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Special Editor of Publications 

*Resigned, July. IQIO. 














In the collections of the Illinois State Historical Library 

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As first planned, this work was to include by way of in- 
troduction a fairly comprehensive history of the periodicals 
and newspapers of the state. The bibliography grew be- 
yond the expected size, and the historical material proved 
even more abundant; consequently the introduction has 
been made only a sketch, and is to be regarded as but 
preliminary to a more thorough treatment of the subject. 
It is to be hoped, however, that even in this brief form 
it may indicate some of the many ways hi which the 
ephemeral stuff of newspapers and periodicals is an organic 
part of the literature and history of the commonwealth. 
That but a slight amount of this material is preserved at all, 
and that little of what is extant is accessible, are two deplor- 
able facts to be derived from the following pages. The 
library lists may prove convenience to those who have 
occasion to consult files c early newspapers. If they serve 
no other purpose, however, they may call attention to the 
slight amount of such material now in the safe keeping of 
fireproof library buildings, and may indirectly help to rescue 
from attics and storerooms the dwindling legacy that is food 
for mice and flames. 

The sources of the bibliography include practically all 
of the printed county histories and "biographical albums" 
and some in manuscript; the proceedings of state, county, 




and city historical societies, histories of Illinois and of towns ; 
gazetteers, early books of travels, memoirs, city directories, 
newspaper directories from 1856, fourteen hundred indi- 
viduals, either through correspondence or through inter- 
views, and the files of many of the publications. In many 
instances it has been well nigh, and in some quite, impossible 
to reconcile conflicts of statement, especially when no files 
of the publication concerned could be found. For instance, 
the desire of publishers to acquire long life for their papers 
has in some cases caused the papers to accrete age simul- 
taneously at both ends of their careers. In the newspaper 
directories for 1871 to 1876, 1868 is given as the year in 
which a certain paper was established. By 1880 this date 
had receded to 1864, and, gaining momentum, by 1881 had 
gone to 1 86 1. Sometimes these dates are changed arbi- 
trarily; more often, though, antiquity is acquired by fasten- 
ing paternity upon some preceding publication. This 
phenomenon has been a source of confusion, and probably 
of error. Possibly many papers are linked in series that have 
had no other than a chronological relation. 

I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to the large 
number of persons whom I cannot mention individually: 
editors, former editors, librarians, members of the State 
Historical Society, and others, who to the number of nearly 
fourteen hundred have contributed to the making of this 
compilation. Special acknowledgement is due President 
Edmund Janes James, of the University of Illinois; Mrs. 
Jessie Palmer Weber, Librarian of the State Historical 


Library ; Miss Caroline Mcllvain, Librarian of the Chicago 
Historical Society; Mr. John Vance Cheney, formerly 
Librarian of the Newberry Library; Mr. Ensley Moore, of 
Jacksonville; Mr. Paul Selby, of Chicago; Mr. John W. 
Merritt, of Springfield; Dr. J. F. Snyder, of Virginia, for 
the use of his unpublished history of the newspapers of Cass 
County and for many helpful suggestions; Mr. Herbert E. 
Fleming, of Chicago, for the use of much unpublished 
material, as well as his published study of the periodicals 
of Chicago; and Professor Alvord for much editorial kind- 
ness. F. W. S. 
















AMBOY, LEE COUNTY ......... 9 

ANNA, UNION COUNTY ......... 10 


ARCOLA, DOUGLAS COUNTY . . . . . . . .11 


ASHKUM, IROQUOIS COUNTY . . . . . . . .11 

ASHLAND, CASS COUNTY . . . . . . . .11 


ASHTON, LEE COUNTY . . . . . . . .12 


ASTORIA, FULTON COUNTY . . . . . . . .12 

ATLANTA, LOGAN COUNTY . . . . . . . .12 



AURORA, KANE COUNTY ........ 13 

AVA, JACKSON COUNTY . . . . . . . . 17 

AVON, FULTON COUNTY . . . . . . . . 17 


BARRY, PIKE COUNTY . . . . . . . . 17 








BELVIDERE, BOONE COUNTY . . . . . . . -25 







BLUE ISLAND, COOK COUNTY. . . . . . . -32 


BRADFORD, STARK COUNTY . . . . . . . -32 

BRAID WOOD, WILL COUNTY . . . . . . . -32 


BRIMFIELD, PEORIA COUNTY . . . . . . . -33 

















CARMI, WHITE COUNTY ........ 44 



CASEY, CLARK COUNTY .... ... 46 


CENTRALIA, MARION COUNTY. . . . . . . .46 

















CLINTON, DE WITT COUNT v . . . -151 

COBDEN, UNION COUNTY ........ 153 

COLCHESTER, McDoNoucn COUNTY . . ... 153 



COMPTON, LEE COUNTY ........ 153 




CRESTON, OGLE COUNTY . ...... 154 

CRETE, WILL COUNTY ......... 154 







DAVIS JUNCTION, OGLE COUNTY . . . . . . . 156 


DE KALB, DE KALB COUNTY . . .... 160 




DIXON, LEE COUNTY ......... 161 

DOLTON, COOK COUNTY. ...... . 162 



Du QUOIN, PERRY COUNTY . . .... 163 




EAST ST. Louis, ST. CLAIR COUNTY . .... 165 




ELGIN, KANE COUNTY ... . . . 170 


ELMWOOD, PEORIA COUNTY . . . . . . . .172 

EL PASO, WOODFORD COUNTY . . . . . . -173 



ENGLEWOOD, COOK COUNTY . . . . . . . -173 

ERIE, WHITESIDE COUNTY . . . . . . . -173 

EUREKA, WOODFORD COUNTY . . . . . . -173 

EVANSTON, COOK COUNTY . . . . . . . .174 

EWING, FRANKLIN COUNTY . . . . . . . .174 


EXETER, SCOTT COUNTY . . ..... 175 


FAIRFIELD, WAYNE COUNTY . . . . . . . -175 


FARMER CITY, DE WITT COUNTY . . . . . . 177 


FLORA, CLAY COUNTY . . . . . . . . -179 

FORRESTON, OGLE COUNTY . . . . . . . -179 



FULTON, WHITESIDE COUNTY . . . . . . .181 

GALENA, Jo DAVIESS COUNTY . . . . . . .182 

GALESBURG, KNOX COUNTY . . . . . . . . 184 

GALVA, HENRY COUNTY . . . . . . . . 186 


GENESEO, HENRY COUNTY . . . . . . . . 188 

GENEVA, KANE COUNTY .... ... 188 

GENOA, DE KALB COUNTY . . . . . . . . 189 






GRAFTON, JERSEY COUNTY . . . . . . . .191 




GRANVILLE, PUTNAM COUNTY . . . . . . . 192 

GRAYVILLE, WHITE COUNTY . . . . . . . .192 



GREENVILLE, BOND COUNTY . . . . . . . -193 


GRIGGSVILLE, PIKE COUNTY . . . . . . . .194 







HAVANA, MASON COUNTY ........ 196 





HINCKLEY, DE KALB COUNTY . . . . . . .201 



HUEY, CLINTON COUNTY ........ 201 





IPAVA, FULTON COUNTY ........ 202 




JOLIET, WILL COUNTY . . . . . . . . . 207 



KANE, GREENE COUNTY ........ 209 


KANSAS, EDGAR COUNTY . . . . . . . .211 



KENNEY, DE WITT COUNTY ........ 214 


KINMUNDY, MARION COUNTY . . . . . . .215 


KNOXVILLE, KNOX COUNTY . . . . . . . .216 



LA HARPE, HANCOCK COUNTY . . . . . . .217 

LAKE ZURICH, LAKE COUNTY . . . . . . .217 

LAMOILLE, BUREAU COUNTY . . . . . . . .218 



LA ROSE, MARSHALL COUNTY . . . . . . .218 

LA SALLE, LA SALLE COUNTY . . . . . . .219 



LEBANON, ST. CLAIR COUNTY . . . . ... . 220 

LEE, LEE COUNTY ......... 221 

LEMONT, COOK COUNTY . . . . . . . .221 

LENA, STEPHENSON COUNTY . . . . . . .221 



LEWISTOWN, FULTON COUNTY . . . . . . .222 




LITTLE FORT, LAKE COUNTY . . . . . . .227 


LOCKPORT, WILL COUNTY . . . . . . . .227 






LOWELL, LA SALLE COUNTY . . . . . . . .229 

Low POINT, WOODFORD COUNTY . . . . . . .229 

LYNDON, WHITESIDE COUNTY . . . . . . .229 

McHENRY, McHENRY COUNTY . . . . . . .229 


MACOMB, McDoNouon COUNTY . . . . . . -231 

MACON, MACON COUNTY . . . . . . . . 232 

MAGNOLIA, HENRY COUNTY . . . . . . . 232 



MALTA, DE KALB COUNTY . . . . . . . -232 

MANCHESTER, SCOTT COUNTY . . . . . . . 232 


MAQUON, KNOX COUNTY ........ 233 



MAROA, MACON COUNTY . . . . . . . . 234 


MARSHALL, CLARK COUNTY . . . . . . . -235 








MENDON, ADAMS COUNTY ...... . 240 


MEREDOSIA, MORGAN COUNTY . . . . . . .241 







MILTON, PIKE COUNTY ......... 243 



MOKENA, WILL COUNTY ........ 244 

MOLINE, ROCK ISLAND COUNTY . . . . . . . 244 


MONEE, WILL COUNTY ......... 245 


MONROE, OGLE COUNTY ........ 246 







MT. CARROLL, CARROLL COUNTY . . . . . . -251 

MT. FOREST, COOK COUNTY . . . . . . . -252 

MT. MORRIS, OGLE COUNTY ..... . . 252 






NAPERVILLE, Du PAGE COUNTY . . . . . . -257 




NEOGA, CUMBERLAND COUNTY . . . . . . .261 


NEWARK, KENDALL COUNTY . . . . . . . .262 



















ODIN, MARION COUNTY. ........ 265 




ONEIDA, KNOX COUNTY ........ 267 


OREGON, OGLE COUNTY ........ 268 




PALATINE, COOK COUNTY . ^ . . . . . .271 


PANA, CHRISTIAN COUNTY . . . . . . . .272 

PARIS, EDGAR COUNTY ......... 273 


PAW PAW, LEE COUNTY ........ 275 

PAXTON, FORD COUNTY ........ 275 

PAYSON, ADAMS COUNTY ........ 276 




PEOTONE, WILL COUNTY ........ 282 

. PERRY, PIKE COUNTY . . . . . . . . .282 

PERU, LA SALLE COUNTY ........ 282 



PlNCKNEYVILLE, PERRY COUNTY . . . . . . . 283 






POLO, OGLE COUNTY ......... 286 



PRAIRIE CITY, McDoNoucn COUNTY ...... 288 




QUINCY, ADAMS COUNTY ........ 290 













ROBERTS, FORD COUNTY ........ 297 


ROCHELLE, OGLE COUNTY . . . . . . . . 297 












RUTLAND, LA SALLE COUNTY . . . . . . . 308 



ST. ELMO, FAYETTE COUNTY ........ 309 

SALEM, MARION COUNTY ........ 309 

SANDOVAL, MARION COUNTY . . . . . . . -311 

SANDWICH, DE KALB COUNTY . . . . . . -311 

SAVANNA, CARROLL COUNTY . . . . . . . .312 

SAYBROOK, MCLEAN COUNTY . . . . . . -312 


SECOR, WOODFORD COUNTY . . . . . . . -313 

SENECA, LA SALLE COUNTY . . . . . . . -313 


SHANNON, CARROLL COUNTY . . . . . . . -313 



SHELDON, IROQUOIS COUNTY . . . . . . . .318 

SHERIDAN, LA SALLE COUNTY . . . . . . -318 

SHIPMAN, MACOUPIN COUNTY . . . . . . -319 


SOUTH CHICAGO, COOK COUNTY . . . . . . -319 



SPARTA, RANDOLPH COUNTY . . . . . . . -319 








STREATOR, LA SALLE COUNTY . . . . . . -339 


SUMNER, LAWRENCE COUNTY . . . . . . -331 

SYCAMORE, DE KALB COUNTY . . . . . . -331 










TOULON, STARK COUNTY .... . . 335 



TROY, MADISON COUNTY ........ 337 





UTICA, LA SALLE COUNTY . . . . . . . . 339 

















WAUKEGAN, LAKE COUNTY . . . . . . . -352 


WAYNE, Du PAGE COUNTY ........ 354 



WESTFIELD, CLARK COUNTY . . . . . . . -354 

W2STON, MCLEAN COUNTY ........ 355 

WHEATON, Du PAGE COUNTY ....... 355 
















NEWBERRY LIBRARY . . . . . . . . . 378 

CHICAGO PUBLIC LIBRARY . . . . . . -381 






BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY . . . . . . . . 404 


LENOX LIBRARY ......... 407 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST 1814-1850 ... . 417 



INDEX TO NAMES . . . . . . . . . 533 

INDEX TO COUNTIES ......... 605 



facing page 5 
facing page 52 
facing page 341 




This introduction is the result of an effort to sketch a 
historical background for the disconnected bibliographical 
material which forms the body of this work. It is not in- 
tended as a history of the newspapers and periodicals of 
Illinois; but, as one of our county historians has said, the 
newspaper business with us has been a " halcyon and vocif- 
erous proceeding," and some outline such as this may be 
needed to find the halcyon if not the vociferous in the life 
history of our newspapers and periodicals. Especially is it 
purposed to deal with the beginnings in Illinois journalism, 
and to a less extent to suggest the relation of the newspaper 
to the manifold successive elements that have entered in the 
making of the state population, transportation, communi- 
cation, politics, education, and other materials and methods 
of economic and social development; and to record some 
important tendencies and certain isolated facts not now 
conveniently accessible elsewhere. 

The conditions under which the first Illinois newspaper 
was established, in 1814, included many disadvantages, 
which made any other than a meager and tenuous subsistence 
for it impossible. The population was small and widely 
distributed ; the means of communication were merely rudi- 
mentary and frequently inoperative; and both money and 
labor were exceedingly scarce. That a newspaper was 
started as early as 1814 was due not so much to business as 
to political reasons: there was United States and territorial 



printing to be done; and the politicians of the territory, 
including a large proportion of the male population, were 
yearning toward statehood. 

The population of the territory of Illinois had increased 
slowly until 1813, but with the cessation of Indian raids after 
the close of the war of 1812, and the passage of the pre- 
emption act of 1813, a new epoch in immigration began. 1 
A land office was opened in Kaskaskia in 1814, and the influx 
of permanent settlers was much increased. The total popu- 
lation at that time may have been well toward twenty thou- 
sand, but it was thinly distributed. The village and vicinity 
of Kaskaskia, which in 1815 contained between seven hun- 
dred and one thousand persons, was least sparsely settled. 2 
Gallatin, with Shawneetown as its chief village, was the most 
populous county on the east side of the territory. As late 
as 1818 it contained but thirty-two hundred persons. 8 
Shawneetown, where the second paper in the state was 
established, numbered between thirty and forty families. 4 

A fact that doubtless tended to hinder the beginning of 
newspapers in Illinois was the presence, on two sides of the 
populated area, of larger centers of population than any in 
Illinois: Vincennes on the east, and St. Louis on the west. 
In the first a newspaper had been established a full decade 
before the Illinois Herald was issued so well established 
that it is still published ; in the second the Missouri Gazette 
began, in 1808, a career which it has continued, under various 
names, to the present. Other papers helped to supply the 
needs of the Illinois settlers. In 1816 the citizens of Shaw- 

1 Pooley, Settlement of Illinois, 1830-1850, p. 318. 

1 Edwards, History of Illinois, 254. 

8 Dana, Sketches of the Western Country, 153. 

4 But John Woods, in Two Years 1 Residence in the . . . Illinois Country, 
says that in 1819 Shawneetown was "a brisk place" and included about eighty 


neetown gave notice through the papers of Kaskaskia, 
Frankfort (Kentucky), and Nashville (Tennessee), that they 
would apply to the legislature of Illinois for the establishment 
of a bank at that place. 5 These papers, supported by the 
population of towns larger than any in the new territory, 
doubtless delayed both the beginning and the spread of 
newspapers in Illinois. 

Means of communication were meager, primitive, and 
did not function with either despatch or regularity. The 
earliest settlements were naturally on the waterways 
the Wabash, Ohio, Mississippi, and Kaskaskia rivers. No 
roads or mail routes were opened until 1805. The first mail 
route was established in that year from Vincennes to Caho- 
kia; 6 the second from Vincennes to Shawneetown in 1806. 
In 1810 routes were established to St. Louis by way of Kas- 
kaskia, Prairie du Rocher, and Cahokia; from Kaskaskia 
to Cape Girardeau, by way of St. Genevieve; from Louis- 
ville to Shawneetown; and in 1814 to Johnson Court House 
(now Vienna). Over these routes mail was carried regularly 
once or twice a week, except in bad weather, or when the 
roads were impassable. 7 But it will appear later that even 
when the mail was regularly carried, the whole postal system 
was so bad that regularity and promptness in the arrival of 
expected mail were never assured. 

The transportation of freight suffered even more serious 
vicissitudes than the distribution of the mail, and the pros- 
pective publisher of the first newspaper may well have felt 
himself at some disadvantage in being as remote from the 
source of his supply of paper and equipment as was Kaskas- 

1 Burnham, An Early Illinois Newspaper, Pubs. III. State Hist. Soc., No. 8, 
p. 182. 

8 Boggess, Settlement of Illinois, 1775-1830, p. 131. 
1 Ibid. 


kia from Cincinnati or Frankfort. All goods had to be 
carried down the Ohio on flatboats, and then poled up the 
Mississippi, or hauled overland by wagon. The rivers were 
frequently too high or too low for ease of navigation, and the 
roads frequently offered insuperable difficulties. 

Such were some of the conditions in Illinois in 1814, when 
the first newspaper was established. Other circumstances 
and the changes that came with the growth of population wiU 
appear in the account of the papers of the first decade and 


The first period in the history of newspapers in Illinois, 
which begins with the founding of the Illinois Herald in 1814, 
closes naturally and conveniently with the momentous con- 
vention election held in August, 1824. In the first period 
of ten years five separate papers were established, and all 
continued until the election. 

1. Illinois Herald, established at Kaskaskia in 1814; re- 

named Western Intelligencer in 1816; renamed Illinois 
Intelligencer in 1818; followed the state capital to 
Vandalia in 1820. 

2. Illinois Emigrant, established in Shawneetown in 1818; 

renamed Illinois Gazette in 1819. 

3. Edwardsville Spectator, established at Edwardsville in 


4. Star of the West, established at Edwardsville in 1822; 

renamed Illinois Republican in 1823; discontinued 
at the time of the election in 1824. 

5. Republican Advocate, established at Kaskaskia early in 

1823; renamed Kaskaskia Republican in 1824; con- 
tinued until 1825; revived early in 1826 as Illinois 
Reporter, and continued for about a year. 


It appears from this list that Illinois had but one terri- 
torial newspaper, which bore at successive times three various 
names. With the coming of statehood in 1818, a rival party, 
and therefore a rival newspaper, was inevitable. As early 
as the twenty-ninth number of this second paper, dated 
January 9, 1819, the Emigrant indicated that two newspapers, 
although they were as far apart as the limits fixed by nature 
and population would permit, could not exist pacifically in 

The coming of the Illinois Emigrant indicated no shifting 
of the population; more significant was the advent of the 
Edwardsville Spectator in 1819. By this year the popula- 
tion of Madison County had increased to a number between 
four thousand and fifty-five hundred; Edwardsville, the 
county town, contained sixty or seventy houses, a courthouse, 
a jail, a bank, and a land-office. Alton, but a few miles 
away, had one hundred houses. 8 The new capital on the 
upper Kaskaskia was already projected by land speculators. 
In the next year the seat of government was moved, and with 
it the Illinois Intelligencer, to Vandalia. The other papers 
of the period were significant only as parties to the conven- 
tion struggle. 

Throughout this period from 1814 to 1824 the country 
was developed rapidly to the northward. The population 
had grown by 1820 to 55,211. In 1814 there were nine 
post-offices in the territory, and three hundred and eighty- 
eight miles of post-roads. 10 From that time both post-offices 

8 Pooley, Settlement of Illinois, 1830-1850, pp. 319-320. 

9 U. S. Census Report, 1820. 

10 Boggess, Settlement of Illinois, 1775-1830, p. 131, State Papers, i^th Cong., 
3<l Session. 


and post- roads increased greatly." By 1819 a road was 
opened from Shawneetown, by way of Carmi to Albion, in 
Edwards County. In February, 1821, the legislature author- 
ized the building of a turnpike road from the Mississippi 
opposite St. Louis, across the American Bottom to the bluffs. 
Edwardsville, Springfield, and Peoria were connected by a 
mail route in 1822 ; in the same year a road and a mail route 
were established between Vandalia and Springfield, over 
which the State Capital was soon to continue its migration 
to the northward. 12 In the same year also, a direct path 
was established from Iroquois Post (now Iroquois) to Dan- 
ville. In 1824 this path was extended northward to Chicago, 
and southwest from Danville for one hundred and fifty miles, 13 
but no mail was carried over any part of this route until 
eight years later. Springfield was the northern terminus of 
the mail route early in 1823, and the next year Sangamon 
County was still almost entirely without ferries, bridges, or 
roads. Over most of these routes mail was carried once a 

River transportation had developed rapidly through the 
introduction of the steamboat. The Orleans had gone down 
the Ohio from Pittsburg in 1811, the Washington in 1817. 
In 1817 the first steamboat to touch a port on the upper 
Mississippi reached St. Louis ; Galena saw its first steamboat 
in 1822. This was the field, and these were the means of 
communication in which and by which the newspapers of 

11 In 1821 there were fifty-seven post-offices, but in 1823 and 1825 only fifty 
three. Until after the first decade, Shawneetown did more postal business than 
any other town in Illinois, and in 1817 it was the only post-office in the state in 
which a clerk was employed. In 1821 it did twice as much as Edwardsville, and 
four times as much as Kaskaskia. See U. S. Official Registers or "Blue Books,' 1 
for 1817-1825. 

12 Tillson, Reminiscences of Early Life in Illinois, 5 4. 

13 Boggess, Settlement of Illinois, 1775-1830, p. 158. 


the first decade served and were served. But the delays in 
the mail service and in the delivery of freight were so frequent 
and so prolonged as to be to-day almost incredible. The 
Illinois Emigrant issued no number between June 23 and 
August 24, 1819, because paper shipped down the Ohio on 
June 1 3th was delayed by low water and did not arrive 
until more than two months later. If this delay was suf- 
fered by a paper nearest the source of supply and directly 
on the Ohio, more extended gaps might well be expected 
in the other early files. On June 21, 1823, the Illinois 
Gazette received through the post a New York Spectator of 
November 22, 1822, a Richmond Enquirer of December 7, 
1822, and a Frankfort Commentator of January 2, 1823. 
"Such is the wretched state of the mails west of the moun- 
tains, and complaints and remonstrances seem unavailing 
to improve it," remarked the editor. On this mail service 
the early western papers depended for their news of the out- 
side world. Hall, in the Illinois Gazette, pictures the situ- 
ation in 1821 thus: 

" After a lapse of several weeks (three months, to be 
exact) we are now enabled to resume the publication of our 
sheet. Paper (the want of which has been the cause of the 
late interruption) was shipped for us early last fall, on board 
of a boat bound for St. Louis to which place, owing prob- 
ably to the forgetfulness of the master, it was carried and 
has but just now come to hand. Our situation is such, and 
our means so inadequate to guard against these occasional 
interruptions, by laying in large supplies of paper, ink, etc., 
at a time that we are more or less affected by every change 
in the elements, or defalcation in individual promises. High 
and low water it seems are equally our enemies the one is 
sure to delay the arrival of some article necessary to the 


prosecution of our labors, while the other hurries something 
of which we stand in the most pressing need, down the cur- 
rent beyond our reach. And high winds, and warm and 
cold weather, equally delight to make us their sport. But 
we assure our subscribers that however much they may regret 
missing a paper for a week, they cannot regret it more than 
we; for, after all, we are the only losers." More than five 
years had been required to complete four volumes. 

This uncertainty, especially in the freight service, lasted 
until long afterward. "You are doubtless waiting with 
some degree of impatience," wrote Hooper Warren to Ninian 
Edwards from Galena, July 6, 1829, "for the appearance 
of the Galena Advertiser. After waiting more than three 
weeks after my arrival, the materials from Springfield 
arrived from St. Louis. How they got there I have never 
learned. . . . When we were elated with the certainty of 
getting out the paper immediately, we were astonished to find 
that the keg of ink had been left behind! I put it into the 
wagon myself at Springfield with the other materials sent to 
Beardstown on the Illinois. Dr. Philleo started down the 
river immediately, which was three weeks ago last Saturday, 
to look for it. We heard from him by letter at the Lower 
Rapids on the 2oth ult, at which time he had not found it, 
and was about to start down to St. Louis. We expect him 
by the next boat or stage." 14 In the next year, publication 
of the Illinois Monthly Magazine at Vandalia, the state 
capital, was considerably delayed by the failure of paper to 
arrive, and editor Hall gave this difficulty in the matter of 
transportation as one reason for removing the publication to 
Cincinnati. "We feel no inconsiderable regret," wrote the 
editor of the Illinois State Gazette and Jacksonville News on 

14 Washburne, Edwards Papers, 408-409. 


January 17, 1835, "at being compelled to an occasional 
suspension of our publication (owing to a want of paper); 
but the regret is lessened somewhat by the fact that every 
paper in the state, with perhaps a single exception, has suf- 
fered like disappointments." The News had then suffered 
a suspension of three weeks. 

The general character of the newspapers of the period 
was political, the tone frequently controversial, but highly 
moral and often religious. As newspapers they would to-day 
be regarded, even from the point of view of the country 
weekly, as sad efforts. Of political news, either state or 
national, there was no lack, and the editors sometimes 
showed considerable enterprise in securing it; but of local 
news in the present sense there was very little. Occasionally 
some space was given to an account of an unusual murder 
in the vicinity, or an extraordinary rise or fall of the river; 
but usually the remoteness of the event seemed to increase 
its importance, and one finds more often an account of the 
hop yield in Silesia than of the wheat crop in Illinois. It 
was easier to reset items from the eastern papers, when they 
arrived, than to gather facts and compose original matter. 15 
This was especially true in the frequent periods when the 
politician who ran the paper was absent, and the work was 
left to the itinerant and bibulous printer. 

The editorial occupied a variable, but on the whole, an 
important place. These first five papers had pretty definite 
purposes, forwarded or achieved largely by the direct appeal 
of the editorial, which, not infrequently in "parlous times" 

18 Shawneetown was for many years the chief gateway for emigrants to Southern 
Illinois, and a "port of call" for all the settlers bound for Missouri via the Ohio 
River. Equipped with the present newspaper reporter's zeal for news, the editor 
of the Gazette could have made his paper a highly important record of the flowing 
tide of emigration to the land of promise. But the record was not written. Political 
maneuvers and quarrels were more important than the incoming population. 


of political conflict, filled one of the four small pages, and 
in a few instances overran even that ample room. Positive 
or controversial opinion was often expressed over an obvious 
but sufficient nom de plume, though quite as often the name 
of the editor was in itself a sufficient disguise for the individual 
or the interest behind the paper. Thus we find Sidney 
Breese writing to Governor Edwards: "If I continue en- 
gaged in politics, I am determined to make Gov. Reynolds 
choose between Smith and myself, in other words between 
the Crisis and the Democrat. Do give your views . . . 
editorially, thro' me, in the Democrat." 16 Yet R. K. Flem- 
ing was nominally editor, the paper was referred to by War- 
ren in the Galena Advertiser as "Fleming's paper," and not 
until almost a year later did suspicion appear in print that 
Breese was the actual editor. John McLean, in the Illinois 
Gazette for July 29, 1820, called Ninian Edwards the "actual 
editor of the Edwardsville Spectator," nominally, and in fact, 
edited by Hooper Warren; and we find abundant evidence 
in Warren's letters to Edwards 17 that in editing his papers 
Sangamo Spectator and Galena Advertiser, Warren was con- 
tinually under the influence of Edwards. Yet Warren was 
one of the strongest and most independent of the early 
editors, of quite a different sort from Fleming, and the yoke 
of obligation was burdensome to him. 18 

While in such cases the nominal editor was the spokes- 
man for some one else, there were other cases in which 
editorial utterances were disguised by means of an assumed 
name. Signed contributions occupied a large and important 
place in the early papers, as they have done, and still do, in 

l6 Edwards Papers, 543, letter to Gov. Edwards, dated September 21, 1830. 

17 In Washburne, Edwards Papers. 

18 See Edwards Papers, 409, 410, 421, etc. 


English newspapers. These articles were either remarks of 
the editor, or bona fide contributions of outsiders. As one 
of the earliest occurrences of the first kind may be cited a 
series of letters in the Illinois Gazette, signed "Brutus," 
attacking Daniel P. Cook. 19 They were undoubtedly 
written by James Hall, who was at that time editor; but, 
though Hall acknowledged editorial responsibility for the 
letters, he never acknowledged his authorship of them. Of 
the second kind there are to be found no more interesting 
illustrations than are furnished by the many communications 
of Morris Birkbeck, sometimes signed with his own name, 
sometimes with "Jonathan Freeman." They were con- 
cerned especially with slavery or with agriculture, and were 
as interesting and brisk in style as they were numerous and 

The political influence and significance of acknowledged 
editorials was of serious moment, and matters of importance 
were not hastily disposed of with an irresponsible squib. Big 
guns were brought to bear, no matter how belated the broad- 
side. Political leaders were consulted and heeded, even 
when they were not themselves induced to write. An editor 
and politician no less important than Daniel P. Cook wrote 
to Ninian Edwards: "I shall want to make some comments 
on the importance of the subject, and altho' I shall do it as 
my own entirely, I shall wish very much to have your assist- 
ance in that business. Indeed it appears to be a subject of 
such acknowledged importance that a man who is able to 
develop its niceties may well expect to acquire some fame 
for so doing ; and I therefore wish your assistance in making 
any remarks, lest I should discover a want of tolerable 

19 The first was printed June 22, 1822. Cook replied in the Illinois Intelligencer; 
in answer to this reply Hall assumed responsibility for the articles in an editorial 
printed July 27. 


knowledge of the subject, which would rather make me 
appear ridiculous than otherwise." 20 

Much of the space afforded by the lack of news was filled 
with "literature." "Want of room alone," explains one of 
the earliest editors, 21 "has prevented us from fulfilling an 
intention which we had early formed, of devoting a portion 
of our columns to literature. Our own resources at this 
insulated spot, where we can calculate on but little assistance 
and where we seldom receive new books, must of course be 
small; but the columns of many of the Eastern papers are 
tastefully variegated with those lighter productions which 
delight the fancy, and on them we may sometimes draw, for 
the amusement of our readers. But among our friends and 
neighbors there are, no doubt, many who might contribute 
something towards the amusement and instruction of others.' 
And indeed, to the many cultural excerpts from the taste- 
fully variegated columns were added stories, poems, and 
essays by friends and neighbors. John Russell, Morris 
Birkbeck, and James Hall wrote often for those earliest 
papers, and made of them sources not to be overlooked by 
those who would know the early agriculture, horticulture, 
society, education, and politics, as well as literature of Illinois. 
Out of the somewhat haphazard occasional use of this kind 
of material in the first papers there grew a well established 
custom of devoting certain columns to such matter, a custom 
that has persisted even to the present in some localities. 
These earlier productions, however crude, had individuality, 
vigor, and genuineness not to be found in the sapless tabloid 
material now supplied in plates at a dollar and a quarter a 

20 Washburne, Edwards Papers, 125. 

21 James Hall in Illinois Gazette, July 29, 1820. 


The business of publishing a newspaper in the early days 
was poor enough at best, and the publisher had a hard strug- 
gle to make a living. The initial cost of a plant was small, 
and the expense of maintenance was low, but the sources of 
income were correspondingly meager. Had there been no 
public printing and no politicians who felt the need of 
"organs," probably no early paper could have lived a year, 
for the subscribers were few and the advertisements yielded 
little income. 

The first cost of establishing a plant seems to have varied 
from four hundred to a thousand dollars, according to the 
amount of type the publisher felt necessary. The cost of 
maintenance was small. In many instances one man did 
all the work; seldom were more than two employed on one 
paper. Usually, it seems, a lawyer or other ambitious person 
wishing to start a paper found a printer, furnished the plant, 
editorials, and some of the news, and left the printer to solicit 
advertising, gather "items," make selections of news and 
"elegant miscellany" from the exchanges, set type, and 
"run off" and deliver the paper. 

Public printing was a boon to the three earliest papers, 
and no doubt did much to prolong their careers beyond the 
average length. This was especially true of the first and 
the most successful, which was established at an opportune 
time. There was a great and growing territory rapidly 
being settled by ambitious pioneers ; there was an increasing 
body of laws, with no newspaper in which to print them; 
there was the United States printing patronage to be secured, 
as well as the official job-work. A law in force May 21, 1 8 10, 
declared that "whereas, it is provided . . . that advertise- 
ments should be inserted in some public newspaper pub- 
lished in the territory . . . ; and whereas, there is at this 


time no newspaper printed in this territory:" 22 such adver- 
tisements should be inserted in "some of the newspapers 
published in the Louisiana Territory." The act was to 
remain in force "until a newspaper is established and pub- 
lished in this territory and no longer." 23 

The privilege of printing the United States laws was of 
relatively great value and was eagerly sought. An act to 
authorize the publication of the laws in two newspapers in 
each territory was passed but three or four months after the 
first paper in Illinois was established. 24 In 1818 the number 
of papers to be favored was increased to three, and the 
matter to be published was made to include not only the 
laws, but resolutions, public treaties, and amendments to 
the constitution. 25 By this act the compensation was fixed 
at the rate of one dollar for each printed page of the pam- 
phlet in which the copy was furnished, a page not far from 
the size of standard law books to-day. 

The minimum number of subscribers on which a paper 
could be run seems to have been fixed by Hooper Warren 
when he wrote to Ninian Edwards in 1828 that the Sangamo 
Spectator had but 1 70 subscribers, of which probably a third 
would withdraw when the year was up, and that nothing 

22 This conclusively corrects Reynolds' statement that the Illinois Herald was 
established in 1809, an error handed down to the present time. (See Boggess, 
Settlement of Illinois, 17751830, p. 132, for the latest instance.) 

23 Alvord, Laws of the Territory of Illinois, 1809-1811; Bulletin III. State Hist. 
Library, i, No. 2. 

** Approved November 21, 1814. 

25 Act approved April 20, 1818. The number of papers to be used in each state 
and territory was changed to two in 1846; the practice was discontinued in March, 
1875. The amount of income derived from this source varied. The first Official 
Register to give the names of the printers of the laws and the amounts that they 
were paid (that of 1833) gives $177.00 for the first session and $91.00 for the second. 
These amounts were much smaller than those paid previously. An incidental 
benefit accrued from official favor. There was much printing to be done for the 
Department of State and of War and the Post Office Department, and the news- 
paper publishers often received from such sources two or three times the amount 
paid for publishing the laws. 


could sustain the paper but new type and its enlargement. 28 
Four hundred subscribers were considered a satisfactory 
number, although one finds vain boasting here and there 
that with proper help from all friends this or that paper 
could increase its list to a thousand. 

Advertisements were few, seldom filling one-fourth of 
the paper, and the rates were low. Of these early adver- 
tisements, those of taverns, whiskey, town-sites, and run- 
away negroes are found most frequently. The last named is 
found in surprising numbers, not only in the first decade, but 
on down to the Civil War, many bearing the little woodcut 
of a negro with his bundle which so impressed Miss Mar- 
tineau, and nearly all offering a reward of one cent for the 
fugitive's return. Prospectuses of new papers, and adver- 
tisements of eastern, especially Washington, papers were 
numerous. These, together with notices of Philadelphia, 
New York, and Boston magazines grew in frequency until 
the middle of the century, when the use of the telegraph 
began to shift the whole newspaper situation. 

Subscribers and advertisers would have been of more 
value to the struggling publishers if they had paid, but very 
often they didn't pay. In the case of nearly all early papers 
the subscription price if paid in advance was a dollar lower 
than if paid at the end of the year, but from the frequent 
appeals for money on account, one surmises that the sub- 
scribers found a way to save more than the one dollar. They 
were appealed to in prose and in verse, they were cajoled, 
praised, lectured, and denounced. Money was wretchedly 
scarce, but almost any commodity was acceptable. A full 
list of what the printers offered to receive would be an in- 

28 Edwards Papers, 330. After the Spectator had been sold to Meredith, War- 
ren wrote : " Had not this contract been made it is probable the paper would have 
died a natural death." P. 364. 


ventory of the daily needs of the pioneer. The publishers 
of the Illinois Gazette announced that they would receive 
in payment of subscriptions, clean linen and cotton rags; 
in payment for subscriptions and advertisements, bacon, 
tallow, beeswax, and feathers. Later, hides, deerskins, 
and pork were also acceptable. Had there been no laws to 
be printed and no politicians to have organs, however, even 
prompt payment of subscription and advertising accounts 
would hardly have kept the papers alive, or have brought 
about the somewhat surprising fact that in the first decade 
no Illinois paper died through lack of support. 

The climax of this first period was reached in the con- 
vention campaign which began in February, 1823, and ended 
on the first Monday in August, 1824. The newspapers had 
a more important place in that contest than in any other 
important political event in Illinois. They were owned or 
controlled by leaders in the fray, and in the columns of the 
few that are left one can follow the shifts of ownership and 
editorship, the shading off or brightening up of this or that 
aspect of the main question or of contributory questions, 
can catch the tense earnestness of spirit with which the oppo- 
nents struggled, and get much of the violence of invective 
and abuse which one finds nowadays nowhere except in a 
municipal campaign. 

From the beginning until well on in 1822 the papers were 
divided mainly on local issues and on men. The slavery 
question was already looming, but not large, though there 
had been more or less discontent ever since the passage of 
the Missouri Compromise, and the parties to the coming 
struggle were becoming defined. "The anti-convention 
party," says Governor Ford, 27 . . . "established news- 

27 History o} Illinois, 53-54. 


papers to oppose the convention; one at Shawneetown, 
edited by Henry Eddy; one at Edwardsville, edited by 
Hooper Warren, with Gov. Coles, Thomas Lippincott, 
George Churchill, and Judge Lockwood, for its principal 
contributors; and finally, one at Vandalia, edited by David 
Blackwell, the Secretary of State. The slave party had 
established a newspaper at Kaskaskia, under the direction 
of Mr. Kane and Chief Justice Reynolds; and one at Ed- 
wardsville edited by Judge Smith; and both parties pre- 
pared to appeal to the interests, the passions, and the intelli- 
gence of the people. The contest was mixed up with much 
personal abuse; and now was poured forth a perfect lava 
of detraction, which, if it were not for the knowledge of the 
people that such matters are generally false or greatly exag- 
gerated, would have overwhelmed and consumed all men's 
reputations . . . The whole people, for the space of 
eighteen months, did scarcely anything but read newspapers, 
handbills and pamphlets, quarrel, argue, and wrangle with 
each other." It is a source of wonder that long after these 
events had passed Governor Ford could record that but one 
duel had been fought in Illinois. 28 

The Edwardsville Spectator was the first paper in the 
state to come out against slavery in Illinois, and to oppose 
all measures and men that seemed to favor a change 
in the direction of slavery. The paper was probably con- 
trolled by Ninian Edwards; it was the mouthpiece of a 
coterie of strong men, and under Hooper Warren's editorship 
it pursued a steady and consistent policy that made it the 
most influential paper in the state. Until early in 1824 it 
was alone in its opposition to any encroachments of slavery 
interests. Other papers were less stable, shifted policies, and 

28 History of Illinois, 54. 


until late in the campaign did not assume the positions 
which they were in at the close. 29 

The Illinois Gazette favored the convention, but was so 
near the fence, and gave space to such free discussion of both 
sides, that writers on this bit of Illinois history have given 
accounts of its position in direct conflict with each other. 
A somewhat extended statement of the paper's position is 
given here in an effort to settle the question. Governor Ford 
has said that the Gazette was against the convention; Gov- 
ernor Coles, that it was for it. 30 These two authorities have 
been the source of endless conflicting statements, and other 
contemporary writers, like Hooper Warren and George 
Flower, have contributed. In his History of the English 
Settlement in Edwards County, Flower asserts, and offers 
substantial proof, that the paper was pro-convention, while 
the editor, E. B. Washburne, furnishes the information in 
a foot-note, that Eddy, editor of the Gazette, was against 
the convention. 

Henry Eddy and A. W. Kimmel conducted the Gazette 
until May 22, 1820, when their partnership was dissolved 
and James Hall became Eddy's partner and the editor. 
Hall at once acknowledged his ignorance of Illinois politics 
and chose a neutral course for his paper. This course he 
reaffirmed, when, in printing a letter from Daniel P. Cook 
relative to some political charges, Hall said editorially, "We 

29 As late as April 22, 1823, Governor Coles wrote to Nicholas Biddle his belief 
that the Kaskaslua Republican would stand against the convention. Ten days 
earlier he had written to Richard Flower and Morris Birkbeck suggesting that they 
take the initiative in starting an anti-convention paper at Albion. See Washburne, 
Sketch of Governor Coles. 

30 " Unfortunately for the friends of freedom, four out of five of the newspapers 
printed in this state are opposed to them; and the only press whose editor is in 
favor of freedom, although a pretty smart editor, has rendered himself unpopular 
with many of his foolish and passionate attacks upon many prominent men on his 
side of the question." Coles to Biddle, September 18, 1823. In Washburne 
Sketch o) Governor Coles, 160. 


wish it to be distinctly understood that we have not forsaken 
the neutral ground which we have thought proper to assume 
with regard to the ensuing election. Our columns are open 
to* all communications temperately written, to which the 
authors place their names, or for which they are willing to 
be accountable. This is the only course which, situated as 
we are, completely in the dark with regard to the state of 
parties, and the merits of candidates, we could with any 
degree of propriety pursue." This position Hall held con- 
sistently for nearly two years, although he was suspected of 
sympathy with the advocates of slavery extension. Hooper 
Warren accused him of such sympathy in 1820 because of an 
editorial in which Hall suggested a disparity between Illinois 
and the states of Kentucky and Missouri, caused by the 
great advantage which the last two had over the first from 
the privilege of holding slaves. Hall denied that what he 
said referred in any way to the political situation in Illinois, 
or that it was meant, as Warren charged, to favor the election 
of E. K. Kane. 31 Two weeks later, 82 in printing a letter 
from Morris Birkbeck who uttered a word of warning to his 
fellow-citizens lest they elect pro-slavery officials, Hall de- 
plored the fact that the question of slavery should be brought 
up. "From this state," he said, "it [slavery] is excluded; 
it cannot now be introduced; and were an attempt to be 
made for that purpose we should be among the first to oppose 
so material a change in our constitution." A change of 
attitude is hardly concealed in the following, however: 
April 6, 1822, a communication appeared announcing that 
the subject of the introduction of slaves into Illinois was in 
agitation in Union and Jackson counties. "Great exer- 

, 31 Illinois Gazette, July 22, 1820. 
31 Ibid, August 5, 1820. 


tions," said the editor, "will, in all probability, be used to 
procure a call for a convention to reconsider the important 
provision, in our constitution, against slavery. . . . Good 
cause must be shown before the people will consent to a 
proposition so pointedly opposed to their former sentiments. 
Let those who advocate the measure exhibit their manifesto, 
that the people 'may the better judge.' Our Gazette is at the 
service of all who choose to make it the medium of temperate 
discussion, on this or any other subject, except such as in- 
volve the deadly rancour of political parties and partisans, 
or the more baneful and unforgiving hate of theological 
dogma. At present we shall take no part in the slave 
question, reserving the right to enter the lists at a future 
opportunity, should we so determine." 

Six months later Hall became involved in an acrimonious 
political dispute with Daniel P. Cook, who was a close 
political friend of Eddy, and a schism arose which resulted 
in the dissolution of the partnership of Hall and Eddy in 
November. No matter touching on slavery appeared until 
March, when an account of a meeting held at Jonesboro 
told that Alexander P. Field introduced a resolution which 
proposed an effort to elect members of the legislature who 
would recommend a convention for altering and amending 
the constitution. There was no editorial comment, and no 
mention of slavery. On March 8, Eddy strongly repro- 
bated the seating of Shaw, but, unlike Berry, made no 
reference to slavery. Berry's " Extraordinary Legislative 
Proceedings" 33 was reprinted from the Illinois Intelligencer 
without criticism. From March, 1823, until August, 1824, 
the columns of the Gazette were crowded with communica- 
tions on the convention and the slavery questions. In that 

33 See p. xlvii. 


period Birkbeck's Jonathan Freeman letters were printed 
and other articles on the same side. No one of these was 
left unanswered by the opponents, but the paper kept almost 
clear of the controversy, only once venturing to express the 
prevailing opinion of that part of the state. In the following 
editorial, printed June 14, 1823, the Gazette, according to 
George Flower, "showed the cloven hoof". 

"The vote of the last legislature, recommending the case 
of a new convention, seems to have produced a good deal of 
excitement in the western part of the state, and to have called 
forth already some pretty warm discussion. In this quarter, 
as yet, we have heard but little said on the subject, owing 
probably to the great degree of unanimity which prevails in 
favor of the measure. The people in this part of the state 
(in this and adjoining counties particularly) have too great 
an interest at stake in keeping up the manufacture of salt 
at the saline, to be easily diverted from the course they intend 
to pursue by making the question turn upon the propriety 
or impropriety of introducing negro slavery. They aie 
persuaded that unless the time can be enlarged, during which 
the slaves of the neighboring states can be hired to labor at 
the furnaces, the works, after the year 1824, must be aban- 
doned, and this main source of revenue to the state be lost; 
besides all the advantages which they individually derive 
from the market, which, when in operation, those works 
create. The people in this part also, in common with others 
in all parts of the state, desire an amendment of the con- 
stitution in other particulars wherein it has been found 
defective, and many (we are far from concealing it) are in 
favor of the introduction of slavery, either absolute, as it 
exists at present in the slave-holding states, or in a limited 
degree that is to say, to exist until the children born after 


its admission shall arrive at a certain age, to be fixed by the 
constitution." 34 

When Coles secured control of the Intelligencer, the Ga- 
zette remarked, "Notwithstanding we have a high respect 
for the former editors, and the manner in which they executed 
their editorial functions, we cannot but hope that the Intelli- 
gencer will henceforth be conducted in a course, so as not to 
warrant any person in saying it disgusts the community." 35 
The situation is most clearly revealed in one sentence printed 
August 7. The Gazette had vigorously supported Cook as 
candidate for Congress in opposition to Bond, although 
Cook was a strong anti-slavery man. No doubt the enmity 
which Eddy incurred by doing all in his power to defeat the 
pro-slavery Bond caused many supporters of the convention 
to regard Eddy as opposed to them on that proposition also. 
But that his loyalty to Cook in no wise influenced his sym- 
pathy for the convention is fairly indicated in his remark of 
August 7: "The convention question is lost principally, 
we believe, from the effort made by Governor Bond's friends 
to force him upon its supporters, against the declared prefer- 
ence of Mr. Cook." 

It is clear from the pages of the paper itself that the 
Gazette favored the convention. But it is more obvious that 
Eddy opened his columns freely to both parties in the dis- 
cussion, that he was as nearly non-committal as an editor 
well could be, and that his course was in striking contrast 
with that of Hooper Warren and his Spectator on one hand, 
and Theophilus Smith and the Illinois Republican on the 

/. Gazette, June 14, 1823. See George Flower, Hist. 0} English Settlement in 
Edwards Co., 253. No copy of the Gazette of this date is preserved. 
38 May 29, 1824. 


The Illinois Intelligencer, before the beginning of the 
fight, was inclined to ignore the slavery question ; its owners 
up to February 15, 1823, Wm. H. Brown and William 
Berry, were on opposite sides. In the number for February 
15, however, there appeared a scathing editorial, entitled 
"Extraordinary Legislative Proceedings," denouncing the 
legislature 38 for its playing fast and loose with the Pike 
County members in order to gain the one vote necessary to 
call for a ballot on the convention. To this editorial Wil- 
liam Berry appended a note. "The above 'extraordinary 
legislative proceedings' have been published by my partner, 
Wm. H. Brown, Esq., without my approbation, and shall 
be answered next week." In the issue for the next week 
Robert Blackwell's name replaced Brown's, and signed edi- 
torials from all three participants set forth their respective 
views. Under Blackwell and Berry the paper was less 
partizan, but was friendly to the convention faction. 37 

At some time between March 19 and May 7, 1824, Berry 
disposed of his interest nominally to David Blackwell, 

39 This editorial brought about the only threat I have found of legislative action, 
and the first instance of mob menace, against an Illinois newspaper. On Monday, 
February 17, 1823, Mr. Field, of Union County, moved the adoption of the following 
resolution: "That the Editors of the Illinois Intelligencer be requested forthwith 
to inform this House who is the author of a piece which appeared in their last 
paper, signed A, B. and which charges the Legislature with corruption and dis- 
honesty." The resolution passed, and there the matter ended. Public feeling 
outside of the legislature was so much aroused that a mob collected in front of the 
office of the newspaper and threatened to destroy the press and other equipment. 
But this demonstration proceeded no further toward results than the legislature 
itself had gone. 

87 James H. Perkins, Annals of the West, appendix, 792-793, says: "The paper 
(at Vandalia) that performed the public printing, was the strong garrison (of the 
convention party in December, 1823). On the morning of the meeting of the con- 
vention party leaders this citadel surrendered to their opponents, hoisted the anti- 
convention flag, and prepared to pour grapeshot into their ranks. . . . Governor 
Coles had purchased an interest in the press; David Blackwell, Esq., of Belleville, 
had been appointed secretary of state, to fill a vacancy and conduct the paper as 

This is inaccurate. David Blackwell did not become editor until after March, 


though Governor Coles was the real buyer. 38 With this 
change the Intelligencer became an active opponent of the 
convention; David Blackwell in his " prospectus," printed 
May 14, asserted that he would give his uniform opposition 
to the convention. And he did so. 

The Illinois Republican and the Republican Advocat 
(later the Kaskaskia Republican) were less permanent ele 
ments in the early newspaper field, and did little more tl 
contribute to the campaign discussions of 1823-24. The 
Illinois Republican at Edwardsville was established by 
Pennsylvanian named Miller, and his son. Their coming 
was opportune; a paper to oppose the Spectator was mucl 
desired, and a group of citizens, including Theophilus W. 
Smith, furnished some necessary money to aid the under- 
taking. From the beginning the paper favored the pro- 
slavery party; when the convention campaign opened, it 
passed into the hands of Thomas J. McGuire and Company, 
and became the organ of the convention party, 39 with Smitl 
as virtual editor, aided by William Kinney, West, and others. 
Smith was a smooth, graceful, and plausible writer. His 
articles were polished and of considerable literary merit, but 
he was not the equal of his rival, Hooper Warren. No othei 
papers in the campaign fought at such close quarters, 01 
with such direct personal animosity and bitterness as these 
two at Edwardsville. Yet the editors went only once out- 
side of their editorial columns and their offices to flay theii 
opponents. Their pens were facile and forcible. 

The Republican Advocate was established at Kaskaskic 
by Elias Kent Kane and Governor Reynolds, at first undei 

38 Washburne, Sketch of Governor Coles, 167. 

38 An interesting sidelight is thrown on this transaction in Governor Edwards's 
message to the legislature in 1826, and in a letter to Henry I. Mills. See Edward 
Papers, 270. 


the nominal editorship of Robert K. Fleming, the printer; 
in January, 1824, in the heat of the campaign in which the 
paper supported the convention party, it was transferred to 
William Orr. Orr renamed it Kaskaskia Republican in 
March, 1824, and continued the paper until early in 1825, 
but the collapse of his cause deprived him of most of his 
support. In reviving his journal in 1826 under the title of 
Illinois Reporter, Orr remarked philosophically that he had 
been "taught by experience that his course in the political 
field should not be permitted to transcend the limits of 
temperate remark," and added, with something further of 
philosophy, that "extreme violence in political discussions, 
or unrestrained vituperation of those with whom we cannot 
coincide in matters of opinion, should not be indulged in." 

How much the newspapers affected the results of the 
campaign can hardly be estimated. Two out of the five 
were against the convention, and the convention was de- 
feated ; but in three of the four counties in which the papers 
were published, the convention faction won. St. Clair 
County voted against the convention, 506 to 408, and the 
result has been credited very largely to the vigorous efforts 
of the Spectator; Fayette County returned 125 for to 121 
against; in Gallatin, where Eddy made his timid stand, 
597 for to 133 against showed the temper of the southeast 
section of the state; in Randolph 357 were for and 284 
against the proposal. 

The engine of the press finished the first period of its 
career under forced draft and high pressure, as it were. In 
the columns of these pioneer papers the early life of the state 
lies revealed frankly and realistically. The editors or 
contributors included nearly all the leaders in public life, 
and like the leaders, the papers were strongly partizan. 


But the partizanship was obvious and sincere; the earnest- 
ness with which either party advocated its cause is still 
refreshing; and in this earnestness with which the charge 
was made and repulsed and the countercharge brought forth, 
there are the simplicity and the strength of the pioneers of 
a great commonwealth. When the campaign was over the 
papers lost their strongest writers and much of their patron- 
age. One was discontinued; the others entered the next 
period weakened in character and in influence. 

FROM 1824 TO 1840 

The period from 1824 to 1840, although somewhat arbi- 
trarily limited, extends from the great convention contest to 
the most exciting presidential campaign, relative to news- 
paper activity, before 1860. It is also a formative period, 
in which almost every subsequent phenomenon of increase, 
congregation, and distribution of population was begun or 
indicated ; and in which several types of periodicals were 

In 1824 nearly the whole of the northern two-thirds of the 
state was included in five counties. The military bounty 
land tract was divided between Pike and Fulton ; Sangamon, 
Fayette, and Edgar included their present territories and all 
that part of the state to the north of them and south of the 
Illinois river and the lower edge of Lake Michigan. By 
1840, though fifteen counties were set apart subsequently, 
the county organization was practically what it is to- 
day. 40 

The chief movement of population in the early part of 
the period was the rapid peopling of the valley of the Illinois 
river, of the prairies of the central part of the state, and of 

40 Blue Book oj the State o] Illinois, 1905, pp. 414-430. 


the Fever river lead region in the vicinity of Galena. 41 The 
greatest immigration into Central Illinois occurred in 1827 
and 1828; from the end of the Black Hawk War until the 
financial disturbances in 1837 there was rapid growth along 
the Illinois river. Springfield, which was established in 18 19, 
had a population numbering between six hundred and eight 
hundred in 1830; Jacksonville was of about the same size. 
The population of Sangamon County at that time was over 
forty-two thousand; that of the military tract was about 
thirteen thousand; Adams County was the most thickly 
settled district in that now populous area, and Quincy, 
the county town, contained perhaps two hundred persons. 
Peoria, whose first permanent settlers arrived in 1819, 
grew with great rapidity. Peoria County had been organ- 
ized in 1825 with a population of twelve hundred thirty- 
six; Galena counted a population of about two thousand, 
and the county more than twice that number. After 1834 
the objective point for immigrants to Illinois was Chicago, 
where many stayed, and from which point the whole northern 
part of the state was peopled. This movement was checked 
by the financial depression beginning in 1837, but revived 
again in 1842. 

Transportation facilities improved rapidly. Steam navi- 
gation on the Illinois river began in 1828, and on Lake Michi- 
gan in 1832. By 1830 nearly every important point in Illi- 
nois could be reached in a reasonably short time, since steam- 
boats departed almost daily for all Illinois points along the 
Mississippi, and others plied up and down the Illinois. 

41 In the fall of 1825 the Western Emporium, published at Centerville, Indiana, 
estimated that between one hundred and one hundred twenty wagons loaded with 
families and effects passed through that town in fifteen days on their way to Illinois, 
chiefly to the northern parts. It believed that as many more had passed through 
Brooksville, Lawrenceburg, etc. 


Roads, also, were improved and extended. 42 In 1824 a stage 
line led from St. Louis to Vincennes; 43 by 1830 trips were 
made three times a week over this route, touching Belleville, 
Lebanon, Carlyle, Maysville, and Lawrenceville. 44 A stage 
went once a week from St. Louis to Vandalia by way of 
Edwardsville and Greenville; and once a week to Galena 
by way of Edwardsville, Springfield, and Peoria. In 1836 
a line of wagons was established between Chicago and Kan- 
kakee, where connection was made for the Illinois river; 
three years later a stage line operating between Chicago and 
Galena made the trip in two days. 

Four newspapers survived the convention campaign, to 
connect the preceding with the period now being considered. 
To these were added one hundred and fifteen new journal- 
istic ventures, and thirty-one others that belong to a most 
difficult class, based on a sort of incorporeal hereditament; 
papers with new names or old names, but related more or 
less mythically with preceding publications. An attempt 
to follow the wandering titles and peripatetic subscription 
lists of many of these early papers carries the investigator 
too near the psychical for any practical purposes of record. 
However, of these one hundred and sixty that had exist- 
ence in these sixteen years, but fifty-two remained for the 
census enumerator in 1840, several of which were but 
temporary campaign sheets. 45 

42 The General Assembly in 1830 passed many laws establishing new roads, 
and shortening and improving others. Some of the more important highways 
authorized at that session were: One from the west bank of the Wabash opposite 
Vincennes, to Chicago, through Palestine, York, Darwin, Paris, and Danville; 
one from Springfield to Rock Island via Sangamontown, New Salem, Miller's 
Ferry, Havana, and Lewiston; one from Pekin to Vermillion County; and one from 
Alton to Galena,via Carrollton, Whitehall, Jacksonville, Bairdstown (sic), Rushville 
and Macomb. 

43 Davidson and Stuv6, History of Illinois, 352. 

44 Peck, Gazetteer of Illinois, 1837, p. 325, says that stages ran each way on alter- 
nate days over this route, and twice a week between Shawneetown and Carlyle. 
See also Mitchell, Illinois in 183?, p. 66. 

45 See fourth paragraph subseq. 


The geographical distribution of the papers established 
in this period is of much significance. Whereas in the first 
decade no paper was projected in territory farther to the 
north than Vandalia, two years later the Miner's Journal 
appeared at Galena, two hundred miles northward; in the 
next year the Sangamo Spectator was established at Spring- 
field; Jacksonville followed in 1830 with the Western 
Observer, Alton in 1832 with the Spectator, and Chicago 
with the Democrat in 1833. Add to these the Chronicle and 
Bounty Land Advertiser, begun at Beardstown in 1833, the 
Enquirer, set up in the same year at Danville, on the eastern 
edge of the central belt of the state, the Illinois Champion 
and Peoria Herald in the north central section, 1834, and 
the Bounty Land Register, begun in 1835 at Q umc 7> o n tne 
extreme western side, and the limits of distribution have 
been reached. What remained now was but the filling in of 
the spaces between these remote points, and much of this was 
accomplished within the period. 

The filling-in process was urged to abnormal activity by 
the grand internal improvement scheme. No fewer than 
nineteen newspapers were established in towns along the 
Illinois river and the canal route, including Alton and ex- 
cluding Chicago, between 1836 and 1840. But as no part 
of the state was left out of this comprehensive scheme, papers 
grew, declined, and died in all parts of the state. Yet aside 
from the impetus of the improvement scheme there was the 
spirit of the time that made for recklessness. Immigration 
and speculation were abnormally augmented, settlers were 
pouring into the state, town sites were being laid out on all 
sorts of theories of future development. A contemporary 
editor has given an explanation of the newspaper situation 
that doubtless is true. 


"The establishment of newspapers appears to be a lead- 
ing characteristic of the present age. So great is the rage 
for getting up papers, that the patronage necessary for their 
maintenance is thought a secondary consideration, if, indeed, 
it is not deemed of too little consequence to elicit even a 
passing enquiry. Is there a town or city in embryo, with 
its plat designated, its streets and alleys, and public grounds 
marked out, having within its bounds some half a dozen 
houses, a tavern, a store, and a blacksmith shop ? its 
crowded population and wealth and greatness are seen in 
perspective, and a press is wanted, the sacrifice of some poor 
printer is demanded, to magnify its beauties, extenuate its 
faults, transform its very evils into blessings, and give 
assurance to the world of, not what it is, but what it is to be. 
Is there a little village, with its political parties or factions in 
array ? the one must have its paper to promulgate its 
doctrines and vindicate its rights; and anon the opposing 
party, having in their imagination great principles and im- 
portant interests at stake, must also have its organ through 
which it can be heard, that the encroachments of contending 
power may be stayed. Is there a wealthy and ambitious 
demagogue, grasping for office as the only means of obtain- 
ing a short-lived and perchance an unenviable distinction? 
- the press is the great lever by which he is to consummate 
his wishes. Is there a lawyer, brief in years, brief in legal 
acquirements, with professional prospects briefless, the press 
is the fulcrum upon which his last hope for political prefer- 
ment is based the all-powerful engine by which he is to 
elevate himself to the summit of his imaginary glory, to the 
highest goal of his ambitions, and straight the learned 
Theban mounts the editorial tripod, and with more than 


sibylline gravity utters forth his oracles of political wisdom 
to a benighted world." 46 

The presidential campaign of 1840 brought into being 
a large number of papers. Of the seventeen established in 
1839, six may reasonably be considered campaign ephemera, 
which were discontinued in 1840 or 1841, or, finding evidence 
of permanent support, changed their titles to indicate their 
altered character. In 1840 such papers as Sucker, Spirit of 
'76, Sovereign People, Illinois Free Trader, Old Hickory, 
and Old Soldier were started merely as campaign sheets; 
and there were at least twelve others primarily of the same 
character. Sixteen of the thirty new or refurbished down- 
state papers established in 1840 ended with the campaign 
or within the following year. 

In tone the papers were not materially different from 
those of the preceding period. There were, to be sure, a 
good many very poor sheets, of a colorless, neutral tone, the 
forerunners of the abject bread-getters, never exalted to the 
dignity of bread-earners, which became widely prevalent in 
the decade from 1870 to 1880. But more of the papers 
were run by men of backbone and brains proportions 
varying. Politics continued to be the primary interest, and 
the political tone was nothing softened since 1824. No 
presidential contest in Illinois produced more violent news- 
paper utterances than that of 1840. It was a campaign 
especially to the taste of the settlers in the young, crude state, 
and the inhabitants entered the lists without reserve, and 
with sufficient vocabularies. Witness this following, from 

48 Illinois State Gazette & Jacksonville News, May 9, 1835. The promptness 
with which newspapers were set up in incipient villages is well illustrated in the 
case of Grafton. The first settlers built their cabins in 1832, streets were laid out 
in 1836, and John Russell published the Backwoodsman there in 1837. 


the Vandalia Free Press, edited by William Hodge, for 
July 27, 1838 (extra): 


A " Mousing Grimalkin" for President! 

A practical amalgamator, his vicel 

A Taney Federalist in the chair of Marshall. 

A Secretary of the Treasury whose financial blunders 
would disgrace a schoolboy! 

An Attorney General who has yet to learn the first rudi- 
ments of political honesty! 

A servile Senate fawning at the footstool of Puss's throne ! 

Hodge was not a fair representative of the Illinois news- 
paper men of his day, perhaps, but however the papers 
differed in degree, they were alike in being strong party 
organs, one-sided, and never independent. 

The strong bias that seemed to be demanded of the news- 
papers of the time, the bias that fed the party or factional 
spirit, at the same time reduced the power of the papers. 
'Newspapers at present have but little influence," wrote 
Hooper Warren in i828. 47 u The readers are few, and 
these are taught to believe that all that appears in a news- 
paper is a lie, of course." At this same time De Tocqueville 
remarked the small influence of American papers, 48 and 
Harriet Martineau had never heard any one deny the prof- 
ligacy of newspapers in general, or that the American were 
the worst. Why "the republic has not been overthrown by 
its newspapers" 49 Miss Martineau might have learned from 
Hooper Warren. 

47 Edwards Papers, 336. 

48 Democracy in America, I, 235. (Bowen, 1882.) But see also 238. 

49 Society in America, I, 75. (Paris, 1837.) 


Though the newspaper readers were few from the point 
of view of an unsuccessful editor, the ratio of newspapers to 
population was large, as the following table will show, and 
their influence was without doubt greater than the dis- 
couraged editor of the Galena Advertiser believed. 


Town Population 50 Pop. of Co. (1835) Newspaper 

Alton 2,500 9,016 4 

Chicago 8,000 7, 500 3 

Galena 1,200 4,35 i 

Jacksonville 2,500 16,500 3 

Ottawa 400 4,754 i 

Pekin 800 5,850 i 

Peoria i>5o 7,000 i 

Shawneetown 600 8,660 i 

Springfield i7>573 2 

Vandalia 850 3^38 2 

In the following statistical view of the publishing in- 
dustry in the state in 1840, presented in the census report 
for that year, two items require comment. The four peri- 
odicals assigned to Jo Daviess County it seems impossible 
to identify. There were but two towns of any consequence 
in the county at that time, and neither, so far as available 
materials show, supported a periodical other than a news- 
paper. The same difficulty attends the daily paper in 
Schuyler County. Possibly the Rushville Political Examiner 
was issued daily in the heat of the campaign. 

50 These figures are from Mitchell, Illinois in 1837, and are probably estimated. 





Printing Offices 


Daily Newspapers 

Weekly Newspapers 

Semi- and Tri-weekly 

























Edgar. . 


















I. "COO 






1 ,000 

Tersev. . 





Jo Daviess 







La Salle 











Montgomery. . . . 



























1, 800 

Rock Island .... 

















St. Clair 

































Throughout the first half-century of our newspaper 
history the weekly papers were all these things to all men; 
each presented a symposium of politics, agriculture, morals, 
mechanics, science, and literature something to please 
each member of the family, indeed. But the idea of special 
types was present very early, and found concrete habiliment 
in several premature publications. As early as 1829 a 


religious paper was started; in the next year appeared an 
agricultural journal, the second west of the Alleghanies, 
and a monthly literary magazine. The first harbinger of 
the flock which was to spread the Washingtonian movement 
abroad in the state came in 1836; in 1837 an educational 
monthly endured a brief life of neglect. In the next year 
a paper was started at Edwardsville to promulgate a uni- 
versal language. Finally, ambitious Chicago produced in 
1839 the first daily paper in the state, and in 1840 the second. 
It should be noted too, that the two oldest papers in Illinois 
to-day look back to this period for their beginnings. Most 
of these pioneers in special fields require here a word of 

Religious journalism, which has been important numeri- 
cally since the middle of this period, began with the Pioneer 
of the Valley of the Mississippi, established at Rock Spring 
by John Mason Peck and T. P. Green, and first issued on 
April 25, 1829. It was a private venture, and Baptist. 
Baptist journalism in Illinois has been, from the beginning, 
wholly a matter of private enterprise in contrast with that of 
Ohio and Michigan, among the western states. 51 The idea 
of the Pioneer originated with Peck, who felt that his Baptist 
seminary, and the state, needed the stimulus that a weekly 
paper would give. He found a Rev. T. P. Green willing to 
furnish half enough money to start the venture, and to act 
as publisher. The rest of the funds Peck secured from 
eastern Baptists, who, no doubt, at Peck's suggestion, stipu- 
lated that half of the profits should go to the seminary. 
Peck was editor, and in his travels solicited subscriptions. 
But the paper was a dead expense from the beginning; 52 

51 Justin A. Smith, History of the Baptists in the Western States, 380. 
82 Rufus Babcock, Memoir of John Mason Peck, Phila., 1864. 


the Rev. Mr. Green soon starved out, and was succeeded by 
a Mr. Smith, son-in-law of Mr. Peck. In June, 1836, the 
office was moved to Alton, where it was a distressing burden 
to its originator until January, 1839, when it was combined 
with the Baptist Banner of Louisville, Kentucky. 

That an attempt was made to establish a pretentious 
literary monthly in Illinois in 1830 provokes astonishment 
paralleled only by the wonder that the attempt was carried 
two years toward success. James Hall, lawyer, writer, 
circuit judge, state treasurer, editor of the Illinois Emigrant 
from 1820 to 1822, of the Illinois Intelligencer from 1829 to 
1832, trustee of Illinois College, writer of fiction, literary 
biography, and commercial statistics, vehement politician 
and maker of many enemies this versatile Pennsylvanian 
established the Illinois Monthly Magazine at Vandalia, 
October, 1830, and published it there for two years. Illinois 
had been a state but twelve years, and contained more horse- 
thieves in the southern and Indians in the northern sections 
than litterateurs in both. Yet here was this hopeful voice 
calling out from Vandalia to the people of Illinois for articles 
on subjects literary, scientific, cultural for fiction and for 
poetry and for appreciation in coin of the realm. It had 
nearly a score of predecessors in the Ohio valley, 53 including 
The Medley (1803), Western Review (1820) and Transyl- 
vanian (1829) at Lexington, Kentucky; Cincinnati Literary 
Gazette (1824), Western Monthly Review (1828), Sentinel and 
Star in the West (1829), and Olio, at Cincinnati, the western 
publishing center of that time. Of these predecessors to 
Hall's venture, Olio (1821-22) is of interest here because 
one of its editors was Samuel S. Brooks, who became 

B Venable, Early Periodical Literature of the Ohio Valley. Cairns, On the De- 
velopment of American Literature from 1815 to Z#JJ, pp. 60, 61. 


one of the most active and trenchant of early editors in 
Illinois. The greater age and population of the communities 
in which these early attempts were made, as compared with 
the village capital of Illinois, make Hall's venture seem the 
more hazardous. 

Yet Hall's purpose was largely practical. "The leading 
features of our humble attempt," the editor explained in the 
preface to his first number, "will be to disseminate knowl- 
edge, to cultivate a taste for letters, and to give correct deline- 
ations of this country to our distant friends. . . . Every 
topic connected with the arts, the industry, or the resources 
of this flourishing state, or of the western country, will come 
within the scope of this work. . . . But while we propose 
to give a prominent place to the useful, it is not our intention 
to neglect the lighter and more elegant branches of literature. 
Original tales, characteristic of the western people, are 
promised, and we think that our arrangements in this depart- 
ment are such, that the lovers of ingenious fiction will not 
be disappointed. Literary intelligence will form a portion 
of each number." Something further of Hall's ideal was 
expressed in the seventh number, when, in the course of an 
article on "Periodicals," the editor wrote, "Our editors 
have become too formal, and stately, and fastidious. . . . 
Instead of the infinite variety of topics, which once gave 
interest to works of this description, nothing is now admitted 
but reviews, tales, and poetry. ... I am much better 
pleased with the good old-fashioned magazines . . . within 
whose well furnished pages, the reader, whatever might be 
his taste, was sure to find something agreeable." 

Such, indeed, was the character of the Illinois Monthly 
Magazine, for performance followed close on purpose, and 
Hall gathered in those two ambitious volumes a quantity, 


quality, and variety of matter creditable indeed. He drew 
on his own resources heavily he contributed nearly one- 
half of all that he printed. And he drew at the same time 
on all other available resources in the state, and soon ex- 
hausted them. 

The energetic citizens of Alton, which at that time was 
almost the equal of Chicago in population, furnished the 
first organ of temperance reform, when on June i, 1836, the 
Illinois State Temperance Society published there the first 
number of the Illinois Temperance Herald. The paper 
never received from subscriptions and advertisements a 
support sufficient to maintain it, but the society seems to 
have had fairly ample funds, since for some time as many as 
six thousand copies of the Herald were circulated. 54 Fur- 
thermore they brought Timothy Turner, an effective tem- 
perance lecturer, from New York, and at considerable 
expense secured A. W. Corey as editor of their paper. 55 The 
burden became too great, however; the Missouri Society 
was in 1839 induced to share the expenses of publication, 
and the title of the paper was altered to Missouri and Illinois 
Temperance Herald. The words and Washingtonian were 
added in 1842, after which time the paper did not long 

Ensley T. and C. Goudy began in January, 1837, to 
publish the first educational journal in Illinois, probably the 
first in the Mississippi valley. It was entitled Common 
School Advocate, and was issued monthly. Only a printer 

54 Tanner, Martyrdom oj Lovejoy, 100. 

65 Tanner, supra cit., declared that Corey provoked heated opposition in St. 
Louis, especially by printing the names of all wholesale grocers of that city who 
sold liquors, and charging them with participating in a common crime. "Many, 
in their fury, would have been glad to have wiped out of existence not only the 
Observer, but also the Temperance Herald, with their editors, printers, and offices, 
as nuisances in society." 


like Goudy, who ventured and failed in many journalistic 
undertakings, would have had the courage to use labor, ink, 
and paper, even, in publishing a school journal in Illinois, 
at that time. There was no common school system; there 
were no required qualifications for school teachers; and 
there was a latent antagonism on the part of a large portion 
of the populace to an educational system which would entail 
taxation. 56 "We apprehend," said S. S. Brooks, editor of 
the Jacksonville Gazette and News in a notice of the Common 
School Advocate, "there is not sufficient intelligence among 
the mass of teachers in the state to appreciate the merits of 
such a work, nor interest enough taken by parents in the 
success of common schools, or in the education of their 
children, to induce them to extend, at the present time, an 
adequate support to the enterprise." The editorial labor 
was done by "a few literary gentlemen who, from their 
deep interest in this subject, generously volunteered their 
services for one year without remuneration." Samuel 
Willard ascribed the editorship to Rev. Theron Baldwin. 57 
But Brooks's pessimism seems to have been warranted, for 
the journal did not continue beyond the year. The failure of 
the Advocate was in keeping with the fate of all educational 
journals, four in number, which had been established up to 
that time in the United States. The first was begun in 1818 ; 
the least unsuccessful lived for ten years; others, four, two, 
and one, respectively. Considering the conditions, the 
Common School Advocate had its due length of life. 

Chicago had a population of about five hundred when 
the first newspaper was set up in it, and mail was carried on 

56 Mitchell, Illinois in 1837, pp. 60-61. 

57 W. L. Pillsbury, in Report of the Supt. of Public Instruction, 1883-84, p. cxvii. 
Quoted in Pub. No. 10, III. State Hist. Lib. 333. 


a horse once a week by way of Niles, Michigan. And it is 
significant that the first number of this first paper strongly 
urged "the commencement and completion of the long- 
contemplated canal to connect the waters of Lake Michigan 
with the Illinois River." In that year, 1833, when the 
Democrat added its voice to the internal improvement chorus, 
a total of twenty-eight voters elected the first trustees of the 
new town; and seven thousand Indians met thereabouts 
to sign a treaty ceding to the United States all of the terri- 
tory in northern Illinois and in Wisconsin. A second paper 
was established in 1835, when the population of the town 
was 3,265, including a number of Whigs who were not con- 
tent to have their interests ignored by the only paper in the 
place. They consequently saw to it that the Whig American 
was started, and this paper, on November 26, 1839, began 
to issue the first daily in the state. Its rival .began a daily 
in the following year. Thus the dailies really began in this 
period, but discussion of them is placed in the next, in which 
they became an important feature of journalism. 

Although this sketch is confined to affairs less widely 
known than the brief career of the Alton Observer, ending 
in the death of Elijah P. Lovejoy, it is perhaps permissible 
to recite briefly the events connected with that fatal affair, 
since the Observer was the first abolition paper in Illinois. 
Hooper Warren contrasts conditions in 1837, when Lovejoy 
was killed, with those in 1820, when Warren, unmolested, 
conducted the Spectator, 58 suggesting the inference that the 
two men were preaching the same doctrine. But such an 
inference is erroneous. The Edwardsville Spectator was not 
an abolition paper, but an anti-slavery paper. Since War- 
ren's paper was only anti-slavery, the Observer was the first 

58 In Genius of Liberty, Vol. I, no. i. 


abolition paper in the state, the first of a considerable num- 
ber, most of which originated between 1842 and i85o. 59 

The Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy, who had been forced to 
leave St. Louis because of his abolitionist utterances, 
arrived at Alton with a press and an intention to establish 
a newspaper, or to conduct at that point the one that he 
was not allowed to continue at St. Louis. Many citizens 
at Alton resented the idea of an abolition paper in that place, 
and on the night after the arrival of the press, threw it into 
the Mississippi. At a public meeting held on the next day 
Mr. Lovejoy assured that people that they had mistaken 
his motives, that he had intended to establish a religious, 
not an anti-slavery newspaper; he asserted his personal 
antagonism to slavery, but denied that he was an aboli- 

These statements were taken as a pledge by those citizens 
who felt that they had a right to receive in advance a pledge 
as to what kind of doctrine Lovejoy was to print in his news- 
paper. "Upon this condition," says Ford, 60 "he was per- 
mitted to set up the Alton Observer without opposition." 
The editor had no idea of assenting to such a condition, but 
for some time he conducted the Observer as a religious paper, 
opposed to slavery, but not abolition in tone. Gradually 
his own views changed, however, and within a year he was 
foremost in Illinois abolition councils. A meeting of anti- 
abolitionists resolved that Lovejoy had broken his pledge 
and was threatening the peace of the community. A com- 
mittee impressed those resolutions upon him, to which he 
answered with a denial of having given a pledge, and con- 
tended for right to freedom of discussion. To this his 

s * See p. Ixxv. 

80 History of Illinois, 234-235. 


critics replied on September 21 by throwing his press and 
type into the Mississippi. A state anti-slavery meeting was 
held at Upper Alton on September 27 for the purpose of 
forming an anti-slavery society, but as the call included 
all friends of free discussion, the anti-abolitionists made 
the meeting futile. Another was held on October 28, at 
which it was voted to order a new press. News of this act 
brought on another mass meeting at which was discussed not 
the right to require an editor to promise in advance what he 
intends to say, but whether or not he had kept such a 
promise, and what he intended to do in the future. Love joy 
asserted that he would advocate what doctrines he wished; 
his opponents resolved that he should not advocate abolition. 
With matters in that posture the press arrived, and was 
placed in a warehouse, where it was guarded by Lovejoy 
and others. In an attack on the warehouse Lovejoy and 
one of his opponents were killed. The press was thrown 
into the river, and the paper was not again printed in Alton. 
" After the violence of feeling had somewhat subsided," 
remarks Ford, 61 "both parties were indicted for their 
crimes arising out of these transactions, and all were acquit- 
ted; making it a matter of record that in fact the aboli- 
tionists had not provoked an assault ; that there had been no 
mob; and that no one had been killed or wounded." This 

61 History of Illinois, 245. For contemporary accounts of this affair see Wil- 
liam S. Lincoln, Alton Trials, New York, 1838; Rev. Edward Beecher, Narrative 
oj Riots at Alton, Alton, 1838; also Henry Tanner, Martyrdom of Lovejoy, Chicago, 
1 88 1. Harris, Negro Servitude in Illinois, 68-98, reviews the event and its results, 
giving on p. 96 n. an incomplete list of papers which deplored the riot, and saying: 
" In Illinois the effect of the rioting at Alton upon the anti-slavery cause was not at 
once apparent. There was a small public meeting in Chicago, which condemned 
the assault on the warehouse as a blow at the freedom of the press. This and the 
censure of a few papers like the Peoria Register were the only protests against the 
outrage. In fact, few people in the state cared to raise their voices in condemnation 
of the deed such was the disrepute in which the abolitionists were then held." 
For its effect at the center of abolitionist agitation see William Lloyd Garrison, The 
Story of His Life, Vol. 2, pp. 182-192. 


verdict was reached in spite of the fact that the evidence 
showed that each accused individual had been present when 
Love joy was killed, and that most of them had had weapons 
of some sort in their hands. 82 

The Observer was not the only paper suppressed in the 
course of the slavery struggle in Illinois, as will appear in 
another section; but Love joy was the only editor killed in 
such affairs, and his death, more than his or other anti- 
slavery paper, gave coherence and impetus to the aboli- 
tion movement. 

The period ending in 1840, with a total of fifty-three 
papers, showed little development in the character of the 
newspapers of the ordinary type. They were still strongly 
political and partizan; there had been no noticeable im- 
provement in tone; no great editors had appeared, although 
such men as John York Sawyer, John Bailhache, J. M. 
Peck, John Russell, and S. S. Brooks, besides Hooper War- 
ren and others who had figured in the previous period, raised 
a part of the press of Illinois well above the level of medioc- 
rity. In the beginnings of religious, literary, and some 
other special forms, indications of progress were to be seen, 
but the chief growth had been numerical and geographical. 
Although many immigrants had come, and many thousands 
of idle acres had been tilled, pioneer conditions still pre- 
vailed, and nothing could have been more uncouth and 
violent than the newspapers in the campaign of 1840, with 
which this period closed. 

FROM 1841 TO i860 

Three important movements affected the character and 
growth of newspapers in the period from 1840 to 1860. 

62 Harris, Negro Servitude in Illinois, 95. 


These were the introduction of the telegraph, the coming of 
the railroad, and the political shifts and realignments that 
led to the forming of the Republican party organization in 
Illinois in 1856, and eventually to the nomination of Lincoln. 
The first two combined to bring about a revolution in 
economic conditions in the newspaper industry; the third 
brought to a close an epoch of political chaos among the 
papers, and established a pretty definite basis of classifica- 
tion. There were fifty- two papers in the state in 1840. In 
the score of years following, a total of seven hundred and 
thirty-one others, at least, were begun. In 1860 two hundred 
and eighty-six remained, showing a net increase of two hun- 
dred thirty-four, in spite of the great mortality. 

The most striking effect of the introduction of the tele- 
graph and the railroad was that which it had in promoting 
the establishment and growth of daily papers. It is a truism 
well known to newspaper publishers that as soon as the 
population of a town becomes large enough to support one 
daily journal, two are started. The relation of popula- 
tion to the beginnings of Illinois dailies is of course not to 
be overlooked; the other less obvious, but more suggestive 
and almost equally important relation warrants consideration. 

The telegraph preceded the railroad in Illinois, despite 
the internal improvement act of 1837, under which the state 
undertook to build about one thousand three hundred and 
forty miles of railroad. As a result of this act a road was 
built eastward from Meredosia, and the first locomotive in 
the state was put in use November 8, 1838. The line reached 
Springfield in 1842; but the engines deteriorated and were 
abandoned; mules were substituted; and the whole prop- 
erty was sold in i847. 83 The real introduction of railroads 

88 W. K. Ackerman, Early Illinois Railroads, Fergus Hist. Ser. No. 23. 


came three years later. The telegraph reached the state by 
two routes in the same year, 1848; one from Philadelphia, 
Pittsburg, and Cincinnati to St. Louis, touched at the 
southern part of the state ; the other from New York, by way 
of Cleveland, Toledo, and Detroit, tapped Chicago. The 
network of lines that spread over the state from 1840 to 1850 
was built by Henry C. O'Reilly, as a part of his great 
Atlantic and Mississippi lines. 64 Starting from St. Louis, 
these were extended to Alton, Jacksonville, Jerseyville, 
Carrollton, Springfield, Peoria, Delavan, Peru, Chillicothe, 
Henry, Ottawa, Morris, Lockport, and thence to Chicago, 
where connection was made with the line built by Ezra 
Cornell along the lakes. Another line from St. Louis con- 
nected Beardstown, Rushville, Sterling, Quincy, Rock 
Island, Dixon, and Galena, as well as small intermediate 
points. 65 By 1850 every important town in Illinois was in 
telegraphic connection with Chicago and the eastern cities, 
and Chicago newspapers regularly contained in brief form 
the news of the previous day from all over the east. 

Railroad construction in Illinois really began in 1850, in 
which year a line was put in operation between Chicago 
and Elgin; and later continued to Freeport. In 1852 the 
Michigan Central, the first line to connect Illinois with the 
East, entered Chicago. The work of construction on the 
Illinois Central was begun in 1851 and completed to Cairo 
in 1856; a line from Alton to Springfield was completed in 
1853; and from Springfield to Joliet in 1854. By 1860 
most of the principal towns were to be reached by railroads. 
The rapidity with which they were built is suggested by the 
fact that in February, 1852, there were ninety-five miles of 

M Alexander Jones, Historical Sketch of the Electric Telegraph, 79. 
M Drown, Record and Historical View of Peoria, 1850, p. 122. 


road in the state; two years later there were one thousand 
miles; at the end of 1855 two thousand four hundred ten; 
and in another year, two thousand seven hundred sixty-one. 
How closely the dailies followed the telegraph may be 
seen by comparing the foregoing statements with the fol- 
lowing list: 


Town Paper When Established 

Quincy, Daily Morning Courier September 13, 1845 

Springfield, Illinois State Journal (d. ed.) 1845 

Galena, Daily Advertiser 66 January i, 1848 

Peoria, Daily Register June 16, 1848 

Springfield, State Register (d. ed.) January 2, 1849 

Peoria, Champion 1849 

Quincy, Herald (d. ed.) 1849 

Quincy, Journal 1851 

Dixon, Telegraph 1851 

Quincy, Tribune 1852 

Quincy, Whig (d. ed.) 1852 

Peoria, Daily Morning News .... ' . . May 26, 1852 

Alton, Telegraph May 24, 1852 

Alton, Courier May 29, 1852 

Peru, Chronicle (d. ed.) 1853 

Belleville, Eagle 1853 

Belleville, Zeitung 1853 

Peoria, Republican January 17, 1853 

Peoria, Democratic Press 1854 

Bloomington, Pantagraph June 19, 1854 

Carlyle, Daily Democrat 1854 

Rock Island, Argus 1854 

Jacksonville, Constitutionist 1854 

Springfield, Enterprise 1854 

Dixon, Daily Whisper 1855 

Rock Island, Daily Commercial 1855 

Rock Island, Advertiser September 13, 1855 

Peoria, Transcript December 17, 1855 

Decatur, Gazette 1856 

Galena, Daily Courier January, 1856 

88 E. A. Snively, Trans. III. State Hist. Soc., No. 9, p. 207, gives the title as 
Galena Gazette, and the date, June i, 1847. But v. 4, no. 117 of Galena Advertiser 
(d) is dated October 15, 1851, and other accounts give 1848. 


Not all these papers afford such apt evidence of the 
close relation of the telegraph to the dailies as does the Peoria 
Register. That paper was started on the same day the 
telegraph line was opened between Peoria and St. Louis, and 
the first despatch between the two towns was sent by the 
editor of the Register to the editor of the St. Louis Repub- 
lican. 67 

In Chicago, the first daily, the American, was established 
on April 9, 1839, the second in 1840. In the period 1841- 
1860, inclusive, twenty-eight were begun, including one 
daily "price current"; of these, ten were still published in 
1860. According to compilations made at the various 
dates, the number of dailies in the state was: 

1840 Downstate i Chicago 2 Total 3 

1850 Downstate 3 Chicago 5 Total 8 

1854 Downstate 13 Chicago 7 Total 20 

1856 Downstate 10 Chicago 7 Total 17 

1860 Downstate 13 Chicago 10 Total 23 

This was a formative period of newspapers, as of politics. 
The violence of party strife which marred the newspapers 
before and in the campaign of 1840 was not soon mitigated. 
The Chicago press had shown as yet but a few of the qual- 
ities which were developed later. "It was still in its in- 
fancy, and an infancy by no means respectable." 68 In 1848 
John L. Scripps bought a third interest in the Chicago 
Tribune, and from that date one may fairly say that the 
Chicago papers began to take on something of tone and 
character, given to them directly or indirectly by the dig- 
nified labor of Scripps. He originated the first distinctive 
review of the markets of Chicago; he gave distinction and 
influence to the editorial, and extended the scope of the news 

87 Bess, Eine Populate Geschichte der Stadt Peoria, 195. 

88 William Bross, History of Chicago, 81. 


service. In the winter of 1851-1852 the Whigs of Chicago 
had a controlling interest in the Tribune. Scripps was a 
Free-Soiler, and something of a Democrat, so he sold his 
share in the Tribune, and with William Bross started the 
Democratic Press, through which he continued to act as a 
tonic to the press of the city. The Democratic Press was 
Free-Soil, but supported Douglas until the Kansas-Neb- 
raska question drove it, in 1856, into the Republican 
party, and two years later, into the Tribune, which Charles 
H. Ray made, within this period, the best paper in Illinois, 
and which increased in prestige under Horace White and 
Joseph Medill, until it ranked high in American journalism. 

Although the press was increasing in efficiency, espe- 
cially through the establishment of such publications as the 
Tribune and the Prairie Farmer, and papers at Bloomington, 
Princeton, Peoria, Quincy, and Belleville, the general tone, 
especially of the political press, was still in the greater part 
violent and partisan. Amid the clatter of party discussions, 
however, there arose early in the period signs of reaction, 
of protest, of a demand for rational consideration of politics 
instead of party affairs. The demand was neither wide- 
spread nor loudly voiced, for the general public was far 
from desiring independent newspapers but individuals, and 
even communities, were moving in that direction. At 
Jacksonville, then the most cultured community in the 
State, the Illinoisan had, just before the close of the previous 
decade, shown better qualities than generally prevailed, 
but it had passed to the hands of William Hodge in the 
early forties, and had sunk to the common level. In its 
place there arose a short-lived but significant independent 

"At the suggestion of many friends," Jonathan Baldwin 


Turner began on April 29, 1843, to publish the Illinois 
Statesman, and established a fair claim to having set up the 
first wholly independent newspaper in Illinois. So far as 
independence was concerned, no one in the state was 
better equipped than he. Of unusual natural ability, he 
was well educated, strong minded, and absolutely unafraid 
of either men or ideas. When in an early number of his 
paper he said, "It is well known that on many points, both 
of politics and morals, we disagree with all parties now 
extant," he made mild acknowledgment of a fact to which 
every one who knew him would testify. What the States- 
man was to strive for is suggested by certain passages from 
the prospectus: "The present depression of the public 
mind is known and felt by all. ... It is believed that good 
men of all parties are anxious, candidly and earnestly to 
enquire for the true causes and remedies of present ills, 
and to seek some sure foundation of future action and 
future hope. ... In a word, how can we secure to our- 
selves harmony, peace, and prosperity at home, and re- 
spectability abroad as a community, as a state, and 
as a nation? . . . We all know but too well, that 
speculation, officeseeking, demagogues and party spirit, 
have conspired to plunge us into the gulph. . . . Hence 
this paper can be devoted to the interests of no party what- 
ever, political, moral, social, or ecclesiastical." Neither 
was it to attack any party, as such. So, in the face of a 
generally expressed belief, "that none but a violent, factious, 
party paper could be sustained" in Jacksonville, the new 
paper was begun. 

But success was from the first clearly impossible. Turner 
was a pamphleteer, not a journalist. He had no editorial 
experience, and little interest, even for that day, in a news- 


paper for the sake of news. Under the head of " Crimes and 
Casualties" he printed: 89 "Our paper is small, and if our 
readers will for the present just have the goodness to imagine 
a certain due proportion of fires, tornadoes, murders, thefts, 
robberies and bully fights, from week to week, it will do just 
as well, for we can assure them they actually take place." 
Such a news service would have satisfied Thoreau, but did 
not content the subscribers. On the other hand, the edi- 
torial department was strong. The Quincy Whig commented 
facetiously on one of Mr. Turner's thirteen-column edi- 
torials, and was told in reply that the actual length was but 
eleven columns. These editorials dealt carefully and logi- 
cally, but vigorously and sometimes caustically, with 
current political topics slavery, the tariff, and banks - 
always considered morally or economically, without regard 
to parties. Agriculture and education were given much 
attention. The editor flatly refused to write "puffs" for 
advertisers. In the second number a great national news- 
paper at Washington was proposed, to represent both politi- 
cal parties, page and page alike. This was to be supple- 
mented by similar papers at each state capital. "The 
constitution provides for catching runaway negroes, but it 
makes no provision for informing free white men," thus 
leaving the press and the people in the hands of demagogues 
and factions. The national bi-party paper was to "miti- 
gate the ferocity of party zeal," and protect the public from 
low ribaldry, sophistry, and abuse. 

Of course the Statesman did not "succeed," and it was 
discontinued at the end of one year; but it is significant, 
even in failure, as having thus early voiced a protest still 
heard, and as having striven for an ideal still but partly 

"On July 17, 1843. 


The free-soil movement in Illinois gave rise to a number 
of newspapers between 1842 and 1854. The movement 
may be said to have centered around the series of papers 
which included Genius of Universal Emancipation, Genius 
of Liberty, and Free West, and which were fairly entitled to 
be called the mouthpieces of the free-soil and abolition 
movement in the state. But by 1845 others had sprung up, 
and by 1848, when Van Buren was supported by an imposing 
list of able and important papers, including the Chicago 
Tribune, free-soil organs were fairly numerous. 70 

On the breaking up of the Whig party a number of news- 
papers, like many individuals, found difficulty in placing 
themselves. The Whigs, like the Democrats in Illinois, 
were divided in two factions. Many Whigs felt that if they 
were to remain true to their principles, they could not cor- 
dially unite with any party then in existence; 71 and many 
felt that no genuine Whig could join a party founded on the 

70 Liberty and Free-Soil papers in Illinois are enumerated as follows by Mr. T. 
C. Smith in his "Liberty and Free-Soil Parties in the North-west" (Appendix B, 
p. 320): 

1837 Alton, Observer E. P. Lovejoy 

1838-39 Lowell, Genius of Universal Emancipation B. Lundy 

1840-42 Lowell, Genius of Liberty Z. Eastman 

1842-54 Chicago, Western Citizen (with a daily edition, the Daily 

News, 1845; and another, the Daily Times, 1852) Z. Eastman 

1848 Chicago, Tribune T. Stewart 

1848 Waukegan, Lake County Chronicle A. B. Tobey 

1848-50 Rockford, Free Press H. W. DePuy 

1849 Waukegan, Free Democrat N. W. Fuller 

1850-54 Sparta, Freeman (later, Journal) I. S. Coulter 

1853-54 Galesburg, Western Freeman W. J. Lane 

Other names are those of the Alton Monitor, Geneva Western Mercury, Prince- 
ton Bureau Advocate, Quincy Tribune, and Peru Telegraph, all in 1848. There was 
one German paper, the Chicago Staats-Zeitung, 1848, and one Norwegian Frihets 
Banneret, 1852. There were probably many other ephemeral i-'ree-Soil sheets in 
1848; but their activity was so brief that they sank at once into oblivion, along with 
the pledges of the Illinois " Barnburners." 

To Smith's list may be added the Belleville Freiheitsbote fur Illinois, 1840; 
Alton Truth-Seeker, 1845-46; Elgin Western Christian, 1845; Little Fort Lake 
County Visiter, 1847; Greenville Barnburner, 1849; Galesburg Free Democrat, 
1854; and Waukegan Freeman's Advocate, 1854-55. 

71 Ormsby, History of the Whig Party, 354. 


slavery question. 72 Because of the unusual lack of homo- 
geneity in the state, coalition of free Whigs and free Demo- 
crats was considerably retarded. 

In spite of the popular revolt against Douglas and his 
bill, neither the free Democrats nor the free Whigs soon 
seized the opportunity to lead in forming a coalition party, 
and the free Democrats finally played comparatively little 
part in the Republican movement in Illinois. 73 When the 
Nebraska bill was passed the Democratic Chicago Courant 
declared: "The political landmarks can no longer be Whig 
or Democratic, Free- Soil or Abolitionist, but must be merged 
into the two great parties, South and North." 

In certain localities the free Democrats indicated readi- 
ness to form a new party, and a call was issued for a con- 
vention in Springfield on October 4 and 5. The meeting 
proved fruitless, however, and "in this campaign, therefore, 
the Illinois Free Democrats lost their identity as a party," 74 
as well as their opportunity to assume leadership in forming 
a new one. 

The Illinois Whigs were extremely conservative. While 
the formation of state Republican organizations in Michigan, 
Wisconsin, and elsewhere was going on in 1854, the Illinois 
State Journal advised against abandoning the Whig organi- 
zation, and its advice was followed. 75 Hence Illinois had 
no Republican organization in 1854, although the de- 
mand for one was voiced by local conventions at Princeton 
and elsewhere which declared in favor of organizing. Two 
years later, in the absence of any party machinery, a 

71 Ormsby, History oj the Whig Party, 358. 

73 T. C. Smith, Liberty and Free Soil Parties in the Northwest, 290, 294, 295. 

74 Ibid. 

76 F. A. Flower, History 0} the Republican Party, 206. 


number of anti-Nebraska editors of the state held a prelimi- 
nary convention at Decatur on February 22, 1856. 

Early in January there had appeared in the Morgan 
Journal of Jacksonville, edited by Paul Selby, a suggestion 
for the holding of such a convention to agree on a policy for 
the approaching campaign. John Moses printed in the 
Chronicle of Winchester the first endorsement of the idea; 
the Illinois State Chronicle of Decatur followed, and sug- 
gested Decatur as the meeting place. After some further 
ratification a formal call was issued, bearing the endorse- 
ments of twenty-five papers: 

Morgan Journal, Jacksonville Fultonian, Vermont 

Chronicle, Winchester Journal, Quincy 

Illinois State Chronicle, Decatur Beacon, Freeport 

Whig, Quincy Pantagraph, Bloomington 
Pike County Free Press, Pittsfield True Democrat, Joliet 

Gazette, Lacon Telegraph, Lockport 

Tribune, Chicago Gazette, Kankakee 

Staats Zeitung, Chicago Guardian, Aurora 

Republican, Oquawka Gazette, Waukegan 

Republican, Peoria Chronicle, Peoria 

Prairie State, Danville Advocate, Belleville 

Advertiser, Rock Island Journal, Chicago 
Journal, Sparta 

As a result of this call a dozen persons were present at 
the opening meeting, including Dr. Charles H. Ray, Chicago 
Tribune; George Schneider, Chicago Staats Zeitung; V. Y. 
Ralston, Quincy Whig; O. P. Wharton, Rock Island Adver- 
tiser; Thomas J. Pickett, Peoria Republican,' E. C. Daugh- 
erty, Rockford Register; E. W. Blaisdell, Rockford Repub- 
lican; Charles Faxon, Princeton Post; A. N. Ford, Lacon 
Gazette; B. F. Shaw, Dixon Telegraph; W. J. Usrey, De- 
catur Chronicle; Paul Selby, Morgan Journal. Paul Selby 


was made chairman and W. J. Usrey, secretary. The only 
outsider admitted to the deliberations of the convention was 
Abraham Lincoln, who was in conference nearly all day with 
the committee on resolutions, made up of Messrs. Ray, 
Schneider, Ralston, Wharton, Daugherty, and Pickett. 
This committee drafted a platform and appointed a state 
central committee, on the call of which the first Republican 
state convention in Illinois was held at Bloomington, May 
29, i8 5 6. 76 

The great series of debates between Lincoln and Douglas, 
and the other political movements centering in these two 
men and leading to the nomination of Lincoln at Chicago, 
make the Illinois newspapers between 1856 and 1860 im- 
portant sources of the history of a most critical national era. 
Through the newspapers have been preserved most of the 
speeches made by Lincoln all over the state hi those years; 
yet the instances are many in which the papers reported in 
detail the reception of Lincoln, the procession to the fair- 
grounds, the menu of the picnic dinner, and recounted the 
incident in which Lincoln insisted on yielding his seat of 
honor to some humble admirer, but gave no word of his 
address except to mention for how many minutes or hours 
he spoke. This is true even of some of that large class 
made up of first papers to suggest Abraham Lincoln for the 

Nothing short of a history of political parties in Illinois 
would serve to present the situation in the state between 
1854 and the war. Nor is it possible to set forth in detail 
the way in which the newspapers reflected the shaping of 
political affairs. In general it may be said, however, that 

76 This account of the Decatur and Bloomington meetings is based on a letter 
dated January 2, 1910, from Mr. Paul Selby to the writer, and on Mr. Selby's 
article in the Chicago Tribune of February 22, 1906. 


in Illinois Whig papers became Republican, and Demo- 
cratic papers, less generally, remained Democratic. 77 In 
the border states many Whig papers became Democratic, 
including the St. Louis Republican, which circulated largely 
in southern Illinois, and the Louisville, Kentucky, Journal. 
There were some such changes in Illinois. The Jackson- 
ville Sentinel changed from Whig to Democratic in 1856; 
the Knoxville Journal and Clinton Courier, formerly Inde- 
pendent, became Democratic in 1855, the Decatur Gazette 
made the same change in 1856, the Pana Herald in 1858; 
and the Pekin Tazewell Register, which had been Republi- 
can, altered to Democratic in the same year, as did the 
Peoria Transcript in 1859. On the other hand, the breach 
in the Democratic ranks, especially in the northern part of 
the state, was more marked. The Galena Jeffersonian, 
then under the editorship of Dr. Charles H. Ray, afterwards 
editor of the Chicago Tribune, took strong ground against 
the Kansas-Nebraska bill, though it afterward drifted back 
into the ranks of the Douglas Democracy. But many 
staunch Democratic papers revolted at that measure. Even 
the Southern Illinoisan, of Shawneetown, left Douglas on 
that point, and became Republican. Likewise the Aurora 
Guardian, Belvidere Standard, Peoria Banner, Canton Reg- 
ister, Belleville Advocate, and the influential German paper, 
Belleville Zeitung, altered their affiliations between 1856 

71 The situation in 1856 is thus described by Gustav Koerner: "Nearly all 
prominent Northern Democrats had joined the Republican party, as well as a great 
majority of the former Whigs. Nearly all the leading papers, advocated the Repub- 
lican ticket, the Chicago Tribune, the Evening Journal, the German Staats Zeitung. 
In the middle of the state it was quite different. A great many of the Whigs, who 
had come from the Southern states, turned Democrats on the slavery question. It 
was only in a few counties [in the southern part] such as Madison, and above all 
St. Claii, that the large majority of the Democrats joined the Republican party, 
and this was largely owing to the preponderance of the German vote.^ The 
most southern part of the state was almost unanimous against the Republicans." 
Memoirs, II, 22. 


and 1858 from Democratic, either to Free-Soil and then to 
Republican, or directly to Republican. 

These are but isolated instances of changes either way. 
A large number of hitherto independent papers were drawn 
to one side or the other. Apparently in this the Republican 
forces had the advantage. In the starting of new papers, 
on the contrary, and perhaps partly as a result of defections 
from the ranks of Democratic papers, the Democrats out- 
numbered the Republicans, in 1857, 1858, and 1859, at a 
ratio of about two to one. A large number of these papers 
were brief campaign affairs, however, and they did not 
materially change the ratio as far as permanent papers were 

FROM 1861 TO 1870 

The Civil War greatly affected the newpapers and the 
newspaper situation, and set in motion certain developments 
that were not fully worked out until after the close of the 
period with which this paper deals. The stress and conflict 
of public opinion, and popular anxiety for news from the 
armies and from Washington not only revolutionized the 
practice of reporting and revised the form and makeup of 
papers ; it made dailies out of weeklies, and overcame pious 
scruples against Sunday editions. 78 

The immediate effect was on circulation. The papers 
of the larger towns and especially of Chicago were affected 
very advantageously. The circulation of the Tribune rose 
from 18,000 in 1861 to 40,000 in 1864, and other papers 
showed like increases. John Wentworth, who, in a panic 
at the prospect of war, sold his Democrat lest he should be 

78 For points in this and the preceding section the writer is indebted to Mr. Paul 
Selby, of Chicago, Mr. Ensley Moore, of Jacksonville, Mr. Horace White of New 
York City, and Mr. J. W. Merritt of Springfield. 


ruined, saw that journal help to swell the increasing tide of 
subscriptions to a height hardly thought of before. The war 
put the Chicago newspapers for the first time on a really 
money-making basis. Those outside of Chicago, located 
in the larger towns and sufficiently well established to take 
advantage of the desire for immediate news in detail, were 
also given a fresh impetus. 

There were few dailies in the state outside of Chicago, 
and none of them could compete with those of that city and 
St. Louis in furnishing news from the front and from Wash- 
ington. " We had no daily here till 1866," writes a citizen 79 
of Jacksonville, "so our people got the State Journal or 
Register for breakfast, the St. Louis papers for dinner, at 
one time, and the Chicago papers for supper." The Chi- 
cago and St. Louis papers gained at that time a circulation 
all over the state which they have never lost. Yet the larger 
dailies throughout the state held their own, and received 
their share of prosperity. 

Smaller papers, or papers in the smaller towns not able 
to get telegraphic news, or not favorably situated for receiving 
news promptly from other sources, suffered both from the 
competition of papers of the larger towns and from the great 
rise in the price of paper, which came as a direct result of 

The numerical status of newspapers in the state was 
seriously affected. The two causes just mentioned, and 
others, operated to decrease the number of papers, and as 
a result, we find a situation of unexampled prosperity on the 
one hand, and of poverty, decline, and extinction on the 
other. Beginning with 1861 there was a sharp decline in 

79 Mr. Ensley Moore. 


the annual number of papers started. From 1854 to 1860 
inclusive there was no year in which fewer than thirty-six 
were begun in the state outside of Chicago. In 1859 and 
in 1860 the number was forty-four. In 1861 just half as 
many appeared, and the three following years showed 
eighteen, twenty-six, and thirty-three respectively. Not 
until 1865, with forty-five new papers, did the rate of increase 
reach normal. In the towns outside of Chicago a notable 
exception to this general depression was Cairo, which, as 
an important troop station and a gateway to the south, saw 
its greatest newspaper activity between 1861 and 1865. 

All told, one hundred and forty-four downstate papers 
were started in the war years. In the same years a total 
of one hundred and fifty-five papers went out of business 
permanently or were suspended until after the war, so that 
at the close of 1865, in spite of the forty-five started in that 
year, there were fewer in the state than at the beginning of 
1 86 1. Many were abandoned by their editors or publishers, 
who went into the army; others, by the same means left in 
incompetent hands, soon failed. No inconsiderable num- 
ber had taken so vigorous a stand on the losing side that they 
could neither hold their own against or follow the turning 
tide of public sympathy. This was especially true in the 
southern part of the state, where public opinion was power- 
fully influenced by the conduct of John A. Logan and John 
A. McClernand. Some of these Democratic papers became 
Republican; more stayed in the party, but advocated 
the Union cause; a considerable number were unable to 
convince their subscribers that a newspaper, like an indi- 
vidual, may in all sincerity change its fealty, and so were 
snuffed out; still others steadfastly held to their earlier 
principles, but expounded them moderately. 


Forcible discontinuance or interruption was the lot of 
at least eight papers as a direct result of radical expressions 
of opinion. Papers at Bloomington, Chester, Chicago, 
Jonesboro, Maroa, Mason, Mendota, and Olney were 
attacked by mobs or authorities, and in some cases the plants 
were destroyed. The attempt of General Burnside to sup- 
press the Chicago Times is the most important instance in 
Illinois of official action against newspapers in the exciting 
days of civil conflict. 

After the proclamation of emancipation had been issued 
the Times was so bitter in its denunciation of the adminis- 
tration that the paper soon earned the designation of "cop- 
perhead sheet," and aroused an intense hostility against it 
and its owner. General Ambrose E. Burnside, in command 
of the Department of the Northwest, with headquarters at 
Cincinnati, issued an order for the suppression of the Times, 
and the commander at Camp Douglas was charged with the 
execution of the order. On the morning of June 3, 1863, 
soldiers marched into the press-room and took possession 
of the establishment. About eight thousand papers had 
been printed, a part of which were destroyed, but the larger 
part of which were issued. No edition was permitted on 
June 4. A great mass meeting was held in the Court- 
house Square on the evening of June 3, in advocacy of free 
speech and a free press. A meeting was also held during the 
day in the circuit court room, at which a petition to the 
President to revoke the order was signed by all present, in- 
cluding many prominent Republicans and business men; 
and Senator Lyman Trumbull and Isaac N. Arnold tele- 
graphed personally to Mr. Lincoln to the same effect. The 
order was revoked June 4, and publication was resumed 
on June 5. The policy of the Times was not changed; 


its circulation, as General Grant had foreseen, was aug- 
mented by official interference. 80 

The first downstate paper to encounter opposition by 
force was the Mendota Times, established in 1859 by a Mr. 
Fisk as a Democratic and pro-slavery sheet. Early in 1861 
Fisk was declared to be a copperhead and was forced by a 
recruiting company to make a speech for the Union and to 
haul up a Union flag. Threatened with worse treatment, he 

80 Andreas, History of Chicago, Vol. 2, p. 495 ; Rhodes, IV, 253-254. 

The action of General Burnside, although at once revoked by President Lin- 
coln, was by no means precipitate; and it was in accord, in spirit at least, with the 
feeling of many other officials, both civil and military. As early as June 25, 1862, 
Governor Morton of Indiana wrote to Secretary of War Stanton of an organization 
of disaffected citizens in Indiana who he believed were likely to cause trouble by 
carrying out their purpose to circulate and encourage "newspapers of extremely 
doubtful loyalty," including the Chicago Times. On August 7, 1862, Governor 
Yates wrote to Secretary Stanton: "There is an urgent and almost unanimous 
demand from the loyal citizens that the Chicago Times should be immediately 
suppressed for giving aid and comfort to the enemy. I solicit an immediate answer. 
Do not delay, for I fear the people will take into their hands the power which should 
only be used under the authority of your department." 

Major Generals C. S. Hamilton and Stephen A. Hurlbut on February 8, 1863, 
issued orders prohibiting the circulation of the Chicago Times in their commands. 
General Grant, writing to Hurlbut February 13, 1863, concerning this order, ex- 
pressed what was probably the general feeling of Union army officers on the subject: 

" I have seen your General Orders, No. 4, February 8, prohibiting the circulation 
of the Chicago Times within your command. There is no doubt but that paper, 
with several others published in the North, should have been suppressed long since 
by authority from Washington. As this has not been done, I doubt the propriety 
of suppressing its circulation in any one command. The paper would still' find ^s 
way into the hands of the enemy, through other channels, and do all the mischief 
it is now doing. 

" This course is also calculated to give the paper a notoriety evidently sought, 
and which probably would increase the sale of it. I would direct, therefore, that 
General Orders, No. 4, be revoked." 

The order of Major General Burnside (General Orders No. 84) was issued on 
June i, 1863, to prohibit the circulation of the New York World in the Department 
of the Ohio, and to stop the publication of the Times. That part relating to the 
Chicago paper was worded: 

" On account of the repeated expression of disloyal and incendiary sentiments, 
the publication of the newspaper known as the Chicago Times is hereby suppressed." 
Brigadier General Jacob Ammen, commanding the District of Illinois was charged 
with executing that order. 

On June 4 Secretary Stanton issued General Order No. 91, directed to General 
Burnside: "By direction of the President of the United States, the order suppress- 
ing the publication of the Chicago Times is hereby revoked." This order of 
revocation was issued in response very largely to the resolutions sent on June 3, from 
Chicago, signed by fourteen prominent citizens, including Mayor F. C. Sherman, 


soon abandoned his paper and disappeared. 81 The next 
paper to suffer was the Bloomington Times, which under 
the care of J. and B. F. Snow showed such marked Southern 
proclivities and uttered so many expressions of sympathy 
for the Southern states that a McLean County regiment 
(94th Illinois Volunteers), abetted by prominent citizens, 
destroyed the office, type, and press and incidentally the 
paper. This occurred in August, 1862. 82 A temporary 
suppression without violence or material damage was en- 
forced against the Jonesboro Gazette in the spring of 1863. 
Lieutenant- Colonel Joseph H. Newbold was sent to Jones- 
boro with a part of the i4th Iowa Volunteer Infantry to 

and endorsed : " We respectfully ask for the above [resolutions] the serious and 
prompt consideration of the President. Lyman Trumbull, 

Isaac M. Arnold." 

President Lincoln's attitude is explained and other points are suggested by a 
letter from the President to Arnold, dated May 25, 1865: 

"In regard to the order of General Burnside suspending the Chicago Times, 
now nearly a year ago, I can only say I was embarrassed with the question between 
what was due to the military service on the one hand, and the liberty of the press 
on the other, and I believe it was the despatch of Senator Trumbull and yourself, 
added to the proceedings of the meeting which it brought me, that turned the scale 
in favor of my revoking the order. 

" I am far from certain to-day that the revocation was not right ; and I am very 
sure that the small part you took in it is no just ground to disparage your judgment, 
much less to impugn your motives. I take it that your devotion to the Union and 
the administration cannot be questioned by any sincere man." Nicolay and Hay, 
Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln, X, 108. 

Whether this letter indicates such feeling or not, there was much feeling that 
a mistake had been made in allowing the Times to continue publication. This 
view was forcibly expressed by the Chicago Tribune and many other papers. 
Reviewing, in his final report, his work as Acting Assistant Provost Marshal 
General in Illinois, James Oakes wrote, August 9, 1865 : 

" But the grand cause the only really guilty and formidable source of the 
dangers through which Illinois has passed is to be found in the steady streams 
of political poison and arrant treason which have been permitted to flow from the 
wicked, reckless, and debauched newspaper press of the state 

"... Chief among these instigators of insurrection and treason, the foul and 
damnable reservoir which supplied the lesser sewers with political filth, falsehood, 
and treason, has been the Chicago Times." 

For official communications here cited, see Official Records, War o) the Rebellion, 
Ser. I, Vol. 23, pp. 381, 385, 386; Vol. 24, pp. 41, 50; Ser. Ill, Vol. 3, p. 252; Vol. 
5, pp. 837, 838. 

81 History of LaSalle County, Illinois (2 vols., Chi., 1886), I, 375. 

82 History of McLean County, Illinois (Chicago, 1879), p. 298. 


gather up and return to the service a number of deserters 
from the icgth Illinois who had returned to their homes. 
His work was seriously impeded by the radical utterances 
of the Gazette, which, like a majority of its constituents, 
was bitterly against the war. Consequently he closed the 
office during the six weeks of his stay. Colonel Newbold 
so conducted himself, however, as to make many warm 
friends, and helped materially to change local sentiment 
toward the Government. As a resident of Jonesboro, still 
living, has written, "the episode turned out very well." 

The Loyalist, an extreme advocate of abolitionism, was 
established by George Brewster at Mason, Effingham 
County, in April, 1863. His radical utterances caused bitter 
feeling, and in nine months resulted in his being forced to 
leave. He was allowed to remove his establishment. The 
Picket Guard of Chester suffered more severely on the other 
side. John R. Shannon, the editor, found fault vituper- 
atively with the measures adopted to suppress the rebellion. 
He became so extremely abusive that a body of soldiers 
broke into the office in July, 1864, and threw the type into 
the streets. The press was not seriously injured, and the 
office was refitted. 83 At Olney the Democratic press was 
broken up by a mob of soldiers and its publication was dis- 
continued. A similar explosion of wrath at Maroa hung 
fire until 1867. There one T. J. Sharp began a Democratic 
Times, in January. His published expressions of discontent 
with the results of the war brought him into collision with 
various citizens, by whom he was badly beaten on November 
27 and ordered to leave town. He did so, leaving also his 
printing equipment. 84 Other papers than these mentioned 

83 History of Randolph, Monroe, and Perry Counties, Illinois (1883), p. 197. 

84 Counties of Cumberland, Jasper, and Richland, Illinois, Historical and 
Biographical (1884), p. 658. 


escaped similar treatment by temporary suspensions or by 
change of editors or policies. 

Several instances of threatened violence to editors or 
their establishments which occurred previous to this time 
are mentioned here for want of a better place. The earliest, 
probably, was that in Vandalia in February, 1823, which 
has already been discussed. 85 The Illinois Republican at 
Springfield, an energetic Democratic paper to which Stephen 
A. Douglas as a young man was a contributor, was, in 1837, 
twice attacked by a mob, of which the sheriff of the county 
was a member. The mob was prevented from doing destruc- 
tion only by the vigorous defense offered by the Webers, 
owners of the property. 88 In June, 1841, Ogle County 
"regulators" shot to death John and William Driscoll, two 
notorious horsethieves and outlaws. Philander Knappen, 
editor of the Rockford Star, denounced the execution edi- 
torially and printed a communication of similar import. 
Soon afterward three citizens, with the approval of public 
opinion, made pi of all type in the office. Knappen aban- 
doned journalism in Rockford. 

The destruction of the office equipment of the Nauvoo 
Expositor, though the result of a factional disturbance 
among the Mormons, and not connected with any general 

85 See p. xlvii, note. 

84 A bit of the reminiscences of an old settler, published in 1871 and quoted in 
History of Sangamon County, Illinois (1881), pp. 225-224: 

In 1837 Dr. Henry was one of the commissioners superintending the construc- 
tion of the new State House in Springfield and a frequent contributor to the Sangamo 
Journal. Stephen A. Douglas was at the same time writing for the Illinois Repub- 
lican and in several anonymous articles he attacked Dr. Henry and his official work. 
A committee of friends of Henry called upon the editor of the Journal to demand 
the name of the author, but the editor dispersed them with a vigorous use of his 
fists. Douglas, who witnessed the affair, wrote a highly colored account which the 
paper published. As a result the office was attacked by a mob, led by the sheriff, 
on two successive days, June 27 and 28, 1837, but the proprietors, with Douglas 
and other friends, beat them off. The sheriff was stabbed in the fray on the second 
day, fainted, and was carried home. That ended the riots. "These things gave 
notoriety to the paper." 


stress of public opinion, was a part of the lawlessness that 
resulted in the death of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. In 1844 
the despotism of Joseph Smith, leader of the Mormons in 
Hancock County, with Nauvoo as their holy city, became 
unbearable to a considerable number of his followers, who 
revolted. In order to publish the causes of their revolt and 
to disclose the iniquities of Smith and his Danite band and 
other new ecclesiastical inventions, these men established a 
newspaper, the Nauvoo Expositor. The first and only issue 
appeared Friday, June 7, 1844. It was published by Wil- 
liam Law, Wilson Law, Charles Ivins, Francis M. Higbee, 
Chauncey L. Higbee, Robert D. Foster, and Charles A. 
Foster, with Sylvester Emmons as editor, and contains the 
preamble, resolutions, and affidavits of the seceders from 
the church at Nauvoo. On June 10 the city council 
declared the Expositor a nuisance and directed the mayor 
to have the establishment removed, which he did. 87 For 
this destructive act Joseph Smith and sixteen others were, 
after a week's delay, arrested on a charge of riot. "After a 
long and close examination they were all discharged." 88 
In the meantime the dissenting publishers of the Expositor, 
apparently not awaiting the pretty farce by which Smith's 
mayor and magistrate gave a resemblance of legal consider- 

87 The order of removal was worded thus : 

You are hereby commanded to destroy the printing press from whence issues 
the Nauvoo Expositor and pi the type of said printing establishment in the street, 
and burn all the Expositors and libelous handbills found in said establishment, 
and if resistance be offered to your execution of this order, by the owners or others, 
demolish the house, and if any one threatens you, or the mayor, or the officers of 
the city, arrest those who threaten you, and fail not to execute this order without 
delay, and make due return hereon. 

By order of the City Council, 

Joseph Smith, Mayor. 

In a proclamation printed in the same issue of the Neighbor, Smith deemed the 
paper filthy and pestilential, and its publishers a set of unprincipled scoundrels, 
blacklegs, counterfeiters, debauchees, and villainous demagogues. 

88 Nauvoo Neighbor, June 19, 1844. 


ation and approval to the acts destroying the paper, had 
taken themselves safely away. Smith's paper records their 
flight by noting that the persons concerned in the Expositor 
have all left Nauvoo, and that the guilty fleeth when no man 
pursueth. 89 

The war played an important part not only in the changes 
that came in the character, number, and circulation of 
papers; it was more or less directly the cause of three im- 
portant items in the development of the machinery of news- 
gathering and newspaper making. These were the inven- 
tions of the patent inside, the organization of the business 
that became the Western News Company, and the formation 
of the Western Associated Press. 

In July, 1 86 1, A. N. Kellogg, publisher of the Baraboo, 
Wisconsin, Republic, finding that in consequence of the 
enlistment of his patriotic journeymen he would be unable 
to issue a full sheet on the regular day, ordered of the Daily 
Journal office at Madison a number of half-sheet supple- 
ments printed on both sides with war news to fold with 
his own half-sheets. While mailing his edition it occurred 
to him that if the awkward fact of his paper's being in 
two pieces could be obviated an excellent paper could 
be regularly issued with a decided saving of labor and 
expense. As a consequence, he issued, on July 12, 1861, 
the first sheet with " patent inside." The idea was at once 
taken up by the Madison Journal, then by the Milwaukee 
Wisconsin, and in August, 1865, by Mr. Kellogg himself in 
Chicago. G. F. Kimball of the Belleville Advocate began 
to print insides in i866. 90 By 1880 twenty-one establish- 
ments were supplying 3,238 papers, most of them in the 

89 Nauvoo Neighbor, June 19, 1844. 

80 Geo. P. Rowell, The Men Who Advertise, (N. Y., 1870), pp. 206-207. 


western states. Although the idea originated in Wisconsin 
and has been developed in all parts of the country, Kellogg 
and Chicago have remained the center of the industry, 
which has grown to enormous size. 

As Chicago was the center of the patent inside industry, 
it was natural that Illinois newspapers should make more 
general use of the idea than those of other states. The 
effect was not marked in the first few years, but by the later 
seventies nearly one-half of the smaller country weeklies 
were "co-operative," to use the word by which such papers 
were designated in the newspaper directories. Many of 
them, no doubt, would not have been established had not 
this invention greatly reduced the cost of production. 

The Western News Company grew out of the system or- 
ganized by a young and energetic Chicago newsdealer, John 
R. Walsh, to build up a business on the increased demand for 
prompt delivery of newspapers and periodicals due to the 
war excitement. The system that now distributes nearly 
all of the copies of the larger papers in the country was begun 
by James Gordon Bennett, with the New York Herald, in 
1835. Out of his idea grew the American News Company 
and rivals, most of which were absorbed. Until 1861 the 
business of distributing not only New York, but Chicago 
papers was carried on by that company with headquarters 
in New York City. In that year, however, Walsh opened a 
news depot in Chicago to capture the business of the middle 
west, and commenced to supply the outlying towns of 
Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa. Newsdealers 
in those states soon found that they could get their news- 
papers from Walsh twelve hours earlier than from the 
American News Company, and twenty-four hours earlier 
than by mail. 91 Walsh soon had all of the business, and kept 

91 Andreas, History of Chicago, II, 500-501. 


it throughout the war. By this time he was distributing 
fully one-half of the total issue of the Tribune and the Times, 92 
This competition led to negotiations which resulted, in 1866, 
in the absorption of his business by the older company, of 
which it became the first branch, with Walsh as manager. 

The war had brought prosperity to the Chicago papers, 
and had shown very clearly the need, in that news center, 
of a press association which would do for the Chicago and 
other middle western papers what the American News 
Association was doing for those of New York. On the 
initiative largely of Joseph Medill, of the Chicago Tribune, 
a meeting was held at Louisville, Kentucky, on November 
22 and 23, 1865, at which the Western Associated Press was 
formed. Horace White, managing editor of the Tribune, 
was made a member of the executive committee. 

