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Introduction to the American Edition vii 








of James 317 

of Peter 1 324 

of Peter II 331 

of John 1 336 

of John II 344 

of John III 345 

of Jude 346 


to the Romans 351 

to the Corinthians 1 378 

to the Corinthians II 403 

to the Galatians 420 

TO the Ephesians 429 

TO the Philippians 438 


TO the Thessalonians I h . 452 

to the Thessalonians II 458 

to the Hebrews 462 

to Timothy 1 484 

to Timothy II 491 

to Titus 496 

to Philemon 499 










Merits of the Edition 
Literature .... 




1. The Greek Manuscripts xlii 

A. Uncial Manuscripts xv 

B. Cursive Manuscripts xxxii 


Ancient Versions . 

xxxv i 


Syriac Versions . . 



Latin Versions . . 



^Ethiopic A'ersion . 



Old Egyptian, or Cop- 

tic, Versions . . . 



Gothic Version . . 



Armenian Version . 


Patristic Quotations 



Greek Fathers 



Latin Fathers 




1. Origin of Variations , lii 

2. Number of Variations liii 

3. Value of Variations . l'.ii 


i. Classes of Variations . lviii 

Omissions lviii 

Additions lviii 

Substitutions .... lxii 

5. Object of Criticism . . lxii 

0. Rules of Criticism . . lxiii 
7. Application of the Rules lxiv 



1. First Period: The Tex- 

tus Receptus. From 
Erasmus and Beza to 
Bengel and Wetstein, 
A.D. 1516-1750 ... Ixvi 

2. Second Period: Transi- 

tion from the Textus 
Receptus to the Uncial 
Text. From Griesbach 
to Laciimann, A.D. 1770- 
1830 lxxviii 

3. Third Period : The Prim- 

itive Text. From Lach- 
maxn and tlschendorf 
TO Westcott AND Hort, 
A.D. 1830-1881 . . . lxxxi 

Index to Notation 






Philip Schaff. 

Merits of the Edition. 

The seventeenth day of May, 1881, marks an epoch in 
the history of the New Testament. It is the birthday 
both of the purest English translation and of the* purest 
Greek text of that little book which contains the inspired 
message of God's wisdom and love to mankind, and which 
forms the highest standard of Christian faith and duty. 

The coincidence is remarkable. The original and the 
translation were matured during the same long period by 
harmonious, though independent, co-operation, The Edi- 
tors of the Greek text were members of the English New 
Testament Company of Revisers ; the English and Ameri- 
can Revisers had the confidential use of advanced proof- 
sheets of this edition of the Greek text as they proceeded, 
and their translation is perhaps more nearly conformed to 
it than to any other printed edition from Erasmus and 
Beza down to Teschendorf and Treadles. 

The Textus Receptus, so called, was Hnnounced to the 
world by the Ley den publishers in 1633, with the bold 


declaration, " Textum ergo habes nunc ab omnibus recep- 
*um" I venture to introduce the Greek Testament of 
Westcott and Hort with the modest assertion, Hie habes 
textum omnium editionum antiquissimum et purissimum.. 
It is based exclusively on documentary evidence, and on 
the most careful comparison of all the ancient sources of 
the text as they have been collected and made available by 
the indefatigable diligence of former editors, especially of 
Lachmann, Tischendorf, and Tregelles. It embodies the 
results of the combined labours of more than a quarter of 
a century. It will, of course, not supersede the large edi- 
tions which contain the whole critical apparatus ; but it 
will take its rank at once among the best standard edi- 
tions of the Greek Testament.* 

I b(3came personally acquainted with the editors and 
their work twelve years ago (at Harrow, in 1869), and saw 
them afterwards repeatedly at Cambridge, London, and 
Peterborough. I formed such a favourable opinion of the 
value of their labours that I engaged from them and their 
publisher (Mr. Macmillan) duplicate plates for an Ameri- 

* The Saturday Review of London for May 21, 1881, in a 
notice of the Revised Version of the New Testament, incident- 
ally mentio this Greek edition with the remark, "The Clar- 
endon Press volume [Archdeacon Palmer's Greek Test.] is beau- 
tifully printed. Though this, again, is eclipsed by the exquisite 
edition of Dr. Westcott's and Dr. Hort's Greek text, issued by 
the Pitt Presj m the same 17th of May, a day to be much re- 
membered by Biblical critics. This last work, formed exclu- 
sively on documentary evidence, without reference to any print- 
ed text, has been long expected by scholars. It is probably the 
most important contribution to Biblical learning in our genera- 
tion. The Revisers it is understood, had the advantage of con- 
sulting it during &a progress of their work." 


can edition, which, is now published by the Messrs. Harper 
& Brothers.* This opinion ripened into conviction by con- 
stant use, since 1870, of proof-sheets of this text, in my 
edition of Lange's " Commentary on John " (see the crit- 
ical notes), in my exegetical lectures, and in my labours 
as a member of the Revision Committee. 

Drs. Westcott and Hort are ranked in England among 
the best Greek and Biblical scholars of the age. Dr. Hort 
(educated at Rugby School and Trinity College, Cambridge) 
is Hulsean Professor of Divinity in the University of Cam- 
bridge (since 1878). He is probably more familiar with the 
textual history of the Greek Testament than any other man 
living. He exerted great influence in the Revision Com- 
pany on all matters of reading. His. Ttvo Dissertations on 
fjLovoy£in)g Qeog and on the Constantinopolitan Creed (1876) 
evince a rare degree of patristic learning and critical acumen. 

* The letter of the Messrs. Harper, in which they accepted 
my proposition, is dated May 17, 1871, on the same day of the 
same month on wmich the book was published ten years after- 
wards in London. But as Westcott and Hort did not contem- 
plate a critical apparatus below the text, I made subsequently 
an agreement with my friend, Prof. Tischendorf, for the prep- 
aration of an American edition containing his own latest text, 
with a very brief digest of his critical apparatus (somewhat sim- 
ilar to his editio critica minor, only more condensed, and confined 
to the oldest readings) for the use of students; thinking that 
there would be room for two editions, each having its special 
merits. Tischendorf actually began the work in 18T3, and sev- 
eral sheets were set up at Leipsic when his death, in Decem- 
ber, 1874, ended his earthly labours, preventing him from even 
preparing the Prolegomena to his eighth critical edition. I 
know of no scholars wdio could better carry out the plan of 
such an edition than Prof. Dr. Ezra Abbot in Cambridge, Mass., 
and Dr. Caspar Rene Gregory in Leipsic. 


Westcott (born 1825 ; educated at Trinity College, Cam- 
3ge) is Regius Professor of Divinity at Cambridge (since 
i"0), and Canon of Peterborough (since 1869). He is 

author of several able and useful works, as a History 
the English Bible ; a History of the Canon of the New 
tiament ; an Introduction to the Study of the Gospels; 
I a Commentary on the Gospel of John, which ranks 
Dng the best parts of the Speaker's Commentary. These 
) scholars have been in constant correspondence with each 
er, and kept a journal of their discussions of all the im- 
tant textual questions. Few works have ever been pre- 
ed with so much labour, care, and devotion as this edition 
he Greek Testament, begun in 1853 and finished in 1881. 
'he Introduction and Appendix, which the editors prom- 
bo publish shortly in a separate volume, will contain a 

exposition of the principles and results of textual crit- 
m. Without anticipating their elaborate treatise, which 
ive not yet seen, I propose, with their consent, to fur- 
i the readers of this volume with such preliminary in- 
nation as is necessary for an intelligent use of this or 

other critical edition of the Greek Testament. 


'he chief authorities for the topics discussed in this in- 
luction are the following w 7 orks : 

). Jac. Wetstein: *H Kaivrj Aia$i]Ki]. Novum Testamentum 
U-r cecum editionis receptee cum lectionibus variantibus, etc. Am- 
stel. 1751-52, 2 torn. fol. Prolegomena in torn. i. pp. 1-222. 

Jo. Jac. Griesbach: Novum Testamentum Grozce. Ed. 2da. 
HalaB Sax. et Lond. 1796-1806, 2 vols. 8vo. Ed. tertiam emend, 
et auctam cur. David Sclndz. Vol. i. Berolini, 1827. Prsefa- 
tiones et Prolegomena, vol. i. pp. iii.-lvi. i.-exxvii. Also his 
Symbolce Critic i> (1785-93), with his Meletemata, and Comments 
rius Criticus in Textum Gro3cum N. T. (1798 and 1811). 


Car. Lachmann : Novum Testamentum Greece et Latine. Be- 
rolini, 1842-50, 8vo. Prsefatio, vol. i. pp. v.-lvi. ; vol. ii. pp. iii.- 
xxvi. Cornp. also Lachmann's article in explanation and de- 
fence of his critical system, in the Studien und Kritiken for 1830, 
No. IV., pp. 817-845. 

Aen. Frid. Const. Teschendorf : Novum Testamentum Greece. 
Ad antiquissimos testes denuo recensuit, appavatum criticum omni 
studio perfectum apposuit, commentationem isagogicam preetexuit. 
Editio septima, Lips. 1859, 2 vols. 8vo. Prolegomena, vol. i. pp. 
xiii.-cclxxviii. The text of this edition is superseded by the edi- 
tio octava critica maior, Lips. 1869-72, 2 vols. The new Prole- 
gomena, which the author did not live to finish, but which have 
been prepared by Dr. Gregory, with the aid of Dr. Ezra Abbot, 
are now in course of publication at Leipsic. 

Samuel Prideaux Tregelles : The Greek New Testament, 
edited from Ancient Authorities, with the Latin Version of Jerome, 
from the Codex Amiatinus. London, published in parts from 
1857 to 1879, 1 vol. 4to. The 7th part (published in 1879, after the 
death of Dr. Tregelles) contains the Prolegomena, with Addenda 
and Corrigenda, compiled and edited by Rev. Dr. Hort and Rev. 
A. W. Streane. Comp. also Tregelles: Account of the Print- 
ed Text of the Greek New Testament, with Bemarks on its Eevision 
upon Critical Principles. London, 1854. And the first part (pre- 
pared by Tregelles) of the fourth volume of Home's Introduc- 
tion to the Holy Scriptures, 10th ed. London, 1856; 14th ed. 1877; 
also published separately as an Introduction to the Textual Crit- 
icism of the New Testament, London, 1856, etc. 

Henry Alford: The Greek Testament. London, 6th ed. 1868, 
etc. Prolegomena, vol. i. chaps, vi. and vii. pp. 73-148. 

Ed. Reuss: Bibliotheca Novi Testamenti Grmci. Brunsviga?, 
1872 (pp. 313). The most complete list of all the printed edi- 
tions of the Greek Testament. 

Fr. H. Ambrose Scrivener: A Plain Introduction to the Civ- 
icism of the New Testament. London, 1861 ; 2d ed. 1874. The 
best work on the subject in the English language. Comp. also 
his Six Lectures on the Text of the New Testament, Cambridge 
and London, 1875. 

C. E. Hammond : Outlines of Textual Criticism Applied to the 
New Testament. Oxford, 1872; 2d ed. 1876. 

The Critical Introductions to the New Testament by Hug, 
De Wette, Bleek, Reuss (5th ed. 1874); and several articles 


on Bible Text in Herzog's Real-Encyk. (new ed. ii. 400-437), and 
Smith's Diet, of the Bible (iii. 2112-2139, Amer. ed.); an essay of 
Dr. Ezra Abbot in Anglo- American Bible Revision, Philadelphia, 
2ded. 1879 (pp. 86-98); the third part of Edward C. Mitchell's 
Critical Handbook, published by the London Religious Tract 
Society, London, also Andover, 1880 (pp. 67-143). 

The Prolegomena to Tischendorf 's eighth critical edition, and 
the Introduction and Appendix of Westcott and Hort, may be 
referred to in advance as promising the latest and most accu- 
rate information on textual criticism applied to the New Testa- 


The original autographs* of the apostolic writings are 
lost beyond all reasonable hope of discovery, and are not 
even mentioned by the post-apostolic authors as being ex- 
tant anywhere, or as having been seen by them.f They 
perished, probably before the close of the first century, 
with the brittle paper then in ordinary use (the Egyptian 
papyrus), like all other ancient writings (with the excep- 
tion of a few that were accidentally preserved in Egyptian 
tombs and mummies, or under the lava of Vesuvius at 
Herculaneum and Pompeii). God has not chosen to ex- 
empt the Bible by a miracle from the fate of other books, 
but has wisely left room for the diligence and research of 
man, who is responsible for the use of all the facilities with- 
in his reach for the study of the Bible. He has not pro- 
vided for inspired transcribers any more than inspired 
printers, nor for infallible translators any more than infalli- 
ble commentators and readers. He wastes no miracles. He 

* Autographa, dpxsTv~a, Ldwxeipa. 

f On the disputed passage of Tertullian, who speaks of ipsa 
authentic^ litter®, Apostolorum, see Scrivener, p. 446. 


desires free and intelligent worshippers. " The letter kill- 
eth, but the spirit giveth life." The Bible, in its origin 
and history, is a human as well as a divine book, and must 
be studied under this twofold aspect. It is the incarna- 
tion of God's truth, and reflects the divine-human person 
of Christ, to whom it bears witness as the Alpha and Ome- 
ga, as the Way, the Life, and the Truth. Even if we had 
the apostolic autographs, there would be room for verbal 
criticism, since they, like other ancient books, were written 
as a continuous whole, without accents, without punctua- 
tion, without division of sentences or words, without titles 
and subscriptions, without even the name of the author 
unless it was part of the text itself. 

In the absence of the autographs, we must depend upon 
copies, or secondary sources. But these are, fortunately, 
far more numerous and trustworthy for the Greek Testa- 
ment than for any ancient classic. " In the variety and 
fulness of the evidence on which it rests, the text of the 
New Testament stands absolutely and unapproachably alone 
among ancient prose writings" (W. and H., p. 561). 

The sources of the text are threefold : Manuscript Cop- 
ies, Ancient Versions, and Patristic Quotations. 

1. The Greek Manuscripts. 
The Manuscripts, or Codices,* are the direct and most 
important sources. They number now over seventeen hun- 
dred, counting all classes, and new ones may yet be dis- 

* Codex, or caudex, means, originally, the trunk of a tree, stock, 
stem; then a block of wood split or sawn into planks, leaves, or 
tablets, and fastened together; hence a book, as the ancients 
wrote on tablets of wood smeared with wax, the leaves being 
laid one upon another. The Hebrew manuscripts are in rolls. 


covered.* They differ in age, extent, and value. They 
were written between the fourth and sixteenth centuries ; 
the oldest date from the middle of the fourth century, and 
rest, of course, on still older copies. Few manuscripts of 
Greek or Roman classics are older than the ninth or tenth 
century. The Medicean MS. of Virgil is of the fourth 
century, the Vatican MS. of Dion Cassius of the fifth. 
The oldest MSS. of ^Eschylus and Sophocles date from 
the tenth, those of Euripides from the twelfth century. 
The oldest complete copy of Homer is from the thirteenth 
century, though considerable papyrus fragments have been 
recently discovered which may date from the fifth or sixth. 
Some MSS. cover the whole New Testament, some only 
parts; and hence they are divided into ^ve or six classes, 
according as they contain the Gospels, or the Acts, or the 
Catholic Epistles, or the Pauline Epistles, or the Apoca- 
lypse, or only the Scripture lessons from the Gospels or Acts 
and Epistles (the lectionaries). Those which cover more 
than one of these classes, or the whole New Testament, are 
numbered in the lists two, three, or more times. The Gospel 
MSS. are the most numerous, those of the Apocalypse the 
least numerous. Some MSS. are written with great care, 
some contain many errors of transcribers. Most of them 

* The total number of MSS. recorded by Dr. Scrivener, in- 
cluding lectionaries, is 158 uncials and 1605 cursives (p. 269, 
comp. p. x.). But his list is incomplete. He gives an Index of 
about 1277 separate Greek MSS. of the New Testament, arranged 
according to the countries where they are now deposited (pp. 571- 
584). He assigns 3 to Denmark, 293 to England, 238 to France, 
96 to Germany, 6 to Holland, 3 to Ireland, 368 to Italy, 81 to 
Russia, 8 to Scotland, 23 to Spain, 1 to Sweden, 14 to Switzer- 
land, 104 to Turkey, 39 unknown. See also Edward C. Mitchell, 
Critical Handbook, Tables viii. ix. and x. 


give the Greek text only, a few the Latin version also 
(hence called codices bilingues or Grceco-Latini), e. g. Cod. 
D (or Beza3) for the Gospels and Acts, Cod. D (Claromon- 
tanus) for the Pauline Epistles, and Cod. A (Sangallensis) 
for the Gospels. They were written in the East, mostly in 
Alexandria and Constantinople ; for in Europe (with the 
exception of Greece, Lower Italy, and Sicily) the knowledge 
of the Greek language disappeared after the fifth century 
till the revival of learning in the fifteenth, and the Lat- 
in Vulgate supplied the place of the Greek and Hebrew 
Bible. Some words of frequent occurrence are usually 
abridged (as $cr = Seoc, kg =z Kvpioc, kt = Ir)(rovc, izva = irrEvjua). 
The MSS. are divided into two classes, uncial and cur- 
sive. The former are written in large or capital letters 
(litterce unciales or majusculce), the latter in small letters 
(litterce minusculce) or in current hand. The uncial MSS. 
are older, from the fourth to the tenth century, and hence 
more valuable, but were discovered and used long after 
the cursive. Two of them, the Sinaitic and the Vatican, 
date from the middle of the fourth century. 

