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Full text of "New species of fishes from Panama"

Oasg^X V^ A.^ljrr 



-XA-'**^ 



Publications 



OF 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL 
HISTORY 



ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 



Volume X 




u 1:5:54 

Chicago, U. S. A. 
1909 - 1923 



7/ 
,5 



NEW SPECIES OF FISHES FROM PANAMA.* 



BY SETH E. MEEK AND SAMUEL F. HILDEBRAND. 



The fishes described in the following pages were collected by the 
authors in the fresh waters of Panama, while engaged in field work on 
the Biological Survey of the Canal Zone; the ichthyological work of 
which is being conducted cooperatively by the Smithsonian Institution, 
the Field Museum of Natural History and the Bureau of Fisheries. 
A complete account of all the fishes collected during the past two years 
on this survey is in the course of preparation. 

Family SILURID^. 

Felichthys amblops sp. nov. 

Type No. 7576, F. M. N. H. ; length 1 1 1 mm. ; Rio Tuyra, Marriganti, 
Panama. 

Head 3.8 to 4.2; depth 4.4 to 4.8; D. I, 5; A. 15 to 17. 

Body elongate, rather robust anteriorly; head short, bluntish; jaws 
sub-equal; width of head i.o to 1.2 in its length, its depth 1.2 to 1.5; 
width of mouth 1.7 to 2.0 in head; eye 4.0 to 4.3; interorbital 1.4 to 1.6; 
dorsal fin nearer tip of snout than adipose fin, its distance from tip of 
snout 2.8 to 3.0 in body; last dorsal ray to adipose fin 2.7 to 3.1; dorsal 
spine rugose on anterior margin, smooth behind, its length 1.3 to 1.6 in 
head; pectoral spine strong, rough on outer margin, the inner with 
strong retrorse teeth, its tip nearly reaching ventrals, its length .9 to 
1.2 in head; ventrals 1.7 to 2.0 in head; caudal fin forked. 

Color dark above, lighter below, top of head marbled with black; 
a dark blotch on shoulder extending a short distance on side. 

Tuyra River basin. 

Megalonema punctatum sp. nov. 

Type No. 7577, F. M. N. H.; length 142 mm.; Rio Tuyra, Boca de 
Cupe, Panama. 

Head 3.80; depth 5.35; D. I, 6; A. 10. 

77 

♦Issued March 3, 1913. 



78 Field Museum of Natural History — Zoology, Vol, X. 

Body elongate, the dorsal region elevated; profile slightly convex; 
mouth sub-inferior, 5^ of band of premaxillar>'' teeth exposed; band of 
teeth in lower jaw about >^ width of the premaxillary band; maxillary 
barbels reaching end of shortest caudal rays; eye 4.15 in head; snout 
2.30; interorbital 3.86; dorsal rather high, its spine 1.20 in head; first 
dorsal ray 1.04; last dorsal ray 2.82; longest dorsal ray not reaching 
adipose fin; depth at origin of adipose fin 2.04 in head; depth of caudal 
pedimcle 5.50; base of adipose fin 1.41 in head; pectoral spine slightly 
roughened on outer margin, its inner margin with 24 rather strong 
retrorse teeth, its length 1.28 in head; humeral process scarcely reaching 
middle of pectoral spine, its length 2.47 in head; caudal fin deeply 
forked. 

Color light silver}' below, darker above; sides and top of head with 
many small black spots. 

Tuyra River basin. 

riegalonema robustum sp. nov. 

Type No. 7578, F. M. N. H. ; length 290 mm. ; Rio Tuyra, Marriganti, 
Panama. 

Head 3.8; depth 4.4; D. I, 6; A. 10. 

Body elongate, robust, profile nearly straight; dorsal region ele- 
vated; mouth sub-inferior, about half of band of premaxillary teeth 
exposed; band of teeth of lower jaw nearly as ^\'ide as premaxillan,' band; 
maxillar}' barbels reaching to or sHghtly past middle of adipose fin; eye 
5.0 to 5.6 in head; snout 2.3; interorbital 3.0 to 3.4; dorsal fin rather 
high, its spine i.i to 1.2 in head; first dorsal ray .9 to i.i ; last dorsal ray 
2.8; longest dorsal ray not reaching adipose fin; base of adipose fin 1.2 
in head; depth at origin of adipose fin 1.5 in head; depth of caudal 
pedimcle 3.1 to 3.2; pectoral spine roughened on outer margin, the 
inner vi4th 32 rather small retrorse teeth, its length i.i in head; himieral 
process 2.3 in head, not reaching middle of pectoral spine. 

Color dark olivaceous above, silvery below; sides and head without 
spots. 

Tuyra River basin. 

Family PYGIDIID^. 