The forming of this association not only meant co-op- 
erative use of telegraph news among the papers that held 
membership, but, also through co-operation with the New 
York Association, it greatly broadened, at a minimum cost, 
the news resources of both the western and the eastern 
papers. Without such associations the telegraph would 
never have been able to keep pace with the demands of the 
press, and the telegraphic news service of anything like the 
scope attained even by 1870 would have been possible only 
for the largest and wealthiest papers. The effect of this 
organization and its successor, the Associated Press, upon 
the number of papers fully equipped with news service, 
particularly the daily papers, of course, is not to be over- 
looked. One direct result was to make a close corporation 
of the newspapers already existing in any particular place, 
and to render it almost impossible to start a new newspaper 

n Hudson, History of Journalism, 204. 


that could compete with them, inasmuch as the newspaper 
could not get the Associated Press dispatches without their 
consent." 3 

Immediately following the close of the war there was a 
serious decline in newspaper prosperity. The number of 
papers started year by year at this time increases, but the 
figures do not signify healthy growth. The Chicago papers 
declined in circulation to a point not much beyond that of 
1 86 1, and never fully regained their circulation until after 
the fire. The papers of the larger towns, owing to improved 
telegraphic service, the rapid growth of the towns, and other 
causes, did not suffer severely. The country press, on the 
whole, however, began then a decline in quality that has 
continued to a large extent to the present time. That 
decline is not quantitative ; it does not include many of the 
daily papers, nor by any means all of the country weeklies 
in the state. But the increasing encroachment of the dailies 
of Chicago and the other larger cities of the state have taken 
away much of the prosperity and the influence of a large 
proportion of the country press, the quality of which has 
consequently declined. 

In spite of the various causes that operated against the 
newspapers between 1860 and 1870, however, there was a 
remarkable increase in their number. The census returns 
for 1860 show a total, of all classes, of 286, of which twenty- 
three were dailies, six tri- weeklies, two semi- weeklies, 238 
weeklies, and seventeen monthlies. 94 By 1870 these figures 
had grown to thirty-nine dailies, ten tri-weeklies, four semi- 
weeklies, 364 weeklies, eleven semi-monthlies, seventy-two 
monthlies, and three quarterlies a total of 505, a remarkable 

83 Andreas, History of Chicago, III, 706. 

94 Kenney, in his American Newspaper Directory and Record of the Press, 
records 453 papers in Illinois in 1861, but his list is grossly inaccurate. 


increase over the 286 in 1860. Perhaps the most noticeable 
features of this comparison are the slight increase in dailies 
and the great increase in monthlies. The actual numerical 
increase in dailies between 1850 and 1860 was less by only 
one paper than that between 1860 and 1870. The addi- 
tional monthly publications, largely in Chicago, were one 
of the indications of the growing importance of that city as 
a publishing center. 

FROM 1871 TO 1879 

The very bulk of the issue of the newspaper and periodical 
press in the last decade to be considered makes impossible 
here a treatment much more than merely statistical. This 
was a time of great numerical increase; it comprehends the 
great Chicago fire of October, 1871 ; the dismal year of 1876, 
perhaps the worst in the whole history of Illinois newspapers ; 
the rise of the daily to great importance; and the growth 
of the Chicago press into truly " metropolitan" proportions. 

The whole list for 1870 was 50 5. 95 The following decade 
more than doubled that, showing in 1880 a total of 1,017, 
divided into seventy-four dailies, six tri-weeklies, seventeen 
semi-weeklies, 758 weeklies, eighteen semi-monthlies, 118 
monthlies, and twenty-two quarterlies. The number of 
papers in the state each year of this decade is shown by 
Rowell's newspaper directory to have been as follows: 98 
1870, 422; 1871, 499; 1872, 518; 1873, 544; 1874, 588; 
1875, 642; 1876, 707; 1877, 709; 1878, 716; 1879, 732; 
1880, 832. It will be noticed that 1877 had but two more 

95 The totals include a few semi-annual and annual publications of which no 
note is taken in the analysis. 

** In comparing these figures with those of the census reports bear in mind that 
Rowell's figures are made up at least six months earlier than the census figures. 
Rowell's number for 1871, for instance, is really for 1870. 


papers than 1876. In the United States as a whole there 
were one hundred and seventy-one fewer newspapers at the 
beginning of 1877 than there were one year earlier. "It is 
apparent," wrote Rowell's editor in 1877, "that the last 
twelve months have, in a financial sense, been unusually 
unsatisfactory to newspaper publishers. Partly by reason 
of the excitements and hopes incidental to a national election 
of an unaccustomed order, a sufficient number of news- 
papers have come into being to have maintained the total 
number reported in 1876, had there not been, in addition 
to the eventual suspension of many of the newspapers, also 
an unusual mortality among those already established. 
Journalistic prosperity, however, is not to be judged by the 
number of papers that are established within a given period, 
but by the number that maintain their existence; and the 
centennial year has undeniably been one of extended pecu- 
niary oppression among the men that publish papers." 
This "pecuniary oppression" seems to have dwelt most 
heavily on the dailies, which were reduced in number from 
fifty in 1876 to forty-seven in 1877. 

The Chicago publishing equipment was almost totally 
destroyed by the fire of October 9-12, 1871, in which every 
newspaper establishment was burned out. Yet the larger 
daily papers all appeared, in small sheets, within forty-eight 
hours. The Journal issued an extra, a small three-column 
sheet printed on one side, on October 9; the issue of 
October 10, printed at a small job office that had been 
spared by the flames, announced that the Evening Post 
would be issued that day, and that the Tribune would be 
issued on the next, October n. The Inter-Ocean got out 
a number on October 10; the Republican and the Mail 
appeared on the i2th. No important daily paper suspended 


publication permanently on account of the fire, but a number 
of weekly and monthly periodicals were never revived. 
Others, especially several that had New York offices, were 
moved to that city. As an early consequence pf the fire, 
therefore, the number of publications in the city was con- 
siderably reduced. But those that remained partook of 
the great revival of the city as a whole ; out of the ashes grew 
the great and real prosperity of the Chicago dailies, and of 
the Chicago press in general. 

The increase in the daily press in this decade is important 
numerically. The totals for each year are: 

Outside of Chicago Chicago 97 Total 

1870 23 10 33 

1871 26 12 38 

1872 25 II 36 

1873 26 ii 37 

1874 25 ii 36 

1875 28 ii 39 

1876 36 14 50 

1877 32 15 47 

1878 35 15 50 

1879 42 12 54 

1880 52 15 67 98 

The slow growth of daily newspapers until toward the 
end of the period contrasts sharply with their rapid increase 
later. In fact, the close of the decade marks the real be- 
ginning of their most rapid growth in the state at large. 
This growth is naturally affected directly by the increase of 
population in the towns. The minimum population on 
which a daily can be supported was once set by Horace 
Greeley at about ten thousand, but at the time he gave that 

87 Includes daily market reports, etc. 

98 Census Report shows 74 a few months later. 


testimony there were papers in this country supported by 
communities of less than half that size. Since that time the 
number has considerably decreased, so far as the town of 
publication is concerned; but taken in connection with the 
rural population upon which the small dalies have come 
more and more to depend, the decrease has been slight. At 
present, indeed, it is apparently increasing, rather than 
diminishing. The relation of population to daily papers in 
Illinois in 1880 was shown by the census report as follows: 


Number of 
Location Population Dailies 

Adams County 59, J 35 

Quincy 27,268 4 

Alexander County 14,808 

Cairo 9,01 1 3 

Coles County 27,042 

Mattoon 5,737 i 

Cook County 607,524 

Chicago 53, l8 5 l8 

Dekalb County 26,768 

Sycamore 3, 2 8 * 

Hancock County 35337 

Warsaw 3,i5 * 

Jo Daviess County 27,528 

Galena 6,451 i 

Kane County 44,939 

Aurora JI , 8 73 2 

Elgin 8,787 2 

Knox County 38,344 

Galesburg 1 1,437 2 

LaSalle County 7,43 

Ottawa 7,834 2 

Logan County 25,037 

Lincoln 5,639 2 


Number of 
Location Population Dailies 

McLean County 60,100 

Bloomington 17,180 2 

Macon County 30,665 

Decatur 9>547 2 

Madison County 50,126 

Alton 8,975 2 

Morgan County 3*>5i4 

Jacksonville IO >9 2 7 I 

Peoria County 55>355 

Peoria 2 9; 2 59 6 

Rock Island County 38,302 

Moline 7,800 i 

Rock Island n>659 2 

St. Clair County 66,806 

Belleville 1 0,683 3 

Sangamon County 5^894 

Springfield i9>743 4 

Stephenson County 3^963 

Freeport 8,516 2 

Vermillion County 41,588 

Danville 7,733 3 

Will County 53,4 22 

Joliet 11,657 4 

Winnebago County 3,55 

Rockford J 3> 12 9 3 


The daily papers of the state have shown a tendency 
steadily toward afternoon rather than morning issues. 
That tendency first took definite form in this decade be- 
tween 1871 and 1880. At the beginning of it, the numbers 
of morning and afternoon issues in the state were almost 
equal. Of the forty- two downstate dailies in 1878, thirteen 
were morning and twenty-nine were evening. In Chicago, 


eight were morning and four were evening. The tendency 
in the smaller cities has continued toward evening papers. 89 
This is doubtless due to the growth and the improved dis- 
tributing facilities of the Chicago and St. Louis morning 
papers, and to the cheap "pony" news service offered by 
the Scripps-McRae, and, later, the United Press Associa- 
tions, as well as others that have been organized since 1900. 
On the other hand, since 1900 there has been an increase 
in the number and importance of downstate morning dailies. 
This increase has come from cities which have become large 
enough to support papers holding Associated Press fran- 
chises. These papers are, as afternoon papers are not, able 
to compete with the Chicago papers, and will doubtless be an 
increasingly important feature of Illinois journalism as the 
number of larger cities in the state is augmented. At the 
same time the situation is complicated by the help being 
rendered the afternoon papers by more efficient telegraphic 
news service, and by the greatly increasing importance of 
the telephone as an ally of the afternoon press. 

The lower price that came with the general introduc- 
tion of wood-pulp in the manufacture of paper, and the in- 
creased activity in the patent-inside industry helped upward 
the figures of both daily and weekly papers. The decline 
in the quality of many of the country weeklies, mentioned 
in the next preceding section, was remarkable in this last 
decade. This came with the more general use of the patent 

99 The increase in the number of papers, by decades, 1880 to 1900, is shown in 
the following table : 

Mora- Even- Tri- Semi- Quar- Oth- 

Tota] Dailies ing ing W'kly W'kly Weekly Monthly terly ers 

1880 1017 74 30 44 6 17 758 118 21 23 

1890 1241 121 44 77 2 20 858 182 29 29 

190 1548 197 44 iS3 4 7 2 i 8 2I 9 2 3 2 3 

For much similar statistical information covering this period 1880 to 1900, 
see Report I2lh U. S. Census, v. 9. 


inside, which convenience was, by the later seventies, used 
by nearly one-half of the weeklies in the smaller towns. 
The patent inside was chiefly used by papers newly 
starting in business; but it has no doubt prolonged the life 
of many a paper that would otherwise have suffered ex- 
tinction, perhaps not in all cases undeserved. There was 
something to be said in favor of the patent inside ; more, of 
course, before the development of the stereotyped plate 
matter which has almost entirely superseded the earlier 
scheme of economy, than later. It supplied material often 
of a respectable quality which would otherwise have been 
out of reach of the country editor. Matter of special interest 
and often of value to the country population was thus fur- 
nished; good fiction and less good was disseminated. But 
granting the patent inside full credit of economy, convenience, 
and respectability, it nevertheless lowered the quality of the 
country weekly. Up to the time of the Civil War, however 
violent or crude the tone in many instances, the country press 
had individuality of character, and in its own community 
was as real and definite a force as the great papers of the era 
of personal journalism were in larger spheres. More than 
half of the influence of the paper was dissipated when half 
of its pages were filled and printed by "outsiders." It does 
not seem that this should necessarily have been true, for the 
editor still had two pages at his command; but it was true, 
nevertheless. Many papers, indeed, kept aloof from the 
patent inside, retained their individuality and their 
advertising space and have steadily improved, as the 
press as a whole has improved; others have grown into 
dailies; still others, after more or less brief careers as "co- 
operatives," have recovered their individuality, and become 
again "all home print." But it must be recorded that in 


the years just following the war there began in Illinois that 
class of papers which, unlike many that preceded the war 
or survived it, are of mere numerical importance in the story 
of the Illinois press. That class grew and flourished most 
numerously in this period between 1870 and 1880. 

The numerical increase was fostered also by a usage 
developed in this decade by which papers for small towns 
in surrounding territory were printed at a central office. A 
typical instance is that of the Joliet Phoenix, which was the 
home office of a brood of Phoenixes bearing date-lines of 
Lockport, Wilmington, Lemont, Braidwood, Peotone, and 
Plainfield. Such papers have at least three pages in common. 
A local editor supplies some news from each town, which, 
with the name, is all of the one paper that differs from all the 

Another mechanical aid to the development of the news- 
paper industry which was contributed by Illinois in this 
period, was the folder, which made the web perfecting press 
a possibility. The invention was made by Walter Scott, 
who was at that time foreman of the machinery department 
of the Chicago Inter-Ocean. The Bullock presses of the 
establishment were promptly equipped with the new inven- 
tion, and thus the Inter-Ocean was the first paper to be 
printed on a perfecting press. 100 

The political aspect of the period will have to be passed 
entirely, except for a word concerning the Granger move- 
ment and the Greenback party, which stirred the press, 
usually the rural press, of the country in the late seventies 
and early eighties. 

Perhaps a score of Illinois papers supported Greeley in 
1872, including such influential ones as the Chicago Tribune 

loo j) yj Luskj Politics and Politicians of Illinois, 514. 


and Belleville Zeitung. Of these a considerable number 
then became identified with the Granger movement ; within 
1873 and 1874 several new Granger and anti-monopolist 
papers were started, but most of the supporters of these 
causes were recruits from the old parties. Such papers 
were to be found at Macomb, Bloomington, Salem, Oregon, 
Decatur, Hillsboro, Woodstock, and elsewhere. Usually 
the Granger papers lasted but two years, some not so long, 
a few considerably longer. At least half of them had become 
Greenback before 1876, and, with others, brought to the 
support of Peter Cooper at least thirty papers in the state. 
Some of these had rather fantastic idiosyncrasies. The 
Unicorn Greenback at Barry was written almost entirely in 
verse ; the Greenback Gazette at Chester was printed on green 
paper. There was a lull in Greenback journalism between 
1876 and 1878, but in the latter year and 1879 sixteen new 
papers, and as many other recruits, together with those that 
had survived from before the earlier campaign, gave Weaver 
the support of forty papers in Illinois, including such as the 
Pontiac Free Trader, Morgan Monitor of Jacksonville, 
Golden Era of McLeansboro, and New Era of Woodstock 
which were not originally Greenback. A considerable num- 
ber were established to support that party, among which 
were Unicorn Greenback, Barry; Express and Sentinel, 
Chicago; National Era, Danville; Independent, Erie; 
Independent, Graf ton; Local Leader, Lexington; Herald, 
Milford; Beacon, Milton; Reformer, Morris; Industrial 
Tribune, Murphysboro; Legal Tender, Pekin; Observer, 
Petersburg; Greenback Post, Quincy; National Greenbacker 
and Telephone, Rochelle; Review, Roodhouse; Herald, 
Shelbyville; Industrial Banner, Yates City. The Green- 
back party thus brought into existence a number of papers, 


nearly all short lived, and helped out of existence certain 
others which became advocates of the fiat money idea. 

One more discharge of statistics, and the array of figures 
on the press in Illinois at the close of the sixty-five years 
with which this sketch has to do, will have been shown. The 
thousand and seventeen papers in the state left few vicinities 
unprovided with "the source of American culture." No 
county was without its paper. Twenty-eight towns had 
five or more ; twelve had four, thirty-seven had three, ninety- 
three had two, and one hundred and seventy municipalities 
were supplied each with one newspaper. 

There were publications in six languages at that time, 
though previously eight tongues had been represented. The 
Bohemians had four, one of which was a daily; nine hun- 
dred and twenty, including sixty-three dailies, were printed 
in Engish; one was printed in French and two in Polish; 
there were nine dailies and sixty-one other papers in German, 
and one daily and nineteen others in the Scandinavian 
languages. In Chicago alone there were two hundred 
and eighty-nine newspapers and periodicals, comprised of 
eighteen dailies, one hundred and thirty-eight weeklies, 
ninety-one monthlies, and forty-two of other periods of 
publication. On another basis of classification, these in- 
cluded sixty-three devoted to news and politics, eight to 
agriculture, fifty-one to commerce and trade, one to finance, 
nine to literature, 101 thirty-three to religious purposes, and one 
hundred and twenty-four to a wide variety of interests, from 
oriental archaeology to trap shooting. 

101 A total of 120 "periodicals with some sort of literary interest dominant in 
their pages" were attempted in Chicago prior to 1880: twenty-seven in the forties, 
and fifties, forty-six from 1860 to 1871 inclusive, and forty-seven in the seventies 
after the fire. Of the whole number, forty continued for less than one year, and 
twenty-two for one year only. Fewer than half, therefore, outlasted a year. Herbert 
E. Fleming, Literary Interests of Chicago, 112. 


Of religious publications, four were Baptist, one Congre- 
gational, two Disciples, two Episcopal, one Jewish, three 
Lutheran, five Methodist, one Mormon, two Presbyterian, 
one Reformed, six Roman Catholic, one Adventist, one 
Spiritualist, one Swedenborgian, one United Brethren, one 
Unitarian, one Universalist, and fifteen non-sectarian. 

A retrospective glance over the threescore and five years 
between 1814, when the first little three-column paper was 
started at Kaskaskia, and 1879, reveals but a few more than 
a thousand papers still extant out of a total of about three 
thousand that have furnished forth their salutatories and 
their advertising rates. But a third of all those hopefully 
begun have endured the " halcyon and vociferous". The 
newspaper press spread northward over the state like a 
prairie fire; like a fire it has often flared and smoked, and 
gone out; and one turns from the record of two thousand 
failures with a feeling as of stepping among a residue of 
scorched bones. 

Yet the successes have been more important than the 
failures have been numerous, and these papers, living and 
dead, have played an active part in the life and growth of 
the commonwealth. Long before the close of this period 
there had grown up a number of strong and energetic 
journals, some in every section of the state, upon which the 
journalistic honor of the commonwealth rests secure. A 
sketch as brief as this is left incomplete because it is without 
a more detailed account of the part these papers have played 
in the growth of the state; and especially without some 
more adequate reference to the men who have made these 
papers, and whose lives are the best part of the history of 
the Illinois press. A number of papers in the state have 
long since passed the half-century mark ; men are still active 


in journalism who began their labors before the Civil War, 
and one has died while this work was in preparation whose 
connection with Illinois newspapers began in 1848. 

Incomplete as it is, however, perhaps this survey may 
serve to give some order and significance to the kaleido- 
scopic record which follows in the bibliography. 




A Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 

B Withers Public Library, Bloomington, Illinois 

C Chicago Public Library, Chicago, Illinois 

D Boston Public Library, Boston, Massachusetts 

E American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts 

F New York State Library, Albany 

H Chicago Historical Society, Chicago, Illinois 

J John Crerar Library, Chicago, Illinois 

L Lenox Branch, New York Public Library, New York City 

M Mercantile Library, St. Louis, Missouri 

N Newberry Library, Chicago, Illinois 

P Public Library in the town in which the paper was published 

S Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield 

U University of Illinois Library, Urbana, Illinois 

W Wisconsin State Historical Library, Madison 

These letters, following the description of a paper, indicate that 
copies or files may be found in the corresponding libraries, the contents 
of which are listed in this volume. The name of a town following such 
description indicates that copies or files are to be found in the public 
library of that town. 

The papers of each town are arranged in the order in which they 
were established, except that all papers in any series are grouped. 
For instance note under Albion, page 2, that Journal precedes Bumble- 
Bee, though established later. Under Chicago, papers established in 
each year are arranged alphabetically, subject to the same exception. 

+ 1840 means that the paper was a continuation from a preceding 
name or location. 

1840+ means that the paper was continued under another name 
or in another place. 

1860 to date (1875) means that the paper was still in existence at 
the last report, in 1875, but that no later information has been 

Unless otherwise noted, papers were issued weekly. 

The words Ayer, Rowell, Coggeshall, refer to newspaper direc- 
tories issued by those men; Gerhard, to Illinois As it Is. 

Names of towns as parts of titles are omitted except when 
needed for clearness. 




MESSENGER, 1856-1858: Published by Chambers and White and 
edited by O. White. 

REPORTER, 1858-1862: Edited by C. C. Button. 

NONPAREIL, 1863: It was published by D. H. Elliott. (See Chap- 
man and Company's History 0} Knox County, p. 540.) 

EDUCATIONAL MAGAZINE, 1864-1865 : Published monthly by J. W. 
Butler in the interest of Abingdon College. 

PROGRESS, ( ?) ( ?) : Edited by E. E. Chesney. 

PRESS, 1868 ( ?) : Conducted for only a few months by Ike Cotton. 

KNOX COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1870-1876: Edited by W. H. Heaton. 
In 1876 it was sold and merged into Knoxonian. U 

JOURNAL, June, 1870: Conducted by J. C. Chesney for only seven 

LEADER, 1874-1875: Originally established at Monmouth by T. S. 
Clarke, as Monmouth Leader. After his death it was conducted 
by S. J. Clarke and in 1874 moved to Abingdon, where he 
with J. S. Badger established the Abingdon Leader. It lived 
about a year. 

AMATEUR NEWS, 1874-1875: Edited by Charles K. Bassett. 

KNOXONIAN, 1875 ( ?) : Conducted by Henry C. Allen. It was 

published only six months in Abingdon, when the office was 
moved to Augusta, Illinois. 

EXPRESS, 1875: Edited by Frank L. Richey. It was notable for 
the number of times it suspended and resumed publication, 
and for the many forms it assumed, being at one time a weekly, 
at another a semi- weekly, and at one time a daily. Democratic. 

REGISTER, 1877: Edited by Charles K. Bassett. 

ADVERTISER, 1877- (?): Edited by George Poff. 

ABINGDON COLLEGE MONTHLY, 1877: Published by the trustees 
of Abingdon College. 

NONPAREIL, ( ?) ( ?) : Published by Elmer Richey in the 

later seventies. It lived less than a year. 


HERALD, 1854. 


INDEPENDENT, 1865- (after 1869) : Edited and published by J. E. 
Clark. Printed at the office of the Grayville Independent. 

PIONEER, 1868-1873+: Established by R. S. Thompson and J. J. 
Lambert. They conducted it for about five years and sold to 
Gil R. Stormont, who changed it to 

JOURNAL, +1873 to date: This paper was conducted by Gil R. Stor- 
mont until September, 1876, when he sold to Ballentine and 
Emmerson. Mr. Ballentine retired in 1878 and Morris Emmer- 
son continued its publication until March n, 1884, when he 
sold to Colyer and Harris. After about two years Morris Harris 
retired and Walter Colyer continued as editor and publisher 
until March 30, 1900, when the ownership passed to Albert H. 
Bowman. February 25, 1903, Mr. Bowman was succeeded by 
the Albion Journal Company. U 

BUMBLE-BEE, i869~i873(?): A monthly, published in the interest 
of the patent medicine trade by R. S. Thompson. ' 

EGYPTIAN REPUBLICAN, 1878: A three-column folio, edited by 
Chalcraft and Orange. Suspended after seven months. 


RECORD, July 14, 1857 to date: Established by James H. Reed and 
Horace Bigelow at the time of the canvass for the removal of 

. the county seat from Keithsburg to Aledo. Bigelow became 
sole owner in 1862, and sold a half interest to John Porter in 
1866. Porter was political editor from 1862. In 1885 Bigelow 
sold his interest to John Porter and Sons who conducted the 
paper until 1894, when it was sold to Mitchell and Bloyer and 
merged with the Times, under the name of the Times Record. 
The paper has always been Republican and is one of the many 
"among the first newspapers to suggest the name of Abraham 
Lincoln as a candidate for the presidency." U 

MERCER COUNTY PRESS, September, 1866-1869: A Democratic 
paper organized by persons hostile to President Johnson. J. A. 
J. Birdsall was editor. After a year he was succeeded by a man 
named Wilson; then late in 1867, David R. Walters became 
both editor and manager. John Geiger bought the paper in 
1869 and discontinued it, establishing instead the 

DEMOCRATIC BANNER, April, 1869-1873 + : Geiger opposed the nom- 
ination and election of Greeley ; O. P. Arthur bought the paper 


in July, 1872, and supported Greeley. In 1873 the paper sup- 
ported Greenback principles. In this year Arthur changed 
the name to 

BANNER, +1873-1881 : John Geiger became a partner with Arthur, 
and editor in 1877, and in 1878 sole owner, whereupon he made 
it a straight Democratic "organ." P. F. Warner bought the 
paper in the campaign of 1878 and conducted it as an Independ- 
ent in politics until 1879, when he made it Republican. It was 
sold in 1 88 1 to Geiger, Russell, and Eames, of the then recently 
established Democrat. 


JOURNAL, 1874 (?): James Everett was editor and publisher 

in 1874: in 1877 A. H. Chaffe was editor and publisher. Inde- 
pendent. Suspended before 1879. 


CITIZEN, 1872 (?): William H. and George E. Earlie were 

editors. Earlie Brothers and Company were publishers. " Every 
number illustrated." Cited in Rowell's Newspaper Directory 
for 1873. 


COURIER, May, i873-November, 1874: Begun by G. W. Grove. 

Moved in November, 1874, to Virginia. 
TELEGRAM, March, 1876-81 : Established by Loofbarrow and 

Humble; then owned by Loofbarrow and Hale Johnson and 

edited by Mit. A. Bates. Sold in 1877 to C. M. King, who 

removed the office to Gardner in 1881. 


SPECTATOR, 1832-1839: Published first in Upper Alton by O. M. 
Adams and Edward Breath. The firm soon dissolved, and 
Mr. Breath alone removed this paper to Lower Alton (now 
Alton) in October, 1832. Mr. J. T. Hudson, successor to Mr. 
Breath, edited and published it, 1834-1836; W. A. Beaty, 1836; 
D. Ward, 1836-1837; Wm. Hessin, 1837; Mr. Hessin and Seth 
T. Sawyer, 1837; Mr. Hessin, 1837-1838; J. Clark Virgin in 
December, 1838, and he soon suspended it. It was Whig in 
politics, giving much attention to the banking system of the 
country. ESHM 

AMERICAN, November 22, 1833-1834: Founded by J. S. Buchanan; 
devoted to the agricultural, mechanical, and mercantile interests 
of Lower Alton and surrounding country; religious but not 
denominational. Published by Messrs. Bailey and Parks and 
edited by Rev. Thomas Lippincott. Monthly. H 


1836-1839: Removed from Rock Spring in June, 1836, by Ash- 
ford Smith and Company, under patronage of the Baptist denomi- 
nation in Illinois and Missouri. Its editors were J. M. Peck, 
at first alone, afterward associated with E. Rogers and Rev. 
Washington Leverett. With the beginning of its second year it 
was known as the Western Pioneer. It was finally discon- 
tinued as a separate publication about the close of 1838, and 
combined in January, 1839, with a paper published at Louis- 
ville, Ky., and New Albany, Iowa, entitled, in 1839, Baptist 
Banner and Western Pioneer. (See Rock Spring Pioneer) . H 

TELEGRAPH, January 20, 1836 to 1882 : Founded by R. M. Tread- 
way and L. A. Parks. Published by Messrs. Treadway, Parks, 
and S. G. Bailey, 1836-1837; Parks and Bailey, 1837; Mr. 
Parks, 1837; Mr. Parks and John Bailhache, 1837; Mr. Bail- 
hache, 1837-1838. In 1838 S. R. Dolbee purchased a half 
interest and firm continued until 1850 when Dolbee was succeeded 
by Wm. H. Bailhache, son of John Bailhache. From 1852-1854, 
E. L. Baker was one of the firm. Mr. Baker and L. A. Parks 
conducted it, 1854-1855. In 1855 the Telegraph was merged 
in the Courier (which see) and so remained until the death of the 
Courier in 1861, when L. A. Parks and J. T. Beem and S. V. 
Grossman revived the publication of the Telegraph. Parks and 
Grossman continued its publication, 1861-1864; Mr. Parks and 
Thos. S. Pinckard, 1864-1866; Mr. Parks, 1866; Parks and 
Chas. Holden, 1866-1867; Parks, Holden, and W. T. Norton, 
1867-1875; Holden and Norton, 1875-1880; Mr. Norton, 1880 
to 1893. After 1888 the paper was published by the Alton Tele- 
graph Printing Company. In 1893 W. T. Norton sold his stock 
to W. J. A. Cousley and W. H. Bauer, who with other stock- 
holders continue to publish the paper, with W. J. A. Cousley as 
editor. Mr. John Bailhache was its editor, 1837-1841, and from 
1841 for several years it was edited by Geo. T. M. Davis. It 
was known simply as the Telegraph until April 3, 1841, when it 
became the Alton Telegraph and Democratic Review. In 1853 it 
became the Alton Telegraph and Madison County Record, which 
name it retained until merged in the Courier. When the Whig 
party died it became a strong Republican organ. During the 
fall of 1836 great excitement spread over the country as a conse- 
quence of John Quincy Adams's contest in Congress over the 
right of petition. It is asserted that the Telegraph was the only 
paper west of Cincinnati which supported Mr. Adams in that 
struggle. January i, 1851, a tri-weekly was begun; in 1852 the 
daily was begun; the weekly was continued. 


: 1111 

ill I'.! 



rjlij tip 1 



TAPEK .840 (?): A non 

y Rev. Thomas Lippin 

, September 8, 1836- August 21, 1837 

'. published in St. Louis as 

on Elijah P. Lovejoy became its editor ru 

i unrelentingly to assail the institution of 

;mns. In 1836 he resolved to remove the 

lie Observer to Alton, Illinois. Before shipmcn 
material was destroyed and cast into the Missis.- 
rest met the same fate when it was unloaded or- 
Alton. Notwithstanding these reverses, Mr. Lov^ 
a new press and the first issue of the Alton Obsc.-. 
September 8, 1836. This new press, type, and 
destroyed by a mob on the night of August 21 . 
press was ordered, and destroyed on the night of \ 
the fragments were cast into the river. A f ou 
ordered at once. It was shipped from Cincinnc-.; 
in Alton on the night of November 6, 1837. Or 
November 7 Mr. Lovejoy was killed, his press I 
its fragi^T*^^Od<fct)TJA ^>. -HlffiMHW..^!^ 

Decemhfl&j&> lg?<jjifK 6^Srt3r9i*^toj)motoaIlbD b<to nt 
Elisha W. Chester and sent to Alton for disv 
B. Hulburt supplied local !, s on. Tb. 

was abandoned April 19, 1838. 


'ted by F. W. Graves, u 
Timothy Turner; publish 
Illinois State Temperance 
was changed to 

1842: and was publisli 
as the organ of the ' 
1842, the paper '. 
eties, and thi 
<ouri an: 
A. W, Corey 

an. U 

1 "The battered prtss ! Mead bo 

r-i remove*' it to Iowa. Prom 1858 to i ? 
the Cresco Plain :^nr Orego: en Goor^a 

>st bought tear Lake 

when it was agu 


go, who c in 'Libby PrUon 

~,ervitndc it: 4, n. 

In the collections of the Chicago Historical Society 


TAPER, June, 1840 (?): A non-sectarian religious monthly, 

edited by Rev. Thomas Lippincott, a Presbyterian minister. S 

OBSERVER, September 8, 1836- August 21, 1837+ : This paper was 
first published in St. Louis as an organ of the Presbyterians. 
When Elijah P. Lovejoy became its editor he began vigorously 
and unrelentingly to assail the institution of slavery through its 
columns. In 1836 he resolved to remove the press and material 
of the Observer to Alton, Illinois. Before shipment much of the 
material was destroyed and cast into the Mississippi, and the 
rest met the same fate when it was unloaded on the wharf at 
Alton. Notwithstanding these reverses, Mr. Lovejoy procured 
a new press and the first issue of the Alton Observer appeared, 
September 8, 1836. This new press, type, and material were 
destroyed by a mob on the night of August 21, 1837. The third 
press was ordered, and destroyed on the night of its arrival, and 
the fragments were cast into the river. A fourth press was 
ordered at once. It was shipped from Cincinnati and arrived 
in Alton on the night of November 6, 1837. On the night of 
November 7 Mr. Lovejoy was killed, his press broken up and 
its fragments, too, cast into the Mississippi. 1 Beginning 
December 28, 1837, the Observer was printed in Cincinnati by 
Elisha W. Chester and sent to Alton for distribution. Rev. T. 
B. Hulburt supplied local news from Alton. This arrangement 
was abandoned April 19, 1838. HS 

ILLINOIS TEMPERANCE HERALD, June i, 1836-1839+ : Monthly. 
Edited by F. W. Graves, and later by A. W. Corey, assisted by 
Timothy Turner; published by the executive committee of the 
Illinois State Temperance Society. November, 1839, the title 
was changed to U 

1842 : and was published simultaneously in St. Louis and Alton 
as the organ of the two state temperance societies. January, 
1842, the paper became the organ also of the Washingtonian 
societies, and the title with the number for that date became 
Missouri and Illinois Temperance Herald and Washingtonian. 
A. W. Corey was still editor. See Springfield, Illinois Washing- 
tonian. U 

1 "The battered press lay in the river till 1858, when W. R. Mead bought the 
' find ' for $35, and removed it to Iowa. From 1858 to 1870 it was used to print 
the Cresco Plain Dealer, at New Oregon, Howard County, Iowa. Then George 
E.Frost bought it for $100 and printed the Clear Lake Observer on it till about 
1876, when it was again sold to F. A. Gates, editor of the Belmont Herald. For 
about twenty years it remained in service at Belmont, Iowa, and was then sold 
to Mr. C. F. Gunther, of Chicago, who exhibited it in 'Libby Prison.' " Harris' 
Negro Servitude in Illinois, 914. n. 


VOICE OF ILLINOIS, 1838 to close of campaign. Supported Cyrus 
Edwards for governor, Wm. H. Davidson for lieutenant governor, 
and George Churchill for senator. Campaign paper published 
by a Whig committee for Madison county. 

ALTONIAN, March 13-27, 1838: Edited and published by L. A. 
Parks and Edmund Breath. Favored Whig principles. Only 
three numbers issued. S 

COMMERCIAL GAZETTE, 1839-1840: Published by Samuel S. Brooks 
and John H. Pettit. It was suspended in March, 1840, and 
revived for the campaign, after which it was again suspended. 
It was Democratic in politics. A 

SUCKER, 1840: Published by Parks and Beaty, and edited by " Our- 
selves," who were understood to be Wm. S. and John Lincoln 
and James Hall. It was Whig and supported Harrison for the 
presidential nomination. It was merged in the Telegraph in 
March, 1840. 


Another paper edited by A. W. Corey, who in the first number 
announced the discontinuance of the Illinois Temperance Herald. 
The prospectus announced the paper to be the organ of the 
Illinois State Temperance society, and all other temperance 
societies that wished to use its columns; but unlike its unsuc- 
cessful predecessors, this was to be a general newspaper. Parks 
and Souther were its publishers. AF 

PRESBYTERY REPORTER, 1845-1860+ : Edited by Rev. A. T. Norton. 
Only two numbers were issued the first year. Issued quarterly, 
1847-1850; bi-monthly, 1850-1854; suspended; revived in 1855 
and issued monthly. In 1860 it was taken to Chicago, but later, 
publication was resumed at Alton. Its subscription list was 
finally sold to Herald Presbyter, Cincinnati. S 

TRUTH SEEKER, November, i845-September, 1846: Quarterly. 
Edited by the Rev. Lemuel Foster. The occasion of the paper 
was the suppression, by the Chicago Western Citizen, of the 
report of the discussion which took place in the annual meeting 
of the Illinois Anti-Slavery Society, held June, 1845, at Alton. 
After almost a year Truth Seeker abandoned the task of reforming 
Mr. Eastman et al., and left the Western Citizen still impenitent. H 

PROTESTANT MONITOR, 1846-1848: Removed from Greenville. 
E. M. Lathrop was editor; Lathrop and John M. McPike were 
publishers. Suspended with vol. 3, no. 32, May 24, 1848. Re- 
vived as Alton Monitor, 1848; edited by John W. Buffum. 
Suspended at close of campaign. It was Democratic, and a 
violent religious sheet. H 


COURIER, May 29, 1852-1861: Published by Geo. T. Brown; 
associated with him were James Gamble and John Fitch (see 
Banner, Carrollton). It was edited by Mr. Fitch, 1853-1854. 
Mr. Brown was its sole editor and proprietor, 1854-1860, when 
he sold to B. J. F. Hanna and S. V. Grossman. In May, 1860, 
Benjamin Teasdale and B. F. Webster obtained an interest. 
Mr. Webster retired in December, 1860, and its publication was 
abandoned in January, 1861 (see Alton Telegraph). In the 
Kansas-Nebraska controversy it strongly favored free soil and 
in 1856 favored Fremont for president. In 1858 the Courier 
became Republican and supported Lincoln against Douglas. 
When they reached common political ground the Courier and 
Telegraph were merged. Daily, tri-weekly, and weekly. 

Jennie D. Hayner, Lib. Assn. HUSF 

VORWARTS, 1852-54: Published by P. Stibolt and V. Walter. Mr. 
Stibolt took it to Galena, and subsequently he went to Peoria, 
where he became the editor of the Deutsche Zeitung. It was 
Democratic. German. 

NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, 1854-1869: Published by Geo. M. Thomp- 
son and edited by John Fitch, 1854 ; John and T. N. Fitch, 1854- 
1859; John Fitch, 1859-1860. In 1860 building and press were 
destroyed by a tornado. In seven weeks Robert P. Tansey 
resumed its publication. In a short time it passed into the hands 
of Wm. T. Brock and from him to W. T. Dowdall with Thomas 
Dimmock as editor. In 1864 Mr. Dowdall sold to John C. 
Dobelbower, but Mr. Dimmock continued editor. In 1866 it 
was destroyed by fire but was re-established and its publication 
was continued until 1869, when it was removed to Lafayette, 
Indiana. H 

ILLINOIS BEOBACHTER, 1855-1866: Established and published by 
John Reis, 1855-1863; V. Walter, 1863-1864; G. H. Weigler, 
1864-1866. While conducted by Mr. Reis it favored the 
Douglas wing of Democracy, and under Mr. Walter was Repub- 
lican. It was a weekly German paper. Destroyed by fire. 

SUCKER LIFE BOAT, January to July, 1855 : Comic sheet edited and 
published by John T.Beem, Martin Brooks, and Wilbur T. Ware. 

started at Lexington, Mo. In 1853 removed to St. Louis, and to 
Alton in 1855. Edited by Dr. J. B. Logan. In June, 1855, the 
subscription list was sold and transferred to the Watchman and 
Evangelist, Louisville, Ky. 

LADIES' PEARL, 1857-1861 : Edited by Dr. J. B. Logan and Rev. 
W. W. Brown in the interest of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
church. Monthly. 


FREIE PRESSE, 1858-1859: Established by Dr. Canisius, and with 
the second issue transferred to Christian Schneider, who con- 
ducted it about one year. German. 

WEEKLY ALTON TELEGRAPH, 1858: A campaign paper edited by 
Messrs. Parks and Ennis, Mr. Parks being the political editor. 

DAILY EVENING DEMOCRAT, 1859 to date (1865) : H 


A. Doubleday. A religious paper ; died with the first number. 

edited by Rev. J. B. Logan, to take the place of the St. Louis 
Observer, which left the northwest without an organ. Devoted 
to religion, morality, church news in general. In 1866 he sold 
the subscription lists to T. H. Perrin, but remained editor until 
1868, when Rev. J. R. Brown, bought one-half interest in the 
paper. Dr. Logan then purchased the subscription lists of the 
Cumberland Presbyterian and united with Dr. Brown. The word 
"Western" was dropped, and the paper called 

CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN, +1868-1874: In 1874 it was sold 
and removed to Nashville, Tennessee. D 

GOOD TEMPLAR, 1865-1868: Edited by B. H. Mills. It had been 
published formerly at St. Louis. Temperance. 

BANNER, i866-date: Established by Pfeiffer Brothers. In five 
months John Mold purchased paper and continued publication 
until 1868, when the leaders of the Republican party bought 
paper and put V. Walter in charge as editor. In 1869 it was 
sold to Messrs. Meyer and Voss; 1870 Meyer purchased Voss' 
interest, and in 1877 sold to R. Boelitz, who in 1881 sold to 
Messrs. Zechmeister and Henzel; in 1882 Messrs. Kleinwot and 
Henzel became editors and publishers. Independent in politics 
after 1882. German. 

TEMPERANCE WATCHMAN, 1872: Monthly. Edited by R. S. 
Smiley; published by E. A. Smith, "in the interest of the 
Temple of Honor and Temperance". Probably the ancestor of 
Temperance Banner. 

TEMPERANCE BANNER, 1873-75: R. L. Smiley, editor. Published 
by Eugene Smith. 

OUR FAITH, 1875-76: Monthly. Established by T. H. Perrin 
and Dr. J. B. Logan. It took the place of Cumberland Presby- 
terian. In 1876 it was sold to the St. Louis Observer. 

CHRISTIAN NEWS, 1875-1876: Monthly. Edited by Rev. Robert 
West. Published in the interest of the Congregational church 
by E. A. Smith. In 1876 it was sold to the Advance Company 
of Chicago. 


DEMOCRAT, 1875-1882+: Established by J. N. Shoemaker and 
Hugh E. Bayle. In 1876 a daily was begun. In three months 
the paper passed into the hands of Perrin, Smith and Company. 
The "company" was D. C. Fitz Morris, editor. In 1878 Fitz 
Morris withdrew from the firm but continued as editor. Com- 
bined with Sentinel in 1882. See below. 

MORNING NEWS, 1876 : Edited by James J. Mclnerney and Eugene 
J. Bronson. Daily, Independent. Suspended in three months. 

MADISON COUNTY SENTINEL, 1879-1882+ : Established by James 
J. Mclnerney as an Independent daily. In 1882 it was com- 
bined with the Democrat as Daily Sentinel-Democrat, with Mc- 
lnerney as editor and proprietor. Later it was published by a 
stock company. In 1905 W. H. Murphy bought a half interest; 
Mclnerney died in 1909, and Murphy sold his interest to his 
associates, who still conduct the paper. 


MIRROR, 1868-1870: A short lived Republican paper edited and 
published by E. Johnson and Company. J. S. McClelland was 
editor and publisher in 1870. 

SWEDE, i869(?)- (?): Weekly. 

JOURNAL, i878-8o(?): Edmund H. Waldo was editor and pub- 
lisher in 1880. Independent. 


LEE COUNTY TIMES, 1855-1856 : The stockholders were A. Kinyon, 
W. E. Ives, John L. Skinner, John B. Wyman, H. B. Judkin, 
and W. B. Stuart. Edited by A. N. Dickens, brother of 
Charles Dickens. Changed to 

AMBOY TIMES, 1856-1866: Published successively by Cotrell, Pratt 
and Miller ; Cotrell, Pratt, and Somers ; Pratt and Co. ; Pratt, 
Shaw and Co. ; Gardner, Shaw, and Lewis ; Pratt and Shaw. 
Messrs. Goff and Shaw changed it to HF 

LEE COUNTY JOURNAL, +1866-1870+ : Originally the Lee County 
Times, which changed to the Amboy Times, this in turn chang- 
ing to the Lee County Journal. First published, February 25, 
1866, by Goff and Shaw; from February to December, 1867, 
by Burrington and Shaw. From January 16 to December 24, 
1868, B. F. Shaw was editor and proprietor. Stimson and 
Corbus were publishing the Journal January 6, 1870, and at 
least until March 10 following. In September, 1870, Wm. 
Parker changed the name to 

AMBOY JOURNAL, +1870 to date : Changed by Wm. Parker from the 
Lee County Journal, and published by him from September, 1870, 


to September 6, 1872; W. H. Haskell, September 6, 1872, to 
October 15, 1879; E. W. Faxon and Company, October 15, 1879, 
to February i, 1881; Dr. C. E. Loomis, after February i, 1881. 
The paper was Republican in politics throughout its course. U 
NEWS, 1878 to date: Established by J. Henry Adams and Win. M. 
Geddes, who together published it for five years. Until 1882 
the News was issued from the office of the Paw Paw Herald; 
since that time from its own office. In 1882 William M. Parker 
was editor. For a short time in 1884 Adams and Preston were 
publishers; then, from October 18, 1884, until February 19, 1897, 
James H. Preston was editor and proprietor; Mrs. James H. 
Preston, publisher; Charles H. Eby, editor and manager, 1897- 
March 3, 1899; C. H. Eby to January, 1900. E. E. Chase 
bought an interest at that time and became sole owner in August. 
In December, 1900, he sold to Henry F. Gehant, who sold 
August 15, 1902, to Dafoe and Vaughn. Edited by R. G. Sher- 
wood for two months in 1902 ; then by E. O. Trickey. Since 
July io, 1903, E. L. Carpenter has been editor and publisher. 
Under Preston, Democratic; since, Independent with Repub- 
lican tendencies. 


UNION COUNTY RECORD, 1860 (?): Established July, 1860, 

by W. H. Mitchell. Republican. 

UNION COUNTY HERALD , April 1 7 , 1 869 ( ?) : Established by S . D . 

Rich; Democratic in politics; soon sold to Dr. J. J. Underwood, 
who re-sold in a short time. The office was moved to Cairo. 

ADVERTISER, 1870-1872: Published by Dougherty and Galligher; 
Republican. After about two years it was taken to Jonesboro, 
where in a short time publication ceased. The office was sold 
to John H. Barton, and taken to Carterville, Williamson county. 

UNION, March i, 1875-1875: Started by A. J. Alden, of Cairo, who 
soon sold to J. J. Penny and returned to Cairo. Mr. Penny pub- 
lished the paper about six months ; then it died. 

James I. Hale, M.D., was editor and publisher. 

FARMER AND FRUIT GROWER, 1877-1897: Established by H. C. 
Bouton; semi-monthly until the fall of 1877, then weekly; 
devoted to agricultural and horticultural interests of Union 
county and Southern Illinois. It was sold to the Prairie 
Farmer about 1897. U 

MISSIONARY SENTINEL, 1879-1880: Established by Rev. S. P. 
Myers in the interest of the German Reformed Church. After 
one year it was moved to Dayton, Ohio. 


UNION COUNTY NEWS, 1879: Edited and published by Hale, 
Wilson and Company. Independent. 


INDEX, 1870: D. A. Sheffield, editor; Herst C. Gann, publisher. 
Printed at the office of the Warren Sentinel. 


RECORD, November, 1866 to date: Established by Richard Gruelle, 
who conducted it until his death in 1883. The paper was sub- 
sequently owned by Bassett and Wamsley. In 1899 M. H. Bas- 
sett sold the paper to Nathan Collins and Sons. In May, 1905, 
Collins and Sons purchased the Arcola Herald, established 1883, 
of J. L. Avey and consolidated the two as the Arcola Record- 
Herald, which they still own and edit. Nathan Collins died in 
1908. The paper is now published by Collins Brothers with 
Frank F. Collins as managing editor. The paper devotes one 
page each week to the subject of broomcorn. It was the first 
"all home" paper in Douglas county. Republican. H 

DOUGLAS COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1870- (after 1881) : Independent. 
Established by H. H. Moore, 1870-1875 ; C. M. Leake, i876-(?) 
S. G. Clevis ton was editor and publisher in 1879; in 1880 H. H. 
Moore was again named as editor and publisher. 

ROCK, 1872-1873: An evangelical weekly, edited and published by 
T. J. Shilton. 

MOORE'S HOME MONTHLY, 1877: "Devoted to home and fireside 
miscellany" by H. H. Moore. 


COOK COUNTY HERALD, 1873- (after 1881) : F. W. Hoffman and 

Company were editors and publishers in 1877. In 1879 A. S. 

Lindsey was editor, and John Flaherty and Company publishers ; 

Herald Publishing Company in 1880. Republican. 
COOK COUNTY CHRONICLE, 1876 (?): F. D. Dalton was editor 

and publisher in 1876. 


GAZETTE, 1875-1877 : Edited and published by Lowe and Kloke. 
John Lowe was editor and publisher in 1877. Independent. 
Printed at the office of the Onarga Review. 


WEEKLY EAGLE, March 2, 1876: A neutral paper started by John 
S. Harper. Weekly was dropped from the title at the seventh 
number. After four months sold to A. F. Smith and removed. 


NEWS, 1879 (?): John J. Smith was editor and publisher in 



ENQUIRER, June-September, 1856: Established by M. L. McCord. 
The excitement occasioned by the presidential campaign was 
too much for a paper that was trying to be neutral. Its publi- 
cation ceased late in September of 1856. 

HERALD, 1870-1871: Established by L. E. Knapp. 

GAZETTE, 1876 to date: Established by A. W. O'Bryant, April 5, 
1876. Mr. O'Bryant was in 1879 still proprietor and pub- 
lisher. The name was changed to the Washington County 
Gazette, April 27, 1906, at which time F. E. and W. C. O'Bryant 
became publishers. Republican. Files are kept in the office. 


SENTINEL, i877-i88o(?): P. O. Sproul was editor and publisher 
in 1880. 


INDEPENDENT, April 22, 1871-1874+: R. M. Carr, was pro- 
prietor; J. M. Birce, local editor. Neutral in politics. Carr 
printed the Independent in the office of the Pana Gazette, until 
April 15, 1872, when I. V. Park began its publication at Assump- 
tion. Six months later, the office passed into the hands of a 
joint-stock company, with John L. Marvell as manager and 
editor. Owing to the latter's erratic management he was 
replaced by Richard Couch, July, 1874, who changed the name 
of the paper to 

RECORD, +1874-1876: Richard Couch was manager and editor 
for one year after its establishment in July, 1874. Then A. 
W. Chabin assumed management for nine months, after which 
the office was sold to A. M. Anderson and moved to Windsor, 
Shelby county. 

PRESS, September, 1872-1873: John P. Marnell was editor and 


ADVERTISER, 1871-1872: C. R. Spore was editor and publisher. 
ARGUS, 1876- (after 1881): Independent. 


LOGAN COUNTY FORUM, 1855-1858: A weekly paper edited by S. 
B. Dugger. 


ARGUS, May, 1869 to date: Established by Albion Smith. It was 
at first printed in Bloomington. The Argus was edited and 
published from 1870 to the spring of 1873, by Albion Smith and 
F. B. Mills; 1873 to August, 1874, A. W. Briggs; August, 1874, 
till after 1880, George L. Shoals; Horace Crihfield, then Crihfield 
Brothers, to date. Complete files owned by the office and by A. 
J. Ludlam of Atlanta. 

PROPERTY SELLER, 1871-1872: A monthly real estate advertising 
sheet, edited by Frank B. Mills; published by Smith and Mills. 


HERALD, 1873-1874+ : Published by Lowdermilk and Stover as an 
advertising medium. After five months sold to stock company. 
In 1874 M. G. Wadsworth of Auburn and W. F. Thompson of 
Virden purchased from stock company and changed the name to 

CITIZEN, +1874- (after 1881) : M. G. Wadsworth was editor and 
publisher in 1879. Independent. 


TIMES, 1856-1857: Established by L. S. Grove and Son. F 

HOME BANNER, December, 1864-1867: Established by W. P. 

Campbell, who after a year was succeeded by W. R. Carr. 
HERALD, August, 1878-1880: Established by Henry E. Allen. 

After about a year it was transferred to Silas Robinson, by whom 

it was discontinued in 1880. 


PEOPLE'S PLATFORM, 1846+ : Established, issued, and edited by 
Isaac Marlett; Democratic in politics. This was the first paper 
published in Aurora. It was soon removed to St. Charles, 
Kane county, then a more important town than Aurora. It 
continued to be published in St. Charles under different names, 
but ceased publication shortly after the presidential campaign 
of 1860. 

DEMOCRAT, August 6, 1846-- (?): Established by C. and G. 
Ingham. In politics it was "Democratic as understood by the 
Jefferson and Jackson school." C. and G. Ingham were the 
publishers. Short lived. P 

BEACON, June, 1847 to date: Founded by M. V. and B. F. Hall, the 
former a Whig, and the latter a Democrat. In politics the paper 
had two political departments, one Whig, and the other Demo- 
cratic. B. F. Hall disposed of his interest and the paper was 
Whig till the organization of the Republican party, when it 
warmly espoused the principles of that party. In the winter of 
1853-1854 James W. Randall and his brother Dudley purchased 


the Beacon. The Randalls were succeeded by a number of pro- 
prietors, among them N. S. Greenwood and George Brewster. 
On September 6, 1856, the Daily Beacon appeared, with A. C. 
Gibson as editor, and J. W. Randall and N. S. Greenwood as pub- 
ishers, but it was suspended April 30, 1857. In July, 1857, the 
Beacon and the Guardian were consolidated, and called Republican 
Union, owned by J. W. Randall and Simeon Whiteley. Suspend- 
ed, but in September, 1857, revived by Augustus Harman, who had 
been the editor of the Republican Union, and Oscar B. Knicker- 
bocker. In 1858 Harman retired. 1858-1859, George S. 
Bangs; Bangs and Knickerbocker, 1859-1866. In 1866 Bangs 
sold to Knickerbocker. In the same year John H. Hodder pur- 
chased an interest. Knickerbocker and Hodder continued the 
publication until the death of Mr. Knickerbocker in 1885. In 
the early 705 the Beacon started a semi-weekly edition, and in 
March, 1891, Mr. Hodder issued a daily, published ever since. 
On Mr. Hodder's death, in 1902, the paper was sold to a stock 
company. George W. Stephens is the present editor. Com- 
plete files in the office. PUF 

GUARDIAN, 1852-1857 + : Established by Simeon Whiteley and Ben- 
jamin Wilson, editors and proprietors; politics Democratic 
until the repeal of the Missouri compromise; then Free Soil, 
and afterwards Republican. Mr. Wilson retired from the paper 
at an early date. In July, 1857, the Guardian and the Beacon 
were consolidated, the new paper being called the Republican 
Union; the proprietors were James W. Randall and Simeon 
Whiteley. This firm lasted but a few weeks. PF 

REPUBLICAN UNION, +1857+: A consolidation of the Beacon 
and the Guardian; James W. Randall and Simeon Whiteley 
proprietors, Augustus Harman editor. After five numbers Ran- 
dall sold his interest to Whiteley, who then engaged as editor 
T. Herbert Whipple, afterwards one of the editors of the New 
York World. After the retirement of Randall this paper was 
called PF 

REPUBLICAN, +1857-1858: With the change in name the paper 
was re-reduced in size. February 12, 1858, Mr. Whipple became 
"corresponding editor," Mr. Whiteley assuming the general 
editorship. The last issue appeared November 5, 1858. P 

TEMPERANCE MONITOR, March, 1858-1859: Started as a temper- 
ance organ by James P. Snell. It survived about a year. Mr. 
Snell entered the army at the beginning of the Civil War, and at 
its close became editor of the Mendola Bulletin. E 


REFORMER, July, 1858-1860: A sixteen-page monthly. Established 
by Augustus Harman and Ellen Beard. It was discontinued in 
June, 1860. It declared itself "to be what its name indicates," 
and fought ardently for prohibition, dress reform, etc. Miss 
Beard soon became Mrs. Harman. She assisted her husband 
in the editorial department, set type, canvassed for subscribers, 
and lectured. 

TEMPERANCE TOCSIN, April till fall, 1860: A sheet half the size of 
the Reformer, established by Augustus Harman and wife, in- 
tended for local circulation. Mr. Harman died in the fall of 
1860, after which Mrs. Harman continued the publication of the 
Tocsin for a short time. 

CHRONICLE, February, 1861 : Established by John H. Hodder, 
editor and proprietor. This paper existed about six months. 

HERALD, June, 1866-1903: Established by Thomas E. Hill. He 
was succeeded in the ownership of the paper by the firms 
of Hill and Gale; Gale and Shaw; Shaw and Bangs; Bangs, 
Owen and Ford; and Bangs and Owen. In 1871 the paper 
was purchased by Pierce Burton, who in 1874 sold a half 
interest to Mr. James Shaw, who re-sold to Mr. Burton in 
1880. The latter continued the paper until he established 
the Aurora Daily Express in 1882, and thereafter the Herald 
was the weekly edition of that paper. Originally Republican 
in politics, under Mr. Burton it was Independent. In 1876 it 
supported Peter Cooper for President ; and it advocated Green- 
back principles as long as the party of that name had a 
national organization. Mr. Burton retired from business in 
1902. After several changes of ownership, the Express ceased 
publication in 1903, and with it perished also the Herald. PU 

WEEKLY, June, 1867 : Established by Dudley Randall; had a brief 

ARGUS, 1867: This paper was in some sort the successor of the 
Aurora Weekly. It was established by Dudley Randall, and 
edited by him and W. H. H. Brainard. Possibly there was 
simply a change of name without change in proprietorship or in 
the character of the paper. 

VOLKSFREUND, 1 868 to date: Established by Peter Klein and Jacob 
Siegmund. In 1871 Mr. Klein purchased the interest of Mr. 
Siegmund, and has since continued sole proprietor. Republican 
until 1884, when it supported Cleveland for President. It soon 
became Republican again, and has remained so. May 27, 1895, 
a daily edition was started, and has been continued. U 

CITY LIFE ILLUSTRATED. 1871: Founded by Dudley Randall and 
continued several months. Life attained a large circulation for 
those days. 


FREE METHODIST, 1872-1874+ : A Free Methodist weekly, moved 
from New York City by Louis Bailey. Purchased in 1874 by 
D. P. Baker and T. B. Arnold, who moved it to Sycamore. 

ARMY RECORD, 1873-1874: Monthly advertising sheet edited and 
published by James D. Fox. Apparently changed the next year 
to Army Register, and the date of establishment moved back 
one year. 

VIDETTE, 1873-1874: Edited and published by Tounshendeau and 

DAILY GLOBE, 1874: Issued only one day. Established by a Mr. 
Turner, a printer employed in the Beacon office, and printed by 
Jacob Siegmund. On the very day of publication, however, 
Turner left, and a little later Siegmund presented Turner's 
idea as 

DAILY NEWS, February 22, 1874: Founded by Jacob Siegmund 
and Charles M. Faye. The first daily paper in Aurora to main- 
tain a permanent existence. Mr. Faye sold his interest to Mr. 
Siegmund in September, 1875, and was succeeded for a few 
weeks by Orville B. Merrill. On February i, 1876, Willis B. 
Hawkins became owner of one-half the plant. Hawkins 
remained with the News for several years. On his retiring, Mr. 
Siegmund published the paper for a time, with Richard W. Cor- 
bett as editor. In 1884 Mr. Siegmund sold the plant to Edward 
Northam and Eben F. Beaupre", who published the paper about 
two years, and then sold it to John F. Dewey. In 1891 Mr. 
Dewey sold to Walter S. Frazier. From Mr. Frazier ownership 
of the paper passed at his death to Lincoln B. Frazier, a son. 
Under the proprietorship of L. B. Frazier the News has con- 
tinued. W. W. Clark is the present editor. PU 

EVENING POST, 1878-1897 : Daily ; established by a printer named 
Welch. From Welch's hands it passed to those of Peter Klein 
and Louis A. Constantine, under the firm name of Klein and 
Constantine. This co-partnership was of less than six months' 
duration; then Peter Klein transferred his interest in the paper 
to his partner, who kept the Post going for nearly twenty years. 
In 1897 Constantine was appointed postmaster of Aurora, and 
soon after this the Evening Post was discontinued. 

INDEPENDENT, September, 1878: Established by Edward Keough, 
formerly of the Elgin Times. The Independent was started 
as a Democratic paper ; but the Democrats of Aurora apparently 
did not care for an organ, and the Independent lived but a 
short time. 



REGISTER, 1876 (?) : Established by George Jahn and Bethune 

Dishon. Democratic. Mr. Dishon retired in 1877 leaving Mr. 
Jahn editor. In Rowell for 1879, Dishon is given as editor and 

NEWS, 1876 (?) : Lambert and Connor were editors and pub- 


| SENTINEL, 1879 to date: Established by H. J. Herbertz. Mr. Her- 
J^bertz retired in 1880, being succeeded by Mark Ullery. In 1881 

H. G. Leigh purchased an interest, the partnership of Ullery and 
| Leigh continuing three months, when W. E. Stevens purchased 
IfcMr. Ullery 's interest. In 1883 Mr. Stevens became sole owner, 

leasing a half interest to Geo. E. Simmons for two years; in 1885, 
jj^W. W. Vose succeeded Simmons, the partnership continuing two 
|t years. W. E. Stevens has been the editor and publisher since 

January i, 1888. Files are at the office. 


HERALD, i877~after 1881 : Edited and published by J. A. Ballinger, 
and later by W. G. Alden. Printed at the office of the Palatine 


ENTERPRISE, (?) : A paper established by George W. Smith in 

the sixties. Not mentioned by Rowell for 1869. 

DISPATCH, ( ?) : A short-lived publication begun in the sixties 

by Shaffner and Goldsmith. Not mentioned by Rowell for 1869. 

OBSERVER, 1870-1871: Established by L. L. Burke. Within a 
year was suspended and removed. 

ADAGE, 1871 to date: Established by M. H. Cobb, publisher, and 
J. H. Cobb, editor, 1871-1878; S. E. Colgrove, 1878-1879; 
. John H. Cobb and W. W. Watson, 1879-1880; W. W. Watson, 
1880-1898; A. E. Hess, 1898 to date. Independent. 

UNICORN, 1877+ : Edited and published by Simeon Fitch. Started 
as Republican, soon changed to Greenback, and the name was 
changed to 

ICORN GREENBACK, +1878-1887: Edited and published by 
Simeon Fitch, who is said to have written chiefly in verse. The 
paper declined with the Greenback movement, which it had 



EXPOSITOR, 1852 : Edited by James Risk and others. Short-lived. 

Fox RIVER EXPOSITOR, January, 1856- (?): Another short- 
lived paper, apparently not connected with the foregoing. Edited 
by James Risk; published by RiskJ. Van Nortwick, and A. M. 
Moore. Democratic. F 

ARGUS, 1857 : Edited by T. W. Stitt, M. D. and Elijah H. Eyer. 
Soon moved to St. Charles. 

NEWS, 1869 December, 1908 : Published by Clark A. Lewis. Asso- 
ciated with him were A. J. Roof at the beginning; O. B. Merrill 
for awhile in 1870; R. N. Youngblood; and C. A. Schaffter. 
Mr. Lewis was sole editor and proprietor, 1884-1907. In 1907 
he leased the paper to Whittleton and Mercer. They continued 
three months. After two weeks' vacation the publication was 
resumed by William M. Wrightman but was again discontinued 
in December, 1908. U 

YOUNG ADVOCATE, 1871 : An amateur semi-monthly, edited by John 
F. Dewey. Short-lived. 

Fox RIVER TIMES, 1876: Established by A. J. Roof, Mr. Gates, 
and Mr. Fox. Lasted three months. 


TISER, June 18, 1833-34: Established by Francis Arenz "as one 
of several enterprises he engaged in for developing the new coun- 
try and incidentally promoting his own business interests." 
Arenz was a Whig, but the paper was neutral, under the manage- 
ment of John B. Fulks. In the fall or winter of 1834 the plant 
Was sold and moved to Rushville. S 

GAZETTE, August 15, 1845-1852+: Established by Sylvester Em- 
mons, who had precipitately removed from Nauvoo after issuing 
one number of an Anti-Mormon Expositor at that place. The 
paper was Whig, violently inimical to Democracy and Mormon- 
ism. Emmons sold in 1852 to C. D. Dickerson, who after less 
than eight months sold to J. L. Sherman, who changed the 
title to S 

1854-!- : Conducted by J. L. Sherman as a Whig organ until 
probably 1854, when he sold to B. C. Drake, who changed the 
name to S 


CENTRAL ILLINOISAN, +1854-1861 : Conducted by B. C. Drake as 
a Whig paper until the organization of the Republican party, 
of which it at once became a supporter. In 1858, before the 
beginning of the Douglas and Lincoln joint debates, Drake 
began a daily, which he continued until the beginning of the Civil 
War, when he closed the office and enlisted. S 

DEMOCRAT, March 12, 1858-1865: The first Democratic paper in 
Beardstown; established by W. D. Shurtliff, and at first edited 
by Shurtliff and Davis. In 1862 J. K. Vandemark was made 
editor. He resigned in the fall ; in 1863 Charles R. Fisk and wife 
bought the paper and continued it until the close of the war. S 

GAZETTE, 1860+ : Established as a Republican paper by one 
Mitchell, who conducted it until the fall of 1860, when it was 
taken over by a joint stock company of Republicans, who changed 
the name to 

CENTRAL ILLINOISAN, + 1861- April 5, 1883 + : Managed by Logan 
U. Reavis for four or five years, then by the office foreman until 
March, 1867, when John S. Nicholson took charge. He be- 
came sole proprietor in June, 1868, and conducted the paper 
until April 5, 1883, when he sold to James G. Rice, owner of 
the Cass County Democrat, who merged the two papers as Illi- 
noisan-Democrat. He sold in October to Eugene Clark, who 
rechristened the paper Beardstown Illinoisan, and sold to John 
S. Nicholson. Changed from weekly to semi- weekly, April, 1884. 
In April, 1899, united with Star of the West (established 1888 
by H. C. Allard and made a daily March 7, 1892) as Illinoisan- 
Star, edited by Nicholson and published by Nicholson and Al- 
lard until 1902; since then by Nicholson and Fulks. It is 
now edited by J. S. and E. E. Nicholson. It has been consist- 
ently Republican. S 

HERALD, 1872-1873: Established by Henley Wilkinson and J. W- 
Lusk as an "out and out" Democratic paper willing to support 
Greeley to beat Grant. A county-seat fight and the election of 
Grant discouraged the proprietors, who sold early in 1873 to D. 
G. Swan, who made the paper Liberal Republican. It lasted 
but a few months, when it was removed to Bushnell. 

CHAMPION, September 25, 1875-1876 : Established by George Dann, 
Sr., George Dann, Jr., and George W. Thompson, with the first 
named as editor. Independent in politics. Soon suspended. 

CASS COUNTY MESSENGER, 1876-1879+: Established by George 
Dann, Sr., as a Democratic paper. Before the end of the first 
year Forrest H. Mitchell was associated with Dann as editor and 
publisher, but withdrew in August, 1877, and was succeeded by 


W. B. Bennett. Dann sold in 1879 to Joseph P. Sailer, who 

changed the name to 
CASS COUNTY DEMOCRAT, +1879-1883+: Democratic; conducted 

by Joseph P. Sailer until 1882, when J. Sam Fulks and George 

Martin became associated with him and they started a daily. 

It was unsuccessful, was sold in 1883 to Darb. McAulley, and by 

him to James G. Rice, who merged it with Central Illinoisan to 

form Illinoisan- Democrat. 
BEOBACHTER AM ILLINOIS FLUSS, 1877-1878+ : Established by 

Rev. A. Schaberhorn, who in the fall of 1878 sold to Theodore 

Wilkins, who changed the title to 
WOCHENBLATT, +1878-1882: Conducted by Theodore Wilkins 

until his death in 1881, when the paper was sold to Ross and Son, 

who removed it in 1882. 


EASTERN WILL UNION, 1879 to date (1880): C. E. Carter was 
editor and publisher. 


WESTERN NEWS, 1826-1827 : A weekly paper, published irregularly 
by Dr. Joseph Green. Politically "whole hog" Jacksonian, but 
conducted chiefly to serve Green's political aspirations. 

St. CLAIR GAZETTE, 1833-1838+ : A "whole hog" Jackson paper 
published by Robert K. Fleming ; publication often interrupted. 
For a part of this period the name was St. Clair Mercury. It 
was merged with 

and published by Edward S. Cropley. At some time after 
December 22, 1838, combined with Gazette to form H 

REPRESENTATIVE AND GAZETTE, +1838-1839+: Edited and pub- 
lished by Edward S. Cropley, who had run the Representative. 
It failed, and from it came the 

ADVOCATE, + 1839 *o date : Edited and published by James L. Boyd 
and John T. C. Clark, 1840; Mr. Boyd, 1840-1842; Philip B. 

Fouke, 1842 ; R. K. Fleming, : E. H. Fleming, 1849; 

William K. Fleming, 1849 Mr. Fleming changed it to a 

daily which was edited by Jehu Baker. It was in charge of 
and edited by John W. Merritt, 1850-1851; Judge Niles, late 
in 1851 ; E. H. Fleming and Mr. Niles, who bought and absorbed 
the Illinois Independent in 1852, when a daily was issued, 1851- 
1854; Mr. Fleming and James S. Coulter, 1854-1855; Mr. 
Coulter, 1855-1856; Judge Niles, 1856; Mr. Niles and Edward 
Schiller, 1856; Mr. Niles, 1856-1857; Collins Van Cleve and 
T. C. Weeden, 1857-1860. In 1860 E. J. Montague be- 


came proprietor. In 1861 the Newsletter of Mascoutah was 
consolidated with the Advocate; the title was made Weekly 
Belleville Advocate and News Letter, and Alexander G. Dawes 
became assistant editor. In the same year the property reverted 
to Van Cleve. Dawes soon retired and F. M. Hawes became 
editor. In October Weekly was dropped from the title. G. F. 
Kimball bought the paper in 1863. Hawes was still editor. In 
1867 F. M. Taylor bought an interest. In 1872 Taylor bought 
out Kimball, and continued the paper till 1890, when he closed 
the office. J. H. Thomas bought the equipment and the paper 
was continued after a month, with G. F. Kimball as editor. He 
soon retired. The Advocate is now edited and published by 
Belleville Advocate Publishing Company. Originally Dem- 
ocratic, the paper had become Free Soil in 1857, and later 
Republican. AEWSPHUF 

DER FREIHEITSBOTE FUR ILLINOIS, 1840: The first German paper 
in Illinois, printed in St. Louis, but issued in Belleville. It was 
conducted during the Harrison- Van Buren campaign and "griff 
mit besonderer Scharfe den Nativismus an." Gustav Koerner 
was publisher, and wrote nearly all the editorials. After two 
weeks its title was changed by the addition of und Missouri. 

SPIRIT or '76, January, 1839 : A Whig paper, started by Casper 
Thiele and Company, which lived but a short time. 

GREAT WESTERN, May n, 1839-1841: The material of the Spirit 
oj '76 was bought by J. R. and H. H. Cannon, who in effect con- 
tinued it under the title of Great Western. Whig. File owned 
by descendants of Edward W. West, in Belleville. A 

Started by C. and J. L. Sargent, with Elam Rust as editor. They 
leased the Great Western establishment after Cannon had died 
and his paper had ceased. R. K. Fleming was printer. In 
1843 the Repository suspended and the outfit was sold to Louis 
P. Pensoneau, who started the St. Clair Banner. Whig. A 

ST. CLAIR BANNER, August i, 1843 ( ?) : Edited by Wm. C. 

Kinney. Democratic, supporting Van Buren. Apparently not 
same as Banner below. . F 

POLITICIAN, April 13- June 8, ( ?) 1844 : A small humorous paper ed- 
ited and published by F. A. Snyder and Company, in which the 
editor asserted that he would support no man for public office 
who was not confident that he deserved the office. S 

ILLINOIS BEOBACHTER, 1844: A German paper started by Theodore 
Englemann, who sold it to Bartholomew Hauck and he moved 
the office to Quincy, where it was continued until 1848, when Mr. 
Englemann induced Mr. Hauck to remove the office back to 
Belleville, and the Zeitung appeared. A 


ST. CLAIR BANNER, April, i845~Mav, 1847+ : Edited and published 
by Louis P. Pensoneau, who in 1847 S W to D. W. Gelwicks and 
Louis Tramble. 1 Changed to APF 

TIMES, +1847-1849+: Edited by William C. Kinney and pub- 
lished by D. W. Gelwicks and Louis Tramble. It represented 
Democracy. Sold to George Harvey and Tom Walker, who 
changed it to 

ILLINOIS REPUBLICAN, +1849-1852: At first it was published by 
Messrs. Harvey and Walker, ana edited by Jedediah Judson. In 
1852 it was purchased by Judge Niles and absorbed by the 
Advocate. PHF 

ZEITUNG, January, 1849 to date: A German paper established by 
Theodore Englemann and Bartholomew Hauck ; the former was 
editor, the latter, publisher. Gustav Koerner became connected 
editorially with the paper in 1849; Hauck bought Englemann 's 
interest in 1852; Franz Grimm first became editor in 1853; 
after four months he was succeeded by August Kattmann. 
Grimm went to Memphis and in 1854 established Stimme des 
Volkes, the first German paper in Tennessee. January, 1854, 
Hermann Fiedler became editor; then Hannibal Seylern; 
Dr. F. Wenzel, 1855-1856. Dr. Wenzel established the Volks- 
blatt soon after his withdrawal from the Zeitung. ' He was suc- 
ceeded by Franz Grimm, 1856-1857; W. Vollraith, 1857. 
Hauck sold to Friedrich Rupp, 1858, who formed a partnership 
with F. Grimm of the Volksblalt, which was then discontinued. 
F. Grimm was editor, 1858-1861; Ludwig Seibold, 1861-1862; 
Edward Lindemann, 1862 ; Adelbert Lohr, 1862-1863; Charles 
Neubert, 1863-1874; Heinrich C. Miiller, Earnhardt Hartmann, 
1874-1875; Eugen Seeger, 1876-1877; G. Rentschler, 1877; 
L. W. Habercom, 1877-1879. Stern des Westens was absorbed 
in 1877, and Der Stern in 1881, when the title of the paper be- 
came Zeitung und Stern. Sebastian Feitsam bought the paper 
in 1873. He owned the Illinois Republican, which was then 
absorbed in the Zeitung. George Semmelroth bought a halt 
interest in 1874; Heinfelden, Semmelroth, and Metschan became 
its owners in 1881 ; Heinfelden became sole owner in 1886. In 
1888 C. Angleroth became editor, and the title again became 
Zeitung. August von Lengerke was editor in 1890; William F. 
Dose, 1891. In 1891 Fred W. Kraft and Fred J. Kern bought 
the paper and Carl Brandt became editor. The Zeitung was 
consolidated with the Post in 1893 as Post und Zeitung. Max 
Gronefeld became editor; William C. Kiiffner and George 
Semmelroth were owners. In the same year Kiiffner died ; Mr. 
Semmelroth formed the Belleville Post and Zeitung Publishing 

1 Gustav Koerner in his Memoirs said that he wrote most of the articles in 
both the Banner and the Beobachter. 


Company, of which he was chief stockholder and business man- 
ager. He died in 1895 and his son, Hermann Semmelroth, 
succeeded him. A. W. Fischer was editor 1895-1896; Otto 

Steuernagel, 1896-1898 ; Kriiger, 1898 . Began as a weekly ; 

a daily was considered in January, 1853, and a trial number issued 
in December, when Belleville had no railroad and no telegraph 
office. A few numbers of a daily were issued in January, 1855 ; 
began again November, 1855, and continued till June, 1857; 
permanently established August, 1876. In politics originally 
Democratic, modified under Wenzel; strongly anti-slaverv 
under Grimm, who made the paper a powerful influence from 
1858 to 1 86 1 ; supported Lincoln in 1860, Greeley in 1872; 
Independent till 1884, Democratic until 1893, Republican 
since. Files 1856-1857, 1860 to date in the office. PUF 

SUN, 1851 : Established by E. H. Fleming. After thirty-six numbers 
it was joined to Advocate and conducted by Mr. Fleming as fore- 
man and Judge Niles as editor. 

EAGLE, 1854+: Managed by Bevirt and Shoupe and edited by 
Governor Reynolds for a while. At first it was a daily but soon 
changed to a weekly. Changed to S 

ST. CLAIR TRIBUNE, +1854-1858: John B. Hay was manager and 
William Orr editor, 1854; Edward R. Stuart and G. A. Harvey, 
1854; Mr. Harvey and William E. Hyde, 1854-1856; Mr. Har- 
vey, 1857. In 1857 it was sold to Van Cleve and Weeden, 
owners and publishers of the Advocate. P 

DER FARMER DES WESTENS, March, 1856 : An agricultural paper pub- . 
lished from the Zeitung office. It was continued but a short time. 

VOLKSBLATT, 1856-1858: German and anti-slavery. Established 
by Dr. F. Wenzel and edited by Louis Didier, 1856-1857 ; Franz 
Grimm, 1857-1858. In 1858 it was consolidated with the Zei- 
tung. P 

DEMOKRAT, 1856-1857 : Edited by Dr. Wenzel, except for a few 
weeks, during which time it was edited by A. Ruoff. German 
and a supporter of Democracy. P 

SUN, 1857: Established by E. H. Fleming. It was also joined to 

DEMOCRAT, 1857-1883 + : Published by Messrs. W. F. Boyakin and 
H. L. Fleming, 1857-1859; E. R. Stuart and W. H. Shoupe, 
1859-1860; W. F. Boyakin was editor from the first; G. A. 
Harvey, 1860-1863; Duelinger and Russell, 1863 to 1883, when 
the Democrat was combined with the News as the News-Demo- 
crat. Fred J. Kern succeeded William J. Underwood as editor 
and manager January i, 1890, and has continued in that position 
to date. HPU 


STAR OF EGYPT, 1858-1859: Campaign paper edited and published 
by Ex-Governor Reynolds and J. W. Hughs. Supported Sidney 
Breese against Douglas for the Senate. 

BANNER, 1859: Edited and published by H. L. Davidson. Dem- 

DAILY DESPATCH, March y-August 3, 1861 : Established by Thomas 
H. Fleming and G. M. Williams. In twelve days it was trans- 
ferred to G. A. Harvey ; in five months it ceased. P 

MINER AND WORKMAN'S ADVOCATE, 1863-1866 : Established by John 
Hinchcliffe. It was very successful and was printed on the first 
steam power press run in southern Illinois. Removed to East 
St. Louis, where after one year it was discontinued. 

STERN DES WESTENS, 1865-1877: Published by Mr. Schmall from 
whom it passed into possession of Semmelroth and Kircher; 
Kircher sold to Daniel Hertel; Hertel retired and Semmelroth 
became sole proprietor. In 1868 to 1872 Henry Huhn was 
editor. It was sold in 1872 to Frederick E. Scheel; in 1877 it 
was consolidated with Zeitung. U 

FREIE PRESSE, 1868-1870: Established by a joint stock company 
with Mr. Mueller as editor. Democratic campaign paper. After 
the campaign the press was bought by Mr. Brickley of Red Bud, 
where publication was resumed with A. C. Helmicj as editor and 
Peter Baker, publisher; soon after removed to Belleville, where 
after another year it was suspended. German. 

PEOPLE, 1870-1874: Union Newspaper Company editors and pub- 
lishers, 1871; Kimball and Taylor, 1872; F. M. Taylor, 1873; 
Western Printing Company, 1874. Printed at Advocate office. 

ILLINOIS REPUBLICANER, 1872-1873: Established by a stock com- 
pany of leading Republicans, with Henry Huhn as editor and 
manager. In 1873 Sebastian Feitsam bought the stock and, 
soon afterward, bought the Zeitung and merged the two. 

TREUBUND, 1873: German; run in the interest of a benevolent 
society. Established by Messrs. Semmelroth and Company. 
Edited by Dr. Neubert. Short-lived. U 

INDEPENDENT, 1877-1878: Removed from New Athens by George 
Auerswald. Continued but a few months. 

STERN, 1877-1881: Established by Belleville Printing Company 
with Frederick E. Scheel, editor. In 1878 made daily, at which 
time Henry Huhn became editor. German. Democratic. It 
was absorbed by Zeitung. 

REFORM, 1878; Established by George C. Bunsen. Advocated 
socialism and communism. Died after four or five months. 


JOURNAL, 1878; Established by L. W. Habercom. German. 
After twenty issues sold to Zeitung. 

REPUBLICAN, 1879- (?): Established by Dr. T. W. Erkert. 
In five months he sold one third interest to G. F. Kimball and 
one-third to S. C. Mace. In four months Erkert purchased their 
interests and became sole owner again. In 1881 one-half in- 
terest was sold to H. B. Knight. 


JOURNAL, 1877 : Gles&ner Brothers were publishers. Independent. 

PRAIRIE BEACON, about 1847: A neutral paper edited by J. P. 
Nichols. Listed in Illinois Annual Register for 1847. 

STANDARD, 1851-1897 : Published by Ralph Roberts, 1851-1897. 
Democratic up to 1856 when it became Republican. Published 
weekly. PSF 

REPUBLICAN, 1848-1850: Edited by J. W. Snow. It was an ex- 
ponent of Whig principles. 

, 1859: Two or three numbers of a weekly issued by 
a "Professor" Gower. Printed in Rockford. 

INDEPENDENT, (?)- (?): J. Nelson Brockway. Republi- 
can. Printed for a short time only. 

UNION, ( ?)- ( ?) : Jackson Republican. Lasted a year or 


BOONE COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1864: Established by a Mr. Wilson 
and continued through the campaign of 1864. 

BOONE COUNTY ADVERTISER, i867(?)-i87o. Established about 
1867 by W. H. Caldwell. Office moved to Rock Falls. 

NORTHWESTERN, 1867 to date: Established by E. H. Talbot. 
Sold to R. W. Coon in 1870 and to Alson W. Keeler in 
1888. Charles R. Truitt owned a half interest for several years, 
commencing 1895. In 1899 it was sold to Professor Wilgus and 
conducted by him for a time and sold again to Mr. Keeler. It 
was afterward conducted for a short time by J. H. Carpenter and 
then by an incorporated company under the editorship of A. C. 
Collins. Republican. Daily edition began in 1892. Later 
combined with Republican as Republican-Northwestern. UE 

COURIER, 1870: An advertising sheet issued by Caldwell and 

DAILY INDEX, 1875: Established by W. C. Coates. Lasted two 
or three months. 

CURIOSITY HUNTER, +1876: A paper published September, 1827, 
to July, 1874, at Rockford ; discontinued; resumed at Belvidere. 


RECORDER, 1878-1881: Founded by C. E. Kelsey and W. A. 
Welsher. In November, 1878, Welsher retired and C. A. 
Church succeeded him. Messrs. Church and Kelsey published 
the paper as a semi- weekly until 1881. 


UNION, 1 86 1 : Established by James Shoaff. Short-lived. 

COURIER, iS6g(7)- (?): Weekly. 

FARMERS' ADVOCATE, 1873-1875 : Mit. A. Bates was editor and 

REGISTER, 1875-1877: J. H. Jacobs, editor and publisher. Re- 

INDEPENDENT, 1878: Established by Benn Biddlecome. Inde- 
pendent. Short-lived. 


JOURNAL, i872-(after 1880) : E. F. Baldwin, editor and publisher 
1874-1875; Journal Company, 1876 . Republican. 


STANDARD, 1849 to date: Democratic paper eaited by Ira Van 
Nortwick, 1849-1850; Edward V. Pierce, 1850; Mr. Pierce 
and John G. Goessman, 1850-1851 ; Mr. Goessman, 1851-1857. 
For a year or two James Macklin was associated with Mr. Goess- 
man. Up to the time Mr. Goessman became editor the press 
and material were owned by citizens of Benton. Edited ana 
published by Mr. Pierce, 1857-1858. From before 1879, and 
after 1887, A. M. Brownlee was editor and publisher. Hassett 
and Outten, who changed the name to Plaindealer, moved the 
concern to Du Quoin and established the Du Quoin Republican, 
advocating the election of Lincoln as United States Senator. 
(Boss,' Early Newspapers oj Illinois, p. 17.) * Only partial 
files in office. UF 

DEMOCRAT, 1860- (?): Edited and published by A. and G. 

NATIONAL BANNER, 1868: Edited and published by Thomas Gal- 
lagher. Republican. Short-lived. 

BAPTIST BANNER, 1874- (after 1881) : A Baptist church publication 
with W. P. Throgmorton editor, and J. C. Turner, publisher. 
Apparently it was moved to Cairo in 1881 and there published 
as Banner and Gleaner. 

1 Boss's statement seems in error, as the editor of Standard asserts that it 
has been published continuously in Benton since 1849, and is still there. 


FRANKLIN COUNTY CHRONICLE, 1879 to date: Established by John 
A. Wall. Sometime later owned by Charles H. Sneed. 
James S. Barr, Jr. was editor and publisher in 1887. Plant 
burned in (?). Afterward James Barr revived the paper 
under the name Republican. Sold to R. D. Kirkpatrick; then 
to J. T. Chenault and W. W. McCreery (Mr. Chenault was 
editor) ; in 1898 to Harry L. Trier, who still conducts it. Repub- 

FRANKLIN COUNTY COURIER, 1874-1877: Hinson and Garner, 
1875-1876; J. M. Hinson and Brother, 1877. Democratic in 
1875; Independent, 1876-1877. 


HENDERSON PLAINDEALER, 1867-1869: Movea from Oquawka 
by a stock company and edited by Ira D. Chamberlin. After 
a year it was turned over to Judson Graves. After about a year 
and a half he removed the paper to Kirkwood, and afterward 
to Galesburg. 

CLIPPER, May 29, 1875 to date: Established by M. M. Rowley, 
who was editor and proprietor until May i, 1908. He is still 
proprietor, but S. Frank Rowley has been editor and publisher 
since May i, 1908. Republican. 


ARGUS, 1857 (?) + : It was published for about a year by 

George W. Smith, who was followed by Charles Cornell. It 
was changed to the Hustler, and is now the Gazette, edited and 
published by John H. Bayliss. Democratic. F 

LANCET, 1869-1871 : R. L. Kimble, editor and publisher. Neutral. 

ERA, 1875-1876: W. C. Brown, was editor and publisher. Inde- 

MCDONOUGH COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1877- (?): A Democratic 
paper, edited and published in 1879 by J. G. Hammond. George 
S. Fuhr, editor in 1880. Still extant in 1881. 


1839: The first newspaper published in McLean County; 
founded by James Allin, Jesse W. Fell, and General A. Gridley. 
The first editor was William Hill; after a year he was succeeded 
by Jesse W. Fell. The material for the paper was shipped from 
Philadelphia via New Orleans and was several months in transit. 
The issue of January 13, 1838, is in the Withers Public Library ; 
that of April 22, 1837, owned by McLean County Historical 
Society. P 


MCLEAN COUNTY REGISTER, 1845-1846: Started by Russell B. 
Mitchell, who was succeeded by C. P. Merriman. He began the 

WESTERN WHIG, 1846-1852 + : Established by C. P. Merriman, 1846- 
1849; Messrs. Johnson and Underwood, 1849-1851 ; published 
by Messrs. Merriman and Jesse W. Fell, and edited by Mr. Fell, 
1851-1852. Files in Withers Public Library; vol. 3, no. 45- 
vol. 5, no. 52; (September 18, 1849 November 19, 1851, 
many missing). McLean County Historical Society has odd 
copies from December 25, 1847, to August 27, 1851. In 1852 
Mr. Merriman became its proprietor, the name having been 
changed by Mr. Fell to the PF 

INTELLIGENCER, +1852-1853+: Mr. Merriman changed the name to 
the Pantagraph. File, January 14, 1852 -November 16, 1853, 
in Withers Public Library. Copies owned by McLean County 
Historical Society. PS 

PANTAGRAPH, + 1853 ( ?) to date : In June, 1854, Jacob Morris bought 
a half interest; C. P. Merriman became sole owner and editor 
in November, 1855. In 1855 he sold to William E. Foote, who, 
with E. J. Lewis as editor, continued it till January, 1860. Then 
in 1861 he was succeeded by Carpenter, Steele, and Briggs; 
then, in 1867, by John D. Scibird and Orin Waters; Jesse W. 
Fell, W. O. Davis and James P. Taylor, 1868. Editors 
since E. J. Lewis: William E. Foote, H. B. Norton, Thomas 
Moore, J. H. Burnham, F. J. Briggs, B. F. Diggs, E. R. Roe, 
J. B. Bates, W. O. Davis. Davis was publisher and proprietor, 
February 20, 1871, to December 18, 1907, when the property 
was incorporated, with W. O. Davis, president, H. O. Davis, vice- 
president, C. C. Marquis, secretary ana treasurer. Started as a 
weekly, a daily was issued beginning June 19, 1854. After a 
few months it was changed to tri- weekly, till October, 1855. 
Weekly till February 23, 1857; daily and weekly ever since. 
Republican. The Pantagraph has long been one of the best 
known papers in Illinois because of its conservatism and re- 
liability. The peculiar name is explained by C. P. Merriman as 
derived from panta, neuter accusative plural of the Greek adjunct 
pas, plus graph, imperative of grapho. 

Complete file in rooms of McLean Co. Hist. Soc. AUPSF 

REVEILLE, 1848-1850: A Democratic paper started by James 
Shoaff, editor, and Joseph Duncan. Removed to Pekin. Copies 
owned by McLean County Historical Society. 

STATE BULLETIN, May, 1850-1853+ : Established by H. K. Davis; 
edited and published by him until 1852. Sold to E. Strafford. 
In 1853 edited by Washington Wright and owned by C. Wake- 
field. In the same year its name was changed to 


ILLINOIS CENTRAL TIMES, +1853-1855 + : Conducted by W. Wright 
until 1854 ; then by Wright, Underwood and Sharp ; then bought 
by Meyers and Miller; then Meyers and D. J. Combs; bought 
by J. and B. F. Snow in 1855. The establishment was destroyed 
by fire in October, 1855. The paper soon reappeared as the S 

TIMES, November, + i855~August, 1862: The paper was con- 
ducted by J. and B. F. Snow with such marked southern pro- 
clivities and such expressions of sympathy for the southern states 
that the ninety-fourth regiment, Illinois Volunteers, a McLean 
County regiment, abetted by prominent citizens, destroyed the 
office and press, and with them the paper, in August, 1862. A 

NATIONAL FLAG, 1855-1858+ : Published by Samuel Pike and his son, 
Wallace Pike ; a daily edition was published in 1857 by Edson and 
Aiken. It became the McLean Co. Hist. Soc. Lib. F 

ILLINOIS STATESMAN, +1858-1860: Published by Henry P. Mer- 
riman and Charles E. Orme. McLean Co. Hist. Lib. 

ILLINOIS TEACHER, 1855-1857+: The first annual state teachers' 
institute, held at Peoria originated the idea of the Teacher. W. 
F. N. Arny was appointed its first editor. It was conducted at 
Bloomington for two years, with Merriman and Morris as pub- 
lishers ; then it was moved to Peoria, and later to Springfield. S 

ILLINOIS BAPTIST, 1856-1858 (?): A religious publication, pub- 
lished by William P. Withers ; edited by S. J. Bundy, H. J. 
Eddy, and E. R. Roe. After a brief career it was combined with 
Northwestern Baptist or Christian Times of Chicago. 

McLean Co. His. Soc. Lib. F 

MCLEAN COUNTY ECHO, June 12, 1863-1864: A daily, edited and 
published by C. P. Merriman. Vol. i, nos. i, 6, 9, 15 owned by 
McLean Co. His. Soc. Lib. 

REPUBLICAN, May, 1865-1774: Established as a daily, with Major 
S. P. Remington as editor. Soon changed to weekly, and con- 
ducted by A. B. Holmes and brother. 

REPUBLICAN ADVERTISER, 1865-1874: A bi-weekly advertising 
sheet issued by the Republican. 

MCLEAN COUNTY JOURNAL, 1865-1868+ : Established by F. F. Luse 
and E. B. Buck. It was sold to A. J. Goff and changed to 

JOURNAL, 1868+ : A. J. Goff was editor and proprietor. In No- 
vember, 1868 Goff sold to Scibird and Waters, who changed it to 

LEADER, +November 15, i868-May, 1899: John D. Scibird and 
Orin Waters were proprietors and Elias Smith editor. Estab- 
lished as a weekly, an afternoon daily was started February 22, 
1869. This soon changed to a morning issue but was changed to 
evening again in 1870. B. F. Diggs and C. P. Merriman were 


political editors; owned by a stock company,i872-i874,with Orin 
Waters as manager. In 1874 Orin Waters became sole owner 
and publisher. In 1875 the establishment became the property 
of M. F. Leland; in 1891 Leader Publishing Company; in 1893 
L. A. Cass was owner and editor; in 1897 Owen Scott and H. 
C. De Motte, who continued the publication until 1899, when 
it was absorbed by the Bulletin. Republican. PU 

DEMOCRAT, April, 1868-1873+: S. S. Parke and D. B. Williams 
are mentioned as the first editors, followed by C. L. Steele, P. H. 
HayandE. P. Stephenson. Weekly until April, 1871 ; daily and 
weekly after that date. Purchased by Joseph Carter and renamed . 

ANTI-MONOPOLIST, + August, 1873-1874+: Established by S. S. 
Parke. After August, 1873, it was edited and owned by Joseph 
Carter. Ably edited and frequently quoted. It was merged with 
the McLean County Anti-Monopolist. 

ANZEIGER, i868-i873(?): A German paper established by G. 
Clemen. In 1872 C. M. Henrici was editor and proprietor; in 
1873 Dr. E. H. Makk, after which it seems to have been dis- 
continued. Became a semi-weekly. Republican. 

TEMPERANCE STANDARD, 1868-1873: A paper devoted to temper- 
ance and prohibition. J. E. Nichols was editor and owner. 

WESLEYANA, 1866-- (?): Issued at Wesleyan University. James 
H. Shaw was editor ; R. A. Eaton and R. B. Cresswell, publishers. 

MERCHANTS' ADVERTISER, 1868: Published by A. B. Holmes. 

SCHOOLMASTER, 1873-1886+ : Successor, in a way, to the Illinois 
Schoolteacher. John Hull was the first editor. He was suc- 
ceeded by Aaron Gove, E. C. Hewitt and John W. Cook. Mr. 
Cook and R. R. Reeder edited it until 1886, when George P. 
Brown became editor and the title was changed to Public School 
Journal. The name was again changed in 1900 to Home and 
School Education. H 

ADVANCE, (before 1870) : Had a brief existence. 

EVENING ARGUS (before 1870): 

DEUTSCHE VOLKS-ZEITUNG, 1870: Edited by Carl Vesofski. Short- 

lished by John Koester, and conducted by him until his death, 
when it was discontinued. Liberal in politics. For several 
years it was the only German paper in the county. U 

ALUMNI JOURNAL, June, 1870-1876: Issued by Illinois Wesleyan 
University. Edited by Professors H. C. De Motte and B. S. 
Potter. It was succeeded by 


STUDENTS' JOURNAL, 1877-1881 : Published by the Students' Pub- 
lishing Association of Illinois Wesleyan University; edited by 
H. C. De Motte. Monthly. 

REAL ESTATE JOURNAL, 1871-1876: O. B. Harris was editor and 

BANNER or HOLINESS, October, i872-(after 1881) : Established 
by Henry Reynolds and John P. Brooks. Brooks sold to L. B. 
Kemp in 1874; Dr. J. E. Voak became publisher in 1875, and 
Brooks was editor. Religious. 

LITTLE WATCHMAN, 1872 (?) : A Sunday School paper pub- 
lished by the Leader Company, with Levi H. Bowling and Knox 
P. Taylor as editors and owners. 

ILLINOIS TRADE REVIEW, November, 1872: Established by A. J. 
Goff and E. C. Hewitt. Short-lived. 

ENTERPRISE, 1873 : Published by Patrick H. Day. 

WESTERN JURIST, May, i874-April 28, 1881: A monthly law jour- 
nal, edited by Thomas F. Tipton ; published by Tipton and Hill, 
1874-1876; Newton B. Reed was associate editor, William Hill 
and Company publishers, 1876-1877; Thomas F. Tipton and 
James B. Black (Indianapolis, Ind.), editors, Newton B. Reed, 
managing editor, 1877-1878; Orlando W. Aldrich, editor, 1878- 
1881. Title was changed with vol. 4 to Monthly Jurist; the 
name and character were changed with the issue of June 26, 1879 
(vol. 6, no. 9) to Weekly Jurist, a Newspaper. Discontinued 
April 28, 1881. H 

brook by O. C. Sabin. After one year A. J. Goff bought the 
Anti-Monopolist and combined with it the Saybrook Banner 
under this title. Supported the Grange movement. It was 
probably succeeded after about a year by 

REPUBLIC, 1875: A short-lived paper edited and published by A. 
J. Goff. 

POST, 1874-1878 : A German weekly established by H. J. Stierlin. U 
APPEAL, 1875 : An independent weekly established by Henry Sturges 
and Thomas Wolfe. Suspended after about a year. 

WESTERN ADVANCE, 1875-1879: Established and edited by Robert 
D. Addis and George L. Curtis. 

ODD FELLOWS HERALD, i876-i89i(?) : Established by Matthew 
T. Scott, with George M. Adams as editor. Removed about 1891. 

DEMOCRATIC NEWS, January, 1877-1879: Edited and published 
by Dudley Creed. Consolidated with the Courier, November, 
1879. P 


SUNDAY HERALD, July, 1877 : Continued for only three months. 
HERALD OF HEALTH, 1878 (?): Published by Dr. Elias W. 

Gray. Not mentioned in newspaper directory of 1879. 
SPIRIT OF THE GRANGE, July 22, 1876 ( ?) : A weekly, published 

by R. M. Guy. Vol. i, no. 7, August 3, 1876, owned by McLean 

County Historical Society. 
SUNDAY MORNING STAR, 1879-1880: A. B. Holmes, publisher. 

SUNDAY MORNING EYE, January, 1878-1898: A society and literary 

paper, the second attempt at Sunday journalism in Bloomington. 

Established by H. R. Persinger, who sold in 1886 to George M. 

Hutchin. Mr. Hutchin sold to the Bulletin in 1898 and the 

paper was no longer published. The paper is referred to in one 

place as Saturday Truth and Sunday Eye. 
JOURNAL, 1878 to date: A German paper established by Frederick 

A. Schmitt. After a few months H. Meyer became editor 

and owner. It was later bought by Julius Dietrich, who still 

conducts it. 
WEEKLY COURIER, 1879: A short-lived Sunday journal. 


HERALD, 1873-1876+ : Established by C. A. Feistcorn. In 1876 a 

daily was established under the name of Press. Changed to 
STANDARD, + 1876 to date : A. F. Freed, editor and publisher, 1877- 

; Wade Errett and John Volp were editors and publishers, 

1890-1894; Wade Errett, 1894-1904; L. L. Errett, 1904-1908; 

C. Errett, 1908 to date. Independent. P 


RECORD, April 25, 1878- (?): Edited by Dr. W. C. Carver and 
published by him and James Linkins. W. C. Carver soon be- 
came sole proprietor and editor. 


CHRONICLE, 1871-1872: Established by B. F. Thomson, editor, 
and E. H. Edwards, publisher. It was printed at Princeton 
until the Wyoming Post was started, after which it was printed 
at that office. Short-lived. 


WESTERN MINER, 1870-1872: John James and William Moone) 
were editors ; Alexander Mclntosh, publisher. 

NEWS, 1872-1874: Established by Jacob Warner. Soon sold to 
Oliver J. Smith. 


JOURNAL, 1872-1876: Established by Thomas Simonton, and con- 
ducted by him until 1876. 

REPUBLICAN, June, 1875- (after 1881) : Established by Fred Dalton. 
Soon sold to H. H. Parkinson. Became a daily in 1877. 

HERALD, 1876 : A campaign paper run by Jacob Warner. 

DAILY PHCENIX, 1877 : Established by R. W. Nelson. Only a few 
numbers issued. 

REPORTER, i879-(after 1884) : Established by Edward D. Conley- 


ADVANCE, April, 1871-1880: A. G. Meacham was editor and pro- 
prietor until 1875, when A. M. Parker bought in the Shipman 
True Flag and the firm became Meacham and Parker. R. D. 
Suddeth leased Meacham's interest in 1876. and was succeeded 
in 1877 by L. H. Chapin. Parker bought Meacham's share in 
the next year and continued the paper. Neutral in politics till 
1876, thenceforward Republican. U 

NEWS, 1879 to date: Established with Holly Glenny as editor; 
Snively and Kessner, publishers. After a year L. H. Chapin 
succeeded Glenny. Later a Mr. Robertson bought the paper; 
then Frank Merrill, succeeded by William C. Merrill. A. Wil- 
liam and George Amass bought the paper from Merrill, and 
in 1907 sold to W. D. and Roscoe Franklin. They sold January 
i, 1909, to W. B. Teistort, and he, July i, 1909, to Frank W. 


GAZETTE, 1874-1879+: Established by R. H. Miller, who later 
moved the paper to Elmwood and from there issued a Brimfield 
edition with C. H. Hamilton as associate editor. Independent. U 

PEORIA COUNTY NEWS, 1879 to date: Established by Moody and 
Chapman; sold to R. P. Chaddock, 1880; Charles F. Overacker, 
1888; J. F. Pope and Addison Pacey, 1889; Addison Pacey, 
1894 to date. Files since 1889 in the office. The name has 
been changed to the Brimfield News. Independent. 

KENDALL CLARION, 1859-1861. 


MONITOR, 1879+ : Established by William L. Courow. Bought by 

John W. Bartholomew and changed to 
NEWS, +i879-(after 1883) : Established by John W. Bartholomew; 

sold to a Mr. Van Doren, who was conducting it in 1883. It has 

since been discontinued. 



ENQUIRER, 1875- - (?): Lowe and Riggs were editors and 
publishers, 1875-1876; Lowe and Cowan, 1877; Lowe and 
Warren, 1880; E. W. Warren, 1882; J. F. Pierson, 1884. In- 
dependent. Printed at the office of the Onarga Review. 


TELEGRAPH, 1869-1870: Charles M. King, editor and publisher. 
CALL, October 26, 1877-1879: Established by M. M. Monteith 

and continued about two years. 
HOME GUARD, 1879-+- : Established by H. P. Fitch. Soon changed 

WEEKLY CALL, + 1879+ : And sold to D. B. Payne, who changed the 

name to 
GLEANER, +^7 9-1 880+ : This continued one year, when it became 

the Bureau County Times, In 1882 it became the Buda Press 

Afterward discontinued. 


JOURNAL, December, i859-May, 1860: Edited by E. J. Bronson. 

UNION GAZETTE, January, i866-i869(?)-f- : Established by A. W. 
Edwards and conducted by him as a Republican paper until 
January, 1867, when he sold to A. R. Sawyer and F. Y. Hedley, 
who made it Independent in politics. Sawyer died in 1868 and 
the paper again became Republican under Hedley. The name 
was changed to 

GAZETTE, + i869(?) to date: F. Y. Hedley continued as editor and 
proprietor until January, 1878, when W. S. Silence became 
publisher. Said and Poorman leased the paper in January, 1879. 
Later, Phil C. Hansen edited the paper for a stock company of 
local merchants, who bought it about 1895. Hansen bought the 
stock later and sold in 1903 to W. B. Powell, then running the 
News (established 1900), who combined the two as Gazette- News, 
an Independent paper. He sold to Edward Wilson in 1904, 
who a year later sold to Truesdale, the present editor and 
publisher. Independent Republican. P 


UNION PRESS, 1865-1868+: Established by D. G. Swan. After 

about two years he sold to Andrew Hageman, who changed its 

name to 
RECORD, +1868 to date: After two years sold to A. W. Van Dyke; 

he sold in 1873 to S. A. Epperson and W. A. Spencer. Epperson 

became sole owner in 1874. In 1879 it was edited and published 


by the Record Publishing Company. In 1907 John R. Camp 

was editor and publisher. Republican. 

PEOPLE'S PAPER, 1872-1873 : D. G. Swan was editor and publisher. 
GLEANER, January, i876-(after 1884): Established and edited by 

J. E. Cummings; Van Dyke and Cummings, 1882; A. W. Van 

Dyke, 1884. Independent. Discontinued. 


NEWS, 1874-1877 : Established by Isaac B. Bickford, who had pur- 
chased the Forreston Journal, moved it to Byron and changed 
its name. It was not revived after the fire of November 13, 
1877, when the office was entirely destroyed. 

TIMES, 1876 (?) : Established by E. H. Love, soon succeeded by 

Dr. Win. F. Artz, who sold to C. E. Howe. On May i, 1877 G. 
W. Hawkes purchased an interest in the paper, and it was pub- 
lished by Howe and Hawkes until October 22, 1877, when Howe 
retired and Hawkes assumed entire management. Apparently 
it had been discontinued before 1881. 

EXPRESS, 1878 (?): Ervin and Hewitt were editors and 

publishers; in 1884, A. W. Ervin. 


GAZETTE, 1841 : Established by a Mr. McNeer. The paper was 

forced to discontinue after a short time, owing to its failure to 

support one Holbrook, then the most influential man of Cairo. 
DELTA, 1848-1849: Established by Add Saunders; neutral as to 

politics. A file, April 13, 1848 July, 1849, is extant in Cairo. F 
SUN, 1851-1852: Established by Frank Rawlings. It was run in 

the interest of the Emporium City Company, which company 

desired to break down Cairo and to build the great city at that 

point. Democratic. 
CITY TIMES, 1851-1855+: Edited by Len G. Faxon and W. A. 

Hacker, 1854-1855; latter part of 1855 by Hacker and Willett. 

It was merged with the Delta. Democratic. 
DELTA, 1855 + : It contained in its columns but little politics. 

Edited by L. G. Faxon, and after four months' existence it united 

with the Times and became known as the 
TIMES AND DELTA, +1855-1859: Edited by Faxon and E. Willett. 

Tri-weekly and weekly. 
EGYPTIAN, 1856+: Established by Messrs. Bond and McGinnis. 

This was Ben Bond, the youngest son of the first governor of 

Illinois. Democratic. It soon passed under the control of 

S. S. Brooks, and the name was changed to F 


GAZETTE, +1856-1864: Edited by Mr. Brooks, 1856-1858; John A. 
and James Hull, 1858-1859; M. B. Kartell, 1859-1864. It 
was destroyed by fire in 1858 and the Messrs. Hull moved the 
Carbondale Transcript to Cairo. Harrell sold the paper in 1864 
to Cairo News Company, Republican, organized by John H. 

JOURNAL, 1858: Published for only a few months. A German 

ZEITUNG, 1859: Published semi- weekly for four months. It was 

issued from the office of the Gazette. 

EGYPTIAN OBELISK, 1861: Established by William Hunter; Re- 
publican; continued through two issues only. 

DAILY NEWS, 1863-1865: Established by a joint stock company 
under management of John W. Trover; Republican; the first 
Cairo paper to take the Associated Press dispatches. Dan 
Munn, its first editor, was succeeded in a short time by John A. 
Hull. Publication continued intermittently until 1865. 

DEMOCRAT, August 3, 1863-1868: Daily and weekly; established 
by Thomas Lewis, who moved it from Springfield, Illinois. This 
was the first effort made to run a fully equipped metropolitan 
daily in Cairo. A serious obstacle was the maintenance of mar- 
tial law in the town. All of southern Illinois and parts of Ken- 
tucky and Missouri supported the Democrat. H. C. Bradsby 
was first editor, assisted by C. C. Phillips and John W. McKee. 
Bradsby was succeeded after one year by J. Birney Marshall, 
who, retiring after some months, was succeeded by Joel G. 
Morgan. After a short time John H. Oberly replaced Morgan. 
In 1868 the Democrat and the Cairo Times, were consolidated i 
under the name Democrat; John H. Oberly, editor; H. L. 
Goodall, general superintendent. After fifteen months the paper 
was sold by the sheriff to John H. Oberly, and publication 
ceased. Files are owned by Hon. J. M. Lansden, as follows: 
October- December, 1865; 1866, 1867, a part of 1868. SHP 

CAMP REGISTER: May, June, July, 1861. Daily, for soldiers mostly. 

DAILY DRAMATIC NEWS, winter of 1864-1865 : Published by H. L. 
Goodall in the interest of the Cairo Atheneum. 

WAR EAGLE, +1864-1866+: A soldiers' paper first published at 
Columbus, Kentucky, by H. L. Goodall, who moved it, 1864, to 
Cairo; Republican; enlarged and published from the latter part 
of 1866 as the 

TIMES, +1866-1878+: Major Caffrey was general editor. 
After a brief suspension it was revived, 1868-1871, by H. L. 
Goodall. In 1869 it was published by Goodall Brothers. In 


1878 it was absorbed by the Democrat. Files of the War Eagle, 
for three or four months including April, 1865, are owned by Mr. 
Lansden. Republican. Daily, then daily and weekly. P 

MONDAY LEADER, March, 1865 (?): Vol. i, no. 4, April 17, 

1865, is in the Public Library. P 

CITY ITEM, September, 1865-1866: Established by Bradsby 
and Field; not a serious effort at a paper; Independent in 
politics ; lived something over a year. P 

UNION, 1866: Established by H. L. Goodall; Mr. Hutchinson, 
editor. The paper was soon sold to J. H. Barton and publica- 
tion discontinued. Republican. 

SUNDAY LEADER, 1866: Established by Edward S. Trover. A 
literary paper, issued every Sunday morning; its editor was 
the sole contributor. 

OLIVE BRANCH, 1867 : By Mrs. Mary Hutchinson; a family paper; 
lived one year. 

BULLETIN, November, 1868 to date: Daily; established by John 
H. Oberly, who was chief editor, with M. B. Harrell as associate. 
July, 1878, the office was leased to Mr. Burnett, who, January i, 
1 88 1, became sole owner and proprietor. During the first years 
of Burnett's control, M. B. Harrell was editor. He was suc- 
ceeded by Ernest Thielecke, and he, by the present editor, E. W. 
Thielecke. Files, 1868-1882, are owned by Hon. J. M. Lansden. 


SUN, 1869-1881 : Established by D. L. Davis. After a few months, 
changed to a daily and soon thereafter sold to the Jay brothers, 
who, having discontinued the publication of the Sun started 
the News, January i, 1881. After the daily was established 
the weekly was called Sun and Commercial. A file, August- 
October, 1878, is owned by Hon. J. M. Lansden. U 

PAPER, 1871-1876: Established by M. B. Harrell; name changed 
after a short time to Gazette, which it remained until 1876, 
when the paper was sold and moved to Clinton, Kentucky. 

COMMERCIAL, 1872-1873-!-: Louis L. Davis was editor. Consoli- 
dated with Sun in 1873. 

ARGUS- JOURNAL, + i876-October, 1907 : Begun in 1864 at Mound 
City as Weekly Argus and Mound City Journal, this paper was 
moved to Cairo in 1876, named Argus- Journal, and issued from 
both towns. Edited and published by H. F. Potter. Indepen- 
dent. Soon after the office was moved to Cairo, there was issued 
from the same office the U 


DAILY ARGUS, i878-October, 1907 : An independent paper edited 
and published by H. F. Potter. It was discontinued with the 

RADICAL REPUBLICAN, 1878: Issued for a short time from the office 
of the Sun. Louis L. Davis was editor and publisher. 

THREE STATES, (?) -February, 1883: Colored; politics un- 
known; died February, 1883. 

GAZETTE, (?) - ( ?) : W. T. Scott, a negro, was editor, 

proprietor, and publisher. 


PULASKI DEMOCRAT, (?) (?): Given in Gerhard's list 

for 1856 as published by Mr. Miller. 


HENRY COUNTY GAZETTE, i853-i856(?): Edited by J. W. Eystra. 

Sold to citizens of Kewanee. 

HENRY COUNTY CHRONICLE, 1858 to date: The first editor was Dr. 
Dunn, 1858-1861. In 1860 Messrs. Patten and Denison leased 
the office and press of the company. Mr. Patten was both owner 
and editor, 1861-1866; Everett and Casson, 1866-1867 ; George 
C. Smithe, 1867 till after 1879; ^ n I 97 edited and published by 
John M. Mavity. 

DEMOCRAT, July, 1869-18714- ' Started by a number of Democrats, 
with J. L. Rock, from the Chicago Times, as editor. After a few 
months it was sold, and then edited by J. G. Ayers until 1871, 
when it was sold to B. W. Seaton, who brought his Prairie Chief 
from Galva via Toulon and renamed the Democrat 

PRAIRIE CHIEF, + November, 1871 to date: Given in Rowell as a 
Democratic paper established in 1867, and edited and published 
in 1879 by B. W. Seaton. The name was afterward changed to 
Chief. In February, 1902, B. W. Seaton sold his interest to his 
son, John H. Seaton, the present editor and publisher. U 


ENTERPRISE, April, i866-November, 1872: Established by Wil- 
liam R. Carr. In 1869 Ira D. Chamberlain was editor and E. 
E. B. Sawyer, publisher. Material purchased to establish the 
Journal. No files in existence. 

JOURNAL, February, 1873 to date: Established by George W. 
Cyrus and Thomas Bailey. Mr. Bailey retired in 1876; Mr. 
Cyrus still publishes the paper. Independent in politics. Com- 
plete files in the office. 



HERALD, 1837 : Edited by G. B. Perry and P. Stone. It was short-lived. 

WESTERN TELEGRAPH, 1840-1841-)-: Edited by Stone and Christ. 
Changed to 

FULTON TELEGRAPH, +1841 : Edited by Messrs. A. L. Davison and 
P. Stone, and published by Mr. Stone. A 

FULTON BANNER, 1843- (?): Augustus R. Sparks was editor 
and publisher in 1846. Democratic. A 

DEMOCRATIC REPOSITORY, 1847-1848: Edited by C. J. Sellon. 

REGISTER, 1849 to date: For a few months it was edited by C. J. 
Sellon, and the next few months by Slaughter and Sharkey. With 
Mr. Sharkey as sole proprietor it was edited for a short time by 
John S. Winter. In 1849 Mr. Sharkey secured the services of 
John S. Brooks as editor, when it became a Democratic organ, 
being neutral before. It soon became neutral again, but opposed 
the Kansas-Nebraska bill. In 1856 it became Republican. In 
February, 1850, its publication ceased and the office fell into the 
hands of T. Maple, who, in August, 1850, sold it to Thomas J. 
Walker of Belleville, Illinois. He revived it and employed Wil- 
liam H. Haskell as editor. M. A. L. Davidson became partner 
and editor. From 1852 to 1853 the paper was run by Mr. Nicolet 
and Mr. Davidson. In 1853 Mr. Davidson died and his interest 
was purchased by Alpheus Davison it now became neutral as 
to politics. It was suspended for two months in 1862, both of 
its proprietors being in the army. In 1866 the firm name became 
Nicolet and Magie, issuing a Republican paper. Later the firm 
name was Magie and Tanquary; in 1875 Mr. Magie became 
sole proprietor. Jesse N. Berry and E. R. Magie, son of former 
editor, leased and edited it from 1877-1878, when James K. 
Magie and Son became its editors. In 1878 it favored the 
National Greenback party and lost its influence. Then C. E. 
Snively purchased it, changed it to a Republican organ, and has 
conducted it ever since. Files in the office. A daily was started 
in 1890. SUF 

ILLINOIS PUBLIC LEDGER, 1854 to date: It was started at Lewis- 
town in 1 850, and is now known as the Fulton County Ledger. 
Edited by Griffith and Bideman, 1854-1856; Thornton and 
Bideman, 1856-1857; S. Y. Thornton, i857~August 2, 1909, 
on which date S. Y. Thornton died and was succeeded by his 
son, W. E. Thornton. Mr. Thornton was the first editor to give 
space to local notes in the Ledger. The Illinois Public Ledger 
was changed to the Fulton Ledger, and after Mr. Thornton got 
possession it was changed to the Fulton County Ledger. Demo- 
cratic. F 


ADVERTISER, 1877-1879-!-: Established by Horace J. Leigh and 
Gilbert L. Miller. Successively non-partisan, Republican, 
non-partisan. C. W. Kent purchased Mr. Miller's interests in 
1879, when the paper changed its name to 

COURIER, +1873-1875: Davidson and Son, editors and publishers. 
ILLINOIS MASTER WORKMAN, 1875-1878: Succeeded by 
ADVERTISER, 1878 (?) : This was succeeded by 

TIMES, 1879 ( ?) : " Independent of party or sect." Succeeded 

in turn by Republican, Cantonian, and Leader, the last of which 
expired in 1906. H 


MESSENGER, 1869-1871: Edited and published by Wing and Saw- 
yer, 1870; M. W. Nesmith and Rev. J. Hitchcock, 1871. 

HERALD, 1878 (?)- 1887 : A. H. S. Perkins ran this paper "for eight 
or ten years" and discontinued it in 1887. 


TRANSCRIPT, 1857-1858+ : Edited by J. A. Hull. The paper was 
moved to Cairo in 1858. Files in possession of General D. H. 
Brush, U. S. A. (See Cairo Gazette.} 

TIMES, 1859-1863+-: Established and edited by J. A. Hull. Al- 
though Democratic in its politics it denounced the Southern 
cause and strongly favored the Union. It is said to have been 
the first Democratic paper in the West to assume this attitude. 
Hull sold in 1863 to J. H. Vincent, who changed the name to 

NEW ERA, +1863-1873+ : J. H. Vincent, who had made the paper 
Republican, sold to John H. Barton in 1866. In 1870, J. H. Barton 
is named as editor; Hull and Roberts, 1871 ; John A. Hull, 1872. 
Sold to Reverend Andrew Luce, who changed the name to 

OBSERVER, + i873~i883( ?) : Luce sold after several years to Colonel 
D. H. Brush, who soon sold to C. W. Jerome. Reverend Mr. 
Holding became editor. In 1876 Will, Van Benthusen and Mor- 
gan bought the paper, but in 1877 it reverted to Mr. Jerome, 
who later sold to A. Ackerman, who was editor and publisher in 
1879. Republican. 

HERALD OF TRUTH, i869(?) (?) : Weekly. 


Published at Murphysboro ; dated from Murphysboro and Car- 
bondale. Republican. (See Murphysboro.) 


DEMOCRAT, 1876: A Democratic campaign sheet established by 
Bell Irvin, who edited it till August, when it was taken in charge 
by John W. Burton. He sold to Morgan Brothers, who started 

FREE PRESS, 1877 to date : Edited at first by J. H. Barton ; and pub- 
lished by the Free Press Company in 1907. It is managed by 
Charles Reith and John Galbraith. A daily was started in 1903. 


MACOUPIN STATESMAN, March 4, 1852-1855-)- : Edited by Jefferson 
L. Dugger, 1852-1855. It was an advocate of Whig principles. 
Changed to SF 

MACOUPIN COUNTY SPECTATOR, +1855-1868+: Edited by George 
H. Holliday, who made it a Democratic paper, 1855-1857 ; 
Charles E. Foote, 1857-1858; John F. Meginness, 1858-1861; 
Messrs. Shinkel and Gray, 1861-1862; Horace Gwin, 1862; 
J. R. Flynn and P. B. Vanderen, 1862. The last named soon 
became the responsible proprietor and editor and he continued 
it until 1868, when the Merritts of Springfield and J. A. I. Bird- 
sell became possessed of it. Pending the negotiations between 
Foote and Meginness the Spectator was suspended from De- 
cember 21, 1858, to January 12, 1859. The Merritts were con- 
nected with the paper for only a short time. Birdsell changed 
its name to 

MACOUPIN TIMES-, +1868-1871+ : He remained its editor, 1868- 
1870; H. R. Whipple, 1870-1871. In 1871 the leading men of 
the Democratic party of Carlinville concluded to form a joint 
stock company and publish a more thoroughly Democratic 
paper. The work of canvassing for the stock was assigned to 
Restores C. Smalley. When the stock was sold and the money 
raised, the company bought the Times printing office. The 
name of the paper was changed to 

MACOUPIN COUNTY ENQUIRER, +1871 to date: Edited by E. A. 
Snively, 1871-1877 ; Samuel Reed, 1877-1879. In 1873 the com- 
pany leased the institution to Mr. Snively and he published it until 
1877, when W. H. Reed leased it. In January, 1879, Reed was 
succeeded by E. A. Snively and L. C. Glessner, and in March, 
1883, Mr. Glessner sold out to Mr. Snively, who soon sold the 
paper to E. B. Buck. In August, 1886, W. J. and C. J. Lumpkin 
took charge of the paper and eventually bought it. Since the 
death of W. J. Lumpkin a few years ago C. J. Lumpkin has been 
owner, editor, and publisher. When Messrs. Snively and Gless- 
ner succeeded Mr. Reed, they discontinued the Herald. The 
paper was semi-weekly until 1879. A daily was started in 1896. 


FREE DEMOCRAT, September 6, 1856-1867-!-: Edited by William 
C. Phillips for the first month ; Mr. Phillips and Henry M. Kim- 
ball, 1856-1859. Phillips announced in the first number that 
the paper was Republican, would support Fremont and stand 
by the ticket of the Bloomington convention. In 1859 Mr. 
Kimball purchased Mr. Phillips' interest and remained sole 
proprietor for eight years. When Mr. Kimball assumed pro- 
prietorship John M. Palmer took charge of the editorial depart- 
ment as political editor and continued so till near the end of the 
year, when he was nominated for Congress. From that date till 
1867, Mr. Kimball was sole editor and proprietor. In March, 
1867, the name was changed to AF 

DEMOCRAT, -(-March, 1867 to date: Edited and managed by A. W. 
Edwards and H. M. Kimball, 1867-1872; H. M. Kimball, 1872- 
1879. A. G. David was manager 1879-1881. Since 1882 it 
was published and edited by A. G. David until October i, 1901, 
when James E. McClure bought A. G. David's stock and became 
publisher. From 1856 to 1868 the Democrat was issued weekly, 
then weekly and semi- weekly until October, 1898, daily then 
until May 24, 1902. The paper has always been Republican. 
There is a complete file in the office. S 

CONSERVATIVE, March 24-June 2, 1868: A campaign paper edited 
by George H. Holliday and published by the Macoupin Printing 
Company. File owned by A. G. David and by the Macoupin 
Printing Company. 

VOLKSBLATT, May-November, 1870: A German campaign organ, 
with Theodore Fischer as editor. 

BLACKBURN GAZETTE, October, 1871-1873: A monthly quarto 
published at Blackburn University. Edited by students. 

MACOUPIN COUNTY HERALD, March, 1879-- (?): A Demo- 
cratic paper established by L. C. Glessner, with E. A. Snively 
as editor. After a short time it was merged in the Enquirer. 

MACOUPIN ANZEIGER, 1879 : Established by H. Schlange. German. 


BEACON, 1843: Edited by George B. Price. Whig. It was sus- 
pended, revived, and changed to 

TRUTH TELLER, 1844-1846: Edited by Mr. Price and Benjamin 
Bond. In 1846 Mr. Price moved to it Carrollton and founded 
the Carrollton Gazette (which see). The Truth Teller was also 
an organ of the Whigs. 

PRAIRIE FLOWER, 1851: Founded by Benjamin Bond and edited 
by E. Z. C. Judson ; later by Zophar Case. 


AGE OF PROGRESS, 1853-1854+ : Published by J. W. Snow and 
edited by Mr. Bond. Changed to 

CALUMET OF PEACE, +1854-1859+ : Edited and published by Ben- 
jamin Bond, 1854-1857; C. C. McGinnis and Henry Pallies 
proprietors and Mr. Bond editor, 1857-1858; Zophar Case and 
Company, 1858-1859. Changed to 

REVIELLE, + 1859-1863 + : Edited and published by C. C. McGinnis 
and J. W. Peterson. They changed it from a Democratic to a 
Republican paper, and changed the name to Union Banner. 

UNION BANNER, +1863 to date: Established by McGinnis and 
J. W. Peterson. McGinnis sold his half interest to Thomas S. 
Smith, Henry Hess, W. H. Gray and E. C. Dew. Gray and Hess 
were the publishers. Gray was succeeded by J. E. Henry as 
editor; in 1864 Henry was succeeded by Gray. February 2, 
1865, G. M. Prior and M. G. Beviall leased the office and con- 
tinued publication until January n, 1866, when J. W. Peterson 
returned from the war, bought out their claims and continued 
publication. He was editor and publisher until his death, about 
1898, when John Ruf bought the paper and still runs it. 