A. Uncial Manuscripts. 

The uncial MSS. are designated (since Wetstein, 1752), 
for the sake of brevity, by the capital letters of the Latin 
alphabet (A, B, C, D, etc.), with the help of Greek letters 
for a few MSS. beyond Cod. Z, and the Hebrew letter 
Aleph (a) for the Sinaitic MS. which was discovered last 
and precedes Cod. A.* 

* The present usage arose from the accidental circumstance 
that the Codex Alexandrinus was designated as Cod. A in the 
lower margin of "Walton's Polyglot (Scrivener, loc. cit. p. 72, 
2d ed.). A far better system would be to designate them in 



The uncials are written on costly and durable vellum or 
parchment, on quarto or small folio pages of one or two, 
very rarely of three or four, columns. The older ones have 
no division of words or sentences except for paragraphs, 
no accents or ornaments, and but very few pause-marks. 
Hence it requires some practice to read them with ease. 

The date and place, which were not marked on MSS. 
earlier than the tenth century, can be only approximately 
ascertained from the material, the form of letters, the style 
of writing, the presence or absence of the Ammonian sec- 
tions (*;£0a\cua, capitula) in the Gospels, the Eusebian Can- 
ons (or tables of references to the Ammonian sections, after 
340, when Eusebius died), the Euthalian sections in the 
Acts and Epistles, and the stichometric divisions or lines 
((T-lxoi) corresponding to sentences (both introduced by 
Euthalius, cir. A.D. 458),* marks of punctuation (ninth cen- 
tury), etc. Sometimes a second or third hand has intro- 
duced punctuation and accents or different readings. Hence 
the distinction of lectiones a prima manu, marked by a *; 
a secunda manu (**, or 2 , or b ) ; a tertia manu (*** ? or 3 , 
or c ). 

the order of their age or value, which would place B and K 
before A. But the usage in this case can as little be altered as 
the traditional division into chapters and verses. Mill cited the 
copies by abridgments of their names, e. g. Alex., Cant, Mont; 
but this mode would now take too much space. Wetstein 
knew 14 uncial MSS. of the Gospels, which he designated 
from A to O, and about 112 cursives, besides 24 Evangelis- 
taries. See his list at the close of the Prolegomena, pp. 220- 

* Afterwards these stichometric divisions were abandoned as 
too costly, and gave way to dots or other marks between the 
sentences. This was the beginning of punctuation. 


Some MSS. (as Codd. C, P, Q, R, Z, IS) have been written 
twice over, owing to the scarcity and costliness of parch- 
ment, and are called codices rescripti, or palimpsests (TraXlfx- 
\j;r]fT-oi) ; the new book being written between the lines, or 
across, or in place of the old Bible text. 

Constantine the Great ordered from Eusebius, for the 
churches of Constantinople, the preparation of fifty MSS. 
of the Bible, to be written " on artificially wrought skins 
by skilful calligraphists." * To judge from this fact, the 
number of uncials was once very large, but most of them 
perished in the Middle Ages. The whole number now 
known is less than one hundred. Scrivener reckons 56 
for the Gospels (most of them only fragmentary), 14 for 
the Acts, 6 for the Catholic Epistles, 15 for the Pauline 
Epistles, 5 for the Apocalypse, exclusive of the uncial lec- 
tionaries, which are not marked by capitals, but by Arabic 
numerals, like cursive MSS. of all classes.f Dr. Ezra 
Abbot (in a private letter of June 21, 1881) kindly fur- 
nishes me with the result of his own careful researches. 
The number of distinct uncial MSS. of the New Testament 
(not including lectionaries) at present known is 83. We 
have for the Gospels 61 ; for the Acts 15; for the Cath- 
olic Epistles 7; for the Pauline Epistles 20; and for the 
Apocalypse 5. This includes the Codex Rossanensis, and 
three or four small fragments not used by Tischendorf. 
Dr. Abbot's list is as follows : 

Gospels : KABCDEFF a GHP 347 PKLMlSrO(> bcdef 
PQRSTT™T bcde UVW abcdef XYZrA 

Qabcdefgh A £ n2 = 61. 

* Eusebius, Vita Const, iv. 36, UivrrjKovra (Twficirta iv di(p5epaiQ 
tyKciTcujKEvoig . . . vtto t^xvitCjv Ka\\iypd(pwv. 
t Scrivener, Introd. p. 72 (2d ed. 1874). 


Acts: X A B C D E(*) F a G(s) G b H(«) I 25 - 6 - L(«) P(«) = 15. 
Cath. : x A B C K (2) L « P (*) = 7. 
Paul: X A B C D (») E (s) F (s) F a G(s) H(s) I 2 - K(«) L(«) M(«) 

N (2) O (2) O b (2) P (2) Q (2) R (2) = 20. 

Apoc: X AB(2)CP = 5. 

Whole number of distinct MSS. : 

a A B B a P° c C D evv - act D P aul E E act E P aul F F P auI F a G G act G P aul 
Qb (act) H H act H P aul I *■ 2 ' 3- 4 5 * 6 ' 7 * I b K K cath - P aul L L act - cath - P aul 

M M paul N N paul O O abcdef OP aul O b (P aul ) P P act. cath. paul. apoc 

Q QP aul RRP aul S T(or-T a ) T woi T bcde U V W abedef X Y Z 

r A Qabcdefgh A g n 2 = 83. 

The Sinaitie and the Vatican MSS. are by far the most 
important for antiquity, completeness, and value. I give a 
brief description of the best uncial MSS. which are most 
frequently quoted by critics. 

(1.) Uncials of the first class. They are four — two 
from the fourth, two from the fifth century ; one complete 
(a), two nearly complete (A and B), one defective (C). To 
these is usually added D as the fifth of the great uncials, 
but it contains only the Gospels and Acts, and has strange 
peculiarities. In the Gospels the text of C, L, Z, £7, and 
of A in Mark, is better than that of A, but in the rest of the 
Xew Testament A is undoubtedly, after a and B, the most 
important MS. 

K (Aleph). Codex Sinaiticus, formerly in the Convent 
of Mount Sinai (hence its name), now in the Imperial Library 
at St. Petersburg. It dates from the middle of the fourth 
century, is written on fine parchment (13|- inches wide by 
14^ high), in large uncials, with four columns to a page (of 
48 lines each). It has 346|- leaves. It was discovered 
and secured bv the indefatigable Prof. C. Tischendorf, in 
the Convent of St. Catharine, at the foot of Mount Sinai, 


on the 4th of February, 1859.* It was published at St. 
Petersburg (printed at Leipsic) at the expense of the Czar 
Alexander II. in celebration of the first millennium of the 
Russian empire, in accurate imitation by types specially 

* The story of the discovery, which made Tischendorf one 
of the happiest men I ever knew, reads like an heroic romance. 
His three journeys from Leipsic to Mount Sinai, in pursuit of 
manuscript treasures, in 1844, 1853, and 1859; his first rescue of 
forty-three leaves of the Septuagint from a waste-basket in the 
Convent of St. Catharine in 1844 ; his final discovery of the 
whole Cod. Sinaiticus in 1859, with the powerful aid of the rec- 
ommendation of that noble Czar who met such a terrible death 
at the hands of the Nihilists in 1881 ; his patient labor in tran- 
scribing it at Cairo, and in its publication at Leipsic, in connec- 
tion with a great national event of the Russian empire; his con- 
troversy with the Greek Simonides, who impudently claimed to 
have written the codex on Mount Athos in 1839 and 1840 — are all 
told by himself, not without some excusable vanity, in his Beise 
in den Orient (1845-46), and Aus dem Tieil. Lande (1862) ; his Noii- 
tia Codicis Sinaitici (1860); the Prolegomena to his editions (1862 
and 1865); and his two controversial pamphlets, Die Anfechtun- 
gen der Sinaibibel (1863), and Waffen der Finsterniss wider die 
Sinaibibel (1863). When, on a visit to Mount Sinai in March, 
1877, I saw a copy of the magnificent four- volume edition in 
the convent library, and mentioned the name of Tischendorf, the 
sub-prior kindled up in indignation and called him a thief, who 
had stolen their greatest treasure on the pretext of a temporary 
loan; and when I reminded him of the large reward of the Em- 
peror of Russia, who had furnished a new silver shrine for the 
coffin of St. Catharine, he admitted it reluctantly; but remarked 
that they did not want the silver, but the manuscript — the manu- 
script which these monks could not read, and w^ere at one time 
ready to throw into the fire! After long delays, the MS. was 
formally presented to the Czar in 1869 by the new prior, arch- 
bishop Kallistratos, and the monks of the Convents of St. Cath- 
arine and Cairo. See Tischendorf, Die Sinaibibel (1871), p. 91. 


cast, in four folio volumes.* The New Testament was also 
separately edited by Tischendorf in smaller type in quarto 
(Leipsic, 1863), in four columns; and an octavo edition in 
ordinary type (ibid. 1865). Dr. Scrivener has published a 
" Full Collation of the Sinaitic MS. with the Received Text 
of the New Testament" (2d ed. 1867). 

Codex X is the most complete, and also (with the ex- 
ception, perhaps, of the Vatican MS.) the oldest, or, at 
all events, one of the two oldest MSS., although it was last 
found and used. Tischendorf calls it " omnium codicum 
uncialium solus integer omniumque antiquissimusP He 
assigns it to the age of Eusebius the historian, who died in 
340 ; and thinks it not improbable that it was one of the 
fifty copies which Constantine had ordered to be prepared 
for the churches of Constantinople in 331, and that it was 
sent by the Emperor Justinian to the Convent of Mount 
Sinai, which he founded.f It contains large portions of 

* Bibliorum Codex Sinaiticus Petropolitanus^ Auspiciis au- 
gustissimis Imperatoris AlexandH II, ex tenebris protraxit in 
Europam transtulit ad iuvandas atque illustrandas sacras litteras 
edidit Const antinus Tischendorf. Petropoli, MDCCCLXII. 
The first volume contains the dedication to the Emperor (dated 
Lips, ^-j^jr 1862), the Prolegomena, Notes on the corrections by 
later hands, and twenty-one plates (in fac-simile); vols. iL and 
iii. contain the Septuagint; vol. iv. the Greek Testament (134J 
leaves), the Epistle of Barnabas (foil. 135-141), and a part of the 
Pastor Hermse (foil. 142-148). Copies of this rare and costly 
edition are in the Astor Library, the Lenox Library, the Union 
Theological Seminary, New York, at Cambridge, Andover, and 
in other libraries of America. 

f Tischendorf 's edition of the English New Test,, Leips. 1869, 
p. xii. After a more careful inspection of the Vatican MS. in 
1866, he has somewhat modified his view of the priority of the 


the Old Testament in the Septuagint Version (199 leaves), 
and the whole New Testament, without any omission, to- 
gether with the Epistle of Barnabas, all in Greek, and a 
part of the Pastor Hennas in Greek (147^- leaves). It is 
much disfigured by numerous corrections made by the 
original scribes or several later writers, especially one of 
the fourth century (K a ), whose emendations are very valu- 
able, and one of the seventh (a c ). It often confirms Cod. 
Vaticanus m characteristic readings (as jjiovoyev^g Seog 
for vwg, in John i. 18; t))v eKKkr^aiav tov Beov for Kvpiov, 
in Acts xx. 28 ; o g ecpavepwSri for Sfo'c, in 1 Tim. iii. 16), and 
omissions, as the doxology (Matt. vi. 13) ; the end of Mark 
(xvi. 9-20); the passage of the woman taken in adultery 
(John vii. 53-viii. 11), in part, also, the Old Latin Version; 
but sometimes it supports other witnesses. It has contrib- 
uted very much towards the settlement of the text, and 
stimulated the progress of the revision movement in Eng- 
land, in connection with Tischendorf s Tauchnitz edition 
of King James's Version (1869), which gives in foot-notes 
the chief readings of the three great uncials 8, B, and A. 
Tischendorf first copied the Sinaitic MS., with the help 

Sinaitic over the Vatican MS., and assigns them both to the 
middle of the fourth century, maintaining even that one of the 
scribes of K (who wrote six leaves, and whom he designates D) 
wrote the New Testament part of B. Compare the learned 
and very able essay of Dr. Ezra Abbot (against Mr. Burgon) : 
" Comparative Antiquity of the Sinaitic and Vatican MSS.," in 
the Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. x. (1872), pp. 
189-200. Gebhardt, in Herzog's Real-Encyklopadie (new ed.), 
vol. ii. p. 414, pronounces Burgon's attempt to prove the higher 
antiquity of the Vatican MS. by fifty to one hundred years an 
entire failure. 


of Coptic scribes, at Cairo ; and from this copy, which the 
Professor showed me at Leipsic, the printed editions were 
prepared. As neither Teschendorf nor his scribes were in- 
fallible, some errors may have crept in, so that, in doubt- 
ful cases, a resort to the original MS. in St. Petersburg is 
necessary. Tregelles has inspected it. Considerable por- 
tions of it have been photographed, and real fac-similes 
are given in Teschendorf's three editions, and in Scrivener's 
Introduction. Mr. Burgon, also, in his book on the Last 
Twelve Verses of Mark, gives an exact f ac-simile of a page, 
taken at St. Petersburg, which shows the last two columns 
of Mark (to xvi. 8) and the first two columns of Luke. 

kw o m OAoroyMe 




kp e Ai kk\ co e h e N 


e Neci Nen i crey 



Specimen of the Codex Sinaiticus, containing 1 Tim. in. 16 : 
Kai ofio\oyovfis\v(t)g jxeya ecrnv \ to tt]Q evvefieiag \ flvcmipiov og e\(pa- 
VEpioSrr) ev Gap\ici' tdiKai<x)$rr] ev \ wvi ucpSrr] ayyeXoig \ eicrjpvx^rj tv 
eftveaiv e7Ti<JTEv\5r] ev /coct/aw | avekr^Kp^nr] ev \ do^rj. 


A. Codex Alexandrinus of the fifth century, in quarto 
and two columns (I2f inches high, 10^ broad), given by 
Patriarch Cyril Lucar of Constantinople (the unlucky re- 
former, formerly of Alexandria) to King Charles I. (1628), 
now in the British Museum, London, where the open vol- 
ume of the New Testament is exhibited in the MS. room. 
It was probably written in Alexandria. It contains on 773 
leaves the Old Testament, in the Septuagint Version (edited 
by Baber, London, 1816-28), and the New Testament; but, 
unfortunately, with the omission of Matt. i. 1-xxv. 6, John 
vi. 50-viii. 52, and 2 Cor. iv. 13-xii. 6. It also has at 
the end the Greek Epistle of Clement of Rome to the 
Corinthians, with a fragment of a second epistle, or homily. 
This was the only MS. extant of Clement before the dis- 
covery by Philotheos Bryennios of the copy at Constanti- 
nople (1875). The New Testament of the Alexandrian 
MS. was published by Charles G. Woide in uncial type 
(London, 1786), and by B. H. Cowper, in common type 
(ibid. 1860). We have it now in a most beautiful pho- 
tographic fac-simile, issued by the Trustees of the British 
Museum, London, 1879. 

