children, nor is there any mention of 
anyone but her parents on her gravestone. 

"I find it especially interesting that this query 
should appear in the Newsletter at this time as I 
recently came upon this mystery myself and won- 
dered what it meant. If anyone knows, please share 
your information!" 

AGSSpVI p.20 


origin, since it appears, generally in wood, among 
blacks in Texas, Georgia, and perhaps elsewhere in 
the South." 

Because of the recent increase in postal rates and a 
rise in the cost of book mailers, AGS Book Loan 
Service will require an additional five cents per 
pound for postage. On most orders this will amount 
to less than twenty-five cents. The $2.00 order fee 
will not change. Members may borrow two books at 
a time and may keep them for two weeks from date of 
arrival. Sixteen titles are currently available. For 
a list of books and mailing weights (members pay 
the Library Rate postage), please send a SASE to 
Laurel Gabel, 205 Fishers Road, Pittsford NY 

Follow up re: 

'Head and Shoulder" style 

Several AGS members have responded to Jennifer 
Sexton's request (AGS A/ews/effer, Fall 1990, p. 6) 
for information about "head and shoulder", an- 
thropomorphic or discoid style gravemarkers. To 

Bob Longcore sent photos of discoid shaped stones 
from Sussex County, New Jersey. These examples 
are all in German and date from the late 1 740s into 
the 1780s. 

The Texas stones pictured in Terry Jordan's book, 
Texas Graveyards. A Cultural Legacy, (sent by AGS 
member Jim Miller) were reputedly fashioned in 
the 1840s by a slave artisan for an East Texas white 
couple. The markers are in a semi-rural cemetery 
on the Texas/Louisiana line. Terry Jordan believes 
that "the human effigy shape may be of African 

The Farber Photographic Collection has many ex- 
amples of discoid-shaped markers, the majority 
from North and South Carolina. These range in date 
from about 1815 
through the 1840s 
and are mostly of 
stone, rather than 
wood. Jessie Lie 
Farber sent a rub- 
bing of one such 
stone, dated 1814, 
from Liberty, 
North Carolina. 

Patricia Cooper, an 
architectural his- 
torian working in 
Georgia in 1982, 
mentioned her in- 
terest in these dis- 
coid stones in Vol- 
Newsletter. In the 
same Newsletter 
issue. Marguerite 
Carson touches on 
similar stones 
found along the 
Wilderness Road in 
eastern Kentucky. 
Does anyone know 
of subsequent pub- 
lications by either 
of these two re- 

Photographs of 

two wooden 

-"^ "head and 

shoulder" style markers from Florida, appear 
in Margaret M. Coffin's book. Death in Early 
America. And, in a recently published article 
by Bradford L. Rauschenberg ("Coffin Making 
and Undertaking in Charleston and Its Environs, 
1 705-1820" in \he Journal of Early Southern 
Decorative Arts, Vol. 1 6 #1 ) a similar wooden 
marker is shown, surviving in Beaufort, South 

Dr. Maryellen McVicker sent correspondence 
and additional information, including photo- 
graphs, from her doctoral dissertation, "Re- 
flection of Change: Death and Cemeteries in the 

' ,a:EK<i>j-o_- CfLl*, I S(A. L. 


AGSSp'91 p.21 

Boonslick Region of Missouri". She reports nu- 
merous examples of anthropomorphic stones "along 
the Missouri River counties west from St. Louis to 
Boone County, Missouri". These stones, which 
mark the graves of educated, literate families of 
many of the early settlers (including stones for 
Daniel and Rebecca Boon), date from the 1820s - 
1840s. "Wood does not survive well in our humid 
climate and if there were wooden anthropomorphic 
markers, they disappeared before the memory of 
anyone living, because I talked to elderly people 
connected with the cemeteries in which these stones 
were found." Like the Boon(e)s, many of these 
early Missouri families migrated from Kentucky. 
"Beginning in 1819, steamboats plied the waters of 
the Missouri and immigration dramatically in- 
creased. By 1840 anthropomorphic gravestones 
had become passe to the best of my knowledge..." 
Maryellen has found no mention of these markers in 
probates, county records, early newspapers, etc. 

From Sherrie Stokes, Collec- 
tions Manager atthe Tallahassee 
Jr. Museum, Tallahassee, 
Florida: "I have discovered a 
type of wooden "head and 
shoulders" headboard in my 
own studies of rural Southern 
graveyards. They appear to be 
widely disbursed in parts of 
South Georgia and North 
Florida. They appear in many 
white graveyards and their use 
probably dates from the Post 
Civil War era to well past the turn of the century. I 
personally believe that economic factors deter- 
mined the creation of these markers whose form 
may have been borrowed from Afro-American 
funerary traditions." 

Thanks to AGS members who took the time and effort 
to document theseunusual markers. It is people like 
you that make the AGS network so valuable! 

Although these discoid or anthropomorphic style 
markers invite a thorough study (on a national 
scale), limited evidence suggests that this shape 
was more prevalent in isolated, homogeneous areas 
of the middle and southern states. They may have 
originally duplicated gravemarker styles common 
in the settler's home country. Some of these an- 
thropomorphic or "head and shoulder" style stones 
are inscribed in German; others seem to be for 
Scotch-Irish or English settlers; some are obvi- 
ously done for and/or by African-Americans. Al- 
though most markers that survive are carved from 
local stone, a few are made of wood, suggesting the 
possibility that there were many more markers in 
this style at one time. Additional examples and 
information are always welcome. 


AGSSpVI p.22 


Gravestone Art In Rockland County, New York 
by Dorothy W. Mellett 

(Hudson Valley Press, Tappan NY 10983 
soft-cover, 160 pp., over 180 illustrations 
$22.50 plus $2.00 postage and handling) 

review by Jessie Lie Farber 

Rockland County, New York, is a triangular-shaped 
county north of Manhattan, across the Hudson River 
fromOssining. It is bounded by the Hudson Riveron 
the east, the New Jersey line on the south, and New 
Harriman State 
Park on the 
west. The 

Tappan Zee 
Bridge cross- 
ing the Hudson 
puts you into 
the county near 
the town of 
Nyack, and the 
Palisades In- 
t e r s t a t e 
Parkway runs 

others will be inspired to help restore and preserve 
the stones..." Short chapters include information 
about the various burying grounds, the carving 
styles of three time periods, the stonecutters rep- 

Dorothy Mellett's plaster cast, made from the gravestone for Garrett Bogert, 1777, 
Clausland Cemetery, Rockland County NY 

In that county, we learn from Dorothy Mellett's new 
book, is a rich vein of eighteenth- and nineteenth- 
century gravemarkers, including a wealth of par- 
ticularly interesting markers carved by eight- 
eenth-century cutter John Zu richer, eleven of them 

The book is profusely illustrated with rubbings and 
photographs, mostly by the author, and a few draw- 
ings. The text is directed to the general reader, "to 
review Rockland County's gravestones from about 
1700 to the late 1800s. ..and to show how they 
reveal the county's history, [in the hope] that 

resented (Zuricher, plus eight nineteenth-century 
carvers). Other chapters deal with works in metal 
(gates, bronze plaques and white zinc monuments), 
epitaphs, ethnic stones and restoration. In some- 
thing of a tour de force, Ms. Mellett lists 108 
abandoned cemeteries, giving for each its location 
(nearest town), number of graves, size of the area, 
date of oldest and most recent stones, and other 

This book is a good-looking, oversize (7" x 10") 
publication, made possible in part with publicfunds 
from the New York Council on the Arts. Ms. Mellett 
is on the faculty of Rockland Community College. 

AGSSp'91 p.23 

Allegheny Cemetery: A Romantic Landscape In Pittsburgh 

by Walter C. Kidney, photos by Clyde Hare 

published and distributed by: 
Pittsburgh History and 
Landmarks Foundation 
450 The Landmarks Building 
One Station Square 
Pittsburgh PA 15219-1170 

Price: $34.95, includes postage 

reviewed by Robert A. Wright 

An exciting handsome large-for- 
mat book was published recently 
in the field of cemetery studies. 
During the last decade, large met- 
ropolitan cemeteries in America 
have sought to improve public 
awareness about their institutions 
by publishing lavish books; 
Metaire in New Orleans (1981), 
Cave Hill in Louisville (1985), 
and Woodlawn in New York (1988). Allegheny 
Cemefery (1990), however, is clearly the best 
publication to date in this genre because it was 
executed by an outstanding preservation organiza- 
tion with extensive publication experience. It shows. 

Walter C. Kidney, a noted architectural historian, 
has once again crafted an outstanding text that 
combines factual research with eloquent prose into 
engaging cultural history. Kidney's rare talent to 
embody an academic text full of feeling makes him a 
particularly appropriate author for a historical 
account of an early "rural" cemetery. His writing 
style reflects the pervasive romantic sensibilities 
prevalent during the mid-nineteenth century when 
"ruraT'cemeteries like Allegheny wereestablished 
in rapidly-growing American cities. Since he 
previously authored the massive volume. Land- 
mark Architecture: Pittsburgh & Allegheny 
County (^985), Kidney is exceptionally able to 
weave the architectural history of Allegheny 
Cemetery into the fabric of architecture in Pitts- 

Clyde Hare, another knowledgeable person on 
Pittsburgh's material legacy, was also engaged by 
the Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation 
to work on the book. Hare, a nationally respected 
professional and documentary photographer, was 
commissioned to photograph the cemetery. Since 
several hundred of Hare's photographs play a vital 
role in Allegheny Cemetery, his efforts deserve 

Moorhead mausoleum (Louis Morgenroth, architect) 1862, Allegheny 
Cemetery, Pittsburgh PA. Photo by Clyde Hare. 

attention. Hare's enthusiastic love of Pittsburgh is 
evidenced by his staggering output. Priorto editing, 
he produced overtwo thousand images for the project! 

Hare bounced between pictorial and documentary 
styles to provide photographs that serve two distinct 
purposes within the book. He chose a pictorial 
approach to capture the feeling of the cemetery's 
verdant landscape. However, the more objective 
approach of a documentary photographer was em- 
ployed to provide an extensive record of the vast 
number of interesting monuments and mausolea. 
Often, in the best pictures, these two styles suc- 
cessfully merge. Hare developed this signature 
approach in the early 1950s while working for the 
legendary photographic project director Roy 

Finally, it should be noted the book is well designed. 
Allegheny Cemetery commendably avoids the 
two common annoying publishing practices of 
printing pictures across a book's gutter or bleeding 
images to page edges. All photographs, except a few 
panoramic images, are printed with plenty of 
surrounding white space. This clean layout style not 
only respects important visual material, but also 
enables a reader/viewer to appreciate the book's 
carefully organized visual cohesiveness. 

For example, a beautiful double page color pres- 
entation appears in the introductory chapter. The 
left page shows a cornucopia of richly colored stained 

AGSSp'91 p.24 

glass windows from various mausolea. On the oppo- 
site page, the cemetery's lush landscape is reflected 
in mirror-like lake waters. Here, natural scenes 
strikingly resemble delicate stained glass windows. 
This deliberate juxtaposition underscores the close 
relationship between art and nature in the nineteenth 
century, a romantic ideal that not only pervades the 
sepulchral art and landscape design of Allegheny, 
but also reflects a central founding principle of the 
entire rural cemetery movement. 

Allegheny Cemetery contains five well organ- 
ized chapters that unfold in a logical progression. 
The opening chapter, "A Look Around", provides an 
overview of the cemetery 
with an emphasis on its 
architectural history. 
Kidney pays particular 
attention to the two im- 
pressive entrance build- 
ings that announce the 
cemetery to visitors. For 
instance, hepointsoutthe 
commanding granite Penn 
Avenue Entrance Build- 
ing (IVIacomb & Dull, ar- 
chitects, 1887-89), 
fashioned in a Romanesque 
style, imitates H.H. 
Richardson's seminal 
Allegheny Courthouse in 
downtown Pittsburgh. 

In the book's second 
chapter, "Some His- 
tory", numerous en- 
gravings, maps, and ar- 
chival photographs com- 
plement the text to es- 
tablish a concise early 
history of Pittsburgh, the 
founding of Allegheny 
Cemetery, its gradual 

development, and the cemetery's place within the 
broader context of the rural cemetery movement. 
Kidney also provides an excellent discussion of 
advances in stone finishing techniques, the physical 
and aesthetic qualities of marble and granite, and a 
particularly astute analysis of how these factors 
correspond to the evolution of styles displayed by 
funerary art and architecture during the nineteenth 
and early twentieth centuries. 

"Running a Cemetery", the next chapter, describes 
how early rules and regulations, set in place during 
the Victorian era, were changed to accommodate the 
growing pressures of a modern age, Allegheny 

gradually evolved into the multifaceted institution 
of today. Kidney explains, "The Cemetery is a 
public service, a showplace, a business, a landscape 
garden, and a rather complex engineering work. It 
has to be solemn and beautiful, but it has to be made 
to function." 

The last chapter, "A Guide to Allegheny Cemetery", 
provides an extensive catalog of the art and archi- 
tecture within this venerable cemetery. This im- 
portant visual archive contains almost two hundred 
examples of the most interesting statues, monu- 
ments and mausolea. The staggering array of quality 
memorials certainly places Allegheny among the 

fine repositories of 
funerary art in America. 
No doubt, this distinc- 
tion reflects the pros- 
perity of Pittsburgh as 
the center of iron and 
steel production in 
America for a century. 

Next to each photograph 
in this section. Kidney 
not only supplies im- 
portant factual infor- 
mation, but also offers 
his perceptive impres- 
sions about the artistic 
merits and deficiencies 
of each monument or 
mausoleum. For exam- 
ple, Kidney notes the 
Moorhead mausoleum 
(Louis Morgenroth, 
architect, 1862) 
"...has an unusual fan- 
tasy about it, almost as 
if some imperial tent had 
been reproduced in 
sandstone". Kidney's 
brand of architectural 

Penn Avenue Entrance Building (Macomb & Dull, 
architects) 1887-89, Allegheny Cemetery, Pittsburgh 
PA. Photo by Clyde Hare. 

history is a delight to read 

Allegheny Cemetery is an excellent book on 

many levels. First, it provides an outstanding local 
history of a specific cemetery. Second, the book 
enables people to better comprehend the social con- 
text of a cemetery within our urban society. Third, 
the book makes a significant contribution to catalog 
examples of nineteenth- and early twentieth- 
century funerary art and architecture. Because 
pollution, weathering and vandalism exact a high 
toll on America's sepulchral heritage, this impres- 
sive effort will become more important with the 
passage of time. 

AGS Sp'91 p. 25 

The book Burial Grounds of Vermont, by the 

Vermont Old Cemetery Association, is now available. 
It contains just under five hundred pages and includes 
a detailed 8 1/2x11 road map of each town or 
adjoining towns and a facing page listing all the 
known burial grounds with names, approximate 
period of use and number of burials, condition and 
location with a number on the map corresponding 
with the chart. The book includes small private 
burial grounds as well as public cemeteries and 
lists about 1900 in all. It also has a scattering of 
epitaphs and pictures. 

Burial Grounds of Vermont is soft bound and is 
priced at $20.00 plus $2.50 postage and handling 
and may be ordered from Charles Marchant, P.O. 
Box 132, Townshend VT 05353. 

Sleeping Beauty: Memorial Photography In 

by Stanley b. Burns, M.D. 

Scoring In Heaven 

Photographs by Lucinda Bunnen and Virginia Warren 

But they also spotted a six-foot Styrofoam Bugs 
Bunny, a hugecowboy bootfilled with daisies andthe 
ultimate in one for the road — tequila bottles. 

If many of the Bunnen-Smith pictures suggest a 
certain whimsy toward death, the photographs in 
Burns' collection are deeply sentimental. The 
Victorians took their grieving seriously — and for- 
mally. The mourning period for a child, Burns notes 
in his absorbing text, was two years and for a sibling 
one year. Small photographs of the deceased were 
often carried in lockets, kept close to the body for 
greater intimacy. Photography was costly, and 
these photoswere sometimes the only remembrances 
families had of their dead loved ones. In 1846 a 
noted Boston photo studio advertised, "We take 
great pains to have Miniatures of Deceased Persons 
agreeable and satisfactory, and they are often so 

To modern eyes, these pictures are often unsettlingly 
morbid. But they are never sensationalistic. In 
some ways the images in Scoring in Heaven are 
more disturbing. As these long-departed ones faced 
the end, did they realize they might become "im- 
mortalized" by a gigantic Bugs or have an empty 
bird cage placed on their grave or be remembered by 
a photo on their headstone taken while they were 
feeding the chickens? 

These two fascinating books reflect varying per- 
spectives on how Americans view death. 

Burns, a New York City ophthalmologist, founded 
the Burns Archive, a comprehensive collection of 
medical photography. His unique book (Twelvetrees, 
$40), an album of memorial postmortem photo- 
graphs from the 19th and early 20th centuries, 
argues that "just as sex was the 1 9th century taboo, 
death has become the 20th century taboo." Where 
people once used images of their dead loved ones as a 
way of confronting their loss. Burns says, we ap- 
proach death more indirectly: "Personal (intimate) 
death is not a socially acceptable topic." 

Bunnen and Smith's book (Aperture, $40) shows 
how people use grave ornaments and markers — 
from ridiculousto sublime — to lessen theirgrief. It 
is the result of a trip the two Atlanta photographers 
took through the South and Southwest in 1980, 
seeking photogenic grave sites. Scoring in 
Heaven takes its name from a 1964 Tennessee 
headstone that shows a bowler making a strike, a 
mother's tribute to her 31 -year-old son. Bowling, 
in fact, was one of the common themes — along with 
empty picture frames, empty chairs and beds, hands 
and telephones — encountered by Bunnen and Smith. 

From an article in People Magazine, 
1991, by Maddy l\Jliller. 

March 25. 

The CenterforThanatology at 391 Atlan- 
tic Avenue, Brooklyn announced a photo- 
graphic exhibit February 17 to March 
17, 1991 . The exhibit was devoted to the 
Style-Makers of the Victorian Era, the 
architects, sculptors, painters and en- 
gravers of Green-Wood Cemetery in 
Brooklyn NY, their architecture, their 
sculpture, their monuments and their 
works which dominate the city landscape. 
The exhibitwas sponsored by the Brooklyn 
Council on the Arts. 

AGSSp-91 p.26 

Seasons of Life and Learning: Lalie View Cemetery: An Educator's 

VIncetta Dl Rocco Donner and Jean Marie Bossu 19 9 

review by Laurel Gabel and Barbara Rotunda 

Seasons of Life and Learning: Lake View 
Cemetery: An Educator's Handbook is an at- 
tractive and helpful handbook for teachers put out 
by Lake View Cemetery in Cleveland Ohio, with 
publication sponsored by the Martha Holden Jennings 
Foundation. Dozens of AGS members have used 
cemeteries and gravestones in their teaching, have 
taught workshops for teachers like those at our 
annual conferences, or have given tours in cem- 
eteries and graveyards for school children. We all 
have our cherished handouts developed with our own 
ideas and those borrowed from more experienced 
teachers. There are also published lesson plans and 
articles that have a specialized focus like botany or 
acquainting children with death. But Seasons of 
Life and Learning has a full range of lesson plans 
and covers most of the topics anyone could imagine. 
It is a welcome addition to our tools for teaching 
about (and thus helping to preserve) the bounty of 
pleasures and knowledge offered by the study of 
gravestones and cemeteries. Illustrations and ex- 
amples come from Lake View Cemetery, but the 
suggestions are easily transposed to other places 
and other age groups and may stimulate real devo- 
tees like AGS members to think of more projects. 

There is much valuable material though the pres- 
entation is sometimes uneven. For instance, the 
architecture .lessons never give the names of the 
architects who designed the two buildings in the 
cemetery that are on the National Register of His- 
toric Places. But to their credit, the authors 
carefully include a woman architect for off-site 
study and in other lessons give an Italian-American 
sculptor whose work is at Lake View and an Afro- 
American writer who is buried there. 

At the end is a selected bibliography of general 
reference books and titles, both fiction and non- 
fiction for younger and older students. (Bossu is a 
librarian by training.) Ten categories in the bib- 
liography have headings like "Finding Your Roots" 
and "Death as a Part of Life". One page gives films 
and videos with brief descriptions of contents and 
running times. 

Unfortunately Seasons of Life and Learnlng\s 

in short supply and not for sale at the present time. 
It is, however, available through the AGS Lending 

Library. A reference copy is also on file at the AGS 
Archives in Worcester. 

Katherine E. Kohl, Corporate Secretary, The Lake 
View Cemetery Association, writes:"This handbook 
is currently being distributed to Cleveland area 
school systems and I believe it is the first ever 
handbook of this kind produced by a cemetery. " 

A Hadley, Massachusetts, gravestone is the source of 
information about a real-life John Dunbar, the 
name of the fictional hero of the movie Dances With 

According to an Associated Press release, Eric 
Freeman, a high school student in Hadley, took a 
break from his research for a term paper about the 
Civil War to see the movie. He remembered seeing 
a stone for a Private John Brown Dunbar in the 
Hadley burying ground. 

With the help of local librarians and historians. 
Freeman learned that the real Private Dunbar was 
the son of missionary parents, grew up among the 
Pawnee Indians of Kansas and, afterthe war, returned 
there to teach Indian languages and culture at 
Washburn College in Topeka. 

Curious to learn in Pvt. Dunbar was the model for 
the fictional movie hero. Lieutenant John Dunbar, 
Freeman wrote to William Blake, the author of the 
novel and screen play Dances with Wolves. Blake 
responded that his hero's name had been borrowed 
from a roster of soldiers who had served at a frontier 
in Kansas during the war era. Freeman also learned 
that Blake's research relied heavily on a 1968 book 
Plains Indian Raiders, based, in part, on books 
written by the real Dunbar's missionary father. 

So, Pvt. John Dunbar could be, apparently coinci- 
dentally,the real-life modelforthe movie'sfictional 
Lt. John Dunbar, found via a Hadley MA gravemarker. 
There is no mention in the article of how Pvt. 
Dunbar came to be buried in Hadley. 

from the Worcester MA Telegram & Gazette, April 20, 
1991, contributed by Jessie Lie Farber. 

AGSSp'91 p.27 


The "Cemeteries and Gravemarkers" permanent Section of the American Culture Associa- 
tion is seeking proposals for its paper sessions scheduled for the ACA's 1992 Annual 
Meeting, to be held March 18-21 in Louisville, Kentucky. Topics are solicited from any 
appropriate disciplinary perspective. Those interested are encouraged to send a 250-word 
abstract or proposal by September 1, 1991 to the section chair: 

Richard E. Meyer 

English Department 

Western Oregon State College 

Monmouth, Oregon 97361 
(503) 838-1220, Ext. 362 

Tho AGS Newsletter is published quarterly as a service to members of the Association for Gravestone Studies. The membership 
year begins the month dues are received and ends one year from that date. A one year membership entitles the members to four 
issues of the Newsletter and to participation in the AGS conference in the year membership is current Send membership fees 
(individual $20; institutional, $25; family $30; contributing $30) to The Association for Gravestone Studies. 30 Elm Street, 
Worcester MA 01609. Back issues of the Newsletter are available for $3.00 per issue from the AGS office. The goal of the 
Newsletter is to present timely information about projects, literature, and research concerning gravestones, and about the 
activities of the Association for Gravestone Studies. It is produced by Detjorah Trask, who welcomes suggestions and short 
contributions from readers. The Newsletter is not intended to serve as a journal. Journal articles should be sent to Theodore 
Chase, editor of Markers, the Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studies, 74 Farm St, Dover MA 02030. Address 
Newsletter contributions to Detx>rah Trask, editor. Nova Scotia Museum, 1747 Summer St., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3A6, 
Canada, FAX 902-424-0560. Order Markers (Vol. 1 $20; Vol. 2. $20; Vol. 3. $18.50; Vol. 4, $20; Vol. 5. $20; Vol. 6. $23; Vol. 7. 
$15; higher prices for non-members) from the AGS office. Sendcontributionstothe AGS Archives to Jo Goeselt, 61 OldSudbury 
Road. Way land MA 01 778 Address other conrespondence to Miranda Levin, Executive Director, at the AGS office at 30 Elm Street, 
Worcester MA 01 609. 

30 Elm Street 
Worcester MA 




Permit No. 










Northfield Mt. Hermon School, Northfield MA 

Program 2 

Mystery Graveyard Contest 4 

Presentation of Forbes Award 7 

Call for Papers, 1992 10 

Annual Meeting 11 

Minutes 15 

'91 Conference in the News! 16 


Grave Sheds of Chippewa/Ojibway Indians on Madeline Island 

by Dr. Maynard Mires 18 

A Stonecutter's Sample Stone 

by Ralph Tucker 19 


Symmes monument in Hamilton OH 22 

Slave stone returned in Topeka KS 23 



This issue of the Newsletter is devoted to the 1 991 
conference at Northfield Mt. Hermon School, 
Northfield (Gill) MA. This fourteenth annual 
conference focussed on Upper Connecticut River 
Valley stones. Anyone interested in acquiring bus 
tour handouts from either the Early Gravestone 
Tour or the Victorian Cemeteries Tour, should 
contact the AGS office. The conference was co- 
sponsored by The Pioneer Valley Historical Council, 
The Northfield Historical Society and the Northfield 
Historical Commission. 

Vince Cherico at Old Bemardston MA. photo by Jim Jewell. 

AGSSuVI p. 1 





Panelistsfrom the Vermont Old Cemetery Association, Maine 
Old Cemetery Association, New Hampshire Old Graveyard 
Association and Wisconsin State Old Cemetery Society dis- 
cuss the work of their organizations in recording, legislation 
and restoration. 

Dr. Joseph J. Edgette, moderator 

Dr. Edgette is Director of the Master of Liberal Studies 
Program and Director of the Teacher Intern Program at 
Widener University in Chester, Pennsylvania. He holds a 
B.S. in English from West Chester State College, an M.S. in 
Instructional Media, and an M.A. and Ph.D. in Folklore from 
the University of Pennsylvania. He is an AGS Trustee. 

Keynote Address: "READING PLACES: ART, ARCHI- 

William Hosley, Keynote Speaker 

William Hosley is curator of American Decorative Arts at the 
Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut where he 
looks after the famous Wallace Nutting Collection of Pilgrim 
Century Furniture. He was responsible for a widely-acclaimed 
exhibition marking Connecticut's 350th anniversary, "The 
Great River: Art and Society of the Connecticut Valley." More 
recently he has been involved with the arts of Victorian 
America. Hosleyoversawtherestorationofthe 1874Goodwin 
Reception Room and in 1 990 organized a major exhibition on 
Japanese influence on the arts of Victorian America. He is 
currently writing a history of the collections of Sam and 
Elizabeth Colt, Victorian Hartford's most colorful couple. 

Hosley is a graduate of Middlebury College and the Winterthur 
Program in Early American Culture. He has lectured 
throughout the country and has written books and articles for 
numerous magazines and journals. Bill is an AGS Trustee, 
has done extensive research on Connecticut River Valley 
gravestonecarvers, and is thecuratorforthe Ancient Burying 
Ground of Hartford. 

"Case Study: Plight of the Family Burying Ground: 
General Fletcher, 1756-1991" 
- Charles E. Marchant 

Preserving the family burying grounds on private land is an 
increasing concern. Given the legal aspects of such pres- 
ervation, the realities of time, money and human resources, 
■ and the difficulty of accessibility, how far should or can we go 
to preserve the private cemetery? 

Charles E. Marchant of Townshend, Vermont, is an agent for 
the Townshend Cemetery Commission, Secretary of the 
Vermont Old Cemetery Association and on the Board of 
Trustees of the Historical Society of Windham County. A 
graduate of Springfield College, Marchant is a history teacher 
at Leiand and Gray Union High School in Townshend. Charles 
also leads hikes and cross country ski trips through the 
Vermont countryside. 

"Marble Trees to Bronze Plaques: 
Memorialization, 1830-1930" 
- Dr. David C. Sloane 

Changing Styles of 

Exploring the changing styles of gravestones, individual 
markers, family monuments, and "garden features" which 
was a 20th century phenomenon of the new memorial parks, 
this paper presents the argument that the new styles were in 
accordance with changing American mourning customs and 
attitudes toward death and nature. 

David C. Sloane is currently Visiting Assistant Professor of 
History at Dartmouth College and Instructor in Community 
Medicine at Dartmouth Medical School. He received a B.A. 
from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and an M.A. and 
Ph.D. from Syracuse University. His research has focused on 
the development of the modern American cemetery, using it 
as a window to view important issues in the history of 
landscape architecture, material culture, public health, and 
social attitudes. This research has led to his recently published 
book, The Last Great Necessity: Cemeteries in American 

"An Aleatory Enterprise in the Granary Burying Ground" 
- MInxle & James Fannin 

As Fannin/Lehner restoration specialists worked to restore 
the tomb of John Foster Williams, a Revolutionary War hero, 
they made some fascinating discoveries to be revealed 
during the talk. This paper will describe their work to rebuild 
and restore the tomb and its cover as close to its original state 
as could be determined by research. 

Minxie is Managing Principal and Jim is an Associate in the 
Fannin/Lehner preservation consulting firm which has worked 
extensively in the areas of National Register nominations, 
historic district development and burial ground restoration. 
Minxie holds an M.A. in American Studies from the University 
of Pennsylvania and currently serves as president of the 
Society of Architectural Historians, New England Chapter. 
Jim has responsibilityforthe burial ground restoration section 
of Fannin/Lehner and participates in other preservation 


projects. Agraduateof Dartmouth College with an M.S. from 
Columbia University, for the past two years he co-led the AGS 
restoration workshop in conjunction with t^inxie and other 

"Calvin Barber (1772-1846), Stonecutter In SImsbury, 


- Stephen Petke 

Calvin Barber was a stone mason and public official who 
dominated the gravestone market in Simsbury, Connecticut 
and surrounding towns from 1 795-1 825. Nearly 200 grave- 
stones in the Farmington Valley and nearly 1 00 more elsewhere 
can be safely attributed to him or his apprentices. His work 
reflects the transformation of imagery from cherub, to urn and 
willow, to anonymous slabs of the 19th century, and the 
transformation of the craft from artisan to entrepreneur. 

Stephen Petke is a Connecticut native currently living in East 
Granby. He holds a degree in Business Administration from 
Central Connecticut State University and a M.A. in American 
Studies from Trinity College. He works in Health Care 
Information Servicesforthe CIGNA Corporation in Bloomfield, 

"Reflections of Change: 
Cemeteries In Missouri" 
- Dr. Mary e lien McVlcker 

Romantic, Rural Park-Like 

Missouri was the gateway to the West in the first half of the 
1 9th century through which every socio-economic class and 
culture passed. Nothing showed more the "civilized" effort of 
the citizenry than a rural, park-like cemetery in the midst of the 
wilderness. Examination of Bellefontaine Cemetery in St. 
Louis and Walnut Grove in Boonville reveals much about the 
early 1 9th century Midwest. 

Maryellen McVicker is a native of the Boonslick region of 
Missouri. She holds a B.A. with honors in Archaeology, an 
M.A. in Art History and a Ph.D in Art History and Archaeology 
from the University of Missouri with a specialty in American 
Studies and historic preservation. Her doctoral dissertation 
was on Boonslick cemeteries. Aformercollege instructor and 
museum director, she is currently the co-owner of Memories 
of Missouri, Inc., which specializes in historic preservation 
and tours of Missouri. 

"Phase One of a Conservation Program for Trinity Epis- 
copal Cathedral Burying Ground, Sixth Avenue, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania" 

During the summer of 1990 the first phase of a comprehen- 
sive restoration program was implemented at the 18th and 
19th century Trinity Episcopal Cathedral Burying Ground in 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This paper records and summa- 
rizes the first phase of that overall conservation program 
involving the documentation, interpretation and conservation 
of the site and its markers. Temporary and emergency 
treatments to protect those markers deemed endangered, 
development and documentation of a fragment collection. 

prototypic conservation treatments, conclusions and recom- 
mendations for future preservation are discussed. 

This paper was prepared under the supervision of Frank G. 
Matero and is the combined effort of Frank G. Matero, 
Elizabeth A. Bede, Lee Dassler and Derek Trelstad. 

"Ritual, Regalia and Remembrance: 
Ism and Gravestones" 
- Laurel K. Gabel 

Fraternal Symbol- 

Fraternal organizations and secret benefit societies have 
played an important role in the history of our country. In the 
years before welfare programs, social security and labor 
unions were formally organized, roughly 50% of the adult 
population belonged to at least one fraternal or benefit group. 
Death and memorialization held special importance in most of 
these secret societies. Symbols, which played an important 
part in fraternal ritual, appear frequently on gravemarkers. 

Laurel K. Gabel of Rochester, New York, is the AGS Research 
Coordinator as well as a popular lecturer. She is co-author 
with Theodore Chase of numerous articles and the book 
Gravestone Chronicles about 18th century gravestone 
carvers. She operates the AGS Lending Library and main- 
tains files for the Farber Photographic Collection. She is tour 
guide for the Friends of Mount Hope Cemetery in Rochester, 
a former AGS Trustee, and the recipient of the 1988 AGS 
Forbes Award. 

"Where Did the Stone In Early 19th Century Indiana 
Gravestones Come From?" 
- Dr. Warren E. Roberts 

In many southern Indiana graveyards stand markers dating 
from the first half of the 19th century which are thin slabs of 
fine-grained sandstone with no carvings, only inscriptions. 
Stones closely resembling these are found in eastern and 
other mid western states. The paprar will explore the following 
questions and provide tentative answers: Where did the fine- 
grained sandstone come from bearing in mind that it is quite 
different from the sandstone naturally occurring in Indiana? 
Are these markers the work of local craftsmen and were they 
ready-made? Why are the lettering styles on stones engraved 
by different carvers so similar? Were these craftsmen unusu- 
ally good spellers for the time? What does this information tell 
us about the pioneer era in the Midwest? 

Warren E. Roberts holds a B.A. from Reed College and an 
M.A. and Ph.D. from Indiana University. Dr. Roberts is 
Professor of Folktore at Indiana University in Bloomington 
and is considered a leading scholar In the field. In his forty 
years of teaching folklore courses, he has become interested 
in gravestones as aform of folk art, particularly the tree-stump 
tombstones and sandstone slabs of the early and mid-19th 


Either Peji»ck i 

ChMiEifield, NH 17S7 



Five photographs of a "mystery graveyard" were posted at the '91 conference, and conferees were 
invited to enter their guesses, with their reasoning, concerning the location of the yard. You may want 
to make your own guess before turning to page 26 for the answer and the name of the winner. 

AGS Su'91 p. 4 

"Death's Door: The Iconography of the Victorian 
Cemetery" an illustated lecture will be presented by 
the Victorian Society in America November 1 , 6:30 
PM, in the auditorium of the Paulist Center, 5 Park 
St., Boston. Owen Shows, a lecturer at the Boston 
Architectural Center, will present the program. For 
more information, call (617) 723-3186. 



The late show is an enduring AGS tradition, and as the title 
implies it gets more informal as the night wears on. This year 
there were at least 16 presentations. Here are outlines of a 

Thomas A. Malloy - "Causes of Death in Northern 
Worcester County, MA" 

An introduction to cemeteries in northern Worcester County 
situated directly east of our conference site with special focus 
on the causes of death revealed on the gravestones. Twelve 
towns are represented, all settled in the early 1700s. 

Dr. Thomas A. Malloy is professor at Mount Wachusett 
Comm.unity College, Gardner, Massachusetts in the Social 
Sciences Department. 

Bob Pierce at Old Bernardston MA. photo by Jim Jewell. 

Margaret Vose - "Stone Roses" 

The rose has been a popular motif on gravestones from the 
seventeen hundreds to the present time. The rose motif with 
its various symbolic meanings, many dating back to antiquity, 
will be discussed. 

Margaret Vose is Associate Professor in the Fine Arts De- 
partment of Eastern Connecticut State University. She holds 
a B.A. from the University of Pennsylvania and an M.Art Ed. 
fromthe University of Hartford. Sheiscompletingherdoctoral 
dissertation which deals with the design motifs in scrimshaw 
that are found in other forms of folk art. 

J. Joseph Edgette - "Craft, Avocation, Job, Profession: 
Inscribed and Motific Representation" 

Adetailed treatment will be presented of the ways in which the 
craft, avocation, job, or profession has been indicated on the 
gravestone and made a part of the preserved information 
about the deceased. Looking at examples across time and 
locale, the form of the data, either inscribed or through motif, 
will be shown and discussed. 

left to right: Phil Kallas, Joe Edgette and Tom Graves at Old 
Bernardston MA. photo by Jim Jewell. 

Polly SikM tione 
Walpok. NH 1800 

The person who was to open the Immanuel Church — and 
access to the restrooms — ivas late! on the AGS '9 1 Victorian 
tour at Bellows Falls VT. photo by Jim Jewell. 

AGSSu'91 p. 6 

Presentation Speech by President, W. Fred Oal<ley, Jr. to Lynette Strangstad 

Good evening, Ladies and Gentlemen. 

Tonight is very special for us, collec- 
tively, ttiose past recipients of the 
Harriette Merrifield Forbes Award 
and of course, our 1991 nominee. 

Here at the head table we have four 
people whose outstanding contribu- 
tions to the Association's goals earned 
them this coveted award. 

I would like to introduce them to you 
and ask you to please hold your ap- 
plause until all four have been introduced. 

Daniel Farber received the award in 1977 
Dr. James Slater received the award In 1982 
Jessie Lie Farber received the award in 1985 
And Laurel Gabel received the award in 1988. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, we salute you. 

As many of you know and others are about to learn, 
Harriette Merrifield Forbes pioneered the study 
of gravestones in New England. Her book, Grave- 
stones of Early New England and the Men Who Made 
Them, published in 1927, marks the beginning of 
contemporary gravestone study and research. The 
award being presented here tonight sustains our 
spiritual and emotional connection to Mrs. Forbes 
by recognizing a person whose work continues to 
advance the study and appreciation of gravestone 

In recognition of her outstanding contributions to 
the Association's purposes I am pleased to intro- 
duce this year's Forbes Award recipient, Lynette 
Strangstadoi Charleston, South Carolina. Lyn, 
please join me here at the podium. 

Lyn's selection to receive this award bridges the 
scholarly function to the practical application. 
Writing a book is a major task which Lynn under- 
took with some prodding from AGS members who 
saw the need for protecting and restoring the 
objects of their research. There was likely some 
hesitancy on Lynette's part, for professionals are 
understandably fearful of the consequences to 
gravestones when untrained volunteers swarm 
into the countryside, determined to restore every 
cemetery that can be found. The great compromise 

is a book entitled, A Graveyard Preservation 
Primer that describes the role of volunteers 
(hopefully with professional supervision) and 
the role of the professional. The Primer has been 
a "best seller," and is still in demand attesting to 
the author's success in melding the scholarly with 
the practical in a grand effort to preserve, pro- 
tect, conserve and restore these priceless objects. 

Additionally, Lynette is recognized as an outstand- 
ing conservationist whose advice and expertise is 
widely sought by individuals and organizations 
seeking to preserve their cemeteries. Through 
her many business activities, she promotes state 
of the art techniques and constantly urges her 
audiences to hold to high standards in their pres- 
ervation work. 

Forthis accomplishment and her continuing sup- 
port of AGS goals I am honored to present the 1 991 
Harriette Merrifield Forbes Award to Lynette 

(Framed certificate and a photograph of Mrs. 
Forbes were presented.) 

Tlie certificate was designed by Carol Perl<ins and 
framed by Mictiael Cornish. Accompanying the 
award is a picture of Mrs. Forbes for whom it was 

AGSSu'91 p. 7 

Acceptance Speech by Lynette Strangstad 

Thank you, Fred. I am both honored and delighted 
to be here this evening and to find myself the 
recipient of the Harriette Merrif ield Forbes Award. 

I am not exaggerating to tell you I was stunned when 
I opened the letter from Fred saying I was to 
receive this award. 

Now, I am no newcomer to appreciation of historic 
graveyards. I spent several years living in Ver- 
mont and New Hampshire where I worked, earned 
my master's degree and taught. In 1 968 I received 
my first book on gravestones. Over Their Dead 
Bodies: Yar^kee Epitaphs and History. During those 
years in the '60s — when our peers had gone to 
California to wearflowers in their hair, my sister 
and I had gone to New England to tramp through 
obscure colonial graveyards. We would stand in 
awe of particularly fine examples of the carver's 
art, or particularly early, well-preserved stones, 
or personal histories carved in stone which equalled 
any fictional account of the courageous and har- 
rowing experiences of early pioneers. Then as 
now, I am often moved by a poignant inscription or 
a circumstance related to the life and death re- 
corded on a particular tombstone. 

I have been lucky in my years in the field of 
historic preservation. I was able to work with the 
National Trust for Historic Preservation in their 
Restoration Workshop on some of the nation's 
finest historic buildings, such as Woodlawn Plan- 
tation in Mt. Vernon, Virginia; Lyndhurst, the 
impressive Gothic Revival estate of Jay Gould in 
Tarrytown, New York; and at Drayton Hall in 
Charleston, South Carolina, said to be the finest 
Georgian Palladian structure extant in the United 
States today. During the two and a half years i was 
with the National Trust, I received training in 
historic preservation procedures, philosophy, 
theory, and practice, taught by leaders in the 
preservation field. 

The longer I worked in preservation, the more I 
became interested in masonry. And the longer I 
worked with masonry, the more I wanted to work 
with stone. And while working with stone, the 
opportunity to work with historic gravemarkers 
was offered. 

Since I began specializing in the preservation of 
historic burial grounds in 1980, I have visited 
many graveyards and seen that no two are alike — 

and I have learned a great deal about many of them. 

I have had many lean years in this business, 
believe me, and in the early days in this field I may 
have gotten only an occasional call to '1ix a grave- 
stone" or "restore a graveyard." I supplemented 
this work with architectural restoration. Today I 
do little architectural restoration. Today I have a 
list of waiting graveyard preservation clients, I 
speak at conferences, write for historic preser- 
vation publications, offer consultations on site, 
and prepare historic preservation plans for burial 
sites nearly as often as my staff and I do actual 
conservation work at burial sites. Stone Faces has 
grown from a company of one to a staff of four, and 
occasionally, at a particular site, a dozen. And I 
continue to be excited by all that I am learning, by 
the graveyards I meet, and the people I see. 

Andthe Primer. When Jessie Lie Farber, in 1 984, 
asked me to prepare a booklet for AGS on grave- 
stone preservation, I'm sure neither of us knew 
quite what we were getting into. We went through 
many drafts and modifications, each an expansion 
of the last, it seemed, and we went from a booklet 
to a supplement in Markers to a full-fledged book. 
And when it came time to send it off to the pub- 
lisher, I wanted to keep it a little longer and 
improve it some more, and Jessie said to me, 
"Lyn, you can either keep it and work on it until 
it's perfect, or you can get it out there where it can 
do some good." And so it went. And I'm glad it's out 
there and has been helpful and well received. But, 
I know it is only a beginning compared to the 
information that could be available, the information 
we all need in order to make the best choices 
regarding historic burial sites. 

It is clear to me that since 1980 there has been a 
rapidly growing interest in burial sites, their 
significance and their preservation. And I have 
been lucky to be part of a burgeoning new branch 
in the field of historic preservation. I have often 
called burial site preservation "the newest fron- 
tier" in the historic preservation movement, and 
I think the appellation fits. Interest in historic 
burial sites has grown rapidly, sites are being 
legally protected, and good conservation practices 
are becoming more common. And much of that 
credit goes to you, and to others like you who have 
gotten the word out, or fought legal battles, or 
returned a stone to its rightful location, or talked 
to the local newspaper about the significance of a 
local site. 

AGSSu'91 p.8 

And I think that brings us to AGS and future 
directions. We have all made tremendous strides 
in recent years, and we still have so far to go. AGS 
has been a major contributortowards disseminat- 
ing information about graveyards, their signifi- 
cance, and their preservation. AGS has grown 
from a tiny organization of gravestone aficionados 
to an organization with an international member- 
ship. With such growth comes a certain amount of 
power, and with that power comes a tremendous 
responsibility. It is critical to establish a high 
level of professionalism in this newly recognized 
branch of historic preservation: 

— by developing responsible public educa- 
tion programs, 

— by advocating comprehensive planning for 
burial site preservation based on sound historic 
preservation principles, 

— by recognizing that preservation of his- 
toric burial grounds is a very different discipline 
than maintenance of modern cemeteries, 

^by recognizing the valuable contributions 
made by volunteers and at the same time insisting 
on professionalism in areas where it is vitally 

— and by seeking broader and better legisla- 
tion than presently exists. 

We need legislation which protects burial sites not 
only from theft and vandalism but also from ne- 
glect and development, which defines ownership 
and responsibilities of owners, prevents unwar- 
ranted physical intrusion of any kind (whether 
from trinket hunter or archaeologist), protects 
all sites including native American and all other 
ethnic and economic groups, historic and prehis- 

We need to recognize the interdisciplinary nature 
of our work and encourage participation not only 
by historians, genealogists, and art historians, 
but also by folklorists, historic preservationists, 
anthropologists, archaeologists, cultural geogra- 
phers, historic landscapers, biologists, horticul- 
turists, and others who have professional con- 
cerns relating to historic burial site preserva- 

want to belong to an organization that is interested 
in studying gravestones just for fun — because 
gravestones provide a great hobby. Ofttimes, 
however, it is the volunteers who have the drive 
and the stamina to spearhead a group to preserve 
a yard from a road or a shopping center, orto bring 
back from oblivion a fine old Victorian graveyard, 
who are often the spokespersons when the legis- 
lators meet to discuss the fate of these historic 
resources. In so many ways volunteers play a 
strategic role in the preservation of burial sites. 

That makes AGS a potentially ideal vehicle for 
volunteer and professional alike to work together 
in the effort to preserve historic burial grounds, 
and to recognize proper preservation procedures 
including the determination of what areas volun- 
teers are best suited, and when and for what 
reasons professionals must be consulted. 

It is the responsibility of us all to maintain the 
highest of standards in what we do and in what we 
advocate others do. We have the power to pre- 
serve — or destroy — most of the burial sites that 
come, somehow, under our influence. I wince 
when I see newspaper articles about a group that 
is "restoring" a graveyard by laying stones flat in 
cement or using other inappropriate repair 
methods, or when I hear of a landscape architect 
who chooses to redesign a graveyard with no con- 
sideration for the historic plantings already in 
place, or someone who starts so-called "restora- 
tion" work on a site without having first docu- 
mented the site as it was found, without under- 
standing the need for a long-range plan. 

I think the bywords for the '90s for AGS might be 
"public education" and "responsibility." If we 
continue with sound public education efforts and if 
we insist on acting responsibly and encouraging 
others to act responsibly, we will have made a real 
contribution to the important goal of preserving 
America's burial sites. 

Burial grounds are being threatened by inadequate 
laws, commercial development, vandalism, pol- 
lution, and ignorance. If historic burial grounds 
are to survive, it is our responsibility to inform 
ourselves and to work to protect these valuable 
resources, to record and interpret the wealth of 
information they contain, to preserve them as 
irreplaceable historic sites. 

At the same time, we need to recognize the volun- 
teers who comprise the majority of the member- 
ship here. I know many will quickly tell me they 

Our most effective tools include not only conser- 
vation, but 

— personal and public education, 

— legislative protection. 


— public policy determination, 

— and development of an active coalition of 
groups to whom the survival of burial grounds is 

broadly recognized as a serious concern, and 
building credibility through vigilance In develop- 
ing and maintaining high standards in all our 

Our goals should include allying ourselves with 
the preservation community in order that burial 
site preservation and protection may be more 

Accelerated stress to burial grounds from both the 
natural environment and the political and social 
environment requires that we accept that chal- 
lenge now. 


At the first annual conference of The Association for Gravestone Studies, it was resolved that an award 
should be made periodically to honor either an individual or an organization in recognition of exceptional 
service to the field of gravestone studies. This award, known as The Harriette Merrifield Forbes Award, 
recognizes outstanding contribution in such areas as scholarship, publications, consen/ation, education, 
and community service. 

Past recipients of this award are: 

1977 Daniel Farber 

1978 Ernest Caulfield 

1979 Peter Benes 

1980 Allan Ludwig 

1982 Jim Slater 

1983 Hilda Fife 

1984 Ann Parker & Avon Neal 

1985 Jessie Lie Farber 

1986 Louise Tallman 

1987 Frederick & Pamela Burgess 

1988 Laurel Gabel 

1989 Betty Willsher 

1990 Theodore Chase 


AGS Conference '92 

June 25-28, 1992 the AGS Conference will be 
held at Union College in Schenectady, New York 
with Barbara Rotundo as Conference Chair. Plans 
are already underway for bus tours through the 
New York countryside to see some early burial 
grounds and beautiful Victorian cemeteries. 

The area around Schenectady, referred to as the 
Capital District because Albany, not New York 
City, is the capital of the state, includes the junc- 
tion of the Mohawk and Hudson Rivers and was the 
starting point of the all-important Erie Canal. 
This meant it was the westward migration route 
for New Englanders. For people interested in 
gravestones it is also the crossroads for early 

carving styles, receiving both from New England 
to the east and from New York City to the south. If 
you have been doing gravestone research that you 
are ready to share, send an abstract to C.R. Jones 
by December 15. His address is New York State 
Historical Association, P.O. Box 800, Cooperstown 
NY 13326. Particularly valuable forthe confer- 
ence would be papers on carvers who moved from 
New England to the Mohawk Valley and papers 
showing other kinds of immigration such as stones 
in ethnic cemeteries. 

Exhibits including rubbings, photographs, cast- 
ings, photographic essays and videotapes of res- 
toration work are solicited. 

AGSSu'91 p. 10 

The Association for Gravestone Studies 

1991 Annual Meeting 

June 30, 1991 


Call to Order - President, W. Fred Oakley, Jr. 

Quorum Declared - Secretary, Lance Mayer 

Motion to Receive Minutes of 1990 Annual 

Annual Reports: 

Treasurer - FYE 1990 - Cornelia 


Archivist - Jo Goeselt 

Editor, Newsletter - Deborah Trask 

Editor, Journal - Theodore Chase 

Research Clearinghouse and Lending 

Library - Laurel Gabel 


Executive Director - Miranda Levin 
President - W. Fred Oakley, Jr. 

"AGS Goes Big Time" - Slide Presentation 

New Business 

Recognition of Retiring Officers and Trustees 

Presentation of Memory Book - Jessie Farber 

Announcing Election Results - Lance Mayer 

Introduction of New Officers and Trustees 

Passing the Forbes Book to New President 

Adjournment - Cornelia Jenness, President 


Since the latter part of 1987 we have had under 
discussion publication of the Caulfield articles as 
an issue of Markers. Jim Slater started on ed- 
iting the articles early in 1989, using Dr. 
Caulfield's notes on the published versions of the 
articles which appeared in the Connecticut His- 
torical Society Bulletin. Since the appearance of 
Markers VII the editor of Markers and Dr. 
Slaterworkedtogetherto produce MarArers VIII, 
and the result is available at the June 1991 

During the last year your editor has also been 
collecting and editing articles for Markers XI, 
which should appear early in 1992. Six articles 
are in hand and have been edited, and three more 
have been reviewed in draft and should be ready for 
final editing in a matter of weeks. Thus Markers 
X/will have a varied and interesting set of pieces 
runningfromthe Mullikensto Shakercemeteries, 
from a discussion of the Green Man to an appre- 
ciation of Francis Duval. 

After bringing out five issues, the present editor 
of Ala rlcersf eels that it will be time to pass on the 
torch. I am pleased to report that the Editorial 
Board has approved and the Board of Trustees has 
appointed Professor Richard E. Meyer of Western 
Oregon State College as the next editor. He has been 
head of the Cemeteries and Gravemarkers Section 
of the American Culture Association, has edited a 
collection of essays on the subject, has two more 
books in preparation, and has published papers on 
a variety of subjects, ranging from the English 
poet George Crabbe to American outlaw ballads. 

It has been fun and richly rewarding serving as 
your editor, and 1 shall treasure not only the 
volumes produced but also the many pleasant as- 
sociations I have had. 

Theodore Chase 

AGSSu'91 p. 11 



The AGS Archives are a growing collection of 
valuable books, manuscripts, photographs, 
pamphlets and documents relating to our primary 
purpose, the study of gravestones and their 
preservation. At present there are approximately 
500 items. 