ZEITUNG, 1860-1861 : A German paper organized by Messrs. Mc- 
Ginnis and Peterson. Edited by Victor Wilhelm, later by Mr. 
Kayser. Continued one year. 

CONSTITUTION AND UNION, 1863 to date : A Democratic paper estab- 
lished by a stock company, with James Barkley as editor and 
business manager. In 1864 he was succeeded by Zophar Case, 
who after two years took the subscription lists and commenced 
the Vindicator, September, 1867, upon which the Constitution 
and Union stockholders secured Alfred Padon to conduct the 
paper. He was not satisfactory and in May, 1868, Hardin Case, 
son of Zophar Case, took the office under a lease of five years. 
Before the end of the five years Case purchased the stock and 
became sole owner. January i, 1868, a partnership was formed 
between Hardin Case and George E. Doying, which continued 
until February i, 1874, when John Schuster was admitted to the 
firm. Doying retired in 1876; Schuster in 1877. M. E. Drum 
bought the plant in 1880 and sold to Case in 1881. Case sold 
July, 1881, to Moore and Shoupe; Shoupe and R. H. Norfolk, 
1885-1892 ; T. D. and R. M. Shoupe, 1892-1899. W. C. Shoupe 
entered the firm in 1897. R. M. Shoupe retired in 1903 and 
T. D. and W. C. Shoupe have continued the paper under the 
firm name of T. D. Shoupe and Son. The name was changed to 
Constitution in 1896. Files from 1881 in the office. 

VINDICATOR, September, 1867-1868: Established by Zophar Case. 


CLINTON COUNTY PIONEER, February, 1874-1878. Established by 
Hardin Case. George E. Doying, and John Schuster. It 
was issued from the Constitution-Union office. In 1876 Doy- 
ing retired and his interest was purchased by H. Case. Schuster 
retired in 1877. Case sold the paper to F. Hildebrandt; publi- 
cation was suspended in April, 1878. German. 

SUED ILLINOIS ZEITUNG, 1876- (about 1898) : A paper established 
by John Ruf, who was editor and proprietor until about 1898, 
when, on the death of J. W. Peterson, Ruf bought the Union 
Banner and discontinued the Zeitung. German Republican. 



WHITE COUNTY ADVOCATE, +1859-1873+ : A Democratic paper 
moved from Grayville to Carmi before the fall of 1859 
(See Grayville). In the course of 1858-1859 the Advocate was 
edited by Henry Charles, R. F. Stewart and John Craig, who 
moved it to Carmi; George A. Malone, fall of 1859 to August, 
1869; Charles W. Beck, August, 1869- March 20, 1873. Mr. 
Beck changed the name of the paper to the 

WEEKLY COURIER, March, i873~(after 1883): Originally the White 
County Advocate; changed by Mr. Beck before he sold to W. F. 
Palmer, March 20, 1873. While still in Mr. Palmer's charge, 
February, 1881, the name was changed to the Dollar Courier. 
W. F. Palmer was succeeded January 15, 1882, by C. L. Hayes. 
Mr. Hayes was still editor of the Courier in 1883. 

TIMES, July, 1872 to date: Established by Thomas L. and Andrew 
Joy, with the firm name of E. Joy and Sons. E. Joy's 
connection was financial. All of the editorial and mechanical 
work was done by the Joy Brothers. From August 29, 1873, to 
1888 the Joy Brothers had complete charge. T. L. Joy went to 
Centralia in 1888 and bought the Sentinel. Republican in 
politics; the paper began its career by supporting Grant for 
president and Oglesby for governor. 


ADVOCATE, 1843- (?): It was the first paper published in 

the county. Edited by Edward F. Fletcher who had been con- 
nected with the publication of the Backwoodsman in Jerseyville. 

GAZETTE, 1846 to date: A paper "devoted to politics, agri- 
culture, literature and morality," edited by George B. Price, 
1846-1860; H. L. Clay, 1860-1863; Thomas D. Price, 1863- 
1881; H. H. Montgomery, 1881-1883; H. P. Farrelly, 1883- 
1886; then by James McNabb. W. A. Hubbard and James 


McNabb were editors and publishers in 1907. It espoused the 
cause of the Whig party until 1856, when it supported John C. 
Fremont. Since that campaign it has advocated Democratic 
principles. Complete files in office. F 

OBSERVER, about 1847 : A Democratic paper listed in Illinois An- 
nual Register for 1847. A. S. Tilden was editor. 

GREENE COUNTY BANNER, i848-( after 1849): Started by John 
Fitch. Democratic. It is listed in Coggeshall's Newspaper 
Directory published in 1856. F 

DEMOCRAT, 1855-1856: Edited by H. C. Withers. 

PRESS, 1858-1861-+-: A Republican paper edited by S. P. Orr. 
Changed to 

PATRIOT, +1861 to date: Edited by Elder Craig, followed by Wil- 
liam B. Fairchild; Lee, Lusk and Platt; Miner and Lindley, 
1873-1875; Clement L. Clapp, 1876-1888; Chafes Bradshaw, 
1888 to date. Republican. Files since 1875 are in the office. 

GOSPEL ECHO: Name given in Rowell for 1869 with no report. 
Listed by Cook and Coburn, 1869. 


CARTHAGENIAN, June, 1836-1837 : It was the first paper in the county 
and was edited by Thomas Gregg. Finally it was purchased by 
Dr. Isaac Galland and taken to Montrose, Iowa, and was known 
there as the Western Adventurer. 

ECHO, 1836: It was issued only a few months, being a campaign 
sheet advocating the election of General Harrison to the presi- 
dency. Issued from the office of the Carthagenian by Walter 


WEST, April, 1837 (?): A monthly publication established 

by Thomas Gregg as a guide to those who might be lured to the 
new Bounty Land district. A 

REPUBLICAN, 1853 to date: Published and edited by Clarke 
and Manier, 1853-1854; G. M. Childs, 1854-1861; R. W. Mc- 
Claughry, 1861-1863; J- M. Davison, 1863-1894; Mrs. S. C. 
Davison, and later I. C. Davison, 1894 to date. Mr. Childs 
converted it from an Independent to an intensely Democratic 
sheet, but under Mr. McClaughry it supported the cause of the 
Union. After the war it became under Mr. Davison a Demo- 
cratic paper. There are files in the office since 1863. Earlier 
copies (scattered) in the hands of J. B. Gordon of Hamilton. 
(See Warsaw Commercial Journal.) ULF 

TRANSCRIPT, 1860-1862 : Established by James K. Magie. 


GAZETTE, 1865 to date: Conducted by a Mr. Fowler, then by him 
and Noble L. Prentis. In 1869 or 1870 it was bought by Thomas 
C. Sharp and conducted by him as a Republican paper until his 
death April 9, 1894; since then his son W. O. Sharp has been 
manager. UL 

HANCOCK DEMOCRAT, December, 1869+ : Removed in 1869 to Dal- 
las by G. M. ChUds. 

CARTHAGINIAN, 1878-1881 : Published under the management of 
the faculty and literary societies of Carthage College. Printed 
at the office of the Republican. 


TIMES, August, 1872-1897+ : Established as an Independent paper 
by John Garrison and B. F. Ward; H. A. Boyd purchased Gar- 
rison's interest after seven months and made the paper a Green- 
back organ, later a Democratic sheet. (Moved to Marshall and 
merged into the Illinoisan ? See Banner.) 

EXPONENT, 1877-1878: A Republican paper started by a stock 
company and edited by Edward Hitchcock, and Hitchcock and 
Garrison. Moved to Mt. Huron. 

BANNER, 1879 to date: Started by B. F. Ward; an Independent 
weekly. It was united with the Times as Banner-Times, in 1897, 
when Fred E. Moore bought the papers. Sold to F. L. Gillespie 
in 1904; he sold in October, 1904, to H. M. Brooke, who still 
owns the paper. There were apparently lapses in both papers 
that are not quite clear. 


GAZETTE, 1854-1856: Edited and published by Edward Schiller. 
Republican. Schiller went to Belleville in 1856 and became 
connected with the Advocate. File, vol. 2, no. 22 37, Feb- 
ruary 29- June 13, 1856, owned by Mrs. James L. Kennedy, 
Central City. 


GAZETTE, 1856 : It was established by Messrs. Gall and Omelveny. 

ENTERPRISE, 1856- two months: Edited by D. A. Burton. 

NEWS LETTER, 1857: In 1856 H. S. Blanchard purchased the Ad- 
vocate of Salem and moved it to Centralia. He formed a partner- 
ship with Mr. Holcomb and they published the News Letter. 

CENTRALIAN, 1857-1860: It was edited by William Parker, Jr., 
and published by William and James Parker. F 

RURAL PRESS, 1858-1859: It was edited by M. L. McCord, who 
had moved the office of the Richview Phoenix to Centralia. 


EGYPTIAN REPUBLIC, 1859-1861 : A Republican paper edited and 
published by J. G. D. Pettijohn, 1859-1861; Messrs. Blackford 
and Taylor, publishers, with Mr. Pettijohn as editor, 1861. It 
was edited and published for a short period in 1861 by Wesley 
Bailey, when the office was closed. 

INDEPENDENT, 1861 : Edited by N. W. Fuller. 

COMMERCIAL, April-September, 1861: Issued by E. T. Thorp. 
Suspended September i, same year. 

METEOR, December 20, 1861-1862 : Edited and published by Henry 
Welker. Actively Union in its sympathies. Vol. i, no. n, 
March i, 1862, owned by Mrs. Ellen Smith, Central City, 

SENTINEL, May, 1863 to date: Established by J. W. and C. D. 
Fletcher, with E. S. Condit and J. W. Fletcher as editors, but it 
is said Mr. Condit's editorial connection with the paper was only 
nominal. After a year J. W. and F. W. Fletcher became the 
editors and publishers. In 1869, J. C. Cooper bought the interest 
of J. W. Fletcher and the Sentinel was published by J. C. Cooper 
and C. D. Fletcher, until 1872, when L. C. Wilcox purchased the 
interest of J. C. Cooper. On January i, 1875, it passed into the 
hands of J. W. and F. W. Fletcher, who were succeeded by 
Frank D. Goodall, and later by J. N. Kerr. Kerr sold in Octo- 
ber, 1888, to T. L. Joy, who was editor and publisher until 1906, 
when he was succeeded by Vern E. Joy. Daily established in 
1884. Republican. 

DEMOCRAT, November, 1867 to date: Established by W. H. Mantz. 
Afterwards Isaac McClelland became nominally a co-editor and 
publisher with Mr. Mantz. In October, 1870, the office was 
partly destroyed by fire, but the press soon after came into the 
possession of S. P. Tufts, by whom the paper was revised and 
continued ; and from February, 187 1 , the Democrat was published 
by Mr. Tufts, until 1884, when he was succeeded by C. D. Tufts, 
who still conducts it. The Daily Democrat was begun May 20, 

INDUSTRIAL, i875-i879(?): Edited and published in 1879 by J. 
W. Evarts. Independent. 


SPIRIT OF THE AGRICULTURAL PRESS, May, 1857, till autumn : Estab- 
lished at what was then called West Urbana, by L. G. Chase 
and Albert Gore. Agriculture, politics, and local affairs were 
given attention. F 

CENTRAL ILLINOIS GAZETTE, March, 1858-1861 + , 1868 to date: 
Established by John W. Scroggs and Company (Cunningham 


and Flynn) out of the materials of the Press, as a Republican 
paper. William O. Stoddard was associated with Scroggs as an 
editor until 1860. Sold to John Carrothers of the Union, Ur- 
bana, and the papers were combined as the UA 

combination continued for about a year. Then the Gazette 
was bought, moved to Urbana, and continued by John W. 
Summers until the summer of 1864 ; John Robbins a short time ; 
George W. Flynn, George N. Richards with J. O. Cunningham 
as editor, October, 1864, to April, 1866; Flynn alone until 1868; 
moved back to Champaign by George Scroggs and Flynn, 1868- 
1879, where it has remained ever since. The name was changed 
to Champaign County Gazette in 1869. After 1879 it was con- 
ducted by Scroggs's executor, H. J. Dunlap, who sold to H. H. 
Harris, whereupon J. R. Stewart became editor. Mr. Stewart, 
O. L. Davis, and E. C. Flanigan bought the plant February 7, 
1900, and still own and conduct the paper. The daily edition 
was begun November 6, 1883. The Gazette was one of the 
earliest papers to advocate the nomination of Lincoln for 
president. US 

UNION, August, +1859-1882 : Established at Urbana (which see) in 
1852. It was moved to Champaign in 1859 by David S. and 
Charles E. Crandall. In 1861 they sold to John Carrothers, 
who, in the winter of 1862-1863 bought the Central Illinois 
Gazette and united the two papers. In 1865 the property of the 
Union reverted to the Crandalls. David S. and Dudley S. 
Crandall continued it until i868 ; when they sold to H. L. Nicolet 
and C. E. Schoff ; Schoff and I. H. Moore, 1877-1882. For a 
time between 1865 and 1868 the name was changed to Saturday 
Visitor. File owned by J. O. Cunningham, Urbana. 

ILLINOIS DEMOCRAT, March, 1867-1872+ : Established by George 
N. Richards and Rufus P. Canterbury, who moved from Urbana 
the Champaign County Journal. After one year Canterbury 
sold to Richards. P. Lochrie bought an interest in April, 1869, 
and became sole owner in October. G. W. Gore was editor 
for a while in 1869. In 1872 the establishment was bought by 
William Haddock, who changed the name to 

LIBERAL DEMOCRAT, + August, 1872+: William Haddock con- 
ducted the paper in support of Horace Greeley for the presidency. 
The name was soon changed to 

TIMES, +1872 to date: William Haddock was owner and editor 
until 1879. The paper was then bought by William H. Smyzer, 
William J. Mize, and Isaac Fielding. Elmer F. Powers soon 
afterward bought an interest. In 1887 Smyzer sold to his part- 


ners and Mize soon afterward did likewise. Messrs. Powers and 
Fielding have since conducted the paper as a weekly. A daily 
was issued for a few months in 1906. 

JOURNAL, 1876-1879 ( ?) : A German paper established by Theodore 
Fisher and John Becker. Becker soon bought Fisher's interest 
and associated with him his son. 


NEW ERA, February 7, 1874-1875: Established by John J. Bunce; 
J. J. Bunce and Son, publishers. Discontinued in the summer of 

CASS COUNTY JOURNAL, August 5, i876-August 3, 1878+ : Estab- 
lished by Charles A. Pratt, who after two years of service to 
Democracy sold the paper to Skaggs Brothers. They changed 
the name to 

INDEPENDENT, + August 3, 1878-1882+: Edited by John W. 
Skaggs, published by John W. and Gilbert Skaggs. After one 
month, G. B. Skaggs alone undertook the combined labors of 
editor and publisher. Ebenezer Spink bought an interest in 
December, 1879, and resold to Skaggs in 1881. Spink bought 
out Skaggs in 1882 and changed the name to Sangamon Valley 
Times, which was changed to Chandlerville Times in 1887. E. 
O. Spink became business manager in 1904, and bought the 
paper in 1908. Independent. Files in the office. 


COURIER, 1841-1863+: Established as a Whig organ by William 
Harr and William Workman. Mr. Workman soon retired and 
his place was afterward filled by George Harding, who was con- 
nected with the paper until 1857. Mr. Harr conducted the 
paper alone from 1857 to 1863, when he sold out to Eli Chittenden, 
and John S. Theaker, who made the paper Republican and 
changed its name to AH 

PLAINDEALER, +1863 to date: In the late sixties Al and Lucien 
Dunbar were publishers. The former sold to A. E. Eaton ; the 
property reverted to Dunbar and was sold to John A. Martin, 
A., and W. M. McConnell. In 1889 they sold to H. B. Glassco. 
Later the Plaindealer Printing Company was organized. This 
company published the Plaindealer; bought the Herald (estab- 
lished 1881) ; and became the Plain dealer-Herald Company. 
A daily was started in 1892. 

OWL, i843-i846(?): Published by James Shoaff. In 1846 Mr. 
Shoaff went to Greenville, and apparently the Owl was dis- 


REPORTER, 1846 (?) : A Democratic paper edited by W. D. 

Latshaw. Before January 6, 1849, the title was changed to 

ILLINOIS GLOBE/ + i848(?) (?): "A decided and orthodox 

Democratic journal," edited by W. D. Latshaw and published 
by Latshaw and Brown. Vol. 4, no. i, was issued July 28, 1849 ; 
the numbering was evidently continued from the Reporter. AF 

REPUBLICAN, about 1847 : A Whig paper edited by W. W. Bishop. 
It is listed in Illinois Annual Register for 1847. 

COLES COUNTY LEDGER, 1857-1867+: Edited by G. C. and W. 
P. Harding, 1857-1859; McHenry Brooks, 1859-1867. In 1867 
Mr. Brooks sold to James Shoaff and Asa Miller, and they 
changed its name to F 

COURIER, +1867 to date: Shoaff sold his interest to I. N. Under- 
wood; later Miller sold to E. B. Buck; then Buck alone was 
editor and publisher till 1879. George E. Mason was editor 
and publisher, 1879-1892; Mason and Charles D. Strode, 1892- 
1893; Strode and Charles L. Lee, 1894; Charles L. Lee became 
sole owner, January i, 1895. He sold an interest to Cyrus N. 
Walls, but Walls sold out and Lee now owns the paper. He has 
been editor and publisher since 1895. A daily was started in 
1895. Democratic. Files since 1885 in the office. 

PALLADIUM, 1871 (?): George Torrance, editor and publisher. 

PLAINDEALER, 1873 (?): Established by E. M. Harte, editor, 

C. B. Holmes, publisher; John Jackson, editor, John Culver and 
Company, publishers, 1876; R. M. Spurgin, 1877-1880; James 

A. Smith, 1882 (?). U 


HERALD, 1868 to date: Established, owned, and edited by Thomas 
Sawyer. In 1897 W. H. Overhue was editor and publisher; in 
1902 R. W. Lane became editor and manager and William Lane 
proprietor. Republican. 

INDEPENDENT, 1872-1880: J. De Veling was editor and J. M. De 
Veling was publisher throughout. 


TIMES, July, 1867-1875+ : Established by Silas F. Dyer and James 
McMurtrie. In 1871 Miss L. M. Dyer, sister of S. F. Djer, 
after the death of both former owners, edited the paper for sev- 
eral months. It was bought by C. H. John and the Bovard 
Brothers. In 1875 Bovard Brothers bought it and named it 

1 Harris, in Negro Servitude in Illinois, 112 n., refers to Coles County Globe and 
Charleston Globe for October, 1847. These may be variants that should find 
place between Reporter and Illinois Globe. No copy of either of these Globes is 
known to be in existence. The references cited should perhaps be to the Illinois Globe 
in which case the change from Reporter was made in 1847. 


MONITOR, +1875-1877+: Bovard Brothers soon sold to C. H. 

John, and he to Mann Brothers, who renamed it 
GAZETTE, +1877-1900+: C. H. Stickney bought it about 1879. 

In 1900 it was bought by E. S. Pike and merged in the Clipper, 

which was established in 1893, and is now owned and published 

by G. E. Stump. 


COURIER, July-October, 1869: Established by Dr. L. Foote. Con- 
tinued three months. 


SOUTHERN ILLINOIS ADVOCATE, April 4, 1839-1840: It was edited 
by John Smith and H. M. Abbott, and was conducted for the 
purpose of calling attention to that portion of Illinois lying be- 
tween the Ohio and Kaskaskia rivers. A 

It was edited by O. F. McMillan; established by Robert Smith 
to promote his candidacy for Congress. Sold in 1850 to Hanna 
and Whitehurst of the Herald. 

HERALD, 1849-1857 (?): Edited by Messrs. B. J. F. Hanna and 
Whitehurst, 1849-1853: Hanna and William Phillips, 1853- 

1856; E. J. Montague, 1856 (?). (See Kaskaskia Repu blican.) 


RANDOLPH COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1857-1878: Editors and pro- 
prietors, Judge J. M. Rails, 1857-1858; H. B. Nisbet and C. 
C. Clemens, who conducted it independent of politics, 1858- 
1860; Mr. Nisbet, who made it a Republican paper, 1860-1865 ; 
John W. Dean and M. W. Rotrock, 1865-1876; Mr. Dean and 
Mr. Nisbet, 1876-1878. H 

EGYPTIAN PICKET GUARD, +1862-1867+: Founded by John R. 
Shannon and Robert McHenry. P. W. Baker helped organize 
the paper. In 1863 McHenry withdrew and the paper became a 
radical Southern partisan. In 1863 it was suspended for two 
months. Then the Democrats formed a stock company, pur- 
chased the paper, and dropped Egyptian from the title. S. St. 
Vrain was general manager, P. W. Baker was publisher, and 
John R. Shannon continued as editor. Shannon was so active 
in his criticism of the measures adopted to suppress the Rebellion 
that a body of soldiers broke into the office in July, 1864, and 
scattered the type in the streets. The office was refitted. In 
1864 John McBride became proprietor. Shannon remained 
as editor. In 1865 William H. Toy succeeded McBride. In 1867 
McHenry returned and assumed control, changing the name to 


VALLEY CLARION, +1867-1899+: Robert McHenry was editor 
and publisher until 1868, when he died. Robert E. Deitrich con- 
tinued the publication until he was succeeded by William J. 
Armour. In 1869 Charles L. Spencer became editor and pub- 
lisher; in 1875 he sold to John H. Lindsey and Company; in 
1876 the firm was changed to Valley Clarion Printing Company. 
In 1876 John H. Lindsey sold out to Charles L. Spencer and 
John McBride; they remained proprietors with Spencer as 
editor until 1878, when John H. Lindsey purchased the interests 
of the company and became proprietor; he associated Robert 
E. Deitrich with him in the editorial department. In 1880 he 
sold to William H. Holmes. About 1886 Holmes sold to Frank 
R. McAtee, who a few years later changed the name to Chester 
Clarion, and in 1895 sold to James A. Matlack. He sold to 
William H. Matlack in 1896 ; Frank Moore bought the paper in 
1898, and in 1899 sold to Frank R. McAtee, who merged the 
Clarion in the Herald, dropping the name of the former. The 
Herald was started in 1895 by F. W. Hempler and C. A. Smith, 
and sold in 1897 to Frank R. McAtee. Democratic. 

RANDOLPH COUNTY ZEITUNG, 1868 (?) : A German paper of 

which J. W. Dean and Company were editors and publishers 
in 1869. 

TRIBUNE, 1872 to date: Established by William Knapp and C. B. 
Wassell. Republican. In 1874 Wassell retired and Knapp 
was sole owner until 1881, when he sold to James B. Matlack 
and James F. Wassell. About 1885 Wassell became sole owner 
and in 1886 sold to Theodore Saxenmeyer. Saxenmeyer sold 
in 1889 to William H. Matlack and John McBride. Matlack 
became sole owner a year later, and in 1894 sold to Thomas J. 
Howorth and John A. Pyron. In 1896 Pyron sold his interest 
to James B. Matlack, who in turn sold in 1898 to Thomas J. 
Howorth. In the same year Warfield P. Smith bought a half 
interest in the paper, which has been run since that time under 
the firm name of Thomas J. Howorth and Company. Now 
edited by Thomas J. Howorth, published by Thomas J. Ho- 
worth and Company. 

GREENBACK GAZETTE, 1876: A campaign paper printed in the 
Tribune office, edited by R. P. Thompson and A. G. Condon. 
It was printed on green paper. Suspended at close of campaign. 


DEMOCRAT, November 26, 1833 1861+: Edited by John Calhoun, 
1833-1836; John Wentworth, 1836-1861. This was the first 
paper published in Chicago. It supported Jackson's adminis- 
tration; known as a "hard money paper" because it denounced 

In the collections of the Chicago Historical Society 


1867-1899+: Robert McHenry was edit 
1 1868, when he died. Robert E. Deitrich CQ 
it ion until he was succeeded by William 
869 Charles L. Spencer became editor and pvji 
5 he sold to John H. Lindsey and Company ; 

Changed to Valley Clarion Printing Compan 

j in H. Lindsey sold out to Charles L. Spencer ai 

le; they remained proprietors with Spencer 

^78, when John H. Lindsey purchased the interes 

;y and became proprietor; he associated Robe 

'dm in the editorial department. In 1880 1 

sold to \\ H. Holmes. About 1886 Holmes sold to Frai 

R. M ' i few years later changed the name to Chest 

'on, an. in 1895 sold to Jam< ; Sack. He sold 

William ank Moore bought the paper 

I to Frank R. McAtee, who merged t! 

' dropping the name of the former. Ti 

895 by F. W. Hempler and C. A. Smit 

, , . 

Q3P2in-> arfj lo ftflbiJpelloo 9111,111 f .f. . 
Company were editors and publish 

Established by \\illiam Knapp and C. H 

. In 1874 Wassell retired and K 

1881, when he sold to James B. Ma 

'. About 1885 Wi. me sole c 

; to Theodore Sax Saxenmeyer 

in : -rn H. Matlack and Johr McBride. Mo 

be< >.T a year later, and in 1894 sold to Thon> 

Howorth and John A. Pyron. In 1896 Pyron sold his ini 

to James B. Matlack, who in turn sold in 1898 to Thon\ 

Howorth. In the same year Warfield P. Smith bought a 

interest in the paper, which has been run since that time . 

.f Thomas J. Howorth and Company, 
homas J. Howorth, published by Thomas J 

z, 1876: A campaign paper printed in the 
unt office, edited by R. P. Thompson and A. G. Condon. 
It v /reen paper. Suspended at close of campaign 


r 26, 1833 1861 + : Edited by John Call- 
. Wentworth, 1836-1861. , This was tht 
Hicago. It supported Jackson's adi> 
hard money paper" because it denounced 


mid-cat and other fictitious paper money. It was the official 
paper of the town of Chicago. Because the needed supply of 
paper failed to arrive before the close of navigation, its publica- 
tion was suspended from January i to May 20, 1835, with the ex- 
ception of an issue January 21 and another on March 25. It 
appeared weekly to 1840, and daily, beginning February 24, 1840. 
It was a Democratic paper up to the time of the Kansas-Nebraska 
issue, but when the slavery question was again raised it assisted 
in the formation of the Republican party. On July 24, 1861, 
the Democrat was absorbed by the Tribune. WHAEF 

AMERICAN, June 8, 1835-1839+ : A Whig paper, issued daily after 
April 9, 1839. Edited by T. O. Davis, 1835-1837; William 
Stuart and Company, 1837. Changed to EHNWA 

DAILY AMERICAN, +April 9, i839~October 18, 1842: Edited by 
William Stuart, 1839-1841; Alexander Stuart, proprietor, and 
W. W. Brackett, editor, 1841-1842; Buckner S. Morris, July 
to October, 1842. ENHF 

COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, October ii, 1836-1837: A rabid 
"liberty" paper, edited by Hooper Warren. In 1837 the print- 
ing outfit was removed to Lowell, LaSalle County, and used by 
Benjamin Lundy and Zebina Eastman in publishing the Genius 
of Universal Emancipation and Genius of Liberty. 

VOICE OF THE PEOPLE, June g-August, 1838: A campaign paper 
published weekly at the office of the American, until after the 
August election, by the Whig Young Men's Association. A 

HARD CIDER PRESS, June 6-October 24, 1840: A Harrison cam- 
paign paper published weekly by William Stuart from the Amer- 
ican office. H 

WEEKLY TRIBUNE, April 4, i84o-August 21, 1841: Published by 
Charles N. Holcomb and Company, with E. G. Ryan as editor. 
In 1841 it was sold to Elisha Starr of Milwaukee, and the Mil- 
waukee Journal was its successor. H 

1841-1843+: Established by the Union Agricultural Society, 
and edited in the beginning by the corresponding secretary, John 
. S. Wright. At the close of the second volume the publication 
passed from the society to John S. Wright, with whom J. Am- 
brose Wight became associated as editor. The title was changed 
to E 

PRAIRIE FARMER, + January i, 1843 to date : The scope of the paper 
was enlarged to include mechanics and education. John Gage 
was the first editor of the mechanics department. At the begin- 
ning of 1851 Luther Haven became part owner, and was associ- 
ated with Wright in publishing, and with Wright and Wight in 


editing the paper. In 1852 Wright and Haven were editors and 
publishers; J. Ambrose Wight was editor, John A. Kennicott, 
horticultural editor in 1853-1857 ; Wright and Wight were pub- 
lishers, 1853-1857. A new series was begun January, 1857, at 
which time publication became weekly instead of monthly as 
theretofore. October i, 1858, James C. and William H. Medill 
sold the property to Emery and Company; Henry D. Emery 
and Charles D. Bragdon became editors; Kennicott remained 
horticultural editor. Mr. Emery united his Journal 0} Agri- 
culture and the Prairie Farmer as Emery's Journal of Agriculture 
and Prairie Farmer, October 7, continuing publication under this 
title until January i, 1859, when Prairie Farmer was resumed. 
In 1861 W. W. Corbett replaced Bragdon as one of the editors. 
In 1867 the Prairie Farmer Company became publishers; in 
1868 Henry T. Thomas came in as a third editor; in 1869 Rod- 
ney Welch was added. In 1879 Jonathan Periam was editor 
and continued in that office until 1884, when Orange Judd be- 
came editor and manager. He was succeeded in 1889 by Jon- 
athan Periam, who served as editor until 1903. James J. 
Edgerton was editor throughout 1904; on March 20,- 1905, C. P. 
Reynolds became editor, and has been so to date. The stock of 
the Prairie Farmer Company was bought by Rand, McNally 
and Company and incorporated as the Prairie Farmer Publish- 
ing Company, February 16, 1882. They disposed of their stock 
to Burridge D. Butler on April 8, 1908. Mr. Butler is president 
of the company and publisher. The paper is now published 
semi-monthly. (See p. 73.) WDSUHE 

EXPRESS, October 24, i842-April 20, 1844: Edited by William W. 
Brackett. It was sold in 1844 to a company and discontinued. 
Supported Henry Clay for president. The Journal was estab- 
lished in its stead. Daily and weekly. N 

NORTHWESTERN BAPTIST, September 15, i842-September 15, 1844: 
A semi-monthly edited by Thomas Powell. Only forty-eight 
numbers were issued. This was the first religious publication 
in Chicago. H 

QUID NUNC, July i2-August 16, 1842: Edited by Davis S. 
Griswold and published by Ellis, Fergus, and Company. It 
was devoted to the advancement of literature, the fine arts, 
science, commerce, agriculture, and the mechanical arts. No 
communications on religion or politics were admitted. It is said 
to have been the first one-cent daily published west of the Alle- 
ghanies. At first intended as a morning paper it was issued 
at noon. A 


REPUBLICAN, 1842-1844: Edited by A. R. Niblo, 1842-1843; F. 
W. Cleveland, 1843-1844. It was established to create a public 
sentiment favoring the re-election of President Tyler. F 

WESTERN CITIZEN, July, i842-October, 1853+ : A temperance and 
anti-slavery paper edited by Zebina Eastman and Asa B. Brown, 
1842-1845; Eastman and Davidson, 1845-1849; Eastman and 
McClellan, 1849-1852; Mr. Eastman, with Hooper Warren as 
associate, 1852-1853. This was the organ of the Liberty Party 
in Illinois, and successor to the Genius of Liberty, the subscription 
list of which paper it took over. See Lowell, Genius of Liberty 
and Genius of Universal Emancipation; also Alton, Truth 
Seeker. In 1853 the name was changed to AEHF 

FREE WEST, + December i, 1853- July 19, 1855+: Edited by E. 
Goodman, Hooper Warren, and Zebina Eastman. Although 
the paper was announced in Western Citizen of October 18 to 
begin October 25, it did not appear until December i. The 
names of the editors are not printed after the issue of October 12, 
1854, until November 23, when Z. Eastman is given as editor 
and publisher, E. Goodman and H. Warren associate editors. 
Their names disappear in the issue of July 12, 1855. The last 
issue announced that the paper would be merged with the Tribune. 
Established as the avowed organ of the Freedom Party of Illinois ; 
beginning with the issue of November 23, 1854, the paper carried 
the statement that "this journal does not profess to be the organ 
of any party or sect." It was strongly anti-slavery, however. H 

YOUTH'S GAZETTE, May-July 23, 1843 : Edited by Kiler K. Jones. 
It was "devoted expressly to the interests of the youth of the 
west." Eight numbers were issued, weekly. H 

BETTER COVENANT, +1843-1847: A religious paper, established at 
Rockford ; taken soon to St. Charles and thence to Chicago, being 
published at Rockford and St. Charles from January 6, 1842, to 
April 6, 1843. Edited by Rev. Seth Barnes, 1843-1844; Rev. 
William Rounseville and Cyrus B. Ingham, 1844-1845; Mr. 
Ingham, 1845-1847. In 1847 it was sold to John A. Gurley 
of the Star of the West, Cincinnati, Ohio. Issued weekly. (See 
Better Covenant, Rockford and St. Charles.) H 

1844-1846: Publishers and proprietors were Messrs. Ellis and 
Fergus; nominally without an editor. It was the corporation 
paper, 1844-1845. UF 

GEM OF THE PRAIRIE, May 29, 1844-1852+: A literary paper 
edited by Kiler K. Jones and James S. Beach, 1844-1845; J. 
Campbell and T. A. Stewart, 1845; T - A - Stewart, 1845-1846; 
Mr Stewart and James Kelly, 1846-1850; Messrs. Scripps and 


Stewart, 1850-1852, with Stewart, Waite and Company as 
publishers. It was devoted to literary miscellany and infor- 
mation. In length of life it surpassed all other early periodicals 
of predominantly literary tone. Its motto was "To please be 
ours." In 1847 the proprietors, in order to meet a growing 
demand for news alone, established the Chicago Daily Tribune, 
as an offshoot to the Gem of the Prairie. The latter paper was 
continued under the same name until 1852, when it was merged 
in the Tribune, and published as the Sunday edition of that 
paper, with the title Chicago Sunday Tribune. HUF 

the first medical journal issued in Chicago. Edited by Dr. 
James V. Z. Blaney, in the interest of Rush Medical College, and 
printed by Ellis and Fergus, 1844-1846. It was a monthly paper, 

1844-1846; bi-monthly, 1846 . In 1846 the Journal was 


1848+ : Its editors were Drs. Blaney, Daniel Brainard, William 

B. Herrick, and John Evans. It was published. in Chicago by 
Ellis and Fergus and in Indianapolis by C. B. Davis. In 1848 
the paper became known as the H 

cember, 1857+ : It continued under the same editorial manage- 
ment, but was published in Chicago by William Ellis and in 
Indianapolis by John D. Defrees. In 1849 W. B. Herrick and 
John Evans appeared as editors with J. W. Dugan, Chicago and 
Indianapolis, as sole publisher. The subsequent year John 
Evans and Edwin G. Meek comprised the editorial staff, with 

C. A. Swan as printer. In 1851 the same editors appear with 
James L. Langdon, Chicago and Indianapolis, as printer. In 
1852 John Evans was editor, and Langdon and Rounds printers. 
In this year another new series was commenced, being issued 
monthly. W. B. Herrick was editor, assisted by H. A. Johnson, 
with Ballantyne and Company as printers. Dr. N. S. Davis 
became editor in May, 1854, with Dr. Johnson assistant, and 
A. B. Case, publisher, who in 1856 was succeeded by Robert 
Fergus. In 1857 Dr. Davis was sole editor, Barnet and Clarke 
printers. The December number, 1857, terminated the maga- 
zine under the name of the Northwestern Medical and Surgical 
Journal. It was continued as the HJ 

CHICAGO MEDICAL JOURNAL, +i858-September, 1875+: Daniel 
Brainard was publisher in 1859 and 1860, and the Journal was 
monthly. In 1869 it was semi-monthly. J. Adams Allen, M.D., 
LL.D., was editor at that date; C. N. Goodell, publisher. The 


periodical was still devoted to the interests of Rush Medical Col- 
lege. J. Adams Allen and Walter Hay, M.D., were editors, 
1870-1875 ; W. B. Keen, Cooke and Company, publishers. The 
Journal became the H J 

to date (1884) : William H. Byford, A.M., M.D., became editor 
in 1876; the Chicago Medical Press Association, publishers. 
The Journal had the same editor and publishers in 1880; in 
1882 N. S. Davis, M.D., James Nevins Hyde, M.D., and Daniel 
R. Brower were editors. Monthly. HJ 

DAILY JOURNAL, April 22, 1844 to date : A Whig paper at first issued 
by an editorial committee appointed by the company that pur- 
chased the Express. Edited and published by Richard L. Wil- 
son and J. W. Norris, 1844-1845; Mr. Wilson and Nathan C. 
Geer, 1845-1847; Mr. Wilson, 1847-1849; Charles L. Wilson, 
1849-1851; R. L. and C. L. Wilson, 1851-1853; R. L. and C. 
L. Wilson and C. H. Morris, 1853-1854; Messrs. Wilson, 1854- 
1856; C. L. Wilson and C. H. Pierce, 1856-1860. John L. 
Wilson became a member of the firm in 1861. Charles L. Wil- 
son died in 1878; John R. Wilson became connected with the 
paper and later became publisher. Charles L. Wilson was suc- 
ceeded as editor by Andrew Shuman. Mr. Shuman was editor 
from 1 86 1 to 1864, and again from 1878 to 1888 ; W. K. Sullivan, 
1888. In 1893 the paper was sold to Dr. S. F. Farrar, who 
formed a company with himself as president and treasurer, 
Slason Thompson, editor, J. R. Wilson, publisher. There was, 
beside the daily and weekly, a tri-weekly edition which was con- 
tinued until after 1881. For a number of years John C. East- 
man has been editor, the Chicago Journal Company, publishers. 
Until after 1881 the paper was listed as Republican; it is now 
Independent. It is now called Evening Journal. EDACNSUHF 

GARLAND OF THE WEST, 1845 : It was projected by Robert N. Gar- 
rett and Nelson W. Fuller. But one copy seems to have been 
issued, that of July 30. 

DAILY NEWS, latter part of i845~January 6, 1846: A liberty paper 
managed by Eastman and Davidson, with S. W. Chapel assistant 
editor. This was the first daily issued without a weekly edition. 

SPIRIT OF TEMPERANCE REFORM, 1845 : Started by J. E. Ware. It 
soon died. 

VOLKSFREUND, 1845-1848: The pioneer German paper of Chicago. 
Edited by Robert B. Hoeffgen. 

WESTERN (LITERARY ?) MAGAZINE, October, i845-October, 1846: 
The first literary magazine published in Chicago, was first issued 
in October, 1845, by Rounseville and Company. In the belief 


"that the western people were able and willing to support a mag- 
azine of their own," William Rounseville undertook the develop- 
ment of western literary talent. His hopes were not fully realized 
and he sold the magazine after the publication of ten numbers. 
John J. Moon, the purchaser, published but two numbers, be- 
ginning September, 1846. H 
ARIEL, 1846: Published for a short time with Edward Augustus 
as editor and C. H. Boner as publisher. 

DAILY CAVALIER, 1846-1847: Edited by Robert Wilson. For six 
weeks Rev. William Rounseville was editor. A one-cent paper. 

DOLLAR WEEKLY, 1846: Issued three or four months by William 

Duane Wilson. 
LIBERTY TREE, 1846-1848: Issued by Eastman and Davison, 

with Zebina Eastman as editor. A monthly. 

MORNING MAIL, 1846-1847 : Edited by Rev. William Rounseville. H 
VALLEY WATCHMAN, 1846-1847: Published by J. McChesney. 

WESTERN HERALD, 1846-1847+: A weekly anti-slavery, anti- 
masonic, temperance paper, and advocate of the Society of 
Friends, edited by Rev. J. B. Walker and B. F. Worrall. Changed 
to H 

HERALD OF THE PRAIRIES, +1847-1849+ : Edited by Rev. J. B. 
Walker and B. F. Worrall, 1847-1849. In 1848 James Shaw 
was assistant editor. The paper was " devoted to the promotion 
of practical religion, the maintenance of essential truth, and the 
advancement of the benevolent enterprises of the age." J. Am- 
brose Wight and William Bross bought the office and material 
and changed it to 

PRAIRIE HERALD, +1849-1853+: Rev. G. S. F. Savage, of St. 
Charles, 111., and Rev. A. L. Chapin of Beloit, Wis., were appointed 
corresponding editors. Mr. Wight was sole editor, 1851-1853. 
From 1846 to 1853 the paper enunciated the doctrines of the New 
School Presbyterians and the Congregationalists. Changed to F 

CONGREGATIONAL HERALD, +1853-1861: Edited by Rev. John C. 
Holbrook, 1853-1854; Rev. Holbrook and Rev. N. H. Eggleston, 
1854-1856; several editors from 1856 to 1857 ; Rev. H. L. Ham- 
mond, 1857 (?). The Herald advocated the establishment 

of the Chicago Theological Seminary. EF 

COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, 1847-1858: Edited by Alfred Dutch, 
who was instrumental in obtaining the grant of lands from 
Congress for the Illinois Central Railroad. The Advertiser op- 
posed the Maine law. It was issued irregularly. Weekly to 
1849, when it became daily with a weekly edition. HAEF 


SCIENCE, January, 1847-1849: A monthly, edited and published 
by James L. Enos and D. L. Curtiss. In the issue of February, 
1849, James L. Enos is given as editor and publisher. He writes 
editorially in that number concerning the influence of the Edu- 
cator: "It was commenced under the most unfavorable circum- 
stances, in a country where no like publication had ever circu- 
lated, where the people were comparatively little imbued with 
a love for education or at least, that inculcated by professional 
teachers and with the privations incident to a new country 
pressing heavily upon them; yet, notwithstanding these diffi- 
culties, the influence of the Educator has steadily increased, and 
within the last three months the circulation has nearly doubled." 
The objects of the magazine were to expose the dangers of fal- 
lacious theories of education, and to set forth and to defend the 
true principles of instruction. Vol. in, no. 2 owned by Frank 
W. Scott, Urbana, Illinois. S 

PORCUPINE, winter of 1847-1848: Edited by Charles Bowen and 
Thomas Bradbury. 

TRIBUNE, 1847 to date: Established by Joseph K. C. Forrest, 
James J. Kelly and John E. Wheeler. Messrs. Forrest and 
Kelly very early retired and Thomas A. Stewart became 
editor. In 1847 the Gem of the Prairie was absorbed by the 
Tribune and became the Sunday edition of that paper. The 
Tribune was managed by Wheeler, Stewart and Scripps, 1848- 
1851; T. J. Waite, manager, Wm. Duane Wilson, editor, 
1852-1853. Gen. Wilson's interest was purchased by March 
23, 1853, Henry Fowler, Timothy Wright and Gen. J. D. 
Webster. On June 18, 1853, Joseph Medill came from Cleve- 
land and purchased a share in the paper, whereupon the issue 
was made under the auspices of Wright, Medill, and Company, 
and Stephen J. Staples is specified in the directory for 1853- 
1854 as assistant editor. On July 21, 1855, Thomas A. 
Stewart retired from the partnership, and September 23, Dr. C. H. 
Ray and J. C. Vaughn were editors. At the same time Alfred 
Cowles became a member of the firm, which was then composed 
of Messrs. Medill, Ray, Wright, Webster, Vaughn, and Cowles. 
Under the vigorous influence of Dr. Ray the paper soon became 
of primary importance in Chicago and Illinois. It was one of 
the first to endorse the formation of the Republican party in 
Illinois, and did much to bring about the successful organiza- 
tion of that party, and the nomination and election of Lincoln 
in 1860. March 26, 1857, Mr. Vaughn withdrew and the part- 
nership name became Ray, Medill, and Company. In 1858 the 
Tribune, being consolidated with the Daily Democratic Press, 
was known as the Press and Tribune, issued by the proprietors 


of both papers (see Democratic Press). In 1861 the word 
Press was dropped and the Tribune Company was organized. 
Scripps, Bross, Ray, Medill, and Cowles were the principal 
stockholders. In 1861 the Tribune absorbed the Democrat. 
In 1 866 Horace White, who had previously been connected with the 
paper and had acquired the stock of Mr. Scripps, became editor. 
He was succeeded in 1874 by Joseph Medill. Under White the 
Tribune had supported Horace Greeley, but Medill brought it 
back into the Republican fold, where it has remained, though 
manifesting a considerable independence. 1 Mr. Medill died in 
March, 1899, and was succeeded as editor by R. W. Patterson, 
who was editor until his death, on April i, 1910. The Tribune 
has been since 1908 in direct charge of Medill McCormick. It 
has been a daily from its beginning. For many years it had 
also semi-weekly, tri-weekly, and weekly editions, all of which 
have been discontinued. The file at the office of the Tribune 
is complete from about 1860. File, 1861-1876, in Boston 
Athenaeum. EWDNACSUHF 

WATCHMAN OF THE PRAIRIES, 1847-1853+: First weekly Baptist 
newspaper published in Chicago. It strongly opposed slavery. 
Edited by Rev. Luther Stone and published by Messrs. Walker 
and Worrall, of the Western Herald (which see). In 1849 Wight 
and Bross became its publishers. In 1853 Mr. Stone sold the 
paper to Dr. J. C. Burroughs, Levi D. Boone and A D. Tits- 
worth, and it became the H 

CHRISTIAN TIMES, + August 31, 1853-1865 + : Mr. Burroughs 
was the chief and H. J. Western and A. J. Joslyn assistant edi- 
tors. November 24 of the same year the paper was sold to Rev. 

!The Tribune followed closely the lead of Greeley and the New York Tribune 
in urging, immediately after the defeat of General Scott for the presidency in 
1852, that the Whig party had lost its usefulness; and, after the Kansas-Ne- 
braska bill had been passed in 1854, took the lead in the West, as Greeley and the 
New York Tribune did in the East, in agitating a union, in the Republican party, 
of all anti-slavery and anti-Nebraska elements. 

"In 1856 I made as strong a fight for Fremont as was in my power," Medill 
wrote, " worked for Abraham Lincoln against Stephen A. Douglas for senator in 
1858; printed verbatim the great debates in which these two men were engaged, 
and in 1859 began pushing Mr. Lincoln for the presidency." 

In 1860 the Tribune put forth every effort for the nomination and election 
of Lincoln, and after war broke out, was the most influential Union newspaper 
west of New York City. It urged Lincoln to issue an emancipation proclamation, 
opposed Johnson's reconstruction policy, upheld the impeachment proceedings, 
defended the reconstruction acts of Congress, and supported Grant in 1868. Under 
Horace White the Tribune was vigorously opposed to a policy of extremely high 
protective tariffs, and not until 1874, when Medill secured control and the editor- 
ship, did it support the prevailing policy of the dominant party. Under Medill 
it was for many years a high-tariff paper, but it has long occupied a position of 
great independence in both local and national affairs, and has gained, especially 
under the editorship of Robert W. Patterson, a wide independent following. 


Leroy Church and Rev. J. A. Smith, the latter becoming editor. 
In 1854 Mr. Smith sold his interest to Mr. J. F. Childs and the 
proprietary firm became Church and Childs. In 1855 Mr. 
Church became sole proprietor. The copy for February 2, 
1854, volume i, number 23, contains correspondence in relation 
to the origin of Shurtleff College, which tends to show that 
J. M. Peck was given much of the credit due to Hubbell Loomis, 
who did a large amount in laying the foundations of the college 
in Alton while Peck was at Rock Spring. With vol. 13, Aug- 
ust or September, 1865, the Christian Times, by the absorption 
of the Witness of Indiana, became FH 

CHRISTIAN TIMES AND WITNESS, +1865-1867+ : J. A. Smith and 
Leroy Church were editors, Church and Edward Goodman, pub- 
lishers. In 1867 Goodman brought a half interest and the name 
was changed to 

STANDARD, +1867 to date: A Baptist church publication. The 
editors and publishers were as follows: J. A. Smith, D. D., 
editor, Church and Goodman, publishers and proprietors, 1869- 
January, 1875. J. A. Smith , D. D., and J. S. Dickerson, D. D., 
editors, and Goodman and Dickerson, publishers, 1876; Good- 
man and Dickerson, publishers, 1877-1880; J. S. Dickerson 
and R. N. Van Doren, editors, and Goodman and Dickerson 
Company, publishers, 1907. AHCUW 


ART, August,. 1848 ( ?) : Monthly. This was the first organ 

of secret societies in Chicago. Edited by J. L. Enos and Rev. 
William Rounseville; published by James L. Enos and Com- 
pany. Vol. i, no. i, owned by Frank W. Scott, Urbana, Illinois. 

FIELD PIECE, June 14 till Fall, 1848: A Whig campaign paper 
supporting Taylor and Fillmore. Edited and published by R. 
L. Wilson NF 

FREE SOIL BANNER, April-November, 1848: A campaign paper 
issued by the Western Citizen to support Van Buren and the 
Free Soil party. 

ILLINOIS STAATS-ZEITUNG, April, 1848 to date: Established by 
Robert Bernhard Hoeffgen. He was soon succeeded ai edifc.r 
by Dr. Hellmuth; Arno Voss, 1848-1849; Herman Kriege, 
1849-1850; Geo. Schneider with Mr. Hoeffgen as manager, 
1850-1852; Schneider and Hillgaertner, 1852-1854; Schneider 
and Schlaeger, 1854. Subsequently H. Beinder and Daniel 
Hertle became incorporated with the editorial staff, but Mr. 
Schneider was the animating spirit. At first it was a weekly, 
but under Mr. Kriege it was made a semi-weekly and then tri- 


weekly. In 1851 Mr. Schneider made it a daily. In 1854 the 
publication of the Sonntag Zeitung was begun. In 1862 Schneider 
sold his interest to Lorenz Brentano, who became editor. A. C. 
Hesing became sole owner in 1867; Herman Raster became 
editor, and remained in that position until 1891, when he was 
succeeded by William Rapp. Hesing was succeeded in the 
management by his son, Washington Hesing. By 1874 the 
Sunday edition had been changed to Der Westen. The 
Illinois Staats-Zeitung Company were editors and publishers, 
and in politics the paper was Independent. In 1881 the weekly 
edition and Der Westen were listed as Independent, the daily 
edition as Independent-Republican. By 1907 the Sunday 
edition had been changed to Westen Und Daheim. Since then 
the daily, Sunday, and weekly editions have been Independent- 
Republican. The Illinois Publishing Company are publishers. 
The entire stock of this company, which was owned by Mrs. 
Herman Raster and Richard Michaelis, is owned at present by 
Walter R. Michaelis 1 and Horace L. Brand. The Staats-Zeitung 
was active in urging the movement which resulted in the forma- 
tion of the Republican party. It strenuously opposed the Kansas- 
Nebraska Bill and the extension of slavery. . ENAHUC 

LADY'S WESTERN MAGAZINE, December, 1848-1849: Edited by 
Benjamin F. Taylor and J. S. Hurlbut; published by Charles 
L. Wilson. Mr. Taylor, the editor-in-chief, was a man of real 
literary genius, but did not command sufficient business resources 
to continue the paper long. It was established in imitation of 
several "ladies' magazines" published in New York and 

NEW COVENANT, 1848-1880+: A Universalist church publication. 
Edited by Rev. W. E. Mauley and Rev. J. M. Day, 1848-1849; 
S. P. Skinner, 1849-1855; L. B. Mason, 1855-1859, D. R. Liv- 
ermore, 1859-1869. According to Mr. Boss, Mrs. Mary Liver- 
more was "real editor" during the period, 1859-1869. In May 
1869, Rev. J. W. Hanson, D.D., and Rev. Selden Gilbert became 
owners. In September of that year, the Northwestern Univer- 
salist Publishing House became the publishers, with J. W. Han- 
sen, D.D., as editor and Mr. Gilbert, business manager. In 
October, 1871, Dr. Hanson became both manager and editor. 
Rev. W. A. Start was business manager for 1874, but in 1875 
Dr. Hanson was again manager and editor. He remained so 
until 1883, with the Northwestern Universalist Publishing House 
continuing as publishers. The Star o] the West of Cincinnati 
was consolidated with the New Covenant in 1880, the name be- 
coming Star and Covenant, and the publication being continued 

1 Walter R. Michaelis, editor and part owner, died August 6, 1910. 


in Chicago. In December, 1883, the Universalist Publishing 
House of Boston bought the paper and changed its name to 
Universalist. In May, 1884, Rev. J. S. Cantwell became editor 
and was still so in 1886. WHCEF 

Monthly. Edited and published by Dr. George E. Shipman. 
Printed by Whitmarsh and Fulton. It was mainly filled with 
translations by the editor from various foreign journals and with 
original papers from his own pen. "Its object was to set forth 
the principles of homoeopathy and to defend and confirm the views 
of such physicians as had undertaken its practice." JH 

WESTERN FARMER, 1848 to date (1869): A weekly agricultural 
paper. It was dated for Madison, Wisconsin and Chicago in 
1869. W. B. Davis was editor and publisher in that year. 

CHICAGO DOLLAR NEWSPAPER, March 17, 1849 (?): A paper 

edited by James R. Bull. Devoted to literature, news, and 
agriculture. The Chicago Dollar Weekly of this date is men- 
tioned by Mr. H. R. Fleming as "a literary journal of merit." F 

TEMPERANCE BATTLE-AX, part of 1849: Edited by Charles J. Sel- 
lon and D. D. Driscoll. 

COMMERCIAL REGISTER, 1850: Issued by J. F. Ballantyne. Short- 

DEMOCRATIC ARGUS, August, 1850- (?): Issued daily and 
weekly by B. F. Seaton and W. W. Peck. 

i85o-April, 1851: Appeared monthly; edited by O. F. Bartlett. 
In April, 1851, Dr. N. S. Davis became editor, and with that 
number publication ceased. H 

CHRISTIAN ERA, 1852 : An unsuccessful paper published by Rev. 
Epaphras Goodman. 

DAILY DEMOCRATIC PRESS, 185 2- July, 1858+ : Edited by John L. 
Scripps and William Bross. In 1854 the firm became Scripps, 
Bross and Spears (Barton W.). At first it was a non-partisan paper 
but in 1857 it began expounding the principles of the Republican 
party. A weekly edition also was issued. July i, 1858, the 
Press was consolidated with the Tribune. WHCAEF 

Independent commercial penny paper edited by J. Q. A. Wood 
and W. J. Patterson. 

WEEKLY EXPRESS, 1852-1853: Conducted by J. F. Ballantyne and 
Company. Continued about a year. 

FRIHED'S BANNERET, 1852-1853 : First Norwegian paper published 
in Chicago. Edited by Mouritzon and Kjoss. 


LITERARY BUDGET, 1852-1855+: Published monthly by William 
Weaver Danenhower, a bookseller, who established the paper 
as a medium for the advertising of books and periodicals. After 
seven monthly issues it was changed, January 7, 1854, to a weekly, 
with Benjamin F. Taylor as editor. T. H. Whipple appeared 
as associate editor in the same year. In its weekly form the 
Budget grew into a "literary journal of distinct merit," concen- 
trating its attention upon matters concerning the West. It states 
editorially, "A new field is open to authorship. . . . The West 
is full of subject-matter for legend, story or history. ... All 
that is lacking is a proper channel. This channel we offer. The 
Budget claims to be a western literary paper, and we invite 
writers to send us articles on western subjects, for publication." 
The paper was continued until 1855. In the summer of that 
year Mr. Danenhower "became state leader of the 'Native 
American' or 'Know- Nothing' party, which had during the year 
preceding carried two eastern commonwealths and had shown 
strength in the middle states. He announced that the Budget 
would 'close its existence,' that he would 'launch his bark' once 
more, and that his numerous readers would receive the Weekly 
Native Citizen. As a spokesman of the reaction against the 
immigration due to the Irish famine and the continental revo- 
lutions of 1848 and 1849, he wrote vehemently. With the 
Budget's last breath he said : ' We trust that our future exertions 
will be such as to exemplify to the world that the pure fire of 
American sentiment is sweeping over our vast prairies; that 
hereafter America shall and must be governed by Americans.'" 1 H 

DAILY NATIVE CITIZEN, +1855 (?) : A Weekly Native Citizen 

was projected as the successor of Literary Budget. Evidence 
has not been obtainable to prove that this paper was actually 
published W. W. Danenhower who was to be the editor and pub- 
lisher of the weekly, issued the daily, for at least six months. F 

TIMES, June 12, i852-October 18, 1853: A Free Soil paper, daily 
and tri- weekly, established in connection with the Western Citizen 
and discontinued when that paper was changed to Free West. It 
was at first published by Lee and Townsend; after eighteen 
numbers, by E. C. Townsend and Company ; after the twenty- 
first number by Lyman E. D. Wolf; edited and published after 
no. 45 by C. T. Gaston; published after No. 86 by Gaston, 
Muir, and Company. By No. 125, November 16, 1852, Zebina 
Eastman had become editor and publisher. HF 

WESTERN TABLET, February 7, 1852-1855: A Catholic literal 
periodical published by Daniel O'Hara. 

1 Herbert E. Fleming, Literary Interests of Chicago, SQO. 


CHRISTIAN BANKER, January 8, 1853 ( ?) : Only eight numbers 

were issued. Published by Seth Paine and John W. Holmes 
as an advertisement for their bank. For an account of that 
curious institution see Andreas, Chicago, vol. i, pp. 539-544. F 

CHRISTIAN SHOEMAKER, 1853: Published for only a short time by 
F. V. Pitney as a travesty on the Christian Banker. 

COURANT, 1853-1854+: An Independent daily edited by William 
Duane Wilson. Sold to Messrs. Cook, Cameron, and Patterson, 
and changed to F 

YOUNG AMERICA, +July 4, 1854+: A Democratic paper edited 
by J. W. Patterson, published by Cook, Cameron, and Patter- 
son. Daily and weekly. It was soon changed to F 

CHICAGO DAILY TIMES/ + August 30, 1854-1860+ : The founders 
and publishers of the Times were Isaac Cook, James W. Sheahan 
and Daniel Cameron. It was a Democratic daily, edited by 
James W. Sheahan, 1854-1856; James W. Sheahan and Daniel 
Cameron, 1856-1858; Sheahan and William Price, 1858-1860; 
published by Cook and Company. In 1860 Cyrus H. McCormick, 
owner of the Herald, purchased the Times and consolidated the 
two papers under the name of the HANF 

TIMES AND HERALD, +1860 (?)+: E. W. McComas was 

placed in editorial charge. The paper appears to have assumed 
very soon the title of H 

DAILY CHICAGO TIMES, +i86o(?)-June 20, 1861+: Under the 
care of Mr. McComas, who was a journalist from Virginia, the 
paper became an exponent of the Southern Democracy. Mc- 
Cormick was proprietor and Daniel Cameron publisher until 
June 8, 1 86 1, when Wilbur F. Storey became editor and pro- 
prietor. From late in 1860 to June 20, 1861, the Times was 
numbered vol. i, until no. 275, June 21, 1861, when vol. 7 was 
used and the tide changed from Daily Chicago Times to NAH 

1 President Lincoln contributed the following anonymous note to the Washing- 
ton Chronicle, June 6, 1863: 

"EDITOR OP THE CHRONICLE: In your issue of this morning you have an 
article on the Chicago Times. Being an Illinoisan, I happen to know that 
much of the article is incorrect. As I remember, upon the repeal of the Missouri 
Compromise, the Democratic newspapers at Chicago went over to the opposition. 
Thereupon the Times was established by the friends of the administration, Sena- 
tor Douglas being the most prominent in establishing it. A man by the name of 
James Sheahan, from this city, was its first and only editor nearly if not quite 
all the remainder of the senator's life. On the political separation between Mr. 
Buchanan and Senator Douglas, the Times adhered to the senator, and was the 
ablest paper in his support through his senatorial contest with Mr. Lincoln. 
Since the last presidential election certainly, perhaps since Senator Douglas's 
death, Mr. Sheahan left the Times; the Times since then has been identical with 
the Times before then in little more than the name. The writer hereof is not 
well enough posted to say but that your article in other respects is correct." 
Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln, viii, 293, 293. 


CHICAGO TIMES, +June 20, i86i-March 4, 1895+: After the 
emancipation proclamation, the Times ceased to favor the prose- 
cution of the war, and was bitter in its denunciations of Lin- 
coln's administration. It became such a radical "copperhead 
sheet" that General Ambrose E. Burnside, in command of the 
Department of the Northwest, with headquarters at Cincinnati, 
issued an order for the suppression of the Times, and the com- 
mander at Camp Douglas was charged with the execution of the 
order. On the morning of June 3, 1863, soldiers marched in- 
to the press room and took possession. Mass meetings were held 
during the day in advocacy of free speech and a free press. A 
petition to President Lincoln to revoke the order was signed by 
some of the most prominent Republicans and business men of the 
city, and Senator Lyman Trumbull and Isaac N. Arnold tele- 
graphed personally to Mr. Lincoln to the same effect. The order 
was revoked by the President and publication was resumed June 
5. After the presidential campaign of 1868 the Times ceased to 
be a party organ, claimed to be Independent, and made many 
vigorous onslaughts on the Democratic party. However, it 
supported the Democratic candidates of 1876, 1880 and 1884. 
In the fall of 1863, Franc B. Wilkie joined the editorial staff, and 
in 1867 Andre Matteson became a part of the editorial force for 
the second time. Ananias Worden was manager from 1861 
to 1865; H. B. Chandler, 1865-1870; Mr. Storey became sole 
owner in 1870, and made A. L . Patterson manager. The 
establishment was destroyed in the great fire of 1871, but 
reappeared very soon after. Mr. Storey, who had been 
the leading spirit of the paper for over twenty years, died in 
October, 1884 ; the paper went into the hands of a receiver and was 
sold in 1887 to a new Chicago Times Company headed by James 
J. West, who was manager. He was ousted later, and succeeded 
by Huiskamp Brothers, with Joseph R. Dunlap as editor. In 
1891 Carter H. Harrison formed the Newspaper Company and 
bought the Times. Carter H. Harrison, Jr., was made business 
manager, and Preston Harrison managing editor. March 4, 
1895, it was joined to the Herald hence Times-Herald, which 
on March 28, 1901, was consolidated with the Record as the 
Record-Herald. EWDNAHSUC 

EVANGELIST, 1853-1855+: A paper representing the tenets of the 
New School of Presbyterians. Edited by an association of Pres- 
byterian clergymen, the resident editors being Rev. H. Curtis 
and Rev. R. W. Patterson; associate editors, G. W. Gale, S. G. 
Spears, W. H. Spencer, A. Eddy, and S. D. Pilkin. In April, 
1854, Rev. Joseph Gaston Wilson took editorial charge. In 


1855 it was merged into the New York Evangelist, which there- 
after had a northwestern editor in Chicago. F 

lished by W. B. Horner; purported to contain all information for 
traveling by railroad, steamboat, and stage from Chicago to every 
town in the Northwest, and to any important city in the United 
States. F 

A monthly, devoted to Swedenborgian interests. John S. Weller 
was editor and Weller and Metcalf were publishers, 1874-1880. 

A weekly, edited by James V. Watson, 1853-1856 ; Rev. Thomas 
M. Eddy, 1856-1868. It was published by Swormated and Poe 
for the Northwestern Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church and printed by Charles Philbrick. Rigidly anti-slavery. 
In 1868 the editorship was given to Rev. John Morrison Reid. 
Mr. Reid was succeeded in 1872 by Arthur Edwards, D.D., 
editor to 1901. David D. Thompson was editor 1901-1908; 
Charles M. Stuart in 1909. Hitchcock and Walden were pub- 
lishers from before 1869 until 1880, with Dr. Luke Hitchcock 
as manager. In 1880 Walden and Stowe became publisheis; 

Cranston and Stowe, 1884 (?); Jennings and Graham in 

1907, and to date. WDUHF 

OLIVE BRANCH OF THE WEST, 1853 (?): Published by J. R. 

Balme, in the interest of Salem Baptist Church. F 

SLOAN'S GARDEN CITY, 1853-1 854(?): A literary paper edited by 
Walter Sloan, a vender of patent medicines ; published at first 
by Robert Fergus, afterward by Charles Scott and Company. 
The first few numbers contained a "Sloan's Column," in which 
his patent medicines were advertised. "Later Oscar B. Sloan, 
a son, became editor. The patent medicine notices disappeared. 
The paper became a pro-western literary organ of genuine merit, 
having, however, a trend toward the family-story type of literary 
appeal." It was merged in 1854 with the People's Paper of Bos- 
ton, which lived until 1870. WH 

TRAVELER, i853(?): Mentioned in the city directory of 1853 as 
managed by James M. Chatfield, John Chatfield, Jr., William 
B. Doolittle, and Lee Lars. 

YOUTH'S WESTERN BANNER, 1853 : A short-lived monthly juvenile 
publication devoted to temperance, morality, and religion. 
Edited and published by Isaac C. Smith and Company. 

ATLANTIS, 1854: A monthly, edited by Christian Essellen. 


DEUTSCHE AMERIKANER, 1854: Edited by George Schtaeger. An 
anti- Nebraska paper ; lasted but a few months. 

HOMEOPATH, January, i854-December, 1856: Bi-monthly. 
Edited by Drs. D. S. Smith, S. W. Graves, and R. Ludlam. 
It was a small non-professional magazine. Upon the death 
of Dr. S. W. Graves, Dr. D. A. Colton became one of the editors. 
Three yearly volumes of the magazine were completed. HJ 

MAINE LAW ALLIANCE, 1854: A temperance paper, published by 
Hiram W. Jewell, with B. E. Hale, Rev. T. Yates, and Dr. 
Charles Jewett as editors. Short-lived. 

PROTESTANT, January, 1854: Monthly. Hays and Thompson were 

SATURDAY EVENING MAIL, January, 1854: A temperance paper 

edited by George R. Graham. Short-lived. 

WESTERN PATHFINDER, 1854 to date (1856): An advertising sheet 
published in the interest of travelers and real estate men. 
Owned and edited by W. B . Homer. Published by Horner and 

ASHLAR, September, 1855 to date (1861) : A Masonic monthly pub- 
lished simultaneously in Chicago and Detroit. Established by 
Allyn Weston and conducted by him through three volumes. 
Then Charles Scott became proprietor; Weston remained 
editor. In January, 1861, Ashlar, "devoted to Masonry, gen- 
eral literature and progress," was edited by J. Adams Allen. H 

BANK-NOTE LIST, 1855 to date (1864) : A semi-monthly edited and 
published by Granger Adams, a banker. Devoted to reporting 
financial matters, with especial reference to the means of 
detecting counterfeits, and containing a report of the banks that 
were in an embarrassed condition or had ceased to be solvent. 
This paper appeared in the directory as late as 1862 as published 
by Mr. Adams. It is given in 1863 and 1864 as published by S. 
K. Reed. 

BEOBACHTER VON MICHIGAN, 1855-1856: A Douglas paper edited 
by Committi and Becker. 

COURIER, 1855 : Issued by R. P. Hamilton. 

WESTERN FARM JOURNAL, 1855 to date (1877): An agricultural 
paper. In 1875 Dr. G. Sprague was editor; G. Sprague, 
F. R. Sprague, and D. J. Walker were publishers; and F. R. 
Sprague was business manager. Printed at the office of the 
Homestead and Western Farm Journal, Des Moines, Iowa. It 
is probable that this paper was not published from Chicago 
prior to 1875. 


NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, 1855 to date (1860) : A daily Douglas paper; 

edited by Dr. Ignatius Koch, published by J. E. Committi. 

Later editors were Koch and Schade, then Koch and Froehlich ; 

later publishers were Michael Diversey, then Fritz Becker, 1857- 

NATIVE AMERICAN, September 7, i855-November, 1856: Started 

by William Weaver Danenhower, father of Lieutenant J. W. 

Danenhower, the Arctic explorer. Washington Wright was 

editor. A daily issued in the interest of the Native American party. 

UNION, 1855 to date (1876): A German Democratic paper, issued 
daily and weekly. Mention is made of a Sunday edition in the 
directories for 1866, 1869. 1870 and 1876. In 1869 it was called 
Westliche Unterhaltungs-Blatler; in 1876, the Belletristische 
Zeitung. The weekly edition only is mentioned in 1872 and 1873. 
Frederick Becker and Schlaeger were proprietors in 1861; 
Becker was sole proprietor, 1862-1863. In 1864 Edward 
Roesch was editor. F. Becker was publisher in that year and 
continued so until 1870. W. Bellinghausen and Company were 
editors and publishers, 1870-1872 ; the German Newspaper and 
Printing Company, proprietors and publishers, 1872-1873. 
Hermann Lieb was editor and publisher, 1873-1876. CE 

WESTERN CRUSADER, 1855-1856+ : A temperance paper edited by 
Thos. Williams and Orlo W. Strong. Gerhard (1856) gives J. 
D. Dow and Company as publishers. Changed to 

NORTHWESTERN HOME JOURNAL, + 1856 ( ?) : Edited by James 

B. Merwin and published by an association comprising F. H. 
Benson, J. M. Kennedy, O. W. Strong, R. L. Dunlap, and E. 
R. Bowen. 

WESTERN GARLAND, 1855: A monthly, issued simultaneously in 
Chicago, Louisville, and St. Louis, devoted to "polite literature, 
art, science, home and foreign news." It was founded by Mrs. 
Harriet C. Lindsey and Son, with R. R. Lindsey as editor in 
Chicago. H 

ABEND ZEITUNG, i856(?)-i858(?): A German daily, published in 
1856 by Committi and Becker. In 1858, published by Com- 
mitti and Bode, edited by Henry Ginal. 

( ?) : Edited by C. H. Scriven and John J. Gallagher. 

COMMERCIAL LETTER, 1856-1868+ : A critical daily record of the 
flour, grain, live stock, and provision markets. P. L. Wells was 
editor and publisher until 1862; H. R. Hulburd, 1863; H. A. 
Newcomb and Company proprietors. Thomas M. Wignall 
editor, 1864; Thomas H. Wignall, editor and publisher, 1866- 


1868. In 1868 it was incorporated with Chicago Daily Com- 
mercial Report and Market Review. J 
DEMOCRATIC BUGLE, 1856: Published by Charles Leib. Daily. F 
DEMOKRAT, 1856 to date (1880): In 1877 W. Kuhl was manager. 
In 1880 he was still manager, and the Demokrat Printing Com- 
pany were publishers. 

FLOWER QUEEN, 1856-1857: Published by Higgins Brothers. 

HERALD, 1856-1857: A daily edited by T. R. Dawley. Listed by 

Gerhard as daily and weekly, published by Cook and Company. 

MANFORD'S MAGAZINE, 1856 to date (1881) : A Universalist monthly, 

listed in Rowell, 1869, as Manford' s Monthly Magazine. Rev. 

E. Manford and Mrs. H. B. Manford were editors in 1869 ; Rev. 

E. Manford was publisher, and the same is true until 1876, after 

which time Mr. and Mrs. Manford were editors and publishers. 

W. W. Clayton was associated with them as editor in 1871. 

DAILY NEWS, September, 1856- ( ?) : Edited by Walter B. 

Sloan. F 

DAILY PATRIOT, September 3o-November, 1856: A Fillmore and 

Donelson campaign paper. F 

PEN AND PENCIL, 1856 : An art and story paper. Edited by T. R. 

Dawley and contributed to by T. Herbert Whipple. F 

PRAIRIE LEAF, 1856- (?): A monthly, issued for a short time 

by D. B. Cooke and Company. 

ROUNDS' PRINTERS CABINET, 1856 to date (1881): Published by 
Rounds and Langdon. In December, 1856, there was but one 
other journal in the United States that was devoted exclusively 
to the interest of the 'art preservative' the Typographical 
Advertiser; Rounds' Cabinet was the first of that character in 
the northwest, the second in the United States in its date of issue, 
and the first monthly typographical journal in the Union. It is 
not listed in Rowell, 1869, but is given as an advertising sheet in 
newspaper directories, 1873-1876, with S. P. Rounds as publisher. 
Listed in Ayer, 1881, as a quarterly advertising sheet. 
SVENSKA REPUBLIKANEN (Den Svenska Republikanen i Norra Amer- 
ika), + September, 185 7- July, 1858: Established by the leaders 
of the Bishop Hill colony at Galva, and edited by S. Cronsioe. 
It was soon turned over to Cronsioe as his private property, and 
removed to Chicago. It was antagonistic to Hemlandet, and 
ultra liberal as to religion, so much so that the name came to 
be in bad odor among a large class of the Swedish people. 

SUNDAY VACUNA, Spring of 1856 (?): The first exclusively 

Sunday paper in Chicago ; named for the goddess of rural leisure. 


WESTERN ENTERPRISE, 1856-1857+: An agricultural weekly; 
merged in the Prairie Farmer, Edited by E. Porter Little. 

Western Journal of Music, 1856-1857: Semi-monthly. Edited by 
William H. Currie, and published by R. G. Greene. It was a 
paper " devoted to literature and art . . . to the advancement 
of musical knowledge and interest, in the western states partic- 

EVANGEL, i857(?) (?): Edited by J. G. Wilson. Mentioned 

in the city directory for 1857. 

LE JOURNAL DE L 'ILLINOIS, 1857-1858: First issued in Kankakee 
as a weekly on January 2, 1857, by A. Grandpr and Claude 
Petit, being the first French newspaper published in the state. 
In September, 1857, it was moved to Chicago under the same 
management. For one month it was issued semi-weekly, after 
which it was changed back to weekly. 

DAILY LEDGER, 1857: Published by Barnes, Stewart, and Paine. 
Seth Paine was editor. 

CHICAGO MAGAZINE, THE WEST AS IT Is, March- August, 1857 : 
Founded by the Mechanics' Institute, an organization for night- 
study, the object being partly to secure exchanges gratis for its 
library. Zebina Eastman was the editor ; John Gager and Com- 
pany were the publishers. The magazine was devoted to liter- 
ature, biography, historical reminiscence, etc. Mr. H. E. Flem- 
ing mentions it as "the literary-historical magazine of highest 
tone." It was beautifully and profusely illustrated, and though 
it carried as many advertisements as were usual at that time, its 
expenses were greater than its receipts. The five numbers pub- 
lished were got out with increasing difficulty, and the magazine 
expired in August. According to Andreas, the failure was a great 
loss to the literary interests of the city. Monthly. CSH 

MUSICAL REVIEW, 1857-1858: Edited by C. M. Cady; published 
by Higgins Brothers ; and printed by Pool and Spaulding. 

1858: Published by Isaac A. Pool. Semi-monthly. 

NORTHWESTERN PRESBYTERIAN, 1857 to date (1869) : A weekly 
edited and published in 1869 by Rev. E. E. Erskine and Rev. 
David McKinney. Rev. J. B. McClure was associate editor. 

PRESBYTERIAN EXPOSITOR, 1857 to date (1860): Monthly. HC 

Published monthly by Gallaher and Gilbert. Had an existence 
of only a few months. 

Issued monthly. Edited and published by G. W. Yerby and 
Company. E 


CHICAGO RECORD, April, i857-April i, 1858+: Monthly. Edited 
and owned by James Grant Wilson. Devoted to religion, liter- 
ature, and fine arts. With vol. 2 the title was changed to 


CHURCH RECORD, -f April i, iSsS-April i, 1860+ : With vol. 4, 
April i, 1860, changed again to ASCHWF 

CHICAGO RECORD, + April i, i86o-March 15, 1862+ : A new num- 
bering was begun, but the old was resumed with vol. 4, no. 2. 
In March, 1862, Mr. W r ilson sold the magazine to enter the Union 
army. In the issue for March 15, he says in his parting words that 
the publication has been a success. It was the pioneer paper of 
its kind published in the northwest. The purchaser was Rev. 
Thomas Smith, who in the March 15 issue said he would con- 
tinue it as ASHCW 

NORTHWESTERN CHURCH, -(-March, 1862 to date (1865): An Epis- 
copal church paper. Rev. Thomas Smith was proprietor and 
publisher, 1862-1865. WS 

burn; continued three months. 

SUNDAY LEADER, 1857 ( ?) : The first exclusively Sunday news- 
paper of any permanence issued in Chicago. Published by S. 
P. Rounds; managing editor, Edward Bliss. It lived but a 
short time, though longer than Vacuna. A distinguishing feature 
was its chess column edited by Lewis Poulson. 

SUNDAY HERALD, i857(?) (?): It was started subsequent to 

the establishment of the Sunday Leader, in opposition to it. 
The Herald ran about a year. 

TRESTLE BOARD, 1857- (?): Edited and published by J. J. 
Clarkson in the interest of the Masonic fraternity. 

DAILY UNION, 1857-1858: Issued by the Chicago Union Printing 
Company. Louis Schade was general editor; B. H. Meyers, 
city editor. 

1857-1871: Joel Henry Wells was editor and publisher until 
1866; Wells and Vittum, 1866-1868; then Wells alone. At 
first weekly, then weekly and monthly. A daily edition called 
Morning Bulletin was published from 1857 to 1859. After 1861 
there was a daily edition called the Chicago Commercial Ex- 
press. This paper was listed in some of the directories as 
Wells' Commercial Express. E 

WESTERN RAILROAD GAZETTE, April, i857-April, 1870+ : Stanley 
G. Fowler was editor and publisher, 1861-1865; A. N. Kellogg, 
1866-1870. The title was changed April, 1870, to WHF 


RAILROAD GAZETTE, + April, 1870-1882+: After the fire of 
October, 1871, the paper was published simultaneously in Chi- 
cago and New York. A. N. Kellogg was proprietor, 1872; A. 
N. Kellogg and Company were proprietors, 1873. In 1872 S. 
Wright Dunning and M. N. Forney were editors ; S. Boardman 
was publisher. S. Wright Dunning and M. N. Forney were 
editors and publishers, 1873-1883. The paper was moved to 
New York in 1882. June, 1908, it was united with Railway Age 
as Railroad Age Gazette, and is still so published. HWUJC 

ZEITGEIST, 1857-1858: German. Edited by Ernest Georders and 
published by Charles Hess. 

CLOUD AND THE Bow, July 7, 1858 ( ?) : A semi-monthly relig- 
ious publication, edited by Rev. W. H. Hadley. "Devoted to 
the benefit of the friendless, the tempted, and the erring." EH 

EMERY'S JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE, January i-October 7, 1858+ : 
Edited by Henry D. Emery and Charles D. Bragdon. With 
vol. 2, no. 15 (Prairie Farmer, vol. 18, no. 41), October 
7, 1858, Mr. Emery, who had bought the Prairie Farmer, 
October i, continued the paper as Emery's Journal of Agriculture 
and Prairie Farmer, October 7, i858-January, 1859. January 
i, 1859, he shortened the title to the original Prairie Farmer, and 
continued the publication. (See p. 54.) WH 

HERALD, May, i858-September, 1860+ : Established by Isaac 
Cook and Charles N. Pine as a Buchanan administration 
organ to antagonize the Times, which supported Douglas. 
In 1859 it was sold to Cyrus H. McCormick. The Times was 
bought by McCormick in September, 1860, and the first number 
of the Daily Times and Herald was issued September 8. This 
paper was maintained through the campaign of 1860 as an ex- 
treme exponent of State Rights Democracy. Ex-Governor E. 
W. McComas was editor first of the Herald, later of the Times 
and Herald. An advertisement of the Herald before the con- 
solidation announces that the paper will continue "an organ of 
Democratic thought and an exponent of constitutional principles. 
It will advocate the equal rights of the people and the fraternal 
union of the States. ... Its motto is 'Principles, not Men.' 
As a commercial, mechanical, literary and moral newspaper, it 
will be inferior to none in the West. Nothing will be allowed 
in its columns that will cause a blush to the most rigidly pure." 
(See Times.) A 

NORTHWESTERN PRAIRLE FARMER, October 7, 185810 date (1860): 
Established by James C. Medill, editor, and William S. Hon- 
nold, publisher, who apparently did not wish to be included 
among those who sold their good will to H. D. Emery with the 


Prairie Farmer. The Northwestern Prairie Farmer used the 
same slogan that the Prairie Farmer had used: "Farmers, write 
for your paper." Charles Betts appeared as an editor some 
time after the establishment of the paper, which is found in the 
directory for 1859 and 1860. E 

by James Grant Wilson and published by Rufus Blanchard. A 
serious magazine, " the most ambitious of the kind ever attempted 
in Chicago, and quite pretentious for so early a date ..." In 
telling of the aims of the magazine the editors said that " the broad 
fields of literature" were to be traversed "and the progress of fine 
arts to be traced." The financial embarrassment of Mr. Blan- 
chard in another publication enterprise prevented the appearance 
of a second number of the Quarterly, even though the material 
for it was in the proof. H 

DET RATTA HEMLANDET, +1858-1873+: Established in Gales- 
burg in 1856 as a monthly devotional paper, it was removed to 
Chicago in 1858. It editors to 1873 were the same as for Hem- 
landet. Merged in 

HEMLANDET, DET GAMLA OCH DET NYE, + January 7, 1858 to 
date : A Swedish Lutheran paper, published at Galesburg from 
January 3, 1855, to 1858, when it was moved to Chicago. It 
was edited by Rev. T. N. Hasselquist, 1855-1858; Dr. Eric 
Norelius, assisted by Jonas Engberg, 1859; Norelius was suc- 
ceeded by Erland Carlsson, assisted by Engberg. Carlsson 
turned the work over to Engberg, 1863-1864; Dr. A. R. Cervin, 
1864-1868; J. G. Princell, January-July, 1869; P. A. Sundelius, 
1869; Johan Alfred Enander, 1869-1872; Enander and G. A. 
Bohman, 1872-1889. The firm was dissolved in 1889, and was 
succeeded by the Hemlandet Publishing Company, 1890. In 
1891 Hemlandet was sold to A. E. Johnson with J. N. Soderholm 
as partner, editor-in-chief, and manager, 1891-1896; in 1896 
Johnson bought out Soderholm, organized the Hemlandet Com- 
pany with himself as president, and Johan Alfred Enander again 
became editor. In 1869 the character of the paper was changed 
from a mainly religious to a general newspaper. Republican 
and still devoted to the interests of the Lutheran church. 

date (1860) : Listed in city directories for 1859 and 1860 as issued 
monthly and semi-monthly by E. K. Willard and Mr. Young. 
A Bank Note Reporter is listed in 1861 with E. I. Tinkham as 
publisher, and McElroy's Bank Note Reporter is listed in 1862 
and 1863. 


i859(?) to date (1880): The first mention of this publication 
is in the directory for 1879, although 1859 is given as the time 
when it was established. In 1879 it was listed as Christian In- 
structor, with Morrison, McCoy, and McDill as publishers. The 
longer name was used the next year; John Morrison and A. G. 
McCoy were editors and publishers. Then the short name was 
used, and Albert McCoy was named as editor. 

DENTAL COSMOS, 1859 to date (1879): A monthly, devoted to dental 
surgery and advertising. Printed in Philadelphia; issued 
simultaneously in Philadelphia, New York, Boston, and Chicago. 
In 1876, James W. White, M.D., D.D.S.,was editor, and Samuel 
S. W. White, publisher. The journal had the same editor and 
publisher to date (1879). 

T. Eberhart was proprietor, and the assistant editor was Rolla 
A. Law. The paper appears in the city directory for 1859. 

JOURNAL, i859(?)- (?) : Issued weekly, monthly, and semi- 
monthly by B. W. Phillips. Noted in the city directory for 1859. 
Listed also as Northwestern Money Reporter. 

to date (1860) : Listed in the city directories for 1859 and 1860 as 
a daily, published by Edward Bean. 

WESTERN BANNER, i859( ?) to date (1860) : Listed in the directories 
for 1859 and 1860 with B. D. KUlian as editor and proprietor. 

BAPTIST MONTHLY, January, 1860 to date (1861): "A reposi- 
tory of original sermons, reviews, literary and religious mis- 
cellany." W. Stuart Goodno was publisher. John Russell of 
Bluffdale was a regular contributor. H 

COMMERCIAL LETTER, i86o(?)-- (?) : A daily listed in the city 
directory of 1860. 

CONGREGATIONAL REVIEW, i86o(?) to date (1871): A religious bi- 
monthly, published in 1870 and 1871 by G. S. G. Savage. 

HOME LAND, i86o( ?)- ( ?) : A German weekly listed in the city 
directory of 1860. 

HOME VISITOR, 1860 to date: A philanthropic monthly, issued by 
the Chicago Home for the Friendless as an organ of communi- 
cation with its constituency. Goodman, Church, and Donnelley 
were publishers, 1867-1868. Mrs. Mary G. Clarke was editor, 
1869-1871; Eliza W. Bowman, 1872-1880; Ellen C. Babbitt 
was editor in 1907. Mary B. Stalker has been editor since 1907. 


KATHOLISCHES WOCHENBLATT, 1860 to date: E. Schultze was 
proprietor, 1862-1863; Franz Xavier Brandecker was editor and 
publisher, 1864-1880. In 1908 Brandecker was publisher and 
George Schle>er was editor. In 1863 this paper was listed as 
the Catholic Journal. German Catholic. 

MARKET REVIEW AND PRICE CURRENT, 1860 to date (1861) : Listed 
in the city directories of 1860 and 1861 as a weekly, published 
by P. L. and J. H. Wells. 

CHICAGO MEDICAL EXAMINER, January, i86o-September, 1875+: 
Issued monthly. N. S. Davis, M.D., and Frank W. Reilly, M.D., 
were editors, and W. Cravens and Company were publishers, 
1861-1862; N. S. Davis was editor, 1863-1864, and editor and 
publisher, 1865-1870. From 1873 to 1875 N. S. and I. H. Davis 
were editors and publishers. After 1871 the word Chicago was 
dropped from the title, and the paper was a semi-monthly. In 
September 1875, the Medical Examiner was united with the 
Chicago Medical Journal as the Chicago Medical Journal and 
Examiner. (See Chicago Medical Journal.} H 

MEDICAL INVESTIGATOR, 1860-1875+: This was a bi-monthly 
homeopathic journal of a somewhat popular order, edited anony- 
mously and published at least until 1874 by C. S. Halsey, except 
in 1 86 1, when the publishers were Halsey and King. It reported 
the progress of the various homeopathic societies throughout 
the country and gave extracts from the lectures that were being 
given at the Hahnemann Medical College. At the close of 1866 
it became a strictly professional monthly, with Dr. T. C. Duncan 
as its editor. In 1875 it was merged with the United States Medi- 
cal and Surgical Journal, and became the H 

monthly. Dr. T. C. Duncan editor and publisher, 1875; Dr. 
T. C. Duncan editor, and F. Duncan manager, 1876; Dr. T. C. 
Duncan editor, and Duncan Brothers publishers, 1877-1880. 
Dr. W. E. Reed became editor in 1889, and was succeeded in 
January, 1891, by Dr. Charles H. Evans. In 1893 its publi- 
cation was discontinued. 

MORNING POST, December 25, 1860-1865+: Daily and weekly. 
Established by James W. Sheahan, Andre Matteson, and Francis 
A. Eastman as a Democratic paper, friendly to Douglas, anc 
conservatively supporting the war measures of the government. 
It was edited by J. W. Sheahan, 1862-1865, and published by the 
Chicago Post Company. In 1863 it became the Post and con- 
tinued so until 1865. In that year Sheahan and Matteson were 
editors and F. A. Eastman was manager. The latter had sold 
his interest to William Pigott in 1862. The paper was sold to 


the founders of Republican in 1865, and a new Post started Sep- 
tember 4, 1865, which after a few months became the Evening 
Post (which see). NAH 

NORTHWESTERN MONEY REPORTER, i86o(?): Listed in the city 
directory of 1860 as weekly, semi-monthly, and monthly. 

NORTHWESTERN PULPIT, February, 1860-- (?): A monthly re- 
pository of original sermons, reviews, and articles literary and 
religious. Published by W. Stuart Goodno at Jacksonville in 
accord with action taken by the Illinois Baptist General Asso- 
ciation. Dated at Chicago and Jacksonville. H 

RAIL SPLITTER, June 23 till fall, 1860: A Lincoln campaign paper 
edited by Charles Leib. Each issue contained at least one per- 
tinent and forcible cartoon. H 

SATURDAY EVENING REVIEW, i86o(?): Published by William 

STIMME DES VOLKS, i86o(?): Weekly. 

WELLS' MARINE REGISTER, i86o(?) to date (1864): Published 
daily during navigation. 

WESTERN CHURCHMAN, i86o(?) : Monthly. Listed in the directory 
for 1860. 

AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, 1861 to date: Monthly. Devoted to the 
interests of bee-keepers. In 1873 and 1874 W. F. Clarke was 
editor; Thomas G. Newman, business manager; and the Amer- 
ican Publishing Company were publishers. In 1875 Mr. Clarke 
and Mrs. E. S. Tupper were editors, with the same manager and 
publishers. Thomas G. Newman was editor and publisher in 
1876. For the four years following Thomas G. Newman was 
editor; Newman and Sons were publishers. In 1907 George W. 
York was editor, the publishers were George W. York and 
Company. J 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MATERIA MEDICA, i86i(?) to date (1862): 
A monthly medical journal, edited by George E. Shipman, 
M.D. ; published by Halsey and King. 

INSURANCE AND RAILWAY REGISTER, i86i(?) to date (1863): 
Monthly. J. A. Nichols was editor and proprietor. 

LEGAL ADVISER, 1861 to date: A monthly advertising sheet devoted 
to legal interests. Its aim "is to be a medium of information on 
questions of law, administration, and public policy, colonial 
and foreign affairs, industrial arts and sciences, popular literature, 
etc." E. M. Haines, who established the paper, was still editor 
and publisher in 1880. The Legal Adviser Publishing Com- 
pany were editors and publishers in 1907. NHU 


to date (1862) : Nat. A. Haven was publisher. 

( ?) + : J. C. W. Bailey was editor and proprietor. In the first 
year of its existence the paper became the Chicago Merchants' 
Weekly Circular and Illustrated News, listed also as Chicago 
Merchants' Weekly Circular. 

NEWS, +1861-1866+ : An advertising sheet that carried some 
continued stories and other "light literature." Published by 
John C. W. Bailey. In 1866 the paper became the H 

RECORD, +1866-1870: A weekly commercial paper and adver- 
tising sheet. It was edited and published by John C. W. 
Bailey, except in 1869, when Mr. Bailey and William Holly were 
editors and Mr. Bailey publisher. The paper was listed in the 
various directories as given above; or as Price Current and 
Manufacturers' Record, Western Merchants' Price Current, or 
Merchants and Manufacturers' Record. 

L'OBSERVATEUR DE CHICAGO, i86i(?)-- (?): A French paper. 
S. E. Pinta was publisher. 

PRESBYTERIAN RECORDER, January 3, i86i(?) to date (1862): The 
publishers of this paper were Lake, Quinlan, and Raymond. U 

PROGRAMME, 1861- (after 1873) : A daily, devoted to theatrical in- 
terests. G. W. Morris was publisher, 1868-1870. P. H. Massic 
was editor and publisher in 1870 and publisher in 1871. In 1873 
Marsh and Baker were publishers. 

DAILY RECORD AND HOTEL REGISTER, i86i(?) to date (1870): 
John J. W. O'Donoghue was editor, proprietor, and publisher, 
1864-1870. It is listed as Daily Record in the city directories, 
1867-1870. Rowell mentions it in 1869 as Evening Record, and 
gives 1861 as date of establishment. E 

AMERICAN CHURCHMAN, 1862 to date (1871) : An Episcopal church 
paper edited by Hugh Miller Thompson. In 1869 H. R. Hay- 
den was publisher. The American Churchman Company were 
publishers 18)0 and 1871. S 

AMERICAN SPIRIT AND WINE TRADE REVIEW, i862( ?) to date (1881) : 
A commercial semi-monthly publication. J. T. Pratt was 
editor, 1878-1879. The title of the paper is given also as Wine 
and Spirit Review, and Western Spirit and Wine Trade. 

FARMERS' VOICE AND RURAL OUTLOOK, 1862 to date: An agricul- 
tural monthly. H. A. Bereman was editor, and the Farmers' 
Press Publishing Company were publishers in 1907-1908. 


INDEX UNIVERSITATES, March, 1862- (?): A college monthly 
paper "published by the classes of the University of Chicago." 
The editors of the first number were John S. Mabie, Thomas W. 
Goodspeed, P. Albert Coen, and Hugh M. Howie. H 

MCELROY'S BANK NOTE REPORTER, i862(?)-i863(?): Issued 
monthly and semi-monthly. This may have been a continu- 
ation of Bank Note Reporter. 

NATIONAL BANNER, May i-November, 1862+: A monthly. Es- 
tablished by Miss Delphine P. Baker to create a patriotic fund 
for the relief of disabled soldiers and their families, to dissemi- 
nate literature of high tone, etc. George D. Prentice, Benjamin 
F. Taylor, James Grant Wilson, Horace Greeley, William H. 
Channing, and Theodore Tilton were contributors. After seven 
numbers the Banner was issued from Washington. H 

TELEGRAPH, i862(?) to date (1864): Issued daily and weekly. G. 
Feuchtinger was proprietor in 1862. In 1863 Dr. Ernest Schmidt 
was editor and proprietor. C. Knobelsdorf and Binder were 
editors and proprietors 1864. 

BLATTER, i863(?)-- (?): A German paper published by Henry 

HAUSFREUND, i863( ?)-i87i( ?) : A weekly religious paper conducted 
in 1863 by an association of evangelist pastors for the United 
Evangelical Church. Joseph Hartman was editor, George E. 
Gross publisher in 1864; Rev. E. Guntrum was editor in 1870- 
1871, and the Northwestern German Company Synod were 
publishers. H 

JOURNAL or COMMERCE, 1863-1896+ : J. E. C. Heyer was commer- 
cial editor in 1869; D. Kerr, Jr., was business manager; and 
Tappan, McKillop, and Company were editors and publishers. 
The same was still true in 1877. The name of William Baker 
appears as proprietor at this date. In 1880 the Journal of Com- 
merce Company were publishers. In 1896 the title of the paper 
was changed to Iron and Steel. HE 

DAILY MUSEUM, 1863-1864+ : A daily advertising sheet published 
in the interest of the Chicago Museum by Robert V. Kennedy. 
It was changed to H 

MUSEUM AND HOTEL REGISTER, +i864(?) to date (1873): Daily 
except Sunday. R. V. Kennedy was editor and publisher in 
1869; S. S. Schoff and Company, 1870. In 1873 the Evening 
Mail Company were editors and publishers. 

NEW WORLD, 1863 to date (1873) : A weekly publication devoted to 
temperance. It was dated from Chicago and Detroit. The new 
World Company edited and published the paper in 1872; J. 


and C. P. Russell were editors and F. N. Newman was publisher 
in 1873. Not the same as the paper now issued under same name. 

PEOPLES' DENTAL JOURNAL, 1863 to date (1865) : Issued quarterly. 
W. W. Allport, D.D.S., and S. P. Creighton were editors in 1863 ; 
W. W. Allport, D.D.S., A. Hill, D.D.S., and J. Richardson, 
D.D.S., were editors, and L. P. Haskell was publisher in 1864 
and 1865. H 

SONG MESSENGER, 1863 to date (1875) : Monthly. Root and Cady 
were editors and publishers, 1869-1870. J. R. Murray was editor 
in 1871, and Root and Cady were publishers. W. S. B. Mathews 
was editor, and Root and Cady were publishers, 1872-1873. In 
1874 and 1875 F. W. Root was editor and George F. Root and 
Sons were publishers. A copy for April, 1868, owned by the 
American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts, bears 
the title Song Messenger of the Northwest. EC 

VOICE OF MASONRY, January, 1 863-1 883 (?): Monthly, devoted to 
Masonic science, harmony, and uniformity. It had as subtitles 
and Tidings from the Craft, and and Family Magazine. Robert 
Morris and J. Adams Allen were its first editors. J. C. W. 
Bailey soon became publisher, and in 1869 editor also, in which 
position he continued until 1873, when John W. Brown became 
associated with him. In 1875 A. G. Mackey became associated 
with Brown as editor. This continued until 1879 or 1880, when 
J. W. Brown became editor and publisher, and continued as far 
as available files go. HC 

VOLUNTEER, October-November, 1863: A daily, edited by "the 
ladies of the Northwestern Fair," and published by W. S. Spencer. 

WESTERN RURAL, 1863-1883+ : An agricultural paper, listed as a 
weekly in 1879 and bi-weekly in 1881, and dated for Chicago, 
Columbus, and Kansas City. H. N. F. Lewis was editor and 
publisher 1863-1869. In 1870 F. H. Glenn, Chicago, and 
Edward Mason, Detroit, were associate editors. In 1873 it was 
listed as Western Rural and Family Weekly Paper. On Sep- 
tember 22, 1883 it became Western Rural and American Stock- 
man. WHE 

WORKINGMAN'S ADVOCATE, 1864 to date (1879) : Messrs. Blake 
and Hayde w^re publishers in 1864. The name of the paper is 
given in the directory for 1867-1868 as Workingman's Advocate 
and Anti-monopolist, with the Anti-monopolist Publishing Com- 
pany as publishers. It was the official organ of the labor union 
in 1869. A. C. Cameron was editor and publisher, 1869-1879. 
Dated from Chicago, Detroit, and Cincinnati in 1879. 

ACADEMY OF Music GAZETTE, i864(?) to date (1867): A weekly, 
devoted to musical interests. W. J. Jefferson and Company 


were publishers, 1864-1865; G. S. Utter and Company, 1866- 

ADVENT CHRISTIAN TIMES, 1864 to date (1877): A second-advent 
weekly. In 1873 William L. Hines was editor; in 1874-1875, 
William Sheldon; 1876-1877, Frank Burr. The publishers 
during these periods were the Western Advent Christian Pub- 
lishing Society. U 

AMERICAN LAW MANUAL, i864(?) to date (1867) : A quarterly pub- 
lication, devoted to legal interests. E. M. Haines was publisher, 

BATAVEER IN AMERICA, i864(?) (?): A Batavian paper, pub 

lished by John Vant Woud. 

BRITISH AMERICAN, October, 1864 (?): "A weekly journal of 
foreign and domestic news." Its foreign news seems to have 
been secured entirely from foreign papers. H 

cellent journal of politics, science, and literature, edited by Caspar 
Butz and a number of associated editors, including Carl Schurz, 
Emil Preetorius, and Franz Sigel. 

GERMAN AMERICAN, i864(?) to date (1872): Published by Caspar 
Butz, 1864-1866. It is listed as weekly in 1872; published by 
Lieb and Hornaday. It had started as a monthly. 

HERALD OF TRUTH, i864(?)-i867(?) : A monthly Mennonite paper 
published in English and in German. John F. Funk was editor 
and proprietor. 

MYSTIC STAR, July, 1864 to date (1874): A monthly, devoted to 
Masonic interests, bearing the motto, "Let there be light." The 
editors and publishers were as follows : Rev. W. J. Chaplin, Rev. 
James Billings, and Solomon D. Bayless, P.G.M., editors, and 
James Billings, publisher, July, i866-July, 1867; Rev. James 
Billings and Solomon D. Bayless, editors, and James Billings, 
publisher, July, i867~January, 1868; James Billings, editor-in- 
chief, Solomon D. Bayless and S. Ashton, associate editors, and 
Ashton and Company, publishers and proprietors, January, 
1 868- January, 1869; Ashton and Company, editors and pub- 
lishers, 1869; J. Billings, editor and publisher, 1870-1871; J. 
Billings, editor and F. M. Newman, publisher, 1872-1873; 
Mystic Star Company, editors and publishers, 1874. H 

PEOPLES' JOURNAL OF HEALTH, i864(?) to date (1865): Issued 
monthly. Dr. Juston Hayes and Dr. C. R. Blackwell were pub- 


SANDEBUDET, + December, 1864 to date : Removed to Chicago from 
Rockford, where it was established as a fortnightly Swedish 
Methodist paper by Victor Wittig on July 18, 1862. After a 
year and a half Albert Ericson became editor and remained so 
until November, 1864, when the M. E. Book Concern took over 
the publication and removed it to Chicago, where it was published 
by Poe and Hitchcock beginning December 8. In August, 1863, 
it was changed to a weekly. Victor Wittig became editor 1865 ; 
and Albert Ericson again 1867-1871. It was suspended for 
about a year after the fire; reappeared October 14, 1872, with 
N. O. Westergreen as editor; William Henschen, 1875-1882; 
Victor Wittig, 1882-1889; William Henschen, 1889-1898; H. 
K. Elmstrom, 1898-1902; William Henschen. 1902 to date. In 
1889 Sandebudet passed into the control of the Swedish M. E. 
Book Concern, which merged Vdktaren (begun 1888) in the 
older paper. Independent in politics. 

TEMPLAR'S OFFERING, i864(?) to date (1867): Cowdery and Law 
were publishers, 1864-1865, and Rolla A. Law was publisher, 

by W. S. Spencer and Company. 

UNITED STATES REVIEW, 1864 to date (1876) : Issued semi-monthly 
and devoted to insurance. It was dated for Philadelphia and 
Chicago in 1875. R. R. Deardon was publisher in 1875, and 
editor and publisher in 1876. 

BEE, i865(?) (?): A daily, published by Pigott and Fowler. 

CITY EVENING NEWS, i865(?) (?): A daily, published by J. 

M. Climie. 

(?) : John R. Robinson was publisher in 1865. 

EVANGELIST, 1865 to date (1881): An evangelical weekly. B. W. 

Johnson and B. J. Radford were editors and publishers in 1880. 

monthly, devoted to "literature, temperance, morality, and the 
people." S. M. Kennedy was editor and publisher in 1869, 
and in 1871. A paper called Home Circle is mentioned in the 
directory for 1878-1879. 

LITERARY MESSENGER, October 14, 1865- (?): "A journal 
devoted to the interests of the Northwest." "Arts, literature, 
science, news, fashions and amusements" were included in its 
pages. The literary element predominated at first, and was 
creditable. A story by Mrs. M. L. Rayne was begun in the first 
number. The editor's name was not given. 


LITTLE CORPORAL, July, 1865-1875: A monthly, in journal form, 
devoted to secular, juvenile literature. Its motto was: "Fight- 
ing against Wrong, and for the Good and the True and the Beau- 
tiful." This excellent magazine was originally published for 
the United States Sanitary Commission in connection with a fair. 
Its success and popularity encouraged its continuance fora decade. 
It was the first periodical from Chicago to secure wide attention, 
and the first juvenile in the country to be read by children every- 
where. It was the forerunner of St. Nicholas, of New York, 
and influenced for the better the character of the Youth's Com- 
panion of Boston. The names of the editors and publishers are 
as follows: Alfred L. Sewell, editor and publisher, 1865 ; Sewell 
and Edward Eggleston, editors, A. L. Sewell, publisher, 1866- 
1868 ; Sewell and Emily Huntington Miller, editors, Sewell, pub- 
lisher, 1868-1869; Sewell and Emily H. Miller, editors, Sewell 
and Miller, publishers, 1870; Sewell and E. H. Miller, editors, 
Alfred L. Sewell and Company, publishers, 1871; Emily Hunt- 
ington Miller, editor, and John E. Miller, publisher, 1872-1875. 
Edward Eggleston and Frances E. Willard were frequent con- 
tributors. In April, 1872, Work and Play, of Springfield, Mass., 
was absorbed. The circulation of the Little Corporal was 
remarkably large in the early years, but the advertising was not 
correspondingly developed, and after a gradual decline, the pub- 
lication ceased in 1875. Vols. 15 and 16, 1872 and 1873, are in 
the Evanston Public Library. H 

MONTHLY, THE, January, 1865-- (?): A Catholic paper devoted 
to literature, science, and art. Edited at the University of St. 
Mary's of the Lake; published by J. J. Kearney and James P. 
Byrne. H 

uary, 1865-1866+ : Edited by Rev. J. H. Vincent, Rev. E. A. 
Pierce, Rev. W. W. Evarts, forming a publication committee. 
The publication had been begun with the idea of reaching chiefly 
the teachers of the northwest. After one year the name was 
changed to H 

SUNDAY SCHOOL TEACHER, + January, 1866-1869+: A continu- 
ation of Northwestern Sunday School Teachers' Quarterly, edited 
by Rev. J. H. Vincent, Rev. E. A. Pierce, Rev. W. W. Evarts, 
forming a publication committee. In 1867 the committee was 
composed of Rev. Edward Eggleston, Rev. Z. M. Humphrey, 
Rev. E. G. Taylor, Rev. Charles Edward Cheney, Rev. H. L. 
Hammond; Prof. H. R. Palmer was art editor. Published by 
Adams, Blackmer, and Lyon under the auspices of the Chicago 
Sunday School Union. In January, 1869, changed to HC 


NATIONAL SUNDAY SCHOOL TEACHER, + January, 1869 to date 
(1881) : A continuation of Sunday School Teacher, with the same 
board of editors and the same publishers. Rev. Edward Eggles- 
ton was editor, 1870-1873. The publication was not stopped 
by the fire. M. C. Hazard was editor from 1874 until after 1880, 
and Adams, Black mer, and Lyon were publishers. H 

POST, September 4, 1865-1874+ : A Republican paper, daily and 
weekly, which until February 3, 1866, was published as the Post. 
Then it appeared as Evening Post, and later as the Chicago Post, 
but the title Evening Post seems to have prevailed after December 
14, 1866. Established by William Pigott, who used the paper 
successfully to effect the election of the "soldiers' ticket." At 
first it was published by Pigott and Stanley G. Fowler, but after 
a few months it was bought by David Blakely, who associated 
with him in the business department his brother, C. H. Blakely. 
For a short time General Hasbrouck Davis was editor. In 1867 
the Post Printing Company was organized and Charles H. Ray 
was made editor. In the same year William H. Schuyler be- 
came manager. In 1869 Schuyler sold his interest to McMullen 
Brothers, and J. B. McMullen became manager. Ray died in 
1870. Late in 1873 controlling stock was bought by Woodbury 
M. Taylor and the Post was consolidated with the Mail to form 
the HE 

POST AND MAIL, + January, 1874-1876+ : Daily and weekly. In 
1876 the Post and Mail was continued as the HUC 

CHICAGO POST, +i876-August, 1878: Woodbury M. Taylor was 
president of the owning company, and was manager until Decem- 
ber, 1877, although McMullen Brothers were publishers for 
several months in 1877. In 1878, while organizing a new com- 
pany, Oliver A. Willard, a leading stockholder, died. The 
paper was continued for a few months by his sister, Frances E. 
Willard, after which it was sold, August, 1878, to the News. C 

RELIGIO-PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL, 1865 to date (1895) : A spirit- 
ualist paper issued weekly. Early in 1867 a successor to the 
Religio-Philosophical Journal was announced to appear under 
the name of Spiritual Republic. It was not to be ' 'tied to any 
sect or party . . . ' The editors purposed to "correct all 
the evil of the world and set things in general to rights." Except 
for one mention of it in the city directory for 1869, there is no 
evidence that this paper appeared. The old name was being 
used, moreover, in 1869, according to Rowell's newspaper direc- 
frny for that year, which gives S. S. Jones as editor and the Religio- 
Philosophical Publishing Association as publishers. S. S. Jones 
was editor and publisher, 1870-1877, and proprietor, 1873-1875. 
In 1879 and 1880, John C. Bundy was editor and manager. 



REPUBLICAN, May 30, i865~March, 1872: A daily established by 
an imposing list of stockholders, who were dissatisfied with the 
Tribune, including Ira Y. Munn, John V. Farwell, J. K. C. For- 
rest, and J. Y. Scammon of Chicago; Jesse K. Dubois and Jacob 
Bunn of Springfield ; John Wood of Quincy ; J. Wilson Shaffer 
of Freeport; A. C. Babcock of Canton; A. W. Mock of Kan- 
kakee; and Henry Childs of Du Page county. The company 
bought the plant and the Associated Press franchise of the 
Morning Post. Charles A. Dana was made editor, A. W. Mock, 
publisher. Dana did not assume his duties until well on in July. 
In just one year these gentlemen withdrew. Dana was not 
happy in the position, and not enough money was put into the 
enterprise to put it properly on its feet. A brief suspension fol- 
lowed the change of management. The stock was now con- 
trolled by Bunn and Dubois; a new company was formed; V. 
B. Denslow was made editor, George D. Williston, manager, 
and publication was resumed August 5, 1865. After one year 
Denslow withdrew and James F. Ballantyne became editor. 
He was succeeded by Henry M. Smith, and he by John G. Nico- 
lay in 1869. In 1870 Bunn, having become sole owner, sold to 
a company consisting of Joseph B. McCullagh, John R. Walsh, 
H. N. Hibbard, and William H. Schuyler. Burned out in the 
fire, the Republican was bought by John Y. Scammon; it reap- 
peared on October 12, and continued until March, 1872, when 
it was succeeded by the Inter Ocean. Complete file in the library 
of the Boston Athenaeum. SDHANE 

September, 1874+ : A homeopathic journal, published by C. S. 
Halsey, under the editorial supervision of Dr. George E. Ship- 
man. Its pages record a great advance in the development of 
the new system of medical practice. In 1871, on behalf of the 
Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital, Drs. W. Danforth, 
A. E. Small, and R. Ludlam bought the interest of Mr. Halsey, 
the publisher. From that time the journal was largely filled 
with reports of lectures in that school, and with the transactions 
of the Chicago Academy of Medicine. After the completion of 
nine volumes it was merged with the Medical Investigator, and 
became the United States Medical Investigator. HJ 

VOICE OF THE FAIR, April 27 or 28-June 24, 1865: A paper issued 
in the interest of the Northwestern Sanitary Fair. Weekly until 
May 30, then daily. Edited by Andrew Shuman. File in the 
library of Boston Athenaeum. HC 

WESTERN TEMPERANCE ADVOCATE, August 4, 1865 to date (1868) : 
Established as the official organ of the Sons of Temperance, it 


was larger in its ambition and scope than that fact indicates. 

Rev. J. C. Stoughton was editor until January 30, 1868, when 

the usual lack of funds caused a new arrangement, whereby T. 

M. Van Court became publisher ; the period of issue was changed 

from a week to a fortnight, and the publication was "edited 

'round " by volunteers. It was apparently soon discontinued. H 
YOUNG CATHOLIC'S FRIEND, i865(?) ( ?) : A monthly juvenile 

paper, published by J. J. Kearney. 

continued until some time after November, 1867. EHJ 

BELLETRISTISCHE ZEITUNG, 1866 to date (1876): The Sunday 

edition of the Chicago Union, edited and published in 1876 by 

Hermann Lieb. 

BROWN SCHOOL HOLIDAY BUDGET, Christmas, 1866 (?): An 

amateur paper edited "by S. P. and Tad," S. P. Rounds, Jr., 
and Thomas Lincoln (son of Abraham Lincoln), and announced 
to be published occasionally. H 

CHRONICLE, i866-August, 1872+: An insurance and real estate 
weekly. In 1869, J. J. W. O'Donaghue was editor and pub- 
lisher. For three years following J. J. W. O'Donaghue and 
Edgar A. Hewitt were editors; the Chronicle Publishing Com- 
pany, publishers. In August, 1872, the Chronicle was moved 
to New York. 

The successive editors and publishers were: D. D. Michaels, 
1866-1868; Kennedy and Company, 1868-1870; Daley, Slade, 
and Cowles, 1870; Daley, Cowles, and Dunkley, 1871; Cowles 
and Dunkley, 1874-1876. C 

CONCORDIA, 1866 to date (1869): A quarterly publication, devoted 
to literature and music. H. R. Palmer and W. S. B. Mathews 
were editors, and H. R. Palmer was publisher in 1869. 

FRANK LESLIE'S BUDGET OF FUN, i866(?) to date (1867): Leslie 
and Company were publishers. 

FRANK LESLIE'S CHIMNEY CORNER, i866(?) to date (1867): Leslie 

and Company were publishers. 
JOLLY JOKER, i866(?)-i867(?) : Monthly. A. Leslie was publisher. 

HOME PAPERS, i866(?)-i868(?): Monthly. Published by C. S. 

LADIES' REPOSITORY, i866(?)-i87o(?): Monthly. Poe and Hitch- 
cock were publishers 1866-1868; J. W. Wiley was editor in 1870. 

NATIONAL PROHIBITIONIST, 1866 to date (1871) : The Prohibitionist 
Company edited and published this paper, 1870-1871. 


MUSICAL REVIEW, 1866-1867: Edited and published by H. M. 
Higgins; The title was changed, beginning with the third 
number, to Higgins Musical Review. Monthly. N 

NORTH-WESTERN FARMER, 1866 to date (1869) : A monthly agri- 
cultural publication dated from Chicago and Indianapolis, Indi- 
ana. The North-Western Farmer Company were editors and 
publishers in 1869. U 

(1870): John C. W. Bailey and William Holly were editors in 
1866. Bailey published the paper at that time, and during 1869 
and 1870 was both editor and publisher. 

REFORM, i866(?) to date(i867) : A German daily paper published by 
B. F. Bross. 

SKANDIVANEN, May 6, 1866 to date: A Norwegian-Danish daily 
and bi-weekly Republican paper, with a Sunday edition. It 
was established by Langeland and Anderson. Shortly after 
it started Knud Langeland became editor and John Anderson 
proprietor. It was weekly and tri- weekly, 1869-1871, with 
Langeland as editor. In 1873 Victor F. Lawson bought an 
interest. Johnson, Anderson, and Lawson were proprietors 
and publishers, 1874-1875; in 1876 and 1877 Anderson and 
Lawson were editors and publishers. Mr. Lawson sold his in- 
terest in 1889 and the John Anderson Publishing Company has 
continued as publishers from 1889 to date. Of this firm Nicolay 
A. Grevstad was chief editor, assisted by Benson, Westby, E. 
Anderson, C. Solberg, and Steensohn. Files of the paper are 
available at the office, 183-187 Peoria street, Chicago. UW 

SEVEN SOUNDS, i866(?) (?): A musical magazine " adapted to 

the youth." H. T. Merrill was editor, Merrill and Brennan 
were publishers in 1866. 

SVENSKA AMERIKANAREN, September 8, 1866-1873+: A paper 
organized and published by a stock company which wishedaliberal 
paper without church or other affiliation. Hans Mattson was 
editor until February, 1867, though Herman Roos was virtually 
editor, and was nominally head of the editorial staff from Feb- 
ruary, 1867, to December, 1869; Peter A. Sundelius, 1868-1870, 
1871-1873; A. W. Schalin, January to August, 1871. Sold 
to Charles J. Stenquist in April, 1873. He changed the 
name to 

NYA SVENSKA AMERIKANAREN, + April, 1873-1876+: Stenquist 
sold in 1877 to Hans Mattson, who soon transferred the paper to 
the Swedish Publishing Company. The paper was edited by 
Magnus Elmblad, then Gottfried Cronwall, then, 1874, by A. 
L. Gyllenhaal, and later by him and Herman Roos till it was sold 


to Mattson. Under the Swedish Publishing Company this paper, 
Nya Verlden, and Skandia of Moline, were united to form U 

SVENSKA TRIBUNEN, +1876-1906+: Frank Anderson, Andrew 
Chaiser, C. F. Peterson, and a little later, Hans Mattson were 
members of the company that owned the paper. In 1880 Matt- 
son sold to Carl Gustaf Linderborg, who made the paper lib- 
eral and Independent, with Republican tendencies. But Peter- 
son was a Greeley man in 1872 and afterward Independent, and 
P. P. Svenson, one of the editors, was a Democrat; as a con- 
sequence the politics was mixed. Among the editors were Carl 
Anton Mellander, until i894(?). Anders Leonard Gyllenhaal, 
1894-1899; C. F. Peterson, 1900; Ernst W. Olson, 1900-1901; 
Gyllenhaal, 1901-1905; Anders Tofft, October, igos-spring of 
1906; Carl G. Norman, 1906 to date. The plant was sold in 
1900 to John E. Norling, P. O. Norling, and Samuel E. Carls- 
son; John E. Norling became sole proprietor in 1901; he sold 
to C. F. Erikson in 1905. In 1906 it combined with Svenska 
Nyheter as Svenska Tribunen-Nyheter, owned by Erikson and 
Gustav C. Broberg. The latter soon sold to Erikson. The paper 
has in the main been Republican. 

WESTERN PULPIT, January 1866 ( ?) : "A monthly theological 

miscellany devoted to the purity and power of the ministry, and 
the spiritual improvement and harmony of all Christian be- 
lievers." The miscellany was heavy, and was edited by aboard 
of six ministers of six various denominations. It was published 
by Rev. R. F. Shinn. H 

German Democratic paper, published weekly the Sunday 
edition of the Union. Frederick Becker was publisher in 1869; 
Hermann Lieb was editor and publisher, 1873-1876; W. Bel- 
linghausen and Company are also listed as editors and publishers 
in 1876. 

ADVANCE, September 5, 1867 to date: A Congregational weekly 
established by an association known as the Advance Company. 
W. W. Patton, D.D., was editor-in-chief 1867-1873, with J. B. 
T. Marsh, office editor and publisher for the Advance Company. 
In 1870 A. B. Nettleton was publisher for the Advance Com- 
pany, but by the year following, J. B. T. Marsh was again filling 
this post. In 1871 Mr. Marsh and H. L. Turner became the 
proprietors. Mr. Marsh soon sold his share to Mr. Turner, but 
continued on the editorial staff to 1875. In 1873 the paper was 
purchased by Charles H. Howard and Company. Dr. Patton 
was succeeded as editor by General Howard, who associated 
with himself Rev. Simeon Gilbert. In 1877 Rev. T. DeWitt 


Talmage and Gen. C. H. Howard were editors. The paper 
was dated from both New York and Chicago, in that year and 
in 1879. General Howard continued to 1882, when he sold to 
Rev. Dr. Robert West, who was editor and manager until 1886. 
Dr. Simeon Gilbert then became editor, with Dr. F. A. Noble as 
nominal editor-in-chief. After two years Dr. Noble retired and 
a Mr. Harrison became editor and general manager. In 1907 
J. A. Adams was editor. The Advance Publishing Company 
were publishers. EWDHACN 

ANZEIGER, i867(?): German. George F. Gross was publisher. 

ARLINGTON HALL PROGRAMME, 1867 to date (1868): Ashley and 
Bassett were publishers in 1867 ; Utter and Company in 1868. 

ART JOURNAL, October, 1867 to date (1871) : Monthly. Estab- 
lished by Martin O'Brien, with a subtitle An American Review 
of the Fine Arts. Special attention was given to art matters of 
Chicago, but New York, Boston, and European correspondence 
gave the journal a much wider scope. At the close of the first 
year J. F. Aitken and Company became the publishers, Charles 
A. Evans, the editor. J. Wright became editor in July, 1869. H 

COURIER, 1867 to date (1872): A monthly publication, devoted to 
commerce, finance, and education. H. B. Bryant was publisher, 
1869-1870; Bryant and Chase were editors and publishers, 
1871-1872. E 

GEM OF THE WEST AND SOLDIERS' FRIEND, 1867 to date (1876) : 
A weekly in 1870, later a monthly ; edited by C. Augustus Havi- 
land and wife. The Soldiers' Friend Company, known later as 
the Gem of the West Company, were publishers during the 
period 1872-1876. The paper is given in the newspaper direc- 
tory for 1870 as Western Soldiers' Friend. HC 

GREAT WEST, i867(?) to date (1868): Monthly. Gilbert, Norton, 
and Company were publishers. 

HERALD or PEACE, 1867 to date (1870): A Friends' paper, pub- 
lished semi-monthly. W. E. Hathaway was editor in 1869; 
Hathaway and Willet Dorland were editors in 1870. The Her- 
ald Company were publishers, 1869-1870. This was said to be the 
only Friends paper in the west. E 

i867-i87i( ?) + : A religious semi-monthly publication. In 1869 
Thomas Wilson and George Moyer were editors; Wilson, St. 
Clair, and Company were publishers. In 1870 Thomas Wilson 
alone was editor; Wilson and St. Clair were publishers. The 
paper advocated "the literal reign of Christ and his saints upon 
earth, the restoration of the twelve tribes of Israel, the complete 


mortality of man, and the entire destruction of the wicked." 
It was apparently succeeded in 1871 by Restitution. 

INSIDE TRACK, 1867 to date (1869) : A monthly, devoted to adver- 
tising interests. A. N. Kellogg was editor and publisher in 1869. 

IRISH REPUBLIC, i867(?)- (?): The Irish Republic News 
Company was publisher. 

JOURNAL OF THE FARM, 1867 to date (1872) : A monthly agricul- 
tural paper. Baugh and Sons were publishers in 1871 and 1872. 
The paper was dated for Philadelphia and Chicago. 

JUXBRUDER, 1867 to date (1871): A German comic weekly. Dr. 
A. C. Lebell and H. von Sangen were editors, 1870-1871 ; J. M. 
Geyerstanger was publisher. 

LIBERAL, 1867 to date (1870) : A weekly, devoted to "free thought." 
James Walker was editor and publisher 1869-1870. E 

LYCEUM BANNER, 1867 to date (1872) : Bi-weekly. Mrs. H. F. M. 
Brown was editor, and Mrs. Lou H. Kimball was publisher, 
1870-1871. In 1872 Mrs. Lou H. Kimball was editor and 

MECHANIC AND INVENTOR, 1867 to date (1873) : Monthly. Thomas 
A. Sprague was editor; the Mechanic and Inventor Association 
were publishers. In 1873 the journal was dated for Chicago 
and Detroit. 

WEEKLY MERCHANT, i867(?) (?): A commercial weekly 

paper, published by Truax and Hornish. 

NEW REPUBLIC, i867(?), to date (1870): Rev. W. B. Christopher 
was editor, 1867-1868. From 1868 to 1870 Frank Gilbert was 

NORTHWESTERN REVIEW, 1867 to date (December, 1874) : A weekly 
paper, devoted to insurance. In 1870 and 1871 it was 
published monthly. It became weekly again in 1872. R. R. 
Dearden was editor and publisher, 1870-1874. In 1872 the title 
was given as Northwestern Weekly Re-view. JCH 

OLIVE WREATH. January, 1867-1869+ : An Odd Fellows' monthly 
magazine. W. J. Chaplin was editor and publisher, 1867-1869. 
D. B. Harrington was also a publisher in 1869. This magazine 
was consolidated with Odd Fellows' Wreath, Detroit, and Western 
Odd Fellow, Mason, to form H 

WESTERN ODD FELLOW, +i87o(?) to date (1871): A consolidation 
of Olive Wreath, Chicago, Odd Fellows' Wreath, Detroit, and 
Western Odd Fellow, Mason. A weekly, devoted to Odd Fel- 
lowship. J. B. Wing and W. S. Woodmere, editors, and D. B. 
and N. W. Harrington, publishers in 1870. J. Ward Ellis, P. 


G. M., was editor, and Ellis and Burroughs were publishers in 
1871. H 

OPERA HOUSE PROGRAMME, i867(?) to date (1870): A daily. G. 
S. Utter and Company were publishers. 

SPECIMEN, July i, 1867 to date (1881): A typographical paper, 
issued quarterly for advertising purposes. It was published by 
Marder Luse and Company, type founders. J 

UNION, i867(?) to date (1868): Published under the auspices of 
the Chicago Typographical Union. 

L'UNIONE ITALIANO, August 6, 1867 to date (1869): Published 
weekly by the Italo-American Printing Company. This paper 
was probably succeeded after one year by // Messaggiere Italiano 
deW Quest. A 

UNION STOCK YARDS EXCHANGE, i867(?) to date (1870) : A daily 
paper, published by H. L. Goodall. 