Cod. A is the first uncial MS. that was used by textual 
critics. It presents a text which occupies an intermedi- 
ate position between the oldest uncial and the later text. 
It occupies the third or fourth rank among the MSS. next 
to K and B, and perhaps C. See fac-similes in Woide and 
Scrivener. On the following page we give two specimens. 

B. Codex Vaticanus, of the middle of the fourth cen- 
tury, on very fine thin vellum, in small but clear and neat un- 
cial letters, in three columns (of 42 lines each), to a quarto 
page (10 inches by 10-J), preserved in the Vatican Library 
at Rome (No. 1209). It is more accurately written than 



H^pX! lenoiHceNoecTowov 


pahtoc i<A.RAi<^<csrAcn oc. 
KAic KoVoceniNu^THC^fiyccoy, 

TTPocexeTeexrroic \<*> iTT^rsrjnv 

nmoi fv*r^i lUJGNujVMXCro-ni^Kro 

TTOfl M|_^l Wei N TTH N G K KAHC f XN 



Specimens of the Codex Alexandrinus. 

The first is in bright red, with breathings and accents, and con- 
tains Gen. i. 1, 2, Sept. (Ev apxi t7r6irjGev 6 0<r tov bv \ pavbv Kai 
rr\v yrjv rj £k yrj i)v do \ paToa kcli ctKaraaKevaaroff' \ Kai okotog 
iirdvb) rrjcr afiwaov.). The second specimen is in common 
ink, and contains Acts xx. 28 (Upoaex^re eavroicr Kai iravTi toj | 
ttoi\lvux} ' ev w i/fiaa to ttvci to \ ayiov eQtTO eiriaK07rova ' \ Troifiai- 
veiv Trjv EKKkr]aiav \ tov kv r\v 7repie7roirjaaTO dia \ tov aifiarog tov 
idiov. A favours Kvpiov versus Seou. 

the Sinaitic MS., but not so complete. It was apparently- 
copied in Egypt by a skilful and critical scribe, and brought 
to Rome shortly after the establishment of the Vatican Li- 
brary by Pcpe Nicholas V. in 1448 ; perhaps (as Dr. Scriv- 
ener conjectures) by the learned Cardinal Bessarion, who 
laboured for the reunion of the Greek and Latin churches. 
It was entered in the earliest catalogue of that library, made 
in 1475. It contains the whole Bible as far as and including 


Heb. ix. 14, and breaks off in the middle of the verse and of 
the word Ka$a\piel. The Pastoral Epistles, Philemon, and 
the Apocalypse are lost. It was long watched with jealous 
care by the papal authorities, very imperfectly known to Mill 
and Wetstein, but partially collated, under considerable re- 
strictions, by Bartolocci, librarian of the Vatican (1669), 
the Abbate Mico for Thomas Bentley (about 1720, publish- 
ed 1799), Andrew Birch of Copenhagen (1788, publ. 1798- 
1801), Hug (1809, he first fully recognised its paramount 
value), Tischendorf (1843, 1844, 1866), Tregelles (1845), 
Dressel (1855), Burgon (i860), Alford (1861), and his 
secretary, Mr. Cure (in 1862). It was first printed under 
the supervision of the celebrated Cardinal Angelo Mai (d. 
1854), Rome, 1828-38, but not published till 1857 (in 5 
vols., the fifth containing the New Testament); and so 
inaccurately that this edition is critically worthless. The 
New Testament was again published separately, with some 
improvements, by Vercellone, Rome, 1859 ; more critically 
by Tischendorf, Leipsic, 1867, from a partial inspection of 
two weeks under the constant supervision of C. Vercellone, 
who learned from the German expert some useful lessons 
in editorial work. Now, at last, we have a complete and 
critical, though by no means infallible, quasi fac- simile 
edition of the whole Vatican MS. by Vercellone (d. 1869) 
and Jos. Cozza, Rome, 1868-72.* The type used was cast 
from the same moulds as that employed for Tischendorf s 
edition of the. Codex Sinaiticus, and was lent by him to the 
papal government ; but he complained of the bad use the 
Roman printers made of it.f 

* Gaetano Sergio has been associated with Cozza since Ver- 
cellone's death, 
f The full title reads Bibliorum Sacrorum Grcecus Codex Vati- 


" The Vatican," says Dr. Scrivener, " is probably the old- 
est vellum manuscript in existence, and is the glory of the 
Vatican Library." It is the chief authority among MSS. for 
the Greek Testament of Westcott and Hort ; while Tisch- 
endorf, in his last editions, very naturally shows a preference 
for the Sinaitic Codex of his own discovery. It presents, 
upon the whole, the shortest text ; but the charge of omis- 
sions of many words and whole clauses is founded on the 
false assumption that the Elzevir text is the standard. West- 
cott and Hort say (p. 557) : " The fondness for omissions, 
which has sometimes been attributed to the scribe of the Vat- 
ican, is imaginary, except, perhaps, single petty words." The 
agreement of B and X is (with few exceptions) a strong pre- 
sumptive evidence for the genuineness of a reading, and, when 
supported by other ante-Nicene testimony, it is conclusive. 

The specimen on the following page is borrowed from 
Scrivener, and contains the last verses in Mark (xvi. 3-8). 

C. Codex Regius, or Ephraemi SYRi,of the fifth century;* 

canus auspice Pio IX. Pontifice Maximo collatis studiis Caroli Ver- 
cellone Sodalis Barnabitce et Josephi Cozza Monachi Basiliani edi~ 
tus. Romse, typis et impensis S. Congregationis de Propaganda 
Fide. 1868. Beautifully printed on vellum paper. Four vol- 
umes contain the Septuagint (i. Pentateuch and Jos. ; ii. Judges, 
etc. ; iii. The Psalms, etc. ; iv. Esther, etc.), one volume the New 
Testament; a sixth volume is promised for the Prolegomena 
and Notes. The New Testament appeared in 1868 as torn. v. 
It gives the original MS. down to Heb. ix. 14, in 284 large pages. 
The rest of the Epistle to the Hebrews and the Apocalypse 
(from pp. 285 to 302) are supplied from a later text {recentiori 
manu) in ordinary Greek type, and have therefore no critical 
value. The Pastoral Epistles and the Epistle to Philemon are 
wanting altogether. I used the copy in the Astor Library. 

* Tischendorf regards C as older than A; and in the Gospels 
it has a much better text. 

pXv tov X'lQov Ik t7\g 
| Qvpaa tov fivr}- 
fxsTov | kcli dva 
fiXeipaaai Otto \pcv- 
aiv on ava.KEKv\ 
Xicr-ai 6 XiOog fjv 
yap | fAtyaa G(po- 
dpa kcll eX\Qov(rai 
ha to \ivr\\ili \ov 


KaQfj^Evov Iv TOLG 
I dtZioicr 7Tf(Ot/3g- 
fiXrjfiE | vov aroXrjv 
XevkPjv | kcli t|e- 
9afi(5i]6r]Gav j 6 dk 
Xeyn clvtolig \xy\ \ 
iKQapfilinQt Iv ty- 
tel | te tov va%a- 
pt]vbvTO~ \ kctTav- 
piofisvov r)ysp\Gr] 
ovk egtiv wds ids 

| 6 T07T0G 07T0V 

eQrjica glvtov 

dXXa VTrdysre 
iiiroLTE toig p,a9rj- 


TTpodyEi vfida h<r | 

clv\tov 6\psa9E kci- 

OiO<J lt\7TEV VfXlV 

Kai E%EXQov\(jai 
t<pvyov diro tov | 
fivrjfiEiov &x EV 
yap | dvTaa rpo- 


/cat ovdevi 6v\8ev 
kiirov E<po($ovv\TO 


ey p AcnrdyM w h Meloy 
K Xi an ab Ae ^ac ai ©£u* 

A/ ctm oai© o CHMrif 
n gV a_c c<1> o Aj»A kaiSa, 

ON 6*1 AOKINe^N f'c KOH 


6 A>£ a ejrei £y «ta/ cm & 


€ C HTAy ? <JJ M6MO N H jytf 

§ H oy Keen Js*&>£ *>J^ 
o ~rdn o c 6' n ojye © h k aT 

ei n A"rc*r6 re m ^eHT^io 
fy ~rciy k X r t\£> n er;j>aj 
ori npoXre^MAcefc 

THN PA Al AX r A NCK6 1 xy 

To n o^ ec eg Kr^eujc^ej 




^eN einoMecpo^Q^ 



fr v 

?, ./ 


v JJAfkON^ 

Specimen of the Codex Vaticanus, containing Mark xvi. 3-8. 
Taken from Mr. Burgon's photograph of the whole page. 


I- CD 




fc A 

© „! 

very defective, containing about two 
thirds of the New Testament ; in the 
National Library at Paris. First col- 
lated by Wetstein (1716) ; edited by 
Tischendorf, Leipsic, 1843-45,2 vols. 
It is a codex rescriptus, the works of 
the Syrian father Ephraem (d. 378) be- 
ing written over the Bible text, which 
is scarcely legible. It was probably 
written in Alexandria, and is very val- 
uable as far as it goes. Its text " seems 
to stand nearly midway between A and 
B, somewhat inclining to the latter " 
(Scrivener). Two correctors (desig- 
nated by Tischendorf as C**, C***, or 
C 2 , C 3 ) have been at work on the MS. 
to the perplexity of the critical collator. 

D, for the Gospels and Acts. Co- 
dex Bez,e, or Cantabrigiensis, in 
the Library of the University at Cam- 
bridge (to which Beza presented it 
in 1581). It dates from the sixth 
century, and contains only the Gos- 
pels and Acts, with a Latin version ; 
edited by Thomas Kipling, Cam- 
bridge, 1793, 2 vols, fob, and more 
accurately by Dr. Scrivener, in com- 
mon type, with a copious introduc- 
tion and critical notes, Cambridge, 

The text is very peculiar and puz- 
zling. It has many bold and exten- 


sive interpolations, e. g., a paragraph after Luke vi. 4 
( which is found nowhere else ) : " On the same day he 
[Jesus] beheld a certain man working on the Sabbath, 
and said unto him, Man, blessed art thou if thou know- 
est what thou doest ; but if thou knowest not, thou art 
cursed and a transgressor of the law." It differs more 
than any other from the received Greek text, but it often 
agrees in remarkable readings with the ancient Latin and 
Syriac versions. Alford (i. 110) thinks that it was writ- 
ten in France by a Latin transcriber ignorant of Greek. 
Beza procured it from the monastery of St. Irenams at 
Lyons in 1562, but did not use it on account of its many 
departures from other MSS. Tregelles remarks that " its 
evidence when alone, especially in additions, is of scarcely 
any value as to the genuine text; but of the very greatest 
when corroborated by other very ancient authority." 

(2.) Uncials of the second class, defective and of later date. 

D, for the Pauline Epistles. Codex Claromontanus ; 
of the sixth century ; defective, but very valuable ; in the 
National Library at Paris. Edited by Teschendorf, Leipsic, 
1852. Beza procured it from Clermont, and made some 
use of it (1582). It is Greek and Latin, stichometric, with 
accents by a later hand, but no division of words. 

E, for the Gospels. Codex Basiliensis ; eighth cen- 
tury ; in the library at Basle ; defective in Luke. Erasmus 
overlooked it. Collated by Teschendorf (1843), Miiller, 
and Tregelles (1846). It is better than most of the second- 
class uncials. It approaches to the Textus Beceptus. 

E, for the Acts. Codex Laudianus ; in Oxford ; with a 
close Latin version on the left column ; of the sixth cen- 
tury ; probably brought from Tarsus to England by Theo- 
dore of Canterbury (d. 690), and used by the Venerable 



Bede (d. 735); newly published by Teschendorf, in the 
ninth vol. of his Monumenta Sacra, 1870. Very valuable. 

E, for the Pauline Epistles. Codex Sangermanensis ; 
Graeco - Latin ; formerly at Saint -Germain des Pres, near 
Paris ; now at St. Petersburg. In the Greek a mere copy 
of D (Claromont.) after it had been altered by several hands. 
Ninth or tenth century. 

F, for the Gospels. Codex Boreelianus ; once posses- 
sed by John Boreel (d. 1629), Dutch ambassador in London 
under James L; now in the library of the University at 
Utrecht. Not important. 

F, for the Pauline Epistles. Codex Augiensis ; Grseco- 
Latin ; at Cambridge ; published by Dr. Scrivener, 1859, in 
common type. Ninth century. 

G, for the Pauline Epistles. Codex Boernerianus ; was 
either copied from F (Hort), or from the same archetype 
(Tischendorf, Scrivener). Ninth century. It is a part of 
the same MS. as A of the Gospels. Purchased by Prof. C. 
F. Boerner at Leipsic, 1705; in the Royal Library at Dresden. 

L, for the Gospels. Codex Regius ; published by Tisch- 
endorf, 1846; written in the 8th century ; full of errors in 
spelling, but very remarkable for its agreement with B and 
Origen. Now in Paris. 

P, for Acts, Epistles, and Revelation, with some defects. 
Codex Porfirianus, a palimpsest of the ninth century, in 
possession of Archbishop Porfiri at St. Petersburg ; edited 
by Tischendorf, 1865 and 1869. It generally confirms A 
and C, but often X against all the rest. 

Z, for Matthew. Codex Dublinensis (Dublin) ; sixth 
century ; one of the chief palimpsests. Text in value next 
to a and B. Edited by Barrett, 1801 ; better by T. K. Ab- 
bott, 1880. 


r, for the Gospels. Codex Tischendorfianus IV. ; dis- 
covered by Teschendorf in an Eastern monastery; sold to 
the Bodleian Library in 1855 ; from the ninth or tenth cen- 
tury. Another portion of the same MS. was discovered by 
Teschendorf in 1859, and taken to St. Petersburg. Nearly 
complete. An inscription at the close of John fixes the 
date probably at Nov. 27, 844 (according to Teschendorf), 
or 979 (according to Gardthausen). 

A, for the Gospels. Codex Sangallensis (St. Gall) ; 
from the ninth century ; probably written by Irish monks 
at St. Gall. Published at Zurich, 1836, by Rettig, in litho- 
graphed fac-simile. The text is very valuable in the Gos- 
pel of Mark. 

A. Codex Tischendorfianus III., containing Luke and 
John ; now in the Bodleian Library ; collated by Tischen- 
dorf (who brought it from the East) and Tregelles. Ninth 

57. Codex Zacynthius, a palimpsest of the 8th century ; 
formerly at the island of Zante ; presented in 1821 to the 
British and Foreign Bible Societ}^ in London ; edited by 
Tregelles, 1861 ; containing considerable portions of Luke's 
Gospel. Text very valuable. 

II. Codex Petropolitanus, brought by Tischendorf 
from Smyrna to St. Petersburg ; containing the four Gos- 
pels, nearly complete; collated by Tischendorf, 1864 and 
1865. Ninth century. 

(3.) For a description of the other fragmentary uncials 
we must refer the reader to the authorities above quoted, 
especially Scrivener and Tischendorf, and also to the useful 
and convenient Table VIII. in Mitchell's Handbook. But one 
more we must mention, which has been discovered since, 
and has not yet been utilized by the critics. We mean 


2. Codex Bossanensis, found by two German scholars, 
Oscar von Gebhardt and Adolf Harnack, in March, 1879, 
at Rossano, in Calabria, in possession of the archbishop, 
who got it from the library of the former convent. It is 
beautifully written, with silver letters, on purple-coloured 
parchment (very rare among Creek MSS,), and richly or- 
namented with pictures ; hence important for the history 
of Christian art. It consists of 188 leaves of two columns 
of twenty lines each, and contains the Gospels of Matthew 
and Mark (Luke and John are lost). The Gospel of Mat- 
thew ends with the words, EYAITEAION RATA MAT6AI- 
ON. Gebhardt and Harnack assign it to the sixth century. 
The text shows a departure from the oldest MSS, (^ and B), 
and an approach to the amended Latin text. In this re- 
spect it resembles D. It contains, however, the doxology 
in the Lord's Prayer, Matt. vi. 13. See Evangeliorum Co- 
dex argenteus purpureas Rossanensis (S), litteris argenteis 
sexto ut videtur sceculo scriptus picturisque ornatus. By 
0. von Gebhardt and Adolf Harnack, Leipsic, 1880. With 
fac-similes of portions of the text and outline sketches of 
the pictures. A full edition of the codex is promised. 