Pygidium striatum sp. nov. 

Type No. 7579, F. M. N. H.; length 84 mm.; Rio Cana, Cana, 
Panama. 

Head 5.3 to 6.3; depth 7.4 to 8.2; D. 8; A. 6. 



March, 1913- Fishes from Panama — Meek and Hildebr and. 79 

Body elongate, compressed; top of head flat; width of head 1.2 to 
1.7 in its length; interorbital 3.6 to 4.5 in head; eye 7.5 to 9.3; snout 
2.2 to 2.5; gill openings extending forward nearly to opposite eye; 
pectorals short, the first ray slightly produced, its length i.o to 1.3 in 
head; maxillary barbels reaching to base of pectorals; origin of dorsal 
over or slightly behind tips of ventrals; origin of ventrals midway be- 
tween tip of snout and tip of caudal; origin of dorsal in advance of anal, 
its last ray over middle of anal; length of caudal peduncle i.i to 1.4 in 
head, its depth 1.6 to 1.7; caudal fin truncate to slightly rounded. 

Color light olive, a dark band from upper angle of opercle to middle 
of base of caudal, above this a second similar band; back with black 
spots, each about twice diameter of eye; similar spots sometimes on 
lower part of sides, these most numerous on the largest specimens; 
occasionally portions of the lateral bands are more or less broken up 
into spots and blotches. 

Tuyra River basin. 

Family LORICARIID^. 

Ancistrus planiceps sp. nov. 

Type No. 7580, F. M. N. H.; length 198 mm.; Rio Tuyra, Boca de 
Cupe, Panama. 

Head 2.7 to 2.8; depth 6.2 to 6.6; D. I, 8; A. I, 3; lateral scutes 24 to 
26. 

Body depressed anteriorly, rounded to compressed posteriorly; 
width of head 1.2 to 1.3 in its length; depth of head 2.4; eye 7.4 to 8.5; 
interorbital 2.3 to 2.4; mandibular ramus 6.5 to 8.0; snout 1.6 to 1.8 in 
head; head without ridges, the median portion of the snout elevated; 
sides of snout margined with bristles; interoperculum movable, armed 
with about 28 spines, capable of being everted and nearly concealed 
under edge of operculum, the longest spine 3.5 to 4.2 in head; scutes 
spinulose, not carinated; 6 scutes between dorsal and adipose fins, 11 
between anal and caudal; supraoccipital scute bordered by median 
scute and 2 lateral ones ; lower surface of head and abdomen naked ; first 
dorsal ray i.i to 1.4 in head; base of dorsal 1.7 to 1.8, equalling its 
distance from adipose fin; pectoral spine extending to distal fourth of 
ventral, its length .9 to i.o in head; caudal obliquely truncate; depth of 
caudal peduncle 3.6 to 4.0 in head, its depth in its length 3.1. 

Color dark, uniform, fins all spotted with blue to bluish white; 
abdomen and under side of head with or without light spots. 

Tuyra River basin. 



8o Field Museum of Natural History — Zoology, Vol. X. 
Acanthicus canensis sp. nov. 

Type No. 7581, F. M. N. H.; length 76 mm.; Rio Cana, Cana, 
Panama. 

Head 2.7 to 2.8; depth 6.0 to 7.0; D. I, 8; scutes 22 or 23. 

Body elongate, depressed; head evenly convex from snout to nape, 
its width .9 to I.I in head, its depth that of body, 2.3 to 2.6 in head; 
eye 7.0 to 8; interorbital 3.2 to 3.6; snout 1.5 to 1.7; mandibular ramus 
3.4; interopercular spines present, not entirely retractile under opercle, 
the longest spine 1.5 to 2.1 in head, its tip nearly reaching middle of 
pectoral spine; 5 to 7 of spines of interopercle longest, the remainder, 
about 10, very short; abdomen and under side of head naked; first 
dorsal ray 1.5 to 1.7 in head; base of dorsal 1.4 to 1.6 in head; anal fin 
and adipose fin absent; pectoral spine reaching from about first fourth 
to first half of ventrals, its length .9 to 1.2 in head; depth of caudal 
peduncle 2.9 to 3.2 in head; caudal obliquely truncate; scutes spinulose, 
not keeled. 

Color dark olivaceous, lighter below; all of the fins with dark spots 
on rays, these forming indistinct bars; interradial membranes plain. 

Tuyra River basin. 

Loricaria capetensis sp. nov. 

Type No. 7582, F. M. N. H.; length 164 mm.; Rio Capeti, Panama 

Head 4.7; depth 12; D. 7; A. 6; scutes 19 + 11. 