They are stored in a climate-controlled envi- 
ronment at 30 Elm St., Worcester, and may be 
accessed in person through the librarian of the 
Worcester Historical Museum during regular 
hours. The archives are not a circulating library 
but questions may be addressed to the archivist 
who may be able, occasionally, to make photocopies 
of short articles. 

The mail-order Lending Library was started in 
December 1988 as a service to AGS members who 
may be unable to obtain basic gravestone refer- 
ence books by other means. Eighteen books are 
currently available through the library; two of 
these. Cemeteries and Gravemarkers, and Clasped 
hands, were added during 1990. Approximately 
twenty-five books were loaned last year. Bor- 
rowers pay a $2.00 handling and supplies fee, 
plus the special library postage rate. In addition 
to this fee, membercontributions have enabled the 
lending library to function without cost to AGS. 

Laurel K. Gabel 

The catalogue is being updated to include all do- 
nations received during the recent transition 
period. Additions are always welcome. Also 
welcome would be offers to help sort envelopes of 
newspaper clippings which are donated each year, 
into useful categories for easier access. 

Jo Goeselt 

Chnki Sntan lume 
Peterborough. NH 1802 



During the 1990 calendaryear, the AGS research 
office responded to approximately 80 written 
requests for information as well as more than 20 
telephone inquiries. No two questions were alike! 
Members sought information about the use of 
specific symbolism, burial customs and 
memorialization. Many wished to contact other 
AGS members working in their area of interest, or 
to make use of the research files, and data base. 
When photographic examples could be useful, 
members were provided with photocopies from 
the Farber photographic collection, a visual re- 
source of close to fifteen thousand early gravestone 
photographs indexed by carver, name of deceased, 
location and date. Indices of other large photo- 
graphic collections will soon be computerized, as 
well. Compiling a list of eighteenth- and nine- 
teenth-century gravestone carvers continues as 
an on-going project. Additions, corrections and 
inquiries about these resources and information 
about your research pursuits are always welcome. 

Deborah Trask took the opportunity of the AGS 
Annual Meeting to remind members that the 
Newsletter is only as good as the quality of sub- 
missions from members. There is no lack of 
material, but it would be great if more members 
could contribute short items of their own, as well 
as local newspaper clippings. 

She also noted that she became editor of the A3S 
NewsletterwWhXhe Fall 1983 issue. She felt that 
this was a bit of a monopoly on her part, and as ten 
years seems a reasonable time to devote to AGS, she 
announced that the Summer 1993 issue will be the 
last she will edit. She felt that two years notice 
would provide the Association with the time to 
decide on her successor. 


D. Finnell, 3210 Old Dominion Blvd, Alexandria VA 
22305 would like to make contact with anyone doing 
research on or collecting Victorian-era gravestone epi- 
taphs and verses. 

AGSSu'91 p. 12 


June 30, 1991 

As you all know, this past year has been an exciting 
one for AGS. After a lengthy search, a new site was 
found for the office in Worcester, Massachusetts. 
Located in the Worcester Historical Museum, the 
office is convenient and comfortable, with plenty 
of storage space and room for expansion. The move 
was made from Needham to the new office during 
the last two weeks in November. 

UnfortunatelyforAGS, this past year also included 
the retirement of Executive Director Rosalee 
Oakley. 1 began working with Rosalee in the 
beginningof December, and, afterworkingtogether 
for a month, Rosalee gradually eased out of her 
responsibilities. The transition is now virtually 
complete, and was, thanks to Rosalee and President 
Fred Oakley, as well as the Trustees, remarkably 
smooth for me. 

To complete the transition, AGS has a new logo, 
which better represents the varied interests of its 
membership. As a result, we are presently re- 
designing the AGS brochures, publications list, 
and other marketing literature that AGS uses to 
make itself known. 

being properly restored and AGS is at least known 
as a resource that can be called upon if necessary. 

Spring and the beginning of good weather has 
brought an increase in sales of the Primer. Sales 
have also been good for Gravestone Chroni- 
cles, our Teaching Leaflet Kit, and our video, 
"Early New England Gravestones and the Stories 
They Tell." In the next few weeks we will have our 
new publications list which includes several new 
items that have been in the works over the past 
year, including Markers VIII. 

Our year of transition over, I am looking forward 
to working with all of you in the months to come. 
I have enjoyed my first few months at AGS tre- 
mendously, and have appreciated the terrific 
support and enthusiasm of the Officers and other 
Trustees. I invite all of you to contact me should 
there be any way I can assist you with your work. 
I look forward to hearing from you. 

Miranda Levin 
Executive Director 

It should also be noted that the AGS Archive was also 
moved to Worcester this past winter. It is ready 
to receive visitors; arrangements can be made 
through the AGS office. 

Membership has been steady. As of June 1, 1991, 
there were 927 members, which is almost exactly 
the same number we had last year (934). While 
we are holding our own admirably in tough economic 
times, it would be terrific if next year I could 
report a membership of over 1,000. Devising 
strategies to increase our membership is among 
my top priorities for the coming months, and any 
member input on the subject would be greatly 
appreciated. However, it should be noted that the 
highest percentage of new members heard about 
AGS through word-of-mouth, which points to the 
membership as the best source for finding new 

Although 1 have been doing correspondence for 
only seven months, it has included many requests 
for copies of A Graveyard Preservation 
Primer, which was mentioned in several pub- 
lications. Although few memberships have been 
realized through these inquiries, cemeteries are 

June 30, 1991 

(condensed for the Newsletter) 

This past year was especially challenging to your 
officers and Board members occasioned by the 
resignation of Rosalee Oakley as Executive Di- 
rector, the termination of Fred Oakley's four year 
presidency and thus the need to relocate the office 
and hire a new Executive Director. 

Guided by a plan developed in our Planning Com- 
mittee and supported by a determined Personnel 
Committee, affordable office space was located in 
Worcester, Massachusetts, and a resident of the 
area was employed as Executive Director. Each of 
these above actions took a great deal of effort and 
the Trustees are very pleased with the results. 
The new office location is at 30 Elm Street, 
Worcester, MA 01609. Our new Executive Di- 
rector is Mrs. Miranda Levin. The Association's 
Archives are also located at the above address. 

After much debate our Association's logo has been 

AGSSu'91 p. 13 

changed. The interesting colonial figure from a 
stone in Williamsburg, Massachusetts, had lost 
some appeal as our identifying symbol as the 
Association grew in membership diversity. The 
new logo conveys the concept of inclusiveness of all 
gravemarkers of interest to members of the As- 

Markers VIII, (The Caulfield Papers) was pub- 
lished incorporating changes suggested by Dr. 
Caulfield's field notes and subsequent research. 
This volume, by far the largest of the series, is 
328 pages with 170 photographs. Concurrent 
with the publication of Markers VIII, Ted Chase, 
Markers editor for volumes V through VIM, an- 
nounced his intention to conclude his work as 
editor with the publication of War/cers/X. Richard 
E. Meyer, professor of the English Department at 
Western Oregon State College has accepted the 
position of Markers editor beginning with Markers 

Including this report, my fourth and final one as 
your President, I want the entire membership to 
know that our Association is healthy and growing, 
our new Executive Director is very capable and 
works well with people, the financial picture is 
good. Not exceptional — but improving. Exhibit and 
program space are available in Worcester, an 
asset that can be developed with volunteer support. 
Our 1992 Conference is slated for Union College, 
Schenectady, NY. Dr. Barbara Rotundo is the 
Conference Chair. Program Chair is C. R. Jones. 

To the officers and Board members who have been 
so very supportive, to the former and current 
Executive Directors who have helped me so very 
much and to the general membership who by their 
votes entrusted the leadership position to my care 
for the past four years, I wish to express my 
appreciation for your allowing me to serve you. 

W. Fred Oakley, Jr. 


In accordance with the By-Laws, the Nominating 
Committee invited recommendations for nomina- 
tions to the Board of Trustees from the general 
membership in the Summer 1990 Newsletter. 
Nominations were confirmed by the Board at its 
January 1991 meeting and conveyed to the general 
membership in the form of a ballot included in a 
general mailing in March 1991. 

Forty-two ballots received by the June 1 deadline 
have been counted. I am pleased to report the 
following people have been elected for two-year 
terms as Trustees commencing at the close of this 
Annual Meeting: 


President: Cornelia Jenness 
Vice-President: James Slater 
Secretary: C.R. Jones 
Treasurer: W. Fred Oakley, Jr. 

Directors at Large 

Rosanne Atwood-Foley 

Robert Drinkwater 

Laurel Gabel 

Elizabeth Goeselt Rosalee Oakley 

Barbara Rotundo 

Miriam Silverman 

Jonathan Twiss 

Ralph Tucker 

Nominating Committee 
C.R. Jones, Chair 
Lance Mayer 
Robert Drinkwater 

Conference Lost and Found 

Several items were found at the conclusion of the Confer- 

A pair of glasses (prescription), pink rims. 
One silver Egyptian ankh earring 
A red plastic rain hat 

(available from Rosalee Oakley, 46 Plymouth Road, 

Needham, MA 02192) 

One large umbrella 

(available from Ckjrnelia Jenness, HCR 10, Box 643, 
Spofford, NH 03462) 

AGSSu'91 p. 14 



June 30, 1991 

President W. Fred Oakley Jr. called the meeting to 
order at 8:42 AM at Camp Hall, Northfield Mt. Hermon 
School, Northfield MA. Secretary Lance Mayer re- 
ported a quorum of at least twenty members present, 
and declared the meeting duly convened. 

Fred Oakley asked whether there were any additions, 
corrections or deletions to the minutes of the previous 
annual meeting, which had been distributed. There 
being none, he declared the minutes approved. 

Several reports, which had been previously 
distributed, and which are printed in this issue of the 
Newsletter, were discussed. A motion by Ralph Tucker, 
seconded by Joseph Edgette, that the Treasure's Re- 
port be accepted, was approved unanimously. It was 
moved by Barbara Rotundo and seconded by John 
Wilson that the report of the AGS Archivist be accepted; 
this motion was approved unanimously. A motion by 
Phil Kallas, seconded by Jim Jewell, that the report of 
the Editor of Markers be accepted was approved 
unanimously. A motion by Lorraine Clapp, seconded 
by Mira Graves, that the report of the Research Coor- 
dinator be accepted was approved unanimously. 

New Executive Director Miranda Levin was introduced; 
she referred to her report (which had been 
distributed, and is printed in this issue of the Newslet- 
ter) , and said that working with AGS has been a joy and 
a challenge, and that she is eager to work for us and 
with us. A motion to accept the Executive Director's 
report was made by Phyllis VanOsten, seconded by 
Carol Perkins, and was approved unanimously. 

Fred Oakley referred to his report, and added that in 
spite of the many changes in AGS this year, the 
transitions had gone remarkably smoothly. A rrotion 
was made by Robert Drinkwater, seconded by Gray 
Williams, that the President's Report be accepted; the 
motion was approved unaninnously. 

Deborah Trask asked members to submit more original 
material for the AGS Newsletter. She can also use 
items on 3 1/2" computer disk (Mac or format ASCII), 
and announced that she would like to give up the 
editorship of the Newsletter in the summer of 1993. 
Deborah has been editor since 1983. 

Fred Oakley introduced a slide presentation, "AGS 
Goes Bigtime," describing the history of the AGS office 

and the recent transition to a space in the Worcester 
Historical Museum, and also illustrating many of our 
present activities, including the Newsletter, Markers, 
the Lending Library, the Board of Trustees, and a 
preview of the 1992 conference. 

Fred Oakley asked if there was any new business, and 
there was none. 

Fred Oakley introduced Richard Meyer, who will be the 
new Editor of Markers, and an ex officio member of the 
Board of Tmstees. 

Fred Oakley recognized the importance of Robert 
Drinkwater, who will be retiring as Vice-President, and 
he presented Lance Mayer and Lorraine Clapp, who 
are retiring from the Board of Tmstees, each with a 
plaque to recognize six years' service on the Board. 

C.R. Jones, Chair of the Nominating Committee, re- 
ported the results of the mail balloting for Trustees and 
Officers, and introduced the new Trustees and Officers 
who were present. Officers are: Cornelia Jenness, 
President; James Slater, Vice-President; C.R. Jones, 
Secretary; W. Fred Oakley Jr., Treasurer. Directors-at- 
large are: Rosanne Atwood Foley, Robert Drinkwater, 
Laurel Gabel, Elizabeth Goeselt, Rosalee Oakley, 
Barbara Rotundo, Miriam Silverman, Ralph Tuckerand 
Jonathan Twiss. 

According to tradition, Fred Oakley passed a first 
edition copy of Haniette MerrifiekJ Forbes' book The 
gravestones of Early New England and the Men Who 
Made Them, to new president Neil Jenness. Neil 
thanked Fred for everything that he had done for AGS, 
and presented him with an automatic power cord, 
explaining that he will now be farther from the sources 
of power. C.R. Jones presented Fred Oakley with a 
"Perpetual Care" plaque (which he assured members 
had been legally removed), with thanks for all of the 
care that Fred has taken with AGS during his presi- 

A motion was made by Ralph Tucker, seconded by 
Gray Williams, that the meeting be adjourned. New 
President Neil Jennessdeclaredthe meeting adjourned 
at 9:35 AM. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Lance Mayer, Secretary 

AGSSu'91 p. 15 


Two Springfield MA newspapers carried 
Items on the 1991 AGS Conference: 

"Cemetery Scholars Set Study," by David A. Valette. 
From The Springfield L/n/on-A/eivs, June 28, 1991. 

GILL MA- It's written in stone - a gravestone. 

More than 150 members of the Association for 
Gravestone Studies will comb cemeteries 
throughout rural Franklin County and neighboring 
New Hampshire and Vermont over the next three 
days while attending a conference at Northfield 
Mount Hermon School. Arriving yesterday from 
as far away as San Francisco and Nova Scotia, the 
participants, learning from preservation pro- 
fessionals, will record the flavor of the region's 
burial grounds. 

For some, such as Newland F. Smith of Heath, a sort 
of race is on to record the messages and historical 
backround of as many stones as possible, given the 
deterioration taking place from acid rain and other 
factors. Smith proudly shows a book of the the 
Heath Historical Society, completed by an army of 
volunteers, which lists all of the approximately 
1 ,400 gravestones in the town's four cemeteries. 
The rural hilltown has just over 700 residents. 
The listing has become a tool for genealogists, 
including amateurs tracing their own lineage; but 
most important to Smith it puts a freeze on the loss 
of information. His only lament is that it was not 
accomplished sooner. 

"There are many blanks" where the inscriptions 
had already bowed to deterioration, he said. For 
Smith, the association conferences provide a once- 
a-year opportunity to rub shoulders with others 
with the same concerns. 

"It's so great seeing so many people together who 
are all interested in the field," he said. For a 
modest $225 fee, members are lodging the three 
nights in a summer-abandoned dorm, being fed by 
the school, and provided buses for collective 
cemetery tours to go along with their self -guided 

The cemetery at Historic Deerfield, where the 
history of a settlement is recorded on the stones, 
is one of theirtargets. Others are the cemetery off 
Old Stage Road in Montague Center where the works 
of Deerfield stone carvers John Locke and Solomon 
Ashley are well represented; the cemetery off 
West Leyden Road in Colrain with its examples of 

carved marble stones by George Winslow of 
Charlemont, and Green River Cemetery in 
Greenfield on a bluff overlooking the Green River. 

Helping with arrangements are the Northfield 
Historical Society, the Northfield Historical 
Commission and the Pioneer Valley Historical 
Council which is comprised of the 30 historical 
societies of Franklin County. 

Today'sfarefortheconferees includes a restoration 
workshop conducted by Jim and Minxie Fannin of 
Concord, which will involve the cleaning and re- 
setting of stones in Northfield's Center Cemetery. 
Tomorrow, a pair of bus tours will cover both the 
early and Victorian-era cemeteries of the upper 
Connecticut River Valley. 

The early era trip includes Westminster and 
Rockingham in Vermont, and Charlestown, 
Walpole, and Chesterfield in New Hampshire; while 
the Victorian circuit begins in Winchester, N.H., 
includes both Bellows Falls and Brattleboro in 
Vermont, and concludes in Greenfield. 

"New England Gravestones Deemed Historic Gold 
Mine," by David A. Vallette. From The Springfield 
Republican, June 30, 1991. 

GILL MA - To be a member of the Association for 
Gravestone Studies is to be an historian, an art 
critic, a researcher and a bit of the fanatic. 

When 150 of these gravestone enthusiasts de- 
scended on the campus of Mt. Hermon School 
Thursday they came for the whole picture of the 
Upper Connecticut River Valley. The school was 
merely their base of operations. Cars and buses 
fanned out into cemeteries from Deerfield to 
Walpole, N.H., and they checked out the local 
museums, town architecture and anything else 
that had bearing on the creation of the unique 
burial stones they found. The burial markers 
offered stories about individual people, their 
families and their communities. 

For William Hosley, a curator of decorative art in 
Hartford, the upper valley is a gold mine. "There 
is an extraordinary collection of historic and 
artistic markers here," he said. People in the 

AGSSu-91 p. 16 

Colonial Period here lived with the constant threat 
ot hostility, and many graves tell of the resultant 
loss of life. "This was a war zone. . . You had to have 
some guts," he said of those who defied the odds to 
live in the frontier, and whose deaths were so well 
noted by data carved into their stones. "There is 
a whole sense of trauma and tragedy right there on 
the gravestones." 

Among the unique pieces of information on the 
stones, largely peculiar to the area, is the listing 
of where the deceased had come from - their towns 
of origin in southern and eastern New England. 

For most of the cemetery enthusiasts, the primary 
task is to determine exactly who did the carving 
since very few carvers put their names to the 
stone the way painters sign their works. They left 
signatures, nonetheless, in the form of identifi- 
able designs and workmanship, and association 
members take a scholarly approach toward iden- 
tification. Carvers with surnames of Locke, 
Stewart, Baldwin, Soules, Wright, Bartlett, 
Phelps, Brown, Winslow and Ashley all worked 
the upper valley, and all left signatures which 
these scholars can read. 

The Association is based in the Worcester Histori- 
cal l\/luseum in Worcester. 

contributed by Leslie Ann Geist, Wauconda IL, and 

Janis Ramotti, on the AGS '91 conference Victorian tour at 
Winchester NH. photo by Jim Jewell. 

These students of the stone are also interested in 
preservation. They spend many hours cataloguing 
cemeteries to produce computer and paper records 
of gravestone messages. The stones will deterio- 
rate but what they had to say is locked in protected 
archives. They also promote the physical protection 
of cemeteries through community projects. 
Charles tvlarchant of Townshend VT has specific 
interest in the plight of small family burial grounds 
that are on private land now owned by other than 
ancestors of the buried family. "These are outdoor 
museums. They need to be cared for and access to 
them preserved," he said. Marchant urges creation 
of local groups to work with landowners to get 
their cooperation, rather than see these "muse- 
ums" fall by the wayside. 

The conference, which ends today, was held at Mt. 
Hermon for the first time. One of the organization's 
1 3 earlier annual conferences was held at Amherst 
College, keeping to a workable pattern of taking 
advantage of schools vacant with summer recess 
when dorms, dining halls and meeting rooms are 
all available and at modest prices. 

Next year the conference will be held at Union 
College in Schenectady NY; New Haven CT is likely 
for 1 993, and Chicago is expected to be the host in 


Three AGS former and current members have died 

Robert van Benthuysen of Long Branch NJ regu- 
larly sent clippings to the Newsletter. 

Loring f^cl^illen, Staten Island Borough Histo- 
rian, was a member for several years, then he 
turned his membership over to the Friends of 
Abandoned Cemeteries of Staten Island (FACSI). 
He died f^arch 19, 1991, aged 85. 

Dr. Hilda U. Fife, AGS Forbes Award recipient in 
1983, died in November 1 990, aged 87. Hilda was 
the dedicated founder of Maine Old Cemetery As- 
sociation (MOCA)in 1968. 

Thelma McAlpine-Ernst, 4 Hartford Ave., P.O.B. 
4, West Upton fViA 01 587, writes that she attended 
the first meeting in June of 1976 and has been an 
AGS member ever since. "It would be interesting 
to know how many of those attending in 1976 are 
still members." Deborah Trask was heard won- 
dering aloud at the '91 conference if there are 
others (besides herself) who have attended every 
conference since 1976. AGS is now old enough to 
have its own history and traditions! 

AGSSu'91 p. 17 


by Dr. Maynard Mires, Georgetown DE 

an informal version of tfiis article was 
presented at the 1991 AGS conference 
"late show". 

Gravehouses or grave sheds, although 
certainly not unique to the Chippewa, 
are found in their most interesting 
setting in a Christian Indian cemetery 
on Madeline Island on the far northern 
shores of Wisconsin. To this area of 
Chequamegon Bay in the western end of 
Lake Superior came the first French 
explorers, des Groseilliers and 
Radisson, in 1659. They would be 
followed by a long line of adventurous 
Frenchmen who desired either to trade 
with the local Indians for their furs or to bring 
them the gospel. 

The gravehouse custom is particularly common to 
another part of the United States, in a belt stretching 
westward from Tennessee to Oklahoma. Appar- 
ently of Native American origin, these gravehouses 

described such customs in their areas. Of interest 
to this author was ivis. Bellous' reference to Fr. 
Frederick Baraga, known as "the Snowshoe 
Priest", for, before transferring to the U.P., he 
was involved in good works among the Chippewa on 
Madeline Island. The museum at La Pointe contains 
many artefacts of his tenure there in the 1830s. 
He was joined by Protestant missionaries 
from New England in an effort to educate the 
children of the Chippewa and also combat the 
evil effects of alcohol sales by the unscru- 
pulous American Fur Company. 

Throughthecenturiesthe Indians of Madeline 
Island have welcomed to their lodges a whole 
succession of white men, this intermar- 
riage resulting in present-day inhabitants 
counting among their illustrious ancestors 
various French noblemen. Chief White Crane 
and the Warrens of Massachusetts. Cadotte 
as a surname is today a matter of pride, 
showing descent from a whole line of fur 
traders beginning with Jean Baptiste Cadotte, 
and liberally interspersed with some of the 

were intended to comfort and protect the spirits of 
the deceased during its journey to be re-untied 
with the Great Spirit. Disintegration of the "house" 
is equated with spiritual progress. 

Past articles \r\\he AGS Newsletterhy Linda Joslin 
(Arkansas), Sybil Crawford (Texas) and Betty 
Bellous of the Upper Peninsula in Michigan have 

All of these people have been fortunate enough 
to be accepted into the Chippewa cemetery when it 
came time to meet their Maker. Therefore, the 
sign proclaiming this to be the "La Point Indian 
Cemetery" does not tell the whole story. Also the 
date of 1836 is much too conservative, for burials 
occurred here long before then. The cemetery 
reflects its diverse origins by containing not only 
gravehouses but also a few traditional gravestones 

AGSSu'91 p. 18 

(Warrens) and two most intriguing wrought iron 
French crosses with symbols of the suns rays, a 
heart and the fleur-de-lys. Could such represent 
the grave of some unfortunate chevalier (or even 
comte) who died far from home while serving the 
interests of his king? 

Maynard H. Mires of Georgetown, Delaware was 
educated at the University of Buffalo Medical School 
and Harvard School of Public Health. Formerly State 
Epidemiologist for the Vermont Department of Health 
and the Director of Public Health Services for the New 
Hampshire Department of Health and Social Services, 
he retired as Directorofthe Sussex County Health Unit 
of Georgetown, Delaware in 1989. 

A Stonecutter's Sample Stone 

by Ralph Tucker 

A number of stones in the Pratt family style have been 
found in Freeport, Maine. As the family was located in 
Abington, Massachusetts, efforts to identify the carver 
were successfully made. It was discovered that Noah 
Pratt, son of Noah and grandson of Nathaniel, pur- 
chased land in Freeport in 1781, shortly after the 
revolution. Here he lived with his wife, having married 
in 1 780. The census of 1 790 indicates that he had four 
sons and a daughter at that time. When his brother 
Robert died in Abington in 1791 Noah returned to 
Abington and took up the business there. His son Cyrus 
followed in the family business, although he used the 
then stylish tree and urn style. 

Some years later in the attic of Noah's former house in 
Freeport was found a small carved stone 1 4" by 7" with 
the typical Pratt style head in the tympanum, part of the 
alphabet and the year 1 787 in the inscription area, with 
Noah Pratt carved below together with two additional 
heads. At first the stone was not recognized for what it 
was, but research uncovered the fact that Noah was a 
real person and had lived in Freeport and was indeed 
a carver. 

The small stone is a poor grade of slate, but well 
preserved. It is illustrated in the book Maine andits Role 
in American Art, 1740- 1825 (New York, 1963). 

The local historical society is having all the still-existing 
Pratt stones photographed, and a study is being made 
as to otherstones made by the variousfamily members. 
Harriette Forbes in 1927 identified Noah Pratt as a 

carver but has his death as 1731. This was the birth 
date of Noah, Sr. who was also a carver. Peter Benes 
in his book has a section on the family, and assumes 
that Nathaniel was a carver, which in the light of further 
evidence does not seem to be the case. Noah Sr. and 
Seth Jones Pratt both carvers, removed to the 
Skowhegan area of Maine, and Robert stayed in 

Ralph Tucker is. a frequent contributor to the Newsletter, 
presently living in Maine. He was the first president of AGS. 

AGSSu'91 p. 19 


Restoration of the historic cemetery at the Church-on- 
the-Hili, Lenox NY, began this summer. Marcia B. 
Brown, chair of the Lenox Historical Commission, said 
that the project would begin with a mapping and pho- 
tographic survey of plots and stones. 

Brown said she had 25 volunteers ready to work and 
hoped that more would come fonward. County surveyors 
had already begun a grid of the cemetery, assisted by 
a local architect. 

The project will take at least 1 years and a lot of money, 
according to Brown. Expert direction, supervision, and 
training for volunteers will be needed, as well as skilled 
labor to do some of the repairs. But she said she hopes 
to obtain most of the funds through private donations 
and grants. At the top of the commission's list of things 
to do is pnjning or removing and replacing overgrown 
shrubs and hazardous trees, as well as repairing 
gravestones, many of which have broken off at ground 
level and fallen down. "Each stone has its problems," 
Brown said yesterday. "Each stone is a project in itself." 

The earliest known gravestone in the cemetery, ac- 
cording to DPW employee Paul A. Pelkey, is that of 4 
month old Elisha Bangs, who died July 3, 1 771 . Pelkey, 
who is responsible for the town's three cemeteries, said 
the DPW has already done a lot of cleanup work. The 
town took over maintenance of the cemeteries in 1 984. 
He said he has uncovered two or three stones that 
nobody knew were there. However, he and Brown said, 
there is much more to be done. 

Other items on the restorers' agenda will be resurfacing 
the road and parking area, as well as the walkway in the 
cemetery. The fine old stone wall that surrounds it and 
the fences on Main and Greenwood streets need repair. 
So do the Main Street steps, according to the Historical 
Commission's proposal. The 3 acre cemetery at the 
crest of the hill on Main Street was given to the town in 
1 768 by a Connecticut family. It is closed except to 
people who already own plots. 

Its 2,100 residents include local luminaries such as 
Jonathan Hinsdale, the town's first settler, who died in 
1811; the Rev. Samuel Shepard, pastor of the Congre- 
gational Church for 50 years (1846); Dr. Anson Jones, 
last president of the Republic of Texas (1858); and 
Serge Koussevitzky, founding music director at 
Tanglewood. "It's an outdoor museum," said Brown, 
adding that the site draws a continual stream of visitors. 
According to Brown, another reason that the project will 
take a long time is that it cannot proceed without permits 
from the state to ensure that the work is done properly. 

She said no gravestones will be moved until the survey 
is completed and permits received. 

"Restoration of Historic Cemetery a Big Undertaking for 
Volunteers, " by Abby Pratt. From The Berkshire Ea- 
gle, March 2, 1991, contributed by Wm. Andy Meier, 
New Lebanon, NY 

JERSEY CITY - City officials and long-time city resi- 
dents are trying to block an Egyptian church from 
getting the deed of an abandoned cemetery to build a 
pathway through the cemetery to their church. St. 
George's Coptic Orthodox Church at 835 Bergen Av- 
enue wantsto build apathway through Speer Cemetery 
for a new entrance on the west side of the church. But 
several city residents want the cemetery, lodged be- 
tween Bergen Avenue shops and the back yards of a 
half-dozen Van Reypen Avenue homes, to remain 

'This is part of our history. Let's leave it as it is," 
Councilman Joseph Rakowski said, "there are certain 
things that are sacred. In order to do what they want to 
do they would have to upset the grounds." The City 
Council unanimously passed a resolution at its March 
13 meeting recommending the cemetery receive state 
or national designation as a historical landmark. The 
small cemetery, with graves dating from 1 825 to 1 91 5, 
is home to the families of Jersey City's early Dutch 
settlers, including several Civil War and Spanish- 
American War veterans. Rakowski said a historical 
designation would protect the cemetery from any intru- 

St. George's Church officials said they want to build a 
raised pathway through the cemetery that will not 
interfere with any of the 142 graves. With the new 
pathway, parishioners will be able to enter the church 
from the west, conforming with centuries-old Orthodox 
traditions. Church Treasurer Michael Nairn said the 
church would maintain the cemetery in the best condition 
and allow any descendents of those buried there to visit 
the graves at any time. 

But some city residents, such as Anthony Fiola, said 
they fearthe church will turn the cemetery into a pari<ing 
lot for the church's 8,000 parishioners who have diffi- 
culty finding adequate pari<ing during services. 

From an article titled "Residents Fight Church, " by 
Robyn Pforrin The Hudson Dispatch. Contributed by 
Thomas B. Moore, North Bergen, NJ 

AGS Su-91 p. 20 

The following item is an interesting follow-up to the descrip- 
tion of the restoration of the Lt. Jonathan Church gravestone 
in the AGS Newsletter (V. 15 #1) Winter 1990-91, p. 9: 

WETHERSFIELD CT- For years, the gravestone of Lt. 
Jonathan Church had been slowly deteriorating in the 
Old Village Cemetery. No one knew the former 
Wethersf ield resident was one of the first of the "First to 
Fight," the U.S. Marines, orthat a painting of Lt. Church 
is the earliest existing image of a U.S. Marine, the only 
from its era. But, after much research, his gravestone 
has been restored, and his grave behind the First 
Church of Christ rededicated with much ceremony. 

The Marine Detachment 1797, a volunteer civilian unit 
involved in educational and historical wori<, found and 
restored the gravestone and participated in the 
rededication ceremony last spring. 

Historical records indicate that Lt. Church resigned 
from the military after contracting tuberculosis, and 
moved to Wethersf ield in 1801, where he bought the 
Church Tavern, said. Nora Howard, director of the 
Historical Society. He died in 1 805, and the tavern later 
burned down. 

American Heritage Magazine found a painting of Lt. 
Church, owned by a distant relative in Columbus, Ohio, 
Ms. Howard said. After research with the help of the 
Marine Corps Historical Center in Washington, the 
Marine detachment found that the painting is the only 
known existing image of a Marine of the 1797-1803 
period. Knowing what Marine uniforms looked like is 
critically important to the re-enactment group. With the 
painting, Ms. Howard said, re-enactors are "able to 
replicate it right down to the buttons." About 80 costumed 
re-enactors took part in the ceremony. 

William Moss, a Marine Detachment 1 797 officer, noted 
that the Continental Marines, fighting during the 
American Revolution, disbanded in 1785. The U.S. 
Marines formed in 1797, he said. The grave is behind 
the First Church near its glass partition. The Marine 
detachment repaired the broken gravestone, and placed 
a second stone at its base. Moss said. 

At the ceremony, the Marine Detachment, through the 
United States Artillery Association, posthumously pre- 
sented Lt. Church with the Honorable Award of Saint 
Barbara, and handed it overto the care of the Historical 
Society. The Historical Society also displayed an early 
American Marine uniform, donated from the Marine 

From an article titled "One of 1st Marines Rests in Town, 'by 
Michael Kling, the New Britain Herald^ March 22, 1991. 
Contributed by Ray Cummings, Avon CT 

In Chicago, AGS member Helen Sclair has uncov- 
ered a long-lost cache of 150-year old documents 
that, experts say, significantly deepens historians' 
understanding of Chicago's fornnative years. Helen's 
discovery of the records of a former city cemetery on 
the site of what is now Lincoln Park provides scholars 
with a better picture of where Chicago's pioneer 
settlers came from, as well as a portrait of the kind of 
lives they led here. 

Sclair made her find in a recently opened state 
archive at Northeastern Illinois University, on the 
city's Northwest Side. Anrxjng the documents she 
uncovered was a demographic gokj mine of under- 
takers' reports. They record the passings, month by 
month, of Chicago's early settlers, plustheirages and 
birthplaces, where they resided and the causes of 

In 1 842, the city fathers established a municipal burial 
ground on a tract of land, then on Chicago's outskirts, 
roughly bounded by North Ave., LaSalle St., Wisconsin 
St. and State St. By thectose of the Civil War, though, 
residences were being built on nearby North Side 
streets. So the city decided to convert the land to a 
lakefront park, naming it after the recently assassi- 
nated Abraham Lincoln. 

Through subsequent decades, txxJies that interfered 
with the park's development were moved to outlying 
cemeteries such as Rosehill and Graceland on the 
North Side and Oakwoods on the South Side. But 
Sclair's research shows that some families were still 
fighting the rerrusval of forebears' remains as late as 
the turn of the century. Indeed, Sclair thinks that all 
of the tx)dies may not yet t»e out of Lincoln park. 

HAMILTON OH- The restored Symmes Monument, 
created in memory of Captain John Cleves Symmes 
and his belief that the earth was hollow.returned to its 
home in Symmes Park in March. Symmes died in 1 829, 
but, according to infonnation supplied by AGS member 
Thomas Stander of Hamilton, the stone, attributed to 
the monument firm of Horssnyder and Kessling, was 
erected in the late 1840s. 

The renovations, made at a cost of about $16,000, 
involved repair of the monument itself and the fencing 
around it, purchase of four new bronze plaques and 
casting four new benches to be placed on each side of 
the monument. EdgarTafur, a Hamilton resklentforthe 
past 20 years and a nationally known sculptor, was 
selected by Historic Hamilton to perform the work. 


Three of the four new plaques are 
engraved with the original legends 
about Symmes, officials said. One 
gives historical information and the 
other two state legends about his 
beliefs. The fourth plaque is a list of 
the major contributors to the resto- 
ration and their donations. 

While kids nearby shot basketball 
at the Symmes Park Playground, 
crews with a crane lowered lime- 
stone blocks into place, restoring 
the monumentto Symmes, an 1 8th- 
century Hamilton resident whom 
an "Atlantic Monthly" writer once 
speculated might someday 
be honored alongside Sir 
Isaac Newton (who discov- 
ered gravity) and Benjamin 
Franklin (who proved light- 
ning is electricity). 

side of the planet over the rim and 
down upon the inner side a great 
distance before becoming aware of 
what happened. 

Poe's "Manuscript Found in a Bot- 
tle" and "Descent into the Mael- 
strom" both were inspired and partly 
based on Symmes' theory, 
Havighurstwrotein1981. He added 
that Symmes was buried in the old 
Hamilton Cemetery, which is now 
the 3.5 acre Symmes Park, along 
the railroad and between Sycamore 
and South Third and South Fourth 

Edgar Tafur has been working to restore the monument 
created in memory of Captain John Cleves Symmes and his 
belief that the earth is hollow. 

Occasionally, the large arm of the crane would knock 
dead twigs from a tree overhead, sending them to the 
ground around the monument - an ironic reminder that 
Newton's laws were working while 
Symmes' theories were in disuse. 
"Watch for falling branches," one 
crewman called while the older 
stones of the monument -two blocks 
of Indiana limestone capped by an 
80 pound tunneled-through sphere 
of Ohio limestone - were gently low- 
ered onto the new limestone base. 
In all, the monument stands 9 1/2 
feet tall and weighs roughly 2,000 
pounds. Its standout feature is 
bored-out 20 inch limestone sphere, 
representing Symmes' belief that 
the Earth was hollow and it was 
possible for people to live inside it. 

Symmes' theory had a serious fol- 
lowing in his time, and inspired writ- 
ings by Edgar Allen Poe, 
Henry David Thoreau, and 
Herman Melville. In 1822 
Symmes proposed a polar expedition, which was ap- 
proved by President John Quincy Adams before being 
cancelled by President Andrew Jackson. 

According to a 1981 Journal-News article written by 
MiamiUniversityprofessor Dr. Walter E. Havighurst, 
Symmes theorized that the world was comprised of five 
concentric spheres with a hollow core and polar open- 
ings so wide that a voyager could pass from the outer 

The older limestone 
blocks remain, but have 
been sanded, glued, and 
cleaned. Graffiti also was 
removed from the monument, which had been nicked 
by bullets and baseball bats. As workers installed the 
monument, they and the sculptor independently dis- 
cussed the possibility of future vandalism of the stoic- 
ture, which is surrounded by a spiked metal fence. 
Vandals have targeted the monu- 
ment for more than a century. 

When the cemetery was aban- 
doned, the Symmes monument 
was the only one left standing, 
Havighurst wrote. In 1882, the 
globe was broken off, and later 
found in one of the neighboring 
yards. Stander notes that the site 
still contains the remains of many 
of Hamilton's early settlers. Not all 
the bodies were removed from this 
site to the new (greenwood) Cem- 
etery. Some old records put the 
figure at near 200 gravestones 
which were laid flat in the grounds 
and covered over with a layer of 

7776 restored Symmes monument on its new base. 

from information sent by Thomas F. Stander. l-lamilton 
OH , including two newspaper items: "Symmes Monu- 
ment to Return Soon, "by Alicia Maloney.and "Legacy 
Returns to Park, " by l\Aike Rutledge. from The Hamil- 
ton Journal, March 5, and March 12, 1991, respec- 

AGS Su'91 p. 22 


The gravestone of freed slave Nickerson Cowan, found 
discarded in Topeka KS earlier this year, was returned 
to the Clinton Cemetery in Douglas County in tvlay. The 
puzzle began in January when Pam Shelor found the 
white marble stone on abandoned property near her 

Trying to find Cowan's grave, she phoned area cem- 
eteries. For a month, Sarah f^cNeive, a Topeka 
Cemetery board member, checked city and county 
records, cemetery records, phoned township clerks 
and black families named Cowan in Topeka, with no 
luck. Searching for a black historical society to consult, 
Shelorcontacted AGS member John Mark Lambertson, 
a reference archivist with the Kansas State Historical 
Society. He checked historical society records and 
state and federal census records, with the same result, 
until he spotted a photograph of the stone in a book. 

Lambertson called l^artha Parker, directorof the Clinton 
Lake Museum. When he told herthat a stolen tombstone 
had been linked to Clinton Cemetery, she gasped "It 
isn't Nickerson Cowan, is it?". In 1975 Parker literally 
uncovered the stone when she found it buried under 
cedar branches and debris in the cemetery. Parker set 
up the stone and photographed it for the book, a 
Bicentennial project. Afraid someone would steal it, 
she laid it down and covered it again. During a cleanup 
at the cemetery later that year, the stone was leaned 
against a tree. "Within a month, it was gone", Parker 
said. "For 15 years we wondered who took it." 

The 1 885 Kansas census helped flesh out details about 
Cowan, who was txjrn in Virginia and later was moved 
to Mississippi. He didn't come to Kansas until the 1 880s 
where one of his sons was living. Unable to read or 
write, Nickerson Cowan had athree-acrefarm in Clinton 
where he grew corn and potatoes. 

Why take so much time to trace Cowan's gravesite? 
"Every tombstone is sacred. This one is especially so 
because it honors the life of an individual who left very 
little in documentation about his life. He was kept in 
bondage most of his life and was denied the ability to 
read and write. The stone commemorates the most 
important thing in his life, the event which made him 
free," Lambertson said. 

Engraved on the stone is "Nickerson Cowan/ passed / 
to the /spiritland /on the /1 7 day of May 1 886 /Aged 87 
years./ A slave till Lin/coln's proclamation /on 1 of 
January 1863". 

from the Topeka Capital Journal, May 11, 1991 and the 
Lawrence Journal-World, May 26, 1991, sent by John Mark 

John Mark Lambertson, right, Kansas State Historical Soci- 
ety researcher, found the gravesite of freed slave Nickerson 
Cowan after Pam Shelor, left, discovered the stone near her 
Topeka home. 

The Topeka Capital-Journal oi May 26, 1991 carried 
a story by Lisa M. Sodders at)out another gravestone 
turned over to Lambertson. As Elta Lentz's two sons 
were planting some bushes and shrubs on their mother's 
front lawn on Mother's Day a stone was unearthed. On 
the stone were the words: "John Z. Hunsicker 1801- 
1 890". Lentz remembered reading the above story, so 
she asked John Mark Lambertson to find the home of 
the 70-pound martale Hunsicker stone. He sought help 
from the Osage County Historical Society and the 
Leiver Public Library. The key to the stone's owner was 
the 1 875 State Census Index in which John Z. Hunsicker 
was listed along with his occupation of "eating and 
sleeping" and real estate valued at $6,000. While bom 
in Pennsylvania, he had died at his son John's home 
near Osage City, Kansas, according to his newspaper 
obituary. He was married three times, outlived all his 
wives, fathered nine children and outlived four of them. 
Lambertson located descendants in the area who were 
able to return it to the gravesite. 

AGS Su'91 p. 23 

Halifax (Nova Scotia) 's Old Burying Ground has beconne 
the first cemetery in Canada to be designated a national 
historic site. 

Many of the grave markers are "exceptional examples 
of grave art and national architectural significance," 
Lawrence Friend, executive secretary of the Historic 
Sites and Monuments Board of Canada said in an 
interview from Ottawa. The board has not previously 
consideredcemeteriesforthe national status but decided 
recently to make graveyards eligible under certain 
criteria, he said. 

The Burying Ground, often referred to as St. Paul's 
Cemetery, was founded the day after Halifax was 
founded in 1749. The cemetery came underthe control 
of the Old Burying Ground Foundation in 1987 after 
efforts to maintain the site by St. Paul's parishioners 
proved beyond their financial resources. The founda- 
tion is composed of St. Paul's parishioners and mem- 
bers of the public. AGS member Deborah Trask has 
been advisor to this project. Resetting and repair of 
more than 700 of the 1250+ stones is now completed. 

from the Halifax NS Chronicle Herald, August 29, 1991. 


Gwinnett County, Georgia, Deaths 1818-1989 

Inscriptions from every headstone in old cemeteries, 
black and white, in Gwinnett and most of Barrow County 
GA, with references to some deaths and burials of 
Gwinnett people in other nearby cemeteries in DeKalb, 
Hall, Forsyth, Fulton, and Walton counties, plus abstracts 
from deeds, estate and guardian sales and adminis- 
trations, family information, Sammon undertaker's 
records, church and County Commission minutes, court 
proceedings, and obituaries. 39,700 individuals in- 
cluded. 810 pp. Edited by Alice Smythe McCabe. 

Descriptions of where to locate graveyards, when 
catalogued and by whom, condition, if vandalized, etc. 
Includes inscriptions (not epitaphs) from 407 graveyards 
in Gwinnett County and nearby counties where early 
settlers owned land, attended church, etc. 

To order, send check for $60.00 plu $4.25 postage to 
Gwinnett Historical Society, Inc., P.O. Box 261, 
Lawrenceville, GA 30246. 

The Wilbraham Cemetery Commission and The 
Wilbraham Historical Commission have recently com- 
pleted a restoration project at the Adam's Cemetery in 
Wilbraham. The Commissions have mended the bro- 
ken stones dating from 1741-1941 and have restored 
them to their original locations in the old section of the 
cemetery. There were 995 headstones and footstones 
involved in the project. The Historical Commission has 
indexed each stone alphabetically as well as listed 
them by rows. These two Commissions are to be 
commended for their preservation efforts on behalf of 
the Adams Cemetery. 


Heritage Cemeteries 

Dates: October 31 -November 2, 1991; 9.00 am 
- 4:00 pm 

Location: University of Victoria, Victoria, British 
Columbia, Canada 

Cemeteries are important heritage resources 
that are increasingly attracting attention world- 
wide from people in many disciplines. This 
course will trace the development of cemeteries 
in the last two hundred years, and discuss the 
ways in which they reflect the cultures in which 
they were created. It will deal with the evolution 
of cemetery landscape design, and the archi- 
tecture and symbolism of grave markers. At- 
tention will be paid to inventory and recording 
techniques, assessing historical merit, public 
education programs, planning cemetery resto- 
ration, and the nature of and remedies for van- 
dalism. Field visits to Victoria's nineteenth century 
burial grounds will illustrate much of the content. 

instructors: John Adams, Chairof the Old Cem- 
eteries Society of Victoria, and Michael Tripp, 
Lecturer in the Department of Geography, Uni- 
versity of Victoria. 
Fee $200.00 (Canadian) 

Further information and registration materials 
can be obtained from Joy Davis, Coordinator, 
Cultural Resource Management Program, Dlvi- 
sionof University Extension, University of Victoria, 
POBox3030, Victoria, BC,V8W3N6;Telephone 
(604) 721 8426 or FAX (604) 721 8774. 

AGS Su'91 p. 24 


Now that my tirst six months as AGS Executive 
Director, including a Conference, the release of 
Markers VIII, and just learning the ropes are 
over, I am delighted to begin writing about items 
that might be of interest to you here in the 

First of all, let me say that my first few months 
have been a real pleasure! Now that I have a pretty 
good idea of the day-to-day operations, I am be- 
ginning to think about implementing some of the 
ideas I've been accumulating since I started working 
for the Association. 

My first priority is maintaining the membership. 
AGS has had a steady 900 members or so for the 
last few years. However, costs have gone up. 
While we are adequately covering these cost in- 
creases right now, fewer dollars are left over each 
year for other projects. To grow any business, 
there are basically two options: you can either 
increase your prices, or increase your volume. If 
we don't have an increase in membership, we will 
eventually have to increase our membership fees. 
However, if we can steadily increase our mem- 
bership, perhaps we can forgo having to increase 
our fees, at least for a while. Now I'm not talking 
about a membership explosion here - what I'd like 
to see is 1 000 members one year from now. As of 
July 9, 1991 we had 932 members. If everyone 
made an effort to sign up one new member in the 
next year, we could have 1000 members easily. 
And, to make it even easier for you, we will be 
running an incentive program, with gifts for 
every member who brings in a new member, 
beginning in the fall. Details will be in the next 
Newsletter, but take this opportunity to request 
brochures now, so you'll be ready to go when it 

We also have a new Publications List, with several 
new items in it. Most notable, of course, is 
Markers V///, which is $20 for members ($25 
for others). There's also James Slater's The 
Colonial Burying Grounds of Eastern 
Connecticut and the Men Who Made Them^ 
which is being offered this year as it is a beautiful 
complement to Afar/cers VIII. It should be noted, 
however, that it is almost sold out at this time, so 
order early if you are interested. The price is 
$75. We also have a new slide show, "The De- 
velopment of the Modern Cemetery and Gravestone 
Design in the 19th-century." It is presently in a 
slide/script format and is available for rental 
only, at a cost of $15. Finally, after many requests, 

we now have a listing of Weivs/effer Tables of 
Contents. For $1.50, this leaflet gives you the 
Table of Contents for each issue of the Ne wsletter. 
It's a handy reference guide for the issues you 
already own, and is invaluable if you are interested 
in purchasing back issues, which, by the way, are 
also available at this time. For more information 
about these and all of the other items for sale, 
please send a SASE to the AGS office. 

Speaking of things for sale, demand was so great 
for Conference '91 T-shirts that I've ordered a 
few more. I presently have T-shirts available in 
all sizes (S,M,L,XL,XXL); they're exactly the 
same as those at the conference - gray, 98% 
cotton, with maroon design and lettering. To 
order, please send the size(s) you want, your 
mailing address, and $10 for each shirt sizes S to 
XL, $1 1 for each XXL, to the AGS office. 

Recently, I've had several requests for speakers, 
and, not beingfamiliarwithwhointhe membership 
does this sort of thing, have had to work at finding 
AGS members in the area to speak. AGS used to have 
a Speaker's Bureau, and I'd like to rejuvenate it if 
possible. If you are interested in helping me out 
here, please let me know. I would like to have as 
many people on the list as possible. And if you're 
feeling uncomfortable about speaking, don't forget 
that you can always make use of our slide shows to 
help you out. 

There has also been some interest in developing a 
catalog of court cases regarding historic cem- 
eteries, gravestones, etc. as a resource for those 
considering going to court, or developing legis- 
lation. This is an immense project - is there 
anyone out there willing to help out with it? 

That's it for now - have a great rest of the summer! 

- Miranda 


30 Elm St. 

Worcester, MA 01609 

(508) 831-7753 

Did you have some trouble remembering the AGS 
office hours?? Dispair no more - Miranda has 
changed her hours and will be working Monday to 
Thursday 1 1 :30 - 4:30. To be sure to reach her by 
phone, call between 1 and 4 PM (She may be 
running errands the rest of the time) 

AGS Su'91 p. 25 


The contest rules (and the honor system) limited entries 
to members who had not seen or heard of this yard. 
There were seventeen entries, all so intriguing and 
ingenious that each contestant was sent a prize — a 
package of Dan Farber's gravestone notecards. Their 
reasoned guesses placed the yard in seven New 
England locations. 

First prize was awarded to David Proper, Memorial 
Libraries, Deerfield MA. We sent him a mounted 16" x 
20" Farber photo of the Mary Harvey, 1 785, stone in the 
Deerfield burying ground. 

Here are a few excerpts from "hot" contest entries: 

"...These are trick photos of stones superim- 
posed on a phony background..." 

"...These stones are actually in several different 
locations, so they are either copies or someone 
has been BAD!..." 

'This is a refuge for stolen stones!" 

'The yard pictured does not exist. The stones 
arefrom4different burying grounds in 3different 

"...They look as if they were cast from 
hydrostone...What is a gazebo doing in the 
middle of this isolated graveyard...? Sure is 

The following not-to-be-taken-seriously excerpts are 
quoted from an anonymous entry signed, "John 

'This is a small abandoned cemetery, lost in the 
woods of Vermont. You can see the remnants 
of a hunting lodge. .. It must be afamily yard. ..but 
since the stones have different surnames, the 
obvious conclusion is that descent is through 
thefemale line...! would hypothesize, therefore, 
that this was an early attempt at Women's 
Liberation through the use of 
"matronymism"... Those little round Vermont 
faces are symlxslic of a sunset falling over the 
failed attempt to establish female domination in 
a period when the arm was stronger than the 
tongue. This yard must be preserved as it is 


As about half our entrants guessed, this "graveyard " 
does not exist. Or, to be more specific, what you see in 
the photograph is not a burying ground, and the stones 
are not gravestones. They are rep/Zcas of well-known 
gravemarkers from four different New England yards. 

From left to right in the landscape photograph, 
replicas are of: 


The John Fosterstone, 1 681 , which stood in Dorchester 
MA until it was moved, several years ago, to the Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts for safekeeping. It is on perma- 
nent exhibition inthe Museum's Department of American 
Decorative Arts. A replica stands in the Dorchester 
yard in place of the original. 

The slate stone for Rebecca Park, 1803, and her 14 
children. The original stands in Grafton VT. A replica 
of this stone is in the Museum of American Folk Art, New 
Yori< City. 

The Capt. Anthony Gwyn stone, 1776, which stood in 
Newburyport MA until it was moved to the Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts for safekeeping. A replica stands 
in Newburyport in place of the original. 

The Daniel Squier stone, 1 783, which stands in Franklin 
CT. This granite stone is pictured on the cover of James 
Slater's book, The Colonial Burying Grounds of Eastern 
Connecticut and the Men Who Made Them. Because 
the stone was once stolen from the Franklin graveyard 
and returned a few years later, a plan was made to put 
a replica in the graveyard and house the original indoors. 
After a replica was cast the town fathers could not agree 
on the plan, so the original is in the Franklin yard, and 
the replica was given to the Museum of American Folk 

These four replicas were made by Bill McGeer of 
Holland MA, author of Reproducing Relief Surfaces, A 
Complete Handbook of Rubbing, Dabbing, Casting and 
Daubing. While he was making them, Mr. McGeer was 
commissioned to make a second replica o\ each stone 
for Dan and Jessie Lie Farber, and the Farbers have 
erected their four reproductions in a wooded area near 
their home in Worcester MA. It is these "gravestones", 
made of concrete, that appear in the photographs 
(which were made by Dan Farber). 