We give a fac- simile from this work. 

B. The Cursive Manuscripts. 
The cursive MSS. are indicated by Arabic numerals. 
They were written in current hand on vellum or parchment 
{membrana) ; or on cotton paper (charta bombycina, also 
charta Da?nascena, from the place of manufacture), which 
came into use in the ninth and tenth centuries ; or on linen 
paper (charta proper), which was employed first in the 
twelfth century. Some are richly illuminated. They date 
from the tenth to the middle of the fifteenth cent-urv, when 

^yxpoyw yR 


TTO KJ h P o yoT 1 

co y ecT ikhBk 

nAMtC/CAi H^s> 

0AM PA P A^)HTe 

^-to i cam o i cta 








Specimen of the Codex Bossanensis, containing Matt. vi. 13, 14. 

Trovrjpov on | gov eariv rj f3a\(n\£ia teat 7] dv\vajjiig icai rj do\%a tig rovg cmj\ 
rag cifirjv. Eav yap cKprjre \ roig av$pw7roig ra \ 7rapa7CT0)p,ciTa. 


the invention of the art of printing substituted a much 
easier and cheaper mode of multiplying books. A few, 
however, were written in the sixteenth century e 

They are much more numerous than the uncials. We 
have, in round figures, more than 600 cursive MSS. of the 
Gospels ; over 200 of the Acts and Catholic Epistles ; near- 
ly 300 of the Pauline Epistles; about 100 of Revelation, 
exclusive of more than 400 lectionaries which contain only 
the Scripture lessons for public service.* 

The critical value of the cursives is, of course, not near 
so great as that of the uncials, because they are much fur- 
ther removed from the primitive source. But some twen- 
ty or thirty of them are very important for their agreement 
with the oldest authorities, or for some other peculiarity. 
Cod. 33 (Regius 14, Colbertinus 2844, in Paris, eleventh 
century), which contains all the New Testament except the 
Apocalypse, and agrees mostly with B, D, L, is " the queen 
of the cursive MSS. ;" Scrivener says its readings " deserve 
the utmost attention ;" and Tregelles calls it " the most im- 
portant of the Biblical MSS. in cursive letters extant," but 
it suffered " most from damp and decay." Besides this, we 
mention Cod. 1 (Cod. Basiliensis), 22, 28, 59, 66, 69, 102, 
118, 124, 131, 157, 201, 209, of the Gospels; 13, 15, 18, 

* Dr. Scrivener gives a careful description of 469 cursive 
MSS. for the Gospels (pp. 164-209), and of a large number of 
MSS. for the other books of the New Testament (pp. 209-249). 
Then follows a section on the lectionaries or manuscript ser- 
vice-books of the Greek Church (250-269), which have as yet 
received little attention from Biblical critics. Dean Alford 
gives also a list of 469 cursive MSS. in convenient columns 
(Prolegg. i. 120-137). Compare Table IX. in Mitchell, pp. 119- 


36, 40, 73, 180, and especially 61, of the Acts; 17, 31, 37, 
46, 47, 67**, 73, 80, 109, of the Pauline Epistles; 7, 14, 
31, 38, 47, 51, 82, 95, of the Apocalypse. Cod. 61 (Mont- 
fortianus, of the 16th century, in Dublin) is celebrated 
in the controversy on the spurious passage 1 John v. 7, 
which it contains on a glazed page, to protect it, and 
which passed from this MS. into the printed editions of 
the common Greek text, and the translations made from 
it. The cursive MSS. have been chiefly compared by 
Mill, Wet stein, Griesbach, Matthaei, Scholz, Teschendorf, 
Tregelles, and Scrivener ; but many are yet waiting exam- 

The following is a specimen of Cod. 1 Basiliensis of the 
Gospels (tenth century) ; known to Erasmus, but little used 
by him ; collated by Wetstein, Roth, and Tregelles. 

o I o«^?^ ~2tf& <2W&f& «tfr$sa Kcal OtPT< P&Xl yfr v VyJpeyQX 

Specimen of the Codex Basiliensis, of the tenth century, containing 
Luke i. 1, 2, nearly as in all Greek Testaments. 

kvayy't\\iov~\ Kara Xovkclv: 

S7rei8r}7TEp ttoWoi t7rs\eipr](Tav avaraZacrOai | dirjyrjviv 7rspl twv 7T£- 
7r\t]po(popr]fxkv(i)v \ kv r)/jiJv Trpayfxar^v . icaOiog Trapkdouav rjfii \ oi 
cnrapxi]G clvto-ktcli kcli vTrrjptrai yevopsvot. 



2. The Ancient Versions. 

Next to the study of the MSS., the most important aids 
in textual criticism are the ancient versions, or translations 
of the Scriptures from the Hebrew and Greek into vernac- 
ular languages. They are, however, only indirect sources, as 
we must translate them back into the original, except in 
omissions and additions, which are apparent at once. If, 
for instance, the Latin versions in Rom. v. 1 translate ha- 
beamus, it is plain that they read in their Greek MSS. the 
subjunctive t'x^/ie^ (let us have), and not the indicative 
typiiev (habemusy we have) ; or if they read in John i. 18 
unigenitus Filius, they support the reading vwq instead of 
Sfo'c (Deus). In point of age, some versions, being made in 
the second century, antedate our oldest Greek MSS., which 
are not earlier than the fourth. But they have undergone 
the same textual corruptions, and no MS. copy of a version 
is earlier than the fourth century. Some of them are as yet 
imperfectly edited. Even a satisfactory critical edition of 
the Vulgate is still a desideratum. As Dr. Westcott says, 
" While the interpreter of the New Testament will be fully 
justified in setting aside without scruple the authority of 
early versions, there are sometimes ambiguous passages in 
which a version may preserve the traditional sense (John i. 
3, 9 ; viii. 25, etc.), or indicate an early difference of trans- 
lation ; and then its evidence may be of the highest value. 
But even here the judgment must be free. Versions sup- 
ply authority for the text, and opinion only for the ren- 
dering." * It matters comparatively little whether they 

* Smith's Diet, of the Bible, Amer. ed. vol. iv. p. 3479, art. 


be elegant or wretched, so long as they reflect with accu- 
racy the original text. One service of great importance 
they can be manifestly depended upon to render — to tell 
where insertions or omissions occur in the original text be- 
fore the translator. It is therefore satisfactory evidence 
against the genuineness of any particular passage that it is 
not found in the most ancient versions. 

The most important of these versions are the Syriac, the 
Old Latin, the Vulgate, the JEthiopic, the Egyptian, the 
Gothic, and the Armenian. 

A. Syriac Versions. 

(a.) The Peshito, the " Simple" — so called because of its 
fidelity to the Greek — dates in its oldest form (see below, 
Curetonian) from the middle of the second century. It 
supplied the wants of the Syrian Christians before the unhap- 
py schism in that Church (fifth century), and by its use in 
common has been always a bond of union between the dif- 
ferent sects, who still read it as a sacred classic, although 
its language is no longer the vernacular. The Peshito is 
the most faithful and accurate of the older versions, and 
has been called " the queen of versions." It is almost lit- 
eral, yet idiomatic, and rarely loose and paraphrastic. It 
is very important to the critic. The text connects it in 
many places with D and the Latin versions. Notwith- 
standing its age and value, it was not known to Europe 
until 1552; and in 1555, at Vienna, the first edition ap- 
peared, at the expense of the Emperor Ferdinand I., edited 
by Albert Widmanstadt, the imperial chancellor. This edi- 
tion is yet highly esteemed. The best modern editions, 
although none are superior, are those of Prof. Lee, printed 
by the British and Foreign Bible Society, and of William 


Greenfield, in Bagster's Polyglot, and separately. The pe- 
culiarity of the Peshito version, and a proof of its early 
date, is its omission of 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, and 
the Apocalypse. Dr. Murdock has published a " Literal 
Translation from the Syriac Peshito Version" (New York, 
1851). A translation of the Acts and Epistles from the 
Peshito, by J. W. Etheridge, appeared in London, 1849. 

(b.) The Philoxenian or Harclean version, so called 
from its patron Philoxenus, Monophysite bishop of Mabug 
(Hierapolis), in Eastern Syria (488-518), and from Thomas 
of Harkel, a subsequent editor, who was likewise a Mo- 
nophysite bishop of Mabug. It is " probably the most ser- 
vile version of Scripture ever made " (Scrivener). It is 
based upon the Peshito, and forces it into rigorous con- 
formity with the letter of the Greek at the expense of the 
spirit. It dates from A.D. 508, and was revised by Thomas 
of Harkel, 616. It contains the whole New Testament, 
except the Apocalypse, and is therefore more complete 
•than the Peshito, which omits four Epistles besides. The 
only edition of the Philoxenian is that of Joseph White, 
printed by the Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1778-1803, 4 vols. 
4to. Bernstein has published the Gospel of John (Leips. 

(c.) The Curetonian Syriac is a mere fragment of the 
Gospels (consisting of 82j leaves), but very old and valu- 
able ; though overestimated by Canon Cureton, who thought 
it " retained, to a great extent, the identical terms and ex- 
pressions of St. Matthew's Hebrew Gospel." It is regard- 
ed by most scholars, as Cureton, Payne Smith, Herman- 
sen, Ewald, Crowfoot, Tregelles, and Westcott and Hort, as 
the oldest form of the Syriac version, the " Peshito " in its 
present form holding a relation to it similar to that o-f the 


Vulgate to the Old Latin. Dean Alford calls it " the ear- 
liest and most important of all versions." Dr. Scrivener, 
however, places it decidedly below the Peshito. It was 
found by Archdeacon Tattam in 1842, with 550 other 
MSS., in a convent of the Nitrian Desert (70 miles north- 
west of Cairo), and brought to the British Museum ; and 
was published by Cureton in 1858, with a literal English 
translation. It agrees remarkably with D and the Old 
Latin, while the Peshito mostly favours A. It contains 
large portions of Matthew, Luke, and John, and the last 
four verses of Mark. 

Dr. Brugsch, the celebrated Egyptologist, afterwards dis- 
covered three additional leaves in the binding of a MS. of 
the Peshito which came from the Nitrian convent (1871). 
They were published by Rodiger in the Monatsbericht of 
the Berlin Academy for July, 1872 ; and also privately by 
Prof. Wright, as an appendix to Cureton's volume. The 
leaves contain Luke xv. 22-xvi. 12; xvii. 1-23; John vii. 
37-viii. 19. The Curetonian Syriac, including these new 
leaves, has been translated into Greek by J. R. Crow- 
foot in his Fragmenta JZvangelica, 2 parts, London, 1870- 

(d.) The Jerusalem Syriac. The principal MS. known 
is an Evangelistary in the Vatican, dated A.D. 1030. This 
has been published at Verona (1861-64, 2 vols. 4to) by 
Count Francis Miniscalchi Erizzo. Fragments of two oth- 
er MSS. are in the British Museum, and of two more at St. 
Petersburg. The text of these has been published by Land, 
Anecdota Syriaca, vol. iv. (1875). The version is quite in- 
dependent of the Peshito, and is referred by Tischendorf to 
the fifth century. It is in a peculiar dialect, and seems to 
have been little used. 


B. Latin Versions, 

(a.) The Old Latin (Itala). This version is not found 
complete ; but from the quotations of the Latin fathers, es- 
pecially those in Tertullian, Cyprian, Lucifer of Cagliari, 
Hilary of Poitiers, Hilary the deacon or Ambrosiaster, Am- 
brose, Victorinus, Jerome, Rufinus, Augustine, Pelagius, and 
in the Apocalypse Primasius, its text can be in large meas- 
ure restored. See Hermann Ronsch, Das N. T. Tertul- 
liarfs, aus den Schriften des Letzeren mbglichst vollstandig 
reconstruct, Leipsic, 1871 (731 pages). 

The version is nearest in age to the Peshito, and may be 
assigned to the middle of the second century. It was not 
the work of one man, nor suffered to go uncorrected by 
many. Hence the confusion into which the matter has 
fallen, and the different accounts of it by different schol- 
ars; some holding that there were manv versions before 
Jerome, in proof of which statement they quote Augustine, 
Be Doctr. Christ, ii. 11; others holding that there was 
only one version, and citing in proof Jerome. But by the 
simple and natural explanation that there were many revis- 
ions of the one old translation, Augustine and Jerome can 
be reconciled. 

The version is made from the Septuagint in the Old Tes- 
tament ; is verbal, rough, and clumsy ; the language is the 
degenerate Latin of the second century, with admixture of 
colloquial and provincial forms. But this admixture ren- 
dered it soon unintelligible, and necessitated constant re- 
visions, and, eventually, a new and thorough translation 
from the original tongues. 

The balance of probability is in favour of North Africa 
as the place of its origin, because there, rather than in Italy, 


there was an immediate demand for a Latin translation ; 
while in the Roman Church the Greek language prevailed 
during the first and second centuries. Hence the name 
"Italic" or " Vetus Itala" is incorrect. Augustine (Be 
Doct?\ Christ, ii. 15) speaks of a translation which he calls 
the Itala,, and which he preferred to all the others. This 
was manifestly a recension of the same Old Latin version, 
made or used in Italy. 

This Old Latin version never attained to much author- 
ity ; the Greek being regarded as the authentic text, even 
in the early Latin Church. At the same time, the version 
is one of the most significant monuments of Christian an- 
tiquity, the medium of divine truth unto the Latin peo- 
ples for centuries, and of great value to the Bible critic by 
reason of its antiquity and literalness. The Apocryphal 
books of Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Ba- 
ruch, Prayer of Manasseh, and 4 Ezra (2 Esdras) were, in a 
substantially unchanged form, embodied in the Vulgate. In 
the Old Testament the Psalms were similarly transferred. 

There is still lacking a really trustworthy edition of the 
existing portions of the Old Latin version. For the New 
Testament there exist, however, more than twenty very an- 
cient but fragmentary MSS. of the Gospels, and some (im- 
perfect) of the Acts and the Pauline Epistles; while there 
is only one yet known of the Apocalypse, and but few frag- 
ments of the Catholic Epistles. The principal MSS. of the 
Gospels representing the African text are Codex Vercellen- 
sis (a), supposed to have been written by Eusebius, Bishop 
of Vercelli, cir. A.D. 365 ; Veronensis (b), of the fourth or 
fifth century ; and Colbertinus (c), at Paris, of the eleventh 
century, the only complete MS. Codex Brixianus (f), at 
Brescia, of the sixth century, represents a later revision, 


probably Augustine's Itala. Codex Bobbiensis (k), now in 
Turin, of the fourth or fifth century, collated by Tischen- 
dorf, has a remarkable and valuable text; and the same is 
true of Codex Palatums (e), at Vienna, fifth century. 

Peter Sabatier's Bibliorum Sacrorum Latince Versiones 
Antiquce, sen Veins Italica et cceterce quwcunque in Codd. 
MSS. et Antiquorum Libris reperiri potuerunt (Remis, i. e. 
Rheims, 1743-49, 3 torn. fol. ; new title-page, Paris, 1751) 
remains the most complete edition of the Old Latin ver- 
sion, but many parts of each Testament have been careful- 
ly collated or edited subsequently. Worthy of special men- 
tion, for the Gospels, are Bianchini's Evangeliarium Quad- 
ruplex Latinm Versionis A?itiquce, seu Veteris Italicce, edi~ 
turn ex Codicibus Manuscriptis, Romse, 1749,2 torn, fol.; 
Scrivener's Codex Bezce, Cambridge, 1864; Tischendorfs 
JEvangelium Palatinum (Lips. 1847); and Haase's Codex 
Rehdigeranus (Breslau, 1865-66). For the x\cts, see Scriv- 
ener's Codex Bezce, and Belsheim's Die Apostelgeschichte 
und die Offenbarung Johannis in einer alien lat. Ueber- 
setzung aus dem Gigas Librorum, Christiania, 1879; for 
the Pauline Epistles, Tischendorfs Codex Claromontanus 
(1852), and Scrivener's Codex Augiensis, Cambridge, 1859; 
for the Catholic and Pauline Epistles (merely fragments), 
see Ziegler's Italafragmente, Marburg, 1876 ; for the Apoc- 
alypse, see Belsheim, as above. Belsheim's Codex Aureus 
of the Gospels (Christiania, 1878) is rather a M§. of the 
Vulgate than of the Old Latin, though the text is mixed. 

