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VOIi. IV. 

Iiing'ua.den' (L. lingua; dens, a 
tooth.) Kulatiiig to the tongue and the teeth. 

Ii. let'ters. Those formed by the com- 
bined use of the tongue and teeth, as d and t. 
Iiin'g'uae. Genitive singular of Lingua. 

It- deten'tor. (L. detcntus, part, of deti- 
neo, to hold down.) A Tongue-depressor. 

Ii. exonco'sis. See Exoncosis linguce. 

Xi. scarpium. (L. scalpo, to scrape.) A 

Ziing'USefo'liate. (L. lingua, a tongue ; 
foliunt, A Ic^i. F. littguifoUe.) Having tongue- 
shaped leaves, as the Crassula linguafolia. 
Xiin'g'U8eforin> Same as Linguiform. 
Xiin'g'uaforina Same as Linguiform. 
Xiin'g'Ual. (L. lingua, the tongue. F. 
lingual; I. lingualc ; S. lingual; G. die Zunge 
betreffend ) Relating to, or connected with, the 

Ii. ar'tery. (F. artere linguale ; G. 
Zungcnschlagader.) A branch of the external 
carotid artery. It runs inwards and forwards, 
and is at first comparatively superficial, is then 
crossed by the ninth nerve, and by the digastric 
and stylo-hyoid muscles. It ndw passes beneath 
the hyoglossus, resting on the middle constrictor 
and genio-hyoglossus muscles. Its branches are 
the superior hyoid, dorsalis linguae, sublingual, 
and ranine. It may arise from a common trunk 
with the facial artery, or with the superior 
thyroid artery, or with both these arteries; 
and it may give off as a branch the superior 
laryngeal, the submental, or the ascending 
palatine arteries. 

Ii. bone. A synonym of the Sgoid bone. 

Ii. gan'srllon. A synonym of the Gan- 
glion, submaxillary. 

Ji. gran'g'lion, soft. The Ganglion lin- 
guale molle. 

Ii. grlands. See Glands, lingual, and G.s, 
lingual, posterior. 

Xi. gy'rus. The Gyrus occipito-temporalis 

Ii. icbthyo'sis. See Ichthyosis of the 

Ii. let'ters. Those pronounced by the use 
of the tongue chiefly, as I and r. 

Ii. mus'cle. See Lingualis muscle. 

Ii. nerve. (F. nerf Ungual ; G. Zungen- 
nerv.) A branch of the inferior maxillary division 
of the fifth pair of cranial nerves. It supplies 
the front portion of the tongue, especially the 
fungiform and conical papillas, the anterior 
palatine arch, the tonsil, and the floor of the 

mouth, and gives twigs to the submaxillary 
ganglion, the hypoglossal nerve, and the sub- 
lingual gland. It is both a tactile and a sensory 
nerve ; being like other branches of the fifth, a 
nerve of common sensation, and being indebted 
to the chorda tympani for the fibres wliich ad- 
minister to the sense of taste ; it contains vaso- 
motor, but no motor fibres. It commences under 
cover of the external pterygoid muscle, is soon 
joined by the chorda tympani, passes between 
the internal pterygoid muscle and the ramus of 
the lower jaw to the side of the tongue, crosses 
Wharton's duct, and runs to the apex. 
According to Schiff it is the nerve of taste. 
Also, a synonym of the Hypoglossal nerve. 

Ii. nerve, me'dian. (L. medius, in the 
middle.) The Hypoglossal nerve. 

Ii. nerve of elg^htb pair. The Glosso- 
phary7igeal nerve. 

Ii. nerve of fiftb pair. The L. nerve. 

Ii. nerve of Hirscb'feld. A branch of the 
facial nerve leaving the trunk just after it escapes 
from the stylo-mastoid foramen, and supplying 
the stylo-glossus and palato-glossus muscles. 

Ii. nerve of va'gus. (G. Zungennerv 
des herumschiveifenden Nerv.) Luschka's tenn 
for a slender branch given off from the pharyn- 
geal plexus, which receives its fibres from the 
pharj-ngeal branches of the glosso-pharyngeal 
and pneumogastric nerves, and joins the hypo- 
glossal nerve. 

Ii. nerves of grlos'so-pharyng-e'al. 
(G. Zungendste de Zungenschlundkopifncrv.) The 
two terminal branches of the glosso-pharyngeal 
nerve beneath the hyoglossus muscle ; one sup- 
plies the papillae circumvallatse and the mucous 
membrane of the posterior third of the tongue ; 
and the other supplies the mucous membrane of 
the hinder half of the side of the tongue, anasto- 
,jnosing with the lingual nerve. 

Ii. nerves of bypog:los'sal. (G. 
Zungendste des Zungenmuskelnerv .) The ter- 
minal branches of the hypoglossal nerve which 
supply the muscles of the tongue. 

Ii. papillae. See Fapxllce linguales. 

X. paral'ysis. See Tongue, paralysis of. 

Ii. plex'us. (L. plexus, a weaving. F. 
plexus lingual; G. Zungengeflccht.) A plexus 
formed at the root of the tonjjue by the in- 
tercommunication of branches of the glosso- 
pharyngeal nerve, the terminal branches being 
distributed to the mucous membrane of the 
posterior third of the tongue. 

Xi. psorl'asis. (^wpa, the itch.) A 


thickening and desquamation of the epithelium 
of the tongue, due to long-continued irritation, 
as from the constant smoking of a clay pipe. 
This affection is sometimes called leukoplakia. 
In some cases it appears to precede epithelioma 
of the tongue. 

Ii. quln'sy. See Quinsy, lingual. 
Ii. rasp. (F. rape linguale.) The tongue 
of Molluscs. 

la. ribbon. Same as Radula. 
Ii. spasm. See Tongue, spasm of. 
Ii. sypb'ilis. See Tongue, syphilis of. 
Ii. veins. The L. veins, proper. 
Ii. veins, dor'sal. (L. dorsum, the back.) 
Two veins which proceed from a submucous 
plexus on the hinder part of the dorsum of the 
tongue ; they open by means of a common trunk 
or separately into the common facial vein or the 
internal jugular vein. 

Ii. veins, prop'er. The small venae 
comites of the lingual artery, one lying above it 
the other below ; they anastomose freely with each 
other and open into the internal jugular vein. 

Xiing-ua'liS. (L. Ibigua, the tongue. F. 
lingual ; d. zur Zunge gchorig.) Of, or belong- 
ing to, the tongue. 

Ii. mus'cle. (L. lingua, the tongue. F. 
muscle lingual ; G. eigentlicher Zungenmuskel.) 
A muscle of the tongue divided into inferior, 
transverse, and superKcial lingualis muscles. 

Ii. muscle, inferior. (L. inferior, 
lower. F. linguale inferieur ; G. unterer 
Lcingsmuskel der Zunge.) A subcj-lindrical 
fasciculus of muscular fibres situated on the 
under surface of the tongue on either side of the 
median line. Anteriorly it lies between the 
genio-glossus and the lateral fasciculi of the 
stylo-glossus, posteriorly between the genio- 
glossus and the hyoglossus. Its fibres are con- 
nected behind with those of the genio-glossus, 
stylo-glossus, and pharyngo-glossus muscles, 
and with, the hyoid bone ; in front they are 
attached to the mucous membrane of the apex of 
the tongue. It retracts the tongue. It is sup- 
plied by the hypoglossal nerve. 

Ii. muscle, longritu'dinal inferior. 
The L. muscle, inferior. 

Ii. mus'cle, long-itu'dinal supe'rior. 
The L. muscle, superior. 

Ii. mus'cle, perpendicular, exter'- 
nal. (fx. senkrechler Zungenmuskel.) Zaglas's 
term for vertical muscular fibres having an out- 
ward concavity extending from the dorsum to 
the under surface of the border of the tongue. 

It, mus'cle, superficial. (L. super- 
ficialis, belonging to the surface.) The L. 
muscle, superior. 

Ii. muscle, supe'rior. (L. superior, 
upper. Y. linguale super ieur ; G.obercr Lungs- 
muskel der Zunge.) A stratum of muscular 
fibres situated immediately beneath the mucous 
membrane of the dorsum lingua;, and extending 
from the root to the tip of the tongue, the in- 
dividual fibres being attached at intervals to the 
submucous tissue. Posteriorly it fuses with the 
chondro-glossus, and is attached to the base of 
the small cornua of the hyoid bone, and ante- 
riorly it is interpenetrated by the ascending fibres 
of the genio-glossus and hyoglossus muscles. It 
arches backwards the tip of the tongue. 

Ii, mus'cle, transverse. (L. trans- 
versus, turned across. F. linguale transverse ; 
Or. Quermuskel der Zunge.) A mass of muscular 
fibres constituting a large part of the tongue, 

arising from the fibrous septum in the median 
plane and inserted into the submucous tissue of 
the dorsum and edges of the tongue. The fibres 
of the palato-glossus are said to be continuous 
with fibres of this muscle. 

Ii. mus'cle, ver'tical. (L. vertex, the 
crown of tlie head.) The L. muscle, perpendi' 
cular, e.ttcrnal. 

Iiing'Uat'ula. (L. Ungula, a small 
tongue.) A Genus of the Order Zinguatulidce. 
Worm-like parasites found in the frontal sinuses, 
nose, and lungs of dogs and other vertebrates. 

Ii. constric'ta, Pruner. (L. constrictus, 
compressed.) The Fentastomum dentieulatum. 

Ii. serra'ta, Frohlich. (L. serratus, saw- 
edged. F. linguatule dentelee.) The Fentasto- 
mum dcnticulatum. 

Ii. tsenio'i'des. The Fentastomum tce- 

XiingruatUli'dae. {Linguatula ; Gr. 
tIco9, likeness.) An Order of the Class Arach- 
nida ; the members are parasitic, and have a 
ringed, elongated, and worm-like body, with two 
pairs of hooks about a jawless mouth, a simple 
papilliferous penis, and non-tracheal respiration. 
Iiing-uet'ta. (Dim. of L. lingua.) A 
small tongue. 

Ii. lamino'sa. (L. lamina, a thin plate.) 
The cerebral structure called Ligula. 

Xiin'g'uiform. (L. lingua, a tongue ; 
forma, resemblance. F. linguiforme ; G. Zungen- 
formig.) Formed like a tongue ; as the leaves 
of the Mesembryanthemum linguiforme. 
Also, formed like a Ligula. 
Iiing'Uis'tic. (L. lingua.) Belating to 

Xiing'Uis'tics. The comparative study 
of the elements of different languages, comprising 
an inquiry into their origin and the.actual state 
of the vocabulary and grammar ; comparative 
philology ; the science of languages. 

Iiin'g'Ulai (L. Ungula, dim. of lingua, a 
tongue. F. lingule ; G. Ziinglein, Ziingclchen.) 
A term for a little tongue, or object resembling 
one ; the epiglottis. 
Also, the same as Ligula. 

Ii. accesso'ria. (L. accede, to approach.) 
A small process near the L. vermis superioris. 
Ii. cerebel'li. The L. vet-mis superioris. 
Ii. fis'tulae. (L. fistula, a pipe.) The 

It. mandib'ulae. (L. mandibula, the 
jaw.) A small plate of bone projecting from the 
inner border of the inferior dental foramen of 
the inferior maxillary bone. 

1m. of ba'sis cra'nli. (Ba<n9, a step ; 
Kpai/ioi;, the skull.) A curved process of cartilage 
which projects forwards and laterally, and then 
downwards and backwards, from the mass of 
cartilage surrounding the pituitary fossa. 

X. sptaenolda'lls. {Sphenoid hone. G. 
Keilbeinziingelchen.) A tongue-like process of 
bone lying in the angle between the body and 
the great wing of the sphenoid bone on the outer 
side of the sulcus caroticus. 

Ii. ventric'ull quar'tl. (L. ventriculus, 
a ventricle ; quarlus, fourth.) The same as 
Ligula sinus rhomhoidci. 

Ii. ver'mis superlo'ris. (L. vermis, a 
worm ; superior, upper. G. Ziingelchen des 
Obirwurms.) A tongue-shaped laminated pro- 
cess of the central lobe of the cerebellum which 
is projected from its middle part on to the 
superior medullary velum. 


Ziin'g'ular. (L. Ungula, a little tongue. 
F. Ittigulaire.) Of, or belonging to, a little 

Ziin'g'Ulate. (L. Ungula, a little tongue. 
F. Unguli.) llaviug a little tongue, or the 
appearance of such, as the expansion of the tube 
of the corolla of tlie Aristoluchia clematitis, the 
leaves of the Tillandsia lingulata, the follicles 
of the Trioptcrtts lingidata, and the shell of 
Vulsella lingulata. 

Ziill'g'uliforin. (L. Ungula ; forma, 
shape.) Having the form of a little tongue or 
liing'UOden'tal. Same as Linguadental. 
Xiinbart, IVen'zel von. An Austrian 
surgeon, born at Seelovitz in Moravia in 1821, 
died at Wiirtzburg in 1877. 

_ Ii.'s chis'el. A stout chisel with an 
oblique edge and a thick back, on which is a 
projecting ridge to catch the hammer by which 
the weapon is driven. Used in excision of, and 
other operations on, bone. 
Iii'ni. Genitive singular of Zinum. 

Ii. fari'na, B. Ph. (L. farina, flour. G. 
Leinmehl.) Linseed meal, being the seeds of 
the Linum usitatissimuni reduced to powder. 

Ii. sem'lna, B.P. (L. semen, seed. F. 
graines de I'm; I. semi di lino ; S. linaza ; G. 
Zeinsatnen.) The seed of Zinum usitatissimum. 
The seeds are about one-si.\th of an inch long, 
oval, pointed, flattened, smooth, shining ; brown 
externally, and yellowish-white within. They 
yield when pressed in the cold from 18 to 20 per 
cent, of oil, but when heated from 22 to 27 per 
cent. Other constituents of the dried seeds are 
emulsin and investment 44 per cent., gum 6, 
vegetable albumen 27, gluten 2-93. Used in- 
ternally in decoction or infusion as a demulcent 
and emollient, and externally for poultices. 

Ziinic'olous. (L. linum, flax; colo, to 
inhabit.) Living in or among flax. 

Ziinig''erous. (L. linum ; gero, to bear.) 
Carrying or bearing flax. 

Xiini'men. (L. lino, to anoint. G. 
Schmiere.) Grease. A substance for smearing. 
Ziin'illient. (L. linimentum, smearing- 
etuS'; from lino, to anoint. F. liniment; I. 
linimenio ; S. linimento ; G. Ziniment, Jliissige 
Salbe.) An embrocation or agent which faci- 
litates the process of friction and, in some 
instances, the entrance of medicaments into the 
body through the skin. The application of a 
liniment is usually either to efl'ect local stimula- 
tion or to relieve pain. Liniments are generally 
made with oU and some active agent ; but in 
some instances soap, and in others spirit, is 

Xi.i Kent'lsh's. See Kentish's liniment 
for burns. 

1m. of cro'ton oil. The Zinimentum cro- 

Ii. Of i'odide of potas'sium and 
soap. The Zinimentum potassii iodidi cum 

Ii. of lime. The Zinimentum calcis. 

Ii. of mer'cury. The Zinimentum hy- 
drargyri . 

Ii. of mus'tard, com'pound. The 
Zinimentum sifiapis compositum. 

Ii. of soap. The Zinimentum saponis. 

Ii. of Span'lsh flies. A synonym of 
Zinimentum cantharidis. 

Xi. Of subac'etate of lead. The Lini- 
inentum plumbi suhacetatis. 

Ii. Of tur'pentine. The Zinimentum, 

Ii. Of tur'pentine and ace'tic ac'id. 

The Zinimentum ierebinthince aceticum. 

Ii., Pott's. Composed of oil of turpentine 
and hydrochloric acid. Used as a resolvent in 
rheumatic and other swellings. 

Ii., Ri'cord's sed'ative. Chloroform, 
extract of belladonna, camphor, laudanum, of 
each one part, oil of henbane 50 parts. Used 
in neuralgia and rheumatism. 

Ii., St. Jobn liOng's. Said to hare con- 
sisted of oil of turpentine and acetic acid held 
in suspension by yolk of egg. It is a powerful 

Ii., Stokes's. Oil of turpentine 100 parts, 
acetic acid 15 parts, the yolk of one egg, rose 
water 80 parts, and linseed oil 4 parts. As a 
stimulant embrocation to the chest in bronchitis. 

Ii., Swe'dlaur's. Contains white arsenic 
and olive oil. It is used as a local application 
in cancer. 
Iiiniment'um. See Ziniment. 

Ii. aconi'ti. See Aconiti linimentum. 
Since the article was written the directions 
given for the preparation of this liniment in the 
new edition of the B. Ph. cause the strength to 
be slightly decreased. The proportion of the active 
ingredient to the whole is one in one and a half. 

Ii. al'bum. (L. albus, white.) A name 
for spermaceti ointment. 

Ii. ammoniaca'le, Fr. Codex. (F. lini- 
ment ammoniacal.) Oil of sweet almonds 90 
parts, liquid ammonia of commerce 10 parts ; 

Ii. ammoniaca'le camphora'tum, Fr. 
Codex. Camphorated oil 90 parts mixed with 
liquid ammonia 10 parts. 

Ii. ammo'nise, B. Ph. Solution of am- 
monia one fluid ounce mixed with olive oil three 
fluid ounces. 

In U.S. Ph., 30 parts of water of ammonia is 
mixed with 70 parts of cotton-seed oil. 

Ii. ammonia'to- camphora'tum, G. 
Ph. (G. fliichtiges Kampfcrliniment.) Oleum 
camphoratum 3 parts, oleum papaveris one part, 
and liquor ammonii caustici one part, shaken 

Ii. ammonla'tum, G. Ph. Olive oil 
three parts, oil of poppy one part, and liquor 
ammonii caustici one part, shaken together. 

Ii. anod'yni. ('Ai/, neg. ; oovv^], pain.) 
The same as Z. opii. 

Ii. Ar'cei. The liniment of Arceus; a 
name for the Unguentum elemi compositum. 

Ii. belladon'nse, B. Ph. This liniment 
is made by macerating belladonna root 20 parts, 
camphor 1, in a sufiiciency of rectified spirit to 
produce 30 parts. 

In U.S. Ph., five parts of camphor are dis- 
solved in 95 parts of fluid extract of belladonna. 

It. bora'ce. The Mel boracis. 

It. cal'clcum, Fr. Codex. See under Z. 

Ii. cal'cis, B. Ph. (F. liniment calcaire.) 
A cream-like fluid made of a mixture of equal 
parts of lime water and oUve oil. The French 
and Belgian Pharmacopoeias replace the olive oil 
with almond oil, the Kussian with linseed oil, 
and the United States with cotton-seed oil. A 
soothing remedy for burns. 

Ii. cam'pborse, B. Ph. and Dan. This 
is made by dissolving one part of camphor in 
four parts of olive oil. In the French, Belgian, 


German, and Russian Pharmaoopoeias the pro- 
portion is one of camphor to nine of oil. In the 
United States Pharmacopoeia the olive oil is 
replaced by cotton-seed oil. 

It. cam'pborse corapos'itum, B. Ph. 
This is made by dissolving o parts of camphor 
and 7 part of English oil of lavender in 30 parts 
of rectified spirit, adding 10 parts of strong 
solution of ammonia, and shaking till a clear 
solution is formed. Tlie proportion of ammonia 
is about I to 8. Employed in neuralgia and 
chronic rheumatism. The corresponding Bel- 
gian preparation contains liquid ammonia 1 
part, camphorated oil 2 parts. The Danish, 
solution of ammonia 1, camphorated oil 1, olive 
oil 2. German, water of ammonia 1, campho- 
rated oil 3, poppy oil 1. Russian, solution of 
ammonia 2, cam])horated oil 3, olive oil 3. 

Ii. camphora'tum. The Z. camphora. 

I,, canthar'idis, U.S. Ph. Fifteen parts 
of cantharides in No. 60 powder is digested with 
100 parts of oil of turpentine in a water bath for 
three hours ; it is then strained and enough 
turpentine passed through the strainer to make 
the product weigh 100 parts. 

Also, a synonym of Liquor epispasticus. 

Ii. cap'sicl. This preparation is made 
by macerating capsicum one part and rectified 
spirit three parts for seven days, and straining. 
Used in neuralgia, for chilblains and toothache. 

Ii. ctalorofor'ml, B. Ph. A liniment 
composed of a mixture of equal parts of chloro- 
form and liniment of camphor. Applied as a 
stimulant to the skin. The corresponding lini- 
ment in the French Pharmacoposia contains 
chloroform 1, almond oil 9 ; in the United Stales 
Pharmacopoeia, chloroform 4 parts, soap lini- 
ment 6 parts. 

!■■ crlna'le< (L. crinis, hair.) A hair 
wash containing cantharidin, acetic ether, recti- 
fied spirit, and castor oil. 

Ii. croto'nls, B. Ph. Groton oil one fluid 
ounce, oil of Cajeput and rectified spirit, of each 
three fluid ounces and a half. 

Ii. cum chlorofor mo, Fr. Godex. (L. 
cum, with. F. liniment au chloroforme.) See 
under L. chloroformi. 

Ii. cum sapo'ne. (L. cum, with ; sapo, 
soap. F. liniment savonncux.) Tincture of 
soap 50 parts, oil of sweet almonds 5 parts, and 
alcohol 45 parts, well shaken together. 

Ii. 3>. Ro'sen, Fr. Codes. (F. liniment 
de Rosen.) Oil of mace 5 parts, oil of cloves 5 
parts, mi.xed together, and spirit of juniper 90 
parts gradually added. 

Ii. hydrarg'yri, B. Ph. Ointment of 
mercury one ounce, solution of ammonia and 
liniment of camphor of each one fluid ounce. 

Ii. byper'lci. An infusion of the leaves 
of the Hypericum 2)1 rforatum in olive oil. 

It. io'dl, B. Ph. Iodine 5 parts, iodide of 
potassium 2 parts, glycerin one part, and rectified 
spirit 40 fluid jiarts. 

Ii. o'pil, B. Ph. Tincture of opium, lini- 
ment of soap, of each equal quantities. 

It. plum'bl subaceta'tis, U.S. Ph. 
Solution of subacetate of lead 40 parts, cotton- 
seed oil 60 parts. 

Ii. potas'sil lod'ldl cum sapo'ne, 
B. Ph. Curd soap 16 parts, iodide of potash 12 
parts, glycerin 8 fluid parts, oil of lemons one 
fluid pari, and distilled water 80 fluid parts. 

Ii. sapona'to-ammonla'to-campbo- 
ra'tum. The L. camp)i,or(Z compositum. 

It. sapona'to-campbora'tum, G. Ph. 

(G. Opodel-iok.) Sapo medicatus 60 parts, and 
camphor 20 parts, dissolved in spirit 810 parts 
and glycerin 50 parts, at a gentle heat, then oil 
of thyme one part, oil of rosemary 6 parts, and 
liquor ammonii caustici 50 parts, are added. 

Ii. sapona'to - campbora'tum llq'- 
uidum, <_.. I'll. (G. Jli(.st.iijrr Opudeldok.) 
Spirit of camphor 120 parts, spirit of soap 350, 
liquor ammonii caustici 24, oil of thyme 2, oil of 
rosemary 4 parts; mix and filter. 

Ii. sapona'to -lodatum. Ta& L. potas- 
sii iodidi cum saponc. 

It. sapo'nis, B. Ph. Distilled water 32 
parts are mixed with rectified spirit 128 parts 
and camphor 8 parts, oil of rosemary 3 parts, 
and hard soap 16 parts added ; macerated for 
seven days at a temperature not exceeding 70' F. 
(2l"l' C.) and filtered. Used as an anodyne 
and rubefacient. 

The U.S. Ph. formula is very similar. 

Ii. sapo'nis compositum. The L. 

Ii. sapo'nis vir'idis. The Tinctura sa- 
ponis viridis. 

Ii. slna'pis compos'itum, B. Ph. Oil 
of mustard 1-4 fluid parts, ethereal extract of 
mezereon one part, camphor 3 parts, castor oil 7 
fluid parts, and rectified spirit 44 fluid parts. 
An active rubefacient. 
The U.S. Ph. formula is very similar. 

Ii. tereblntb'inae, B. Ph. Soft soap 2 
parts dissolved in distilled water 2 fluid parts, 
and camphor one part dissolved in oil of turpen- 
tine 16 fluid parts, are thoroughly mixed. An 
application to burns. 

The U.S. Ph. formula is the original Kentish's 
liniment for burns. 

Ii. tereblntb'inae ace'ticum, B. Ph. 
OQ of turpentine 4 fluid parts, glacial acetic 
acid one part, and liniment of camphor 4 fluid 

Ii. tereblntblna'tum, G. Ph. Crude 
potassium carbonate 6 parts mixed with soft soap 
54 parts, and then oil of turpentine 40 parts 

Ii. volat'ile. The Z. ammonia. 
Xii'nin. (L. linum, linseed. F. linine.) A 
bitter substance found by Pagenstecher in Linum 
cailiarticum, and to which probably it owes its 
purgative properties. It forms small, silky 
crystals, little soluble in water, readily in alcohol 
and ether. 
Also, the mucilage of flax seeds. 
Xiinis'CUS. {Aw'ktko^, an edging. F. 
linisque ; G. Masche.) Applied by llliger to 
the areolse, usually regular, of the horny epi- 
dermis of the feet of birds when that epidermis 
is reticulated. 

Ziinifion. (L. lino, to besmear. F. 
linition ; G. Einreiben.) The application of a 

Iiini'tiS. {Mvov, anything made of flax.) 
Inflammation of the areolar tissue which sur- 
rounds the blood-vessels of the stomach. The 
term was employed by Brinton. 

Ii., plas'tic. (JWaaTLKO's, fit for mould- 
ing.) The form which is attended with hyper- 
plasia of the areolar tissue and hypertrophy of 
the muscular coat. 

It., sup'pnrative. (L. suppuro, to gather 
matter.) The form which results in small ab- 
scesses or in purulent infiltration of the coats of 
the stomach. 


Xiink. (Sax. hlence, hlenka. G. Gelenk.) 
A ring of a chain. 

Also, to connect by a link. 
Xi., Sl'amese. A tube of grass so woven 
that as it is extended its diameter is reduced. 
It is useful in the reduction of phalangeal dis- 

Iilnk'tng". {Link.) The act or process of 
connecting by a link, or of coupling. 

Jm, of at'oms. The attraction of the con- 
stituent atoms of a molecule one to another in a 
chain-like series. 

Iiinn. The T'dia amerlcana. 

ZiinnaB'a. (In honour of Linnaus.) A 
Genus of the Nat. Order Caprifoliacece . 

Ii. borea'lis, Gronovius. (L. boreas, the 
north wind.) A plant inhabiting the northern 
countries of Europe. Leaves diuretic, diapho- 
retic, and slightly astringent. Used in fomen- 
tation for rheumatic pains. Also given in 
infusion with milk as a cure for sciatica in 

Ii., two-flow'ered. The L. borealis. 

Xiinnae'an. {Liitiianis, the naturalist.) 
Of, or belonging to, Linnaeus. 

Im. sys'tem. The Linnrcan, or artificial, 
or sexual system is founded on the number of 
stamens which determines the primary divisions 
or classes ; the subdivisions or orders generally 
depend on the number of pistils. 

Also, applied to the binomial system of 
nomenclature laid down by Linna?us, in which 
each being received a generic and a systemic 

Xiinnae'ite. (NiCoFe)3S4. A nickel ore 
which forms pale-grey crystals, or occurs in a 

XiinnSB'us. The Latinised form of Linne. 

Xiin'ne, Carl von. The great naturalist, 
born at Kishult, in the Parish of Stenbrohult, 
in the Province of Smaland, Sweden, in 1707, 
died at Upsala in 1778. 

Ziinoleic ac'id. (F. acide UnoUiqite.) 
CigHjgOa. An acid allied to oleic acid, obtained 
by saponifying linseed oil, precipitating the soap 
with calcium chloride, dissolving the calcium 
linoleate out of the precipitate by means of 
ether, and decomposiug it with hydrochloric 
acid. When pure it is a thin, oily, slightly 
yellow-liquid, of sp. gr. -9206, having a faintly 
acid reaction and a pleasant, then harsh, taste. 

Ziino'lein. The drying olein of linseed 
oil ; it is a glvfteride of Linoleic acid. 

Iiino'leum. (L. /;>»<?«, flax ; oleum, oi\.) 
A compound of linseed oil and sulphur chloride 
which forms a solid waterproof substance. Used 
in various ways in the arts. 

liiuosper'xnum. {Mvov, flax ; o-Tr/p^a, 

seed. F. linosperme.) Linseed or lintseed, 
afforded by the Linum usitatissimum, or com- 
mon flax. 

Ziinos'yris. {Kivov, flax ; oa-vpi's, the 
name of a plant.) A Genus of the Xat. Order 

Ii. mexlca'na, Schlechtendal. The Scrp- 
lopappus discoideus. 

Xi. vulg-a'ris, Cass. German golden locks. 
Hab. Middle and South Europe. Anthelmintic 
and deobstruent. 

Iiinotan'nic ac'id. (F. acide lino- 
tannique.) A variety of tannic acid found in 
the stem of flax, Linum usitatissimum. It is 
coloured green by ferric perchloride. 

Iiinox'yn. C3oH340a. The dry, trans- 

parent varnish which results from the exposure 
of linseed oil to air, especially after it has been 
heated with lead oxide. 

Iiinozos'tis. A name for the herb mer- 
curialis, or mercury. 

Iiin'seed. (Mid. E. lin; Sax. lin, flax; 
from L. linitm, flax ; seed. F. graine de lin ; G. 
Leinsamen.) The seed of the Linum usitatissi- 
mum ; also spelled lintseed. See Lini scmiua. 

Ii. cake. (G. Leinkucken.) The seeds of 
the Linum usitatissimiitn from which the oil 
has been expressed. 

Ii., inni'sion of. See Lnfusum lini. 

Ii. meal. The Lini farina. 

Ii. mu'cllag'e. Obtained as a powder 
from an infusion of linseed by adding hydro- 
chloric acid and precipitating with alcohol. On 
boiling with dilute sulphuric acid it yields a 
dextro-rotatory gum and sugar. 

Ii. oil. (G. Lein'ol.) Fixed oil expressed 
without heat from linseed. It is thick, 
yellow, with slight odour, and solidifies on ex- 
posure to air. It is employed as a soothing 
application to burns, scalds, and eczematous 
eruptions. Sometimes mingled with limewater. 
Also, as a cure for piles. The Oleum lini. 

Ii. poultice. See Cataplasma lini, 

Ii. tea. See lnfusum lini. 

Xiin'sey's mineral spring*. United 

States of America, Kentucky, Chrisiian County. A 
sulphuretted water of a temp, of 71° F. (216^ C.) 

Ziint. (Mid. E. hjnt ; from Sax. /(«, flax; 
from L. linum. flax. F. char pie ; I. filaccia ; 
S. lino; G. Wundjdden.) A soft woven stuff 
made by scraping old linen cloth, or prepared 
from a "fabric woven for the purpose, and used 
as a dressing for wounds and ulcers, either by 
itself or smeared with ointment, or wetted. 

Lint is now frequently charged with anti- 
septic substances, such as boric acid, salicylic 
acid, iodoform, and others. 

liintea'men. (L. linteamen, a linen 
cloth.) Lint ; a pledget. 

Xiint'eum. (L. linteum, a linen cloth; 
from linum, flax.) A napkin, towel, or linen 

Also, same as Lint. 
Ii. carp'tum. (L. cat plies, part, oicarpo, 
to pluck.) Same as Charpic. 

Xi. ra'sum. (L. rasus, part, of rado, to 
scrape.) Lint prepared by scraping linen cloth. 
Ii. scis'sum. (L. scissus, part, of scindo, 
to cut asunder.) A linen bandage. 

Ziint'seed. Same as Linseed. 

Xiint'zi. Greece, Peloponesus. A sulphu- 
rous saline water, having a temperature of 33^ C. 
(91-4° F.), and containing sodium chloride 1*015 
gramme, magnesium chloride 8'371, hydrogen 
sulphide, and carbonic acid gas. 

Zii'num. (L. linum, flax ; Gr. Xivov, the 
herb flax. F. lin; G. Lein, Flachs.) A Genus 
of the Nat. Order Linaceee. 

Also, the pharmacopceial name, U.S. Ph., for 
the seeds of the Linum usitatissimum. 

Ii. aniTUStifo'lium, Hudson. (L. a>i- 
gustus, narrow ; folium, a leaf.) The species 
from which Heer believes that the L. usitatissi- 
mum has been derived by cultivation. 

Ii. aquili'nuin, Mol. (L. aquilinus, per- 
taining to the eagle.) Tango. Hab._ Chili. 
Used as a febrifuge, digestive, stomachic, and 

"Xm. arven'se, Bauhin. (L. arvensis, be- 
longing to a field.) The L. usitatissimum. 


If. catbar'tlcum, Linn. (KadapTiKoi, 
purgative. F. li>i cathartiqne ; G. kleincr 
Jt'io-gerjlachs.) Purging flax, or mill mountain. 
A purgative having a disagreeably bitter taste. 
It. ctaamisso'nls, Schicd. The L. aqui- 

Ii. cru'dum. (L. crudus, raw.) Eaw 

Ii. minimum. (L. OTiwmMS, least.) The 
L. usitatinsuH'Dii. 

Ii. selagrlnoi'des, Lamb. (L. selago ; 
Gr. iloos, likeness.) A plant indigenous to Peru, 
where it is regarded as bitter and stomachic. 

It. usitatis'simum, Linn. (L. usifatus, 
usual. F. lin commun ; G. gcmciner Flachs.) 
The flax plant ; the seeds, called linseed, yield on 
expression a large quantity of oil, and by boiling 
in water a considerable proportion of a strong 
flavourless mucilage, used as a demulcent in 
coughs, hoarseness, and pleuritic symptoms ; 
also in nephritic pains and stranguries. 

Xii'nus. A spring, in Arcadia, mentioned 
by Pliny as being of use in preventing abortion. 
Ziin'WOOd spring's. United States of 
America, Florida, Putnam County. Mineral 
waters, temp. 74'5° F. (•23'6''C.), containing iron 
bicarbonate 9-6 grains, sodium sulphate .52'8, 
magnesium sulphate 67'2, sodium chloride 113'6, 
magnesium chloride 24'8, calcium chloride 42'4, 
and organic matter 14'4 grains in a gallon. 
Xii'ocome. See Leiocome. 
Iiioder'mia. (AeTo?, smooth; ^tp^ua, 
skin.) Smootlmess and glossiness of the skin. 

Ii. cum melano'sl et teleang-eiecta'- 
sia. (L. cum, with ; melanosis ; L. et, and ; 
teleangeiectasis.) Neisser's term for Xeroderma 

Im. neurit'lca. {^ivpov, a nerve.) A 
synonym of Ulossg skin. 

Iii'on. (Old F. leon, lion ; from L. leo ; 
from Gr. Xftoi/, a lion. F. lion; I. leone ; S. 
leon ; G. Lmce.) The Fclis leo. 

Ii.'s foot. (F. pied de lion; I. piede di 
leone; S. pie de leon; G. Zowenfuss.) The 
Zeon topodium alpinu m . 
Also, the Prenanthes alba. 
Also, the Achcmilla vulgaris, 
Ii. for'ceps. See Forceps, bone, Fergus- 
son's lion. 

Ii.'s leaf. The plants of the Genus Leon- 

Ii.'s mouth. The Antirrhinum majus. 
Ii.'s tail. The Leonurus cardiaca. 
Ii.'s tootli. The plants of the Genus 
Leontodon, in reference to the tooth-like edges 
of the leaves. 

Xiio'pous. See Leiopoiis. 
Ziiorrhyn'cus. (AeIo?, smooth; puyxo?, 

a snout.) A (Jenus of sexually mature nema- 
tode worms. 

Ii. graciles'cens, Eudolphi. (L. gra- 
cilesco, to become slender.) Found in the 
stomach of Thoca harbata. 

It. lepidop'odis, Eisso. Found in the 
intestine of Lepulopus argyrcus. 

Ii. trunca'tus, Nitzsch. (L. truncatus, 
shortened by being cut off.) Found in the pro- 
ventriculus of Scolopao: rusticola. 

Ii. trunca'tus, Eudolphi. (L. truncatus.) 
Found in the intestine of Mcles taxus. 

Ziiotlie'uin. (AeTo?, smooth ; Qdw, to 
run.) A Genus of the Family Mnllophaga, 
Suborder Aptera, Order lihgncota. The .species 
infest some birds, living about the nostrils and 

among the feathers; they will live for a short 
time on man, and produce much irritation. 

Ii. an'serls, Sulz. (L. anser, a goose.) 
Lives on the domestic goose. 

Ii. conspurca'tum, Nitzsch. (L. con- 
spurcatus, detiled.) Lives on geese and swans. 

Ii. pal'lidum, Nitzsch. (L. pallidus, 
pale.) Lives on domestic fowls. 

liiOt'ricllOUS. See Leiotrichous. 
Xaip. (Mid. E. lippe ; Sax. lippa ; G. 
Lippe ; allied to L. labium, a lip. F. levre ; I. 
labbro ; S. Idbio.) The borders of the mouth or 
of anything resembling it. 

In Anatomy, the fleshy, expansible, and con- 
tractile fold, composed of skin externally and 
mucous membrane internally, which forms the 
margin of the aperture of the mouth. The free 
border is intermediate in character to both skin 
and mucous membrane, being red like the latter, 
but dry like the former. It presents vascular 
papillae, with nerve-endings resembling tactile 
corpuscles, and is highly sensitive. The mucous 
membrane fornas a fold in the middle line, the 
Frcenum, and presents numerous Labial glands. 
The chief muscle is the orbicularis oris, but 
many others contribute to the expressive move- 
ments of the lips. 

Also, anything resembling the lips of the 
mouth, as the lips of the vagina and the lips of 
the mouth of the womb. 

In Botany, one of the two divisions of a bi- 
labiate corolla or calyx. Also, the third petal of 
an orchid. 

In Conchology, the edge of the aperture of a 
spiral shell. 
In Surgery, the edge of a wound. 
Ii., adeno'ma of. ('Ac);i/, a gland.) The 
form of Z., hypertrophy of, which consists of 
increase of the tubes and acini of the submucous 
glands following proliferation of the glandular 

Ii., can'cer of. (G. Lippenkrehs.) The 
most common form is epithelioma, which com- 
mences as a wart or as an indurated crack which 
ulcerates. The submaxillary lymphatic glands 
are afi'ected early. The disease is commonest 
upon the lower lip, and in men, especially in 
those who smoke clay pipes. 

It., car'buncle of. See Carbuncle, facial. 
Ii., cban'cre of. See under L., ulcer of, 

Jt., crack'ed. A fissure occurring on the 
free edge of the lip, generally resulting from 
exposure, and most common when there is some 
disturbance of the health. A fissure at the angle 
of the mouth is sometimes of syphilitic origin. 

Tm. cysts. Small and thin-walled bags 
on the free margin of the lips, containing some- 
times a viscid and sometimes a straw-coloured 
fluid. They arise from distended follicles. 

Ii.s, devel'opment of. The lips are 
of epiblastic origin ; the upper lip being formed 
in part by the fronto-nasal and maxillary plates, 
and the lower lip by the mandibular plates. 

Ii., double. "Partial hypertrophy of the 
lip, especially of the upper one, involving the 
mucous membrane chiefly and producing the 
appearance of a double lip. 

Ii., ec'zema of. See Eczema labialis. 
If., epithelioma of. See L., cancer of. 
Ii., fis'sure of. (L. fssura, a cleft. G. 
Lippenspalt.) Same as Harelip. 
Also, the same as L., cracked. 
Ii., hare. See Harelip, 


Ji., ber'pes of. See Herpes lahialis. 

Xi., hyper'trophy of. ('IVtp, above; 
Tpofpi), nourishment.) An abnormul prominence 
and thickening of the lip leading to eversion of 
the mucous surface and occasionally ulceration. 
Hypertrophy of both upper and lower lips may 
occur in adults, as well as in children, from 
syphilitic contamination. 

The condition also arises from excessive de- 
velopment of glandular epithelium under a 
healthy mucous membrane. See £., adenoma of. 

3b., Itnper'fect development of tbe. 
See Atelochtilia. 

1m., xnalforma'tions of, cong^en'ital. 
(L. congenitus,horn together with.) Contraction 
or even complete obliteration of the orifice of 
the mouth, and the opposite condition, extreme 
extension of the angles of the mouth outwards, 

Ii., nae'vus of. See Navus of lip. 

Zi.-rea'ding:. The faculty possessed by 
some deaf and dumb persons of recognising by the 
movements of the lips of a speaker the words he 
is saying. It may be obtained by instruction, 
and is now much and successfully cultivated. 

Xi. salve. The Ceratum rosatum. 

£.,stru'iuous. {Struma.) The Z., hyper- 
trophy of, which occurs in strumous children, 

Ii., teleangelec'tasis of. {Teleangeiec- 
tasis.) Same as £., ncevus of. 

Im., ul'cer of, scrorulous. A fissure in 
a thickened lip of a strumous child. 

Ii., ul'cer of, slm'ple. Small sharply- 
cut ulcers of the mucous membrane of the lip, of 
follicular origin. 

Ii., Ul'cer of, syphilit'ic. This may 
be the primary hard chancre obtained by direct 
infection ; or a mucous tubercle and secondary 
fissure ; or a tertiary ulceration, generally of the 
upper lip, on its cutaneous surface. 

"Xm., \(rarts of. The epithelium of the lips 
may form horn-like projections; they have a 
tendency to become malignant. 

Ziip'ai {Al-ira, unctuously. F. graisse ; 
G. Fett.) Term for fat. 

Ziip8B'xuia.« (AiTTos, fat; aljua, blood.) A 
condition of the blood in which the plasma is 
turbid like milk, owing to the presence of a large 
number of finely divided fat globules. This 
condition occurs normally after every meal rich 
in fat. Pathologically, it occurs in drunkards, 
in corpulent individuals, in diseases accompanied 
with great destruction of the albuminous tissues, 
and in some cases of diabetes mellitus ; fat 
occurs in the liquor sanguinis, also in some cases 
of fracture of the bones with much injury to 
structure of the medulla. 

Ziip'a.ra. (Aiirapo?, oily.) Plasters con- 
taining much fatty matter. 

Xii'parii Italy, an island north of Sicily. 
It possesses several hot springs of a temperature 
of 53° C. (127-i' F.) and higher. Their con- 
stituents are little known, but some are said to 
contain arsenic. They were used by the ancient 
Romans. The waters and vapour baths are 
employed in rheumatism, paralysis, and chronic 
skin diseases. 

Xiipar'ia. (Ai-Tra/o/a, fatness. F.liparie; 
G. Fettigkeit, Klehrigheit.) Term for fatness, 
or obesity. 

Ziip'aris. (Ai-n-apo's, oily.) A Genus of 
the Tribe Bombijcina, Order Lepidoptera. 

X. aurlf 'lua, Ochsenheimer. (L. aurum, 
gold ; Jiuo, to flow.) The yellow-tail moth. 

Hab. Europe. The larva is very irritating to 
the skin, the fusiform, sharp hairs with which 
it is covered easily penetrating the epidermis 
and producing redness and a painful itching. 

Ii. chrysorrhoe'a, Linn. (Xpuo-o's, gold ; 
poia, a flow.) The brown-tail moth. Hab. 
Europe. Hairs of larva very irritating. Ac- 
cording to Von Nordmann the hairs have at their 
base a small bladder which contains an irritant 
fluid, possibly formic acid. 

Iiiparis'tOS. (Anra/oos, fatty ; Io-to's, a 
web. F. tism adipeux ; G. Fetthaut.) Term 
for the adipose tissue of the body. 

Xiiparis'tus. Same as Lipariatos. 

Xiip'arocele. {Anrapoi, fatty; KijX'i, a 
tumour. F. Jiparoccle ; G. Fetthruch'.) A hernia 
containing adipose tissue, or a fatty omentum. 

Also, a cyst with sebaceous contents. 

Xiiparbce'lic. Of, or belonging to, Li- 

Iiiparodyspnoe'a. (AiTropos ; cicr- 

TTvoiu, difficulty of breathing.) Difficulty of 
breathing or shortness of breath from obesity. 

Xiip'aroidi {Anrapo's ; tloos, likeness.) 
Like to fat. 

Iiiparoii'dea. (AiTrapJs ; uSo^. F. 

liparoide.) A term, by Beral, for a pharmaceu- 
tical excipient consisting of two or more fatty 
matters in intimate union. 

Iiiparo'lea. (AiTropo's; L. oleum, oil. 
F. laparoles.) Henri and Guibourt's term for 
pharmaceutical preparations made by uniting 
medicinal substances with solid fatty matter. 

Iiiparoxn'plialus. Same as Lipom- 

Iii^aroscir'rhus. {\nrap6i, oily ; 

oKippo-i, hard.) An indurated Liparocele. 

Ziipar'otes. {\nrctp6ri\^, fattiness.) 
Excessive fatness. 

Ziiparotrich'ia. {A.nrapo's, oily ; dpi^, 

hair.) An excessive greasiness of the hair. 

Iiip'arous. {Ai.Trap6^.) Fatty. 

Ziipas'ma. (AiVacr/ia, fatness. G. Fet- 
tigkeit.) Excessive fatness. 

Also, a substance for fattening. 

Also, a substance for inunction. 

Xiipeina'nia. A misspelling of Lype- 

Zii'petzk. Russia, in the Government of 
Tambov. Three strong athermal chalybeate 
springs ; one, Pierre le Grand, contains potas- 
sium chloride ■0539 gramme, sodium chloride 
•0826, potassium sulphate '0271, magnesium bi- 
carbonate •0591, calcium bicarbonate -7697, 
ferrous bicarbonate '0502, and silicic acid •0108 
gramme in 1000. The other two contain 'SIGS 
gramme and "245 gramme of ferrous bicarbonate 
in 1000 respectively. They are easy of digestion. 

Ziipeii'mS. (AEtVo), to be wanting; ovpd, 
the tail.) A Genus of the Family Mallophaga, 
Suborder Aptera, Order Hemiptera. Ectopara- 
sites of birds. 

Ii. bacll'lus, Denny. (L. bacillum, a 
small staff.) Lives on pigeons. 

Jm. beterog'raphus, Denny. ("Ex£po9, 
other ; ypatpoi, a drawing.) Lives on domestic 

Ii. jeju'nus, Denny. (Jj.j'ejumis, empty.) 
Lives on geese. 

Ii. polytrape'zius, Denny. (rioXo's, 
many; TpaTriX.i.ov, an irregular four-sided 
figure.) Lives on turkevs. 

Ii. squal'ldus, N'itzsch. (L. squalidus, 
dirty.) Lives on ducks. 


li, varia'bllls, Nitzsch. (L. variabilis, 
changeable.) Lives on domestic fowls and on 
the partridge. 

Ziiphae'iniai See Leiphcemia and Li- 


Ziip'iC ac'id. (F. acide Kpique.) C5He04. 
Laurent's term for a crystallisable acid formed 
by the action of nitric acid upon oleic acid. It 
volatilises without decomposition, is scarcely 
soluble in water, but readily in alcohol and 

Ziip'ik. Hungary, near Daruvar. Alka- 
line thermal waters containing iodine ; there are 
eight sources, the water of which is very similar 
in composition, but the temperature varies from 
31° C. to 6-i'' C. (87-8" F. to 147-2° F.) The 
Allgemeinbadquelle, with a temperature of 45° C. 
(113° F.), contains sodium iodide '0041 gramme, 
sodium chloride -6090, potassium sulphate '1908, 
sodium sulphate 'ISSQ, sodium bicarbonate l"779o, 
magnesium bicarbonate •0795, calcium bicar- 
bonate "1879, ferrous bicarbonate '0080, and 
silicic acid "0505, in a gramme, with carbonic 
acid and nitrogen. They are used both for baths 
and drinking in scrofula, rheumatism, liver and 
kidney diseases and calculi, splenic enlarge- 
ments and syphilitic cachexia. 

Xiipobracll'ia. {Ad-ww, to be wanting; 
(ipaxitov, the arm.) A term given by Lankester 
to a group of Echiuodermata, containing the 
Echinoidea, or sea urchins, and the Holothuroidea, 
or sea cucumbers. 

Ziipobrancliia'tai (AttVa); (ipdyxia, 

the gills.) A group of Arachnida having no 
respiratory lamellae. It includes Acarina, Pedi- 
palpi, and Pycnogonida. 

Ziipocar'diac. (Aittos, fat; Kapcia, the 
heart.) Kelating to a fatty heart. 

It. asthma. ("Ao-fi/ua, short-drawn 
breath. I. asma Upocardiaco.) Cantani's term 
for a form of asthma depending on fatty degene- 
ration of the heart-muscle, and generally occur- 
ring while resting after muscular fatigue or 
mental emotion. The attack commences gra- 
dually, the breathing becoming slowly quicker 
and shorter, until there is severe and sometimes 
stertorous dyspnoea; after a while, in a few 
minutes perhaps, the breathing becomes natural. 
It is caused by inability of the weak heai-t-mus- 
culature to entirely empty the ventricles and 
the consequent non-oxygenation of a sufficient 
quantitj- of blood. 

Xiip'ocele. (AiVos, fat.) Same as Li- 

Ziip|OCepll'ala. (AftVoi, to be wanting; 
Kt<l>a\>'i, the head.) A Division of the MoUusca, 
according to Eay Lankester, in which the region 
of the head is reduced or lost ; it contains only 
the Group LamdUhranchiata . 

ZiipO'chrin. (Ai'tfo?, fat ; Jix/^os, sallow.) 
A yellow colouring substance obtained by treating 
the eyes of frogs with ether after removing the 
retinae. It bleaches in the sunlight, and gives 
two absorption bands between F and G. 

Xiip'ochroxnes. (AtVo?, fat; xpwfxa, 
colour.) Krukeuberg's term for those animal 
pigments which are soluble in certain fat sol- 
vents, and which give absorption bands in blue 
and violet. They are Luteins. 

The term has also been applied to similar sub- 
stances obtained from plants. 

liip'OCZ. Hungary, County Epiries. 
Earthy bicarbonated mineral waters from three 
sources ; the Salvator 1, or Marienquelle, contains 

sodium iodide •0125 gramme, lithium chloride 
•1368, sodium sulphate "136, lithium bicarbonate 
'4245, magnesium bicarbonate •7797, calcium bi- 
carbonate 1'4S32, sodium borate •3284, and 
silicic acid •0361, in a gramme. They are chiefly 
used in scrofulous diseases. 
Xiipoder'mos. See Leipodermos. 
Ziipofibro'zna. Same as Lipoma, fibrous. 
XiipOg'enoUS. (AiVo?, fat; 7Et/i/ua), to 
beget.) Kelating to, or depending on, the for- 
mation of fat. 

Ziip'o'id. (AiVos ; sloos, likeness. F. 
iipuide.) Resembling fat. 

Xilp'oids. (AiTTos; eIoos. F. lipoides.) 
A term for cholesterin, glycerin, and similar 

Ziipo'ina. (AiVos. F. Upome ; I. lipoma ; 
S. lipuma ; G. Fcttgeschivulst.') Littre's term 
for a fatty tumour. It is a mass of soft yellow 
fat, generally enclosed in a more or less thin 
fibrous capsule, which sends fine septa, or trabe- 
cule, into the interior of the tumour dividing 
it into lobes, and is more firmly connected with 
the surrounding structures. Some lipomas are 
not encapsuled. They generally originate in 
connection with fat, as in the subcutaneous 
connective tissue, the tissue surrounding the 
mammary gland and the synovial fringes; or 
they may arise in the submucous and subserous 
and other tissues ; and occasionally they are 
pedunculated. They undergo calcareous and 
other degenerations, and may become gangrenous 
from strangulation of the pedicle. The fat-cells 
of a lipoma are larger and better supplied with 
blood-vessels than those of natural adipose 
tissue ; intermingled with them are patches 
consisting of embryonic cells ; the fat-cells some- 
times contain fat crystals. 

Jm. arbores'cens artlculo'rum. (L. 
arborescens, part, of arboresco, to grow to a tree ; 
articulus, a joint.) A name applied by Volk- 
mann to the pendulous fatty processes of syno- 
vial membrane that are clustered about chronic 
diseased joints. 

Ii. capsula're. (L. capsida, a small case.) 
Virchow's term for a fatty tumour arising from 
the capsule of the mammary gland, which often 
forms a very large mass, and by compression 
produces shrivelling of the gland-tissue. 

Jm. capsula're cor'dis. (L. capsula; 
cor, the heart.) Virchow's term for hyperplasia 
of the fatty tissue of the heart. 

Xi., cav'ernous. The same as L. telean- 

Ii. colloi'des. (A/ttos, fat; Ko'Wa, glue; 
ficos, likeness.) A name given by Gluge to a 
fatty tumour which has undergone a particular 
form of degeneration. 

Ii., cys'tic. (Kuo-Tts, a bladder.) A fatty 
tumour containing cysts. 

Ii., diffuse'. A fatty tumour without a 
capsule. It is an irregular mass of fatty tissue 
without definite outline, and occurs in the upper 
dorsal region and below the jaws, generally in 
great drinkers. 

Ii. du'rum. (L. durus, hard.) MiiUer's 
term for a fatty tumour in which the fibrous 
stroma is in excess. 

X., erec'tile. The same as L. telean- 

Ii., fi'brous. (L. Tfira, a fibre.) A fatty 
tumour in which the fibrous tissue is greatly in 
excess, the trabeculfe being large and numerous. 

Ii., taer'nial. (L. hernia, a rupture. F. 


lipome hern'iaire.) A deposit of fat in the struc- 
tures immediately lying over a hernial sac. 

Zi. mix' turn. (AiTTo?, fat; L. mixtiis, 
mingled.) A term applied by Miiller to those 
lipomata in which the capsule is so thick and 
strong that the tumour has almost the characters 
of a tibrous growth. 

Jm. myzomato'des. See Myxolipoma. 

Zm., nse'void. {Ncevus ; Gr. sISos, like- 
ness.) Same as L. teleangeiectodes. 

Jm,, na'sal. (L. nmalis, belonging to the 
nose.) A name erroneously given to the irregular 
lobulated masses caused by an hypertrophic 
condition of the cellular tissue and sebaceous 
follicles of the nose. It occurs in broken-down 
constitutions after tifty years of age. 

Ii. of brain, A rare disease, most likely 
to occur in the raphe of the corpus callosum and 
fornix, because fat is most commonly present in 
these parts. 

Ii. of Fallo'plan tube. A fatty tumour, 
usually of small size, growing between the folds 
of the broad ligament at the lower surface of the 

Ii. Of heart. An extremely rare disease, 
consisting of a fatty tumour embedded in the 
muscular tissue of the heart. 

Zm. of Intes'tlne. A growth of fat origi- 
nating in the submucous tissue of the intestines, 
sometimes projecting like a polypus into the 
lumen of the intestine. 

It. of kid'ney. This affection is most 
common in the subcapsular tissue, but occa- 
sionally occurs in the peripheral region of the 
kidney, or in the paranephritic tissue, sometimes 
preceding and sometimes consecutive to contrac- 
tion of the organ. In rare instances a lipoma 
has been found in the pelvis of the kidney. 

Xi. of la'rynx. An extremely rare disease, 
consisting of a fatty tumour, probably arising in 
the submucous connective tissue. 

Jm, of lungrs. Small fatty tumours, about 
the size of a lentil or of a pea, situated beneath 
the pleura. They are of rare occurrence. 

Ii. Of mani'mary grland. True fatty 
tumours, as distinguished from fatty infiltration, 
occasionally found in connection with the female 
breast. It is very doubtful if true lipoma ever 
occurs in the mammary gland itself, it arises 
from the surrounding areolar tissue. 

Ii. of nose. See L., nasal. 

Jm. of oesoph'ag:us. A fatty tumour ori- 
ginating in the submucous cellular tissue of the 
ossophasius, and projecting into the lumen of the 
tube. It rarely or never interferes with deglu- 

Ii. of pal'ate. A disease of rare occur- 
rence. One has been described by Lambl of the 
size of a pear springing from the posterior sur- 
face of the palate. 

Ii. of peritone'um. Fatty growths ori- 
ginating in the subperitoneal connective tissue, 
and sometimes becoming detached and lying free 
in the peritoneal cavity. 

Ii. of spinal mem'branes. A not un- 
common afi'ection, consisting of a growth of fat 
in the vertebral canal, and either caused by pro- 
liferation of the periraeningeal fatty tissue "when 
it is situated outside the dura mater, or arising 
from the arachnoid and pia mater when it is 
situated within the dura mater. 

Ii. of tongrue. An intermuscular fatty 
tumour of the tongue, usually insensitive and 
developing slowly. 

Ii. of vul'va. A fatty tumour of this 
region, sometimes attaining an enormous size. 

Ii., os'seous. (L. osseus, bony.) A fatty 
tumour in which the tibrous trabeculoe have be- 
come ossilied. 

Jt., pen'dulous. (L. pendulus, hanging.) 
A fatty tumour which has a pedicle. 

Ii., sim'ple. A fatty tumour exhibiting 
the ordinary characteristics of the tumour. 

Ii. teleangrelecto'des. {Telcangeiee- 
tasis ; Gr. tloos, likeness.) A fatty tumour 
containing a very large number of dilated 
vessels, as in some of the pendulous lipomata of 
the mucous and serous membranes. 

Jm. tubero'sum. (L. tuber, a lump. G. 
tuberoses Lipom.) Virchow's term for a fatty 
tumour which consists of lobes, each subdivided 
into finer lobules. 

Iiipo'mato'id. {Lipoma; Gr, eIoos, like- 
ness.) Kesemblmg a Lipioma. 
Also, containing fat. 

Iiipomato'sis. (AtVo?, fat. G. Fett- 
loucheruny .) An increase in the fat of a tissue. 
It is the result either of a new formation of 
fat, or of the fatty degeneration of pre-existing 

Ii. musculo'rum. (L. musculus, a 
muscle.) A synonym of Fseudo-hypertrophic 

Ii. musculo'rum luxu'rlans prog^res- 
si'va. (L. muscuhis ; luxurio, to be rank ; j»)-o- 
gressus, a going forwards.) Heller's term for 
Fseudo-hypertrophic paralysis. 

Ii. of Heart. (G. Fettherz.) Fatty en- 
largement of the heart, chiefly due to a deposit 
of fat in the subpericardial connective tissue. 
In extreme cases the endocardium may also con- 
tain fat. 

Ii. of pan'creas. In one form of this 
disease the connective tissue between the acini 
or surrounding the gland is converted into fat ; 
in the other there is fatty degeneration with de- 
struction of the gland cells. 

Ii. universalis. (L. universalis, be- 
longing to all. G. Fettsucht.) Corpulence or 

Xiipo'matOUS. {Lipoma. F. lipoma- 
teux.) Of the nature or appearance of Lipoma. 

Ii. mus'cular atrophy. A synonym of 
Fseudo - hypertrophic paralysis. 

Jm, myxo'ma. See Myxoma, lipomatoxis. 

Ii. sarco'ma. See Sarcoma, lipomatous. 
Iiipomer'ia. (AeiVw, to be deficient ; 
/lupos, a part.) Defect of a part of the body 
from arrest of development. 

Ziipom'phalus. (AtVos, fat; o^(^aXos, 
thenavel. G. Fettnabel.) Afatty swelling of the 
navel ; an omental umbilical hernia loaded with 
Iiipoxnyxo'ina. See Myxolipoma. 
Iiipopsy'chia. See Leipopsychia. 
Iiipopte'na, Nitsch. Same as Lepto- 

Iiiporre'tinol. (Ai'ttos, fat; pnTivn, 

resin of the pine ; L. oleum, oil.) A Liparol 
containing resin. 

ZlipOSar'COUS. {knrocrapKov, from 

XiTToaapKicij, to lose flesh.) Thiu ; with little 

Iiipo'siS. (AtVos, fat.) Excessive fat- 

Xtiposphyx'ia. (AtiTrut, to be wanting ; 
(T(f>v^Li, pulsation.) Fainting. 

Ziipothy'mia. See Leipothymia. 


Zilp'pai (L. lippus, smeared over.) The 
gum of the eyes. 
Xiip'pa. Servia. A cold chalybeate water, 
Xilp'ped. Having a Lip. 
In Botany (F. labie ; G. Uppenformig), applied 
to the corolla when its parts are so united that 
the limb is divided into two portions, placed 
superiorly and inferiorly, the upper portion over- 
hanging the lower. Each portion is so arranged 
that the whole resembles in some degree the Ups 
and mouth fif an animal. Same as Labiate 

Iiip'piai (August Lippi, a French physi- 
cian and botanist, murdered in Abyssinia in 
1703.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Vvrbenacece. 

Xi. calllcarpsefo'lia, H. B. K. {Calli- 
carpa ; L. folium, a leaf.) Hab. Mexico. A 

Xi. cltrlodo'ra, Kunth. (L. citrus, the 
lemon; odorus, sweet-smelling. F. verveine 
citronnelle ; G. Citronenkraut, Pimschkraut.) 
The Verbena triplnjlla of Linna;us. The Aloxjsia 

Ii. dul'cls, Trev. (L. ditlcis, sweet.) The 
species of which L. mexicana is a variety. 

Ii. grav'eolens, H. B. K. (L. graveolens, 
heavy-smelling.) Hab. Mexico. Used as an 
emmenagogue and an expectorant. 

Jm. med'lca, Fens. (L. medicus, medical.) 
Hab. Central America. Used in infusion as a 
stimulant digestive. 

Ii. mexlca'na. An evergreen creeping 
shrub growing in Mexico. The leaves and 
flowers are employed to form a tincture. It is a 
respiratory sedative in cough. It is a variety of 
L, dulcis. 

Tt. nodlflo'ra, Rich. (L. Morf?«, a knot ; 
Jks, a flower.) Used in infusion in the catarrhal 
affections and the indigestions of children. 

Ji. pseu'do-the'a. {^tv&M, false; Mod. 
L. thea, tea.) Hab. Brazil. Used in infusion 
as a stimulant. 

Iiip'piol. The volatile, camphor-like oil 
ot Lippia mexicana. It produces flushing, dia- 
phoresis, and drowsiness. 

Xiippitu'do. (L. lippitudo, blear-eyed- 
ness; from lippus, smeared over. F. Uppitude ; 
I. lippitudine ; S. lipitudo ; G. Augentriefen.) 
A sore condition of the edges of the eyelids with 
copious muco-purulent secretion from the Mei- 
bomian glands and the conjunctiva; also called 
Tinea ciliaris. 

Some would restrict the term to those cases in 
which the puncta having become obliterated the 
tears run over the cheeks. 

Ii. annularis. (L. angulus, an angle.) 
The form in which the angles of the eyelids are 
chiefly affected. 

Ii. neonato'rum. (Ntos,new ; L. natus, 
born.) The conjunclivitisof new-born children. 

Ii. pruriglno'sa. (L. prurigo, an itch- 
ing.) The form whirh is accompanied with 
much itching and tingling. 

Xiipp'spring'e. Germany, in Westphalia, 
at the foot of the Teutoburger Wald, 378 feet 
above the sea. The Arminiusquelle water, with 
a temperature of 21^ C. (69-8° F.), contains 
sulphates and carbonates of lime, soda and 
magnesia, a little iron and a trace of iodides, 
with carbonic acid, nitrogen, and oxvgen. The 
Inselquclle is weaker. They are used in chronic 
affections of the respiratory mucous membrane, 
and in the early stages of phthisis, as drinking 
water and in inhalation. There is a whey-cure 

Xilp'pus. (L. lippus, smeared over.) .\ 
blear-eyed person. 

Iiip'sis. (AttVo), to leave.) A departure. 
Ii. an'iml. (L. animus, the mind.) Faint- 

Iiipsotrych'ia. (Ae/tto), to leave; dpi^, 

hair.) Falling off of the hair. 

Xiipu'ria. (Ai'ttos, fat ; o5p ok, urine.) The 
presence of oily matter in the urine, which on 
cooling floats on the surface in globules or small 
masses. It has been observed in diseases of the 

Xiip'yl. (AiTTos, fat.) An hypothetical 
radical with the formula C3H4, Berzelius, C3H2, 
Lehmann. It is supposed to exist in the natural 
fats and fatty acids. 

Ii., by'drated oxide of. The same as 

Xilpyr'ia. See Leipyrias. 

Ziipyr'iaiii Relating to Lij^yria. 
Ii. fe'ver. Same as Leipyrias. 

Ziiq'uable. Same as Liquefiable. 

Iiiqua'men. (L. liquamen, from liquo, 
to make liquid. G. Fliissigkeit.) A fluid for 
administering medicine. 

Also, a sauce made of fish-fat. 
Ii. tar'tarl. An old name for a solution 
of carbonate of potash. 

Iilquamu'inia. (L. liquco, to be fluid; 
mumia.) Human fat. 

Xiiqua'rium. (L. Uquarius, pertaining 
to liquids.) Simple syrup of sugar. 

Xiiq'uate. (L. liquo, to make liquid.) To 
liquefy; to melt. 

Used to denote the method of separating solid 
substances which have different fusing tempera- 
tures, and consisting in applving just such an 
amount of heat as ^^'ill render liquid the one most 
easily fusible. 

Xiiqua'tion. (L. liquatio, a melting; 
from liquo, to make liquid. G. Flilssigmachen.) 
A dissolving; a making fluid. 

The operation described under Liquate. 

Iiiquefa'cient. (L. Hquefacio; from 
liqueo, to make liquid ; /«cio, to make.) Making 

In Therapeutics, applied to medicines which 
are supposed to possess the power of melting 
down solid deposits, such as mercury and iodine. 

Also, applied to those agents which increase 
the amount of fluid secretions. 

Iiiquefac'tion. (L. Uquefactus, part, of 
liqwfacio, to make liquid. F. liquefaction ; I. 
liquefazione ; S. licuacion ; G. Flilssigmachen, 
VerJUissigung, Schmelzung .) The making liquid ; 
the conversion or passage of a soUd or of a gas 
into a liquid state. 

Ii. of gas. See Gas, Uquefaciion of, 

Xiiquefac'tive (L. Uquefacio.) Slaking 

Ii. degeneration. See Degeneration, 

Iiiquefi'able. (L. Kquidus, fluid; fio, to 
become. Y. liqwjiable ; I. Uquefuttibilc ; G. 
verflKssigbar.') Capable of being made liquid. 

Xiiquefi'ant. (L. liquidus; Jio. F. Ix- 
qui'fuint.) Making liquid. 

liiq'uefiedi (L. liquidus; fo.) Made 

Ii. carbol'lc ae'ld. Carbolic acid lique- 
fied by the addition of 10 per cent, of water. 
The Acidum carbolicum liquefactum, B. Ph. 

Xilques'cent. (L. Uquescens, part, of li- 
52<«w,to become fluid.) Melting; becoming fluid. 


Zilqueur'. (F. liqueur, a cordial; from 
L. liquor, a fluid. I. liquore ; S. licor ; G. 
Lik'or.) An alcoholic solution of sugar flavoured 
with orange-peel, aniseed, absinth, peppermint, 
ginger, or other vegetable substance. Liqueurs 
contain from 30 to 50 per cent, of alcohol, and 
in some instances as much as 47 per cent, of sugar. 
Xiiq'uid. (F. liquide, from L. liquidus, 
moist ; from liqueo, to be fluid. I. liquido ; S. 
liguido ; G.Jliissip.) Fluid. 

Also (F. liquide; I. liquido; S. licor; G. 
Fliissigkeif), a body the molecules of which 
move freely over one another, but which is 
almost incompressible and not very expan- 
sible. "Water, for example, only diminishes 1-51 
millionth of its volume for each atmosphere. 
When cooled liquids freeze or become solid, 
•when heated they assume in general the gaseous 
form. The free surface of a liquid is usually 
flat, but under certain conditions, as when water 
is thrown on a red-hot shovel, it assumes a 
spheroidal form. 

Ii.s, absorp'tion of. See under Absorp- 
tion, and Osmosis. 

Jt.s, absorp'tion of gas'es by. See 
under Absorption. 

It., allan'to'ic. (F. liquide allantoide ; G. 
Allantois-Fliissigkeit.) The fluid contained in 
the AUantois ; it exists only at an early period 
and in small quantity in man, because the 
allantois has little functional activity in man, 
but is more abundant in animals. In the cow 
and other mammals it is colourless at first, but 
afterwards becomes yellow or reddish. It is 
clear in the cow and sheep ; turbid in the pig. 
It is usually alkaline. It contains in the cow 
allantoin, albumins, fermentable sugar, and some 
of the salts of the urine, but no benzoic or hip- 
puric acid. Urea has been found in the allantoic 
fluid of women. 

Ii., amniof Ic. See Liquor amiiii. 

Ii., blis'tering. The Liquor episjmsticus. 

Ii.s, buoy'ancy of. See Buoyancy of 

Ii., ceph'alo-rachid'ian, (K£(|>a\t;, 
the head ; /oax'^i the spine. F. liquide cephalo- 
rachidienne.) The Cerebrospinal fluid, 

Ii.s, compresslbil'lty of. (L. compres- 
sus, a pressing together.) Liquids were for long 
regarded as quite incompressible, but the occur- 
rence of some amount of compressibility has been 
proved by the Piezometer . 

Ii.s, diamagr'netlsm of. (Ata, through; 
fiayvriTii, a magnet.) The force which compels 
thin glass tubes filled with certain liquids, when 
suspended between the poles of a magnet, to 
arrange themselves equatorially, or at right 
angles to the line joining the poles. Such 
liquids are water, blood, milk, alcohol, ether, oil 
of turpentine, and most saline solutions. 

Ii.s, dlffu'slon of. See Diffusion of 

Ii.s, equillb'rium of. ^ee Equilibrium 
of liquids. 

Im.s, expan'sion of. See Expansion, 
absolute, and E., apparent. 

Ii. ex'tract. See Extract, liquid. 

Ii.s, fix'ed. Those which do not give oflT 
vapours at any temperature without undergoing 
chemical change. 

Ii. griass. See Glass, soluble. 

]LiS, heat-conductlv'ity of. (L. con- 
duco, to lead together.) The power of a liquid 
to transmit heat through its substance. It is 

very small, and, according to Weber, is pro- 
portional to the specific heat of unit volume. 

Ii.s, refrac'tive in'dex of. Sec Refrac- 
tive index. 

Ii.s, sptaeroid'al state of. {'2(paXpa, 
a ball ; sloos, form.) The globular form which 
a drop of liquid assumes when placed on a solid 
surface if the force of cohesion between its par- 
ticles overcomes the force of adhesion between 
them and the solid surface. 

Also, the term applied by Boutigny to the 
condition of a liquid in Leidenfrost' s phenomenon. 

It. sto'rax. See Storax, liquid. 
Also, an incorrect name for the resin Liquid- 

Ii.s, vol'atile. (L. volatilis, flying.) 
Those which give o9' vapours or pass into the 
aeriform state. 

Iiiquidam'bar. (L. liquidus, fluid; 

amber. G. Ambarbaum.) A Genus of the Nat. 
Order ITamamelidacece. 

Also, sweet gum or gum wax, a balsamic exu- 
dation from L. styraciflua. It is a thick, syrup)', 
yellowish liquid, becoming thicker and darker 
by keeping, and finally solid. It has a pleasant 
balsamic odour and somewhat pungent taste. 
It contains a substance like styrol, styracin, and 
cinnamic acid. Made into a syrup it is used in 
chronic catarrh of the respiratory and urinary 
mucous membranes. 

Ii. altin'g:la, Linn. The L. altifigiana. 

Ii. altingrla'na, Blume. Hab. Indian 
Archipelago, Burmah, and Assam. It yields a 
resin which is fragrant, and either pellucid and 
light yellow, or thick, dark and opaque. 

Ii., Amer'lcan. The L. styraciflua. 

Ii. asplenifo'lium, Linn. The Comp- 
tonia asplenifolia . 

Ii. formosa'na, Hance. A tree indi- 
genous to Formosa and Southern China. It 
yields a dry, terebinthinous, and fragrant resin. 

Ii. imber'be, Alton. (L. imberbis, with- 
out a beard.) The same as L. orientale. 

Ii., orien'tal. The L. orientale. 

Ii. orlenta'Ie, Miller. (L. orientalis, 
eastern.) The storax tree. Hab. Asia Minor. 
Bark yields Styrax. 

Ii. styraciflua, Linnreus. (L. styrax, 
storax; fluo, to flow.) The sweet gum tree. 
Hab. North America. Yields, from incisions 
made in the bark, sweet gum, called also Liqtdd- 
Iiiquidam'bars. The plants of the 

Nat. Order Altinr/iacece. 

Iiiquidaxn'ber. Same as Liguidambar. 

Xiiquid'ity. (L. liqtiiditas ; from liqui- 
dus, tiuid. F. liquidite ; I. liquidita ; S. 
liquidez ; G. Fliissigsein.) The condition of 
being liquid. 

Xiiq'uidum ner'veum. (L. liquidus; 
nervus, a nerve.) The hypothetical nervous 

Iiiq'uiforin. (L. liquidus ; forma, shape.) 
Having the appearance of a fluid. 

Ii. melano'sls. (MEXai/oio-is, a becoming 
black.) A name given by Dr. Carswell to the 
product of the disintegration of melanotic tu- 
mours which are sometimes found in serous 
cavities, especially in ovarian cysts. 

Ziiquirit'ia. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

Also, the same as Liquorice. 

Ii. officinalis, Monch. (L. offcina, a 
workshop.) The Olycyrrhiza glabra. 


Xilq'uori (Mid. E. licour, licur ; from Old 

F. liqueur; from L. liquor, fluidness. F. 
liqueur ; I. liquore ; S. licor; G. Fliisiigkeit.) 
Anything liquid. 

Ii., anodyne, Hoff'mann's. The 
Spiritus (ethcris compositus. 

Ii., gren'ital. (L. genitalis, pertaining to 
birth.) riie scmi-n. 

Ii. of Cadet. A synonym of Alkarsin. 

Ii. Of flints. See Liquor silicum. 

Ii. of Scarpa. The Endolymph of the 
internal ear. 

Ii. of sur'faces. The fluid excreted from 
all mucous and serous surfaces. 

Ii., prop'agratory. The semen. 
Iii'quor. (L. liquor, a fluid ; from liqueo, 
to be fluid. F. liqueur ; I. licore ; S. Hear ; G. 
Likor.) A liquid. 

In Pharmacy, a solution of a medicinal sub- 
stance in water or alcohol. 

Ii. ac'ldl arsenlo'sl, U.S. Ph. Arsenious 
acid 1 part, hydrochloric acid 2, water 100 parts. 
Dose, 2 — 8 minims. 

Ii. ac'ldi ebro'micl, B. Ph. Chromic 
acid one part dissolved in distilled water three 
parts. Used as a caustic. 

Ii. ac'idus Halle'ri. The Elixir acidum 

Ii. allan'to'is. (F. liquide de V allantoide ; 

G. Wursthautwasser .) The Allantoic Jluid. 
Ii. alumin'll ace'tici, G. Ph. (F. solute 

d' acetate d'alumine; G. geloste essigsaure 
Thonerde.) Aluminium sulphate 300 parts is 
dissolved in water 800 parts, and acetic acid 
360 parts added ; calcium carbonate 130 parts is 
triturated with water 200 parts, and mixed 
gradually with the other solution ; after standing 
twenty-four hours the precipitate is strained ofl', 
and the liquid filtered for use as an astringent. 

Ii. ammonise, B. Ph. (F. ammoniaque 
liquide; G. Ammoniak-Flussigkeit.) Strong 
solution of ammonia 20 ounces, water 40 ounces. 

Ii. ammo'niee for'tior, B. Ph. (L. 
fortior, stronger.) Ammonia gas dissolved in 
water, and constituting 32*o per cent, of the 

Ii. ammo'nii aceta'tls, B. Ph. (F. ace- 
tate d' ammoniaque liquule ; G. essigsaure Am- 
moniakjliissigkeit.) One part of liquor ammonias 
acetatis foi'tior mixed with five parts of water. 
Used as a diaphoretic in catarrhal fevers and 
Bore-throat, in muscular rheumatism, and in mi- 
graine, and for the relief of dysmenorrhoea and 
menorrhagia. Dose, 2 — 12 fluid drachms (7 — lo 

The U.S. Ph. orders a sufficient quantity of 
ammonium carbonate to be added to diluted 
acetic acid until it is neutralised, and to be 
freshly made when used. 

It. ammo'nii aceta'tls for'tior, £. Ph. 
(L. fortior, stronger.) Carbonate of ammonia 
lo'o ounces added to acetic acid 45 fluid ounces, 
then more acid till the liquid is neutral ; and 
lastly sufficient distilled water to make three 
pints. Dose, 25— 7o minims. 

Ii. ammo nil ace'tici, G. Ph. Ten parts 
of liquor ammonii eaustici are mixed with 12 
parts of dilute acetic acid, boiled, when cooled 
rendered neutral, and distilled water added so as 
to give a sp. gr. of 1032-1034. 

Ii. ammo'nii anisa'tus, G. Ph. (G. 
anisolhaltigcr Salmiukgeist, anisiilhaltige Am- 
moniakjlussigkeit.) Oil of aniseed one part dis- 
solved in alcohol 24 parts, and 5 parts of liquor 

ammonii eaustici added. Used as a stimulant in 
doses of 5—15 drops, and as a liniment, 3 parts 
to 50 of spirit of lavender, in the hiccough of 

Ii. ammo'nii caus'tlci, G. Ph. (G. 
Atzammoniakjiussigkcit, Salmiakgeist.) A 
watery solution containing 10 per cent, of am- 
monia gas, and having a sp. gr. of '96. 

Ii. ammo'nii caus'tlci spirltuo'sus. 
The same as Spiritus amnwni(e, U.S. Ph. 

Ii. ammo'nii cltra'tls, 15. Ph. One part 
of liquor ammonii citratis fortior and four parts 
of distilled water. Dose, 2 — 6 fluid drachms. 

Ii. ammo'nii citratis for'tior, B. Ph. 
{L. fortior, stronger.) Twelve ounces of citric 
acid are neutralised with 11 fluid ounces of liquor 
ammonige fortior, and sufficient distilled water 
added to make a pint. Dose, -5 — 1-5 drachm. 

Ii. am'nii. {Amnion. F. liquide amnio- 
tique ; G. Fruchtwasser, Kindsivasser, Schaaf- 
wasser, Amniosjtiissigkeit.) The fluid contained 
in the sac of the amnion. It is clear, yellowish 
or brownish, alkaline, with sp. gr. 1007 — 1011. 
It contains 98 — 99-5 per cent, of water, with 
albumin, mucin, globulin-like substances, grape 
sugar, urea, ammonium carbonate, and some- 
times lactic acid and kreatinin, calcium sulphate 
and phosphate, and sodium chloride. It is some- 
times cloudy from sebaceous matter, lanugo, and 
epithelial scales. The urea is said not to be found 
until about the end of the fifth month of preg- 
nancy. It is chiefly of foetal origin, but may 
partly be derived from the maternal vessels. 
The amniotic fluid preserves the contents of the 
uterus from mechanical injury, facilitates the 
movements of the fa3tus, and greatly assists in 
dilating the os uteri in labour. By some it is 
supposed to be swallowed by the child as nutri- 
ment, and a case has been reported where the 
oesophagus of a fcetus was impervious, itself 
being badly nourished, with abnormal abundance 
of the liquor amnii. 

Ii. am'nii, false. The fluid contained 
between the amnion and chorion in the earlier 
stages of pregnancy. It sometimes persists till 
the period of labour. 

Ii. anod'ynus martla'tus. ('A:;, neg. ; 
ocufi), pain; L. Mars, a name for iron.) The 
Tinctura ferri chlorati (ttherca, G. Ph. 

X. anod'ynus minera'lls Hofiinan'nl. 
The Spiritus atheris compositus. 

Ii. antimo'nil chlo'rldl, B. Ph. Prepared 
by boiling one pound of black antimony with 
four pints of hydrochloric acid to the bulk of two 
pints. It is a yellowish or yellowish-red liquid 
consisting of chloride of antimony dissolved in 
hydrochloric acid. Used externally only as a 

Ii. arsenlca'lls, B. Ph. Also known as 
Fowler's solution, or solution of arsenite of 
potassium ; arsenious acid and carbonate of 
potash, of each 87 grains, dissolved with heat in 
10 oz. of distilled water; compound tincture of 
lavender 5 fluid drachms, and distilled water 
sufficient to make one pint are then added. 
Dose, 2 — 8 minims. 

Ii. arsenica'lis Biett'il. A solution of 
Ammonice arsenias. 

It. arsenica'lis Fowle'ri. The L. ar- 

Ii. arsenica'lis Pearso'ni. The Z. 
sodii arscniatis. 

Ii. arsen'ici bro'midl. Arsenious acid 
and potassium carbonate, of each one part, are 


dissolved in 10 parts of boiling water, bromine 2 
parts in 80 parts of wntcv are added, and then 
sufficient water to make the wliole 100 parts. 

Xi. arsen'ici ctalo'rldi. The Z. acidi 
arsenioii, U.S. Ph. 

Xi. arsen'ici et hydrarg'yrl hydrio- 
da'tis. The L. avfcmi el lii/drargyri iodidi. 

Ii. arsen'ici hydrochlo'rlcus, B. Fh. 
Arsenious acid 87 grains is boiled with hydro- 
chloric acid 2 drachms and water 4 ounces, then 
water to make a pint is added. Dose, 2 — 8 

Ii. arse'nil et bydrar'gryri iodidi, 
B. Ph. Iodide of avsenium, and red iodide of 
mercury, of each 45 grains, are triturated with 
1—5 oz. of water, filtered, and the filter washed 
with sufficient water to make 10 fl. oz. of solu- 
tion. Dose, 10 — 30 minims. 

The U.S. Ph. directs one part each of iodide of 
arsenic and red iodide of mercurj' to be triturated 
with 15 parts of water, filtered, and enough 
water passed through the filter to make 100 
parts by weight. 

Xi. atropi'nse sulpba'tis, B. Ph. One 
part of sulphate of atropin dissolved in 99 parts 
of camphor water. Dose, 1 — 4 minims. 

Xi. Bellos'tii. (F. liqueur de Belloste.) 
See L. htjdrargyri nitrici oxydulati. 

Ii. bismu'thl. A synonym of Z. bisinuthi 
et ammonii citratis. 

Xi. bismu'ttai et ammo'nil citra'tls, 
B. Ph. Citrate of bismuth 800 grains is rubbed 
to a paste with a little distilled water, solution 
of ammonia is gradually added until the salt is 
dissolved, and then as much distilled water as 
makes a pint. Dose, -5 — ^1 fluid drachm. 

Ii. cal'cil cblo'ridi, B. Ph. One part of 
chloride of ealoium dissolved in 5 parts of water . 
Dose, 15 — 50 minims. 

Xi. cal'cis, B. Ph. Lime water. Slaked lime 
two ounces is washed with water until the 
filtered liquid is not made turbid with solution 
of silver nitrate ; it is then put into a stoppered 
bottle with a gallon of distilled water, well 
shaken, and, after subsiding, the clear liquid 
drawn off with a siphon as required for use. 
Dose, 1 — 4 fluid ounces. 

In U.S. Ph., one part of lime is slaked with 6 
parts of water, then 30 parts of water added, 
frequently stirred, allowed to settle, and the 
liquid thrown away ; 300 parts of water are then 
added to the residue, and the clear liquid, after 
standing, used. 

Xi. cal'ds cbIorina'tse,B. Ph. Solution 
of chlorinated lime. One part of chlorinated 
lime in 10 parts of distilled water. 

Xi. cal'cis compos'itus. The Aqua 
henedicta composita. 

It, cal'cis saccbara'tus, B. Ph. Sac- 
charated solution of lime. Made by mixing an 
ounce of lime with two ounces of sugar, and 
shaking them up with a pint of jdistilled water. 
Each fluid ounce should contain 7'11 grains of 
lime. Dose, 15 to 60 minims. 

Ii. carbo'nis deter'grens. (L. detergeo, 
to wipe off.) An alcoholic solution of coal tar 
as obtained from the gas-works. Used diluted 
with 15 to 20 parts of water in skin diseases. 

Ii. cer'ebro - spina'lis. The Cerebro- 
spinal Jliiid. 

_ Ii. Cer'eris. (L. Ceres, the goddess of 
agriculture ; and hence corn.) Beer. 

Xi. cbini'nl fer'ro- cit'rici. The L.ferri 
ft quiiiin<e citratis. 

Im. chlo'ri, B. Ph. Chlorine gas dissolved 
in water. The gas is developed by adding hydro- 
chloric acid 6 fluid ounces and 2 fluid ounces of 
water to black oxide of manganese one ounce in a 
gas-bottle, it is carried through 2 ounces of 
water in an intermediate bottle to a three-pint 
bottle containing 30 ounces of water, in which it 
is dissolved. Dose, 10—20 minims. 

Ii. cblorofor'mi campbora'tus. Cam- 
phor one part dissolved in chlnniform two parts. 
Used locally in toothache and rheumatism. 

Ii. Cblorofor'mi compos'itus. Re- 
mington's formula as a substitute for chlorodyne 
is: — Dissolve 16 grains of hydrochlorate of 
morphia in one drachm of water and one ounce 
of alcohol ; add to this chloroform 3 drachms, 
tincture of Indian hemp 2 drachms, tincture of 
capsicum 18 minims, oil of peppermint 4 minims, 
dilute hydrocyanic acid 24 minims, and perchloric 
acid or hydrochloric acid half a drachm. Each 
drachm contains one grain of morphia. 

Ii. cbo'rii. {Chorion.) The Z. amnii, false. 

Ii. cby'li. The Chi/le plasma. 

Ii. cor'nese. {Cornea.) The fluid con- 
tained in the meshes of the corneal tissue. 

Ii. Cotunn'ii. {Cotunnius.) The peri- 
lymph of Blainville, or the aqua labyrinthi ; it 
fills the space between the bony and membranous 
labyrinths of the internal ear. 

Ii. cu'pri ammonia'ti. Cuprum ammo 
niatum a drachm, dissolved in a pint of water. 

Ii. cu'pri sulpba'tis compos'itus. 
Sulphate of copper, alum, of each 3 ounces, dis- 
solved in two pints of water, and two drachms of 
sulphuric acid added. 

Ii. cyrena'icus. (L. cyrenaicus, of Gy- 
rene.) A synonym of Benzoin. 

Ii. Donova'ni. The L. arsenii et hydrar- 
gyri iodidi. 

1i. enter'icus. See Succus enfericus. 

Ii. epispas'ticus, B. Ph. Cantharides 
percolated with acetic ether until 20 fluid ounces 
are obtained. 

Ii. ex'cltans. (L. excito, to rouse up.) 
The Spiritus ammotiice sticcinatus. 

Ii. fer'ri aceta'tis, B. Ph. Strong solu- 
tion of acetate of iron 5 parts, diluted with dis- 
tilled water so as to make 20 parts. It is used 
as an internal astringent and as an antidote to 
arsenious acid. Dose, 5—30 minims. 

The U.S. Ph. directs 100 parts of solution of 
tersulphate of iron, diluted with 350 parts of 
water, to be added to 80 parts of water of 
ammonia diluted with 200 parts of water, the 
precipitate to be collected and well washed, dis- 
solved in 26 parts of glacial acetic acid, and suf- 
ficient cold water added to make 100 parts. 

Ii. fer'ri aceta tis for'tior, B. Ph. (L. 
fortior, stronger.) Solution of ammonia 8 fl. oz. 
is mixed with distilled water one pint ; to this is 
gradually added solution of persulphate of iron 
5 fluid ounces, diluted with a pint of distilled 
water; the precipitated ferric hydrate is sepa- 
rated on a calico filter, washed clean with dis- 
tilled water, dissolved in glacial acetic acid 3 
fluid ounces, and made up to 10 fluid ounces with 
distilled water. Dose, 1 — 8 minims. 

Ii. fer'ri albuminate The Ferrum al- 
buminatum solutum. 

Xi. fer'ri cblo'ridi, U.S. Ph. Iron wire 
15 parts is added to 54 parts of hydrochloric 
acid diluted with 25 parts of water ; when eflFer- 
vescence ceases it is boiled and filtered ; then 27 
parts of hydrochloric acid are added, and the 


mixture poured into 8 parts of nitric acid ; it is 
again heated until the liquid is free from nitrous 
oilour, 5 parts more of hydrochloric acid added, 
and sufficient water to make the whole weigh 
100 parts. Dose, 2 — 10 minims. Similar to L. 
ferri pcrchloridi fortior, B. Ph. 

Ii. fer'ri citra'tis, U.S. Ph. Solution 
of tersulphateof iron 105 parts diluted with 1000 
parts of water is added to 8-i parts of water of 
ammonia diluted with 200 parts of water ; the 
precipitate is drained, washed, and dissolved in 
30 parts of citric acid; then filtered and evapo- 
rated until it weighs 100 parts. Dose, 10 minims. 

Ii. fer'ri clt'rici. 'i^h.e L. ferri citratis. 

Ii. fer'ri dialysa'tus, B. Ph. A solution 
of chloroxide of iron dialysed almost free from 
acid. Each drachm contains 2 grains of oxide 
of iron. See Ferrum dialysatum. 

Ii. fer'ri et qulnl'nae citra'tis, U.S. 
Ph. Citrate of iron and ammonium 65 parts are 
dissolved in 200 parts of distilled water, 28 parts 
of citric acid are added, then 12 parts of quinine ; 
it is evaporated to 160 parts, 30 pails of alcohol 
are added, and as much water as will make it 
weigh 200 parts. Dose, 10 — 15 minims. 

Ii. fer'ri lod'idl. A solution made to re- 
present Si/r/(pi<sfcrri iodidi without the sugar. 

Ii. fer'ri luuriat'icl oxyda'ti. The Z. 
ferri chloridi. 

1m. fer'ri nitra'tis, U.S. Ph. Solution of 
tersulphate of iron 18 parts diluted with 100 
parts of water is added to 15 parts of water of 
ammonia diluted with 40 parts of water; the 
precipitate is drained, washed, dissolved in 7 
parts of nitric acid, and distilled water to make 
It weigh 100 parts added. Used as an astringent 
in chronic diarrhoea, bronchorrhoea, and monor- 
rhagia. Dose, 10 drops. As an injection, in 
leucorrhcea, 10 — 30 drops in an ounce of water. 
Dose, 6 — 20 minims. 

Ii. fer'ri oxyctalora'tl, G. Ph. Same as 
Ferrum dialysatum. 

Ii. fer'ri perchlo'ridl, B. Ph. Strong 
solution of perchloride of iron 5 parts and dis- 
tilled water to 20 parts. Dose, 10 — 30 minims. 

Ii. fer'ri perchlo'ridi for'tior, B. Ph. 
Iron wire 4 ounces is heated in a flask with 12*5 
fluid ounces of hydrochloric acid and 7 fluid 
ounces of water ; when tiltered 7 fluid ounces of 
hydrochloric acid are added ; it is then poured 
into 1'5 fluid ounce of nitric acid, evaporated 
till no red fumes are given ofi" and a precipitate 
is beginning to form ; a fluid ounce of hydro- 
chloric acid is then added and water to make 
17*5 fluid ounces. Contains two parts in ten. 

Ii. fer'ri pernitra'tls, B. Ph. An ounce 

of iron wire is dissolved in 4'5 fluid ounces of 

nitric acid diluted with 16 of water, the solution 

■ filtered, and water to make a pint and a half 

added. Dose, 10 — 40 minims. 

X. fer'ri persulpba tis, B. Ph. Sul- 
phate of iron 8 ounces is dissolved in 10 ounces 
of water and 6 drachms of sulphuric acid, and 
mixed with 6 drachms of nitric acid diluted with 
2 ounces of water, the liquid is boiled until it 
becomes red, and water added to make 11 ounces. 
The same as L. ferri tersulphatis, U.S. Ph. 

Ii. fer'ri sesquichlora'tl, G. Ph. A 
very similar preparation to L. ferri perchloridi 
forlior, B. Ph., containing about 29'8 per cent, 
of anhydrous fenic chloride. 

X. fer'ri sesqulchlo'rldl ba'sid. 
Caustic or carbonated alkali is added to Ferrum 
sesquichloratum solutum and the gelatinous sedi- 

ment of hydrated oxide of iron which results is 
shaken in excess of the solution till it is re- 

Ii. fer'ri subsulpha tis, US. Ph. Sul- 
phate of iron 77 parts is dissolved in a mixture 
of sulphuric acid 7 parts, nitric acid 11 parts, 
and water 50 parts, boiled until it becomes of a 
deep ruby-red, and water added to make it weigh 
114 parts. Used chiefly as an external styptic. 
Dose, 0— 10 minims internally. 

Ii. fer'ri sulfu'rici bxyda'tl, G. Ph. 
A similar preparation to L. ferri persulphatis. 
B. Ph. 

Ii. fer'ri tersulpha'tis, U.S. Ph. Sul- 
phuric acid 15 parts, nitric acid 11 parts, and 50 
parts of water are mixed and heated to the boil- 
ing point, sulphate of iron 80 parts is added ; the 
heat is continued till the solution is a reddish 
brown, and it is made up to 200 parts by dis- 
tilled water. 

Ii. follic'ull. (L.foHiculus, a small bag.) 
The clear fluid contents of the Graafian vesicle 
of the ovary in which lies the ovum with the 
discus proligerus. It is thought by some to be 
derived from the neighbouring blood-vessels, by 
others from the disintegration of epithelium. 

Ii. rowle'ri. See Z. arsenicalis. 

Ii. Craafla'nus. (Von Graaf.) The L, 

It. g:ut'ta per'cha, B. Ph. Gutta percha 
an ounce is dissolved in six fluid ounces of chlo- 
roform, and an ounce of carbonate of lead mixed 
with two fluid ounces of chloroform added, and 
shaken together ; the clear liquor is decanted. 
Used as an adhesive and protective. 
The formula of the U.S. Ph. is very similar. 

Ii. bolland'lcus. (^Holland.) C2H4CI2. 
The same as Ethylene dichloride. 

Ii. bydrarg'yri bicblo'rldi. The Z. 
hydrargyri perchloridi. 

Ii. hydrarg-'yrl nitra'tis, U.S. Ph. Red 
oxide of mercury 40 parts dissolved in a mixture 
of nitric acid 45 parts and water 15 parts. A 
powerful caustic. 

Ii. bydrargr'yrl nitra'tis ac'idus, B. 
Ph. Mercury 4 oz., dissolved by means of heat, 
in a mixture of nitric acid 5 fl. oz. and distilled 
water 1-5 fl. oz. A powerful caustic. 

Ii. hydrargyri ni'trici oxyda'ti. The 
Z. hydraryyri nitratis acidns. 

Ii. hydrarg-'yrl ni'trici oxydula'tl. 
Bellostc's fluid. Mercurous nitrate 100 parts 
dissolved in nitric acid 15 parts and water 885 

Ii. hydrargyri perchlo'ridl, B. Ph. A 
solution of one part eacli of perchloride of mer- 
cury and chloride of ammonium in 875 fluid parts 
of distilled water. Dose, -5 — 2 fluid drachms. 
One drachm contains l-16th of a grain of the 
mercury perchloride. 

Ii. lo'di, B. Ph. Iodine 10 parts, iodide of 
potassium 15 parts, dissolved in water sufficient 
to produce 200 parts. 

Ii. lo'di compos'ltus, U.S. Ph. Iodine 
5 parts, iodide of potassium ]0 parts, distilled 
water 85 parts. 

Ii. ka'll caus'tlcl, G. Ph. (F. potasse 
caustique liqiiide ; G. AtzJuililauye.) An aqueous 
solution of potassium hydrate, containing about 
15 per cent, of the alkali. 

Ii. ka'Iil ace'tlcl, G. Ph. Acetic acid 
100 parts is neutralised with 48 parts of potas- 
sium bicarbonate, heated, and made up with 
water to 147 parts. 


Xi. ka'lll argenlco'sl.G. Ph. Arscnious 
acid one part and potassium carbonate one part 
are dissolved in 41 parts of water by heat ; when 
cold 15 parts of spiritus melissa? compositus are 
added, and water to make it up to 100 parts. 

Ii. ka'lll carbon'icl, Gr. Ph. Carbonate 
of potash 11 parts are dissolved in 20 parts of 
water, and mor-e water added if necessary to 
make its sp. gr. 1330 to 1334. 

J: ka'lll clt'rlcl. The Z. potassii 

£• lac'tls. {L. lac,vax\k.) The colourless 
fluid in which the milk globules float. 

Ii. Ilth'lae efferves'cens, B. Ph. Con- 
tains 10 grains of litliia in a pint of water 
saturated with carbonic acid. Dose, 5 — 10 fluid 

Ii. lym'phae. The fluid in which the 
lymph corpuscles float. See Lymph. 

It. magrne'sil carbona'tls, B. Ph. 
Magnesium sulphate 2 ounces dissolved in half a 
pint of water is mixed with sodium carbonate 
2-5 ounces dissolved in half a pint of water, and 
boiled; the precipitate is collected, washed, 
mixed with a pint of water, and carbonic acid 
forced into it. Dose, 1 — 2 fluid ounces. 

It. magrne'sll citra'tis, B. Ph. Citric 
acid 200 grains is dissolved in 2 ounces of water, 
and magnesium carbonate 100 grains dissolved 
in it; the fluid is filtered, put into a half- pint 
bottle, syrup of lemons half a fluid ounce added, 
and sufiicient water to fill it nearly, potassium 
bicarbonate 40 grains is introduced and the 
bottle corked. Dose, 5 — 10 fluid ounces. 

The U.S. Ph. is similar, but orders syrup of 
citric acid. 

Ii. IMCorg^agr'ni. {Morgagni.) The fluid 
which is found between the lens and its capsule ; 
it is a post-mortem product, and is probably de- 
rived from the lens fibres, or is formed from the 
cells on the inner surface of the lens capsule, 
which break down after absorbing fluid from the 
humours of the eye. 

Ii. morpbi'nse aceta'tls, 6. Ph. Dilute 
acetic acid 2 parts, rectified spirit 24 parts, 
acetate of morphia one part, and distilled water 
73 parts. Dose, 10 — 60 minims. 

Ii. morplil'nse bimecona'tis, B. Ph. 
Hydrochlorate of morphine 9 grains is dissolved 
in 2 or 3 drachms of distilled water, solution of 
ammonia is added till morphia ceases to be pre- 
cipitated ; the precipitate is collected and washed, 
then mixed with an ounce and a half of water, 
and meconic acid six grains, and half an ounce 
of rectified spirit added. Dose, 5 — 40 minims. 

X^. morpbl'nae bydroctalora'tis, B. Ph. 
Dilute hydrochloric acid 2 parts, rectified spirit 
24 parts, hydrochlorate of morphia one part, 
distilled water 73 parts. Dose, 10 — 60 minims. 

Ii. mu'cl. (L. mucus, slime.) The fluid 
part of mucus. It diggers from liquor sanguinis 
in not being spontaneously coagulable, and from 
liquor puris in not coagulating when boiled. 

Ii. na'tri cblora'tl. The L. sodce chlo- 

Jm. na'tri bypocbloro'sl. Same as Z. 
aodee chlorinatce. 

Ii. na'tril caus'tlci, G. Ph. Same as L. 

Ii. na'tril sllic'lci, G. Ph. The same as 
Z. sodii silicatis. 

TU. nltroglycerl'nl. Nitroglycerin, or 
glonoin, dissolved in rectified spirit. It con- 
tains 1 grain of nitroglycerin in 100 minims. 

Jm. oleo'sus Syl'vll. A synonym for 
Spirit Its ammonicc arumaticus. 

It. o'pll sedatl'vus. (L. scdativus, from 
scdo, to quiet.) Battley's solution. An anodyne 
solution about 50 per cent, stronger than the 
tincture of opium. Dose, 10 — 20 minims. 

Jt. o'vl al'bus. (L. ovum, an egg ; albus, 
white.) The albumen or white of an egg. 

Ii. pancreat'lcus. The Tancrcatic juice. 

It. pepsl'nl, U.S. Ph. Saccharated pepsin 
40 parts dissolved in water 548 parts, with hydro- 
chloric acid 12 parts, and 400 parts of glycerin 
added. Dose, 8 drachms. 

Ii. perlcar'dll. (ntpiKupSio^, around 
the heart.) The serous fluid contained in the 
pericardium. There probably exists no appre- 
ciable quantity during healthy life. 

Ii. pi'cis. The Aqua picis. 

Ii. plum'bi diaceta'tis. The Z. i)luinbi 

Ii. plum'bi subacetatis, B. Ph. Ace- 
tate of lead 5 ounces, oxide of lead 3*6 ounces, 
boiled for half an hour in a pint of water, filtered, 
and made up to 20 ounces. Used externallj' as 
an astringent and sedative. 

In U.S. Ph., acetate of lead 170 parts is dis- 
solved in 800 parts of boiling distilled water, 
oxide of lead 120 parts is added, boiled for half 
an hour, and water added to make 1000 parts. 

Ii. plum'bi subaceta'tis dllu'tus, B. 
Ph. (F, emi de Saturne, can blanche ; G. Blei- 
wasser, Kiihlwasser.) Solution of subacetate of 
lead one part, rectified spirit one part, distilled 
water 79 parts. Used as a cooling, sedative 

In U.S. Ph., solution of subacetate of lead 3 
parts, distilled water 97 parts. 

tt. plum'bi subace'ticl, G. Ph. (G. 
Bleiessig.) Acetate of lead 3 parts, oxide of 
lead one part, boiled with 20 parts of water. 

It. potas'sae, B. Ph. An aqueous solution 
of hydrate of potash, containing about 5*84 per 
cent, of the hydrate. Potassium carbonate one 
pound is dissolved in a gallon of water, heated 
to boiling point, and 12 ounces of slaked lime 
mixed with it, the sediment allowed to settle, 
and the clear supernatant liquor transferred to a 
green-glass bottle. 

The U.S. Ph. orders 90 parts of potassium bi- 
carbonate to be dissolved in 400 parts of boiled 
water, and mixed with 40 parts of lime in 400 
parts of water, the boiling to be continued for 
ten minutes; when cold, distilled water to make 
1000 parts is added ; it is strained through linen, 
and then allowed to settle. Used as an antacid 
and in scrofula. Dose, 15 — 60 minims. Ex- 
ternally, as a mild caustic, used in snake bites. 

Ii. potas'sae arseni'tis. A synonym of 
Z. arsenicalis. 

It. potas'sae Brandish'll. American 
pearl ashes 6 pounds, wood ashes from ash wood 
2 pounds, quicklime 2 pounds, mixed with boil- 
ing water 6 gallons, allowed to stand for twenty- 
four hours, and the clear liquor decanted. 

Jt. potas'sae cblora'tae. (F. eau de 
Javelle.) Same as Aqua Javelli. 

Ii. potas'sae efferves'cens, B. Ph. Bi- 
carbonate of potash dissolved in water saturated 
with carbonic acid in the proportion of thirty 
grains to the pint. 

Ii. potas'sll dtra'tls, U.S. Ph. Citric 
acid 6 parts is dissolved in 40 parts of water, 
filtered, and water added to make 60 parts ; 
potassium bicarbonate 8 parts is dissolved in 40 


parts of water, filtered, and water added to make 
50 parts; the two solutions are then mixed. A 
diaphoretic. Dose, a tablespoonful. 

Xi. potas'sil permangrana'tls, B. Fh. 

Permanganate of potash one part dissolved in 99 
parts of water. A disinfectant. 

Ii. prostat'icus. See Prostate gland, 
secretion of. 

Ii. purls. (L. pus, mattei-.) The fluid 
portion of pus. It is a clear, slightl}- alkaline, 
albuminous fluid, containing sodium chloride, 
sodium phosphate, and calcium and magnesium 
phosphate, the latter especially if the suppura- 
tion has occurred in connection with bone. It 
differs from liquor sanguinis in not coagulating 

Ii. san'grulnis. (L. sanguis, blood. F. 
plasma, liquide sangitin ; G. Bluthjmph.) The 
blood-plasma; the transparent, viscous fluid 
part of the blood in which the coloured and 
colourless corpuscles float and the fibrinogen, 
some of the fibrinoplastic substance, and many of 
the salts are dissolved. It is slightly or deeply 
yellow in colour, has an alkaline reaction, is of a 
sp. gr. of 1026 — 1029, and coagulates, forming a 
clot and serum. 

Xi. sar'sse. The Extractum sarsce liqiii- 

Ii. Scar'pse. (Scarpa.) TheEndohjmph. 
Ii. seiu Inis. (L. semen, seed.) The fluid 
portion of the semen in which the spermatozoa 
float. It is a colourless, transparent and albu- 
minous fluid in which are found, as well as the 
spermatozoa and the seminal granules, squamous 
and columnar epithelium and oil-globules. 

Ii. serip'arus. (L. serum, the watery 
part of a thing ; /;«ro, to prepare. G. Laabes- 
senz.) Liquid rennet. Three parts of the mucous 
membrane of calves' rennet macerated for three 
days in 26 parts of sherry wine and one part of 
sodium chloride. 

Ii. sil'icuni. (L. silex, flint. F. liqueur 
des cailloux ; G. Kieselfcuchtigkeit.) A com- 
pound of silex and salt of tartar, discovered by 
Van Helmont in 1640, which becomes liquid in 
a damp atmosphere. 

Ii. so'dae, B. Ph. An aqueous solution of 
hydrate of soda containing 18"8 grains of hydrate 
in each ounce. Carbonate of sodium 28 ounces 
is dissolved in one gallon of distilled water, 
slaked lime 12 ounces is mixed with it after 
heating to boiling point ; it is allowed to cool, 
and the supernatant clear liquor drawn off into a 
green-glass bottle. Antacid. Dose, 10 —60 drops. 
The U.S. Ph. orders sodium carbonate 180 
grains to be dissolved in 400 parts of boiling 
water; lime 60 parts to be slaked, mixed with 
400 parts of water and boiled; the mixtures to 
be added to each other, boiled for ten minutes, 
allowed to cool, made up with water to 1000 
parts, strained, allowed to settle, and the clear 
liquid drawn off. 

Ii. so'dae chlora'tae, U.S. Ph. Chlori- 
nated lime SO parts is mixed with 400 parts of 
water in a closed vessel, and sodium carbonate 
100 parts dissolved in 400 parts of boiling water 
added ; when cold it is made up to 1000 parts 
with water, strained, and the clear liquid after 
settling transferred to a well-stoppered bottle. 
Dose, 30 — 60 drops. 

Ii. so'dae chlorlna'tse, B. Ph. Sodium 
carbonate 24 ounces is dissolved in two pints of 
water, mixed with 16 ounces of chlorinated lime 
triturated with 6 pints of water, and filtered. 

Xi. so'dae efferves'cens, B. Ph. Thirty 
grains of bicarbonate of soda in a pint of water 
saturated with carbonic acid. 

Ii. so'dll arsenla'tls, B. Ph. Arseniate 
of sodium, rendered anhydrous by a heat not 
exceeding 300' F. (148-8' C), one part dissolved 
in 99 parts of water. Dose, 5 — 10 minims. 

Ii. so'dli ettayla'tis, B. Ph. Metallic 
sodium one part dissolved in 20 parts of ethylic 
alcohol. It contains 19 per cent, of the salt. 

Ii. so'dil silica'tis, U.S. Ph. (F. silicate 
de soude liquide, vcrre soluble ; G. Natriumsili- 
katlosung, Wasserglass.) A transparent, colour- 
less, or yellowish viscid liquid prepared by fusing 
sand an'd carbonate of sodium together, and dis- 
solving the product. It contains 10 to 12 per 
cent, of soda and 20 to 24 of silica. Used to 
stiffen bandages when painted on them. 

Ii. stib'll cblora'tl. (L. stibium, anti- 
monj'.) The Z. aniimonii chloridi. 

Ii. strycb'nlse. The L. strychninm hy- 

Ii. strycbninae hydrocblora'tis, B. 
Ph. Strj'chnine one part dissolved bv the aid 
of heat in 2 parts of diluted hydrochloric acid 
and 25 parts of water, 24 parts of rectified spirit 
are then added, and water to make 100 parts. 
Dose, 5 — 10 minims. 

Ii. styp'ticus Iio'fil. The L. ferri per- 

Ii. stypti'cus Ruspi'nl. Is said to con- 
tain gallic acid, sulphate of zinc and opium, dis- 
solved in alcohol and rose water. 

Ii. subaracbnoldea'lis. See Subarach- 

Ii. sulpbu'rico aetbe'reus constrln'- 
gens. Collodion. 

Ii. S-nrlete'nis. The L, hydrargyri per- 

Ii. ve'sicans. Collodion and cantharides. 

Ii. Villa'ti. Contains liquor plumbi sub- 
acotatis 80 parts, crj'stallised sulphate of copper 
and sulphate of zinc each 15 parts, white vine- 
gar 200 parts. Used as an escharotic in cases of 

Ii. vola'tilis cor'nu cer'vl. (L. vola- 
iilis, flying; cornu, a horn; cervus, a stag.) 
Spirit of hartshorn. A saturated solution of 
carbonate of ammonia distilled from hartshorn. 

Ii. zin'ci cblo'ridi, B. Ph. Hydrochloric 
acid 44 fluid ounces is mixed with a pint of 
water, to it granulated zinc one pound is added, 
and the solution is boiled for half an hour, sup- 
plying the water which is lost ; when cool, car- 
bonate of zinc is added in small quantities till a 
brown sediment appears ; it is filtered and 
evaporated to 2 pints. Used as a deodoriser and 
disinfectant, and largely diluted as an injec- 
tion in gonorrhoea, and a lotion in purulent 

Iiiq'uorice. (Mid. E. licoris ; Old F. 
licorice, liqucricv ; from L. liquiritia ; from Gr. 
yXuKiippi'^a ; from yXuxus, sweet ; pi'^n, a root. 

F. reglisse ; I. rcgolizia; S. regaliz; G. Siissholz.) 
The Glycyrrhiza glabra. 

Also, the Extractum glycyrrhizce, 
Ii. busb. The Abriis precatorius. 
Ji., crude. Liquorice juice which is in 

blocks, having been run into wooden cases whilst 


Ii., ex' tract of. (F. jus, or stic de reglisse ; 

G. aUssholzsaft, Lakriz.) A black, brittle, 
sweet substance, usually in cylindrical sticks, 
about six inches long and one inch thick. The 


fracture is conchoidal with :i few aii-bubblcs. 
Edges transparent. . 

See also Extractum ghiciirrlnz<c. 
I.., ex'tract of, liq'uld. Ihc Ext, at turn 

d'A^^r^X) The^ root of Mrus prccato- 

"'"\., Jamai ca, wild. The root of Abrus 

^"'l.'juVce. The same as L., extract of. 
T Tnn<i<<. Same as L., ouuo. 
S:, moun'tain. The'rnyb/i«m alpmm. 
l. paste. Same as J,., crude. 
I... pow der of, com pound. The 1 lU- 

1 nrick'ly. The Gb/cyrrhiza echmata. 
£'.', purified. The Succus liquiritim de- 

^"'■'^t^fi^ned. The Extraction ollicyr,^'^ 
I. root. The Ulijcyrrhzic radix, H. i ii- 
1., Rus'sian. The Glycyrrlu"~<^ asper- 

"'""i snanlsh. The same as X.,f.rt™c< "/■ 
£:; Sck. 'it root of Glycyrrlnza glabra. 
1 su&'ar. Same as G/r.'/'-'-{"~'«- ,, 
£ velch. The Astragalus glycyphyUos 
1., wad The ^lr«;i« «Mrfic'««^w, and the 
Astragalus gbjcyphyJIos. 

tiquoritla. Same as Liquo'i'^e. 
lli'rate. (L. nra, a ndge.) Haxin, 

"'▼'^t^Tla rL dim. of lira, the ridge be- 

■RpseiuhlinK a furrow or a i'rfc«rt. 

lirelious. Possessing one ii>-e;«« oi 

"" lirioden'drin. The active pnnpiplc^of 

thrb" of X»-i.rf.«rf'-o» ^.'f;f [«: J ste ami 
fnlH^nWe bitter and acrid to the tasie, ami 
soluble iA hot water, alcohol, and ether. It is 

^'ffloden'dron. (A"'p-^, a lily ; J.'.- 
^pS'a t°?.) A G?n^s of \he Nat. Order Mag- 

""^"l '"tulipif 'era, Linn. (Mod. L. tulipa, a 
tulip L/"o, to bear. F. tidipier;^ tulq^ero; 
t Tldmibaum.) The tulip-tree. Bark bitter. 
S^ed as a febrifuge, diuretic, and sudonfac m 
internStents, as well as in gout, rheumatism, 
Tnd dySery. It is also said to be a vermi- 

^"Eir'y-confan'cy. (A corruption of 

liuton^onrallium.) The Convallaria vwjahs 

Lis'bon. The capital of Portugal, m the 
PrTySce of Estremadura. Thermal waters from 
fen sources are found here ; the Misericorde con- 
t'his sodium chloride 15-428 grammes magne- 
stiTm chloride 3-281, calcium, carbonate 571, 
cakium sulphate -485, magnesium sulphate 7 4, 
^nnUicic acid -028, with hydrogen sulphide, 
clonic acid and nitrogen. It is used in catarrhs 
of the several mucous tracts, m eczema, and m 
scrofulous diseases. The Alcaqanas do Duque 
contans sodium chloride and sulphate, pota,- 
coniams buu . g^iphate and carbonate, 

rLumatlc conditions, and chronic bronchitis. 

J., diet drink. An old remedy for syphilis. 
One formula is : Uuil guaiacum wood one ounce, 
sarsapariUa 3 ounces, me/.ercon "O ounce, ciudc 

sarsaparuia o ouii-.^-^, .uy....... - . 

antin uay lied in a rag 2 ounces, in 12 1'" \^ "' 
water to 8 pints ; then infuse in it red sande.^ 6 
ounces white sandal wood 3 ounces, rosewood 1 
ounce 'sLafras bark 1 ounce, and ui-'"C« root 
•5 ounce, for four liours, strain, and add sjiup to 

^^'•Lisdunvar'na. Ireland, County Chu-e; 
in a somewhat uumleresting country near e 
magnitieent Atlantic c^fst There are w, tu s 
containing hydrogen sulphide; =i"'/ '; l';£; 
springs wtiich contain carbonate ot i ui. an 1 abo 
urm-anese. Anaemia, chronic gout and iVu- 
Sm, and skin diseases are among the aflections 

wliich receive beneht. T7,„r,P>i snr- 

liiS'franc, Jacques. A French sur- 
ged born a7 St. Paul, departemcnt de Loire, 

died in Paris in 1847. . - » ti,-, 

i.s amputation at hip jomt. 1 c 

form in which the external iiap is made Ijrst and 

t vessels tied; then the -t'^'-^/.Kicuh 
and its vessels tied, and then only is disaiticuU 

tiou accomplished. ,^'^- -inint 

I..'s amputation at shoulder joint. 

A posterior thip is formed ^'Y t'-an-fixing tlie 
structures behind and at the outside of the joint 
C Zve'if on the riglit side, and fi^m bdow 
if on the left side; as the anterioi tiap is bcin„ 
made the brachial artery is compressecL 

T. '« amnuta tion through looi. 
AmputationTt^ie toes at the tarso-metatarsal 
^lYcSons; the joints being conipleUdydis. 
articulated. The Iiap is made from the plantar 

A Genus of the 
The Gel- 

ing.) ^..~- 

is used as a febrifuge. 

Eiisian'thus, Miller. 

Nat. Order Loganiacecc. 

Ii. sempervi rens, Millei. 
scminm scmpervirciis. „,.^_ Anowdcr 

T.i<%le's fever powder, a powuLi 

beni obtained from Ital^^ 
^£p%lJielt in utirance • an imi aUv^ 
vord.' F:zezayer; ^•f'^">ff"ZA^:tSk 
in the prounciation of the iUiers s auu , 
are pronounced as ^/; or rf/*- ^.^th ; 

* T'sa;'wa.(i;. »»,,«», »vo».y.) Berr, 


radial artery, the 
pollicis and the 

See Tourniquet, 

aXos. F. Hssencephale.) Having a smooth 

IiiSSOt'rlchouS. (Aio-<ros; dpl^, hair. 
F. lissotrique.) Having smooth hair. 

Ziis'ter, Sir Joseph. A British sur- 
geon, to whose researches we owe the principles 
of antiseptic surgery. He was born in 1827. 

l^.'s antiseptic zneth'od. See under 
Wounds, antiseptic trcatinoit nf. 

Ii.'s bloodless luetli'od. The elevation 
of a limb, and then the application of an ordinary 
tourniquet prior to amputation, so that the limb 
may be made comparatively bloodless ; a condi- 
tion which is accomplished partly by gravity 
and partly by arterial contraction. 

Ii.'s luetbod of amputation. The 
mode of amputating a limb by which the outer 
or anterior tiap is made the longest, being of the 
length of one third of the circumference of the 
limb ; and the inner or posterior one is made 
half the length of the other flap, and consisting 
only of skin and fascia; by this means the line 
of cicatrix is just beyond the edge of the bone. 
The angles of the flaps are somewhat rounded off. 
Zi.'s resection of the wrist-joint. 
(L. rescco, to cut loose.) An operation for the 
removal of the entire carpus, the articular ends 
of the radius and ulna, and the proximal ex- 
tremities of the metacarpal bones, which is 
planned so as to avoid the 
extensor eecundi internodii 
extensor indicis. 

Ii.'s tour'nlquet. 

_ Iiis'ter, Mar'tin. An English physi- 
cian, born at RadclifFe, in Buckinghamshire, in 
1638, and died in 1711. 

Iiiste'ra. (Martin Lister.) A Genus of 
the Nat. Order Orchidacece. 

It. ova'ta, Brown. The Epipactis ovata. 
Ziiste'rian. Kelating to Sir Joseph 

It. meth'od. See IFounds, antiseptic 
treatment of. 

Ii. precau'tions. The adoption during a 
surgical operation, and at the subsequent dress- 
ings of certain manipulations and applications, 
to ensure as far as possible the most perfect 
cleanliness and the aseptic condition of the 
wound. See irounds, antiseptic treatment of. 

It. steam spray. An apparatus by means 
of which a finely divided stream of a medicated 
spray can be directed over a wound. 

Xiis'terine. (Sir Joseph Lister.) A 
solution containing the antiseptic constituents 
of thyme, eucalyptus, baptisea, gaultheria, and 
mentha arvensis, with two grains of benzo-boric 
acid in each drachm. It is recommended by 
Lewis Smith as a preventive and antidote in 
scarlet fever in doses of a teaspoonful, for an 
adult, every three or four hours. 

Iiis'terism. (Sir Joseph Lister.) The 
process, and the theory on which it was based, 
of Sir Joseph Lister for Wounds, antiseptic 
treatment of. 

Xiis'ting*. A German physicist of the 
present time. 

Ii.'s law. A law relating to the move- 
ments of the eye to the effect that when one eye 
moves from the position of rest, in which all its 
three axes are parallel to those of the opposite 
eye, its movements take place around axes 
situated in the equatorial plane, so that the 
visual axis is always perpendicular to the axis of 

rotation; and that rotations never take place 
around the visual axis. 

Ii.'s redu'ced eye. See Reduced eye. 
Ziis'ton, Rob'ert. A British surgeon, 
born in Ecclesmachan, in West Lothian, Scotland, 
and died in London in 1847. 

Ii.'s amputa'tlon of bip-joint. An 
antero-internal flap is cut from within outwards 
by entering the point of the knife between the 
great trochanter and the anterior superior spine 
of the ilium, and bringing it out in front of the 
tuber ischii ; the bone is disarticulated, and a 
corresponding postero-external flap is made, 

Ii.'s ar'tery forceps. See Forceps, 
artery, Listotis. 

Jt.'s bull-dog for'ceps. See Bull-dog 

Ii.'s long splint. A splint used in frac- 
tures of the femur. It consists of a long bar of 
wood, "45 inch thick, 2 to 3 inches broad, and 
long enough to reach from near the axilla to six 
inches beyond the foot ; its upper end is furnished 
with two holes for the attachment of a perineal 
band, and its lower end with two notches for 
securing the bandage by which extension is 
kept up. 

Ii.'s plaster. The Umplastrum ichthyo- 

tt.'s resec'tlon of tbe el'bow. The 
removal of the elbow-joint by an H-shaped in- 
cision over the back of the joint. 

Ziistroph'orus. (Ato-T/aoi-, a spade; 
tpopiw, to bear.) A Genus of the Family Gama- 
sidce, Order Acarina. 

It. gib'bus, Pagenstecker. (L. gibbus, 
humped.) Lives on the skin of rabbits and hares. 

Ii. Iieuckart'i, Pagenstecker. Lives on 
water-voles, on partridges, and on quails. 
Xiit'arg'e. Same as Litharge. 
Iii'tchi. The name of the fruit of the 
Nephelium litchi, Don. Eaten in China and 
Also, a Genus of the Nat. Order Sapindacece. 

It. cbinen'sls, Sonnerat. The Nephe- 
lium litchi. 

Zii'te. (AiT?;, a prayer.) _ An old plaster 
made of verdigris, wax, and resin. 

Xiithae'mia. (Ai6o's, a stone; alfia, 
blood.) Murchison's term for the condition in 
which lithic or uric acid is in excess in the blood. 
It may result from excessive use of albuminoid 
matters beyond the capacity of the body to con- 
vert them, or from the defective power of the 
oxidation processes, whereby uric acid is formed 
instead of urea, the lower form of oxidation 
instead of the higher. This pathology is now 
doubted, inasmuch as uric acid is not the 
necessary antecedent of urea. The condition is 
chiefly found in those who live well and take 
little exercise. The digestive organs are dis- 
turbed, there is acidity or pyrosis, indolent or 
relaxed bowels, ofli'ensive or light-coloured 
motions and piles, high-coloured and acid urine, 
depositing uric acid and urates; headache and 
mental irritability and depression, giddiness and 
singing in the ears occur, and there is frequently 
palpitation and an irregular or intermitting 
Ziithse'xnic. Relating to Litlmmia. 

Ii. insom'nia. Sec Insomnia, lithcemic. 

Ziithag'og'ecta'sia. (Ai'Oo;, a stone ; 

ayw, to carry ; tK-rao-i?, extension.) The dila- 
tation of an artificial opening made for the ex- 
traction of a stone from the bladder. 


Ziith'ag'Og'Ue. (Ai0os ; ayw. F. Htha- 
gogtie; I. htagogo ; S. liUigogo ; G. steinabtrei- 
bend.) Having power to expel stones from the 
iirinary passages. 

Xiithag'O'g-um. (Ai0os; ayw. Q. Stein- 
zange.) A lithotomy forceps. 

Also (G. Steinloffel)^ the scoop used in lithot- 

Xiithanthrakoka'll. (A/eos ; av- 

6p«g, charcoal ; kali.) Same aa Anthrakokali. 

Xiithan'thrax. (Ai'yos ; avdpa^, char- 
coal. G. ISteinkohlc.) Anthracite ; stone coal. 

Iiltll'arg'e. (Mid. E. litarge ; F. litharge; 
fi-om L. lithai-ggrus; froniGr. /\i0«^yi/pos; from 
Xt'Sos, a stone ; apyvpo^, silver. I. liiargirio ; 
S. litargirio ; Q. Bkiglatte.) An impure semi- 
vitrified oxide of lead. See Pliimbi oxidum. 

Ii. of grold. Litharge having a golden 
colour ; massicot. 

Ii. of sll'ver. Litharge having a silver 

Ii. plas'ter. The Emplastrum plumbi. 

Xiitharg''yri. Genitive singular of 

Ii. ace'tum. (L. acetum, vinegar.) The 
Liquor plumbi subacetatis. 

Xiitharg''yruin. Same as Litharge. 

Iiitliarg''yrus. Same as Litharge. 

Xiitll'ate. A salt of Lithic acid. 

Xii'tliec''tasy> (AiSos, a stone ; tKTacrts, 
extension.) The removal of a vesical stone in 
the female by dilating the urethra and the neck 
of the bladder so as to admit the forceps. 

Iiithec'tomy. (AiSos; i/croyu?}, a cutting 
out.) A proposed substitute for the inaccurate 
word Lithotomy. 

Xiitb'enate. (AtOos, a stone. F. lithe- 
nate.) Same as Lithate. 

Ziithen'ic ac'id. Same as Lithic acid. 

Xiithep'sy. (Ai'Oos, a stone ; k'i//a), to 
smelt.) Same as Litholysis. 

Ziitli'exerei (Ai6os, a stone ; k^aipico, to 
take out of. F. lithezere.) Maissoneuve's term 
for a hollow, catheter-like instrument used in 
the treatment of stone in the bladder ; on the 
concavity of its distal end it has an aperture 
sufficiently large to admit a small calculus, or 
the fragment of a larger one ; in the tube is a 
screw which, on being turned, crushes the cal- 
culus, and by its continuous action causes the 
detritus to be ejected through the outer end. 

Iiith'ia. (A160S, astone.) The formation 
of stony concretions or sand in the body. 

Also, an affection of the eyes, consisting of 
cretaceous deposits in the Meibomian follicles. 

Also, the same as Lithiasis. 
It. rena'lls. (L. ren, the kidney.) Sand 
or stone in the kidney. 

Ii. rena'lls areno'sa. (L. ren, the 
kidney; arenosus, full of sand.) Sand in the 
urine ; gravel. 

:l. vesicalis. (L. vesica, the bladder.) 
Sand or stone in the bladder. 

Ziith'ia. (At0£os, stony.) The hydroxide 
of lithium. A name given by Berzelius to an 
alkali discovered by Arfvedson in 1817 in petalite 
and other minerals. It was then believed to 
exist only in minerals, unlike the other alkalies 
which occur in organic substances, and hence its 
name. Since then it has been shown to exist 
generally in plants and animals. 

X.| ben'zoate of. See Lithii henzoas. 
It., bro'mlde of. See Lithii bromidum. 
Ii.i car'bonate of> See Lithii carbonas. 

It., cit'rate of. Sec Lithii citras. 

It., sallcyl'ate of. See Lithii salicglas. 

Ii., solution of, effervescing;. See 

Liquor lithicc effervcscens. 

Ii. wa'ter. The Liquor Hthice effervescens. 
Iiittl'iaB. Genitive singular of Lithia. 

Ii. carbo'nas. See Lithii carbonas. 

Ii. eit'ras. See Lithii citras. 
Ziithia'sic. Same as Lithic. 
Iiith'iasis. (Aiy/ao-is; from Xi0os. F. 
lithiase ; 1. litiasi ; S. litiasis ; G. Steinbildung , 
Stcinkrankheit.) The formation of sand and 
calculi in the urinary or biliary passages. 

Also, the excessive development of lithic acid 
in the body. 

Also, concretions in the glands of the eyelids 
or Chalazion, or L. conjunctivm. 

Ii. conjunctl'vse. {Conjunctiva.) A 
calcareous deposit in the retained secretion of a 
Meibomian gland or a mucous follicle. There 
may be one or several hard, angular concretions, 
usually situated at the inner edge of the upper 
lid ; they may rub the cornea so as to produce 
erosions or ulcers, with conjunctivitis and photo- 
phobia. They consist of calcareous salts. 

Ii. cys'tica. (Kuo-xts, the bladder.) Stone 
in the bladder. 

Ii. nephrlt'lca. (Ntc^/ao's, the kidney.) 
Sand or calculi in the kidney. 

Ii. palpebralis. (L. _pa/j3eJra, an eyelid.) 
Same as L. conjunctiva. 

Ii. prsepu'til. (L. prccputium, the fore- 
skin.) The collection of dried smegma, im- 
pregnated with urinary salts, uric acid, and 
phosphates, under the prepuce in congenital 

Ii. pulmo'num. (L. pulmo, the lung.) 
The formation of concretions in the lungs. 

Ii. rena'lls. (L. ren, the kidney.) Cal- 
culus in the kidney. 

Ii. rena'lls areno'sa. (L. ren, the 
kidney; aretia, sand.) Sand in the kidney. 

Ii. veslca'lis. (L. vesica, the bladder.) 
Stone in the bladder. 
Iiitll'iate. Same as Lithate. 
Ziith'ic. (Ai'eos, a stone. F. Uthique.) 
Relating to a stone. 

Ii. ac'ld. (G. Blasensteinsdure.) Same 
as Uric acid. 

Zt. ac'ld diath'esls. Same as Diathesis, 

Iiitll'ica. (Ai0jKds, from Xi'Oos, a stone.) 
Agents which tend to counteract the formation 
of urinary calculi. 
Iiith'ii. Genitive of Lithium. 

Ii. ben'zoas, U.S. Ph. (F. benzoate de 
lithine ; G. betizoesaurcs Lithion.) LiC7H502. 
Molecular weight 128. A white salt obtained 
by decomposing lithium carbonate with benzoic 
acid; it occurs as a crystalline powder or in 
pearly scales. Proposed as a solvent of uric 
acid calculi when taken internally. Dose, 15— 
30 grains. 

Ii. borocit'ras. See Lithium diboro- 
citrate, and L. monoboi'ocitrate. 

It. bromi'dum, U.S. Ph. (F. bromure de 
lithium; G. Bromlithium, Lithiumhromid.) 
LiBr. Molecular weight 86-8. A crystalline or 
more frequently, from its deliquescence, a granu- 
lar powder, obtained by dissolving lithium car- 
bonate in hydrobromic acid and evaporating. It 
is inodorous, but has a pungent, bitterish taste ; 
it is soluble in alcohol and ether, and at 0° C. 
(32° F.) in -7 parts of water. Its value as com- 


pared with the other bioiiiiiles is doubtful. Dose, 
5 — 20 grains or more. 

I., carbo'nas, B. Ph., U.S. Ph. (F. car- 
bonate df Uthinc, carbonate lithiquc ; Q. kohkn- 
saures Lithion.) lA.JCO^. Molecuhir \veig:lit 74. 
A light, white, amorphous powder prepared from 
lepidolite. It is inodorous, mildly alkaline in 
taste, insoluble in alcohol, soluble at 13" C. 
(.55-4' F.) in 130 parts of water. Used in the 
treatment of gout and uric acid deposits; its 
value is disputed by many. In solution it is 
said to dissolve false membranes. Dose, 1—3 
grains (OG — ''i grammes). 

Ii. ctalo'rldum. See Lithium, chloride of. 
at. cit'ras, B. Th., U.S. Ph. (F. citrate 
de Uthinc ; G. citronsa arcs Lithion.) LisCf.Hr, 
O7. Molecular weight 210. A white crystalline 
salt obtained by dissolving citric acid 90 grains 
in a liuid ounce of warm distilled water, adding 
carbonate of lithium 50 grains ; heat is applied 
till effervescence ceases, and a complete solution 
is effected; this is evaporated to a sp. gr. of 
about 1-23, and then allowed to crystallise. It 
is inodorous, has a saline, cooling taste, and is 
insoluble in alcohol, but soluble in 55 parts of 
water. Used as the carbonate. Dose, 5 — 10 
grains ('3 — 'Go gramme). 

Ji. lod'tdiim. See Lithium iodide. 
Xi. sallcyras, U.S. Ph. (F. salicylate de 
lithine ; G. Lithiumsalic;/lat.) 2LiC7H503. H.^ 
0. A white deliquescent powder obtained by 
heating salicylic acid 1 1 parts, lithium carbonate 
3 parts, and water 25 parts, until effervescence 
ceases, filtering and evaporating. Used as so- 
dium salicylate. Dose, 5 — 40 grains (-3 — 2-6 
grammes) . 

Iiitlli'na. (F. Uthinc ; I. litina; S. litina; 
G. LithiH.) The alkali Lithia. 
Xiitll'ion. Same as Lithium. 
Zjith'ium. (F. lithium; I. litio ; S. 
litio.) Symbol Li. Molecular weight 7'01 ; 
sp. gr. -5891 to -5983; melting point ISO'' C. 
(356° F.) The lightest of all solids; it is a 
silvery-looking metal, unalterable in dry air, 
tarnishing in moist air; much harder than po- 
tassium or sodium. It can be rolled into plates, 
and is ductile. At a red heat it burns with a 
white flame. 

1m, ben'zoate. See Lithii benzoas. 
Xi. bro'mide. See Lithii bromidum. 
"St. car'bonate. See Lithii carbonas. 
1m, carbon'icum, G. Ph. The Lithii 

1m, chlo'ride. LiCl. Molecular weight 
42-4. A sail crystallising in octohedra at 15" C. 
(59" F.), in prisms at 0° C. (32= F.), which 
appear to be rectangular, but immediately be- 
come opaque and break down on being touched. 
It is obtained from lepidolite. 

Ii. cit'rate. Sec Lithii citras. 
1m. cit'ricum. See Lithii citras. 
1m. diborocit'rate. A salt proposed for 
use by Schcibe. It is obtained by dissolving 
citric acid 20 parts, lithium carbonate 7 parts, 
and boric acid 12 parts, in water, and evaporat- 
ing to dryness. 

1m. guafacatei Guaiacum resin is di- 
gested in an aqueous solution of lithia, the clear 
liquor decanted and evaporated so as to form 
scales. Used by Sir A. Garrod in chronic gout 
and some forms of rheumatism. Dose, 5 grains. 
Ii. bydrox'ide. LillO. A white, non- 
deliquescent, caustic, crystalline mass obtained 
by boiling lithium carbonate for some hours in 

milk of lime, and evaporating the clear liquid to 
dryues.'^ in a silver basin. 

Ii. i'odide. Lil. Molecular weight 133'6. 
A white crystalline salt obtained by dissolving 
lithium carbonate in hydriodic acid. 

Ii. monoborocit rate. A salt proposed 
for use by Sclicibc. It is obtained by dissolving 
citric acid 20 parts, lithium carbonate 4 parts, 
and boric acid 6 parts, in water, and evaporating 
to dryness. 

ii. nitrate. LiNOa. A salt obtained by 
dis.solving lithium carbonate in nitric acid ; it is 
very soluble in alcohol and in water, and crys- 
tallises in rhombohedra. 

Ii. ox'ide. LioO. A white crj-stalline 
substance obtained by heating lithium nitrate 
in a silver basin ; when dissolved in water there 
results L. hydroxide. 

1m, ptaos'phate. Li3P04. A crystalline 
powder obtained by adding a lithium salt to 
phosphate of soda, along with caustic soda. It 
is with difficulty soluble in water. 

Ii. salleyVate. See Lithii saiicylas. 
Im. salicyl'icum. See Lithii saiicylas, 
1m. salts, ac'tlon of. The physiological 
action of the salts of lithium is very much that 
of those of potassium, but they are more poi- 

Ii. salts, tests for. The salts of lithium 
are chiefly distinguished by the carmine-red 
colour they give to the blow-pipe flame. 

1m. siilpb'ate. LijSO^-t- HjO. Thin mo- 
noclinic plates obtained by dissolving lithium 
carbonate in sulphuric acid. 

Ii. sulph'lde. LijS. Sulphur attacks 
lithium below its fusing point, and forms a 
yellow sul])hide soluble in water. 
Xiithiu'ria. Same as Lithuria. 
Xiitll'mic. A misspelling oi Litmie. 
Iiithobez'iS. (Aitios, a stone; (iti^, a 
cough.) Cough with the expectoration of cal- 
careous matter. 

Xiithobiot'ic. Relating to Lithobiotismus. 
Iiithobiotis'mus. (Ai'Oos, a stone; 
ftioi, life.) Buquoy's term for the hidden state 
of existence of minerals. 

Ziitliob'ius. (AtOos; /3tos.) A Genus of 
the Order ChihijMjdn, Class Myriopoda. 

1m. forficatus, Linn. {, a pair 
of shears. G. Tauscndhcin.') The centipede. 
Bite poisonous ; fatal to insects. 

Xiith'OCarp. (AttJos; /capTro'v, fruit.) 
Fossilised fruit of a tree. 

Xaitbocar'puS. (A(6os, a stone; /.ajOTro's, 
fruit.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Palmaeca. 

Ii. coccifor'iuis, Targ. (L. coccum, a 
hcrry; fur in a, shape.) Thi' Attalcafunifcra. 

liithoceno'sis. (Aifos; Kiuwai^, an 
emptying.) Heurteloup's term for the removal 
from" the bladder of the fragments of a stone 
which had been crushed in lithotomy by means 
of a perforated catheter. 

Also, a synonym of Lithotrity. 
Ziith'oclast. (Ait)os ; xXdw, to break in 
pieces. F. lithoclastc ; I. Htoclasto ; S. lito- 
claste.) Amussat's term for an instrument for 
breaking up a stone in the bladder. 

IiitllOClas'tia. (Ai6os ; KXdw.) Same 
as LithoclasI)/. 

Ziitb'Ociasty. (A/0os ; kXuw. F. litho' 
clastic ; S. litoclastia.) The reduction of a 
vesical calculus into fragments by the aid of the 

Xiitboclys'mia. (AiSos; kXuo-^u, a 


liquid used for washing out. F. lithoclysniie.) 
Pignoni's term for the solution of vesical calculi 
by the introductiou of chemical agents into the 

Xiithocol'la. (Aj0os; koWu, glue.) A 
cement lor joining stones; anciently used to 
smooth down irregular hairs of the eyebrows. 

Ziitll'OCySt. (Ait)o9, a stone ; kucttis, a 
bag.) An enlarged cell containing a mass of 
calcium carbon;'.te crystals suspended from their 
tops by a stalk of cellulose. Lithocysts are 
formed beneath the surfaces of the leaves of plants 
belonging to the Nat. Orders Urticacece, Moracece, 
and AcanthacecB. 

Also, a sac containing mineral matter found in 
Medusa} and Medusoids ; they are supposed to 
be of the nature of hearing organs. 

Ziitbocystot'oiny. (Ai'Sos; kuo-tis, 
the bladder ; Tifxvw, to cut.) A synonym of 

Iiithodec'tasy. (AiOos; o^Js, a way ; 
iKTuais, extension.) Same as Lithectasy. 

Xiitbodialia. Same as Lithodialysis. 

Ziithodial'ysis. (At'Oos; 5id\uo-i9, a 

loosing one from anything. F. UtJiodialyse ; I. 
litoilia/ysis.) The dissolving of a stone while in 
the bladder, either by medicaments administered 
by the stomach or by chemical agents introduced 
into the bladder, or by galvanic agency. 

Also, any operation whereby a vesical calculus 
may be broken up and become expelled. 

ZiitllOdialyt'ic. Relating to Litho- 

ZiitllOd'OIIlOUSi (A160S, a stone ; 5J/uos, 
a house.) Living in stones. 