Body elongate, moderately depressed, the dorsal region not elevated ; 
width of head 1,4 in its length, its depth 2.6 to 2.7; eye 6 in head, the 
orbital notch present; interorbital 5.1 to 5.3 in head; snout rounded, 
the profile from interorbital to its tip straight, its length 1.9 in head; 
upper lip with a fringe of blunt tentacles; the lower lip broad, papillose, 
with marginal fringe; top of head strigate, a slight double occipital 
keel, the two portions meeting at the apex; the two nuchal plates each 
with a pair of keels; lateral keels moderately strong, not completely 
united on posterior part of the body; abdomen with 2 or, irregularly 
3 rows of plates on its middle, these separated from the lateral ones 
by a broad naked strip ; between the pectorals the median strip is wider 
and broken up into several smaller plates; anal plate in contact with 
3 plates, the anal buckler composed of about 12 plates, first dorsal ray 
.9 in head; pectorals reaching to about first fourth of ventrals, 1.2 in 
head; ventrals 1.3; width at anal 4.8 to 5.4 in its distance from base 
of caudal ; upper lobe of caudal greatly produced, its length in the type 
115 mm. 

Color brownish, back with 4 or 5 cross bands; fins spotted, the spots 



March, 1913. Fishes from Panama — Meek and Hildebrand. 81 

confined mostly to the rays and forming cross bars, most numerous 
and distinct on the caudal fin ; a broad dark bar under eye and a narrow- 
one on anterior portion of interorbital. 
Tuyra River basin. 

Loricaria tuyrensis sp. nov. 

Type No. 7583, F. M. N. H.; length 350 mm.; Rio Tuyra, Boca de 
Cupe, Panama. 

Head 4.4 to 4.7; depth 9.5 to 11. 5; D. I, 7 or 8; A. I, 5; scutes 20 or 
21 + 10 to 12. 

Body elongate, depressed; width of head 1.2 to 1.3 in its length; 
depth of head 2.5; eye 6 to 8 in head; interorbital 4.6 to 4.8; snout 1.7 
to 1.8; teeth 9 or 10 in upper jaw, 13 or 14 in the lower; lips with large 
papillae, the upper fringed with a few blunt tentacles, the lower broad, 
its surface with papillae and with fringed margin; top of head covered 
with short spinules; temporal and occipital plates each with one keel; 
predorsal plate without keel, the other plates between dorsal and head 
each with a pair of keels; lateral keels separate throughout their length; 
under surface of head naked, the plates on abdominal area extending 
forward nearly to gill opening ; median abdominal plates in two series ; 
the abdominal region entirely scaled; anal plate in contact with 3 or 
4 plates, anal buckler usually with 12 to 14 plates; pectoral spines 
reaching slightly beyond base of ventrals, length of first ray 1.2 to 1.3 
in head; first dorsal ray .9 to i.o in head; width of body at anal 1.7 in 
head, 3.9 to 4.1 in distance from anal to caudal; upper caudal ray 
produced, its length in type 145 mm., more than half length of 
caudal peduncle. 

Color dark brownish above, slightly lighter below; fins indistinctly 
spotted, caudal irregularly barred, the spots or dark markings on fins 
present on both the rays and the interradial membranes. 

Tuyra River basin. 

Oxyloricaria dariensis sp. nov. 

Type No. 7584, F. M. N. H; length 245 mm.; Rio Tuyra, Boca de 
Cupe, Panama. 

Head 4.5 to 5.0; depth 9.0 to 10; D.I, 7 or 8; A. I, 5; scutes 15 or 16 + 
17 or 18. 

Body elongate, depressed, the dorsal region somewhat elevated; 
width of head 1.7 to 1.9 in its length; depth of head 2.5 to 2.7; eye 7 to 
9 in head, without orbital notch; interorbital 3.2 to 3.6 in head; snout 
depressed, somewhat attenuated, its length 1.6 to 1.7 in head; teeth 



82 Field Museum of Natural History — Zoology, Vol. X. 

cardiform, about equal in both jaws; lower lip broad, papillose; top 
of head smooth ; lateral keels very weak, completely united posteriorly ; 
abdomen with 3 series of plates between the lateral ones; anal plate 
in contact with 3 plates; dorsal fin high and pointed, its first ray 0.7 to 
0.8 in head; pectoral spines reaching from about first fourth to first 
half of ventral, .9 to 1.2 in head; width of body at first anal ray 5.0 to 
5.8 in length of caudal peduncle; males with bristles on sides of head; 
both lobes of caudal produced into long filaments. 