On the whole subject, consult Hermann Ronsch, Itala und 
Vulgata. Pas Sprachidiom der urchristlichen Pala und 
der katholischen Vulgata, 2d ed., revised, Marburg, 1875; 
L. Ziegler, Die latein. Bibelubersetzungen vor Hieronymus 
und die Itala des Augustinus, Munchen, 1879 (he proves 


the existence of several Latin versions or revisions before 
Jerome) ; O. F. Fritzsche, Lutein. Bibelubersetzungen, in the 
new ed. of Herzog, vol. viii., 1881, pp. 433-472 ; and West- 
cott's art. "Vulgate," in Smith's Diet of the Bible. There 
is a good condensed account, revised by Dr. Abbot, in 
Mitchell's Critical Handbook (1880), p. 133 sq. 

(b.) The Latin Vulgate. In the course of time the text 
of the Old Latin became so corrupt that a thorough revision 
was imperative, and was intrusted by Pope Damasus, in 
382, to Jerome (d. 419), the most learned scholar of his 
day, and of all the Latin fathers best qualified, by genius, 
taste, and knowledge of Hebrew and Greek, for this diffi- 
cult task. He began upon the New Testament, and pro- 
ceeded cautiously, making as few changes as possible, so as 
not to arouse the opposition of those who, as he says, 
" thought that ignorance was holiness." But his scholarly 
instincts, no less than his convictions of duty towards the 
Divine Word, impelled him to go beyond his instructions, 
and make a new version of the Old Testament directly 
from the Hebrew, of which, however, it does not concern us 
at present to speak. Jerome's revision and new translation 
(finished 405) encountered much opposition, which greatly 
irritated his temper and betrayed him into contemptuous 
abuse of his opponents, whom he styled " bipedes asellos" 
But, by inherent virtues, rather than by external authority, 
it passed into such current use that in the eighth century 
it was the Vulgate, the common version, in the Western 
churches. It became much corrupted by frequent copy- 
ing. Alcuin, at the instance of Charlemagne, revised it 
circa 802, by the collation of various good MSS., and sub- 
stantially in this form it passed down to the invention of 


The first book printed was the Vulgate — the so-called 
Mazarin Bible (Gutenberg and Fust, Mayence, 1455). Print- 
ing, however, fixed errors and gave them w T ider currency, 
and revision was felt once more to be imperative. 

In the Council of Trent (Dec. 13, 1545, to Dec. 4, 1563) 
the matter was introduced Feb. 4, 1546, and the recom- 
mendation of revision passed on April 8 ; but it w T as not 
until 1590, in the pontificate of Sixtus V., that the revised 
edition of the Vulgate appeared. The scholarly pope took 
active interest in the work, rejecting or confirming the sug- 
gestions of the board of revisers, and corrected the proof- 
sheets with his own hand. It was prefaced by the famous, 
and, as the event showed, by no means infallible, constitu- 
tion jEtevnus ille (dated March 1, 1589), in which the 
pope said, " By the fulness of apostolical power, we decree 
and declare that this edition of the sacred Latin Vulgate 
of the Old and New Testaments, which has been received 
as authentic by the Council of Trent, ... be received and 
held as true, legitimate, authentic, and unquestioned, in all 
public and private disputation, reading, preaching, and ex- 
planation." He further forbade any alteration whatever; 
ordered this text, and none other, henceforth to be printed ; 
and hurled anathemas against every one disobeying the 
constitution. But, alas for the pope ! the immaculate edi- 
tion was full of errors and blunders ; and no sooner was he 
dead (Aug. 27, 1590) than the demand for a new edition 
arose. Bellarmine suggested an ingenious though dishon- 
ourable escape from the awkward predicament in which 
Sixtus had placed the Church — viz., that a corrected edi- 
tion should be hastily printed under the name of Sixtus, in 
which the blame of the errors should be thrown upon the 
printer ! His recommendation was adopted, but it was not 


until 1592, under Clement VIIL, that the revised edition 
appeared. The Clementine edition is the standard in the 
Roman Catholic Church, in which this Latin translation 
takes precedence of the Hebrew and Greek originals, as 
the support of doctrine and guide of life. 

The materials for a more critical edition of the Vulgate 
than the Clementine are very abundant. There are numer- 
ous MSS., and much labour has already been expended 
upon the work. The most famous of these MSS. are 
(a) Codex Amiatinus, from the Cistercian Monastery of 
Monte Amiatino, in Tuscany, now in the Laurentian Li- 
brary at Florence; it contains the Old and New Testa- 
ments almost complete, dates from 541, and is the oldest 
and best MS. The New Testament was edited by Tisch- 
endorf, Leipsic, 1850, 2d ed. 1854, and by Tregelles (in his 
edition of the Greek Testament, with the variations of the 
Clementine text), (b) Codex Fuldensis, in the Abbey of 
Fulda, Hesse-Cassel ; contains the New Testament ; dates 
from 546. Collated by Lachmann for his large edition 
of the Greek Testament, and edited by E. Eanke, Marburg 
and Leipsic, 1868. (c) Codex Forojuliensis (sixth century), 
at Friuli; Matthew, Luke, and John published by Bianchini, 
Evang. Quadmqolex, Appendix. Part of the same MS. is 
at Prague (Pragensis). (d) Codex Harleian. 1775 (seventh 
century), of the Gospels, partially collated by Griesbach, 
Symb. Crit. vol. i. (e) Codex Toletanus, at Toledo ; writ- 
ten in Gothic letters in the eighth century ; collated by 
the Sixtine correctors and by Vercellone. It contains both 
Testaments. Its readings are o-iven bv Bianchini, Vindicice 
Canon. Scripturarum, Rome, 1740. 

The best edition of the variations is that of Carlo Ver- 
cellone, Varice Lectiones Virtg. Lat. Bibliorum JZditionis, 


Kom. torn. i. 1860; torn. ii. pars 1, 1862; pars 2, 1864. 
Unfinished. A very important work, but, unfortunate- 
ly, without either the authorized or the corrected text. 
Fritzsche says (loc. cit. p. 458), " Even to-day there is 
wanting a text which answers the demands of science ; and . 
Protestantism alone can and ought to accomplish this work, 
already too long neglected." 

C. ^Ethiopic Version. 
There must have been a call for a translation of the New 
Testament very shortly after Christianity entered Abyssinia. 
So, although the tradition which assigns it to Abba Salama 
(Frumentius), the first bishop, be unreliable, the version 
probably dates from the fourth century, as Dillmann as- 
serts. This scholar likewise praises the version for its 
fidelity and general smoothness. The New Testament has 
been edited by Thomas Pell Piatt for the British and For- 
eign Bible Society (1826-30) ; but, unfortunately, it is al- 
most useless for critical purposes, because so dependent 
upon recent MSS. Gildemeister, professor in Marburg, 
collated some portions of the .^Ethiopic New Testament 
for Tischendorf s. edition of 1859. 

D. Old Egyptian, or Coptic, Versions* 

These are in the two dialects, the Thebaic or Sahidic, and 
the Mempliitic or Bahiric. They are, Bishop Lightfoot 
declares,f " entirely independent ;" the former is " rougher, 

* Copt is probably an Arabic transformation of the Greek 
Ah/virroQ, and is applied to the Christian inhabitants of Egypt, 
who inherited the old Egyptian (demotic) language, together 
w T ith their religion. 

f He prepared the chapter on the Egyptian Versions in Dr. 
Scrivener's Introduction, pp. 319-357. 


less polished, and less faithful to the original" than the 
latter. Both contain many Greek words, and are of great 
textual value, as they independently preserve a very ancient 
text from different manuscripts, with the adoption of many 
Greek words. Schwartze and Lightfoot infer from histori- 
cal notices that the greatest part of the New Testament, if 
not all, was translated into the Egyptian dialects in the 
second century. We have no satisfactory edition of either 

The editio princeps of the Memphitic Version for Lower 
Egypt is that of Wilkins (Oxford, 1716), based upon copi- 
ous materials, but not carried out with much critical sagaci- 
ty. Still, nothing better than his work has yet appeared, 
except an edition of the four Gospels by M. G. Schwartze 
(Leips. 1846 and 1847, 2 vols.), and of the Acts and Epis- 
tles by P. Boetticher, alias P. A. de Lagarde, of Gottingen 
(Halle, 1852). The Apocalypse is omitted. The New Tes- 
tament in Coptic (Memphitic) and Arabic was published by 
the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (1847-52), 
under the editorial care of " Henry Tattam, the presbyter 
of the Anglican Church for the Holy Patriarch and the 
Church of Christ in Egypt." It is beautifully printed, but 
of no critical value, because no various readings are record- 
ed. The basis of this edition is a copy belonging to the 
Coptic Patriarch. 

The editio princeps of the Thebaic Version for Upper 
Egypt is that of C. G. Woide, completed by Ford, Oxford, 
1799. The version is yet in a very fragmentary condi- 
tion, and there is need of an edition in which the fragments 
shall all be collected. The Thebaic Version is less valuable 
than the Memphitic ; its text is less pure, and shows a cer- 
tain infusion of those readings which are called Western, 



though to nothing like the same extent as the Old Latin 
and the Old Syriac. 

E. Gothic Version. 

It is the work of Ulphilas (311-381, or 313-383*), the 
apostle of Christianity to the Goths, who in the fourth cen- 
tury translated the Old Testament from the Septuagint and 
the New Testament from the Greek into Gothic. There are 
seven famous codices of this version : (a) Codex Argenteus, 
fragments of the Gospels, dates from the earlier part of 
the sixth century; (b) Codex Carolinus, forty verses of the 
Epistle to the Romans ; (c) Palimpsest fragments of five 
codices (published by Mai and Castiglione, Milan, 1819-39), 
portions of Esther, Nehemiah, the Gospels, and Paul's Epis- 
tles. The best editions of all these fragments are by H. C. 
von der Gabelentz and J. Loebe : Ulfilas. Vet. et N. Test. 
Versionis Gothicce Fragmenta quce supersunt (Leipsic, 1836- 
46), and by E. Bernhardt (Halle, 1875), each of which is pro- 
vided with a complete apparatus. Stamm's Ulfilas, 7th ed. 
by Moritz Heyne, with Grammar and Lexicon, Paderborn, 
1878, is the most convenient for the student of the lan- 
guage; Bernhardt' s is the best for text-critical purposes. 
Com p. also W. Bessell : Das Leben des Ulfilas und die Be- 
kehrung der Gothen znm Christenthum (Gottingen, 1860). 
Dr. R. Miller and Dr. H. Hoeppe have just published the 
Gothic Gospel of Mark with a grammatical commentary : 
Ulfilas : Fvangelium Marci grammatisch erlautert, Berlin, 
1881 (pp. 72). The last seven verses of Mark are wanting. 

* The date 318-388 is exploded; but it is not certain whether 
we should adopt 311-381 (Stamni, Bernhardt) or 313-383 (Kraffi 
in Herzog, Davidson). 


F. Armenian Version. 

It belongs to the fifth century, and is the work of Miesrob 
and Moses Chorenensis. It has considerable critical value, 
though the existing MSS. are not very ancient, and there 
are wide differences among them. The version embraces 
the entire Bible. The first edition appeared at Amsterdam, 
1666, under the care of Bishop Uscan of Erivan; the best 
edition, founded on manuscripts, is by Zohrab — New Testa- 
ment, 1789 ; whole Bible, 1805. It is now regularly pub- 
lished bv the British and Foreign Bible Societv. 

On the Armenian Version, see the article by Tregelles in 
Smith's Bible Diet., Am. ed., vol. iv. p. 3374. 

We pass by the Slavonic, Arabic, and Persic versions, 
which are of too late a date to be of critical value for the 
restoration of the primitive text. 

3. Patristic Quotations. 

The third source of textual criticism is furnished by 
the quotations in the early Christian writers, from which 
the greater part of the New Testament might be recon- 
structed. The Greek fathers give direct, the Latin fathers 
indirect, testimony to the original text. Some of them — as 
Irenseus, Orio-en, Tertullian — are older than our oldest MSS., 
and therefore of the greatest value. 

But the fathers must be used with great care and dis- 
crimination. They were theologians and Christians rather 
than critics. They often quote very loosely, simply from 
memory, and more for doctrinal, polemical, and practical 
than critical purposes. Their testimony is fragmentary, 
and fails us where we most wish and need information. 
Besides, their editors have so frequently thought they were 


doing a service when they corrected their quotations that 
it is at all times difficult to tell just what the text was be- 
fore them. Dr. Tregelles* plainly puts the case, and shows 
the true principles which should guide the critic. The 
chief benefit of patristic quotations consists not so much in 
their independent value as in their corroborative force, by 
establishing a reading which rests on good authority of 
MSS. or versions. When they are single and unsupport- 
ed, they deserve little or no credit. 

The most valuable works for critical purposes are com- 
mentaries and homilies which explain the text consecu- 
tively. Origen, Eusebius, and Jerome are by far the most 
learned Biblical scholars among the ancient fathers, and 
have more weight than all the rest as witnesses for the 
text. The number of ecclesiastical writers that have been 
consulted by various critics considerably exceeds one hun- 
dred, but only a few yield substantial results. We confine 
our list to the first five centuries.f 

A. Greek Fathers. 
First century : The apostolic fathers, so called — Clement 
of Rome, Polycarp, Ignatius, Barnabas — would, as pupils of 
the apostles, be the oldest and most important witnesses ; 
but they still lived in the element of oral tradition within 
the hearing of the apostles, and hence they quote few pas- 
sages from the New Testament. 

* In Home's Introduction (14th ed. London, 1877), vol. iv. pp. 

f Alford (i. 140-143) gives an alphabetical list of over one hun- 
dred and fifty ancient writers. See also the lists in Scholz, 
Tischendorf, Scrivener (p. 372 sq.), and Mitchell (Tables XI. 
and XII.). 


Second century: Justin Martyr (d. 167) comes next in 
the order of time, and makes much use of the four Gos- 
pels, but in a very free and loose way. Irenaeus of Lyons 
(d. 202) is the most important witness of the second cen- 
tury, and his great work against the Gnostic heresies is re- 
plete with Scripture knowledge, but exists for the most 
part only in a Latin version.* 

Third century : Clemens Alexandrinus (d. 220), and still 
more the great Origen (184-254). Next to them Hip- 
polytus (disciple of Irenaeus, about 220), Gregory Thauina- 
turgus (disciple of Origen, 243), Dionysius Alexandrinus 
(265), and Methodius (d. 311). 

In the fourth and fifth centuries : Eusebius the historian 
(d. 340, much used by Tischendorf and Tregelles), Athana- 
sius (d. 373), Basilius Magnus (d. 379), Gregory Nazian- 
zen (d. 389), Gregory Nyssen (d. 371), Ephraem Syrus 
(d. 373), Cyril of Jerusalem (d. 386), Didymus of Alexan- 
dria (d. 395), Chrysostom (d. 407), Epiphanius (d. 403), 
Theodore of Mopsuestia (d. 428), Cyril of Alexandria (d. 
444), and Theodoret (d. 458). 

B. Latin Fathers. 

Second century : Tertullian (about 200), very important 
for the Old Latin Version. 

Third century: Cyprian (d. 258), Novatian (fl. 251), 
Lactantius (306). 