AGSSu'91 p.26 

Standing with the four replicas in the yard is a piece of 
flagstone (farrightinphoto)unearthedfrom the Farbers' 
garden and erected with the replicas because it looks 
like an uninscribed flagstone gravemarker. In the 
foreground are several natural rock outcroppings. 

Also standing in the foreground of the photo is a 
fragment of a small footstone found in the Worcester 
house where Harriette Merrifield Forbes lived in 1927, 
when she wrote Gravestones of Early New England 

and the Men Who Made Them, 1653- 1800. Mrs. Forbes' 
family thinks the fragment was probably left with her by 
someone who knew of her interest in early grave- 
stones. It has remained in the old Forbes house until 
recently, when it was contributed by the family to the 
Farbers' yard. 

The little footstone is the only authentic stone in the 

yard. It is inscribed, "Capt. Peleg P k," and it is the 

single remaining mystery in the "Mystery Graveyard". 


Wanted to Share: — Studies of handmade gravemarkers 
from comparable mountain areas to find types of ma- 
terials used, forms, and geographical extent of use. We 
have recorded and photographed 1 94 markers of wood, 
soapstone, concrete, and even two glass-fronted, ar- 
tificial flower-filled, beehive markers. 

The study covers counties in the mountains of western 
North Carolina, and reflects the isolation, ruggedness, 
poverty, and dependence on people's ingenuity to use 
what was available to make a personal memorial to a 
loved one. 

Chris & Jack Sheridan 
15 Friar Tuck Lane 
Brevard NC 28712 

George E. Smathers/July 2 1873(?) Jan 11, 1957. stones 
imbedded in cement. Crawford Cemetery 

Thomas L Cane Goodson, died Oct 31, 1936, age 57 y 5 m 
28 d. Cement with small pebbles 

Cement with insulated black electical wire imbedded in wet 
cement to form the name: Emily Lester, Sept 27, 1941 /June 
18, 1942. 

AGS Su'91 p. 27 


The Connecticut Historical Society is conducting tours of central Connecticut graveyards 

September 28 Ancient Burying Ground, Wethersfleld "The Stone and the Spirit" 

Price: $6.00 for CHS members, $9.00 for non-members (transportation to Wethersfield on 
your own). Reservations and payment required by Friday, September 13. 

October 31 Ancient Burying Ground, Hartford "Back From the Dead", a lunch-hour 
Halloween walking tour with Bill Hosley. Price: $4.00 for CHS members, $6.00 for non- 
members (transportation to Ancient Burying Ground on your own). No reservations necessary. 

Send reservation form and check, made payable to CHS, to: 
Historical Society, 1 Elizabeth Street, Hartford CT 06105. 

Maxine Kates, The Connecticut 


The AGS Newsletter is published quarterly as a service to members of the Association for Gravestone 
Studies. The membership year begins the month dues are received and ends oneyear from that date. A one year 
membership entitles the members to four issues of the Newsletter and to participation in the AGS conference 
in the year membership is current. Send membership fees (individual $20; institutional, $25; family $30; 
contributing $30) to The Association for Gravestone Studies 30 Elm Street, Worcester MA 01609. Back issues 
of the Newsletter are available for $3.00 per issue from the AGS office. The goal of the Newsletter is to 
present timely information about projects, literature, and research concerning gravestones, and about the 
activities of the Association for Gravestone Studies. It is produced by Deborah Trask, who welcomes 
suggestions and short contributions from readers. The Newsletter is not intended to serve as a journal. 
Journal articles should be sent to Theodore Chase, editor of Markers, the Journal of the Association 
for Gravestone Studies, 74 Farm St., Dover MA 02030. Address Newsletter contributions to Deborah 
Trask, editor, Nova Scotia Museum, 1747 Summer St., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3A6, Canada. Order 
Markers (Vol. 1 $20; Vol. 2, $20; Vol. 3, $18.50; Vol. 4, $20; Vol. 5, $20; Vol. 6, $23: Vol. 7. $15; Vol 8 
$20; higher prices for non-members) from the AGS office. Send contributions to the AGS Archives to Jo 
Goeselt, 61 Old Sudbury Road, Wayland MA 01778 Address other correspondence to Miranda Levin, Executive 
Director, at the AGS office at 30 Elm Street, Worcester MA 01609. 

30 Elm Street 
Worcester MA 




Permit No. 410 

Worcester MA 





Cemetery Lichen Dyes 

by Karen Leigh Casselman 2 

Contrasting Aleut Cemeteries of Alaska 

by Harvey Medland 4 

The Old Sturbrldge Village Cemetery 5 


Cemeteries and Gravemarkers Section, American Culture Association 

March 1992 7 


Permanent Londoners 

review by Mary Cope 10 

Our Silent Neighbors 

review by Ralph Tucker 11 

Tombstones of Your Ancestors 

review by Deborah Trask 12 


Local Talent or Unusual Imports ? 

by Richard Veil 14 


by Laurel Gabel, AGS Research 15 

Points of Interest 

by William Hosley 18 


Executive Director's Report 21 

Received for the Archives 22 


The traveling exhibit, Sentiment, Sorrows Sepulcher, 
was developed by John Graf, Curator of History at the 
Neville Museum, Green Bay. It explores how society 
viewed death and practiced mourning during the last 
half of the 1 9th century and the early years of the 20th 
century. The exhibit will be at the Wisconsin State 
Historical Museum, Madison Wl [(608) 264-6555] from 
February 11 through June 7, 1992. 

cor)tribut9d by Robert Wright, Madison Wl 

The Mother's Grave, Godey's Lady's Book, 1 859. 

AGS Fa '91 p. 1 


by Karen Leigh Casselman 

As the following article indicates, there 
are people roaming our cemeteries 
who are interested in more than 
gravestones. Certainly it is gratifying 
to learn that craft organizations such 
as the Handweavers Guild of America, 
who printed an earlier version of this 
paper, are prepared to advocate for 
good conservation practices when 
removing lichens from stone. We can 
all benefit from such sensible co-op- 
eration I 

Surely, textile craftspeople are in 
the vanguard where conservation 
and the environment are con- 
cerned. After all, are we not those 
wholesome folk who raise sheep, 
cultivate dye plants, dye, spin, weave and knit our own 
clothing? But, are the lichen dyers in conflict with this 

At a time of increased global-wide environmental dam- 
age, how can we justify using potentially endangered 
plants for textile dyes? Lichen collection for dyes can 
be encouraged, if it's actually beneficial. That is the 
case in most cemeteries, where lichens obscuring 
tombstones are regularly the target of groups such as 
the Association for Gravestone Studies. 

The dyer who collects cemetery lichens opts for plants 
already at risk, either from strong chemicals used to kill 
them, or from brown bagging, another removal tech- 

nique that involves covering stones with burlap sacks 
until the lichens die and can be brushed off. These 
tombstones lichens are the perfect choice forthe urban 
dyer who cannot collect lichens where timber is cut or 
where rock-inhabiting lichens are routinely destroyed 
by construction equipment. 

Some of the most popular dye species are so-called 
weedy lichens that tolerate pollution and thrive in urban 
cemeteries. Various Physcia spp. are prolific on city 
streets and tombstones. Although not often mentioned 
in dye books, these lichens may be used for BWM 
(boiling water method) dyes. Yellow-orange, orange 
and orange-red patches of Xanthoria spp. grow over 
and around flat and curved surfaces of stones, covering 
the lettering and even finials. 
These lichens are much in demand 
asan AFfyl (ammoniafennentation 
^> . ^slf**'' method) pink dye oxidized in sun- 
light to blue. 

City memorial gardens are often 
fenced in wrought iron, but the 
low, random stone walls of rural 
eastern cemeteries are often 
covered with vigorous, circular 
crusts of Xanthoparmelia 
centhfuga, X. conspersa or the 
more southern and central X. 
cumberlandia. All give BWM re- 
sults ranging from orange to njst 
and brown. Other lichens com- 
mon on moist, shaded stone walls 
include Ochrolechia spp. and 

AGS Fa -91 p. 2 

Pertusaria spp., whitish crusts which mal<e AFM red 
and purple dyes. 

The careful removal of cemetery lichens benefits the 
dyer, helps gravestone enthusiasts, and relieves 
lichenologists who would rather dyers not take other, 
potentially endangered lichens for use as dyes. How- 
ever, a word of caution comes from overseas: British 
lichenologists urge dyers to first compile a lichen inven- 
tory of the cemetery before removing the lichens. 
There is always the chance that a rare lichen has found 
its way into a cemetery and this should be documented 

Once the lichens are identified, getting them off the 
stones is almost as much of a challenge. There are two 
objectives in removing lichens: first to remove all the 
lichen; second to leave the stones undamaged. You 
must use non-metal tools such as wooden skewers or 
popsicle sticks. A narrow, rubber spatula is useful, 
especially with lichens such as Xanthoria spp. where 
portions of the thallus have already been loosened or 
blown away by wind and weather. Wet lichens can 
even be removed with the fingers. [Skin contact with 
certain lichens can cause dermatitis. Wearing rubber 
or plastic gloves and collecting lichens when moist 
minimizes exposure to the pesti- 
cides used and the dust from the 
lichens.] But lichens inside letter- 
ing on the stone are another mat- 
ter. For this small, flexible probes 
come in handy, or the handle of a 
fine artist's paintbrush or tooth- 
picks. An old bed sheet makes a 
suitable work sheet, tucked all 
aroundthe base of the stone so no 
lichen particles are lost. 

does not remove a lichen without 
correctly identifying it first. Like 
careful lichen collecting, lichen 
identification requires effort and 
considerable patience. Correct 
identification means more than 
simply rhyming off the genus name: i.e. "It's orange, it's 
crustose, it M UST be Xanfrtof/a!" The ecologically aware 
dyer reads biology and learns about lichen reproduc- 
tion, lichen acid chemistry, and the role played by 
habitat in lichen survival mechanisms. Some of this 
information is included in field guides. However, many 
classic books are hard to find or are out of print. 
Contemporary guides may apply only in another geo- 
graphic region. Authoritative books are generally large, 

too heavy to take into the field, and expensive, if you're 
a lichen novice. Any guide is betterthan no guide at all; 
but serious buffs will discover the local library as a 
resource for self-education, and it's all free. 

Joining a botanical society, like Friends of the Farlow at 
Cambridge MA (Farlow Reference Library & Herbarium, 
Harvard, 20 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge MA 021 38), or 
a field naturalists' organization, can help the lichen 
enthusiasts meet others who share their interests. 

Once the cemetery lichens are identified, enumerated 
and removed, the dyer has a wide variety of dye books 
from which to choose a recipe. Lichen acids vary 
geographically; dye results from the same species will 
not be the same in Boston and Edinburgh. So, the 
precise duplication of another dyer's results is an unre- 
alistic goal in lichen dyeing. 

In a shrinking world it makes good sense to protect the 
flora of special places. Help yourselves to the lichens, 
once you've identified them, and make that list. As a 
bonus, your efforts will support cemetery restoration 
and possibly redeem that wholesome image of the 
dyer. Be one who works with, rather than against, 

Karen Leigh Casselman has written Craft of the Dyer and 
Lichens and Their Dyes: A History and Sourcebook (forth- 
coming). She is co-editor of a new edition of Lichens for 
Vegetable Dying by Eileen M. Bolton. She is a research 
associate at the Nova Scotia /Museum, Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
Canada. An earlier version of this paper was printed in the 
Summer 1991 issue of Shuttle, Spindle & Dyepot 
(Handweavers Guild of America). 

AGS Fa '91 p. 3 


by Harvey Medland 

During a recent trip to Alaska we 
had the opportunity to observe two 
Aleut cemeteries. We expected to 
find a few unique characteristics 
shared by the grave markers in the 
two sites. What we found however, 
was confusing if not unique. 

In 1786 Russia discovered large 

colonies of fur seals on the Pribilof 

Islands located in the middle of the 

Bering Sea. To harvest this newly 

found wealth they needed a good 

source of labour. The indigenous 

hunters, known as Aleuts, were the obvious choice. 

They were dispersed along the Alaska coastline and 

depended upon seals and otters for their livelihood. 

The Russians treated the Aleuts as serfs. By the 

beginning of the 1 800s the Aleuts were resettling in the 

Pribilofs and had established the town of Saint Paul. 

Soon they devetoped a dependency upon Russia for 

sugar, tea and a variety of foods. 

In order to entice the Aleuts into the Russian Orthodox 
Church, the Russian government exempted them from 
paying taxes forthree years. In time they were learning 
the Russian language, adopting Russian names and 
embracing the Russian religion. The Aleut language 
was discouraged. 

After the United States purchased Alaska in 1867, the 
Aleuts maintained their Russian language and Ortho- 
dox faith. 

Today the Russian Orthodox Church is the focal point 

Aleut cemetery in Saint Paul, Pribilof Islands 

of the community of Saint Paul. The nearby cemetery 
contains rows of white, wooden markers with the char- 
acteristic diagonal cross. For some reason pills and 
vegetables are scattered alxiut the grounds making 
one wonder if a few ancient beliefs still linger. 

The Aleut cemetery just north of Anchorage in Ekiutna 
is of considerable contrast to that found in Saint Paul. 
Beside Ekiutna's St. Nicholas Russian Orthodox Church 
are rows of brightly painted spirit houses. We were told 
that each family had its own traditional colours. Before 
every structure is a small Russian Orthodox cross. But 
why the spirit houses? There has been intermarriage 
with the Indian community. Are the structures a con- 
sequence of the influence of local Indian customs? If 
you has any thoughts on this question, please let us 

Harvey Medland, 980 Broadview Ave., *1403, Toronto, On- 
tario, Canada, M4K3Y1. For another reference to the Aleut 
cemetery in Ekiutna, see AGS Newsletter, V. 12 #1, Winter 
1987/88, p. 25. 

Eknutka Cemetery, Alaska 

AGS Fa '91 p. 4 


'-■It 1*1 »»« 

Old Sturbridge Village graveyard, reprinted with permission 
of the Worcester (MA) Te[egram & Gazette. Copyright 1991 

Records in Gilmanton, New Hampshire, show that 
more than 20 slate and granite gravestonesdisappeared 
from two cemeteries there between 1940 and 1960. 
For many years since the theft rumors have circulated 
in Gilmanton that 18th-century stones stolen from their 
graveyards had "surfaced" in Old Sturbridge Village. 
Gilmanton is a town of 600 located about eight miles 
from Laconia, New Hampshire; Old Sturbridge Village 
is the 200 acre "living history museum" in Sturbridge, 

In the Village, a pillared meeting house that serves as 
a focal point for many of the Village activities stands on 
a slight hill overlooking the common. A "cemetery" 
slopes gently up to the rear of the meeting house, and 
about two dozen gravestones are scattered throughout 
the side yard. A stone fence surrounds the yard, and 
visitors are not permitted inside. 

Marion S. Mclntyre, a cemetery trustee in Gilmanton, 
spent the last three years digging through New 
Hampshire vital statistics records to obtain a list of 
names and dates of missing stones to compare with the 
names on the Sturbridge Village stones. She then 
visited the Village "cemetery", and with binoculars tried 
to match names on her list with those in the yard. But 
she wasn't able to read the inscriptions from outside the 

It was only afterareporterfrom the News of Manchester, 
New Hampshire, investigated her story and obtained 

photographs and detailed information from the Village 
records that Mclntyre was able to confirm that twelve of 
the Village stones did indeed have names and dates 
that matched those on missing Gilmanton stones. 

Copies of the newspaper story were circulated to the 
Sturbridge Village trustees, and Village spokesperson 
Michelle Meehan confirmed that an investigation was 
undenway. Old Sturbridge Village President Crawford 
Lincoln said the stones would be returned if it could be 
determined that they had not been obtained through 
legitimate means. He denied that they had been 
purchased by the Village. 'They were an outright gift 
from a Brentwood, New Hampshire, antiques dealer, 
Roger Bacon, who is now deceased." he said. He said 
Bacon was a reputable dealer and that Village officials 
had no reason to suspect anything was wrong, it is not 
known how Bacon acquired the stones or whether he 
knew they were stolen. 

Two of the twelve identified Gilmanton markers are 
from that town's Smith Meetinghouse Cemetery, and 
these two have been replaced in recent years with 
modern markers. Mclntyre said Old Sturbridge Village 
will not be asked to return these two originals. The 
Gilmanton cemetery trustees do, however, want the 
other ten stones, which were taken from the town's 
Copp Cemetery. 

Before returning the stones, Lincoln said. Old Sturbridge 
Village must work out arrangements to transport them 

AGS Fa '91 p. 5 

safely and draw up legal transfer papers. 
The above story was put together from three articles in 
the Worcester MA Telegram & Gazette (October 8, 9 
and 29, 1991). 

It appears to us that surprisingly little interest has been 
shown by the parties concerned in the stones as 
artifacts. No description was given in the newspaper 
articles we saw. We wondered if the twelve identified 
stones were slate or granite and whether or not there 
was ornamental carving on any of them. In a conversa- 
tion with Mr. Lincoln, he said he believes most of the 
Gilmanton stones are slate and that they do have 
ornamental carving. If this is correct, it is hard to 
understand why Gilmanton is willing to leave two of the 
original artifacts in SturtDridge. We are further dis- 
mayed by the response in Gilmanton to the Village's 
acquisition of their gravemarkers. Mclntyre said 
Gilmanton off icials aren't blaming Old Sturbridge Village 
for putting the stones in their "cemetery". "Old Sturbridge 
Village didn't do anything wrong — nothing illegal," she 
said, noting that tombstone thefts were common in New 
Hampshire for many years when there were no state 
laws making it a crime to take them. 

But we are shocked that Old Sturbridge Village would 
have accepted gravestones from anyone without a 
provenance showing precisely how the donor came to 
have the markers — even in the 1940s and without 
specific laws relating to gravestone theft. "I don't think 
anyone knows when or how they were removed," said 
Mr. Lincoln. 

Finally, we wondered about the origin of the other 
stones in the Old Sturbridge Village "graveyard". Mr. 
Lincoln (who was not at the village when their "grave- 
yard"was set up) believes that these stones are discards 
given to the Village by Smith Monument Company in 
Westfield MA after that company made replicas to 
replace damaged originals (presumably from the 
Westfield area). We hope there may be AGS members 
who will look into this and report his or her findings to the 

In our conversation with Mr. Lincoln, this story took one 
more disturbing turn, which requires comment. He 
raised the issue that AGS has no policy concerning the 
ethics of taking stones from graveyards and placing 
them in museums. AGS has carefully weighed the pros 
and cons of saving a unique and threatened stone bv 
getting permission to move it to indoor housing in a 
reputable museum and replacing t he original with a 
replica . On this we have not developed a policy. Some 
of our concerned tnjstees favor this procedure while 
others favor leaving all stones in situ despite threats to 
their survival in their original sites. However, AGS is 
clear and strong in its disapproval of (1) removal of a 
stone without permission of cemetery tmstees and any 
descendants; (2) removal of a stone that is not unique 
and severely threatened; (3) removal of a stone from its 
original site to an insecure site, such as a building that 
is not fireproof, or a building managed by an organiza- 
tion that has no system for cataloguing its artifacts, or 
moving it from its outdoor location to another outdoor 
location ; (4) removal of a stone without placing a repl ica 
in its original site. 

contributed by Jessie Lie Farber, Worcester MA. Jessie Lie Farber is aiounding member of AGS, andiormer editor 
of ttie Newsletter. 

Ln L-, Ln ta Ln h L-, b L-. Ln Ln L-, L-, b HI 


Len Messina tias sent a follow up article to thie story 
"Rare Slave Stone in CT (AGS Newsletter, Spring 
1991, p. )from the July 24, 199 1 issue of the MIddletown 
CT Press: 

All the money needed to finance the restoration of a 
200-year old headstone that marks the grave of a slave 
in Riverside Cemetery has been collected. The 
headstone, that of a slave known only as Sambo, is 
believed to be one of the oldest headstones for a Negro 
slave in Connecticut. The Sambo stone wasdiscovered 
last year to be seriously deteriorated. John Zito, a 
Hartford restorer, said he could do the rescue work for 
around $3000., and the Middlesex County Historical 
Society hired him, expecting its appeal for funds would 
bring the money rather quickly. But for Sambo the 
money was slow in coming. However, contributions 

f rom a New York policeman andfromadefu net Wesleyan 
University clubcombines to make up the final difference. 
The cop had read an account of the story. As a boy he 
had summered at a family cabin in Haddam and had 
loved the area, so he decided to send a check for $500. 
A representative of the former Wesleyan club heard a 
talk about the stone which convinced him that the 
remaining money in the club fund would be well spent 
on the Sambo restoration. 

A second project at the Mortimer Cemetery, the res- 
toration of the headstone of John Danforth II, the 
founder of the pewter industry in the U.S., brought a 
much smoother solution. The Pewter Collectors Club 
of America sent a check for $3000. and promised to 
take care of the $600. remainder. 

AGS Fa -91 p. 6 


Section Chair: Richard E. Meyer 

English Department 

Western Oregon State College 

Monmouth OR 97361 


1992 Annual Meeting 
Louisville, Kentucky 

The ACA annual meeting will take place in Louisville KY, MARCH 1 8-21 , 1 992. Anyone interested in going on Tour #2 (southern 
Indiana cemeteries) should let Dick know as far ahead of time as possible. 

ALVRUS, Annalisa: Department of Anthropology, Uni- 
versity of Tennessee at Knoxville TN 37996-0720 

"Conformity and Individualism in the Gravestones of Knox 
County, Tennessee" 

Studies of New England gravestones suggest the use of more 
elaborate stones in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries 
with a shift to simpler stones in the early twentieth century. To 
determine whether this trend was characteristic of grave- 
stones in the mid-South, twelve cemeteries in Knox County, 
Tennessee, were studied, with varying results. 

AMBLER, Cathy J.: Department of American Studies, 
University of Kansas, Lawrence KS 66045 

"Oak Hill: A Rural Cemetery in Kansas" 

Oak Hill, established in 1 865, reveals the eastern tradition of 
rural cemetery design and management that came with the 
people who made their new homes in Kansas, but Quantrill's 
Raid and frontier town boosterism were other factors that 
compelled the city to plan and maintain such a cemetery. 

The speaker invited six artists and three architects to select 
a subject for a monument or a memorial — and then to create 
one. Monuments and Memorials, the exhibition that resulted, 
contained works on a broad variety of subjects and in a very 
wide stylistic range from classical to completely conceptual. 

EDGETTE, J. Joseph: Master of Liberal Studies Pro- 
gram, WIdener University, Chester PA 19013-5792 

"Pariahs of Cemetery Fieldwork: Animal, Vegetable, Nature 
and Human" 

Lurking in the foreground, background and all around envi- 
rons of a cemetery can be hostile animals, serpents, insects, 
rampaging and consuming flora, and negatives acts of God 
and man. Presented in this paper are descriptions and 
depictions of some of these pariahs and their deleterious 
effects upon cemetery fieldwork. 

GABEL, Laurel K.: 205 Fishers Road, Pittsford NY 14534 

"Rituals, Regalia and Remembrance: Fraternal Symbolism 
and Gravemarkers" 

BLAKE, Fred: Department of Anthropology, University of 
Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu HI 96822 

"The Chinese of Valhalla: Patterns of Assimilation and Iden- 
tification in a Midwest American Cemetery" 

Chinese gravestones in a Midwestern cemetery index com- 
plex and dynamic patterns of assimilation, identification and 
cultural retention. The analysis focuses on historical changes 
in the organization of interments, aspects of the style, linguis- 
tic and semantic structures and contents of the gravestone 
inscriptions which include both Chinese and Roman scripts. 

CASSIDY, Victor M.:2717W. Nelson St., ChicagolL60618 

"Monuments and Memorials: An Invitational Exhibition of 
Sculptures and Drawings by Contemporary Artists" 

During the heyday of fraternalism (1 880-1 920), approximately 
half of the adult population belonged to at least one of the 
estimated 1000 different secret societies that existed in the 
United States. Complex symtxjlism, which played a vital role 
in the ritual and regalia of these organizations, is often found 
on gravemarkers. 

GRADWOHL, David M.: Department of Anthropology, 
Iowa State University, Ames lA 50011-1050 

"The Jewish Cemeteries of Louisville, Kentucky: Mirrors of 
Historical Processes and Theological Diversity Through 150 

In 1 842 Jewish settlers founded congregation Adath Israel in 
Louisville. Today there are five congregations: two Reform, 
one Conservative and two Orthodox. Others have disbanded 

AGS Fa '91 p. 7 

and reorganized over time. The separate cemeteries main- 
tained by the city's temples and synagogues reflect different 
historical origins, theological orientations and ritual practices 
within Judaism. 

GRAVES, Thomas E.: 100 Pollack Drive, Orwigsburg PA 

"The Multiethnic Cemetery: Melting Pot or Tossed Salad?" 

Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, has been ethnically diverse 
since the earliest days of its settlement, with Pennsylvania 
Germans, Welsh, Irish, Italian, Polish, Ukrainian and other 
groups living in the county in large numbers. Examination of 
the cemeteries shows a spectrum of ethnic isolation and 
intermingling. Some cemeteries show signs of assimilation. 

HANNON, Thomas J.: Department of Geography and 
Environmental Studies, Slippery Rock University, Slip- 
pery Rock PA 16057 

"A Comparison of Monumentation in the Republic of Ireland 
and Ethnic Irish Monumentation in Pennsylvania" 

The Republic of Ireland has contributed a large number of 
immigrants to the United States since the mid 1800s. Many 
settled in mining and manufacturing states such as Pennsyl- 
vania. The research compares monumentation in the Republic 
of Ireland with that used by Irish immigrants or their de- 
scendants in selected area of Pennsylvania. 

HILLDENBRANDT, Daniel R.: IMedia Centre, The Univer- 
sity of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji 

"The Tongan Way in Burial Customs and Grave Decoration" 

This videotape examines briefly the colorful and unusual 
graves of the Kingdom of Tonga. Featured are the "Faitoka" 
or graves of the commoners, as well as the impressive 
"Langi", those of the nobles and kings. 

HORTON, Loren N.: Field Services, State Historical 
Society of Iowa, Iowa City lA 52240 

"Language Displacement and Sentimentality in the Cem- 

The ways in which the living commemorate the dead on 
gravemarkers can often extend to the use of euphemistic and 
clish6d expressions which mask true feelings, magnify per- 
sonality traits of the deceased, and emphasize the bonds of 
affection among family and friends. This paper concentrates 
on examples of such expressions. 

JEWELL, James C: Division of Humanities and Fine 
Arts, Illinois Valley Community College, OglesbylL 61 348 

"The Cemetery as a Plot Device in the Mystery Novel" 

No other literary form employs the cemetery in as many 
functions asthe mystery novel. This paper surveys mysteries 
that employ the cemetery in each of its literary functions: as 
scenic background, as necessity, as place for insight, as 
location of clues and as integral sphere of action. 

LINDEN-WARD, Blanche: Program in American Culture, 
Emerson College, Boston MA 02116 

'The Cult of Jim : Funerary Fans, 1 985- 1991" 

At Pere Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, where authorities origi- 
nally re-interred LaFontaine, Moliere, and Abelard and Heloise 
in orderto create a "cult of heroes", it is particularly interesting 
to note that the grave of American rock star Jim Morrison has 
in recent years become the focal point of pilgrimage and 
gravesite activities. 

LUCAS, Jennifer: The Folklore Institute, Indiana Univer- 
sity, Bloomington IN 47405 

"Gravestone Materials of South Central Indiana" 

This presentation traces the different types of stone used in 
the making of southern Indiana gravestones from c. 1 830 to 
the present. Also considered are the locations and mannerof 
extracting these materials from the earth, and the manner in 
which southern Indiana's position as "Limestone Capital of 
the World" has affected gravestones. 

LUNN, Lorie: Department of Anthropology, University of 
Tennessee at Knoxvllle, Knoxville TN 37996-0720 

" 'Comb' Graves of the Upper Cumberland" 

Hidden away in family cemeteries of Tennessee's Upper 
Cumberland region one finds a unique style of gravemarker. 
Large slabs cut from local sandstone are arranged to form a 
peaked roof, or "comb", over the grave. The time span of 
these artifacts (mid-1 800s to early 1900s) coincides with an 
important period of technological and cultural change in the 

MATTERNES, Hugh B.: Department of Anthropology, 
UnlversityofTennessee at Knoxvllle, Knoxville TN 37996- 

"Modern Expectations and Prehistoric Reality in Western 
Kentucky: Historic Cemetery Modification at WiMiffe Mounds" 

The removal of a prehistoric cemetery from public display 
revealed that the archaeological record had been physically 

AGS Fa '91 p. 8 

altered since originally excavated. An examination of ar- 
chaeological date, oral histories and literature suggests that 
these changes resulted from attempts to organize the cem- 
etery according to the expectations of a twentieth-century 

McNEAL, Harriet: Department of Art History, Indiana 
State University, Terre Haute IN 47809 

"The Ax and Sledge: Woodmen of the World and Tree Stump 

PETKE, Stephen: 8 Cobblestone Road, East Granby CT 

"Calvin Barber (1772-1846), Stonecutter in Simsbury CT" 

Calvin Barber was a stone mason and public official who 
dominated the gravestone market in Simsbury, Connecticut 
and surrounding towns from 1793-1825. Over 400 grave- 
stones can be documented to Barber or safely attributed to 
him or his apprentices. His work reflects transformations in 
both imagery and in the nature of the craft itself. 

Among the thousands of examples of tombstones in the form 
of a tree stump is a group with the symbols and emblems of 
the Woodmen of the World, a fraternal order which provided 
burial insurance to Its members. An investigation of the 
specialized iconography will be illustrated by slides. 

McViCKER, l\1aryeiien: 813 Christus Drive, Boonville MO 

7s Daniel Boone Buried in Kentucky?" 

in 1 845 the State of Kentucky petitioned Missouri to have the 
bones of Kentucky's most famous founders, Daniel and 
Rebecca Boone, returned, and countless tourists have visited 
the impressive Boone monument in Frankfort. But contro- 
versy prevails as to whether Daniel is in fact buried there or 
remains in the family graveyard near iVIarthasville, Missouri. 

MEYER, Richard E.: Department of English, Western 
Oregon State College, Monmouth OR 97361 

"Literary Graveyards" 

The use of the cemetery as a setting for literary works enjoys 
a long and diverse history. Shakespeare employed the 
device on more than one occasion, as have Dickens, Twain 
and a number of more contemporary artists. Several remark- 
able instances are seen in works by Thomas Gray, Edgar Lee 
Masters and Evelyn Waugh. 

SCLAIR, Helen: 849 W. Lill Avenue, Chicago IL 60614 

"Chicago's Ethnic Cemeteries" 

Chicago's population represents more than 1 00 distinct eth- 
nicgroups. Throughoutthecity's history mostofthesegroups 
have been absorbed without any external evidence of their 
existence. Many of them, however, are very visible through 
their burial sites, an examination of which forms the basis of 
this paper. 

VOLLER, Jacl( G.: Department of English, Southern 
Illinois University at Edwardsviiie, Edwardsviile IL 62026- 

"Ephemeral Stones: Notes on the Reading of Cemeteries, 11" 

We carve our monuments out of the most enduring of sub- 
stances, but even stone fails. What happens when the text 
that represents the deceased to the world of the living falls 
face-first into the grass and becomes covered over? Could it 
be that this ephemerality in itself represents yet another facet 
of how and what cemeteries "mean"? 

WARE, Thomas C: Department of English, The Univer- 
sity of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga TN 37403 

"'Where Valour Proudly Sleeps': Theodore O'Hara and 'The 
Bivouac of the Dead'" 

OLSON, Ted: Department of English, University of Mis- 
sissippi, University MS 38677-5546 

"Buried Alive: Cultural Assimilation in Kentucky Graveyard 

Lexington Cemetery is the primary burial site in Central 
Kentucky, the first U.S. region west of the Appalachians to be 
extensively settled by European immigrants. I'll study this 
graveyard's folklore in order to trace the 19th century emer- 
gence of the mainstream American frontier culture from 
various distinct ethnic groups. 

No American artist became so officially identified with cem- 
eteries as Theodore O'Hara. Lines from "The Bivouac of the 
Dead" have been immortalized in graveyards commemorat- 
ing the bloodiest battles of the Civil War. Reading these 
passages as they appear in starkly ranked lines reinforces the 
notion of collective military order which follows even indi- 
vidual disintegration. 

AGS Fa '91 p. 9 

FORUM: Moments of Discovery in Cemetery Fieldwork 

Cemetery Fieldwork Inevitably yields instances of discovery ranging from the enigmatic to the bizarre, the humorous to the 
profoundly touching. Forum participants (i.e. anyone who wishes to) are invited to present and discuss briefly one slide which 
exemplifies such a moment of personal discovery in their fieldwork experience. 

TOUR #1 Walking Tour of Cave Hill Cemetery 

Louisville's Cave Hill Cemetery (1848) is one of the nation's 
most important designed rural cemeteries, also reflecting 
aesthetic reforms based upon Adolph Strauch's "landscape- 
lawn plan." This walking tour, led by Blanche Linden-Ward of 
Emerson College, will start inside the main cemetery en- 
trance at 2:30 PM on Wednesday, March 18 (maps/other 
details available at the conference). 


Permanent Londoners: An Illustrated Guide to the 
Cemeteries of London 

by Judi Culbertson and Tom Randall 

Chelsea Green Publishing Company, P.O. Box 130 

Post Mills VT 05058, 1991 

$16.95, paperback, 336 pages, 100 photos, 6 maps 

review by Mary M. Cope 

The sub-title of this work might more accurately be "a 
biographical guide with some pictures to some burial 
places in and near London." Almost half the text is 
devoted to Westminster Abbey, St. Paul's, The Tower 
of London, Windsor Castle and Frogmore. Aside from 
these only eleven of the over one hundred cemeteries 
included in Hugh Meller's London Cemeteries (Avebury 
Publishing, 1981) are covered. 

The biographies, which vary in length from a few 
sentences to several pages, are written in a lively, easy 
style. Markers are described, but sometinries the ter- 
minology isunclear; i.e. "cameo"isafrequent description 
- this is certainly not a form in use in monumental 
sculpture! Few of the tombs are pictured, and although 
sculptors names are often given, rarely do they appear 
in the index. A bibliography is arranged by title which 
makes locating the source for a biography difficult. 

Maps are given for most of the cemeteries as well as 
directions for reaching them (it would be wise to check 
the directions locally). Like the other works in this 
series, guides to cemeteries in Paris, New York and 
California, the format is tall and narrow which is easy to 
carry and consult. 

TOUR #2 Southern Indiana Cemeteries 

The cemeteries of Southern Indiana display a number of 
unique and interesting regional features, including types of 
stone, monument styles and other factors. This tour of 
selected cemeteries, led by Warren Roberts of Indiana Uni- 
versity, will take place Saturday, March 21 (details to follow). 
Those interested should contact the section chair (Meyer). 

11 11 

AGS Fa '91 p. 10 

Our Silent Neighbors: a study of Gravestones In the Olde Salem Area 
by Betty J. Bouchard 

57 pages, 1991, available from David Butler, c/o Box Shop, Salem Market Place, Salem MA 01970 

review by Ralph Tucker 

This is a convenient and handy guide to the burial 
grounds and gravestones of the Salem MA area. Essex 
County has an excellent variety of stones that are by 
local Salem carvers, urban Boston carvers, and the 
very unique mral "Merrimac Valley Style" carvers. Di- 
rections are given to the burial grounds so that one can 
find these often hidden sites, although the maps in- 
cluded leave much to be desired. As a primer for the 
casual browser it will enable one to gain an experience 
of aesthetic and historic value through an introduction 
to the earliest stone work in our country. For the more 
interested student, however, it has some notable and 
serious omissions and errors. 

As Salem is a key area where urban and airal styles are 
both found, these carving types should have been 
given at least a summary treatment to outline their 
unique differences. The remarkable "Merrimac Valley 
Style" stones of the Hartshorne, Mulliken and Leighton 
families, and of the local Salem carvers Fowie, Ford, 
Maxcy, Holliman and the "Marblehead Carver", as well 
as the Newburyport and Bradford stones of carvers 
Noyes and Marble can all be found here in glorious 
profusion. While much has been learned regarding 
these styles of carving since 1927 when Harriette 
Forbes wrote her seminal book, this pamphlet ignores 
most of these carvers and adds little recent data. 

The opening section on the early background informa- 
tion is necessarily brief, but that is no excuse for several 
commonly found en-ors. For example, in the colonial 
period the bodies were taken directly from the home to 
the burial ground with no clergy or meeting house 
intervention; while some bodies were buried on an 
east-west axis, most early burial ground orientations 
are haphazard at best; the plainness of our puritan 
ancestors has been overdone, and even the author 
points out the express need for sumptuary laws; and 
the use of marble fro gravestones was not common 
before the 1770s. Such errors, while minor, cast 
questions on more significant matters. Noting six- 
teenth century stones at Marblehead is also unfortunate. 
These are only samples of the errors found in this work. 

In discussing the various carvers, illustrations are in- 
valuable and the booklet conveniently has an illustrated 
glossary of common carving details as well as numer- 

ous photographs of significant stones. One might wish 
for better photographic detail, but for the casual reader 
they will do the trick. In such a pamphlet photographs 
are an invaluable aid in descerning the style of a given 
carver. It is too bad that the photographs included are 
not clear, and that the carvers of the stones illustrated 
are not indicated underneath the photographs. With a 
little effort, however, one can do their own cross- 

As for a listing of carvers, there are significant omis- 
sions. Levi Maxcy and Robert FowIe were important 
Salem stonecutters whose work is best found in this 
area yet they are not mentioned, and Ford is not 
recognized as a carver even though his stone is dis- 
cussed. William Custin ["WC] and James Gilchrist 
["JG'T are significant Boston carvers who left initialed 
stones at Marblehead. They are apparently unknown 
to the author, as well as Henry Emmes and J.J. Geyer. 
As for the "Merrimac Valley Style" carvers — the 
Hartshornes, Mullikens and Leightons^heir stones 
are noted but markedly confused as to the carvers. 
Actually John Hartshorne left no stones in this area and 
the author mistakes Mulliken stones for those of 
Hartshorne. This is especially unfortunate as much is 
now known about these families of carvers. Their work 
is not only interesting and different, but also an out- 
standing example of rural carving which deserves at- 
tention, especially in the Essex County area. Of the 
local Salemcarvers, FowIe, Maxcy and the "Marblehead 
Carver" are not even recognized. 

There are numerous stones with mistaken attributions, 
and there are other stones which could have been 
attributed to known carvers. John Holliman was a 
Salem carver, not from Worcester. There were four 
generations of Lamson carvers, and their work can be 
found north to Nova Scotia and south to South Carolina 
and the Barbados. The Geyers regularly used a distinc- 
tive death head and a bust as well as cherubs. Several 
Boston carvers used a skull over crossed bones and 
they should not all be attributed to John Homer. 

The double-dating of the year confuses the author yet 
is a basic fact for anyone studying gravestones. This 
was caused by the old custom of beginning the year on 
March 25 and calling the dates of January 1 through 

AGS Fa '91 p. 11 

March 24 by the previous year. When New Year's day 
was shifted to January 1 , in order to avoid confusion, 
two years are noted for January, Febnjary and the first 
24 days of March nnonths; thus 1714/5 would be used 
for any date between 1 January and 24 March in the 
year we would now call 1715. (For a more in-depth 
explanation of this, see AGS Newsletter, V. 9 #3, 
Sumnner 1985, p.5) 

This work should sell well in the gift shops of the Salem 
area and may lead to a greater public interest in the 
can/ed heritage of our burial grounds. It is certainly too 
bad that a more comprehensive and accurate presen- 
tation is not available. Harriette Forbes' book Grave- 

stones of Early New Er\gland and the Men Who 
Made Them, fortunately is still available (reissued for 
the fourth time by The CenterforThanatology Research, 
Brooklyn NY) and is the best single resource even 
ttiough it was written in 1927. The past 60 years have 
added much information in the gravestone field which 
does not appear in Our Silent Nelghttors. This points 
up the need for students of gravestone study to make 
the results of their work more easily available, and for 
the Association for Gravestone Studies to make such 
studies known to its members as well as to the public. 

Ralph Tucker is an Episcopal minister living in Georgetown 
Maine. He is a frequent contributor to the Newsletter, and an 
authority on "TheMerrimac Valley Style'ofgravestonecarving. 


Tombstones of Your Ancestors 

toy Louis S. Schafer 

Heritage Books Inc., 1540-E Point Ridge Place, Bowie 
MD 20716, 1991 1 56 pp, no illustrations 

review by Det>orah Trask 

This engaging little book makes a good 
introduction to responsible amateur 
study of gravestones. Schafer has 
produced a "how to" kind of book for 
gravestone beginners. He states that 
this t)Ook is "intended to be an intro- 
duction to the hobby of tocating, de- 
ciphering and collecting gravestone 
inscriptions and carvings. It has been 
written.forthemostpart, asaguidefor 
three types of people: (1) those who 
are conducting extensive research into 
family geneatogy and history; (2) those 
who are simply intrigued by early 
American heritage, and (3) thiose who 
are in the process of assembling an 
extensive collection of curious tomb- 
stone poetry and sculpture." 
Throughout the introductory chapter, 
"Why Collect Epitaphs and Tombstone 
Sculpture" the author makes repeated 
reference to this collecting of tomb- 
stone sculpture — an unfortunate use of phrase, for he 
does not advocate collecting gravestones (we hope!). 

The book also includes chapters on "How to Locate a 
Particular Ancestor's Grave", "Deciphering Epitaphs", 
and various methods of reproducing gravestone sur- 
faces or making them more legible, all set out in a very 

r g - =:^ g?^ ;g--r-^j g =.-J Br; 






straight-fonward, yet personable man- 
ner, interspersed with personal anec- 
dotes. There are no illustrations to 
illuminate any of the methods described. 
Informatton relating to the history of 
epitaphs and American grave markers 
is undocumented , despite the inclusion 
of a reasonable biblk>graphy, but this is 
a common practkie in the writing of 
books for popular consumption. The 
chapter on 'Tombstone Photography" 
while giving very detailed instructions 
on how to determine accurate expo- 
sures, makes no reference whatsoever 
to Dan Farber's Mirror MethKxJ, which is 
to my way of thinking, the easiest and 
nrvDst accurate method of gravestone 
photography, a serious oversight (see 
AGS Newsletter V. 10 #3, p. 21). 
Thus, to a well-entrenched AGS mem- 
ber, the overall approach may seem 
superficial. The methods he describes 
forreproductbn or legibility are sensible and inoffensive. 
Tombstones of Your Ancestors is a readable guide 
to "capturing and understanding" gravestone art, in- 
tended for neophyte hobbyists. 

Schafer also wrote Best of Gravestone Humor, re- 
viewed in theSummer 1990 (V.I 4 #3) issue of the >^GS 
Newsletter, p. 25. 

AGS Fa '91 p. 12 



Sent in by Mark Esping, Linsborg, KS. 

Two books of interest to AGS members are listed in a 
recent catalog from a remainder book company, Edward 
R.Hamilton, Falls Village, CT 06031-5000. They are: 

Folk Art in Hungarian Cemeteries by Erno Hunt, $3.95. 
Contains great photos and good drawings. Wooden 
cross variations , covered cross variations and especially 
the grave posts (Fatonkos fejfak) (Oszlopos fejfak) and 
(Kopjafak) are shown in photos and drawings. 

Space of Death by Michel Ragon, $9.95, is a historical 
survey of social attitudes and how the world deals with 
death. Some good areas on devetopment of current 
trends are discussed. 


Burlington Connecticut Cemetery Records by Leonard 
Alderman records the names on markers in five cem- 
eteries listed in alphabetical orderwith added information 
that might be helpful to genealogists. Completed in 
August 1990, it has been updated in February 1991. 
Maiden names and relationships have been included in 
many instances. The booklet is about 70 pages and 
costs $20. Available from Leonard Alderman, 1 8 Milford 
Street, Burlington, CT 06013. 

Those of us who collect cemetery fcwoks may have an 
interest in a forthcoming publicatton which was men- 
tioned in Hope & Glory (the annual publication of the 
Iowa Chapter, Victoria Society in America). Authored 
by Jane B. Wilson, a retired librarian and one-time 
editor of the Maryland State Library Association's 
newsletter, the book is titled The Very Quiet 
Baltimoreans. Described as "a book about the historic 
cemeteries of the city", it shiould have appeal to those 
not wedded to New England interests. The publication 
date was noted as "Fall 1991", but no address or 
purchase date were given. 

contributed by Sybil Crawford, Dallas TX. 

Rochelle Balkam of Visions of Thyme — Heritage Inter- 
pretation, Ann AriDor Ml, presented a paper "Stories in 
Stone"focusing on the preservation of cemetery history 
at the Third Congress of Heritage Interpretation Inter- 
national. The theme of the Congress, held November 
3-8, 1991, in Honolulu, was "Joining Hands for Quality 
Tourism, Interpretatbn, Preservatbn and the Travel 

Martha Asher, of Williamstown MA, points out an error 
in the Summer issue of the >4GS Newsletter She writes : 
"I am sure other tong-time admirers of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Smith join me in regretting her disappearance from the 
AGS logo, altlTough we understand and support the 
reasoning behind the decision. We are all, however, as 
would she be, deeply shocked to learn from the 
President's Report {AGSNewsletter\/A5#3, Summer 
1991 , p.14 ) that she has been nrioved to Williamsburg. 
In our tocation only seven miles from the New Yori< 
border, we Williamstownites are extra-sensitive, after 
long years of putting up wrth Boston's assumption that 
Western Massachusetts means Worcester. I should 
hate to have Mrs. Smith's repose disturt>ed by such 
political considerations." 

former AGS logo, derived from the Elizabeth Smith stone, 
1771, attributed to Samuel Dwight (Markers IV 1977pp. 160- 
165) still in Williamstown MA. 

Editor's note: Sorry for the oversightl AGS members may 
remember the 1982 AGS conference in Williamstown where 
we had the opportunity to view this interesting stone. 

Will all AGS members who own copies of Cemeteries 
& Gravemarkers: Voices of American edited by our 
own Dick Meyer, please make a correction on page 272 
and note 13 on page 290? I said I believed the 
reference to a subsidiary in New Orleans was an error. 
On the contrary, I'm the one who made the error. 
Members Robert Wright and Eric Brock both wrote me 
about signed New Orleans stones, but alas too late for 
me to correct my essay before publication. The name 
itself defeated me. All the other subsidiaries of 
Monumental Bronze in BrkJgeport CT had geographic 
names: Western White Bronze in Des Moines and 
Detroit White Bronze, for instance, but tf>e one in New 
Orleans was Coleman's White Bronze, the only one 
with a person's name. If you are curious, there's a 
singed monument in the center aisle of the oldest 
section of Hebrew Rest in New Orleans. 

Barbara Rotundo 

AGS Fa '91 p. 13 



by Richard Veil 

As part of the research for my Master thesis in Histori- 
cal Archaeology at the College of William and Mary, 
Middlesex County New Jersey Gravestones 1687- 
1799: Shadows of a Changing Culture, I tried to 
identify who carved all of the seventeenth and eight- 
eenthcentury gravestones in Middlesex County. While 
many stones cound not be clearly attributed to any 
particular carver, three unusual stones have raised a 
number of questions. 

These stones, two headstones and afootstone, mark 
the final resting places of Captain Andrew Drake and 
Benjamin Hull, Esq. They all date to the 1740s. 
Drake's stone is located in the Seventh Day Baptist 
burial ground in Stelton, New Jersey, while Hull's is in 
the Baptist Burial Ground in Samptown, now South 
Plainfield, New Jersey. Both stones are located in 
what was, in the eighteenth century, Piscataway 

Captain Andrew Drake, Stelton NJ, 1743 

Andrew Drake's resting place is marked by both a 
headstone and footstone dating to 1 743 while Benjamin 
Hull has only a headstone dated 1 745. All three of the 
stones are carved out of a light tan, relatively coarse 
grained sandstone. Both headstones depict quizzi- 
cally smiling cherubs quite unlike the work of other 
local carvers. The two headstones also feature rather 
lengthy poetic epitaphs relating to the deceased. For 
instance, Squire Hull's epitaph notes that, "Though 1 a 
judge did sit, all justice for to give, now from this world 

is gone, the same forto receive." The stones are unlike 
their contemporaries in a number of ways. The carving 
of the cherubs is quite a bit cruder than that found on 
other local skulls and cherubs of the same time period. 
They are among the earlier cherub representations in 
the Raritan River Valley, though by no means the first. 
The lettering is comparatively shallow and irregular. 
Periods follow many of the words, and the first part of the 
letter "w" is consistently inverted. The stones' borders 
feature shallow floral decorations, which contrasts with 
the deeper, boldercarving of many of New Jersey's early 
stone carvers in Elizabethtown and Newark. 

The question of who carved these gravestones, and 
where, is open to debate. They may be the products of 
a local New Jersey carver who produced only a limited 
number of stones. This would help account for their 
archaic lettering and rather simple style of carving. The 
bottom of Andrew Drake's stone displays the crossed 
bones motif commonly used by some eighteenth cen- 
tury New Jersey carvers. It is possible that they were 
made by a local carver who produced a limited number 
of stones and then ceased production. He could have 
been a local avocational or semi-professional can/er, 
who was copying the designs he has seen in neighboring 
towns, possibly even carving on pre-cut blanks. It 
seems unlikely that they were produced by a semi- 

Benjamin Hull, Esq., South Plainfield NJ, 1745 

AGS Fa '91 p. 14 

skilled apprentice, since they mark the graves of two of 
the most prominent individuals in their respective com- 

An alternate hypothesis is that these stones may in fact 
be imports from Connecticut, which was an early center 
of gravestone carving. Stylistically they seem to share 
certain traits with the works of certain Connecticut 
carvers, especially in the ovoid face. It is certainly 
possible that wealthy members of the Piscataway 
Township community imported them. This community 
had its commercial outlet at Landing Lane, a small port 
on the Raritan River. Piscataway Township is known to 
have had strong ties with New England, and a large 
number of stones from the Naragansett Bay region are 

found in its main cemetery. Contemporaries of these 
individuals living in the same township were purchasing 
stones from as far away as Rhode Island, as well as 
nearby Newark and Elizabethtown. 

At this time, conclusive evidence as to the identity of the 
carver is lacking. Thew probates, inventories and wills 
of these two individuals do not make any mention of 
gravestones nor are the stones signed. These particu- 
lar stones are just a few of the many unusual examples 
of the carver's art found in Middlesex County. Anyone 
with further information about who may have carved 
them, and where they did so, is welcome to comment. 

Richard Veit, 905 Franklin Ave., So. PIfd. NJ 07080 



Have you seen stones by these carvers? Do you have additional clues that might lead to the identification of the 
missing artisans? Do YOU have an elusive carver to place on our list of the 1 MOST WANTED? Please contact 
AGS Research or the Newsletter with any information. Your identify will be protected if you wish. There is an 
honorary REWARD as well as a great cache of satisfaction for anyone able to supply information leading to the 
identification of the "at large" gravestone can/ers featured here. No need to wor1< undercover or go underground; 
careful surveillance and digging (in old records) often leads to a capture. Be sure to document and report any 
strange or suspicious looking stones. Be on the alert for these MOST WANTED: 

1 . This folk carver worked in the area of Amenia, New 
York/Sharon, Connecticut during the last half of the 
1700s, and apparently in Cortland County, New York, 
(south central) in the first two decades of the 1 800s. He 
is known by various aliases: "The Amenia Carver", 
"Nebbish Carver", 'The Shmoo", "Sunburst Man", "CT/ 
NY Slate Carver"; he may also go by the name "Pac 
Man". This carver apparently produced less than 100 
stones on several different types of material, including 
schist, black slate, marble and granite. His styles 
varied greatly (no two stones are exactly alike), but he 
often filled the tympanum with a sunburst or fan with 
square-ended rays, or a strange, thick-necked head 
with simple, cheerfulfeatures. The heads/faces always 
have eyebrows, outline or a scalloped trim over the 
tympanum or down the side borders. The tablet letter- 
ing is very distinctive, correct, but not what you could 
describe as polished or standard. Beware! This folk 
carver is unique and has been known to capture casual 
unarmed admirers from several states. If seen in your 
neighborhood, report at once! 

