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Pr&cks^/- j£ft<^-~ 7-4-^ 

By; Frederick ?,. Dever, Staff assistant to "a«if lii ;.'-'jnufacturir:g 2.iianager 

..iliiau J. van den ,'Jcker, gxecutive Assistant to Director of Manufacturing 


Hie principal types of welding in use at iihe Ilyan Aeronautical Company are 
arc, oxy-acetylene , atomic I gen and resistance. In the field of i^esls- 
tance welding advantage is taken of the resistance whlcr; inetals and combinations 
of metals offer to the flow of a high amperage current to produce weld tempera- 
tures. Flash welding, projection welding, spot welding and other applications 
of resistance welding iiavo been developed from tils principle. This discussion 
will be concerned with that phase of resistance meiui ug known as spot welding. 
It :ig : t be vreil to mention that spot welds can be aade so close together that 
they overlap. This is called seam welding. 

Spot welding, as a means of fabrication, is relatively new in the Aircraft 
Industry. It has bean used for the fabrication of non-structural parts — • 
such as engine cowlings — and also for temporarily holding parts together 
prior to riveting or fusion welding. 

During the past decade it has grown frora a fabricating process, little 
used except Tor secondary aircraft structures that were lightly stressed, to 
a process that is being successfully used in many pidinary structure applica- 
tions. It is to a liroitod extent replacing gNMM rtvsftlng and is being utilized 
to a greater extent as an aaserably tool for iiox< , . irts together prior to 

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Spot welding was first used Tor iMteiag (tack utt&dEUg) or holding the 
parts together to siuniify their assembly. Because of constant iw^mvwmmi 
and the development of greater flejsibiiity in its application, the technique 
has become an Important fabrication tool. 

..ith the Increased knowledge of this equipment and its use, the shear 
stro igll ■£ 3;"->t welds was raised. The consi atency of welding was developed 
to the point where it could be relied upon more and more. As it developed 
into a raanufactur' fig tool, the engineer, taking co&nissane© of this new 
method, began to design l!. c *htly stressed -Tarts and assemblies, using spot 
welding as a means of Joining the ;.;arts together, Froa this rather inauspicious 
be.lrmirsp, the process has developed steadily, and. its growth has not been 
rearred by any particular setback s, 

i caters are us 1 . n# the speed nnd econojny of spot welding to a great 
adviuta-e. @U secondary structures they cars me spot welding with assurance 
of satisfactory service life for the assembly. 

The satisfactory service life of a snot welded assembly depends on 
various factors. The design m$% be basically sound together with the fact 
that the fabricator must furnish a uniformly hi,-h quality type of workmanship. 
This workiaansbip is dependent on consistency. This is true la ail engineer- 
ing materials. 

Coupled with this increased use it baa been necessary to set up certain 
standards which must be jbsu &S. all times, Thee® standards will be satisfactory 
to withstand aaxisura loads expected in service. 

The process specif! cation which basically governs the manufacturing pro- 
cedures applied in the case of spot welding are the specifications issued by 
Artsy and Uavy Procurement Sections, These specifications, as they were first 
written, confined spot weldir^; to a considerable extent and limited the pro- 
duction applications* This was due in large measure to the fact that the 
equipment then available was not completely reliable in that the electrical 




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circuits, the Moving parts and relays demanded constant, and careful 
maintenance. In addition, U:« design for spot welding *as in Its 
infancy ttd B6M failures were encountered. Therefore, it appeared de- 
sirable to make the procesn rcvo itself before relaxing the requirements. 

With the increased use of this Btff&Odl arid the accumulation of much 
service data it was readily foreseen at Ryan that the process could be util- 
ized to very goad advantage, it U 1 1 -t, economical, flexible tn its use and 
tfflM no welrht to the structure. 

The spot welding machine must be certified for each gc-uge combination 
used. This certification for the equipment is obtained by^meeting the follow- 
ing requirements of s; deifications P8f$ issued by the Bureau of aeronautics; 
(,4) 25 specimens shall be made with a single spot on the gauge combination 
to be certified. 

(3) The spot weld s f oclm&nn &«11 equal or Mt&ttftd fcfe* ;:JLriimus: shear value 
for the lightest gauge in any corabi nation being lasted, 

(C) In 21 of the 25 specimens the variation in strength shall not exceed - 
10$ of the average value of the 25 opaeime:is. The regaining 4 a ;:cclrcens shall 
not vary over - 20£ of the group average. 

(D) 25 single spot specimens shall be sectioned &ml etched to show the inter- 
nal structure of the @ pot yield. These spot welds shall be reasonably free 
frora poroaity and cracks. Certain minor defects may be allowed, providing 
they aro vdLthir. the specified limits. 

There are additional requirements to be met in the specification, but 
the tbova are essentially the most important co rial derations. The requirements 
of the Imy B •■■•■ cat! on covering resistance ml ding #20011-0 are very 
similar to the requirements of the Havy specification mentioned above. The 
Navy Bfttgl fi cation requires tension vests on spot welds which are not indicative 
of the service loads to be expected, but which will definitely establish such 
other factors as uniformity of spot diameter, ,«netration and soundness of the 
spot welds. 

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The Artsy specification does not require tension tests on spot welds. 
From these 3 pacific ations there are two conclusions which can be drawn by 
the reader. The one of greatest importance is that 3, ot oi' resistance weld- 
ing is an accepted method of fabrication. The other conclusion is that the 
process must be carefully controlled in normal, routine shop operation in 
order to be able consistently to raeet the requirements of the rigid teats 
cover ng the certification of spot 'welding equipment. It should also be 
noted that the amount of inspection to which- this process is subjected, both 
in certification of the aquiprasnt and during fabrication, exceeds that re- 
quired for ttSM and gas welding. For this reason it is logical to assume that 
considerable improvement can be expected in the future to reduce the severe 
inspection requirements and point the wag' toward a demand that the equipment 
be more fool-proof. 

Thase routine checks of .spot weld shear strength and the meballograpliic 
examination of the cast metal structure at regular intervals are the functions 
of all aircraft spot weld inspection. This rigid control is to guarantee 
that the gfwft weld technique is correct ;;«d will produce spot welds of the 
strength which will always moot the MftftlflWffl required standards and are at the 
same t5.«e uniform. In this way the service life of the assembly will be as 
satisfactory as the rest of the structure. It Is the practice for the air- 
craft companies to set t eir minimum shear strength requirements five to ten 
percent above the siniaa demanded by the Arssy and liavy specifications. This 
practice safeguards the fabricator so that In no case will a spot weld on 
the "border lino' 1 of the company's minimum shear value fail below the A$ 
standards . 

Shear strength values for a given gauge combination, taken over a period 
of siontria, have proved that Use S;sear values from ten to fifteen ^.ercont 
above company minim are the easiest to maintain. ,,u adherence to these per- 
centages will result in satisfactory spot weld consistency. 




This Niy seem a bit ambiguous but by holding;; to those figures the natural 
tendency toward obtaining extremely high values over the minimum requijMMBW&a 
will h© avoided, These extremely high values are undesirable due to the fact 
that uniformity in shear values betvceen individual spot welds in the same 
assembly is difficult to ssaintain. i£van though all of the values obtained are 
above the ■rtjBJWMB required, a wide variation in strengths above this minimum 
still represents spot weld laeotMriUltMftejf that should be avoided. This is true 
in all engineering materials and structures in which it is desired that the 
rivet or the resistance weld, or other means B$e<t for joining the parts or 
assemblies together, should not be out of proi^rtion to the strength of the 
members. At the hyan Aeronautical Company we find that the larger the weld 
area, the less the ductility ami the extremely hi h spot weld values which 
can be obtained for a short time ar« accompanied by erratic results. 

The equipment which is required for spot welding in order to seat the 
Army and Navy specifications will depend in large Measure on the type of 
material being spot welded. All types of materials must be specially cleaned 
in order to ■ prepare the surface for spot welding. For example, the aluminum 
alloys require first, a mean© of grease and soil removal, then a water rinse 
which in tun?, is followed by a chemical solution for the removal of surface 
oxides and lastly, a rinsing and drying. 

because of the Llgh electrical conductivity and rapid heat transfer which 
is characteristic of aluminum allops, extreme care must be taken in thoir prep- 
aration before spot welding. This cannot be over-emphasised as the surface 
cleanliness Is on© of the primary requisites for consistency In the spot weld- 
in,: of these alloys. 

Stainless steels (18-8 type) may be satisfactorily cleaned for spot weld- 
ing by one of two methods: annealing followed by a chemical tickle and 
rinsing, or in the event the parts are oily and greasy, removal of the oils 
and greases followed by rinsing and then a light acid etching. 


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3teel parts which nave been a and blasted have a surface which x-enders 
them unsuitable for spot welding. Tills Is true Tor two r m§ M» first 

beirii: that a certain amount of silica from the sand is entrapped or embedded 
in the aetal surfaces. These silica particles offer considerable resistance 
to electrical current flow and this "by-passing" begins to seriously affect 
spot weld consistency. In addition to this, the roughened surface caused by 
the sand blasting prevents the development of a uniform electrical contact 
and current flow with the result that the spot weld so formed varies in 
strength and is usually below the minimum requirements*. 

Parts which wave been 3 fttsd blasted can be prepared for spot welding hj 
annealing them at a scaling tenporature followed hj a regular stainless steel 
chemical pickle. In storm cases where the parts have been severely sand blasted 
it may b© necessary to scale and pickle these ..-arts twice. 

The tpr;e and capacity of the spot welding .-n&eUnes will depend upon the 
materials belnp: spot welded and the thicknesses. It is recommended that 
machine capacity in all cases be sufficiently great so that a reserve of 
capacity is present for ail Jobs, jperating near the maximum current capacity 
of the machine is undesirable due to the fact that the machines are not too 
stable at the upper limits of their rat^d capacities. 

The approximate welding current required for 13-8 steels is about 4,750 
amperes for two sheets of ,016 material. For two sheets of ,125" material 
the amperage required is about 13,500, Contrast this with the alumLn'^i 
alloys in vihich two sheets of .016 material will require approximately 14,000 
amperes, while two sheets of ,125 material will rehire about 35,000 amperes. 
This difference should be clearly understood because it is on this basis that 
we can compare and establish the ease with which 18-8 steels can be spot 
welded and emphasise again some of the ..ore critical aspects of the welding 
of the aluminum alloys. 

The required secondary amperage may be obtained from either the AC 
transformer spot welder or a "stored energy type"* If an ample power supply 



ia available, the AC welders will function satisfactorily within their rated 
capacity. However, since the secondary or weld;!? i;- a^.^era.e is directly re- 
lated to the power In-put through the primary, it must be understood thai any 
variation of the current tnrou^i the primary will either raise or lower the 
secondary current used to form the spot weld. This variation amy be sufficient 
to develop inconsistent spot welda. This power variation has been a probieu 
and still causes considerable trouble ishen the pm&t lines are over-loaded. 
The Installation of a separate transformer for each welder will produce the 
desired results of spot weld consistency but the expense incurred raay be con- 
sidered prohibitive. Another approach to this problem of current delivery 
and supply is by the use of the "inter-locking" system where two or isore welders 
receive their current supply frees the same transformer. The timing, however, 
controls the flow of the current so that only one welder can use the power 
in-put at &iy given time that a spot weld is made. 

In cases where a heavy .power loading is th© paeral rule, It is the practice 
at Ryan to resort to the use of a condenser discharge or stored energy type of 
spot welder , SlHMMt welders store the primary current until the condenser la 
loaded before the current can be discharged. This type of welder has reached 
a high degree of popularity for aircraft spot welding. 

In addition to the deliver;/ of the high amperage current we have been 
discussing, there ia another extremely important factor and that ia the time 
interval during which this current flows. This time interval is called the 
"weld time". Obviously, since the welds are made because of the heat which 
this current develops, the time that it flows id 11 directly affect the resul- 
tant spot weld. For this reason 'then, a suitabls tseana must he available; to 
determine the start and the stop of this current flow. Since this current flow 
Is of extremely short duration, the actual timing mxat be very accurate, ue 
have two available means for accomplishing tils purpose; one is the mechanical 
timtfr which ia controlled by a synchronous speed motor and the other, the elec- 
tronic control. 



The proper design of the jjarts tr be welded is a requisite to the success- 
i\il use of soot welding as a moans of fabri cation. Much has been written and 
a tremendous &"nount of development work has been &MM In deal, . - -'or arc 
welding and gas welding. Unfortunately, there is a great amount of work yet 
to be devoted to the development of proper spot weld designs. The need for 
this design information is becoming store and sore apparent. The strc, 
factor lias reached the point where, provided proper care is exercised, adequate 
strengths can be obtained consistently. However, since the strength of the 
spot weld must, of necessity, be a shear function, it follows that the design 
can make or break the resultant assembly insofar as- satisfactory service 
.operation is concerned. There are rasny desirable attributes of snot welding. 
It ler.ds itself readily as a hearts of .Joining sections together > particularly 
when thasa sections are exposed to the air afewfcffl . Th^re is no resultant 
projection and the sir face exposed can be held to a maximum variation of only 
,004". In addition, spot welding adds no vseight whatsoever to the MtOMbly* 
This is another definite advantage. 

Indentation may be almost eliminated on one side of the sheet by having 
a combination of contoured electrodes. The variety of the electrodes which 
can be used raak^s the process of spot welding so flexible that even polished 
sheet can be spot welded without seriously affecting its fine finish. Another 
advantage is that two, three or more sheets can be spot welded together. This 
is possible because the spot weld process depends upon the development of 
maximum resistance at the inner facirgs of the sheets. For mximm economy 
and consistency, particularly when the leads are high, good spat weld design 
dictates that the assembly should be lie&ted to a aaxisaan of two sheets 
wherever possible. 

lie it is difficult to set down any given set of eonditi .-'-•.'"-..■ 
criterion for good design, the following 9 u.^geati 'ons developed at liyan 
.erona-itical Company should produce desirable results. 


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(1) The loads to b« ed be apot w^lds should be sheer leads* fhia is 

due to the fact that spot I Inherently will develop focal points of 
stress concentration at the weld and the inner faces of the 

sheets If tension or angle Xeada are applied. 

(.?) Tension loadings should never be U3ed because thy strengths devalued 
in tension are err-. I8& be re Mod upon. 

(3) Compression loadings are satisfactory providing the design will not 
allow the spot Yield to be placed in ten ad. on as a result of a shifting or a 
movement of this compression loading. An assembly made from light gauge 
raateri' nets social care to assure that- tho stress does not occur in 
a plane which atSJL cause buckling as this snap change the spot weld loading 
frcn shear to I a at] ,'n, 

(4) Asiplo edge distances Meal be raaint&i n^d . "This h - cussary for two reasons: 

(A) To hftft a sufficient sra&j WW which the pressure can be 
a-plied, surrounding the spot »al.d, This Is r-c pared in 
order to secure a aouaS spot weld in the actual spot vnoiding 
(13) To hare an adequate ajaount of wrought material so that the 
stresses c?in he carried over and around the cast spot weld 
net 'J. . 
Tlais repaired edge distance will vary depending on the type and thickness 
of the rriaterl&l. It must be remembered that as the sa&terial thickness In- 
creases the diameter of th.e spot weld must be increased to meet the ndniraum 
required shear loadings. The spot weld diameters for different rr-et.vd tidek- 
neasea and rainiauin edge distances are given in Figures II and III. 

The spot weld patterns are of great importance in the design of apot 
weld structures. The patterns (spot grouping*) and spot weld spacing are 
similar to rivet patterns and spacing used to obtain hi ;h jrlnt efilciencp. 
We can divide spot weid patterns into three roup; groupings. 


(1) Single row. In which a single row of spot welds with a definite center 
to center dimension are used. This joint pattern will require a ninlaum of 
overlapping of the sheets beinq apot welded. The overlap will be determined 
by the material thicknesses being used which, in turn, through the minimum 
shear strengths required, will determine the other dimensions such as spot 
weld diameter and edge distance. Center to center spaclngs and joint effi- 
ciency graphs are shown in Figure VIII, These give the recommended dimensions •■ 
Figure IX shows a sketch of the single row pattern, 

(2) Double row. This design sill require a grestsr overlap of material, but 
the joint efficiency will be from 95 to 10Q£ if the spot weld spacings given 
on Figure 100 are used* If spot welds of les3 than ainimum shear value are 
used, the joint efficiency will obviously be lower. However, it is often 
good practice to utilise the double row pattern even though the apot weld 
strengths raay be below average minimum. This is due to the fact that this 
pattern will evenly distribute the loading and result in an assembly giving 

a longer and more satisfactory service life than a alible row of spot welds 
of higher average shear values. The double row Joint under severe vibration 
m< * f.cM&vw stress has been found to be more suitable, See Figure 105 for 
sketch of the double row spot, 

(3) Double row staggered. In tills pattern the joint efficiency Is approxi- 
mately equal to the double row pattern. The pattern, however, of the double 
row staggered Is not as well stressed. There is considerable difference of 
opinion as to which joint is the faore efficient for general service usage. 
There are those who feel that the double row type of spot weld joint is super- 
ior to the double row staggered. It should be mentioned that the material 
overlap in the double row staggered is less than that in the case of the 
double row spot welded joint. The center to center spacing and the distance 
between rows of the double row staggered spot weld Joint together with joint 
efficiency la shown in Figure 106, 



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So far in our discussion we have mentioned ti*e aluminum alloys and the 
stainless steels only as tno types of material which c.n be spot welded. The 
other materials wMch can be spot welded are almost unlimited although those 
nhich develop extreme hardness as a result of heat treatment may present 
difficulties rendering spot welding unsuitable. An example of such a material 
would be X 4130 or 4140 steel. Because of the marked reaction of these air 
hardening steels, with resultant shrinkage and extreme therjsul stresses, the 
formation of sound and uniform spots would not be possible. TJie aluminum 
alloys and the stainless, low carbon and some otlier alloy steels all lend 
themselves to satisfactory spot welding.. There is, however, a marked difference 
between the treatment of these materials. 

During the past few years the spot welding of attaching plates or lugs 
to armor plate has been accomplished with considerable success. Because of 
the success in this field many spot weld technicians believe that with re- 
search and development, many more alloy steels may be spot welded in the 
future. This is a field which is now being actively explored and is the sub- 
ject of many research investigations at the Eyan Aeronautical Company. 

As a rule, materials having resistance of equal value can be spot welded 
together even though their chemical composition is not the same, it is pre- 
ferable to weld materials of similar composition together. In the aluminum 
alloys we find that the electrical resistance will vary according to the 
chemical composition of a given alloy. It must always be remembered that the 
thla&est sheet is the determining factor in developing strengths of the spot 
weld. This ie ia;>ortant and for this reason the designer must bear in mind 
that a wide variation in sheet thicknesses is not desirable because orily a 
small proportion of the total strength of the thicker member can be utilized. 
The general rule to follow is to avoid extreme variations. Keeping the 
thicknesses of the gauges to be spot welded as similar as possible allows for 
more rapid production and tends to prevent critical spot welding conditions. 

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Th« avoidance of these wide variations will permit a uniform penetration to 
both sheets. Do nob exceed a ratio of 3& to 1 thickness liir&ts between two 

In the absence of a design manual the designer should consult the pro- 
duction man for the dissensions and clearances necessary to use the existing 
spot welding equipment. Tiiis is sound jsract5.ce because, while the gauge com- 
binations may be well within the capacity of the machine, sufficient head 
clearaf*ce must be allowed around the electrodes so that the holders and elec- 
trodes my enter the area to be spot welded, The use of this type of informa- 
tion by the design engineer together with spot weld diameter, «dg© distance, 
Spot pattern and spacing, will yield two-fold results — sound design and 
increased production. Selow are listed a few recowendatl ons learned from 
hyan experience as to the type of information the designer should have at 

(1) Throat depth of spot welder. 

(2) Distance between arms* 

(3) Diameter of electrode holders. 

(4) Dimensions and. shapes of standard electrodes eosasoniy used by the pro- 
duction department, 

(5) Angular set-ups possible on the Machines available. 

(6) Special electrodes such as offset and others which are available. 

(7) Minimum and maximum clearances required by production for the fabri cap- 
tion of channels hat sections, 2 bars and others. 

ilhile it is not the intent of this discussion to persuade the reader 
that 3pot welding is an all-purpose method of manufacturing, there are, 
nevertheless, many cases in which spot wleding can replace rivets In lightly 
stressed assemblies. In soma instances the substitution can be made direct 
while in others, a slight modification in the design of the part may be 
required, Where redesign is indicated the increased production and decreased 





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coat will most certainly offset the <t 8| i iBt< incurred. 

The first stop in the procedure, normally followed for the spot welding 
of parts, consists of cleaning them. This clean: oration will vary, de- 

pending v,x>n the material, it must be borne in rind that the prineip'ie 
function of this cleaning operation ia for the purpose of removing oils, greases 
and general contamination and freeing the surface of any contaminants whoa* 
electrical resistance would prevent a uniform current flow through the material. 
0ons3.derab.le literature has been written regarding the most suitable cleaning 
methods and only a brief word or two will be mentioned here. 

Roughly, this cleaning is divided into two general types. One is median*- 
ical brushing in which steel or wire brushes or, in some cases, rubber bonded 
abrasive wheels will lightly polish the surface of the material to be a pot 
welded in the weld area. The initial cost of this equipment is rather low 
although the labor cost, is quite expensive. Because of the difficulty of 
obtaining consistently uniform results, and because of the danger of removing 
the protective layer of alurainim from alclad, this method has not achieved 
general use. 

The other method is by means of chesaical solutions. A wide variety of 
chemical solutions are available, all of which essentially perform the follow- 
ing functions s 

Step 1. Keraoval of oil and grease. 
Step 2. Rinsing. 

Step 3» iMMd of oxide and establishment of a uniform surface. 
Step 4. Rinsing and drying. 

Following the cleaning and drying of the parts, the next general opera- 
tion is assembling for spot welding. Because these assemblies are normally 
handled by the spot welder and his helper, small assemblies are the rule, .Some 
assemblies can be quite bulky but the weight of the assembly is usually limited. 
For hi.-h production runs special handling fixtures cnn feed the work into the 
machine, thus permitting larger assemblies to be spot welded. 

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.,, These assemblies are secured by either spot tacking or mechanical Cleco 
fasteners or clasps. Following this the parts are spot welded together. 

Considerable difficulty can be caused for the spot welder if the asseu- 
blies are not handled in such a manner as to keep them clean during assembly. 
Chips lodged between sheets, oils, greases arid general contamination which 
can mar the surface of these parts during assembly, can do much to cause 

The aluminum alloys are much more critical than stainless steels in t!ds 
regard and special handling is the rule. 

In spot welding the assembly, the machine must first be "sot up". This 
set-up consists of adjusting the /arras, electrodes and other elements of the 
machine to enable it to perform, the job. The HBVfcfeiZM settings are obtained 
from charts previously established on the certification tests of the .machine 
and, of course, will be those settings for the gauge combinations about to be 
spot welded. After the set-up is complete, sample test coupons are spot welded 
and immediately tested. Obviously, sufficient time would not be available 
for a complete test and for this reason a shear test ia sufficient to allow 
the work to proceed. After the test samples have been tested and approved 
by the inspector, the welder is ready for production. 

In spot welding the assembly, the operator must exercise care to keep 
the electrodes clean at all times. The aluminum alloys are prone to surface 
alloy with the copper alloy electrodes. When this occurs the increased re- 
sistance that develops at the point of the electrode makes for irregular 
welds and prevents uniform current delivery. The operator should see to it 
that the edge distance and spacing is properly maintained and also that the 
spot weld pattern is symmetrical and uniform in 3ize. 

During production runs, the inspector will check the machine at regular 
intervals for shear strength and appearance of the spot welds. At longer in- 
tervals met allograph! c examinations will be conducted. This metailographic 
examination can be conducted by the men in the shop by simply sectioning 

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through the spot weld, etching lightly and examining with a magnifying glass. 
In cases of doubt the parts can be referred to Laboratory technicians for 
complete metallographic exam'. nations. Should the shear strengths be below 
the allowable minima or should such internal defects as cracks and inclusions 
exceed the allowable iwrcentages , the spot welder is removed from production 
until settings and adjustments are made that will produce satisfactory results. 

Due to the fact that there are so many variables which can cause defective 
spots, a word of caution is injected here. In making set-ups the operator or 
set-up nan should be aware of the fact that improper cooling of the electrodes, 
improperly dressed tl pa , too wide a variation fro® standard settings, improper- 
ly cleaned material®, as well as many other factors can produce spot welds 
of unacceptable consistency. For this reason, at this point in the operation 
the production man can save himself considerable difficulty by exercising his 
full ability to do a good Job in setting up the machine. The operator is re- 
sponsible for the proper cooling and dressing of electrodes, machine settings, 
soot weld spacing, pattern and pitch. The problem resolves itself into care- 
fully training the operator in both spot w<&ldj ng technique and inspection. 

Brratic behavior on the part of the machine is an indication that some- 
thing is amiss in its electrical system and should be referred to the elec- 
trical department. 

The inspection of spot welded assemblies and parts is no small problem. 
Here the inspector is confronted with the same problem which confronts an 
inspector of are welded pirts in that the method of inspection and testing 
Is npn-de s tr uc t i ve . Below is listed in sequence a few general suggestions 
which, if followed by the inspector, will give him sufficient information to 
accept or reject the part: 

(1) Inspect for the appearance of the welding as to the shape and the sl z 9 
of the spots. 

(2) Inspect the spacing of the spot welds. 




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(3) Inspect for proper edge distance, 

(4) Inspect the c enter of spots for It is here that cracks are more likely 
to occur. 

(5) Inspect for flash both internal and external. 

(6) Inspect for spot weld indentation. 

(7) Inspect for sheet separation, 
(S) Inspect for surface burning. 

(9) Correlate the above with shear test data and metal lographic examination 
conducted earlier. 

The inspector is cautioned to bear in »dnd that an exterior appearance 
of a spot on the face of the sheet is not a true indication of the internal 
size of the spot, 

A general philosophy which has proved helpful at Ryan is simply this: 
If you know what the operator should have don© and if you know what results 
he should have obtained, then the visual examination of the completed work 
will show you where errors have been saade if they exist. The inspector Is 
cautioned to be factual and objective in ids analysis. 

Should the above enumerated inspections snow the apotweldin^ to be 
within the accepted allowances, then there appears to be no reason why the 
assembly should not be approved, 

far that we have discussed the actual s»thod of operation being con- 
dusted, it say be well to look ahead into the future and estimate what we 
can expect of spot welding then. There appears to be no reason why the field 
of spot welding cannot be wldmed to include some primary structures, «any 
applications not now considered suitable for spot welding can be rather 
easily modified to make them acceptable for this process. The manufacturers 
of spot welding equipment are constantly improving the electrical systems to 
raake the machines capable of snore uniform and consistent operation, Machines 
are now available which will produce 120 %pots per minute. 





• ■ 

ant'. • ■ 


As designers bee on* asore spot weld minded and design manuals arc made 
available to the engineering groups, re^q si ff n will not bo necess-jary. The 
engineer will use this jaethod In his initial design, -je are, at the present 
time, obtaining a tremendous amount of service data on spot raided structures. 
Evidence accumulated to date * ! .ss that, with properly desired structures 

and consistent spots within the Hiiniraua shear values, excellent results are 

the flexibility of the e^ulpwent, the speed and economy of the operation, 
together with the f set that no weight is added, certainly challenges the 
designer end manufacturer to us© this type of fabrication to the fullest. 
New materials and new alloys will be developed which will lend themselves 
very favorably to spot wsldin,;/. These materials will &<id to the impetus of 
usln.p this moans as a :::<?thod of f abri oati, on* 


/- /- ¥j- 

Exclusive Sunday feature - requested by Macomber 


Mr?. Charlotte Larke, sn aircraft worker who turned dawn a cartoonist's 
job with the Walt Disney Studios, still indulges her creative talents in suare 
time "by 'building: union"? models of jeeps, .<■ ir-nlrnas and racing cars. Her 
collection of models is said to be on* of the most unusual on the Pacific Coast. 

Mrs. Larke, Who live? at 33^' + ** Srinnell, has been a tal»nted caricaturist 
since childhood, and contributes cartoons to the employe© nevspauer »f 'Ryan 
Aeronautical Company, where she is enrol eyed in the ^ool Design Department. 
Several years ago the Di?ney studios offered her a staff position, but she 
declined it in order to stay on her current job. 

During the ev^ninga, however, nhe has built more than 100 miniature ulanes, 
cars, and jeeps fr^m small Mta of junk. "When I see a particularly interesting 
airplane or vehicle I study it carefully and then go home and make a mod^l ©f 
it," Mrs. Larke tagre. H T have a huge box full of small pieces of wire, watch 
and clock parts, bit* of metal and many other odd assortments that can "b* made 
into minintni"» parts, '''hey 're the materipls I use." 

Mrs. Larke' s models are made in fjigfthful detail, with movable parts, 
and have attracted cenaidsra'blo attention among San Diego hobbyists as well 
as among her fellow workers at 'tyan. 

Mrs. Larke is the mother of two-year-old twins, Pay and Charles, who she 
■ays are her most ardent admirers and faithful audience. She intend? to give 
the whole collection of cars and planes to them when they are older. 
O/y/f/tr, T/?/ EISA'S ^ /*- c y ### 









1 . ' 

IMj -,v %> i» v«\\k «>. \«N •. V^ 


bergh Field • San Diego 1. California 

*- "V- ^j' 



Edgar P. Rhodes, for many years a top aircraft engineer and well known in 
the industry, has been named assistant chief engineer of the Ryan Aeronautical 

Mr. Rhodes will have charge of engineering administration and will handle 
all production and other engineering matters concerned with Ryan's new Navy 
fighting plane. He was given the assignment to relieve chief engineer Ben T. 
Salmon of detail administrative work and to make it possible for Salmon to devote 
his principal energies to new airplane design and development projects, 

Rhodes is well known in the aircraft industry for his ability to cut red 
tape and streamline the operations of an engineering department. 