Color dark brownish, a dark band on each side from snout to caudal, 
wider and better defined on sides of head and body, becoming faint 
or disappearing on caudal portion of the body; top of head with a few 
irregiilar dark streaks; under side yellowish, with darker median line 
on caudal peduncle, and more or less mottled with darker laterally; 
first 2 or 3 rays of dorsal fin black or marbled with black, rest of dorsal, 
pectorals and ventrals with black spots, these usually present on anal 
also; a black band on each lobe of the caudal. 

Pacific slope of eastern Panama. 

Oxyloricaria citurensis sp. nov. 

Type No. 7585, F. M. N. H.; length 194 mm.; Rio Cupe, Cituro, 
Panama. 

Head 4.5 to 5.1; depth 8 to 10. o; D. I, 7; A. I, 5; scutes 16 or 17 
+ 13 or 14. 

Body elongate, moderately depressed; depth of head 2.3 to 2.5 in 
its length, width 1.4 to 1.5; eye 6.8 to 8.3; interorbital 3.3 to 3.6; snout 
rounded, its length 1.7 to 1.9 in head; teeth cardiform, about equal 
in both jaws; lower lip broad, with papillae; top of head smooth, lateral 
keels weak, completely united posteriorly; abdomen with 6 or 8 rows 
of plates between the lateral ones; anal plate preceded by three plates; 
dorsal fin high, pointed, its first ray 0.8 to i.o in head; pectoral spines 
reaching about first fourth of ventrals, i.i to 1.2 in head; ventrals i.i to 
1.2; width of body at first anal ray about 4.1 to 4.6 in caudal peduncle; 
upper lobe of caudal produced; sides of head without bristles or with 
very short ones. 

Color dark grayish brown, top of head and body with faint dark 
spots, a few dark spots on dorsal, caudal and pectoral fins; under sur- 
face light with yellowish tinge. 

Tuyra River basin. 



March, 1913. Fishes from Panama — Meek and Hildebrand. 83 



Family CYCLOPID^. 

Cyclopium pirrense sp. nov. 

Type No. 7586, F. M. N. H.; length 130 mm.; Rio Cana, Cana, 
Panama. 

Head 3.3 to 3.6; depth 5.0 to 6.0; D. I, 5; A. I, 5. 

Body robust, compressed posteriorly; head depressed, broad, its 
width equaling its length; anterior teeth of upper jaw pointed, those 
of the lower bicuspid; snout 1.8 to 2.0 in head; interorbital 3.4 to 4.1; 
origin of dorsal over ventrals, its distance from tip of snout 2.2 to 2.4 in 
body; first dorsal ray with its tip produced, its length i.i to 1.4 in head, 
the tips of first dorsal rays reaching slightly past those of the last rays 
when the fin is deflexed; pectoral spines produced, their tips reaching 
to or past middle of ventrals, their length .7 to .9 in head; ventrals 
i.o to 1.2; adipose fin long, without trace of spine; caudal peduncle 
deep, 1.7 to 1.9 in head; last anal ray to caudal 1.5 to 1.7 in head; caudal 
emarginate, the outer rays produced. 

Color brownish mottled with darker; base of anal and dorsal black; 
a faint black bar at base of caudal rays; base of first rays of anal usually 
with a black spot. 

Tuyra River basin. 

Family CHARACID^. 

Parodon dariensis sp. nov. 

Type No. 7587, F. M. N. H.; length 140 mm.; Rio Cupe, Cituro, 
Panama. 

Head 4.4 to 4.5; depth 4.3; D. I, 10; A. I, 8; scales 36. 

Body elongate, robust, the dorsal region elevated; mouth inferior, 
transverse; the teeth of upper jaw 3-3 or 4-4, pointed or incisor, their 
edges nearly smooth to finely denticulated; eye 4.4 to 5.0 in head; snout 
3.0; interorbital 2.6; dorsal fin with its margin convex or nearly straight, 
its origin about midway between- tip of snout and posterior margin of 
adipose fin; snout to dorsal 2.1 in body; pectoral broad, of 15 rays, its 
length .95 in head; ventrals i.i in head; base of anal 2.8 to 3.1; depth 
of caudal peduncle 1.8 to 1.9; caudal fin forked. 

Color olivaceous, the dorsal region very dark; sides with two black 
lateral bands, each as wide as eye, these partly broken into confluent 
black spots; dorsal and anal fins each with 2 black bars; caudal with 



84 Field Museum of Natural History — Zoology, Vol. X. 

two oblique black bars on each lobe; pectorals and ventrals nearly 
black mesially. 

Tuyra River basin. 

Brycon argenteus sp. nov. 

Type No. 7588, F. M. N. H.; length 230 mm., Rio Aruza, Aruza, 
Panama. 

Head 3.7 to 4.0; depth 3.2 to 3.6; D. 10; A. 24 to 26; scales 42 to 45. 