Applied to those lamellibranchiate Molluscs 
which perforate rock, shells, and other hard sub- 

Ziitliodras'siCi (Ai0os; Spu<, to 

sieze hold of.) Capable of seizing a stone. 

Ii. for'ceps. (F. pitice lithodrassique.) 
A forceps composed of many branches which can 
be approximated by a silken cord, invented by 
Meirieu and Tanchou, and used in the operation 
of lithotrity. 

ZiitllOdyspnoe'ai (Ai'Sos; ^{xnrvoia, 
dithculty of breathing.) Difficult breathing 
caused by calcareous concretions in the air- 

Ziitboe'cious. (Ai'Qos; okos, a house. 
F. lithotcien; G. steinbeuohiiend.) Wallroth's 
term for the lichens which live on stones. 

Ziithofel'lic. (Aieos; L./e;;,gall.) Re- 
lating to gall-stones. 

It. ac'ld. (G. Lithofellinsdure.) C^o^^x 
O4. The chief constituent of bezoar stones. It 
crystallises in microscopic, colourless, rhomboidal 
prisms, insoluble in water, soluble in 29 parts of 
alcohol, and in 444 parts of ether at 20^ C. (68^ 
F.) The alcoholic solution deviates polarised 
light to the right. With sugar and sulphuric 
acid it gives a violet colour. 

Iiithofellin'ic. Same as LithofeUic. 

Xiithofrac'teur. (\i(:)o9, a stone; L. 
fracior, a breaker.) An explosive compound of 
nitroglycerin of the nature of dynamite. 

Ziit'hofrac'tor. (Areos ; L. frango, to 
break.) Same as Lithoclast. 

XiitllOg'eil'esiSi (Ai0os, a stone; yivi.- 
(719, an origin.) The department of mineralogy 
which treats of the mode of formation of stones. 

Also, see Lithogeny. 

XiitllOg'en'ium. (AiPo?; ytwuw.) Man- 
suy's term for the supposed tiuid which holds in 

solution the stony matter by which substances 
become fossilised. 

Ziithog''exiOUS. (Ar^os:; 7£i<i/((w, to be- 
get.) Producing stone. Api)lied to the animals 
which form coral. 

ZiitllOg''eny. (Ai'Oos, a stone; yiwdw, 
to beget. F. lithogenie.) The formation of 

Iiithogr'rapher. (Ai0os; y(>a<i>u), to 

write.) An en;.,'raver on stone. 

li.s, dlsea'ses of. The chief diseases to 
which lithographers are especially liable are 
phthisis and chronic bronchitis, occasioned in 
part by inhaling some stone dust whilst at work, 
and in part by their constrained attitude and 
sedentary life. 

Ziith'oid. (Ai6os; finos, likeness.) Of 
the nature of, or resembling, stone. 

Xiitlio'id'ali (A4t*os; iloos.) Same as 

ZiitllOi'des OS* (ATtio^; tloos; L. os,n 
bone.) The petrous portion of the temporal 

liithokelyphopae'dion. (AiOos; Ki- 

Xv(po^, a sheath ; iralv, a cbild.) An extra- 
uterine embryo which has died, and in which 
the liquor anmii has become absorbed and the 
membranes have become calcihed and attached 
at various points to the foetus, where fatty de- 
generation has occurred. 

Iiitllokel'yphoS. (A(0os ; /ctXu<^os, a 
sheath.) An extra-uterine embryo which has 
died and in which the liquor amnii has been 
absorbed, the foetal membranes have been cal- 
cified, and the foetus itself has not developed with 
the membranes, but lies within them as a shri- 
velled, shrunken, but not mummified mass. 

Ziith'olabe. (F. Utholabe; from Gr. Xt0o9; 
Xafii], a grip.) A term applied to forceps for 
seizing a stone in the bladder, in order either to 
crush it or to hold it for the use of the perforator. 

Especially applied to the second of the three 
pieces of the Zit/iotrity apparatus, Civiale's. 

Xiithol'abon. (Ai0os; Xufxpdvio, to 

seize.) An instrument for extracting a stone 
from the bladder. 

Ziitbol'abuin. Same as Litholabon. 

Xiitbol'apazy. (Ai0o9, a stone; 

XaTTaJis, from \ifKa<T(T(i), to empty.) A term 
given by Bigelow to his operation of rapid 
lithotrity with evacuation of the fragments 
of stone. In this operation large and heavy 
lithotrites are employed which break up the stone 
so completely that it readily passes through a 
full-sized catheter. The operation is continued 
until all the fragments have been removed. The 
fragments are drawn out of the bladder by an 
evacuator, or wash-bottle, consisting essentially 
of a strong india-rubber bottle filled with an 
antiseptic solution and connected by tubing with 
the catheter which has been introduced into the 
bladder after withdrawing the lithotiite. The 
contents of the bottle are squeezed into the 
bladder, and the bottle during its expansion 
sucks back the fluid and with it such fragments 
of stone as are small enough to pass along the 
catheter. After the calculus has been broken up 
its further comminution is efl^ected by lithotrites 
of smaller size than that first employed. The 
operation may last over an hour. 

Im., perine'al. {Wipivto'i, the space be- 
tween the anus and the scrotum.) The rapid 
breaking up and evacuation of the stone, as in 
litholapaxy, but by means of instruments intro- 


duced through an incision in the perineum and 
an opening in the urethra only just large enough 
to admit the lithotrite. A proceeding proposed 
by Peters for the removal of a large stone from a 

Xilthol'Og'y. (AiOos; Xo'yos, a statement.) 
An account of -stones. 

Xiitliorysis. (At'Qos, a stone ; Xuo-is, a 
loosing.) Douillet's term for the solution of 
vesical calculi by means of lithontriptic in- 

Xiith'olyte. (Ai6os ; Xvw, to loose.) An 
instrument for conveying solvents into the 
bladder to dissolve a stone. 

Iiitholyfic (Ai'Oos; Xuto?, that may be 
loosed.) Capable of dissolving a calculus. 

Ziitbomala'cia. {Aidoi, a stone ; /xa- 
XuKta, softness.) The spontaneous softening 
which occurs in some phosphatic calculi when 
the urine becomes acid. 

Ziitll'oiliancy. (A/0o?, astone; fiaimia, 
divination. F. lithomantie , G. das Wahrsagen 
aus Sieinen.) Old term for prognostication from 
the appearances of stones. 

Xiith'ometer. (AiOos, a stone; fxtTpov, 
a measure.) An instrument for measuring the 
size of a stone. 

It. sound. A hollow, steel sound with 
a short beak and a male and female blade, whose 
distance apart can be measured on an inde.^ 
near the handle. It was employed by Leroy 
d'EtioUes for measuring the size of vesicular 
calculi previous to the operation of lithotrity. 

Ziitiiome'tra. {Aido^, a stone ; firiTpa, 
the womb. F. lithometre ; G. Ver sterner ung des 
Uterus.) An osseous or calcareous concretion of 
the womb. 

Xiith'omyl. (Ai6os, a stone; iw\n, a 
mill. Y. Utliomyleur.) An instrument, devised 
by Cattenoz, for reducing calculi to powder, so 
that no fragments could be arrested in the 

Ziitlioin'yly. (Ai'eos, a stone; nvM.) 
The use of the Lithomyl. 

Xiitll'on. Same as Lithium. 
Xiitho'na. Same as Lithia. 
Xiithoziepliri'tis. (AiOos, a stone ; L. 
nephritis, intiammation of the kidney. F. litho- 
nephrite ; G. Nierenentziindung als Folge von 
Nierenharnsteinen.) Calculous nephritis, or in- 
flammation with calculus of the kidney. 

Xiithonephrot'omy. See Nephro- 
Iiithonlyt'ic. See Litholytic. 
Ziithontliryp'tic. (A/yos, a stone ; 
dpvTrrw, to break in pieces.) Same as Lithon- 
Xiithontrip'sy. Same as Lithotripsy. 
Ziithontrip'tiC (Ai0o9, astone; TpijioD, 
to rub down. F. /itho?itriptique ; G. stein- 
auflosend.) A medicine which is supposed to 
have the power of dissolving or wearing away 
urinary calculi in the body ; whether adminis- 
tered internally or injected into the bladder. 
It may act as a simple solvent like water, or as 
a chemical solvent. 

_ Ii.s, biliary. (L. hilis, bile.) Agents 
■which produce the solution and disorganisation 
of gall-stones; of which arc alkalies in solution, 
ether, turpentine, and chloroform. 

Xiithontrip ticum, Surande's. 

(A160V ; Tpi'/io), to rul) down ; Jiurande, a French 
physician.) A remedy for removing gall-stones 
by solution. It consists of a mixture of three 

parts of sulphuric ether and two parts of oil of 
turpentine. The dose is 60 grains of the mix- 
ture every morning till 7500 grains have been 

Xiithontrip'tor. (Ai0os ; rpi^m, to rub 
down. F. lithontripteur.) Civiale's term for 
his first described instrument for crushing a 
stone in the bladder. 

Ziithonum. Same as Lithium. 
XiithopEe'dion. (Ai'0o9, a stone; Tral?, 
a child, G. Steinkind, Steinfrucht .) An extra- 
uterine embryo which has died, and which has 
escaped into the abdominal cavity through a 
rupture of the membranes, and there has be- 
come compressed and mummified ; with masses of 
calcareous matter distributed through its body, 
and a coating of similar matter surrounding it 
from calcification possibly of the vemix caseosa. 
It has been known to be retained for upwards of 
fifty years. 
Xiithopae'dium. See Lithopcedion. 
IiitllO'phag'OUS. (Ai0o9, a stone; 
(puyiii/, to eat. F. lithophage ; G. steinfressend.) 
Stone- eating. Applied to shells found imbedded 
in stones, in which their inhabitants have formed 
holes or openings. 

liithoph'ag-US. (At'Qos; c^aytli/, to eat,) 
One who swallows stones. 

Iiitboph'ilous. (A/dos, a stone; (piXtw, 
to love. F. lithophile ; G. steinbewohnend.) 
Applied to plants that grow upon rocks. 

Also, applied to insects living in stony places. 
Ziith'opllOZiea (Aidos ; (puivlw, to pro- 
duce a sound.) An india-rubber tube attached 
by one end to a sound which has been introduced 
into the bladder, and by the other inserted into 
the meatus auditorius of the operator. It is 
used for the purpose of rendering the impact of 
the sound on a vesical calculus more easily 

Xiithoph'thisis. (Ai0os ; (pdiarLs, a 
wasting, F, lithophthisie.) The stage of tu- 
bercular phthisis in which calcareous concretions 
are present in the lungs, 

Iiith'ophyll. (At0os; (pvWov, a leaf.) 
A fossilised leaf, or the imprint of one on a 

Ziitll'opliyte. (Ai0os, a stone; (pvTov, 
a plant. F. lithophyte.) An old name for coral. 
Ziith'oplazy. (A/0os; -TrXSgts, for 

irXn^i^, a stroke.) The breaking up of a stone 
in the bladder by means of a hammer. 
Xiithop'riny. See Lithoprisy. 
Xiithop'rione. (Aj0os, a stone ; irplwv, a 
saw. F. lithoprione ; G. Steinzermalmer.) An 
instrument, proposed by Leroy d'Etiolles, for the 
seizure of a vesical calculus, in order that it 
might be perforated or sawed down. It con- 
sisted of an outer and an inner tube, the latter 
capable of protrusion from the former when four 
metallic bands expand in balloon form and en- 
close the stone whilst it was being reduced by a 
saw-ended stylet. 

Xiitliop'risy. (Ai6os, astone; Trp'ierii, a. 
sawing. V. lithoprisie.) The operation of sawing 
in pieces calculi in the bladder by means of the 
Lithoprione. It has been proposed but not 

Xiitliorrlii'neur. (Ai0o9,astone; pwaw, 
to file down. F. lithorincur.) An instrument, 
devised by Meirieu and Tanchou, for filing down 
a calculus after it has been siezed by the litho- 

ZllthOSCOPei (Al0OS; CTKOTTtU), to ex" 


amine. F. lithoseope ; G. Sleinfiihler.) An 
instrument employed to ascertain the size and 
form of a calculus. One form consists of a disc 
of hard wood attached to a sound which inten- 
sifies the note which occurs when a calculus is 
Ziithosper'mous. (a/Oos ; <T-n-ipixa. 

F. lithosptrme.) Having fruit hard and like 
stones, as the Scleria lithosperma. 

Ziitbosper'mum. (AiOos ; a-iripfxa, a 
seed; from the hardness of its nutlets. F. 
lithosperme ; G. Steinsamen.) A Genus of the 
Nat. Order Boragviacece. 

The Lithospermum of Pliny and other ancient 
authors is supposed to be a graminaceous plant, 
the Coix lacryma, Linn. 

It. arven'se, Linn. (L. arvensis, belong- 
ing to a field.) Corn grorawell, bastard alkanet. 
Yields a dark red dye like Alkanet. 

Jt. hellotropoi'des, Forsk. ('HXiorpo- 
TTiov, from ?j\tos, the sun; T-ptVa), to turn; 
tl^os, likeness.) The Heliotropium supinum. 

Xi. oflScinale, Linn. (L. officina, a shop. 
F. lithosperme officinal, gremil.) The common 
gromwell, the seeds of which were formerly 
supposed, from their hardness, to be efficacious 
in calculous disorders ; used in emulsion as a 
diuretic. The leaves arc used in Croatia as tea. 
It, tlncto'rluiu, Linn. The Anchnsa 

It, vlUo'sum. The Anchnsa tinctoria. 

Xii'tllO'tec'llolla (Ai'Sos, a stone ; tLkvov, 
a child.) Same as Lithopadion. 

Ziltboter'etron. (AiSos; Tiptrpov, a 
borer.) Kiihn's term proposed as a substitute 
for Zithotrite in its original sense. 

ZiitllOtlllib'la. (At0os,a8tone; e\i/3£u, to 
squeeze.) The breaking up of a friable vesical 
calculus between a sound introduced into the 
bladder and the finger in the rectum or the 
vagina, as the case may be, as proposed by Dena- 

ZilthOthryp'siS. (At'eos, a stone; 
dpiTTTO), to break in pieces.) Lithotrity. 

Ziithothryp'tor. {AWo's; dpi-n-Tw.) A 

form of lithotrite. 

Ziitll'otonie. (F. Uthotome; from Gr. 
X160S ; TOfxri, section. I. Utototno ; G. Stein- 
7nesser.) An instrument invented by a Greek, 
Ammonius of Alexandria, to cut down a vesical 
calculus when it was too large to pass the incision 
made in lithotomy. 

The term is now used to designate an instru- 
ment for cutting into the bladder in lithotomy. 

Jt. ca'che. (F. cache, part, of cacher, to 
hide.) An instrument employed by Frere Come 
in the performance of bilateral lithotomy. It 
consists of a tripartite curved rod, which, on 
pressing a lever near the handle, separates into 
its constituent parts and protrudes a bistoury. 

It. ca'cbe, doub'le-bla'ded. The in- 
strument used by Dupuytren in bilateral, and 
byCiviale in medio-bilateral, lithotomy. It con- 
sists of a sheath containing two cutting blades, 
each of which become protruded laterally when 
a sprin? is pressed. 

XiitllOtOin'ia. Same as Lithotomy. 
Ii. su'pra - pu'bem. See Lithotomy, 
supra-pubic . 

Iiithot'omisti (At0o$, a stone ; tIuvoi, 
to cut. F. lithotomiste ; I. Utotomista.) One 
who removes by operation a calculus from the 
bladder. Formerly there were a certain class of 
men who did no other operation except that of 

lithotomy, and even up to recent times the Eoyal 
hospitals had a lithotomist upon the surgical 
staff. Hippocrates by his oath especially forbids 
his disciples to cut for stone. 

Xiitbot'oxny. (L. Uthotomia; from Gr. 
XidoTouia; from /Vifos, a stone; ■ripLvu),to cut. 
¥ . lithotomie ; I. litotomia ; S. Ixtotomia ; G. 
Steinschnitt.) The operation of cutting into the 
bladder to withdraw a stone. The term properly 
signifies stone-cutting, and, according to Littre, 
has come to its present meaning by the misin- 
terpreting of a passage in Celsus, in which he 
speaks of Ammonius of Alexandria as surnamed 
Ai6oTo/i09, not because he cut for stone, but be- 
cause he had invented an instrument for cutting 
the stone in pieces in the bladder when it was 
too large to pass through the incision made for 
its removal. The operation of cutting into the 
bladder through the perineum, however named, 
was practised long before the time of Celsus by 
the Hindoos. The mode adopted was the cutting 
on the gripe or apparatus minor, when the stone 
was hooked by the fingers in the rectum, pressed 
into the perinseum, cut down upon, and extracted 
by the efforts of the fingers or by means of some 
instrument. The next advance was not made 
till the beginning of the sixteenth century, when 
the itinerarium or grooved staff was used to guide 
the knife into the urethra which was opened, and 
the neck of the bladder dilated. At the end of 
the sixteenth century L., supra-pubic, was de- 
scribed, but not practised till the beginning of 
the eighteenth. The form of the incision in the 
apparatus minor varied with different operators 
till quite at the end of the seventeenth century 
Jacques Baulot, or Frere Jacques, devised and 
practised the lateral operation. He described it 
in 1702. Rau, in Holland, probably adopted it ; 
and early in the same century Cheselden per- 
fected the operation, and in all its essential 
details it is still practised as L., lateral. 

Jt., Al'Iarton's operation of. See 
Allarton's operation. 

Ii., bllat'eral. An operation introduced 
by Dupuytren. A curved incision, with its con- 
cavity downwards, is carried across the perineum 
half an inch above the anus. The urethra is 
opened on a median-grooved staff, and a double 
Uthotome cache is passed into the wound so as to 
divide the two lateral lobes of the prostate. 

Ii., Bucban'an's opera'tlon of. 
(George Buchanan, of Glasgow.) Median 
lithotomy in which a rectangular staff is em- 

Ii., Cel'sus's opera'tlon of. {Celsus.) 
The Apparatus minor, so called because Celsus 
gave the first very accurate description of it. 

It,, cen'tral. Same as L., median. 

Jt., Cor'radi's metb'od. {Corradi, an 
Italian surgeon of the present time.) The use 
of a sound having a deep groove at its curved 
end which conceals a sharp-pointed dart, which 
can be caused, by pressure on a rod when the 
sound has reached the bladder, to project back- 
wards and penetrate the membranous urethra and 
perinteum ; the dart is grooved to serve as a 
guide to the bistoury. 

Ii., ex'tra-vesi'cal. (L. extra, on the 
outside; vesica, \hid bladder.) The cutting into 
a cavity outside the bladder which contains a 
stone, for the purpose of removing it. Such a 
stone may sometimes be found in the track of a 
vesical fistula. 

Ii., talgrb. Same as X., supra-pubic. 


Xi., bypogras'trlCi {'Yiroyaa-Tpiov, the 
lower belly.) Saiiiu as Z., siipra-jiitbic. 

K. knife. The knife used to cut into the 
hladilcr in £., lateral. Tliere are many forms, 
some with a straight cutting edge, others with a 
bulging edge like a scalpel ; some cutting to the 
point, as Brodie's and Listen's knife, others 
with a blunt or beaked point, as Key's and 
Thom{)son's knife. 

Xi., lat'eral. (L. lateralis, belonging to 
the side. F. litliotomie laterale ; G. Seiten- 
steinschnitt.) The cutting operation ordinarily 
performed for the removal of a vesical calculus. 
After passing a staff grooved laterally, the incision 
is carried obliquely along the left side of the raphe 
and the anus, through the various structures in 
the perineum, until the membranous portion of 
the urethra is opened and the point of the knife, 
or of the gorget, lies in the groove of the staff. 
The direction of the cutting surface of the knife 
is then slightly altered to the right of the 
operator, and as it is pushed along the staff into 
the bladder, the anterior part of the prostate, 
with its sheath, a few fibres of the levator ani, 
and the neck of the bladder are successively 
divided. The calculus is withdrawn by means 
of forceps, or a scoop, through the opening thus 
made. Sir William Fergusson modified the 
operation by making the external incision lunated 
so as almost to encircle the anus. 

This operation was apparently first described 
by Jacques Baulot, otherwise Frere Jacques, at 
the end of the seventeenth century, and practised 
by him in 1702; but it was brought to a state of 
scientific perfection by the great surgeon of St. 
Thomas's Hospital in London, Cheselden, soon 
afterwards ; and since his time no essential 
change has been made in the operation. 

Ii., lithontrip'tic. (Ai6os, a stone ; 
Tpi(iu>, to rub down.) Malgaigne's term for the 
removal of the fragments of a stone by a small 
perineal section after it has been broken up by 
the lithotrite. 

Jt., IVIa'rian. The older form of median 
lithotomy, so called from Marianus Sanctus. 
This operation is known, from the number of 
instruments required for its performance, as 
Apparatus major. It was invented by Johannes 
de Eomanis and Battista da Eapallo in the be- 
ginning of the sixteenth century, and first made 
public by Marianus Sanctus, their pupil, in 1524. 

Ii., me'dian. (L. niediiis, middle.) This 
form is performed by first introducing into the 
bladder a staff broadly grooved along its convex 
surface. A straight knife is then entered in the 
middle line of the perineum half an inch above 
the anus, and is pushed on through the several 
structures until its point becomes engaged in 
the groove of the staff. The membranous urethra 
is then incised and the wound enlarged as the 
knife is withdrawn, and then a director is passed 
along the staff into the bladder. The staff' itself 
is next withdrawn, and the finger is employed to 
dilate the prostate to a size sufficient tvr the 
passage of the calculus when seized by the forceps. 
The median oi)eration was first performed bv 
Manzoni, of Verona ; and in its present form was 
devised by Allarton. See Allartons operation. 

If., me'dio-bilat'eral. (L. onedius ; bis, 
twice ; lat< ralis, belonging to the side.) A 
combination of the median and bilateral opera- 
tions which has been recoiiimcndid by Civiale. 
A median-grooved staff" is einijluxcd ; a vertical 
incision, Lo inch long, is made in the raphe nearly 

to the anus, and carried to the membranous part 
of the urethra; the double-bladed lithotome, or 
the bilateral gorget, is now introduced and each 
lateral lobe of the prostate divided. 

£., me'dio-Iat'eral. (L. medius ; late- 
ralis.) A furm devised by Raynaud, in which 
the perineal incision is in the middle line and 
the j)rostatic incision is made laterally. 

Henry Lee's medio-lateral operation is the 
same as Nelaton's L., precreetal. 

£., perine'al. {ncpivtov, the space be- 
tween the anus and the scrotum.) The removal 
of a stone from the bladder through an artificial 
opening in the perineum, such as is made in L., 
lateral, L., median, and other forms. 

Ii., praerec'tal. (L. pree, in front of; 
rectum.) The form devised by Nelaton to avoid 
wounding the bulb of the urethra. A staff 
having been introduced, the operator passes his 
left forefinger into the anus to find the apex of 
the prostate, he then makes a curved incision in 
front of the anus and from its centre a short 
vertical incision up the raphe, he then dissects 
the anterior wall of the rectum from the bulb, 
punctures the membranous urethra just in front 
of the prostate, which he divides with the double- 
bladed lithotome. 

Ii., quadrilat'eral. (L. quadrum, a 
square; from quattuur, four; latus, a side.) 
Vidal de Cassis's modification of L., bilateral, in 
which four incisions are made into the prostate. 

Ii., rec'tal. (L. rectum, the gut of that 
name.) The removal of a urinary calculus by 
means of an opening made into the bladder 
through the rectum. See L., recto-vesical, and 
£., recto-prostatic, lateral. 

Ii., recto-perine'al. (L. rectum ; Gr. 
TTipivtoi, the space between the anus and scro- 
tum.) The same as L., recto-vesical. 

Ii., rec'to-prostat'Ic, lat'eral. (L. 
rectum; j^rostate gland; lateralis, belonging to 
the side.) Schafl^er's term for an operation for 
the removal of stone from the bladder. A sound 
is introduced into the urethra. The anus is 
kept wide open with a dilating speculum. A 
semilunar incision, with its convexitj' down- 
wards, is made along the anterior border of the 
prostate gland, and an incision is made into it as 
in lateral lithotomy. 

Ii., rec to-ure'tliral. (L. rectum ; Gr. 
ovpnQpa, the tube by which the urine is dis- 
charged from the bladder.) The same as Z., 
recto-vesical, save that the incision does not ex- 
tend into the prostate, which is dilated to an 
extent sufficient to allow the passage of the 
forceps with the stone. 

Ii., rec'to- vesical. (L. rectum, the gut of 
that name ; vesica, the bladder.) An operation, 
suggested by Sanson, for the removal of large 
stones. The staff being in the bladder, a knife 
is passed thi-ough the walls of the rectum into 
the groove as it lies in the membranous urethra, 
in such a way as to divide the internal and 
external sphincters with a portion of the anus. 
The knife is tlien pushed on into the bladder, 
dividing the prostate. 

Also, Schiiffer's term for an operation for the 
removal of a stone from the bladder. The anus 
is widely opened by means of a dilating specu- 
lum like a Sims's duck-bill speculum, and an 
incision is made into the bladder parallel to the 
axis of the rectum, commencing at the base of 
the prostate and between the seminal ducts, and 
continued upwards to the extent necessary. 


Xi. staff. Sec Staff, Kthotomrj. 

Jm., su'pra-pu'blCi ^L. supra, above ; 
03 puhifi.) The higli operation ; it consists in 
making an incision through the abdominal wall 
above the pubes, and opening the anterior part 
of the bladder below the reflection of the peri- 
toneum. It is a method adapted for the removal 
of very large calculi, or where there is consider- 
able enlargement of the prostate. It has been 
proposed to perform the operation by means of 
the thermo-cautery. 

Tliis operation was first described by Franco 
in 1560, and then by Rosset in 1581, but it was 
first practised by Frere Come in 1758. 

Xi. tam'pon. (F. tampon, a plug.) An 
apparatus for arresting lircniorrhage after li- 
thotomy. It consists of a tube carrying a loose 
calico cover ; it is puslied into the bladder 
through the wound, the cover is stufled tightly 
with cotton wool so as to compress the bleeding 
surfaces, and there tightly secured. 

Jm. tampon, Buckston Browne's. 
(F. tampon.) An elastic tube surrounded by an 
india-rubber ball with a movable muslin cover. 
The tube being passed into the bladder through 
the wound the ball is distended with air. 

Ii., urethral, in the fe'male. {Ovpn- 
^pa, the tube by which the urine is discharged 
from tlie bladder.) A grooved statf is passed 
into the bladder, and a sharp-pointed bistoury 
guided by it is pushed through the tloor of the 
urethra, about an inch and a half from the 
meatus, the canal being divided directly down- 
wards. The stone is removed through this 

Ii.,ure'thral, in the male, (fivpvdpa.) 
The removal of calculi which have become 
impacted iii the urethra. It is performed by 
pushing the calculus backwards to the membra- 
nous portion of the urethra, cutting down upon 
it in the middle line, and extracting it thi'ough 
the opening. 

Ii., vagl'nal. (L. vagina, a sheath.) A 
straiglit stati' is passed into the bladder, the end 
is pressed against the anterior wall of the vagina, 
and a scalpel is pushed through the vaginal wall 
and fundus of the bladder into the groove. In 
this way the urethra is left intact. The stone is 
removed by the forceps entire or after crushing, 
and the bladder is washed free of detritus and 
clots through the urethra. 

Ii., vagri'nal, direct'. (L. vagina.) 
Consists in passing the fingers into the vagina, 
pressing up the stone against the neck of the 
bladder, and then making a transverse incision 
directly down upon the stone lying between the 
ui'ethra and symphysis pubis. 

Ii., vesl'co-vagri'nal. (L. vesica, the 
bladder; vagina.) The same as L., vaginal. 

Ii., vestib'ular opera'tion of. (L. 
vcstibulum, a fore-court.) Performed in women 
by making the incision across the centre of the 
vestibular space. 

Ziithot'ony. (AiOos; tovos, a stretching.) 
Marshall Hall's term for a mode of removing a 
stone from the bladder. A fistulous opening 
into the bladder is to be established just above 
the pubes, and then the fistula is to be dilated 
till it is capable of transmitting the stone. 

ZiithOtre'siS. (Aifos, a stone; Tpf/o-is, 
a boring through. F. lithotrese ; G. Steinzer- 
hohrimg.) The form of lithotrity in which the 
calculus is first bored through in several places 
by means of a drill. 

ZaithOtrip'sis. Same as Zithotripsy, 

and as Lithotrity. 

Xiithotrlp'sy. (AtSos, a stone ; Tpul/ti, 
from Tpiliu), to rub down. F. lithotripsie ; G, 
Stcinzcrmalmung .) The operation of rubbing 
down calculi in the bladder by means of an in- 
strument for tliis purpose, called a lithotriptor. 

Also, a synonym oi Lithotrity. 

Ziitho'triptic. See Lithontriptic. 

Ziithotrip'tor. (At'tJos, a stone ; rpij^w, 
to rub down. F. lithotriptcur ; ii. tStemzer- 
maimer.) An instrument for crushing or rubbing 
calculi in the bladder into fragments so minute 
that they may be voided with the urine. 

Also, a Lithotrite. 

Xiithotrite. (F. Uthotriteur ; from Gr. 
/\itJo9; L. tritor, a rubber; from tero, to rub. I. 
litotritore ; S. litotrifor ; G. Lithotrilor, Stein- 
zerreiber, Steinzcrmalmer.) An instrument for 
crushing stones in the bladder. The name was 
first applied by Civiale to the third part of the 
Lithotrity apparatus, Civiale's, but now it is 
used to denote the instrument which sprung out 
of his Litholabe when crushing of the stone 
without previous perforation was first attempted. 
The lithotrite is a divided steel stem bent at its 
inner extremity to form a blade or beak, consisting 
of two rods or branches, the inner of which, or 
male rod and blade, runs in the outer, or female 
rod and blade ; the outer extremity is furnished 
with a screw or other apparatus for producing 
the sliding of the rods on each other and the 
separation or approximation of tlie blades ; the 
blades are set at about right angles to the stem ; 
the male blade is the narrower and is roughened 
on its distal surface, the female blade is larger 
and is either flat or fenestrated. There are 
many varieties iu form and in detail. 

By a later improvement the male stem is 
capable of lateral movement so that the beak 
may be freed from detritus. 

Ziithotrit'ia. The same as Lithotrity. 

XiithOtrit'iC. Eelating to Lithotrity. 

Iiitlxotritor. (F. Uthotriteur ; from Gr. 
Xi'dos, a stone ; L. tritor, a rubber.) The second 
of the three pieces of the Lithotrity apparatus, 

IiithOt'rity. (F. lithotrite; from Gr. 
\tt)os, a stone; L. tero, io break iu pieces. I. 
litotrizia; S. litotricia ; G. Lithotritie, Stein- 
zermalmnng.) A method of removing calculi from 
the bladder by crushing them into sufliciently 
small pieces to enable them to be passed by the 
urethra. The operation was brought into re- 
pute by the French sm-gcons, the chief among 
them being Civiale, during the first quarter of 
the nineteenth century, after the perforation and 
crushing of a calculus had been proposed by a 
Bavarian surgeon, Gruithuisen, and the instru- 
ments for the purpose had been described by him 
in 1813. The operation imderwent successive 
modifications until the year 1878, when Bigelow 
introduced the operation of litholapasy, which is 
gradually superseding it. In lithotrity the strong 
slender lithotrite is introduced into "the bladder 
through the in-ethra, and the stone being seized, 
it is crushed into fragments. This constitutes 
the first sitting, and it only lasts a few minutes. 
The patient is then allowed to rest for a week, 
during which time some of the smaller frag- 
ments are expelled with the ni'ine. At the 
second and subsequent sittings the fragments 
are again crushed until they are of sulficient 
size to be evacuated. The final exploration is 


made after all the fragments are supposed to 
have been expelled ; it is conducted with a small 
lithotrite and with a moderately full bladder. 
The objections to the operation depend upon the 
repeated manipulations, upon the irritation 
caused by the crushed stone, and by the strangury 
BO often resulting from the impaction of frag- 
ments in the neck of the bladder. See its 
development Litholapaxy . 

The earliest record of any proposal for the 
crushing of a stone by means of an instrument 
passed through the urethra appears to be con- 
tained in a panegyric on the monk Theophanes, 
pronounced in the ninth century, but it is not 
clear whether the stone was contained in the 
bladder or was arrested in the urethra. In the 
twelfth century Albucasis related a mode of 
breaking up soft stones in the bladder by means 
of a delicate instrument gently introduced 
through the urethra. In the fifteenth century 
Benedetti, of Padua, described iron instruments 
for the breaking up of a vesical calculus, but 
did not recommend their use. In the sixteenth 
century Sanctorius proposed the introduction 
through the urethra of a three-bladed forceps to 
seize the stone and extract it from the bladder. 
Then in the eighteenth century two persons, a 
monk of Citeaux and Col. Martin, both suffering 
from stone in the bladder, passed into it through 
the urethra a tube carrying a stylet which ter- 
minated in a file, which could be protruded from 
the tube so as to rub down the stone. In 1813 
Gruithuisen, a Bavarian surgeon, described a 
series of cutting and crushing instruments which 
could be passed into the bladder through a 
straight, open-ended catheter, but he does not 
seem to have used them. Many other surgeons, 
Fournier de Lempdes in 1817, Civiale with 
his lithontripteur in 1818, Elderton, Amussat, 
Leroy d'Etiolles, and others, devised instruments 
for the same purpose, which were used on the 
dead body ; and in 1824 Civiale used his three- 
branched forceps, or Litholabe, with success in a 
living patient. By this instrument the stone 
was perforated in many directions, so that at last 
it was broken up by the forceps and the pieces 
could be passed with the urine. Afterwards the 
crushing of the stone was attempted without 
perforation, as in the loop instrument devised 
by Jacobson, a Danish surgeon, but the lithotrite 
as now used with curved end, and consisting of 
two limbs, one moving on or in the other, was 
developed chiefly by Weiss in England, and 
Heurteloup in France. The mechanical means 
at first used for the crushing was the blow of a 
hammer ; screw-power was used by Hodgson of 
Birmingham, in 1825, to which was added the 
rack and pinion by Sir William Fergusson in 

Ii. appara'tus, Civ'lale's. (L. pince 
u troix hruHchts.) The instrument by means of 
which Civiale performed the first successful litho- 
trity in 1824 consisted of three pieces ; first, an 
outer tube or straight cannula or sheath ; second, 
the LitJiolabe, a steel cannula which slides within 
the outer one, and at its vesical extremity carries 
three elastic branches which widelj' expand 
when the second cannula is projected beyond the 
first, these are for the seizure and retention of 
the stone ; third, the Lithotritor, a stem of steel 
which traverses the axis of the litholabc, having 
a toothed head which perforates the stone when 
the stem is rotated by means of a drill-bow. 
Xi., perlne'al. {Tltplvio's, the space be- 

tween the anus and the scrotum.) Dolbeau's 
term for an operation consisting in opening the 
membranous urethra by means of a median in- 
cision of the perineum on a grooved staff, dilat- 
ing the prostatic urethra, crushing the stone with 
strong forceps, and extracting the debris through 
the wound. It is recommended as being 
es])cci;illy applicable to large and hard calculi. 

Xiithotrype'ta. (A«yos, a stone; T;Oi;- 
TrijTrh', a piercer, or borer. F. lithofripteur ; G. 
Steinzcrma/nier.) An instrument for breaking 
down calculi by boring, as the Lithotritor. 

Iiithotryp'ter. A false spelling of 

Xiithotrypte'rion. Same as Litho- 

Ziithotrypte'riuxn. (Ai'Oos, a stone ; 

O/ouTTTo), to break. G. kleiner Steinzermalmer.) 
An instrument for breaking down calculi. 

Or, a wrongly spelled diminutive of Litho- 

Xiitlx'OUSi (AiOos.) Having, or consisting 
of, stones or calculi. 

Xiithoxidu'ria. The discharge of urine 
containing lithic or xanthic oxide. 

Ziithox'3rluin. (Ai'Oos, a stone ; l^vKov, 
wood.) Fossil wood. 

IiitllOZO'on. (Ai0o9-, 'iwov, an animal.) 
A coral. 

Xiithure'sis. (Areos, a stone; ovpn^rii, 
the act of passing water. F. Uthurese ; G. 
Steinharnen.) The passing of small calculi with 
the urine. 

Ziithu'ria. (Aieoi/pia ; from X'Soi, a 
stone; ovpov, the urine. F. lithurie ; G. 
Steinharnen.) The passing of gravel with the 
urine ; especially the passing of lithic or uric 
acid sand. 

Iiithu'ric ac'id. (Ai'eos; ovpov. G. 
Lithursiiure.) Eoster's term for an acid which 
in combination with magnesia forms, according 
to him, the chief constituent of the urinary 
calculi found in Tuscan cattle fed on maize. Its 
composition has not been accurately determined. 

Xiithurorrhoe'a. (AtOos, a'stone ; ovpov, 

the urine ; poia, a flow. F. lithurorrhee.) A 
copious flow of urine containing small calculi. 

Iiithyme'llia. (Ai'tJos, a stone ; iifiTiv, a 
membrane.) An operation, proposed by Dumes- 
nil, for destroying vesical calculi by injecting 
weak lithontriptics into a membranous pouch to 
be placed around the stone. The project has 
not been put into practice. 

Ziit'matei A salt oi Litmic acid. 

Xiit'mic. Relating to Litmus. 
Ii. ac'id. A supposed red acid found in 
litmus which forms blue salts with alkalies. 

Ziit'milS. (Derived from lacmus. F. laque 
bleu; G. Lackmus.) A blue pigment obtained 
from Lecanora tartarea, Boccella tinctorea, H. 
fusiforniis, and other lichens. They are pow- 
dered, mixed with potash, stale urine, or some 
ammoniacal fluid, and exposed to the air ; the 
liquid becomes red, then purple, and lastly blue, 
when it is mixed with chalk and dried in small 
rectangular cakes. It contains a purplish-red, 
fatty matter, crythrolecn ; a red crystalline sub- 
stance, erythrotitmin ; a brown-red amorphous 
substance, azolitmin ; and a small quantity of a 
light-red substance, spaniolitmin. It is used as 
a test for acids and alkalies. 

Xi. pa'per, blue. Unsized paper soaked 
in tincture of litmus and dried. Used as a test 
for acids, which turn it red. 


It. pa'per, red. Unsized paper soaked in 
tincture of litmus which has been reddened by a 
minute quantity of sulphuric acid and dried. 
Used as a test for alkalies, which turn it blue. 

Ii. plant. The Roccella tinctoria. 

Jm., solution of, B. Ph. Litmus one 
ounce is boiled with four ounces of rectified 
spirit for an hour, and the clear fluid poured off; 
the operation is repeated with three ounces of 
spirit, and again with other three ounces ; the 
residual litmus is digested with ten ounces of 
distilled water and the solution filtered. 

The U.S. Ph. orders the solution to be pre- 
pared by macerating one part of powdered litmus 
with ten parts of diluted alcohol for two days, 
and filtering. 

la., tinc'ture of. A strong aqueous solu- 
tion of the colouring matter of Litmus. 

Xiitori'na> (L. litus, the sea-shore.) A 
Genus of the Group Tcenioglossa, Suborder Cteno- 
branchia, Order Frosobranchia, Class Gastro- 

It. lltor'ea, Linn. (L. Utoreus, of the sea- 
shore. G. Uferschnecke.) A mussel which has 
been known to produce poisonous symptoms. 
Ziltorrliain'phous. (Atrds, smooth; 

pdfx(poi, a beak. i\ litorrhamphe.) Dumeril's 
term for those scansorial birds which have a 
naked beak. 

ZiitOSO'ma. (Aitos; orwua, the body.) 
A Genus of sexually mature nematode worms. 

Xi. fila'ria, Van Beneden. (L. Jila, a 
thread.) Found in the stomach of Fleeotus 

Ziit'ra. (AiTjoa.) A pound weight. The 
same as Libra. 

Iiitramet'rum. (AiVjoa, a pound ; /utV- 
pov, a measure. F. litrametre.) Name given 
by Hare to an instrument by the aid of which 
it was thought to measure the specific gravity 
of liquids with perfect exactness. 

Iii'tre> A French measure, being a cubic 
decimeter, which is capable of containing a 
weight of one kilogramme, or 1000 grammes of 
distilled water. It is equal to 61-02705 English 
cubic inches — or 0'2200967 of an imperial gallon, 
or about 7-8ths of an imperial quart. It is the 
unit of the measure of capacity. 

Xiit'ron. (AiVpoj', older form of viTpov, 
nitre.) Old term for nitre. 

IiitSSe'a. A Genus of the Nat. Order Lau- 

Ii. cube'ba. The Laurus piperita. 
Ii. griau'ca, Sieb. (L. glaucus, bluish- 
grey.) Furnishes a eamphorous oil. 

1m. myr'rha, Nees. Hab. Cochin China. 
Bark aromatic and bitter ; resinous juice used 
as an anthelmintic and emmenagogue. 

Ii. zeylan'lca, Nees. Has similar pro- 
perties to L. myrrha. 

Xiit'sea. A Genus of the Nat. Order Lau- 

Ii. seblf 'era, Pers. (L. sebum, tallow ; 
fero, to bear.) The Tetranthera Roxburghii. 

Xiit'ter. (Mid. E. litere; from Old F. 
litiere ; from Low L. lectaria ; from L. lectus, a 
bed.) A bed for carrying the sick or wounded. 

Ziit'tle. (Mid. E. litel; Sax. lytel, a length- 
ened form of lyt, a little ; from Tout, base lut, to 
deceive. F. petit ; I. piccolo ; S. poco ; G. klein.) 

Im. cord. The Acrostichum huaesaro. 
It, Gey'sers. United States of America, 
California, Sonoma County. Thermal waters of 

a temperature of 190' P.— 200" F. (S?-??" C— 
93'33'' C.) Conii)08itii)n unknown. 

Ii. man's bread. A term given to a 
substance obtainrd at liigh altitudes in the 
Nilgiri mountains of India, and used by the 
natives as food. It is the tuber of a subterranean 
fungus of the Genus Mi/littn. 

Ii. Yosem'ite Soda Spring's. United 
States of America, California, Tulare County. 
An athermal mineral water containing sodium 
carbonate 20-97 parts, magnesium carbonate and 
calcium carbonate together 16-02, iron carbonate 
•92, sodium chloride 4-68, and alumina 7'31 parts 
in 1000, with much carbonic acid. 

Xiit'tle, W. S> An American surgeon 
now living. 

Ii.'s test card. A card in which the 
letters or words are chiefly those that are con- 
fusing to astigmatic eyes, and are therefore em- 
ployed as a ready means of diagnosing the 
presence of astigmatism. 

Xiit'tleg'OOd. The Euphorbia helioseopia, 

Iiit'tlewale. The Lithospermum offici- 

Xiit'ton's Selt'zer Spring*. United 

States of America, California, Sonoma County. 
A mineral spring containing soda 62-19 grains, 
lime 4*41, magnesia 5-24, iron oxide 2*8o, and 
silica 2-92 grains in a gallon, in union with 
carbonic and sulphuric acids and chlorine. 

Iiit'toral. (L. littoralis ; {rom li(t(s, the 
shore. Y. littoral ; G. Uferliegend.) Belonging 
to the sea- shore. 

Also, applied to plants and animals that grow 
on the banks of waters. 

Tm. fe'ver. (L. litus, the sea-shore.) A 
term applied to the malarious remittent fevers 
of the coast-line. 

Jm. zone. One of the zones in which ma- 
rine animals live, being the region between high 
and low tides. 

Zii'ttre, Alex'is. A French surgeon, 
born at Cordes, departement Tarn-et-Garonne, 
in 1658, and died in Paris in 1726. 

Ii.'s colot'omy. Same as Colotomy, in- 

Xi., inlands of. The racemose glands of 
the mucous membrane of the urethra ; they are 
situated in the submucous tissue, and open into 
the canal by mouths directed forwards. 

Ii.'s ber'nla. A form of hernia in which 
only a portion of the intestinal wall, or a Meckel's 
diverticulum, is included in the rupture. 
"Xm.'s su'ture. See Suture, Littre's. 

Iiit'uate. (L. lituus, the curved staff 
borne by the augurs. G. ziveizinkig .) Curved. 

In Botany, forked, with the points turned out- 

Ziit'uiform. (L. lituus ; forma, shape.) 
Curved like a Lituus, 

Iiit'urate. (L. litura, a smearing. F. 
liture.) Kubbedout; shaded; striped. 

In Botany, applied to spots which are formed 
by abrasion of the cuticle. 

Zii'tuSi (L. litus, a smearing; from lino, 
to anoint. F. liniment.) Old term for Lini- 

Also (G. Pinselsaft), a medicament of the 
consistence of a linctus, but which differs from 
it in that a brush, or piece of cotton-wool, is 
used for its application. 

Xiive. (A shortened form of alive, which 
itself is a contraction of Mid. E. on, for in ; Hue, 
life ; from Sax. on, in ; life, dative case of lif. 


life. F. vivant ; I. vivo; S. vivo; G. lebend.) 
Having life ; active. 

Also, to have life. 

1m, blood. The name given to the flicker- 
ing sensation felt in the eyelids, caused by irre- 
gular fibrillary contractions of the orbicularis 
palpebrarum muscle. 

li.-for-ev'er. The Sedum telcphium. 
Ii.-long. An old name for lozenges con- 
taining rhubarb and ginger. 

Also, see Livelong. 

liive-birtll. The birth of a child is, 
according to many judicial decisions, the entire 
extrusion of a eliild from its mother, and the 
evidence of live-birth has been declared to be the 
manifestation of some certain sign of life after 
that extrusion. The manifestation may be mus- 
cular movement, the act of breathing or crving, 
the pulsation of the umbilical cord, or the beat- 
ing of the heart. 

But the circumstances of the birth may be 
such that, the child having died, the evidence of 
live-birth can only be supplied by a post-mortem 
examination. In this case the most important 
consideration is the appearance of the lungs. 
Lungs which have neitlier breathed nor been 
inflated are of a uniform and firm texture, re- 
sembling in colour and consistence the adult 
liver. Their surface is marked by slight fur- 
rows, which mark the division of the lobules. 
After respiration or inflation the edges and con- 
cave surface of the upper lobe of the right lung 
most readily admit air. The freshly developed 
air-cells take the form of brilliant vermilion 
spots, the tint becoming lighter the longer the 
lungs are preserved. The air-cells are angular, 
and are not raised above the surface of the lungs. 
In an imperfectly expanded lung they ai'e usually 
in irregular groups. But as a child may breathe 
before the head is born or before the body is 
completely expelled the aerated condition of the 
lungs is no proof of live-birth in the legal 

Additional evidence may be obtained from the 
alterations which take place in the umbilical 
cord and the contraction of its vessels ; from the 
closure of the foramen ovale aud the ductus 
arteriosus ; and from the presence of air in the 
alimentary canal. 

Iiive-bOX. An apparatus by means of 
Avhich minute living objects may be examined 
under the microscope without injuring them, 
though their movements are restrained. It 
consists of a short piece of brass tubing fixed 
around an aperture of equal diameter in a brass 
plate and having the other end closed by a disc 
of glass ; over this is placed a tightly-fitting 
cover, consisting of a ring of brass in which is 
set a disc of thin cover glass. The object is 
placed on the thick glass, and the cover is ad- 
justed to the fitting pressure. 

Xiive'do. (!•'• livco, to be black and blue.) 
A small blui-sh-red spot in a tissue resulting 
from passive hypenvmia of the part. 
Also, another term for liver. 

Ii. calor'ica. (L. calor, heat.) The 
bluish-red or dark-blue discolouration of the skin 
often occurring in lines, or circles, or serpentine 
figures, which is seen in the skin of a person 
exposed to cold. It is a passive hypertcmia of 
the capillaries and veins. 

Ii. mecban'ica. {Mechanical.) The 
leaden-grey or bluish-black discolouration of the 
skin produced by distension of the veins and 

capillaries from mechanical compression or from 

difcct in the valves of the veins. 

Livelong". The Sedum televhiiim. 
It, or'plne. The Sedum telephium. 
liiv'er. (Slid. E. lieur; Sax. lifer. F. 
foie; l.fcijato; S. higado ; G. Leber.) A large 
abdominal viscus of a brownish red colour, 
situated below the diaphragm, in the right hy- 
pochondrium, and stretching across the epigastric 
region to the left hypochondrium; it consists of 
a large number of lobules of the same construc- 
tion ; it secretes the bile, forms glycogen, and 
takes part in the general metabolism of the 

The liver of Invertebrata is a gland developed 
from the wall of the mescnteron, or in some 
forms is a development of the yolk cells which 
remain after the formation of the mesenteron ; 
it is a digestive organ more closely allied to the 
pancreas than to the liver of Vertebrata. 

Of Vertebrata, in Pisces the liver appears 
as a diverticulum of the alimentary canal in 
Branchiostoma. In the Mysinoida it is bilobed, 
the anterior lobe being small and rounded, 
the posterior larger and elongated. In other 
fishes the liver is a relatively large single gland, 
which is either simple or with a right and left 
lobe, or with a third central lobe. It contains 
much oil. The gall-bladder is rarely absent ; 
its duct, as well as some separate hepatic ducts, 
opens into the duodenum. 

Amongst Amphibia the liver is constantly bi- 
lobed in Anoura ; in Urodela it is only incised at 
the margin, and in Gymnophiona it is divided 
into small lobes placed one before the other. 

In Keptilia the liver is large. In Ophidia it 
is often undivided. In lizards the margins are 
incised or lobulated, and in some Chelonia 
and crocodiles it is bilobed. A gall-bladder is 
usually present and closely attached to the liver, 
but in some snakes it is placed at some distance 
from it. 

In Aves the liver is large, occupying a con- 
siderable part of the anterior and median region 
of the body, reaching, in consequence of the 
absence of a diaphragm", far into the thoracic 
cavity, and embracing the apex of the heart. 
It presents right and left lobes, the right being 
much the larger, and these are often subdivided. 
A gall-bladder is sometimes present, sometimes 
absent, as in pigeons, parrots, toucans, and in 
the ostrich and cuckoo. 

In Mammalia, according to Flower, all livers 
are primarily divided by the umbilical vein into 
a right and left segment. In many, each segment 
is further divided by a right and left lateral 
fissure running from the free towards the at- 
tached border. There is thus a right and left 
central and a right and left lateral lobe, the 
former being oft^n together named the middle 
cystic or suspensory lobe. The left segment of 
the liver is rarely complicated, the right is 
marked by the groove for the gall-bladder, when 
present, tlie portal fissure, and the fissure for the 
vena cava. Between the vena cava and the 
portal fissure is a prolongation to the left, named 
the Spigelian lobe, and a pi'occss named the 
caudate lobe, which separates the right lateral 
lobe into two parts. A gall-bladder is generally 
present but sometimes absent, as in many 
Rodents, Solipeds, Iluminants, and Pachyderms. 
In Man the liver is a brown gland occupying 
the right hypochondriac, the epigastric, and 
part of the left hypochondriac regions; it is 


smooth on the surface, which is covered with 
peritoneum, and presents a thick posterior and a 
thin anterior border. The upper surface is 
convex, the inferior irregularly concave, and is 
divided into two chief but unequal lobes, right 
and left, with several subsidiary lobes, de- 
scribed under the subheadings of Lobe of 
liver. Transversely it measures about 30 cm., 
or nearly 12 inches, antcro-posteriorly about 
20 cm., or about 7 inches, and its greatest 
thickness is about 7 cm., or 2| inches. Its 
specitic gravity is on the average r0572. Its 
volume is 1504 to 194-t cm. ; its weight from 
0-8 to 2"1 kilogrammes. It constitutes about 28 
per cent, of the total body weight in men, and 
2'6 per cent, in women, but varies from 2'0 to 4 per 
cent. The liver is soft and inelastic, and hence 
receives impressions from neighbouring organs, 
named, in accordance with their cause, cardiac, 
vesical, gastric, suprarenal, duodenal, and colic. 
The blood-vessels conveying blood to the liver 
are the portal vein and hepatic artery ; the 
efferent blood-vessel is the hepatic vein. The 
portal vein conducts blood from the stomach, 
intestines, and spleen to the transverse fissure 
of the liver, where, in common with the he- 
patic artery and ducts, it is surrounded by a 
sheath of connective tissue, named Glisson's 
capsule, and divides into a right and left trunk. 
Each of these gives off some vaginal branches, 
and a number of veins, named interlobular, 
which run between the lobules, and give off 
capillaries that penetrate the lobules, and con- 
stitute coUectivelj- the lobular venous plexus 
on the peripheral part of the lobule. They 
are continuous with other capillaries situated 
nearer the centre of each lobule, and named 
collectively the hepatic venous plexus, which 
unite to form the intralobular vein of each 
lobule. The intralobular veins open into the 
sublobular, and these into the hepatic vein, which 
enters the inferior vena cava at the posterior 
border of the liver. The hepatic artery divides 
like the portal vein and opens into the portal 
venous plexus. The interspaces of the capillary 
plexus are occupied with cells, the true hepatic 
cells, which contain much fat, glycogen, and 
colouring matter. They are about the QOOth of 
an inch in diameter and have no cell membrane. 
They contain one, or sometimes two, round 
nuclei, and are said to exhibit slow changes of 
form. The hepatic ducts commence by plexuses, 
the branches of which groove the cells. The 
nerves are derived from the vagus and the 
sympathetic. The liver has a capsule of two 
coats ; an investment of peritoneum and a sub- 
peritoneal coat of areolar tissue. 

The liver of man has sometimes no lobes, at 
others it is divided into many lobes, as many, 
according to Sommeriug, as twelve. Occasionally 
a small accessory liver is found. 

The term was formerly applied also to several 
chemical substances of a brownish or liver colour, 
chiefly combinations of sulphiir. 

"Im., ab'scess of. (L. abscessus ; from 
abscedo, to form an abscess. F. abces die foie ; 
G. Leber abscess.) An acute circumscribed hepa- 
titis which terminates in suppuration. It may 
be caused by local conditions, such as a blow, an 
hydatid, or a calculus ; or it may arise from 
disease in some remote part in direct venous con- 
nection with the Liver, as when it results from 
dysentery, in which case the products of the in- 
testinal ulceration are absorbed and conveyed to 

the liver by the portal vein. Purulent infection 
from any wound, or even from a diseased condi- 
tion of the bile-ducts themselves, may give rise 
to hepatic abscess. In hot countries hepatic 
abscess, or tropical abscess, may occur witnout 
visible cause, other than climate, though it is 
often associated with slight attacks of dysentery. 
An hepatic abscess may also commence as a 
diffuse inflammation of the liver substance, 
characterised by tlie blocking of the blood- 
capillaries with zoogloea, resulting from the 
multiplication of bacteria. The liver cells be- 
come disintegrated as the bacteria multiply. 
The abscesses may be multiple. The symptoms 
of an abscess of the liver are sometimes latent ; 
but often there is an initial rigor, followed by 
febrile symptoms, nausea and vomiting, fulness 
and weight or pain in the right hypochondrium 
and the right shoulder, depression of spirits and 
sweating ; there is generally increase of the area 
of hepatic dulness, with, it may be, an irregular 
outline, and not infrequently rigidity of the 
upper part of the right rectus muscle. The 
abscess may burst, or be opened hy the aspirator, 
externally, and recovery ensue ; or it may burst 
into the peritoneal, or pleural, or pericardiac 
cavity, or into the vena cava, the intestine, or the 
pelvis of the kidney, and become fatal ; or death 
may occur without any bursting of the abscess. 

Ii., abscess of, bll'iary. (F. abcis 
bUiaire dn foie.) Cornil and Ranvier's term for 
small, disseminated collections of pus which 
take origin in the interlobular bile-ducts, and 
extend into the neighbouring parenchyma and 
connective tissue. They are caused by a catar- 
rhal inflammation of the bile-ducts set up by 
small biliary concretions. They vary in size 
from that of a hemp-seed to that of a hazel-nut, 
and are filled with a bile- tinted, muco-purulent 
matter, containing granular leucocytes, cylindri- 
cal epithelium, and bile pigment. Their walls 
are formed of embryonic tissue. 

Ii., ab'scess of, bydat'id. ('Voa-rts:, a 
watery vesicle.) Suppuration in an hydatid cyst. 
See also L., abscess of. 

Im,, abscess of, pyse'mic. {Uv6v, dis- 
charge from a sore ; aiixa, blood.) Small and 
numerous, often superficial, abscesses of the liver, 
chiefly following ulceration in the track of the 
portal vein, and caused by absorption of a septic 
substance and its transmission by the portal vein 
to the liver, where probably it forms a thrombus. 
The abscesses contain a foul-smelling, greyish 
or greenish pus, with debris of liver tissue. See 
also L., abscess of. 

It., ab'scess of, tropical. The form 
which occurs in hot countries. It is usually 
situated in the right lobe, and has no limiting 
membrane or surrounding area of condensation 
or inflammation, the walls being formed of ragged 
liver-tissue ; it contains a pinkish, creamy sub- 
stance in which are found pus corpuscles, dis- 
integrated liver cells and connective tissue, and 
many red blood- corpuscles. See L., abscess of. 

Ii., ac'cessory. A detached portion of 
liver substance occasionally found attached to 
the left extremity of the organ by a fold of peri- 
toneum containing blood-vessels. 

Ii., acute' at'ropby of. Same as Z., 
atrophy of, yellow., acute. 

Ii., adeno'ma of, tu'bular. ('Acrji;, a 
gland; L. tubulus, a small pipe.) A rare form 
of tumour, consisting of nodules of convoluted 
and anastomosing glandular tubes embedded in 


a framework of vascular fibrous tissue. It is 
generally secondary to similar disease in the 
digestive canal. 

Ii., albuminoid disease' of. {Albumin; 
Gr. eloos, form.) The saiuc as L., degeneration 
of, amyloid. 

Ii., alve'olar colloid of. A term given 
by Virchow to the multilocular form of hydatid 
of the liver, called Echinococcus multilocularis. 
See also Liver, hydatid of. 
Ii„ am'yloid disease' of. See L., de- 
generation of, amyloid. 

Ii., anse'mia of. ('Ai^ai/uuc, want of 
blood.) Bloodlessness of the liver ; usually 
secondary to general anosmia ; it may result, 
however, from external pressure upon the liver 
or from swelling of the liver cells. 

Xi., an^eio'ma of. {^kyyiiov, a vessel. 
G. cavern'ose Anyiom der Leber.) Erectile tu- 
mour or noevus of the liver, due to atrophy of 
the liver colls, with a varicose condition of the 
intralobular capillaries. It is usually superficial, 
forming slightly depressed blackish or purplish 
patches, consisting of irregular spaces formed by 
trabeculae of fibrous tissue, which are covered 
with tesselated epithelium ; the blood which fills 
the spaces is granular in appearance. By some 
they are supposed to arise from varicose dilata- 
tion of intralobular capillaries ; by Virchow that 
the formation of granulation is the earliest stage. 
The larger tumours are bounded by a fibrous 
capsule, whilst the smaller ones are continuous 
with the liver tissue. Angiomata are most 
frequently found in old cirrhosed livers. 

Xi., anom'alles of. ('Aytu^uaXos, irregu- 
lar.) 'The liver may be quadrangular or rounded 
instead of its usual shape ; the left lobe may be 
prolonged or absent ; it may retain more or less 
its foetal state of lobulation, or the lobes may be 
too few. The whole organ may be absent, or 
the gall-bladder may be wanting. Accessory 
livers may be found and usually in the suspensory 
ligament. The liver may be situated upon the 
left side ; it may protrude into the thorax when 
the diaphragm is defective ; or to the exterior 
from absence of the abdominal walls. It may 
become deformed as the result of disease or tight 
lacing. The organ may be displaced as a result 
of mechanical pressure acting through the dia- 
phragm, as in pneumothorax ; or it may be 
floating or movable. 

Ii., ap'oplexy of. Extravasations of 
blood into the liver substance or beneath its cap- 

It., ar'terles of. See Hepatic artery. 
Ii., at'rophy of. {'ATpoijyia, want of 
nourishment. 1'. atropine du foie.) Morbid 
decrease in size of the Uver. It may be acute, 
as in acute yellow atrophy ; or chronic, as in 
cirrhosis. It may also occur as a senile change. 
!•., at'ropby of, cir'cuiuscrlbed. (G. 
circmnscripte Leber atrophicn.) Atrophy of a 
part of the liver by compression of exsudates and 
tumours, or by tiglit lacing (G. Schniirleber). 

Ii., at'rophy of, cyanot'ic, Klebs. The 
same as L., atrophy of, red. 

Ii., at'rophy of, from pbos'ptaorus 
poisoning'. The change whicli occurs in 
this condition commences in the cells nearest 
the periphery of the lobules, which become 
turbid, swollen, and finally disintegrated, being 
replaced, as in acute yellow atrophy, by gra- 
nulesj fat-globules, and crystals of leucin and 
tyrosin ; the connective tissue undergoes hyper- 

plasia, and the whole organ is infiltrated with 
fat. The colour of the liver is greyish-yellow ; 
haemorrhages of a rosette shape are not infre- 
quent. 'Tlie jaundice is probably caused by an 
inability of the liver to remove the biliary prin- 
ciples from the blond. 

Ii. atrophy of, pigmentary. (L. 
pigmentum, paint.) Localised atrophy affecting 
a few cells or lobules, the result of long-standing 
venous engorgement, or other sources of pressure. 
The atrophied cells usually contain many bro^vn 
or yellow pigment granules. 

Ii., at'rophy of, red. (F. atrophie rouge 
dufoie; G. rathe Leber atrophie.) Rokitansky's 
term for an atrophic form of nutmeg liver, the 
result of stasis of blood in the pulmonary veins in 
chronic hypera:mia. 

Ii., at'rophy of, simple. Decrease in 
size of the liver due to rapidly fatal starvation, 
or to old age, or to chronic disorders of nutrition. 
The margins of the liver are chiefly aS"ected. 
The atrophy is due to actual loss of liver cells. 

Ii., atrophy of, varicose. (L. varix, 
a dilated vein.) The same as atrophy from 

Ii., atrophy of, yel'lo\7, acute'. 
(F. atrophie jaune aigue du foie; G. acute 
gelbe Leberatrophie.) An acute affection of 
the liver, characterised by rapid diminution 
in the size of the organ, with destruction 
of the hepatic cells and the elimination of 
large quantities of leucin and tyrosin by the 
urine. 'The liver is smaU, flabby, bloodless, and 
of a dull yellow or ochreous colour, with some 
dark red or purple patches. The hepatic cells 
are destroyed, granular and oily products of dis- 
integration more or less entirely replacing them, 
with rounded, flat, concentrically marked discs 
of leucin, and bundles or globules of needle- 
shaped crystals of tyrosin and crystals of xanthin. 
After obscure symptoms of loss of appetite and 
fulness in the epigastrium, there is usually 
slight jaundice, which increases, and is accom- 
panied by headache and intolerance of light, 
delirium, followed by coma, and sometimes 
convulsions, with high temperature, and then 
collapse; death usually occurs on the second, 
fourth, or fifth day. Indications of interstitial 
inflammation may be seen under the microscope 
in the form of an interlobular exudation con- 
taining round cells ; the smaller bile-ducts are 
enlarged and probably new ones are formed. 
Micrococci have been found in the earlj' stages 
of the disease. 

Ii., at'rophy of, yellow, chron'lc. A 
sj'nonym of Cirrhosis of liver. 

Ii;, ba'cony. (G. Speckleber.) Same as 
L., degeneration of, amyloid. 

Ii., blood-vessels of. The Hepatic 
artery, the If. reins, and the Vena por tee. 

Ii., blood-vessels of, in foetus. See 
under Circulation, fmtal. 

Ii., cap'sule of. (L. capsula, a small 
box.) The delicate membrane covering the liver 
divisible structui-ally into two parts ; an outer 
serous coat consisting of a layer of epithelium 
continuous with that of the peritoneum, and an 
inner fibrous or areolar coat closely adherent to 
the gland, sending delicate septa between the 
lobules of the surface, and continuous with the 
capsule of Glisson at the transverse fissure. 

Ii., cap'sule of, inflamma'tion of. 
Same as Fenhepatitis. 

Ii.i carclno'ma of. (F. cancer du foie; 


G. Leberkrebs.) Cancer occurs sometimes in a 
nodular form, the nodes beiug of large size, and 
most commonly occurring in the right lobe ; and 
sometimes as a diffuse infiltration, the whole 
organ being traversed by anastomosing fibrous 
bands, enclosing islands of new tissue ; or the 
cancerous growths may be seated in the inter- 
lobular connective tissue. Carcinoma is usually 
of the encephaloid variety, more i-arely it is 
scirrhous, colloid, or melanotic in tj-pe. In 756 
cases 422 were women, 334 men. It is most 
common between the ages of forty to sixty. It 
is very rare in the tropics. It may be primary 
but is usually secondary in formation. Cancer 
of the liver is very rare in hot countries. 

Ii., car'diac. (Kapoi'a, the heart. F. 
foie cardiaque.) The condition of liver in 
chronic hyperajmia of cardiac origin. 

Ii., cav'ernous tu'mours of. Same as 
i., anijeloma of, 

3Ci. -cells. {F . cellules hepatiqucs ; G. Le- 
herzellen.) The cells which occupy the inter- 
stices of the network of the capillaries of the 
liver. They are yellowish, polygonal, granular 
masses of reticulated protoplasm, 1-lOOOtli of an 
inch, more or less, in diameter, without a cell- 
wall, possessing a clear spherical nucleus, some- 
times two, and one or more nucleoli, with some 
fat globules, and often granules or amorphous 
masses of glycogen ; they are connected with each 
other by an albuminous cement, in which are 
fine channels, the bile capillaries ; these latter 
are said to communicate with small vacuoles in 
the liver-cells by tine intracellular passages. 

Xi., cboles'terln disease' of. See Cho- 
lesterin disease. 

la., cirrbo'sls of. See Cirrhosis of liver. 

Xi., clrrbo'sis of, atropb'lc. {'A.Tpo(j)ia, 
want of nourishment.) The form described 
under Cirrhosis of liver. 

Xi., cirrbo'sls of, biliary. Same as L., 
cirrhosis of, hypertrophic. 

Xi., cirrbo'sls of,bypertropb'lc. (Kip- 
/oo's, reddish-yellow ; vTrlp, above ; Tpo<pn, nou- 
rishment.) A condition of increase of, and 
change in, the connective tissue of the liver, 
which causes enlargement of the organ. Its 
cause is not known. The liver becomes very 
large and dense, the capsule becomes finely 
granular, and the connective tissue becomes 
greyish and somewhat translucent, consisting 
mainly of embryonic cells. The morbid process 
commences in the interlobular branches of the 
biliary ducts, which become dilated and distended 
with epithelium, to the destruction of the hepatic 

Xi., cirrbo'sls of, Inter'lobular. (L. 
inter, between; lobule.) Same as L., cirrhosis 
of, hypertrophic. 

Xi., cirrbo'sls of, monolob'ular. (Mo- 
i/os, alone; lobulus.) Same as Z., cirrhosis of, 

Xi., Cirrbo'sls of, sypbilit'ic. {Kippoi ; 
syphilis.) A congenital form of syphilitic disease 
in which the connective tissue sheath of the por- 
tal vein, to its remotest capillaries or sometimes 
only the investment of the larger veins, has 
undergone excessive growth, affecting chiefly the 
fibrous, but sometimes also the cellular, element. 
The result is first compression, then atrophy and 
granular degeneration of the liver-cells. The 
liver is large, firm, and tough, with purplish 
projecting nodules. On section it is generally 
pale in colour, with interspersed pearly-white 

patches, where the intralobular connective tissue 
is in the greatest abundance. 

Xi.-col'oured. Eeddish-brown like the 

Xi., composit'ion of. Von Bibra's esti- 
mate is water 70' 17, insoluble tissues 9*44, albu- 
min 2-4, gelatin 3'37, extractives 607, and fats 
2"5. Oidlman estimates the inorganic consti- 
tuents as 1*1 per cent. ; 100 parts containing 
potash '25-17, soda 14'47, lime 3'02, magnesia 
•19, oxide of iron 2*75, phosphoric acid 43'37, 
sulphuric acid '91, silicic acid •27, chlorine 2*5, 
and traces of lead and copper. The glycogen 
varies from 1"2 to 2-5 per cent. During life the pa- 
renchyma of the liver is alkaline, after death the 
hepatic cells become turbid and somewhat acid. 

Ii., congres'tion of. (F. congestion du 
foie.) See L., hypercemia of, acute and chronic. 

Ii., connec'tive tissue tu'mour of. 
A very rare form of tumour. 

Xi., contrac'tion of. The condition which 
occurs in simple atrophy, or in cirrhosis. 

Xi., cyl'inders of. {Lebercylinders of 
Eemak.) The bodies described under Z., de- 
velojiment of. 

Xi., cyst of. See L., cystic disease of. 

Xi., cys'tic dis'ease of. Cysts of the 
liver vary in size from that of a pin's head to 
that of an orange ; they are sometimes solitary, 
sometimes very numerous ; usually they are 
thin-walled and lined with tesselated epithe- 
lium, containing a clear straw-coloured fluid, 
and sometimes brownish colloidal masses. They 
are generally caused by distension of a bile-duct, 
or, according to some, by the vacuolation of the 
liver cells. 

See also, Z., parasites of, and Z., hydatid of. 

Im., degenera'tion of, amyloid. (L. 
degenero, to become unlike one's race ; amylum, 
starch ; Gr. eI5os, form. F. degenerescence 
amyloide du foie ; G. amyloide Entartung 
der Leber.) This disease chiefly affects the 
lobular systems. The intralobular capillaries 
are first affected bj- a kind of hyaline thick- 
ening in the endothelial layer. The hepatic 
cells are gradually compressed by this deposit, 
and finally atrophy. The change involves the 
whole liver. The lardaceous degeneration may 
be brought into view by staining with a solution 
of iodine or of methyl violet. A liver thus 
affected is uniformly increased in size. Its 
weight and specific gravity are greater. Its 
edges are rounded, and the surface is smooth. 
On section it is seen to be dry and bloodless, 
smooth and translucent. In advanced cases 
there is no distinction between the lobules, but 
in the commencement of the disease they are 
distinctly mapped out. The disease is often 
associated with fatty degeneration. It follows 
upon long- continued suppurations. 

Xi., degrenera'tion of, fat'ty. (L. de- 
genero. F. degenerescence graisseuse dufoie ; G. 
fettige Entartung der Leber.) The conversion 
of the albumin of the liver cells into fat ; it is 
often preceded by cloudy swelling of the cells, 
which become turbid and granular. The liver 
becomes wasted, the capsule wrinkled, the tissue 
paleish, and easily breaking up on pressure ; in 
some places the bile-ducts, it may be, have given 
way, and bile-stained patches are seen ; in other 
places small hsemorrhagic clots have been pro- 
duced by rupture of minute blood-vessels. It 
occurs in the course of infective, wasting, and 
exhausting diseases, in pernicious anaemia, in 


acute yellow atrophy, and in poisoning by anti- 
monj', arsenic, sulphuric ether, or phosphorus, 
especially the latter. 

Ii., degrenera'tlon of, pigmentary. 

See X., atrophii of, pifpnentar)/. 

It., development of. The liver appears, 
in man, about the third week of fecial life as a 
double or bilobed divertieiiluin from the anterior 
surface of that part of the ])riinitivc intestine 
which subsequently becomes the duodenum ; in 
some of the lower vertebrates it is originally 
single. The diverticula represent the two lobes 
of the liver and embrace the vitelline veins, 
which form the roots of the meatus venosus; 
they consist of hypoblast, with a mesoblastic 
investment; they speedily present a cavity, the 
primitive excretory duct, which sends branches 
into the surrounding mesoblast. Towards the 
end of the third day solid cylinders of hypoblastic 
substance arise from the walls of these branches, 
rapidly increase in number by branching, and 
unite at their extremities so as to form a solid 
network. As this is progressing blood-vessels 
form in the mesobla^it which become connected 
with the roots of the meatus venosus. The solid 
hypoblastic cylinders develop into the paren- 
chyma of the liver, consisting of hepatic cells 
and elementary hepatic ducts. 

Ii., dlsloca'tion of. (Low L. disloco, to 
remove from its place.) See i., malposition of. 

Ii., dlsplace'ment of. See Z., malposi- 
tion of. 

Xj., drunk'ard's. A term for Cirrhosis 
of liver, atrophic. 

Xj., ducts of. The Ductus choledochiis 
communis, U. cijstieus, D. hcpaticus, and D. 
hepaticus medius. 

Also, the Ducts, biliary, or Hepatic ducts. 

It., em'bolism of. ('E/i/3o',\t(Tjua, that 
which is put in.) Embolism of the hepatic 
artery occurs very rarel}', and then it is com- 
monly of septic origin. Embolism of the radicles 
of the portal vein occurs more frequently, and is 
of septic origin. 

Ii., enlarg^e'ment of. (G. Vergros- 
serung der Leber.) Increase in size of the liver. 
It may be caused by hyperemia, hypertrophy, 
abscess, fatty or amyloid degeneration, leu- 
cemic infiltration, or it may be congenital. 

!•., enlargement of, neurot'lc. (Neu- 
pov, a nerve.) Increase in size of the liver de- 
pendent on paralysis of its vaso-motor nerves, 
Bucli as occurs when the cocliac and mesenteric 
plexuses are destroyed, and possibly when there 
is diabetes, or migraine. 

Ii., erectile tum'ours of. See Z., an- 
geioma of. 

Ii., excis'ion of. (L. excisio ; from e.ecido, 
to cut out.) The rimoval of a part of the liver. 
The operation has been successfully performed 
when a portion of the organ has protruded 
through a wound in the abdomen by tying mth 
a tight ligature. 

Ii., fat'ty. See Z., degeneration of, fatty, 
and Z., infiltration of, fatty. 

TU., fat'ty, atrophic. {'ATpo(i>ia, want 
of nourishment.) Same as L., degcfi' ration of, 

Ii., fat'ty, hypertrophic. ('Y-Trf'p, 
above; TfiotlW], nourishment.) Same as L., in- 
filtration of, fatty. 

£. fer'ment. See Ferments of liver. 

Ii., fibro'ma of. Fibrous tumour occur- 
ring in the liver. 

Ii,, flbroneuro'ma of. Small fibrous 

tumours occurring upon the nerves of the liver. 
Ii., fis'sures of, interlob'ular. See 

the several ."iubhcadings oi Fissure of liver. 

Ii.,float'ing. (l.fegatoambulunte.) See 
J/iver, movable. 

Ii. -fluke. (F. distome; G. Doppehnaul.) 
The Distoma hcpaticum. Its larval form is be- 
lieved to inhabit the J.imnccus trunctilatus. 

Im., fos'sae of. See Fossa ductus venosi, 
F. longitudlnalis dcrtra hepatis, F. longitudi- 
nalis sinistra hepatis, F., portal, F. transversa 
hepatis, F. voice cavce, F. fence timbilicalis, and 
F. vesiecefcllccc. 

Im., gan'grene of. {Tayypaiva, an eating 
sore which ends in mortification.) Death of 
some considerable part of the liver tissue is rare. 
It occurs sometimes when there is inflammation 
and suppuration of the organ. 

X., gln-drln'ker's. See L., cirrhosis of, 

Ii., glycogenic function of. (TAukos, 
sweet; yiwaco, to beget.) The power which the 
liver possesses of converting sugar into glycogen, 
and of reconverting glycogen into sugar as it is 
needed by the economy. 

Ii., gran'ular. (L. granulum, a small 
grain.) A synonym of Cirrhosis of liver, from 
the appearance of the organ. 

Ii., gum'ma of, mil'iary. These arc 
small circumscribed foci of inflammatory infil- 
tration, seated partly in the interlobular tissue 
and partly in the lobules. They are grey when 
recent, and afterwards turn yellow. They are 
due to congenital syphilis. 

Ii., gum'ma of, nodo'se. These syphilo- 
mata are usually met with in patients affected 
with congenital syphilis who have lived for 
some mouths or years. When recent they are 
rounded or elongated patches, with irregular 
margins; the centre afterwards becomes caseous, 
cicatrices are formed, and by their contraction the 
surface of the liver is puckered. 

It., haem'orrhage of. (F. hemorrhagic 
du foie, ramolliscment hcmorrhagique.) A con- 
dition frequently observed in the paludal fevers 
of hot climates, and also occurring in scurvy and 
in the puerperal state, and it is occasionally seen 
as the result of the rupture of a vessel in a part 
of the liver softened by external violence. The 
symptoms are not always well marked, but are 
generally those of internal haemorrhage, pallor, 
dyspnoea, rigors, and syncope. Death is some- 
times sudden. 

X.,her'nla of. The presence of the liver, 
or part of it, in a Hernia, ventral, or a H., 

Ii., hob'nail. A term for Cirrhosis of 
liver, atrophic. 

Ii., hydat'ld of. ('V(1otiv, a watery 
vesicle.) The hydatid is usually in the form of 
a simple cyst, on the inner wall of which are 
small, white, broad capsules containing scolicea. 
In other cases the Fchinococcus multilocularis 
appears as a hard tumour, built up of a number 
of alveoli, separated by dense fibrous tissue. The 
distinct alveolar texture of the growth led to its 
being described as an alveolar colloid of the liver. 
See Hydatid of liver. 

I,., hyperae'mia of, acute. rVTiip, 
above ; al/ja, blood ; L. acutus, sharp. F. con- 
gestion aigue defoie.) 'i"he great vascularity of 
the liver renders it particularly liable to hyper- 
aemia, which may be induced by any mechanical 
obstacle, either in lungs or heart, to the free cir- 


culation of the blood ; by repletion of the vena 
portas, owing to excessive absorption of fluids 
from the alimentary canal ; by all morbid con- 
ditions lowering the tone of "the vessels, such 
as febrile states of the system, gout, syphilis, and 
the like; by puncture of the fourth ventricle ; 
bj' electric stimulation of the central extremity 
of the cut vagus ; by certain injuries of the head ; 
and by the toxic influence of curare. These 
causes are modified by individual predisposition, 
by age, climate, and many other conditions. 
Congestion of the liver is characterised by en- 
largement of the liver, frequently accompanied 
with yellowness of the conjunctiva. Stasis or 
augmentation of the flow of the bile, constipa- 
tion or diarrhoea, are variable sjTnptoms. It 
may be transitory or persistent. 

Zi., byperse'mia of, ctaron'ic. ('YTr/p; 
al/xa ; L. chronicm, long-lasting.) Passive 
or venous engorgement, often called nutmeg 
liver, or central red atrophy of Virchow. The 
result of obstruction to the free passage of blood 
through the organ. The commonest causes are 
diseases of the tricuspid and mitral valves of the 
heart, cirrhosis of the lungs and emphysema. 
At an early stage of the disease the liver "is en- 
larged and full of blood, whilst the central parts 
of the lobules are dark and livid. In a more 
advanced form the liver is smaller, and its surface 
is irregularly knobbed and granular. On section 
it has a nutmeg-like appearance, the dark centre 
of each lobule contrasting with the pale peri- 
phery. When examined with the microscope 
the intralobular veins and capillaries are seen to 
be enlarged and varicose, whilst the liver cells 
are atrophied and contain many pigments. 

Ii., Iiyperae'lxila of, passive. (JT-rrip ; 
alfxa ; L. pa.jsivHs, suflering.) Same as Z., hi/- 
permmia of, chronic. 

Ii., byperae'mla of, trop'lcal. (Y-jrlp ; 
aifia.) Engorgement of the liver, due in large 
degree to exposure to a continuous high tempera- 
ture, but aided by malarial influences. It often 
ends in enlargement of the organ, and is a fre- 
quent precursor of tropical abscess. 

Ii., byperpla'sia of, nodular. {Yirip, 
in excess ; 7r\do-i?, a moulding ; L. nodiilus, 
dim. of nodus, a knot.) A tumour of the liver 
consisting of liver tissue, and, when large, sur- 
rounded by a connective-tissue capsule. The 
liver-cells of which it is composed are large, and 
in some instances have two nuclei. 

Ii., hyper'tropby of. ('Y-Trtp ; Tpo<pv, 
nourishment.) Enlargement of the liver by 
addition of natural structure only. It is a rare 
occurrence, but sometimes occurs in diabetes, 
and is occasionally compensatory. 

Ii., byper'tropby of, byperse'znic. 
{'Yirip ; Tporpt'i ; al^ua, blood.) Increase in size of 
the liver from persistent hj-peraemia of the organ. 

Ii., indura'tion of. (L. induro, to make 
hard.) The hardening of the organ produced by 
increase of the connective tissue, as in cirrhosis. 

Ii., infiltration of, fatty. (F. irifiltrer, 
to creep in. F. infiltratmi graisseuse du foie ; 
G. Fettinfiltration der Leber.) A greater or less 
increase of the fat in the liver-cells, due to an 
increased supply, as in the conditions producing 
general obesity and in an excess of fat-forming 
foods; or to diminished consumption, as in 
phthisis and other lung diseases accompanied by 
emaciation. The liver is enlarged to a greater 
or less extent, smooth, and yellowish or pale in 
colour, with a tense, glistening capsule. The 

surface on section is somewhat like that of a nut- 
meg liver, the periphery of the lobules being 
pale yellow and the centre brownish red or pur- 
jilish ; but when the accumulation of fat is great 
the surface is a uniform pale yellow; droi)s of 
oil may be scraped ofl' it, and a piece of it will 
float in water. 

Im., infiltra'tlon of, leucse'mic. (F. 
infiltrcr ; Gr. Xeuko's, white ; al/na, blood.) An 
enlargement of the liver in leucocytha-mia and 
splenic ancemia, due to the deposit in the interlo- 
bular tissue of a large number of leucocytes, un- 
accompanied by stroma. The liver is swollen, 
smooth, and pale, and the lobules are separated by 
broad zones of greyish white. Sometimes nodular 
aggregations accompany the diffuse infiltration. 

Ii., infiltration of, parencbym'- 
atous. (F. iiifiltrer ; Gr. ■napiyjiifxa, the 
peculiar substance of the viscera.) A condition 
which exists when the liver is enlarged in fevers, 
erysipelas, and other acute diseases ; the Uver- 
cells are highly granular, and are affected with 
cloudy swelling. 

Ii.,inflamma'tion of. The disease termed 

!>., inflammation of,bil'iary. Inflam- 
mation of the liver starting in the bile-ducts, 
generally in connection with the retention of 
bile and engorgement of the biliary canals. It 
is characterised by circumscribed patches infil- 
trated with bile pigment. The inflammation 
may be either plastic or purulent. See also, 
Hepatic ducts, tnjlammation of. 

Jm,, inflamma'tion of, cap'sular. (L. 
capsula, a small box.) Same as Fcrihepatitis. 

Ii., inflamma'tion of, cbron'ic. See 
Hepatitis, chronic. 

Ii,, inflammation of, cbron'ic inter- 
stit'ial. Same as Cirrhosis of liver. 

Ii., inflamma'tion of, pu'rulent. A 
condition due to the invasion of the organ by 
some irritant which gains access to it by absorp- 
tion or direct contact. It leads to, or may result 
fi'om, abscess of the liver. 

Ii., inflammation of, sypbilit'ic. See 
L., syphilis of, and Hepatitis, circumscribed 

It., inflamma'tion of, tuber'cular. 
See L., tuberculosis of. 

Ii., is'lets of. (G. Inselchen der Leber, 
Toldt.) The Hepatic lobules. 

Ii., larda'ceous. Same as L., degenera- 
tion of, amyloid. 

Im., li^'aments of. See Coronary liga- 
ment of liver, Ligament of liver, falciform, L.s 
of liver, lateral, and L. of liver, round. 

Ii., lobes of. See subheadings of Lobes 
of liver. 

Ii., lob'ules of. The Hepatic lobules. 

]Ci., lympbadeno'ma of. {Lymph ; Gr. 
aci'iv, a gland.) This form of malignant growth 
when occurring in the liver is usually connected 
with the capsule of Glisson and its interlobular 
extensions. See Lymphadenoma. 

Ii., lympbat'ics of. (F. lymphatiqnes 
du foie ; G. Lymphgefdsse der Leber.) Ttiese 
are superficial and deep ; the former run in the 
subperitoneal tissue, the latter accompany the 
branches of the portal and hepatic veins. 

The superficial lymphatics of the upper surface 
are divided into four groups ; those from the 
middle of the organ ascend in the falciform 
ligament, and join the anterior mediastinal 
glands ; those from the sides traverse each lateral 



ligament and join the coeliac glands; those from 
the front join the lymphatics of the under sur- 
face ; and those from the back of the organ pass 
into the coronary li<,'ament and join the ghiiids 
at the upper end of the inferior vena cava. The 
superficuil lymphatics of the under surficc in 
large part, including those of the gall-bladder, 
pass with the deep lymphatics through the 
transverse fissure ; but some join the lumbar 
glands, and others the cesophageal and the coeliac 

The deep lymphatics of the portal system pass 
out of the organ at the transverse fissure along with 
the superticial lymphatics of the under surface, 
enter the small omentum, traverse the hepatic 
glands, and join the coeliac glands ; those of the 
hepatic system join the glands around the inferior 
vena cava. The lymphatic twigs commence in 
lymph-spaces and lymph-clefts in the interior of 
the hepatic lobules between the hepatic cells, and 
between them and the capillaries ; they are con- 
nected with the network of small lymphatics in 
the interlobular connective tissue around the in- 
terlobular veins of the portal system, and with the 
perivascular lymphatics of the hepatic system. 

Ii., lymphatics of, intralobular. 
(L. intra, within ; lobule.) Macgillivray's term 
for what are supposed to be only lymph-spaces 
in the lobules. 

Ii., malforma'tlons of. (L. malus, bad ; 
forma, shape.) See under L., anomalies of. 

Xt,, malposit'ion of. (L. malus, bad ; 
positio, a placing.) The liver may lie outside 
the abdomen, or in the chest, or in the left hypo- 
chondrium from congenital defect ; or it may be 
altered in position by a curved spine, or a pleu- 
ritic effusion, or an abdominal swelling, or by 
tight lacing. 

Xi., mam'tnillated. (L. mammilla, a 
small teat.) Same as L., granular. 

Xi., melanee'mic. (MtXos, black ; alyua, 
blood.) The same as L., pigmentation of. 

Xi., melanosarco'ma of. (MAas, 
black ; (^dpl, flesh.) A pigmented sarcomatous 
growth occurring in the liver, which may ori- 
ginate from the endothelium of the intralobular 
capillaries, and is often secondary to melano- 
sarcoma of the choroid coat of the eye. 

X., mo'vable. {Y.foie mobile ; G. Wan- 
derlebcr.) Displacement with mobility of the 
liver from a lengthening, or an absence, of the 
ligaments which retain the liver in position. 

Ii., nerves of. (fi.Lebernerven.) Branches 
of the pneumngastric nerves, especially the left, 
and of the coeliac plexus, by means of the hepatic 
plexus. They pass into the substance of the organ 
along with the hepatic artery and its branches. 
They are composed chiefly of non-meduUated 
fibres, but contain also single, small, medul- 
lated fibres ; and, especially at their branch- 
ing, they are furnished with ganglia. They 
probably form a fine network on the minute 
capillaries, but do not come into contact with the 

Z>., nufmeg. (F. foie noix de muscade ; 
G. Muskatmtsskber.) A condition of the liver 
observed when the organ has been far a long 
time congested, in consequence of regurgitant 
valvular disease of the heart, or from chronic 
bronchitis, or other impediment to the circulation 
through the heart and lungs; the lobules are 
•whitish at their borders from fatty degeneration, 
the hepatic veins being congested make central 
red spots and streaks, and the full bile ducts 

add yellow patches, which together simulate the 
appearance of a nutmeg. See L., hypercemia of, 

Ii. of an'timony. Semivitreous sul- 
phuret of antimony. See Hepar antimonii. 

Jm. of sul'p'hur. K2S3, KjSOi. A yel- 
lowish-brown suhstance consisting of the ter- 
sulphide and the sulphate of potassium. Whin 
it is lieated with an acid it gives oft' sulphuretted 
hydrogen. The I'otassa sntphurata. 

Ii. ore. A Uver-coloured ore containing 
mercury sulj)hide. 

Ii., parasites of. The parasites which 
may take up their abode in the liver are : — Twnia 
echinococcHs, Distoma hepalicum, Distoma lan- 
ceolatum, Bistoma hmmatoblum, Fentastoma 
denticulattim, Fdarice sanguinis hominis, and 
Fsorospermia. Actinomycosis, the growth of the 
ray fungus, occasionally occurs in the liver. 

It., pigmenta'tion of. (F. pigmentation 
dufoie.) A condition occasionally seen in palu- 
dal fevers, and caused by the deposition of pig- 
ment matter from the blood; it invades the 
lobules from the periphery towards the centre. 

Ii., pulsa'tlon of. A phenomenon first 
observed by Friedreich, and usually due to re- 
gurgitation of blood into the hepatic veins, owing 
to incompetence of the tricuspid valve, and then 
generally accompanied with strong cervical pul- 
sation. An hepatic pulsation has also been ob- 
served in Basedow's disease, which was regarded 
by Lebert as arterial in origin, characterised by 
its being more feeble than venous pulsation, and 
by its being particularly observable over the 
right lobe. 

Ii., pyae'mlc disease' of. See Z., abscess 

Ii. pyrl'tes. See Pyrites, liver. 

Ii., remo'val of. See L., excision of, 

Ii., rupture of. The more or less exten- 
sive tearing of the liver as a result of direct ex- 
ternal violence, or by the medium of a broken 
rib. There are pallor and coldness of the sur- 
face, short and painful breathing, small weak 
pulse, great pain and distension, sometimes 
vomiting, and often death from collapse or hae- 
morrhage. If the patient lives more than a day 
there may be jaundice, peritonitis may super- 
vene, and suppuration may ensue. 

X., sarco'ma of. (2tip£, flesh.) The 
spindle-celled form has been occasionally seen in 
the liver ; probably not as a primary growth ; it 
often contains haemorrhagic patches of varying 
colour according to their age. 

Ii., sarco'ma of, melanotic. See Z., 
melanosarcoma of. 

Ii., scrofulous. A synonym of L., de- 
generation of. amyloid. 

Ii., soffening: of, acute'. A synonym 
of L., atrophy of, yellow, acute. 

Ii. spotts. A popular name for Chloasma, 
or macular pigmentation of the skin ; because it 
was supposed to depend on some disorder of the 

Ii. starch. Same as Glycogen. 

X., steato'sls of. {Steatosis. F. steatose 
defoie,steatose hepatique ; G.Fettleber.) Same 
as Z., drgrncrction of, fatty. 

Ii. sugr'ar. The sugar derived from C/y- 

Ii., syph'llls of. As a result of acquired 
syphilis inflammatory changes may be set up, 
which result in the formation of fibrous tissiK^, 
and tlie liver appears to be aflected with cir- 


rhosis. Gummata may be formed, often in the 
neighbourhood of tlie suspensory ligament, the 
surface of the liver being scarred, and the peri- 
toneal coat being thickened. When the scars 
are numerous the liver may become lobulated by 
the contraction of the newly formed fibrous 
tissue. Congenital syphilis leads to cellular in- 
filtration, with subsequent formation of fibrous 
tissue, or to gumma. There maj' be lardaceous 
degeneration with considerable enlargement of 
the organ. Syphilitic diseases may produce 
ascites. See Z., cirr/iosis of, syphilitic. 

"Sm., ttarombo'sls of. {Opo/xliwa-ii, a be- 
coming curdled.) Thrombosis of the portal vein 
occurs especially in the course of cirrhosis. 
Thrombosis of the hepatic artery is very rare 

Ii., tlg:bt-lace> (G. SchniirUber.') A 
deformity of the liver consequent on wearing 
tight corsets in women. When slight there is 
only a shallow transverse furrow upon the anterior 
surface of the right, and sometimes of the left, 
lobe. When strongly marked the part below the 
groove forms almost a separate lobe, united to the 
upper mass of the liver by a bridge partlj' composed 
of atrophied gland tissue and partly of fibrous 
tissue, covered by thickened and indurated peri- 
toneum, strongly adherent to the hepatic tissue. 
The tight-lace lobe is often slightly granulated. 

Ii., tuber'culated. The condition of 
Cirrhosis of liver. 

Ii., tuberculo'sis of, cbron'lc. Nodules 
like those of miliary tuberculosis are present, 
but, the affection being more chronic, fibrous 
tissue is formed, which also contains small masses 
of tubercle ; these break down, and cavities result, 
enclosing liquid or pulpy bile-stained detritus. 

Xi., tuberculosis of, miliary. The 
commoner form of the disease ; it is usually part 
of a general tuberculosis. The liver contains a 
number of small, grey, yellow or bile- stained 
miliary nodules. The nodules when recent con- 
sist of aggregations of small cells ; they contain 
giant cells in a later stage, and finally caseate. 

Ill, wau'dering". Same as Z., movable. 

Ii., vrast'ing: of, acute'. A synonym of 
i., atrophy of, yellow, acute. 

It., 'wax-llke. (G. wachserne Leber.) A 
modification of fatty liver, differing from waxy 
or amyloid liver, in its colour being deeper, re- 
sembling yellow wax, and its consistence greater ; 
it is dry and friable, leaving but little fat ad- 
herent to the knife-blade on section. 

Ij., wax'y. (G. Wachsleber.) See L., 
degeneration of, amyloid. 

1m., wliis'ky. Same as Liver, nutmeg. 

It.-vrort. See Liverwort. 

It,, vrounds of. Punctured and incised 
wounds of the liver are not infrequently re- 
covered from ; gunshot wounds are often fatal at 
first from shock or haemorrhage, later from peri- 
tonitis or abscess of the liver. 

Ii., zones of. (L. zo7ia, a belt.) The 
three areas constituting an hepatic lobule ; the 
central area forms the Hepatic vein zone, the 
circumferential area is the I'ortal vein zone, and 
the intermediate area is the Hepatic artery zone. 
The first mentioned zone is specially the seat of 
cyanotic changes, the second of fatty degenera- 
tion, and the third of amyloid degeneration. 
Xiiv'erweeda The Hepatica triloba. 
Iiiv'erwort* The plants of the Nat. 
Order Hcpaticce. 
Also the Hepatica triloba. 

Ii.-'wort, American. Common name 
for the Hepatica aiiicricana, or H. triloba. 

Ii.-'wort, g'round. The I'eltiytra canina. 
It used to be officinal, and was looked upon as a 
specific in cases of hydrophobia. 

Ii.-\7ort, g'round, asb-col'oured. (F. 
lichen caniii.) The I'dtigtra canina. 

Ii.-'wort, Iceland. (F. lichen d'Lslande ; 
G. Islandisches Moos, Islandische Flcchtc.) 
Common name for the Cetraria islandica, or 
Iceland moss. 

Ii.-'wort, no'ble. The Hepatica triloba. 

Ii.-'wort, star. The Marchantia poly- 

X.-'wort, true. (F. lichen olivaire.) The 
Farmclia olivacia. 

Ziiv'id. (F. livide ; from L. lividus, leaden- 
coloured ; from liveo, to be black and blue. I. 
livido ; S. livido, cardeno ; G. bleifarbiy, blci- 
grau.) Of a blackish or greyish blue colour ; of 
a leadcn-blue colour. 

Xiivid'ity. (F. Hvidite; from L. lividus. 
1. lividezza, lividore ; G. Lleifarbe.) The state 
of being livid. 

Ii., cadaver'ic. (L. cadaver, a dead 
body.) Dissolved patches which begin to form 
on the skin in the most dependant parts of the 
body from eight to twelve hours after death. 
They are due to the gravitation of the blood, 
permitted by the skin becoming inelastic and by 
the loss of firmness in the muscles. 

Ziiv'idus mus'culus. (L. lividus, 
bluish ; from liveo.) A synonym of the Pectineus 

Iiiv'in^ plasm. Same as Bioplasm. 
liiv'ing'stone arte'sian 'well. 
United States of America, Alabama, Sumter 
County. A mineral spring, of a temperature of 
68° F. (20° C), containing magnesium bicar- 
bonate 2"32 grains, calcium bicarbonate 7'14, 
iron bicarbonate '204, iron perchlovide "19, po- 
tassium chloride '325, sodium chloride 295'405, 
magnesium chloride 1'839, calcium chloride 
2-983, sodium bromide '98, and silicates 1-138 
grains in 1000. 

Ziiv'in^stone warm spring's. 

United States of America, Montana, Gallatin 
County. Mineral waters, from twelve sources, 
having a temperature of 104° F. (40"" C), and 
containing sodium carbonate '0461 gramme, 
calcium carbonate -IBS, magnesium carbonate 
•1533, and calcium sulphate -315 gramme in a 

Zii'vor. (L. livor, from Urea, to grow black 
and blue. F. Hvidite ; G. bleifarbe.) Term for 
the mark of a blow ; lividness ; lead-colour. 

Same as Livedo. 
It. emortua'Ils. (L. emortualis, pertain- 
ing to death.) A synonym of Sugillation. 

Ii. sang-uln'eus. (L. sanguineus, bloody.) 
A synonym of Ecchymosis. 

Iii'VOr'nO. Italy, in Tuscany. A sulphur 
spring, also called Pouzzolente, is found here. 
It contains sodium chloride -2974, sodium sul- 
phate -2238, magnesium sulphate '7425, calcium 
sulphate l4997, calcium bicarbonate •4188, in a 
litre, and some hydrogen sulphide. 

Xiix. (L. lix, lye ; perhaps akin to liqxieo, to 
be fluid.) Ashes, particularly wood ashes ; it also 
means water mixed or impregnated with ashes. 

XiixiVia. (L. lixivia, lye.) Same as 

Ii. tartariza'ta. The Pofassii tartras, 
Ii. vitriola'ta. The Fotassii sulphas. 


Xi. vltrlola'ta sulphurea. The Po- 

tassa sulphas cum siilphurc. 

XiiKi'viae ace'tas. The Acetate of pot- 
ash . 

Ziixiv'iala {^j. lixivium, lyo. Y. lixiviel ; 
I. Usstvialo ; S. lixivial ; G. ausgclaugt.) Ob- 
tained by the process of lixiviation. 

Also, containing salts extracted from wood 

Also, of the nature of, or resembling, or con- 
sisting of, lye. 

li. salts. The salts obtained in the solution 
produced by treating wood ashes with water. 

Ziixiv'iate. (L. lixivium.) To subject 
to Lixiviation. 

Iiixiv'iated. (L. lixivium, a lye of ashes. 

F. lixivie.) Having undergone the process of 

Ziixivia'tion. (L. lixivium. F. lixivia- 
tion; I. lissivazione ; S. lixiviacion ; G. Aus- 
laugung.) The process of extracting an alkali 
or a salt, by solution in water or other fluid, 
from an insoluble residue, as wood ashes, to form 
a lisi\ 

Xiixiv'ious. Same as Lixivial. 
Xiixi'vium. (L. lixivium, lye ; from lix, 
wood ashes mixed with water. F. lixivium ; G. 
Latige.) A lye ; water impregnated with the 
salts taken up from wood ashes. 

Also, a fluid that is impregnated with an alkali 
or a salt. 

1m. ammoniaca'le. The Liquor am- 

Ii. ammoniaca'le aromat'icum. 
The Spiritus ammonice aromaticus. 

1m. caus'ticum. The Liquor potassa. 
1m. mag'istra'le. The Liquor potassce. 
1m. sapona'rium. (L. sapo, soap.) The 
Liquor potasscc. 

1m. tar'tari. A solution of subcarbouate 
of potash. 

Xiixi'vius ci'nis. (L. ?«..rer»<«, made into 
lye; ciwi.s, ashes.) The potash of commerce. 

Iiiz'ard. (Mid. E. Icsard; from F. Iczard ; 
from L. /ac£?'<ff, a lizard, l.hicerta ; S. lagarto ; 

G. Eldechse.) The name of the members of the 
Group Ljacertilia. This group is distinguished 
from other Reptilia by the fact that they have no 
pectoral arch or urinary bladder. 

1m., green. The Lacerta viridis. 
Ii.'s tail. The Saururus cernuus. Said 
to be of use in inflammatory affections of the 
genito-urinary organs. 

Iiiza'ri. A name for Madder. 

Xiiza'ric acid. CaoKioOg. A crystalline 
acid obtained from the extract of madder. 

Xila'ma. (The Peruvian name of the 
animal, signifying flock.) The Auchcnia glama, 
a Family of the Tglopoda, or Camelida, Order 
Ituminantia. The chief vai-ieties are the L. 
alpaca, the L. vigogue, and the domestic llama, 
aH inflisrennus in South Anicriea. 

Zilandrin'drod wells. Wales, in 

Eadnorsliire. A village in a healthy open plain, 
with saline, sulphur, and iron waters. The Eye- 
water contains sodium chloride 2'5429 parts, 
magnesium chloride -T^tS, and calcium chloride 
•3 in 1000; the llook-water contains somewhat 
similar contents, with ferrous bicarbonate -0262 
parts in 1000 ; the Pump-water is very like the 
Eye-water; and the Suljihur-water contains 
hyih-Atr'-n sul]ihi(li' in adilition. 

'Xilang;ain'niarch. Wales, in Brecon. 
A saline mineral water containing barium. 

Zilo. France, departement des Pyrenees- 
Oricntalos. Min(!ral waters, of a temperature of 
27-r C— 29-1" C. (80-78" F.— 84-38" F.), con- 
taining sodium sulphide, lime salts, and bare- 

XiO'a worm. The same as Filaria loa, 

XiOacb. (Mid. E. loche ; from F. loehe. 
I. gliiozzn ; S. loja ; G. Schmerle.) The Cobitia 
barhatula ; Family Acanthopsidm. A small, 
edible, malacopterygious fish, widely distributed 
in Europe. 

Also, a name given both to the eelpout. Lota 
vulgaris, and to the three-bearded rockling, 
Motclla vulgaris. 

It., spinous. (F. hche de riviere; G. 
Steitipcitzgcr, J)orngru)idel.) The Cobitis tcenia. 

XiOad'StOne. See Lodestone. 

XiOazn. (Mid. E. lam; Sax. Idm, a 
strengtliened form of lim, lime. G. Lehm.) A 
variety of clay belonging to the more recent 
alluvial formations. It is the common material 
for bricks, and is dependent for its red or brown 
colour upon the peroxide of iron which it con- 

Xioa'sa. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

1m. his'pida. (L. hispidus, bristly. G. 
brennende Loase.) A Chilian plant the stems of 
which have stinging hairs. 

1m. laterit'ia, Hooker. (L. lateritius, 
brick -red. H.ziigelrotheBrennwinde.) A plant 
with stinging hairs. 

Xi. u'rens, Jaque. (Mod. L. urens, burn- 
ing.) The same as L. hispida. 

ZiOasa'ceae. {Loasa, South American 
name of the plants of this family. F. loasees ; 
G. Brennivitiden.) Chili nettles. An Order of 
the Cohort Passijlorales, found exclusively in 
temperate and tropical South America. They 
are herbaceous plants with stiff hairs or stinging 
glands ; exstipulate leaves ; superior, persistent 
calyx; inferior, one-celled ovary; and anatro- 
pous ovules. 

XiO'asads. The plants of the Nat. Order 

ZiO'bar. (Late L. lobus, a lobe. F. lobaire.) 
Of, or belonging to, a lobe. 

Ii. ar'teries. (F. artcres lobaires.) The 
arteries which are distributed to the lobes of the 

Ii. fis'sures. (L. fssnra, a cleft. F. 
scissures lohaires.) The sulci between the cere- 
bral and cerebellar lobes. 

Ii. pneumo'nia. See Pneumonia, lobar. 

ZiOba'ria. (Late L. lobus. G. LappeU' 
JlccTite.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Lichenes. 
Ii, island'lca. The Cetraria islandica. 
1m. pulmona'ria, De Cand. (G. Lungen- 
moos.) The same as iSticta pulmonacca. 

1m. saxa'tilis. The same as Lichen saxa- 

XiOba'ric ac'id. (G. Lobarsdure.) C,, 
Hir.Oj. An acid found by Knop in Parmelia 
saxatilis, ft. Phaeotropa, Water. 

XiOba'tse. (Late L. lobus, a lobe.) An Order 
of tlio Subclass Clenophora, having the body 
with a pair of antero-posterior lobate processes. 

IiO'bate. (Late L. lobus, a lobe. F. lobe ; \. 
lobato ; S.lobado; G.gelappt,lappig.) Lobed; 
having lobes. 

Xi. foot. A bird's foot, the toes of which 
are furnished with lateral membranous expan- 
sions, as in the grebe. 


Ji. leaf. (P. feuille lobce.) A leaf which 
is deeply divided by incisions reaching midway 
between the margin and the midrib. 
IiOl>ated.. Same as Lubttlc. 

Xioba'tO'Sin'uate. (Late L. hbus ; 
sinuatus, curved. G. buchlig-gclappt.) Applied 
to a lobate leaf which has curved siuuatious be- 
tween tliu lobes. 

Xib'bau. Germany, in Saxony. "Weak, 
athernial mineral waters, containing sodium, 
magnesium, potassium, and ammonium chlo- 
rides and sulphates, magnesium, calcium, and 
iron bicarbonates in very small quantities. Used 
in scrofulous conditions. 

ZiObe. (F. lobe; from Late L. lobus ; from 
Or. \ofiik, the lower part of the ear, a lobe. I. 
lobo ; S. lobo ; G. happen.') A rounded and pi'o- 
jecting part of any organ, animal or vegetable. 

Ii., fron'to-pari'etal. (L. frons, the 
forehead ; parietal bone. F. lobe fronto-parie- 
tal.) The median part of the frontal lobe of the 
brain and the parietal lobe conjomed. 

£. of an'tber. Each of the two halves of 
an anther united by the connective and borne on 
the filament. 

IL.s of cereberium. (L. cerebellum, a 
little brain ; dim. of cerebrum. F. lobes du 
cervelet ; G. Kleinhirnlappen.') The lobes de- 
scribed under the subheadings. 

Ii. of cerebel'Ium, ante'rior infe'rlor. 
(L. anterior, in front; inferior, lower.) The L. 
of cerebellum, biventral. 

Im. of cerebellum, an'tero-supe'rior. 
(L. anterior, in front; superior, upper. G. vor- 
derer Oberlappen des Klcinhirns.) The anterior 
portion of the upper surface of each hemisphere 
of the cerebellum, which is connected with its 
fellow of the opposite side by the L. of cerebellum, 
central, and the Lobus monticuli. It is divided 
into two lobes, the L. of cerebellum, crescentic, 
anterior, and the L. of cerebellum, crescentic, 
posterior. It is bounded behind by the Sulcus 
eerebelli superior. 

Jm. of cerebellum, blven'tral. (L. 
bis, twice; venter, the belly.' G. zweibduchiger 
Lappen des Kleinhirns.) A lobe on the under 
surface of the cerebellum, situated between the 
slender lobe behind, the tonsil on the inner 
side and the flocculus, separating it from crura 
eerebelli, in front. It is divided by a shallow 
fissure into an external and an internal portion, 
hence its name. 

Ii. of cerebellum, cen'tral. (F. lobe 
moyen du cervelet; G. Centrallappchen des 
Kleinhirns.) The anterior small segment of 
the superior vermiform process of the cerebellum, 
above the anterior medullary velum, and behinel 
the eminentia quadrigemina. It consists of about 
eight folia, immediately adjoining the anterior 
concave border. It is continuous in front with 
the lingula, and behind with the Lobus monti- 
culi ; laterally it stretches over a part of the 
L. of cerebellum, crescentic, anterior, and consists 
of six or eight lamellae ; this lateral part is also 
called Ala lobuli centralis. 

Ii. of cerebellum, crescen'tic, an- 
te'rior. The anterior portion of the antero- 
supenor lobe of the cerebellum. It is connected 
with its fellow of the opposite side by the Lobus 

Ii. of cerebellum, crescen'tic, poste'- 
rior. The posterior portion of the autero- superior 
lobe of the cerebellum. It is connected with its 
fellow of the opposite side by the Declive. 

Ii. of cerebellum, dlgras'trlc. (Ai's, 
twice; yuaTi'ip, the belly.) The Z. of cerebel- 
lum, biventral. 

Ii. Of cerebellum, infe'rlor. (L. in- 

ferior, lower. G. Untcrlappcn des Kleinhirns.) 
One of the three chief lobes of the cerebellum 
consisting, in the hemispherical part, of the L. of 
cerebellum, biventral, and the Tonsil of cerebel- 
lum ; and in the vermiform or central portion, 
also called Lobus vermis inferior, oi the Ti/r am id, 
and the Uvula of cerebellum. 

It. of cerebellum, poste'rior. (L. 
posterior, hinder. G. Hinterlappcn des Klein- 
hirns.) One of the three chief lobes of the cere- 
bellum, consisting, in the hemispherical part, of 
the part of the L. of cerebellum, antero- superior, 
called L. of cerebellum, crescentic, posterior, of 
the L. of cerebellum, postero-superior, and the 
L. of cerebellum, postcro-inferior ; and in the 
vermiform or central part, also called Lobus 
vermis posterior, of the Declive or Lamina 
transversa; superiores, the Folium caciiminis or 
Lamina transversa media, and the Tuber valvule 
or Laminm transversa; inferiores. 

Ii. Of cerebel'Ium, pos'tero-infe'rlor, 
Burdach. (L. posterior, hinder ; inferior, lower. 
G. hinterer Unterlappen des Kleinhirns.) The 
lower part of the L. of cerebellum, posterior ; it 
lies on the under surface of the cerebellum, be- 
neath the L. of cerebellum, postero- superior, and 
below the horizontal fissure. It is semilunar in 
form, and thicker internally than externally. It 
consists of the L. of cerebellum, slender, and the 
Z. of cerebellum, semilunar, inferior. 

Ii. Of cerebel'Ium, pos'tero-supe'- 
rior. (L. posterior, hinder ; superior, ujiper.) 
The middle part of the posterior lobe of the 
cerebellum. It lies above the great horizontal 
fissure, and below the posterior crescentic lobe, 
from which it is separated by the sulcus eere- 
belli superior. It is semilunar in form, concave 
in front, convex behind, and narrowing at the 
extremities. Its inner median end is connected 
with that of the opposite side by the folium cacu- 
niinis, and its lateral anterior end converges to 
the postei'ior extremity of the adjoining process 
of the crus eerebelli ad pontem in the anterior 
part of the great horizontal fissure. 

Im. Of cerebellum, quad'rate. The 
same as Z. of cerebellum, antero-supcrior. 

Ii. of cerebel lum, semllu'nar, infe'- 
rlor. (L. semilunaris, crescent-shaped ; infe- 
rior, below.) The section of Z. of cerebellum, 
postero-inferior, which immediately adjoins the 
great horizontal fissure. 

Ii. Of cerebellum, semllu'nar, su- 
pe'rior. (L. superior, upper.) The Z. of 
cerebellum, postero-superior. 

Ii. of cerebellum, slen'der. The ante- 
rior section of Z. of cerebellum, postero-inferior. 

Ii. of cerebellum, square. The Z. of 
cerebellum, antero-superior. 

Ii. of cerebellum, sub-pedun'cular. 
(L. sub, under; peduncle.) Gordon's term for 
the Flocculus, from its position. 

Ii. of cerebellum, supe'rior. (L. 
superior, upper. G. Oberlappen des Kleinhirns.) 
One of the three chief lobes of the cerebellum, 
consisting, in the hemispherical part, of the 
lateral prolongations of the Z. of cerebellum, 
central, and of the anterior segment of the Z. 
of cerebellum, antero-supcrior , called the Z. of 
cerebellum, crescentic, anterior ; and in the ver- 
miform or central portion, also called Lobus 


vermis superior, of the Z. of cerebellum, central, 
and the Lohus monticiili or Gulnicn. 

Jm. of cerebellum, trape'ziform. Sec 

Lotus ceribvlli trapezoidcs. 

Ii.s Of cer'ebruxn. (L. cerebrum, the 
brain. F lohes dn ccrveau ; G. JIir>ilappe?i.) 
The lobes described under the sublieadiugs. 

In Chaussier's terraiuologj' the lobes of the 
cerebrum are the two hemispheres ; their sub- 
divisions he calls lobules. 

Ii.s of cerebrum, an'nular. (L. an- 
nulus, a ring. G. rlniiformiije happen, Henle.) 
The convolutions in the human embryo which 
immediately surround the fossa in which central 
lobe of the cerebrum has been developed. 

Ii. of cer'ebrum, ante'rlor. (L. ante- 
rior, in front.) The L. of cerehrum, frontal. 

It. of cer'ebrum, cen'tral. (F. lobe 
central, Gratiolet, insula de Reil, He, lobule de 
I'ile, I. dii corps strie, Cruveilhier; G. Insel, 
Reil'schen Insel, Insellappen, Stammlappen, 
Centrallappen, Zwischenlappen, bedeckter Lap- 
pen, rersteckter Lappen.) The island of Keil. 
Gratiolet's term for a triangular eminence, sur- 
rounded by a deep furrow or sulcus, lying 
concealed at the commencement of the fissure of 
Sylvius by the operculum and the adjoining 
parts of the frontal, parietal, and temporo- 
sphenoidal lobes. It consists of five to seven 
short convolutions, the Gyri breves, or G. operti, 
radiating outwards in fan-form from the border 
of the locus perforatus anticus. It is closely 
related on its inner surface to the lenticular 
nucleus, separated only from it by the claustrum 
and the external capsule; the fibres of com- 
munication running a tortuous course. This 
lobe is one of its earliest parts to appear both in 
the embryo of man and in the lower animals. 

Xi. of cer'ebrum, falciform. (G. 
Sicliellapjun.) Schwalbe's term for that part 
of the brain which consists of the limbic lobe of 
Broca and the gyrus marginalis internus; it is 
separated from the frontal lobe by the sulcus 
calloso- marginalis, from the prcecuneus in part 
by the sulcus subparietalis, and from the tem- 
poral lobe by the sulcus occipito-temporalis ; its 
internal boundary is the great transverse fissure 
of the cerebrum. 

Ii. of cer'ebrum, fron'tal. (F. lobe 
anterieur, I. frontal du cerveau ; G. Stirnlappen, 
Vorderlappen.) That portion of each hemi- 
sphere which is in front of the fissure of Rolando 
or sulcus centralis, and above and in front of the 
fissure of Sylvius. It is not defined on the inner 
surface of the hemisphere unless the calloso- 
marginal sulcus constitutes its limit ; inferiorly 
it rests by its orbital surface on the orbital plate 
of the frontal bone ; above it is arched. It con- 
sists of the Gyrus centralis anterior, the G. 
frontalis superior, the G . frontalis medius, the G. 
frontalis inferior, and part of the G. fornicatus. 
Some authors, as Gratiolet, restrict the term 
frontal lobe to the superior and lateral surfaces 
only of the lobe above described, giving the 
name orbital lobe or lobule to the inferior sur- 
face, where it rests on the orbital plate, and the 
name fronto-parietal lobe to the median surface 
and the parietal lobe combined. 

It. of cer'ebrum, fron'tal, inter'nal. 
(F. lobe frontal interne.) The inner part of the 
Jj. of cerebrum, frontal, including the Gyrus 
maryina'is and the G. fornicatus. 

It. of cer'ebrum, bid'den. (G. ver- 
steckter Lappen.) The same as Meil, island of. 

Jm. of cer'ebruin, Ilm'blc. (L. limbus, 
a hem. F. grand lube limblque, Broca.) Term 
applied by Broca to the gyrus fornicatus and its 
prolongation, the gyrus hippocampi. 

Xi. of cer'ebrum, occlp'ltal. (F. lobe 
occipital die cerveau; G. Uinterhauptslappen, 
Mintcrlappen.) That portion of each hemisphere 
of the brain which forms its rounded posterior ex- 
tremity, occupies the superior fossa of the occipital 
bone, and rests on the tentorium. In front are the 
parietal lobe above and the temporo-sphenoidal 
lobe below. On the median and part of the 
upper surface it is divided from the parietal lobe 
by the fissura parieto-occipitalis, and on the 
lower surface from the temporal lobe by a shal- 
low depression made by the angle of the petrous 
bone. It consists of the Lobiilus cerebri cunea- 
tus, the L. extremus, the Gyrus occipitalis 
primus, G. occipitalis secundus, G. occipitalis 
tertius, part of the G. occipito-temporalis late- 
ralis and medialis, and the G. descendens. 

Ii. Of cer'ebrum, olfac'tory. The OU 
factory lobe. 

Ii. Of cer'ebrum, paracen'tral. The 
Lobulus cerebri paracentralis. 

Ii. of cerebrum, pari'etal. (F. lobe 
parietal du cerveau ; G. IScheitellappen, Ober- 
lappen.) That portion of each hemisphere of 
the cerebrum which lies behind the frontal lobe, 
in front of the occipital lobe, and above the 
temporo-sphenoidal lobe. It is bounded in front 
by the fissure of Rolando or sulcus centralis, 
behind by the parieto-occipital fissure and a line 
continuing the fissure to the lateral boundarj', 
and below by the horizontal part of posterior limb 
of the fissure of Sylvius and a line continuous 
with it. It consists of the Gyrus centralis 
posterior, the Lobulus cerebri parietalis superior, 
the Preecuneus, and the Lobulus cerebri parietalis 
inferior, consisting of the Lobulus cerebri supra- 
marginalis and the Gyrus angularis. 

Jm. of cer'ebrum, quadrate. (L. quad- 
ratus, square. F. lobule (luadrilatere, Foville.) 
The Frcecuneus. 

It. of cer'ebrum, tem'poral. The Z. 
of cerebrum, temporo-sphenoidal . 

Ii. of cer'ebrum, tem'poro-spbe- 
no'id'al. (Temporal bone ; sphenoid bone. G. 
Schlufenkeilbeinlappen.) That portion of each 
hemisphere which fills up the middle fossa of 
the skull ; it is bounded in front and above by 
the commencement of the fissure of Sylvius and 
its posterior limb ; behind it is continuous with 
the occipital lobe, and above with part of the 
parietal lobe. Its inferior surface is concealed 
within the fissure of Sylvius. It consists of the 
Gyrus temporalis superior, the G. temporalis 
medius, the G. temporalis inferior, the G. 
occipito-temporalis medius, and the G, occipito- 
temporalis lateralis. 

Ii. of cor'pus callo'sum. (F. lobe dn 
corps calleux, Broca.) The Gyrus fornieatm, 

Ii. of ear. {¥ . lobe de I' orellle ; G. Ohr- 
lappen.) The pendent fleshy part of the pinna 
of the ear. 

Ii.s of kld'ney. Those portions of the 
kidney which correspond to a Malpighian pyra- 
mid. The kidneys are lobulated in most fish, 
reptiles, and birds. In birds there are usually 
three well-marked lobes, of which the central 
one is the smallest; more rarely there are two. 
In Mammals the kidneys are often tuberculated 
or nodular, as in the civet cat, ox, elephant, and 


rhinoceros, whilst well-defined or almost de- 
tached lobes occur in the bear, ottor, soul, and 
true Cetacca. In the seal Alber.s counted from 
69—76 lobes, Cuvier 120—140. llapp and Stan- 
nius found about 200 of such renculi in the 
dolphin, and in Monodon. 

Zi. of Uv'er, anon'ymous. ('Ai/oii/tijuos, 
without name.) The L. of liver, quadrate. 

Xi. of liv'er, ante'rior. (L. anterior, in 
front.) The L. of liver, quadrate. 

1m. of liv'er, cau'date. (L. caiida, a 
tail. F. lobe eaade diifoie; G. Schwanzlappen 
der Leber.) A narrow ridge on the under surtace 
of the liver prolonging the Spigelian lobe of the 
liver to the right. It runs behind the portal 
fissure and lies over the foramen of Winslow. 

Also, used as a synonym of the L. of liver, 

Ii, of liv'er, duode'nal. (Duodenum. 
F. lobe duodenal.) The L. of liver. Spigelian. 

It. of liv'er, left. (F. lohe gauche du 
fate ; G. li)iker Leberlappeyi.) The smaller seg- 
ment of the liver, constituting about one fifth of 
the gland, which lies to the left of the fissures 
for the umbilical vein and for the ductus veuosus 
on the inferior and posterior surfaces of the organ. 
There is no distinction between the right and left 
lobes on the upper convex surface of the liver, but 
their limits are defined by the attachment of the 
broad ligament. The left lobe is almost entirel}' 
invested with peritoneum ; its upper surface is 
in contact with the diaphragm. Its inferior sur- 
face presents an impression posteriorly and to 
the left, corresponding to the stomach, and a 
prominence named the tuber omcntale more 
anteriorly and to the right. 

Im. of liv'er, mid 'die. (F. lobe mogen du 
foie.) The £. of liver, left. 

Xi. of liv'er, pancreat'ic. {Pancreas. F. 
lobe pancreatique.) The L. of liver, Spigelian. 

It. of liv'er, poste'rior. (L. posterior, 
hinder. G. hinterer Leberlappeti.) The L. of 
liver. Spigelian. 

Xi. of liv'er, quad'rate. (L. quadratus, 
square. F. lobe carre du foie ; G. viereckiger 
Leberlappen.) A small lobe on the under surface 
of the liver between the fossae of the umbilical 
vein and of the gall-bladder, and extending 
forwards from the transverse fissure to the 
anterior margin of the liver. 

Xi. of liv'er, rigrht. (F. lobe droit du 
foie; G. rechter Leberlappen^ The larger seg- 
ment of the liver situated to the right of the in- 
terlobar notch, and separated from the left lobe 
by this notch and below by the umbiUcal fissui-e 
and its prolongation the fissure for the ductus 
venosus. Its upper surface is smooth, and is 
continuous with the left lobe, the line of demar- 
cation between the two being the attachment 
of the broad ligament ; it is covered by the 
peritoneum, and is in contact with the under 
surface of the diaphragm. The posterior part 
of the lower surface is uncovei-ed by perito- 
neum. It is divided by the fossa of the gall- 
bladder into two uneven portions ; the smaller 
area to the left is named the lobulus quadratus, 
the larger to the right presents an anterior shal- 
low depression for the colon, and a posterior one 
for the right kidney. The left extremity of the 
renal depression is a slightly marked sulcus cor- 
responding to the descending part of the duo- 

Xa. of liv'er, small. (P. lobe petit du 
foie.) The L. of liver, Spigelian. 

Xi. of liv'er, Splg^e'lian. (F. I'eminence 
porte posfvrieur, lobule, petit lobe, lobe de Spigel ; 
G. SpigcUche Lappen der Leber.) A proniinence 
on the under surface of the liver situated behind 
the portal fissure. It is separated fronr the left 
lobe by the fossa for the ductus venosus, and 
from the right lol)e by tlie fossa for the vena 
cava. In the natural position of the liver it 
looks backwards and runs vertically, being pro- 
longed to the right and below by the caudate 
lobe. It rests against the right crus of the 
dia]>hragm opposite the tenth and eleventh dorsal 

Xi. Of liv'er, square. The L. of liver, 

Xi.s of lung-. See Lung, lobes of. 

Xi. of Morg-a'gni. {Morgagni, an Italian 
physician.) The middle lobe of the prostate 

Ii.s of pan'creas. See Pancreas, lobes of. 

Ii.s of pros'tate. See Prostate gland, 
lobes of. 

Xi.s of tes'ticle. The Lobuli testis. 

Ii.s of thy'mus g^land. Sec Thymus 
gland, lobes of. 

Xi.s of thyr'oid gland. See Thyroid 
gland, lobes of. 

Xi„ Olfactory. The Olfactory tract. 

Xi., op'tic. See Optic lobe. 
liObe'clloS. (Ao/io's, a pod ; ^x'5» a sound.) 
The same as Loborrhexiechos. 
XiO'bed. The same as Lobate. 
IiO'bel's catch'fly. The Silene ar- 

IiObela'crin. {Lobelia ; L. acer, sharp.) 
An acrid principle discovered by Enders in the 
leaves of Lobelia inflata, conferring upon them 
their hot and irritating taste. Lewes considers 
it to be a mixture of lobeliate of lobelin and free 
lobelic acid. 

XiObele'in. A substance obtained by 
Reinsch from Lobelia injlata ; probably a com- 
pound of lobelin, lobelic acid, and other matters. 
IiObe'let. A small Lobe. 
IiObe'lia. (Matthieu de Label, a Flemish 
botanist, born at Lille in 1538, died at Highgate, 
near London, in 1616. F. lobelie ; G. Lobelic.) 
A Genus of the Nat. Order Lobeliacece. 

The pharmacopoeial name, B. Ph., U.S. Ph. 
(F. herbe de lobelie enflee ; G. Lobelienkraut), of 
the herb L. inflata. Its odour is slight, and its 
taste after some time burning. It owes its 
properties chiefly to Lobelin. Taken internally 
it causes, in small doses, a sensation of heat in the 
oesophagus, stomach and intestines; in larger 
doses, vomiting, headache, sweating, giddiness 
and prostration, which may pass into convulsions 
and coma. Death results from paralysis of the 
respiratory centre. Small doses first raise and 
then depress the blood pressure ; large doses 
paralyse the vasomotor centre and the peripheral 
vagi. It is chiefly employed as a remedy in 
spasmodic asthma and in chronic bronchitis with 

Also, a name given by Colti-one to a substance 
which is probably lobelin cliloride. 

Xi., ac'rid. The L. urens. 

Xi., blad'der-pod'ded. The L. inflata. 

Xi., blue. The L. syphilitica. 

Xi. caout'ehouc, Kuntz. A plant which 
furnishes india-rubber. 

Xi. eardina'lis, Linn. (Mod. L. cardina- 
lis, red like the hood of a cardinal. F. lobelie 
cardinale ; G. gliinzende or scharlach-rothe 


Lohelie.) The cardinal flower. Ilab. United 
States of America, 'i'he root is esteemed as a 
vermifuge, and was also used as L. stjphUitica. 

2i. clrsiifo'Ua, Lamb. The Tupa cirsii- 

X. coccln'ea, Willd. (L. coccineus, scar- 
let.) Hab. lirazil. Narcotic and poisonous. 

Ii. decur'rens, Cav. (L. decurrens, part, 
of decurro, to run down.) Used in Peru and 
Chili as a febrifuge, an emetic and purgative. 

Ii. delissla'na. Hab. Mexico. Koot used 
in asthma and in spasmodic cough. 

!•., ex'tract of, flu'id. See Extractum 

Ii. fiil'gens, Willd. (L. fulgens, gleam- 
ing.) Hab. Mexico. Used as L. cardinalis. 

!■• infla'ta, Linn. (L. inflatus, blown out. 
F. lohelie, herbe a I'asthme ; G. indische 
Tabak.) Indian tobacco, emetic weed. Hab. 
America. The leaves and tops, collected after 
some of the capsules have become inflated, are 
Lobelia of the B. and U.S. Pharmacopoeias. 

Ii. long^iflo'ra, Willd. The Isotoma longi- 

Ii. nicotianaefo'lia, Heyne. {Nicotiana; 
L. folium, a. le-df.) Bokenal. Hab. India. Seeds 
acrid ; leaves used in infusion as an antispas- 

Ii., palespi'ked. The Z. spicata. 

Ii. pinnifo'Iia. (L. pina, the sea pen ; 
folium, a leaf.) Used in the Cape in gout and 
rheumatism, and skin diseases. 

Ii., scar'Iet. The L. cardinalis. 

Ii. spica'ta. (L. spica, an ear of corn.) 
The pale-spiked lobelia. Hab. North America. 
Used as a diuretic. 

Ii. splen'dens, Willd. (L. sjilendens, 
shining.) Hab. Mexico. Used as L. cardinalis. 

Ii. strlc'ta, Lev. (L. strictus, narrow.) 
Hab. Antilli's. Narcotic and poisonous. 

Ii. sypbilit'ica, Linn. (P. lobelie sypJii- 
litique, mercure vegetal, cardinale bleue ; G. 
schweisstreibende Lobelia.) The blue cardinal 
flower or great lobelia. Hab. United States of 
America. The root in decoction has been used 
as a specific in syphilis, but its power has not 
been confirmed by its use in this country. It is 
emetic, purgative, and diuretic. 

Ii., tinc'ture of. See Tincfura lobelice. 

Ii., tincture of, ethereal. See Tinc- 
tura lobelia; cetherea. 

Ii. tu'pa, Linn. A plant which constitutes 
a violent acrid poison, the mere odour being said 
to excite severe vomiting. 

Ii. u'rens, Linn. (Mod. L. tirens, burn- 
ing. F. lobelie brulant.) The plant is drastic 
and highly poisonous, and has vesicant pi'O- 

Ii., vln'eg-ar of. See Acetuni lobelice.^ 
XiObelia'ceae. {Lobelia. F. lobeliacees.) 
A Nat. Order of the Cohort Gampanales, Series 
InfercB, Subclass Gamopetalm. Herbs or shrubs 
with a milky juice ; alternate, exstipulate leaves ; 
superior calyx ; monopetalous, irregular, valvate 
corolla; syngenesious anthers; inferior ovary; 
and capsular fruit dehiscing at the apex. 

ZiObeliads. The plants of the Nat. Order 

Ziobelian'ic ac'id. (G. Lobeliasdure.) 

A crystallisable acid obtained from the leaves of 
Lobelia injlata. It is s^oluble in water, alcohol 
and ether. It is not volatile. 

ZiObelianin. A vohitile oil obtained by 
Pereira from the distillutiou of the leaves of 

Lobelia inflata. It has a peculiar smell and the 
disagreeable sharp taste of the plant. A doubtful 

ZiObe'lic ac'id. An acid which exists in 
combination witli lobelin in Lobelia injlata. It 
forms small, yellow, acicular crystals, soluble in 
water, alcohol, and ether. 

XiObe'liin. An ill-defined substance ob- 
tained by Kcinsch from the Lobelia injlata. 

ZiObe'lin. (Mod. L. lobelia, the Indian 
tobacco plant. F. lobeline.) The active, vola- 
tile, organic base obtained by Proctor, after 
recognition by Calhoun, from the Lobelia injlata, 
by macerating the herb in alcohol, previously 
prepared with sulphuric acid and powdered 
caustic lime. It is an oily, viscid, brownish-red, 
transparent fluid with a strong alkaline reaction, 
especially in a state of solution, and a pungent 
tobacco-like taste. It dissolves in water, alcohol, 
ether, chloroform, carbon bisulphide, petroleum, 
and benzol. It becomes resinous in the air, and 
is destroyed at a temperature of 100° C. In the 
plant it is combined with lobelianic acid. It 
forms crystalline combinations with acids. The 
solution of lobelin is precipitated by tannic, but 
not by gallic, acid. It causes contraction of the 
pupil, and taken internally in minute doses 
exercises on the human frame all the marked 
and disagreeable consequences of a large dose of 
the plant, and is therefore a virulent poison, 
producing death by paralysis of respiration. It 
has been used in asthma, in angina pectoris, 
spasmodic coughs, epilepsy and chorea. Its 
power as a narcotic is doubtful. 

ZiO'benstein. Germany, Principality of 
Reuss-Lobenstein. A small town in the Thu- 
ringian Forest, 480 metres above sea-level. 
Cold, very feebly mineralised waters, used in 
nervous diseases and hysteria. Mud baths and 
pine-leaf baths are employed. 

ZiOb'graSS. (E. lob, to hang about.) The 
Bromus mollis, so called from its hanging 

ZiO'bia Nominative plural of Lobus. 

It. elec'trlcl. Two lobes arising from the 
grey nerve-substance of the floor of the fourth 
ventricle and enclosing giant nerve cells. They 
supply nerves to the electric organ of electric 

Ii. inferio'res. (L. ivferior, lower. G. 
Unterlappen.) Two small, oval, hollow folds, 
one on each side of the floor of the thalamen- 
cephalon, which arise in connection with the 
ventral surface of the infundibulum, and perhaps 
with the pituitary body, in Elasmobranchii and 
Teleostei ; they correspond in position to the 
tuber cinereum of Mammalia. 

Ii. infundlb'uli. (L. infundibulum, a 
funnel.) The X. inferiores. 

X. latera'les pros' tatae. (L. lateralis, at 
the side ; prostate. G. Heitenlappen der Prostata.') 
The lateral lobes of the prostate gland. 

1m, mazn'mse. (L. mamma, the breast. 
G. Lappen der Briistdrusen.) The polygonal, 
flattened, reddish-white masses of the mammary 
gland, separated from each other by dense con- 
nective tissue and fat, and by blood-vessels and 

Ii. medulla'res re'num. (L. medulla, 
marrow; ren, the kidney.) The pyramids of 
Malpighi in tlie kidney. 

Ii. ner'vi lateralis. (L. nervus,a nerve; 
lateralis, belonging to the side.) Fritsch's term 
for a series of lobes in the angler fish, Lophiua 


piscatoritts, formed of giant nerve cells and lying 
behind the calamus scriptorius in the dorsal fis- 
sure of the spiual cord. The nerves arising 
from them accumpany the trigeminus and the 
vagus nerves, and are distributed to the integu- 
mentary sense organs and to the lure. 

Zi. pul'monum. (G. Lungenluppchen.) 
The lubes of the lungs. 

Ii. re'num. (L. ren, the kidney. G. 
Nierenlappen.) The pyramids of Malpighi. 

Ii. trlgrem'lnl. The same as L. nervi 

ZiO'biole. (Late L. dim. of lobns, a lohe. 
F. lobiole.) The small lobes which are seen at the 
edges of the thallus of lichens when their form 
approaches that of leaves. 

ZiO'bipede. (Late L. lobus ; L. pes, a 
foot. F. lobipiile.) Having lobe-like expansions 
of the cuticle on each side of the anterior pha- 
langes of the foot, as in the coot and other hirds. 
ZiOb'lolly. A thick oatmeal gruel. 

Ii. boy. The surgeon's boy on board ship, 
since he is supposed to carry round the gruel. 

Zi. pine. The Pi)ins tada. 
ZiObopneuino'nia. (Late L. lohus, a 

lobe ; pneumunia, inliamuiation of the lungs. F. 
lobop7H'umonie.) Term for lobular pneumonia. 

Xioborrbexie'chos. (Ao/SJ?, a pod ; 
pn^i's, a rujiture; vx'ti ^ sound. G. Schoten- 
geruusch.) The noise or sound caused by the 
bursting of a siliqua or pod. 

IiOb'Ster. (Mid. E. lopstere, loppister ; 
from Sax. loppestre, probably, according to 
Skeat, a corruption of L. lociista, a lobster. G. 
Hummer.) The Momarus vulgaris, Class Crus- 
tacea, Subkingdom Arthropoda. A shell fish in 
common use as an article of food. 

Ii., larg'e. (F. langouste ; 1. gamero ma- 
rino ; G. Seekrebs, Hummer.) The Falinurus 

IiOb'ular. (Late L./oJ?<^?«, a little lobe. F. 
lobulaire ; l.lobulare ; Q. lobular ; Q. lappicht.) 
Of, or belonging to, a lobule. 

Ii. bil'iary plex'us. (L. plexus, a 
weaving.) The plexus of Ducts, biliarg. 

Ii. fis'sures. (L. Jissura, a cleft. F. 
scissurcs lobulaires.) The sulci hetween the 
several cerebral and cei-ebellar lobules. 

Ii. pneumo'nia. See Pneumonia, lobular. 

Ii. ve'nous plex'us. The venous capillary 
plexus of the Hepatic lobules. 

ZiOb'ulate. (Late L. lobulus. F. lobule ; 
I. lobulafu ; S. lobulado ; G. gelappt.) Having 
small lobes, or lobules. 

^Ob'ulated. (Late L. lobulus.) Con- 
sisting of, or possessing, lobules. 

IiObula'tion. (Late L. lobulus.) The act 
or condition of forming or possessing lobules. 

Ii. Of kid'ney. The condition in which 
the organ retains all or most of the lobules of its 
foetal state. 

XiOb'ule. (Dim. of Late L. lobus, a lobe. 
F. lobule ; G. Ldppchen.) A small lobe. 
See also Lobulus. 

Ii., fron'tal. (L. frons, the forehead. F. 
lobule frontale.) Gratiolet's term for the upper 
part of the frontal lobe of the cerebrum which is 
not included in his term L., orbital. 

Ii., fu'siform. See Lobulus cerebri fusi- 

Ii.s, hepat'ic. See Hepatic lobules. 

X., internal occip'ital, Huxley. The 
same as Gyrus occipitalis primus. 

1m., lln'gruali See Lobulus cerebri lingualis. 

It.s of brain. (F. lobules du eervean.) 
Chaussier's term for the Lobes of cerebrum. 

Ii. of cerebrum, cu'neate. See Lobu- 
lus cerebri cunealus. 

Ii. of cer'ebrum, lin'g^ual. The Gyrus 
occipito- temporalis inedialis. 

X. of cer'ebrum, occip'ital, Inter'- 
nal. (F. lobule occipital interne, Broca.) The 
Lobulus cerebri cuncatus. 

X. of cer'ebrum, o'val. (F. lobule 
ovalaire.) Pozzi's term for the Lobulus cerebri 

It. of cer'ebrum, pari'etal, Infe'rior. 
The Lobulus cerebri parielalis inferior. 

X. Of cer'ebrum, parietal, supe'rior. 
The Lobulus cerebri parietalis superior. 

X. of cer'ebrum, pos'tero-pari'etal. 
Turner's term for the combined Lobulus cerebri 
parietalis superior and the Praicuneus. 

X< of cer'ebrum, quadrate. (L. quad- 
ratus, square.) The Freecancus. 

X. of cer'ebrum, trian'g-ular. (L. 
triangulus, three-cornered. F. lobule triangu- 
laire.) The Lobulus cerebri cuncatus. 

X. of corpus stria'tum. (L. corpus, a 
body ; stria, a furrow.) The island of Eeil, or 
Lobe of cerebrum, central. 

X. of ear. (F. lobule de I'oreillc ; I. lobulo 
dell' orecchio ; G. OhrUippchen.) The lower free 
part of the external ear. 

X. Of fissure of Syl'vius. The island 
of Reil, or Lobe of cerebrum, central. 

X. of Crat'iolet. {Gratiolet, a French 
anatomist. F. lobule du Gratiolet.) The Gyrus 
frontalis medius. 

X. of bippocam'pus. (F. lobtcle de 
Vhippocampe, Gratiolet.) The Gyrus hippo- 
campi, Burdach. 

X. of in'sula. (L. insula, an island. F. 
lobule de I'ile.) The same as Meil, island of, or 
Lobe of cerebrum, central. 

X. of kid'ney. (F. lobules du rein; G. 
Lcippchen der Nieren.) The area constituting 
a Malpighian pyramid. 

X.s of liv'er. (F. lobules du foie.) The 
Hepatic lobules. 