AGS Fa '91 p. 15 

3. Who CARVED these masked men? Evidence 
indicates that more than one perpetrator is responsible 
for the trail of mask-like faces in New Hampshire and 
Vermont. There are also profile stones in and around 
East Randolph VT that may be the work of the same 
undercover men. Carvers Asa Baldwin and Jonas 
Stewart are high on the list of suspects. Aliases include: 
"The Raccoon Face Carver", "Masked Man/Angel 
Carver" and "Sour Puss". Jonas Stewart, who may 
have had connections to the powerful Park, family in 
Groton MA, reportedly ran a business from Claremont 
NH in the early 1770s. He allegedly moved to Dorset 
VT sometime before the end of the century. Stewart's 
suspected accomplice, Asa Baldwin, left his finger- 
prints — and signature — on a stone in Dorset VT (1 798). 
There may be other partners whose identities have 
been withheld. These slippery individuals — perhaps 
Baldwin and Stewart alone, or possibly as many as five 
different perpetrators — will surely be apprehended if 
the AGS community comes forward with evidence. 
Please contact the AGS office of missing carvers if you 
have evidence or clues that might lead to the identifica- 
tion of the "Masked Man" or "Randolph Profile" stone 

2. Don't be fooled by the charming 
alias of our second MOST WANTED 
carver; the quest for the "Charlie Brown 
Carver" has become deadly serious. 
"Charlie Brown's" identity has eluded 
sleuths foroverone hundred years, but 
we are hoping that clever AGS mem- 
bers will supply the missing link to his 
past. One suspect may use the name 
Timothy Eastman. This carver's handi- 
work shows up during the 1750s and 
1760s in the burying grounds around 
EastfordandAshford, Connecticut. His 
modus operandi is as follows: many 
stones are of an unconventional shape 
and are framed with a simple outline 
border, often with a wavy line design or 
scallops as decoration. The tablet in- 
scription is executed in bold capital 
letters. "Charlie Brown's" spelling is 
often unconventional, as is his appar- 
ently consistent habit of referring to a 
man's marital kinship: "Joseph Chub, 
husband of Mrs. Mehetabel Chub..." 
This husband of..." reference is rarely seen on other 
stones of the period. If you want to pick up his trail, look 
for "Charlie Brown's" large triangular noses and char- 
acteristic straight line mouth. Droopy wings often 
attach at the top of the round heads he carved. All of his 
effigies are unarmed and utterly appealing. Proceed 
with caution! Report all clues. 

AGS Fa -91 p. 16 

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AGS Fa '91 p. 17 


collected by William Hosley 

Last issue's inquiry about the origin of early New 
England marl<ers in marble generated several interesting 
responses from AGS members. Not surprisingly, the 
best came from a member who lives near the marble 
belt along Route 7 in western Massachusetts. Michael 
Bathrick wrote to say that he is iollowing up on a local 
carver in the Richmond-Stockbridge-Lenox 
region., .[who] carves in the tradition of the Connecticut 
River Valley.. .all of his stones are of marble" and date 
as early as 1 770. In Richmond MA Michael has turned 
up very crude early work in marble that he argues 
convincingly as being made as early as 1764. That 
would be the earliest marble stone I know of. 

Information like this is really useful. Old quarrymen and 
stonecutters point out that when a stonecutter initially 
taps a source he is more likely to scavenge loose 
surface stone than actually quarry it out of the earth. So 
we shouldn't expect the earliest marble stones to have 
been worked from quarries. I'd still like more reliable 
documentation on quarrying marble in western New 

Aside from all the dust-to-dust epitaphs, every once in 
a while you turn up an inscription that is really unique 
and interesting. Students of medical history could have 
a field day with anecdotes of "apoplexy", "small pox" 
and other diseases that did people in. Here in the 
Connecticut Valley inscriptions atiout "drowning in the 
Connecticut River" are common, and many AGS 
members have seen references to people falling into 
their wells. But some inscriptions are truly unusual. In 
conjunction with the AGS conference in the Upper 
Valley, we visited the old burying ground in Claremont 
NH where my wife Christine Ermenc found a stone 
marking the graves of Chester and Elisha Putnam "who 
on the morning of the 29th of January 1 81 4 in the same 
bed were found suffocated. A kettle of common coals 
having been placed in their room for comfort provided 
the fatal instrument of their death." How the coals did 
them in is not said, but it's a good one to think about 
[carbon monoxide?]. 

My favorite is engraved with a parable on hunter safety. 

The Elijah Felt stone (Somers CT, 1780) notes how a 

hunting accident did him in at the age of 23; the epitaph: 

All you that hunt in verdant wood 

With firearm your game to kill 

Be careful when you fire your piece 

Lest your partner's blood do spill. 

If you'd like to send along pictures or information of the 
best inscriptions atjout the way people died, we'll run 
the best in a future issue. Send to William Hosley, Old 
Abbe Rd., Enfield CT 06082. 

Concerning the mysterious initials on the tombstone in 
the Spring 1991 issue of the AGS Newsletter, (p.20): 
F.N.D.O.S.B.T.K.O., Dr. Maynard and Ruth Mires of 
Georgetown DE suggest the biblical quotation "Fear 
not daughter; of such be the kingdom of *" 

(* =God, not written or spoken). 

AGS Fa '91 p. 18 


I was interested in one of the stones in the AGS 
Newsletter photographs of mystery stones (Summer 
1991 , p.5). I enjoyed the lovely recreated graveyard in 
the Farthers' garden when I was there. 

The John Foster stone (1681 Dorchester), Fig. 170 in 
Mrs. Forbes book, has a carved scene from Francis 
Quar\es Emblems Divine and Moral and HIerglypNcs 
of the Life Of Man. The University copy here is dated 
1777, but Quarles lived from 1592-1644. I have not 
been able to see earlier editions, but the illustrations 
used in the 1 777 copy, and presumably in earlier ones, 
were used as prototypes by gravestone cutters. Later 
editions have different illustrations. The scene on the 
John Foster stone appears on another given by Mrs. 
Forbes (Fig. 22), that of Joseph Tapping, King's Chapel, 
1678, by the same mason. A third appears on the 
Rebecca Gerrish stone. King's Chapel, 1 743, by William 
Codner, (Fig. 180). It is interesting to find the same 
scene on a headstone at Alloway, Ayrshire. This stone 
has two scenes from Quarles Emblems, one of which is 
also carved on a stone at Soulseat Abbey, Wigtownshire, 
some thirty miles south of Alloway. The stones may be 
dated c. 1700 and are by the same hand. 

This scene appears in Hieroglyphics VI Ecclesiasticus 
iii V. i: 'To everythir>g there is an appointed time". The 
first verse runs: 

Behold the frailty of this splendid stuff 

Alas it has not long to last. 

Without the help of either thief or puff, 

Her weakness knows the way to waste, 

Nature hath made her substance apt enough 

To spend itself, and spend too fast; 

It needs the help of none 

That is so prone 

To lavish out untouched and languish all alone 

The subsequent five verses are a dialogue between the 
accomplices. Time and Death. 

There are four other gravestones with scenes from 
Quarles, each different, in Stirling, St. Andrews, Dun- 
dee and Arbroath (Angus). I would like to write fully on 
these, and would be most grateful for informatbn on 
any other known stones in the USA with scenes from 
Erriblem Books. 

Betty Willsher, Orchard Cottage, Greenside Place, St. 
Andrews KY16 9TJ, Scotland. 


Trmpus rnt . 


AGS wasformed in 1 977following the annazing response 
to the first (1976) Dublin Seminar, organized by Peter 
Benes. The first seminar was on the topMC of Puritan 
Gravestone Art. About thirty participants were expected 
but more than a hundred attended. The 1978 Dublin 
Seminar was on the same topic, but co-sponsored by 
AGS. What folk)ws is a list of dates and locations for all 
AGS Conferences: 


Dublin NH 


New Brunswick NJ 


Newport Rl 




Haverhill MA 


Amherst MA 


Storrs CT 


Lancaster PA 


Willlamstown MA 


Byfield MA 


Worcester MA 


Bristol Rl 


Hartford CT 


Northfield MA 

The 1 992 (15th) conference will be held at Union College 
in Schenectady NY, June 25-28 

AGS Fa '91 p. 19 


Carol Williams Gebel, a member of the American Quilt 
Study Group (Headquarters San Francisco CA) is 
researching the role of quilts in death and mourning. 
She would like to hear from anyone knowing about any 
specific genealogy quilts or other quilts such as those 
with obvious mourning symbols or in which death and 
grief are revealed (such as the Kentucky graveyard 
quilt). Carol Williams Gebel, 1801 BonnibeeCt., Raleigh 
NC 27612. 




The Nattonal Association for Interpretation, Region 1 
(New York and New England) will be holding a work- 
shop at Pinkham Notch; Gorham, New Hampshire, 
March 29-31, 1992. The theme of the workshop is 
"Collaborative Interpretation and will include collabora- 
tive ventures between interpretive facilities, academia 
and the private sector. For workshop inquiries, contact 
Mr. Ray Perry, NYS Parks, Empire State Plaza, Agency 
Building 1, Albany NY 12238. Tel. (518)474-3714. 

Historical Cemeteries and Burials: I am seeking final 
contributions of references for a comprehensive bib- 
liographic publkiation on historrcal nrwrtuary behavior 
and material culture. The bibliography will include 
studies of mortuary sites, materials and death practices 
dating from the perkxj of European expanswn (15th - 
20th centuries): archaeological cemetery studies, 
whether or not excavatton was undertaken; tocatwnal 
studies for known or suspected graves; studies of 
cemetery landscapes, grave markers and artifacts from 
the grave; physkial anthropokjgy; historical studies of 
deathways; law and the reburial controversy; and ar- 
chaeok)gical and anthropological method and theory 
regarding death ritual and its m.aterial culture. The 
bibliography will be indexed by keyword; an abstract 
and/or description of contents for any references woukl 
facilitate the indexing process. Conference papers will 
be included only if a copy of the paper is sent; for other 
unpublished materials, please indicate its repository. 

Edward L. Bell, Massachusetts Historical Commission, 
80 Boylston Street, Boston MA 0211 6 

Barbara Rotundo recently 
contributed an interesting piece 
of informatkjn regarding veiled 
statuary figures, found in 
Country Life (December 1 1 , 
1986, p. 19). A good example 
of this remarkable carving 
technique can be seen on 
pages 64-5 of the Dover pub- 
licatk)n Victorian Cemetery 
Art by Edmund Gillon Jr. Ac- 
cording to the Country Life 
article, "the first well-docu- 
mented sculptor to specialize 
in this difficult art, was Antonk) 
Corradini (1668-1752)." His 
best known piece is a veiled 
figure called "Modesty". 

This sculptural technique was 
popularized by the Italian artist 
Rafaelle Monti (1818-1881), 
who worked in London after 1848. He produced a 
series of veiled figures, based on his sensational original, 
entitled 'The Veiled Vestal". The Stoke, England, firm 
of W.T. Copeland reproduced many of Monti's pieces in 
the "newly invented ceramk;f abric called Parian", which 
was "an unglazed porcelain, almost indistinguishable 
from a very fine-grained marble." 

If any AGS nrjember can provkJe further examples of 
these veiled figures, or more information about the use 
of the ceramk; fabrk: called Parian, please contact 
Laurel K. Gabel, AGS Research. 

AGS Fa '91 p. 20 


If you happen to call the office on a Wednesday or a 
Friday afternoon, and someone answers who definitely 
doesn't sound like me, despair not. You have the right 
place. I have a new assistant, Tom Harrahy. Tom helps 
me several hours a week, and he works Friday after- 
noons, so now the office is manned five afternoons a 
week, 1 1 :30 to 4:30. Tom has been a terrific help to me, 
and we have begun working on some of the bigger 
projects that had only been great ideas waiting to 
happen before. 

One of those ideas is the 1992 membership drive. 
Here's how it's going to work: in 1992, every member 
who gets new members to join AGS will get a gift - a gift, 
I might add, that will not be available anywhere else. 
Tentatively, forthe first new memberyou get to join, you 
would get a ceramic refrigerator magnet (with a 
gravestone design, of course!) . When the second new 
member joins, your gift would be a long-sleeve T-shirt 
with a special (non-conference) AGS design. Finally, 
the third new member you get to join would get you a 
special pottery mug, again with a gravestone design on 
it. I haven't figured out what you would get for your 
fourth, fifth, sixth, etc. new members, but you would get 
a pretty special gift, believe me! 

Your renewal form always comes with a membership 
brochure, which I ask you to give to someone interested 
in joining AGS. To get your gift, all you have to do is 
write your membership number (it's in the upper left 
corner of your address label on your renewal fonn) to 
the left of the "Office Use" box on the brochure. When 
that brochure is returned for membership, you will 
automatically be credited for the membership. Alter- 
natively, you can jot a note on the part of the brochure 
that gets returned, or have your friend write your name 
in somewhere on the form. Either way, you'll be 

If you really want to go for it (and I hope you will), you 
can request additional brochures from the office, write 
your number (which you can also get from the office if 
you've recently renewed or don't want to wait to get 
started) on all of them before you distribute them. 

Our aim here is not to get tens of thousands of members 
for AGS. But we sure could use about 100 new 
members in addition to the ones we're already getting. 
Our membership is at 913 now. I'd like to say one year 
from now that we have 1 000 -i- members. Also, I think 
it's important that everyone makes a concerted effort to 
make better known AGS and the issues we're trying to 
educate people about. I thought that this would be a fun 

way to do that. If you have any questions, please don't 
hesitate to contact me. 

We still have a few conference '91 T-shirts left for sale. 
They're 98% cotton, and are grey with a maroon design 
on them. We have, for $10, sizes S, M, L, and XL. For 
$1 1 , you can get an XXL shirt. 

I also wanted to talk about Markers VIII, the most 
misunderstood volume of this series. Let me explain 
something here. Everyone keeps asking me if there is 
anything of interest to anyone whose research doesn't 
focus in Connecticut. First of all, although most of the 
carvers discussed by Dr. Caulf ield were in Connecticut, 
many of them wori<ed their way up the River (Con- 
necticut, that is) or ended up in other parts of New 
England. Secondly, Dr. Caulfield was an excellent 
writer. This book is a terrific read, no matter what your 
interests. If you like research of any kind, this book will 
be of value to you. It is, in some ways, like Gravestone 
Chronicles: it's great if you are interested in those 
particular carvers, but it also stands on its own. What 
I found especially intriguing about Markers W/Zwas how 
much it becomes a chronicle of Dr. Caulfield himself 
when you put all of the articles together that way. In that 
respect, it's fascinating. 

Finally, in the last issue, I mentioned that there has 
been some interest in developing a catalog of court 
cases and laws as an AGS resource. Although I've 
gotten some response to this, no one who has expressed 
interest feels qualified to do this job. Is there a lawyer 
among our membership who would be willing to at least 
help usto set up a system and methodology forcollecting 
this information? 

That's it - don't forget to mark down June 25 - 28, 1 992: 
it's our fifteenth conference, and will be held at Union 
College in Schenectady, New York. 

Have a wonderful holiday season and a healthy and 
happy new year! 

Miranda Levin 
Executive Director 

AGS Fa '91 p. 21 


The Newsletter receives many newspaper items from vigi- 
lant members across the continent. These are not always 
included in the Newsletter because of space limitations, re- 
petitive story lines, or because in the opinion of the editor they 
are not directly related to the study of gravestones. All news 
items not printed in the Newsletter do eventually go to the 
AGS Archives. Here, in summary form, is a listing of recent 

recarve the lettering. The company has fixed broken 
stones and installed stone foundations under weaker 

In the same paper is another article about Leonard 
Alderman of Burlington CT who has created a 62-page 
alphabetized directory of people buried in Burlington. 
Alderman sells his directory for $20. - for more infor- 
mation call 673-9581 . 

From Cathy Wilson, Oakmont PA, an article titled 
"Group fixes up rundown graves"f rom the April 7, 1 991 , 
issue of the Pittsburgh Press, about a group of volun- 
teers cleaning up 150 neglected cemeteries in Indiana 
County PA. Called Project Headstone, the clean up 
effort includes Tau Kappa Epsilon fraternity members, 
from Indiana University of Pennsylvania, who are 
working to improve not only the community but the 
image of fraternities as strictly partying organizations. 

From Alice Bunton, Bethany CT, an item from the New 
Haven Register, January 28, 1 991 , on the restoration of 
the historic gravestones in the basement crypt of the 
First Church of Christ Congregational on the Green in 
New Haven CT. The oldest stone dates from 1687. The 
restoration is under the direction of Frank Matero of the 
University of Pennsylvania, and is expected to cost 
$80,000. Donations can be made to the New Haven 
Crypt Association, 311 Temple St., New Haven CT 

A recent article from a Rhode Island newspaper titled 
"For the love of cemeteries" concerns AGS members 
Beatrice Hoffius and Althea t^cAleer and their current 
project researching the cemeteries of North Kingstown 
Rl. Dutch Island Press expects to publish their finding 
this spring. The main purpose of the publication will be 
to provide valuable information to genealogists who 
wish to trace the histories of their families. They 
estimate that there are about 200 cemeteries in North 

Me\ Barrett, Severna Pk MD contributed an item from 
the Hilton Head News, South Carolina, July 18, 1990, 
about problems of access to the eleven black cemeter- 
ies on Hilton Head. Most of the cemeteries pre-date the 
Civil War. Since the cemeteries are not marked like 
most white cemeteries, developers don't recognize 
them for what they are. 

East Granby Center Cemetery Association has worked 
for fourteen years to restore the worst parts of their 
cemetery. Beij Williams & Zito Inc. of Hartford use a 
special fill to restore the surface of the stone and then 

All of the following material was contributed by Jim 
Jewell of Peru IL, who among his many and varied 
activities is his own clipping sen/ice: 

-Secretary of Veterans Affairs, Edward J. Denwinski, 
wants to make Fort Sheridan, scheduled to close in 
1994, a national cemetery. Competition for the land 
may be stiff, as private developers are willing to pay 
millions. From the Chicago Sun-Times, December 1 7, 

-An article in the December 26, 1990 edition of the 
Chicago Sun-Times describes Oak Woods Cemetery, 
the oldest cemetery in Chicago, founded in 1 853. 

-An article in the Chicago Sun-Times, January 11,1991 
notesthatthe Chicago Plan Commission recommended 
approval of a development that opponents say could 
desecrate thousands of unmarked graves on the 
Northwest Side. This story has been covered in the 
A/eivs/efferbefore-but continues.) Areportonthesame 
story, from the Chicago Tribune, January 1 2, 1 991 , was 
sent by Carol Shipp, Princeton IL. 

-From the Chicago Tribune, January 11,1 991 , an ar- 
ticle titled 'The 'hot' war we can't forget" by Ron Pazola 
talks about Chicago's important part in the Civil War. 
Chicago is filled with Civil War sites: the Stephen 
Douglas Tomb and f\/lemorial; the Chicago Soldiers' 
Home, now St. Joseph Carondelet Child Center; Camp 
Douglas, to name a few. 

-From the Chicago Tribune, September 29, 1991, an 
item about former President Tito of Yugoslavia, who 
died in 1980, and whose body may be taken from his 
white marble tomb in Belgrade and consigned to an 
ordinary cemetery. 

-An article inthe Chicago Sun-Times, Novembers, 1 991 , 
titled "Time dims the glory at Great War graves" by Jack 
Schnedler, describes the St. Mihiel American Cemetery 
at Thiaucourt-Regineville, France, 30 miles southeast 
of Verdun. Visitors to World War I cemeteries on the 

AGS Fa "91 p. 22 

Western Front add up to only a fraction of the total at 
World War II cemeteries in France. 

The Ft. Wayne IN NewszSentinel oi August 27, 1991 
reported that undercover police charged young men 
and juveniles with theft and attempted theft as they tried 
to rob a grave. The police believe the bodies were 
wanted for satanic rites. 

-From the Chicago Sun-Times of Novembers, 1991, 
an article on Chicago's 350-acre Rosehill Cemetery 
describes it as one of the finest living landscapes left in 
that city. In the 1 980s there was some controversy over 
Rosehill's fate when owners announced plans for a 
shopping center. Today Rosehill's landscape is chal- 
lenged less by developmentthan by the need to replenish 
native oak stands and bird habitats while keeping up its 
aging family-owned monuments. 

Boston Magazine, October 1991 issue, contains a 
lengthy article "Deathsty les of the Rich and Famous", a 
guide to their Boston-area graves, by David Cross and 
Robert Bent. Cross & Bent wrote Dead Ends: An Ir- 
reverent Field Guide to the Graves of the Famous, 
recently published by Plume/Penguin. 

-From the Chicago Tribune, November 10, 1991, a 
report states that construction on the new federal 
center in New York City was put on hold when ar- 
chaeologists discovered a Colonial burying ground for 
African-Americans, the first such discovery in the United 
States. The plot, closed in 1790, had been a municipal 
cemetery for paupers. Revolutionary War prisoners 
and victims of contagious diseases. The archaeological 
dig is likely to yield important information about how 
blacks lived — and died — during the Colonial era. (For 
more on this story, see p. 25.) 

A New Age Christian group wants to dig up an historic 
church graveyard in hopes of finding a vault it claims 
contains writings that can save the world and prove that 
Sir Francis Bacon wrote the plays of Shakespeare. The 
Ministryforthe Children, base in Sante Fe NM, contents 
that if the writings thought to be buried at Bruton Parish 
Church, Williamsburg VA, aren't found by the year 
2000, world order will collapse. The group believes 
Bacon's lost writings were buried at the church along 
with such treasures as the original translation of the 
King James Bible. The Episcopal church, founded in 
the 1 670s, and where George Washington and Thomas 
Jefferson worshipped, obtained a restraining order 
against the group after members entered the cemetery 
at night September 9 and dug a big hole to look for the 

from the LaSalle IL News Tribune, October 14, 1991 

The October 1991 issue of the Journal Antiques cor\- 
tains a fascinating, illustrated article on "Decorated 
gravestones of Wythe County, Virginia, by J, Roderick 
l^oore, director of the Blue Ridge Institute, Ferrum 
College, Ferrum VA 

AGS member, Jeffrey B. f^^lead, is presenting an 
interpretative slide show/lecture series on the Burying 
Grounds of the Town of Greenwich CT: 

Wed., January 29, 1992— 7:30pm Reader Behold As 

You Pass By: The Epitaphs 
Epitaphs are among the most expressive elements of 

our gravestones, offering a fascinating variety 

of emotional sentiments and lessons to the 


Wed., February 26, 1992— 7:30pm Tomac Cemetery: 
A Portal to the Pas\ 

This cemetery is the oldest existing burying 
ground in Greenwich. In 1929, the writer illus- 
trator Whitman Bailey described this graveyard 
as a place where "all gloomed has vanished. Its 
age has lent it peacefulness; and a person 
wandering through its quiet paths has only the 
sense of what has happened long ago, and of 
a history that is becoming more and more 

All lectures will be held in the Meeting Room at the 
Greenwich Arts Center, 299 Greenwich Avenue, 
Greenwich CT. 

For more information, call (203) 849-1464. 

Former AGS Executive Director; Rosalee Oakley, writes that 
'Thanks to the notice in the last issue of the Newsletter, Fred 
and I attended the lecture of the Victorian Society by Owen 
Shows on Victorian cemetery iconography which was EX- 
CELLENT! Before the slide presentation began, music was 
played as the group gathered and two women dressed In 
voluminous black mourning dresses and heavy veils from the 
1860s sat on either side of the stage beside the screens. 
Aften«ards they modeled the clothing and talked about the 
three stages of Victorian mourning as the group had re- 
freshments. The material in these was gorgeous and the 
detailing beautiful. They were in the second stage where they 
could wear a pendant that was other than black — these were 
gold with onyx settings. They showed us a picture of porcelain 
photographs of the deceased worn as broaches which were 
also suitable. The slide show was about an hour long and very 
scholarly, going back to Egyptian, Roman and Greek Ico- 
nography and mythology for origins of Victorian motifs. Fred 
Is trying to reach Mr. Shows to talk about AGS's possible use 
of the program in some form. 

AGS Fa '91 p. 23 


An item in the New York Times tells of an unusual dis- 
pute over cemetery rules at St. Joseph's Cemetery in 
Pittsfield, Massachusetts. 

For decades families were free to decorate plots as 
they pleased, and this freedom, it was felt by those \n 
charge, has gotten out of hand. Elaborate and "ex- 
cessive" displays adorned many of the grave sites. 
People brought balloons, pumpkins, bowling balls, golf 
clubs, flags. "It just didn't look right", said the Rev. 
David Farland, pastor of St. Joseph's Roman Catholic 
Church, who recently announced new rules. 

The new rules limit decorations to one flower pot per 
plot, distressing many families. The situation was 
exacerbated by the discarding of decorations some 
families refused to remove. Plants and gardens were 
pulled up and fences that had been erected to protect 
gardens were taken down. The pastor has refused to 
sit down with protesters to discuss the matter. There 
have been protest demonstrations in front of both the 

rectory and the bishop's residence in Springfield, and 
1300 signatures have been collected demanding that 
the rules be rescinded. Now, having failed to win their 
case through persuasion and protest, the protesters 
are going to court. 

The only reason given in the article for the new rule is 
that the ornamentation is inappropriate, which expla- 
nation is felt by the families to be insulting and "just plain 

Our reading of this situation is that the cemetery's new 
rule might have been better accepted if the reason 
given for the change had been the complications and 
expense of cemetery upkeep caused by families erecting 
fences, planting shrubs and gardens, and placing all 
kinds of large and small objects on the graves. 

If this dispute is settled in court and reported in the 
press, we will report the results to our readers. 

contributed by Jessie Lie Farber, Worcester MA. 


Founded in 1819, the Arkansas Gazette 
is the oldest newspaper west of the 
Mississippi. This Pulitzer Prize-winning 
paper was sold in October 1991, mark- 
ing the end of an era. The paper's 
founder, William E. Woodruff (b. 1795) 
,is buried in Little Rock's historic Mount 
Holly Cemetery. On the day the sale 
was consummated, employees of the 
Gazette tied a copy of its final edition, a 
floral tribute, and a farewell letter to the 
handsome cast iron gate of the Wood- 
ruff family lot with yellow ribbons. In a 
front-page spread. Gazette readers 
state-wide glimpsed the beauty of the 
site, but could not see the white bronze 
marker on this lot (just outside of camera 
range). The Woodruff white bronze 
marker is one of four at the 148-year-old 
Mount Holly Cemetery, whose sesquicentennial will be 
celebrated in 1 993 with the publication of two books, an 
illustrated history and a burial index. 

contributed by Sybil Crawford, Dallas TX. 

AGS Fa '91 p. 24 

Dig Unearths Early Black Burial Ground 

by David W. Dunlap 

Churning through the stillness of centuries, a trowel-by- 
trowel probe has yielded one of the oldest remnants of 
a black community in New York City — a colonial-era 
cemetery that was then at the most desolate edge of 
town and is now 20 feet below the civic center. 

Thirteen bodies have already been exhumed by ar- 
chaeologists at a construction site at Broadway and 
Reade Street. It seems certain they are unearthing the 
"Negros Burial Ground" documented as early as 1 755, 
which also served as a potter's field and as a graveyard 
for American prisoners during the Revolutionary War. 
"I'm specu lating that this is one of the few places where 
blacks got to practice their community together and 
practice their religion together, "said Ed Rutsch, the 
archaeologist who is heading the dig. Slaves and free 
blacks alike were buried there. 

Clues to Way of Living 

Although the burying ground wasfamiliarto historians, 
there had been no way of telling how much of it — if 
any — survived to this day. The sheer magnitude of the 
find clearly delighted the archeologists in the field. 

Among the questions to which the cemetery may offer 
clues are these: 

What was the child-morbidity rate black New Yorkers in 
the 1 8th century? Were their diets meager or nourish- 
ing? Were broken bones and bad teeth cared for? 
Were blacks plagued by rickets or tuberculosis? Did 
any African burial customs survive in the New World? 
Much can already be inferred from its location, on the 
far side of the palisade that once bordered the city 
proper 'Two centuries ago," Mayor David N. Dinkins 
said, "not only could African-Americans not hope lo 
govern New York City, they could not even hope to be 
buried within its boundaries." 

The burial ground, which was closed in 1 790, will be the 
site of a 34-story Federal office building. That con- 
struction will wait until the cemetery has been fully 
explored and documented. 

"The size and scope expands with every shovel full," 
said Christopher F. McGratty, a partner in the Linpro 
Company, which is developing the project forthe Federal 
Government. He said the excavation would probably 
delay completion of the 974,000-square-foot tower, 
which had been set for November 1 994 and increase its 
cost estimated at $276 million. 

Treating Remains Witii Dignity 

"Our instruction to Mr. Rutsch is that the importance of 
the find comes first," said William J. Diamond, regional 
administrator of the General Services Administration, 
under whose auspices the office building and a nearby 
courthouse are being constructed. Further, Mr. Dia- 
mond said: "It is absolutely essential that the remains 
that were found on the site be treated with the utmost 
respect and dignity. We are committed to re-interment 
of these remains to an appropriate site." A possible 
reburial site is Trinity Church Cemetery in Harlem. Mr. 
Diamond said there would be some kind of permanent 
exhibit in the lobby of the new building. 

What has survived of the cemetery is a portion under 
the crook of an L shaped alleyway, known as Repub- 
lican Alley and Manhattan Alley, that divided the block 
bounded by Broadway, Reade, Duane and Elk Streets. 
Because there was no construction on the alley itself, 
the graves beneath were undisturbed. 

Lower map (rom "The Iconography ot Manhauan Island" by I N Phelps Slokea (Roben H. Dodd. 1915) 

A 1 755 map of lower Manhattan shows the cemetery for blacks that was 
discovered during excavation for a 34-story Federal office building. 

AGS Fa '91 p. 25 

'A Certain Amount of Care' 

AM the skeletons found so far were buried in coffins, 
most of wiiich were hexagonal. "That was surprising," 
Mr, Rutsch said. "We were expecting to find some only 
in shrouds. But it speaks of a certain amount of care." 
All were buried with their heads facing west, which Mr. 
Rutsch said was a Christian tradition. Headstones 
marked some graves, although none was legibly in- 
scribed. Some graves were marked by footstones, 
some outlined by cobblestones. 

Historians have long been aware of the burial place, 
which is shown in a 1755 map called the Maerschaick 
Plan. One vivid and disturbing account was written in 
1865 by David T. Valentine for the Manual of the 
Corporation of the City of New- York: 

"Though within convenient walking distance from the 
city, the locality was unattractive and desolate, so 
that by permission the slave population were allowed 

to inter their dead there. 

"Many of them were native Africans, imported hither 
in slave ships, and retaining their native superstitions 
and burial customs, among which was that of burying 
by night, with various mummeries and outcries This 
custom was finally prohibited by the authorities from 
its dangerous and exciting tendencies among the 

"So little seems to have been thought of the race that 
not even a dedication of their burial-place was made 
by the church authorities, or any others who might 
reasonably be supposed to have an interest in such 
a matter." 

Mayor Dlnkins said in November: "If the honorable 
intentions announced today lead to the honorable ac- 
tions we expect, we can help erase the dishonor the city 
brought upon Itself two centuries ago." 

From the New York Times, October 9, 1991, contributed by 
Anne Polster, Brooklyn NY, and others; the Hartford Courant, 
October 9, 1991, sent by Ray Cummings, Avon CT. 


A contemporary pirate who had tried to sell to Boston 
College stolen Irish gravestones with an estimated 
value of up to $1 50,000 was sentenced in August by a 
Federal court in Boston. 

The defendant, Peter Kenny, a 68-year-old Irish citizen, 
was turned over to the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service for deportation. Mr. Kenny also was sentenced 
to a four-month term in Federal prison, which he had 
already served since his arrest in April. He had pleaded 
guilty on July 25 to smuggling stolen goods into the 
United States. The gravestones have been returned for 
display at the National Museum in Dublin. 

Mr. Kenny arrived in Miami in January with a sailboat full 
of stolen artifacts from St. Dermot's sixth-century mo- 
nastic site on Inchcleraun Island (Quaker Island). Among 
the items were a Viking anchor, a number of coins, 
several rifles reportedly used in the 1916 Easter Re- 
bellion and three Christian grave slabs bearing Latin 
crosses, rings and inscriptions. Irish officials say all 
three slabs were stolen between 1949 and 1989. A 

fourth grave slab remains at Inchcleraun, while a fifth 
has been missing since 1869. 

Mr. Kenny got in touch with Boston College's John J. 
Burns Library of Rare Books and Special Collections, 
which houses one of the nation's most comprehensive 
collections of Irish historical and cultural material. In an 

interview, Robert O'Neill, Burns' librarian, said the age 
and distinction of the stones that Mr. Kenny had offered 
aroused his suspicion and prompted him to call the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation, which set the stage for 
an elaborate sting operation. 

According to Mr. O'Neill, on April 16 at the Burns 
Library, Mr. Kenny met with him and with a wired F.B.I, 
agent, who was posing as a Boston College benefactor. 
Federal agents also posed as students outside the 
library and as maintenance workers who were called 
upon to help carry in the antiquities for display. After 
bargaining down Mr. Kenny's price, Mr. O'Neill said that 
he and the "benefactor" made a down payment to Mr. 
Kenny, with the promise of a final payment to close the 
deal on April 22. Instead, on that day, Mr Kenny was 
surprised by F.B.I, agents at his motel in Wellesley, MA, 
and arrested on smuggling charges. Mr. O'Neill said he 
considers the Kenny case important both to Ireland and 
to other countries that are trying to protect their national 
cultural treasures. "Ireland will get back its treasures," 
he said. "And future thefts of this nature should be 
discouraged for some time to come." 

Eamonn Kelly of Ireland's National Museum has called 
the world market for stolen antiquities second in prof- 
itability only to the international drug trade. 

New York Times September 1, 1991, also the Atheris VA 
Daily News/Banner Herald, August 18, 1991, sentby Cranston 
Williams Jr., Roanoke VA. 

AGS Fa '91 p. 26 


The papers of the Thomas Phillips Monument Com- 
pany (1845-1988) have been given to the New Haven 
Colony Historical Society by Dorothy Perkins, the widow 
of John Chester Pert<ins, last principal owner of the 

Thomas Phillips left the employ of the Ritterstonecarving 
business in 1843 and established his own operation at 
the corner of Grove and High Streets. He was a skilled 
stonecarver as well as a technical innovator and pos- 
sessed considerable business acumen. His company 
made cemetery monuments and all other types of 
architectural stonework. Phillips was a founder of the 
Evergreen Cemetery in 1 849, but his business included 
Grove Street Cemetery as well as Roman Catholic, 
Jewish, and other ethnic burial grounds. He expanded 
his customer base beyond New Haven, employing 
agents in a number of other states. In 1876 the 
business moved to Sylvan Avenue where it continued 
until it closed in 1988. 

Thomas Phillips died in 1889 and his son, John 
Humphrey Phillips, headed the firm until his death in 
1900. In the 1890s, Stephen Peck Perkins joined the 
firm and later became principal owner. In turn, his son, 
John Chester Perkins, ran the business until his death 
in 1988 when the company was dissolved. Others 

involved in the company included Thomas Bassett and 
Herman Meister. A number of craftsmen of many 
nationalities were employed including Scottish, Irish, 
and Italian cutters and carvers. 

Included in the collection are photographs, correspond- 
ence, orderforms, and other business records, pattern 
books, and trade publications. It is a significant collection 
of a craft and business rarely documented. Providing 
as it does a record of material culture of the nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries, it will be of interest to many 
types of researchers including social and economic 
historians, demographers, genealogists, and those 
concerned with monument restoration. 

This collection was secured for the Whitney Library 
through the efforts of Society member Peter Dobkin 
Hall, who has worked hard to preserve this material. 
Mrs. Perkins ' generosity and desire to preserve a 
record of her late husband's business is much appreci- 
ated. Additional information can be obtained by con- 
tacting James W.Campbell, Librarian and Curator of 
Manuscripts; New Haven Colony Historical Society, 
114 Whitney Ave., New Haven CT 06510. 

from the June 1991 issue of News & Notes, the 
newsletter of the New Haven Colony Historical Society. 

AGS Fa '91 p. 27 



The Board is now accepting nominations for the 1992 Forbes Award, which will be given out at the 
conference to be held June 25 -28, 1992, at Union College in Schenectady, New York. If you know 
someone who has done exceptional work in any aspect of gravestone studies, please submit their 
name, address, phone number, and achievements to the AGS office A.S.A.P.! 


7776 AGS Newsletter is published quarterly as a service to members of the Association for Gravestone Studies. The membership 
year begins the month dues are received and ends one year from that date. A one year membership entities the members to four 
issues of the Newsletter and to participation in the AGS conference in the year membership is current Send membership fees 
(individual $20; institutional, $25; family $30; contributing $30) to The Association for Gravestone Studies, 30 Elm Street, 
Worcester I^A 01609. Back issues of the Newsletter are available for $3.00 per issue from the AGS office. The goal of the 
Newsletter is to present timely information about projects, literature, and research concerning gravestones, and about the 
activities of the Association for Gravestone Studies. It is produced by Deborah Trask, who welcomes suggestions and short 
contributions from readers. The Newsletter is not intended to serve as a journal. Journal articles should be sent to Theodore 
Chase, editor of Markers, the Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studies, 74 Farm St, Dover MA 02030. Address 
Newsletter contributions to Deborah Trask, editor, Nova Scotia Museum, 1747 Summer St, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3A6, 
Canada, FAX 902-424-0560. Order Markers (Vol. 1 $20; Vol. 2, $20; Vol. 3. $18.50; Vol. 4, $20; Vol. 5, $20; Vol. 6, $23; Vol. 7, 
$15; higher prices for non-members) from the AGS office. Send contributions to the AGS Archives to Jo Goeselt, 6 1 Old Sudbury 
Road, Way land MA 1 778 Address other correspondence to Miranda Levin, Executive Director, at the AGS office at 30 Elm Street, 
Worcester MA 01609. 

30 Elm Street 
Worcester MA 




Permit No. 410 

Worcester MA 





Three E's, Not All in a Row 

Jim Jewell 2 

Old Sturbrldge Village Returns Stones 3 

P6re Lachalse Cemetery, Paris 4 


The Very Quiet Baltimoreans 

review by Eric J. Brock 7 




Saxton's River VT Report 9 

Coalition to Protect Maryland Burial Sites 11 



Civil War Era Cemetery Records 18 


A 1 7th Century Landmark, NYC 21 

A Look at David Sloane 22 




The "Cemeteries and Gravemarkers" Permanent Sec- 
tion of the American Culture Association is seeking 
proposals for its paper sessions scheduled for the 
ACA's 1993 Annual Meeting, to be held April 7-10 in 
New Orleans, Lousiana. Topics are solicited from any 
appropriate disciplinary perspective. Those interested 
are encouraged to send a 250-word abstract or pro- 
posal by September 1 , 1 992 to the section chair: 

Richard E. IV/leyer 

English Department 

Western Oregon State College 

lUlonmouth OR 97361 

(503) 838-8362 

AGS Wi -91/2 p. 1 

the spelling of "cemetery" 

by Jim Jewell 

Judith Zell was a fourteen-year-old eighth grader when 
she won her school's spelling bee in 1 957 by correctly 
spelling "cemetery". Shortly afterward, a picture of f^/iiss 
Zell appeared intheForlWayne(IN) News-Sentinel. She 
was standing in front of a sign directing motorists to Fort 
Wayne's Prairie Grove CEMETARY. (The sign was 
replaced long ago by one with the correct spelling.) 

The word "cemetery" has long been a spelling bee 
demon and, quite frequently, an editor's nightmare. 
Bills for the Fireside Theatre Drama Book Club offering 
of a recent Broadway play labeled it "The Cemetary 
Club". A recent ad in the Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette 
heralded a gift and flower shop's "Cemetary Decora- 
tions". Occasionally this writer has encountered the 
substitute "a" in correspondence — ^from AGS mem- 

lie >^rf*. 

Nevada, Wyandot Co., Ohio 

Or we could consider '1hree e's; eternal, everlast- 
ing and elegiac . 

Jim Jewell of Peru IL is vigilantly scanning the newspa- 
pers of the mid-west for references of interest to AGS, 
and is a frequent contributor to the Newsletter hie 
writes "I was a contestant in the county spelling bee with 
Judy Zell. She got all 3 "e's" in "cemetery", but I got 
stuck in the "quagmire!" 

lOOF Cemetery, New Haven, Indiana 

Frequent misspellings of "cemetery" appear on 
signs outlining the rules of cemeteries, such as 
those at the I.O.O.F. Cemetery in New Haven, 
Indiana, and the Nevada (Ohio) Cemetery. These 
might be explainable as errors of the sign-mak- 
ers rather than the cemeteries. But where does 
the blame lie for the ornate sign at the entrance 
of the Lisbon (IL) Cemetery, with the "A" promi- 
nently appearing? 

Perhaps a quote from an early Harry Morgan 
character. General Steele on M*A*S*H, in which 
he explains how to spell his character's name — 
"three 'e's, not all in a row"— would be helpful. 

Lisbon, Illinois 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 2 


The Trustees of Old Sturbridge Village, at 
the regular Board meeting on November 2, 
1991, voted unanimously to return to the 
Trustees of the Cemeteries of Gilmanton, 
New Hampshire, eleven gravestones that 
were identified by the Trustees as rightfully 
belonging to the town's cemeteries (see 
AGS Newsletters/ 15 #4, Fall 1991, p. 5.) 
The stones in question had been received 
by Old Sturbridge Village as an unrestricted 
gift from New Hampshire antique dealer 
Roger Bacon on June 10, 1960. fwlr. Bacon 
has since passed away. 

The officers of Old Sturbridge Village, on 
learning in early October that the stones 
apparently had been removed from the 
Gilmanton cemeteries sometime between 
1940 and 1960, took immediate steps to 
facilitate their return. The stones were re- 
moved from public display and placed under the care of 
the Village's Conservator. Return of the stones to New 
Hampshire should occur within the next few weeks 
once arrangements have been formalized with the 
Gilmanton Cemetery Trustees. Reinstallation of the 
stones in the cemeteries reportedly will take place next 

In discussing the vote, Crawford Lincoln, President of 
Old Sturbridge Village, said '1he Museum's responsibil- 
ity for the care of the artifacts received by gift has been 
met and now the stones will be transferred to the 
ownership of the Cemetery Trustees who will assume 
the responsibility of preservation for future genera- 

Old Sturbridge Village is a living history museum that 
re-creates a rural New England town of the 1830s. The 
Museum covers over 200 acres with more than 40 
restored buildings, where people in historical dress 
demonstrate the life, work, and community celebra- 
tions of early 19th-century New Englanders. 


Marion Mclntyre, Gilmanton NH 

Marion Mclntyre is Gilmanton's town librarian, registrar 
and unofficial historian. With the help of a reporterf rom 
the New Hampshire Sunday News, she obtained a list 
of the names on 13 of the gravestones at Sturbridge 
Village. Using a town history book, a 1940 list of those 
buried in one of the town's cemeteries, and hints from 
local history buffs, she traced all 13 names back to 
Gilmanton. Two gravestones will remain at the 
Sturbridge musem as Gimnanton familes have erected 
new markers on those graves. 

The discovery has given a lift to Ms. Mclntyre's favorite 
cause: cleaning up little known cemeteries. In the last 
decade she identified 30 abandoned burial grounds 
and began clearing them herself. Since the head- 
stones were traced to Sturbridge, offers to help have 
poured in and volunteers have cleared five more 

from an Old Sturbridge Village news release, November 4, 
1991, and from the New York Times, November 19, 1991, 
sent by Daniel Pagano, New York City. 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 3 

"Heaven on Earth" 

Mark Merenda 

The best place to go celebrity hunting in Paris is not La 
CoupoleorTaillevant, not Les Bains or Willy's Wine Bar 
or Brasserie Lipp. The best place to find the famous 
and infamous in Paris is spread out across 1 00 acres of 
hillside in the seedy 20th arrondissement. It is there, in 
Pere Lachaise cemetery, among those whom William 
Styron has called '1he real silent majority," that one can 
find the great names nestled against each other under 
the trees as if at adjoining tables at Caf6 Flore. 

What at first seems a morbid way to spend even one 
afternoon becomes a fascinating, spooky, and romantic 
outing if one gets to know the place. P6re Lachaise 
exerts a powerful attraction on a wild assortment of 
hero-worshippers, high school students on a lark, 
families out for a Sunday promenade, young lovers, 
and little old ladies. Although it is watched full time by 
35 gardiens, P6re Lachaise is sometimes home to 
squatters who choose to make their home, if only for 
one night, in someone else's memorial chapel. Those 
who stay the night risk more than arrest. In the past, 
officials have discovered animal remains indicating 
bizarre religious rituals by trespassers. 

Among the more persistent legends concerning P6re 
Lachaise is the story thatthe Russian princess Demidoff 
left 2 million rubles to anyone who would spend 365 
days in her tomb. Over the years, cemetery officials 
have received hundreds of letters from willing candi- 
dates, the most recent in 1978. 

The cemetery is a labyrinth of small winding roads and 
broad boulevards populated by every manner of 
monument, mausoleum, tomb, gravestone, temple, 
and chapel — some 100,000 sculptures in all. There is 
even a miniature version of the Taj Mahal, a memorial 
marking the grave of the cemetery's lone I ndian resident. 

Pfere Lachaise, in which more than 1 million people 
have been buried since it opened in 1804, was named 
for the confessor of Louis XIV and is located on the site 
of hisformerestate. The entire expanse is sheltered by 
a dense and lush cover of foliage from its thousands of 
trees, giving it a dark and brooding atmosphere even on 
brilliant summer days. Some devotees say the way to 
really enjoy Pere Lachaise is during drizzly November 
when the leaves are gone and the branches are stark 
against the sky. Others may think this to be painting the 

Walking the twisted paths of P§re Lachaise, you'll find 
the graves of some of the celebrated people of the last 

two centuries: Frederic Chopin, Eug6ne Delacroix, 
Amedeo Modigliani, Oscar Wilde, Isadora Duncan, 
Gertrude Stein, Edith Piaf, Marcel Proust, Gioacchino 
Antonio Rossini, Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette, Sarah 
Bernhardt, Honors de Balzac, and on and on. 

One can even find the graves of France's Romeo and 
Juliet, Heloise and Ab6lard, interred together in 1163 
and several times transferred until coming to rest in 
P§re Lachaise in the 73rd division, or precinct, of the 
cemetery. According to a 13th century account, at the 
moment when Heloise's body was bome, as she had 
willed, into the tomb of Abelard, who had died 20 years 
earlier, his arms opened to receive her. It is only one of 
the many legends of P6re Lachaise. 

Not far away, in the 96th division , is the grave of another 
pairof tragic lovers: Modigliani and Jeanne Hebuterne. 
The great painter had found his true love among the 
young students at the Colarossi art academy. She was 
19 years old when she left her comfortable home to 
share his impoverished life on the me de la Grande- 
Chaumiere, where she bore his child. Modigliani painted 
her again and again in the elongated and sensual style 
for which he was revered. 

"Jeanne and I, we're agreed on an eternal joy," he said. 
But the next year eternity, in the form of tubercular 
meningitis, caught up with the painter, and Jeanne's 
family came to take her away. Modigliani was carried 
to P6re Lachaise in the plumed black can-iage of the 
pompes funebres. Among the mourners was Pablo 
Picasso. When Modigliani died, Jeanne had not allowed 
herself to weep. Her parents was wary of her strange 
calm and posted her brother as guard at her bedroom 
door. Itdidnogood. Jeanne hurled herselffrom the fifth 
floor window. From the position of the body, police 
determined that she had jumped out backward, so as 
not to see the cobblestones rushing at her. On their 
tomb, the dates of their deaths — one day apart— are 
engraved in Italian. Under Jeanne's name it reads: 
"Loyal unto the last sacrifice." 

Descending the Avenue Carette (the main streets and 
paths in the cemetery have names) in the 89th division, 
one finds the tomb of Oscar Wilde, the playwright who 
amused, then horrified, English society with his outra- 
geous wit and his equally outrageous lifestyle. From 
1888 to 1895, Wilde was the toast of London, basking 
in the success of plays such as The Importance of Being 
Earnest and his fanfx)us horror novel Ttie Picture of 
Dorian Gray. He avowed he was a socialist, hinted he 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 4 

was homosexual and did everything he could to an- 
tagonize organized morals and religion. At the height 
of his popularity, he was convicted and sentenced to 
two years at hard laborfor sexual crimes. Following his 
release, he went to live in France where in 1900, 
plagued by ill-health and bankmptcy, he died in an 
expensive hotel. "I am dying as I have lived," he is 
reputed to have said, "beyond my means." Wilde's 
grave, a sometime gathering place for Paris gays, is 
decorated with a lifesize statue that is, one might 
observe, lacking private parts. These were, according 
to the sort of legend Parisians adore, lopped off some 
years ago by a pair of scandalized English spinsters. 
Rumor has it that the parts now serve as a paperweight 
in the office of the cemetery's superintendent. 

In the 15th division lies the grave of James Douglas 
fvlorrison of tvlelbourne FL. For 1 years after his death, 
it was totally unmarked. When he died in Paris at 27 his 
mother wanted to bring the body home to the United 
States, but his father, a military man with whom the 
younger l^orrison had fought bitterly, refused. So he 
was buried in Pere Lachaise where his grave soon 
became the object of a strange pilgrimage, a sort of 
Mecca for the branch^, or hip. The only way to find the 
grave was to follow mysterious scrawls on the sides of 
mausoleums and tombs that read simply "Jim," with 
arrows pointing the way. 

You may already know that James Douglas Momson 
won fame as Jim (Morrison, the visionary poet and rock 
singer of The Doors, a group that, among rock 
cognoscenti, is considered better than any that have 
arisen in the nearly 20 years since they last played 
together. In June 1981, just before the 10th anniversary 
of his death, someone installed a pedestal, engraved 
with Morrison's name, and bust of the singer on his 
grave. The monument, and all those surrounding it, 
were covered with graffiti in the form of tributes to the 
fallen idol: "Love ya two times, Jim!" and "Who do you 
love?" and finally, of course, "Jim's not dead." There 
may be some truth to that. According to Judi Culbertson 
and Tom Randall in their t>ook Permanent Parisians, 
the rumorthat Jim Morrison was dead began on Monday 
morning, July 5, 1971. "Bill Siddon, manager of The 
Doors, called Jim's wife Pamela from Los Angeles to 
confirm it, then left for Paris. When he arrived, she 
showed him a sealed coffin and a signed death certifi- 
cate; allegedly Jim had died in the bathtub of a heart 
attack. The next day the coffin was secretly buried in 
Pere Lachaise, leaving behind millions of grieving fans 
and almost as many questions. Pamela Morrison, the 
only witness, died three years later in a car crash in 

The dead Jim, it would seem, was "not dead" long 
before the dead Elvis was "alive." Young people come 

from Amsterdam, from London, from the nearby 
neighborhoods of Paris and from Keokuk, Iowa to find 
the final resting place of the Rider on the Storm. They 
stand around talking quietly, sometimes singing, 
sometimes smoking something that isn't tobacco. The 
pedestal is often decorated with an empty bottle of Jack 
Daniels whiskey serving as a vase to some wildf lowers — 
a fitting tribute to the man who sang "Oh show me the 
way to the next whiskey bar." In February 1989, an 
unknown fan — or necrophiliac — stole the bust that 
decorated Morrison's tomb. Cemetery officials have 
cleaned almost all of the graffiti off the neighboring 
monuments and posted two guards at the rock star's 

The tomb of Chopin was, up until the last two decades, 
the most visited in the cemetery. Now it has been 
surpassed by those of Morrison and Edith Piaf. Per- 
haps Chopin wouldn't have minded being eclipsed by 
two fellow musicians. The tomb, decorated with a 
marble frieze of the composer whose work was de- 
scribed as "cannons buried in flowers," is in the 11th 
division. It, too, is often buried in flowers, as piano 
lovers try to show what the notes of the master have 
meant to them. Gazing at the tomb, one can almost 
hear the sounds of the preludes, 6tudes, mazurkas, 
and nocturnes, and unhappily, also of his March Fun^re 
sonata. Chopin died of tuberculosis at age 39 in 1 849. 
Toward the end he was visited by three doctors. "One 
sniffed at what I spat," he wrote to a friend, '1he second 
tapped where I spat, the third sounded me and listened 
as I spat. The first said I was dying, the second said I 
was about to die, and the third said I was already dead." 