Monthly. Established by Charles D. Lakey, publisher, with 
J. C. Adams as editor. Lakey soon became editor and Stanley 
Waterloo became his associate. The publication was designed 
especially to interest builders and to help to remedy defects 
in American architecture. A considerable amount of space 
was devoted to art and artists, however, and the journal exerted 
a beneficial influence in many directions. EH 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, 1868 to date (1879) : A monthly 
educational magazine. Edited and published in 1873 by Rev. 
E. N. Andrews and Grace Hurwood. In 1875 and 1876, J. B. 
Merwin was editor and publisher. In 1879 J. B. Merwin and 
R. B. Shannon were editors and publishers. The paper was 
published at St. Louis. Dated for that city and Chicago. W 

AMERICAN MESSENGER, i868(?) to date (1871): Monthly. Pub- 
lished in English as the American Messenger, and also in Ger- 
man as the Americanischer Botschajter. The American Tract 
Society were the publishers. 

BONHAM'S RURAL MESSENGER, 1868 to date (1872) : An agricul- 
tural monthly, edited and published in 1871 and 1872 by Jeriah 

CHICAGOAN, April 18, i868-June, 1869+ : A literary weekly of un- 
usually good quality, published by H. N. F. Lewis. The first 
number began a story by George S. Phillips. Robert Collyer 
conducted a column; Robert Dale Owen was a contributor. 
The paper contained good book reviews, and attracted attention 
for its bold and extreme views on social questions. After about 
one year the Chicagoan absorbed Sorosis and Advance Guard, 
and became the H 


UNIVERSE, +June, 1869 (?): Edited and published by 

H. N. F. Lewis. Robert Dale Owen was a contributor. 

CHRISTIAN CYNOSURE, 1868 to date: An opponent of secret 
societies. The newspaper directories from 1871 to 1880 give 
Rev. J. Blanchard as editor, Ezra Cook and Company as pub- 
lishers. In 1907, William I. Phillips was editor; the National 
Christian Association were publishers. The Christian Cynosure 
is given as weekly and bi-weekly in 1872, as weekly in 1879, an d 
as monthly in 1907. E 

FREMAD, 1868 to date (1871): A Scandinavian weekly, Republican 
in politics. In 1870 and 1871 S. Beder was editor and publisher. 

GOSPEL PULPIT, 1868 to date (1869): A Universalist quarterly. 
Edited and published by Rev. W. J. Chaplin. 

HOME ECLECTIC, 1868 to date (1870) : A monthly, devoted to family 
interests. Sumner Ellis was editor and publisher. 

ILLUSTRATED CHICAGO NEWS, April 24, 1868-- (?): A very 
creditable weekly, with illustrations by Thomas Nast and other 
well known artists. An editorial in the first number announces 
that "we shall make the Illustrated Chicago News, as far as we 
are able, a truly Western paper, but at the same time one that 
will make itself interesting to the East as well as the West." 
Farnum and Church were the publishers. H 

DAILY LAW RECORD, i868(?)-i87i(?): R. R. Stevens was pub- 

MARKET REPORTER, 1868 to date (1869): A commercial paper. 
Howard, White, and Crowell were editors and publishers. 

( ?) : A commercial paper, published by J. C. W. Bailey. 


( ?) : Published by the Italo-American Printing Company ; 

Paolo Cella, secretary. A 

MUSICAL INDEPENDENT, 1868 to date (1873): A monthly devoted 
to musical interests. W. S. B. Mathews was editor and Lyon 
and Healy were publishers in 1869 and 1871. Robert Goldbeck 
was editor and publisher in 1873. 

NARODNI NOVESTG, 1868 to date (1870) : A Bohemian weekly publi- 
cation. Joseph Sladek was editor in 1870; T. B. Belohradsky 
was publisher. 

NEWS PROM THE SPIRIT W T ORLD, i868(?) to date (1870): Mrs. A. 
Buffum edited this publication. 

NOVA DOBA, 1868 to date (1871) : A weekly Bohemian publication. 
Joseph Pastor was editor and the Bohemian Printing and Pub- 
lishing Company were publishers in 1871. 


PHARMACIST, September, 1868-1885+: Quarterly for one year, 
then monthly. Published by the Chicago College of Pharmacy. 
E. H. Sargent was editor for the first year. Then its title was 
changed by the addition of and Chemical Record (dropped in 
1874). The period of publication became monthly and Albert E. 
Ebert became co-editor with E. H. Sargent. Succeeding editors 
were: N. Gray Bartlett, editor, Albert E. Ebert. associate editor, 
1870-1872; Albert E. Ebert, 1873-1875; J. J. Siddall, business 
editor, 1874; no editor named, but publication committee of E. 
H. Sargent, W. F. Blocki, and Albert E. Ebert, 1876; E. H. 
Sargent and M. W. Borland, 1877 ; same, plus F. M. Goodman, 
1878; H. D. Garrison, editor, 1879-1880; Robert H. Cowdrey 
managing editor, 1881, editor 1882-1884. The title of Phar- 
macist and Chemist was assumed before i88o(?), and later "a 
journal of pharmacy, chemistry, materia medica, toxicology 
and allied sciences" also appeared on the volume title pages. 
Succeeded by Western Druggist in 1885. H 

POSTAL RECORD, 1868 to date (1872): A monthly. David Green 
was publisher in 1871 ; Joseph N. Green in 1872. 

PRESENT AGE, 1868 to date (1872) : A weekly spiritualist paper. It 
was dated from New York and Chicago in 1872. Dorus M. 
Fox was editor and publisher, 1871-1872. 

CHICAGO RAILWAY REVIEW, June, 1868-1897+ : Established as a 
weekly by Stanley G. Fowler and D. C. Brooks. Brooks be- 
came sole owner after about one year, and in 1873 sold to Wil- 
lard A. Smith, who was at that time publisher of the St. Louis 
Railway Register. That paper was subsequently incorporated 
with the Chicago Railway Review as Railway Review. Mr. 
Smith continued as sole owner and editor until 1883, when W. D. 
Crosman became associate editor. He was editor, 1885-1890; 
Willard A. Smith, editor, James Peabody, Waldo H. Marshall, 
associates, 1891 ; James Peabody and Clement F. Street, 
editors, 1892-1894. Names of editors not given thereafter, 
until 1902, when W. M. Camp was editor. He has continued 
to occupy that position, and Willard A. Smith has remained 
president and general manager to date. The Railway Review, 
Incorporated, is publisher. Title changed to Railway and 
Engineering Review, April 3, 1897. CHJUW 

weekly and devoted to real estate and building. Charles A. 
Smith was editor and T. A. Hungerford and Company were 
publishers in 1873-1874. S. A. Chappell was editor and T. A. 
Hungerford and Company were publishers in 1875. In 1876 
S. A. Chappell was editor, and S. A. Chappell and Company 


were publishers. S. A. Chappell was editor in 1877, an d John 
C. Parry was publisher. B. E. Smyers was editor and publisher 
in 1907, Real Estate and Building Journal Company, 1908. H 
REPORTER, 1868 to date: Monthly. Established by Francis N. 
Nichols under the firm name of Nichols and Company. Mr. 
Nichols was editor and publisher until 1878, and was thereafter 
editor until 1904. Nichols and Company have been publishers 
from 1872 to date. The Reporter was the pioneer and for many 
years the only trade magazine published in the interest of the 
granite and marble monumental trade. It was first located in 
a small office at Clark and Kinzie streets, where it was burned 
out in the fire of 1871 . It later moved to the West Side, claiming 
to have operated the first power press on the west side of Chicago. 

SOROSIS, 1868-18694- : A weekly, devoted to woman's rights. Mrs. 
M. L. Walker and Company were editors and publishers in 1869. 
This paper was absorbed by the Chicagoan, which continued as 
the Universe, June, 1869. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL MESSENGER, January, 1868 to date: A weekly 
paper edited and published by Rev. Andrew L. O'Neill, January. 
i868-August, 1901 ; Rev. James J. Curran, September 1901- 
August, 1904; Rev. John J. Masterson, August, 1904 to date. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL SCHOLAR, 1868-1873+ : A young people's educa- 
tional monthly. Selim H. Peabody was editor; Adams, Black- 
mer, and Lyon were publishers. The name became 

SCHOLAR, +1873-1876 : Publication was continued until 1876 when, 
upon the establishment of St. Nicholas in New York, the Scholar 
was bought by the St. Nicholas Company. H 

date. (See Quincy.) H 

WESTERN BOOK SELLER, 1868 to date (1870) : A monthly devoted to 
the interests of booksellers and publishers. The Western News 
Company were editors and publishers, 1868-1870. H 

WESTERN CATHOLIC, 1868 to date (1881) : Issued weekly and de- 
voted to Catholic interests. David Barry and Company were 
editors and publishers in 1870. Dee and Company were editors 
and publishers, 1871-1873. The name of William Mackay 
Lomasney also appears as editor in 1873. The Western Catholic 
Publishing and Printing Company were proprietors in 1874- 
1875. Cornelius J. Coffey and Company were publishers and 
proprietors, and J. R. Coffey was manager, 1876-1880. In 1872 
the paper was dated for Detroit and Chicago. It was Demo- 
cratic in politics. 


CHICAGO WESTERN HOME, 1868-1871+ : Issued monthly ; a maga- 
zine of the "family story" type. The editors and publishers 
were: A. Parkhurst and Company, publishers, 1869; Stoddard 
and Parkhurst, 1870; Edward P. Fenn, editor, Western Home 
Company, publishers, 1871; Western Home Company, editors 
and publishers, 1875. The Chicago Western Home was de- 
stroyed in the great fire, but was apparently revived in 1874 as 

WESTERN HOME, +1874-1875: Publication was continued to 1875. 
A. Chisholm was publisher in that year. No. i of vol. 2, July, 
1869, contains a contribution from Harriet Beecher Stowe, and 
announces Mrs. Stowe and Robert Collyer as regular contribu- 
tors. H 

WESTERN POSTAL RECORD, 1868 to date (1881) : A monthly devoted 
to postal interests. J. S. El well was editor, and the Western 
Record Printing Company were publishers, 1872-1874. P. C. 
Russell was editor and publisher, 1875-1881. C 

ADVANCE GUARD, (?)-i869+: This weekly paper was 
mentioned in the directory for 1869. It was absorbed by the 
Chicagoan, which continued as the Universe, June, 1869. 

ADVOCATE or PEACE, 1869 to date (1874): Monthly. The Ameri- 
can Peace Society, editors and publishers. Dated at Boston 
and Chicago. 

AGITATOR, i869(?)- (?): Mentioned in the directory of 1869 as 
a woman's periodical. 

ART JOURNAL AND AGITATOR, 1 869-1 87o(?): Mentioned in the 
directory for 1869-1870. May have been the successor of 
Agitator mentioned in the directory next preceding. 

BANNER, 1869 to date (1885): A weekly paper, published in 1885 
by Frank E. Stanley. Found in Rowell for 1884 with 1869 
given as date of establishment. H 

BAPTIST QUARTERLY, i869(?) to date (1870): Published by the 
American Baptist Publishing Society. 

BRIGHT SIDE, 1869-1872+: John B. Alden was editor; Alden 
and True, publishers. In 1871 it was published by the Bright 
Side Company in weekly, semi-monthly, and monthly edi- 
tions. The following year, with a change of editor, the name 
was changed to 

BRIGHT SIDE AND FAMILY CIRCLE, +1872 to date (1873) : C. G. G. 
Paine was editor in 1872 and 1873. The Bright Side Company 
continued as publishers. Only a monthly edition is listed for 
these years. 

BRITISH MAIL, i869(?)-- (?): Monthly. In the directory for 


BUREAU, 1869 to date (1872): A commercial monthly. A. Arm- 
strong was editor and publisher in 1870. In 1871 and 1872 Mr. 
Armstrong was business manager, C. W. Jenks was editor, and 
the Bureau Publishing Company were publishers. HJW 

COLLEGE TIMES, 1869 to date (1871) : A college monthly. Edited 
and published by the students of the University of Chicago. 

DAILY COMMERCIAL BULLETIN, 1869-1886+: A commercial daily 
paper which, in 1881, was also listed as a weekly. J. W. Sickels 
was editor, and B. D. M. Eaton was publisher, in 1870. The next 
year B. Frank Howard was editor; Howard, White, and Crowell 
were publishers. James A. Doane was editor and publisher in 
1880. In 1886 the Daily Commercial Bulletin, published by 
Howard Bartels and Company, became the Daily Trade Bulletin. 

DRUGGISTS' PRICE CURRENT, 1869 to date (1872) : A medical and 
chemical monthly. H. D. Garrison, M.D., and A. F. Murray 
were editors, and Barnet and Son publishers in 1871. The fol- 
lowing year Dr. Garrison was editor; James and Barnet were 

EVENING LAMP, 1869 to date (1905) : Established by A. N. Kellogg. 
It is a weekly sheet, devoted to literary miscellany and to adver- 
tising, printed from the best plate matter of the A. N. Kellogg 
Newspaper Company. In 1870 and 1871 A. N. Kellogg was 
editor and publisher. From 1873 to 1879 J. M. Edson was editor. 
With various editors A. N. Kellogg or the A. N. Kellogg Company 
has continued the publication. U 

EVERYBODY'S PAPER, 1869 to date (1879): A monthly evangelical 
Sunday-school paper. The Chicago Y. M. C. A. were editors 
in 1873. and F. H. Revell was publisher. For the four years 
following the Chicago Y. M. C. A. were publishers, and J. M. 
Chapman was business manager. In 1879 the Evangelical Pub- 
lishing Company were publishers and F. E. Post was manager. 
The paper was listed as semi-monthly in that year. 

FORTSCHRITTS FREUND, i869( ?) ( ?) : In the directory for 1869. 

HOMEOPATH JOURNAL, i869(?) (?): Listed in Rowell for 1869, 

with no report. 

INDEPENDENT, 1869 to date (1870) : John E. Tansey was manager; 

the Independent Company were publishers in 1870. 
IRISH SENTINEL, i869(?): James C. Flynn and Company were 

editors and publishers. 

LADIES' OWN MAGAZINE, 1869 to date (1874) : A monthly, devoted 
to women's interests. Mrs. M. Cora Bland was editor and pub- 
lisher in 1873. In 1874 Mrs. Bland was editor; M. C. Bland 
and Company were publishers. 


LAND OWNER, 1869 to date (1880) : A monthly publication, "devoted 
exclusively to the landed interests of the country." It was a 
weekly in 1875 but became a monthly again in 1876 and con- 
tinued so. J. M. Wing and Company were publishers through- 
out its existence. HC 

LATERNE, i86Q(?) (?): A German paper, listed in Rowell for 

1869. Von Hollen was editor and publisher. 

LAW MANUAL, i869(?)-- (?): Listed in Rowell for 1869, with 
no report. 

LEGAL NEWS, October 3, 1869 to date: A weekly paper devoted to 
legal interests. Myra Bradwell was the founder and was editor 
at the beginning, and for twenty-five years. She was succeeded 
by J. B. Bradwell in 1894, and the Chicago Legal News Com- 
pany were publishers. For several years J. B. Bradwell and 
B. B. Helmer were editors. Since the death of J. B. Bradwell 
in November, 1907, B. Bradwell Helmer has been the editor. 
The Chicago Legal News Company are still publishers. HCSUN 

LITE BOAT, 1869 to date (1871) : Edited and published in 1871 by 
E. C. Eggleston and John W. Dean. 

LITTLE FOLKS, 1869-1877: This was advertised as a monthly of 
"illustrated juvenile literature," and was one of several that 
sprang up in imitation of the Little Corporal. The Adams, 
Blackmer, and Lyon Publishing Company were publishers. 

LUTHERISCHE KiRCHENFREUND, 1869 to date (1881) : A German 
Lutheran publication. It changed from a semi-monthly to a 
monthly between 1879 and 1881. Rev. J. D. Severinghaus was 
editor and publisher in 1876. In 1877 and 1880 Rev. J. D. 
Severinghaus was editor; Severinghaus and Company were 

MACEDONIAN AND RECORD, i869(?) to date (1871): A monthly, 
published by the American Baptist Missionary Union and Home 
Mission Society. 

MATRIMONIAL BAZAR, 1869 to date (1876) : Monthly. B. H. Bur- 
tin and Company were editors and publishers, 1875-1876. 

(1879) : This paper is listed in the directory for 1873 as Matri- 
monial News, a bi-weekly publication, with the Matrimonial 
News Company as editors and publishers. It is mentioned in 
1877 as "the only paper of its kind in America." It was a 
monthly advertising sheet in 1879. C. G. Horton was then 
editor and C. G. Horton and Company were publishers. D 

MEDICAL TIMES, January, 1869 to date (1907) : "A monthly journal 
devoted to the interests of eclectic medicine and surgery." 


The editors and publishers are as follows: John Forman, M.D., 
and R. A. Gunn, M.D., editors, and John Gunn, publisher, 1870; 
R. A. Gunn, M.D., and John E. Hurlbut, M.D., editors and, 
publishers, 1871; H. D. Garrison, M.D., editor and publisher, 
1872; Anson L. Clark, M.D., and H. D. Garrison, M.D., 
editors, and H. D. Garrison, M.D., publisher, 1874-1875 ; 
Anson L. Clark and H. D. Garrison, editors and publishers, 1875- 
1877; W. H. Davis, M.D., editor and publisher, 1879; W. H. 
Davis and Anson L. Clark, editors, and W. H. Davis, publisher, 
1880; Wilson H. Davis, editor and publisher, 1881-1884; An- 
son L. Clark and Henry S. Tucker, editors, Henry S. Tucker 
publisher, 1885; Finley Ellingwood, M.D., was editor and 
publisher in 1907. J 

MISSIONARY ADVOCATE, i869(?) to date (1870): Semi-monthly in 

MONITOR, 1869 to date (1870) : Monthly. Louis, Lloyd, and Com- 
pany were editors and publishers in 1870. Not the paper now 
issued weekly under the same name. 

NATIONAL BAPTIST, i869(?) to date (1871): The American Baptist 
Publishing Society were publishers, 1869-1871. 

POKROK, i869(?)-- (?): A Bohemian monthly paper. 

RAILROAD AND MERCHANTS' JOURNAL, - (?) to date (1869): 
Monthly. Listed in 1869, with no report. 

SPECTATOR, i869(?) to date (1880): "An American review of in- 
surance," owned and published by J. H. and C. M. Goodrell, 
1870-1873. Samuel Elliott was manager in 1874; Charles N. 
Bishop, 1878-1879; and William F. Fox, 1880. 

SPIRITUAL ROSTRUM, (?) to date (1869) : Listed with no report. 

SUN, 1869 to date: Under this general name H. L. Goodall, and 
later the Drovers' Journal Publishing Company issued a 
group and a series of daily papers for the South Side and the 
Stock Yards. The same paper, or contemporaneous issues, was 
variously uttered as: Hyde Park Daily Sun, Lake Sun, Lake 
Daily Sun, Lake View Sun, Union Stock Yards Daily Sun, Dol- 
lar Weekly Sun, 1875, Dollar Sun, 1876-1877, Cicero Sun, 1876- 
1877, Maine Sun, 1877, Thornton Sun, 1877, Calumet Sun, 1876- 
1877, Cook County Sun, 1869-1877, Jefferson Sun, 1876-1877, 
and finally South Side Daily Sun. H. L. Goodall was editor 
and publisher until 1872, when H. P. Goodall became associated 
with H. L. Goodall in the editorial work. In 1874 J. Mahoney 
was named as publisher. In 1878 H. L. Goodall and Company 
were publishing Drovers' Journal, Lake Daily Sun, and Hyde 
Park Daily Sun. The present successor to them all, except 


Drovers' Journal, is South Side Daily Sun, which was edited by 
H. L. Goodall until his death in March, 1900, after which time 
it was edited by E. F. Goodall, and published by Drovers' 
Journal Publishing Company until about May, 1909, when the 
Sun was sold to F. D. Hanna. Republican. H 

TEACHERS' GOLDEN HOUR, 1869 to date (1871): Issued monthly. 
Tomlinson Brothers were editors and publishers, 1870-1871. 

TEMPERANCE STANDARD, (?) to date (1869): Listed in 1869, 

with no report. 

WEST CHICAGO BAN.NER, 1869 to date (1881) : A paper devoted to 
local interests. Probably the same paper as Banner, listed above. 

WESTERN MONTHLY, January, i869-December, 1870+ : Estab- 
lished by H. V. Reed. It was "intended to be purely an insti- 
tution of the West ..." and was expected to "explore the 
fields of literature and gather the ripe fruits of ... pioneer 
talent." After a few months Francis Fisher Browne purchased 
an interest and joined Mr. Reed in conducting the magazine. 
Upon Mr. Reed's withdrawal after a time, Mr. Browne became 
sole director. Under his direction the tone of the magazine be- 
came more purely literary than it had been, and the narrow, 
provincial title, "Western Monthly," was exchanged for one 
which, without losing the flavor of locality, would "connote a 
wide interest in the esthetic," the Lakeside Monthly. HS 

LAKESIDE MONTHLY, + January, i87i-February, 1874: With in- 
creased influence and reputation under its new name, which 
replaced that of Western Monthly, and under the skilful editorial 
direction of Francis Fisher Browne, the magazine became the 
nucleus of a large printing and publishing house. This was 
the Lakeside Publishing and Printing Company, successor to 
the magazine company that had issued the Western Monthly, 
and of the printing firm of Church, Goodman, and Donnelley. 
The success of the Lakeside, which retained a decidedly western 
character, did much to destroy the indifference that eastern pub- 
lishers had shown toward western subjects and western literary 
activity, an indifference that nettled Illinois and western literary 
editors from James Hall down. " With the advent of the Lake- 
side," says Mr. Fleming, "Scribner's Monthly, the forerunner 
of the present Century, began to give attention to western subjects, 
and to seek the work of western writers. During the years of 
the Lakeside's growth other eastern publishers began to glean 
in Mid- West fields, and the competition among them for the 
virile western productions, which has since become so keen, was 
fairly on by the time the magazine had reached the zenith of its 


career." Mr. Browne, sole proprietor and editor, broke down 
in the spring of 1874, and the magazine suspended publication 
with the February number. SCH 

WESTERN SUNDAY REVIEW, 1869 to date (1870): A literary paper. 
George R. Norton was editor and publisher in 1870. 

YOUNG REAPER, i86q(?) to date (1870): Published semi-monthly 
by the American Baptist Publishing Society. 

ZEICHEN DER ZEIT, 1869 (?). C 

AGERDYRKNING AND OECONOMIE, i87o(?) to date (1871) : Scandi- 
navian. Barthene and Rene are given as publishers in the 
Chicago city directories for 1870 and 1871. 

1870 to date (1881) : A trade paper, published in Boston, with 
branch offices in Chicago, Cincinnati, Philadelphia, and New 
York. J. Henry Symonds was editor and publisher in 1876, 
and in 1880. 

L'AMRIQUE, i87o(?)- - (?) : A French semi-weekly publication. 
In 1870, Gueroult and Pinta were publishers. 

ART. REVIEW, April, 1870 to date (1872): Monthly. Devoted to 
art, music, and literature. E. H. Trafton was editor and pub- 
lisher until May, 1871, when J. J. Ormand bought the publi- 
cation and became publisher. Trafton continued as editor. 

ARTS, 1870 to date (1874): Monthly. Published and edited by 
Joseph M. Hirsh and Company. 

BENCH AND BAR, i87o-i874(?): A monthly legal publication, 
edited by James A. L. Whittier; published by Callaghan and 
Company. File in library of Chicago Law Institute. 

BOARD OF TRADE REPORT, i87o(?) (?): Published by Joel 

Henry Wells. 

CHRISTIAN FREEMAN, 1867 to date (1871): A Free-will Baptist 
paper. F. W. Dunn was editor and A. H. Chase publisher in 
1869. The Christian Freeman Association were editors and 
publishers in 1871. 

COLLECTOR, 1870(7) (?): Morse, Hanna, and Company were 

publishers in 1870. 

COMMERCIAL REPORTER, 1870 to date (1871) : A commercial weekly. 
The editors and publishers in 1871 were T. G. Wilcox and Com- 

DAGSLYSET, 1870(7) to date (1874): Organ of the Scandinavian 
Freethinkers' Society. Marc Thrane was editor and proprietor. 


SUNDAY DEMOCRAT, June 5-July 3, 1870: A short-lived publication 
edited and published by George W. Rust. It was established 
with the idea of beginning a daily as soon as its peculiar ideas 
had made a place for themselves. The paper was a reactionary 
against all of the ideals and results for which the North fought, 
and which it accomplished in the Civil War. H 

DETECTOR, i87o(?) to date (1871): Burrows and Lunt were pro- 
prietors in 1870 ; Lunt, Tisher, and Company, publishers in 1871. 

DEUTSCHE ARBEITER, 1870: A short-lived German Union paper 
published by the German Central Union of the Workingmen. 

DISPATCH, i87o( ?) : Mentioned only in the directory for 1870-1871. 
Culver, Harris, and Wilson were publishers. 

DRY GOODS PRICE LIST, i87o-i88o(?) : A commercial paper estab- 
lished by August C. Schooley and edited and published by him 
until 1879, after which date he was succeeded by J. C. W. 

EXAMINER, 1870 to date (1871): An evangelical monthly. It was 
edited in 1871 by Rev. Edward C. Towne; published by the 
Western News Company. 

FAMILY CIRCLE, 1870-1871+ : A semi-monthly magazine of family 
life. C. H. Gushing was editor and publisher in 1870. In 1871 
C. G. G. Paine, A.M., was editor, C. H. Gushing, publisher. 
The paper was merged, 1871, with Bright Side. 

GOLDEN HOURS. i87o(?) to date (1873): Monthly. J. W. Wiley 
was editor in 1870. Hitchcock and Walden were publishers, 

HERALD, i87o-May i, 1877+: An insurance monthly. Powell 
and Steele were editors and publishers in 1871 ; George I. Yea- 
ger, 1872-1873; Yeager and S. H. Davis, 1874; George I. 
Yeager, 1875; Yeager and Ormsbee, 1876; Charles E. Rollins, 
1877. In 1872 the HeraW was both weekly and monthly. Name 
was changed to W 

ARGUS, + May i, 1877 to date: An insurance monthly, formerly the 
Herald. Charles E. Rollins was editor and publisher until 
December, 1877, then editor and manager to 1886, and man- 
ager to October, 1908. Since December, 1877, the Rollins Pub- 
lishing Company have been publishers. Since 1886 the editors 
have been: J. H. Kellogg, 1887 ; Charles A. Hewitt, 1888-1891 ; 
F. C. Oviatt, 1892-1895 ; A. H. Hiding, 1896-1899; C. F. How- 
ell, 1900; P. J. V. McKian, 1901-1904; T. W. Dealy, 1905- 
1908; P. J. V. McKian, the present editor, 1909. HC 

HOME JOURNAL, 1870 to date (1871): A monthly, devoted to liter- 
ature. J. H. Bascom was editor and publisher. 


ILLINOIS VOLKS-ZEITUNG, i87o(?) to date (1872): A German 
paper, published daily and weekly by the German Printing 
Company. This company were editors and publishers, 1870- 

INTERIOR, 1870 to date: A Presbyterian weekly. Established by 
Hon. R. B. Mason, with Rev. Arthur Swazey, D.D., and 
Rev. C. Van Stantvoord, D.D., as editors. W. S. Mills was 
publisher. In 1871 William C. Gray became publisher, with- 
out a change of editors, and the paper was published for one year 
at Cincinnati. In 1872 Rev. Arthur Swazey and W. C. Gray 
were editors and publishers. The next year, Dwight and Trow- 
ling were editors and publishers. They sold to Cyrus H. Mc- 
Cormick, who began publishing the paper in 1873, and continued 
it until 1883, when he sold a half interest to Mr. Gray. 
The editors were: W. C. Gray and Francis L. Patton, 1874; 
Francis L. Patton and Charles L. Thompson, 1875 ; W. C. Gray 
and Charles L. Thompson, 1876; W. C. Gray, i877-i886(?). 
In 1907 McCormick and Company were publishers. HAE 

LANDWIRTH UND HAUSFREUND, 1870 to date (1871): A German 
paper, devoted to agriculture. Carl Kron was editor; J. A. 
Jensch, publisher. 

LEEDLE VANDERER, 1870 to date (1876?) : A comic monthly, edited 
and published by C. F. Harris, "Carl Pretzel." "No. i Book" 
for the year i876(?) is in the library of the Chicago Historical 
Society . H 

(1873): A quarterly magazine devoted to furnishing material 
for school festivals, entertainments, dialogues, recitations, etc. 
Listed also as School Festival. Edited and published by Alfred 
L. Sewell in 1870; Sewell and Miller, 1871; Alfred L. Sewell 
and Company, 1872-1873. H 

LITTLE WATCHMAN, 1870 to date (1872) : L. H. Bowling was editor; 
W. W. Bowling, publisher, 1871-1872. The paper was semi- 
monthly in ^871, weekly and monthly in 1872. 

1870 to date (1876) : Monthly. It was the first of several Chicago 
periodicals designed to couple an interest in esthetic writing with 
the esthetic interest in dress. The magazine was created by 
a group of fashionable women. Mrs. M. L. Rayne was editor 
and proprietor for the first four years. After that the editors, 
publishers and proprietors to 1876 are given as Mrs. M. L. Rayne 
and Company. The name of Mrs. C. H. Church appears as an 
editor in 1875. H 


EVENING MAIL, August 18, 1870-1873+: Daily except Sundays. 
The Chicago Evening Mail Company were editors and pub- 
lishers. Late in 1873 the Mail was united with the Evening Post 
to form the Post and Mail. The first appearance of the paper 
under the new name was in January, 1874. (See Post.) 

METHODIST QUARTERLY REVIEW, i87o(?)-- (?): Edited by 

D. D. Whedon. 

MISSIONAREN, 1870 to date (1873): A Swedish monthly, edited by 

E. Norelius in 1871. Rev. J. P. Nyquist was editor, and the 
Swedish Lutheran Publishing Society were publishers in 1872. 
In 1873, Rev. J. P. Nyquist was editor and publisher. 

MISSIONAREN, 1870-1877+: Published by the Norwegian and 
Danish Methodists. The editors were: Rev. A. Haagensen, 
Rev. J. H. Johnson, and Rev. K. Schon. In 1877 the name of 
the paper became 

KRISTELIGE TALSMAND, +1877 to date: A successor to the Mission- 
aren, published by the Norwegian and Danish Methodists. 
Under the new name the editors have been: Rev. Christian 
Treider, 1876-1880; Rev. A. Haagensen, 1880-1884; Christian 
Treider, 1884-1891 ; A. Haagensen, 1891-1897 ; C. F. Eltzholtz, 
1897-1905; H. P. Bergh, 1905 to date. Kristelige Talsmand 
and Hyrdestemmen are the official organs of the Norwegian- 
Danish Methodist Episcopal Church. Files are available at 
272 Grand avenue, Chicago. 

NATIONAL LIVE STOCK JOURNAL, September 18, 1870 to date 
(1888?): A monthly devoted to live stock interests. John P. 
Reynolds was editor and George W. Rust and Company were 
publishers, 1871-1872. George W. Rust and Company were 
editors and publishers, 1873-1875. J. H. Sanders was editor 
till 1882, and the Stock Journal Company were publishers, 1876- 
. A weekly edition in addition to the monthly was begun 
January, 1 885. WJUH 

OBSERVER, i87o(?)-- (?): A monthly, devoted to banking, in- 
surance, and railway interests. J. Clement was publisher and 
proprietor in 1870. 

OUR FOLKS AT HOME, 1870 (?): A monthly literary paper. 

Fred D. Carson was editor and publisher. 

PRESS, October, i87o-October 1871+: Quarterly. Horton and 
Leonard were editors and publishers until the fire of October, 
1871. The Press was then suspended. It was succeeded in 
1872 by Illustrated Journal (q.v.) and that paper, then a monthly, 
apparently was in 1874 renamed Illustrated Press. It was then 
published by Horton and Landon. H 


ILLUSTRATED JOURNAL, + November, 1872-1874+ : Bi-monthly. 
Knight and Leonard were editors and publishers in 1872; Hor- 
ton and Leonard in 1873. The following year the American 
Publishing Company were publishers, and Thomas G. New- 
man was business manager. The Illustrated Journal was a 
revival of the Press, burned out in the fire of October, 1871, and 
was sent to fill out terms of such subscribers to the Press as gave 
their names and the unexpired subscription terms. It was 
apparently succeeded by Illustrated Press (redivivus), at some 
time after 1874. Not mentioned after 1876. H 

PUBLISHERS' AUXILIARY, 1870(7) to date (1873): Issued weekly. 
A. N. Kellogg was publisher, 1870-1873. 

THE RAY, October, i87o-(after 1872): Monthly. Published in 
the interest of the Union Park Baptist Church, and distributed 
gratuitously. H 

SCHOOLMASTER, -fjuly, 1870-} une, 1871+: Monthly. Estab- 
lished at Bloomington by John Hull in 1868. Removed to Chi- 
cago with the number for July, 1870. John Hull was publisher, 
Hull and Albert Stetson of Illinois Normal University were 
editors. When the place of publication was changed Albert 
Stetson and I. S. Baker became editors. Chicago influence seems 
to have grown, and at the beginning of 187 1 the name was changed 
to Chicago Schoolmaster, with I. S. Baker as editor, and the 
Schoolmaster Company publishers, Chicago and Normal. John 
Hull and Company were still publishers, however. Aaron Gove 
succeeded Baker as editor with the number for June, 1871, the 
Schoolmaster Company (Aaron Gove and E. C. Hewitt) became 
publishers, and Chicago and Normal appeared on the cover, 
though Normal was the place of publication. February, 1873, 
Chicago Schoolmaster and Illinois Teacher were merged as 
Illinois Schoolmaster, and continued by Gove and Hewett at 
Normal. H 

SMAX MONEY MAKER'S JOURNAL, 1870: An advertising sheet. R. 
W. Chappcll was editor and publisher. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL HELPER, 1870 to date (1872) : A Universalist paper, 
published monthly. S. A. Briggs was editor, and the North- 
western Universalist Publishing House were publishers, 1870- 

SUNDAY SCHOOL WORLD, 1870(7)- (?): A monthly, published 
by the American Sunday School Union. 

UNION PARK ADVOCATE, 1870 to date (1877) : A weekly local adver- 
tising sheet. C. E. Crandall was editor and publisher, 1875- 


UNION PARK BANNER, 1870 to date (1880): An advertising sheet 
published at West Chicago by E. M. Turner and Company. D. 
S. Crandall was proprietor in 1876, and Turner and Lloyd owned 
the paper in 1880. H 

WEST CHICAGO, 1870 to date (1875) : Weekly. The West Chicago 
Company were editors and publishers in 1875. 

WEST END ADVOCATE, 1870 to date (1881): A weekly, devoted to 
local interests, especially to the business of West Division. 
Charles E. Crandall was editor and publisher, 1878-1880. It 
was dated for West Chicago in 1878. H 

WESTLICHE ODD FELLOW, 1870, to date (1871): A German 
monthly devoted to I. O. O. F. J. B. Wing and Company were 
editors and publishers, 1870-1871. 

WORLD MAGAZINE, 1870-1893: An illustrated magazine devoted 
to society and drama, containing stories, sketches, poems, and 
humorous articles. The Chicago World Publishing Company, 
or World Society, were publishers in 1883-1884. This paper is 
listed in Rowell, 1884-1885. H 

YOUNG FOLKS.' MONTHLY, 1870 to date (1883) : An illustrated juve- 
nile literary paper containing matter "best calculated to amuse 
and instruct the young." H. N. F. Lewis was editor and pub- 
lisher in 1875-1876. In 1876 Gerrit L. Hoodless was proprietor. 
Mrs. Annie R. White was editor, and Milton George, publisher, 
1878-1880. C 

YOUNG FOLKS' RURAL, 1870 to date (1881): A juvenile literary 
paper, issued monthly. H. N. F. Lewis was editor and pub- 
lisher, 1871-1878. J. D. Tallmadge was editor and publisher, 
1879-1880. HC 

YOUNG PILOT, 1870 to date (1871): Monthly. The Young Pilot 
Publishing Company were editors and publishers in 1871. 
Franklin H. Tinker was associated with the paper at this time. 

ADVERTISER'S ASSISTANT, 1871 to date (1872): Monthly. Cook, 
Coburn, and Company, editors and publishers. 

AMATEUR MONTHLY, July, i87i-February, 1872+: An amateur 
paper, established by Charles C. Hoyt and Will E. Gard. The 
name was changed February, 1872, to 

OUR YOUTH, + February, 1872 ( ?) : An amateur paper, a con- 
tinuation of Amateur Monthly, issued by Charles C. Hoyt and 
Will E. Gard. 

AMERICANISCHER FARMER, 1871 to date (1874) : A German weekly. 
Julius Silversmith was editor; the Cosmopolitan Publishing 
Company were publishers. Listed in 1874 as Amerik Farmer. 


BAPTIST UNION, 1871 to date (1875): A Baptist paper. In 1871, 
Rev. G. H. Ball, D.D., and Rev. J. B. Drew, D.D., were editors; 
the Baptist Printing Union, publishers. In 1872, Rev. Dr. Drew 
was succeeded by Rev. S. W. Whitney. The same editors and 
publishers continued until 1874, when E. W. Page became pub- 
lisher. In 1875 Dr. Ball alone was editor; Mr. Page was still 
publisher. The paper was dated at New York and Chicago. 

CHILD'S PAPER, 1871: Burned out in the Chicago fire and not 

CHILD'S WORLD, 1871: A juvenile publication which soon dis- 

COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE, 1871 to date (1875): A commercial 
weekly. It was published in 1875 by the Commercial Enterprise 
Publishing Company. 

COSMOPOLITE, i87i(?) to date (1873): Mentioned only in the 
directory for 1873. J. Silversmith was editor and manager. 
The paper was burned out in the great fire, but later revived. 

DAHEIM, 1871 (1870?) to date: German. The Sunday edition 
of the Freie Presse (q.v.). In 1876 R. Michaelis was editor; 
the German American Publishing Company were publishers. 
Daheim was still published as the Sunday edition of the Freie 
Presse in 1899. By 1907, however, it was published with the 
Westen as the Sunday edition of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung, 
under the title of Westen und Daheim. Both the Daheim and 
the Westen und Daheim have been Republican in politics. U 

DEMOCRAT, 1871 to date (1881): In 1871 H. S. Knapp was editor; 
in 1872 J. A. Daniels was editor, the Democrat Company were 
publishers; in 1876, Mr. Daniels was editor, and Daniels and 
Company were publishers; in 1880, Mr. Daniels was both editor 
and publisher. HU 

DRY GOODS REPORTER, 1871 to date: A commercial paper 
devoted to dry goods and allied lines. C. W. Spofford was 
editor in 1907 and is now editor-in-chief, and president and treas- 
urer of the corporation. Frank McElwain is managing editor. 
The Dry Goods Reporter Company were given as publishers in 

FINANCIER, 1871 to date (1874): A weekly, devoted to finance. 
Published in New York in 1873, by the Financier Company, and 
dated for New York and Chicago. Published in 1874 by W. H. 

FOUNDLINGS' RECORD, 1871-1876+ : A monthly, published in the 
interests of the Chicago Foundlings' Home. Edited by George 
E. Shipman. It was changed to C 


FAITH'S RECORD, +i 876-1 884(?): and continued publication as 
before. HC 

FREIE PRESSE, July, 1871-1874+ : Established as a political weekly 
by Richard Michaelis. In 1872 a daily edition was begun, 
"Liberal Republican" in politics, which supported Greeley. 
After Greeley's defeat it became straight Republican and has so 
remained. For a time in 1873 H. Bender was associated as 
editor, but otherwise Michaelis was editor alone from its begin- 
ning. It was published by the Freie Presse Printing Company. 
The paper has had several minor changes of name. In 1874 it 
was changed to N 

CHICAGOER FREIE PRESSE, +1874+: and in December of the 
same year to 

CHICAGOER NEUE FREIE PRESSE, +December, 1874-1883+: R. 
Michaelis continued as editor. The German American Publishing 
Company were publishers in 1876, and until April, 1901, when 
Freie Presse was sold to the Illinois Publishing Company. 
Richard Michaelis became half owner and general manager. 
In August, 1905, he sold his holding to his son, Walter R. 
Michaelis, who was elected general manager, and Horace L. 
Brand, who was made secretary and treasurer. W. R. Michaelis 
and H. R. Brand are present sole owners of the paper. The 
Freie Presse started as a daily, with a Sunday edition, Daheim 
(which see). After 1871 the paper was published daily, weekly, 
and Sundays. The weekly Freie Presse in 1907 issued an 
edition for country circulation called Sonntagsbote. At some 
time between 1899 and 1907 Daheim ceased to be the Sunday 
edition of the Freie Presse, and with Westen, became that of 
the Illinois Staats-Zeitung. NUC 

HAPPY HOURS, 1871 (?): A literary paper; M. A. Fuller was 

editor and publisher. 

HEAVENLY TIDINGS, i87i(?)-i872(?): An organ of the Y. M. C. 
A., which was its publishers. 

INDEPENDENT TRADE REGISTER, i87i(?): Lunt, Tisher, and Com- 
pany were publishers. 

JUSTITIA, March-October, 1871: Swedish. Isidor Kjellberg was 
editor and publisher. 

LEDGER, i87i(?): Basset Brothers were publishers. 

LITTLE MEN, i87i(?)-i872+ : An amateur paper, consolidated 
with Our Boys about 1872. 

LORGNETTE, 1871 (?): "The official amusement organ of 

Crosby Opera House, Aiken's Museum, Globe Theatre and 
Farwell Hall." H 



1871 (?): A paper owned and published by Jefferson and 

Wroe in 1871. 

MOTHER'S JOURNAL, (?) to date (1871): A monthly "de- 
voted to the advancement of science, literature, morality and 
religion." Mrs. Mary G. Clarke was editor; J. N. Clarke, 
publisher. H 

CHICAGO NATIONAL, 1871 to date (1874): A monthly devoted 
primarily to insurance interests. In 1874 it was listed as a liter- 
ary magazine. The National Life Insurance Company were 
the original editors and publishers. In 1873 John H. Holmes 
was editor. W. C. Cockson was editor in 1874, and H. G. 
Teed was business manager. It appears to have been weekly 
for a time in 1874. 

NATIONAL CAR BUILDER, 1870-1881+: A monthly devoted to 
mechanics. It was dated from New York and Chicago. In 
1876 James Gillett was editor and Vose Dinsmore and Com- 
pany were publishers. James Gillett was editor also in 1879, 
but the publishing firm was Gillett and Dinsmore. After 1881, 
the paper was dated from New York only. Later became 
National Car and Locomotive Builder, and in 1896 was merged 
in the American Engineer and Railroad Journal. 

NEWSPAPER UNION, 1871 to date (1878): A sheet published by 
The Chicago Newspaper Union, 1871-1875. It was listed as 
a co-operative advertising sheet. C. E. Strong was manager in 
1873. In 1876 Andrew J. Aiken was president and C. E. Strong 
manager. S. H. Williams wa,- editor in 1877. 

NYA VERLDEN, + January, 1871-1876+ : Moved to Chicago from 
Galva, where it had been established injanuary, 1869, as Illinois 
Swede by Eric Johnson, son of the founder of Bishop Hill colony. 
It was printed in Swedish and English. Andrew Chaiser and C. 
F. Peterson became partners, and the name was changed to Nya 
Verlden, published only in Swedish. In Chicago P. A. Sunde- 
lius became co-editor with Peterson ; Johnson soon sold his in- 
terest to Chaiser. After the fire the paper was published in 
Galesburg until March, 1872. Herman Roos became associate 
editor with Peterson in 1873. In 1876 the paper was turned 
over to the Swedish Publishing Company, which combined 
Svenska Americanaren with Nya Verlden and began Svenska 
Tribunen. U 

OUR BOYS, i87i(?) to date (1873): An amateur paper established 
by Charles S. Diehl and Fred K. Morrill. This paper was 


burned out in the fire, but was revived. It absorbed Little Men 
about 1872. In that year C. C. Hoyt was editor; Diehl and 
Fowler were publishers in 1873. 

PEOPLE'S WEEKLY, 1871-1883: An illustrated paper published by 
Rand, McNally, and Company. 

PHENIX, 1871 to date: A weekly newspaper devoted to local in- 
terests. M. A. Fuller was editor and publisher in. 1872. In 
1907 Frank E. Stanley was editor and publisher. He died in 
October, 1908, and publication was suspended until March, 
1909, when the paper was bought by the Phenix Publishing 
Company, E. J. Harvey, president. In Ayer for 1908 the date 
of founding had receded to 1869. Republican. 

RESTITUTION, +1871 to date (1874): Thomas Wilson was editor 
and publisher in 1871. In 1873-1874 Thomas Wilson was 
editor, and Wilson, Pierce, and Company were publishers. It 
was known as the organ of Servants of Jesus Christ in 1872, 
and as the organ of Marturions in 1873. This was evidently 
a continuation or a successor of Herald of the Coming Kingdom 
and Christian Instructor. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL MIRROR, 1871-1904: Edited and published by 
Rev. Andrew L. O'Neill from 1872 to 1901, on the second and 
fourth Sundays of each month ; on the alternate Sundays it was 
called Sunday School Companion. 

TAILOR'S INTELLIGENCER, 1871 to date (1874) : Issued monthly. 
Salisbury Brothers and Company were editors and publishers 
in 1873. Wilber S. Salisbury was proprietor in 1874. 

UNGDOMS VANNEN, i87i(?) to date (1881): Given in 1881 as 
a Scandinavian literary paper, published semi-monthly. A 
monthly of this name was published by the Hemlandet people 
from 1871 to 1881. It was devoted to the interests of young 

YOUNG HERO, i87i(?)-i872+ : An amateur paper, consolidated 
with Our Youth about 1872. It had been burned out in the 
great fire, but apparently revived. 

YOUNG MESSENGER, January, i87i-i872(?) + : Issued monthly. 
Walter T. D wight was editor and publisher in 1871. It was 
consolidated with the Wolverine Messenger of Detroit, Michigan, 
about 1872. 

YOUTH'S CABINET, i87i(?) to date (1872): An amateur monthly 
"devoted entirely to the interests of the American boy and girl." 
It was being edited in 1872 by John L. Whelan, and published 
by Whelan Brothers. In had been burned out in 1871, but was 
apparently revived. 


BALANCE, 1872 to date (1877): A monthly, devoted to woman suf- 
rage. Maria Hawley and Mary Tomlin were editors and pub- 
lishers, 1872-1875. In 1876 the editors and publishers were 
Maria Hawley, Odelia Blinn, and Laura M. Hubbard. 

BELL, 1872 to date (1875) : A Baptist monthly. In 1875 ft was 
edited by the Young People's Association of the Western Avenue 
Baptist Church; published by Guilbert and Clissold, then by 
H. R. Clissold. 

BRIDAL BELLS, 1872 to date (1877): Semi-monthly. Edited and 
published in 1877 by Eugene T. Gilbert. 

CARL PRETZEL'S MAGAZINE POOK, 1872-1874: A comic weekly? 
written in German-English lingo, dealing with matters of local 
interest. Mr. C. H. Harris, the editor and publisher, discon- 
tinued it in 1874 to establish the more ambitious National 

CHILD'S FRIEND, 1872 to date (1873) : Juvenile. Monthly in 1872' 
semi-monthly in 1873. Edited by C. G. G. Paine, published 
by the Bright Side Publishing Company. 

DIOCESE, March, 1872 to date (1874): A religious monthly. In 
1873 Rev. John Wilkinson was editor, and George H. Marsland 
was publisher. Rev. J. F. Walker was editor in 1874; Bryant 
and Walker were publishers. 

GROCERY AND DRUG PRICE LIST, i872(?) to date (1879) : A weekly 
commercial paper. A. C. Schooley was proprietor, 1872-1879. 

HUMANE JOURNAL, May, 1872 to date: A monthly, devoted to 
"humane" propaganda. Albert W. Landon was editor and 
publisher, 1872-1874. E. M. Fuller and Albert W. Landon 
were publishers, 1875-1879. Upon the death of Mr. Landon 
in 1879, his widow, Martha J. Landon, became editor and pub- 
lisher. In October, 1907, she sold the journal to Virginia M. 
Arford, who is now the editor, with Miss Vera K. Arford as 
assistant editor. The journal is printed by the Humane Journal 
Publishing Company of which F. Arford is the manager. H 

INTER OCEAN, March 25, 1872 to date: Established as a daily and 
weekly by J. Young Scammon as the successor of the Republican 
(established in 1865 and burned out in the fire of 1871). The 
weekly edition was begun in 1884. E. W. Halford was its first 
editor and William Penn Nixon its first business manager. In 
1873 Frank W. Palmer, Congressman from Iowa, purchased an 
interest and became editor. After the panic of 1875 the Inter 
Ocean Company was succeeded by the Inter Ocean Publishing 
Company, with William Penn Nixon and Dr. O. W. Nixon as 


controlling stockholders, the former becoming editor and pub- 
lisher. Managing editors of note in succession were Gilbert 
A. Pierce, William E. Curtis, and W. H. Busbey. In iSgiH. 
H. Kohlsaat bought an interest and became publisher and busi- 
ness manager. In 1894 the Nixons repurchased Mr. Kohlsaat's 
interest. In 1897 Charles T. Yerkes purchased a controlling 
interest and George Wheeler Hinman became editor, Mr. Nixon 
continuing as publisher. In 1907 Mr. Hinman bought the con- 
trolling interest in the Inter Ocean and became editor and 
publisher. Republican "the only Republican newspaper in 
Chicago." WDNAUCHE 

KNEIP ZANGE, 1872 to date (1873): A German paper of which 
Miller and Wagner were editors and publishers in 1873. 

LADIES' FRIEND AND SHOPPING GUIDE, i872(?) to date (1875): 
Vol. i, no. i, of a new series is dated January i, 1872, and en- 
titled Densmore's Lady's Friend. The title Ladies' Friend and 
Shopping Guide apparently belonged to the old series. The 
newspaper directories for 1873-1875 give the paper as Lady's 
Friend. It appears to have been weekly in 1872, monthly, 
1873-1875. In 1872 J. A. Densmore was editor, J. A. Densmore 
and Company were publishers, and Laura M. Hubbard was 
"fashion editress". The paper contained a literary department 
especially for ladies, essays on education, household management, 
art, music, etc. "It shall be our aim to influence for good the 
fair readers . . . and through them their husbands, fathers, 
sons and brothers." In 1873 and 1874 J. A. Densmore was 
editor and publisher. The Lady's Friend Publishing Company 
were editors and publishers in 1875. H 

DAILY LAW BULLETIN, June 4, i872-i9oo(?). H 

LEDGER, 1872 to date: A literary and family magazine, published 
weekly. Although the "Ledger Company" is the name given 
to the firm of editors and publishers, Samuel H. Williams was 
really the editor for almost twenty years. W. Scott McComas 
was associated with him in 1880. In 1891 W. D. Boyce acquired 
the Chicago Ledger, and the W. D. Boyce Company have been 
editors and publishers to date. Begun in connection with a news- 
paper plate supply business and in imitation of the New York 
Ledger, in the first few years it made a feature of stories of a good 
class. Since the late seventies, however, it has deteriorated in 
literary tone. The sensational, although not immoral, character 
of the Ledger stories, and the use that the large mail-order houses 
have made of its advertising columns, have given this paper an 
unusually long life and extensive circulation. 


LENS, 1872-1873: A quarterly journal of microscopy. Contains 
the transactions of the State Microscopical Society of Illinois. 
Edited by S. A. Briggs. JCHU 

CHICAGO LIBRARIAN, November, i872-August, i873(?): Monthly, 
devoted to the library interests of the city. Especial attention 
was paid the public library then being reorganized and replen- 
ished; a monthly list of all new books received by the library 
was printed. In the first number was given a catalog of the 
"more prominent books" in the library of 1200 volumes at that 
time received. Perry, Morris, and Sultzer published the first 
number; J. W. Dean and Company the second; W. E. Day 
and Company the others. CH 

LITERARY YOUTH, (?)-i872(?)+ : An amateur publication 

continued as 

GOLDEN MOMENTS, +i872(?)-- (?): Monthly. An amateur 
paper, edited by Edward Everett Woodbury. 

LOCOMOTIVE, i872(?) (?): An amateur monthly, edited and 

published by I. H. Preston in 1872. 
MEDICAL REGISTER, 1872 to date (1885) . 

NATIONAL HOTEL REPORTER, 1872 to date: A commercial paper 
published daily except Sunday. Frank Glossop and Company 
were editors and publishers in 1873; Frank Glossop was editor 
and publisher in 1874-1875. Scott and Rice were editors anc 
publishers in 1876-80. F. W. Rice was editor and publisher ir 
1907. It was listed as Daily Hotel Reporter, 1872-1873. 

DAILY NEWS, March 7, 1872 (?): A daily and weekly Demo- 
cratic paper, of which H. R. Whipple was business manager. It 
was apparently short lived, as no reference is made to it in the 
city directory or the newspaper directories for the next year. It 
was published by the Chicago News Printing Company 

OUR FIRESIDE FRIEND, January 27, 1872, to date (1875) : A weekly 
literary magazine of the "family story" type. Waters, Evert, 
and Company were editors and publishers, 1873-1875; A. P. 
Miller was publisher in 1875. A 

OUR FLAG, i872( ?) ( ?) : An amateur monthly paper. publishe( 

by Elwell and Gowell. 

OUTLOOK, 1872 to date (1873): A monthly literary publication. 
Selden Gibert was publisher and proprietor in 1873. 

PICTORIAL ADVERTISER, i872(?) to date (1877): This paper was 
owned by the Pictorial Advertiser Company, 1872-1873, and 
published by the Pictorial Printing Company in 1874. John 
McGreer was editor in 1877. 


CHICAGO PULPIT, i872-i873(?) : A weekly publication of the ablest 
sermons by leading Chicago ministers. There were also in- 
cluded departments of church news, book notes, and comments 
on church affairs. The tone was strictly undenominational and 
uncontroversial. Sermons of especial value, but of a denomina- 
tional or controvesial sort, were issued as extra numbers. 
Carpenter and Sheldon were publishers and proprietors. SH 

RAILROAD MONTHLY, 1872 to date (1873) : Story and Camp were 
editors and publishers in 1873. 

RECORD, 1872 to date (1879) : Monthly. H. V. Reed and C. Gard- 
ner were publishers, 1872-1873. In 1879 J- M. J. Gillespie 
was editor and proprietor. 

RELIGIO POLITICO PARTY, i872(?) to date (1873) : Mrs. A. Buffum 
was editor, 1872-1873. 

CHICAGO TEACHER, 1872 to date (1875) : Issued monthly. Baker 
and Mahony were editors and publishers in 1873; Jeremiah 
Mahony, 1874; John W. Brown, 1875. H 

VOLANTE, January i, 1872 to date (1881) : A monthly collegiate 
publication. The students of the University of Chicago were 
editors and publishers. H 

WATCHMAKERS' MAGAZINE, November, 1872 to date (1873) : 
Monthly. Edited by E. R. P. Shurley and published by the 
Horological Association. H 

WHAT NEXT, 1872 to date (1874) : A monthly. John B. Alden 
was editor and publisher, 1873-1874. 

YOUNG AMERICA, i872(?)-- (?): Amateur. 

YOUNG CHICAGO, i872(?)-- (?): An amateur monthly. It was 
being published in 1872 by Dicker and McLachlan. 

YOUNG INDUSTRY, i872( ?) ( ?) : An amateur monthly. It was 

being published in 1872 by H. E. Greenbaum. 

YOUTH'S REPORTER, i872(?)-- (?): An amateur monthly. It 
was being published in 1872 by E. E. Russell. 

ADVOCATE, 1873 to date (1877) : An insurance monthly. The Pro- 
tection Life Insurance Company were publishers in 1874 and 
1875. I n ^76 and 1877 Martin Ryan was editor and publisher. 

AGENTS' GUIDE, 1873 to date (1880) : Monthly. James P. Scott was 
editor and publisher, 1875-1880. 

CHICAGO ALLIANCE, December 13, i873~March, 1882+: A non- 
sectarian weekly founded by a group of clergymen including 
Prof. David Swing, Rev. Robert Collyer, Dr. Hiram A. Thomas 
and others. With a slightly religious trend in its material, it 
was devoted in the main to literature, particularly that of the 


essay form. In its beginning Rev. J. B. McClure was managing 
editor; the other editorial work was shared by all. But one by 
one the editors withdrew, before long leaving Prof. Swing as 
editor-in-chief and chief contributor. His weekly sermon-essay 
was the leading literary feature throughout the existence of the 
paper. In 1874 the Alliance Publishing Company was the name 
by which the group of editors and publishers was designated. In 
1875 this company is named as publishers, while the list of 
editors given includes Prof. Swing, Rev. C. D. Helmer, H. W. 
Thomas, D.D., H. N. Powers, D.D., and Prof. William Mathews. 
H. L. Ensign was the business manager. Professor Swing's 
name appears as that of editor again in 1876. In 1877 Mr. Mc- 
Clure disposed of his interest. In the same year Francis F. 
Browne became literary editor, and A. H. Hiding took charge of 
the political department. In 1878 Rev. Z. S. Holbrook pur- 
chased an interest and assisted Professor Swing. Browne and 
Hiding soon retired and. Mr. Holbrook sold to Henry L. Shepard, 
who in 1879 an d 1880 was filling the position of editor. Dixon and 
Shepard are named as publishers in 1879, and the Alliance Associa- 
tion in 1881. The failure of the paper early in 1882 is said to 
have been due to the unscrupulousness of the business manager. 
A consolidation with the Western Magazine was effected in 
March, and the new periodical appeared as the Weekly Magazine 
(see Western Magazine) . The title Chicago Alliance was changed 
to Alliance in third volume and in the next volume to Alliance 
and Radical Review. HC 

AMERICAN HOME MAGAZINE, i873(?) ( ?) : An illustrated mag- 
azine mentioned in the city directory for 1873. Charles H. 
Taylor and Company were proprietors. 

AMERICAN WORKING PEOPLE, i873(?)-- (?): R. C. Machesney 
was editor in 1873. 

AUGUSTANA OCH MissiONAREN, 1873 to date: In 1876 this weekly 
was divided into two fortnightlies, Augustana and Missiondren, 
but after a year the combined title was resumed. The name 
became Augustana in 1885. Dr. Hasselquist was the first editor; 
he was succeeded in 1858 by Eric Norelius, and he by Erland 
Carlsson, who was editor until 1864; A. R. Cervin, 1864-1868; 
J. G. Princell, January-July, 1869; Hasselquist and other 
1869-1890; S. P. A. Lindahl, 1890-1908; Dr. L. G. Abrahar 
son, 1908. 

BEE KEEPERS' MAGAZINE, i873(?) to date (1874): A monthlj 
devoted to bee keeping. H. A. King and Company were editor 
and publishers in 1873 and 1874. The paper was dated from 
New York and Chicago. 


BETTER AGE, 1873 to date (1875) : Semi-monthly. Edited and pub- 
lished in 1875 by John Russell and Charles P. Russell. 

BRIDAL VEIL, 1873 to date (1876) : Edited and published in 1874 by 
H. M. Habel, as a semi-monthly. Bi-weekly in 1875, published 
by the Bridal Veil Company. E 

CATHOLIC VINDICATOR, 1873 to date (1877) : Edited by Dr. D. W. 
Nolan; published by the Catholic News Company. Dated 
for Chicago and Milwaukee. 

CHRISTIAN UNION, i873(?) to date (1875) : J. B. Ford and Company 
were publishers, 1873-1874. S. F. Junkin was manager, 1875. 

CHRISTIAN VOICE, i873(?) to date (1879) : Fleming H. Re veil was 
publisher in 1873. In 1877 W. W. Kelly and Company are 
given in the city directory as managers. W. S. Cossar was pro- 
prietor in 1879. E 

CHICAGO COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, July, 1873-1880: A commer- 
cial weekly paper. It was edited and published in 1874 by 
Burch and Ford: in 1875 by Robert B. Ford and company; 
in 1876 by the Metropolitan Printing Company; and in 1877 
and 1878 by Charles S. Burch, in 1878 by Commercial Advertiser 
Company, and in 1879 a g am by Burch. Beginning with no. i of 
vol. 17, July 14, 1881, J. S. Salisbury was editor until July i, 
1886. F. W. Palmer then became editor and continued to 
March 25, 1897. From March, 1880, to September i, 1882, the 
paper was called Industrial World and Commercial Advertiser. 
Its name then became Industrial World and Iron Worker. In 
March, 1898, it was merged with Iron Trade Review as Industrial 
World and Iron Worker. The Commercial Advertiser Company 
were publishers in 1880. HJD 

COTTAGE MONTHLY, 1873-- (?): A periodical of the "family 
story" type, devoted to "entertaining literature". Readle, 
Brewster, and Company were the publishers. 

DROVERS' JOURNAL, June, 1873, to date: Established by Harvey 
L. Goodall. It is devoted to agricultural and stock interests. 
It was published especially for the Union Stock Yards, 1875- 
1879. H. L. Goodall and Company were editors and publishers 
from the beginning until the death of Mr. Goodall, March, 
1900. Since then his widow, E. F. Goodall, has been president 
of the stock company which publishes the paper. The Drovers' 
Journal, begun as a weekly, started also the Chicago Daily 
Drovers' Journal in 1874. The weekly edition became Goodall' s 
Farmer and Weekly Drovers' Journal, October, 1900. In No- 
vember, 1905, the name of the daily was changed to Chicago 
Daily Drovers' Journal and Farm News. From January to March, 


1906, Goodall's Farmer was owned by the American Breeder and 
Feeder. Since that time it has been published weekly under this 
title by the Drovers' Journal Publishing Company. Since June, 
1906, the daily has been the Chicago Daily Farmers' and Drovers' 
Journal. AE 

ELECTROTYPE JOURNAL, 1873 to date (1881) : A quarterly, devoted 
to typography and advertising. A. Zeese and Company, editors 
and publishers to date, 1881. 

ELECTROTYPER, January, 1873 to date (1881) : A quarterly, devoted 
to typography and advertising. Schniedewend, Lee, and Com- 
pany were publishers in 1874. From that time up to 1881 the 
publishing firm was called Schniedewend and Lee. J 

EULENSPIEGEL, 1873 to date (1881): A German comic weekly. It 
was published by Moritz Langeloth. U 

EXCELSIOR MAGAZINE, 1873 to date (1875) : A. literary monthly. In 
1875 M. Garland Walker was editor and publisher. 

paper "devoted to the humorous side of the Exposition." Dis- 
tributed gratuitously. Published by the Pictorial Printing Com- 
pany in the Exposition building. H 

EXPRESS, i873(?) to date (1880) : A Greenback paper of which O. 
J. Smith was editor and publisher. 

FACKLAN, (before 1873): A Swedish paper published for a short 
time by K. A. Ostergren. 

FREEMAN, December, i873-December, 1874+ : Edited by W. S. 
Burke; published by Street, White, and Bowen. It was de- 
voted to literature and politics. At the end of one year the editor 
and publishers changed the name to 

NORTHWESTERN MAGAZINE, + December, 1874-- (?): Devoted 
to literature, science, art, politics, and religion. Edited by W. S. 
Burke; published by Street, White, and Bowen. The North- 
western was to give less attention to politics and more to 
literature. H 

GAZETA POLSKA w CHICAGO, October, 1873 to date: Established 
and published weekly to date by Wladyslaw Dyniewicz, sole 
proprietor. It claims to be the oldest Polish paper in America. 
It is Independent-Republican. 

GOLDBECK'S JOURNAL OF Music, 1873 to date (1876): A monthly 
publication, devoted to music. It was edited and published in 
1874 and 1875 by Robert Goldbeck. It is listed in the directory 
for 1876 with no report. 


GROCER'S CRITERION, 1873 to date. A trade weekly, issued for 
advertising purposes. R. J. Bennett was editor in 1877. ^ n 
1878, and still in 1880, Thomas Althorp was publisher. In 
1886 D. O. Lantz and Company were publishers. Eugene J. 
Hall was publisher in 1890. The Grocer's Criterion Company 
have been publishers since 1904. 

DAILY HERALD, August i6-December 23, 1873: Established as a 
one-cent evening paper; later became two-cent. Independent. 
It was to have been succeeded by the Sunday Argus but no evi- 
dence is found that the Argus was begun. H 

Perry P. Stone was manager. 

INDUSTRIAL AGE, i873-i878(?): A weekly industrial paper. In 
its first year it absorbed the People's Paper (q. v.). J. A. Noonan, 
S. M. Smith, and Charles E. Barney were editors; the Industrial 
Age Company, publishers, 1874-1875. In 1876 J. A. Noonan, 
S. M. Smith and "Professor" C. C. Buell were editors. J. A. 
Noonan and C. C. Buell were editors in 1877. It was listed in 
the directory for 1879, with no report. The paper of the same 
name now published was begun in 1896. UW 

INVESTIGATOR, 1873-1908+ : An insurance paper, at first weekly, 
but monthly by 1880. J. S. Bloomington was editor and pub- 
lisher in 1875, and was still so in 1880. William E. Beer was 
editor, and Herbert W. Bloomington, publisher, in 1907. In 
January, 1908, this paper was merged in Insurance Field. 

A monthly mining journal. W. C. McCarty was editor and 
manager, 1874-1875. 

DAILY JUBILEE, June, 1873: A souvenir of Chicago's gala week, 
June 5-12, 1873. Lively. H 

LITERARY VARIETIES, March, 1873 (?): Monthly. Edward 

N. Fuller was editor and publisher. Slight. H 

LITTLE BOUQUET, 1873 to date (1877) : A juvenile monthly, devoted 
to spiritualism. S. S. Jones was editor; the Religio-PhUosophical 
Publishing Company were publishers, 1874-1877. 

MASONIC RECORD, i873(?) to date (1878): Carson and Barnard 
were publishers in 1873 ; Carson and Lamberson in 1874; C. H. 
Carson and Company, 1875-1878. 

MASTER MECHANIC, 1873 to date (1874): A monthly, devoted to 
mechanics. Evans, Comstock, and Company were editors and 
publishers in 1874. 


NORTH-WESTERN LUMBERMAN, 1873-1898+ : A weekly paper 
devoted to lumber interests. William B. Jackson was editor 
and Judson and Dicey were publishers in 1874. In 1875 Wil- 
liam B. Jackson and Calvin M. Mudge were editors and Judson, 
Dicey, and Company were publishers. Rufus King was business 
manager. In 1876 William B. Jackson was editor, and Judson 
and King were publishers. The Lumberman Publishing Com- 
pany were editors and publishers, 1877-1880. The title of the 
paper became American Lumberman in 1898. January i, 1899, 
the Timberman, established 1885, was absorbed. In 1907 J. E. 
Defebaugh was editor; the American Lumberman (Inc.) were 
publishers. This paper was monthly in 1874, with a semi- 
monthly bulletin. Since then it has been weekly. WHE 

OCCIDENT, 1873 to date (September, 1895) : A weekly radical reform 
Jewish journal. It was devoted to general news, politics, liter- 
ature, science, art, and the. interest of the Hebrews of the North- 
^ west. Julius Silversmith, M.A., was editor and proprietor, 
1873-1895. The Occident Publishing Company were publishers. 
In 1876 mention is made of the fact that this paper was printed 
in both English and German. DAH 

OUR BOYS' AND GIRLS' OWN, 1873 to date (1875): A monthly 
publication. J. A. Densmore was editor and publisher in 1875. 
Listed as Boys and Girls Magazine in 1874. 

PEOPLE'S PAPER, July 26-August 16, 1873 : A grange organ edited 
by Edward N. Fuller. It was disposed of to J. A. Noonan and 
merged in Industrial Age. H 

PORTFOLIO, i873(?)- - (?): A monthly, devoted to literature and 
the fine arts. 

Trumbull and Carver. 

SCIENTIFIC FARMER, 1873 to date (1874): Monthly. Dr. T. A. 
Bland was editor and Thomas G. Newman publisher in 1874. 

SOUTH SIDE NEWS, 1873 to date (1874) : Published weekly for Grand 
Crossing. Vansant and Company were editors and publishers 
in 1874. 

STAG WEEKLY, 1873 : A small two-column eight-page paper, appar- 
ently issued for gratuitous circulation, by Carpenter and Sheldon. 


STUDENT, 1873 to date (1874) : Monthly. M. Wendell was editor, 
and Wendell and Einstein were publishers in 1874. 

To-DAY, i873(?) (?): A weekly, edited by Dio Lewis. 


TURNER'S MINARET, 1873-1875: A semi-monthly publication of 
the "family story" type. E. M. Turner and Compaay were 
editors and publishers in 1873. The paper was listed in 1875 as 
the Minaret. 

VART NYA HEM, 1873 to date (1874) : A Swedish monthly, edited 
and published by A. Chaiser and Company in 1874. 

CHICAGSKY VESTNIK, 1873 to date (1881) : Bohemian. A liberal 
Republican paper, published weekly. Josef Langmayer was 
editor and publisher in 1874 and 1877. Josef Langmayer was 
publisher and J. V. Matejka was editor in 1880. A later paper, 
monthly, of this name, was established in 1902 by the First 
Bohemian Catholic Central Union as the organ of this Union. 
The editors to date are Rev. Peter Cerveny and John Straka. 

Vox HUMANA, 1873 to date (1879) : A monthly, devoted to music- 
Charles Barnard was editor, and George Woods and Company 
were publishers, 1874-1876. It was dated for Cambridgeport, 
Massachusetts, and Chicago in 1876. In 1879 Louis C. Elson 
was editor, and George Woods and Company were publishers. 

WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, 1873 to date (1876) : An educa- 
tional paper, issued monthly. John W. Brown was editor and 
publisher in 1876. 

WESTERN SPORTING TIMES, i873(?)-- (?): Owned by T. Z. 

WILSON'S REFLECTOR, 1873 to date (1877): A monthly, devoted to 
the advertising of sewing machines. J. A. Spencer was editor, 
and the Wilson Sewing Machine Company were publishers in 
1876. In 1877 Mrs. M. H. Fuller was editor, and the Wilson 
Sewing Machine Company were publishers. 

WORKERS' LAMP, 1873 to date (1877): A monthly, devoted to 
mechanical interests. The Workers' Lamp Company were 
editors and publishers, 1874-1876. Charles G. Smith is men- 
tioned as a publisher in 1875. 

ZIONS VAKT, 1873: Organ of the Swedish Baptist Church; pub- 
lished by Dr. J. A. Edgren. Short lived. 

AMERICAN ASPIRANT, 1874 to date (1876): Edited and published 
by A. F. Bradley and Company. 

AMERICAN HOMES MAGAZINE, i874(?)-- (?): An illustrated 
magazine published by Henry L. Shepard and Company. F. 
W. McClure was manager in 1874. Listed also as American 

AMERICAN MILLER, + May, 1 874 to date : A monthly journal devoted 
to the art of flour milling. It was published for one year at 
Ottawa before its removal to Chicago, May, 1874. It was 


originally owned and edited by Samuel S. Chisholm, with whom 
was associated Arthur J. Mitchell, and subsequently, in 1876, 
Harley B . Mitchell. The American Miller Publishing Company, 
which had been the style of the publishers, was incorporated in 
1878, and in 1882 the style of the corporation was changed to 
Mitchell Brothers Company, which it still retains. Mr. Chis- 
holm sold his interest to the Mitchells and retired. In 1907 
H. B. Mitchell was editor. The officers of the publishing com- 
pany are: H. B. Mitchell, president; M.W.Mitchell, vice- 
president, and A. J. Mitchell, secretary and treasurer. 

ARBEITERFREUND, i874(?)-- (?): German. Rudolph Ruh- 
baum was proprietor. 

BABCOCK FIRE RECORD, iS74(?) (?): Monthly. Edited by 

George Mathews. 

CARL PRETZEL'S NATIONAL WEEKLY, 1874-1893: The title later 
contained the word Illustrated, to advertise its cartoons. A 
comic paper, written in German-English lingo. It made an 
appeal to a wider public than its predecessor. Having exhausted 
after a time his original vein, Mr. C. F. Harris, the editor and 
publisher, turned his attention to politics. Among the contrib- 
utors were Robert G. Ingersoll and John A. Logan. The paper 
became also the organ of some secret society interests. It re- 
tained throughout its existence something of its original humorous 
character. U 

CATHOLIC PILOT, August 15, 1874 to date: A Catholic weekly. 
Edited and published throughout its existence by M. J. Cahill. 
It was listed in 1879 as Irish Leader and Pilot and in 1881 as 

CHILDREN'S VOICE, i874(?)- (?): W. Billings was editor and 

CHRISTIAN AT WORK, i874(?) to date (1875) : In 1874 H. H. Chan- 
dler was manager of the western branch, located in 
Chicago; C. D. Paine, 1875. 

COMMERCIAL PRICE CURRENT, 1874 to date (1877) : A weekly. R. W. 
Wheeler was editor; the Commercial Printing Company were 

DAILY COURIER, January i, 1874, to date (1877) : Issued at 8 A. M. 
Given in the directory for 1876 as the Morning Courier, daily 
and weekly. A Sunday edition, the Sunday Courier-Herald, 
was established in 1876. The Courier Company were editors 
and publishers, 1874-1876; George I. Yeager, in 1877. The 
paper began as Independent; became Democratic. HU 

THE CROSS AND THE SWORD, i874(?): Nowlan and Cunningham 
were proprietors. 


CRUSADER, 1874 to date (1881) : A temperance monthly. Mrs. M. 
E. DeGeer and daughter, Mrs. C. V. Waite, were editors and 
publishers from 1875 to 1879 ( an( i after?). 

ENGINEER, ARCHITECT, AND SURVEYOR, 1874-1875+ : Established 
by George H. Frost and Charles J. Moore. It was changed to 

ENGINEERING NEWS, +1875-1879+: Established by George H. 
Frost. After one year Charles J. Moore became associated 
with Frost in editing and publishing the Engineering News 
which was soon made a weekly. Moore's name disappeared, 
and Frost continued as editor and publisher until the office of 
publication was moved to New York at the close of 1878. 
Vols. 9-18 are entitled Engineering News and American Contract 
Journal; vols. 19-59, Engineering News and American Railway 
Journal. The paper is still published in New York and 
maintains a Chicago office. JC 

FIELD, 1874+ : Weekly. Became WH 

FIELD AND STREAM, +1874-1876+: It succeeded the Field, was 
published bi-weekly, and later became H 

CHICAGO FIELD, February, + 1876- July, 1881 : A sportsman's weekly 
newspaper and recreative journal. Its publishers have been: 
C. W. Marsh and Company, 1874-1879; Chicago Field Publish- 
ing Company, March i, i879~July i, 1881; American Field 
Publishing Company, July 2, 1881, to date. Edited by Marsh 
and Company to March i, 1876. March 4, 1876, Dr. N. Rowe 
assumed editorial charge and on March 3, 1877, became editor 
and manager, and continued as such until his death, March 10, 
1896. Dr. Rowe was also president and treasurer of the 
American Field Publishing Company until his death. Then 
Mrs. N. Rowe became president and treasurer of the company, 
and editor to date. From 1876 George W. Strell was associated 
with Dr. N. Rowe, was managing editor, 1886-1896, and general 
manager and editor, 1896 to date. Title was changed to 
American Field on July 2, 1881. Since 1883 the journal has 
been dated from New York and Chicago. HA 

FRA MODERLANDENE, 1874 to date (1875) : A Scandinavian weekly. 
Albert Fougner was general agent. 

FURNITURE TRADE, 1874 to date (1880) : Monthly. The paper 
was listed in the 1875 directory as Western Furniture Trade, 
and in 1879 and 1880 as Furniture Trade Journal, Brackett and 
Talcott were editors and publishers 1875-1876. The following 
year Charles E. Brackett was editor and publisher. The name of 
F.B.DeBerard appears as editor and publisher in 187 8; Brackett, 
Ealy, and Company in 1879. Francis LeBaron was editor in 


1880, and F. B. De Berard, publisher. The journal was then 
semi-monthly. It was issued simultaneously in Chicago and 
New York in 1879. 

GAZETA POLSKA KATOLICKA, 1874 to date: A Polish Catholic 
weekly. In 1876-1880 John Barzynski was editor, and the 
Polish Literary Society were publishers. In 1907 the W. 
Smulski Publishing Company were publishers. The word Polska 
is not now a part of the title. 

GERICHTSHALLE, 1874 ( ?) : A German paper, edited and pub- 
lished by E. Frederick. 

GOOD TIDINGS, i874(?)- - (?) : L. C. Collins and C. C. Marston 
were the editors. 

GROCER, i874-(after 1879 )-p: A commercial weekly. George P. 
Engelhard was editor, Hannibal H. Chandler was manager, and 
the Grocer Publishing Company were publishers, 1877-1879. 
It became 

GROCER AND MERCANTILE REVIEW, -f ( ) after 1879, to date (1881) : 
George P. Engehard continued in the position of editor. The 
Grocer Company were publishers in 1881, with H. H. Chandler 
as manager. 

HANDELS UNO INDUSTRIE ZEITUNG, 1874 to date (1876) : A Scandi- 
navian commercial paper. It was being published in 1876 by 
the Hejmdal Publishing Company. 

HEJMDAL, 1874 to date (1877): A Scandinavian paper. Reichel 
and Salmonsen were editors and publishers in 1875. The fol- 
lowing year the Hejmdal Publishing Company were publishers. 
In 1877 the same company were publishing the paper, and L. 
Salmonsen was editor. The proprietors for that year are given 
as Reichel and Company. This paper claimed to be "the 
largest Danish-Norwegian paper in the world." 

HOSPITAL BAZAAR, November 16-25, 1874: Edited by Kate Newell 
Doggett in the interest of the Hahnemann Hospital Fair. J 

HYRDESTEMMEN, 1874 to date: A weekly Sunday-school paper, 
published by the Norwegian and Danish Methodists. The 
editors have been: Rev. C. F. Eltzholtz, 1874-1878; Rev. 
Christian Treider and Rev. C. F. Eltzholtz, 1878-1880; A. 
Haagenson, 1880-1884; Christian Treider, 1884-1892; H. P. 
Bergh, 1892-1898: Christian Treider, 1898-1900; H. P. Bergh, 
1900 to date. Files of the paper are available at 272 Grand ave- 
nue, Chicago. 

ILLUSTRATED BIBLE STUDIES, 1874 to date (1879) : A non-sectarian 
Sunday-school paper, published monthly. Howard, Turner, 
and Company were editors and publishers, 1874-1875. C. H. 


Howard and Company were editors and publishers in 1876; C. 
H. Howard was editor, C. H. Howard and Company were pub- 
lishers in 1879. 

INSURANCE CRITIC, 1874 to date (1879): A semi-monthly, devoted 
to insurance interests. George W. and Joseph Reed, Jr., were 
editors and publishers, 1875-1876 ; George W. Reed and George 
W. Corliss, 1877 to date (1879). The paper is given in 1879 as 
a monthly, issued from Chicago and New York. 

i874-October, 1875 + : A quarterly medical journal. J. S. Jewell 
and H. M. Bannister were editors. The journal was continued 
as the 


LIQUOR TRADE REVIEW, 1874 -- (?): Thomas Marshall was 
editor and publisher. 

LIVE STOCK AND PRODUCE REPORTER, i874(?) to date (1875): E. 
Griffiths was publisher. The paper was also listed as Live 
Stock Reporter. 

METAL WORLD, i874(?)-- (?): A commercial monthly, listed in 
the newspaper directory for 1874. It was published by the Metal 
World Publishing Company. 

MILLENARIAN, January, 1874- - (?): Monthly. Edited and pub- 
lished by H. V. Reed. "The Millenarian advocates the per- 
sonal return of Christ to our earth, his literal reign over Isreal 
and the nations, the resurrection of the holy dead at the com 
mencement of the Millennium, and their reign with Christ during 
the Millennial day and beyond," etc. H 

MISSIONS- VANNEN, July, 1874 to date: Founded as a monthly by 
the Mission Synod; became weekly in 1880. Edited at first by 
A. W. Hedenschoug and L. J. Peterson, 1874-1880; Andrew 
Hallner, 1880-1882; A. E. Wenstrand and Gustaf Theden; 
and later Hallner, under whom the paper favored Prohibition. 
He was succeeded by John Hagestrom. The Mission Friends 
Publishing Company bought the paper in 1882. C. G. Peterson 
is manager. 

NAR OCH FJERRAN, 1874 to date (1879) : A Swedish illustrated 
monthly published at the Hemlandet office, 1874-1877. Enan- 
der and Bohman were editors and publishers, 1875-1877. C 

NATIONAL, 1874 to date (1881) : A weekly, devoted to the interests 
of the liquor trade. 


NORDEN, 1874 to date (1881) : A Norwegian paper, Republican in 
politics. Hallward Hande was editor, and I. T. Relling and 
Company were publishers, 1875-1880. U 

NOVELIST, 1874 to date (1881): A literary paper of which George 
E. Blakely was editor, and the Pictorial Printing Company 
were publishers, 1879-1880. 

DEN NYE Tro, i874-after 1881: A socialist paper started by the 
Scandinavian sect of the Socialist Labor party. It was edited by 
Mr. Peterson. In 1 88 1 a paper bearing the same name was listed 
in Ayer as established in 1877 and published by Den Nye Tid 
Publishing Company. 

OUR REST, 1874-1 88o(?) + jj A semi-monthly paper devoted to the 
Second Advent. The title was given in 1881 as Our Rest and 
Signs of the Times. Thomas Wilson was editor and publisher 
in 1873. The same was true in 1880, but in 1875 and 1876 
Thomas Wilson and H. V. Reed were the editors. 

OWL, October, 1874 (?) : A literary monthly devoted to library 

news, brief and terse, often unrestrained and enthusiastic. Book 
notices, and other items of literary interest including essays by 
W. F. Poole, designed to impress upon his readers his belief 
that good fiction should occupy a large place in public libraries, 
gave the paper good standing. It was edited by W. F. Poole, 
and published by W. B. Keen, Cooke, and Company, of whose 
book business the Owl seems to have been more or less the hand- 
maiden. Vol. i consists of fourteen numbers; vol. 2 begins 
with January, 1876. NF 

PEOPLE'S MONTHLY, i874(?) (?): C. McKnight was editor. 

SATURDAY EVENING HERALD, 1874-1909+ : A weekly, devoted in 
early years to literature, art, music, and society; and in later 
years almost exclusively to society. Lyman B. Glover was 
founder, John M. Dandy, G. M. McConnell and Lyman B. 
Glover were editors up to 1879. McConnell withdrew in 1879, 
Glover in 1886. Dandy was editor to 1893 or after. In 1876 
the Herald Publishing Company were publishers. Edward 
Freiberger was editor and publisher in 1907. Ernest L. Briggs, 
editor in 1909, started the Illinois Illustrated Review, July, 1909, 
and Chicago Illustrated Review, September 15, 1909, to succeed 
the Herald. AH 

SCIENTIFIC MANUFACTURER, 1874 to date (1875) : A semi-monthly, 
published at Detroit, Michigan, dated for Chicago and Detroit. 
Thomas S. Sprague was editor and R. H. Sprague, publisher, in 
1874. R. A. Sprague was editor and publisher in 1875, and the 
paper was monthly. 


SEWING MACHINE JOURNAL, 1874 (?): A monthly journal. A. 

M. Leslie and Company were editors and publishers in 1874. 

TEMPLE CALL, i874(?)- (?): Edited by Pliny P. Ravlin. 

VOLKS-ZEITUNG, January, 1874-1876: A socialist paper established 
by a stock company called Social Democratic Printing Associ- 
ation, with Mr. Brucker as editor. The paper was sold to C. 
Conzett in 1876 and was used by him in establishing Arbeiter- 

VORBOTE, March, 1874 to date: Established as a workingman's 
socialist organ, with Conrad Conzett as editor. The success of 
the venture led in 1876 to the purchase of Volks-Zeitung and the 
establishing of the Chicagoer Arbeiter-Zeitung, published three 
times a week. P. Grottkau was editor in 1879, and in that year 
the paper was taken over by the Socialistic Publishing Society. 
August Spies and Michel Schwab became editors in 1880, and 
were condemned for participation in the so-called Anarchist 
riots in Chicago in 1886. Spies was hanged and Schwab, sen- 
tenced to life imprisonment, was pardoned by Governor Altgeld 
in 1893. Since 1892 the paper has been published by Chicago 
Arbeiter-Zeitung Publishing Company, successor to the Social- 
istic Publishing Society. 

WATCHMAKER AND METAL WORKER, 1874 to date (1881) : Estab- 
lished as a monthly. In 1879 it was bi-monthly; then monthly 
in 1880. John H. Mather was editor and publisher, 1879-1880. 

WESTEN, i874(?) (?) : An Independent German weekly paper; 

the Sunday edition of the Illinois Staats-Zeitung. It was listed 
as the Westen und Daheim in 1907 ; a Republican paper. Raster 
was editor, 1874-1875, and The Illinois Staats-Zeitung Company 
were publishers, 1874-1876. U 

WESTERN MANUFACTURER, April, 1874 to date (1882) : A mechan- 
ical publication issued monthly. Fox and Company were 
editors and publishers in 1875 ; Fox and Coyne in 1876; Coyne 
and Gilmore in 1877 ; Coyne and Company in 1877-1880. H 

WESTERN PHOTOGRAPHIC NEWS, October, 1874 to date (1876) : 
Edited and published by C. W. Stevens. 

AMERICAN TRADE JOURNAL, 1875 to date (1881) : A commercial 

AMERIKAN, 1875 to date: Bohemian. August Geringer has been 
publisher from 1875 to date. Listed in the 1877-1881 directories 
as weekly edition of Svornost (which see). Since 1907 it has been 
a bi-weekly. The paper has always been Independent. 

BUDBAREREN, i87s(?) to date (1876): A Swedish paper of which 
Lars C. Svendson was proprietor. 


CHRISTIAN REGISTER, i8y5(?) to date: A Unitarian weekly, estab- 
lished in Boston in 1821. In 1875 it was dated for Chicago. 
Rev. T. J. Mumford was editor, Geo. H. Ellis was business 
manager; and the Christian Register Association were pub- 
lishers. In 1907 George Batchelorwas editor; the same asso- 
ciation were publishers. 

COMMERCIAL, i875(?)-i876+ : Edited by R. Wheeler. By 1877 
it had been changed to 


CONSERVATORY, i875(?)-- (?): Lyman, McAllaster, and Com- 
pany were publishers. 

ENTERPRISE AND TIMES, x875(?) (?) + : Published for South 

Chicago by H. L. Goodall and Company, who were also 
editors. Changed to 

ENTERPRISE, +1875 to date (1877) : A weekly, published for South 
Chicago by H. L. Goodall and Company. William Caffrey 
was editor. 

GRAIN AND PROVISION REVIEW, 1875 to date (1881) : A commercial 
paper. Cole and Company were editors and publishers in 

GREAT SOUTH-WEST, 1875 to date (1876): A monthly advertising 
sheet. In 1876 George Rice was editor and publisher. The 
paper was dated from Sedalia, Missouri, and Chicago. 

GUARDIAN, 1875 to date (1881) : An English and German monthly, 
published in the interest of the I. O. O. F. The Guardian Pub- 
lishing Company, of which S. L. Hurst was secretary, were 
editors and publishers, 1876-1877. The same company were 
publishers, 1878-1880. H. F. Holcomb was editor, 1878- 
1879; T. H. Glenn, 1880. H 

CHICAGOER HANDELS-ZEITUNG, 1875 to date (1879): A German 
commercial and industrial weekly, claimed to be the only one 
in the West. C. Wenborne and J. Lingenberg were editors in 
1877; Sittig and Wenborne were publishers. In 1879 Hermann 
Lieb was editor; the Chicago Democrat Printing Company 
were publishers. No report is given in the directory of 1880. 

HOTEL WORLD, August, 1875 to date: A weekly class journal of 
general hotel information devoted to technical hotel literature, 
hotel news, and editorial. Established by Frank Glossop, who 
was editor and publisher, 1875-1877. William E. Smith was 
associated with him, 1877-1879. H. J. Bohn and Company pur- 
chased the paper in 1879 and continued the publication to 1883. 
H. J. and C. H. Bohn, 1883-1885; H. J. Bohn and Brother 


(John J. Bohn), 1885 to date. Files are in the office and in the 
Library of Congress. 

CHICAGO ILLUSTRATED NEWS, i875(?): W. R. Steele was pub- 

INDEX, i875(?) to date (1891): A Saturday paper, devoted to fic- 
tion. C. E. Tues was editor; the Index Publishing Company 
were publishers. This paper was listed in Rowell for 1891. 

IN DOOR AND OUT, 1875 to date (1879) : An illustrated literary 
monthly. George E. Blakely was editor, and the Pictorial Print- 
ing Company were publishers. 1876-1879. 

INSURANCE PRESS, i875(?)-- (?): Published by George Cohen. 

LAKESIDE LIBRARY, 1875-1877: The issues of this "library" were 
tri-monthly pamphlets, the first of the kind, containing cheap 
reprints of standard fiction. Donnelley, Lloyd, and Company 
were the editors and publishers. This was said by John R. 
Walsh to have been the first ten-cent "library." 

LANDLORD AND TENANT, i875(?)-i876(?): John F. Golding was 
manager in 1875; Francis Timpson was publisher in 1876. II 

MERCANTILE PRICE CURRENT, 1875 to date (1876): A daily and 
weekly commercial paper. The Chicago Mercantile Publishing 
Company were editors and publishers. 

MORNING STAR, + i875(?) to date (1879): A Baptist weekly, 
founded at Dover, New Hampshire, in 1826. According to the 
directories it was dated for Boston and Chicago, 1875-1879. In 
1875 George T. Day was editor; I. D. Stewart, publisher. G. 
F. Mosher and Rev. A. H. Ruling were editors, 1876-1879; I. 

D. Stewart was publisher. 

NATIONAL FARMER, 1875 to date (1879): A monthly publication 
issued from the office of Factory and Farm. M. E. Cole was 
editor, and Fox, Cole, and Company were publishers in 1879. 

DAILY NEWS, December 26, 1875 to date: Established by Melville 

E. Stone, Percy R. Meggy, and William E. Dougherty. Meggy 
and Dougherty soon became discouraged and sold to Mr. Stone, 
who in turn sold to Victor F. Lawson in July, 1876. Later Mr. 
Stone bought a third interest in the property and conducted 
the editorial department until 1888, when he retired. Mr. 
Lawson became sole owner, and thereafter directed both the 
editorial and the business departments. In 1878 the News 
bought the Evening Post ; in 1881 the issue of a two-cent morning 
edition, called at first Morning News, and after 1892 Record, was 
begun; it was made one cent in 1888. Mr. Lawson conducted 
both papers until March 28, 1901, when he sold the Record to 
the Times-Herald and the two were consolidated as Record- 


Herald. The News has professed independence in politics, 
and enterprise rather than sensationalism. Its foreign special 
cable service has been a feature of its news enterprise, while 
its fresh-air fund, free lectures, and such undertakings indicate 
other directions in which it has been active. NH 

PRINTING PRESS, July, i875~October, 1876: A quarterly publica- 
tion for printers, journalists, and others. Edited by Henry R. 
Boss and published for the Franklin Society as a means of in- 
creasing the library of that society. In the early numbers Boss 
printed his Early Newspapers in Illinois. In the second 
volume, beginning June, 1876, three bi-monthly numbers were 
issued, and the publication was then discontinued. JH 

PROGRESSIVE FARMER, i875 v '?) ( ?) : Listed in the 1875 directory. 

RAPED WRITER, +April, i875-November, 1878+ : A quarterly 
publication "devoted to the introduction of phonetic shorthand 
as the common and universal mode of writing." The first num- 
ber was issued in Boston, June 15, 1865, and was edited by D. 
P. Lindsley. The second number, which did not appear until 
April 15, 1869, was issued from Mendon, Massachusetts. By 
that time an office had been established in Chicago with D. Kim- 
ball as manager. Beginning with the ninth number, Rapid 
Writer was issued at Andover, Massachusetts, and dated at An- 
dover, Boston, and Chicago. The Rapid Writer Association 
thenceforward was publisher. Through 1873 the title was Rapid 
Writer and Philological Magazine; in 1874 Rapid Writer and 
Tachygrapher; beginning April, 1875, Rapid Writer; beginning 
January, 1877, Rapid Writer and Takigrajer. Early in 1875 
the office of issue was moved to Chicago; by January, 1879, ^ 
was New York, though D. Kimball remained the western man- 
ager. The publication became bi-monthly in January, 1876; 
in January, 1877, monthly. J 

REAL ESTATE REGISTER, i875(?)- (?): A monthly listed for 
1875. Sams and Furber were proprietors. 

ROLLING MILL JOURNAL, i875(?) : J- p - Ivers was editor. 

SCHOOL WORLD, 1875 to date (1876): A monthly devoted to eo. 
cation. William H. Gardner was editor and publisher in 1876. 

SOUTH LAWN TRIBUNE, i875(?) to date (1878) : Young and Row- 
ley were proprietors of this paper in 1875. J ohn K - Rowley 
edited it in 1878. 

SOUTH SIDE RECORD, i875(?)-- (?): Owned and published by 
Vansant and Company. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL GEM, i875(?) to date (1877) : Published by David 
C. Cook. 


SVORNOST, 1875 to date: An Independent Bohemian paper, issued 
daily and Sunday. F. B. Zdrubek has been chief of the editorial 
staff, and August Geringer publisher, since the beginning. 
Svornost is the oldest Bohemian daily in the United States. C 

TEMPERANCE MONTHLY, 1875 to date (1876) : Mrs. C. Augustus 
Haviland was editor and publisher in 1875. There is no report 
given for 1876. 

TEMPERANCE RECORD, i875( ?)- - ( ?) : Edited by John Meagher. 

TRAVELERS', SHIPPERS' AND MAIL GUIDE, i875(?) to date (1880): 
W. H. Stoelker and Company were publishers. 

WATCHMAN, 1875 to date (1886) : A semi-monthly publication, 
devoted to the interests of the Y. M. C. A. It was a monthly 
in 1876, and edited and published by the Y. M. C. A. W. W. 
Van Arsdale was editor and publisher, 1877-1879. In 1880 
W. W. Van Arsdale was editor, and F. H. Revell publisher. 
The paper was being published in 1884 and in 1886 by Van 
Arsdale. H 

CHICAGOER WESPEN, 1875 ( ?) : A German comic paper, issued 

weekly. Dr. A. C. Lebell was editor and publisher in 1875. 

WESTERN AGE, 1875 to date (1876) : M. Mudge was editor, and 
W. H. Peck and Company were publishers, 1875-1876. 

WESTERN BEACON, i875(?)-- (?): Published monthly. 

WESTERN PAPER TRADE, 1875 to date (1884): A monthly devoted 
to the paper trade mills. The Union Bag and Paper Company 
(formerly Wheeler, Fisher, and Company), were editors and 
publishers from the time it was founded by them in 1875 un- 
til January 15, 1881, when it was bought by J. Fred Waggoner. 
It was still published by him in 1884, but had disappeared be- 
fore 1891. H 

WESTERN TRADE JOURNAL, 1875 to date: Issued weekly and 
devoted to commercial, financial, and mining interests. Henry 
Clay Brace was sole editor and proprietor until 1894, when he 
sold to Jay Smith. Smith sold the paper, in 1895, to Fremont 
Arford, who has been editor, publisher, and proprietor from 
1895 to date. The name was given in Ayer, 1881, as Western 
Trade and Export Journal. 

(1881) : A commercial monthly. 

AMERICAN POULTRY JOURNAL, +1876 to date: An illustrated 
monthly, devoted to the interests of raisers of thoroughbred 
poultry, turkeys, ducks and geese. Established by C. J. Ward, 
1874, in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and moved to Chicago in 1876. C. 
J. Ward was editor; Ward and Darrah were publishers. In 


1879 C. J. Ward, H. C. Darrah, and C. W. Heaton were editors; 
Ward and Darrah, publishers. C. J. Ward appears alone 
as editor and publisher in 1880. The paper was purchased by 
Morgan Bates in 1888. George G. Bates bought it in 1894, and 
the American Poultry Journal Publishing Company was in- 
corporated in 1902. In 1907 Geo. B. Bates was editor; the 
above named company were publishers. At different times 
daily, weekly, and semi-monthly editions have been published. H 

APPEAL, 1876 to date (1880) : A bi-weekly, published in the interest 
of the Reformed Episcopal church. Bishop Samuel Fallows 
was editor; Edward P. Brooks and Company were publishers 
in 1880. 

ARBEITER ZEITUNG, 1876 to'date: A workmen's socialist organ be- 
gun as a tri-weekly as a result of the success of Vorbote, a weekly, 
established by the same persons in 1874. Conrad Conzett was 
editor until 1878, when he sold to the Socialist-Labor party acting 
under the name of Socialist Publishing Company. Conzett was 
succeeded by P. Grottkau. The paper was made a daily at the end 
of 1878. August Spies, who became editor in 1880, and Michel 
Schwab, member of the staff, were implicated in the anarchistic 
riots in 1886; Spies was hanged, and Schwab, condemned to 
imprisonment for life, was pardoned by Governor Altgeld in 
1893. Throughout the first week in May, 1886. the paper was 
suppressed by the police of Chicago; the compositors were 
arrested, and the printer threatened. The paper was censored 
for some time. The publishing company was incorporated in 
1892 as the Arbeiter-Zeitung Publishing Company. A Sunday 
edition is called Die Fackel. 1 JN 

BOTANICAL BULLETIN, November, i875-November, 1876+: A 
monthly journal embracing all departments of botanical science. 
Established by Dr. John M. Coulter, who was editor and pub- 
lisher. In November, 1876, it was changed, on the suggestion 
of Dr. Asa Gray, to the 

BOTANICAL GAZETTE, + November, 1876 to date: From January, 
1878, to January, 1882, M. S. Coulter was associated with his 
brother as editor. When he ceased this relation in January, 
1882, C. R. Barnes and J. C. Arthur became associate editors. 
In 1886 they became co-editors with Dr. Coulter. The editors 
were also publishers until July, 1876, when the University of 
Chicago became the publisher. It has continued so to date. 
After July, 1896, associate editors were selected from the various 
institutions of America and Europe. In July, 1900, J. C. Arthur 
was transferred from the list of editors to that of associate 

1 For a detailed account of the part played in the anarchistic movement by 
thisgroup of papers, see Michael J.Schwab, Anarchy and Anarchists, Chicago, 1889. 


editors. In January, 1905, the list of associates was discontinued. 
The present editors are John M. Coulter and C. R. Barnes. JTJ 

monthly religious paper. 

CHRONICLE, 1876 (?): Monthly. Mentioned only in the directory 
for 1876, which gave George Alexander as editor. 

DREW'S COLLEGE JOURNAL, September, 1876 (?): An adver- 
tising sheet published monthly in the interest of Drew's Business 
College. H 

DUNTON'S SPIRIT OF THE TURF, October 18, 1876 to date (1881) : 
A weekly, devoted to sport. Frank H. Dunton and Charles E. 
Jones were editors; F. H. Dunton was publisher in 1877. In 
1880, Frank H. Dunton was editor; F. H. and E. M. Dunton 
were publishers. H 

EDITOR'S EYE, 1876 to date (1880): Clarence P. Dresser was editor 
in 1880. The publishers for that year were the Editor's Eye 
Company, comprised of C. P. Dresser, F. B. Clancy, and A. 
E. Spencer. A local paper. 

EDUCATIONAL WEEKLY, + December, i876-i88i(?): Formed by 
the combination of School Bulletin and Northwestern Journal of 
Education, Wisconsin; Michigan Teacher; Illinois School- 
master; Nebraska Teacher; The School, Michigan; Home and 
School, Kentucky; School Reporter, Indiana. William F. 
Phelps was the first editor, associated with whom were Pro- 
fessor Edward Olney, University of Michigan; J. M. Gregory, 
president Illinois Industrial University, and Newton Bateman, 
president Knox College. Winchell and Klein were publishers. 
By 1878 E. O. Vaile and S. R. Winchell were editors and pro- 
prietors; S. R. Winchell and Jeremiah Mahony, editors, S. R. 
Winchell and Company, publishers, 1880; J. Fred Waggoner 
was editor and publisher in 1881. H 

FACTORY AND FARM, 1876 to date (1880) : A monthly of which Fox, 
Cole, and Company were editors and publishers. 1877-1880. C 

FANCY GROCER, 1876 to date (1879): A weekly commercial adver- 
tising sheet. Ferdinand Fish was editor, and Southwick and 
Pemberton were publishers in 1879. 

FOLKETS Avis, 1876 to date (1880) : A Danish weekly, Independent in 
politics. Myrup and Olson were editors and publishers in 1880. 
The paper was dated for Racine, Wisconsin, and for Chicago. 

FOLKETS ROST, 1876 to date (1877): A Norwegian weekly. J. 
Ditten and Joe Ellerston were editors ; Joe Ellerston and 
pany, publishers. 


GASKELL'S MAGAZINE, 1876-1887: A monthly educational maga- 
zine. A. J. Scarborough was editor; the G. A. Gaskell Com- 
pany were publishers. 

HIGHWAY PAPERS, 1876 to date (1879): An evangelical monthly. 
Isaiah Reid was editor and publisher. 

INTERNATIONAL LESSON, i876( ?) to date (1880) : A monthly of which 
Fleming H. Revell was publisher in 1876 ; William B. Jacobs in 

IRISH TRIBUNE, 1876 to date (1881) : A weekly paper, Independent 
in politics. M. Ryan was editor; the Irish Tribune Publishing 
Company were publishers. P. J. Ryan was business manager, 

NATIONAL DEMOKRAT, 1876 to date (1877) : A German Democratic 
paper, published daily except Sunday. George Braham was 
business manager in 1877. It was said to be the official organ 
of the city and county, to have a larger circulation than any 
other German Democratic paper in the west, and to be the only 
German Democratic paper published in Chicago. 

OLD OAKEN BUCKET, 1876: A monthly literary publication of the 
"family story" type. E. M. Turner and Company were editors 
and publishers. 

POMEROY'S DEMOCRAT, + January i, 1876 to date (1880) : A weekly 
Greenback paper removed January i, 1876, from New York 
where it was founded in 1869. After January 26, 1878, the title 
was Pomeroy's Illustrated Democrat. Mark M. Pomeroy was 
editor and publisher. HA 

(1880) : A monthly magazine of which J. Ward Boyles was editor 
and publisher, 1876-1880. 

RAILWAY AGE, June 17, 1876- June, 1908+ : A weekly journal 
devoted to the construction, equipment, operation, maintenance, 
and public relations of railways. It was first issued June 17, 
1876, by the Railway Age Publishing Company; George S. 
Bangs, president: Elisha H. Talbott, manager; Horace R. 
Hobart, editor. Mr. Talbott was the originator of the Railway 
Age and from 1878 to 1891 was president as well as manager. 
H. W. Shuey was treasurer and business manager from 
December, 1886. In September, 1891, Harry P. Robinson 
and associates purchased Mr. Talbott's controlling interest 
and merged into the Railway Age the Northwestern Rail- 
roader, which for some years had been published by them at 
Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Railway Age and Northwestern 
Railroader Company was incorporated with Harry P. Robinson, 


president ; Horace R. Hobart, vice-president, and Hugh M. Wil- 
son, secretary and manager. In January, 1900, Hugh M. 
Wilson purchased the control from Mr. Robinson and assumed 
entire business and editorial management. The property was 
reincorporated as the Railway Age Company, with Hugh M. 
Wilson, president and manager; H. R. Hobart, vice-president; 
John N. Reynolds, second vice-president; W. H. Shuey, treas- 
urer, and T. Addison Busby, secretary. In May, 1906, the 
Railway Age Company was reorganized as the Wilson Com- 
pany. The Railway Age and the Railroad Gazette were united 
June, 1908, as Railroad Age Gazette. WHJU 

RARESEK, i876( ?) ( ?) : A Bohemian weekly edited by Reischel 


SCIENCE AND PROGRESS, 1876 to date (1883) : Listed in Hubbard's 
Newspaper Annual for 1883-1884. 

CHICAGOER SOCIALIST, 1876 to date (1879): A German paper 
issued daily except Sunday. The Socialist Printing Association 
were editors and publishers in 1877. Robert List was manager 
in 1879. 

SUNDAY SCHOOL ADVOCATE, +1876 to date (1877): Established in 
Boston in 1840. Published weekly and semi-monthly. It was 
dated for New York, Cincinnati, Boston, and Chicago in 1877. 
Rev. J. H. Vincent was editor, and Nelson and Phillips were 
publishers in 1877. 

SUNSET CHIMES, 1876 to date (1887) : A monthly literary magazine 
of the "family story" type. The Sunset Chimes Publishing 
Company were editors and publishers in 1877-1881. 

TEACHERS' QUARTERLY, 1876 to date (1881): A quarterly evangel- 
ical paper. 

WASHINGTONIAN, January, i876-i893(?) : A temperance monthly, 
edited by Daniel Wilkins and published by the Washingtonian 
Home Association. H 

WATCH, 1876 (?): A bi-monthly advertising sheet. Charles 

Wendell and Company were editors and publishers in 1876. 

TRADES, July, i876-i907(?)+ : A monthly devoted to brewing, 
malting, hop, and kindred trades. It was established by J. M. 
Wing and H. S. Rich, under the firm name of J. M. Wing and 
Company. H. S. Rich became sole owner in 1887. The com- 
pany was incorporated in 1903 as H. S. Rich and Company, who 
are still the editors and publishers. There is a branch office in 
New York. In 1907 the name of the paper was given as Western 
Brewer, and has been so to date. J 


WESTERN TRAVELER, i876(?) ( ?) : Published by D. A. Cashman. 

November, 1877: A weekly series of poems issued in pamphlet 
form, each bearing a serial number. By Brock L. McVicker. 
Fifty-two numbers were issued, toward the last in groups of four 
or five. H 

WORDS OF LIFE, i876(?) to date (1880): A monthly edited and 
published by Fleming H. Revell, 1876-1880. H 

AMATEUR MECHANIC, July, 1877, to date (1878) : A monthly edited 
and published by Samuel Harris as an advertising sheet. H 

AMERICAN HOME, 1877 to date (1881): A bi-monthly family peri- 
odical. In 1879 an d 1880 Mrs. Theodore C. Campbell was editor 
and publisher. C 

BEOBACHTER, 1877 to date (1907): A German paper, founded at 
Wheaton by Paul Geleff, who was its editor to about 1885. 
Henry Wilhelmy owned and conducted the paper from 1885 to 
the year of his death, 1892. After that, A. Paessler was the pro- 
prietor. It has been for years the official paper of a number of 
suburban towns and of DuPage County. It has absorbed the 
McHenry Familienfreund, 1895, the Joliet Volksblatt, 1896, the 
Chicago Concordia, 1899, and the Harlem Post, 1906. It is 
known now (1907) as Beobachter and Post, published by the 
Beobachter and Post Publishing Company, and is listed as In- 
dependent in politics. It is dated for Chicago and for Wheaton. 

BLADET, February, 1877 to date: Established by John Martenson 
as a fortnightly Swedish Lutheran paper. In 1879 it was com- 
bined with Zions Baner, owned by K. Erixon, who became joint 
owner with Martenson, and Bladet was made a weekly. Victor 
Rylander later became a member of the firm. John Martenson 
has been editor from the beginning. Organ of the Free Mission 

BOARD OF TRADE, 1877: A commercial monthly, published by M. 
T. Lane and Company. 

BUNDER-POSAUNE, 1877 to date (1879): A German evangelical 
monthly, published under the auspices of the Publishing Com- 
mittee of the German National Y. M. C. A., with Rev. J. D. 
Severinghaus as editor, Severinghaus and Company, publishers. 

MONTHLY CASKET, i877(?) to date (1880) : Edward U. Jones was 
editor, 1877-1880. 

CHURCH AND SCHOOL, 1877 to date (1880) : A non-sectarian monthly, 

edited and published by David C. Cook. 
CLOTHING GAZETTE, 187 7(?) (?): Edited by John McGreer. 


COSMOPOLITAN, 1877 to date (1880) : A monthly, devoted to fashions. 
C. A. Vosburg and Company were editors and publishers in 1879 
and 1880. 

DEUTSCHE AMERIKANISCHE MUELLER, 1877 to date (1881) : A Ger- 
man mechanical monthly. In 1879 Sittig and Wenborne were 
editors and publishers. In 1880 E. A. Sittig was editor and pub- 

DEUTSCHE WARTE. 1877 to date: A German Independent weekly, 
(semi- weekly since 1889) edited and published to 1884 by the 
German Book and News Company. Since 1884 the Germania 
Publishing Company have been publishers. Dr. H. Duemling 
is now editor-in-chief. 

DRUGGIST, 1877 to date (1881) : A monthly, devoted to drug in- 

DUCH CASU, 1877 to date: A Bohemian illustrated weekly, 
devoted to literature. It has a comic section and is issued from 
the office of the Svornost. August Geringer is editor and pub- 

EVANGELISK TiDSKRiFT, i877~January i, 1885+: Edited by Dr. 
J. A. Edgren and published by Rev. N. P. Jensen until 1880, 
when it was turned over to E. Wingren. Started as a monthly ; 
in 1881 made semi-monthly. January i, 1885, the name was 
changed to Nya Wecko Fasten, which is still edited and pub- 
lished by Rev. E. Wingren. Swedish Baptist. 

EVERY CHILD'S PAPER, i877(?) to date (1878) : Miss E. C. Pruden 
was editor and proprietor. 

EVERY YOUTH'S PAPER, i877(?) to date (1878) : Miss E. C. Pruden 
was editor and publisher. 

EYE, 1877 (?) to date (1886) : Devoted to art, photography, and hu- 
morous and other literature. In 1884 Hutchin and Cotmer were 
editors and publishers. 

FAIR PLAY, i877(?)-February, 1882+ : The first number, that for 
December 10, 1881, was labeled vol. vi, no. i; the issue for 
February n, 1882, was the last. Edited by Frank H. Brooks. 
It was apparently either the successor to some earlier publication 
or vi should have been i. On Sunday, February 19, 1882, 
Brooks began the publication of Porcupine, apparently aimed to 
serve the same somewhat unobvious purpose as Fair Play. H 

FARM AND GARDEN, 1877 to date (1881) : A bi-monthly advertising 

FARMERS' REVIEW, 1877 to date: Established by A. Moore. Until 
1880 it was monthly; since then it has been weekly. It has 
always been devoted to live stock and agriculture. The Farmers' 


Review Company were editors and publishers in 1879 and until 
1883. It was purchased in 1883 by Hannibal H. Chandler and 
Company, of which company Hannibal H. Chandler was presi- 
dent and Edwin W. Chandler, secretary. It was edited and 
published by this company until April, 1909, when it passed into 
the ownership of the National Stockman and Farmer Company. 
of Pittsburg, Pa., and Chicago. Under this management the 
publication continues weekly as before. Files are available at 
the office. HU 

GOOD NEWS, i877(?)-- (?): Monthly. 

HARDWARE AND IMPLEMENT TRADE, i877(?) : A weekly, published 
by Tucker and Smith. 

HARDWARE AND IRON LIST, i877(?) to date (1879) : A. C. Schooley 
was editor and proprietor, 1877-1879. 

ILLUSTRATED BOOT AND SHOEIST, i877(?) (?) : John McGreer 

was editor. 

INDEPENDENT, i877-i88o(?): William Burgess was editor and 
publisher. "Devoted to the interests of hotel men, merchants, 
and manufacturers." H 

INSURANCE HERALD, i877-i88o(?) : Geo. I. Yeager was editor and 
the Herald Publishing Company were publishers in 1877. This 
paper was apparently started by Yeager after the Herald was 
changed to Argus. George I. Yeager is given in the city direc- 
tories as manager, 1879-1880. 

SEMI- WEEKLY JOURNAL, i877(?)-- (?): Published by H. L. 
Goodall and Company. 

JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 1877 to date (1881): A scientific monthly 
publication. H 

KATHOLISCHER JUGEND FREUND, 1877 to date (1881): A German 
Catholic juvenile magazine. Rev. A. J. Thiele was editor, and 
C. M. Staiger publisher, 1879-1880. The paper was published 
bi-weekly 1877-1878, and weekly 1879-1880. 

LAW JOURNAL, 1877 to date (1907): Published weekly since its 
establishment by the Chicago Law Journal Publishing Com- 
pany. Judge John Gibbons was editor for a number of years, 
and was succeeded by Col. J. W. C. Jones. D. M. Hammack 
was afterwards editor. In 1907 the editor was William F. 
Denneman, LL.B. This paper is not listed in Rowell for 1879, 
nor in Ayer for 1881. Files may be found at the Chicago Public 
Library, the Chicago Law Institute, and the various State Law 
Libraries throughout Jhe country. 


LEAF, 1877 to date (1881): A commercial weekly devoted to the 
tobacco trade. J. Irving Crabbe was editor in 1879 ; and Collins 
and Hoffman were publishers. In 1880 George N. Holdcraft 
was editor; G. P. Hoffman, publisher. 

MARVEL, i877( ?) to date (1878) : A monthly published by Spalding 
and Company in 1877. Charles E. Bonnell was editor and pro- 
prietor in 1878. 

MIRROR OF FASHIONS, February, i877(?)-i88o(?) : An advertising 
sheet. Vol. 3, no. 6 is dated July 17, 1879. In 1879 J. D. 
Goodrich was publisher. J. D. Goodrich and Company were 
publishers in 1880. The paper was then listed as The Mirror. H 

MUSICAL REVIEW, April, 1877- - ( ?) : Edited by George B. Arms- 
trong; published monthly by the Musical Review Publishing 

NAD OCH SANNUNG, i877( ?) to date (1880) : Scandinavian. Ewald, 
Lindell and Skeppstedt were proprietors in 1878. In 1880 
Charles Lindell and Rev. Carl A. Ewald were editors. 

NATIONAL BOARD OF TRADE, 1877 to date (1879) : Published weekly. 
E. A. Saxby was editor in 1878; M. T. Lane was editor, the 
National Board of Trade Publishing Company were publishers, 

NEUE ZEIT, 1877-- (?): A German Independent paper. It was 
the Sunday edition of the Volks Zeitung. The Chicago Press 
Society were editors and publishers. 

NORSK-AHERIKANSKE INDEPENDENT, 1877 to date (1879): A Nor- 
wegian Independent publication. O. M. Peterson, Morck and 
Company were editors and publishers in 1879. 

NORTHWEST, i877(?) (?): Issued daily and weekly. It was 

edited by Carl Grandpre', and published by Emil Bischof. 

PLAY, 1877 to date (1881) : A monthly devoted to drama and music.H 

PRACTICAL TEACHER, 1877 to date (1881) : A paper devoted to edu- 
cation and issued semi-monthly except during July and August. 
It was a monthly in 1879. Klein and Kimball were editors and 
publishers in 1879-1880. 

PUBLISHERS' MONTHLY, i877(?) to date (1878): Luther Conant 
was manager in 1878. 

SOCIAL SCIENCE JOURNAL, 1877-1881 : A monthly, issued by the 
Illinois Social Science Association and sent gratis to its members ; 
Miss S. A. Richards was editor, 1879-1880. 

STATES, September 8, 1877 ( ?) : A Greenback weekly, with de- 
partments of literature and law. Its career seems to have been 
brief. H 


SVENSKA POSTEN, 1877+: A Swedish semi-monthly paper edited 
by Peter Roos. Its name was soon changed to 

SVENSKA AMERiKANAREN, 1 + October, 1877 to date: Established by 
Herman Roos and Nels Anderson. Herman Roos was editor till 
June, 1878; Roos and Elmblad, 1878-1880; Elmblad, 1880- 
1884; Sundelius, C. F. Peterson and Jacob Bonggren, 1884- 

1 888 ; Bonggren, 1 888 ( ?) . Nels Anderson was owner until 

1884, when he sold to P. A. Sundelius. N. P. Nelson, and Gabriel 
Hjertquist, as the Swedish American Printing Company. Frans 
A. Lindstrand acquired most of the stock in 1888; he sold in 
1908 to F. A. Larson. 

CHICAGOER VOLKS-ZEITUNG, 1877- - ( ?) : A German Independent 
paper, issued daily except Sunday. The Chicago Press Society 
were editors and publishers in 1877. 

WESTERN SHOE AND LEATHER REVIEW, 1877 to date (1881): A 
commercial weekly. C. E. Rollins was manager, 1878-1879; 
Yeager and McDermott were publishers, 1879-1880; C. H. Mc- 
Dermott was editor, 1880; and the Western Shoe and Leather 

Review Company were editors and publishers, i88i(?) (?). 


YOUNG FOLKS WEEKLY, i877(?)-- (?): Published by H. N. F. 

ALARM, i878-(after 1884): An English organ of the Workingman's 
party. Edited by A. R. Parsons, one of the notorious group of 
Chicago anarchists. 

ALL THE WORLD OVER, i878( ?) ( ?) : Mentioned in the directory 

for 1878. G. F. Thomas was publisher. 

AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN, 1878-1881+ : Established and edited by 
Stephen D. Peet. After the first three volumes the name of the 
paper was changed to American Antiquarian and Oriental Jour- 
nal, which has continued to date. It was published as a quar- 
terly until 1884, since when it has been bi-monthly. Its interests 
are literary and scientific. It has dealt mainly with the pre- 
historic works and races of America, also to less extent with those 
of Europe, Asia, and Africa. The co-operation of European and 
American archaeologists, distinguished in both biblical and clas- 
sical lines of work, has secured the journal a means of maintain- 
ing a scientific basis for all that it publishes. Its pages are illus- 
trated. In 1880 Jameson and Morse were publishers. Mr. 
Peet is now his own publisher. H JC 

AMERICAN CHESS JOURNAL, 1878 to date (1881) : A monthly, given 
up to the problems of the game of chess. 

l This paper should not be confused with a paper of the same name which was 
established in 1866. 


AMERICAN FURNITURE GAZETTE, 1878 to date (1881): A monthly 
trade periodical. 

AMERICAN HOMEOPATH, 1878-1880+ : A monthly homeopathic jour- 
nal, published in New York, dated from New York and Chicago 
until 1880. In 1879 J. P. Mills was editor; A. L. Chatterton and 
Company were publishers. In 1880 Charles E. Blumenthal, 
M.D., was editor; the publishers were the A. L. Chatterton 
Publishing Company. Vols. 2 and 3 were called American 
Homeopathist and later volumes, American Physician. Con- 
tinued in New York until December, 1908. 

AMUSEMENT WORLD, December n, 1878- - (?): A weekly review 
of the drama, music, and the fine arts. Edited by Frank I. 
Jervis, published by William E. Smith. H 

ARTIST, i878(?) : G. F. Thomas was editor. 

BARN-VANNEN, i878-i879(?): Rev. A. Hull was editor in 1878 
or 1879, and Charles O. Lindell in the next year. 

BUDGET, 1878 to date (1881): Brainerd and Daniels were editors; 
A. Porter was publisher. Weekly. 

BUSINESS MAN'S MAGAZINE, i878( ?) ( ?) : J. P. Scott was pub- 

CALL, 1878 to date (1881) : A Sunday paper, devoted to matters of 
family interest. T. J. Morrow was editor and publisher in 1880. 

CHAMPION or FAIR PLAY, 1878 to date: An English and German 
weekly devoted to liquor interests. Edited and published in 
1907 by R. J. Halle. 

CHAPEL CHRONICLE, September, 1878 (?): A monthly record 

of the mission work of the First Presbyterian church at Railroad 
Chapel. Edited by N. O. Moore. H 

CITIZENS' LEAGUE, December 14, 1878, to date (1879) : Prohibition 
rampant. Frederick D. Dalton was editor and proprietor. H 

CONDITOR, KOCH UND BAECKER ZEITUNG, 1878 to date (1879) : 

A German scientific conmmercial publication, issued bi-weekly 
at Chicago and Philadalphia. F. Lisiewski and Company were 
editors and publishers in 1879. 

CONSERVATOR, 1878 to date: A Colored Republican weekly. In 
1878 Ferdinand L. Barnett and James E. Henderson were 
editors; in 1879 Joseph Houser was publisher. In 1907 D. R. 
Wilkins was editor; the Conservator Printing and Publishing 
Company were publishers. 

EXPOSITION DAILY PRESS, Fall, 1878: The official organ of the 
Inter-State Exposition, for free distribution. Published by 
Creswell, Wanner, and Company. H 


FAEDERNESLANDET, 1878 to date (1880): A Swedish weekly publi- 
cation. Olson and Company were editors and publishers, 

FAMILY JOURNAL, i878(?)- - (?) : Edited by Miss C. T. Stalp. 

FARM, FIELD, AND FIRESIDE, 1878-1906+ : An agricultural 
monthly, founded by R. L. V. Powis. Thomas W. Herringshaw 
was publisher in 1879. Thomas Owen, Jr., and Frederick 
Hankohl were editors in 1880, and the Farm, Field, and Fireside 
Publishing Company were publishers. By 1885 the name had 
been changed to Farm, Field, and Stockman, and the paper was 
being published by a stock company of which Powis was presi- 
dent. Gen. Charles H. Howard and James W. Wilson bought 
the paper from Powis in the fall of 1885. From that time until 
1900 the Howard and Wilson Publishing Company issued 
the paper, with General Howard as principal owner and con- 
trolling editor. Upon acquiring the Farm, Field, and Stockman 
in 1885, the publishers immediately changed -it to a weekly. 
Under the same name it was published until 1893, when the title 
was changed back to Farm, Field, and Fireside. In 1894 the 
Western Rural, a weekly, which had been published some twenty 
years by Milton George, was purchased by the Howard and 
Wilson Publishing Company. The two weeklies were published 
by this company until 1900, when the business interests were 
divided. James W. Wilson took the Western Rural, sold his 
holdings in the publishing company, and it ceased to exist. The 
Howard Company purchased the Farm, Field, and Fireside and 
continued its publication till May. 1905. The president of this 
company and business manager was Otis McGaw Howard, son 
of General C. H. Howard, who was the treasurer. The secretary 
and associate editor was Miss Nina F. Howard. The Farm, 
Field, and Fireside Monthly was also published by the same com- 
pany from 1899 to 1905. Among those who were connected 
with the paper a number of years as agricultural editors were 
Jonathan Periam, P. H. Jacobs, Wm. B. Lloyd, and Allan S. 
Neilson. The paper was sold to Wm. A. Radford in 1905 and 
in 1906 it was changed to a monthly and combined v.ith another 
paper and the name changed to the National Monthly F^rm 
Press edited by Her; ert Shearer. U 

FASHION COURIER, i878(?) (?). H 

FREEMAN, 1878 to date (1881) : A Republican weekly. 

GOOD AS GOLD, i878(?)-- (?): Edited and published in 1878 

by Mark M. Pomeroy. 
GRAPHIC, 1878 to date (1895) : An illustrated weekly publication. 

Hoffman and Lederer were editors and publishers in 1879. It 


was listed as a Republican paper with the Graphic Company 
editors and publishers, 1891-1895. 

HOMEOPATHIC RECORD, i878(?) (?): W. F. Morrison was 

editor and proprietor. 