* He testifies, e. g, , to the last twelve verses of Mark, and to 
the existence of two readings of the mystic number in Rev. xiii. 
18 : the one is 666, which he found in the best copies, and ex- 
plains to mean Lateinos (while several modern exegetes make 
it out to mean, in Hebrew letters, Neron Ccesar) ; the other 616, 
which is the numerical value of Nero (without the final n) Caesar. 


Fourth and fifth centuries: Hilary of Poitiers (354), 
Lucifer of Cagliari (d. cir. 3 70), Victorinus Afer (d. cir. 
370), Ambrose (d. 379), Arabrosiaster or Pseudo- Ambrose, 
probably to be identified with Hilary the deacon (about 
384), Pelagius (417), Augustine (a profound divine and 
spiritual commentator, but a poor linguist and critic, d. 
430), and, most of all, Jerome, the translator of the Latin 
Bible from the original Hebrew and Greek (d. 419). 


1. Origin of Variations. 

In such a vast number of manuscript copies of the New 
Testament there must needs be a multitude of variations. 
They are partly unintentional or accidental, partly intention- 
al or designed. Errors of the first class proceed either from 
misreading, or from mishearing (in case of dictation), or 
from fault of memory. Errors of the second class are 
due either to misjudgment, or to an innocent desire to cor- 
rect supposed mistakes, to supply defects, to harmonize ap- 
parent discrepancies, or to wilful corruption for sectarian 
purposes. Cases of wilful mutilation or corruption of the 
text are, however, exceedingly rare. Transcribers had too 
much reverence for the words of Christ and his inspired 
apostles to be guilty of it, though in making their choice 
between conflicting readings they would naturally be bi- 
assed by their theological opinions.* 

* "The charges against the heretics of wilful corruption of 
the text (setting aside avowed excision like that of Marcion) 
rest on no good foundation. In the definite instances alleged 


2. Number of Variations 
The variations began very early, with the first copies, 
and continued to increase till the art of printing superseded 
the necessity of transcribing, and substituted typographical 
errors for errors of copyists They were gradually found 
out as the collection and examination of the sources pro- 
gressed. Dr. John Mill, in 1707, roughly estimated the 
number at 30,000. Since that time it has risen to " at 
least fourfold that quantity," as Dr. Scrivener wrote in 1874, 
and now cannot fall much short of 150,000, if we include 
the variations in the order of words, the mode of spelling, 
and other trifles which are ignored even in the most ex- 
tensive critical editions. This number far exceeds that of 
any ancient book, for the simple reason that the New Tes- 
tament was far more frequently copied, translated, and 
quoted than the most celebrated works of Greek and Ro- 
man genius 

3, Value of Variations. 
This multitude of various readings of the Greek text need 
not puzzle or alarm any Christian. It is the natural result 

by ancient writers (John i. 13,- iii. 6; Mark xiii 32) the 'heretu 
cal ' reading turns out to be the true one. Epiphanius charges 
the orthodox with omitting Luke xxii 43, 44, to remove a diffi 
culty This is the most plausible case of alleged wilful corrup 
tion. But Westcott and Hort, with Mr. Norton and Granville 
Penn (comp. Weiss) regard the passage as a later addition, and 
I am disposed to agree with them. No case of deliberate, w T il 
ful corruption, affecting any considerable number ofMSS., on the 
part either of the heretics or the orthodox, can be anywhere 
made out. Hash attempts to correct supposed error must not be 
confounded with wilful corruption " (Dr. Abbot, private letter) 


of the great wealth of our documentary resources; it is 
a testimony to the immense importance of the New Testa- 
ment ; it does not affect, but rather insures, the integrity of 
tlus text ; and it is a useful stimulus to study. 

Only about 400 of the 100,000 or 150,000 variations 
materially affect the sense. Of these, again, not more than 
about fifty are really important for some reason or other ; 
and even of these fifty not one affects an article of faith or 
precept of duty which is not abundantly sustained by oth- 
er and undoubted passages, or by the whole tenour of Script- 
ure teaching. The Textus Heceptus of Stephens, Beza, and 
Elzevir, and of our English version, teach precisely the 
same Christianity as the uncial text of the Sinaitic and 
Vatican MSS., the oldest versions, and the Anglo-American 
revision. Richard Bentley, the ablest and boldest of clas- 
sical critics of England, affirms that even the worst of MSS. 
does not pervert or set aside " one article of faith or moral 
precept." Dr. Ezra Abbot, who ranks among the first text- 
ual critics, and is not hampered by orthodox bias (being a 
Unitarian), asserts that "no Christian doctrine or duty 
rests on those portions of the text which are affected by 
differences in the manuscripts ; still less is anything essen- 
tial in Christianity touched by the various readings. They 
do, to be sure, affect the bearing of a few passages on the 
doctrine of the Trinity ; but the truth or falsity of the 
doctrine by no means depends upon the reading of those 

* Anglo-American Bible Revision, p. 92. In a later article (Sun- 
day Scliool Times, Phila., May 28, 1881) he makes a similar as- 
sertion with special reference to the English revision: "This 
host of various readings may startle one who is not acquainted 
with the subject, and he may imagine that the whole text of 


Moreover, the large number of various readings is a pos- 
itive advantage in ascertaining the true text. The word 
of the wise man may be applied here: "In the multitude 

the New Testament is thus rendered uncertain. But a careful 
analysis will show that nineteen twentieths of these are of no 
more consequence than the palpable errata in the first proof of 
a modern printer; they have so little authority, or are so mani- 
festly false, that they may be at once dismissed from considera- 
tion. Of those which remain, probably nine tenths are of no 
importance as regards the sense; the differences either cannot 
be represented in a translation, or affect the form of expression 
merely, not the essential meaning of the sentence. Though the 
corrections made by the revisers in the Greek text of the New 
Testament followed by our translators probably exceed two 
thousand, hardly one tenth of them, perhaps not one twentieth, 
will be noticed by the ordinary reader. Of the small residue, 
many are indeed of sufficient interest and importance to consti- 
tute one of the strongest reasons for making a new revision, 
which should no longer suffer the known errors of copyists to 
take the place of the words of the evangelists and apostles. 
But the chief value of the work accomplished by the self-deny- 
ing scholars who have spent so much time and labour in the 
search for manuscripts, and in their collation or publication, 
does not consist, after all, in the corrections of the text which 
have resulted from their researches. These corrections may 
affect a few of the passages which have been relied on for the 
support of certain doctrines, but not to such an extent as essen- 
tially to alter the state of the question. Still less is any ques- 
tion of Christian duty touched by the multitude of various read- 
ings. The greatest service which the scholars who have de- 
voted themselves to critical studies and the collection of critical 
materials have rendered has been the establishment of the fact 
that, on the whole, the New Testament writings have come 
down to us in a text remarkably free from important corrup- 
tions, even in the late and inferior manuscripts on which the 
so-called ' received text ' was founded ; while the helps which 


of counsellors there is safety" (Pro v. xi. 14). The original 
reading is sure to be preserved in one or more of these 
sources. Hence we need not, as in the case of the ancient 
classics, resort to subjective conjectural criticism, which 
never leads to absolute certainty. The very multitude of 
readings is the best guarantee of the essential integrity of 
the New Testament. 

This fact w T as long ago clearly stated by Richard Bent- 
ley, when the resources of the text were not nearly so 
abundant. Fertile and ingenious as he was in his conject- 
ural emendations of classical authors, he yet declares, in 
his Prospectus for a new edition of the Greek Testament 
(1720), that "in the sacred writings there is no place for 
conjectures and emendations. Diligence and fidelity, with 
some judgment and experience, are the characters here 
requisite." And in another place :* " If there had been but 
one MS. of the Greek Testament at the restoration of learn- 
ing, about two centuries ago, then we had had no various 
readings at all. And would the text be in a better condi- 
tion then than now we have 30,000 ? So far from that, 
that in the best single copy extant we should have some 
hundreds of faults and some omissions irreparable. Be- 
sides that, the suspicions of fraud and foul play would have 

we now possess for restoring it to its primitive purity far ex- 
ceed those wmich we enjoy in the case of any eminent clas- 
sical author whose works have come down to us. The multi- 
tude of ' various readings,' wrhich to the thoughtless or ignorant 
seems so alarming, is simply the result of the extraordinary 
richness and variety of our critical resources. " 

* In his reply, under the pseudonym of Pliileleutlierus Lip- 
siensis, to the deist Anthony Collins, who, in his Discourse of 
Free-thinking (1713), represented the 30,000 variations of Mill 
as fatal to the authority of the New Testament. 


been increased immensely. It is good, therefore, to have 
more anchors than one. . . . It is a good providence and 
a great blessing that so many manuscripts of the New Tes- 
tament are still amongst us ; some procured from Egypt, 
others from Asia, others found in the Western churches. 
For the very distances of places, as well as numbers of the 
books, demonstrate that there could be no collusion, no al- 
tering, nor interpolating one copy by another, nor all by 
any of them. In profane authors whereof one manuscript 
only had the luck to be preserved, as Velleius Paterculus 
among the Latins, and Hesychius among the Greeks, the 
faults of the scribes are found so numerous, and the de- 
fects so beyond all redress, that, notwithstanding the pains 
of the learnedest and acutest critics for two whole centu- 
ries, these books still are, and are like to continue, a mere 
heap of errors. On the contrary, where the copies of any 
author are numerous, though the various readings always 
increase in proportion, there the text, by an accurate colla- 
tion of them, made by skilful and judicious hands, is ever 
the more correct, and comes nearer to the true words of 
the author." And again : " Make your 30,000 (variations) 
as many more — if numbers of copies can ever reach that 
sum — all the better to a knowing and a serious reader, who 
is thereby more richly furnished to select what he sees 
genuine. But even put them into the hands of a knave or 
a fool, and yet with the most sinistrous and absurd choice, 
he shall not extinguish the light of any one chapter, nor 
so disguise Christianity but that every feature of it will 
still be the same." 

To quote a modern authority : " So far," says Dr. Scriv- 
ener (p. 4), "is the copiousness of our stores from causing 
doubt or perplexity to the genuine student of Holy Script- 



fully its 

ure, that it leads him to recognise tnc more 
eral integrity in the midst of partial variation. What 
would the thoughtful reader of ^Eschylus give for the like 
guidance through the obscurities which vex his patience 
and mar his enjoyment of that sublime poet V 

. 4. Classes of Variations. 

The variations which really involve the sense may, with 
Dr. Tregelles, be reduced to three classes — omissions, or ad- 
ditions, or substitutions of words and phrases. 

(1.) Omissions. These occur very often from homoeo- 
teleuton (bfiotoreXevTOp), when two lines or clauses end with 
the same word or words, which may be easily overlooked. 
A very important case of this kind is the sentence in 1 John 
ii. 23 : b bfxoXoywu rbv vlbv kcu rbv 7raripa tyti (the same 
ending as in the preceding clause), which is not found in 
the Textus Receptus, and is italicised in the English Version ; 
but sustained by X, A, B, C, P, and other authorities, and 
properly restored in the English Revision. Here the older 
text restores what the later lost. 

(2.) Additions are very numerous in the later MSS. and 
in the Textus Receptus, which must be eliminated accord- 
ing to the oldest and best authorities. They may be di- 
vided into several classes. 

(a.) Additions caused by transferring a genuine word or 
passage from one book to another ; first on the margin or 
between the lines, and then into the text. These cases 
arc most frequent in the parallel sections of the Gospels. 
They began probably with the Gospel Harmonies, the old- 
est of which is Tatian's Diatessaron, from the second cen- 
tury. See in the Text. Rec, Matt. i. 25 (supplemented 
from Luke ii. V); Matt. v. 44 (from Luke vi. 27, 28); 


Matt. ix. 13 (from Luke v. 32) ; Matt. xvii. 21 (from Mark 
ix. 29); Matt. xix. 16, 17 (comp. Mark x. 17, 18; Luke 
xviii. 18, 19); Matt. xix. 20 (from Mark x. 20 and Luke 
xviii. 21) ; Mark iii. 5 and Luke vi. 10 (from Matt. xii. 13) ; 
Mark vi. 11 (from Matt, x. 15) ; Mark xiii. 14 (from Matt. 
xxiv. 15); Mark xv. 28 (from Luke xxii. 37); Luke iv. 2, 
4, 5, 8 (comp. Matt, iv. 2, 4, 8, 10); Luke xi. 2, 4 (from 
Matt. vi. 9, 10, 13) ; John vi. 69 (from Matt, xvi. 16) ; Acts 
ix. 5, 6 (from xxvi. 14, 15; xxii. 10), etc. By removing 
these interpolations of words and clauses, otherwise genu- 
ine, we lose nothing and gain a better insight into the in- 
dividuality of each Gospel. 

(b.) Amplifications of quotations from the Old Testa- 
ment, Matt. ii. 18; xv. 8; Luke iv. 18, 19; Eom. xiii. 9; 
Heb. ii. 7 ; xii. 20, etc. These are all right in the Septua- 

(c.) Insertions of words and proper names (instead of 
pronouns) from lectionaries for the Church service, espe- 
cially those of the Gospels (Evangelistaria). Hence the 
frequent interpolation or changed position of 'Irjcrovg (e. g, y 
Matt. iv. 18; viii. 5; xiv. 22; John i. 44). Comp. also 
Luke vii. 31 (the prefix sine Se 6 Kvpiog), and x. 22 (/ecu arrpu- 
(pe)g 7rpaQ tovq fJLaSrjrag eiTre). 

(d.) Additions from a love of paraphrase, which charac- 
terizes all the sources embraced by Westcott and Hort un- 
der the designation of the " Western" text. In this re- 
spect King James's revisers have imitated the old copyists 
and translators, but have acted more honestly by printing 
their numerous and mostly useless interpolations in italics. 

(e.) Additions from oral tradition, ancient liturgies, and 
explanatory glosses. Under this head we may place the 
most important and serious interpolations, which are re- 


jected by the severer class of critics, although, some may 
be defended with solid arguments. They are as follows : 

The doxology in the Lord's Prayer (Matt. vi. 13), which 
was unknown to Origen, Tertullian, and Cyprian (in their 
commentaries on the Lord's Prayer), and is missing in the 
oldest MSS., in the Itala and Vulgate. It probably came 
in from 1 Chron. xxix. 11, and from the ancient liturgies.* 

The passage about the descent of the angel troubling 
the pool of Bethesda (John v. 3, 4, from " waiting " till " he 
had"), which expresses a popular superstition. 

The section on the woman taken in adultery (John vii. 
53-viii. 11, in ten MSS. at the end of the Gospel of John, 
in four at the end of Luke xxi.), which no doubt rests on a 
primitive and authentic tradition, but was not written by 

The concluding twelve verses of Mark (xvi. 9-20), which 
are, however, sustained by witnesses older than our oldest 

* The English Revision puts the doxology in the margin. 
It was a case of honesty versus prudence. No change seems 
to have given wider dissatisfaction than this. The doxology 
is very appropriate, and will always be used ; but this, of course, 
does not affect the critical question, which is simply one of evi- 
dence. Its insertion from liturgical usage is far more easily 
accounted for than its omission. 

f The genuineness of the conclusion of Mark has been de- 
fended with minute learning and ability by John W. Burgon, 
B.D. (now archdeacon of Chichester), in an almost exhaustive 
monograph of 334 pages : The Last Twelve Verses of the Gospel 
according to S. Mark Vindicated against Recent Critical Objections 
and Established, Oxford and London, 1871. His apologetic zeal 
leads him into injustice to the oldest and best MSS. which omit 
the passage, and to the most meritorious modern critics — Tisch- 


The baptismal confession of the eunuch (Acts viii. 37), 
which came in from ecclesiastical use. 