He was born tn 1902 at Clarence, New York, a short distance from Buffalo, 
and has made his home in the Buffalo area all his life. He is a country boy who 
made good in the typical American fashion, by working his way up. He put himself 
through college by waiting table — first at the University of Illinois and later 
at the University of Michigan, where he was graduated in 1930 with a degree in 
Aeronautical Engineering. 

After graduation he took a job as stress analyst with the Hall Aluminum 

Aircraft Company of Buffalo, and moved a year later to Consolidated Aircraft 

Corporations Buffalo headquarters, where he spent four years in stress layout 

Sent to Contact, Flying, Industrial av i at ion, Ai rports,Canadi an Av iat ion, Southern Flight, 
Air News, Aero Products, Aeronaut ica| Eng. Rev iew, Aero Digest, U. S. Ai r Services, National 
neronautics, Western Flying, Aviation News, Aviation Mag., American Aviation, Commercial 
Aviation, San Diego Journal, Tribune-Sun, Union, Shopping News and Industrial Times. 


and drafting work, mostly on the PBY planes which have performed so sturdily for 
the Navy during the last ten years. 

In 1936 he joined Bell Aircraft Corp. During his nine years there he rose 
step by step from stress analyst to group leader, to project engineer on the P-39, 
and finally to chief project engineer on the jet prope I led P-59 Airacomet, and 
on other projects which are still secret, before joining the expanding Ryan or-* 
ganization at San Diego, 

iergh Field • San Diego I. California 

For PM Release 

Friday, June 22nd 



Navy Plane Schedules Through Third Quarter of 1946 Disclosed 

An increased production rate of its Navy fighting planes to help meet re- 
newed Japanese air activity including suicide attacks was asked of the Ryan 
Aeronautical Company today by Admiral Harold B. Sallada, newly appointed Chief 
of the Bureau of Aeronautics, in a message to employees. 

The Navy is counting heavily upon Ryan's new combat plane for the stepped- 
up air war in the pacific, he said. 

Admiral Sallada also assured Ryan workers that they will continue to be 
needed for an extended period in vital war production work now scheduled well 
Into the future. "Navy plane schedules," he disclosed, "including that at the 
Ryan Aeronautical Company, have already been announced through the third quarter 
of 1 94b. 

"Increased Japanese air activity, including suicide attacks, have made it 
essential that we send increasing numbers of the newest types of combat aircraft 
to the Pacific Fleet with a minimum of delay, 

"Because the Navy is counting heavily upon the Ryan plane, we would like 
to feet that every man and woman in your plant realizes fully the importance 


of this contribution to our mounting assault upon the Japanese, and is sparing 
no effort in getting these planes into action." 

T. Claude Ryan, president, in replying to Admiral Sallada's message assured 
the Navy of the greatest possible effort on the part of the men and women of 
Ryan to speed deliveries to the Fleet. The shortage of skilled labor continues 
to be serious, Ryan said, in renewing the company's appeal for experienced air- 
craft workers to effect the necessary increase of approximately 2000 additional 

In closing, Admiral Sal |ada stated that "it is anticipated that certain 
readjustments in aircraft manufacture in the San Diego area will help alleviate 
the manpower shortage with which we know you have been faced, and will aid in 
enabling you to meet our rapidly increasing demands in the coming months." 

William P. Brother ton U^^t- ' ^ 7 //;. / •^b-^"*-). 

Public Relations faces/./Wa<?4 . £i S/ec/ Yy-M 

Ryan Aeronautical Company 

43RMXC mv' ' 

fl&f HJUiaw <?* vat* dan Mtiswe 
Assistant to tba lig yAW ssanufacturing Manager 

No pragwus like the present w«* effort in afcieh the MUd Stat-aa la no* 
eogaged *• i« fast no g wiggm in — ; ^s «v*r »u aosiisieve^" imrsh&lied 

the industrial jK3-w»r» end ISM imfostrlal inganfalty fop which MM ft d U ft tl states' 
la it© aa»» produetloft «8fcleiN**imts km long been Mm outstandings aKwapl** 

•In every .phase of WWWlftWftTllitlit *»r 1 y hat toean tireless in its 

efforts to uncovor faster ana $sor& £ool«*p«®f asstheda for the fabric ttfctoi of tins 
war goods s f > vitally MMta . 

the fiald of welding has not beett leaking la U4« reelect* In fact, treason-* 
done strides have been swde in this ataaufseturiLag process. Botabia sauuaplas are 
the welding of «arfa ehlps, the 'recent development of & satisfactory taa&hed of 
welding isa^noaiwa, laproved wdbttaj WMftifaRfts)| tspFOved welding electrodes,, and a 
feller knowledge of tne taatalltirgLeal ehar^terlatios of Hh weld air UHMMN 
Failures in welds are now ssore the exception, and tne re&s a for the few failures 
that do occur can generally be identified quickly and easily. 

."!«• phase of this industrial ts$&IRmMH& ;.-as boon in the field sf 'ciaa welding 
of lijffci fatttff amta-ritals used in the aircraft .Indwetr?. Here ?ro$pea» can be 
largely a&asured in the f uXLsr utilisation of the existing welding faoilitie* 

".spied with an Increased knowledge of welding design a» wall m the awtaliur^leal 
characteristics of the special alloys used in thla type of work. 

At the ftfWB eronautic al Company early use was made of the Atomic Hydrogen 



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Method of wedding which was pioneered and developed by the General iiectrie 
Company, this had not previously b<^n used to any appreciable extent for the 
welding of li<jht | of stainless stssel la Uie fabrication of exhaust eolloe- 

tore, iieat exchangers, etc. However, this method of *«&&! , ■■ advai a&ftgM over 
other processes w. ; ,ic;. id oeen known for some time. The methods then in use for 
the majority of toe work (uxy-,.eet . UR« Welding;) possessed inherent disadvantages 
parties ariv h.-urmful w both the ductility m& corrosion resistance of tide 

These disadvantages, in t> o i d stainless steel, consisted el Mften 

pickup jan.eraii/ resulting from the oee of* excessive acetylene tugotAer with a 
letter welding time which resulted in a partial loss of the stahlliaing elements 
of Columblum ttad fitanlusu k ?hese elements of Colusbium and Titanlam stabilise 
the alloy and prevent an inter-crystalline breakdown when the finished product is 
subject to high service temperatures. 

It was obvious at the outset IfcsKi the Atofdc ib/tiro, '.-.Id overcome 

these two major objection® to the oxy-aeet.viene weld;" | ,.'ceos» &lth the use of 
hydrogen, which in many respects is the opposite of oxy&en, a reducing atmosphere 
would bo present so tb--.t any ''bu^il!;'" or sevens oxidation, with its resultant 
ill effects, «ea2 be so di Til cult * problem, in addition the temperatures 

of the atomic arc, being so much h.lnh«r, the time at temperature *ro Jtd also he 
shortened, This latter characteristic Ntst also very desirable since the corrosion 
resistance of the material 18*814 be improved. 

This pnaitfjinet fee corrosion «s particularly necessary because of the hi; : ;h 


service temperature . is parts wsuld be subjected. It is a curious 

corolla. . t tlte ductiiib corrosion resistance of the 18-8 type of stain- 

lacs steel are generally cleanly related so feat a weld of jjeod ductility is 
gr lerally corrosion MM&tfemt and vice versa, 

early atusapts with the use of the - Atomic Hydrogen '/selding Process had 
many of tfes imri 1 stumbling blocks. Some welders distrusted the method, thereby 



I dH 




ImhI mi ■■■ 



slowing down shop acceptance. To others, the high heat, so great as compared to 
Oxy-Aeetylene Method, resulted In difficult;/ on the part of the welder in con- 
trolling his spe^d. Too slow a speed would often result in a burning through, 
necessitating repairs, and in awsny instances, scraping of the part. Too fast a 
welding speed resulted in severe shrinkage of the weld over its length, so that 
a series of cracks would form acrows Use weld. These cracks necessarily deisaanded 
repair welding, again resulting in an unfavorable attitude on the part of the 
welders sn*ri sonetinea also Use supervisors. 

Persistence, toother with a careful evaluation of the lessons learned, 
soon brought forth raich Interesting and useful information. The *»sllent arc, M 
namely the arc obtained when, tne electrodes are held closely together, permitted 
of a finer control on th:n gauges of saetal. Using the n a : . arc," obtained 

with the oloctjxjdes separated to a «roater extenL, very of ton forced the welder 
to weld so rapidly that cracks would develop because of the severe cooling which 
followed as the arc passed rapidl;/ over -He nollen saetal, 

other factor Which always puaaled Ua t i :lan as well aa the welder 
was tlte formation of worn? holes almost in the center of the weld running length- 
wise wUh the bead, Tfed ! M been almost cetspletaly eliminated however, 
It was caused fegi a result of too rapid welding in *hich the metal was not ^iven 
ti»e to flow flat before it leaaaa frozen. 

The methods bom in use with the Atos&c Hydro,. 1 recess de&and a 

slower welding speed than was earlier used., yet this is still a little store 
than twice as fast as the .'fcsy-Aeetylene ktethed* Also the use of the "silent 
arc" has become standard because of the finer control which is obtained* 

Btgfce? hydrogen pressures are used in ticking ae well as a higher current 
since, as la corsnon in atost tackiaj operations, a high heat is required to bring 
the metal terajierataire up quickly so as to develop a small weld without distorting 
the assembly. Another technique ibund to i>e very advantageous is adjusting, the 
tungsten electrodes so that the arc fan can be rotated to almost any desired 

:■ ... 


: b. 


■•' ',.*• ' 


oe 9} ms m t> 

angle, Thia flexibility penults a $reat ran^e of welded joints and will pormlt 
the operator to mftrf ill-fit king parts with t?K>re than a fair decree of proficiency. 

The follovdt' I been welded with this? process* Uk>, 

fillet, butt, flange, seam, edge and corner, h'atwithstariding the above a&antianed 
advantages, many of priaary ImporWic •-, tfemtMi is still the major function of a 
welded joint to be considered. We may defines this major function as boin^ the 
final bond obtained after sselding Is complete, its soundness, Btwengfefe ma fatigue 
resistance charge tsris tics. In this respect the welds produced by the atomic 
wsl.i recess fc*W rlor to MR? tttfaMP methods of welding and .equal 

to my •£ the .methods now in general use. In mm& specific applications this 
process is desired over otixrrrs, 

.'.'Jo far our discussion 5- as concerned the welding o£ stainless steel. This 
process has also been uaod and is now in <jsse in the w>sl<;in<t of low carbon steel 
sheet compatible with enaiaeling materials. Pm the welding of these jsaterlals, 
the fctoraic hydrogen process has off* red an sxcelleil. tasans of joining fchin 
gauge materials on both irregular and closed angle weldliig, resulting in welds, of 
good strength and ductility, the welding output ,«r m&Mt has mm materially 
increased because of the greater speed obtained. 

This is also proving very doairahls because of the narrower weld bead which 
is obtained. ,\ narrcsw wold bead is v^ry often desirable in aircraft- waiding 
since the soundness of the weld is more easily determined and visual Inspection 
is made easier; together with the fact that a uniform narrow bead cossaensurat* 
with adequate penetration shows a fine &agr&® of contr fees**** T is 

will usually Indicate that the -weld set It been so severely overheated as 

to damage the material. 

The coat of the ■ rocess is lower t - ■ ■&:'- 

Acetylene process because o£ U\& greater amount of welding which can be completed 
in an eight-hour day. About one-tid.rd of a cylinder of hydro gfft per operator is 
used daily and the eleetrode cost is about twenty cents. 

■ -. 

■ ■ ■ 

MMMMMl bo .:>•::-■! 





The pressure gauges used are those which aro standard in the welding 
industry with the alight exception that the working pressure gau^e is graduated 
in one-pound divisions. This is not, ;»owever, absolutely essential* The elec- 
trical cost is quite lour. Another factor in cost is the matter of joint prepara- 
tion. It has been found t.'iat by careful manipulation of the atomic hydrogen 
welding torch, ill-fitting joints, because of the better penetration achieved, 
can be welded quite successfully, thus the fitting cost can be reduced with 
resultant aavlng in the overall cost of welding. 

So far we have mentioned VMM of the uses snd techniques of the Atomic 
Hydrogen tfeldi ng Process, and while llterat-ure is available on the essentials, 
it may be well at this fcla* to mention a word or two about the s<|uip«iasnt. 

Essentially the procosj\ consists of a current supply capable of delivering 
current of controlled and consistent voltage, after L£&t# striking voltage 

is obtained wu«n the arc la struck, following udo the voltage drop is automati- 
cally controlled* 

A welding head or torch is used which consists of a holder into wnich the 
insulated leads enter i- hi handle, The head of the holder mounts two 

tungsten wires set at m Mg&fl of approximately 50°, The tungsten wires or 
electrodes can be obtained in various diameters for ml ^f differ^ . , je 

metals. These electrodes are surrounded with a hollow sleeve through vadoh pure 
hydrogen is forced under comparatively low pressures, usually fpan MM bs five 
pounds. The higher Iiydroi>;en pressures are HJHNi in tacking while the lower are 
used for welding, 

n the arc is struck between the two tungsten electrodes, the arc is bathed 
in an atmosphere of burnlnr b- Ivegtt which burns with a yellowish flame *&tii the 
arc itself can he identified because of its brilliant alue-widte color. Goggles 
sirtlsr to those used In arc welding must be used to protect the eyes of the 
oper Wa 

It is at this Juncture that we must truly appreciate the on 

welding process, for the action of the electric arc dis-ass^eiates |M androgen 




N I 


from its common form of Hjj (iioleculor) to that of the l\ L or IflWsfl Form* This 
requires a tremsidous amount of energy* However, since this smarmy is absorbed 
ia s r s shlnfl the hydrogen gas down to its atomic font, it is regain*! when this 

&as strikes uho facta! and an enormous evolution of heat results over a aa&il 
area. This release of heat saorgy accounts for the ver I b temperatures which 
arc obtained, it must also be born in sdnd that the atraosphere of hydrogen pre- 
vents the oxidation of either the metal being welded ov the electrodes, and accounts 
for the cleanliness of the resultant weld and the comparative long life of the 
tungsten electrodes* It further preclude® the use of flux* ■ 

9m that this method has been accepted and is being placed more and ©ore into • 
general use, a word too about the training of the operators and welders for the 
use a:" tils equipment ®ay iwlp prospective users. Both MM and woman have 
proven to be quite proficient in the use of the Atoadc irlydre.Hn .aiding machines. 
Plans are now under way to have the majority of this equlpaent operated by women. 

The rigid requirements -of both the Am;.-' and Mavy lor Hm cortifioafeion of 
these welders has been iset very successfully — in fact, with a greater success 
than the Jay-Acetylene processes* Rtf particular difficulties have been en- 
countered in their training, 

A feature of the torches first used was that they were too haavy* In. the 
majority of cases the aircraft companies savaged in this type of work have con- 
structed saaller and lighter torches to enable wosaea welders to use them without 
tirinp,* In some cases a redesign of the torch was neeewsary to facilitate the 
welding of closed angle and narrow welds* 

Because of t,h® cleanliness of the welds which are obtained by the use of 
t;;is process and because of the narrow beads and greater speed obtained* it is 
felt by ssoy that the Atomic Hydrogen welding Method will in fc&MH future replace, 
to a lari;e extent, mmy of the existing welding proceases* 


to *** 


3 »\ 

William P. Brotherton 

Public delations 

Ryan Aeronautical Cosspaiy 

Photograph C&ptionu —• Atomic Hydrogen Story 

P hoto^rauh Ho, 11169 * test samples of atcwilc hydrogen arc welded 
stainless steal (I$*S) which have toma besa. 130 degrt-es, tiotiee the 
absent.-® of cracking. 

Photograph Uo, 97frj6[ 8 A few of the atomic hydrogen arc welding booths 
at the San lUe^o plant of the Kyan Aeronautical Company, 

Phptojsrapti Ho. 607^ Aa unique atoiaie hydrogen welding technique io 
jvtdeh illuminating gas is o-imed istaide of a i:mg irregular stainless 
stool section to rsraove the oxygen and prevent Use oxidation of the 
weld seas!, 

Ph otQ&rap h flo ft 9%% Atotde hydro ;.;tm WiULMg of stainless steel exJiaust 
stacks with saall diameter tungsten electrode at the Tlysr* Aeronautical 

?hotoT-:?.h Ko» lllf ' £ ,» 8y*» woeaaa welder weldiA ; a lh..n sheet of stain- 
leas steel with atomic jr/uro, ,en which keeps distortion to a lfftfl > fin% 

Photograph Ho.,. 13982 : One of the modern automatic' atoaic hydrogen 
machines at the T :jo,n plant which produces aaxlsasta welding rate, The 
conveyor was designed and built at Kyatw 

P hotograph l<o, .111 , 66 1 Mote the uniform and narrow wwld beads on these 
low carbon ate^l exhaust stacks which have been waldod with atomic 
hydrogen at" Ryan, 


William P. Brotherton ^ ■ , h 

Publi c Relations / r //i *^' /^^W>/>< 2 -4-S) 

Ryan Aeronautical Company ^ / /^>^// 1 /^///)a /»c/f^-^$"J 

Sw/ A ■ 

mm, rmrt a . 

Sly 3*!ilt«* F. Bi^^Ha** 

fvalutiMl E&lto* 
%an AaronaufcieaX Cossfsmy 

Aooiorw la iha firai pgQ&lm aiUt which ts®at taoi 8Msaip«r9 ara eon- 
frontad It the daal$» of owwssibXj *flxiiar®0. fha #MK>nd proi>i«% Mtd MM tn&t 
ia quit* aftan wwlootead, la tna ^usifEjiafi sal' & fixtura that mill Jialntsila 
thta accuracy ti.roygliout its esnfctra pariod of titta&i&aaa* 

form at tfta i&yan Mronasitlo&i Q®mpm& m hawa ©nda&v&rad to aelilav* ia»sd» 
aaaa aacttraejf by aarryiag w.o WMPW I fi&tur* fco a at atata of atvalop* 

ntmt than bawa sswj otftar ®aattf*G%ar©»* fh* atiilfcary aaiwicaa on & nusshar •! 
aacaslona hava sjrra^ipKl f or tooling s*|»rta firm OtMr pfcMtti to visit o«r 
factor;? for <sa tailed atudies of tha aiaihoda m %m<$* Gm*mimn%3&, baeauaa of 

I recognition of %&m u»olin$ teehi&$it t it m& ba of asaiafcanaa to ot&ara to 
diacuaa In aosto datail ;Jaai «mat ae h&<ra tfenst *&©»g ilsia U«o» 

Obvioualy, tha wmt asaaatial t &etor lit $wedsi©t&g an aeetirat© fis&ura la 
tha baaa on anion it la aonatntctad, for. Ilk* a b«Udlng t tha ffectara ia m 
batter than lie foundation* 

* The tamiaalogy of Iboiins Depaartaw&v tarla* with ifaalr raapaetlva iacauioaa* 
tfhat ia eonaidarad a "$Lg ft I st4 or *« ifltiMpi a&gltt ba tanaad a fl ftjU.«rf H in a***fcfoar t 
or a "back" in atiil «uvttt»r« Kowrer, for tha parpoae of clarifies tion, the 

term "fixture" as used here pertains to any rigid structure either of wood or 
metal which holds parts in their respective locations while being assembled. 


eno^sl9H olLdifl 

to boon lo ^riJia s-xuJou-fie bi§J:i \jr- "j i ..q 9^ri baeu &e ' 

j ' >d 9 ' '■. • ' I ism 

it has been quite oossson practice In the construct! on of large assembly 

fixtures to esaploy the use of reinforced concrete foundations,, and in ssany 
mw«i no foundations at all, other lum a ngnltr fWiiartiimn floor, this Is a 
satisfactory arrangement .providing the floor or » t *olai concrete base ie strong 
enough, Heswsr, there are definite p&ftfoium eomjeeted with this eJY«fi#M***t in 
•ante locations, its is Ha case o' j&ffl hi*ut Ml filled ground n*sar the ocean 

i^ere the floor changes *■' I ft tid«» 

in order to eliminate this probtets it ha* been necessary to change the 
construction ftg assus&ty fixtures tr^m on© using the floor as; a base, to one 
that is entirely independent of the floor m& not affected by any changes 
created hy tides or other possible sjoveaents of the floor* 

The required *aeult« wore achieved by Use amplication of an old idea in a 
different for©* 

the nut who designed the three le£&*4 Miking stool «as probably faced with 
a siMltr problem* H» was interested ia building a stool that mold be rl^id 
and yet woaid not require a solid level foundation under it, Cansetpssntly, he 
used three supporting points, thus enabling M*& t© have a substantial place to 
sit Instead of rocking back and forth because of unsv*sn ground* 

4t t$m we have found tide to be the solution fee fe fee p»ebi«s of tsieven sr 
qttSfeS&Jtg floors* 11 th the base of the- fixture resting on only three supporting 
points, the alignraeot of the fixture *&s not affected by the changes in the 
level of the floor* 

In order to carry out this idea It was necessary to provide a base for U 
asaessbly fixture that m» desired ia such a ?*ay as to he s uf f iciently strong' 
and rigid si thin Itself to be supported on these points with a ffldaiisja assount 
vf deflection* 

It «res found teat the most logical material tfmt was available and of 
sufficient strength to accomplish the desired results was tubular sections such 
as oil well casing. Since the initial use of this type of fixture construction, 


i at b». 


otl -. vol 



various types and shapes of saterlai have boon used with success} however, the 
use of round has proven satisfactory in the aajority of cases* It is 

not the intent of this article to discuss the merits of round or square tubing, 
as its use depends upon the individual problaau 

The factor that probably has contributed Rest to the success of this type 
of construction is the siaplici ty &%k which large fixtures can be built fctafc 
will maintain their accuracy even th->u ;h they are not located on a solid founda- 
tion, A large part of the xork involved in constructing fixtures of this type 
can be aocoBspilshed by comparatively unskilled labor, as it is not necessary to 
hold a tolerance closer than plus or rainus ;;*», 

TJiis is acocsapilshed by first welding to the framework sufficient angles 
or attaching plates to hold all necessary tasSUflflg devices mi locating points, 
allowing frojs 1/16" to 1/2" space between the base plates and the fixture attach- 
ing angles. After all welding is completed on the framework, it is desirable, 
but not necessarily essential, to nonasliae the fixture to release sty possible 
•folding strain* however, this is not alwsyi possible due to the siae of the 
fixtures. If a close fit is maintained on all Joints and the weld seams are 
haBMerod by hand after welding, the fixture will usually be through shrinking by 
the time it is necessary to finally locate and set the final points. 

The use of a Jig Builder's Transit at Ryan has provided a considerable 
savings In tia» in setting up and establishing center Unas ?md criticid points. 
It has practically eliminated the old tifite-consuraing BSUttd of stringing hori- 
zontal end vertical sires, Vihsre it fornssrly required six to el. : ; ~rs to set 
up these lines, it now takes approximately twenty minutes. It is essential, 
however, that the transit be designed to work to close tolerances at short range. 

All of the critical holding devices and locating points can be installed 
after the framework is complete ami set up on the base without fear that the 
additional work will cause distortion or raisali*rnment of the fixture. The Hold- 
ing devices and locating points which baft* been previously machined and assembled 




on the base plates can be set in their respective location© on the frame of the 
fixture and properly located with adjustable screws* 

When all holding devices and locating points are set and inapectod, the 
1/16" to 1/2" space is filled with oerrom&trix 6.0 jxaraanently locate and provide 
a substantial base. 

Some people may feel that thla type of fixture construction is limited to 
small asseobliesj however, this is not the case, as it has already proven very 
satisfactory on production of lar^e wing and center section assemblies* In these 
cases it was necessary to use as large as SS2 W diaajeter pti>e witn bulkheads welded 
inside at regular intervals to provide oufficent strength for the base. 

These fixtures are much superior to previous design in that th«jy can, in 
most cases, be designed in such a way as to make it unnecessary to disassemble 
and remove 'portions of the jig in order to tfOMfftt the completed assembly. 

Tills type of construction also makes it possible to use lighter materiel* 
The use of three supporting points eliminates the necessity of haerlflg u, con- 
struct a special foundation or belt th© fixture to the floor and level it, as 
is the case when supported on four or swre points, a fixture with four or ©ore 
supporting points has a tendency to introduce strains or twists into the assem- 
bly, as its weight alone is usually enough to cause distortion when set-on an 
uneven floor. 

Where it is necessary to have an aoaeakly jig rotate to facilitate con- 
struction of the assembly, the use of a trarailon supporting iixturo supported on 
throe points has proven much more satisfactory than the old type wl&ch was bolted 
to the floor. 

Since the beginning of the war the aircraft industry has been faced with the 
evor-increasing problem of expansion In order to provide sufficient quantities 
of airplanes* when production lines wore set up and established for a certain 
quantity, the job was scarcely f Inis'ned before it was neeess&ry to expand to 
meet increased schedules* 


•: f .' - u . ri. 

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Many sanhoura have been ioet due to the problems involved in moving 
fixturee and equipment to take ear® of tide expansion. In sons© caaea amy ®m- 
houra war© lost becaua© it was fait that it was mere economical to aatpand around 
certain fixture that were fastened to th© floor or aet on special foundations, 
t:;an spend th© neceesary time to roaat tl&aa fixture* on new foundation*, fhia 
created congeation or "back—tracking" of assemblies, If it war© poaaiole to move 
these flxturea to their proper location© in th* assembly line, thia could b© 

Tha uae of fixture* with three supporting polnte her© at tha Kyan plant haa 
made possible a eavinga of many manhours in tida respect alone aa it is possible 
to move those fixtures £mm on© location to smother without having to p::*para a . 
apeeial foundation or wlUiout having to level mti check it after it i® located, 

Thia is the anawar to a Plant layout %in$.m*r*a dream, aa it makes it possible 
to eliminate production bottleneck* due to improperly located fixtures *d'ch a 
minimum, amount of effort. 

Many pa^'oa could be written outlining the advantage of the three support- 
ing points type of fixture construction, However, it is not poaaible to fully 
reali- e all the advantage* until they are actually being uaad. 

-•-■■::■■■■ I. I '>: 

f-w « ; J -. 


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Willi am f, Brotherton 

i'ublie Relations 

Ryan Aeronautical Company 



Photograph ?So. 11747 1* ln direct contrast to old style, multiple legged 
Jigs is this new three-legged type of jig developed fey the Ryan Aeronau- 
tical Company, The simple, clean line* of this jig provide complete accessi* 


biiity for the worker. Adding to tils convenience is the portable platform 
which has been constructed around the base of the jig. In tils fixture the 
assembly may be removed by tilting it sideways and lifting it out. Work 
can atart issaediately on a new asaeafriy without the necessity of realign- 
, ing and resetting any point. 

Photograph. ^o. f i 1118^' t Ryan's three-legged jig allows any part of this 
large wing section to be worked on with complete availability. This new 
**"/?& Jig is constructed of tubular steel sections welded together, the 
three points of suspension insure rigid alignment at all tiaras without 
regard for the floor level. 

Photograph ?jo, 11804 ; This trunnion type jig permits the rotation of a 
wing assembly so that it may be worked on froa either side* The three- 
legged base, designed by Ryan Tooling iyigineers, does not permit the 
transmission of any strains into the fratsework of the main assembly fix- 
ture. Another ^reat advimtajje of this base Is that it permits the Jig 
to be ifioved quickly and set up at another position in the factory, 

vtograph So. 11939 t Assembling, drilling and rivet: I M akin panels 
for an outer wing assembly can be accomplished with tne greatest freedom 
of action in this now jig designed by Lyan Aeronautical Company, Hefce the 
three-legged suspension feature which holds the fixture in true alignment 
wherever it is placed. 

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-ecxl tide* fie* ni*; *omMn 

Photograph Ho. 12S71 : Flush-ii voting the skin of a large wing section 
is tserformed with a salnLtaiia of effort bocauae of the dependability and 
accessibility provided by Jiyan thrse-Ole&ged jig. The elimination of 
aultiple supports and holding devices allows these Hyan employees to 
work closely and on any part of the assembly. 

P hoto^raoh r»o. M 119ffi * Among the ta&ny types of fixtures which raay be 
mounted upon the now three-legged type of jig developed by the Kyan 
Aeronautical Company, is a drill table for assembling spars* Complete 
insurance against distortion caused by uneven floor level or weight strains 
is obtained by the sturdy construction and design of this jig* 

P hotograph , , Ho.. iiOft it Another application of the universal service ren- 
dered by the three-leg^od jig. Here the spars for an outer wing panel 
assembly are held with accurate rigidity while they aro being allied with 
a special spar milling attachment* The ease with which tn*#« jigs can be 
asoved in the plant *dds to their flexibility. 


m Ik . 