INDICATOR, 1878 to date: Established by O. L. Fox, its present 
editor and proprietor. It was first issued as an art and music 
weekly. In 1880 it discarded art, and added piano and organ 
trade items. In 1907 it discarded music, and it has since been 
exclusively a piano and organ trade journal. 

JEWISH ADVANCE, 1878 to date (1881): A Jewish weekly, printed 
in English and German. Rev. Henry Gersoni was editor, 1879- 
1880, and Max Stern, publisher. H 

JOURNAL OF FREEDOM AND RIGHT, 1878 to date (1881) : A weekly, 
devoted to the liquor interests. 

LIVING CHURCH, 1878-1907+: A weekly publication, devoted to 
the interests of the Episcopal church. It was established in 
Chicago by the Right Rev. Samuel S. Harris, D.D., LL.D., and 
the Rev. John Fulton, D.D. The paper passed into the hands 
of the Rev. C. W. Lemngwell, D.D., 1879, and he was editor 
and publisher until 1900. For a part of this time Arthur P. Sey- 
mour was associated in the business management. In 1907 the 
paper was removed to Milwaukee, where it is still published, 
dated for Milwaukee, Chicago and New York. Frederic Cook 
Morehouse is editor; the Young Churchman Company are 
publishers. H 

MANUFACTURERS' FIRE INSURANCE GUIDE, i878(?) to date (1879) : 
R. A. Waller was publisher. 

MILLER'S NATIONAL MAGAZINE, October, 1878 (?): A quar- 
terly publication. H 

CHICAGO MINING REVIEW, 1878 to date: A mining and industrial 
journal published monthly. The Mining Review Publishing 
Company were editors and publishers in 1880. From 1880 to 
after 1886 the name was given as Mining Review. By 1907, the 
paper had become the Mining Review and Metallurgist. It was 
edited and published by Edward A. Taft. C 

MONITOREN, i878(?)-- (?): L. P. Nelson was proprietor. 

NATIONAL LAUNDRY JOURNAL, 1878 to date : A semi-monthly publi- 
cation devoted to trade. Charles Dowst was editor and pub- 
lisher from the beginning. E. S. Jefferson is mentioned as an 
editor in the city directory for 1879. ^ n J 97 Charles Dowst 
was editor and president of the Dowst Brothers Company, pub- 
lishers. This has remained true to date. The Journal is "the 
first paper in the world to be devoted to the laundry trade." 


NEWSBOYS' APPEAL, i878(?) to date (1880): Albert Landon and 
Company were publishers in 1878; J. J. Tobias was editor in 
1879; and Mrs. E. A. Forsyth was manager in 1880. 

NORTH SIDE REPORTER, i878-(after 1880): A local paper. F. W- 
Brenckle was editor and publisher; later in 1879 Brenckle and 
Thomas P. Getzmere were editors; Brenckle alone in 1880. H 

A commercial monthly. It was edited and published by Hatch 
and Chase in 1879; by D. C. Chase in 1880. 

OUR NEW EMPIRE, 1878 to date (1879): A monthly publication. 
E H. Briggs and W. W. Fithian were editors, and E. H. Brigg 
and Company were publishers in 1879. 

OUR PICTURE GALLERY, January-December, 1878+ : A monthl) 
"for little folks." It was made up chiefly of stock wood cuts, 
with some second-reader rimes and anecdotes. Published b> 
the Chicago Engraving Company. It was continued as 

PICTURE GALLERY FOR YOUNG FOLKS, + December, 1878 to date 
(1881) : A monthly publication devoted to juvenile interests. 
Mrs. D. N. Bash was editor, and the Chicago Engraving Companj 
were publishers in 1880. 

OVER LAND AND SEA, 1878 to date (1879) : A monthly literary pul 
lication. The Over Land and Sea Company were editors anc 
publishers in 1879. 

PAMPHLET MISSION, March-August, 1878+ : At the end of the first 
volume of six monthly numbers this paper changed its form anc 

UNITY, + September, 1878 to date: A paper devoted to the interest 
of the Unitarian church. At first issued monthly, it became 
semi-monthly in 1879, and weekly in 1885. In 1878 it wa 
managed and edited by a committee of five: Rev. Robert Col- 
lyer, Rev. J. Lloyd Jones, Rev. W. C. Gannett, Rev. C. W. 
Wendte, Rev. J. C. Leonard; Miss Frances L. Roberts was 
business agent. Rev. H. M. Simmons became managing editor 
in 1879. In 1881 Rev. J. L. Jones became editor. From 1881 to 

1885 Unity was published by the Colgrove Book Company; from 

1886 to 1893 by Charles H. Kerr and Company; from 1893 to 
date by the Unity Publishing Company. Charles H. Kerr be- 
came office editor in 1886, with Jenkin Lloyd Jones, David N. 
Utter and James V. Blake resident editors. Jenkin Lloyd Jones 
and W. Kent were editors, and the Unity Publishing Company 
were publishers in 1907. This periodical was published for a 
time, several years ago, with the title The New Unity. Files 
are available at the Abraham Lincoln Centre, Chicago, and at 
Meadville College, Pennsylvania. HCW 


PLATTDEUTSCHE ZEITUNG, 1878 to date (1881) : A German weekly. 
Edward Cook was editor and publisher in 1880. 

RAILWAY ENTERPRISE, i878(?)+: Published by Day K. Smith. 

It was apparently combined in 1878 or 1879 with Railroader, 

and continued as 

Issued monthly. It was dated from Chicago and Toledo in 1879. 

The Railroader Publishing Company were publishers. 

RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC, 1878 to date: A monthly devoted to 
the interests of railroads. O. H. Reynolds was editor, and Bruce 
V. Crandall Company were publishers until February, 1909, 
when they sold to the Railway List Company, which now pub- 
lishes the paper, with L. F. Wilson as editor. U 

RAILWAY PURCHASING AGENT, 1878- January i, 1886+ : Edited and 
published by Willard A. Smith in 1879. Smith and Cowles were 
publishers in 1880. United with Railway Master Mechanic, 
January i, 1886. Willard A. Smith was publisher in 1886; the 
B. V. Crandall Company were publishers in 1889, followed by 
the Railway Purchasing Agent Company, with E. N. Lewis as 
manager. Walter D. Crosman appeared as editor February, 
1 890, and a few months later as manager of the editorial depart- 
ment; Waldo H. Marshall, editor, 1892-1895; Railway List 
Company, publishers, Walter D. Crosman, editor, 1896-1900. 
William E. McGraw became manager in 1900; Bruce A. Cran- 
dall has been editor and publisher, 1900 to date, with various 
editors under him. J 

RAILWAY TIMES, 1877 to date (1881) : A weekly, devoted to the in- 
terests of railroads. 

Published by the Bulletin Printing Company. 

CHICAGO RIBBON REVIEW, March 24-October(?), 1878+ : "Devoted 
to temperance, science, literature and art." Published weekly 
by the Ribbon Publishing Company. In the thirty-second 
number the name had been changed to H 

CHICAGO REVIEW, +October(?), 1878 to date (1879): A weekly 
devoted to temperance. W. C. Crum was editor and publisher 
in 1878. Charles C. M. Salvesen was editor and proprietor in 
1879-1880. H 

SCHIBBOLOTH, i878( ?)- - ( ?) : Published by Lindahl and Setter- 

SENTINEL, 1878 to date (1881): A weekly Greenback paper. Sey- 
mour F. Norton was editor and publisher, 1879-1880. 

SOCIALIST, 1878: An English organ of the Socialist Labor party, 


with Frank Hirth as editor, and A. R. Parsons assistant editor. 
Because of party strife the paper failed within the year, and Par- 
sons became editor of Alarm. 

DAILY TELEGRAPH, March 2, iSyS-May 9, 1881+: Established 
by S. F. Norton as an organ of the Greenback-Labor party. 
After a few months William T. Collins purchased a large interest 
and made the paper Democratic. In the spring of 1881 the 
property was secured by the projectors of the Morning Herald. 
The last issue was dated May 9, 1881. The Herald began May 
10 with Frank W. Palmer as editor-in-chief, with Will D. Eaton 
as assistant, and J. W. Scott publisher and business manager. 
In 1882 Palmer retired; John F. Ballentyne became editor, with 
Slason Thompson and David Henderson assistants. Up to this 
time the Herald had been Republican; it now became Inde- 
pendent, with Republican proclivities. In August, 1883, John 
R. Walsh bought a controlling interest, which he, with James 
W. Scott and A. F. Hatch, held until after 1892. With this 
change in ownership the Herald became Democratic, with Mar- 
tin J. Russell as editor, assisted by Horatio W. Seymour. After 
two or three years Seymour became editor, and continued to 
serve as editor until March 4, 1895, when the Herald was com- 
bined with the Times, and the two were continued in the Times- 
Herald until March 28, 1901, when this paper was combined 
with the Record as Record-Herald. (See pp. 66, 127.) H 

TILSKUEREN, 1878 to date (1880) : A Scandinavian paper published 
monthly. Louis Pio was editor and publisher, 1879-1880. 

VERDENS GANG, 1878 to date: A Norwegian-Danish weekly Inde- 
pendent paper. In 1880 Nels Sampson and Company were 
editors and publishers. The Verdens Gang Company were 
publishers in 1907 and are still so. 

VOLKSFREUND, 1878 to date (1880): Published daily and Sunday. 
The Volksfreund Publishing Company were editors and pub- 
lishers in 1880. Edward Runnel was managing editor in 1879. 

WESTERN ENTERPRISE, i878( ?)- ( ?) : A monthly literary publi- 
cation, edited and published by John J. Sullivan. 

German publication, devoted to sport. John J. Pinzel was 
editor and publisher in 1878. 

WITNESS, 1878 to date (1881) : An evangelical weekly. Rev. 
Thomas J. Lamont was editor and publisher, 1879-1880. 

X. Y. L. N. T. JOUPNAL, i878(?)-- (?): Published by Henry 



, i879(?)- - ( ?) : An insurance publication, edited by Ira J. 
Mason. Although the issue for November 15, 1879 i g labeled 
vol. 12, no. i, there is nothing to indicate that any numbers 
preceded this one. H 

AGRICULTURE AND FAMILY GAZETTE, i879(?)-- (?): Mentioned 
only in the directory for 1879. Ray Lespinasse was manager. 

AMATEUR'S JOURNAL, 1879-- (?): An amateur paper edited 
and published by Henry F. Donohoe. 

AMERICAN CONTRACTOR, 1879 to date: A monthly devoted to trade, 
especially to furnishing "advance reports of building projects 
before the closing of contracts. B. Edwards and Company were 
publishers, 1895; American Contractor Company in 1899. H. 
A. Beckel was editor, and the American Contractor Publishing 
Company were publishers in 1907. 

AMERICAN GRAPHIC, 1879-1905: A society monthly. 

AMERICAN STOCKMAN, 1879 to date (1881) : A stock journal, edited 
by E. W. Perry, published by the American Stockman Com- 
pany; daily, semi- weekly, and weekly in 1880; weekly in 1881. 

BIBLE CLASS SCHOLAR, 1879 to date (1881) : An evangelical quar- 
terly publication. 

BOOKSELLER AND STATIONER, 1879 to date (1881) : A trade monthly. 
J. Fred Waggoner was editor and publisher in 1879 and 1880. 

BUNDES BANNER, 1879 to date (1881) : A German evangelical 
monthly. Rev. J. D. Severinghaus was editor; Severinghaus 
and Company were publishers. 

CARNIVAL HERALD, April 15-29, 1879. An eight-page daily, pub- 
lished for two weeks. Edited by Mrs. Elizabeth Boynton Har- 
bert, and published in the interest of the Women's Christian 
Association, Illinois Industrial School for Girls, Chicago Wo- 
men's Christian Temperance Union, Chicago Hospital for 
Women and Children, Half Orphan Asylum, Foundlings' Aid 
Society. H 

CATHOLIC NEWS, i879(?): Henry F. Donohoe was editor and 

COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE, i879(?) : M. T. Lane was editor. 

COMMERCIAL GRAPHIC, 1879 to date (1880) : A weekly, edited and 
published by W. L. Fawcett. 


Boyles was editor. 
DAY SPRING, i879(?) to date (1880): A monthly of which F. H. 

Revell was editor and publisher. 


DRUGGIST AND PAINT AND On, REVIEW, October, 1879-- (?): A 
commercial monthly. G. H. Engelhard was editor, H. H. Chan- 
dler, manager. H 

FACKEL, 1879 to date: A socialist publication, the Sunday edition 
of the Arbeiter-Zeitung. The item of chief interest connected 
with thib paper is its relation to the anarchist riots in 1886. J 

FAMALJE ALTARET, i879(?)-- (?) : ^ ev - A. Hull was editor. 

FIGARO, 1879 to date (1880) : A comic paper, issued Sundays. Paul 
Geleff was editor and publisher. 

FIREMAN'S JOURNAL, i879(?) to date (1880): C. N. Bishop was 

FOLKE-VENNEN, 1879 to date: A Norwegian Lutheran monthly, 
published by Rev. J. Z. Torgerson, 1879-1881. It was pub- 
lished, 1881-1903, as a Dano-Norwegian non-sectarian weekly, 
by W. Mortenson and Company. Since 1903 it has been con- 
tinued by the Folke-Vennen Publishing Company, with L. Crook 
as proprietor and editor. 

MORNING HERALD, March 17, 1879-- (?): According to Moses 
and Kirkland, this paper introduced itself to "the Democrats of 
Chicago and the Northwest as a zealous champion of their 
principles and leaders." A copy of the first number is in the 
library of the Chicago Historical Society. [This is not the 
Morning Herald that was consolidated with the Daily Telegraph.] 


HOURS OF RECREATION, 1879-1881 : A literary publication, issued 
monthly, except July and August. T. S. Dennison was editor 
and publisher in 1880. Classed as literary, but it was hardly 
a literary magazine, as it was made up chiefly of extracts for 
platform speaking and reading; plays, debates, model letters, 

ILLUSTRATED CHAMPION, 1879: "A journal of progress in the 
agricultural and mechanical arts," published without serial 
number by Warder, Mitchell, and Company in Springfield, Ohio, 
and Chicago. Its primary function was to advertise Champion 
binders. H 

CHICAGO ILLUSTRATED NEWS, September, 1879-- (<0 : A semi- 
monthly advertising paper issued in connection with the Inter- 
State Industrial Exposition. Published by J. Ward Boyles. H 

ILLUSTRATED TEMPERANCE TALES, i879(?) to date (1880) : Monthly. 
Fleming H. Revell was editor and publisher. 

ILLUSTRERET FAMILIEBLAD, 1879 to date (1880). 

IRISH FREEMAN, 1879 to date (1880) : Edited and published weekly 
by W. J. Maskell. 


ISRAELITISCHE PRESSE, i879(?) to date (i88o) : N. B. Ettelsohn 
wa blisher. 

JEWEL JOURNAL, November, 1879 to date (1881) : Monthly. H 

LADIES' OURNAL OF FASHIONS, i87p(?)-- (?): W. L. Crossar 
was manager. 

LAKESIDE WATCH, 1879 * date (1880) : A monthly publication, 
devoted to mechanics. W. C. Vosburgh was editor and pub- 

LIBRARY RECORD, October, i879-i884(?): Published, at intervals 
of three weeks, in the interest of the Union Catholic Library As- 
sociation. An earlier series, without serial numbers, was issued 
in 1876 and 1877. H 

LITERARY REVIEW, April, 1879-- (?): Edited and published 
monthly by C. E. Walker, and intended to be a review of and 
an aid to the various literary societies of Chicago, of which the 
editor estimated there were two hundred and fifty. At the be- 
ginning of the second volume the title was changed to Literary 
and Musical Review, and a musical editor was added to the staff. 


MERCHANTS' BULLETIN, i879(?) to date (1880) : Jerome Chapman 

was publisher, 1879-1880. 
MUSICAL BULLETIN, 1879 to date (1881). C 

NATIONAL HARNESS REVIEW, 1879 to date: A monthly publication 
devoted to saddlery and collateral trades. In 1881 it was 
changed to a semi-monthly, but in January, 1899, it became a 
monthly paper again. Jefferson Jackson has been editor and 
publisher from the beginning to date. The Review "is the oldest 
exclusive harness trade journal in the world." 

NEW OVERLAND TOURIST, i879(?)-- (?): Published by the 
Overland Publishing Company. 

Listed only for 1879. 

PRAVDA, i879(?)-- (?): Published by Joseph Langmayer. 

RAILWAY ADVERTISING BULLETIN, August 4. 1879- - ( ?) : A daily 
advertising sheet, in the form of a newspaper, distributed gratu- 
itously on the trains of four important railroads. C. H. Shaver 
was editor and publisher. H 

REAL ESTATE AND MINING REVIEW, i879(?)-- (?): H. W. West 
was manager. 

SEWING MACHINE ADVANCE, 1879 to date: A monthly, devoted to 
sewing machine trade interests. Established by A. M. Leslie 
and Walter Scates (A.M. Leslie and Company) . Since the retire- 


ment of Mr. Leslie in 1881, Mr. Scates has continued the publi- 
cation to date. 

SIGNAL, 1879 to date (1881) : A weekly devoted to temperance. Mrs. 
Mary B. Willard was editor and publisher in 1879. 

SOKOL AMERICKY, January 10, 1879 to date: A monthly paper, 
the official organ of the United Bohemian Gymnastic Associ- 
ations in the United States. Established under the editorship 
of G. Reisl.^ Later editors have been J. Hajek and August Vol- 
ensky, Jos. Cermak, Dr. K. Stulik, Ant. Haller. The editorial 
staff in 1904 included Dr. J. Rudis Jiyinskc, Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa, managing editor; Jos. Cermak, Chicago, Ant. Haller, 
Chicago. With the same editorial organization, the paper has 
been published since the beginning of 1909 by the National Print- 
ing and Publishing Company. The title means American 

SPIRITUAL RECORD, January, 1879 to date (1880) : " Published under 
the auspices of the First Society of Spiritualists of Chicago, con- 
taining discourses and poems through the mediumship of Mrs. 
Cora L. V. Richmond and other matter pertaining to the spiritual 
philosophy." It was published by Griff en Brothers. Collins 
Eaton was secretary of the society. H 

date (1881) : Monthly, devoted to commercial interests. Charles 
H. Moore was editor and publisher in 1880. 

WESTERN COLLEGE MAGAZINE, 1879- January, 1906+ : A monthly, 
devoted to inter-collegiate interests. In January. 1906, the name 
was changed to the American Educational Review, and the scope 
of the magazine broadened to include a treatment of the progress 
of higher education throughout the country. The magazine is 
published by the American Educational Company. 

trade monthly. This paper was started in 1875 as a price list 
for a supply house. It gradually developed until it passed out 
of the hands of the supply house, and in January, 1879, appeared 

as a journal of instructive matter and general news to both con- 
fectionery and baking interests. J. Thompson Gill was editor 
and publisher, 1879-1880. Later, the Thompson Publishing 
Concern bought the paper, which it has edited and published to 
date, with T. O. Thompson as editor and manager. For sev- 
eral years past it has been devoted mainly to confectionery inter- 
ests. The name seems to have become Confectioner and Baker 
after some years of the paper's existence. 


WESTERN DRUGGIST, 1879 to date: A monthly, devoted to phar- 
maceutic interests. G. P. Engelhard and Company have been 
editors and publishers from 1879 to date. (See Pharmacist.') 

WESTERN EDUCATIONAL JOURNAL, 1879 to date (1881): A monthly 
educational journal. J. Fred Waggoner was editor and pub- 
lisher in 1880. 

WESTERN MAGAZINE, +i879~March, 1882+ : It had been founded 
three years before at Omaha. Upon its being brought to Chi- 
cago, Mrs. Helen Elkin Starrett became the editor. It was, 
according to the sub-title, "a literary monthly." It con- 
tained departments designated as "Original" and "Eclectic," 
devoted to literary and historical matters; also, later, a depart- 
ment called the "Club," consecrated to social and economic 
interests. The broad and progressive policy of the magazine 
won general approval, and when by merging with the Alliance 
in 1882 it added Rev. David Swing to its list of regular con- 
tributors, its outlook was more than ever promising. The 
Weekly Magazine published its first number May 6, 1882, an- 
nouncing that "We have believed from the first that there is 
need and a demand for a low-priced periodical to supply a kind 
of reading differing like the magazine from the newspaper in its 
greater deliberateness and earnestness, and yet without those 
qualities of cumbrousness and extensiveness common to the 
magazines." Although many contributors of high rank were 
engaged, under the same business management that ruined the 
Alliance, the new Weekly Magazine ended its career in bank- 
ruptcy in 1884. WH 

WESTERN STATIONER AND PRINTER, 1879 (?): Published by 

J. SawtellFord. 

WESTERN UNDERTAKER, 1879 to date : A monthly devoted to under- 
taking, embalming, funeral directing, sanitation, and kindred 
subjects. Published by the F. H. Hill Company until it was 
purchased by Herbert S. Fassett, who has been editor and pub- 
lisher since March, 1897. 


Sunday school paper. Rev. A. T. McDill was editor; Morrison, 
McCoy and McDill were publishers. Several scattered numbers 
for 1879 m tne Chicago Historical Society library are included in 
volume 21, thus fixing the date of establishment as 1859. Since 
this paper is nowhere found dated earlier than 1879, it seems 
probable that it was founded elsewhere and moved to Chicago 
in the late seventies. H 



SUN, 1854-1855: Established by Mr. Hopkins. Issued weekly for 
about twelve months, when the plant was moved away. 

INDEPENDENT, i856-i86i(?): Established by Samuel Jamison. 
After about two years Jamison was succeeded by Samuel Spell- 
man, who continued publication two or three years, when the 
plant was moved away. 

CITIZEN, 1867-1870+ : Established by J. W. Wolff and H. Casson, 
Jr., who ran the paper three or four years and then turned it over 
to A. M. Gibbons, who changed the name to 

DEMOCRAT, +1870-1872+ : Conducted for about a year and a half 
by A. M. Gibbons, when it became 

TIMES, +1872-1874+: Established by Rev. Burdick, who ran it 
two years. Sold to Rev. S. H. Brown, who changed the name to 

CHRISTIAN GLEANER, +1874-1876: Sold to W. J. Luckens, who 
ran the paper until 1876. 

DEMOCRATIC UNION, 1872-1873: Conducted by Bell and Wilson. 
Printed at the office of the Lacon Statesman. 

REPORTER, i874-(after 1881): Spencer Ellsworth, editor and pub- 
lisher, 1875. Edited by J. L. Kennar and published by Reporter 
Company, 1876-1879; L. Ballou, 1880; E. A. Mitchell, 1882; 
Frank Andrews, 1884. Printed at the office of the Lacon Home 


ENTERPRISE, December, 1875-1876: Established by Biddlecome 

and Matheney. Suspended after a year. 
LEADER, i876-i878(?): Established by Jacobs and Thompson. 

Continued about eighteen months. Democratic. 
PROGRESS, 1878 : Established by Payne and Son. The elder Payne 

was a Baptist minister. 
ADVANCE, i879~(after 1881) : Independent. 


TIMES, i87Q-(after 1881) : A local paper, mentioned in Ayer's News- 
paper Directory for 1881. 


STANDARD, 1866 or 1 867(?) : Established by Captain Ben W. Mc- 
Coy. The issue for November 3, 1868, is vol. 4, no. 13, and was 
published by T. J. Mitchell. F. K. Strother was a later owner. 
Strongly Republican. 

(?): A paper edited by Dr. J. W. Potter. 


JOURNAL, June, i868-i873(?) : Published by O. L. and E. E. New- 
ton. Rowell gives 1871 as date of establishment. 

ADVANCE, 1872-1873: Ben W. McCoy, editor and publisher. 

ENTERPRISE, May, 1878 to date : Established by Rev. P. L. Turner. 
In November, 1879, he was succeeded by his sons, Charles E. 
and Frank Turner. In 1880 they sold to F. K. Strother and Son. 
Turner Brothers, then Tom L. Heirs, were later owners. J. L. 
Staker bought the paper in and has conducted it ever since. 

RECORD, 1879-- (?): Owned and published by J. E. Hartman. 


REGISTER, i863-(after 1881) : A Republican paper issued from the 
office of the Carlyle Union Banner, and edited by J. W. Peterson. 


WEEKLY, 1869-1870: J. Harlow, editor; Lowe and Gilson, pub- 
lishers. Printed at the office of the Onarga Review. 

WEEKLY, 1873-1875: M. B. Parmenter, editor and publisher. 

REPORTER, 1875-1879: A. B. Cummings was editor and publisher 
in 1879. Printed at the office of the Chebanse Herald. Inde- 

ENTERPRISE, 1877: A semi-monthly Independent paper published 
by the Enterprise Printing Company . 


DEWITT COURIER, 1854-1857: Established and edited by S. H. 
McElheney and R. A. Mills, 1854-1855; Mr. Mills and A. J. 
Back, 1855; Russell F. Jones, 1855; Mr. Jones, editor and Paul 
Watkins publisher, 1855-1856; Mr. Watkins from 1856 until it 
was destroyed by fire in 1857. The paper was neutral until 
1855; after that time Democratic. 

CENTRAL TRANSCRIPT, 1856-1862+ : Edited by John R. Blackford 
and Isaac N. Coltrin, 1856-1857; Mr. Blackford, 1857; Mr. 
Coltrin and B. F. Jones, 1857-1858; Mr. Coltrin and W. De- 
Lay, 1858-1859; Mr. Coltrin and Joe Prior, 1859-1861; Mr. 
Coltrin and A. J. Blackford, 1861; Mr. Coltrin and James M. 
DeLay, 1861-1862; M. M. DeLevis and O. F. Morrison, 1862. 
These men consolidated it with the Pana Public and changed the 
name to the Clinton 

PUBLIC, Junei, i862-July 2, 1863 + : Formed by the consolidation of 
the Weekly Central Transcript with the Pana Public. Messrs. M. 
M. DeLevis and O. F. Morrison had purchased the Transcript, 
May 30, 1862, and, moving their office of the Pana Public to 


Clinton, June i, 1862, they continued publication of their paper 
as the Clinton Public. Coltrin was concerned in the editing of 
the paper, which soon was renamed the U 

i863-i882(?): Mr. DeLevis was sole editor and proprietor. 
For some time after April, 1869 a Mr. Van Slyke had a half 
interest, but DeLevis reassumed complete control, which he kept 
until March 31, 1870, when he sold out to George B. Richardson. 
March i, 1872, the latter sold to Richard Butler, who was still 
editor and publisher in 1882. Republican in politics. 

DEWITT COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1858-1859: Edited by E. F. Camp- 
bell and E. D. King, 1838; William Fuller, 1858-1859. It was 
destroyed by fire. Democratic. 

VINDICATOR, 1858 : Edited by J. M. Prior in the interest of Douglas's 
election. Its publication ceased after the campaign. 

UNION, 1863: Established by Joseph M. Prior, August 20, 1863; 
neutral in politics. Publication was abandoned after several 

TIMES, May n, 1866-1867: Established by A. J. Bell and 
Thomas J. Sharp. Democratic in politics. August 17, 1866, 
Mr. Bell retired and Mr. Sharp continued publication until the 
spring of 1867, when he removed the press and material to Maroa, 
Macon county, and there issued the Maroa Times. 

DEWITT REGISTER, 1868-1870+ : Established May 29, 1868, by 
Jason Blackford, who remained in charge until November 27, 
1868; William L. Glessner, editor, and C. C. Stone, publisher, 
November 27, i868-September 15, 1873; they changed the 
name to 

CLINTON REGISTER, +1870 to date: It was continued by Glessner 
and F. M. Van Lue, September 15, i873-August 7, 1874; 
Glessner, August 7, i874-October i, 1881; H. Waggoner and 
Son, October i, i88i-September 28, 1885, when they were suc- 
ceeded by Hughes Brothers (G. W. and Perry Hughes). N. R. 
Hughes succeeded Perry Hughes January i, 1904, and the paper 
has been continued under the firm name of Hughes Brothers. 
Democratic in politics. U 

TEMPERANCE GAZETTE, October 17, 1869-- (?). 

DEWITT COUNTY GAZETTE, March 28, 1875: Established by Joe 
M. Prior. The office was closed after six months. Republican. 
The material was purchased at auction by Mr. Anderson, and 
was used by him in starting the 


DEWITT COUNTY MESSENGER, 1875: After a brief existence this 
paper was discontinued and the office moved by Anderson to 
Windsor, Shelby county. Therefrom was issued May 25, 1875, 
the Windsor Sentinel. 


ENTERPRISE, 1877: Charles E. Judy, publisher. Independent. 


INDEPENDENT, i873~(after 1882) : H. H. Stevens was editor and 
publisher in 1882. Greenback, then Independent. 


ARGUS, 1871-1880 : The Union Publishing Company were proprietors 
and A. W. Angier, editor. At the end of the first volume L. D. 
Caulk became editor; the paper was then owned by the Collins- 
ville Publishing Company. Caulk was succeeded by Anton 
Neustadt, who became editor and proprietor. In 1878 Con- 
nolly and Johnson became proprietors. In 1879 Connolly 
retired ; in eight months publication was suspended. Republican 
until 1878, then Independent. 

LIBERAL DEMOCRAT, 1872-1878: Started by A. W. Angier. In 
1878 the presses were moved to Edwardsville. Democratic. U 

WEEKLY HERALD, i879~(after 1884) : James N. Peers was the first 
editor and publisher. In 1882 edited by William A. Garasche; 
in 1884 by James N. Peers. Independent. 



RECORD, i878-(after 1884): Established March (?), 1878, by E. 
G. Cass and J. B. Gardner. Printed at the office of the Lee 
County Times, Paw Paw. The paper has been discontinued. 


VERMILLION NEWS, 1871 : F. D. Dalton was editor and publisher. 

Printed at the office of the Streator Monitor. Independent. 
JOURNAL, 1873 : T. W. Coe was editor. Printed at the office of the 

Wenona Index. 


CHRONICLE, 1879-1880+ : Established by John A. Wall. The 
office equipment was brought from Pinckneyville. In 1880 it 
passed into the hands of Messrs. McFie and Childs, who changed 
the name to Headlight. McFie's interest was purchased by his 



HERALD, 1876: J. F. Horner and Son were editors and publishers. 


TIMES, 1872-1886: Established by Isaac B. Beckford, editor and 
publisher, who retired in 1874, and it was managed for several 
months by L. H. Post of the DeKalb News. In 1875 Dr. H. C. 
Robbins became editor and publisher. In 1877 he sold to D. C. 
Needham, who a few months later sold to Granville W. Morris. 
The Times list went to the Rochelle Herald in 1886. Indepen- 


ENTERPRISE, December, 1875 to date (1878) : Established and con- 
ducted by C. E. Carter; later by Carter Brothers; then by 
Carter and Tillotsen. "It is Independent in politics and reli- 


FARMERS' ADVOCATE, 1873-1875 : "The official organ of the Reform 
movement in Stephenson county." T. J. Allen was editor and 


STAR OF DALLAS, 1859-1861: Its first editor was Francis Ashton, 
and the second was Mr. Trueblood. It supported the nomi- 
nation of Douglas for President. 

HANCOCK DEMOCRAT, 1869-1872: Removed from Carthage by G. 
M. Child in 1869, and continued by him until his death. It was 
revived for a short time in 1872-1873 by J. F. Taylor. 

ADVOCATE, 1875- (?): Established by Mason and Murphy. 
Sold in June, 1876, to Walter B. Loring. 

SUCKER STATE, 1874 : Established by Penn Harris. Only two num- 
bers issued. Democratic. 

MONITOR, - ( ?)- ( ?) : Issued by W. C. Brown. Continued 
for only a few months. 

NEWS, April, 1878 to date (1880) : An Independent paper conducted 
by E. H. Thomas. 


LOCAL TIMES, 1874: Established by W. Pritchett. Short-lived. 

HERALD, 1876 to date (1881) : In 1879 edited and published by W. 

Pritchett; R. M. Pritchett, 1880. An edition for Dana of the 

Minonk (Woodford county) Blade. 



INDEPENDENT, March 1879- (?): Established by Dr. D. C. 
Gideon and George Bunn, editors and owners. Soon after the 
first issue Mr. Bunn withdrew, leaving Dr. Gideon sole editor 
and proprietor. Suspended before 1882. 


ENQUIRER, i833~(after 1837) : Its first editor appears to have been 
John S. Williams. In the years 1836 and 1837 Messrs. Delay 
and Loveless appear as editors. There is an incomplete file of 
this paper in the Danville Public Library. P 

PATRIOT, about 1847 : A Whig paper edited by D. Clapp. Listed 
in Illinois Annual Register for 1847. 

ILLINOIS CITIZEN, 1849-- (?): A Whig paper established by J. 
Hollingsworth ; later it was edited by A. Y. Harrison. Men- 
tioned in Gerhard for 1856, and in Coggeshall for the same year. 

INDEPENDENT, 1856- (?): Among its editors were Messrs. 

McKinley and Blackford ; J. B. McKinley ; and J. E. Lemon. P 

VERMILLION COUNTY PRESS, 1857 (?) : Among its editors were 

James D. Kilpatrick, 1858; Messrs. Kilpatrick and Lemon, 
1859; James D. Kilpatrick, 1859. Vols. 2 and 3 are in the Dan- 
ville Public Library. P 

SPECTATOR, 1859-- (?) : Its editor was A. J. Adams. P 

COMMERCIAL, 1866-1903+ : Edited by Park T. Martin; published 
by the Commercial Company. A daily edition was established 
in 1878. In 1882 P. C. Cronkhite was editor. In 1903 the 
Commercial was merged with the News as the Commercial News 
and John H. Harrison became editor. Republican. A com- 
plete file is owned by John H. Harrison. PIT 

TIMES, 1868 to date (1879) : Edited and published by A. G. Smith. 
A daily edition was established in 1875. Independent. PU 

ADVERTISER, 1869: A monthly advertising sheet issued by Robert 
C. Holton. 

ARGUS, 1871-1874: Established by R. C. Holton. Edited and pub- 
lished by Miller and Conlin, 1873; Argus Company, 1874. 

SIEGE, 1873: Established by W. R. Jewell, editor and publisher. 
Republican. Semi-monthly. 

NEWS, 1873-1903+: Established by W. R. Jewell and edited by 
him until, in 1903, the News and Commercial were merged as the 
Commercial News, with John H. Harrison as editor. Published 


by the Illinois Printing Company until 1890; then by W. R. 
Jewell, who became sole proprietor. A daily edition was begun 
in 1876. P 

DEUTSCHE ZEITUNG, April, 1877, to date: Established by Carl C. 
Winter and published and edited by him until his death in 1897, 
when his widow, Mrs. Anna Winter, became owner and publisher. 
In 1898 she sold the paper to Carl Weipert, who died in 1900. It 
was then bought by Walter J. Grant and M. F. Keegan. After 
numerous changes William E. Bryant took charge as editor and 
manager in 1907 and owner in 1910. Independent. 

NATIONAL ERA, 1878 to date (1879) : Edited and published by Wil- 
liam E. Livengood. Greenback. 

POST, 1878-- (?): Jacobs and Thompson were editors and 
publishers. In 1880 W. M. Bandy was editor; Danville Post 
Company, publishers. Democratic. 

FARMERS' ADVOCATE, 1870-1871 : Lyman Guinipp was editor and 
publisher of this short-lived advertising sheet. 

MESSENGER 1875: J. W. Biddlecome and Company were editors 
and publishers. Semi-monthly. 

SUNDAY BOURBON, 1879: Phocian Howard was editor and pub- 
lisher. Democratic. 


GAZETTE, 1870-1872: Edited and published by Allen and Snyder, 
1871; edited by W. A. Colby, published by Colby Brothers, 

BUDGET, 1873-1877 : Edited and published by Stabeck and Phillips, 
1874; K. T. Stabeck, editor and publisher, 1875; Stabeck 
Brothers, 1876. In 1877 it was published by Stabeck Brothers 
simultaneously at Davis and Freeport. 

REPUBLICAN, 1873-1874: Established by T. A. Allen, editor and 

REVIEW, 1878 to date (1879): In 1879 edited and published by S. 
W. Tallman. 


ENTERPRISE, 1876: Established by S. S. Tucker and Son. Not 


GAZETTE, June, 1851-1865+: Published and edited by James 
Shoaff, 1851-1856, during a part of the time as Shoaff's Family 
Gazette; later by A. J. Davis and Isaac N. Underwood; Mr. 
Davis and James P. Boyd. In 1864 Mr. Davis sold to Lewis 


Cass, who took in J. J. Strong as printer this arrangement stood 
one year. The Gazette commenced a daily issue in 1856, but soon 
abandoned it because it could not compete with the Chronicle, 
which circulated 500 copies gratis. In 1865 it was sold to W. 
J. Usrey of the Chronicle, and the paper appeared under the name 
of the Gazette and Chronicle until 1871, when the office was closed. 
Then W. L. Hammer purchased it, and in 1872 changed the 
name to the Tribune and made Mr. A. H. Gorman editor. It 
was united with the Magnet in 1874. In 1856 it gave its influ- 
ence to the cause of Democracy, but became Republican on the 
breaking out of the Civil War. Copies are owned by T. B. 
Shoaff, including no. 13, September, 1851. SF 

ILLINOIS STATE CHRONICLE, 1855-1865+: Established by Charles 
H. Wingate and William J. Usrey. Mr. Wingate retired early. 
Under Messrs. Hamsher and Mosser its publication was sus- 
pended, 1862-1863, and was revived in 1863 by Mr. Usrey 
and J. N. Underwood. Mr. Underwood retired in 1864, and in 
1865 Mr. Usrey joined it to the Gazette. The political purpose 
of the paper was to unite the remnants of the Whig and Know- 
Nothing parties and all other opponents of the Democratic party 
on one platform. In the campaign of 1856 the Chronicle was 
printed daily, and the daily issue was resumed in 1868. H 

GAZETTE AND CHRONICLE, -l-July, 1865-1871: William J. Usrey 
was editor and publisher. 

DEMOCRAT, 1856-1857+: Published by leading Democrats with 
Eli Hosea as editor. Changed to 

HERALD, +1857-- (?)+ : Its editors were Elam Rust and son, 
George W. ; W. J. Chenoweth and George W. Rust; Mr. Cheno- 
weth and James Brent. It was removed to Pana, Illinois, by 
Milan S. Beckwith. P 

MAGNET, 1858-1874: Published by P. B. Shepherd, who as editor 
was assisted by John Ryan; published by Henry C. Bradsby 
with James Shoaff as editor, 1859-1861 ; E. N. Buck and I. N. 
Underwood, 1861-1862; James Shoaff , 1862-1868 j 1 Mr. Shoaff 
and Asa Miller, 1868-1871; Miller and Addis, 1871-1874. It 
was Democratic in principle from 1862 and during Mr. Shoaff's 
connection with it. It was consolidated with the Tribune in 
1874 and was known as the Magnet and Tribune. 

DAILY EMPRISE, 1859-- (?): Short-lived. Established by Messrs. 
Buck and Underwood. It was printed in the Chronicle office. 

BOY ABOUT TOWN, 1864: Edited by T. B. Shoaff, published from 
the office of the Magnet. Its motto was, "The Union must be 
preserved," but it contained mostly local matter. It lived only 

1 A part of this time Mr. Shoafi spent in the war. 


a few months. A copy dated Saturday, February 6, 1864, is 
owned by T. B. Shoaff of Shelby ville. 

TRIBUNE, 1 864-1 866(?): Established by Joseph M. Prior, who 
sold, a half interest in 1865 to I. N. Coltrin. After several 
changes of ownership the office was closed in the winter of 1865- 

REPUBLICAN, August, 1867-1899: Established by W. M. Stanley 
and J. R. Mosser. Stanley sold to B. K. Hamsher in October, 
1867, when the firm of Hamsher and Mosser was formed, which 
continued until August 26, 1899. A daily issue was begun in 
April i, 1872. In 1899 its subscription list was transferred to 
the Review, which became an afternoon publication. The plant 
was bought by the Herald-Despatch Company. P 

DEMOCRAT, July, 1868-18704- : Established as a campaign paper 
by a stock company, with J. H. Martin as editor. Suspended 
in December, but was leased by W. H. Addis and revived in May, 
1869, as a permanent paper, with James M. Irwin as editor. 
Samuel Pike became editor and part owner in 1870, and the 
name was changed to 

PIKE'S DEMOCRAT, -(-August, 1870-1871: W. H. Addis was man- 
ager, and Pike was editor until February, 1871, when he retired. 
The Sunbeam (q. v.) was absorbed May 18, 1871, and a daily 
issue was begun. Publication was suspended in November, 

SUNBEAM, January ig-May 18, 1871 : A morning daily established 
by Merrill and A. M. Dashiell. It was absorbed May 18 by 
the Democrat. 

ILLINOIS VOLKSBLAT, July, 1871-1872: A German paper that con- 
tinued but a few months. Bernhardt and Krumme were editors 
and publishers, 1871; T. F. Bernhardt, 1872. 

ZEITUNG, - (?) (?): A German paper, issued from the 

Gazette and Chronicle office, that had but brief existence. 

REVIEW, April, 1872 to date: Founded by Rev. Alfred Wuench as 
an Independent weekly. It later became an advocate of the 
Granger movement, and still later was made Democratic. In 
1874 Wuench leased to John Lindsey and D. J. Block; after 
one year Alfred F. Wuench took Block's place. W. H. Bayi 
bought the paper in June, 1876, and in November began a dail; 
issue which was discontinued after two months, to be resum< 
on October i, 1878. S. S. Jack bought the paper in 1880. H< 
sold to Mize Brothers and Company, and in 1885, they to R. E. 
Pratt and Company, who incorporated as the Review Publishing 
Company in September, 1887. Files at the office, from October 
i, 1878. Title was Local Review for several years. 


TRIBUNE, March, 1872+ : The second paper of this name; started 
by A. H. Gorman and John A. Brown, with W. L. Hammer as 
part owner. It was consolidated in 1874 with the Magnet, 
and became 

MAGNET AND TRIBUNE, + June, 1874-1875+: It was published 
by the Magnet and Tribune Company, composed of Asa Miller, 
A. H. Gorman, George Sylvester, and W. L. Hammer. Miller 
was editor, and the paper was Democratic in politics. Daily 
and weekly. It became the 

TRIBUNE, + March-December, 1875: Published by the Decatur 
Tribune Company, with L. M. Andrews as editor and financial 
manager until 1875. S. S. Jack was editor in 1875; the paper 
changed hands several times and was suspended at the end of 
the year. It was Democratic, but fairly Independent in tone. 

WEEKLY SUN, February, 1875 : Established by Leonidas H. Tupper, 
who sold to G. F. Kimball. 

TIMES, January, 1876-1877: Established by S. S. Jack and G. F. 
Kimball as the Decatur Times Company. After four months 
Kimball bought out Jack and abandoned the daily. It was pub- 
lished semi-weekly through the campaign of 1876. It was 
merged in the Sun in April, 1877. Independent with Democratic 
tendencies. Daily and weekly. 

WHIP AND SPUR, May-November, 1876: A campaign paper issued 
by G. F. Kimball from the Times office to present the ideas of 
the Greenback party. It dealt largely in personalities. 

TEMPERANCE BUGLE, September, 1876: Another ephemeral paper 
issued by G. F. Kimball. 

SUN, January, 1877-1879 : A daily established by Alfred F. Wuench 
and Howard Montressor, who continued it until April, when 
they sold to G. F. Kimball. In May, 1879, he leased the estab- 
lishment to Joseph Prior and Alfred F. Wuench, who changed 
its political tone to Republican. They abandoned it in July 
and sold the outfit to Kimball. 

DEMOCRATIC ERA, July-October, 1877: Edited and published by 
G. F. Kimball and John Lindsey. 

SATURDAY HERALD, October, 1879-1880+: Established by C. N. 
Walls. Independent. In February, 1880, it was bought by 
H. W. Rowell and W. H. Addis, who made its politics Repub- 
lican. V. N. Hosteller and E. S. Ela leased the plant in October, 
1880, and started the Daily Herald, February, 1880 to date. 
A Republican paper. In August, 1881, Ela sold to F. H. Hall. 
In March, 1890, Hostetler purchased Hall's interest and the 
Herald was united with the Despatch. The Herald-Despatch 


Company was organized and published the paper under the 
name Daily Herald-Despatch until 1899, when Owen Scott, 
W. F. Calhoun, and B. K. Hamsher purchased Hostetler's 
interest and changed the name back to Daily Herald, under 
which name it has since been published. As a part of this trans- 
action, Calhoun and Hamsher, who owned the Republican, 
suspended its publication, transferring the machinery to the 
Herald and the subscription list to the Daily Review. The 
Herald also absorbed the daily News about the same time. In 
1904 F. S. Dodd purchased B. K. Hamsher's interest, and later 
in the same year, F. S. Dodd and W. F. Calhoun purchased 
Owen Scott's interest. 


A Republican paper edited and published by Lindley M . Andrews. 


DE KALB COUNTY SENTINEL, i859-i86i(?) : Copies in the Sycamore 
Public Library. 

CHRONICLE, 1879 to date: Edited by Clinton Rosette, 1879 to date 
Published by D. W. Tyrell and Company, 1879; J. F. Glidden 
and later J. F. Glidden Publishing Company, July, 1879 to date. 
Advocated " free trade, a uniform currency, state rights and per- 
sonal liberty," and is still Democratic. 

DE KALB COUNTY NEWS, 1867- (after 1882): Aaron K. Stiles was 
editor, J. J. Bassett publisher, in 1869; L. H. Post, 1870 to after 
1882. Apparently discontinued about 1 883. Republican. Copies 
in the Sycamore Public Library. U 

BARB CITY TELEGRAPH, 1877- (before 1881) : Barb City Publishing 
Company is given as editors and publishers in Rowell for 1879. 


ADVERTISER, 1868 to date: Established by C. R. Fisk and con- 
tinued till the death of Fisk, which occurred in December, 1869. 
Revived in April, 1870, by John Culbertson and still conducted 
by him. Under Fisk the paper was Independent in politics; 
in the campaign of 1872 it supported Charles O'Connor for presi- 
dent, and has since continued Democratic, although it has not 
supported Bryan. Files in the office of the Chicago Newspaper 
Union. U 

INDEPENDENT, 1869-1873 : C. B. Ketcham was editor and publisher 
in 1869-1873. 

REPUBLICAN, i869( ?)- - ( ?) : Weekly. 


TIMES, September, 1874- (after 1884): Established by Joe F. Reed, 
who later sold to Guy Beatty. In 1882 it was run by Boyd and 
Quidley ; in 1884 by A. C. Boyd. It was absorbed by the Press, 
Republican. U 


FARMER, 1855-1857: Edited by James Hull, 1855-1856; John A. 
Hull, 1856-1857. The latter editor moved it to Carbondale as 
the Transcript (which see). 


COOK COUNTY RECORD, 1878-1880: Edited by F. W. Hoffman; 
published by Record Publishing Company. 


TELEGRAPH, May, 1851 to date: Founded by Charles R. Fisk, who 
retired soon after. The paper had a number of owners for a 
few weeks. It was taken charge of in the fall of 1851 by B. F. 
Shaw, 1 and purchased early in 1852 by John V. Eustace. The 
latter became editor and Mr. Shaw publisher. April, 1854, Mr. 
Eustace retired and Mr. Shaw became sole proprietor and con- 
tinued so until 1859. He was part owner most of the time from 
1859 until 1870, when he again became editor, and continued 
editor and proprietor until his death, September 18, 1909. In 
1857 the Telegraph was combined with the Republican for a few 
months. (See Republican.} In December, 1869, the Dixon 
Weekly Herald was merged with the Telegraph, which retained 
its name. In November, 1883, the Evening Telegraph was be- 
gun by B. F. Shaw and continued until his death. The weekly 
edition of the Telegraph became semi-weekly in 1899, with B. 
F. Shaw as editor, and his son Eustace Shaw as publisher; the 
latter died September 5, 1902. Republican in politics. H 

TRANSCRIPT, 1854-1857+: Established by Charles Allen. Pub- 
lished in 1856 by Stevens and Johnson. After several changes 
of ownership, it became the Republican in 1857. It had been 
Democratic in politics. 

REPUBLICAN, 1857-1859+ : Published by Beck with and Legget. It 
was joined to the Telegraph with Shaw and Beckwith as pro- 
prietors. Subsequently it passed under the management of I. 
S. Boardman and Company for a few months. 

1 B. P. Shaw was in the newspaper business in Illinois, except for about six 
months, from 1848 to 1909. In 1848 he began as an apprentice in the office of the 
Rock Island Advertiser, where he remained until the spring of 1851, when he took 
charge of the Dixon Telegraph and Lee County Herald, as editor and publisher. 
His connection with that paper is indicated above. He was active as editor until 
a short time before his death, September 18, 1909. 


DAILY WHISPER, June, 1855 : Established by John D. Mackay. 
A small sheet issued irregularly, and for only a short time. 

FREMONTER, July-November, 1856: A Republican campaign 
paper conducted by James H. Boyd, George Hudson, and B. 
F. Shaw. 

MONITOR, 1858-1859: Published by Charles Meigs. Failed in 
November, 1858. E. B. Styles, J. V. Eustace and L. W. Ather- 
ton then bought the paper and prolonged its existence until 1859. 

ADVERTISER, 1858-1859: Edited by Eustace, Styles, and Atherton. 
Some time within his proprietorship of the Telegraph Boardman 
and Company purchased the press and material of the Adver- 

WEEKLY HERALD, February, 1868-1869: Established by A. C. 
Bardwell. December, 1869, it was united with the Telegraph. 
Mr. Bardwell retired in June, 1871, having served for a time 
after the combination as editor of the Telegraph, and being suc- 
ceeded by B. F. Shaw. 

LEE COUNTY DEMOCRAT, July, 1868-1872+: Established by E. 
Giles. S. C. Postlewait was first editor and subsequently pro- 
prietor. W. M. Kennedy became proprietor and Eugene Pinck- 
ney, editor, November, 1871. It was changed to the 

SUN, March 5, 1872 to date: Established by W. M. Kennedy. 
After his death his widow, Inez Kennedy, conducted the paper 
until January, 1894, when she sold to J. T. Day. T. W. and 

E. C. Fuller became proprietors November 3, 1895; they sold 
to the Dixon Sun Company, October, 1906. Daily started 
December 23, i893-February 24, 1894; October 15, 1894, to 
date. Weekly, changed to semi- weekly November, 1899. Dem- 
ocratic. SU 

LIFE IN DIXON, December, 1868-- (?): Established by James 
H. Boyd. Noah Brooks, W. W. Curtiss, Jason C. Ayers and B. 

F. Shaw were contributors. 

ROCK RIVER FARMER, January, 1871-1875+: Established by 
W. M. Kennedy. William H. Von Epps and W. B. Raynor 
were successive editors. Monthly. Changed to 

WESTERN FARMER, +June, i875-i883(?): In 1879 W. M. Kennedy 
was editor and publisher. Discontinued between 1882 and 1884. 
Monthly. HU 


DOLTON-RIVERDALE REVIEW, 1875- - (?) : Charles A. Feistcorn 
was editor and publisher. Issued from the office of the Blue 
Island Herald. 



ADVOCATE, 1859-- (?): Established by E. J. Farnum. Short- 

WEEKLY, 1866-1871: Established by P. D. Swick; succeeded by 
C. P. Thew and R. B. Brickley. 

STAR, 1867-- (?): Established by P. D. Swick, who was editor 

and publisher in 1869. 
REPUBLICAN,- (?)-- (?): Mentioned in Rowell for 1869 

with no report. Listed by Cook and Coburn, 1869, as a weekly. 

CITIZEN, 1875-1876+ : Formerly the Algonquin Citizen. Established 
by George Earlie. Removed to Elgin and later published as 
Elgin Free Press. 

RECORD, 1877 (?) : Issued by S. L. Taylor. The editor, Dr. 

E. T. Cleveland, purchased the paper, and continued it for 
several years before it died. 


COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, June, i857~May, 1861 : The first five 
numbers were printed by Flaver Brothers in Dubuque. After 
August 12, printed by E. R. Paul in Dunleith, with Flaver 
Brothers still partly interested. They soon sold to J. R. Flynn. 
He soon retired, leaving Paul sole owner. United with the 
Galena Courier. 


MINING JOURNAL, 1858-- (?): Edited by Paul Watkins. At 
first it was Republican in sentiment but became Democratic 
under the proprietorship of Alonzo Bennett. Its publication was 
suspended during the war. 

TRIBUNE, 1863 to date : Established by A. J. Alden, and published for 
several years by Alden and Berry. In 1867 this paper " absorbed" 
the Recorder, and for about six months the combination was 
known as Tribune and Recorder. Then the name Tribune was 
reassumed. In 1870 Alden 's interest was sold to J. T. Beem 
and C. P. Richards; in 1874 Berry retired; in 1887 John T. 
Beem became sole owner and editor and remains so. Repub- 
lican. Files in the office. 

STARS AND STRIPES, 1864-1865+ : Edited and published by J. D. 
Mondy. After a few weeks George O. Ash, and A. B. Bennett 
took charge of the paper. In eight months they were succeeded 
by W. A. Ballard and Company J. E. Bowen was the " Com- 
pany." In eight months more Bowen retired, and Ballard 
changed the name to 


RECORDER, +1865-1867+ : In 1867 sold to R. Berry, who formed a 
partnership with A. J. Alden of the Tribune, and the two were 

PROGRESS, 1865-1 868(?) : Established by J. E. Bowen. At Bowen's 
death in 1868 the paper was published for a short time by his 
brother, Frank Bowen. The office was afterward sold and re- 
moved to Pinckneyville. Democratic. 

REPUBLICAN, 1871-1873: Established by Messrs. Kimball and 
Taylor of Belleville. Frank R. O'Neil was editor and manager. 
In 1873 it failed simultaneously with the Union Newspaper Com- 
pany of Belleville, of which Kimball and Taylor were proprietors. 

NEWS, 1874-1875: Established by Thomas K. Willoughby. In- 
dependent. In 1875 it was removed to Pinckneyville. (See 

PERRY COUNTY PRESS, 1879-1882: L. B. Laurence was editor; 
Curlee Brothers were publishers. 


WINNEBAGO COUNTY ADVERTISER, 1869: Established by M. G. 

PATRIOT, 1875 to date (1879) : In 1879 it was edited and published by 

Charles E. Griswold. Independent, then Republican in politics. 
ENTERPRISE, 1875 : J. Noonan Phillips and Henry Rulison were 

editors; J. N. Phillips was publisher. 


STAR, 1868 to date: Established by C. M. Palmer, who was editor 
and publisher until at least 1879. In 1891 William G. Dustin 
became editor. In 1893 the subsciiption list of the Herald, a 
new paper, was purchased, and the name changed to Star and 
Herald. In 1906 it was owned by William G. Dustin and A. S. 
Holbrook. In the firm of Dustin and Holbrook, the former is 
editor, the latter publisher. Republican in politics. Files in 

WESTERN POSTAL REVIEW, i875-i883(?): In 1879 H . A. Kenyon 
was editor; C. L. Palmer, publisher. Suspended between 1882 
and 1884. Monthly. H 

COMMERCIAL, 1877 to date (1881): In 1879 C. M. Cyrus was editor 
and publisher. 

COURIER, 1 869( ?) ( ?) : Weekly. 


GAZETTE, 1868-1883: Established and edited by C. B. Signer; con- 
tinued until 1883. Republican. 


TRANSCRIPT, 1875 or 1876: Established and edited by Afonzo J. 
G rover, who made it "the vehicle for all his favorite ideas on 
human progress and elevation," thus winning a "national repu- 
tation" for what was "only a local paper." It lived three or 
four years. 


AMERICAN BOTTOM GAZETTE, 1841-1844: Edited by Sumrix and 
Jarrott. The office was destroyed by a flood in I844. 1 

SUNDAY HERALD, May, 1865: Established by James L. Fawcett 
and issued on Saturdays. 

GAZETTE, June, 1866 to date: Established by John B. Bowman 
and controlled by him until his death, November, 1885; edited 
and published by John Macauley and Joseph Crabb. Crabb 
soon sold to Louis Straub. In 1871 a stock company bought the 
paper, which was conducted by William O'Neil, editor and pub- 
lisher. John Macauley became publisher in 1873; he also 
edited the paper with the assistance of James W. Kirk. In 1874 
William O'Neil again controlled the paper, with James W. Kirk 
as editor. John Haps published and James W. Kirk edited it 
in 1876. H. D. O'Brien was editor and publisher from 1877 
to 1880. Established as a weekly; a tri-weekly was begun in 
1876, and a daily was published for a short time in 1877. It is 
now published as a weekly by John H. Suess. U 

HERALD, i869(?) (?): Given in the 1869 Rowell directory. 

PEOPLE'S GAZETTE, 1871-1872+ : Owned and published by a stock 
company, with various members as editor until 1872, when a 
Mr. Saltiel acquired it and changed the name to 

PRESS, +1872-1877: Saltiel was succeeded by W. B. Fairchild. He 
yielded to Mr. Smith in 1874, and in 1875 H. D. O'Brien bought 
it. In 1877 he merged it in the Gazette. A daily was issued for 
a few months in 1874. U 

NATIONAL STOCK YARD REPORTER, November, 1873-1874: Estab- 
lished by John Haps and Company. Only three numbers were 
published in 1873. It was revived to the extent of two numbers 
in 1880. 

ST. CLAIR TRIBUNE, February, 1875-1876: Established by Willis 
E. Finch and Brother. " Republican, Protestant and Progres- 
sive." Discontinued after one year. 

ST. Louis RAILWAY WORLD, 1876-1877: Established by H. D. 
O'Brien, who after a year sold to a similar publication in St. 
Louis, Missouri. 

*See Illinoistown and footnote, p. 202. 


THE NATIONAL, August, 1878: A paper established by Archibald 
A. Hamilton to advocate financial reform, especially theories of 
fiat money. Short-lived. 

THE FUTURE GREAT, 1878: An amateur paper, established by 
Sikking and Jackiven. Popular, but short-lived. 

DOT PAPER, 1878: A short-lived imitation of the Carl Pretzel ideal 
of journalism. 

HERALD, March, i878-(after 1895): Established by Harney and 
Tissier ; edited by Maurice F. Tissier from 1 883 ( ?) . Demo- 

WESTERN LIVE STOCK JOURNAL, July, 1879 (?): Established 

by H. D. O'Brien, with Y. M. Langdon as editor and part owner. 
In 1880 Langdon bought O'Brien's interest, and in 1881 sold 
it to S. J. E. Rawling. Apparently discontinued before 1882. 


SPECTATOR, 1819-1826: Edited by Hooper Warren, assisted by 
George Churchill, 1819-1825 ; Thomas Lippincott and Jeremiah 
Abbott, 1825-1826. It was the third paper published in the 
State. The Spectator strongly opposed the convention of 1824. 
"It was the first distinctively anti-slavery paper ever published 
in the State." 1 Vol. 3, no. 141, February 19, 1822, is in the 
office of the Republican. The last number was issued October 
20, 1826. EMHA 

STAR OF THE WEST, 1822-1823+ : Published by Miller and Stine, 
who represented the leading Democratic citizens of the place. 
It was the fourth paper then published in the State these in 
the order of establishment were the Intelligencer, Vandalia; 
Gazette, Shawneetown ; Spectator and Star of the West, Edwards- 
ville. After six months the Star of the West went into the hands 
of Thomas J. McGuire and Company, who issued the M 

ILLINOIS REPUBLICAN, +i823~July 28, 1824: Like the Star of the 
West, the Republican was pro-slavery. During the convention 
contest, April, 1822, to August, 1824, Judge Theophilus W. Smith 
and Emanual J. West were the leading editors, who endeavored 
to counteract the influence of the Spectator. SM 

ILLINOIS CORRECTOR, 1827-1828: Edited by R. K. Fleming, who, 
in 1828, moved back to Kaskaskia and published the Reporter. 
It was a pro-slavery paper and strongly supported Jackson for 
president. H 

CRISIS, April 1 4-February, 1 831+: Edited by S.S. Brooks; evidently 
the mouthpiece of Theophilus W. Smith. 2 After thirty-four 
numbers the name was changed to H 

1 Washburn, Edwards Papers, 3290. 

'See Sidney Breeze to Ninian Edwards, in Washburn, Edwards Papers, 544. 


ILLINOIS ADVOCATE, +February, 1831-1832+ : Established, edited, 
published by John York Sawyer and Jonathan Angevine, the 
establishment passed into the hands of John York Sawyer. 
J. Angevine was associated with Mr. Sawyer for a year. 
When Mr. Angevine retired, William Peach became a partner, 
Sawyer removed the establishment in December, 1832, to Vanda- 
lia, the State capital. Mr. Sawyer merged the Western Plowboy 
in the Advocate, and in 1839 the paper was removed to Spring- 
field. Sturdily Democratic-Republican in politics (See State 
Register.) HM 

WESTERN PLOUGHBOY, January i, i83i-January 17, 1832: An 
agricultural paper edited and published by John York Sawyer, 
and issued semi-monthly, except that one month elapsed be- 
tween the second and third numbers. Twenty-five numbers 
of eight two-column pages were issued, after which the paper 
was merged in the Advocate, one page of which was thereafter 
given up to such agricultural matters as had previously appeared 
in the Ploughboy. This was the second agricultural paper 
issued west of the Alleghanies ; it was the first in Illinois. " When 
it is recollected that only one agricultural paper (the Western 
Tiller) is printed west of the Alleghanies, and that most of the 
works on agriculture treat generally on the manner of improving 
the soil rather than selecting the most profitable crop, it will be 
seen that we have engaged in no trifling affair." (Item, March 
12, 1832.) The paper was printed by S. S. Brooks in the Advo- 
cate office. A file, lacking the first number, is in the library at 
the University of Illinois. MU 

WESTERN WEEKLY MIRROR, 1838-1840+ : Edited by James Rug- 
gles, and devoted to the introduction and propagation of a uni- 
versal language. Changed to 

SOVEREIGN PEOPLE, +1840-1841 : Edited by James Ruggles. 

MADISON COUNTY RECORD, 1850-1851: The first editors and 
publishers were Dallam and Ruggles; next Ruggles and L. E. 
Smith ; next Smith and David Gillespie, under whom its publi- 
cation ceased. Ruggles went to Henry, Marshall county, and 
founded the Courier (which see). 

MADISON COUNTY ENQUIRER, 1853-1856: Edited by Theodore 
Terry. Democratic. It was suspended for a time and appeared 
again as the Press. 

MADISON ADVERTISER, 1856-1865 + : Founded by James R. Brown, 
who after four issues sold to O. C. Dake. His successors were 
Joseph L. Krafft; William G. Pinckart; Frank Springer, 1861- 
1862; Thompson and Dunnegan; Thompson alone, December, 
1861-1865; and Whitman and Crabb. Whig. Changed to 


MADISON COUNTY COURIER, + October 12, 1865-1869: Published 
by J. D. Whitman and Mr. Crabb. Crabb soon retired and J. D. 
Whitman published the paper alone until October 5, 1869, when 
he suspended publication and sold the material to S. V. Cross- 

WEEKLY MADISON PRESS, August 17, 1858-1862: This paper was 
established and published by Theodore Terry and James R. 
Brown. Brown retired December 15, 1858. It favored Democ- 
racy. There is a partial file in office of Intelligencer. 

INTELLIGENCER, November 12, 1862 to date: Named for the Illinois 
Intelligencer and published by James R. Brown and Henry C. 
Barnsback, with George B. Burnett, editor. After four months 
Barnsback retired. Brown continued the paper until his death 
in 1882, and made it the spokesman of his party in Madison 
county. In January, 1883, the paper was purchased by Charles 
Boeschenstein, who merged with it the Highland Herald, which 
he published at Highland. He issued the Intelligencer weekly 
until January, 1893, when it appeared semi-weekly. Beginning 
January, 1903, it was issued every other day, and in January, 
1907, it was made a daily. Files of the Intelligencer and partial 
files of the Madison Press are in the office. 

REPUBLICAN, July i, 1869 to date: Established and published by 
S. V. Grossman until his death in July, 1875; afterward one 
year by the S. V. Crossman Printing Company, R. B., T. M. 
and W. R. Crossman; two years by O. S. Reed and Company; 
purchased July i, 1879, by sons of the founder, T. M. and W. R- 
Crossman, and operated by them until September, 1907, when 
W. R. Crossman purchased interest of T. M. Crossman. Weekly 
until March i, 1907, when it was changed to a twice-a-week 
edition. For a short time beginning July 16 or 17, 1876, it was 
published daily. Has been Republican since its founding. Files 
at the office. 

MADISON COUNTY BOTE, +1869-1873: A continuation of High- 
land Bate, removed by B. E. Hoffman from Highland. In 1870 
sold to E. G. Wolf and Frank Haag. In 1873 publication was 
suspended; the material reverted to Mr. Hoffman who sold 
it to Captain Anthony Neustadt of Collinsville. German, 

OUR TIMES, October 2, 1872-1881 : A. W. Angier and T. S. Angier 
were editors and publishers. In 1881 it was sold to Messrs. Price 
and Simcox. In a month or so Price withdrew, and in another 
month Simcox took E. W. Anderson as a partner. In three 
months the latter retired. In two months Simcox sold a half- 
interest to Joseph S. Umberger. In May, 1881, the name was 


changed to Edwardsville Times, 1881-1882. In 1882 Ansel L. 
Brown purchased the paper and changed the name to Democrat. 
A. L. Brown is still editor. 

MADISON COUNTY ANZEIGER, May 7, 1875-1879: A German paper 
published by C. Lohmann and Son, with C. Lohmann as editor. 
In 1878 H. C. Lohmann retired; Mr. Lohmann, Sr., continued 
the paper for but a short time thereafter. A paper bearing the 
same name was established in 1881. At first Independent, but 
in 1876 Republican. 


PIONEER, +1860-1861+ : Moved from Ewington by J. W. Filler. 
Sold to Dr. T. G. Vandever in April, 1861, who combined it with 

GAZETTE, + April, 1860-1861+ : Established by L. M. Rose, who 
soon sold to Vandever. The two papers fuse in the 

UNIONIST, + October, 1861-1862+ : At first run by Filler and Van- 
dever; then by Vandever. Bought in 1862 by John Hoeny, 
who reverted to the title 

GAZETTE, +1862-1865+: Burned out in October, but soon con- 
tinued. In i864(?) L. Homines became associated with Hoeny, 
and the paper was published half English, half German for six 
months. In 1865 Hoeny sold to Hays and Bowen, who changed 
the name to 

EFFINGHAM COUNTY DEMOCRAT, +1865-1868+: Filler resumed 
control in 1865, and continued until 1868, when the office was 
sold to H. C. Bradsby, who changed the name to 

DEMOCRAT, +1868 to date: In April, 1870, Bradsby sold to J. C. 
Brady; Hoeny again owned the paper awhile ; then Hoeny and 
George M. LeCrone; then LeCrone and Owen Scott; then 
Scott alone. George M. LeCrone bought the paper again and 
is still editor and publisher. 

REGISTER, November, 1864-1872: Established by William Had- 
dock, who conducted the Register as a Republican paper for 
eight years. He supported Greeley for president in 1872, which 
cost him the suspension of his paper in October of that year. 
He moved the office to Champaign and started the Times. 

REPUBLICAN, August, 1872 to date : Established by M. B. and Elgin 
Martin at the instigation of those Republicans who were out of 
sympathy with the Register. Sold in October, 1873, to H. C. 
Painter, who conducted it until some time in the '8os by a Mr. 
Gowell; sold in 1892 to Effingham Printing Company, with R. 
F. Lawson as editor; sold in 1898 to Sumner Clark, with Homer 
Clark as editor. U 


VOLKSBLATT, June, 1878 to date: A German paper edited by A. 
Gravenhorst. Until October, 1882, it was printed in Milwaukee. 
A. H. Gravenhorst became part owner in 1895 and the paper has 
since then been conducted by A. Gravenhorst and Son. Demo- 

SOUTHERN ILLINOIS FARMER, 1879-1881 : J. P. M. Howard was 
editor; J. P. M. Howard, Son and Company, publishers. A 
monthly publication. 


JOURNAL, 1874 to date (1875): Edited and published in 1875 by 
A. J. Alden. It was printed at the office of the Vienna Johnson 
County Journal. 


WESTERN CHRISTIAN, i.845~(after 1849) : A Baptist and anti-slavery 
paper, published by a stock company and edited by Rev. A. J. 
Joslyn, Rev. Wareham Walker, and Spencer Carr. Removed 
to New York. HF 

GAZETTE, 1847-1874+ : Established by Eliphalet Owen. A strong 
paper that "held the local field against all comers." In early 
years much attention was given to religion and literature. Zenos 
Eastman was publisher for awhile and W. R. Finch one of the 
editors. George H. Daniels was also connected with it. It 
had much influence in the early days of the Republican party, 
of the principles of which party it was a vigorous advocate. 
Merged with the Advocate May 30, 1874. EHANF 

Fox RIVER COURIER, 1851-1852 : A Whig paper that had but a short 
existence. NW 

ILLINOIS WEEKLY PALLADIUM, 1853-1856+: Edited by a Mr. 
Hough, 1853; H. A. Hough and J. H Rowe, 1854; Gerhard 
gives Rowe and Joslyn as publishers in 1856. Name changed to 

KANE COUNTY JOURNAL, +1856: Sold to Lyman and Smith and 

soon discontinued. 
CAMPAIGN OBSERVER, 1858: A Democratic campaign paper, edited 

by a lawyer named Grosoevor and a Mr. Willis. It was 

printed in Chicago. 
SECOND DISTRICT DEMOCRAT, 1863-1865 + : Published by Benjamin 

W. Staniforth and edited by Edward Keogh. Changed in 1865 


CHRONICLE, +1865-1868+: Democratic. Published by Edward 
Keogh until 1867, when it was sold to E. C. Kincaid. He 
changed its name to 


WATCHMAN, +1868 (?): Under this name it was continued 

for two or three years as a Republican paper. 

ADVOCATE, 1871 to date: Established by Stephen L. Taylor. Ab- 
sorbed the Gazette in 1874. Sold to A. H. Lowrie in 1882 and 
later consolidated with the Daily News. Both the Advocate and 
the News are now published by Lowrie and Black. A daily 
edition was begun in 1881. Republican. HU 

LADY ELGIN, 1872-1878: A monthly publication devoted to the 
interests of watch factory workers. Edited and published by 
Bertha H. Ellsworth, Alida V. Able, and Lydia A. Richards. 

DIAL, i872(?)- (?): A monthly devoted to watch factory in- 
terests. Short-lived ; a contemporary of Lady Elgin. D 

TIMES, 1874- - ( ?) : Edward Keogh was owner and editor. The 
paper became a daily in 1875. It was successively Democratic, 
Greenback, and Independent, and survived several years. U 

INFORMER, i874-i877(?): A monthly publication "devoted to 
peace, temperance, purity, and health," by Amasa Lord. Not 
extant in 1878. 

GOSPEL TRUMPET, 1874- - (?): A monthly publication, not ex- 
tant in 1878. 

DAILY BLUFF CITY, 1874-1878: The first daily paper in Elgin. 
Established by Dudley Randall ; Christie Brothers were its last 
owners, during a part of which ownership, Charles E. Gregory 
was editor, succeeded by W. J. Anderson. Consolidated with 
News April 22, 1878. Republican. U 

REPUBLIC, 1874-1877+: Established and edited by George E. 
Earlie. Issued a daily through the campaign. Sold in 1877 to 
Dr. C. Stoddard Smith and renamed 

FREE PRESS, +1877: It was soon discontinued. 

DAILY DUD, 1875 : A short-lived paper started by Dudley Randall 
after he had closed his connection with the Daily Bluff City. 

NEWS, 1876 to date: Established chiefly by Carlos H. Smith. Sold 
in 1880 to John K. LeBaron, after various changes in manage- 
ment, and in September, 1883, the Advocate (the daily edition 
of which had a little previously been discontinued) and the Daily 
News were consolidated and for a time published by Lowrie 
and LeBaron. LeBaron had been conducting the Dollar Weekly 
News and the Semi-Weekly Envoy in connection with the Daily 
News. Lowrie soon became sole owner of both Advocate and 
News; in 1886 S. J. Tomlinson bought a half interest. He 
sold in 1887 to Willis B. Black, who with Mr. Lowrie continues 
the publication. Republican. P 


INFORMER, January, 1876-- (?): A monthly reform paper, 
edited by Amasa Lord and a staff of department editors. De- 
voted to health, temperance, religion, agriculture, etc. U 

TIMES, 1875- ( ?) : Daily. 

GLOCKE, 1878 (?): A German weekly of which Joseph Bis- 

choff was editor and publisher. It had been discontinued be- 
fore 1881. 

NEW ERA, 1878: W. D. RINGLAND was editor and publisher. 
The paper was short-lived. 

LEADER, 1878-1884+ : Removed to Elgin from St. Charles by 
Hiram N. Wheeler, later of Quincy. Sold to J. N. Wheeler, who 
changed the name to Morning Frank. In 1884 it was bought by 
Will S. Doherty and H. D. Hemmens and the name changed to 
Courier, Republican. Doherty died in 1886 and Hemmens con- 
ducted the paper until 1903, when the Courier Publishing Com- 
pany was organized by him and others, and Albert L. Hall was 
made editor and manager. In July, 1909, Ira C. Copley bought 
the paper and merged with it the Press, which he already 
owned. Daily and weekly ; Democratic. 


HARDIN MINERAL, 1870-1871 : Solomon S. Burke, then S. S. Burke 
and Son were editors and publishers. 

HARDIN GAZETTE, i87i-(after 1882) : Edited by James A. Lowry, 
published by E. E. Welch, 1873-1874; edited and published by 
James A. Lowry, 1875-- (?). At first Democratic; after- 
ward neutral. Apparently discontinued in 1883. 


(?): Established by John Regan. F 

CHRONICLE, 1861-1871+: O. F. Woodcock was editor and pub- 
lisher in 1869-1870. Republican. Changed to 
CHRONICLE AND HERALD, +1871-1872+ : By 1873 it was changed 
back to 

CHRONICLE, +1873: Edited by Davison and Son. Republican. 

MESSENGER, 1874-1902: John Regan was editor and publisher 
until after 1884; J. B. Sprawls, 1892; Louis E. O'Brien, 1895. 
Discontinued August 28, 1902. Republican. U 

INDUSTRLA.L JOURNAL, 1874 to date (1875): Published by J. A. 
and J. L. Somerby. 

GAZETTE, + 1879 to date : Established by Robert E. Miller in Brim- 
field in 1875, and moved by him to Elmwood, where it was first 


issued July 10, 1879. ^ was soon so ^ to W. E. Phelps, who in 
July, 1883, sold to M. H. Spence, the present editor and pub- 


GAZETTE, February i, 1863-- (?): Established by Robert 
Cauch. Probably short-lived. 

JOURNAL, April 5, 1865 to date: Established by John S. Harper, 
who in a short time gave way to J. W. Wolfe. By 1868 William 
H. Addis and Brother were editors and publishers ; E. F. Bald- 
win and Gershom Martin took the plant in December, 1868; 
Baldwin withdrew, March 30, 1871 ; then on October 10, 1872, he 
supplanted Martin. J. B. Barnes became a partner in 1874. 
Irving Carrier and H. R. Coleman succeeded Baldwin and 
Barnes; W. G. Randall replaced Carrier January i, 1879. In 
1883 A. L. Hereford became owner. W. D. Meek bought a 
half interest in 1884, and the other half in 1885. He sold to A. 
O. Rupp in 1887, and Rupp to G. R. Curtiss February n, 1889. 
R. J. Evans became a partner next day. Evans retired in Sep- 
tember, 1904, and G. R. Curtiss has continued sole owner, 
editor and publisher. 

PATRIOT : A paper published in the '6os by a Mr. Fiske. 


JOURNAL, 1874-- (?): A weekly established by Lemuel Potter. 
The same year it was purchased by Odell and Houser. Odell 
retired in 1875. The paper was soon discontinued. 

OPEN DOOR, +May, 1879: Formerly the Golden Rule, established 
in the interest of the General Baptist Church, published by Elder 
John E. Cox. An advocate of open communion. Semi-monthly. 


SOUTH SIDE RECORD, 1875-1876: I. L. Vansant was editor; Van- 
sant and Company were publishers. 


BULLETIN, 1874-1877: Established by John Spaulding. H. K. 

Wells bought the paper and published it for about two years. 
INDEPENDENT, 1878 to date: Established by George W. Guernsey. 

Bought in 1885 by W. M. Patrick, and in 1889 by C. D. Hannon, 

the present owner and editor. Files from 1889 at the office. 

Files before that date destroyed. 


CHRISTIAN HERALD, i864-(after 1869): A monthly, edited and 
published in 1869 by Dudley Downs and John W. Karr. 


WOODFORD JOURNAL, i 868 to date : Established as an Independent 
paper by John W. Karr. Bought in 1874 by Robert N. Radford, 
who sold an interest to E. J. Davidson in 1881 ; Radford and 
Davidson were editors and publishers until 1892, when the paper 
was sold to B. J. Radford, Sr. In 1899 he bought the Democrat 
from F. A. Shafer and combined the two as Democrat- Journal, 
which had been edited and published since that time by his three 
sons, W. M., C. T., and B. J. Radford, Jr., and his nephew, C. 
A. Radford. August i, 1909, the management was turned over 
to B. J. Radford, Jr., by C. A. Radford. Woodjord was dropped 
from the title in 1877. Democratic. 


SUBURBAN IDEA, 1864: Established by Rev. Nathan Sheppard as 
a local paper. Continued for one year. 

EVANSTONIAN, 1870: Edited and published by Frank Leland. 

Short lived. 
TRIPOD, January, 1871-1881 : A monthly edited and published by 

the literary societies of Northwestern. United with Vidette in 

1 88 1 to form Northwestern. 
REAL ESTATE NEWS, 1871-1873: Published at irregular intervals 

by L. C. Pitner. 

INDEX, June 8, 1872 to date: Established by Alfred L. Sewell. 
Printed in Chicago until June, 1873. In November, 1875, 
John A. Childs and David Cavan bought the paper; and in 
January, 1878, Childs became sole proprietor. The Evanston 
Index Company was formed January i, 1887, with Mr. Childs 
as controlling stockholder. Albert H. Bowman became con- 
nected with the paper in 1903 ; he sold stock to Childs in 1908. 
James R. Paul has been editor since 1906. U 

LAKE BREEZE, May, i874-April, 1875 : A literary college monthly, 
published by Harry W. Taylor, for one year. Files owned by 
Evanston Historical Society. 

HERALD, 1875-1876: Edited and published by Fillmore and Gray. 
Sold to Index. U 

VIDETTE, 1878-1881: A semi-monthly college paper edited and 
published by students in Northwestern University. Combined 
with Tripod in 1881 to form Northwestern. File in Evanston 
Historical Society Library. 


BAPTIST BANNER, 1874-1876: Keeley and Allen were editors and 
publishers in 1875 '. c - J. Keeley alone in 1876. 



PIONEER, 1856-1860+: Established by William B. Cooper; ap- 
parently he sold to J. W. Filler, who moved the paper to 
Emngham. F 


BATTLE AXE, July-October 16, 1841 : Established by Joseph W. 
Ormsbee, who used it to advocate the repudiating of the public 
debt. He soon sold to James Monroe Ruggles, who removed it 
to Winchester after the sixteenth number. The subtitle of the 
sheet was Political Reformer. 


JOURNAL, April 15, 1866-1872: Established by Otis M. Eastman 
and edited and published by him until the paper was absorbed 
by the Independent. Republican. 

INDEPENDENT, April 14, iSyi-January 6, 1877+: Established by 
O. J. and L. W. Dimmick. Conducted by them until October 
6, 1876, when they sold to Bassett and Price. W. H. Price bought 
his partner's interest on October 28, 1876, and on December 2 
sold to John S. Scibird. The paper was consolidated by him 
with the Blade on January 6, 1877. 

LIVINGSTON COUNTY BLADE, November 6, i876-January 6, 1877+ : 
Established by C. B. Holmes, with M. W. Riley as editor. 
Holmes sold to John S. Scibird on January 6, 1877, and the 
paper was consolidated with Independent as 

INDEPENDENT-BLADE, + January 6, i877~July 12, 1884+: John 
S. Scibird continued as editor until 1880, when he was succeeded 
by his son, Ed. A. Scibird, who continued until July 12, 1884, 
when C. E. Carter bought the paper and changed the name to 
Blade. T. E. Dubois bought out Carter March 10, 1888, and 
remained editor and publisher until 1892, when he sold to D. A. 
Fraley. November 4, 1893, Fraley sold to Shankland and Price, 
and August 4, a Mr. Fulton bought Price's interest. G. A. Sut- 
ton bought Shankland's interest November n, 1898, and the 
paper has since that time been published by Fulton and Sutton, 
and edited by Mr. Fulton. Republican. Bound files in the 


INDEPENDENT PRESS, 1852-1855+: John M. Walden was editor 
and A. A. Stickney publisher. Gerhard gives F. C. Mawley as 
publisher. It was Democratic in its sympathies. Changed to 

ILLINOIS PATRIOT, +1855-1856: It was also a Democratic paper 
edited by C. T. Lichtenberger. 


NEWS, 1856: Edited by James H. Smith. Tt was a non-partisan 

GAZETTE, 1858: Edited by A. S. Tilden. It advocated "State 
Sovereignty and Popular Rights." 

PRAIRIE PIONEER, 1858-1866: Published and edited in 1858 by Joe 
M. Pryor, who retired February 2, 1859. William Lloyd Carter 
began publishing the paper February 22, 1859, and was succeeded 
in the editorial chair by J. D. Lichtenberger, October 20, 1859. 
Miles B. Friend was for a short time in partnership with Carter, 
March, 1859. March 15, 1860, Theodore Edmondson became 
the publisher and W. L. Carter was again editor. Edmondson 
was succeeded as publisher by Benson T. Atherton, August, 1860. 
October 1 2, 1 86 2, the Pioneer suspended publication, to be revived 
by J. D. Lichtenberger. Then Atherton again tried to make it 
live, but September, 1865, practically closed its career. In 1862, 
however, Dr. Sibley had purchased Lichtenberger 's interest, and, 
associating with himself R. B. Schell, continued the paper off 
and on till 1866, "on a red hot loyal platform ". 

WAR DEMOCRAT, January, 1864-1866+ : Established by C. I. Wil- 
mans, who in February, 1864, associated C. W. Sibley in the pub- 
lication. The paper was Democratic but favored the war- 
Wilmans retired early, leaving Sibley in charge, but returned as 
Sibley's associate, August, 1864, and remained until February, 

1865. C. W. Sibley was succeeded in 1865 by his father, C. 
Sibley, who in the same year sold to D. W. Barkley. January, 

1866, Barkley took Revill into partnership and changed the name 

WAYNE COUNTY PRESS, +1866 to date: Under Barkley and Revill, 
the paper was neutral in politics. Revill retired and Barkley 
associated with himself his brother, O. F. Barkley. Afier a 
time D. W. Barkley purchased his brother's interest. Under 
Barkley the Press left its neutral ground, and became, especially 
in 1868, a strong Republican organ. After this, however, and 
until 1876. it was a "Granger." It returned in 1876 to 
the Republican party. On July 2, 1887, Mr. Barkley 
sold the paper to W. M. Goudy and O. F. Barkley, the latter 
selling his interest to Mr. Goudy in May, 1889. Mr. Goudy 
sold October 4, 1909, to E. H. Childress and W. M. Knodell. 
Mr. Childress is editor. 

DEMOCRAT, 1868-1881 + : Established bv George W. Bates and 
Mr. Holmes, July 3, 1868. The office had been purchased and 
brought to Fair-field by R. F. Brown, who abandoned the enter- 
prise before it was fairly launched. It was then run successively 
by John Moffit, C. J. Wilmans, Isaac M. Stanley, R. B. Schell, 


Miles B. Friend, and Joe V. Baugh ; 1871-1872, C. E. Sibley and 
R. B. Schell were proprietors. In 1875, Brown came into pos- 
session again, and sold the paper to Oliver Holmes. After chang- 
ing hands frequently it was sold finally by Wilmans to Ed. Mc- 
Clung in 1881, when the paper was consolidated with the Record. 

WAYNE COUNTY REPUBLICAN, i875-i876(?): A Republican paper 
edited by Frank Israel and C. E. Wolfe, and published by C. E. 
Wolfe. U 

REPUBLICAN, 1878 (?): Established by Ross Robinson. A 

radical paper, bought by D. W. Barkley and discontinued in a 
short time. 

REGISTER, September, 1879+ : Established by Joseph D. Carter and 
Will M. Goudy. Democratic in politics. It was published 
until December, when it was purchased by Ed. McClung and 
changed to the 

RECORD, + December, 1879 to date: Originally the Register, pur- 
chased by Edward McClung. In 1881 McClung consolidated 
with the Record the weekly Democrat, at that time owned and 
edited by Wilmans. In 1889 Mr. McClung sold a half interest 
to John M. Rapp, and in 1892 sold the whole plant to Mr. Rapp, 
who is editing and publishing the paper at this time. Democratic 
in politics. 


NEWS, 1877 to date: Established by Ed. Freeman and soon dis- 
continued. It was succeeded, about 1880, by Echo, published 
by J. S. Grant. He sold to W. R. Hancock, and Hancock sold 
to C. R. Davis in 1882. Davis changed the name to News, and 
in 1902 sold to M. C. Barbee and E. B. Pribble. They sold to 
W. C. Cunningham and he in July, 1903, to A. S. and C. D. Coon. 
A. S. Coon became sole owner in March, 1905. Republican to 
1902, thenceforward Independent. 


REPUBLICAN, 1869-1872+ : Established by John S. Harper, propri- 
etor and editor. He published it until 1872 and sold it to Messrs. 
Cummings and Wilkinson, who changed the name to the 

ORTHORSPOR, +1871-1872: Published by Cummings and Wilkins, 
edited by Wilkins. Soon after the change of name, J. W. Rich- 
ardson became local editor and manager. After a career of six 
months Mr. Richardson moved the Orthorspor out of the county. 

REAL ESTATE INDEX, 1871 ( ?) : Published by W. H. Anderson. 

A small advertising sheet, which had a brief existence. 


JOURNAL, November, 1872 to date: Established by John S. Harper. 
After two years, it was bought by O. J. Smith and J. R. Robin- 
son, who made it the organ of the Granger element. Before 
issuing any numbers of the paper these gentlemen sold out to 
W. L. Glessner, whose brother, L. C. Glessner, then took a half 
interest and assumed charge of the paper. The first issue by 
the Glessners was October 15, 1874. In June, 1877, L. C. Gles- 
ner bought his brother's interest and had sole charge until Feb- 
urary, 1879, when the office was moved to Carlinville, Macou- 
pin county, whence the paper was issued as the Herald. The 
Journal was continued after 1879 by W. C. Devore. In 1887 it 
was sold by Mr. Devore to M. V. Zimmerman, who in November, 
1891, sold it to E. A. and C. L. Wood. In June, 1893, E. A. 
Wood sold to W. C. Devore, who in 1894 sold to C. L. Wood. 
In 1895 Mr. Wood sold to F. S. Nutt and B. B. Bates. Mr. Nutt 
died in November, 1896, and was succeeded by his brother S. E. 
Nutt, who in March, 1897, sold to E. A. Williams. The present 
proprietors of the Journal are Williams and Bates. It was In- 
dependent in politics with a slight Democratic tendency under 
Glessner. In 1882 it was the recognized organ of Republicanism 
in northern DeWitt county. Files for ten years at the office. 

HERALD, September, 1873-1875: Established by W. C. Devore and 
Paul J. Clifford, who sold out after two years to Whetzell 
Brothers. They continued the paper six weeks and then moved 
it to Lovington, Moultrie county, there issuing the Lovington 
Index. After six months Devore reassumed possession and 
continued the paper as the Lovington Free Press until 1879, 
when he returned to Farmer City and revived the Journal, as 
above stated. 

EAGLE, 1874 (?): Started by John S. Harper; soon sold to 

G. W. Armstrong. 

REPORTER, i878-August, 1880: Established by Albion Smith, 
editor and proprietor, in the fall of 1878; continued till August, 
1880, when the office and material were destroyed by fire. 

PUBLIC REAPER, 1878-1882; 1883-1892: Wesley Clearwaters, 
publisher; R. M. Ewing, editor. January i, 1881, M. L. 
Griffith became publisher, Reuben Clearwaters, editor. In 
1882 Reuben Clearwaters sold to R. M. Ewing, who, with M. 
L. Griffith, moved the plant to Clinton and conducted the DeWitt 
County Republican one year. It was then moved back to Farmer 
City by Mr. Ewing, who continued as proprietor until 1890, 
when he sold to Frank L. Gillespie. After several changes of 
ownership it was moved to Urbana in 1892 by Harry and Will 
Altizer and became the Messenger. Independent in politics. 



JOURNAL, 1856-1857: Established by Mr. Brown; in 1858 edited 
and published by William H. Worrell. A. K. Montgomery had 
an interest at one time. Democratic in politics. F 

TIMES, 1865-1870 : Established by E. H. Phelps, editor of Lewistown 
Union. Printed at Lewistown. In 1870 Bryant and Phelps 
were editors and publishers. 

POULTRY RECORD, 1872-1874: Established by C. W. Heaton. 
Merged into the American Poultry Journal at Chicago. 

NEWS, 1874-1879: Established by J. D. Hurd, editor and publisher. 
Discontinued December, 1879. Democratic in politics. Semi- 
weekly. Succeeded by the People, January, 1 880-1 881 . Repub- 
lican. Lived one year. Dr. J. A. Brown was editor. 


SOUTHERN ILLINOIS JOURNAL, 1870 to date: Edited and published 
by Wilson and Clarkson, 1871; J. K. Clarkson, 1872-1873; 
M. L. Wilson, 1874; Wilson and Whitting, 1875 ; M. L. Wilson, 
1876; A. H. Reed was editor and publisher, 1877-1879; A. H. 
Reed and F. B. Hitchcock, editors, A. H. Reed, publisher, 1880; 
F. B. Hitchcock, editor, Hopkins and Hitchcock, publishers, 
1882; George M. Clark, 1884, A. H. Reed, editor, Reed and 
Wolf publishers, 1891 ; A. H. Reed, editor, A. H. Reed and Com- 
pany, publishers, 1895; J. J. Picket was editor and publisher 
in 1902, succeeded by T. B. Greenlaw in 1903. B. M. Maxey 
had been editor and publisher since 1904. Republican. 

MONTHLY LETTER Box, 1873-1874: M. L. Wilson was editor and 

TRUE WORKMAN, 1874: M. L. Wilson was editor and publisher. 
Monthly, illustrated. 


JOURNAL, April, 1867-1874: Established by Messrs. M. V. Saltz- 
man and M. M. Mathews. In June, 1867, Mathews retired 
and Saltzman continued until 1870, when C. F. Dore acquired 
an interest. Dore sold to J. W. Clinton in the same year. In 
1872 Clinton purchased Saltzman's interest and in 1873 sold the 
paper to G. L. Bennett. In 1874 I. B. Bickford purchased the 
office and moved it to Byron, where he established the Byron 

HERALD, 1875 to date: Established by a stock company with F. N. 
Tice as editor. In 1876 Chas. E. Slocum became proprietor, 
and in 1880 he was editor and publisher; L. E. Burrows, 1882 ; 
T. F. Haller, 1892-1895. U 


FARMERS' CRITERION, 1878 (?): Edited and published by 

D. O. Lantz. Monthly. 


GAZETTE, 1868 or i869(?): Printed in Dixon; lived only a few 

REPORTER, August, 1869 to date: Established by John Blocher, 
editor and proprietor. At the close of its second year, D. H. 
Spickler bought the paper and published it till May, 1875, when 
T. W. Scott became the proprietor. Scott sold to D. B. Senger 
August 5, 1876, who retained possession about thirteen years. 
Afterward G. W. Gaven continued the management until August, 
1904, when C. A. Bancroft bought him out. E. P. Harrison 
assumed control as editor in March, 1906. 

LEE COUNTY ENTERPRISE, June, i879-November, 1880: Edited 
throughout its existence by P. O. Sproul. 


PRAIRIE DEMOCRAT, 1847-1853+ : A Democratic paper established 
and run by Stephen D. Carpenter, 1847-1850; J. O. P. Burn- 
side, 1850-1852; George Ordway, 1852-1853. In 1853 it again 
fell into the possession of Mr. Burnside and he changed its 
name to F 

BULLETIN, + 1853 to date : Mr. Burnside was succeeded in its publi- 
cation by Messrs. Brag, Brawley and Bagg; Giles and Scroggs, 
1861-1864; J. R. Scroggs, 1864-1869; W. T. Giles, 1869-1873; 
C. C. Shuler and John W. Potter, 1873-1874; John W. Potter, 
1874-1885; O. T. Potter, 1885-1894; H. Poffenberger, P. O. 
Stiver, H. F. Rocky, 1894 to 1900; and H. P. Poffenberger and 
P. O. Stiver to date. It was published weekly to 1877 ; ; then it 
became a daily. It has always been Democratic. EF 

JOURNAL, 1848 to date: Published by H. G. Grattan and A. Mc- 
Fadden, 1848-1849; Mr. Grattan, 1848-1851; Mr. Grattan 
and Hiram M. Sheetz, 1851 ; Mr. Sheetz and Mr. A. McFadden, 
1851-1853; Mr. Sheetz, 1853-1856; C. K. Judson and C. W. 
McCluer, 1856-1864; J. M. Bailey and R. V. Ankeny, 1864- 
1866. In 1866 the Northwest (established in 1865) was merged 
in the Journal and edited by J. S. McCall, J. M. Bailey and M. 
B. Mills, 1866; Mr. McCall, 1866-1868; S. D. Atkins, 1868- 
1873; William B. Thomas, D wight B. Breed and Charles R. 
Haws, 1873-1875; S. D. Atkins and Company, 1875; A. N. 
Richards and Company, 1875 to 1883, when the Freeport Journal 
Printing Company was organized, with Smith D. Atkins as presi- 
dent, principal stock holder, and editor. The paper has con- 
tinued on this basis. In 1883 the Budget was absorbed, and a 


daily issue was established. Previous to that time Messrs. Jud- 
son and McCluer issued a daily Journal in 1856-1857, and in 
1857 Mr. McCall began the issue of a daily which was dis- 
continued after a period of nearly two years. The Journal 
espoused the cause of the Whig party and with its death took up 
the cause of the Republican party. SF 

DEUTSCHER ANZEIGEE, 1853 to date: Established by William Wag- 
ner, and edited by him until his death in 1878. From 1855 a 
son, W. H. Wagner, was associated in the business, and became 
editor in 1877. About 1884 Albert and Oscar, sons of W. H. 
Wagner, became associated in the business under the firm name 
of W. H. Wagner and Sons. W. H. Wagner is still editor and 
manager. Files in the office. P 

NEWS, i864~(after 1884) : A supporter of real estate interests, is- 
sued for advertising purposes. In 1869-1875 Taylor and Aspin- 
wall, and from 1876 until 1884 Taylor and Sons were editors 
and publishers. Monthly. Discontinued. 

BUDGET, 1870-1883: In 1879, Stabeck and Haws were editors and 
publishers. Republican in politics. Absorbed by the Journal 
in 1883. 

SOLDIERS' ADVOCATE, 1873-1879: W. S. Agney was editor and 
publisher, 1873-1874; Agney and Jones, 1875; Jones and Carey, 
1876; Bright and Barton, 1877; Bright and Brownlee were 
editors and publishers, 1879. Monthly. Discontinued. 

ILLINOIS MONITOR, 1874-1876: Edited and published by W. T. 

TRUE MISSION, 1875- (after 1881) : In 1879 W. S. Young was editor 
and publisher. An evangelical, nonsectarian, temperance organ. 

NORDWESTLICHE POST, 1875 : Edited and published by H. Krumme. 

TIMES, 1876: Charles R. Haws was editor and publisher. Daily. 

BANNER, 1879 to date: German. Established by F. W. Frick, 
1879-1880; H. W. Frick, 1882; Joseph Frick, 1884; Charles 
H. Frick, 1891-1895. In 1891 Sontagsblatt was begun. Unter- 
haltungsblatt, a weekly edition, is published on Tuesdays. In- 
dependent in politics. 


WHITESIDE INVESTIGATOR, 1854-- (?) + : Edited by Judge 
^ James McCoy and John Phelps. It soon passed over to Mr. 
McFadden and G. A. Laighton, and in 1855 was published by 
A. McFadden and W. J. Johnson. Subsequently Mr. Laigh- 
ton became sole proprietor and changed its name to 


ADVERTISER, H ( ?) ( ?) : The editorial staff consisted of 

Dr. C. A. Griswold and Messrs. Grout and Lewis. In 1856 it 
favored Buchanan for president. After the campaign Mr. Green- 
leaf became editor. Mr. Laighton, the owner, becoming financi- 
ally embarrassed, went east, leaving the paper in charge of an ap- 
prentice who soon stopped its publication. 

WEEKLY COURIER, 1859-1863+ : A. J. Booth and B. C. Golliday 
leased the establishment of the Advertiser from Mr. Laighton 
and began the Courier. After six months Mr. Booth obtained 
sole charge of the Courier, and in 1863 he purchased the estab- 
lishment of Mr. Laighton and changed the name to 

JOURNAL, +1863 to date: The Journal was conducted by A. J. 
Booth, 1863-1866; Booth and Son, 1866-1872; George Ter- 
williger, 1872; Mr. Terwilliger, editor, and W. C. Snyder, pub- 
lisher, 1872-1876. In 1876 Mr. Snyder became sole owner and 
he leased it to Thomas J. Pickett. Pickett and Snyder were 
editors and publishers in 1879; A. W. Bastion in 1907. The 
paper has been an organ of the Republican party. 

ARGUS, 1868-- (?): Established by Messrs. Pratt. 

WHITESIDE DEMOCRAT, 1871-1872 + : Started by F. L. Norton. 
After one year it was called the 

LIBERAL, 1872-- (?): Published by J. M. Finch. 


MINER'S JOURNAL, 1826-1832+ : Its first editor was James Jones. 
In 1829 Mr. Jones associated with himself as editor Thomas 
Ford, afterwards Governor of Illinois, and J. W. Stephenson, 
a prominent man of the place, was a contributor. For some 
period before 1829 the paper was temporarily suspended. It 
supported Kinney for Governor in 1830, and was otherwise 
active in politics, though said to be non-partisan. Dr. Philleo, 
who secured control of it, changed its name to AHWM 

GALENIAN, +May 2, 1832-1836+ : Edited by Addison Philleo and 
George N. Palmer, successively. It was a Democratic paper. 
There are a few numbers in the Danville Public Library. 
Changed to WSHAM 

DEMOCRAT, +i 836-1 838(?): Edited by Dr. Philleo and George N. 

ADVERTISER, July 20, 1829-1830: Established by Hooper Warren, 
backed by Governor Ninian Edwards; published by Newhall, 
Philleo and Company ; edited by Warren, Horatio Newhall, and 
Addison Philleo, who were not harmonious in their political affili- 


ations. Warren wrote Edwards December i, 1829, that the 
paper had 400 subscribers. Money and paper were scarce, and 
the paper suspended publication in June, 1830. AH 

The Galenian under Dr. Philleo became so unpopular that Dick- 
inson B. Morehouse and other citizens bought an outfit and 
started this paper. S. M. Bartlett and a Mr. Loring were put 
in charge, but Loring soon withdrew. Benjamin Mills was 
editor, 1834-1835. H. H. Houghton became associated with 
Bartlett, and in 1838 became sole owner. He made the paper a 
tri-weekly. In 1843 he sold to W. C. E. Thomas, but in 1845 
was again editor and in 1847 s l e owner. January i, 1848, he 
issued the first number of a daily edition called Galena Daily 
Advertiser; the weekly and tri-weekly seem to have been called 
at this time Northwestern Gazette. Nesbit Baugher and D. W. 
Scott owned each a third interest, 1859-1861. In 1863 the estab- 
lishment was sold to James B. Brown and George K. Shaw, who 
changed the name to AWEF 

GAZETTE, +1863 to date: Shaw soon withdrew, and the paper was 
continued as as daily and weekly by James B. Brown until 1896 ; 
since that time it has been edited and published by A. W. Gles- 
ner. Republican. A 

JOURNAL, 1838-1840: Owned by a stock company and edited by 
W. C. Taylor and John Stark. 

STAR, 1840-1841: Edited by Beriah Brown. 

SENTINEL, 1841-1846: Edited by H. C. McGrew and Brothers, and 
later by Sweney and Son. It was Democratic in its sympathies. F 

JEFFERSONIAN, 1845-1855 : Founded by H. A. and H. W. Tenney. 
Charles Sweney was editor and proprietor, 1847-1852 ; Randall, 
Sanford, and Company, 1852 ; Ray and Sanford, 1852-1853 ; Ray 
and Scott, 1853-1854; Scott, 1854. After a few months Mr. 
Scott sold two-thirds interest to L. T. Leal and Charles Crouch. 
The Jeffersonian disappeared in 1855. The name indicates its 
politics. But under the editorship of Ray the paper took strong 
ground against the Kansas-Nebraska act. After Ray went to 
the Chicago Tribune, the Jeffersonian went back to Douglas 
Democracy. Semi-weekly. F 

CORRESPONDENT, 1851-1862+ : A German paper issued for a year 
and a half from the office of the Jeffersonian. A German com- 
pany was formed and the management of the paper was given 
to Mr. Slybolcl until 1854 or 1855, when he was succeeded by 
Messrs. Wuertenburg and Becket. They were succeeded by 
Mr. Pingel, who changed the name to 


DEUTSCHE ZEITUNG, +1862-1868+ : Conducted by Mr. Pingel un- 
til 1868, when he sold to Von Kettler, who changed the name to 

VOLKSFREUND, +1868 to date (1878): Published by Von Kettler 
until November, 1872, when he sold to J. Voss and M. Witt. 

COURIER, 1855-1862 : Published by Leal, Crouch, and Company. 
The members of the company kept withdrawing until by 1860 
Mr. Leal was alone. In 1861 he sold to E. R. Paul, who discon- 
tinued the daily, which had been started early in January, 1856. 
Mr. Paul sold to Mr. Bristol and he continued to publish the 
paper until the next year, when he sold to a company and we hear 
no more of the Courier. Democratic. HF 

DEMOCRAT, December, 1862-1868: Published at first by a company 
of Democrats, and edited by L. S. Everett. The company soon 
sold to H. H. Savage. He soon assumed editorial charge also. 
Stopped by mortgage sale in 1868. 

COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, 1864-1874+ : Established b> D. W. Scott 

X as a monthly mercantile and business paper but gradually trans- 
formed to horticultural. Alonzo L. Cummings became a partner 
in 1872, and the paper was conducted by D. W. Scott and Com- 
pany until changed to 

INDUSTRIAL PRESS, +February 6, i874-(after 1884) : Established 
by A. L. Cummings and James W. Scott. Scott sold to his 
father, D. W. Scott, in 1875, without changing the firm name of 
Cummings and Scott, which continued until after 1884. 

SPIRIT or THE PRESS, October, 1871-1873: Established by H. H. 
Houghton. Merged with the Gazette in 1873. 

SUN, 1869: Established by S. W. Russell. Short-lived. 


NORTHWESTERN INTELLIGENCER, 1848-1850: Edited by Rev. C. 
R. Fisk. It was non-partisan as to politics; favored Presbyte- 
rianism. The number in the library of the state university 
indicates considerable pugnacity, especially against President 
Blanchard of Knox College. U 

NORTHWESTERN GAZETEER, 1 849-1 85o(?): Edited by Southwick 
Davis. It favored Congregationalism and was neutral in poli- 

NEWS LETTER, 1850-1853 : Edited by Gale, Bunce, and Lanphere. 

It favored railroad construction. In 1852 in the hands of S. G. 

Cowan it appeared as the News Letter and Henry County News. 

It was for some time nonpartisan, but in the latter part of its 

existence it somewhat favored the Free Soil doctrine. F 

KNOXIANA, i85i-i857(?): Issued by members of Adelphic Society 

of Knox College. Monthly. Still published in 1857. P 


WESTERN FREEMAN, two months of 1853: It was an anti-slavery 
paper edited by J. W. Lane. 

FREE DEMOCRAT, 1854-1865+ : An anti-slavery paper, daily after 
1857. The first three editors in order were, Southwick Davis, 
W. H. Holcomb, and B. F. Haskins. William J. Woods was 
owner at the time of Haskins' editorship, which began in 1854. 
In 1855 Haskius was succeeded by C. J. Sellon. The same year 
S. W. Brown, R. H. Whiting, and D. H. Fresbie became owners. 
November to December, 1855, S. D. McDonald conducted the 
paper, followed by W. J. Woods as owner and C. J. Sellon as 
editor. August, 1856, Woods sold the office to J. H. Sherman. 
In 1865 Messrs. Bailey and McClelland became proprietors, 
and the name was changed to F 

FREE PRESS, +1865-1894: In 1872 General M. S. Barnes bought 
the paper, and became editor and publisher. His son, W. Ben- 
nett Barnes, had business charge of the daily edition, which was 
begun 1875. Changed to Press in 1876. In 1882 the name was 
changed to Press and People. Bought by Gershon Martin in 
1883 and issued by him until 1894, when he died and the paper 
was sold to the Spectator. Democratic. 

OAK LEAF, 1856 ( ?) : A monthly published by the Gnothautic 

Society of Knox College. P 

HEMLANDET, 1855-1858+: A Swedish Lutheran paper edited by 
Rev. T. N. Hasselquist. At that time it was the only Swedish 
newspaper in the United States. It was taken to Chicago in 

DET RATTA HEMLANDET, 1856-1858: A monthly organ of the Lu- 
therans, edited by Rev. T. N. Hasselquist and A. R. Cervin. 
It was removed to Chicago with the preceding paper. 

FRLETETSVANNEN, January, 1859-1861 : Edited in turn by Peterson, 
Wilborg, and Aroseriius. Fortnightly ; part of the time weekly. 

EVANGELISTEN, 1860: Lasted about a year. The organ of the 
Swedish Baptists. L. Ahnberg was business manager. 

KNOX COUNTY OBSERVER, 1865- (?) : Published by Louis V. 
Taft. Short-lived. 

REGISTER, 1866-1872+: Started by Steve R. Smith, William J. 
Mourer, and H. D. Babcock. After several changes it was 
bought by E. F. Phelps in 1872 and shortly afterwards was. 
merged into the Republican Register. It had a daily edition after 

LIBERAL, 1867-1879: Edited by Steve R. Smith. 


TIMES, 1868-1869: E. A. Snively was editor and publisher. After 
about nine months he sold to a Mr. Bush, at that time publisher 
of the Register. Democratic. 

WATER CURE JOURNAL, 1868-1870: An advertising sheet edited 
by Mrs. M. Blanche Oughton; published by McCall, Miller, 
and Company. 

NOONDAY STAR, 1870-1871 : The Star Printing Company were 
editors and publishers. Daily. 

ZION'S BANER, 1871 : A Swedish Lutheran monthly. Rev. C. 
Anderson was editor and publisher. (See Knoxville, p. 216.) 

KNOX STUDENT, 1872 to date: Collegiate monthly. P 

REPUBLICAN, 1872+ : Started by C. E. Carr and J. M. Prior; sold 
to S. W. Grubb and consolidated with Register as 

REPUBLICAN-REGISTER, +1872 to date: Owned and published 
by a stock company formed for this purpose, known as the Gales- 
burg Printing and Publishing Company. George V. Dietrick 
was its president, and S. W. Grubb, secretary and treasurer; 
Z. Beatty was editor, and continued so until his death in 1896, 
since which date Fred K. Jelliff has been editor. About 1901 
George A. Perry and O. N. Custer bought a controlling interest, 
and the former became business manager. J. W. Grubb suc- 
ceeded his father as secretary and treasurer of the company. In 
1909 Messrs. Custer and Perry bought the interest of J. W. Grubb, 
and Mr. Custer took Mr. Grubb's position. S. W. Grubb was 
business manager. Daily and weekly. Republican. U 

REPUBLIC, 1873-1875+: Conducted by Judson Graves of Kirk- 
wood. Semi-weekly. Changed after two years to 

PLAINDEALER, +1875-1907: Judson Graves was editor and pub- 
lisher until 1882, when he was succeeded by Henry Emrich. 
Weekly. Independent-Republican. Discontinued in 1907. 

SIDE-WALKINGS, 1873-- (?): Edited by Stephen R. Smith. Ir- 
regular and short-lived. Printed in magazine form. 

REVIEW, 1877-- ( ? ): Conducted by Colville Brothers. In 1878 
it was changed from a weekly to a monthly. Republican. 

PROVINCE, + January i, 1879- (?): A monthly, edited by 
George H. Higgins and published in the interest of the Episco- 
pal church. 

WATCHMAN, 1857 : This paper had a brief career in Galva. Isaac 
B. Smith was editor; Smith and Harl, then E. and I. B. Smith 
were publishers. It was purchased by Judge Tillson, Dr. 
A. A. Dunn, U. M. Ayers and H. W. Wells, and removed to Cam- 
bridge. Its name was changed to the Chronicle (which see). F 


1857+ : A secular, liberal paper founded as especially antago- 
nistic to the Hemlandet of Galesburg, by the Bishop Hill colony 
of Swedes. Edited by S. Cronsioe. It was removed to Chicago 
in 1857. 

UNION, December, 1862-1867+: Established by B. W. Seaton. 
Afterward owned by Eric Johnson; then by John I. Bennett and 
edited by J. M. Edson. It was changed to 

REPUBLICAN, + October, 1867-1870: Johnson and Chaiser, editors 
and publishers. 

PRAIRIE CHIEF, April, 1868-1871+: For a time issued from the 
office of the Union (Kett and Company, History oj Henry 
County, p. 182), then from Toulon as successor to Stark County 
Democrat by F. B. Seaton. Removed to Cambridge in 1871. 

ILLINOIS SWEDE, 1869- - ( ?) : Published by Eric Johnson at about 
the same time as the Republican, in both Swedish and English. 

DEMOCRAT, July, 1869-1871 + : Started by a number of Democrats 
with J. L. Rock as editor. Sold after six months and edited 
by J. G. Ayers until 1871, when it was changed to 

JOURNAL, + February, i872-(after 1880) : Edited by W. J. Ward. 
In April, 1873, W. J. Ward sold to his brother, F. P. Ward, who 
in 1874 sold a half interest to J. J. Balch. Both later sold to 
Henry W. Young, who was still running the paper in 1880. In- 
dependent in politics. U 

NEWS, October, 1879, to date: Established by Beall Brothers (Fred 
and Asa) with Henry Quinn as manager. After one year Fred 
Beall was succeeded by R. H. Wagner, and in another year the 
firm sold to Frank Boyd and Wade Errett. After a year Tom 
Boyd bought Wade Errett's interest. In 1883 Boyd Brothers 
sold to Elmer E. Fitch, whose first paper was issued April 14. 
In the next year Henry Quinn bought an interest in January, in 
1903 he sold to Mr. Fitch, who has continued as owner and 
publisher. He leased the paper to his son, George Fitch, May 14, 
1908-1909, and Carroll Ragan became editor and manager. 


JOURNAL, 1870-1871 : Established and conducted by A. K. Stiles. 

GRUNDY COUNTY FARMER, 1871-1872: Morgan and Wilson were 
editors and publishers. 

INDEPENDENT, 1876-1877: H. H. Parkinson was editor and pub- 



DEMOCRATIC STANDARD, 1855-1856, 1857-1858: Edited by James 
Bowie. In the last year of its existence it favored Democracy. 

REPUBLIC, 1856 to date: First edited by I. S. Hyatt, 1856-1858; 
J. M. Allen and O. A. Turner, 1858; Merritt Munson, 1858; 
Hobbs and Lewis, 1858-1863. In November, 1863, Mr. Hobbs 
obtained entire control. At the same time Adam Lieberknecht 
purchased the Advocate and the two papers were consolidated 
and became the Advocate-Republic. Mr. Lieberknecht was still 
editor and publisher in 1879. The paper was Republican. In 
1907 the Republic was being published by A. Lieberknecht, a 
son of the former editor. UF 

CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHER, 1858-1859: Issued monthly and edited 
by Merritt Munson. 

JOURNAL, 1860: A campaign paper started by an association of 
Republicans and edited in turn by James Ireland, George W. 
Shaw, William Smith, and George A. Hobbs. 

UNION ADVOCATE, 1862-1863+ : Begun by Major James M. Hors- 
ford. Sold to Adam Lieberknecht, who united it with the 

HENRY COUNTY NEWS, January, 1874 to date: Established by 
Belvel and Fisher. Later it was conducted by Belvel and 
Kiner, then by Christian and Kiner. Henry L. Kiner was 
editor in 1879. Neutral in politics. By 1879 it had become the 

INDUSTRIAL ADVOCATE AND NEWS : Henry L. Kiner continued as 
editor and Christian and Kiner as publishers. Under the name 
News this paper is still published and edited by John Swift. A 
daily was begun in 1895. Republican. 

SUN, 1879-1882: N. Spurlock was editor and publisher. Re- 


Fox RIVER ADVOCATE, 1845+ : Published by Robert J. Thomas 
and H. Hough. Changed to 

STAR OF THE WEST, +1846: Published by H. A Hough and A. 
E. McKinstry. "In politics," reads the salutatory, "looking 
above and beyond the present party distinctions, aims at 
nationality ; its motto is For our Country at all times ; to ap- 
prove her when right, to right her when wrong." Only two 
issues were printed. F 

WESTERN MERCURY, 1847-1851+: Published by B. T. Wilson. 
Joseph Cockroft soon became a partner. Its publication was 
suspended from 1851 until 1856, when it was changed to F 


KANE COUNTY REPUBLICAN, + 1856 to date: John Wilson was 
editor and publisher in 1868; S. L. Taylor, 1870-1871 ; Archer 
and Tyrell, 1872-1873; Charles Archer, 1874 until after 1884; 
James Forrest, 1891 ; Kane County Publishing Company, 1895 ; 
Charles B. Mead was editor, Mead and Sons publishers in 1907. 

KANE COUNTY DEMOCRAT: Published by Harrington and M. C. 
Quillen. In Gerhard and in Coggeshall for 1856. 

KANE COUNTY ADVERTISER, 1856-1865: Edited by B. T. Wilson 
and Mr. Cockroft, 1856-1857; John Wilson, i857~i865(?). 

GOSPEL BANNER, i857~(after 1869) : Edited by Benjamin F. 
Wilson. Semi-monthly. Suspended by 1870. 

REPUBLIC, 1865-1896: Among the editors of the Republic were S. 
L. Taylor, 1870-1871; Tyrell and Archer, 1871-1873; Mc- 
Master, Archer and Wheeler, 1873-1876; Mr. Archer, 1876- 
1884; A. D. Hays, 1884-1887; W. H. Howell and Company 
1887-1889; J. E. Forrest, 1888-1891; Charles B. Mead, 1891 
to date. This paper has been Republican. In 1896 it was 
called the Twice a Week Republican. 


NEWS, 1877 : S. S. Tucker was editor and publisher. Republican. 


ENTERPRISE, 1872-1873+ : Established by N. E. Stevens, who in 
1873 sold to Walter Hoge. He changed it to 

COURIER, + November, 1873 to date: Established by Walter Hoge. 
In April, 1875, it was purchased by Emanual Lowry, who con- 
ducted it until 1897, except during the year 1884-1885, when it 
was published by M. F. Cunningham and John C. Molloy. In 
July, 1897, Mr. Lowry retired and turned the Courier over to 
his sons, Charles E. and Russell, who published it for two years. 
Then Russell Lowry's interest was taken by his brother, J. P., 
who has since been a member of the firm, which is styled E. 
Lowry's Sons. The paper has always been Independent-Repub- 
lican in politics. Files are in the office. 


UNION AND GAZETTE, November, 1860- - (?) : Established by A. 
W. Edwards, who edited it until 1863. Alonzo James conducted 
it for a time after Edwards left. It was extremely Democratic. 
Edwards revived the paper in Bunker Hill in 1866. 


JOURNAL, 1868-1870: Established by Mathias Custer, editor and 
publisher. It continued two years. Independent in politics. 


FRUIT GROWER, 1869-1872 : Established by Ed. Rumley. An ad- 
vertising sheet. Monthly. 

SATURDAY STAR, May, 1870 to date: Established by Ed. Rumley, 
editor and publisher, who was still conducting the paper 
in 1879; John J. Coon, 1882-1884; R. C. Allen, 1891-1895; 
A. S. Chapman is now publisher. Independent in politics, but 
a radical temperance advocate. Complete files in the office. 

REAL ESTATE JOURNAL, 1870-1871 : In 1870 edited and published 
by Ed. Rumley; in 1871 by Cyrus Shinn. An advertising sheet. 


ENTERPRISE, November, 1857-1858+ : Edited by Dr. Critchfield, 
1857-1858; W. A. Solomon, 1858. Neutral in politics. 
Changed to 

GUIDE, +1858-1859+ : The first editor was W. A. Solomon, who 
was succeeded by Mr. McChesney, who took a Mr. Canfield 
as associate. Changed to 

NEWS, +1860-1861 : Edited by McChesney and William E. Milton. 

ENTERPRISE, April, 1865-1867: Begun by a Mr. McChesney and 
William E. Milton. McChesney retired in October, 1865. In 
March, 1865, citizens bought the paper and turned it over to H. 
H. Keebler, with William Shook as local editor. After eight 
months it was turned over to Thomas Organ, who changed its 
political tone from neutral to Republican. It was soon discon- 

REVIEW, 1872-1874+ : Begun by William E. Milton. Sold to 
Charles E. Fish, who changed the name to 

DEMOCRATIC CHIEF, +1874+: Under which name it continued 
for four months. Three months later it was revived by William 
R. Crenshaw and J. H. Power, who soon resumed the name 

REVIEW, +1874-1878: J. H. Power was editor and publisher in 
1878. It continued, under many brief ownerships, until No- 
vember, 1878. It was Democratic, favorable to Greenback ideas 
for a time. 

GAZETTE, January, 1879 * date: Tipton and Stuve, proprietors; 
William Stuve, editor. It was suspended in April, but publica- 
tion was resumed after a few weeks. A. H. Simmons purchased 
Stuve's part and edited the Gazette four months, when he sold 
to Tipton. George L. Tipton published the Gazette until De- 
cember, 1904, when he presented the office to his son, Fred L. 
Tipton. Neutral in politics. Files are in the office. 



HERALD, 1857-1889+ : Established by James D. Mondy. Daniel 
Clark was an early editor. Sam Roper was editor in 1868 and 
the early 7o's. Robert McGown was publisher in 1868. In 
1873 A. J. Alden was editor and McGown and Alden publishers ; 
Thomas McGown, editor, McGown and Brother, publishers, 
1874-1879. S. L. Spear, D. G. Thompson, Josiah P. Hodge, 
E. H. Thielecke, and A. B. McDonald each published the 
paper before it was consolidated in 1889 with the Enterprise, 
which had been established in 1887 by Phil A. Craig and Sim 
V. Clanahan. The -Herald Enterprise has been published to 
date (1907) by Craig and Clanahan. Republican. U 

POPE COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1878-1880: Phillip V. Field, editor; 
Thielecke Brothers and Company, publishers. 


BACKWOODSMAN, 1837: A monthly literary and agricultural news- 
paper. Perry Mason was the proprietor and John Russell, the 
editor, 1837-1839. In 1839 it was moved to Jerseyville, the 
county seat. Rock Island AS 

PHOENIX, i842-(after 1843): R. B. Wallace was editor and pub- 
lisher. A 

INDEPENDENT, 1877-1880: Established by Colonel William H. 
Edgar. R. R. Claridge was editor and publisher in 1878-1879. 
Manuscript was prepared at Grafton, printed in office of the 
Jerseyville Republican. In 1878 Claridge purchased necessary 
materials and moved the office to Grafton, becoming sole editor 
and proprietor. In 1880 the paper was moved to Jerseyville 
and became the Jersey Independent. Greenback in politics. 


ROCK RIVER REGISTER, 1842-1843: By September 16, 1842, this 
paper had been removed from Mt. Morris to secure theadvan- 
tage of better mail facilities. It was edited by D. C. Dunbar. 
He died in October. By May 10, 1843, the proprietors were 
Charles H. Lamb and A. G. Henderson; in July Henderson 
had withdrawn. It is believed that the Register died in August, 
and apparently it was succeeded by A 

ILLINOIS TRIBUNE, November 14, 1843-- (?): Edited by John 
W. Sweetland. It was the probable successor of the Rock River 
Register, as it seems to have been printed from the same type. 


ITEM, 1875-1879: M. F. Swartzcope was proprietor and editor after 
the retirement of Mr. J. P. Stockton. Independent. 



NEWS, 1876 to date (1879) : J. W. and E. H. Odell were editors 
and publishers in 1879. 


GAZETTE, 1877-1882 : Spencer Ellsworth was editor and publisher 
until 1882 ; W. B. Tapley, 1882. The paper was printed at the 
office of the Peru Herald. Independent. 


NEWS, 1853-1854+ : Conducted by J. James Prather. James 
Stelle was editor of a humorous portion. It was non-partisan. 
In 1854 it became the 

HERALD, +1854-1859: Started by J. J. Prather who in a short 
time sold to F. C. Manley. At first a Whig organ, then a 
Republican. In 1859 J. Ed. Clarke, associate editor of the Herald 
for two or three years, leased the office of Mr. Manley and issued 
the Independent. H 

JOURNAL, 1856-1858: Edited by William Charles. In 1858 it was 
moved to Carmi and name changed to White County Advocate. 

INDEPENDENT, 1859 to date: Edited and published by J. E. Clarke, 
1859-1877; Clarke Brothers, 1877-1887; Clarke and Son, 1887 
to date. Prints an edition under the name of Albion (Edwards 
county) Independent. Republican in politics. Files are in the 
office. UE 

WEEKLY DEMOCRAT, 1865: Established by a stock company, Sep- 
tember, 1865; C. S. Legge and M. B. Wood publishers. It 
expired after an existence of ten weeks. 

REPUBLICAN, 1872-1874: Established by C. I. Williams. After 
six months Jonathan Stuart purchased the paper and published 
it for one year. November(P), i873-November, 1874, Black 
and Holmes were publishers; in November, 1874, the Republi- 
can was discontinued and the office moved away. 

CHURCH ADVOCATE, 1878 to date (1879) : Lemuel Potter, editor 
and publisher. A semi-monthly Baptist organ. 


INDEPENDENT. 1869-1870: Established by Morton and Pickett. 

Mr. Morton absconded after a short time and Mr. Pickett was 

obliged to discontinue the paper. 

COMET, 1870- - ( ?) : Established by W. T. Pickett. Short-lived. 
LOCOMOTIVE, 1870-1875: A. G. Meacham bought material of the 

Independent office and took Mr. Milton as a partner. Mr. 