X.s of liv'er, prim'itive. (L. primitivus, 
first of its kind. F. lobules hepatiqnes primitifs ; 
G. UrUippchen der Leber.) KoUiker's term for 
the earliest formed lobules of the foetal liver. 

X.s of lung'. See Lung, lobules of. 

X. of par va'grum. (L. ;:?«>•, a pair; vagus, 
wandering.) The Flocculus of the cerebellum. 

X. of pneumogas'tric nerve. A name 
given by Vicq-d'Azyr to the flocculus or sub- 
peduncular lobe of Gordon. It projects behind 
and below the middle peduncle of the cerebellum. 

X.s of tes'tls. See Lohuli testis. 

X., or'bltal. (F. lobule 07-bitaire.) Gra- 
tiolet's term for the inferior part of the frontal 
lobe of the cerebrum which lies on the orbital 
plate, and is limited posteriorly by the anterior 
perforated space and the transverse portion of 
the fissure of Sylvius. 

X., pos'tero-pari'etal. Huxley's term 
for the Lobulus cerebri parietalis superior. 

X.s, pul'monary. (L. pulmo, the lung.) 
The Lung, lobules of. 

X., quad'rate, Huxley. (F. lobule qua- 
drilatere, Foville.) The same as Frcecuneus. 

X.s, spermat'ic. (L. s/iffrma, seed.) The 
Lobuli testis. 

IiOb'uIette. (Dim. of lobule.) "Water's 
term for the series of groups of five or six air- 


sacs or alveolar passages connected with the 
dilated extremity of each bronchial twig ; the 
air-sacs and the lobulittus do not communieato 
directly with each otlier. 
XiOb'uli. Nominative plural of Lobulns. 

Ii. epididymldis. ('Etti, upon; Siov/jloi, 
the testicles. 1". lubulvs de l'epidi(ii/7ne ; G. 
NchenhodenUippchen.) The segments formed by 
the coils of tlie vas deferens. 

Ii. hepat ici. The Hepatic lobules. 

Ii. be patis. (L. hepar, tlie liver. F. 
lobules du fuie ; G. Ldppchtn der Lthcr.) The 
lobules of the liver. Small polygonal masses of 
the liver composed of cells clustered round the 
vena intralobularis, and surrounded and sepa- 
rated from the adjoining lobules by the branches 
of the interlobular veins. See Hepatic lobules. 

Ii. mam'xnae. (L. mamma, the breast.) 
Irregularly formed flattened masses of cells of 
variable size, forming the origin of a duct, 
invested with a layer of connective tissue, and 
separated from the adjoining lobules by fat-cells, 
lymphatics and blood-vessels. 

Xi. medulla'res re'num. (L. medulla, 
marrow ; ren, the kidney.) The pyramids of 

Ii. pros'tatae. The lobules of the prostate 
gland. They are elongated yellowish bodies, 
often invested by a peculiar muscular capsule, 
and seated on the extremity of a duct. 

"Sm. pul'monum. (L. pulmo, a lung. 
F. lobtiles pnlmonaires ; Gr. Lungenldppchen.) 
See Lung, lobules of. 

Ii. testis. (L. testis, the testicle. F. 
lobules testiculaires ; G. Hodenldppchen.) Three 
hundred or four hundred convoluted tubes which 
form with blood-vessels the pulp of the testis, 
and appear as conical, pyramidal, or fusiform 
bodies, separated by the septula of the testis. 

Iiobulisa'tion. (L. lobulus. F. lobuli- 

sation.) The passage of a tissue from a uniform 
to a lobular condition. 

liOb'ulouSa (L. lobulus. F. lobuleux.') 
Possessing lobules, or prominences resembUug 

ZiOb'ulus. (Dim. of Late L. lobus, a lobe. 
F. lobule ; G. Ldppchen.) A little lobe. 
See also Lobule, Lobuli, and Lobus. 

Ii. accesso'rlus anterior quadra'tus. 
(L. accedo, to approach ; anterior, in front ; qua- 
dratus, square.) The Lobe of liver, quadrate. 

Ii. auric'ulse. (L. auricula, the external 
ear.) See Lobule of car. 

Ii. centralis ver'mis supe'rior. (L. 
vermis, a worm ; superior, upper.) The Lobe of 
cerebellum, central. 

Ii. cerebelli centralis. (L. cerebellum, 
the little brain ; centra/is, central. G. Central- 
Idppchen des Kleinhirns.) See Lobe of cere- 
bellum, central. 

X. cer'ebri cunea'tus. (L. cuneatus, 
■wedge-shaped. F. lobule occipital, Gratiolet ; G. 
erstc obere Hinterhauptlappcnwindung , Wagner; 
obcrer Zivischenscheitelbemlappcn, Huschke.) A 
wedge-shaped mass of the brain forming the 
mesial part of the superior occipital convolution. 
It lies between the occipito-paricital and calcarine 
fissures, and is best seen on looking at the inner 
surface of either hemisphere, the base of the 
wedge appearing on the posterior and upper sur- 
face of the cerebrum. Some consider it to include 
the fasciculus arcuatus. It is the internal occipital 
lobule of Uuxley, and is also called Cuneus. 

Xi. cer'ebri tk-ontalis inferior. (L. 

frons, the forehead ; inferior, lower. G. unlere 
Stirniculst.) The Gyrus frontalis inferior, 
X. cer'ebri fronta'Iis supe'rior. (L. 

frons; superior, upper.) The Gyrus frontalis 

1m, cer'ebri fuslfor'mls. (L. fiisus, a 
spindle ; forma, likeness. F. lobule fusiforme ; 
G. tipindelldppchen, Huschke.) The same as 
Gyrus occipito-tcmporalis lateralis. 

Jt. cer'ebri ling^ualis. (L. lingualis, 
belonging to the tongue. F. lobule lingual ; G. 
Zungenldppchcn, Huschke.) The same as Gyrus 
occipito-tcmporalis mcdialis. 

1m. cer'ebri medialls poste'rior. (L. 
mcdialis, middle ; posterior, hinder.) I'ansch's 
term for tlie L. cerebri cuneatus. 

1m. cer'ebri occipita'lis. (L. occiput, the 
back of the head.) Tlie L. cerebri cuneatus. 

1m. cer'ebri occipitalis inter'nus. (F. 
lobule occ/jjital interne.) The L. cerebri cuneatus. 

1m. cer'ebri occip'ito - tempora'lls 
media'Ils. (L. occiput, the back of the head ; 
tcmpora, the temples ; mcdialis, middle.) Term 
applied by Pansch to the combined Gyrus occi- 
pito-tcmporalis medialis and G. hippocampi. 

1m, cer'ebri orbita'Iis medialls. 
{Orbit; L. mcdialis.) The Gi/rus rectus. 

1m. cerebri paracentra'lis. {Yldpa, 
near; kIvt^ov, a centre.) Betz's term for the 
median portion of the Gyrus centralis anterior 
at the border of the great longitudinal fissure of 
the brain. 

1m. cer'ebri parieta'lls infe'rior. 
{Parietal bone ; L. inferior, lower. F. lobule 
du pli marginal superieur, Gratiolet; G. unteres 
Scheitelldppchen.) That part of the upper lateral 
surface of the cerebrum which is situated beneath 
and laterally to the sulcus interparietalis. It 
consists of an anterior division which is the L. 
cerebri supramarginalis, and a posterior division 
or Gyrus angularis. 

1m. cer'ebri parieta'lls Inter'nus. (F. 
lobule parietale interne.) The Prcecuneus. 

It. cer'ebri parieta'lls supe'rior, 
Ecker. (L. sf^jseHo?-, upper. Y. lobule dudeuxieme 
pli ascendant,GxVi\A<i\%X. ; G. erste Scheitellappen- 
windung, Wagner; obcrer Scheitelbeinlappen, 
Huschke; obere imiere Scheitelgruppe, Bischoff.) 
That part of the upper lateral surface of the 
parietal lobe of the cerebrum which lies above or 
niesially to the sulcus interparietalis ; it is con- 
tinuous in front with the Gyrus centralis poste- 
rior, and postero-laterally with the G. occipitalis 
primus ; it is separated posteriorly from the 
occipital lobe by the parieto-occipitai fissure. 

1m. cer'ebri quadratus. (L. quadratus, 
square.) The Precuneus. 

1m, cer'ebri quadrilatera'lls. (L. 
quadrilaterus, four-sided. F. lobule quadrilatcre, 
Foville.) The same as Preccuneus. 

1m. cer'ebri supramarg'lna'lls. (L. 
supra, above; margo, a margin. ¥. pli margi- 
nal superieur, lobule du pli marginal superieur, 
Gratiolet; G. dritte Scheitellappetiu'indung, R. 
Wagner, untere Zug aus der hintern Central- 
windung tind Scheitelhdckerliippchen, Huschke, 
erste or vordere ^eheitelbogenwindung, Bischoff.) 
A lobule lying between the inferior end of tho 
gyrus centralis posterior and the upper end of 
the fissure of Sylvius. It forms the posterior 
portion of the operculum, curves round the end 
of the Sylvian fissure, and becomes continuous 
with the gyrus margiiialis inferior. 

Ii. corporis stria'ti. (L. corpus, the 


r FndU^vchen ) Ecker's term for a simiU 
fobuie on the median surface of the occip.ital lobe 
if them-ebrum lying ^ebind the diverguj^g m^^ 
of the calcarine fissures and forming the posterior 
extreme point of the cerebral hemisphere. 

1. fissu'r* Sylvll. (L. /«•«>«, a cleft , 

the liver; accedo, to approach.) The LoOe oj 

^vith^ut name.) The same as Lobe oj laci, 

'^''"'ifhe'patis cauda'tus. See Lohe of 

"^■''"i.rSpatis quadra'tus. The Lobe of 

'^^•^^LrmtniiCuli. ^^^Lobus^^o^Oi 
I., na'si. (L. ««*««, the nose.) The tip 

of the nose. . ^ , - _ Ooo T fprfbri 

I., parieta lis infe nor. See L. cereo) i 

parietal. u.f^^ supe'rior. ^..L. cerebri 
^'^'■"1 ' pneumogas'trlcus. The Flocmlus 

beh i'd;%i««, a\at.) The Lobe of Uver, 

'^■^*^l!"spige'lli. The Lobe of liver, Spigelian^ 
S: supramargina lis. See L. cerebri 

supr^arg^aHs^^ (L. .«J.r,ahump.) Hnschke's 

,^^YTbl; llobo ;'S. lobo ; G. Lappen.) A 
lobe. Applied to such parts of certain viscera as 
are more or less distinct from the rest. . . 

In Botany (G- Ldppehen), applied to a principal 
^UTiainn of leaves or other parts. 

1 cauda'tus. See Lobe of liver, caudate. 

l" clu'dicis. (L. caudex, the trunk of a 

tree G "«,!^«L;,i,.«.) Burdach's term for 

the ^g^^ -tf xoie ./ cercbr..n, 

''""l." cerebel'll biven'ter. (L. cerebeUi^n 
the Uttle brain; bis, twice; f«»<^r, the beUy.) 
The^ame as Lobe ofcerebfn;nb,ve»tral 

J,, cerebel'll centralis, bee d^ooe oj 

cerebellum, central. j^„,„.4e rT, cere- 

Is. cerebelli cuneiform is. \^- i^^f 

"'K!"by some the posterior lateral portion of 

the biventral lobe only. «,,T,e'rior. 

l. cerebellicuneiformis SM.PYphJs 

(L. cumus; forma; superior, upper.) Aeby s 


^''■'^^['"ceVSeni'infe'rior ante'rior. (L. 

- ^f ferebennnSor'inter'nus. (L. 
i„/.HoVTSm«., internal.) The tonsil of the 

T. oArebelll Inferior me'dius. (L 

,„/«?oVr"*^" "^ddle.) The Lobe of cere- 

bMum, >^-^^, j„,,,rlor posterior. (L 

,-«/.,?;r ; " a«.r, hinder.) The same as Lobe 
of cerebellum, postero-injerior. .^ 

■^ I., cerebelli intertonsllla ris. (l^. 
i„<«rbetween ; tonsil.) The Unda .^ebM^ 
from its position between the tonsils of the tcre 

''''T;cerebelli luna'tus ante'rior. (L 
lunatus, crescent-shaped ; «'.""•«»•' ^^^. ^^id 
Kolliker's terra for the anterior segment ot t o 
lobe of cerebellum, antero-superior ; also caUed 

Lobe of cerebellum, crescentic, ««<"y;- „^ ,. 
1.. cerebelli luna'tus posterior. (L. 

Mis; posterior, hinder.) The posterior seg- 
ment of the Lobe of cerebellum, antero-superior. 
llso called Lobe if cerebellum, crescentic, pos- 

'''"' 1*. cerebelli poste'rior. (L. posterior.) 

IhQ Lobe of cerebellum, posterior. , 

l. cerebelli poste'rior »f « '^f°'- ,}h 

posterior, hinder ; i^if^nor, lower.) ihc Lobe oJ 

cerebellum, postero-injerior. s„ne'rior. 

I., cerebelli posterior superior. 

(L «os<«-ior, hinder; ««i;e;nor, upper.) Ote 

Lobe of cerebellum, postero- superior 

I. cerebelli quadrangula ris. (^J^- 

,,..^';«'lm?four-angled.) The same as Lobe 

of cerebellum, antero-supenor. „„„^,.„f,,s 

I. cerebelli quadra'tus. {L.quadtatus, 

squam) Same ^sLobe of cerebellum, antero- 

*"^'i? cerebelli semilunaris infe'rior. 

(L. semilunaris, lialfmoon-shaped ; *>(/^J'o', 
lower G. unterer halbmondformige Lappen.) 
The ;ame as Lobe of cerebellum, postero-xnie- 

''''"'■S.. cerebelli semilunaris supe rior. 
(L. semilunaris; superior, lV^<^^j,^J,,fL 
halbmondformige Lappen.) The Lobe of ccie 

Mlu^n,^ ^;,tbS'supe'rior. See Lobe of 
"^^*^!TerXlli-supe'rior ante'rior. See 


the cerebellum, postero-superior 

l. cerebel'li trapezoi f es. (G. i^^i'^- 
lappen des Kleinhirns, Aeby.) The same as 

Lobeofeere^^;umfro^^^.^^^^ ^^ 

^"t; cKbri'^faleifo^mis. See Ue of 
''''■' l''"c£'ebrrfronta'lis. (L. cerebrum.) 

the fi--^Vr'ebrl"interme'dius. . (L cere- 

,..,?lhrbrrn; i«J-W^-. *^,^ I'ST^J^ 
G, Zwischenlappen.) ihe same as j 

cerebrum, central. 


Ii. cer'ebri me'dlus. (L. cerebrum, the 
brain ; mediiis, the middle.) The same as Lobe 
of cvrcbrum, tcmporo-aphcnoidal. 

1: cer'ebri occipitalis. (L. cerebrum, 
the bruiti ; occiput, the back of the head. G. 
Ilinterhauptslappen, HmUrlappen.) The same 
as Lobe of cerebrum, occipital. 

It. cer'ebri olfacto'rius. (L. cerebrum, 
the brain ; olfactorins, rcLating to smell.) The 
same as Tractus olfactorius. 

Ii. cer'ebri oper'tus. (L. cerebrum, the 
brain ; opertus, concealed. G. versteckter Lap- 
pen.) The Lobe of cerebrum, central. 

Ii. cer'ebri parieta'lis. (L. cerebrum, 
the brain ; parietal. G. iSchciicllappen, Oberlap- 
pen.) The same as Lobe of cerebrum, parietal. 

Ii. cer'ebri poste'rlor. (L. cerebrum ; 
posterior, hinder.) The part of the under 
surface of the brain situated behind the fissure 
of Sylvius. The Lobe of cerebrum, occipital. 

Ii. cer'ebri postl'cus. (L. cerebrum, 
the brain ; posticus, that is behind.) The same 
as Lobe of cerebrum, occipital. 

Ji. cer'ebri quadra'tus. (L. quadratus, 
square.) The Frcecumus. 

Ii. cer'ebri sphenoi'da'lis. (L. cere- 
brum ; sphenoid bone. G. Keilbeinlappoi.) The 
same as the Lobe of cerebrum, temporo-sphe- 

Ii. cer'ebri supe'rior. (L. cerebrum ; 
superior, upper.) The same as Lobe of cerebrum, 

Ii. cer'ebri tempora'lls. (L. cerebrum ; 
temporal bone. F. lobe temporal du cerveaii ; G. 
Schldfenlappen.) The Lobe of cerebrum, tem- 
poro- sphenoidal. 

Jm. cer'ebri tem'poro spbeno'ida'lis. 
(L. cerebrum; tempora, the temples; sphenoid 
bone.) The same as Lobe of cerebrum, temporo- 

Ii. echino'des. ('ExTkos, the hedgehog; 
iToos, likeness.) Clusius's name for the seeds of 
Ccesalpinia bondncclla. 

X. be'patls ante'rior. (L. hepar, the 
liver; anterior, that is in front.) A synonym of 
Lobe of liver, quadrate. 

X. he'patis cauda'tus. (L. hepar, the 
liver ; cauda, a tail.) The same as Lobe of liver, 

Ii. be'patls dex'ter. (L. hepar, the liver ; 
dexter, right.) The right lobe of the liver. 

Ii. be'patls poste'rlor. (L. hepar; 
posterior, hmder. G. hinterer Leberlappen.) A 
synonym of Lobe of liver, caudate. 

Ji. be'patls quadra'tus. (L. hepar, 
the liver ; quadratus, square.) The Lobe of 
liver, quadrate. 

Ii. be'patls sln'lster. (L. hepar ; sinis- 
ter, left.) The left lobe of the liver. 

Ii. in'sulae. (L. insula, an island. F. 
lobe de I' He ; G. Lnscllappen.) Broca's term for 
the island of Eeil, or Lobe of cerebrum, central. 
Ii. interme'dlus. See L. cerebri inter- 

Ii. Intertonsllla'ris. (L. inter, between ; 
tonsil.) The uvula of the cerebellum, from its 
situation between the amygdalte or tonsils of the 

Ii. medul'Ise oblong:a'tse. (L. medulla, 
marrow ; oblonyus, oblong.) The Amygdala of 

Ii. montlc'ull. (L. monticulus, a small 
mountain.) The anterior part of the central 
projecting part, or Monticulus, of the superior 

vermiform process of the cerebellum having the 
central lobe of the cerebellum in front of it. 
Also ciilled Culnun. 
Tm. VXorgra'g-ni. {Morgagni.) The middle 
lobe of the prostate gland. 

Ii. ner'vi pneumogas'trlcl. The Floc- 
culus of the cerebellum. 

It. oblon'g-us aromat'icus. (L. oh- 
lonfjus, oblong; Gr. (ifiwfxa, a spice.) Clusius's 
term for a vanilla pod. 

Ii. olfacto'rius. See Olfactory lobe. 
Ii. patbolog-'icus. (IlaOos, di.'sease; Xo- 
yo?, an account.) The middle lobe of the pros- 
tate ; so called because of its tendency to become 
enlarged in elderly persona. 

Ii. pros'tatse Infe'rior. {Prostate gland; 
L. inferior.) The middle lobe of the Trostate 

Ii. pros'tatse me'dlus. {Trostate gland ; 
L. medius, middle. G. mittlerer Lappcn der 
Prostata.) The middle lobe of the prostate gland. 
Ii. pyrifor'mis. (L. pyrus, a pear ; forma, 
shape.) A pear-shaped eminence in many ani- 
mals consisting of the external root of the olfac- 
tory lobe combined with the gyrus hippocampi. 

Ii. Spig-e'lil. {Spigelius.) The same as 
Lobe of liver, Spir/elian. 

Ii. subpendicula'rls. (L. sub, under; 
pendeo, to hang down.) The Flocculus of the 

Ii. tu'berls cer'ebri, Huschke. (L. 
<«5«>', a hump ; cerebrum, ihchram.) The same 
as Lohulus cerebri suprumarf/inalis. 

Jm. ver'mis infe'rior. (L. vermis, a 
worm; inferior, lower. G. unterer Wurmlap- 
pen.) Schwalbe's term for a median lobe of the 
cerebellum, consisting of the Pyramis and the 
Uvula. It unites one Lobe of cerebellum, inferior 
with its fellow of the opposite side. 

Jm. ver'mis posterior. (L. vermis, a 
worm ; posterior, hinder. G. hinterer Wurm- 
lappen.) Schwalbe's term for a median lobe of 
the cerebellum, consisting of the Dcclive eerebelli, 
the Folium cacumiiiis, and the Tuber valvulcB. 
It unites one Lobe of cerebellum, posterior with 
its fellow of the opposite side. 

Jm. ver'mis supe'rior. (L. vermis ; supe- 
rior, upper. G. Obcrwurm- Lappen.) Schwalbe's 
term for a median lobe of the cerebellum, con- 
sisting of the Lobe of cerebellum, central, and 
the Lobus monticuli. It unites owe Lobe of cere- 
bellum, superior with its fellow of the opposite 

XiO'cal* (F. local; from L. loealis ; from 
locus, a place. G. lokal, ijrtlich.) Of, or be- 
longing to, a place or part, and not to the whole. 
Diseases are thus divided into local and general. 
Also, applied to medicines or remedies simi- 
larly distinguished, and also called topical. 

Ii. ac'tion In galvanic cell. The oxi- 
dation of the zinc or other electrode consumed in 
the galvanic cell which occurs when the circuit 
is not closed ; it is caused by the presence of me- 
tallic impurities which produce a local galvanic 

Ii. affec'tlon. (L. affectio, the being 
affected. F. ajfeetion locale.) A disease affect- 
ing a special part of the bod}' only, as distin- 
guished from a general disease affecting the 
whole bndy. 

Ii. ansestbe'sla. ('Ai/atcrOiia'/a, want of 
feeling.) The production of the insensibility of 
a part by artiticial means. It may be accom- 
plished by directing against the part to be 


rendered insensible a finely divided spray of 
highly rectilied ctlier, or other voliitile substance, 
as first proposed by Dr. B. W. Eioliardson. 
The heat rendered latent by the evaporation of 
the ether is so considerable that after a few 
seconds the superficial tissues are frozen, be- 
coming hard and bloodless, a condition which 
can be kept for a suflScient length of time for the 
performance of many minor operations. 

Local anicsthesia can also be produced by the 
a]iplication to the part of a piece of lint soaked in 
chloroform, or by the use of a four-per-cent. or 
stronger solution of cocain, especially after oily 
particles have been washed away with soap and 

IiOca.leS> (L. localis, belonging to a 
place.) Local diseases. Applied to a class of 
Cullen's Nosolog}'. 

XiOca.'lis. (L. localis.) Same as Local. 
Ii. membra'nai (L. membrana, a thin 
skin.) A term for the pia matei-, as being the 
nearest place of the brain. 

XiOCalisa'tion. (L. localis. F. localisa- 
tion; I. localisazione ; G. Lolcalisirnng.) The 
act or process of fixing in a definite place. 

Xi., mor'bld. (L. morbus., disease. F. 
localisation morbide.) The production in some 
definite part of the organism of a distinct lesion 
under the influence of a previous more general 
morbid state. This may be an affection of the 
whole body, as a diathesis, or an affection of an 
entire organ which becomes localised in one small 

£. of func'tion. The determination of 
an organ, or a part of an organ, as the essential 
agent in the performance of a definite function. 

ZiOcal'ity. (L. foco, to place. F. existence 
locale.) Existence in place ; relation of place or 

Also, term for a faculty common to man and 
the lower animals taking cognizance of the posi- 
tion of objects, conducing to the desire for 
travelling, giving judgment of the capabilities 
of ground, and power to retrace steps which 
have once been trodden. Its organ is supposed 
to be seated above and on each side of the root 
of the nose. 

Ii., sense of. The faculty of distinguish- 
ing the part of a sensory surface to which a 
stimulus is applied. It is most developed in the 
most sensitive parts, the sense of locality in the 
lips, for example, being greater than in the 
dorsum of the hand, and the sense in the hand 
greater than in the back. Speaking generally it 
has been found that it increases in acuteness in 
accordance with the mobility of the part, that it 
is greater in the transverse axis than in the long 
axis of the limbs, and that it improves with 

XiOcatelli, Iiui'g'i. An Italian physi- 
cian and follower of the latrochemical school, 
horn in Bergamo towards the end of the six- 
teenth century, died of plague at Milan or Genoa 
in or about 1637. 

li.'s bal'sam. See Balsam, Locatelli's. 

ZiOCel'late. Having a Locellus. 

IiOCel'lus. (L. dim. of locus, a place. F. 
locclle ; G. Halbfach, Kdsfchen.) A secondary 
cell. Applied by L. C. Richard to each segment 
of the cavity of the anther in the Orchidaceas, 
and other plants. 

IiOCll. See Looch. 

IiOCh'ades. See Lonchades. 

IiOCliadi'tiSi See Lonchaditis. 

XiOdl'bachbad. See Lochbad. 

XiOCh'bad. Switzerland, near Bern. A 
mineral water containing carbonates of iron, 
sodium, and magnesium, chloride and sulphate 
of soda and silicic acid. It is chielly used in 
baths for muscular and articular rheumatism, 
nervous affections and hysteria ; it is also used 
internally in chronic catarrh of the mucous 
membranes and in anicraia. 

XaOCll'ia> (Aox'", the discharge after child- 
birth ; from Xox'os, belonging to childbirth. F. 
lochies ; I. locchi ; 8. loquios ; G. Lochicn, Kind- 
hettreinigung, Wochcnjtuss, IVochenreiniyuiig.) 
The discharge from the uterus and vagina of 
women which follows delivery. It consists at first 
of red blood and small coagula, mixed with frag- 
ments of decidua, and perhaps of placenta, with 
the secretions of the cervix uteri and the vagina ; 
about the third day it becomes sickly in smell, 
watery and greenish, and contains altered blood- 
corpuscles ; pus cells, fat, cholesterin, and disin- 
tegrated epithelium subsequently make their ap- 
pearance until, during the second week, it becomes 
a yellowish or greyish colour, and cream-like in 
consistence and appearance. It then diminishes, 
and ceases in the third' or fourth week after the 
birth. At first the discharge is alkaline, but by 
degrees it becomes acid ; it sometimes contains 
the Trichomonas vaginalis and the Micrococcus 
subjlavus. The healthy lochial discharge ob- 
tained from the uterine cavity and the upper part 
of the vagina is said to contain no microbes. 

Ii. alba. (L. albus, white.) The lochia 
of the second week and following days when 
it becomes of a grey or creamy colour and 

Ii. cruen'ta. (L. cruentus, bloody.) The 
lochia of the first two or three days when it 
consists chiefly of blood. 

Ii. lac'tea. (L. lacteus, milky.) Same as 
L. alba. 

Ii. muco'sa. (L. miicosus, slimy.) Same 
as Z. alba. 

Ii. ru'bra. (L. ruber, red.) Same as Z. 

Ii. sero'sa. (L. serum, the watery part 
of a thing.) The lochia of the third to the 
fifth day when it becomes sero-sanguinolent and 

ZiOCll'ial. (Aoxta. F. lochial.) Eclating 
to the Lochia. 

IiOChiocoelii'tiS. (Ao'xios, belonging 
to childbirth ; KoiXia, the belly.) Puerperal 

IiOChiocol'ica. ^ (Aoxi'a, the discharge 
after childbirth ; kwXikS's, suffering in the colon. 
F. lochiocolique ; G. Lochienkolik.) Term for 
lochial colic, or griping in the belly attendant 
upon irregularity of the lochia. 

XiOclliodocll'iuni. See Lochodochium. 

IiOChioine'tra. (Aoxt«, the discharge 
after childbirth ; ^i)';T;oa, the womb.) Retention 
of the lochial discharge from bending of the 
body of the womb at the cervix, and consequent 
obstruction of its canal. 

liOCll'ion. The same as Lochium. 

XiOChiop'yra. (Aoxios, pertaining to 
childbed ; Trup, a fever. G. Kindbettjieher.) 
Term for puerperal or childbed fever. 

ZiOClliorrhag''ia. (Aox'a,"the discharge 
after childbirth ; pnyvv/u, to burst forth. F. 
lochiorrhagie ; I. lochiorragia ; ^. lociuiorrha- 
gia ; G. Lochienblutjluss.) An excessive flow of 
the lochia. 


ZiOClllorrba.g''lc. (F. lochiorrhagique.) 

Of, 1)1- hi'loiig-iiig to, Luchlorrhagia. 

XiOClliorrhoe'a. (Aox'u, the discharge 
after childbirth; poia, a How. F. lochiorrhec ; 
1. /ochiurrhea ; S. loqiiion-ea ; G. Lochienblut- 
fluss.) An excessive discharge of the lochia. 

ZiOClliorrllo'ic. (F. lochiorrhviquc) 
Of, or ticlonging to. Lochiorrhcea. 

XiOchios'cliesis. (Aoxi'a, the discharge 
after childbirth ; iVxw, to hold. F. lochioschhe ; 
G. VerhaUuny dcr Luehien.) A retentioa or 
stoppage of the lochia. 

Xiocliioscliet'ic. (F. lochioschHiqiie.) 
Of, ur brloiiging to, J.or/iiosc/iesis. 

IiOCh'ium. (Ao'xio9, pertaining to child- 
birth.) Term for child-bed. 

laOCll'lia Switzerland. A mineral water 
containing magnesium sulphate and iron. Used 
in chronic rheumatism, skin diseases and ulcers. 

XiOCbOCacOCOl'pia. (Ao'xos, child- 
birth ; /vUKo's, evil ; koXttos, a sinus, the womb. 

F. locMocacocolpie ; G. Kindhettschammfdule.') 
Puerperal putridity or disease of the vulva. 

IiOCll'OCh. Same as Looch. 

Xiochocoelii'tis. (Aoxo?; KoiXia, the 
helly. F. luctwcwliitc.) Abdominal inflamma- 
tion in the puerperal slate. 

Xiochodoch'ium. (Ao'xos ; Uxofxai, to 

receive.) A l3ing-in-hospital. 

XiOchoineleag''ra. (Ao'xo?; ; /ut'Xos, a 

limb; ay pa, a seizure. F. lochomiUagre ; G. 
Gliedcrschmerz der Kreissenden.) A sudden pain 
in the limbs of pregnant women. 

Xiochometri'tis. (Aoxo's ; i^nTpa, the 
womb. F. lochometrite.) Term for puerperal 

Iiochoinetrophlebi'tis. (AoVo? ; 

/ly'iTpa; t}>\i\}/, a vein. F. locliometropliUhitc.) 
Inflammation of the veins of the womb in child- 

XiOChOOphori'tiS. (Ao'xos; oophoritis, 
intiammation of tlie ovary. F. lochoophorite ; 

G. Eierstocksentzibidung im Kindbett.) Puer- 
peral intiammation of the ovary. 

Xiochoperitoni'tis. (Ao'xos; perito- 
nitis, inflammation of the peritoneum. F. 
lochoperitoncite, lochopiritonite ; G. Bauchfel- 
lentzi'mdung im Kindbett.) Puerperal inflam- 
mation of the peritoneum. 

XiOChop'yra. (Ao'xos; ttu^, a fever. F. 
fievre puerpirale ; G. Kiudbettjieber.) Term 
used by Eisenmann for puerperal fever. 

XiOCll'OS. (Aoxos. G. Kindbetterin.) A 
woman in child-bed, or that hath lately been 

XiOcllOty'pllUS. (Ao'xos; TUfpos, stupor. 
F. tochotypli MS ; G. Krankhcitsfamilie- Typh us.) 
Term used by Eisenmann for contagious puer- 
peral fever; puerperal typhus fever. 

XiO'ci. (L. nominative plural of locus, a 
part.) Old term for the womb. 

Ii. mulie'bres. (L. wi«/tei>-w, pertaining 
to a woman.) Tlie womb; also, the vulva. 

XiOCk. (Mid. E. /(jke ; Sax. loca ; G. loch, 
a dungeon; from Teut. base luk, to lock. F. 
serrure ; I. serratura ;S. ccrradura ; G. Schloss.) 
Anything that fastens. 

Also (F. serrer ; I. serrare ; S. cerrar ; G. 
schliessen), to make fast. 

Xi.-ja'w. See Locked jaw. 
It. spasm. A term applied by 'Weir-Mit- 
chell to a rare form of writer's cramp in which 
the spasm is so severe that the hand becomes 
locked or fixed by strong contraction, so that it 

cannot bo moved for some time, after which com- 
plete relaxation occurs. 

ZiOCk hOS'pital. A name verj' generally 
adopted in Great Britain to characterise a chari- 
table institution for the treatment of venereal 
diseases. The origin of the phrase is uncertain. 

ZiOClc'ed. {Lock.) Made fast with, or as 
witli, a hick. 

Ta. bead. The locking or fastening to- 
gether of the heads of twins during labour so 
as to impede or arrest delivery ; this may occur 
when the first child has presented by the breech 
or legs, and the second by the head, when the 
respective heads may become locked by their 
chins or their occiputs ; or the same thing may 
occur when both heads present one following the 

Ii. jaw. {(y . Kinnbackenkrampf.) A term 
for tonic spasm of the muscles of mastication, or 

Also, extended so as to mean Tetanus. 

Im. joint. A condition described by Paget 
in which a joint, usually the knee, whilst 
being moved in some ordinary action, is sud- 
denly arrested by a feeling of intense pain after 
a sensation of slipping, or as if something was 
suddenly caught between the bones. The joint 
thus locked will move in one direction, but not 
in the other ; it is followed by synovitis, and is 
spontaneously cured after days or weeks. 

laOCk'en. The TrolUus eiiropceus. 

IiOCker g'OW'ans. The TrolUus euro- 

Xiock'port znin'eral spring*. 

United States of America, New York, Magara 
County. A mineral water containing calcium 
carbonate 9'27 grains, calcium sulphate 5"72, 
sodium chloride 111'42, magnesium carbonate 
3"21, calcium chloride 4o'08, potassium chloride 
3'.52, magnesium chloride 11 04, sodium bromide 
1"57, and sodium iodide 2'36 grains in a gallon, 
with some hydrogen sulphide and carbonic acid. 

IiO'CO-disease'. A term in the Southern 
States of America for a disease of horses, being a 
chronic poisoning, in which the action of the 
nervous and muscular system becomes gradually 
obstructed until complete exhaustion occurs. 
The eating of Loco-weed, Astragalus crotalaria, 
the A. Hornii, and A. lentiginosus, is supposed 
to be the cause of the distemper ; and also in 
Colorado of the Qjci/tropis Lamberti, and in 
Arizona of the Hosacliia Purshiana. 

XiO'co-weed. The Astragalus crotalaria. 
Gray. Hab. California. Said to be poisonous 
to horses and cattle. 

ZiOCOmo'bile. (L. locus, a place; mobilis, 
movable. F. locomobile.) Having power to 
change place, partially or entirely. 

Ziocomobility. (L. locus ; mobilis. F. 
locomobilitv.) The faculty of being Locomobile. 

XiOCOmotility. The faculty of Loco- 

XiOCOmo'tion. (L. /oc«s, a place ; motio, 
a movement ; from moveo, to move. F. locomo- 
tion ; I. locomozionc ; S. locomocion ; G. Orts- 
bewcgung, Jiewegung.) The action by which 
organised bodies, or parts of organised bodies, 
transport themselves from one place to another. 
Ii., arte'rial. The movement of straight- 
ening produced in a curved artery by the blood- 
wave caused by the contraction of the ventricle 
of the heart. 

Ii.,co-ordina'tion of. Sec Co-ordination 
of movement. 


Xi. of heart. (F. locomotion dn cceur.) 
The geneial movement, of forwurd projection 
which results from the sudden recoil of the organ 
at the moment of s3'stole, and caused, according 
to Hildes^heim, bj' the propulsion of the blood 
into the aorta and pulmonary artery. 

X., or'i^ans of. (F. apparcil dc la loco- 
motion ; G. Locomotionsorgune.) The organs 
by means of which animals effect a change of 
place ; they vary greatly. In the lowest forms, 
as in the Amoeba and its allies, the protoplasm 
of which the animal is composed thrusts out 
processes or pscudopodia, in one or more direc- 
tions; into this the mass of the body streams 
and gradually creeps along. In many Infusoria, 
in Clenophora, in the young of some Coelen- 
terata and Echinodermata, and in the larva) of 
some Mollusca, the locomotive organs are the 
cilia with which the body is partially or com- 
pletely covered, and which, acting together, 
propel the animal through the water. The num- 
ber of the cilia may be reduced to one or two. 
In the Medusae locomotion is accomplished by 
the contractions of the swimming bell, which are 
effected by true muscular fibres. In the Salpidae, 
and to a certain extent in the Cephalopoda, the 
sudden contraction of a muscular sac discharges 
its contents, and like a rocket propels the animal 
forwards or backwards. In most Mollusca a 
muscular foot is present, by the progressive con- 
tractions of which slow creeping movements are 
accomplished. In Cephalopoda,besides the rocket- 
like movement above described, the suckers on 
the arras are attached to some point to which the 
muscles of the arms draw the rest of the body. 
In Pteropoda the lobes of the body execute flap- 
ping movements like the wings of birds. In 
some Acephala, as in Cardium, the sudden 
straightening of a muscular column causes the 
animal to leap a few inches. In Annelida, as 
well as in some of the lower Vermes, locomotion 
is effected by creeping movements, and by alter- 
nate bending, fixation, and extension of the 
body. Insecta, Arachnida, and Crustacea possess 
an external hard covering, or skeleton, to which 
jointed limbs containing muscles are attached, 
and locomotion is usually terrestrial and by 
movements analogous to those of walking, often 
executed with considerable rapidity. Many 
insects possess wings, which are thin mem- 
branous expansions, presenting a large surface 
to the air, and enabling the creature to traverse 
space more quickly than perhaps in any other 
mode of locomotion. 

In nearly all Vertebrata there is an internal 
skeleton consisting of a vertebral column, with 
which jointed limbs are connected. These 
with muscles form a system of levers, by 
means of which progression is accomplished ; 
sometimes by the screw-like vibration of the 
tail, as in the aquatic locomotion of fishes ; 
sometimes by the flapping movements of the 
fore-limbs, the surface of which is greatly 
extended, with little increase of weight, by 
feathers, as in the wings of birds, or by a thin 
membranous expansion between the digits, as 
in bats, by which their flight is eflected ; and 
sometimes by the alternate planting of the feet 
upon the ground, as in quadrupedal and bipedal 

See also Limb. 

IiO'comotive. (L. locus; moveo.) Re- 
lating to Locomotion. 

XiOcqmotiv'ity. (L. locm; moveo. F. 

locomotivitc ; I. locomotivita ; S. locomotividad ; 
G. Bcwegbarkcit.) The faculty possessed bv 
animals of the movement of the whole or part Of 
their bodies at will. 

XiO'comotor. Relating to Locomotion. 
Ii. ataxia. See Ataxy, locomotor. 

ZiOCOmo'tory. Relating to Locomotion. 
Ii. appendages. (L. appendix, that 
which hangs to anything.) The Locomotion, 
organs of. 

Zioculaxnen'ta. Nominative plural of 

Ii. coll. The sacculi of the colon. 

Xioculamen'tose. (L. loculamenttim, 
a little cell. F. lonUamcntcux ; G. fiicherig.) 
Having, or full of, locularaenta, or little cells. 

XiOCUlamen'tum. (L. loculamentum, 
a case; from loculus, a little place. F. loge ; 
G. Fach.) A place distinct from another. A 
little cell. 

In Botany, the space between the partitions of 
a pericarp. Same as Loculus. 

XiOC'ular. (L. locularis, belonging to a 
box; from loculus, a little place. F. loculaire ; 
S. locular ; G. fdcherig.) Divided into two or 
more spaces or compartments. 

XiOc'ulate. (L. loculatus, furnished with 
compartments; from loculus. F. locide ; S. 
loculado ; G. Idngsf&cherig.) Having the in- 
terior divided into many cavities or little places. 

ZiOCUla'tioili (L. loculattis. F. locula- 
tion.) The state of that which is divided inter- 
nally into many cavities or little spaces. AppUed 
to certain fruit. 

ZiOC'ule. Same as Loculus. 

XiOC'ulii Nominative plural of Loculus. 
Small spaces separated from each other by par- 

Zioculici'dal. (L. loculus, a little place ; 
ccedo, to break. F. loculicide ; S. loculicido ; G. 
fachspaltig .) Breaking into the cell. 

Ii. dehis'cence. (L. dehisco, to gape 
open. G. klappenspaltiges Auf^pringen.) Ap- 
plied to a dehiscent pericarp when it bursts 
vertically at the back of the cells or at the dorsal 

XiOC'ulOSe. Same as Loculous. 

XiOC'ulous. (L. loculosus, full of little 
cells ; from loculus. F. loculeux ; S. hculoso ; 
G. vielfachartig , fdcherig.) Applied by ]\Iirbel 
to any vegetable organ that is hollow and divided 
into cavities by diaphragms, as the leaves of 
the Juncus articulafus, and the petioles of the 
Eryiigium corniculatum. 

XiOC'ulus. (L. loculus, dim. of locus, a 
place. F. loge, logette, locule ; G. Fach.) A 
little place, bag, or coffer. 

In Zoology, a chamber divided from another 
by a septum. 

In Botany, the cavity in an ovary or anther. 

XiO'cus. (L. locus, a place. F. place ; G. 
Liaum.) The whole space in or on which a 
thing is situated ; a place. 

Ii. cseru'leus. (L. cceruleus, dark blue.) 
A term which, with its synonym Substantia 
ferruginea, has been given to two separate 
structures. Arnold designated by this term the 
part of the anterior fovea of the fourth ven- 
tricle, which has a bluish colour from the pre- 
sence of a large vein just below the surface. 
Wenzel and most other authors apply the term 
to the brownish mass, so coloured by pigmented 
ganglion-cells, which stretches on the lateral 
border of the floor of the fourth ventricle from 


the anterior fovea to the entrance of the aquao- 
ductus S3'lvii. By some it is said to give origin 
to the motor root of the fifth nerve, but this is 
doubted b_v otliers. 

Ii. clner'eus. (L. ciiiereus, ash-coloured.) 
The £. ctcruU'Ks. 

Ii. ferrugln'eus. (L. ferruginens rust- 
coloured.) The same as L. ctcriiletts. 

Tm, lu'teus. (L. luteus, yellow.) The part 
of the mucous membrane of the nose which is 
olfactory in function ; it derives its name from 
its yellow or brownish colour. 

Ii. ni'^er. (L. niger, black. F. place 
noire.) ISomerring's term for a mass of pig- 
mented grey matter situated in each crus cerebri, 
and separating the crusta from the tegmentum. 
It derives its name from its dark colour. More 
frequently called Sxhstanfia nigra. 

Ii. perfora'tus antl'cus. (L.perforatiis, 
from po'foro, to bore through; nnticKs, that 
which is in front. F. espacc pcrforc anterietir ; 
G. vordere Sie/iplatte.) The anterior perforated 
spot is a four-sided depression near the entrance 
of the Svlvian fissure, bounded behind and to its 
inner side by the tractus opticus, opposite to this 
by a narrow furrow, in front and to its inner 
side by the optic chiasma and the peduncle of 
the corpus callosum, and opposite to this by the 
Gyrus uncinatus ; it is situated just beneath the 
corpus striatum, and is perforated by a number 
of small holes through which run blood-vessels 
chiefly to the corpus striatum. The surface is 
smooth and consists of grey nerve tissue partly 
continuous with that of the nucleus lenticularis. 

Ii. perfora'tus posti'cus. (L. posticus, 
that which is behind. F. espace pcrforc poste- 
rieur ; G. hintere Sicbplaftc.) The posterior 
perforated space is a deep fossa situated between 
the crura cerebri on the under surface of the 
brain, and bounded in front by the corpora 
albicantia, and behind by the pons Varolii. It 
is composed of grey nerve substance connecting 
the diverging crura, and containing striae of 
white nerve substance. It is perforated by 
numerous small openings for the passage of 
blood-vessels. It is known also as the pons 

Ii. resistent'ise luino'rls. (L. resistens, 
part, of rcsisto, to withstand; mivor, less.) A 
]>hrase applied to a part where the vitality of 
the tissues is defective, and consequeiitly liable 
to, and less able to withstand, the attacks of 

Ii. ru'ber. (L. rnher, red.) Stilling's 
term for a reddish layer of nerve substance in 
the medulla oblongata just below the Z. niger of 

ZiO'cust. (L. locusta. F. locHste ; I. lo- 
cust a ; S. langosta; G. Ileuschrecl-e.) The name 
of several insects belonging to the Suborders 
Locustida and Acridiidce, Order OrtJioptera, 
Class Insecta. The migratory locust is the 
Gidipodu migratoria. 
Also, the same as L.-tree and its fruit. 

1m. plant. The Cassia mardandica. 

X.-tree. The Rohinia pseudo-acacia. 
Also, the Ccratonia siliqua. 

Ii.-tree, black. The Robinia pseudo- 

Ii.-tree, hon'ey. The Gleditschia tria- 

Ii.-tree, "West Zn'dian. The Hgmcnesa 

Xi., yellow. The Cladrastis tinctoria. 

XiOCUS'ta. (L. /oc?«<rtf, a locust. F.locuste.') 
A Genus of the Suborder Lociistidce, Order 

Also (F. muche ; G. Ackerlattich, Lammer- 
/atfic/i), the specific name of the Valeriana 
locusta, or corn-salad. 

Also (L. locusta, a crayfish. F. locustc), atcrm. 
sometimes applied to the Spikelet of grasses. 

£. verruciv'ora. See Gryllus verruci- 

ZiOCUS'tic. (L. locusta, the grasshopper. 
F. locustique.) Of, or belonging to, the Locusta, 
or grasshopper. 

Ii. ac'id. An acid obtained from the 
grasshopper, differing little from acetic acid. 

XiOde. (Sax. hid, a way. F. filon ; G. 
Mincngang.) A course or vein of ore ; being a 
fissure which traverses the ordinary strata of a 
district in a direction more or less nearly ap- 
proaching the vertical, and which is filled with 
a mineral ore. 

IiOde'stone. (Mid. E. hdestone; from 
lode, a way ; stone.) re304. Magnetic iron ore, 
consisting of ferroso-ferric oxide. It occurs 
native in large masses, especially in Sweden 
and North America. It is sometimes found 
crystallised in cubes. 

ZiO'di arte'sian well. United States 
of America, Indiana, Fountain County. A saline, 
sulphur water, containing magnesium carbonate 
•66 grain, calciimi carbonate 2'01, sodium sul- 
phate 2'13, magnesium sulphate 3'26, calcium 
sulphate 5.5'56, calcium phosphate 1'2, sodium 
chloride 502*46, calcium chloride 47"93, magne- 
sium chloride 53-54, magnesium bromide '88, and 
sulphur "5 grain in a gallon. 

IiO'dicule. (Tj. lodicula, a small coverlet ; 
dim. of lodix, a blanket. F. lodicule ; G. Beck- 
spelze.) Palisot-Beauvois's term for the small 
membranous scales of the flowers of grasses, 
being the aborted perianth leaves. Also called 

Xiodoice'a. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

It, maldiv'ica, Pers. The L. seychella- 

Ii. seychella'rum, Labill. (F. cul de 
negrcsse ; G. Sechellenmcss.) The Maldivian 
cocoa-nut tree, the double cocoa-nut of the 
Seychelles. Fruit used in typhoid fevers, and 
as an antidote to poisons ; kernel said to be 
aphrodisiac and an astringent in dysentery ; the 
shell of the fruit is made into cups from which 
any poison, it is thought, may be safely drunk. 
The fruit was supposed by General Gordon, of 
Kliartoum, to be the forbidden fruit of Paradise. 

ZiOdo'sa. Spain, Province of Navarre, not 
far from Pampeluna. A bicarbonated chalybeate 
water called Fuente de Calderin. Used in an- 
aemic conditions. 

Xio'eche les bains. (F. /t;, the; lain, 
a bath.) Same as Lcukcrbad. 

XiOC'zne. See Loime. 

Xioe'mia. See Loimia. 

XiOe'mic. See Loimic. 

Xjoemocholo'sis. See Loiwocholosis. 

ZiOemoco'iniuill. See Loimocomium. 

XiOe'znicon. See Loimicon. 

Xioemog'rapll'ia. See Loimographia. 

XiOe'moid. See Loimoid. 

XiOCmol'Og'y. See Loimologia. 

Zioemophtlial'illia. See Loimopkthal- 

Xioemop'yra. See Zoimopyra. 


the Nat. Order 

XiOe'moS. See Lniinos. 

ZiOese'lia. A Genus of 

'Xt. caeru'Iea, Cavan. (L. ccendcus, dark 
blue.) Hal). Mexico, Uuadaloupe. A diaphoretic, 
emetic, and cathartic. 

ZiO'ess. A German term applied to a 
plcisroci'ue alluvial deposit of the ancient Rhine. 
It is a finely comminuted sand or pulverulent 
loam, consisting chieflj' of argillaceous matter, 
hut also containing some carbonate of lime, 
quartzose, and micaceous sand. 

Iiogradec'toxny. (Aoyd^ts, the whites 

of the eyes ; iKTu/n'u a cutting out. F. logadec- 
tomie.) Term for excision of the conjunctival 
membrane of the eye. 

XiOg''ades. (AoyaO£s.) The white of the 
eye or sclerotic coat. 

XiOg'adi'tiS. (AoyaSts. F. logadile.) 
Indammatiou of the white of the eye, or sclero- 

Iiog'adoblennorrhoe'a. {Koyur.f.^. 

F. loyadubkniwrrhec.) Llcnnorrhoea of the 
conjunctival membrane of the eye. 

XiOg'ane'tin. A substance obtained by 
the action of dilute sulphuric acid on loganin. 

XiOg'ailia'ce£B. (James Logan or Loyhan, 
an Irish botanist. F. loganiacees.) An Order of 
the Cohort GentiaUs, Series Bicarpice, Subclass 
Gamopetalce. Tropical or subtropical plants, 
Laving opposite, entire, stipulate leaves ; inferior 
4—5 partite calyx ; epipetalous stamens ; peltate 
or winged seeds with tleshy or cartilaginous 
albumen. Many of the species are highly poi- 

XiOg-a'niads. The plants of the Nat. 
Order Logamcicece. 

liOg-'anin. CjjHaiOn, or CjiHs^OH. A 
glycoside found by Duncan and Short in the pulp 
of the fruit and in the seeds of Strychnos nux- 
vomica. It forms colourless prismatic crystals ; 
strong sulphuric acid gives a red colour, changing 
to purple. 

XiOgr'arithm. (AJyos, a word, proportion ; 
dpi6/iio9, number. V . logarithme ; l.logaritmo ; 
S. logaritmo ; G. Logarithmus.) The exponent 
of the power to which a given invariable number 
must be raised in order to produce another given 

Xiog'arith'momancy. (Aoyo's,aword; 

proportion; (ipiy/ids, number; /xavTiia, power 
of divination. F. logarithmantie ; G. das 
Wahrsagen aus Zahlenverhaltnissen.) Divina- 
tion from the relation of numbers. 

ZiOg''aS. A term used as the singular of 

IiOg''fia. A Genus of the Nat. Order Co7n- 

Ii. brevifolia, Cass. (L. brevis, short ; 
folium, a leaf.) The Filago minima. 

1m. IanceoIa'ta< Cass. (L. laneeolatus, 
lance- shaped.) The Filago montana. 

ZaOgria'trUSi (Adyos, a word; laxpds, a 
physician. F. logiatre.) A physician only in 
words; a theoretical physician. 

XiOg''iCe (Mid. E. log ike ; from F. logique ; 
from L. logicus ; from Gr. XoyiK?; ; from Xoyijcds, 
reasonable ; from Xdyos, a speech ; from \iyo), 
to collect. I. logica ; S. logica ; G.Logik.) The 
art or process of reasoning correctly. 

XiOg'ici* (Adyos, reason. F. logique; G. 
lugisch.) The disciples of a school of medicine 
who were said to be those who, trusting to reason 
and experience, exercised their art happily. 

ZaOg'OdiarrhOB'a. (Adyos, a word ; 
(5ui,jpoia, a llowing through. F. logodiarrliii-.) 
An excessive flow of words; prolixity; verbo- 

iiOgr'ogTapll. (Adyos, a word ; ypdtpw, 
to write.) An instrument devised by Barlow for 
recording on a travelling slip of paper, by means 
of a st3le at the end of a lever, the vibrations of 
a membrane set into action by the voice. 

ZiOg'Oma'nia. (Adyos ; navia, madness.) 
A form of insanity in which there is great loqua- 

XiOg'Om'eter. (Adyos, proportion ; /utV- 
pov, a measure.) A scale for measuring chemical 

Iiog'oinonoxna'nia. (Adyos; /ndvos, 

single; (uai-u/, madness.) Guislain's term for a 
form of insanity characterised only by great 
ZiOg'oneuro'ses. (Adyos, reason ; vtu- 

fiov, a nerve.) Mental diseases. 

XiOg'Oneuro'siS. (Adyos, a word; viu- 
pov. G. tSprachstdrung.) A derangement or 
impeiiiment of speech. 

XiOg'Op'athy. (Adyos ; -TrdOos, disease.) 
A morbid affection of the speech. 

laOg'Ople'g'ia. (Adyos, a word; Tr\);y?;, 
a stroke. F. logopUgie.) Inability to pronounce 
words, as a result of paralysis. 

XiOg'Orrhoe'a. (Adyos; poia, a flow.) 
Same as Logodiarrhxa. 

ZiOg''wood. (F. hois de Campeche ; I, cam- 
peg gio ; ^.palode campecho ; G. Campechehoh.) 
See Hcematoxyli lignum. 

Ii., decoc'tlon of. See Decoctum hcema- 

Ii., ex'tract of. See Extractum hcema- 

XiO'hOCh. (Arab.) Same as Looch. 

XiOi'mie. (AoiV'i, pestilence.) Term for 
the plague, or for epidemic disease. 

ZiOi'mia. Same as Loime. 

XiOi'miCa (AotjUiKos, pestilential; from 
Xoi/uds, a phigue, a pestilence. F. loimiquc.) 
Of, or belonging to, the plague, or to epidemic 

ZiOi'micon. The same as Loimologion. 

Zioimocholo'sis. (Aoi/^ds, a plague; 
xdXos, bile. F. loimocholose.) Yellow fever. 

XiOimocom'ium. (Aot/ids, a plague; 
Ko/xiw, to tend.) A pest house ; fever hospital. 

liOimo'des. (Aoi/uds; tl^os, form. F. 
loimeux ; G.pestarttg.) Having, or full of, the 

XiOimog'rapli'ia. (Aoijuds; ypa<pw, to 

write. F. loimographie.) The description or 
history of the plague. 

ZiOi'moid. (Aoijuds; J^os, form. F. 
loimoide.) Eesembling the plague. 

IjOilllolOg''ia. (Aoi/ids ; Xdyos, a dis- 
course. F. loimologie.) A treatise or dissertation 
on the plague, or pestilential diseases. 

XiOimolOg''ion. (Aoi/uds; Xdyos.) A 
book upon the plague. 

Xioimophthal'mia. (Aoim"'*; ophthal- 
mia, inflammation of the eye. F. loiiiwphthal- 
mie.) Contagious purulent ophthalmia. 

IiOimop'yra. (Aoi/xds; Trt/p, afever. F. 
loimopyre ; G. Pestjieber.) Term for pestilential 

IiOi'mos. (Aoi/ids. F.pest; G.Festilenz.) 
The plague. 

ZiOi'mus. Same as Zoimos. 

Xioins. (Mid. E. letidis ; from Sax. lendenu ; 



probably cognate with L. lumbiis, the loin. F. 
lombes ; G. Lenden.) The lower part of the 
back near tlie hips. 

IiOiseleu'ria. (After Loiseleur Deslong- 
chanips, the botanist.) A Genus of the Nat. 
Order £rif(ice(e. 

Ii. procum'bens, Desv. (L. procumbo, 
to prostrate one's sell.) Hark and leaves used 
as an astringent. 

XiO'ka,. Sweden, Province of Dalerna. An 
atherinal, very weak, saline water, with some 
hydrogen sulphide. It, and the mud from the 
neiglibouriiig marsh, is much used for baths in 
rheumatic and scrofulous conditiuns. 

Xiolia'ceuxn radi'ce repen'te. (L. 

lohion, darnel ; radix, a root ; repem, creeping.) 
The Triticum repens, couch grass. 

XiOli'grO* (L. loUgo, the cuttle fish.) A 
Genus of the Order Dibranchiata, Class C'cphalo- 

Xi. vulg-a'ris, Lam. (L. vulgaris, 
common.) The calamary. Flesh eatable, like 

XiO'liin. A dingy-white acrid powder ob- 
tained by Bley by precipitating the alcoholic 
solution of the aqueous extract of the fruit of 
Lolium temulentum with ether. It is greyish or 
yellowish white in colour, soluble in water and 
alcohol, insoluble in ether. 

This substance is probably a compound, but it 
has not yet been sufficiently investigated. 

XiO'liuni. (L. fo/««?», darnel. F.ivraie; 
G. Lolch.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Grami- 

1m. arven'se, Withering. (L. arvensis, 
belonging to a field.) The L. tenuaentum. 

It. llnic'ola, Sonder. Fruit as poisonous 
as that of L. temulentum. 

Ii. peren'ne, Linn. (L. perennis, lasting 
the whole year through.) Rye grass. Used for 
pastures. Fruit hardly at all, or perhaps not, 

Jm. temulen'tuxn, Linn. (L. temulentus, 
drunken. F. ivraie enivrante ; G. Taumelkorn, 
Lolch.) The darnel. The fruit is poisonous to 
men, horses, sheep and dogs, but not to cows, 
pigs and birds, producing heat of throat, giddi- 
ness, staggering gait, tremulous movements of 
limbs, impaired, sometimes yellow, vision, and 
collapse. It has been suggested that the poi- 
sonous properties may be due to the seeds bjing 

It has been employed to make beer more in- 
toxicating and, in a poultice, as a sedative 
applii-ation for the relief of local pains. 

ZiO'maa (Ato/^a, a fringe, or border of a 
robe. F. loma ; G. Zehensaum.) Term applied 
by Illiger to the merobrane which extends all 
along each side of the toes in certain species of 

XiOma'ria,. (Aw/^a.) A Genus of the Nat. 
Order Ftlires, so called from its margin of sori. 

Zi. spi'cant, Desv. The name by which 
the Blecltnidii bortaU is now known. 

ZiO'matine. (Aju/ua. F. lomatin ; G. 
ffcsdumt.) lUiger's term for those animals 
whose jihalanges arc bordered by a membrane. 

Xiomatocar'poiis. (.\foiiii; KapiriU-, 

fruit. F. lomatocurpe.) Having flattened fruit 
surrounded by a thick border, as the Acacia 

XiOmatOphylloUS. (Au,,ia, a fringe 
or border; (/h'/Woi/, a leaf. F. lomatophi/llc.) 
Having the borders of the leaf of a dill'erent 

nature from the rest, as the Junciis lomato- 
phijllus, in which the leaves have a transparent 

Xiomba'g'O. See Lumbago. 

Xiombardy. A northern province of 

Jm. lep'rosy. (I. mal rosso, mal del sole, 
risipola liiiiihiird'j.) A synonym for Pellagra. 

XiOmenta'CCSB. (L. lomentum. F. lo- 
menlacecs.) A ISuburder of the Nat. Order Cru- 
cifera. Fruit a siliqua or silicuLi, dividing 
transversclj' into one-seeded portions, the true 
siliqua sometimes barren, with the beak above 
containing one or two seeds. 

Xiomenta'ceous. (F. lomentace ; G. 

gliedhiihiy.) Resembling a Lomentum. 

Also, belonging to the Suborder Lomcntacea. 
"Sm. legr'ume. (L. Icgumen, any podded 
plant which may be gathered.) A Lomentum. 
Ii. sil'iqua. See Siliqua, lomentaceous. 

ZiOmeil'tUlIl. (L. lomentum, a mixture of 
bean-meal and rice kneaded together, used by 
the Roman ladies as a cosmetic for preserving 
the skin. 'F . gousse lomentacee ; G.Gliederhitlse.) 
A bivalve pericarp separated into cells by small 
partitions, as in the Hedysarum. 

ZiOn'cliades. A misspelling of Logades. 

XiOnchadi'tiS. Incorrectly used for 

XiOnchi'tis. (Aoyx';, a lance; from the 
resemblance of its leaf.) The Aspidium lonchitis, 
a species of shield fern. 

Also, a term for the Aspidium filix-mas ; and 
for the Blechnum boreale. 

Also, a Genus of the Nat. Order Filices. 

Ii. palus'tris. (L. palustcr, belonging to 
a marsh.) The Acrostichum aureum. 

ZiOnchopll'orouS. (AoyxT) fi>opiw,i(i 
bear. F. lonchophore.) Bearing a lance-like 

IiOnchophyl'IouS. (Ao'y vi,, a lance ; 
(puWov, a leaf. F. lonchophylle.) Having very 
long leaves, linear and slightly lanceolated. 

XiOncllOS'tOXnOUS. (Aoyx*' > (^TO/ia, a 
mouth. F. lonchostome.) Having the aperture 
or mouth surrounded with spiked prominences, 
as in some shells. 

XiOn'don. The capital of Great Britain. 
Ii. paste. A caustic composed of equal 
parts of quicklime and caustic soda mixed with 

Ii. rock'et. The Sisymbrium irio, so 
called because of the likeness of its leaves to 
those of the rocket, and because it sprang up 
abundantly among the ruins of the great fire of 
London in 1667. 

ZiOng'. (Sax. lang, long; G. lang ; L. 
longus ; F. long ; I. lungo. S. largo.) Extended ; 
opposed to short. 

Iii bu'chu. See Buchu, long. 
X. car'damoms. See Cardamom, long, 
Ii. beaded. Same as BolichocephaUc. 
Ii. pep'per. The dried unripe spikes of 
the fruit of the Fiper officinarum and I'iper 

Ii. pur'ples. Probably the Orchis mas- 

Im. sigrbt. An unscientific name for Pres- 
byopia and Hypcrmetropia. 

XiOng'ae'vous. (L. longus, long; avum, 
a sprice of time.) Long-lived. 

ZiOn'can. Same as LUchi. 

XiOn'g'anon. Same as Longanum. 

XiOn'g'anum. {F. rectum; (}. Mastdarm.) 


Old term for the rectum intestine. (Baitholin, 
A>/at. i, 2.) 

XiOng'a.'on. Same as Longanum. 

ZiOng'ev'ity. (L. /ow^ms, long; cevton, a 
space of time. F. h>t(jevi(e.) Great length of 

Iiong"ibrac'teate. (L. longus ; bract. 
F. (onf/ilinictce.) Having long bracts. 

IiOng-icar'pOUS. (L. lovf/ns, long ; Gr. 
Kapirik, fruit. J'. lo)tgicarpe.) Having very 
long fruit. 

XiOng'icau'date. (L. lonr/nx, long; 
Cauda, a tail. F. longicaude.) Having a long 

Iiong-icau'line. (L. fowr/w*, long ; caulis, 
a stem. F. lomjicaHlc.) Having a long stem. 

XiOng'icorious. (L. longus, long; col- 
ItoH, a neck. F. longicolle.) Applied to mosses 
tliat have urns in the form of a very elongated 

In Entomology, having the neck or the corse- 
let long. 

Xiong-icor'nate. (L. longus, long; 

cornn, a horn. F. longicorne ; G. langgeh'nrnt.) 

Xiongricor'nes. (L. lotigus ; comu.) A 
Family of the Sul)order Cryptopentamera, Order 
Coleoptera, having the antennae as long as, or 
longer than, the body, and eleven-jointed. 

ZiOng'icos'tate. (L. ^«^?«, long; costa, 
a rib. F. longicoste.) ilarked with long ribs 
or costs. 

IiOng'icru'roUS. (L. longm, long ; crus, 
the leg. 'E . longicrurc) Having long legs. 

IiOng-icus'pidate. (L. longns, long; 
CHspis, a point. F. longicuspide.) That vehich 
is armed with long points. 

Xiong'iflo'rous. (L. longus, long ; Jlos, a 
flower. F. longijiore ; G. langbliitig.) Having 
long fiowers. 

ZiOngrifolious. (L. long us, \on%; folium, 
a leaf. i\ longifolie ; G. langbldftrig.) Having 
long leaves. 

XiOng'ila'brous. (L. longus ; lahrnm,^ 
lip. Y.longilabre.') Latreille's term for those 
Hemiptera which have a long labrum. 

ZiOng-im'anous. (L. longus, long; 
manus, the hand. F. longimane.) Having long 
hands. Applied to insects and Crustacea having 
the fore-feet or claws longer than the others. 

Also, applied to a mammal having long fore- 

XiOIlg''ing'. (Sax. longen,to desire earnestly. 
F. envie ; G. Gelust,ung.) Term for the peculiar 
and often whimsical desires of females during 
pregnancy, and in those states in which the 
uterine discharge is suppressed. 

Xiong'iparpate. (L. lo^igus, long : 

palpus, a stroking. F. longipalpe.) Having 
long palpi. 

IiOng'iparpoUS. (L. longus; palpus. 
F. hmgipiilpL'.) Having long palpi. 

liOng'ipe'date. (L. longus ; pes, a foot. 
F. longipidi: ; G. langfiissig.) Having long feet. 

IiOn'g'ipede. (L. longus, long; pes, a 
foot. F. longipide ; G. langfiissig.) Having 
long feet. 

Xiongripedun'culate. (L. longus, 

long ; peduncidus, a foot-stalk of a leaf. ' F. 
longipedoncule ; G. langstielig.) Having long 

Xiong'ipen'nate. (L. longus, long; 

penna, a wing. F. longipenne ; G. langgifliigelt.) 
Long- winged, as the albatross. 

XiOng'ipen'nes, Cnvier. (L. longus: 
pinna.) An Urder of the Suljclass Carinatec, 
Class Aves, having laterally-compressed, liuoked 
bills, long, pointed wings, and webbed front toes. 
It includes the albatrosses, gulls, and terns. 

XiOng|ipet'aloUS. (L. longus, long; 
petal. F. longipilali- ; G. langblunivnbldting.) 
Having very long ]ietals. 

Ziong'ipet'iolate. (L. longus, long ; 

petiole, i: .longipi'tiolv ; a. langgestii'lt.) Having 
flowers supported by long petioles. 

ZiOng°iros'traI. Same as Longirostrate. 

Ziong-iros'trate. (L. longus, long; 
rostrum, a beak. F. longirostre ; G. lang- 
schnitbelig .) Having a long beak. 

Also, applied to a moss of which the operculum 
is subulated, long and straight in the form of a 

Also, applied to birds having along beak, as 
the ibis; and to mammals having a much pro- 
longed snout. 

IiOng'isca'pous. (L. longus, long; 
scapus, a shaft. F. longiscape.) Having a very 
long scape. 

ZiOngrise'tOUS. (L. longus, long ; seta, a 
bristle. F. longisite ; G. langborstig.) Having 
long bristles or hairs. 

IiOng-isil'iquose. iX:longus,\or\g; sili- 
qua, a pod. F. long siUqueux ; G. langschotig.) 
Having, or full of, long siliquae or pods. 

IiOng'ispi'llOUS. {'L.longus,\ong; spina, 
a thorn. F. longepineux ; G. langdornig.) 
Having, or full of, long spines. 

IiOng'ispi'nulous. (L. longus, long; 
spinula, a little thorn.) Having, or full of, long 
spinula3 or little spines. 

IiOngris'Simus. (L. superl. of longus, 
long. F. le plus long; G. Idngste.) The 

If. capitis. (L. cfl^uM^, the head.) Henle's 
term for the T rachclomastoid. 

Ii. cervi'cis. (L. cervix, the neck.) The 
transversalis colli muscle. 

Ii. dor'si. (L. dorsum, the hack. F. long 
dorsal; G. langer Riickenmuskel.) The inner 
and larger portion of the erector spinoe muscle. 
Its origin is that of the Erector spina;, with the 
addition of some tendinous slips from the upper 
two or three lumbar vertebroe common to it and 
to the spinalis dorsi, and some slender tendons 
from the transverse processes of the lower dorsal 
vertebrae. It terminates by means of two sets 
of fasciculi ; the outer set consist of fine 
aponeurotic and fleshy tongues, attached to the 
costiform processes of the lumbar vertebrae and 
to the lower ten or twelve ribs between their 
tubercles and angles ; the inner set consist of 
rounded tendons, attached to the apophysial 
tubercles of the lumbar vertebra and to the 
transverse processes of the dorsal vertebraj. 

The spinalis dorsi is by some considered part 
of the longissimus dorsi. 

K. fem'oris. (L./(?>««<r, the thigh.) The 
sartorius muscle. 

Ii. oc'uli. (L. oculus, the eye.) The 
obliquus superior muscle of the eye. 

ZiOng*isty'lous. (L. longus, long ; stglus, 
a style. F. longistijle ; G. hniggriffrlig.) Ap- 
plied to a plant which has very long styles. 

Also, applied to an insect which has a long 
style or filament at the e.xtremity of the abdo- 
men, as the female of Asilus longistylus. 

Ziong'itar'sal. (L. longus ; tarsus. F. 
longitarse.) Having the tarsus long. 


IiOn'g'itude. (F. longitude; from L. 
longititdo, length. I. longihaline ; S. lottgitud ; 
G. Lange.) Length ; measure along the most 
extended line. 

In Geography, an arc of the equator between 
the meridian of any place and the meridian 
selected as the first meridian. 

IiOng'itu'dinal. (L. hngitndo, length. 

F. loiigiliidinal.) Of, or belonging to, longitude 
or Icngtli. 

Ii. fissure of brain. See Fissure of 
cerebrum^ loiigitNdinal. 

1m. fissure of liv'er. See Fissure of 
liver, JongitudbiKl. 

It. frac'ture. See Fracture, longitudinal. 

Zi. lig''ainent, ante'rior. The Ligamcn- 
tum comnuine vvrtthrale mitirnm. 

Ii. lig^'ament of liv'er. The Ligament 
of lircr, falcifjrm. 

Xi. lig^'ament, poste'rior. The Liga- 
ment/iiit cohidihuv urUbralv poxticnm. 

It. sinus. See Sinus of dura mater, 
longitudinal, superior. 

Ii. si'nus, infe'rior. Sec Sinus of dura 
mater, lo)igitHdi)ial, inferior. 

Ii. sys'tem. A name given to the fibro- 
vascular bundles of the stems of plants, since 
they always increase vertically in contradis- 
tinction to the horizontal or parenchymatous 

ZiOng'it'Ud.ina.lis. See Longitudinal. 

Ii. lln'g-uae inferior. (L. lingua, the 
tongue ; inferior, lower.) The Lingual muscle, 

Ii. lin'gruse supe'rlor. (L. lingua ; su- 
perior, uppiT.) The Lingual muscle, superior. 

Ii. vesi'cse. (L. vesica, the bladder.) The 
layer of longitudinal fibres of the muscular coat 
of the bladder. 
Xiong-sig-Ilt'edness. (F. presbyopic; 

G. Fcrnsichiigkeil.) The faculty of seeing ob- 
jects at a great distance. See Hypermetropia 
and Presbyopia. 

XiOn'g'Ulite. Needle-shaped crystals of a 
metallic sili("it(.' found in some forms of glass. 

ZiOngru'rius. (L. longurius, a pole ex- 
tending from the manger in a stable between the 
horses.) Ancient name, used by Ambrose Pare, 
Chirurg. xv, 13, for a piece of iron which was 
heated and placed in the aestuarium. 

IiOn'g'US. (L. hngics.) Long. 

Ii. atlan'tls. {Atlas.) Quain and 
Sharpey's name for the upper and oblique por- 
tion of the longus colli muscle. 

X. cap'itis. (L. caput, the head.) The 
rectus capitis anticus major muscle. 

Ii. colli. (L. colluni, the neck, F. long 
(hi coti, predorso-atloidien, Chaussier; G. langer 
llalsniHskel.) The long flat muscle whicli is 
situated on the anterior surface of the sjiine 
between the atlas and the third dorsal vertebra. 
It consists of three sets of fibres : a superior, or 
internal, or upper oblique set, consists of four 
slips arising from the anterior tubercles of the 
transverse processes of the third, fourth, fifth, 
and sixth cervical vertebraj, and inserted by a 
rounded tendon into the lateral part of the 
tubercle on the aiiterior arch of the atlas ; an 
inferior, or external, or lower oblique set, con- 
sists of two slips arising from the side of the 
bodies of the second and third dorsal vertebnie 
and inserted into the anterior tubercles of the 
transverse processes of tlii' fifth and sixth cervi<iil 
vertebra;, or of the sixth only ; and an internal, 

or longitudinal, or vertical set, consisting of two 
or three slips arising from the bodies of the two 
upper dorsal and the two lower cervical vertebric 
and inserted into the bodies of the second, third 
and fourth cervical vertebrte. It is a tlexor and, 
in some degree, a rotator of the neck. 

Ii. dor'sl. The Longissitnus dorsi. 
XiOnice'ra. (After Adam Lonicer, a Ger- 
man botanist, who died in 1580. i\ cheerefeuille ; 
(Jr. Geissblatt.) A Genus of the Kat. Order 

Ii. bracbyp'oda. (B;U«X'^'' ^^^ort ; -nov^, 
a foot.) It is said to possess diuretic properties, 
and is used in China and Japan against syphilis. 

Jm. caprifo'lium, Linn. (L. eaper, a 
goni; folium, a leaf. F. chevrefcuille ; I. madrc- 
selva, caprifoglio ; S. madresclva ; G. Geissblatt, 
Jclangerjclieber.) The honeysuckle. Fruit said 
to be emetic and cathartic ; juice apjdied to the 
skin for the sting of a bee. Flowers used as an 
emollient internally in infusion, and externally 
as a soothing poultice. 

Ii. Diervil'la, Linn. {Diervillc, a French 
surgeon.) A species of honeysuckle, the young 
branches of which are employed in North America 
for gonorrhoea and suppression of urine. The 
Diervillia trijida. 

Ii. german'ica. The L. perirlymenum. 

Ii. mariland'ica, Linn. The Spigelia 

Ii. periclym'enum. {UtfiLKXCutvov, the 
honeysuckle. F. chevrefeuille des bois ; G. 
windendes Geissblatt.) The common honey- 
suckle, woodbind or woodbine ; formerly used in 
asthma, for clearing foul ulcers, and for removing 
cutaneous affections. Twigs employed as au 
adulterant of dulcamara. 

X. sempervi'rens. (L. semper, alwaj's ; 
virco, to be green.) Used in asthuui and tonsil- 

Ii. xylos'teum, Linn. (SuXoi;, wood; 
otTTtov, bone.) Fruit said to have caused serious 
poisoning symptoms. 

Xions-ie-sau'nier. France, departe- 
ment du Jura. A spring, Puits Sale, containing 
one per cent, of common salt, is used internally 
in glandular and scrofulous diseases, in chronic 
diarrhoea, and in malarial poisoning. It is used 
in baths, especially when strengthened by the 
mother water of the neighbouring spring of 
Montmorot, which in 1000 parts contains sodium 
chloride 180'33 parts, magnesium chloride 6015, 
potassium chloride 20*11, jiotassium bromide -00, 
sodium sulphate 40'8, magnesium sulphate 40'06, 
and potassium sulphate '76. 

liOnta'rus. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

Ii. domes'tica, Rumph. (L. domesticus, 
pertaining to the house.) The Borassus Jtabelli- 
f or mis. 

XiO'ocll. (Arabic /rt'oZr; from /a' ffy, to lick. 
F. looch ; 1. loc, locco, hoc; S. looc ; G. Looch, 
Lecksaft.) A linctus, or opaque oily emulsion, 
which may be used as a demulcent, or as an 
excipient for the suspension of powders. 

Ii. abs'que emulsio'ne prsepara'tum. 
Linctus niaile wiilKuit emulsion. It contains 
powdered tragacanth 16 to 30 grains, oil of 
sweet almonds half an ounce, sugar an ounce, 
water three ounces, and orange fiower water two 
drachms. Mix by rubbing in a marble mortar. 

Ii. al'bum, Fr. Codex. (L. albns, white. 
F. looch blanc, 2'otion emulsive gommee, Fr. 


Cock'X.) Wliite linctus. Sweet uliiinmls ,30 
griiiniues, bitter almonds 2 grammes, white sugar 
30 grammes, gum tiagacanth '5 gramme, orange- 
flower water 10 grammes, and distilled water 
120 grammes. An emulsion is made with the 
almonds, the water, and nearly the whole of the 
sugar; the gum tragaeunth is triturated with 
tlie rest of the sugar, then intimately mixed little 
by little with the emulsion and afterwards with 
the orange-tlower water. It is demulcent aud 

Xi. amygrdali'nuxu. (L. amygdalum, au 
almond.) The L. album. 

Ii. ex o'vo. (L. ex, from; ovum, an egg.) 
Egg linctus. It is prepared from the yolk of 
fresh eggs half an ounce, oil of sweet almonds 
an ounce aud a half, syrup of althiea one ounce. 
Hub up in a mortar and add orange flower water 
one ounce, and red poppy water two ounces. It 
is demulcent and pectoral. 

If. oleo'sum, Fr. Codex. (L. oleosus, oily. 

F. looch httilcux, potion iniuhive huilvux, Fr. 
Codex.) Oil of sweet almonds 15 grammes, gum 
arable 15, syrup of gum 30, oraiige-tiower water 
15, and distilled water 100 grammes. A mucilage 
is made with the gum and twiee its weight of 
water, the oil is then triturated with it little by 
little, and lastly the other liquids. 

Ii. vir'ide. (L. viridis, green.) Green 
linctus contains syrup of violets one ounc(!, 
tincture of safl'ron tw^enty drops, water four 
ounces. Mix and add dried pistachia seeds six 
drachms. It is a demulcent and pectoral elec- 

Xioodia'nah disease'. A form of 

disease occurring amongst the horses in India, 
due to the development of bacillus anthrax. It 
was first noticed amongst the horse artillery at 
Loodianali in 1841. A closely similar disease 
due to the same cause occurs in South Africa, 
where it is known as the horse sickness, Cape 
horse sickness, Paardzietke, or Dikkopzietke. 

XiOO'fah. The dried fibrous portions of 
the Iniit of Luffa a-(/i/p(iaca, or the towel gourd. 
It is used in bathrooms to produce smoothness 
of the skin. 

liook-at-his- face disease'. A 

synonym of Curate. 

ZiOOp. ( Of Celtic origin ; Irish lub, a bend ; 
a noose. F. boucle ; I. cappietto ; S. prcsilla ; 

G. Schlinge.) A doubling of a string; a noose. 
In rhysics, the part between the nodes of a 

vibrating cord in a part of which the vibration 
has been caused to stop by a bridge. See Node. 

Ii., obstet'rical. (L. obiTtetrix, a mid- 
wife.) The Fillet used in obstetrics. 

ii. stitcb. Same as Suture, Ledran's. 
IiOOp'ed. Having a Loop. 

1m. tubes of Hen'le. {HenJe.) The 
narrower portion of the urinary tubule in the 
kidney. It commences in the cortical portion, 
dips down into the medullary, and again passes 
into the cortical portion. See also under Tubuli 

XiOOP'ers. {Loop.) A synonj'ra of Geo- 
metrce, from the mode of progress of their larvie. 
XiOOrg'OO'tlia. A town in India posses- 
sing hot springs impregnated with silica. 

ZiOOSe. (ilid. E. laus ; Sax. 16s ; G. los ; 
from Teut. base lus, to lose. F. delie, lache ; I. 
sciolto ; S. iuelto.) Free to move; slack; not 

Ii. bodies in joints. See Joints, loose 
bodies in. 

ZiOOSe'neSS. The condition of being 
Loose. I'ojiular term for the disease diarrhcea. 
Ii. of tbe teetb. Sec A;/omphiasis. 

IiOOSe Strife. The Lyilirum salicitria. 
Ii., great. The Li/simac/iia vulijaris. 
Ii., spi'ked pur'ple. The Lyilirum 

!>., yel'low. The Lysimachia vulgaris. 

ZiGOSe'strifeS. The plants of the Nat. 
Oriler Lythracc<.e. 

ZiO'pez rooti (Tomaso Lopez, a Spanish 
natural historian.) The root of Toddulca aru- 
leata and allied species ; it is stated to be effectual 
in stopping colliquative diarrhifa, particularly 
that of the last stage of consumjition ; also, 
called Radix indica lopiziana. 

IiOpha'dia. Tlie same as Lophia. 

liOph'ia. (A()</)ta, the mane; from X6()>o?, 
the neck.) Old term used by Gorraius, in iJef., 
for the first vertebra of the back, or perhaps "for 
the vertebra prominens. 

ZiOph'in. CjiHigNj. An organic base; 
when pure it is colourless, insipid and inodorous, 
and crystallises in long needles; obtained by 
subjecting hydrobeuzamide to dry distillation. 

ZiOpllidder'ma. {h.o<pia, the dorsal fin 
of a dolphin.) The fin-like membrane projecting 
above and below the central axis of the tail of 
the larva; of Urodcla and Batrachia. 
_ ^ZiOplliodon'tOUS. (Ao^jta, the mane; 
o&uv'i, a tooth. ¥. lophiodonte.) Having hairy 
or bristly teeth. 

Ziophiono'tOUS. (Ao<^ia, the dorsal fin 
of a dolphin; j/wtos, the back. F. lophionote.) 
Dumeril's term for certain fishes which have a 
vei-y large dorsal fin. 

Xiopliios'toinate. (Ao'c/uoi/, dim. of 

Xdt^civ, a crest; cttoV", the mouth.) Having 
the mouth or an aperture crested. 

EiOpllira'ceae. Endlicher's term for a 
Nat. Urder of plants, which consisted of the 
Genus Lophira only, having a one-ceUed ovary, 
a free central placenta, and an inferior radicle. 
It is now included in Jjipleracece. 

Xiophobrancli'iate. (Ao(/)09, a crest, 

or tuft ; ^pdyyia, the gills. F. lophobranche.) 
Having crested or tufted gills. 

Iiophobranolx'ii. (Ao(^os; jipayxia. 

G. Buschdkiemer .) A Suborder of the Order 
Teleostei, Class Pisces, having the gills arranged 
in tufts on the branchial arches, and no air duct 
to the swim- bladder. It includes the pipe fishes 
and sea-horses. 

ZiOphoe'erouS. (Ao>os; Kipa^, horn. 
F. lopliocere.) Having tufted antenna;. 

Ziophoc'omous. (Ao(/)os ; Ki'inn, the 

hair.) Having the hair in spiral tufts, as the 
Papuans aud Hottentots. 

XiOphoin'onas. (Ao>os; ^ovas, a unit.) 
A Genus of nudifiagellate Infusoria. 

Ii. blatta'rum, Grassi. (L. blatta, a 
cockroach.) A parasite of the intestine of the 
cockroach, Blatta orientalis. It has a more or 
less pear-shaped body, having at its narrower 
anterior extremity a bundle of flagelli inserted 
upon or near to a rounded, nucleus-like capsule. 

XiOpllophore. (Ao'^po^; (pnpiu>, to bear. 
F. lopltopJtore.) AUman's term for the disc 
which carries the tentacles of Bryozoa. It may 
be annular, bilobed, or horse shoe shaped. 

Iioplioph'ytuin. (Ao(/)os; <Pvt6v, a 
plant.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Balano- 
phoracecB, growing in Boli^^a and used as food. 

Xiophop'oda. (Ay'</>os ; ttous, a foot.) A 


Suborder of the Order Ectoprocta having a horse- 
shoi:-sh;ipcil lophojihore anil epistoiiie. 

IiOpllOp'odouS. (A()</)(is ; TTous, a foot. 
F. lijjJiiiinitic.) lluvina; tutted ur feiitliured ffut. 

Xiophorrhyn'chous. (Aoi/.o*.-; in>y- 

Xos, a snout. F. Uiphorrhynqtte.) Jlaving a 
tufted mouth or muzzle. 

Xiophoso'matous. (AJ./ios; o-w/ua, the 
body. V . Ui)iliii>iotiu\) ilaving tufts on the body. 

^ophos'teon. (Ao't/ios-; oo-xt'ov, a bone.) 
The iccrl iif ilic stcniuiu of birds. 

Ziophyrop'oda.. (a.)</)ou/[)«9, with bushy 

tail; TTdi'i?, afoot.) A Division of the Subilass 
Eniuiiwutraca, Class Crustacea, having few 
brancliiie, and those attached to the appendages 
of the mouth. It includes the Copepoda and the 


Xiophyrop'odous. (A<;(^ou;oo9, with 

bu.slij- tail; •ttou^-, a foot. F. lophyropude.) 
Having tutted or feathered feet. 

ZiOp'iltia.. (AciTTiyuos, easily stripped.) The 
FiKjii.s caiitu/iea. 

XiOp'ped. Same as Truncate. 

XiOquac'ity. (F. loquacite ; from L. h- 
qnacilas, talkativeness. I. loquacita ; S. locua- 
iddad ; G. Gtschuiitzigkeit.) Excessive talka- 
tiveness; sometimes a symptom of disease. 

IiO'qiiat. Tlie Ertouotrya Japouica ; and 
also its I'sculeut fruit. 

IiOque'la. (L. loquda; from loquor, to 
speak.) Speech. 

Xi. abol'ita. (L. abolitiis, destroyed.) 
Speed) lessness. 

Ii. blae'sa. (L. b/cesus, lisping.) Stam- 

Ii. impedi'ta. (L. impeditus, hindered.) 
Impediment of speech. 

ZiO'ra,. (L. lorum. a kathern string or 
thong. F. tore.) Apjdied by Scopoli to the 
caulescent, filamentous, and aphyllous part of 
filamentous lichens and confervse. 

Also, applied by Kirby to a part of the mouth 
of certain insects, as the Hymenoptera, upon 
which is borne the mentum or chin. 

Also, an old term, the same as Deuteria. 

ZiOrantlia.'ceae> (F. loranthacies ; G. 
Mifitelynvdchse.) A Nat. Order of the Cohort 
&a ntalatcs, being parasitic shrubs with greenish 
e.xstipulate leaves, superior calyx, valvate lEsti- 
vatiou, inferior one-celled ovary, and embryo in 
fleshy albumen, with the radicle remote from the 

ZiOra.nth'e8e. Jussieu's term for Lora)i- 

XiO'ranths. The plants of the Nat. Order 

ZiOrantll'uS. (Aiofjov, a thong ; di^Oos, a 
flower. G. liiemenblume.) A Genus of the Nat. 
Order Loranthacem. 

X. europae'us, Linn. The mistletoe of 
the oak. The berries are purgative. Used to 
make birdlime. It is the Viscum quernum of 
old autliors. 

ZiO'rate. (L. lurum.) Shaped like a 

XiOrdo'ma. (Ad/)oa>/ua, a bending supiuely. 
F. lordome ; 0. Brusihijc/cer.) A projceiion or 

firotuberance forwards, the product or eflect of 

XiOrdoSCOlio'siS. (AopSuxri'i, a curva- 
ture of the spine wiueh is convex in front ; (jko- 
Xi'(z)(Tis, crookedness.) A lordosis combined with 
lateral curvature. 
Xtordo'sis. (Aop^aio-ts; from Xopoos, bent 

backward so that the spine is hollow behind, and 
the chest prominent. F. Ivrdose.) An incur- 
vation of a bone or of the body forwards. 

Especially applied to a forward curvature of 
the spine, generally in the lumbar region, but 
also seen in the cervical, and raiely in the dorsal, 
region, and occasionally as an uttection of the 
whole of the spine. It is usually a compensatory 
condition, but it may be jiroduced by the con- 
traction of a scar after a l)urn, especially of the 
back of the neck. The posterior spinal ligaments 
and the posterior spinal muscles are contracted, 
and the anterior edge of the intervertebral discs 
are thickened ; stalactitic outgrowths of the 
transverse and spinous processes may occur and 
may ankylose, especially when there is rheuma- 
toid arthritis. 

Ii., cervl'cal. (L. eervix, the neck.) A 
somewhat rare condition generally caused by 
cicatricial contraction of the structures at the 
back of the neck or by contraction of the muscles 
in that region. 

J:, dorsal. (L. dorsum, the back.) A 
rare occurrence produced by atrophy or paralysis 
of the muscles of the back. 

Ii., lum'bar. {L. litmbus, the loin.) An- 
terior prominence of the lumbar vertebrae. It 
may be produced by ascites, or pregnancy, or 
corpulence, or hip disease with acute tiexion, or 
congenital or irreducible dislocation of the femur, 
or it may be caused by carrying heavy weights 
in front, or it may result from paralysis of the 
extensors of the spine produced by lateral cur- 
vature, or by paralysis and atrophy of the abdo- 
minal muscles, or it may depend upon rickets. 

Ii., myopatb'ic. (Mus, a muscle ; irutJos, 
affection.) A forward curvature of the spine 
caused by muscular action only; as in the lor- 
dosis produced by obesity or pregnancy, and by 
carrying weights in front. 

Ii., osteopathic. {'Orr-rlov, a bone : 
Trado's.) A forward curvature of the spine caused 
by disease ordeformitj'^ of the bones, as in rickets. 

IiOrdot'ic. (F. lordotique.) Of, or be- 
longing to. Lordosis. 

XiOr'dous. (Aopoos. F. incurvi ; G. 
gekrilnimt, vorivdrts gebogen, nachvorn ubcr- 
hdngend.) Bent or curved inwards ; incurved ; 

Xiords and la'dies. The Arum macu- 

Xiore. (L. lorum, a leathern thong. F. 
cire.) The naked, sometimes coloured, patch 
of thickened skin lying between the eye and the 
beak of birds. 

Also, called Cere. 

XiO'rer. (F. laurier, the bay tree.) The 
Laurus nobitis. 

ZiOre'ta, Pie'tro. An Italian surgeon, 
born at Ravenna in 1831, and now Professor in 
the University of Bologna. 

Jm.'s metb'od. A mode of treating aneu- 
rysm (jf the abdominal aorta by cutting down 
upon it, and introducing a cannula through 
which thin wire is pa.ssed into the sac for the 
purpose of producing a clot. 

XiOri'ca. (L. iorica, a leather cuirass. F. 
lorique ; G. Tauzer.) A kind of lute with 
which vessels are coated before they are put on 
the fire; also, a coat of mail. 

Also, a term for the Kpisperm, or, according 
to some, for the 'legmen of a seed. 

Also, the protective case; of Infusoria. 

IiOrica'ta. (L. Iorica.) A Group of the 


Class Rcptilia, having the skin more or less ex- 
tensively ossitied. It includes the Chelonia aud 
the Crocodilia. 

Or, an Order of the Subclass Hi/drosauria, the 
same as Crocodilia. 

ZiO'ricate. (L. lorica. F. lorique.) Having 
a coat of mail ; having a protective case or cara- 

ZiOrica'tion. (L. lorica. F. lorication.) 
The application of a lute of clay or other sub- 
stance to vessels that are to be exposed to the fire. 

XiO'rinde. This old term ordinarily signi- 
fied a resounding commotion of waters, indicat- 
ing a change and alteration in the heavens, 
(llulaiid and Johnson.) 

Also, applied metaphorically to uterine epilepsy 
or convulsive disease of the womb. 

XiOripe'date. (L. loripes, cross-footed. 
F. loripedc.) Having the limbs unequal. 

ZiO'ripeS. (L. loripes; pes, a foot.) A 
synonym of Talipes varus. 
' liOrog'los'suin. (Aw^ooi/, a thong; 
y\u)(T<Ta, the tongue.) A Genus of the Nat. 
Order Orchidacem. 

1m. hlrcinum, Rich. (L. hircns, a he- 
goat.) One of tbe plants which furnishes Salep. 

XiOr'rliet. A Paracelsian term for the 
spirit of turpentine. 

XiO'rulllIll. (L. dim. lorum, a leathern 
thong. F. lorule.) Applied by Acharius to the 
tlialhis of filamentous or ramose lichens. 

ZiO'runii {L. lorum.) A thong. 

Also, the region of the Lore. 

Im. urina'rium. (L. ttrina, urine.) An 
instrument formed from thin red Turkey leather, 
moistened and rolled upon a small rod, according 
to Rhodius, ad Scrihon. n, 180, p. 267 ; probably 
similar in use to a bougie. 

Xi. u'teri, "Wilkinson. The Leptomitus 
muci utcrini. 

X. vomito'rlum. (L. vo>«o, to vomit.) A 
thong of leather di-essed by the currier with the 
black bryony herb, which, put down into the 
mouth, excited vomiting by its foul taste, ac- 
cording to Rhodius, ad Scribon. n. 180, p. 267. 

IiO'rus. An old term for hydrargyrum, or 
mercury, (lluland and Johnson.) 

IiOS Ba.'llOS> Luc^on, one of the Philli- 
piiie islands. Hot springs, of a temperature of 
80" C. (176° F.), some sulphurous. 

Zios Kervide'ros del Empera- 

dor'. Spain, Province of Ciudad Real. Car- 
bonated chalybeate waters, having a temperature 
of 16° C— 22° C. (60-8° F.— 71-6° F.) 

XiOS'torf. Switzerland, Canton Solothurn, 
34 kilometres from Basel, 500 metres above 
sea-level. Athernial mineral waters; one, the 
Schwefelquelle, containing sodium chloride 
2'6259 grammes, potassium chloride '5021, po- 
tassium sulphate "6714, sodium sulphide '2328, 
magnesium bicarbonate '3121, calcium bicarbo- 
nate •4932, and ferrous bicarbonate "012 gramme 
in 1000; the other, the Obergypsquelle, contains 
small quantities of earthy and alkaline sulphates. 
Used as baths or for drinking in chronic rheuma- 
tism and atonic gout, in abdominal plethora, in 
scrofula, and in the larval forms of syphilis. 

XaOStor'fer, A. An Austrian surgeon of 
the present time. 

Xi.'s cor'puscles. (L. corpusculum, a 
small body. G. Lostorfer' sche SypMliskdrper- 
chen.) Small bodies said by Lostorfer to exist in 
the blood of syphilitic persons. They have been 
variously thought to be fat globules, granules of 

paraglobulin. and of some uncertain albuminoid 
substance ; they are of no diagnostic value. 

XiO'ta. A South American term for a skin 
aflection which is i)robal)ly a form of chloasma. 

ZiO'ta. A Genus of the Division Auacan- 
thini, Order Tdeostei, Class Fisccs. 

Ii. xnol'va, Linn. The Gadus molva. 

"Im. vulgra'ris. The linrhot. 
XiO'teae. A Tribe of the Nat. Order Papil- 
ionacece, having all or nine filaments connate, 
legume continuous, and cotyledons becoming 

XiOtebush. The Zizyphus lotus. 
ZiO'tiO. (Ij. lolio, a washing; from lotus, 
part, of laro, to wash.) Same as Lotion. 

Xi. fla'va. Same as L. hydrargijri Jlava. 

Im. liydrarg'yrl fla'va, 13. Ph. (L. hy- 
drargyrum, mercury ;_//««;;(,'«, yellow.) Perchlo- 
ride of mercury one part, mixed with 243 parts 
of solution of lime. 

Ii. hydrargr'yri nl'grra. (L. hydrarg- 
yrum ; niyer, black.) Subchloride of mercury 
one part, with 146 parts of solution of lime. 

Ii. ni'grra. Same as L. hydrargyri nigra. 

Im. plum'bea, Fr. Codex. (I*, plumbum, 
lead. F. eau blanche, lotion u I' acetate de plomb.) 
Solution of subacetate of lead 20 grammes, mixed 
with spring water 980 grammes. 

Ii. suinira'ta, Fr. Codex. (F. lotion sul- 
furee, Fr. Codex.) Potassium tersulphide 20 
grammes dissolved in 1000 grammes of distilled 

It is also prepared with sodium tersulphide in 
like manner. 

IiO'tion. (L. lavo, to wash. F. lotion; G. 
Abwaschung.) A washing. 

In Pharmacy, a medicated fluid for external 
application to a wound, bruise, or inflamed part. 

Ii., Goulard's. See Goulard's lotion. 

Ii., mercu'rial, black. The Lotio hy- 
drargyri nigra. 

Im., mercu'rial, yel'lo\(r. The Lotio hy- 
drargyri Jlava. 

Ii., orient'al. Perchloride of mercury one 
ounce, distilled water four ounces, the whites of 
twenty-four eggs, lemon juice three ounces, and 
white sugar eight ounces. Used as a cosmetic 
face-wash in acne. 

Ii., Stru've's. Tartar emetic one drachm, 
water two ounces, tincture of cantharides one 
ounce. A counter-irritant to be applied to the 
chest in whooping-cough. 

ZiO'tiuxn. CL. lotium, urine.) An old 
name for the urine. 

ZiOtome'tra. (AtoTOjaiixpa, a kind of 
lotus.) The Nymph(ea lotus. 

ZiOtopb'ag'OUS. (AoiTos, the lotus; 
(payETv, to eat. F. lotophage.) Eating the 
lotus ; it was long thought that the X(«to'« of the 
ancient Lotophagi (Xoixof^ayoi) of Africa was 
the fruit of the I)iospyros lotus, but Deslontaines 
has shown that it pertains to the Zizyphus lotus. 

Ziotte'ri, Car'lo Miche'le. An 

Italian surgeon of the early part of the eighteenth 
century, born at Turin. 

Ii.'s compres'sor. (F. plaque de Lotteri.) 
An instrumenl for compressing a wounded inter- 
costal artery and restraining the hemorrhage. 

ZiOtu'ra. (L. lotura ; from lavo, to wash.) 
A washing. The same as Lotio. 

Ii. car'nium. (L.caro, flesh.) The sero- 
sanguinolent liquid which is discharged from the 
bowels in cases of dysentery. It derives its 
name from the resemblance which it is sup- 


posed to bear to water in which mtal lias been 

ZiOtu'ridin. An amorphous, brownish- 
yellow substance found along with loturia in the 
bark of Si/mplocos racemosa. 

ZiO'tlirin. An alkaloid obtained from the 
bark of tiijmplocos racemosa. It cr3'.stallises in 
effloicspcnt prisms, soluble in alcohol and ether. 
XiO'tUS. (AfoTus, the lotus. F. lotivr ; G. 
Lolasbaum.) 'i'his name was given by the Greeks 
to several plants ; the Greek lotus was probably 
Trifolium vieUlotus ; the Cyrenean lotus was 
either the Rhamnus lotus or the Zizyphns lotus ; 
the Egyptian lotus, which played so great a part 
in their religious rites, was of throe kinds, 
probably the Nymphcea lotus, the N. nelumbo, 
and the Nelumoo speciosum ; the North African 
lotus was the Celtis aiistralis ; and the Italian 
lotus was the Diospyros lotus. 

According to Munby the lotus tree of the 
ancients was Nitraria trideniata. 
Also, the Celtis australis. 
Also, the Arum colncasia. 
Also, the Zizi/phus lotus. 

Ii. cornicula'tus, I.inn. (L. corniniJum, 
a little horn. F. lotier corniculi ; G. Hornklee.) 
Birds'-foot trefoil. Hab, Europe. Used as a 
local soothing application to burns and wounds, 
and internally as a stomachic. 

Ii. cour'barll. The llymoitra eourbaril. 

Ii. doryc'niuxu, Linn. The Dorycnium 

1m. edu'Iis, Linn. (L. edulis, eatable. F. 
lotier jaune.) Seeds used as food. 

Ii., Egyp'tian. (F. lotier d'Egyptc.) The 
Nymphcca lotus, and other species of Nympliiea. 

Ii. g-ebe'Iia, Vent. (F. rame.) Seeds 
used as food l)y the Arabs. 

Ii. ber'ba sylves'tris. (L. herba, 
grass; sylvestris, belonging to a wood.) The 
Trifolium prateyise. 

Ii. talrsu'tusi Linn. The Dorycnium 

X. major, Sm. (L. major, greater.) Used 
as L. corniculatus. 

Ii. odora'tus. (L. odoratus, sweet- 
smelling.) The Melilotus carulea. 

Ii., pile. The Dorycuium hirsutum. 

X., sa'cred. (F. lotier sacre.) The Ne- 
lumhium speciosum. 

Ii. sylves'tris. (L. sylvestris, belonging 
to a wood.) Tlie Melilotus officinalis. 

Ii. tenulfo'lius, Poll. (L. tenuis, thin ; 
folium, a leaf.) Used as L. corniculatus. 

Ii. ullg:ino'sus, Schr. (L. nligo, mois- 
ture.) The L. miijor. 

Ii. urba'na. (L. nrbnnus, belonging to a 
town.) The Trifolium earultum. 

Ii. vlrginla'na. The Diospyros Virgi- 
nia na. 

If., white. (F. lotier blanc.) The Melia 
Also, the Dorycnium suffruticosum. 

Ii., yel'lo-w. The L. eorniculatus, 
XiOU'bouer. See St. Loubouer. 
Ziou'esclie-les-bains. Same as Leuk- 

IiOU'is spring". United States of Ame- 
rica, Missouri, Dade County. A chalybeate 

Xiou'isville arte'sian well. United 

States of Ameiica, Kentucky, Jetlerson County. 
A saline water, containing sodium bicarbonate 
273 grains, calcium bicarbonate 5*99, magne- 


slum bicarbonate 2'76, sodium sulpliate T^*.*?, 
potas.>ium sulphate 3"22, calcium sulphate '29-43, 
magnesium sulphate 77'34, sodium chloride 621 ••53, 
calcium chloride B.5'73, potassium chloride 4*22, 
magnesium chloride 14-78, aluminium chloride 
1-21, and a little magnesium bromide and iodide 
in a gallon, with hydrogen sulphide, carbonic 
acid ami nitrogen. 

Ziou'isville springs. _ United States 
of America, Kansas, I'otawatomie County. A 
chalybeate water. 

ZiOU'jO. Spain, Province of Pontevedra. 
Strong sodium chloride waters, having a tera- 
erature of 26^ C— 30' C. (78-8' F.— 86-° F.) 

sed in chronic rheumatism and in scrofula. 

Xiou lou Fork bot spring's. 

United States of America, Montana, Missoula 
County. Sulphuretted chalj'beate springs, of a 
temperature of ^9," F.— 132^ F. (36-66^ C— 
.55-oo= C.) 

XiOUSe. (Mid. E. lous ; Sax. liis ; G, Laus; 
from Teut. form lusi ; from Teut. base lus, to 
set free, to cause to perish. F. pou ; L pidoc- 
chio ; S. piojo.) An ectoparasite of the Genus 
Fediculus and allied genera. 

Ii., bod'y. The I'ediculns vestimenti. 

Ii., cburcb. The Oniscus asellus. 

Ii., clothes. The Fediculus restimenti. 

Ii., crab. The Fediculus pubis, ov Phthi- 
rius inguinulis. 

Ii., distem'per. The Fediculus tabes- 

Ii., ey e'lid. The Fediculus palpebrarum. 

Ii., head. The Fediculus capitis, 

Ii., pigr. The Oniscus asellus. 

Ii., poultry. The Goniocetes Burnetti. 

X., sow. The Oniscus asellus. 

X., wood. The Oniscus asellus. 

Xiouse'berry tree. The Euonymus 


ZjOUSel>ur. The Xanthium strumarium. 

XiOUSeWort. The Pedicularis palustris. 
X., marsh. The Pedicularis palustris. 

IiOU'sinesS. See Fhtheiriasis. 

XiOU'sy. {Louse. F. pouilleux ; I. pidoc- 
chioso ; S. piojoso ; G. lausig.) Infested with 

X. disease'. See Fhtheiriasis. 

ZiOUtva'ki. Greece, in the Peloponesus, 
Province of Corinth. Thermal salt waters from 
several springs, of a temperature varying from 
31-25^ C. to 31o9' C. (88-2.5'' F. to 88-S62° F.) 
One contains sodium chloride 9*004 grammes, 
potassium chloride '408, magnesium chloride 
2342, sodium sulphate 1-612, sodium bicarbonate 
2-508, calcium carbonate 1*92, with a little iron 
and manganese. Used in rheumatic and scro- 
fulous aflections, and in gravel. 

XiOU'vaines. France, departement de 
iiaine-ct- Loire. A mild chalybeate water, con- 
taining a little carbonic acid, but ver}- small 
quantities of mineral constituents. 

XiOV'ag'e. (Old F. levesche ; from L 
levistieo ; from L. Hqusticum ; from liquslicus, 
belonging to Liguria.) The Lcvisticum paluda- 

X., Cor'nish. The Fhysospermum cornu' 

XiOVe. The Clematis vitalba. 

ZiOVe. (Mid. E. loue ; Sax. lufu ; G. Liehe ; 
from Sans, base lubh, to desire.) Atlection. 

X.-ap'ple. (F. pomme d' amour ; G. 
Liebesapfil.) The fruit of the Solanum lyco- 
persicum, called tomato. 


Xi. of approba'tion. A faoult j' producing' 
desire of the esteem of others expressed in praise 
or approbation. Its or^aii is supposed to lie on 
each side of the lambdoid suture. 

Zi. pea. 'I'ht' Abrn/i pncatoriHK. 

IiOve-in-i'dleneSS. The Viola tri- 

ZiOVe-lies-bleed'ing*. The Amaran- 
tJlHS cawldtHs. 

XiOVe'xnan. (A translation of the Gr. 
name (piKavdpwiroi, from its clinging to the 
clothes.) The Galium aparine. 

Xioven', Otto Cliris'tian. A 

Swedish naturalist, born in .Stockholm in 1835, 
and now liviiit,'-. 

li.'s lar'va. (L. larra, a mask.) The 
larval form of some worms possessing one or 
several pneoral rings of cilia. 

Ii., sphaerid'ia of. {'Sl<paipioiov, dim. of 
fr<luLipa^ a ball.) Globular stalked bodies placed 
along the ambulacral line and the peiistoniial 
plates of Echinoidea. They are sense organs 

Ziov'ett sul'phur spring's. United 

States of America, rennsylvauia, Cambria 
County. A sulphuretted water. 

ZiOVette'. Au^tria- Hungary, in Transyl- 
vania. A mineral water containing small quan- 
tities of the bicarbonates of sodium, magnesium, 
calcium, and iron. 

XiO'vi's beads. Same as Beads, specific 

ZiOW. (Of Scandinavian origin ; Icel. Idgr. 
F. bas ; I. basso ; S. bajo ; G. nicdriff.) Beneath 
something else, as opposed to high; Uat-lying. 

Zi. fe'ver. (G. schleichendes Fieber.) A 
synonjm of Typhoid fever. 

1m. ner'vous fe'ver. A synonym of 
Typhoid fever. Given to it on account of its 
supposed nervous or hysteric character. 

^ti'we's ring*. (G. Iduw'sche Eing.) A 
bright ring, two or three times as large as, and 
surrounding, the yellow spot of the retina, which 
is sometimes subjectively setn in a bright light. 
It indicates the position of the yellow spot. 

libwenbach'li. Switzerland, Canton 
Appenzell, near Teufen. An indifferent mineral 
spring now disused. 

Zio'wenberg*, Benjamin Ben'no. 

A German surgeon, born at Sonnenbuig, in 
Brandenburg, and now an aural surgeon in 

Ii.'s canal'. See Canal, LHwenberg' s. 

TiOweT, Comparative of Lotv. 

Ii. jaw. The lower segment of the mouth 
of an animal. 

Also, used in the same sense as Maxillary 
bone, inferior. 

Ii. lay'er cells. The layer of primitive 
hypoblast cells which immediately surround the 
segmentation cavity of a telolecithal ovum. 

Iiow'er, H.ich'ard. An English phj-si- 
cian, born at Trenmore, in Cornwall, in 1631, 
died in London in 1691. 

Ii., tu'bercle of. (L. tiiberculum , a small 
hump. F. tnbtrcule de Lower.) A thickening 
of the lining membrane on the posterior wall of 
the right auricle of the heart between the 
openings of the two venae cavte. 

Ziow'er so'da spring*. United States 
of America, Oregon, Linn County. An alkaUne 
carbonated spring. 

IiOW'ry. (L. laureus, of laurel.) The 
Daphne laureola. 

ZiOX'a bark. See Bar!,-, Lora. 

ZiOxan'tberous. (Ao^os, oblique ; an- 
ther. F. lo.ran there.) Ilaving oblique anthers. 

XiOxarthro'sis. (Ao?os, slanting ; lifj- 
t),M)i/, a joint. G. (jelenkverKriimnumg.) Dis- 
tortion or contracture of a joint. 

ZiOxar'tbrum. Tlie same as Loxarthrm. 

ZiOXar'tbrus. (Augos, slanting; lifidpcw, 
a joint. F. loxarthre ; I. losmrtro ; S. lo.vartro ; 
G. Schiefgliidrigkcit.) An abnormal direction 
of a joint caused neither by spasm nor luxation, 
as in the varieties of talipes, or club-foot. 

Z<Ox'ia. (Aogo's.) Wryneck. 

Ziox'ic. (Aofo's. F. loxique.) Of, or be- 
lonj;ing to, o])liquity. 

ZjOXOC'erous. (Aogos, slanting; Ki(>a<s, 
horn. F. luxocire.) Having oblique antiinme. 

ZiOXOcye'SiS. (Aogo's; MMiaiVjConception. 
F. loxocyese.) Term for an oblique position of 
the gravid uterus. 

ZiOXOdon'tOUS. (Aogos; ooous, a tooth. 
F. loxodonte.) Having teeth directed obliquely. 

ZiOXOphthal'mous. (Aog(;9, slanting; 
6<j>6a\/j.6'^, an eye. F. loxophthalme ; G. schel- 
duf/ig .) Having oblique or squinting eyes. 

^ Zioxopter'ygin. C2r,H34N20.j, or CigH,, 

NO. A bitter alkaloid obtained from the bark of 
Loxoptcryyium Lorentzii. It is soluble in alco- 
liol, ether, and chloroform, and is coloured blood- 
red by nitric acid. 

ZtOXOpteryg'ium. (Aogo's, slanting; 
■TTTtpug, a wing.) A Genus of the Nat. Order 

Ii. Iiorentz'ii, Grisebach. (Paul Gitnther 
Lorentz, a German botanist.) Hab. Argen- 
tine llepublic. Furnishes the red or coloured 
Quebracho . 

ZiOXOt'ic. The same as Loxic. 

ZiOXOt'omy. (Aogos-, slanting; ti'iivw, 
to cut. F. loxotomie ; G. iSchriigschnitt.) Term 
for an oblique section or cutting; applied by E, 
Blasius to a method of amputation. 

ZiOZan'gia. Same as Lozenge. 

ZiOZ'enge. (Of uncertain origin ; possiblj- 
originally from L. laudes, praises, through S. 
lozanje, a figure in the shape of a rhombus ; losa, 
a tiag-stone; and lauda, a tomb stone with an 
epitaph. F. losange ; I. lozanza ; S. rombo ; G. 
Hattte.) An heraldic shield of the shape of a 

Also (F. pastille ; I.pastiglia; S. pastilla de 
boca ; G. Fastille), a small medicated sweatmeat 
of the same shape. See Trochiscus. 

For the several official lozenges see the sub- 
headings of Trochisci. 

ZiU. Italy, Province of Alessandria. A 
mild sulphur water. Used in scrofula and skin 

ZaU'ban. (Ar. lubdn. F. olibaii ; G. 
Weill rauch.) Old term for Olibanum. 
Ji. tree. The Bosivellia Carteri. 

Ziu'beck saline' springs. United 
States of America, Maine, Washington County. 
Mineral waters containing calcium carbonate 
6'2o grains, iron carbonate 2'5, sodium sulphate 
27'98, calcium sulphate 11-21, sodium chloride 
199, magnesium chloride 62-84, calcium chloride 
and loss 12'72 grains in a gallon. 

ZiUbi'dOo Same as Libido. 
Ii. intesti'nl. (L. intestinum, a gut.) 
The desire to pass the fitces. 

Ziu'bien. Austria-Hungary, in Galicia, 
near Lemberg. A cold, mild, saline and calcic 
water, containing hydrogen sulphide. Used in 


skin diseases, rheumatic and scrofulous condi- 
tions, chronic mucous catarrhs, lead palsy, and 
larval syphilis. Mud baths arc also employed. 

XiU'bricant. (L. lubricans, pait. of 
lubrivo, to luaku slippery. F. glissant ; G. 
schlupfrigmachtnd.) Making slippery. Formerly 
applied to remedies of this kind. 

XiU'bricate. (L. lubrico.) To make 
siiiiioth iir slippery. 

ZiUbrica'tion. (L. lubrico.) The act of 
reiideriiii; a part smooth or slippery. 

XiUbric'ity. (L. lubrico, to make slip- 
pery. F. liihricite ; G. Schliipfrigkcit.) Term 
lor the quality of slipperiuess or of lubricating. 

XiU'bricbuS. (L. lubrico, to make slippery. 
F. lubritjue ; G. ichliipfrig, glatt.) Slippery; 
smooth and moist. 

XiU'ca. Greece, near Labadia. A mild, 
colli, saline spring. 

Xiucaini'na de las tor'res. Spain, 

Province of .\lmeria. Thermal waters, of a tem- 
perature of 20° C (68° F.), containing calcium 
carbonate 1'8 gramme, and calcium sulphate "3, 
in 1090, with carbonic acid and hydrogen sul- 
phide. Used in skin diseases and scrofula. 

IiU'can. Ireland, near Dublin. A mild 
suii)hiir water. 

ZiUCa'nus. A Genus of the Family La- 
meUu-ornia, Tribe Piutamera, Order Coleoptera. 
Zm. cer'vus, Linn. (L. cerviis, a stag. F. 
cerf-vol(Hit ; G. Ilirschka/er.) The stag-beetle, 
'i'he powdered mandibles were formerly used in 

XiUC'ca, Ba'grni di. Italy, Province 
of Lucca. The baths, about twelve miles from 
the town, slightly elevated above the sea, in a 
fresh valley, have been largely used for centuries. 
The weakly mineralised waters arise from nine- 
teen sources, varying in temperature from 39^ C. 
to o4° C. (102-2° F. to 129-2° F.) The Doccione 
is the most important; it contains sodium chlo- 
ride '084 gramme, magnesium chloride -272, cal- 
cium carbonate 015, sodium suli)liate "932, cal- 
cium sulphate L76, and potassium sulphate '024, 
in 1000. The Doccione basse consists of five 
Sources, one of wliicb contains 1-366 grains of 
sodium sulphate in 1000. They are u^ed as baths, 
and for drinking, as a tonic and reconstituant in 
neuralgias, many forms of rheumatism, scrofula, 
hepatic disorders, and mucous catarrhs. 

XiU'centa (L. /«ceo, to sliine. ¥ . hiisant ; G . 
gltinzend.) Applied to a body whose surfaceretlects 
the light, as polished metal or a vai-nished object. 

XiUCer'nal. (L. lucema, a lamp.) Per- 
taining to a lamp or artificial light. 

Ii. mi'croscope. See Microscope, Incernal. 

XiUCernari da. A Subclass of the Class 
Hgdrozoa having the base of the liydrosome de 
velopcd into an umbrella, in which the repro- 
ductive organs are produced. 

XiU'cerne. The Medicago sativa. 

Iiu'chon, Ba'grneres de. See Ba- 


Zilicboiline. Same as Barcgine. 

IiU'cid. (L. lucidus, bright ; from hireo, to 
shine. F. lucid e ; I. lucido ; S. lucido ; G. 
gltinzend.) Shining, bright. 

In Botany, having a shining surface. 

Also (G. I'c/it, hell), clear. 
Xi. in'terval. (F. intervalle lucide ; G. 
heller Zivischeuraum.) An interval between the 
paro.xysms of insanity, duiing which the mind 
IS clear, and the person capable of conducting 
himself in his accustomed habit. 

Xiucid'ity. (L. lucidus. F. lucidite ; I. 
lucidezzd ; S. cliiridad; G. Klarheit.) Bright- 
ness ; clearness. 

In Medicine the term has been employed to 
denote that state of an insane person in which 
the intellectual faculties are clear, OTily the moral 
and affective qualities being disturbed. 

Also, used in the same sense as Lucid iU' 

ZiU'cifer. (L. lux, light ; /tro, to bear.) 
Light- bringing. 

Xi. matcb. (F. allumette ; I. zolfandlo 
Julminanti ; G. Streichholzchcn.) A splinter of 
pine or other wood, or a cord of cotton coated 
with a waxy material, whose end, after being 
gummed and dusted over with sulphur, is tipped 
with a mi.xttire, whose chief ingredients are an 
emulsion of phosphorus in glue and chlorate of 
potash or black oxide of manganese. Their pre- 
paration often gives rise to symptoms of chronic 
phosphorus poisoning, and when sucked to acute 
forms of phosphorus poisoning. 

Matches are now usually made with amorphous 
phosporus, which is not poisonous. 

Ii. matcb - ma'ker's disease'. The 
condition described under Jaiv, neo-osis of, 

Iiucif erase. (L. hix, light; fero, to 
bear.) A soluble ferment extracted by Dubois 
from the Pholas dactylus. When Luciferin and 
Luciferase are mixed in the presence of water a 
phosphorescent light is produced. 

Xiucif erin. (L. lux, light ; fero, to 
bear.) A crystalline body obtained by Dubois 
from the tissues of the Pholas dactylus. It is 
secreted from the siphon and mantle, and is 
expressed wlien the tubes contract under the in- 
fluence of a stimulus. 

XiU'ciform. (L. lux; forma, shape.) 
Having the appearance of light. 

XiUCif Ug-al. (L. lux, Wg\\i;fugio, to fly. 
G. lichtschcu.) Shunning the light. 

ZiUCif Ug'OUS. (L. /«.E, light ; fugio,t.o 
fly. F. lucifugc ; G. lichtscheu.) That shuns 
or flies from the light. 

Xilicil'ia. (L. lux, light ; from its me- 
tallic brilliancy. G. Goldjltcge.) A Genus of 
Muscida. Commonly seen on the excreta of 
man and animals. 

Ii. Cse'sar, Rob. Desv. (F. mouche dorce.) 
Body golden green. Larva lives on corpses of 
animals ; and also found in wounds. 

£. boxniniv'orax, Coquerel. (L. homo, 
man; ^'oro, to devour. F. mouclie honiiiiivore.) 
Hab. Guiana and Cayenne. This fly deposits its 
eggs on wounds, but chieHy in such positions that 
they may become introduced into the nostrils, 
where they hatch; the larvae traverse the anfrac- 
tuosities of the nose, and gain access to the fron- 
tal and maxillary sinuses, and the back of the 
nose, and even pass to the buccal membrane and 
the eyelids. They produce a livid swelling of 
the face, nose, lips, and eyelids, iicute pain in 
the forehead and pharj-nx, dyspnoea, difficulty of 
swallowing, ei)istaxis, and discharge of a foetid 
sero-sangumolent fluid from the nose. 

XiU'cilin. (I-. lux, light.) Purified oil of 
petroleum. Used for lamps. 

ZiUcim'eter. (L. lux ; metier, to mea- 
sure.) An instrument for measuring the in- 
tensity of light. 

ZiUCi'na. (L. Lucina, the goddess of light, 
and so of childbirth; an epithet of Juno and 
Diana.) Parturition ; childbirth. 


It. sine co'itu. (L. sine, without ; coitus, 
a uniting.) A S3'uonyra oi Farthenoyvnesis. 

Jm. si'ne concul>ltu. (L. sine ; concu- 
hitus, a Ij'ing together.) A synonyui of I'ar- 

Ziiicke's test for hippu'rlc 

a.c'id. Tlie fluid coiitainiug it, us urine, is 
evaporated with an excess of nitric acid, on 
lieating the residue strongly the odour of hydro- 
cyanic acid may be perceived if hippuric acid be 

Xiuck'yhood. An infant's Caul. 

ZiUCOilia.'xiia,. See Lxjcomania. 

IiUCS'ky. Hungary, in Liptau County. 
A chal\ beate water of a temperature of 32^ C. 
(SQ-S" F.) 

ZiUC'tUOUS. (L. hietuosus, mournful. F. 
luctueux ; I. luttmso ; S. luctuoso ; G. kliujend.) 

Zi. resplra'tlon. Respiration accom- 
panied by moaning, as of one mourning. 

XiUCUbra'tion. (L. lucubratiu, from lu- 
cnbro, to work by lamp-light. F. lucubration ; 
G. Hchlnjhuigkeit.') A morbid sleeplessness ; 
want of sleep. 

ZiUCU'lia. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

Ja, cuneifo'Iia, Sweet. (L. cuneus, a 
wedge ; folium, a leaf.) Hab. India. Bark 
astringent and tonic. 

Ii. gratls'sima, Sweet. (L. grains. 
pleasant.) Hab. India. Bark astringent and 
tonic. Used as a substitute for quinine. 

XiUCU'ma. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

Ii. bala'ta. A gutta percha furnished by 
L. mammosa. 

Ii. calmi'to, De Cand. Hab. Brazil. Fruit 

Ii. erlycyphlce'um, Mart. The Chryso- 
phyllum ylycyphlwum. 

Ii. mammo'sa, Juss. (L. mammosus, 
having large breasts.) Hab. Jamaica, Cuba. 
Sapodilla tree. Fruit esculent when ripe, acid 
and astrini?int when unripe. The Achras 
mammosa, Linn. 

Ii. sallcifolia, Kunth. Hab. Mexico. 
Bark used as an aniiperiodic. 

IiUCUmo'rian. (L. lux,^ light ; moror, 
to linger. F. lucumoriane.) Light delaying; 
applied to morbidly lasting sleep. 

XiU'dia. A Genus of the Nat. Order Bix- 
acece, the species of which are emetic, and grow 
in Africa. 

Iiudovi'ci anticachec'ticum. (L. 

Lmliivieus ; Gr. UvtI, against; haxtjia, a bad 
habit of body.) The Antimonium diaphoreticum 

Ii. ang'l'na. See Anyina Ludovici. 

IiUdovi'cus. The Latinised form of 
Ludwuj, Daniel. 

And also of Ludwig, Wilhelm Friedrich. 

XiU'dus. Old term applied to a species of 
calcareous stone found on the shores of the river 

Also, to the human calculus extracted from 
the bladder, according to Ruland and Johnson. 

Also, to the tartaric and sandy sediment which 
subsides in urine or adheres to the urinal, ac- 
cording to Becker, Microcos. Medic. 49, p. 109, 

Ii. Helmon'tll. (Van Helmont.) Old 
epithet of a peculiar stone, and secret remedy 
against calculus. 

Aho, any calculus of the animal body. 

The term was also applied in Geology to a 
species of Scpturium. 

Ii. Paracel'sl. (Paracelsus.) An old 
name for a reuudy for stone in the bladder ; ac- 
cording to Becker, it was Boracite. 

IiUd'wig-, Z>an'iel. A German phy- 
sician, born at Weimar in 1625, died in 1G80. 
He is the Ludovicus of Ludovici anticachecti- 

Iiud wig^. ICarl Friedrich Wil- 

lielni. A GcTiiiau physioloi;ist now living, 
born at Witzeiihau.-en, in Kurliessen, in 1816. 
He is Trofessor of Physiology in the Uiiiver.sity 
of Leipzig. 

Ii. and Cy'on's nerve. (Elie von Cyon, 
a Russian physiologist, born at Telsch in 1843.) 
The Dcprc'f'Sor nerve. 

Ii.'s frogr-Iieart apparatus. An ar- 
rangement by which a tubular connection is 
made between the aorta and the vena cava, so 
that the circulation can be maintained by the 
cardiac pulsations. 

Ii.'s g'an'g'llon. See Ganglion, Ludwiy's. 

Ii.'s ky'mogrrapb. See Kymoyraph, 

Ziud'wig-, "Willielm Friedrich. 
A German physician, born at Ulilbach, near 
Stuttgart, in 1790, died in 1865. tie is the Lu- 
dovicus oi Angina Ludovici, 

ZiUdwigria. {^Ludwig, a German natu- 
ralist.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Onagracece. 

Ii. alternifo'lia, Linn. (L. altemus, 
every other; folium, a leaf.) Hab. America. 
Seeds emetic. 

Ii. diffu'sa, Brogn. (L. diffusus, spread 
out.) Hab. India. A vermifuge and diapho- 

Ii. nit'lda. (L. nitidus, shining.) The L. 

Ii. palus'tris. (L. paluster, marshy.) 
The phthisis weed. Used in consumption and 
chronic bronchitis. 

Ii. re'pens, Brogn. (L. repo, to creep.) 
Hab. Cochin China. Used in diseases of the 
hairy skin. 

IiUd'wig'Sbrunnen. Germany, in the 
Grand Duchy of Hesse, near Schwalheim. A 
weak saline water, rich in carbonic acid gas. 
Used as a substitute for Selters water. 

XiU'eSa (L. lues, a spreading or contagious 
disease ; of uncertain etymology. F. peste, lues ; 
I. lue ; G. Seuche.) A plague or pestilence. 

The term was employed by the older writers 
in medicine in several senses ; in tbe sense of 
expiation, as in the term for epilepsy ; in the 
sense of an epidemic, as in the term for dysen- 
tery ; and in the sense of a contagium, as in the 
term for syphilis. 

Ii. confirma'ta. (L. confirmatus, part, 
of confirmo, to establish.) A term for visceral 

Ii. deif'ica. (L. deificus, making into a 
god.) Old name for Epilepsy. 

Im. dlvi'na. (L. divinus, pertaining to a 
deity. F. peste divine.) Term for epilepsy. 

Ii. dysenter'ica. Same as Dysentery. 

Ii. eronorrboica. Same as Gonorrhoea 

Ii. grut'turis epidem'ica. (L. guttur, 
the throat ; Gr. i'Kioi\fxia, the prevalence of an 
epidemic.) The same as Cynanche maligna. 

Ii. in'dica. (L. indicus, Indian.) Same 
as Frambcesia. 


Ii. inguina'ria. (L. ingncn, the groin.) 
The Playue. 

If, neuro'des. (Nfiz/jJjfiijs, the nervous 
system.) Olil term for a iiperii's of typhus fever. 

Ii. panno'nlse. iL. Prt««&«i(/, a country 
on the Danube, including parts of Hungary, 
Slavonia, and Bosnia. F.Jicvre llo)igroise, 
Jloiigrie.) A name for the Febris Sungarica, 
or Hungarian fever. 

Xi. polon'ica. Same as Plira poloiiica. 

Zi. sarmat lea. (L. Sarmatia, a country 
of the south-east of Russia.) The same as Flica 

Ii. scorbu'tica. Same as Cachexia scor- 

1m. sypta'ilis. Same as Syphilis. 

X. sypbilo'des. {Syphilis ; Gr. tloos, 
form.) Same as Syphilis psntdosyphilis. 

Ii. tricbomat'ica. (Opi^, the hair.) A 
sjnonym oi Flica polonica. 

Ii. vene'rea. (L. renerens, belonging to 
Venus or love.) A synonym of Syphilis, pro- 
posed by Bethencourt in 1527. 

Luf'fa. A Genus of the Nat. Order Cticui-- 
bttiti (■((■. 

Xi. abuna'fa, Forsklial. A doubtful species 
used in Egypt as an aplirodisiac. 

Ii. acutan'gula, Roxb. (L. aoitus, 
shape; angulus, a corner.) Hab. India. The 
half- grown fruit is used as a vegetable and in 
curries. The root is purgative and emetic; the 
seeds furnish an acrid oil. 

Ii. aegyp'tiaca, Jlillcr. The towel gourd. 
Hab. Egypt, Arabia. The Iruit when depiived 
of its mucilage and seeds leaves a network of 
woody fibres, which is used instead of sjjonge, 
and called Loofah. The mucilage is used as an 
emollient ; the fleshy part of the fruit is used as 
food. Probably the L. pentandra. 

Ii. ama'ra, Roxb. (L. amarus, bitter.) 
Hab. India. P'ruit and ripe seeds emetic and 
briskly cathartic. An infusion of the stems is 
used as a stomachic and diuretic, and also in 
hepatic congestion and in splenic diseases. 

X. binda'al, Roxb. Hab. Hindostan. Used 
as a liydrag'igue cathartic in dropsy. 

Ii. cylin'drica, Rom. The L. pentandra. 

Im. dras'tica. (Apao-Tt/co's, active.) Hab. 
America. An active purgative. 

Ii. echina'ta, Roxb. (L. echinus, a hedge- 
hog.) Hab. India. The climbiig stem and the 
fruit are used as a bitter stomachic. 

Ii. foe'tida, Cavanilles. (L.fosddtis, stink- 
ing.) Sponge g'lurd. The L. acutangula. 

Ii. pentandra, Roxb. (Ht'i/TE, five; 
av!\p, a male.) Hab. India. Fruit esculent, 
seeds cathaitic. 

Ii. petola, Teriago. The Z. pentandra. 

Ii. pur'g^ans, Mart. (L. purguns, purg- 
ing.) Hab. Soutb America. A bitter resinous 
extract is prepared from the fruit, which is used 
as a drastic purgative in dropsy and chronic 
ophthalmia. Dose, 10—20 centigrammes. 

Ii. stria'ta, Schrad. The L. pentandra, 
IgU.g''d.US. An old name for Erysipelas. 
XaU g'ent. (L. luqto, to mourn. G. trau- 
ernd.) Weeping. Applied to plants with droop- 
ing branches. 

ZiU'g'O. Spain, Province of Lugo. Mineral 
waters, of a temperature of 37° C. (98-6= P.), 
containing sodium sulphide, and used, chiefly as 
baths, in rheumatic conditions and skin diseases. 
XiU'g'Ol, J. G. A. A French physician, 
boru at Montauban in 1786, died in Paris in 1851. 

Ii.'s i'odine caustic. Iodine 60 grains, 
iodide of potassium 60 grains, and water 2 

Ii.'s i'odine lo'tion. Iodine -1 part, potas- 
sium iodide •! part, di-siilved in water 200 parts. 

Ii.'s i'odine rubefacient. (L. mbe- 
facio, to make red.) lod.iie 1 part, potassium 
iodide 2 parts, dissolved in water 6 parts. 

Tt.'s i'odine solution. Iodine 075 
gramme, potassium iodide •15, and water 250. 
For internal use. 

ZjUhat'SchovictZ. Austria, in Moravia, 
in a valley of the Carpathians, 1200 metres above 
the sea. There are many atherinal sources similar 
in the charac'er, but varying in the amount, of the 
salts; the Johanncsquelle contains sodium iodide 
•022 gramme, sodium bromide '0097, sodium 
fluoride "001, potassium chloride '279, sodium 
chloride 3 6283, lithium chloride '0023, sodium 
bicarbonate 8"3G66, magnesium bicarbonate 
1094, calcium bicarbonate '914, barium bicar- 
bonate -008, strontian bicarbonate '0132, iron 
bicarbonate "017, manganese bicarbonate -0057, 
sodium phosphate 'OOoo, silicic acid -054, alumina 
■0017 in 1000 grammes, with free carbonic acid. 
They are used in baths and for drinking in the 
various manifestations of scrofula, in catarrhal 
aff'ections of the several mucous membranes, in 
enlargement of the liver and abdominal plethora, 
and in gout and syphilis. 

ZaUbe'a. A Genus of the Nat, Order Tili- 

Ii. divarica'ta. (L. dirarico, to spread 
asunder.) Bark astringent. 

Ii. grrandiflo'ra. (L. grandis, great ;Jlos, 
a flower.) Bark astringent. 

ZeUJul'la. (A conuption of Hallelujah., 
praise tlie Lord.) A name for the Oxalis 
acctosella, from its great virtues. 

XiUkra'bO. A seed imported into China 
from iSiam, under the nanie Ta-fung-tse, and 
obtained from the Hydrocarpus anthelmiurica. 
It is used in a variety of cutaneous complaints. 

ZiUmba'g'O. (L. lumbago, pain in the 
loins; from liimhus, the loin. F. lumbago; I. 
lomhagginc ; G. Lendenweh, Lendcnschmerz, 
Lendcnldhme, Sexenschuss.) Rheumatism of 
the lumbar muscles, especially the erector spinae, 
and the lumbar fascia, generally accompanied by 
excess of uric acid in the system. There is little 
or no fever, little pain on pressure, but great 
pain on moving. The attack is generally sudden 
in occurrence. 

In some cases the pain would appear to be 
sympathetic and caused by gravel in the pelvis 
of the kidney. In others it is caused by lacera- 
tion of muscular fibre. Popularly the term is 
used to denote any painful afl'ection of the loins. 

Jm. a ni'su. (L. a, from ; nisus, an endea- 
vour.) Lumbago from rupture of muscular fibre. 

Ii. ab arthroc'ace. (L. ab, from ; Gr. 
cipBpov, a joint; KctKo^, liad.) Psoas abscess 
from disease of the vertebra;. 

Ii. apostemato'sa. ('ATrocn-rj/ia, an 
abscess.) Same as Abscess, psoas. 

Ii. psoad'ica. Same as Abscess, psoas. 

Ii. rbeumat'ica. Rheumatism of the 
lumbar muscles from chill. 

Ii. traumat'ica. {TpuvfiaTiKO's, of 
wounds.) Pain in the lumbar muscles produced 
by a strain, which generally results in the tear- 
ing across of some muscular fibres. 

Xiumba'lis. (L. lumbus, the loin.) The 
same as Lumbaris, 


ZiUm"ba.r. (L. lumbaris, belonging to 
luiiibns, the loin. F. lombaire ; I. lomharc ; S. 
lombar.) Of, or belonging to, the loins. 

Ii. ab'scess. (F. abces lombaire ; G. 
Lendcnabsccss.) An abscess occurring in the 
lumbar region ; it is usually due to caries of the 
spine or of the ribs, or it may be in its origin a 
renal or a perirenal abscess, or it may be the 
result of acute intiammation of the erector spina', 
or it may be subcutaneous. A lumbar abscess 
generally protrudes in the lumbar region, but it 
may burrow between the abdominal muscles and 
point in some part of the abdominal region, but 
above I'oupart's ligament. 

Ii. aponeuro'sis. {' Ktt oviif) 03 ai'i, the 
end of a muscle where it becomes tendon.) The 
Fascia, lumbar. 

Ii. ar'teries. (F. artercs hmbaircs ; G. 
Lendcnschlagadcrii.) Five branches on each 
side from the back part of the lower end of the 
abdominal aorta; the upper one rests on the 
body of the last dorsal vertebra, the others pass 
over the bodies of the upper four lumbar verte- 
brte. Each divides into an abdominal and a dorsal 
branch ; the former, coursing through the muscles 
of the abdominal wall, gives off branches which 
anastomose with those of its neighbours and of 
the epigastric, internal mammary, lower inter- 
costal, ilio-lumbar and circumflex iliac arteries ; 
the latter give off each a spinal branch, and then 
divide into branches to supply the muscles and 
integument of the back ; the spinal branches 
enter the spinal canal through an intervertebial 
foramen, supply the dura mater and roots of the 
nerves, and divide into two twigs ; one set, the 
vertebral, forms interlacements with its neigh- 
bours on the posterior surface of the bodies of 
the vertebrae ; the other set, the medullary, 
ramifies on the anterior and posterior surfaces of 
the spinal cord. 

The lumbar arteries occasionally take origin 
from a common trunk, or two of them only may 
have a common origin. 

Ii. ar'tery, fiftb. The L. artery, loivest. 

Ii. ar'tery, lo-nr'est. (F. artere dernicre 
lombaire; G. fimfte Lendenschlagader.) A 
branch of the middle sacral artery on each side ; 
it arises about the middle of the body of the fifth 
lumbar vertebra, supplies the neighbouring parts, 
and anastomoses with the branches of the ilio- 
lumbar artery. 

£. cis'tern. (F. eiterne lombaire.) The 
Receptaculum chyli. 

Ii. colec'tomy. (Ko'Xoi/, the colon ; tK- 
TOfx-fi, a cutting out.) The removal of a part of 
the colon through an incision made as in lumbar 

Ii, colot'omy. See Colotomy, lumbar. 

Ii. enlarg-e'ment. (F. renflement lom- 
baire.) The enlargement of the spinal cord in 
the region of the lumbar vertebra;, where the 
nerves of the lower extremities are given off; it 
extends from the tenth dorsal vertebra to the 
first or second lumbar vertebra. 

Ii. fas'cia. See Fascia, lumbar. 

Ii. gran'g'lia. See Ganglia, lumbar. 

Ii. g'cn'ital cen'tre. The nucleus at the 
lower part of the spinal cord from which the 
nervi erigentes arise in the male and the uterine 
nerves in the female. 

Ii. grlands. See Glands, lumbar. 

Ii. her'nia. See Hernia, lumbar. 

Ii. nephrec'tomy. See Nephrectomy, 

Jm. nerves. (F. vcrf.<i lombaires ; G. Len- 
donicrvcn.) The five spinal nerves which leave 
the canal through the foramen above each lum- 
bar vertebra. They possess larger roots than 
the other spinal nerves, except the sacral ; when 
these are united beyond the ganglion of the pos- 
terior roots the trunk thus formed divides into 
two primary branches, anterior and posterior. 
The posterior divisions are the smaller, they 
supply the neighbouring muscles and the integu- 
ment of the gluteal region. The anterior divi- 
sions, with the exception of that of the fifth and 
part of the fourth lumbar nerve, break up into 
loops that unite to form the L. plexus. The 
fifth lumbar nerve, with a branch from the 
fourth, forms the Lumbo-sacral curd. 

Ii. neural'gla. See Neuralgia, lumbar. 

Ii. plex'us. (L. plexus, a weaving. F. 
plexus lombaire ; G. Loulcngcjlecht.) A nerve 
plexus formed by the anterior divisions of the 
upper four lumbar nerves and a branch from tlie 
last dorsal nerve, and lying in the substance of 
the ])Soas muscle. The first nerve gives oft" the 
ilio-hypogastric nerve, ilio-inguinal nerve, and 
a branch to the second nerve ; the second nerve 
furnishes the chief part of the genito-crural and 
external cutaneous nerves, and gives a branch to 
the third ; the third nerve furnishes part of the 
anterior crural and obturator nerves, and gives a 
branch to the fourth ; the fourth nerve furnishes 
the remaining part of the obturator and ante- 
rior crural nerves, and gives a branch to the fifth 

Ii. re'glon. (F. region lombaire ; G. Len- 
dengcgend.) The lateral middle region of the 
abdomen lying between a horizontal line on the 
level of the iliac crests and a similar line on the 
lowest level of the thorax, and on the outer side 
of a vertical line drawn from the middle of Pou- 
part's ligament. The right lumbar region con- 
tains the ascending colon, part of the right 
kidney, and part of the ileum ; the left contains 
the descending colon, part of the left kidney, and 
part of the jejunum. 

This region is also described as bounded above 
by the last rib, below by the posterior half of 
crest of the ilium, externally by the posterior 
margin of the external oblique muscle, and in- 
ternally by the spines of the lumbar vertebrw. 