Piaf, the little sparrow, is in the 97th division . There she 
rests with Th6o Sarapo, her last husband. She was 
born, literally, on the sidewalks of Paris — ^there is a 
plaque on the wall of a building at 72 rue de Belleville, 
near the Pyr6n6es m^fro station, that marks the spot — 
and rose to become one of the world's best-loved 
chanteuses. The first time he heard her sing, Maurice 
Chevalier said, "that kid really has It inside," and she 
was known thereafter as la mdme, the Kid. Her real 
name was Edith Gassion, but she was famous the 
world over as Edith Piaf — piaf meaning sparrow. She 
died in 1963, perhaps of living too much. Her most 
famous song was Non, je ne regrette hen. 

In the northeast corner of the burial ground, in the 77th 
division, is an innocuous-looking wall that once played 
a dramatic role in French history. In 1 870, Parisians did 
what they do so well, taking to the streets, overthrowing 
the government and establishing something new in its 
place : on this occasion a municipal govemment known 
as the Commune. The Commune lasted only two 
months and as Paris fell to a rival group of French 
forces, the bloody fighting was hand to hand and street 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 5 

to street. TheCommunards, as they were called, made 
their last stand among the gravestone of P§re Lachaise, 
and there on the next day, 147 of them were lined up 
against the wall and shot. The Versaillais, as their 
opponents were known, suffered only atxjut 1,000 
deaths. The death toll of the Communards was esti- 
mated to be at least 20,000. 

Among Parisians, the 
most famous monument , 
in P§re Lachaise is that of i 
VictorNoir, a 19th century f 
journalist shot down in the 
streets of Paris at the age 
of 22 after writing an ar- 
ticle attacking Emperor 
Napol6onlll. Noir, whose 
real name was Yves 
Salmon, would probably 
be long forgotten were it 
not for the remarkable 
sculpture that adorns his 
tomb in the 92nd c//V/s/'on. 
Executed by the sculptor 
Jules Dalou 20 years af- 
ter Noir's death, the figure lies flat on its back. The 
young journalist is represented as he was dying, still 
wearing his gloves, his shirt, vest, and the top of his 
pants unbuttoned. His upturned hat lies beside him. 

The assassination of Noir was a cause celdbre, and the 
newspapers of Paris cried out against the deed and 
against the emperor, widely suspected of having ar- 
ranged the murder. The newspaper La R^forme 
screamed: "The conscience of humanity, suffocatedfor 
1 8 years, cries: Vengeance!" Noir's funeral procession, 
followed by thousands, threatened to become a riot. 
The moment of truth arrived when the hearse reached 
a crossroad: to the left, the center of Paris; to the right, 
the cemetery. Noir's brother prevailed on the driver to 
take a right out of respect to his dead sibling and the 
Empire survived another day. Several months later, it 
fell anyway. 

Few today are aware of the details of Noir's life and 
death. The statue on his tomb is more widely known 
than the living man ever was. This is so because the 
artist who sculpted the statue gave Noir's effigy a bulge 
in his trousers that only can be described as awesome. 
This — perhaps unintended — tribute to Noir's anatomy 
is the object of a fertility cult and myth devoutly believed 
by Parisiennes. It is said that if a woman puts flowers 
in Noir's hat and kisses his lips, she will receive an offer 
of marriage within one year. It is also said that women 
who cannot conceive must also place flowers in the hat 
and then touch Victor — er, down there. If she does, she 
will soon be rewarded with pregnancy. You might 

laugh, but one can only note that the crucial part of 
Victor's effigy shows unmistakable signs of having 
been repeatedly touchy. 

In the columbarium in the 87th division, ashes of the 
cremated are interred behind plaques in the wall. Isadora 
Duncan, who died when her long scarf was caught in 
the rear wheel of the sports car in which she was riding, 

rests here. So does 
Maria Callas, whom 
many think to be the 
greatest opera singer of 
our time, and who lost 
her man, Aristotle 
Onassis, to Jackie 
Kennedy. And so, too, 
rests Marthe Richard, 
the infamous madamfor 
whom is named the 
French regulation out- 
lawing les maisons 
closes, the houses of 

There are so many 
more. The painters: Delacroix, Seurat, Ingres. The 
composers: Bellini, Bizet, Rossini. The writers: Balzac, 
Stein, Eluard, Proust. And generals, piano makers, 
presidents, glassblowers, and of course — this being 
France, after all — celebrated chefs. One can even find 
one of France's most famous inventors: Docteur 
Guillotin, designer of what came to be called '1he 
national razor." 

There are other cemeteries in Paris. There are the 
catacombs, which can provide you with an unnerving 
half hour underground. There is Montpamasse, where 
you can find Jean-Paul Sartre. There is f^ontmarire, 
home to hundreds of cats, which contains the tombs of 
Berlioz, Offenbach, Stendhal, Francois Tnjff aut, and of 
Alphonsine Marie Plessis, a courtesan who died at 22. 
She was the inspiration for La Dame aux Camelias by 
Alexandre Dumas fils, as well as La Traviata by 
Guiseppe Verdi and the Camille of Greta Gartx). 

There is often a solitary camellia on Plessis' sepulcher, 
placed there by one of Paris' many romantics. The 
flower was a literary device of Dumas and there is no 
record that Plessis had any special affection for the 
bloom, but that is merely the quibbling of historians. 
When his heart was broken by the beautiful demi- 
mondaine, Dumas wrote herthis letter: "My dear Marie, 
I am not rich enough to love you as I wou Id wish , and not 
poor enough to be loved as you would desire. So let 
both of us forget — you a name which should be almost 
indifferent to you, I a happiness that has become 
impossible for me . . . Adieu, then. You have too much 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 6 

heart not to understand wtiy I write this letter and too 
much intelligence not to be able to forgive me for it." 

Then there is the Pantheon, where one can find the 
heroesof France: Rousseau, Voltaire, Hugo, and Braille. 
And just outside Paris is the Basilica of St. Denis where 
most of the monarchs of France are buried, in the 
Invalides, in a massive red marble tomb, lie the mortal 
remains of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French. 

But it is Pere Lachaise that draws us back again and 
again, to look around us and think of death, memento 
mori, and savor life, and remember not to take it all too 
seriously because it doesn't last all that long. 

In the north wall of the columbarium are interred the 
ashes of the French comedian Pierre Dae, who said, 
"To the eternal triple question which has always re- 
mained unanswered. Who are we? Where do we come 
from? Where are we going? I reply: As far as I, 
personally, am concerned, I am me; I come from just 
down the road and I am now going home." 

From Palm Beach Life, March 1991, contributed by 
Ray Cummings, Avon, CT 




1 ai.ti m o r k a n s 

by Jane B. Wilson, 
White Mane Publishing Co., 
P.O. Box 152 
Shlppensburg, PA 17257 
1991 $29.95, hardcover, 
130 pp., 86 lllus., 12 maps 

review by Eric J. Brock 

Years ago Francis Beirne 
wrote a book entitled The 
Amiable Baltlmoreans. In 
1991 Jane B. Wilson com- 
piled a volume about the final 
resting places of those ami- 
able Baltlmoreans and titled it 
The Very Quiet Baltlmoreans. Her book is a very 
good guide to the cemeteries of that historic city. In 130 

pages of text is crammed a surprising amount of inter- 
esting, useful, well-researched information as well as a 
dozen excellent maps and numerous photographs by 
Barbara Alexandra Treadaway (who is also Wilson's 
niece). Fourteen chapters detail the rich diversity of 
burial grounds to be found in Baltimore from Westmin- 

ster Churchyard where Poe lies to the Bohemian Cem- 
etery, and all the Protestant, Catholic, Jewish, African- 
American and non-sectarian cemeteries in between. 
Lists of the famous buried in each cemetery accom- 
pany the article about that cemetery's history and, 
though older and more historic cemeteries are given 
decided precedence, modern cemeteries are also given 
brief mention — there is even a chapter on vanished 

Admittedly, The Very Quiet Baltlmoreans is first and 
foremost a history of local interest to Baltlmoreans and 
Marylanders (non-Baltimoreans may not recognize 
many of the names of prominent persons buried in 
some of the cemeteries discussed) , though that should, 
by no means, dissuade non-Baltimoreans from it. This 
is a study of the cemeteries of one American city in 
transition from the end of the eighteenth to the end of 
the twentieth century: Baltimore serves as a microcosm 
of funerary and cemetery trends throughout the nation 
during this era. Here we find American Victoriana in all 
its elaborate (and sometimes gaudy) glory; the densely 
packed cemeteries of the Jews and the Catholics, the 
rambling rural burial grounds, and the orderly rows of 
the city cemetery. Here we find, as in so many cities, the 
well tended graves of perpetual care cemeteries and 
the forgotten and overgrown burial places once thought 
to be somehow immune to oblivion's blight. Here lie 
men and women of fame such as Poe, Johns Hopkins, 
Dorothy Parker and Zaiman Rehine, reputed to be the 
first Rabbi to come to the United States. Here 
also repose the infamous, epitomized by Lin- 
coln's assassin John Wilkes Booth who lies in 
Green Mount Cemetery, Baltimore's great 
parklike rural cemetery laid out by the renowned 
architect Benjamin Latrobe. As in many a city 
there are national cemeteries and soldiers' 
monuments but in Baltimore we find both 
Confederate and Union dead for sympathies 
here were strong both ways. Virtually the 
entire gamut of post-colonial cemetery tradition 
and funerary art is to be found in Baltimore and 
virtually all of what is to be found is treated, if 
briefly, in this book. 

The Very Quiet Baltlmoreans is an very good 
resource for those interested in cemetery de- 
velopment in the American city and a fine 
succinct guidebook for those visiting or residing in 
Baltimore who are interested in burial grounds and 
grave markers. What an excellent thing it would be if 
more such books were compiled on the cemeteries of 
other American cities, for our cemeteries are taily 
archives — often unsurpassed archives — of historical 
and sociological data. They are immensely important, 
if oft-neglected and oft-unsung, national treasures. 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 7 




Barbara Rotundo, AGS member, Mount Auburn Cem- 
etery historian, auttx)rand Professor Emeritus of English, 
State University of New York, Albany, was a featured 
speakerinthe Friends of f\^ount Auburn winter program. 
She lectured Febaiary 1 5 on the Bigelow family. Jacxjb 
Bigelow was President of fvlount Auburn Cemetery 
from 1845 to 1871. 

From Heritage Books, 1540-E Pointer Ridge Place, 
Suite 106, Bowie MD 20716, comes a notice of a new 
book: Sullivan County, Tennessee, Cemeteries, by 
Karen L. Sherman. The author takes a first-hand 
approach to compiling a list of seventy-nine Sullivan 
County cemeteries and the people buried therein, 
traveling all over the county "armed with field glasses, 
topographical maps and hearsay about cemetery loca- 
tions." Both family and church cemeteries are listed 
here; all are listed alphabetically at the beginning of the 
book for easy reference. Directions are given to thirty 
cemeteries in the listing. In addition to transcribing 
names and dates from the stones, the author also 
includes some inscriptions from merrwrial markers, 
and occasional notes about the condition of a cemetery 
or a stone. The index lists all surnames. 
1991, 219 pp., 8.5x11, index, paper, $32.00 

John Francis l^arion, 75, Philadelphia's story-telling 
tourist guide and historian who knew everybody there 
was to know — living or dead — died before Christmas of 
a brain tumor. A self-taught historian, much of Mr. 
Marion's knowledge about the city came from grave- 
yards, with which he had a lifelongfascination. As a t)oy 
in Albany NY, he visited the family's burial plot. 'That's 
how I got to know the family," he told a reporter. He 
chose his own epitaph: "John Francis Marion, who, 
during time's interval, daily waylaid eternity." Among 
his many publications Marion wrote Famous and Cu- 
rious Cemeteries (NY: Crown Publishers, 1977), a 
pictorial, historical and anecdotal view of American and 
European cemeteries and the famous and infamous 
people who are buried there. He is buried in Laurel Hill 
Cemetery in a plot given to him by the owners for his 
having focused attention on the graveyard as a place of 
historical significance and for his fund-raising. 

from the Philadelphia Inquirer, January 1, 1992. 

Eric Brock, P. 0. Box 5877, Shreveport, LA 71135- 
5877, recently obtained a copy of a volume entitled The 
Cemetery Bookby Tom Weil, published by Hippocrene 
Books, 171 Madison Ave., NYC, 10016. Publication 
date is 1992 so it is VERY recent. He writes: "It is 
hardbound and retails for $22.95, is 420 pages in 
length, indexed, with no illustrations. While not a 
scholarly work, it is more of a travel guide to cemeteries 
of the world, both great and minor cemeteries. The 
most interesting thing about it is that the author deals 
with cemeteries seldom heard of and little known; 
cemeteries in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia, among 
others, all of which he claims — and there is no reason 
to doubt him — ^to have visited. While The Cemetery 
Book dea\s little with grave markers, perse, I think it 
would be of interest to many AGS members. As far as 
I am concerned, it is the best general cemetery 
guidebook/travelogue of its sort I've seen." 

Friends of Center Cemetery 

The memorial tablestone to William Pitkin, 
governor of the colony of Connecticut from 
1766-69, (see AGS Newsletter, Winter 1990/ 
91 , p. 1 1 ) will be dedicated after restoration on 
April 26, 1992, at 2 PM in Center Cemetery in 
East Hartford. The large brownstone monu- 
ment has been restored by the Friends of 
CenterCemetery with agrantfromthe Hartford 
Foundation for Public Giving. An exhibition 
and reception will follow the exercises at the 
First Congregational Church. For further in- 
formation call (203) 568-6178. 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 8 


Restoration of the old section (i8i3-1925) of the 
Saxtons River cemetery. 

a report on the Saxtons River (Vermont) Historical 
Society Bicentennial Project 1791- 1991 

The history books of Saxtons River Vermont indicate 
that in 181 a group of volunteers met to level the land 
behindthe Old South Meeting House which was donated 
to the village for a cemetery. Future history books will 
indicate that in 1991 (181 years later) another group of 
volunteers met to straighten, level and repair the 
headstones in the old section of the same cemetery. 

Unfortunately, over the years many of the headstones, 
due to the settling of the ground, severe weather 
conditions, old age, and a minimum of vandalism, were 
forced to lean badly to the front, and to the rear, left and 
right , and several had fallen and lay in pieces. Also a 
small numberof broken headstones had been removed 
and lay unattended behind an old building. 

Some people viewed the leaning stones as adding 
characterto the cemetery, one person jokingly remarked 
it reminded her of a group returning from an all night 
party but others thought it detracted from an otherwise 
beautiful well-groomed cemetery. 

When the Secretary of the Vermont Bicentennial 
Commission spoke at our annual meeting in 1990 she 
suggested that all organizations of every village and 
town of the state adopt a project which would be a 
benefit to the community. Restoration of our cemetery 
came to mind immediately. When the Board met to 
discuss the matter, we were reminded that the seed for 
such a need had been planted a year earlier by [AGS 
member] Charles Marchant, when he spoke on the 
subject at one of our meetings. Some were sceptical 
that a Senior citizen group(which is what we are) could 
get the job done but others argued we won't know 
unless we try so lets do it. 

Having made the decision we established the following 
procedu res which had to be completed before we could 
start the work. 

1. Estimate the number of headstones to be repaired. 

2. Obtain permission of the Town Manager. 

3. Talk with the Head of the Highway department who 
hadchargeof overseeing any work done inthe cemetery. 

4. Obtain a book on the subject for guidance. 

5. Secure the services of a competent person to 
present a workshop at the cemetery. 

6. Make a list of all tools and matehals needed to do the 

7. Determine the approximate expense. 

8. Obtain a list of volunteers. 

9. Determine the best days to do the work. 

An uneducated estimate of the headstones to be repaired 
was 100 to be straightened and levelled and 15 to be 
epoxied. This turned out to be a very poor judgement. 

The Town Manager gave us his enthusiastic support 
and once we convinced the Head of the Highway 
Department that we were determined to complete the 
job and we assured him we would leave every area we 
worked in in a tidy condition he gave his total cooperation. 

We then wrote to Charles Marchant for his suggestion 
where we could obtain an appropriate book which 
would give us general information on the subject. He 
responded immediately, suggesting we write to the 
Association for Gravestone Studies (AGS) where we 
could purchase A Gravestone Preservation Primerby 
Lynette Strangstad. He also mentioned he spent his 
summers in workshops and if we wanted his service he 
would be glad to work us into his schedule. 

AGS Executive Director, Miranda Levin, sent us the 
book and wished us luck. She mentioned that the book 
would be helpful but there is a person named Charles 
Marchant in our neck of the woods who is an expert on 
the subject, This encouraged us that we were moving 
in the right direction as we had already arranged a 
workshop date of May 1 1 , 1991. 

After reading the book we made a list of the following 
tools and materials needed. Volunteers provided 
shovels, crowbars, levels, wheelbarrows, large plastic 
pails, rakes, trowels, soft bristle brushes, chisels, 
tampers, and various boards needed to make frames 
for cement bases or for supports, and clamps to secure 
the stones which were epoxied. The town provided two 
loads of clean sand and two of pea stone which was 
used to steady the headstones and for drainage. We 
supplied the lime, cement and the epoxy, and a few 
tools. Our expenses amounting to approximately $300. 
was covered by donations of interested members. 

Obtaining volunteers was not a problem as everyone 
called thought it was a worthwhile project and wanted 
to help. Those who could not make every session 
apologized and felt they were left ing the rest of us down. 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 9 

There was a tremendous amount of positive spirit in this 

At ourfirst session which was a workshop on Saturday 
May 1 1 , Charles Marchant explained and demonstrated 
how each headstone should be handled. He cautioned 
against using any force to push or move a stone for fear 
of breal<ing it and explained that many stones would 
have interior fractures. He pointed out that we should 
take care when shovelling not to allow the shovel to 
touch the stone for fear of damage and suggested we 
preserve the sod removed so it could be replaced 
neatly Then the stone was straightened and levelled 

When Charles assessed the amount of work we had to 
do he thought it would take all summer. We then had 
to rethink ourwork schedule as we thought we could get 
the maximum number of workers on Saturdays but we 
were now sure we would never finish working just one 
day a week. We found we had a sufficient number of 
retired seniorcitizens who were not only willing txit eager 
to work two and three times a week so we were able to 
work with smaller crews of 7, 8, or 9 men. At first we had 
a starting time of 9 AM but we decided we were wasting 
an hour so we started at 8 AM. and continued to noon. 
Since there was a considerable amount of digging and 
lifting of very heavy stones we usually worked in groups 
of 3; sometimes 2 and on occasion an over-eager 
individual would sneak up and work by himself. We 
worked slowly and cautiously at first but after gaining 
confidence we worked a little faster and were surprised 
and pleased with our progress. I should point out that 
in the interest of being .efficient, all materials, buckets 
of sand and pea stone, tools etc, were always in place 
at the area to be worked before the workers arrived. 

Some stones were merely buried deep in the ground, 
others were cemented in an underground base; others 
were set in an above ground base anchored with 
dowels and others were buried surrounded with cement. 
All were very heavy and had to be handled differently. 
Several needed new dowels as the old ones had rusted 
and deteriorated so badly the stone slid off the base. 

All broken stones which had to be epoxied were washed 
with water, brushed with a soft bristle brush, and the old 
epoxy removed (if it had been epoxied before). The 
breaks in the stones occurred in various places. Some 
below ground, some at ground level and some in the 
middle. The first two stones we epoxied we laid the 
entire stone on a piece of plywood placed in a level 
position as near as possible to the hole it 
would. eventually be placed in. The broken pieces were 
epoxied and snugly fitted together by one ortwo clamps. 
They were left to set for a day, before putting them in the 
ground. We found this method to be too cumbersome 

as the stones were too heavy to move. We found it 
more satisfactory to epoxy one piece at a time and from 
the base up. We had to be sure, of course, that the base 
was buried and level before adding the piece being 
epoxied. Although the epoxy sets well in. a short period 
of time it is necessary to support the stone using a board 
on either side as a prop. The best way to secure the 
stone is to hammer a stake on either side and secure 
them with a cross stake which has been notched to the 
thickness of the stone. This method also assures the 
stone to remain straight and level while the epoxy 

Two different brands of epoxy were used. Charles 

Marchant advised we buy from: 

Barre Granite Association 

P.O. Box 481 Tel (802) 476-4131 

51 Church Street 

Barre Vermont 056641 

We ordered several 70 gram epoxy packs. The cost 
was $5.00 a piece plus mailing. Each pack contains 2 
ingredients separated in a plastic container which must 
be mixed in its own container before using. 1 1 is white, 
sets very quickly and does not run. 

Another recommended epoxy called "Akemi" can be 

obtained from: 

Akemi: Polyester Adhesives for the Professional 

Wood and Stone Inc. 

Manassas, Virginia 221 10 

Since this was a gift I do not know the price. 1 1 comes 
in a can along with a tube of hardening paste. A small 
amount of the paste must be mixed with a quantity of 
what is in the can. This is a yellowish color, does not ru n 
and also sets quickly. We found both brands to be very 

We kept a record of the number of headstones repaired 
and of the days and hours each man worked. It 
amounted to 1 85 headstones straightened and levelled 
and 35 epoxied for a total of 220. The work was 
completed in August in 15 working days by 21 volun- 

We all took pride in the work we accomplished; had fun 
working together and were well rewarded by the com- 
pliments of the people in our community and of visitors 
from other places. 

Saxtons River Historical Society 

Box 18 

Saxtons River VT 05154 


AGS Wi '91/2 p. 10 


Alarmed over the continuing destruction of old burial 
grounds in Maryland, the Friends of the Whipps Cem- 
etery and Memorial Gardens [Barbara Sieg, Director], 
along with historic preservation and genealogy organi- 
zations across the state, are joining forces in a new 
state-wide campaign to re-write Maryland law protect- 
ing these historic sites. Their objective is a legislative 
agendato assure thatold cemeteries, aswell as Native 
American burials, will not fall victim to the bulldozer as 
often happens now in the process of land development. 

The new "umbrella" organization will be known as the 
Coalition to Protect Maryland Burial Sites. Described 
by its members as a "non-partisan alliance of individu- 
als and organizations across Maryland," the Coalition 
hopes to gain support in all 23 counties of the state by 
January 1992, and thus win passage of a strong, new 
law in the next session of the General Assembly. The 
initial groups and individuals involved in the formation 
of the Coalition come from the counties of Alleghany, 
Carroll, Howard, Somerset, and Wicomico. 

The idea for the Coalition came from two Howard 
Countians: Charles Ahalt, a resident of Columbia and 
active member of the Howard County Genealogical 
Society; and Barbara Sieg, director of the Friends of the 
Whipps Cemetery and Memorial Gardens, a group of 
volunteers that is working with the St. John's Commu- 
nity Association, Inc. in Ellicott City to restore a 19th- 
century cemetery there. Mr. Ahalt, who is related to the 
well-known Dorsey family of Maryland, first became 
aware of the serious flaws in the state's cemetery laws 
when he was denied access to an old family cemetery 
in Frederick County where some of his ancestors are 
buried. Mrs. Sieg and her volunteers are working to 
transform a long-neglected Civil War-era cemetery into 
a heritage park and garden, but they are finding the task 
difficult in a state where no public funds are available to 
help community groups with such a project. 

One of the principal aims of the new Coalition will be to 
work cooperatively with the Maryland Historical Tmst in 
the formulation of new cemetery legislation. Two years 
ago, the Trust convened a Cemeteries Legislation Task 
Force to study the present inadequacies in Maryland 
law. While a draft bill was developed by the Trust, 
based on the work of the Task Force, it was never 
introduced in the state legislature. As an outcome of a 
meeting last summer, a liaison committee of the Mary- 
land Coalition was designated to work with the Trust on 
the proposed legislation. 

Chief among the Coalition's principles to be contained 
in a new state law is a requirement that a cemetery 
registry be made part of the land records in every local 
jurisdiction of the state. Each entry would include the 
name and location of the cemetery and the names and 
addresses of any heirs, their agents, or interested 
parties. An "interested party" would include the Mary- 
land Historical Trust, the Genealogical Council of Mary- 
land, a local historical or genealogical society, a com- 
munity association or other preservation group. With 
cemetery registries being made part of the local land 
records, it would be possible to knowthe existence and 
location of a cemetery before the development proc- 
ess begins. The only Maryland county which presently 
has such a requirement is Carroll County. 

Another key principle of the Coalition's is the repeal of 
Para, (c). Sec. 267, of Article 27 of the Maryland Code 
which presently authorizes the State's Attorney's office 
to declare a cemetery "abandoned"— although the term 
is never defined in the law — and thus have the cem- 
etery relocated, all without any provision for contacting 
the next-of-kin . The Coalition hopes to revise the law so 
that heirs, their agents, or an interested party must be 
consulted, in a timely manner, before any permit to 
relocate a cemetery is issued. The Coalition's position, 
however, is that all reasonable means be foundto avoid 
relocation of burial sites. 

The Coalition also favors authorizing the use of state 
and local fundsto aid in maintaining historic cemeteries 
in good repair, and where possible, as heritage memo- 
rial parks for the preservation of open green space, for 
the enjoyment and refreshment of the general public. 
As more and more old cemeteries are transformed into 
parks, garden clubs throughout Maryland could poten- 
tially have a major role to play. The concept of creating 
small "pocket parks" in neighborhoods and communi- 
ties throughout the state has recently won the enthu- 
siastic endorsement of Governor Schaefer. 

Ten Key Principles of a new State Law to Protect 
Maryland Burial Sites 

I. Recognition of a cemetery (burial site) as sacred, 
inviolate, worthy of protection and preservation. 

II. Recognition of society's moral responsibility to 
maintain cemeteries and burial sites with dignity and 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 11 

III. Definition of a cennetery as land set aside and 
dedicated to the interment of human remains, whether 
marked or unmarked. (Visible gravestones are not the 
sole determinant of the existence of a cemetery, any 
more than their lack denies its existence.) 

IV. Creation of cemetery registries, to be maintained at 
the local level, preferably located in the land records of 
the local jurisdiction. 

* Each entry should include name and location of 
the cemetery and names and addresses of any 
heirs, their agents, or interested parties. 

* "Interested party" may include the Maryland 
Historical Trust, the Genealogical Council of Mary- 
land, a local historical or genealogical society, 
community association, etc. 

* Cemetery registries should be made part of the 
local land records so that existence of a cemetery 
is known before the development process begins. 

V. Repeal of Paragraph (c). Section 267, Article 27 of 
the Maryland Code which authorizes the State's Attor- 
ney's office to declare a cemetery "abandoned" — a 
term never defined in the law — and thus have it 
relocated, all without any provision for contacting the 

Revision of the law to provide that if dire and extraordi- 
nary circumstances make relocation of a cemetery 
unavoidable, the State's Attorney would be required to 
first consult the cemetery registry (heirs, agents, or 
interested parties) — an appropriate time-table to be 
established forthis consultation. Also, newspaper pub- 
lication would be requiredfor several successive weeks. 
These actions would take place before issuance of any 
permit to relocate. 

VI. Maintenance of complete records on all relocated 
cemeteries, readily available to the general public, to be 
made part of the cemetery registry in the land records 
of each local jurisdiction. 

VII. Recognition and protection of the common law 
right of reasonable access, by heirs, agents, or inter- 
ested parties, to a cemetery now enclosed by land 
owned by another. 

VIII. Authorization forthe use of state and local funds, 
as monies are available, to aid in maintaining historic 
cemeteries in good repair, and where possible, as 
heritage memorial garden-parks forthe preservation of 
open green space, forthe enjoyment and refreshment 
of the general public. Support would be provided by 

direct appropriations, as well as through grant and loan 

IX. Increase in the penalties (jail terms and fines) for 
those who violate the law 

* Establish civil penalties for violators that are 
sufficient to repair any damage to cemeteries and 

* Make it illegal to buy and sell human remains, 
tombstones, or burial objects obtained outside the 
provisions of the law. 

X. Authorization for local jurisdictions to use persons 
sentenced by the courts to perform designated hou rs of 
community service to help in maintaining historic cem- 

Note: The term "historic" in the context of these princi- 
ples relates to the age of a cemetery, and not to its 
listingon,oreligibilityfor, an historic registerorinventory. 

For further information, call (301 ) 465-6721 . 


Seeking a used copy of Edmund Gillon Jr.'s Victorian 
Cemetery Art \s AGS member Sybil Crawford, 10548 
Stone Canyon Road - #228, Dallas TX 75230-4408. 
She tells us the book is no longer available from Dover 
Publications, Inc. or any alternate source they have 
suggested. If you have one to sell, please contact her 
with details of price, condition, etc. 


A note in the November 1991 issueof AfSA/ews [V.48, 
#11, the trade journal of the Monument Builders of 
North America] by editor John E. Dianis refers to the 
rescuing of pioneer gravestones: 

Several years ago I had an interesting phone 
conversation with a gentleman who lives in 
Iowa. His concern was the preservation of 
pioneer gravestones, and monuments that are 
purchased and placed in cemeteries today. He 
has been working on this project for some time. 
He has put together some interesting thoughts 
on this subject. They are in a three-ring binder 
GRAVESTONES (And Your Own), The cost 
forthis compilation of information is $25. If you 
wishtoobtainacopycontactMr. Maddydirectly: 
Mr. Paul E. Maddy, 1515 Warlord Street Perry, 
Iowa 50220. I know you'll find this Guide 
interesting and informative. 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 12 


for the 


Fifteenth Annual Conference and Meeting 

Union College, Schenectady, New York 

June 25-28, 1992 

Co'Sponsored by the Schenectady County Historical Society and 

the Saratoga Springs Preservation Foundation 

A time for sharing ideas and information relating to all aspects of gravestone studies, including carver identification, gravestone 
conservation, graveyard preservation, and neui research advancing the knowledge of historic and modern funerary art. 


(All meetings will take place in air-conditioned buildings.) 


REGISTRATION begins at noon. 

EVENING ORIENTATION PROGRAM for all members includes: 
Jessie Lie Farber reminisces about our beginnings. 

KEYNOTE SPEECH: Robert V. Wells, Washington Irving Professor of Modern Literary and Historical Studies (and a recent 
convert to the importance of cemeteries). 

PROBLEMS EXCHANGE: Any member with a problem in conservation or restoration can give a five-minute presentation. There 
will be a panel of experts to offer advice, but also the general membership of AGS represents an invaluable pool of knowledge and 


RESTORATION WORKSHOP 9-3:30. How to and how not to restore. Includes field experience. Leaders: Roseanne Atwood 
Foley, Jim and Minxie Fannin, C.R. Jones, Fred Oakley, and Lynette Strangstad. 

TEACHING WORKSHOP 9-3:30. How to use gravestones and local cemeteries as a teaching resource. Led by Margaret Coffin. 

TOUR OF HISTORIC STOCKADE 9:30-11:00. This area was settled by die Dutch in die seventeendi century, and includes 
two eighteenth-century churches and their graveyards. A 15-minute walk from Union College. 

MINI-TOURS at any time. Travel instructions and field notes for a dozen locations around Schenectady will be in the registration 

LECTURES Friday and Saturday evenings and Sunday morning. Presenters of papers include, among others, Sally Brillen, Jessie Lie 
Farber, Laurel Gabel ( giving a new paper plus the Civil War show repeated by popular request), Tom Graves, geologist Bill Kelly, 
Jim Kettlewell, Tom & Brenda Malloy, and Grey Williams. Paper topics include some familiar as well as new carvers, a new treat- 
ment of Puritan symbols, and how to present a gravestone talk. 

INFORMAL LATE NIGHT Friday and Saturday evenings. Bring some slides which may interest odiers, or a few that show a topic 
you are just beginning to work on. 


Choice of two tours in air-conditioned buses 9-3:30: 

EARLY STONES: Albany, Cambridge, Salem, and Stephentown. You will see carvers like Z. Collins and S. Dwight, familiar from 
the Williamstown tour, and Thomas Brown and Zuricher from the Rutgers tour. Also of interest is the stone William Young did for 
his parents, which was moved from Worcester to Albany. 

19TH AND 20TH CENTURY: Three good rural (or garden) cemeteries: Green Ridge in Saratoga, Oakwood in Troy, Vale in 

Schenectady, and one outstanding: Albany Rural Cemetery (this is the first conference cemetery where we've had the grave of a 
President of the United States!). 

BANQUET AND PRESENTATION of the Harriet Merrifield Forbes award. 





The conference is open to anyone; however, a registration fee is required for all conferees. The fee for AGS members is $60 until 
May 30: thereafter, $80. Full conference and partial conference registrations are available. Fill in the prices for all desired options 
on the enclosed registration form , and mail with your check or money order (U.S. funds, please) payable to AGS to the Oakleys, 46 
Plymouth Rd. Needham, MA 02192. Registration closes lune 15 so the Registrars can report our figures to the college. All fees 
should be paid by this time. Please do not plan to arrive without a confirmed registration. There may not be room for you. 


Spouses accompanying conferees, participating only in meals, receptions, and lodgings, do not have to pay the registration fee. If 
spouses wish to go on the bus tour or attend workshops or lectures, they must register as either full or partial conferees and pay the 
registration fee. 


Cancellations will be accepted on the following terms: Before May 30, full refund; June 1-15 registration fee is not refundable, but 
meals and lodgings will be refunded; AFTER UJNE 15. NO REFUNDS WILL BE MADE. 


See reverse of Registration form. 


There are steps at the entrance to all buildings. There are no elevators in the dormitories, but there is an elevator to the second floor 
dining room we will use. 


Schenectady and Union College are easily accessible by car, air, bus or train. Detailed information will come with registration 


Exhibit space is available for your gravestone-related photographs, drawings, etc. Conferees may bring gravestone-related books and 
items to sell. Six foot long tables may be reserved for $10, 1/2 table for $5, 1/3 for $3.50. Conferees will be responsible tor their own 
sales. There will also be an AGS sales booth with publications, MARKERS, etc. To reserve gallery or sales space, please complete 
the form(s) on the back of the registration form. 

For further information, contact: 
Barbara Rotundo, Chair, 48 Plummer Hill Rd. #4, Laconia, NH 03246 (603)524-1092 


The Nominating Committee has proposed the following candidates for election to fill vacancies 
which will exist as of June 28, 1992: 

Nominated as Trustees for 2 years: 

For a third two-year term: 
C. R. Jones 
Gray Williams, Jr. 
Harvard C. Wood III 

For a second two-year term: 
Michael Cornish 
Roberta Halporn 
Fred Sawyer III 

New candidates: 

Leona A. Kelley 
Blanche Linden-Ward 
Brenda Malloy 
EUie Reichlin 
Maggie Stier 

Continuing on the Board are Rosanne Atwood-Foley, Robert Drinkwater, Laurel Gabel, Elizabeth Goeselt, Cornelia 
Jenness, Fred Oakley, Rosalee Oakley, Barbara Rotundo, Miriam Silverman, James Slater, Ralph Tucker, and 
Jonathan Twiss. Ex officio members are Deborah Trask, Newsletter editor, and Richard Meyer, Journal editor. 

Please complete the ballot below and return by June 1, 1992 to: 

The Association for Gravestone Studies, 50 Elm Street, Worcester, MA 01609. 



Vote for eleven to serve for two years as Trustees: 

] Michael Cornish 

] Roberta Halporn 

] C.R. Jones 

] Leona A. Kelley 

] Blanche Linden-Ward 

] Brenda Malloy 

] Elbe Reichlin 

] Fred Sawyer III 

] Maggie Stier 

] Gray Williams, Jr. 

] Harvard C. Wood III 

Five of the eleven candidates on the ballot are new this year. These brief biographies will 
introduce them to you: 

Leona A. Kelley of Peace Dale, RI, is a State Representative in the Rhode Island legislature. She 
chairs a special legislative committee on the preservation of Rhode Island's cemeteries and 
gravestones. She has led the committee in their work to record all graveyards and gravestones on 
computer as well as to arouse interest in the legislature and the people of Rhode Island in 
preserving and protecting their historical graveyard heritage. At the 1989 AGS Conference, she 
participated as a panel member in the panel discussion. She was formerly a public school teacher. 

Blanche Linden-Ward of Watertown, MA, is Associate Professor of the American Culture 
Program at Emerson College. Her book. Silent City on a Hill, was published in 1989. Two more 
books are in progress. Her areas of interest range from 19th Century designed cemetery 
landscapes to funerary iconography of all periods. 

Brenda Malloy of Westminster, MA, is a fifth grade teacher in the Westminster public schools. 
She has taught 5th grade for 14 years, other grades previously. She works closely with the 
Westminster Historical Society on a local history unit which includes the town's graveyard and 
gravestones. She is interested in helping AGS develop materials for teachers using their local 
graveyards with their students. 

EUie Reichlin of Weston, MA, is a retired anthropologist and archivist with extensive museum 
experience. She has worked at the Peabody Museum at Harvard University and at the Society for 
the Preservation of New England Antiquities, where she was the archivist overseeing one of New 
England's most important collections of historical photographs and architectural manuscripts. 
She has successfully applied for research grants and has organized museum exhibits. Several of 
her articles on historical photography have been published. 

Maggie Stier of Harvard, MA, is curator of Fruitlands Museum. She has extensive museum 
work experience including the Shelburne Museum, the Hood Museum at Dartmouth, and the 
Concord Museum. She is currently curating an exhibit of gravestone art found in the Harvard, 
MA area drawn from photographs in the Father Collection. AGS members may recall her 
outstanding article on the Risley carvers of the Upper Connecticut River Valley for the 
Dartmouth College Library Bulletin in 1983. 

1992 AGS 

CONFERENCE ^"^^LF^^^ ^^""'-^ 

REGISTRATION ^|jv^ Addr^s 

FORM City State 



Registration Fee Before May 30, members $60, non-members $70* 

After May 30, members $80, non-members $90* 

Meals, lodging, and all activities from Thursday evening dinner 

through Sunday lunch Double $160 per person, Single $175 

(Single rooms are limited and will be allotted in the order of registration) 


Please select one Friday activity (see page 1 for description): 
Restoration Workshop Teaching Workshop Stockade Tour 

Please choose one Saturday tour (see page 2 for description): 
Bus tour A (Early gravestones) Bus Tour B (19th & 20th century) 


Registration Fee Before May 30, members $60, non-members $70* 

After May 30, members $80, non-members $90* 

Thursday dinner and activities $10 

Thursday room double $35 per person, single $40 

Friday activities and meals $28 

Friday room double $35 per person, single $40 

Please select one Friday activity (see page 1 for description): 

Restoration Workshop Teaching Workshop Stockade Tour 

Saturday activities and meals $40 

Saturday' room double $35 per person, single $40 

Please choose one Saturday tour (see page 2 for description): 
Bus Tour A (Early gravestones) Bus Tour B ( 19th iSi.20th century) 

Sunday activities and meals $14 


(No registration fee required to attend workshop ONLY.) $35 




I will be sharing a room with 

I wish Registrar to assign me a roommate. 

1 wish a single room. 

I have special dietary needs: 

Please make checks payable to The Association For Gravestone Studies 
Mail to: AGS, 30 Elm St., Worcester, MA 01609 (508) 831-7753 

* Membership in AGS is $20 a year. For information, write: AGS , 30 Elm St., Worcester, MA 01609. 
For gallery and sales table reservations, see reverse side. 


To reserve appropriate display space, please complete the following: 
Description of display: 

Type of space or wall surface required for display: 
Approximate size of display (maximum 4'x 8"): 

Please plan to have your display ready for viewing by 4:00 PM, June 26, in time for the reception. 


To reserve a sales table, check below and remit appropriate amount to AGS: 

6' table $10 1/2 table $5 1/3 table $3.50 . 


We will be staying in the usual dormitory rooms with bathrooms at the end of the hall. The rooms will be furnished with bed linens, 
pillow, towels, blanket, soap, glass, and hangers. You may wish to bring a desk lamp and a fan (the dormitories are not air-condi- 
tioned), a washcloth, and perhaps a plastic bag for a wastebasket. There is no smoking in the rooms. The number of single rooms is 
limited, and they will be allotted in the order in which people register, so register promptly. 

Union College food service has a good reputation, and Dan Goldman is again arranging menus with them. All meals but the 
banquet will be served cafeteria style in a separate area on the second floor of the College Center. On the first floor is a small 
sandwich bar and grill called Dutchman's Hollow, which is open during the day if you want lunch after you register on Thursday, or 
oversleep some morning. 

There are three motels within walking distance of Union College: Days Inn, Holiday Inn, and Ramada Inn. The Holiday Inn has an 
outdoor pool, the Ramada an indoor pool, and the Days Inn is just a basic motel. The Days Inn will give AGS conferees a special 
rate of $49 (+ tax) with an additional 10% discount if you are an AAA member or are over 65. You must ask for the special rate and 
the discount when you register. Couples who are uncomfortable with the dormitory arrangement of single sex bathrooms, one 
bathroom per floor might want to consider a motel! 

Founded in 1795, Union College has watched the city grow up around it. The campus is still a lovely, green oasis, with the famous 
Jackson's Garden below the building where we will eat. Because it is in the city, convenient services are just a block or two away; 
post office, library, drugstore, liquor store, and gas stations. We hope you will be pleased with this setting for the 1992 conference. 


Massachusetts History Magazine is looking for articles about 
the rich heritage of the Bay State. Our editorial emphasis is 
on stories with a strong narrative written to appeal to a general 
audience. Articles that relate the past to present issues are 
especially welcome. We are looking for quality of research 
and quality of writing. We want a point of view. 

We welcome the contributions of free-lance writers, but 
suggest that ideas for articles be submitted — in some detail — 
to the editor in advance. Although we do not publish footnotes, 
we insist on accuracy and will ask you to annotate all quotations 
and factual statements. General articles should be a maxi- 
mum of 6,000 words. Recommendations for photos and 
illustrations are welcome. Obviously, it needs a Massachu- 
setts theme. 

Making History: Articles of 1,500 to 2,000 words about how 
people enjoy history — tips on genealogy, family reunions, 
care of old dresses, etc. We'd like to hear from special interest 
clubs [such as AGS] and re-enactment groups, too. History is 
a part of our lives. 

We do not assume responsibility for the return of unsolicited 

material. Send all correspondence to: 

Editor, Massactiusetts History, P. 0. Box 809, Ipswich, MA 


Marsha Hoffman Ris- 
ing, of Springfield MO, 
has provided another 
example of a "head and 
shoulders" wooden 
gravestone which was 
once found in northern 
Christian County, Mis- 
souri in the Weaver 
cemetery. The marker 
was made of bois of 
d'arc, also called 
inscription was 

scratched on a tin plate. 
Ir read: "Tothe memory 
of Susan Lawing who 
was born January 16, 
1850. ..died June 15 
1851 of disease of 
brane. My child can't 
come to me, but I can 
go to her by a life of 
piety." Susan was the 
daughter of an Ulster 
Scot family who had 
- migrated from 

Robertson County, 
Tennessee to southwest Missouri about 1843. Ms. Rising 
writes: "My husband photographed the stone in 1975 but 
soon after it was removed by vandals. Enclosed is a pen and 
ink drawing by Vera Woods of Springfield MO which was 
made from the photograph. Note: The dates quoted above 
are the correct ones, rather than those on the drawing." 

vieritory of 


uiho was born 

ijai'-uMvlifii liio 
" DiCj l/.MlKHi'" 


An extremely important early work by Cincinnati 
sculptor Shobal Vail Clevenger (1812-1843) 
disappeared from a souther Ohio cemetery be- 
tween August 8 and September 11, 1 991 . 

"^i'^ ^-^'■'? 

The missing sculpture is a bust of Ebenezer S. Thomas, completed in 
Cincinnati in 1 836. Carved from native gray freestone, it depicts the head 
and shoulders of a sturdily built, broad-browed man in his middle years, 
dressed comfortably in a loose shirt and unbuttoned coat with wide lapels. 
On the back of the bust, which is slightly over life-si^a, are carved the initials 
of the subject, "E.S.T." and of the sculptor, "S.V.C", as well as the date, 

Ebenezer Thomas, editor of the Cincinnati Evening Post, was the first to 
encourage Clevenger, a simple stonecutter, to become a professional 
artist, and with financial backing from Nicholas Longworth, the city's 
leading art patron, he soon blossomed as a sculptor, though he had 
received little, if any, art instruction. He went on to make portrait busts in 
plaster and marble of Henry Clay, Daniel Webster and many other notables 
of his day, but died at sea at the age of 30, having contracted congestion 
of the lungs while working in Italy. Thomas wrote in his autobiography that 
the stolen sculpture was "the first ever executed in the Mississippi Valley". 

Anyone having information aboutthistheft, orwhereaboutsof the sculpture 
should call Thomas Pfeifer: (513) 681-6680, or Officer Frey (513) 352- 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 17 



Camp Nelson National Cemetery, at 6980 Danville 
Road, located seven miles south of Nicholasville KY in 
Jessamine County, had its beginning during the Civil 
War when a camp was located there for recruiting and 
training Union forces. Today the cemetery honors the 
dead of all wars in which the United States has since 
been involved, including Korea and Vietnam. Between 
July 31 , 1 988 and July 31 , 1 989, there have been more 
than 7,100 burials in the 30 acres of Camp Nelson 
National Cemetery, and it is projected that the closing 
date for the cemetery at the present rate of burials is 

The campwas named afteraUniongeneral when it was 
established in 1863. The site was also known as Fort 
Bramlette and is now registered as a historical site. In 
those days disease took its toll as well as battle-related 
deaths, and a large hospital was located on the grou nds 
to serve both the camp and the battlefield injured. 
Smallpox was a threatening problem in such camps, 
and at Camp Nelson a separate hospital and burying 
ground was maintained for those patients on the Moss 
property adjacent to the camp, but secluded for pro- 
tection against spreading the disease. Records des- 
ignated this site as graveyard #1 . Graveyard #2 is the 
present location of the national cemetery. 

Camp Nelson was one of 40 burial grounds named by 
a joint resolution of the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1866 to become national cemetery sites. 
Within five years after the surrender of General Lee at 
Appomattox VA, the reburial program was complete 
with more than 300,000 Civil War reinterments in 73 
national cemeteries recorded. During June and July of 
1868 there were 2,023 removals from areas in Kentucky 
in Camp Nelson National Cemetery including 975 bodies 
from the battlefield at Perryville, where in October 1 862 
the Confederate forces met Union soldiers in a major 
battle of the war. 

This infomnation about Camp Nelson National Cemetery, 
published in the Summer 1989 issue of The Fayette 
County (KY) Genealogical Society Quarterly reveals 
just a segment of records that are available as they 
relate to the Civil War. Researchers who become 
involved in this difficult period of our nation's develop- 
ment will find help in becoming acquainted with records 
of the time by reading through the chapter introductions 
in Registerof Federal United States Military Records. ..>4 
guide to Manuscript Sources Available at the Genea- 
logical Library in Salt Lake City and the National Archives 
in Washington, DC, Volume 2: The Civil War. This 456 

page worl< was compiled by Marilyn Deputy, J. Roberts, 
PatBarben, Ken Nelson, and the U.S. /Canadian Refer- 
ence Staff and Volunteers of the Genealogical Library 
(Family History Library - FHL), The Church of Jesus 
Christof Latter-day Saints (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 
Inc. 1986). 

In the introduction to the listing of microfilm rolls for 
specific areas of "Civil War 1861-1865 Union Burial 
Records" you learn that between 1865 and 1871 the 
federal government published 27 volumes of lists of 
Union soldiers who died in the Civil War. It is called Roll 
of Honor: Names of Soldiers who died in Defense of the 
American Union (Washington, DC: U.S. Government 
Printing Office, 1865-71). The volumes are arranged 
by locality with names of the soldiers listed alphabeti- 
cally within each cemetery. There is a 1 6 page index to 
the cemeteries alone, showing name of the cemetery, 
its location and the volume and page number where the 
cemetery records are found (index is microfilm number 
1,311,589 and follows volume 13 in this film series). 
The total collection can, however, be used without the 
index, as the soldiers' names are listed in alphabetical 
order within each cemetery. All 27 volumes have been 
filmed by the FHL and can be borrowed for research 
through a local LDS Family History Center (and in some 
major libraries). 

From an article titled "Civil War Era Cemetery Records Only 
Segmentof Total 'Usts,'"by Elsie Kilmer in AntlqueWeek, July 
31, 1989. Contributed by Toni Cook, South Bend, IN 


President Lincoln signed an act authorizing the estab- 
lishment of national cemeteries in 1862. Pursuant to 
the act, 12 cemeteries were established, and today 
there are 112 national cemeteries in the National 
Cemetery System, under the Veterans Administration. 
Mound City National Cemetery is one of these early 
established cemeteries having been laid out in 1 864. It 
is located 1 mile northwest of Mound City IL, at the 
junction of IL Route 37 and US Highway 51 . 

Although Mound City and nearby Cairo, IL were not in 
the combat theater of the Civil War, their locations near 
the confluence of the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers 
made them strategic points for the dispatch of men and 
material during the campaigns of the west which opened 
the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers for the Union 
forces. Also contributing to the importance of this area 
was the shipyard at Mound City where the famous Eads 
iron-clad gunboats were built. These specially designed 
shallow dratt boats provided valuable support to the 
Union troops on the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers 
at Vicksburg. 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 18 

To care for the great number of the sick and wounded 
of the war, large army hospitals were established at 
both Mound City and Cairo. In 1861 a large brick 
building in Mound City was taken over by the govern- 
ment for this purpose. It was one of the largest military 
hospitals in the west, accommodating from 1 ,000 to 
1,500 patients. This and another large hospital at 
Cairo, were staffed by Roman Catholic nuns of the 
Orderof the Holy Cross at Notre Dame, South Bend IN, 
under the supervision of Mother Angela. The presence 
of these large hospitals in the area was a determining 
factor in locating a military cemetery at Mound City. The 
sick and wounded were transported there from the 
battles of Belmont MO, 7 November 1861; Fort 
Donelson, 13-16 February 1862; and Shiloh, 6-7 April 

Original interments in Mound City National Cemetery 
from the area hospitals numbered 1,644. Additional 
reinterments of remains recovered from isolated loca- 
tions along the Mississippi, Cache, and Ohio Rivers, 
and from Cairo IL, Columbus and Paducah KY, in- 
creased the interments to 4,808, of which 2,441 could 
not be identified and were buried as "unknown." A large 
monument commemorating the Civil War services of 
soldiers and sailors from Illinois stands at the center of 
Mound City National Cemetery. It was donated by the 
State of Illinois and erected in 1874. There are now 
2,759 unknown soldiers buried at Mound City and 27 
Confederates who died in the wartime hospitals of the 

Since the Civil War, this cemetery has become the final 
resting place of many other members of the Armed 
forces of the United States who served their nation well 
in war and peace. As of 30 June 1 968 there were 3,639 
burials of known service personnel in the well-kept 
grounds of Mound City National Cemetery. 

from AntlqueWeek, October 2, 1989,.contributed by Toni 
Cook, South Bend, IN. The information was reprinted in part 
from Vol. 17, No. 8, Newsletter, Genealogy Society of 
Southern Illinois (GSSI). 


by George W. Archer 

Arlington Cemetery, overlooking the Memorial Bridge 
that crosses the Potomac River, was originally the 
plantation home of Robert E. Lee's wife, Mary Anna 
Custis. She inherited the estate from herf ather George 
Washington Parke Custis, a nephew of Gen. George 
Washington's wife. The original plantation was 1 100 
acres and served as Robert E. Lee and Mary Anna 

Custis' home until Robert E. Lee resigned from the Union 
Army and joined the Confederates in 1 861 . In deference 
to Lee, the Federal government refrained from seizing 
the strategic property until Mary Anna left to join her 
husband in Richmond. 