Meacham retired. W. T. Pickett became Milton's partner. In 


1874 the paper was sold to C. H. Johnson, who soon abandoned 
it. In 1 88 1 a paper called the Greenfield Locomotive was being 
published at White Hall, Green county, as an edition of the 

NEWS, 1875: Established by John W. Walker. Independent. 
Short-lived. The office after being idle for some months was 
leased to Byron Orr and another John Walker, who established 

DISPATCH, 1876-1877 : Walker abandoned the paper in a few days. 
After a few months Orr sold out to W. T. Pickett. In 1877 he 
sold out to Mr. Farris, who was publishing the Greene County 
Democrat. Office was idle until, in the same year, R. D. Sud- 
deth leased it and started the 

GREENE COUNTY REPUBLICAN, 1877-1878: In 1878 the paper was 
purchased by the Greenfield Printing Company, who began the 
publication of the 

WEEKLY ARGUS, March 30, 1878 to date: W. W. Haven was editor 
and manager. December 8, 1884, on the death of W. W. Haven, 
his son Victor H. Haven became, and continued, proprietor and 
editor. Independent-Republican. 


TRIBUNE, 1855-1857: Published by Daniel Marks, 1855-1856; 
Templeton and Bloomfield, 1856-1857. It was moved to 
Prairie City. 

EXPOSITOR, 1859-1860: Published by J. E. Mumford. It also 
was moved to Prairie City. It was a Democratic paper of the 
Douglas stamp. 

MAIL, 1871-1874: Established by T. B. Pyles and C. R. Davis, 
who were editors and publishers, 1871-1872; Edward Hitch- 
cock, 1873; Ozier and Cooper, 1874. 

TIMES, 1874-1888: Published by a Mr. Tobey. Republican. 

DEMOCRAT, 1876-1881 : Leon Sumerlin and Ed. McClelland were 
editors and publishers. 

PRESS, 1874 to date: Founded by H. C. Bosworth and soon after 
sold to John Cunningham, who continued to edit it until his 
death, December, 1900. His son Walter H. then assumed that 
position until the paper was sold to O. B. Grant and Sons in 
1903. O. B. Grant has been editor to the present time, (1909). 


PROTESTANT MONITOR, December, 1845-1848: A religious paper. 
Established and edited by E. M. Lathrop ; published by E. M. 
Lathrop and James Shoaff. It was "devoted to religious lib- 


erty, essential truth, and general intelligence." From the 
frequency with which such appellations as liar and ass were used, 
it seems that the Monitor was a vociferous advocate of its own 
peculiar sort of religious thought. It was removed to Alton in 
1848. A copy dated Friday, May 8, 1846, is owned by T. B. 
Shoaff of Shelbyville. H 

WESTERN EVANGELIST, about 1847: Listed in Illinois Annual 
Register for 1847. Peter Long was editor and owner. 

JOURNAL, 1848-- (?): Published by John Waite; later by J. 
T. Alexander. How long this paper continued is not known. It 
is listed in Coggeshall's Newspaper Directory for 1856. 

BARNBURNER, about 1849: Published by J. T. Alexander. 

AMERICAN COURIER, 1856-1858: Published by Othniel Buchanan. F 

ADVOCATE, 1858 to date: Published by J. T. Alexander, 1858-1863. 
In 1863 E. J. C. Alexander succeeded his brother; S. C. Mace, 
1865-1871 ; S. B. Hynes, with T. W. Hynes as editor, 1871-1873 ; 
George M. Tatham, 1873-1893; W. W. Lowis, 1893. Since 
May i, 1908, the Advocate has been owned by W. W. Lowis 
and Will C. Carson, who are editors and publishers. Republi- 
can. Copies of these papers, except Barnburner, in office of 

BOND COUNTY DEMOCRAT, June 2, i876-January 25, 1877+: 
Established by J. B. Anderson, who sold it in January, 1877, to 
Boll and Clark, who changed the name to 

SUN, + February, 1877 to date: Independent with Democratic 
leanings. Edited and published by William Boll and Fordyce 
C. Clark to 1884; Vallee Harold, 1884-1891 ; Charles E. David- 
son, 1891-1901 ; Will C. Wright, 1901-1905 ; Charles E. May- 
nard, 1905 to date. 

TIMES, 1870: A short-lived paper, established by Smith and Perry- 


HOME JOURNAL, 1865 to date (1884) : Printed at the office of the 
El Paso Journal. 

MONITOR, i87 3 -i876(?): Edited by R. E., M. F., and C. W. 

Bovard, of Lexington, 1875; John and Bovard, 1876. 

PIKE COUNTY FREE PRESS, 1846-- (?): See Pittsfield. 

PIKE COUNTY UNION, + 1855( ?)-i856(?) +: Edited by M. H. Abbott. 
This had been a Pittsfield paper. A file in the Library of Con- 
gress, May 2, i855~June 9, 1856, shows that during that period 
it was printed in Griggsville and dated for Griggsville and Pitts- 
field. AF 


INDEPENDENT, 1868-1871 : Established by T. W. Hervey, who was 
its editor. Local paper, neutral in politics. 

INDEPENDENT PRESS, September, 1879 to date: Published by A. 
Hughs and Nelson. In 1889 the paper was sold to E. E. Wil- 
liamson, who still conducts it. Independent. 


REPRESENTATIVE, 1859-1862: Edited by Thomas Gregg. Semi- 
monthly in 1860, monthly in 1862. P 

i873-December, 1875: Established and edited and published 
by Thomas Gregg. With vol. 3 Gregg's was dropped from the 
title. With vol. 4 the title was changed to H 

DOLLAR RURAL MESSENGER, January, i876-April 1877: Gregg 
and Brown were editors and publishers. Issued simultaneously 
at Hamilton and Keokuk, Iowa. "A paper for the family circle, 
the farm, the garden, the orchard. A pure literature." "No 
immoral advertisements admitted." H 


GAZETTE, 1877-- (?): Established by C. E. Howe. Short-lived. 


CALHOUN COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1871-1876: Albert G. Ansell was 
editor and publisher, 1871-1876. A Republican paper. 

CALHOUN HERALD, 1872 to date: Established by a stock company 
with John Lammy as editor. In 1876 the plant was sold to 
Argust and Keating. In 1879 Greathouse and Argust were 
editors and publishers; James McNabb was editor, 18801886, 
then he sold to T. J. Selby, who was editor until 1890. J. D. 
Rose was editor and proprietor, 1890 to 1894; H. M. Cornick, 
1894-1895; Charles H. Lamar, 1895-1902. H. M. Cornick, 
publisher of the Calhoun Times, established 1901, bought the 
Herald in 1902 and combined the papers as the Calhoun Times- 
Herald; 1903, Charles H. Lamar bought the entire plant, 
changed the name back to Calhoun Herald, and is still editor 
and proprietor. The paper is Democratic. 


CHRONICLE, 1859 to date: Edited by John F. Conover, 1859-1867; 
J. F. Burks, 1867-1870; Mr. Conover again, 1870-1873; Con- 
over and F. M. Pickett, 1873-1876; J. W. Richardson, 1876; 
F. M. Pickett, 1876-1878; Harrisburg Printing Company, 1878- 
1881 ; Otey and Richardson by lease from Mr. Pickett, 1881- 
1885; Mr. Pickett, 1885 to 1889; Mr. Richardson and J. J. 


Pickett, 1889-1899; Richardson and Charles Scott, 1899-1902; 
Richardson, 1902-1908; A. H. Andrews and John H. Shup, 
1908-1909; Shup and J. M. Hutchinson to date. Files to 1873 
owned by Mr. Conover; files 1873-1896 destroyed by fire. In 
1873 the Chronicle absorbed the Saline County Register, and in 
1 88 1 the Saline County Sentinel. The Chronicle is a Republican 
paper, having become so, after various changes, in 1878. E 

SALINE COUNTY REGISTER, 1869-1873; 1898 to date: Established 
by F. M. Pickett. Mr. Pickett revived the Register in 1898 and 
edited it until his death in 1906. At that time J. J. Pickett be- 
came editor and proprietor. The Daily Register was established 
November, 1908. August 21, 1909, the Register Publishing 
Company was incorporated with J. J. Pickett as president and 

E. M. DeAhna as secretary. Democratic until August 21, 1909. 
Since that date Republican. Files 1898 to date in the office. 

SALINE COUNTY SENTINEL, 1878-1881+ : In 1879 John F. Conover 
was editor; J. F. Conover and J. R. Pearce, publishers. John 

F. Conover alone, 1880; in 1881 the Sentinel and Chronicle were 
combined as Chronicle-Sentinel. Later Sentinel was dropped 
from the name. 


INDEPENDENT, 1865 to date: Established by Thomas G. Newman, 
with H. V. Reed as editor. In 1866 Reed became owner and asso- 
ciated with himself a Mr. Tuttle. In 1867 Tuttle and Reed 
were editors and publishers. The same year, Horniday and 
Blake bought the paper. Blake sold to Smith Hooker, who sold 
in turn to A. McLaughlin; 1872, McLaughlin and A. Leland; 
1877, Gardiner and Knox. These owners soon sold to George 
White, who in a year sold to J. and G. W. Hanna (G. W. Hanna 
and Son), editors and publishers in 1879. After a year, the 
paper was sold to James White ; then at a sheriff's sale, to N. B. 
Burtch, January 29, 1881. Burtch sold to O. S. Eastman, 
October 2, 1895. He retired August 29, 1895, and sold to Mer- 
ton J. Emerson and Eugene Saunders. Saunders sold to Emer- 
son April i, 1908, and M. J. Emerson has continued the publi- 
cation. Vols. 2, 3, 17 to date in the office. Republican in 


MASON COUNTY HERALD, 1851-1857: Edited and published by 
McKinzie and Roberts, 1851-1853; O. H. Wright, 1853; E. L. 
Grubb, 1853; Stout and Weeden, 1853; W. W. Stout soon be- 
came sole editor and proprietor. The Herald was an ardent 
Young America paper. F 


JOURNAL, 1857-1858: Run by J. J. Knapp. Moved to Mason 

SQUATTER SOVEREIGN, 1859-1861 : James M. Davidson was its 

POST, 1 86 1 : A Democratic paper run by John B. Wright. 

BATTLE AXE, 1862 : A Republican paper run by Robert L. Durdy. 

VOTER, i864(?): A campaign paper. E 

VOLUNTEER, 1865-1867 : A Republican paper run by W. W. Stout. 

DEMOCRATIC TRUE UNIONIST, 1866-1870: Selah Wheadon was 
editor and publisher in 1869. Democratic. 

LEDGER, 1867-1870: In 1869 William Humphreyville was editor 
and publisher. Republican. 

GAZETTE, 1869-1873: A Republican paper run by D. G. Swan. 

REVEILLE, 1870-1871 : A Republican paper established by D. G. 
Swan. Short-lived. 

DEMOCRATIC CLARION, 1870-1877: Established by Selah Wheadon 
and William Humphreyville. In 1874-1877 Wheadon alone 
was editor and publisher. It was apparently continued as Mason 
County Democrat. 

MASON COUNTY DEMOCRAT, i878(?) to date: In 1879 Mounts and 
Murdock were editors and publishers. They sold to S. A. Mur- 
dock in 1879; he sold to S. D. McCaulley in 1889; John A. 
Muhlhof, 1890-1906; M. Bollam and Company, 1906 to date. 

MASON COUNTY REPUBLICAN, 1873 to date: From 1874 to 1880, 
F. Ketcham was editor; C. B. Ketcham, publisher. In 1882 
Warner and Omstott were editors and publishers ; P. F. Warner 
was editor and publisher in 1884 and in 1891. It was later 
owned by W. C. McKinney and sold by his estate to R. B. Ruth 
about 1905. He sold in 1909 to Edward Wilson. 


JOURNAL, 1837-1838: Edited and published by Dr. Wilson Everett. 

tember 8, 1839: Edited by Benjamin Lundy, assisted by Zebina 
Eastman, who after Lundy's death, August 22, got out the later 
issues. The previous career of this publication is given as fol- 
lows in the first number issued in Illinois, on November 8, 1838, 
vol. 16, no. i: "It was commenced in 1821; issued a few 
months in Ohio; nearly three years in Tennessee; eight years 
in Maryland and the District of Columbia; and the residue of 
the period stated it has been published irregularly in the city of 
Philadelphia. ... Its principal design has ever been and will 


continue to be the advocacy of Free Discussion; the TOTAL 
ABOLITION OF SLAVERY; and the firm establishment of 
the constitutional, inalienable, and 'universal' RIGHTS OF MAN." 
In Hennepin it was the organ of the Illinois Anti-Slavery Society. 
Genius has been called the first abolition paper in America. It 
was printed at Lowell. SH 

HERALD, 1845-1848: Edited by Philip Lynch. 

TRIBUNE, 1856-1859: Edited by Birney and Duncan. F 

PUTNAM COUNTY STANDARD, 1860-1864: Established by Grable 
brothers, who went to war and left the paper to their father, J. 
F. Grable, with Thomas Stan ton, editor. In 1861 it was edited 
by W. H. G. Burney, and in 1863 by J. S. Grable. Moved to 

PUTNAM RECORD, June 23, 1868, to date: Established by I. H. Cook, 

who was editor and publisher until his death, April 7, 1909. 

Publication is continued by C. W. Cook. Neutral in politics. 

Files in the office. U 


COURIER, 1852-1866: Edited by R. H. Ruggles, 1852-1863; C. 
S. and J. D. Woodward, 1863-1866. June, 1866, the Courier 
and the Marshall County Telegraph were consolidated as the 
Marshall County Republican. File, 1852-1863 of Courier, in 
possession of Mark Ruggles of Mendota, Illinois. 

MARSHALL COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1863-1864: Established by Charles 
R. Fisk, April n, 1863. In July or August, 1864, F. M. Mills 
became publisher, continuing the paper but a few months. 

MARSHALL COUNTY TELEGRAPH/ April, 1865-1866+ : Established 
by Spencer S. Burdick. In September, 1865, George Burt, 
Jr., purchased an interest, and the firm became Burdick 
and Burt. June, 1866, a consolidation of the Henry Courier 
and the Marshall County Telegraph was effected and the paper 
changed to the 

MARSHALL COUNTY REPUBLICAN, +1866 to date (1899): S. S. 
Burdick, George Burt, Jr., and J. D. Woodward were propri- 
etors from June to September, 1866; Burt and Woodward, Sep- 
tember, 1866, to January, 1869; George Burt, Jr., January, 
1869-1899. At one time there was a separate edition of this 
paper issued as the Putnam County Register. The name finally 
became the Henry Republican. File, 1852-1863, in possessior 
of George Burt. U 

1 The information here given seems regularand credible, but apaper bearing the 
same name is listed by Coggeshall in his newspaper directory for 185 6 as published 
in Henry. The directories often breathe a seeming life into papers long dead, and 
sometimes list papers merely projected and never started, but this is rather too 
farseeing as a forecast. 


BULLETIN,- (?)- (?): A small paper, published several 

REFORMED MISSIONARY, 1871- (?): Edited by Rev. C. Cort, 
and printed for some time, at the Republican office. It was 
moved away and in 1880 was defunct. 

COMING WOMAN, (?)- (?): Edited by Mrs. M. E. De- 

Geer, published for two years from the Republican office ; after- 
ward moved to Chicago. By 1880 it had been discontinued. 


ERZAEHLER, March 26-May 7, 1859+: Established by Rudolph 
Stadtmann and John Harlen, Stadtmann, editor. April 30 
Stadtmann became sole publisher. On May 7, 1859, the name 
was changed to 

HIGHLAND BOTE, +May 7, i859~January 12, 1867+ : Peter Weiss 
and Peter Voegele became proprietors, Weiss editor, June 25- 
December 21, 1859. Peter Voegele became sole proprietor and 
publisher, with Heinrich Stiefel as editor from March i, 1861, 
to August 17, 1862. On April 10, 1863, Voegele sold out to 
Timothy Gruaz, who changed the name to 

1869+ : June, 1868, Gruaz sold out to B. E. Hoffmann and 
Maurice Huegy, Hoffmann, editor. November, 1869, Hoffmann 
purchased Huegy's interest and moved the material to Edwards- 
ville, where the paper was continued as the Madison County 
Bole. The Bote was Democratic. Under the name of Bate und 
Schuetzen-Zeitung it was the official organ of the National Sharp- 
shooters' Association. 

UNION, October 24, 1863-1868+ : German. Established by the 
German Literary Society. C. H. Seybt was editor until January 
28, 1865, then Dr. Gallus Rutz. December 28, 1866, Dr. G. Rutz 
and J. S. Hoerner became proprietors, with Dr. Rutz, editor. 
October 22, 1868, the name was changed to 

HIGHLAND UNION, +1868 to date: John S. Hoerner became sole 
proprietor and editor March 18, 1874. In September, 1898, 
Hoerner sold out to C. T. Kurz, who is still in possession, 1909. 
The Union has always been Republican. U 


PRAIRIE BEACON, 1838-1839: First published by Hayward and 
Holmes and edited by Aaron Clapp. Eugene Hayward of 
Indianapolis has a file. Files after 1885 in office of the Journal. 
PRAIRIE MIRROR, 1850-1856+: Published by Gilmore Brothers, 
and edited by Francis Springer, 1850-1851. A weekly paper of 
Whig sympathies. In the reconstruction of political parties the 


Mirror became the exponent of the Know-Nothing party. A 
file is owned by John W. Kitchell of Pana. Mr. Dickerson, as 
editor and proprietor, 1854-1856, changed the name to 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY HERALD, +1856-1868+: Published by 
James Blackman; then by C. D. Dickerson; later by J. W. Kit- 
chell and F. H. Gilmore to 1860. From 1858-1860 it was an 
Independent paper. In 1860 it was sold to Davis, Turner and 
Company, who ran it through the campaign as a Democratic 
paper. In 1868 it came into the possession of E. J. C. Alexander, 
who changed its name to EF 

DEMOCRAT, +1868-1874+: Claiming to be a Democratic paper, 
it was in full accord with the Granger movement. In 1874 it 
became the 

ANTI-MONOPOLIST, +1874-- (?)+: A zealous exponent of the 
Granger movement. Mr. Alexander, the proprietor, changed 
the name again to the 

BLADE, -\ (?)-i877+: A Republican paper, sold by Mr. 

Alexander in 1877 to James L. Slack, who changed the name to 

JOURNAL, +1877 to date: James L. Slack, 1877-1881; Charles R. 
Fruitt, 1881-1895; B. F.Boyd, 1895-1898; Josiah Bixler, 1898- 
1907. It was bought by Sam Little in 1907. 

ILLINOIS FREE PRESS, 1859-1 862(?): A Republican paper, edited 
by D. W. Munn; later by J. B. Hutchinson and James Munn. 
It was suspended, and revived as 

UNION MONITOR, 1863 (?)+: Editors and proprietors : John 

W. Kitchell, 1863-1865 ; J. E. Henry 1865 - (?). Mr. Alex- 
ander was for a time proprietor, but he sold to B. S. Hood. It 
was removed to Litchfield and became the Monitor. (Rowell 
states [1868] that Benjamin S. Hood and Company were editors 
and publishers at that date, and that the paper was published 
from the office of the Litchfield Union Monitor.) This paper is 
now the News-Monitor, published by the Litchfield Printing 

NEWS LETTER, 1869+ : An outgrowth of the Monitor, conducted 
by C. L. and E. T. Bangs. Slack and Tobin bought the News 
Letter and changed it to 

JOURNAL, -I (?)-i875+ : C. T. Tobin sold to Slack, who sold to 

Ben E. Johnson and Charles T. Tobin in 1875. It had been 
Republican in politics. Johnson and Tobin changed it to 

MONTGOMERY NEWS, +1875 to date: The paper now became 
Democratic. In 1876 Johnson sold his interest to George W. 
Paisley, and in 1882 Paisley and Tobin sold to Benjamin E. 
Johnson. In 1892 the paper was purchased by C. W. and C. P. 
Bliss, who are its present publishers. U 



REVIEW, 1878 to date: Established by M. N. Tomblin. After six 
months L. E. Tomblin was associated; in 1880 H. W. Fay 
entered the firm, which became Tomblin Brothers and Fay. 
Fay became sole owner in 1882. It was later conducted by Fay 
and Hubbard, who sold to R. D. Chappell, July i, 1909. 


JOURNAL, 1859-1870: It was edited by George Knapp for a com- 
pany of citizens until he entered the army. In 1865 John W. 
Summers resuscitated the Journal, which soon passed inco the 
hands of W. H. Rhodes. Mr. Rhodes was succeeded by John 
S. Harper, who continued it until 1870. Mr. Harper was con- 
tinually moving the office from place to place in the county. 
(See Brink, McDonough's History oj Champaign County, 43.) 

PRESS, 1873-1876: Established by John S. Harper and Son. In 
1876 W. Harper and E. P. Dill were editors, Ed. S. Harper pub- 

ENTERPRISE, 1877 to date: Established by J. C. Cromer; J. B. 
Martin, editor. Erwin A. Baker, 1882-1884; J. B. Martin, 
1891-1895. Republican. 

NEWS, 1877 to date (1879) : J. H. Young was editor and publisher 
in 1879. 


CHRONICLE, January, 1872 to date: Established by Seavey and Wal- 
lace as North Vermillion Chronicle, and continued under that 
name for one year. Sold January, 1877, to L. F. Watson. July, 
1877, Mr. Watson sold to Dale Wallace, member of the firm of 
Seavey and Wallace, who established the paper. July, 1882, 
Charles W. Warner bought the paper and is still in editorial 
charge. J. J. Pittser became partner and business manager in 
1903, but retired four years later leaving Charles W. Warner in 
sole charge. Republican. Daily and weekly. One file of the 
paper is owned by Dale Wallace; one is in the office. 


CLEMENT REGISTER, i875(?)-i883: Established by J. W. Peter- 
son at Clement (now Huey) and continued until 1883, when he 
merged it in the Carlyle Banner. 


WABASH SENTINEL, June 5, 1852-1853+ : A politically independent 
paper published by George W. Cutler. Changed to 


JOURNAL, +1853-1854: It was a Whig paper under the control of 
E. Callahan. Edited at first by Charles T. Cutler. 

CRAWFORD BANNER, 1857-1858: A non-partisan paper edited by 
W. F. Rubottom. It was moved to Palestine. 

NEWS, 1874-1875: N. M. P. Spurgeon was editor and publisher. 


SOUTH SIDE NEWS, 1871-1875: Van Sant and Company were 

editors and publishers in 1875. 

NEWS, 1872 : S. Usmar Downs was editor and publisher. 
DAILY SUN, i872-i878(?): H. L. Goodall and Company were 

editors and publishers. (See Chicago.) 


AMERICAN BOTTOM REPORTER, 1841-1842 : Published by Vital Jar- 
rott and Company. Gustav Koerner in his Memoirs has said 
that this was a Native American paper, published in 1841-1842. l 

NATIONAL BANK, fall of 1842: A Whig campaign paper edited 
by W. Weigley and published by S. D. Sumrix. It was to be 
"devoted to the advocacy of Henry Clay for the presidential 
chair, a National Bank, the tariff, and the protection of home 


CITIZEN, 1879-1880 : J. W. Wolfe was editor and publisher. Printed 
at Mt. Pulaski as an issue of a paper there of identical name. 


FULTON PRESS, 1874+ : Established by G. A. Hyde. Soon passed 

to Mr. Flake, who changed the name to 
FULTON PHOENIX, +1874+ : And after a short time removed it to 

Astoria. In 1877 it was purchased by Leigh and Miller, who 

returned the office to Ipava and changed its name to 
INDEPENDENT, +1877+ : After a period of two months they sold 

the entire establishment to A. H. McKeighan, who immediately 

changed its name to 
STREAM OF LIGHT, +i877~(after 1879): McKeighan continued as 

editor and proprietor for several years 


WESTERN OBSERVER, May, 1830: Published by James G. Edwards. 
"Devoted to politics, education, and religion." 

1 Evidently this is the same paper as American Bottom Gazette of East St. 
Louis (of which Illinoistown was the earlier name). 


ILLINOIS PATRIOT, December 20, 1831-1837+: It was a Whig 
paper edited until 1837 by Charles Jones and James G. Edwards, 
who later founded the Burlington Hawkeye. Edwards was 
succeeded by Governor Duncan. In 1837 Josiah M. Lucas 
became its owner and he changed it to the AEM 

ILLINOISAN, +i837-April 9, 1844: It was first edited by A. H. 
Buckner and Colonel John J. Hardin and afterwards by Mr. 
Lucas himself until 1843, when he leased the office to J. M. 
Hodge and William C. Swett. Hodge became editor about 
May i, 1843, and Hodge and Swett were publishers until April 9, 
1844, when the paper was discontinued. HA 

( ?) : Published by Charles Jones and Company, who evi- 
dently had withdrawn from his connection with Edwards in the 
Patriot. A 

NEWS, April, 1834-- (?) + : Established by Robert Goudy, Sr. 1 
By the beginning of 1835 it had been combined with the next 
following paper. 

ILLINOIS STATE GAZETTE, October, 1834- (?)+' Probably 
established by S. S. Brooks. By the beginning of 1835 it had 
been combined with the News as 

(?) : The issue for January 17, 1835, bears the double num- 
bering 13 and 35 for the respective numbers of the combination. 
The paper was then edited and published by S. S. Brooks and 
John H. Pettit. On February 10, 1836, the double numbering 
was dropped, the older series being retained. Pettit withdrew 
July 12, 1836, and Brooks continued the paper alone for a time. 
After a period of suspension publication was resumed April 22, 
1837, by S. S. Brooks, W. W. Curran, and D. G. Day. This 
partnership was dissolved November n, 1837, and Brooks alone 
continued the paper for a short time. Democratic. A 

LIBERTY'S SENTINEL, August, 1835- - ( ?) : Edited by William H. 
Coyle. "Devoted to the interests of the Federal party." Prob- 
ably short-lived. 

COMMON SCHOOL ADVOCATE, January, 1837- (?): The first 
publication devoted exclusively to the cause of education pub- 
lished in the " Great Far West." Edited and published by Calvin 
and Ensley T. Goudy. 2 

ILLINOIS STANDARD, March 10, 1838-1839: A Democratic paper, 
published by S. S. Brooks. It was probably a continuation of 
Gazette and News. Toward the close of 1838 the title was 

1 Trans. III. State Hist. Soc., IQO?, p. 316. 

2 Ibid. 1906, p. 336, Rev. Theron Baldwin is mentioned as editor. See 


changed to Spirit of the West and Illinois Standard. Publication 
stopped about the close of 1839. It was resumed as A 

ILLINOIS DEMOCRAT, May 20, 1840-1842 : A. V. Putnam was pub- 
lisher; he was succeeded after a few months by William C. 
Swett. A 

CHRISTIAN MESSENGER, i843(?) : Published by A. V. Putnam, pre- 
sumably after he discontinued the Illinois Standard. It was at 
the office of this paper that the Illinois Statesman was printed. 

ILLINOIS STATESMAN, April 29, i843~May 27, 1844: Jonathan B. 
Turner was editor and proprietor and the paper was printed at 
the office of the Christian Messenger. It stood for " true Repub- 
licanism against all Locofocos and Demagogues, whether pre- 
tended Whigs or Democrats " and was remarkable for its inde- 
pendence. SH 

MORGAN JOURNAL, 1845-1858+ : It was a Whig paper edited by 
William H. Sigler and published by W. C. Swett; J. B. Shaw 
was editor in 1847 ; later Dr. E. R. Roe, Paul Selby, under whom 
the paper became Republican at the time the party was organized, 
and W. H. Collins, who changed the name in 1858, when it be- 
came the SF 

JACKSONVILLE JOURNAL, +1858 to date: First under the manage- 
ment of William H. Collins with H. Barden as printer; Collins 
left the paper September 26, 1861, putting the management in the 
hands of W. C. Brown. Barden soon became publisher and 
continued until November 17, 1864. Through this critical time 
H. J. Atkins, William W. Jones, and others were editors. Bar- 
den was succeeded by Ironmonger and Mendenhall ; they were 
succeeded by Ironmonger and Colonel G. P. Smith, editor, in 
1865. The Daily Journal was started April 14, 1866; Colonel 
Smith was editor and sole proprietor from 1867-1869. Horace 
Chapin and Lyman B. Glover, editor, were publishers from 
1869-1874, when Mr. Glover sold to Horace R. Hobart, who 
was part proprietor for one year. In 1875 Hobart sold to Milton 
F. Simmons, who became editor. Chapin sold in April, 1876, 
to Charles M. Eames; Simmons withdrew in 1878, and Eames 
was sole proprietor and managing editor until 1886, when the 
paper was incorporated under the name of the Jacksonville 
Journal Company. At present Hawes Yates is president, S. W. 
Nichols is treasurer and W. L. Fay is secretary. Mr. Nichols 
is editor. Files since 1859 in the office. SE 

WESTERN STAR, January 7, i845-i846(?) : A publication edited 
by Rev. A. Bailey. "Devoted to religion, virtue, and knowl- 
edge." Baptist semi-monthly, printed by Wm. C. Swett. H 


JACKSON STANDARD/ about 1847: Mentioned in Illinois Annual 
Register for 1847. Edited by J. S. and E. W. Roberts. Demo- 

CONSTITUTIONIST, i852-(after 1855) : Its editors were Dr. E. R. Roe ; 
T. H. Cavanaugh; John M. Taggart. A daily was tried for 
a while but failed. A file of the Daily Constitutionist, February, 
i854~May, 1855, is in Illinois College Library, Jacksonville. AS 

TRI-WEEKLY PRESS, 1852: A Whig paper published by T. H. 
Cavanaugh. S 

HATCHET, November, 1855 : edited and published by W. T. Davis. 

ILLINOIS SENTINEL, 1855-1876 : Edited by J. R. Bailey, 1855-1873 ; 
Fanning and Paradice, 1873-1874; Gershom Martin, 1874- 
1876. It was published weekly and advocated the cause of first 
the Whigs and next the Democrats. Illinois was dropped from 
the title. Combined with Enterprise to form the Courier. Files 
owned by Mrs. J. H. Hackett, Jacksonville. S 

ARGUS, 1859: Published by N. B. Walker. Short-lived. 

CAMPAIGN ARGUMENT, 1860: Issued by C. J. Sellon. Short-lived. 

DISPATCH, 1861-1862 : Published by E. S. Trover. 

INDEPENDENT, 1869-1874: Established by Ironmonger and Fink. 
Henry E. Fink was editor; Ensley Moore, assistant editor. In 
1873 it was sold to Gershom Martin ; later W. Y. Dowdall pur- 
chased an interest; later Fanning, Paradice, and Company of 
of the Sentinel. S 

DEAF-MUTE ADVANCE, 1870 to date: A four-page weekly for deaf 
and dumb persons. Established by Phillip G. Gillett and Frank 
Read. Edited and published by Frank Read until 1892, when 
he associated with him Frank Reed, Jr. In January, 1898, the 
name was changed to New Era, and in 1903 to Illinois Advance. 
The publication was turned over to the Illinois School for the 
Deaf in 1900, since which time W. H Clifford has been editor. 

NATIONAL CROP REPORTER, 1873 : Greene and Coulter were editors 
and publishers. 

ENTERPRISE, 1874-1876+: Established by James S Hambaugh. 
Daily established in 1876. In 1876 T. D. Price and Company 
purchased this and the Sentinel office and changed the name to 

ILLINOIS COURIER, +1876 to date: Edited by J. D. Price and Com- 
pany, 1876-1882; Doying and Hinrichsen, 1882-1886, and from 
1886-1892 Mr. Case was a partner; G. E. Doying and G. E. 
Doying's Sons, 1892 to date. The Courier is Republican. The 
files in the office are incomplete until after 1882. 

1 Listed as here stated, but probably it belongs under Shawneetown. 


MORGAN MONITOR, 1876- (?): Listed in Rowell for 1880 as a 
Greenback publication established in 1876. J. R. Miller and 
J. C. Rahe were editors and publishers. 

COLLEGE RAMBLER, 1878-- (?): Published by the students of 
Illinois College. At first monthly, later semi-monthly. 


CHRISTIAN INSTRUCTOR, April, 1872 : Removed from McLeansboro 
to Jeffersonville by George P. Slade. Slade was the editor, and 
C. E. Wolfe the publisher. The paper was a dogmatic devotee 
of the cause of the Christian Church, and did not live past 
December of its birth-year. 

CHRISTIAN HERALD, 1872 : Elder J. W. Stone was editor and pub- 

WAYNE COUNTY CENTRAL, 1873 : Established by C. E. Wolfe and 
R. A. Moss and published from the office of the defunct Christian 
Instructor. In 1873 Moss was succeeded by J. M. Tracy, who 
took the office to Fairfield. In a short time Israel and Wolfe sold 
it to Professor W. S. Scott. Republican in politics. 

THE EVANGELIST AT WORK, 1879: Established by Wall and Tracy. 
Continued one year, and then the office was closed. This was 
a church organ, devoted to "primitive Christianity." 

: E. J. Hart, editor; Tracy, publisher. This 
was a Sunday school organ, name unknown, which continued 
through eight months. 


+ 1839-1842+: Published at Grafton by Perry Mason. 1837- 
1839; edited by A S. Tilden, 1840-1842 (see Grafton). Changed 

NEWSPAPER, +1842-1856+: Edited by Flitcher and Parenteau, 
1842-1854; Thomas Wright. 1854-1856. Changed to 

DEMOCRATIC UNION, + 1854-1865 + : A Democratic paper established 
by Thomas Wright, edited by H. H. Howard, 1857-1858; J. C. 
Dobelbower, 1858-1865. In 1865 it was bought by a stock 
company and the name changed to 

JERSEY COUNTY DEMOCRAT, +1865 to date: Edited by Augustus 
C. Smith, 1865-1866; edited and published by T. J. Selby, 1866- 
1869; A. A. Wheelock and L. L. Burr, 1869-1870; J. A. J. 
Birdsall and J. I. McGready 1870-1871; J. J. McGready, 1871- 
October, 1880: J. M. Page, 1880 to date. The Daily Democrat 
was established in 1896 and still continues. Files since 1865 
in the office. 


FAMILY AND FARM JOURNAL, 1868-1870: Edited and published 
by Thomas D. Worrall. A monthly 

PRAIRIE STATE/ 1850-1864: Established by Augustus Smith In 
1864 the Republican Club of Jersey county purchased the Prairie 
State of A. S. Smith, then editor and proprietor. A. C. Clayton 
edited the paper for the club, 1860-1862; Laubson Williams, 
1862 to 1863 or 1864, when it came to an end. SF 


REGISTER, 1865-1868 : Established by Frederick S. Houghawout, edi- 
tor and proprietor. In 1867 sold to L. Williams, who afterwards 
moved to Topeka, Kansas, and his son, Charles F. , leased the 
office and became editor and publisher. In 1868 the office was 
purchased by Colonel G. P. Smith of the Jacksonville Journal, 
who established the 

REPUBLICAN, 1869-1880+ : William H. Edgar was editor. In 1869 
Chapin and Glover became proprietors; Edgar continued as 
editor. In 1870 Edgar became sole editor and proprietor. In 
1880 the paper was consolidated with Examiner as Republican 
Examiner. Edgar and Locke conducted it until 1885, when 
Locke retired and was succeeded by Frank M. Roberts. In two 
months Edgar retired. Will H. Hedley became proprietor. 

EXAMINER, August, 1878-1880+ : Owned by a stock company 
under the name of Jersey ville Publishing Company. J. Sterling 
Harper was editor. Advocate of temperance cause. In three 
months the paper was leased by the editor, Harper, who withdrew 
entirely in two weeks. Morris R. Locke became editor and con- 
tinued until September 10, 1880, when it consolidated with the 


COURIER, 1839-1843+ : Called the Joliet Courier. A Democratic 
paper started by thirteen citizens of Joliet, three of whom, 
Charles Clement, Edmund Wilcox and Hugh Henderson, were 
the publishers. Its editor and printer was C. H. Balch. After 
many changes it passed over to D. S. Gregg and W. P. Hudson. 
In 1843 it was purchased by William E. Little, who changed it 
to P 

SIGNAL, +1843-1893: Published by Judge S. W. Randall, 1844- 
1845; S. O. Stillman, 1845-1846; in 1846 it was sold to C. and 
C. Zarley, one of whom held an interest in it until it was sus- 

1 A history of Jersey County gives 1857 as the year in which this paper was 
started; but it is listed in Coggeshall's newspaper directory for 1856, a copy of 
vol. 3, no. 52, dated August 26, 1853, is in the New York State Library, and a 
copy of vol. 4, no. 20, dated January 14, 1854, is in the Illinois State Historical 
Library. Augustus Smith was editor and proprietor at that time. 


pended. The interest of the junior Zarley was bought in 1874 
by Peter Shutts. Edward D. Conley was the last proprietor. 
Democratic. Sold to the News about 1893. PF 

TRUE DEMOCRAT, 1847-1862+ : A Whig paper, later Republican, 
published by Alexander Mclntosh, 1847-1849; H. N. Marsh, 
1849-1852; Mr. Mclntosh, 1852-1856. In 1856 Mr. Mclntosh 
sold to Joseph L. Braden, who in 1862 changed the name to F 

REPUBLICAN, +1862-1869+: Conducted by Joseph L. Braden. 
On his death in 1869 James Goodspeed bought the paper and 
changed the name to A 

REPUBLIC, +1869-1883+: A daily was established about 1879. 
January i, 1883, Goodspeed bought the daily and weekly Sun 
of C. B. Hay ward and merged the two papers into the Republic 
and Sun. Upon his death, October 17, 1885, the paper was 
purchased by Robert Mann Woods, who changed the name to 
Republican, daily and weekly, and the paper is still published 
under that name. Files since 1884 in the Public Library. PH 

SUN, 1872-1883+ : Established by C. W. Hay ward. Daily in 1874. 
United with the Republic in 1883. PHU 

RECORD, 1870-1883 : Established by D. C. Henderson. Sold to W. 
W. Stevens in 1880, when a daily issue was begun. Sold to the 
News in 1883. Democratic. 

WILL COUNTY COURIER, 1874-1884: Moved from Lockport about 
1874. H. W. Cook was edicor. Published part of the time as a 
daily up to about 1884. A Granger organ. 

HERALD, 1875-1876: Established by Roos and Rohr. Roos and 
Schmidt were editors and publishers in 1876. 

PHOENIX, January, 1877 (?): J. S. McDonald, editor and 

proprietor. This was the home office of a circuit of Phoenixes 
located at Joliet, Lockport, Wilmington, Lemont, Braidwood, 
Peotone, and Plainfield. Each had its own local editor. 

NEWS, April, 1877 to date : A morning paper established by Charles 
F. Dutcher as an Independent. Bought in October, 1877, by 
Nelson, Ferriss, and Company, who made it a Greenback organ 
and added a weekly edition called Greenback News. Files of the 
News complete to date in the Joliet Public Library. P 

WOCHENBLATT, i877-i88o(?) : A German paper, moved from 
Beecher by Charles M. Henssgen; ran about three years; 
Mentioned in Ayer for 1881. 


GAZETTE, 1849 to date: This paper was established and edited by 
Thomas J. Finley and John Evans. They sold it to H. E. Hemp- 
stead, who conducted it for nearly two years, and then John 


Grear appeared as editor, 1855-1857. Then it passed into the 
hands of Governor Dougherty and espoused the cause of Democ- 
racy as representea by Stephen A. Douglas, but later it supported 
the principles of the Breckenridge wing. The paper was next 
sold to a joint stock company, and edited by Mr. McKinney. 
In 1860 it came under the control of James Evans, who, in 1861, 
sold it to William Jones. In 1863 it was suppressed because it 
interfered with the work of recruiting volunteers. The order of 
suppression was soon revoked and the publication was revived 
by Joel G. Morgan, who, in 1864, sold it to J. D. Ferryman. 
During the greater part of its existence up to this time it was 
editea by Dr. Sidney S. Condon. T. F. Bouton became owner 
in 1866. He sold in 1893 to A. S. Tibbets, the present owner 
and editor. Bouton is said to have made the Gazette the most 
influential Democratic paper in southern Illinois, and to have 
been himself the most widely known of Illinois country editors. 
Files (incomplete to 1864) in the office. A 

UNION COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1858: It was established by a joint 
stock company and edited by A. H. Marscholk. It was a Doug- 
las paper intended to counteract the influence of the Gazette, 
which was then an anti-Douglas organ. After the election of 1 858 
the office was moved to Anna. 

UNION COUNTY RECORD, 1860-- (?): Conducted by W. H. 
Mitchell, Anna, Illinois. It was short-lived and succeeded by 
another short lived paper, the Union County Herald. Re- 

ADVERTISER, 1871-1878: Established by George M. Dougherty. 


MOTTO, July 26,1 847- - ( ?) : A small pamphlet issued at irregular 
intervals of from one to six months in the interest of Jubilee Col- 
lege, established in 1847 by the Episcopal church of the diocese 
of Illinois. Much of the matter was contributed by Bishop 
Philander Chase. The publication was continued at least to 
October, 1852. SH 


EXPRESS, 1873 (?): An edition of the White Hall Register; 

edited by Charles H. Johnson to 1876; Henry Johnson; then 
Will O. Reed. Independent. 

TIMES, 1874 (?): An edition of the Carrollton Gazette. J. S. 

Carr editor; Price and Sons publishers, in 1879. 




GAZETTE, 1853 to date: Edited by A. Chester, 1853-1856; D. S. 
Parker, 1856-1869. In the absence of Mr. Parker as a soldier 
during the Civil War, Mr. J. B. Atkinson conducted and edited 
the paper. For a brief period Mr. W. F. Keady was associated 
with Parker. In 1869 Mr. Parker sold to Charles Holt. The 
first numbers of the Gazette were published in Chicago by the 
Chicago Journal Company, there being no place yet built in Kan- 
kakee where a press could be set up. This continued for a few 
weeks only, when the press and type were sent to Kankakee, 
and for a time the work was done in the open air under the shade 
of a friendly tree. In December, 1886, the firm became Charles 
Holt and Sons. March, 1905, Clarence E. Holt purchased his 
brother's interest and the firm became Charles and C. E. Holt. 
Charles Holt died July 21, 1908, at the age of ninety-one and the 
Gazette became the property of Clarence E. Holt. F 

DEMOCRAT, 1858-1862; 1864 to date: Edited for a short time by 
Cyrus B. Ingham and H. Austin; next by Messrs. Austin and 
James Green. This partnership was soon dissolved and Hon. 
A. C. Lake assumed the editorship. Mr. Lake sold to B. A. 
Fuller, who conducted the paper through the Buchanan cam- 
paign. Mr. Fuller sold to W. N. Bristol, who continued to edit 
amd publish it until 1859, when J. B. and Gabriel Durham pur- 
chased it. Messrs. Durham published it until 1862, when they 
joined the army and its publication ceased. In 1864 Cyrus 
Ingham resumed the publication and later sold to W. L. Henry, 
who published it until 1881. In December, 1881, Mr. Henry 
sold it to E. B. Buck, and the name was changed to Herald. In 
1885 Mr. Buck sold it to R. H. Ballinger, who changed the title 
of the paper to Chief. Ballinger sold the paper in 1887 to Alfred 
Doolittle and W. J. Brock. It was then published under the 
name of the Kankakee County Democrat. W. J. Brock bought 
Mr. Doolittle's interest in 1888, and continued to publish the 
paper until January, 1892. In 1892 it was purchased by the 
Democrat Publishing Company; T. B. Collins and J. B. Smith 
publishers. A daily was started in connection with the weekly, 
February 22, 1892. The paper is now being published by this 

JOURNAL DE L'ILLINOIS, January-September, 1857+ : Founded by 
A. Grandpre" and Claude Petit ; the first French newspaper pub- 
lished in the state. In September, 1857, it was moved to Chicago. ; 

UNION, i862-i866(?) : A Democratic paper started by Cyrus B. i 


REVIEW, i865-(after 1880): Established by N. H. Taylor. Thomas 
Kelly bought an interest. Sold to W. F. Keady who changed 
the name to Times. Originally Independent, then Republican ; 
supported Greeley in 1872; became a Greenback organ; then 
supported Garfield in 1880. 

TIMES, 1868 to date: Owned by W. F. Keady; George B. Keady 

and Company, --1881 : Livingston and Keady, 1881 (?) ; 

Keady and Ernest Shaw owned the paper in 1883 ; Dunlap and 
Livingston in 1897, with H. J. Dunlap as editor. Republican. 

Name changed to Republican in ; now published by Kan- 

kakee Republican Company; M. H. Bassett, editor. 
COURRIER DE L'lLLiNOis, 1868- (after 1883) : Established by a num- 
ber of French citizens under the management of A. Grandpre, 
who later became owner. Republican. U 

HERALD, i872-(after 1882) : H. C. Henry, editor and publisher. 
Between 1880 and 1882 he sold to E. B. Buck. Democratic. 


NEWS, 1873-1877 : W. W. Bishop was editor and publisher. 

REPUBLICAN SUN, 1878 (?): William S. Rose was editor and 

publisher in 1879. Probably changed to Journal. Republican. 

CITIZEN, 1868-1873: E. F. Chittenden was editor and publisher. 


ILLINOIS HERALD, i8i4 1 -i8i6+ : The first paper in Illinois, pub- 
lished by Matthew Duncan, 2 printer to the territory and publisher 
of the laws of the Union to 1815 ; Robert Black well and Daniel 

1 Vol. i, no. 30. is dated December 13, 1814. If the paper was regularly 
issued and numbered, it must therefore have been begun June 24, 1814. But an 
advertisement in the one number extant is dated May 28, 1814. 

2 Matthew Duncan, the first printer in Illinois, was an elder brother of 
Governor Joseph Duncan. He was born in Kentucky: after graduation from 
Yale College, he returned to his native state, and for a time edited a paper at 
Russellville entitled the Mirror, which had been established November!, 1806. 
From that he became editor of Farmer's Friend, begun in the same town in 1809. 
Ninian Edwards, first territorial governor of Illinois, had been a lawyerat Russell- 
ville and was his triend. Through him Duncan secured the printing of the first 
edition of the Illinois Territorial Laws, issued from his press in 1813. In the next 
year Duncan moved his printing establishment to Kaskaskia and began the Illinois 
Herald. In December of 1814 he issued the first pamphlet published in Illinois, and 
in June, 1815, the first book, volume one of "Pope's Digest." Having sold his 
paper to Daniel P. Cook and Robert Blackwell in 1817, Duncan abandoned journal- 
ism and entered the army, in which he rose to some prominence, and saw active 
service in the Black Hawk War. On October 4, 1832, he was made captain of 
Rangers, and in 1833 became captain of the First Dragoons. After four years of 
service he resigned from the army and went into business at Shelbyville, where 
he died on January 16, 1844. (Julia Duncan Kirby, Joseph Duncan, Fergus 
Hist. Ser. no. 21, Chicago, 1888. Reuben Gold Thwaites, T lie Ohio Valley Press 
before the War of 1812-15, P- 43-) 


P. Cook, 1815-1817. In 1817 Elijah C. Berry became a co- 
editor. A small sheet, with ^ four columns to the page, and 
largely given over to the printing of official documents. In the 
hands of Black well and Cook, state printers, the name was 
changed to S 

WESTERN INTELLIGENCER, +1816-1818+: It was published 
weekly. Following are the files in the St. Louis Mercantile 
Library: 1816 Vol. i runs from May 15, 1816, to May 21, 
1817. The volume is incomplete, lacking July 2, 16 ; September, 
12, 19, 26; October 9, 16. 1817 There is lacking February 
26; May 28; June 4, n, 18, 25; July 2 to September 3. 1818 
From January-May 20 the file is complete excepting February 
1 8. With the issue of May 27 the paper became the EM 

ILLINOIS INTELLIGENCER, +May 27, 1818-1820+ : Moved to Van- 
dalia in 1820. The files for 1818 and 1819 are complete except 
for March 31, 1819, in the St. Louis Mercantile Library. EMHA 

REPUBLICAN ADVOCATE, February 27, i823~March 2, 1824 + : A pro- 
slavery paper established and nominally edited by R. K. Fleming. 
Elias Kent Kane seems to have been the real editor until he was 
elected to the Senate in 1824, after which time John Reynolds 
was probably in control. The paper was in favor of a conven- 
tion in 1824 and of slavery, but was open to letters against 
both causes. It supported Crawford. With the number for 
January 22, 1824, the editorship passed to William Orr, who 
changed the title to F 

KASKASKIA REPUBLICAN, +March 9, i824~i825(?): William Orr 
was editor and gave ardent support to the convention party. 
The paper was still being published in October, but was tem- 
porarily discontinued, probably in 1825. After a period of sus 
pension it was revived as ASF 

ILLINOIS REPORTER, i826-i829(?): William Orr was editor. He 
denied affiliation with any party in the State, and felt impelled 
to rally the virtuous and intelligent to the standard of another 
party. Apparently his rally was not successful, for he sold to 
Sidney Breeze within a few months in June or July. Under 
Breeze the paper supported the administration and Daniel P. 
Cook, though Breeze had been a Jackson man. L. O. Schrader 
was Breeze's publisher for a while, and was probably succeeded 
in 1828 by R. K. Fleming. A 

WESTERN DEMOCRAT, August 19, 1829-1830+ : Established by R. 
K. Fleming. Hooper Warren announced, in the Galena Adver- 
tiser for August 31, receipt of the first number, saying, "This is 
the sixth paper now published in Illinois." The editorial ad- 
dress included, "As we published, in this state, pending the late 


presidential canvass, the only paper which took a decided stand 
in favor of the successful competitor for the first office in the 
nation, it will scarcely be expected by those who were, of right, 
in the opposition, that we should now retrace our steps . . . etc. " 
Although Fleming was printer, and the only person whose name 
appeared on the paper, it is clear that Sidney Breeze was really 
editor. He wrote to Ninian Edwards September 21, 1830: "If 
I remain in politics I am determined to make Gov. Reynolds 
choose between Smith and myself, in other words between the 
Crisis and Democrat .... Do give your views of them, edito- 
rially, thro' me, in the Democrat." The paper supported Rey- 
nolds for governor. Title changed to A 

KASKASKIA DEMOCRAT, -(-January 2, 1830-1831: In the issue for 
November 27, 1830 (vol. 2, no. 9) the editor announced that 
the paper had 300 subscribers. In the Western Ploughboy for 
January 24, 1832, a news item reveals that "the Kaskaskia 
Democrat has been discontinued." A file, in two bound volumes, 
was in the library of Judge Sidney Breeze at the time of his 
death, but it has not been recently located. AM 

RANDOLPH FREE PRESS, 1832: Published by R. K. Fleming. 

REPUBLICAN, June, 1840-1849; Published at first by James Fitz- 
simmons. At the beginning of vol. 2 J. D. Owings and M. 
Morrison were editors ; William E. Jones was proprietor. Pub- 
lication was suspended in 1844, and the outfit was bought by 
Pierre Menard, who allowed any one to use it who would run a 
paper. Publication was revived in 1846 by Parsons Percy and 
a Mr. Wallace. From them it passed in 1848 to Peter W. Baker; 
then B. J. F. Hanna bought the plant, and in 1849 removed 
it to Chester, where he published the Herald. Cairo SA 


OBSERVER, 1856-1858+ : It was edited by Col. Patterson. In- 
dependent as to politics, Changed to 

MERCER COUNTY DEMOCRAT, +1858-1859: A Democratic paper 
edited by W. R. Calhoun. 

NORTHERN ILLINOIS COMMERCIAL, 1859: Short-lived. Published 
by a commercial companv with Mr. Calhoun as editor. 

DEMOCRATIC PRESS, 1860-1861: Owned by Thomas B. Cabeen 
and conducted by V. B. Shouf. 

OBSERVER, 1862-1870: A revival of the former Observer, by J. A. 
J. and G. D. B. Birdsall. The latter seems not to have been 
actively connected with the paper. At first non-partisan ; later 
Democratic. Sold in 1865 to A. G. Lucas, who conducted it as 


a Republican paper for one year and sold to Isaac McManus, 
who after six months sold to Theodore Glancey. In 1870 
Glancey sold the paper and it was removed. 

WEST END KERANA, 1871-1873 : Established by Theodore Glancey ; 
afterward called Kerana. Henry Hurst, and later Edward 
Thomas, were connected with Glancey on the paper. 

NEWS, April, 1874 to date: Started by W. C. Brown. Afterward 
owned by Taylor and Blackman, T. B. Cabeen and C. A. Fricke, 
and William H. Heaton. Heaton secured the paper in 1877 
and conducted it as a Greenback publication. It has been con- 
ducted by George W. Dick since 1902. U 


REGISTER, 1875-1876: Owned and edited by W. L. Glessner, pub- 
lisher of the Clinton Register. The Kenney Register was printed 
in the office of the Clinton Register, and distributed in Kenney. 
It was continued more than one year, beginning July 16, 1875. 

RECORD, 1877: Established by J. W. Wolfe; published one year, 
then abandoned. The office was moved to Mt. Pulaski, Logan 


HENRY COUNTY DIAL, 1855-1868+ : It was run by citizens of Ke- 
wanee and edited by J. H. Howe until September, 1855, when 
C. Bassett became its owner. In June, 1856, he sold it to 
J. H. Howe and H. M. Patrick. November 13, 1856, Mr. Howe 
sold his interest to his partner, who associated O. White with 
himself as editor. Mr. White withdrew January 8, 1857. Mr. 
Patrick conducted it alone, 1857-1858; L. D. Bishop, 1858- 
1860. J. E. Wheeler, one of the founders of the Chicago Tribune, 
was editor from 1858 or 1859 until 1866. He was succeeded 
by Hiram Wyatt, who associated with himself Mr. Shurtleff 
during the campaign of 1868. George W. Wilson soon became 
editor and proprietor and he sold to N. W. Fuller, who changed 
the name to the F 

KEWANEE RADICAL, +1868-1870: The paper was discontinued in 

ADVERTISER, February, 1856 (?): Established by Chauncey 

Bassett. The first of several papers bearing this name. F 


the first year by Tenney, Hardy, and Company, then by C. 

Bassett. It was published monthly. 
UNION DEMOCRAT, July, i863-November, 1864: Published by 

C. Bassett. P 


ADVERTISER, April, i866-November, 1867: Started by C. Bassett. 

ILLINOIS ADVERTISER, 1868-1869 : Issued from the office of the Dial 
as an advertising sheet. 

ADVERTISER, July, 1870-1871+ : Started by C. Bassett and after six 
months changed to 

INDEPENDENT, +1871- (?): Edited and published by C. 
Bassett. Discontinued after 1895, the Democrat succeeding. 

PUBLIC SCHOOL MESSENGER, January, 1870-1872: Edited by W. 
H. Russell, superintendent of schools. Published one year by 
N. W. Fuller, and one by C. Bassett. P 

COURIER, March, 1876 to date: Established by C. N. Whitney, 
who retired in 1879, when T. H. Chesley and Brother leased the 
plant. In January, 1882, it was purchased by T. H. Chesley, 
who published it twenty years, when it was sold to L. W. Chand- 
ler and others. In 1896 it was purchased by Delano and Hen- 
derson, soon afterward again to the management of T. H. Ches- 
ley. In May, 1898, it was consolidated with the Star under the 
name of the Star-Courier, published daily and weekly. It is 
now owned and continued under this name by the Kewanee 
Printing and Publishing Company. Daily began in 1895. P 


TELEGRAM. 1867-1868+: Established by Col. J. W. Fuller; sold 
to H. H. Chesley, who in 1868 sold to out Messrs. O'Bryant and 
Pyles. In July, 1868, Pyles withdrew, when O'Bryant changed 
the name to 

DEMOCRAT, +1868+: In four months the name was again 
changed to 

INDEPENDENT, +1868 to date: Hazleton bought an interest in the 
paper; his connection was brief. In November, 1871, Edward 
Freeman purchased the office. In 1873 J. R. Grove became 
partner. In three months Grove withdrew. Freeman was 
editor and publisher in 1879; F. O. Grissom in 1907. Neutral 
in politics. U 

BULLETIN, January i-April, 1875: Edited and published by T. B. 
Pyles. Thirteen numbers were issued. 

REGISTER, April i-September, 1879: Established by W. L. Arnold. 
Twenty-six numbers were issued, after which the plant was 
taken back to Salem, whence it had been brought. 


NEWS, 1875-1880: W. H. Leedham was editor and publisher. 



JOURNAL, 1849-1856: Edited by John S. Winter under the firm 
name of Winter and Collins, 1849-1852 ; Mr. Winter, sole editor 
and proprietor, 1852-1855; John Regan, 1855-1856. It was at 
first Independent as to politics. Under Mr. Regan it became a 
Democratic paper. F 

JOURNAL AND ADVERTISER, i856(?): Listed in Coggeshall's news- 
paper directory for 1856. 

KNOX REPUBLICAN, October 8, 1856 to date: First edited by John 
Regan. Started as a campaign sheet two weeks prior to the 
presidential election in 1856; two weeks after the election it 
passed into the hands of John S. Winter, John Winter, and R. 
M. Unions. April 7, 1858, John S. Winter and Company retired 
from the management and Beatty and Robinson became editors 
and publishers. Mr. Beatty retired, leaving W. T. Robinson 
publisher and sole proprietor, who in 1875 sold out to F. A. 
Lanstrum. In 1876 it fell into the hands of the present editor 
and publisher, O. L. Campbell. It is said that this paper was 
the first to bring out the name of Abraham Lincoln for the 
presidency in 1860. F 

ZION'S BANER, 1871 (?): Edited by Rev. C. Anderson, pub- 
lished by George Larkee. A Swedish-Lutheran journal, semi- 
monthly. (See under Galesburg, p. 186.) 

KNOX COUNTY REVIEW, 1879 (?): N. J. Crump was editor 

and publisher. Independent. 

DIOCESE, 1874-1878+ : Edited by Charles W. Leffingwell, Rector 
of St. Mary's School, Knoxville. January i, 1879, the name 
was changed to Province (vol. 6, no. i), edited by George H. 
Higgins, and published in Galesburg. A religious monthly, 
published in the interests of the Episcopal church. HU 


LEADER, i86i(?): Listed without details in Kenney's American 
Newspaper Directory for 1861. 


HERALD, 1837-1840+ : At some time after March 18, 1840, became 
the A 

ILLINOIS GAZETTE, +1840-1866+: Which was changed in 1866 
to the F 

HOME JOURNAL, +1866+ : and later the 

JOURNAL, +1866 to d.tte: Under these names edited by A. N. Ford, 
1837-1858; Joshua Allen, 1858-1866; Spencer Ellsworth, 1866- 
1884; Spencer Ells worth, Jr., 1884-1896; W. B. Powell, 1896- 


1897; Charles F. Hacker has been editor and publisher since 
1897. It was a weekly paper supporting at first Whig, and after- 
ward Republican principles. Files are in possession of W. H. 
Ford, Lacon, and of Spencer Ellsworth, National Stock Yards, 
St. Clair county. 

HERALD, 1850-1854+: Editors: Jesse Lynch, J. W. Mason, 
Chandler and Golliday. P. K. Barrett was editorial successor 
of Mr. Chandler. It was an advocate of Democracy. Changed to 

SENTINEL, +1854-1869+ : Editors: John Harney, 1854-1857; Ira 
Norris, 1857-1869; William French, 1869. Mr. French sold to 
Myers and Bell and the name became the 

ILLINOIS STATESMAN, +1869-1873: French and Greist as editors 
and publishers, 1869; C. DeHart and Company, 1870; William 
French, 1871 ; Bell and Wilson, 1872; W. B. Tapley, 1873. 

INTELLIGENCER, i855~(after 1858) : Edited and published in 1858 
by Ira Norris. F 

DEMOCRAT, 1867-1868 : Established by J. S. Ford, who discontinued 
the paper after one year. An office was subsequently brought 
from Chillicothe and the publication continued. 

MARSHALL COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1876 to date: In 1879 William B. 
Whiffen was editor and publisher; in 1908 Frank C. Sorrels. 


HANCOCK DEMOCRAT, +1853 : Edited by Dr. Rankin, who removed 
it from Warsaw, ran it a few months, and sold to Thadeus 
Clark and Wesley H. Manier. He moved it to Carthage and 
established the Republican. (See Warsaw Commercial Journal) 

STAR or THE WEST. 1858 or 1859: Published by Henry King and 
Frank Nash. Short-lived. 

HOME NEWS, 1869 (?): Published by James L. King. Con- 
tinued but a short time. 

LEADER, November, 1874-1875+ : Begun by H. G. Rising. After 
a year it was sold to L. S. Cogswell, who changed it to 

LA HARPER, +1875 to date: Sold in 1878 to J. C. Coulson, who 
continues to publish it. Effie M. Coulson is editor. Indepen- 
dent. Files from 1906 in the office. U 


LAKE ZURICH BANKER, 1856: Edited and published by Seth 
Paine. It was "devoted to manhood without distinction of sex, 
color, nation, or condition." Paine conducted an "untainted 
money" bank, and ran the paper to expound his principles. He 
was afterward sent to an insane asylum. 



CHRONICLE, 1871-1872: Established by C. N. Whitney; edited 

and published by him. 
CLIPPER, 1876-- (?): Edited by R. P. Chadwick. 


CARROLL COUNTY BANNER, 1864-1871 : Published by John R. Hew- 
lett until September, 1867, when the paper was sold to James E. 
Millard, who discontinued publication in 1871. The equipment 
was sold and moved to Davis, Illinois, thence to Pecatonica, 
where it was used in the office of the News. 

CARROLL COUNTY GAZETTE, 1868 to date: John R. Hewlett re- 
moved the office of the Gazette from Shannon (which see). 
When Hewlett sold the Banner to Millard he agreed not to pub- 
lish a paper in Lanark within one year. Millard soon secured 
an injunction to stop the publication of the Gazette. Howlett 
then sold the paper to John M. Adair, who ran it six months and 
sold it to Howlett. The office was destroyed by fire April 29, 
1872. After a few days the paper was continued by the Gazette 
Printing Company, with Howlett as editor and manager, until 
1875. George Hay ran the Gazette two months, then took W. 
W. Lowis as a partner. In 1877 Hay sold out to F. H. B. Mc- 
Dowell, who later in the year secured entire control. W. G. 
Wild was editor and publisher in 1908. 

THE BRETHREN AT WORK, i876-i88o(?) : Established and edited 
by J. H. Moore, M. M. Eshelman, and J. T. Meyers. In 1877 
Meyers' interest was bought by S. H. Bashor. In 1880 M. M. 
Eshelman, S. J. Harrison, and J. W. Stein were editors and 
publishers. In a way this paper was a continuation of the 
Brethren's Messenger, published by J. T. Meyers in German- 
town, Pennsylvania. A Dunkard paper. 


LEADER, 1853-1861+ : Published by John R. Howlett, 1858-1861. 
Changed to 

PATRIOT, +1861-1862+ : It was edited by Prof. James A. Butter- 
field. Its publication was suspended and in 1863 it was revived 
as the 

REGISTER, 1863 to date: When the name of the town was changed, 
in 1865, the name of the paper was changed to correspond. 
(See Rochelle.) 


VIDETTE, 1872 to date: In 1876-1879 T. M. Hatton was editor, S. 
Ellsworth, publisher, and the paper was printed in the office of 
the Lacon Home Journal. In 1880 the Vidette Company were 


publishers. By 1884 the Vidette Publishing Company were 
editors and publishers. It afterward (before 1891) became 
Reveille edited and published by Spencer Ellsworth. A Re- 
publican paper. 


STANDARD, 1851-1852: Mr. C. C. Bonney and W. H. Powell were 
editors, and H. W. Underhill was publisher. 

HERALD, 1852-1854+ : Published and edited by Daniel Evans. 
It appeared weekly and its columns were devoted to the interests 
of the Democratic party. It became the F 

JOURNAL, +1854-1858: Edited by J. A. Kirkpatrick. It was 

moved to Peru. 
WATCHMAN. 1852-1855+: A Whig paper, published by E. T. 

Bridges. It first appeared weekly and afterwards semi-weekly. 

It was discontinued in November, 1855, having been sold to E. 

C. Webster, who changed it to the EF 

LA SALLE COUNTY PRESS, +1856-1883+: Started by Charles 
Boynton and E. C. Webster. After December 10, 1856, to 1883 
it was run by Mr. Webster alone, except from 1858-1860, when 
R. C. Stevens was a partner. Independent as to politics until 
May, 1856, when it became an organ of Republicanism. In 1883 
Mr. Webster sold to A. J. Reddick, who began the Democrat- 
Press. F 

INDEPENDENT, August 6, 1853: Begun under the editorship of T. 
S. Seybold and Company. It had a short life. 

DEMOCRAT STANDARD, 1858-1860: Published by K. T. Barrett. 

REPORTER, 1871-1876: Founded by A. C. Rathbon and Willard 
H. Smith. In 1875 Willard H. Smith sold to A. A. Bassett. 
Paper lived one year longer. 

INDEPENDENT, 1875-1876: Edited and published by W T illard H. 

Smith. Republican paper. Purchased by A. J. Reddick, who 

started the 
DEMOCRAT, 1876-1883+ : Edited and published by A. J. Reddick. 

The plant was burned 1883; Reddick then bought the Press 

and continued the Democrat- Press. 
VOLKSBLATT, 1877: Started by F. Arste ; lived six months. German. 


CITIZEN, 1868-1870: Wolfe and Casson were editors and publishers 
in 1869. The paper was printed at the office of the Chillicothe 



STAR SPANGLED BANNER, 1847-1848+ : A non-political paper under 
the editorship of J. F. Buntin. Changed to 

AMERICAN BANNER, +1848-1856+ : Mr. Buntin moved it to Olney, 
from Olney to Russellville and then back to Lawrenceville. 
Changed to 

LAWRENCEVILLE BANNER, +1856-1858+ : Still edited by Mr. Bun- 
tin, who changed the name to 

WESTERN GLOBE, +1858-1868+ : At first it was edited b> H. C. 
McCleave and D. L. Brewer, who made it a Democratic paper. 
Mr. Buntin finally came into possession of it and associated 
with him for a time Nat. Lander. Mr. Buntin made it a Re- 
publican paper and called it the 

LAWRENCE COUNTY GLOBE, +1868+ : In 1868 Buntin took it to 
Cumberland county. 

LAWRENCE COUNTY JOURNAL, i867~i869(?)+ : A Democratic 
paper owned and edited by W. C. Luken. J. F. Buntin bought 
the paper in i86Q(?) and made it the 

LAWRENCE COUNTY COURIER, +i869~i872(?) : Published by J. F. 
Buntin for a part of the time from an office in Bridgeport. Twice 
burned out. 

LAWRENCE COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1871-1873+ : Established October, 
1871, by W. C. Garrard, editor and publisher. Sold after two 
years to S. B. Rowland, who changed the name to 

FARMERS' UNION, +1873-1874+: T. B. Lowery was editor and 
ran the paper in the interest of the Grange movement. In 1874 
it became the 

DEMOCRATIC HERALD, +1874 to date (1895): J. W. Mehaffy suc- 
ceeded Lowery as editor and made a Democratic paper of the 
sheet. Rowland sold in December, 1875, to James K. Dicker- 
son, who sold in December, 1878, to Riley and Garrard. Will 
M. Garrard became owner in January, 1880. After one year 
Huffman and Meserve bought the paper ana Frank C. Meserve 
became editor. In 1891-1895 Charles F. Breen was editor. 

RURAL REPUBLICAN, 1873 to date (1895) : Established by Daniel 
L. Gold. In 1874 or 1875 Mary Buntin bought the paper. She 
sold to Sam B. Day in November, 1880. In 1891 E. S. Kings- 
bury and Company were editors and publishers; H. B. Andrews, 


paper published under the direction of the Trustees of McKen- 
dree College ; edited by E. Wentworth and others. 


LITERARY GEM, 1855-1856: Published by Collins Van Cleve. It 
was Republican. 

ILLINOIS SONS OF TEMPERANCE, 1860-1862 : Established by George 
W. Moore and James P. Snell. In 1862 it was suspended. 

JOURNAL, 1867 to date: Established by H. H. Simmons. In 1873 
he sold to Dr. T. W. Eckert who in 1875 sold to J. S. Padon. In 
1876 Eckert repurchased the paper and in 1877 sold to Nelson Ab- 
bott. Mortgage was foreclosed and the paper reverted to Eckert. 
In 1878 he sold to J. R. Connor, who in turn sold to J. F. Ash and 
the name was changed to Reveille. In 1881 the office passed into 
the hands of O. V. Jones and in the same year it was changed 
back to Journal. Jones associated with himself C. W. Metzer 
for three months. In 1885 at the death of Jones, his son, Wil- 
liam L. Jones, became sole editor, owner, and publisher. 

COURIER, 1876: Established by E. H. Elliff. A Democratic cam- 
paign paper. At close of campaign the office was moved to 
Red Bud. 

MCKENDREE REPOSITORY, 1867-1876: At first edited and pub- 
lished by students of McKendree College ; later by members of 
the literary societies of that institution. A semi-monthly. 


MONITOR, 1878 (?): Established by Ena G. Cass and J. B. 

Gardner, May, 1878. Printed in the office of the Lee County 
Times, Paw Paw Grove. 


GAZETTE, 1870: B. Van Buren was editor and publisher. 
PHOENIX, 1877-1879: W. P. Haughey was editor, McDonald Fer- 
ries and Company publishers in 1877 ; Haughey was editor and 
publisher in 1879. Printed at the office of the Joliet Phoenix. 


STAR, January 4, 1867 to date: Established by John W. Gishwiller 
and Samuel J. Dodds, with Dodds as editor. In March Dodds 
withdrew, and in May John M. Shannon took control of the 
paper. James S. McCall bought out Shannon on February 12, 
1869, and James W. Newcomer became editor and manager. 
W. W. Lowis bought the paper April 5, 1878, and sold to A. O. 
Rupp April, 1892. Irving S. Crotzer bought it the next year. 
Charles O. Piper bought the paper on March 24, 1905, and com- 
bined with it the Independent (established 1900) , the property was 
held by an incorporated company. Howard C. Anman became 
editor and manager August 27, 1908. October 22, 1909, D. W. 


Gahagan bought the concern and is running the paper. Repub- 
lican. Published twice a week, November 3, igoS-May 7, 1909. 
Files in office. 


EXCHANGE, September, 1870-1872: Established and conducted by 
J. W. Wolfe. He is said to have gone then to Mt. Pulaski and 
to have started the Citizen, although the account of that paper 
does not agree in detail with such a statement. 

SUCKER STATE, 1871 : A short-lived paper started by J. S. Harper; J 
in 1872 Harper and Salim were editors and publishers. 

ENTERPRISE, 1874: Established by C. M. Davis. Independent. U 


FULTON DEMOCRAT, 1840-- (?): The first paper printed in 
Lewistown; was published in 1840 by William McDowell for 
perhaps a year. 

FULTON BANNER, 1843-1845 : Published by Billmire and Conner. 
A paper of the same name was published in Canton on 1846. 

REPUBLICAN, March 19, 1844-1854: Edited by Henry Young. It 
was a Whig paper and favored Clay's election to the presidency.A 

FULTON GAZETTE, 1845-1846: Published by Charles McDowell 
and J. M. Davidson. 

ILLINOIS PUBLIC LEDGER, 1850-1854: It was established and at 
first edited by S. S. Brooks, later by C. E. Griffith. Joseph 
Dyckes was its proprietor. Moved to Canton. 

FULTON DEMOCRAT, July, 1855 to date: The first editor was J. M. 
Davidson, 1855-1858; Davidson Brothers for a brief time in j 
1858; William T. Davidson, 1858 to date. For a few months i 
called Lewistown Democrat. Independent-Democratic in poli- 
tics. F 

ILLINOIS PUBLIC REGISTER, 1854: Published thirteen weeks by | 
J. M. Rankin. 

UNION, 1864 (i865?)-i87i: Established by DeWitt Bryant. 
Changed hands often, being owned for a time by Phelps and 
Bryant, then by Phelps and G. A. Hyde, then by G. A. Hyde 
and his father, and finally by G. A. Hyde alone. The paper 
ceased publication in 1871 when the equipment was moved to 

NEWS, 1875 to date: Established by George Yarnell to advertise 
his job office. He made it a regular newspaper in 1876. No- 
vember, 1879, it was merged with the Vermont Chronicle, taking i 
the name News-Chronicle, published by Yarnell and W. L. 
Ketchum, of the Chronicle. In 1881 it passed into the hands of 


Selah Wheadon, who took L. C. Breeden into partnership in 
1882. Wheadon died in 1883 and Breeden continued as editor 
and publisher until 1906, when he was succeeded by W. D. Meek. 
Democratic since 1883. 


GLOBE, 1858-1863: Established in 1858 by James D. Moudy with 
J. A. Anderson as associate editor. Moudy sold to Ira A. Bat- 
terton and W. F. Craig in March, 1859. Batterton sold out to 
Craig in the fall of 1859. Craig sold his interest in the paper to 
George W. Knotts and Jacob C. Mahan in 1860. The Globe 
was Independent in politics until Batterton and Craig purchased 
it; it then became and remained strongly Republican. Files 
from 1859 to 1861 in possession of A. V. Pierson, Lexington, 
Illinois. It was succeeded by the 

HERALD, April, 1863 (?) : Established by Isaac S. Mahan with 

John D. Rogers as associate editor. Independent in politics. A 
few copies are in possession of A. V. Pierson, Lexington, Illinois. 

COURIER, April, 1869-1871+ : Established by J. W. Fisher and E. 
W. Edwards. They sold to Thomas Faddis, who then sold to 
Bovard Brothers. Independent. They changed the name to 

BANNER, +1871-1872: H. H. Parkinson was publisher. Pro- 

MACKINAW SENTINEL, January, 1871-1873+: Independent. Es- 
tablished b> John D. Rogers and I. S. Mahan. They were suc- 
ceeded by C. M. King, who changed the name of the paper to 

ENTERPRISE, +i873~i877(?): C. M. King was editor and pub- 
lisher. Independent. 

MONITOR, 1875 (?): Established by Bovard Brothers. 

LOCAL LEADER, 1879-1883+: Established by Keifer and Leek. 
C. M. Leek was editor in 1879. In March, 1883, it was suc- 
ceeded by the Review, of which W. H. Shepherd and Stark were 
proprietors. Greenback. 


HERALD, January i, 1856 to date: It was founded and edited by 
Koudy and Fuller, 1856; Joseph Reed, 1856-1857; O. C. Dake 
for a joint stock company of twelve persons, 1857-1860; A. B. 
McKenzie had a controlling interest, 1860-1863 ; J. C. Webster, 
1863-1866; Andrew McGalliard, 1866-1873; Smith and Mills, 
1873-1877; F. B. Mills, 1877-1901; Pinkerton and Cross com- 
bined the paper with the News as the News-Herald; Morris 
Emmerson, 1902 to date. A daily issue since 1902. Repub- 


LOGAN COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1856-1863+: Controlled by a joint 
stock company, 1856-1863; Samuel Johnson from late in 1863 
until he sold it to J. C. Webster, in 1864, who merged it into the 
Herald. Under Mr. Johnson it was known as the 


EXPERIMENT, January 4, 1860 (?): Established by Stephenson 

and Bowen ; issued daily. It was published but a few months. 

INTELLIGENCER, June, 1866-1869: Established by Henry Sturgess. 
Sold in 1867 to D. L. Ambrose. The paper was discontinued 
in Lincoln, 1869, and moved to Winchester, Scott county. 

STATESMAN, 1867-1873+: Established by Thomas J. Sharp. 
About December, 1873, the Statesman was bought by Samuel 
Reed, who formed a partnership with R. B. Forrest of the Journal 
The two papers were united to form the Lincoln Times. Demo- 

SILVER LEAF, i872(?) (?): An amateur monthly, conducted 

by James T. Freeman in 1872. 

JOURNAL, May to December. 1873+: Founded by Wallace Nail, 
who sold in December, 1873, to R. B Forrest. The latter 
formed a partnership with Samuel Reed, and they merged the 
Journal and the Statesman into the Times. Democratic. 

TIMES, +December, 1873 to date: Formed late in 1873 or early in 
1874 by the union of the Statesman and the Journal; Samuel 
Reed and R. B. Forrest, publishers. December, 1875 to 1880 
Wallace Nail and Brother were proprietors. On January i, 
1880, the Times was sold to T. H. Stokes, 1880-1895; Smith 
and Baskett. 1896-1903. Sold to John Edmonds and Clara W. 
Moulden and consolidated with Courier as Times-Courier. 

ALUMNI JOURNAL, 1873-1877: A college monthly, published by the 
alumni of Lincoln University. 

ILLINOIS VOLKSFREUND, February, 1874-1875 : Established by T. 
J. Sharp; bought in spring of same year by L. P. Wolf and 
Charles E. Knorr. Knorr retired in October, 1874, leaving 
Wolf sole owner. German. In 1875 the paper was purchased 
by Mr. Fisher, who changed the name to the 

VOLKSBLATT, +1875 to date: Bought by Nail Brothers in 1876. 
C. E. Knorr bought it again in 1877 and conducted it until 1898. 
In 1898 it was bought by P. F. Mueller and consolidated with 
the Rundschau (established 1896), as the Volksblatt-Rundschau. 
It was bought in 1905 by Sexauer Brothers. In 1908 Emil 
Sexauer purchased the interest of B. F. Sexauer and now is the 
sole proprietor and publisher. Democratic. 


SHARP'S WEEKLY STATESMAN. February, 1874-1876: Founded by 
Thomas J. Sharp. Democratic. November, 1875, Sharp asso- 
ciated with himself Colonel W. D. Wyatt, and they started in 
connection with Sharp's Weekly Statesman the 

DAILY STATESMAN, November i, 1875-1876+ : Established by 
Thomas J. Sharp and Colonel W. D. Wyatt. April, 1876, Mrs. 
Anna Wyatt became owner and changed the name to 

DAILY NEWS, +1876-1877+: Changed from Daily Statesman by 
Mrs Anna Wyatt, owner, from April, 1876. Colonel Wyatt 
remained as editor until August, 1876. From then until March 
17, 1877, the office was leased to Samuel Reed. Joseph B. Bates 
purchased it March 17, 1877, an( ^ established the 

LOGAN COUNTY REPUBLICAN, +1877-1879: Established by Joseph 
B. Bates, who had purchased iheDaUy News, and changed it to 
a weekly. It was bought February 4, 1879, by F. B. Mills and 
merged into the Herald. 

LOGAN COUNTY JOURNAL, June-October, 1877 : Established by E. 
F. L. Rautenberg. In October, 1877, it was consolidated with 
the Volksblatt by Nail Brothers, about the time the Volksblatt 
was sold to Knorr. German. 

LOGAN COUNTY BEE, 1877: Established by George L. Shoals, 
editor of the Atlanta Argus. Published six months and discon- 

SENTINEL, July, i878-March, 1881 : Established by Dutcher and 
Pierce; Pierce withdrew soon after and Dutcher then sold to A. 
F. Smith; Smith published the paper until March, 1881, when it 
was discontinued. Daily. 

DAILY NEWS, November, 1878- - (?): Established by Wolf and 
Edmonds ; name changed to Daily Times and later, in July, 1879, 
to Leader,&nd published for fifteen months thereafter by Edmonds 

A. O. U. W. AND I. O. M. A. REPORTER, 1878-1880: The official 
organ of Ancient Order of United Workmen and Independent 
Order of Mutual Aid. Edited and published by William A. 
Howard. Semi-monthly. 

CALL. March, 1879: Established by McBeth and Hawley and pub- 
lished but a few months. Daily. 

TEMPERANCE BUGLE, March 15, 1879-1880: "A temperance paper 
for the West, devoted to Prohibition, Social and Political reform." 
Edited by Albert F. Smith. 

LEADER, 1879 (?): Established by Edmonds Brothers. Daily. 



JOURNAL, April, 1855-1863+: Edited and published by H. A. 
Coolidge, who removed from Cazenovia, N. Y., in February. 
1857. In May it announced the views expressed by Douglas in 
December following. It supported Douglas for senator in 1858 
and for president in 1860. Leased in 1863 to a Mr. Cook, then 
to John Harris and Thomas B. Fuller, who changed the name to F 

DEMOCRAT, +1863-1864+: After a year under the editorship of 
B. F. Burnett, Coolidge sold the office to E. J. Ellis, who changed 
the name to 

PRAIRIE CITY ADVOCATE, +i864-October, 1865+: This in 1865 
became the 

NEWS, +1865-1867: Owned by E. J. C. Alexander, who made it 
a Republican paper. Discontinued in April, 1866, though Alex- 
ander printed part of his Hillsboro Monitor as the News until 

CAMPAIGNER, 1860: A campaign paper established by J. P. Bayless 
and Dr. H. H. Hood. Only a few numbers were issued. 

INDEPENDENT, June-September, 1861+: Established by Kimball 
and Taylor; edited by H. A. Coolidge. After fifteen issues 
consolidated with the Monitor. 

ILLINOIS FREE PRESS, May, 1862: Removed from Hillsboro by its 
editor, J. B. Hutchinson. Suspended after a few weeks. 

REPUBLICAN MONITOR, December, 1867-1868+ : Edited by B. S. 
Hood. After four months it became the 

UNION MONITOR, +1868 to date (1895): Hood sold to C. L. 
Bangs and Ed. Gray in 1870, but remained on the staff. After 
many changes H. A. Coolidge became editor in 1872. B. S. 
Hood became editor again on 1878, and continued until after 
1884. In 1891-1895 S. W. Kessinger was editor and publisher. 

REVIEW, Summer December 5, 1872: Established by William 
Fithian, formerly an editor of the Monitor. George B. Litch- 
field was printer. Suspended December 5 and material sold to 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY DEMOCRAT, November, 1874 ( ?) : Estab- 
lished by G. B. Litchfield, who was connected with Coolidge in 
the Union Monitor for some time before 1874, and Robert S. 
Young. After a few months Litchfield assumed sole manage- 
ment. For a year in 1879-1880 Col. Ben. E. Johnson was asso- 
ciated with Litchfield as editor and business manager. After 
Johnson withdrew Litchfield sold to Charles Tobin, who after- 
ward changed the name to Advocate. U 

LIBERAL, 1872 : B. S. Young was editor and publisher. 



(after March, 1847) : Established by A. B. Wynkoop as propri- 
etor, and N. W. Fuller as publisher. With the number for 
October 20 N. W. Fuller's name is given as editor; on Sep- 
tember 22, 1846, A. B. Wynkoop was editor, proprietor and pub- 
lisher, and remained so to the end of the second volume. H 

LAKE COUNTY VISITER, April 20, 1847 ( ?) : H. W. Blodgett was 
editor and N. W. Fuller publisher. Declined to publish adver- 
tisements of intoxicating liquors. A file of about six months 
does not show any change in these items. The paper was pro- 
hibition and anti-slavery. No mention is made in its columns 
of the Porcupine. It may be surmised that the Porcupine 
was discontinued at about the time the Visiter was begun. H 


PRESS, +February, 1854: Edited by Charles R. Fisk. Continued 
three months and then moved to Mendota. 


WILL COUNTY TELEGRAPH, 1848-- ( ?) : Edited by H. M. Fuller, 
1848-1849; edited by Judge G. D. A. Parks and published by 
Mr. Fuller, 1849-1850; John M. Moon was editor for citizens 
who owned it, 1850 ; Dr. J. F. Daggett, who was for a few months, 
assisted by Mrs. P. W. B. Carothers, 1850-1857. The paper 
underwent several changes in proprietors. It was Independent 
in politics. Vol. 3, no. 2, is in the possession of Frank W. 
Scott, Urbana, Illinois. NF 

PHOENIX, 1875-1901+: Edited by J. S. McDonald. McDonald, 
Ferriss and Company, publishers in 1876; John Curran, 1884; 
Leon McDonald, 1891-1901. One of a group of Phoenixes 
printed in Joliet. Consolidated with Advertiser. 

AMERICAN EDUCATOR, i875~i882(?): L. W. Applegate, editor and 
publisher in 1882. Monthly. 

STANDARD, 1876-1878+: Became 

lished by Hawley and Curran, 1878-1879; A. G. Hawley, 1880- 
1899; T. A. Cheadle, 1899-1901. In 1901 this paper and 
Phoenix were consolidated under the ownership of the Will 
County Printing Company, and the editorship of Leon Mc- 
Donald and T. A. Cheadle. On this basis the paper is still 
published. Republican. 

COURIER, 1873 to date (1874) : Edited and published by Cook and 
Grimwood. Independent. 



GARDEN STATE, 1856-1860: Established by D. S. Crandall; edited 
and published by C. E. and E. R. Crandall in 1857. Indepen- 
dent in politics ; continued four years. F 

INDEPENDENT, 1866: Published for one year by J. W. Wolfe. 

NEWS, 1871-1873 : Published for two years by A. E. Rathbun. 

REGISTER, 1875 to date : Edited and published by Dr. J. C. Dunham. 
Dr. E. McBurney was editor from about 1890 to 1908. In 1908 
Addison G. Curtis became editor. The office of issue was moved 
to Paxton in 1883. In 1900 Dunham sold the paper to J. 
W. Dunnan. 

TIMES, i879~(after 1891): Edited by Volney Weaver; published 
by N. E. Stevens. 


JOURNAL, 1872-1873: A short-lived paper issued by Samuel Silik. 
Printed at the office of the El Paso Journal. 


JOURNAL, 1872-1873: E. F. Baldwin was editor and publisher. 
An edition of the El Paso Journal. Republican. 


JACKSONIAN DEMOCRAT, before 1859-1866: Thomas H. Dawson 

was editor in 1859 and until 1865, when he sold to John Farris. 

Farris discontinued it in 1866. Democratic. 
VOICE OF THE PEOPLE, 1864-1873+ : A Republican paper edited 

and published by Edward Hitchcock, 1864-1872 ; C. R. Davis, 

1872-1873. He sold to Kendall and Miller, who changed the 

name to 
CLAY COUNTY TRIBUNE, +1873-1877: Kendall withdrew in 1874 

and H. R. Miller continued the paper until 1877, when the plant 

was removed to Vandalia. 
LEDGER, 1868-1877 ; 1882-1907 : A Democratic paper financed by 

Robert McCollum and Gen. James B. Smith. Thomas B. Pyles 

was editor, 1868-1873; J. A. Apperson, 1873-1875; W. H. 

Hudelson, 1875-1876; C. R. Davis, 1876-1877; G. Hoff, a short 

time in 1877; J. T. McCollum became editor in 1877 and 

changed the title to 
LEDGER DEMOCRAT, +1877-1882+ : But when J. A. Henry became 

editor in 1882 the old name Ledger was resumed. Henry was 

editor, 1882-1891 ; O. C. Gaston, 1801-1906. The paper was 

discontinued in 1906, but was revived for a few months in 1907 

by John B. Barnhill. 



INDEX, 1875-1876+ : Edited by D. C. Whetzell. In 1876 the paper 
passed into the hands of W. C. Devore, who changed the name to 

FREE PRESS, +1876: Edited and published by W. C. Devore. In- 
dependent. Later he moved to Farmer City. 

ENTERPRISE, i879~(about 1882) : Established by Benjamin Biddle- 
come. W. J. Priest was associated with him. In 1880 Priest 
was succeeded by W. S. Tolby. In 1880, called the Weekly En- 
terprise. It was discontinued about 1882, after several changes 
in ownership. 



GENIUS OF LIBERTY, December 19, i84o-April, 1842 : Established 
by the La Salle County Anti-Slavery Society, with Zebina East- 
man and Hooper Warren as editors and publication agents. 
Beginning July, 1841, it became the organ of the Illinois Anti- 
Slavery Society. The paper suspended publication in April, 
1842, but was revived three months later in Chicago as Western 
Citizen. HA 


SENTINEL, 1877: Power and Harl, publishers. Democratic. 


FREE PRESS, 1873-1875: John Gray, editor, Lyndon Publishing 
Company, publishers. 1874; R. C. Olin, editor, William C. 
Snyder, publisher, 1875. Printed at the office of the Fulton 
Journal. Republican. 


PLAINDEALER, 1875 to date: A Republican paper with J. Van Slyke 
as editor and publisher. In 1909 F. G. Schreiner was editor 
and publisher. 


NEWS, 1855+ : Edited by J. D. Moody. Changed to 

SUCKER, +1855-1860+ : Which was edited by A. J. Alden. In all, 
six volumes were published. In 1860 Mr. Alden sold the Sucker 
to J. W. Meador, who changed the name to 

HAMILTON EXPRESS, +1860 (?)+ : J. W. Meador bought the 

Sticker and renamed it as above. He soon sold to C. C. Car- 
penter, who renamed the paper 


HAMILTON DEMOCRAT, H (?) + : After a few months a tramp 

printer named Martin rented the establishment and changed the 
paper's name to 

Vox POPULI, H (?): Soon suspended. All of these papers were 

Democratic. Material afterward sold and used to publish 

UNION EAGLE, 1864-1865+ : T. L. Lockhart bought the Vox 
Poptdi outfit, and John P. Stelle became editor, conducting it as 
a Republican paper until the spring of 1865, when it was sold 
and became the 

HAMILTON DEMOCRAT, +1865-1869+: Owned by Lorenz Good- 
ridge, edited and managed by T. T. Wilson as a Democratic 
paper. Wilson soon retired and the paper was continued by 
Goodridge until his death, after which C. E. Wolfe was editor 
for a time. T. B. Stelle then became proprietor. In 1869 R. L. 
Brown bought the paper and named it the 

TIMES, +1869 to date: R. L. Brown sold, in 1872, to George K. 
and John C. Edwards who supported Horace Greeley for the 
presidency. M. B. Friend bought the paper in the spring of 1873. 
It was suspended for a time on account of a conflagration. 
Friend sold in October, 1878, to J. R. and C. Campbell. J. R. 
Campbell became sole owner in 1883. He was succeeded by 
Daniel and Howell, who were running the paper In 1907. Later 
Frank Locket took charge of it. It is now edited by M. E. 

GOLDEN ERA, January, 1872-1884: Established as a Republican 
paper by John Coker and John P. Stelle, as Coker and Stelle. 
In 1873 the proprietors were Stelle and Mrs. Catherine Coker. 
In January, 1874, W. W. Davisson bought an interest in the 
paper. Published by Davisson and Stelle until March, 1878, 
when Davisson assumed full ownership. He sold in 1884 to 
J. R. Campbell, when it ceased publication. About 1876 the 
Golden Era became a Greenback paper and remained so until 

CHRISTIAN INSTRUCTOR, January, ( ?)i872 : Edited by George 

P. Slade. C. E. Wolfe was one of the publishers. Published 
but a few months. 

PROGRESSIVE FARMER, 1872-1873: Edited by John P. Stelle. A 
monthly paper published from the office of the Golden Era for 
about a year. Moved to Evansville, Indiana. 

HAMILTON COUNTY HERALD, 1876-1878: Niles B. Friend, editor 
and proprietor. Democratic. It was moved elsewhere after 
two years. 



MCDONOUGH lNDEPENDENT,i85i-i855 + : Begun as an Independent 
paper edited by George W. Smith and published by Theodore 
L. Terry. It became Democratic in the last year of its career, 
advocating the Kansas-Nebraska bill and opposing the repeal 
of the fugitive slave law. It was changed to 

September 14, 1855 + , it was changed to the 

MCDONOUGH DEMOCRAT, +1855-1857 : When it became the Demo- 
crat R. M. Royalty became a partner with Mr. Smith. Mr. 
Royalty retired in 1856 and Mr. Smith continued its publication 
until the next year. 

ENTERPRISE, 1855-1860+ : Established by T. S. Clarke and D. G. 
Swan with L. H. Waters as editor. First a neutral paper, it soon 
came to support the anti-Nebraska cause and then the Repub- 
lican party. Mr. Clarke soon withdrew. In 1855 its publication 
was discontinued a few weeks, when B. R. Hampton became 
editor. In 1857 Mr. Swan retired and firm became Hampton 
and Fowler, 1857-1859. When, in 1860, Mr. J. W. Nichols 
became proprietor, he changed the name to F 

MILITARY TRACT JOURNAL, +1860-1861+ : James K. Magie pur- 
chased a half-interest and the name became the 

JOURNAL, +1861 to date: Edited by Mr. Nichols, 1862-1864. He 
sold his interest to Mr. Magie in 1864, and T. S. Clarke became 
editor soon, assisted by C. L. Sanders. Mr. Magie appeared 
as editor, 1865; B. R. Hampton, 1865-1870; Mr. Hampton 
and W. H. Hainline, 1870-1881 ; Mr. Hainline, 1881 to date. 
There is a complete file in the office of the Journal except the 
first year it was the Enterprise. It was Republican. 

EAGLE, 1856 to date: C. H. Whitaker, proprietor. Democratic. 
T. J. Dudman was editor in 1908. 

LEDGER, 1860 : Started by T. S. Clarke and lived four weeks. 

WESTERN LIGHT, January-December, 1868: Established by S. J. 
Clarke and Charles P. Whitten. Whitten retired after four 
months. Suspended in December. 

ILLINOIS GRANGER, September, 1873-1876+ : Started by H. H. 
Stevens and E. A. Hail. Supported the anti-monopoly move- 
ment and the Patrons of Husbandry. Its name was changed in 
1876 to 

INDEPENDENT, +March, 1876-1880+: Stevens bought Hail's in- 
terest in December, 1876. It supported the Independent Green- 
back movement. It was moved to Colchester, McDonough 
county, in 1880, and became the Colchester Independent. 



TRIBUNE, September-December, 1867: Edited and published by 
John J. Smith. 


NEWS, 1871-1877: H. K. Smith was editor and publisher. Inde- 
pendent. U 


SUCKER STATE, 1879 to date: C. A. Nebeker was editor, C. M. 
Baker, publisher, in 1880. Published under this name until 
about 1902, when it was changed to the Magnet. After a period 
of about six months, the name was changed again to the Sucker 
State. Files lost or destroyed, except those for the last six years, 
which are in the hands of Charles M. Pearson, who has been 
editor and publisher since 1903. 


CUMBERLAND DEMOCRAT, 1869-1880: B. Frank Bowen was editor 
and publisher in 1869; George E. Mason, 1873-1874; George 
E. Mason, editor, Mason and Mumford, publishers, 1875; E. 
Gorrell, editor, Mumford arid Gorrell, publishers, 1876; W. D. 
Mumford, 1877-1880. Democratic. 

REPUBLICAN MAIL, 1872 (?) : Edward Hitchcock editor and 

publisher in 1875; William Overman, 1876; Henry T. Woolen, 
1877; Caldwell Brothers were editors and publishers ^1879. By 
1880 the name was changed to Cumberland Republican, still run 
by Caldwell Brothers. 


MAIL, 1877-1886: Established by D. C. Needham, who sold to G. 
W. Morris in November, same year. Subsequently two sons 
entered the firm, which became G. W. Morris and Sons, then, in 
1881, G. W. Morris and Son. Republican. The list of the 
Malta Matt was sold about 1886 to the DeKalb Review. 


SCOTT COUNTY ARROW, 1878 to date (1884): In 1882 E. J. Pierce 
was editor, Pierce and Clapp publishers; E. J. Pierec editor 
and publisher, 1884. Republican. 


JOURNAL, 1873-1875: John S. Harper and a Mr. Wolfe were 
editors and publishers; the paper was printed at the office of 
the Farmer ^City]Journal. 



TIMES, 1879 (?): Edited by John Regan, proprietor of the 

Elmwood Messenger, at which office the Times was printed. 


JOURNAL, August, 1856-1857 : It was published by Edward Burn- 
side. Its successor was the 

WEEKLY PRESS, with a few years' existence. 

REPUBLICAN, 1867 to date: In 1868 D. C. Potter became editor. 
Since 1868 J. B. Babcock has been editor and proprietor. Re- 
publican. Printed at Belvidere at first. U 


WESTERN FAMILY MONITOR, 1850-1855: A bi-monthly established 
by W. H. Willeford, and at first issued from his home, seven miles 
from Marion, where in 1838 he had set up the first printing press 
in what is now Williamson county. In 1855 business men of 
Marion bought the press and stock of material, and established 

INTELLIGENCER, 1855-1866+ : I. B. Jones was editor and publisher. 
There were many changes in editors, publishers, and managers. 
It is said that Robert G. Ingersoll was manager and editor for a 
time while he practiced there as a lawyer. In 1881 DeBard Rock 
and John McGarvey were editors and managers. Suspended 
for awhile after the beginning of the Civil War. Democratic. 
Name changed to 

STAR, + 1866+ : Owned by a company and published as the organ 
of the county Democracy. It was sold in the fall, and the name 
changed to 

OLD FLAG, + September-November, 1866: Edited and managed 
by Dr. Samuel H. Bundy through the campaign. 

DEMOCRATIC ORGAN, 1860: Probably a campaign paper. 

OUR FLAG, 1866-1874+ : The first Republican paper in the county. 
Owned by a political organization, including George W. Sisney, 
William N. Mitchell, David G. Young, S. M. Mitchell, William 
M. Hindman, Jesse Bishop, and George W. Young. Lyman 
E. Knapp and Jesse Bishop were editors and publishers. John 
I. Hogg, James F. Connell, and Samuel O. Hart were later 
editors ; for a while Judge Jesse Bishop shaped the policy of the 
paper. James F. Connell was editor and publisher in 1870; in 
the next year Judge Bishop again controlled the office. After 
some changes, both of name and control, the material v/as sold 
in 1874 to James P. Copeland, who changed the name to 


MONITOR, +May, 1874 to date: The paper was burned out within 
a month, but was immediately re-established by Copeland and 
George W. Young. Copeland was editor and publisher. John 
F. Lusk bought Young's interest in 1877, and sold in 1879 to 
John H. Duncan and E. E. Mitchell. These men, with W. C. 
S. Rhea and William H. Boles formed a stock company in 1886, 
absorbed the Independent (established 1886) and renamed the 
Monitor as Leader. Copeland was editor for a year; then O. 
J. Page bought and edited it; he sold in 1888 to Arthur Roberts 
and Thomas M. Mitchell. In 1904 the paper was taken over 
by a stock company, and Arthur Roberts was made editor and 
publisher. He was soon succeeded by Oliver J. Page, who con- 
tinues in the position. A daily was published for a while in 1900, 
and revived in 1909. Republican. 

OLD FLAG, i867(?) : Established by Lyman E. Knapp after he had 
ceased to be editor of Our Flag. Republican. 

GAZETTE, 1870: An Independent paper established by Green 
Stewart, George Gulp, Fergis Farris, and T. J. Helton. Only 
five numbers were issued. 

PEOPLE'S FRIEND, 1869-1874+ : An Independent Democratic paper 
established by Mit. A. Bates, who in 1874 sold to W. R., Richard 
H., and C. D. Brown. The name was changed to 

WILLIAMSON COUNTY ADVOCATE, + 1874-1875 : Conducted for about 
a year by W. R., Richard H., and C. D. Brown. 

WILLIAMSON COUNTY PROGRESS, 1872: Established by John A. 
Wall. Republican. 

FARMER'S ADVOCATE, 1873-1874: Established by H. G. Blood 
and John Palmer. Democratic in tendency, but published in 
the interest of the farmers. Merged in the Democrat in 1874. 

were editors and publishers. Continued but a short time. 

EGYPTIAN PRESS, 1875 to date: A Democratic paper established by 
a stock company with Will S. Washburn as manager, editor, and 
publisher. It is now owned and published by Samuel Casey 
and James H. Felts. The Press was started as a weekly, but it 
is now issued twice a week. The Evening Post, a daily, is now 
issued by the owners of the Press. U 


TIMES, January-November, 1866: A rabid Democratic paper es- 
tablished by T. J. Sharp, who, after a number of collisions with 
various citizens, was badly beaten on November 27 and ordered 
out of town. He obeyed the order. 


TABLET, February, 1868: A paper established by James DeLacy, 

who soon abandoned it. 
TRIBUNE, February, 1869-1871: Conducted by A. H. Gorman, 

who discontinued it in March, 1871. 
NEWS, April, 1872 to date: Established by Henry B. Funk. Funk 

sold to Axton and Jones in 1875 ; A. H. Gorman became editor. 

and continued in the office until 1877. After many changes 

Turner O'Banion was editor and publisher in 1880. In 1908, 

as News-Times, it was edited and published by Mr. Bennett. 


BUDGET, December, 1875-1877+ : Started by Stratton, Axton, and 
W. Carey. T. O'Banion bought Carey's interest in 1876, and 
he and Axton edited it until August, 1877, when Axton retired 
and O'Banion changed the name to 

MESSENGER, + August, 1877-1878: Edited by T. O'Banion until 
January, 1878, when he sold to Frank Bennett, who ran it a 


GAZETTE, i867-i868(?): Edited and published by A. Sinclair. 
Apparently discontinued in 1868. 

CITIZEN, 1869-1870: Conducted by Hayward Brothers, C. B. and 
W. W. It burned out and was discontinued. 

ADVERTISER, 1869-1874+ : Established by Albert Burton and Irving 
Carriers as an Independent local weekly. After a while Carriers 
withdrew and the name was changed to 

HERALD, + 1874-1879+ : Published by Burton Brothers ; then by Ira 
George and D. B. Burton; then by Baldwin and Douglas ; then 
by David Burton. Later it was sold to Stone and Smith, who 
changed the name to 

REGISTER, +1879 to date: It became a Republican paper. Stone 
Brothers succeeded Stone and Smith as editors and publishers. 
After having passed through several hands it is now published 
by M. F. Bovard and Son. 

PLAINDEALER, December, 1876 to date: Established by Terry Sim- 
mons as a monthly; later changed to semi-monthly, then to 
weekly. It has continued since as a weekly without change of 
editor or proprietor. Complete file in possession of Mr. Sim- 


ILLINOIS STATE JOURNAL, 1848-1853: A Democratic organ estab- 
lished by John M. Crane and Nathan Willard, Mr. Crane with- 
drawing soon after the paper was established. In 1853 Mr. Wil- 


lard sold the paper to J. C. Robinson and Jacob Zimmer- 
man, who also purchased the 

TELEGRAPH, July 3, 1852-1858 : A Whig paper edited by Joseph G. 
Jones and published by S. P. Farley and J. G. Jones. Before 
the end of the first year S. F. Andrews and J. K. Carr, then 
Charles Summers and J. Zimmerman were publishers, with 
Summers as editor. Combined with Illinois State Journal to 
form the Eastern Illinoisan in 1853. One source of information 
says that the Telegraph was revived in April or May of 1854 by 
J. K. Carr and S. F. Andrews, but the scattering numbers through 
1853, 1854, and 1855 indicate no break. Andrews and Carr 
seem to have continued through 1855, then Andrews alone. J. 
K. Carr retired in the fall of 1854, and Andrews conducted the 
paper in the support of the Republican party until 1858. SHF 

EASTERN ILLINOISAN, +1853-1865: J. C. Robinson and J. Zimmer- 
man were editors and publishers in 1854. From 1856 to 1861, 
S. S. Whitehead was proprietor. Edward L'Hote was publisher 
in 1858. For a few months in 1861 it was run by H. H. Peyton, 
who finally entered the army and Mr. Whitehead was forced to 
assume control. He continued its publication until 1865 when 
it was purchased by John Littlefield and its publication suspended 
for thirteen years. After its revival it became a Democratic 
paper, edited by B. F. Ward. It was later absorbed by Clark 
County Democrat, now published by Bennett and Barber and 
edited by Norman Bennett. HF 

ILLINOIS STATE DEMOCRAT, February 10, i84Q-i852(?): J. M. 
Crane was editor, Crane and N. Willard were publishers. In 
1852 N. Willard was publisher, editor, and proprietor. SUH 

JOURNAL, 1858-1859: Started by N. O. McKeen and John A. Whit- 
lock in the interest of the Republican party. Edited for a while 
by Whitlock alone; then as an Independent paper by W. S. 
Goodell. Absorbed in the fall of 1859 by the Illinoisan. 

HORNET, 1860: Established by E. L'Hote; J. R. Bulion, editor. 
Republican. H 

FLAG OF OUR UNION, i86i-i864(?): Established by John Little- 
field, a man with "Know Nothing" sympathies, but conducted 
as favoring the preservation of the Union. It ran through three 
volumes. It seems that he discontinued this paper when he 
bought Eastern Illinoisan. 

MESSENGER, 1865 to date (1891): John Littlefield was editor and 
Chess Littlefield publisher in 1866, but the latter soon withdrew. 
By 1874 Ham and Eth Sutton were editors and publishers and 
continued so in 1875; but in 1876 John Littlefield was again 
running the paper. In the early 8o's Charles Littlefield became 


associated with his father in the business, and eventually suc- 
ceeded him. By 1891, Charles Littlefield had become editor 
and publisher. The paper was absorbed later by Clark County 
Democrat. Independent. H 

CLARK COUNTY HERALD, August 1868 to date: Established by M- 
O. Frost. In 1882 he sold to L. S. Kilborn and Son. In 1895 
the Messrs. Kilborn sold to G C. Harner, who, after a few 
months, sold back to them. They continued publication until 
May i, 1900, when they sold to George O. Baird and Company, 
who in turn sold to Charles Scott. Republican. H 

CHURCH PROGRESS, 1878-1884: Established by Rev. Charles Kuhl- 
man as a monthly, local, Catholic organ ; became semi-monthly 
in 1880, and weekly in 1882. In 1884 or 1885 it was moved to 
St. Louis, where it is still published. 


EXPRESS, 1871 (?): Jerry Ishler, editor; M. O. Frost, pub- 
lisher. An edition of the Clark County Herald, of Marshall. 

INDEPENDENT, 1877 : Published by Ben. Biddlecome. Independent. 

NEWS LETTER, 1860-1861: Published by August Hamilton and 
edited by Alexander G. Hawes. Republican. In 1861 con- 
solidated with Advocate at Belleville. 


(?): Small German sheet published during the war. It 

had a brief existence. 

ENTERPRISE, 1869: Fred Dilg and E. W. Griffin were editors and 
publishers. Short-lived. 

HERALD, 1871 to date: Brought to Mascoutah from Lebanon, 
Illinois, by Carl Montag, who is still publishing it. Demo- 

BANNER, 1872-1875: Established by Frederick Dilg, edited by W. 
D. Shelley, J. N. Perrin, and Philip Leibrock. Monthly. In 
1873 Shelley and J. H. G. Brinkerhoff made it a weekly. In 
two months Brinkerhoff sold his interest to Shelley and Leroy 
W. Free. In two months Free's interest was purchased by Henry 
Pabst. In 1874 office sold to Messrs. Wassein and Binz, Mr. 
Brinkerhoff as editor. In 1875 Brinkerhoff purchased the paper, 
and after nine months it was suspended. 

ENTERPRISE, November, i875~May, 1876 : Established by George 
Auerswald. Independent. U 

2 3 8 

ANZEIGER, 1876 to date: Established by Fred Dilg, who for six 
months had associtaed with him Philip Leibrock. Dilg sold in 
1889 to Bocquet and Winkler. John Winkler became sole 
owner for a few months. He sold in 1881 to C. J. Lischer, the 
present owner. Independent local paper. 


LOYALIST, 1863: Established in April by George Brewster. It 
was "a rank exponent of Abolitionism." After a turbulent 
career of nine months it was removed to Salem, where it was 
soon discontinued. 


NEWS, 1867-1871: A ne'utral paper edited ana published by 
Haughey and Walker. 

INDEPENDENT, 1871-1891+ : In 1879 Haughey and Warnock were 
publishers; J. C. Warnock was editor. J. M. Haughey, 1882- 
1884; Ruth and Roach, 1891 ; Ruth and Montgomery, 1895. In 
1891 all of the newspaper business in Mason City was con- 
solidated in one office and the editor, S. B. Roach, named the 
aggregation Times. He sold to L. Y. Sikes in 1896, and Sikes to 
G. D. Sutton in 1901. Sutton sold to Edward Wilson in 1903, 
and Wilson to Ben C. Rickard in 1905. Republican under Roach 
and Sikes, Democratic under Sutton, and Independent under 
Rickara. U 

JOURNAL, 1872-1891+: W. S. Walker established the paper and 
conducted it until 1874 or 1875, when he sold to Wells Corey. 
By 1884 Frank Corey had become associated with Wells Corey 
as publisher. Republican. 


NATIONAL GAZETTE, 1856-1867+ : Established by Messrs. Hough- 
ton and Spencer. With one short intermission Mr. Hough- 
ton conducted the paper until 1859, when he sold to Mc- 
Intyre and Wooas. Shortly after the firm name appeared as 
Harding (W. P.) and Mclntyre. A third time Mr. Houghton 
secured an interest in the Gazette, which he held when killed in 
a battle of the Civil War. In 1865 the paper came under the 
charge of W. P. and J. O. Harding brothers ; Harding and 
Bostwick, 1866-1867. I* 1 J 867 it was bought by some citizens, 
Democrats, and its name changed to the 

DEMOCRAT, +1867+ : They soon disposed of the paper to Taylor 
and Brown, who changed it to 

CLARION, +1868: They, in a short time, stopped its publication. 
Leonidas Chapin, of Mattoon, has a few copies. 


JOURNAL, November, 1865 to date: Established by W. O. Ellis. 
Republican. In 1866 sold an interest to Captain Thomas E. 
Woods, who became editor. Woods assumed entire control in 
1869 and retained it until March, 1876, when his brother, 
Winfield Woods, became associated with him. W. F. Purtill 
bought an interest in 1879. He soon became sole owner and re- 
mained so until 1894, when C. W. Twitchell became manager, 
to be suc-ceeded in January, 1899, by M. H. Bassett. In the 
fall of 1899 M. H. Bassett and D. D. James bought the paper. 
James soon sold to Bassett and Andrews. Bassett was in 
charge until January 2, 1905, when he and Andrews sold to H. 
F. Kendall, who merged the paper with the Gazette in Journal- 
Gazette. Weekly and daily except Saturday and Sunday, since 

RADICAL REPUBLICAN, December, 1867-1871+: Established by 
Ebenezer Noyes. Sold in 1871 to A. Bookwalter, who changed 
the name to 

COMMERCIAL, + 1871 to date : Noyes suspended publication in 1872, 
but the paper was revived in October by R. Sumerlin and Sons. 
They sold in August, 1876, to a stock company with A. Sumerlin 
as editor and manager. A few years later Sumerlin became 
owner and continued so until 1908, when a stock company was 
formed with Sumerlin and Ed. Poorman as principal stock- 

GAZETTE, 1872 to date: Revived by C. B. Bostwick and George B. 
McDougall. The latter sold to Bostwick in 1874 and Bostwick 
conducted the paper until about 1888, when C. G. Peck became 
associated in the publication. Peck was soon left in control of 
the paper and remained so until October i, 1895, when H. F. 
Kendall bought the property. He sold a half interest to Frank 
C. McElvain in 1896. McElvain sold in 1899 to E. B. Tucker. 
Mr. Kendall bought the Journal, and the two papers were con- 
solidated as Journal-Gazette, with H. F. Kendall, president, and 
E. B. Tucker, secretary-treasurer, of the Mattoon Journal Com- 
pany, which owns the property. 

COLES COUNTY HERALD, 1878 (?): John Haehnle was editor 

and publisher in 1879. 


ENTERPRISE, August, 1876-1878: J. H. Williams was editor, and 
Parker and Suddeth of the Brighton Advance were publishers. 

ENSIGN, September 12, 1878: One number was issued, printed at 
the office of the Brighton Advance, and bearing the name of Her- 
bert Lawson Durr as editor. 



ENTERPRISE, March, 1877-1878: Published by C. A. Bristol and 
Company, from March to June, 1877 ; Bradley and White, June 
to October, 1877; by Urech and Company from October to 
March, 1878, when it was abandoned. 

DISPATCH, November 21, 1878 to date: Established by J. R. Urech, 
with D. H. Darby as editor. January i, 1884, Urech sold a half 
interest to W. H. Mclntyre, which firm continued until Sep- 
tember i, 1890, when Mclntyre bought all interest and ran it to 
January i, 1899, when original owner with his son Charles bought 
it and still continues issuing same. It is neutral. Files of both 
Enterprise and Dispatch are in the Dispatch office. 


PRESS, +1854 (?): Published by C. R. Fisk, a Presbyterian 

minister who moved it from Little Rock. Sold to J. L. and 
L M. Andrews who conducted it until February 26, 1857, 
when they sold back to Rev. C. R. Fisk. Republican and 
actively anti-slavery. (See Little Rock.) PF 

OBSERVER, 1856-1861+: Established as a Republican paper by 
unknown parties, but was run for a time by Col. J. R. S. Bond ; 
by Messrs. Crooker and Beck; then by R. H. Ruggles, who 
gave it the name P 

BULLETIN, +1861-1897+ : Conducted at the beginning by R. H. 
Ruggles, then Ruggles and Ford. In 1897 it was consolidated 
with the Sun under the title Sun-Bulletin. Republican in pol- 
itics. Files in the office. U 

DEMOCRAT, 1858-1859: A German paper established by Franz 
Meisenbach and Gabriel Pool. Lasted one year. 

TIMES, 1859-1861: Established by a Mr. Fisk (not C. R. Fisk). 
It was a Democratic paper ; its editor was said to be a Copper- 
head, and was forced by a recruiting company early in 1861 to 
make a speech for the Union and haul up a flag. Soon afterward 
he left his paper and disappeared. 

CHRONICLE, 1869-1870: Established by Snell and Merrill; sold to 
F. D. Ford, who sold to the Bulletin in 1870. Files in the 
Bulletin office. 

NEWS, 1874-1876: Established as an Independent paper by F. D. 
Ford. Sold to Dr. Spichler, then to William Parker, then to 
the Bulletin. Files in Bulletin office. 

REPORTER, 1878 to date: Founded by John O. Sanford and G. P. 
Gardner. G. H. Kellogg bought out Sanford in 1879, and Gard- 
ner bought out Kellogg in 1881. In 1883 he sold to L. S. Seaman 


and Otto Kieselbach. Seaman retired in 1887 and Kieselbach 
still conducts the paper. Republican till 1883; Democratic 
since then. Files are in the office. 

POST, August, 1879 to date: A German Democratic paper, estab- 
lished and still conducted by Otto Kieselbach. Files are in the 


MONITOR, i877~i879(?): Edited by J. R. Miller and George W. 
Graham. In 1879 Miller alone was editor and publisher. 

ENTERPRISE, 1879-1882: Edited by J. P. McDonald; later by F. 
W. Schierbaum. It was moved to Versailles and is still pub- 
lished there. Democratic. 


WOODFORD COUNTY ARGUS, May, 1854+ : Established by A. N. 
Shepherd. Became in a short time F 

WOODFORD SENTINEL, + 1854-1889+ : The first issue was printed in 
Peoria. It was thought to be such a great enterprise that when 
brought over to Metamora, a copy was hoisted on a pole, like a flag, 
the streets paraded, and a regular ' ' war dance' ' held around it. Mr. 
Shepard was its first proprietor. George L. Harl was for a long 
time editor and one of its proprietors, and in 1877 became sole 
proprietor. In 1888 Arthur Lee Hereford became editor. An 
edition of this paper was issued in Washburn, Woodford county, 
under the name Sentinel. It was merged with the Herald about 
1889. Democratic. 

WOODFORD COUNTY VISITOR, 1855 (?): Conducted by Sinion 

P. Shope. Vol. i, No. 18 is owned by Judge S. S. Page of 

BULLETIN, (?) (?): Mentioned in Rowell for 1869 with 

no report. 


PROMULGATOR, i865~i869(?): J. F. McCartney and Brother were 
named editors and publishers. Republican. Probably later 

MASSAC JOURNAL, 1865 to date : Established by B. O. Jones, editor; 
McCartney and Jones, publishers. In 1880 B. O. Jones was 
editor, Jones and Davisson, publishers: R. A. Davisson, editor; 
E. D. Malone, publisher, 1882; E. D. Malone, editor and pub- 
lisher, 1884; Hines and Starkes, 1891. By 1895 it had become 
Massac Journal- Republican with A. N. Starkes as editor, A. N. 
Starkes and Company, publishers. U 


TIMES, i867-i879( ?) : In 1869 W. J. Ward was editor, G. B. Depue, 
publisher; W. J. Ward and W. A. McBane, editors and pub- 
lishers, 1870; W. A. McBane, 1871-1873; J. F. McCartney, 
1874 ; J. F. McCartney was named as editor, J. F. Mc- 
Cartney and Company, publishers, 1879. 

DEMOCRAT, 1878-1899+ : Edited by F. A. Trousdale, published 
by James D. Stewart and Company. In 1895 F. A. Trousdale 
had become editor and publisher. January i, 1899, the Herald 
succeeded the Democrat and is still published, at present by Trous- 
dale and Barnes. 


IROQUOIS JOURNAL, 1851-1854+ : Published by J. A. Graham, 
who established on February 19, 1851, and who sold the office 
about April i, 1854, to William F. Keady and Benjamin Scott. 
The Journal had been devoted to politics, literature, the arts and 
science, agriculture, etc. Under the new management, its name 
was changed to the 

IROQUOIS COUNTY PRESS, +1854-1855+ : It now became Demo- 
cratic in its sympathies. In 1855 Mr. Keady bought out Mr. 
Scott and called it the 

WEEKLY PRESS, +1855-1865: Mr. Scott conducted it until 1857; 
Joseph Thomas and Roy W. Andrews, 1857-1858; Hon. John 

Chamberlain, 1858 (?). Its editors successively were 

Harmon Westbrook and Caleb Pink, 1857-1858; Michael Hagle, 
1858-1864; George J. Harrington, 1864-1865. 

INVESTIGATOR, about six months of 1855: It was published by 
Richard Taliaferro and James H. Graham. Its sympathies 
were with the Democratic party. Publication irregular. 

IROQUOIS REPUBLICAN, May 8, 1856-1863+: A. G. Smith moved 
the office to Watseka, spring of 1863, and in October, 1866, sold 
to Zacheus Beatty. The latter changed the name in 1872 to 
the Watseka Republican, and continued publisher till April i, 
1873. F 

IROQUOIS COUNTY HERALD, 1865-1867: Established about October 
i, on the ruins of the Middleport Weekly Press. George W. 
Keady, publisher, Michael Hagle editor; Independent in poli- 
tics. About February i, 1867, the office was moved to Watseka. 
The last Middleport issue of the Herald, January 27, 1867, was 
the last paper published at Middleport. Some time after the 
removal to Watseka, Charles Jouvenat became editor, and 
remained so until the spring of 1869, when the paper ceased tc 



HERALD, July, 1876 to date: Established by J. R. Fox as a Green- 
back paper. Purchased in 1879 by Edward L'Hote, who sold 
in 1887 to his son, the present editor and proprietor, Eugene 
L'Hote. Republican under its present management. H 

GAZETTE, 1875. 

GENIUS, i879~i88o(?) : In 1880 was being edited and published by 
J. W. Sargent. It is not mentioned in the Newspaper Annual 
for 1881. 


ENTERPRISE, i873-i884(?) : J. W. Richardson was editor and pub- 
lisher, 1873-1874; F. P. HaUowell, 1875-1877 ; Jud. M. Morley, 
1878-1880; Morley and Cook, 1882; F. E. Morley, i884(?) 
the edition for Millington of the Kendall County News, (1872- 
?; Republican) published at Piano. Kendall county. H 


BEACON, i875-i884(?): Mr. Lucas, editor, bought it from the 
Milton Reformer, a temperance paper. After five months a 
stock company was formed. J. M. Farris became editor. In 
1876 sold to F. M. Grimes, who was still editor and publisher in 
1882. Started neutral; changed to Greenback. U 


INDEPENDENT, 1870-1872 : Edited and published by C. B. Ketcham. 
Printed at the office of the Delavan Independent. 

NEWS, September, 1878 to date: Started by George L. Shoals, 
publisher of the Atlanta Argus, with Horace Crihfield. A print- 
ing plant was established in Minier in 1885 ; Crihfield became its 
sole owner, then Crihfield Brothers. The paper is in charge of 
R. C. Crihfield. 


JOURNAL, 1866 ( ?) : An edition, for Minonk, of the Journal of El 

Paso. G. H. Jenkins was editor; William H. Addis and Com- 
pany, publishers, 1869. In 1879 the title given in Rowell is 
Home Journal. 

PRAIRIE ENTERPRISE, 1868: An advertising sheet with gratuitous 
circulation, edited and published by Johnson and Ware. 

INDEX, i87o-i877(?): Established by M. A. Gushing and Cadet 
Taylor; M. A. Gushing was conducting the paper alone from 
1873 to 1877. Independent. 

REGISTER, 1870-1871: Established by M. M. Bagley. 


REPORTER, 1870: Established by W. W. Wilkes; survived a few 

TIMES, 1872-1873+: Established by Irving Carrier. It was 
changed in 1873 to the 

BLADE, +1873 to date: By James M. Fort, who while in need of 
financial aid purchased the office, enlarged the paper, and for 
seventeen years conducted it successfully, selling the publication 
in 1897 to his son, Arthur C. Fort, and Clarence B. Hurtt, who 
as Fort and Hurtt conducted the paper for some time. Since 
then it has been sold a number of times ; it is now owned and 
published by Chester R. Denson, under the name of the Minonk 
Dispatch. Messrs. J. M. and A. C. Fort have complete files. 

NEWS, 1878 to date: Established by S. C. Bruce; it was sold in 
1887 to Arthur R. Warren, and was still being conducted by him 
in 1889. In 1907 George Werkheiser was editor and publisher. 


ADVERTISER, 1874-1877 : Established by Charles A. Jones. It was 
a sub-edition of the Lockport Advertiser. 


WORKMAN, August 21, i854-February 18, 1857: Edited and pub- 
lished by Amos Smith. "An Independent family newspaper 
devoted to news, literature, agriculture, mechanics, commerce 
and home interests." It was Republican, and strongly anti- 
slavery. Smith sold, February 18, 1887, to R. H. Graham and 
Alfrea Webster, who changed the name to PE 

INDEPENDENT, February 25, 1857-1862: In May, 1858, Webster 
sold his interest to Graham, who in April, 1859, took C. H. 
Brennan as a partner. Brennan sold in December to M. S. 
Barnes. la 1860 Graham was again sole owner. He went to 
war in August, 1861, and J. A. Kuck managed the paper until its 
suspension, October, 1862. F 

CITIZEN, July, 1858-1859: Established by F. M. Linnehan. James 
Bowie became part owner in 1858, and owner in February, 
1859. It ceased to exist in 1859. A semi- weekly (later weekly) 
Democratic paper. 

REPUBLICAN, 1865-1867: Established by William H. Jenkins. 
Sold in 1867 to Capt. L. M. Haverstick, who closed the office. 
The material was used to establish the Review. 

REVIEW, November 26, 1870-1880+ : Established by Messrs. Lowe 
and Frank R. Gilson. Lowe retired in 1871, and Gilson sold 
the same year to Kennedy and Crichton; B. F. Tillinghast sue- 


ceeded Crichton in 1872; Kennedy retired in 1874. Tillinghast 
conducted the paper alone till 1875, when J. H. Porter bought an 
interest. R. H. Moore bought the paper in 1877, and in 1880 
failed. John H. Porter bought the equipment and the subscrip- 
tion list was transferred to Samson Kennedy, who united the 
Review with with the weekly edition of the Dispatch as Review 
Dispatch. PH 

SKANDIA, December 29, 1876-1878: A Swedish Republican paper 
established by A. C. Remer and P. E. Melin. Edited by P. E. 
Melin to 1877; then by Magnus Elmblad and Herman Stock- 
enstrom. It was sold early in 1878 to Gustaf Swenson. In 
May, 1878, it was sold to the Svenska Tribunen of Chicago. 