William P. Brotherton 
Public Relations 

^an'LrfnauUcal Company S^tUd* &W*+£&J**,« f 

S&nf-' /h0OkrJ<1 ZrtC/ySityLf (7-^S"3 


Frederick .. ".*.--<n,r, 3$*t tf^t&faf 'jgpervieor 
ig*n fa B W BI ttfrl itt A Coxpany 

The eaueee of defects in t*eldia$ are uowlly preventable faults In 

technique or procedure, for tfeie reason w«sJ.<io«S fabrication ahoald net 
bo rejected on the drafting board a«y sipre than any other fabrication ssethod 
«hen don* by caanetetit fabricators^ experienced op btjfh gr&&& workmen, 
Ryan Aeronautical Company has ot&selfled the defects that are &eet aot to m* 
cur in welding and Indicated ho* they my be Identified and pr event en. while 
thia -knoaled.^tt Is aotst valoeble to <#eldere, seldinf ^epartaeat foremen and 
inepeetoris, design, engineers; f inn ftjml f»jsili»rity with these production 
problems give sore assurance, #han wielded eons-treat ion is desired, that sat- 
isfactory welded Joints can be aade if proper ieehniqae is applied, Becent 
developments in welding e^ul.aeat also should give greater abearance of sat- 
lefactory ael&ed joLnta, particularly where electronic or otber autosaatie 
iteans of controlling welding beat and ISftb • used. It mu$l be recog- 

nised in using such equipment, ?.-08«veF f that these Ml '^nte in sacfrlnas 
aeeeseitatsi operator skill comparable to that required for $&n itm tools. 

"The defect© —Hwafee»u< in arc tftliiwgfr gas W . -, spot ^ol-'Un:, 
special adding i&ethods vary arwi th«lr correction involves different proce- 
dures, in arc welding lap, fillet anU butt Joints the OMMN defect* a^e 
likely to be caused by poorly fitting the part* together, iaproper taek 
«eidimr# lack of p r ej W P technl'-ue and ftpoaieeMeft, ar . Mnation of 





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these. Metallic arc welding defects have been classified in 10 general groups, 

1. "iiurn through," usually associated with lap welding, is defined as 
penetration exceeding 100 percent. This is so;«etl«ies not too serious. In 
18-B stainless steels, however, the oxidation pr^iueed destroys heat and cor- 
rosion resistance of the sietai, which ie one reason for Identifying "burn 
through" s>s a defect. There my be one or several causes for this defect. 

k Variation of welding speed to compensate for excessive gaps in poorly 
fitted parts will cause burn-tn rough bfttftttac the heat input is excessive in 
these areas where a large asount ©i" »«54 sietal is required to fill the gaps 
in the joint. 

If voltage and aspcrage are %09 high i'or the taetal thickne&s &W& 
welded, the resulting excessive heat will cause burn-through. If the rat© 
of travel or -elding speed is too slo?. or erratic (fast and slew), burn- 
through B$y fttm!%, IIM 9&&M at '.,; m electrode is held ©ay contribute 
in causing thlo defect, in tacking, the use of ea.tre;.i9 !- : att MHSng iijr re- 
sult in saiall burn-through areas or large tacks, ?<hlch the welder aust fuse 
when completing the weld, 

2. Overlap, often called a "cold weld," is a defect characterised by 
lack of fusion between parent .vital and ae-lc, s*etai. It is usually staall in 
area, 'Overlaps say be caused by too low voltage ot a«pera&e, too fast travel 
of electrode, flux on tac* «elds, excessive scale on parte, flux froa elec- 
trodes "getting ahead" of weld aetai deposit, pWaHttr flax action caused by 
incorrect angle of electroce, or bv large ''cole ■■■ tacks that do not J'uae with 
the finish *eld, 

% Skips or ©a&ssions refer to WMMttSpleted velds at certain points. 
Improper positioning or rt to be -.-elded can MSM thl-i defect, especial- 

ly if the welder does not have a complete va..: of the veld area, . t;<or caus- 
es are flux fro*, tacks, or flux ^balling up during N&ftifift erratic speed 
of electrode travel, poorly fitted parte, defective spot weld leaking, lack 

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of care inside 90-dei;. corners, or poorly fluxed electrodes, which cause a 
"wild" or unstable arc, nlso the bolder «ay be affected by sudden disturb- 
ing noises, or his helraet lens be too dark to give /rood vision of the weld 
n pudole ! * while depositing «etsl. 

h, Greeks are not characteristic of- the metallic arc process when using 
10-8 stabilised electrodes. This defect is more apt to occur in high carbon 
steels and alloy steels such as X4130 and 25-12 stainlens, especially if the 
assembly contains heavy cross sectional fittings or plate, or light tubes. 
Thensal stresses set up during welding are sufficient to cause cracks. 

The eoaconest .causes of cracking in 16-8 stainless are excessive cold 
working of the mterlai, including forming and bending, aftor welding, ex- 
tremes in light to heavy gage cosfbinatioas, which cause shrinkage stresses, 
incorrect welding procedure, and shear or tension loatfL die the weld 

area is at 1,200 to 1,600 dog. ?\, the "hot short !t temperature. 

5. An undercut is a defect In which the weld &etal deposit leaves a 

notch on one or both sides of the weld bead and is Insufficient to fill the 

crater in the Joint. Concentration of stresses In these notches is, of eourse, 


There are four la&41ag! causes of undercut a. Excessive heat frost the 

high amperage and voltage rake* parent metal and «eld aat&l too "fluid," 
causing taem to stag under the influence of gravity. If the rate of electrode 
travel is too fast, insufficient weld ssetsl Is left to fill the crater left 
by the heat of the arc. These two conditions should be coordinate! to give 
adequate penetration and a well-rounded weld bead. Concentration of heat on 
one plate, resulting from electrode angle, causes undercut. ;-,ince the weld 
aotal if fluid while being deposited, it will flow away frost one plate If 
the position of the work peralts, and cause an undercut. 

6. Flux pockets and Inclusions are defects that o«our when the mater- 
ial is not clean, as in Ylg. 2. Flux and oxides are either included in th© 




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weld aetal or replace «eld aietal In soi&e areas. Designs that have "closed angles" 
encourage flux pockets but they can be avoided by proper welding position. Too 
low welding heat prevents the flux from becoming fluid enough to float on the 
surface of the weld usetal. Large mis-shapen tacks my trap flux if insufficient 
care is taken to prevent. &sm an electrode directs the arc ahead of the weld 
deposit flux entrapment is encouraged, 

7. Poor starts and endings m welds are coa.-en, especially on short melds 
1 or 2 in. long. Characteristics a. v e large deposit© at the start sod Insaffi- 
cient weld metal at fcftt end. This defect is the result of carelessness usually 
and can be prevented by correcting the Iseat range, using a voltage control rheo- 
stat for starting and ending the weld, and properly positioning the work, 

8, Excessive sselc deposits result frcwa several conditions or cos binat ions 
of conditions: Insufficient neat to fuse weld to parent :<etal, attempts to 
repair a "burnad" hole or other defects, Improper starting* large mis-shapen 
tack welds* failure to clean material, excessive weaving ©f electrode* and 
skipping back to cover an amission. 

9. Shallow weld deposits, when insufficient weld aetal is deposited, do 
not always produce an undercut but leave the weld <dth insufficient strength. 
If the heat range is high the rate of electrode travel aust be fast enough to 
prevent excessive penetration, leaving insufficient ^eld aetal, Toe s<mll 
diameter electrodes acts siailarty. These two factors WMt be coordinated, 

10, The use of a standard proven weld procedure cannot be over-empha- 
sised if unifora consistent welding is desired. 

Gas welding Defects 
The sajor uses of oxy-aeetylene welding at RpMI Aeronautical Company are 
"gas tacking" and fusion welding of flanged sea® type joints, as shown in tig, 
5, Defects that are described are based on these applications. A conbi 
of conditions aay cause defects, Four key points are uniformity in height of 
flange* width of a eld, speed, and amount of filler rod. Gas welding defects are 



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fij B<f" 

classified Into 10 general groupr?, 

1. Excessive penetration ll usually caused by toe high a flange or addi- 
tion of filler rod to a flange of proper rei^bt. : ■■xcessdve host Input requir- 
ing filler rod to bring w&4 height to pWgmv level also contributes to this 
defect. Too alow welding speed, excessive weld width, and striving to product 
& "flat" b«sad on the weld surface are also causes. 

2. Insufficient penetration, characterised by little or no reinforci* 
bead on the under aide of the weld, ie usually caus-- 'seat input, too 
great <seld height, too fast weld speed, improper! ;.led flux, torch at too 
low an angle or la$B/9pQP *eld motion, and : -iirf/ scaly .metal. 

3. Undercuts are caused by too high heat Input, too slow welding- speed, 
insufficient flange or filler rnd t too *»ide K«ld, and poor W&ASag technique. 
This defect parallels excessive penetration alnc® they ttte caused by the 
sane conditioner illustrated in Fig. 3. 

k» Porosity saskes a «eld weak and brittle. Swae $,$•*$ sisals, pa rt leu- 
larly those stabilised by titanium, are susceptible, i waller flame and tip 
and slower rate ef travel art advantageous, ^xcesaive puddll SttS'ttf poro- 

sity. Kild steels are usually free fro© this defect. 

5. Cracks way be caused by stresses set up by *eldin^, aa in Fif, k» or 
by cold work and forain^ sfter -welding. Since oxy-acetylene welding affects 
a larger area than arc or atomic hydrogen weldin? because it is sicker, thermal 
stresses are greater, Parts held rigid by jigs m& fixtures &n 
crack upon cooling. Post heating in the area surrou tack elds prevents 

cracking. C-tabillzed 1S-S steels are not as prone to crack as high alloy 
steels of the X4I3Q txnd &W groups. Insistence that parts be correctly and . 
accurately fitted before aelding «ill reduce the amount of cold working- re- 
quired, thus decreasing the nusber of cracks produced. 

6* Inclusions are not as comon in oxy-acatylene welding as in arc weld- 
ing. Dirty, scaly parts, the presence of oxidized a&i«ri&l in the fla&e and 

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on the isold rod, fluxed welding rod, and fiux leaks Into poorly fitted, parts 
all produce this defect. 

7» Excessive weld width resets o*ily froa poor walcilng teclialque and 
poorly fitted parts, - 

8. Inconsistency, a defect characterised by a varied bt«£gbt and width 
of weld, usually results fro© poorly fitted parts, as in fig. % Incorrect 
rate of welding, uneveiy triswaed flanges, improperly positioned parts, part 
contour not properly aliened, and poorly tacked parts, 

9. fr'oor starts and endings are usually characterised b.y the burning a- 
»«y of parent metal on endings and large blobs of weld ssetal at the start arid 
are usually the result of inexperience or use of incorrect weld procedure, 

10. "Kushrooa" penetration, where vseld seta! fails to bond at the edges, 
is not BfriiMWI because its usual cause is an unsuitable welding flux. 

Atomic Hydrogen .elding 'Defects 

In general, ataxic "sn «aids have the aajsie defects as oxy»aaety-» 

leae ^elds, and for the same reasons, Since heat concentration is greater, 
the operator aust pay closer attention and soae faults in technique are isore 
noticeable in thin process. The rata of welding is faster than gas welding 
and errors can occur fastr.r. 

In addition to the norsal defects noted in gas weldinf, a defect known 
as "worm, fefl&ing* m& occur. This is caused, by trapping of gasee in the «>eld 
Ksetal and can be prevented ly reducing heat input and a slew rate of welding. 

'ipot -^elding Defects 
Defects are allowe- by aost spot walding specifications but are liisited 
to 5 percent for structural and 10 percent for non-structural spot #elds, 

ce not all defects can be found by visual inspection, other «eena are em- 
ployed, Koar general groups' of causes are improper spot welder set-up, in- 


n two, 




!)■•: ■#*< •••- " .1 . jt>C CTJ ;..■■; '. c ■ • . .- ,:^iq 


proper surface preparation, pearly fitted partis, and operator carelessness, 
refects are of 16 types, 

1, Kxeessive Indentation indicates too assail electrode diameter or tip 
radius., excessive pressure or heat, or I combination of these factors vi&fe 
poorly cleaned surfaces and poorly fitted parts, 

2* Irregular shaped spots v a improper alignment and contour of 

tips, unsatisfactory surface preparation, or poorly fitted parts. 

3. Cracked or "burnt" Aftt&a indicate excessive heat or current dwell, 
excessive penetration, poorly cleaned surfaces, unsuitable electrode diame- 
ter or tip radius, excessive surface resistance caused by other than surface 
preparation, poorly fitted parts, internal or external splash, which are de- 
fined in 6 and 7, or incorrect pressure* 

A. ;Vctwelds too close to edge, as in ]>%. 6, ©ay result fro/a lack of 
edge distance or operator carelessness. 

5. Lm shear strength, barring defective sc'i-;, results tma insuffi- 
cient cross sectional weld &r*ia. This indicates either ten penetration (less 
U;an 20 percent of sheet thi:.- or ...crsly too :>;uU 1 diameter wald, which 
can be corrected by adjustment of swuhiim variables. In rare instances in- 
sufficient pressure I I m -. KWBWMl«(fe*8» shear strength creates 

a condition *»here weakening put failure of veakc : »pot weld:" throw 
overloads on. adjacent spot welds, tuus causing progressive failures, 

6. surface or external splash is displaced or extruded parent metal, 
.ch weakens the spot . , muaber of conditions or co^idnatioRs of In- 
correct conditions cause overheating, - lakes the .wetal .plastic through 
its entire thickness* 

7. Internal splash occurs at the bond as a result of a number of pre- 
ventable and incorrect conditions that prevent the norsaal retention of weld 
sietai in the area to be bonded, 

B, .ixce-ssive penetration (sore than 30 percent of shaot thickness) 



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weakens Joints by reason of low tensile ©tren^th and rapid failure under vi- 
bration and fati&ue in shear loading, :xtr«M stress concentration is eaueed 
around the weld spot, -.xooasive h«at or weld tia© are the usual cause*. 
calization of heat by too ©mall alectrod© tip saay be the cause, 

9. Excessive shoat separation is usually encountered in poorly fitted 
parts. Mm spoteeld bocomee a column joining the sheets, treasure should 
Le held long enough for the plastic aet&i to freest©. Adequately cooled elec- 
trodes aid in cooling the plastic metal. 

10. insufficient penetration is Indicated bj too low shear strength. 
Spot welds of correct diameter ana shape usually have enough shear strength 
if penetration exceeds 20 percent of sheet thickness. Increase in heat range 
or weld tie*© or both ie the solution. 

11. Internal cracks, either parallel or perpendicular to the sheet, 
mf be caused by too l&rge electrode OiaaeWr, *i>ich produce© a larf© oast 
structure and causes stains on cooling, too short a hold tlae aay release 
stresses before the plastic astal is avcmg enough to resist them. 

12. Porosity Is usually found near the center of the cast area of the 
spot welo and is indicative of poor welding technique. It can be corrected 
by proper surface preparation, m chine settings, pressure, heat rsftfe and 
*eld tliae. 

15. rielc inclusions are associated with poor surface preparation or 
lack of cleanliness, 

14. Surface inclusions are also associated with jjoor surface prepara- 
tion and dirty, misaligned and eyesfecfttaS electrodes, txeessive pressure . 
may also contribute to this defect, 

15. .Incorrect spacing muk be guarded ag*.i»ot# The pattern of spot 
welds should be designed to tdve certain joint efficiencies. If this pattern 
spacing Is not maintained, Joint strength is reduced. Gare in maintaining 
proper ©pacing, as given by design, cannot be ©TOT effiphasi»«d. 

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16. 1 oor fit of parts results in spot .elds being loft in tension, thus 
having iron. to 35 percent of required shear strength. Good design for •. 
welds denands that n tons'. -Inrj is wm t&Urft, WW fits Way also 

cause excessive sheet separation, internal splash, excessive indentation, 
distortion of. the completed unit, inconsistent welds, and poor appearance, 

Fafiiiiarity with welding detects and their causes can be used to advan- 
tage on the drafting board where parts can be deslgnad to a,ini«i»e ease of 
the factors that are likely to cause cifricuity in welding, L'eslgners can 
indicate -by dissensioning or notes MM various requiraaetJts respecting welding 
quality, OlWIJlg of surfaces, use of jigs or fixtures, penetration ll-Rits, 
spacing ot spot welds., or other conditions. 




ho, 14046 ; Frederick . tsver, spot .elding Supervisor of the J'yan .eronauti- 

D ■■•:',•■.>"';' tad author of this story on "welding refects and Causes." 

Ko, 1369 6 1 View of part of the welding department of the Kyan Aeronautical 
/> snowing soae of the arc '.ng booths in the backgrotu- 

too. 13895 1 View of the "tack and tria w line in a welding auction of the " yan 
Aeronautical f sbo»d. jral rows o£ booths devoted to the oxy-acety- 

lene gas seam welding of stainless steel exhaust aanifolds. 

yp.,,13?g^: Two youthful !ij»a ftftg&flgrmt using a standard spot welding oachin* 
to fora a stainless steal secondary structure. The use of soot weldln-t to forsa 
strong structural parts is dependent upon trained personnel and well-adjusted 

Ho. 10229 : l bank of spot ^elding jaachino» in use in the ; ,yan Aeronautical 
Coap&ny for fabricating stainless steel aircraft parts, Th«cw Machines are 

rated by foot control. They have water-cooled electrodes and are timed by 
electronic device, rressure on the electrodes is everted by an air system. 
Tindng, pressu.*:, current and clearance must be nfwfcalfflri within close toler- 
ance to insure strong, clean spot welds, 

fjp. 10616 : Metallic bt« e«14ias operation feeing porforsed to close the «»eaai 
on a stainless steel exhaust cs&nlfold part. 

No. 5593 : ryan i ectftlist welding a stainless Steel section by aeana 

of the oxy-acetylene gas method, iiere extra metal is being added to the weld 
seaa by a filler rod. 

ho, 6072 : A draffi&tic illustration of a Ryan welding innovation. This is the 
:;tonic hydrogen M&AlQg of a l«*g tubular section. L,uo to its structure, it 
is impossible to apply fiux to the inside seas of this part, tyan experts 
hit upon the idea of burning illuainatL . closed pipe, after plugs- 

ging the other end with wet asbestos. This provides a gas flux which consumes 
the oxygon inside the section and therefore prevents the oxidation of the 
weld. The use of this stabilised atmosphere is a hvan development, 

No. 11v"2 ;- Hyan has pioneered the use of atoaic hydi^ogen welding on the .est 
Coast, here is one of the new a^utoisatic atomic hydrogen welding machines which 
performs this var^ efficient process at a stepped-up ra ! e of production. This 
automatic isechaniaa, including everything but the welding head and electrical 
equipment was designed and built by gjnfift Aero. -;.ny development engineers. 

No. J1 458: A section of stainless steel which was welded by a feather fla*e 
and a neutral or, . • feather flame was mak fcee rich in acetylene gas and, as 
a result, weld carbon was added to the weld metal. This lowered the corrosion 

»W &*AZ •«§ VI 


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resistance of the aeld an4 wtoa the part «as acid pickled, the .tal dis- 

aolved out. here the welding flame was correctly adjusted, or neutral, there 
was no change in corrosion resistance, 

Ko. 92,19 : Clearly evident here is a crack in the weld metal deposited In 
an exhaust Manifold part. . i defection was* due to improper flaae adjustment 
wherein the flame was too rich in acetylene and deposited carbon in the weld 
which caused the natal to baeoae brittle. 

Ko. 10250 i Cut away eection of a stainless steel part showing e^oi* fusion be- 
tween She weld and pi al. This la a tat n&as :.v«.I;linp operation In which 

the flux left by the fii'st weld pass was not cleanly removed, this was an arc 
welding Job. 

No. 132 ( /4 * Close-up of a bio* hole defect in a spot w«ld area. This was caused 
by an 1' ;.. iper sao '-■ -.-^- , . pjraafttitra &M fc* : ; ds-allgned tipe. 

the jaetai which should be occupying the apaee in this blew hols was forced out 
between the sheets by this misdirected pressure. 

ko. 10787 t Poor seaa weld showing ouch roughness and some blow holes which were 
caused by an iaproper flame adjustment. 

l i p, 5j473 : R<W of poorly placed spot walda in a stainless steel piece. Due to 
the lack of edge distance, this /aeisber would fall far below the required strength 

Pio. 9167 : Close-up of an oxy-acetylen® gas welded aeans which is full of blow 
holss caused by the operator -. I in tiitiing. 

Uo, 9174 » Here la a rough looking seaa weld which la due to the bad ,1ob of 
talking which preceded it. The tack welds were sloppily made too large and the 
seam welding Httol spread over thea to give this roujijh appearance. 

No. 10573 : Example of porosity in gas flat tab MM caused by 

poor technique, 

Ho. 101B2 : Three cut away sections of exhaust manifold tubing at the Ryan 
Aeronuatical Company showing proper and improper alignment of the sections 
prior to tack weldi?. . 

HUM ;■• Srotherton 

Public relations 

a m 

•". I 


■: " ; ::. ;}.?; 

,<■■.:. . u v.= ;•: - 

ie "teqo 

William P. Brotherton 

Public Relations 

Ryan Aeronautical Company 


% -Usea 0. flabfceU 
la charge of the Hetallurclcal Saetiea of the Laboratory 

Hyaa Aweaauiieal Co&oany 

Itoe tremendous axpansiOR of aircraft production, necessitated by the 4wsa«dat of 
the ear, ha* brought with it a wealth of kao^led^e oomornlBf the fabrication and uae 

of all Industrial a&terlals* la the process of providing the actual production s*o- 
qtiiraatafits for building airplanes, the Aviation, industry baa acted as a huge axoerl- 

jsantal laboratory* fh» industry was iransferned froas a hand oathed* ''shop-type* of 
aanufaeiurl»# to an asaaeibly line, ;A m®$ production*' systesu la »kiaf this change, 
every jftatfcod of assassbly aad typo of notorial was lavesttf&ted to ascort&la Its value, 
Kesulls have boon achieved ia to© field of research «hieh seald not aoraally have 
beao developed In less titan fifteen or treaty $mm* 

One of the lftportaat saisri&ls which ha a essergad fro® tfela «ar with a shifting 1 
reputation ia etainiea® ataal. Undoubtedly, a mjsr pari of the inpetus back of th« 
present *ide use of stainless eieol ia the continual increase la the power of air- 
craft oaf ines, Stainless stoai lo one of aba few petals which have provided a cois- 
pietely satisfactory isiteri&l for the transference of the high temperature exhaust 
gases froa largo aircraft engines* This task bad to ho perforated la order to pave 
the »ay for further expansion of horsepower ratings* The industry has learned some- 
thing about atalnleso steel i» the course of .nesting the probles* The ?iyaa Aeronauti- 
cal Company la ©ae of Use largest usara of atalulesa steal sfcaet stoete aad is the 
largest user of eaall dla&eier stainless steel electrodes la the world* I ©lose 
study has been «*de of the properties of this aetal by the Bysn laboratories, ^/t^/tfr 


notieti$oic. . 




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Although there are over two doaen varieties of stainless steel, all of thera 
possess one characteristic in comfiionj a high resistance to corrosion and oxidation. 
In order to be used in the exhaust manifold equipment of • hi.^h-powered aircraft 
engine, stainless steel aust not only have this property but aust maintain it at 
temperatures from approximately 1200° to 1400°F. The exhaust gases range in tem- 
perature froK 1650° to 1B00°F. However, heat transfer through the body of the 
stack to the cooling air outside is rapid enough so that the exhaust manifold 
operates at the lower temperature. lso, ©vary effort aust be made to obtain stain- 
less steel which will readily lend itself to forcing, gas, arc, and resistance 
welding, and other fabrication processes. 

Some of the eoric performed by our Laboratory, in order to determine the most 
desirable foraula for the stainless steel >ve use, may prove of general interest. 
Three groups were tested. One was in the "as received annealed ; condition in 
which the sheet undergoes a stretcher levelling operation for removal of a certain 
amount of waves and buckles which result from the final annealing heat treatment 
at the aill. The second saaple was in the "annealed" condition dthout the stretch- 
er levelling operation. Other samples were investigated in the ; work-hardened" 
condition. The chemical ooffiposition of the groups wes as follows* 

Group X Group IJ Group III 

C .060 .052 .041; 

Mtt 1.19 1,26 .55 

P .016 .018 .Ci? 

I .015 .024 .OH 

i .61 .61 .63 

Hi 11.21 12.36 8.39 

Cr IB. 38 1H.42 l'i.ll 

Cb .75 .«a .72 

Nl/Cr .610 .672 .463 

The physical properties were as folio*a« 

/jwealed As received $ 

Yield: 50600 psi. 43550 psi. 45250 pii. 

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91300 pal. 
li&.& in 2 in. 

90600 pai. 

89450 pai, 
48.75* In 2 in. 

42650 pal, 
83900 pai. 


94«50 pal. 
4&.0t in 2 in. 

not taken 
93300 pai. 


The various specimens wore mounted in cross- section, polished, and etched. 
They were examined .microscopically and photomicrographs were taken. Examination 
showed that Group I contained the largest grain also, Group II had slightly smaller 
grains, and Group III, the smallest. Group II contained the lenst number of free 
Ferrite particles with Groups I and III having incr^sin/jly MMngt* 

The annealed speoijsena were annealed by air quenching fro® 1980°?. This re- 
sulted in a alight nuaber of precipitated carbides which were dispersed at rnvdm 
throughout the material. Had the qusnch boon ssore a®vor*n, such as that produced 
bv the use of oil or a«t*Pj this random dispersion of earbtd;- i not have been 

noticeable. However, as it was, it differed fros the *'as received anneal «d* only 
in that respect. The work-hardened samples differed from the "as received" in 
that their grains were elongated to a greater extent in the titration of deforma- 

M of the conclusions resulting from tills test are? 

(1) Although it is logical to believe that the Nickel content has sorae effect 
upon the grain size, it does not entirely control it. Other factors, .-?ucb ss methods 
of operation, probably contribute to grain si&«. 

(2) The amount of free Ferrite is inversely proportional to the Nickel content. 

(3) The tensile strength ia directly proportional to the amount of free Ferrite 
and its distribution. 

(4) The forming propertiea become better as the amount of free Ferrite decreases. 

(5) An 18-8 Stainless steel of high Nickel content will hsve batter forming 
properties than one of lo^ Nickel content. The hi,>?h Nickel austenittc 'itnlnless 

will absorb more work tlian that of lo*» Klckel composition. Therefore, for s»od forming 

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properties, 1G-8 stainless steel having a Nickel content of 11 to 12t is better 
than one of &%. 

Following these teats, a group of observational experiments were performed 
in the hyan Aeronautical hrop Hamer i,/eparU>ent in order to check the f ity 
of IB- I stainless steel sheet* Fonaability ratings were derived froa data on the 
percentage of parts rejected in a standard production forming operation supplemented 
by inforaation concerning' necessity of intermediate annealing, types of .failure, 
etc. Magnetic permeability studies were aade with a device which aseasured in deci- 
grams the force required to remove perpendicularly from the face of a standard teat 
specimen a ma&net of constant flux, the observations were these i 

(1) Forasability of 13-8 stainless steel sheet is determined only in 
part by the "as received annealed" physical condition of the material. Any given 
sheet of annealed 18-8 is, of course, sore easily formed in the first stages than 
the saae sheet if not annealed before foraing. however, 18-8, having Inherent 
tendencies toward rapid work-hardening, will present fttftrftaf difficulties after the 
first stages even though received in the annealed state. Also, this steel sight 
have "directional characteristics" or a preponderance of grains oriented in the 
saae direction, which present faming difficulties even though the zastal is annealed 
between stages. This dif liculty does not appear to be associated with »ork-harden- 

(2) The rate of ssork-hardening is largely a function of the ftickel- 
Chromium ratio, other factors being constant. There is evidence to show that othsr 
alloying eleaents, such as Carbon, tfanganese, Coluaibiuia, and Titanium, have a bearing 
on forming characteristics. 

(3) Gain in magnetic permeability of 18-8 as a result of cold working 
appears to be chiefly a function of the ilickel-Chrosdura ratio, 

(4) This gain appears to bo associated with directional characteris- 




i heww 

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A sper. lal test waa conducted to det«r.t&ine whether or not "dead soft,' 1 or 
fully annealed 1&-3 stainless steel was ^sore easily shaped or processed t^an 1^-10. 
In order to make this test, a series of slssilar cuttings of the nest difficult 
parts to fona .ore a&de. These groups -aero shaped in the Drop Hammers, annealed, 
passivated, pickled and welded. One set was molded with atomic hydrogen. The re- 
sults of these testa *ere: 

(1) The "dead soft" 18-8 o&terlal reaches the breaking point nore quick- 
ly than IS-1Q, 

(2) The aateri&l has a tendency to wrinkle in one place rattier than 
over a wide area. 

(3) The wrinkles are easily retrieved but check the ss&terlal if allowed 
to get very sharp. 

(4) Scale formation and respond to the various riding techniques is 
aiailar in all respects to otner material tested. 

(5) The workability, as reported by our Lrop BftMMW foreman, is: 

18-10 — 1CQ:'j "Lead Soft" 18-S — &Q%» This particular "dead Mil* sa&teriai is, in 
regard to forcing properties, Inherently inferior to the 18-10. 

(6) It was established that flight differences in percentage of certain 
alloying elements have a noticeable bearing on loaa of ductility and | harmful change 
in grain structure oa cold working. 

These tests «ere used as a guide in the selection of stainless steel stock for 
forming aircraft parts. 

Analysis of several failures on exhaust ssanifolds brought to light the fact that 
nearly all failures in exhaust systems can be directly attributed to defective material, 
faulty molding, or other fabrication procedure. It is possible to thin out the m?=tal 
by excessive working to an extent which would result in a part which, in essence, 

to «mt< 



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would be fabricated of a thinner gage material. Associated with this, a survey of 
the latest research work gfeowt that the creep strength of Type 3^7 is fro& 30 to 
l&$ greater at a temperature of 1100°F. than that of Tfp$ 321. 