Out of revenge for Lee's defecting to the South, Union 
Army Quartermaster, Gen Montgomery C, Meigs or- 
dered that the seized plantation be turned into a cem- 
etery forthe Union dead. Thetroops using the plantation 
as the Headquarters for the Army of the Potomac living 
at the plantation, did not comply with Meigs' order, not 
wanting a burial site so near to the house now serving 
as a Civil War hospital. Meigs, determined to see his 
order carried out, had bodies renx)ved from another 
cemetery and re-interred around the rose garden. The 
original family grave lot, some distance from the house, 
was incorporated into the cemetery and became Sec- 
tion 1. As a final gesture of his determination, Gen. 
Meigs and hisfamily are buried in Section 1 . By the end 
of the Civil War, 1 6,000 people were interred, including 
many Confederate soldiers who died in Union hospitals 
who were buried in Section 16 around the Jackson 
Circle Confederate Memorial. 

As well as being a cemetery, the plantation was used as 
a Freedman's Village, established in June 1863 that 
continued in operation for nrwre than 30 years. The 
Village housed and provided education and employment 
training to former slaves who fled north. More than 
3,800 blacks from the Freedman's Village are buried in 
Section 27 of the Cemetery with headstones marked as 
"Citizen" or "Civilian." 

After the Civil War, Lee's oldest son sued the Federal 
Government for illegal seizure of the plantation. The 
seizure was prompted by Lee's wife being unable to 
appear in person to pay back taxes during the Civil War, 
as she was ill and could not cross the battle lines. In 
1882 the Supreme Court upheld Lee's suit, awarding 
him $1 50,000 for the seized land, returning the house 
and grounds to him with 612 acres titled to the gov- 
ernment as a cemetery. The suit effectively separated 
the Custis-Lee mansion from the cemetery, the former 
now being run by the Park Service and the latter, by the 
Defense Department. 

A walk through this cemetery will give special meaning 
to the phrase '1hese honored dead". Reading the 
names on the markers in Artington National Cemetery 
is to experience a flash back of American history and 
the men and women who made it. 

Those buried in Artington National Cemetery are not 
only military personnel but civilians from all walks of life, 
reflecting the criteria used to permit military and civilian 
burials after 1940. Before 1940, the cemetery was 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 19 

open to general burial, but World War II and subse- 
quent war dead have rapidly reduced available space 
so that the cemetery will probably be filled by 
2020. Those eligible for burial include those 
who died on active duty, those who retired 
with 20 years active duty, and those who 
received the highest military decorations. 
Civilians eligible for burial are those who have 
served in government in high positions, af- 
fordedthe honorby Presidential Proclamation 
(Joe Louis, Heavyweight boxing Champion), 
or lost their lives while in U.S. Government 
service. The spouses or unmarried minor 
child of the civilian and military eligibles also 
can be buried with their sponsor. As a result of this 
criteria for burial two presidents (John F. Kennedy and 
Howard Taft), numerous Supreme Court Justices, 
Cabinet members. Challenger astronauts, and the 
deceased Iranian Embassy hostages are buried among 
the military graves. 

Sources of Information on Arlington National Cem- 
etery Burials 

The burial records and the markers in Arlington Na- 

tional Cemetery provide a rich lode to mine for genea- 
logical information. 

The graves registrations are kept on cards 
and in a computer by the cemetery office 
located in a building just behind the Visitor's 
Center. The staff is willing to search for a 
specific name in their collection if the de- 
ceased died over 100 years ago. Informa- 
tion on more recent deaths may require you 
to prove your family relationship and need 
forthe information, as the staff will invoke the 
Privacy Act to prevent immediate access. 
Federal law suits challenging Privacy Act 
protection by records custodians have affirmed that the 
dead have no privacy rights, but their heirs may for their 
own reasons object to the release of information to the 
public at large. You may obtain more information from 
the written and computer records by writing to: Arlington 
National Cemetery, Arlington, VA 22211 -5003. 

from The Archer Quarterly, Volume 8 Number 4, Winter 
1990, contributed by Toni Cook, South Bend IN. 

Davis & Camp National Marble Works, 224 
E. Third St.. Davenport, Iowa, c. 1876. 
Engraving, from Early Illustrations and 
Views of American Architecture by 

Edmund V. Gillon Jr., Dover 1971 plate 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 20 

a 17th century New York City landmark 

Alberto Garcia has been living on New Haven Avenue 
in Far Rockaway, Queens, for 1 years, but it was news 
to him that across the street from his apartment build- 
ing, behind a row of small houses, was an official New 
York City landmark. Even if Mr. Garcia had ventured 
behind the houses, orthe nursing home orthe overgrown 
vacant lot that also hide the cemetery, he still would not 
have known that he was standing on a precious patch 
of past. The 75-by-67-foot cemetery, which the Land- 
marks Preservation Commission designated a landmark 
in 1970 because of its "special historical and esthetic 
interest and value" in New York City's development, is 
a long neglected tangle of weeds, fallen tree limbs and 
construction rubbish dumped there in the last two 

What's more, there is not a single gravestone to mark 
the graves of Richard Cornell, the first white settler in 
the Rockaways, who died in the 1690s, or nearly 30 of 
his descendants and relatives. The half dozen or so 
gravestones that local history buffs say stood there in 
1 970, when the cemetery was already in decline, have 
disappeared. So have pieces of the other stones that 
were scattered on the site then. The history buffs, who 
have followed the cemetery's decay with dismay, say 
the city took the stones for safekeeping shortly after the 
cemetery was made a landmark. Then, there was talk 
of a restoration, which neverfully materialized. The city 
has since lost track of where it stored the gravestones, 
the buffs say. 

The chief of staff of the Landmarks Commission, Joan 
R. Olshansky, insisted recently that any removal of the 
stones '^was not done undercity auspices." In any case, 
all this is the lamentable legacy of the past. Now, if Ms. 
Olshansky's agency can convert aspiration to actuality, 
a new chapter will be written in the site's long history. 
Working with the local historians, Rockaway's civic 
leaders and some Cornell descendants, the Landmarks 
Commission has spun^ed still another effort to restore 
what it hailed in 1970 as "one of the few old burial 
grounds in the city which have survived to the present 

"About a year or so ago a couple of my staff people were 
in the neighborhood and went to see it and were 
appalled," Ms. Olshansky recalled. 'The Cornell family, 
who owned the property, didn't have a great deal of 
interest orthe necessaryfundsto maintain it." As forthe 
commission's own role, she said, "We've always had a 
small staff and not enough funds to monitor all the 
landmarks." Mary Cornell, the wife of Richard Cornell 
of Kew Gardens, Queens, a 14th-generation descend- 
ant of the first Richard, said: 'The family really didn't 

know they owned it anymore, 
to the city." 

We thought it belonged 

At the cemetery, Stanley Cogan, president of the Queens 
Historical Society, who heads a 13-member task force 
to carry out the renewed rescue effort, described the 
effort's theme as "bringing the Comell cemetery back to 
life." He and some other task force members guided a 
visitor to the site by stepping gingerly through the 
garbage and weeds of a city-owned lot fronting the 
cemetery near New Haven and Caffrey Avenues, a lot 
they hope will be converted to a park-like access. After 
removing the debris in the cemetery, which the task 
force hopes to start soon, the cemetery will be returned 
to its I8th-century.appearance, they said. The disap- 
peared gravestones? Emil Lucev, another member, 
said they still might be found, possibly buried in the 
graveyard itself. If not, there is always the possibility of 
producing 'lacsimiles" of all the mariners once in the 
yard, said the other members on the visit, Mel Cantor, 
Leon Locke and Craig Bachrow. Preservation purists, 
however, could object to reproductions. 

Peering beyond such details, Ms. Cornell, also active in 
the restoration, focused on the ultimate concern. "Peo- 
ple shouldn't be forgotten," she said, "especially people 
who did so much in getting the area started." 

from an article in the New York Times "Weeds Hide a Pre- 
cious Patch of Past" by Joseph P. Fried 


Steve Moore 

we.'vl got 

Do. \sEVL GOT 
ABOUT You?!! 



fromthe Chicago Tribune, contributed by Jim Jewell, Peru 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 21 


Tracing a Culture's Metamorphosis In Its 


by Lawrence Biemiller 

"The typical response is, Why would anyone write 
about cemeteries?" says David Charles Sioane. "But 
then almost invariably people start telling me which 
cemetery is theirf avorite." He glances at the gravestones 
to the left of the car. "We can go straight, I think— we're 
getting into the 1 930s here. I want to go back to that one 
in the glass case." 

Mr. Sioane, a visiting assistant professor of history at 
Dartmouth College, became something of an expert on 
cemeteries while doing research for his new book, The 
Last Great Necessity: Cemeteries in American l-listory, 
published by the Johns Hopkins University Press. Even 
so, the monument he spotted under glass in the Rock 
Creek Cemetery is only the third such tomb he's seen. 

It turns out to be a sarcophagus carved with a bas-relief 
rendition of the Last Supper. M r. Sioane complains that 
the carving, like almost all stonework in cemeteries 
doesn't seem to be signed; the difficulty of attributing 
monuments and tracing the work of various sculptors is 
just one of the frustrations he encountered in the course 
of his research. 

Mr. Sioane says the book grew out of his doctoral 
dissertation. "I'm primarily interested in how the cem- 
etery reflects changes in urban culture," he says. 'There 
are approximately 100,000 burial places in the United 
States. For my dissertation I tried to find a pattern in 
them, and find how that pattern was diffused in New 
York State." 

The pattern that he found, which his book applies 
nationwide, suggests that the burial site's move from 
the colonial churchyard or village green to the for-profit 
"memorial park" has been strongly influenced by four 
precedent-setting cemeteries, each of which inspired 
numerous imitators: 

• The New Haven Burying Ground, in New Haven CT, 
established in 1796 by a group of community leaders 
who feared that the town green would be taken over 
completely by its graveyard. The six-acre burying 
ground at the town's edge was laid out in a grid and 
planted with Lombardy poplars and weeping willows. 
As the nation's first voluntary, not-for-profit cemetery, 
Mr. Sioane says, the New Haven site represented '1he 
development of new republican institutions." 

• Mount Auburn Cemetery, in Cambridge MA, founded 
in 1831 on a 72-acre site 10 miles outside of Boston. 

Mount Auburn, with lakes, winding roads, and intimate 
vistas arranged by two landscape planners, was the 
first of a number of rural cemeteries that appealed to 
urban Americans' taste for the picturesque and the 
natural, from which they were increasingly removed. 
Such cemeteries became popular among strollers 
seeking respite from crowded cities. 

• Spring Grove Cemetery, in Springfield IL, which was 
redesigned by Adolph Strauch in 1855 according to 
what he called a "landscape-lawn plan." Strauch em- 
phasized spaciousness in his landscaping and cut 
down on clutter by restricting what lot holders could 
plant or erect. In the name of "correct taste" — and with 
the goal of opening up views — he opposed fences 
around family plots and favored individual mari<ers no 
more than six inches high. Strauch also introduced the 
concept of "perpetual care," in which the management, 
for a price, relieved families of the responsibility for 
maintaining grave sites. 

• Forest Lawn, in Glendale CA, taken over in 1913 by 
Hubert Eaton, who created the first "memorial park" by 
permitting only ground-level markers and by linking the 
sales and service aspects of what had become a 
typically American for-profit business. Eaton not only 
sold his customers their burial plots in advance — 
through telephone calls and home visits by 
salespeople — but also sold them complete funerals 
and grave markers, and sold their relatives flowers 
when they came to visit the grave. 

Scholarly as Mr. Sloane's interest in cemeteries may 
seem, it has its roots in his upbringing — he was raised 
in the Oakwood Cemetery in Syracuse NY, where his 
father was superintendent and later executive director. 
What's more, his grandfather was superintendent at a 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 22 

cemetery in Youngstown OH , and his great-grandfather 
was the sexton at a cemetery in Ironton OH. One of 
David Sloane's brothers has taken over from their 
father as executive director at Oakwood; two other 
brothers now offer consulting services for cemeteries. 
"The family is perfectly representative of trends in 
American cemeteries," says Mr. Sloane, who can rec- 
ognize mass-produced monuments at 50 yards and 
badly maintained grounds at 1 00. "No downed stones, 
no litter," he says the following afternoon, standing on 
a hillside glowing with marble in the middle of Baltimore's 
Greenmount Cemetery. Greenmount, founded in1 838 
and now almost full, is a "airal" cemetery swallowed 
whole by the city. "They have really defended the place 
very well," Mr. Sloane says. 

During a brief visit to the cemetery's office, in a severe 
Gothic-revival gatehouse on Greenmount Avenue, Mr. 
Sloane learns that the cemetery helps to undenwrite its 
maintenance expenses by operating two crematoria in 
the basement of the chapel. "Most of the rural cemeter- 
ies are still in business," he says, "but in the 30s and 40s 
many of them went back and asked the lot holders for 
more money because they hadn't put enough away." 

Later, Mr. Sloane climbs a steep path toward the 
chapel, a striking brownstone Chartres whose hilltop 
location makes it seem far largerthan it really is. An odd 
Art Deco column is set awkwardly at the top of the path, 
and a few feet farther on its late-afternoon shadow on 
the pavement gives pause. The column's shape is 
distinct, but above it fainter shadows dance and wrin- 
kle, as though the air itself were boiling. The afternoon 
is othenwise serene. Mr. Sloane bends over and pulls 
ivy off a monument inscribed with the name MOR RISON. 
"It's not good for the stone," he says. 

from The Chronicle of Higher Education, December 4, 1991, 
contributed by Jim Jewell, Peru IL Look for a review of The 
Last Great Necessity in the next issue of the Newsletter 

Cleanliness Is Next to Godliness 

Unique & unusual Head- 
stone Wiper clamps in 
place instantly, clears 24" 
arc with continuous action 
of its rugged arm. Spring- 
powered motor runs up to 
twelve hrs with every fijU 
winding. Keep your loved 
one's name and vital dates from being obscured by 
rain, mud, time, etc. Miracle rubber blade is as 
perpetual as the departed's rest. Advance of a life- 
time in cemetery technology! 

from New England Monthly, December 1989, p. 55, con- 
tributed by Newland Smith. This seems to be from a page of 
silly things... 


Onwell VT June 1991 : The problem was how to mow 
the steep rocky hillsides of two cemeteries in this 
farming town next to Lake Champlain. Noel Smith, the 
town manager, was certain he had a solution that was 
perfect for the 1990s: environmentally safe and at the 
same time economical. The answer, he thought, was 
sheep. That was why he was pleasantly surprised 
when Jean Beck, a local sheep farmer, was the low 
bidder on the job of mowing two of Orwell's four cem- 
eteries. Ms. Beck said she and her flock of 20 Dorset 
sheep could do for about $250. what would cost up to 
$3000. with mechanized mowers. Most of her cost 
would be in transporting the sheep and in setting up the 
electric fence to contain them. 

But, having providedforcare of the dead, Onwell'sthree 
selectmen soon discovered that they had not reckoned 
with the wrath of the living. 'These people have some 
strong concerns, some very real concerns, that we 
considered but didn't anticipate would be so strong," 
Mr. Smith said. 

Tyson Allen registered one of those concerns. At a 
meeting of the Board of Selectmen, he said he has 1 1 
relatives buried in the two graveyards and is certain 
they would not like to be tended by sheep. "My Aunt 
Mabel is in there," Mr. Allen said. "If she had wanted to 
be buried in a sheep pasture, I'm sure she would have 
conveyed that to us." 

When Ms. Beck tried to explain that her sheep would be 
pastured at any one cemetery only for a couple of 
weeks at a time, another woman sharply reminded her 
what sheep do after they eat. 

After a heated half-hour debate, two of the selectmen 
split their vote . The board chair cast the deciding vote — 
against the sheep — but only after having his say. 

"Personally, I am 1 00% in favor of having those sheep 
in those cemeteries," said the board chairman before 
bringing his gavel down on the unruly meeting. 'They 
have never looked better. The problem is that people 
are threatening to turn the sheep loose or to shoot 
them." Then he turned to a group of residents who had 
volunteered to mow and trim the cemeteries for the rest 
of the season at no cost to the town. "I'm going to vote 
to remove the sheep," he warned them, "on condition 
that the people who have volunteered to maintain the 
cemetery do what they say they're going to do. If I see 
that those cemeteries aren't being kept up, those sheep 
will be right back where they were." 

from the New York Times, June 1991, contributed by Laurel 
Gabel, Pittsford NY. 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 23 


by Nancy Thornton 


Sometimes the best cemetery preservation effort in the 
world is destined for failure. Here is one such story 
about a historic northern Illinois cemetery. 

A few years after my husband and I had moved to the 
small community of LenrHDnt, (located about 25 miles 
southwest of Chicago) , the small Roman Catholic parish 
to which we belonged decided to hold a sesqu icentennial 
celebration. In preparing for the event the pastordid his 
own research and he eventually published a cookbook 
which included bits of anecdotal history about the 
church and the cemetery which surrounds the church 
building ; The 1 50-year celebration in 1 983 was a success 
but the newly published history of the parish left much 
to be denied and it started me on a personal quest to 
discover the irue" history of the little Irish church and 
cemetery, now called St. James of the Sag Parish. 

I was a newspaper reporter at the time, and I have a 
degree in geology, so it was not too difficult to combine 
the two talents and start a papertrail of the documented 
local history. I was already a member of the local 
historical society and had the help of several parish 
members who gave me oral histories of their families 
who settled here. However , it is very difficult to 
research facts about the earliest history of the 
Chicagoland area in general because the great Chicago 
fire in 1871 destroyed much of the governmental and 
private records stored priorto that year . Nevertheless, 
I pursued the quest for facts as best I could. 

The origin of St. James of the Sag Church and Cemetery 
dates back to the building of the Illinois and Michigan 
Canal in the 1830s. The workers who built the canal 
were largely Irish and later settled in the area of the 
canal. Because they were mostly Roman Catholic and 
were duty bound to hold regular church services and 
bury their dead in only hallowed ground, cemeteries 
and church buildings were among the first permanent 
structures to be dedicated. During my research I 
concluded that the historic significance of St James 
was so great, as far as Northern Illinois settlement 
history was concerned, that I wrote up the nomination 
papers to get the site listed on the National Register of 
Historic Places. 

Because the Archdiocese of Chicago had not sent any 
objections to it, the site was listed on the National 
Register on August 16, 1984. My happiness was 
dampened, however when I discovered that instead of 
being hailed for my work, I was given the label of 
troublemaker. The pastor looked upon my work as 
bringing in "government interference" and it had turned 

out that the Archdiocese would have objected to the 
nomination if the church staff had understood the 
significance of the letter sent them "from the govern- 

After that, I maintained a quieter, but no less vigilant, 
watch of the place. When a renovation project started 
at the cemetery that was supposed to clearaway the old 
and damaged nineteenth century tombstones, I voiced 
my objections. Many of the oldest tombstones were 
lying flat and when the workers brought in trucks and 
large "bobcat" mowers they did more damage to the 
gravestones than had been done by weather , vandals, 
and neglect, etc., in the previous 100 years of the 
cemetery's existence. Articles akx)ut my concerns in 
the Chicago Tribune newspaper in June 1986 raised 
awareness of the precious history of St. James Church 
and Cemetery and the church officials finally agreed to 
hear me out. 

With the help of several organizations and a dozen 
volunteers, we were able to do some preservation work 
in the cemetery. The Upper Illinois Valley Association 
hired noted gravestone preservation expert Lynette 
Strangstad, and our group worked feverishly repairing 
gravestones during a three day period in June 1987. 
Then the Archdiocese decided that liability concerns 
were too great to allow any more preservation work. 
The attitude could be summed up with the quote, "If you 
touch it, it's yours." W, e were expected to agree that if 
we repaired a gravestone and set it upright, we would 
be held personally liable for damages if it was ever 
involved in an injury in the future. Since I could not allow 
my volunteers and the groups who were sponsoring me 
to jeopardize themselves in this way, all preservation 
work came to a halt. 

An effort to raise funds for preservation was also 
thwarted when I was prevented from giving tours of the 
cemetery. I regret to say that I cannot even bear to walk 
through the cemetery anymore, knowing that, if I had 
been allowed, I could have helped preserve those 
many tombstones carved with Irish epitaphs. The 
cemetery now looks better kept than it ever did, main- 
tenance-wise, but only I know what has been lost in the 
"renovation" process. (I have since gone on to do 
research on Montana cemeteries during our family 
summer vacation and hope to contribute a more upbeat 
article to AGS in the future.) 

In March of 1991 a tornado touched down in the 
cemetery and damaged the church roof. A new group 
has spnjng up and vowed to preserve St. James 
Church and Cemetery and I for one, wish the group 
luck. Alas, its first effort at published literature about the 
effort already contains significant errors about the site's 
history. We are back to square one. 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 24 


The following article from Antique Week by Tom May hill, 
[November 11, 1991] titled "plaques added to tomb- 
stones help genealogists, preservationists" is bound to 
spark some discussion among AGS members. The 
solution posed may seem to be sensible to some, 
vandalism to others. However you feel, this is clearly 
being marketed as a gravestone 'preservation' tech- 
nique. Let us know what you think! 

In recent issues, we have been hearing from readers 
who have offered various ways of-restoring old tomb- 
stone inscriptions. Antique Week can now report an- 
other method that offers economy plus the ability to add 
and preserve genealogical information while preserv- 
ing the old stone itself. 

This method is the use of bronze or aluminium plaques. 
Bronze plaques are mounted on or adjacent to weather- 
worn inscriptions showing birth and death dates. The 
bronze plaques are coated with polyurethane, which 
should last 15 years without re-coating. They would 
last many years beyond that but would gradually turn 
green after tarnishing if not re-coated. Incidentally, we 
are told that the old inscriptions usually erode because 
of acid rain, but some dispute this reasoning. 

To mount the bronze plaques, holes are drilled in the 
stone and the screws on the backside of the plaque are 
anchored with an epoxy. While prices undoubtedly 
vary forthese plaques across the nation, Antique Week 
obtained costfiguresfrom an Indianapolis, Ind., dealer, 
to give an idea of what is available in the Midwest. They 
charge $156 plus postage for a bronze plaque 8 by 1 
inches in size, $1 21 for an 8 by 6 inch size, and $64 for 
a plaque 6 by 4 inches. Within their three state area this 
dealership would charge $50 for nrwunting one plaque 
and about $80 for mounting two plaques. An individual, 
however, could mount the plaque by using a drill with a 
masonry bit for anchoring the plaque. 

The 8- by 1 inch plaque would allow up to 80 letters at 
no extra cost, the 8 by 6 size, 48 letters, and the 6 by 4 
plaque, 24 letters. A large choice of type faces is 
available, and additional letters cost 50 cents each. 
Aluminium plaques, having aluminium letters with black 
background, are a little less in cost. (Bronze plaques 

are 87 percent copper.) An 8 by 10 inch aluminium 
plaque is $132, the 8 by 6 inch size is $97 and the one 
6 by 4 inch is the same as in bronze — $64. 

Acrylic plaques are also available from some sources. 
The Indiana dealer feel the life expectancy of acrylic is 
much less. These are somewhat cheaper-in price than 
those made of aluminium. Acrylic plaques have painted 
lettering which is baked on over the acrylic. 

The renovation of atombstone by use of a plaque offers 
genealogists the opportunity to show birthplaces, par- 
ents and/or children while retaining the original marker. 

Now for some words of caution. Many cemeteries 
would expect and perhaps require that any changes in 
tombstones, especially for ancestors, be approved. It 
would be well to check into this matter prior to ordering 
a plaque. And, well-meaning people can make mis- 
takes — big mistakes. 

In Knightstown IN, for example, where the headquar- 
ters of Antique Week is located, the founder of the town 
was Waitsel M. Gary, a native of Hamilton County, 
Ohio. Recently it was discovered that the old tomb- 
stones for Waitsel and his wife were no longer in the 
cemetery. By carefully comparing a cemetery record 
book, we found that someone about 1963 had appar- 
ently ordered a monument maker to bring in a very 
large, new stone for the brother-in-law and sister of 
Gary. Instead of replacing those stones, however, the 
monument installers apparently saw the name Gary but 
did not look at the given names. Much to the chagrin of 
descendants, the Waitsel Gary markers were replaced. 
The error will soon be corrected, and new stones will be 
made for Waitsel and his spouse. Unfortunately, the 
original markers were apparently hauled away. 

Having considered various options for tombstone re- 
placement or restoration, one of the big pluses for using 
plaques, in our opinion, is the dual result— that of 
preserving the original tombstone and providing helpful 
genealogical data for future generations. In small 
letters below, for genealogists, it may be well to show 
the name of the person who erected the plaque. 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 25 


We've been able to take advantage of the 
calm before the Conference storm to get a 
few small items taken care of. Before I begin, 
please note that all of the Conference Reg- 
istration materials, including your ballot, are 
included in this newsletter. (It's your beau- 
tiful lilac centerfold!) 

Membership Drive 

Our membership drive has started well. As of early 
February, we've gotten 24 new members, including 
one referral from a member, who will be getting a 
beautiful ceramic magnet for his trouble. I hope more 
of vou will take advantage of our offer, as we're going 
to need about 300 new members to break the 1,000 
member mark which is our goal — a sheet describing 
this program is included with your membership renewal, 
or you can get one by sending us a S.A S E. Also, 
please let us know if you can use extra membership 

Lending Library 

When you received your original membership material 
from AGS, there was a form from the Lending Library, 
along with a list of books that you could borrow. This list 
has grown overthe years: included in this newsletter is 
an updated list of lx)oks available for loan. 

1992 Publications List 

We will have our 1992 publications list out by March, 
and there are several items which will be new this year. 
First and foremost, of course, is Markers IX, which vou 
read about in the last newsletter. Our pre-pub offer has 
an expiration date of March 15; afterthat the cost will be 
$20 to members. Also in this pub list will be, after 
months of work by Jo Goeselt, our Archivist, and 
several volunteers, most notably Rosalee Oakley, a 
complete and up-to-date listing for our Archives. The 
Archives are now well-organized after the transition 
from the New England Genealogical Society, and ac- 
cessible through the Worcester Historical Museum 
library, so visitors are welcome, although Jo asks for 
the first few months that you call first for an appointment 
with her as she wants to make sure you get what vou 
want while she wraps up the loose ends. The index is 
available for sale so researchers will know what we 
have. This will be updated periodically, but the first 
installment is ready now through our publications list. 

We've had some requests to purchase our 
latest slide show, 'The Development of the 
Modern Cemetery and Gravestone Design in 
the 1 9th Century," and now you can— through 
the new pub list. 

We've also had many requests for the "Genealogy for 
Fun" game, which is also now available. 

We have a few Conference '91 T-shirts left in all five 
sizes — order early as we're not going to print anymore 
after these run out. The shirts are grey with maroon 
lettering, 98% cotton, and have the '91 conference logo 
on them. 

Finally, all Leaflet Kit and Rubbing Leaflet orders will 
get a free Rubber's Snicker Sticker as a bonus, and 
everyorderover$25willgetafree 1988 commemorative 
calendar, chock full of Farber photographs which are 
suitable for framing. 

If vou want a 1992 publications list, send us a S.A.S.E. 
and we'll be happy to send you one. 

Press Kit 

Tom and I will be spending most of March working on 
a standard "press kit" that explains AGS and its programs 
to reporters as well as other people who request it. 
What we would also like to do is send this kit to people 
who have written about gravestones in the past, either 
in newspapers or magazines, and might or might not 
know about AGS. If they already know about us, then 
this will refresh their memories. If they don't, then this 
will be an introduction to us. If you know of a reporter 
that could benefit from this kit, please send us their full 
address, including the publication they write for. This 
list will end up helping us publicize many AGS programs, 
so we're looking forward to hearing from you! 

Finally, I would like to thank everyone who has written 
us — your suggestions have been really helpful, and it's 
just nice to hear from you! And, of course, if there's 
anything we can do in the office to help you with your 
work, please let us know! 

See you at the Conference, 


AGS Wi '91/2 p. 26 


The mail-order Lending Library is designed as a service to 
AGS members who may be unable to obtain basic reference 
books by other means. 

* Members may borrow ONE or TWO TITLES at a time. 

* Bool<s must be returned TWO WEEKS from the date they 

are received. 

* Please make a special effort to return books in good 
condition and ON TIME so that the limited resources can be 
shared by as many members as possible. 

* Borrowers are responsible for postage. 

* A $2.00 processing fee is required to help cover the cost of 
book mailers, special labels, follow-up correspondence, re- 
pair/replacement expenses, and additional titles, as we can 
afford them. 

* New books will be listed in the AGS NEWSLETTER as they 

become available. 

* These books are supplied with the understanding that they 
are for personal use only. Liability for copyright infringement 
or reproduction is assumed by the person in whose name the 
order is placed. 

To calculate postage costs: 

The weight of each VOLUME and MAILER appears in 
parentheses after the title, [example: GRAVEN IMAGES 
Allan Ludwig (2 lbs. 15 oz.)] 

When you select the book(s) you want, calculate the total 
weight of your order. 

If the TOTAL weight is: 

less than 1 lb. 

one way postage = 


less than 2 lb. 

one way postage = 


less than 3 lb. 

one way postage = 


less than 4 lb. 

one way postage = 


less than 5 lb. 

one way postage = 


less than 6 lb. 

one way postage = 


less than 7 lb. 

one way postage = 


Add one way postage, and enclose check (no cash please) 
payable to 'AGS Lending Library" - total of $2.00 fee and 

The following books are currently available: 

Peter Benes (2 lbs. 6 oz.) 

The Dublin Seminar, 1976 
Peter Benes, Editor (14 oz.) 


The Dublin Seminar, 1978 
Peter Benes, Editor (14 oz.) 

CAROLINA Diana Combs (2 lbs. 8 oz.) 



Vincetta DiRocco Dooner and Jean Marie Bossu (1 1 oz.) 

Duval/Rigby (1 lb. 7 oz.) 

Harriette M. Forbes (2 lbs. 1 oz.) 

George/Nelson ( 14 oz. ) 

Roberta Halporn (9 oz.) 



Leonard V. Ruber (2 lbs. 3 oz.) 



Kenneth T. Jackson and Camilo Jose Vergara (2 lbs. 5 oz.) 


Allan Ludwig (2 lbs. 15 oz.) 



Richard E. Meyer, Editor (2 lbs. 6 oz.) 



James Slater (3 lbs. 10 oz.) 

David E. Stannard (1 lb. 3 oz.) 

Dickran and Ann Tashjian (2 lbs. 13 oz.) 

Deborah Trask (1 lb. 8 oz.) 

Charles E. Wallace (1 lb. 3 oz.) 



Richard Welch (1 lb. 5 oz.) 

Klaus Wust (13 oz.) 

for more info, contact: 
AGS Lending Library 
c/o Laurel Gabel 
205 Fisliers RoadPittsford NY 14534 

AGS Wi '91/2 p. 27 

The AGS Newsletter is published quarterty as a service to members of the Association for Gravestone Studies. The membership 
year begins the month dues are received and ends one year from that date. A one year membership entitles the members to four 
issues of the Newsletter and to participation in the AGS conference in the year membership is current. Send membership fees 
(individual $20; institutional, $25; family $30; contributing $30) to The Association for Gravestone Studies, 30 Elm Street, 
Worcester h/IA 01609. Back issues of the Newsletter are available for $5.00 per issue from the AGS office. The goal of the 
Newsletter is to present timely information about projects, literature, and research concerning gravestones, and about the 
activities of the Association for Gravestone Studies. It is produced by Deborah Trask, who welcomes suggestions and short 
contributions from readers. The Newsletter is not intended to serve as a journal. Journal articles should be sent to Theodore 
Chase, editor of Markers, the Jourrtal of the Association for Gravestone Studies, 74 Farm St., Dover h/fA 02030. Address 
Newsletter contributions to Deborah Trask, editor, Nova Scotia tAuseum, 1747 Summer St., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3A6, 
Canada, FAX 902-424-0560. Order Marlters (Vol. 1 $20; Vol. 2, $24.50; Vol. 3, $38.95 cloth only; Vol. 4, $21.95; Vol. 5, $22.95; 
Vol. 6, $26.95; Vol. 7, $15; Vol. 8, $20; Vol. 9, $20; higher prices for non-members) from the AGS office. Send contributions to 
the AGS Archives to Jo Goeselt, 61 Old Sudbury Road, Wayland MA 01778 Address other correspondence to Miranda Levin, 
Executive Director, at the AGS office at 30 Elm Street, Worcester MA 01609. 

30 Elm Street 
Worcester MA 


Permit No. 410 
Worcester MA 





African-American Gravestones in Eariy New Jersey 

by Richard Veit 2 

AGS at the American Culture Association, Louisville KY 

by Cathy Wilson 4 

Endicott Burying Ground 5 

Erotica & Exotica in Parisian Cemeteries 

by Angelika Kruger-Kahloula 6 



When Removal is NOT Protection - Chautauqua Co. NY 18 






by Jim Jewell 

Dispelling aimors that he is either managing a Convenient Mart in 
Kalamazoo, Michigan, working on a road gang in Valdosta, Georgia, or 
employed as an usher in a movie house in Moab, Utah, Elvis Presley was 
recently sighted in a cemetery in Hanna, Indiana The fact that the town 
has a rhyming name and is spoken with a 
rhythmical lilt lends credence to the theory ,, 
that the King has decided to begin life anew 
as a Hoosier songwriter, a la Cole Porter ^^ 
and Hoagy Carmichael! JI^j 

Seriously, Elvis' smiling face adorns the 
gravestone of Susan L. Wallace (1955- 
1988), who is interred in the Hanna Cem- 
etery, just south of U.S. Highway 30 in 
LaPorte County. It is located in the south- 
west corner of the cemetery and is a prime 
example of a memorial reflecting popular 

AGS Sp'92 p. 1 


by Richard Veit 

African-Americans are probably the single most under- 
represented ethnic group in historic cemeteries. The at 
first institutionalized, and later de facto disenfranchise- 
ment of African-Americans extended into death. Co- 
lonial New Jersey was no exception to this rule. A 
partial search of central Jersey's earliest burial grounds 
has revealed only three gravemarkers for African- 
Americans dated before 1 828. It was not until 1 828 that 
New Jersey enacted a law providing for the gradual 
emancipation of slaves. Even under this law slaves 
born after July 4, 1804, had to be 25 years old if male, 
and 21 for females, before they were declared free. 

These three stones mark the final resting places of two 
men and one woman who lived in the transitional period 
between slavery and freedom. All three of the stones 
were locally carved in the reddish brown sandstone 
quarried and worked in central and northern New 
Jersey. The oldest of the stones dates to 1806, and 
marks the grave of "Caesar an African". He was buried 
in the Scotch Plains Baptist Churchyard. 

The stone has a multi-lobed top, and is inscribed with a 

monogrammed "C" and a simple link border. It reads: 

Here rest the remains of 


who died February 1806 

aged 104 years 

He was more than half a century 

a worthy member of the Church in 

this place and closed his life in 

the confidence of a Christian 

His numerous friends have 

erected this tone as a tribute 

of respect to his eminent 

virtues and piety 

(The stone is broken off at this point) 

When the. ...and the dead Arise 

When flames shall roll ...the skies 

While atheists kings and.... 

And every hope but Christ Mankind shall Fail 

Caesar's will soar from natures funeral pile 

To bask forever in his Savior's smile 

Caesar was obviously an exceptional individual. He is 
known to have served as a teamster during the Revo- 
lutionary war. This was a capacity in which many 
African-Americans served the Continental Army. His 
name, Caesar, probably reflects the common practice 

, ( 


of naming slaves after characters from the classics, 
e.g., Caesar, Pompey, Brutus. The stone was carved 
by Jonathan Hand Osborn, who had a flourishing grave 
stone carving shop in Scotch Plains in the late eight- 
eenth and early nineteenth centuries. Unfortunately 
the stone is damaged, it has broken off near ground 
level, and shows the effects of having been hit by a 
lawnmower. It has also been displaced from its original 
location, and now rests against the church wall, a 
modern granite marker indicates its original place. 

The second stone belongs to Dinah Cook. 

erected in 1814. The inscription reads: 

In memory of 

Dinah wife of Isaac 

Cook a woman of 

color who died Feb. 

4. 1814 in the 38th 

year of her 



AGS Sp'92 p. 2 

My friends of color tfiat pass by 

And ttiis erection see 
Remember you are born to die 

Prepare to follow me 

It is a plainly carved stone, decorated only with her 
initials, "DC". Unfortunately, the stone itself is in a 
perilous condition, its face is cracked and exfoliation will 
probably soon render it illegible. 

the effects of exfoliation. It reads: 

In memory of 

Jack a coloured man who belonged to Jonathan 


He was a faithful 

servant & died 

July 2. 1825 


43 y... 


Another gravestone marking the grave of an African- 
American is located in the Woodbridge First Presbyterian 
burial ground. This stone marks the grave of Jack, a 
servant of Jonathan Freeman. Jack's stone is the 
single grave marker for an African-American among 
the hundreds of eighteenth and early nineteenth-century 
gravestones in this graveyard. It has a lobed top, 
decorated with a simple scallop design, and a 
monogrammed"JJ" in the tympanum. Along the stone's 
sides is a diamond border. 

Unfortunately, the stone is only partially legible due to 

The stone was probably carved in Woodbridge. It too is 
rapidly deteriorating. 

The presence of slaves in the Middle Atlantic States 
and New England is an often overlooked historical fact. 
Colonial New Jersey was home to thousands of slaves, 
and as late as 1850, there were still over two hundred 
living there. These three early nineteenth-century 
gravestones differ from their neighbors only in their 
mention of the race of the deceased. Though broken, 
weathered, and probably soon to be illegible, they are 
the last links to an important and too often forgotten part 
of New Jersey's past. 

Richard Veit, 905 Franklin Ave., South Plainfield NJ, 07080. Richard received his l\AA from the College of William 
and Mary in 1991, and wrote his thesis on Middlesex County New Jersey Gravestones 1687- 1 799: Shadows 
of a Ctianging Culture. 


Ohio claims some unusual ties to 
legendary figures and events of the Old 

Among them is native son 
Charlie Henry Rich who 
on Aug. 2, 1876 in 
No. 10 Saloon in 
Deadwood, S.D., 
dealt his friend, James 
Butler "Wild Bill' 
Hickok, thejack of dia- 
monds, ace of spades, 
ace of clubs, eight of 
spades and eight of clubs 
in a friendly game of poker. 
The story has it that as 
Hickok picked up his cards 
a local drunk seeking fame fatally shot 
Wild Bill. As the bullet struck Hickok's 
head, thejack of diamonds flew from 
his hand. He died on the floor of the 
saloon clutching two black aces and two 
black eights — the hand known to all 
poker players ever since as the "dead 
man's hand." 

Gordon Bourgeois, Rich's grandson, 
has spent the past seven years research- 
ing and re-telling the story. Hiseffoitsto 
keep the memory of his grandfather 
alive culminated on July 9,1989, with 
the dedication of an elaborate and 

from Home & Away, July/ 
August 1 991 , sent by Leslie 
Ann Geist, Wauconda IL 

unusual gravestone recalling the famous 
incident in Deadwood in Evergreen 
Cemetery in Miamiville, Ohio, where 
Rich is buried. 

Bourgeois, of Gahanna, Ohio, hopes 
all who pass through Miamiville, located 
just northeast of Cincinnati on State 
Route 1 26, will stop and pay their respects 
to the dealer of the "dead man's hand." 

AGS Sp'92 p. 3 

AGS On The Move: Louisville, Kentucky 

Cathy i^j. 


Oakmont PA 

Bedford, Indiana — Warren Roberts (third from left) relates ttie story of the Louis Baker limestone Manlier' monument to participants in the AC A 1992 Southern 
Indiana Cemeteries tour. Other AGS members in the group include (I to r) : Joe Edgetle, Laurel Gabel. Dick Meyer, Tom Graves and Jim Jewell. Photo by Cathy 

B. Bright, T. 
Reding, C. 
Wliat do 
these names 
have in com- 
mon? For 
twelve AGS 
who at- 
tended the 

Gravemarkers Section of the American Culture Asso- 
ciation's 1992 annual conference, held from March 18- 
21 in Louisville, Kentucky, these three names were an 
introduction to an array of craftsmen who produced 
cemetery monuments for America's Southern and Mid- 
western populations. 

At the same time, seven AGS members — Joseph 
Edgette, Laurel Gabel, Thomas Graves, James Jewell, 
Maryelien McVicker, Richard Meyer, and Stephen 
Petke— actively participated in two days of formal pres- 
entations at the ACA conference. 
Their papers encompassed a wide "^-^^t- 
range of topics from such non-tradi- 
tional subjects as cemetery pests and 
the use of cemetery settings in well- 
known literature to more customary 
subjects on fraternal gravestone 
symbolism and the life of a Connecti- 
cut stonecutter. (For a complete list 
of ACA's Cemeteries and 
Gravemarkers abstracts, see AGS 
Newsletter, Fall 1991, p. 7-10.) 

Among other highlights of the four 
day conference were two cemetery 
tours. The first scheduled cemetery 
excursion for AGSers was a two and 
a half hour afternoon walking tour of 
Louisville's Cave Hill Cemetery. This 
tourwas conducted by AGS member 
and rural cemetery specialist, Blanche 
Linden-Ward, of the American Cul- 
ture Program at Emerson College, 

Warrer^ Roberts at the Baker stone, Bedford 
IN. Photo by Jim Jewell. 

Boston, Massachusetts. At Cave Hill Cemetery, founded 
in 1848, AGS members viewed both an important 
national rural cemetery and a botanical garden contain- 
ing more than 280 different species of trees. Here, also, 
they had the opportunity to photograph a number of 
unique gravemarkers such as a limestone, one-room 
schoolhouse, a granite caboose, a flight of bronze 
Canadian geese, and a delicately carved, granite Tiffany 
memorial. Moreover, members were able to follow 
brightly painted road lines in order to discover the final 
resting places of such notable Americans as explorer 
George Rodgers Clark and Ken- 
tucky Fried Chicken entrepreneur 
Colonel Harland Sanders. It was 
no surprise then that with such a 
vast cemetery to explore, that a 
hurriedly conducted head count was 
instituted among AGS members 
before the cemetery gates slowly 
swung shut forthe night at 5 o'clock! 

The second scheduled cemetery 
tourwas a day trip across the Ohio 
River and into Southern Indiana's 
countryside. This tour was led by 
AGS's own tree stump specialist, 
Warren Roberts, of the Folklore 
Institute at Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Indiana, hlere the 
group visited seven church and 
community graveyards within the 
limestone belt of Washington, Law- 
rence, and Orange Counties. Al- 
though the consecrated grounds did 

AGS Sp'92 p. 4 

not feature world renown mortuary architecture nor 
contain the grave sites of notable personages, the 
Indiana cemeteries were alive with neoclassical and 
masonic sandstone images of children, sheep, willow 
and oak trees, coffins, and urns. Moreover, the cem- 
eteries, dotted with locally carved, limestone tree stumps 
which featured hounds, anvils, foxes, rifles, straw hats, 
squirrels, and flower baskets, poignantly commemo- 
rated daily life in the surrounding farmlands. Other 
highlights of the excursion included a tour of Bedford, 
the "Limestone Capital of the World", dinner at Marion's, 

a restaurant which specialized in 1930s-style Indiana 
cuisine, and a final stop at a ten foot, ten ton limestone 
statue of the comics hero, Joe Palooka, Champion of 

As the conclusion of this tour marked the formal closing 
of the 1992 American Culture Association's annual 
meeting, AGS members, tired but enriched by their 
participation in the Cemeteries and Gravemarkers Sec- 
tion's multiple activities, departed Louisville, each for 
their own respective destinations but with the parting 
farewell, "See you in Schenectady!" 


The Endicott Burying Ground lies in the section of Danvers, 
Massachusetts, known as "The 'Port", site of the original land 
grant from Charles I to John Endicott, first governor of the 
Massachusetts Bay Colony. Situated in the center of a 13 
acre plot formerly owned by Creese and Cook Leather 
Company, the land had been purchased by developers 
planning to build condominiums on the site. 

Since there were no longer any Endicott family members 
living in the area, the burying ground had fallen into neglect, 
largely cared for by neighbors and, periodically, the Town. 
Though many of the stones were missing, and the iron gates 
and iron posts and chains surrounding one of the graves had 
been given to the World War II metal drive, William C. 
Endicott, Jr. had, in 1924, written a book tracing the history of 
the plot, complete with detailed maps of the gravestones, their 
composition and inscriptions. In the 1 930s, remains of Indian 
gravesites were excavated by Massachusetts Historical 
Commission just outside the high granite walls of the burying 
ground. Two British Revolutionary War soldiers are also 
interred within the walls and the graves of Endicott slaves are 
said to lie near the northerly wall of the cemetery. 

The Danvers Historical Society and the Danvers Preservation 
Commission (at that time the Historical Commission), con- 
cerned about the future of the burying ground in light of the 
impending development, determined to do whatever neces- 
sary to protect the property. From an Endicott family member 
it was discovered that a trust fund had been established with 
a Salem cemetery association in 1958 for perpetual care of 
the burying ground. With the help of Theodore Chase of the 
Association of Gravestone Studies contact was made with 
the trustees of the association who, after considerable nego- 
tiation, agreed to turn over to the Danvers Historical Society 
the original $10,000 plus $12,000 in interest. With the 
assurance that the burying ground would not be a financial 
drain the Society entered into discussions with the legal 
owner of the plot, whom, it was discovered, was a grand- 
daughter of William Endicott, living in Maine and unaware of 
herownership. She was, however, willing to considerdeeding 
the property to the Society. At present, the ownership still 

rests with the Endicott heir, but the trust fund and mainte- 
nance are managed by the Society. 

At the same time as the Society was protecting the property 
financially and legally, the developers were preparing site 
plans for approval of various Town Boards. A "beam house" 
approximately 200 feet from the burying ground, had used 
and disposed of toxic materials in the leather tanning process, 
therefore test pits had to be dug to determine, for EPA 
purposes, the extent of the ground contamination. Notified by 
the Danvers Historical Commission of the digging activity, 
Rhona Simon of the Massachusetts Historical Commission 
contacted the developers and acquainted them of the laws 
regulating the disturbing of ancient burying grounds and the 
possibility of up to two years delay in development if bones 
were discovered. The Danvers Planning Board and the EPA 
required the developers to redraw plans to move one building 
further away from the burying ground. Throughout the 
Environmental Impact Study phase, and during the removal 
of the toxic ground, the EPA was most helpful in considering 
the protection of the Endicott property. 

The Danvers Historical Society, the Historical Commission 
and neighbors of the burying ground generally favored resi- 
dential (as opposed to industrial) development but felt that the 
developer, and ultimately thecondominium association, should 
assume responsibility for maintenance and cosmetic upkeep. 
In a meeting with legal representatives of the developer, 
membersofthe Endicott family and the Society, it was agreed 
that the developers would replace the long missing iron gates 
and plant new trees both in the cemetery itself and as a buffer 
outside the walls. The developers also agreed to the Soci- 
ety's unlimited access to the site. The agreement became 
part of the Planning Board's Site Plan Approval as shown on 
the plans submitted to the Town by the developer. Unfortu- 
nately they were not legally filed as deed restrictions and, 
since the property is as yet undeveloped and up for sale, the 
Society and Commission will have to renegotiate with the new 
owners. However, the groundwork has been laid, a precedent 
established and the future protection of the site assured. 

AGS Sp'92 p. 5 


by Angelika Kruger-Kahloula 

Browsing through the latest edition ot the AGS News- 
letter I was amused to realize that Mark Merenda's ■ 
article on Pere Lachaise Cemetery in Paris ("Heaven 
on Earth" 4-7) concentrates on the same graves ot 
which I have been showing slides to triends and col- 
leagues in Germany after returning from a teaching 
stint in France in the fall of 1991. In order to both meet 
and upset my fellow Germans' expectations about 
sightseeing and night life in the French capital, I have 
put together a short slide show on things erotic and 
exotic in Parisian cemeteries. 

As with ivlerenda, the monuments of Victor Noir and 
Oscar Wilde have been favorites with my audience, 
less so for the deceased personalities they commemo- 
rate than for the folklore ranking around their (rather 
public) private parts. For better balance between the 
genders, one should also mention the rumor that gen- 
tlemen have been observed to fondle the breasts of a 
certain bronze nymphet on the grave of Ferdinand 
Barbedienne (1810-1892) in the 53rd division. 
Barbedienne invented the process by which reduced- 
size copies of sculptures are produced. 

Perhaps I 
should add that 
on various vis- 
its to Pere 
Lachaise I have 
never wit- 
nessed nor en- 
gaged in any 
such physical 
contact! Being 
a rather book- 
ish person, who 
only knows 
about such 
things from 
reading, I have 
been more 
favorably im- 
pressed by 
monu ments 
Champion's in 
Cemetery. A librarian in life, he is depicted in his study, 
surrounded by shelves of books in high relief. 


Honore Champion, Montparnesse Cemetery, 
tomb by scuptor Albert Bartholme 

Jean-Paul Sartre S Simone deBeauvoIr, 
1980/86, Montparnesse Cemetery 

OscarWilde, d. 1900. His monument In Pere LaChaise Cemetery 
by sculptor Jacob Epstein was unveiled in 1914. 

In Pere Lachaise, however, I have watched people 
who, profess to believe in things spiritual congregate at 
the material grave of the founder of their philosophy to 
go through ritual gestures that involve laying their 
hands on his bust, in 1858, Allan Kardec (Hippollyte 
Leon Rivail, 1804- 1869) founded a spiritualist school, 
le spiritisme, which has several millions of followers, 
mostly in Argentina and Brasil. Since spiritualists 
believe in communication with those who have died, we 
should hardly be surprised to find that Kardec's grave, 
always richly decorated with fresh flowers, is a favorite 
object of pilgrimage and cult. Moreover, Kardec's 
grave is the only one I have seen so farthat comes with 
its own instructions on how not to approach it. A plaque 
attachedto the back of the dolmen erected over Kardec's 
and his wife's tomb informs the visitor about their work. 
In the "Recommendations to the public" printed below, 
the Union Spirite Francaise et Francophone distin- 
guishes between 
magical practices 
true spiritualist be- 
lief on the other. 
Which does not 
discourage people 
from going through 
their ritual motions. 
Since Merenda 
mentions several 
other Parisian cem- 
eteries more or less 
en passant, let me 
hasten to point out 
that Montmartre and 
Montparnasse and 


AGS Sp'92 p. 6 

the smaller burial grounds are well worth a visit. The 
legends surrounding their tombs may be less known 
than those ot Pere Lachaise, but they hold surprises, 
too. Would you have expected Jean-Paul Sartre and 
Simone de Beauvoir to share a grave? They refused to 
share an apartment in life but have not kept their 
distance in death. 

I left their grave in Montparnasseinsuch a sentimental 
mood that I almost forgot my quest for the unusual, but 
then I stumbled onto the rarest specimen of cemetery 
fauna I 
have ever 
met. The 
burial place 
of "Ricardo 
M e n n 
1989" is 
graced by a 
giant cat 
with glossy 
red, blue, 
yellow, and 
stripes , 
hearts, and 
flowers on 
a white 
ground. I 
was so 
struck by its 
in the oth- 
e r w i s e 
tive cem- 
etery that I left the grounds without making any enquir- 
ies about the curious creature. Thus I am not yet sure 
whether the colorful cat is an original by French sculptor 
NikideSaint-Phalleorwhetherherwork inspired a less 
known funerary artist. Finding out about Ricardo and 
the cat will by my homework on the next trip to Paris! 

Montmartre Cemetery presented me with another in- 
triguing question about posthumous proximity. The 
German poet Heinrich Heine (1797-1856) and his wife 
Mathilde (nee Crescentia Eugenie Mirat) are buried in 
adjacent graves, a fact which seems to surprise Pascal 
Payer-Appenzeller.authorof "Montmartre; Lecimetiere 
du Nord" (Paris aux cent villages 66, 1982, 9-35). 

Heinrich est reuni, pourle meilleur, et surtout pour 
le pire, a Frau l-leine, sa femme francaise, qui 
n'aimait que les ciiats et qu'il avail legue par 

testament au plus courageux de ses amis: Us 

furent tous laches! (31 ) 

[Heinrich is reunited, for better or rather for worse, 

with Frau Heine, his French wife, who loved only 

cats, and whom he had bequeathed by testament 

to the most courageous of his friends ; they were all 


I knew there was tension in ihe Heines' marriage, and 
the poet was known for his derisive remarks, yet I had 
never heard of such a disparaging.comment in his last 
will. Research in the library proved not only that the 
ailing poet's major concern was Mathilde's financial 
security after his death but that he, a Jew converted to 
Protestantism, requested to be buried in the Roman 
Catholic part of tvlontmartre Cemetery so that his Catholic 
wife could be buried next to him later. Besides, Mad- 
ame Heine's favorite animal was a parrot named Co- 
cotte. And there should be an additional "e" in leguee, 
the past participle being preceded by a direct object 
who happens to be feminine and singular: Frau Heine. 
Which brings me to another subject dearto my school- 
marm's heart, grammar in the cemetery. As a French 
teacher, I easily spotted some stonecutter's problem 
with I'accord du participe, the grammar rule which re- 
quires the past participle of a verb conjugated with the 

AGS Sp'92 p. 7 

auxiliary avoir to take the gender and number of a 
preceding direct object. 