Ii. vein, ascend'ing-. A longitudinally 
placed vein, resulting from the junction of some 
of the communicating branches of the lumbar 
veins of each side, which opens into the azygos 
vein of the same side ; it connects together the 
lateral sacral, ilio-lumbar, common iliac, and 
azygos veins. 

Ii. veins. (F. veines lombaires ; G. Zen- 
denblutadern.) The veins which correspond to 
the lumbar arteries. They are formed by the 
junction of anterior branches from the wall of 
the abdomen and posterior branches from the 
muscles of the back, and from the spinal canal 
and spinal marrow, and cross the bodies of the 
vertebrae to open into the hinder surface of the 
inferior vena cava. They send branches across 
the median line to each other. The veins of the 
left side are the longer. 

Ii. veins, trans'verse. (L. transversus, 
turned across.) The L. veins. 

Ii. ver'tebrae. See Vertebra, lumbar. 
Ziuniba.'ris. (L. lumbaris.) Same as 

Ii. exter'nus. (L. externus, outside.) 
The Quadratus lumborum. 


Ii. inter'nus. (L. internus, within.) The 
Psoas inaijJiHs. 

Ii. muscle. The Psoas inrrr/niis. 

ZiUm bermen. American term for men 
employed 111 cutting and rafting timber. 

!■>« diseases of. Lumbermen are liable 
to acute pulmonary diseases and inflammatory 
rheumatism from exposure to weather, as well 
as to injuries from falling trees, hatchet wounds, 
and the like. 

ZiUm'bia (Nominative plural of L. lumbus.) 
Tlie Liimhar region. 

ZiUmbifra'g'iUIIl. (L. lumhi, the loins ; 
franijii.! to break. F. lomb'ifrage ; G. Lcndcn- 
bnicli.) Same as ll'jrma, Inmbar. 

Ziuzn'bo-abdom'inal. (L. lumhus; 

ahdoimn, tiie belly.) Kelating to the loins and 
the abdomen. 

Xi. mus'cle. (P. muscle loinbo-abdnmiiial.) 
Chaussier's term for the Transrersics abdominis. 
It. neural'g-ia. See Neuralgia, lumbo- 

Ii. plexus. Same as Lumbar plexus. 
XiUm'bo-aor'tic. (L. Iambus; aorta. 
F. lombo-aortique.) llelating to the lumbar part 
of the abdominal aorta. 

Xium bo-COS'tal. (L, lumbus, the loin ; 
costalis, belonging to a rib. F. lombo-costal.) 
Relating to the loins and the ribs. 

Ii. mus'cle. (F. muscle lombo-costal.) 
Chaussier's term for the Serratus posticus in- 

Also, Somerring's term for the Sacro-lumbalis 

XiUm'bo dor'sal. (L. lumbus; dorsum, 
the back.) Relating to the loins and the back. 
Ii. fas'cia. See Fascia lumbo-dorsalis. 

Ziumbodyn'ia. (L. lumbus ; Gr. ocvu^, 

pain.) \ synonym oi Lumbago. 

ZiUZn'bb-llu'ineral. (L. lumbus ; hu- 
merus, the arm-bone. F. lumbo-humeral.) 
Relating to the loins and humerus. 

Ii. mus'cle. (F. muscle lo>nbo- humeral.) 
Chaussier's term for the Laiissimus dorsi. 

IiUin'bo-il'iac. Same as Llio-lumbar. 
Ii. llg-'ament. The llio-lumbar liga- 

Xium'bo-il'io-abdoin'inal. (L. hm- 

bus ; iliui/i ; L. a/idumti/, the belly.) Relating 
to the loins, ilium, and abdomen. 

Ii. mus'cle. (F. muscle lombo-ili-abdom- 

inal.) The Trmisvcrsalis abdominis. 

Xiuin'bo-in'g'uinal. (L. lumbus; in- 

guen, the groin.) Relating to the loins and the 

It. nerve. (G. Lendenleistennerv ,^(iSxn\\^i!) 
The crural branch of the genito-crural nerve. 
It pierces the fascia lata on the outer side of tbe 
femoral artery, and supjilies the skin of the 
upper part of the thigh. It gives a small brancli 
to the femoral artery, and communicates with the 
middle cutaneous branch of the anterior crural 

IiUmbo-sa'cral. {!>. lumbus; sacrum, 
the bone of that name.) Relating to the loins 
and tlic sacrum. 

Ii. cord. (F. nerf hmbo-sacrc ; G. T^cndcn- 
krcttzbeinnerv .) A large branch formed by the 
union of part of the fourth with the fifth lumbar 
nerve; it passes down the pelvis to join the 
sciatic ple.xus, and it forms the greater part of 
the superior gluteal nerve. 

Ii. ligr'ament. See Ligament, lumbo- 

Ii. mis'ery. A term for the backache of 

Ii. nerve. {V. nerf lombosacre.) TlieZ. 

Ii. plex'us. (L. plexus, a weavinu". G. 
Lendcnkrvuzgejtccht.) The combined lumbar 
and sacral iibxuses. 
Ziumbri'cal. Same as Lumbricalis. 
Xiumbrica'les. (L. lumbricus, an in- 
testinal worm ; an earthworm. F. muscles lom- 
bricaux.) The worm-like muscles of the hand 
and the foot. See L. manus and L. pedis. 

Ii. ma'nus. (L. manus, the liand. F. 
muscles lombricaux de la main ; G. Rcgemcurm- 
muskeln der Hand, Spulmuskeln der Hand.) 
Four long, slender, fusiform muscles wliieh ex- 
tend from the tendons of the flexor profundus 
digitoruiu to those of the extensor communis 
digitorum. They arise near the lower part of the 
annular ligament ; tlie lirst from the outer and 
front part of the deep flexor tendon of the index, 
the second from the front of that of the middle 
finger, the third and fourth from both the tendons 
between which they are placed ; passing to the 
metacarpo-phalangeal articulations they extend 
backwards on the radial sides of the fingers, and 
become inserted by means of a small flat tendon 
into the expansion of the extensor tendon on the 
dorsal aspect of the first phalanx. They vary in 
number and in insertion. They assist in flexing 
the first phalanx and extending the other two. 

Ii. of foot. See L. pedis. 

X. of hand. See L. manus. 

Tm. pe'dis. (L. pes, a foot. F. muscles 
lombricaux du pied ; d. Jiegenwurmmuskeln des 
Fusses, Spulmuskeln des Fusses.) Four long 
fusiform muscles which arise from the adjoining 
surfaces of the tendons of the flexor longus digi- 
torum pedis, with the exception of the first, and 
passing under the transverse ligament of the 
metatarsus are inserted by long slender tendons 
into the posterior and inner part of the first 
phalanges of the f mr outer toes and into the 
expansion of the tendon of the extensor longus 
digitorum pedis on the same phalanx. They 
vary in number and in mode of insertion. They 
assist in flexing the fii'st phalanx and in extend- 
ing the two others. 

Xiumbrica'lis. (L. lumbricus, the earth- 
worm. F. lombrical ; I. lombricale ; S. lum- 
brical ; G. regenwurmartig, spulwnrmartig.) 
Of, or belonging to, or resembling, the earth- 
Also, one of the muscles called Lumbricales. 
ZiUmbrici'dae. Sav. (L. lumbricus; 
Gr. tloos, form. G. itegenwiirmer.) A Family 
of the Order Abranchiata, Class Vermes. 
Long cylindrically-formed animals. Anterior 
extremity blunt ; no feelers nor eyes ; bristles in 
pairs down the body, simple, hook-like; intes- 
tinal canal straight ; mouth inferior, leading 
into an unarmed pliarynx, which is succeeded by 
a pharynx with salivary glands and a muscular 
stomacli ; the intestine often presents a longi- 
tudinal membranous duplication projecting into 
its lumen. The vascular system presents a con- 
tractile dorsal vessel and an abdominal vessel, 
which are variously connected by anastorno.sing 
vessels; the blood is red. Nerve cord with a 
ganglion in each segment. The common earth- 
worm is hermaphrodite ; the reproductive organs 
lie in pairs in several rings of the fore part of 
the boilj-. 
Ziuixi'bricide> (L. lumbricus ; ccedo, to 


kill.^ A medicine which is fatal to the Ascaris 

Xiumbrici'dia. (L. lumbricus ; cccdo, to 
kill.) A Genus ul' the Nat. Order Ltgumuioxa. 

It. anttaelmin'tlca, Arrab. The Andira 

Ii. le^a lis, Arrab. (L. legalis, belonging 
to law.) The Andira stipulacea. 

Ziumbri'ciforin. (L. lumbricus. F. 
loniliriciforui.) Kescinbling the earthworm. 

Xium'bricoi'd. (L. lumbricus ; Gr. tloos, 
form. h\ lombricoide ; G. rvgcnwurmnhnlich., 
spHlwurmdhnlich.) Eesembling the Lumbri- 

Ziumbri'cous. (L. lumbricus.) Having 
lumhriii (ir ascarides. 

Ziumbri'cus. (L. lumbricus, an intestinal 
worm, an earthworm. F. lombric ; I. lumbrico ; 
S. lombriz ; G. Rcgenwurm, Spultcurm.) A 
Genus of the Family Lumbricidae. 
Also, the Ascaris luoibricoidcs. 

X. cucurbitinus. (L. cucurbifa, a 
gourd.) Heberdeu's term for the separate joints 
or proglottides of a tapeworm. 

Ii. In re'nibus, Blasius. (L. in, in ; ren, 
the kidney.) The Eustroyigglus gigas. 

1m. la'tus. The Bolhriocephah.s latus. 
The L. latus of Pliny is the Taenia solium. 
It. rena'lls, Redi. (L. renalis, belonging 
to the kidney.) The Eustrougylus gigas. 

Ji. sangruln'eus in re'ne, Hartmann. 
(L. sanguineus, bloody ; in, in ; ren, the kidney.) 
The EustrongylKs gigas. 

It, te'res hom'lnis. (L. teres, round ; 
homo, a man.) Tyson's term for the Ascaris 

Zi. terres'tris, Linn. (F. lombric ter- 
restre ; G. Regcnwurm.) The earthworm. Dried 
and pulverised it was formerly given as diuretic 
and lithontriptic. 

Iium'bus. (L. lumbus. F. lombe ; G. 
Lende.) The loin. 

Ii. Ven'eris. (L. Venus, the goddess of 
love.) A name for the Achillea millefolium, or 

ZiU'men. (L. lumen, light ; an opening for 
the admission oi light.) The central aperture 
in a tubular gland or duct round which the cells 
are grouped. 
Also, the eanal of any tube. 

Ii. con'stans. (L. constans, invariable.) 
A synonym of Phosphorus. 

IiUininirerous. (L. lumen, light ; fero, 
to bear.) Producing or yielding light. 
Ii. e'tlier. See Ether, lumitiiferous. 

_ Xiuminos'ity. (L. lumiuosus, full of 

light; from lumen. F, luminosite ; I. lumino- 
sita ; G. Lichthelle.) The quality of being 

It. of bod'y. This phenomenon has been 
observed in the breath, on the face, and on other 
parts of the body in dying persons ; it has also 
been observed in the body soon after death. Its 
cause has not been ascertained. 

Ii. of plants. The thaUi of some living 
fungi are luminous in the dark. This luminosity 
has been noticed in several species of Agaricus 
and in Ehizomorpha, and by Prescott in the 
mycelium of the common truffle. Martins states 
that the milky juice of Euphorbia phosphorea is 
luminous after removal from the plant when it 
is heated, and, as well as Mornay, has observed 
that the milky juices of some plants were lumi- 
nous whilst they were exuding. 

XiU'minous. (L. luminosus. F. Inmi- 
ncux ; 1. luminuso ; S. luminoso ; G. leuchtcnd.) 
Emitting light ; reflecting light ; shining. 

Ii. bod'y. A body which emits light itself, 
or which i)riipagates or reflects the vibration 
which causes light, such as the sun, a burning 
match, and the moon. 

X. eyes. (G. Katzcnaugcn.) Term 
applied by lieer to eyes that are amaurotic 
and in which the choroidal pigment is de- 
fective (G. amaurotischcs Katzeiiauge). It 
probably included eases of coloboiiia and sar- 
coma of the choroid, of glioma of the retina, 
of separation of the retina, and of ali)i- 
nismus, in all of which there is a strong 
reflection of light from the interior of the glolje 
of the eye when the patient stands in a strong 

Ii. beat. The heat which gives off light, 
as that of a flame. 

Ii. paint. A form of enamel containing 
phosphorescent calcium sulphide, wLich gives 
off a faint light in the dark. 

Ii. pen'cil. A collection of luminous rays 
proceeding from the same source. 

Ii. radia'tion. See Itadiation, lumi- 

It. ray. The line in which light is pro- 

IiU'xia>> (L. luna, the moon ; for lucna, 
from luc in lux, lucis, light. F. lune ; G. 
Mond.) The moon. 

Also (F. argent; G. Silber), the alehemiciil 
name of silver. 

It. illbl'ni. (B. S. Albinus, a German 
anatomist, born 1697, died 1770.) The lesser 
sacrosciatic notch. 

Ii. cor'nea. (L. corneus, horny.) Old 
term for the chloride of silver. 

Ii. fixa'ta. (L. Jixus, fast.) Old term for 
the oxide of zinc. 

Ii. imperfec'ta. (L. imperfec tics, incom- 
plete.) A synonym oi Bismuth. 

It. pbilosopbo'rum. Old term for the 
regulus of antimony. 

Ii. pota'bllls. (L. potabilis, that may be 
drunk.) A very dilute solution of nitrate of 

IiU'nacy. (Lunatic. G. Mondsucht.) A 
legal term representing those deviations from a 
standard of mental soundness in which the 
person, the property, or the civil rights may be 
interfered with, when incapacity, violence, or 
irregularities threaten danger to the lunatic 
himself or to others. 

ZiU'nar. (L. lunaris, belonging to luna, 
the moon. F. lunaire ; I. lunar e ; S. lunar ; G. 
mondenbetrcff'end, mondgehbrig.) Eclating to, 
or resembling, the moon. 
Also, relating to silver or Luna. 

Jt. caus'tic. (F. caustique lunaire.') The 
nitrate of silver fused at a low heat. 

Ii. cy'cle. See Vgcle. 
Xiuna're OS. See Os lunar e. 
Iiuna'ria. (L. lunaris.) A Genus of the 
Nat. Order Urucifera. 
Also, the Botrychium lunaria. 
Also, a term for menstruation. 

It. an'nua« Linn. (L. annuus, lasting a 
year. ¥. lunaire; 1. lunaria ; S. lunaria ; G. 
Mondkraut, Mondviole.) Jloonwort. Hab. 
Europe. Leaves and seeds stomachic, vulnerary, 
antiscorbutic, and anlihydrophobic ; also used iu 


Ii. blen'nls, ^lonch. (L. biennium, a 
pcrioii of two yt'iDs.) The Z. nnnua. 

Jm. redivl'va, Linn. (L. rcdivivics, that 
lives again.) Honest)'. Fortnerly used as a 
diuretie ; seeds used in epik-psy. 

Ii1ina.rifoliOUS. (L. lunaris ; folium, 
a leaf. F. UoianJ'oUe.) Having orbicular or 
moon- shaped leaves, 

I(U'na,te. (L. hinatus, shaped like the 
crescent nioun ; from luna, the moon.) Crescent- 

Ii. bone. The Semilunar bone. 

ZiU'natic. (Mod. E. hoiatik ; F. hma- 
iique ; IVoni L. licmilicus, afl'ected by the moon, 
which was supposed to cause insanity. I. 
lunatico ; S. luiialico ; G. mondsiichtig.) A 
term applied to diseases considered to be under 
the influence of the moon's changes, as epilepsy 
and insanity ; and also to those affected by 
lunatic diseases. 

Also, an insane person ; one affected by Lunacy. 
It has been declared in an Act of rarlianient, 
16, 17 Vic, c. 97, that the term lunatic shall 
mean and include everj- person of unsound mind 
and every person being an idiot. 

Also, rebiting to the moon. 

Xiunat'ica ischu'ria. _(L. hmaticus ; 
Gr. 'icrxoi)piu, suppression of urine.) A sup- 
pression of urine which occurs at monthly in- 

XaU'natismc (L. lima, the moon. F. 
lunatisme.) A synonym of Ophthalmia, period- 

ZiUnatis'inus. (L. hma. F. lunatisme ; 
G. JIoiid.sHchl.) A disease which is afl'ected bj' 
the changes of the moon. 

Also, walking in the sleep during the time the 
moon shines. 

ZiUnd. Sweden, between Lidkoping and 
Skara. An athermal indifferent water, contain- 
ing very small quantities of alkaline, earthy, and 
iron bicarbonates. Used in ana;mia and as a 
tonic in dyspepsia. 

Xiund, Ed'ward. An English surgeon 
now living. 

Zi.'s infla'tor. (L. injlatiis, part, of iujlo, 
to flow into.) An instrument for distending the 
large intestine with air to relieve intestinal ob- 
struction. It consists of a rectum tube connected 
with an air-syringe and having an india-rubber 
ring at its outer end, which can bo firmly pressed 
on the skin around the anus by means of a 
handle, so as to prevent the return of the air 
pumped into the intestine. 

Xiune. (L. luna, the moon.) A fit of in- 

Ziiineblirg'. Germany, in Hanover, on 
the left bank of the Ilmcna. Cold saline waters, 
containing sodium chloride 2.51'692 grammes, 
magnesium sulphate 4'687, potassium sulphate 
3'515, calcium sulphate \'\, eahdum bicarbonate 
•281, and bituminous matter "IGS gramme in 
1000. Used as a bath in scrofulous disorders. 

XiUnel'la. (L. dim. hma, the moon. F. 
lundle ; G. kleiner Mond.) A little moon. 

Also, applied to a collection of pus in the 
anterior chamber of the eye, otherwise called 

liU'nenburg-Ii min'eral spring*. 

United States of .America, Vermont, Essex 
County. A chalybeate spring. 

Xiun^. (Mid. E. lunge; Sax. lunye ; G. 
Lunge; allied to Sax. /Mwyre, quickly, lightly ; 
and to E. lony, which is allied to Gr. t\«xi's, 

Sans, lagliti, light. The term appears to refer 
to the lightness of the organ. F. pounion ; I. 
polmone ; S. pulmon.) One of the respiratory 
organs of air-breathing animals. 

The lungs in man constitute two conical organs 
placed at the sides of the spinal column, and 
with the heart and large vessels which lie be- 
tween them tilling the cavity of the chest. They 
are invested by the pleura?. The right lung 
is divided into three lobes, the left into two. 
The height of the right lung on its outer sur- 
face is 271 mm. in males, 21G mm. in women; 
on the inner surface 162 mm. in men, nim. 
in women. The height of the h ft lung is on its 
outer surfice 298 mm. in men, 230 mm. in 
women ; on its inner surface 17G mm. in men, 
L56 mm. in women. The antero-posterior dia- 
meter of the right lung in men is 203 mm., in 
women 176 mm.; of the left lung 176 mm. in 
men, 162 mm. in women. The transverse dia- 
meter of the right lung at the root is 95 mm. in 
men, and 85 mm. in women ; of the left lung 81 
mm. in males, and 74 mm. in females. The 
transverse diameter of the base of the right lung 
is 135 mm. in men, 122 mm. in women ; of the 
left lung 129 mm. in men, and 108 mm. in 
women. The weight of the lungs containing air 
and blood, as cleanly removed from the body, is 
1740 grammes in males, and about 1023 grammes 
in females; the right lung alone weighing about 
682 grammes in men, and 541 grammes in wo- 
men. The weight of the lungs as compared with 
that of the whole body is about 1 to 40 or 1 to 50. 
The specific gravity of the lungs containing 
some air and blood is from 0*34 to 0'74; freed 
from air, but containing some blood, r045 to 
1-056. The volume of the lungs containing no 
air varies from 793 to 1230 ccm., that of the 
right lung from 516 to 624 cub. cent., that of 
the left from 456 to 585 cub. cent. ; when ex- 
panded with air to the fullest po.ssible extent 
the volume of the right lung amounts to 5157 
cub. cent., and of the left to 4364 dm., or to- 
gether to 9521 ccm. The capacity of the whole 
chest cavity in young soldiers amounts in the 
condition of expiration to 5006 com., and in the 
condition of inspiration to 8007 ccm. These 
measurements and weights are averages. 

The lungs are essentially glands consisting of 
an aggregation of lobules or acini, each com- 
posed of air-cells, air- vesicles, or alveoli in the 
walls of the alveolar passages with their terminal 
infundibula, and having an excretory tube or 
resjiiratory bronchiole, which also contains some 
air-cells; the bronchioles unite to form the 
smallest bronchial tubes, these unite to form 
others still larger in ascending series until one 
bronchus for each lung results; the two bronchi 
join to form the trachea which, after being 
modified as a vocal organ, the larynx, opens into 
the mouth and so into the outer air. The lobules 
are connected with, and at the same time sepa- 
rated from, each other by a layer of connective 
tissue, the interlobular septa. 

The colour of the lungs is pink in infants, but 
in adults is greyer and marbled with black 
pigment. The substance of the lungs is soft, 
spongy, crepitant under pressure, capable of 
floating on water, and very elastic. The super- 
ficial area of the air-vesicles has been calculated 
to be about 90 square metres, or about 100 times 
greater than the surface of the whole body. Tlie 
number of tlie air-vesicles is estimated at 725 
millions. The chemical couiposition of the lungs 


is complex; they contain, in aJdiiiun to the 
tissues, lecithin, inosite, uric acid, guanin, 
xunthin, with various salts and much phosphoric 

In MoUusca the Pulmnnata, represented hj" the 
snail and slug, have a simple type of lung, iu the 
form of a puhiionary sac, situated in the dorsal 
H'gion, and having a rounded external orifice on 
the right side of the body. Tlie roof is formed 
by the mouth, and presents numerous and highly 
vascular ridges ; the lloor is muscular, and over- 
lies the crop and reproductive organs. 

In Pisces there is only one order the members 
of wtiich possess lungs in addition to gills. This 
Order is the Dipnoi, examples of which are 
fiiuiul iu the Lepidosiren, Protopterus, and 
13urrainunda or Ceratudus. Here tlie lung is a 
niodification of the air-bladder of other lishes, 
and consists of a single sac, as in Ceratudus, the 
walls of which present a series ef symmetrical 
pouches, or a double sac, as in Lepidosiren and 
Protopterus, with cellular structure resembling 
that of a reptile. The rudimentary lung in 
Ceratodus has no pulmonary artery, but receives 
branches from the arteria coeliaca. In Lepido- 
siren and Protopterus it is supplied with blood 
by a true pulmonary artery. The pneumatic 
duct opens into the ventral side of the oesopha- 
gus. The lungs in fishes only act periodically, 
or in an auxiliary manner to the gills. 

In Amphibia, as well as in Ophidians and 
Saurians, the lung is a simple or double sac with 
a smooth lining near the termination of the 
trachea, but towards the posterior extremity 
more or less divided into cells. In Ophidia the 
left lung is smaller than the right, or is alto- 
gether atrophied. In the apodal Saurians the 
right lung is smaller and shorter than the left. 
In Chelonians and Crocodiles the sac is branched, 
but the branches terminate in, and are beset 
with, alveoli. 

In Aves the lungs are spongy and dark red. 
They are adherent to the wall of the thorax 
posteriorly, and present the impressions of the 
ribs ; they are only free anteriorly, and the ven- 
tral surface is covered by a pleural portion of the 
peritoneum. The trachea terminates in bronchi, 
which give off brunches, the walls of which are 
alveolated. The lungs of birds are connected 
with tbin-walled sacs which are variously dis- 
tributed in the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis, 
and with the medullary cavities of the long 
bones, which aid in the aeration of the blood 
and contribute to the relatively light bodies of 

In Mammals the general arrangement is the 
same as in man. In many Edentata the lungs 
have no lobes, but as a rule both lungs have 
lobes, the right three or four, and the left only 
two. In Carnivora and Eodentia there is an 
infracardiac lobe, which lies in a special pouch 
of the pleura between the pericardium and the 

!■., abla'tion of. (L. ablatus, part, of 
aufero, to take away.) See L., excision of. 

Ii., ab'scess of. (F. abccs du poumon ; G. 
Lungenabscess, Ltmyengeschtviir.') A circum- 
scribed suppuration in the lung tissue. It is a 
rare event, but may be a result of pneumonia, 
or of pulmonary apoplexy, or of circumscribed 
gangrene ; infective abscesses, generally nu- 
merous and of small size, may be the result of 
pya:uiic or septicajmic contamination. Suppura- 
tion may also occur in the lung by the opeuiug 

of an cmpjema, or of a suppurating bronchial 
gland, into its substance, and so into a bronchial 
tube ; and also by the perforation of an hepatic 
abscess througli the diaphragm and into the 
pulmonary tissue. A pulmonary abscess may 
ojien into a bronchial tube and its contents be 
coughed up, and partial or complete recovery 
may ensue. 

Ii., ab'scess of, perforating-. (L. 
pcrfuro, to bore tluough.) An fmj)3a ma, or an 
abscess of the lung, which opens into a bron- 
chial tube. 

Ii., acini of. (L. acinus, a juicy berry 
with seeds.) Ttic same as L.s, lobules oj. 

Ii., air-cells of. (F. vhicuhs pulmo- 
naircs, (devolve du jjo union ; G. LuiKjotblaachcn, 
Luflzcllen der Lungcn, Lujibliiiclicn der 
Lungen.) The air-cells or alveoli of tlie lung 
are hemispherical, or polygonal, wide-mouthed 
saccules or depressions on the walls of tlie 
iilveolar passages, and the iufundibula. They 
are about 250 fx in diameter, and consist of 
a thin wall of slightly fibrillated connective 
tissue, and a few corpuscles surrounded by 
many, often bifurcated, elastic fibres, with an 
intermixture of non- striped, muscular fibre- 
cells ; they are lined by large, transparent, 
thin, iri'egularly-polj'goual, placoid scales or 
squames, which are probably non-nuileated, 
and by a few small, flat, irregularly-poly- 
gonal nucleated cells lying in groups of two 
or three between the others and in the inter- 
stices of the capillaries. In the walls is a fine 
basket-shaped plexus of capillary blood-vessels 
in single line, lying immediately under the 
epithelial lining, communicating with those of 
neighbouring air-cells and connected on the one 
hand with branches of the pulmonary artery, and 
on the other with branches of the pulmonary vein. 
The epithelial cells are united to each other by 
a cement substance in which are minute stomaia 
which open into a system of lacunar and lymph- 
canaliculi which exists in the walls of the 
air-cells, and from which arise the perivas- 
cular lymphatic vessels which accoaipany the 
pulmonary blood-vessels. The air-cells gene- 
rally contain some leucocytes which carry away, 
through the stomata, into the lymphatics foreign 
bodies, such as carbon particles, mucous cor- 
puscles and other substances which have found 
their way into the air-cells. 

The presence of muscular tissue has of late 
years been doubted by Henle and others. 

Ii., air-sacs of. Same as L., air-cells of. 
Also, Water's term for the L., alveolar pas- 
sages of. 

Ii., air-spaces of, ter'minal. (G. 
terminale Luftruume der Luugeit.) The con- 
tinuation of the respiratory bronchioles in the 
lobules of the lung consisting of the alveolar 
passages and the iufundibula. 

Ii., al'veolar ducts of. Same as L., 
alveolar passages of. 

Ii., al veolar pas'sagres of. (L. alveolus, 
a little trough. G. Alveolengcinge der lungen.) 
Schultze's term for the divisions and sub- 
divisions of the respiratory bronchioles, having 
on their walls the air-cells or alveoli and ter- 
minating in, and giving ofl' laterally, the iu- 
fundibula. Their walls consist of a thin layer 
of connective tissue lined with tesselated, non- 
ciliated epithelium, like that of the air-cells. 
The larger passages contain delicate bundles or 
detached fibres of muscular tissue in their walls. 



Xi., al'veoll of. (L. alveolus, a little 
trough. F. alveoles du pnumon ; G. Lungen- 
alveolen.') Thf same as L., air-cells of. 

"Xm., anse'mia of. ('Ai/ai/uirc, want of 
blood. F. aneiiiie du poumon ; G. Lungen- 
andmie.) General or partial bloodlessncss of 
the lung. The former occurs, as in the tissues, 
generally after hx>morrhage and in anaemia ; it 
also is caused by vesicular emphysema and by 
senile atrophy ; the hitter form i.s produced by 
the blocking, or obstruction, of an artery from 
■without or frum within, as from the pressure of 
a tumour or the existence of an embolus. 

Ii., a'pex of. (L. apex, the summit. F. 
sommet du poumon; G. Luiigenspitze.) The 
blunt, uppermost part of the lung; it extends 
into the root of the neck above the level of the 
first rib. 

Ii., ap'oplexy of. (G. Limgenhlutsturz, 
Lujtgenschliig.) See Pulmonary apoplexy. 

Xi., ar'terles of. (F. arteres du poumon ; 
G. Lungenschlagadern.) The arteries supplying 
the lungs are the pulmonary and the bronchial 

The pulmonary artery enters the lung with 
the bronchi and divides frequently, the smaller 
branches not anastomosing with each other, 
until it ends in small afferent arterioles which 
supply the capillaries of two or three adjacent 

The bronchial arteries accompany the bronchial 
tubes, but do not anastomose with the branches 
of the pulmonary artery ; they are the nutrient 
arteries of the lungs supplying the interlobular 
septa, the bronchi and bronchial tubes, the pul- 
monary pleura, and the bronchial glands ; their 
blood passes chiefly to the bronchial veins, but 
partly to the pulmonary veins, especially that 
from the capillaries of the smallest bronchial 

Jt., atelec'tasls of. (G. Lungensehrump- 
fung.) See Atelectasis and Pulmonary collapse. 

"Xm., atrophy of, senile. (A-rpofina, 
want of nourishment. F. atropine du poumon ; 
G. Lungenatrophie.) Same as Emphysema, 

Ii., base of. (F. base du poumon ; G. 
Grundjldche der Lunge.) The broad, concave, 
semilunar lower surface of the lung which rests 
on the diaphragm. 

Ii., black, of ml'ners. Same as An- 
thracosis pulmonum. 

Ii., bleed'ing: from. (G. Zungenblutting .) 
See Hcemoptysis. 

la., caiclfica'tion of. (L. calx, lime; 
fio, to become.) The deposit of calcareous 
matter in the pulmonary tissue not being calci- 
fied tubercle. In one case the inorganic matter 
consisted of needle-shaped crystals of phosphates 
of calcium and magnesium. 

Ii., cal'culus of. (G. Zungenstein.) See 
Calculus, pulmonary, and C, bronchial. 

Ii., can'cer of. (F. carcinome du pou- 
mon ; G. Zungenkrebs.) Primary cancer of the 
lung is rare ; in much the larger number of cases 
it is a secondary formation following cancer of 
the mammary gland, the bronchial glands or 
other structures; the primary gmwths are 
usually solitary and large, the secondary ones 
numerous and comparatively small. Scirrhous 
cancer is the commonest form, colloid has been 
met with, but epithelioma is exceedingly rare. 
Secondary cancers are first developed in the 
lymphatic glands, but occasional instances have 

occurred of infecting embolism of the branches 
of the pulmonary artery from direct connection 
of a vein with an ulcerating cancer. 

Ii. capacity. See under chief heading. 

Ii., capillaries of. See under Z., air- 
celU of. They are thin- walled and have a 
slight muscular coat. 

Ii., cardiac. (Ka^oia, the heart.) The 
condition seen in Z., hyperamia of, mechanical. 

Ii., carnifica'tion of. (L. caro, flesh; 
fo, to become.) The airless and bloodless con- 
dition of the lung produced by compression, as 
in extreme and long-lasting hydrothorax ; it is 
mouse-coloured and cuts with a firm, drv, 
fleshy surface. It diflers from hepatisation in 
that the air-cells are obliterated by pressure 
and not by the filling up of their cavities with 
an effused product. 

Ii., casea tion of. See Tubercle, casea- 
tion of. 

Jt,, cav'ern In. (L. caverna, a cave. F. 
caverne pulmonaire ; G. Zungenhohle.') A cavity 
produced by the breaking down of tubercle and 
of lung tissue, as in Pulmonary phtldsis, 

Ii., ctaondro'ma of. (Xdi/Ofjos, carti- 
lage.) A cartilaginous tumour sometimes found 
arising from a bronchial cartilage. 

Ii., cirrbo'sis of. See Cirrhosis of lung. 

Ii., collapse of. See Fulmonary col- 
lapse, and Atelectasis. 

Ii., collier's. The lung of Anthracosis 

Ii., compres'sion of. (L. compressus, 
part, of comprimo, to press together. G. Zungen- 
zusammendriickung .) The reduction in volume 
of the lung from the pressure of air or fluid in 
the pleural sac, or of a mediastinal tumour, or of 
an abdominal swelling. 

Ii., concre'tions in. (L. concretus, part, 
of concresco, to grow together.) See Calculus, 
bronchial, and C, pulmonary . 

Ii., condensa'tion of. (L. condense, to 
make dense.) Solidification of lung tissue, either 
from want of expansion of the air-cells, as in 
atelectasis or in pulmonary collapse, or from 
morbid infiltrations and deposits, as in the he- 
patisation of pneumonia. 

Ii., congres'tlon of. (L. congestus, a 
bringing together.) Sec Z., hypcreemia of. 

Ii., congestion of, active. See Z., 
hypermmia of active. 

X., congestion of, bypostat'ic. See 
Z., hyperccmia of , passive ; also see I^neumouia, 

X., congestion of, mechanical. See 
Z., hypevfcmia of, mechanical. 

ii., congestion of, passive. See Z., 
hyperecmia of, passive. 

Ii., consolida tion of. See Z., conderi' 
sation of. 

Ii., consump'tion of. (L. consumo, to 
waste away. G. Zungenschwindsucht, Zungen- 
sucht.) Same as Phthisis, pulmonary. 

Ii., contu'sion of. (L. contusus, part, of 
contundo, to bruise.) Bruising of the lung from 
a blow on the chest accompanied or not by frac- 
ture of the ribs. There is oppression in the 
breathing of a paroxysmal character, and, after a 
time, expectoration of dark, viscid blood. The 
ecch3'mosed part may be detected by dulness on 
pcrcus.-^ioii and <-narse crepitation on auscultation. 

X., degeneration ot, amyloid. (L. 
amylum, starch ; Gr. tioov, form.) Amyloid, 
albuminoid, or lardaceous degeneration rarely 


affects the tissue of the lung, and when it does it 
chiefly attacks the walls of tlie bldod-vessi'ls. 

Ii., degrenera'tlon of, fatty. The con- 
dition wliicli occurs iu atrophous emphysema of 
the lung. 

Im., degrenera'tlon of, fi'broid. See 
Cirrhosis of Uokj. 

Ii., degrenera'tlon of, plgr'mentary. 
(L. piijmvHtnm, paint.) The condition which 
occurs in Anthi acosis pulmoHHm, Z., induration 
of, brown, and Z., melanosarcoma of. 

Xi., devel'opment of. The lungs arise, 
behind the tiflh visceral cleft, from a constriction 
of the ventral wall of the primitive cesophagus, 
from which it graduallj' becomes separated as a 
diverticulum, consisting in its outer part of 
niesoblast and lined by hypoblast continuous 
with that of the alimentary canal. The hinder 
end of the bud speedily enlarges and soon 
divides into two lobes or sacs which grow and 
ramify like branched tubular glands. They 
branch again and again to form the bronchial 
tubes and the alveolar passages and air-cells. 

According to some observers the diverticulum 
is double from the tii-st. 

Ii.s, elastic ten'slon of. See L.s, 
tension of, elastic. 

]L., em'bolisra of. ('£/u/3o'X(a-juci, a 
patch.) The formation of an embolus in a 
branch of the pulmonary artery. It may produce 
sudden death bj' depriving the right ventricle of 
its proper blood-supply, and so arresting the 
action of (he medulla oblongata ; or it may cause 
ansemia of some part of the lung; or it may 
result in hannorrhagic infarction. 

Jt.f em'bollsm of, fat. ('Eju/3o\icrjua.) 
An engorgement of some of the pulmonary 
capillaries and the branches of the pulmonary 
artery by fatty matter, which has found its way 
into the veins from a fracture of bone which has 
broken up the marrow, or from a wound with 
much injury to the subcutaneous fat. It may 
be accompanied by congestion or by oedema. 

Ii., embolism of, oil. Same as Z., em- 
bolism of, fat. 

It., empbyse'ma of. See the subhead- 
ings of Emphysema. 

Ii., engrorge'ment of. (F. engorger, to 
be choked up.) Same as Z., hypercemia of. 

Ii., eryslp'elas of. See Fneumonia, 

Zm., excis'ion of. (L. excido, to cut out.) 
The removal of the whole or part of a lung. 
Total excision has been successfully accom- 
plished in the dog, and it has been proposed to 
remove the tubercular part of a lung. The 
removal of the prolapsed part of a lung result- 
ing from a wound of the thorax has been suc- 
cessfully accomplished. 

Ii.s, excre'tion of \ira'ter by. The 
amount of watery vapour given otf by the lungs 
in twenty-four hours has been estimated by 
Valentin to amount to 288 grammes with shal- 
low breathing, and 424'8 grammes with deep 

Ii., exter'nal. Huxley's term for the 
pulmonary sac of some Mollusca. 

Ii. fe'ver. (G. Limgenfieber.') A term 
for a feverish cold; and also for inflammation of 
the lungs. 

Ii., fibro'sis of. See Phthisis, fibroid, 
and Cirrhosis of lung. 

Ii., fis'sures of. See Fissures of lung. 
It., fis'tula of. (L. fistula, a pipe. G. 

Ltmgeiifistel.) A sinus opening externally and 
communicating with a bronchial tube internally. 
It may be the result of external injury, or of 
abscess of the lung, or of empyema. 

Ii. flow'er. The Geiifiana pnetcmonanthe^ 

K.s, foe'tal. (L. fwtus, offspring.) The 
lungs of the fcctus are small, airless, compact 
and heavj', yellowish pink in colour, and lying 
at the back of the thorax ; they weigh about 1'5 
ounces, and have a specific gravity of I'OoCi. At 
birth they expand on resjjiration and assume 
the adult characters. 

Ii., for'elg-n bod'les In. Bullets or parts 
of bullets, or pieces of clothing, may be carried 
into the lung by a gunshot wound, and may be- 
come encysted or may produce suppuration. 

Ii.s, func'tion of. See Respiration. 

Ii., ^aLngrene of. {Tuyyp(uvu,a.n eating 
sore which ends in mortification. V. gangrene 
du po union ; G. Lungenhrand, Lungengangrun.') 
Death of some considerable part of the lung 
tissue, first distinctly recognised by Laennec. In 
the greater number of cases it is the result of a 
septic inflammation, but it may occur in the 
course of ordinary pneumonia in old persons 
and in those debilitated by previous disease or 
by alcoholic excess ; or when there is consider- 
able hajmorrhagic infarctus, or from a violent 
contusion. The septic inflammation may be set 
up directly, as when a foreign body in a bronchial 
tube putrefies, or the secretions in a dilated 
bronchial tube decompose, or the product of a foul 
suppuration enters the air-passages ; or it may be 
set up indirectly, as by transfer of the infective 
matter through the pulmonary artery from an 
ulcerating cardiac valve or an unhealthy ulcera- 
tion, especially of bone. The olden division into 
the circumscribed and the diff'use forms is not 
supported by some recent writers. The necrosed 
lung is dirty greenish-brown or blackish in 
colour, often filthily stinking, very soft and 
pulpy, and generally surrounded by an inflam- 
matory zone of hepatised lung. There is great 
and severe constitutional disturbance with a very 
weak and quick pulse, and abundant foetid ex- 
pectoration; the sputum generally speedily sepa- 
rates into three layers ; the upper one frothy, 
the middle one liquid, and the lower one con- 
taining sedimentary masses. The physical signs 
are at first dulness on percussion and a crepitant 
rale followed by amphoric breathing and metallic 

Ii. gymnas'tlcs. (TviivamiKi), from 
yvfxvaX^w, to train naked ; to exercise.) The 
exercise of the respiratory powers in a regular 
and orderly manner for the prevention or cure of 
disease. It may be accomplished by the practice 
of mountain climbing, rowing, and similar occu- 
pations, by directing a certain number of respi- 
rations to be taken per minute, and by permitting 
patients to carry a stick laid across the back and 
under the arms, its extremities being grasped by 
the hands. 

Ii., liae'morrhag-e from. (G. Lungen- 
blutung.) See Ha-iiiuptysis. 

X., hae'morrhag-e in'to. See Pulmonary 

Ii., taepatisa'tion of. See Hepatisation 
and Fneumonia. 

Ii., hernia of. (L. hernia, a rupture. F. 
hernie du poumon ; G. Lungenbruch.) I'rotru- 
sion of a part of the lung, from the interior of 
the thorax, under the skin. It forms a somewhat 
resonant tumour, crepitating when compressed, 


and giving a fine crackling sound to the ear. It 
may occur under the cicatrix of a wound of the 
thoracic parietes, or after fractured ribs, or from 
rupture of the intercostal structures during 
violent straining. 

Ii., bydat'ids of. ('Toa-ris, a watery 
vesicle.) The cj'stic larval condition of the 
Tania eihinococcus ; usually found at the base 
of the right lung, having probably migrated 
from tlie liver. They may attain a large size 
and produce during their growth attacks of haj- 
muptyjis, cough, and expecturation ; they may 
die and may contract with or without expulsion 
of their contents ; or they may produce suppura- 
tion ; the)' ma)' cause death by sutlocation from 
sudden evacuation into the bronchial tubes, or 
they may cause empyema from rupture into the 
pleural cavity. There will be noted dulness on 
percussion over the site, absence of respiratory 
sound and of vocal fremitus, bulging of the 
intercostal spaces may be present, and possibly 
fluctuation and the hydatid fremitus. 

The cy.-tic larva of I'ciitastoma have been 
found in the lung. 

Ii., Iiyperse'inla of. ("T-n-ip, above; 
aifia, blood.) An abnormal quantity of blood 
in, or a congestion of, the lung. 

Jt., hyperae'mia of, active. ('Y-Trtyo; 
nl/ia.) Active congestion of the lungs occuis at 
the commencing stage of pneumonia, and is tem- 
porary in character, passing to the state of in- 
riammation or righting itself very rapidly. It 
nuiy be produced by the sauie intiuenees as pneu- 
monia, or may be caused by a drunken tit, or by 
severe or sudden muscular exertion, or by violent 
cough; it may also result from sudden -stoppage 
of the menstrual tiow. It seldom gives rise to 
a^dema, but there may be suiall crepitation, 
dys])ncBa, and some dulness on percussion, with 
rusty expectoration. 

Ii., byperae'iuia of, collateral. 
i^Xirip ; «I/u« ; L. collatero, to admit on both 
sides.) The form of active pulmonary conges- 
tion which is produced, for instance, when a 
large quantity of ice-cold water is drunk by a 
person when heated. The immediate result is 
thought to be contraction of the arteries of the 
neighbouring organs, liver, spleen, and others, 
which raises the blood -pressure and produces 
the collateral pulmonary hyperemia. 

Ii., byperae'iuia of, bypostat'ic. 
('Yirtp ; al/ua ; viroaTaaLi, a standing under.) 
Same as L., hyperemia of,2}assive. 

Ii., byperse'niia of, mecban'ical. 
('Ttt/p; alpa.) Congestion of the lung pro- 
duced by some mechanical obstruction to the 
return of the blood to the heart, which is 
most frequently mitral stenosis or regurgitation, 
but may be an imperfect action of a dilated 
left venti-icle the result of aortic disease. The 
whole of both lungs is affected, the pulmonary 
capillaries become longer and tortuous, the con- 
nective tissue develops, the small bronchial tubes 
become afl'ected, the muscular tissue of the in- 
fundibula is hypertrophied, and pulmonary 
apoplexy or brown indunttion ensues. There is 
{Treat oppression about the epigastrium, much 
(Ivspnoca, especially on exertion, tniublesoiuc^ 
cough with often bloody expectoration, a small 
quick ])ulse, and more or less lividity of lips. 
Fine crepitant rales are to be lieard, and large 
moist rules when intercurrent bronchitis, which 
is common, occurs. 

Ii., byperse'mia of, passive. {^Yirif), 

alfxd ; L. passh'KS, suffering.) A congestion of 
the pulmonary capillaries from defect of circu- 
latory power, as in exhausting fevers and other 
diseases, in old age, and in the last days of life, 
especially if conjoined with a disordered condi- 
tion of blood, as in uraemia and jaundice ; it is 
generally accompanied by oedema. It occurs in 
the most dependent part of the lung, which 
is of a dark- blue colour from engorgement and 
staining with blood, and is somewhat softened. 
It produces quick and shallow breathing, lividity 
of the surface and depression. There is dullness 
on percussion and a moist crepitant rale on 
auscultation. If the congestion continue it may 
result in Fneumotiia, hypostatic. 

Ii., byper' trophy of. ('Y-ttep, above ; 
Tpocp^, nourishment.) Enlargement of a lung 
from the growth of its tissue to compensate for 
the congenital absence or the morbid abolition of 
a part of its fellow lung. Its structure is gene- 
rally firmer than ordinaiy, and its blood supply 
is greater. 

Ii., bypos'tasis of. Same as F/ieuinonia, 

Ii., induration of, bro\<rn. (Late L. 
induro, to harden.) A condition in which the 
lung tissue becomes dark-yellow or brown, firm, 
heavy, granular, and inelastic from continued 
mechanical hypera;mia caused by mitral- valve 
disease ; the walls of the air-cells are thickened 
and much pigment of the nature of hrematoidin 
is present in the connective-tissue corpuscles, the 
capiUaries become tortuous and dilated, and the 
epithelial cells become swollen, numerous and 

Ii., induration of, i'ron g-rey. (I.ate 
L. itiduro.) Addison's name for the condition 
existing in Cirrhosis of the lioiy. 

Ii., induration of, slate- coloured. 
(Late L. induro. ¥. induration ardoisic dit 
poumon ; G. schiefriye Lnnyoihdrtung .) Cru- 
veilhier's term for the condition observed in 
Cirrhosis of lung. 

Ii., infarc tus of, baemorrbagr'ic. See 
Infarctus, hccmorrhagic, and Pulmonary apo- 

Ii., Infiltra'tion of, ca'seous. (F. infil- 
^re?', to creep in ; L. e«««M«, cheese.) The presence 
of tubercle which has undergone Caseation. 

Ii., infiltration of, melanotic. (F. 
infiltrer ; Gr. ^x(.\iw^l\(TL';., a becoming black.) 
The same as A.nthracosis pulmonum. 

Ii., infiltra'tion of, purulent. (F. 
infiltrer ; L. purulentiis, festering.) Same as 
Hepatisatiou, grey. 

It,, Inflamma'tion of. (Gr. Zungenent- 
ziindung.) See Fnetimonia. 

Ii., infla'tlon of. (L. inflatio, a blowing 
up.) A s_\ nonym of Emphysoua, vesicular, acute. 
Also, a term used synonymously with Emphy- 
sema of lung. 

Also, the expansion of the lungs with air, as in 
the first process of respiration, or in the produc- 
tion of artificial respiration. 

Ii., infundib'ula of. (L. infundibulum, 
a funnel. F. infuttdihula pulmonaires, cnton- 
noirs, llo.ssignol ; G. Iit/iiiidihuluni dcr Lnngrn, 
Endsiickchcn dcr Lu)iy< ii, L/in/uutrichtcr.) The 
enlarged funnel-shaped ends of the divisions of 
the alveolar passages. They have the same 
structure as the air-cells whieli project from the 
walls of the alveolar passages. 

The term has also been used as a synonym of 
E., alveolar passages of. 


Xi., Intercel'Iular pas'sagres of. 

llainey's term fur tlu; L., alveolar pasxaycs of. 
It., ligr'ament of, broad. (G. Lungen- 

hand.) '1 ho l.ujamfntum pulmonis. 

Ii.s, lobes of. (G. Lu)iyi'»Jliigcl, Lungen- 
lappot.) The subdivisions of the lungs in 
Mammals separated by tlie fissures. In man 
there are three lobes in the right and two in the 
left lung. Their number and arrang ment depend 
upon the mode of division of the bronelii. These 
divisions have been named eparterial and hypar- 
terial, according as the)- lie above or below the 
pulmonary artery. The hyparterial bronchial 
-system is universally present on both sides. Tlie 
eparterial system is represented on both sides in 
some animals, as the horse, elephant, and seal. 
It has a representative on the right side only in 
man, monkevs, rodents, bats, and many other 
animals. There is no eparterial bronchus in 
some whales and the porcui)ine. 

Ii., lobular pas'sagres of. Todd's term 
for the i., alveolar passages of. 

It., lob'ules of. (Dim. from Gr. XofSo^, 
the lower part of the ear. F. lobules pulmo- 
naires ; G. Lungenliippchen, Lungenbiiitter.) 
Tlie primary unit of the lungs. It is a more or 
less conical structure composed of air-cells, in- 
fundibula, and alveolar passages converging to a 
bronchiole which forms its apex. The lobules 
are held together and separated by connective 
tissue and blood-vessels. The margins of the 
lobules are mapped out on the surface of the 
lungs by dark lines of pigment. They vary 
much in size. 

According to Kainey the lobules consist of 
four to nine subdivisions of a bronchial tube with 
their terminal intercellular passages and the air- 

Z>., lobulet'tes of. See Lobulette. 

la., lympbangl'tis of. See Lymphan- 
ffilis, 'pi(lmo)uiry. 

Zi.s, lymphatics of. (F. lymphattques 
des poumons ; G. Lymphgefdsse der Lnnyen.) 
The lymphatics of the lung arise in the lacunar 
spaces, canaliculi, and lymphoid tissue of the 
walls of the air-cells, of the subpleural tissue, and 
of the bronchial tubes ; the small vessels join to 
form three sets of lymphatics, perivascular, peri- 
bronchial, and subpleural, all opening into the 
bronchial glands. According to Sappey they 
arise from a tine plexus. 

Ii., lympbatics of, peribroncb'ial. 
{Wtpi, around, /3(io'yx'"i the bronchial tubes.) 
The lymphatics, originating in the lacunae and 
canaliculi of the connective tissue of the mucous 
lining of the bronchial tubes and forming there 
a fine plexus, branches from which, after a short 
course, perforate the muscular and fibro-carti- 
laginous tissues, form another plexus, and finally 
open into the bronchial glands. The peri- 
bronchial lymphatics are much larger and more 
developed in the child than in the adult. 

Ii., lympbat'ics of, perivascular. 
{Tltpi; L. vasculion, a small vessel.) The 
lymphatics originating in the larunse and canali- 
culi of the walls of the air-cells, forming a plexus 
round or along the branches of the pulmonary 
vessels, and finally opening into the bronchial 
glands. According to Sappey they arise in a fine 
plexus in the air-cells, and there form two sets; 
one joining the bronchial vessels, the other 
forming the trunks which ramify on the surface 
of the lungs. 

Xi., lympbat'ics of, subpleu'ral. (L. 

.s(^/;, under ; pleura.) The lymjiliatics originat- 
ing in the huuma) and canaliculi of the sul)- 
pleiiral connective tissue and of the walls of the 
superficial air-cells ; they ultimately open into 
the bronchial glands. These vessels are believed 
by Sappey not to belong to the pleural tissue, 
but to the ]iulni()nary parenchyma. 

It., malforma'tions of. (L. mains, bad ; 
forma, sha[)e.) Tlie lungs may be wanting in a 
lobe, or thcv may possess more lobes than 
natural; or the wlmle of a lung may be absent. 

Xi., malposit'ion of. {\j.malus ; posilio, 
a placing.) An alteration of the natural position 
of the lung from the pressure of a pleural eil'u- 
sion, or of a tumour, or by its escape as a hernia 
from its place. 

Ii.,iuelanosarco'ma of. Only secondary 
deposits have occasionally been observed. 

Xi., melanosis of. {MtXavuxrii, a be- 
coming black.) See L., melanosis of, spurious, 
and L., melanosarcoma of. 

1*., melano'sis of, spu'rious. (MtXa- 
i/ttJCTi?; L. spuriiis, false.) Same as Anthracosis 

Xi., myco'sis of. See Pneumo-mycosis. 

Xi., nerves of. These are derived in part 
from the vagus, in part from the sympathetic 
nerve, and in part from the anterior and pos- 
terior pulmonary plexuses. They accompany 
the bronchi and their subdivisions lying external 
to the cartilaginous plates, and are distributed to 
the bronchial muscle, the blood-vessels, and the 
mucous glands. They contain both meduUated 
and non-medullated fibres and many small 
ganglia. Their ultimate distribution is not 
accurately known ; most, doubtless, go to the 
musculature of the bronchial tubes. 

Xi., oede'ma of. {Oloyi/j.a, a swelling. F. 
oedhne du poumon ; G. Lungenodem.) An effu- 
sion of serous fluid into the air-eells and the 
pulmonary tissue. It may be a result of con- 
gestion and may occur in the course of any 
general anasarca. It may end in consolida- 
tion of the lung tissue or in collapse. Small, 
bubbling crepitation is heard, but there is very 
slight dulness ; frequent, difficult cough, frothy, 
serous expectoration, shortness of breath, and 
more or less lividity efface are present. The lung 
tissue is pale and heavy, and fluid exudes from it. 

Xi., cede'ma of, brown. Same as L., 
iiiduraliou of, brown. 

Xi., os'teo-sarco'ma of. (Oo-xt'o/;, a 
bone; o-ap/cw/ua, a fleshy excrescence.) Secon- 
dary osteo-sarcoma has heen noticed, originating 
in the bronchial cartilages. 

Xi., par'asites of. The larval hydatid of 
Teenia echinococcus, the Filaria bronehialis, and 
the Cysticereus cellulosce ; the Strongylus lonyi- 
vaginatus, and the Fentastoma denticulatum 
have each been noticed once ; and Monas lens 
and a Cercomonas have been found in gangrenous 
sputa. See also Gregarinosis pulmonam. 

The vegetable parasites are the various species 
of Bacterium and Bacillus, Sarcina, the Actino- 
myces, and some Hyphomycetes, as Aspergillus 
and Oidium. 

Ii., perfora'tion of. (L. perforo, to bore 
through.) The penetration of the substance of 
the lung from its outer surface, as by a cutting 
instrument or a gunshot wound or a broken rib, 
by an empyema, or an hepatic abscess ; or its 
perforation from within, as by the extension of 
a phthisical cavity or a cancerous ulceration. 

Ii,, plgrmenta'tion of. (L. pigmentum, 


paint.) The presence of foroij^n eoioured rrmtter 
in the lung: tissue acquired by tlie exercise of 
the respiratory function after birth. Tlie aiiKiimt 
increases as aj?e advances and in projiortion to 
the exposure to contaminated air, such as tliat 
containing' eoal or otlua- dust. The solid sul)- 
stances, chietly carbon, lloatin;^ in the air are 
taken into the broncliial passages with each in- 
spiration, most of tliem are picked up by the 
mucous corpuscles and expectorated ; but many 
penetrate into the air-cells whence they are made 
to pass through the stoinata into the connective- 
tissue cells, where they remain, and into the 
leucocytes in the lymph- spaces of the walls of 
the air-cells, and by them are carried to the 
bronchial glands, where they are deposited. The 
pigment granules lie free in the tissues or are 
enclosed in rounded or fusiform or stellate cells. 
See Anthracosis ptdnionum and Pneumo-eoniosis. 
By some it is believed that much of the pig- 
ment is derived from the blood. 

Ii., pro'lapse of. (L. prolapstis, part, of 
prolabor, to slip forwards. G. Lung envorf all.) 
The form of L., Iur)iia of, which immediately 
follows a penetrating wound of the chest. 

Ii. proof. See Docimasia pulmonton. 

Ii., resection of. (L. reseco, to cut off.) 
Same as L., excision of. 

Ii., root of. The attached part of the 
lung situated somewhat above the middle of the 
inner surface near to its posterior edge. It 
consists of the bronchus, the pulmonary arteries 
and veins, the bronchial arteries and veins, 
lymphatic vessels and glands, the pulmonary 
plexus^of nerves, and connective tissue, enclosed 
in a reflection of the pleura. 

Ii., rupture of. (L. rujytus, part, of 
rumpo, to break.) A tearing of the substance 
of the lung usually accompanied by laceration of 
the pleural surface caused by violent compression 
of the chest. Death from hemorrhage is fre- 
quent. Rupture of the pulmonary tissue may 
occur in whooping-cough and in great straining, 
as in labour. 

Ii., sarco'ma of. (Sripg, flesh.) The 
several varieties of sarcoma have been found as 
secondarv tumours in the lung. 

Ii., sclerosis of. (S^KXiipoKTi?, hardne-^is.) 
The condition of tlie organ in £., hypcroemia of, 

Im,, spasm of. (G. LimgenJcrampf.) A 
term for Anthma. 

Ii., splenisa'tion of. (^irXriv, the spleen.) 
A condition in which the lung is so dense that it 
sinks in water, and cuts with a smooth and fleshy 
surface. It is seen in cases of cardiac valvular 
lesions when there has been so much passive 
hyperemia of the lung with oedema that the 
capillaries have become blocked and the air-cells 
almost filled with semi-solid exudation, consist- 
ing of leueocytes and red blood-corpuscles. 

Ii. stones. See FnlmoHari/ calculi. 

Ii., suppuration of, diffused. (L. 
suppuro, to collect matter.) Same as Ucjjatisa- 
tion, urci/. 

ii., syph'ills of. (G. Zungenhistseuche.) 
Syphilitic disease of the lung is uncommon, but 
it a])pcars certain tliat not only may gummatu 
appear as a result of congenital syphilis, but 
that acquired syphilis may result in structural 
changes resembling of chronic interstitial 
pneumonia chietly occurring in the lower parts 
of tlie lung, commencing in a gumma, or in peri- 
bronchitis with ulceration of the air-passages, 

or in a thickened patch of the pleura, and 
presenting the usual symptoms of phthisis with 
an Tinusiial amount of ha"nioj)t} sis. It not 
infreijuently results in gangrene and produces 
much scarring and contraction of lung tissue. 

In the congenital form similar conditions may 
arise, and also a pale, tough form of hepatisation 
with obliteration of the caiiillaries and rilling up 
of the air-cells from disintegrated substance and 
thickening of their walls. 

Ii., ten'sion of, elas'tie. (L. ten.nts, 
part, of tciido,io stretch.) The pressure exerted 
by the L. tonus in re.-iisting the distension of 
the lungs by the atmo.spheric pressure. 

Ii., ten'sion of, residual. (L. tensu.s ; 
residuus, that is left behind.) The same as L., 
tension of, clastic. 

Ii. test. (G. Lungcnprohe.) See Doci- 
masia pulmonuM hydrostatica and D. pulnwnmn 

Ii. test'er. A cylindrical bag of india- 
rubber so arranged as to measure the quantity of 
expired air. 

Ii. to'nus. (T0K09, that by which a thing 
is stretched.) The resistance offered by the 
lungs to distension of their air-vesicles. It is 
j)artly due to elasticity and partly to the un- 
striated muscular fibres which pervade the lungs 
and are under the influence of the vagus. 

Ii.s, traction of, elas'tie. (L. tractus, 
part, of traho, to draw. G. clastischer Zug der 
Lungen.) The influence of the L. tonus in con- 
tracting the lungs and so exerting an auxiliary 
influence in the dilatation of the cavities of the 

Ii., tuberculo'sis of. See Fhthisis, 
tttbcrcular, and Tuberculosis. 

Ii., ul'cer of. (G. Lungengcschiir.) A 
cavity in the lung, as in pulmonary phthisis. 

ii., u'tricles of. (L. utriculus, a small 
skin-bag.) The L., air-cells of. 

X.s, veins of. The veins of the lungs are 
the pulmonary and bronchial veins. 

The pulmonary vein collects the blood from 
the capillaries of the air-cells, commencing by 
efferent twigs arising generally from the opposite 
side to the aff'erent arterioles ; they form twigs 
which anastomose with each other, and unite to 
form the branches of the Fulmonarg rein. 

The bronchial veins collect the blood from the 
greater part of the capillaries supplied by the 
bronchial arteries, the remainder goes to branches 
of the pulmonary vein ; the twigs unite to form 
the branches of the Bronchial veins. 

Ii., ve'sicles of. (L. vesicula, a little 
blister. F. resicules pulmonaires ; G. Lu)igen- 
bldschen.) The same as L., air-cells of. 

Ii.s, vol'ume of. See under chief heading. 

Ii., vom'ica of. See Vomica. 

Ii. ivorm. The Filaria bronchiaUs. 

Ii.-'wort. See Lungwort. 

Ii., -wounds of. Wounds of the lung may 
be produced by a fractured rib or by a stab or a 
gunshot wound ; the latter having a direct com- 
munication with the outer air, are more likely to 
1)0 accompanied by suppuration or septicaimie 

Xiung''wort. (G. Lungenhraut.) The 
Sticta pulnionaeea. 

Also, the plants of the Genus Puhnonaria. 

Ii., com'mon. (F. pulmonaire ; G. 
IjUngenkraut.) Th(^ Fulmonaria officinalis. 

Ii., co-w's. The Verhascum thapsus and 
the V. nigrum. 


J,., gol'den. The Hieracium murorum. 
Jm., spot'ted. (F. pidmonaire ojjicinale, 
sauge de Jerusalem.) The I'ulmonaria officinalis, 
or jeiusiiloin sage. 

Jm., stic'ta. The Sticta pulmonacea. 
Jm., tree. (F. lichen pulmonaire.) The 
Sticta pulmonacea. 

IiU'niform. (Ti. lunn, the moon; forma, 
shape.) Moiin-shapeil ; (irbicuhir. 

IiU'nula.. (L. lunula, a crescent ; dim. of 
Uoia, the moon. F. lunule; Q. Nageljleck.) A 
crescent-shaped object. 

Also, the affection of the cornea called Omjx. 
I>. lacrima'lis. (L. lacrima, a tear.) A 
thin, curved portion of bone situated between 
the posterior margin of the nasal duct and the 
anterior margin of the antrum of Highmore, 

Ii. of nail. (F. lunule de I'ongle ; G. 
Mondchen des Nagels.) The crescentic white 
mark near the root of certain of the nails of the 
fingers. According to Toldt it is due to a 
thickened condition and a uniform distribution 
of the cells of the rete Malpighii. 

Ii. of sbell. An excavation on the dorsal 
edge of each valve of the shell of the equivalved 

X. of sigr'nioid valves. The thin, cres- 
centic portion on each side of the nodule of 
Arantius, adjoining the free margin of the sigmoid 
valves of the heart. 

]L. scap'ulae. (L. scapula, the shoulder- 
blade.) The suprascapular notch. 

Im. un'g'uis. (L. unguis, a nail.) See Z. 
of nail. 

XiU'nulse. Nominative plural of Lunula. 
If. of Cianuz'zi. Same as Gianuzzi, 
crescents of. 

Ii. of semilu'nar valves. Same as 1. 
of sigmoid valves. 

IiU'nular. (L. hmula. F. lunule; S. 
hoiulado ; G. halhnwndformig .) Belonging to, 
or like, a small half-moon ; crescent-shaped. A 
diminutive of Lunate. 
ZiU'nulate. Same as Lunular, 
XiU'nule. Same as Lunula. 
XiU nulet;. (L. lunula, a crescent.) A 
term for a small crescent-shaped spot on the 
elytron or other part of an insect which differs in 
colour from the neighbouring structures. 

Xiupama'ric ac'id. (Lupulus ; L. 

amarus, bitter. F. acide amere du Houhlon ; G. 
Hopfenbittersdure.) C32H50O,, Lermer ; C29H4g 
0|o, Issleib. A bitter principle obtained from 
lupulin by Lermer. It forms large white 
rhombic crj'stals, becoming yellow on exposure, 
insoluble in water, but soluble in ether, alcohol, 
chloroform, and oil of turpentine. It has a 
bitter aromatic taste. Dilute sulphuric acid 
splits it into Lupuliretin, and Lupulinic acid. 

XiU'panin. C15H25N2O. A bitter alkaloid 
obtained by Hagen from the seeds of Lupinus 
angustifolius. It is of the consistence of honey, 
and is bright-yellow in colour with a green 
fluorescence. It takes the place of Lupinin. 

Iiupa'ria. (L. lupus, a wolf.) An old 
term for the Aconitum lycoctonum. 

IiU'pia. (F. loupe.) The term used in 
Cullen's nosology for an encysted tumour or 

Ii. junctu'rae. (L. junctus, ]omeA..) A 
synonym of Spi>ia ventosa. 

IiU'piforin. (L. lupus, a wolf; forma, 
shape.) Like to Lupus, 

IiUpig-'enin. CnHiaOo- A yellowish 

powder, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, 
obtained, along with dextrose, from the glycoside 
lupinin by the action of dilute acids. 

XiU'pine. 'I'he plants of the Genus Lupinus. 
Ii. fly. The Anthomyia funesta, Kiilin, 
the larva of which is very destructive to young 
lupine plants. 

Ii., 'White. The Lupinus albus. 
Ii., \irild. The I^upinns rarius. 
Ziu'pinin. C29H3j(),f,+7H20. A glycoside 
obtained by Schulze and ISarbieri from the yellow 
lupine seeds; it crystallises in slender yellowi-ih- 
white needles, and on being boiled with dilute 
acids yields sugar and lupigenin. 

Xili'pinine. C2iH4o^202- -An alkaloid 
obtained from the seeds of the yellow lupine. It 
forms colourless rhombic prisms, with bitter taste 
and agreeable smell. It melts at 67° C. It has 
been proposed as a substitute for quinine in 
intermittent fevers. 

XaUpinotOX'in. (L. lupinus, a lupin; 
Gr. To^LKou, poison for smearing arrows with.) 
Arnold's term for a brown, resinous, aromatic 
substance obtained by him from the seeds of 
Lupinus albus. It produces marked poisonous 
symptoms in small doses. It is a compound. 

XiUpi'nuS. (L. lupinus, a lupine. F. 
Itipin ; G. Lupine, Feigbohne.) A Genus of the 
Nat. Order Leguminosce. 

Ii. albus, Linn. (L. albus, white. F. 
lupin blanc ; I. lupino; S. altramuz.) The 
white lupine. Seeds contain Lupinotozin, and 
are said to be emmenagogue and vermifuge. 
They are roasted and used as a substitute for 
coffee. The seeds are, when eaten largely, poiso- 
nous, and produce in animals fed on them a fatal 
jaundice similar to the jaundice of phosphorus 

It foiTOS one of the meals constituting the 
Farincc resolventcs. 

Ii. angrustifo'lius, Linn. (L. angustus, 
narrow ; fo/ixm, a leaf.) Used as L. albus. 

Ii. tairsu'tus, Linn. (L. hirsutus, bristly.) 
Used as L. albus, 

Ii. lu'teus, Linn. (L. lutens, yellow.) 
Used as L. albus. 

Ii. sati'vus. (L. sativus, that is sown.) 
The L. albus. 

Ii. sylves'tris, Lamb. (L. sylvestris, 
belonging to a wood.) The L. varius. 

Ii. ter'mis, Forsk. Hab. Abyssinia. The 
honey obtained by bees from its flowers is very 
bitter and uneatable. Seeds eaten as L. albus. 
Ii. va'rlus, Linn. (L. varius, parti- 
coloured.) Hab. Spain. Seeds bitterish. Used 
as food. 

IiUpiolOg''ia. (Lupia ; Gr. \070s, a 
discourse.) A term denoting the knowledge of 
encysted tumours or wens. 

Xiu'poid. {Lupus ; Gr. tWos, form.) Re- 
sembling the disease Lupus. 

Ii. ul'cer. See Ulcer, lupoid. 
Ii. yaws. See Taws, lupoid. 
XiU'potome. {Lupus ; Gr. to/i>5, section.) 
An instrument devised by Pick, of Vienna, for 
the treatment of lupus by tine scarification. It 
consists of five thin, pointed, double-bladed, 
small knives, arranged in a parallel line at 
about a sixteenth of an inch from each other. 
IiU'poUS. Resembling the disease Lupus. 

Ii. ul'cer. See Ulcer, lupous. 
Ziu'pulin. See Lupulinum. 
Ii., flu id ex'tract of. The Extractum 


Xi., oleores'ln of. The Oleoresina lu- 

XiUpuli'na. The former name of Lupnli- 

liU'pulilie. Same as Lupamaric acid. 

Also, resembling a bunch of hops. 

ZiUpulin'ic. {Ltipulus.) Kelating to tlie 

hop, J.llplllKX. 

It. acid. (G. Lupidinsilure.) CigTIgoOig 
A product along with Lupuliretin of the action 
of dilute sul[)liuric acid on Lttpamaric acid. 

Im. grlands. The same as LnpuHnvm. 
Iiupulinum, 13. 1'h., U.S. Ph. {Lupnlus. 
F. liipiilii/c ; (i. jtupfcnmehl, Ilopfendrusett.) 
The glandular powder separated from the stro- 
biles of the Iluniulus lupulns, or common hop. 
It is a golden yellow, resinous, aromatic, bitter, 
granular powder. It consists chiefly of myricin 
and contains an essential oil and Lupamaric 
acid. It is used as a sedative in irritable blad- 
der, priapism, seminal emissions, incontinence of 
urine, and dilirium tremens. Dose, 2 — 5 grains. 
Iiupulire'tin. {lupulns; Gr. pinivn, 
resin ol tlie pine. G. Ilopfeiiharz.) CioH,604. 
A browuisli, amorphous, aromatic substance ob- 
tained along with lupulinic acid by the action of 
dilute sulphuric acid on lupamaric acid. 

XiU'pulite. (L. lupus.) The same as 

XiU'pulUS, B. Ph. (F. houblon; G. 
Hop/en.) The dried strobiles of the Hamulus 

Also, the Sumulus lupulus. 

Als!), a Genus of the Nat. Order Cannahinaceo' . 

It. commu'nis, Gartn. (L. communis, 
common.) The ILiimulus lupulus. 

Im. salicta'rius. (L. satictarius, belong- 
ing to wiUow-lieds.) The Humulas lupulus. 

Jt. scan'dens, Lam. (L. scatulo, to 
climb.) 'J'he Jlumulus lupulus. 

XiU'pilSa (L. lupus, a wolf; because of its 
unceasing destructiveness. F. lupus ; 1. lupo ; 
S. lupus; G. Lupus, frcssende Fkchte.) A 
name, as old as the tliirteenth century, formerly 
given to a chronic eating ulcer, or other destruc- 
tive process, occurring in the skin, and including 
not only the disease or diseases now so called, 
but also cancerous sores, and ulcerations of le- 
prosy and of tertiary syphilis. 

At present the word stands as the generic 
term tor two distinct though probably closely- 
allied diseases, L. vulgaris and L. erythcmatosut- 
and their varieties, but when used alone it is 
generally intended to signify L. vulgaris. B} 
some authors a third chief form, L. verrucosus, 
is described. 

Ii., ac'ne-. {Acne.) Hutchinson's term 
for the very rare form of L. vuUjaris which was 
described by Tilbury Fox as L. follicularis 
disxcminatus. It has the appearance and ar- 
rangement of acne of the face, but exhibits the 
characteristic apple-jelly substanc(> of lupus. 

Ii,, ac'ne rosa'cea. Hutchinson's term 
for a firm nf J,, i ri/t/u ma/osus. 

IL., ac'nelform. {Acne; L. forma, like- 
ness. F. lupus acniiquc.) Hardy's term for 
L. erytlnmaUisus when the sebaceous glands are 
greatly enlarged, often eiicysted, and filled with 
a puriform tluid ; they subsequently ulcerate 
and heal with a depressed cicatri.\. 

Ii. anatom'icus. (L. anaiomicus, an 
anatomist. G. LctcheHlubvrkeln.) Same as L., 

ii. atroph'icus. {'ATf)o<i>La, want of 

nourishment.) The form of Z. vulgaris which 
results in shrinldng or obliteration of structure. 

Ii., bacillus of. The bacilli obtained by 
cultivation trom /.. ruhjaris and its ditf. rent 
forms; they are identical with the bacillus of 
tubercle, and are very thinly scattered in the 
diseased tissue. 

Xt. cancro'sus. A synonym of Cancer. 

X., Chilblain-. Hutchinson's term for a 
form ot /,. (rijl heniatosus which is associated 
with cliillilains, and in some states cannot be 
di.-tinguished from them. 

Ii. circumscrip'tus. See L. erythema- 
tosus circumscrijil us. 

Ii., com'mon. The typical form of Z, 

It. cornu'tus. (L. cornutus, homed.) 
Lang's term for the form of L. vulgaris in which 
the horny layer of the epidermis is greatly de- 

Ii. de'vorans. (L. devoro, to swallow 
down.) Same as L. cxedots. 

Ii. discre'tus. (L. discretus, part, dis- 
cerno, to sej)arate.) The same as L. disscmi- 

Ii. dissemina'tus. (L. dissemino, to 
scatter seed.) That tbrm of L. vulgaris in 
which the several foci appear on different parts 
of the body, either simultaneously or in succes- 
sion, in which case each patch may independently 
change into a L. serpiginosus. 

Also, see L. erythematosus disseminaius. 

Ii., ec'zema-. {Eczema.) Hutchinson's 
term for a very rare form of L. vulgaris, in 
which the appearances are those of eczema, the 
surface being red and the discharge serous and 
profuse, or dry and covered with small scales ; 
but the progress is that of lupus, inasmuch as it 
causes scars as it is getting well, and spreads 
with an alirupt, serpiginous edge. 

Ii., erythema-. {Epidiipa, a redness 
upon the skin.) Hutchinson's term for the 
typical form of L. erythematosus in which there 
is congestion only and no evidence of growth or 

Jt. erythemato'des. ('E(ir/6)//t«, a red- 
ness upon the skin ; tioov, form.) A synonym of 
L. erythematosus. 

Also, formerly used by English writers to 
denote the milder forms of i. vulgaris in which 
there is no ulceration. 

Ii. erythemato'sus. {'Epvdnfxa. F. 
erytheme centrifuge, Biett, lupus erythemateux, 
scrofulide eryihemateuse. Hardy.) A name 
given by Cazenave to a disease of the skin, first 
described by Biett as Erythema centrifugum, 
which begins as a sharply-defined red patch, 
varying in size from a j)in's head to a lentil, 
witli small, raised, redder spots at the orifices of 
the sebaceous follicles. Tlie reddened margin 
advances gradually, whilst the centre becomes 
scarred over, thus forming a red- bordered disc. 
The disease advances slowly, either by the en- 
largement and coalescence of adjacent patches, 
or by the continual develoi)ment of new putches ; 
miire rarely it commences by the eruption of 
numerous discrete sjjots. It consists of an in- 
fiammation of the j)apillary layer of the cutis, 
esiiecially in the neighbourhood of the sebaceous 
and sudoriparous glands, which become fccon- 
darily involved; tlie blood-vessels are dilated, 
the tissues are infiltrated with leucocytes, whicli 
proliferate and become convertc<l into connective- 
tissue corpuscles and fibres which, as they grow, 


cansp the pnpillnc and flic sohnopnus glnnds to 
atrophy. It is chit-tly observed in adults, and is 
somewhat more freouent in women than in men. 
It often begins on tlie sides of the nose, but may 
affect other cutaneous surfaces. It progresses 
very slowly, produces much distiguivment with 
a thin Hat scar, but does not in general affect 
the constitution. No bacillus has yet been found 
in it. It is the Seborrhwa congcstiva of Ilebra. 

"Xm. erythematosus a^grregra'tus, Ka- 
posi. (L. mjgrego, to add to a Hock.) The same 
as L. erytheiiiritosus disaeminafus. 

la. eryttaemato'sus clrcumscrip'tus. 
(L. circuDisunbu, to draw a line around.) The 
same as L. erythematosus dkcoides. 

Jt. erythemato'sus cor neus. (L. cor- 
tieus. horn}'.) The dry, sealy condition presented 
by those parts affected with L. erythematosus, 
•when the sebaceous glands are not much involved, 
or are wanting, as on the palm of the hand. 

Ii. erythemato'sus discoi'des. (AtV- 
fcos, a sort of quoit; tl^os, form.) Kaposi's 
term for the form or stage of L. erythematosus 
in which the isolated spots form a red-margined 
disc, sharply defined at the circumference, but 
fading towards the middle, and having a central 
scale, which is prolonged on its under surface 
into the distended duct of a sebaceous gland. 
The discs grow and in time coalesce. 

Ii. erythemato'sus dlssemina'tus. 
(L. dissei»ino, to scatter seed.) Hebra's term 
for the stage or form of L. erythematosus in 
which extension of the disease occurs by the 
development of new spots in the interspaces of the 
old ones, but which have no tendency to coalesce 
with them. It sometimes presents itself as an 
acute febrile eruption, with swelling of the face 
resembling erysipelas, nocturnal osteocopic pains, 
headache, and effusion into the joints. Flat 
vesicles which speedily burst and leave behind a 
central depression have been seen. The patient 
passes sometimes into a typhoid condition, and 
many such cases are fatal.' 

Ii. erythemato'sus seba'ceus. (L. 
sebum, suet.) That state of L. erythematosus 
in which, before atrophy has commenced, the 
affected part is dry and lustreless, covered with 
firmly adherent scales, which have at first a 
greasy feel, caused by an excessive secretion from 
the sebaceous glands. 

Ii. erythemato'sus teleang-electo'- 
des. {Teleangeicctasis ; Gr. tI5os, form ) The 
form in which there is little surface-change be- 
yond redness from dilated blood-vessels, but 
there is deep-seated thickening, and more or less 
scar results. 

Ii. essentia'Iis. (L. essentia, the being 
of a thing.) The same as L. idiopathicus. 

Ii. ex'edens. (L. part, excdo, to eat up. 
F. lupus rongeant.) A freely ulcerating form of 
Z. vulgaris. The ulceration appears to be due 
to a fatty degeneration of the cells, whose growth 
gives rise to the disease. The tubercles become 
pale and soft with surrounding inflammation of 
the skin, a scab forms which, on separating, 
leaves a smooth red ulcer with somewhat raised 
edges, which spreads laterally and deeply, but 
in the end cicatrises with great deformity. 

In former times cases of tilcerative tertiary 
syphilis have often received this name. 

Ii. exfoliati'vus. (L. exfolio, to strip of 
leaves. F. lupus exfoliatif.) The second chronic 
stage or form of L. vulgaris, in which the 
nodules are very numerous and closely packed, 

forming circular patches two to three centimetres 
in diameter, brownish in culnur, with the central 
part undergoing regressive metamorphosis, re- 
presented by fatty degeneration, caseation, and 
cicatrisation, whilst the periphery consists of 
recently developed nodules. The surface of the 
patch is scaly, rough and fissured. It is Kaposi's 
term for the non-ulcerative form of L. vul- 

Ii. ezu'berans. (L. exubero, to grow 
luxuriantly.) Fuchs's term for L. hypvrtro- 

Ii. exul'cerans. (L. exulcero, to make 
sore.) The form or stage of L. vulgaris in which 
there is a pus-covered ulcer partly hidden by 
jellow or brown crusts, and having a red 
irregular base and edges often presenting the 
apple-jelly appearance ; the granulations are fiat 
and easily bleed. 

Ii. follicula'ris dlssemina'tus. (L. 
folliculus, a small bag ; disseiiiuio, to scatter 
seed.) See Z., acne-. 

Ii. fung:o'sus. {Tj. fungus, a mushroom.) 
Same as Z. tuberenlosus. 

Ii. hsemorrhag''icus. {K'luoppuyiKo^, 
liable to violent bleeding.) The form of Z. 
vulgaris, especially of the pudendum, which is 
accompanied by free bleeding. 

Ii. hypertroph'icus. ('TTrtp, above; 
Tpo<pi), nourishment. F. lupus hypertrophique.) 
Cazenave's term for that form of Z. vulgaris in 
which the ulceration is accompanied by large 
granulations and thickening and elevation of the 
margin; it is especially frequent on the cheeks. 
The hypertrophy is more marked in Z. of pu- 

The term has also been applied to the condition 
of Z. vulgaris in which the scar is very thick. 

Ii. Idiopath'icus, "Willan. ("loios, one's 
own ; 'TTfiOos, disease.) Same as Z. vulgaris. 

]t. impetig-ino'sus. {Impetigo.) Star- 
tin's term for Z. pustularis. 

J,, lymphat'lcus. {Lymph.) Hutchin- 
son's term for a variety of lupus in which the 
lympliatic spaces are chiefly involved, resulting 
in the production of small, persistent, vesicular 
outgrowths, which contain a lymph-like fluid. 
It originates in childhood, and advances by its 
borders through an infective process which 
travels probably along the lymphatic walls; it 
becomes surrounded by satellite growths, but 
there is no occurrence of the disease in any 
remote part. Ly some it is considered to be a 
form of Lymphangioma or Lymphangeiectodes. 

Ii. maculo'sus. (L. maculosus, speckled. 
F. Itipus maculeux.) The first stage of L. 
vulgaris in which the primary efflorescence of 
lupus nodules is visible as small spots through 
the epidermis. The spots are jellowish brown, 
the surface over them smooth or slightly scaly, 
their consistence soft. They are neither painful 
nor tender. 

Ii. metallo'rum. The alchemical name 
of Antimonious sulphide. 

Ii., mul'tiple. (L. multiplex, that has 
many folds.) Hutchinson's term for the form of 
Z. vulgaris where ultimately there are numerous 
separate patches. 

Ii. mu'tilans. (L. mutilo, to m:\im.) The 
rare form of Z. vulgaris in which the disease has 
produced the destruction or arrest of develop- 
ment of the fingers in children. 

Ii., nae'vus-. (Navtcs.) Hutchinson's 
term for a very rare form of Z. vulgaris in 


which the disease originates in a noevus-condi- 
tion of the skin. 

Ii., necrogren'lc. (NtKyxJ?, a dead body ; 
■yM'fTtv, an oiifjin.) The form of L. ruh/iiris 
which originates in a dissection scratch or prick. 
It dirt'ers from ordinary lupus only in the absence 
of the apple-jelly substance. The tubercle ba- 
cillus occurs in it in large numbers. 

Ii. nodo'sus. (L. nodosus, knotty.) Same 
as Z. //</'( rciilusKs. 

Ii. non-ex'edens. (L. «o«,not; excdens, 
part, oi credo, to eat up.) A variety of i. vicl- 
(jaris which chietiy attacks the face and nose. 
It has no tendency to ulcerate, hence its name. 
The tubercles begin to shrivel and get paler, 
and this condition extends over the whole skin 
art'ected, which is either left red and scaly, or 
white, smooth, and contracted, with an irregular 
spreading bluish or reddish edge. 

Ii., non-ul'cerative. Same as L. non- 

Ii. of Caz'enave. The L. erythematosus. 

Ii. of conjunctl'va. {Conjunctiva.) A 
disease that is sometimes primary, but is more 
commonly the result of extension from the sur- 
rounding skin. 

X. of la'rynz. See Larynx, lupus of. 

Ii. of puden'dum. (L. piidenda, the 
privy parts.) A chronic affection of the vulva 
occurring in feeble women between twentj'-five 
and thirty years of age. The disease is charac- 
terised b}' the painless formation of ulcers, which 
gradually progress, the tissue healing and cica- 
trising behind them, and producing great con- 
traction and distortion of the parts. It is not 
characterised by the development of tubercles, 
the lupus deposit being dift'used and accompanied 
by an excessive formation of fibrous tissue. It 
is a form of L. vtilffaris ; but many cases may 
be accounted i., syphilitic. 

Ii. of tong-ue. See Tongue, lupus of. 

Ii. of vul'va. ( VuUa.) See Z. of pu- 

Ii. of "Wil'lan. The L. vulgaris. 

Ii. papilla'ris. (L. papilla, a nipple.) 
That form of L. erythematosus in which the 
growth of the ascending vascular loops of the 
papill;B of the skin, with corresponding depres- 
sion of the cones of the rete, is especially pro- 
minent, so that wart-like nodules arise. 

Ii. papllloiuato'sus. Same as Z. pa- 

Ii. pap'ulo-pustula'ris. (L. papula, a 
pimple ; pustula, a pustule.) Same as Z. pus- 

Ii. per'forans. (L. perforo, to bore 
through. ¥. lupas pcrforant.) The form of 
Ij. of pudendum in which the disease extends to, 
and jierforates the walls of, the rectum or the 

Ii. pbagredae'iilcus. {^ayicaiva, a can- 
cerous sore.) A form of Z. vulgaris in which 
the ulceration is very destructive, producing 
small sloughs. 

Ii. prom'lnens. (L. prominens, project- 
ing.) The same as /,. hypcrtrophicus. 

Ii., psoriasis-. {Psoriasis.) Hutchin- 
son's term for a very rare form of lupus which, 
whilst having the ajipearance and arrangement 
of psoriasis, produces scars, and presents the 
apple-jelly structure. He considers it a form of 
Z. erythematosus, from its symmetrical arrange- 

Ii. pustula'ris. (L. pustula, a pimple.) 

A form of L. vulgaris which commences as a 
somewhat raised reddish or livid patch on which 
discrete or confluent tubercles apjtear, having 
suppurating heads like impetigo; the pustules 
burst, and the contents dry into small, dark, 
hard scabs which, unless disturbed, remain 
fixed for many weeks until the tubercle is ab- 
sorbed and a depressed livid cicatrix is left. 

Ii. ro'dens. (L. rodo, to gnaw.) Same as 
Z. exedens. 

X., ru'pia-. {Eupia.) Hutchinson's terra 
for a very rare form of Z. vulgaris in which the 
disease begins as rupia, syphilitic or not, and 
ends as common lupus. 

X. sclerot'lcus. (SkXi/po?, hard. F. 
lupus sclereux.) Auspitz's term for the hyper- 
trophic form of Z. vulgaris in which the scar is 
hard and thick. 

The Z. sclcroticus (F. lupus sclereux^ of Vidal 
presents papillae or warts on its surface, and is 
either primitive or cons 'cutive on Z. vulgaris. 
It is characterised by maculae or rugged, irre- 
gular, horny or bristly prominences, separated 
by furrows with a depressed cicatrix, in which 
the fibrous tissue is considerable, and arranged 
in concentric lamelhE separated by round cells ; 
giant cells are present, and the blood-vessels are 
thickened and hardened. 

X. seba'ceus. (L. sebum, tallow.) A 
synonym of Z. erythematosus, in reference to 
the implication of the sebaceous glands. 

Hutchinson restricts the term to those cases of 
Z. erythematosus in which the sebaceous follicles 
are conspicuously affected with roughness of the 
skin, resembling dried orange-peel. 

X. seborrbagr'lcus. (L. sebum; Gr. 
pnyvvixi, to burst forth.) Volkmann's term for 
Z. erythematosus, in reference to the aflection of 
the sebaceous glands. 

X., seborrhoe'a-. (L. sebum ; Gr. poia, 
a flow.) Hutchinson's term for a form of Z. 
erythematosus in which there is marked implica- 
tion of the sebaceous glands, as described under 
Z. sebaccm. 

X. serpigrino'sus. (L. serpo, to creep.) 
The later stage oiZ. vulgaris in which the corium, 
having become exposed by ulceration, is replaced 
by cicatricial tissue, which is gradually covered 
with epithelium, whilst the disease creeps on by 
the development of nodules at the margin of 
the patch or by the coalescence of disseminate 
patches, and forms a gyrate border. It is the 
most common form of lupus of the trunk and 
extremities. Hutchinson is of opinion that this 
epithet is unnecessary, inasmuch as it is the 
characteristic of all lupus to be serpiginous. 

X. sim'plex. (L. simplex, simple.) The 
same as Z. vulgaris. 

X., sing^'le-patcb. Hutchinson's term 
for the form of Z. vulgaris in which, throughout 
the course of tlte disease, there is only one patch. 
It usually occurs in the cheek and seldom in- 

X. solita'rlus. (L. solitarius, alone.) 
Willan's terra for the form in which one patch 
of disease alone exists ; generally on the cheek. 

X., stru'ma-. {Struma.) Hutchinson's 
term for the form of Z. vulgaris in which the 
disease begins as a scrofulous aflection of the sub- 
cutaneous tissues, with secondary ulceration of 
the skin, and accompanying lupus-degeneration, 
along with subcutaneous abscesses. 

X. struxno'sus. {Struma.) The form of 
Z. vulgaris, described by Nayler us commencing 


like a small boil, which ulcerates and heals alter- 
nately, spruaUs in serpiginous fashion, and lasts 
for a long time; the soar may be firm, smooth, 
and dull white, with or without a few yellow 
crusts concealing small ulcers. 

Ii., sun'blain. Hutchinson's term for the 
form of L. erijthcinatosHs which is produced, 
usuall}' on the nose, by exposure to the sun. 

Ii. superficla'ils. (L. superjicies, the 
upper side.) I'arkes's term for L. erythvmatosiin. 

Ii>« syco'sis-. (i'ehaicrtv, an ulcer resem- 
bling a tig ripe to bursting.) Milton's term for 
a form of sycosis which leaves scars similar to 
those of lupus. There is also a syphilitic form. 

'Xm. sypbllit'lcus. A term applicable to 
disease of the skin closely resembling any one of 
the varieties of lupus, but due to syphilis and 
curable by specific treatment. Skin diseases of 
the lupoid type, serpiginous in progress, occur 
only in the tertiary stage, in which they are the 
most comnidn form. 

Ii. ter'ebrans. (L. terehro, to bore.) 
Same as L. vurax. 

Im. tuberculo'sus. (L. tuherculum, a 
small swelling. Y. lupns tuber culeux.) A form 
of L. vulgaris in which the new growth forms 
distinct tubercular elevations, which are crowded 
together into a fleshy mass. 

Also, a synonym of L. vulgar is. 

Jt. tubero'sus. (L. lubtr, a swelling.) 
Same as L. tuberculosus, 

Ii. tu'mldus, Fuchs. (L. tumidiis, swollen.) 
The same asZ. hypertrophicas ; especially when 
the proliferation is accom))anied with oedema. 

Ii., ul'cerative. The ulcerating form of 
L. vulgaris. 

It. ulcero'sus. (L. ulcerosus, full of 
sores.) The ulcerating form of Z. vulgaris, 

Ii. varico'sus. (L. varix, a dilated vein.) 
A synonym oi Neerus. 

Ii. verruco'sus. (L. verruca, a wart.) 
A distinct variety of lupus, according to ^IcCall 
Anderson. It commences as small, circum- 
scribed, dusky red or violet patches or tubercles, 
either discrete or confluent, becoming elevated 
and warty in parts, progressing slowly, and in- 
fecting neighbouring tissues, and cicatrising in 
the older areas. 

Also, the same as Z. papillaris, but with larger 

Ii. vo'raz. (L. vorax, swallowing greedily.) 
A form of Z. exedcns in which the ulceration 
penetrates deeply and produces great deformity. 
It has been usually applied to syphilitic lupus 
of a mildly phagedsenic type. 

Ii. vulga'ris. {L. vulgaris, common. F. 
lupus vulgaire, dartre rongeante, esthiomene, 
scrofulide tuberculeuse ; G. fressende Flcchte.) 
A chronic, non-contagious, infective disease of the 
skin in which small patches, the size of a millet 
seed or less, of soft, easily- friable granulation- 
tissue first appear in the subpapillary or deeper 
layer of the corium, and spread by the constant 
renewal of such patches by satellites at the 
margin of the old ones. The patches, which 
are brownish-yellow and translucent, like apple- 
jelly, as described by Hutchinson, at first 
< onsist of small nucleated exudation cells, with 
little stroma, displacing the fibrous bundles 
of the corium ; as they increase in size and 
reach the papillary layer, a delicate connective 
tissue develops between the cells, and then 
spindle-shaped corpuscles are perceived; the 
connective tissue gradually becomes firmer and 

more fibrous; the exudation cells undeigo fatty 
degeneration, the natural tissues, as well as the 
older jiatches, perish by slow absorption without 
ulceration producing glistening scars, or by ne- 
crobiosis leading to ulceration. In addition, the 
fully-developed patch contains small nodules like 
those of tubercle, consisting of a giant-cell with 
e])ithelioid and small round cells, and in small 
numbers bacilli resembling those of tubercle. 
These facts have led to the opinion that the dis- 
ease is essentially a tuberculosis of the skin, an 
0])inion which is not universally accepted. 

Lupus is most common on the face, but it 
attacks occasionally the scalp and other paits of 
the cutaneous surface, as well as the mucous 
membranes, near their outer termination. It 
usually commences a little before puberty, but 
may attack children ; it is very slow in its 
progress, is accompanied with little pain, and 
tends in the end to repair with great disfigure- 
ment from scars, even if there has been no 
ulceration, which is often very extensive and 

IiU'rid. (L. luridus, pale yellow. F. 
luride ; I. lurido ; G. gelblich, schmutziggelb, 
fahl.) Pale; ghastly. 

XiU'ridSB. (L. luridus, pale yellow.) One 
of the Nat. Orders of plants of Linnseus, includ- 
ing Solanum and Digitalis. 

XiUrid'ity. (L. luridus. F. luridite.) 
Roohoux's term for a yellowish or blackish 
pallor of the skin, difl^ering from that of jaun- 
dice, observed in certain malarious fevers and in 
sotne paralysed limbs. 

IiU'ridus ac'id. (L. luridus. G. Luri- 
dussuure.) Bohm's term for an acid obtained 
by him from the Boletus luridus. It forms 
claret- coloured needles and prisms, and is the 
cause of the change of colour of the yellow flesh 
of the fungus, when broken, to an indigo blue. 

IiUrk. (Mid. E. hirken, lorken ; by substi- 
tution of r for s, from older form luslcen ; from 
Scand. luska, to sneak about.) To lie hidden. 

XiUrk'eydisll. A name for Mentha pule- 

Ziurk'ing*. {Lurk.) Lying hid. 
Ii. grout. Same as Gout, larval. 

XiU'ror. (L. luror.) Sallowness. 

XiUS« Ancient name for a certain ossicle, or 
very small bone, subjoined to the sacral bone, of 
which it was fabled that it could not be made to 
decay by any power or expedient, neither could 
it be lost, but that it formed the chief germ or 
principle of the re-animated body ; probably the 
extremity of the coccyx is referred to, which is a 
distinct ossicle till an advanced age, or through 
life ; also spelt Zux by some, which, however, 
may refer to a difi'erent object, according to the 
explanation given under it. 

IiUSCh'ka, Hubert von. A Ger- 
man anatomist, born in Constance in 1820, died 
at Tubingen in 1875. 

Ii.'s car'tilage. A small nodule of 
elastic cartilage enclosed in the front part of the 
true vocal cord. 

Ii.'s grland. (G. Luschka's Sfeissdriise.) 
A round or oval plexus of blood-vessels inter- 
mixed with numerous nerve fibres, which lies in 
front of the coccyx. The Coccygeal gland. 
Ii.'s ton'sil. The Tonsil, pharyngeal. 

ZiUSCiOS'ltyi (L. lusciosus, from luscus, 
one-eyed. F. liisciosite.) A sjTionym of Myopia. 

IiUS'citas. (L. luscus, one-eyed.) The 
condition of being one-eyed. 


Al-;o, a term used bj' old authors to signify 

Also (G. Schiffstehen der Auge)i), in nindorn 
times emplojed to designate an obliquity of tlie 
ej'e caused by paralysis or rhi'umatic affection of 
one or other of the ocular mu>elcs. 

Xiuscit'ies. Same as Luscilas. 

Xiust g'arten, S. AUerman histologist 
now liviu'j. 

Ii.'s bacillus. The Syphilis, bacillus of. 

XiUStragro. (L. lustro, to purge by sacri- 
fice.) A name for a species of Verbena, from its 
use in ancient ))urifications. 

Xiustramen'tum. (L. iH.ityn, to purify 
by means of a propitiatory offering.) A ca- 

XiUSt-WOrt. A name of the plants of the 
Genus JJrostra ; so called because of tbeir sup- 
posed aphrodisiac property. 

XaU'SUS. (L. lusus, a play.) A sport or 

Ii. natu'rse. (L. natura, nature. G. 
Naturspivl.) A wliim, caprice, or sport of nature ; 
a terra for any departure from what is usual and 

IiUta'riOUS. (L. hitum, mud.) Like to, 
of the colour ot, or li\-ing in. mu'i. 

XiUta'tion. (L. lutum, mud.) The act 
of applying a Lntc. 

Zitlte. (Old F. hit, clay; from L. lutum, 
mud ; from luo, to wash. I. luto ; S. luten ; G. 
Kitt.) A tenacious ductile composition for 
closing the junctures of vessels to prevent the 
escape of gas or vapour in distillation. 

Also (F. luter), to close by means of a Lute. 
1m., al'mond. (F. lut d'amandes.) A 
mixture of almond cake and starch. 

Ii., earth'y. (F. lut terreux.) Earth 
mixed with horse-dung or cut hair, used to cover 
vessels exposed to the heat of a reverbatorj' 

Xi., fat. (F. Ini (jras.) Dried and pow- 
dered clay mixed with linseed oil. 

Ii., lime. (F. lut de chaux.) Slaked lime 
mixed with white of egg. 

ZiU'teic ac'id. (F. acide Intnqm'.) A 
substance obtained from the flowers of Euphor- 
bia cypcri.sfiias. 

XiU'tein. (L. htteus, yellow. F. luteine.) 
The colouring mutter of the yolk of egg which, 
according to Thudiehum, is identical with that of 
fat, of butter, of the serum of blood, of the yellow 
and red corpuscles of the ovary of the cow, and 
is also the same as the colouring matter of the 
pollen of plants, of maize, and of the carrot. 
Soluiions of lutein present three absorption 
bands, and are decolourised on exposure to sun- 
light, in the blue, indigo, and violet. Lutein is 
probably derived from the colouring matter of 
the blood. It was discovered by Piccolo and 
Liiben. and was first called Il/'molutcin. 

liU'teo-cobalt'ic salts. (L. luteus.) 

Ammoniacal cobalt comj)ounds having a yellow 
colour, as luteo-cobaltic chloride, Co.jCl<;(NH3),5. 

IiUteog'al'lic ac'id. (L. Intcus, yel- 
low.) The yellow colouring matter of gall-nuts. 
It is an amorphous powder, insoluble in water, 
alcohol and ether. 

XiU'teola. The Jiesedn lufeola. 

XiUteole'iia. (F. luteoUine.) Chevreul's 
term for a sul)8tance which accompanies, and is 
a product of the normal oxidation of, Lutvolin. 

Xiu'teolin. (F. luteoline.) CjoHnOg. 
Name given by Chevreul to the yellow colouring 

matter of the Rascda lutcr^Jn. Tt forms small, 
silky, yellow, four-sided needles, without odour 
and sliglitly liitter. 

XiU'teolous. (L. lutenlns, yellowish ; 
dim. of luteus, yellow.) Yellowish, or slightly 

XiU'teous. (L. luteus, dyed with lutum, 
an herb used for dyeing a yellowish colour. F. 
lute; (j. grlljluh.) Of a yellow colour. 

Ziii'terswyl. Switzerland, Canton Solo- 
thurn, 640 metres above sea-level, in a mild 
climate. An athermal, bicarbonated, earthy 
chalybeate water. 

ZiUtes'cent. (L. luteus, yellow.) Yel- 
lowish white. 

XiU'thern. Switzerland, Canton Luzern. 
A cidd eliah beate water. 

XiUtid'ic ac'id. (F. acide lutidiqve.) 
C^\iiS<~)^.}\^0. One of the dicarbopyridic 
acids. It forms white needles, fusing at '219'3° 
C. (426-74° F.), soluble in water and alcohol, in- 
soluble in ether, carbon bisulphide, and benzin. 

XiU'tidins. C,H9.N. liases of the pyri die 
series. a-Lutidin was discovered by Dippel in 
animal oil. /i-Lutidin is contained in raw 
quinolein obtained from cinchonin; other luti- 
dins are contained in the products of distillation 
of the bituminous schists of Dorsetshire, and in 
the smoke of burning tobacco. a-Lutidin boils 
at 154' C. (309-2° F.), and has a density of 0-9467. 
It has a strong odour. /3-Lutidin is a colourless 
liquid, highl}- refractive and hygroscopic, with 
disagreeable smell. It boils at 165° C. (329° F.) 
It becomes yellow on exposure to air and light. 

XiU'ton'S SUg-'ar test. Add an excess 
of sulphuric acid to a cold saturated solution of 
bichromate of potash, a red-coloured solution is 
obtained. Add some of this solution to diabetic 
urine and boil, the red colour becomes emerald 

ZiU'tra. (L. lutra, the bathing animal, an 
otter ; akin to luo, to wash.) A Genus of the 
Family Mustelidce, Order Carnivora, Class Mam- 

Ii. vulg-a'ris, Erxl. (L. vulgnj-is, com- 
mon. F. loutre ; I. loutra ; S. nutra ; G. 
Otter, Fixchotter.) The otter ; formerly used in 

XiU'traki. Greece, on the isthmus of 
Corinth. A hot saline water. 

Iiutrexanthe'xna. (Aouxpoi/, a bath; 
i^dviiniia, an efflorescence.) A rash produced 
b}' a bath. 

IiU'truxn. (AouTyooi/, a bath ; from Xovw, 
to wash, F. bain; G. Bad.) Old term for a 

Also, the name of an ophthalmic medicine. 

XiU'tum. (L. latum, mud.) A substance 
for stopping ; a Ijitc. 

Ii. cum ben'zo'in, Fr. Codex. (L. cum, 
with. F. mastic dentaire an binjuin.) I5enzoin 
in tears 20 parts, dissolved in ether 10 parts, and 
passed through cotton wool in a closed funnel. 

Ii. cum lentis'co, Fr. Codex. (L. cum; 
leniiscus, the mastic tree. F. mastic dentaire.) 
Mastic in tears 20 parts, dissolved in ether or in 
chlomform 10 parts, and passed through cotton 
wool in a closed funnel. 

XiUxa'tio. See Luxation. 

Is. erec'ta. (L. erectus, upright.) See 
Humerus, dis/ocitinn of, subglenoid. 

Ii. imperfec'ta. (L. imperfccius, incom- 
plete.) A sprain. 

XiUZa'tion. (L. luxatio ; from luxo, to 


put out of joint. F. luxation ; I. iHssazione ; S. 
luxaciuH ; U. Verrcnkung, Ausrcnkuiig.) A 
dislocation or displacimont of a part from its 
proper place, especially bone. See Disluculion. 

^UX'taurg". Switzerland, Canton Thurgau, 
12U0 feet above sea-level. A weak sulphur 

Xiuzeinburg''ia. A Genus of the Nut. 
Order Ochnacea. The species are inhabitants of 
Brazil. The leaves are stimulating, and are 
used as tea alter a meal. 

ZtUX'euil. France, departement de la 
Haute Saone. The chief town of the Canton of 
the Arroudi.-scment of Lure, at the foot of the 
Vosges. The baths of Luxeuil are about five 
milesdistant, and are 417 metres above sea-level. 
Temperature varies in the fifteen different springs 
from 27-9^ C. to 51-5" C. (82-22" F. to 124-7° F.) 
The waters are very slightly mineralised. The 
Source du grand lain contains potassium sesqui- 
carbonate -027 gramme, potassium chloride 
•0434, sodium chloride '66, sodium sulphate 
•16466, calcium carbonate •0-567, and silicic acid 
•11371, with traces of arsenic and iodine, a little 
oxygen, some carbonic acid, and much nitrogen ; 
the Source ferrugineuse magnesienne du Temple 
contains, in addition, a little oxide of manganese. 
They are used for baths and drinking in rheu- 
matism, paralysis, mucous catarrhs, malarial 
poisoning and skin diseases. 

Xiuzu'riant. (L. luxurians, part, of 
luxurio, to be rank. F. luxuriant ; I. csuher- 
ante ; S. exuberante ; G. i<J}pig.) Very free in 

In Botany, applied to a double flower. 

ZiUZ'US. (.L> luxus, excess.) Excess ; ex- 

Xi. brea'tblng:. The condition which 
occurs in ordinary circumstances when the acts 
of respiration are deeper and more rapid than is 
absolutely necessary for the health of the or- 
ganism ; this excess disappears at high altitudes. 
Xi. consump'tlon. (L. consumo, to use 
up. F. consomption de luxe; G. Luxus-con- 
somption.) A certain quantity of proteid material 
was supposed to exist in the blood as a Hoating 
capital, upon which any of the tissues might 
draw in the event of their requiring an unusual 
amount of nitrogen. The conversion of these 
proteid materials into leucin, urea, and the like, 
to which this term was applied, was said to take 
place in the blood itself, but the existence of 
such direct conversion is now disproved. 

Xiuys, Jules Ber'nard. A French 

physician now living, born in 1828. 

Xi.'s bod'y* The Nucleus peduncuU 

1m., supe'rior ol'ive of. The Nucleus 
pedunculi cerebri. 

IiUZ. Old term for a bone, of which nothing 
certain is known, whether it indicates one of the 
vertebrae, or some ossicle of the foot. See Lus. 

XiUZette'. A disease of silkwoi-ms which 
appears about the time of the fourth moult. The 
larvae become palish red, then glossy white ; 
after death the body gets much smaller. 

ZiU'zula. (G. Sainsimse.) A Genus of 
the Mat. Order JuncacecB. 

It. campes'tris, De Cand. (L. campester, 
pertaining to a plain.) Hub. North Europe, 
China. Root diuretic. 

Xiycac'onin. C33H50N4O8, probably. A 
substance obtained by heating Ivcuconitin in 
water at 100° C. (212° F.) 

Xiycacon'itin. C.„II,,N.A+2II.,0. An 

aniurjihuus ulkalnid obtained by Dragendorff 
from Acunitum li/cuctuitum. It is slightly soluble 
in alcohol and ether. 

Xiycan'clie. (Au\os, a wolf; ayxw, to 

strangle. F.cgnujic/ie ; Gi. Jf'olfsbriiune.) Term 
for a quinsy, because wolves are supposed to be 
subject to it. The same as Cgnrinc/te. 

Also, an old term for Hgdrophobia. 

Ziycan'cllis. Same as Lgcanche. 

Iiyc ant^rope. One suli'ering from Lyc- 

Xiycantliro'pia. (Aukos, a wolf; av- 
OfjwTrwi, a uiuu. p. Igcantltrupie ; G. Lykan- 
thropie.) A species of delusional insanity in 
wliich the patient steals out and wanders about 
in concealed and unfrequented places as the wolf 
does, believing liimself to have been clianged 
into that animal by the agency of the devil. In 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries it pre- 
vailed as an epidemic. Those so atdicted mur- 
dered and ate children. Women were also thus 
afl'ected, and usually exhibited some sexual 

Iiycanthrop'ic. Of, or belonging to, 

Xiyca'uxn. Same as Lycanthropia, 

Xaycll]lid.'iate. {Avxvioiov, a small 
lamp-stand.) Kirby's term for the head of an 
insect when it is prolonged into a sort of beak, 
which emits light ; which he supposed to occur 
in the Fulgora. 

Xiyclinid'iuin. {AvxiIoluv.) An old 

terra for vital heat. 

Iiycll'llioxi. Same as LycJinium. 
Iiych'xiis. (Auxin's, a scarlet-flowered 
plant used lor garlands ; also, a kind of toad- 
flax. F. lychne ; G. Lichtnelke.) A Genus of 
the Nat. Order Caryophyllacece. 

Jt. cseli ro'sa. (L. cmlum, the sky ; rosa, 
a rose.) Eoots cordial. 

Xi. corona'rla, Lamb. (L. corona, a 
crown.) Roots cordial. 

Jt. dioi'ca, Linn. (Ais, twice; oikoi, a 
house. F. compagnon-hlanc, Jtoquet, sublet.) 
Red campion. Roots vulnerary and alterative. 

Ii. flos-cu'culi, Linn. (L. Jlos, a flower ; 
cuculus, the cuckoo. Y . fleur de cuucou lampette, 
robinet dechire.) The ragged robin, or meadow 
lychnis. Roots cordial. 

Xi. githa'gro, Scop. The Githago segetum. 

Xi. officinalis, Scop. The Saponuria 

Xi. sapona'ria, Volck. The Saponaria 

Xi. seg''etuin ma jor. (L. seges, a corn- 
field ; major, greater.) The Githago segetum, 
or corn-cockle. 

Xi. sylves'tris. (L. syhestris, belonging 
to a wood.) The Saponuria officinalis. 

Xi. vesperti'na. (L. vespertinus, be- 
longing to evening ) A variety of L. dioica. 

Xi. visca'ria, Linn. (L. z-'{4c«;h, birdlime.) 
Red German catchtly. Roots cordial. Birdlime 
is prepared from it. 

Xiych'nium. (^Avx^i-ov, a lamp stand.) 
A little light or flambeau ; a little torch. 
Also, an old term for an ointment for the eyes. 
Also, an old term for vital heat. 
Ziyclinoi'des. (Aux^'s, the lychnis; 
tioov. form. I", lychno'ide.) Resembling the 

It. seg-'etum. The Githago segetum. 

Iiychnomachse'ra. (Auxi'os,a lamp; 


Hi'iyaipa, a lar2:o knifp.) Name given to an 
instrument which was tilted to hold a caudle in 
its handle, and also to receive the point Of blade 
of a knife, according to C. Iloli'mannus, Comm. 
in Galen, li. do Usii Part. n. 148, xrq. 

liych'nomancy. (aT/xi'ov, a lamp; 

fxavTtia, a divination. F. hjvhnomantlc ; G. 
li/cliiw)naHtie.) Old term for divination from 
burning lamps and other lights. 

XiVC'in. C'sNIIiiOj. An alkaloid obtained 
bj' Huseniann and ilarme from a decoction of 
Lycium harharum. it forms white, deliquescent 
prisms, and is identical with Bctain. It does 
not pre-exist in the plant. It causes paral3sis 
in frogs. 

Ziyc'ion. {Avkiov, a thorny tree of Lycia, 
the mountainous country in thesouth-westof Asia 
Minor.) A juice or extract described by Diosco- 
rides, and used also by the Latins, which was 
celebrated as an astringent in dysentery, ulcers 
of the gums, cutaneous affections, and other 
diseases. It was prepared from a thorny plant 
growing in Lycia, and a still more valued kind 
was obtained' from India. The plant was by 
Garcias supposed to be the Acacia catechu, 
Prosper Albmus supposed it to be the Lycium 
afrum, but Forbes Royle has shown that at 
least the Indian variety was prepared from 
Berberis lycium. 

The Hindoo practitioners of the present time 
use a similar extract prepared from this and 
other species of Berberis, under the name of 
Ruzot, in intermittent fevers and ophthalmic 

Xiyc'iuxn. (Aukioi/. F. lycict ; G. Bocks- 
dorn.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Solanacece. 
Also, the same as Lycion. 

Ii. a'frum, Linn. (L. afer, African. F. 
jasmin bdtard.) A tonic and analeptic. For- 
merly supposed to have furnished Lycion. 

Tm. bar'barum, Linn. (L. barbarus, 
foreign. G. Teufelszwirn.) Matrimony vine. 
Leaves aromatic and stimulant. 

Ii. europse'um, Linn. (F. lyciet d' Eu- 
rope.) Young shoots used as food. 

TU., ex'tract of. An extract of the Ber- 
beris lycium^ called Ruzot in India. See Ly- 

Ii. bu'mile, Phil. Hab. Chili. Fruit 
used for food. 

Ii. In'dicuin. (L. indicus, Indian.) See 
under Lycion. 

Zm. umbro'suxn, Humb. and Bonpl. (L. 
nmbrosus, shady.) Hab. South America. In- 
fusion of leaves used there in erysipelas and skin 
diseases, under the name JJpaguando. 

Ii. vulgra're, Dunal. (L. vulgaris, com- 
mon.) The L. barbarum. 

Iiycoc'tonin. (aiVo?, a wolf; KTi'ivw,io 

kill.) An alkaloid which was obtained by 
Hiibschmann along with acolyctine from the 
alcoholic extract of Aeonitum lycoctonum. It 
forms colourless prisms, fusing at, or a little 
above, 100' C. ('212° F.) It is less poisonous 
than aconitin, it paralyses the motor nerves, and 
kills chiefly by its action on the respiratory ap- 
paratus, but has no action on the sensory nerves, 
the spinal cord, or the striped muscles. 
liycoctonin'ic ac id. (G. Lycocionin- 

sdurc.) CijHigNjO,. An acid obtained by 
Dragendorff when lycaconitin is heated with 
water to 100' C. (212= F.) It occurs in spherical 
crystalline masses or in plates. 

IiyCOC'tOIlUIlli ^AvKus, a wolf i KTtivw, 

to kill.) An old term for the Arnnifum napellua, 
or other spi'cies, which w;is used to kill wolves 
by enclosing it in raw iiesh. 

The Arouituin lycvetonum. 

Xiyco'des. (AiJ^-os; eIoos, form.) An old 
term for a chronic quinsy like to a disease to 
which it was believed wolves were liable. 

Ziycodon'tes. (Aukos ; oooi/v, a tooth. 

F. lycoduutis.) The wolf or Canine teeth. 
Xiyc'oida (Ai'jkos ; tloos, form. F. lyco'ide ; 

G. n'olfdlinlich.) Like to a wolf. 
Xiycoma,'nia« (Au^os; fiavia, madness.) 

Same as Lycanihnqjia. 

Ziycoperdon. (Audos; Tripoofxai, to 
break wind. F. vesse de loup ; (j. Bovist, 
StduhUnii, Staubschwamm.) A Genus of the 
Family Lycoperdaeece, Order Gasteromycetes. 

Ii. arrbi'zon. (".4p/)i^os, without roots.) 
The L. bori.sta. 

Ii. bovis'ta, Linn. (F. vrsse de loup 
geante, v. do loup des boufiers, boviste ; G. Rie- 
senbovist.) The giant puff-ball. Hab. Europe. 
Used as a desiccative and luiemostatic in ex- 
ternal wounds. A tincture has been used in 
nervous diseases. When young it is esculent. 
The smoke of the burning fungus was found by 
Richardson to be ana'stlietic, from the presence 
of carbonic oxide, according to Thornton Hera- 

Ii. csela'tum, Bull. (L. ccclatus, part, of 
ccelo, to engrave.) Used as a ha;niostatic. 

Ii. cervi'num, Linn. (L. cervus, a stag.) 
The Llaphoiuyces granulatus. 

X. co'rium, Linn, (L. corium, leather.) 
Used as L. bovista. Esculent when young. 

Ii. ^emiua'tuin, Batsch. (L. gemmatus, 
set with jewels.) Esculent when young. 

Ii. glgrante'um, Batsch. (L. giganteus, 
belonging to the giants.) The L. hovista. 

Ii. grlobo'sum. (L. globosus, round like a 
ball.) The Tuber eibarium. 

Ii. guloso'ruiu. (L. i/e^^osM*, luxurious.) 
The Tuber eibarium. 

Ii. horrend'utn, Gern. (L. horrendus, 
dreadful.) Hab. Crimea. Used to stupefy 

Ii. kaka'vou, Pars. Hab. Java. Used as 
a carminative. 

Ii. nuts. The tubers of Elaphomyces 

Ii. pro'teus. (L. Proteus, a sea god who 
had the power of assuming any form he pleased.) 
The L. bovista. 

Ii. sol'idum, Gronovius. (L, solidus, 
firm.) See Indian bread. 

Ii. tu'ber, Linn. The Tuber eibarium. 
Xiycoper'sicum. (Au/co?; mf.paiKov, 

the peach. G. Liobesapfel.) A Genus of the 
Nat. Order Solanacecc. 

Ii. esculen'tum, Mill. (L. eseulentus, 
eatable. G. Taradiesapfel.) Love-apple. Fruit 
esculent, called Tomato. 

Ii. po'muin amo'ris. (L. pomum, an 
apple; amor, love.) The L. eseulentum. 

Ii. tubero'sum. The Solanum tubero- 

Xiyc'opin. An amorphous, bitter sub- 
stance, soluble in water, alcohol, and ether, ob- 
tained by Geiger from the Lycopus europceus. 
Ziyc'opode. Same as Lycopodium. 

Xiycopodia'ceae. (Au\os, a wolf; ttoiJ?, 

the foot. F. lyciipodiacies ; (j. Bdrlappge- 
wiichse.) An Order of the Subclass Isospona, 
Class Vasculares, Division Uormophyta, Sub- 


kingdom Cryptogamia. The stem is dichoto- 
mou.sly braiicliL'd, loufy throughout, but absent 
in Isoutis ; leaves imbricate, nerveless ; sporangia 
sessile in the axils of the leaves, containing 
numerous tetrahedral microscopic spores, named 
microspores, or a few, mucb larger, oophoridia, 
or macrospores. The rootstock. running, or a 
corm, or absent. 

Xiycop'odin. Ca.HijNsOa. An alkaloid 
obtained from Lt/copodiuin complanatum. It 
melts at 114° C. Ci37-2° F.) It is very soluble 
in alcohol, chloroform, and benzine. 

Xiycopod'iiim. (Aii/v-os, a wolf; ttous, 
the foot. G. Bdrlappmoosfarn.) A Genus of 
the Order Zi/copodiawee. 

Also, U.S. Ph., G. Ph. (F. hjcopode, poudre 
de lycopode ; G. Bdrlappsamen, Strcupulver, 
Mexenmehl), the spores of £. clavatum and other 
species of Lycopodium. The spores are 26 micro- 
millimetres in diameter, pyramidal in form, with 
a rounded base and three sides, the edges of which 
are furrowed, and the surfaces present five- or 
six-sided meshes, bounded by prominent ridges. 
The outer coat is thin and firm. They contain 
47 per cent, of a fixed oil. The spores being dry 
and inert are used as an application in intertrigo 
and to prevent excoriation in infants ; it was 
formerly given in diseases of the urinary organs, 
dysentery, chronic bronchitis, and rheumatism. 

Ii. anno'tinum, Linn. (L. annotiniis, a 
year old. G. sprossender Bdrlapp.) A plant 
the spores of which are used like those of L. 

Jt. cathar'tlcum, Hooker. (Ka0a/)Ti/cos, 
purgative.) Hab. South America. A purgative. 
Used in elephantiasis, and as L. selago. 

1m, clava'tuiu, Linn. (L. clava, a club. 
F. lycopode officinal, pied-de-loup ; I. licopodio ; 
S. lycopodio ; G. kolber Bdrlapp, Schlatigenmoos, 
Unruhe, Drudenkraut, Giirtelkraiit, Teufels- 
klaue.) Common club moss. A widely distri- 
buted plant, growing on heaths in Europe, Asia, 
America, Africa, and Australia. It is the chief 
source of the Lycopodium spores used to coat 
pills. The plant was formerly used in decoction 
as an emmenagogue, diuretic, emetic, and drastic 

Ii. complana'tum, Linn. (L. complana- 
tus, made even. G. zusammengedriickter Bdr- 
lapp.) Spores used as those of L. clavatum. 

Ii. Inunda'tum, Linn. (L. inmido, to 
overflow. G. iiberschwemmender Bdrlapp.) A 
plant the spores of which are used as those of L. 

Xi. myrslni'tes. (Mup<rtj;»j, the myrtle.) 
Properties as L. selago. 

"Xm. nldlfor'me. (L. nidus, a nest ; forma, 
shape.) Hab. South America. Used in liver 

Ii. ofBcina'le. (L. officina, a workshop.) 
The L. clavatum. 

Ii. pblegiua'rla. Hab. India. Said to 
be aphrodisiac. 

Ii. polytricho'i'des. (IToXu?, many; 
Opig, hair; tloos, form.) Hab. Sandwich Is- 
lands. Used, under the name Moa, in small 
doses as a tonic, and in large doses as a purgative. 

Ii. recur'vum. (L. recur vus, bent back- 
wards.) The L. selago. 

Ii. ru'brum, Chamisso. TheZ. catharii- 

Ii. sela'gro, Linn. (L. selago, a plant re- 
sembling the savine. G. Tannen- Bdrlapp.) 
Upright club-moss. An energetic purgative and 

emetic, and in large doses narcotic. Used to 
procure abortion, and in Sweden as an anthel- 
mintic in veterinar)' medicine. Decoction used 
to destroy ectoparasites of the domestic animals. 
It is a local irritant, and is employed to keep 
blisters open. 

Xiycop'sis. (Ai'kos ; oi//ts, the look of a 
thing. G. Krummhals.) A. Genus of the Mat. 
Order Labiata, so called from the grinning 
appearance of the flower. 

Also, a synonym of Echiuni ccgyptiacum. 
Ii. arven'sls, Linn. (L. arvennis, belong- 
ing to the fields.) lUigloss. Used as a pector;il. 
Ii. vesicula'ria. (L. vesicula, a small 
bleb.) Creeping bugloss. Used as a pectoral. 

Xiyc'opuS, Tournefort. {Avko^, a wolf ; 
-TTous, a foot. G. JFolfsfuss.) A Genus of the 
Nat. Order Labiatce. 

Ii. europae'us, Linn. (F. marrube 
aquatique, m. d'cau, lycope des marais ; G. 
JFasserandorH.) Hab. Europe. Used as an 
astringent and febrifuge, and in passive haemor- 
rhages and mucous discharges. In Italy it is 
used in intermittent fevers under the name £rba 

Ii. pu'mila. (L. pumilus, dwarfish.) The 
L. virginicus. 

Ii. sinua'tus. ^L. sinualus, winding.) 
Gipsy weed. Hab. Nortn America. Used as L. 

Jm. unlflo'rus. (L. wms, one ; Jlos, a 
flower.) The £. virginicus. 

It. virg^inicus, Linn. (F. lycope de 
Yirginie ; G. Virginischer IVolfsfuss.) Bugle- 
weed. Hab. North America. A sedative and 
astringent, reducing the fulness of the pulse. 
Used in haemoptysis and ha^matemesis. In largo 
doses it is narcotic. 

Iiycores'in. A resinous matter found in 

Xiycorrhex'is. (Auko9 ; 6>£gis, a long- 
ing after. F. lycorrhexie ; G. IVolfshuyiger.) 
Wolfish appetite. Same as Bulimia. 

Xiyc'orys. A thirteenth century spelling 
of Liquorice. 

Xiyco'sa.. (Auhos, a kind of spider.) A 
Genus of the Suborder Dipneumones, Order 

It. taran'tula, Latreille. See Tarantula. 

ZiyCOSte'arone* A substance found in 

ZiyCOS'tOma.. (Aukos, a wolf; o-Toua, a 
mouth.) Cleft palate. 

Xiycot' (Au'kos, a hook ; Tpiirw, 
to turn.) Applied to an orthotropal ovule curved 
like a hook or horseshoe. 

Iiyc'OUS. (AuK09.) Of the nature of a 
wolf; of the nature of Lycanche. 

Iiy'dus. (Au5os, a Lydian.) A Genus of 
the Family Meloidce, Group Heteromera, Order 
Coleoptera, closely allied to Cantharis. Many 
of the species are vesicant. 

Iiye. (Sax. kdh ; G. Lauge ; from a Teu- 
tonic base lau, to wash. F. lessive ; I. ranna, 
lisciva ; S. lejfa^ A solution of the salts of 
wood ashes, obtained by their infusion in water. 

Also, any alkaline solution. 
3j., dyspep'tic. (Aua-7r£i|/ra, difiiculty of 
digestion.) Same as L., medical. 

Ii., med'lcal. A liquid, used in America 
for indigestion, made by infusing a quart of 
hickory ashes and half a pint of soot in a gallon 
of boiling water for twenty-four hours, and de- 


Ii. tea, Physic's. Stime as L., mtdical. 

Xiyencepll a,la.i (Auio, to unfasten ; 
tyKt'tpaXov, the brain.) One of Sir R. Owen's 
Divisions of Mammalia, being those in which 
the cerebellum and optic lobes are exposed, and 
in which there is no cor])iis callosum. It in- 
cludes the Monotremata and the Marsupialia. 

Xiyencepll'alOUS. Belonging to the 

Xiyg'iS muS. (Auyi'i^co, to bend as does a 
witlie.) Old term (Gr. analogue Xuyio-^Js), 
used by Dioseoiides, iv, 107, for a distortion, 
fracture, or luxation of the bones of a joint. 

Xiyg'mo'des. (Au^/iuioii?.) Hiccup. 

Zjyg'inos. (Aey/ Hiccup. 

ZiygrophllOUS. (Auyj), twili^-lit; <jn\fw, 
to love. F. h/iji pittle.) Dunicril's term for 
tiiose insects wliich frequent dark places. 

Xiyg'Opode. (Auyi; ; iruv'i, a foot. F. 
lijgopodc.) Having the feet hidden in the body. 

Iiy'lng"-!!!. A familiar name for the 
bringing forth of a child and the after puerperal 

Xiyk'ion. See Lycion. 

Xiy'ma. (AH/ia, the water and the dirt 
removed by washing.) Filth or sordes which is 
removed by washing or by purgation. 

Ziymanter'ic. (AD/^a.) Same as Lij- 

Ziyznan'tic. (AG/ua.) Relating to that 

whicTi corrupts or vitiates. 

Lyme. Same as Lyma. 

Xjymph. (L. lympha, water ; generally, 
but erroueously, connected with Gr. vvfiipa, a 
nymph, employed by the later poets to signify 
water. F. lyinphe ; I. linfa; S. Unfa; G. 
Lymphe.) The watery liquid contained in the 
lymphatic system, consisting of a fluid portion, 
the L. plasma, in which float the L. curpusclcs, 
granular and fatty matter, and, in the ductus 
thoracicus, a few red blood-corpuscles. It is 
thin, slightly viscid, clear, transparent, colour- 
less, or yellowish or greenish, opalescent, of 
a saltish taste, alkaline in reaction, and of a 
sp. gr. of about 1"030, sometimes as high as 
1045. On removal from the vessels it coagu- 
lates in five to twenty minutes, forming a clot 
and serum ; the clot is small, wliitish, soft, and 
only slightly contractile ; sometimes it becomes 
reddish from the presence of red blood corpuscles. 
The analyses of human lymph are not reliable, 
its composition probably varying in different 
parts of its course ; it contains a good deal of car- 
bonic acid, some nitrogen, and very little oxygen. 
Hensen and Hahnhardt found iJ8"63 per cent, 
of water with albumin, fibrin, urea, leucin, salts 
chiefly sodium chloride, and other tnatters. The 
plasma is an exudation from the blood ; and the 
corpuscles are derived in some measure from 
it also, being leucocytes that liave escaped from 
the blood capillaries ; they are also produced in 
considerable quantity by the lymphatic glands, 
by the organs containing adenoid tissue, such as 
the intestinal mucous membrane, the spleen and 
the red marrow of bone; by proliferation of the 
connective-tissue corpuscles; and by tlieir own 

The W(n-d lymph is often used alone to signify 
coagulable lymph, or Plastic exudation. 

For an account of the contents of the lacteals 
see Chyle. 

Xm., aplas'tic. ('A, neg. ; TrXaaTiKu-;, fit 
for moulding.) Iiyni])h wliicb contains an excess 
of leucocytes and teuds to suppuration. 

li. -canalicular sys'tem. (L. co>iali- 
culus, a small eliannel. G. l.ympluantilclux- 
system.) Von Ilecklinghausen's term for the 
tnode of origin of the lymphatic vessels, in such 
tissues as the cornea and serous membranes, and 
in the lacuna' and anastomosing caualiculi of the 
branched connective-tissue cells. 

Xi. cap'lUarles. Same as Lymphatic 
vessels, capillary. 

Ii.-cat'aract. See Cataract, lymphatic. 

It. cells. Same as L. corpuscles. 

Ii. chan'nels. Same as L. sinuses. 

Ii., circulation of. (L. circulur., to form 
a circle.) See L., movement of. 

Ii. cis'tern. (L. cisterna, a reservoir for 
water. G. Jjpnphcy stern.) Same as L. sac. 

Hm., coag^'ulable. (L. coayulo, to cause to 
curdle.) John Hunter's term for the fluid wliich 
exudes from cut surfaces which, by its organisa- 
tion, efl'ects their repair, and which is a product 
of adhesive inflammation. See Union oy first 

Also, called Plastic exudation. 

Ii., coagrulant. Same as Z., coagulable. 

Xi. corpuscles. (L.corpusculum, a small 
body. F. corpuscules du lymphe ; G. Lymphkor- 
perchen, Lymphzellen.) Colourless, granular, 
protoplasmic, amoeboid, nucleated cells, or leu- 
cocytes, closely resembling the white corpuscles 
of the blood ; they vary in size and the number 
of the nuclei, the smaller ones having a single 
nucleus and little protoplasm, the larger ones 
two or more nuclei and a larger amount of 
protoplasm ; these latter are the more actively 
amoeboid. They are more numerous in the 
lymph which has passed through a lymphatic 
gland than in that which is entering it. They 
are chiefly derived, by fission, from the leucocytes 
of the lymphatic glands, and probably by a 
similar process in the vessels themselves ; they 
are doubtless also formed in the spleen and in 
the thymus, and some may enter the lymphatic 
vessel by diapedesis from neighbouring struc- 

Ii., corpus'cular. (L. corpusculum, a 
small body.) Sir James Paget's term for in- 
flammatory lymph which contains many cor- 
puscles, and is characteristic of suppurative 

Ii., croup'ous. The exudation of lymph 
which forms a Croupous membrane. 

Ii. cur'rent, rapidity of. (F. vitesse 
da couraut lymphatique.) Weiss, using a ha;mo- 
dromometer, found it to be about 4 mm. per 

Ii. cyst. (Ku(7Tt9, a bag.) A cvst formed 
from a lynijjhatic; usually by the blocking of 
its tube at two points and development of the 
cyst from the intermediate part. 

Ii.-dlph'therite. A synonym of Diph- 

Ii., fi'brinous. {Fibrin.) Sir James 
Paget's term for plastic lymph which contains 
much fibrin, and is characteristic of adhesive 

X. lis'sures. (L. fssura, a cleft. G. 
Lytuphspattcn.) Irregular spaces between the 
elements of the difl'ercnt organs and tissues of the 
body, but especially of the fibrous and tendinous 
structures, into which the thinner parts of the 
blood are exuded, and wliich form the com- 
nienceinent of the lymphatic system of vessels. 
The}' are lined by flattened cells. 

Ii. lis'tula. See Lymphatic fislida. 


Ii. follicles. (L. folUculus, a small luig. 
G. Lymphfollikeln, BalgfiMikdnA Small, hut 
not very detiuitely cii cumscribod, masses of 
connective tissue, the fibres of which are very 
fine and the meshes of which contain numerous 
lymph cells. They are probably percolated by 
the lymph. The solitary glands of the small 
intestines constitute a good example of lympli 

Also, the outer nodular masses of a lymphatic 

Ii. grlands. fF. glandes lymphatiques ; G. 
Lymphdrtiscii.) A generic term for certain 
structures composed of adenoid tissue called L. 
fulliclts, and Lymphittic glands. 

Ii. grlands, com'pound. (G.zusammen- 
gesetzle J.ymphilriinoi.) The Lymphatic glands. 

Ii. grlands, simple. (G. einfache Lyniph- 
drkscii.) 'J'he L. joUicles. 

Ii. gflob'ules. (L. globulus, a small ball. 
G. Lymphkiiycln.) Same as L. curpusclcs. 

Ii.i grlyc'erln. See Glycerin lymph. 

Ii. bearts. (F. cmurs lymplialiijius ; G. 
Lymphherzen.) Muscular sacs, found in all 
Vertebrata below Mammals, which serve to drive 
the lymph in a definite direction. The walls 
contain plexuses of branched striped muscular 
fibres, and are lined with a layer of flattened 
epithelial cells having wavy edges ; they are 
furnished with nerves and ganglia. 

In Pisces, the caudal sinus, situated at the 
posterior extremity of the spinal column, is con- 
tractile, communicates by a cross branch with 
that of the opposite side, receives lymphatics in 
front, and opens into the caudal vein, the aper- 
ture being guarded by a valve. 

In Amphibia, there are anterior and posterior 
lymph hearts. The anterior lymph heart lies on 
each side of the body behind tlie broad transverse 
process of the third vertebra, amongst the fibres 
of the intertransversarius muscle. It is roundish 
in form and communicates with the vena sub- 
scapularis. The posterior lymph heart lies in 
an intermuscular space on each side of the apex 
of the coccyx. It communicates with a vesicle 
which opens into the common iliac vein. The 
rliythmical contraction of this sac may be seen 
through the skin. In Salamander and Siredon 
there are several pulsating sacs on each side of 
the body and tail. They pulsate visibly after 
removal of the cerebral hemispheres. 

In Keptilia, posterior lymph hearts have alone 
been discovered. They lie in all the Orders upon 
the transverse processes of the hinder vertebi-a3 
or upon the ribs. 

In Aves, lymph hearts have been found in 
Ratitas, Natatoi-es, and Grallae. They have also 
been found in the embryo of the chick, where 
they are of great importance in promoting the 
circiilatiim in the lymphatics of the allautois, 
which open both into tiie jugular and into the 
pelvic veins. They are situated between the 
pelvis and coccyx, and are in communication 
with the lymphatics surrounding the umbilical 
artery. Their pulsations, which are indepen- 
dent of those of the heart, are visible on the 
eighth day, but they gradually become more in- 
distinct and disappear in the adult fowl. 

In Mammalia no pulsating l3mphatic sacs have 
been found. 

Ii., inflam'matory. Same as Z., coa- 

Ii., move'inent of. (G. Fortbeiccgung 
der Lymphe.) The movement, or circulation, as 

it is improperly called, of the lymph in its 
vessels is largely intlueuced by the contraction 
of their muscular walls and by the pressure of 
the contraction of surrounding muscles in the 
presence of the valves ; in inspiration and during 
diastole of the heart tlie j)rcssure in the large 
veins is decreased, and tlie progress of the lymph 
facilitated. In the lyni])h spaces and rootlets 
any increase in the fulness of neighbouring 
blood-vessels forces tlie lymjih onwards, as also 
does contraction of the muscular fibres of the 
intestinal villi, all muscular contraction and 
movement, and all lessened tension in lyn)i)hatic 
vessels. _ The passage of the lymjih through the 
glands is doubtless very slow, and is proiiably 
effected by the contraction of the muscular fibres 
of their capsule and trabeculie. 

Ii. of Cota'grno. Tlie Perilymph. 

Ii., or'ganised. (Ofiydvov, an imple- 
ment.) Plastic lymph wliich has become vas- 

Ii.pas'sagres. (G. Lymphhalmen,Lymph- 
ivege.) Same as Lymphatic sinuses. 

Ii. -paths. ^^G. Lymphbuhncn.) Same as 
L. sinuses. 

Ii., plant. The unelaborated sap of plants. 

Ii.-plas'ma. (llXatr/ia, anything formed. 
Y. plusme de lymphe ; G. Lyniphplasma.) The 
liquid part of the lymph. It is very like blood- 

Ii., plas'tlc. (nXtto-TiKo's, fit for building. 
F. lymphe plastique.) Same as L., coagulable. 
The solid matter of an intlammatory deposit. 

Ii., pres'sure of. (F. pression de la 
lymph.) The pressure of the lymph in the right 
lymphatic trunk of dogs has been estimated by 
Weiss and Noll at from 10—30 mm., of a saline 
solution, having a specific gravity of 1"080. In 
the thoracic duct of a dog Weiss found it to be 
11'69 mm. of mercury. 

Ii. res'ervoir. (G. Lymphbchdlter.) Same 
as L. sac. 

Ii. sac. (G. Lymphsack.) A reservoir for 
the reception of lymph, such as the subcutaneous 
lymph spaces in Amphibia, and those in the 
peritoneal cavity. 

Ii. scro'tum, (L. scrotum, the bag for 
the testicles.) A form of lymphangeioina con- 
sisting of a varicose condition of the lymphatics 
of the scrotum, caused by obstruction in the in- 
guinal or the lumbar glands ; the scrotum is 
corrugated, and studded with soft tubercles, 
which burst and discharge a milky lymph. Ac- 
cording to Manson this condition is usually a 
form of Elephantiasis arabum, and is caused by 
the presence of the Filaria sanguinis hominis in 
the blood. 

Ii. si'nuses. (L. sinus, a gulf.) The irre- 
gularly shaped cavities found in connection with 
the origin of the subcutaneous and the sub- 
mucous lym])hatics, as well as the serous cavities, 
and the suhaiachnoidal and subdural spaces, from 
which lymphatics directly arise. 
Also, the same as L. sac. 
See also Lymphatic sinuses. 

Ii. space. (G. Lymphraum.) See L. 

Ii. space, subarachnoid'al. (L. sub, 
under ; arachnoid membrane.) The serous space 
lying between the arachnoid membrane of the 
brain and the pia mater. It contains the Cerebro- 
spinal fluid. 

Ii. space, subdu'ral. (L. sub, under ; 
dura mater.) The serous space lying between 



the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane of 
the l>raiii. 

Also called Arachnoid cavity. 

Ii. spa'ces. (G. Li/»ip/iraitme.) The 
irreKulariy sliMped fissures and lacuna; that con- 
stitute the (irijfins or rootlets of the lymphatic 
system in ligaments, tendons, and connective 
tissues generally. They are lined by a single 
layer of flattened cells, sometimes termed endo- 

In some animals, as the frog, large lymph 
spaces are found between the skin and the 

Ii. spa'ces, perlvas'cular. (G. Lrjmph- 
schcidcn.) See I.ympliiitic spdcts, perivascular. 

Ii. tu'xuour. A swelling caused by dilated 

Ii., vac'cine. See Vaccine lymph. 
Itym'plia/. Same as Lymph. 

Ii. arborum. (L. arbor, a tree.) The 
sap of plants. 

Xi. muculen'ta na'rium. (L. mucus, 
slime ; naris, a nnstril.) The mucus of the nose. 

Ii. nutrlc'ia. (L. nutricius, that which 
nourishes.) The Lymph. 

Ii. pancreat'ica. The Pancreatic j nice . 

Ii. pericardii. 'I'hc Pericar(tium,Jtind of. 

Ii. plas'tlca. (llXao-TiKos, fit for mould- 
ing.) A svTionym of Fibrin. 

Ijympll'aden. {Lymph; Gr. a&nv, a 
gland.) A lymphatic gland. 

Xiymphadenec'tasis. {Lymph; Gr. 

iicinv; tHTucri?, extension. U. Lymphadcnectasie.) 
Dilatation of the lymph-sinuses of a lymphatic 
gl.ind forming a tumour. 


{Lymph; Gr. dci'ii/; inrtfj, above ; Tfiofpri, nou- 
rishment. F. lymphadvHhypcrtrophie.) Hyper- 
trophic enlargement of a lymphatic gland. 