Because' it was once suggested by the standards Co...,ittee that the Aircraft 
Industry adopt Titanium stabilize*! stainless steal at a standard instead of having 
both Colurabittia and Titanium stabilized, the hyan Aeronautical Company Laboratory 
made a comparison of these two t;-pes. The use of Titanium or Columbia in the 
formula of stainless st< --el is, of course, to control the carbide precipitation *d til 
losers the corrosion resistance of the metal, '-hen those aotala are added to the 
Ciiratsiua-hickel stainless steals, they prevent the formation of harmful chroisiiua 
carbides by forming Titanium or ; .alir.ibiuffi carbides which are not haraiful. This modi- 
fication is called "stabilizing." 

It has been noticed in .voaerous exhaust ss&nifolds which have been in service 
up to as long as four thousand I our B$ that although carbide precipitation is present 
in considerable aaount, the distribution is not such that rapid corrosion -sill proceed. 
The presence of precipitated carbides results in poor retdatanee to acid solutions 
but as formed in the stabilized grades, they are resistant to the products of gasoline 
combustion. In the case of columbiura stabilised stainless, the carbides ffomed are 
dispersed at random throughout the material and fora no definite pattern for corrosion 
to proceed. 

It has long been known that Titanium is more readily volatilised from fused weld 
aetal than Col uisbiua, with reported losses of Tit&nluia as high aa 80C i\ search of 
recent literature discloses no refutation of this knowledge, although soae sources 
offer data from limited tests showing that in certain eases a normalized weld of 
Titanium stabilized Bital evidenced no intergranular corrosion. .Extensive studies 
have demonstrated that Colu&oiua stabilized steel welded parts can be used safely 
without a "stabilising" heat tr.. t :nt, whereas Titaniua stabilized steals should 
have the benefits of this special heat treatment. 



«*■** Ktaob •vari 


The Myan Aeronautical BOTptny perforata a lar»je part of Its welding operations 
by direct fusion of turned sheet edges, without welding rod of any kind. The admitted 
volatilization of Titanium in the direct fusion of Titanium stabilised sheets ?ould 
present an objectionable difficulty Irs this type of operation, ft have arrived at 
two conclusions relative to the characteristics of the two typesj 

(1) That whenever possible, 'i'ype 3473hould be used, for gas welding, 
as reworks are at a siniftura -shen using this type. 

(2) That it is far easier to train a v.- older to weld Type 347 than 
Typo 321. 

Following these tests, a series of studies was conducted to determine the rela- 
tive ductility characteristics of Coluabiua and Titanium stabilised stainless steels, 
ductility is extremely JUaportant, because, without this quality, we «©uld have the 
following disadvantages* 

1 - iixce»alve die staging 

2 m iijccoBsive breakage 

3 - ibtcessive annealing 

4 «t Poor fits resulting in tise loss in welding 

5 - l^cessive planishing 

Tests were aiade of raany different heats of Colusbiuu and Titanima stabilised 
stainless steel from the various producers. These saaples also had different finishes, 
or surface roughnesses. It was found that the Titanium stabilised stairiLeas steel 
was superior in ductility to the Coluabiua stabilised product. Tne forraability of 
Type 347, although slightly inferior to that of Type 321, is entirely satisfactory for 
the requirements at hand, and no troubles in foraing have been encountered by our jto- 
duction Depart.;'. -j at that can be attributed to the use of Coluabius! in 1&-& steal. 'l-o, 
it v»as deterssined that a finish equivalent U> a 2D sill finish isa* the best f or use in 
Drop HmMHP foraing operations, h wioother finish tnan this does not permit B firm 
grip by the dies of the nMmI as the punch strikes the die. iiuch greater success is 

experienced if the /seta! surface is roughened slightly. Further, it »as determined 

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that a high Nickel-ChroiJiiufli ratio allovss for a ductile aetal, one which hardens 
reluctantly «hile being cold-worked, and one wi-ich embodies good welding proper- 
ties. If the Nickel content reaains about 10.5 percent, «c *aay be reasonably 
euro of a ductile, trouble-fry© material. ;e have found that the most desirable 
formula for this use isj 

•i'bon: Lees than ,06, preferably leas than .05 percent. 

Manganese: 1,30 to 1.50 percent 

>sphorous: Less than .02 percent 

Sulpher: Less than .01? percent 

Cbroaima: Sore than 17.0 percent 

Nickel j Hore than 10.5 percent 

GoluabluBi Kore than 8 tidies the carbon content 

This brief discussion o^ some of the properties of the stainless steals *ith 
respect to their use in aircraft production has touched upon only two of the many 
aeabcrs of the stainless steel family. Jithin the Halts of such an article, no 
adequate treats-lit could be «*de of all of the important characteristics of this 
promising group of alloys auch us: co-efficient of expansion, heat conductivity, 
effect of various heat treatments, hardening characteristics, and corrosion resis- 
tance. It is quite evident that tremendous values will accrue to all industry as 
the result of the knowledge gained during this «ar of stainless steel compositions 
and fabrication excthods. 


.? v 

[es - 


fhotoffraph iio % ,14 , 5/tfl : ;ilson \, In charge of the Metallurgical Section of 
the Laboratory, Kyan Aeronautical Company, and the author of thla article. 

Photo^rati-i No. , ffi^M A amotion of the i/rop i-jaaiaer Department of the Hyan Aeronauti- 
cal Company. In this area the flat stainless Steel sheets, which have been cut to 
patterns, receive their first foraing operation. 

Photograph ho. 'jftZb i Close-up of a typical forcing process accomplished by iirop- 
tfaaaer in the hyan Aeronautical Coapany. observational tests of foraability were 
conducted in machines of tihia type where the metal is pressed into the die by the 
pressure of a dropped punch* 

Photograph mo. 126 : rhotemicrograph of a section of Ooluabittm-stabiiissed stain- 
lees "steel Type 347 showing the well-distributed precipitated carbides, presuma- 
bly Columbian Carbides. This fact that these Carbides are dispersed precludes 
their possibility of becoming paths for corrosion, ^Magnification is five hundred 

.. I 

-i m 


"■ ' 

fhotograph fio. 124 : >Mfc l »& BNiWtpfa oJf a section of unstabiliased Stainless Steel 
Type 302 shoeing th« precipitate Chromiua Carbides distributed along the grain 
boundaries. These Carbioes fors a path for intergranular corrosion to follow. 
These photographs, which are isagnifled to five hundred dimeters, «ere taken in 
the Laboratory of the Jtyan Aeronautical Company. 

Photograph Ko t | ffii9 > Typical Oxygen-Acetylene gas welding operation performed 
upon a Stainless Gteei part. Here the operator is adding Stainless Steel to the 
weld son© by use of a filler rod. 

P hotograph No, 917** ; Close-up photograph of a short-radius curvature section of 
a Stainless "teal part forssed by Drop Hausaer. Clearly evident are the wrinkles 
which result >shen this task is attempted with stainless Steel of insufficient 

Photograph lie, cffiG; * Showing the heat treating furnace and loading apparatus 
at the Ryan Aeronautical Company, This furnace, *fcieh is controlled by an 
electric recording thermometer, is used to anneal stainless Steel parts which 
have becoae work-hardened by f oralng operations. 


i M *5c ti&U 1B& CAM bLw 


• *'e.O„ | 

.I fogtogra;.)-. :.o. llV?^ t This picture was taken in the Laboratory of ti.a ; yan 
Aeronautical Company. It sheas a technician | an analysis of the atKoephere 
taken from a heat treating furnace in order to control the annealing of Gtainleaa 

Photograph Ho. 6&*/ ; ; The author, conducting i teat on a sample of "tainlesa fiteel 
*ith the tensile to NMfeiM in the laboratory. Jamplee from e&oh shipment of 

this ;i;*>tal are tested before they are siarketi as acceptable for fabrication. 

rfiotograih t-jo p 7766 ; $*»&«£ close-up of the weld aeass of a '-tainlesa Steel flange 
weiu. Notice the porosity eviaaut in this weld of Type 321, Titanium sfcabilieed 
Stainless Ste*JL« 

, Ko , « 776^ : mowing close-up of the weld saaa of a flange *eld a&de on a 

■e 3^7* CoIuEibiu^stabilised, Sfcalflfttta -teel. Here there is no porosity. 

Photoffi-aah Ko t 6676 : Ryan employee foming a wtainleaa Steel part with the drop- 
hajaaer. This tool has acquired many ne# uses in production as a result of the 
advantage taken of its flexibility by Ryan dealga and production wen. 

■-•.'illiaa P. Brotherton, rublic eiations 


-■'. • :'.' arid <■.-..■ I : , tmJ* - ■■■ »Xi 

William P. Brotherton 

Public Relations ^i^A^U^ • 

Ryan Aeronautical Company 

m si mm 

r/ Assistant Wthe " superintendent 

'dndtiott >!ni$n©oring 

8yan Aeronautical Company 

The small end unobtrusivo rivet lujW hMH ;layl:v; a port of a&Jor importance in 
the aircraft Mnuf&ctar' luotry sines the need far joining aet&i structures first 

arose. Moet of the Mftai production ma. 1 • . ■ ffwm 

of the nuineroua atteapta made to eliminate the rivet fr- »« Undouotfc- 

this is due to MM) fact fcfe | rivet has been regarded as a temperas, .'allow 

of highly individual ehayv- ties, 

The successful rivet must bo composed of the connect alloy for the „•/.>, mtfe 
have the desirable sise and shape and, in sosse cases, rust be heat«*tr®ated, gfisd or 
otherwise specially handled. The rivet hole also requires careful considerate 
It has to be drilled or {Hmehed to just the correct di^usioas &M then it aay re*- 
quire dimpling or countersinking* depending upon the aateri&l thickness. AfeMt /ou 
add to these requiresaents the skill which the riveting teaa aust possess in order 
to form strong, trua riveted structures yoa begin to understand why sany pfwfcl 
swn have tried to find a better way of holding an airplane together. 

Those of ua who are eost-eonecioua find that each rivet installed represents 
an expenditure of from two and a half to six cents and that there are up to 400,000 
of them in a modem airplane. Thus, they cosaprlse a siseable item in the production 
cost of aircraft. 

In spite of all of these apparent handicaps the riv^t has Maintained its 





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lndestructible leadership as the most universalis used method of assembling aircraft.. 
This pre-eminence ha® &rmm from the inherent advantage which the rivet possesses aa 
the moat flexible and applicable method of assembly. This flexibility derives from 
the many slses, head shapes and types of riveta available. Mother important 
characteristic of the rivet is the satisfaction it renders in contributing to, mxncL 
maintaining the structural strength of airplane ©laments under the most adverse 
service conditions. Today, we find that instead of becoming obsolete and diaearded, 
the rivet is still providing us with the best means for building aircraft. There 
have been great strides made in the development of mechanical or machine riveting. 
Some of the net hods in use at this time were considered impossible four or five years 

The need for mass production coupled with th«.v lack of skilled caanpower has re- 
sulted in a definite trend bMMl NLfM riveting. This lias brought .about i&any changes, 
not only in the quantity of the work, bat also in the nullity. For to , the use 
of "gang" or multiple, rivet; i reduced the occurrence of defective rivets as 
much as 92 percent. At the Hyan Aeronautical Company the machine riveting of both 
sub and major assemblies has been the object of considerable study and research, 
Kany new tools have been developed to accomplish this $sal« 

The highly skilled two man crew which has "m&n ao closely identified with the 
riveting process is rapidly .^oing out of the picture. It is being supplanted by the 
machines which perform the operation wore uniformly and consistently. The tendency 
of the individual to overdrive and consequently «ork-harden the rivet is eliminated. 

The types of riveta most commonly used in aircraft manufacture are flat head, 
brasler head and countersunk. The use of a multiple riveting machine with flat head 
rivets is comparatively simple. In the majority of the cases flat head rivets are 
used in assemblies where stiff ener angles are utilized to stiffen webs and fiat sheets. 
These structures are easily accessible and therefore lend themselves to multiple 
riveting techniques, k typical example of the multiple riveting of flat head rivets 

m t jiiJUe. •■ 


is shown in figures 1 and 2 where up to twelve rivets are upset at one stroke by this 

General *lultipl© Hiveter. The ram, which is actuated by a hydraulic system, has a 


Rouble action stroke* Pressing the foot pedal drops the ram to give a three and a 

half inch opening, the working stroke is adjustable from one half inch to three 

inches by fneans of a selector dial. The foot switch is very sensitive. The hydraulic 

system has a capacity of 1000 pounds mr square inch. The amount the rivet head is 

flattened is controlled by a dial on the machine. Tho instrument is self-compensating 

for changing jsatorlal thicknesses. the use of the especially designed monorail 

conveyor which was built by the hyan aeronautical . jers, mm4msa&mm*mt 

JHmtmmm*<itiatm&^ it is possible for tm person to rivet large wing secti-wi* twenty six 

feet long. A vwisn can rivet jtiQG rivets in one ijour and five sainutes. This same job 
would have required the IMNWUmm of four riveters for Wo hours apiece under the hand 

the multiple or machine riveting of brazier head rivets is somewhat mor& difficult 
and no suitable method has been devised to acoorapllah this effectively. In some in- 
stances, notably on flat sheets where stringers are used with brazier head rivets, 
"gang" riveting has been successful. The main problem encountered with this process 
is the tendency of tii© brassier heads to flatten too siuca under the pressure of a "gang 
riveting anvil, axperience has shown Uiat the use of a single braaiar hoad set which 
upsets each rivet indivi dually achieves the best results* file sets esust be carefully 
designed to avoid cutting the rivet heads and ringing the jaatai skin of the section, 

A typical exatsplo of the machine riveting of braaier head rivots is shown in 
mimMmt** This machine, which was designed by the Ryan Aeronautical Company, utilizes 
a Chicago Pneumatic Squeezer, type 351. An attachment with brazier head sets was de- 
signed to enable the operator to rivet ribs to the skins of leading edges of either 
right or left hand sections. This machine has elindnuted th& timed for a second person, 
or the rivet bucker* The cost of the equipssent has been offset many tiises by the 
savings in mnhours and rivet rejections which it tuts effected. Very little skill is 
required to operate the tool because the rivet sets and anvil are adjusted for the 
correct rivet height. 



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:h-speod airplanes require riveting that is flush with the surface because of 

the advantages gained from the iMnHag of air resistance and weight oonei derations, 

Tith the present trend toward ever-increasing speeds, the r —buy is to flush rivet 


all exterior surfaces. In the eases where ilush rivets are not used on outside sur- 
faces, brasler heads sure usually installed because thev ..resent less protruding area 
than round or flat hear! typus. The rsajor problem connected with the installation of 
flush rivets is the necessity for countersinking or dimpling the rivet h*Xs so l 
the rivet head will set properly *h«n &he operation is complete. The usual tolerances 
for countersunk rivet heads are ± .006 inch. In the study and uxasaination of this 
question several solutions have been offered and are beln^ used & action. 

The dimpling of the holes Is preferable to countersinking because It provides a 
stronger Joint which is • pries* requisite of the completed assembly* The dimpling 

operation is iiaaited, however, to certain thicknesses of material. At the Ryan &er©» 

nautical Company we seldom dimple materials of greater than «4tt& inch thickness. 

Countersinking is the used for the heavier gauge taetai and smy be accomplished 
either by hand or machine, tors it Is perfor:«ed raanuaily the chief concern is the 
skill of the operator because it is difficult to avoid too deep, too shallow or 
elongated holes. The use of a micrometer adjustable countersink, powered with an air 
drill ffiotor of 2500 revolutions per minute, has lessened to some degree the shattering 
and elongation of the hole. Air drill motors are recommended because they are more 
efficient and weigh less than electric and thereby lessen operator fatigue, 

machine countersinking is greatly supsrior to the manual . 1th the machine 
which is pictured in figure 6, an em ployee, with comparatively little skill, can 
countersink smarts rapidly o,nd with consist- formity. This is a Parnham mill 
countersinkwr. It is operated automatically by air pressure and electricity* 

It is still necessary to countersink by hand those structures which, because of 
unusual size or shape, cannot be fed into a machine. 

■\n innovation which is of inestimable value to the Kyan Aeronautical Company 


In the production of riveted assemblies is the controlled scheduling system worked 
out by the traduction Control department. This armu.jesient insures the efficient 
purchase, inspection and dispatch of all the rivets which the plant uses. But steps 
In this system ere these: 

1. -Ml the rivets enter the plant throughout the receiving inspection de- 
partawnt v«hlch checks the sise, type and alloy required by the specifi- 

2. 4/tor inspection the rivet® are heat treated to make sure that none of 
them escape this process. Then they are dispatched to the stock room 
where they are packaged and sealed in dated cellophane baja, froia here 
they go to the rivet control crib for storage until use by the production 
lines. These operations are shown in figures f $ tf, 9 and it, 

3. Tn« Production department furnishes Production Control with a complete 
list of the type, else and lengths of the rivets needed for assemblies. 
The requi , in pounds, for each assembly is specified, 

k» The i'roduetioa Control departs:- a a monthly inventory sheet, 

on a bookkeeping basis, which shows the req; .,. .ts for the /south* a 

production, the amount on hand and the amounts allotted to each assem- 
bly, the actual g*qp£ . are increased appraximat.. i.ow 
for loss and spoilage. 

5. The rivet control crib maintains at ail MjmS ■ four waoks supply of 
packaged rivets on hand to furnish to production lines, iiew purchases 
for new and existing work are &ade with complete knowledge of the sup- 
plies of each type of rivets on hard. 

6, Any defective rivets encountered in production arc collected and return- 
ed with their d;»ted bag to the rivet crib for determination. This date 
takes the plac« of MB inspection st&jjp and serves as an excellent means 

of locating all of the rivets of any defective bate; . ftto use of this 
system has placed the Matter of rivet smfei on a scientific and 

workable basis. 
The transformation of the riveting process fross ana of hand work to a aachine 
operation lias kept pace with the cuetaiaorpljosis of the industry fras sss.*ili shoj. to 
mass production methods* Undoubtedly, the introduction of the natty Machines wni- 
arc in use today has secured riveting* a place in the manufacturing of aircraft, sJne 
by one, the disadvantage which accompanied early .rive I J , ^re bein^ ovorco.-ae by 
the efforts of the production sen of aviation, via nigfefe In called the "Jjaagiaeers " 
of the inaustry. 

ffllliaa F. Brotherton 

Public Relations 

Ryan Aeronautical Company 

I CAi-'fl 
(Riveting Jtory) 

Photo^rar>h No. 12135 t Close-up of the powerful anvils of the General Multiple 
Riveting machine in the Ryan Aeronaut.! ■ .ipany plant. 

i-iiotoj^raph Ho, 12136 a Under side of a ?&ng panel which is being riveted by a 
huge multiple hydraulic riveter. 

Photograph Ho. 13038 : Riveting a large outer wing panel in the smltiple rivet- 
ing machine at Ryan. 

Photograph No. 116-92 } Ryan employee is shown rt. ye ting a wing spar by raeans of 
the fast multiple hydraulic riveter. Notice the foot control. 

Photograph No,. 1417 3 t An automatically controlled Farnham mill countersinker 
which is actuated b^ compressed air and electricity at Ryan. This machine per- 
forms an accurate and fast job of countersinking. 

Photograph Up. 14171 : An especially arranged machine designed at liyan to rivet 
the splices on lower surface skins ft! outer panel;*!. 

Photograph llo. 1090g t Ryan uses an addressograph machine to place the date and 
description of contents on each cellophane bag of rivets. 

Photograph No, 10905i This at Ryan weighs and packages rivets in neat 
cellophane bag© in the stock rooa. 

Photograph h'o. 14172 ; An interesting assortment of various rivet squeezers and 
guns designed at Ryan for riveting jobs. 

Photograph No. 10910 : Bags of rivets are stacked neatly on shelves until they 
are requisitioned for production line use. 




Por release - Monday P.M. 

Concerned because San Diego fell 900 pints snort last week on its 
Red Cross quota of 2250 pints of blood, the Ryan Aeronautical Company 
threw its weight behind the blood-donor drive this weak* Using showman- 
ship, Ryan staged a unique lunch-period assembly program to sell employees 
on giving their blood. 

The actual process of giving blood was shown on the stage of the 
Ryan bandstand in the lunch area, as a Red Cross mobile unit drew one pint 
each fro if- the arms of Ryan ^aployees Sllen isosley, Alice Barrus ami David 
Bracken while thousands of workers looked on. 

There* s nothing morbid or unpleasant about a blood donation," 
pointed out Joseph. Rodney, Ryan's recreation supervisor, who acted as 
coraraontator during the program. "Vie 1 re putting on this program just to 
show you how easy it is to give your blood. And don't think your blood 
isn't needed — last week marked an ail-tiiae low in d> nations at San 
Diego, There were only 1300 donors last week, and 600 of these were 
service people. It's time we civilians got busy. :i 

The Ryan company is organizing a special, drive to get 2000 employees 
to the blood donor center each we«k. 

P^^^jl ^ ^^-Jt^^^-^L^^j. 

b^~ -i- 


-^ - _^m— V*>J^ ^ ^^^^i^) 

7- J -*. 

-3Bw eleventh-hour 3purt by Ryan Aeronautical Company employees, 
after they had seemingly fallen short of their million dollar' quota in 
the Seventh tfar Loan drive, put Ryan over the top in the final hours of 
the campaign, it was revealed this morning by ff« Frank Persons, chair- 
man of the joint labor-management far Loan committee at Ryan. 

Last week the committee seemingly faced defeat, Persons said, when 
it found that only $880,000 worth of War Bonds had been bought by em- 
ployees at the conclusion of the regular solicitation. Even though the 
Ryan drive had theoretically been completed, the committee decided on 
an extra effort in the week remaining before the expiration of the 
Seventh ;far Loan period. A special rally was held during lunch periods 
in the company plaza and Ryan workers were told that the company would 
fail to make its quota unless 4120,000 worth of extra bonds were bought 
within the week. The workers responded hj buying 151,217 "worth on the 

Still almost $69*003 short, Ryan's campaign committee again re- 
fused to admit defeat. It made personal contacts with ©very foreman and 
department head, and in the next five days sold .$62,300 worth with their 

vith only a few hours remaining before the expiration of the Seventh 
,.ar Loan period, the committee sent a rush message to a group of Ryan 
supervisors who were meeting at the moment. The supervisors personally 
subscribed the needed 36,500 worth of bonds. 

Additional redemptions of pledges are still ti<ickling in today, 
Persons said, and the current total in face value oi* bonds purchased by 




Ryari employees is $1,002,786. This does not include purchases by the 
Ryan company itself. 

iergh Field • San Diego l. California 




A sixty-hour work week has been instituted for final assembly 
line workers at the Ryan Aeronautical Company in order to meet a 
shortage of skilled manpower and comply with Navy requests for in- 
creased production of Ryan fighting planes, it was revealed today by 
company officials. 

Under the new work schedule, employees in Ryan's final assembly 
department this week began working from 7:30 a.m. to 6 p.m. on first 
shift, and from 6 p.m. to 4:30 a.m. on second shift. 

"Increased Japanese air activity, including suicide attacks, have 
made it essential that we send increasing numbers of the newest types 
of combat aircraft to the Pacific Fleet with a minimum of delay," 
Admiral Harold B. Sallada, chief of the Navy's bureau of aeronautics, 
said a few days ago in a telegram to the Ryan company. To meet his 
request, the company immediately worked out the 10-hour shift plan to 
further step up production. 

The longer work day for final assembly workers is a temporary 
measure^ Ryan executives emphasized. It is designed to meet the present 
Shortage of skilled workers and will be discontinued as soon as suffi- 
cient skilled labor can be recruited. In spite of the fact that it is 
hiring all experienced and properly qualified aircraft workers possible 
from among those terminated at other San Diego plants, Ryan still does 
not haye as many trained assembly workers as it needs, company spokesmen 
pointed out. 

S.0. /T£4> t-'ST S/>. ySttoV U%T , *V>AT/OA/ #<\6A2>A'£.S ; /?£/> 

>■ . ..,- ' 

N • * •• .'■■ K. 

V; ;/■ . v. - 

'• '' ..-• ! : ■ 

• . ' 

-.-•'- -'. 

■ ■ ■:■:.;, -j , 

' ■ •■ > • : : 

'., ■. ._'-..-: 

■■ ■ ,- :i 

s^y&£/£ /&£ZA~r/ 0?^ * 

Bg . .. tag , .Ut in 


] BtiggXUtjf 

fhe loss of .- - f.L\mn«*» | Itt&ia T 'oil result* 

fro& the torsions ;_.... liltj Mf . Leren 

is deflect©© iUwMHft|id 

about the j '..- eed the &n$lti of 

attack and thereby rtxiuoe tats Bu&difciensJ, lift Ogl&xi e 

roil. i|AM Mm karataasJl -. ifeaal 

sftlle the t stftiiag bsv [M I'.kv < v ... ■• I | ft* : I I ,11 

ia evident fcfeail at so»e es.. t, ol* t! HI cllcror. "ill fef 

eosspiotol} ft*a**£l*tf •-,'•-- .■..,..'.. la 

fcero rolling agftNNIfc* i t&tl critical ■ 

the &ller«ft© *ii-Li ! . ■ ■ ;. ..., tm nor r«I 

hence UM WMH "aiitroa rev*.; 1 

bi^r beyond the norasl r . 3 In Mit^miUjf flexible 

*Li\gv, such «.& tisosvi- la ^lidors, ailaro:. 'Mhos 

exporifcncsd in flight. La ft*? fWVaftj MM I '.it Ion of the r*- 

vsrsal speed is of interest in relation to Kh* rate of roll. 
Uevoloia^nt of .^^iintloM 
To &*ft#MriUM the aileron reversal speed, the wing ia divided 




into several spantflsa intfcinrais and the ae^le ©f twist compatible 
with the twisting NMMftl is determined for each section under the 

condition of ssero rolling awMnft, Equations Ml up by the method 
of influence c0@iTiai.ent3 ire then solved by .matrix Iteration. 
Twisting; -' . o-'^ nt for 'era i.ollir > : •■> ; --nt 
The development of wa &. mat, ions begins -ith the non-oscilla- 
tory lift 1m MKJ i of U-. . --/! Heron combination 
pal* U&ejWal, - . * . . obU<.m&& from the result a of Theodorsen, 
8M9 r . t • .ition of aero frequency. They 



^ . s an^U oi , ' ■ ■ • - i n of sfr.':/, ftft*tM&ajg 

sere root &eglft* 
/^ -: aileron I stioti eitfe NHQNMit fee ,-; tflffl : " I'.:;* 1 

I 1 .- stalling direction) 
(5- - chord of i Jfc section 
^ » /-^ a: velocit-v v '«©d 
^ s coefficients 6op«a6iflg on tro?? »f niVron, r»„prody?'ie«ie 

b;laace and Ice Is. ( *x) 

^ g distance tatwttfl ' - :■' <>rd and elastic aria a» a fraction 
of BMdU B&ftfd (-/-wfam elastic a>ie is aft of fdA-vhwd) 
The rolling HMiettt ia then ftHatMNl by sumlng ur> the lift 


',ee references 



» - 


times the lev- over both win . 

For «ere rolling RMMMtefc the above aquation reduces to, 

and the all wen tingle btcs , 


•here the d«mwninator Is a - ?nlj to sm.i, 


In tho aWtre ■ . ' twsei to 

be ny^li-gii.. tkft* /? « eeastaM over H I area span and 

K«ro ov i ■ ■ :.■■■ , 

. itiflg (3 j Li .- fcwii . ant of the i th 

section for I . • ■ e jcolll i .as* 






"^>*>i *#- S^-^^^- 1 



^ .<• ^ <: 

<?, ^- 








& constant depending only on the geometry of ti.e ."lag-aileron com- 

■yn^le of 'foist by Influeiico Coeff IcUsuts 
The angle of t'&'ist at any section ic soft be expressed in t 

i . 




of the torsional influence coefficients a which represent the 
angle of twist at k due to a unit twisting nosaent at i. 



.ubatitutl ation (4) Into {%) 

[ <i r*H *■ & £ =t- <L- tL * «] <£* 6a A¥ ' 


4, _ 


* / 

- ■ /T£ I 


H — 



H - ^ 

9 <*.+-• -Wf^L <?.°l- 



V la^n^ ^x r ^.^]^. 


..', be n equations similar to (7) which will be satis- 
fied by n values of q, ho*cvsr only the lowest root corresponding 

t'V'» < 

o ftigUM 

s ■ \ 



■' l 


to the lowest speed is of practical interest. 
;.?lutio^ by jiatrix Iteratio n 
To eolvc the set of equations indicated by (7), It is conven- 
ient to use the Matrix notation and the iters tic od. ssum- 
ing a unit anjle for V ' : section, the n eeuations in matrix 
fora aay b* arranged as follows, 

/• f- 


Q, <t 4. 
<Z, <2. Q, 

O Q 



'-it X. 




where fefef perf ■ - tantftd by mftm%$mt (7). 

The iter,;.', .-oceas in started by MttHtlag a rea«onable torsional 

deflection curv.. j-ilt U$ -.)> : -;fl' -.^tlon. ;ubstituttn;* in 

the last column of (9) I - AVftSl -■'.* •■' ■ ^tlon, the 

column aatrix obtained is reduced to the form on the left side of 
(9). doing MM reflection curve so obt-ainod, the process la re- 
peated until the deflections on the few sides of the equation be- 
come equal, The proco. iv" , .l:' MNmHrffWtl ■■■tfftciant 
accuracy i* general 1 / obtained in three or four repetitions* 

The critical reversal speed is then c, iting 

tiie factor X obtained on the left side of the equation to 
as folia?) », 



i ; 

v * 

» • 

tV J.V 


1 , j 




xs- - 


r s 


Tbi .It in th« %m ■■'■Isi tittta the 

NOW > .'.iii.Ltioatil con- 

straint of t; • ■!«. 


| - ' 


To llluatrete the prim ' 6iMtltt*dj nmiurlutd. computations 

were carried out for H b#i Lftg »iMl eesled sorodyn*.- 

rdcally balanced ailerons of fMUUwil ttoas (mm !? i/». . : . 