Pop singer Dalida (1933-1987) still attracts crowds of 
fans, if one is to .judge from the amount of flowers left on 
her grave. The monument befits a star: her white 
marble effigy walks out of an aureole against a black 
background. She looks very composed, walking into 
eternity as she used to walk on stage. Her stage name, 
DALIDA, is marked on the portal above her head. The 
inscription on the black marble slab covering the tomb 




nous a quittes le mai 1987 

The "s" in 
quittes is 
the other 
and closely 
" " """ " " '^"' attached to 

the 'e'. Obviously it was inserted at a later date, when 
someone had noticed the error. Just a few steps away 
from Dalida's burial place, on the opposite side of the 
Chemin des Gardes in Montmartre Cemetery, there is 
a very interesting combination of relief carved into and 

out of stone. The bust 
showing Doctor Guy 
Pitchal is worked out of 
the white stone up to 
his neck, the right hand 
protrudes, holding up a 
pipetowhere his mouth 
ought to be. The head, 
however, is cut into the 
stone. Forall his learn- 
ing (a book: figures 
among the stone ob- 
jects on the tomb), 
Doctor Pitchal is left with 
a spelling error on his 





Grammarian Bescherelle, who is interred in the vicinity, 
must be rotating in his grave. 

For any necropolitan rambler who has a little more time 
to spend and is tired of city life (or rather, death), 1 
suggest a trip to one of the suburban cemeteries. Le 
Cimetiere Ancien (Bois de Vincennes) offers quiet, 
green surroundings and freedom from stress, since the 
guide books do not mention any celebrities that you 
might otherwise be inclined to look for. 

Americans, accustomed to a great deal of ethnic diver- 
sity in the graveyard, may find the Cimetiere de Thiais, 
1 miles south of Paris, less exciting than 1 do. Besides 
Christian, Jewish and Muslim squares of different de- 
nominations, there is a Buddhist section that is easy to 
find if one follows the smell of incense. If you go for 
royalty, look up King Zog I of Albania, who is sur- 
rounded by his general staff. For those who prefer 
disaster, there are the victims of two air-traffic accidents, 
Paris-Brazzaville 1961 and Ermenonville 1974. Quite 
a contrast to the monuments of famous pilots in the 
downtown cemeteries , which often feature a portrait or 
a map showing the routes they explored. 

The book: I have found most useful on my visits is 
Jacques Barozzi, Guide des cimetidres parisiens 
(Paris: Hervas 1990). 

ACS Sp'92 p. 8 


The Newsletter receives many newspaper items from 
vigilant members across the continent. These are not 
always included in the Newsletter because of space 
limitations, repetitive story lines, or because in the 
opinion of the editor they are not directly related to the 
study of gravestones. All news items not printed in the 
Newsletter do eventually go to the AGS Archives. 
Here, in summary form, is a listing of recent contribu- 

From Pat Miller, 7 Briggs Hill Rd. , Sherman CT 06784, 
a news brief from the Danbury CT News Times, Feb- 
ruary 17, 1992, on the East Hartiand [CT] Cemetery, 
which dates back to 1776, closing because it is full. 

Also from Pat Miller, a photo from the Danbury CT 
News Times, March 9, 1992, showing vandalism at St. 
Peter's Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, and a letter 
printed in the same paper March 21 , 1992, from a fourth 
grader in Bethel CT expressing anger at the vandalism. 

From Rosalee Oakley, Needham MA, an item from 
National Geographic, November 1 991 , on the "Riddle 
of the Ancient Dog Cemetery", about an archaeological 
excavation in Israel which has uncovered a thousand 
dog burials, spanning about fifty years of the fifth 
century B.C. 

From Ray Cummings, Avon CT, an article from the 
Hartford Courant, August 20, 1991 , about the need for 
police patrols in the old Danbury Quarter Road Cem- 
etery, Winsted CT. 

Also from Ray Cummings, an essay from the Hartford 
Courant, August 8, 1991, by Peter B. Pach titled: 
"Getting the message in old graveyards" in which he 
notes: "For me, a cemetery is an opportunity to peak 
into long-finished lives and wonder about them." 

From Wayne Mori, Dunkirk NY, an article from the 
Dunkirk-Fredonia Evening Observer, September 4, 
1991, on anthropologist Rebecca Rosen and the 
Chautauqua County Gravestone Research Project. 
Dressed as a 19th-century woman in mourning, Ms. 
Rosen has lectured widely to school and community 
groups. Her work is supported, in part, by the J.M. 
Kaplan Foundation of New York City. 

From Len Messina, Middletown CT, an article from the 
Middletown Press, September 14, 1991 , on fireman 
Thomas F. Durning, who roams old graveyards in 
search of America's forgotten war heroes — Congres- 
sional Medal of Honor winners. Through his efforts. 

arrangements have been made to have government 
Medal of Honor headstones placed on 40 gravesites, 
some with no marker at all, others with no reference to 
any act of bravery. The Medal of Honor was established 
by Congress in 1861 , and has been awarded to nearly 
3400 people. Durning has focussed his efforts on 
medal winners who were born or buried in Connecticut, 
or who enlisted in the state. 

From Sally Whipple, Director of Education, the Noah 
Webster Foundation and Historical Society of West 
Hartford, an August 6, 1991, article from the Hartford 
Couranf about a volunteer effort to document the North 
Main Street cemetery, West Hartford, following AGS 
guidelines. "We have to figure out what's out there," 
said Whipple. "We can't stop erosion or vandals, but we 
can catalog them so that if it happens again, we will 
know which [were damaged] and eventually restore 
them." Ray Cummings of Avon CT sent another article 
from the Hartford Courant, September 29, 1991 "Busy 
in the Burying Ground" about this on-going and 
worthwhile project. 

From Jack Lynch, Baltimore MD, an article from the 
Baltimore Sun, October 7, 1 991 , on the Carroll County 
MD genealogical society's efforts to save old burial 
sites from bulldozers. The society has been identifying 
family and church cemeteries since 1984, but only 
recently has taken up the battle to protect the burial 
sites. The General Assembly passed legislation in 
1990 requiring that the county record all private cem- 
eteries in its land records. The law requires a landowner 
with a cemetery on his property to notify a prospective 
buyer of its location. The graves must be preserved in 
plans to develop the land around them. It also requires 
a builder seeking to remove a grave to get permission 
fromthe county state's attorney and health department. 
However, apermit may be granted without first requiring 
a builder to look for heirs. For more on problems with 
the law in Maryland, see "Coalition to Protect Maryland 
Burial Sites" in the AGS Newsletter, V. 16 #1 , Winter 
1991/92, pp. 11-12. 

From the Lancaster [PA] Mennonite Historical Society, 
notice of their 14th annual genealogical conference, 
March 28, 1 992, which included a session on "Historical 
Burial Grounds: Preservation and Legal Considerations" 
by David B. Schneider. 

From Patricia Hallman, Shelby Township Ml, an item 
from the Anchor Bay [Ml] Voice, July 31, 1991, on a 
rubbing workshop she led as part of a series of work- 
shops held by the New Baltimore Historical Society. 

AGS Sp'92 p. 9 

From John Mark Lambertson, Topeka KS, an article 
from the Wichita [KS] Eagle, June 17, 1991 about an 
eccentric, lonely old man and a repentant neighborhood 
boy. Ed Shutz was a junk dealer in Wichita who died in 
1924 and was buried in a pauper's grave. Because he 
drove a horse and wagon and was bearded, clinging to 
his old time ways, neighborhood boys had feared and 
taunted him. One of those boys, now a retired physi-, 
cian, has donated a gravestone with this inscription: 
"Ed Shutz, born 1852 in Switzerland, died May 21, 
1924, age 72. For the needy shall not always be 
forgotten, and the hope of the poor shall not perish 
forever. (Psalm 9:18)/Erected by a friend in 1991 ." 

From Kevin Ladd, Director of the Wallisville Heritage 
Park, Wallisville TX, an article from the October 4, 1 991 
issue of the Houston Post about cult activities and 
vandalism in the old Washington Cemetery in Houston. 
Black candies and wax objects stuck full of hundreds of 
straight pins have been found near gravesites. Next to 
them have been pennies elaborately arranged in the 
shape of pentacles, five-pointed stars associated with 
pagan worship. Officials of the cemetery, as well as 
those buried there, have refrained until now from going 
public with what's been happening at the burial site for 
fear of retribution. One official now says "I've come to 
the conclusion that all it takes for evil to flourish is for 
good men and women to stay silent." An undercover 
police officer pointed out a mutilated angel monument 
for a young boy. "The parents had inscribed on the 
base of the monument 'Here lies all our hope,' and then 
someone did that. It really gets to you." 

From Jessie Lie Farber, Worcester MA, an essay from 
the Williamsport PA weekly Grit, July 7-13, 1991, in 
which the author describes visiting some of the great 
cemeteries of the world, but that his favourite is the one 
in his hometown of Whitehall, Wisconsin. 

From Rob Brooke, Arlington Heights IL, a front page 
story from the Chicago Tribune, December 13, 1991, 
where a man in Winnetka IL had been searching for 
graves of the unclaimed victims of the steamer 'Lady 
Elgin'. There were 400 passengers on the vessel when 
it went down in September 1860. The wreck was 
discovered in the summer of 1989. He stumbled on 
some human remains on a construction site. A follow- 
up item from the same paper, January 11,1 992, sent by 
Jim Jewell of Peru IL, quotes an archaeologist saying 
that the remains are most likely those of early settlers, 
buried between 1836 and 1869. 

From Kevin Ladd, Director of the Wallisville Heritage 
Park, Wallisville TX, an article from the August 22, 1 991 
issue of the Houston Chronicle about the grave of a 

woman buried in 1875, found dug up and emptied. A 
grave from that period would not contain very much 
now. In a follow-up letter, Kevin explains that a number 
of young people were arrested over this incident. They 
had done the grave robbing as a sort of amateurish 
Satanic thing, but had found little more than bone 
fragments. One of them carelessly left a heavily fin- 
gerprinted beer can at the site, which lead to the break 
in the case. 

From Ruth and Maynard Mires of Georgetown DE, an 
item from a weekly paper December 11-17, 1991, 
about the Miami Showmen's Association's Southern 
Memorial Park, a carnival workers' cemetery. Formed 
in 1943 as a social and benevolent organization, the 
association now has about 900 members, downf rom its 
heyday of 1 600. There are three showmen's groups in 
Florida, but this one is the oldest. It began selling 
cemetery plots to its members early on, because '1hey 
didn't want anybody buried in the potter's field". 

From the Caldwell NJ Progress, August 8, 1 991 , sent 
by Charles Bello, Highfield Park N J, an article about the 
publication of a four-volume survey of the Old Burying 
Ground of the First Presbyterian Church at Caldwell. 
This was a comprehensive project: vol. 1 includes 
accurate maps with precise contours of the land and 
exact location of each existing gravemarker: the re- 
maining three volumes contain individual studies of 
each marker. 'This work may also serve as a model for 
persons working to record other historic graveyards 
and provides a basis for further preservation work to be 
done here," said David Cowell, president of the Historical 
Society of West Caldwell. 

From Ray Cummings, Avon CT, an article from the New 
York Times, February 9, 1992, about the old burying 
ground in Thomastown, Litchfield County CT, named 
for the clockmaker Seth Thomas. The old burying 
ground was laid out in 1 735, the remains were moved 
in the 1880s because they were in the way. Local 
leaders wanted the spot at the center of town where 
they built a red brick Victorian structure that now houses 
Town Hall and the Opera House. The dearly departed 
had to depart. The move was intended to be proper and 
respectful, to a part of the new cemetery. "They tried to 
move what they could, but they kept coming across 
bones," said a local resident. 

From the Arkansas Gazette. July 20, 1991, a story 
about tombstone vandalism in Hot Springs, where over 
1 00 stones were pushed over or broken. 

From the Atlantic Advocate, a monthly journal from 
Frederiction NB, Canada, October 1991, an article by 

AGS Sp'92 p. 10 

Jane Hilton "Graveyards.. a journey to yesterday" about 
cemeteries as hiistory books. 

From Jack Lyncti, Alexandria VA and DorottieadeZafra, 
Arii ngtonVA, an articlefrom the Washington Posf, March 
7, 1989, about Charles Ahalt, the "lively advocate" for 
the dead in Maryland. Ahalt, "haunts the legislative 
halls of Annapolis, crisscrosses the state one jump 
ahead of the bulldozers and keeps track of the horror 
stories on a dog-eared bundle of three-by-five index 

From Christine Sweeters, New York NY, an article from 
the New York Times, January 10, 1990, about secular 
funerals in Britain, arranged through the British Humanist 
Association. "The church has had a stranglehold on 
social ceremonies. But Britain is now essentially a 
secular country," says their director of public relations. 
The association gets about 200 calls a week about such 

From The Chronicle oi the Early American Industries 
association, June 1989, an article on the depiction of 
old tools on stone, including gravestones, contributed 
by Gaynell Stone. 

From Barbara Moon, Kennebunkport ME, an article 
from the Cleveland [OH] Plain Dealer, April 9, 1989, 
about vandalism in the Monroe Cemetery were 240 
monuments were knocked down. 

From Ray Cummings, Avon CT, an article from the 
Hartford Courant, August 6, 1990, about the restora- 
tion project of the East Granby [CT] Center Cemetery 
Association. The private association has a trust fund 
and accepts donations to coverthe cost of maintaining 
and restoring gravestones. 

Also from Ray Cummings, Avon CT, an article from the 
Hartford Courant, May 19, 1991, about the cemetery a 
Southington as a vivid source of history. Elizabeth 
Kopec is compiling the story behind each stone at Oak 
Hill Cemetery. She discovered a bound booklet of 
gravestone inscriptions and information on the place- 
ment of each stone, and who was buried in each plot, 
notes dating to 1857, in a wall of her colonial home 
during restoration. 

From Peter Kreil, Nanuet NY, a somewhat facetious 
item on epitaphs for some famous people who are still 
very much alive, from the NY Daily News-Nevv York Life 
Magazine, February 16, 1992. The article quotes 
AGS's own Laurel Gabel, so we can surmise that she 
is now a national authority! (Not news to AGS!) 

From Kevin Ladd, Director of the Wallisville Heritage 
Park, Wallisville TX, an article from the January 1992 
issue of the Texas Historical Commission journal, the 
Medallion, about vandalism at the former tomb of 
Stephen F. Austin, known as the "Father of Texas". The 
remains of Austin, who died in 1 836, were moved to the 
State Cemetery in Austin in 1910. 

And from the same contributor, a January 23, 1992 
article from the Houston Chronicle about Evergreen 
Friends, a group formed in 1 989 to work on Evergreen 
Cemetery, one of Houston's oldest and most neglected. 
It opened in 1894. 

From Allan Dunlop, Associate Provincial Archivist at 
the Public Archives of Nova Scotia, a CP story from the 
Halifax Chronicle-Herald, February 14, 1992 about a 
plan to build houses on a War of 1 81 2 battlefield which 
contains the graves of 300 soldiers. The Americans 
won the battle at Chippawa on July 5, 1814, but 124 
Americans, 1 48 British and 87 native troops were killed 
in the battle near Niagara Falls, and are buried there. 

From Jonathan Ruhan, Albuquerque NM, an essay on 
visiting cemeteries, not just on All Saints Day, from the 
Hallowe'en edition of the Albuquerque Journal, 1989. 

Also from Jonathan Ruhan, Albuquerque NM, an item 
from Tulsa World, December 22, 1991 on the redis- 
covery of the two cemeteries of the First African Baptist 
Church in Philadelphia. 

From the same source and contributor, a story about 
the Sons of the Confederate Veterans in Oklahoma 
who have a statewide project to get an accurate record 
of the graves in the state and to identify unmarked 

From Margaret Jenks, Hagerstowri MD, an article from 
the Lexington KY Herald-Leader, December 21 , 1 991 , 
about workers running into problems moving unmarked 
graves of Irish-Catholic immigrants to make way for 
Lexington's new police mounted patrol stables. Eighty 
broken tombstones were stacked at the back of the lot, 
put there in the 1950s. These will be pieced together 
and set in concrete at the rear of the property. 

From the Syracuse NY Herald-Journal, July 26, 1 991 , 
an item on a fellow from Elbridge who decided to start 
a business to tend gravesites. The business name — 
'Ease Your Conscience'. Sent by Victor B. Goodrich, 
Hamilton NY. 

From Le Eart Bryant, Richardson TX, a story in the 
Dallas Morning News, February 29, 1 991 , about rela- 

AGSSp'92 p. 11 

tives and friends cleaning up old cemeteries in Ladonia, 

From Rosalee Oakley, Needham MA, an essay from 
the Boston Globe Magazine. August 25, 1991, about 
Author's Ridge in Sleepy Hollow burial ground. Con- 
cord MA where lie buried the Hawthornes, the Ralph 
Waldo Emersons, the Thoreaus and the Alcotts. 

Also from Rosalee and the Boston Globe Magazine, 
August 18, 1991, a question and answer about the 
grave in Medford Square MA of Sarah Bradlee Fulton, 
a heroine of the American Revolution. 

From Nancy & John Slavinsky, a couple of items from 
the Boston Globe, November 3 & 28, 1 991 , about the 
theft of cemetery plantings and art objects from New 
England cemeteries. 

From Eric Brock, Shreveport LA, two August 7, 1990 
articles respectively from the New Orleans Times- 
Picayune and the Shreveport Times , about lightning 
damage toppling a 130-year-old mausoleum wall in 
New Orleans' oldest city-owned cemetery. Lafayette 
Cemetery was declared an historic landmark in 1975. 

The "8870" Formula 

Many old gravestones (if you are lucky) will have 
engraved on them the name, date of death and an age 
at the time of death in years, months and days. The 
mathematical frustration occurs while using this infor- 
mation to determine the birth date of the ancestor. 

From the year-month-day of death, subtract the year- 
months-days that the person lived; from the results, 
subtract 8870. Your answer is the year-month-day of 


Died 1889 May 6 

Age 71 years, 7 mos, 9 days 

Subtract 8870 
Born 1817 Sep 27 






from the Los Angeles Westside Genealogy Society 
newsletter, June 1990, reprinted in the Rochester NY 
Genealogical Society newsletter, (V 13 #2) Spring 
1992, contributed by Laurel Gabel, Pittsford NY. 

From Neill Herring, Jesup GA, an article from the 
Atlanta Constitution, August 8, 1 991 , "on a graveyard 
preservation effort which is so odd as to verge upon the 
bizarre!" Against the irresistible tide of development, a 
79-year-old man has vowed to protect five small family 
graveyards in north deKalb County. To maintain and 
restore the cemeteries, he erected a billboard in one 
cemetery, to generate $800. a month. 

From Leslie Ann Geist, Wauconda IL, an article from 
the Daily Herald, September 21, 1991, about the 
cemetery restoration projects of the Wauconda Town- 
ship Historical Cemetery Association, funded by 
township taxes. 

Ralph Tucker, Georgetown ME, has provided a listing 
of the 1550 gravestones which he has identified as 
being made by the Lamson family. The stones are 
listed chronologically and give the date on the stone, 
the full name and title (if any), the location, the particular 
carver if known, the type of carving and a description of 
the tympanum, which is coded. A disk with more 
complete information is also available for anyone with 
a Macintosh computer and Microsoft Works or Word 4 
applications. These are available attheAGSoffice. His 
listing will be available at the archives. 



A special invitation to the members of the 
Association for Gravestone Studies 

The Brooklyn Historical Society presents 
a new exhibition 

Rediscovering Green-Wood Cemetery 

opening Wednesday, October 28, 1992 
5:30-7:30 pm 

128 Pierrepont Street, Brooklyn Heights 


RSVP 718/624-0890 

Rediscovering Green-Wood Cemetery runs through- 
February 1 , 1993. The exhibition explores the role 
of this great rural cemetery in 19th- and 20th- 
century American culture through photographs, 
drawings, prints and object. Call for more infor- 



AGS Sp92 p. 12 

All of the following material was contributed by Jim 
Jewell of Peru IL, who among his many and varied 
activities is his own clipping service: 

From the Fort Wayne IN Journal-Gazette, September 
22, 1991, an article about the planned $176 million 
baseball park to be built on land adjacent to Cleveland's 
[OH] oldest burial ground, Erie Street Cemetery. The 
cemetery will not be disturbed. City officials stated that 
during baseball games at the 42,000-seat stadium, due 
to open in 1994, the city will close the cemetery. 

An article from New York magazine, November 1 1 , 

1991, by Robert Bent, co-author with David Cross of 
Dead Ends: An Irreverent Field Guide to the Graves 
of the Famous (Plume/Penquin), with excerpts from 
the tx)ok. 

From the Chicago Tribune, November 6, 1991, an 
article on the work of Joan Pomeranc, assistant director 
of Chicago's Commission on Landmarks, who is 
wrapping up the research and writing of self-guided 
tours for the three historic Chicago cemeteries to be 
included in the American Institute of Architects' upcoming 
guidelx)0k to the city, slated for publication in May of 

From the Fort Wayne IN Journal-Gazette, March 4, 

1992, an item on two men jailed on charges that they 
knocked over dozens of tombstones at a cemetery 
south of Kalida, Ohio in January. 

From the Chicago Tribune, April 12, 1992, an article 
describing unknown gunman attacking a Jewish cem- 
etery on the outskirts of Buenos Aires, spraying the 
gates with bullets. Last year, around 1 00 tombs at the 
graveyard were desecrated and painted with swastikas 
and anti-Jewish slogans. 

From the LaSalle IL News-Tribune, March 14, 1992, 
an item on a long-forgotten cemetery dating back to the 
1 840s, discovered by developers building a subdivision 
in Springfield IL. A senior staff archaeologist with the 
Illinois Historic Preservation Agency said it is a very old 
cemetery for this part of the state. The development 
company must ow decide whetherto move the skeletons 
or build the subdivision around the cemetery. 

From USA Today, April 1 , 1992, reference to Ben 
Taylor, who played from 1919-1929, managed and 
umpired in the Negro Leagues. He died in 1953. A 
ceremony, co-sponsored by the Negro League Base- 
ball Players Association, was held at his gravesite in 
Baltimore in April, when a headstone was erected. 

From the Chicago Tribune, April 3, 1992, reference to 
a street named for Adrian "Cap" Anson, perhaps the 
best ballplayer of the 19th-century. Anson set back 
baseball integration for 60 years when he refused to 
take the field in an 1887 exhibition game because the 
opposing team had a black player. Ironically, he is 
buried in Oak Woods Cemetery, Chicago, where Harold 
Washington is also buried. Anson's tombstone features 
a baseball and crossed bats and the epitaph "He played 
the game." 

From the Chicago Tribune, November 1 8, 1 991 , a news 
item that the Lake Forest City Council unanimously 
approved a resolution supporting a national cemetery 
at the south end of Ft. Sheridan. 

From the Logansport IN Pharos-Tribune, an article on 
Susanne Ridlen, a professor at Indiana University in 
Kokomo who teaches a course titled "Grave Affairs: 
Death and Dying in the American Cemetery." "Cem- 
eteries are for the living, not the dead," she says. 'The 
living population has established this defined area for a 
reason; they put up these stones as a final recognition. 
You go to a cemetery to learn about culture, about 

From the NewsTrlbune, March 9, 1992, an Ann Landers 
column containing letters from people who find peace 
and quiet joy in the cemetery. 

A series of 8 items from Chicago area newspapers from 
December 21, 1991 to January 11, 1992, about the 
gravediggers strike. Members of Service Employees 
Local 1 06, which represents gravediggers and cemetery 
maintenance workers, staick against four cemeteries 
that are members of the Cemeteries Association of 
Greater Chicago. The Association retaliated by locking 
out Local 1 06 members who work at the organization's 
22 other cemeteries. There are 90 active cemeteries in 
the Chicago area. The strike was hardest on Orthodox 
Jews, whose religion requires them to bury their dead 
within 24 hours. Three of the closed cemeteries were 
Jewish. A judge ruled January 8 that Jews be allowed 
to bury their dead. 


AGS Sp'92 p. 13 

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Rules and Regulations, Mount Harmon Cemetery, Quebec, Canada, 1851. Photo by Denis Laroque, 
1977, sent by Mary Jane Beattie, Halifax, N.S. 

AGS Sp'92 p. 14 



For 15,000 years, the cave paintings of the Grotte de 
Mayrieres withstood the ravages of time. Created by 
hunters of the fvlagdalenian age, the two bison were a 
symbol of civic pride for the hamlet of Bruniquel, near 
Aibi, in south west France. 

Recently the litter and graffiti of tourists had taken its 
toll, but the paintings remained, withstanding the rigours 
of the passing years. One rigourthey could not survive, 
however, was a clean-up by a group of French Boy 
Scouts. TruetotheirmottoToujoursPref (Be Prepared) 
they came armed with soap, water and stout wire 
brushes to remove the visitors' excesses and restore 
the caves to their former glory. When they left, only a 
bare outline and a solitary tail remained where each of 
the priceless images had once stood. 

'It's adisaster,' said Patrice Cougoulou, head of the AIbi 
Speleological Association who had requested a clean- 
up. 'We are still trying to workout what really happened, 
andwho is responsible.' Responsible? Notus,saidthe 
Scouts. 'It was one of those good deeds that went 
terribly wrong, but it was not our fault,' said the local 
scoutmaster. 'Those bison are in no way protected, 
although they are only about 60 yards from the cave 
entrance. For the past three months our local Scout 
group has been going about cleaning up after litter 
louts. We went to Mayrieres because thousands of 
tourists have been defiling the cave walls with graffiti. 
One section of Scouts removed from the cave over 
1,000 lb of empty beer bottles, tin cans and rubbish. 
The other section wiped off graffiti, diagrams and ob- 
scenities. Unfortunately, six of them worked for two 
hours to get rid of the bison, which meant nothing to 
them. Wire brushes on a soft sandstone wall can be 
pretty deadly. There was not much left by the time they 
had finished.' 

The 90,000-strong Scout movement has issued a 
statement blaming the authorities for not taking sufficient 
precautions. The paintings were not protected or even 
designated a historic site. 

found on the staff bulletin board at the Nova Scotia 
l^useum, presumably from a recent issue of the Toronto 
Globe and Mail. 

LynetteStrangstad, Charleston SC, recipient of the 
1991 Forbes Award from AGS and author of the 
Gravestone Preservation Primer (AGS and the 
American Association for State & Local History, 
1988), has provided a response to the Item "Put 'em 
Up " In the Winter 1991/2 Issue of the Newsletter, p. 
25, on bolting bronze plaques to old gravestones: 

I am astounded at the wrongheadedness of the article 
on attaching plaques to historic gravemarkers. While 
no one would think of attaching a bronze plaque (listing 
date of manufacture and provenance) to a valuable 
piece of antique furniture, the article implies that the 
permanent defacement of an equally valuable artifact is 
somehow acceptable. The course of action suggested 
could easily result in destruction of the gravemarker, 
alteration of an important historic burial ground, and, for 
the perpetrators, criminal prosecution resulting in a fine 
and possible jail sentence. 

As a professional conservator specializing in historic 
burial grounds for the last ten years, I , too, am disturbed 
by the gradual weathering of old markers that eventu- 
ally results in the loss of inscriptions, and I have seen 
many attempts to stop or retard the process, all of them 
ultimately unsuccessful. Recarving the inscription 
destroys the original (imagine painting over an old 
master because it's gotten too dark and dirty) and 
usually weakens an already-deteriorating stone. 
Coatings interfere with water passage, accelerate 
spalling, and discolor the stone. tVloving the stone 
indoors divorces it from its context and destroys its 
purpose as a gravemarker; and creating a replacement 
stone to take its place is only occasionally appropriate 
and rarely done well. 

I recently prepared a conditions assessment for a burial 
ground in which numbered metal plaques had been 
attached to the stones. Though carefully done, and 
though the plaques were very small, the result was 
irreparable damage to the stones and to the site itself. 
As stated in my report: 

As the metal numbers are exposed to 
weathering they oxidize, and an acid 
wash is produced which appears to 
clean the stone surface, but even weak 
acids slightly dissolve the calcium 
carbonate surface of marble and 
limestone and promote erosion. The 
effect is unsightly as well as damaging. 
Since the numbers were attached with 
metal pins, any attempt to remove 
them would cause further damage to 
the stone. They represent a permanent 

AGS Sp'92 p. 15 

alteration of the site. 

Since the plaques you propose are specifically for 
"weather worn" stones, you are therefore suggesting 
that they be attached to the stones that are least likely 
to survive the process. The term "hard as a rock" is not 
used by people who work with old outdoor stone statu- 
ary and gravemarkers. Many of the types of stone 
commonly used — marble, limestone, sandstone, 
soapstone — are soft stones to begin with and can 
become quite fragile overthe years. Marble, forexample, 
chips easily, warps, and "sugars" as the cementitious 
matrix holding the stone together erodes, leaving the 
crystals behind. Subjecting these fragile markers to the 
rigors of drilling and pinning is dangerous and, in this 
case, unnecessary. Even trained and experienced 
professionals approach conservation work with caution, 
knowing full well that the slightest error xcan result in 
serious damage and loss. 

The combination of certain metals and stone is par- 
ticularly damaging to stone. Old tablet-on-base 
gravemarkers were generally pined with large iron or 
soft steel pins attaching the tablet to its base. In many 
othenwise sound markers, the pins absorb moisture 
from the stone and rust, expand as they rust, and push 
apartthe surrounding stone material. Anygravemarker 
consisting of several stone elements pined by metal is 
vulnerable. Iron is such a threat to stone that I use nylon 
pins, having found that even stainless steel eventually 
rusts. Inthereverseof the procedure you are advocating, 
there is a style of gravemarker in which marble plaques 
are attached to metal monuments; in practically every 
example of this style that I have seen, the stone plaques 
are missing or have been almost completely destroyed 
by the surrounding metal. 

Coating the plaque with polyurethane doesn't solve the 
problems. Even if the back of the plaque and pins are 
coated, even if the coating is perfect with no gaps or 
scratches (which, in the real world, does not happen), 
even if an acrylic plaque is used, moisture will be 
retained between the plaque and the stone and hasten 
deterioration of the stone material. If the polyurethane 
lasts fifteen years while the stone might last hundreds 
of years, who is going to recoat the plaques when 

Mounting the plaques adjacent to, rather than on, the 
gravemarkers spares the markers serious and per- 
manent damage, but damages the site itself. In any 
preservation or restoration project, burial grounds must 
be approached with the same care and comprehensive 
planning afforded any other historic site. Any alteration, 
including the introduction of signage, must be carefully 

considered and, even more important, must be revers- 
ible if advances in conservation techniques reveal that 
what is commonly being done today is not adequate or 

Finally, altering gravestones raises many legal, moral, 
and ethical questions. Statutes vary greatly from state 
to state, and it is likely that the people who might be 
tempted to use these plaques will not do the necessary 
research. As one example, from North Carolinacriminal 
law. Chapter 14, paragraph 14-148: 

"(a) it is unlawful to willfully: 

...(3) Take away, disturb, vandalize, 
destroy, tamper with or deface any 
tombstone, headstone, monument, 
grave marker, grave ornamentation, 
grave artifacts, shrubbery, flowers, 
plants or other articles within any 
cemetery. ..without authorization of law 
orthe consent of the surviving spouse 
or next of kin... 

(c) Violation of this section is a 
misdemeanor punishable by a fine of 
not more than five hundred dollars 
($500.00), imprisonment for not less 
than 60 days nor more than one year, 
or both, in the discretion of the court...." 

In Alabama, the fine is one to five hundred dollars, 
imprisonment in the county jail or up to one year hard 
labor. In Arizona a similar offense is a misdemeanor, in 
Arkansas it is a felony. And the list goes on. 

Addressing the moral and ethical issues involved in 
burial ground preservation brings us to an endless list 
of questions with no clear-cut answers. Burial grounds 
reflect society's attitude toward death, and entire books 
have been written on that subject. Religious beliefs, 
social customs, ethnic traditions, legal jurisdiction, 
preservation/restoration theories, and questions of 
ownership further complicate the debate. In addition, 
the rights and wishes of the descendants have to be 
considered. Attaching a commemorative plaque to an 
historic building may be seen as an inherently good 
thing, but feelings about death, mourning and 
memorialization are so strong that altering a cemetery 
in any way can hit a nerve in a community or congre- 
gation. Not only may it cause irreparable damage to the 
gravemarkers, it may produce a very strong community 
reaction which you would rather not have to deal with. 

A conservator's rule of thumb is: "When in doubt, leave 

AGS Sp'92 p. 16 

Reader^ STOP and Cast An Eye. . . . 

.4 v^ 


We need your help! Please take a minute to tell us about your interests, 
accomplishments and special projects. The information you provide will be 
kept on file to help the Executive Director and the Research office of AGS to 
better focus on your needs and to link members with similar interests. 

Name _ 




Telephone (home) 

Telephone (work) . 



Do you consider yourself to be a: (please indicate at least one) 

n Hobbyist/enthusiast 

n Educator/teacher 

n Active researcher 

n Published author 

D Other 

Your area of Interest: (please indicate at least one) 

n Specific geographic location 
n Photography 
D Rubbing 

□ Unique study collections (white bronze, fraternal emblems, veteran's grave markers, etc.) 

□ Epitaphs/inscriptions 

□ Genealogy 

□ Carvers /monument makers 

□ Legislation 

□ Preservation/ restoration 

□ Care of a local cemetery (where?): 

□ Inventory / Cemetery data base 

□ Art/ architecture 

□ Symbolism 

□ Specific ethnic /religious. 

□ Cemetery landscapes /gardens 

□ Specific time period: 

□ Cemetery as a teaching resource (grade level)? 

PLEASE take a minute to give us more specific information about your particular 
interests and/or accomplishments. 

Do you use a computer for any gravestone/cemetery related projects? (in what way?): 

How can AGS better serve its members? Do you have specific suggestions/ideas for 

Thank you for your help! 

Please send your comments to: 

Laurel K. Gabel, AGS Research Coordinator 

205 Fishers Road, Pittsford, New York 14534 

it alone." Much damage has been caused to important 
historical sites by well-meaning but uninformed indi- 
viduals. If you want to preserve the site, photograph 
and document each marker and preserve that record 
for future generations. 

I hope that you will join me in helping to protect these 

important historic sites, and that you will warn your 
readers not to riskdamage to gravemar1<;ers, degradation 
of important historic burial grounds, or possible legal 
problems from ill-considered actions. 


Stone Faces 





Metal detectors in graveyards? 

An item in the spring issue of the New Hampshire Old 
Graveyard Association newsletter Rubbings asks for 
information on the legality of the use of metal detectors 
in graveyards. Kim Sowles, Corresponding Secretary 
of the Association, 7 Ivlaple Court, Tilton NH 03276, 
writes that she received a call from a NHOGA member 
in W. Swanzey NH who wanted to let everyone know 
that she had discovered a gentleman in that town's old 
cemetery (which is right next to her home), with a metal 
detector. She was incensed and went to see what he 
was doing there. As she approached, she saw him 
replace a divot of grass. He claimed that he was looking 
for coins, and that he stayed on the pathways. When 
asked why not go to a more modern graveyard, he said 
he felt there was "nothing there". Apparently, this 
gentleman is president of the Keene Metal Detector 
Club, sells metal detectors himself, and sees nothing 
wrong with this practice. 

The NHOGA member had gone to local authorities, and 
it appears that there are no lows to prohibit such 
activities. She asks, if we need to write for permission 
to do gravestone rubbings, why is the use of metal 
detectors, particularly in old graveyards, not subject to 
any restrictions or monitoring? Particularly as it is 
during the spring time that the ground shifts, and a new 
crop of rocks appears, what else might be pushed to the 
surface in our old burying grounds? 

A gravestone in the cellar! 

During the town of Wolfeboro's [NH] bicentennial, a 
project to copy cemeteries and gravestones took place. 
At that time, Ida Pineo and Bernard Pineo Jr. were 
interviewed by a local radio station about this project. A 
woman living near the town's main cemetery heard the 
program and phoned Bernard to tell him that there was 
a gravestone in her cellar! At her request, he met her 
to collect the stone. On his death the stone went to Ida, 
and it has been kept in her garage. 

Later on the old farm in Wolfeboro (one of the oldest) 
was sold to be developed into condos. It was then that 
another gravestone, similar to the one in Ida's garage, 
was discovered in a walkway. This stone has been 
turned over to the town office, Ida reports, soon to be 
joined by the one in safekeeping in her garage. Ap- 
parently, the original owner of the house (with cellar) 
mowed and cared forthe main cemetery. When a large 
monument with all the names on it replaced the smaller 
stones, he just took the smaller stones home, as they 
were "redundant". This explains why the stones were 
showing up, one in the cellar, and the other in the 

from the newsletter of the New Hampshire Old Grave- 
yard Association Rubbings, Spring 1992, V.XVII#1,p. 

AGSSp'92 p. 17 


A group of historians, preservationists and cemetery 
officials has asked the Chautauqua County Legislature 
[NY] to pass legislation which would protect historic 
gravestones from removal or damage by vandals and 
over-zealous individuals and organizations. The re- 
quest is the result of the allegedly unauthorized removal 
of five historic gravestones from the East Ripley Cem- 
etery, an act which has touched off a dispute that has 
divided the county Historical Society and generated 
anger and charges on both sides. The group has sent 
a letter to the Legislature asking that legislation be 
initiated to beef up admittedly weak state laws protecting 
these historic markers from removal from their original 

Rebecca Rosen of Jamestown, a Fredonia State Uni- 
versity graduate in anthropology and head of the county 
Gravestone Research Project, has stated that the un- 
authorized removal of the five stones was "little more 
than vandalism." An Historical Society spokesperson 
said the stones were removed to preserve them from 
the elements. They are now on display in the McClurg 
House museum in Westfield NY. 

Over the past three years Ms. Rosen has documented, 
with photographs, documentation forms and rubbings, 
1 500 gravestones from 31 4 cemeteries in Chautauqua 
County dating from 1800-1865, under grants from 
major foundations. She first discovered the removal of 
the East Ripley stones in November 1990, and was 
present when the stones were removed. She then filed 
a protest with the Dept. of State Division of Cemeteries 
in Albany when her local efforts to stop the removal 
were ignored. 

That report sent an investigator, Cynthia T. Craig of 
Buffalo, to the scene. In a subsequent letter, Ms. Craig 
said the removal was illegal and gave the society until 
July 1, 1991, to replace the stones. However, the 
society did not do so. Instead, Virginia Barden, the 
society's current president, said permission to remove 
the stones was obtained — admittedly after the fact — 
from descendants of the five people buried under the 
disputed stones in East Ripley in the early years of the 
19th Century. 

Ms. Rosen said that she and the others were "very 
upset" at seeing the gravestones removed. She pointed 
out that they had been broken near ground level and 
irreparably damaged. She noted that the buried part of 
the stone often contained the name of the stone carver 

and some of his "practice" tries at carving. All of this 
represents valuable data which may now be destroyed, 
she stated. 

The gravestone preservation consulting firm Fannin- 
Lehner has set forth marker removal guidelines. ".. .We 
do not advocate the removal of stones unless extraor- 
dinary circumstances require it. ..We believe they are 
part of the environment and represent the judgements 
of those who placed them there as to where and in what 
context they wished the departed to be remembered." 
They advise that after proper photography of the stone 
in situ, it should be removed "in whole, not just a portion. 
An old gravestone is a work of art and should be treated 
as one. Removing it as a whole allows for resetting if 
events prove removal was not necessary." 

Ms. Barden says the stones, had they been left in place, 
would soon have been destroyed by the elements. 
Conservationists say there are other means of pre- 
serving the stones. Fannin-Lehner say, "If deteriora- 
tion is the problem, there are conservation treatments 
which might be used, depending on the stone type." 
Ms. Barden says that preservation was too expensive 
for the society. Ms. Rosen offered to sponsor fund- 
raising events to pay for this work, but was ignored, she 

Ms. Rosen also contacted AGS. Among other things, 
the society said that if a stone must be removed, it 
should, at the very least, be replaced by a replica or 

AGS Sp'92 p. 18 

casting taken from the original marker. In East Ripley, 
MS. Garden said the stones have been replaced with 
bronze markers. 

In their letter to the Legislature, the supporters of better 
local gravestone legislation pointed out, "Gravestones 

are not collectables to be removed and placed in private 
collections. Where there are instances (such as in East 
Ripley) where historical societies remove gravestones 
and there is no legislation in place to protect cemeteries 
and gravestones, it is conceivable that any number of 
collectors or antique dealers could involve themselves 
in similar situations, further jeopardizing these historic 
grave markers." 

Jamestown's city historian, B. Delores Thompson, also 
supports local legislation to beef up state laws. She 
adds, "What has been done (at the East Ripley Cem- 
etery) sets a precedent for future desecration of our 
historical heritage." 

from an article in the Dunkirk-Fredonia NY Evening 
Observer . March 13, 1992, p. A6, by Jim Fox, and from 
information sent by Rebecca Rosen, Jamestown NY. 
She writes: "I felt it was important to let other AGS 
members know that when something like this happens, 
something can be done, even if it takes almost two 
years to accomplish. Since this article appeared, local 
and state laws concerning the removal and sale of 
gravestones are in the process of being passed. When 
the historical society in Chautauqua County removed 
the stones, I knew it was unethical, immoral and illegal, 
and it would be a hard and difficult battle to fight. At 
times I thought that nobody cared about the removed 
stones. But after reading several articles from fellow 
AGS members about their trials and tribulations, I felt 
Inspired to go on with my battle. I would also like to 
mention that the AGS directors played a vital role in this 
battle, particularly Fred Oakley. He is truly a dedicated 
professional. When I needed guidance and support he 
was there to lend a helping hand. I thank him and also 
the AGS for that. It is truly a pleasure belonging to an 
association that helps its members. " 

AGS Sp'92 p. 19 


by Roberta Halporn, Center for Thanatology 
Research, Brooklyn NY 

There is no question in my mind that more 
people are interested in the graves ot 
celebrities than those fascinated by the 
study of monuments as works of sculp 
ture, as exemplars of history or of any of 
the multiple areas by which AGS mem- 
bers are attracted. My personal feel- 
ing is, as an old teacher, that any 
avenue that builds more interest and 
respect for markers and cemeteries 
is beneficial. 

As an example, my Center exhib- 
its at many conferences and cultural 
street fairs. Since we are promoting books, I 
have made it my business to make rubbings of the 
graves of famous writers such as Fitzgerald and Poe, 
and they always draw more public attention than the 
exquisite colonial markers I display as well. Another 
example is the success of the "Permanent" series, 
"Permanent Parisians, Londoners, Californians" and 
"New Yorkers". Though often flawed, the excellent 
sales of these books reflect my thesis. 

We have received two slight, new publications which 
play to this attraction: The Paths of Glory. A Guide to 
the Gravestones of our Deceased'^ Presidentshy Joseph 
O'Donnell (HP Publications, PO Box 34495, West 
Bathesda MD 20827, $6.00 postpaid), and Home at 
Rest. The Story of West Point Cemetery, by Thomas E. 
O'Neil (Arrow & Trooper Publications, 105 Bartlett 
Place, Brooklyn NY 11229, 55 pp., $9.00). 

Paths of Glory is a far more lavish production - it con- 
tains a full color photograph of each memorial, and a 
portrait of each President interred there. Each cem- 
etery is located by state and city, accompanied by a 

single paragraph about the 

monument. A few interesting 

historical facts are added as 

well, including the surprise tidbit 

' that every Presidential incumbent 

sends a commemorative wreath 

to the proper monument of the 

deceased office-holder's birthday. 

Generally then, this pamphlet is 

simply a locator guide - information 

on the monument designers or the 

cemetery in which each rests must be 

gleaned from other sources. 

Home at Rest is a far more concentrated 
black and white study on one cemetery, 
home to its own good share of celebrities 
from the American armed forces. ONeil 
obviously loves this yard - he has researched 
its history, its chapel, and something substan- 
tive about each of its inhabitants. We learn 
about relative unknowns such as Robert Anderson, a 
prominent graduate of the Point, who achieved notori- 
ety during the Civil War. Though a Southerner and pro- 
slavery, he was strictly loyal to the Union. Ironically his 
position at a captured military post helped to incite the 
fighting. Better know is colorful George Custer, the 
second youngest Major General in all U.S. history, who 
led the Seventh Cavalry to the disastrous "Last Stand". 
This cemetery is also the last resting place of Engineer 
George W. Goethals, a Point graduate, renowned for 
his work on the Panama Canal. 

Nicely drawn ink portraits and a few monument photo- 
graphs are included. A clear map with plot locations 
accompanies the text and biographies. Sadly, there is 
again no mention of the designers or sculptors. 

History buffs will enjoy both pamphlets - cemetery and 
gravestone lovers will preferto add \-\omeatRest\o their 

Is there any other kind of President with a gravestone? 

AGS Sp-92 p. 20 


by David Charles Sloane 

Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991. xxlll + 293 pp. Illustrations, Tables, Notes, 
Bibliographic Essay, Index. $35.95. 

review by Richard Meyer, Western Oregon State College 

The waning years of the 1 980s witnessed the publica- 
tion of a number of scholarly books focusing upon and 
defining the American cemetery as a distinctive cultural 
institution. Several of these— Edward F. Bergman's 
Woodlawn Remembers: Cemetery of American 
H/sfo/y, Walter C. Kidney and Clyde Hare's 4//eq/Teny 
Cemetery: A Romantic Landscape In Pittsburqh, and 
Blanche Linden-Ward's exemplary Silent City on a 
Hill: Landscapes of Memory and Boston's Mount 
Auburn Cemefe/y— represent in-depth studies of some 
of the more spectacular examples of what has come to 
be known as the Rural Cemetery Movement, while 
others, such as Kenneth T. Jackson and Camilo Jose 
Vergara's Silent Cities: The Evolution of the Ameri- 
can Cemetery and my own Cemeteries and 
Cravemarkers: Voices of American Culture, are 
somewhat broader and more eclectic in their approach. 
It is encouraging to find that the impetus generated by 
these efforts has carried over into the new decade with 
the appearance of this fine new study by David Sloane. 

It is important from the start to note that, despite what 
might be viewed as an implicit promise in its subtitle 
(and, forthat matter, itsfirst chapter), this book does not 
in fact attempt to embrace within its scope the true 
range and diversity of cemeteries in American history. 
In its self-imposed limitations, it becomes skewed both 
temporally and geographically, but most noticeable is 
its virtual avoidance of the powerful historic and con- 
temporary manifestations of ethnicity and cultural plu- 
ralism which, to many, constitute some of the most 
compelling features of American cemeteries. Sloane's 
focus is clearly upon the most visible and pervasive of 
the large scale movements in the development of 
American concepts of the cemetery from the 1830s 
until the middle of the present century. 

The good news is that these limitations allow the author 
to channel his energies into what becomes an insightful 
and highly readable account of the manner in which the 
development of major American cemetery types have 
correlated with, and sometimes actually influenced, 
certain key elements — taste, religion, business theory 

and practice — in the larger mainstream currents of 
American cultural history. And while this is a strength 
of the book throughout, bringing fresh perspectives to 
bear on topics (such as the Rural Cemetery Movement) 
which have received extensive treatment elsewhere, it 
is perhaps most evident in a lengthy chapter which 
provides the only truly sensible and comprehensive 
evaluation of the twentieth century Memorial Park phe- 
nomenon I have seen to date. Thus, while it may be 
argued that the ideal, fullest treatment of cemeteries in 
American history remains as yet unwritten, it seems 
equally clearthat 7/76 LasfGreafWecess/fyrepresents 
a major step towards ultimate attainment of that goal. 

reprinted from the Journal of American Culture, with per- 


At Rest In Unadilla, Otsego County, New York by 

Shirley B. Goerlich (Library of Congress Card Catalog 
#87-90465) will be of interest to New York State ge- 
nealogical researchers. Reaching back 200 years, the 
author has uncovered previously unknown orforgotten 
cemeteries and recorded by hand some 6,000 grave- 
stones. She has included genealogical notes on more 
than 200 early families, a list of some 281 veterans of 
all wars and the 1850 U.S. Census for the Town of 
Unadilla. There are nearly 1 0,000 names in the maiden 
name and regular indexes. 

Included are directions to and pictures of each cemetery, 
maps highlighting their location and a description of the 
condition of each of the 1 7 cemeteries. Many obsolete 
gravestones in the oldest cemeteries are coordinated 
with existing parish records. 

The hardbound edition of 662 acid-free pages is available 
from RSG Publishing, P.O. Box 441 , Sidney NY 1 3838- 
0441 SAN #69300573, for $60.00 each plus $3.00 
shipping charge. New York State residents must add 
applicable tax. 

AGSSp'92 p. 21 



Prepared by Carole Callard and Charles Hagler. 
(Lansing: Library of Michigan, 1991.)122pp. Paper. 

Over the years, a number of thematic atlases have 
been produced relating to Michigan, but one topic that 
had not been dealt with cartographically was Michigan 
cemeteries. Potential users such as genealogists, 
historians, librarians, geographers, government officials, 
necrologists and other interested parties demanded 
the creation of this publication. The problem was 
finding someone who would devote the time and energy 
necessary to track down the locations of the state's 
3800 graveyards. 

Nearly three years ago two individuals — Carole Callard 
and Charles Hagler — decided to take on this Herculean 
task. Working with detailed maps of all eighty-three 
counties, these two Library of Michigan employees 
carefully researched the subject andplottedtheirfindings 
on worksheets. 

When the worksheets were shown to various groups 
and individuals, the merits of the enterprise were im- 
mediately appreciated. Convinced of the project's 
value, the Library of Michigan Foundation and the 
Abrams Foundation provided the necessary funds to 
complete the undertaking. With financial backing se- 
cured, the Department of Natural Resources used its 
computers to prepare special maps showing the loca- 
tions of all recognized burial sites in Michigan. 

The result of this cooperative effort has just been 
released as the Michigan Cemetery Atlas. The vol- 
ume locates and indexes all known burial grounds in 
the state, enabling anyone to quickly find a given place 
by site or name. This handy reference source may be 
purchased for just twenty dollars (softcover only) from 
the Business Office, Library of Michigan, 717 West 
Allegan, Lansing, Ml 48909. 

In addition to serving as an access tool to the physical 
location of Michigan cemeteries, the atlas will be a 
companion volume to a forthcoming book on the state's 
places of interment. This future publication will provide 
the addresses of all Michigan cemeteries, identify all 
transcriptions (name indexes) prepared for graveyard 
populations and give the call numbers of these 
enumerations at the Library of Michigan. 

from Michigan History Magazine, V. 76 #1, Jan/Feb 1992, 
sent by Scott Kunst. 

Ethnicity and the American Cemetery, edited by 
Richard E. Meyer, is a major collection of original 
essays scheduled for publication in 1992 by Bowling 
Green State University Press. Articles: 

* Richard E. Meyer, "Strangers in a Strange Land: 
Ethnic Cemeteries in America " 

* John Matturri, "Windows in the Garden: Italian- 
American Memorialization and the American 

* Thomas E. Graves, "Keeping Ukraine Alive 
Through Death: Ukrainian-American Grave- 
stones as Cultural Markers" 

* Karen S. Kiest, "Czech Cemeteries in Nebraska 
from 1868: Cultural Imprints on the Prairie" 

* Paul F. Erwin, "Scottish, Irish and Rom Gypsy 
Funeral Customs and Gravestones in Cincinnati 

* Roberta Halporn, "American Jewish Cemeteries: 
A Mirror of History" 

* Russell J. Barber, 'The Agua Mansa Cemetery: 
An Indicator of Ethnic Identification in a Mexican- 
American Community" 

* Keith Cunningham, 'The People of Rimrock Bury 
Alfred K. Lorenzo: Tri-Cultural Funerary Practice" 

* Nanette Napoleon Purnell, "Oriental and 
PolynesianCemeteryTraditions in the Hawaiian 

For Information contact: Ms. Pat Browne, Managing 
Editor, BGSU Popular Press, Bowling Green State 
University, Bowling Green OH 43403 

The Revival Styles In American Memorial Art by 

Peggy McDowell and Richard E. Meyer is scheduled for 
publication by Bowling Green State University Press in 
1992. This heavily illustrated study by art historian 
Peggy McDowell and folklorist (AGS member) Richard 
E. Meyer traces the backgrounds and impact of the so- 
called "Revival Styles" — Classical, Medieval, and 
Egyptian/Near Eastern — on nineteenth and early 
twentieth century funerary architecture and other forms 
of public and private commemorative art. 