Iiympliade'nia. {Lymph ,■ Gr. itonv, a 
gland, i'. lymphudtnie; \. liiifadinia ; S. lin- 
fadetiia.) A synonym of Lymphadenosis. 

Ii., cuta'neous. (L. cutis, the skin. F. 
lymphadenic culancc.) A synonym of Granu- 
loma funyoidcs. 

Ziympliad'enism. {Lymph ; Gr. aRi'iv.) 
Tbe condition of which lympliadenonia is the 

Xiyxnpliadexii'tis. {Lymph; Gr. «o»iv, 

a gland. F. lymph'idinite ; G. Lymphdriisen- 
entziindany.) Inflammation of the lymphatic 
glands. Same as Adenitis. 

Ii., scrofulous. See Lymphatic glands, 


Xiympliad'enoJid. {Lymph ; Gr. u^i')v; 

fioo?, fiinii.) Kesembling the tissue of a lymph- 
atic gland. 

Xiytnpliadeno'ma. {LAjmph ; Gr. a^vv, 

a gland. F. lymphadrnome ; G. Lymphdriisen- 
geschwalst, Lymph zellcnycschwulst, Lyymphadc- 
nom.) An ah normal development, or a tumour 
consisting, of lymplioid tissue. It may be hyper- 
trophic, intlamniatory, tul)ercular, orin a general 
sense malignant, as m Lymphadenosis. 

Also, a synonym for the disease better called 

Also, used in the same sense as Lymphoma. 

Ii., benigrn'. Same as L., simple. 

X. caverno'sum. (L. caverna, a hole.) 
Arnstein's term for the condition found in Ma- 

Ii., gren'eral. Same as Lymphadenosis. 

Ii., hypertrophic. ('Wt'//, above; 
Tfio'in'i, nourishment.) A simple enlargement of 

a lymphatic gland without alteration of struc- 

Ii., inflam'matory. An inflammatory 
enlargement of a lymphatic gland ; the increase 
of size is caused by excessive development of 
leucocytes and increase in bulk of the reticular 
connective tissue. Ilesolution, or suppuration, 
or thickening of the structure of the gland may 

Ii., leucse'mlc. Same as Lymphadenosis, 

Ii., mallgr'nant. A sarcoma of a lymph- 
atic gland. 

Ii., multiple. (L. multiplex, manifold.) 
A synonym of Ly)iiphadenosis. 

Ii., non-leucse'mic. (L. «o«, not; leu- 
camia.) Tlie ordinary form of Lymphadeiiosis. 

Ii., sarco'matous. A sarcoma of a lymph- 
atic gland. 

Ii., simple. An enlargement of a lymph- 
atic gland, often to a considerable size, without 
intlammation, or pain, or tenderness, tbe new 
growth being absolutely like to the natural 
structure of the gland; generally only one gland 
is affected, but occasionally one to two neigh- 
bouring glands also become involved. They 
generally cease to grow after a time or get 

Ii., tuber'cular. {Tubercle.) A lymph- 
atic gland which has undergone caseation, com- 
monly called a scrofulous gland. The gland 
becomes yellow, opaque, and friable, and may 
either undergo calcareous degeneration, or, as 
more frequently happens, may soften and sup- 
Xiymphadeno'sis. {Lymph; Gr.aow.) 

The term given by Gowers to a general lymph- 
adenoma in which there is enlargement of the 
lymphatic glands, and, in some degree, of the 
spleen, accompanied by disseminated lym|)hoid 
tumours, with marked and progressive anaemia, 
and some oedema of the face; otherwise called 
Hodgkin's disease, pseudoleucamia, general 
lymphadenoma, malignant lymphoma, lympho- 
sarcoma, antemia lymphatica, adenoid disease, 
and many other terms. 

Its cause is not known ; it occurs most fre- 
quently in children or young persons, chiefly in 
males. The most common antecedent is said to 
be some local irritation, but beyond this all ia 

The earliest symptom generally is a painless 
smooth enlargement of the cervical, axillary, or 
inguinal lymphatic glands, which is often sym- 
metrical; the glands are painless at first, and 
not adherent to each other or to the skin ; occa- 
sionall}' the deeper glands, bronchial, retro- 
peritoneal, or mesenteric, are the first attacked, 
and then dyspnoea, or pain, or other pressure- 
symptom may be the first, thing complained of; or, 
again, amemia and failure of the general health 
may precede any notable increase in bulk of the 
lymphatic glands. As the disease advances the 
glands grow to a very large size and become 
adherent to each other, sometimes from inflam- 
mation, often from rupture of the capsule and 
confluence of the growth, and the general health 
surters greatly; there is distinct ana-mia, the 
blood becomes thin and pale, the red corpuscles 
being largely reduced in number ; most usually 
the white corpuscles are a little more numerous, 
but in a few cases, the leuca'mic form, they are 
in great excess; the face is markedly pale and 
waxen, haniorrhage from the nose or other partd. 


and purpuric spots may occur; there is quick 
breatljiug and dyspnoea on any exertion ; tlie 
temnerature is raised and may become persis- 
tently high. At a later stage the breathing may 
be still more affected from pressure of tlie en- 
larged glands upon the trachea or upon the pneu- 
mogastric nerve ; difficulty of swallowing from 
like pressure on the oesophagus may produce 
chronic starvation ; there may be vomiting and 
diarrhoea; ami death may occur from any of 
these things, from exhaustion, from pneumonia 
or oedema of the lungs, or from coma or con- 

Lj'mphadenosis is a non-inflammatory disease 
of the lymphatic tissue of the body, characterised 
by a growth of the lymphoid and reticular ele- 
ments of which it is composed. The glands may 
be soft 01 hard, harder usually the longer the 
disease has lasted ; on section they are whitish- 
yellow, waxy, and tirm, or whitish-grey, opaque, 
and pulpy; the soft glands yield a milky juice, 
the hard ones none ; in both forms there is a 
great increase of the cellular elements of the 
gland tissue, and in the hard form increase of 
the fibrous tissue also ; they may undergo various 
degenerations, but seldom the caseous. The 
spleen is enlarged, and the tonsils and the follicles 
of the intestinal mucous membrane hypertrophy. 
Lymphoid nodules of various size are often found 
in the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, and other 
organs, indeed wherever there is lymphoid tissue ; 
deposits have been observed in the medullary 
and the cancellous tissue of bones. 

Ii., leucae'mic. (Atuho's, white ; aT/u«, 
blood.) The fonu of L^imphadenosis in whicli 
the white blood-corpuscles are very numerous. 
It is possible that it is a concurrence of two dis- 
eases, leucoeythiemia and leucadenosis. 

Iiympliseduc'tUS. {Lymph ; L. dtictus, 
a leading.) A lymphatic vessel. 

Iiympliae'inia. {Lymph; Gr. aifxa, 

blood. G. I^yi)tph(imie.') A synonym of Leuco- 
cyllurmia, and of Z., lymphatic, 

Ziymphaneurys'ina. {Lymph; Gr. 

avfupuaua, a widening.) Busch's term for 

^ Xiymphang'eiec'tasis. {Lymph ; Gr. 

ayytiov, a Vessel; 'tKTaai<;, extension. F. 
lyinphangiectasie ; G. Lymphgefdssausdehnnng, 
Lymphgefdsserweiterung, Lymphangiectasie.) 
Dilatation, simple or varicose, of the lymphatic 
vessels in lesser degree than that which consti- 
tutes lymphangeioma. It may be congenital, or 
may follow an attack of lymphangitis or lymph- 
adenitis, or may result from the presence of 
Filaria sanguinis hominis. The lymphatics may 
become ruptured and discharge lymph. Chyluria 
is by some supposed to be the result of rupture 
of dilated lacteals. 

Zm., cav'ernous. Same as Lymphan- 
geioma, carcrnosum. 

Ii., cys'toid. (Ku(TTi9, a bag; tl^os, like- 
ness.) Same as Lymphangeioma, cystic. 

Jt., retic'ular. (L. reticulum, a little net.) 
The variety which involves the smallest vessels 
forming a distinct network. 

Ii., slm'ple. Same as Z., reticular. 

Im., tu'bular^ (L. tubulus, a small pipe.) 
The variety in which the larger vessels are af- 
fected forming long, tortuous, and often varicose 

Iiymphang-eiecto'des. {Lymph ; 

Or. ayytiov, a vessel ; i' Kxacris, extension ; 
tifios, likeness.) A rare disease of the skin 

first described by Sydnej' Jones as lymph- 
angioma. It consists of small, colourless, or 
slightly coloured, closely-lying, thick-walled, 
deep-seated vesicles, in irregular groups, filled 
with a colourless alkaline fluid containing a few 
lytnph-corpuscles ; some at least of the vesicles 
are dilatations of the capillary lymphatics. It 
is confined to one spot, spreads very slowly at its 
edges, and has a great tendency to recur. See 
also Jjupus lymphutirus. 

Ziyxnphang-eien'chysis. {Lymph ; 

Gr. ayyilov; t'yx"<'''S !i pouring in.) Injection 
of the lymphatic vessels. 

Iiymphang-eiofibro'ina. {Lymph; 

Gr. ayytlov, a \iif,m\; Jibroma. Y. lymphaugio- 
fihrome.) A fibrous tumour of a lymphatic 
gland ; a form of fleshy wart. 

Xiymphang-eio'ma. {Lymph; Gr. 

ayytlof, a vessel. F. lymphangiome.) A tumour 
consisting chiefly of dilated lymphatic vessels. 
It is perhaps an important condition of some 
other disease rather tlian an independent morbid 
growth ; it occurs in Elephantiasis urabum, in 
Lymph-scrotum, in Macroglossia, and in the 
cutaneous disease called Lymphangeiectodes. 

Also, Sj'dney Jones's term for Lymphangeiec- 

3j. caverno'sum. (L. eaverna, a hole.) 
Virchow's term for a lymphangeioma in which 
the spaces containing the lymph are very large, 
as in some forms of macroglossia and in cystic 

Jm., cys'tic. (Kuo-xis, a bag.) The form 
in which convolutions of larger or smaller 
vesicles containing lymph occur amongst the 
dilated lymphatics. 

Ii. of tongue. A synonym of Macro- 

!•., sim'ple. A synonym of Lymphan- 

It. tubero'sum mul'tiplex. (L. tube- 
rosus, full of swellings ; multiplex, manifold.) 
Kaposi's term for a very rare disease of the skin 
in which brownish-red, smooth, lentil-shaped 
tubercles are scattered in great numbers over 
the skin ; the tubercles are firm, elastic, and 
slightly painful, and contain a little fluid and 
some gelatinous substance ; on section the aper- 
tures of numerous dilated lymphatics are seen. 
It is probably the same disease as Lymphangei- 

Zi^xnpban^eiomyo'ma. {Lymph; 

Gr. ayytlov; /uOs, a muscle.) A myoma in 
which the lymphatics are much dilated. 

Xiyznpliang'ei'on. {Lymph; Gr. &y- 

ytlov, a vessel.) A lymphatic vessel. 

Iiympliang'ii'tiS. See Lymphangitis. 

Ii3rmpliang-iog''rapliy. {Lymph; Gr. 

ayyiiov; ypatpw, to write.) A description of 
the lymphatic vessels. 

Iiymphang'io'i'tis. See Lymphangitis. 

Iiympliang-iorog'y. {Lymph; Gr. ay- 
ytlov; \6yoi, an account.) The description of 
the lymphatic vessels. 

Ziympliang'io'llia. See Ijymphan- 

Xiyinpliang'i'on. See Lymphangeion. 

Iiyxnphang-iop'yra. {Lymph ; Gr. 

ayytlvv, a vessel ; irvp, violent fever. F. lymph- 
angiopyre ; G. Lymphgefassjieber.) Fever with 
inflammation of the lymphatic vessels. 

Xiymphang-iopyretos. {Lymph ; 

Gr. ixyytiuv; irujjtTo^, a fever.) Fever from 
inflammation of the lymphatic vessels. 


Ziympliaiig'ios'copy. {Lymph ; Gr. 

ayyiioii; aKOTritu, to observe.) Inspection or 
examination of tlie l3-mpliatic vessels. 

Xiymphang-iot omy. {Lymph; Gr. 

Ayytlini; To/jii, teetiou.) Dissection of the 
1) nipliatic vessels. 

Ziymphang'i'tis. {Lymph; Gr. ayytiov, 

a vessfl. F. lymplianyite ; I. liiifuiKjite ; G. 
Zymphf/efiissentziindinif/.) Intiammation of the 
lymphatic vessels. It chiefly ati'ects the outer 
part of their coats, which become swollen and 
infiltrated with small round cells, but the 
iutiina loses its epithelium and appears to be 
uneven and opaque ; white or rosy soft clots, 
composed of a granular mass with numerous 
corpuscles, form in their interior, especially 
near the valves, and suppuration may result. 
The affection is usually secondary to disease 
in the area from which the lymphatic vessel 
is derived, or it may follow the stings of 
insects. It is of frequent occurrence when the 
pelvic connective tissue is indamed after par- 
turition. When superficial, as in the skin, the 
inflamed lymphatic is marked by one or more 
red and tender or painful lines on the skin, 
oedematous swelling in the surrounding and 
more distally situated parts, and enlargement of 
the glands in the neighbourhood. Kigors and 
febrile symptoms are present, which may be of 
great intensity. If the result is favourable the 
symptoms gradually subside or an abscess may 
form, or death with typhoid sj'niptoms may 
follow. Puerperal phlegmasia dolens, elephan- 
tiasis, scleroma, and a malarious form of disease, 
have all been referred to lymphangitis. 
Also called Angeiolcucitis. 

K.malario'sa idlopatb'ica. {Malaria, 
bad air; Gr. i'otos, peculiar; -Triidos, disease.) 
Kio de Janeiro erjsipelas. An erysipehitoid in- 
flammation affecting the lymphatics of anj' part 
of the body, and implicating the surrcjunding 
connective tissue. If limited in extent, conva- 
lescence soon follows; if extensive, death may 
occur from suppuration or from adynamia. 

Ii. nodosa syptailit lea. (L. nodus, a 
knot; syphUin.) A form of tuberculosis, asso- 
ciated with syphilis, occurring in the lymphatics 
of the lung. The centre of the nodule is a small 
miliary tubercle, which becomes surrounded by 
a thick laminated capsule and then caseates and 
breaks down, and in this way a cavity is formed. 

Im., periu'terine. {^f^Ph around ; L. 
uterus, the womb.) Inflammation of the lymph- 
atics of the connective tissue in the neighbour- 
hood of the womb; generally the sequel of L., 

Ii., pulmonary. (L. puhno, the lung.) 
Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels of the 
lung occurs in the course of pneumonia, broncho- 
pneumonia, pulmonary apoplexy, and other 
diseases of the lung ; and is tibrinous or purulent 
according to the nature of the originating disease. 
It also occurs in the course of pulmonary tuber- 
culo.sis, and is a common mode of the spreading 
of the disease, tubercular nodules being formed 
in the course of the lymphatic vessels. 

Ii., retic'ular. (L. reticulum, a little 
net.) The form in which the capillarj' lymph- 
atic plexus is cliiefly aflfected, producing a dif- 
fused redness of the skin, or a network of red 
streaks. It is seen in whitlow, in erythema 
nodosum, and on the hands of persons who have 
been in contart with putrefying matter. 

Ii., septic. (i;j;i|/t9, putrefaction.) In- 

flammation of the lymphatics produced by ino- 
culation of putrid matter. It is not infrequently 
fatal ; it is the form which occurs in dissection 
wounds, and is the precursor oi Septicemia. 

It. tuberculo'sa. (L. tuber, a swelling.) 
A form of tuberculosis, described by Rindfleisch, 
in which a shining, dense, white new growth 
marks out the sublobar divisions of the lung, to 
which is added a chronic desquamative pneu- 
monia. The larger bronchi and blood-vessels 
are imbedded in the branching, slate-coloured 
or black, cheesy masses. 

Ii., tu'bular. (L. tubulus, a small pipe.) 
The form in which the chief lymphatics are 
affected, producing red lines or streaks on the 
skin, which run to an inflamed gland and are 

Ii., u'terlne. (L. uterus, the womb.) One 
of the C(jnditions producing puerperal fever, and 
caused by the absorption of putrefying material 
from the uterine cavity after labour, either intro- 
duced from without or generated within ; it may 
also be non-puerperal. Tlie womb is large, and 
painful on pressure or on movement ; the inflam- 
mation may spread to the pelvic cellular tissue 
or to the peritoiueum, and may result in disten- 
sion of the lymphatic spaces of the uterus with 
pus, or in pelvic abscess. 

It., 'nran'deringr. Cumow's tei-m for a 
form of L., reticular, occurring generally on the 
back of the hand, and caused by frequent contact 
with putrefying tissues , it commences in reti- 
cular patches, often connected by wavy lines, 
which are painful ; the glands are enlarged and 

Xiyinphang'on'cus. {Lymph ; Gr. Uy- 
yiiov; oyhos, a mass.) A lymphatic swelling or 

Xiymphaposte'ma. {Lymph; Gr. 

uTTiirTTiinu, an abscess. F. lymphaposleme.) A 
lym|iliatic abscess. 

Ziym'pliate. (L. lympho, to drive out of 
one's senses.) Itaving mad from fright. 

XiympbatlC. (L. lympha, water, lymph. 
Y . lymphatiqnc ; \. Inifatico ; S. lixfatico ; G. 
lymphatisch.) Kelating to, or abounding in, or 
of the nature of. Lymph, 

Also, pertaining to the unelaborated sap. 
Also (L. lympho, to make mad), raving from 

Ii. ab'scess. A term for a chronic abscess, 
especially when the contents are clear and trans- 

Ii. anae'mla. {'Avain'ta, want of blood.) 
Wilks's term for Lymphwlenosis. 

^. cacbex'la. (K«x^S'"> ^ ^^^ habit of 
bodj'.) Mursick's term for L.ymphadotosis. 

Ii. cap'illary. (L. cupillus, a hair.) The 
minutest L. vessels described under that sub- 

Ii. cis'tern. (F. citerne lymphatique.) 
Same as L^i/mp/i sac. 

Ii. cul-de sacs. (F. cul, bottom ; de, of; 
sac, a bag.) 'I'he very fine canals with a closed 
outer end which constitute the origins of the 
lacteals, and, according to Teiehmann, also of 
the lymphatics in the papillae of the tongue and 
of the corium. 

X. duet. The Ductus thoracicus. 

la. duct, left. The Ductus thoracicus. 

Ii. duct, rig:Iit. The Ductus thoracicus 

Ii. ducts. The same as Z. vessels. 

Ii. Us'tula. (L._^.v^«/^/, a pipe. G. Lymph- 


fistel.) A more or less permanent opening into 
a dilated lymphatic vessel from whicli lym]]li or 
chyle exuilcs. 

Ii. g'an'g'llons. {VayyXiov^a. tumour under 
the skin. ¥. (ja)i<jVwns bjinphatiques.) The L. 

Xi. g-lands. (L. glana, an acorn. F. 
ganglions liiixphatiques ; G. Lipiiphdriisen, 
Lymphhiotoi.) Rounded or elongated bodies, 
sometimes solitary, but often arranged in groups 
or chains, as in the groin, in the axilla, in the 
mesenterj', in the posterior mediastinum, and in 
the neck, and placed in the course of the lymph- 
atic vessels ; they vary in size from that of a 
hemp-seed to that of an almond, and generally 
have a depression or fissure at one side, the 
hilum; the vessels carrying lymph to them are 
the afferent lympliatics, those carrying it away 
are the efferent lymphatics. The lymphatic 
glands are composed of adenoid tissue lying in 
compartments, or alveoli, formed by trabecuhe 
derived from the investing capsule which all 
possess, and are usually described as consisting 
of a cortical and a medullary part; but the 
structure is essentially the same in each, and 
the difference consists, firstly, in the form of the 
alveoli or compartments, which are larger and 
spherical or oblong in the cortical part, smaller, 
cylindrical, and irregular in the medullary 
portion ; and, secondly, in the colour, which is 
greyish-white in the cortex, and much darker 
from excess of blood in the medullary portion. 
The capsule is composed of connective tissue, 
containing unstriped muscular fibres ; it sends 
septa or trabecuhe of its own structure into the 
interior of the gland from the surface and at the 
hilum; these form a large number of compart- 
ments or alveoli, communicating with each other, 
which contain the gland tissue, and are large 
and rounded, l-60th to l-24th of an inch in dia- 
meter in the cortical part, smaller and irregular 
in the medullary portion. By means of the cap- 
sule and its prolongations the blood-vessels and 
the nerves enter the gland. The parenchyma, 
composed of adenoid tissue, the proper gland 
tissue, occupies the alveoli, forming rounded 
nodules or lymph follicles in the cortical part, 
and lymphoid cords, or funicular threads, or 
medullary cylinders, containing the blood-vessels, 
in the medullary part, all connected with each 
other throu ghout the gland, but separated from the 
partitions by a narrow space all round, the lymph 
spaces, or lymph paths, or lymph channels, or 
lymphatic sinuses ; these spaces are traversed bj' 
filaments of connective tissue, with some nuclei, 
and contain lymph with a few lymph corpuscles. 
The afferent lymphatics open into the lymph- 
paths on the convex surface of the gland, whilst 
the efferent vessels emerge from the lymphatic si- 
nuses at a slight depression, not always present, 
named the hilum, where they form a dense plexus. 
The lymph traverses the lymphatic sinuses com- 
paratively rapidly, but percolates slowly through 
the medullary substance, and is found to have 
undergone certain changes in its characters as it 
leaves the gland bj' the efferent vessels, becoming 
more disposed to coagulate, and containing many 
lymphoid cells, which are believed to be capable 
of developing into blood-corpuscles. Thei-e are 
about 3.50 lymphatic glands in the human body. 
Those of the occipital region are usually one or 
two in number, those of the neck seven to eight, 
of the axilla three or four, of the cubital region 
two, and of the inguinal region eight or nine. 

They doubtless are largely concerned in the 
formation of the lymph-corpuscles. 

The several lymphatic glands are described 
under Gla)id by their respective names, as G.s, 

Ii. grlands, false. {¥. faussps glandcs 
lympltai'iqiica.) Gerbcr's term for certain small 
lymphatic glands of the porijihery and of the 
thoracic and abdominal cavities, which consist 
only of clusters of lymphatic vessels. 

Ii. g-lands, scrofulous. Same as 
Lymphailtnniiia, tuhn-ciddr. 

Ii. gflands, tuberculo'sls of. Same as 
Lymphadrnoinfi, tuhcrenlnr. 

Ii. balrs. Those simple and compound 
hairs which occur as appendages of the epidermis 
of plants, and are either empty or contain fluid 
of a watery nature, which may be colourless or 
coloured. They are distinguislied from glandular 
hairs, which contain special secretions. 
Ii. hearts. See Lymph hearts. 
Ii. infu'sion. The use of tlie Infusor. 
It. leucocytbae'mia. See Leucocythce- 
mia, lymphatic. 

Ii. nod'ules. (L. nodulus, a small knot.) 
Small masses of lymphoid tissue, such as the 
solitary glands of the intestine. 

X. cede'ma. See (Edema, lymphatic. 
Ii. parametrl'tis. See Parametritis, 

Ii. plex'us. (L. plexus, a weaving. F. 
reseau lymphutique ; G. Ly mphgefassnelz.) The 
network of lymphatic capillaries in the subcu- 
taneous and submucous tissues from which the 
l5'mphatics are, according to one view, believed 
to take origin ; a fine plexus is also found under 
the serous membranes and the synovial mem- 

Ii. plex'us, deep. (Y . reseau lymphatique 
profond.) The L. plexus. 

Ii. plex'us, lad'der. (L. plexus. F. 
reseau lymphatique en echelles ; G. Leitcrlymph- 
gefdssnetz.) Ludwig's term for the lymphatic 
plexus of tendons which, according to him, con- 
sists of parallel ducts connected by transverse 

Ii. plex'us of capillic'ull and la- 
cu'nse. (Dim. of L. capillus, a hair; lacuna, a 
hole. F. reseaux lymphatiques des capiUicules 
et des lacunes.') Sappcy's term for a very tine- 
meshed plexus from which, he contends, the 
lymphatics arise. The capilliculi are about -001 
mm. in diameter, but enlarge a little at their 
opening into the lacunas; they consist of a very 
fine membrane without endothelium. The la- 
cunae occur at the confluence of many capilliculi, 
and are irregularly star-shaped, their borders 
being concave ; they vary in diameter from 002 
mm. to '006 mm. This plexus covers the whole 
surface of the external integument, extending 
through the entire thickness of the papilhc, and 
it communicates by means of minute trunks with 
the deeper or subpapillary plexus. 

Ii. plex'us, subpap'illary. (L. suh, 
under; papilla, a teat. F. reaeau lymphatique 
sous-papillaire .') The Z. plexus. 

Ii. rad'lcles. (L. radicula, a small root.) 
The origins of the L. vessels. 

Ii. septicae'mla. See Septiccsmia, lymph- 

Ii. sl'nuses. (L. sinus, a gulf. F. sinus 
lymphatiques ; G. Lymphhahnen.) The spaces 
surrounding the lymphoid cords and nodules of 
a lymphatic gland, and lying between them and 


the tnibeculie forming the compartmeuts or 
alveoli of the gland ; and also similar spaces be- 
tween the cortex of the gland and its capsule ; 
they are enclosed by endothelium on the tra- 
becular side, and probably also on the side of the 
gland tissue. They contain a reticulum of fibres, 
to which are attached large transparent endo- 
thelioid plates, and are tilled with l^mph con- 
taining large anicebifonu lymph corpuscles and 
some small lymph corpuscles. 

See also Lymph t^hniscs. 
Is. spaces, perivascular. (Tltpi, 
around ; L. vasculuni, a small vessel. F. espaccs 
lymphatiques perirasculaircs ; G. perivasculdre 
Lymphrdumen.) The delicate sheaths which 
surround the blood-vessels in the brain, retina, 
and various other organs. The space between 
the sheath and the blood-vessel contains lymph, 
with a few lymph corpuscles. 

Ii. sys'tem. (F. systime lymphatique ; 
G. Lymphycfassnystem.) The several structures 
traversed by the lymph, consisting of the 
l}Tnphatic radicles, the lymph capillaries and 
plexuses, the lymphatic vessels, including the 
lacteals, the lymphatic glands, the receptaculum 
chyli, and the thoracic duct ; some also include 
the serous membranes and cell spaces of the 
connective tissue. The lymphatics only exist as 
a separate system in Vcrtebrata. 

In Pisces, there are numerous independent 
lymph- paths, which originate in a capillary 
plexus beneath the skin and stand in close relation 
to the mucous canals, especially those of the late- 
ral line. The larger lymphatics are distributed 
in the intermuscular ligaments, and especially 
at the base of the tins. They are abundant in 
the intestinal tract of the skate and ray fish. 
In the Teleostei they are chieUy found near the 
spine, and coalesce to form two longitudinal 
trunks, one of which lies on the ventral surface 
of tlie vertebral column, and the other in the 
spinal canal. Fishes have a contractile caudal 

In Amphibia, and especially in the Anura, 
wide Licunar spaces exist beneath the skin, 
separated from each other by delicate connective 
tissue septa. Hence the ease with which the 
skin can be pinched up in these animals. Each 
subcutaneous lymph space communicates with 
the great body lymph sac of the peritoneal 
cavity. Fourteen lymph sacs have been de- 
scribed by Ecker in the frog. The mucous 
membrane of the palate, of the eyelids, and 
membrana nictitans are all rich in lymphatics. 
The lymphatics of the intestines discharge their 
contents into a common lymph sac, which extends 
between the two laniin;e of the mesentery to the 
vertebral column, and opens into the subver- 
tebral lymph space which invests the aorta. The 
movement of the lymph is aided or effected by 
anterior and posterior Lymph hearts. 

In Keptilia, the relations of the lymphatic 
system are essentially similar, the subvcrtehral 
siuus discharging its fluid anteriorly into the 
right and left brachioceplialic veins, and poste- 
riorly into the sciatic and advehent renal veins. 
Only posterior lymj)h hearts have been found. 
The lower Keiitilia possess no lymph hearts. 

In Aves, the subvertebral lymph s]>a<'e becomes 
more defined and is named the ductus tlioracicus, 
but has the same communications. The vessels 
are supplied with valves. Lymph hearts have 
been found in some genera. 

In ilammalia, the ductus thoracicus often com- 

mences with a sinuous dilatation, and receives the 
lymjjhalics of the lower extremities and the pel- 
vis, and the lacteals of the intestine. Running 
forwards it terminates in the left brachiocephalic 
vein. The lymphatics of the head, neck, and 
anterior extremities open into the left brachio- 
cephalic vein. No l3Mnph hearts, or rhythmically 
contractile sacs, have been foiUKl in Mammals. 

Ii. system, development of. The 
several parts of the lymphatic system are derived 
from the mesoblast. 

The lymphatic vessels are developed in con- 
nection with the connective tissue in the same 
manner as the blood-vessels; one of the con- 
nective-tissue corpuscles becomes vacuolated, the 
vacuole increases in size, fills with fluid, and is 
surrounded by a thin cell-wall of protoplasm, 
from which the lymph corpuscles are developed 
by a process of budding ; the original nucleus 
increases by fission, the progeny are embedded 
in the cell-wall, and there become the epithe- 
lium ; neighbouring connective- tissue corpuscles 
that have undergone this change give off 
branches, which meet each other and form the 
lymphatics. In some places the embryonic 
lymphatics form close networks, lymph cells are 
developed in these, and then connective-tissue 
elements and blood-vessels, and thus a lymphatic 
gland is formed. 

Ii. tem'perament. See Temperament, 

Ii. tis'sue. Same as Lymphoid tissue. 

Ii. tis'sue tu'mour. A Lymphoma. 

Ii. trunk. (L. truncus, a stem.) A large 
lymphatic vessel formed by the union of smaller 

Ii. trunk, axillary. (L. axilla, the 
armpit.) A large vessel, or sometimes two or 
three, formed by the union of the efferent 
vessels of the axillary glands, which empty 
themselves into the ductus thoracicus on the 
left side, and into the ductus thoracicus dexter 
on the right side. 

Ii. trunk, intesti'nal. (L. intestinum, 
a bowel.) A large vessel, or sometimes more, 
firmed by the junction of the lacteals, and open- 
ing into the lower end of the ductus thoracicus. 

Ii. trunk, jug-'ular. (L. juyidum, the 
throat.) A trunk formed by the junction of the 
efferent vessels of the deep cervical glands, and 
opening into the ductus thoracicus or into one 
of the neighbouring large vcius. 

Xi. trunk, lumbar. (L. lumbus, the 
loin.) A short trunk formed by the union of 
some of the efferent vessels of the lumbar glands, 
and opening into the commencement of the 
ductus thoraci(!us. 

Xi. tubes. (G. Lymphrohren.) Same as 
L. vessels. 

Ii. tu'mour. A Lymphoma. 

Ii. tu'mour, vascular. (L. vasculum, 
a small vessel.) A Lymphanyeioma. 

Ii.s, va'rix of. See Farix, lymphatic. 

Ii. vein, great. (¥. yrandc veine lymph- 
atiqi«\) 'V\\v Ductus thoracicus dexter. 

Ii. ves'sels. (F. vaisscux li/mphatiques ; 
G. Jjymphyrjdssc.) The vessels, also called ab- 
sorbents, which arising in, and traversing, ttie 
greater number of the tissues and organs of the 
body, contain the lymj)!! and the chyle, and 
which, after passing through the lymphatic 
glands, discharge their contents into tlie great 
veins at the root of the nei'k by means of the 
ductus thoracicus and the ductus thoracicus 


dexter; occasionally some of tlie branches which 
go to form these truiiks open separately into these 
veins. It has been said by Lippi that some 
lymphatics open into the abdominal veins, but 
tbis assertion is now doubted. Tiie lynipliatics 
of the intestines which convey the chyle are 
called Lacteal vessels. 

The details of the exact origin of the lymph- 
atic vessels are still somewhat uncertain. The 
view commonly taken, which is essentially that 
of von Kecklingliausen, is that they are in inti- 
mate connection with the cell spaces of the con- 
nective tissue and their intercommunicating 
branchlets or canaliculi, and that the endo- 
thelial cells which form the walls of the smallest 
lymphatic vessels or capillaries are directly con- 
tinuous with the connective-tissue cells lying in 
the Cell spaces ; in short, that the cell spaces and 
theii- branches are the rootlets of the lymphatics, 
into which they open by continuity of channel, 
or by stomata between the endothelial cells of 
the lymphatic capillaries. In the other direc- 
tion, these cell spaces are supposed by Arnold to 
be in equally close relationship with the blood 
capillaries, so that plasma exuding from them 
through the stomata in their walls enters the 
cell spaces, from whence the tissues take up 
what they need and give back effete matter, 
which, with the unabsorbed plasma, passes on as 
lymph into the lymphatic capillaries. 

This is supposed to be the common mode of 
origin of the lymphatics, but variations occur in 
ditt'erent structures, as when they arise from 
perivascular spaces, or from the lymph space in 
the tunica adventitia of the blood-vessels of the 
brain, or from the interstitial slits or lacuna; 
between the coils of the tubules of the testicle, 
or the alveoli of other glands; they are also 
believed to arise from all the serous cavities by 
pseudostomata, and in the villi of the small 
intestines in a closed but dilated end. 

According to Sappey, the origin of the lymph- 
atic vessels is essentially difierent; above and 
beyond the plexus above noted he describes a 
plexus of capilliculi and lacunai in the papillie 
of the skin and of some mucous membranes, 
which cannot be filled by a mercurial injection, 
which has no connection with the cell spaces of 
the connective tissue by stomata or otherwise, and 
which has no direct connection with the blood 
capillaries. And, contrary to the general belief 
that there are hardly any, perhaps none, of the 
structures and organs of the body which do not 
possess lymphatics, he is of opinion that they 
are not only absolutely and constantly wanting 
in the whole of the connective tissue, including 
the fibrous tissues with the elastic tissues and the 
osseous tissue, but also in the serous and syno- 
vial membranes, in the central and peripheric 
nervous systems even in the perivascular sheaths, 
and in the blood-vessels, as well as in the 
vesical and ureteral mucous membranes, and in 
some glands as the salivary and lacrymal glands ; 
but that they arise only in the skin, the papillary, 
villous, and some smooth mucous membranes, in 
most true glands and blood glands, in striped 
and perhaps all unstriped muscles, and in cer- 
tain organs, such as the lungs and the uterus. 
The method of investigation adopted by Sappey 
was to subject the vessels to putrefaction and 
the injection of microbes, which give them a 
finely granular aspect and a yellowish colour. 

The lymphatic capillaries, or smallest lymph- 
atic vessels, are irregular in size and shape, and 

contain no valves ; at their origin they join 
each other fre(iuently and form a fine plexus, 
from which the lymphatic vessels arise; these 
uniting constitute the larger lymphatic vessels, 
which have valves and numerous anastomoses. 
As they approach a lympliatic gland they divide 
before entering it, and form the L. vessvlx, uffcient, 
which give their external coat to the capsule of 
the gland and pass throujih it as the Lijinphatic 
sinuacs ; these converge towards the lulus of tiie 
gland, where they form a plexus, from which two 
or three ducts, or often only a single duct, arise, 
the L. vessels, efferent, whicli in turn receive 
from the capsule their outer coats. 

The walls of the capillary lymphatics are en- 
tirely composed of a thin basement membrane 
covered by a delicate layer of elongated wavy- 
bordered epithelial cells, which extends into the 
cell-spaces of tissues containing lymphatirs. 
They possess no valves. According to some they 
possess no walls but are simple tracks in the 

The larger lymphatic vessels have three coats : 
an inner one consisting of a single layer of en- 
dothelial cells, nucleated, oblong, and serrated 
at the edge, the endothelial lining, and some 
layers of longitudinal elastic fibres, the intima ; 
a middle coat of circularly and obliquely disposed 
muscular fibres of the unstriated variet}', with a 
few branched elastic fibres, the media ; and an 
external coat of white connective tissue with a 
few longitudinal elastic fibres and some longitu- 
dinal and oblique bundles of unstriped muscle, 
the adventitia. They possess numerous valves, 
which are formed by a reduplication of the lining 
membrane, and they are more or less moniliform 
in shape. Nutrient blood-vessels are distributed 
to their middle and outer coats, but no nerves 
have as yet been demonstrated. 

The lymphatics are divisible into the super- 
ficial and the deep vessels. The former arise in 
the skin, traverse the subcutaneous tissue, and 
accompany and surround the superficial veins; 
the latter arise in the subaponeurotic parts, and 
accompany the arteries and their venae comites ; 
they are larger than the superficial lymphatics, 
but not so numerous. The lymphatics of each 
plane anastomose freely, but the two planes have 
little or no communication with each other ; the 
anastomosis between vessels on the same plane 
is of a different nature to that between blood- 
vessels, being neither arched nor transverse, but 
consisting in the longitudinal convergence of two 
neighbouring vessels. 

Also, De CandoUe's term for the vessels of 
plants which convey a watery juice or unelabo- 
rated sap. 

Ii. ves'sels, afferent. (L. affcro, to 
bring to. F. vaisseaux lymphatiques afferents.) 
The lymphatic vessels which enter a lymphatic 
gland on its convexity. They branch freely, 
penetrate the capsule, and open into the lymph- 

Jm. ves'sels, capil'lary. (L. capillus, a 
hair. F. vaisseaux lyinphatiques caiiillaires ; 
G. Lymphcapillarcn .) See under L. vessels. 

ii. ves'sels, efferent. (L. efero, to 
carry out. F. vaisseaux lymphatiques effirents.) 
The lymphatic vessels which leave a l3mphatic 
gland at the hilus. They are always fewer in 
number than the aflerent vessels of the same 
gland, and are not infrequently single. 

Ii. ves'sels, In'ferent. (L. infcro, to 
carry into.) Same as L. vessels, afferent. 


Ii. vessels, inflamma'tlon of. See 


Xi. ves'sels, lacteal. See Lacteal 

Ii. ves'sels, origin of. See under L. 

Jt. ves'sels, or'igrin of, interstitial. 
(L. iuterstitium, a space between.) Same as L. 
vessels, o}-if/i)i of, Inritnar. 

Ii. ves'sels, origin of, lacunar. (L. 
lacuna, a hole.) The mode of origin wliieh ob- 
tains in most glandular organs and in the heart 
where irregular spates, containing iyinph, occupy 
the interstices of the connective tissue, separate 
the secreting tissue from the blood-vessels, and 
lie between the muscular fibre cells. 

Ii. ves'sels, or'igin of, plex'iform. (L. 
plexus, a twining; forma, sliape.) The mode of 
origin which obtains in the skin, some mucous 
membranes and the serous membrane, where 
there are one or more plexuses of vessels which 
vary in size and shape. 

It. ves'sels, perivas'cular. (ncpi, 
around ; L. rascnlum, a small vessel. F. vais- 
seatLV lymphatiques perivasciilaires ; G. peri- 
vasculiire Lymphgefiisse.') The close plexus of 
small lymphatic capillaries which sometimes 
surrounds an artery or a vein or both. Some- 
times the ensheathing lymphatic is single. 

X. ves'sels, praecapil'lary. (L. pr(B, 
in front of; cupillus, a hair. G. vorcnpillare 
Li/mphgefdsse.) The smaller lymphatic vessels 
■which arise from the capillary lymphatic plexus. 
They are short, irregularly-dilated vessels, anas- 
tomosing frequently, and possessing valves. 

Ii. ves'sels, tbrombo'sis of. (Boo'/u- 
/3os, a clot. G. Thrombose der Lymphgcfusse.) 
Coagulation of lymph in a lymphatic, genefally 
as a result of inflammation, especially seen in 
cases of parametritis. 

Tm. ves'sels, valves of. (F. valvules des 
vaisseaux lij)iij)h(itifiH(S ; G. Klappen der Li/mph- 
gcfdsse.) Semilunar folds of the inner coats of 
most of the lymphatic vessels above the size of 
the lymph capilhiries. They were first described 
in 1653 by Kudbeck, and almost simultaneously 
by Bartholin. They are very nunKTous and are 
regularly disposed in pairs on opposite sides of 
the vessel at a distance of 2 to 10 or 13 niille- 
metres from each other ; the free inner border is 
thin, and descriljes a parabolic curve looking to 
the heart ; their fixed convex border is thicker, 
and corresponds at its attachment to the wall to 
a narrowing of the vessel, and the whole valve 
to a bead-like enlargement of the vessel. The 
lymphatics of Pisces and Amphibia contain no 
valves, and they are much fewer in Aves than 
in Mammalia. 

Xiymphat'ics. {Lymph. F. hjmph- 
atiques ; G. Lymphgefdsse.) The Lymphatic 

Ii.s, capillic'uli of. See under Lymph- 
atic plexus of copilliculi and lacuna:. 

Ii.s, cir'cumflex il'iac. (L. circumflexus, 
turned back ; ilia, the tianks.) Lym]>hatics 
which arise in the abdominal walls, converge on 
the iliac crest, accompanj' the cireiinitiex iliac 
vessels, and join the outermost external iliac 

Ii.s, dilatation of. Sec Lymphan- 

Ii.s, epigastric. ('ETriy«<rT/;to9, over 
the belly.) I.ynipliatics arising in the muscles 
of the abdominal walls, especially in the rectus 

muscle, ivhich accompany the epigastric yessels, 
and join the middle one of the external iliac 

Jt.s, inflammation of. See Lymphan- 

Ii.s, intercos'tal. (L. inter, between ; 
costa, a rib. F. tyiii]ihatiques intercostaux.) 
The intercostal lymphatics spring from ttie sub- 
jacent muscles, and are divided into anterior 
and ]iosterior. The anterior accompany the in- 
tercostal veins and pass to the prestemal 
ganglia; the posterior, running beneath the 
tibidus lamina which replaces the intercostal 
muscle, traverse two or three gani;lia, tlien re- 
uniting f )rm a trunk which runs down each side 
of the sjiinal column to the receptaculum chyli. 
Ii.s, ischiat'ic. (To-x'oi^, the hip.) 
Lymphatics accompanying the ischiatic arteries 
which, after passing through eight or ten small 
glands in their course, join the internal iliac 

Ii.s, lacu'nse of. See under Lymphatic 
plexus of CfipilUciili and larurxc. 

Ii.s, mam'mary, inter nal. (L. mamma, 
the female breast ; intcrnus, within.) Vessels 
arising over the supra-umbilical part of the 
rectus abdominis, joining a ganglion between 
the xiphoid cartilage and those of the ribs ad- 
jacent, penetrating the thorax, and accompany- 
ing the internal mammary vessels with the an- 
terior lymphatics of the diaphragm to the ductus 
thoracicus on the left side, and the ductus thora- 
cicus dexter on the right. 

Ii.s, ob'turator. (L. obturo, to atop up.) 
Lymphatics accompanying the obturator vessels 
and joining the internal iliac glands. 

Ii.s of back. {Y. lymphatiques da dos ; 
G. Lymphgefdsse des Utickens.) The lymphatics 
of the lower part of the back run to the ganglia 
situated in the fold of the groin, those of the 
upper part run to the ganglia in the axilla. 

Ii.s of blad'der. Lymphatics which, 
along with the very numerous ones of the pro- 
state and those of the vesiculse seminales, join 
the internal iliac glands near the internal iliac 
artery. Sappey doubts the existence of any 
Ij'niphatics of the bladder. 

Ii.s of breast. (F. vaisseaux lympha- 
tiques dii sein ; G. Lymphgefdsse der Brust.) 
There are two sets of these vessels ; one spring- 
ing from the skin over the mammary gland, ttie 
other from the gland itself. The glandular 
plexus is close, and from it branches arise, which 
run forwards and converge towards the areola, 
where they form a dense subareolar plexus; 
from this several large trunks arise that run to 
the axillary ganglia. The superficial plexus is 
close-meshed near the nipple, but looser near 
the periphery of the breast ; the trunks arising 
from it pass to the axillary glands. 

Ii.s of cra'nlal cavity. (Kpavtov, the 
skull.) Lymphatics which arise in the pia 
mater and the choroid plexuses; these latter 
form a trunk, which accompanies the vcn<B 
Galeni, and all pass out of the skull with the 
blood-vessels to the deep cervical glands. 

X.s of di'apbragm. {Ai<'uf)f,aynn, a 
partition wall.) Two anterior trunks, one left 
ami the other right, open into ganglia on the 
antero-latcral jiart of the base of the peric:irdium, 
from whence the}' accompany the internal mam- 
ni;iry lymphatics ; four posterior vessels pass to 
glands on the upper border of the pancreas. 

Ii.s of ear. (F. lymphatiques dupavillon de 


r Oreille ; G. Lymphgefiisne des ausseren Ohres.) 
The external ear is covered on both surf'aoes bj' 
a close network of lymphatics, from wliicli two 
anterior trunks run to a lymphatic gland situated 
in fnmt of the tragus; seven or eight posterior 
trunks to the mastoid ganglia ; and four or live 
inferior trunks to the parotid ganglia. 

Ii.s of eye. (F. hjmphatiqucs du sens 
de la vue ; G. Lympngcfasse des Aiiges.) The 
lymjihatics of the conjunctiva arise from a fine 
plexus at the margin of the cornea, about I mm. 
in breadth, which communicates with a wider 
plexus over the sclerotic. The trunks from this 
join with those from the eyelids at the inner 
and outer angles of the eye. In regard to the 
eye itself no lymphatic vessels can be demon- 
strated by injections made into external lymph- 
atics, and some, as Sappey, deny the existence of 
any intraocular lymphatics; but Schwalbe and 
otliers have shown that interstitial spaces exist 
which can be tilled with injection. Schwalbe 
divides them into the anterior lymphatics, which 
commence in the iris and ciliary processes, are 
in communication with the canal of Petit and 
anterior chamber of the eye, and have their out- 
let by the canal of Schleram, finally discharging 
their contents into the conjunctival plexus; and 
the posterior lymphatics, which commence in 
the perichoroidal space between the choroid and 
Bclerotie, and, passing out with the venaj vorti- 
cosie, discharge themselves into the capsule of 
Tenon. This space is prolonged backwards along 
the optic nerve to the optic foramen, forming the 
supravaginal space, and communicating here with 
the subdural space. Another space, named the 
intervaginal or epivaginal space, can be injected 
by direct puncture, or from the subarachnoid 
space, the Injection passing into the perichoroidal 
space, though it will not pass from the pericho- 
roidal into the subarachnoid space. All these 
spaces are lined with endothelium and contain a 
few lymphoid cells, and are supposed to be parts 
of the lymphatic system. 

X.s of eye'lids. (F. lymphatiques des 
paupurcs ; G. Lymphgefdsse der Augenl'ider.) 
The lymphatics of the lids form two plexuses, one 
in front, the other behind, the tarsus. These pour 
their contents into one or two trunks which are 
situated at the outer and inner angles of the eye, 
the former running over the malar bone to the 
anterior auricular glands, the latter accompany- 
ing the anterior facial vein and running to the 
submaxillary Ij'mphatic glands. 

X.s of face. (F. vaisseaux lymphatiques 
de lafnee.) The lymphatics of the brow, lids, 
and cheeks form a plexus, the trunks arising 
from which run from the outer part of the eve 
to the preauricular and parotidean ganglia ; tiie 
trunks arising from the plexus on the nose, inner 
p;trt of the eyelids, fore part of the cheeks, lips, 
and chin, follow the course of the facial artery, 
and terminate in the median submaxillary 


Ii.s of gren'ltal or'^ans, exter'nal. 

The lymphatics of the scrotum are very nu- 
merous, and pass to the highest of the most in- 
ternal of the superficial inguinal glands ; those 
of the integuments of the penis are most nu- 
merous on the prepuce, and also pass to the same 
gland ; those of the glans penis arise from a 
superficial or intrapapillary and a deep or sub- 
papillary plexus, and also join the same gland ; 
those of the urethra converge towards the fre- 
num of the penis, and terminate in the inguinal 

glands. In the female there is a close subcu- 
taneous plexus on the labia majora, the nymphae, 
the vestibule, and the clitoris, and around the 
meatus urinarius ; it gives origin to six or eight 
trunks, which cross the labia majora, and ter- 
minate in the glands of the groin. 

Tm.s of groin. (F. lymphatiques de la 
region fessiere.) The sujierficial lymphatics 
form an external set, arising in the skin of the 
groin and opening into the external inguinal 
glands; and an internal set arising on the inner 
part of the groin and the anal region, and open- 
ing into the internal inguinal glands. 

Ii.s of head. (F. lymphatiques des teau- 
ments du erune ; G. Lymphyefassc des Kopjes.) 
The lymphatics of the head form an extremely 
close plexus at the vertex and median line, less 
close as the parts more remote from this are 
reached. They are divided into the frontal, 
parietal, and occipital ; the frontal run down- 
wards and backwards and converge to the paro- 
tidean glands ; the anterior parietal run to the 
parotidean glands, the posterior parietal to the 
mastoid glands; the occipital are divided by 
Sappey into the parieto-occipital and the sub- 
occipital; the parieto-occipital vessels form one 
large trunk beneath the si)lenius capitis, which 
then runs down the posterior border of the sterno- 
mastoid muscle, and terminates in one of the 
ganglia that surround the internal jugular vein ; 
the suboccipital group converge to a ganglion 
situated on the complexus in front of the tra- 
pezius ; from this often double ganglion a large 
trunk arises, which lies under the splenius and 
runs horizontally forwards to terminate in the 
inferior mastoid ganglia. 

Zt.s of taeart. See Heart, lymphatics of. 

la.s of In'erulnal glands, efferent. 
These vessels are very numerous and large, and 
open into the external iliac glands. 

Ii.s of intes'tlne. See Intestine, lymph- 
atics of. 

Ii.s of kld'ney. See Kidney, lymphatics 


Xm.s of la'rynz. See Larynx, lymphatics 


Ii.s of limb, lo-w'er. The lymphatics of 
the leg are superficial and deep. The super- 
ficial lymphatics spread over the limb in nearly 
parallel lines and arise in a very rich plexus 
covering the integument of the toes, of the sole, 
of the sides of the dorsum, and of the hinder 
part of the heel, and by very delicate radicles 
from the other parts of the skin of the limb ; 
the digital lymphatics form a plexus on the 
dorsum of the foot, from which trunks extend 
along the front and outer side of the leg, and 
follow the track of the internal saphena vein to 
the superficial inguinal glands; the internal 
plantar branches follow the course of the in- 
ternal saphena vein; the external plantar 
branches divide at the knee, some cross the 
ligamentum patelhe to the inner set, others run 
along the outer part of the thigh and bend over 
to the superficial inguinal glands. The deep 
lymphatics form four groups, accompanying 
severally the external saphena vein, the ante- 
rior tibial, the posterior tibial, and the peroneal 
blood-vessels, which all join the popliteal 
glands, the anterior tibial lymphatics after 
passing through the anterior tibial gland ; from 
the popliteal glands branches run upwards, along 
with lymphatics accompanying the femoral 
vessels, and empty into the deep inguinal 


glands. The lymphatics of the obturator vessels 
open into a pelvic gland lying near the obturator 
canal, those accompanying the ischiatic vessels 
open into the posterior iliac glands, and tliose 
accompanying the gluteal vessels open into 
several glmids found in their course. 

Ii.s of limb, upper. The lymphatics of 
the arm are superficial and deep. The super- 
ficial lymphatics arise from a plexus lying be- 
neath the integuments of the limb, and especially 
dense at the tij)s of the fingers and the palm cd' 
the hand. Those of the fingers converge to the 
back of the metacarpus and run on the posterior 
surface of the forearm, some accomj)anying the 
radial, others the ulnar veins. Those of the 
palm of the hand run up witli the median vein. 
At the elbow, and a little in front of and above 
the epitroehlea, a single or double ganglion is 
usually found, to which the internal group of 
lyni])batics of the forearm converge ; the efferent 
branches from the ganglion ])enetrate the brachial 
fascia, and join the deep lymphatics. The outer 
superficial lymphatics run up one or more venous 
trunks, usually accompanying the cephalic vein, 
and terminating in the subclavicular or supracla- 
vicular ganglion. The deep lymphatics accom- 
pany the several arteries of the limb and end in 
the axillary ganglia. There are usually two 
satellite trunks to each artery. 

Ii.s of llv'er. See Liver, lymphatics of. 

Ii.s of lung's. See Lungs, lijmphatics of. 

Ii.s of moutb. (F. lymphatiqties dcs 
levres ; G. Lymphgefdsse des Mimdes.) The 
lymphatics of the lips and cheeks form a sub- 
cutaneous and a submucous plexus, the trunks 
descending to terminate for the most part in 
the submaxillary ganglia ; a few subcutaneous 
branches from the median part of the lower lip 
terminate in the supra-hyoidean ganglion. 

Ii.s of oesopb'ag'us. See (Esujihayus, 
lymphatics of. 

Ii.s of o'vary. See Ovary, lymphatics of. 

Ii.s of pan creas. See Pancreas, lymph- 
atics of. 

Ii.s of pe'nls. See L.s of genital organs, 

Ii.s of pba'rynx. See Pharynx, lymph- 
atics of. 

Ii.s of rec'tum. See Rectum, lymph- 
atics of. 

Ii.s of scro'tum. See L.sof genital organs, 
external . 

Ii.s of spleen. See Spleen, lymphatics of . 

X.s of stom'acb. See Stomach, lymph- 
atics of. 

Ii.s of tes'ticle. See Testicle, lymph- 
atics of. 

ii.s of tbo'rax. {Bwpa^, the chest.) 
The lympluitics arising from the plexus in the 
skin of the front, lateral, and posterior parts of 
the thorax terminate in the glands of the axilla. 

X.s of thy'mus g^land. See Thymus 
gland, lymphatics of. 

X.s of tbyr'oid body. See Thyroid 
body, lymplial tc!> if. 

X.s of tong^ue. See Tongue, lymphatics 


X.s of trunk, subumbili'cal. (L. suh, 
under; uml/iliras, Uw navel.) 'i'lie lym|)hatics 
of the lower half of the tiunk. The posterior 
vessels arise in the lumbar region, anastomose 
with their fellows of the opposite side, and open 
into the highest and outermost inguinal ganglion. 
The anterior vessels arise from the integument 

covering the aponeurosis of the external oblique 
muscle, and open into the upper superficial in- 
guinal glands. 

X.s of u'terus. See Uterus, lymphatics of. 
X.s of vagina. See J'agina, lymph- 
atics of. 

Xiymph'atism. The condition called the 
Icm/it) anient, lyaiphalic. 

Ziympliati'tis. {Lymph.) Same as 

Ziymph atOCele. {Lymph; Gr. K»;.\>;, 
a tumour.) A tumour formed by an accumulation 
of lymjih in a lympliatic vessel. 

Xiymphec'tasis. (G. Lymphectasie.) 
Same as l.i/atplianijcitita.sis. 

Ziymphenteri'tis. {Lymph ; Gr. Iv- 
Ttpui/, an intestine.) Inflammation of the serous 
coat, of the boweds. 

Ziymphepati'tis. {Lymph ; Gr. virap, 

the liver.) Inflammation of the serous coat of 
the liver. 

^ympbeurys'ma. {Lymph; Gr. 

tvpv>i, wide.) Dilatation of a lymphatic vessel. 

Xiyxnplli'tis. {Lymph. F. lymphite.) 
Same as Lymphangitis. 

Xiymphiv'orous. {Lymph ; L. voro, to 
devour. F. lymphivore.) Living on lymphatic 
juices, as the larva; of some Diptera. 

Iiymphiza'tion. (Lymph.) A term 
used by Gross to signify effusion of coagulable 

Xiymph'ocele. {Lymph; Gr. K)i\»), a 
tumour.) A tumour consisting of distended 
lymphatic vessels. 

Xiymplioceratodi'tis. {Lymph; L 

ceratoditis.) Serous inflammation of the cornea. 
Iiymphochez'ia. {Lymph; Gr. x'S"". 
to ease one's self.) Serous diarrhoea, 

Iiymphoder'niia. {Lymph ; Gr. olp/iay 

the skin.) An atiectiou of the lymphatics of the 

X. perniclo'sa. (L. perniciosus, destruc- 
tive.) Kaposi's term for Granuloma fungoides. 
Xiympll'oduct. {Lymph; h. ductus, a. 
leading ) A lymphatic vessel. 

Xiympbodynam'ics. {Lymph ; Gr. 

ovvapiKO's, powerful. F. lymphodynamiqac.) 
The science of the forces which produce the 
movement of the lymph. 

Ziymphoede'ina. {Lymph ; Gr.oi'on/ua, 

a swelling. ¥. /ymphwdcme.) Serous oedema; 
oedema with dilatation of the lymphatic vessels. 

Xiymphog'astri'tis. {Lymph ; Gr. 
yaart'ip, the belly.) Serous intlammatiou of 
the stomach. 

XiyiXipllOg''enoUS. {Lymph ; Gr. yiu- 
vdw, to produce. F. lymphagene.) Producing 

X. dlatb'esls. Same as Diathesis, lymph- 

X. or' gran. An organ, such as the spleen 
or a lymphatic gland, which gives origin to 
lymph corpuscles. 

' Ziymphog-'raphy. {Lymph; Gr. ypa- 

(\iiu, to write.) The description of the lymidiatic 

Xiymph'o'id. {Lymph ; Gr. floos, like- 
ness. F. lymphuidc.) Keseinbling lymph, or 
lyni])h corpuscles, or the tissue of a lymphatic 

X. cells. (F. celhtles lympho'ides ; G, 
lymphoide Zelhn.) The cells which occupy the 
meshes of adenoid or retiforin tissue. 'They are 
masses of pale protoplasm with a large nucleus. 


Also, a term applied in the same general sense 
as Li'ucociite. 

Ii. cellular tls'sue. Snmu as L. tissue. 

X. cords. (F. fnniculcs lymphdides, cy- 
lindrcs ylandtdaircs, Kobin ; G. M<irkstrunqe, 
KiJlliker, LymphriJhrcn, Frey, M(ir/,sc/ilditchfi, 
His.) Tlie funicular cords, funicular threads, 
follicular cords, medullary cords, or medullary 
cylinders, of the lymphatic glands ; being that 
part of the proper gland ti.-.sue which occupies 
the cyliudrical alveoli of tlie medullarj' portion. 

X. corpuscles. Same as lymph cor- 
puscles, or Leucucylfs. 

1m. crypt. (L. crypta, an underground 
cave.) A saccular cavity with a narrow mouth 
occurring in the mucous membrane of the back 
of the tongue ; it has an epithelial lining, and 
contains lymphoid nodules in its walls. 

Xm. follicles. (L. folliculus, a small bag. 
'F.foHiculcs lymphoides ; G. Lymphdidbdckchen.) 
Same as Lymph folVwles. 

Im. follicles of tongue. The Glands, 
follicular, of the tongue. 

Im. no'dules. (L. nodulus, a small knot.) 
Masses of lymphoid tissue, such as occur in the 
walls of a L. crypt. 

Ii. sarco'ma. Liicke's term for Testicle, 
lymphadeiioma of. 

1m. tis'sue. (F. tissu, woven ; from texo, 
to weave. F. tissu lymphdide ; G. Lymphoide- 
geicebe.) A variety of tissue which is composed 
of isolated round cells or leucocytes, such as are 
found in lymphatic glands, lying in the interstices 
of retiform connective tissue, the constituent 
fibrils of which are very fine. The leucocytes are 
of various sizes, possess the power of ama-biform 
movement, and contain nuclei, the smaller cells 
one, the larger often two. Attached to the re- 
ticulum, at the points of intersection of its 
fibrils, are small, flat, nucleated endothelial 
cells. This tissue constitutes the essential part 
of the lymphatic glands, of the thymus gland, 
and of the Malpighian corpuscles of the spleen ; 
it forms the tonsils, the lenticular glands of the 
stomach, and the solitary and agminated glands 
of the intestines ; and in a difl'used form occurs 
in many parts of the respiratory and alimentary 
mucous membranes, and in the omentum and 
the pleura. 

XiympllO'ina. {Lymph. F. lymphome ; 
G. Lymphgeschwulst.) A tumour consisting of 
some lymphatic tissue, vessel or gland-structure, 
arising either where lymphatic tissue or structure 
is normally present, or where it is not. It may 
consist of gland or lymphoid tissue, forming 
Lymphadenoma ; or of lymphatic vessels, con- 
stituting Lymphangeionia. The term was origi- 
nally introduced by Virchow to designate a kind 
of tumour, afterwards called by him Lymph- 

Also, any swelling connected with a lymphatic 
gland or vessel. 

Also, a synonym of Lymphadenoma. 
Also, a synonym of Lymphadenosis. 

1m., gran'ular. (L. granulum, a small 
grain.) A tuberculous affection of the lymphatic 

1m., mallgr'nant. (L. malignus, of an evil 
nature. G. malignes Lymphom.) Billroth'sterm 
for Hodgkin's disease, or Lymphadenosis. 

1m., med'uUary. (L. medulla, marrow.) 
Same as Sarcoiim, lymphoid. 

1m., multiple • Same as Lymphadenoma, 

The same as Lymph' 
{Scrofula.) Tubercu- 

Ii., progrres'slve. 


1m., scrofulous. 

losis of a lympliatic gland. 

1m., sim'ple. An inflammatory hyper- 
plasia or an hypertrophy of a lymphatic gland. 

Iiyxnphon'CUS. {Lymph ; Gr. (iyKos, 
mass. G. Lymphycschiculst.) Swelling with 
induration of the lymphatic vessels. 

1m. I'rldls. (L. iris, the iris of the eye.) 
Same as Iridauxesis. 

IiymplXOnephri'tiS. {Lymph; Gr. 
i/f(/)f)os, the kidney.) Serous intlammalion of 
tlie kidneys. 

Xiymphop'yra. {Lymph; Gr. irvp, 
fever.) Fever with inflammation of the lymph- 
atic vessels. 

Ziyinphorrliag''ia. {Lymph; Gr. 

pnyvufxi, to break asunder. F. lymphorrhagie.) 
A discharge of lymph from rupture of tlie coats 
of a lymphatic vessel. Same as Ijymphorrhwa. 
1*. pacbyder'mia. (Ilaxi^v, thick ; iipfxa, 
the skin.) Odenius's term for Lymphanyeiec- 

Iiymphorrhoe'a. {Lymph; Gr. poia, 

a Bow. t. lymphorrhee ; G. Lymphfluss.) The 
discharge of lymph from a wound communicating 
with a lymphatic, which is often superficial and 
in the neighbourhood of a joint; or from a varicose 
lymphatic which has been ruptured, as in 
Lymphangeiectasis. The discharge of lymph 
may also be internal ; into a serous cavity, pro- 
ducing a form of ascites, hydrocephalus, or 
other like disorder ; or into the urinary passages, 
producing chyluria ; or into the intestinal canal, 
producing fatty diarrhoea. 

Ziymphosarco'ma. {Lymph; Gr. 
a-dp^, flesh. F. hypertrophic ganglionnaire 
generale ; G. malignes Lymphom, Pseudoleu- 
kdmie.) Virchow's term for a lymphomatous 
tumour which undergoes progressive enlargement 
and does not caseate ; it is thus a synonym of 
Lymphadenosis, and includes other growths, 
such as the lymphomatous tumours of the 

Also, Winniwarter's term for round-celled or 
spindle-celled sarcoma of a lymphatic gland, 
which attacks it in isolated patches and does not 
at first involve the whole gland. 

Also, see Sarcoma, lymphoid. 

Ziyznpho'SiS. {Lymph.) Chaussier's 
term for the formation or elaboration of lymph. 

Xiympbot'omy. {Lymph; Gr. Tofxv, 
section. F. lymphotomie ; G. Lymphgefuss- 
schnitt.) The dissection of the lymphatic 

Ziympbotorrhoe'a. {Lymph; Gr. oDs, 

(uTos-, the ear; puia, a flow.) A discharge of 
serous fluid from the ear. 

Xiympll'OUS. Containing, of the nature 
of, or resembling, Lymph. 

1m. u'rlne. See Lymphuria. 

Xiymphu'ria. {Lymph; Gr. oypov, 
urine.) A condition resembling chyluria in 
which the urine is albuminous, and coagulates 
spontaneously, but contains no fatty matter. 

Ziyn'ceus. (L. Lynceus, one of the Ar- 
gonauts, famed for the keenness of his sight.) An 
old coUyrium or salve for removing specks from 
the eves and improving the sight. 

Xiyn'combe. Somersetshire, near Bath. 
A chalybeate spring, smelling of sulphur and 
somewhat aperient, was formerly in use here. 

Iiyncu'rius. (Auyg, the lynx; o'Opov, 


urine.) A stone formerly used to cleanse 
wounds ; so called because it was believed to be 
formed from the urine of the lynx. 

Xiyng'O'deS. See Febris hjngndcs. 

Ziynn ii^ahoo'. The UiniKs alata. 

Xiynx. (Auyg, a sobbing affection of the 
threat.) Hiccup. 

Also, the Felift lynx. 

Iiy'pe. (AuTTi), pain of body, pain of mind.) 
Sadness or mounifulness ; also bodily pain. 

Xiypema'nia. (Aii-n-i), grief; fxavia, 

madness. F. lypcmanie ; G. Schwermnth.) 
Esquirol's term for the form of insanity charac- 
terised by mourufulness. A synonym of Melan- 

liype'ria. (Au-n-i;.) A Genus of the Nat. 
Order Scrophulariacea ; so called from the sad 
colour of the flowers. 

Ii. cro'cea, Ecklon. (L. croceus, saffron- 
coloured.) Hab. South Africa. Used as saffron, 
and forms much nf what is called African saffron. 

liyperophre'nia. (Ai/Tnipo's, distress- 
ing; ipuvv, the mind. F. hjpirophrenie.) 
Guislain's term for a distressful form of Melan- 

Iiyp'ic. f AuTTi), grief.) Belonging to Lype. 

Iiypotlxy'inia. (Au-n-i) ; 6i'/uds. the spirit. 

F. li/pi't/ii/Diic.) Great sadness; despondency. 
riyp'ria. A kind of fever attended with 


Xiy'ra. (A.vpa, a lyre. F. li/re ; I. lira ; S. 
lira ; G. Leier.) A lyre, or something in the 
form of a lyre. 

Ii. cer'ebri. (L. cerebrum, the brain. F. 
corps psalloide ; G. Leier des Gehirns.) The 
triangular portion of the under surface of the 
corpus callosum lying between the diverging 
posterior crura of the fornix, and marked with 
transverse, longitudinal, and oblique lines. 

3j. uteri'na. (L. uterus, the womb. F. 
lyre du col utirin.) The Arbnr viics tdcrina. 

1m. vagrina'lis. ( Vayina. F. lyre du 
vagin.) The liucjo: of raylna. 

1m. ve'li anterio'ris. (L. velum, a veil; 
anterior, in fi-<>nt.) The L. cerebri. 

Iiyraefo'lious. (L. lyra, a \yve; folium., 
a leaf. F. lyrefolie ; G. leierbldlterig .) Having 
leaves shaped like a lyre. 

Xiy'rate. CL. lyra. T. lyre ; I. Hrato; S. 
lirado ; G. Leierformig .) Having the form of a 

1m. leaf. A pinnately-veined leaf which 
has a large, rounded, terminal lube, and lateral 
lobes of the same shape becoming smaller to- 
wards the base. 

Xiy'rated. Same as Lyrate. 

Iiyrat Ifid. (L. lyra ; findo, to cleave. 

G. Ii iirt^paltKi.) Same as Lyratipinnate. 
Xiyratipar'tite. (L. lyra ; pnrtifns, 

divided. G. leiertheilig .) Same as Lyratipin- 
Iiyratipin'nate. (L. lyra; pinnntc.) 

Applied to a ]>innate leaf when the lateral leaflets 
grow gradually larger as tliey leave the base, the 
terminal leaflet being the largest. 

Ziyre. {F.lyre; h. lyra ; Gr. Aupa, a lyre. 
I. lira ; S. lira ; G. Leier.) A stringed musical 
instrument. See Lyra. 

1m. sba'ped. See Lyrate. 

Xiy'riform. (L. lyra; forma, shape.) 
Havins; the form of a lyre; lyrate. 

Ziyr'US. {.\vpa, a lyre.) The Arnica 
montana, from the appearance of the strings of a 
lyre on its leaves. 

Iiys 'ia. See Lysis. 

Xiys'ian. (Auo-t?, solution. F, Jysicn.) 
Brongniart's term for those rocks which liave 
been forinrd by chemical solution. 

Xiysigr'eiioUS. (Auo-is; ytwAw, to pro- 
duce.) Formed by solution, as those cell spaces 
in plants which have been formed by absorption 

of tissue. 

Ziysimacli'ia. (Aeo-i^/rxinK, perhaps 

from /Viicri/taxos, ending strife; or, according to 
some, from Lysimachus, one of the generals of 
Alexander, and afterwards King of Thrace. G. 
Gilbiveiderich.) A Genus of the Nat. Order 

1m. nummula'ria, Linn. (L. nummu- 
larius, pertaining to money changing. F. herbe 
aux ecus, lysimache nummulaire, monnagcre ; G. 
Pfennigkraut.) Moneywort. Hab. Europe. 
Formerly used as a vulnerary, antiscorbutic, 
and astringent. 

Ii. purpu'rea spica'ta. (L. purpureus, 
purple ; spicatus, eared.) The Ly thrum sali- 

1m. quadrifo'lla, Linn. (L. quattuor, 
four ; yiy/iw/w, a leaf.) Cros.<wort. Hab. North 
America. Astringent, stomachic, and anti- 

Ii, vulgra'ris, Linn. (L. vulgaris, com- 
mon.) Great loosestrife. Hab. Europe. Used 
as an astringent. 

Xaysimacll'iaB, Jussieu. The same as 

Xiysim'eter. (Auo-i^, solution ; fii-rpov, a 

measure. F. lysimctre.) An instrument for 
measuring the quantity of matter dissolved in a 

Iiysiplas'ta. (Auo-ts, a loosing ; TrXao-- 
xo's, moulded. F. lysiplasfes ; G. Lysiplasten.) 
Schultze's term for diseases presenting a morbid 
solution of parts, or excessive secretion, as 
blennorrhoea, catarrh, abscess, dropsy, biliary 
diarrhoea, sweating, excessive flow of milk, 
spcrmatorrhrea, and salivation. 

Xiysipon'ion. The same as Lysiponos. 

Xiysip'onOS. (Ava-iTTovo^, freeing from 
labour or pain.) Old term applied to a certain 
medicine, or antidote, composed of opium, man- 
drake, henbane seeds, and other narcotic sub- 

Iiys'is. (A'Vi9, a loosing, a setting free; 
from \vw, to loose.) A solution. An insensible 
or gradual solution or termination of a disease 
or disorder without apparent phenomena. 

Ziysit'eles. (Aeo-tTtX?;? ; from \vw, to 
loose; Tt'Xos, the result of a thing.) Having 
power to free or liberate. Anciently applied to 
a remedy which ])erfectly removes a disease ; 
nearly similar to what is now understood by a 
specific remedy. 

Xiys'sa. (Aiio-cra, rage; canine madness. 
F.riiye; G. If'utli.) Rage; rabies; madness. 

Also (F. hydrophobic; G. Ilundsivulh, Was- 
serscheu), a term for the disease Hydrophobia. 

Also (G. Ihllwurm), the Septum linguae. 

See also Lytfa. 

1m. cani'na. (L. caninux, belonging to 
dogs.) A term for LLydrophobia, and for liabies. 

Also, the worm under the tongue of dogs 
which is supposed to cause rabies. 

Also, see Ly.'^sa. 

1m. tauma'na. (L. humanun, belonging to 
man.) ,\ aynonym o{ Jfydrophobia. 

Ziys'sae. (Auo-o-a F. lysses ; G. Wtcth- 
bldschen.) Marochetti's term ior the papules or 


irregular elevations near the openings of the 
ducts of the sublingual and submaxillary glands 
on each side of tlie fnenura of the tongue of a 
mad dog, and of persons bitten by a mad dog, 
occurring on the third or fourth day after the 
bite. The facts related are uncertain. 

Xiys'sas. (Auo-o-ds, raging mad.) A 

Xiysse'ter. (Auo-o-ijTiip, one who is raging 
mad. b\ iyssetere ; G. Wiithcnde, Ilasende.) 
A iiiadriian. 

Ziys'sic* (AufTo-a, rabies. F. lijssique.) 
Of, or belonging to, Rubies, or Hydrophobia. 

Xiys'sine. (Auo-o-a.) Farr's term for the 
specitic poison of rabies and hydrophobia. 

XiysSOdec'tUSa (^Avaa-a, canine mad- 
ness; ow^Tf)?, from ^(Ikvw, to bite. F. lysso- 
declc.) One bitten by a mad dog. Ancientlj^ 
applied (Gr. anal. Auo-o-oojjktos), by Galen, de 
C. M. per Gen. i, 16, to one labouring under 
hydrophobia produced by the bite of a rabid 

Ziyssodeg''ma.. (Auo-o-a ; oiiKi/uj, to bite. 

F. lyssodeyme.) Term for the bite of a rabid 

Xiysso'des. (Auo-o-a; sl^os, form. F. 
lysseux ; G. hundsiviithig.) Having, or resem- 
bling, hydropliobia, or canine madness. 

Xiys'sodex'is. (Auoro-a ; «5j/gi9, a biting. 

F. lyssodexie.) The bite of a mad dog. 
IiyS'SOida (Aucro-a; £l(5o9, form. F. 

lysso'ide ; G. hundsivuthdhnlich, wtithuhnlich.) 
Resembling rabies, rage, or madness. 

XaySSOphob'ia. (Auo-o-a ; (polo's, fear.) 
The morbid and baseless fear of having hydro- 
phobia, which produces symptoms in some degree 
resembling those of the real disease ; the chief 
difference it is said consists in the absence of all 
true respiratory spasm in the false affection. 

Also, used as a synonym of Hydrophobia. 

Xiysu'rus. A Genus of gasteromycetous 

Ii. moku'sln, Cibot. A red-coloured 
fungus, three or four inches high, growing in 
China under mulberry trees, and developing like 
the puff-ball wiih great rapidity. Spore mass 
greenish. It is regarded as a remedy for cancer, 
the ashes of the spongy tissue being dusted over 
the ulcer. It is also eaten, but is said to be often 

Ly'ter. (AuT»ip, one who looses. F.lytere; 

G. Aujloser, Befreier.) Term for a dissolver ; a 

Xiyte'rios. (Au-rr/p, a liberator. F. ly- 
teriv.) Having the power of liberating or dis- 
Bolving. Anciently applied (Gr. anal. XuTvpio's) 
by Galen, de Dieb. Crit. i, 1, to the signs which 
preceded the .abatement or loosing of extensive 
and violent di-ease. 

Xiytbe'wale. Same as Lichivale. 

Xiythothe'COUS. (Auto.todissolve; 0i;/ci;, 
a case. F. lythothcque.) Persoon's term for 
those fungi in which tlie gills become diffluent. 

ZiVtlira'ceae. [Lythrum. F. lythracies ; 
G. Weiderichgeicuchse.) A Nat. Order of tlie 
Cohort Myrtales having opposite, seldom alter- 
nate, eniire, exstipulate leaves ; persistent, ribbed 
ualyx ; deciduous petals; perigynous stamens, 
inserted below the petals; adnate, two-celled, 
longitudinally-opening anthers ; superior ovary ; 

capsular, membranous, dehiscent fruit; nume- 
rous, exalbuminous seeds; axile placentas; and 
straight embryo. 

Iiythre'se. A Tribe of the Nat. Order 
Lyihriiccw, having the .seeds wingless. 

Iiyth'ron. (Audpoi/, detilement from 
blood.) Ancient term (Gr. anal, used by Hip- 
pocrates, Epist. ad Hamagetiim, n., 285) for dust 
mixed with sweat and blood; specially, it was 
applied to the filthy strainings or purgiugs of 
uterine hlood. 

Xiyth'rum. (Avdpov. G. Blutkraut, 
Wclderich.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Lyth- 
racece, so called from the colour of the flowers. 

Ii. ala'tum. (L. alatus, winged.) Hab. 
North America. Used as L. salicaria. 

Ii. hyssoplfo'lla, Linn. (L. hyssopus, 
the hyssop; Jolitim, a leaf.) Hab. Europe, 
America, and Africa. Used as L. salicaria. 

Ii. sallca'ria, Linn. (L. salix, a willow. 
F. salicaire ; G. rother Weiderich.) The com- 
mon or purple willow herb ; the loose-strife. 
Used as astringent in diarrhoea, leucorrhcea, and 
hiBmoptysis, and in some skin diseases. 

Ziyt'ic. (Auto, to loose, or dissolve. F. 
lyttquc.) Of, or belonging to, a loosing or dis- 

Iiyt'ta. (Aux-ra, the worm under the 
tongue of dogs supposed to produce rabies. G. 
TolhvHrm.) The worm ; a structure lying in 
the longitudinal axis of the tongue of many 
mammals, as the dog and cat. It is partly 
fibrous and partly muscular ; its filamentous 
posterior end is attached to the body of the 
hyoid bone, and itself gives attacliment to 

Iiyt'ta. (AuTTa, rage ; from the exciting 
eflfccts of their application. F. cantharide ; G. 
PJiasterkufer.) A Genus of the Tribe Hetero- 
mera. Order Coleoptvra, Class Insecta. 

jb. al bida, Say. The Cantharis albida. 

Ii. asper'sa,Kliig. (L.a«j9e/-«;M, sprinkled.) 
Hab. Buenos Ayres. Used as a vesicant. 

Ii. atoma'ria, Germ. The Cantharis 

Ii. atra'ta, Fabr. The Cantharis atrata. 

Ii. cseru'leai PfafF. The Cantharis gigas. 

Ii. cicbo'ril. The Mylabris cichorii. 

Ii. ciner'ea, Fahr. The Cantharis cinerca. 

Ii. duliia. (L. dubius, doubtful.) Hab. 
France. A vesicant. 

Ii. g'i'g'as, Fabr. The Cantharis gigas. 

Ii. grfgras mas, Buchner. (L. mas, a male.) 
The Cantharis rio/acea. 

1m. margrlna'taf Fabr. The Cantharis 

Ii. XTuttal'll, Say. The Cantharis Nut- 

Ii. puncta'ta, Kliig. (L. punctum, a 
small spot.) The Cantharis atomaria. 

Ii. ru'ficeps. The Cantharis rujiceps. 

Ii. seg'etum. (L. seges, a cornfield.) Hab. 
Arabia. Same as the Cantharis syriaca. 

J,, syr'iaca. The Cantharis syriaca. 

Ii. vesicatorla, Fabr. (F. cantharide 
des boutiques ; G. Kantharide, Spanische Fliege.) 
The Cantharis vesicatoria. 

Ii. vid'ua. (L. viduus, bereft of.) Hab. 
France. A vesicant. 

Ii. vitta'ta, Fabr. The Cantharis vittata. 



T/lm Tliis letter used in prescriptions, when 
following tlie names of chips, herbs, flowers, or 
tlie like, stands as the initial of Manipulus, a 

Also, when placed after several injrredients, 
or at the end of a formula, it stands for Miscc, 
mix, or mingle together. 

Also, an abbreviation of Mille, 1000. 

Also, an abbreviation of Mcnsura, measure. 

The Greek letter /u is a symbol of Alicromille- 

DIaa.g''oili. The Swietenia mahogani. 

XM[a.~a.l'la.ll> Algeria, Conslantine. A 
chalybeate water. 

IMEa'ba. A Genus of the Nat. Or Aer Eben- 

M. eb'enus, Sprengel. ("E/?fi/os, ebony.) 
Hab. Moluccas. Used iu rheumatism and 

mabe'a.1 A Genus of the Nat. Order Eu- 
phorhiacecc found in Brazil, the species of which 
are astringent, and have hollow stems which are 
used for the tubes of tobacco pipes. 

TtL. fistulig^'erai Mart. (L. fistula, a 
pipe ; gcro, to bear.) Bark astriugent, tonic, 
and febrifuge. 

BZa'bi. The name in the Antilles of the 
bark of Colubrina recl'inata. 

IMCab it. (Arab.) Old term used by Galen 
for the elbow-joint, according to Kraus. Also 
applied by Golius, according to same authority, 
to the posterior portion of the hip-joint. 

maboo'boo* The Amomum macrosper' 
mil III. 

IM[abuella> (F. vessie ; G. Harnblase.) 
Old term for the urinary bladder. 

MacCar'tby's min'eral spring's. 

United States of America, I'eunsjlvauia, Hunt- 
ingdon County, near Saltillo. Mineral waters, 
of a temperature of 60' F. {\5-bo^ C), containing 
calcium bicarbonate 22-24 grains, sodium sul- 
phate 7'79, calcium sulphate 72*2, and magne- 
sium sulphate 41-8 grains in a gallon. 

MacCor'kle's spring-. United States 
of Ameiica, Alaljama, Lauderdale County. An 
atbeinial sulphur water. 

MacDan'iell's min'eral spring's. 

United States of America, Illinois, llamilton 
County. A saline, sulphur water. 

MacSl'roy's spring*. United States 
of Auu'rii;!, Pennsylvania, W estmoreland County. 
A elial_vb( -ate w;iter. 

BXacHen'ry's tber'mal spring-. 

United States of America, Virginia, Scott 
County. A thermal water, of a temperature of 
68° F. (20° C), containing calcium carbonate 
6-.34 grains, magnesium carbonate 1'54, sodium 
sulphate 3-77, and magnesium sulphate 7'83 
grains in a gallon. 

Slac'Intyre. An English surgeon of 

IVX.'s splint. A back splint for the treat- 
ment of fractures of the bones of the leg. As 
modified by Listen it consists of a trough of ja- 
panned iron for the leg, attached by an adjust- 
able hinged joint to a similar trough for the 
thigh, provided with a movable foot- piece, and 
terminating in two sliort hinged supports con- 
nected wall a cross-piece. 

MacVit'ty's spring*. United States 
of America, Pennsylvania, Huntingdon County. 
A mineral water, containing calcium bicarbonate 
9-84 grains, magnesium bicarbonate 1*87, and 
iron bicarbonate -14 grain in a gallon. 

IWaca'co worm. (F. ver tnamque.) 
The larva of Guterehra noxialis, and probably 
the larvai of other species. 

XHacada'mia. A Genus of the Nat. 
Order I'roteaceie. 

V/l. ternlfolia. (L. terni, three each ; 
folium, a leaf.) llab. Queensland. Seeds 

IVIacaba'lef. The Egyptian name of the 
distilled water of the flowers of Salix (cgyptiaca. 
Used as an antiphrodisiac, antiloimic, and anti- 

maca'ja but'ter. Same as Macaw 

DXacapat'li. (F. sahepareille ; G. Sar- 
sdjjdrUla.) Old name for Sarsaparilla. 

IMEacaro'ni. (Old I. macaroni; possibly 
from Gr. /xuKapia, a kind of porridge. F. 
macaroni; I. maccheroni ; S. maccaron ; G. 
Makaroni.) A paste formed of wheaten flour 
from Italian and other wheats which are rich iti 
gluten, rolled into long cylinders and dried in 
the sun. It is largely eaten in Italy and else- 
where. The harder external part of the wheat 
deprived of the bran is the part used, inasmuch 
as it contains more gluten than the inner part, 
which is largely rejected. 

Also, an old name in Italy of a powder of 
sugar and glass of antimony, employed in 
painters' colic. 

Bla'cas. Same as Mace. 

IMEacaw'. The native name in the Antilles 
of ttie long-tailed, brilliant-plumaged parrots 
of the Genus Macrocercus. 

T/L. fat. The solid oil of the fruit of Cocos 

IVI. tree. The Acrocomia sclerocnrpa. 
"M. tree, great. The Cocos fusif or mis. 

Mace. (Old F. mace, mache ; from L. 
matia, dim. mateola, a mallet; perhaps con- 
nected with Sanscrit math, to crush. F. masse ; 
G. Scepter, Keule.) A sort of club. 
"M.. reed. The Typha Intifolia. 

IVZace. (F. macis ; from L. macis, a spice ; 
from Gr. fiaKtp, an Indian spice ; a word, pro- 
bablj', of Sanscrit origin. Y . fleur de muscade ; 
I. macis, mace ; S. macis, macias ; G. Muskat- 
blitthe.) The arillus of the fruit of Mijristica 
iiioschata dried in the sun. Used as an active 
aromatic stimulant ; in large quantities it is 

M., cam'plior of. (G. Maciscampher, 
MHskatbUithekaiiipher.) CigHajOj. White, glit- 
ti-ring, crystalline scales, obtained by the action 
of hydrochloric acid gas on mace oil. It smells 
and tastes like the oil, and dissolves in alcohol, 
ether, and warm water. 

IWC., oil of. (G. Macisol, MuskatbliithM.) 
A thin, fluid, colourless, or pale yellow oil, ob- 
tained from tiie distillation of mace, 100 parts of 
which yield from 1'5 to 9 parts per cent, of oil, 
or on the average 6 per cent. ; sp. gr. 0*92 — 0"9o; 
boils at 100" C. to 200' C. (212° F. to 392' F.) 
It is verj' soluble in absolute alcohol. It consists 


of Macene, with a little oxygenated oil, perhaps 

BCacedo'nian. Relating to the country 


M. pars'ley. (F. bubon de Macedoine.) 
The liuhiDi mavedonicnm. 

Macedonis'iutn. (F. maceron com- 
mnne ; G. SniiifiunkraKt.) A name for the 
Smijrn'u(m nliisutrxm, or Alexanders. 

Bla'cene. Ciolfir,. A terpene contained in 
oil of iiuii'f ; perliaps the same as Mi/risticcnc. 

nia'cer. {MaKtp, an Indian spice.) The 
same as Macis. 

Also, a name for an astringent hark of an un- 
known tree. 

DIac'era'te. (L. macero, to make soft by 
steejiing. Y.macerer; I. macerare ; S. nia- 
cerar ; G. einweichen, maceriren.) To subject 
to 3Inceratlon. 

Mac'erated. (L. maceratus, part, of 
macero. F. macere ; I. macerato.) Subjected 
to ilareration. 

Blacera'tion. (L. maceratio, from ma- 
cero. F. macdration ; I. macerazione ; S. mace- 
racion ; G. Maciririing, E'mweichiing .) The 
pharmaceutical act or process of steeping or 
infusing a substance in water, with or without 
heat, in order to extract its soluble principle. 

Also, the process of procuring the decomposi- 
tion of the soft parts of an animal or plant in 
order to isolate the hard structures ; or of pro- 
curing the swelling or transparenc}'^ of tissues 
for inspection by the microscope, by soaking 
them in water, acids, alkalies, or other appro- 
priate agent. 

nc.-decoc'tion. (L. decoctus, part, of 
decoqiio, to boil down. G. Macerationsdtcoct .) 
A decoction in which the substance has been 
soaked for some time previously in the water in 
which it is eveniually boiled. 

IMC., u'terine. (L. uterus, the womb.) 
The condition in which a foetus which has been 
retained in the womb for some time after death 
is found when born ; its appearance differs from 
that of putrefaction in the air in that the sur- 
face is reddish brown and the body is not decom- 
posed. Also called Fwltis sanffuinolentus. 

DIacera'tOa Italy, in Tuscany. Ather- 
mal waters, containing sodium chloride 1004 
gramme, sodium sulphate '3483, magnesium 
sulphate '3837, calcium bicarbonate 20378, 
ferric bicarbonate -0957 gramme in 1000, with 
some hydrogen sulphide. Used in cutaneous 
diseases and scrofulous affections. 

DKacera'tlim. (L. macero, to make soft 
by steeping.) A liquid charged with the soluble 
parts of a substance which has been steeped or 
macerated in it. 

DIacero'na. The Smi/rnkim olusafrum. 

XWachaeirid'ion. (Max«v''^'ov, dim. of 

/uax"'/"'i =^ birge knife.) Same as Macharion. 

niacbae'rion. (Mox«iViov, dim. of 

lidxtiLpci.) An amputating knife. 

Also, an old name for a peach stone. 

Also, applied formerly to several cutting in- 
struments ; to a lancet ; to a scalpel sharp on 
both sides for perforating the chest or intercostal 
space in abscess of the lung or empyema. 

Also, anciently applied (Gr. anal. /xaxaipLov) 
by Galen, de C. M. sec. Loc. v, 9, to an ossicle, 
or very small bone. 

IKEachae'riS. (Maxatp/s,dim. O^fi&xaipa.) 
An amputating knife ; a razor. 

Also, applied by Illiger to the projecting lines 

formed by the enamel upon the triturating surface 
of a compound tooth which has been emjihiyed 
in m;isti(tati(in. 

Blachae'rium. (Maxfuptov, dim. of 

fiux"^P'h ^ large knife.) A Genus of the Nat. 
Order Leffttminosce. 

IMC. fer'tlle, Grisebach. (L.fertilis, bearing 
fruit.) Tipa. Bark used as, and occasionally 
mixed witli, that of Loxopteri/i/ium Lorenlzii. 

XWachaerops'alis. {hax^upa, a large 

knife ; iJ/aKU, a pair of scissors. G. Messer- 
sc/iccre.) An instrument or kind of sci.ssors 
cutting in the manner of a knife; a cutting 
for(('i)s for bone. 

IVIachai'ra. (Mdxmpa, a large knife ; a 
dirk ; a kind of razor.) An old name for a kind 
of scalpel. 

Also, a tenn for the penis. 

X^acha'OXl. (Mavfiwy.) A famous sur- 
geon, llie son of JSsculapius and brother of 
Podalirius. He was probably a mythic per- 
sonage. The name was anciently used compli- 
mentarily for a perfect physician. 

Blacliao'niaii. (Max"*";;. F. machao- 

nique ; G. machaonisch.) Of, or belonging to, 
Alarhaon, or to a physician. 

M. art. Ancient term for medicine. 

Machiasport spring. United States 
of America, Maine, Washington County. A 
saline water. 

XWacll'ilus. A Genus of the Nat. Order 
Lauracem, some of the species of which are aro- 
matic. The M. vclutina has been erroneously 
supposed to be the soui'ce of Cassia lignca. 

lyiaclli'nala {Machine.) A term some- 
times used for Automatic, or Involuntary. 

DIacllilie'. (F. machine ; from L. ma- 
china ; from Gr. /m)x«i')i, an instrument. I. 
macchina ; S. maquina ; G. Maschine.) An in- 
strument ; a contrivance for performing work 
under the influence of some physical force or 

IMC., an'imal. The animal body. 

M., elec'trical. See Electrical machine. 

inXachir. Same as Mace. 

SKacblos'yiie. (MaxXoo-uj/?), lewdness. 
F. machlosyne ; G. Manntollheit, vcrliebter 
Wahnsinn.) Excessive venereal desire in the 
female. The same as Nymphomania. 

niacll'lotes. (MaxXoTijs.) The same 
as Machlosyne. 

IHIacll'loUS. (MflxXos, unchaste. F. 
impur ; G. gcil, utikeusch.) Impure; wanton; 

niachro'mine. ChH.oOj + SH^O. A 

substance contained in the fluid which results 
from the action of sulphuric acid and zinc on 
solution of morintannic acid. It is slightly 
soluble in water and alcohol, more so in ether. 
It forms colourless acicular crystals which 
undergo many changes of colour with reagents. 
It was discovered by Hlasewitz and Pfaundler. 

nXa'cieS. (L. maceo, to become lean. 
F. emaciation; G. Magerkeit, Abmagermig.) 
Emaciation, or leanness. 

M. infan'tum. (L. infans, an infant.) 
The wasting disease of children. Tabes mesen- 

XVIac'ilence. (F. madlence; from L. 
macUcntus, thin.) Extreme thinness of the 
whole or part of the body. 

nia'cine. Same as Macene. 

IMCa'ciS, U.S. Ph. (L. macis.) Same as 


Mack'erel. (Mid. E. inaharel; Old F. 
makcrcl ; from L. maiula, a spot ; or from the 
lost mnctts, of which macula is a diminutive ; 
from the numerous blue spots on its sides. F. 
niaqtiereau ; I. sgombro ; S. eacomhro ; G. Mak- 
rele.) The Scomber scvmbrus. It is largely 
used for food, and was formerly thought to be 
good for persons with liver affections. 

M. poisoning'. The eating of mackerel 
has been followed by diarrhoea and vomiting, with 
nervous depression, and by urticaria. 

XUackwil'ler. France, departement du 
Bas-Khin. Athermal, sodium chloride waters, 
containing carbonic acid, not now used. 

DXa'cle. A twin crystal ; same as Semi- 

Xtlac'led. (L. macula, a spot.) Spotted. 

In (ieulogy, applied to surfaces which are 
spotted with substances of a different colour to 
the main body ; as when sandstones are spotted 
with red iron pyrites. 

Maclu'ra. A Genus of the Nat. Order 


IMC. tlncto'rla, Don. The Broussonetia 

DIacIu'rin. CisHijOg. One of the consti- 
tuents of fustic. The same as Morintannic acid. 

Macon. France, dejiartement de Saone- 
et-Loire. A told chalybeate water, containing 
protoxide of iron 'OIS parts in 1000. 

Mac'quer. A French chemist, born in 
Paris in 1718, died in 1784. 

IMC.'s arsen'ical salt. The arseniate of 

IHacracanth'ous. (Maic^oos, long ; 

uKavda, a spine. F. macracanthe.) Having 
large strong spines. 

BKacrade'nous. (MaK-ioos, large; aoriv, 

a gland. V . mncraiUtte.) Having large glands. 

Blacranth'OUS. (M«h7309, large; avdo^, 
a dower. F. macranthe ; G. grossblumig .) 
Having large or long flowers. 

ItZacras'piS, Olsson. (Ma^-pds; dcnrts, 
a round shield.) A sexually mature form of 
trematode worm. 

M. el'egans, Olsson. (L. elegans, taste- 
ful.) A species found under the scales of Chi- 
mccra monstrosa. 

XMEacrau'chen. {MuKpavx'iv, long- 
neeked ; from fxciKpo^, long ; ahxnv, the neck.) 

macraulous. (MaK^o's ; av\6^, a pipe.) 
Having long tubes. 

niacrenceplialia. (MaN-pos, large; 

tyM-'(/)a\os, the brain.) Hypertrophy of the 

XHacritu'do. (L. macHtudo, leanness ; 
from maicr, lean.) Emaciation. 

IMCacrobio'sis. (MuKpo/Jiujo-is; from 
fiaK,io^. l"ng ; jiiwi, life. F. macrobie, macro- 
bidse ; G. /(ii/gis Zeben.) Long lite; longevity. 

X^acrobi'OteS. {MuKpojiioT^iv.) Same 
as Mdcrobio.sis. 

Macrobiot'iC. {MuKpo^ioTo^, long- 
lived. F. macrubiotiqiie.) Of, or belonging to, 
Macrobiosis, or long life. 

Macrobiot'ics. (Mah-pd/Jios. F. ma- 
crobiottijKc.) 'I'he art of, or system of instructions 
for. attaining long life. 

VXacrobioti'dae. (Mah-po/Sj'oTos; tISos, 

likeness.) The same as Turdigrada. 

Xttacrob'iouS* (MnK/xi/^ios;; from jUdKpo9, 
long ; /ii'ov, lite. G. latiglcbend.) Enjoying 
long life ; long-lived. 

Blacrobot'ryous. (MoK-pos, great; 

/3o-r^i/v, a cluster oi grapes. F. macrobotrgte.) 
Having large clusters or bunches. 

IHCacrobrancb'ious. (Ma^7)09; 

/3/o«7X'") the gills. ¥ . macrobranchie.') Having 
large and long liranchiu' or gills. 

nXacrocal'icine. (MnKTio's: kuXu^, a 
flower cup. F. macrocalyce.) Having a large 

Alacrocar'pin. (Mah-pos; Kiip-jrik, 

fruit.) 1 he colouring matter, forming yellow 
crystals, of Thalictrum macrocarpum. Perhaps 
the same as Berberin. 
Iff acrocar'pous. (Ma/cpo's ; Kupiro^, 

fruit. V . macrocarjie ; (j.grossfriichtig.) Having 
large fruit, or having large urns. 

BXacrocephal la. (Mu/cpos; KKpaXv, 

thi^ liead. F. mucrocejjhalie ; G. Grosskopjigkeit.) 
The condition of having a large head. 

Also, tlie condition of having a long head, 
having a large head being called Megacephalia. 

niacroceph'alous. (M(c/.()o's; Ki^p- 

akv. V. macrociphale ; (j. grosskopjig.) Having 
a large head. 

In Botany, having a large Capitidum. 

Also, having the cotyledons confluent so that 
they form a large mass or head, as in yEsculus. 

In Teratology, applied to a foetus with a large 
head from an excessive size of the brain, or from 
diseased ^conditions, such as chronic hydro- 

Zffacroceph'alus. (MrtK-poKt'c/xAos ; 

from fxuKpo^, long, great ; KKpaXv, the head. F. 
macroeephale ; I. macroccfalu.) One who has a 
long head ; also, one who has a large head. 
Iffacroceph'aly. Same as Macro- 


IDXacrocer'cous. (MnicpoKEpK-os; from 
fiuKpo's, long ; KEpKo's, a tail. F. macrocerque.) 
Having a long tail, 

niacroc'erous. (Mavpo's, long; Kipa^, 

a horn. F. macrocerc.) Having long horns or 
long antennve. 

Also, applied to plants which have a very long 
spur in the form of a horn. 

nCacrochei'lia. (Ma/cpo's, great; x«tXos, 

the lip. J\ macrochilie.) An enlargement and 
thickening of the lips due to dilatation of the 
lymphatics along with excessive growth of the 
other tissues. 

Iffacrochei'ria. (M aicpos, great; x"V» 

the hand. F. mucrocldrie ; S. macroceiria.) 
Monstrosity characterised by excessive develop- 
ment of the hands. 

Blacrochelous. (MaK-pos; x'l^''. » 

claw. F. macroc/it'lt'.) Having large or very 
long claws. 
ZMEacrochi'res, Nitzsch. (Maxpos; 

X^'py the liaiuL) iSaine as Cgpselomoip/ue. 

XKEacrocne'muin. (M aK-po's ; Ki-iipii, the 
internode of the stem of a plant.) A Genus of 
the Order Jiubiacece. 

T/L. corymbo'sum, Ruiz and Pavon. The 

Co»dai)ii)H'a corrjDihosa. 

IKE. tlncto'rium, H. and B. The Conda- 

minin tlitctortd. 

niacroco'lia. (MrxK-po?, long ; k(o\oi/, a 
limb. F. macrdiiilie.) The state or condition of 
having long limbs or members. 

nXacrocolOllS. (MaK-poVoiXos; from 
fi.dKpo'i; t,w\ov. ¥. macrocole ; G. la)igglie- 
derig.) Having long limbs or members. 

Xlilac'rocosni. (M uKpos, great; KotTfioi, 
a world. F. uuivrocosme ; G. der groove Jf'ili.) 


The greater world or universe, as distinguished 
from Microcosm, the smaller world or man. 

HXacrocos'mic. (Muk/jos; koct/uos. F. 

m(icnic<isini'juc ; G. zioii Makrukosmus gthorig.') 
Of, or belongino: to, the Macrocosm. 

DIa.crocos'iiiica» (M«Kpdv; Kotrfio^. 

F. DMcrucoKntique ; Q. Aussendiiige.) Old term 
for those things generallj' that are distinct or 
apart from man in the great world and are 
either simjile or eompound, and these either im- 
perfeet or jxnfect. 

XHacrocosmol'og'y. (MaKpos; /v-ocr/nos; 

Ao'yos, a discouisi'. F. mno'ocosmologic.) Term 
for that braTieh of science which treats of the 
universe, and of the terrestrial globe in general 
and in particular. 

Dlac'rocyst. (MaKp6i; kuo-tis, the 
bladder.) The carpogone of Fyronema con- 

Mac'rocyte. (MaK/ios, great; Kijxos, 
a hollow.) The abnormally large red blood-cor- 
puscles which are found in some forms of antcniia, 
such as that duo to chlorosis and lead poisoning. 

Blacrodactyl'ia. (M«Kpo's; oa^xuXos, 

a finger. F. macrodactylie.) In Teratologj', the 
condition characterised by the excessive develop- 
ment of one or more of the fingers. 
macrodac'tylism. Same as Macro- 


3>Iacrodac'tylous. (MaKpo5aK-TuXos ; 

from jua/vpo's, lung; oa/^TuAos, a finger. F. 
macrodactijle ; G. langfingerig.) Having long 
toes or fingers, or prolongations like fingers. 

IIIacrodiag''onal ax'is. (Ma^po9; 

Siaywvioi, from angle to angle; L. axis, an 
axle.) The longer of the two lateral angles of a 
crystal of the trimetric s)-stem. 

XHacrodont'ous. (MaK-pos; doov's, a 

tooth. F. macrodontc.) Having long teeth. 

Macrosras'ter. (M«KpJs, great; yao-- 

Tvp, the bellv. F. macrogastre.) Having a 
very large belly. 

Also, a Genus of the Order Acarina. 

Ttt. plat'ypus. (nXa-rus, broad ; ttous, a 
foot.) The I)enwdex foUicuJarum. 

Blacrog'en'ious. (MahpoytVfios; from 

/xoKpov, long; yivtiov, the chin, or beard. F. 
macrogenie.) Having a long beard, or a long 

IM[acrog''enys. (MaK-poyfi-i/v ; from 
/xuKpo's, long ; yiim^, the under jaw.) Having a 
long chin, or a prominent jaw. 

Itlacrog'e'rOUS. (MaKpo'yjj/iois; from 
/xaKpo^, great; yii.itos, Ionic contraction of 
genitive of yi/pas, old age. F. macrogere.) Of 
extreme old age ; of great age. 

S^Zacrogrlos'sia. (M«h-pos, great ; 

•yXaJrriTa, the tongue. F. macroglossie ; G. 
ZitngcnvorfaU.') A slowly progressing enlarge- 
ment of the tongue, often congenital, with pro- 
trusion from the cavity of the mouth. Accord- 
ing to some, it is supposed to be primarily caused 
by loss of muscular power ; according to others, 
to be an hypertrophy of the whole organ, espe- 
cially of its muscular tissue, from the first; 
Virchow drew attention to the dilated state of 
the lymphatics in this disease, and this condi- 
tion of lymphangeiectasis, together with hyper- 
trophy of the connective tissue, is now believed 
to be the essential morbid condition ; in advanced 
cases the blood-vessels also become thickened 
and dilated, and there is development of lymphoid 
tissue throughout the whole organ. It is said 
to have followed local troubles, such as abscess, 

ranula, salivation, and injury, as well as general 
diseases, such as infectious fevers, whoo]iing- 
cougli, and epilepsy, but in the two latter there 
may well have been local injury. In the early 
stay;e before protrusion, the speech is thick and 
indistinct ; as the tongue enlarges, the mouth is 
kept o|)en, the saliva dribbles away and becomes 
malodorous from the seerelions of fissures and 
ulcers, and the organ becomes dry, hard, and 
cracked; it impedes the intioduction of food by 
its size, and it flattens out the lower jaw and the 
front teeth by its weight. After attaining a large 
size it may cease to grow. The cause of the 
lymphangeiectasis is not known ; it may be from 
obstruction caused by imperfict development of 
the lymphatics, by thrombosis, or by intiamma- 
tion. However caused, the lymphatics become 
very distended, lose their epithelial lining, and 
allow the lymph to transude. 

BZacrOgrlOS'SUS. (MahpJv ; y\wa<Tn.) 
One who has a large tongue ; one who suffers 
from MucrogJoHsia . 

rXacr6g;nath'ous. (MrtK-po's, great; 

yi'ayo9, the jaw. F. macrognalhe.) Having 
very large jaws, or a large beak. 

PXacrog'onid'ium. (Ma^prk, large; 

gonidiion. F. macrogonidie.) The large form 
of zoospore in certain Algae from which the 
microgonidia arise. 

IHacrolepidop'tera. (MaKpo's; Xett/s, 

a scale; TrTf'poy, a wing. G. Grossschmetterlinge.) 
A Division of Lejjidoptera, including butterflies 
and the larger moths. 

Blacrolepid'otous. (Mahpo's; XtVts, 

a scale. F. mncrolcpidotc.) Having large scales. 
!Macrol'opllOUS. (Mah-po's,long; Xotj^oi, 
a crest. F. macrolopho.) Having a long crest 
upon the head. 

IKEacromani'acal. (Mah-pos, large; 

fidvla, madness.) A term applied by Hammond 
to that form of delirium in which the insane per- 
son conceives things, especially parts of his own 
body, to be much larger than they actually are. 

Blacromel'ia. (M u/cpo's, great; yut'Xos, 

a member. F. macromelic.) Applied by Mala- 
carne to a class of monsters characterised by the 
excessive development of some member. 

mac'romere. (MuK-po's ; fiipo^, a part.) 

The larger of the two masses into which the 
vitellus of the developing ovum of Laniclli- 
braiu'hiata divides. 

IVIacrone'inOUS. (M ah-po's, great; V7ip.a, 
a thread. F. macroiicme.) Applied to a fish, 
that has large tentacula. 

SXacronOS'ia. (MaK-poi/oo-ta ; from 

fidhpui, long ; i/oVos, disease. F. macronosie.') 
A lingering sickness. 

IVIacron'ychous. (Mah-po's; ovv^, a 

nail. F. macroiigc/ic.) Having the nails very 
Ions: and almost straight. 

IMEacropet'alouS. (M«Kp<k, great; 
TTiTuXov, a petal. F. macropeiale.) Having 
lar^e petals. 

XWacroph'ag'i. (Mahpo9; <pa.yi~iv, to 
eat.) Metsclmikotf's term for certain laige 
leucocytes occurring in structures affected with 
erysipelas. He believes that they consume and 
destroy the debris of the dead and dying Micro- 

niacrophal'Iic. (MaK-pos; (/>aXAe9,the 

penis. F. macrophalliqHC.) Relating to a 3Iacro- 

lUEacrophallus. (M«h-pos ; <\>a\\6^. 
F. macrophalle.) An unnaturally large penis. 



IMCacropha'rynx. (Mok/oo's, long; 

(fyii/juy^, the pliuiyux.) Having a long pha- 

IKEacropho'nous. (MnKpo?, groat; 

<}>wri'i, the viiirr.) Jlauiig a loinl strong voice. 

IVIacrophthal mous. (MrtK^uos, large; 

o(/;ttit,\n(iv, all eye. F. iinnrv/j/il/ialme.) Having 
very hirge eyi s. 
IMEacrophyl'line. Same as Macro- 

lUCacrophyllOUS. ('MaK/jos, great; 
(jivWuv, a Teat. F. maci-oplnjlh ; G. gross- 
oUitferig.) Having larire or loiii,'- leaves. 

IWacrophysocepb'alous. (Ma».po'« ; 

<f>uaa, wind ; kkIjuXi'i, lliu head. 1"'. macropliij-so- 
ciphale ; G. Kopjlnftgeschivuht.) 
Fare's term for a fcetus with a large head, pro- 
duced by a kind of emphysema, which impedes 

I>Iacro'pia. (Mah-joo's; oJi//, the eye. F. 
mafrupic.) Same as Macro})sia. 

IWacrop'iper. (Mrt^/oos, long; -ntTrtpi, 

pepper. V. poiire long ; G. langer Ffeffvr.) A 
Genus of the Nat. Order Fiperacece. 

Also, a name for the Fiper lougian, or long 

ns. latifollum, Miqiiel. (L. latus, broad ; 
folium, a leaf.) The 31. methgsticum. 

Ttt. metbys'tlcum, Hooker and Am. 
(Mtfeo-TtKo's, intoxicating. F. poivre enivrant ; 
G. Awa Pfeffer.) The root contains McthysticiH, 
and is used to make Kava ; when fresh it is 
employed as a diaphoretic, and in gonorrhoea, 
venereal diseases, erysipelas, and rheumatism. 

IMEacropla'sia. (MaK7)o9, large; TrXfio-is, 
a niDulding.) Disproportionate development of 
the jiarts of the body. 

IKEacropneu'ma. (Mah-pos, long; -wvi^- 

fxa, the breath. F. macropneuma.) Long and 
deep breathing. 

DXacropnoe'a. (Js\at<poirvoLa; from 

fxaKpu<i\ iwoit'i, breath. F. niacropitee.') Deep 
an<l slow respiration. 

XWacrop'nbOUSs {^laKpo-nvooi; from 
/xaK73os, long; TTvio), to breathe. F. macropne.) 
Having slow or long breath ; long-breathed. 

XMCacrop'oda. (M«k7jov, long; Troi'-s, a 
foot. F. macropodts.) A Suborder of the Order 
Marsupialia, having very long and strong hind 
legs, and powerful hind feet with a very strong 
and long median toe ; the fore-legs are weak 
and small, and the head little. 

Macropod'ia. (Mahpo's, long; ttous-, a 
foot. F. mctcropodie ; G. Langfusaigkeit.) Term 
in Teratology for abnomial length or excessive 
development nf the foot. See Fts glgas. 

nZacropodi'dae. (MaK/^os; •n-ous; tISos, 

form.) Same as Miuropoda. 

IVIacrop'odOUS. (Mah/ooTrous; from 
/u«h.^ji>s, great ; ttous, a foot. Y. mucropode ; G. 
Inngfiissig ,dickfi}ssig .) In Zoology, having long 
or large feet, or long or large ambulatory ap- 

In Botany, having long or large peduncles, or 
a long radicle. 

Also, applied by Richard to the long cotyledon 
of Grainincce, under the idea that it was the 

MacrOpo'tnOUS. (Mnh-pos, large; -jrw/ia, 
a lid. F. macro2)ome.) Having a large or long 

Blacrop'orOUS. (Mohpiis, great; TTo'f'o?, 
a pathway. F. macrupore.) Having large 

X^ac'ropOUS. (MaK/ooirous; from /uaK-posi 
long; TTotiv, a foot. F. macrope ; G. latigjtissig.) 
Having long feet. 

IHacrOprOSO'pia. (AI aKpoTrporrwiro^ ; 
from finKpii<i, great; irpun-utTruv, the face. F. 
macroprosopie.) Term in Teratology for an ex- 
cessive development of the face. 

Macrops'ia. (M«Kf)<;v; oi//is, vision. F. 
■niacropnie.) The condition in wliich objects 
appear to be larger than they actually are. It is 
a conditiim produced by over-action of the 
niu-cles of accomiiHidation. 

Macrop'terous. (iMaK-poTTTfpos; from 

/ua^/oov, long ; TTTt'/jov, a wing. F. macroptere ; 
G. grofisfliigvlig.) Long-winged or long-finned. 

In Botany, applied to seeds which are furnished 
with wings. 

ZMLac'ropus, Shaw. (MaKTJoVous, having 
long feet.) The kangaroo. A Genus of the 
Suborder Macropoda, Order Marsupialia, inlia- 
biting Australia, characterised by the usual 
abdominal pouch, short fore legs, and very long 
and strong hind legs and tail, enabling it to take 
immense leaps. It is six feet in height. The 
tendons are used for ligatures. 

DXa'cror. (L. maccr, lean.) Emaciation. 

IVIacrorhyn'clious. {Js\aKp6ppvyxo^ ; 

from /xciKpu^, large ; puyyos, a beak. F. 
macrorhynqiie.) Having a large snout or 

nXacrorrham'phous. (js\uKp6^\ 

pajj.(p6>;, the beak. F. macronhamphe.) Having 

a bilge beak. 

niac'rorrhine. (MaKpoppi^; from 

/luKpoi, long, large ; pis, the nose. G. Gross- 
nase, Langnase.) Having a long or a large 
Macrorrhi'zous. (MfiKyjopi^os; from 

j.iaKp6^\ pt^a, a root. F. miicriirhisi: ; {j.gross- 
wnrzilig.) Having long or large roots ; having 
a large radicle. 

Macrortborhyn'chous. (Mahpos; 
opt)«s, straight ; puyx"^? '"^ beak. F.macrortho' 
rhpnque.) Having a long straight bill. 

IMCacros'celes. {MaKpo<yKt\iU; from 
fxuKpu^, long; (TKtXos, the leg.) Having long 

DIacrosceria. (MuK-pos, long ; o-kAos. 

F. Macroskt'lie ; G. Laiigbcinigkeit.) A mon- 
strosity characterised by an excessive develop- 
ment of the legs. 

XWacrOS'cioUS. (M«/>pi;<tkios; from 
fiiiKfjwi ; a-Kia, a shadow. F. niacroscivn ; G. 
langschattig.) Ajiplied anciently to the inliabi- 
taiits of countries at the zenith where the sun 
never arrives, because in winter at noon their 
bodies create a very long shadow. 

MacrOSCOp'iC. (M(«)vpdv; o-hoTr/oi, to 
obsirve. F. macroscopiquc.) Visible to the 
naked eye. 

niacros'copy. (M«(>p<;s; c^kottUo. F. 

macroscopie.) The examination of an object by 
means of ttie unassisted e3'e. 

XWacro'sia. Tlie same as ]\[acro.sis. 

XVIacrosi'phonous. (MuKpos, long; 
a-L<t>wi>, a tube. G. Uuigrohrig.) Having a long 

IVIacro'siS. (M^iKpwo-is, a lengthening; 
fri'in /(aKpo9, great, or long. F. macrosif ; G. 
Vergrbs.seriing, Vcrlihigerung.) Term for in- 
crease of bulk, or of length ; augmentation ; 

Siacroskel'ia. See 3rorroscelia. 

XVXacrosoma tia. (Ma^pos, great; 


o-wfia, a body. F. macrosomatie ; G. Riesvn- 
WHchs.) Tt'iin applied by Maliiciirne to a class 
of luonstrosities cbaracterised by the great size 
of tlie t'litiic body. 

Alacroso'mia. Same as Macrosomatia. 

3>Iacrosper'inatous. (MaK-^os, great; 

mripfia, a seed. V. macrosperme.) llaviug 
lurn-c seeds. 
IWacrosper'zuous. See Macroxperma- 


Macrosporang-'ium. (MaKpo's, great; 

a-Tru()d, seed ; ciyytloi', a vessel. F. iiiacfo- 
sporange.) The ISporangmm, or capsule con- 
taining the large spores or female r('i)roductive 
elements, in the Selaginaceie and Marsiliaceae. 
It is usually a two-valved case with four lobes, 
each of which contains one macrospore or ovule. 
Called by Bennett Mcgasporange. 

IMac'rospore. (Ma/v-,oo's; o-Tropa, seed.) 
The large spores of Lycopods, as Isoetes, which 
in germination produce the female prothallium. 
Also called Mcgaspore. 

The term is also applied to the large spores 
produced in small numbers in certain special 
cysts found in the Gregarinidse. 

XHacrOS'porOUS. (MaKyjos, great; 

mropd, seed. F. macrospore.) Applied to a 
mushroom which has very large sporidia or re- 
productive corpuscles. 

Blacrostach'yous. {MaKp6^, great; 

o-rd)(iis, an ear of corn. F. macrostachge.) 
Having flowers disposed in long and thick spikes 
or ears. 

IWacroste'monate. (Muh-po's, long; 

(TTtinciw, a thread.) Sanje as Macrostemonous. 

XlXacroste'inonous. (MaK-pds, long; 

<TTi]nwv. F. macrostemone.) Having long and 
projecting stamens. 

MacroStOm'atOUS. (MaK-po?, great; 
<TT(i/ua, a mouth. F. macrostome.) Having a 
large mouth, or a large opening like to a 

Blacrostozn'ia. (MaK-pos ; cTTOfxa, the 

mouth. F. inacrostomie ; G. Grossmaul.) Ab- 
normal extension or fissure of one or both angles 
of the mouth so as to expose the molar teeth ; it 
may be congenital or may be caused by imperfect 
healing of a wound. 

Til. cong-en'itum. (L. congenitus, born 
together with.) The form which is caused by 
imperfect development of the parts forming the 
lower jaw, the junction of the maxillary and 
mandibular plates being defective. 

Blacros'tomous. The same as Ma- 

DCacrosty'lospore. (Mah^Js, large.) 

A large tStglospore. 

MacrOSty'lOUS. (IVIa^<)os, long; 

o-tD/\os;, a ])illar. F. macrostgle.) Having a 
very long style. 

3>Iacrosypliilion'tlius. (MaK/xk, 

great; sgp/nliunthns. ¥ . macrosgphiUonthe.) A 
large syphilitic eruptive spot. 

llXacrotar'sous. (MaKpo?, great; 
Tn^crcis, the flat of the foot. F. macrotarsien.) 
Having the tarsus very long. 

XWacro'teS. (MaKptoTij?, from puKpoi, 
long; oils, (iiT-ds, the ear. F. macroie ; G. 
gros^geohrt.) Long-eared. 

DXac'rotherm. (Mah/oos, large.) Same 
as Migathcrm. 

nXacro'tia. (MaKpds, large; o5s, the 
ear. "I Abnormal development of the outer ear. 

BXac'rotin. An impure resin obtained in 

America from black snake root, the Cimicifuga 

Also called Clmicifugin. 

Macroty'pous. {WaKp6i, long ; tuttos, 

the general form of a thing.) Belonging to a 
lonu; form or \ ariety of a thing or being. 

nXacro'tys. A Genus of the Mat. Order 

Mt. actseoi'des, Rafin. The Aclcca, or 
Cimicifugd racenwua. 

V/L. racemosa, Eaton. The Actcua race- 

Xtlacrou'rous. The same as Macrtirous. 
IWacrozoog'onid'iuin. (M«k>)o'v ; 

zoogonidiuni.) Tiie huge fdriii oi Zoogonidi/im. 

^ Macrozo'ospore. (M aupik ; zoosjiore.) 
Tiie zoospores of Couveivaceaj which gi'rminate 
directly. Called by Bennett Megazoos2)orc. 

Blacru'ra. (Mok/jos, long ; obpu, a tail.) 
A Suborder of the Order Dccapoda, having a 
well-developed abdomen with four or five pairs 
of natatory limbs and a terminal caudal fin. 

Blacru'roUS. (Maiv-|uds, long; oiipa, a 
tail. F. macroure ; G. langschwdnzig.) Having 
a long tail, or organ like to one. 

Blac'ula. (L. macula, a spot ; from Aryan 
root mak, to pound. F. macule, tuche ; G. Fleck.) 
A permanent spot or stain of some part of the 
skin, with or without an alteration of tlie general 
texture, but not connected with any disorder of 
the constitution. 

Also, a temporary spot on the skin, such as 
the small purplish spots of the rash of typhus 

M. acus'tlca. ('Akouo-tiko's, of or for the 
sense of hearing. G. Nervenivarze.) A thicker 
and more opaque spot in the wall of the utricle 
of the ear to which the otoliths are attached. It 
is covered with columnar epithelium and auditory 

M. al'ba. (L. albus, white.) See Milk 

TH. arcua'ta. (L. arcuatus, arched.) The 
same as Arcus senilis. 

M. argrent'ea. (L. argenteus, silvery.) 
The livid appearance of the skin which occurs 
after the protracted use of silver nitrate prepara- 
tions. See Argyria. 

Tfl. au'rea. (L. aureiis, golden.) The 
fovea centralis situated in the centre of the M. 

M., cen'tral. See M. meningea. 

tn.., cer'ebral. See Cerebral macula. 

IVI. cor'neee. (L. corneus, horny. G. 
Hornhautjleck.) A nebula or opacity of the 
cornea. The same as Leucoma. 

M. cor'neae arcua'ta. (L. corneus; 
arcuatus, bent like a bow.) A synonym of Arcus 
senilis ; the zone of fatty degeneration seen round 
the eye of old people. 

VII. cor'neae margrarlta'cea. (L. cor- 
neus ; margarita, a pearl. G. pcrlformiger 
Fleck der Hornhaut.) An opacity of the cornea. 

ttl. crlbro'sa. (L. cribrum, a sieve.) 
The termination of the meatus auditorius in- 
ternus, so called because it is perforated by a 
number of small apertures for the passage of 
the primary filaments of the auditory nerve. 

Tit, cribro'sa Infe'rior. (L. cribrum; 
inferior, lower. G. untcrer Sicbjleck.) An ex- 
tremely minute area presenting about eight 
openings for the nervus ampuUaris inferior 
situated between the rccessus ellipticus and the 
ampulla ossea inferior. 


IVI. cribro'sa xue'dia. (L. cribrum ; 

mediufi,m\t!i<\\e. (i.mittlcnr Sichjkck.) A small 
spot in the lower lialf of the rucessus splui-ricus 
of the vestibule of the internal ear. It presents 
from thirteen to twenty-four openings for the 
ncrvus sacculiiiis minor. 

T/t. cribro'sa quar'ta. (L. cribrum; 
qnarlu.s, fourth.) A minute area in the recessus 
coelilearis presenting about ten openings. 

IVI. cribrosa reces'sus cocblea'ris. 
(L. cribr/im ; >'tffc.s.v«.s, a retreat ; cocltlta.) The 
same as M. crihr/isii ijxnrici. 

Vtl. cribro'sa supe'rior. (L. cribrum ; 
superior, upper. G. ohtrer Siebjleck.) k minute 
spot occupying the apex of the crista vestibuli 
and its posterior surface, the former area pre- 
senting from fifteen to nineteen openings for the 
passage of the nervus saccularis major, and the 
latter from fourteen to seventeen holes for the 
nervus ampullaris superior and lateralis. 

Ttl, emortua'lis. (L. emortualis, belong- 
ing to death.) Post-mortem lividity. The livid 
spots which occur in dead bodies cither as the 
result of hypostatic congestion or of commencing 

M. fla'va. (L. flavus, yellow.) See M. 

T/l. fossae bemispbse'ricse. (L. fossa, 
a ditch ; Gr. iifxi(r<paifiiov, a half globe.) The 
M. cribrosa media. 

IVI. fus'ca. {h.fiiscxs, hrovfn.) A freckle. 

IVI. grerminati'va. (L. germino, to 
sprout. F. tache gerininative ; G. KcimJlccJc.) 
Eudolf Wagner's term for the germinal spot or 
principal nucleolus of the germinal vesicle of the 
ovum of ^[ammalia. It may be subdivided into 
several nucleoli of which one is larger than the 

TH. taepat'ica. (L. hcpaticus, belonging 
to the liver. G. Lebcrfticl:.) A synonym of 
Tinea versicolor, or of Chloasma. 

Tit. lac'tea. (L. laclcus, milky.) See 
Mill- spot. 

tfl. lenticula'ris. (L. lenticMlaris, like 
a lentil.) A freckle. 

IMC. lu'tea. (L. luteus, saffron coloured. 

F. tache jaune ; G. gelbcr Fleck.) The yellow 
spot in the axis of the eyeball. It is a somewhat 
elliptical portion of the retina, about a twentieth 
of an inch in diameter, and lyingabout one tenth 
of an inch external to the porus opticus or disc 
of the e)'e. In tlie centre of the macula lutea is 
the fovea centralis. The layers of the retina are 
here thicker and contain the specific yellow 
colouring substance diffused through their struc- 

IVI. znater'na. (L. matermis, pertaining 
to a mother. G. Mutterjleck.) A term for a 

IVI. matrica'Iis. (L. matricalis, belong- 
ing to tlie wiimb.) A nicvus. 

T/L. xnatri'cis. (L. matrix, the womb. 

G. Muttcrjhvk, Mutlcrmal.) A term for a 
Nccvus ma (cm us, 

IWC. xnening-e'a. (Mjji/ty^, a membrane.) 
The persistent blush wliich remains after irrita- 
tion of the skin of patients suffering from certain 
forms of cerebral disease. 
Also called Cerebral macula. 

IVI. negrlec'ta. (L. neglcctvs, neglected.) 
A small area (jn Ifie floor of the utriculus in the 
lower mammals to which a branch of the auditory 
nerve is distributed. It is close to the Sacculo- 
utricular duct on the floor of the utriculus in 

Pisces, Reptilia, and Aves ; in Amphibia it lies 
on tlie inner side of the sacculus; and in !Mam- 
malia it gradually becomes obliterated. 

IVI. ni'§:ra. (L. nigcr, black.) The point 
in the ojitic nerve where the arteria centralis 
retiuiu leaves it to sujiply the retina. 

IVI. nubo'sa. (L. nubis, a cloud.) An 
opacity of the cornea intermediate in depth be- 
tween a nebula and a leucoma. 

IVI. pellu cida. (L. 2^elhicidus, trans- 
parent.) A tliin nun- vascular s])ot on the wall of 
the Graafian follicle opposite to the cumulus ovi- 
gerus, at wliich tlie rupture t;ikcs place. 

IVX. semipellu'cida. (L. semi, half; 
pcllucidus, clear.) A haziness of the cornea left 
after inflammation or ulcer. The same as Nebula 

T/t. sola'ris. (L. Solaris, belonging to the 
sun. G. 8o)nir)tflcck.) A freckle. 

M. tendln'ea. {Toulon. G. Sehnenjleck .) 
Same as Milk spot. 

WL. volat'ica. (L. volaticns, fleeting.) A 
transient purple spot on the skin whicli was 
formerly believed to be mortal if it reached an 

niac'ulae. (L. macula, a spot or mark. 
F. macules, laches; G. Flecke.) An order of 
diseases of the skin, comprising the permanent 
discolourations, whether from excess or detect of 
pigment, most of wliich involve an alteration of 
the natural texture, adopted by Plenck, Willan, 
and many others. It includes freckles, moles, 
and stains ; some have added extravasations of 
blood, and others na-vi. 

IVI. al'bldse. (L. albidus, whitish.) Same 
as 3[ilk spots. 

ns. an'te oc'ulos volltan'tes. (L. ante, 
before ; oculus, the eye.) Same as JIuscce voli- 

IVI. atropb'icse. Small patches similar, 
except in form, to Atrophy, linear. 

IVI. cseru'lese. (L. cevrulcus, dark blue. 
F. laches ombri-es.) Steel-grey spots of pigmen- 
tation seen in the parts of the skin infested with 
the Pediculus pubis, described by Morrison ; they 
are most frequently seen during the months of 
February, ^larch, and April. 

IMC. cerebra'les. See Cerebral tnacula. 

T/t. cribro'sae. (L. cribrum, a sieve. G. 
Siebjleckc .) Minute openings in the inner wall 
of the vestibule through which nerves pass to 
the sacculi and the ampullae of the semicircular 

Jtl, gravida' rum. (L. graridus, with 
young.) Discolourations of tlie skin of pregnant 
women, lieing a form of Chloasma uterinum. 

T/L. bepat'icse. (L. hepaticus, belonging 
to the liver. G. Lebcrjlecke.) Liver spots. The 
same as Tinea versicolor. 

IVI. metal'llcae. (Mt'-raXXoi', a metal.) 
Stains on the conjunctiva produced bysomemetal- 
lic suf)stanfe, as nitrate of silver, or lead lotion. 

IVI. sypbllit'lcse. {Syphilis.) The pe- 
culiar luownish discolouration which often 
remains after secondary syphilitic rashes. 
Also, the same as Roseola syphilitica. 

IVI. volat'icse. (L. volaticus, flying.) A 
term for Erythema fugax. 
Also, a synonym of Muscce voUtantes. 

TO., volitan'tes. Same as Muscee voli- 

IMCac'uIar. (L. macula. F. maeulaire.) 
Of, or Ijeluiigiiig to, macula?, or natural spots on 
the skin. 


M. lep'rosy. Soe Lepra maculosa. 

AIa,C'Ula.te. (L. macula. F. macule ; I. 
tnacchiuto ; IS. macuhido ; G. gtjlcckt.) Havings 
spots of a dirt'eront colour from that of the 
substanci; on which they appear. 

IlXac'ulature. (L. macula.) The con- 
dition of being spotted. 

DIa.C'ule. See Macula. 

Blaculicol'late. _ (L. macula; colliim, 
the necii. F. macullcolle.) Applied to insects 
having the neck or corselet marked by one spot, 
or by nlan}^ 

IVEaculicor'nate. (L. macula ; comu, a 
born. \!\ nidculu'iirnc.) Applied to insects having 
spotted anteniue. 

BZac'uliform. (L. macula ; forma, re- 
Beinblance. F. macnliforme ; {}. Jleckdhiilicli.) 
Having the appearance of a spot or stain, as the 
fructitication of certain algis, such as the Dlciyota 

lyiaculipen'nate. (L. macula; penna, 
a wing. F. macuiipennl:.) Having spotted wings. 

IVZaculiros'trate. (L. macula; ros- 
trum, a beak. ¥ . maculirostre ; {i. schnabelye- 
Jtickt.) Having the beak marked with spots. 

XMEac'ulose. (L. macula. F. maculeux.) 
Having, or full of, spots. 

mac'ulous. Same as Maculose. 

DIad. (Mid. E. mad, maad, made, med, 
mod ; ^ax. f/i-mad.) Insane. 

IVI. -apple. (F. pomme d^ amour ; G. 
Liebesapfcl, Tollapfel.') The egg apple, the 
fruit of the Solanuin melongena. It is oblong, 
egg-sbaped, and used in soups and sauces, the 
same as the Tomato. 

SCadag'as'car. An island in the Indian 
Ocean, on the eastern coast of Africa. It con- 
tains mineral springs, the most celebrated of 
which arise near the village of Kanomafane; 
they have a temperature of 70' C. (158° ¥.), and 
are sulphurous. 

IW. poi'son-nut. The Tanghinia veneni- 

XWa'dar. Same as Mudar. 

Iffadaraspat'anous. {Ma^apoi, 

bald; o-TraToe, a liide. G. Kahlhutitig, Fcll- 
kultlcud.) Term applied in Botany to surfaces 
destitute of hair. 

Bladaro'siS. (Ma^apMo-is; from fia^a- 
f)os, bald. F. madarose ; I. madarosi.) The 
falling off of the eyelashes, usually caused by 

Also, the falling off of the hair of the head. 

IHadar'otes. {MaSapoTn^. G. Kald- 

kopfii/kt'it.) Term for baldness. 

niadarot'ic. (Maoapoxrts. F. madaro- 
tique ; G. Madarosisbetreffend.) Of, or belonging 
to, Mndarosis. 

I^ad'arOUS. (Maoapos, bald. F.c/tauve, 
madure ; G. kahlkopjig.) Having lost the hair 
of the head, or of the eyebrows ; baldheaded. 

niad'der. (Mid. E. madir, madcr ; from 
Sax. mccddera, mcedere. F. gnrance ; I. robbia ; 
S. rubia ; G. Krapp, Fdrbcrothe.) The dried 
root of Rubia tinctorum, employed as a dye. It 
is sold as a coarse powder ; with a bitter-sweet, 
acrid, and astringent taste. It contains many 
substances, the chief of which is Alizarin. It 
was at one time used as an emmenagogue, diu- 
retic, and stomachic aperient, and was given for 
the cure of rickets, in doses of half to one drachm 
four times daily. 

M., Bengal. The root of Rubia mim- 
gista, Roxb. 

m., Sutcb. Madder produced in Holland. 

IWC., dy'er's. The dye above described. 

IMC., Zn'dian. The Jlcdgotis umbellata. 
Also, the same as M., Bengal. 

IVI., Iievant'. The dried root of Rubia 

IVI. or'der. The Nat. Order Rubiacea;. 
DZadefac'tion. (L. madcfado, to make 
wet ; from madco, to be wet ; facio, to make. 
F. humectalion, madif action ; I. madefazione ; 
S. madefacione ; G. Anfeuchtung .) The act of 
making wet or moist. 

Madei'ra. An island in the Atlantic 
Ocean with a mild, equable, but moist and re- 
laxing climate, and a mean winter and spring 
temperature ranging from 59'' F. to 65' F. (15° 0. 
to 18-33° C.) It is probably of little use in 
phthisis, generally, and not infrequently, it is ab- 
solutely injurious ; but it is beneficial in cases of 
emphysema, in some forms of asthma, in chronic 
bronchitis with a dry irritable cough and scanty 
secretion, and in laryngeal catarrh. 

The leste, a dry, hot, east wind, blows occa- 
sionally for two or three days at a time in July 
aud August. 

V/l. wine. A fortified white wine, some- 
what resembling brown slierry, with a fine nutty 
flavour, made in Madeira. It usually contains 
from 19 to 22 per cent, of alcohol. 

IMadel'con. old name for Bdellium. 
Madeleine de Flou'rens. See 

Mdijdehine de Flourexs, Sainle. 

3>Iade'ina. Same as Madarosis. 

IKEad'eric acid. A colourless substance 
found l)y liunge in Madder. 

mades'cent. (L. madesco, to become 
moist. G. niissend.) Moist; having a weeping 

XHade'sis. (Mdoijo-i?.) Loss of the hair. 
The act of removing the hair, or depilation. 

iMadhu'ca tree. The Bassia bntyracea. 

IMCa'dia. (Chilian name of the Madia 
satica.) A Genus of the Group Seneeionidew, 
Nat. Order Compositec. 

IVI. mello'sa, Jacq. (L. mellosus, full of 
honey.) A variety of M. saliva. 

TNI., oil of. (G. MadialJl.) The oil ex- 
pressed from the seeds of the M. saliva. It 
contains palmitin, stearin, and a special olein. 
It is used both as a food and as an illuminant. 
It is very useful as a lubricant, inasmuch as it 
does not solidify above -19° R. (-10-7° F.) 

IVI. sati'va, Molina. (L. safivus, that is 
sown.) A plant growing in Chili. The seeds 
yield an edible fixed oil. 

IVI. visco'sa, Cav. (L. viscosus, slimy.) 
A variety of M. saliva. 

IMEadia'ic ac'id. C32H3,04. A fatty 

acid obtained by saponification from oil of madia. 
It crystallises in fine needles, which melt at 
55° C". (131° F.) 

IVEa'dic. (Arab.) Old term for milk after 
it has yielded butter. (Ruland and Johnson.) 

nXad'isiS. (Maoio-ts. F. calvitie ; G. 
KaliUiiit.) Old term for Calvities, or baldness. 

XKCad'ison spring*. United States of 
America, Georgia, Madison County. A chaly- 
beate water. 

X^adiste'rium. (MaSLarTvpinv. F. 
mndislerton ; G. Eaarzange.) An instrument 
for plucking out hairs. 

IMEad'jOUn. An intoxicating and narcotic 
substance consisting of the ground pistils of the 
flowei-s of Cannabis sativa, mixed with cloves, 


nutmegs, and saffron, and made into a mass with 
honey. It is used by the Turks and Algeriiies 
as a iiarrotic. 

IVIad'nep. The Heradeum xphondi/Hum. 
IMCad'ness. {Mail. F.tnunie; (j.Jiastrci, 
Tol/Jii if.) A term for Insanity. 

T/L., affective. See Insanity, affective. 

TUl.., alcoholic. See Insanity, ulcuholie. 

IVI., canine'. (L. cauls, a dog.) The 
same as Ili/ffrop/io/jia. 

V/l., circular. See Insanity, circular. 

IVK., cong'en'ltal. (L. congenitus, bom 
together with.) Same as Idiocy. 

Ttt., demen'tial. Same as Dementia. 

T/l., doubt'lngr. See Insanity, doubting. 

Tn.., exopbtbal'mlc. See Insanity, ex- 

IVI., fe'brile. See Insanity , febrile. 

Vlt., furious. Same as Mania. 

m., gren'eral paralyt'ic. See Paralysis, 
general, of insane. 

IVI., Iiypochondri'acal. The extreme 
stage of IIi/pi)chitndri((sis. 

IVI., idea'tional. Sec Insanity, idea- 

IVI., Intellec'tual. See Insanity, intel- 

IVI., manl'acal. Same as 3Iania, acute. 

IMC., melanchol'lc. See Melancholia. 

IVI., monomani'acal. See Monomania. 

IVI., moral. See Insanity, moral. 

IVI., puer'peral. See Insanity, puerperal. 

IVI., ra'vlngr. Same as Mania. 

IVI., recurrent. (L. recurro, to come 
back.) Sume as Insanity, prriodic. 

XMEadon'na a papiano. Italy, in 

Tuscany. A mineral water, containing sodium 
bicarbonate 1*7689 gramme, magnesium bicar- 
bonate •3172, calcium bicarbonate '9, and iron 
bicarbonate -0957 gramme in 1000 grammes. 
Usid in disorders of the gastro-intestinal and 
urinary mucous membranes. 

I^adon'na di tre fiu'mi. Italy, in 

Tusciiny. A sulpliur spring eontaining sodium, 
magnesium, and calcium bicarbonates in small 
quantities. Used in gastro-intestinal and uri- 
nary troubles. 

DCa'dor. The same as Mtidar. 

IMa'dor* (L. madco, to be moist. F. moi- 
teur, humidite.) Moisture that is superfluous or 
unnatural. Old term for that kind of sweat 
which takes place in syncope, whether warm or 

Mado'rius. Same as Mudar. 

Bladorrlioe'a. (L. mador, moisture; 
Gr. i'uiia, a tlow.) A synonym of Syphilis. 

IVCadras'. India, the chief town of the 
province of the same name. 

M. earth'nuts. (G. Madras-erdniisse.) 
The seeds of the Arachis hypoyiea. 

Dladrepo'ra. {Madrepore. Q. Stern- 
coralle, JCaschenkoralle.) A Genus of the 
Suboider Madreporaria, or of the Order Srlcro- 
dermata. Subclass Zoantharia. The putrefa< tion 
of the many species of this genus h;is by some 
been supjiosed to be the cause of yellow fever. 

Tft. ocula'ta, Linn. (L. oculatns, eyed.) 

Formerly (fticial, as furnishing some Coral, white. 

IVI. prollt'era, Linn. (L. proles, off- 

sprini,'- ; /(7-0, to bear.) Formerly official, as 

furnisliing some Coral, white. 

IVIadrepora'ria. A Suborder of the 
Order Zonnlharia, liaving a continuous, cal- 
careous, internal coralluni. 

SXad'repore. (F. madrepore ; I. madre- 
pora ; probably from I. madre, mother; and Gr. 
7ra)/)(iv, tufa.) See Madrepora. 

IMEadrepO'ric. (F. madreporique.) Ec- 
lating to, or resemliliiig, a Madrepore. 

In I'athologj-, applied to certain tumours of 
the teeth and to some calcareous concretions 
which present a rugous surface, marked by de- 
pressions, and perforated witli holes. 

IVI. canals'. Tubular ])rolongations of the 
circular ambulacral vessel ot Echinodermata. 

IVI. plate. (F. plaque madre poiique.) 
That porous plate of the exoskeleton of Echino- 
dermata by which the sand or stone canal opens 
to receive the water whicli passes into the in- 
terior of the animal. Its position varies ; it is 
generally at or near the apical pole, but occa- 
sionally it is situated ventrally. There may 
be more than one. 