Body elongate, moderately compressed; the profile nearly straight; 
mouth large, the upper jaw slightly the longer, margin 9f lower lip 
between the first and second rows of premaxillary teeth; eye 3.2 to 3.5 
in head; snout 3.8 to 4.2; maxillary 2.2 to 2.4; maxillary teeth 16 or 17 
on each side; gill-rakers 9 + 12 or 13; origin of dorsal slightly behind 
that of ventrals; pectorals 1.5 in head; caudal peduncle 2.7 to 2.9. 

Color silvery, darker above; sides without lines or bands; a large 
black spot on caudal peduncle extending on base of caudal rays. 
■ Pacific slope of eastern Panama. 

Brycon petrosus sp. nov. 

Type No. 7589, F. M. N. H.; length 285 mm.; Upper Chagres. 
Panama. 

Head 3.7 to 3.9; depth 3.5 to 3.7; D. 9 or 10; A. 30 to 32; scales 
52 to 58. 

Body elongate, robust, moderately compressed; profile concave; 
mouth large, the upper jaw the longer, the second row of teeth at margin 
of lower lip; eye 3.6 to 4.0 in head; snout 3.4 to 3.6; maxillary reaching 
nearly to middle of eye, its length 2.1 to 2.3 in head; maxillary teeth 
12 or 13 on each side; gill -rakers 10 to 12 + 12 or 13; origin of dorsal 
slightly in advance of middle of ventrals, about midway between base 
of caudal and nostril; pectorals 1.4 in head; depth of caudal peduncle 
2.8 to 2.9 in head. 

Color uniform silvery; sides without dark lines or bands; a large 
caudal spot extending on base of caudal rays. 

Chagres River basin. 

Roeboides macrolepis sp. nov. 

Type No. 7590, F. M. N. H.; length 56 mm.; Rio Cupe, Boca de 
Cupe, Panama. 

Head 4.3 to 4.4; depth 3.4 to 3.8; D. I, 7 or 8; A. H, 49 to 54; scales 
48. 

Body elongate, much compressed ; profile nearly straight ; back not 



March, 1913. Fishes from Panama- — Meek and Hildebrand. 85 

much elevated; mouth small, maxillary short, 3.2 to 3.5 in head, its 
tip barely reaching past front of eye; jaws with a single series of weakly 
tricuspid teeth, about 9 + 9 in each jaw; maxillary with 5 pointed 
teeth; eye 2.6 to 2.8 in head; snout 4.8 to 5.2; dorsal fin high, its longest 
ray about equals head; origin of dorsal behind front of anal, nearer base 
of caudal than the tip of the snout; pectoral i.i to 1.2 in head; caudal 
peduncle 2.3 in head; lateral line developed on 8 or 10 scales. 

Color olivaceous, a broad silvery band; no spots on sides or on base 
of caudal. 

Tuyra River basin. 

Creagrutus simus sp. nov. 

Type No. 7591, F. M. N. H.; length 57 mm.; Rio Cupe, Cituro, 
Panama. 

Head 3.6 to 3.8; depth 3.3 to 3.4; D. I, 8 or 9; A, II, 13 or 14; scales 

Body elongate, moderately robust; snout blunt, the lower jaw the 
shorter; eye 2.5 to 2.6 in head; snout 3.4 to 3.7; cheek about 3.1 ; maxil- 
lary nearly. to middle of eye, its length 2.5 to 2.7 in head; gill-rakers 
5 + 9 ; dorsal over or slightly behind ventrals, its origin nearer posterior 
end of adipose fin than tip of snout; anal short, its base 5.5 to 5.8 in body; 
pectorals 1.3 in head; ventrals 1.6; least depth of caudal peduncle 2.0 
to 2.3 in head. 

Color olivaceous, sides with broad silvery band; a humeral spot; 
no caudal spot. 

This species differs from C. notropoides in being less robust, more 
compressed, and having a slightly larger eye. 

Tuyra River basin. 

Family GYMNOTID^. 

Stdnarchus rostratus sp. nov. 

Type No. 7592, F. M. N. H.; length 126 mm.; Rio Grande, Cana, 
Panama. 

Close to S. hrasiliensis Reinhardt, with snout 2.66 in head; depth 
1.29; depth of head 1.63; depth of head in front of eye 3.18; eye 9.8; 
angle of mouth tmder front of eye; 14 or 15 scales between lateral line 
and middle of back; anal rays 172. 

Color uniform brown; a yellow stripe from snout on upper part 
of head and back, disappearing on posterior fourth of body. 



86 Field Museum of Natural History — Zoology, Vol. X. 

Family P(ECILIID.E: 

Rivulus brunneus sp. nov. 

Type No. 7593, F. M. N. H.; length 41 mm.; Toro Point, Canal 
Zone, Panama. 