<S - ■ s-o 

fen* elastic axis to be at 40f of tho chord, raeasured 
fron the ImtftlSf ©d#OJ 

Uaing the equations for fgrpg II allom*. (mm i frtMlSjt)* th<* 
constant* £, ^ antf^bor.v^e; 

The computations for the astrls elevate are. carried out in 
tabular for ■'-f.mted. % • .-vly con- 

vergent and tho torsional curve stabil t«»s in thro* trial* as 
invtlco tec! by the lust table. 

The rover sal tpevfi epical '..>.■ 10 1st 

In tha ;,.,svc calculation, air density of 8.45 * 10- _■-. 
in*" 1 aee,*- corresponding to an altitude of 10,000 ft. was used» 




; . -vfc t 








Elastic /\x/s. 'Mid.- CH?f<n_ 


C?rn/vi £ t r.ic C ON^T^^i /'■ 


1 %i 

oxa. i ___j; 












C. X AX x io 3 I -3 

z -3 

C AX x 10 

2.90 I 279, 

75.0 j 30 





2.25 169- 
















E C X AX - 1*1 > 10 

* L 1 


x lO 


' k^ 




I 1 



I .20 


! .20 



2 -M-M- 

.20 i .20 .20 

! 6 

— 1 











8.0 * 8.0 
8.0 j 14.0 







8.0 I 8.0 

14.0 ) 14-0 

I8.0 i;'.o 









k c . 


A% x 10 

4-1 u 2 

3 ; 4 

*■ — i 





t ' 

1 ! .0558 .0478 j .0403 .0338 .0276 .0222 .0172 

S : : » ■ . ; 

( ; ! r- 

2 ,0558 .956 .808 .675 .552 .444 j .344 . I 

.' -It' 

; j I i 

! .0558 .956 1 1.617 [1.35 1.103 .818 .688 

.0558 .956 11.617 J2.36 jl.93 1.552 1.202 

.0558 : .956 . 1.61*7 '2.36 [1.93 |2.00 ;1.34% 

1 .0558 i .956 

.0558 .956 

1.617 2.36 1.93 



2.36 il.93 2.22 






i XJ 1 

i 1 





:' -" 





2 ! 3 

• * ..*-.. .. -k- - — — 


.-*.- .4 

5 16 < 7 

- 1 — 4~ ' 



.422 I 1.265 





.1350 .189 .243 

2.11 j 2.95 3.80 

.297 .351 

4.64 5.48 


2.20 ; 3.66 15.13 ; 6.60 3.06 J 9. 


5.32 I 7.46 J9.6O 11.7 h.3.85 

! i 

5.76 :8.07 jio.38 j 12.7 ,15.0 

: i 

5.98 ■ 8.39 ilu.8 

6.07 8.52 

13.2 15.6 

10.95 j 13.38 J I5.8 


<- ! 



T""" 1 ""' 

2 i 3 


5.79 5-35 

5.79 : 107.0 


5.79 1 107.0 
5.79 107.0 
5.79 107.0 

98.5 i 90.0 

197.0 j 180.0 
197.0 / 315.0 



4.91 j 4.50 


5 j 6 j 7 

j , 

4.07 { 3-64 : 3.21 





197.0 315.O 



81. 5 72.3 , 64.2. 

I63. 145-7 128.4 

254.9 " '224.7 


327.8 j 288.9 


364.2 321.0 
364.2 j 353.1 

= JU^K^ + &*l % i^ A K )c< Al x ,0 


— — .- 











6 i 


— ^ 







.72 ; 















a. 7 • 


























77.1 ' 




















1.69 1.46 1.24 1.06 .88 .72 .57 

1.80 29.0 24.8 20.9 17.4 14.1 U»2 

1.89 29.2 49.4 41.7 34.6 28.0 22.2 

1.99 29.5 49.8 72.6 60.2 48.6 38.5 

2.02 29.6 49.9 72.8 77.0 62.0 48.9 

2.03 29.6 50.0 72.8 77.1 68.6 54.2 

2.04 29.6 50.0 72.9 77.1 68.6 59.4 





Reflection *± 7?nnT of Matk/x Equat/oM 













I c, 


.014 j 



1 «l 







1 "*' 







| .798 

























,0 + 
W '1 





The constants ^ and/^, defend on the following? 

Type I - Open ,<?ap viith bin*?** at lead- 

(1) Type of ailerons _ ^ ^ ^ ^ Qf 

leodj r 4/t c> 

(2) e. = distance fro:.. edeVehord of wlflf to leading edge of aileron 

m of the t ■ .• ri-ehord of wing, 
U # = ; ,.id-cnord of «in£ to elastic axis of wing as 

a f. tt) of the serai-chord of vdng (positive ef elastic 


axi.: -v. "t of ,iid- chord; 
(A).po s \KA**V*W^^^^ 'iist' leading of 

aileron an > line &e a fraction of the se^i-oLord of 

the •tag. 

The numerical values for fc] i of ailerons are deter- 

mined frorr. she following c aailon^ • the 7~ and ^ functions 

are givon by the curves ef :■'!., ures 2 and £• 

Tyy Lleroa 


7'yp^ II 

AT - «. 


^ = 3L/i^y/^^>^v|^f 

la i 











*V V*"' .fc— 









* I 








. ... 



' \~ 

. . .. . . 

' • 

[ -■■ 




r - 




1. ■• 



1. ' •■ 





-*M i 


•1-1 -;• 

<3; :: 

■ .;:'■ 


i . . 

- - | -f£ 

S3 vb ^ 

r^ •■ )_....... i , . _ 



CD- -;- 

— — t— — 

I;""' ! 'I j 

i 1 V " 

■ ■--■' • 


^ cv 
I— su... J 

1 ci 

— . -! — . . i 




;:: j 

i — : . 
■ i 






| ' 












^^ - 

: ;: : 

: ::: 


' : r 




: '. ■ ' 1 ■ : . ■ 




i. ■ 




T_ >> 



- . - r - 




: :^ 




: — -U_ 

- ' 1 . 

•; 1 : . 

- ■ r 

U-J — 

; '■ .... : 

\ 3 '■ : 




■•;; ; ; \- 



- - .*. 


: ; □ 

;— ;• 

.. L.... 

'.'■-V ' 

'- 1 "■•■; 

I; ; 


- 1 


; */^* 


• " : : : : :z 


■ '-+— 



■ * 

:::t: I 

■ ■ 


...... .. 



• ' i — 



.. . T 


.TJr ■■■' 


:: '-. ■ 

. ■.!:.:: 

■- i ; ■ - 


: r : : 



w ' : 



■ i 

• / 

1 * 

- ! 



. .,,i;,/. 

■ - - 1 


:■ :;: 


' . : 

- — (.. 

' |: 


. .. , 


. ■ 



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. . I 


- ■ 

-- j- 


. . ... 






■ ■ : 

: 1 

t: :: 


.:. jl:. 


^ 1 

— ! 

: : ; ; : 

' ' M 




. ! • 


„ ...I 


- | 



• . 

- ■ -«--* 

- ;:•- 



J . - .1- - 






' l 


'. * ' 1 -' - 

1 . 

■ • 

: — • 1 - ; 





■ r f"^ 


i y 

■ - 1 

._. - _ 

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-.-•■ ■ 






d t< ^p ui) 4f 
5 0, ^ 9 * °" 


.: 1 

O- Op K <£ 
k ^ ^ ^ ^ 

. . . 

i ., 








1. Theodorsan, T. - General Theory of Aerodynamic Instability Mrf 
the Kech/i.-ilcia of Flutter. ...... . . .(,96, 1935. 

2. Kuasner, «;. G. I , ... - TS.e : ':-ocU.lfttin& tflttg with :.* 
dynusaictaiv rf levators* - £..'.•'.'.'.. *.'"..'. 991 - 19A1. 

3. ^chornicK, ... - a ions of the Critic? .. ids of Aileron 
*mm ..•■_..., DlvtvpmMb 
a. k.»l . »-saAl W .ad. 1. 


7- /0-4S 



iergh Field • San Diego I, California 

■rat r*ni: i 

Sy Bernard K* Fleer sch. Chief Chemist and 
ft Aeronautical Qangftny 

To deteraine the optlwae organic limitation necesa&ry for pro- 
tection against galvanic corrosion in various dissimilar metal 
contacts a series of testa wore conducted In the Laboratory of the 

rone.atlcvf.1 Company. %W^f specis»siie were fabricated and 
tested in a salt spray cabinet. Ifciough this problem, *hich is of 
prime lnportJince in the construction of aircr f , ;as been studied 
for mny years with a resultant abundance of litorntere, no reports 
were available which substantiated the requirements set forth in 
many of the specifications governing the number of paint coats 
applied to faying surfaces, our tests are not correlated with 
actual service conditions but ere designed to she* the comparative 
corrosion resistance of definite dissimilar metal contacts Saving 
various f iniaiiin,*; schemes* 

Galvanic corrosion may be defined as the accelerate electro, 
chemical corrosion produeed »hen one seta! is in eleetrieal eon- 
tact *>ith another mor« noble £tet.ii # both being in the same corrod- 
ing medium or electrolyte. C s tT SS l s a . of t'is type usually results 
in a high rate of solution of the loss noble metal and protection 

7J ^ay /^a/*j — /fw /{a€s 


of U>« fioteier Metal, ftffflg t • eerroeien prooe»» »» electric 
current la £onereted between tb* t*o metals in contact. The a»» 
plltode of ti U etirrmit la eMuieniarit to U « aeeelerntion of Mm 
Mmmwj of the -ore vulnerable aetal boywod lie nenml extent. 

fhie general reaction la ainller to a niniature coll or 
battery trm **.lefe « finite wsaount of electrical power mjr be de* 
rived. TIm al»plaet end boat known axanple of such * $alennle 
oall la one eampeeed of strips of coffer and sine oonnoctatt by 
a eetallic conductor end plsceo in a dilute sniuUon of sulfuric 
-*cid. In this call the lose noble sine strip suffer* accelerated 
corrosion settle the eepper is virtu.',: ntt&cfeed* 

.»» alloy depend* apen an oxide f 41ft for ita corrosion re- 
aiatance t*nc\ if on enyfen cell gets started, the absence of oxygen 
at paint i; boeome anodic precludes the repair of the paeeive - 

flls it. ■ -region, ••ubujetiU^ntl^, the original stable coll 

between the dieelallar atetals *tll become overshadowed in istooiv. 
tence by the considerably eore (powerful cell aet up between the 
established anodic areas and tne surrounding aetal «b«re I 
passive filn ia kept intact, eiutlon* containing i: f *»# 

such «a aea eater, are «ore active in causing ieeel breekdeeB of 
passive filn and are oast likely to be 

As*on# fe h© diseiadlar aet^le studied were; Hflf rural alth 
Matalue-pl&tac. -d, *KtS2S-4f magnesias with lrt-8 staialeee 

steel, Am3&»H aa^neelua It MA end U€32'--H negnesltat 

*lih 2. Ufl •■-«. 11 of the corrosion study apeelnena were 

aachlned to aiae prior Id of the $3roteative coats. 

They vera assenbied »itb e*dniac>.? iaieci bolt'; had been 

«<l In alnc ehro«ote prlraer ««d lnaorted »t,Ue ««t. The Kino 
ehroaate prifter tuwl on ts.o teat «peoi»e»t eonforoed to •paelfl- 
catian MMV»;<«456b s Jfci aluainua waahere were aeon under the 
belt a ai«i nuts. ft or as*«*ifeij?, the sp«Kjl««>n* afcich contained 
mgtmAm aa oeiaponente were ^ivon sufficient additional coats to 
o-funi a total of four coats of aloe efereaete priner, .-hen they 
were thoroughly dry they -*«re eaepeaded with ftlasa rod hanger* in 
the aalt »;**y eorroaioo eaWLnst, ltd* e&binot ha* a p#rfasmans« 
whieit eonforas «ifch epeeifieatior - - -91. erletilo ob*«trva- 
tlena were sad* to detect the progreaa of corrosion. 

The foUowimr teat eentHnaUon* *ere prepared and drive* 
rarloua different ^roteotivo treataentet 

Tiio areas of tho ifteeiaecw wore anal ratio of steel our- 

i'«oc to that of «&a&im» »&» opproi&iB&ieiy 4 to 1* 

The ttfcgf-*** anodleed 

Tho eteeX wa* plated »;U . W of oadniwu 

Orfaftie ?inlah! 

(1; One coat of sine enroots rsriner on each 

j' ':■■,■ u.-f.-.i . 

- * riaer on Use 

T»o eoots of a r>c coronate primer m oaO 
faying; »ur1T«c . 

f»* coats of fine ehroaate prieer on tho 
Aluain^a ant! thr<w coatn on the *Ui«l, 



ir«a chronate paste was anplied so that 
etostt tl*.t» t*o sttrfttcwcs »«©re brought to- 
gether « ■wall bead of paste «a* formed 
around the aluaLmss* This finish is re- 
quired by opacification /3SU1 ■?<'!, 
it:. 4 t -.y^ 
XI- o. r&tie of nurfuoe ereas in eentaet «*•' in the proportion of 
fear parte of aagnesluft to one of aliaminua alloy* 
Chenieel Treatments 

the aaa ne s lun was diehreaate treated aoeordin# 
to specif ioutlon f$»407« 
The Iciad was anodisod. 
mmri.* Finlohi 

(1) T»o coats of aloe ehrenate n»laor on each 
Iih; eurfaoe* 

■ a of isina uhraat-tte • 
erne): faying surfaoo. Seed of sine ohro* 
Mate paste *es f oread, this finish is 
required by epeolfieatiori -1 . 

the ratio of surface contact we* four parts ef smgmaixm. to one 
of tlkm |i m illejr, 
Ohcnicsl freatw 

e aafneSaJBB %es dletiraMte treated aec- - 

a scat* ej afcraoate priaier on each 

.ins oarfaeo. 


(?) thro* coats of jsOne ohrooato prlncr on 
oscb faying surface *lth a boat! formtlan 
of W;« posts* This finish is rwuirsd fey 
«»ecLf ication MM i 

at? - .. -.. • 

Tho ratio of contact surfaces sua in tho proportion of four parts 
Of stool to or* of cu/tnesluo. 
ttfcomloal Treatttenti 

fee aagftooio* si ron»t« treated according 

to sjpeclfiostien 2W&7* 

fhc stainless stosi «ss rinses: In s 2* solution 

of *r t»o ninttUo* 

(X) Two costs of sins ehroaots jarlaer on each 
faying serfaes. 
) fbree coats of sine ehromU prlesr on 
eoeh faying surface «ith bead f onuation 
on i««to. Tills finish Is re<v*irer by 
IfMOiflOftUlRt to| . 
I speeiaens in tho alsnlna* to cacteivetf lated stool 
sToop were kept in tho salt spray cabinet for 10? hours without 
say evirfsaeoe of eexTeaioa oociarrin^* > heto&reph #1 stso*s ts<«ee 
toot pica* . . the orgaiiis ceatln&s and ithetegrsph #9 snows 
the& of tor tfoe costing £ ";**« r s moowu . 

Tho aaj g no oia o to alaniaua ooabtastions shewed eigne of corro- 
sion sites NM of eapcoa* in MM salt aproy cabinet, Tbey 
were alXswoo to vec-ilii far ?53 boors and tben r o aoTO rt for in- 
. . . . resulte of & . 


corrosion ouataliwl by those pis*:**, Xi i» latorootln* to not* 
thai the inmilatlng ««*hcro neat to the mpn1« were or no pro* 
teetlve value, Beth t)w waebera owl tho aroae with which thoy 
»«re in cea&aet *»ro cacea.sivel.y ib«tto6«<J, 

Pre* theoo toots S*4«,- toatitieai Coapeugr ;•.«• 

^liMNarirVP Ubomtoryp wo fool that certain uacfuX conclusions 
•?• Jttetifled, for adequate protection against corrosion doe to 
diasitailar *otal rjalv&aio attack in araaa axpeood to tho mot 
outrun s »«otherla« oeaaitloas, one coat of sine chronate jriser 
on eaeb of the twit* mrtaom of aft/sT slaainufc in contact with 
•MfataMwpiatod low carbon stool ft* tfosirafele, Tho 1007 hoar 
salt spray t«s«t sfr.w* that V.ia fcreotftcnit jpreducos o corrosion 
resistance actual to ttoat required by apoelfleotiv 

la tho 00510 of rsa/jtwilwa *. ritact U$ stoift- 

:--ss or 2 . :.i : ' , thro* co-it? of sj 

sftreoata rtafi Ml I (rti fe#lAg sarfta , tttttfl tatf Iftfe -'■- 
ehrwwto pasto should bo Adequate, y toots she* thnt 

this finish seheaulo, required by o^ocif L , is tho 

opt truss fe uate protection* where severe attack May bo 

ejgtpeeted, no redaction In the rwaihnr of coats In tho interest 

mmm toss 

"Dissimilar total Fayiii.;. SWpfMsf" 3tory 

Photograph Mo, 684ft ; Barnard ft Fioerach, Chief Chereiat and Process 
i&igineer of U;e Hyaa Aeronautical Company, conducting a titration 
experiment in the i-sisineerinc Laboratory. 

P hotograph ^o, 1227^ : Various toot specisana of alursinura and cadiaiura- 
plated steal with the organic coatings applied before the salt spray 

Photograph Ho. 13272 t Alua&nura and steel specimens after bS&Qf in the 
Byan salt spray i,ost cabinet for 100*7 haur3 and with the organic coatings 

?ho tonraph Ho . . 12?7 6 t Various test specimens of magnesium and aluialnuex 

with organic coatings applied before subjection to salt spray teat, 

i; hoto>;r-*Ph Jlo, 12791 s &a<gaesium and aluminum teat specimens after 
255 hours "of salt spray tost and with organic coa. tings removed for 

William P. arotherton 

Public Halations 

Ryan Aeronautical Company 

,-,,.- •■-. ■ '. 


-iXiinhAQ baa m 

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at th» *&U «aa of %&m tuml&®& 1* *«r«r*«* t« ii tb« yvjfartWNi 

jr iiaafej 

• #mm&%UsbA «3©aNll»»ts « 4*tlmblm at HrfiN 
«*»ee atstloa* 

% I OJ i ftMMtlJM«M4«ttal tf«fl*$tUR ef Am«1*§» &$»#* 

an unit $totlm%lwt at t^£«r«*«N> #t#t3L«» 

9^» tsJ W4»J » fl«a«aa*l »ftg$# at **f*r*j«»e atatlaft* 

^« ft*** i»»*M - ftamrai «A|JU at r*f amm** aUtiw fe*»«4 an 
unit &&iimkim at ref«r«rie« atatlan* 

«y % [nM»i s *X#»sst*a m$U at «ia#*?s&$e atatlau 

unit 4afttt«tian at rwfarwaa* stailaa* 
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or $t«Mli**r*«i®v<ist^-r« 

*% J ii*efe J * ftM»*UiMd soartitiata . n*am& daflae tlaa 
at tip a? ria**iiald«r #r stal>Ui*a*Mi*ifVktMr» 

l\ ^0 | • na**lta*ftaia«*l. fl«mv«X ««flaetiaft «f Hfi* 

r «&*©** &r *ta!^l«a*M&«w&t&r» ttasatS on ttsit- 
r "] tip defiaetlaa* 

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_ tor 

•^ lb' to*** wm%\ * mm of 

■ ■*'• V ■» **V "W 'VT * ^j 

%[lo l*r* «»* » ^^« ofroouv* air «fUa*ir 

«fc[l» i» «*£ J * *•§* «*«oa& of Hmfii of «tn*» **»** tMUtfi 

oat* (for pwUtg aafcloft l&gi £•*&««* §14* 
JU* i» t*a»iilof«4}« 

% U» 4«* l*#l « moo ttptft «f filplti «f faoYicoafcol t» vo«*&» 

«d t§S o%8*& fitM**** OJKlO. 

JM !»• la* me&] a mm **nm& of i**rtt* of roottor «r <||WDill» 

[ UtftJ « f lA-roteor or o^SXl«or*.«l«v&t« Ht§t4 

£&**&»»& 0O&J&&JSI& 


jf [" &^1 • * long** «c vwuoai » ^trtiw^a i«u. tn* 

I IgMeh] « diouw of fin -v- jrefrfrg, m otofriHi*? v 

taowAar «»&«»* of «f«vtty *w* MliNMii 

jfoliwoaeo oitlo}* 

r* [iMb I a *&oteo« of felisfO ft|&§ fa>>- r^ffi* m1* 

ooltivo »fe«o Nbs$o e.uii? ks aft of roforonM 

&j[o*«.~y * oiroaior flutter fro^toney. 

O r fooe.-lj * elreoUr &&&*& * f**mmm {mWmn i 

* [o J « -^St e rota*** wriLoeltjr* 

o [in, Jm4J * air gpttft* 

p [o J * HHiiii rr<^ #r f «ui« i«o^4^r mm of «>vst- 

bio «*srf*eo is hi^e^ xta« # M ^#»*^* of *3*0* 






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ife tef fee orltfeM) *» 

wtoo** f «»d ore stltiofel® *»nd p»t#nit»I «is«rti«» r««f«kt:wiy* Qg 
fcHo fOjto*illft*$ f«pfl* <uNP*i*i*A *>llfe $.&& «*% &*&« to « «i*1ml 
dioj&oftottosfc c? % f «M s>i^ tho f«o«rftli»«d ooof^liiofco fm ife# pa*** 

7T- i/^ V^^^V " * * ^ ****** ^" , °^ 

v f[<£ r ' '^ ^ *•■* ^ )<■ s >X * 6 KT- \.<t/> <•*>& + * <a) ^ j] J™ 

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onA ii«§&, *n4 4«t*»*«»iHf roforom* #»** m%4 ®k®mk If *N«Kii*B« list 
t«ra«<to »a»<4l«#©«4oi»i eooffSaioafca, ife* lAg*%8$f$«. t«w»fcl* 






£(%)- *^ fe. * " ^ * * ^ e/R j 




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Uni ^ttattal mmm Pi plUBii tfe« «fctwla ti^ ia 
lis* •treat**** A««w4«f jftwtm** l*» ft*a icftro&telni r*f*N«* 
m<m tune frettM*?* the **WifttlftJ, ft»iw «#* I* wHtai a*? 

It 1« «aa**»t<mt t» ««4mi« fefe* <ft«Mti* <M*ffifti«ai8 B 1* 

fe*m» ftf fcfc® in*rtlft ftoftffiffant* H* % tm*t4*rl«g we.5ap.l04 m~ 

tlw 4s «Mb 4«^F4W af £r#*4a% $&« £«iU*wi!>£ r#Ut,i©« m& bm 








shown to «xl«ti 

S& * »i«llftr mmisr %hm emf i ltU»t* for i?s« o*fc«r «®*r<llfls,t-6s 

fh« *q«ft%i©ft »£ &ftfci$R «*ii& £&k# 1st© &e<s®«B5i i«s«s* m» 

»»** *&®t& fro* i**« *j«5i««, Xe«wfcigft&<M»* *»*» steawR teat sin*©- 

Ifeft tb# &&3>llfctt4# «af awetUlftfelAB* &*«fin# ?#»«& per $fil& w»$J.iis«S» 

-^ ^ 
utmm f 1# a m*4km*afcMi& $m$m <M»f fle**ofc 4*f tiutf »• *** 

*»fel* e? 4Mplag fare* to ih* wlftfflfei© £«?««* i »/^T i» l<*%r** 

far ritt^tmral ^wtfitag ia ih« (ap&Usa »? $3&i«M< Igp pqffisfltig ail 

*r« feflMe- b/ axpracaion* far lh« i .If i ana »«&*&%« p»r ««sli ofMi* 

Hh th* »8&^ptlwG af har&ORle aefci&a, titata ara j^ajwrtianai to 

V v 

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Mj ^fo. ^ Jic /^ 

ftwmk «fe*nti control mn^MNi H*fl« * 

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*tm* Urn f «Mff&ei4tits ti* ««rp&*jk ftmstlMit «f tbt *<<Nt*wa*$ 

1S» gtesraiiwH* forces ., lS &rs *fc&sraj.fw« frass th* *aiK asaoeUW 

v. to 


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fa-*\M/L %■ 

in%& Uk&*ag**» epatiM, fche mining HJHtfun ft « atafatnmli 




^ * ^vj y. '//^ ^j V. ^ /^ ^ -^ ///^)) ?* •' * 

where I * ^.A 

The determinant of the ebeve equation, known «* the stability 
tleteralnant, Hid vanish in the eolation of the flatter problem* 
The ,s«« b#in# eeoplex m*Bber«* fe&iefe d«.pend en toe r««ittee4 velocity 
f, the isolation aust b* obtained In the fol3*.vlnp »a.nner* 

(1) .Aae««3e a value of V (ueaaUy •?, 1.0, ete. to % or 3) 

(2) 'yvelttnte fefe© ft ceeffteiente 

(3) -Halve the stability deisrelfwnt for ?(l + If) 

The flutter Mta la aeteralned free® the real Pff% of 

T{1 Ig) and the aeatiaea' «&!*© of *% irit$$* the ftfffttt .r«g 

value of the damping f $ i» obtained fro® the t8ftg£a&*f pert* 

For inet&ooe, 

k = "4, ( -^ J c is ~ y-^r 

Ifee above rq p wteu ft only e ssathessat' ' - eelta* 

tiea to the phyaieal irrobie* la obtained fross the f v«s« v carve by 
determining the voioeity BOTfWiyiiniitiiyi to lb© actual valae of g 
found fraa vibrafcior, 1 1 I ■-, In general, § varlsjg between 3 to f< 
end in the absence ef tsast data, flutter apeed eorreatc to 

g 9 M ahotald be ehosen. 

To *voiti the neeeaaity of solving; a cubic e^aati"**, K^ le 


©/%#» aoftexod to b« *«r© # ?M.a l* & >#Ufta*&« ««nMg9%l«n 'W ssateo 
for two ro4 -:*r or for «•: «• ls»voi«ia$ »|fissi»tri« oootUoUont of fcfoo 
olo»»feors. In C»e *t mis- &«lf oh* f«ur*»J*fo 4mA Has **,»«* «tiwdl4 
ta o#o4 if &&? ma ofc&bliioor owe? oiomWr is «f»*li*«ro4. 

Dm *4hwrvt*A« of tesio tjrp* of aolation li«» lb ih« foot tho% 
Wso o^looioosooo of ttto fli*fc*or to***** tppMmtk, fro* ift® f v*« v 
c?trv«, (§t| ?lf. |)« fUt ©art* roproooitt* » jpmAmX tfpo of 
fia&Ur «&&e o *io«p csunre 4» Qj>|itl $ i» ?tl*oiv«&r t«#o#o*«?owt of 
v r«fsr«»«nttt a <lfcag<&ro&* or oa^io**** fom of 0»i%<*r« 

D» MrotyiMi* %*®m &lwmm& in tin* provlotM »eefclo*»» *ro 

^alfco fMnofttl for oo»»t«ftt ciiwa «isr*: k ,;-. fm *i»i»lS.oii/i tell 
oarfooeo &r-« r#jA§»o*S fey ot«lf^l««t rwtAngnilsr sftottrani*. II io 
aloo ot>»«T¥»d %H*t In MMi ooooo te* *?h«H if 4$to »o*ot&«s awfoo* 
I* *mmk to iho «her«i d - ?l*M oorfoao, g£ ttto. ( ■'?** 
•lottos lo eJiOsoR &t i|i*«t>«y#, « » $> rooai.tinfc in »©«* r- fi* 
eofcioa is* %&» £*t«r*iiiftftti«n of Uto a^o%f**i»to oooffioionio, tho 
F ao*ffi«i**i« aot tn*olviftg ft oro (^MM function* -mlf of ¥ *tt£lo 
tho *o&fciitiaf $ coef rtci«Ri# dogwatJ m t *n& p« 

feg the ;p#«teti* ©mrvos im fmaetieoo, aaofcr. ■?%&. 