M. tu'bercle. (L. tuberculum, a small 
hump.) Same as Madreporite. 

DIadrepo'riform. {Madrepora; L. 
forma, likeness. F. madriporiforme .) Perforated 
with small holes ; having the form or appearance 
of tli(> Madrepora. 

ZWadrep'orite. {Madrepore.) The 
spongy prominence on the Madreporic plate 
whicti is perforated by the sand canal ; some- 
times there are two or three. 

Mad'rid. The capital of Spain. 
IVI. colic. A synonym of lead colic. 

Madu'ca but'ter. The same ns,Mahu-ah 

IKEadu'ra foot. {Madura.) A parasitic 
Indian disease due to the growth of the fungus 
Chionyphe Carteri, the mycelium of which pene- 
trates the skin and subcutaneous tissue, producing 
sujipuration and ulceration. So called from its 
frequency in Madura. See Mycetoma. 

X^ad'urin. A synonym of Morintannic 

IMCad'weed. The Scutellaria lateriflora. 

DXad wort. The alyssum, or Marrubiuin 

M., Galen's. See Marrubinm alyssum. 
IVI., Cer'man. The Asperugo procum- 

IVI., moun'tain. The Veronica montana. 

IVIae a* The same as Maia. 

IVZaBei'a. The same as Maieia. 

niaeeleutliero'sis. The same as Mai- 

SXseeu ma. The same as Maieuma. 

niaeeusionia'nia. The same as Mai- 

IWCaeeusiophob'ia. The same as Mai- 

Alseeu'sis. The same as Maieusis. 

PXaeeu tics. The same as Mauiities. 

ZVIaeeu tria. The same as Maieutria. 

IVIaeeu'tric. The same as Maieutric. 

TUse'TlSLS. The same as Mainas. 

]Mi3COSOte'ria. The same n^ Maiosoteri a. 

IVIae'rua. A Genus of the Nat. Order Cap- 

IVI. angfolen'sis. Hab. Africa. An anti- 

IVI. uniflo'ra. (L. unus, one; flos, a 
flower.) Hah. Atri( a. Fruit eatable. 

mae'sa. {Maesa, or maasa, the Arabic 
name of the Maesa picta.) A Genus of the 
Nat. (^rii( r Myrsinacete. 

IVI. lanceola'ta, Forskal. The M. picta. 
IVI. pic'ta, Hochstetter. (L. pictus, part. 


of pint/0, to paint.) An Abyssinian tree, the 
fruit of wliich, called S<iori(i, is used as a tape- 
worm destroyer. It contains a fatty and an 
ethereal oil. Same as Baobotrys picta. 

mafou'tra. The Madagascar name of an 
undcteiiuined tree, tlie pear-shaped fruit of 
which is used in skin diseases. The tree fur- 
nishes an astringent gum. 

IHCafu'ra tallow. A solid fat, of a 
yellowish colour, mild taste, and cacao-like 
smell, obtained by boiling the seeds of Trichilia 

niafurei'ra. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

IVI. oleirera, Bertero. {Xi. oleum, oil ; 
fcro, to bear.) The Trichilia emetica. 

SHXagrdaieon, {¥. magdnlton ; from Gr, 
juntyouXtci, later form of cnro/xaySuXia, crumb of 
bread on which the Greeks wiped their lingers 
at dinner, and then threw it to the dogs.) A 
term applied to any medicament which is kept 
in rolls or cylinders, and more especially to 
plasters and pill masses preserved in these 
shapes. The weight of a magdaleon varies from 
30 to 500 grammes. 

DIag'dal'ia. Same as Magdaleon. 

Blag- deburg*. A city of Prussia. 
M. bem'ispheres. (Y\ni(T(f>aip{.ov, a 
half sphere.) Two hollow hemispheres of brass, 
with accurately ground and fitting edges, and a 
tube with a stop-cock in one of them so arranged 
that it can be attached to an air-pump and the 
air in the cavity of the hemispheres exhausted ; 
they cannot then be separated ; they were de- 
signed to show the equal pressure of the 
atmosphere in all directions. 

IHCag-'deleine -de - Flou'rens, 

Sainte. France, departement de la Haute- 
Garonne. An athermal, weak, bicarbonated, 
chalybeate water used in annemic conditions. 

Mag^eireu'ma. (May£i>£uyua, that which 

is cooked. F. magireume.') Cooked or prepared 
food . 

lUag'ei'ricS. (JAaynpiKoi, fit for a fiayn- 
pos. or cook.) The art of cooking. 

IHag'en'die, Francois. A French 

surgeon and physiologist, born at Bordeaux in 
1783, died in Paris in 18.55. 

IVI., lora'men of. (F. trou de Majendie.) 
See Foramen of Majendie. 

IMC.'s solution of morph'la. A solu- 
tion of -8 gramme of sulphate of morphia in 30 
grammes of water. 

As used in the United States, it is prepared by 
dissolving 16 grains of sulphate of morphia in an 
ounce of water. 

BCag'en'ta. _ {Magenta, a place in Italy 
noted for a battle in which the French and Sar- 
dinians defeated the Austrians in 1859.) C20II19 
N3HCI. An aniline dye, being the hydrochlorate 
of rosaniline. It is prepared by acting on anilin 
with oxidising agents, such as arsenic acid, and 
subsequently treating with hydrochloric acid. 
It forms elongated crystals, with green lustre, 
which give a red tint to water. Taken internally 
or injected into the veins it has produced saliva- 
tion, vomiting, and diarrhoea. It is eliminated 
by the kidneys and salivary glands, and appears 
in the bile and urine, to which it gives a magenta 
colour. It is used to diminish the albumin in 
albuminuria. Do.?e, ^ — 4 grains. 

A substance called magenta dust is used in 
printing ; it contains arsenic, and has produced 
by its use irritation of the throat and cough, 

swollen eyelids and lips, prostration, nausea and 
sickness, and other signs of arsenical poisoning. 

BIag''g'Ot. (Mid. E. magot, magat; from 
Welsh, marai, a grub ; from magu, to breed. F. 
larve, ver blanc ; I. vermicuolo ; S. gusano ; G. 
Made.) A grub ; a larva of a fly or dipteious 
insect. Generally applied to the larva of (J'J.strus 
hominis, which lays its eggs beneath the human 
skin, setting up violent irritation. 

T/L.s in nose. See Nose, maggots in. 
T/L. plxn'ple. Same as Acne punctata. 
M. worm. The Oxyuris vermicularis. 
lM[ag''iS. (Mttyt's, any kneaded mass.) A 
sort of cake comiiosed of cloves, garlic, and 
cheese beaten together. 

JVEag'ister'ium. (L. magisterium, the 
office of a magistcr, a master. F. magislere.) 
An old term which denoted peculiar skill in the 
preparation of medicines. 

In old Pharmacy, applied to powders prepared 
by solution and precipitation, and to resins, 
resinous extracts, and other substances, which 
were supposed to have special values, and the 
mode of preparation of which was often kept secret. 
T/L. argren'ti. (L. argentum, silver.) Ni- 
trate of silver. 

V/L, bisxuu'thi. (F. magistere de bismuth.) 
Old name for Bismuthi subnitras, or basic nitrate 
of bismuth. 

M. Jala'pee. Old name for resin of jalap. 
"t/L. marcasl'tse. Old name for Bismuthi 

M. o'pil. A substance obtained by Lud- 
wig, in 1688, from opium. It consisted chiefly 
of impure meeonate of morphia. 

IVI. plum'bl. (L. plumbum, lead.) The 
same as Lead carbonate. 

T/l. sul'phuris. Same as Sulphur lotum 
or S. pra'cipitatum. 

T/t. tar'tari pur'^ans. (L. purgans, 
part, of purgo, to purge.) The same as Acetate 
of potash. 

IHag''iStery. Same as Magisterimn. 
IVI. of cor'al. Calcium carbonate obtained 
by dissolving white coral in vinegar and pre- 
cipitating it with potassium carbonate. 

IVI. of lead. The Magisterium plumbi. 

IVI. of sir ver. The Magisterium argenti. 

Blag'is'tral. (L. magister, a master. F. 

magistral.) Applied to medicines prescribed for 

the occasion, in distinction from such as are 

official, or kept ready prepared in the shops. 

Also, applied to roasted copper pyrites used in 
the extraction of mercury b)' Amalgamation. 

ItXag'iStran'tia. (L. magistro, to rule ; 
as if superior to all others.) The Imperatoria 

IU[ag''ina. (May/ua, a kneaded mass. G. 
Teig.) A thin paste ; dregs ; sediment. 

The thin pasty material which remains after 
the expression of the liquid parts from an animal 
or vegetable substance. 

Also, a flocculent precipitate or mass of 

Also, an ointment or confection of a softish 

T/L. of g-rapes. Same as 3[arc of grapes. 
T/L. of ol'ives. Same as Marc of olives. 
IVI. reticula'tum. (L. reticulatus, made 
like a net. F. magma reticule.) The Vitriform 

]>Iag''mOld. (Mdyfxa; £l<5os, likeness.) 

Having the consistence and appearance of an Alga. 

3Ma'g*nac. France, departement du 


Cantal. A cold, bicarbonated, weak cliahbcate 
water, with a little carbonic acid and hydrcgcn 
sulphide. It is a tonic in anaemia, as well as a 
diuretic and cnimenagdgue. 

]>Iag-naniinita'tis a'qua. (L. mag- 

tta)nniitii\, i;re;ituess of mind ; «(/«(?, water. ) A 
spirituous aromatic water; any gently stimu- 
latinjc remedy. 

Also, facetiously, a term for brandy. 
IRSag'na'tes. (L. magnus, great.) Lin- 
naeus's iirst name for I'rimatcs. 

]>Zag-'ne-crystal'lic. (^Magnet; Gr. 
K^ufTTu/Wos-, crystal.) Kelating to the mag- 
netism possessed by crj'stalline bodies. 

M. ax'is. (L., an axle.) Faraday's 
term for a line perpendicular to the j)rineiiial 
cleavage plane of a crystal whirh tends to arrange 
itself axially between the poles of a magnet. 
According to Tyndall, this axis is in general the 
axis of greatest density of the crystal, ami if the 
substance be paramagnetic the axis will point 
axially, but if diamagnetic, equatorially. 

ai. force. Faraday's term for the force, 
distinct from the magnetic and the diamagnetic 
forces, which determines the behaviour of crys- 
talline substances when suspended between the 
poles of a magnet. See M. axis. 

XHagr'nes. (Mayvijs, a Magnesian.) The 
Mag int. 

Also, the name of the supposed discoverer of 
the magnetic properties. 

TIL. arsenica'lis. (F. aimnnt arsenical.) 
An artificial stone hung from the neck as an 
amulet during the existence of the plague. It 
was made of equal portions of antimony, arsenic 
and sulphur melted together till the mass became 
vitrefied. It is corrosive. 

IVZ. epilep'sise. ('ETriX)/(|/ia, the f;illing 
sickness.) Old epithet of cinnabar. 

Blag-ne'sia, U.S. Ph. (F. magnhie, 
magtuKie cakinee ; G. gebrannte Magnesia, Bit- 
tersalzerde, Talkerde.) MgO. Same as Mag- 
nesium oxide. 

The teiTQ magnesia was anciently used to 
denote a substance which had the power of 
attracting some principle from the air. 

Magnesia has been recommended as an anti- 
dote in poisoning by phosphorus, antimony 
chloride, the hypochlorites, and oxalic acid. 

T/l., ac'etate of. See Acetate of mag- 

T/L. aera'ta. (L. aer, air.) Same as 
Mnguvsii eat'honas. 

9S. alba. (L. albus, white. F. magnhie 
hlanche ; G. weisse Magnesia.) Same as Mag- 
ncsii carbonas ponderosa and M. carbonas levis. 
The term was first applied by a Roman eccle- 
siastic to a secret substance which soon afterwards 
■was found to be a mixture of calcium and 
magnesium carbonates in varying proportions. 

T/t. alum. A substance occurring in white 
fibrous and efflorescent masses on the salt plains 
of South .America. It consists of magnesium 
sulphate 1.3-4 parts, aluminium sulphate 3S'3, 
traces of lime and iron, and water 47 parts in 100. 
nx., amiuo'nlo-sul'pbate of, solu- 
tion of, B. I'h. A test solution made by dis- 
solving sulphate of copper half an ounce in eight 
ounces of water, adding solution of ammonia till 
the precipitate first formed is nearly dissolved, 
filtering, and making up with water to ten 

IMC. and asafce'tida, mixture of. The 
Mislura magnesia: et asaj'wtidw. 

tIL. and rhubarb. The Pulvis rhei cont' 

posit /IS. 

IVX. and soda, sulphate of. A mix- 
ture of the two salts made by dissolving magne- 
sium sulphate in a solution of sodium sulphate. 

M. an'grllea. (Mod. L. ««^/ici«, English.) 
Magnesium farbnnate. 

T/L. benzo'ica. See Magnesium benzoate. 

Vn.. bicarbonate. (F. bicarbonate de 
magntsie.) MglI^(C03)2. Bicarbonate of mag- 
nesiii cannot be obtained in the solid form. It 
exists in solution in the Liquor magnesia: car- 

T/l., black. The Manganesii oxidum ni- 

Also (F. magncsie noire), a synonym of Char- 

Tit. borocit'rica. (G. borocitronsanre 
Magnesia.) A salt obtained by treating native 
borate of magnesia or boracite with citric acid, 
and recommended by Becker in the treatment of 
renal calculus and urinary gravel. 

nx. calcina'ta. (L. calx, lime. F. mag- 
nesie calcmee.) MgO. The M. ponderosa and 
M. levis. 

IWC., cal'clned. See M. calrinata. 

1*1., cal'cined, heav'y. The M. ponde- 

IVI., cal'cined, ligrht. The 3r. levis. 

IWC., carbonate of. See Magnesii car- 

IVI., car'bonate of, heav'y. The Mag- 
nesii carbonas pomlcrosn. 

KX., carbonate of, lig^bt. The Magnesii 
carbonas livis. 

IVl. carbon'ica. The Magnesii carbonas. 

IM. carbon'ica ponderosa. The Mag- 
nesii carbonas ponderosa. 

TtL. caus'tica. (Kauo-rjKo's, corrosive. 
F. magnhie caustique ; G. dtzende Magnesia.) 
Same as 3Iagnesia. 

IWC., chiorina'ted solution of. A solu- 
tion prepared by acting upon a solution of sul- 
phate of magnesia with chlorinated lime. It is 
not caustic. 

M., cit'rate of. See Magnesium citrate. 

T/L., cit'rate of, g-ran'ular efferves'- 
cing;. See Magiiisii citras granulatiis. 

T/L. cit'rica. See Magnesium citrate. 

T/L. citrica efferves'cens. (L. effer- 
vesco, to foam up.) The Magnesii citras grunu- 

T/L. edinburg-en'sis. {Edinburgh.) Car- 
bonate of magnesia. 

IWC., flu'id. The Liquor magnesii carbo- 

T/L., heav'y. The M. ponderosa. 

T/L., Henry's. The M. ponderosa. 

T/L., hy'drate of. See Magnesium hy- 

T/L. hy'drica. See Mugncsinm hgdrate. 

T/L. hy'drica g'elatino'sa. Alagnesium 
hydrate prepared by adding a weak solution of 
caustic soda to a solution of sodium sulphate. 
Used as an antidote to arsenic. 

T/L. hy'drico carbon'ica. (F. hgdro- 
carbonate de iiiai/nrsie.) The Jfagnesii carbonas. 

T/L., hydrocar'bonate of. (F. hgdro- 
carbonate de magnisie.) The Magnesii car- 

T/L. hydrochlo'rica. Same as Magtie- 
sium cliloridr. 

T/L. hydrosil'icate. (G. Meerschaum.) 
A light white powder of Magnesium silicate 


recnnimentlod by Garrod in diarrhooa as a sub- 
stitute for bisiiuith. 

M. hypochloro'sa. A solution contain- 
ing: ail excess of nKi,2;iiesium liydrate, ni-.uh^ by 
mixing one part of calcined majjnesia with eig;ht 
parts each of chlorine water and distilled water. 
Used as an antidote in phosphorus poisoning and 
in poisoning by animal and vegetable substances. 

T/L., lac'tate of. See Magnesium lactate. 

IW. le'vis, B. Ph. (L. levis, light.) MgO. 
Light magnesia. Light calcined magnesia, i)re- 
pared by heating light carbonate of magnesia in 
air until it ceases to efl'ervesce on the addition of 
suljjhuric acid. Dose, 10 to 60 grains. 

T/t., ligrbt. See J/. Icris. 

Vfl. loz'eng-es. The Trochisci magne/tiee. 

M., milk of. (G. Magtiesiamilch.) See 
Lac magueHuc. 

M. mi'tis. (L. mitls, mild.) The same 
as M'igiicxii carhonas. 

ivi. mu'rlse. (L. muria, brine.) A sy- 
nonym of Magiusii carhonas. 

'M., mu'riate of. The same as, Magnesium 

t/t. murlat'ica. Same as Magnesium 

V/L. iii'g:ra. (L. nigcr, black.) The Man^ 
ganesii oxidnm nigrum. 

Ttt. ni'trl. Old name given to the earth 
left ia the process of obtaining magnesia, be- 
cause, observing that nitrous acid was separated, 
it was supposed that it had attracted the acid. 

IVI. opali'na. A mixture of equal parts 
of antimony, nitrate of potash, and chloride of 
sodium decrepitated. A disused emetic. 

IVI. phosphor'ica. See Magnesium phos- 

T/t. pondero'sa, B. Ph. (L. ponderosus, 
heavy. V. magncsie dense, m. lourde.) Heavy 
magnesia, prepared by heating heavy carbonate 
of magnesia in the air until it ceases to etiervesce 
when dropped into sulphuric acid. Dose, 10 to 
60 grains. 

IVI. pu'ra. (L. purus, clean.) Same as 

IVI. sallcyl'lca. See Magnesium sali- 

m. sa'lis ama'ri. (L. sal, salt; amarus, 
bitter.) Magnesium carbonate ; so called because 
it was prepared from bitter, or Epsom, salt. 

IVI. sails ebsdamen'sls. (L. sal ; Mod. 
L. ebsdameusis, of Epsom.) Magnesium car- 
bonate; so called from its mode of production. 

lyi. Satur'ni. (Saturnus, Saturn, a term 
for lead.) Antimony. 

IVI. slllc'lca. Same as M. hydrosilicate. 

IVI., solution of, condensed. The 
Liquor inagywsii ciirbonatis. 

m. subcarbo'nas. The same as Mag- 
nesii carboj/as. 

m., subcar'bonate of. Same as Mag- 
nesii carbonas. 

IVI. subsulfuro'sa. (G. nnterschwcfdig- 
saure Magutsia.) Same as 3Iagncsium hypo- 

IVI. sulfu'rica. See Magnesii sulphas. 

IVI. sulfu'rica slc'ca. (G. trockcne 
schicrfilsaiire Bittererde.) The Magnesium 
sulfiiricum. siccum. 

IVI. sulfuro'sa. (G. schwefcligsaure Bit- 
tererde!) The Magnesii sulphis. 

IVI., sul'phate of. See JFagnrsii sulphas. 

IVI., sulpbocar'bolate of. See Magne- 
sium sulphovarbolate. 

IVI. tartar'lca. See Magnesimn tartrate. 

IVI. ter'ra. (h. terra, earth.) Same as 
M. Icris and M. nsla. 

IVI. trichloroace'tlca. A salt of tri- 
chloracetic acid, said to act like chloral as an 

IVI., tro'cbes of. See Trochisci mag- 

IVI. us'ta, G. Ph., Fr. Codex. (L. vstns, 
part, of uro, to burn. F. magiiisiv eatistique, m. 
calcince, Fr. Coilex ; G. gcbrannte Magnesia.') 
liurned or calciiu'd magnesia. Same as M. Icvis 
and M. ponderosa. 

IVI. valerian'lca. See Magnesium vale- 

IVI. vltreario'rum. (L. vitrrarius, a 
glass worker.) The Idack oxide of manganese. 

IVI. vitriola'ta. (^Vitriol.) Sulphate of 

IVI. vitriol'icum. (Vitriol.) Sulphate of 

IVI. wa'ter. An aerated water containing 
magnesium carbonate and a large volume of 
carbonic acid gas. 

DIag-ne'sia spring. United States of 

America, West Virginia, Greenbrier County. A 
calcic saline water containing calcium carbonate 
22-37 grains, magnesium carbonate 11'16, cal- 
cium sulphate 21 '01, magnesium sulphate 12'06, 
and potiissium sulphate r46 grain in a gallon. 

nXag'ne'sia spring's. United States 
of America, Virginia, Fairfax County. A chaly- 
beate water. 

mag^ne'siae. Genitive singular of Mag- 

IVI. ace'tas. See Acetate of magnesia. 

IVI. carbo'nas le'vis. See 3fag/iesii car- 
bonas levis. 

IVI. carbo'nas pondero'sa. See Mag- 
nesii carbonas ponderosa. 

IVI. clt'ras. See Magnesium citrate. 

IVI. clt'ras efferves'cens. The Magnesii 
citras qranidatus. 

IVI. hypocarbo'nas. (T^^'to, under.) 
Same as Magnesii carbonas. 

Tit. subcarbo'nas. The Magnesii car- 
bonas levis. 

IVI. sulphas. See Magnesii sulphas. 
mag'ne'sian. (F. magnesien.) Con- 
taining a salt oi Magnesimn. 

IVI. lime'stone. A limestone, being im- 
pure calcium carbonate, containing 20 per cent, 
and more of magnesia. 

2>Iag'ne'sic> {Magnesia. F. magnesique.) 
Relating to magnesia and its salts. 

IHagne'sico - ammo'nicus. (F. 

magnesico-ammonique.) Name applied by Ber- 
zelius to double salts containing magnesium and 

m.'Cal'cicus. (F. magnisico-calcique.) 
Applied by Berzelius to double salts containing 
magnesium and calcium. 

IVI.-potas'sicus. (F. magnesico-po- 

tassique.) Applied by Berzelius to double salts 
which contain magnesium and potassium. 

IVI.-so'dicus. (F. magnesico-sodiaque.) 
Applied by Berzelius to double salts which con- 
tain magnesium and sodium. 

IWag'ne'sii. Genitive singular of Mag- 

T/L. ace'tas. (L. acetum, vinegar.) See 
Acetate of magnesia . 

WC. carbo'nas, U.S. Ph. (F, carbonate 
de magnesie ; G. kohlensaure Bittererde, kohlen- 


satire TalJcerde. ) See M. carbonas levis and M. 
carbontis po/i/ferosa, 

WZ. carbonas le'vls, B. Ph. (L. levis, 
light.) MgCOs- Light Ciirhonute of magnesia. 
Tliis salt is ohtaincd by dissolving 10 ounces of 
magnesium sulphate and 12 ounces of sodium 
carbonate, each in half a gallon of water, mixing, 
and boiling for fifteen minutes ; washing till the 
excess of carbonate or sulphate of soda is got rid 
of and subsequently drying at a temperature 
below boiling point. Dose, 10 to 60 grains. 

M. carbo nas pondero'sa, It. I'h. (L. 
ponderoaiis, of great weigiit.) MgCOs. Heavy 
carbonate of magnesia is obtained by dissolving 
10 ounces of magnesium sulphate and 12 ounces 
of sodium carbonate, each in one pint of boiling 
water, mixing them, and evajiorating the whole to 
dryness. The product is washed frequently with 
distilled water. Dose, 10 to 60 grains. 

IM. chlo'rldum. See Maffuesium chloride. 

Tfl. citras granula'tus, U.S. Ph. (L. 
granulum, a small grain. F. itmonade sk-he au 
citrate de magnisie ; G. Brausemagnesia, Mayne- 
siumcitrat in KiJrnern.) Granular effervescing 
citrate of magnesium. Magnesium carbonate 11 
parts is mixed with 33 parts of citric a(-id and 
water to form a thick paste ; this is dried at 
30" C. (86° F.) and powdered. It is then mixed 
with 8 parts of sugar, 37 parts of hicarbonate of 
sodium, and 15 parts of citric acid. The mass is 
damped with alcohol, passed through a No. 20 
sieve, and dried. Dose, 2 — G dracbms. 

T/t, lac'tas. See Magnesium lactate. 

TO., sul ptaas, B. Ph., U.S. Ph. (F. sidfate 
de magmsie, set d' Epsom, s. avter, s. d'Angfc- 
terre ; G. schwefelsuurc Bittererde, sehircfel- 
saures Magnesium, Bittersalz.) MgS04 . 711)0. 
Sulphate of magnesium. The salt is obtained 
either from bittern, the liquid which remains 
after the sodium chloride has been removed by 
evaporation from sea water, from maguesite, from 
kieserite, or from dolomitic magnesian limestone. 
It forms small, colourless, bitter-tasting, rhombic 
prisms, easily soluble in water. It is largely 
used as a cathartic purgative. Dose, 60 grains 
to an ounce. 

T/L. sulphas exsicca'tus. See Magne- 
sium suljihuricum siccum. 

T/L. sul'pbis, U.S. Ph. (F. snljite de mag- 
nisie ; G. M(i<iii(siumsulfit, schwifcUgsaures 
Bittererde.) MgSOa.GHaO. Molecular weight 
212. Magnesium sulphite. Magnesium carbo- 
nate one part is suspended in 6 or 8 parts of 
water, sulphurous acid is passed through it, and 
the precipitate washed and dried. It is a white, 
crystalline, inodorous, bitter- tasting powder; or 
it may be obtained in tetrahedraor in hexagonal 
rhombohedra. Used externally as an application 
to diphtheritic membranes, and internally to 
cheek fermentation and the development of gases 
in the alimentary canal, as well as in septica^mic 
diseases. Dose, 10 — 60 grains (•6—4 grammes). 
XWag''nesite. A mineral consisting chietly 
of compact aniorphiius magnesium carbonate. It 
is used in the manufacture of magnesium sul- 

Mag'ne'siuni. (F. magnesium; G. 
Magiitsu<t)i.) Mg. Atomic weight 23'98 ; spe- 
cific gravity 1-743, or l*7o ; specific heat C'24i);). 
A bivalent or diatomic metal which in nature 
does not exist in a free state, but as a cliloride, 
sulphate, carbonate, or other salt. Its colour 
is silvery white, and it can be obtained in 
hexagonal prisms. It is unchangeable in dry 

air, but acquires a thin, superficial film of 
hydrate in moist air. Heated in air it fuues 
and v(datilises at a red heat, and burns with 
a brilliant white flame, giving off clouds of the 
oxide. It is more brittle than silver at ordi- 
nary temperature, but heated it becomes ductile 
and malleable. A wire, 0-297 nnn. in diameter, 
gives, on burning in air, a dazzling l)luish 
white light, equal in intensity to 74 candles, and 
in oxygen of 120 stearin candles, weighing 10 to 
the kilogramme. The light is rich in actinic 
rays, and it has hence been utilized in photo- 
graphy. It was first isolated, but in an impure 
state, by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1808. 

IW. ac'etate. ^ce Acetate of magnesia. 

IVX. ammo'nlum phosphate. (F. 
phosphate am»io?iiaco-mag>ii's(cn ; G. phosphor- 
saure Magnesia- Ammon.) Mg(2vH4)P04 + 6H20. 
Ammoniaco-magnesian phosphate. A crystalline 
substance obtained by adding a solution of mag- 
nesium sulphate to one of ammonium chloride, 
and then a soluble orthophosphate. It is pro- 
duced in the putrefaction of urine, and is a 
constituent of many uiinary calculi. 

IMC. and potas'sium bo'ro tartrate. 
(F. boro-tartrate de potasse et dc magnisie.') 
Potassium boro-tartrate treated with magnesium 
carbonate. Used as a purgative. 

IMC. and potassium tar'trate. (F. 
tartrate double de potasse et de magnisie.) A 
soluble and active, but bitter, i)urgative. 

IM. ben'zoate. A salt which has been 
employed in dipbtheria. 

IVI. bo'ro -tar'trate. (F. boro-tartrate 
de magnisie.) A salt obtained bj' heating bora- 
cite with tartaric acid, and used as a purgative. 

M. bro'iulde. (F. bromure de magnesium ; 
G. Magnesiumbromid.) l^IgBrj. A constituent 
of sea- water. It forms a white, non- volatile, 
crystalline mass, containing 6 eq. of water, which 
fuses at a red heat. 

m. car'bonate. MgCOs. It occurs in 
nature as Magnesitc. See Mugncsii carbonas. 

V/t,, car'bonate of, heav y. The Mag- 
nesii carbonas pondcrosa. 

IMC., car bonate of, lig:ht. The Magnesii 
carbonas levis. 

IVX., car'bonate of, solution of. See 
Liquor magnesii carliunaiis. 

1*1. carbon'lcum, G. Ph. Same as Mag- 
nesii C'lrbo/ias. 

IM[. chlora'tum. Same as M. chloride. 

IMC. chlo'ride. (F. chlorure de magne- 
sium ; G. Magnesiumchlorid.) MgCl.,. A con- 
stituent of sea-water. It crystallises in colourless, 
deliquescent needles which belong to the ortho- 
rhombic system, and contain 6 eq. of water of 
crystallisation. They dissolve in 6 parts of 
cold water and in 0'273 parts of boiling. Mag- 
nesium chloride forms double salts with the 
alkaline chlorides. It is a purgative and pro- 
motes the flow of bile. 

TtL. cit'rate. (F. citrate de magnisie ; G. 
citronsanre Magnesia.) Obtained by saturating 
a solution of citric acid witli magnesium car- 
bonate. It is a white, tasteless powder, used as 
an aperient. 

m. cit'rate, efferves'cing:. The Mag- 
nesii cilras giuniulatas. 

m. citrate, grran'ulated. See Mag- 
nesii cilras granalatiis. 

TH. cit'rate, solu'tion of. The Liquor 
magncsi) cilrutis. 

M. cit'ricum. See Magnesium citrate. 


M. clt'rlcum eflferves'cens, G. Pli. 
(L. ejf'irresco, to foiiin up. G. JirdustnMijnemi.') 
Very siiiiihir to Maffmsii citras (jranulatus. 

Tit. e'tUide. MgCCaHs).^. A coIoui-Ipsb, 
moliile liquid formed by heating etliyl iodide 
with magnesium tilings to 120^ C. to 130^ C. 
{■l^W F. to 266^ F.) It has an alliaceous smell, 
and takes fire spontaneously in the air. 

IM. e'tbyl. ^amo AS M. ethidc. 

IVT. flu'orlde. A salt found in some corals. 

T/l. group of luet'als. A group consist-, 
ing of beryllium, magnesium, zinc, and cad- 

m. bip'purate. (C9H8NO.)2irg-(-5HoO. 
Warty crystals formed on the addition of liippuric 
acid to magnesium carbonate. 

IVI. hydrate. ("Voojp, water. Y. hydrate 
de nuiijncxie.) Freslily calcined magnesia 70 
parts suspended in 500 parts of water. It is 
used as an antidote to arsenic. 

VS.. hy'dro-oxy datum. Same as If. 

VL. hydrox'ide. Mg(0H)2. Occurs native 
as brucite ; and is obtained as a white precipitate 
when potash or soda is added to a magnesium 

IVI. hyposul'phite. {G.unterschwefelig- 
saure Mayuesia.) Used by Polli as an anti- 

T/t. I'odide. (F. iodiire de maynesium ; 
G. MaynesiHiniodid.) Mglj. A deliquescent 
salt, crystallising with difficulty. It is a consti- 
tuent of sea- water. 

T/L. lac'tate. (F. lactate de maynhie ; G. 
milchsaure Maynesie.) 'M^^iCsU.^O^ .Z\i~f>. 
White granular crystals or needles formed by 
mixing 6 parts of calcium lactate and 5 parts of 
magnesium sulphate, each dissolved in hot water, 
filtering, and crystallising the liquid. It is 
soluble in 30 parts of cold water, insoluble in 
alcohol. A laxative. 

Ttt. lac'ticum. See M. lactate. 

XVX.-metli'yl. Mg(CIl3)2. A strongly 
smelling mobile liquid, obtained by Cahours by 
treating methyl iodide with magnesium tilings. 
It takes tire spontaneously in the air. 

IMC. nl'trate. Mg(N03)5. A crystalline 
salt obtained by treating magnesia with nitric 
acid. It occurs in the mother-liquors of the 
saltpetre manufacture, and in the surface water 
of towns. 

M. orthopbos'phate. Mg3(P04)2. A 
white powder obtained by adding a solution of 
sulphate of magnesia to one of sodium ortho- 
phosphate. It occurs in small quantities in all 
the animal tissues and fluids, and is eliminated 
partly by the kidneys and partly by the intes- 
tines ; it is found also in the seeds of cereals, in 
potatoes, asparagus, figs, and many other vege- 
tables and fruits. 

T/L. oxida'tum sulpbu'ricum de- 
pura'tum. (L. depuratus, puritied.) 'I'he 
same as Maynesim sulphas. 

m. ox'lde. (F. oxyde de magnesium ; G. 
Maguesiumoryd .) MgO. A white powder formed 
when magnesium is burnt in the air, and also 
when the magnesium salt of a volatile acid is 
ignited. It is tasteless, and almost insoluble in 
Avater. It is official in the forms Maynesia Levis 
and M. ponderosa. 

nc. oxyda'tum. Same as M. oxide. 

tit. phos'phate. See M. orthophosphate. 

IVI. phos'phate, amraoni'acal. See 
M. ammonium phosphate. 

IVI. phos'phate, hy'drogen. (F. may- 

nesie phv.yjh'i/cc ; <i. pho.s/ihor.siiitre Maynesia.) 
IIMgl'O. A salt obtained in hexagonal needles 
when a solution of magnesium snl])hate is mixed 
witli one of common sodium phosphate. Used 
us a laxative and in rickets. 

IVI. platinocy'anide. 2MgPt(CN)4+7 
HjO. A beautiful salt, under polarised li^bt, 
formed when barium platinocyanide is treated 
with magnesium suljjhate. It is dichroic. 

IVI. salicyl'ate. A salt which has been 
recommended as an antipyretic and an antiseptic 
in typhus and enteric fever. Dose, 3 — 6 grammes 
in the day. 

IVI. salts, ac'tlon of. In small doses 
most of the magnesium suits are absorbed into 
the circulation and are eliminated by tbe kidneys, 
thus acting as diuretics ; in large doses they are 
purgatives, effecting the elimination of much 
water. When introduced into the alimentary 
canal in the form of oxide, carbonate, citrate, 
tartrate, and such like salts, they are converted 
into chloride, lactate, and bicarbonate, neu- 
tralising the acid there present, and acting as an 
antidote to poisonous alkaloids by preventing 
their absorption, and on absorption increasing 
tbe alkalinity of the blood. The chloride and 
sulphate, when injected into the blood, act as 
cardiac sedatives, depressing its innervation, 
and, according to Curci, produce anajsthesia of 
an ascending character. 

IVI. salts, tests for. Caustic alkalies and 
ammonia produce a gelatinous white precipitate, 
insoluble in excess, but soluble in solution of 
ammonium chloride ; potassium and sodium car- 
bonates give a white precipitate; soluble phos- 
phates give a white crystalline precipitate on the 
addition of ammonia. 

IVI. sil'icate. (F. silicate de maynesie; 
G. kieselsaure Maynesia.) A mineral found 
native, as soapstone, French chalk, meerschaum, 
and asbestos, and others. See Maynesia hydro- 

IVI. sulfu'rlcum, G. Ph. The Maynesii 

IVI. sulfu'ricum slc'cum, G. Ph. (L. 
siccus, dry.) Crystallised magnesium sulphate 
exposed to heat until it has lost 35 to 37 parts of 
its weight, and passed through a sieve. It is a 
white powder which gradually attracts mois- 

IVI. sulfuro'sum. Same as Maynesii 

IVI. sul'pbate. See Maynesii sulphas. 

IVI. sulphate, en'ema of. See Enema 
maynesice snlphatis. 

IVI. sulphide. See Maynesii sulphis. 

IVI. sulphocarbolate. Mg2(C6H5S04) . 
7H2O. A salt prepared by heating pure carbolic 
acid with sulphuric acid, diluting with water 
and saturating with magnesia. Used as Sodii 

IVI. tartar'icum. See M. tartrate. 

IVI. tar'trate. (^.tartrate de maynesie ; 
G. weinsteinsaure Maynesia.) Us 'd as a sub- 
stitute for citrate of magnesia as a laxative. 
Recommended by Rademacher in diseases of the 
spleen with neuralgic symptoms. 

IVI., test-soiu'tion of, U.S. Ph. Sul- 
phate of magnesium one part and chloride of 
ammonium 2 parts, dissolved in 8 parts of dis- 
tilled water, and 4 parts of water of ammonia 
added ; after two or three days it is filtered. 

IVI. vale'rianate. (G. baldriansaure 


Magnesia.) Used in the same manner as Sodium 

IVIagr'net. (Mid. E. magnete; Old F. 
mag net e ; L. magnes lapis; Gr. M/tyi/i)?, a 
Magnesian, or Maywr/xt?, so called because it 
was first found at Magnesia, a district of Lydia. 

F. aimant ; \. magnete ; S. inian ; G. Magnet.) 
The lodestone. A native ore of iron, consisting 
almost entirely of the magnetic oxide, having 
the power of attracting particles of iron, and 
of ranging its long axis so as to point north 
and south when suspended by a thread; tliis is 
called J/., natural. Also, see ^[., arlijicial. 
Each constituent partirle of a magnet is itself a 
magnet having poles, but only when sejiarated 
from the other panicles. 

IVI., artificial. (L. ars, art; facio, to 
make. F. aimant artificiel ; G. kiinstlicher 
Magnet.) A bar or needle of steel which has been 
rubbed with a natural magnet or an electro- 
magnet, and so has acquired magnetic properties. 
Like the natural magnet, it points north and 
south when suspended. The two extremities 
are the poles, here magnetism is manifested; 
the central portion is quiescent, and is called the 
neutral line or zone. An artificial magnet loses 
its magnetism by mechanical force and by being 
raised to a red heat. 

Tll.f axis of. (L. axis, an axle.) The 
shortest line joining the two poles of a magnet; 
it is not always coincident with the geometrical 
axis of the magnet, the poles being generally not 
quite at the extremities of the inagnet. 

M., com'pound. A magnet composed of 
several thin sheets of steel, each separately mag- 
netised, and then bound together b)^ screws ; it 
is generally made in the shape of a horse-shoe. 
Also, a Magnetic batterg. 

Tfl., elec'tro-. See Electro-magnet. 

IVI., equa'tor of. (L. a;quo, to make 
equal. F. equateur magnetique ; G. magnet- 
ische Aqiiator.) The neutral zone or central 
part of a magnet where magnetic force is not in 
evidence. See Magnetic eeputtor. 

IVI., floafing. A needle magnetised so 
that Its point is the north pole, and stuck tlirough 
a small disc of cork, so that the eye just projects, 
devised by Maj-er to illustrate the reciprocal 
action of magnetic poles. 

m., horse-shoe. (F. aimant en fer a. 
cheval ; G. Hnfeisenmagnet.) K'a artificial 
magnet made in the shape of a horse-shoe. 

IVI., lam'inated. (L. lamina, a thin 
plate of metal.) A compound magnet made of 
thin plates of steel. 

IVI., nat'ural. (F. aimant naturel ; G. 
natiirlicher Magnet.) The lodestone, magnetic 
oxide of iron. 

IVI., permanent. (L. permanco, to per- 
sist in staying. G. permauenter Magnet.) A 
bar of steel which has been magnetised by 
rubbing with a magnet, and which retains its 
magnetic properties more or less permanently. 

IVI., poles of. Tlie extremities of the long 
axis of a magnet; that which points to the nortli 
when the magnet is freely suspended is the 
north, or positive, or red pole (F. pole austral ; 

G. Norflpol) ; that which points to the south is 
the south, or negative, or blue pole (F. jx'ile 
boreal ; G. Sadpol). 

In France and some other countries the terms 
north and south pole are reversed in meaning, 
the earth is considered as a terrestrial magnet 
with north and south poles governing the magnet, 

and as opposite poles attract each other, the pole 
of the magnet which points to tlie nortli of the 
earth is really the south pole, and is called Aus- 
tral pole ; and that which points to the south of 
the earth is the north pole of the magnet, and is 
called Boreal pole. 

IVI., poles of, consecutive. (L. con- 
sequor, to go after. F. points consequents; G. 
Folgepunkte.) The one or more poles over and 
above the two terminal poles of a magnet which 
are occasionally observed between tliem. 

IVI., poles of, con'sequent. Same as 
M., poles of, eonsecutirc. 

IVI., satura'tion of. See Magnetic 

IVI., solenoiid'al. (SmX);!", a pipe; floo9, 
likeness.) A thenretical bar magnet with all its 
molecules equal. See Solenoid. 

IVI., tem'porary. (L. temporarius, last- 
ing for a time. F. aimant temporairc ; G. zeit- 
weiscr Magnet.) A magnet that retains its mag- 
netic properties only during the action of the 
force that develops them, as an electro-magnet. 

nXagrnefic. (L.»w/7>;es, the magnet. F, 
magnetique ; G. magnet isch.) Of, or belonging 
to, the magnet. Formerly applied to medicines, 
and especially to plasters, not only because the 
magnet in substance formed an ingredient in 
their composition, but figuratively when they 
were believed to act by a hidden attractile 
power, like that of the magnet. 

IMC. attrac'tion. (L. attraho, to draw, 

F. attraction magnetiejue ; G. magnctische An- 
ziehung.) The power possessed by a magnet to 
attract particles of iron. It is strongest at the 
extremities of a bar magnet, and weakest at the 
centre when there is an indiflerent zone. It is 
in the inverse ratio to the square of the distance. 

Also, the tendency of the unlike poles of 
magnets to approach each other. 

IVI. ax'is. See Magnet, axis of. 

IVI. battery. (F. faisceau magnetique ; 

G. magnetischc Batterie.) An arrangement of 
several magnets the poles of which are placed in 
the same direction. 

IVI. cohe'sion. (L. cohecreo, to cling to- 
gether.) The adhesion or sticking together of 
a magnet and the metallic substance which it 

IVI. curves. The lines which fragments 
of iron assume when thrown on a sheet of paper 
placed over the poles of a magnet. They repre- 
sent the direction of the lines of magnetic force. 

IVI. declina'tlon. (L. decline, to bend 
down. F. declinaison magnetique.) The varia- 
tion, downwards and to the magnetic north of 
the earth, of the magnetic needle at any place 
east or west of the geographical meridian of that 
place. See Declination, magnetic. 

IVI. dip. (F. inclinaison magnetique ; G. 
magnctische jVeigung.) The angle which the 
magnetic needle makes with the horizon when 
tlie vertical plane in which it moves coincides 
with the magnetic meridian. 

IVI. electric'ity. Same as Magneto- 

IVI. elements. These include intensity, 
decliiiaiiim, an<l ilip. 

IVI. equa'tor. (L. erquo, to make equal. 
F. equateur magnetique.) The line passing 
. round the globe in whicli there is no dip in the 
magnetic' needle. It runs at an angle of 12° to 
the terrestrial equator. Also called ^ici'iw if line. 
See Magnet, equator of. 


IWC. field. The region sensibly affected by 
a masjiu't. 

IVI. field, intensity of. (L. i>itei/s?is, 
part, of inttndo, to stri'tch out.) The strength 
of the niagiietic force in a given point of the 
magnetic tiilJ ; it is measured by tlie force with 
which it acts on a unit magnetic pole at that point. 

T/t. figr'ures. Same as j/. curves. 

IVI. flu'ids. (F. Jluides mac/netiqiies ; G. 
magnctische FUuda.) Two hypotlietical impon- 
derable fluids supposed to produce the pheno- 
mena of magnetism. Each fluid is supposed to 
be attractive to the other and to be repulsive to 
itself; when there is no magnetisation they are 
supposed to be combined round each molecule of 
the substance, so as to neutralise each other; 
they are dissociated on magnetisation, the fluid 
whicli is in evidence at the north pole being 
called the norlli fluid and the magnetism red, and 
the tiuid wliicli is in evidence at the south pole 
being called the south fluid and the magnetism 

IVI. force. (F. force magnetique ; G. 
moijHvtische Kraft.) The force liy means of 
which a magnet attracts or repels another mag- 
net, or a jiiece of iron or steel. 

m. force, curved lines of. Faraday's 
term for 31. curves. 

Tfl. inclina'tion. (L. inclino, to bend 
down.") Same as 3[. dip. 

IVI. induc'tlon. (L. in, in ; duco, to lead. 

F. aimantation i^ar influence ; G. Magnetisirung 
durch Verlheihing.) The effect on a bar of iron 
or other niagnetisable body of the proximitj' of 
a magnet. The extremities of the bar of iron 
are in an opposite state of magnetic excitation 
to those of the magnet by which their magnetic 
condition is induced, from the separation of the 
two magnetic fluids. By this influence the 
magnelisable substance becomes a magnet ; some 
metals, such as steel and cobalt, retain the 
condition and become permanent magnets ; 
others, such as iron and nickel, are temporary 

IVI. In'fluence. Same as M. induction. 

IVI. intens'ity. (L. in, in ; tendo, to 
stretch.) The variable effect produced by a 
magnet on magnetic bodies. It varies inversely 
as the square of the distance. 

IVI. interrup'tlon. (L. interrnmpo, to 
separate.) A modittcation of Du Bois-Reymond's 
induction apparatus used for rapidly interrupting 
the constant current. It is employed for pro- 
ducing tetanus in muscles, as well as for many 
other purposes. In principle it consists of an 
electro-magnet which is alternately magnetised 
and demagnetised. 

IVI. i'ron ore. (G. Magneteisenstein.) 
Same as Magnetite. 

IVI. keep'er. See Keeper. 

IVI. lim'lt. (L. limes, a boundary.) The 
temperature at which iron or other magnetic 
metal ceases to be acted on by a magnet, or 
beyond which it ceases to be a magnet. 

IVI. magr'azine. (G. magnetisches Maga- 
zin.) Same as M. battery. 

IVI. merid'ian. (F. meridien magnetique ; 

G. magnetischer Meridian.) The intersection 
•with the surface of the earth of a vertical plane 
passing from the zenith through the two poles 
or the line of the axis of a freely suspended 
magnetic needle. 

IVI. met'als. Iron and steel, cobalt, and 
nickel are the chief magnetic metals, but 

chromium, cerium, manganese, and a few others 
exhibit slight magnetic properties. 

M. mo'ment. See Moment, magnetic. 

IMC. nee'dle. (F. aiguille aimantee ; G. 
Magnetstab, Mugnetnadel.) A slender bar of 
magnetised steel accurately poised on a pivot or 
suspended from its centre by fine silk. 

IVI. nee'dle, astat'lc. See Astatic needle. 

IVI. north, 'i'lie ponit of tlie horizon in- 
dicated by the magnetic needle, but not neces- 
sarily the true nortli. 

ivi. ox'ide of I'ron. The Ferri o.vidum 
magncticum or Ferroso-ferric oxide. 

IVI. parallels. {UapdW^iXv-i, side by 
side.) The several lines parallel to the M. 
equator where tlie M. dip is equal. 

IVI. plas'ter. A plaster having for its 
base Magncs arsenicalis. 

IVI. polarity. (L. pohts, the end of an 
axis.) Faraday's term for the opposite and anti- 
thetical actions which are manifested at the oppo- 
site ends of a portion of a line of magnetic force. 

IVI. pole, u'nit. See Unit, magnetic pole. 

IVI. poles of earth. (F. jjolcs magne- 
tiques de la terrc.) The two points in the 
neighbourhood of the two geograpliical poles of 
the earth where the dip of the magnetic needle 
is 90°; that is, when it is vertical. 

IVI. poles of magr'net. See Magnet, 
poles of. 

IVI. poten'tial. See Potential, magnetic. 

IVI. pyrites. (IlupiT);?, a mineral which 
strikes tire.) A mineral which occurs native, 
and consists of a mixture of monosulphide and 
sesquisulphide of iron. 

IVI. repul'sion. (L. repulsus, part, of 
rcpcllo, to drive back. F. repulsion magnetique ; 
G. mag netische Zuriickstossung, m. Abstossung .) 
The tendency of like poles of magnets to recede 
from each other. 

IVI. satura'tion. (L. saturo, to glut. F. 
saturation magnetique ; G. magnetische Sdtti- 
gung.) The limit at which no more magnetic 
force can be imparted to a body permanently. 

IVI. screen. A sheet of iron or other 
magnetic metal which intercepts the passage of 
magnetic force. 

IVI. shell. A thin sheet of iron or other 
metal the magnetism of one face of which is of 
the opposite kind to that of the other. 

MC. storm. (G. magnetischer Sturm.) 
Humboldt's term for the perturbation of the de- 
clination of a magnetic needle produced by some 
terrestrial cause, such as an aurora borealis 

IVI. sub'stance. One which can be at- 
tracted by a magnet. 

V/l. sulphide of i'ron. FegSOj. The 
compound, probably, of iron monosulphide and 
iron sesquisulphide in magnetic pyrites. 

IVI. tick. The slight sound produced bj' 
the lengthening and narrowing of an iron or 
cobalt bar when magnetised. 

IVI. u'nits. See under Unit, magnetic. 
nXagrneficS. The science or principles 
of Magnetism. 

IWag-netif erous. {Magnet ; L. fero, 
to bear.) Exhibiting the i^henomena of Mag- 
net ii^m. 

Magrneti'nus. (F. tartre ; G. Wein- 
stein.) An old name for tartar, impure potassium 

DTag'ne'tis. The same as Magnet. 
IVIag-neti'sable. {Magnet.) Capable 
of being magnetised. 


mag'netisa'tioil. (F. aimantation ; G. 
MagnetisinH.) Thu act or state of being mag- 
netised, or of imparting Manneliiim, 

IVX. by double toucb. (F. aimanf at'tnn 
par la dimhlc Idxrltc ; G. Magnttisirunci dxrch 
ziveifachen StrichJ) The inijiartiiig of mag- 
netism to an iron or other bar by touching the 
middle of it with two magnets whose poles are 
opposite to each other and separated by a small 
piece of wood; the magnets arc moved on the 
bar first towards one end and then towards the 
other several times, and the action is finished in 
the middle of the bar. 

IVX. by elec'tric cur'rents. The pro- 
duction of magnetism in a mngnctic substance 
by the passage of a current of voltaic or frank- 
linic electricity through an insulated wire coiled 
around it. 

TO., by sep'arate touch. The imparting 
of magnetism to an iron or other bar bj' placing 
the opposite poles of two magnets on the middle 
of the bar and moving each at the same time to 
opposite ends of the bar for several times. 

T/t. by sing^'le toucb. (F. aimantation 
par la simple touche ; G. Marjnetiifiren dutch 
einfachen Strich.) The imparting of magnetism 
to an iron or other bar by moving the pole of a 
magnet several times from one end to the other 
of the bar. 

IVl. by terrestrial ac'tion. (L. terra,\laQ 
earth.) The production of magnetism in a bar 
of soft iron, or other metal in a less degree, by 
the inductive influence of terrestrial magnetism 
when the bar is in a more or less inclined position. 

TtL., co-effic'ient of. (L. co, for con, 
■with ; cjficio, to bring to pass.) A number in- 
dicating the relative capacity of a substance for 
magnetic induction. 

IVX., induced. The condition oi Magnetic 

IVX., intens'ity of. (L. intensus, part, of 
intendo, to stretch out.) The amount of mag- 
netism which can be imparted to a magnetic 
substance; it is measured by dividing the mag- 
netic moment of a substance by its volume. 

IVX., lamel'lar. (L. lamella, a thin plate 
of metal.) The condition of a sheet of metal 
one side of which possesses one kind of mag- 
netism and the other the opposite kind. 

IVX., la'ws of. Like magnetic poles repel 
each other; unlike poles attract each other. 

The force exerted between two magnetic poles 
is proportional to the product of their strength, 
and is inversely proportional to the square of the 
distance between them. 

M., rem'anent. (L. remaneo, to stay 
behind.) Tiie magnetism which, under some 
circumstances, remains in an electro-magnet 
after the cessation of tin; electric current. 

Ttl., resid'ual. (L. residuus, remaining.) 
Same as J/., r'-mfimnt. 

Ttl., soleno'id'al. The distribution of the 
magnetism of a Af'/f/iiet, sohnoidal. 

TO.., terres'trial. See Magnetism, terres- 

IWC., u'nlt of. See Units, magnetic 
IWag* netise. To communicate, or to 
aci|inrr, Mmpii I ism. 

ItXag-^nietism. (M«7i/);9, the magnet. 
F. magnetisme ; G. Magnetismus.) A peculiiir 
property capable of being: imparted to certain 
bodies, especially iron, nickel, and cobalt, caus- 
ing them to attract and repel each other, accord- 
ing to certain laws. It is possessed by a natural 

oxide of iron, called the loadstone, a bar of which 

being suspended points nearly north and south 
and attracts iron. Pieces of steel rubbed with 
natural magnets become magnetised, and when 
freely suspended, either by a thread or on a 
pivot, arrange themselves with their long axes, 
running north and south, one end being north- 
seeking, the other south-seeking. The north- 
seeking pole of one magnet attracts the south- 
seeking pole, and repels the north-seeking pole 
of another. No magnet can be obtained having 
one pole only. The earth is a huge magnet, but 
the magnetic north pole of the earth does not 
coincide with the geographical North J'ole, being 
situated about 17^—20^ W., and the diH'erence is 
called the declination of the needle ; this is re- 
turning to true north at about the rate of 7' per 
annum. When a magnet is balanced on a hori- 
zontal axis, and is free to move, it is horizontal 
at the equator; but if moved towards the North 
Pole the north pole of the m:ignct dips, if to- 
wards the South Pole its south pole dijis. At the 
North or South Pole a magnetic needle stands 
vertically to the surface of the earth. The de- 
clination and dip of the needle and the intensity 
of the magnetic force are undergoing change in 
any given spot of the earth's surfnce. 

K/L., an'imal. (G. thieriscJier Magnetis- 
mus, Lebcnsmagnetismus.) The dynamical dif- 
ference between opposite and remote parts of the 
body, as between the right and left sides, the 
front and the back, and the head and foot, which 
resembles the difl^erent and opposite powers of 
the poles of a magnet. These difl'erences were 
recognised by Reichenbach in his researches on 
the Od force. He considered it to explain the 
likes and dislikes or antipathies and sympathies 
of individuals for each other, ojiposite polarities 
attracting, similar repelling one another. In 
the doctrine of Mesmer, the influence which one 
man exerts upon another may be transmitted by 
objects he has touched, and may be iutensitied 
to an extraordinary extent by manipulation. It 
may thus come to act as a curative agent in dis- 
ease. Braid directed his attention to the in- 
fluence of certain movements, named passes, in 
inducing states, either of total unconsciousness, 
or of submission on the part of the mind and 
body of the subject, to the will of the operator, 
and remarkable phenomena may thus be ex- 
hibited in neurotic persons. See Animal mag- 
netism, Hgpnotism, Mesmerism, and Metallu- 

ivi., blue. That exhibited by the south 
pole of a mas:net. 

IVX. of crys'tals. The circumstance ob- 
served by Pliicker and Faraday that all crystals 
which do not belong to a regular system possess 
magnetic properties, varying in nature and in- 
tensity according to the position of the crystallo- 
graphic axes in relation to the poles of a magnet. 
See Mag neergstallic force. 

M., red. That exhibited by the north pole 
of a mM-rriet. 

IM., terrestrial. (L. terrestris, belong- 
ing to the earth. F. magnetisme terrcstre ; G. 
Erdmagnetismiis.) The magnetism of the earth, 
which itself is a great mngnet, with its poles not 
quite coincident with the geographical poles. It 
causes the magnetic needle to range itself north 
and south, and produces the declination and the 
inclination of the needle. The magnetic in- 
tonsitv of the earth slowly alters ; the compass 
and the dipping needle both have daily and 


annual variations, and a further variation once 
in about eleven years. Disturbances of the 
terrestrial magnetism of considerable amount 
occur irresularl}', producing magnetic storms. 

IW., the'ory of, Am'pdre's. (Aiiiptre.) 
A theory of magnetism in opposition to the 
theory of two magnetic fluids, proi)osed by Am- 
pere, by which he assumes that each individual 
molecule of a magnetic substance is traversed by 
a closed electric current, free to move about its 
centre, but compelled to quiescence by a coercive 
force, and exhibiting, when it is given a parallel 
direction, tlie phenomena. 

Blag-'netite. {Mag)ict.) FegOi. Mag- 
netic oxide of iron occurring native and some- 
times pure. It is difficult to smelt, but yields 
excellent iron and steel. 

IIIa,g''lietod« Reiohenbach's term for the 
odylic fdice found in magnets. 

iVIag-'neto elec'tric. Relating to 


T/l. induc'tion. See Induction, magnetO' 

IVX. macbine'. An instrument for de* 
veloping electricity, consisting of a powerful 
horseshoe magnet, or many of them, with bob- 
bins of insulated wire caused to revolve at a 
great speed in its magnetic field. 

Magneto-electric machines were formerly 
much used in medicine for the production of the 
induced electric current, but they have now be- 
come largely superseded by the Volta-faradic 

XWagr'neto -electricity. The induced 

electricity which is developed in the conducting 
wire of a closed circuit by moving it in the area 
of a magnetic field, or b}' moving magnets near it. 
It has no distinctive character. 

Magr'neto-far'adic. Eelating to 

Mdfini to-Jdradism. 

lilag°'netO - far'adism. {Magnetism ; 
Furnday.) Same as Magneto-electricity , 

IWag-'netOgrapll. {Magnet ; Gr. 

ypa<\no, to write.) An instrument for recording 
automatically the variations in the magnetic 
needle. A mirror is attached to the magnet, in 
the path of a beam of light, which it reflects on 
to a continuous slip of photographic paper kept 
steadily moving by clockwork. 

Mag'netolog''ia. (Mayi/ij^, the magnet; 
Xo'^o'i, a discourse. F. magneioloyie.) Term 
for a treatise or dissertation upon the magnet 
and magnetism. V. Leotandi published a work 
under this title in 1668. 

XWa^'netom'eter. (Mayi/.j?, the mag- 
net; /xtTfjov, a measure. F. magnetometre.) 
Name given by Saussure to an apparatus for 
ascertaining the force with which the magnet 
attracts iron in different places. 

Also, an instrument which measures the 
amount of magnetic force by the deflection it 

Also, an instrument devised bj' Gauss for mea- 
suring the intensity of the earth's magnetic 

ZW[ag''netO-op'tic. {Magnet ; Gr. oir- 
TIK-09, of sight.) Eelating to magnetism and 
light rays. 

M.-rota'tion. (L. rot alio, a turning in a 
circle.) See I'olarised light, rotation of, mag- 

Dlag-'neto-ther'apy. (Bt^uaTrfca., fo 
treat medically.) bee Mctalktherapg and Mc- 

Mag'nicau'date. (L. magnm, great; 
Cauda, a tail. F. iiiagnivaude ; G. langschwunzig .) 
Having a long tail. 

XHag'nifica'tion. (L. magnus ; facio, 
to make. Y . grossinsement ; G. Vergrosserung.) 
The act of magnifying or making large. 

IMC., lin'ear^ (L. litiea, a line. F. gros- 
sisseminl Inu'aire.) The amount of magnifica- 
tion as reckoned in one diameter mainly. 

M., Buperfic'lal. (F. ment sn- 
perjiciel.) The amount of magnification of the 
whole surface of a part which amounts to the 
square of its linear magnification. 

niag''llifying'. (L. magnus; facio.) The 
act or capacity of making larger, 

TtL. po\(r'er. (F. gross i.isoiient.) The 
ratio of the size of the image of an object, as seen 
through a magnifying- glass, to the real size of 
the object. 

IMa'g'nioCa The bitter cassava, Jatropha 

Mag-nirOS'trate. (L. magnus; ros- 
tra in, a beak. F. iiiagtiirostre.) Having a long 
and strong beak. 

Blag'nirOS'treS. (I-. magnus ; rostrupi.) 
A Suborder of the Order Fasseres, being birds 
with a large, elongated, conical, slightly notched 
or unnotched bill. It includes the cowbird, 
starling, jay, crow, and birds of Paradise. 

DIag'nitu'do. (L. magnitudo; from 
magnus.) Greatness; bulk. 

IKE. cor'poris. (L. corpus, the body.) 

Ttl. grlgrante'a* (L. giganteus, belonging 
to the giants.) Excessive and unnatural 

T/L. muta'ta. (L. mutatus, changed.) 
Alteration of dimension ; change in size. 

Dlag* niuzn. The name given by Sir 
Humphrey Davy to Magnesium, the metal of 
which magnesia alba was found by him to be an 
oxide ; the name magnesium being at that time 
used to designate the metal now called manga- 

BIag''nol, Pi'erre. A French botanist, 
born at Monlpellier in 1638, died there in 1715. 
He is believed to have introduced the term 
Family into Botany as an exact expression of a 
natural group. 

Dlag'no'lia. (Pierre Jfa(7«o/. Y.magno- 
lier ; G. Giirkenbaiim.) A Genus of the Nat. 
Order Magnoliaceee. 

Also, U.S. Ph. (F. ecorce de magnolier ; G. 
Magnolienrinde), the bark of Magnolia glauca, 
M. acuminata, and M. tripetala. It is bitter 
and aromatic, and is used in hot decoction to 
produce sweating in fevers, bronchial catarrhs, 
rheumatic conditions and gout, and in cold in- 
fusion and tincture as a tonic, and in inter- 
mittents. Dose, 20 — 60 grains (2 — 4 grammes). 

T/l. acumina'ta, Linn. (L. acumen, a 
point. F. arbre dc castor ; G. Bitterbaum.) 
Cucumber tree. Supplies some Magnolia, U.S. 
Ph. ; it is a stimulating bitter tonic, with some 
diaphoretic powers in rheumatism and inter- 
mittent fever. The unripe fruit is said to have 
the same properties. 

7Ht. auricula'ta. Lamb. (L. auricula, 
the outer ear.) Hah. America. Eark febrifuge. 

IMC. bark. See under chief heading. 

TtL. cbampa'ca, Linn. Hab. India, Java. 
Bark used as a tonic and febrifuge. 

IVI. fra'grans. (L. Jragrans, sweet- 
smelling.) The 31. glauca. 


T/l. rraze'rl. Hab. North America. Un- 
ripe fruit usfd ;is uii aromatic tonic. 

IWC. glau'ca, Liiiu. (L. (jlaacus, yellowish- 
green. F. magnolier glauqut\ m. bUu, m. dc.i 
marais, arbre au castor.) Beaver tree, white 
bay, swamp sassafras. Hab. North Anirrica. 
Tlie bark furnishes some Magiiolia, U.S. I'h. ; it 
is used as a febrifuge in Germany, and is sold 
under tlie name of Virginian quina. 

T/L. grandiflo'ra, Linn. (f.. graitdis, 
great ,Jly.'i, a dower. G.grossbUithigc Magnotic. ) 
Large-dowered magnolia, big hiurel. Ilab. North 
America. The bark is used like that of M. glauca. 
Seeds used in paralysis. 

"SIL. bypos'teum, Siebold and Zuccarini. 
Hab. Cliina. I'arlv used as a tonio. 

M. mexica'na. Ilab. Mexico. Flowers 
used as an antispasmodic and tonic. 

IVI. pre'cia. The M. gulan. 

IVI. tripet'ala, Linn. (Tpi'a, thrice; 
irtTaXou, a dower-leaf.) Umbrella tree. A 
North American plant the bark of whicli foims 
some of the M(ig?iu/ia, U.S. Ph. 

IM., umbrella, Lamk. The 3f. tripetaln. 

Tit. yu'lan, Desf. Hab. China. Seeds 
bitter. Used in fever and in chronic rheumatism 
and to form part of a sternutatory powder. Fruit 
employed in infusion for the relief of pulmonary 
complaints; flowers used to flavour tea. 

XKEagrnu'lia spring". United States of 
America, Georgia, Sumter County. A sul- 
phuretted chalybeate water. 

3>Iag'nolia'ceae. {Magnolia. F. niag- 
noluH-t'c.s.) An Order of the Cohort Rajtalcs, 
being Phanerogamous plants containing trees 
and shrubs, wliich are for the most part indige- 
nous in the warmer regions. They have leather}' 
leaves; three to si.K deciduous sepals; three or 
more hypogynous petals ; many, hypogynous 
stamens; cue-celled carpels arranged on an 
elongated thalamus; fruit consisting of many 
dry carpels; an:itropous seeds; and fleshy, 
homogeneous albumen. 

Blag'no'liadS. The plants of the Nat. 
Order Miigni>liacc(C. 

Mag'nolie'se. {Magnolia. F.magnoliees.) 
A Tribe of the Ovdvr Magnoliacfic, having dis- 
tinct carpels arranged in cone-like manner on 
an elongated thalamus. 

XMCag'no'lin. A crystalline glycoside, 
soluble in ah'ohul and in ether, obtained from 
the fruit of Jlngnoliir ghiiica. 

]>Eag''num Dei do'num. (L. magnns, 

great; L)vas, God ; do)ium, gift. V. quinquina ; 
G. Clwiabaum.) A name given to the Cin- 
chona., or Peruvian bark. 

Ttl., OS. See Os magnum. 

IMCag'nus, Kein'rich G-us'tav. A 

German chemist and physicist, born in lierlin in 
1802, and died there in 1870. 

IVI.'s green salt. PtCI.j(NH3)2. An in- 
soluble green salt obtained by the action of am- 
monia on platinous chloride. 

DXag-'nus mor'bus. (L. magnum, great; 
tnorlias, <lisrase.) An idd name for J'y'/)ilcpsi/. 

XVIag'O'nia. A Genus of the IS'^at. Order 

Tfl. grlabra'ta. (L. glahe>\ smooth.) Hab. 
Brazil. I'nisonijus. \}&l'A as^ AF. pubescens. 

Ttl. pubes'cens, St. Ililaire. (L. pubcft- 
ccns, downy.) llal). Brazil. Leaves put into 
water to kill A decoction of the bark is ap- 
jilied to the skin when bitten by insects. Ilouey 
made from its flowers by bees is poisonous. 

nZag'pie. (E. Mag, short for Margaret ; 
pic, from F. pic, a magpie ; from L. pica, a mag- 
pie. I. gazza, pica; S. marica,pega ; G. Ektcr.) 
The Pica caudata. 

PXa'gTa. (Arab.) Old term for Terra 
rubra, iir red earth, (liuland and Johnson.) 

iMagruey. 'I'he Agave amcricana, L., and 
the ^l. Dicxicana, Lamk. 

iMa'g'US. (Aluyos-, wise, or cunning.) Old 
name for a plaster much esteemed for closing 
and drying up sinuses and fistulae, and for 
dropsies and hydrocele. 

Mag-'yar-szentz-lazlo. Hungary. 

A sulphur water. 

nXagryd'ariS. (Mayuoa/Jis.) The root 
or seed of the Laser, or laserwoi't, being the 
Tliajisia silpli ion. 

Illa'ha murree. The Plague, Fall. 

Xyia'lia ti'ta. Tlie king of bitters. Anarae 
given to the Herba andrographidis. 

I^aha^'oni. The Swietenia mahogani. 

r^aha'Ieb. The Prunus tnahaleb. 

IVIallini'ra. The Indian name for Mishmi 
bitter, the root of Coptis tccta. 

SZahmou'dy. (Arab. F. scammonie ; 
G. Shammoiiinm.) Old name for Scammouium, 
or scamniony. 

3>ZallOg''any. (West Indian mahagoyii.) 
The wood of tSwic/enia mahogani. 

TIL., feb'rlfuire. The Swietenia febri- 


TtL., In'dian. The Cedrela toona. 
IVI., moun'tain. The Bctulu lenta. 
TIL. tree. T\w. Hu-ictcma mahogani. 
ZWaho'llia. {McMahon, an American bo- 
tanist.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Bcrberi- 

TtL. aquifo'lia, De Cand. (L. aquifolium, 
the holly.) Hab. North America. Root contains 
Mahonin. Used in the post- mercurial treatment 
of syphilis, in chronic skin diseases, and in sub- 
acute catarrhal conditions of the uterus and 
Also called Berberis aquifolium. 
mallO'llin. Jungh's term for an amor- 
phous, yellow, bitter alkaloid obtained from the 
root oi Mahonia aquifolia, believed by many to 
be identi<"al with Bcrbcrin. 

I^atiu'ra. The JEgle marmelos. 
]>Sall'wah butter. A greenish or 
yellowish concrete oil obtained from the seeds of 
Bassia latifolia. 

TIL. oil. Same as 31. butter. 
T/L. spir'it. Same as Baia spirit. 
TtL. tree. The Bassia latifolia. 
Blai'a. (jMuIa, a large kind of crab.) A 
Genus of the Tribe Brachgura, Order Dccapoda. 
TIL. squina'do, Latreille. Flesh eatable. 
Alai'a. (jM((Trt, good-mother, a nurse, a 
midwife.) Old name for a midwife. 
Also, old name for a nurse. 
DIaianth'einuni. (M<u«, the daughter 
of Atlas; iiv^i-nov, n fluwer.) A name for the 
Convallaria majalis, or lily of the valley. 

Also (G. Schaitcnblumc), a Genus of the Nat. 
Order Asparngacccc. 

TtL. bifo'lium, Linn. (L. bis, twice; 
foliiiiii, a leaf.) Used as a de]nirant. 

DIai'den. (Mid. E. maiden, mciden ; Sax. 
ma-gdin. F. vierge ; I. zitclla ; S. doncclla ; G. 
Madchcn.) A girl ; a virgin. 
IVI. hair. See ]\[aidcnhair. 
Tit. pink. Tlie Dianthus arenarius. 
Mai'denhair. {Maiden; hair. F. 


capillaire ; I. capUvcnere ; G. Frauenhaar.) 
The Adiantum capillua Veneris. 

IMC., American. The Adiantum peda- 

TO.., black. The Asplenium adiantum 

IVX., Cana'dian. The Adiantum peda- 

m.. Cape of Good Hope. The Adian- 
tum </'//iiojjici(in. 

TtL., com'mou. The Asplenium tricho- 
mams, en- splccnwort. 

IVI., grold'en. The Polytrichum commune. 

T/S.., pea'cock's tail. The Adiantum 

IVI. tree. Common name of the tree Ginan 
itsio, or Solisbitria adiantifotia, growing iu 
China and Japan, the fruit of which, like a 
damask phim in size, contains a kernel which is 
said to promote digestion and cleanse the stomach 
and bowi'ls. 

m., 'nrtaite. The Asplenium ruta mu- 

BZaiei'a.. (Mmt /«, the business of a mid- 
wife.) Tlie obstetric art. 

nXaieleuthero'sis. (Mata, a midwife; 

^Xfl/t^^(la)c^^v, a setting free. F. meeleutherose.) 
Delivery conducted b}- a midwife. 

ZWaieu'tna» (MaiEu/xa, the product of a 
midwife's art.) That which is extracted by a 
midwife ; the birth ; a child newly born. 

maieusioma'nia. (Matcuo-i^, delivery 

of _ a woman in childbirth ; faavia, madness, i!'. 
meeusiomanie..) Insanity attendant upon par- 
turition ; puerperal mania. 

Maieusiophob'ia. (MatEDms; <i>6^o^, 

fear or dread. ¥. meciisiophobie.) The fear of 
parturition or childbirth. 

TCaieu'sis. (Mai£u<ris. F. meeusis.) 
Parturition, or the progress of childbirth. 

niaieu'tics. (MaituxivJs, of midwifery. 
F. meeKtique.) The obstetric art ; midwifery. 

DXaieu'tria. (MatEuxpta, a midwife. 
F. mviulrie ; G. Geburtshilferin, Sebamme.) 
A midwife. 

niaieu'tric. (Mattu-r^ia. F.meeutrique.) 
Of, or belonging to, a midwife. 

DXail. (F. maille, a link of mail, a mesh; 
from L. macula, a spot, a mesh. I. maylia ; S. 
mall a ; G. Panzer.) Body armour composed of 
steel meshes. 

In Zoology, a hard case to the body. 

nXail-elon. A Malabar tree the boiled 
leaves of which are said to be capable of inducing 

XHail'ed. (E. mail. F. maille ; I. mag- 
liato ; G bepanzert.) Covered by a coat of mail. 

In Zoology, protected by a hard case over the 
body of scales, or chitin, or other substance. 

Main-en-gTiffe. (F. main, the hand ; 
en, in ; yriffe, a claw.) Duchenne's term for a 
condition of the hand which occurs in progressive 
muscular atrophy, from atrophy of the interossei 
and the muscles of the fore-arm, where the hand 
is extended and the fingers bent at the top, so 
that it somewhat resembles a bird's claw. It 
occurs also in chronic spinal pachymeningitis, 
hemiplegia, and other diseases in which the 
place of origin of the ulnar and median nerves 
is affected, and sometimes results from wounds 
or injuries of these nerves. 

DKai'naS. (Maii/d?; from juai'i/o/uat, to 
rage. G. Raserei, Wahnsinn.) Derangement, 
or an excited state, of the mind. 

Blains. An obstetrical instrument used 
by Taitiu prior to the iiitroduciion of the forceps. 
It consists of two unfenestrated spoons mounted 
in wooden handles, with the shanks united by a 
movable cross-bar. 

XUa'ioline. An alkaloid obtained from 
CitiiVdlldria majalis. 

Ztlaiosote'ria.^ (Mala, a midwife; 
<7(OT)|;oi«, safety. F. nicosoterie.) Delivery safely 
effected by a midwife. 

Ittaira'nia. {fAapnaipw, to sparkle.) A 

Genus of the Nat. Order Ericacecc. 

M. u'va-ur'si. The Arbutus uva-ursi. 
nia'is. A Genus of the Nat. Order Grami- 
naceic. See Maize. 

TfL. amerlca'na, Baumg. The Zca mays. 
TSl. ze'a, Giutner. The Zea mays. 
XHais'inus. A term for Pellagra, pro- 
duced by eating unhealtliy maize. 

Mai'sonneuve, Jacques Grilles. 

A French surgeon, born at Nante.s in 1809, was 
surgeon to the Hotel-Dieuand other hospitals in 
Paris, and is still living. 

M.'s conduct'lng' sound. (F. sonde 
conductrice.) A very fine gum-elastic bougie 
with a male screw at its outer end. It is passed 
into the bladder through a stricture which has 
to be divided, a small catheter terminating in a 
female screw is attached to it and passed on into 
the bladder, the bougie curling upon that organ ; 
if the urine flow the catheter is withdrawn till it 
can be unscrewed, a urethrotome screwed on in its 
place, and then passed on to the stricture. 

M.'s ure'ttarotome. See Urethrotome, 
Maisonneuve' s. 

IKEaize. (S. maiz; from mahiz, a native 
word of the Island of Hayti. F. mais, ble de 
Turquie, ble cVInde, ble d'Espagne, gros millet 
des Indes ; I. mais, maiz, grano saraceno, grano 
turco ; S. maiz; G. Mais, tiirkischer JFeizen.) 
Indian com, the fruit of Zea mays. The unripe 
ears are largely used in America when boiled. 
The ripe grain contains little gluten, and requires 
mixing with wheat or rye flour to make bread ; 
it is used in the form of porridge or polenta in 
many countries. When insufficiently cooked it 
causes diarrhcea. According to Letheby, it 
contains nitrogenous matter 11-1, carbohydrates 
6r5*l, fatty matter 8'1, salts I"7, and water 14 
parts in 100. 

T/t. beer. A fermented liquor obtained 
from malted maize. 

An alcoholic beverage of this kind is made by 
the Peruvians, called Chicha. 

T/L., Chil'i. The fruit of Zea cvrayua. 

M., er'^ot of. (G. Maismutterkorn.) See 
Ergot of maize. 

It is believed to produce the Columbian disease 

IVX. fi'brin. Ritthausen's term for Zein. 

IVI., oil of seeds of. A pale yellow oil, 
smelling and tasting like almond oil, obtained 
by Shuttleworth from the fruit of Zea mays. 

IVI., poi'soning: by. The production of 

in. starcti. The meal of maize ; also 
called Corn-flour. 

tit., stig''mata of. {Stigma.) An extract 
of the stigmata of Zca mays, largely diluted, is 
used in chronic cystitis, either accompanied or 
not by uric acid or phosphatic gravel. It not 
only relieves the pain, but it acts as a diuretic, 
and is thus useful in cardiac and renal anasarca. 
XMCaize'nic ac'id. A substance found by 



Vauthier in the stigmata of maize to which he 
asrritics the nicdiriiial properties. 

Dlajantll'emuill. See Maianthemum. 

XHajOOn'. A preparation of Indian hemp 
used in liengal. 

XIIa.'jor. (L. major, comp. of mngnxs, 
great. F. majeure ; I. maggiom ; S. mayor ; G. 
grosser.) Greater. 

M. cbord. The three notes of a harmonic 
triad with the octave of its lirst note. 

Major Shever sul'pbur 

spring's. United states of America, Ala- 
hania, \\'alkcr Countj'. A sulpliur water. 

TOajora'na. (I. majorana, a corruption 
of Low L. in<'ji)raca,m:w']ov\xn\; from Gr. Itfiupa- 
Kos, marjoram.) Tlie Origanum mdjoruna. 

VI. horten'sls, Munch. (L. hortensis, of 
a garden.) Tlie Origaniim majorana. 

IVX. olera'cea. (L. olus, kitchen herbs.) 
The Uriganiim onites. 

TH. oni'tes, Benth. ('Oi/Txis, a kind of 
origanum.) The phmt, according to Vogl, which 
supplies Ilirha origani crctici. 

IVX. syr'laca. A name for the Teucrium 
marum, or Syrian herb mastich. 

XWajor'ity. (F. majoriti ; from L. major, 
greater. 1. maggiorita ; S. mayoria ; G. Miin- 
digkeit.) The age at which a person is per- 
mitted to manage his own affairs ; being twenty- 
one years. The majority is considered to be 
attained at the first minute of the last day of 
the twentieth year. 

DIa'ju* A shrub growing in Chili, said to 
kill lice. 

XMEak'iall. A preparation of Indian hemp 
used in Western Africa. 

Ma'ko-ma'ko. The Aristotelia race- 

SXakroceph'alus. See Macrocephalus. 
IMakrog'los'sa. See Macroglossia. 
TfLsl. {V.mal ; iiomlj. malum, Qv\\.) Evil; 
pain ; sickness. 

M. a t§te. (F. a, to; Ute, the head.) 

M. an'g^Ials. (F. anglais, English.) 
Same as M. de ch icn. 

T/l. caduc'. (F. caduc, decrepit, falling.) 

T/L. cbi'mlque. A term for disease of the 
jaw from jdiosphorus match making. 

M. d'a'mour. (F. dc, of; amour, love.) 

IVI. d'a'venture. (F. de; aventure, acci- 
dent.) Whitlow. 

IMC. d'en'fant. (F. de ; enfant, a child.) 
Labour pains. 

m. d'en'fer. (F. de ; e«/<fr, hell.) Same 
as M. des ardcns. 

Vtt. d'Espagrne. (F. de; Espagne, Spain.) 
Same as 31. dc fiu. 

T/l. d'es'toznac des ne'grres. (F. de ; 
cstomac, ihc stomach; dis, of; ncgrr, a negro.) 
The species of Pica, or depraved appetite, called 
Cachexia africana, or the desire of dirt eating 
among negroes, generally depending on glandular 
disease and dropsy. 

Tit. de bas'slne. (F. de ; bassine, a pan.) 
Same as M. dc vers. 

IW. de bols. (F. <fc; iois, wood.) A dis- 
ease of cattle in the spring, in forests, produced 
by feeding on the young shoots of the trees ; it 
is a form of enteritis, frequently fatal. 

M. de brout. {V.dc; l>rout, a. shoot.) 
Same as AI. dc bois. 

IMC. de Brunn. (F. di;, of.) A disease 
which occurred during 1578 in Brunn, in Mo- 
ravia, in persons who had been cupped. It was 
probably a form of syphilis propagated by un- 
clean instruments. bu'as. (S. /<««, a pustule.) Syphilis. 

IVI. de cerf. (F. de ; ccrf, a stag.) Te- 
tanus in the lioise. 

IVI. de Cha'vant lure. (F. de.) The 
disease described by Flamand under this name 
in 1829 was probably a form of epidemic syphilis. 
It commenced with pains in the limbs, then tbe 
lips became covered with while aplithous spots, 
which extended to the throat, and sometimes 
there was a pustular eruption over the skin. 
The disease ran a course of several months. 

TtL. de cbi'cot. (F. de ; chicot, a stump.) 
The same as M. de chien. 

TIL. de cbl'en. (F. de ; chien, a dog.) A 
syphiloid disease which prevailed in Canada in 
1760, and subsequently. 

IVI. de coeur. (F. de ; coeur, the heart.) 
A term for Nansea. 

IVI. de co'it. (F. de ; co'it, the act of 
se.xual connection ; from L. coitus, sexual inter- 
course.) A term under which several disorders 
incident to the act of sexual connection in horses 
and mares are included ; but especially applied 
to a very grave disorder, essentially differing 
from human syphilis, which has been very fatal 
in France. The first symptoms in the stallion 
are circular, circumscribed swellings of the skin 
of the hind-quarters, differing from farcy buds in 
that they are in the skin itself; they are soon 
followed by constitutional symptoms, variable 
appetite, oedematous swelling of the sheath of 
tbe penis extending to the umbilicus, similar 
swellings of one or other hind legs, with lame- 
ness and stiffness in moving. In the mare there 
are the local signs of the sexual orgasm, fol- 
lowed by oedematous tumefaction of the labia 
majora which become cold and clamni}', the 
swelling spreading to the perin;cum and the teats. 
The mucous membrane of the penis and the 
vagina is injected in patches, but there are no 
pustules or ulcers, and there is a free muco- 
purulent discharge. The pulse is slow and 
feeble, and partial paralyses and epileptic attacks 
occur ; one ear, or a lip, or the tongue, or an 
eyelid may be paralysed ; the conjunctiva se- 
cretes purulent stuff, and the cornea becomes 
ulcerated. The disease may last weeks or months, 
the animal gets weaker and dies, or if recovery 
takes place it is very slow. The disease is only 
communicable by coitus. 

IVI. de Crimee. (F. dc ; Crimee, the 
Crimea.) The form of leprosy jirevalent in the 
Crimea. Also called Lepra taurica. 

TIL. de dent. (F. de; dent, a tooth.) 

IVI. de feu. (F. de ; feu, fire.) Acute he- 
patitis of animals with meningitis. 

IVI. de Flu 'me. (F. de; Fitime, an Italian 
city.) Same as Facaldina. 

TIL. de Fran'gra. (F. de, of.) Same as 

TIL. de eorgre. (F. de ; gorge, the throat.) 
Sore throat. 

TIL. de taanche. (F. de ; hanche, the 
hip.) llip-joint disease. 

IVI. de la bale de Saint Paul, i^.de; 
la, the ; haie, a bay) 'i'he same as M. de chien. 

IVI. de la ro'sa. See M. de rose. 

T/L. de Iiai'ra. (F. de.) Barking disease. 


An hysterical epidemic which occurred in some of 
the German convtMits in the seventeenth centurj'. 
m. de los pln'tos. (S. de, of; los, the; 
pinta, a spot.) See I'inta disease. 

M. de lune. (F. de ; hme, the moon.) 
Same as Ophthalmia, piriodic. 

T/l. de ma'cbolre. (F. de, of; machoire, 
the jaw.) Trismus. 
Also, dental neuralgia. 
TiL. de madei'ra. The intestinal catarrh 
which attacks many persons when they first live 
in Madeira. 

Ml. de IWela'da. {Melada, a village in 
Venetia.) Pellagra. 

IVI. de mer. (F. de ; mer, the sea.) Sea 

IVI. de m^re. (F. de; mere, a mother.) 
A synonym of Hysteria. 

M. de mlsere. {; misere, poverty. 
I. malattia di miseria.) Vaccari's term for 

T/l. de mon'tagrne. (F. de ; montagne, 
a mountain.) An aflfection, resembling sea sick- 
ness, which is apt to occur in ascending any 
elevated region. It attacks persons who are 
unused to a rarefied atmosphere. The symptoms 
relating to the nervous system, are giddiness, 
headache and sleepiness ; to the respiratory and 
cardiac organs, tightness in the chest, difficult 
breathing, spitting of blood, nose-bleeding, 
faintness, palpitation, and quick pulse; to the 
digestive system, nausea, vomiting, perhaps 
diarrhoea; to the locomotory apparatus, and 
muscular pains ; and to the skin, suppression of 
perspiration and blueness of the lips. There is 
great exhaustion, the sufferer being unable to 
ascend more than a few yards without a feeling 
of utter prostration. It is probably produced by 
a deficient supply of oxygen. 

1«. de mort. (F. de ; mort, death.) Same 
as Malum mortuuni. 

WC. de ITa'ples. (F. de, of.) A synonym 
of Syphilis. 

»I. de neigre. {V. de ; neige, snow.) The 
irresistible tendency to sleep which overpowers 
walkers in the snow. 

M. de Pa'ris. (F. de, of.) A serous, 
often dysenteric, diarrhoea which attacks visitors 
to Paris. 

IMC. de Ple'dra. (F. de, of.) Syphilis. 
IW. de pis. (F. pis, the udder; from L. 
pectus, the breast.) Mastitis. 

IVI. de Pu'na. (F. de, of.) Same as Mareo. 
M. de reins. (F. de ; reins, the loins.) 
Lumbago. rose. (F. de, of; rose, the rose.) 
The Asturian rose. A disease endemic in the 
Asturias, seeming to be a variety ot Pellagra. 
Also, Thierry's term for Scarlet fever. 
IVI. de Saint An'toine. (F. de.) St. 
Anthony's fire ; erysipelas. 

M. de Saint Eu'trope. (F. de.) Dropsy. 
IVI. de Saint Hubert. (F. de.) Hy- 

IVI. de Saint Jean. (F. de.) Epilepsy. 
IVI. de Saint IVIain. (F. de.) Lepra; 
also scabies. 

IVI. de Saint IVIe'dard. (F. de.) Tooth- 

M. de Saint IVIer'vuis. (F, de.) 

IVI. de Saint Sement. (F. de, of) 

M. de Sainte Eupbe'mie. (F. de.) 

A disease described by Jean Bayer, and which 
was syphilis communicated by a midwife to 
many parturient women. 

ivi. de San Iiaza'ro. (F. de.) A form 
of leprosy common in Columbia, South America. 
IVI. de sept jours. (F. de ; sept, seven ; 
J0Hr,a.<.hi\.) Seven days' disease. Tha Trismus 
ticontitorum occurring in the West Indies and in 
South America. 

IVI. de Si'am. (F. de.) The same as 
Yellow fever. 

T/t. de Sol'ogrne. (F. de.) The same as 

M. de terre. (; terre, the earth.) 

M. de tete. (F. de ; Ute, the head.) 

IVI. de vers. (F. de ; vers, a worm.) A 
vesicular, or semipustular, eruption occuiring on 
the fingers of women engaged in the silkworm 
industry where the cocoons are unrolled. Some- 
times it is limited and lasts only five or six days ; 
more frequently it is accompanied by acute 
pains, oedematous swelling, and sometimes by 
abscesses. Generally one attack affords immunity 
for the rest of life. 

T/l. del big'a'do. (S. del, of; higado, the 
liver.) The same as Pellagra. 

IVI. del pin'to. See M. de los pintos. 
IVI. del so'le. (I. del, of; sole, the sun.) 
A synonym of Pellagra, from its supposed origin 
in the heat of the sun's rays after the chill of 

IVI. del val'le. (S. «?e/, of; v(?^fe, a valley.) 
An inflammatory condition of the rectum common 
in the valleys around Quito, South America. 

IVI. del'la Caldajuola. Same as M. 
de vers. 

IVI. des Allemands. (F. des, of; Alle- 
mand, German.) SyphiUs. 

IVI. des ar'dents. (P. des; ardent, 
burning, red.) A gangrenous erysipelas which 
was epidemic in France in the twelfth century, 
probably a form of Ergotism. 

IVI. des Astu'rias. (F. des.) The Astu- 
rian rose. 

IVI. des Bar'bades. (F. des.) Ele- 

T/L. des cbre'tiens. (F. des; chretien, 
Christian.) Syphilis. 

IVI. des eboule'ments. (F. des, of; 
eboulement, falling in.) Same as M. de chien. 

IVI. des en'fants. {Y.des; enfant.) A 
synonym of Epilepsy. 

IVI. des pol'onals. (F. des; polonais, 
Polish.) Syphilis. 

M. des turcs. (F. des, of.) Syphilis. 
IVI. divin'. (F. divin, divine.) Epilepsy. 
IVI. du pays. (F. du, of; j!?«ys, country.) 
Same as JVostalgia. 

IVI. du roi. (F. du, of; roi, the king.) 
Zing's evil; scrofula. 

IVI. du Saint Homme Job. (F. du, 
of; saint, holy ; homme, man.) Syphilis. 

IVI. egryp'tlaque. A synonym of Diph- 

IVI. espa'grnol. (F. espagnol, Spanish.) 

IVI. fran'^ais. (F. frangais, French.) 
The same as Syphilis. 

IVI., g:rand. (F. grand, great.) The 
characteristic form of Epntepsy. 

IVI., baut. (F. haut, high.) The charac- 
teristic form of Epilepsy. 


(P. 7iapolitain, Nca- 

T/l. napol'italn. 

polit:ui.) !S>i)liilis. 

TfL. noir. (L. noil', black.) 

I«., pe'tit. (F. petit, little.) A form of 
epik'psj- in wliicli there is only a momentary loss 
of coiiseiiiusncss. 

TIL. ros'so. (I. rosso, red.) Same as 

in. roug-e de Cayenne'. (F. rouge, 
red ; de, of.) Cayuuno leprosy. A disease be- 
ginning with an eruption of red spots, the body 
in its becoming covered with fun^ating 
red-coloured ulcers. It scums to be allied to 

IW. rouge du pore. (F. rouge ; de ; pore, 
a pig.) Splenic aiKiple.xy. 

IMC. rox'o. Same as M. rosso. 

IVI. sa'cre. (F. srtwJ, holy.) Epilepsy. 

M. saint. (F. saint, holy.) 
!nXa.'la.. (L. mala, the chcek-oone. F. 
joue ; G. Ilacke.) The cheek ; the prominent 
part of the cheek, or cheek-ball. 

T/lSL'l3,m Nominative plural of L. malum, 
an apple. 

IVX.sethiop'ica. {Ethiopia.) Old name 
for tomatoes. 

Xtt. au'rea. (L. aureus, golden.) The 
fruit of the orange tree. 

Also, the fruit of the quince tree. 

TfL. cit'rea. (L. citreus, of the citron.) 

D/L. coto'nea. Same as M. cgdonia. 

VL. cydo'nla. The quince, the fruit of 
Cydonia vidgaris. 

TtL. insa'na. (L. insanus, mad.) The fruit 
of Solanum mehnyena. 

Also, the fruit of Atropa belladonna. 

Til. peruvia'na. {Peru.) Tomatoes. 

IVI. pu'nica. (L. punicus, Phoenician.) 
The pomeiiranate. 

mal'abar. A Province of the "West Coast 
of India. 

IVI. bark. (F. ecoi-ce de Malabar.) The 
Wrightia antidysenterica, R. Br. 

TIL. car'damom. See Cardamom, Malabar. 

IMC. cat-mint. The Anisomeles mala- 

TIL. chi'na. The bark of a variety of Aza- 
diracltta indica. 

TIL. cinnamon. (G. Malabarzimmt.) See 
Cinnamon, Malnhar. 

TIL. ipecacuan'ba. The root of Randia 

TIL. kino. The produce oiihe Pterocarpus 

TIL, nlg-ht'sbade. The Basella rubra. 

TIL, nufmeg:. The seed oi Myristica ma- 
labarica, Lam. 

T/L. nut tree. The Adhatoda vasiea. 

TIL. plum. The fruit of the Eugenia 

T/L. rhu'barb. See Rhubarb, Malabar. 

TIL. ul'cer. See Uleer, tropical. 
Ittalabatll'ri. Genitive singular of J!f«/rt- 

TIL. fo'lia. (L. folium, a leaf.) The name 
given to the dried aromatic leaves of certain 
Indian species of Cinnamomuni, formerly em- 
ployed in European medicine, but now obsolete. 
They are still used in India under the name of 

TIL, o'leum. (L. oleum, oil.) The oil of 

DXalabath'rinum ung-uent'um. 

{'isia\a|iM^nvo';, composed of ix.a\alia^f)OV ; L. 
unguentum, ointment.) An ointment comi)osed 
of malabathrum, myrrh, spikenard, and other 
aromatic substances. 

]>Ialabath'rum. (M«\«^«t)pov, the 

arouiatic leaf of an Indian plant, sold in rolls or 
balls.) The Indian leaf, <l>v\\ov lvolkov. A 
name for an aromatic leaf variously ascribed to 
the Laurus cassia, L. cinnamomum, Cinnamomuni 
malabathrum, and C. tamala. 

Crawford believed that the malabathrum of 
the ancients was benzoin. 

nialacanth'OUS. (MaXnKos, soft; avSos, 
aflower. Y.malacaiitlie.) Having flower-heads 
soft to the touch, from the silken hairs which 
stand out from tlicm. 

IVIal'acarne, IWichele Vincen'- 

ZO Giacin'tO. An Italian anatomist and 
surgeon, born in 1744, died at Padua in 1816. 

m.'s pyr'amid. The binder end of the 
pyramid of the cerebellum. 

IMCalacat'mon. A liana growing in the 
Pliilippine Islands, having a medicinal juice. 

I^Ialac'ca. A name for the Sagittaria 

TIL. bean. The fruit of the Anacardium 
orieiitale, or A. indieinn. 

Malac'cae ra'dix. (L. radix, a root.) 

The root of the Sagittaria alexipharmica. 

Malacencephalon. (MaXaKo\,soft; 

kyKi(j)u\o^, the brain.) Craigie's term for a 
diminished consistence of the cerebral structures 
without definite degeneration. 

Blal'acll. The Turkish term for Indian 

DXal'acll'e. (M a\ax>), the mallow; per- 
haps from fj.a\d<7(Tu}, to make soft.) A name for 
the Malva sylvestris, or common mallow, from 
its soft leaf. 

Mal'acllite. (llaXax'i ; from its colour. 
F. mulacliite ; G. Malachit.) A hard, compact, 
green stone, admitting of a fine polish, and con- 
sisting of carbonate of copper; it was believed 
anciently to have power against all the dangers 
of infancy, and was lately given in epilepsy in 
doses of 20 to 60 grains. 

TIL. green. One of the anilin dyes; 
soluble in water. 

IHalach'ra. (Ma\«x'i, mallow.) A 

Genus of the Nat. Order Malvaceee. 

TIL. capita'ta. (L. caput, a bead.) A plant 
the leaves of which are said to be anthelmintic. 

Malachypero'a. (MaXaK-Js, soft; 

uTTtiKiii), the palate. F. palais mol ; G. ivcicher 
Gc/'iiu'ii.) The soft or pendulous palate. 

IMEala'cia. (Mi(X«K('a, softness, wcakli- 
ness. F. malacic ; I. malacia ; S. matacia ; G. 
Erweichung.) Morbid softening of a tissue or 

Also, depraved or fanciful appetite, as in 
chlorosis or ]iregnancy, or dirt-eating. 

IMC. africano'rum. Same as Dirt-eating. 

M.cor'dis. (^L. crt/', the heart.) Softening 
of the heart due to mflannnation. 

IMC. cor'nese. {Cornea.) Same as Kera- 
iomntaeid . 

Plalacis'inus. (MrtXrtM'a, softness.) 

Morliid soltenin'.'-. 

Malacobdella. (MaXaKd?, soft; 

(i)u\\(c, a leech.) The only Genus of the Mala- 

TIL. gros'sa, MiiUer. (L. gmssns, thick.) 
A parasite found in the European seas in the 


gill cavity of Ci/pruUna islandica, Mya trtin- 
cata, and otlier IVLollusos. 

]>Ialacobdelli'd8B. (MaXaKos, soft; 

/3otA\(t, a leech.) A Familj' of the Order 
HirHdiHca, having no cephalic clefts or external 
longitudinal muscular layer; digestive tuhe 
simple, but contorted. 

SiXalacocatarac'ta. {MakuKos, soft; 

cataract. V. malacocataracle ; G.weioher Staar.) 
Same as Cataract, soft. 

IMEalacoder'mata. (MaXaKo?; Sipfia, 

skin.) The same as Actiniaria, a Suborder of 
the Order Zoantharia. 
Also, see Malacodermi. 

I^alacoder'matous. (MaXa/co?, soft ; 

Sipua, the skin. F. inalacuderme ; G. weich- 
hdntiff.) Old term applied to animals having a 
soft skin, covering, or kind of shell. 

IWalacoder'mi. (MaXa/co's ; Slpua, 

ekin.) A Tribe of the Suborder Fcntamera, 
Order Coleoptera ; it includes the glow-worm. 

Blalacoder'mia. (MaXa/cJs; dtp/ma. 

F. iiiKlacodermic.) Softness of the skin. 
XVXalacoder'mous. The same as 


nXalaCOg'as'ter. (MaXa/cos, soft; ya<T- 
Ti'ip, the stomach. G. Weichmagen.) Term for 
softness, tenderness, or fastidiousness of the 

IKEal'acoid. (MaXah09,soft; sWos, form.) 
Soft; semi-solid. Applied to the soft or mucila- 
ginous parts of plants, as of Algse. 

IMEalaCOl'Ogry. (MaXa/co's; Xo'yos, a 

discourse. F. malacologie.) The description of 
the ALoUusca. 

lUalaco'ma. (M«XaK-o(o, to soften. ' F. 

maiacume.) A morbid softening of a part, as of 
the brain, kidneys, or bones. 

In Botany, a soft fruit ; the cone of soft scales 
of the jnniperus. 

Blalacopho'nous. (MaXaKO's, soft; 

<f>u>vji, the voice. F. mulacophonc.) Having a 
soft or gentle voice. 
IMEalacophyllous. (MaXaicos; <^u\. 

Xov, a leaf. F. malaeophylle ; (i. weichbliittrig.) 
Having leaves soft to the touch, from the hairs 
■with which the}' are furnished ; or having leaves 
that are unarmed, that is without prickles. 

IMCalaCOp'oda. (MaXaK-os ; irov^, a foot.) 
An Order of the Class Myriopoda, having a soft, 
cylindrical, unsegmental body, with foot-like 
jaws, two curved claws, and tracheal pores 
diffused over the surface of the body. 

nXalacopoe'a. (MaXaKo's ; -TroUw, to 
make.) An old term for Emollients. 

ZWalacopoe'OUS. (MuXaKos; Trott'o., to 
make. F. malacopee ; G. eriveichend, weich- 
machend.) Making soft ; softening. 

Malacop'teri. (MaXaico's ; -KTipv^, a 

fin.) Owen's term for a Suborder of Telcostei, 
being fishes having a complete set of fins with 
Boft, many-jointed rays. 

Vflalacop'terous. (MaXaK-Js; -wTtpov, 

a feather. ¥. malacoptere ; G. iveichjlugelicht.) 
Applied to birds in which the plumage is soft 
and silky. 

BXalacopteru'rus. (MaXa/vos; Trxt^uf, 
a fin ; ovpa, tlie tail.) Same as Malapterurns. 

nXalacopteryg-'ian. (MnXa/co's, soft ; 

nnipuyiDV, a fish's tin.) Applied to fishes in 
which the rays of the dorsal fin are soft and 

KXalacopteryg''ii. (MaXaK-os, soft; 
impvyiov. F. malacopterygiens ; G. Weich- 

Jlosser.) A type of fishes in which all the raya 
of the dorsal tin remain jointed, as in the salmoa 
and Silurus. 

M. abdomlna'Ies. (L. abdomen, the 
belly. F. malacopterygiens abdominaux.) An 
order of tishes in which the ventral tins are 
suspended on tlie lower part of the abdomen, 
beliind the pectoral tins, and not attached to the 
shoiilder-bone. It includes the carp, salmon, 
trout, and sardine. 

IVI. ap'odes. ('A, neg. ; ttous, a foot. F. 
m. apodes.) An order of tishes that have no 
ventral fins. It includes eels and gymnoti. 

IW. subbrachla'tl. (L. sjib, under ; 
brachium, the arm. F. m. subbrachiens.) An 
order of fishes in which the ventral fins are in- 
serted under the pectoral fins and suspended 
from the shoulder-girdle. It includes the cod, 
ling, and whiting. 

nialacopteryg-'ious. (MaXaKo's; 

■UTtpuyiov. F. malacoplcryyien ; G. iveiohgrdlig, 
weichstrahlig .) Having soft or many-jointed 
rays in the paired fins. 

_ malacorhyn'clious. (MaX«h-o's,soft; 

P'oyxo^ ^ beak. F. malacorhynque ; G. weich- 
geschndbelt.) Having the beak soft and mem- 

IKIalaco'rium. (L. mala, an apple; 
cori/im, skin.) The rind of the pomegranate. 

nialacosarco'sis. {MuKaKoi; (rdp^, 

flesh. F. malacosarcose ; I. malacosarcosi ; S. 
malacosarcosis ; G. Muskelschlajfheit.) Preter- 
natural softness of the muscular system. 

]>Ialacosar'cous. (ivi«X«(.-Js; o-apf, 

flesh. ¥ . malacosarque .) Having soft and tender 

nXalacOSCOliceS. (MaXoKos; o-/caiX»)f, 
a worm.) Huxley's term for a Division of In- 
vertebrata, including Polyzoa and Brachiopoda. 

lHalaco'sis. (M aXa/cos, soft. F.viala- 
cose ; G. Erweichernny.) The progress of 
Malacoma, or a morbid softening of a part or a 

Also, a synonym of Molluscum sebaceum. 
m. cer'ebri. (L. cerebrum, the brain.) 
See Brain, softening of. 

IVI. cor'dis. (L. cor, the heart.) See 
Heart, softening of. 

M. he'patls. (L. hepar, the liver.) See 
Liver, softening of, acute. 

M. u'teri. (L. uterus, the womb.) Soft- 
ening of the womb from degeneration of the 
muscular tissue. 

XVIalacOSO'inatOUS. (MaXaKos; a-wfjia, 
a body. F. malacosomc.) Applied to those which 
have the body generally soft. 

AZalaCOS'teOIli (MaXaKOS ; oarTtov, a 
bone. F. moUesse des os, ramolUssemeni general 
des OS ; G. Knochenweichheit.) Softness of the 
bones. A chronic disease of great rarity oc- 
curring in adult life, in which the bones be- 
come soft and pliable owing to the removal of 
their salts; their specific gravity is diminished, 
and they can be easily cut with a knife. The 
periosteum is usually thickened, and when re- 
moved the surface of the bone is porous, a bloody 
or yellowish fluid exuding from the pores. The 
medullary cavity and spaces are enlarged. The 
medulla is highly congested, the blood-vessels 
being widely dilated, and extravasations nu- 
merous. The colour varies from deep purple to 
light yellow, according to the relative proportion 
of oily matter, and in the later stages the me- 
dullary cavity may be filled with a clear, viscid, 


mucoid or gelatinous fluid. As a result of the 
softness of the bones, the spine, pelvis, thorax, 
and bimes of the extremities become bent, 
twisted, and deformed, and in some instances 
fracture occurs. The bones of the head are 
rarely affected. The muscles become wasted 
and undergo fatty degeneration. It especially 
affects women who have had one or more chil- 
dren, and is most frequently seen between the 
ages of twenty-five and forty. The symjjtoms 
are pain and tenderness in or over the affected 
bones, a feeling of weakness causing uncertain 
gait, nervous excitability, .=0 that painful spasms 
of muscles occur on gently stroking the skin 
over them. The proportion of salts in the urine 
seems to be sometimes increased. It usually 
terminates in death. Also called Osteomalacia 
and MoUities os.iiu/n. 

DXa.l3.COS'tCO'siSa (MaXaKo^; ouTtov. 
F. maldcositeose.) Same as Malacosteon. 

MalacOS'teum. See Malacosteon. 

Itlalacos'tonious. (MaXriKo's, soft; 
ffTo^a, tlie mouth.) Having soft jaws without 

Malacos'traca. (M«\aK-o's, soft; 

ocTTpaKov, the hard shell of a snail. G. IVeich- 
schalthiere.) A Subclass of the Class Crustacea, 
having a constant number of segments and paired 
appendages, represented by crabs, wood-lice, and 

The term was originally used by Aristotle to 
include the softer shelled Crustacea as dis- 
tinguished from the harder shelled MoUusca. 

BlalaCOS'traCOUS. (MaXoK-os; oaTpa- 
Koi/, ashell. ¥ . malacostrace ; G. Wcichschulig .) 
Having a soft shell. 

Malacox'ylon. (Mf(Xa^os ; ^v\ov, 

wood.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Vitaccce. 

IMt. pinna'tum. (L. pinna, a feather.) 
Hab. Mauritius. Juice caustic. Probably the 

Cisfiits mappla, Lamk. 

Slalacozoa'riaa (MaXaKtk ; ^wnv, an 

animal. ¥. malacozoaires ; G. Weichthiere.) De 
Blainville's term for animals which have no trace 
of limbs, but consist of a soft, contractile body. 

IMEalacozo'ic. (MaXaKos; "iwov.) Ec- 
lating to a Malacozoon. 

TIL. se'ries. (L. series, a row.) The series 
of the Invertebrata which includes MoUusca and 

BIalacozoolog''ia. (MaXahos : X,<oov, 

an animal; Xiiyov, a discourse. F.malacozoo- 
loffie ; G. Weichthicrlehre.) A treatise or dis- 
sertation upon soft animals, as the MoUusca. 

PXalacOZO'on. (MaXaKos-; X,u<ov, an 
animal. F. malacozoaire ; G. JVeic'hthicr.) 
A soft animal; a. Mollusc. 

XVZalacro'tia. (M«XaKo«; xpwi, the 
flesh.) The soft fungoid particles discharged 
from the sinuses in Mycetoma. 

DIalaC tiCa (MaXaKTiKos, from jUftXao-o-o), 
to make soft. F. malactique, emollient; I. 
malactico ; G. erweichend.) Having power to 
soften ; emollient. 

XWalac'tica. (MaXaK-n^os.) Term an- 
ciently a]i|)lied to emollient remedies. 

nXalactin'ia. (M«XrtK-os, soft; uktIi, a 

rav.) A term fur the Acalepha. 

IVIal'ady. (Mid. E. maladie, malaibje ; F. 
maladie ; from malade, ill ; from L. male, baiily ; 
habitus, held. I. malattia ; S. 7nal ; G. Krank- 
heit.) A disease. 

nt., En'grllsli. The same as Hypochon- 

DXa'lae os. (L. mala, the cheek ; os, a 

bone.) See Malar bone. 

Mal'agra. Spain, in Andalusia. It has 
mountains nearly aOOO feet in height, protecting 
it to the north and north-west. The climate is 
mild, bracing, and equable, and the air dry. 
The mean temperature in winter is 13° C. (56'" 
F.). and in spring 18° C. (6.5° F.) The terral or 
north-west wind often blows with considerable 
force ; it is very dry and accompanied with much 
dust. It is considered an appropriate place of 
residence for chronic phthisis with mucti bron- 
chial irritation, and for chronic renal diseases, 
but it is contra- indicated when fevers and a 
disposition to htemoptysis are present. 

In the neighbourhood are several weak, cold, 
chalybeate springs. 

IVI. al'monds. Same as Almonds, Jordan. 

IMCala^'inum. (L. malaginum.') A 
plaster which can be made without the aid of 

BIalag''ina. (MaXay/xa, any emollient ; 
from /uaXacro-o), to soften. F. cataplasme ; G. 
Umschlag, Breiumschlay .) A cataplasm or 
emollient application. 

Malag-uet'ta pep'per. (G. Mala- 

guetapfeffer.) The grains of Paradise, being 
the fruit of Amomum melegueta, Roscoe. 

nCalalia. Spain, Province of Granada. 
Weak, bicarbonated, chalybeate waters, having 
a temperature of 23-7° C. to 32° C. (74-66° F. to 
89° F.), and used in atonic neuralgia, chronic 
catarrh of the mucous surfaces, rheumatic con- 
ditions, and some skin affections. 

IMCalaise'. (F. malaise; from mal, bad; 
aise, ease. G. Missbefinden.) Undeiined un- 
easiness of body not amounting to illness. 

SXalam'bo bark. The bark of Croton 
malambo, Karst, a tree belonging to the Nat. Order 
EnphorbiacecB, growing in Venezuela and New 
Gr;inada. It is employed as an aromatic tonic 
and antiperiodic. It is also used in rheumatism, 
diarrhoea, and intestinal worms. It was formerly 
erroneously attributed to the Drimys tvinteri ancl 
to a Cusparia. 

Blaramide. C,H8NA=CoH3(OH)(CO. 
NH2)2. A substance obtained by the action of 
ammonia on an alcoholic solution of ethyl ma- 
late. It crystallises in quadi'atic prisms. It is 
isomeric with asparagin. 

Blalamidic ac'id. The same as As- 
partic acid. 

DKalam'min. An isomer of aspartic 

Dlalail'ders. (L. malandria, blisters or 
pustules on the neck, especially of horses. F. 
■malandre ; I. malandra ; S. grietas ; G. Maulce.) 
A scurfy eruption occurring on the hind legs of 
horses. It is found on the inner side of the 
hock and at the bend of the knee. 

Blalan'dria. (F. mal ; Gr. av7'ip, man. 

F. malandrie.) A .species of Elephantiasis. 

Also, the same as Malanders. 

DXalan'drious. Affected with Malcm- 

niala'nea. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

T/L. vertlcilla'ta, Lam. The Antirrhcea 

XVIalapa'ri. A tree growing in the Mo- 
luccas, described by Kumphius as affording in its 
bark and root an antidote to most vegeta()le and 
animal poisons. It is said to be a Foiigamia. 

nZalapa'rius, Miqud. A doubtful Genus 


of the Nat. Order Legumiywsa, one of whose 
species furnishes Malajjari. 

IHalaprax'is. See Malpraxis. 

XVIalapterono'tous. (M(t\aK:o9, soft; 
TTTtfiov, a wino^, a fin; vwroi, the back. F. 
malaptironote.) Having soft rays to the dorsal 

mXalap'terous. A contraction of Mala- 
copti tons. 

Malapteru'ruS, Linn. (Ma\aKos,soft; 
TTTifjv^, a fin; o'upd, the tail.) A Genus of the 
Grouj) Physostomi abdominalcs, comprising the 
electric cat or sheath fishes of tropical Africa. 

IVl. elec'trlcus, Lacepede. (F. malapte- 
rurc ilectrique ; G. Zitterwels.) A fish, of about 
four feet in length, inhabiting the Nile, capable 
of giving a severe electric shock. See under 
Elect rie fishes. 

IVIa'iar. (L. mala, the cheek bone. F. ma- 
laire ; ].. nuilare ; S. malar ; G. Wangegehorig.) 
Of, or belonging to, the cheek bone. 

IMC. apopb'ysls. ('A'7ro'</)u<Tis, an offshoot. 
F. apophyse malaire, or apophyse zygomatique.) 
The rough surface which projects from the outer 
part of the malar bone and articulates with the 
zygomatic process of the temporal bone. 

IVI. ar'teries. (F. artires malaires.) One 
or two small branches of the lacrymal arteries 
which pierce the orbital surface of the malar 
bone and reach the temporal fossa, where they 
anastomose with branches of the deep temporal 

TtL. bone. (F. os malaire, os de la pommette, 
osjugal, OS zygomatique ; G. Jochbein, JFangen- 
bein.) An irregularly-shaped bone which forms 
the prominence of the cheek on each side of the 
face below and to the outer side of the orbit. It 
presents a body with three surfaces and three 
processes. The body is chiefly composed of com- 
pact tissue, but has sometimes a cavity in its 
interior named the sinus jugalis, which commu- 
nicates with the antrum of Highmore ; it has 
three surfaces, an external surface (F. face 
antero-externe ; G. Gedchlsjlache), to which the 
orbicularis palpebrarum and zygomaticus major 
and minor muscles are attached, and where are 
the openings of one or two malar foramina for 
the malar nerve of orbital ; an orbital surface 
(F. face superieure dti face postero-interne ; G. 
Augenhohlevfldche'), with an opening for the 
malar nerve of orbital, and another for the zygo- 
matic nerve ; and a temporal surface (F. face 
inferiore dn face postero-interne ; G. Schldfen- 
grubeuflache), to which the temporal muscle is 
attached, and with the opening of the foramen 
zygomaticum temporale for the zygomatic nerve. 
The processes are the frontal, the temporal, and 
the maxillary, which articulate severally with 
the corresponding bones ; it also articulates with 
the great wing of the sphenoid bone. The bone 
forms part of the outer wall and floor of the 
orbit, as well as of the temporal and zygomatic 
fossae. It is developed from three points of 
ossification, which appear at about the eiglith 
week of intra-uterine Life and unite about the 
end of the twelfth. 

The malar bone is absent in some Mammalia, 
and in Batrachia, serpents, and most fishes ; in 
birds it is only a thin splint forming part of the 
zygoma ; its orbital plate is present only in man 
and apes ; in porpoises the zygomatic portion is 
a distinct bone. 

M. bone, frac'ture of. A very rare oc- 
currence, the result of sevt-ie and direct violence. 

IVI. canal'. {?. canal malaire.) A T-shaped 
passage whicli commences on the inner surface 
of tlie orbital process of the malar bone by a 
single orifice, and opens by two on the facial 
surface of the bone. It transmits the malar 
branch of the orbital division of the superior 
maxillary nerve and a small arteriole. 

M. nerve, of or'bital. (F. ramean 
malaire du nerf orbitaire ; G. Wangenhautnerv.) 
A branch of the orbital division of the superior 
maxillary nerve. It lies in the fat of the lower 
and outer angle of the orbit, enters the inner 
orifice of the malar canal, and emerging by the 
outer orifice, is distributed to the skin over the 
malar bone. 

TfL. nerves, of fa'clal. (F. rameaux 
malaires du nerf facial ; G. Wangenzweige des 
Gesichtsnerv.) Branches of the temporo-facial 
division of the facial nerve. They cross the 
malar bone to reach the outer side of the orbit 
and supply the orbicularis palpebrarum muscle. 
They communicate with the lacrymal and supra- 
orbital nerves and with the malar branches of 
the superior maxillary nerve. 

TIL. point. The point situated at the place 
where a horizontal line, running from the lower 
border of the orbit to the upper border of the 
zygomatic arch, crosses a vertical line running 
from the external border of the fronto-malar 
suture to the tubercle on the external inferior 
angle of the malar bone. 

ac. pro'cess of fron'tal bone. (F. 
apophyse orbitaire du frontal ; G. Jochfortsatz 
des Stirnbeins.) The outer extremity of the 
orbital arch of the frontal bone which articulates 
with the frontal process of the malar. 

IVI. process of tem'poral bone. (G. 
Wangenfortsatz des Schldfenbens.) The zygo- 
matic process of the temporal bone. 

IVI. pro'cess of upper jjaxir. (F. apo- 
physe malaire du maxillaire supcrieur, apophyse 
montant du maxillaire; G. Wangenfortsatz des 
Oberkiefers.') A thick triangular process on the 
outer aspect of the superior maxillary bone sepa- 
rating the facial and zygomatic surfaces. It 
articulates with the malar bone. 

IWC. prom'lnence. The projection of the 
malar bone in the cheek. 

M. tu'bercle. (L. <?^5er, a swelling. F. 
tuber cule malaire.') A process at the lower and 
anterior part of the outer surface of the malar 

X^ala'ria. (I. mal'aria ; from malo, bad ; 
aria, air. F. miasine ; G. Miasma.) The poison 
which produces intermittent and remittent fevers, 
and which is generated in marshy or swamp}' 
districts, or where there is an insufficiency of 
healthy vegetation and a waterlogged soil. Its 
exact nature is not yet settled, but all modern 
observation points to some microscopic vegetable 
or animal organism as the morbific agent ; see 
M. microbes and M. infusoria. Its most frequent 
mode of reception into the body is by means of 
the atmosphere, but it may be taken in water or 
other fluids exposed to marsh air, as well as by 
means of solid matters, such as fruits so exposed. 
It is incapable, apparently, of reproduction in 
the animal body, it is not propagated by an in- 
fected person, and it produces in the system 
solely its own specific effects, these being not 
only the special fevers, but also disturbances of 
nutrition evidenced by enlarged spleen and a 
peculiar cachexia; it influences also other dis- 
eases, making them in some degree intermittent. 


It may be carried long distances and considerable 
lieiglits by the wind, but is arrested in its progress 
by a belt of forest. It has little or no influence on 
domestic animals. The intensity of its action is 
greatly increased by a persistently high tem- 
perature and by the breaking up of the ground ; 
it is decreased by cold, as in winter, and by the 
growth of healtliy vegetation, especially, accord- 
ing to some, by the presence of the species of 

M., blood-par'asites in. See M. mi- 

IVI. infuso'ria. {Infusoria.) See M. 

IMt. larva'ta. (L. larvatns, masked.) A 
synonym oi Kenrulgia, malarial. 

la. microbes. (Mt^jios, small ; (iio^, life. 
A micro-organism believed, but not certainly 
proved, to be the cause of malarial fever.- Klebs 
and Tommasi-Crudeli found bacilli of from 2—7 /j 
in length in earth from a marshy district, which 
grew into convoluted threads, the protoplasm of 
which became segmented and thrust forth 
brushes of short rods from the parts exposed to 
the air, or developed persistent spores in their 
interior. These bacilli injected into rabbits pro- 
duced, according to Klebs, malarial symptoms, 
but the purity of the culture has been called in 
question. More recently Cuboni and Marchia- 
fava have found short moving bacilli, closely 
agreeing with those described by Klebs, provided 
with terminal spores at their two ends at the 
period of access of the fever. Laveran and 
Richard, on the other hand, have found amceba- 
like bodies of the size of a red blood-corpuscle 
in the blood of malaria patients. These bodies 
contain dark red, actively moving, pigment cor- 
puscles in their interior, and can send forth long 
tine processes. Still more recently Alarchiafava 
and Celli have found blue corpuscles of various 
form and size in the i-ed blood-eori)uscles, and v. 
Sehlen observed granules from 0-5 — I'O fx in 
size, staining with methyl blue, partly within 
and partly between the red corpuscles. See also 
Fhismodium malarim and Bacillus malaritB. 
nXala.'rial. Of, or belonging to, Malaria. 
Tfl. bu'bo. {huvftwv, a swelling in the 
groin.) A swelling of the inguinal or other 
lymphatic glands having periodical accessions of 
pain, and accompanying some form of inter- 
mittent fever. 

IVI. cacbex'ia. (Kox^^tn, a bad habit of 
body. G. Malaria- Siechthnm.) The persistent 
condition of ill health often produced by re- 
peated or prolonged attacks of ague or other 
malarial fever, or by long residence in a mala- 
rious neighbourhood without anj' definite attack 
of fever. The complexion is sallow and muddy, 
the skin is soft, inelastic, and clammy, the tongue 
is furred, the appetite bad, and the bowels torpid ; 
there is considerable anaemia producing giddi- 
ness, noises in the ears, shortness of breath on 
exertion, and palpitation ; there is great depres- 
sion of spirits, lassitude, and often neuralgia. 
The spleen is generally very large, often very 
hard, sometimes soft ; the liver is enlarged and 
hard ; and the kidney is said to be not infre- 
quently the seat of amyloid degeneration ; the 
organs generally are the seat of pigmentary de- 
posit, and the blood contains mucli pigment, con- 
stituting the condition called Mclauccmia. 

M. diseases. These include simple or 
benign intermittent fevers, such as ague, ano- 
malous masked fevers, pernicious inteimittcut 

fevers, remittent and continued fevers, malarial 
cachexia and malarial neuralgia. They are en- 
demic in almost all the warmer parts of the 
world that are swampy, and in those districts 
that arc liable to occasional overflow of rivers or 
of the sea, though they may occur in mountainous 
regions when these conditions are absent. .No 
race or nationality enjo} s immunity from mala- 
rial affections, though negroes are less liable to 
be attacked. Men are more subject than women. 
Children 8uff"er most frequently with intermittent 
bowel troubles. In youth either continued 
fevers or quotidian or tertian intermittents are 
most common. In middle life all forms are met 
with ; whilst in advanced age, though the system 
is less liable to infection, very pernicious forms 
are apt to occur. Those who are weak and 
anasmic are most liable to be attacked. The 
period of incubation is generally reckoned at 
from six to twenty, or in America thirty, days, 
but Hertz states that he has repeatedly perceived 
well-marked symptoms of malarial infection 
within half an hour after exposure to the emana- 
tions of a marshy ditch, whilst other observers 
liave noticed as long a period as six, or even ten, 
months to elapse. 

IWI. epilep'sy. ('ETri\jjv;/ut, the falling 
sickness.) A few cases have been reported in 
which residents in malarious districts have been 
attacked by epilepsy, which is preceded by great 
rise of temperature, followed in the intervals by 
facial neuralgia, and abolished on removal from 
malarial influences. 

Tit. erythe'ma. ('EjOu6i|/ia, a flush on 
the skin.) Simple erythema and erythema no- 
dosum have been observed to accompany at times 
attacks ot malarial fever, such as ague. 

HI. fe'ver. (F. ficvre paludicnne.') A 
fever caused by malaria, and characterised by 
intermittence or remittence. 

Malarial levers are included among the various 
forms oi Ague, or Intermittent fever, and of lie- 
mittent fever ; and, according to some, the variety 
of Yellow fever characterised by periodicity of 
febrile recurrence. Also, see Fever, pernicious. 

IVI. fe'ver, baemorrtaag^'lc. (Aijuop- 
payia, violent bleeding.) A form of Fever, per- 
nicious, in which bleeding takes place in the 
tissues and organs from grave alteration in the 
composition of the blood, and weakening of the 
walls of the vessels wherever congestion occurs. 

TIL. fe'ver, pernic'ious. See Fever, per- 

TIL. fe'ver, pernio lous, intermlt'tent. 
Same as Fever, pernieions. 

TIL. fe'ver, puer'peral. (L. puerpera, a 
lying-in woman.) Fordyce Barker's term for a 
form of fever occurring after delivery, which, 
though resembling septicaemia, depends upon 
exposure to, and reception of, malarial poison at 
some previous time ; it does not occur till after 
the tifth day from delivery, the rigors are 
frequently-recurring, and the intermissions dis- 

TIL. g^an'grrene. (Vayypaiva, an eating 
sore which ends in mortitieation.) A form of 
gangrene of the scrotum occasionally observed, 
in wliich, after exposure to an intense malarial 
influence, a paroxysm of ague occurs, speedily 
followed by slnugliing of the scrotum. 

IVI. infec'tlon. (L. infectio, a dyeing or 
imbueing wilh anything.) The agent which, 
being introduced into the body, causes malarial 
fever. See Malaria microbes. 


IMC. Insom'nla. (L. insomnia, sleepless- 
neas.) A wakeluluess occuniug at the same 
time every night, which occurs occasionally in 
persons who have suffered from the etfects of 
malaria; tlie awaking is often accompanied by 
some chilliness, heat, and perspiration. 

M. neural'grla. See Neuralgia, malarial. 
Dlala'rian. Same as Malarial. 
Alala'rio'id. {Malaria ; Gr. eI^os, form.) 
Rescinbliiij;^ Mal-aria. 

malarious. Caused by, or having, Ma- 

IVI. dys'entery. See Dysentery, mala- 
SXala'ris. Same as Malar. 

IM. xuus'cle. Henle's term for the mus- 
cular slips jiassing from the outer and inner ex- 
tremities of the orbicularis palpebrarum to the 
origins of the levator muscles of the upper lip 
and the ala; nasi, and to the skin of the cheek. 

3M[alas'sez, Xi. A French physiologist 
of the present time. 

m.'s hsemacytom'eter. See under 
Hcemacijlumeter . 

IVI.'s haemocliroiuoin'eter. (Al/^a, 
blood; \poifxa, colour; fiiTpov, a measure.) An 
apparatus consisting of a screen with two holes, 
behind one of which is a flattened tube for the re- 
ception of blood mixed with 100 parts of water, 
and behind the other is a prismatic glass vessel 
filled with a standard solution of picrocarminate 
of ammonia; this latter receptacle is movable by 
a screw, so as to bring the thicker and darker or 
thinner and ligliter portions into view, and 
being provided with a small scale and index the 
figure indicating the tint of the blood may be 
read off". 

malassimila'tion. (L. malus, bad; 

assimilutio, likeness.) That condition in which 
the tissues of the body are imperfectly nourished 
owing to some defect in the absorptive or diges- 
tive systems, or to a fault in the tissues them- 

ma'late. (L. malum, an apple. F. 
malate ; l.malate; Q.apfelsdures Salz.) A salt 
of malic acid. 

Jil., cal'cium, ac'id. (C4HA)2Ca+8H20. 
Obtained when normal calcium malate is dis- 
solved in malic acid or in hot dilute nitric acid ; 
it forms transparent glistening prisms. It occurs 
in the tissues of several plants. According to 
Garrod, it occurs in the leaves of the ash, 
Fraxinus exceUior, and to it he ascribes their 
anti-arthritic properties. 

I^., calcium, nor'mal. C4H405Ca. An 
anhydrous granular powder formed by neu- 
tralising a solution of malic acid with lime, and 
heating to 100" C. (212° F.) 

IVI. of caf fein. A salt which has been 
used in misraine. 

mala'te. Island of Eeuuion. A sulphur 

IMEalavel'la, Cal'das de. Spain, 

Province of Gerona. The Roman Aqua Voscanise. 
Thermal waters, of a temperature of 60° C. 
(140^ F.), containing small quantities of calcium, 
magnesium, and sodium chlorides, and calcium 
and sodium carbonates, with free carbonic acid. 
Used in chronic rheumatism and pai-alysis. 

nZalax'ate. {F.malaxer; \. impastare ; 
G. erweicheii, kneten.) To effect Malaxation. 

malaxa'tion. (MdXagis, a softening. 
F. malaxation ; G. Erweiclun.') A softening or 
mollifying. Especially applied to the softening 

of a plaster or other drug by kneading it with 
the warm hands. 

Also, the kneading of a part, as in the milder 
forms of massage. 

Also, the kneading of a tumour with the points 
of the fingers in order to dissociate its elements 
and procure its absorption. This proceeding was 
adopted by Sir William Fergusson in two cases 
of subclavian aneurysm in the hope of detaching 
a sufficient mass of fibrin to obstruct the canal of 
the artery, and has been several times repeated, 

IVIalax'eae. A Tribe of the Nat. Order 
Orchidacece, having one anther, waxy pollen- 
masses, and no caudicle or separable stigmatic 

IMCalax'ia. Same as Malaxis. 

IVI. ventrlc'uli. (L. ventriculus, the 
stomach.) Softening of the stomach walls. 

Malaxid'eae. (MuXagis, softening.) A 

Family of Orvhidece. 

nXalax'is. (MaXa^ts. G. Erweichttng.) 
A morbid softening. 

IVI. cor'dis. (L. cor, the heart.) Soften- 
ing of the walls of the lieart. 

IVI. bepat'lca. (L. hepar, the liver.) 
Softening of the liver. 

DZalay'. (P. malais.) One of the five 
great varieties of the human race as classified by 

M. al'mond. The fruit and kernel of 
Terminalia catappa, Linn. 

IVl. ap'ple. The fruit of Jamhosa malae- 

nialaziSSa'tUS. (MaXaacrw, to soften. 
F. tnalazissi.) Soft ; gentle ; effeminate. 

Anciently applied to one in whom the testicles 
have not descended into the scrotum. 

DXal'ce. (]Vl«Xht), numbness from cold. F. 
engelcure ; G. Frostbeule.) Chilblain. 

IWal'cious. (McjXk);. F. malcie ; G. 
erfrierend, erstarrend.) Causing to freeze; 

ItCalconforxna'tion. Same as Mal- 


maldiv'ian. Relating to the Maldive 
Islands in the Indian Ocean. 

IVI. co'coa nut tree. The Lodoicea mal- 


DIal'6. (MaX)i; probably a colloquial 
form of /uacrxaX)), the armpit. F. aisselle ; G. 
Achselgrube.) Old name for the axilla, or arm- 

lyiale. (I. male, evil.) An evil; a disease. 

IVI. del mon'te. (I. del, of the ; monte, a 
mountain.) A synonym oi Fellaflra. 

IVI. del sole. (1. del; sole, the sun.) A 
synonym of Pellagra. 

IMC. di Bre'no. A syphilitic epidemic like 

IVI. di Flu'me. A syphilitic epidemic 
like Scherlievo. 

TO., di Fuci'ne. A syphilitic epidemic 
like Scherlievo.. 

IVI. di Grob'nig'g-. A syphilitic epidemic 
like Scherlievo. 

IVI. dl Ragru'sa. A syphilitic epidemic 
like Scherlievo. 

XHale. (Old F. masle, male; from L. mas- 
cuia.s, male; from mas, a male. F. mule; I. 
maschio ; S. macho ; G. maiinlich.) Of the sex 
which begets. 

In Biology, the male sex is frequently dis- 
tinguished by the symbol ^ . 

m. ag''aric. The Polyporns officinalis. 


M., complement'ary. See Coniplemental 

IMC. concep'tacle. (L. conceptaculum, a 
place of conception.) The conceptacle of the 
(iicecious Alga which contains antheridia on 
hranched hyphse. 

M. cor nel. The Cornus mas. 

nx. fern. {Y . fougere male ; G. mannliches 
Farnkraut.) The Aspiditini Jiliz mas. 

T/t. fern, llq'uld ex'tract of. See £x- 
tractKinjU'wis liqutdum. 

Wl. fil'ament. See Filament, male. 

IVI. floiv'ers. Flowers that have only 
stanieris and no pistil. 

T/l. fool's stones. The Orchis mascula. 

Tit. liol'ly rose. The Cistus vitlosus. 

M. Im'potence. See under Impotence. 

T/L. incense. The Boswellia serrata. 

m. jal'ap. The Jalap, fusiform. 

1W[. nut'meg'. See Nutmeg, male. 

"Ut. or'cbls. (F. orchis male; G. mann- 
liches KnaboiJcraut.) The Orchis mascula. 

IMC. or' gran. The penis. 

Til. partbenogren'esis. See Partheno- 
genesis, male. 

TIL. pronu'cleus. (L. pro, hefore ; nucleus, 
a kernel.) The enlarged head of the spermato- 
zoon after it has succeeded in forcing its way 
into an ovum. It fuses with the remains of the 
original nucleus of the ovum, the female pro- 
nucleus, to form the nucleus of the fertilised 

TfL. prothal'Iium. See Prothallium,male. 

TfL, satyr'ion. The Orchis latifolia. 

TIL. sbield fern. The Aspidium Jilix mas. 

T/L. speed'well. {¥. veronique officinale ; 
G. Grundheil.) The Veronica officinalis, or V. 

TIL. sys'texn. The stamens and their ap- 
pendages in plants. 

I^alefic'lum. (L- malum, an ill thing ; 
facio, to do. G. Uhelthat.) An evil deed. 
Anciently applied to the hidden cause of disease, 
when this was induced by demoniac art and 
by enchanters. Applied by Paracelsus to the 
mischief done by any deceiver, ignorant of the 
true art, who does not hesitate to counterfeit the 
physician's skill, and assumes the air of ex- 

nXalegue'ta pep'per. SeeMalaguetta 

XiXale'ic ac'id. (L. malum, an apple. 
F. acide maleique ; G. Maleinsdure, Brenziipfel- 
sdure.) C4H4O4. A bibasic acid isomeric with 
fumaric acid. It appears amongst the products 
of the dry distillation of malic acid. It forms 
long colourless, oblique, rhombic prisms, with 
octahedral summits. It melts at 130° C. (266^ 
¥.), and boils at 160° C. (320° F.) It dissolves 
in about an equal weight of water, easily in 
alcohol and ether, and is optically inactive. 
Slalein'ic ac'id. Same as Makic acid. 
male'on. France, departement de 

I'Ardeche. An athermal water containing 
sodium carbonate 1-26 gramme, potassium bicar- 
bonate 'IS, and calcium bicarbonate '172 gramme 
in a 1000, with carbonic acid and some hydrogen 
sulphide ; used in skin diseases, malarial condi- 
t ions, and chronic atfections of the various mucous 

XVIa'ler. Old term for <S«^, or salt. (Euland 
and Jiiiiiisoii.) 

]>Ialesherbia'ceae. (Lami.ignon do 
Malesherbes, a French agriculturist.) Crown- 

worts. A Nat. Older of the Alliance Tiolales, 
or of the Cohort Fussiflorales, or a Subdivision 
of Passiflorca;, De Cand. It contains two genera 
and five species ; all are natives of Chili and 
Peru. They differ from the passion-flowers in 
that they are non-climbers, the filaments are 
reduced to a short coronet, the styles are inserted 
at the back of the ovary, the seeds have no aril, 
and the leaves are exstipulate. 

malforma'tion. (F. mal; from L. 
malus, l)ad ; formatus, part, oi forma, to shape. 

F. malformation ; G. Vcrbildung.) Term ap- 
plied in biology to any anomalous condition of 
the size, form, number, structure, or arrangement 
of a body or its parts. Some are congenital, as 
coalescence of the fingers or imperforate anus ; 
others are acquired, as eversion or inversion of 
the eyelids, anterior or posterior synechias, and 
contractures after bums. 

TIL., defec'tive. One consisting in the 
absence of the whole or part of an organ. 

T/L., irreg:'ular. One consisting in a mis- 
placement of an organ. 

T/l., super'fiuous. One consisting in 
excess of an organ or parts of an organ. 

I^al'g'aig-ne, Jo'seph Fran'cois. 

A French surgeon, born at Channes-sur-Moselle 
in 1806, died in Paris in 1865. 

TIL.'s books. (F. griffes de Malgaigne ; 

G. Malgaigne sche Klammer.) Two unbarbed 
sharp hooks whose shanks are connected by a 
screw, so that the distance between them can be 
diminished at will. They are occasionally used 
in cases of transverse fracture of the patella, to 
draw the two fragments together and keep them 
in apposition. 

T/L.'& meth'od of amputa'tion. (F. 
amputation en raquette.) A variety of the oval 
method of amputation in which a longitudinal 
incision is made on the outer side of the limb, 
extending from a short distance above the point 
of amputation to double the distance below it, 
and the lateral incisions commence at the junc- 
tion of the lower and middle third of the lougi- 
tuciinal incision. 

Dla'li grana'ti co'rium. (L. malum, 

an apple ; granatum, a pomegranate ; cerium, 
skin.) Same as Malicorium. 

Ma'lia. (Mu\uj, a distemper in horses and 
asses.) Glanders. 

nXalias'muSa (MaXiao-juos, a distemper 
in horses and asses.) Glanders. 

T/L. acu'tus. See Glanders, acute. 
T/L. chron'icus. See Glanders, chronic. 

Ala'lic. (L- malum, an apple.) Of, or be- 
longing to, an apple. 

IVX. ac'id. (F. acide malique ; G. Apfel- 
siiure.) C4llo05 = C,H3(OH)(C02H)s,. An acid 
which occurs in the juice of most fruits, and the 
leaves and stem of rhubarb, tobacco, houseleek, 
and other plants. It is a triatomic acid crystal- 
lising in needles, soluble in water, deliouescent 
in moist air ; acid to the taste and melting at 
100° C. (212° F.) The name was given to it by 
Scheele in 1785 from its presence in unripe apples, 
and its composition was determined by Liebig. 
It has been used as a preventive of scurvy. 

IMalice pre'pense. (F. malice, ill- 
will ; pre, before; penscr, to think.) Terra for 
premeditated ill-will; malice aforethought, in 
legal phrase. 

malicor'ium. (L. malum, an apple ; 
coriHiii, skin, rind. F. nialichorium.) Eind ; 
especially the rind of the pomegranate. 


IMC. auran'tll. (Mod. L. aura)ilium, an 
orange.) Tlie same as Aurantii fructus cortex. 

IVX. grana'tl. The same as Cortex fructus 

Ma'lie. (MaXnj.) Glanders. 
9Xa,'liforill. (L. malum, an apple ; 
forma, likeness. F. maliforme ; G. apfeldhn- 
Hch.) Having the form of an apple. 

Malig^'nancy. (F. mahgnite ; I. malig- 
nita ; S. malignidad ; G. Bosartigkeit.) The 
property of being malignant; see Malignant 

T/t., traumatic, acute'. (T^av/uaTi/cof, 
of wounds.) A term used by Harwell to describe 
the condition in which in an apparently healthy 
person an injury is followed at once by a form of 
malignant disease, instead of resulting in repair ; 
and to suggest the possibility of the development 
of the disease as a direct result of the injury in 
a person the subject of a supposed latent can- 
cerous diathesis. 

DIalig''nail't. (L. malignans, part, of 
maligno, to act spitefully. F. malin ; I. ma- 
ligno ; S. maligno ; G. I)dsartig.) Disposed to 
harm ; tending to produce death. 

Tit, car'buncle. Same as Carbuncle, 

_ IVI. cellull'tls. The form of Cellulitis 
which results from the introduction into a 
wound of some putrefying material, or from the 
bite of a poisonous animal. 

IMC. ctaol'era. See Cholera, malignant. 

IVI. dlphtberia. See Diphtheria, ma- 

M. dlsea'ses. Diseases which in their 
nature are fatal, being locally and generally 
infective, progressively destructive, and liable to 
return after extirpation, as cancer; or whose 
symptoms are so severe as to endanger life, such 
as the plague or diphtheria ; or which are de- 
structive to an organ, as the eye or testis. 

Vt. dys'entery. See Dysentery, ma- 

IVI. endocardi'tls. Osier's term for En- 
docarditis, ulcerative. 

1*1. fe'ver. See Febris malignans, and 
Fever, malignant. 

IMC. growths. Same as M. tumours. 

IVI. jaundice. Acute yellow atrophy of 
the liver. 

IVI. lympbo'ina. See Lytnphoma, ma- 

IVI. mea'sles. See Measles, malignant. 

IVI. oede'ma. {01oi\fia, a swelling; from 
oiStco, to grow large.) A name given by Koch 
to the septicasmia produced in rabbits by in- 
serting garden mould or hay dust under the skin 
of the abdomen. Death ensues in twenty-four to 
twenty-eight hours. The blood itself contains 
no living organisms, but subcutaneous oedema 
results, and in the oedematous tissues a delicate 
motile bacillus is found. The horse, sheep, and 
pig are liable to malignant oedema, but the ox 
resists it. After recovery in the former animals 
from an attack immunity from a second attack is 

Also, a term given to a variety of the external 
form of Pustule, malignant, in which the disease 
commences as a soft, pale, boggy swelling of the 
skin, which spreads rapidly at its periphery ; 
vesicles are scattered irregularly over the sur- 
face, and are sometimes absent. 