Head 3.4 to 3.6; depth 4.7 to 4.8; D. 8 or 9; A. 12 to 14; scales 38 to 
40. 

Body robust; head rather broader than deep; diameter of eye 3.2 
to 3.4 in head; origin of dorsal over posterior third of anal; last ray 
of anal about opposite sixth ra}^ of dorsal; origin of dorsal to base of 
caudal 2.5 in its distance from eye, about midwaj'^ between tip of caudal 
and anterior margin of opercle; pectoral 1.4 to 1.5 in head, their tips 
not reaching ventrals. 

Color bro^vTiish, sides sHghtly speckled with darker; tip of anal rays 
black; a black stripe from tmder side of caudal peduncle to end of lower 
caudal rays, in some specimens the upper caudal rays ^with a similar 
bar, these not prominent in the smaller specimens; caudal and dorsal 
with few faint spots. In life the upper parts of the body gra\4sh with 
shades of pink; belly pale wnth shades of pink, fins all reddish; base 
of caudal and anal deep red. 

Atlantic slope of central Panama. 

Gambusia cascajalensis sp. nov. 

Type No. 7594, F. M. N. H.; length 55 mm.; Rio Cascajal, Porto 
Bello, Panama. 

Head 3.7 to 3.8; depth 3.7 to 3.8; D. I, 6; A. II, 7; scales 8-26. 

Body elongate, compressed; the dorsal region slightly elevated; 
mouth small, the gape extending about y^ distance to eye; lower jaw 
the longer; the teeth in both jaws in several series, the outer shghtly 
enlarged; snout 3.1 to 3.2 in head; eye 2.9 to 3.1; origin of dorsal over 
last anal rays, its distance from base of caudal 1.9 to 2.1 in its distance 
from tip of snout, about midway between tip of caudal fin and eye; 
anal falciform, its anterior ra>'^ the longer, their length about 1.2 in 
head, their tips reaching beyond tips of last rays when the fin is deflexed; 
ventrals reaching nearly to anal; caudal fin rounded; giU-rakers 12; 
caudal peduncle 1.8 in head, 13 scales before dorsal fin. 

Color olivaceous; base of anal and anterior rays black, tip of dorsal 
rays black; a broad dark curved bar at base of caudal rays, rather in- 
distinct in some specimens. 

Rio Cascajal, Atlantic slope of Panama. 



March, 1913. Fishes from Panama — Meek and Hildebrand. 87 
Gambusia latipunctata sp. nov. 

Type No. 7595, F. M. N. H.; length 39 mm.; Arrijan, Panama. 

Head 3.8 to 3.9; depth 3.4 to 3.6; D. I, 7 or 8; A. II, 6 or 7; scales 
7-32. ^ 

Body elongate, robust ; dorsal region scarcely elevated ; mouth moder- 
ate, the gape about half way to eye; lower jaw the longer; teeth in jaws 
in several series, the outer enlarged; snout 3.4 to 3.9; eye 2.7 to 3.1; 
origin of dorsal over middle or anterior ^ of anal, its distance from 
base of caudal 1.8 in its distance from tip of snout, about midway 
between tip of caudal and anterior margin of eye; anal falcate, its 
anterior rays 0.9 to i.i in head; ventrals scarcely reaching anal; gill- 
rakers 12; caudal peduncle 1.6 to 1.7 in head; caudal rounded, width 
of head 1.5 in its length. 

Color olivaceous, the margin of the scales darker; sides with 10 to 15 
spots along the side (specimens under 40 mm.), forming a broken lateral 
band in large specimens, vertical diameter of each spot about twice its 
horizontal diameter; anal with a black spot at base of rays extending 
on longest rays; dorsal with dark spots across its middle. 

Streams of the Pacific slope of Panama in and near the Canal Zone. 

Gambusia cana sp. nov. 

Type No. 7596, F. M. N. H.; length 39 mm.; Rio Satiganti, Cana, 
Panama. 

Head 3.9 to 4.2; depth 3.8 to 4.0; D. I, 5 or 6; A. II, 6; scales 8-30. 

Body elongate, robust ; dorsal region little elevated; mouth moderate, 
its gape nearly half way to eye; teeth in several series, the outer en- 
larged; snout 3.7 to 4.0 in head; eye 3.0 to 3.3; origin of dorsal over last 
rays of anal, its distance from base of caudal 1.8 to 1.9 in its distance 
from tip of snout, about midway between tip of caudal and snout; anal 
fin with the first rays not falcate, their tips reaching beyond tips of 
last rays when fin is deflexed; longest anal ray i.o to i.i in head; 
ventrals not reaching anal; caudal fin truncate or slightly rounded; 
caudal peduncle 1.4 to 1.6 in head; gill -rakers 12; 17 scales before dorsal 
fin. 