AilNB«i8ftii<&a of ifce &^©$ya»a&« oooff i . ■ '» »ro gtttNfe fitoy 

»*ro t» to£ fro • In tfeo 

.. -,. f«wr «•. '■■ 'i> ■' ■?■'-"- Mtif tHo 

I fsaotiona soy fco owlttoioo" In a sls-tl&r ooJiftor, 

;«*litioaal «fai>ols ussod for ttott 122 aaA If oro oo follff»*t 


« L ***•} ■ torsional au&l* «tf rtfer*** »UUmu 

unit tarsi**! ©«^te Ai r ttita* 

pUn «b««!t ftJM&ttg* *xl«* 

irtWII i Wffiftn^ft , „ i ,!i.T>l| 

^ifftrtftfclafctag UH --wtpMit %» lis* i*K«*»il*«i «MNnMawU» ■ 
wmI 4i*% M&^Jkr*^^ mfmmm value* «g b«f«r«^ 

i (if.) - - ^ ^*« f 4> a ^ ^ *-/&,>*} 

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twt tlm previa** «**§» «nd «*n te* obt*iiiw4 fro* tfe* ***««• gtwia, 
fte «t«tei)Litjr 4«w*&&*st rvpmtabiiiig *h« e «r w«* 

pratelas* &m b* BHtKi »*# 





1t» pratftfeire far cAYinc ill* »fesr*e &$Uimimt& is Uia^Uaal 
i* thfti *f *!&»« I «y*a II, I^j, my %m &mmaA fc# &* two f«p 
Itui rwd&sa'j K*»wrwr, %hm m&U'*l wtft*m fiw.i*mqr «•««* N 

The r«»ult.« oHftitwsKt in %)mw Mmmmlm* m« tm®i%M%®ly *•» 
4tae&M« t* e&&*» »f tm &*grm& *f *r»#d«* Isy «*IUUf firm Ik* 
sUbiUk* 4*t«raii»fti «Mttl«lfHU *ti$J <nfe«erlc4* «k»ff <*»£«*«iia$ 

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■mX fifetikil®m $ zmmd i£|%£«ti, p* tit, mSfcw^'VJ $*»& 0«» 

tf| *ttM*«r # . , ■■;. |«£ &|&fi§| I* «ffe» <miXk»t 


(f) ftMa^N-ttttu ... SMNffA fft*t#y $f i«f^j»6:k Sees! 
• &ad fet*&ud«* flf "latter.* 1 » , fo, $&, If 


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*mtti#i#dlk* im Umk»te& wm $ * •§§* #1% #15# tllf »** *t§* 

mid chord 

aerodynamic balance = c - e 

1 - e 

2p = (c - e) 



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KaU<*wtl recognition o«ao to Count 3, Mkm; aa»iatant foraaian of tl» 
Uaahin* 3b©p at the Ryan Aeronatttie*! Cosjpany, idth Mm arrcounceaamt today that 
h* had been awarded a national priae for m Idea ha dwelopad at 8ya» ahieh 
taaroaeee gun mount production TOO percent., 

fhia jwoduction at; art-cut wae awarded first prise of $&0Q War lead la a 
eoapetitiyn candy-etcd by it aagaain® for »mr elm al;«<rt~cute. w 

Mara worked out nia idea, far a «««Maatiari cut' | . %>uld 

perform b»*ing # beveling antf feeing aiepa in ®m eyale of operation, and au - 
aittssd it thr«a$* the S^an Shop iSraggeatioa ayate« aeverai a>senth# a&o, Coasgaany 
inveatiaatere reeaasssndod ita approval, and tfe* i abssHianagwwwnt eomslttee 

awarded Adeae a 425 ^** Send, the eaajwitv a*»t & -ioacriptiao of i*d*f**a 

idea to 4& | 

Judges for .' eonteat war* . /. ._, ., i.odd, 

preaidont of Aaerieaa iLmw&meafo Aaooeifttiosiji *9* . n# t .\saarlean rjoeiety 
of Tool lagineere; and a, ?, Oagg, Society of At»towof,iva ■j^in<f«r»« 

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iergh Field • San Diego 1. California 


Completion of its July production of Navy fighting planes one and a 
half days ahead of schedule was revealed today by the Ryan Aeronautical 

Navy schedules called for completion of a given number of planes, at 
a faster rate than ever before, by midnight July 31. The last plane in 
the month's quota rolled out the factory door at I I ; 30 a.m. on July 30. 

August schedules cal I for del i very of Ryan fighting planes to the 
Navy at an even faster rate, and the Company is launching a new drive to 
break the July record. At the same time the company is renewing its em- 
ployment drive to obtain the hundreds of additional workers required for 
the higher production schedule. 

Ryan executives attributed the production acceleration to the en- 
thusiasm with which employees joined in a "Quota Plane" drive held during 
the month. 

The last plane in the July quota was labeled the quota plane, and 
its progress along the assembly line was marked by signs, colored lights, 
charts and extensive publicity in the employee newspaper. Many depart- 
ments broke all production records in their determination to finish their 
part of the quota ahead of schedule. 

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A profit-sharing and retirement plan has been put into effect for 
salaried employees of the Ryan Aeronautical Company, it was announced 
today by President T. Claude Ryan. 

All employees on monthly salary become eligible for benefits as of 
October 31 of any year, after a year of service with the company, Ryan 
said. The plan is financed entirely by the company, with employees con- 
tributing nothing. Each year approximately 10 percent of the net profits 
of the company will go into a Ryan Retirement Trust, from which profit- 
sharing payments will be drawn. 

Benefits to each employee are computed according to his salary and 
length of service. Employees will receive full credit for time spent in 
the armed forces if they return to the company within ninety days after 
di scharge. 

The plan provides for retirement payments to an employee reaching 
the age of 65, or payment to his beneficiaries if he dies earlier". 

Disability of an employee, resulting in the termination of his em- 
ployment, will also entitle hjm to Ryan benefit payments. 

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If an employee leaves the company before reaching retirement age, 
he will receive a percentage of his share of the fund, based on his years 
of participation in the Trust. This share reaches 100 percent of the 
amount after ten years of participation. 

A Committee of five members has been appointed by the Ryan board of 
directors to administer the plan. Members are Ryan, vice presidents 
Earl 0. Prudden and George C. Woodard, engineering supervisor Will Vander- 
meer and general foreman H. J. Van der Linde. 




Lindbergh Field • San Diego l, California 


Research, Engineering and Production Program at Ryan Aeronautical 

Company Already Set as Firm Among First Selected for postwar Schedules 



If San D i ego was unduly concerned about continuation of mil i tary 
aircraft production here after the war, that misgiving was dispelled 
today with announcement by the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics that Ryan 
Aeronautical Company has been selected as one of the first Navy con- 
tractors in the country to have postwar production schedules set. 

Announcement of the Navy's unprecedented action was given to Ryan 
supervisory personnel and employee representatives this morning by 
Commander Lawrence E. Williams, USN, and by President T. Claude Ryan to 
all employees at special assembly meetings. Commander Williams, head 
of aircraft production for the Bureau of Aeronautics, arrived over the 
week-end for conferences with Ryan officials. 

"The Importance to San Diego of the Navy's far-sighted policy 
in now establishing production schedules for the Ryan plant after the 
war cannot be overestimated," said Ryan. 

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"Th I s means recognition of Ryan by the Navy as an established 
source of combat aircraft in peace-time as well as war. Heretofore prac- 
tically all Navy fighting planes have been built in the east; now San 
Diego is assured a permanent place in this category of the Navy production 
program and continuance of its prominent position in the aircraft industry." 

For the past two years the company has been engaged in a very 
important development and production program for the Navy on Ryan's new 
fighter plane, but military security has not yet been relaxed on this 
particular aircraft to permit a public description of the new plane. 
However, it is considered so important that the Navy has now guaranteed 
its further development and production by the continuing program on this 
and other secret projects on which Ryan is at work, regardless of when 
hostilities with Jap an cease. 

Under the new schedules which have been established, production 
of Ryan's secret Navy fighter must be tripled in the next three months, 
Commander Wi II i ams dec I ared. To accomplish this rapid production gain 
more than 1250 new employees must be hired before November, manufacturing 
executives state. 

At that time the company expects to level out its production rate, 
and will not be required to meet the heavy further build-up in output 
originally scheduled which would have overtaxed San Diego's already 
serious manpower problem. Emp loyment will then be stabilized at a high 
level, with present workers assured a continuity of employment as a 
result of the Navy's selection of Ryan as one of the first aircraft 
companies in the entire country to be assured peacetime production 


Rear Admiral Harold B. Sallada, chief of the Bureau of Aero- 
nautics, recently called upon Ryan to further increase its production 
of Ryan fighters to help meet the threat of renewed Japanese air activity 
including suicide attacks. "The Navy," he said, "is counting heavily 
upon Ryan's new combat plane. It is essential that we send increasing 
numbers of the newest types of combat aircraft to the pacific Fleet with 
a minimum of delay." Admiral Sal lada last week wired Ryan workers his 
congratu lati ons on their excellent July production accomplishment. 

Ryan's postwar plans center around this new, extensive aircraft 
research, engineering and production program for the Navy. Under the 
new program present production schedules run well into 1947 regardless 
of the possibility of the conclusion of the Japanese war before that date. 

/- /- VST 





Research, Engineering and Production Program at Ryan Aeronautical 
Company Already Set as Firm Among First Selected for Postwar Schedules 

Selection of the Ryan Aeronautical Company as one of the first 
Navy aircraft manufacturers in the country to be assured of continuation 
of combat plane production schedules after victory over Japan, was announced 
here today jointly by T. Claude Ryan, president, and Commander Lawrence E. 
Williams, head of aircraft production for the Bureau of Aeronauti cs, 

For the past two years the company has been engaged in a very 
important development and production program for the Navy on Ryan's new 
fighter plane, but military security has not yet been relaxed on this parti- 
cular aircraft to permit a public description of the new pl^ne. However, 
it is considered so important that the Navy has now guaranteed its further 
development and production by the continuing program on this and other 
secret projects en which Ryan is at work, regardless of when hostilities 
with Japan cease. 

Under the new schedules which have been established, production 
of Ryan's secret Navy fighter must be tripled in the next three months, 
Commander Williams declared. To accomplish this rapid production gain 

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more than |250 new employees must be hired before November, manufacturing 
executives state. 

At that time the company expects to level out Its production rate, 
and will not be required to meet the heavy further build-up in output orig- 
inally scheduled which would have overtaxed San Diego's already serious 
manpower problem. Employment will then be stabilized at a high level, with 
present workers assured a continuity of employment as a result of the Navy's 
selection of Ryan as one of the first aircraft companies in the entire 
country to be assured peace-time production schedules. 

"The importance of the Navy's far-sighted policy in now establish- 
ing production schedules after the war cannot be overestimated," said Ryan. 
"It is only by the maintenance of a strong aircraft research and production 
program in peace-time that this country can guarantee the peace which is 
being so expensively won in lives and dollars. We must never again permit 
ourselves to fall behind in engineering and manufacturing facilities. The 
Navy fully appreciates this fact, and is wisely taking steps now to keep its 
necessary peace-time production programs in operation." 

The Navy's postwar plan as applied to Ryan means recognition of 
the San Diego company as an established source of combat aircraft in peace- 
time as wel | as war. Heretofore practical ly al I Navy f i gh t i ng planes have 
been built in the east; now Ryan, on the west coast, is assured a permanent 
place in this category of the Navy production program and continuance of its 
prominent position in the aircraft industry. 


Rear Admiral Harold B, Sallada, chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics, 
recently called upon Ryan to further increase its production of Ryan fighters 
to help meet the threat of renewed Japanese air activity including suicide 
attacks. "The Navy," he said, "is counting heavily upon Ryan's new combat 
plane. It is essential that we send increasing numbers of the newest types 
of combat aircraft to the Pacific Fleet with a minimum of delay." Admiral 
Sallada last week wired Ryan workers his congratu I £ t i ons on their excellent 
July production accomplishment. 

Ryan's postwar plans center around this new, extensive aircraft 
research, engineering and production program for the Navy. Under the new 
program present product! on schedules run wel I into 1947 regardless of the 
possibility of the conclusion of the Japanese war before that date. 

t v . : ■>■ 


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ergh Field • San Diego I, California 

Total Number of Planes on Order is Reduced but 

Schedules Extended Additional Six Months to Latter 

Part of 194-7. Employment Cut will be Relatively Light. 

Notification has just been received from Washington by the Ryan 
Aeronautical Company* that the peacetime production program announced 
a week before the end of the war by the Navy's Bureau of Aeronautics* has 
just been revised. 

The adjustment comes from a re- examination by reconversion officials 
of the country' s over-all peacetime requirements f orcably brought to the 
foreground by the sudden conclusion of the war. 

While the total quantity of Ryan fighters on order is reduced by 45 
percent, the contract period for delivery of the planes has been extended 
six months farther, assuring continuity of employment, with present con- 
tracts alone running into the latter part of 194-7. Further emphasis will 
be placed on long-range research and production for the Navy as an impor- 
tant part of the continuing peacetime program for the Ryan Company. 

Instead of following the plan previously announced of tripling 
production in the next three months, the scheduled production rate will 
be leveled off at the present rate which was reached in July and represents 
the largest number of the company' s new fighting planes produced in any 
month to date. 

"This later adjustment of our program assures the long-term position 
of Ryan as a supplier to the Navy, though on a realistic peacetime basis," 

Sent to San Di ego red and yellow list, Aviation red list, Financial red list, 


said T. Claude Ryan, President. "We are gratified in the position that 
Ryan has earned of being an established source of engineering, development 
and production of aircraft for the Navy in peacetime as well as war. 

"The great importance to our country of continuous research and 
production in the particular and vital field of military aircraft develop- 
ment in which Ryan has specialized these past few years is fully recognized 
by naval authorities. Our plant facilities and personnel are ideal for 
this program and we are pleased that San Diego' s continued leadership in 
aircraft production is assured," 

Studies of the effect of the new schedules on employment are now 
being made, but until they are completed officials stated they were unable 
to give an accurate estimate of the adjustments necessary. However, a 
substantial portion of those who would otherwise be laid off will be re- 
tained as the result of steps already taken to bring back to the Ryan plant 
the manufacture of major assemblies which have thus far been built by sub- 
contractors. Approximately 4-5 percent of the aircraft has previously been 
built for Ryan by out of the city firms. 

Therefore lay-offs of direct production workers are expected to be 
very light, if any at all are necessary. Indirect departments, such as 
tooling, office staff, outside production, production control, etc., 
officials said, would be reduced substantially. 

Production departments at the Ryan plant did not work Saturday in 
order to make possible certain inventory work preparatory to switching 
over from war production to peacetime schedules. 


As a result of new industry-wide cutbacks in aircraft production 
made by reconversion officials, the Ryan Aeronautical Company, follow- 
ing receipt of advice Saturday from Washington, announced that 2800 
additional workers would be dismissed Monday and Tuesday. 

This will reduce the plant's payroll to 2000 workers needed to 
take care of the revised production schedules and for continuation of 
development work on new types. 

It is understood the company's long-range engineering and research 
programs for development of new designs for the TJ. S. Wavy will not be 

The latest cut-back in production of Ryan's Uavy fighting pla-ie 
is in addition to V-J adjustments recently made which had substantially 
reduced delivery schedules. The new revision represents a fur-ther re- 
duction of 60 percent in the overall quantity of fighters still on order. 

William F. Brctherton 
Public Halations 

Te General Electric Ce, 
September 2k t 19U5 


By . illiaa *« Brotherten 

Technical ditor 

Byan Aeronaut leal Company 

Ryan was one of tn© first aircraft co-parties t© install atomic hydrogen weld- 
ing equipment in 1939 * this aodern process had proved superior in sany ways 
in ot'er industries. It had not bean adapted for use with the thin stainless 
Steals of tfia aviation industry, tittle Information was available at that 
tl&e on the establishment of ssanufp. ocedures. Therefore, J yan lab- 

oratory technicians "odutftion experts «sre as .isrned the task of adapting 

the roces* to tne requirea«nis of our company. W* designed light weight elect- 
rode holders for «omwn welders and determined the most successful alloy co - 
position for ui?e with at ©rale hydrogen welding, these formulae have bsen re- 
quested by many other companies. 

The exigencies of the manpower situation in the war have made the use of 
» oaten for weldlag and otter industrial processes a logical solution. These 
girls have plunged into their new responsibilities with a fervor and under- 
standing which MB dd do credit to any mala workman. At Ryan, almost all of 
the operators of the atomic hydrogen welding torches nave been woman. Thay 
have performed equally as wall ss men, displaying an aptitude for learning and 
a production rate iaich lg oxtrasoly gratifying, -elding su">«rvisors find 
that It requires about one week to train a woman to use atoalc hydrogen well 
enough to be certified as a elder, i-rom that time on she receives inter- 
mittent instruction while she is on the production line. Tlany women nave 

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auggeeted innovations such as torch designs, to iaprove their work and have ex- 
hibited striking ingenuity in Attacking aeshanical problems. 

Because of their remarkable speed and proficiency in the atomic work, 
these feminine experts at Kyan have been labeled "Atomic Speed ';ueens. n During 
the war emergency they have worked an eight hour day with two rest periods, other 
than the luncheon time, and a alx day week, The atomic hydrogen welding torch 
is wany times heavier than other torches* This sometimes causes a physical 
fatigue which is accentuated by aching arm or shoulder muscles. At the first 
symptoms of this debility, the supervisors wisely rotate the girls into other 
types of * el ding operations so that they are relieved frora the rigors of the 
particular Job which they are doing. After several shifts Ant© different assign- 
ments, tfrey can perform their original work without discomfort. 

The atomic method is a faster welding process than either oxy-acetylene gas 
or saetallic arc because more lie at is at the disposal of the welder. This increased 
temperature is derived from t»o sources} the electric arc stream and the hydrogen 
gas which flows through that arc. This hydrogen ie in normal molecular form 
as it flows from the electrode holders through perforated tubes. The action of 
the elfectrie arc changes the structure of the hydrogen from molecular to atomic 
fant* .ihen the gas gets out beyond the arc it returns to its original molecular 
condition and releases a aiaable quantity of heat which it had absorbed. Thia re- 
generated heat added to that of the arc produces the high temperature which 
per .nit s rapid =» elding. 

For use in the manufacture of stainless steel exhaust manifolds for air- 
craft, atomic hydrogen has t»o valuable advantages in addition to 

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superior apeed. It eliminates the danger of carbon pick-up which la present with 
oxy-acetylene welding and it protects the weld metal from oxidation. The atonic 
torch doea not Introduce carbon into the wold zone. In fact, it may account for 
a loss of carbon from the metal due to the higher heating properties. The chart 
indicates the relative carbon pick-up in stainless steel fro® the atos&c, oxy- 
acetylene gas, hellarc and metallic arc processes. Carbon content is extremely 
important to the manufacture of exhaust manifolds because it determines the cor- 
rosion resistance and ductility of the stainlesss steel used. If an excess of car- 
bon is added to the astal by welding, the f lniahed saanlfold my not have a satis- 
factory service life at the high operating temperatures it will encounter. It is 
interesting to note that high corrosion resistance and ductility are closely re- 
lated, a ductile weld i® generally one with food corrosion resistance. 

The other major benefit, that of prevention of oxidation, is attained in 
atomic hydrogen welding because of the protective envelope of hydrogen gas which 
flows over the point of fusion. This hot gas reduces ®n& ©sides that saay be present 
as foreign material. These oxide® can produce a rough poor quality weld seam. 
The under-side of the *eld must also be considered as a vulnerable area for oxidation, 
Ryan welding experts have devised an Ingenious technique for preventing the oxidation 
of internal weld seams in long closed tubular sections which are rest accessible. 
The photograph illustrates this innovation which consists of closing one end of the 
tube with a stuffing of **et asbestos and burning illuminating gas in the other while 
the welding is done. This combustion r<3duees the oxygen which is Inside the section 
and prevents the oxidation of the weld seam. 

Atomic hydrogen weeding is less expensive tfcian oxr-acetylene gas because of 
the greater amount of work wh ish can be turned out in an dlght-hour day. About 
one-third of a cylinder of hydrogen per operator is used daily and the electrode 
cost is about twenty cents. It is estimated that atomic hydrogen welding runs about 


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five cants a foot compared to eleven cents p&r foot for oxy-acetylane. Ryan is un- 
doubtedly the first manufacturer to use automatic atomic hydrogen welding for fab- 
ricating stainless steel sanlfolds. The company designed and built its own con- 
veyor systems for use with this high speed method. These machines can produce 
uniformly smooth welds at the rate of twenty eight inches a minute. This is much 
faster than the oxy-acetylene rate of five inches a minute or the ten to twelve 
inches per minute of the electric metallic arc method. 

In trrery phase of manufaetferlng, war industries have been unceasing in their 
search for faster, better methods for making vitally needed war materials. This 
concentrated develops®!!*, will pay rich dividends In the peacetime era of stspped- 
up industrial activity, /■.toraic hydrogen welding is a typical example of a potent 
process which has been brought to a peak of value within the recent war period by 
the courageous women welders *»ho served when they were needed most. The 
characteristically clean, narrow and ductile weld seam of the atomic hydrogen 
process Is a testimonial to their achievement and a milestone in the metallurgical 



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Atoxic aran) <%mms mytWTwm 

aafcWBMil fcl Hl^gj Bloae-ap of the General «laatrla Atomic ^ydro^en 
welding torch which la uaed V the ftyaa Aeronautical Qossposy to attain 
excellent reunite. 

ttttMgBfc F<»ft 7W* Sins* <** MMB voider* receiving instruction at the 
plant of the ®ym Aeronautical qowpaay In San Bio£©. tfonen loam thin im- 
portant technique in »hort or&ar— perform with top •kill, 
tftftMBBfti *<>,?„ lltffa.t Aa N *to«lo »p««d qaaaa" at tyan pauses la bar job 
of welding tha MUM of a ntnlnlaoa atoel exhaust saaifold section. 

ttjJMBWfcJfcl lUJifo * S^AR w«wm welder apnadlly void* a thin shell 
of *t»inle«a *te*l vlth a sdaiaom of distortion. 

PhptQ^ranh So. lfayfi fwo tyea »*toisic apa** nueoa** dieeua* t-ha |>roto- 
Iosm Involved in veldln« a l*r«e otalalao* atool exhaust aanlfold section. 
MttBWfc Mfa V%j£< *» attractive fomlaln* weldar at the %aa Aer- 
onautical Oorapany iltpi on bar halsset before using hot- stwie hydrogen 
vcldiatf torch. 

afftoffraph So. IffftQi ?hl* pretty ^w* w*l d*r maetmte* what the wall 

dressed voaan welder voar* far a data vtth «a atomic hydrogen voiding torch, 

Photo^m ? h .%>,„ ,y,l»&t Correctly attired with protection far eye* sad hair, 

thla gjran ehaiapioa stogie welder la vivid proof that beauty oftaa aeoas- 

psule* the blghont technical prafflcleaegr* 

Photograph So. lggTSi A modern protective ahtold auofc a« tnf * clear sheet 

of plaatlo doao not detract fro® tha feaisine a'naoaraao* of thla ^yan 

"atomic speed ^uaaa* 1 . 

Photograph go. lllfot x*w ©arisen ataal a^aast stack* which have toeen 

welded with narrow uniform wold «e*s*ia toy tha atonic hydrogen at tha Sfran 

Aeronautical Cowpaay. 

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-'fcotoawqih Ho. 6075 1 A elov** t«eh»imi* A««t«MA «t ttoo ^ma x*.#poaautio«ftl 
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•option*. H«r# lllw»l»«,tlns #a* to fcwn»d la»td« of th« •t&tal«*B »*••! 
ttxtoalfcr atetioit to rosov* th« os?#»b sad thus ?r»vo»t th* w«ld «•*» 

f»o« oxtdl*i»gr, 

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with * GmrH#r vhiah -•■*.* d»«tjga*d and fcuilt *.t tho %aa £*rea«atl«*l 

Oo»33«Bjjr. Thi* tn»©T&tion sp#«ds up th« *ar*#dy rapid atoralo wlA.lag 


|^ff »glit .|,p» **?% * ^*«* «wsfi»l«o of 1&-S ttrital— «t*«! vhi«n h»v# 

o««a &to«to Ijydrogaa w#ld»d as*a. th«& b#«* i®3 d«gro**« $fot« th* (8,o*.-l#*« 

*&«•&#• of eraosdng iedlo&URg dtsotility. 

Earaa Chart : Oh«rt d*v«l.o^*A ftt ttai %«a AortnumtlMl &wp»*y for tilu*- 

twittag the r*l&tiv» asswiat of «»rfc$s. |^N| 1ft th» woldta? of ot&ialooo 

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U. S. Navy 
Approved Release 


The Navy's first fighter plane in production to use jet propulsion, 
the Ryan FR (FIREBALL), never saw combat. 

But already this new plane - first in the world to combine jet and 
reciprocating power plants - has secured an important place in Naval 
Aviation. Knowledge gained from its manufacture and flight performance 
has been immediately translated into an improved FIREBALL design as well 
as utilized in developing other new planes. 

Thus, in its conversion to a peace-time role, the FR has set the only 
course for the world's most powerful Naval air force to maintain its leader- 
ship - a course of ceaseless pioneering research and development. 

When the war ended, the FR was beginning to roll off the Ryan Aero- 
nautical Company's production lines at San Diego. In tests, the FIREBmLL 
proved itself to be an exceptionally high performance fighter. It was an 
answer to the Navy's need for a highly maneuverabl e r fast-climbing plane. 
It has the shortest turning radius at comparable speeds of any modern 
fighter. With both engines operating at full throttle, it can climb at a 
mile a minute clip. 

The unique power combination - Wright Cyclone radial engine in the 
front and a General Electric jet propulsion engine in the rear - makes it 
equally efficient at high or' low levels. It also combines the advantage of 

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good cruising characteristics with high tactic?.! performance. 

Because the speed curve varies very little from sea level to 25,000 
feet, the FR pilot would not have to hunt a favorable altitude at which to 
tackle an enemy. Maximum performance is obtained when the two engines are 
used in combination, but it can be operated on either the conventional or 
jet engine independently. 

Firepower of the FR consi sts of four .50 cal iber mach ine guns - each 
fed by 300 rounds of ammunition. The guns can be serviced with the wings 
of the FIREBALL folded. 

Two I ,000 pound bombs may be carried under the wings and detachable 
rocket mounting posts may be insta! led under each outer panel. 

Steel armor plate and laminated bullet resistant glass in the wind- 
shield front panel protect the pilot. 

The Ryan FIREBALL is a conventional appearing, low-wing, single seat 
monoplane with a tricycle landing gear. At first glance, it appears to be 
a single-engine plane. The air intakes for the jet unit are in the leading 
edge of th = wing near the fuselage. The jet unit itself is enclosed in the 
after section of the fuselage with the jet exhaust opening coming out under 
the tail. 

Part of the FR's outstanding performance is cue to the airplane's ex- 
treme "cleanness". It is completely flush riveted on all external surfaces 
and has all-metal control surfaces, which retain their smoothness better 
than fabric at high speeds. Bath engines are completely enclosed, and all 
air scoops for the forward engine are within the engine cowling. 

Because of the more even distribution of the weight longitudinally - 
wjth on engine at each end - the FIREBALL'S plastic-canopied cockpit is 
installed slightly forward of the leading edges of the wings, permitting a 


greater range of vision. Interior of the cockpit is compact - yet roomy 
enough for the pilot to stretch his legs and relax. An oxygen system for 
high flying and equipment to service the pilot's anti -b I ackou t suit (neces- 
sary to make full use of the short turning radius and sharp pul l-ups pos- 
siblt with the FR) are provided. The instrument panel is equipped with 
subdued red lighting for night flying. 

The tricycle gear allows the FIREBALL to approach and land within a 
wide range of speeds. For land-based operation, the tricycle gear permits 
cross-wind takeoffs and landings without danger, and "on-a-dime" turns in 
taxi ing. 

The jettisonable canopy over the cockpit is made of molded, transparent 
plastic and is shaped like a short tapered wing turned on end. |n wind 
tunnel tests, when the emergency release is pulled, the canopy pops up arid 
off with no tendency to wipe through the cockpit. 

Placement of the cockpit and the high visibility permitted by the can- 
opy gives the pilot an unusual range of vision. He can look straight ahead 
without being blinded by the nose or look down directly under his wings. 
Because of the exceptional forward vision, it is possible to keep the number 
one arresting wire in view over the nose until the pilot has nearly reached 
the "cut" position before setting down on the deck. 

Not only does the Ryan FIREBALL have the lighter weight of a single- 
engine plane, but if one of its power plants is knocked out, it can con- 
tinue to fly without the pilot having to counteract the swing which fol- 
lows the loss of power from one engine in a twin-engine aircraft. Result 
is that it not only has a tremendous safety margin over a single-engine 
fighter, but also an advantage over any plane of conventional, twin-engine 

Rated at 1350 horsepower, the Wright Cyclone model R-1820 engine can 
be greatly boosted with water injection. As it is extremely economical 
on fuel, it makes possible a maximum range of 1500 miles (with droppable 
tanks), cruising at 207 miles per hour. At f u II throttle, the front engine 
alone gives the FIREBALL a speed of 320 miles an hour. It is fitted with 
a Curti ss Electric fast feathering, three-blade constant speed propeller. 

Far more powerful than a conventional engine of the same weight, the 
General Electric-designed 1-16 Thermal Jet engine alone will streak the 
FIREBALL along at approximately 300 miles an hour. Like oil jet engines. 
Its efficiency increases with speed. Once speed has been reduced, all-jet 
planes lack full combat effectiveness. That is why the FIREBALL combina* 
ti on of conventional engine with jet is so potent. The conventional engine 
prevents loss of speed upon which the jet depends for its best performance* 

Through such exceptionally well coordinated teamwork, the FIREBALL'S 
engines give its pilot combat initiative at all times. Because the plane 
develops its maximum rate of climb at high air speeds, the FR pilot can 
outdistance all conventional type fighters, which climb best at consider- 
ably lower air speeds. Since the jet unit accelerates rapidly in a nose 
down position, the pilot can also far outdistance other planes in evasive 
shallow and steep dives. 

Navy pilots who have flown the Ryan FIREBALL claim it will do all 
acrobatics with speed to spare with only the slightest control pressure. 
And because of the range of operating technique resulting from the unusual 
engine combination, they envi si on pos si bl e development of entirely new 
combat tactics. 

First Navy fighter squadron to be equipped with FR- I s was VF-66, which 
had actually commenced its pre-combat training period prior to the Japanese 

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U. S. Navy 

besign and Construction Details 

The unique power plant combination of a conventional Wright Cyclone 
engine, driving a propeller, and a General Electric thermal jet engine in 
the aft section of the fuselage, providing jet propulsion, is just one of 
the many remarkable new features which have been incorporated in the Ryan 
Aeronautical Company's FR-I Fireball Navy fighter. This sensational air- 
plane, a product of the closest cooperation between the U. S. Navy Bureau 
of Aeronautics and the Ryan Aeronautical Company, is one of the most un- 
usual and promising fighters to wing its way into the sky. 