For Information contact: Ms. Pat Browne, Managing 
Editor, BGSU Popular Press, Bowling Green State 
University, Bowling Green OH 43403 

AGS Sp'92 p. 22 



A weekend of walks, talks, demonstration and hands-on 
opportunities inGroton and Harvard MA — August?, Sand 9. 

Laurel Gabel, active researcher on New England grave- 
stones and their carvers for the past 1 2 years, trustee of AGS, 
co-author of Gravestone Chronicles, recipient of the AGS 
Forbes award in 1988, will be in Harvard and Groton to 
present two talks and a walk. 

Friday August 7. Laurel Gabel gives a slide lecture at the 
Kalliroscope Gallery in Groton. With some emphasis on local 
graveyards, their stones and their carvers. Laurel will give an 
overview of gravestone carving and the men whose trade it 

This evening event is sponsored by the Old Burying Ground 
Commission in Groton. For more information, and to make 
reservations, please call Lisa Erickson at the Gallery on 
weekdays from 9 AM to 5 PM. There is no charge for this 
event, but donations will be accepted. 

In honor of the exhibit of photographs of Dan Farber on view 
at Fruitlands Museum for this season, there will be several 
events during this weekend. The events celebrating "Art in 
the Landscape" are co-sponsored by Fruitlands and the 
Association for Gravestone Studies. 

Saturday, August 8, 10 AM. Join Maggie Stier, Fruitlands 
Curator, and member of the Boston Area Shaker Study Group 
on a walk in the Harvard Shaker Cemetery. Learn about the 
Shakers, the people who were Shakers, and this special 
graveyard where each one of the Shakers buried there has 
his or her own cast iron marker. There is no charge for this 
walk. Please reserve a space by calling Fruitlands at (508) 

Saturday, August 8, 2 PM. Laurel Gabel talks on "The Park 
Family Carvers of Glasgow, Scotland, and of Harvard and 
Groton, Massachusetts." Just back from a trip to Scotland 
where she researched the Park family, Laurel will report new 
information on this local and prolific family of carvers. Three 
generations of Parks provided art in local graveyards. She 
will also talk about other local carvers: Dwight, Worcester, 
Wilder and Coburn. The talk will be in the Education Room at 
Fruitlands. There is no charge for this event to members of 
Fruitlands, AGS or ticketholders to the Museums. Please call 
to reserve a place; space will be held through August 5. 
Others are invited to attend at $4. for adults, $1 . for ages 7- 

Saturday, August 8, 3 PM. A stroll in the Harvard Center 
Burying Ground. The expert duo of Laurel Gabel and Maggie 
Stier will touch on many aspects of what you can learn about 
history from what you see in old graveyards. Gravestones are 
art in the landscape and they also tell about local history, local 

people, carvers and the lives of families in the past. There is 
no charge for this walk. Please call to reserve a space. Meet 
between the General Store and the Congregational Church. 

Sunday, August 9, noon to 4 PM, on the grounds of Fruitlands. 
Frankie Bunyard, professional stone and wood carver from 
Boston, will bring her slate and chisel to show what a precise 
craft stone carving is. Ask her all the questions you have and 
try your hand at carving with the materials she brings. There 
is no charge for this demonstration. 

There will be a short guide to local cemeteries available in the 
Museum Shop. 

^ $S ^ iS iS ^ iS! iS ^ iS $S! 


Tours sponsored by the Connecticut Historical Society. Res- 
ervations and check made payable to the Connecticut Historical 
Society, 1 Elizabeth Street, Hartford CT 06105. For more 
information call Maxine Kates or Diana McCain at (203) 236- 
5621 . Complete details on tours will be sent out upon receipt 
of reservations and payment. 

Old Trumbull Cemetery and Lebanon Green, Lebanon, Sat- 
urday August 15, 10 AM 

author of the definitive workon eastern Connecticut gravestone 
carvers, will conduct a tour of Lebanon's Old Trumbull 
Cemetery, pointing out the graves of such giants of the 
American Revolution as Governor Jonathan Trumbull, Sr., 
and William Williams, signer of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, as well as outstanding examples of the eighteenth- 
century gravestone carvers' art. A short drive will bring us to 
the Lebanon Green, where a representative of the Lebanon 
Historical Society will lead a walking tour highlighting the 
many structures of historic importance that surround it. We 
will conclude the morning with light refreshments. 
Price: $1 1 . for CHS members; $1 4 for non-members (trans- 
portation to Lebanon on your own). Reservations and pay- 
ment required by Friday, August 14. 

Grove Street Cemetery and Nw Haven Green, Saturday, 
October 31, 10 AM 

"A GARDEN FOR THE DEAD" - We'll pass through the 
renowned massive Egyptian gateway for a Hallowe'en tour of 
Grove Street Cemetery, established in 1796 as the first 
formally planned and landscaped burying ground in America. 
Price: $1 0. for CHS members; $1 3. for non-members. Res- 
ervations and payment required by Friday, October 23. 

AGS Sp'92 p. 23 


The work of this unknown carver 
first appears in or around Chester- 
field, New Hampshire, in the early 
1780s. His style often includes 
amiable faces either peering from 
an arched indentation or supported 
by feathered wings, in combination 
with architectural columns, geo- 
metric devices, star-like fillers and 
simple rope detail. Border styles 
are quite varied and seldom re- 
peated. Long a subject of local 
investigation, the "Chesterfield 
Carver" has managed to leave be- 
hind few clues as to his real iden- 
tity. In spite of determined efforts, 
investigators have been unable to 
uncover any incriminating signa- 
tures, account books, probate 
records or fingerprints. Authorities 
suspect that the Chesterfield Man 
continued his business after 1800, 
but managed to confuse his pursu- Mary Humphrey, 1792, Athol MA. Photocopy of photo by Dan & Jessie Lie Farber. 
ers by adopting the ubiquitous urn 

and willow motif. Few examples of his earlier face or Moors. If you can provide any clues or further 
styles exist after about 1805. Suspects include Joseph information, please contact AGS Research or the 
Brown, Asa or Philip Kingsbury, or perhaps Abel Moors Newsletter office. Reward! 

Thomas Read, 1788, Rutland MA. Photocopy of photo by Dan & Jessie Lie Farber. 

AGSSp'92 p. 24 

""S^j ^1. '-r - 

Rachel Davis, 1795, slate. Photocopy of photo 
Dan & Jessie Lie Farber. 


^ ^1 J^"^ *^-tv,^^^ 

John Peacock, 1791, Chesterfield NH. Photo- 
copy of photo by Dan & Jessie Lie Farber. 

BuclKley Olcott Tyler. 1791, slate. Photo- 
copy of photo by Dan & Jessie Lie Farber. 

J.N \'. 



AGS Sp'92 p. 25 

Notes from the Office 


Cornelia Jenness, President 

Jim Slater, Vice-President 

C.R. Jones, Secretary 

W. Fred Oakley, Jr., Treasurer 

Executive Director: 
Office flours: 

Miranda Levin 

Tom l-iarratiy 

Afternoons, Monday - Friday 

Since spring has been busting out everywhere else, 
there is no reason why it shouldn't be busting out at the 
AGS office also. Overthe past several weeks, Tom and 
I have been shoveling out from a wonderful mountain of 
new memberships (more about that later), the delivery 
of MARKERS IX, our upcoming conference, and the 
burst of correspondence and publications orders that 
seem to come with the warm weather. It's been great 
to be so busy with a growing organization, but I must 
apologize to those of you that we were late in answering 
(you should have been answered by now!). We're sorry 
for the delay! Anyway, here's what's been going on: 

Membership Drive Update 

Our membership drive has been going really well! As 
of May, we have 90 new members, and 967 members 
overall. We are well on our way towards our 300 new 
members/1 000 members goal, but we're going to have 
to continue to work really hard to make it by January 1 . 
Many people have participated in ourdrive by requesting 
brochures, and several have already won magnets 
(one enterprising member already has four new 
members to his credit!). It's been fun, and we hope 
you'll take the time to help us reach our goals. Infor- 
mation on the membership drive will come in your 
renewal packet, or you can send a S.A.S.E. to the office 
and we'll be delighted to send it out. 

New iVlembership Categories 

Speaking of renewal packets, you will notice some 
changes in your next renewal form. Last month, the 
Board voted to adopt several changes i n our membership 
structure. Don't panic - I said "changes in our mem- 
bership structure," not "increase our dues!" Some 
changes have been made to make things easier for you 
- read on ... . 

First of all, there have been no changes made to the 
Individual Membership ($20), Institutional Membership 
($25), and Family Membership ($30) that we currently 
offer (now that was an anticlimax!). 

However, the Board voted to drop the Contributing 
Membership ($30), which was offered for those who 
wanted to contribute a little extra on top of their mem- 
bership, and replace it with a Supporting Membership 
for $50. In addition to all of the benefits our members 
currently enjoy, Supporting Members will automatically 
get a copy of the new edition of MARKERS, hot off the 
press. They will also have made an approximately $1 
contribution to the organization, on top of their member- 
ship and MARKERS order. 

As far as logistics go, all Supporting memberships 
received in 1992 will automatically get a copy of 
MARKERS X, which is due out next winter. All Sup- 
porting Memberships renewed or received in 1993 will 
get a copy of MARKERS XI, and so on. There are no 
substitutions allowed, andfamilies that join as Supporting 
Members will get one copy of MARKERS. 

The other membership category that the Board voted 
on was the institution of a Life Membership for $1 ,000. 
Basically, a Life Membership entitles that generous 
soul to a Supporting Membership (including the free 
MARKERS) for as long as that member lives, as well as 
the feeling that they really helped AGS. Also, it should 
be noted that any Life Memberships we receive will go 
into our small but growing endowment, so your Life 
Membership will really be a gift in perpetuity. 

I hope all this is clear. I also want to say that this was 
designed to make life easier for you. If you want to 
continue ordering MARKERS through our pre-pub of- 
fer, or after it comes out, you will still be able to do so. 
If you want to contribute an additional amount over your 
basic membership rate, but don'twantto be a Supporting 
Member, please feel free. Aswith any contribution, and 
as we did with Contributing Memberships, your gift will 
be appreciated and acknowledged. 

Your questions and comments are welcome - just 
contact us at the office! 

AGS Sp'92 p. 26 

Additional Contributions 

Thanks to Bill Wallace for a gift and a good Idea. 

And, while we're on the subject of additional contribu- 
tions, you might have noticed a short blurb from Jessie 
Farber on a donation we received in honor of Dan 
Farber's birthday. No, this isn't going to be a plea for 
money - one of the nicest things about AGS is, thanks 
to the prudence and foresight of past and present 
Boards and officers, we don't have to do that kind of 
thing. However, we are happy to accept whatever you 
want to give, and I thought I'd just take a minute to 
explain some of the ways you can give while I was 
spending so much time on financial matters anyway. 

If you make an additional contribution to AGS over and 
above your membership, you can either make a gen- 
eral contribution, where the money goes wherever our 
Treasurer sees fit, or you can make a directed contri- 
bution. A directed contribution is given for a specific 
purpose, or towards a particular activity that AGS is 
involved in. Some examples of directed contributions 
would be acontribution towards MARKERS, upgrading 
the office equipment or personnel, a scholarship fund 
forthe conference, an upcoming exhibit or program, for 
purchasing materials forthe archive or library; as you 
can see, you can direct a contribution in any number of 
ways. Any contributions above your membership and 
publications orders are tax-deductible (as allowed by 
law, of course!), and will be acknowledged as such. All 
will be appreciated, and put to good use! 

Laws Update 

A couple of issues ago, I asked for help in coordinating 
information on laws and cases about historic 
gravemarkers. Thanks to Liz Kopec, AGS is now in 
possession of a complete set of laws and listings of 
cases. Laurel Gabel, our Research Coordinator, has a 
copy, and there's another in the Archives. You can 
either write to Laurel at 205 Fishers Rd, Pittsford, NY 
14534, or, if you would prefer to study them yourself, 
make an appointment at the Archives by calling the 
Worcester Historical Museum at (508) 753-8278, and 
asking for the library. Many thanks to Liz! 

Mr. Wallace, longtime AGS member and past member 
of the Board of Trustees, sent a contribution of $87 to 
AGS in honor of Dan Farber's 86th birthday (the extra 
dollar is, we presume, for Dan to grow on). This is the 
second year Mr. Wallace has so celebrated Dan's 

It's a gift much appreciated. It is also an innovative idea: 
make gifts to AGS in honor of individuals and occasions. 

Bill Wallace is the director of the Worcester Historical 
Museum, in whose building AGS has its office, and if we 
wanted to stretch the truth a bit, we could think of his 
contribution as a gift from the landlord— a nice switch. 
He is also the author of B.H. Kinney, 19th Century 
Gravestone Carver and Sculptor. 

Dan Farber is a past President of AGS, and was the first 
recipient of the AGS Forbes Award, given in recognition 
of outstanding contributions to the field of gravestone 
studies. He has made more than 15,000 gravestone 
photographs, photocopiesofwhich are inthe Research 


The materials in the AGS Archives are now available at 
the library of the Worcester Historical Museum, 30 Elm 
St., Worcester MA, Tuesday through Saturday, 1 AM 
- 4 PM, Sunday, 2-4 PM. Appointments are requested. 
Call the Archivist, Jo Goeselt (508-358-2155) or the 
W.H.M. Librarian (508-753-8278) for an appointment. 

A current catalogue of items in the archives is available 
from the AGS office for $3.50 for members ($4.00 non- 
members) . Photocopies of short articles can be provided 
by mail at 25c per page. The library has a photocopier 
for those who visit and wish to make their own copies. 
Contributions of books and related items are always 


Finally, AGS is co-sponsoring a weekend of programs 
at the Fruitlands Museums in Harvard, Massachusetts, 
in August. Several talks, walks, and exhibits will be on 
hand - hope you can make it! Complete details are 
provided elsewhere in this newsletter. 

Have a great summer! 

On August 29, 1992, we are planning a "History 
AwarenessDay",called"PioneerDay, at the Pioneer 
Cemetery, 4795 Blum Rd., Pacheco CA 94553. It is 
our hope to bring together a number of historical and 
genealogical societies to increase the public aware- 
ness about these organizations. For more informa- 
tion, contact Lanette Roskelley. 


AGS Sp'92 p. 27 

Durham CT Tour 

STORIES BEHIND THE STONES, a guided walking tour of the Old Durham Cemetery on Main Street 
(Route 17) in Durham, Connecticut, will be offered on Sunday, October 25, 1992, at 2 PM by the Middlesex 
County (Connecticut) Historical Society. The tour will be conducted by Early American Life magazine 
contributing editor, Diana Ross McCain, and by Middlesex County Historical Society Director, Dione 
Longley. The tour will explore the significant and intriquing artwork on many of the gravestones, and also 
share fascinating stories about several of the individuals buried there. 

Admission to the tour is $1 . for members of the Middlesex County Historical Society, $2. for non-members. 
More information may be obtained by calling the Middlesex County Historical Society at (203) 346-0746. 

The AGS Newsletter is published quarterly as a service to members of the Association for Gravestone Studies. The membership 
year begins the month dues are received and ends one year from that date. A one year membership entitles the members to four 
issues of the Newsletter and to participation in the AGS conference in the year membership is current. Send membership fees 
(individual $20; institutional, $25; family $30; contributing $30) to The Association for Gravestone Studies, 30 Elm Street, 
Worcester MA 01609. Back issues of the Newsletter are available for $5.00 per issue from the AGS office. The goal of the 
Newsletter is to present timely information about projects, literature, and research concerning gravestones, and about the 
activities of the Association for Gravestone Studies. It is produced by Deborah Trask, who welcomes suggestions and short 
contributions from readers. The Newsletter is not intended to serve as a journal. Journal articles should be sent to Richard Meyer, 
editor of Markers, the Journal of the Association for Gravestone Studies, Department of English, Western Oregon State 
University, Monmouth OR 97361. Address Newsletter contributions to Deborah Trask, editor. Nova Scotia Museum, 1747 
Summer St., Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H3A6, Canada, FAX 902-424-0560. OrderMarkers (Vol. 1 $20; Vol. 2, $20; Vol. 3, $18.50; 
Vol. 4, $20; Vol. 5, $20; Vol. 6, $23; Vol. 7, $15; higher prices for non-members) from the AGS office. Send contributions to the 
AGS Archives to Jo Goeselt, 61 Old Sudbury Road, Way land MA 01778 Address other correspondence to Miranda Levin, 
Executive Director, at the AGS office at 30 Elm Street, Worcester MA 01609. 

30 Elm Street 
Worcester MA 




Permit No. 410 

Worcester MA 






Union College, Schenectady NY 

The Way We Were 2 

opening address by Jessie Lie Farber 

A Look Ahead 6 

Presentations 9 

Worl<shops & Tours! 12 

Annual Meeting 16 

Forbes Award 21 

Two PA Members Expand Awareness of AGS! 23 

Call for Papers, 1993 28 


The Real George Allen Jr. 

by Vincent F. Luti 22 

Rediscovering Green-Wood Cemetery 25 



This issue of the Newsletter is devoted to the 1992 
(fifteenth annual) conference at Union College, 
Schenectady NY. This area is the historic meeting 
place of the Native American and the European, of 
Dutch settlers and English, of Yorkers and Yankees, 
and of dozens of immigrant cultures and religions. 
Anyone interested in acquiring bus tour handouts from 
any of the tours should contact the AGS office. The 
conference was co-sponsored by the Schenectady 
County Historical Society and the Saratoga Springs 
Preservation Foundation. 

A celebratory photo of some conferees who participated in the 
Restoration Workshop, with the results of their work in the 
foreground! See story, page 12. 

AGS Su '92 p. 1 

Following is the text of the informal address delivered 
by Jessie Lie Farberat the opening session of the 1992 
AGS conference on June 25, in Schenectady, New 
Yorl<; also a handout Mrs. Farber made available after 
her presentation. fJlembers are invited to send com- 
ments and ideas concerning the issues introduced in 
these papers to the AGS Office, 30 Elm Street, 
Worcester, Massachusetts 01609. 


This year we are holding our fifteenth AGS conference, 
and because I have attended all of these pleasant and 
informative gatherings, I have been asked to reminisce 
a little about our beginnings — to talk about how AGS 
got started and mention some of our historical highlights. 

I shall begin by giving you a picture of gravestone 
scholarship and fellowship prior to AGS, at least as I 
experienced and remember those days. 

In 1974 I went to a show — "The Flowering of American 
Folk Art" — at the Whitney Museum of American Art. 
There I saw a group of gorgeous rubbings taken from 
eighteenth-century New England gravemarkers. I'd 
had a little experience rubbing monumental brasses in 
England, so I noted the locations of three of the New 
England stones and drove to Charlestown, NH, 
Rockingham, VT, and Bellingham, MA, to see these 
stones and make rubbings. What a revelation, finding 
all those handsome hand-carved artifacts, each standing 
in its original location, dated, and surrounded by other 
work by the same artist. No other art objects offer so 
remarkable a combination of primary source data — and 
there they stood, unprotected and, from the looks of 
their environment, not much appreciated. I was over- 
whelmed. Soon all my free time was devoted to 
searching foryards and stones and struggling to develop 
a satisfying rubbing technique. 

It was a solitary effort. I had many questions, but where 
were the answers? Friends, aware of my new and 
consuming (and odd, they thought) fascination, began 
to give or tell me about books and articles they came 
across. A librarian helped. I remember with pleasure 
the circumstances under which I was first introduced to 
each of the relatively few publications then available. 

Finding knowledgeable people was harder. I learned 
that two men from New York had been making photo- 
graphs in the Quincy, MA, yard which adjoins the town's 

historical society, so I inquired at the society and found 
out who they were and telephoned them. Frances 
Duval and Ivan Rigby. 1 came upon a woman docu- 
menting stones in the old Grafton, MA, yard who in turn 
told me there was a large collection of gravestone 
photographs at the American Antiquarian Society in 
Worcester, MA, so I went to Worcester to see the 
collection, and I also looked up the photographer. 
Daniel Farber. I heardthere was a history teacher at the 
Dublin School in New Hampshire 
who was doing gravestone-carver research toward a 
graduate degree in American Studies at Boston Uni- 
versity. I drove up to see him. Peter Benes. Mearned 
that James Deetz, the archaeologist (who, with Edwin 
Dethlefsen, had written an article about gravestone 
motifs for Nature), was at Plimoth Plantation, so 1 ar- 
ranged to see him there. (I remember seeing on the 
floor of his office an old cardboard box filled with 
hundreds of rolls of 35mm negatives of New England 
markers that he said he didn't know what to do with!) 
On a rubbing expedition to Newport, Rl, I came across 
a man teaching a group of college students how to 
repairslate stones. Edwin Connelly. He told me he had 
documented all of Rhode Island's cemeteries. In a 
Northampton, MA, print shop a clerk mentioned having 
friends in North Brookfield, MA, who made rubbings 
and photographs and wrote about gravestone art. Ann 
and Avon Neal. I wrote them. Iwentto Gloucester, MA, 
to see Al Ducas, a sculptor who initiated a school- 
community project to restore an old yard. He had a 
grant and had brought together several scholars, Nor- 
man Weiss, the architectural conservator among them, 
and had published a collection of articles on graveyard 
restoration and conservation. 

With newly trained eyes I took a second look at the 
stones in the old yard in South Hadley, MA, where 1 
lived, and I discovered beauty where I had previously 
seen only uninteresting old sandstone slabs. 1 began to 
document this little yard, getting help with carver 
identification from Peter Benes and a graduate student 
Peter said was at the University of Massachusetts in 
nearby Amherst. I invited this young man over to see 
"my yard," and here came Bob Drinkwater, with a 
handsome collage of rubbings and an impressive pa- 
per, "Notes on Methods of Collection, Classification, 
Recording, and Analysis of Data for Stylistic and De- 
mographic Studies of Eariy New England Gravestones." 
I found the mold-maker William McGeer dressed up like 
an American colonist, selling his castings and his book, 
Reproducing Relief Surfaces, at a craft show. 

Those were heady days. All these people seemed to 
be working pretty much in isolation, and most of them 

AGS Su '92 p. 2 

welcomed communication and the opportunity to help 
anyone who appreciated their unusual obsession. I 
began to think about arranging a conference at Mount 
Holyoke College, where I was teaching. 

Then I learned from Peter that he was already in the 
process of planning a conference, working with Nancy 
Buckeye, author of an article about the cutter we later 
came to know as "our logo carver." Nancy, who later 
became our first Newsletter editor, was hard at work 
developing the conference program. 

Peter's conference, called The Dublin Seminar, was 
held in the summer of 1976, the country's bicentennial 
year, and it was excellent in every way. It was not the 
small gathering of about forty that Peter anticipated 
hosting at the Dublin School. It was more than twice 
that size, a full-blown affair with excellent speakers and 
exhibits, not to mention good food, and, prophetically, 
the less-than-luxurious dorm accommodations we have 
come to know so well. Afterward, Peter edited the 
Seminar proceedings, which was published by Boston 
University as Puritan Gravestone Art. This publica- 
tion became a model of a sort for what would later be our 
journal. Markers. 

The conference went so well that Peter invited five of 
the participants, Nancy Buckeye, Ralph Tucker, Gaynell 
Stone Levine, Robert Mackreath and myself, to meet 
with him in Boston to consider forming an association. 
We called ourselves The Boston Six and, with the help 
of Ralph's clerical connections, held our meetings in the 
elegant Episcopal Diocesan House near Boston 
Common. There we settled on a name forthe proposed 
association, a statement of purpose, and we made 
plans for an open organizational meeting to be held at 
the Dublin School the following summer. 

To this 1 977 organizational meeting anyone interested 
in furthering gravestone study was welcome. About 
forty people attended. We met in groups with assigned 
leaders and developed a constitution, selected a logo, 
elected officers, and (this was Gay's idea) even made 
an award to Dan Farber for his photographic work in this 
field. In his acceptance speech he told us about his 
recent discovery — the use of a mirror to light shaded 
stones. At the organizational meeting we also made 
arrangements, using Gay's connection with the State 
University of New York at Stoneybrook, for incorpora- 
tion as a non-profit organization in New York State. And 
it was decided that Peter and Jim Slater would seek 
housing forourfuture archives, which was accomplished 
that summer, I think, in an agreement with the New 
England Historic Genealogical Society in Boston. Fi- 

nally, we made a decision to hold a conference the 
following summer. 

All during this period, Peter's vision was expanding, 
and he began developing a second organization, to be 
called The Dublin Seminar for New England Folklife. 
DSNEF was to hold seminars on many aspects of early 
American culture, including but not limited to grave- 
stones. DSNEF held a seminar on colonial archaeol- 
ogy in 1977, the same summer we had our AGS 
organizational meeting. For the Seminar's 1978 
meeting, Peter decided to focus again on gravestones, 
and he suggested that AGS hold its conference in 
conjunction with his Seminar. The AGS board of 
directors agreed to this, and it was done: AGS held its 
first conference with DSNEF at the Dublin School in 
1978, Ralph Tucker presiding. 

At this conference AGS made itsfirstHarrietteMerrifield 
Forbes award, and behind that event lies a little-known 
story. The AGS board predicted, correctly, that overthe 
years the organization would want to continue making 
awards for outstanding contributions to the field. It was 
clear that we would want to list among those honored 
two outstanding contributors: Harriette Forbes, who 
wrote the seminal workon colonial gravestone art in the 
1920s, and Ernest Caulfield, whose research in the 
1950s set high standards for subsequent carver re- 
search. Our problem was that we didn't much like for 
our next two awards to be posthumous. We considered 
honoring Forbes and Caulfield together, but in the 
end — I think the idea was mine — we decided to name 
the award itself for Mrs. Forbes and to name Dr. 
Caulfield our 1978 recipient. We also decided that the 
award would not necessarily be annual and that the 
nature of a nominee's contributions to gravestone study 
would not be limited to any area of study, or geographic 
location ortime period. Finally, we agreed that, unless 
posthumous, the award would be made only to recipi- 
ents who could attend the award ceremony, and that 
the name of the recipient would be announced in 
advance. No secrets, no surprises. And those are our 
guidelines today. 

I would like to digress here to mention a small incident 
at that first conference that I remember with amusement. 
Theway I recallit, Ann Tashjian, author of Memorials 
to Ctiildren ofCiiange, delivered a rather lengthy and 
very philosophical paper full of obtuse hypotheses. 
She then offered to take questions. President Tucker 
rose and asked Mrs. Tashjian if she would kindly 
summarize her remarks in a single sentence. There 
was a moment of stunned silence. Then Dan Farber, 
whose listening tolerance leans toward hard facts and 

AGSSu '92 p. 3 

away from the hypothetical, jumped to his feet and 
applauded Ralph. Mrs. Tashjian, smiling and never 
missing a beat, simply proceeded to give us a neat 
summary in one single, well-phrased sentence, to a 
burst of applause for her cool. From the start, you see, 
there was no lack of audacity among us, or boldness, or 
flexibility and good will. We felt like a family, or at least 
a club. 

It was a fine beginning conference, complete with a 
late-night show initiated by Francis Duval. There was 
only one drawback: no one could distinguish AGS 
members from the Seminar people, and it was impos- 
sible to separate the two groups' conference finances. 
Peter edited the proceedings, Puritan Gravestone Art 
II, as a DSNEF publication. In the fourteen years of 
AGS conferences that have followed, here are some 
milestones as I remember them. 

finding Debby's successor. 

The 1979 conference presentation I remember most 
vividly was Jim Slater's seriously delivered spoof about 
color on gravemarkers, the thrust of which 1 must leave 
you to ferret out for yourselves. 

Our second president, Joanne Baker, initiated our 
practice of holding our conferences co-sponsored by 
another organization with similar interests. In 1 980 we 
met in Haverhill, MA, with the Bay State Historical 
League. Although this first try was not a perfect 
alliance, we recognized the advantages of co-spon- 
sorship. Since then, our conferences have been suc- 
cessfully co-sponsored by a number of compatible 
organizations, including the American Antiquarian 
Society in Worcester and New York's Museum of 
American Folk Art when we met in New Brunswick, NJ. 

Location. As we considered our second — 1979 — 
conference, we realized we needed to stand on our own 
as an organization, and that meeting in Dublin as one 
of Peter's two brain children was going to complicate 
our development. (Moreover, there weren't any very 
interesting stones around Dublin.) So we began to 
think about a possible new conference site. Moving 
from Peter's nurturing leadership and from our Dublin 
home of three years was a big step, and there was a 
good chance we would not be able to make it. By then 
Dan and I were a team, having married (the Reverend 
Ralph Tucker officiating) in 1978. With Joanne Baker, 
Dan and I volunteered to find a new site and organize 
a conference. We settled on Newport, where the 
stones, the John Stevens Shop, and the attractiveness 
of the town would, we hoped, lure participants. Edwin 
Connelly arranged with Salve Regina College for 
housing and meeting facilities. Rhode Island's Senator 
Claiborne Pell opened the conference with a welcome 
address, and Esther Fisher Benson, owner of the John 
Stevens Shop, after scolding us for paying too little 
attention to lettering, opened the Shop to us. Her son, 
the carver John Benson, was our guide.' We had our 
f irst conference bus tourthere. The Forbes Award went 
to Peter Benes, our founder, whose book. The Masks 
of Orthodoxy, had come out in 1977. The award 
ceremony was bitter-sweet for some of us, for we felt 
like kids who had left the nest. During the conference, 
Ann Guisecke and I agreed to work together to get out 
a regular, quarterly newsletter, a job that became mine 
alone when Ann moved from New England. The AGS 
Newsletter became a labor of love, but too much labor, 
and it took four years to find a successor — Deborah 
Trask, who took over in late 1983. Now, over eight 
years and thirty-four issues later, we are faced with 

Nineteen-eighty was also the year the first issue of 
Markerscame out. Hot off the press of the publisher in 
Worcester, an unopened box of Markers I was brought 
by Dan and me to Haverhill, where the books were 
opened and inspected and, since AGS had no sales 
table back then, sold for us by Roberta Halporn. I was 
Markers editor for that one issue, followed by David 
Watters, who edited Markers II, III, and/Viand Theodore 
Chase, who edited Markers l^through Markers IX. As 
we speak, our new editor, Richard Meyer, is preparing 
Markers X. 

Nineteen-eighty was unique in our history in a way that 
few of us may be aware of. The Forbes award was 
refused by the two-person team the board of directors 
chose to honor. It was a philosophical thing; they said 
they didn't approve of awards. Fearing that naming a 
substitute or second-place recipient might detract from 
the honor, the board declined to make an award that 

Conferences followed one another regularly and rela- 
tively smoothly. It was in 1983 that President Sally 
Thomas named a conference chairperson to assume 
the major responsibility for organizing the conference, 
and it was even later that we had a separate conference 
program chair and a conference registrar. Prior to that, 
the president and one or two volunteers did the whole 
thing. I forget how long it took us to be able to announce 
at a conference the site for the following year — rather 
recently, under Fred Oakley's stewardship, 1 think. 
Today's conferences seem to be organized and run by 
casts of thousands. 

A big milestone year was 1985, the year we dared to 

AGS Su '92 p. 4 

meet outside New England, at Rutgers University in 
New Brunswicl<. We thought the sky might tall in, but 
everything worked so well that in 1 988 we ventured all 
the way to Lancaster, PA. This year, as we convene for 
ourthird meeting outside New England, we have, I think 
for the first time, more non-New England conferees 
than New Engianders. More than twice as many. For 
an organization that aims to be not only national but 
international in scope, our progress in this area has not 
been speedy. But progress is progress. 

Until 1984 not only conference responsibilities but all 
AGS business was conducted by officers and board 
members designated as vice-presidents with specific 
responsibilities, such as correspondence, or research, 
or education, or conservation, or archives, or publica- 
tions, or membership, etc., etc. Anything that got done 
was accomplished by these unpaid volunteers operating 
pretty much in independent isolation — and usually out- 
of-pocket as well. (In those days it seemed a bit crass 
to askforreimbursementfortravel, postage, oranything 
else.) Our handling of mail was a nightmare. Try to 
imagine board members forwarding and reforwarding 
mailtheycouldn'tdealwith— inquiries, requests, orders, 
membership applications, complaints, even bills and 
checks — to whomever they hoped could deal with it. 
And whenthat person was away on vacationorotherwise 
unable to function, well, ourcorrespondence or sales or 
memberships or bill-paying orwhateverjust had to wait. 
That the organization functioned as effectively as it did 
amazes me. Only rarely did anything break down 
completely, though I do remember one instance. While 
Ted Chase was president, he received in the mail a box 
of unpaid pills and uncashed checks with a note of 
resignation from the treasurer, who explained that she 
had been too busy to deal with bill-paying and book- 
keeping for three months! One of Ted's many ac- 
complishments was the enlargement of the board and 
the reorganization of the trustees' and officers' re- 
sponsibilities. For several years AGS used a box made 
available to us by the American Antiquarian Society 
because we had to have an association address. 

During Ted's presidency we began a rapid expansion 
of our activities and services. In the years after 1 984 we 
have offered, through Laurel Gabel, the services of a 
research department and a lending library. We have 
developed a wide variety of information sheets, guides, 
and other publications, not to mention T-shirts, decals 
and the like for sale. We rent video tapes and lend 
books. We have compiled procedures for lobbying for 
protective legislation. We have enlarged the scope of 
our projects to include programs and wor1<shops for 
genealogists, for teachers, and — thanks to Fred 

Oakley — for those who are restoring yards and stones. 

None of this could have happened, of course, had we 
not made a major change in our administration in 1 984. 
By then, as our membership and our activity increased, 
it had become clear that we could not continue to 
function as a group of loosely coordinated volunteers. 
We knew we had to have a paid administrator. But 
being a conservative group used to operating in the 
black, we were not brave enough to even consider 
deficit spending. A more or less anonymous gift of 
$20,000 made it possible for us to cover wages for part- 
time help for three years, with the expectation that it 
would take that long for the position to become self 
sustaining. We began a search for a director, and in this 
we were blessed with good fortune. Laurel Gabel gave 
us the name of a friend, a genealogist, who Laurel said 
was exactly what we needed. How right she was. 
Laurel's friend was Rosalee Oakley. Rosie took the job 
in 1984 and resigned in 1991, having made during her 
tenure contributions too numerous to list. Suffice it to 
say that she increased our efficiency and our mem- 
bership and added to our income more than enough to 
pay her salary, and this was accomplished so speedily 
that we still have the $20,000 seed money. By the time 
she resigned we had her house as our office and her 
husband as our president. 

When Rosie left (taking Fred with her) we were forced 
to make another major move — and this move was 
literal. We had to find office space with an ugly word 
built in: REN T. President Oakley led the long and 
careful search, which ended in our securing space in 
the handsome building of the Worcester Historical 
Museum, whose director and our landlord is Bill Wallace, 
a former member of the AGS board of trustees. It is an 
excellent arrangement. For the first time, our off ice and 
storage and archives and meeting room are housed 
under one roof. And we have our new director, Miranda 
Levin, and her assistant, Tom Harrahy, keeping the 
office open from 1 1 :30 to 4:30 five days a week. Not 
quite like Rosie's twenty-four hour shifts, but more 
realistic. (I must explain here that Rosalie and Fred 
Oakley retired from only their positions as AGS executive 
director and president, respectively, not from AGS 
activity. Although they have moved from their home in 
Needham, MA, to Hadley, MA, both continue with us as 
active, contributing members.) 

While reminiscing on the days of yore as I prepared this 
talk, I couldn't keep my mind from moving from the past 
to the future, and in the end I couldn't resist writing a 
Part II of this address for you to read, and give some 
thought to, if you will. I hope it will stimulate discussion. 

AGS Su '92 p. 5 

"A Look Ahead" focuses on our current needs and 
problems, but I think it is upbeat. My own overall view 
of the future of AGS is that all systems are go. With fifteen 
successful years and many milestones behind us, the 
challenges and decisions that lie ahead, though im- 
portant and challenging, seem less daunting to me than 
our moving from Dublin, or convening in Pennsylvania, 
or hiring our first director. 

Thank you for your time. We welcome your views. 


As AGS begins its fifteenth conference, it is appropriate 
to ask ourselves: Where do we go from here? If we as 
an organizationwantto increase interest in gravestones 
as cultural artifacts and foster their preservation, what 
steps should we now take? 

To become more effective, ourobjective must be greater 
strength. That is, we must become a stronger organi- 
zation whose voice is better heard. Our strength lies in 
our members, so it is to our membership that attention 
must first be paid. 

First, we need to offer our members more for their 
membership fee. We now offer: 

1 . Services. Any member who asks for assistance 
or advice regarding carver research or cemetery leg- 
islation or gravestone conservation, etc., is given help. 

2. Through membership, AGS provides access to 
our lending library and video tapes and, at a discount 
price, our publications. 

3. And members are given personal contact with 
each other through our conferences. 

These are valuable benefits of AGS membership. 
However, many of our members are in geographic 
locationsthatlimittheirinterestin New England stones, 
and also limittheirability to attend ourconferences. For 
too many of these people, AGS membership amounts 
to one thing only — a subscription to the AGS Newsletter. 

We need to offer more than a subscription to a news- 
letter to keep members on our rolls. Our turnover 

Dan and Jessie Lie Farber, from an article about them in 
the July 1, 1992 issue of Worcester Magazine. 

among members not on the eastern seaboard is high. 

What more can we do for our members? 

1, We can publish the AGS Newsletter in house. 
Deborah Trask's production of the Newsletter for the 
past eight years has been a gift in the true sense of the 
word. Now, with her resignation date approaching, we 
should rethink our situation and find a way to make the 
best of this big transition. This publication, our primary 
service to many, should become the AGS house organ, 
produced by paid help in house, where it can be more 
easily coordinated with organizational activities. 

2. We can increase contact between our members 
and our Board of Trustees. From our beginning, we 
have leaned heavily for leadership on members who 
are in the east and can afford to travel out-of-pocket to 
attend board meetings, which is to say board members 
whose interest is focused primarily on eighteenth- 
century stones, their ornamental carving and carvers. 
We should begin to seek more trustees (we do have 
some) who represent othergeographic areas and whose 
interests are more broadly based: historians, 
cemeterians, monument makers, members whose fo- 
cus is on teaching, or genealogy, or geology, or legal 
matters, or on lettering or epitaphs, to suggest a few 

AGS Su '92 p. 6 

variations on our current theme. To accomplish this we 
need, among other things, to reimburse at least the 
travel expenses of board members so that they can 
attend meetings, represent their areas, and be active 
leaders to a broader membership base. 

3. We can offer programs that reach more of our 
members. Specifically, we can help those members 
whose geographic locations form clusters to contact 
one another and organize meetings that satisfy their 
interests and needs: lectures, video shows, tours, rub- 
bing and photo sessions, restoration and documenting 
expeditions. Pat fvliller's popular Connecticut tours 
demonstrated that activity for regional groups can be 
initiated, but Pat was ahead of her time. AGS was not 
then able to support her efforts, much less instigate and 
organize additional geographicgroups. Now we should 
begin to develop ways to encourage and assist group 
activity in many locations. 

4. We can produce more, and more broadly-based 
publications. We should have information sheets and 
cemetery guides for areas other than New England. 
Our journal, Markers, should increase its scope. (More 
than half the articles in the nine published volumes are 
about early New England stones; no cover picture 
features a stone outside New England.) First, though, 
we need to improve our procedures for distributing our 
publications. The one good seller we have produced, 
A Graveyard Preservation Primer, authored for us by 
Lynette Strangstad, was published and is sold by the 
American Association for State and Local History be- 
cause we hadn't the resources and know-how to do it 
ourselves. Marketing has been an ongoing problem, 
especially with our journal. Mariners. This publication 
is costly to produce and it takes us years to sell an 
edition. Can we get Markers into more libraries and 
historical societies by subscription so that instead of 
having a storage problem we can produce larger edi- 
tions? Larger editions lower the price per issue, which 
of course fosters sales. Should we be including 
Markers with membership, or would the necessary 
increase in membership fees be counter-productive, 
not to mention wasteful — for we do not know that every 
member wants to own the publication ? How should we 
go about producing and promoting and selling more 

5. We can move our conference sites farther from 
our New England base so that attendance is possible, 
at least occasionally, to more members who live farther 
from the east coast. New Orleans? Chicago? Canada? 
How about thinking ahead to Hawaii? To support 
successful conferences farfrom our New England base 

of support, our overall membership would have to 
increase dramatically, and our conference planners 
would have to seek speakers and develop programs 
that reflect more varied interests. 

Perhaps you are thinking that you prefer the close-knit, 
club-like atmosphere that our conferences now foster. 
But fellowship with others who share your interest need 
not be a casualty of growth and strength. On the 
contrary, one of our present problems, often the subject 
of conference complaints, is that our current conference 
programs do not — cannot — satisfy everyone's main 
interest. A conferee with an interest in epitaphs, 
twentieth-century stones, or protective legislation, for 
example, must sit through conference lectures and 
workshops and slide shows and tours that rarely touch 
on his/her subject. But if we were large enough, we 
could form permanent divisio ns by century or subject so 
that a memberwhose interest is, say, stone preservation 
or the study of nineteenth-century stones for children or 
tree stones, for example, could meet with others of 
similaror related expertise without restricting the eclectic 
member's freedom to roam and sample from a variety 
of special interest sessions Except for perhaps two 
large, general conference sessions, a member who 
wanted to could really concentrate on his/her special 
interest and experience and enjoy not less but more 
group homogeneity and intimacy than is now possible. 
We could even have several simultaneous late-night 
shows! (And those of us who don't even see big, white 
obelisks or polished granite can settle down to our little 
folk art carvings without distraction.) 

Our general sessions, on the other hand, should be 
sufficiently heterogeneous to offer something for every- 
body. Our awards ceremony, for example, should 
honor not just the people we have learned to know 
well — like-minded members of the club, so to speak — 
but people from far and wide who have made contribu- 
tions we have not yet heard or thought of: someone in 
Oregon, say, who puttogetherteams and documented 
and published information about all the stones in that 
state; a leading designer of twentieth-century stones; 
a photo-documenter of Mexican markers; a cemeterian 
who devised and promoted better ways to care for 
cemeteries; a teacher who developed programs for 
using gravestones as a primary data source for teach- 
ing art or history or whatever; a museum curator or 
historical society director who produced an outstanding 
exhibit presenting to the public an interesting and 
informative view of gravestones in our culture. I could 
go on and on, but you could, too. 

In summary, to strengthen our organization we needto 

AGSSu '92 p. 7 

offer our members more and broader-based materials 
and programs. This will keep our old members partici- 
pating and add new ones to our roster so that the study 
and preservation of gravestones will reach more peo- 
ple and foster more coordinated research and study 
and inspire more good work and good writing. 

Such changes can be troubling, like growing pains. I 
still mourn our logo change from the little Wiliiamstown 
carving (Francis Duval's contribution), but our new 
logo speaks to a wider variety of gravestone interests 
and says more clearly, as a logo should, who we are 
and what we are about. 

Basic to all of these developments is our need for a full- 
time administrator and other paid, professional assist- 
ance. A part-time administration cannot possibly 
initiate and guide the additional services I have men- 
tioned — better promotion and publicity, more effective 
marketing of more and better publications, new pro- 
grams, and a Newsletter produced in house. If one 
adds justthe responsibility of dealing with a much larger 
membership, the day-to-day mail and phone and rou- 
tine business alone would keep a part-time office staff 

Where can we go to cover the cost of additional help? 
it is pertinent atthis point, to mention that the donorwho 
provided the seed money for employing our first paid 
help ($20,000) also underwrote the cost of producing 
Markers I {$9000), and some of the cost of operating 
the Research Department ($6000 over 6 years), and is 
contributingtowardourofficerent($5000over5years) — 
cash donations to AGS totaling $40,000. It would be 
unrealistic for us to make plans for the future without 
developing ways to raise funds from new sources. 
What sources? 

More members . Our membership continues to hover 
at just under 1000; we need a membership drive 
conducted by a professional in this field. . Bi gger con- 
ferences . We had 119 members at our 1979 confer- 
ence; conference attendance is not that much larger 
today. Grants . We have never received a grant; we 
need an experienced grant writer. Fund raisers . We 
have had one fund raiser (under Dan Farber's presi- 
dency), which raised just over $5000 as I recall; we 
need to look ahead to getting professional advice for 
reaching the interested public for support. Sales . We 
should make a good profit on our sales; we need 
professional help in promoting and publicizing our 

Are we ready for all this? Of course we are. Everything 

points positive. Every time a newspaper or magazine 
mentions AGS, the AGS office is flooded with inquiries 
and a spate of membership applications. When Dan 
and I lecture, there are always in the audience several 
people who are committed students of gravestones, 
but have not heard of AGS. (Some of you will be 
interested to know that Fred Fredette, one of our most 
productive members, came to AGS that way. He sat in 
the front row of a lecture hall where Dan and I were 
speaking, and afterward he went with a group to a 
nearby cemetery and tried rubbing and bought a copy 
of Markers I.) Whenever we visit a yard, chances are 
that someone there will tell us about a local person who 
is knowledgeable and intensely interested in the yard. 
I imagine you have had these experiences, too. 

Think of it. Cemeteries all overthe country — alloverthe 
world — thousands and thousands and thousands of 
them. And many, perhaps most, of them are blessed 
with an interested individual or a group that works alone 
and needs but has never heard of AGS. We can find 
these people. I do not say it will be easy, but I do think 
making ourselves known and offering our services to a 
larger constituency is today's challenge, our next 

Jessie Lie Farberis a founding member of ttie Associa- 
tion for Gravestone Studies. 

Bob Wells, on thie Early Stones Tour. Photo by Carol Perkins, 
Fairport NY. 

AGS Su '92 p. 8 



Union College, Schenectady NY 

June 25-28, 1992 

co-sponsored by the Schenectady County Historical Society 
and the Saratoga Springs Preservation Foundation 


Introductions - Cornelia Jenness, President 
Conference Chair's Welcome - Barbara Rotundo 
Program Chair - C.R. Jones 
Slide report on AGS - W. Fred Oakley, Treasurer 

"AGS: The Early Days" - Jessie Lie Farber 

The text of this presentation is included in this issue of 
the Newsletter, p. 2-5. 

Jessie Lie Farber, Professor Emeritus, I\/lount Holyoke 
College, is a founding member of the Association for 
Gravestone Studies. She has an extensive collection 
of her rubbings taken from the ornamental folk art 
carvings on early gravemarkers. Her interest in grave- 
stones introduced Jessie to her husband Dan, a well- 
known photographer, and resulted in their present 
partnership in gravestone study, writing and lecturing. 
Their work has taken them to many areas of the United 
States and to six foreign countries. Both have served 
as AGS trustees, and have been Forbes awardees. 

"In Memoriam: Marking the Loss of a Family 
Member" - Robert V. Wells 

Bob Wells earned his Ph.D. at Princeton in 1969. His 
research and publishing have centered on American 
demography, especially what population statistics re- 
veal about family life and social experiences in the 
eighteenth century. He has a national reputation among 
American historians and is listed in Who's Who in 
America. He has just finished work on a book that 
studies how a community, in this caseSchenectady NY 
deals with death, looking at the biology, sociology, 
psychology, business and art of death. He will be 
sharing some of the results of this cemetery research 
and interesting aspects of his field work. 

"Civil War, Sight and Sound" - Laurel Gabei 

Many evaluations from the 1991 conference requested 
that Laurel repeat this late night show for the whole 
conference audience. 

Laurel K. Gabel of Rochester, New York, maintains the 
AGS carver files and is a Board member. She is co- 
author with Theodore Chase of numerous articles and 
the book Gravestone Chronicles about 1 8th century 
gravestone carvers. She operates the AGS Lending 
Library, is a popular lecturer, and is a tour guide and 
trustee for the Friends of Mt. Hope Cemetery in 
Rochester. She was the recipient of the 1988 AGS 
Forbes Award. 

"The Stone in Gravestones" - William Kelly 

A variety of stone has been used by carvers. Some are 
easy to identify, but several are confusing to the non- 
geologist. This talk will deal with the identification of 
stone and where it came from,with emphasis on New 
York and western New England. 

Dr. William Kelly is a senior scientist with the New York 
State Geological Survey and Curator of Minerology for 
the State Museum. He was trained as a "hard rock" 
geologist but now works primarily as an economic 

"Revelation in the Probate Records of Washington 
County, New York" - Sally Brillon 

The desire to identify carvers and monument compa- 
nies producing Washington County gravestones grew 
out of a country-wide survey of graveyards and cem- 
eteries. An exhaustive search of the judicial settlements 
from 1830-1905 revealed numerous carvers and 
monument companies from New York, Vermont and 

AGS Su '92 p. 9 

Sally Brilion teaches art at Abraham Wing Common 
School in Glens Falls. She directed the historic re- 
sources survey for Washington County, teaches a 
course in county history at Adirondack Community 
College, and is a trustee and past president of the 
County Historical Society. She is an advocate for 
historic preservation and is restoring a 1786 saltbox 
house with her husband. A book on Washington 
County carvers is in the works. 

"The Disappearing Shalcer Cemetery" 
Brenda Malloy 

Tom & 

Over two hundred years ago a movement evolved for 
the establishment of nineteen Shaker communities in 
the United States. Most of these communities have 
now come and gone. What also seems to be disap- 
pearing are their cemeteries. This trend will be dem- 
onstrated through a slide presentation of Shaker cem- 
eteries in New York and New England. 

Tom Malloy is a professor of U.S. History at Mt. 
Wachusett Community College in Gardner, MA. 
Brenda Malloy teaches fifth grade at the Westminster 
Elementary School in Westminster, MA. 

"The Kimball Family Carvers" - Fred Fredette 

A significant migration of Windham, Connecticut fami- 
lies occurred to central New York in 1789-90. Among 
the group were Richard and Lebbeus Kimball, both of 
whom had carved gravestones for eastern Connecticut 
families. This presentation illustrates the wor1< of the 
Kimball family for a period of more than forty years. 

Alfred Fredette of Willimantic, Connecticut is a retired 
teacher of American History with a special interest in 
eastern Connecticut carvers. He is a former AGS 
trustee. He was featured in Yankee magazine for 
identifying the provenance of early Connecticut grave- 
stones stolen and offered for sale. 

"Cultural Assimilation Among Eastern Europeans 
in Western Canada: The View From the Graveyard" 
- James Darlington 

Cultural practices associated with the death and the 
disposal of the dead are some of the most conservative 
elements in a society. In this study comparison is made 
between the gravemarkers found in Ukranian Catholic, 
Ukranian Orthodox, Polish Roman Catholic, and Ro- 
manian Orthodox cemeteries located in the Strathclair 
/ Rossburn Eastern European block settlement districts 
of Western Manitoba with those of several nearby 

Anglo-Canadian cemeteries. Findings suggest that the 
language inscribed on the marker, along with monu- 
ment style and the material from which it was made 
each display a pattern of acculturation among the 
immigrant groups toward the Anglo norm. Of the vari- 
ables considered, language appears to be the most 
reliable and monument material the least reliable 
measure of assimilation. 

James W. Darlington is an associate professor of 
Geography at Brandon University, Brandon, Manitoba. 
As an historical cultural geographer, he is interested in 
stones and cemeteries as indicators of acculturalization. 

"Solomon Brewer: A Connecticut Valley Yankee in 
Westchester County" - Gray Wiliams 

Solomon Brewer brought the Connecticut Valley style 
from his native Springfield to Westchester County New 
York, and was the leading carver there from 1786 to 
1824. A transcript of his record book survives, making 
attribution easy. His work exemplifies the last of the 
18th century soul-effigy tradition. 

Gray Williams is a fre