One male (25 mm.) has head 4.25; depth 4.10; modified anal .65 in 
head, its tip reaching about halfway to base of caudal. 

Color 9 nearly uniform olivaceous; on some specimens faint traces 
of broad dark bars on posterior half of body; margin of scales dark; 
dorsal dark at base; a black spot on preanal region, scarcely extending 
on base of anal fin; males with a few faint cross bars on posterior half 
of sides; sides with a black spot. 



88 Field Museum of Natural History — Zoology, Vol. X. 

In general appearance this species resembles G. episcopa, the dorsal 
fin is more posterior, the head much shorter, and the dorsal and anal 
fins smaller. 

Pacific slope of eastern Panama. 

Gambusia darienensis sp. nov. 

Type No. 7597, F. M. N. H.; length 35 mm.; Rio Capeti, Panama. 

Head 4.0 to 4.2; depth 3.5 to 3.6; D. I, 6 or 7; A. II, 6 or 7; scales 
8-30. 

Body elongate; the dorsal region little elevated; mouth small, the 
gape extending about }4 distance to eye; teeth in several series, the 
outer enlarged; snout 3.7 to 3.8 in head; eye 3.0 to 3.2; origin of dorsal 
behind anal fin, its distance from base of caudal 2.3 to 2.4 in its distance 
from tip of snout, about midway between tip of caudal and opercle 
or posterior margin of eye; anal fin with margin nearly straight, the 
tip of first rays scarcely reaching those of last rays when the fin is de- 
flexed; longest anal rays 1.2 to 1.3 in head; ventrals reaching anal; 
caudal fin rounded; caudal peduncle 1.4 to 1.5 in head; gill-rakers 13; 
18 scales before dorsal fin. 

One male (29 mm.) has head 3.9; depth 4.4; snout 3.6 in head; eye 
3.4; modified anal .75, its tip reaching about ^ distance to base of 
caudal fin. 

Color ? olivaceous, uniform, the margin of the scales lighter; 
c? with about 20 narrow vertical dark bars on sides behind pectoral 
fin, sides without dark spots, otherwise like the female. 

The caudal fin is more rounded on this species than in any of the 
others. It is especially characterized by its small dorsal fin which 
is well posterior of the anal fin. The tips of first rays of the anal fin 
do not reach tips of last rays when the fin is deflexed. 

Tuyra River basin. 

Family CICHLID^. 

Cichlasoma umbriferum sp. nov. 

Type No. 7598, F. M. N. H.; length 195 mm.; Rio Cupe, Cituro, 
Panama. 

Head 2.3 to 2.6; depth 2.4 to 2.6; D. XVII, 11; A. VI, 8; scales S3- 

Body elongate, rather robust ; anterior profile evenly ton vex to eye, 

straight or slightly concave on snout; lower margin of upper lip on 

level with lower portion of eye and upper edge of base of pectoral; jaws 



March, 1913. Fishes from Panama — Meek and Hildebrand. 89 

subequal, upper jaw with 2 anterior canines and 2 others slightly smaller 
on each side; lower jaw with canine on each side, between which the 
upper canines bite; lips well developed, the margin of the lower one 
free; mouth large, terminal, the posterior end of maxillary exposed, 
extending slightly past anterior margin of orbit, its length 2.3 to 2.6 
in head; eye 3.8 to 4.4; snout 2.7 to 3.0; preorbital 5.1 to 7.0; postorbital 
2.4 to 2.6; dorsal fin rather low, its last spine 2.5 to 3.0 in head; last 
anal spine 2.7 to 2.9; base of anal fin 3.9 to 4.1 in length of body; ventral 
fins reaching slightly past origin of anal; pectoral 3,7 to 3.9 in body; 
ventral 3.3 to 3.7; caudal peduncle 2.6 to 2.7 in head; caudal fin rounded; 
3 rows of scales between origin of soft dorsal and lateral line ; gill- 
rakers very short, 3 + 8. 

Color dark olivaceous, wdthout conspicuous dark bars (except in 
young up to about 50 mm.) ; a black lateral band from eye to base of 
caudal, on posterior part of body this band above lateral line ending 
in a dark caudal spot; vertical fins with small light spots. 

Tuyra River basin. 

V Cichlasoma tuyrense sp. nov. 

Type No. 7599, F. M. N. H.; length 220 mm.; Rio Tuyra, Boca de 
Cupe, Panama. 

Head 2.8 to 3.2; depth 1.9 to 2.1; D. XVI or XVII, 11 or 12; A. VI, 
7 or 8; scales 38. 