The FR-I combines more desirable fighter performance characteristics 
in one airplane than most aeronautical engineers believed possible a short 
time ago. This versatile plane is designed especially for carrier-based 
operations but it is equally efficient on any landing f i eta. |ts tricycle 
landing gear gives it a self-aligning characteristic that is extremely valu- 
able on a carrier deck. 

The Fireball can cruise economically for a comparatively long duration. 
and range at an exceptionally low percentage of available power. 

For combat, the FR-I packs a surprise in its ability to outclimb and 
outmaneuver anything in the air. Of particular advantage is the fact that 
this high rate of climb can be accomplished at high flying speeds and high 
altitudes. This Ryan Navy plane is a deadly fighter at any altitude from 
sea level to high altitudes because of the great supply of reserve power 
which it has at its command. 

For intercepting enemy planes, the FR-I can take off quickly, maintain 
a fast sustained climb and meet the opposition with a performance and man- 
euverability which is hard to match. Yet, this same airplane is an effi- 
cient cruising or patrolling craft for long distance strikes into enemy 
territory. The secret of the Fireball's unique performance is a story of 
the achievement by the Ryan Aeronautical Company's engineers in doing the 
"Can't be done". In packing unprecedented performance into a lightweight, 
carrier-based plane, Ryan has pioneered many innovations in the design and 
fabrication of aircraft. 

Span 40 ft. in. 

Length (overall) 32 ft. I in. 

Height (to rudder top) 13 ft. 7-5/16 in. 

Height (nose-wheel on ground and II ft. I in. 

propeller bjade vertical) 



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Wings folded; 

Width 15 ft. I I in. 

Height 16 ft. 9 in. 

Top of wing-fold arc to ground 18 ft. 3 in. 
POWER PLANTS ; The Ryan FR-I Fireball fighter is a two-engine airplane, 
mounting a Wright Cyclone radial engine in its streamlined nose and a 
General Electric T-16 jet propulsion engine in the rear section of its 
sleek fuselage. The excellent cruising characteristics of the plane can 
be attributed to the conventional V.'right engine, which is one of the most 
reliable in service. The addition of the jet propulsion engine provides a 
supplemental source of power which is approximately equivalent to that of 
the forward engine but is greatly less in weight per horsepower. This unit, 
which accounts for the high tactical performance of the Fireball, is a 
relatively lightweight engine which does not detract from the plane's cruis- 
ing effectiveness. 

The airplane has the advantage of both the piston type and jet pro- 
pulsion engines without the inherent disadvantages that either would suffer 
if used as the sole power source. For instance, the FR-I can take off from 
a carrier or other small take-off area, which is not possible for planes 
using jet propulsion only, and it can fly for good duration at all altitudes. 

At high altitudes and in combat, it has the advantages which only jet 
propulsion can give. Because of the location of the jet propulsion engine 
in the rear of the plane, the pilot is permitted to sit far forward. His 
position ahead of the wing leading edge, gives him unusual visibility which 
makes the Fireball a favorite with pilots. Contributing to this combat 


I . 

feature is the fact that the forward engine is a single row type of the most 
compact design and therefore allows for extremely good visibility forward. 

The forward engine is a C9HC Wr i ght Cyc I one, model 1820-72, nine cylinder, 
air-cooled radial type. Its rated take-off power at sea level and 2700 RPM 
is 1350 BHP. The compression ratio is 6.55:1 and the specified fuel is 100 
octane, 130 grade, Spec. AN-F-28. 

The 10-foot propeller is a Curtiss fast-feathering, constant-speed, electric 
thrce-bladed type. It is governed by a spring-loaded, centrifugal type pro- 
portional governor, having an oil servo-operated switch mechanism. When set 
for a specified RPM, it will automatically maintain constant RPM with power 
changes by adjusting pitch. In case of damage to the governor, the pitch may 
be manually set by the pilot. The power output of the engine may be automatic- 
ally maintained by a power regulator which works through the manifold pressure 
and relieves the pilot of continuous responsibility for this requirement. 

The engine is started by an electric starter and is equipped with two 
Edison SF9LIJ magnetos of the fixed ignition, two pole, flange-mounted type. 
These are the rotating magnet style and are compensated to obtain maximum horse- 

Fuel is contained in two internal self-sealing fuel cells, one of 125 gal- 
lons capacity located in the top portion of the fuselage behind the pilot's 
seat, and a 51 gallon tank immediately aft of the firewall under the cockpit 
floor. A droppable fuel tank of streamlined aluminum alloy construction and 
100 gallons capacity may be mounted under the riyht wing 56 inches from the 
centerline. These three fuel sources are integrated and one type of high octane 
fuel is used so that either engine may be supplied from any tank at the option 
of the pilot. 

This fuel system is served by a rotary, engine-driven, four-vane, posltive- 
dispi dcement fuel pump^ An pi ectric-drt ven, ro.tary, four-vane, pos/ 1 i ve-ai s- 


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placement fuel booster pump is also provided. The fuel tanks and lines are 
pressureized for high altitude operation by air from the carburetor ^ir induc- 
tion system. The engine and main fuel tank may be drained either simultaneous- 
ly or individually by a three-way, four-position defueling valve. 

A Bendix-Stromberg injection carburetor, model number 395313, which is in- 
herently ice-free, meters the fuel through fixed orifices according to the 
venturi suction and atomizes the fuel spray under positive pump pressure. Both 
cruising and full power mixture ratios are kept constant under temperature and 
altitude changes by an automatic mixture control unit. Anti -detonant , con- 
sisting of water and alcohol, is injected into the engine induction system to 
obtain extra power without detonation under emergency Conditions. 

The engine oil system is of the full pressure, dry sump type in which all 
moving parts are under oil pressure except the cylinder walls, piston pins, 
dynamic damper pins and crankshaft roller and ball bearings which are lubri- 
cated by splash. Oil is carried in an aluminum alloy tank with a total 
capacity of 15 U. S. gallons. An oil dilution mechanism is provided. The oil 
pump consists of a cast aluminum alloy body with cored passages for two sections 
which accomodate separate pressure and scavenging pumps. 

The forward engine exhaust system is composed of five stainless stacks, 
four of which serve two cylinders each. They empty into the engine cooling air 
exit troughs and provide effective cylinder cooling augmentation by jet pump 
action. All air scoops for carburetor air and oil cooling ajr are located 
within the engine cowling. This is the only high performance plane with this 
feature. Also the engine has fixed engine cooling air exit slots which pro- 
duce far less drag under conditions when drag and engine temperatures are 
cri tica I . 

The engine cowling is unusual in that it is fabricated from two semi- 
Circular sactjnnc of nearly o^ual djmensians. There are no conventional cowl 


fasteners. The cowling is locked in place with two quick-release, mechanical 
spring locks. 

Full advantage is taken of the jet propulsion effects of the exhaust 
system to obtain approximately 15 MPH in additional speed. The four cowling 
flaps are made of corrosion-resistant steel. Two of them hove armor plate 
behind them to protect vital engine assemblies. The engine is mounted on a 
chrome molybdenum alloy steel mount consisting of a ring to which eight straight 
tubes are welded. Both the forward and aft engines are self-contained and can 
be replaced in less than four hours. Only four engine mount attachment bolts 
must be removed to take out the engine. This feature makes the plane very 
desirable for service aboard ship. 

The aft engine is a General Electric 1-16 jet propulsion type which is 
operated by a high speed gas turbine and driven from the products of combustion. 
It is a completely rotative, internal combustion, turbine engine with only one 
main moving part: its rotor. This is mounted on anti -fr i ct i on bearinys and con- 
sists of' a centrifugal air compressor connected by a composite shaft to a 
single stage turbine wheel. The liquid hydrocarbons ure burned in the high 
pressure air delivered by the centrifugal compressor. The resulting high tem- 
perature causes the mixture of air and combustion products to be accelerated 
through the nozzles to strike the turbine blades at extreme velocities, there- 
by exerting a torque on the rotor shaft. The combustion of fuel takes place 
in ten combustion chambers which receive fuel through burner nozzles from the 
fuel tank. 

Atmospheric air enters the inlet openings located in the wing leading edge. 
Ducts direct the air into the curving channels of the swiftly rotating double- 
sided impeller which scoops in the ^ir, compressed it ana discharges it at 
hkgh velocity into the cpntri fugal I y designed diffuser channels of the com- 


pressor casing. These channels slow the velocity of the air and distribute 
it evenly through the series of tubes leading to the combustion chambers. Vn'h en 
the air reaches the combustion chambers it mixed with the burning fuel from 
the nozzles. The resulting gas expands instantaneously and is directed through 
the curved blades of the nozzle diaphragm against the turbine wheel, causing 
it to rotate. The gas then escapes out an exhaust cone to the re^r, creating 
the propulsive thrust, as the turbine wheel turns, its connecting shaft turns 
and the impeller of the compressor at the other end of the shaft also turns. 
Hence, a complete mechanical cycle is accomplished. Since the burning is Con- 
tinuous, the airplane moves through the air in a smooth and continuous pro- 
gressi on. 

The aft engine is mounted for simple removal^ being supported at three 
points. An overhead monorail and a trolley is provided for rolling the unit 
forward preparatory to removing it from the fuselage. In order to make the 
aft engine accessible, the FR-I fuselage separates just aft of the wing. 

The starter for this engine is a four-pole, compensated, commutating type, 
rated at 24 volts, 200 amperes and bOO RPM for intermittent operation. The 
ignition system consists of two booster coils, two spark plugs, and is put into 
operation by the starter undercurrent relay. The ignition system is used 
during starting only. Once the engine is started, it is not needed since the 
combustion is self-sustaining. A mechan i ca I I y-dr i van, spur-type hydraulic 
fuel pump is used to supply fuel during the time the engine is being brought 
up to speed. 

The aft engine is lubricated by a relatively simple dry sump system from 
a small oil tank containing four quarts of mineral hydraulic fluid. Each en- 
gine bearing is supplied with filtered air from the compressor case which ■ >. . . i 
atomizes the oil and insures its complete distribution. The fuel system is 


a mechanical pressure type activated by an engine-driven, pressure-loaded, gear- 
type hydraulic pump of positive displacement. At starting, the fuel pump dis- 
charge is augmented by the discharge from an auxilliary starting pump. A check 
and relief valve cuts ou-* the starting pump when a speed has been reached which 
insures the self-acceleration of the unit. An electric driven fuel booster pump 
of the rotary, four-vane, positive-displacement type supplies fuel to the aft en- 
gine from the fuel tanks through the selector valves. 

There is a governor on the aft engine which functions tc control the maximum 
speed of the engine by by-passing the fuel flow. It is a fly-ball type composed 
of a pair of displacement weights mounted on s drive shaft which actuates a 
spring-loaded spindle. Its speed of rotation is approximately 3180 RPM when the 
engine is at 16,500 RPM. Also, a barometric control, which automatically pro- 
vides the throttle with sufficient fuel as the altitude changes, is a part of 
this system. At sea level the barometric holds a pressure of 230 psig. ahead 
of the governor. As higher altitudes are reached it will automatically compen- 
sate for the fact that the engine requires less fuel ind will operate to maintain 
the same engine speed which was set at sea level by reducing the fuel pressure. 
A throttle valve, which is a combined manual and pressure controlled valve, 
regulates the power of the engine from the pilot's control quadrant. An auto- 
matic dump and drip valve defuels the high pressure lines when the engine is 
shut down. 

The Ryan FR-I "Fireball" fighter can fly and land on either forward or aft 
engine. Its maximum performance is attained with the use of both of them in 
uni son. 

WING GROUP: The FR-I is aerodynami cal I y smooth. This is cue to the care with 
which every detail of design has been considered in the light of performance. 
It is one of the first U. S. Navy planes with a completely flush-riveted ex- 
terior. All external equipment anii structures have been either eliminated or 


placed inside the airplane. The engines are w.?r e completely enclosed than in 
any other plane and the design of the wing and control surfaces is for high 
speed characteristics. 

Contributing to this high performance is the laminar flow, high speed, low 
drag wing which is the latest N.a.C.A. design. This all metal, full cantilever 
wine comprises a center panel integral with the fuselage, two detachable outer 
panels, two center panel flaps, two outer panel flaps, two ailerons and a left- 
side ai leron trim tab. 

The wing flaps move back and down from the trailing edge on hinged linkages. 
The ailerons are balanced statically, dynamically and aerodynamical I y, and may 
be fully deflected at maximum speed. This gives the FR-I an extremely high rate 
of roll for combat maneuvers. 

The wing center panel is comprised of two I-section spars; spanwi se Z-section 
stringers, ribs and an all-metal, smooth finish, flush-riveted skin. The 
'•Fireball" is the first production airplane to take full advantage, in both 
design and construction, of the extra strength of post-aged, high strength al- 
uminum alloy. This major development, in which the Ryan Aeronautical Company 
has played a prominent part, permits a greet saving in weight to be made in the 
Ryan FR-I. 

The wjng outer panels are spar structures similar to the center panel. They 
are semi-monocoque in construction out to the outer portion which is full mono- 
coque. All wing dihedral is in the outer panel. There is no sweepback to the 
wing leading edge. At the leading edge of the center panel, located an each siae 
of the fuselage, there is an air inlet which admits air for the aft engine. 

The main landing gear wheels fold outboard into the outer panels, leaving 
more avai I able space in the center panel for guns and ammunition. Immediately 
outboard of each air intake slot are two .50 calibre Browning machine guns. 


Provision is also made for a gun sight aiming-point camera in the right side 
of the center panel and an approach light in the left side. 

The winc;s, which fold upward, as well as the landing gear, wing flaps, 
arresting gear and brakes, are all hydraul i cal ly actuated from controls in 
the pi lot's cockpit. 

In order to maintain the torsional stiffness of this light, strong wing, 
all access doors to gun and ammunition wells are of the structural, quick- 
removable type. In the design of the s 1 in stringer combinations the buckling 
load is placed almost as high as the yield load so that a smooth skin surface 
will be available under most normal flight conditions. 

FUSELAGE: The fuselage forward section is of semi-monocoque construction 
with an outer skin panel riveted to a series of vertical frames and formers 
stiffened and braced as required. Longitudinal strength is furnished by four 
longerons which are bolted to the upper and lower engine mount attachment fit- 
tings. The fuselage is elliptical-shaped above the horizontal centerline and 
ci rcu I ar- shaped below. It can be separated into two main sections at a point 
just aft of the wing. This unique feature makes it possible for carrier ser- 
vice crews to replace the tail section or the aft engine in the briefest time. 
A firewall, composed of two semi-circular pieces of .051 inch clad aluminum 
alloy sheet, is riveted to the frame ahead of the cockpit. 

The forward fuselage armor is made of face-hardened steel armor plate 
and clad aluminum alloy plate and sheet. The nzr armor for the pilot is com- 
posed of 5/16 inch and 3/8 inch steel plates welded together. The upper section 
is bolted to the cockpit above the pilot's herd and also protects the cockpit 
from the oxygen bottle which is placed behind it. Additional pieces of steel 
armor plate are bolted to the forward face of the firewall and the fuselage 
upper and lower armor plates. Further protection is provided by the fuselage 
forward section deck cowling which is composed cf heavy aluminum plate. 


; >.-, 

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The cockpit enclosure is a 5/lb inch transparent Plexiglas plastic mold- 
ing which moves forward and aft on four pairs of roller bearing wheels installed 
in four carts. It may be opened from inside or outside of the airplane and is 
fully jettisonable by means of an emergency release located above the pilot's 
head. The new design of this canopy is from the latest N.A.C.A. type and re- 
sembles a series of air foil sections set on edge. The windshield is made up 
of three panels supported in a frame of aluminum alloy channels and molidjng. 
The front panel is laminated, bullet-resistant, 1-1/2 inch thick glass installed 
transversely on the centerline and canted aft. 

The arresting gear, which is composed of a self-aligning, hydraul ical I y- 
operated, forged steel hook welded to a steel tube shank, is extended from the 
lower section of the fuselage for carrier-deck landings. 

TAIL GROUP ; The empennage is composed of a horizontal stablizer, elevators, 
vertical fin and rudder. The elevators and rudcer are statics! ly, dynamically 
and aerodynamical ly balanced. 

The '.'Firebal I " is an all-metal plane and it is one of the first U. S. 
Navy airplanes with all-metal control surfaces. This feature ana the design 
of the ship and control surfaces makes it the most maneuverable airplane at 
high speeds in combat today. The entire empennage can be removed without the 
necessity of rigging the controls. 

The FR-I has been designed to withstand the effects of compressibility at 
high speeds and all of the latest design criteria have been incorporated in the 
horizontal tail to eliminate flutter failures. 

ALIGHTING GEaR; The tricycle landing gear consists of two main wheels of die- 
cast, heat-treated magnesium with Timken roller bearings, Goodyear high-pressure, 
channel-tread tires and a se I f-caster ing, non-steerabl e nose wheel of similar 
construction with a Firestone low-profile tire. 

The wheel base of the FR-I is 80.07 inches and the nose wheel swivel is 
55 degrees on either side of symmetry. Goodyear single-disc brakes, which are 
simple to service, are provided. A hydraulic shimmy dampener and a self-align- 
ing device are utilized to maintain the smooth operation of the nose wheel under 
al I condi tions. 

All wheels have shock struts of inner and outer cylinders which employ air 
and oil to cushion landing shocks. 

The tricycle landing gear provides greater stability for taking off, landing 
or taxiing the aircraft. In carrier-based landings the swivable nose wheel 
self-aligns the airplane at the moment of contact if there is a lateral force 
tending to turn it about its verticaj axis. In addition to this major advantage, 
the tricycle landing gear nukes it possible to install fuel system and hydraulic 
equipment accessories in the front wheel well so that they are more accessible 
to ground crews without the need for unbuttoning access panels. Also, because 
of the forward position of this type of gear, the airplane can remain standing 
on its own wheels while either forward or eft engine or the tail section are 
bei ng rep I aced. 

ARMAMENT ; Four Browning .50 calibre machine guns are mounted in each wing 
center panel. They are free-firing and are fed by 1200 rounds of ammunition 
from roller-conveyed belts. The guns fire through corrosion-resistant steel gun 
blast tube manifolds and nose caps built into the wing leading edges. Inboard 
of the guns are the ammunition wells. There are no ammunition boxes - the am- 
munition is placed directly in the wells. 

The inboard position of both the guns and ammunition in this unusual ar- 
rangement is a distinct advantage due to the fact that it makes for less of a 
moment arm force, due to. weight, and therefore makes the plane more maneuverabl e. 
Also, because of this position the guns can be serviced with the wings foldsc. 
This is a positive time-saving feature. 


,{:.. ■••] '■ - 

All four guns fire simultaneously by trigger switch on the control stick. 
Four gun charging handles are located in the cockpit for charging and clearing the 
guns manually. Guns are electrically heated for instant operation at low tem- 
peratures. Boresiqhting of the guns is accomplished by two detachable tools and 
without the need for time-consuming leveling of the airplane. 

The guns, gun sight and camera may be calibrated in one operation. The 100 
percent access to both guns and ammunition, which is an FR-I feature, permits a 
loading time for all guns which is less than refueling time. 

Two 1000 pound bombs may be carried under the wings and detachable rocket 
mounting studs are located under each outer panel. 

INSTRUMENTS ; AM of the instruments, with the exception of the voltmeter and 
those used in the oxygen system, are mounted directly in front of the pilot on 
the main instrument panel and are lighted by lights placed between this panel 
and a reflector panel directly in front of it. This illumination is baffled so 
that no upward light is reflected from the windshield. 

The instruments are; 
Forward engine ; tachometer, manifold pressure gage, engine gage unjt, engine 
cylinder temperature gage, carburetor air temperature indicator, oil out tem- 
perature indicator and dual fuel quantity gage. 

Aft engine ; tachometer, dual pressure indicator, tail pipe temperature indicator. 
Fl ight; airspeed indicator, altimeter, rate of climb indicator, directional 
gyroscopic indicator, the new attitude gyro, turn and bank indicator and remote 
magnetic compass. 

Mi see I laneous ; hydraulic pressure gage, eight day clock, wheel and flap position 
indicator and free air temperature indicator. 

EQUIPMENT ; Oxygen equipment is of the di I uter-demand type consisting of a tank, 
regulator and mask. The tank is pjaced behind the pilot's rear armor plate so 


! • ' 

that the pilot and cockpit are protected from fire hazard in case of damage due 
to shel I fire. 

Access to the cockpit Is provided by flush-type, hinged-door steps. The 
radio system, consisting of transmitting and receiving equipment, is located in 
the cockpit. The electrical system is a 24-28 volt l»C system with current furn- 
ished by an engine-driven generator and two 12 volt batteries, series connected. 
The generator is DC with a rating of 2500-4500 RPM, deliverying 200 amperes at 
a voltage of 28.5. 

The FR-I is equipped with electrical wiring which is exposed and not placed 
in conduit. An elaborate use of aluminum wiring is made in the electrical system 
of the airplane to save weight. Another unusual feature of this part of the FR-I 
is the use of especially-designed connecting plugs which eliminate the use of 
weighty junction boxes. 

The electric system motivates and/or controls the propeller, anti-detonant 
injector system, instrumentation, navigation, communication, lubrication and 
fuel systems, power plant starting, bombing, gun-firing, heating and camera 
operat i ons. 

The Ryan FR-I Navy fighter is one of the lightest weight airplanes in combct, 
yet it packs the wallop of a heavyweight because of its extremely high perform- 
ance and versatility. It is well liked by carrier service crews because of the 
many time and labor-saving innovations which have been built into its structure. 
For instance, it may be hoisted or triced in either two sections or as a complete 
ai rpl ane. 

The structural strength, aerodynamic smoothness and exceptional power plant 
of the"Fir ebal I " give it a top performance. The airplane has been static tested 
to high speed pull-outs. Anti-blackout equipment for the pilot is provided so 

that greater advantage may be taken of the sensational maneuverability of this 


* * * * 

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I • 

William P. Brotherton //ic/t/S-Zy/ a /-* Ay'A-S-rji^' 

Public Relatione ^_ 


Ben T. Salmon, Chief Engineer 

Rated as the Navy's fastest — and most versatile ~ fighter plane, the 
Ryan Ffl-I Fireball f powered both by a radial pisturi-type engine and a gas turbine 
jet unit, was ready for combat service when the war ended. 

To meet the Navy depart stent's specifications for a light-height, carrier- 
based fighter with a high sustained rate of climb, I ight^ning-like maneuverability, 
high speed at all altitudes and good cruising radius, Ryan engineers were con- 
fronted with almost unheard of design demands. But, they successfully m% tnese 
requirements with the Ryan Fireball, which has a wingspan of 40 feet, length of 
32 feet - I inch and a gross weight af 9,862 pounds. 

The Ryan fighter employs a high-speed, low drag, laminar flow type of air 
foil w ith dihedral in the outer panels only. TWt wing is very light, strong and 
torslonally stiff. The skin stringer combinations have been designed with buck- 
ling loads close to the yield loads so that a smooth surface would be available 
under all normal flight conditions. The. control surfaces are all balanced 
statically, dynamical iy and aerodynamical I y allowing the Fireball to be maneuvered 
at high speeds with very small control forces. Another factor which contributes 
to the plane's maneuverability is the unique distribution of weiyht which con- 
centrates the mass of the airplane closer to the center of gravity than in most 


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The ailerons can be fully deflected at maximum speed to provide the Fireball 
with exceptional railing characertistlcs. The plane has been designed to with* 
stand the effects of compressibility and the latest design criteria have been 
Incorporated to eliminate flutter at top speed. 

when Wyan was awarded the contract for the plane, its designers were faced 
with the task of designing a plane which some engineers believed could not be 
built at the weight specified. The Wavy wanted a carrier-based, I igrit-weight, 
single-seat fighter incorporating two engines of different typesj a gas turbine 
jet propulsion engine and a conventional, radial, ptston~typ* with propeller. It 
must have exceptionally high top speed coupled miXh low landing- speed, a high sus- 
tained rate of ells*, excellent aaneuverabil ity and extreme cruising radius, it 
must carry adequate armor, araanent and equipment and yet re ain light in weight and 
small in sine so that the greatest possible number could be spotted »n<i operated 
from a carrier. 

The Ryan FR-I Fireball fighter has successfully met the versatile requirements 
which the Navy outlined, it has been the object of the closest technical scrutiny 
since Its mergence from the secret class. 

The basic design problem was one of how to design what Is probably the «iost 
compact airplane which has ever flown. The most careful consideration was given 
to the arrangement of the major structural members of the plane in the early stages 
of design. With a weight limit well below that of most fighters to meet, and two 
engines plus their fuel to accomodate the design work was exacting. The most de- 
sirable aerodynamic configuration was obtained by placing the piston-type engine 
in the nose and the yes turbine jet unit in the aft section of the fuselage. 

.very possible effort was used to reduce the total structural weight of the 

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plane without sacrificing any performance and still provide for good ma I ntenance. Tht 
Fireball is constructed of high-strength, post-aged aluminum alloy. It is the first 
plane to take full advantage, from the design stage on, of the desirable savings in 
weight which this material provides. The difficulty in dimpling this extra hard metal 
was solved by a hot dimpling process and a specially designed Hyan dimpling tool. 

In order to keep weight down to a minimum, several innovations were employed in the 
fabrication. An unusual type of structural configuration, previously usad for vertical 
fins in one or two other planes, was developed further and used in the design of the 
outer wing panels and horizontal stabilizer. This is a single-spar, true monocogue, 
shell-type structure In which Ml of tht bending stressed are carried by the single spar, 
all torsion is carried by the skin and the other connon<znt3 (ribs) of the structure serve 
only to support the skin contour to resist feuckiing. This tvpe of structure is lighter 
and has a higher strangth~w«igbt efficiency than any similar structure of a comparable 

weight was reduced in the design of the nacelle and cowling by making the cowling 
a two-piece structure in which ill of the principal loads are carried in hoop tension. 
This design provides the greatest utilization of meterial far load-bearing purposes and, 
therefore, permits the use of the lightest possible gauge of metal. The nacelle structure 
usually represents from 3 to 4 percent of the gross weight of an airplane. In the Fire- 
ball, the nacelle, Including the engine mount, weighs 201 pounds, or approximately 2 
percent of the gross weight. 

By the most careful design, it was possible to obtain a trtcycl e-type landing gear 
in the fiyan fighter which actually weighs only 495 pounds, or nearly 100 pounos less 
than the lightest conventional type gear on any fighter of comparable grass weighty j ht 
Fireball's landing gear comprises only 5-jj percent of the gross weight of the plane in- 
stead of the 7 to 9 percent in other fighter planes. This fact proves that it is pos- 
sible by Ingenious design to build the supposedly heavier tricycie landing gear at 
lighter weights than the best convent tonal type gear which has been developed to date. 

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Further evidence of the saving of weight Is the fact that the entire engine 
installation for the gas turbine jet engine, including the duct system, tail pipe 
and accessories adds only ISO pounds to the weight of the bare engine. 

A generous use of I iyht-wei ght magnesium was made In the fireball — probably 
a higher percentage than in any other combat plane. The landing gear wheels are 
made of die-cast, heat-treated magnesium. «ll of the skin aft of the hinge line 
on the fhipi, ailerons and rudder are of magnesium. The cable control quadrant!* 
cud most of the miscellaneous pulley brackets and fittings are made from the same 
light metal. 

Another weight-saving feature arises frost the fact that the fighter was the 
first New Navy plane in which exposed electrical wiring was authorized. This de- 
parture, which had been Inaugurated in the asdi flcatism of several Kavy planet, 
eliminates the added weight of condtjit. 

The installation of two engl nes in the Fireball — a Wright Cyclone, series 
C9HC, model 1820-72, radial type w$ a Seneral Mectric i-16 gas turbine jet unit 
has many advantages, it allows the designer to locate the cockpit further forward 
because of the more favorable fore and aft wfehgt distribution. This gives the 
Fireball pilot an unusual ranye of vision. He can look straight ahead without being 
blinded by the nose or directly down over the leading edge of the high-speed, laminar 
flow wing to see a carrier deck throughout his entire approach. He has the safety 
of twin-engine performance at ail times, with either po#er plant capable of speeding 
him home at better than 300 miles per hour. 

Operating on the forward engine alone, which is equipped with water injection, 
the Hyan fighter has a range of more than } les at cruising speed. For sen- 

sationally high tactical performance -wH-w fireball pilot has at his eoswand in the 
gas turbine jet unit, a powerful engine with exceedingly low weight per horsepower. 

The wrlght Cyclone engine attains its best efficiency at moderate speeds and 


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altitudes. The general i lectric jet engine reaches its maximum efficiency at 
hi nh speeds and altitudes. The combination af the two provides a speed and rate 
of climb curve which varies little from sea-level to high altitudes. nuick take- 
off within restricted areas is also passible because of the extra power which the 
aft engine produces. 

*ny interference which might result from the operation of the two engines 
where one is pulling the plane and the other pushing is eliminated by the use 
of the Curtiss fast- feathering, constant-speed propeller. This three-fc laded 
propeller is controlled by a proportional type, fly ball governor having an oil- 
operated switch mechanism which maintains constant by automatically changing 
blade angle with power changes. The forward engine is equipped with an automatic 
power regulator, working through manifold pressure, which maintains any power at 
a given r.p.m. that the pilot selects. The aft engine has a barometric type regu- 
lator which automatically maintains engine speed at all altitudes by regulating 
the f low of fuel. 