IVI. cede'ma, bacil'lus of. Small rods, 
mostly lying in pairs, 3—3-5 u in length and 

1 — I'l in breadth. By Past our they wore named 
Vibrio septique. They are thinner than the 
bacilli of anthrax, from which they may be 
distinguished by their being motile and by their 
having more rounded ends ; they are relatively 
rigid ; the longer threads are sometimes looped 
or interwoven with others. 

M. pap'illary dermatl'tis. (L. pa- 
pilla, a teat ; Gr. hLf,\ui, the skin.) Thin's name 
for Paget' s disease of nipple. 

IVI. pur'ple fe'ver. A synonym of Cere- 
brospinal fever. 

IVI. pus'tule. See Pustule, malignant. 

IVI. scarlet fe'ver. See Scarlet fever, 

M. small-pox. See Small-pox, malig- 

T/t. sore tbroat. See Sore-throat, ma- 

T/t., tbe. The Eussiila sardonia. 

T/t. tu'mours. (L. tumor, a swelling. F, 
tumeurs maligns.) Carcinomata and sarcomata. 
They are characterised by their rapidity of 
growth, by their want of limitation and conse- 
quent infiltration of all surrounding tissues, by 
their tendency to ulceration, by the extension to 
the Ij'mphatic glands, and b)' their recurrence in 
situ and in distant organs after removal. 
AXalig-'nity. Same as Malignancy. 
IM[aling''er. (F. malingre, sickly ; from 
F. mal, badly ; from L. male, badly ; Old F. 
hingre ; from L. ceger, sick. G. sich krank 
stel/en.) To feign sickness. 

BlalingT'erer. (F. malingre, sickly.) 
One who simulates, or feigns disease, in order to 
avoid labour or punishment, or to gain some 
desired end. 

XlXa'liS. (MnXi9, a distemper in horses and 
asses.) A parasitic skin disease. 
Also, a sj'nonym of Glanders. 

T/t. ac'arl. Irritation of the skin pro- 
duced by the bite of an Acarus. 

T/t. ci'micis. (L. cimex, a bug.) Skin 
irritation produced by bug bites. 

IVI. dracun'culus. The disease produced 
by the Dracunculus medinensis. 

T/t. fila'rise. (L, filmn, a thread.) The 
disease produced by the Guinea worm. 

T/t. Gor'dil. A disorder was formerly de- 
scribed under this name, which was supposed by 
some to be caused by a species of Gordius or 
Hair-ivorm, like a small black hair, introducing 
itself under the skin ; and by others to be caused 
by a m.orbid growth of small true hairs. 

IVI. pedic'uli. (L. pediculus, a louse.) 

IVI.pu'licls. (L. jo?</ea-, a flea.) Flea bites. 

SXallag-ue'ta. See Malaguetta. 

DIalleabil'ity. (L. malleus, a hammer. 

Y . malUahilite ; I. malleabilita ; S. malleabili- 

tad ; G. Hammer barkeit,Schmiedbarkeit.) The 

capability of certain metals to be beaten out by 

the hammer in thin plates without cracking. The 

order of metals in this respect is gold, silver, 

copper, tin, platinum, lead, zinc, iron, and nickel. 

Dlal'leable. (Old F. malleable ; from L. 

malleus, a hammer. F. malleable; 1. mallea- 

bile ; S. male able ; G. hmnmerbar.) Capable of 

being beaten out by the hammer. 

IMCal'leaxnotlie. The Pavetta indica, a 
shrub growing in Malabar, the leaves of which 
boiled in palm oil are said to cure impetigo ; 
the dried root, powdered and mixed with ginger, 
is used as diuretic. 


IVEal'lear. (L. mnllenn, a hammer. F. 
mulliaire.) Like to a hammer. Belonging to 
the Malleus. 

T/l. mus'cle. See Malleus, muscle of. 

ZVIallea'tion. (L. malleus, a liammer. 

F. mallealion ; G. Miimmern, Schmieden.') The 
act of beating into a plate. 

In Medicine, a name given to a symptom which 
may occur in chorea or in insanity, when the 
hands, one or both, convulsively act, in striking 
on the knees, as if with a hammer. 

Mal'leiform. (L. malleus, a hammer; 
fur ma, likeness. F. mallciforme ; G. hummir- 
formiy.) Having the form or appearance of a 

IVIal'lenderS. See Malanders. 
IVEal leolar. (L. dim. of malleus, a ham- 
mer. F. mallcvlaire ; I. malleolare ; S. maleolur.) 
■ That which belongs to the malleolus. 

T/L. ar'teries of anterior tibial. (li. 
anterior, that is in front; tibia.) The M. 
artery, external, and M. artery, internal. 

m. artery, ante'rior exter'nal. (L. 
anterior; extemas, that is outside.) Tlie same 
as M. artery, cxleniul. 

T/L. artery, ante'rior internal. (L. 
anterior; inter nus, within.) The same as M. 
artery, internal. 

i/l. ar'tery, exter'nal. (L. externus, 
that is on the outside. F. artere malleolaire ex- 
terna ; a. rordere dussere Knijchelschlagader.) 
A branch of the anterior tibial artery which 
runs outwards beneath the extensor longus 
digitorum and peroneus tertius muscles, and is 
distributed over the external malleolus and to 
adjoining articulations, anastomosing with the 
anterior peroneal and tarsal arteries. 

la. ar'tery, Inter'nal. (L. internus, 
that is within. F. artere malleolaire interne ; 

G. rordere innere Knochelschlagader.) A branch 
of the anterior tibial artery which runs inwards 
beneath the tendon of the tibialis anticus, and is 
distributed over the internal malleolus, ramifying 
with branches from the jiosterior tibial artery. 

M. ar tery of posterior tibial. (L. 
posterior, hinder; tibia.) The same as M. 
artery, internal. 

T/L. ar'tery, poste'rior exter'nal. (L. 
posterior, hinder ; externus, that is outside. 
G. hintere dussere Kn'whehehlag ader .) A small 
branch, about 1 mm. in diameter, given off by 
the posterior peroneal arter)', which runs back- 
wards beneath the flexor digitorum lougus and 
Hexor longus pollicis. It is distributed over the 
posterior inferior part of the tibia. 

m. artery, poste'rior inter'nal. (L. 
poster tor, XxxwAvx ; internus, that is within. G. 
hintere innere Knochelschlagader .) A minute 
branch, 1 mm. in diameter, given off from the 
posterior tibial artery. It runs between the in- 
- ternal malleolus and the Hexor digitorum Inngus 
and forms a plexus, the rete malleolare mediale 
on the internal malleolus, with the internal 
malleolar artery. 

IVX. bone. A bone of Kuminantia articu- 
lating with the astragalus above, and the os calcis 

Jtl. lig-'aments. (F. ligaments malleo- 
laircs.) The internal and external ligaments of 
the ankle-jnint. 

malleolus. (I'- malleolus, dim. of mal- 
leus, a mallet. F. malliole ; G. Fusskuorliel.) 
The projections of bone on the lower ends of the 
tibia and tilmla, which form the inner and outer 

ankles. The malleoli are present only in Mam- 
malia. See M. externus and M. internus. 

In Botany, a layer by which a plant is propa- 

m, exter'nus. (L. externus, outward. 
F. malleole exlerne ; G. dusserer Kn'ochel.) The 
lower end of the fibula ; it is longer and larger 
than the internal malleolus, convex, and sub- 
cutaneous externally, and smooth for articula- 
tion with the astragalus internally, with a rough 
surface immediately behind for the attachments 
of ligaments ; the anterior border is convex, and 
the posterior border is grooved for the tendons of 
the pcronei muscles. 

I^., frac'ture of. Both malleoli may be 
fractured, when there is generally much dis- 
placement backwards of the foot ; or one or other 
malleolus may be broken off, in which case there 
may be no distortion. 

M. fUrca'tus, Ehrenbcrg. (L. furcatns, 
part, of furco, to fork.) A larval form of tre- 
matode worm. Viviparous. Found in certain 

TfL. inter'nus. (L. internus, within. F. 
malleole interne; G. innerer Knochel.) The 
lower end of the tibia ; it is concave and roughish 
for ligaments externally, and smooth and carti- 
laginous for articulation with the astragalus in- 
ternally ; its lower extremity has a trapezoid 
cartilaginous surface for articulation with the 
astragalus; and its posterior border is grooved 
for the tendons of the tibialis posticus and Hexor 
longus digitorum pedis, and for the flexor longus 

IVX. latera'lis. (L. lateralis, belonging 
to the side. G. lateraler Knochel.) The same 
as M. externus. 

Ttl. media'lis. (L. medialis, middle. G. 
medialcr KniJcItel.) The same as M. internus. 

T/l. radia'lis. (L. radius, the bone of that 
name.) The styloid process of the radius. 

m. ulna'ris. (L. ulna, the bone of that 
name.) The styloid process of tlie ulna. 

XVIalleom'yces. {h. malleus, glanders; 
Gr. /u'Vt/y, a fungus. F. malleomyce.) Hallier's 
term for a schizomycetous fungus found by him 
in the pus of glanders, and which he believed to 
be the cause of the disease. 

XWal'let. (Mid. E. maillet ; F. maillet, a 
hammer. I. maglietto ; S. mazo ; G. holzender 
Hammer.) A wooden hammer used in certain 
operations in surgery, such as osteotomy. 

Also, an instrument used by dentists for con- 
solidating the plug for the filling of a cavity in 
a tooth. In one form a steel rod running in a 
hollow shaft is caused to give the blow by the 
action of a spring after it has been raised. 

IVXal'leus. (L. malleus, a hammer. F. 
marteau ; G. Hummer.) The hammer bone, 
one of the ossicula auditus. The upper thicker 
end consists of a rounded head, the Capitulum, 
having on its posterior surface a depressioTi for 
articulation with the incus ; a constricted jiortion 
just below, the Neck ; and beyond this a slightly 
expanded part from which a prolongation gradu- 
ally tapers :ind liends at an obtuse angle to form a 
handle, the Manubrium, which is closely attached 
to the inner surface of the membrana tympani by 
periosteum .and a fibro-cartilaginous tissue. 
From the expanded part b(dow the neck, a long, 
slender spike of bone, the Processus gracilis, 
arises at nearly a right angle, and stretches into 
th(> Glaserian fissure, to the sides of which it is 
attached by bony tissue or by ligamentous fibres; 


and from the same expamled part a short, coni- 
cal oH'shoot of bone, the I'rocesstis drevis, arises, 
and is attached to the upper part of the meni- 
brana tympani. 

Also, eai:h of two hammer-like bodies forminj; 
a part of the jaws in Kotifcra. Each malleus 
has for its head or uncus a piece which, when 
expanded by pressure, is like a comb with live 
unequal teeth, liut is ordinarily curved with tiie 
teetli in apposition. The handle or manubrium 
is stout. In action the uuci are raised by 
muscles springing from the mastax and then 
depressed by other muscles, by which means the 
food is torn, and is afterwards bruised between 
the opposing rami of the incus, and so passed on 
to the uesophagus. (Hudson.) 

Also (L. malleus ; Gr. ixaXis, a distemper in 
horses and asses), a synonym of Glanders. 

IVX., anterior acces'sory llgra'inent 
of. See Ligamentum mallei anieriun accvsso- 

M., devel'opment of. The malleus is 
derived from the ossiticatiou of the proximal 
portion of the cartilage of the first visceral arch, 
or Meckel's cartilage. It corresponds to the 
articular element of the mandible of the lower 

According to Albrecht the malleus of Vertebrata 
is the equivalent of the symplectic of fishes. 

nx. farclmino'sus. (G. Mautwurm.) A 
synonym of Fare i/. 

IVX. bu'midus. (L. hamidus, moist. G. 
Kotz.) The same as Glanders. 

Til., Ilg°'ainent of, ante'rior. SeeLiffa- 
mentum mnllii anteriKs. 

M., lig'ament of, exter'nal. See Liga- 
mentum mnllei externum. 

TIL., lig''ainent of, inferior. See Liga- 
menium mallei inferius. 

T/t., lig''ament of, lat'eral. The Liga- 
mentum mallei externum. 

VH., ligament of, posterior. See Liga- 
mentum mallei posteriiis. 

t/L., lig'ament of, superior. See Liga- 
mentum mallei superius. 

TfL., mus'cle of, ante'rior. (L. anterior, 
in front.) Sommering's Lnxator tympani 
major, probably part of the Ligamentum mallei 

Its., mus'cle of, exter'nal. Sommer- 
ing's Zr?.rrt<&r tympani minor; now believed to 
be ligamentous, the Ligainentum mallei exter- 

T/L., mus'cle of, inter'nal. (L. interims, 
■within.) The Tensor tympani. 

ZVIal'linders. Same as Malanders. 
IKEallococ'COUS. (MaXXo's, wool; 

KOKK09, a berrj', or fruit. F. mallocoque ; G. 
fruelithaarrig.) Having hairy fruit. 

IMCallopll'ag'a. (MaXXo's, wool; (payuv, 
to eat. G. Felzfresser.) A Family of the Sub- 
order Aptera, Order Rhyncota, Class Tnsecta ; 
or an Order of the Subclass Ametabolica, Class 
Insecta. They are parasitic animals, louse-like 
in shape, with the mesothorax and metathorax 
united, and the mouth mandibulate with a 
suctorial tube. They are found on the skin of 
Mammalia and Aves, and live on the young 
hairs and feathers and on blood. 

I^allo'tUS. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

IVX. philippen'sis, Miill. Arg. {Philip- 
pine Islands.) Hab. India. The species which 
supplies Kamala, 

IMEal'low. (Mid. E. mahce ; Sax. malu-e, 
mealewe ; from L. malva, the mallow ; from Gr. 
fxaXdx'i, from fiaXuacru}, to soften ; from Aryan 
root mal, to grind. F. mauve; I. malva; S. 
malca ; (j. Malve, Fappel.) The Malva sylves- 

T/l., com'mon. The Malva sylvestris. 

m., curl'lea'ved. The Malva crispa. 

ivr., dwarf. The Malva rotundifolia. 

M., higrb. Th<> Malva sylvestris. 

IVX., Zn'dlan. The Ahu'tilon avieenncs. 

IVX., Jew's. The Corehorus olitorius, from 
its use as a pot-iierb in Syria. 

WL. leaves. The Folia malva. 

IVX., marsh-. See Marshmallow. 

IVX., musk. The Malva mosehata. 

IVX., round- lea'ved. The Malva rotundi- 

IVX., tree. The Lavatcra arhorea. 

IVX., ver'valn. The Malva alcea. 

IVX. -worts. The plants of the Order Mal- 

nx., yel'low. The Abutilon avicennce. 
Blalloiv. Ireland, County Cork. An in- 
dirterent thermal water, having a temperature of 
66° F. to 72" F. (18-88" C. to 22-22" C), containing 
a very minute quantity of mineral constituents, 6 
but much nitrogen gas. 

In the neighbourhood are also some iron 
]M!alls. The same as Rubeola. 
Mal'medy. Germany, in Rhenish Prussia, 
on tiic Belgian frontier, between Aix-la-Chapelle 
and Spa. The waters are athermal and chalyb- 
eate. One spring, Pouhon de Geromont, contains 
sodium bicarbonate '1\2\ gr;imme, magnesium 
bicarbonate •1653, calcium bicarbonate •4638, and 
iron bicarbonate -1346 gramme in 1000. Used 
in anfemic conditions. 

IVXalmig-nath'us. (F. malmignatte.) 
The Latrodcetus malmignathus. 

SXalm'sey. (Mid. E. malmesay, mal- 
vesie ; Old F. malvoisie ; from Malrasia, a town 
on the east coast of Lacedsemonia, in the Morea. 
G. Malvasier.) A strong, sweet, high-flavoured 
Madeira wine made from grapes originally ob- 
tained from Malvasia. 

3ffiarnaSa Hungary, in Transylvania. A 
water, temperature 19" C. (66-2° F.), containing 
calcium sulphate "132 gramme, sodium sulphate 
•Oil, and iron sulphate -008 in 1000, with hydro- 
gen sulphide. Used in skin affections and chronic 
rheumatic conditions. 
PCalobath'rum. See Malabathrum. 
lllalobiu'ric ac'id. (L.wrt/w«, apple; 

bis, twice; Gr. ovfiov, urine.) C5H5N3O4. An 
acid obtained by heating barbituric acid with 
urea. It closely resembles bibarbituric acid. 

I^alog-rana'tum. (L. malum, an 
apple; granum, a grain. F. grenadier; G. 
Granatbaimi.) A name for the I'unica grana- 
tum, or pomegranate tree ; from its gi-ain-like 

ItCalol. (L. malum. G. Apfil'ol.) A 
greyish-yellow essential oU obtained by distilla- 
tion from rotten apples of some varieties; it has 
a musky taste and smell, boils at 109" C. (228-2" 
F.). and is soluble in alcohol and ether. 

nia'lon. France, departement de la 
Seine-inferieure. A mild chalybeate water, 
containing carbonic acid and some hydrogen 

IMialone'tia. A Genus of the Nat. Order 
, Apocynaceee. 


IVX. nlt'lda, Spruce. (L. nitidus, shining.) 
The source of Guachamaca. 

nXalon'ic ac'id. (L. malum, an apple. 
F. acide maloniqite ; G. Blalonsiiure.) 0311404 = 
C 112(00^11)2. A bibasic acid of the oxalic series 
obtained by Dessaignes from the oxidation of 
malic acid with potassium dicbromate. It forms 
large flat tables. It melts at 132° 0. (269G" F.), 
and at 150" 0. (302° F.) decomposes in part into 
carbonic acid gas and acetic acid, and in part 
distils unchanged. It dissolves easily in water, 
alcoliol, and ether. 

Malonylure'a. A synonym of Barbi- 
tio'ic (jcid. 

Bla'lou, Xia. See La Malou. 

malpi'g-hi, Blarcello. An Italian 

anatomist and microscopist, born at Creval- 
cuore, near Bologna, in 1628, died in Home in 
1694. See also Malpighian. 

IVX., ac'lni of. (L. acinus, a juicy berry 
with seeds.) The Malpifjhian bodies. 

M., canals' of. The long slender tubes 
connected with the hinder part of the digestive 
canal in air-breathing Arthropoda, in some 
Crustacea, and in Insecta ; they are probably 
renal in function. 

M., g'lom'erules of. (L. dim. oi glomus, 
a ball of yarn.) The Malpighian bodies. 

M., pyramids of. (G. Nierenpyrami- 
den.) The pyramidal portions of the medullary 
substance of the kidney, chiefly formed by the 
collecting tubules, being the papillae with the 
papillary portion and the boundary layer conti- 
nuous with it. 

IVI., tubes of. Same as M., canals of. 

T/t.., tu'bules of. Same as M., canals of. 
3>Xalpi'g'hia. (In honour of Malpighi.) 
A Genus of the Nat. Order Malpighiacea. 

IVI. crassifo'lia, Aubl. The Byrsonima 

T/l. grlalira, Linn. (L. glaber, smooth.) 
Yields an esculent fruit, the Barbadoes cherry, 
which is subacid, carminative, and astringent. 
The bark is said by Donde to be used in Itlexico 
as an astringent. 

IVI. mourel'la, Aubl. The Byrsonima 

IVI. punicifo'lia. (L. pimicus, purple- 
coloured; folium, a leaf.) Fruit used as that of 
M. glabra. 

IVI. spica'ta, Cav. The Byrsonima spi- 

T/l. u'rens, Linn. (L. nro, to burn. F. 
malpiyhier brulant ; G. brennende Malpighia.) 
A tree indigenous in the West Indies and in South 
America, the hairy leaves of which cause intense 
itching and burning. The fruit of this and other 
species are eaten under the name of Barbadoes 

IVI. verbascifo'Ua, Linn. The Byrso- 
nima rerbascifotia. 

nXalpig'hia'cese. (^Malpighi, Morcel- 
lo.) A Kat. Order of the Cohort Geraniales, 
or of the Alliance Sapindales. Bushes or 
trees, with simple, stipulate leaves ; five-partite 
calyx ; five, hypogynous, unguiculate petals ; 
ovary generally consisting of three carpels; 
ovules solitary, pendulous from long stalks ; 
seeds esalbuminous; and embryo convolute. 
Many are indigenous to America. They often 
contain tannic acid. 

nZalpig-bia'ceOUS. (F. malpiqhiace.) 
A]iplied to hairs attached horizontally oy their 
centre to a glaudulous base, and giving issue by 

their extremities to the fluid secreted by that 
gland, as those of the Malpighia urens. 

XVIalpi'srlliads. The plants of the Nat. 
Order Malpighiacece. 

BXalpi'grhian. Eelating to Malpighi. 

M. bodies. (G. Malpighi'sche Kurper- 
chen, M. Gefiisskndnel.) The glomeruli or 
small capillary plexuses, enclosed in a capsule, 
found in the cortical portion of the kidney ; 
they are about l-120th of an inch in diameter in 
man. Each plexus is divided into two to five 
lobes. The surface of the glomerulus and the 
spaces between the lobules are covered with a 
thin membrana propria on which is a layer of 
flat cells, separated by a space from a second or 
parietal layer of nucleated epithelial cells lining 
a dilatation of the uriniferous tubule which is 
named the capsule of Bowman, or the Malpighian 
capsule. The Malpighian corpuscles are be- 
lieved to filter off the watery constituents of the 

M. bod'ies, Inflamma'tion of. See 
Nephritis, glomerular. 

IVI. bod'ies of kidney. The M. bodies. 

IVI. bod'ies of spleen. The M. cor- 
puscles of spleen. 

IVI. cap'sule. (L. capsula, a small case.) 
The spherical dilatation forming the commence- 
ment of a uriniferous tubule. 

IVI. cor'puscles of kld'ney. (L. cor- 
pusculum, a small body.) The 31. bodies. 

IVI. cor'puscles of spleen. Small 
masses situated upon the minute splenic arteries. 
They are oval, whitish spots, measuring l-30th 
to l-60th inch in diameter. They are com- 
posed of lymphadenoid tissue continuous with 
the connective-tissue coats of the arteries. They 
contain numerous white corpuscles and capil- 

IVI. fol'licles. (L. folliculus, a small bag.) 
The M. corpuscles of spleen. 

IMC. lay'er of skin. (G. Malpighi'sche 
Schicht der Oberhaut.) The same as Rete mu- 
cosum or R. Malpighii. 

IVI. pyramids. See Malpighi, pyra- 
mids of. 

IVI. stra'tum of skin. (L. stratum, a 
pavement.) The M. layer of skin. 

IVI. tubes. Same as Malpighi, canals of. 

IVI. tufts. The group of capillary blood- 
vessels found in each glomerulus of the kidney. 

IVI. ve'sicles. The infundibula of the 

ZiXalpig'hi'nae. (F. malpighim.) Ap- 
plied by Bartling to a Class of plants, compre- 
hending the Acerinece, Coriarece, Erythroxylece, 
Kippocastanea. Malpighiacece, Rhizobolece, Sa- 
pindacece, and Tropwolea. 

malposition. (F. mal ; from L. malus, 
bad ; positio, a placing.) Faulty situation or 
position of the foetus in the uterus, so that the 
various parts of the child do not bear their 
normal relations to the various parts of the ab- 
dnniinal or pelvic cavities. 

IHalprac'tice. (F. mal, ill; from L. 
malus, bad ; E. practice, the mode of doing a 
thing; Mid. E. praktike ; from Y.practique; 
from L. practicus ; from Gr. irpuKTiKu'i, fit for 
business.) Culpable neglect, or want of ordi- 
nary skill and attention in the care, of a sick 

malprax'is. (L. malus, bad ; Gr. ir^a^ts, 
conduct.) Same as Malpractice. 

Malpresenta'tion. (L. malus y pra- 


sentatio, a placing before.) That condition in 
which the long axis of the foetus does not coia- 
cide with the long axis of the genital canal. 

IMIa.l'ta (Sax. mealt ; from melt an, to melt ; 
G. Malz. F. malt d'orge, drtche ; I. malto, orzo 
rivoltato ; S. malta.) Grain, usually barley, 
which has been steeped in water, kept at about 
70° F. ('21-11° C), allowed to germinate, and 
when it has arrived at a certain stage ex- 
posed to heat. In steeping, it takes up about 
40 to 50 per cent, of its weight of water, 
whilst it loses about one per cent, of its 
solid constituents. In germination, it loses by 
oxidation about 10 per cent, of its weight. It 
differs from barley in the larger proportion of 
maltose or sugar it contains resulting from the 
action of the vegetable ferment, diastase or 
maltin, on the starch contained in the seeds ; 100 
parts of dry barley yield 63'4 starch, 16"3 pro- 
teids, 6'6 dextrin, 3-1 fat, 7"1 cellulose, and 2'4 
ashes. When malted, admitting 10 '2 parts of 
loss by solution and germination, the 88*8 parts 
of malt which are produced contain 48-9 starch, 
16 proteids, 6-9 dextrin, 2 sugar, 2"5 fat, 7 '3 
cellulose, and 2'1 ashes. The chief loss is there- 
fore in the starch. 

M[. bath. A bath into which four to six 
pounds of malt, boiled in seven or eight pints of 
water, have been added. 

M., ex'tract of. (L. extraho, to draw 
out of.) This substance is prepared by digest- 
ing malt with water, straining, and evaporating 
the product to the consistency of thick honey. 
It contains diastase, and so acts as a digestive 
ferment, as well as being itself nutritious. It is 
useful in cases of imperfect nutrition and mal- 
assimilatioD, and in phthisis. The dose is four 
drachms. See Extractum malti, U.S. Ph. 

IM. liq'uors. Term applied to the diffe- 
rent kinds of ales and beers containing alcohol, 
and prepared from the fermentation of the grain 
of various cereals. 

Ttt. poul'tlce. The Cataplasma hynes. 

M. splr'lt. Spirit, such as whisky, dis- 
tilled from malt. 

M., sugr'ar of. The same as Maltose. 

TIL. vio'egar. See Vinegar, malt. 
TfLBXXSkm Same as Malt. 
9Xa.l'ta.. An island in the Mediterranean 
Sea, about seventeen miles long by nine miles 
wide, sixty miles south of Sicily. In winter the 
climate of Malta is temperate and healthy, but 
variable. The temperature from October to May 
ranging from 51° to 71" F. (10-55° C. to 21-66° 
C.) From July to October it ranges between 
80° and 90° (26-66° C. to 32-22° C.) The north- 
east wind, named Gregale, occurs in winter, 
and is exceedingly strong and cold feeling. 
The south-east wind, named Scirocco, occurs 
chiefly in August and September, and is moist and 
depressing. In the summer and autumn there 
is risk of malarial fever, as well as dysentery 
and diarrhoea. The chief residence is Valetta 
and its suburbs. 

Malta has been recommended in phthisis and 
chronic bronchitis, but probably not very wisely. 

AX. fe'ver. A fever of long continuance 
and a variety of symptoms indicating the im- 
plication of many organs and structures ob- 
served in Malta and several other places on the 
Mediterranean, such as Gibraltar, Naples, and 
Catania. It usually commences slowly and in- 
sidiously, with lassitude, weariness, shiverings, 
bad appetite, nausea, thirst, and headache, which 

is often severe ; the tongue is furred, flabby, and 
red at the edges, the pharyngeal mucous mem- 
brane is congested ; the bowels are, as a rule, 
constipated, the motions sometimes streaked 
with blood, and there are occasional attacks of 
diarrhoea ; there is enlargement of the liver 
and spleen, gurgling in the iliac fossa, and 
tympanites ; there is roughish breathing and 
some crepitation at the lung bases, and profuse 
perspiration with sudamina ; delirium is rare. 
The symptoms continue for ten or fourteen days 
and then decline for a time ; soon there is 
a relapse, with shivering, headache, exalted 
temperature, perhaps up to 40° C. (104° F.) or 
more in the evening, sleeplessness, and profuse 
perspiration ; there is seldom delirium ; joint 
complications occur, one of them becomes red, 
swollen, and very painful, then another and an- 
other, then the testicle may be affected, and then, 
it may be, the sciatic or intercostal nerves ; this 
condition may last many weeks, during which 
anaemia makes great progress, and the patient is 
very weak and thin ; not infrequently there is 
another improvement and again a relapse, and it 
may be months before real convalescence occurs, 
but recovery is the rule, the deaths being only 
about two per cent. The exact nature of the 
disease is disputed ; probably it arises from putre- 
factive emanations, possibly modified by malarial 
influences. In fatal cases, Peyer's patches are 
found normal, or with slight proliferation of the 
lymphoid tissue, the mesenteric glands are only 
slightly enlarged, the spleen is large and difflu- 
ent, with congestion of the Malpighian bodies ; 
the kidney is similarly affected ; the liver is con- 
gested, leucocytes are found in the interlobular 
fissures, and the hepatic cells are the subjects of 
cloudy swelling. Micrococci are found in very 
large numbers in the spleen, and in smaller 
numbers in the liver and kidney. 

DXal'tha.. (Ma\6a, a mixture of wax and 
pitch.) A variety of Bitumen ; it is a wliite, 
brittle, waxy substance, of sp. gr. 077, being 
intermediate in consistence between petroleum 
and asphalte. 

Also, an old name for wax, especially the softer 

Malthaco'des. (MaXOaKwd^s, softish. 

F. malthaceux.') Having, or full of, softness. An 
epithet (Gr. anal. /Li«Xt)a»ca>(5))s), used by Hippo- 
crates, de Ulcer., xii, 16 ; xiii, 1, applied to soft 
topical medicines, prepared with oil; their use 
was forbidden in ulcers. 

Mialtbac'tic. (MaXeaKTiKos.) The same 
as Malactic. 

Malthax'is. (MdXeagts.) Softening. 

Blal'the. Same as Maltha. 

Iflaltlieo'ruin. Old term for Sal com- 
munis, or common salt. (Rulaud and John- 

nXal'thus, Thom'as Xlob'ert. An 

English divine, bom 1766, died 1834. 

BXalthu'sianism. {Maltlms.) The 
teaching ot Malthus in respect to the increase of 
population, which he demonstrated to be under 
ordinary circumstances much greater than the 
increase of the means of subsistence. Hence he 
was led to consider the checks to the increase of 
population, which he arranged under three 
heads, moral restraint, vice, and misery. He 
strongly inculcated the necessity of moral re- 
straint, contending that it was immoral to beget 
children without fair prospect of being able to 
provide for them. 


DXal'tin. A nitrogenous ferment existing, 
according to Dubrunfaut, in malt, and much 
more active than diastase. 

DXa.1 tine. A name given in commerce to 
an extract 111 maltwliich contains dextrin, glucose, 
and a variable quantity of diastase. See Jix- 
iractum m/ilti. 

Blal'tose. C|.iTI,„(),, + HoO. A variety of 
sugar obtained during the process of malting, as 
well as when a starchj- substance is acted on 
by amylolytic ferments, and probably the chief 
sugar formed by the action of the animal diastase 
on fenuents. It is allied to saccharose or cane 
sugar more closely than to glucose, and is isomeric 
with lactose. It is crystalline. It is dextro- 
rotatory, and its solution has the power of 
polarising light to a greater degree than solution 
of glucose. It is not so sweet as, and reduces 
copper sulphate less easily than, glucose. It can 
be converted into dextroglucose by boiling with 
dilute acids. It was first clearly demonstrated 
by ()' Sullivan. 
Mal'tum, U.S. Ph. See Malt. 
IW. taor'dei. (L. hordcum, barley.) Malt. 
IVX. mo'la frac'tum. (L. mola, a mill ; 
fractiis, part, oi fravyo, to break. G. innerlieh- 
geschrottvtes Gtrfitenmalz.) Bruised barley malt 
meal. Boiled with water it is used as a demul- 
cent drink, often flavoured with lime-juice. 

ma'lum. (L. malum ; Gr. /u]\ov, fxaXov. 
F.pomme ; G. Apfel.) An apple. 

M. arxneniacum. (L. armeniacus, of 
Armenia.) The apricot. 

IVI. ca'num. (L. canis^ a dog.) The quince, 
the fniit of the Fyrus cydonia. 

VL. coen'se. The carambole, the fruit of 
the Averrhoa carambola. It grows in the West 
Indies, where it is eaten as a pickle. 

M. coto'neum. (L. Cotoncus, instead of 
Cydo)nii.s, from Cydonia.) The quince, the fruit 
of I'yrHS cydunin. 

M. cydo'nium. (L. Cydonia, an ancient 
town on the north coast of Crete.) The name 
by which I'iso describes the ^gle marmrlos. 

T/L. insa'num. (L. insanxs, mad. F. 
ponniic d' amour ; G. ToUapfol.) The mad apple, 
the fi uit of tbe Solanum mclonycna. 

tn.. lycoper'sicum. The tomato or love 

apple ; the fniit of the Lycopersicum esculentum. 

IVX. per'sicum. (L. persicus, Persian. 

F. peche ; G. J'Jirsiche.) The peach, or fruit of 

the AmygdaluH persica. 

IVI. spino'sum. (L. spinosus, thorny.) 
The fruit of Lafura stramonium. 

M. terres'tre. (L. terrestris, of the 
earth.) The root of the mandrake, Atropa 

SXa'luiXl. (L- malum,,an evil. F. mal, 
maladie ; G. Krankheit, libel.') An ill, evil, or 

TO., aegypti'acuin. {Egypt.) A synonym 
of l)\phthcriii. 

IVI. aleppen'se. {Ahjrpo, a city of 
Turkey in Asia.) The Aleppo cril. 

ivi. articulo'ruui. (L. arliculus, a joint.) 

M. cadu'cum. (L. cadueus, falling.) 
The falling sickness; epilepsy. 

M. cadu'cum pulmo'num. (I, radn- 
cus, falling ; pulmo, the lung.) Falling sickness 
ofthelunjrs; asthma. 

m. Cotun'nii. (L. Cotnnnws, or Pome- 
iiico Cotugno, an Italian anatomist.) Sciatica. 
TIL. cox'ae seni'Ie. (L., the hip; 

senilis, old.) An old name for ostco-arthritis or 
Ithcumatoid arthritis when it attacks the hip- 

IVI. bypochondri'acum. Same as Ey- 

IVI. hyster'icum. Same as Hysteria. 
IVI. iscbladicuxn. The same us Sciatica. 
IVI. Iiaz'ari. {Lazarus.) The same as 

IVI. minus. (L. minor, comp. of parvus, 
little.) Til e lesser sickness; being epilepsy un- 
accoiupaiiied bj- convulsions. 

IVI. mor'tuum. (L. mortuus, dead.) An 
old term for a fonn of Elephantiasis Grcccorum, 
in which the skin affected appears very speedily 
to become as if dead. 

IVI. pedic'ull. (L. pediculus, a louse.) 
Same as I'hthciriasis. 

IVI. per'forans pedis. (L. pcrforans, 
part, of perforo, to bore through ; pes, a foot.) 
Atrophic disease of the foot. It commences with 
a thickening of the cerium, which may be 
occasioned by injury to the sciatic nerve or 
spinal cord, or by a corn, or by frost-bite or 
other local traumatic influence; chronic in- 
flammation with the subsequent formation of 
a round ulcer occurs. Then follow proliferation 
and hypertrophy of the epidermic cells, alteration 
in the nails and growth, with an erythema and 
eczema, of hair on the dorsum of foot and lower 
limb. Pain and muscular debility are ex- 
perienced. The parts around the ulcer are 
anaesthetic, and ultimately destruction of all the 
soft parts, as well as of the joints and bones, 
occur. The nerves have been found to be de- 

IVI. pila're. {Jj.pilus,ahsxir. F.pUque.) 
A term for I'lica polo>iica. 

Also, a term for a disorder of the skin of in- 
fants, especially of the dorsal region, in which 
much irritation is supposed to be caused by the 
growth of young hairs which cannot extrude 
themselves from the hair-sac. 

IVI. Pot'tii. (Percival Fott, English sur- 
geon.) See I'ott's disease. 

Tft. prima'rium. (L. priinarius, of the 
first rank.) A primary disease; a disease not 
resulting from or dependent on another. 

TIL. reg''imen. (L. malus, bad ; regimen, 
guidatice.) Bad treatment of a disease. 

T/L. seni'Ie arteria'rum. (L. senilis, 
old; arteria.) A synonym of Arteritis de- 
formans, the process which leads to atheroma in 
the aged. It consists essentially in a thickening 
of the internal coats of the arteries. 

TIL. seni'Ie articulo'rum. (L. senilis; 
artioihis, a joint.) The same as Onteo- arthritis. 
IVI. venereum. (L. Venus.) Syphilis. 
DIalus. (L- malus; Gr. nnXUi. F. 
pomiiiitr ; G. Apfclbaum.) An apple tree. 

IVI. acer'ba, Merat. (L. accrbus, sour.) 
The I'yrus malus, var. ncerba. 

T/L. auran'tia ma'jor. (L. major, comp. 
of magnus, great.) The sweet orange, the fruit 
of the Citrus auranfium. 

TIL. commu'nis, Lamarck. (Ju. communis, 
common.) Tlie ajiple tree, Pyrus malus. 

TIL. dasyphyl'la. (Aho-u?, rough ; </)uX- 
\ov, a leaf.) The I'l/rus malus, or pear tree. 

IVI. in'dica. (Tj. indicus, Indian.) The 
fruit of Avirr/ioa bilimbi, a tree which flowers 
throughout the year in the gardens of the East 
Indies, where it is carefully cultivated. The 
juice of the root is drunk in fevers. The leaves 


boiled and made into a poultice with rice uic 
extolled for every kind of tiiinour. The jiiiei! of 
tlic fruit is used in all cases of external heat, 
rags dijiped in it hcinp; ajiplied to the ])art. It 
is also tMktni mixed willi nrrack to cure diarrliiua. 

IVX. limo nia ac'ida. (L. acidus, sour.) 
The hinon. 

IVI. med'lca. (L. mcdicus, ])ertaining to 
healiup;.) 'J'iie lemon. 

1M[. mi'tis, Wallr. (L. initis, mild.) The 
I'ljriis iiinlitx, var. viilis. 

IVI. pu'nlca. (L. jjhhIcks, Phccnician.) 
Tlie j)onief;ranate. 

Wl. sati'va. (L. saiivus, that is sown.) 
The apple tree, bein<j the cultivated varieties of 
the I'yrus mains. 

IVI. sylves'tris. (L. si/lvcstris, belonging 
to woods.) The wihl crab, Fi/rus mains. 

XHalus'ic a.c'id> (F. acidc malusicn.) 
Same as Malic acid. 

nXal'va.. (I', malva ; from Gr. /xaXdx'U 
from /utA((.T(T6o, to soften. F. maavv ; G. Muive., 
Fapprl.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Maivacccc, 
so called from its demulcent properties. 

IVI. al'cea, Linn. ('AAKf'a, a species of 
mallow. F. manvc ulccc.) Tiie vervain mallow, 
with leaves jagged or cut in round edges. It is 

m. angrustlfo'lla, Cav. (L. aiir/Hslics, 
narrow ;yb/i/i';«, a leaf.) Hab. Mexico. Leaves 
and root emollient. 

M. arbor'ea. (L. arhoreus, pertaining to 
a tree.) The common hollyhock, Altluea rosea. 

Ttl. blsmal'va officinalis. TheAlthcea 

nx. borea'Iis, Wallm. (L. borcalis, be- 
longing to the north wind.) Tlie M. rotundi- 

M. commu'nis. (L. communis, common.) 
The M. syivcstris. 

IMC. cris'pa, Linn. (L. crispus, curled.) 
Used as M. si//rcs/ris. 

V/l. g-la'bra, Dcsvx. (L. glaher, smooth.) 
Leaves used as tliose of M. STjlrcstris. 

IVI. moscba'ta, Linn. (MJo-xos, musk. 
F. niauvc mnsquce.) An oil can be distilled from 
it which may be employed in the same way as 
musk. Used as M. sijlvvstris. 

T/l. neg'lec'ta, Wallroth. (L. neglectus, 
despised.) The M. vulgaris. 

M. pusil'la, With. (L.^msjWms, insigni- 
ficant.) The M. rotiiudifolia. 

IVI. rotundifo'lia, Linn. (L. rotundus, 
round ; folium, a leaf. F. petite mauve.) The; 
round-leaved mallow, similar in respect to its 
properties to the M. sylvestris. Same as M. 

M. sylves'tris, Linn. (L. syivcstris, be- 
loni^ing to a wood. F. ma?we comtmmc, m. 
sauvage, grande mauve; G. Kdsepappel, Wald- 
malve.) The common mallow. The leaves and 
flowers are used in cataplasms, fomentations, 
and emollient clysters ; flowers pectoral. The 
leaves form part of Folia malvcR, G. Ph. 

IVI. verbena'ca. (L. verhenaca, vervain.) 
Another name for the M. alcea. 

IVI. vis'cum. (L. ?^j.s<'h;h, birdlime.) The 
marshmallow, Allluea officinalis. 

"M. vulgra'ris, Fries. (L. vulgaris, com- 
mon.) Leaves form part of Folia inalrcs, G. Ph. 
nXalva'cese. (L. malva. F. malvacvcs ; 
G. Malvengeicdchse.) A Nat. Order of the Cohort, 
or the Alliance, Malvales. They are dicotyle- 
donous polypetalous plants with hypogynous 

columnar stamens; one-celled, reniform, trans- 
versi'ly dehiscing anthers ; curved embryo ; and 
twisted cotvleddiis. 

Malva'ceous. (h. malva. Y.malvaec; 
G. nialrciiartig.) Helonging to, or having an 
arrangement of jiarts as in, the Genus Malta. 

XWalva'les. {h. malra.) Addiort of the 
Scries Thulannjhirir, or an Alliance of hypo- 
gynous ExogcMis having a calyx with valvate 
icstivation, numerous stuTnens, embryo with 
little or no albumen, and axile or sutural pla- 

IVIalve'ae. (L. malva.) A Tribe of the 
Order Malvales having tlie flowers with an in- 
volucre or e])ical3'.x, and ajtocarpoiis fruit. 

Blal'vern. Worcestershire. The two vil- 
lages of this name. Great and Little, 500 feet 
above sea-level, in a beautiful locality, have 
been famed for long as health resorts, and the 
waters from St. Anne's Well and Holywell were 
formerly supposed to be of great value in many 
disorders, esi)ecially in urinary diseases, neuroses, 
and phthisis. Ttiey are simply pure, soft, fresh 

l^al'iva. A state of Central India. 

M. s-weat'ing- sick'ness. A disease re- 
sembling, but difl'erent from, cholera, described 
by Dr. Murray in 1840. It commences with 
rigors, followed by headache, lieat of skin, di- 
lated pupils, buining sensation at the epigas- 
trium, restlessness and thirst, and generally 
copious watery motions, smelling like the flesh of 
carnivorous anim.ils slightly tainted. In many 
cases vomiting occurs of a similar fluid, with 
cramps in the extremities, and the skin t-oon 
becomes bathed in perspiration. There is gre;it 
oppi'cssion in breatliing, with anxiety and weak 
rapid pulse. The mental faculties remain clear 
till near the end, when coma intervenes, and 
death may ensue within ten hours of the com- 
mencement of the attack. Vomiting and cramps 
were neither constant nor prominent symptoms, 
but in severe cases no urine is passed, and the 
evacuations continue; while, when the disease 
takes a more favourable turn, the j)ulse becomes 
fuller, the precordial oppression less, some dark 
green fteculent matter is passed, a little urine 
is secreted, and the patient sleeps. After a 
remission of 24 to 48 hours the same train of 
symptoms is apt to be renewed, and as the 
disease goes on remission succeeds the paroxysm 
with a regular periodicity, and the attacks be- 
come gradually slighter. 

ZWa'ma pi'an. (F. mnman pian, mere 
des plans.) Mother yaw, an ulcer which marks 
the commencement of the disease Frambcesin. 

IlXa'inalcai. Kus-^ia, in the Caucasus. A 
weak sodium sulphate water. 

Ma'mei. The Mammea americana. The 
sap yields a wine, from which the tree derives 
its name of toddy tree. 

IMainelu'CO. (Arab, memalik, a slave.) 
A term used in Brazil to denote the hybi id be- 
tween tlie white and Indian. 

IHamil'la. (U. mamilla, dim. of mamma, 
a breast, a teat.) A teat. 

Also, the male mammary gland. 

Mamil'Ise. Nominative plural of Mam- 

IVI. medulla'res. (L. medulla, marrow.) 
The Corpora albicantia. 

XVIain'illary. See Mammillary. 

IKEaxn'ma. (L. >w«ot»?«, abreast,apnp. F. 
mammelle ; 1. mamclla, poppa ; S. mama, tela ; 


m AM MM—},1 A M xM AR Y. 

G- Brust.) The brcasl or prominence on either 
side of the tliost in fi'inalcti, conipost'il of tlie lobes 
of the niilk-pioJueing or mammary gland, sur- 
rounded by more or less fat, united by connective 
tissue, and covered l)y skin. They are separated 
from each other by a furrow or sinus, beinj; the 
space over the sternum. The outer surface 
presents three zones : the central zone is repre- 
sented by a rose-red or dark- brown pnimiiunce, 
the i\ri/>/»/<', which i)oiiits outwards; the middle 
zone immediately surrounds the central zone, 
constituting the AvioJa ; the outer zone is the 
remaining smooth white surface of skin marked 
by more or less distinct blue veins and, if in a 
woman who has been pregnant, by Linccc alhi- 
cantcs. The breasts in males are atrophied, but 
have the same constituents as those of the 
female. See Mammar}! gland. 

IVX., amputa'tlon of. See Breast, am- 
putation of. 

M., at'rophy of. {'ATpo(})ia, want of 
nourishment.) Wasting of the mammary gland. 
It occurs normally in women at an advanced age, 
but is also seen as the result of the action of iodine. 
M., cirrbo'sis of. A sj-nonym of Mas- 
titis, lobular, interstitial, chrome. 
See also, Cirrhosis inamnxc. 
nc., elephantiasis of, hard. Yirchow's 
term for Mastitis, lobular, i)itirstitial, chronic. 

IVI., fibro'ma of, diffuse'. A synonym of 
Mastitis, lobular, interstitial, chronic. 

IVX., induration of, benig^n'. (L. in- 
duro, to harden.) A sj^nonym of Mastitis, lo- 
bular, interstitial, ehronie. 

M., induration of, knot'ty. A syuo- 
njtn of Mastitis, lobular, interstitial, ehronie. 
T/l., neural'g:ia of. See Mastodynia. 
BIa,IIl'inae. Nominative plural of Mamma. 
IVX. abdomina'Ies. (L.ff(!if/o)Hf;;, the belly.) 
Mammary ghuuls situated in pairs on the under 
surface of the abdomen, as in dogs and pigs. 

IVX. dorsa'Ies. (L. dorsum, the back.) 
Mammary glands situated on or near the back, 
as in Myopotamus. 

IVX. errat'icae. (L. erro, to wander.) 
Mammary glands in an abnormal position or in 
excessive number. They have been found in 
the axilla, on the shoulder, back, and thigh. 

IVX. ingrulna'les. (L. ingucn, the groin.) 
Mammary glands situated in the groin, as in 
cows and horses. 

nx. pectora'les. (L. pectus, the chest.) 
Mammary glands situated on the under surface 
of the chest, as in elephants, monkeys, and man. 
IMCarn'mseform. Same as Mammiform. 
J^am'inal. An animal of the Class Mam- 

TfLSLmmSLlgiSi. (Mn/i/u«, the mother's 
breast; uXyov, ])ain.) Harnc as 3fastod>/nia. 

nXammaiia. (L- mamma, a breast. F. 
mammifircs ; I. niammiferi ; S.mammi/ovs ; G. 
Sdiigcthiere.) A Class or Division of the Sub- 
kingdom Vertcbrata, nourisliing their young by 
the secretion of milk formed by the mammary 
glands. 'J'hey are vivijiarous and warm-lilooded, 
and have hairy integuments, if not in the adult, 
as in Cetacea, yet in tlie ftt'tal condition. The red 
blood-corjiuscles are discoid, or elliptical as in the 
camel, and non-nucleated; the white corpuscles 
are splierical and nucleated. There are two dis- 
tinct lungs. The heart has four distinct cavi- 
ties ; two of which, the right auricle and 
ventricle, drive the blood through the lungs, 
constituting the lesser circulation ; whilst the 

other two, the left auricle and ventricle, drive 

the blood through the body generally, con- 
stituting the greater circulation. The embryo 
has an amnion and allantois. There are seven 
cervical vertebra?, except in the Manatee and 
Cholocpus llojf'mauni, which have six, and 
Brady pus torquatus, which has eight, and 
Bradypus tridaetylus, which has nine. The 
atlas is ring-like, the cavity being crossed l)y a 
transverse ligament. The os odontoideum is 
ankylosed to the second vertebra. The dorsal 
vertebise vary from ten to twenty-four, the 
lumbar from two to nine, the sacral from one 
to ten, and those forming the tail from two to 
forty-six. The brain-case has ossitied walls. 
The occipital has two condyles. The mandible 
articulates with the squamosal by a convex or Hat 
condyle, and consists of two rami. The Wolffian 
bodies remain only as rudiments. Most mammals 
are diphyodontal. The oldest fossil forms belong 
to the Marsupials, and are found in the Trias. 
The term was tirst employed by Linnajus. 

M. achor'ia. ('A, neg. ; x''/°""'i the 
membrane that encloses the fa-tus.) KoUiker's 
term for those mammals in which there is union 
between mother and fffitus by means of a chorion ; 
they are the Marsupialia and the Monotremata. 

IVX. Chor'iata. (Xo^otoi/.) KoUiker's 
term for those mammals in which the mother 
and the foetus are connected by means of a 
villous chorion ; being all but Marsupialia and 

BX. decidua'ta. {^Deeidua.) Placental 
mammals in which the foetal and maternal parts 
are so intimately united in a single placenta that 
in parturition a part of the uterine mucous mem- 
brane is shed with it. 

nx. Implacenta'lia. (L. im, fori;;, neg.; 
2)laecnta.) Sir 11. Owen's term for those mam- 
mals which have no placenta ; they are the Mar- 
supialia and the Monotremata. 

T/l. nondecidua'ta. (L. non, not ; de- 
eidua.) Placental mammals in which the vil- 
losities of the chorion penetrate the follicles of 
the mucous membrane of the uterus, but become 
entirely detached from it at parturition, no part 
of the uterine membrane being separated along 
with them. 

nx. placenta'lia. {Placenta.) Sir R. 
Owen's term for those mammals which have a 
placenta; being all hui 2Iarsupialia iva.<l Mono- 

nSammalif' erous. {Mammalia; L. 
fcro, to bear.) In Geology, containing the re- 
mains of mammals. 

BXammal'o^y. {Mdnixa, the female 
breast; Ao'yo?, a discourse. Y . mammalogie ; 1. 
mammalogia ; S- mamaloyia ; G. Mammalogie.) 
A term for a treatise or dissertation on, or a 
description of, the Mammalia. 

DXazn'mary. (L. mamma, the female 
breast. V.mammaire; l.mammario ; S.mama- 
rio.) Of, or belonging to, the female breast. 

IVX. abscess. ((F. abccs de la mammclle.) 
A circumscribed collection of pus which may re- 
sult from mastitis, from some injury to the part, 
as from a blow, or burn, or from infection owing to 
the presence of a fissure of the nipple, or from 
necrosis of the ribs, or from sudden suppression of 
the milk, or from some general disease, as small- 
pox or typhoid fever. There are the usual signs 
of local inflammation with, in many instances, 
well-marked general disturbance of the health, 
as rigors, loss of appetite, rapid pulse, and high 


temperature. The position of the abscess may 
be either iiiiiiR'tliately luncalh the skin or in the 
substance of the ghinil, or in tlie connective 
tissue beneath the glaiul. Tlie matter is apt to 
burrow owing to the looseness of the texture of 
the breast, and if not early opened sinuses 
occur. See Mastitis. 

IVI. abscess, Intrag^land'ular. (L. 
intra, within ; i/lnnd.) One arising in the 
alveoli of the nianmiary gland. 

M. ab'scess, post grland'ular. (L. 
post, bcliiiul ; ijlaiui.) One occurring in the 
connective tissue Ij'iiig between the nianunary 
gland and the pcctoralis major; or extending 
there from the deepest lobes of the gland ; or 
caused by necrosis of a rib ; or being the outward 
evacuation of an empyema. 

IMC. ab'scess, superficial. (L. super- 
ficies, the surface of a thing.) One occurring 
immediately under the skin. 

Vfl. ar'tery, external. (L. externus, 
outward.) The Tlioracic arlcrii, Unuj. 

M. ar'tery, exter'nal, ac'cessory. 
(L. accessus, a going to.) An occasional l)ranch 
of the axillary artery arising above the circum- 
flex arteries, and running downwards and in- 
wards to the side of the thorax behind the long 
thoracic artery. 

1«. ar'tery, exter'nal Infe'rior. (L. 
externus, outward; inferior, lower. F. artere 
mammaire externe inferieure.) The Thoracic 
artery, long. 

TtL. ar'tery, exter'nal supe'rior. (L. 
externus ; superior, upper. F. artere mammaire 
externe superieure.) The Thoracic artery, su- 

M. ar'tery, In'ternal. (L. intermis, 
inner. F. artere mammaire interne; G. innere 
Brustschlagader.) A branch of the subclavian 
artery opposite to the origin of the thyroid axis ; 
it runs downwards and backwards to the posterior 
surface of the cartilage of the first rib, about 
half an inch from the sternum, and then verti- 
cally down to the interspace between the sixth 
and seventh costal cartilages opposite the base of 
the xiphoid cartilage, where it divides into the 
musculo-phrenic and the superior epigastric 
arteries. Its origin varies considerably, some- 
times it arises as part of the thyroid axis, or 
with one or other of the scapular arteries, or it 
may arise fiom the axillary artery, the inno- 
minate artery, or the aorta. 

TtL. diabe'tes. (Ata^fi-riis, the disease 
diabetes.) A term applied to extreme cases of 
galactorrhcea in which the general emaciation is 
very rapid. 

M. duct-cyst. See M. gland, cyst of, 

tfl. grland. (F. glande mammaire; G. 
Brustdriise.) The milk-secreting gland; it lies in 
woman upon the pectoralis muscle of each side, 
extending from the third to the sixth rib. It con- 
sists of numerous alveoli embedded in connective 
tissue having branched corpuscles, and in some 
animals bundles of unstriped muscular fibre cells. 
Each alvedus is formed of a membrana propria 
consisting of branched connective-tissue cells, 
and is lined, when the gland is inactive, with a 
single layer of flattened epithelial cells, but during 
lactation the cells become larger, columnar, and 
contain fat-globules. The alveoli open, several 
together, into the lactiferous ducts, which unite 
to form fifteen to twenty larger or galactopho- 
rous ducts, conveying the milk to the nipple. 

The alveoli are coUectid into I'llniles, these into 
larger and larger lobules, and tlie largest lolmles 
into lobes held together by areolar tissue and 
more or less adipose tissue. Tlie gland is suji- 
plied by arterial twigs from the thoracic 
branches of the axillary, from the intercostal, and 
from the inti inal mammary arteries, and by the 
external mammary arteiy. The veins are very 
numerous and large, and many are quite super- 
ficial. The nerves arc divisible into cutaneous 
and glandular ; the cutaneous proceed from the 
hiteral and anterior branches of the second to 
the sixth intercostal nerves, and from tlie ante- 
rior thoracic nerves given olf from the brachial 
plexus ; the glandular nerves are branches of 
the fourth to the sixth lateral cutaneous pectoral 
nerves, and the sympathetic branches which enter 
the gland run in company with the long thoracic 
artery and with the anterior rami perforantes 
of the intercostal arteries. The lymphatics dis- 
charge themselves into those of the axilla and 
anterior mediastinum. In woman the long 
diameter of the gland is on the average 128 mm., 
the vertical diameter 111 mm., the left being 
usually the largest, the thickness is 54 mm. Its 
volume is 223 cub. cent. ; its weight 254 
grammes. Sp. gr. of the gland substance 1-0455, 
The ducts have a diameter of 1-7 to 2-3 mm. 
The external opening of each duct is about 0-6 
mm. wide. The acini have an average diameter 
of Q'\'2 mm., extremes 0'08 and 0*16. In man 
the weight of the gland varies from I to 137 
grammes ; the diameter from 3 to 21 mm., 
average 7"7 mm. ; thickness 3 mm. The papilla, 
or nipple, which is from 2 to 5 mm. high, is 
situated about 12 cmt. from the middle line, and 
is just below the fourth rib in the fourth inter- 
costal space or over the fifth rib. 

Supernumerary glands arc not infrequent, and 
they may be placed either near to the normal 
ones, or in the axilla or the groin, or on the thigh, 
the back, or the shoulder. Sometimes a normally 
placed gland has two or three nipples. 

The mammary glands are by many believed to 
be modified sebaceous glands, the hairs having 
disappeared ; those of Monotremata appear to be 
modified sudoriparous glands. 

The presence of mammary glands is restricted 
to the Mammalia, though an analogous secretion 
is produced in some birds by the crop. In 
Monotremata the mammary gland possesses no 
nipple, and consists of a group of several tubes, 
resembling the other integumentary glands, 
opening in Ornithorhyncus on an area destitute 
of hairs but not elevated, and in Echidna in a 
pouch-like depression. In Marsupials and all 
higher mammals nipples are present, and the 
gland is placed inside a permanent cutaneous 
pouch. The number of glands in the diS'erent 
orders generally correspond to the average num- 
ber of young produced at a birth. As a rule 
they form two rows which, when numerous, as 
in Suidae and Carnivora, extend from the inguinal 
to the pectoral region. In many of the Didelphia 
they are arranged in a circle on the abdomen. 
They maj' be situated only in the lumbar region, 
as in Perissodactyla, Kuminantia, and Cetacea 
or they are limited to the pectoral region, as in the 
elephant, Sirenia, many Prosimii, Cheiroptera, 
and Primates. See also Breast and its sub- 
headings. Mamma and its subheadings, and Milk, 
secretion of. 

IVI. g^land, ab'scess of. See M. abscess. 
IVI. g-land, absence of. (G. Brust- 


druseninanyil.) The gland is sometimes alto- 
gether aliseiit, csiiLcially wlien tlic cbcst walls 
are defective and when tlie ovaries are deficient. 
IVI. ^land, ad'eno fibro'ma of. ('Ani)i', 
a gland; Jihruma.) A eonnnon form of simple 
chronic mammary tumour; it is roundish or 
lohulated, circumscribed, convex and fibrous on 
section, and often cystic. It is encapsuled, l)luish 
white or on section, yields some fluid on 
pressure, and the fibrous tissue has a foliated 

T/l. g:land, ad'eno sarco'ma of. ('Adt/i^; 
o-«/o^, llesb ) An adeno-libroma containing a 
large amount of cellular new formation. It 
grows rapidly to a large size, is painless, mov- 
able, semi-elastic, nodulated, and affects neither 
the skin nor fiie lymphatic glands; it is lobu- 
latcd (in section, and like to sago jelly. 

IVI. gland, adeno'ma of. ('Aorii/, a 
gland.) True ailenoma i> rare, but it has been 
occasionally observed as a tirm, distinct, roundish, 
sometimes lobulated, growth from the periphery 
of the gland ; small lactiferous ducts are seen, 
but no large ones; these occasionally form cysts 
by dilatation. 

IVI. gland, adeno'ma of, cys'tic. 
('Ao?')j/; /cuCTTis-, the bladder.) An ad(;no-tibroma 
containing cysts filled with a mucoid fluid, yel- 
low, or reddish, or brownish, from admixture 
with blood. 

VL, gland, are'ola of. See Areola. 
T/L. gland, arteries of. (F. arteres 
mamma irea ; G. Brustschlatjadcr.) Twigs from 
the thoracic branches of the axillary, the inter- 
costals, and the internal mammary arteries. 

M. gland, can'cer of. See Breast, 
cancer of. 

T/t. gland, can'cer of, acute'. Coats's 
term for a rapidly growing mammary cancer 
having a very firm fibrous stroma, forming dis- 
tinct meshes filled with epithelial masses con- 
sisting of large cancer cells essentially like those 
of scirrhous cancer. 

IMC. gland, can'cer of, col'lo'id. (KoWn, 
glue ; iloos, form.) A somewhat rare form of 
mammary cancer ; it is hard, may become large, 
and may b(; a primary disease, or be engrafted 
on a scirrhous cancer. 

IVI. gland, can'cer of, duct. Thin's 
term for a mammary cancer arising in the milk 
ducts, especially in the galactoi)liorous ducts; 
the ducts become distended by the growth of 
epithelium, and sometimes assume the appear- 
ance of cysts, which occasionally contain blood. 
It is composed of a fibrous stroma enclosing 
spaces containing columnar epithelium and deli- 
cate vascular villi. 

IVI. gland, can'cer of, enceph'aloi'd. 
('E"/ivt'/H<Aos, the brain; fioos, form.) A rapidly 
growing soft form of mammary cancer, speedily 
infiltrating the neighbouring structures. It 
commences deeply in the gland substance, is 
rounded, softish, and elastic to the touch, and pro- 
duces infiammation and destruction of the skin ; 
from tlie resulting ulcer fungous growths arise, 
w^iich discbarge a bloody, stinking putrilage ; 
the lymphatic glands are always allected, and 
deatli is speedy. 

IMC. gland, can'cer of, med'ullary. 
(L. mrfliillii, m;irrow.) Same as M. 'jland, 
cancer of, DiCfiiJutbtid. 

IVI. gland, can'cer of, mu'cous. (L. 
muots, slime.) Coats's term for a mammary 
cancer in which the stroma has undergone 

mucoid degeneration, so that the tumour on 
section consists of a trembling, gelatinous stroma, 
enclosing epithelial masses. 

M. gland, can'cer of, parenehym'- 
atous. ( 1 1 ftp/yxi'/ia, the peculiar substance of 
the viscera.) Mammary cancer commencing in 
the alveolar structure of the gland. 

T/t. gland, can'cer of, sclr'rhous. 
(2m'/ip()v, or o-/v7j)os, a hardened swelling.) Tlie 
commonest form of mammary cnncer. It is 
very hard, produces puckering of the skin and 
retraction of the nipjde, ulcerates with a hollow 
centre and hard prominent edges, and involves 
the neighbouring lymphatic glands. It is com- 
monly ciicumscribed or nodular, but sometimes 
is dilfuse or infiltrated, and in old persons takes 
the atrophying, withering, or cicatricial form ; 
cystic degeneration may occur. 

I\I. gland, can'cer of, vll'lous. (L. 
vUliis, a tuft iif hair.) A synonym (AM. (/land, 
cancer of, dnct. 

TR. gland, cyst of, duct. (Kutms, 
the bladder.) A retention cyst ibrmed in a 
lactiferous or galactophorous duct. 

TO., gland, cyst of, gland'ular. A re- 
tention cyst formed frcmi the expansion of an 
alveolus of the mammary gland. It may contain 
villous processes. 

IVI. gland, cyst of, hydatid. See Hy- 
datids of maminarij gland. 

IMC. gland, cyst of, Involu'tion. See 
Involution cysts. 

T/l. gland, cyst of, reten'tion. (L. 
relinco, to hold back.) A cyst formed in the 
alveoli or ducts of the breast in consequence of 
obstruction to a duct from inflammation or 
atrophy ; it is lined with epithelium, cubical 
when it is formed of an alveolus, cylindrical 
when of a duct; and it contains milk when de- 
veloped during lactation, or a thick, brownish 
or yellowish fluid when developed when the 
gland is quiescent. Occasionally a papillary 
growth from the wall is seen. 

IMC. gland, cyst of, sanguln'eous. (L. 
sanyais, blood.) A mammary cyst containing 
blood; it may occur in any cyst from injury, and 
in retention or other cysts that have an intra- 
cystic ]japillary growth. 

Tfl. gland, cyst of, se'rous. {h. serum, 
the watery part of a thing.) A cyst formed pro- 
bably by dilatation of the lymph channels of the 
gland; they have a wall of delicate areolar tissue 
lined with flattened endothelial cells, and con- 
tain a yellowish thin fluid, sometimes darkened 
by blood and sometimes containing plates of 
cliolesterin. They seldom occur in the substance 
of the gland, but are at its edge. 

IVI. gland, cysto sarco'ma of. (Kucrns, 
the bladder; o-tt/ig, flesh.) A firm, heavy, no- 
dulated, slowly-growing tumour of the breast, 
allied to adenoma rather than sarcoma. It not 
infrequently follows injury, or the mastitis of 
suckling, and may grow to a large size, ulce- 
rating and fungating without implication of the 
lymphatic glands, and causing death by exhaus- 
tion. On section it is whitish, dense, lobulated 
or foliated, and containing many small cysts 
lined with epithelium, filled wilh a serous fluid, 
and frequently, especially the larger ones, pre- 
senting branched growths from their walls; 
these increasing distend the sacs, and protrude 
as a lobulated, bleeding fungoid mass. 

Ml. gland, devel'opment of. The first 
rudiment of the gland appears about the third 


month as a projection, which subsequently 
branches, from the deeper or mucous layer of 
the epithelium, and is epiblastic in origin ; the 
blood-vessels and connective tissue proceed from 
the mesoblast. 

M. erland, flbro'ina of. (^Fibroma.) The 
occurrence of a tibroina in the breast is rare; it 
is a hard tumour, with a dense capsule, and feels 
very like a scirrhous cancer. 

Tit. ^land, hydat'id of. See Hydatids 
of mammary yland. 

Mt. g-land, byper'trophy of. (^Yirip, 
above ; xpoi/jii, nourishment. F. hyperti'ophie 
de la mamelle.) Increase in the amount of 
gland-tissue in the breast; it often causes a 
very great increase of size, but is probably not 
entirely normal tissue. 

IVI. gland, byper'trophy of, lob'ular. 
Sir Astley Cooper's term for JIastitis, lobular, 
interstitial, chronic. 

IMC. eriand, Indura'tion of, chron'ic. 
Same as M. yland, adenoma of. 

Tit. gland, inflamma'tlon of. (F. in- 
flammation de la mamelle; G. Brustdriisenent- 
ziindung.) See Ifastitis. 

Tit. gland, Ir'ritable. Increased sensi- 
bility of the breast, sometimes very great and 
producing turgidity of the organ ; there is gene- 
rally pain on pressure of the branches of some in- 
tercostal nerves, and it is commonly accompanied 
by derangement of the functions of the generative 

Tit. gland, ligaments of. See Liya- 
menta suspensoria mamma. 

Tit. gland, llpo'ma of. See Lipoma of 
mammary gland. 

Tit, gland, lymphat'ics of. See 
Lymphatics of breast. 

Tit. gland, nerves of. See under M. 

Tit. gland, neural'gla of. (N^Dpoi/, a 
nerve; dXyo?, pain.) St-e Mastodynia. 

Tit. gland, nlp'ple of. (F. mamelon ; I. 
capezzolo ; S. pezon ; G. Brustwarze, Zitze.) 
The pinkish or brownish conical prominence, 
just below the centre of the outer convex surface 
of the breast, carrying the terminations of the 
lactiferous ducts which open by numerous orifices 
at its extremity ; at its base are many sebaceous 
glands, which become enlarged during pregnancy 
and lactation ; it consists of an outer integument 
of skin, with blood-vessels and nerves, and bundles 
of unstriped muscular fibres disposed circularly 
at its base, and some running from base to apex. 

Tit. gland, remo'val of. See Breast, 
amputatioti of. 

Tit. gland, sarco'ma of. {'S.ap^, flesh.) 
Mammary sarcoma is not infrequent, the large 
spindle- celled variety being the most frequent 
variety ; it forms a soft, elastic, roundish, smooth 
tumour, which is generally situated near the 
edge of the gland, is painless and movable, and 
does not affect the lymphatic glands ; it is sub- 
ject to degeneration and the development of 
cysts, and is very liable to recur after removal. 

IVI. gland, sarcoma of, cys'tic. {'2up'^; 
huo-Tts, a bladder.) A sarcoma in which cysts 
are developed ; they may contain blood or mucoid 
substance, but they have no epithelial lining. 
Also, the same as M. gland, cysto-sctrcoma of. 

Tit. gland, veins of. These form an 
anastomotic circle round the base of the nipple, 
from which circle large branches radiate towards 
the circumference of the gland and end, with the 

veins of the substance of the gland, in the long 
thoracic and internal mammary veins. 

IMC. glands, supernumerary. (G. 
Bnistdruscniiberzahl, Brustdriiscnvcrmehrung.) 
See under M. gland. 

Tit. lympbatic jglands, inter'nal. 
Lymphatic glands lying in the anterior end of 
each intercostal space close to the internal mam- 
mary vessels. 

IVX. neural'gla. (NtD/jov, a nerve ; 
aXycis, pain.) Same as Mastodynia. 

Tit. pbtbi'sis. ('tOi'o-i?, a wasting away.) 
Atrophy of the breast resulting from acute in- 

Tit. region. The region of the front part 
of the chest, bounded above by the fourth rib, 
below by the seventh rib, on the inside by tlio 
sternum, and on the outer side by a line stretch- 
ing from the axilla downwards. It contains 
part of the middle lobe of the lungs, with part 
of the heart on the left side and of the liver on 
the right. 

IVI. sarcoma. (Sapg, flesh.) An old 
name for one of the denser varieties of sarcoma. 
It was probably what is now known as a fibro- 
sarcoma, or perhaps an alveolar sarcoma. It 
derived its name from its resemblance on section 
to a portion of mammary gland. 
See also 21. gland, sarcoma of. 

Tit. secre'tion of In'fants. A discharge 
of milky fluid which takes place not unfre- 
quently in infants a few days after birth. It 
may last for some months. 

Til. tu'mour, pain'ful. An adeno-fibroma 
of the mammary gland, which is the seat of 

Tit. veins, inter'nal. (F. veines mam- 
maires internes; G. inhere Britstblutadern.) 
Two veins on each side, accompanying the artery 
of the same name and its branches, and opening 
by a joint trunk into the innominate vein. 

Dila.m'ma.te« (L. mamma, the female 
breast. F. mamma.') Having mammary glands 
or breasts. 

BlarXn'mea* {Mamey, its West Indian 
name ; or L. mamma, a breast ; from the shape 
of its fruit.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Gutti- 

Also (F. mammay), the fruit of M. ameri- 

Tit. america'na, Linn. (America. F. 
albaricoque d' Amerique, abricolier de Saint' 
Bomingue ; S. mammei d' Amerique.) A tree 
growing in South America which yields a 
delicious fruit called Mammee apple. 'The fruit 
is nutritive and pectoral ; the seeds are anthel- 
mintic ; the fragrant flowers are used to make a 
distilled water, Eaii des Creoles, employed as a 
digestive and refreshing agent. The resin which 
exudes from the bark is used by the negroes in 
the removal of the chigoe from the skin. 

IVI. ap'ple. Wild apricot. The fruit of 
the M. americana. 

XVIainniea'ta. (L. mammeatus, large 
breasted.) One who has large breasts. 

I^am'meated. (L. mamma, the female 
breast.) Having breasts or paps, or prominences 
like to them. 
I^arn'mee. The Mammea americana. 

Tit. ap'ple. The fruit oi Mammea ameri- 

Tit. sapo'ta. The Lucnma mammosum. 
XVZammcl'la. See Mnmmula. 
Mam'mifer. (L. mamma, the female 


breast; fero, to bear. F. mammifere.) A 

Mammif era. (L. mamma; fcro. F. 
viammijens ; I. iiuomnlfcri ; S. mammif eros .) 
De Bbiiinillo's term for the 3[ammalia. 

Mammif erous. (L. mamma, the 
breast ; foo, to bear. F. mammifere ; I. mam- 
mif ero ; G. Brusttragend.) Having mammary 

M. an'lmal. A Mammal. 

mam'mifbrm. (L. mamma, the female 
hrciist; funna, likeness. F. maDimiformc ; I. 
mammiformc ; S. m ami for me ; G. hrustfijrmiri, 
zitzenfiirmig.) Having tbe form or appearance 
of the breasts or paps. 

IVI. pro'cess. The mastoid process of the 
tem]ioral bone. 

BIEamtnil'la. (L. mamiUa, dim. of 
mamma, tbe female breast. F. mamclon ; 1. 
capezolo ; S. mamclon, pczon ; G. Urustwarze.) 
The nijjple of the mammary gland. 

Also, the male breast or mammary gland. 

In Botany, applied to uipple-like prominences. 

Sec also Ma mi lice. 

BXammil'lae. Nominative plural of 
Mam ilia. 

Applied to the conical or cylindrical organs of 
the Arachnida, from four to six in number, with 
fleshy extremities which are perforated with 
many small orifices for the passage of silky lila- 
ments of extreme tenuity. 

Also, the papillte or apices of tlie Malpighian 
pj'ramids in the kidnej'. 

HMEammilla'ria. (L. mamilla.) A Genus 
of the Nat. Order Cactacece. 

T/L. sim'plex, Haworth. Succulent stem, 
when bruised, used as a discutient application. 

IWam'millary. (L. mamilla, the 
nipple, or the male breast. F. mamiUaire ; I. 
mammclarc ; S. mamilar ; G. zitzcnformig.) 
Of, or belonging to, the nipple; resembling a 
pap or a breast. 

IVI. bod'ies. The Corpora albicantia. 
IVI. car'uncle. (L. carancala, a little 
piece of tlc'sh. F. caroncnle mamillairc.) Term 
anciently applied to the olfactory lobe, because 
it was thought to be only a hollow process of the 

IVI. eminences. (L.e^/nwcw/^V?, standing 
out. F. fmitioicca mamillaircs.) The promi- 
nences of the inner surface of the skull which 
correspond to the anfractuosities of the brain. 

Also, tbe Corpora albicantia. 
M. line. See Linea mamillaris. 
IVI. pro'cess. The mastoid process of the 
temporal hone. 

IVI. pro'cesses. The superior tubercles 
or nietajjopliyses of the lumbar vertelnw. They 
project backwards from the posterior portion of 
the superior articular processes. 

Also, an old term for the olfactory lobes. 
IVI.tu'bercles. (L. ^wAcr, a swelling. F. 
tubcrcales mamillaircs.) The Corpora albi- 

Also, the ]\[. processes. 

mam'millate. (L. mamilla.) Bearing 
nipple-like processes. 

In Entomology, ap])lied to the i)al]ius of an 
insect, the last segment of which is smaller than, 
and cajialile of being retracted into, tbe one from 
which it s])riTigs. 

Mam'millated. (1-. mamiila.^ F. ina- 
melonni ; S. mamilonailo.) Having nijiple-like 

IVI. llv'er. The condition of liver brought 
about by the contraction of the newly-formed 
connective tissue in cirrhosis of that organ. 

XVIammiilla'tion. (L. mamilla, a 

nipple. F. mamclonnalion.) Having mammilla) 
or nipples. The condition of being Mammil- 

In Botany, applied to a part the surface of 
which is charged with round elevations, as the 
Mescmbrgnnthemum crgstallinum. 

IVI. of stom'acli. (F. etat mamelonne de 
I'cstomac.) A term applied by Louis to a con- 
dition of the mucous membrane of the stomach, 
seen chiefly in the neighbourhood of the pylorus, 
consisting of papular elevations sejjarated by 
furrows, and which he believed to be caused by 
iutiammation. It may also be due to a hyper- 
trophic or a distended condition of the glands, 
or to contraction of the muscular coat, or to 
thickening of the connective tissue. 

Blammillif' eroUS. (L. mamilla, a 
nipple ; yivo, to bear. Y.nuimillifere.) Having 
or bearing mammillas or nipples. 

XWammiriiform. (L. mamilla, the 
nipple; forma, likeness. F. mamilliformc ; G. 
zitzcnformig.) Having the form or appearance 
of raammillse or nipples. 

IVI. ^land. (F. glande mamilliforme.) 
The Gland, nropygial. 

Xmam'milloid. (L. mamilla, a nipple; 
Gr. fioos'. likeness.) liesembling a pap or nipple. 

I^am'millose. (L. 'mamilla, a nipple. 

F. ntamilleu.v ; G. zitzcnformig.) Having 
mammillas, nipples, or prominent tubercles like 
to them. 

Slammi'tis. (L. mamma, the female 
breast. F. mtimmite.) Intlammation of the 
mammarj' gland. 

Mam'mole. The edible fruit of Cactus 

mam'mose. {!•. mamma. Y.mammeux ; 

G. ToUbrustig.) Having full or large breasts; 
like to a breast. 

IWam'moth hot spring's. United 

States of America, Wyoming, Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park. Saline, calcic waters from many 
soui-ces, of a temperature of 63' F. to 165' F. 
(17-22° C. to 73-88" C.) 

mam'mula. (L. mammula, dim. of 
mamma, the female breast. F. mammalc ; G. 
Ideinc Brnst.) A little breast. 

In Botany, apj)lied by some authors to the 
swollen conceptacles without border or pad which 
grow on the thallus of certain lichens. 

Applied by Kirby to each of the anal pro- 
tubeiances in spiders, containing the instru- 
ments with which th(>)' form their webs. 

mam'mule. Sanu^ as Mammula. 

DIam'muIose. (L. mammula. F. mam- 
mukn.r.) Presenting mammules. 

IMCam'oe. Same as Mamci. 

XWan. (Sax. inann, mon ; G. Mann; L. 
mas ; from Arjan root man, to think. F. 
hommc ; I. aomo ; S. /lombre.) A human being. 
Wan ranks among the mammiferous animals, 
constituting the Genus Homo, being the sole 
Genus of the Order liimana. He is distinguished 
from other animals by a higher development of 
mind ; by his communication of ideas through the 
means oi'arti(niIate sjieech ; aiul by feelings moral 
and religious, of which other animals are not 
susceptible. The genus presents a great variety 
of species, distinguished by external form and 
by moral and intiUectual endowments, and 


influenced by climate, political condition, &c., 
whicli cci'tuinlj' operate on the physical consti- 
tution, and promote or hinder the advancement 
of civilization. 

Mm cliar'acters of. In a zoological point 
of view man is cliaracterised by the great size of 
the brain cavity connected with liis liigli degree 
of intelligence, the volume of the brain being 
about 1500 cubic ceutimeters, whilst even tlie 
gorilla is but little over 500. The occipital con- 
dyles approximate to the centre of the base of the 
skull, so that the head is nearly evenly balanced 
on the spinal column in the erect posture. The 
biorbital angle, open in front, formed by the two 
visual axes, varies from 40' to 50', and vision is 
horizontal. The muscles of the jaw have a re- 
latively small and feeble development. The chin 
is large and prominent. The vertebral column 
presents three curvatures, adapted to sustain the 
body in the erect position with the least possible 
fatigue ; the spinous processes, especially of the 
dorsal region, point backwards. The sacrum 
is wide at the base, thick, conical, and curved at 
the point. The thorax is wide transversely. The 
sternum is broad and flat. The upper limbs are 
supported and kept well apart by the clavicles. 
The terminal segments of the fore-limb or hand 
are specially adapted by having an opposable 
thumb for prehension and touch; those of the 
posterior limb are adapted for support. The 
distance between the tips of the lingers of the 
outstretched arms is equal to, or but slightly ex- 
ceeds, the height of tlie body. The muscles 
engaged in maintaining the erect position, as 
the gastrocnemii, the muscles of the thigh and 
buttock, and the erectors of the spinal column, 
are largely developed. Gestation occupies nine 
months ; the infant is helpless for several 
months. Man is gregarious, possesses the faculty 
of language, is capable of conceiving abstract 
principles, of acting in accordance with a sense 
of duty, and has in a high degree imagination 
and judgment. 

IW. In the grround. The Convolvulus 

M. of the earth. The same as M. in 
the ground. 

M., prehlstor'lc. The earliest traces of 
man may perhaps be discovered in the pleisto- 
cene, or even the miocene, strata of the ter- 
tiary period ; but the prehistoric period proper 
is divided into the age of unworked stone, 
the age of wrought stone, subdivided into a 
paleolithic and a neolithic period, the bronze 
age, and the age of iron. The former im- 
portance of tlint as an implement may be 
traced in its employment by the Egyptians in 
their processes of embalming, and by the Etrus- 
cans in their sacrifices; and of bronze in its use 
by the Greeks to cut the branches of the sacred 
■woods of Mount Ida. In modern times the Danes 
and Swiss have shown, from an examination of 
their alluvial regions, kitchen middens, and lake 
dwellings, that the use of stone, bi-onze, and iron 
instruments has followed in regular succession. 
The earliest skulls known are the dolicocephalic 
ones of Neanderthal, Canstadt, and Eguisheim, 
which wei-e contemporaneous with the mammoth, 
and were succeeded by those of the Cro-magnon 
race, contemporaneous with the reindeer, and 
also dolicocephalic. 

M., ra'ces of. One of the first classifica- 
tions, by a scientific man, of the races of man 
was made by LinnaMis, wlio admitted four varie- 

ties : the fair European ; the Asiatic with black 
liair, brown eyes, and yellowish skin ; the African 
with crisp curly hair, "black skin, thick lips, and 
ilat nose; and the American with tawny skiii, 
long black hair, and beardless chin. 

Dlumenbach made five primary divisions: the 
Caucasian, Mongolian, I'',tl]ioi)ian, Auu-rican, and 

Geoffroy St. Hilaire, in liis seccnd classifica- 
tion, distinguished the Caucasian, with oval face 
and vertical jaws, which he termed the ortho- 
gnatlious type ; the Mongolian, with liigli cheek 
bones, eurygnathous ; the Ethiopian, with pro- 
jecting jaws, prognathous; and the Hottentot, 
with widely separated molars and projecting 
jaws, termed eurygnathous and prognathous. 

Iluxley makes the nature of the hair the basis 
of his classification, dividing man into the ulo- 
trichi, or curly-haired races, and the leiotrichi, 
or smooth-haired ; the former are dark skinned, 
and usually dolicocephalous, and are represented 
by the Negroes and Papuans ; the latter he di- 
vides into the australioid, mongolioid, xantho- 
chrooid, and melanochrooid. 

F. MuUer's classification is essentially lin- 
guistic, but he also makes a primary division of 
the races of man, in accordance with the cha- 
racters of the hair, into smooth and woolly hair, 
with ultimate subdivisions into Mediterranean, 
Nubian, Dra vidian, Mongolic, Malay, American, 
Arctic, Australian, Caffre, African Negro, Pa- 
puan, and Hottentot. 

Topinard bases the divisions of man upon five 
characters : the nasal index, the nature of the 
hair, the cephalic index, the colour of the skin, 
and the height, and recognises nineteen races, 
namely the Esquimaux ; Eedskins ; Mexicans 
and Peruvians; Guaranis and Caribs ; Samoyedis, 
Mongols and Malay; Cunmerians, Scandinavians 
and Anglo-Saxons; Mediterranean and Semites; 
Australian and Indo-Abyssinians ; Foulahs and 
lied Barabras; Fins; Celts and Slavs; Iranians; 
Bosjismans; Papuans; Kaffirs; and Negritos. 

Weisbach makes three principal divisions of 
man according to the form of the head, and re- 
cognises long, short, and intermediate heads. 

IVI.-root. The Convolvulus panduratus. 
_ Blan. An abbreviation, used in prescrip- 
tions, of Manipulus, a handful. 

Blan-xnid'wife. {Man ; midwife.) An 

IVIan'aca.. (Brazilian name Manacan.) 
'1 he Franciscca unijlora. 

XKEan'acin. C,5Ho3N405. An alkaloid 
discovered by Lenardson in Manaca. It is a 
bitter, yellow, hjgroscopic powder, melting at 
115° C. (239° F.), and being the active principle 
of the di'ug. 
Blan'akin. See Manikin. 
nian'atee. (S. manati, from a Haytian 
word.) The sea cow. The animals of the Genus 
Maiiotus. Their fiesh is good to eat. 

Blana'tUS. (S. nuDiati; or from L. 
maiuts, a liaud, in reference to the appearance of 
the fore-limb.) A Genus of the Order Sirenia, 
Class Mammalia. See Manatee. 

mana'xirall. The resin of Avicennia to- 

Man'cllineel. The Hippomane manci- 

T/S.., bas'tard. The Cameraria latifoUa. 
M. tree. The Hippomane mancinella. 
XWancinel'la. The Hippomane manci- 


m. bark. See undrr Wippomnne man- 

c'lHllllI . 

M. venena'ta, Tuss. (L. rcnmalus, \w\- 
sonoiis.) The lllppumanr initucinclla. 

XVIan'cona bark. The i)ark of Enj- 

thyo/ihtcuin i/niiu'i'imi!. Same as Sasai/ bark. 

ZVIan'<;OIlill. A volatile alkaloid obtained, 
along wiih ei'\ tlirophloinic. acid, by the action of 
hydrochloric acid on Erijthrophlein. When 
administered to froj,'s it causes paralysis, with 
increased reflex exfitahility and paralysis of tlio 
vagus endings in the heart, and ultimately of tlio 
heart itself. 

Blau'cous. (L. manciis, maimed, defec- 
tive.) Diticient ; wanting. 

IMCancura'na. The Origatmm vulgare, 
or wild marjoram. 

niand. The Eleusine coracana. A corn 
plant employed as food in India. 

Blan'darin. (Port, mandarine ; Malay 
mantri, a counsellor; Sans, mantrln, a coun- 
sellor ; from Aryan root man, to think.) The 
European name for a Chinese magistrate or 

M. or'ange. The fruit of a variety of the 
orange tree, the Citrus bigaradia sinensis, or C. 
bigaradia nv/rtifolia. 

Tit. or'ang:e oil. The oil of tlic rind of 
the M. orange. 

SXande'lic acid. (G. Mandel, an al- 
mond, a. Mandelsuure.) CgHj . CH (011)00.^11. 
Phenjlhydroxyacetic acid. A substance formed 
by the action of hydrochloric acid on crude oil of 
bitter almonds. It crystallises in prisms or 
needles, melts at 115^ C. (239° F.), and is soluble 
in water, alcohol, and ether. 

IMEan'dible. (L. mandibula, a jaw; from 
mando, to chew. F. mandibule ; I. mandibola ; 
S. mandibula ; G. Kicfir.) A jaw. 

The inferior maxillary bone of man and 
Mammalia, consisting originally of two separate 
bones united in the higher animals in the middle 

Also, the upper and lower segments of the 
beak of Avcs. 

Also, the upper or anterior pair of jaws of 
Articulata. They generally consist of two hori- 
zontally curved, hard, chitinous structures, with 
the inner or concave border furnished with teeth 
of the same substance, and serving for holding 
their food or their prey. 

Also, the beak of Cephalopoda. 

Mandib'ula. (L. mandibula, a jaw ; 
from mando, to chew.) A term for the inferior 
maxillary bone or lower jaw. See Mandible. 

Mandib'ular. (L. mandibula, F. man- 
dibtdairc.) Of, or belonging to, the mandible 
or lower jaw. 

IVX. arch. (G. Obcrkicfcrbogcn.) The 
first visrcral arch of Amniota which has lost its 
branchial function and has become converted by 
division into a supporting skeleton for tlie upper 
and lower jaws. It consists of the Maxillarij 
process, inferior, and the M. process, superior. 

T/l. arcb, ar'tery of. The third aortic 
arch in the ( nibryo. 

IVt. ar'tery. Tlie Denial artery, inferior. 
Wt. canal'. The danal, dental. 
M. cyst. A C'gsl, deutigerous, of the lower 

nx. lora'men. (L. foramen, a hale;,) The 
Foraiueii, dental, inferior. 

Ttt, fos'sa. 'I'lie Fossa, glenoid. 

WC. gland. A gland, having a muskv- 

smelling secretion, on the inner side of the man- 
dible in Crocddilia ; also, a similar organ below 
the mandible of some Clielonia. 

Also, till' Oleindula mandibnlaris superficialis. 
IM. mus'cle. The Masseter. 
T/L, nerve. The Dental nerve, inferior. 
"UL. notch. The Incisura maxillee infe- 

Tit. plates. The lateral portions of the 
emliryonic head which, by their growth forwards 
and downwards and their union with each other 
and with the maxillary plates, fcjrm the face. 

Tit. sym'physis. {'Suii<j>u<rL<i, a growing 
together.) The midian junction of tlie two 
lateral halves of the mandible or inferior maxil- 
lary bone. 

niandib'ulate. (L. mandibula. F. 
inandibalr.) Possessing a MandMe. 

Dlandib'ulated. Same as Mandibu- 
la te. 

DXandib'ulifomii (L. mandibula, the 
lower jaw ; forma, likeness. F. mandibuUforme ; 
G. kinnbackenformig.) Having the form of a 

Applied by Kirby to the jaws of insects when 
tliey are hard and horny, as in the Melolontha. 

niandib'ulo-labia'lis. (L. maneli- 

bula ; labiHut, a lip.) The inferior dental branch 
of the inferior maxillary nerve. 

I^andib'ulum. Same as Memdibula, 
XVIandica'tion. See Manducation. 
BXan'dioc. The Jatropha memihot. 
Also, the substance prepared from it, Gassavei. 
]mandio'ca. Same as Mandioc. 

TVZ. starch. Same as Ceisseiva starch. 
SZan'dlestone. (G. Mandclstcin ; from 
Meinelel, an almond ; Stein, a stone.) The 
mineral Amygdaloid. 

IMand'o. (L. mando, to chew.) A glut- 

]M[andrag''ora. (Mid. E. mandragores; 
Sax. mundragora ; L. nwndreigoreis ; Gr. fxav- 
o,oay()/jas, the nightshade. F. mandragore ; I. 
mandriigola ; G. Alraun.) A Genus of the Nat. 
Order Solanaceec. The species ai'e indigenous to 
Southern Europe. See Mandrake. 

Tit. acau'Iis. (L. a, without; caulis, a 
stem.) The Airopa mandreigora. 

Tit. autumna'lls, Bertero. (L. autum- 
nalis, belonging to autumn.) A form of the 
Atropa mandragora. 

m., Chi'nese. Same as Ginseng. 

IVX., fe'male. (¥ . manelragorc femelle ; I. 
mandragola femina.) The Atropa mandragora. 

Tit., male. (F. mcendragore male; 1. 
mandretgejla maschia.) The Mnndrayrn-a ver- 
nalis. It is the (jLuvopdyopa^ of Diosi^orides. 

Tit. mlcrocar'pa, liert. (MiK/xk, little ; 
hitpiruv, fruit. I. mandragola minore.) A form 
of the Ati'opa mandragora. 

Tit. Officina'rum, Linn. (L. fjflicina, a 
slioj). G. Alraun, Alraunmdnne/ien,Alrnniken.) 
The Atropa mandragora. 

Tit. Of the magicians. The Atropa 

Tit; Oil of. (F. huile de mandragore.) 
Olive oil in which have been digested thi! loaves 
of Atrojia mandragora. U.sed as an embroca- 

Tit. verna'lls, Bertero. (L. vernalis, of 

the s]iiiiig.) A form ii{ the Atropet mandrai/ora. 

IVIandrag''orin. An alkaloid very 

siniihir to atropin found by Clouzel in Atropa 

mandragora. It, is narcotic and dil.itcs the pupil. 


SSandrag'ori'tes. {Metuof)uyni>iTn-s, 

flavouiTil with in;indniko.) Wiiio in whicli tlio 
root of tlie niandriikc luis been steeped. 

I^an'drake. (Corruption of E. mandra- 
gora ; L. mandrarjoras ; Gr. /xav8(>uyupa<s, the 
nightshade. G. Alraumvxirzel, Ilcxenkraut, 
Zauberwurzel, Zauhcrpjlanzc dcr Circe.) The 
Atropa mandragora. The root of the mandrake 
possesses strong acro-narcotic qualities, and was 
anciently prescribed before amputation of a limb 
to deaden the sense of pain. It was also re- 
garded as cooling when applied extcrnall}', and 
was hence recommended in inflammations of the 
eyes and in erysipelas. It was believed to be 
capable of rendering a person invisible, and was 
used in enchantments. It was worn as an amulet 
in order to preserve the wearer from the power 
of witchcraft. 

Also, applied to the root of Bryonia dioica. 

Also, a name of the Podophyllum peltatum, 
and the P. montamtm. 

Man'drel. (F. mandrin; from Gr. ixdv- 
Spu, the bed in which the stone of a ring is 
fixed.) A bar of iron in a lathe to which is 
fitted the thing to be turned. 

In Surgery, the stilette of an clastic catheter. 

IMIan'dril. Same as Mandrel. 

Blandru'g'a. Cuba. A mineral water 
containing carbonates and sulphates of magne- 
sium and calcium with hydrogen sulphide. 

PXan'ducate. (L. manduco, to chew.) 
To chew ; to masticate. 

lyianduca'tion. (L. manduco, to chew. 
F, manducation ; I. manducazione ; S. mandu- 
cacion ; G. Kauen.) The same as Mastica- 

Man'ducatory. (L. manduco. F. man- 
ducatoire.) Of, or belonging to, manducation or 

IVX. mus'cle. The Masseter. 
IVX. nerve. Same as Masticatory nerve. 
M. or'g^ans. The organs by means of 
which the food is chewed. 

I^andu'^a* See Mandruga. 

lyiane* (A Scandinavian word ; Icel. mon; 
Dutch maan ; G. Muhnc. P. criniire ; I. cri- 
niero ; S. crxn.) The long hair on the neck of 
some animals, as the horse. 

BXa'nec, Pierre Joseph. A French 

surgeon born at Montpezas in 1799, and now 
living in Paris. 

Mi's paste. An escharotic composed of 
arsenious acid 15 grains, cinnabar 75 grains, and 
burnt sponge 35 grains, made into a paste with 

Blaneg'e'. (F. manege; I. mnncggio, 
management.) The art or process of training 

IVX. move'ment. (F. mouvement do 
manege; G. lieithahnbexocgung.) The form of 
rotation movement performed by an animal with 
cei'ebral lesion in which it describes a circle of 
great or less diameter like a horse in a circus ; 
sometimes this circular movement forms a sort 
of spiral. It is most frequently observed after 
lesion of the cerebral peduncles, but also occurs 
in other morbid conditions, as in those of the 
cortex of the brain. 

nianet'tia. {XnYier Manet ti, a Professor 
of Botany at Florence, born in 1723, died in 
1784.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Cinch ona c c (C . 

AC. cordlfo'lia, De Cand. (L. cor., the 
heart; folium., a leaf.) The bark of the plant, 
which is indigenous in Brazil, is considered to 

be a valuable remedy in dropsy and dysentery; 
it has cmi'tio proiieitio.-i. 

IVI. gla'bra. (L. glabcr, smooth.) The 
M. curdijulia. 

ZVIangralea. A Brazilian name for the 
delicious Iruit of Jfancornia speciosa. 

Blang'ana'ri. The Ambulia aromatira. 
Man'g'anate. (F. manganate ; I. man- 
ganato ; U. mangansauer Salz.) A salt of 
manganic acid. The manganates have a green 
colour and their solutions are stable only in 
presence of much free alkali ; they fuse on red- 
hot charcoal ; they arc rapidly decomposed by a 
great number of organic nuitters, as well as by 
the salts of iron, suli)hurous and phosphorous 
acids, and hydriodic acid ; on the addition of 
carbonic acid, or of much water, the colour 
changes to blue and violet from the formation of 
a permanganate with the deposition of manganese 

IVI. of potas'slum. See Fotassium man- 

IVX. of so'dium. See Soditim inanganate. 
lySan'g'anese. (Old F. manganese ; I. 
manga)iese ; perhaps because its colour was like to 
that of the loadstone, Gr. ixayvi]'s. F. manganese ; 
G. Mangan, liraunstcinmetall.) Symbol Mn. 
Atomic weight 54-8, sp. gr. 6-85 to 7'99, spcrific 
heat 0*1217. A metal of reddish-grey colour, liard 
and friable, oxidising easily in the air. Like 
iron, it is bivalent or quadrivalent ; or in double 
atom sexvalent. It does not exist in a free state 
in nature, but is usually associated with iron. It 
is found in sea water and many mineral and spring 
waters, in the ashes of numerous plants, and in tlie 
blood, bile, and hair of man and of many animals ; 
Maumene has also found traces in milk, bone, 
and urine. In large doses the salts of manganese 
produce gastric irritation and vomiting, depres- 
sion and paralysis of the cardiac musculature, 
fatty degeneration of the liver, and an apoplectic 
condition with convulsions and paraljsis, fol- 
lowed by death. In moderate doses they are be- 
lieved to assist in the regeneration of the blood, 
and in the delaying of the metabolic processes. 
Also, the commercial term for 31. peroxide. 

IVX. ac'etate. A salt which has been used 
as a gargle in aphthous conditions of the mouth. 

IVI. al'um. Mn2K.2S04 + 24H,jO. Mangan- 
ico-potassic sulphate ; found native on the shores 
of the Great Salt Lake. 

IVI. binox'ide. Same as Mangancsii oxi- 
dum nigrum. 

IVX. bro'mide. See Manganous bromide. 

VS.. car'bonate. See Manganous car- 

TNI. chlo'ride. See Manganous chloride. 

IVI. deutox'lde. (Aeutc/jos, second.) The 
Mavganesii oxidnni nigrum. 

Tfl. dlox'lde. (A/<;, twice.) The Manga- 
ncsii oxidum nigrum. 

BX., earth'y. Amorphous, loosely cohe- 
rent masses of a native oxide of manganese. 

IVI. heptox'ide. ('ETn-fi, seven.) MujO,. 
A very unstable dark green liquid, obtained when 
pure potassium permanganate is added to cold 
concentrated sulphuric acid. 

m. i'odide. See Manganous iodide. 

IVI. ma'Iate. A salt which has been used 
in ana.'mia. 

IVI. monox'ide. (Mo'vo?, single.) Same 
as ManganoKS axide. 

Tli. , ox'ide of, black. The Manganesii 
oxidum nigrum. 


Itt., ox'lde of, red. The Manganoso- 
manganic oxide. 

TX. oxychlo'ride. (G. Manganoxychlo- 
rid.) MnOaCl. A copper- red or green gas 
evolved when melted sodium chloride is added 
to a solution of potassium permanganate in con- 
centrated sulphuric acid. It condenses to a 
greenish-brown fluid at a temperature of lo' C. 
to 20' C. (-')9' F. to GS= F.) It acts as an irritant 
on the respiratory mucous membrane, and shows 
in the spectroscope eiglit absorption lines ar- 
ranged in four double lines. 

BI. perchlo'ride. A salt described by 
Dumas; probably the same as M. oxgchloride. 

V/t. perox'ide. (F. peroxgde de man- 
ganese ; G. Manganhiipcroxgd.) MnOa- Sp. 
gr. 4-7 to 5026. Pyrolusi'te. The common 
mineral from wliich the metal manganese is ob- 
tained. It appears in the form of radiated crys- 
talline masses of grey colour, or in orthorhombic 
prisms. It easily "yields oxygen to reducing 
agents. Same as Mangnnesii oxidum nigrHin. 

IK. protoxide. (IIjixotos, first. 
toxyde de manganese.) Same as Manganous 

VL., salts of, tests for. Ammonium 
sulphide gives a buff preciintate, soluble in acetic 
acid ; alkalies give a white precipitate of hy- 
drated oxide, becoming brown ; mixed with 
sodium carbonate and heated in the oxidising 
flame of the blowpipe they fuse into a green 
mass ; heated in a borax bead in the oxidising 
flame of the blowpipe an amethyst red bead is 

M. sesquiox'lde. (L. sesqai, once and a 
half.) Same as 3Ln/ganic oxide. 

T/t., sulphate of. See Jfangani sulphas. 

T/l. sulphide. MnS. A tlesli-eoloui-ed 
precipitate obtained by adding an alkaline sul- 
phide to a soluble manganous salt. 

Jt/L., tetrox'ide of. The Manganesii oxi- 
dam jugrnm. 

XWang-ane'seous. (F. manganesien.) 
CLdongiug to Manganese. 

Till, ac'ld. Same as Manganic acid. 
Mang'ane'siate. Term used by some 
chemists fur Mmiganale. 

DXangrane'sic. (F. mangauesique.) Of, 
or bflonging to, Manganese. 

Mang'ane'sii. Genitive singular of 
Manga nes la 1)1. 

JDL. binox'idum. The M. oxidum ni- 

IVI. earbo'nas. See Jfanganous carbonate. 

IVI. hypophos phis. A white or rosy 
powder, usrd as a tonic. l)use, 1 to 10 grains. 

la. ox'idum ni'g-rum, li. I'h. (L. niger, 
black. F. peroxgde de manganese ; G. Mau- 
gansuperoxgd, Braunslein, Graabraunsicinerz.) 
MnO.j. Molecular weight 8G. Pyroliisite, native, 
crude binnxide of manganese, a mineral con- 
taining a greater or less proportion of the pure 
oxide with otlier manganic comjjounds and a 
small proportion of iron, lime, baryta, silica, and 
other substances. It is a heavy, black, gritty, 
tasteless powder, almost entirely soluble in hy- 
drochloric acid witli evolution of chlorine, and 
giving off oxygen when heated to redness. It is 
imijloyed in the production of chlorine and per- 
manganate of potassium. It was used at one 
time as a substitute for iron in aua'mia, and in 
gastrodynia, aeidit)', pj'rosis, and ulcer of the 
stomacli ; it has also been used externally in 
syphilitic sores, and as an antiparasitic. Latterly 

it has been employed in amenorrhcea. Dose, 
5 to 40 grains ('3 to 3 grammes.) 

A precipitated hydrated oxide is employed for 
internal administration. 

T/t. perox'idum ni'g^rum natl'vum. 
(L. iHitivus, produced by nature.) The A[. oxi- 
dum nigrum. 

IVI. protox'idi sul'phas. {Ufiwro's, 
first.) The Manga)ti sulplias. 

IWC. sul'phas. See Mangani sulphas. 
Mang'ane Sium. Same as Manganese. 

IVI. ochra'ceum nl'^rum. ("i2xp«, 
yellow ochre ; L. «(//*>•, black.) The Manganesii 
oxidum nigrum. 

TX. oxyda'tum nati'vuxn. (L. nativus, 
produced by nature.) The Manganesii oxidum 

M. oxyda'tum ni'g^rum. The Man- 
ganesii oxidum nigrum. 

IVI. vitrearlo'rum. (L. vitrearius, a 
glass worker.) The Manganesii oxidum nigrum. 
BXanganeU'teS. {UayyaviuTrn, a 

juggler.) A quack. 

XAang'a'lli. Genitive singular of Manga - 

IVI. earbo'nas. See Manganous car- 

IVI. chlo'riduxn. See Manganous chloride. 

M. iod'idum. See Manganous iodide. 

IVI. oxidum nigrum, U.S. Ph. Same 
as Manganesii oxidum nigrum. 

IVI. oxo'des natl'va. (L. nativus, pro- 
duced by nature.) The native black oxide of 

IVI. phos'phas. See Manganous phos- 

M. sul'phas, U.S. Ph. (F. sulfate de 
manganese ; G. scltwefelsaures Ma>iganoxgdul.) 
MuSO^ . 4II.,0. Sulphate of manganese obtained 
by mixing black oxide of manganese with strong 
sulpliuric acid to a thin magma, heating it to 
boiUng, and evaporating to dryness. Used as a 
cholagogue purgative in jaundice, and as an oint- 
ment in glandular swellings. 

Blang-ani'a. {Uayyavda, jugglery.) 


nXaiig'an'ic. (F. manganique.) Belong- 
ing to Manganese. 

IVI. ac'id. (F. acide manganique ; G. 
Mangansiiurc.) H2Mn04. This acid exists only 
in combination, inasmuch as when a manganate 
is decomposed the acid at once changes into 
permanganic acid and manganese dioxide. 

IVI.anhy^dride. (F. manganique anhy- 
dride.) Same as M. acid. 

Ttt. chlo'ride. Mn.iCl^. A brown liquid 
obtained by adding magnesium oxide to cold 
hydrochloric acid. 

IVI. heptox'ide. Same as Manganese 

TO., hydrox'ide. l\rn.,Oo(OH).,. Occurs 
native in steel-grey crystals as manganite. It is 
a dark brown powder obtained wlien manganous 
liydroxide is allowed to oxidise in the air. 

IVI. ox'ide. (F. oxyde manganique ; G. 
Manganoxyd, schivarzes Manganoxyd.) Mn203. 
Sp. gr. 4-32o. A mineral known as braunite, 
whilst its hydrate is manganite or acerdese. It 
forms a deep brown j)owder when obtained by 
igniting an oxidi- of manganese in oxygen. 

IVI. sesqulox'ide. (L. sesqui, one lialf 
more.) Same as .)/. oxide. 

Mang-an'ico - potas'sic sul'- 

phate. Same as Manganese alum. 


Mang'an'lcuin Buperox'idum. 

The black oxide of manganese, Mamjancsii uxi- 
duni nigrum. 

IMCangranisa'tion. (Mayyai/fi'w, to 

play tricks.) Adulteration ; faisilication. 

Alan'g'anite. A salt of ^[aiKjnnom acid. 

Also, an ore consisting of native; Manganic 

Ittang'a'nium. (F. mannanium; G. 
Mangan.) A term proposed by Berzelius for 
manganese, under the idea that the latter name 
is apt to be confounded with that of magnesium, 
at least in derivatives. 

Also (/uayyni'EUd), to juggle), same as Man- 

Mang'an'ja. The native name of the 
arrow poison obtained by Kirk in the Zambesi. 

IWang'ano'so-inang-an'ic ox'ide. 

(F. oxyde manga)wso-nuniga)nque ; G. rotlics 
Mangano.vyd.) ' Mn304i:MnOMn203. Sp. gr. 
4'85G. Eed oxide of manganese ; brown oxide of 
manganese. A mineral known as hausniannife. 
It is formed by the oxidation of manganese in 
the air. It is of a brownish-red colour, and 
dissolves in, and forms acids with, the mineral 

Blan'g'anous. Relating to the lower 
oxides of manganese. 

IMC. ac'ld. A hypothetical substance which 
may be assumed to exist in the combinations of 
manganese dioxide with a basic oxide. 

nX.bro'mide. {G.ifanganbromiir.) Mn 
Br^. A pale-red crystalline mass, obtained by 
heating powdered manganese in bromine vapour ; 
or colourless deliquescent crystals containing 
4H2O, which become red on heating without 
access of air when formed by dissolving manga- 
nese carbonate in h3'drobromic acid. 

ttl. carlionate. (F. carbonate de man- 
ganese ; G. Mangancnrhonat, kohlensaures Man- 
ganoxydul.) MnCOa. A white, tasteless, odour- 
less and insoluble powder, obtained by adding 
sodium carbonate to a solution of manganese 
chloride or sulphate. It occurs in dolomite. 
Used as a tonic. Dose, -3 — 1 gramme. 

Tfl. cblo'ride. (F. chlorure de manganese ; 
G. Manganchlorilr, einfach ChJormangan.) Mn 
Clj. A rose-coloured crystalline substance, re- 
sembling magnesium chloride, deliquescing in 
air, and obtained by burning manganese in a 
current of chlorine, or by passing chlorine over 
a mixture of manganese oxide and carbon at a 
high temperature. It is used in skin diseases, 
haemorrhages, and chlorosis, and as a gargle in 
aphthous conditions of the mouth and throat. 

1«. hy'drate. MnCOH),. A white 
powder, obtained when caustic alkali is added to 
a solution of a manganese salt. It oxidises 
rapidly in the air. 

Bl. i'odide. (F. iodiire de manganese ; 
G. Manganlodiir, einfach lodniai/gan.) ftrnIo+ 
4H2O. Obtained when a solution of manganese 
carbonate is added to aqueous hydriodic acid. 
It forms white or rose-red crystalline lamina^. 
It is deliquescent. Used in scrofulous and can- 
cerous anivmia. 

nc. ox'ide. (F. oxyde manganeux.) A 
substance forming emerald -green, octahedral 
crystals, or appearing in the form of a pale 
green powder, having a density of .5'091 ; in the 
former case obtained by directing a current of a 
mixture of hydrogen and hydrochloric acid gas 
at a bright red heat on the oxide resulting from 
the reduction of one of the higher oxides of 

manganese ; in the latter case obtained by cal- 
cination of the carbonate without access of air. 

IVI. phos'pbate. l\[n3(P04)2+71l20. A 
whitish, imperfectly crystalline body, used as a 
tonic. Dose, 1 to grains. 

IM[. protoxide. (II;du)tos, first.) Same 
as M. oxide. 

IVX. sul'phate. Same as Mangani sulphas, 
DXang'a num. Same as Manganium. 

IVI. bioxyda'tum. The Manganesii oxi- 
di<»i nigrum. 

T/t. carbonicum oxydula'tum. The 
ManganoKs carbonate. 

IVX. cblora'tum. See Manganous chloride. 

V/l. byperoxida'tum. (Tirtp, above.) 
The Mangatie.sii oxidant nigrum. 

IMC. muriat Icum oxydula'tum. The 
Manganous rh loride. 

ivi. oxyda'tum natl'vum. Native black 
oxide of manganese. 

M. sulhi'rlcuni, G. Ph. The Manganesii 

M. sulfu'rieum oxydula'tum. The 
Mangani salpJias. 

DXang-a'nus spring-s. United States 
of America, North Carolina, Orange County. 
Sulphuretted and chalybeate waters. 

lilang'a'va. Same as Mangalea. 

Xmang'e. (From E. mangy ; from F. 
mange, eaten ; from manger, to eat. F. mange- 
son, gale ; I. scabbia ; S. sona ; G. Rdude.) A 
parasitic disease of dogs analogous to the itch in 
man and caused by the Sarcoptes scabiei. It 
may occur in horses and cattle. 

Also, and more frequently, in the dog, a form 
of eczema rubrum. 

The mange of the cat is said not only to be 
caused by an ectozoon, the Sarcoptes cati, but 
also by an ectophyte, a Trichophyton. 

Blan'g'el wurz'el. A misspelling of 

niang-if era. {Mango ; h.fero, to bear.) 
A Genus of the Nat. Order Anacardiacea. The 
mango tree. 

Vt. am'ba, Forsk. The M. indiea. 
IVI. domes'tica, Giirtn. The M. indiea. 
nx. gabonen'sis, Aubry-Lecompte. The 
Irvingia Barteri. 

IVX. In'dica, Linn. (L. indicus, Indian. 
F. mangier, mangaier ; G. Mangobaum.) The 
mango tree, cultivated throughout Asia ; the 
ripe fruit is juicy, of an exquisite flavour, and so 
fragrant as to pei-fume the air to a considerable 
distance ; a wine is made from the expressed 
juice, and the kernel can be made into flour for 
bread which is used in times of famine ; the 
kernel is used uncooked as an anthelmintic and 
an astringent in haemorrhoids and monorrhagia. 
The bark yields to incisions a reddish-brown 
resin. The" bark itself is used in infusion, or 
fluid extract, as an astringent, and the resin 
mixed with white of egg and opium is employed • 
in diarrhoea and dysentery. The leaves are used 
as tooth-brushes, and the stalks for chewing in- 
stead of betel ; when calcined they are employed 
to remove warts. There are several cultivated 

DXang-i'li, G-iusep'pe. An Italian 
zoologist, born at Caprino, near Bergamo, in 
1767 ; died in Pavia in 1829. 

m.'s g-an'gllon. The pedal ganglion of 
Mollusca, so called from its first describer. 

XWang-i'ni's re a'greiit for al'ka- 

lo'ids* Potassium iodide three parts, bismuth 


iodide sixteen parts, and hydrochloric acid three 

Blang'lie'tia. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

tn.. grlau'ca. (L. glaucus, bluish-gre}-.) 
Hab. Java. Said to prevent the decay of bodies 
buried in coffins made of it, 

man'g'O. (Malay maTiggd, the native 
name.) The fruit of the Mangifera mdica ; it 
is eaten fresli, or preserved, or pickled. 

TfL. grin'grer. The fresh root of Curcuma 

M. tree. The Mangifera indica. 
T/l., ivild. The fruits of the species of 
Also, the plants of the Genus Cliisia. 
AIj^o, the Spondias mangifera. 
IWan'g'old wurz'el. (G. Mangold, beet; 
wurzel, root.) The root of Beta hybrida, which 
grows to a great size like the turnip, and is 
largely used as a source of sugar and as a food 
for cattle. According to some, it is a variety of 
Beta vulgaris, and, according to others, of Beta 

SXang'Ona'ria. A Paracelsian term for 
a magic power by which heavy things may be 
lifted without effort ; the mesmerist's levitation 

IWang'OStan'. Same as Mangosteen. 
XMCang'OSta'na. (^Mangusta, the Malay 
name of the plant.) A Genus of the Nat. Order 
The Garcinia mangostana. 
IMC. cambo'grla, Giirtn. The Garcinia 

1*1. garcin'la. The Garcinia mangostana. 
T/l. morel'lai Gartn. The Garcinia mo- 

DXan'g'OSteen. (G. wohhchmecJcende 
Mangostana.) Tlie fruit of Garcinia mangostana, 
and other species. It is very delicious and highly 

IVI., Mal'abar. The Biospyros mala- 

M., male. The Garcinia purpurea. 
M., oH of, con'crete. Same as Kokum 

tit. or'der. The Nat. Order Guttiferce, or 
Clusiaccce . 

T/L. tree. The Garcinia mangostana. 

M., Mrild. 'Yhc Emhrgopteris glutinifera. 

Man'g'OStin. _ CjoH^^jOj. A crystalline 

substance contained in tlie rind of the fruit of 

the mangosteen. It forms thin golden laniinte ; 

tasteless; fusible about 190' C. (374^ F.) It is 

insoluble in water, readily soluble in alcobol and 

ether. Concentrated nitric acid converts it into 

oxalic acid. It first obtained by W. Schmid. 

Blan'g'OUStan. Same as Mangosteen. 

nCan'g'rove tree. The lihizophora 

mf 1,11/ In. 

IVT., white. The Aviccnnia tomentosa. 
IWan'gTOveS. The plants of tlie Nat. 
OnliT lihizo/jlioriiccte. 

XMCanhat'tan arte'sian min'eral 

XirellS. United States of America, Kansas, 
Kiley County. Saline mineral waters, one 
spring containing cjilcium bicarbonate .5-28 
grains, iron bicarbonate 'lO, calcium sulphate 
33'37, magnesium sulpiiate .5'6G, and silica 101 
in a gallon ; the other having similar constituents 
in dilfeient proportions. 

XMEan'heb. (Arab.) Old term for Scoria, 
or dross. 

IMCan'llOOdi (Sax. man-had.) Adult age. 
IVXa'nia. (L- mania ; from Gr. fxauia, 
madness; from fialvofxai, to rage, from Aryan 
root man, to think. F. manie ; I. pazzia ; S. 
mania; G. JVuth, liaserei, Tollheit, Tollsucht.) 
Madness characterised, when fully developed, by 
mental and bodily excitement. 

The word is often used in the same sense as 
M., acute. 

IVI. a pathe'mate. (L. a, from; Gr. 
■wcS^fia, a sutl'ering.) Same as Empathema. 

IVI. a po'tu. (L. a, from; potus, drink.) 
Madness from drink, or Lclirium tremens. 

IVI. a temulen'tla. (L. a ; temulenlia, 
drunkenness.) A synonym of Delirium tre- 

Til., acute'. (L. acutus, sharp. F. manie 
aigu'e, m. suraiguc, delire aigu'e ; G. Tohsucht, 
Wuth.) It has been defined as a mental disease 
characterised by abnormal rapidity in the suc- 
cession of ideas, and by morbid excitability of 
the motor centres of the cerebrum. Its course 
is divisible into the initial stage, the stage of 
exaltation, the stage of fuior, and the stage of de- 
cline. The initial stage usually commences with 
symptoms of gastric disturbance, want of appe- 
tite, and constipation, accompanied by uneasi- 
ness and heaviness in the head, sleeplessness and 
general feeling of despondency. The duration 
of this stage is commonly two or three months, 
rarely a few days, and still more rarely more 
than three months. The second stage, of exal- 
tation, commences by the patient feeling and 
looking better; he is animated, and sets to work 
with pleasure ; his ideas quickly succeed each 
other; he talks constantly, has illusions of sight 
and of hearing, as well as of the other senses, and 
may have hallucinations, believing he holds high 
office, or is pursued by persons of distinguished 
rank. There is great insensibility in regard to ex- 
posure to heat and cold, the calls of appetite, and to 
fatigue. Sleepisbrief and disturbed. The tem- 
perature is normal ; the pulse from 90 to 100. This 
stage may last for weeks or for many months. It 
at length culminates in an acute attack of mania, 
characterised by incoherent delirium and great 
violence, the patient endeavouring to strike 
those around him and to tear his clothes to 
pieces. This condition may persist for months, 
or be interrupted by temporary relapses into the 
second stage, when these become longer tlie stage 
of decrease of the disease commences. This is 
heralded by general reduction of the excitement 
and by better sleep, and recovery is sometimes 
preceded by a slight melancliolic and hypochon- 
driacal state, or the disease may pass into incur- 
able chronic mania. 

Tit., acute' delirious. (L. deliro, to be 
crazy. F. maxie suraiguc, furcnr ; \. fremsia ; 
G. Tohsucht, Wuth.) An affection distinguished 
from acute mania by its sudden supervention, 
short course, and frequent grave issue. It may 
owe its origin to some violent mental shock or 
excitement, or it may occur in the course of 
some acute disease, as pneumonia, measles, or 
rheumatism, or after great fatigue, an epilep- 
tic fit, or childbirth. As a rule the patient, 
though highly excited, is not violent. He 
is hot and dirty. High temperature, brown 
tongue, prolonged slcephssiu'ss, and the occur- 
rence of visions of a horrible nature are un- 
favourable signs. 

IM., alcobol'lc. See Insanity, alcoholic. 

IM., car'diac. (Kn/or'/a, the heart. F. 


nianie cardiaque.) A form of insanity which 
occurs in tho course of heiirt disease. 

IVI., cbron'lc. The same as Dementia. 

Its., conges'tive. (L. conjesluK, licaped 
up. Y. manic co)igvstivc,) A form of insanity 
characterised by marked impairment of the in- 
tellect fi'om the beginning with confusion of 
ideas and incoherence of language ; tlie delusions 
arc sometimes of an exalted, at other times of a 
depressed, nature ; there is muscular weakness 
and jx'rccptive dulness. 

IVI. contaminatio'nis. (L. contaminalio, 
delib'inrnt.) Same as Myso2)hobia. 

TO., crapulo'sa. (L. crapula, drunken- 
ness.) Same as JJipsomania. 

T/l,, danc'ing:. A delusion which arose in 
Germany and, reaciiing Aix-la-Chapelle in 1374, 
spread from that city to tho Netherlands. The 
attack, often induced by witnessing it in others, 
commenced with epileptiform convulsions, after 
which the patients, springing up, danced and 
sang, with violent contortions of the body, for 
hours together, until they fell completely ex- 
h;iusted. Whilst dancing their faculties were 
wholly absorbed, and no attention was paid to 
impressions on the senses. A tympanitic condi- 
tion of the abdomen followed the attack, accom- 
panied by pain in the belly, which was relieved 
by swathing them tightly with bands. In 
some instances complete and immediate recovery 
occurred ; in others, the patients becoming 
frantic dashed themselves against walls or flung 
themselves into rivers ; whilst others, again, re- 
mained permanently debilitated. Similar ma- 
niacal attacks have been recorded as occurring 
amongst the ancients, and were subsequently 
known ia Italy, where the affection was at first 
called Tarantistn. 

IWC. ebrlo'sa. (L. ebriosus, given to 
drinking.) A synonym oi Dipsomania. 

IM., ephe'meral. ('E(/)/;/xjpos, living but 
a day.) A form of mania which lasts two or 
three days only and comes on without any pre- 
monitory symptoms. It differs from acute mania 
in that the mind appears to be less affected ; 
tliere is less indecency in action and language, 
but homicidal tendencies are frequent. 

ns., epilep'tiform. See Insanity, epi- 

Ttt., erot'ic. See Disanity, erotic. 

T/t., feign'ed. Sec Disanity , feigned. 

m., fu'rious. The fully-developed or 
violent stage of mania. 

IWC. gra'vis. (L. gravis, heavy.) In this 
form of acute mania the initial stage is very short ; 
hallucinations of the several senses, and great 
restlessness, violence, and sleeplessness are ob- 
served ; from hallucinations of taste food is 
ingested but soon rejected from the mouth ; the 
pulse is small and rapid ; the feeces and urine 
are passed involuntarily ; nephritis and diar- 
rhoea occur ; from furious delirium the patient 
passes into muttering delirium, and in the course 
of from a few days to two or three weeks collapse 
supervenes, and death results in coma. 

IMC. hallucinato'ria. (L. hallncinatio, a 
wandering of the mind.) A form of mania often 
supervening upon acute somatic disease, in 
which illusions, generally visual, but sometimes 
affecting the auditory or other senses, are per- 
ceived, which lead to much confusion of mind. 
The initial stage of mania is often absent. 

TH., bomlci'dal. See Insanity, homicidal. 

Mifbyster'ical. See Insanity, hysterical. 

IVI. Intermlt'tens. (L. intcnnitto, to 
leave oil for a lime.) Alaiiia which presents a 
succession of attacks, in the intervals between 
which the patient appears well. 

Also, tho same as Disanity, intermittent. 

IVI., Joy'ous. {l!\ manic gaie ; G. (Jhiiro- 
manic.) A form of insanity characterised by 

IVI. lac'tea. (L. lacteus, milky.) Same as 
Insanity, puerperal, in allusion to the idea that 
it was caused bj' a metastasis of milk to the head. 
Also, see Insanity of lactation. 

IVI. melanchol'lca. Same as Melan- 

IVI. menstrua'lis. Same as Insanity, 

IVI. metaptays'ica. {Metaphysics. G. 
Griibelsucht.) A term for a modern form of 
mental disease characterised by a tidgetty ques- 
tioning of the why and the wherefore of things. 

IVI. metastat'ica. (M £t«tt (/o-is, a being 
put into a diderent place.) Insanity following 
the arrest of an accustomed discharge or the 
suppression of a rash. 

IVI. pella'gria. Same as Insanity , pella- 

IVI. perlod'ica. (G. periodischen Manie.) 
That form of mania, whether acute, subacute, or 
specially characterised by hallucinations, which 
returns at intervals ; these at first are usually 
long but subsequently become shorter. In this 
form the initial stage is in general not well 
marked. The hallucinations are few or reduced 
to one, or there may only be hyperfesthenia or 
neuralgia of the fifth or of the intercostal nerves. 
The stage of excitation supervenes rapidly, and 
may attain to the severest form or may only be- 
come subacute. 

Same as Insanity, 2icriodic. 

M. postmenstrua'lls. (L. post, after.) 
The form of Disanity, menstrual, which occurs 
just after the menstrual period. 

IVI. potato'rum. (L. potator, a toper.) 
A term for Delirium tremens. 

IVI. praemenstrua'lis. (L. ;??>«, before.) 
The form oi Insanity, menstrual, vfhich occurs 
just before the menstrual period. 

IVI.,puer'peral. See Insanity , puerperal. 

IVI. puerpera'rum acu'ta. (L. puer- 
pcra, a lying-in woman; aeutus, violent.) A 
synonym of Disanity, puerperal. 

IVI., rea'soning'. Same as M. sine delirio. 

IVI., recur'rent. (L. recurro, to come 
back.) Same as 31. periodica. 

M., sixu'ple. The stage of recovery from 
an attack of mania. 
Also, see M. simplex. 

IVI. sim'plex. (L. simplex, simple.) The 
same as M. si)ic delirio. 

IVI. si'ne delir'io. (L. *me, without ; 
delirium, madness. F. manie sans dilire, folie 
raisonnante.) A form of mania commencing with 
a slightly expressed melancholic and hypochon- 
driacal stage, followed by a stage of exaltation, 
without illusions or hallucinations and without 
passing into the stage of furor. There is great 
excitability and disposition to roam. It may 
last for several months and then gradually 
subside. According to some, every form of 
mania is attended with delirium, and hence there 
is no such disorder as M. sine delirio. 
See, also. Insanity, moral. 

M., suici'dal. See Insanity, suicidal. 

IVI., symptomat'lc. (^ly/^TTTu/ua, a 


symptom.) The form which is caused by some 
other disease. 

IM., sys'tematised. (Su(TTij/xa, an or- 
ganised wliok'. F. iHioiie systcmatisce, Morel.) 
A synouyni of MdHdiiiintia. 

M. transito'ria. (L. traHsitorius,'h.nyhi^ 
a ]);iss:i>;<'.) See l/isa?riti/, traniyitory. 

lM[a.'llia.C« (Mid. E. maninck ; F, ma- 
niuquc, mad; from L. nui>ih/. 1. muniaco ; S. 
maNtaco ; (j.fiilisiichtifl.) Maniac; a mad person. 

DIa.Xli'a,ca.l> (L. mania, madness. F. 
ituoiiiical ; 1. uKoiiacalc ; S. maniacal; G. rascnd, 
tvahiisiniiKj.) Of, or behinging to, Mania. 

T/L. delir'iuiu. (L. dcliro, to be crazy.) 
Same as Mania, acute. 

WC. fu'ry. Same as Mania, acute. 

Man'ibar. A name for the Jatropha 

DIa.Il'ica,. (h. manica,a.\\ •Axm\.L'i\ from 
nianiis, the liaiid. F. ^naniquc ; G. Handschuh.) 
\ tei-m for a kind of vestment, sleeve, or covering 
for the hands. 

Also, formerly applied to a kind of furnace in 
which copper is separated from its ores. 

Also, applied to instruments, as those used for 

Also, a filter. 

Also, a towel. 

M. Hippoc'ratis. See Hippocrates, 
sicerc of. 

"StLSLTL'iCBXGm (L. manicatus, furnished 
with long sleeves.) In Botany, covered with 
felted hairs which can be stripped off, as a coat, 
from the surface. 

DXan'icle. Same as Manicula. 

Illanicoco'iniuin. (MamK-ds, insane ; 
Kitfiiw, to take care of. F. manicocomc ; G. 
Irnnhaus.) A hospital for the insane. 

Blanic'ula. (L. manicula, dim. of niamis, 
the hand. F. manicule.) Applied by Illiger 
to the feet of the fore paws in the Mamniifera ; 
a fore -foot. 

man'ifesti (F. manifeste ; from L. mani- 
fest/is, palpable; from manns, the hand; festus, 
struck ; part, of primitive word fcndo.) Evi- 
dent ; apparent. 

Ttl. squint. See Strabismus, manifest. 

IVIanifesta'tion. (F. manifestation; 
from L. manifest atio ; from manifesto, to make 
public. I. manifestazione ; S. manifcstacion ; 
G. Offenharung.') The act of making evident. 

M., xnor'bid. (L. morbidus, diseased.) 
The making or becoming evident of a local lesion 
or sign indicating the presence of a general dis- 
ease, but for it unrecognisable. 

ma'niform. (L. manus, the hand ; 
forma, resemblance. F. maniforme.) Shaped 
like a hand. Applied by Kirby to palpi when 
they end in a claw, that is, when furnished with 
a tinker, as in the Scorpio. 

nZa'nlg'raph. (Maj/i'a, madness; ypcapw, 
to write.) One who specially studies insanity. 

Manig''rapliy. (F. manigraphic ; from 
Gr. fiitvia ; yfiu<iim.) A description or study of 

DIanig'Uet'tai The Amomum mele- 

Plan'ig'uette. (F. maniguette.) Grains 
of I';iradi-c ; the seeds of Amomum. meleguetta. 

Man'ihoC. Same as Manioc. 

DIan'ihot. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

The Jatropha manihot or M. utilissima, 
TIL. al'pl. Same as M. a^/pi. 

m. ama'ra. (L. amarus, bitter. F. 
manioc ainer.) The Jatropha manihot. 
T/t. ar'gro. The 31. aijpi. 
IVI. ay'pl, Pohl. Sweet cassava. Roots 
used as those vi Jatropha manihot. 

IVI., bit'ter. The Jatropha manihot. 
Ttl, carthagrinen'sis, Muller. Roots 
used as those oS. Jatropha manihot. 

to., diffu'sa, i'olil. (L. dijf'nsus, spread 
abroad.) Tlie M. aypi. 

TIL. dul'cis, H. Brogn. (L. dulcis, sweet. 
F. Duutioc do/i.r.) The M. aypi. 

TIL. edu'lis, Plumier. (L. cdulis, eatable.) 
Tlie Jatropha manihot. 

TIL. grlazio'vii, MiiUer. Supplies a variety 
of caoutchouc, called Leara rubber. 

IMC. palma'ta, MiiUer. (L. palma, the 
palm.) The M. aypi. 

TIL., sweet. (F. manioc doux.) The M. 

TIL. utilis'sima, Pohl. The Jatropha 

Blaniho'tic ac'id. (G. Manihotsiiure.) 
A dnubtful crystalline substance found by 
Peekolt in the root of Jatropha manihot. 

Itlaniho'tin. A doubtful substance found 
by Peekolt in the root of Jatropha manihot. 

Blanihotox'in. A doubtful substance 
found by Peekolt in the root of Jatropha manihot. 
inXani'ibar. A synonym of Cassava. 
S'lanikin. (Dutch manneken, a little 
man. F. mannequin; I. modcllo ; G. Gliedcr- 
mann.) The lay figure employed for practising 
bandaging ; also, the dummy used for demon- 
strating the mechanism of labour. 

DIani'la. A town of the Philippine 

IVI. el'eml. The official Elemi. 
TIL. nut. The Arachis hypogeea. 
manilu'vium. See Manuluvium. 
DIan'ioc. The Jatropha manihot or 
Manihot utilissima. 

Manio'deSi (Mrti/itioiis, mad. F. ma- 
nieax.) The same as Maniacal. 

PXaniOPOe'OUS. {Mavioiroio^; from 
fiavia, madness ; Trott'o), to make. F. maniope ; G. 
rasendmachcnd.) Making or causing madness. 
DXan'iple. Same as Manipulus. 
IVIan'iplus. Same as Manipulus. 
IMCanip'ulate. (L. manipulus, a hand- 
ful.) To luuuUe with a definite object; to use 
the hands with a purpose. 

nXanipula'tion. (L. manipulus. F. 
manipulation ; I. manijmlazionc ; S. manipula- 
cion ; G. Manipulation.) The art of working 
by hand. The handling, or the manual exami- 
nation, of a part for the purpose of diagnosis or 

In Pharmacy, the mode of working with a 
utensil or apparatus to produce certain pre- 

TIL., conjoined. See Turning, combined. 
IWanip'ulus. (L. manipulus, from ma- 
nus, tlie hand ; and the root of pleo, to fill. F. 
manipule ; I. manipolo ; S. manipulo ; G. 
Handvoll.) A handful, as much as the hand can 
ZVIanistupra'tion. See Manustupra- 

tioii . 

IVIanisu'ris. A Genus of the Nat. Order 


T/L. granula'rls, Linn. (L. granulum,a. 
small grain.) Trinpali. Ilab. India. Used in 
diseases of the liver and spleen. 


Man'itOU spring's. United States of 
America, Colorado, 101 I'aso County. Mineral 
waters, of a temperature of 43' F. to GO' F. 
(6-ir C. to 15-55' C), and containing sodium 
carbonate 52'26 parts, calcium carbonate 111, 
magnesium carbonate 20-51, lithium carbonate 
•21, sodium sulphate 19-71, potassium sulphate 
13-35, sodium chloride 40-95, and silica 2-01 parts 
in 100,000. 

Blanitrun'cUS. (F. munitroHC.) Ap- 
plied by Kirby to the anterior segment of tlie 
trunk of insects, that which icceives the head. 

JWann's rea'grent. ]\lolybdic acid one 

part is mixed and melted with two parts of citric 
acid, and dissolved in water ; tilter-paper dipped 
into this blue solution and dried is used for the 
detection of water in alcohol, air, and other sub- 
stances, when if present the test paper becomes 

Mail'na. (L. manna ; from Gr. /lawa ; 
from Heb. iiicin, manna. Several explanations 
have been given of this word. Heb. man hu, 
"What is this?" because when the children of 
Israel saw it, " they wist not what it was," and 
so questioned each other ; but against this it is 
said that man, what, is a late Aramaic word. 
The more probable explanation is that the 
meaning of man is, it is a gift, from the Arabic 
root mdnan, he divided.) The food provided for 
the children of Israel in the wilderness of Arabia. 
Also, B. Ph., U.S. Ph., G. Ph. (F. mantie ; I. 
manna; S. mana; G. 3Ianna,Esc/ien-Manna), the 
produce of the mauna ash, Fraxinus ornns, a tree 
growing freely in Italy and in Sicily, Sardinia, 
and Corsica, in Asia I\linor, and about Smyrna. 
The manna of commerce is obtained from Sicily. 
The trees, when from eight to twenty years 
old, are scaritied daily in July and August just 
through the bark, and pieces of straw inserted ; 
the manna exudes, and encrusting on the straws 
or on the bark, is collected. Manna is brittle, 
sweet with a trace of bitterness, smelling faintly 
like honey. It dissolves in six parts of water, 
forming a neutral solution. It contains mannite, 
with a little sugar and gum. Manna is a gentle 
laxative in doses of two drachms or more. 

V/t., a'g-ul. Same as Alhagi-manna, 

TIL., altaa'g-l-. See Alhagi-manna. 

IMC., alhajl'nl. Same as Alhagi-manna. 

Til., Amer'ican oak. A saccharine sub- 
stance resulting from the puncture, by a Coccus, 
of the leaves of Qtiercus valonca and Q. pcrsica. 
It is mixed with fragments of the leaves, and 
consists chiefly of grape sugar. 

T/l., Ara'bian. Same as 31. tamarisk. 

T/L. ash. The Fraxinus ornus. 

TIL., .A.ustra'lian. {Australia. F. manne 
d'Australic ; G. Australische Manna.) Small 
rounded, opaque, white, dry masses, found on 
the leaves of Eucalyptus viminalis, Labill, or 
E. mannifcra, or E. dumosa, Cunningh., and 
containing a kind of sugar named melitose. 

TIL., Brian'Qon. {Briangon, a town in 
Dauphiny. F. manne de Brianqon ; I. manna 
di Briangon ; G. Brienzoner Manna.) A kind 
of manna collected near Brian^on. It occurs in 
small, detached, opaque, white tears, which 
encrust the needle-like leaves of the Pinus larix, 
or Larix decidua. It contains a peculiar sugar 
named melezitose by Berthelot. 

TIL. brigranti'aca. (L. Brigantis, Bri- 
aiKjon.) The same as 31., Briangon. 

IMC. brlg^anti'na. (L. Brigantis, ancient 
name of Brian^on.) The same as M., Briangon. 

{Calahria.) The same 
{Calabria.) Tiie same 

TIL., Cala'brian. 

as 31., Sicilian. 

T/L. calabri'na. 

as J/., Siciliai/. 

T/L. cannella'ta in frag-men'tis. (L. 

cnuii/la, a snuill rt'cd ; i>i, in ; fntgiiinilutii, a 
broken piece.) The same as M. cannulata. 

VL, cannula' ta, G. Ph. (L. cann/ilir, a 
small reed. (i. Riihrcn- Manna.) Flake maima, 
or that concreted on straw or chips. 

TIL. Capa'cy. (F. manne Capaiij.) 'J'ho 
better of the two kinds of manna into which the 
Sicilian J/, in lacrimis is divided. 

T/L. ced'rina. (L. ccdrus, the cedar. G. 
Lihanon Manna.) Manna in the form of small, 
sweet granules, exuding from the Ccdrus liba- 

TIL. celastri'na. (K>;\ao-xjioi/, the privet, 
or the holly. G. Chanser Manna.) A white, 
sweetish substance exuding from various species 
of celastrus, or spindle trees, in India, as the re- 
sult of the punctures of the Fsylhis manni/cr. 

T/L., celes'tial. (F. manne tomln'c du cicl ; 
I. manna del cielo.) Au edible substance formed 
quickly under certain conditions in Persia. It 
consists chiefly of a lichen, the Lecanora aj/inis, 
Eversmann, or the L. esculenta, Eversmann. 

TIL. cis'tlna. {Cistus.) The same as M., 

TIL. commu'nis, G. Ph. (L. communis, 
common. G. gemcine Manna.) The common 
Sicilian and Calabrian manna obtained in the 
months of September and October. It does not 
dry so perfectly as the best kind, but remains a 
little soft. 

TIL. cras'sa. (L. crassus, thick. G.fette 
3Ianna.) The same as 31., Puglia. 

Also, an inferior soft manna obtained from 
incisions in the bark of Fraxijius ornus in 
November and later. 

TIL. croup. See Mannacroup. 
Also, a term for the Glyccria fluitans. 
TIL. dl S. Nicola dl Ba'rl. 'I'he name 
under which La Tofana sold the small bottles 
containing the poison that proved so fatal in the 
middle of the seventeenth century. 

TIL., earth. (F. manne de terre.) Same 
as Dulcitc. 

TIL. elec'ta. (L. electus, chosen.) The 
best pieces of the manna imported from Sicily. 

TIL. eucalypti'na. {Eucalyptus.) The 
same as 31., Australian. 

TIL.s, false. The mannas other than that 
obtained from the Fraxinus ornus. 

TIL., flake. (F. manne en stalactiques.) A 
term employed in English commerce to denote 
the larger fragments and better qualities of 

TIL. folia'ta. (L. folium, a leaf.) Thin 
c<mcretion8 of manna found on the leaves of the 
Fraxinus ornus, resulting from the punctures of 
Cicada orni. 

TIL. geraci'na. Same as M,, Geracy. 
TIL., Gera'cy. The inferior of the two 
kinds of manua into which Sicilian M. in lacrimis 
is divided. 

IVI. grass. The Glyceria fluitans. ^ 
TIL., He'brew. (F'. manne des Hebreux.) 
The 31. oj Mount Sinai. 

T/L. in grra'nis. (L. granum, a grain.) The 
same as M. in lacrimis. 

TIL. in gut'tis. (L. gutta, a drop.) The 
same as M. in lacrimis. 

T/L. in lac'rimis. (L. lacrima, a tear. F. 


inanne en larmes ; G. Thriinen-ilatina.) The 
spontaneously exuding, dry, whitisli, tear-like 
masses of tli(! best maiinu ; or that obtained from 
incisions of the bark of Fraxinus ormis made in 
the hot season of July and August. It separates 
readily from the tree in the form of white, sweet, 
crystalline, dry and porous fragments. 

M. in sor'tibus. (L. sor.s, a lot. F. 
maniic in sorlcs.) The second (juality of manna, 
softer than tlie liest, and obtained fioni in(-ision8 
ill the bark of Fraxinus orniis in September and 


IM. insect. (G. Mannaschildlaus.) The 

Cocc'is i»iiiiiiip/iri(s. 