DAILY DISPATCH, July, 1878 to date: Established by Oliver and 
Louise White. They were succeeded by Sampson Kennedy 
and L. M. Haverstick ; then by Fred O. and Jay H. Dean ; then 
by P. S. McGlynn and John K. Groom. Groom sold out in 
1891 to W. F. Eastman; since then McGlynn and Eastman were 
editors, publishers, and owners of the paper, until Eastman died 
in 1909. It is now owned by Mrs. Eastman and P. S. McGlynn, 
the latter being in charge of the publication. 

REVIEW-DISPATCH, 1878 to date: The weekly edition of the Dis- 
patch. It has the same history as that paper. A 

GRAIN CLEANER, 1878-1886+ : Founded by Barnard and Leas 
Manufacturing Company with R. James Abernathy as editor. 
C. F. Hall became editor and publisher in 1881. In 1884 he 
changed its name to Modern Miller and became sole owner. He 
moved it to Kansas City in 1886, and in 1895 sold to a St. 
Louis syndicate. Under Hall it was an independent technical 
milling journal. Originally a monthly, it became a weekly milling 
newspaper about 1893. 


REPORTER, August, 1870 to date : Established by John B. A. Paradis. 
Sold in 1874 to M. O. Clark; Stephen W. Dennis, 1885-1891; 
Charles E. Carter, 1891-1901. In 1897 it was consolidated with 
the Momence Press and the name was changed to Press-Reporter, 
with C. E. Carter as editor. Carter sold in 1901 to C. S. Mc- 
Nichols and Company. Since that time O. M. Harlan has been 
manager. Incomplete files in possession of Mr. Harlan. Re- 


EAGLE, i86o(?)-i863(?): Established by J. G. Scott and continued 
for about three years. 



ATLAS, October, 1846 to date: Edited and managed by C. K. Smith, 
assisted for a short time by E. S. Bryon and F. K. Smith, 1845- 
1857; John S. Clark, 1857-1865; Mr. Clark and J. H. Reed, 
1865-1869; Mr. Clark and Son, with unimportant exceptions, 
1869 to 1892, when it was consolidated with the Advance as 
Republican Atlas-Advance, now called Republican Atlas. Daily 
since 1904. Published by Republican Printing Company, with 
Arthur G. Brown as editor, C. F. Buck, manager. Files in 
Warren County Library Association Library. DU 

DEMOCTAT, August, 1852-1853: Published by Hosea and Ashton. 
Files in Warren County Library Association Library. 

REVIEW, December, 1855 to date: Its founder was A. H. Swain, 
who was the editor, 1855 to 1886 ; H. R. Moffet, 1886 to date. It 
was issued weekly, 1855-1887; semi-weekly, 1887-1888; and 
daily and semi-weekly from 1888 to 1907, when it was changed 
back to a weekly. Independent. BF 

COLLEGE COURIER, 1867-1868: Issued at Monmouth College. 
Monthly. U 

COMMERCIAL RECORD, April, 1872-- (?): Monthly. E 

LEADER, 1873: A Republican paper edited by S. J. Clarke and 
published by the Leader Printing Company. 

MIDLAND MONTHLY, 1874: Published by W. D. Pratt. 

GAZETTE, 1876-1888: An Independent weekly; began a daily issue 
in 1883. It was moved to Galesburg, Illinois, about 1888, and 
was soon discontinued. 

PAPER, i877~i879(?): G. G. McCosh was editor and publisher. 
By 1880 it had been absorbed by Gazette and for a time issued 
as Gazette and Paper. E 


ARGUS, 1877 (?): Established by D. C. Needham, who was 

also publishing the Creston Times. 


TIMES, 1856-1858+ : Edited by J. D. Mondy, who was succeeded 
by J- C. Johnson. He sold to James Outten, who received 
Mr. Hassett as a partner. Changed to 

PIATT DEMOCRAT, +1858-1862+ : Edited by W. A. Gilliland, 1858- 
1860; J. C. Johnson, 1860-1862. Changed to 

CONSERVATIVE, + 1862-1864+ : At first edited by Thomas Milligan, 
who was succeeded by W. E. Lodge. Changed to 


PIATT COUNTY UNION, +1864-1865+: Edited by M. A. Bates. 
Changed to 

PIATT INDEPENDENT, +1865-1874+: Edited by J. M. Holmes. 
A complete file is owned by L. C. Burgess. Changed to 

REPUBLICAN, + 1874-1876+ : At the end of three years, Mr. Holmes 
sold to Mr. Wagner, who immediately sold to H. B. Funk. He 
changed its name to 

BULLETIN, +1876 to date: Edited by Henry B. Funk, 1876-1882 ; 
Mize Brothers, 1882-1883; M r- Funk, 1884-1885; Moral 
O'Banion; C. N. Walls, 1885-1886; Carl Uhler. 1887; M. L. 
Griffith, 1887-1888; Garver Brothers, 1888: William E. Krebs, 
1888-1808; Evan Stevenson, 1899; C. E. Gaumer, 1899-1902; 
H. W. Buckle, 1902-1903 ; G. W. Mize, the present editor, 1903 
to date. The files in the office are incomplete. Democratic. 

FARMERS' ADVOCATE, 1874: Existed for a few months in the spring. 
M. A. Bates was editor. 

PIATT COUNTY HERALD, April, 1874 to date: Established by H. H. 
Peters, who continued until 1892, when it was bought by G. A. 
Burgess and consolidated with the Independent; begun by Mr. 
Burgess in 1887, under the name Piatt County Republican. In 
1905 G. A. Burgess was succeeded, as editor and manager, by 
his son, L. C. Burgess. Republican. A complete file owned 
bv L. C. Burgess. U 


YEOMAN, 1852-1854+ : A Republican paper, edited by James C. 
Watters. A copy of no. 54 of the first volume is owned by 
Walter A. Rose of Mazon, Illinois. Changed to 

GRUNDY COUNTY HERALD, +1854 to date: Edited by Henry C. 
Buffington and Charles E. Southard for one year; Mr. Southard 
1855-1864; C. L. Perry, who soon took Mr. Turner in partner- 
ship, 1864-1866. Charles E. Southard, 1866-1874; in 1865 
Mr. Southard started the Advertiser, but soon resumed the con- 
trol of the Herald, whereupon he combined the two as Herald 
and Advertiser, soon reverting to the name Herald. P. C. Hayes, 
1874-1876; Hayes and Fletcher, 1876 to 1891; W. L. Sackett, 
1891 to date. HF 

ADVERTISER, 1865-1866+ : Conducted by Charles E. Southard. 

Combined with Herald. H 

GAZETTE, 1853-1855: Edited by A. J. Ashton. It was purchased 

by the proprietors of the Herald. It advocated Democracy. 
LIBERAL REFORMER, i872-i879(?): Established by Joe Simpson. 

In 1876 run by A. R. Barlow, after whom Simpson again took 


charge and closed it out. Anti-Republican, principally Demo- 
cratic, tinged with Greenbackism. 

INDEPENDENT, 1878 to date : Established as a semi- weekly by Perry, 
Crawford, and Kutz, March i, 1878. In 1882 it was in the 
charge of Mr. Kutz alone. He sold about 1883 to W. J. Leacock, 
who a year later sold to Peter Low. In 1887 Low sold to C. R. 
Morrison, and in 1890 W. M. Reed purchased it, changed its 
name to the Sentinel and made it Democratic. In 1895 Reed 
sold to S. H. Bucklin and Son. It was subsequently owned by 
George Bucklin, and Bucklin and Hilliker, 1899-1900. Jan- 
uary i, 1909, the paper was bought by a stock company, with 
Richard F. Lawson as editor. 


WHITESIDE SENTINEL, 1857 to date: Established by Alfred Mc- 
Fadden. In 1862 McFadden leased it to Elmer Searle for one 
year, when he resumed publication. In 1867 it was purchased 
by Messrs. Charles Bent and Morris Savage. In 1870 Mr. 
Bent became sole proprietor. In 1877 Mr. Bent sold to Robert 
W. Welch, but repurchased it in 1879, and has been editor ever 
since. Charles Bent, Jr., has been manager since 1906. Com- 
plete files in the office. Republican. 

REFORM INVESTIGATOR, 1868-1870: Established by Elmer Searle. 
Weekly, devoted to financial and other reforms ; published later 
by a stock company with Searle as editor and manager. In 1870 
removed to Chicago; office destroyed in Chicago fire in 1871. 

INDEPENDENT, 1872-1874: Established by L. S. Ward and J. W. 
Huett. Later Elmer Searle became editor. Advocated presi- 
dency of Horace Greeley. Discontinued in 1874. Office pur- 
chased same year by G. J. Booth and Son, who established 

TIMES, 1874-1876: In 1876 moved office to Rock Falls and 
changed name to Whiteside Times (which see). Democratic. 

DEMOCRAT, 1876-1877: Established by Messrs. Guernsey, Connelly, 
and Frank A. Grove. Discontinued in 1877. Democratic. 

WHITESIDE HERALD, 1878-1884: Established by A. D. Hill. Later 
it was sold to George B. Adams, who moved the office to Sterling, 
Illinois. Independent Republican. 


TIMES, August 20, 1875 to date: Established by Thomas Cox, 
editor and proprietor. December 30, 1875, Cox sold out to 
M. J. Abbott, who in May, 1877, sold to George H. Palmer 
and Son. In 1879 the office was leased to Said and Poorman, 
Palmer and Son retaining ownership. In October, 1879, Steen 



Brothers, George H. and Joseph W. Steen, were publishers and 
editors and continued so until 1882, when they sold to Caflin 
and Campbell. In 1883 Caflin became sole owner; in 1885 he 
sold to G. H. Sallee, who sold in 1887, to S. W. Gulp ; he, in 1907, 
to Lindsey and Miller. March i, 1909, Miller sold his interest 
to A. C. Brookman. Lindsey and Brookman are the present 
proprietors and publishers. Independent. Files in the office. U 


NATIONAL EMPORIUM, 1856-1860: Edited by Dr. Z. Casterline 
and published by J. Walter Waugh. They were succeeded by 
Moses B. Harrell as editor and John A. Waugh as publisher. 
Mr. Harrell withdrew in 1859 and Mr. Waugh became also its 
editor. He continued its publication until 1860, when it was 
discontinued. FH 

GAZETTE, 1860-1861 : Established by Judge J. R. Emerie. It con- 
tinued one year, and collapsed. 

JOURNAL, 1864-1874, 1878: Established and edited b> J. D. Mondy, 
who was succeeded by S. P. Wheeler. The latter moved to 
Cairo, 1865, and H. R. Howard, who had published the paper 
during Wheeler's administration, assumed the duties of editor. 
May, 1866, the press and all belonging to it was bought by Capt. 
H. F. Potter, who edited the Journal until, in 1 1874, he moved to 
Cairo, taking the press with him. After this removal, the 
Mound City Journal was joined with the Cairo Argus, the two 
together receiving the name Argus-Journal, weekly. Beginning 
November 15, 1878, Mr. Potter published separately the Cairo 
Daily Argus and the Mound City Journal. The latter was still 
being published in 1883. Und,T Mr. Potter's management the 
Journal was Democratic. H 

PULASKI PATRIOT, 1871 to date: Established June, 1871, by A. J. 
Alden, editor, and B. O. Jones, publisher. Fron June to No 
vember of that year, F. R. Waggoner was associated in the busi- 
ness. The latter part of November the firm of Alden and Jones 
was dissolved, Alden retiring December 7. Jones sold out to 
F. R. Waggoner, who became editor. January, 1872, through 
the purchase of an interest by Mr. O. H. Turner, the firm name 
became Waggoner and Turner, which it remained until Novem- 
ber i, 1872, when Turner withdrew. December i, Fred W. 
Corson joined the firm, which was called Waggoner and Corson 
until the withdrawal of Waggoner, April 10, 1873. His suc- 
cessor in the firm was Ed. H. Bintliff, firm name, Corson and 

1 This date, 1874, for the removal of the office from Mound City to Cairo, 
does not agree with the previous account of the Cairo Daily Argus, from which the 
date would appear to be 1876. 


Bintliff. January 23, 1874, Bintliff withdrew, Corson continuing 
alone until November i, 1874, when he sold out to Ed. S. Acker- 
man and A. Ackerman. The latter was editor until December 
1877, at which time the paper passed entirely into the hands of 
Ed. S. Ackerman, who kept it until July, 1880. At this time 
Daniel Hogan purchased the office and continued publication 
until September i, 1881, when L. M. Bradley purchased an in- 
terest. Mr. Hogan has been sole owner since 1886. . In that 
year the name was changed to Pulaski Enterprise. J. P. Rob- 
erts was editor until 1882, when he was succeeded by J. F. Con- 
nell. He was followed by John F. Rector, one year, Daniel 
Hogan, Jr., one year, Daniel Hogan, Sr., one year; then H. C. 
Ashbaugh. The paper has been steadily Republican. 


SENTINEL AND WABASH ADVOCATE, 1834-1839: Edited by Horace 
Roney, 1834-1835; Edward Baker, 1835-1836; Richard Beck, 
with O. B. Ficklin as an assistant, 1836-1839. 

REGISTER, June n, 1839, to date: A Whig paper, edited by J. S. 
Power, and published by W. B. Meany, who was succeeded by 
Ezra B. Meaoey; George B. Backus, 1841, for seven years; 
Frank Fuller; Fuller and Hutchinson; W. D. Jackson, 1848- 

; S. S. Luken ; Victor B. and Robert Bell ; Theo. S. Powers, 

1852 ; Frank C. Manly, with Judge Green as political 

editor. Mr. Green made it Republican. In 1862 Manly died 
and George W. Douglas took the paper, made it a Democratic 
organ, and Richard Beck who succeeded him made it Republican 
again. In 1867 Mr. Green, at public auction, purchased it, 
but Mr. Beck continued to publish it until sold to J. P. M. Calvo. 
It was suspended for an interval, 1867-1868. Messrs. Wade and 
Cape revived it in 1868. They soon sold it to C. I. Wilmans, 
who ran it until 1870, when he sold to T. J. Groves. In a few 
weeks Mr. Groves passed it back to Mr. Wilmans. J. H. Wil- 
mans was editor, 1871; Wilmans and Havill, 1875-1878. Under 
the Bell Brothers the paper was non-partisan. In 1878 Mr. 
Havill made it an exponent of Democratic principles. It was 
sold by Frank W. Havill to P. J. Kolb and A. E. Smith, in No- 
vember, 1906. These men continued to publish the paper until 
February, 1908, when it was incorporated under the name of the 
Mt. Carmel Register Company; A. E. Smith continued as 
editor. A daily was begun in 1900. Files substantially com- 
plete in the office. A 

WABASH REPUBLICAN, 1840-1841 : Edited by W. D. Latshaw. 

GREENBRIER, i84o-(a brief existence) : Edited by J. S. Powers. 

PLOW BOY, i844-(a brief existence) : Edited by Valentine Miller. 


WABASH DEMOCRAT, 1844-1847 : Edited by W. E. Latshaw for two 
years. He sold it, and it failed in the hands of Austin Brooks 
and Finney D. Preston soon after they bought it. 

WABASH DEMOCRAT, 1860-1878: A revival of the previous Demo- 
crat. Jacob Zimmerman was editor for awhile. He was suc- 
ceeded by G. W. Besore, and he in turn by James T. Costello. 
It failed in the hands of J. C. Hinckley. A Democrat is listed in 
Rowell as established in 1865 and edited by J. P. M. Calvo, 
who continued until 1872; J. P. Reynolds, 1872; W. H. 
Evans and George A. Spitzer, 1873; Neil C. Burns, 1874; 
Hannah and Son, 1875-1877. 

TEMPERANCE LEADER, 1878: A monthly exponent of the "White 
Ribbon" ideas, published by Grossman and Scafer. 

REPUBLICAN, 1878 to date: Established by Richard H.and a Mr. 
Brown. They soon sold to J. F. Wilmans, who continued the 
paper until January, 1883, when it was bought by Thomas L. 
Joy. Joy sold to D. E. Keen in 1888. Keen is the present 
publisher. A daily was begun in 1899. Files substantially 
complete in the office. 


TRIBUNE, i85o-(a few months) : Published by Dr. J. L. Hostetter. 


REPUBLICAN, i852-i859(?): Established by J. P. Emmert, who 
sold to H. G. Grattan, 1853-1855; D. H. Wheeler, 1855-1857; 

D. B. Emmert, ; J. L. Hostetter and E. C. Cochran. It 

was consolidated under Cochran and English, with the Intelli- 
gencer, but they were soon separated. It was last owned by 
Mrs. Skinner and Miss Gregory, and edited by Silvernail and 
Ladd. F 

CARROLL COUNTY MIRROR, 1858 to date: Published by Alexander 
Windle and I. V. Hollinger to 1865; J. M. Adair, 1865-1874; 
Joseph F. Allison, 1874-1875; W. D. Hughes and A. B. Hoi- 
linger, 1875; Mr. Hughes, 1875 to 1888. After Hughes' death 
it was conducted by his daughter, Jean A. Hughes, until 1889, 
when it was sold to W. A. Stevens. Stephens sold it to John 
Sughrone; he to J. F. Allison; he to W. L. Puterbaugh in 1893; 
he to Hughes and Hurless. Hughes sold his interest to Hurless, 
who still conducts the paper. 

INTELLIGENCER, (?)- 1860: Published by George English, for 

a short time, and was absorbed by the Mirror. 

OREAD, i868-i89o(?): Collegiate; quarterly. 


NEWS, 1875-1876+: Established by Frank A. Beeler, who sold 
the paper in 1876 to J. William Mastin. He changed the name 
to the 

HERALD, +1876-1890: On January i, 1877, the paper was bought 
by Hollinger, and Frank J. Sessions was editor. Sessions sold 
his interest to Don Frazer, and Col. M. Feezer leased Hollinger's 
interest in 1888. In 1889 Feezer and Albright conducted it. 
Frazer sold to the Mirror, which absorbed it in 1890. The Herald 
was at first Independent, but soon turned Democratic. 


NEW ERA, 1879-1880: "Done by John J. Coburn, editor and pub- 


ROCK RIVER REGISTER, January i-September, 1842: It was estab- 
lished by friends of Rock River Seminary; edited by Emanuel 
Knodle, whose death was announced in the twelfth number, 
and who was succeeded by D. C. Dunbar; published by Mr. 
Stephens and Jonathan Knodle. It was at first non-partisan, 
but on July 10 "came out" Whig, supporting Joseph Duncan 
for governor and denouncing Judge Ford. It was moved to 
Grand Detour, and was discontiuned in 1843, probably in 

GAZETTE, March, 1850-1853: Edited by Daniel J. Pinckney and 
published by J. Frederick Grosh and Tomlinson Ankney. 
Pinckney was principal of the Rock River Seminary. Its edi- 
torial management was able, the editor striving to make it the 
exponent of his own ideas rather than a chronicle of the news of 
the day. At the end of one year the paper was sold to R. C. 
Burchell, who removed the outfit to Oregon. The paper was 
soon re-established, however. In 1851, Brayton, Baker and 
Company appeared as publishers. C. C. Allen and S. D. Atkins 
moved it to Savanna, Illinois. Independent. Polo 

NORTHWESTERN REPUBLICAN, 1856-1857+: Published by C. G. 
Atwood and Henry Metcalf. They sold to Brayton, Potter, 
and Company, and then to Myron S. Barnes, who changed it to 
the F 

INDEPENDENT WATCHMAN, +1857-1861: Published by Myron S. 
Barnes, 1857-1859. For the rest of its existence it was owned 
by a joint stock company, with Mr. J. D. Dopf as publisher, 
and under the editorial management of Professor W. S. Pope 
and Dr. F. A. McNeill. Material removed to Polo. Repub- 
lican. EF 


ANNUAL, 1862-1868: Edited by Col. B. F. Sheets, who was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. J. H. Vincent. A Sunday school paper. 

INDEPENDENT, 1876-1877+ : Established by a joint stock company 
organized by Samuel Knodle. D. J. Pinckney was editor. It 
soon was sold to John Sharer and became 

OGLE COUNTY DEMOCRAT, May, +1877-1886: John Sharer was 
editor and publisher and Dr. B. G. Stephens, associate editor. 
These persons conducted the paper nine years, when it was dis- 
continued and the plant removed to Oregon, Illinois. 


SENTINEL, 1870-1871+: Established by Francis M. Doulton, who 

was succeeded not long after by John Bush. In August, 1871, 

the paper was changed to the 
OBSERVER, +1871-1873+: Changed from the Sentinel, August, 

1871; conducted by Frank Sloan till July, 1873, when it was 

changed to the 
DOLLAR STAR + 1873 + : Published for a short time by Joel Dunbar, 

who changed it to the 
STAR, +1873-1876: Changed from the Dollar Star soon after the 

beginning of Dunbar's control ; published by him until October, 

1876, when it was sold out. 
CITIZEN, November 29, 1876 to date (1884) : Established by the 

Conklin Brothers, who were still publishing it in 1878. In 

1880, the editor was J. W. Wolfe; H. C. Suttle, 1882 to 1884. 

Independent in politics. 


PRAIRIE PIONEER, 1848-1850+ : A Democratic paper, founded and 
edited by John Bigler. Its next editor was P. L. Shutt, who was 
followed by J. B. More, with Geo. S. Myers as his publisher. 
Changed to 

PRAIRIE DEMOCRAT, +1850-1852+: J. R. Bailey edited it for 
E. T. Hollister, its owner. In 1852 it strongly urged the selec- 
tion of Stephen A. Douglas as the Democratic candidate for 
president. Became the F 

CHRONOTYPE, +1852-1855: Mr. Bailey remained its editor, until 
1855 when he removed the material to Jacksonville, where he 
established the Sentinel. F 

WESTERN SPY, 1856-1857: Established and edited by A. L. Snow 
with G. W. Gross as associate editor. In 1857 it was sold to 
B. H. Irwin, who sold to Nicholson and Shurtleff. They moved 
it to Beardstown. Whig. 


UNION, 1856-1863+ : A Democratic paper, owned by a stock com- 
pany and edited by Robert A. Glenn and James R. Gordon. 
After several changes in ownership it was suspended for a few 
months in 1857. It was revived by J. C. O'Neil, who was its 
editor and publisher, 1857-1861 ; J. C. and Martin O'Neil, 
1861; J. C. O'Neil, 1861-1863. When he died in l86 3 the 
establishment was sold, after a few months, to Sam. S. and 
Martin Brooks, changed the name to the 

RECORD, +1863-1869+ : They continued to publish it as a Dem- 
ocratic paper until . 1869, when they sold it to J. S. H. Ham- 
baugh, who called it the 

WEEKLY GAZETTE, +1869-1872+: He published it until 1872, 
when he sold it to Gervis M. Russell, who changed it to 

BROWN COUNTY DEMOCRAT, +1872-1886+ : Gervis M. Davis was 
editor and proprietor, 1872-1874; H. K. Davis and S. N. Jones, 
1874-1875; Mr. Davis, 1875-1886. When Mr. Davis assumed 
control it was an organ of the Grangers. It afterwards advocated 
the principles of the Greenback party. In 1876 it supported 
Peter Cooper, and in 1880, Gen. Hancock. Consolidated with 
the Illlinois Weekly Message in 1886. 

BROWN COUNTY REPUBLICAN, May, 1866-1867: Established by 

J. S. Nicholson; W. O. L. Jewett and Higgins, 1867; 

Barrett and David D. Wilson, 1867; David D. Wilson, 1867, 
when publication ceased. 

ILLINOIS WEEKLY MESSAGE, January, 1872-1886+: Established 
by Henry A. Glenn and Eugene C. Brockman; E. C. Brock- 
man and Mart Brooks, 1873-1876; E. C. Brockman, 1876- 
1883; J. B. Stubblefield and Charles Kendrick, 1883; C. 
H. Wetzel, 1883-1884; S. T. Ranney, 1884-1886. July, 1886, 
purchased by Mrs. Mary Davis and W. B. Davis, who consoli- 
dated it with the Democrat, becoming the Democrat-Message, 
+ July, 1886, to date, still under the management of Mrs. Mary 
Davis and W. B. Davis. In October, 1899, it was changed to 
twice a week. Democratic. 


JEFFERSONIAN, 1851-1856+ : Established by Bogan and Stickney, 
and later published by John S. Bogan alone. In 1854 Mr. Boga 
sold to Bowman and Robinson, who after a short time sold it tc 
Dodds, Johnson and Company. J. B. Tanner was their editor, 
and the paper was run in the interest of a railroad project. That 
accomplished, it was changed to 


SENTINEL, +1856-1857+: It was published by Tanner, Casey, 
and Anderson, with the latter gentleman as editor; afterwards 
published by John A. Wall and Joe V. Baugh. It became the 

EGYPTIAN TORCHLIGHT, + spring till late fall, 1857+: Published 
by Hollingsworth and Wall. The latter withdrew a short time 
before Hollingsworth, who was succeeded by Ed. Satterfield. 
He published the paper for a few weeks, and then it changed 
hands and name, becoming the 

ADVOCATE, +1857-1858+ : Owned by Dr. S. Turner Brown, and 
published by him, with the assistance of Satterfield and Dowler, 
for three weeks at the end of 1857. Satterfield then kept the 
paper alive until the spring of 1858, after which time it was con- 
tinued with a change of hands as the 

STAR, + 1858-1865 : Controlled by S. B. Curtis and James S. Lane, 
1858-1859; John A. Wall, nine months; Ed. and John Satter- 
field to 1 86 1 ; John Satterfield to close of 1861 ; Judge Satter- 
field (father of Ed. and John) and Wm. Davisson, to spring of 
1862; Ed. Satterfield, to fall of 1862; Ed. and John Satterfield, 
1862-1865. The paper was bought in November, 1865, by C. 
L. Hays, who began in December to publish the Free Press. 

GUARDIAN, 1860-1863+: Established by Alex Russell and John 
A. Wall, April, 1860; the first Republican paper. It even 
claimed to be a War Democrat. Russell and Wall, 1860-1861 ; 
Russell and Denlinger, a few months, beginning in the spring 

(April?) of 1861 ; fall of 1861, Denlinger . In March, 1863, 

the Guardian was changed to 

UNCONDITIONAL UNIONIST, +1863-1867: Established by John A. 
Wall, who published it three years. A. B. Barrett and others 
formed a stock company for the maintenance of the Unionist 
upon Wall's withdrawal. A. J. Alden was editor 1866 to sum- 
mer of 1867. George W. Moray, his successor, discontinued the 
paper after five weeks. It was Republican in politics. 

FREE PRESS, 1865-1880: Established by C. L. Hayes, Decem- 
ber 6, 1865, and published from the office of the Star. In 
March, 1872, Hayes sold to R. A. D. Wilbanks and G. M. 
Haynes, who managed the Press till the following October, 
and were then succeeded by W. H. Mantz, to whom they leased 
the office. Mantz continued till the spring of 1876, when Don 
Davisson succeeded him. From April, 1879, to February, 1880, 
the business was backed by a stock company of Greenbackers, 
and William B. Anderson was editor. They sold out to H. H. 
Simmons of the News, February, 1880. 

STATESMAN, 1867-1873: Established by Henry Hitchcock, Sep- 
tember 3, 1867, to succeed the Unionist. Hitchcock sold out 


in May, 1873, to C. L. Hayes and R. M. Morrison, who began 
the publication of the Sucker State. The Statesman was Repub- 
lican in politics. 

NEWS, September 2, 1871 to date: Established by Lawrence F. 
Tromly and Company. Theodore Trornly joined his brother, 
and as the Tromly Brothers they published the News, till 
the spring of 1876, as a Republican paper. At this time 
they sold to C. L. Hayes, who in turn sold to C. A. Keller, 
January, 1887, Hayes retaining possession till April i. Keller 
sold to H. H. Simmons, November 28, 1877. The latter had 
edited the News since April. In February, 1880, Mr. Simmons 
bought the Free Press, which he combined with the News. In 
1883 he was still publishing his paper as the Mt. Vernon News. 
Simmons has been followed successively by John W. Grear, Grear 
and Baker, Pace and Baker, Sumner and Baker; and, as both 
a daily and a weekly, by the Mt. Vernon News Company, with 
Joe V. Baugh as editor, A Democratic paper. 

SUCKER STATE, 1873-1874: Established by C. L. Hayes and 
R. M. Morrison, who had bought Hitchcock's Statesman office, 
May, 1873. The paper now became Democratic in politics. 
Morrison retired December 27, 1873. The paper failed under 
Hayes in 1874. 

WEEKLY EXPONENT, 1878-1884+ : Moved from Casey, in Clark 
county, without change of name, by Edward Hitchcock, No- 
vember, 1878. Publication in Mt. Vernon began December 5, 
1878, with the first number of vol. 3. Hitchcock had edited also 
the first two volumes. In 1884 he sold to Morris Emmerson, 
who changed the name to Register, and in 1892 began the daily. 
On September i, 1902, Emmerson sold to Maurice J. Seed, who 
has continued the publication of both papers. Its politics were 


REGISTER, 1872-1880: Established by A. M. Anderson, editor, and 
John P. Marnel. In 1875 so ^ to Arnold Hughes. After twc 
years it ceased. In 1878 F. M. Hughes purchased the plant 
and resumed the publication as an Independent paper, but it 
became Democratic. Discontinued. 

ILLUSTRATED BAPTIST, 1879: Printed by the Register. 


JACKSON DEMOCRAT, 1855: The proprietors were George C. and 
F. C. Bierer. It was bought and discontinued in the fall of 1855 
by Lt. Gov. A. M. Jenkins. 


SENTINEL, 1855: Established by Lt. Gov. Jenkins, who sold the 
establishment to S. S. Hall. He moved it to DeSoto, where it 
was known as the Farmer. 

ARGUS, 1860 (?) : In 1869 a paper by the same name, estab- 
lished 1868, was edited and published by W. F. Schuckers; 
T. F. Bouton and W. D. Frick, 1870; Evans and Dishon, 1873. 
In 1873 it was superseded by the Era. Democratic. 

INDEPENDENT, 1873 to date (1877) : Edited by Bethune Dishon 
and John W. Grear. In 1876 Mr. Dishon severed his con- 
nection. Mr. Grear edited alone until 1877. Independent in 
politics until 1877, then Democratic. In 1877 Mr. James C. 
Sowers became connected with the paper. 

J. P. Robarts was editor; Robarts and Evans, publishers, 1874; 
G. J. Burr was editor; G. J. Burr and Company, publishers, 
1879. It was continued until 1902, when it was absorbed by 
the Republican and the continuation called Republican-Era. 
Daily and weekly, run by H. L. Williamson. 

INDUSTRIAL TRIBUNE, 1878-1880: Ingram was editor and pub- 
lisher in 1880. Greenback. 


DuPAGE COUNTY RECORDER, 1849+ : Edited by C. J. Sellon as a 
non-partisan paper. Changed to F 

DEMOCRATIC PLAINDEALER, +1850: It now became an organ of 

DAUGHTER OF TEMPERANCE, 1850: Issued weekly. 

DuPAGE COUNTY OBSERVER, 1851-1854: It sprang from the re- 
mains of the Democratic Plaindealer. Published by Barnes, 
Humphrey, and Keith, 1851; by Barnes, Martin, and Keith, 
1852-1854. F 

DuPAGE COUNTY JOURNAL, 1854-1857: Established by C. W. 
Keith. It was conducted successively by C. W. Keith, Keith, 
Edson and Company; J. M. Edson and E. M. Day. In Feb- 
ruary, 1857, the building in which the office was situated was 
carried away by a flood. 

NEWSLETTER, 1857 : Published by E. H. Eyer. 
SENTINEL, (?)- 1862: Published by D. B. Birdsall. 

DuPAGE COUNTY PRESS, 1863-1868+ : Owned by Robert Naper 
and P. K. Potter, who in 1868 sold to D. B. Givler, who changed 
it to 


CLARION, +February, 1868 to date; Established by D. B. Givler 
and published by him until January, 1905, when he sold to his 
son, R. N. Givler, the present publisher. Neutral. 

COLLEGE CHRONICLE, 1873-1876; 1883 to date: Published by 
students composing the Chronicle Publishing Company in the 
interest of Northwestern College. H. H. Rassweiler was editor, 
1873-1875; J. L. Rockey, 1875-1876. Monthly. Files in N. 
W. Coll. Lib. 

DuPAGE COUNTY VOLKSZEITUNG, 1879-1880: Edited and pub- 
lished by Theodore Blenkner. German, neutral. 


SPIRIT or THE WEST, 1837-1838: Established by a stock company, 
and edited and published by Nathan M. Knapp at intervals of 
apparently more than a fortnight and less than a month. James 
M. Ruggles did the printing. The motto explained: "Amidst 
the hum the strife the shock of men, we hear we see 
we feel and then express." The editor promised by way of 
exercising his catalog of sensations, that a portion of the sheet 
should be devoted to "Education, Morality, Political Economy, 
Poetry, and General Miscellany." Before July 14 the estab- 
lishment had been moved to Jacksonville, where the paper be- 
came the Spirit oj the West and Illinois Standard. Politically 
"uninfluenced by partisan prejudice." 

POST, about 1840: A Whig paper conducted by Mark W. Delahay. 

OBSERVER, about 1850: Published by a Mr. Tilden (A. S. ?). 


NEW ERA, 1851-1853+ : Established and edited by a joint stock 
company of a few citizens who secured the service of P. W. Skinner 
as printer and manager of the mechanical part. Johnson and 
Logan were editors and publishers in 1852. Neutral as to 
politics. In 1853 it was sold to Robert K. Fleming and the 
name changed to F 

MONITOR, + 1853-1856+ : Fleming's management of it was brief , and 
the former stockholders, taking it back, gave charge of it to M. 
L. McCord, who, being a Whig, gave it up because he refused to 
make it a Democratic organ during the campaign of 1856. 
Henry Johnson was called to take his place, and he changed 
its name to 

DEMOCRAT, +1856-1860+ : Under Johnson it supported Buchanan 
for the presidency. In 1858 Elijah M. Vance became manager. 
From Mr. Vance it passed into the hands of O. P. Hoddy, who 
passed it over to P. C. Graves, Sr., and gave it the name of F 


WASHINGTON COUNTY HERALD, +1860-1862+: C E. Hammond 
appeared as editor, 1860-1862. He sold out to M. M. Goodner, 
who called it 

JACKSONIAN, +1862-1863+: Decidedly Democratic in its sympa- 
thies. Mr. Goodner sold to Francis M. Verner, who called it the 

CONSTITUTION, +1863-- (?): Amos Watts appeared as editor. 
Soon ceased. 

YOUNG AMERICAN DEMOCRAT, +1853- (?): Another paper 
which was regarded by its editors and publishers, Henry John- 
son and D. L. Logan, as the successor of Era. Probably dis- 
continued in 1856, when Johnson took charge of Monitor, which 
he renamed Democrat. F 

JOURNAL, 1863 to date: Established in oppposition to the Jackso- 
nian, by a stock company which was organized December, 1862, 
by James Garvin and C. F. Hartman. The first issue was 
January 23, 1863. C. F. Hartman was editor and proprietor 
until 1870, when he sold out to G. F. Kimball and F. M. Taylor. 
James B. Matlack was manager and local editor. Kimball and 
Taylor sold to Matlack and J. B. Anderson. The latter firm 
continued to 1874 when Anderson sold his interest to C. F. Hart- 
man. Matlack and Hartman continued to May, 1875, when 
Hartman sold to Matlack. After a few weeks, Matlack sold a 
half interest to C. D. Wassell. In December, 1876, Wassell 
became sole owner. One month later, J. B. Wassell joined 
C. D. Wassell and the firm continued to date as Wassell Bros. 
Dr. W. M. Pierce was editor from the time this firm was formed 
until 1880; Way and Jones, 1880; Hartman and Company, 
1882; Hartman and Schmidt, 1884; Henry J. Schmidt, editor, 
Emil Schmidt, publisher, 1891; Schmidt and Watts, 1895; 
H. J. Schmidt, to date. Republican in politics. 

PEOPLE'S PRESS, 1866-1867+: Established as a successor to the 
Constitution by a stock company of Democrats, with Amos Watts 
as proprietor and manager ; Col. W. H. Redding, editor. After 
one year Amos Watts became editor. A year and a half after 
this, in the spring of 1867, Joseph B. Anderson became publisher 
and proprietor and changed the name to the 

DEMOCRAT, +1867 to date: Published for the first year of its 
existence under the new name, by Joseph B. Anderson. Spring 
of 1870, Peter W. Baker, editor and proprietor, for eight 
months. Late fall of 1870, D. A. Burton and O. P. Hoddy. 
Fall of 1871, J. B. Anderson and S. C. Page. November 30, 
1871, W. S. and C. M. Forman. Forman Brothers sold No- 
vember 15, 1876, to J. J. Anderson, editor and proprietor till 
after 1891; Vernor and Carson, 1895; E. F. Beiser, to date. 


WASHINGTON COUNTY ZEITUNG, 1874 to date (1882): Established 
March, 1874, by Forman Brothers and Dr. H. D. Schmidt. The 
latter was editor ; the firm name was H. D. Schmidt and Company. 
March, 1876, Forman Brothers sold to a stock company, H. D. 
Schmidt and brother becoming managers. July, 1876, the 
Schmidts retired, a new stock company was formed, with For- 
man Brothers as managers and Herman Rieken, editor. It 
continued thus until February i, 1879, when J. J. Anderson 
bought the Zeitung and in 1879 was sole publisher and proprietor 
of the Zeitung and Democrat. In 1880 and 1882 Zeitung Printing 
Company were editors and publishers. U 

ILLINOIS VOLKSBLATT, 1876 to date: Established by H. D. Schmidt 
and Emil Schmidt in August, 1876. The former was editor to 
after 1884. Hartman and Company were publishers in 1882, 
1884. In 1891 Emil Schmidt was editor, Herman Rieken, 
publisher; F. C. Krumsick, editor, Schmidt and Waldo, pub- 
lishers, 1895 to date. Republican. 


TIMES AND SEASONS, 1839-1846: A Mormon paper founded by 
Ebenezer Robinson and D. C. Smith the youngest brother 
of the prophet, Joseph Smith. It was issued semi-monthly, dur- 
ing the stay of the Mormons in the county, under several editors 
and publishers, among whom, besides its founders, were the 
prophet himself, Frederick G. Williams, John Taylor, Wilford 
Woodruff and W. W. Phelps. SH 

WASP, April 16, 1842-1843+ : Founded by the patriarch, William 
Smith, who was succeeded as editor, late in 1842, by John Taylor. 
Issued from the office of the Times and Seasons. It became the 


NEIGHBOR, +1843-1845+: Edited by John Taylor, one of the 
twelve apostles, and published by Taylor and Woodruff. 
Changed to HLF 

HANCOCK EAGLE, +i845~April 3, 1846+: Still a Mormon paper; 
edited by Dr. W. E. Matlack a gentile. He was a graduate of 
Princeton and had been editorially connected with Horace 
Greeley on the New Yorker. In politics it was Democratic. 
Upon the death of Mr. Matlack the paper was sold to Samuel 
Slocum and changed to HL 

NEW CITIZEN, +1846-1847: Anti-Mormon, edited by Dr. Isaac 
Galland, later J. S. Winter. Published by Samuel Slocum. HL 

EXPOSITOR, June 7, 1844: Established to expose the controlling 
faction of Mormons. After one number was issued it was de- 
clared a nuisance by the common council and the press and 


material were burned or destroyed by the city marshal an act 
leading to the lynching of the brothers, Joseph and Hyrum Smith. 
It was established by William and Wilson Law, Charles and Rob- 
ert D. Foster, Francis M. and Chauncey L. Higbee, and man- 
aged by Sylvester Emmans; all were Mormons who protested 
against the despotism of Joseph Smith. SL 

COLONIE ICARIENNE, 1845 : Published by the Icarian community. 
PATRIOT, 1847-1850: A Democratic paper edited by James McKee. 

ICARIAN REVIEW, 1851 : Published by the Icarian community and 
edited by M. Etienne Cobet. 

POPULAR TRIBUNE, January 25, 1851- (?): "Journal of 
Reform and Social Reorganization. Organ of the Icarian Com- 
munity, under the direction of M. E. Cobet, formerly an attor- 
ney general and deputy of France, and now president of the 
above community. " By July, 1853, Popular had been dropped 
from the title. F 

DEMOCRATIC PRESS, 1858-1860: Founded by Gregg and Lambert. 
In a few months Messrs. Yates, Chapman, Bauer, and Swartz 
took the concern. Finally Mr. Yates, being alone, secured Mr. 
Grove to conduct it. His successor was Abraham Yates. 

HANCOCK COUNTY JOURNAL, 1870-1875: Established by Theo 
Bischof and conducted by him until 1875. Printed at the office 
of the Keokuk Post. 

INDEPENDENT, October, 1873 to date: Kremer and Thomas estab- 
lished and ran the paper for forty-four weeks, when they sold to 
Hamilton and Nelson (B. R. Hamilton and Joseph Nelson). 
After a year Hamilton retired and Nelson continued the paper 
till 1880; Hibbard and Baumert, 1880-1885; Baumert and 
Argast, 1885-1888; Baumert Brothers, 1888-- . Since 1902 
the paper has been issued semi- weekly. UL 


ADVERTISER, 1874-1875+ : Established by S. Z. Bland as an adver- 
tising medium. It was sold the next year to Allison Brothers 
of Mattoon, who changed the name to the 

NEWS, + 1875 to date : In 1876 the paper was sold to Hancock and 
Kelley. Kelley retired a year later. The paper was, in 1907, 
conducted by Mrs. T. R. Hancock with W. M. Simpson as 
editor. It is now owned and edited by L. A. Osborne. 


GAZETTE, 1868-1870: Established by Charles M. King. 



KENDALL COUNTY NEWS, 1878-- (?): An edition of the Piano 
News. R. M. and Callie D. M. Springer were editors and pub- 
lishers in 1879. 

CLIPPER, ( ?) . 

ERA, 1869-1876: Established by Bauman and Schild. Frank R. 
O'Neill was editor and publisher in 1871 ; T. D. Schoupe, 1872- 
1874; sold to George Auerswald in 1875 and he in 1876 moved 
the office to Belleville, where he commenced the Independent. 


ADVANCE, 1874: W. T. Lakin was editor and publisher. Printed 
at the office of the Waverly Times. 


GOLDEN AGE, i852-(after 1854) : Edited and published by L. W. 
Myers and M. Boyd. F 

HERALD, 1865-1872: A Republican paper, edited and -published by 
C. A. Ballard. 


JOHNSON COUNTY JOURNAL, 1874-1879: A. J. Allen was editor 
and publisher in 1875; Judd J. Penny, 1876; J. B. Chapman 
1877; Milton M. Smith was editor and publisher in 1879. 
Printed at Vienna. Independent. U 


DEMOCRAT, 1873-1874+ : Established by Cicero V. Walls. After 
six months he suspended it for a year. When he resumed pub- 
lication he changed the name to 

INDEPENDENT, +1875 to date: In 1882-1883 Wall leased to Carle 
A. Uhler for about a year. In 1884 he again leased it to A. B. 
Smith. In 1887 A. B. and M. S. Smith purchased the plant. 
In 1894 A. B. Smith retired from the firm and M. S. Smith has 
been sole proprietor since. Though Independent at first, it 
became and is still Republican. 


RECORD, 1871-1872: Established by C. M. Thompson. Repub- 

JOURNAL, 1872-1877 : Edited by E. F. Baldwin, published by Walter 
Hoge, then by John Wadleigh, 1874-1875 and 1877; Journal 
Company, 1876. An edition of the El Paso Journal. 

TIMES, 1874-1877: J. H. Brevoort was editor and publisher. 
Issued from the office of the Minonk Times. 



ENQUIRER, 1856-1858+ : A Democratic paper published by Geo. 
E. Hoar. Became the 

JASPER COUNTY DEMOCRAT, +1858-1862: Published by Mehaffey 
and Odell. 

PLAINDEALER, 1858: Edited by J. H. Graham as an "Independent 
Democratic" journal. Short-lived. It was succeeded by the 

DEMOCRATIC WATCHMAN, 1858-1865+: Bought by Dr. T. H. 
Walker who engaged a Mr. Sears as editor. The name was 
changed to the 

PRESS, +1865 to date: Later sold to a Mr. Stotler, with James 
Stotler as editor. The paper was bought, after four months, 
by T. H. and A. N. Walker. In 1882 it was bought by John H. 
Shup, with Frank L. Shup as editor. The latter became part 
owner with John H. Shup, then with Isaac Shup, and later with 
James W. Gibson, who is now editor and publisher. The paper 
became a bi-weekly in 1899. 

JASPER COUNTY CLIPPER, 1874-1876: E. Gorrell was editor and 

JASPER COUNTY TIMES, 1876-- (?): In 1879 E. Gorrell was 
editor and publisher. Probably successor to Clipper Indepen- 
dent Democratic. 


TIMES, 1873 : Chadwick and Brown were editors and publishers. 

PRESS, 1874-1876: W. S. Coe and Company were editors and pub- 
lishers in 1875; Ward and Young in 1876; H. W. Young in 
1877. Republican. 


HERALD, October, 1874-- (?): Established by R. V. Malloy. 
Had a brief existence. 


JOURNAL, 1874-1876: D. C. Mclver was editor and W. E. Milton 
was publisher in 1875 ; W. E. Milton, publisher in 1876. Printed 
at the office of the Girard Review. 


ADVERTISER, 1868-1871: Established by A. H. Draper and a Mr. 


GAZETTE, 1871-1878+ : Established by Picket and H. F. White. 
In the fall of 1872 James Bone took the plant on a mortgage and 
sold to D. H. Zepp and a Rev. Mr. Smoyer. In 1873 D. H. 


Zepp became sole owner and sold in 1875 to H. F. White. White 
soon sold to Hiram Graden. Suspended after a few years ; its 
name was revived in 1878 and consolidated with Free Press. U 

BULLETIN, 1873-1876: Established by A. H. Draper; continued 
for three years, and afterward intermittently. 

FREE PRESS, i877~March, 1878+ : Established as an advertising 
sheet by E. M. Hulbert, who the next year consolidated it with 
the Gazette, and the new paper was called 

FREE PRESS-GAZETTE, + March, 1878 to date: Established, edited, 
and published by E. M. Hulbert and Hiram Graden. Graden 
soon retired, after which event Hulbert was sole owner. In 1881 
the Atlas (established 1880 by H. M. Graden) was absorbed. 
In December, 1888, J. W. Wild, editor and manager of the 
Deutsch Amerikaner (established by E. M. Hulbert, December, 
1880), bought a half interest in the Free Press-Gazette and has 
been editor and half owner since. In April, 1893, E. M. Hulbert 
sold to George E. Whitten, who in July, 1897, sold to E. Frank 
Draper. He sold, in July, 1901, to G. H. Webster. Wild and 
Webster still conduct both papers. Non-partisan since 1880. 
Before that time Gazette was Republican, Free Press Democratic. 
Complete bound files in office. 


ILLINOIS SCHOOLMASTER, June, i87i-December, 1876: Established 
in Bloomington, June, 1868, as Schoolmaster; moved to Chicago, 
then became Chicago Schoolmaster; moved to Normal, June, 
1871. It was then edited and owned by Aaron Gove and E. C. 
Hewitt. In February, 1873, it was merged with Illinois Teacher 
as Illinois Schoolmaster and conducted by Gove and Hewitt 
until October, 1874, when John W. Cook replaced Gove. John 
W. Cook alone was editor and publisher of the number for No- 
vember and that of December, 1876, with which the career of 
the Schoolmaster closed. The Illinois Schoolmaster is mentioned 
as one of the papers which were combined to form the Educational 
Weekly of Chicago, December, 1876. File owned by W. L. Pills- 
bury, Urbana, Illinois. HU 


JOURNAL, 1874: A. J. Alden was editor and publisher. Printed 
at the office of the Vienna Journal. 


EXTEMPORARY BULLETIN, i86i(?) : Listed, without details, in Ken- 
ney's American Newspaper Directory for 1861. 



HERALD, 1866 to date: Established by I. M. Mallory, who was sole 
editor and proprietor until 1896, when he sold to Justin V. 
Beatty, the present publisher. Republican. When the name 
of the town was changed in 1908 from Nunda to North Crystal 
Lake the name of the paper was made Crystal Lake Herald. 


HERALD, 1875 to date (1880): Established by J. W. Crane, after- 
ward owned by S. A. Reel and Company with Rev. J. P. Camp- 
bell as editor. In 1879 O. Dicks was editor; R. G. Forsyth 
publisher. L. M. Priest was editor and publisher in 1880. Re- 
publican, 1877; Independent (Rowell), 1879; Greenback (Ayer), 

LEDGER, September 6, 1879 to date : Established by J. S. Yeargin. 
L. T. Yeargin has been connected with the paper for more than 
thirty years and is its present editor. Independent-Republican. 


INDEPENDENT, 1869-1870: J. H. Warner was editor and publisher. 
WEEKLY, 1873-1874: W. D. Wilson was editor and publisher. 
CENTENNIAL, 1876 : Published by the Livingston County Publishing 

HERALD, 1877 to date (1879) : In 1879 J. H. Warner was editor 

and publisher. 


SOUTHERN ILLINOIS JOURNAL, November, 1869-1870: Mr. Wilson 
was editor and proprietor. The paper continued until late in 

STAR, 1871-1872 : Dille and Ames were editors and publishers. 


ADVANCE, 1874-1876: T. W. Eckert was editor and publisher. 


NEWS, 1849-1850: A paper established by Daniel Cox and Alfred 
Kitchell ; edited and paid for by Kitchell, it is said, to promote 
his election as a Whig to the office of state's attorney. He was 
already prosecuting attorney for the fourth circuit when the 
paper was started. 

REPUBLICAN, i85o-i869( ?) + : Established by John M. Wilson, who 
conducted it most of the time as a Democratic paper. James 
J. Mayes was publisher in 1855. He sold in 1855 to a Mr. 
McClaharty, who made the paper Whig, ran it one year, and 


died. The paper was sold to James Wright, a Whig, who sup- 
ported Fremont for president. By 1869 it was owned by Beck 
and Boyer and changed to F 

JOURNAL, +i869(?)-i876+ : Conducted by James Beck and Eli 
Boyer until 1872, when they sold to H. H. Lusk. Lusk sold 
about 1874 to Israel A. Powell, who in 1876 changed the name to 

NEWS, +1876+ : Israel A. Powell conducted the paper for awhile 
and, according to some informants sold to W. F. Ratcliffe, who 
soon sold to T. A. Fr'tchey. A copy dated February 23, 1876, 
is vol. i, no. i, edited and published by W. F. Ratcliffe. In 
any event the name was changed back to U 

RICHLAND COUNTY REPUBLICAN, +1876 to date : By T. A. Fritchey, 
who put the paper in a sound condition. In 1895 Dan W. 
Fritchey was editor; in 1907, Lozier D. Yount. The paper is 
still issued twice a week. Republican. 

DOLLAR WEEKLY GAZETTE, 1855-1856+ : Established by John J. 
Buntin, Milo N. Powers, and James Nabb, and conducted by 
them until 1858, when they sold to William M. Beck. He changed 
the name to 

TIMES, +1856-1861+: A Republican paper, edited by William 
M. Beck and E. Kitchell, and published by William M. Beck, 
1856-1860. The number for November 19, 1858, had "Abram 
Lincoln for President for 1860" at the head of the editorial 
column. Beck died in 1860; his sons continued the paper for a 
time, then sold, in 1861, to a Mr. Hawkins. He sold to Miles B. 
Friend, who changed the name to HF 

LEDGER, +i86i-i862(?): Friend made the paper Democratic. 
Sold to R. F. Steger, who in turn sold to Felix C. Carroll. Car- 
roll changed the name to 

PRESS/ i862(?)-i873+ : According to Bryant Higgins, of Olney, 
Carroll continued the Press until 1873, when he sold to E. B. 
Barnard and Mr. Hanna, who changed the name back to 

TIMES, +1873 to date: In a short time Barnard became sole owner. 
He died in 1882 ; for a short time thereafter Robert B. Witcher 

1 A history of Richland County gives the following items concerning the Press, 
and the variance between this and the account of Mr. Higgins, Mr. Higgins refuses 
to clear up. I am unable to get information from the editors, and no files are 
known to exist. "Weekly Press, 1858-1864: Established and edited by James 
Wright. Democratic. Sold in 1860 to R. F. Steigerand J. H. Graham (see Newton 
Plaindealer) . They sold to W. D. Mtimford (see Cumberland Democrat, Prairie 
City), who added a part of the material of a confiscated office in Arkansas. In 
1864 the office was broken up by a mob of soldiers because of radical expressions 
in the paper, and its publication was discontinued." F. W. S. 


conducted the paper, which then fell into the hands of W. F. 
Beck. Beck sold to Thomas Tippit, and he to D. P. Moore and 
H. C. Morris. They sold, since 1907, to Elbert Rowland. 


MERCURY, 1859-1861 : Its publishers were R. McKee, Davis 
and Backus. 

TIMES, December i, 1870-1871 : Established by Louis M. Babcock 
and Jacob Keiser. Mr. Keiser withdrew in a short time. Mr. 
Charles Drumm bought an interest and became foreman, Mr. 
Babcock being editor. May 4, 1871, was the last issue before 
the removal of the Times to Watseka, where it was continued as 
the Iroquois Times. Some years after the name was changed 
again to the Iroquois County Times, and as such the paper was 
still being published in 1897. 

ADVERTISER, i864(?)- 1865+ : Published by Ed. Rumley. In 1865 
the Advertiser was changed to the Review. One date given for 
the first issue is August, 1865. 

GRAND PRAIRIE REVIEW, +1865-1869: Originally the Advertiser. 
One date for the merging of the Advertiser into the Review is 
given as February, 1866. Rumley and Lowe were editors and 
publishers. The office was moved to Moline, December, 1869. 

SEMINARY GAZETTE i867-i869(?): Edited by the faculty of Grand 
Prairie Seminary and published by Rumley and Lowe. 


COURIER, 1870 : Published from spring to fall of that year by Jacob 
Keiser, who moved it in the fall to Winimac, Indiana. 

REVIEW, 1872 to date: Established by John B. Lowe in the winter 
of 1872, and still published by him in 1880. By 1881 it was 
called Central Illinois Review, with J. D. Long as editor, 1882; 
E. W. Warren, 1884-1891 ; Palmer and Gilbert, 1895. By 1895 
it was called Leader and Review. Republican. (Prints an edi- 
tion under the name Inquirer at Buckley, Iroquois county.) 


NEWS, November, i876-September, 1879: Edited and published 
throughout its existence by A. W. Ladd. Complete files owned 
by Mr. Ladd, now publisher of the Weekly News, Albion, 

JOURNAL, (?)- (?): Appeared but a few times, when it 

was merged with the Galesburg Register. 


SPECTATOR, February 12, i848-January 22, 1908: The Spectator was 
published continuously by members of the Patterson family for 


nearly sixty-one years. Founded by J. B. Patterson, it was con- 
tinued by him until Jamuary 31, 1849; then by J. B. and E. H. 
N. Patterson 1 until January 14, 1875; by J. B. Patterson until 
February 7, 1878; by J. B. and Harry N. Patterson (a grandson) 
until July 31, 1884; by Harry N. Patterson until January 4, 
1899; by Harry N. and F. A. Patterson (his wife) until January 
22, 1908, when the paper was discontinued. From October 16, 
1850, to April 18, 1856, the title was Oquawka Spectator and 
Keithsburg Observer. A weekly, non-partisan paper to 1863, 
when it became a Democratic organ. After 1891 it was a Pro- 
hibition paper. Files 1848 to date are the property of Mr. 
Harry Patterson. FD 

PLAINDEALER, i852-i858(?): The editors and proprietors of this 
paper were F. A. Dallam, 1852-1855; Horace Bigelow and Mr. 
Dallam, 1855-1856; James W. Reed and Mr. Bigelow, 1856- 
1857; J. K. Magie and David Mitchell, 1857- ; M. H. 
Jamison; and Mr. Chamberlain, who moved it to Biggsville. 
From there it was taken by Judson Graves to Kirkwood, Warren 

MONTHLY NOVELLETTE, 1868 to date (1869) : Published by Biggs 
and Hevener. 

HENDERSON COUNTY JOURNAL, 1878 to date: Established by 
E. A. Hail, and published continuously by him to date. 

LEISURE MOMENTS, August, i87o-July, 1871 : A small four-page 
monthly published by E. B. Chickering, who seems to have had 
a job printing office and an unpublished story. The story and 
the periodical ended with the eleventh instalment. 


OGLE COUNTY GAZETTE, -fjune n, 1851+: Removed from Mt. 
Morris and edited by R. C. Burchell, 1851, who, when a few 

1 Writing of Edgar Allan Poe, Mr. Bliss Perry says," In the last year of his life 
he was invited by a Mr. E. H. N. Patterson to become the editor of a new mag- 
azine." Mr. Patterson "proposed to found under Poe's editorship, 'an influen- 
tial periodical' at Oquawka, Illinois. 'Oquawka,' he admits, 'is comparatively 
an unimportant point, but I think that such being the case would not injure at 
all the circulation of the magazine. . . . Here I can enjoy every mail advan- 
tage that I could at St. Louis, being but thirty hours travel from that city, and 
being situated immediately upon the Mississippi, with daily connection with the 
Northern Canal and St. Louis, and directly upon the great daily mail line from 
the East, through Pennsylvania, Ohio and Indiana.' " Park Street Papers, 10. 
A full account of the correspondence between Poe and Mr. Patterson was given 
some years ago by Eugene Field in America, and has been published with fac- 
simile reproductions of all the correspondence, by theCaxton Club: Some Letters 
of Edgar Allan Poe to E. H. N. Patterson of Oquawka, Illinois, with Comments 
by Eugene Field, Chicago, 1898. 


months later the Gazette was revived at Mt. Morris, changed the 
name of the paper to 

OGLE COUNTY REPORTER, +1851 to date: Edited by M. W. Smith, 
1853; E. H. Leggett, 1857-1861; John Sharp, 1861-1868; 
owned by M. W. Smith with J. Sharp as editor, 1868-1871; 
Charles L. Miller and E. L. Otis (Miller being editor), 1871; 
Mr. Miller and brother, James P. Miller, 1871; William H. 
Gardner, editor and proprietor, 1871-1872; Gardner and Tim- 
oleon Oscar Johnston. 1872; Mr. Johnston editor and proprietor, 
1872 till after 1878; Frank Schatzell and others. The present 
editor and publisher is Frank O. Robinson. Republican. F 

NATIONAL GUARD, 1866-1873 + : Established by Samuel Wilson? 
most of the material furnished by a joint stock company of 
Democrats. In three months he associated with himself his 
brother, F. B. Wilson. S. and F. B. Wilson published the paper 
until 1867, when the junion partner retired and S. Wilson again 
became sole editor. In 1869 Ed. T. Richie became associated 
with Mr. Wilson. In three months Wilson retired and Richie 
became sole proprietor. In 1871 he sold to Mr. Wilson, who 
again assumed management. In 1873 Jacob J. Buser pur- 
chased one half of the office and in a month or two the name 
was changed to 

OGLE COUNTY GRANGE, +1873-1875+: Wilson and Jacob J. 
Buser, editors and publishers. In 1873 Buser purchased Wil- 
son's interest and was sole proprietor until February, 1875, when 
he associated with himself G. L. Bennett. In May, 1875, Buser 
and Bennett disposed of their entire interest to Charles R. Hawes, 
who changed the name to 

COURIER, +1875- (?): Edited and published by Charles R. 
Hawes. In three months it was transferred to G. L. Bennett. 
In 1876 Henry P. Lason became editor and publisher. S. D. 
Wilson was editor and publisher in 1880. Republican. Before 
1882 the paper had become the Independent, and was Indepen- 
dent in politics. In 1882 and 1884 W. E. Ray was editor and 
publisher. In 1891 the paper was being issued as a Democratic 
organ entitled Independent Democrat. Waggoner, Sherer, and 
Johnston were editors and publishers. By 1895 Sherer had 

RAPALEE'S JOKINELLO, 1877 : Started by Norman Rapalee. Monthly. 
Printed in the Courier office. 


CHIEF, 1873 to date (1876) : Edited and published in 1874 by B. W. 
Seaton and Sons; in 1875 and 1876 by B. W. Seaton. Printed 
at the office of the Cambridge Prairie Chief. 


VIDETTE, June-October, 1877+: Established by A. H. Chaffee. 
It was bought in October, 1877, by Bolles and N. J. Ludi, who 
changed the name to 

TIMES, + October, 1877-1887: Bolles sold to Ludi in 1878, who 
conducted the paper until 1883, when the plant was removed. 
W. A. Bolles put in another plant and continued the name, num- 
ber, and volume of the Times until 1887, when it was bought by 
a Prohibitionist company and called the Liberator. This con- 
tinued for about a year. Bolles repurchased the plant and sold 
in March, 1907, to F. S. Fullerton, the present editor. 


KENDALL COUNTY COURIER, 1856-- (?)+: Edited by H. S. 

Humphrey. Changed to 
KENDALL COUNTY FREE PRESS, H (?)-i864: Edited by A. 

R, Niblo. Moved to Vandalia. 
VIDETTE, ( ?) : Taken to Aurora ( ?) . 
BOLD HORNET, (?) : Taken to Aurora (?). 


REPUBLICAN, 1836 for a few months: A Democratic campaign 

paper, edited by J. V. A. Hoes. P 

ILLINOIS FREE TRADER, 1840-1843+ : A Democratic paper edited 

and published by George F. Weaver and John Hise. Changed to 


FREE TRADER, +1843 to date: Published by John Hise and Wil- 
liam Osman, 1843-1845; William Osman Company, 1845-1847; 
William and Moses Osman, 1847-1853; George and Julius 
Avery, 1853-1856; William Osman, 1856-1868; Mr. Osman 
and Douglas Hapeman, 1868-1882; William Osman and Sons, 
1882 to 1891 ; William Osman and Son, 1891 to date. Issued 
weekly to 1887, thenceforward daily and weekly. Democratic. 
Files in office. SEFP 

CONSTITUTIONALIST, 1844-1852+: Established by James Lowry 
and H. E. Gedney. Mr. Gedney, i85o-June, 1852. Thaddeus 
Hampton bought the paper in June, 1852, and changed it to 

REPUBLICAN, +1852-1890+ : Edited and published by Mr. Ham- 
pton and J. W. Kelley, weekly to 1887, thenceforward daily and 
weekly. June, 1852-1857; Hampton and Buffington, 1857-1859; 
Mr. Hampton 1859-1864; William Perkins, 1864- January, 1867 ; 
Joshua Pusey, January, i867-two months; Pusey and William 
Cullen, i86i-June, 1868; Franklin Corwin and George M. 
Radcliffe, June, 1868- January, 1870; Corwin and F. M. Sapp, 
January, i87o-a few months; Sapp and Radcliffe, 1870-1871; 


Sapp and Cullen, January, iSyi-July, 1887; Mr. Sapp, July, 
i887-September, 1890. The Weekly Republican and the Daily 
Times were consolidated at the latter date as the Republican- 
Times, 1890 to date. Mr. Sapp and Mr. E. A. Nattinger were 
partners until January, 1900. At this time Mr. Nattinger's 
interest was sold to Charles E. Pettit and Fred A. Sapp, the firm 
name becoming Sapp, Pettit, and Sapp. "When the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill brought about the disruption of the Whig party in 
1854, the Republican, which had until that time been an organ 
of the Whig party, was one of the first newspapers in the state 
to follow the leadership of Abraham Lincoln, Richard Yates and 
others in the organization of the Republican party." 1 File from 
1852-1860 in the office of the Republican-Times, Ottawa. Mr. 
M. Hanifin, Ottawa, Illinois, has an unbound file. SU 

UNITED IRISHMAN, May 22, 1848 - (?): Published by an as- 
sociation of Irishmen, including Messrs. Ryan, Champlin, Fisher, 
Glover, and Hoes, with Maurice Murphy as the active agent. 
Devoted to the advocacy of "a repeal of that nefarious Legis- 
lative Union between England and Ireland, which has not en- 
riched England, but made Ireland poor indeed." F 

STATESMAN, 1868 to date (1869) : Edited and published by C. H. 
Hayes. Democratic. H 

CENTRAL ILLINOIS WOCHENBLATT, 1868 to date: J. J. Witte and 
C. W. Denhard were partners in conducting the paper from 1869 
to 1879. After Mr. Denhard's death in 1879 Mr. Witte was 
sole proprietor. German. Independent-Republican. 

COMMERCIAL MILLER, May, i873~May, 1874: Established and 
edited by Samuel S. Chisholm, published by the American Miller 
Publishing Company. After one year it was moved to Chicago, 
where it was continued under the same management. Monthly. 


TIMES, 1877-1890: The Times began as a daily, and started a 
weekly edition in 1879. Edited and published by E. A. Nat- 
tinger. The Daily Times was consolidated with the Republican, 
September, 1890. (See Republican.) Republican in politics. 


HERALD, 1872-1876: Earlie Brothers and Company, were editors 
and publishers, 1873; F. E. Holton and Company, 1874; Wil- 
liams and Holton, 1875; Frank E. Holton, 1876. Republican. 

ENTERPRISE, i784~i877(?) : A monthly advertising sheet. J. W. 
Smith editor and publisher, 1875; Enterprise Company, 1876. 

1 Letter from F. A. Sapp. 


ENTERPRISE, 1878- (after 1891): Edited and published by W. G. 
Alden. In 1891 W. C. Williams was editor and publisher. No 
report in 1895. At first Republican, changed to Independent in 
politics. Printed an edition called Barrington Herald. 


Crisis of Edwardsville for September 9, 1830, appeared a pro- 
posal for publishing a paper so entitled, to be edited by E. S. 
Janney and published by Caddington, Beck, and Janney. "It 
is intended to be emphatically a newspaper, containing correct 
and useful knowledge only neither crowded with the com- 
plaints and disgusting squabbles of political demagogues, nor 
filled with the sickly productions of rhymsters, etc." There is 
no further trace of the publication. 

RURALIST, 1856-1857 : Edited by Samuel R. Jones, an expounder 
of the religious doctrine of the "Christians." Independent as 
to politics. H 

BANNER, 1858-1859: A Democratic paper edited by G. W. Harper. 

YELLOW JACKET, 1859-1862: Started on the ruins of the defunct 
Banner by A. Malone and E. Logan the latter withdrawing in a 
few months. It was Republican in its sympathies. 


WEEKLY HERALD, December 23, 1857-1867 : Established by Milan 
S. Beckwith; Independent in politics when first issued, but 
changed in 1858 to Democratic, and became a supporter of 
Douglas. The Herald was discontinued with no. 41 of vol. 10. 

PLAINDEALER, 1859-1860: Edited by E. F. Chittenden. Moved 
to Shelbyville. 

CENTRAL ILLINOIS DEMOCRAT, 1860+ : Established January 7, by 
E. P. Sanders, proprietor and publisher, who had bought out 
the office of the Taylorville Journal. J. B. Butler was editor, 
assisted from February 23, 1860, to June ist, by W. P. Phelon. 
November 9, 1860, the office passed into the hands of G. W. 
Harper and F. J. Beck, publishers and editors, who changed the 
name to the 

WEEKLY ENTERPRISE, + November 9, 1860+ : After one issue the 
paper was bought November 24, 1860, by O. F. Morrison and 
M. M. de Levis, who changed its name to the 

PUBLIC, +1860-1862 : M. de Levis was editor. The paper was kept 
up by de Levis and Morrison until June i, 1862, when the office 
and paper were moved to Clinton, Illinois. Independent in 


GAZETTE, July 27, 186.5-1891 : Established by Richard Couch 
and R. M. Carr, editors and proprietors. April 7, 1866, Carr 
purchased the entire interest in the office and remained editor 
and publisher until December n, 1868, when R. W. Coon pur- 
chased a half interest. Carr and Coon were partners until Coon's 
withdrawal, February 10, 1871. Carr was editor and proprietor 
to 1880 or after. He was succeeded by J. C. Essick, who con- 
ducted the paper until 1883, when Thomas Kelligar succeeded. 
In 1884 W. S. Childress was editor. Mrs. Elizabeth Weaver 
purchased Childress 's interest in 1885 and conducted the paper 
until 1891, when it was discontinued. Republican in politics. 

CENTRAL ORIENT, 1866-1868: Established June 20, 1866, by J. F. 
Harner, publisher and C. S. Hilbourn, editor; firm name, J. F. 
Harner and Company. Democratic in politics. Discontinued 
May, 1868. 

PALLADIUM, 1869 to date: Established late in 1869 by S. D. Rich, 
who was succeeded April 23, 1870, by P. A. and J. J. Farley. 
After several years P. A. Farley's retirement left J. J. Farley 
sole proprietor and editor. March 15, 1877, he sold the office 
to A. W. Chabin. Except from June to September of that 
year, when Jacob Swallow was a partner, Mr. Chabin was sole 
proprietor and editor from the date of his purchase to March 
10, 1879. On that date the office reverted to Farley Brothers, 
who sold it immediatelv to Jacob Swallow. Mr. Swallow was 
editor and owner until November i, 1906, when Jordan Brothers 
bought his interest. It is now conducted with W. B. Jordan 
as editor. Issued daily and weekly. Democratic in politics. 

CENTRAL HOMESTEAD, February to November, 1878: A monthly 
published by E. P. Sanders ; printed at the office of the Gazette. 

WEEKLY ARGUS, 1879 (?): Established by A. W. Chabin, 

March 15, 1879, upon his retirement from the Palladium. The 
first five numbers were printed in Shelbyville and brought to 
Pana for distribution. After this Colonel J. A. Hay ward became 
joint owner with Mr. Chabin and the office was established in 
Pana. The Argus was Democratic in politics until January i, 
1880, when Colonel Hay ward became sole proprietor and editor, 
and made the paper Republican. Its politics was not again 
changed. Discontinued. 

POST-OFFICE REGISTER, ( ?) - ( ?) : Published by E. C 

Reese, and printed at the office of the Gazette. 


ILLINOIS STATESMAN, i836-( ?) : Published for several years by Love- 
lace and Delav. H 


ILLINOIS STATESMAN, i84o-(?): A Democratic paper started for 
campaign purposes. A 

PRAIRIE BEACON, 1848-1864+: Founded by Jacob Harding; fol- 
lowed by S. L. Spink, and he by William Moore AEF 

WABASH VALLEY REPUBLICAN, June, 1853 to after 1854: A Dem- 
ocratic paper founded by W. D. Latshaw and G. W. Cooper, 
who conducted it, 1853-1854; then by Messrs. Dill and Cooper, 
who sold to St. Clair Southerland. F 

VALLEY BLADE, 1853-1864+ : Joined to the Prairie Beacon in 1864 
and known as 

PRAIRIE BEACON AND VALLEY BLADE, +1864 until after 1879+ : 
In 1869 it was edited and published by Dr. H. W. Davis and 
William Moore. In 1870 William and C. W. Moore were 
editors, and the first named was publisher. The name was later 
changed to Beacon, which is still published. McFarren Davis is 
editor. Daily since 1888. 

DEMOCRATIC STANDARD, 1860-1865+ : A Democratic paper estab- 
lished by McLaffy and Odell. Conducted for a time by J. F. 
Snow and Brother of Bloomington. It was bought ana named 

WABASH VALLEY TIMES, +1865-- (?) : By William D. Latshaw 
and John G. Provine. It was afterward sold to H. B. Bishop. 
In 1869 it was edited and published by Provine and Bishop. 

EDGAR COUNTY GAZETTE, 1873-1874+ : A Democratic paper estab- 
lished by James Shoaff. He died in 1874 and the paper was 

PARIS GAZETTE, +1874 to date: Continued by T. B. Shoaff and 
L. A. G. Shoaff, sons of James Shoaff, until 1880. It is now 
owned by J. D. and F. L. Shoaff. Democratic. 

REPUBLICAN, January, i877-i88i(?) : Established by J. M. Prior. 
In 1879 owned and edited by J. M. Sheets. Later joined with 
Prairie Beacon and Valley Blade as Republican Beacon. Dis- 

EDGAR COUNTY TIMES, 1874: Established by Philip Shutt, later 
edited by Frank Shutt; then Jacquith and Garner in 18 
when it was semi-weekly. Democratic. Sold to Gazette. 

EDGAR COUNTY REPORTER, 1879: Monthly. Discontinued. 


NORMAL HERALD, 1875-1876: S. W. Davis was editor and pub- 
lisher. Educational. "The only weekly in America devoted 
to phonetics and short-hand writing." 



NEWS, 1874-1879: W. H. Haskell was editor and publisher in 
1875-1879. Printed at the office of the Amboy Journal. U 

HERALD, November 23, i877~(after 1895): Established by R. H. 
Ruggles of Mendota. Mr. Ruggles was proprietor and 
editor. He was succeeded as editor by E. G. Cass and J. B. 
Gardner, in January, 1878. W. M. Geddes became editor 
in February, 1878, and bought the paper of Mr. Ruggles shortly 
after. He was still editor and proprietor in 1882. In 1884 San- 
ford and Lane were editors and publishers; C. A. Morris in 1891 
and 1895. Republican. Discontinued. 

LEE COUNTY TIMES, March 21, 1878 to date: Established by E. 
G. Cass and J. B. Gardner. Mr. Gardner retired in August 
1878. In 1881 Mr. Cass was still sole editor. Upon the death 
of Cass, M. L. Goodyear succeeded him and later was succeeded 
by O. W. Briggs ; he by E. G. Davis : and he by Ed. F. Guffin 
in February, 1905. Republican. 


FORD COUNTY UNION, 1864-1865+ : Established in 1864. Bought 
in 1865 by N. E. Stevens, who changed the name to 

RECORD, +1865 to date: Established and still published and edited 
by N. E. Stevens. 1 A daily edition was established September, 
1897. Republican in politics. Files in the office. Record also 
publishes an edition known as Loda Times, for Loda, Iroquois 
county ; C. E. Healy, local editor. 

FORD COUNTY LIBERAL, August, 1872-1874 : Established by Charles 
D. Sibley. Thomas Wolfe bought it in November. Wolfe and 
Dodd were editors and publishers in 1874. Burnea out in Oct- 
ober, 1874. Liberal and Greenback. 

FORD COUNTY BLADE, July-December, 1876: A Democratic 
paper starttd by Creed and Doxsey. 

FORD COUNTY NEWS, November, i877~January, 1878+ : A Repub- 
lican paper started by Holmes and Colvin. 

STANDARD, January, +1878-1879: Edited and published by Holmes 
and Colvin. Considered a continuation of the News, but was 
Greenback in politics. 

APPEAL, November, 187910 date: A paper established with Thomas 
Wolfe as editor and B. F. Hill publisher. J. C. Dunham bought 
it in 1880 and changed the name in 1881 to Eastern Illinois Reg- 
ister. J. W. Dunnan became editor and publisher in 1900. At 
first Greenback, Dunham made it Independent-Democratic. 

1 N E. Stevens has been active as a newspaper editor for fifty-seven years. 
Sit.ce the death of B. F. Shaw of the Dixon Telegraph, Mr. Stevens has the 
longest record of service of all Illinois editors. 


REAL ESTATE BULLETIN, 1870-1871: An advertising sheet issued 
by Kinnear and Earl for nearly two years. 


COUNTY NEWS, June, 1875-1895: Founded by William D. Perry 
to aid the county fair. Continued as a monthly newspaper 
and later (1881) called News and Central Recorder. Discon- 
tinued in 1895. 


INDEPENDENT, May, 1859-1860: Edited by J. E. Duncan; con- 
tinued for a little more than one year. Republican. Copies 
in the News office. 

ENTERPRISE, i872-i88o(?): A trade paper edited by Farwell and 
Pierce. Not mentioned in Ayer for 1881. Copies in the News 

NEWS, 1872 to date: Established by Colby Brothers. Now pub- 
lished by G. F. Colby. Republican. 


TAZEWELL TELEGRAPH, about 1837 : Listed by Peck in his Gazeteer 
for 1837. 

TAZEWELL REPORTER, 1840 (?): Established, edited and 
published by N. S. Trice. Whig. A 

ILLINOIS PALLADIUM, July, 1842 (?): Edited by Willis G. 

Barbour; Published by T. J. Pickett. A Henry Clay organ. F 

MIRROR, 1848-1854+ : Established by John S. Lawrence, who 
sold after about two months to John Smith, in October, 1848. 
He sold to Bernard Bailey in 1850, and with Adam Henderson 
bought it again in 1851. Smith sold to Merrill C. Young in the 
fall of 1854; Young consolidated the Mirror and Revielle in the 
weekly Plaindealer. Whig. AU 

REVEILLE, 1850-1854+ : A Democratic paper started by James 
Shoaff and E. S. Rogers. Sold to J. C. Thompson in 1851; to 
Merrill C. Young in the winter of 1853-1854. He consolidated 
it with the Mirror to form the 

PLAINDEALER, +1854-1856+: Published as an Independent paper 
by Young and Underwood until 1856, when it was bought by 
Thomas J. Pickett and named S 

TAZEWELL REGISTER, +1856-1873+ : Thomas J. Pickett conducted 
it as an Independent paper with Republican tendencies, until 
the spring of 1858, when John McDonald bought it and made 


it Democratic. In 1869 William T. Meades was editor and 
publisher. It was sold to W. T. Dowdall and J. D. Irwin, and 
became the 

TIMES, +1873 to date: Irwin soon became sole owner and in 1881 
established the Daily Times. In 1886 the papers became the 
property of A. W. Rodecker and F. Shurtleff, under the firm 
name of Times Publishing Company. They are now Demo- 
cratic papers under the editorship and ownership of Judge A. W. 

DER WACHTER AM ILLINOIS, 1852 : Established by L. Reitzenstine, 
and continued for six months. 

, 1854: A German paper established by Koeber and 
Lohman and sold to a Mr. Lugans. Lived but a short time. 

TAZEWELL COUNTY MIRROR, 1855-1860: A revival of the Mirror 
conducted by Thomas J. Pickett until 1860, when John Smith 
became its owner, discontinued it, and began the 

TAZEWELL COUNTY REPUBLICAN, 1860-1886: John Smith con- 
ducted the paper until 1862, when Hezekiah Naylor became the 
owner. He sold to W. W. Sellers, 1863-1872; after several 
changes it was bought by Mrs. Inez in 1886 and the Daily 
Post was established. J. B. Irwin was editor and manager at 
this time. The paper became the Post-Tribune in 1900 by con- 
solidation with the Tribune, established in 1895 by Mayron 
Corey. U 

PATRIOT, 1862. Established by Hezekiah Naylor ana O. White. 
Had a brief existence. Perhaps the date should be 1861. See 
Virginia, Cass County Independent. 

FREIE PRESSE, 1867-1868: An auxiliary to a paper in Peoria. It 
was started by Julius Myer Pefer ; later owned by a Mr. Luntz. 

INDEPENDENT, 1870: Established by Theodore Falk; sold to Henry 
Fuss. A German paper which had a brief existence. 

BULLETIN 1873-1876: Edited and published by William H. Bates. 
Became a daily in 1876. U 

HERALD, (?)-i875: Merged with the Republican in 1875 by 

D. W. Lusk. 

FREIE PRESSE, June, 1876 to date: The old Freie Presse was resur- 
rected by John W. Hoffman. After several changes in owner- 
ship the paper was bought in 1884 by A. Weiss, who still owns 
it (1907). 

LEGAL TENDER, December, 1877-1879: Issued by B. S. Heath 
and Company in the interest of the "Greenback Labor" party. 
Frank M. Castle and James Vogan acquired the property in 


July, 1878; Vogan withdrew in December; James and Herbert 
Whitfield bought it in May, 1879. Later discontinued. 


1836 : A Whig paper founded by Abraham S. Buxton and Henry 
Wolford. In the first few numbers the paper made a bid for 
popularity by advocating the removal of the state capital to 
Peoria. Before April, 1836, it was sold to J. S. Armstrong and 
Jacob D. Shewalter, who changed the name to A 

Jerome L. Marsh was employed to edit and conduct the paper. 
In 1.837 it was sold to S. H. Davis, who changed the name to 

Davis was editor. Its politics were Whig. Davis sold in 1842 
to Samuel and W. Henry Butler, who reduced the name 
to APHE 

REGISTER, +1842-1845+ : In 1845 tne Butlers sold to Thomas J. 
Pickett who took H. K. W. Davis as a partner for an unknown 
time, and changed the name to Monmouth F 

WEEKLY REGISTER, + 1 845-1 848( ?)+: Three years later a Mr. 
Woodcock was a partner of Pickett, and the two issued the 

DAILY REGISTER, + June-August, 1848: It was the first daily 
paper in Peoria. 

DEMOCRATIC PRESS, February, 20, 1840-1857: Edited by John S. 
Zieber, 1840-1846; Thomas Phillips, 1846-1849; Washington 
Cockle, 1849-1851; Enoch P. Sloan, 1851-1856; Mr. Corn- 
well for a short time and then George W. Raney until the estab- 
lishment was destroyed by fire in 1858. From 1853 to 1854 
there were a weekly and a tri-weekly issue; from 1854 to 1856, 
a weekly and a daily issue. Monmouth PAF 

GERRYMANDER, March-fall, 1843: Edited by S. DeWitt Drown. 
A campaign paper ridiculing the work of the legislature of 1842- 
1843 in dividing the State in such a way as to make but one Whig 
congressional district in seven. 

AMERICAN, July, 1845-1850: Established and published by James 
Kirkpatrick. First paper in Illinois to put the name of " Rough 
and Ready" at the head of its columns. 

NINETEENTH CENTURY, September- (?), 1848: Established 
by J. R. Watson and D. D. Irons as a National Reform paper. 
After a few months sold to James Kirkpatrick, who merged 
it with American. 

CHAMPION, 1849-1850: Issued daily by Pickett and Davis. The 
burning of the office and press ended the life of the paper. 


REPUBLICAN, June i, 1850-1857 : A Whig paper established by 
Thomas J. Pickett. Editors in succession were: Baily and 
Pickett; Pickett and Waite; Pickett and Samuel L. Coulter. 
Sold in 1856 to Samuel L. Coulter, and discontinued a year or 
two afterward. It was at first issued as a weekly, but beginning 
January 17, 1853, it was issued daily and weekly. 

VOICE OF THE PEOPLE, March 4, 1851 - (?): Established by 
Dr. J. W. Hitchcock. F 

ILLINOIS BANNER, February 18, 1852-1858, 1859+: The first 
German paper in Peoria; established by J. Wolf and A. Zotz. 
Wolf withdrew after four months, and Zotz continued the 
paper as a weekly, then a tri-weekly, and then a daily, 
until January 14, 1858, when he sold to Edward Rummel and 
a Mr. Kappis. Kappis withdrew after a year, and Rummel 
changed the paper's name to Deutsche Zeitung. Democratic. 
The Banner was revived for a short time in 1859 by William 
Geilhausen. SF 

DEUTSCHE ZEITUNG, +1859-1878: The paper became Republican 
under Rummel, who conducted it alone until the close of the war, 
when Captain Fresenius bought an interest. In 1869 Rummel 
became secretary of state and sold his interest to Fresenius, who 
sold on January i, 1871, to Rudolph Eichenburger. He con- 
tinued it until November 9, 1878, when he sold to the Demokrat. 


DAILY MORNING NEWS, May 26, 1852-1857+: Established by 
George W. Raney in opposition to the Democratic Press, and 
fought Douglas. In 1858 Raney bought the equipment of the 
defunct Press and, discontinuing the News, began the PF 

DEMOCRATIC UNION, +1857-1862: This paper, under George 
W. Raney, was the leading Democratic organ until September, 
1862, when upon Raney 's going to war, its publication ceased. 
Daily. PAF 

MEMENTO, August, 1854-1861, 1867-1870: A monthly publication 
devoted to literature and Odd- Fellowship. William Rounseville 
was editor and N. C. Nason publisher. It was discontinued in 
1 86 1, revived by Nason in April, 1867, and finally discontinued 
in May, 1870. C 

TRANSCRIPT, December 17, 1855-1898+ : The first number of the 
weekly Transcript appeared January i, 1856. Edited at first 
by William Rounseville and published by Rounseville and 
N. C. Nason. Soon it was transferred to Caleb Whittemore and 
Sanford Moon. After a short time it was bought by James G. 
Merrill, who sold in the fall of 1859 to Nathan C. Geer. Roun- 
seville had remained editor up to this time, and had supported 


Democracy. Geer assumed editorship and changed the politics 
of the paper to Republican. He sold in 1860 to Enoch Emery 
and A. Andrews. In 1865 Emery bought out Andrews and was 
sole owner until 1869, when it was transferred to the Peoria Tran- 
script Company. Emery was editor from 1860 until the end of 
1880, and made the Transcript one of the most influential polit- 
ical papers of the state. Through 1880 the paper was conducted 
by Emery and R. H. Whiting; Whiting was succeeded at the 
close of the year by Alexander Stone, who remained manager 
until 1892. In that period the paper was edited successively by 
Welker Given, William Hoyne, E. P. Brooks, William S. Brackett 
and R. M. Hanna. In March, 1893, a new Transcript company 
was organized; I. N. Garver was made manager, and Thomas 
R. Weddell editor. In 1898 the paper was merged in the Herald 
(established 1889), which has since that time been called Herald 
Transcript. Daily. Files (daily), i857-December, 1898 (weekly), 
February, i858-December, 1892, in the Peoria Public Library. 


ILLINOIS TEACHER, 1856-1873+: A monthly established as 
the organ of the Illinois Teachers' Association, with Charles 
E. Hovey as editor and N. C. Nason as publisher. Newton 
Bateman was editor in 1858. At the close of that year the publi- 
cation became independent of the association. It was published 
by Hill and Nason until 1860, and by Nason alone until 1873, 
when the publication was sold to the Schoolmaster, Normal, and 
a new name, Illinois Schoolmaster, resulted. SCHU 

CHRISTIAN SENTINEL, 1856-1858: A monthly magazine devoted to 
the interests of the "Christian" Church; issued by O. A. Bur- 
gess, J. N. Carman, and John Lindsey. It was in its third vol- 
ume when first published in Peoria, and was continued in 
Eureka after 1858. 

FILLMORE UNION, September 8-November, 1856: A campaign 
paper edited by a committee. F 

DEMOKRAT, August 18, 1860 to date: Established and edited by 
Alois Zotz, 1860-1864 5 Bernard Cremer, and Christian Pohlmann 
for a short time, then Bernard Cremer alone, October 24, 1864, 
to date. Published by B. Cremer and Brothers since January, 
1874. Files at the office. German daily. P 

MORNING MAIL, : Established by George W. Raney. 

Files in the Peoria Public Library, January, 1863- June, 1864. 
This paper was succeeded by P 

STAR, and 

POST, both short-lived adventures of George W. Raney, the exact 
dates of which are not known. 


NATIONAL DEMOCRAT, September, 1865-1 886(?) : Daily and weekly. 
W. T. Dowdall, editor and publisher. PHU 

TEMPERANCE MAGAZINE, July, 1867-- (?): Edited and pub- 
lished by Boyle and Franks. Monthly. S 

ADVERTISER, March, 1871-1878+ : An advertising sheet published 
by Elderkin and Bissell and distributed gratuitously. In 1873 
Elderkin and Chapman; in October, 1873, Chapman was suc- 
ceeded by Harry Reynolds, the paper was enlarged and a sub- 
scription price charged. Reynolds retired in 1875. In 1878 
the name was changed to 

SUN, + October, i878-after 1880: In January, 1880, R. E. Laurer 
entered the firm and the Sun Publishing Company was organ- 

EVENING REVIEW, i873-i884(?): Established by Sheldon and 
Baldwin. Bought by Thomas Cratty, who associated with him 
Leslie Robinson. In January, 1873, Dowdall of the Democrat 
and Enoch Emery of the Transcript bought the paper. But the 
staff changed printing offices and with Robert J. Burdette as 
editor, continued the paper until June, when Dowdall bought it 
again and continued it. Afterward discontinued. P 

WESTERN SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL, i874-i876(?) : Edited and pub- 
lished by L. O. Wilson and Mr. Morris. Monthly, UE 

SATURDAY EVENING CALL, April, i877-i886(?): Established by R. 
Henderson and Company (S. R. Henderson, J. D. Weaver, J. 
W. Clifton), editors and publishers in 1879. A "family" paper. 

EVENING JOURNAL, December i, 1877 to date: Established by 
E. F. Baldwin and Jacob B. Barnes. Edited by E. F. Baldwin 
until 1885. It then became the property of a stock company 
composed of Baldwin, Barnes, M. N. Snider and Charles Powell ; 
after a short time after some changes Barnes became chief owner, 
and was editor until about 1890. In 1900 the paper was bought 
by James P. Dawson, and Charles Carroll became editor. In 
1905 Henry M. Pindell was owner and Robert P. Hanna editor. 
Independent Democratic. C 

PHARMACEUTICAL NEWS, July, 1878-- (?) : Established by J. T. 
Skinner, who was succeeded by Dr. H. Steele. 

SONNTAGS-ZEITUNG, i878-i88o(?): Edited in 1879 by Adolph 
Zwanzig. Evidently short-lived, as it was not mentioned in 
Ayer in 1881. 

SONNE, April 17, 1879 to date: Established by L. P. Wolf, William 
J. Brus, and Joseph Wolfram. The Sunday edition, begun in 


1880, is called Sonntags-Glocke. In 1886 L. P. Wolf became 
editor and publisher, and has so continued. German daily and 

ducted by John A. Monger. 


EAGLE, 1877-1888: An advertising sheet mentioned in Ayerfor 1881. 
Established by James Barnhart. Files in possession of Mr. 


PARAGRAPH, i878-i88o(?): H. C. Cobb was editor and publisher. 


NINAWA GAZETTE, May 16, 1840-1841 : Established by Allen N. 
Ford and edited by G. W. Holley. A Harrison paper. Moved 
to Lacon. A 

BEACON LIGHT, afterwards the Junction Beacon, 1846-1848: Estab- 
lished by Nash and Elliott, published by Mead, Higgins and 
Boyle and later by T. W. Mead. F 

TELEGRAPH, 1848-1853+: Published by Holbrook and Underbill. 
Freesoil. In 1853 it was sold to J. F. and N. Linton and the 
name changed to F 

CHRONICLE, + 1853-1856 : For ten months of the life of the Chron- 
icle, Messrs. Linton published a daily. Ottawa 

DEMOCRAT, i85o-(?): Edited by Thomas W. Welch. 
RATTLESNAKE, 1855+ : Founded by Guy Hulett. Changed to 

LA SALLE COUNTY SENTINEL, + i855~after 1858: A Democratic 
paper published by J. L. McCormick and Guy Hulett; after- 
ward by J. F. Meginness. Faithfully supported Douglas. F 


HERALD, 1858-1884+ : Published by H. S. Beebe, 1858-1860. F. 
M. Sapp purchased it in 1860, in 1861 the materials of the defunct 
German paper, and in 1863 the materials of the collapsed Chron- 
icle. Mr. Sapp was sole editor, 1863-1870; Gallagher and Wil- 
liams, 1870-1876; W. B. Tapley, editor, Spencer Ellsworth, 
publisher, 1876-1884. 

NEWS, 1879-1884+ : Established as a semi- weekly by H. S. Corwin. 
In 1884 he bought the Herald and combined the two as Twin 
City News-Herald. A daily edition was started in 1886 called 


News-Herald, and the Twin City News-Herald was made a 
weekly. W. B. Tapley was editor of the combined papers. In 
1891 H. S. Corwin was editor. 


EXPRESS, 1854-1855+ : Edited by S. B. Bugger. Changed to 

MENARD INDEX, +1855-1863: Edited by H. L. Clay, 1855-1858; 
Hamilton and Brooks, 1858-1863. At first neutral as to politics, 
then friendly to Douglas, but finally became Republican, which 
greatly enraged the citizens. SAF 

FILLMORE BUGLE, 1856 : A campaign paper edited by William Glenn. 

MENARD COUNTY Axis, 1859-1867+: Democratic in politics; 
edited by C. Clay, 1859-1867. He sold it to a joint stock com- 
pany and its name was changed to 

DEMOCRAT, +1867- to date: Edited by M. B. Friend, 1867-1871; 
E. T. McElwain, 1871-1877; A. E. Mick (with S. S. Knoles as 
associate editor, 1878), 1877-- (?). In 1907 Wilkinson and 
Oustott were editors and publishers. 

MENARD REPUBLICAN, i868-i874( ?) : J. T. McNeely was editor and 
publisher; Bennett and Zane, 1872; W. S. Bennett, 1873; 
Bennett and Bryant, 1874. It had evidently suspended by 1875, 
as it was not mentioned in Rowell of that date. 

MENARD COUNTY TIMES, i873-i877(?) : Established by John 
Frank. In 1876 Frank and Parks became editors and publishers ; 
Francis M. Taylor was editor and proprietor in 1877. S 

OBSERVER, 1876 to date: Established by Cain and Parks, editors 
and publishers; A. N. Curry, 1882; W. R. Parks, 1884 + . In- 
dependent; Greenback in 1880. In 1905 it was classified as 
Republican, with L. F. Watson as editor. 

REPUBLICAN, i879~(after 1880): Martin and Davis were editors 
and publishers in 1880. 


HERALD, (?): Listed in Rowell for 1869 as edited and published 
by Harper and Lane. This is one of John S. Harper's numer- 
ous ephemeral publications. It is not remembered by any old 
inhabitants of the village. Printed at the office of the Homer 


PERRY COUNTY TIMES, i856-(?): Edited by William Ewing. 

PERRY COUNTY BANNER, 1869-1871: Edited and published by 
John A. Wall and D. B. Van Syckel. Independent. In 1870 
Van Syckel's interest was purchased by E. H. Lemon, Esquire. 


Lemon made it Republican. In 1871 W. K. Murphy and John 
Boyd were editors. In four months it was sold to Messrs. Kim- 
ball and Taylor who removed the office to DuQuoin. (See Du- 
Quoin Republican.} 

INDEPENDENT, 1875-1878+ : John A. Wall was editor and pro- 
prietor. In 1878 the office passed into the hands of C. E. H. 
Willoughby, who changed the name to U 

PERRY COUNTY DEMOCRAT, + 1878 to date : It passed from C. E. H. 
Willoughby to J. J. Sargeant and Thomas K. Willoughby. In 
1880 Sargeant bought out Willoughby's interest. In 1881 pub- 
lication was suspended. In a month the office was purchased 
by W. A. Penny. J. J. Penny, a brother, became a partner, and 
took editorial charge. It was sold to Roy Alden in 1892, and to 
Orah E. Meyer in 1903. In 1906 Joseph E. Brey was editor, and 
on March i, 1907, T. L. Baxter became publisher. He con- 
tinues so at the present time. Perry County seems to have been 
dropped from the title at some time after 1881. 

PERRY COUNTY SIGNAL, 1878-1880: Established by John A. Wall 
and L. D. Murphy. In 1879 Wall withdrew, and after a short 
time the paper was suspended. Republican. 


ADVERTISER, 1876 to date: A Republican paper edited and pub- 
lished by Henry Allnut. 


SUCKER AND FARMERS' RECORD, June i, 1842-1846: Edited by M. 
J. Noyes and I. B. Price. Whig. Issued weekly. Suc- 
ceeded by A 

PIKE COUNTY FREE PRESS, April 13, 1846-1858+ : Edited first 
by Z. N. Garbutt, then by Z. N. Garbutt and M. H. Abbott; 
later by John G. Nicolay and Mr. Parks; afterward by Mr. 
Nicolay alone; in 1857 by J. W. and F. M. Cunningham. Whig; 
under Garbutt was against all secret societies; under John G. 
Nicolay it was one of the papers to endorse the call to anti- 
Nebraska editors that brought about the organizing of the 
Republican party in Illinois. It was issued at Pittsfield and 
Griggsville. Became the UAF 

PIKE COUNTY JOURNAL, 1858-1863+ : Edited by D. B. Bush, Jr. 
Mr. Bush sold to Robert McKee. In 1863 Messrs. McKee and 
William A. Grimshaw named it 

OLD FLAG, +1863 to date: Edited by Robert H. Creswell, pub- 
lished by James Creswell, 1871-1873; James Gallagher was 
editor, Creswell and Gallagher, publishers, 1874-1879. James 


Gallagher and Son were publishers in 1882; Turner Brothers, 
1884-1891. Name changed to Pike County Republican in 1894. 
Burr H. Swan is editor and publisher at present. Republican. 

PIKE COUNTY SENTINEL, 1845-1849+ : Edited by T. J. Trumbull, 
supported by G. W. Smith. Democratic. In 1849 John S. 
Roberts purchased it and changed it to 

PIKE COUNTY UNION, +1849-1857+: Roberts was editor, 1849- 
1851 ; M. H. Abbott, 1851-1857. A file in the Library of Con- 
gress, May 2, i855-June 9, 1856, shows that the Pike County 
Union was printed at Griggsville during that period and dated 
for Griggsville and Pittsfield. Abbott changed it to A 

PIKE COUNTY DEMOCRAT, +1857 to date: Edited by Brown and 
Frazier; Frazier and McGinnis; Robert F. Frazier. In 1865 
it became the property of J. M. Bush, whose sons, W. C. Bush 
and J. M. Bush, became owners, editors and publishers in 
January, 1904. The senior J. M. Bush is a brother of D. B. 
Bush of the Journal. Democratic. Files in the office. E 


WATCH TOWER, 1875 : A "family newspaper" edited and published 
by Mary A. Tounshendeau. It was discontinued when the Echo 
was established. Files owned by G. W. Flagg, Plainfield. 

ECHO, 1876-1877: Established as a "family newspaper" by H. A. 
Tounshendeau. In was absorbed in 1877 by the Joliet confed- 
eration of Phoenixes. In its place Tounshendeau established 

APEX, 1877: H. A. Tounshendeau was editor. Independent. 

PHOENIX, 1877: J. H. Ferriss was editor; McDonald, Ferriss 
and Company publishers. Devoted to farmers' interests. 


TRUE LATTER DAY SAINTS' HERALD, i86o-(after 1881) : An organ 
of the Latter Day Saints. It was edited in 1869 by Joseph 
Smith and Henry A. Stebbins, and published by the Board of 
Publication of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter 
Day Saints. Semi-monthly. S 

MIRROR, i864~(after 1884): A Republican paper edited in 1869, 
and in 1879, by John R. Marshall; E. J. Bennett, 1882; E. I. 
Bennett, editor, J. R. Marshall, proprietor, 1884. Printed at 
the office of the Yorkville Kendall County Record. 

ZION'S HOPE, i869~(after 1881) : Another organ of the Latter Day 
Saints, with the same editors and publishers, in 1869, as of Saints' 
Herald. Semi-monthly. 

NEWS, 1872 to date : Established by R. M. and Collie D. M. Springer, 
editors and publishers. J. M. Marley, editor, 1880; Marley 


and Cook, 1882; F. E. Marley, 1884. By 1881 the name had 
been changed to Kendall County News. Edited and published 
in 1907 by George S. Faxon. 


LOCOMOTIVE, 1857-1858: Published by a company and at first 

edited by Thomas Gregg. A. W. Hahn was editor in 1858. F 
DOLLAR MONTHLY, May, 1873- January, 1876+ : Conducted by 

Thomas Gregg. Changed to 
RURAL MESSENGER, + January, i876-April, 1877: Edited and 

published by Thomas Gregg. A sixteen page paper "devoted 

to literary and rural affairs." 
ADVOCATE, January, i877~April, 1879: Conducted by E. A. Hall 

until August, 1878, when he sold to W. A. Post and Jesse W. 

Bell, Jr. Post as editor, was succeeded by W. S. Hendricks. 
PHONOGRAPH, June, i879~(after 1882) : Begun as a Democratic 

paper by Charles N. Bassett. Changed to a neutral. 


SENTINEL, October-December, 1856: A Democratic paper started 
by F. O. Austin and continued for about three months. No 
copy known to be in existence. 

CHAMPION OF FREEDOM, January, 1857 : Established by John Mar- 
cellus Perkins. Only a few numbers were issued. J. W. Clin- 
ton owns copies of one or two. The paper was probably printed 
at the office of the Sentinel or the Transcript. 

TRANSCRIPT, June, i857-April, 1858: Edited by Charles Meigs, 
Jr., for a joint stock company composed of Zenas Aplington, 
W. W. Burns, L. W. Warren, Lemuel Newton Barber, and S. 

C. Treat. In May, 1858, the material was purchased by 
Henry R. Boss, proprietor of the Advertiser. F 

OGLE COUNTY BANNER, April 14, 1858-1860: A Democratic paper 
issued by R. P. Redfield for a joint stock company. In 1859 
Mr. Redfield purchased the office, enlarged the paper and passed 
it over to J. M. Williams, who passed it to George D. Reed. 
Redfield, Williams, J. H. More, and George D. Reed were 
editors for short periods. J. W. Clinton of Polo has a few 

ADVERTISER, May 6, 1858-1863+ : Established by Henry R. Boss, 
using the material of the Transcript. Boss sold in December, 
1860, to Morton D. Swift. He and J. D. Dopf merged in this 
paper the Mt. Morris Press. Dopf withdrew in March, 1861 
and Swift enlisted in April, whereupon the paper passed to J. 

D. Campbell and James W. Carpenter, lawyers, who issued the 


paper when they could get printers. Carpenter died in 1862. 
Swift returned in 1863, and he and Campbell changed the name 

POLO PRESS, + March, 1863-1866+: Campbell and Swift con- 
ducted the paper until February, 1865, when Daniel Scott and 
M. V. Satzman bought it. Scott soon gave way to Swift. 
August i, 1865, John W. Clinton bought the paper, and in 1866 
changed the name to 

OGLE COUNTY PRESS, +1866-1901: J. W. Clinton was editor 
publisher and owner until July i, 1901, when he sold to A. T. 
Cowan, who changed the name to Tri-County Press and has con- 
tinued its publication. Mr. Clinton has files of the Advertiser 
and the Press. 

FREE DEMOCRAT, 1860: Edited by a Mr. Johnson through the cam- 

THE CHURCH, 1868-1870: Edited by Dr. J. C. Allahan. Devoted 
to the fighting of church organizations. It was published "as 
often as God furnished the means," but it was not published very 

ADVERTISER, 1869-1870: An advertising sheet issued by J. W. 

POULTRY ARGUS, 1874-1877: Established by Drs. C. H. Kenegy 
and M. L. Wolff; Dr. Wolff retired in five months. In six 
months Dr. Kenegy sold out to D. D. L. Miller and J. W. Clin- 
ton, who continued publication under the firm name of Miller 
and Clinton until 1876, when J. W. Clinton became publisher, 
D. L. Miller still acting as editor. It was first printed in Free- 
port, but later in the office of the Ogle County Press, until 1877, 
when it was sold and removed from the state. 

CHRISTIAN RADICAL, 1875-1882: A semi-monthly publication of 
the United Brethren in Christ; organ of the Rock River Con- 
ference. Continued six and one-half years. Rev. Parker Hur- 
less was editor. U 

ADVERTISER, 1877: Mentioned in Rowell for 1879 with George W. 
McAtee as editor and publisher. 


LIVINGSTON COUNTY NEWS, 1855-1 857(?) : Edited by J. S. France; 
Mr. France passed its publication to Philip Cook and M. A. 
Renoe ; Cook soon sold to Mr. Jones ; Renoe and Jones soon 
sold to Mr. Albee and shortly its publication ceased. Early 
copies are in the possession of Jacob Streamer, Pontiac. It 
was Republican in politics. F 


SENTINEL, 1857 to date: Edited by Cook and Gagan, 1857-1863. 
They sold it to M. E. Collins, he to Stout and Decker, they 
to W. F. Denslow, he to James Stout. It was destroyed by fire 
in 1866. In 1869 Mr. Stout sold to Jones and Renoe, who 
were publishing the Free Press. They consolidated the papers 
under the name of Sentinel and Press. H. C. Jones was pro- 
prietor, 1873-1875, and he changed the name back to Sentinel. 
F. L. Alles edited it, 1875-1884; Lowry and Clark, 1884-1895; 
H. J. Clark, 1895-1897. C. C. Strawn was editor in 1907. 
Republican. UEF 

FREE PRESS, 1867 (?) : A Republican paper edited in 1869 by 

H. C. Jones and A. W. Kellogg, and published by Jones and 
Renoe. Not mentioned in 1879. 

LIVINGSTON COUNTY DEMOCRAT, i868-i87i(?): A Democratic 
paper edited in 1869 by Wittan and Organ; by T. H. Organ, 

FREE TRADER, 1870-1907: A Greenback paper edited by E. M- 
Johnson and published by Johnson and staff in 1879. At some 
time between 1882 and 1884 it became Free Trader and Observer. 
In 1907 it was edited and published by Johnson and Renoe. In 
the same year it was sold to C. R. Bruer and discontinued. 


and published in 1879 by J. G. Ford. It seems to have disap- 
peared before 1881. 

HERALD, 1870: A short-lived Republican paper issued by J. H. 


TIMES, i86i(?): Listed, without details, in Kenney's American 

Newspaper Directory for 1861. 
WEEKLY, 1877: Published by H. L. Barter. Independent. 


CHRONICLE, 1857-1858: Edited and published by R. W. Seaton. F 

PRAIRIE CHIEF, i858-few weeks: Edited ly R. W. Seaton, who 
published it in the interest of the Good Templars. 

GAZETTE, 1869 (?): Established by Cheesebro and Harsh- 

berger. Monthly. 

HERALD, 1869 to date : Established by Charles W. Taylor and edited 
and published by him to 1881. This is practically the same 
Herald which is published in Prairie City at present under that 
name. It was called the Bugle for two years, 1881 to 1883, and 
then changed back to Herald. Files, 1869 to 1879, and 1883 to 
1908 are in the possession of L. M. Hamilton. 



BUREAU ADVOCATE, 1847-1851+ : Published by Ebenezer Higgins 
until 1848. The editorial page was divided into three depart- 
ments two columns each and was Whig, Democrat, and 
Liberty in the respective departments. The first department 
was called "Whig Advocate," and was edited by a "Whig Com- 
mittee"; the second was "Democratic Advocate," and was 
edited by a "Democratic Committee," and the third was "Lib- 
erty Advocate," and was edited by a "Liberty Committee." In 
1847 the Advocate quoted an editorial from the New York Post 
"furiously lashing" protection and banks. John H. Bryant 
was a brother of William Cullen Bryant of the Post. In August, 
1848, it became a Free Soil organ. In the same year B. F. Ham- 
mond and T. W. Welsh bought out Mr. Higgins, and John H. 
Bryant became editor. It soon changed to the hands of Bryant 
and Dean. In 1851 the name was changed to the F 

POST, +1851 (?)+ Firm name was Coates, Kinney, and 

B. Clark Lundy. Editors: Hooper Warren for a short time 
in 1851 ; Justin H. Olds, 1851-1854; Charles Faxon, 1854-1858. 
Republican. For a time, after 1854, the name was changed to F 

PRINCETONIAN, H (?)-i858+: It was renamed in 1858 

BUREAU COUNTY REPUBLICAN, +1858 to date: Published by Rhue 
and Hewitt and later by Bryant and Hewitt to 1861, during 
which time it was edited by John H. Bryant. Mr. Bryant had 
sole charge, 1861-1863; J onn W. Bailey, 1863-1872; Mr. 
Bailey and L. J. Colton, 1872-1874; Mr. Bailey and Charles 
P. Bascom, 1874 to 1886; J. W. Bailey and son, H. U. Bailey, 
1886-1903; H. U= Bailey, 1903 to date. Bryant was a brother 
of William Cullen Bryant of the New York Evening Post, and 
shared his distinguished brother's views against slavery and a 
protective tariff. There is a complete file of the Republican 
with the present publishers. F 

BUREAU COUNTY HERALD, 1848: Established by Philip Payne as a 
Democratic organ. Short-lived. 

YEOMAN OF THE PRAIRIE LAND, i85i-(?): Conducted by Dr. S. 
Allen Paddock. 

BUREAU COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1856-1863+ : Edited by C. N. Pine, 
1856-1858; Eckles and Kyles, with Eckles as editor, 1858; 
Eckles and Gibbons, 1858; W. H. Messenkop (with a short in- 
termission in which C. J. Peckham controlled it), 1858-1863. 
Changed to 

BUREAU COUNTY PATRIOT, +1863-1871+: A Demo cr <*'-^ ^-j^ 
run by C. L. and J. Smith. Changed to 


BUREAU COUNTY HERALD, +1871-1876: Run by C. N. Whitney. 
Sold at sheriff's sale, 1876. 

BUREAU COUNTY TRIBUNE, 1872 to date: Established by W. H. 
Messenkop, who published it in support of Horace Greeley, until 
December, when he sold it to Smith and Winship. In July, 
1873, Mr. Winship sold to E. K. Mercer, and Smith and Mercer 
published the paper until October. 1875, when Smith sold his 
interest to E. F. Doran; he sold in 1876 to C. L. Smith. Mercer 
and Smith edited and published the Tribune until 1881, when 
Smith retired. The paper is still conducted by E. K. Mercer. 
Bound files to 1881 in Bureau county Court House; since 1881 
in the office. 

REPERTORY, 1874-1876: W. G. Reeve was editor and publisher. 


CITIZEN, 1868: Established by G. T. Gillman, and continued six 
months. According to Rowell for 1869, J. W.. Wolfe and H. 
Casson, Jr., were editors and publishers in 1869, when the paper 
was printed at the office of the Chillicothe Citizen. 

TIMES, July-December, 1874: Established by C. A. Pratt and con- 
tinued four months. 

INDEPENDENT, March 10, 1877 to date: Of this paper and its suc- 
cessor, Telephone, the editorial genealogy is: J. E. Knapp, 
March-September, 1877; I. E. Corbett, then Corbett and H. 
E. Charles, October, 1877-1878 ; Corbett and P. C. Hull, October 
1878-1879; J. E. Charles, publisher, P. C. Hull editor, October, 
1879-- (?); J. S. Barnum, B. J. Beardsley, Beardsley Brothers, 
Addison A. Dart, Harry D. Fast, and K. C. Andrews, Addison 
A. Dart. 


SPIKE, 1871-- (?): A. D. Hill was editor and publisher, 1871-1873 ; 
A. D. Hill editor, Hill and Wilson publishers, 1874; A. D. Hill, 
1875-1877; C. G. Glenn, 1880-1882; A. D. Hill, 1884; Mrs. 
S. M. Green, editor, H. P. and S. M. Green publishers, 1891; 
A. B. Case editor, Case and Ellison publishers, 1895. Repub- 
lican, then neutral, then Republican. 


ILLINOIS BOUNTY LAND REGISTER, April 17, 1835-1839+ : Estab- 
lished by C. M. Woods and Company. Afterward edited by 
Richard M. Young. Changed to AH 

ARGUS, +1839-1841+ : Edited by John H. Pettit. Changed to A 


HERALD, +1841 to date: In 1851 P. Cleveland and Company 
were proprietors. Brooks and Cadogan were publishers in 
1862; J. W. Singleton and Austin Brooks in 1863. Austin 
Brooks was editor in 1869, and J. P. Cadogan. publisher. Cad- 
ogan and Gardner were publishers, 1875-1880. Daily and tri- 
weekly editions since 1849. Democratic in politics. Volume 
4 was called Herald: Adams, Brown and Schuyler County 
Advertiser. As late as 1850 the name was Herald and Argus. 


WHIG, May 5, 1838 to date: It was established with N. Bushnell 
and A. Johnston as editors and H. V. Sullivan as publisher. 
From August 18, 1838, to 1852, S. M. Bartlett was editor with 
Mr. Sullivan still publisher. It was edited by John F. Morton, 
1852-- , and conducted under the firm name of Morton and 
Sullivan, 1852-1854; Morton and Young, 1854-1855; Morton, 
Ralston, and Company, 1855-1857. In 1858 the Quincy Repub- 
lican was merged in the Whig, and the title became, and remained 
for several years, Whig Republican; the paper was then run by 
Mr. Morton and F. A. Dallam, the former proprietor of the 
Republican. In the fall of 1859 Mr. Morton became sole pro- 
prietor, and in the spring of 1860 he sold to James J. Langdon, 
who was connected with it until 1868, when it passed into the 
hands of Bailhache and Phillips with Paul Selby as editor, 1868- 
1869; John Tillson, 1869-1871. In 1871 Mr. Selby became 
editor again. Several changes occurred after this as to pro- 
prietors and editors until 1878, when C. A. and D. F. Wilcox 
became owners and publishers. In 1879 the firm name was 
Daniel Wilcox and Sons. From October 23, 1845, to April 16. 
1846, the paper was issued tri- weekly. The first number of the 
daily appeared March 22, 1852, since which date there have been 
a daily and a weekly issue. It was a Whig organ until 1856, when 
it took an active part in forming, and became a representative 
of the Republican organization. There is a complete file in the 
Whig office. APDSEF 

OLD STATESMAN, July 4-November, 1840: A Harrison campaign 
paper. A 

BEOBACHTER, i845(?)- ~~ : Moved to Quincy from Belleville 
by Bartholomew Hauck. It was succeeded by 

STERN DBS WESTENS, April 10, i846-December, 1848: Conducted 
by Bartholomew Hauck, who returned to Belleville in 1848 to 
establish the Zeitung. 

DAILY MORNING COURIER, September 12, 1845 (?): "In no 

way connected with politics." R. B. Wallace and George F. 
Wiehr were editors and proprietors. H 


TRIBUNE AND FREE SOIL BANNER, September 13, 1848--- (?): 
A campaign paper advocating "free soil, free speech, free labor, 
and free men"; disclaiming affiliation with Whigs, Democrats, 
or Abolitionists, and supporting Van Buren and Charles Francis 
Adams. It was edited by an association consisting of Samuel 
Willard, Thomas Pope, Timothy Rogers, Allen Comstock, Lucius 
Kingman, and Charles B. Lawrence, and issued from the office 
of C. M. Woods. 

WOCHENBLATT, January, 1850-1853+: Owned and edited by 
George Linz. German. Democratic. Changed to 

ILLINOIS COURIER, +1853-1861: Conducted by George Linz until 
he entered the army at the beginning of the war. German, 
with Whig symydthies. 

DAILY JOURNAL, i85i(?)- (?): A Democratic paper that was 
being published in 1851 by P. Cleveland and Company of the 

TRIBUNE, 1852-1874+: Gustav Adolph Rosier was editor, 1852- 
1855; Edward C. Winter ana William H. Pieper, 1855-1857. 
Pieper withdrew in 1857, and in 1858 Ernst Schierenberg 
acquired an interest and became editor. For a year after 
Rosler's death in 1855, the paper was known as the Quincy 
Journal, but was again changed back to Tribune. In 1861 Karl 
Rotteck bought the paper and, continuing the weekly as Tribune, 
changed the daily to Union. In 1865 Rotteck sold to Karl 
Petri, who in turn sold, December, 1866, to T. M. Rogers. In 
1869, under Mr. Rogers as publisher, Tribune was a daily, issu- 
ing a weekly edition under the name of Rural Weal and Weekly 
Journal. In 1870, Louis Korth was editor. Rogers sold in 
the spring of 1874 to C. H. Henrici. In November, 1874, the 
Tribune, was consolidated with Westliche to form Ger- 
mania. German daily and weekly published by a stock com- 
pany which was organized in 1852, to publish a Whig paper. 
It became Republican in 1856. F 

JOURNAL, 1855- (?) : For one or two years, under Edward C. 
Winter and William H. Pieper the Tribune was published under 
this name. 

UNION, 1861-1865 : The daily edition of the Tribune was published 
under this name while Karl Rotteck was proprietor. 

RURAL WEST AND WEEKLY JOURNAL, i869(?): A weekly edition 
of the Tribune, which was daily in 1869. 

REPUBLICAN. January, 1857-1858: Published by F. A. Dallam. 
Daily. Joined to the Illinois Courier (see above). 


DAILY DEMOCRAT, September, 1858 (?): Edited by W. H. Car- 

lin; published by Geiger, Gardner and White. Democratic 
in politics. 

DAILY SKIRMISHER, October, 1864: A daily published fora short 
time in the interest of the western Illinois Sanitary Fair. H 

DEMOKRAT, i865( ?)+(?): Established by George Linz upon his 
return from the war, and Robert Voeth. Later they changed 
the name to 

VOLKSBLATT, + i866(?) (?): Which was suspended after a 

year or two. 

ERZ-DRUIDE, 1866-1880+ : Official organ of the United Ancient 
Order of Druids. Karl Petri was editor. He sold in 1880 to 
Henry Freudenthal, of Albany, New York. Monthly. L 

CHURCH REPORTER, 1867 to date (1869) : In 1869 E. P. Balshe 
was editor and proprietor. Monthly. 

EVENING JOURNAL, 1867-1870: T. M. Rogers, proprietor and 
manager. He and A. H. Lacy were editors in 1870. Inde- 
pendent in politics. Continued about four years. 

WESTERN AGRICULTURIST, 1868-1889+ : Established at Quincy. 
Edited and published by T. Butterworth until 1889, when an 
incorporated company, Western Agriculturist Company, became 
publishers. Changed to Western Agriculturist and Live Stock 
Journal, September, 1889. Later it was dated from Quincy 
and Chicago, and it is still published from both places. T. 
Butterworth is still editor. January, 1901, title changed to Live 
Stock Journal, with main office in Chicago. Monthly; later, 
weekly. CUH 

EVENING CALL, 1870-1875: Thomas J. Heirs, John Russell, an 
S. D. Rich, were editors at various times. 

GOOD TEMPLAR'S MESSAGE, 1871-1874+ : J. K. Van Doom, was 
editor, Good Templar Printing Company, publishers. A tem- 
perance paper issued at irregular intervals. Moved to Bloom- 

COMMERCIAL REVIEW, 1872 to date (1882) : Established by Addison 
L. Langdon, who was still editor and publisher in 1882. Busi- 
ness and social. Independent in politics. U 

GOSPEL ECHO AND CHRISTIAN, 1872-1873: A religious paper. 
J. H. Garrison was managing editor and publisher. After two 
years removed to St. Louis. 

WESTLICHE PRESSE, August n-November 7, 1874+: German. 
Published by a stock company with Karl Petri as business man- 
ager. United with the Tribune, November, 1874, to form the 


TAGBLATT DER GERMANIA, + November 9. 1874 to date: Consoli- 
dation of Westliche Presse and Tribune. Published by Ger- 
mania Publishing Company. Edited by George C. Hoffman, 
1874- January, 1888; by Henry Bornman, January, 1888, to 
date. Denied having party affiliation, but supported Cleveland 
in 1884. German, daily and weekly. 

DRUIDIC RECORD, 1876: Edited and published by the Druids 
Publishing Company. Monthly. 

NEWS, 1877 to date (1884) : News Company, editors and pub- 
lishers. John L. Frost was editor and publisher in 1884. Daily. 
Independent. H 

ENTERPRISE, 1878 to date: Established by H. H. Reckmeyer, who 
is the present editor and proprietor. Complete files are at the 
Public Library since its establishment in Quincy. P 

POST, 1879 to date (1882) : W. A. Post was editor and publisher. 

MODERN ARGO, March, 1879-- (?): Moved to Quincy in 1879 
from Columbus, Ohio; published by A. H. Dooley; George N. 
Loomis, 1882; Aten and Musselman, 1884. Not political. 

TIMES, ( ?) : Established ay Austin Brooks after he left the Herald. 
After a year or two removed to Hannibal and soon discontinued. 

LEDGER, - (?)-- (?): Published by D. G. Williams as an 
advertising medium. 

MORNING NEWS, (?)- (?): Co-operative publication by 

Griffin Frost, Henry Wilson, John Shield, and James H. Wallin. 
Continued one month. 


TIMES, 1875-1882: The Minonk Blade was printing in 1881 an 
edition for Ransom under this name. Republican. 


NEWS, i874-June, 1878+ : Established and edited by Gray 
Brothers. After four months it was sold to Messrs. Bullock, 
Cross and Gifford. Issued in interests of the Havana, Rantoul 
and Eastern Railroad. In five months Messrs. Bullock and 
Cross purchased Gifford's share, and in 1875 Bullock became sole 
proprietor. Republican. In June, 1878, it was consolidated 
with the 

JOURNAL, 1875-1878+ : H. W. Gulick was proprietor, F. E. Pinker- 
ton, editor. Represented views of those opposed to Havana, 
Rantoul and Eastern Railroad. In 1878 consolidated with the 
News to form the U 


RANTOULIAN, +1878-1880+ : H. E. Bullock and F. E. Pinkerton, 
editors and proprietors. In 1880 Pinkerton secured Bullock's 
interest and changed the name of the paper to 

PRESS, +1880 to date : In 1893 O. L. Downey, who had bought half 
of Pinkerton 's interest, leased the other half and continued pub- 
lishing the paper under his name for one year, when Pinkerton 
again took control. In 1895 he sold to F. and R. Cross and C. 
B. E. Pinkerton. In 1900 Messrs. J. C. Weir and Fred Collison 
purchased the paper, and in the fall of 1901 J. L. Hardesty of 
Bloomington purchased a one-third interest and became manager. 
In January 1906, R. L. Conn purchased Hardesty 's interest and 
remained as editor and manager until January, 1907, when he 
sold to A. O. McDowell. The present publishers are Weir and 
McDowell. Republican. Files destroyed by fire in 1901. 


BULLETIN, 1876-1884: Established by Burner and Butler and was 
published by them until 1881, when it was sold to Bonham and 
McCormick. The latter sold his interest to F. M. Bonham in 
1882. The plant was removed in August, 1884. Democratic. 

NEWS, ( ?) : Published irregularly for about two years by J. S. 

Nevins. Republican. 

MECNOPHONE, 1879: Published by W. L. Henderson for about 
three months. Republican. 


REPORTER, 1877 : Established by T. M. Smedley as a semi-monthly. 
Continued about six months. "Devoted to poetry, light liter- 
ature, general and home news." 


EGYPTIAN, 1868: Established by John and William Brickey, in 

charge of Peter W. Baker. Short-lived. 

, 1868: A German paper, established by John and 

William Brickey, and in charge of Anton Helmich. Short-lived. 
COURIER, 1872 : Established by Albert L. Krepps; died after three 

COURIER, 1876: Edited by Dejournette and Brewer. Democratic. 

Suspended after sixteen numbers. 
COURIER, 1877 to date: Edited and published by Everett H. Elliff. 

Democratic. In 1879 the office was leased to H. C. Hinckley 

for one year. In five months Mr. Elliff purchased the lease from 

Mr. Hinckley and moved the office to Columbia, Monroe county. 

The same day Mr. Hinckley bought the Review office and con- 


tinued to publish the Courier until 1882. He then sold to Miss 
T. A. McDonough and her brother, T. J. McDonough, became 
editor. McDonough sold to John H. Lindsey, who leased to 
Sprigg and Lindsey. They turned the office over to William 
Armour in 1885, and he to Charles D. Wassell, who changed the 
name to Torpedo. After total destruction by cyclone, several 
changes in ownership, and a change of name to Democrat, and 
back to Courier, E. G. Matlack sold in 1899 to Guy Seeley. 
Seeley died in March, 1909, and the office was sold to Young 
and Parrott. 

REVIEW, 1879: Established by William H. Toy. After a few 
months he closed the office and soon afterward sold to Mr. 
Hinckley as stated above. 


INDEX, 1879^0 date (1882): Established by G. L. Watson. After 
two years sold to M. R. Bain, who changed its name to the 
Pantograph. In 1881 it was bought by S. W. Zeller, then by his 
son, J. R. Zeller, who renamed it the Visitor. Later sold to 
Charles May, who was conducting it in 1882. 