Hyan has designed the Fireball so that both engines may be fed fuel from ail 
fuel tanks, including the auxiliary drop tank. This flexibility allows the pilot 
to utilize his entire fuci supply In either engine depending upon the circumstances 
influencing his flight, An interesting and useful feature of the fuel system is 
the Incorporation of a fuel transfer arrangement which automatically feeds the 
fuel from the belly tank Into the main tanks rather than to the engines. 

In most planes the belly tanks feed directly to the engines. This requires 
that the plane take off with its main fuel tanks because of safety restrictions. 
Therefore, the pilot who goes out on an operation! f I ight always has partially de- 
pleted main fuel tanks when M drops his belly tank. In the Fireball this dis- 
advantage Is overcome by the fuel transfer system which feeds fuel from the auxiliary 
tanks to the main tanks. The system is actuated by electric swl teres connected to 

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fuel level gauges so that the main tanks will not overflow. 

Problems posed by the installation of the jet engine in the fuselage included 
getting large volumes of air to the engine, insulating the fuselage from engine heat 
and providing quick access for maintenance purposes. Piping sufficient air to the 
jet engine raised several design problems because of the large cross-sectional 
area of the ducts which must be contained within the fuselage. 

The air induction system consists of two curved ducts of formed and riveted 
aluminum alloy leadinq back from the air intake scoops in the leading edges of the 
wing center panel on either side of the fuselage, they converge in the fuselage 
beneath the cockpit floor and form a single elliptical-shaped duct which then flares 
into a round, rolled-edge opening. 

Just ahead of the jet unit an annular gap of 3/8 inch opening is provided to 
permit a flow of air around the exterior of the engine and tail pipe and thence to 
the air exit located at the tali cone tip. This circulation of air protects the 
fuselage structure from the heat radiated by the jet engine and its tall pip4. In 
addition, the tail pipe is wrapped with alternate layers of corrugated stainless 
steel screen and aluminum foil in such a way as to provide dead air space and radiation 

The jet engine air induction system was worked out In three steps; first, a 
small transparent plastic scai<? model was made in which smoke could be intro- 
duced and observed; second, a s<aail scale aotiel was made and tested in the wind 
tunnel; and third, a full scale duct system was constructed and given complete 
tests with an engine running in the wind tunnel. Ho changes were necessary in the 
design of this full scale model. 

Ready accessibility to both power plants is an outstanding feature of the 
Ryan Fireball. To make the aft engine available for quick replacement, *<yan de- 
signed the fuscJage in two integral sections. A semi-monococgue tail cone is t- 


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tached to the forward fuselage by four tension bolts and conical-seat type bush- 
ings just aft of the wine;. A disconnect of the fuselage and the engine connections 
can be made in about 30 minutes, a tfonorai | track is provided in the top of trie 
aft fuselage section which allows the engine to be rolled out in a few minutes 
after the horizontal trunion pins and forward support strut have been removed. 

Both engines are designed as packaged units, having quick-disconnect fittings 
on all controls and fuel lines at the fire walls. In combat, the special design 
of the fuselage, which is individually stressed in two components, makes quick 
replacement of the engines or tail section a welcome Innovation. 

The Fireball's landing gear is fully retractable, tricycle-type with oleopneumatic 
shock struts to absorb impact, it is one of the first of its type to be incor- 
porated into the design of a carrier-based Navy fighter and has a distinct 
superiority over the conventional gear, with it the Fireball pilot takes off and 
comes aboard a carrier in a level attitude which gives hi -v. an opportunity to see 
directly in front of the plane. The tricycle landing gear Is saore stable for 
handling and taxiing the plane and dynamically self-aligns the airplane ah en land- 
ing under adverse conditions caused by cross winds or listing decks. 

The design of the nose wheel shock strut differs materially far carrier-based 
planes than those which ar<t land-based because of the severe forward pitching mo- 
ments i posed by arrested landings. To withstand this greater Impact the nose 
wheel gear is more carefully designed and built of higher strength material. Be- 
cause the center of gravity is quite near the main landing wheels, It is relatively 
easy for a deck crew to depress the tail of the Fireball to wheel it around the 
ship on the two isein wheels or to facilitate servicing the nose landing gear. 

The landing gear of the %an fighter may be actuated by any one of three 
distinct systems to provide a triple safety feature; the normal hydraulic system, 

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the emergency hydraulic and the auxiliary hand puna system. The nose wheel is 
free-swivel ing when the shack strut is compressed l-ut is automatically self- 
centering by aseans of a caa» in the a lea when the strut is extended. This insures 
its proper position in lending as well as during retraction, 

Shlssnying of the nose wheel is prevented by a %an-de signed shi«say dampener 
consisting of two double-acti ag hydraulic pistons which allow a stow turn of 55 
degrees in either directian but resist rapid siovesient. Most of the heart of the 
fuel and hydraulic systems have been located in the nose wheel well so that they 
are accessible to service crews without time-wasting removable of access doors. 

A major problem in the design of the «yan fighter was to find room in the 
wing in which to retract the landing gear and .maintain the arassent inboard in 
the center section, it was decided to fold the landing gear stain wheels outboard. 
This arrange stent allows the guns and ammunition to be located inboatd and permits 
complete accessibility to them with wings in cither folded or locked position. The 
gun loading time for the fireoall is less than that required for refueling. 

Since the guns are heavier than the landing qv&r main wheels, and is view of 
the fact that they and the ammunition are placed inboard, other real advantages 
accrue. There is considerably less moment due to the weight of the armament and, 
therefore, increased maneuverability. Also, the guns retain store accuracy because 
they are not affected by wing distortion resulting from flight loadings. 

It is possible to bore sight the Fireball on a sloping deck without leveling 
the plane. This is accomplished by <aeans of two detachable tools which are at- 
tached wo the wing. A new type of gun-mounting attachment has been constructed 
which permits the quick replacement of the guns without tools. All guns can be 

charged or lacked "safe** by means of four tsajua! charging handles. In addition to 
the machine gun arsa«ment, the Fireball has been designed to carry two tOOO pound 


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and ha* detachable rocket mounting studs for 5-inch rockets. 

The Fireball's pilot's enclosure is the newest N.a.C.a design which is in 
effect a short, thick, highly tapered wing set on end on top of the fuselage con- 
tour. Two Interesting features of the fighter are the fact that the oxygen supply 
is placed behind the pilot's seat -back, which is the rear arnfiar protection for 
him, and that all of the controls of the airplane srt cable-operated end pro- 
tected from gunfire daasage. 

The ftyan fireball fighter is a departure frost orthodox military filter 
craft in the direction which offers the greatest promise for future development. 
All of the wing-loading, power plant and other design criteria are considerably 
within a large margin of expansion which will give the Fireball ample room in 
which to capitalize on design research. 







iergh Field • San Diego 1. California 

The Ryan Aeronaut ical Company announces that it has entered into 
an agreement with the Reconstruction Finance Corporation under which Ryan 
will act as an agent for the RFC to sel I Ryan-bu i I t spare parts for the 
hundreds of Ryan ST-3KR airplanes (Army PT-22) which are in current use.. 

This makes available to owners, operators and repair stations a 
very complete list of spare parts, most of which have been reduced Ln 
price in balanced quantities sufficient to last for many years. 

Parts catalogs, pilot's handbooks, service instructions and repair 
handbooks are also available for the ST-3KR as are stocks of spare parts 
for all other Ryan commercial airplanes. 

Requests for assistance with operational or maintenance problems,, 
including information concerning CAA certification, are welcomed by the 
San Diego pi ant. 

-%&>. /s,'9+s< 

^illiam '• Br«therton 
Public Halations 

-. D. UNION 





Ryan Aeronautical Company one of world's Outstanding Producers 

San Uiego has emerged from world var ll as the nation's most important 
production center for aviation exhaust manifold equipment. Each year of the war's 
tremendous expansion of aircraft brought more and more of the manufacture of this 
vital engine equipment to San Diego, uuring the last year approximately $50,000,000 
worth of exhaust system equipment was produced in tils community. The impressive 
list of orders from commercial and military plane builders indicates that San 
Uiego will continue to main tain its preeminent position well into the peacetime 

The Ryan Aeronautical Company, one of the world's outstanding producers, 
has played a major part in the city's industrial prominence by building thousands 
of huge exhaust manifolds for the heavy fighters, giant transports and superbombers 
which have swept our enemies from the skies. To make this prodigious production 
possible, the company has consumed mountains of metal plus staggering quantities 
of electricity, oxygen and hydrogen in its 43 acre San Uiego plant. 

Ryan has assumed a place of leadership as the country's largest user of 
stainless steel sheets, consuming more than the weight of a dozen freight cars 
each month. T$ese sheets, if laid end to end, would stretch from the Civic Center 
to La Jolla. To "stitch" the white metal together requires in one month as much 
oxygen as cold be contained at atmospheric pressure in 150 Navy patrol blimps. 
The oxygen is used to melt 100-miles of welding rod into the seams of Ryan exhaust 

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manifold sections each month. 

The exhaust manifold on an aircraft engine serves the same purpose as the 
exhaust system on an automobile except that instead of removing the hot gases 
generated by about 100 horsepower, it must aerve the terrific combustion of several 
thousand horsepower. It must be as light in weight as possible and yet withstand 
the effects of corrosion and vibratton while being subjected to frigid external 
temperatures and fiery internal blasts. 

The sheer power which has been compressed into the small size of a 3000 horse- 
power radial aircraft engine is a titanic force to contemplate, one of these 
new encines packs as much power as the average passenger train locomotive, yet 
could neatly be placed in the cab. Like rows of rapidjy firing carnon barrels, the 
~\ J 28 cylinders of these mammoth engines each fire 21 explosions of air and gasoline 
a second. To support this combustion they consume air like a raging forest fire. 
bo much air, that special air pups called superchargers, must be used to force 
enormous quantities down the engine". Mntfpipe, like seme Qjant "iron lung." 

..very molecule of air and gasoline which is rammed down the engine's cylinders 
must be forced out and returned to the atmosphere — none of It is destroyed. It 
Is, however, greatly transformed fror.-i the cool air which entered the intake ducts to 
a fiery blast of 1600 degrees temperature rushing from the exnaust ports. This 
volcanic gas could easily melt the aluminum structure of the airplane and must be 
carefully channeled back to the atsnusphere. 

The Ryan Aeronautical Company, only builder of exhaust manifolds who is also 
a prime contractor of airplanes ta the Army and Navy, has devoted a greet amaunt 
of research to this problem, with the result that Ryan's carefully engineered 
exhaust systems serve the engines off America's most distinguished planes. The 
successful design of these manifolds has made it possible for the continued develop- 
ment of aviation engines to higher horsepower ratings because of the solution of 

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the major problem, and limiting factor, of heat disposal. 

Ryan's exhaust manifolds suck in the hot gases from th« engine ports, insulate 
the airplane from their devastating effects and in many cases actually utilize the 
gases for performing many vital plane functions. The rushing exhaust is used to 
spin the air compressor of the engine turbosupercharger by directing It against the 
blades of a direct-connected turbine wheel, it is made to provide efficient anti- 
icing for wings and control surfaces by channeling it into these ice-susceptible 

areas. The exhaust heat is utilized for the comfort of the pessen^ers and crew 


by heating the cabin,, cockpit ami cjun turrets. To prevent dangerous icing of the 

carburetor screens, and consequent engine strangulation, the warm gas is piped 
to that important device. Ryan engineers have added as much as 23 ,uile$ an hour 
to the top speed of airplanes by utilizing the "kick" or propulsive thrust of the 
speeding exhaust as it leaves the manifold stacks. This is a simple jet propulsion 
mechanism obtained by ingenious design of the sxhaus.t tubas. 

8y thus using the millions of iTUs of exhaust heat each hour which would 
otherwise be wasted to the atmosphere, Ryan exhaust manifold systems save the weight 
of extra heaters and fuel needed to perform these tasks. This el lunation of weight 
adds speed and carrying capacity to the airplane. 

«roong the famous aircraft flying with Ryan exhaust equipment which was manu- 
factured in ^an uiego are the Boeing B-2V Superfortress, the Consolidated Vultee 
PBY-5 Catalina and TBY-2 Sea .,olf, Curtlss C-46 Commando transport and aC-l Seahawk, 
Uouglas B-19, ,*-20 bomber series, C-47 Skytrain, ^-53 ^kytrooper, E*4M ikymaster, 
C-74 Globemaster and LL-(> transports, urumman F6f hellcat and F7F Tiger Cat, Lock- 
heed A-29 Hudson and C-60 Lodestar, Northrop F»-6I Slack . i dow and &-3S, Martin BTK, 
Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, boodyear K and M blimps and others. 

The war has imparteo a tremendous boost to the technical development if aviation. 

\b fad »g ,ijt3«t 





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San Diego has benefited from this industrial growth because of the natural ad- 
vantages which the city has offered to aviation ever since its inception in 1883. 
The bustling activity of the exhaust manifold incu&try is an indication of the 
fact that this community can maintain many of its wartime manufacturing into the 
peacetime future. 

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By: William P. Brotherton 
Ryan Aeronautical Company 

Fast becoming one of the most promising metals before the war, stainless 
steel emerges from its wartime service with a shining reputation and a greatly 
expanding future. The magical white metal was shaped into fiery exhaust systems 
for nearly all of the roaring aircraft engines which powered the 200,000 military 
planes built by the United States in World War II. Many of these titanic power 
plants exert more than 3000 horsepower as they hurl huge superbombers through 
space. Their superchargers inhale air in enormous volumes, pack it tightly down 
the engine's windpipe and charge it with high octane gasoline before injecting 
it into closely packed cylinders. Like rows of rapidly firing cannons, these 
cylinder barrels sustain the force of 21 mightly explosions per second. The ex- 
huast blast which escapes from this terriific combustion is a volcanic flow which 
has a temperature of over I600°F. Stainless steel is the only metal which has 
successfully met the rigid requirements for a light-weight, strong, corrosion re- 
sistant system to channel this searing gas safely to the atmosphere. 

In the advance toward ever increasing horsepower, at less weight per unit 
of power, the major limiting factor has been one of heat disposal. The aircraft 
exhaust manifold and steel industries have concentrated their research facilities 
upon the development of better stainless steels in order to pave the way for this 

Pioneering in this field of research is the Ryan Aeronautical Company of San 
Diego which is also a major aircraft factory for Navy combat planes. In fabri- 
cating well over 100,000 large stainless steel exhaust systems for America's 

T *J A 1 M O 3 J A J I T U A W O H H A MATH 

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highest performance airplanes, Ryan has learned a great deal about the rustless 
metal which may be of value to others, 

Experience gleaned from the building of exhaust manifolds is extremely com- 
prehensive because of the wide variety of industrial processes which must be ap- 
plied to the steel to insure adequate service life under the most tortuous con- 
ditions. The rtyan Aeronautical Company cuts, cleans, stamps, anneals, pickles, 
sandblasts, passivates, planishes, stress relieves and welds stainless steel to 
fashion the vital exhaust systems for aircraft, tvery type of melding operation; 
oxy-acety lene gas, metallic arc, atomic hydrogen, and electric resistance is 
utilized to "stith" the seams of the steel in the most carefully controlled manner. 

There are over two dozen varieties of the stainless steel family which 
readily lend themselves to the industrial processes, but a vastly different 
technique is required. Not only must the strength of the material be maintained 
at all times but, in most cases, the corrosion resistance as well, in the case 
of exhaust systems, these characteristics must be preserved at highly elevated 
temperatures. Also the added cost of stainless steei, making spoiled material 
a more serious economic loss, demands that the worker have greater skill. 

The stainless steels have one property in common: they are resistant to 
corrosion or dissolution by a large number of industrial liquids and gases. This 
desirable quality can be traced to the element of chromium contained and is pro- 
portional to the amount of that substance, uuctility, mach i nabi I i ty , weldability, 
tensile strength and responsiveness to heat treatment are obtained by the ad- 
ditions of nickel, manganese, colurnbi urn, titanium, aluminum, tungsten, silicon, 
carbon and nitrogen in specified amounts. Those stainless steels *hich contain 
both chromium and nickel, such as the 18-8 types, are more satisfactorily *elded 
than the straight chromium types and do not require heat treatment or annealing 

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aftcr welding to improve their physical strength. Kyan uses this chromium- 
nickel stainless steel because of its superior qualities for exhaust manifolds. 

The stainless steels are affected by the application of heat which can 
materially change their corrosion resistance, tensile strength, ductility and 
other properties. 

The critical temperature range for the 18-8 type of stainless steels is be- 
tween 800°F and I500°F. Within this band of temperature the carbon separates out 
of the metal and unites with the chromium to form harmful chromium carbides which 
deposit along the grain boundaries and form a path for intergrannul ar corrosion. 
Hence, this carbide precipitation destroys one of the steels most valuable quail- 
ties; its corrosion resistance. It is interesting to note that carbide precipi- 
tation does not appreciably affect ensile or yield strengths. 

in welding, which is an application of heat, it is vital that the time 
during which the stainless steel is held within this critical temperature range 
be as short as possible. By heating the steel to I900°F, where all of its in- 
gredients are in solid solution and the material is fully annealed, and then 
quickly cooling through the critical temperature range, the corrosion resistance 
is restored. 

Another method for insuring the retention of corrosion resistance through the 
critical temperature range, and one which the Kyan Aeronautical Company takes ad- 
vantage of, is the addition oif colunbium or titanium to the steel formula, when 
the carbon precipitates out in the critical temperature range, it combines with 
these elements and forms carbides which are not harmful because they ore well 
distributed and cannot form a path for corrosion. Although this stabilization 
of the high corrosion resistance may be accomplished by either columbiura or 
titanium, Ryan prefers to use co lurabium-stabi I ized stainless steel wherever pos- 
sible because of its several advantages. Titanium is more readily volatilized 

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from fused metal in the welding process, with some losses as high as 80 percent. 

Extensive studies made by the rtyan Laboratory have shown that co I umbi urn- 
stabilized steel welded parts can be safely used without a stabilizing heat treat- 
ment, whereas titanium-stabilized steels should have the benefits of this special 
heat treatment. Although titanium stabilized-stainless is slightly superior to 
the columbium type in ductility, formula studies prove that a high nickel -chromium 
ratio produces a ductile metal which hardens reluctantly while being worked and em- 
bodies good welding characteristics. If the nickel content is held above 10.5 
percent, good ductility is assured. Because of these favorable features, it is 
easier to train a welder for columbium type welding than for titanium. 

The chromium-nickel alloys of stainless steel expand about 50 percent faster 
than ordinary steel under the application of heat and they conduct heat only one 
half as rapidly. Consequently the welding heat remains longer in the welding area 
and tends to produce greater distortion or warping of the metal. The electrical 
resistance of these steels is six times that of ordinary steel and may be as high 
as twelve times in cold worked stainless. This difference means that lower re- 
sistance welding currents may be used. The melting points of the chromium-nickel 
stainless steels is less than that of plain steels, requiring less heat to fuse 
them. Another peculiarity which they have is their refusal to be hardened by heat 
treatment. The grain size increases resulting from temperature can be reduced 
only by working the metal. Heat treatment Is effective, from a physical standpoint, 
as a means of annealing and stress relieving only. 

The stainless steels of the straight chromium type, containing no nickel, 
are more difficult to weld because the welding heat leaves them in a bTrttle con- 
dition. Unlike the chromium-nickel alloys, they are not subject to carbide pre- 
cipitation and the consequent loss of corrosion resistance caused by the heat re- 


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quired in welding. Metallurgical research conducted by the laboratory of the 

Ryan Aeronautical Company and experimental data from actual shop observations 

have been correlated to determine the most desirable formula for stainless steel 

which is to be fabricated into structures that must maintain high strength and 

corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures. This formula is: 

Carbon less than ,06>, preferably less than .05% 

Manganese 1.30 to 1 ,50?» 

Phosporous less than .02$ 

Sulphur less than .015$ 

Chromium more than I7.0S& 

Nickel more than 10.5$ 

Colurabium more than 8 times the Carbon content 


At Ryan, most of the forming of stainless steel is accomplished by the drop 
hammer with the punch press and hydraulic press contributing to some of the opera- 
tions. In this connection, greatly added flexibility has been given to the ponderous 
drop hammer by the use of rubber and lead staging material to provide a removable 
contour for successive drawings of the steel. Prior to the volume production use 
of stainless steel by the aircraft industry, most of it was used to fabricate 
kitchen ware, food-handling and dairy equipment and was, therefore, smoothly 
finished. Ryan soon found that this smooth finish was not suitable for drop ham- 
mer forming because the dies were unable to grasp the metal firmly and produce uni- 
form deformation. Accordingly a slightly roughened finish, obtained by a pickling 
operation at the steel mills, was requested. 

Cylindrical exhaust manifold sections are formed in two half-stampings by 
the drop hammer. Following this, the stainless steel must be degreased in a vapor 
bath of trlchorethylene to remove the lubricating oil necessary to forming. It is 
then immersed in a pickling bath of nitric and hydrofluoric acids to remove every 


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trace of lead or zinc which may have adhered from the drop hamflier dies. Zinc 
is particularly objetftionable because it produces zinc embri ttlement of the 
steel. From the acid baths the manifold stampings are rinsed in hot water and 
placed in an air furnace at a temperature of 1950° F. for annealing. This re- 
stores the ductility which had been removed by work hardening. The parts are 
pickled in another acid bath to eliminate furnace scale, rinsed in™h4c-fc pressure 
water jets and sent to the welding department. 


From this point on, the various welding techniques play a vital part in the 
fabrication of the stainless steel parts. The fundamental differences between 
the processes is the source of heat used to fuse the metal. Metallic arc must 
be ranked first for quality of weld with the atomic hydrogen process a close 
second. The atomic hydrogen method is faster but the metallic arc has a narrower 
heat area. Both produce about the same ductility. Gxy-acetylene gas is ranked 
** third by Ryan as to qual ity. It has the lowest speed, widest heat area and 
lowest ducti I ity. 

Before welding the seams of the half-stampings, Ryan spot tacks the two 
parts together in a rapid system which eliminates jigs and provides perfect 
al ignment for the seams. 


The stainless steels, especially the 18-8 types, are among the most adaptable 
to the spotwelding process due to their; I - long plastic range, 2 - low heat 
conductivity, 3 - resistance to formation of surface oxides, A - ease of removal 
of oxides formed and 5 - high electrical resistance. Spotwelding is a rapid, 
economical method for joining in cases involving moderately loaded assemblies. 
Spotwelds develop full strength only when subjected to shearing loads. If the 
stress criteria is less than mfr shear, a riveted or bolted connection should be 


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used. Spotwelding is most economical *hen a production rate of 35 to 120 spots per 
minute can be attained. Clean accessible design is the major factor governing 
this rate. 

It is possible to spotweld several sheets of stainless steel together simul- 
teneously and to weld separate pieces rforming parts of the same assembly such as 
welding a flat sheet to a square tube or simulteneousl y welding a sheet to each 
flange of a channel. To satisfactorily weld multiple sheets it is preferable that 
the sheets be of the same material and substantially the same thickness. Metals 
of different composition but of the same basic material may be spotwelded if their 
differences in electrical resistance are compensated for by properly increasing 
the thickness of the metal having the lower resistance, in the design, when 
welding sheets of different thicknesses together, the penetration will be greater 
in the thick sheet. This unbalanced effect continues with the thickness ratio until 
the practical limit of 3g to I is reached. The use of projection welding may per- 
mit spotwelding of parts in excess of this limit and should be considered wherever 
the ratio exceeds 2 to I . 

Spotwelding has several advantages for use with stainless steels; it is 
accompanied by a short, localized heating which does not produce harmful carbide 
precipitation and it produces no carbon pick-up. It is essential that parts be 
clean of grease, oxides or any other compounds which might cause electrical re- 
sistance. Wherever possible, spotweld assemblies should be designed so that 
standard electrodes can be used at right angles to the parts during the welding 


After exhaust manifold stampings are spot tacked together, they are welded 
along the seams by the oxy-acetylene gas method. For this operation the parts 
are held in flexible holding clamps which do not restrict their movement due to 
heat distortion. The welder can control this distortion by directing the welding 

THAIMOU U.')!TOf. «(f!!HA W A Y H 


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heat. Filler rod metal Is added during this process. Four constants are sought 
by the operator; uniformity in height of weld, width, speed and amount of filler 
rod. Inconsistancy in height or width usually results from poorly fitted parts, 
incorrect rate or unevenly trimmed parts. Excessive penetration, or "burn through", 
is due to too high a flange, too slow welding rate or excessive width, insufficient 
penetration is usually caused by low heat input, too fast welding speed, improperly 
applied flux, or dirty scaly metal. Another defect which can arise is the "under- 
cut" caused by too slow welding speed, insufficient filler rod or poor welding 
technique. The titanium-stabilized steels are susceptible to porosity which tends 
to make a weld weak and brittle. Excessive puddling induces porosity. Smalle* 
flame and tip and slower rate are helpful in overcoming this weakness. 

Because oxy-acety lene affects a larger area than the other welding methods 
and is slower the thermal stresses set up are greater. Care must be taken to 
prevent cracks caused by welding stress. Post-heating on the area surrounding 
tack welds prevents cracking. 

A large percentage of the manifold sections are welded by the atomic hydrogen 
process which is extremely fast and clean. This added speed derives from the ex- 
tra heat which is obtained from the electric arc stream and t^e molecular change 
of the hydrogen gas. The envelope of hydrogen eliminates the danger of carbon 
pick-up and protects the weld metal from oxidation. At the Ryan Aeronautical 
Company, we estimate that atomic hydrogen is about half as expensive as oxy- 
acetylene because of the greater amount of work which can be turned out per day. 
Ryan has designed and built its own automatic atomic welding machines which pro- 
duce uniformly smooth welds at the ratd of 28 inches per minute. Practically 
the same defects occur with atomic hydrogen as with oxy-acety lene except that 
they occur more quickly due to the high welding speed. One additional i imperfection 

T K A H U O D J A •> I T IT A W O H 8 A K *. Y H 

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which may develop is "worm-holing" caused by trapping of gases in the weld 
metal when the rate is too high. 


When the exhaust manifold sections have been seam welded by the oxy-acety lene 
gas or atomic hydrogen techniques, they are immersed in a molten salt bath to 
relieve the welding stresses and remove any flux. This bath was devised by Hyan 
laboratory chemists and is the only molten salt bath which satisfactorily heat 
treats 18-8 stainless steel. It operates at about I7Q0°F. and completely cleans 
and stress relieves the steel in 5 minutes, producing a bright surface. The 
sections are rinsed in a water bath, trimmed and sent to the pre-jig department. 

These jigs are carefully designed steel tools for insuring the correct 
dimensions of the exhaust systems which must be mated to high-precision en- 
gines. The jigs are not made from engineering drawings but are designed to al- 
low the shrinkage which occurs in welding to warp the parts into their correct 

The main body of the manifold ring is fitted into special brackets which, 
while permitting the required amount of movement, still control the direction. 
Supplementary jigs incorporate the same feature. This problem of controlling 
distortion during welding has been solved by the process of trial and error with 
the result that after long experience it has been possible to arrive at the re- 
quired tolerances between jigs used for assembly and those used for final checking. 
The tubular exhaust sections are spot tacked together in the jigs by means of the 
metallic arc method. Actually this spot tackigg is the only gelding that is 
done while the parts are in jig except in the cases where critical dimensions 
must be attained in a weld which cannot be worked on afterwai ds. Generally, 
the spot tacked sections are taken from the jigs and the lap joints are welded 
by the metallic arc process, uioublers are welded on at this time. The parts 
are then returned to closer tolerance assembly jigs and checked. Changes in 
the contours of the stainless steel necessary to conform to jig dimensions are 


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made by heating and hammering the metal. At this time additional parts, such 
as hangers, are welded on the assembly. The completed exhaust system is sub- 
sequently removed and placed in the final jigs which correspond to the extaet 
dimensions of the engines for which the manifolds are designed. Changes are made 
by mechanical means to obtain perfect alignment. 

In utilizing the metallic arc welding method care should be exercised to 
avoid the defects of "burn through", "undercut", "cracking" and "flux pockets." 
Burn through, usually associated with lap welding is sometimes not serious but 
it lowers the corrosion resistance of !3-8 stainless steel it must be ayoided. 
If the voltage or amperage are too high or the weld rate is erratic, burn through 
may result. Overlap, or cold weld, is characterized by lack of fusion between 
parent metal and the weld metal, it is often caused by too low voltage or am- 
perage, too fast travel or flux from the electrodes getting ahead of the weld 
metal deposit. Cracks are not characteristic of the metallic arc process when 
using 18-8 stabilized electrodes. They are more likely to occur in high carbon 
and alloy steels such as A4I30 or 25-12 stainless. The commonest causes of crack- 
ing in 18-8 stainless are excessive cold working after welding, extremes in light 
to heavy gauges which cause shrinkage stresses and shear or tension loadings while the « 
weld area is at I200°to I600°F, the "hot short" temperature. Undercutting arises 
from three causes; excessive heat from too high amperage and voltage, too high a 
rate of electrode travel and concentrati on of heat on one plate resulting from elec- 
trode angle* Flux pockets and inclusions are defects that occur when the metal 
is not clean and when improper technique is used. Designs that have closed angles 
encourage flux pockets. Too low welding heat prevents the flux from becoming fluid 
enough to float on the surface of the metal. Large mis-shapen tacks may trap flux 
if Insufficient care is taken. 

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Concentrated effort in the manufacture of stainless steel structures for 
war has pushed our knowledge of this metal ahead by a generation. From the research 
laboratories of manufacturers like the Kyan Aeronautical Company has come a com- 
pilation of valuable facts and "know how" which will adapt this rustless metal to 
many more applications now unsatisfactorily met by ordinary steels. 

* * • 


-1 I-