Body deep, compressed, upper part of profile convex, slightly concave 
above orbit; lower margin of upper lip below orbit and above base of 
the pectoral; jaws subequal, none of the teeth enlarged, all pointed; 
lips normal, the lower with a frenum; mouth small, terminal, maxillary 
not reaching orbit, its length 3.6 to 3.9 in head; eye 3.3 to 4.0; snout 2.8 
to 3.0; preorbital 4.1 to 4.5; postorbital 2.3 to 2.4; dorsal fin rather 
high, its last spine 1.9 to 2.2 in head; last anal spine 1.8 to 1.9; 
base of anal 3.5 to 3.7 in body; pectoral reaches front of anal, 3.1 to 
3.4 in head; ventrals reaching slightly beyond front of anal, 2.7 to 
3.4 in body; caudal peduncle 2.1 to 2.4 in head; caudal fin rounded; 
5 rows of scales between anterior part of soft dorsal and lateral line; 
gill-rakers very short, 2 -j- 8 on first gill arch; basal portion of soft dorsal 
and anal with scales. 

Color olivaceous, sides with seven distinct dark cross bars, the 
middle portion of each bar a black blotch; a small dark spot at base 
of caudal; sides with dark dots forming lines along the rows of scales, 
these becoming larger and more distinct in the larger specimens. 

Bayano and Tuyra river basins. 



90 Field Museum of Natural History — Zoology, Vol. X. 
Cichlasoma calobrense sp. nov. 

Type No. 7600, F. M. N. H.; length 215 mm.; Rio Calobre, Panama. 

Head 2.6 to 2.8; depth 2.2 to 2.4; D. XVI or XVII, 10 or 11; A. VI, 
6 to 7; scales 33. 

Body elongate, compressed; profile straight to slightly convex above, 
straight or slightly concave from orbit to snout ; lower margin of upper 
lip below orbit and slightly below upper edge of pectoral; jaw subequal; 
a few anterior teeth in each jaw slightly enlarged; lips rather thick, 
the lower with free margin, the fold broad; mouth large, terminal, the 
maxillary reaching nearly to anterior margin of orbit, its length 2.8 
to 3.1 in head; eye 3.4 to 4.2; snout 2.5 to 2.9; preorbital 3.6 to 4.2; 
postorbital 2.5 to 2.8; dorsal fin rather high, the' longest spine 2.3 to 
2.5 in head; last anal spine 2.2 to 2.5; base of anal 4.0 to 4.4 in body; 
ventrals reaching slightly past front of anal, 3.2 to 3.6 in body; caudal 
peduncle 2.6 to 2.7 in head; caudal fin rounded; 2 rows of scales between 
anterior part of soft dorsal and lateral line; gill-rakers very short, 3 + 11 
on first gill arch; soft dorsal and anal fins with their middle rays pro- 
duced. 

Color olivaceous, with 6 or 7 well defined dark cross bars; a black 
caudal spot in upper half at base of caudal rays ; vertical fins with light 
and dark spots; sides with or without small dark spots. 

Bayano and Tuyra river basins. 

Neetroplus panamensis sp. nov. 

Type No. 7601, F. M. N. H.; length 104 mm.; Rio Mandingo, Bas 
Obispo, Canal Zone, Panama. 

Head 3.0 to s-S; depth 2.0 to 2.2; D. XVI or XVII, 9; A. VI or VII, 
6 or 7; scales 29. 

Body elongate, compressed, robust anteriorly; profile convex, above 
becoming nearly straight; margin of upper jaw below level of lower 
margin of eye and just above upper margin of base of the pectoral; 
jaws subequal; teeth compressed, incisor-like; lips normal, the lower 
with a frenum; mouth terminal, small, the maxillary not reaching eye, 
its length 3.4 to 3.7 in head; eye t,.^, to 3.4; preorbital 3.7 to 4.3; post- 
orbital 2.4 to 2.7; snout 2.5 to 2.9; dorsal fin rather high, longest spine 
2.2 to 2.6 in head; longest anal spine 2.2 to 2.5; base of anal fin 3.6 to 3.8 
in body; pectoral not reaching vent, its length 3.2 to 3.5 in body; vent- 
rals reaching past origin of anal, 2.6 to 2.9 in body; caudal peduncle 1.9 
to 2.1 in head; caudal fin rounded; 2 rows of scales between first dorsal 
ray and lateral line; gill-rakers 2 -f- 6; scales on base of soft dorsal and 
anal. 



' March, 1913. Fishes from Panama — Meek and Hildebrand. 91 

Color olivaceous; sides with 7 or 8 indistinct, irregular, dark bars, 
or indistinct black blotches; a dark blotch at base of caudal; vertical 
fins without spots. 

Chagres River basin.