9I.,Kur'distan. {Kurdiatan, a Province 
of Persia. 1. matina del Kurdistan.) Manna in 
the form of a pasty mass, witli many impurities, 
and especially fragments of the leaves of the 
gall oak. It contains cane sugar 61, moist sugar 
16"5, de.xtrin 22'5 parts per cent., with a little 
greenish, waxy substance. It is produced on 
the leaves of Quercus vaUonea and Q. persiea 
by the pimctures of a small Coccus. 

tn. lacrima'ta. (L. lacrima, a tear.) 
See M. in lacrimis. 

HL. laric'ea. (L. larix, the larch.) Sec 
M., Brianron. 

T/l. larici'na. Same as M. laricea. 

T/L., Iieb'anon. {Lchamis, a mountain in 
Palestine. F. mantle dn Liban.) The same as 
M. ctdrina. 

IMC., Iierp. A kind of manna of animal 
origin. It occurs in Australia. It contains 
water 14, white, thread-like substance 33, de,xtro- 
gyrous sugar 53 parts per cent. The threads 
resemble starch, but are not affected by boiling 
water ; yet in sealed tubes they dissolve in 30 
parts of water at 135" C. 

nX., liquid. (L. liquidus, liquid. F. 
manne liquAdc.) A whitisli honey-like substance, 
being a variety oi Alhafji-manna. 

T/Z., Madagas'car. See Buleite. 

TfL. metallo'rum. (L. mctallum, a metal. 
F. manne dcs nielaux ; I. manna dei metalli.) A 
name for calomel. 

M., oak. (G. Eichcn- Manna.) Manna col- 
lected from Quercus vallonea, Kotschy, Q. persiea, 
Jaub. and Spach., and Q. infccluria, Oliv. It is 
noticed by Ovid, Virgil, and the Arabian physi- 
cians, and is the result of the puncture of the 
trees by a small white Coccus. One specimen 
yielded 90 per cent, of dextrogyrous uncrystal- 
lisable sugar. 

TH. ofHe'brews. The Leeanora escuknta. 

IM. Of Zs'raelites. See Leeanora cseu- 

nx. of Mount Sl'nai. (F. manne du 
Sinai.) The J/., Tmnarisk. 

Ml., Per'slan. (F. manne de Perse.) The 
same as Alhnf/i-manna. 

M. pin'g-uis. (L. pinr/uis, fat. G. /cite 
Mannn.) Tlio same as J/., I'uijlia. 

HL,, Po'Ilsb. The prepared seeds of 6-7;/- 
cerin fluitans. 

VL., Prus'sian. The prepared seeds of 
Glycfria fluitans. 

Tfl., Pu'grlia. (G. Puglia- Manna.) A soft, 
brown, sticky, hygroscopic kind of manna, con- 
taining many impurities, obtained from Puglia, 
in Calabria. 

M. querci'na. (L. quereiis, an oak.) The 
same as J/., oak. 

Vt. seeds. The husked seeds of Ghjceria 
fluitans. Used in soups and gruel. 

M. Sbir khlsht. The exudation of a 
Cotoneastir. It is brought from Herat. 

IMC., Sicilian. (JSieihj. G. Sicilianische 
Mannn.) Manna obtained from the Fraxinus 
excelsior in the months of July and October. It 
is imported from Palermo, and is composed of 
coalescent, yellowish, somewhat sticky masses, 
with clearer portions ; it has a somewhat acrid 

M., Si'nal. Term applied to the small 
edible root.stocks of Cyperus esculenius. 

See also, M. of Mount Sinai. 
M., small. (F. manne en sorte, petite 
manne.) A term used in English commerce to 
denote the smaller pieces of manna; they are 
usually agglutinated. 

M., Span'isb. (G. Spanisehe Manna.) 
A sugary substance exuding from the branches 
of Cistus ladaniferus. It is in whitish masses 
about tlie length of the finger. 

m. su^'ar. (G. Mannazucker.) The same 
as Mannite. 

M. tabula'ta. (L. tabula, a table.) A 
German preparation of manna dissolved in water 
with sugar; evaporated to dryness and made 
into lozenges. 

Vt. tamariscl'na. The same as M., 

M., Tam'arisk. The manna obtained 
from Tamarix (/allica, var. mannifera, Ehrenb., 
growing in the valleys of the Peninsula of Sinai. 
It occurs as honey-like drops exuding from the 
slender branches in consequence of the puncture 
of the Coccus manniparus, Ehrenb. It contains 
cane-sugar, levulose and glucose, dextrin and 
water, and has no purgative properties. 

The term is also applied to round cakes, 
common in the bazaars of Persia, made from 
manna collected about the town of Khonsar from 
Astrar/alus florulentus, Boiss. et Hanssk., and 
A. adsccndens, Boiss. et Hanssk. 

Tit., Tar'fa. Same as M., Tamarisk. 
M. tbu'ris. (L. thus, incense. F. manne 
d'inccns; I. manna d'incenso.) Name given to 
a coarse powder of olibanum. 

I^., tol'fa. The smaller pieces of manna 
which are sold separately in loosely agglutinated 

M. vulga'ta. (L. vulgatiis, part, of 
t'ulao, to make common.) The same as M. com- 

SXan'nacrOUp. (F. semoule, scmou- 
linc.) A prc])aration of the hard varieties of 
wheat, consisting of the granules retained in the 
boiling machine after the fine tlour has passed 

Also, a term for the prepared seeds of Glyceria 

XWa.Il'nakrout. Same as Mannacroup. 

XWan'nate. The combination of mannite 
with bases. 

Plan'nid. CgHiqCj. Double anhydride of 
mannite, obtained by Berthelot from protracted 
exposure of mannite to the action of butyric acid 
at a temperature of 200"^ C. to 250" C. (392" F. to 
482'^ F.) 

IVIan'nide. (L. manna.) CijHioOs. A 
syru]jy liquid oljtained by heating mannite in a 
closed tube with butyric acid to a temperature 
of 250" C. (482' F.) It is sweet, with a bitter 
after taste, neutral, soluble in water and in al- 
cohol, ;ind volatile above 100" C. (212" F.) 

9Xan'nides> The neutral compound ethers 
of mannite corresponding to the glycerides. 


Also, tlio analogous conipouiuls to tho glyco- 
sides, which, like iiiiinoviii, wliou ili'conipdscd by 
acids yield sacchariiic coiiiiiouiuls similar to 
mannitc or Tiiaiiiiitaii instead ot'glycoso. 

XWannif erous. (L. munna ; firo, 1(1 
bear. J^'. inunnifcn-.) YieUling, or all'ording 
mauiia by the puncture of insects, or otherwise, 
as tlie Tfimarix lUdiiiiifcra. 

lYEan'nilim. Same as Manikin. 

IWan'nin. See Jfamiih:. 

manning*' s splint. A sj)lint for the 

treatment of fractured patella. It cunsists of a 
wooden back-piece a little wider than the 
bones, reaching from the sole to the gluteal 
fold, and provided with a foot-pieoe. At the 
junction of the middh; and lower thirds is a 
transverse oblique slit. Strips of strong plaster 
are attached to a calico baud which passes 
through the slit. The end of the calico band 
which projects through the slit is sewn into 
a loop, and a Hat piece of wood is passed 
through it. The strapping is attached to the 
thigh above the upper fragment of the patella, 
whilst the calico is kept taut by attaching 
the flat piece of wood at its end to a cross-bar 
at the foot- piece. The attachment is made by 
means of clastic bands ; a firm and even pressure 
is thus brought to bear upon the upper fragment 
which is kept in tolerably close apposition to the 
lower fragment of the j)atella. 

nXan'nioc. Same as Manioc. 

Mannip'arous. (L. manna ; pario, to 
bring forth. F. maiinlparc.) Causing the pro- 
duction of manna, as the Coccus mannipartis. 

IRIan'nita. Same as Mannite. 

Man'nitan. CgHmO^. Anhydride of 
mannite. A neutral deliquescent, syrupy fluid, 
very soluble in water and alcohol, insoluble in 
ether, obtained by heating mannite to 200'' C. 
(392° F.) It is the uncrystallisable sugar of 
cinchona bark, and is found also in the seeds of 
Ligitstriim ihotn. It is feebly dextro-rotatory. 
It was first obtained by Berthelot. 

nXan'nitanide. (L. manna.) A general 
term for the neutral compounds analogous to the 
compound ethers and to fats, which are produced 
by heating mannite with acetic, butyric, vale- 
rianic, benzoic, and other acids. 

Itfan'nite. (L. manna. F. mannite ; G. 
Maiinanioff, Mannazucker.) C|iHi40i;=(C6ll8) 
(0H)5. A yellow, solid, sugar-like substance 
contained in manna, and on which its laxative 
virtues dejiend. It can be artificially prepared 
from certain kinds of sugar. It is also called 
sugar of manna. It is a hexatomic alcohol, 
isomeric with dulcite and raclampyrite, and 
identical with the substances formerly named 
granatin, fraxinin, primulin, and syringin. 
It is widely distributed in nature, being found 
in the exudation issuing from the punctures 
made by the Aphis euonymi in the spindle-tree, 
in the honey dew of the linden, in the exu- 
dations of many cherry and apple trees, larches, 
many Eastern oaks and palms, in (Ethiopian 
honey, in the roots of Aconittim napellus, 
Scorzonera hispanica, Meuin athamanticum, and 
many others, in the barks of Ganella alba and 
Phyllyrea latifolia, in the leaves and young 
branches of Syrifiga vulgaris, in the fruits of 
Zaurtcs, Olea, and Cactus, in some seaweeds, as 
Laminaria saccharina, and in many fungi. It 
frequently appears in the course of fermentation 
processes. Mannite crystallises from its watery 
solution in long, thick, rhombic prisms, and 

from its alcoholic solution in silky brushes or 
stidlate needles. Its sp. gr. is 1-187. It dissolves 
in about six times its weiglit of both hot and 
cold water. Its solution is optically inactive, 
but rotates pulariscd light to the left when 
caustic soda is added, ami to the right when 
borax is substituted. It was discovered in 
manna by I'must. 

IVX.-e'tliers. (F. others dc la mannite.) 
Neutral coiuiiounds obtained by heating mannite 
to 200' C. to 2.50' (!. (392' F. to" 482' F.) in closed 
vessels with acetic, butyric, stearic, and other 

mannit'ic. Relating to, or obtained 
from, Miiinni. 

IMC. acid. (L. manna.) C^Hi-jO, = 0^115 
(OH)., . Ct).jll. A gummy, non-crystallisablo 
sugar, resembling grape-sugar, found in manna. 
It reduces alkaline sidution of copper. 

^Kan'nitol. Same as Maunito. 

I^an'niton. {Mannite.) Term applied 
by Vignon to the crystallisable modification of 
mannitan obtained by heating mannite to 280" C. 
(536' F.) It rotates the polarised ray to the 

Man'nitose. {Manna.) CoTIiA-. The 
aldehyde of maunilic acid. An uncrystallisable, 
fermentable, optically-inactive sugar obtained 
with mannitic acid when mannite is treated with 
moist platinum- black. 

Slanom'eter. (MavJs, slack or thin; 
/utTiOoy, a measure. V . manomctre ; G. Manome- 
ter, Dichtigkcltsmcsscr.) Varignon's term for 
an apparatus whereby to measure the degree of 
I'arefaction of the air in pneumatic machines, 
and now generally used to designate an in - 
strumcnt for measuring variations of pressure; 
and so also for determining the pressure which 
gases or fluids exercise against the walls of 
vessels. The simplest form of the instrument 
used in physiological investigation is the 
straight tube of the original experiment of 
Hales, which was fixed on the blood-vessel 
and the height to which the column of blood 
was raised in its interior was noted. Two main 
forms are now in use, the U-shaped tube filled 
with mercury, as in Poiseuille's hannadynamo- 
meter, and the C-shaped spring, as in the 
kymographion of Fick. An elastic india-rubber 
bag is sometimes used, as in the pneumograph 
of Marey, 

IMC., coxu'pensatin§r, of IVCa'rey. 
{Marey. F. manomctre compcnsateur de Marey. ) 
In this form of the instrument the ascending 
tube presents, near its lower part, a capillary 
constriction, by which means the oscillations of 
the mercurial column are extinguished and the 
mean pressure accurately recorded. 

nx., frog:. An instrument devised by 
Ludwig for the study of the action of fluids on 
the excised frog's heart. It consists of a double 
cannula, one limb of which communicates with 
a self- registering U-shaped manometer, and the 
other limb with one or both of two Mariotte's 
flasks; to this he added a means of transmitting 
a galvanic current. 

tit., Magen'die's. In this form of mano- 
meter the short branch of Poiseuille's mano- 
meter in connection with the artery is replaced 
by a large flask partially filled with mercury 
and in part with a saline solution. Owing to 
the Lirgo surface presented by the mercury in 
the flask, as compared with that in the vertical 
tube, the displacement of the mercury in the 



flask may be nogloctcd, whilst that in tlic longer 
vi'itiial arm may be read oil' directi}'. 

M., max'iiuuiu. (L. ;«(?.ri;««s, greatest.) 
This manoiiielcr consists in the introduction 
into the tube, leading from the heart to the 
mercnry ccdumn, of a cup-and-ball valve, which 
opens easily from the lieart, but closes firmly 
when liuid attenipts to return to the heart. By 
reversing the direction of the valve tlio ma- 
nometer is converted from a maximum into a 
minimum instrument. Difi'erential manometers 
are also employed. 

M., Fol'seuille's. In this fonn tlie two 
arms of the U-shaped tube are partially filled 
with mercury ; tlie shorter arm connected with 
the vessel is charged with a saline solution to 
jirevent coagulation. The longer arm is open to 
the air, and the oscillations of the mercurial 
column are clearly visible. 

IVI., registering. (F. manometrc in- 
scripteur.) The same as M., Poiseuilld s, with 
the addition, devised by Ludwig, of a small float 
of ivory resting on the mercurial column in the 
longer arm of the U-sliaped tube; to this part a 
stem of straw or whalebone is attached, to the 
upper part of which is united at right angles a 
style, by means of whicli the oscillations can be 
registered <in a blackened plate. 

3Ma.noniet'ric. (Ma^os; utTjwv. F. 
manomctrtque.) Relating to the measurement 
of rarefaction, or to the Mai/oineter. 

IVX. flames, Kb'nig:°s. An apparatus for 
analysing the quality of the vowel sounds. It 
consists of a metal capsule divided into two com- 
partments by a diaphi-agni of thin iudia rubber; 
one compartment communicates with the gas 
supply of a burner, and the other with a wide 
tube having a mouthpiece ; the burner being 
lighted a vowel is spoken or sung into the mouth- 
piece, when a toothed tlamc of light will be exhi- 
bited by a rotating four-faced mirror ]daced 
near. Tlic form of the flame varies for each 

XVIanomet'rum. (]\Irti'<;9, rare or thin ; 
liiTftor, a measure. ) Same as Manometer. 

Dlan'OSCOpei (Mayos; (TKoTriw, to ob- 
serve. ¥ . minioscope ; \. manoseopo ; S. maiw- 
scopo ; G. Luftdivhtu/kcitsmcsscr.') An instru- 
ment for determining the density of the air; 
also called Baroseopc. 

nXanos'copy. The use of the Jlaiw- 

HZano'tes. {Mauoi, rare or thin. F. 
rarcte ; G. Diinnhcit, Schlaffheit.) Term for 
rareness or thinness; tenuity. 

IWano'tic. Of, or belonging to, Manotes. 

IMCansa'na. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

T/t. arbor'ea. (L. arhorciis, pertaining to 
a tree.) The Z\z]iphus jnJHha. 

DXans'ford, John G-. An English 

surgeon of the nineteenth centurj'. 

nx.'s plates. An apparatus for apj)lying 
the galvanic current. It consists in blistering the 
skin at two places some distance apart, applying 
two small metal plates of opposite electrical value 
over the blistered surfaces, and connecting the 
two plates by a wire. 

XMCan'sio. (L. mansio, a staying ; from 
maitco, to remain. F. repos ; G. BIcihcn, 
Marrcn, JVartcn.) Term formerly applied to 
rest of the muscular parts from their fuiu:tion. 

Man'slaug'llterg (F. homicide sam 
premtditadou ; I. omicidio scusabile ; S. homi- 

cidio casual ; G. Todtschlag.) The killing of a 
person without malice or premeditation. 

DlanSO'riuS. (L. inando, to chew or cat.) 
A name fu- tlie masseter muscle, 

ZWansou'ra. Algeria. An indifferent 
theiinal si)riiig. 

DXanstupra'tion. Same as Manustu- 

manteg-azza, Pao'lO. An Italian 
physician, born at Monzain ISIU, and now living. 
IVI.'s globullm'eter. (L. ijlobidus, a 
small ball ; Lir. fjLtTpov, a measure.) A mode of 
estimation of the richness of the blood in red 
corpuscles by interposing successive layers of 
blue glass between the eye and a solution of 
blood until a flame behind the vessel containing 
the blood can no longer be seen. 

IWante'le. (L. mantcle, a towel.) A 
synonym of Bandage, body. 

DIanti'le. Same as Mantele. 

Mantle. (Mid. E. mantel ; Old F. mantel, 
a cloak; from L. mantcllum, dim. of mantum, a 
cloak. F. manteaii; I. mantcllo ; S. man to ; G. 
Mantel.) A cloak; a loose outer cover. 

A term for the Pannieulus carnosus. 

In Zoolog}', the soft, bilobed, muscular sac, or 
Pallium, which more or less envelops the body 
of MoUusca ; its anterior part has an aperture 
for the protrusion of the head, and from its outer 
surface the shell, in such animals as possess one, 
is secreted. It encloses the Pallial cavity. 

A somewhat similar structure is seen in Cirri- 
pedia, Brachiopoda, and Tunicata. 

Tft. cav'lty. Same as Pallial cavity. 
TH., la'dy's. The Alchemilla vulgaris. 
TfL. lobes. The right and left sides of the 
Mantle of Mollusca. 

Til. of flame. The outermost layer of a 

m. of the hem'isphere ve'slcle. (L. 
vesicula, a small blister.) A name given by 
lleichert to that portion of the hemisphere of the 
prosencephalon which covers the remainder. 

XWan'ual. (F. mamiel ; L. manualis, from 
manus, the hand. I. manuale ; S. manual.) 
Done by the hand. 

IMC. ex'erclse bone. A small, triangular, 
bony growth occurring at the insertion of the 
left deltoid muscle into its tendon. It is said to 
be catised in soldiers by the pressure of the 
musket upon this point, and is the result of a 
chronic ossifying myositis. Same as Brill bone. 

Blanua'tOUS. (L. manus, the hand.) 
Having hands. 

XVEanu'brium. (L. manubrium, for 
manu-hibrium ; from manus, hand; habco, to 
hold. G. Grif, Sticl, Handgriff, Randhabc.) 
A hilt or handle; an organ or a part of one, 
having the appearance of a handle. 

Also, the polypite suspended from the roof of 
the swimming bell of a Medusa, or from the 
gonocalyx of a medusiform gonophore. 

Also, in Botany, a cylindrical cell projecting 
inwards from the inner face of each of the eight 
shields forming the globular antheridium of the 

Also, each of the separate scales which form 
the handle of a lancet. 

tn.. mallei. (L. malleus, a hammer. F. 
nwnclif du. marteau ; G. Ilandyriff des Ham- 
mers.) Tlie lower tapering part of the malleus 
which is attached to the membrana tympani by 
a dense tibro-cartilaginous tissue and by its 


IVI. ma'nus. (L. man us, the liaiui.) An 
epithet applied to the radius, as if it were tlie 
handle of the haiul. 

T/t. ster'nl. {'E-rtfivou, the breast-bone. 
¥. nuuicke da nicnuiDi, poujucc dti sfenmm ; U. 
ILvuhjrijf dcs Jintsfbiins.) The Frasternum, 
or upper part of the sternum. 

Manulu'vium. (L. manus, the hand; 
lavo, to wash. F. innnHluvc, bain dcs mains; I. 
inanihioio ; G. llaiidbad.) A bath for the 
hands ; the immersion of the hands for a longer 
or shorter time in a hot or cold, or simple, or 
medicated tluid ; used as a derivative, as in 
cerebral congestion, or a resolvent and soothing 
a])pli('ation, as in a whitlow or a burn. 

DIanure'. (A contracted form of ma- 
na'Hvre ; from F. manwuvrc, a work of the hand ; 
from Low L. mannopera, or manopcra, a working 
with the hand; from L. mauKS, the hand; 
operor, to work. F. cH(jrais ; I. concimo ; S. 
abono ; G. Biinger, Mist.) A substance for 
fertilising the soil ; usually applied to the 
fiecal discharges of horses and cattle and other 
animals, mixed with their bedding, but fish, 
woollen rags, and bones are included under the 
same term. The former substances are commonly 
accumulated in heaps near stables, mixed with 
straw, and constitute a valuable fertilising ma- 
terial when spread over the soil. 

Ma'nus. (L. manus, a hand ; from Aryan 
root ma, to measure. F. main; I. mano ; S. 
mano ; G. Hand.) The terminal segment of 
the anterior limb ; the Hand. 

In Pisces the manus is represented by the much 
segmented lateral rays forming the teitninal ex- 
pansion of the fin. 

In Amphibia the manus, when present, consists 
of four or five digits, or fewer, attached to five car- 
pal pieces, some of which may be fused together. 

In some Reptilia, as in snakes, the fore-limb 
and hand are entirely absent. In most cases, 
however, the hand is represented by five digits. 

In Aves the hand is bent backwards and much 
reduced in complexity, consisting of only two 
carpal bones, an elongated metacarpus, and three 
fingers, consisting of the pollex or thumb, bearing 
the so-called bastard wing, a middle finger, and 
a little finger. 

In Mammalia the manus or hand, characterised 
by an opposable thumb, varies much in develop- 
ment. It consists of a carpus, metacarpus, and 
digits. The number of digits is never moi*e than 
five, but may be reduced to four, as in the pig 
and tapir, by the disappearance of the thumb or 
innermost digit ; to three by the disappearance 
of the outermost digit or little finger, as in the 
rhinoceros ; to two, as in Ruminants, by the re- 
duction of the first, second, and fifth digits, the 
second and fifth remaining as small accessory 
claws, which do not touch the ground ; or even 
to one, as in the horse, when all the digits are 
suppressed, except the middle one. With the 
reduction of the number of digits the metacarpal 
bones belonging to them are either entirely ab- 
sent or are reduced to styliform bones, and the 
carpal bones are simplified. 

m. Cbris'tl perla'tse. (L. Christus, 
Christ ; Mod. L. perlatus, pearled.) An old 
name for troches prepared with sugar, pearls, 
and rose water. 

IVX. Cbris'tl slm'pUces. (L. Christus; 
simplex, simple.) Rose lozenges. An old epithet 
for troches prepared with sugar and rose water. 
Itt. cur'ta. (L. curtus, mutilated. F. 

main bot.) A condition of the hand allied to 
talipes in tiie foot. See Club-hand. 

IVI. De'l. (L. ])cus, God.) The old name 
of a resolvent plaster made <d' myrrh, wax, oli- 
banum, amuioniacum, galbanum, mastich, oil, 
and other ingredients. 
Also, a name for opium. 

IVI. he'patis. (L. htpar, the liver.) The 
portal fissure of the liver. 

IVI. hoxn'inis nior'tui. (L. homo, a man ; 
morlnus, dead.) The hand of a dead man. A 
remedy formerly in use, and considered to be of 
great efficacy in dispersing scrofulous tumours 
when rubbed over them for some time. 

IVI. jec'oris. (L. jecnr, the liver.) The 
portal fissure of the liver. 

IVI. Palfya'na. A term for Forceps, mid- 
wifery, Falfi/n's. 

TIL. regra'lis. (L. regalis, royal.) The 
royal touch. A inactice in use, both in France 
and England, as late as the eighteenth century, 
for the cure of strumous and other diseases. 

IVI. va'ra. (L iv;;'«s, bent round.) Same 
as Club-hand. 

Manustupra'tion. (L. manus, the 
hand; sinpro, to ravish.) Same na Masturba- 

Mlanustupra'tor. One who practises 

XWan'y. (Mid. E. mani, moni ; Sax. maniff, 
mccnig, monig ; Dut. menig ; Old High G. 
manae ; from Teutonic base managa, many ; from 
a nasalised form of Aryan root mak, to have 
much power. F. plusieurs, bcancoup, numereux ; 
I. molte ; G. manche, viel.) Numerous. 

IMC.-cel'led. Same as Multilocular. 

IMC. -cleft. Same as Mnltifid. 

IVI.-lo'bed. {¥ . multilobe ; G. vielldppig.) 
Having numerous lobes. 

IVI.-pair'ed. Same as Maltijugate. 

IVI.-rlb'bed. Same as Multicostate. 

M.-seed'ed. Same as Multispermous. 

IVI.'tail'ed band'agre. See Bandage, 
many -tailed. 

IVl.-valv'ed. (G.vielklappig.) In Botany, 
applied to a dehiscent fruit which has many 

IMCan'yplies. (E. many ; ply, a. io\d. F. 
Ic feiiillct ; I. omaso, cento pelle ; G. Blatter- 
magcn.) 'The third stomach of Ruminants, also 
called the Fsalterium. It is the first division of 
the pyloric portion of the ruminant stomach. 

IMCanz, Wil'helm. A German physio- 
logist, born in Freiburg in 1833, and now living. 

IVI.'s g'lands. (G. Manzsche Briiscn.) 
Small, flask-like depressions seen in the neigh- 
bourhood of the annulus conjunctiva; of animals, 
and sometimes in man ; they do not appear to 
be true glands. 

BXanzanilla. (S. manzanilla, the cha- 
momile.) A dry sherry with some bitterness in 
its taste. 

Dlanzani'ta. The Arctostaphylos glauca, 
Lind., Nat. Order Ericaccce. A plant growing 
in California. The leaves are employed for 
their tonic and diuretic qualities. They have a 
strong, peculiar, and bitter taste, are destitute of 
smell, and contain a large quantity of tannin. 
They also contain arbutin. They are prescribed 
in cases of catarrh of the bladder, in monor- 
rhagia, and in incontinence of urine. 

DXa'ple. (Mid. E. mapul ; Sax. mapulder ; 
from mapul, perhaps connected with L. macula, 
a spot; der, corruption of treow, a tree. F, 


crahle ; I. accro ; S. arce ; G. Ahorn.) Thu 
naiiie of the trees of tlic Goiius jicer. 

TH., com'mon. The Acer campeslre. 

V/L., great'er. The Acer p>tcui/op/i(/aiii(s. 

TM., ground. The Jlcachcra umcrxcuna. 

Til. hon'ey. The uiierystallised part of 
the s;i|) of the Aver mccharinum. 

IVI., red. The Acer rubriim. 

IMC., stri'ped. The Acer poiHsyleainvum. 

Til. sug''ar. (G. Ahornznckcr.) Sugar ob- 
tained li_v crystallisation of the sap of the sugar 
maple, Acer naccharinum. See Sugar, inap/e. 

M. tree. (Sax. mapoldcr.) The Acer 

IVI. tree, com'mon. (F. crahle ; S. sico- 
mon ; (j. ^Uinni.) The Acer canipcstre. 

IVI. tree, sug'ar. (F. crahle d suere ; G. 
ZuckerahiiDi.) Tlie Acer saccJiarinum. 

IVI., virgrinia. The Acer ruhrum. 
Ma'ples. The plants of the Nat. Order 

3M[apoucha.'ri. A preparation of Indian 
heiii]! used in Cairo. 

map'pa. A Genus of the Nat. Order F.h- 
phorhiaeeec. The species possess an acrid juice, 
and are often purgative. 

Maprou'nea. A Genus of the Nat. 
Order Enphorbhtceie. 

m. brazilien'sis, St. Ilil. Hab. Brazil. 
Used in gastric troubles. 

maq'maqoo. A yellow and bitter root 
of an unknown plant. Used in Abyssinia as an 
adjunct to kousso. 

niaracai'bo. A town in the north of 

IMC. bal'sam. C50H32. A kind of copaiva 
balsam obtained from Vopaifera ojlicinalis, L., or 
Copaifcra /rtC(^«i»i,Deslontaines. Sp. gr. aliout 
0'98.'). Brix isolated the oil of this balsam, 
which boils at 250' C. to '2G0' C. (482' F. to 
500' F.) 

M. bark. The bark of Cinchona tucKJcusis. 
nXaradrolog''ia. {j\\dpa%t)ov, fennel ; 

Xtiyos,', a discourse.) A treatise on the fennel 
plant. Schenk published such an one in 1605. 

Dflaran'da. A species of myrtle growing 
in Ceylon. A decoction of the leaves is said to 
be anlisyphilitio in its action. 

l>Iarang'a"ba. The ruidinm pygmeCKm. 

IMCaran'ham balsam. Tlie com- 
mercial name of that kind of copaiva balsam 
which is exported from the East Brazilian Pro- 
vince of Maranliao. It contains much oil and is 
therefore of fluid consistence. Sp. gr. 0'91 — 
0-94. It is believed to be the product of Copaif- 
cra Lnngsdorffii, Ucsfontaines. 

IVI. rub'ber. A product, probably, of one 
or more sjiccies of llevca. 

maran'sis. (M.ipaya-is, a causing to die 
away. F. maraume ; G. Schwuchen, Welk- 
mnc'hen.) The same as M<irasmHs. 

IVZaran'ta, Bartolome'o. An Italian 

physician of Vi'nice wlm died in 1'J.>1. 

niaran'ta. (Bait<domeo Maranla.) A 
Genus of the Nat. Ordvv Jlldrantaccce. 

Also, a synon_\ ni of Arrowroot. 
IVI. alou'ya, Jacq. {Alowja, the native 
name of tiie plant.) A plant growing in the 
West Indies and Cayenne, from the roots of 
which a kind of arrowroot is made. 

T/l. arou'ma, Auld. (yijYy«w«, the native 
name of the plant.) A iihuit hnind in Guiana, 
from the root of which a kind of arrowroot is 

VtL. arundina'cea, Linn. (L. animlo, a 

reed. G. schiljartiyc Muranta, I'/cilivurzcl.) 
The ])lant which produces arrowroot. Arrowroot 
is obtained from the root by washing it, beating 
to a pulp, agitating in clean water, and straining 
to free the iluid from fibres; the milky liquor is 
allowed to setth', and the deposit is again washed 
and drained. The white residue, dried on sheets 
in the sun, constitutes arrowroot. The juice is 
acrid when fresh, and is applied to poisoned 

IVI. galan'g^a, Linn (Arab. c]ioland.iclnin. 
F. yalanye petit; G. Galganl.) The smaller 
galangal, the root of which was fornn'rly used as 
a warm stomachic bitter. The same as Alpinia 
yaliniya, Sw. 

IVI. in'dlca, Tussac. (L. indicus, Indian.) 
Probably a narrow-leaved variety of M. arundi- 
nacca. It supplies Natal and much East India 

IVI. no'bilis. (L. nobilis, famous.) Sup- 
plies some West India arrowroot. 

m. ramosls'sima, Wall. (L. ramosus, 
branching ) Same as 31. urundinacea. 

Ttl. Starch. (G. Marantastdrke.) A term 
for West Indian Arrowroot. 

BXaranta'ceSB. (G. Pfeilwurzgcwdchse, 
Blioncnrohrgewdchse.) A Nat. Order of the 
Cohort or Alliance Anwmalcs, Series Epiyyneec, 
Subclass Monocotyledones ; being herbaceous 
plants with only one fertile stamen, having a 
one-celled anther, a petaloid style, and no vi- 

SXaran'tese, Brown. Same as Maran- 

XWaraxi'tic. (Ma^oayTihos, wasting away. 
F. marantif^ue ; G. schwdchend. wclkmachend.) 
Of, or belonging to, atrophy or Marasmus. 

IVI. tbrombo'sls. See Thrombosis, ma' 

Dlar'antS. The plants of the Nat. Order 

nXara'ra res'in. (G. Mararaknrz.) A 
resin obtained from the Idea caranna, H. and 
B., a tree growing on the Orinoco. It is used by 
the natives as an application to wounds and 

niaras'ca cber'ry. A cultivated 

variety of the cherry, Prumis cerasus, growing 
in Dalmatia, from which maraschino is prepared. 

BlaraScbi'ziO. A liqueur distilled, espe- 
cially in Zara, in Dalmatia, from the Marasca 

Blaras'mic. (M«prt<T^o9,a dying away.) 
Causing, or associated witli, wasting of the 

IVI. drop'sy. The dropsy that supervenes 
in subacute aud chronic ancomia, as a result, it 
is believed, of hypalbuminosis of the blood, with 
diminution of blood pressure. 

IVI. throm'bi. ((r>|Uo«/3os, a blood-clot. 
Y.caillotsjihriticux; G. Sterhepolypen.) Term 
applied to those clots which are found in the 
vessels after death, and which are due to re- 
tardation of the current of blood, whether on 
account of some obstruction in its course or 
because the contraction of the heart is enfeebled, 
especially when occurring in cachectic or ana;mic 

Maras'mius. {Uapa<Tn6^.) A Genus 
of tile Family Ayaricini. 

IVI. ore'ades, Fr. Codex. (L. Orcas, a 
mountain nymph. F. fau.v muusseron, macaron 
des pres, svcadott, godaille ; G. Herbstmusseron, 


falscher Mtisseron, Nelheublattersehivamm.) 
i'ik'us plano-convex, smootli, pale leather- 
coloured; lamella) pale tlesh -coloured, then 
whitish, distant from each other; stem solid, 
cylindrical. Grows in meadows and green places 
in woods. Esculent. 

TtL. por'reus, Fr. (L. porruni, a leek.) 
Pilcus leathery, dirty-yellowish ; lamelhe yel- 
lowish, then pale ; stem solid, woolly ; taste and 
smell alliaceous. Probably poisonous. 

TS. scorodo'nlus, Fr. (^KopoSov, garlic. 
G. Lauchschicamm.) Pileus flat, reddish-brown ; 
lamellse whitisli, crisp ; stem slender, red brown ; 
taste and smell garlicky. On hills and in fields 
in autumn. Esculent. 

Maras'mold. (Map«o-^os, a dying 
away; fl5os, form. ¥ . marasmoide ; G. maras- 
jmisahnlich.) Resembling marasmus. 

IWEarasinop'yra. (Mapao-^xos; -n-vp, 
fever. ¥. marasmopyre ; Q.zchrjiebcr.) Hectic 

maras'inous. (Mapao-yuos.) Resem- 
bling, or of the nature of, Marasmus. 

Maras'xnus. (Mapao-iuos. 'E.marasme ; 
G. JVclken, Schwund, Marasmus.) Wasting of 
the body ; emaciation. It maj' arise from in- 
sufficient supply, as in anaemia, or excessive 
consumption, as in fevers. 

IVI. anlise'mla. Good's term for An- 

M. atrophia. Good's term for Atrophy. 

IW. climacter'icus. Good's term for 
Climacteric disease. 

T/L. lacten'tium. (L. lactefis, a sucking 
animal.) The atrophy of infants, usually de- 
pending on mesenteric disease. 

M. of silk'\7orms. (F. marasme dcs vers 
a sole, gattine ; I. gattina.) A contagious 
malady in which the worms cease to eat, lie on 
the side, become covered with black spots, which 
are surrounded by a 3'ellowish areola, the blood 
becomes acid, and death follows. Also called 

M< phtMs'ls. Good's term for Phthisis, 

m. praematu'rus. (L. pra, before ; 
maturiis, ripe. G. Krankheitsmarasfnus, Siech- 
thum.) The state of emaciation which results 
from protracted diseases, such as hip-joint disease, 
phthisis, diarrhoja, chronic haemorrhages, and 
chronic febrile states of the constitution. 

M. senilis. (L. senilis, belonging to old 
ago. G. allgemcine Kriifteverfall, HimvelJcen.) 
The shrinking of the body which is observed to 
occur about the seventieth year, even with abun- 
dant food and the absence of any depressing con- 
ditions of mind or body, though it occurs earlier 
in the ill-fed and hard-worked members of the 
community. The chief phenomena are fatty 
degeneration and calcification of the vessels, 
leading to loss of elasticity, and liabilit}- to rup- 
ture of their coats and to aneurysms. The heart 
presents hypertrophy of the left ventricle, with 
or without dilatation, as a mechanical conse- 
quence of the increased resistance to the circula- 
tion of the blood. The arterial degeneration leads 
to softening of the brain, to senile gangrene of the 
extremities, to thrombosis, and to cmlwlisms. 
In consequence of diminished metabolism the 
production of heat, as well as its regulation, is 
enfeebled and impaired. The bones and carti- 
lages undergo atrophic changes and alterations of 
forms, occasioning the bearing, the height, and 
the phy.siognomj' of old ago. The lymphatic 

glands and spleen undergo atrophy. The muscle.s 
become weak and liable to rheumatic pains. All 
kinds of work are accomplished witb greater 
diffirulty. The skin becomes thinner and of a 
dirty yellow colour ; the hair of the head be- 
comes thinner, more silky, grey, and falls out, 
but the beard hair remains good. The teeth fall 
out, appetite fails, and digestion becomes im- 
paired. The lungs become small, the breathing 
shallower, and the respiratory interchanne of 
gases lowered. There is increased liability to 
coughs and colds, to bronchitis and pneumonia. 
The brain diminishes in size, the grey matter 
especially becoming thinner, with vacuoles. The 
powers of the will and memoiy fail ; the senses 
become blunted. There is a disposition to arcus 
senilis, cataract, atrophy of the optic nerve, 
and choroidal changes implicating the retina, 
and to deafness with noises in the cars. The 
kidneys become smaller, the quantity of urine 
less, but more highly coloured and containing 
more urea. The bladder loses some of its power 
of expulsion, and incontinence of urine may 
occur. The sexual power fails. The hright 
falls in successive decades from the thirtieth to 
the eightietb year from 172-2 cent, to 171 'S, 
167-4, 163-9, 162-3, 161-3 ; the weight from 68-9 
kilogrammes to 68-87, 77-45, 65-.50, 63-03, 61-22, 
and in the ninetieth year even to 57'83 kilo- 

Til. sypbillt'icus. (Syphilis.) Exces- 
sive emaciation tbe indirect result of syphilis; 
caused by the consequent defective nutrition. 
IMC. ta'bes. The same as Tabes. 
IVI. ta'bes dorsua'lis. (L. dorsnalis, 
belonging to the back.) A synonym oi Ataxy, 

maras'quin. The Marasca cherry. 

rHarasqui'nOt Same as Maraschino. 

DXa'rat. France, departement du Puy de 
Dome. Mineral waters of unknown composition, 
containing much gas. They are clear, and are 
used in various maladies by the surrounding 

nSarathri'tes. {'^\dpa6pov, fennel.) 

Wine impregnated with the qualities of fennel. 

IWarathropbyl'Iuin. {MupaQpov, 

€\)v\\ov, a leaf.) Name applied to Feucedaneum 
officinale, or hog's fennel, because its leaf re- 
sembles that of fennel. 

mar'athrum. (MapaQpov, the fennel. 
F. fenouil ; G. Fenchel.) An old name for the 
Anethum fceniculum, or sweet fennel. 

M. sylves'tre. (F.sylvestris, woody . F. 
quelle de pourccau ; G. Saufenchel.) A name for 
the Anethum pcncedaneum, or hog's fennel. 

DIarat'tif G. !"■ An Italian botanist, 
who died in 1777. 

BXarattia'ceSB. (Maratti.) A Suborder 
of the Nat. Order Filices, with free sporangia 
arising from a group of cells, and not from a 
single cell or trichome as in other ferns, and 
with the fronds all fertile and circinate in ver- 
nation. Same as Danaaccce, 

nXarau'g'ia. {}i\apavyho, to have a 
dazzling before the eyes.) The appearance of 
sparks before the eye. Same as Fhotopsia. 

niarbella. Spain, Province of Granada. 
Here are several springs which issue from the 
ground, at a temperature of 25" C. (77° F.), and 
have been used for centuries. No satisfactory' 
analysis of them has been made. 

9Xai*'ble. (Mid. E. marbre, marbreston ; 
from F. war lire; fi-om L. marmor ; akin to Gr. 


napficiptov, flashing; from Arj-an root mar, to 
ehine. I. mar mo ; S.marmol; G.hiarmor.) A 
species of limestone or hard carbonate of lime. 
The white variety is nearly pure calcium car- 
bonate in minute crystals, the coloured varieties 
contain in addition oxides of iron and manganese 
or bituminous matter. See 3Iarmor album. 

IVI. legr. The pale, shining leg of Phleg- 
masia doleus. 

AX., metal'lic. Native sulphate of ba- 

IVI., \(rhite. See Marmor album. 
Dlar'bles. A form of venereal disease, 
probably Bubo. 

TtLOTCm (P. marc. L. magma; I. fcccia; 
S. hcces ; G. Trcster, Triibcr.) The refuse, 
consisting of seeds, husks, skins, and rind left 
after ex])ression of juice from fruits, as the marc 
of grapes or olives. A bath made of the marc of 
grapes (F. bain de marc dc raisin) was considered 
to be tonic and antirheumatic. 
Blarcasi'ta.. Same as Marcasite. 
Tft. alba. (L. albits, white.) An old term 
for Bismuth. 

M. plumliea. (L- plumbum, Ic^A.) Old 
term for antimoiij*. 

IWarcasi'tse. Genitive singular of Mar- 

Tft. magriste'rium. (L. magisterlum, a 
chief.) Old term for subnitrate of bismuth. 

XWar'casite. (Of Arabic origin. F. 
marcassite ; I. marcassita ; Q. Marcassit.) Iron 
pyrites, white like tin, occurring in veins. 
IMC., gol'den. A synonym of Ti«. 

IWarcel'lian applica'tion. (L. aj)- 

plico, to api)ly.) An ancient remedy against 
chilblains. Same as Marcelllum. 

XWarcel'lium. Old name {fxapKiWiov), 
used by Paulus ^Egineta, for a medicine against 

DXarces'cent. (L. marcescens, part, of 
marcesco, to wither. F. marcescent,Jletri, fane ; 
S. vmrcescente ; G. welkcnd.) Withering ; de- 

In Botany, applied to leaves which wither 
without falling off. 

Also, applied to a perianth of a plant which 
dies after fecundation and continues to surround 
the ovary, as in the Heaths. 

IMEarces'cible. (L. marcescens.) Cap- 
able of withering. 

nXarc'g-raaf, Ge'org*. A German na- 
turalist, li(irn in Liebstadt, near Meissen, in 
IGIO ; died off the coast of Guinea in 1644. 

I^arcgraa'via. (Marcgraaf.) A Genus 
of the Tribe Marcgraaricc. 

Vll. umbella'ta, Linn. Hab. West Indies. 
Used as a diuretic and antisyphilitic. 

IMCarcgraavia'ceee. {Marcgraaf.) A 

Nat. Order of the Cohort or Alliance Guttifcrales, 
characterised by their unsymnietrical ilowers, 
introrse, versatile anthers, and sessile stigmas. 
Some of the plants belonging to this tribe have 
diuretic properties. 

XMCarcgTaa'viaB. A Tribe of the Nat. 
Order TtrnstrwmiacecB, or Gamelliacece ; same as 

SXarch. (F. marche ; from Low L. marco, 
to walk. 1. marcia ; S. marvha ; G. Marsch.) 
The regulated, even, synchronous step of a 
military man or a company of men. 

Also, the distance travelled over by a man or 
body of men. 

Xilar chant, Nicolas. A French 

botanist, Director of the Gardens of the Archduke 
Gaston of Orleans in Blois ; died in 1678. 

ZWarchan'tia, lladdi. (Nicolas Mar- 
chant. G. Leherkraut.) A Genus of the Sub- 
order Marchantiucem, the species of which are 
widely distributed over the earth. 

IVI. chenopod'ea, Linn. {Chenopodeum.) 
Hab. Antilles. Used as a cosmetic. 

IVI. con'lca, Linn. Decoction diuretic. 
Used as M. poh/morpha, and in gravel. 

IVI. bexnispher'ica. (^Hfxicrcpaipiov, a 
half sphere.) A species reputed to be of use as 
a poultice in dropsical affections. 

IVI. polymor'pha, Linn. (IIoXiJs, many ; 
/j.op(p7], form. F. hcpatique des fontaines, h. 
tcrrestre ; G. vielgestdltige Leberkraut.) Liver- 
wort, or star liverwort. A plant of green colour, 
forming thick and broad leathery expansions in 
moist places. It was formerly in repute for 
hepatic diseases and consumption, and was em- 
ployed as an antiscorbutic, stomachic, and resol- 
vent, under the names Herba hepaticce fontancc, 
and 11. licJieuis stcUatm. 

IVI. stella'ta. (L. stellatus, set with 
stars.) The M. pohjmorpha. 

IVI. umbella'ta. (JJ)abel.) Ta^i M. pohj- 

SZarchantia'cese. A Suborder of the 
Order llvpaticaccce, or a Family of the Suborder 
Frondos(e, Order Hcpaticm, Class Mnscinea, of 
cellular cryptogams. Spore cases valveless, or 
bursting irregularly, without operculum, but 
with elaters. They ai-e natives of damp shady 
places in all climates. 

marched. (Arab.) Old term for Zi<A«r- 

IKEarch'ing*. Bavaria, near the Danube, 
1600 feet above sea-level. A weak alkaline water. 

XHarchio'nis pul'vis. (Low Lat. 

marchio, a prefect of marches, a marquess ; L. 
pulvis, powder.) A medicine formerly held in 
repute for the cure of epilepsy. It was composed 
of male peony root, mistletoe, ivory shavings, 
horn of stag's hoof, white dung of a dog, tooth 
of the monodon, coral, and other ingredients. 

IWarcia'tum. {MapKiuTov.) Term em- 
ployed by i'aulus JEgineta for a cataplasm or 
liniment for pains in the joints. 

DXar'cid. (L. marcidus, withered. G. 
xvclk, vtrivclkt.) Feeble ; shrunk ; accompanied 
by wasting. 

In Botany, withering without falling. 
IVI. fe'ver. A fever accompanied by much 
loss of llesh. 

l^ar'cols. France, departement de I'Ar- 
deehe. A cold alkaline water, containing sodium 
bicarbonate 2'46 grammes, magnesium bicarbo- 
nate '259, calcium bicarbonate ■3]5, and ferrous 
bicarbonate 'OoG, with free carbonic acid. Used 
in anaemic conditions, atonic dyspepsia, catarrh 
of the genito-urinary mucous membrane, and 
hepatic troubles. 

TfLSLT'cOTm (L. marcor, faintness ; from 
marcco, to wither. F. niiacia/ion ; G. Abma- 
gcrnng.) Leanness, emaciation, or wasting of 
the body. 

Also, an old term for drowsiness. 

DIarco'res. (L. marcor, emaciation. F. 
emaciations ; G. 3[atiigkci(cn, Sclilaffhiitcn.) 
Term for diseases that are characterised by ema- 
ciation of the bodj'. 

All Order of the Class Cachexia in Cullen's 


Mar'cory. The Stillingia sylvatica. 


Mare. (Mid. E. mere ; Sax. mere, fern, of 
mearh, a horse, of uncertain origin. V.jnment; 
I. cavalia, ffiinnei/ta; S. yegua ; Q.Muhre, 
Sliite.) The female of the horse. 

M.'s fat. The Inula dijsenicrica. The 
plant was once supposed to possess great anti- 
dysenteric properties. 

M.'s milk. See Milk, mare's. 
Vt.'s tail. The Sippnris vulgaris. 

Also, the £rigeron canadense. 

Also, a term for the cloud form called Cirrus. 
M.'s-tail or'der. The Nat. Order Hip- 
pur idacea. 

T/L.'a tail, rougrli. The Equisetum majus. 

DXarein'ma. (I. maremma, a fen, a salt- 
water marsh.) A marsh formed on a plain con- 
stantly inundated with brackish water. 

BIa.reniniat'ic> (F. maremmatiqtie.) 
Belonging to a Maremma. 

Blaren'nin. {Marennes, a district of 
France.) The bluish pigment occurring in cer- 
tain Navicular found in the intestine of the 
green oysters of Marennes. 

DIare'o. (Port, mat de puna ; F. mareo.) 
A transient fever which attacks newcomers in 
the high regions of Peru and Bolivia. 

IMCa'rey, E'tienne- Jules. A French 

physician, born in 1830, and still living. 

BI.'s drum. See M.'s tambour. 

V/t.'s hsemodromom'eter. (Al/ua, 
blood ; ipofio^, speed ; fxirpov, a measure.) An 
instrument for measuring the i-apidity of the 

m.'s le'vers. Certain levers used in 
physiological research for amplifying slight 
movements. By fitting a style to the long arm 
the movements may be automatically recorded 
on a moving surface. 

M.'s manom'eter. See under Manometer. 

IMC.'s pneu'mogrrapli. (JiviCixwv, the 
lung ; ypcKpw, to write.) An instrument for re- 
cording the respiratory movements. It consists 
of a cylinder of soft India rubber enclosing a spiral 
spring, whose extremities are connected with 
two pieces of metal which form the ends of the 
cylinder. A band is passed round the throat of 
the animal and attached to the end of the cylin- 
der. The interior of the cylinder is brought 
into communication with one of Marey's levers, 
and as each respiratory movement draws the 
ends of the levers wider apart or causes them 
to approach, the air is rarefied or compressed, and 
a corresponding movement is transmitted to the 

M.'s sphygr'mogTaph. (2<^uyjuos, pul- 
sation; ypdipw, to write.) An apparatus for 
obtaining a graphic record of the pulse move- 
ments at the wrist. It consists essentially of a 
button, sunnounted by a spring, pressing upon 
the radial or other artery. The movements of 
the button and spring are transmitted by a knife 
edge to the short arm of a lever, the long arm of 
which writes upon a smoked surface made to 
travel in front of it by means of clockwork. 

IMC.'s tam'bour. (F. tambour, a drum.) A 
shallow metal chamber, covered in an air-tight 
manner with India rubber, which bears a tliin 
metal plate attached by a hinge to a lever. The 
air-tight chamber is connected with an india- 
rubber tube attached to a cardiac sound, or else 
to a cardiograph. The tambour is used to re- 
gister, by the movements of the lever, the cardiac 
pressure or the heart beats. 
Mar'gra. A term for Marl, 

Tftm can'dlda. (L. enndidus, dasizling 
white.) A spongy, white, friable marl, formerly 
used as an astringent. 

Blar'g'arate. (F. margarate; G. mar- 
gar insducr Stilz.) A salt of Jliargaric acid. 

marg-are'theninsel. Hungary, be- 
tween Ofon and Pesth. A thermal bath place, 
with a sulphur water obtained from an artesian 
well, at a tempcr.ature of 45" C. (113" F.) 

Blarg'aretiz'za A syphilitic disease 
occurring in lUyria, so called from the name of the 
woman who was supposed to have propagated it. 

Also, called Scherlievo. 

l^Iarg'ar'ic. (F.margarique.) Pertaining 
to Margarin. 

m. ac'id, Chevreul. (F. acide marga- 
rique ; G. Margarinsdure.) 0,7113402. An acid 
obtained by Becker from the saponification of cetyl 
cyanid. It crystallises in pearly scales, and melts 
at 52" C. to 53" C. (125-6" F. to 127-4" F.) 
Eberth found a fatty acid with the same com- 
position in adipocere. The acid so named by 
Chevreul has been shown by Heintz to be a 
mixture of 10 parts of stearic acid and 90 parts 
of palmitic acid. 

IMEarg-aricar'pus. (Mapyap/xi;?, a 

pearl; /capTros, fruit.) A Genus of the Suborder 
Sanguisorbece, Nat. Order Rosaccce. 

Vl. seto'sus, Ruiz and Pavon. (L. setosus, 
bristly.) Hab. Chili, Peru. The Yerba de la 
pei-ta of Peru. Used in the treatment of piles ; 
its fleshy receptacle is esculent. 

I^ar'g-arin. {MapyaplTni, a pearl. F. 
margarin; I. margarina ; G. Margarinfett.") 
A substance formerly regarded as a simple con- 
stituent fat of the body, but now held to be a 
mixture of palmitin and olein. 

Plar'g'arine. An artificial butter made 
by mixing a little milk with the clarified fat of 
some animal. 

Blarg-arin'ic ac'id. Same as Mar- 
garic acid. 

IMCarg'ari'ta. (L. margarita; from Gr. 
pLupyapiTui; from Pers. murioari.) A Pearl. 
Pearls were formerly regarded as cordial and 

Also, a synonym of Leucoma. 

IMEarg-arita'ceouS. (L. margarita, a 
pearl ; mother of pearl. F. margaritaee, perle ; 
G. pcrlenartig, perlmutterartig .) Of the nature 
and appearance of pearl, or of mother-of-pearl. 

IHarg'ar'itate. A salt of Margaritic 

Plarg'arit'ic. (L. margarita, a pearl, or 
mother of pearl. F. margaritique ; G. perlen- 
artig.) Of, or belonging to, the pearl. 

I^. acid. Same as Ricinostearic acid. 

Marpraritif erous. (L. margarita, a 
pearl ; Jcro, to bear. F. margaritifere ; G, 
pcrloifiihrend.) Producing pearls, or spots like 

I^arg-aritiph'orous. {MapyapiTr]^, 

a pearl ; (popiw, to bear.) Producing or bearing 

Z^arg'arito'ma. (MftpyafjiViis, a pearl.) 

Virchow's term foi- Margaroid tumour. 

Blar'g'aroxd. (MapyapiVi)?, a pearl; 
eIoos, form.) liesembling a pearl. 

M. tu'mour. Craigie's temi for a form 
of cholesteatomatous tumour springing from the 
pia mater. It contains small, shiny, pearl-like 
bodies made up of laminated layers of squamous 
or tubular cells. 

mar'g'aron. {^apyapov.) A Fearl. 


Also, an impure product of the drj' distillation 
of lime niargarate obtained by Buss}'. It melts 
at 77= C. (17'0-6' F.) 

nZar'g'aronyl. Same as Margaryl. 
Ittar'g'aryl. CnHaj. A substance for- 
merly considered to be the radical of niargaric 
and stearic acids. 

DKarg'eliS. (M«p7n\is, a pearl.) A pearl. 

IVIarg'ellion. {MapytWiov.) A. Tcarl. 

Marg'heriz'za. A synonym of Scher- 

lievo, from the name of the wonum who was 

believed to have propagated it. 

XMCar'g'in. (L. mao-go, a brink, a border. 
F. bvrd ; I. maryinc ; S. margcn, horde; G. 
Band.) A border; the edge of a thing. 

DIar'g'ixial. (L. margo, a border. F. 
marginal; I. niarginato ; S. marginado ; G. 
rau'dfitdndlg.) Occupying the border or edge of 
a surface, as the sori of many ferns in regard to 
the frond, the position of the placenta in regard 
to the dissepiments of the fruit of plants ; the 
position of hairs on many surfaces of both plants 
and animals. 

In Anatomy, often applied to a part placed at 
the border of an orifice. 

M. ab'scess. (F. abcis marginal.) A 
small, superficial, painful abscess about the 
borders of the anus, produced by the suppura- 
tion of an external pile, or by the inflammation 
of a mucous follicle, or arising from a fissure. 

V/t. bod'ies. (F. corps inarginalcs, boitrre- 
lets marginales ; G. Seitenkorper .') The sense 
organs of the Hydrozoa lying on the margin of 
the umbrella ; they are either eye spots or audi- 
tory vesicles. 

IMC, bones. Small accessory ossicles on 
the outer and inner sides of the manus of 

T/t. cells. (L. margo, a boundary.) The 
cells forming the demilunes of Hcidenhain, or 
lunules of Gianuzzi, which are small semilunar 
masses of cells found between the secreting cells 
and the basement membrane of the mucous 
portion of the subma.xillary glands of the dog 
and the sublingual gland of the rabbit. Similar 
small granular cells lie outside the mucin cells 
of the mucous alveoli of the salivary glands 

M. cil'ia. (L. cilium, an eyelash. F. 
cils marginaux.) The free tentacles on the 
margin of the umbrella of a Medusa. 

Tfl. convolu'tlon. (F. circonvolution du 
corps eallfifx.) The Gyrus inarginaUs. 

V/L. cor'puscles. (L. corpusculum,a. little 
body. F.'ulcs maryinaHX.) The M. 

TO., nerve of hand. Tlic external branch 
of the RiuUal ncrrc. 

IWC. nerve of lower jaw. The S/ipra- 
maxillary mrrc. 

IMC. nerve of scap'ula. The Subscapu- 
lar nerve, loxy. 

TSt. placen'ta. Sec riaccnta, maryintil. 

M. plates. (F. plaques niaryiuales.) 
The seriis of jjlates, eleven or twelve in number, 
wliieh, on oaeli side of the cai'apacc of Chelonia, 
connect the costal plates. 

Also, Milne-Edwards's term for the lateral, 
paired, calcareous plates in tlie tegunu'nt of Cir- 

IMC. si'nus of placenta. Sec Tlacen/a, 
sinus (if, iiiiirgnial. 

ivi. ten'tacles. (L. tcnto, to touch.) Same 
as M. Cilia. 

Also, thread-like or thick, contractile or ex- 
tensile structures about the border of the 
mantle of Mollusca supplied by the circumpallial 

IMC. vein of beart. The part of the left 
coronary vein which runs along the left margin 
of the heart. 

DZarg-ina'lis. (L, margo.) Same as 

In AiKitomy, the Supramaxillary nerve. 

IVIarg'ina'rious. (L. margo, a border. 
F. niarginaire.) Situated at the border. 

IMEar'g'inate. (L. marginatus, bordered ; 
edged. F. niargim, horde; I. marginato ; S. 
marginado; G. gcrandet, gerdndcrt.) Having a 
distinct border of a different colour, thickness, 
consistence, or structure from the main portion. 

nXar'g'inated. Same as Marginate. 

BKar'g'inature. (L. margo, a border. 
F. marginature.) Necker's term for the border 
of a part of a jjlant. 


ter'icus. (L. margo ; supra, above; scapula, 
the blade bone; truchiicr.) The Teres minor. 

BSarg-inici'dal. (L. viargo, a border; 
C{Z'do, to cut.) The form of septifragal de- 
hiscence of a capsule in which the septa break 
away from their attachment to the united margins 
of neighbouring carpels, as in the Ipomaa. 

BXarg'inicol'late. (L. margo, a border , 
colluin, tlie neck. F. marginicolle.) In Ento- 
mology, having the neck or corselet surrounded 
by a border of different colour. 

IVXar'g-iniforin. (L. margo, a border; 
forma, likeness. F. marginiforme ; G. rand- 
fijrinig.) Applied by Cassini to the appendices 
of the periclinium of the Composita) when they 
resemble a border. 

ZVXarg-inipen'nate. (L. margo, a 

border; penna, a wing. F. marginipenne ; G. 
randgejliigelt.) Having bordered wings. Applied 
to the elytra of some insects which have an 
edging of a difl'crent colour from the rest of the 

Marg'inoplas'ty. (L. maryo; Gr. 
Tr\acrTiK()9, fit for moulding.) The restoration 
of a nurrgin or border. 

»T. pal'pebral. (L. palpcbra, the eyelid.) 
A surgical operation undertaken with the object 
of repairing loss of substance or deformities of 
the margins of the eyelids. 
IMIar'g'O. Same as Margin. 

Til. acu'tus cordis. (L. acutus, sharp; 
cor, the heart.) The right lower border of the 
licart, because it is thiuner than the upper or 
left border. 

M. acu'tus be'patis. (L. acutus, sharp ; 
hepar, the liver.) The sluxrp anterior border of 
the liver. In the adult male it corresponds with 
the margin of the ribs. 

T/t. alveola'ris maxil'lse inferio'ris. 
The I.imbus alveolaris maxillu- injcrioris. 

IMC. alveola'ris maxillae superlo'ris. 
The Liinbus alveolaris ossis maxilliiris supe- 

T/L. bucca'lis ossis zygomat'icl. (L. 
hucca, llie cheek ; os, a lume ; Gr. X^vyontxu, a bolt.) 
The lower border of tlu' facial surface of the nuilar 

IVI. cilia'ris i'ridis. (L. cilium, an eye- 
lasli ; »(.s', the iris of tlio eye.) 'J'lie peripheric 
or attached nuirgin of the iris. It is connected 
with the membrane df Deseemet, in f'nuit, by the 
fibres of the ligamentum pectinatumiridis, whilst 


posteriorly it is continuous with the anterior 
Dorder of the ciliary processes. 

IMC. corona'lls os'sls fron'tls. (L. eoro- 
nalis, pertaining to a crown ; os, a bone ; frons, 
the brow.) The upper dentated border of the 
frontal bone which articulates with the parietal 
bones and forms with them the coronal suture, 
and which also articulates below with the great 
wing of the sphenoid bone, foi-ming the spheno- 
frontal suture. 

TX. corona'lis os'sis parieta'lis. (L. 
coronalis ; os ; parietal bone.) The anterior, 
slightly concave, border of each parietal bone, 
which articulates with the frontal bone to form 
the coronal suture. 

M. denta'lls. (L. dens, a tooth. G. 
Zahnzellenforlsatz.) The alveolar border of the 
upper and lower jaws. 

I^. denta'tus. (L. dentatits, toothed.) 
The same as Ora scrrata retince. 

Tft. infragrlenoida'lis. (L. infra, be- 
neath ; Gr. yXi'iv)], a shallow joint- cavity ; fI5os, 
form.) The somewhat raised border of the upper 
articulating surface of the tibia. 

IVX. Infraorbita'Iis. (L. infra, below ; 
orbita, the orbit. G. Aur/enhohlcnrand.) The 
rounded anterior and inferior border of the orbit. 
It is formed internally by the internal third of 
the anterior border of the orbital jilate of the 
superior maxillary bone, and externally by the 
upper and inner border of the malar bone. 

IMC. lacrima'lis. (L. lacrima, a tear.) 
The posterior border of the nasal process of the 
superior maxillary bone. It presents a deep 
groove, the sulcus lacrimalis, for the nasal duct. 
IMC. lambdoi'deus. (Greek A, or lambda ; 
Ciho'i, form.) The upper and anterior border of 
the squamous portion of the occipital bone which 
forms with the parietal bones the lambdoidal 

Also, the corresponding border of the parietal 

IVI. mastoi'deus. (Mao-T-o?, the breast; 
tloos, form.) The posterior and longer concave 
portion of the lateral border of the condyloid 
part of the occipital bone. 

Also, the lower and postei'ior part of the pa- 
rietal bone. 

IVX. na'so- orbita'lis. (L. nasus, the 
nose; orbita, the orbit.) The inner border of 
the orbital plate of the frontal bouc wliich arti- 
culates with the ethmoid bone. 

IMC. obtu'sus cor'dis. (L. obtiisus,\Aunt; 
cor, the heart.) The shorter and more rounded 
upper or left border of the heart in contradis- 
tinction to the M. aculus cordis. 

T/L. obtu'sus tae'patis. (L. obtiisiis ; 
hepar, tlie liver.) The blunt or rounded posterior 
border of the liver. 

T/L. occipitalis os'sis parieta'lis. (L. 
occijiitt, the back of the head ; os, a bone ; parietal 
bone.) The posterior border of tlie jiarietal l)one 
which articulates with the squamous portiou of 
the occipital bone on each side to form the 
lambdoid suture. 

M. orbita'lis. (L. orbita, the oi-bit.) The 
rim of the orbit or cavity in which the eye is 

V/t. orbita'lis os'sis spheno'i'dei. (L. 
orbita ; os, a bone ; sphenoid bone.) The poste- 
rior border of the great wing of the sphenoid 
bone. It runs parallel with the processus cnsi- 
formis or lesser wing at a distance from it of 2 or 
3 mm., and forms with it the fissura orbitalis. 

T/t. palpebra'lls. (L. jmlpchra, an eye- 
lid.) The free border of the eyelids. 

M. parieta'lis. (L. jSffncM^bone.) The 
same as M. sagittalis. 

T/l. pari'eto-lronta'lls os'sis sphe- 
no'i'dei. (L. parietal bone ; frons, the brow ; 
OS, a bono ; sphenoid.) The broad upper convex 
and dentated border of the great wing of the 
sphenoid bono which articulates with the frontal 
and parietal bones. 

V/t, pupllla'ris. (L. pupilla, or piipula, 
the pupil of the eye. G. Pupillarand.) The 
inner free border of the iris which bounds the 
aperture of the pupil. 

IMC. sa^itta'Us. (L. sagitta, an arrow.) 
The upper and internal dentated margin of the 
parietal bone by which it articulates with the 
parietal bone of the opposite side to form the 
sagittal suture. 

m. semiluna'rls lam'inse modi'oli. 
(L. semi, half ; Utna, the moon ; lamina, a plate ; 
modiolus, the nave of a wheel.) The free slightly 
arched border with which the lamina modioli 
terminates at the apex of the cochlea. 

T/l. spbenoida'Iis os'sis parieta'lis. 
{Sphenoid bone; os, a bone; parietal bone.) 
'I'he anterior inferior margin of the parietal bone 
which articulates with the sphenoid bone. 

IMC. su'pra-orbita'lis. (L. sapra, above ; 
orbita, the orbit. G. Oberaagenliohlenrand.) The 
free margin of the orbital ]ilate of the frontal 
bone which extends externally to the zygomatic 
process. It is rounded internally and sharply 
defined externally ; it presents near the middle 
line a notch, the incisura frontalis, and more 
externally the foramen supra-orbitale, a groove 
in wliich the supra-orbital nerve lies. 

M. temporalis os'sis parletalis. (L. 
tenipora, the temples; os, a bone; parietal 
bone.) The external and inferior concave border 
of the parietal bone, by which it articulates 
with the squamous portion of the temporal bone 
and with the great wing of the sphenoid. 

IMC. temporalis os'sis zy^omat'lcl. 
(L. tempora, the temples ; os, a bone ; Gr. 
\\)yw^a, a bolt.) The edge of the posterior 
projecting portion of the malar bone which 
articulates with the zygomatic process of the 
temporal bone. 

IVI. tympan'lcus. (L. tympanum, a 
drum. G. Faiikenrand.) The border of the 
external auditory meatus of the temporal bone. 

m. undula'to-denta'tus retinae. (L. 
undulatus, wavy; dentatus, toothed; retina.) 
The same as Ora serrata retinee. 

IMCarg'O'sa. The Melia azadirachta. 
"StL. bark. (G. Margosarinde.) The bark 
of 3[eiia azadirachta, L. It has anthelmintic 

t/t. tree. The Melia azadirachta. 
XWarg'O'sin. {Margosa bark.) A bitter 
alkaliiid found by Cornish in margosa bai'k. 

Marg-OSili'ic ac'id. (G. Margosin- 
siiure.) An acid discovered by Cornish in the 
oil of the seeds of the margosa tree. 

XKEar'^uerite. (F. marguerite ; I. tnar- 
gheritina ; S. margaritilla ; G. Masslieh.) The 
ox-eye daisy, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum. 
ll4arg"yTicar'pus. See Margaricarpus. 
nSa'ri. Genitive singular of Jlaruin. 
T/l. ve'rl ber'ba. (L. rer/is, true; herba, 
growing grass. G. Amberkraut.) I'he Teucritim 
marnm, L. 

DIari'a dell' aq'uila. Italy, Tub- 


cany, in the Fiora Valley. A mineral water, of 
a temperature of 32° C. (89-6'^ ¥.), containing 
sodium cliloriile 8 grains, calcium chloride G, 
magnesium chloride 2, calcium sulphate 18, and 
calcium carbonate 4 grains in 25 ounces, with 
free carbonic acid. 

niari'a in ba'g'no. Italy, Tuscany. A 
mineral water having a sulphurous taste, and 
containing sodium chloride 2 grains, sodium sul- 
phate 1, and sodium carbonate 9 grains in 16 
ounces, with free carbonic acid, oxygen, and 
nitrogen. Used in gout, rheumatism, sciatica, 
and chronic skin diseases. 

IMEariabrun'nenbad. Bavaria, near 
Munich, 15U0 feet above sea level. A calcic 
carbonated water. 

Ma'rian opera'tion. See LUhotomi/, 


maria'na meth'odus. (L. mctJiodus, 

a mode of proceeding.) See under Mariano 

Maria'no San'tO. An Italian surgeon, 
born at Earletta, in the kingdom of Naples, in 
or about 1490 ; the time of his death is unknown. 
He was a celebrated lithotomist, and his mode of 
operation, Apparatus major, was called after 
him Jliiriatia tnttliodHS. 

IVIaria'nus Sanc'tus. (L. sanctus, 

blessed.) Same as Mariano Santo. 

IWar'ie-Da'vy bat'tery. A constant 

current batter}', consisting of a grai)hite plate 
surrounded by moistened bisulphate of mercury 
contained in a porous cell, and enclosed in a 
circular zinc plate, the whole placed in a vessel 
containing water. A chloride of silver battery 
was also ])roduccd by Marie-Dav}\ 

DIa'rie, Saint. France, departement 
du Cantal. Cold mineral waters, containing 
very small quantities of sodium, calcium, and 
iron bicarbonates. Used in anemic conditions 
and atonic mucous catarrhs. 

Bla'rie, Saint. France, departement 
des Hautes Pyrenees, at the foot of a high 
mountain. The waters are cold and impregnated 
with calcium sulphate. They are useful in some 
cases of atonic dyspepsia, in constipation, and as 

Itlari'enbad. Austria, in Bohemia, not 
far from Eger. The athermal mineral waters of 
this place, which is 1912 feet above the sea- level 
and in the midst of beautiful scenery, are sup- 
plied from eight sources of a somewhat similar 
composition, and which agi-ee in being laxative, 
diuretic, and diaphoretic. The climate during 
the season, which is from May to October, is mild. 

The Carolinenbrunncn has a temperature of 
8° C. (46'4'' F.), and a bitter, saline, somewhat 
ferruginous taste; it contains sodium sulphate 
•3225 gramme, potassium sulpbate -1083, calcium 
bicarbonate •3026, magnesium bicarbonate -42, 
and iron bicarbonate '0258 gramme in 1000. The 
Ambrosiusbrunnen is very similar, but contains 
more iron. The Kreuzbrunnen has a temjtera- 
ture of 8^5" C. (47*3° F.), and is almost tasteless. 
It is exclusively used for drinking; it contains 
sodium sulphate 4-9524 grammes, sodium chlo- 
ride l'G993, sodium bicarbonate I'CGl, calcium 
bicarbonate •750G, magnesium bicarbonate '6612, 
and iron bicarbonate -0484 gramme in 1000. The 
Marienquelle is the least mineralised of the 
springs, its temperature is 15^5° C. (59^9° F.) ; it 
serves the baths of the Altesbadluius. The Wahl- 
quelle is Uttle used, except by the neighbouring 
peasants. The Ferdinandsbrunnen has a tem- 

perature of 10° C. (50° F.), and contains sodium 
sulphate 1^4724 gramme, sodium chloride -4995, 
sodium bicarbonate •8935, calcium bicarbonate 
•4477, magnesium bicarbonate -4442, and iron 
bicarbonate ^0447 in 1000. The Rudolfsquelle is 
weakly mineralised. The Alexandrianquelle is 
used for drinking, has a temperature of 18° C. 
(64^4'' F.), and contains sodium sulphate l-47'24 
gramme, sodium chloride -4995, sodium bicarbo- 
nate -8935, calcium bicarbonate ^4477, magnesium 
bicarbonate ^4442, iron bicarbonate •0447 in 1000. 
The special value of the waters of Marienbad 
is in the treatment of obesity, combined with 
douches, massage, and appropriate diet ; they 
are also used in many chronic diseases of the 
digestive apparatus, in engorgements of the 
liver and abdominal veins, and in splenic en- 
largements. The Ambrosiusbrunnen and Caro- 
linenbrunncn are also used in anaimic conditions. 
The Kreuzbrunnen is believed to have a special 
value in the various neuropathic and other 
ailments which often attend the menopause, and 
in many forms of mental disease. 

Mud baths are largely employed ; their soluble 
constituents consist of potassium sulphate 8'78 
grammes, sodium sulphate 0-05, calcium sulphate 
4-15, magnesium sulphate 2-24, aluminium sul- 
phate -96, iron sulphate 4'93, crenic acid 4^65, 
silica -92, and extractives 2-53 in 1000 ; and their 
insoluble constituents consist of iron bisulphide 
22-5 grammes, iron phosphate 13'68, hydrated 
oxide of iron 12951, lime 2-14, magnesia 1^45, 
silica 1^5, ulmic acid 644-14, waxy matters 23^32, 
and resinous matters 4-03 in 1000. The mud 
baths are used in rheumatic and neuralgic con- 
ditions. Pine baths are also employed, and the 
whev cure. 

nXari'enfels. Germany, in Nassau. The 
waters which arise here are cold and alkaline ; 
they contain sodimn chloride -3144 gramme, 
potassium bicarbonate ^1957, sodium bicarbonate 
•415, magnesium bicarbonate '4097, calcium bi- 
carbonate -5G25, and ferrous bicarbonate -0204 in 
1000 ; they arc chiefly employed in diseases of 
the lymphatic system and in scrofulous condi- 

]>Iarig''enous. (L. mare, the sea ; ffifftio, 
to beget.) Produced in, or by, the sea. 

niari'g'nac's oil. C(N03)oCls. Dini- 

trodichloroniethane. A liquid obtained by dis- 
tilling chloronaphthaline with nitric acid. 

]>Iarig''nia. A Genus of the Nat. Order 
jlmi/ri da ('('(€. 

IVI. obtuslfo'lia, De Cand. The Bnrsera 

m'ar'ig'Old. {Mar>/ ; gold.) The Calen- 
dula officinalis. 

Also, a name of species of Taijrtcs, Chri/san- 
thcmum, Mrsrmbri/ant/ie/num, and others. 

T/t., corn'mon. The Calendula officinalis. 

IVI., field. Tiie Calrndnla arrrnsis. 

m., fig-, diamond. The Mesembryan- 
thcmum crystaUiuHm. 

IWC., French. The Tagetcs patula. 

IMC., g^ar'den. (F. souci des c/iamps ; G. 
geu-iJhnliche Itinyelbluine.) The Calendula offici- 

T/t., marsh. (P. souci d'caii ; G. Dotter- 
blunic.) Tile Caltha palustris. 

IVI., pot. The Calendula officinalis, 

TO.., sing-'le. The Calendula officinalis. 

IVI., tri'fid burr. The Bidens tripartita. 

M., ivild. {V. souci des Jardins ; G. Feld- 
rini/elbluine.) The Calendula arvensis. 


Mar'lmont. Belgium. Cold, slightly 
mineralised waters containing mixed bicar- 
bonates, with a very little iron. They are used 
in atonic dyspepsia and in scrofulous disorders, 
especially of the lymphatic glands. 

T/tSLTltlG't (i^ marin ; from L. marinus, 
of the sea ; from mare, the sea. I. marino ; S. 
mariHO ; G. zum Meergeh'wig.) Of, or belonging 
to, the sea. 

IVX. ac'ld. (F. acid marin.) An old tenn 
for Hydrochloric acid. 

M. ac'ld air. Priestly's name for hydro- 
chloric acid gas. 

M. cement'. Same as M. glue. 

IVX. grlue. A cement used in sealing up 
microscoj)ical preparations. It is prepared by 
separately dissolving equal parts of shellac and 
india rubber in mineral naphtha, and afterwards 
mixing the solutions thoroughly with the aid of 
heat. It is soluble in ether, naphtha, or solu- 
tion of potash. 

M. salt. (F. sel marin; G. Scesak.) 
Sodium chloride ; common salt. 

DXar'iner. [Y. marin. I. maritiajo ; S. 
marinero ; (}. Seeinanii, ITatrose.) A seaman. 

IVX.'s com'pass. (F. compas ; from Low 
L. compassus, a circle ; from L. com, for cum, to- 
gether ; passHs, a pace. F. compas de mer, botis- 
sole ; I. bussola ; S. briijula ; G. Scecompass.) A 
magnetic needle attached to a circular card di- 
vided into the four cardinal points, north, south, 
east, and west, and subdivided into thirty- two 
subsidiary points or rhumbs. In some compasses, 
as the azimuth compass, the circle is divided into 
360 points. 

IMEa'rion arte'sian ivell. United 

States of America, Indiana, Grant County. 
Athermal waters containing magnesium car- 
bonate 2-81 grains, calcium carbonate 16"8, 
magnesium sulphate 4-06, iron sulphate 1-79, 
silica 1"61, and manganese "So grains in a 

Mar'iott e . A French natural philosopher, 
born in 1620, died in 1684. 

IVX.'s bot'tle. An apparatus often em- 
ployed to obtain a uniform flow of water. It 
consists of a bottle with two openings, one in the 
usual position, the other at the side near the 
base. The upper aperture is closed by a cork, 
through which a piece of glass tubing open at 
both ends and long enough to reach nearly to 
the level of the lower opening, passes. The 
vessel being filled, if the lower aperture is opened, 
air enters the vessel through the vertical tube, 
bubbles up through the liquid, and continues to 
do so, securing a uniform flow, till the level of 
the liquid reaches the level of the lower opening 
of the vertical tube. 

BX.'s experiment. (G. Mariotte' scher 
Versttch.) An experiment to demonstrate the 
existence of a blind spot in the retina, being the 
place of entrance of the optic nerve. Two dif- 
ferent marks, say a cross and a circle, are made 
on a sheet of white paper, and held about a foot 
before the right eye with the left closed ; on 
looking steadily at the cross the circle is also 
seen ; on bringing the paper nearer to the face, 
the eye being still fixed on the cross, a place will 
be found where the cross will disappear, and will ' 
appear again as the paper is brought still nearer 
to the face. 

nx.'s flask. See M.'s bottle. 

IVX.'s laiv. (F. loi de Mariotte; G. 
Mariotte' sches Gesetz.) The volume occupied by 

any gas is inversely proportioned to the pressure 
to which it is subjected. This is also known as 
Boyle'a law. 

IW.'s spot. (F. tache de Mariotte. G. 
Mariotte' schcr Fleck.) The blind spot of the 
retina. See M.'s experiment. 

IVEa'riS. (M«|Ots, a liquid measure contain- 
ing six KOTvXai.) A Greek measure equivalent 
to about 83 pints and 4 ounces. 

Blaris'ca. (L. marisca, a large kind of 
fig.) A tig. See Ficus. 

Also, an excrescence of a fleshy nature from 
the eyes or eyelids. 

Also, the same as Condyloma acuminatum. 

Also (F. marisque ; G. Feigwarze), a hiemor- 
rhoidal tumour resembling a tig in form. 

IWaris'coUS. (L. marisca. F. marisque.') 
Having, or being full of, mariscne. 

IVIar'itime. (L. mare, the sea. F. ma- 
ritime ; G. Seegehorig.) Of, or belonging to, 
the sea or sea- coast. 

niari'tus. (L. maritus ; from mas, a 
male.) A husband. 

Also, applied by the alchemists to sulphur, 
whilst mercury was named uxor, the wife. 

IHar'jolin, Jean ITic'olas. A 

French surgeon, born in Paris in 1780 ; died in 

IWC., wart'y ul'cer of. The ulceration of 
a Warty tumour of cicatrix. 

Z^ar'joram. (Mid. E. marjoran; F. 
marjolaine ; a corruption of Low L. majoraca ; 
from L. amaracus ; from Gr. ('(luajoaicos, marjo- 
ram ; probably of Eastern origin. I. majorana ; 
S.mejorano; G. MaJoran,Mairan.) The Orig- 
anum rulgarc. 

IVX., bas'tard. The Origanum heracleoti- 

IVX., com'mon. (F. origan, marjolaine 
sauvagc ; Q. irohlgcmuth, Dosten.) The Origa- 
num vulgare. 

IVX., pot. The Origanum onites. 

IVX., sttreet. (F. marjolaine; G. Mar- 
joran, Milran.) The Origanum marjorana . 

IVX., wild. (F. origan; G. IFohlgemuth, 
Dosten.) The Origanum vulgare. 

T/l., wln'ter. The Origanum vulgare. 
IVZarjora'na. See Majorana. 
mark west spring's. United States 
of America, California, Sonoma Count)'. Sul- 
phuretted and chalybeate springs. 

I^ar'ket square spring-. United 

States of America, Wisconsin, Milwaukee County. 
A very wealc saline water. 

XHark'ing ink. A solution of nitrate of 
silver. When brought into contact with organic 
materials in the light it undergoes decomposi- 
tion into the brown suboxide. It is therefore 
used as an indelible ink for marking linen. 

IVX. nut tree. The Semecarpus anacar- 

Blark'shall. Essex. A disused chalyb- 
eate spring. 

nXarl. (Mid. E. marie; from Old F. 
marie, merle, malle ; from Low L. margila, 
marie. Y.marne ; \.marga,marna ; ^.marga ; 
G. Mergel.) A soft clay which contains calcium 

Blar'lioz. France, departement de la 
Savoie, near Aix-les- Bains. The waters are 
cold, and contain sodium carbonate •1923, sodium 
sulphide -0295, sodium sulphate -2031, magne- 
sium chloride "064, and sodium iodide •0045 
gramme in 1000. There are three springs, 


^sculapius, Adelaide, and Bonjcan. They are 
administered, as a drink and by inhalation, in 
pharyngeal, laryngeal, tracheal, and bronchial 
catarrhs, us well as in diseases of the skin and 
of the genito-urinary mucous membrane, and in 
rheumatic conditions. 

IVIar'loW. The DijsophyUa auricularia. 

IVIar'inalade. (E. marmnlet, marmcidd ; 
from Uld F. mernudach ; Mod. F. marmclade ; 
from Port, marmclada ; from marinelo, a quince. 
F. marmclade; G. Quittensaft, Marmelade.) 
Old term for a conserve of quinces and sugar, 
but now generally applied to one of oranges and 

V/t. of Per'nel. A conserve prepared with 
oil of sweet almonds, syrup of violets, and manna 
in tears, of each two ounces, 16 grains of gum 
tragacanth, and two drachms of orange-Hower 
water. Used as a laxative, demulcent, and pec- 

T/l. of Tron'cbln. The same as M. of 

IVl. tree. The Lucuma mammosa. 

XVXarmar'yg'a.. The same as Marmarygc. 

X^armar'yg-e. {},\apn(tpvyv, a flashing.) 

Tlie subjective appearance of sparks or Hushes of 
light before the eyes , pliotopsia. 

Marmar'yg-ous. {"^lapfxaf^vyn. F. 

marmari/f/cux.) Kelatint? to Marmarr/gc. 

IMEar'm^, Wil'helm. A German phar- 
macologist, born in Uierdorf in 1832, and now 
Professor of Pharmacology in the University of 

m.'s rea'grent. Cadmium iodide is added 
to saturation to a boiling concentrated solution 
of potassium iodide, and then mixed with an 
equal quantity of cold saturated solution of po- 
tassium iodide. It gives a whitish or sometimes 
a yellowish precipitute, with an alkaloid in a 
weak sulphuric solution. 

DCar'xnelade. See Marmalade. 

I^arinela'ta« Same us Marmalade. 

BXarmo da. Mobby. The Portuguese 
name fur u spirituous liquor obtuincd in the 
West Indies by fermenting u mixture of potutoes, 
sugur, and water. It is agreeable to the taste, 
but soon spoils. 

X^arxnola'ria. The Acanthus mollis. 

marmole'jo. Spain, Province of Jaen. 
Mineral waters from two springs. One, having 
a temperature of 24-5° C. (76-1° F.), contains 
potas.sium bicarbonate "292 grunmie, mugncsium 
bieurbonate -GGIS, calcium bicarbonate •2125, 
and iron bicarbonate '0857 in 1000 ; the other, 
having a temperature of 2r C. (C9S' F.), con- 
tains magnesium sulphate 2'115 in 1000, and 
some bicarbonatcs. They are used in lymphatic 
disease and scrofula. 

X^ar'xnor. (L. marmor, marble; akin to 
Gr. fiapiiuftvi. Hashing.) Marble. 

T/l. al'bum, I!. Ph. (L. albus, white.) 
White marble : being native, nearly pure, crys- 
talline carbonate of calcium. Used for making 
car])onic acid gas. 

IMC. metal'llcuni. (, a metal.) 
Native barium sulphate. 

M. us'tum. (Ij. Hs/ifs, burnt. G. ge- 
hra)n(lrr Marmor.') C'hemiially pure quicklime 
prodiR((l by the burning of white marble. 

nXarmora'ceous. (L. marmor.) Con- 
sisting ot, or lil;i' to, in:irlil(\ 

X^armora'ta aur'ium. (!>. mar»in. 

ratus, overlaid with nurble ; a?iris, the ear.) 
Ear wax ; cerumen. 

Mar'morate. (L. marmor, marble.) 
Covered with marble, or with a substance like 
to it. 

In Botany, streaked with veins of colour as 

IMEar'morated. Same as Marmorate. 

Iffarmor'ean. (L. marmor, marble.) 
Consisting, or of the consistence, of marble. 

SXarmor'eus. (L. marmorcus.) Con- 
sisting of marble. 

IVI. tar'tarus. {Tartar.) Old term for 
the hardest species of urinary calculus. 

BXarmorisa'tio. (L. marmor, marble.) 
Peneati's term for the process by which a calca- 
reous body is changed to marble, or a substance 
like it. 

BXarmor'yg'e. A misspelling of Mar- 

X^ar'mot. (I. marmotto; according to 
Skeat, derived from L. mur, stem of mus, a 
mouse; and mont, stem of mons, a mountain, 
meaning the mountain mouse. F. marmotie ; S. 
marmotto; G. Murmelthier.) The Aretomys 
marmota ; used us food, and formerly employed 
in medicine. 

Dfar'mota. The Marmot. 

Marocos'tinuxn. Old name for a pur- 
gative extract of the Marum and Costus, ori- 
ginally described by Minder erus. 

BXaro'grilSa A name applied by Paracelsus 
to some very powerful narcotic, under the in- 
fluence of which the severest torture could be 

S'lar'riag'e. (L. marito, to marry. F. 
mariagc ; \. maritaggio ; G. Ehc.) The union 
of the sexes under legal restriction, and usually 
with religious rites. In Christian countries 
monogamy is almost universal. In Mahomme- 
dan countries polygamy is common. In the 
Marquesas Islands, in Ceylon, amongst the Cin- 
galese, and amongst the Nairs of Malabar poly- 
andry occurs. 

Amongst animals the relations of the sexes 
vary. Polygamy is seen in the barn-door cock 
and his family. Polyandry in some insects, as 
in the bee. Monogamy is not very rare. The 
Macacus silcnus has one female to whom he is 
faithful up to his death. In the guinea-fowl 
the male confines himself to one female. In 
some animals a real and moral monogamy exists 
of a remarkable character. Thus with the Pxitta- 
cus pcrtinax, or Illinois parrot, widowhood and 
death are ordinarily synonymous, and a similar 
case has been observed in the Jardin des Plantes 
in llapale Jacobus or Ouistiti. 

ni., endogram'tc. (Ei/rios, within ; •ya/tos, 
marriage.) ^Marriages taking place between the 
members of the same fiimilj' or tribe. 

IMC., exogram'lc. (E^os, without ; y«;uos, 
marriage.) Marriage in whicli the male or 
female of one tribe or family selects one of the 
opposite sex belonging to another family or tribe. 
It is usually marriage by capture. 

IVI., partial. A form of marriage existing 
amongst the llassiniyeli Arabs of Nubia, wliich 
allows the woman to dispose of her person one 
day out of every fcnn\ 

M., temporary. A form of marriage 
existing amongst the Jews in Morocco, in wliich 
the contracting parties arc blessed by the 
Kabbis for thrco months or six months. The 
man makes u donation and binds himself to 
r(>cognise the child, shouhl a child be horn during 
that time. 


DXar'riot, dry vomit of. E(iuai 

liortiuiis ol' tartar fiiutii! ;iiul sulpliato of copper, 
it was ailiiiinisterod in the form of u ])0\vcler. 

Slar'row. (Mill. E. marow, marwlic, 
miiri<!ilii\ manj ; Sax. mcarh. F. mocllc ; I. 
mcdoUo ; S. nuollo ; G. Mark.) The fat con- 
tained in bones; it is a vascular soft substance, 
composetl of leucocytes, marrow cells, giant cells 
or myeloitlaxes, and fat cells, with a little fibrillar 
connective tissue and blood-vessels, which fills all 
spaces and cavities of bones, such as the central 
canal, the areola; of the spongy tissue, and the 
Haversian canals. Also called Mcdulld. 

1«. cells. (G. MarkzcNrn.) The cells of 
marrow ; they are precisely similar in size, aspect, 
and shape to the osteoblasts of ostcogenetic tissue. 
They have distinct nuclei and exhibit amoeboid 
movemeiits. i3y becoming converted into fat 
cells they form yellow marrow. 

IMC., foe'tal. (L. fwtus, offspring.) The 
marrow of the bones of the foetus consisting of 
embrjMinie connective tissue. 

IMC., g-elat'inous. {Gelatin.) The bone- 
marrow of elderly persons and those sutfering 
from illness ; it is deficient in fat, reddish-yellow 
in colour, and mucous in consistence. 

T/t., inflamiua'tion of. Sec Osteo- 

VH., red. (F. moelle rouge; G. rothcs 
Knochenniark.) The red fatty substance found 
in the short bones, in the cranial diploe, in the 
bodies of the vertebra;, in the ends of the long 
bones, in the ribs, and in the sternum; it con- 
sists of marrow cells, many of which are very 
large and multinucleated, the myeloplaxes of 
Kobin, proceeding from the ingrowth of the 
osteogenetic layer of the periosteum. It is 
highly vascular, and the cells are concerned 
in the formation of osseous substance. Red 
marrow is chiefly- found in the spongy tissue 
at the extremities of the long bones. The cells 
are the elements from which many red blood- 
corpuscles are in constant course of develop- 
ment, and here probably red blood-corpuscles 
undergo disintegration. " Red marrow contains 
much albumin and salts, a small quantity of fat, 
and an acid similar to lactic acid. 

M. sheath. The white matter of Schwann 
surrounding the cylinder axis of a medullated 
nerve fibre. 

IVI., spi'nal. See Medulla spinalis. 

IVX., vegr'etable. The Cucurbita ovifera. 
Used as food. 

nx., ver'tebral. (L. vertebra, a spine 
bone.) See Medulla spinalis. 

IVK., yel'lo\(r. (F. moelle adipeuse ; G. 
gclbes Enockenmark .) The yellow fatty sub- 
stance occupying the canal of the shafts of long 
bones and consisting of marrow cells, many of 
which have become converted into fat cells, and 
which are held together by a sparing matrix of 
connective tissue, with a few blood-vessels. 
Yellow marrow contains about 96 per cent, of 
fat, some cholesterin, small quantities of hypo- 
xanthin and albumen, and occasionally lactic 

Marrubias'trum. (F. marrube noir ; 
G. der schxvarze stinkende Andorn.) The stinking 
hellebore, Ballota nigra. 

Marru'biin. (F. marubinc.) A bitter 
principle obtained by Thelu from Marrubium 
vulgare, believed to be febrifuge, slightly soluble 
in water, freely in alcohol and ether. 

JMEarru'bium. (Of uncertain origin ; 

possibly from Heb. mar, bitter; ro^, many; or, 
according to Liniifcus, from Mariaurbs, a town of 
Latium on Lake Fucinus, where this plant grows 
abundantly.) A CjI en us off be Nat. Order Labia tee. 
Also, the J.eiinurns carditica. 
Also, U.S. Ph., tlie leaves and tops of M. vul- 

M. arbum, Linn. (L. albus, white. F. 
marrube b/ane ; (i.u'eisser Andorn.) The white 
horehound, M. vulgare. 

VtL. al'yssuiu, Willd. ('A, neg. ; Xu(ro-«, 
rabies.) Galen's niadwort. It is in high rei)ute 
in America as a remedy for the rattlesnake liite. 
It is a popular remecly for hydrophobia in tlu; 
north of Europe, and in Russia it is still greatly 
esteemed. The root, reduced to jiowder, is to be 
eaten by being spread on bread and butter, 

M. aquat'lcum. (L. nquatieus, living 
in water. F. hiracUc ; G. Ilcraklea.) Water 
horehound. The Lgcopus europceus. 

T/t. g'eriuan'icum. (L. germanicus, Ger- 
man.) The J/, vulgare. 

IMC. hispan'icum. (L. kispaiiicus, be- 
longing to Spain.) The Sideritis syriaca, or 
Spanish liorehound. 

Ttl. malcolmla'num. The Mieromeria 

M. ni'grrum foe'tldum. (L. niger, 
black; fvetidus, stinking. F. marrube voir ; G. 
se/ucarzer stinkende Andorn.) The black fee tid, 
horehound, Ballota nigra. 

T/L. pseu'do-dlctam'nus, Willd. {^tv- 
SiU, false; oiVtu/ui'os, dittany.) Used as an 
emmenagogue, antiliysteric, and expectorant. 

IMC. verticilla'tum. (L. rertieillatus, 
whorled.) The same as 31. hispanieum. 

IMC. vulgra're, Linn. (L. vulgaris, common. 
F. marrube eominuii, herbe viergc ; G. wcisser 
Andorn.) The common horehound. It is an 
expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic, and tonic, and 
in large doses laxative. Used for coughs and 
asthma, but cspi^cially in chlorosis and hysteria. 
Blars. (L. 3Iars, the god of war.) The 
alchemical name for Iron. 

Also, a Paracelsian name for bile. 

IMC. alkallza'lis. Old term for a com- 
bination of iron with an alkali ; alkalised iron. 

M. diaphore'ticus. (Aiaf/iopi'/o-ts, sweat- 
ing.) An old remedy nuvde by dissolving Marlis 
Jlores in warm water, and precipitating with oil 
of tartar. 

M., ex'tract of. A tincture of a salt of 

Tit. sacchara'tus. (L. saceharum ,e,\i^a.v .) 
Old term for iron mixed with starch and sugar. 

Tit., saffron of. (F. safran de Mars.) 
The Ferri subcurbonas. 

M. solu'bilis. (L. .so^Mi«/«s, soluble.) Old 
term for Fcrrum iartarizatum. 

IVI. sulphura'tus. {Sulphur.) Term 
for iron filings and sulphur deflagrated together. 

IM. tartariza'tus. {Tartar.) The same 
as Fcrrum tartarizatum. 

marsa'la. A wine brought from Marsala 
in Sicily. It is a full-bodied, sweetish wine, 
containing 15 to 25 per cent, of alcohol. 
marsch'ing'. See Marching. 
niarsde'llia. A Genus of the Nat. Order 

la. conduran'g-o, Reichenbach. The 
Gonolobus eondurango. 

Marseilles'. France. The chief town 
of the Uepartemeut des Bouches-du-Rhone. The 
mean temperature is 58° F. ; frost is rare. The 


mistral, a violent, cold north-west wind, blows 
140 days in the your. The sirocco, a hot and 
parching wind, blows about 60 days in the year. 
Annual rainfall nearly 24 inches. 

IVX. hart'wort. The Seseli tortuosum. 

TH. vin'egar. The same as Acetum pro- 
p7n/!iic/ic/a)i, or thieves' vinegar. 

BXarsh. (Mid. E. merschc ; Sax. mcrsc, a 
marsh; contracted from mer-isc, full of meres 
or pools. F. marais ; I. palude^ marcmma ; S. 
pantano, cienaga ; G. Morast.) An unculti- 
vated swampy district, liable to floods ; a region 
from which the water never wholly drains 
away. When partiallj' dried, exhalations arise 
from such soils which give rise to remittent and 
intermittent fevers. The stagnant pools which 
abound in marshes frequently rest on clay beds, 
impervious to water, in which many mosses and 
alg;r, with some grasses and sedges and a few 
trees like the willow, find conditions favourable 
to growth. They are often fojtid, and bubbles 
of carburetted, piiosphnretted, and sulphuretted 
hydrogen and carbonic acid gas escape. They are 
ill adapted for the life either of man or of the 
domestic animals. The emanations are most 
dangerous at night, and within a few feet of the 
soil. The marsh miasm can be carried great 
distances by the wind. See also Malaria. 

m. androiu'eda. The Andromeda poll- 

Bl. cacbex'ia. (F. cachexie paludeennc .) 
See Cachexia, marsh, 

M. chickweed, great. The Stellaria 

Ttt. cinque'foll. The Comarum 2)alastre. 

IVI. cis'tus. The Ledum palusire. 

IVX, crow'foot. The Ranunculus sceleratus. 

T/l. damp. The same as 3farsh gas. 

IMC. el'der. The Viburnum opulus. 

TO., fe'ver. Same as Ague. 

IMC. g-as. (G. Snmpfgas.) CH4. Molecular 
weight 15-1)7; density 7-985; sp. gr. 0-5578. 
Light carburetted hydrogen, methane, methyl 
hydride, or fire damp. A colourless, tasteless, in- 
odorous gas, liquefying under a pre«sui-e of 108 
atmospheres at -11' C. (12-2' F.) It is found in 
a free state in coal mines, in petroleum springs, 
and in stagnant pools. It bums readily with a 
slightly luminous bluish Hamc ; with a limited 
supply of air it forms acetylene. Mixed with 
ten times its volume of air, or twice its volume 
of oxygen, it explodes on ignition with great 
violence, causing the explosions in coal mines. 
It may be prepared by heating one part of sodium 
acetate with four parts of a mixture of caustic 
Boda and lime. See also, Methyl hydride. 

m. g-en'tian. The Gcntiana pneumo- 

IVI. horse-tall. The Equisetum palustre. 

m. louse-wort. The Fedicularis palus- 

IW. mallow. Sec 31 a rsh mallow. 

IVX. marlg:old, sln'gle. (F. .souci d'eau; 
G. Dotterhlume.) The Caltha palustris. 

IVX. ml'asm. See Miasm, marsh. 

TH. nut. Ttie 3lalacca bean. 

Ttl. or'ctais, roy'al. The Orchis lad- 

1«. parsley. The Selinum palustre. 

IVX. pen'nyw^ort. The ITydrocotyle vul- 

T/l. pol'son. See 3Iiasm. 

TtL. root. The marsh rosemary, Statice 

IVX. rose'mary. (F. romarin dcs marais ; 
G. Strandu^ike.) The Statice limonium and S. 
limonium, var. caroliniana. 

nx. sam'pliire. The Salicornia herhacca. 

IVX. sedg:e, soft brown. The Carex in- 

IVI. spirochae'te. The Spirillum plica- 

IVI. tea. An infusion of the leaves of 
Ledum pahislrc. Employed in North America 
as a substitute for China tea. It possesses nar- 
cotic properties. 

IVX. tre'foil. (F. trc/le d'eau; G. Bittcr- 
klcc, Fichcrklcc.) The Menganthes trifoliata, 
or buckbcan. 

nx. vale'rian, small. The Valeriana 

IVX. vi'olet. The Viola canina. 

vn. -wa'tercress. The Nasturtium pa- 

IVI.-wort, procumbent. The Api'tm 

I\X. wound wort. The Stacliys palustris. 
IWarsh. James. An English chemist, 
born at \Voi)l\vich in IT'.'t, died in 1846. 

IVI.'s test for ar'senic. A wide-mouthed 
bottle is fitted with a cork perforated for two 
tubes, one of which is funnel-shaped at its outer 
end and passes to the bottom of the bottle, and 
the other just passes through the cork, is bent 
horizontally at the outer side and again upwards 
at a distance of five or six inches, where it is 
drawn to a fine point. Pure zinc is placed in 
the bottle, the cork is fitted, and dilute sulphuric 
acid is poured through the funnel into the bottle ; 
when the hydrogen gas has well developed and 
has expelled all the air, the solution to be tested 
is poured through the funnel, and the gas as it 
escapes from the narrow point of the outlet tube 
is lighted ; if arsenic be present it will burn with 
a bluisli tlame, smelling like garlic, and will de- 
posit a hair- brown stain of metallic arsenic or of 
a suboxide on a piece of cold white porcelain 
held near its point, having a white ring of crys- 
tals of arsenious acid around it, which may be 
dissolved and further tested. 

ZHar'shall Kail. See Hall, Marshall. 
IMEar'shall, John. An English surgeon, 
lately President of the Royal College of Surgeons 
of England ; still living. 

IVI.'s os'teotrite. ('Oo-Ttov, a bone ; L. 
tritor, a rubber.) A hemispherical rasp fitted 
on a long handle. It is used for clearing away 
softened carious bone without risk to the sur- 
rounding healthy structures. 

XWarshmal'low. The Althcea offici- 

T/L. flow'ers. See Altheeee fores. 

IVX. leaves. See Alt hecec folia. 

IVI. paste. See Pasta alth<cee. 

IMC. root. See Althceec radix. 

I^arsi'g-li, Count Al'oys Fer'di- 

nand. An Italian botanist of Bologna, who 
died in 1714. 

l^arsil'ea. (After Marsigli.) A Genus 
of the Nat. Order Marsileaceee. 

HX. Srummond'li, A. Br. Nardoo. Hab. 
Australia. Used as M. hirsuta. 

m. hirsuta, R. Br. (L. hirsutus, 
bristly.) Nardoo. Hab. Australia. Sporangia 
used in the form of gruel and of bread as food. 

ZWarsilea'ceSB, R. Brown. {Marsilia.) 
Pepi)erworts. A Nat. Order of the Subclass 
Meter osporia, Class Vasculares ; being lycopodal 


acrogena with many-celled radical spore-cases 
and the reproductive bodies of two different kinds. 
The)- are all found iu ditches, chiefly in temperate 

Marsip'ion. (Mn/oo-iirtoi/, dim. of fidp- 

(TiTTo's, a hug.) See Jfnrs/ipiinn. 

Marsipobrancli'iate. (.MapariTnou ; 

ppdy-^ia, the gills. F. marsipobranche.) Having 
gills in the form of small jiouchcs. 

Blarsipobrancli'ii. (Ma/io-iVioi' ; 

(ipayyia.) A Synonym of Cijclostomi. They 
are worm-like fishes with no limbs, a persistent 
notochord, and cartilaginous skeleton ; they arc 
thus named from their pouch-Uke gills. 

DXar'sum. (Marsia.) A kind of wine, 
produced in Marsia, in Italy, i-ecommended on 
account of its astringency iu softness of the gums 
and looseness of the teeth. 

XHarsu'piali (L. marsupmm, a pouch.) 
rouclied. Belonging to the Order MarsiipiaUa. 
m. bone. (F. os marsupial ; G. Marsit- 
pialknocken.) Scrres' term for a bone in Mar- 
supialia situated on each side of tbe middle line 
of the pelvis, iu front of and extending forwards 
from the os pubis, to which it is articulated. The 
bones are situated in the tendon of the external 
obUquc muscle of the abdomen, and support the 
marsupium. They are probably homologous with 
the epipubic cartilage of Anoura. 

IWC. poucb. XY.poche marsupiale.) The 

marsupia'lia. (L. marsupium, a pouch ; 
from Gr. fxaptrviriov, a little pouch. F. niar- 
supiaux ; I. marsupiali ; S. marsupiialcs ; G. 
Beutelthiere.) Illiger's term for an Order of 
nonplaceutal Mammalia, characterised hy the 
possession of two persistently distinct uteri 
which open into a divided vagina. The vaginaj 
open into a urogenital sinus provided with a 
special external aperture separate from the ter- 
mination of the intestine, though embraced by 
the same sphincter muscle. Marsupial bones or 
cartilages are attached to the brim of the pelvis 
for the support of the marsupium in the female, 
into which the immature young are placed. 
The mammary glands have nipples. The angle 
of the lower jaw is inflected. The extremities 
have five digits. 

Marsupialian. Same as Marsupial. 

Marsupiali'da. (Mapo-uTrux/, a little 

pouch; tI5os, likeness.) A Suborder of the 
Order Acalcpha, being quadriradiate acalcpha) 
having the form of a deep pouch, provided with 
a smooth-margined velum containing prolonga- 
tions of the gastro- vascular system, four lobes on 
the border of the umbrella, four covered marginal 
sense-organs, and four large vascular pouches 
separated by narrow septa. 

Ittarsupia'lis. (L. marsupium, a pouch.) 
Cowper's term for the combined Obturator in- 
ternus and Gemelli muscles. 

XVIarsupialisa'tion. (L. marsupium. 

F. marsupialisatio7i.) The formation of a pouch, 
or of a pouch- like cavity. 

IVIarsu'pian. Same as Marsupial. 

Marsupia'ta. Same as Marsupialia. 

niarsu'piate. (L. marsupium, a pouch.) 
Having a pouch ; having a Marsupium. 

Slarsupiiflo'rouS. (L. marsupium; 
flos, a flower.) Term applied to the flowers of 
plants which, like the Adenophora marsupiiflora, 
have a complete calyx and bell-shaped corolla, 
and have been compared to pouches. 

Marsu'pion. Same as Marsupium. 

DIarsu'pium. (L. marsupium, a pouch ; 
from Ur. ndpauTriuv, n little sac. F. buursc ; G. 
Beutcl, Bcuielcltoi.) A pouch. Applied to the 
large sac of the peritoneum. 

Also, a term for the scrotum. 

Also (G. Bruttaschr), a pouch foi*med by a fold 
of the skin of the abdomen serving as the re- 
ceptacle for the young near the inamma; iu the 
kangaroo aiul opossum. It is supported by two 
bones which articulate with the os pubis, and are 
ossifications of part of the teiulun of the ext(!rnal 
oblique muscle of the abdomen, or more rarely 
by flat processes of tibro-cartilage. It may open 
anteriorly or, as in some Peranielida and in 
Thylaciuus, posteriorly, and its aperture is closed 
by a largely developed portion of the panniculus 
carnosus muscle. 

Also, the ocular structure called Pecten when, 
as in the ostrich, it is pouch-like. 

Also, a bag for the fomenting of a part. 

TtL. musculo'sum. (L. muscn/us, a 
muscle.) The dartos or involuntary muscle of 
the scrotum. 

Marsupobranch'ii. {Map<ruiriov, a 

little pouch; lipdyx^a, the gills.) See Ilarsijjo- 

niarsypian'thes. (Mapo-uTrioi/, a small 

pouch; dvdt], a blossom.) A Genus of the Nat. 
Order Labiat<e. 

nc. tayptoi'des. Hab. Brazil. Used to 
medicate baths for rheumatism. 

marsyp'ion. Same as Marsupium. 

Marsypoceph'alus. {Mapavinov, a 

small pouch; KtijiaXv, the head.) A Genus of 
sexually mature cestode worms. 

m, rectan'gulus, Wedl. (L. rectus, 
straight; anffulus, an angle.) A parasite found 
in the intestine oi Heterobranchus anguilhrris. 

niar'tach. (Arab.) OlAtQimim- Litharc/c. 

l^ar'tag'OXl. See Lilium martagon. 

nXar'tial. (L. Mars, iron.) Of, or be- 
longing to, iron. 

tit. ae'thiops. {Mthiopia.) The Ferrum 
o.vidum magneticum. 

Wt. disea'ses. A term used by Paracelsus 
for diseases which originate in a definite locality 
of the body and extend their influence from it 
without leaving it ; they arc to be cured by the 
application of a magnet to the originating centre. 
m. prepara'tions. Medicaments con- 
taining iron or a salt of iron. 

SXar'tial, Saint. See Saint Martial. 

DIartia'le, San. See San Martiale. 

DXartia'tum ung-uent'um. (L. 

Mars, the god of war ; ungucnium, an ointment.) 
Soldiers' ointment. Old term for an ointment 
composed of laurel, rice, marjorum, and other 

l^Iarti'g'ny-bri'ant. France, departe- 
ment de Maine-et-Loire. Athermal, weak 
chalybeate waters, from three sources, said to 
contain a very minute quantity of arsenic. They 
are used as tonics and reconstituents in aU anaemic 

lHarti'g'ny-les-bains. Same as Mar- 

IKEarti'g-ny-les-la'marche. France, 

departement des Vosges. Athermal waters, from 
three sources, containing calcium sulphate 1*42 
gramme, and minute quantities of lithia and 
other salts, in 1000. They are used in the treat- 
ment of phosphatic gravel, and renal and vesical 
catarrh, as well as in the minor manifestations 
of gout. 


IVIartiii's depilatory. A soft mass 

coiiluiiiing cah'iuni ,sul|ili_V(lrate iiuulc by aildiiiK 
two jiaits of slaked lime to three of water, and 
Jiassiii;;- liyd|-i>i;'('ll sulphide throUf;li it. 

Martin, Gentian Prosper. A 

FrelU'li suri^eoi). 

IVI.'s bsemostat'ic. (Al^ua, blood ; <ttu- 
TiKo's, relaliiig to a standstill.) I'ieces of amadou 
soaked in a solution of I'eiric chloride. 

niar'tin, Ken'ry Austin. An 

American surgeon of the present century. 

M.'s band'agres. Jiandages eomjiosed of 
long strijjs of pure iiulia rubber entirely free 
from sulphur. They measure from five to 
twenty-one feet in length. They are extensively 
used for the treatment of chronic ulcers, vari- 
cose veins, and other diseases of the joints and 
legs requiring a support to the column of venous 
blood. They should be a])])Iied directly to the 
skin over the sore without any dressing. 

DIar'tin spring's. United States of 
America, Texas, Grayson County. Chalybeate 
waters, with a temi)erature of GO" F. (1.5-55" C.) 

IVIar'tin val'meroux. Sec Saint 


Mar'tinecz. Hungary, county Gonor. 
Athermal chalybeate waters. Used in chronic 
atfections of the digestive apparatus and in ma- 
larial trmibles. 

miar'tinique. One of the West India 
islands, being of the group of volcanic islands 
called the Lesser Antilles, belonging to France. 
It contains many mineral springs, the chief of 
which are : — Source Roty, near Fort Eoyal, a bi- 
carbonated chalybeate water, having a tempera- 
ture of 32-5" C. (90-5" F.) ; Source Rojnal, in 
the same neighbourhood, a chalybeate water, 
with a temperature of 30" C. (86' F.) ; Source du 
plchcnr, a weakly mineralised, thermal, chalyb- 
eate water ; and Source Absalon, also a chalyb- 
eate water, having a temperature of 33' C. 

IVIarti'no, San. See San Martino. 

Also, the same as Jl/rsino, 

I^Kar'tis limatu'ra. (L. Mars, a name 
for iron ; limo, to tile. F. limaillc (Jefer.) See 
Llnifi/uru Jerri. 

T/l. flo'res.' {L.Jios, a flower.) Flowers of 
iron. An ancient remedy made by subliming a 
mixture of equal parts of iron and sal ammoniac. 
It was regarded as attenuating and aperient, and 
was prescribed in many obstinate chronic dis- 
• eases and in asthma. 

T/t. "Willisia'na. ( Willis, English physi- 
cian.) A powder made by mixing iron filings 
with cream of tartar and wliite wine, and allow- 
ing the mixture to dry in the sun. 

IVIar'tius, XLarl Fried'rich 

Phil ipp von. A German botanist, born 
in Erhingen in 1794 ; died in IMunirh in ISGS. 
IVI.'s classlfica'tion of plants. The 

two divisions are: Primitirc vajctdiioH, inchul- 
ing all plants but Fungals, whicli are called 
Secondary vcyetation. The subdivisions of pri- 
mitive vegetation are : Anan/hs, or flowerless 
jilants; Loxincs, or monocotyledonous plants; 
TyDipanoehetcs, or gymnogonous plants; and 
()r//iniucs, or dicotyledonous plants. 

DXar'tOS. Sjiain, I'rovince of Jaen. A 
sulphur water, having a temperature of 19' C. 
{66-T F.) 

Mar'tres-de-veyre. France, departo- 

meiit dc I'uy-de-Uume. Thermal waters from 
three sources, having a temperature of 22'6° C. 

(72-5° F.), and containing sodium bicarbonate 
2"489 graninu'S, calcium bicarbonate '8909, mag- 
nesium bicarbonate '3185, iron bicarbonate '0485, 
and sodium idiloride r!)48 gramme in 1000. Used 
in dyspepsias, abdominal |ilelhora, liver aflec- 
tions, catarrh of the genilo-urinar}' mucous 
membrane, malarial diseases, and anarmic con- 

IMEar'tyn, ThOXn'aS. An English bo- 
tanist, and Professor of liotany at Cambridge; 
died in 1825. 

DXartyn'ia. (Marlyn, Thomas.) A Genus 
of the Nat. Order I'edaliacca. 

TX. an'oma, Linn. ("Ai/ojuov, without law.) 
The J/, pniboncidca. 

nx. proboscld'ea, Glox. {UfiofiocrKU, a 
trunk. G. luiilwiiipJluHZC.) Unicorn plant. 
Decoction of seeds mucilaginous ; used in bladder 

Blartynia'ceae, Link. The same as 

IMEaru'bine. A misspelling of Marrubiin. 
IMLaruchol'eum, A synonym ofMctal- 
luni, a metal. 

ma'rum. (L. marum ; Gy. ^laf>ov^, or 
from Hell, ruar, bitter, from its taste.) A name 
applied formerly to several s]iecies of Teucrium. 
IVI. cam'phor. A light substance occur- 
ring in white, translucent, brittle, crystalline 
leatlets, of unpleasant odour, as a deposit from 
water distilled from the Teucrium marum. 
T/L, cortu'si. The Teucrium marum. 
M. cre'ticum. {Crete, an island in the 
Mediterranean.) The Teucrium marum. 

IMC. g-ermaii'der. The Teucrium ma- 

IVI. syr'iacum. {Syria, a country of 
Asia.) The Teucrium marum. 

IMC. ve'rum. (L. verus, true.) The Teu- 
crium )iiaru)i). 

TIL. vulga're. (L. vulyaris, common. F. 
thym urdi Havre ; G. gemeincr Thymian.) The 
Thjimus niasliehina. 

iVIaru'ta. {Maruta, the Italian name of 
the plant.) A Genus of the Nat. Order Com- 

T/L. cot'ula, Cass. The Anthemis cotula. 
I^. fae'tida, Cass. (L.fwtidus, stinking.) 
The Autltemis cotula. 

PXar'vel of Peru'. The MirabHis di- 
eho/oiua and the M.jalapa. 

TtL. of Peru', long;-tu'bed. The Mira- 
bilis Idiiyijlora. 

T/La,'ry. The blessed Virgin. 
T/L.'s flo-w'er. The Anastalica hiero- 

T/L. ttais'tle. (F. chardon Marie; G. 
Fraiieiidistel.) The Carduus maria>ius. 
niar'yg'Old. See Mariyold. 
I^a'ryland. One of the United States of 

T/L. pink. The Sj/tf/elia marylaiidica. The 
root is otticial in the U.S. Ph., but the leaves 
also possess anthelmintic properties. See Spi- 
gclia, U.S. rh. 

Mas. (L- mas, a male. F. mule; G. 
Miiiiiiclnii.) The male of all kinds of animals 
and plants. 

Mascar'pio. (L. duis, a male ; carpo, to 
enjoy.) An onanist. 

iniaschaladeni'tis. (M«o-xa\';, the 

armpit; aor/i;, a gland. F. masclialadeiiite ; G. 
Achscldriisenenlzundung.) Intiammation of the 
axillary glands. 



HXa.S'clia'le* (Macrx«\t), the armpit. F. 
axiltc ; G. Achxelgyubc.) The armpit or axilla. 

XWaschaliae OUS. (Mao-xu'V'i, the arm- 
pit. 1 Axillary; relating to the armpit. 

Maschailiatri'a. (M«(Tx«'\';,the arm- 
pit; iaTpiia, liealiiig.) Forget's term for the 
treatment of diseases by local applications to the 

IMEas'chalis. (MacryaXis.) The armpit. 

maschalis'ter. (M<i<7x«'^"^T'V) the 

broad sti'ap passing round the shoulder of the 
horse, to which the traces are attached.) Old 
name for the second cervical vertebra. 

DXaschalon'cus. (Maa-xnXi;, the arm- 
pit; oyicoy, muss. F. tnmeur dc I'aisselle; G. 
Achselbeule.) A tumour, boil, or abscess in the 

Maschalopa'nus. (M«(7x«^'i, the 

armpit; -Trj/i/os, or ixavos, a glandular enlarge- 
ment ; originally the bale of wool on a spindle. 
F. tumcur dc raisselle; G. Achselbeule.) A 
glandular swelling or boil in the axilla. 

IMCaschalyperidro'sis. (Ma<TxaX'j; 

iiTTt'/o, above; lo/jcos, sweat. F. maschalypcri- 
drose; G.ubermdssif/er Achselschweiss.) Exces- 
sive secretion of sweat in the armpits. 

Ulas'cllii A poison prepared in British 
Guiana from the rootstalks of a species oi Arum. 

DIas'CUlat (L. masculus, dim. from 
mas, a male.) A female with so long a clitoris 
as to lead to her being mistaken for an herma- 

Also, one who practices tribadism. 

Blasculiflo'rous. (L. masculus, male ; 
^o«, atiower. Y. masculiflorc.) Term applied to 
the calathidium by H. Cassiui, and to the disc 
of Compositfc when the flowers seated upon it 
are exclusively male. 

Mas'culine. (Mid. E. masadyn; F. 
masculin ; from L. masculus, male. I. masco- 
lino; S. masculino; G. miinnlich.) Of the male 

In Botany, belonging to the stamens, 

DXas'culous. (L. masculus, dim. from 
mas, a male. F. male ; G. mdiinlich.) Of, or 
belonging to, a male; male; masculine. 

Also, applied to flowers provided with a stamen 

niase'sis. (Mao-ijo-i?, a chewing.) Mas- 

XHase'teri (Mao-ijTjjp, a chewer.) Same 
as Masseter. 

DXashu'a. A root, of a flat pyramidal 
shape, cooked like a potato by the Serrunos of 
Peru. Its botanical source is unknown. It is 
employed as a remedy in dropsy, dyspepsia, and 

masi'no. Italy, Province of Sondrio, in a 
picturesque valley of the Val Tellina, 1168 metres 
above sea-level. Indiff'erent thermal waters, 
having a temperature of 38^ C. to 39° C. (100'4° 
F. to 102-2" F.) Used in neuralgias, and neu- 
roses generally, in uterine troubles, in dyspepsia, 
and in urinary diseases. There is a whey cure. 

mask. (F. masque ; I. maschera ; S. mas- 
cara ; from Arabic maskharat, a buff'oon. G. 
Maske, Larvc.) A disguise for the face. Apiece 
of linen, with holes for the eyes and mouth, used 
for applications to the face. 

Also, the moditication of the lower lip of the 
larva of dragon flies which serves for capture of 
their prey. 

m. of pregr'nant \7om'eii. (F. masque 
desfemmes grosses.) See Chloasma uterinum. 

Blaslca. Franco, dtpartemcnt du Gera. 
A cold calcium sulphate spring. Used in rheu- 
matic conditions, mucous catarrhs, and skin dis- 

Blaslc'ed. {Mask. Y. masque, larve ; G. 
maskirl.) Hidden. 

In Botany (G. vcrhullt), the same as Ferso- 

Jn.. fe'ver. See Fever, masked. 

DIas'lacll> (Arab, moslick. G. stUrkend.) 
A restorative, hence applied to the best yellowish- 
white, gum-like, spontaneously exuding, sun- 
dried opium. 

Also, an agreeable preparation of opium in use 
amongst the Turks. 

DXa'son, Fran'cis. An English sur- 
geon, born in 1837 ; died in London in 1886. 

IWt.'s splint. A splint employed in the 
after treatment of excision of the elbow. It 
permits of the movements of pronation and 
supination being made during the process of 

mason's hygrometer. The Fsy- 


nias'peton. (Mao-TrsToi/.) The leaf of 
the Ferula narthcx, or assafcetida plant. 

mass. (Mid. E. masse; F. masse; L. 
massa, that which adheres together like dough ; 
from /ta^a, a barle}' cake ; from fxaatrw, to knead ; 
from Aryan root mak, to grind, to knead. I. 
massa; S. masa; G. Masse, Menge.) A quantity 
of matter. 

In Pharmacy, the compound or other substance 
from which pills are made. 

M., blue. The Filula hydrargi/ri, B. Ph. 
Also, the Massa hydrarygri, U.S. Ph. 

m. coc'cl. (Kd/cKos, a grain.) Schizomy- 
cetes which divide in one direction. The cocci 
after division remain isolated or aggregated in 
irregular heaps or botryoidal masses. Commonly 
called Micrococci. 

M. forms. (G. Massenformen.) Term 
applied to the colonies of Anthozoa which result 
from continual fission. 

T/L. of carbonate of i'ron. The Massa 
ferri carbonatis. 

nc. of copai'ba. See Massa copaiba;. 

M. of mer'cury. The Massa hydrargyri. 

T/l,, pollin'lc. See FoUinic mass. 

V/L., thread-like. (F. masse filaire of 
List.) The protoplasmic network of the calyci- 
form cells of the mucous membranes. 

'Sn.., u'nlt of. In England the unit of mass 
is the standard avoirdu])ois pound, which is 
equal to 453'5927 grammes. 

mas'sa. (F. masse. G. Telg.) A mass, 
lump, or heap. A dough-like compound made 
of a mixture of water, oil, or balsam with any 
powder. A term for any compound from which 
pills can be made. See Mass. 

til. caeru'lea. (L. ccer ulcus, blue.) The 
M. hydrargyri. 

ivi. ear nea Ja,co'bi Sylyii. (L. car- 
9ICUS, Heshy; Jacobus iS';//f«!^«, Latinised form of 
JaquesdeBois,aFrench anatomist of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries.) A synonym of the 
Flexor accessorius. 

•NL. copai'bse, U.S. Ph. {Copaiba. F. 
masse pilulaire de copahu ; G. Copnira-Pillen- 
massc.) Copaiba 94 parts, magnesia recently 
prepared 6 parts ; mix and set aside till it forms 
a pilular mass. 

IMC. de jujulils, Fr. Codex. (L. de, from ; 
jujube. Y.pute de jujube.) Jujubes 5 parts are 


infused with water su65cient to produce 35 parts, 
in which are then dissolved gum arabic 30 parts, 
and sugar 20 parts ; the solution is evaporated, 
orange-flower water 2 parts added, the whole 
boiled for twelve hours and poured into moulds. 
A demulcent. 

T/L. explemen'ti. (L. cxplementum, that 
which tills up. G. Bclcgiingsmassc.') Term 
applied to the grey cortical substance of the 
cerebrum and the "basal ganglia, together with 
some isolated fasciculi, in contradistinction to 
the radiating ttbrcs of the pedunculi in the 
hemispheres and the libres of the commissures. 

TO., fer'ri carbona'tis, U.S. Ph. (F. 
masse pilulairc de Vallct; G. ]'allet' schc PiUen- 
masse.) Mass of carbonate of iron. Sulphate 
of iron 100 parts and carbonate of sodium 110 
parts are each diss dvcd in boiling distilled 
water 200 parts ; syrup 2o parts is added to the 
iron solution ; when the solutions are cold they 
are mixed and put into a sto])pored bottle just 
large enough to hold them ; when the carbonate 
of iron has subsided the supernatant liquor is 
poured olf and the iron washed with a mixture 
of syrup one part and water 16 parts ; the preci- 
pitate is drained, mixed with clarified honey 38 
parts, and sugar 25 parts, and evaporated in a 
water bath to 100 parts. Dose, 2 to 5 grains ('15 
to '3 gramme). 

m. hydrargr'yri, U.S. Ph. (L. hydrar- 
gyrum, mercury.) Mercury 33 parts is triturated 
with honey of rose 34 parts and glycerine 3 parts 
until it is extinguished, then further triturated 
with liquorice powder 5 parts, and marshmallow 
powder 25 jiarts. 

Tit. pilula'rum Ruffi, Aust. Ph. Aloes 
6 parts, myrrh 3 parts, saflron one part, made 
into a pill mass with spirit. 

Blas'sae. Nnminative plural of Massa. 

T/L. latera'les atlan'tis. (L. lateralis, 
belonging to the side. G. Seitenniassen dcs 
Trdgers.) The lateral masses of the Atlas. 

IVI. latera'les os'sis ethiuo'ida'lis. 
(L. lateralis; os, a bone. Ij. iScito/masscn dcs 
Sielibeit/s.) The Etlunoturbinal bone of both sides. 
DIa.S'sa.g'e. (F.massaye ; froniGr. ixdaaw, 
to knead ; or from Arabic mass'h, to press softly ; 
from Sanscrit root mal-ch, S. masage ; "G. 
Massircn.) The systematic, successive manipu- 
lation of a part or parts of the body by means of 
a combined rubbing, and pressing, and squeezing 
with the hands of the manipulator. The ditferent 
modes of performing the operation, or the forms 
of massage, have received different names. They 
are : Effleurage, a centripetal stroking movement 
with the palm of the hand or with the surfaces 
of the fingers or the thumb, with pressure iuter- 
mitting at a varying but somewhat rapid rate, 
both hands being employed one after the other 
in alternations of compression and relaxation ; 
Petrissage, a picking up of some portion of the 
skin and some muscular or other deep tissue with 
the thumb and fingers wide .apart, and squeezing 
or rolling it about, and proceeding rapidly from 
below upwards to successive parts; Friction, a 
process consisting of upward or rotatory rubbing 
movements with the palm of one hand and the 
tips of the fingers of the other; and Tapotemcnt, 
a rapid percussion of the cutaneous surface with 
the tips of the fingers, or with the ulnar border 
of the hand, or with the back of the half-closed 
hand, so that the vibrations may be communi- 
cated to the deeper structures. 
The beneficial action of massage is probably 

exercised chiefly through an improvement of the 
general processes of nutrition, consequent on the 
more active metabolism of the tissues, and the 
more rapid removal of the waste substances of 
the body, produced by tlie mechanical action of 
the compressing and relaxing movements, on 
the one hand, in emptying the veins and the 
lymphatics, and, on the other, in eflecting 
tlieir refilling from their origins in the capil- 
laries and the lymph-spaces ; but there is also 
reason to believe that massage in some of its 
forms is not without a beueficial inlluence on the 
nervous system, and that, not only directly by 
tending to produce quiet and refreshing sleep 
and to relieve painful sensations, but also in- 
directly by inducing a healthier condition of the 
nerves concerned in the regulation of the pro- 
cesses of nutrition. 

BlaSSalio'tiCOn. (VLarrankiwrLKuv.) 

The name of a plaster for carbuncles, recom- 
mended by Demosthenes Massaliotcs, and used 
by Galen. 

X^assaliS. Old term for mercury. 

]>lassa'liuni. Old term for mercury. 

massanet'ta xnin'eral spring's. 

United States of America, Virginia, llockingluim 
County. Athermal waters, containing sodium 
carbonate 1-13 grain, calcium carbonate 14-78, 
magnesium carbonate 6'95, and iron carbonate 
•38 grain in a gallon. They are recommended 
in dyspepsia, in jiersistcnt intermittent fevers, 
and in paludal cachexia. 

Massarandu'ba tree. The Brosi- 

m urn galactodcndron. 

masse'ma. (Mao-do/uat, to chew.) 


IWasse'na spring's. United States of 
America, New York, Saint Lawrence County. 
Athermal waters, containing calcium bicarbonate 
4-85 grains, iron bicarbonate "49, sodium hypo- 
sulphate 4'21, calcium sulphate 60'03, sodium 
phosphate 1'32, sodium chloride 76-79, magne- 
sium chloride 29-93, and sodium sulphide 1-4 
grain in a gallon. 

masse'sis. {^laaaofxca, to chew.) The 
same as Jlasticaiion. 

nias'set's test for bile. A mode of 

detecting the colouring matters of bile in the 
urine. Two or three drops of concentrated 
sulphuric acid are added to the urine without 
shaking and then a small piece of sodium nitrate 
when, if bile be present, a beautiful deep green 
colour appears. 

DIaSSe'ter. (M«crcr)jTii/o, from /ndTado- 
fiai, to chew. F. massetcr, zygomatico-maxil- 
lairc ; I. massetcr ; S. masctcro ; G. Kaumas/iel, 
Kicfcrmuskel.) A thick quadrilateral muscle, 
divisible into two parts. The superficial portion 
arises from the lower border of the anterior two 
thirds of the zygomatic arch, and runs down- 
wards and backwards to be inserted into the 
lower half of the ramus of the jaw. The deep 
part arises from the posterior third and deep 
surface of the arch, and descends vertically to 
the upper half of the ramus of the jaw and the 
coronoid process. It is supjilied by the masse- 
teric nerve, a branch of the third division of the 
fifth nerve, and by the masseteric branch of the 
internal maxillary artery. Its action is to raise 
the lower jaw. 

In some Rodentia this muscle is very large. 
TfL. inter'nus. (L. intcrnus, that is 
within.) Tlie internal pterygoid muscle. 

IVIasseter'ic. (L- massetcr. F. masse- 

Of, or belonging to, the masseter 


KaumusMbMaaerf Ttdn whtf "'^ ' ^■ 
similar to thaf Ir \\.J^ vein whose course is 
opens info%£t,:i.?i^JXrv,-tei-y. It 

praSvS;,. ^^- "'^"^^''••) ^ -- who 

wh^p?a^.;m"i^- ,^f • '«^-«-) A « 

composed. f""^" ""«** »' orahids is 


Of^r belon,ingT.fe,i^;,,r ^'^'^-"^^^-O 

«.S|lf^^ai^-ofe-„^^ «Xro.,pain. P. 
breast.^ sLf ^^LS; ^f-^-T gland or 

befe"g*fo^'fe,JJ- --^«^.^-.-) Of, or 
a5?7ki^?eas^^ ®4 Jir""^"^' °"« ^^ the leasts ; 


iTTreyentfalf .'nf '"'"' "' '''^''' '' ^otifera. 
of E b ice"? funnT "^T'"-^ ^°''' the bottom 


Also, the same as Mystax 

the br^a^sl®*;*'''-^'"®'^?,^-. C^^"--"'^. one of 
the sic n F T'T'"';' '•■""'i^'i «f blood under 
tie /emaie b^,;«-^^''^%'«<'*^.) Ecchymosis in 

maSfo^j^.'*"*- (^^--?, the mouth.) A 

aSl*®'" °*" *^® woods. The Galium 

^Wf *'*^'"'^°'"*- ^^'^ I^nperatoria ostru- 
Also, the Seracleum lanatum. 
Also, the^w/e/«V« atrnpurpurea. 

bre^t*^*??^'*'^ ^,*S- .. (^^"--. the female 
Ulceration nr' "''^"'/ition. F. «.«.^/,,/,,,,.) 
femaleteast ^"PP^''^'^^^ ''^ the niannna, oi? 

usM|^-,/5f;^^,S-^-) ^-- 

■raasth les. (Jluo-e\,,5, leather") T^a 
same as iI/ff.s'M&. / , i<-ciLULi.; me 

Th?^f™ °.^.*f (^^"'^^'^' the female breast.) 
Tvr female breast. 

(Mao-To's, one of 

■^uamiua, or lemale breasi 


't!^^:e.' ^^^^^«'^'^--) Hyda^iarof th'eZm". 

mary gland. 

l«as'tic. The same as 3Iastich. 

Satw^?i®VT ^''P^^^'^ °f Mastication. 
from S* ,^f .*T' ,• ^ '"''*^'''' ^'^ '^^^ ; ^°^°^ed 
fere^ce to f/f h ^ t^T^'X^U mastich, in re- 
leience to its being chewed. F. niuchcr ■ T 
««.^».^r.; S. «e^.^i.^,.; G. kaucn) To chew 

T ^^ftication. F. mastication: from 
L. «M«^jc«<«s, part, of mastico, to chew I 
m«.^»m.e<,«.; S.masticacion; G Eaum)' tL 
food"ir'S.1 '^^'^"^"^^' ^"^ ^'"'^ coui-srof\vhl'h 


i^ismo^eT?/"*""?/^ ?*"-^=^°^'^ musderwhifst 
oacJiwa ds by the alternate action of the external 
and miernal pterygoids. The movements of 
the tongue and the action of the buccinator 
muscles are of importance in the act of mastica- 

f od so twT'\''^ ''^-'""^ '''' positioJTof the 
tood so that fresh portions should be submitted 
to the tee h, and the latter by preventing the 

eh™^Th"e 1'°°' ^^tweenVe ja^S Ihe' 
^wif\i- f depression of the jaw is effected 
by the digastric, mylo-liyoid, genio-hvoid and 
platysma myoides muscles. ^ ' 

owin^^^rSh^f ^^' T!t"'°^^ °f mastication, 
o^ing to the form of the temporo-maxillai-^ 
articulation, are limited to simple vertical mo ve^ 


ments or to those of separation and approxima- 
tion of the teelh, by means of whicli fragments 
are torn off by the front teeth, divided by the 
canines, and pierced and partly broken down by 
the sliarp molars. 

In Herbivora, the movements arc much more 
free and various, and are divisible into those of 
propulsion, in which the lower jaw is thrust 
forward ; retropulsion, in which it is drawn 
back ; and diduction, in which it is moved 
from side to side. The food can only be bruised 
and pounded on one side at a time, in conse- 
quence of the lower jaw being narrower trans- 
versely than the upper, so that when the right 
molars of the upper and lower jaws are opposed 
those of the left side are not. The depression of 
the lower jaw is effected in part by its own 
weight, and in part by the action of the digastric 
muscle, and in addition in Solipedcs by a special 
muscle, the stylo-maxillary, which is a short 
branch of the digastric. 

Prsepulsion is effected by the masscter and 
external pterj'goid muscles. It is impossible in 
Carnivora, moderatelj' free in Kuminants and in 
Solipedes, still more so in the pig, and freest of 
all in llodeutia. Ketropulsion is effected by the 
temporal muscle. Diduction, or lateral move- 
ment, which is oblique in direction, is mainly 
effected by the alternate action of the ptery- 

M.,cen'tre for. See Centre, mastication. 

VL., meryc'ic. (^hipvKoX^w, to chew the 
cud. F. masticallon mvryciqtte.) The orderly 
movements of mastication that take place during 

m., mus'cles of. See under chief head- 

TIL., mus'cles of, paralysis of. See 
Parah/.sis, mdHticaturn. 

Tin.., muscles of, spasm of. See Mas- 
ticatorji spfsm. 

ivi., nerves of. The nerves concerned 
in the innervation of the masticatory muscles, 
direct and indirect, are the inferior maxillary, 
the hypfighissal, and the facial nerves. 

PSas'ticatory. (L. mastico, to chew. 
F. masticaloire ; I. masticatorio ; S. mastica- 
torio ; G. Kaumittel.) A substance which, 
■when masticated or chewed, excites the secretion 
of saliva. 

Serving the purpose of, or relating to. Masti- 

IVI.s,com'pound. (F. masticatoircs com- 
poses.) Prej)arations made of one or more sialo- 
gogues mixed with other substances. 

TIL. mus'cles. (G. Kaumuslccln.) The 
masscter, temporal, and pterygoid muscles. 

IVX. nerve. (G. Kaumuskchicrv.) The 
anterior and smaller primary division of the in- 
ferior maxillary nerve. 

IVI. paral'ysis. See Paralysis, mastica- 

TIL. spasm. The same as Trismus. 
Also, a retlex contraction of the muscles sup- 
plied by the 31. nerve, as from intestinal worms 
or teething; it is often accompanied by grinding 
of the teeth. 

Mas'ticll. (Mill. E. mastylc ; F. mastic; 
L. mastiche ; Gr. hucttlx'i, the gum of the tree 
(Txivo^. I. mastice, mastico, mastrice; S. alma- 
ciya ; G. Mastiz.) See Mastiche. 

TIL., al'pba-res'ln of. {Alpha, the first 
letter of the Greek alphabet.) C20H32O3. The 
resin, amounting to about 90 per cent, of ordi- 

nary mastich, which is dissolved by alcohol. It 
liossesses acid properties. 

IVI., Amer'lcan. The gum resin of <S'e7m!M« 

TIL., Bar'bary. The produce of Fistacia 

TIL., be'ta-res'ln of. {Beta, the second 
letter of the Greek alphabet.) The same as 

T/L., Bom'bay. {Bombay, an East Indian 
city.) The same as M., Roman. 

TIL., Chrls'tian. (L. Christiantis, Chris- 
tian.) The same as M., Roman. 

TIL., East Zn'dian. The same as M., 

IVX., herb. The Thymus mastichina, or 
Marion vnlyare. 

TIL. herb, com'mon. The Thymus masti- 
china, or Marion i-nhjnrc. 

TIL. herb, Syr'ian. The Tcucrium marum. 

TIL,, IVIeditcrra'nean. (L. mediterra- 
neus, midland.) The same as M., Roman. 

TIL., oil of. The same as Mastichclceon. 

TIL., Peru'vian. {Peru, a country of 
South America.) The produce of Schinus molle. 

TIL., Ro'man. (L. Romanus, Roman.) A 
kind of mastich found in the Indian bazaars. It 
is the produce of the Fistacia khinjxk, and of 
the P. cabulica, trees growing in Scind, Lala- 
chistan, and Kabul. 

IVI,, Syr'ian herb. {Syria, a country of 
Asia.) The Teucrmm marum. 

TIL. tree. The Fistacia lentisciis. 

IVI., white. The same as M., Roman. 

IVI, wood. (F. bois de pistachc ; G. Mas- 
tixholz.) The wood of the Fistacia lentiscus. 
It contains little or no resin, mastich resin being 
contained in the bark of the wood. A tincture 
made from the wood and bark is used in some 
countries for dysentery, hEemorrhage,aud gout. 

mas'tiche, B. Ph., U.S. Ph. A resin 
obtained from shallow incisions made into 
the bark of the stems and branches of the 
Fistacia lentiscus. It appears in the form of 
yellowish tears, the size of a pea and dusty on 
the surface, transparent within. They are fri- 
able, breaking with a conehoidal fracture, and 
slight balsamic odour; they soften in the mouth, 
and can be kneaded together, but do not melt 
till 108° C. (226-4= F.) ; sp. gr. about 1-06. 
iMastich dissolves in half its weight of pure warm 
acetone, and in five parts of oil of cloves. It is 
now scarcely used in medicine, except as an 
oxcipient in pills and in solution with alcohol, 
ether, or chloroform as temporary stoiqnng for 
teeth. It is employed in the East as a mastica- 
tory to perfume the breath, and, the saliva being 
swallowed, to assist digestion. Formerly it was 
employed in catarrhs and in nocturnal incon- 
tinence of urine. See Mastich. 

ZUastichelae'utn. (Mao-rixAaioi/, 

frniii /(((fTTi'x';, mastich; iXaiov, oil.) The oil 
of mastich. 

ZVIasticIl'ic ac'id. Same as Mastich, 
alplia-ri'stn of. 

DXasticll'ina. (Alfin-x/xn'os, prepared 
with mastic.) The her