The passage of the three heavenly witnesses (1 John v. 
'7, 8), which is wanting in all the uncials, in all the ancient 
versions (including the best MSS. of the Vulgate), and in 
all the Greek fathers. It first appeared in Latin copies, 
and only in two very late Greek MSS., of no authority. 
The internal evidence is likewise against it, since John 
would not have written " the Father and the* Word and the 
Holy Spirit," but " the Father and the Son," or " God and 
the Word," etc. Hence it is universally given up by critics.* 

endorf and Tregelles, His arguments against X and B prove 
altogether too much, and w r ould destroy our confidence in all 
MSS., versions, and citations. Dr. Scrivener also (pp. 507-513), 
defends the genuineness of Mark xvi. 9-20. It seems impossi- 
ble that the evangelist should have ended his book so abruptly 
with tyopovvTo yap. The oldest versions and lectionaries con- 
tain the section in whole or in part. Irengeus treats it as an inte- 
gral portion of Mark (Adv. Hcer. iii. 10, 6). The Vatican MS. 
leaves the wmole third column blank, but concludes the Gospel 
of Mark in the second column, at ver. 8, with the usual ara- 
besque and the subscription KATA MAPKON, leaving an inter 
vening space of only three lines (not enough for tw r o verses). 
Burgon and Scrivener make much of the fact that this blank 
column is the only vacant column in the Vatican MS. ; but Dr. 
Abbot replies that two columns are left blank at the end of ]Nc- 
hemiah, and a column and a half at the end of the book of To- 
bit, presenting an appearance very similar to that of the end of 
Mark. Tischendorf and Tregelles set the twelve verses apart ; 
Westcott and Hort enclose them in double brackets ; the Anglo- 
American Revision properly retains them w r ith a marginal note. 
* Even Dr. Scrivener, one of the most conservative critics, 
says (p. 561), ' ' To maintain the genuineness of this passage is 
simply impossible." More than fifty volumes and pamphlets 
have been written on this controversy. 


(3.) Substitutions of one word for another, similar in 
spelling or sound. Here belong the remarkable variations 
in John i. 18 (fwvoyevt)g Beoe, abridged 60, or viae, abridged 
YC), in Luke ii. 14 (evcoria, or eucoaag) ; in Rom. v. 1 (f'x°~ 
Hev, or ex^nev), in 1 Tim. iii. 16 (oc, OC, or Seog, 6C), in 
Apoc. xvii. 8 (icaiirep torn', for kcu 7rapeoTcu), 

Other substitutions are due to the aim of harmonizing 
passages, or of correcting a supposed error, as h rolg irpotyii- 
raig for kv tw 'Hffa'/'a rw Trpotyrjrrj, in Mark i. 2 ; Brj^ajjapd 
for BrjSavia, in John i. 28 (due, perhaps, to the conjecture 
of Origen) ; tyiv kKK\r\(iiav rou Kvpiov for tov Scov, if not 
vice versa, in Acts xx. 28. 

5. Object of Textual Criticism. 

The textual variations necessitate textual criticism, which 
has gradually grown to the proportion and dignity of a 
special branch of sacred learning. It w r as matured with 
the discovery and collection of the material during the 
eighteenth century, and reached its height within the last 
twenty years. It has been cultivated mostly by Protestant 
scholars — Swiss, German, Dutch, and English. A few Cath- 
olics — like Hug and Scholz, Vercellone and Cozza — have 
nobly taken part in the work ; but, upon the whole, the 
Roman Church cares more for tradition than for the Bible, 
and is satisfied with the Latin Vulgate sanctioned by the 
Council of Trent. Protestant Bible Societies have been 
denounced as dangerous and pestiferous by several popes. 

The object of textual criticism, as applied to the Greek 
Testament, is to ascertain and restore, as far as possible, the 
original text as it came from the pens of the apostolic au- 
thors. It aims to show not what they ought to have writ- 
ten, but what they actually did write. 


6. Critical Rules. 

Since Bengel, Wetstein, and Griesbach, the critical proc- 
ess has been reduced to certain rules, but there is consid- 
erable diversity in the mode and extent of their applica- 
tion. The following* may be regarded as being sound, and 
more or less accepted by the best modern critics. 

(l.) Knowledge of documentary evidence must precede 
the choice of readings. 

(2.) All kinds of evidence must be taken into account, 
according to their intrinsic value. 

(3.) The sources of the text must be carefully sifted and 
classified, and the authorities must be weighed rather than 
numbered. One independent manuscript may be worth 
two dozen which are copied from the same original. On 
closer inspection, the witnesses are found to fall into cer- 
tain groups or families, and to represent certain tendencies. 
Bengel and Griesbach first arranged them into recensions 
or families. Westcott and Hort have modified and per- 
fected this system. They distinguish between the West- 
ern, the Alexandrian, the Syrian, and the neutral texts. 

(4.) The restoration of the pure text is founded on the 
history and genealogy of the textual corruptions. 

(5.) The older reading is preferable to the later, because 
it is presumably nearer the source. In exceptional cases 
later copies may represent a more ancient reading. 

(6.) The shorter reading is preferable to the longer, be- 
cause insertions and additions are more probable than 
omissions. " Brevior lectio prceferenda est verbosiori " 

(7.) The more difficult reading is preferable to the easier. 
" Lectio difficilior principatum tenet" was Bengel's first rule. 



(8.) The reading which explains the origin of the other 
readings is preferable. This rule is emphasised by Tiseh- 

(9.) "That reading is preferable which best suits the 
peculiar style, manner, and habits of thought of the au- 
thor; it being the tendency of copyists to overlook the 
idiosyncracies of the writer " (Scrivener). 

(10.) That reading is preferable which shows no doctrinal 
bias, whether orthodox or heretical. 

(11.) The agreement of the most ancient witnesses of all 
classes decides the true reading against all mediaeval copies 
and printed editions. 

(12.) The primary uncials, a, B, C, and A — especially a 
and B — if sustained by ancient versions and ante-Nicene 
citations, outweigh all later authorities, and give us pre- 
sumably the original text. 

7. Application of the Rules. 
The application of these critical canons decides, in the 
main, against the Textus Receptus, so called, from which the 
Protestant versions were made, and in favour of an uncial 
text. The former rests on a few and late, mostly cursive 
MSS., which have very little or no authority when com- 
pared with much older authorities which have since been 
brought to light. It abounds in later additions, harmless 
as they may be. It arose, as it were, by accident, before 
the material for the science of criticism was collected and 
examined. Erasmus, Stephens, and Beza were good schol- 
ars, but could accomplish little with the scanty resources 
at their command. Griesbach, Lachmann, Tregelles, and 
Tischendorf have the advantage over them in the posses- 
sion of an immense critical apparatus which has been accu- 


mulating for three hundred years. We are now able to go 
back from the cursive text of the fifteenth century to a 
text at least a thousand years older — a text of the Nicene 
and ante-Nicene a^e. 

It has taken a long time for scholars to become emanci- 
pated from the tyranny of the Textus Receptus, and it will 
be a long time before the people can be weaned from 
the authority of the vernacular versions based upon it. 
But the truth will prevail at last over tradition and habit. 
Amicus Stephanus, amicus Beza, sed magis arnica Veritas. 

The loss of the traditional text is more than made up by 
the gain. The substance remains, the form only is changed. 
The true text is shorter, but it is also older, purer, and 
stronger. By that we must abide until new discoveries 
bring us still nearer to the inspired original. 


The history of the printed text of the Greek Testament 
may be divided into three periods : 

(L) The period of the unlimited reign of the Received 
Text, so called, from 1516 to 1750 or 1770. 

(2.) The transition period from the Received Text to the 
Uncial Text, 1770 to 1830. 

(3.) The restoration of the oldest and purest text, 1830 
to 1881. 

Dr. Reuss, of Strasburg, who is in possession of the 
largest private collection of editions of the Greek Testa- 
ment, gives a chronological list of 584 distinct and 151 
title editions of the Greek Testament, printed from 1514 


■ . ■ ■ .. —x ^^— — — - -. ' 

to 1870, and divides them into twenty-seven families.* I 
confine myself here to the leading editions which mark an 
epoch in the history of textual criticism. 

1. The Period of the Textus Receptus. From Eras- 
mus and Stephens to Bengel and Wetstein. — A.D. 

This period extends from the Reformation to the mid- 
dle of the 18th century. The text of Erasmus, with a 
few improvements of Stephens, Beza, and the Elzevirs, as- 
sumed a stereotyped character, and acquired absolute do- 
minion among scholars. The Protestant versions made 
from this text gained the same authority among the laity. 
Both were practically considered to be the inspired word 
of God, and every departure from them was looked upon 
with suspicion. 

* See his Bibliotheca Novi Test. Greed (1872). The editions are 
classified as follows : 

I. Editio Complutensis ; II. Editiones Erasmicae; III. Editio 
Compluto-Erasmica ; IV. Editio Colinaei; V. Editiones Stepha- 
nies; VI. Editiones Erasmo-Stephanicae; VII. Editiones Com- 
pluto-Stephanicae ; VIII. Editiones Bezanae ; IX. Editiones Ste- 
phano-Bezanae; X. Editiones Stephano-Plantinianae ; XI. Edi- 
tiones Elzevirianae ; XII. Editiones Stephano-Elzevirianae ; XIII. 
Editiones Elzeviro-Plantinianae ; XIV. Editiones eriticae ante- 
Griesbachianae ; XV. Editiones Griesbachianae ; XVI. Editiones 
Matthaeianae ; XVII. Editiones Griesbachio-Elzevirianae ; XVIII. 
Editiones Knappianae; XIX. Editiones criticae minores post- 
Griesbachianae ; XX. Editiones Scholzianae; XXI. Editiones 
Lachmannianae ; XXII. Editiones Griesbachio-Lachmannianae ; 
XXIII. Editiones Tischendorfianae ; XXIV. Editiones mixtae 
recentiores; XXV. Editiones nondum collatae; XXVI. Editi- 
ones dubiae ; XXVII. Editiones spuriae. To these should be add- 
ed the edition of Tregelles and the edition of Westcott and Hort. 


The Roman Catholic Church held, and still holds, with 
the same unreasonable tenacity to Jerome's Vulgate, which, 
as a translation, is still further removed from the fountain 
of inspiration, though based in part on an older text. 

(1.) The first published (not printed) edition of the Greek 
Testament is that of Erasmus (urged by the enterprising 
publisher Frobenius, who offered to pay him as much "as 
anybody"), at Basle, Switzerland, 1516, fol. 

It was a most timely publication, just one year before 
the Reformation. Erasmus was the best classical scholar 
of his age (a better Latinist than Hellenist), and one of the 
forerunners of the Reformation, although he afterwards 
withdrew from it and died on the division line between 
two ages and two churches (1536). He furnished Luther 
and Tyndale the text for their vernacular versions, which 
became the most powerful levers of the Reformation in 
Germany and England. 

The first edition was taken chiefly from two late Basle 
MSS. of the Gospels and Epistles, which are still preserved 
in the University Library at Basle, and have the marks of 
the printer's pages (as I observed in 1879). They date from 
the fourteenth or fifteenth century. Erasmus compared 
them with two others. For the Apocalypse he had only 
one MS., borrowed from Reuchlin, then lost sight of, but 
recently found again in 1861 ;* defective on the last leaf 
(containing the last six verses, which he retranslated from 
the Vulgate into poor Greek). Made in great haste, in 
less than six months, and full of errors. Elegant Latin 
version. Dedicated to Pope Leo X. Erasmus himself, 

* By Dr. Delitzsch, in the library of the princely house of 
Oettingen-Wallerstein. See his Handschriftliclie Funde, Heft i. 
and ii. 1861 and 1862. 


aided by (Ecolampadius, published five editions, with slight 
improvements, all Grseco-Latin. Second edition, 1519 (the 
basis of Luther's translation); third, 1522; fourth, 1527; 
fifth, 1535 ; besides other editions which appeared at Ven- 
ice, Strasburg, Basle, Paris, etc.* 

The entire apparatus of Erasmus never exceeded eight 
MSS. The best he had he used least, because he was 
afraid of it ; namely, a cursive of the tenth century, num- 
bered 1, which agrees better with the uncial than with the 
received text. He also took the liberty of occasionally cor- 
recting or supplementing his text from the Vulgate. 

(2.) The Complutensian New Testament, in the Polyglot 
Bible of Complutum, or Alcala de Henares, in Spain, pre- 
pared under the direction of Cardinal Francis Ximenes 
de Cisneros (archbishop of Toledo), and published 1520, 
with papal approbation, in 6 vols. The work was begun 
1502, in celebration of the birth of Charles V., and the New 
Testament was completed Jan. 10, 1514; the fourth vol., 
July 10, 1517 (the year of the Reformation) ; but not pub- 

* Eeuss gives the titles of these editions, and says (Biblioth. 
p. 26) that they vary in sixty-two out of a thousand places which 
he compared. Mill's estimate of the variations is far below the 
mark; see Scrivener, p. 385. Of the first edition Erasmus him- 
self says, " prcecipitatum fuit xerius quam editum," in order that 
his publisher might anticipate the publication of the Complu- 
tensian Polyglot. The second edition is more correct. The 
third edition first inserted the spurious passage of the three wit- 
nesses (1 John v. 7) from the Codex Montfortianus of the six- 
teenth century. The fourth edition adds, in a third parallel 
column, the Latin Vulgate, besides the Greek and his own ver- 
sion. The fifth edition omits the Vulgate, but otherwise hardly 
differs from the fourth ; and from these two, in the main, the 
Textus Beceptus is ultimately derived. 


lished till 1520, four years after the first edition of Erasmus 
(who did not see the Polyglot till 1522), and three years 
after the cardinal's death (who died 1517, at the age of 
eighty-one). Pope Leo would not give his approbation till 
March 22, 1520 ; even then there was some delay, and the 
work did not get into general circulation before 1522. 

The New Testament forms vol. v., and gives the Greek 
and the Latin Vulgate. Vols, ii., iii., and iv. contain the Old 
Testament with the Apocrypha. The canonical books of 
the Old Testament are given in three languages : the Latin 
Vulgate characteristically holds the place of honour in the 
middle, between the Greek Septuagint and the Hebrew orig- 
inal. This signifies, according to the Prolegomena, that 
Christ, i. e. the Roman or Latin Church, was crucified be- 
tween two robbers, i. e. the Jewish Synagogue and the 
schismatical Greek Church ! The sixth vol. contains lexica,. 
indexes, etc. Only six hundred copies were printed ; hence 
the work is very rare. 

The liberal cardinal spent on his Polyglot 50,000 ducats, 
or about $115,000. But it w T as only one fourth of his 
yearly income.* 

The text of the New Testament is mostlv derived from 
late MSS. not specified, and not described except in the 
general terms " very ancient and correct," and procured 
from Rome.f 

* See a full description in Tregelles, Account of the Printed 
Text, etc., pp. 1-19. 

f On the textual sources of the Complutensian Polyglot, see 
Tregelles, loc. cit., pp. 12-18. Reuss (Biblioth. pp. 16-24) gives a 
list of the readings peculiar to this Greek Testament. An ac- 
curate reprint w T as edited by P. A. Gratz, Tubingen, 1821 ; 2d ed. 
Mayence, 1827, with changes in the orthography and punctua- 


(3.) Editions of the great printer and scholar Robert 
Stephens (Stephanus, Estienne, 1503-59), published at 
Paris in 1546 and 1549, 16nio (called, from the first words 
of the preface, the mirificam editions); 1550, in folio; 
and at Geneva in 1551, 16mo. His son Henry (1528-98) 
collated the MSS. employed for these editions, which were 
greatly admired for their excellent type, cast at the expense 
of the French government. 

Stephens's "royal edition" {editio regia) of 1550 is the 
most celebrated, and the nearest source of the Textus Re- 
ceptus* The text was mainly taken from Erasmus (the 
editions of 1527 and 1535), with marginal readings from the 
Complutensian edition, and fifteen MSS. of the Paris libra- 
ry, two of them valuable (D and L), but least used. It 
was republished by F. H. Scrivener, 1859; new edition 
1877, with the variations of Beza (1565), Elzevir (1624), 
Lachmann, Teschendorf, and Tregelles. 

The edition of 1551, which was published at Geneva 
(where Eobert Stephens spent his last years as a professed 
Protestant), though chiefly a reprint of the Royal edition of 
1550 in inferior style, is remarkable for the versicular di- 
vision which here appears for the first time, and which 
Robert Stephens is said to have made on horseback on a 
journey from Paris to Lyons. The edition contains the 
Greek text in the middle of the page, with the Latin Vul- 
gate on the inner side, and the Erasmian version on the 
outer. The versicular division is injudicious, and breaks 

tion. Leander Van Ess published an editio Compluto-Eras- 
mica, Tub. 1827. See Reuss, p. 45. 