GAZETTE, 1876 to date : Started by B. B. Begun. In a few months 
George S. Utter became editor. July, 1876, Mr. Begun died. 
In 1879, S. F. Bennett and G. S. Utter were editors, G. S. Utter, 
publisher. The same year Mr. John E. Nethercut, of Rockford, 
purchased the paper. Holmes and Wright were editors and 
publishers in 1891-1895. Republican. 


PHOENIX, 1856-1858: Edited by M. L. McCord, who in 1858 re- 
moved his establishment to Centraliaand published Rural Press. 
MOUDY'S DEMOCRAT, 1871-1872: Established by J. D. Moudy, and 
published by him until his death in 1872. Democratic. 


GAZETTE, May, i87i-(?): Conducted by Enos and Company. A 
suburban paper, published on the first Saturday of each month. 


GAZETTE, 1874- (?): Riverton Printing and Publishing Com- 
pany were editors and publishers; J. W. Hunt was business 

NEWS, 1877 : John J. Smith was editor and publisher. Indepen- 



NEWS, 1875 to date (1881): In 1879 M. L. Mock was editor and 
publisher. Issued from the office of the Minonk Blade. 


ADVOCATE, 1874-1875: Edited and published by Thomas J. Hors- 


GAZETTE, 1857-1858: Established and edited by George W. Harper. 
Favored the Douglas wing of the Democratic party and was the 
first political paper issued in the county. Discontinued after six 
months. File lost by fire. 

CRAWFORD COUNTY BULLETIN, July, 1860-1862: Established as a 
Democratic paper, edited by Horace P. Mumford. When the 
war broke out the paper strongly advocated the prosecution of 
the war for the preservation of the Union. Mumford went to 
war, leaving the paper in charge of his brother, W. D. Mumford, 
and N. T. Adams. The paper was discontinued in 1862. It 
was revived later for about six months by Charles Whaley. 

MONITOR, 1862: Published for about six months by E. Logan. 

CONSTITUTION, October, 1863 to date (1903) : John Talbot bought 
the Bulletin equipment and conducted the Constitution as a 
Democratic paper. He was editor, except for a short time, till 
1872, when his sons, Richard and Percy Talbot, assumed charge ; 
Richard Talbot and Price, 1880-1885 ; J- H. Fulton, 1885-1887 ; 
Fulton and Hiser, 1887-1892; Price and Cole, 1892-1895; J. S. 

Abbott, 1895-1903; F. W. Lewis, 1903 (?). Democratic. 


ARGUS, December, 1863 to date: Established by George W. 
Harper, who has been in control ever since, except for a brief 
interruption. Republican. 

CRAWFORD DEMOCRAT, May (?), 1879: Ira Lutes conducted 

the Democrat for about six months (one year?), when he moved 
the equipment to Kansas. 


REGISTER, 1863 to date: From 1863 until about 1889 Elbridge L. 
Otis was editor and publisher; H. C. Paddock till 1891 ; G. W. 
Dicus, iSgi-May, 1907; E. I. Neff, May, 1907 to date. Re- 
publican. U 

INDEPENDENT, 1872: Edward E. Richie was editor and publisher. 


NATIONAL GREENBACKER, 1878 to date (1879) : Norman Rapalee 
was editor and publisher. Discontinued after a few years. 

TELEPHONE, 1879 to date (1881): John M. King was editor and 
publisher. Greenback. Discontinued after a short time. 


PROGRESS, 1870-1877: Established by Messrs. W. H. Cadwell and 
W. H. Tuttle. Republican. U 

WHITESIDE TIMES, 1876-1878: Moved from Morrison by A. J. 
Booth and Company. Previously the Morrison Times (which 


ROCK RIVER EXPRESS, May, 1840-1841 : The first newspaper 
published in the county. Edited by B. J. Gray. Its pur- 
pose was to promote the election of William Henry Harrison to 
the presidency. Its ambition satisfied, the paper was discon- 
tinued after an existence of one year, and the office moved away. 


STAR, Autumn of 1840-1841 : A Democratic paper established by 
Philander Knappen. The office was destroyed by a mob be- 
cause the editor denounced the lynching of the Driscolls in Ogle 
county. P 

PILOT, July, i84i-October, 1842: Edited by John A. Brown. 
Democratic. Died from the want of support. 

BETTER COVENANT, January 6, 1842-1843+: Published by Rev. 
Seth Barnes and William Rounseville. Printed at the office of 
the Pilot. Moved to St. Charles, then to Chicago, where it was 
first published by Charles Stedman and edited by Mr. Barnes. 
Now the Universalist, Chicago. 

WINNEBAGO FORUM, February, i843~February, 1844+ : Established 
by J. Ambrose Wight, who sold in August, 1843, to Austin Col- 
ton. At the beginning of the second volume Mr. Colton changed 
the paper to 

FORUM, + February, i844-December, 1854+: Mr. Colton sold in 
December, 1854, to E. W. Blaisdell, Jr. The paper was 
changed to APH 

REPUBLICAN, + January, 1855-1862+ : Edited by E. W. Blaisdell, 
Jr., 1855; Elija O. W. and Richard P. Blaisdell, 1855-1862. 
In 1862 it was merged into the PF 

REGISTER, February, i855~January, 1891+: Established by Elias 
C. Daugherty as an opponent to the spread of slavery. June, 
July and August, 1859, there was a daily issue. June, 1865, the 


Register absorbed the Rock River Democrat (which see). Mr. 
Daugherty retired and the paper passed into the hands of the 
Rockford Register Company, with Isaiah S. Hyatt and E. H. 
Griggs as principal and associate editors. Mr. Hyatt was fol- 
lowed, June, 1866, by E. C. Daugherty, editor to February, 1867. 
Abraham E. and William E. Smith became associated with Mr. 
Griggs in managing the Register. Upon their retirement, June, 
1867, Mr. Griggs became editor and manager. He was still 
editor in 1869. In October, 1871, S. M. Daugherty, widow of 
the founder of the paper, became the owner and P. S. Martin, 
business manager. January, 1863, George E. Wright and Com- 
pany began the Daily Register. He was followed by Charles J. 
Woodbury and Company. February, 1874, the daily was dis- 
continued. In January, 1896, Mr. Wright was editor-in-chief. 
July, 1877, N. D. Wright and C. L. Miller were managing the 
paper. October, 1877, Messrs. Wright and Miller revived the 
Daily Register. In 1881 E. M. Botsford purchased an interest. 
W. P. Lamb subsequently became a partner. The firm of Mil- 
ler, Botsford and Company continued in the management to 
January. 1891, when Edgar E. Bartlett, W. L. Eaton, and Eu- 
gene McSweeney purchased the Daily Register and Daily Ga- 
zette and consolidated them as the Register-Gazette, January, 1891 
to date (1904). Bartlett, Eaton and McSweeney, 1891-1898; 
Bartlett and Eaton, 1898-1901; Bartlett, 1901; Bartlett and 
A. S. Leckie, autumn of 1901. Mr. Leckie was editor. Bartlett 
and Fred E. Sterling, 1903 to date. APEF 

FREE PRESS, September, 1848-1850: A free-soil Democratic paper, 
edited by Henry W. DePuy. P 

ROCK RIVER DEMOCRAT, June, 1852-1865: Editors: Benjamin 
Holt ; Mr. Holt and David T. Dickson ; Mr. Dickson and Rhen- 
odyne A. Bird from 1855 to May, 1864. Isaiah S. Hyatt then 
purchased the paper and published it to June, 1865, when the 
plant was sold to the Register Company. (See Register.) F 

SPIRIT ADVOCATE, April, i854-March, 1856: Issued monthly. 
Advocated the doctrines of the Spiritualists. Managed by Dr. 
George Haskell. Consolidated with the Orient with head- 
quarters at Waukegan. P 

CUDGEL, January, 1857-- (?): It bore this legend on its title- 
page: "Published somewhere, circulated everywhere, edited 
nowhere." Published semi-monthly for seven numbers. 

WESLEYAN SEMINARY REPORTER, October, i857-January, 1858: 
Published by Rev. W. F. Stewart in the interest of the proposed 
Wesleyan Seminary. Monthly. Only four numbers. 


DEMOCRATIC STANDARD, October, 1858-1860; Established by 
Springsteen and Parks, in support of Douglas Democracy. After 
one month, Henry Parks published the paper alone to February 
1859, when David G. Croly became proprietor. In May, 1859, 
Croly and John H. Grove, as D. G. Croly and Company, became 
proprietors and publishers. After April, 1860, upon Mr. Croly 's 
retiring, John H. Grove and James S. Ticknor published the 
paper for a few months, then sold to James E. and Joseph H. 
Fox (Fox, Rowe and Company?), who established the Daily 
News. (See second paper of this name below.) 

DAILY NEWS, February, i859~April, 1860: Founded by D. G. Croly 
and Company. Mrs. Croly was "Jenny June" and one of the 
editors. The paper was neutral. Suspended for want of pat- 

DAILY NEWS, December. 1860-1861 : Established by James E. and 
Joseph Fox (Fox, Rowe and Company). (See Democratic 
Standard.) Republican. After a few weeks the publishers 
started the 

WEEKLY NEWS, 1861 : Messrs. Fox discontinued this paper Sep- 
tember, 1 86 1, and sold to E. C. Daugherty. 

ROCK RIVER MIRROR, September, 1859 to after 1861 : Established 
by Allen Gibson. Later proprietors were Allen Gibson and E. 
D. Marsh. Weekly until 1861, when it began to appear only as 
a monthly. Devoted to insurance matters. Neutral in politics. 
Printed at the office of the Register. 

WESTERN MIRROR, 1861 to date (1869): In 1869, Allen Gibson 
was editor and publisher. Neutral. Probably a continuation 
of the Rock River Mirror. 

CRESCENT AGE, 1859: Dr. George Haskell and H. P. Ktmball were 
editors. Spiritualistic. Short-lived. 

SANDEBUDET, July, i862-November, 1864+ : A Swedish Methodist 
paper established by Victor Wittig; after a year and a half he 
was succeeded as editor by Albert Ericson, who continued until 
November, 1864, when the paper was removed to Chicago. 

PEOPLE'S PRESS, July, i865~September, 1866: Established by W. 
P. Furey. From May to September, 1866, a stock company 
continued the publication which was then suspended for want 
of patronage. 

GAZETTE, NOVEMBER, 1866- January, 1891 +: Founded by I. S. Hyatt 
as an advertising sheet. April, 1867, Benjamin Foltz, became 
editor. August, 1867, Abraham E. and William E. Smith be- 
came proprietors. They were still so in 1879. In 1878 a semi- 
weekly edition, and August, 1879, a daily edition were started. 


In 1882 Mr. Smith admitted Colonel F. A. Eastman as a partner. 

In 1883 Colonel Eastman retired and Mr. Smith continued as 

sole proprietor to January, 1891, when the paper was merged into 

the Register-Gazette. 
WINNEBAGO CHIEF, November, 1866- July, 1867 : Edited and owned 

by J. P. Irvine. In July, 1867, Hiram E. Enoch was admitted 

as a partner and the paper changed to 
WINNEBAGO COUNTY CHIEF, July, 1867-1868+ : In 1868, Irvine 

and Enoch were editors and publishers. Republican. Changed 

JOURNAL, +i868-March, 1888: Mr. Irvine retired, and Mr. Enoch 

was sole proprietor to December, 1882; Foote and Kimball, 

December, i882-March, 1883 ; D. Miller and Company, March, 

i883~March, 1886. Hon. J. Stanley Browne, was owner, 

August, i887~March, 1888. Independent-Democratic. Sold to 

Rockford Morning Star. 

WORDS FOR JESUS, October, 1867 to date (1869) : Thomas J. and 
Hugh Lament were editors and publishers. Religious monthly. 

GOLDEN CENSER, May, 1868- April, 1898: Founded by John Lem- 
ley. November, 1877, the paper passed into the hands of a stock 
company. Under this management the circulation is said to 
have reached 18,000, the largest ever attained to by a Rockford 
paper. By August, 1896, the circulation was reduced to barely 
2,000 and the paper was indefinitely suspended. Calvert 
Brothers revived the Censer March, 1897, with Charles A. 
Church as editor. April to June, 1898, C. A. Church was sole 
proprietor. Sold to Ram's Horn, Chicago, June, 1898. Semi- 
monthly in the beginning, later weekly. EU 

DAILY JOURNAL, August, 1870: Started by Lumley and Carpenter. 
Lived two days. 

ANDRUS' ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY, January, i872-September, 1873 : 
Established by D. A. K. and W. D. E. Andrus. 

NYA SVERIGE, March, 1872-- (?): Established by A. W. 
Schalin. Swedish. Short-lived. 

METHODIST FREE PRESS, September, i872-January, 1875: Estab- 
lished by John Lemley. 

ROCKFORD SEMINARY MAGAZINE, January, 1873-1891 + : Caroline A. 
Potter was the first editor ; later, the senior class edited the maga- 
zine. When the seminary was raised to the rank of college, 1891, 
the paper became the Rockford Collegian. Publication discon- 
tinued in 1895. 

CURIOSITY HUNTER, September, 1873- July, 1874: Issued by D. 
A. K. Andrus until July, 1874. In 1876 it was revived at 


Belvidere and continued at least until November, 1877. 
Monthly. File, September, October, December, 187 2- July, 
1874; October, i876-March, 1877; April-September, Novem- 
ber, 1877, in Western Reserve Hist. Soc., Cleveland, Ohio. 

STAMP NEWS, 1873 : One number issued by D. A. K. Andrus. 
NOWADAYS, January, 1874: One number, issued by E. C. Chandler. 

INDUSTRIAL TIMES, February, 1874+ : W. F. Barrows, editor. The 
name was changed in a few months to P 

HORNET, +1874+ : The second volume began under the name of P 

TIMES, + i875~February, 1876: John R. Coursen and Fred Dayton, 
proprietors. In August, 1875, Mr. Coursen sold to Louis A. 
Manlove. P 

DAILY NEWS, January, i878-October, 1880: Issued by D. A. K. 
Andrus, George W. Sherer, and F. O. Bennett. In June, 1878, 
the Daily News published a sensational account of a communist 
attack upon the government. When it was learned that the 
story had no foundation in fact, Mayor Watson ordered the office 
closed by the city marshal. After many changes the paper was 
suspended in October, 1880. 

WESTERN BANNER, 1878 to date (1879) : A temperance organ edited 
and published by F. Wilson, H. S. Wilbur, and J. S. Hampton. 
Printed in the office of the Journal. 

SUNDAY HERALD, May-December, 1879: Established by E. C. 

CHRISTIAN GLEANER, - (?)-i89i(?): Published at the Censer 

office for some years. It was made up of selections from the 

Censer, with little original matter. Absorbed by the Censer 

about 1891. Monthly. 

LEAVES FROM FOREST HILL, ( ?)- - ( ?) : Published for some 

time during the school year by the young ladies of the Rockford 
Female Seminary. 

FARMERS' MONTHLY, - (?)-- (?): Started by A. E. Smith, 
and sold to Messrs. Bartlett, Eaton and McSweeney, who pub- 
lished it for several years. 


BANNER AND STEPHENSON GAZETTE, August, i839~October, 1840: 
Edited by H. McGrere. This was the first paper published in 
Rock Island county. PE 

UPPER MississiPPiAN, 1 October, i84o-December, 1846: Edited 
by Daniel Crist, 1840-1844; H. G. Reynolds, 1844-1846. PLE 

1 See Stephenson. 


NORTHWESTERN ADVERTISER, November, 1845-1847+ : A Whig 
paper edited and published by Dr. Horatio P. Gotchell and Miles 
W. Conway. In May, 1846, William Vandener bought the paper. 
In about a year he sold to Sanders and Davis. They sold after 
a few months to Francis R. Bennett, who changed the name to P 

ADVERTISER, +1847-1858: Edited by F. R. Bennett alone until 
1851, when A. J. Brackett became publisher and associate 
editor. Thomas R. Raymond bought the paper in the fall of 1853. 
Raymond retired September 13, 1854, and Wharton was editor 
and publisher until the spring of 1858, when the paper was dis- 
continued. A tri-weekly was begun on December 3, 1853, 
and a daily on September 13, 1855. PF 

LIBERTY BANNER, May, i846-(?) : An Abolition paper for which a 
prospectus was issued in Western Citizen for April 29, 1846. It 
was to be edited by C. B. Waite. 

REPUBLICAN, October, 1851 -December, 1855: Edited by F. C. 
Nichols, 1851-1852; J. B. Danforth, 1852-1855. PE 

ARGUS, 1851 to date: Established by J. B. Danforth. Danforth 
and Shurly were publishers in 1857. In 1869, J. B. Danforth, 
Jr., was editor, and Danforth and Jones were publishers. In 
1879 the Argus Printing Company were editors and publishers. 
In 1907 J. W. Potter and Company were editors and publish- 
ers. Democratic in politics. A daily was begun in 1854. 


ROCK ISLANDER, September 19, i854-September 16, 1857+: A 
Democratic paper established by E. J. Pershing. H. C. Con- 
nelly became joint editor and publisher on February 18, 1855. 
The paper was united with the Argus on September 6, 1857 and 
for a time the publication was called Islander and Argus. PF 

AUGUSTANA, 1856 to date: Swedish, Lutheran. Established at 
Galesburg, Illinois, by Rev. T. N. Hasselquist, who was editor 
until 1889. In 1890 Rev. E. Norelius was editor; Rev. S. P. A. 
Lindahl and A. Rodell, 1891 to 1898; S. P. A. Lindahl and J. C. 
Bengston, 1900 to 1907. It was published by the Swedish 
Lutheran Publishing Company of Galesburg in 1856; Swedish 
Lutheran Press Association, Chicago, 1858 to 1873; Augustana 
Book Concern, Rock Island, 1909. The present editors are 
Rev. L. G. Abrahamson, D.D., and Rev. M. J. England, D.D. 
Complete file with Augustana Book Concern and in the histor- 
ical collection at Augustana College. 

BEOBACHTER AM MISSISSIPPI, 1857: Established by Magnus 
Mueller ; edited by a poet-physician, Francesco Ciolino (Cio- 
lina?). It was suspended after one year's existence. German. 


DAILY COMMERCIAL, July 5, i858-February 3, 1859: Edited and 
published by C. W. Kirkland. Republican. P 

REGISTER, 1859-1862+: The editors were T. J. Pickett and C. 
W. Kirkland; M. S. Barnes and Mr. Kirkland; Messrs. Pickett 
and Barnes ; Mr. Pickett and Alexander Lamertine. Issued tri- 
weekly. It was joined with the Moline Independent in 1862 to 
form the P 

UNION, +1862 to date: In 1869 L. M. Havenstick was editor and 
publisher. In 1879 the Union Printing Company were editors 
and publishers and were still so in 1907. The paper is Republi- 
can, and has been both daily and weekly since its formation by 
the union of the Register and the Moline Independent. Files are 
in the office: daily July 5, 1855 to date; weekly, November 
5, i862-December 20, 1866. PU 

DIE CHRONIK DES WESTENS, January, 1860-1863: Founded 
by Adam and George Lieberknecht. After several months 
Adam sold his interest to his brother George. The latter 
for a short time had Mr. Adam Schaaf as partner. The pub- 
lication was suspended in the summer of 1863. German. 

NEUE VOLKS-ZEITUNG, August, 1875 to date: Established as a semi- 
weekly by Carl Winter, who conducted it to March, 1882. George 
S. Lechner bought the paper, March, 1882, and sold it in a 
few months to F. Protar, who published it to April, 1893. 
Rock Island-Moline Volks-Zeitung Publishing Company, April, 
i893-July, 1897; John P. Kieffer, July, i897-July. 1899: Gus- 
tav Donald, July, iSgg-July, 1901; Val. J. Peter, July, 1901- 
1907. The Volks-Zeitung is dated also for Moline. Since April, 
1909, the Volks-Zeitung is published by the Volks-Zeitung Pub- 
lishing Company. P. A. Dornaun is editor and manager. U 

SKOL-VANNEN, 1878-1880 or 1883 : Published and edited by C. A. 
Swensson and J. H. Randall, in the interest of Augustana Col- 
lege. It was issued at irregular intervals. File in the histori- 
cal collection at Augustana College. 

UNGDOMS-VANNEN, 1879-1889: Published by 'the Augustana 
Tract Society, 1879, and by the Augustana Book Concern in 
1884. In 1887 it was changed to a weekly and its name changed 
to Hem-Vannen. In 1889 the paper was consolidated with 
Augustana. Swedish Lutheran. Monthly. File in the historical 
collection at Augustana College and in library of Augustana 
Book Concern. 

ROCK ISLANDER, January 5, i878--December 31, 1892: A Demo- 
cratic paper edited and published by J. B. Danforth. Only the 
name connects this paper with the earlier Rock Islander. 



GAZETTE, i87o-i874(?): Dr. G. W. Snyder was editor, and J. 
Stewart, publisher. Printed at the office of the Lanark Gazette. 


1836+ : Established by John Mason Peck and T. P. Green to 
promote the Baptist cause in Illinois and Missouri and to benefit 
the Rock Spring Seminary. T. P. Green was publisher at the 
beginning, and J. M. Peck was editor. After about six months 
Green retired, and in June, 1830, Ashford Smith became pub- 
lisher. The title seems to have been changed in 1831 to Pioneer 
and Western Baptist. The publication was removed to Alton 
in June, 1836, and called Western Pioneer and Baptist Standard 
Bearer. (See Alton.) AHME 

WESTERN WATCHMAN, 1836: A paper said to have been published 
at this place by John Mason Peck and later removed to St. Louis. 


GAZETTE, May 27, 1857-1858 (1859?): Established by Funk and 
Phelps. Mr. Funk retired and the paper was continued about 
one year by H. W. Phelps and wife. The office was moved 
away. F 

HERALD, 1875 to date: Established by W. D. Mathews, who in 
1876 sold to E. L. Carr, editor and publisher until after 1895. 
In 1907, C. J. Eddy. Republican. 


NEWS, i86i( ?) : Listed, without details, in Kenny's American News- 
paper Directory for 1861. 
WESTERN EVANGELIST, i86i(?): Same listing as News. 


SIGNAL, 1871-1876 : Edited by Henry Johnson, published by Charles 

Johnson. (Simply a reprint of the White Hall Register with the 

above title.) 
HEADLIGHT, i872-i874(?) : Published by George B. Price and Son. 

Lived about two years. Reprint of Carrollton Gazette. 

INDEPENDENT, 1875: Established by W. T. Lakin. Only a few 
numbers were published when he moved the press to White Hall, 
where he published the Greene County Democrat. The Inde- 
pendent was continued for a time, printed at White Hall and 
edited by James Smith. 


REVIEW, 1877 to date (1881): An Independent paper established 
by W. T. Mclver, seventeen years old, who was editor and pub- 
lisher. In the second number appeared the name of Duncan C. 
Mclver, father of W. T. Mclver, who took the editorial work. 
In 1879 W. T. Mclver withdrew; his father ran the paper alone 
until 1880, when he sold it to Frank M. Palmer. In nine months 
Mr. Palmer sold to John S. Harper, who changed the name to 
Eagle. After six months he sold the paper to Hiram H. Palmer, 
who changed it to Journal, a Democratic paper, In 1882 Mr. 
Palmer sold a half interest to W. J. Roberts, who in 1884 be- 
came sole propeietor. He removed the material to White Hall 
and consolidated it with White Hall Register. Ayer, 1881, states 
of the Review that it "prints editions under the names of Eagle 
and Harper's Herald." 

HARPER'S HERALD, 1878: Established by John S. Harper. After 
six months Mr. Harper sold to William H. Pogue and Morris 
R. Locke, who removed the material to Jerseyville and started 
the Examiner. Democratic. 


GAZETTE, 1876 to date (1881) : Ayer, 1881, lists a paper of the same 
date and politics under the name Gazette and Paper. G. G. 
McCosh was editor and publisher. Neutral. 

TIMES, 1876 to date (1881): A family paper. It was later united 
with the Citizen, the two becoming the Independent paper, 
Times-Citizen. This paper was published in 1907 by the Rose- 
ville Printing and Publishing Company. 

WILSON'S WEEKLY, 1877 : Published by Wilson Brothers. Neutral. 


OBSERVER, i873~i877(?): Established by J. H. Moore, who 
was editor and publisher throughout the paper's existence. It 
existed about four years. Independent Greenback. U 

ENTERPRISE, 1875 or i876-October, 1877+ : Established by John 
C. Cromer. Its advent had something to do with the discon- 
tinuance of the Observer. The Enterprise was moved to 
Homer, Champaign county, in October, 1877, and in 1907 was 
being published there by J. B. Martin. 

PRESS, 1879 to date: Established by F. J. Pastor, who ran it until 
after 1891. Perry M. Warner, 1895. In 1907 Bert E. Pinker- 
ton was editor and publisher. Independent-Republican. 


Published by G. W. Davis and R. W. Renfroe; edited by Abra- 


ham Marshall. It was Independent in politics, favored railroad 
construction, and contained much Texas news. Within a year 
Mr. Davis retired, the paper passed into the hands of R. W. Ren- 
froe, and the name was changed to 

JOURNAL, +i836-May, 1837+ : Neutral in politics. July 30, 1836, 
the Journal was sold to Adam (Adams?) Dunlap. May, 1837, 
Benjamin V. Teel purchased the paper and changed the name to 

SCHUYLER ADVOCATE, +May 27. i837-February, 1838+: Edited 
by J. B. Fulks. Changed to' 

TEST, + February-December 6, 1838: T. Lyle Dickey was editor 
and R. A. Glenn publisher. Published for eight months, with 
several interruptions (twenty-nine numbers in all). Whig in 
politics. H 

ILLINOIS REPUBLICAN, December 14, i839-April 9, 1840+: A. R. 
Sparks, the editor, continued the publication four months. He 
then sold to James L. Anderson, who changed the name to AH 

POLITICAL EXAMINER, + April 9, i84o-October i, 1843+: Edited 
by James L. Anderson. Changed to 

WHIG, -f October, 1843-1844: When Henry Clay was defeated as 
candidate for president, the Whig suspended publication. 

PRAIRIE TELEGRAPH, July 3, i848-May 24, 1856: Edited by Ben- 
jamin F. Scripps, published by Richard R. Randall, to Novem- 
ber, 1849; Rev. John Scripps and son, J. Corrie Scripps, No- 
vember, 1849-1856. On May 24, 1856, the paper was sold to a 
stock company and changed to F 

TIMES, +May 24, 1856 to date: Published by a stock company of 
Democrats. DeWitt C. Johnston, editor, May, i856-February, 
1858: Addrew J. Ashton, February, iSsS-May, 1860. A. D. 
Davis, the next editor, was followed in three years by J. C. Fox; 
E. A. Snively, i866-July, 1868. At the latter date the paper was 
sold at sheriff's sale to Edwin Dyson, who assumed charge, and 
is still editor and publisher. The paper is Democratic. Bound 
volumes of the Times for 1856-1858, and since 1868 are in 
the office. E 

SCHUYLER COUNTY DEMOCRAT, April 20, i854-July 6, 1856: 
Organized by Democrats of the county and edited by Daniel 
E. H. Johnson. Published in 1855 as Democrat and Brown 
County Advertiser. Sold to George Washington Scripps in 
1856, who used the material to publish a new paper, the 

SCHUYLER CITIZEN, July 6, 1856 to date: Edited by G. W. Scripps. 
It was an Independent paper until 1858, when it espoused the 
cause of Lincoln in his historic senatorial campaign. Mr. 


Scripps sold the paper in 1865, but it reverted to him in 1868. 
April, 1879, the Citizen passed into the hands of W. I. Larash, 
editor and proprietor until December i, 1908, when he sold to 
Robbins Brothers. The Daily Citizen was started June, 1895. 
The daily is non-partisan, the weekly, Republican. Bound vol- 
umes for 1856, 1857, 1858 owned by John S. Bagby, Rushville. U 

RECORD, ( ? ) ( ? ) : A paper run by a Mr. Swan before 



HOME JOURNAL, 1865 to date (1879) : A Republican paper printed 

at the office of the El Paso Journal. 
TIMES, 1874-1878: In 1879 J. H. Brevoort was editor. The paper 

was being issued from the office of the Minonk Blade. 
POST, 1878 to date (1881): A Republican paper. C. W. Blandin, 

editor in 1880. In 1881 it was being issued from the office of 

the Minonk Blade. 


GRANGER, 1873-1874: Published by Edward Pazo. 

PATRIOT, 1841-1842+: Edited by John Thomas. Office was 
burned before the third issue. Another outfit was procured by 
Ira Minard, and the paper revived under the complex title of 
St. Charles 

+ About 1843+: Waite succeeded Thomas and changed the 
name to 

Fox RIVER ADVOCATE, +1843-1845: Edited by Dr. Daniel D. 
Waite. In 1845 Waite sold out. 

THE AGE, June, 1843 (?) : A Whig paper edited by Robert I. 

Thomas and published by R. and A. Thomas. AF 

PRAIRIE MESSENGER, 1846-1847 : Edited by Smith and Kelsey, then 
by Smith and Sears. It passed into the hands of Messrs. Wil- 
son and Cockraft and was merged with the Western Mercury, 
Geneva. W 

BETTER COVENANT, +1842-1843+ : Edited by Rev. Seth Barnes, 
assisted by Rev. William Rounseville. Established at Rockf ord ; 
soon moved to Chicago; now the Universalist. H 

PEOPLE'S PLATFORM, 1849+: Established by Isaac Marlett in 
Aurora; removed to St. Charles in 1849. Democratic. The 
name was soon changed to 

DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM, +1849-1850+: S. S. Jones purchased 
Marlett's interests in 1850, and changed the name to 


KANE COUNTY DEMOCRAT, +1850-1855: Published by S. S. Jones 
and George C. Hubbard. The number issued on September 25, 
1850, is in the Gail Borden Public Library at Elgin, Illinois. In 
1855 the office was moved to Elgin, and in the same year to Ba- 
tavia. F 

WEEKLY ARGUS, +1857 K?) : Begun previously at Batavia; 

removed to St. Charles in 1857. Published by Stitt and Mat- 
teson. Later changed to F 

ST. CHARLES ARGUS, H ( ?) - 1861 : Purchased by R. N. Botsford 

and Ed. Furnald. In 1858 Mr. Botsford became sole owner, 
and after the November election that year sold out to John J. 
Moulding and a Mr. Horton. The Argus was finally merged 
into the 

Fox RIVER INDEPENDENT, 1861-1862: Established by John J. 

OBSERVER, 1858 : Established by Rev. William Rounseville. Short- 

TRANSCRIPT, 1871-1873+: Established by S. L. Taylor. After 
four months he sold out to D. W. Tyrrell and Charles Archer; 
they, in 1873, sold to Frank McMaster and Hiram N. Wheeler; 
Wheeler was editor. Democratic. Printed at the office of 
the Geneva Kane County Republican. In the fall of 1873 the 
name was changed to 

NORTHERN GRANGER, +1873-1874+: The title indicates the 
paper's politics. In 1874 the name was changed to 

LEADER, +1874-1878+ : In 1878 it was removed to Elgin and con- 
tinued as the Elgin Leader. Democratic. 

INDEPENDENT, 1874: Established by D. W. Tyrrell. Continued 
but a few months. 

QUIVERING LEAF, 1877: Published by Rev. D. Matlack. Short- 

REVIEW, 1878-1880: Established by D. L. Zabriskie and John F. 
Dewey. Later published by Mr. Dewey alone. It continued 
nearly two years, when it was sold to the Elgin Advocate, and 
its publication ceased. 


NEWS, 1875 to date (1880?) : Established by Johnson and Ranney ; 
sold to C. M. King. Neutral in politics. Printed at the office 
of the Altamont Telegram. 


WEEKLY ADVOCATE, 1851-1875+ : A Democratic paper, edited and 
published by John W. and John H. Merritt, until 1856, when it 


was sold to H. S. Blanchard and removed to Centralia. In 1858 
it was re-established in Salem by Edward L., Joseph D., and 
J. W. Merritt, with John W. Merritt as editor, and Edward L. 
Merritt as associate editor. In 1860 Richard F. Long became a 
partner. In 1865 Louis V. Taft bought the paper and became 
editor and proprietor. In 1875 he changed it to 

SEMI- WEEKLY ADVOCATE, +1875-1876: Lived but a short time, 
and was discontinued. U 

AMERICAN EAGLE, 1852-1853 : Published and edited by Thomas F. 
Houtz. Whig. 

SPECTATOR, 1856+ : A Republican campaign paper published by 
James S. Coulter. It passed into the hands of E. C. Devore, 
who changed the name to 

REGISTER, +1856-1858: Edited by E. C. Devore. Sold to Joseph 
M. Prior who changed the name to 

INDEPENDENT, April-December, 1858: Edited by Joseph M. Prior. 

MARION COUNTY HERALD, 1860: Established by J. M. Prior and 
F. S. Murphy. Only three numbers were published. Repub- 

LOYALIST, 1864- 1865: Brought from Mason, Effingham county, in 
1864 by George L. Brewster, editor and proprietor. It had con- 
tinued a little over a year when Brewster died. The office was 
closed until late in 1865, when W. P. Hartley established the 

NORTHWESTERN BAPTIST, 1865-1866: Mr. Hartley was assisted by 
T. Charles Fulks. The paper lasted seven months. 

MARION COUNTY REPUBLICAN, 1867 (i865?)-i87o: Edited by T. 
C. Fulks and Peter M. Johns. Fulks soon retired in five months, 
when the office passed over to John A. Wall. From him it passed 
to I. S. Hitchcock, who continued the paper until 1870. 

ANTI-MONOPOLIST, October. 1873: Established by D. D. Moore. 

INDUSTRIAL ADVOCATE, 1874-1880+ : Established by M. G. Beviall 
with Dr. J. W. Cope as editor. Cope left the office and estab- 
lished the Industrial (which see). Beviall died soon thereafter 
<ind his widow continued the paper until L. V. Taft assumed 
charge of it. In 1880 he resigned. Mrs. Beviall published the 
paper for one month and then sold it to Messrs. Merritt and 
Pyles, publishers and editors of the Herald, who in November, 
1880, consolidated the two as Herald-Advocate. This paper is 
still published, with C. E. Hull as editor, and the Herald Pub- 
lishing Company as publishers. It has always been Democratic. 


INDUSTRIAL, 1874-1879+ : Established by Dr. J. D. Cope. Sold 
to C. J. Willmans, who made it Republican. It passed from 
Willmans to Mr. Evarts, later to W. L. Arnold, when it was 
moved, in 1879, to Kinmundy. From there, after twenty-six 
issues, it was moved back to Salem, where Arnold continued it 
as U 

MARION COUNTY REPUBLICAN, + October, 1879, to date: W. L. Ar- 
nold was the editor until January, 1881, when W. R. Burton took 
charge. July, 1881, T. C. Fulks and W. R. Burton purchased 
the paper of Mr. Arnold. In 1907 J. C. Utterback was editor 
and publisher. Republican. 

MARION COUNTY HERALD, 1876-1880+ : Established by T. B. 
Pyles and John H. Merritt. November 19, 1880, Merritt and 
Pyles purchased the Industrial Advocate and formed the Herald- 
Advocate, under which name it is still published. A Demo- 
cratic paper. 

WEEKLY TIMES, December, 1878: Edited and published by J. T. 
Long and Company. It had a brief existence. 


PRAIRIE FARMER, i86i(?): Listed, without details, in Kenny's 
American Newspaper Directory for 1861. 

NEWS, 1861 (?): Same listing as Prairie Farmer. 


PEOPLE'S PRESS, i857~six months: Edited by W. L. Dempster. 
Independent on all subjects. F 

PRAIRIE HOME AND ADVERTISER, i859-short-lived : Edited by 
Mattison and Higbee. 

NEWS, i86o(?): Edited and published by James M. Higbee. Bi- 

GAZETTE, 1865-1889: Established by James M. Higbee, who soon 
associated James H. Sedgwick with him. Sedgwick sold to 
James H. Furman in 1866, who became sole proprietor in 1868. 
He sold to G. H. Robertson in 1874. Changed from weekly to 
semi-weekly in 1877 ; resumed weekly publication in 1883. Dis- 
continued in 1889. A Republican paper. U 

FREE PRESS, 1873 to date : Established by H. F. Bloodgood. C. B. 
Taylor bought the paper in 1882, and Barnes and Douglas in 
1883. It is now (1907) edited and published by Frank D. Low- 
man. The paper was Independent in 1881; Republican in 
1907. U 


ARGUS, 1878 to date: Established by M. B. Castle and Son (John 

B. Castle), who continued the paper together until the death 
of the former in 1900. Since that date John B. Castle has 
continued editor and proprietor. In 1881 the paper was Inde- 
pendent; in 1907, Republican. Complete bound files are in the 
office of the paper. 


REGISTER, 1853: Published by Charles Allen; edited by Smith D. 
Atkins (see Freeport). After a few months the owners sold the 
paper to a Mr. Grattan, who removed the plant elsewhere. F 

TIMES, 1875 to date : Established by J. William Mastin, and for ten 
weeks printed at the office of the Shannon Gazette (which see). 
The first issue printed in Savanna was that of September n, at 
which time the equipment of the Shannon Gazette was moved to 
Savanna. Simon Greenleaf and Mastin were the publishers 
until March, 1876, when Greenleaf bought Mas.tin's share in 
the paper and became editor and proprietor. He was still so in 
1879. In 1895 a daily edition was started, which has continued 
to date. In 1907 L. W. Fraser was editor; W. W. Gillespie, 
publisher. The paper has always been Republican. U 


NEWS, 1872-1873: Established by J. S. Harper. After about one 
year Mr. Harper went to Farmer City and the News was dis- 

BANNER, December, 1872-1873+ : Established by H. H. Parkinson. 
With the assistance of O. C. Sabin and Mr. Van Voris, he pub- 
lished the paper for one year. Then he sold to Mr. Sabin, who 
changed the name to 

Mr. Sabin made the paper an advocate of the farmers' move- 
ment. In January, 1874, he removed the paper to Blooming- 
ton. After continuing its publication for one year, he sold it to 
Mr. Goff. 

HERALD, October, 1875 to date (1882): An Independent paper, 
established by T. J. Horsley. He still was editor and publisher 
in 1879; H. W. Rodman in 1882. 

SUNBEAM, May, 1879 (?): W. H. Schureman was manager; 

O. C. Sabin, editor. Published under the auspices of the Y. M. 

C. A. "Its peculiar field was literature and the cause of tem- 
perance, religion, intelligence and morality." 



UNION, 1874: Lakin and Palmer were editors and publishers. 
Printed at the office of the Waverly Times. 


HOME JOURNAL, i879(?) : An edition of the El Paso Journal. In- 
dependent in politics. 


RECORD, 1878 to date: Established by A. J. Lukins. In March, 
1879, the office was burned, and publication suspended for two 
weeks. In 1880 J. H. and Sam D. Chatterton assumed control. 
Sam D. Chatterton bought his partner's interest in 1881. In 
September, 1882, Leacock and Wickham became editors and 
proprietors. From July, 1883, to October, 1884, Wickham con- 
ducted the paper alone. George B. Youmans and W. D. Lind- 
say, October, 1884-1885; H. E. Wickham, editor for a time in 
1885; J. B. Hayes, June-August, 1885; W. D. Lindsay and 

George B. Youmans, August, 1885 (?) In 1901 the Record 

was consolidated with the News, which had been established in 
1892. As the Record and News, the paper is now edited and 
published by Terry Simmons. Independent in politics. Later 
files are owned by Mr. Simmons. 


EXPRESS, May, 1876, to date: Established by H. F. Bloodgood and 
Mr Hunt. In October, 1876, Hunt sold his interest to W. H. 
Ray. Bloodgood and Ray were editors and publishers to 
March, 1878. Since that date, W. H. Ray has been sole pro- 
prietor and editor. In 1879 the paper was printed at the office 
of the Sandwich Free Press. The Express has always been a 
Republican paper. Files, except for the first few years, are kept 
in the office. A part of the edition is printed as the Gazette, Lee 
(DeKalb county). 

RECORD, March-December, 1878: Established by J. M. Bean. It 
was suspended after an existence of about nine months. 


GAZETTE, i864-after 1875: Established by John Hewlett, still 
editor and publisher in 1868. In 1870-1874 Jethro Mastin 
was editor and publisher; Mastin and Sanford in 1875. Printed 
at the office of the Lanark Carroll County Gazette. A Republican 

EXPRESS, 1879 to date (1895) : A. W. Erwin was editor and pub- 
lisher until after 1882; W. B. Bachtelle, 1884; W. H. Barnes, 
1891 ; J. M. Bahm, 1895. At first Republican, Independent 
after 1891. 



SHAWNEE CHIEF/ October i7-November (?), 1818+ : Established 
by Henry Eddy and Singleton H. Kimmel. In a short time the 
name was changed to 

ILLINOIS EMIGRANT, + (before December 26, i8i8)-September 18, 
1819+ : Published by Eddy and Kimmel and edited by Eddy. 
This, the second paper in Illinois, was a four-page, four-column 
sheet, well printed in the early years. In the issue for April 3, 
1819, is a criticism of Governor Bond for signing the law estab- 
lishing a state bank, and for becoming president of it. The last 
issue was vol. i, no. 54, September 18, 1819. With the next 
number the name was changed to AE 

ILLINOIS GAZETTE, + September 25, i8i9-i83o(?) : The paper was 
continued by Eddy and Kimmel until May 22, 1820, when the 
partnership was dissolved and James Hall took the place of 
Kimmel as partner in the publishing, and as editor. This ar- 
rangement continued until November 16, 1822, when Hall with- 
drew; with the number for November 23 C. Jones became 
publisher and Henry Eddy editor and proprietor. Eddy sold a 
half interest to John Foliart, who became publisher, with Eddy, 
as John Foliart and Company, on February n, 1826. They sold 
October 18, 1828, to Alexander F. Grant, who conducted the 
paper alone until November 8, then, with Thomas Palmer, as 
Alex F. Grant and Company until November 20, 1830; then 
Grant alone became publisher. The last number in the Library 
of Congress is vol. io ; no. 30, December 18, 1830, and is prob- 
ably near the end of the paper's career. Under Eddy and Kim- 
mel the Gazette was alive and fairly vigorous. Hall made it per- 
haps the best edited paper in the state, with the possible exception 
of the Edwardsville Spectator. He preserved a neutral position 
in politics for some time, and at all times kept the columns open 
to discussion. But after he became familiar with state politics 
the political tone was vigorous. 2 Hall gave the paper a very 
unusual literary tone. Under subsequent editors its qualities 
deteriorated to insignificance. MSAE 

ber, 1835: Established by McClernand and Stickney. Demo- 
cratic. McClernand withdrew at the end of the year, and the 
paper was continued as Danville 

1 The title Shawnee Chief is used here solely on the word of previous 
writers. In the notice of dissolution of partnership between Eddy and Kimmel, 
mention is made of debtors to Illinois Emigrant and Illinois Gazette, but not 
to Shawnee Chief. I have found no reference to that name in early Missouri or In- 
diana papers in the Library of Congress. F. \V. S. 

2 For further particulars of this paper's editorial policy see the Introduction. 

ILLINOIS ADVERTISER, + January, i836-November 4, 1837: Edited 
and published by William H. Stickney as a radically Democratic 
paper. Stickney discontinued the paper November 4, 183 7, and 
sold the plant to John S. McCracken, who, after a few weeks, 
started A 

1837-1839+ : A Democratic paper that had reached no. 48 on 
December 29, 1838. Early in 1839 it was changed to A 

INTELLIGENCER, +1839-- (?): Edited and published by W. H. 
McCracken and Company. 

ILLINOIS REPUBLICAN, February, i84i-i843(?) : Edited and pub- 
lished by Samuel D. Marshall until March 25, 1843, then by 
H. H. M. Butt and J. W. ConneU. Supported McClernand 
for senator in 1842 against Douglas, Breese, Reynolds, and 
Young. It was still being published in June, 1843. AH 

ILLINOIS STATE GAZETTE, i843~i847( ?) : Established by W. D. Lat- 
shaw and J. S. Roberts. Listed in Illinois Annual Register for 
1847 as a Democratic paper published by J. S. and E. W. 
Roberts. (See Jackson Standard, 205.) F 

SOUTHERN ILLINOIS ADVOCATE, 1848-1849: Edited and published 
for a few months by L. Jay S. Turney, a lawyer. The only copy 
available does not reveal the politics of the paper ; it stood, how- 
ever, for "universal liberty abroad, and an ocean bound republic 
at home!!!" U 

SOUTHERN ILLINOISAN, 1852-1860: Started by W. Edwards and 
Son as a Democratic paper. It supported Bissell, the Republi- 
can candidate for governor, and Buchanan for president. It 
revolted at the time of Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska bill. After 
Buchanan's election it became strongly Republican. 

MERCURY, 1860-1873 1; Published and edited by D. W. Lusk as 
late as 1873. A Republican paper. 

GAZETTE, 1871-1875: Established by Joel G. Morgan and con- 
ducted by him till it was discontinued. At first both daily and 
weekly, the weekly called Gallatin Gazette; the daily was soon 

HOME NEWS, 1873+: Established by Conrad O. Edwards. 
Changed to 

SHAWNEE NEWS, +1873 to date: A Republican paper, edited and 
published by. Riblett and Edwards, then by J. W. Riblett ; John 
M. Hogg, 1877-1880; Tromly Brothers, 1882; L. F. Tromly, 

1 The account of Hamilton county papers (p. 300 Goodspeed), says "In 
December 1870, John Coker purchased the Shawneetown Mercury, and moved the 
material to McLeansboro to start the Golden Era." 


1884-1895 + . After 1895 the paper became News-Gleaner. 
In 1907 the News-Gleaner was being edited and published by 
A. T. Spivey, and it was still Republican. 

SHAWNEE HERALD, February n, 1876-1879: Established by 
Francis M. Pickett. Jacob Haraing was editor and publisher 
in 1879; Frank Winterberger in 1880. A Democratic paper. 

LOCAL RECORD, December, 1877, to date: A Democratic paper, 
established and still conducted in 1887 by Conrad O. Edwards. 
It is listed in Rowell, 1879, as Independent in politics. In Ayer, 
1907, it is given as a local paper, edited by Essie and Allie Ed- 
wards, published by Edwards and Edwards. 


PRAIRIE FLOWER, 1840-1842: Edited by Joseph C. Duncan and 
James Shoaff. It was in the nature of a newspaper and literary 
magazine combined, published monthly. Issued from the office 
of the Okaw. 

OKAW. 1840-1845 : Edited by W. W. Bishop. Its publication was 

SHELBY BANNER, July, 1852-1858+ : It first advocated Democracy, 
then became Independent. Edited by D. M. Cantrill and William 
A. Cochran, 1852, for a few months. Cochran was a warm 
supporter of Franklin Pierce as candidate for president. Can- 
trill was sole editor after Cochran' s withdrawal, until the office 
was closed in 1853. In 1854 Theophilus Short and Short and 
Spears conducted the paper for a few months. P. L. Shutt 
followed them, 1855, and changed the paper from Democratic 
to Independent. September, 1858, John W. Johnson took pos- 
session and changed the paper to the F 

OKAW PATRIOT, +1858-1863: The paper was edited by John W. 
Johnson, September, i858-February, 1860; Judge Anthony 
Thornton, February, 1860. The Banner (see below) had just 
been started by P. L. Shutt. Thornton and Shutt consolidated 
the two papers, under the name of 

OKAW DEMOCRAT +1860-1863 + : Thornton acted as editor, Shutt 
as manager. Thornton retired within the year and Shutt con- 
tinued to 1863. Upon his suspending publication, a joint stock 
company of Democrats was formed to continue the paper as the 

SHELBY COUNTY LEADER, + September, 1863-1865+: It was 
started by a joint stock company, managed by W. A. Trower, and 
edited by H. H. Coolidge, September-December, 1863. In 
December, 1863, bought by W. A. Trower, and sold to 1865 in 
Rufus Sumerlin. Democratic. Soon after George R. Wendling 
bought a half interest, and changed the name to 


CENTRAL ILLINOIS TIMES, +1866-1868+ : The editor was George 
R. Wendling. He sold his half interest ij 1867 to Lloyd B. 
Stephenson and W. W. Hess; in October, 1867, Dr. E. E. Wag- 
goner became Sumerlin's partner. In 1868 Rufus Sumerlin 
assumed sole charge and again named it the 

SHELBY COUNTY LEADER, +1868 to date: Edited by Rufus Sum- 
erlin and his three sons, Leon, Dolph, and Eugene. Bought 
by W. A. Trower in March, 1871. In January, 1873, a half 
interest was sold to W. B. Marshutz, who sold back to W. A. 
Trower in 1875. Owned and edited by Vallee Harold in 1895- 
fall of 1898; George V. Mechler to February, 1890, and from 
1890 to date, owned and edited by T. B. Shoaff. Democratic. 

BANNER, 1860: Started by P. L. Shutt, and consolidated with the 
Okaw Patriot (see above). 

SHELBY COUNTY FREEMAN, 1860-1861 : Published by Eli Chittenden 
in the interest of the Republican party. Discontinued in 1861 
and later resurrected as the 

SHELBY COUNTY UNION, 1863 to date: Established at the suggestion 
of Judge Samuel W. Moulton and W. J. Henry to espouse the 
cause of the Union. Edited by J. W. Johnson, 1863-1864; 
owned by J. W. Johnson and John A. Young, 1864-1865; by 
Richard Couch in 1865; by Richard Couch and Park T. Martin 
in 1867; exclusively by Park T. Martin, 1867-1871; jointly by 
Park T. Martin and Elgin H. Martin, 1871-1872; by Park T., 
Elgin H., and Horace L. Martin, 1872-1873; by Elgin H. and 
Horace L. Martin in 1873; by Horace L Martin, 1874 to 1903, 
who established a daily of the same name in 1887, and had for 
editors successively, Elgin H. Martin, Harry M. Martin and 
James Darby. Owned by Hon. Walter C. Headen, William H. 
Beem, Harry M. Martin, and George B. Rhoads; edited by 
William Ritchie, 1903-1905; William Taylor and Orville Storm, 
I905~i9o6(?). In 1907 Fred A. Richey was editor; Union 
Publishing Company, publishers. The daily edition is Independ- 
ent, the weekly Republican. 

COMMERCIAL, 1868 : Published for a short time by J. William Lloyd 
and George R. Wendling as a trade paper. 

SHELBY COUNTY INDEPENDENT, 1874-1876: Established by Dr. 
E. E. Waggoner and J. William Lloyd as an Independent organ, 
but it was virtually Democratic from the first. Dr. E. E. Wag- 
goner was sole owner and editor from 1875, and in 1876 changed 
it to the 

DEMOCRAT, 1876 to date: Edited by Dr. E. E. Waggoner, 1876- 
1885 ; owned by Thomas J. and George R. Graybill, 1885-1887. 
In 1887 G. Wilbur Cook entered the firm which was known as 


Graybill Brothers and Company, with George R. Graybill as 
editor, 1887-1902. Owned since 1902 by G. Wilbur Cook and 
Isaac S. Storm, and edited by the latter The Democrat Com- 
pany are publishers. 

APIARY, 1878-1880: Owned by E. Homrighous and J. W. Johnson 
and edited by the latter. A monthly paper on bees and their 
care and propagation. 

GREENBACK HERALD, 1879-1884: Established on the material of 
the Windsor Sentinel. Edited by Tom Stuart and G. W. Cook, 
1879-1880, and supported the Greenback party. Edited by 
Milton A. Bates in 1880; by Charles Reeve later; after him 
by Elder Linn and later by Mr. Eton. It was variously listed as 
National Greenback Herald, Greenback Herald, and Herald. 

CHURCH AND HOME, 1879-1880+ : A Unitarian weekly owned and 
edited by Rev. Jasper L. Douthit. Name soon changed to 
Our Best Words, 1880-1892, a weekly Prohibition paper of 
varying fortunes. It was sold in 1892 to J. S. Barnum, who 
changed it to the People's Paper. This was edited by J. S. 
Barnum and Frank K. Pennington as a Populistic organ. It 
was discontinued in 1894. The same year, Rev. Jasper L. 
Douthit bought back the name only of Our Best Words from 
Barnum and Pennington, and continued the paper as a monthly, 
in the interests of Unitarianism and Prohibition. Jasper L. 
Douthit is the present owner and editor. 

ILLUSTRATED BAPTIST, 1879 to date (1881): Phillips and Hughes 
were editors and publishers. A monthly paper. 


COURIER, March (?), 1871: Published from a press in Kent- 
land, Indiana, for a few months, by J. B. Spotswood and E. 
A. Burns. The Courier was Independent in politics. 

ENTERPRISE, December, 1874 to date (1880): Established by 
H. R. Fields and H. L. Henry. After February, 1877, it was 
under the management of D. J. Eastburn, who was still editor 
and proprietor in 1880. The Enterprise was Independent in 
politics. U 

JOURNAL, 1879 to date: J. W. Sargent, editor, J. R. Fox, publisher, 
1882; J. R. Fox, 1884; J. W. Sargeant, 1891; C. W. Stickney 
in 1895. In 1881 it was a semi-weekly paper; in 1907, a weekly. 
W. H. Overhue was editor and publisher in 1907. Republican. 


NEWS LETTER, 1871-1880: Established by J. L. Seward, and con- 
ducted by him until 1873. A. V. Whitney became editor and 


publisher in 1873-1876; C. E. and C. A. Whitney were pub- 
lishers in 1877. In 1879-1880 A. V. Whitney was editor and 
publisher. For awhile it had the name of 

TEMPERANCE UNION, 1873-1874: Edited and published by A. V. 


PROGRESS, December, i868-September, 1869: Edited and managed 
by W. E. Milton. 

TRUE FLAG, September, i874~October, 1875: Parker and Waldron, 
editoro and proprietors. Independent. Consolidated with the 
Brighton Advance. 


FREE PRESS, 1873-1875: H. F. Bloodgood was editor and pub- 
lisher. Issued from the office of the Sandwich Free Press. 

REVEILLE, 1875 to date: C. Abe West was editor and proprietor to 
1880; S. D. Newton, 1880-1889; C. B. Phillips, 1889-1892; 
Charles W. Faltz, editor and publisher to date. An Independent 
paper. U 


EAGLE, 1871 : Established by H. L. Goodall. Printed at the office 
of the Chicago Sun, 


CHRONICLE, 1868 to date (1891) : Established as a neutral paper by 
Spencer Ellsworth, editor and publisher. In 1879 and to date, 
a Republican paper. S. M. Tesmer was editor and the Chronicle 
Publishing Company, publishers, in 1879-1884+: Mrs. L. S. 
Tesmer, editor; Spencer Ellsworth, publisher in 1891. 

UNION, 1870-1871 : Established by William Trench. In the next 
year it was edited and published by Bell and Wilson, who were 
printing it at the office of the Lacon Statesman. 


COLUMBUS HERALD, 1839-1840+ : Edited by James Morrow. Neu- 
tral as to politics. Changed to 

HERALD, + January-June 1840+ : Edited by J. E. Dietrich. Demo- 
cratic. Changed to 

DEMOCRAT, +1840-1843: Mr. Dietrich was still editor. Favored 
Van Buren for president. In 1844, the office was leased to O. F. 
McMillan, who began the U 


RANDOLPH COUNTY RECORD, May 28, 1844- June, 1846: Edited 
by O. F. McMillan. Because of politics it was moved to Chester, 
where it was published as the Reveille. It supported Polk for 
the presidency. 

PRAIRIE DEMOCRAT, 1848-1851 + : A campaign paper edited by J. R. 
Shannon, 1848-1851. It advocated the election of Lewis Cass. 
In 1851 C. P. Johnson leased the office and changed the name to 

INDEPENDENT, +1851-1854: Suspended after the campaign in 
1852. Revived by S. A. Armour, who later leased to Parsons 
Pery. After two years he was succeeded by J. W. Fletcher. 
Soon afterward the office was removed to Chester. 

FREEMAN/ March 21, 1850+: Anti-slavery; edited by James N. 
Coleman. In 1850 he was succeeded by James S. Coulter, who 
changed the name to F 

JOURNAL, + 1850-1852 : Edited by J. S. Coulter, who was succeeded, 
in 1852, by Mrs. Gintileus. Suspended shortly after. 

REGISTER, February, 1849 (?): Established by J. E. Det 

rich and J. R. Shannon. Apparently Democratic. F 

RANDOLPH COUNTY JOURNAL, 1856 (?) : Established by J. W. 

Fletcher 2 and H. A. McKelvey; McKelvey was editor. Re- 
publican. F 

STAR or THE WEST, 1862-1866+ : Started by W. J. Armour, in 1866 
(1865?) sold to General J. Blackburn Jones, who changed the 
name to 

RANDOLPH PLAINDEALER, + 1866 to date : Published by Jones until 
1868 when he sold to Thomas M. Nichol. In 1869 J. D. Watson 
purchased an interest. In 1870 the paper was sold to Messrs. 
Kimball and Taylor, who placed Edward Fagin in charge as 
editor and manager. In 1872 he was succeeded by Fred L. 
Alles. In 1873 Alles purchased the paper and on the same day 
sold it to S. L. Taylor. In one month Albert Goddard became 
associated with Mr. Taylor. He retired in 1874 and was suc- 
ceeded by W. B. Taylor, who published the paper with his 
brother, S. Lovejoy Taylor, until 1881, the latter continuing as 
editor to that date, when they sold to Messrs. George Campbell 
and Don E. Dietrich. In four months Charles Campbell pur- 
chased Dietrich's interest, and the Campbell Brothers con- 

1 Harris, Negro Servitude in Illinois, 184, says that the Freeman was 
begun in January, 1850. 

2 It seems probable that this paper had been discontinued before 1860, for 
on April 3, of that year Horace Greeley addressed to " Friend Fletcher," then 
about to start a paper at Sparta, his well-kno-w n letter of advice to a country 
editor. Perhaps Greeley's advice discouraged Fletcher; at any rate I have not 
found that he started a paper in 1860. F. W. S. 


tinued publication. In 1907 S. Love joy Taylor was editor; 

Taylor Brothers, publishers. A Republican paper throughout 

its existence. Listed in Rowell, 1879, and in the later directories 

as Plaindealer. 
ITEM, 1878-1879: Printed in the office of the Sparta Plaindealer; 

edited by E. C. Miner. Monthly. 
OUR WORK, 1877: Edited by Rev. Thomas E. Green; published 

under the auspices of the First Presbyterian Church. 


SANGAMO SPECTATOR, February 21, 1827-1829+ : Edited by Hooper 
Warren, but owned by Ninian Edwards. He sold to Samuel 

C. Meredith. Changed to A 
JOURNAL AND LITTLE SANGAMO GAZETTE, + February 16, 1829-1830: 

Conducted by S. C. Meredith. Discontinued after a few months. 

COURIER, 1830: Editors, George Forquer and Thomas Ford, 
later Governor of Illinois. 

SANGAMON JOURNAL, November 10, 1831-1855+: It appeared 
weekly from November 10, 1831, to June 13, 1848. It appeared 
first as a daily on Monday, June 13, 1848, and has since been 
issued both daily and weekly, under the various titles of Sanga- 
mo Journal, Sangamon Journal, and Illinois State Journal. The 
title Sangamon Journal was retained from the beginning till 
January 12, 1832, when, with no. n, it was changed to Sangamo 
Journal. This paper supported the Whig party, thus favoring 
a national bank, protective tariff, and internal improvements. 
From the birth of the Republican party the Journal supported 
its principles. Published by Simeon and Josiah Francis, 1831- 
1835 ; Simeon Francis, 1835-1838 ; Simeon, Allen and J. Newton 
Francis, 1838-1843 ; Simeon and Allen Francis, 1843-1855 ; W. H. 
Bailhache and Edwaid L. Baker, 1855-1862. On September 
23, 1847, the name was changed to Illinois Journal, and on 
August 13, 1855, was changed to that by which it has since 
been known, namely HSAMF 

[ILLINOIS STATE JOURNAL, +1855 to date: W. H. Bailhache sold 
his interest in 1862 to David L. Phillips. A stock company was 
formed in February, 1863; in March, 1866, Phillips sold his 
stock to Bailhache. In February, 1873, the stock was sold to 
Edward L. Baker, David P. Phillips, Charles Edwards, and J. 

D. Roper. Paul Selby, Milton F. Simmons, and Horace Chapin 
bought the paper in September, 1878, and in 1885 it became the 
property of Frank E. Tracy, Charles T. Stratton and A. F. 
Phillips; after one year Paul Selby and M. S. Kimball bought it; 
in April, 1889, the property was bought by Clarence R. Paul, 


Harry F. Dorwin, and Lewis H. Miner. Paul Selby was asso- 
ciate editor from July, 1862, until after the close of the war, and 
again from 1874 to 1878; he was one of the proprietors and 
editor from 1878 to 1889. Clarence R. Paul was editor from 
1889 until his death, May 28, '1908. He was succeeded by 
Lewis H. Miner. Files for several years owned by Mr. Kerns, 
Wyoming, 111. EDBHSUACWLF 

ILLINOIS HERALD, October, 1831- (?): Established by Edward 
Jones and S. S. Brooks. Later it was published by Edmund 
D. Taylor; edited and printed by Samuel S. Brooks in 1833. 


ILLINOIS REPUBLICAN, 1835-1839: A Democrat paper; supported 
Jackson's policy; was merged into the Illinois State Register in 
1839. It was edited and published by John L. Roberts and 
George R. Weber. Stephen A. Douglas contributed to its 
columns. A mob, one of which was the sheriff of the county, 
attacked the office twice, but was repelled by the Weber Brothers. 

ILLINOIS STATE REGISTER, + August io( ?), 1839, to date : Established 
by John York Sawyer, at Edwardsville as Illinois Advocate. It 
was published at Springfield by Wm. Walters and George R. 
Weber as editors and publishers until 1845. Mr. Walters and 
Charles H. Lanphier were editors and publishers, 1845-1846. On 
the death of Mr. Walters in July, 1846, Mr. Lanphier became 
editor and owner. He and George Walker were its editors and 
publishers, June 4, 1847-1858. On January 2, 1849, the Daily 
Illinois State Register was first issued. Mr. Walker having died, 
Mr. Lanphier and Edward Conner edited and published the 
paper in 1858-1859, Mr. Lanphier becoming sole proprietor 
late in 1859, and so continued until November 24, 1863. During 
1860, the late Congressman William M. Springer, edited the 
paper. Mr. Lanphier' s connection with the Illinois State Reg- 
ister closed in 1863, when it was suspended for a few months. 
It was revived by the Illinois State Register Publishing Company 
under the business management of George Judd and was 
edited by I. N. Higgins. On November 12, 1864, the paper was 
again suspended. On January i, 1865, John W. Merritt and 
sons, Edward L. and Joseph D., became proprietors and revived 
the paper with John W. Merritt as editor-in-chief and Edward 
L. Merritt as his associate editor. January i, 1866, Edward L. 
and Joseph D. Merritt became proprietors under the firm name 
of E. L. Merritt and Brother. In 1873 John W. Merritt was 
succeeded as editor by Edward L. Merritt. In 1877 the Mer- 
ritt Brothers sold the paper to an incorporated company, com- 
posed of John M. Palmer, John Mayo Palmer, Edward L. Mer- 


ritt and James M. Higgins. In 1880 this company sold the 
property to G. W. and J. R. Weber, sons of George R. Weber, 
who was connected with it in 1839, and Charles Edwards, John 
H. Oberly, and G. R. Weber edited it. Soon afterwards the 
paper was turned over to a trustee. Early in 1881 John M. 
Palmer bid it in on a sale and then sold it to George Smith, H. 
W. Clendenin, and Thomas Rees of Keokuk, Iowa, who issued 
their first number of June 19, 1881, under the firm name of Smith, 
Clendenin and Rees. Mr. Smith died in 1886 and the proprietor- 
ship was then placed in an incorporated company composed of 
H. W. Clendenin, Thomas Rees, and the heirs of Mr. Smith, the 
title being the Illinois State Register Company. A few years 
thereafter the Smith interest was purchased by the company 
controlled by Messrs. Clendenin and Rees, which is its present 
owner. Mr. Clendenin has been editor-in-chief since 1881, 
and Mr. Rees has been business manager during the same time. 
The Illinois State Register has been a Democratic paper since 
1836, when Mr. Walters assumed its publication. EDBJAHSUF 

ILLINOIS MESSENGER, i84o-(?): Edited by Samuel S. Brooks. 

OLD SOLDIER, 1840: Edited by a Whig general committee; pub- 
lished by S. J. Francis and Company. A 

OLD HICKORY, February i5-November i, 1840: Published by a 
Democratic general committee. A 

TIMES, October 17, 1843-1845: A Democratic paper edited by 
Samuel S. Brooks. A 

OLIVE BRANCH, March-fall, 1844: A Whig campaign paper issued 
from the office of the Journal. WM 

A German campaign paper edited by I. A. Arenz and published 
by I. F. Ruhe, Jr. A 

ILLINOIS WASHINGTONIAN, March i, 1845 (?) : Published 

by T. S. Fairchild and C. H. Ray for the Illinois State Temperance 
Society. Andrew McCarmack, S. S. Brooks, John B. Weber, 
Edmund R. Wiley and James C. Conkling comprised the pub- 
lishing committee. Monthly. H 

ILLINOIS ORGAN, June 24, i848-i85i(?): Established by George 
B. Goudy and S. S. Whitehurst, publishers and proprietors, and 
apparently, editors. The paper was "devoted to temperance, 
morals, literature, the arts and sciences, general news, and agri- 
culture." Within four months Eli H. Hosea had taken the place 
of Goudy, and the temperance cause had become its chief raison 
d'etre. By its third year D. J. Snow was editor. Volume 3, 
no. 50, July 19, 1851, is the latest copy available. USF 


ILLINOIS UNIONIST AND STATESMAN, 1852-1853 : A single copy in 
the library of the Chicago Historical Society is vol. i, no. 33, for 
March 9, 1853. It gives J. Snow and Company as editors and 
publishers, but does not reveal the politics of the paper. H 

WESTERN LEADER, January, 1854 (?): Published by J. 

Snow and Company to further the aims of the Maine Law 
Alliance. F 

DAILY ENTERPRISE, 1854-1855: Edited by Washington Wright; 
published by Richards and Smith. S 

August, i854-i869(?): A fraternal monthly, edited by William 
Rounseville and published by N. C. Nason. Suspended from 
July, 1856, to April, 1857; then continued by Nason and Hill. 
Apparently there was another suspension, for vol. 5 ended 
in March, 1860, and vol. 7 began April 20, 1867, published by 
N. C. Nason, and edited by N. C. Nason and Samuel Willard. 
They were still conducting it in 1869. With vol. 3 the title was 
changed to Memento and Odd Fellows' Family Magazine. H 

ILLINOIS FARMER, i856-(after 1863): Edited by M. L. Dunlap 
from January, 1860, until after 1863; published by Bailhache 
and Baker. Monthly. U 


Issued by J. D. Freeman and H. Magee to advertise Free- 
man's "patent" medicines. F 

OLIVE BRANCH, January, 1856 (?): Edited by S W. Haw- 
ley as an organ of the Lutheran church. F 

CONSERVATIVE, August 14 till fall, 1856: Issued during the presi- 
dential campaign to favor Millard Fillmore's nomination as a 
candidate for the presidency. F 

DAILY INDEPENDENT, 1856-1858: A. M. Garland was editor; 
Garland and Wheeler were owners and publishers. Frank 
Leonard was a contributor, and Ben Richards was foreman. 
Supported Bell and Everett and the ideas of the know-nothing 
party in 1856. Wholly independent. 

REPUBLICAN, February 9, 1857-- (?): John E. Rosette was 
editor; Jameson, Ashton and Company, proprietors. The paper 
was Republican, but " perfectly independent. ' ' Daily. U 

ILLINOIS STATE DEMOCRAT, 1857-1860: Managed by J. J. Clarkson 
and edited by Elliott B. Herndon. While it claimed to repre- 
sent Democracy it combated the " heresies " of Douglas. 

ILLINOIS STAATS ANZEIGER, i859-i86i(?): Established by Dr. 
Theodore Canisius, who in 1861 was appointed by President 
Lincoln, consul at Vienna. 


LINCOLN CLARION, June 5-November 27, 1860: A campaign paper, 
edited and published by E. R. Wiley, Jr. S 

THEODORA, i86i( ?) : A religious monthly listed in Kenny's American 
Newspaper Directory for 1861. 

MASONIC TROWEL, March, i862-i875(?): Edited and published by 
Harmon G. Reynolds. H. G. Reynolds and Son became pub- 
lishers later. H 

ODD FELLOWS UNION, March 20, i866-February 20, 1867: Pub- 
lished by Harmon G. Reynolds nad Son, edited by H. G. 
Reynolds, past Grand Master, and Samuel Willard, secretary. 
Discontinued at the end of one year. Monthly. HC 

ILLINOIS STAATS DEMOCRAT, 1866-1871 : Established and pub- 
lished by Christian Lohman. 

by Ed. A. Wilson, who was editor and publisher during the 
paper's career. 

ILLINOIS ATLAS. 1869-1871 : Thomas Lewis was editor and pub- 
lisher in the first year ; he was succeeded by Illinois Atlas Com- 
pany. Independent. EA 

LEGAL DIRECTORY, 1869-1873: Established by E. L. and W. L. 
Grass, who were editors and publishers through the paper's 
career. In 1873 it was called Illinois Legal Directory. 

FREIE KANZEL, 1870: A German evangelical paper edited by A. 
Schabehorn, and published by C. Lohmann and Company. 

DIE ZEITUNG, 1870-1871 : Established and published by Christian 

POLITICAL CRISIS. 1871 : Established by R. Weber and Sons. Inde- 

LABOR or LOVE, 1872-1876: A monthly religious publication edited 
and published by Edwin A. Wilson. 

ILLINOIS FREIE PRESSE, 1872-1890: For the first four months Ed- 
ward Rummel, secretary of state, was editor and publisher, sup- 
porting the "liberal movement." Sold to Gehring and Hatze. 
After a year and a half Fred Gehring became sole proprietor 
and editor. In 1886 Gehring sold to Charles Bremer; Bremer 
sold to H. Schlange, the proprietor of Stoats Wochenblatt, who 
discontinued the Freie Presse in 1890. U 

SANGAMO MONITOR, i873-i894(?): T. W. S. Kidd was editor and 
publisher and seems to have continued the paper until about 
1894. Established as a weekly; a morning daily was begun 
in 1877 and called Morning Monitor. Independent. 


1881): Monthly. 

FOOD FOR THE LAMBS, 1876: Issued "four times a month" by Ed- 
win A. Wilson, for those who needed spiritual sustenance be- 
tween the visitations of the Labor of Love. 

ATHENEUM, 1877 ( ?) : A monthly literary journal, discontinued 

before 1881. 

EVENING GAZETTE, 1878-- (?): A daily, edited and published 
by the Gazette Publishing Company. 

STAATS WOCHENBLATT, 1878 to date: Established by H. Schlange, 
who sold to A. Wulff in 1882 and repurchased in 1885. He sold 
to Sexauer and Patzke in 1900. In 1901 B. F. Sexauer became 
editor and proprietor and has continued so to date. 

ODD FELLOWS HERALD, August, 1878 to date: Established by A. 
D. Sanders, this publication has had a somewhat peripatetic 
career. Sanders sold to the Bulletin Publication Company of 
Bloomington in 1883, and the Herald was published by that 
company in Bloomington until 1885 when F. E. Huddle became 
owner. He sold in 1887 to George M. Adams, and Adams, in 
1892, sold to C. F. Mansfield, who removed the Herald to Mans- 
field. In 1893 it was transferred to Owen Scott, who removed 
it to Bloomington. In 1894 it was bought by James R. Miller 
and John H. Sikes, who removed it to Springfield, where it has 
remained. In 1903 Mr. Miller died, and the publication has 
been continued by John H. Sikes and Mrs. Mary P. Miller. It 
is the official organ of the I. O. O. F. of Illinois. 

A. O. H. EMERALD, i879~i88o( ?) + : Organ of the Ancient Order of 
Hibernians. James E. Dunn was editor and publisher. In 
1882 it had been moved to Chicago, and was dated at Chicago 
and Springfield. Publication seems to have suspended late in 
the 8os. 

SUNDAY MAIL, 1879-1880: A short-lived paper edited and pub- 
lished by the Mail Company. 

STATE ARGUS, July 10, 1879 ( ?) : Edited by D. W. Lusk ; pub- 
lished by the State Argus Company, of which George N. Black 
was secretary, William Jayne, president. It was named in the 
subtitle " a weekly journal of general intelligence, state interests, 
politics and literature." The contents indicate that special 
emphasis was placed on Republican politics. U 

ILLINOIS SYNOPTICAL REPORTER, August, 1879-- (?): A bi- 
monthly law journal, edited by J. C. Wells. 



TRIBUNE, February, i879~March, 1880: A non-partisan paper, 
edited and published by Shannon Creed. 


TIMES, August, 1878, to date: Established by Showman and Lamb, 
who sold after two months to W. F. Bently. It was published 
and edited by F. L. Blome from 1885 to 1898; T. H. Edwards, 
1898 to 1904; T. H. and J. J. Edwards, 1904 to 1908; M. W. 
Meyers, 1909. Bound files dating from 1885 to 1908 in pos- 
session of T. H. Edwards. 


TIMES, 1875-1876: Edited and published by W. S. West. Printed 
at the office of the Tamaroa Perry County Watchman. 


TIMES, December, 1854-1857: Established by Charles Boynton 
In 1855 Gratton and Norwood purchased the paper and made 
it Republican. In the spring of 1856 Gratton and Norwood 
sold to L. D. Crandall, under whom the Times became Demo 
cratic and supported James Buchanan for the presidency. 
William Hyde was the editor. In the winter of 1856-1857 Wor- 
thington and Biggert bought the paper, and they continued it 
until its suspension, after about three years. One of the first 
copies is on file in the office of the Gazette. The Times was neu- 
tral in politics under Mr. Boynton. F 

REPUBLICAN, July, 1856-1858+: Established by William Caffrey, 
who strongly advocated the election of John C. Fremont as 
president. Combined with Gazette. F 

GAZETTE, 1857-1858+: Established by H. G. Gratton. It was 
soon combined with the Republican as 

REPUBLICAN AND GAZETTE, +1858+: Caffrey and Gratton were 
joint publishers until Gratton sold his interest to Walter Nimocks. 
Caffrey and Nimocks continued only a short time. Nimocks 
took his share to Kansas, and Caffrey continued the paper under 
the name of H 

GAZETTE, + 1858 to date: In 1861 the Gazette passed into the hands 
of C. M. Worthington and Company. Shortly afterward, Worth- 
ington became the sole proprietor and later, September, 1870, 
sold the office to George Terwilliger. Later he sold back to 
Worthington. In January, 1873, Worthington sold a half in- 
terest to W. F. Eastman and the firm became C. M. Worthington 
and Company. In March, 1876, Eastman became sole editor 


and owner. In four months he sold a half interest to D. J. Jenne. 
The firm of Eastman and Jenne continued until the spring of 
1880, when the Sterling Gazette Company was organized. 
Eastman and Jenne retired and the stock was bought by Chalkly 
John and William R. Cobb. In 1886 Dennis T. Kelly and 
John W. Lee purchased the stock, but their unsuccessful man- 
agement brought the company into the hands of W. F. Eastman 
as receiver. He continued to January, 1887. Since that date 
the owners have been : Chalkly John and H. L. John, January, 
1887, several years; C., H. L., and M. D. John, September, 1903 ; 
Orville P. Bassett and the Sterling Publishing Company, later 
the Sterling Gazette Company, to date. Among the editors of 
the past twenty years have been: W. R. Cobb, Charles M. 
Worthington, Joe R. Adams, M. D. John, Scott Williams, Or- 
ville P. Bassett, and Edward S. Hoover, editor in 1908. The 
Gazette was weekly until 1881, when the daily edition was estab- 
lished. About 1903 a semi- weekly edition replaced the weekly, 
and March, 1907, the semi-weekly was abandoned. The paper 
has been Republican for fifty years. Files are in the office. H 

WHITESIDE COUNTY ARGUS, 1867 to date (1869): In 1869 W. S. 
and G. W. Pratt were editors and publishers. The paper was 

WHITESIDE CHRONICLE, 1868-1870: A Republican paper, estab- 
lished by Theodore H. and Charles M. Mack. Later T. H. 
Mack purchased the whole paper. In 1870 he changed it to the 

STANDARD, 1870 to date: Theodore Mack was editor and publisher 
until 1883, when he sold a half interest to James W. Newcomer 
In 1887 Alfred Bayliss took the place of Mr. Mack; in 1889 
Thomas Diller bought Mr. Newcomer's interest, and later that 
of Mr. Bayliss. He then took Eugene B. Fletcher into partner- 
ship. In 1906 A. L. Richmond bought the paper and has since 
that time published and edited it. In 1892 the paper was 
made a daily. There was also a semi-weekly edition, which 
was abandoned in 1908. The paper is Republican. HU 

RECORD, 1870-1871 : A monthly devoted to miscellany, essays, 
local items, poetry, and jokes. Conducted only one year by 
Calvin Martin. 

ROCK RIVER REVIEW, 1871 : Edited and published by Charles M. 
Mack. Monthly. 

WHITESIDE TIMES, 1874 to date (1879) : Dated at Sterling and Rock 
Falls. (See under Rock Falls.) 

BEOBACHTER, 1877 to date: In 1879 and 1880 Carl Strack was 
editor and publisher; in 1882 H. Matthey, Jr.; L. Oltmanns 
after 1882 to date (1907). German. Democratic. 


CLEAR GRIT, 1877: Edited and published by Ralph W. Norwood. 

OBSERVER, 1879-1880: Edited and published by Charles Strack. 
Issued from the office of the Beobachter. An Independent paper. 

POULTRY BANNER, 1879-1880: A monthly, devoted to poultry- 
raising. J. F. Streeter was editor and publisher. 


ENTERPRISE, 1878-1887+: Edited by Milton A. Bates, 1878; by 
A. M. Anderson and H. Martin latter half of 1878 ; by H. Martin 
and C. D. Shumard early in 1879; by W. B. Townsend and 
Harry Martin last half of 1879; by A. M. Anderson, 1879-1887. 
In 1887 it was changed to the Clipper. It was edited by W. H. 
Fegan and Zip Wilson for a few months, and by W. H. Fegan 
1877 to date. An Independent paper. 


JOURNAL, i874-i877(?): Edited and published in 1875 by A. J. 
Alden; in 1876 by J. J. Penny; in 1877 by J. B. Chapman. U 


MONITOR, 1869 to date: Founded by Rutan Brothers. In a few 
months they sold to F. D. Dalton, who made the paper semi- 
weekly. In 1874 Mr. Dalton sold to Samuel Plumb, who 
returned the paper to weekly form. Mr. Plumb sold to W. W. 
Bean, who, in May, 1881, founded the daily Monitor. Rowell, 
1879, gives Cadet and W. B. Taylor as editors and publishers in 
1879 and the title Monitor-Index in 1880 In 1907 W. W. Bean 
was still conducting the paper, which has always been Republi- 

FREE PRESS. 1873 to date: Founded by Irving Carrier. After the 
first edition the paper was published by Carrier and Bean. In 
1874, they were succeeded by Rev. James H. Clark, who in a 
few months received Walter Hoge as partner. After six months 
Mr. Clark sold his interest to Hoge. John.W. Fornof purchased 
a half interest, February, 1877. Hoge and Fornof, 1877-1878; 
Fornof, 1878-1879; Fornof and Hoge, 1879-1884; Skiver and 
Fornof, 1884 to date. The paper had been Republican except 
under Hoge's management, when it was Democratic. The 
daily was begun in December, 1880. In 1905, the Free Press 
Company was incorporated, and in 1907 was still publishing the 
Free Press, with Fornof and Van Skiver as editors. 

PIONEER, 1875-1877 : Gale and Hodge were editors and publishers 
1876; W. Hector Gale, 1877. Republican. 



EXPRESS, January or February, 1857-1866 : Edited by J. D. Mondy, 
1857-1858; J. H. Waggoner and B. B. Haydon, 1858; J. H. 
and E. E. Waggoner, 1858; E. E. Waggoner, 1858-1859; J. H. 
and I. V. Waggoner, 1859; J. H. Waggoner, 1859; Mr. Wag- 
goner as manager and John R. Ecden, editor, 1859-1860. In 
1860 its publication ceased for awhile. It was revived by Alfred 
N. Smyser and conducted by him, 1860-1862; Ferryman 
Brothers, 1 862-1 866 (irregular); Richard Couch, 1866. Changed 
by Joseph H. Waggoner, who owned the paper in 1866, to 

DEMOCRAT, 1866-1869+ : Richard Couch and I. D. Ferryman, 
1866-1869; Thomas M. Bushnell, owing to a chattel mortgage, 
became proprietor and changed the name to 

PROGRESS, +1869 to date: Bushfield, proprietor, W. H. Smyser, 
editor, 1869; P. L. Shutt and Smyser, 1869-1873; W. H. Smy- 
ser and W. J. Mize, 1873-1883. W. J. Mize and Company, 
1884; I. J. Martin and Company, 1891; I. J. Martin, editor, 
Progress Printing Company publishers in 1895. In 1907 the 
Progress Printing Company were editors and publishers. The 
paper is Democratic. 

MOULTRIE COUNTY UNION BANNER, 1863 (i86o?)-i867+ : Estab- 
lished by W. M. Stanley. W. A. Ballard was editor and manager 
for one year. Then Mr. Stanley became proprietor and editor. 
In 1867 he sold to Alvin P. Greene and J. F. Hughes, who 
changed the name to 

OKAW REPUBLICAN, +1867-1870: The withdrawal of Mr. Hughes 
in 1868 left Mr. Greene editor and publisher. In 1870 the office 
was sold and removed from the county. 

PLAINDEALER, 1872-1874: B. B. and C. W. Everett were editors 
and proprietors. It was traded to P. W. Shutt, who removed 
the office to Paris. A Republican paper. 

MOULTRIE COUNTY CHRONICLE, 1874: Established by Cicero V. 
Walls. It was continued for eleven weeks in the interest of the 
"farmers' movement." 

JOURNAL, 1875 to date (1884) : Founded by W. A. Chapman, who 
in 1876 sold to A. S. Lindsay and J. W. Rohr. In August, Mr. 
Rohr retired and J. T. Williams became editor. In 1878-1877 
Mr. Williams and W. G. Cambridge; 1877, T. L. McGrath 
and J. C. Stanley; May, 1877-1878, J. C. and W. M. Stanley; 
1878-1880, J. C. Stanley; 1880, Fred T. Magruder and James 
R. Sedgwick; 1882, Hogg and Bankson; 1884, A. F. Brown. 



LAWRENCE COUNTY PRESS, November, 1875 to date: An Indepen- 
dent paper, established by James A. Ilger. In April, 1878, he 
sold to C. P. and W. E. Mock. C. P. Mock retired in July, 1878. 
W. E. Mock sold in October, i87g(?) to Z. D. French and A. C. 
Clippinger. They made the paper Republican. After several 
changes in ownership the paper was bought in 1881 by A. C. 
Clippinger, who made it Independent. W. R. Carlton bought 
it in September, 1881, made it Republican and in 1882 changed 
it to Sumner Press. Carlton died in 1889, and after various 
changes in management, the Press was bought by T. H. Seed, 
who conducted it until August i, 1902, when he sold to James I. 
Wagner, the present editor and publisher. 


REPUBLICAN SENTINEL, 1854-1858+: Edited by H. A. Hough, 
1854-1857; Daniel Dustin, 1857-1858. Changed to PF 

DEKALB COUNTY REPUBLICAN, +1858-1861+: Edited by E. L. 
Mayo, Z. B. Mayo, and J. A. Simons. It supported Douglas for 
re-election to the senate. By 1861 the title had been changed 
to Sentinel, under which name the paper was sold to F 

TRUE REPUBLICAN, 1857 to date: Edited by C. W. Waite, 1858- 
1863; H. L. Boies, 1863-1887; F. O. Van Galder, 1887-1899; 
Edward I. Boies, 1899 to date. Proprietors: C. W. Waite, 
1857-1858; J. H. Beveridge and Company, 1858-1859; O. P. 
Bassett, 1859-1862; Mr. Bassett and H. L. Boies, 1862-1865; 
John Norris and Company, 1865-1868; H. L. Boies, 1868-1874; 
Boies and Taylor, 1874-1875 ; Boies and Armstrong, 1875-1878; 
Boies and Peck, 1878-1880; Boies and Hartman, 1880-1884; 
H. L. Boies and Company, 1884-1887; Van Galder and Boies, 
1887-1899; Edward I. Boies and C. H. Bucks, 1899-1900; E. 
I. Boies, 1900-1907; E. I. Boies and A. H. Rasch, 1907 to date. 
It was issued weekly until December, 1869; since then semi- 
weekly. Files are in the office. From 1861, after the Sentinel 
was absorbed, to about the close of the war, the paper was known 
as the PF 

REPUBLICAN AND SENTINEL, 1861-1865: (See True Republican). 
Changed back to True Republican. P 

REFORMER, 1870-1874+: In 1874 Arnold Brothers were editors 
and publishers. Monthly. Methodist. Changed to 

REFORMER AND FREE PRESS, +1874-1876+ : Published by Arnold 
Brothers. "A sprightly family paper. Outspoken upon all 
the popular sins of the day." It became U 


FREE METHODIST, +1876-1880+ : A Methodist weekly, edited and 
published by D. P. Baker and T. B. Arnold, who moved it from 
Aurora (which see). In 1880 it was moved to Chicago. Charles 
B. Ebey wad editor and S. K. J. Chesbro publisher in 1907 
Since July 15, 1907, J. T. Logan has been editor and W. B. Rose, 
publisher. The editors and publishers are elected quadrennially. 

PEARL, i87i(?) (?): A Sunday school monthly edited and 

published by D. P. Baker and T. B. Arnold. U 

DEKALB COUNTY FARMER, 1871-1872 : Volaski Hix was editor and 
publisher. The paper was discontinued after one year. U 

CITY WEEKLY, 1872-1892: Edited by Volaski Hix, 1872-1878; 
Hix and Van Galder, 1878-1887; Hix and Sonn, 1887-1893; 
L. P. Hix, 1893-1902. The paper was changed to the Sycamore 
Tribune, 1902 to date, edited and published since October, 1904, 
by George L. Anderson. Semi-weekly since April, 1902. 
Republican. U 

CHRISTIAN PILGRIM, 1873-1876: Non-sectarian monthly, "opposed 
to all the sins, superfluities, and formalism of the age." M. F. 
Manley and N. T. Frame were editors; Baker and Arnold, 
publishers. U 

FREE PRESS, 1878-1879: A daily established by Davis, Manning, 
and Russell. 


ENTERPRISE, 1874-1875: Established by Thrapp Brothers; D. H. 
Cooke was editor and publisher. 


EGYPTIAN SPY, i86i(?): Listed, without details, in Kenny's Ameri- 
can Newspaper Directory for 1861. 

PERRY COUNTY WATCHMAN, 1870-1872+ : Established by a stock 
company with L. E. Knapp and H. W. Adams as editors and 
publishers. In 1872 D. C. Barber obtained control of the stock 
and leased the office to H. F. Montressor, who changed the name 
to U 

ENTERPRISE, +1872- (?): Short-lived. The material was 

leased to E. W. Koonce, who changed the name to 

STAR ( ?)- ( ?) : Short-lived. The office went into the 

hands of F. A. Allison, who established the 

ITEM, ( ?) ( ?) : Mr. Allison was succeeded by Curlee 

Brothers. After a short time, Mr. Barber sold the office to 
persons in Murphysboro. 

PERRY COUNTY WATCHMAN, January, i874-(after 1876): An Inde- 
pendent paper edited by A. V. Willoughby and Company. U 


PERRY COUNTY PRESS, 1879-1881 : An Independent paper, estab- 
lished by Curlee Brothers. In 1881 it was removed to DuQuoin, 
where it was issued as the DuQuoin Press. 


TORNADO, 1876 to date: Established by A. D. Hill and Charles F. 
Gifford. During the first year it was printed at Prophetstown. 
At the end of the first year Mr. Gifford became sole owner, and 
continued so to 1900. A. D. Hill then conducted it for one 
month and sold to George Isherwood, editor and proprietor to 
date. The paper is Independent. Files are available at the 


INDEPENDENT PRESS, 1858-1868: Edited by Benjamin Winters. 
The press on which this paper was printed had done duty in 
the office of the Missouri Republican as early as 1808, the first 
number of which paper was printed on it. In 1831 it was used 
in establishing the Sangamo Journal in Springfield, Illinois. 
Democratic. F 

JOURNAL, 1859 ( ?) : Published by Carr, Van Kirk, and Com- 
pany. Short-lived. Democratic. 

FLAG, July, 1864-1870 + : Established by the Union League, a 
Republican political organization, as a party organ. J. D. Goudy 
was manager and editor. After three weeks, Paul Conner 
was put in charge, soon purchased the office and became sole 
editor and proprietor, in which capacity he continued until 
April, 1866, when J. J. Squier purchased an interest. The firm 
remained Conner and Squier until November, 1866, when Squier 
purchased Conner's interest, becoming editor and publisher. 
In November, 1870, he changed the name of the Flag to 

ILLINOIS REPUBLICAN, +November, 1870 to date (1881): W. B. 
Squier joined his brother, J. J. Squier, on the Republican, and the 
firm continued Squier Brothers until March, 1874. Partnership 
was dissolved at this time, J. J. Squier remaining editor and 
publisher to date (1881). The paper was Republican. U 

SATURDAY REPUBLICAN: August, 1876 to date (1881): Established 
by John J. Squier; an adjunct to the Illinois Republican, and 
published from that office. 

CHRISTIAN COUNTY DEMOCRAT, August, 1868-1874+ : Established 
with the support of the Democratic party, by John J. Smith, 
who remained editor and publisher until November of that year. 
James Suttle, November, 1868, to September, 1869; S. P. Davis 
and F. L. Powers, September, i869-February n, 1871. W. T. 


Martin then purchased the paper. In May, 1874, the words, 
Christian County were dropped and the paper has since been 
known as the Taylorville 

. DEMOCRAT, +1874-1900: Established by W. T. Martin, sole editor 
and publisher until George W. Weber became a partner Au- 
gust, 1875. Mr. Weber retired in June, 1877. January, 1880, 
Martin sold to Benjamin A. and Philip A. Richards. Richards 
was succeeded by J. F. Harner, he by Vincent Foy and he by C. 
N. Walls. In 1900 the Democrat was bought by the Courier 
and merged with that paper. U 

Shumway and Brother. Monthly. 

INDEPENDENT, March, i875~January, 1876: Established by Messrs. 
Mallory and Danley, proprietors, with R. V. Mallory as editor. 
After thirteen numbers, the editor turned over the business to 
Noyes B. Chapman, who continued the publication, with C. F. 
Tucker as editor, until July 30, 1875. From that date, M. A. 
Bates published and edited the Independent until it was discon- 
tinued January 14, 1876. This paper was the organ of the Gran- 
ger and Greenback element of Christian county and was revived 
as such in March, 1876, under the name of 

FARMERS' JOURNAL, March, 1876 to date (1907) : Resurrected from, 
the Independent by Lewis and Brown, publishers and editors. 
August 31, 1876, the office came into the possession of J. F 
Harner, and E. W. Anderson became editor. After publishing 
the Journal one year, Mr. Harner changed the tone from Gran- 
ger and Greenback to Democratic, which it remained till dis- 
continued. In 1880 J. F. Harner and Company were pub- 
lishers and Anderson and Harner, editors. It was afterward 
changed to Journal; A. D. Webb, editor and proprietor. It 
was discontinued after 1907. 


COURIER, 1867-1873: A Republican paper, edited and published 
in 1869 by D. McCoy. C. E. Brown was editor and publisher 
in 1870-1871 ; Peter Holman and Company, 1872-1873. Printed 
at the office of the Lanark Carroll County Gazette. 

JOURNAL, 1873-1876: Edited and published by Peter Holman; 
printed at the office of the Fulton Journal. A Republican paper. 

NEWS, 1873 to date (1874): Edited and published by Dode Green. 
VILLAGE ECHO, 1874 to date (1876): A Republican paper edited 

and published by W. G. Tate. Printed at the office of the Mount 

Carroll Carroll County Mirror. 



INDEPENDENT, February, i856-May, 1857 : Independent in politics. 

Established by George L. Karl (George Hall ?). 
REGISTER, September, 1876-1877: Established by D. B. Sherwood. 


REGISTER, September, 1876-1877: Established by D. B. Sherwood. 
DEMOCRAT, 1859 to date: In 1907 George Barton and L. M. Wood 
were editors and publishers. Democratic in politics. 


CITIZEN, 1869-1870: Established by John S. Harper, editor and 
publisher. Printed at the office of the Homer Journal. 

HERALD, 1875 to date: Established by E. J. and E. B. Chapin. E. 
J. Chapin, the father, was publisher, the son was editor. In 
1877 the proprietorship passed to E. B. Chapin. In 1891 he 
sold to A. B. Campbell, who is still editor and publisher. The 
paper has always been Republican. U 


REGISTER, 1870-1871: Established and conducted by O. J. and 
L. W. Dimmick. 

LOCAL, i87i-i877(?): Edited by Little and Taylor, 1871-1873: 
Alfred Heath, 1874-1876; William A. Flint, 1877. 

NEWS, 1874 to date: In 1878, under the management of J. W. 
Richardson and William A. McGrew, it was made a strictly local 
paper. In 1879 Mr. Richardson was editor, and Richardson 
and McGrew were publishers. In 1883 Mr. Richardson became 
sole owner and continued publication to 1901, when he took his 
son into partnership. Since 1878 an edition for Lostant has 
been published, called the Lostant Local. A complete file of 
the News since 1878 is kept, bound, in the office, and another at 
the house of J. W. Richardson. The La Salle County his- 
tory states that the News was started as a semi-monthly in 1872, 
by C. M. Kellar, who enlarged it in 1873 and in 1875 sold it to 
William A. McGrew, J. W. Richardson purchasing a half 
interest in 1878. 


PRAIRIE ADVOCATE, 1856-1857+ : Established by John G. Hewitt 

and John Smith, the latter retiring soon. In spring of 1857 Mr. 

Hewitt sold to Rev. R. C. Dunn, who changed it to 
STARK COUNTY NEWS, + 1857-1860 : Mr. Dunn soon sold to Messrs. 

Henderson and Whitaker, and its publication was continued 

somewhat irregularly by Dr. S. S. Kaysbier. 


STARK COUNTY UNION, 1861 : Established on the ruins of the Stark 
County News, in the fall of 1861, by W. H. Butler, who 
abandoned the enterprise after a few months. Neutral in 

STARK COUNTY NEWS, 1863 to date: Established by S. S. Kaysbier 
in the office of the original Stark County News. Mr. Kaysbier 
published it from the spring of 1863 to January i, 1864, when he 
took into partnership Oliver White. In the first number pub- 
lished by the two partners, White had a brief editorial on Lincoln 
as a candidate for a second term as president. This is said to be 
the first public mention of Lincoln's name in this connection in 
the whole country. From the summer of 1864 to the fall of 1868 
White conducted the paper alone; fall of 1868, to spring of 
1869, White and Joseph Smethurst; spring of 1869 for a few 
months Joseph Smethurst and Edwin Butler. ,Edwin Butler, 
from fall of 1869 till after 1884; G. A. Monteith, 1891; Charles 
T. Henderson, editor, J. E. Henderson, publisher in 1895. Re- 
publican in politics. 

STARK COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1860: the organ of the Douglas Club 
of Stark County during the campaign of 1860. First appeared 
in July, 1860; Mr. Schallenberger, editor. Democratic in poli- 
tics; its career ended with the defeat of Douglas in 1860. 

STARK COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1867 (?) + : Established by a com- 
pany of Democrats, August, 1867; Seth Rockwell, publisher, 
M. Schallenberger, editor. Rockwell was succeeded after one 
year by Benjamin W. Seaton. Schallenberger after two years 
was also succeeded by Seaton, who took entire control and 
changed the name of the paper to 

PRAIRIE CHIEF, +1869-1872+ : Mr. Seaton conducted the paper 
until April, 1872, when Henry M. Hall succeeded him and re- 
named the paper 

NEW ERA, +1872-1875: Henry M. Hall was editor and publisher. 

MOLLY STARK, 1876 (?): Published by Oliver White. Repub- 
lican in politics. Tri-weekly. 

HERALD, 1878-1880+ : Edited and published by E. H. Phelps, 
who removed it to Wyoming in 1880. He sold it in 1883 to Ar- 
thur Hotchkiss, who in turn sold to William R. Sandham in 1885. 
Sandham combined it with the Post. Semi-weekly. Republican. 


TAZEWELL WHIG, 1835-1848: Edited by Briggs and Farnham; 
later by P. H. Thompson (see Mirror, Pekin). Vol. 3 is in the 
Withers Public Library, Bloomington. B 


TAZEWELL DEMOCRAT, October, 1843 (?): Edited by W. H. 

Leonard; published by J. A. Nason. 


COURIER, 1873-1875 : Edited and published by E. H. EllifL 


WEEKLY BULLETIN, February, 1873-1884: Established by James 
N. Jarvis, who continued the publication to 1881. Then he sold 
to George Armstrong and Joseph S. Umberger. In three months 
they sold to Henry B. Morris.?. In 1882 Morriss sold to Dr. F. A. 
Sabin. In September, 1883, Mr. Jarvis established the Troy 
Record, and in the spring of 1884 bought the BMetin, merged the 
two plants and discontinued the publication of the Bulletin. The 
motto of the paper was, "Independent in all things; neutral in 
nothing." Files from 1873-1881, excepting that of 1876, acci- 
dentally destroyed, are in the possession of Mr. Jarvis. 


NEWS, i87i-i884(?): J. Russell Smith was editor and publisher, 
1871-1883; J. J Dunkelberg, 1884. Printed at the office of 
the Wheaton Illinoisan. 


PRESS, 1 859- (short-lived) : Proprietor left between two days. 

SHIELD, i86i(?): Listed, without details, in Kenny's American 
Newspaper Directory for 1861. 

JOURNAL, 1864 to date: Established by Siler and Amasa S. Lindsey, 
who were succeeded by Williams in 1876. It was edited and 
published in 1879 by C. M. Walls. In 1881 George Glassco 
conducted the paper; afterward, "Tom" Williams and a Mr. 
Glassco. It was owned and conducted in 1898 by A. C. 
Sluss. In 1907 C. R. Truitt was editor and publisher. Re- 

DOUGLAS COUNTY SHIELD, 1865-1867: Established by the Sellers 

UNION, (?) - (?): Established by a Mr. Gregory. Not a 


INDEPENDENT STATESMAN, 1868 to date (1889): Edited and pub- 
lished by A. Sellers. Democratic. 

DOUGLAS COUNTY REVIEW, 1875 to date: Established by Converse 
and Parks. In 1877 Colonel Phecian became editor. He was 
succeeded in six months by Major Asa Miller, who managed the 
paper up to 1892, when he sold to Charles W. Wilson. Demo- 
cratic, yet popular among Republicans. 

GAZETTE, 1872-1875 : O. B. Lester was editor and publisher. 



Qui VIVE, i868-i877(?): A college paper, edited by the students 
of Shurtleff College. Monthly. 

COLLEGE REVIEW, i879~(?): Frank J. Merchant and John L. 
Pearson, editors. Issued by Shurtleff College students. Monthly. 
(See Alton for other papers.) 


UNION, 1852-1862: Established by William N. Coler and H. K. 
Davis; edited by W. N. Coler, 1852-1853; J. O. Cunningham 
and Benjamin Roney, 1853-1854; in 1854 Roney disappeared 
and George N. Richards entered the firm. In 1855 he sold to 
George W. Flynn. A branch office was opened in West Urbana, 
now Champaign, in 1857. In 1858 the paper was sold to David 
S. and Charles E. Crandall, who moved it to Champaign in 1859. 
In 1852 the Union advocated the election of Pierce for president, 
but in 1856 it took grounds with the anti-slavery party and was 
thereafter Republican. Files of the Union from vol. i, no. 37, 
to August, 1858, are in possession of J. O. Cunningham of 
Urbana. F 

OUR CONSTITUTION, July, 1856-1859: A Democratic paper estab- 
lished by Jacob Zimmerman and George N. Richards, with the 
former as editor. In the fall of 1859 the paper was removed to 
Champaign and soon discontinued. Files complete owned by 
J. O. Cunningham. 

CLARION, October, 1859-1860: Established by Erastus A. Munger 
and Lyman E. Knapp. Sold to William Munhall, who changed 
it from a neutral to a Democratic paper and the name to Hickory 
Boy. Partial files owned by J. O. Cunningham. 

HICKORY BOY, 1860-1861 : Published by William Munhall and 
edited by J. W. Jaquith. Supported Douglas in the campaign 
of 1860. Partial files owned by J. O. Cunningham. 

CHAMPAIGN COUNTY DEMOCRAT, 1861-1862+ : Published by Wil- 
liam Munhall. The name of the Democrat was changed No- 
vember, 1862, to 

CHAMPAIGN COUNTY PATRIOT, +1862-1865: But was published 
under both names by William Munhall as an ardent Union organ 
and supporter of Lincoln. Suspended about the close of the 
Civil War, and material used in the publication of the 

CHAMPAIGN COUNTY JOURNAL, January, 1866-1867: A Demo- 
cratic paper established by Daniel McKenzie and George W. 
Gere. Sold in April to Jarvis D. Hurd; after one year B. B. 
Andrews bought an interest. Suspended in the autumn of 1867 


ILLINOIS DEMOCRAT, 1867-1871 : P. Lochrie was editor and pub- 

TOCSIN, 1869-1870+ : Established and published by Frank M. 
Snyder; M. W. Mathews was editor. In 1870 changed to 

REPUBLICAN, +1870-1878; 1880: Published and edited by Frank 
M. Snyder. Burned in October, 1871, publication was resumed 
in December; burned in 1874 and again resumed; burned in 
1878 and suspended until 1880, when publication was resumed 
and continued some months. Then the property was sold to 
Rev. David Gay, who soon removed it. U 

STUDENT, November, 1871-1873+: A monthly, edited and pub- 
lished by students in the Illinois Industrial University. At 
the beginning of Vol. 3 the name was changed to U 

ILLINI, + January, 1874 to date: Edited and published by students 
in Illinois Industrial University, later University of Illinois. No 
place of publication was indicated after the change of name until 
the beginning of vol. 10, September 16, 1880. Then the Illini 
was issued from Champaign, and became semi-monthly. With 
vol. 23, beginning September 16, 1893, it became weekly; with 
vol. 29, beginning September 20, 1899, it became tri-weekly; 
with vol. 32, beginning September 17, 1902, it became daily 
five days a week, increased to six with vol. 35, beginning Sep- 
tember 20, 1905. Beginning with vol. 34, the Illini has been 
published in Urbana. U 

YOUNG AMERICA. i872(?)- (?): An amateur monthly pub- 
lished in 1872 by Gregory and Smith. 

CHAMPAIGN COUNTY HERALD, 1877-1906+: Established by S. C- 
Harris and Andrew Lewis. After a few weeks Lewis bought out 
Harris. In 1879 he sold to M. W. Mathews and C. B. Taylor- 
In 1 88 1 Taylor sold to Mathews, who continued editor and pub- 
lisher until his death in 1892. Judge J. O. Cunningham has said : 
" Mr. Mathews gave to the Herald a reputation second to no coun- 
try paper in the state of Illinois, and achieved for himself a high 
reputation as a newspaper man." Through most of the time 
that Mr. Mathews was editor, L. A. McLean was manager 
and an editorial writer. Mr. McLean became editor in 1892 
and continued until 1902. He was succeeded by John Gray. 
In 1906 the papei was merged with the Courier (established 
1894) as Courier-eraldH , F. E. Pinkerton and G. W. Martin, 


ENTERPRISE, 1876-1877: Established by D. L. Hennessey; printed 
in Peru ; discontinued after one year. Monthly. 



ILLINOIS INTELLIGENCER, +1820-1832+ : Moved from Kaskaskia to 
Vandalia where Elijah C. Berry was succeeded by a brother, Wil- 
liam Berry, and William H. Brown. The Intelligencer for Feb- 
ruary 15, 1823, contained a severe criticism of the convention 
legislators, written by Brown. To the article was appended a 
note: "The above 'extraordinary legislative proceedings' have 
been published by my partner, Wm. H. Brown, esq., without 
my approbation, and shall be answered next week. William 
Berry." The next number bears Blackwell's name instead of 
Brown's and contains signed articles by William Berry, Wm. 
H. Brown, and R. Blackwell, explaining the change. The paper 
now became pro-slavery. For some time between March 19, 
and May 7, 1824, Berry was financially embarrassed and the 
paper was suspended for a short time. Governor Coles fur- 
nished David Blackwell money to run the paper, and stipulated 
that it should support the anti-convention party. Samuel D. 
Lockwood was editor, representing Coles, but his name does 
not appear in the paper. On the surface, Berry disposed of his 
interest to David Blackwell, whose prospectus asserting that he 
would "give his uniform opposition" to the convention was 
published May 14. David Blackwell published the Intelligencer 
until February 4, 1825, when Robert Blackwell and Company, 
printers to the state and publishers of the laws of the United 
States, became the publishers. With the number for June 24, 
1825, Robert Blackwell alone became publisher. With Robert 
Blackwell's return to control, the paper again became friendly 
to slavery. Judge James Hall bought a half interest January 
17, 1829, and was editor until 1832, when he left Illinois. The 
paper supported Adams, but " felt no animosity to Jackson and 
stood ready to do the same justice to him as to Adams." In 
March, 1832, Hall sold to Sherman and Greiner, owners of 
Illinois Whig, and the two papers were combined, with S. C. 
Sherman as editor. EMWUHSA 

VANDALIA INTELLIGENCER 1 , 1822 : Established by anti-conven- 
tionists led by Governor Coles and Daniel P. Cook. Edited by 
David Blackwell, Secretary of State. 

ILLINOIS MONTHLY MAGAZINE, October, i83o-September, 1832: 
The first literary periodical published in Illinois. It was con- 
ducted by James Hall, and for one year it was published at Van- 
dalia, where it was printed by Robert Blackwell, public printer. 
After the first year the magazine was issued from Cincinnati In 

1 This item, found in the earlier edition of this bibliography, is apparently 
based on a misconception. There is no evidence to show that such a paper ever 
existed. F. W. S. 


January, 1833, Judge Eal! moved to Cincin- 
lished The Western :zine, a 

Illinois Monthly Magazine unt" 
chief contributor, and in si: .Notes on : 

and Manners, and Customs of i.' 
tional topics, stories such as Th. 

Lament, The Money Digg poems, he re; 

ideal suggested in an article 01 -hirh he pub; 

in the number for April, 1831 : "0 rs have In- 

formal and stately, and fastidious Instead of the 

infinite variety of topics, which once gave interest to wo: 
this description, nothing is now admitted but reviews, I 
poetry. . . . Nothing will go down but trifles, cold, f< 
and empty. ... I am much better pleased with the 
old-fashioned magazines .... within whose well 
pages, the reader, whatever might be his taste, was su- 
something agreeable." Among those wfio helped to satis 
the pages of the Monthly the varied tastes of Illinoisans 
Morris Birkbeck, John M, Peck, Governor Edward l 
Asa Fitch, Geor^hftSflQ&d -\v. Chase. "The //- 

Vi?/v;\i{^V/ly jtfsftac^ 

journals," reoa^ariiViilliajBq {fejKfo. asb .-ntiv^Si monograp; 
the Di^xf&ieohcaiil&vparxlDtidl lo aaorto<i#*ed#d 5 /,-> 1833. 
"Raw and crude as the W fin de sieclt tone 

to these publications that i -astern magazines." 

Vol. i is in the Cham HL 

ILLINOIS Wmo, 1831-18^ rman. J: 


i834(?; .'>ination 

gencer. and Sher and pub 

1832-18? Sherma; Mnued u; 

according to ater tha; 


GAZETTE, 1831-- 
ILLINOIS ADVOCATE, 4- January 5, -April \ Whig t 

moved from Ed York Sawyer 

changed to 

X 5 l8 3S+: Conducted under this title by John Yor, 

until April 15, 1835, when title was changed 

,vois ADVOCATE, - 5, i835~March 8, 

weekly. Conlinm A York Sawyer unu ':' 

8, 1836, when "/as bought' I > 

the publicati; 



SR, + 1820-1832 4- : Moved from Kaskaski 
Van. . . i i jah C. Berry was succeeded by a brother, V 

ad William H. Brown. The Intelligencer for F 
ruur , utained a severe criticism of the convei. 

Brown. To the article was appen 
\traor dinar y legislative proceedings' 
d by my partner, Wm. H. Brown, esq., wi- 
nd "shall be answered next week. Wi. 
aber bears Blackwell's name instead 
signed articles by William Berry, Wm. 
ATI, and R. Blackwell, explaining the change. The paper 
ame pro-slaver}' For some time between March 
. Berry was financially embarrassed am! 

a short time. Governor Coles fur- 
ell money to run the paper, and stipulate 
support the anti-convention party. Samuel I 
liter, representing Coles, but his name 

// / WroP n J4frW f #<^ en y disP 056 ^ * 
mffivell wfips? prosptctus asserting, that he 
Karliest kn-wii number of earliest direct antecedent, of / 
, Register, the oldest paper in the statg the 
1 "irWSi'y !}* l^^lMi^S^fflS^t^n 
f -rs to the state and publishers of the laws of the United 
ecame the publishers. With the number for Jun, 
Blackwell alone became publisher. With }< 
return to control, the paper again became fr' 
.. Judge James Hall bought a half interest Jai. 
829," and was editor until 1832, when he left Illinois. 
. r supported Adams, but "felt no animosity to Jackson x. 
d ready to do the same justice to him as to Adams, 
ch, 1832, Hall sold to Sherman and Greiner, owners 

ig, and the two papers were combined with 
erman as editor. EMWUH 

-.A\ INTELLIGENCERS 1822: Established by anti-coi 
ed by Governor Coles and Daniel P. Cook. Edit 
d Blackwell, Secretary of State. 
; MONTHLY MAGAZINE, October, i830-September, 
first literary periodical published in Illinois. 

iiall, and for one year it was published at 1 
i ited by Robert Blackwell, public pnnt 
magazine was issued from Cincinnati 

m found in the earlier edition of this bibliography, is at 
.-. misconception. There is no evidence to show that such a paper 
P. W.S. 


January, 1833, Judge Hall moved to Cincinnati, where he pub- 
lished The Western Monthly Magazine, a Continuation of the 
Illinois Monthly Magazine until December, 1835. Hall was the 
chief contributor, and in such articles as Notes on Illinois, People 
and Manners, and Customs of the West, and in essays on educa- 
tional topics, stories such as The Missionaries, The Indian Wife's 
Lament, The Money Diggers, and many poems, he realized the 
ideal suggested in an article on Periodicals which he published 
in the number for April, 1831 : "Our editors have become too 
formal and stately, and fastidious. . . . Instead of the 
infinite variety of topics, which once gave interest to works of 
this description, nothing is now admitted but reviews, tales and 
poetry. . . . Nothing will go down but trifles, cold, formal, 
and empty. ... I am much better pleased with the good 
old-fashioned magazines .... within whose well furnished 
pages, the reader, whatever might be his taste, was sure to find 
something agreeable." Among those who helped to satisfy in 
the pages of the Monthly the varied tastes of Illinoisans were 
Morris Birkbeck, John M. Peck, Governor Edward Coles, Dr. 
Asa Fitch, George Russell, and Salmon P. Chase. "The Illi- 
nois Monthly Magazine was one of the most typical of the western 
journals," remarks William C. Cairns, in his monograph On 
the Development of American Literature jrom 1815 to 1833. 
"Raw and crude as the West was. there is a fin de siecle tone 
to these publications that is not found in the eastern magazines." 
Vol. i is in the Champaign Public Library. HL 

ILLINOIS WHIG, 1831-1832+ : Edited by S. C. Sherman. It became 

i834(?): A combination of Illinois Whig and Illinois Intelli- 
gencer. Greiner and Sherman were editors and publishers in 
1832-1833; S. C. Sherman in 1834. Continued until 1839, 
according to the Wisconsin list. No copies later than 1834 are 
found. SAEH 

GAZETTE, 1831 (?). 

ILLINOIS ADVOCATE, + January 5,-April 13, 1833+ : A Whig paper 
moved from Edwardsville by John York Sawyer. Title 
changed to ASH 

15, 1835+: Conducted under this title by John York Sawyer 
until April 15, 1835, when title was changed to 

ILLINOIS ADVOCATE, + April 15, i835~March 8, 1836+: Semi- 
weekly. Continued by John York Sawyer until his death, March 
8, 1836, when the property was bought by William Walters and 
the publication resumed as ESHAU 


June 17, 1836+: Published by William Walters as a Demo- 
cratic organ. He dropped Illinois Advocate from the title, and 
substituted SHA 

i836-August 2, 1839+ : Walters continued the publication in the 
support of Democracy until August 2, 1839, when it was moved 
to Springfield, where publication was resumed on August io( ?), 
1839, as Illinois State Register. Walters did the public printing 
under contract with Seth T. Sawyer for the benefit of the widow 
of John York Sawyer, until at the legislative session of 1836- 
1837, Walters was elected public printer. SA 

ILLINOIS STATE REGISTER, February u-March 18, 1836+ : Estab- 
lished by William Walters, and by him combined with Illinois 
Advocate on March 25, 1836. S 

FREE PRESS, May 13, 1836-1837+: William Hodge was editor, 
Hodge and Shrader, publishers. Between March and October, 
1837, the title was changed to AH 

FREE PRESS AND ILLINOIS WHIG, + i837-i84i(?): William Hodge 
was editor and publisher until the fall of 1839, when Hodge and 
Abbott were publishers. The paper was suspended for a while 
in the fall of 1839. It seems that James Kennaday bought the 
paper in 1841 and discontinued it for about two years. H 

FREEMAN, June, 1842-- (?): Edited and published by James 
Kennaday. This paper was violently opposed to Ford's candidacy 
for governor. It accused him of being a Mormon sympathiser 
and in favor of transferring fourteen northern counties to Wis- 
consin, that they might escape the state debt. Duncan was its 
candidate. Probably short lived, or became Free Press. A 

FREE PRESS, 1843-- (?): A revival of the earlier Free Press. 
James Kennaday was publisher, Q. C. Alexander and James 
Kennaday editors until July 20, 1844, when Alexander withdrew. 
Violently Whig. H 

OLIVE LEAF, 1843-1845: Edited by Kellam and Lothrop. It was 
a Baptist journal but also had a secular department. 

ILLINOIS SENTINEL, November 8, i839-i846(?): Edited by John 
McDonald. Democratic. A 

BAPTIST HELMET, November 8, i844-i845(?): Established by S. 
K. Kellam, who at first was editor and publisher. E. W. Young 
soon became associated with Kellam in publishing the Helmet 
According to its motto, the paper was " devoted to religious truth 
and practical godliness." It gave much space to general news, 
and was unusually moderate and sane. H 


May 3, 1851): Established, edited, and published by James 
Kennaday. Eminently insipid. It was friendly to the admin- 
istration, but shows no traces of political interest. Before No. 
19 the title was changed by dropping and Railroad Journal. H 

AGE OF STEAM AND FIRE, 185 2-1 854 + ( ?) : Edited and published in 
August, 1853, by H. P. H. Bromwell, who either discontinued 
it or changed the title to Age of Steam. F 

AGE OF STEAM, April 9, 1854-1855+: Apparently established by 
H. P. H. Bromwell, it was by the seventh number published by 
Morras and Russell, with W. P. Morras as editor. Then Morras 
withdrew, and after a brief suspension Thomas J. Russell alone 
continued the publication with no. 9, which appeared July 15, 
1854, until after June 23, 1855. Disclaiming political partiban- 
shtp, the paper showed Whig tendencies, but was especially not- 
able for its distinctly literary tone. It is said in the history of 
Fayette county that the paper passed into the possession of H. 
P. H. Bromwell, who styled it Age of Steam and Fire, 1 and that 
he later sold to Tevis Greathouse, who changed the name to H 

FAYETTE OBSERVER, +1855-1862: Edited by Tevis Greathouse 
(with a brief intermission during which time it was edited by Mr. 
Davis), 1855-1859; Messrs. Sturgess and Hickman, 1859-1862. 
It represented Democracy until 1860 when it became Repub- 
lican. F 

FAYETTE DEMOCRAT, 1858 to date: Founded by some leading Demo- 
crats of the place, and placed under the management of Messrs. 
Carman and Flynn. The publication was very irregular until 
it came into the hands of Charles G. Smith in 1863. Charles 
G. Smith and Son are the present editors and publishers. 

VANDALIAN, February 27, 1858-- (?): Edited and published 
by G. B. Miller and N. C. Davis. F 

UNION, April, 1864 to date: Established by H. S. Humphrey. In 
1868 Humphrey sold a half interest to Will Richards. They 
sold in 1887 to Lon S. Matherly and J. F. Sayles, who sold in 
1893 to T. N., Ira D., and Jesse Lakin, who under the name 
of T. N. Lakin and Sons still conduct the paper. Republican. 


FAYETTE COUNTY NEWS, February, 1878-1881 : H. R. Miller was 
editor and publisher. Sold after nearly three years to Rudolph 
Ernst, who removed it. Republican. H 

ILLINOIS MEDICAL RECORDER, 1878-1880: R. E. Beach, M.D., 
was editor and publisher in 1879. Medical monthly. 

This statement in the county history is probably erroneous. Existing 
numbers of the two papers show that Age of Steam and Fire preceded Age of 
Steam. A second change is improbable. P. W. S. 



COURIER, 1870-1872: Established by Andrew J. Bell; Bell and 

Wilson were editors and publishers in 1872. 
JOURNAL, 1872 : Edited and published by E. F. Baldwin. 


WATCH TOWER, i86i(?): Listed without details in Kenny's Ameri- 
can Newspaper Directory for 1861. 

CHRONICLE, i87o-i879(?)-i88i to date. Established by George L. 
and Edward P. Durell. F. P. Hallowell was editor for four or 
five months, when George L. Durrell purchased his brother's 
interest and became editor and proprietor. W. L. Ketchum 
purchased the paper in 1879, but withdrew in a short time. G. 
L. Durell resumed his former post. Later (in 1879) A. D. Sta- 
pleford was editor and publisher. The paper was evidently 
discontinued, and in 1881 revived by E. P. and G. L. Durell. 
Republican. In 1907 C. M. Mercer was editor and publisher. 

HERALD, 1869-1870: A Republican paper edited and published by 
E. C. Bennet. 


WEEKLY INDEPENDENT, July, 1877-1878: Twenty-nine numbers 
were published at irregular intervals. Walker and Mehl were 
editors and proprietors. 


EGYPTIAN ARTERY, 1865-1872+: Wright and Company were 

editors and publishers. Republican. Name changed to 
JOHNSON COUNTY HERALD, +1873: Published by Wright and 

Company. Republican. 
JOHNSON COUNTY JOURNAL, 1874 to date (1891): A. J. Alden was 

editor and publisher in 1874-1875; W. E. Chitwood was editor, 

J. J. Penny, publisher, 1876; J. B. Chapman, 1877; Milton A. 

Smith, 1879-1891. Independent. By 1891 it had become an 

exponent of Prohibition. In 1881 this paper was dated also 

from New Burnside. U 

JOHNSON COUNTY YEOMAN, 1874 to date (1879): John T. Keith 

was editor and publisher in 1876; T. G. Farris, Jr., 1877-1879. 

Democratic. U 

NEWS, 1873-1874: George W. Johnston was editor and publisher. 
TIMES, 1879 to date: A. K. Vickers and Brother were editors and 

publishers in 1880; Edward Morton. 1882; T. J. Parker, 1884. 

In 1885 William Henry Gilliam and G. W. Ballance bought the 

paper. W. H. Gilliam was editor and publisher in 1891 and is 

so at present. Republican. 



RECORD, August, 1866, to date: Established by Reynolds and Mil- 
ton. After six months of intermittent solvency they sold to a Mr. 
Johnson, who in October sold one half interest to W. F. Thomp- 
son, and in November sold the other half to E. L. Rich. 
Thompson bought out Rich in 1870, and in 1879 was still owner 
and publisher. In August, 1885, Thompson sold a half interest 
to E. P. Kimball, and in 1887 Kimball became and has contin- 
ued sole owner and editor. Neutral, then Democratic. 

NEWS, April, 1872-1874: Established by R. H. Ballinger and John 
Frank. Publication ceased after a year. Revived by A. M. 
Barker, April, i873(?) and continued till August, 1874. A 
Republican paper. 

CONSERVATIVE, March- June, 1868: Edited and owned by George 
H. Holliday and published by the Macoupin Printing Company. 
A Democratic paper. 

REPORTER, 1879 to date: Established by A. M. Barker, who pub- 
lished it one year; then A. G. David and Company one year; 
E. P. Kimball, one year; B. Brown one year; then George H. 
Sewall until 1897, when he sold to John R. Underwood, who still 
is editor and publisher. A Republican paper. 


OBSERVER, April 12, 1848-1849: A Democratic paper established 
"by Henry H. Hall, and two or three other young men, for the 
advancement of the town." Mark W. Delahay was editor, and 
A. S. Tilden after a time did the rest of the work connected with 
issuing the paper, John J. Ingalls assisted Delahay for a few 
weeks. At the end of a year the plant was sold to Tilden, who 
removed it to Naples. U 

OWL, 1848-1849: A scandal-mongering "society" paper published 
in the winter of 1848-1849 by a compositor named Dedrich. 

CASS COUNTY TIMES, September 9, 1856-1859: Established by 
Richard S. Thomas as a neutral in politics to promote the interests 
of a proposed railroad of which he was president. He sold early 
in 1858 to John Bradley Thompson, who employed Rev. J. S. 
McDowell to edit, and Robert M. Taggart to publish the sheet. 
This arrangement continued until late in 1858, when Thompson 
sold to Taggart. In the fall of 1859 the paper was suspended 
and the plant reverted to Thomas, who sold it to Hezekiah 

CASS COUNTY INDEPENDENT, January, i86o-April ; 1861 : Estab- 
lished by Hezekiah Naylor and Lafayette Briggs. At first the 
paper was neutral in politics, but Briggs soon withdrew to permit 


Naylor to make it radically Republican. R. S. Thomas was at 
this time, according to Dr. John F. Snyder, editor sub-rosa. 
The paper suspended publication in April, 1861, and was removed 
by Naylor to Pekin. 

CASS COUNTY UNION, August, 1860-1864: Founded by Democrats, 
including Jacob Dunaway, Jacob Ward, William Petefish; 
edited and managed by Lafayette Briggs. Briggs left the paper 
in 1863 and was succeeded by Stearns DeWitt Rich, who stayed 
by the paper until its death in the spring of 1864. 

CASS COUNTY DEMOCRAT, May 8, 1866-1868+: Established by 
M. B. Friend, editor and publisher, backed by N. B. Beers, 
Sam Petefish, and "Bill" Easley. After six months M. B.