* Reuss (p. 53) : ' ' Est hcec ipsa editio ex qua derivator quern 
nostri textum receptum vulgo vocant, nomine rei minus bene ap- 


up the text, sometimes in the middle of the sentence, into 
fragments, instead of presenting it in natural sections ; but 
it is convenient for reference, and has become indispensa- 
ble by long use. The English Revision judiciously com- 
bines both methods. 

(4.) Theodore de Beze (Beza, 1519-1605), Calvin's 
friend and successor in Geneva, who came into possession 
of some valuable old MSS. (Cod. Cantabr. and Claromont.), 
but made little use of them, published several folio editions 
of Stephens's Greek text (4th ed.), with some changes and 
a Latin translation of his own, Geneva, 1565, 1582, 1588 
(many copies dated 1589), 1598 (reprinted in Cambridge, 

Beza was a poor critic, but an eminent theologian and 
commentator, and enjoyed, with Calvin and Bullinger, the 
highest respect in England during the reigns of Elizabeth 
and James I. His editions were chiefly used for the Au- 
thorised English version of 1611, in connection with the 
last editions of Stephens.f 

* Beza called the edition of 1565 the second, but his first, 1557, 
was only his Latin version with annotations, for which he cared 
more than for the Greek text. Scrivener (Introd. 2d ed. p. 390) 
gives 1559 as the date of the first edition; but this is an error; 
see Reuss, Biblioth. p. 72 sq. Others speak of an edition of 1576 ; 
but this was edited by Henry Stephens. Besides the four folio 
editions noticed above, Beza published several octavo editions 
with his Latin version and short marginal notes (1565-67-80-90, 
1604). For a full description, see Masch's Le Long, Bibl. Sacra, 
pars i. pp. 307-316. 

f On the precise Greek text of the English version, see Dr. 
Abbot's researches in my Introduction to Lightfoot, Trench, and 
Ellicott on the Bevision of the New Testament, New York, 1873, 
pp. xxvii.-xxix. He shows that the English version agrees 


(5.) The brothers Bonaventure and Abraham Elzevir, 
enterprising publishers in Holland, issued, with the aid of 
unknown editors, several editions at Ley den, 1624, 1633, 
1641 ; originally taken (not from Stephens, but) from Beza's 
smaller edition of 1565, with a few changes from his later 
editions. Neatly printed, and of handy size, they were 
popular and authoritative for a long period. The preface 
to the second edition boldly proclaims : " Textum ergo habes, 
nunc ab omnibus receptum : in quo nihil immutatum aut 
corruptum damns" Hence the name Textus Receptus, or 
commonly received standard text, which became a part of 
orthodoxy on the Continent; while in England Stephens's 
edition of 1550 acquired this authority; but both agree 
substantially.* Erasmus is the first, Elzevir's editor the 
last author, so to say, of the Textus Receptus. All the 
Holland editions were scrupulously copied from the Elze- 
vir text, and Wetstein could not get authority to print his 
famous Greek Testament (1751-52) except on condition 
of following it.f 

with Beza (ed. 1589) against Stephens (ed. 1550) in about ninety 
places, with Stephens against Beza in about forty, and differs 
from both in thirty or forty places. Beza's Latin version, which 
was superior to the preceding ones, and his notes, had also con- 
siderable influence, which was misleading in many instances, 
but, on the whole, beneficial. See B. F. Westcott, History of the 
English Bible (Lond. 1868), p. 294. 

* Mill observed but twelve variations. Tischendorf (p.lxxxv. 
7th ed.) gives a list of 150 changes; Scrivener (p. 392) states the 
number at 287. These variations are as unimportant as the va- 
riations of the different editions of King James's English ver- 
sion, which number over 20,000. 

f For a history of the Elzevir family and a list of their publi- 
cations, see Les Elzevier. Histoire et Annates typographiques, par 


(6.) Brian Walton's Polyglot Bible, Lond. 1657, 6 torn. 
fol. The New Testament (torn, v.) gives the Greek text of 
Stephens, 1550, with the Latin Vulgate, the Peshito Syriac, 
the .^Ethiopic, and Arabic versions*. In the Gospels a Per- 
sic version is added. Each Oriental version has a collateral 
Latin translation. At the foot of the Greek text are given 
the readings of Cod. A. The sixth or supplementary vol- 
ume furnishes a critical apparatus gathered from sixteen 
authorities, by the care of the celebrated Archbishop TJs- 
sher (1580-1656), who had been appointed a member of 
the Westminster Assembly of Divines, but never attended. 
Walton (1600-1661) was a royalist, during the civil war, 
and chaplain to Charles L, and after the Restoration conse- 
crated bishop of Chester (1661). But the Polyglot was 
published under the patronage of Cromwell, who allowed 
the paper to be imported free of duty. This patronage 
was afterwards disowned ; hence there are two kinds of 

Alphonse Willems, Brux. et Paris, 1880, 2 vols. The titles of 
the first two editions (1624 and 1633) are as follows : 

'H Kaivri AiaSriKr). Novum Testamentvm, ex Begijs alijsque 
optimis editionibus cum curd expressum. Lvgdvni Batavorvm, 
ex Officina Elzeviriana. clo Io c xxrv. 12mo or 24mo. 

(" Cette edition du N. T. est reputee correcte, mais elle a ete effa- 
ces par celle de 1633. " Willems, i. 98.) 

'H Kaivrj AiaSrjicr]. Novum Testamentum. Ex Regiis aliisque 
optimis editionibus, hac nova expressum : cui quid accesserit, Prce- 
fatio docebit. Lvgd. Batavorvm, ex Officina Elzeviriorum. 
do Id c xxxiii. 12mo or 24mo. 

The second is the most beautiful and correct edition. One 
of the two editions dated 1641 (that printed by the Elzevirs for 
Whitaker of London) has notes of Robert Stephens, Joseph 
Scaliger, Isaac Casaubon, etc. Later editions were printed at 


copies — the one called " republican" (with compliments 
to Cromwell in the preface, but no dedication), the other 
" loyal" and dedicated to Charles II.* 

Walton's Polyglot is less magnificent than the Paris 
Polyglot (Paris, 1645, in 10 vols.), but more ample, com- 
modious, and critical. f 

* "Twelve copies were struck off on large paper. By Crom- 
well's permission the paper for this work was allowed to be im- 
ported free of duty, and honourable mention is made of him in 
the Preface. On the Restoration this courtesy was dishonour- 
ably withdrawn, and the usual Bible dedication sycophancy 
transferred to Charles II., at the expense of several cancels; 
and in this, the ' Loyal ' copy, so called in contradistinction to 
the 'Republican,' Cromwell is spoken of as 'Maximus ille 
Draco.' This is said to have been the first work printed by 
subscription in England " (The Bibles in the Caxton Exhibition, 
London, 1877, p. 119 sq.). Comp. H. J. Todd's Memoirs of the 
Life and Writings of Brian Walton, London, 1821, 2 vols. 

f Brian Walton was involved in a controversy with Dr. John 
Owen, the famous Puritan divine, who labored to defend, from 
purely dogmatic premises, without regard to stubborn facts, the 
scholastic theory that inspiration involved not only the religious 
doctrines, but "every tittle and iota," and that "the Scriptures 
of the 0. and N". Testaments were immediately and entirely given 
out by God himself, his mind being in them represented unto 
us without the least interveniency of such mediums and ways 
as were capable of giving change or alteration to the least iota or 
syllable." (Of the Integrity and Purity of the Hebrew Text of the 
Scriptures, with Considerations on the Prolegomena and Appendix 
to the late ( Biblia Polyglotta,' Oxford, 1659.) To this Walton re- 
plied, forcibly and conclusively, in The Considerator Considered, 
London, 1659. He maintained that the authority of the Script- 
ures, as a certain and sufficient rule of faith, does not depend 
upon any human authority or any human theory of inspiration, 
and that Owen's view was contrary to undeniable facts, and 


(7.) John Mill's Novum Testamentum Gr cecum, Oxon. 
1707, fol.; often reprinted, especially in England. The 
fruit of thirty years' labour. A vastly increased critical 
apparatus.* The text is from Stephens, 1550. It had 
been preceded by the New Testament of Bishop John 
Fell, Oxford, 1675; an edition "more valuable for the 
impulse it gave to subsequent investigators than for the 
richness of its own stores of fresh materials " (Scrivener, 
p. 395). 

Bentley's proposed edition, 1720. Dr. Richard Bent- 
ley (1662-1742), whose rare classical scholarship and criti- 
cal discernment pre-eminently fitted him for the task, made 
extensive and expensive preparations for a new edition of 
the Greek and Latin Testament. He, unfortunately, failed 
to execute his design ; but he discovered the true principle 
which, a century afterwards, was executed by the critical 
genius of Lachmann. He proposed to go back from the 
Textus Receptus to the oldest text of the first five centuries, 
hoping that " by taking 2000 errors out of the Pope's Vul- 
gate and as many out of the Protestant Pope Stephens's," 
he could " set out an edition of each in columns, without 
using any book under 900 years old, that shall so exactly 
agree word for word, and order for order, that no two tal- 
lies, nor two indentures, can agree better." He issued his 
Projiosals for such an edition in 1720, with the last chap- 
contrary to the judgment of the Reformers and the chief Protes- 
tant divines and linguists from Luther and Calvin down to Gro- 
tius and Cappellus. " The truth needs not the patronage of an 

* See the list of Mill's MSS. in Scrivener, p. 398. Kuster's re- 
print of Mill, with additions, Amsterdam and Leipsic, also Rot- 
terdam, 1710, deserves to be mentioned. 


ter of Revelation in 'Greet and Latin as a specimen. The 
scheme was frustrated by an angry controversy between 
him and Conyers Middleton, and other contentions in which 
he was involved, by his unruly temper, at Cambridge. . The 
money paid in advance (two thousand guineas) was return- 
ed to the subscribers by his nephew, whom he made his 
literary executor. All that is left is a mass of critical ma- 
terial in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, includ- 
ing: the collation of the Codex Vaticanus, which was tran- 
scribed by Woide and edited by Ford in 1799. Bentley 
was too sanguine in his expectations, and too confident 
and hasty in his conclusions ; but his edition, as Tregelles 
says, " would have been a valuable contribution towards 
the establishment of a settled text : it would at least have 
shaten the foundations of the Textus Receptus ; and it 
might well have formed the basis of further labours." 

After Bentley's death active interest in Biblical criticism 
in England ceased for nearly a century, and the wort was 
carried on mainly by German scholars. 

(8.) J. A. Bengel (1687-1752), a most original, pro- 
found, pregnant, and devout commentator, author of the 
invaluable Gnomon, which is a marvel of multum in parvo, 
edited a Greet Testament at Tubingen, 1734 and 1755, 
and wrote several critical dissertations. He became a critic 
from conscientious scruples, but was confirmed in his faith 
by thorough research. He divided the textual witnesses 
into families; facilitated the method of comparing and 
weighing the readings ; suggested true principles of criti- 
cism ; and departed, in the Apocalypse (his favorite study), 
from the Textus Receptus. Most of his cautious changes 
have been approved. In the apparatus criticus he first 
set the example of recording the testimonies for and 


against the received reading, but he did it only in rare 
instances. "The peculiar importance of Bengel's New 
Testament is due to the critical principles developed there- 
in. Not only was his native acuteness of great service to 
him when weighing the conflicting probabilities of internal 
evidence, but in his fertile mind sprang up the germ of 
that theory of families or recensions which was afterwards 
expanded by J. S. Sender (1725-91), and grew to such for- 
midable dimensions in the skilful hands of Griesbach."* 

(9.) Jo. Jac. WETSTEiNf (1693-1754): Novum Testa- 
mentum Gr cecum Editionis Receptee cum Lectionibus, etc., 
Amstel. 1751-52, 2 torn. fol. The text is mainly from the 
Elzevir editions, with some readings from Fell's text. He 
made large additions to the apparatus, and carefully de- 
scribed the MSS. and other sources in the Prolegomena, 
i. 1-222 ; ii. 3-15, 449-454, 741-43. His magnificent 
edition contains also a learned commentary, with illustra- 
tions from Hebrew, Greek, and Latin authors. 

Wet-stein was far inferior to Bengel in judgment, but 
surpassed him in the extent of his resources. He was nei- 
ther a sound theologian nor a safe critic, but a most in- 
dustrious worker and collator. His New Testament repre- 

* Scrivener, p. 403. Comp. on Bengel the biographies of Burk 
(1831) and Wachter (1865), and an article in Herzog, ii. 295-301 
(new ed.). 

t His family name was Wettstein (see Hagenbach's art. in 
Herzog, vol. xviii. p. 74); but he signed himself in Latin Wet- 
stenius; and hence English, Dutch, and most German writers 
spell the name Wetstein. He was a native of Basle, and for 
some time assistant pastor of his father at St. Leonhard's ; but, 
being suspected of Arian and Socinian heresy, he was deposed 
and exiled from his native city (1730). He obtained a profess- 
orship at the Arminian College at Amsterdam (1733). 


sents the labour of forty years. He had a natural passion 
for the study of MSS. ; made extensive literary journeys ; 
collated about 102 MSS. (among them A, C, and D) with 
greater care than had been done before, and introduced 
the system of citing them by Latin letters and Arabic nu- 
merals. His Prolegomena are disfigured by the long and 
painful history of his controversy with his narrow ortho- 
dox opponents, Iselin and Frey ; he depreciated the merits 
of Bengel; but his New Testament is still valuable as a 
storehouse of parallel passages from the ancient classics. 

During the next twenty years little was done for textual 
criticism. Johann Salomo Semler, the father of German 
rationalism (1725-91), but, in what he called " Privat-From- 
migkeit" (personal piety), a pietist and an earnest oppo- 
nent of deism, re-edited Wetstein's Prolegomena with val- 
uable suggestions (Halle, 1764), and stimulated the zeal of 
his great pupil Griesbach. 

2. Second Period : Transition from the Textus Re- 


Lachmann — A.I). 1770-1830. 

This period shows enlarged comparison of the three 
sources of the text, the discovery of critical canons, a 
gradual improvement of the Textus Beceptus, and approach 
to an older and better text ; but the former w T as still re- 
tained as a basis on a prescriptive right. 

(10.) The period is introduced by the honoured name of 
Johann Jacob Griesbach (1745-1812), professor of di- 
vinity at Halle and then at Jena. He made the study of 
textual criticism of the Greek Testament his life-work, and 
combined all the necessary qualifications of accurate learn- 
ing, patient industry, and sound judgment. His editions 


from 1775 to 1806 mark the beginning of a really critical 
text, based upon fixed rules. Among these are, that a read- 
ing must be supported by ancient testimony ; that the short- 
er reading is preferable to the longer, the more difficult to 
the easy, the unusual to the usual. He sifted Wetstein's 
apparatus with scrupulous care ; enlarged it by collecting 
the citations of Origen, and utilizing the Old Latin texts, 
published by Bianchini and Sabatier ; improved and devel- 
oped Bengel's system of recensions, classifying the author- 
ities under three heads — the Western (D, Latin versions, 
fathers), the Alexandrian (B, C, L, etc., a recension of the 
corrupt Western text), and the Constantinopolitan (A, flow- 
ing from both) ; but recognised also mixed and transitional 
texts, decided for the readings of the largest relative ex- 
tent, but departed from the Elzevir text only for clear and 
urgent reasons. His critical canons are well - considered 
and sound ; but he w T as too much fettered by his recension 
theory, which was ably criticised and modified by Hug, a 
Roman Catholic scholar (1765-1846). 

Principal editions, Halle and London, 1775-77, 1796- 
1806, 2 torn. 8vo; reprinted, London, 1809 and 1818 (a 
very fine edition) ; an improved third edition of the Gos- 
pels by David Schulz, 1827, with Prolegomena and an en- 
larged apparatus. Griesbach's text is the basis of many 
manual editions by Schott, Knapp, Tittmann, Hahn, Theile, 
and of several English and American editions. 

While Griesbach was engaged in his work, several 
scholars made valuable additions to the critical appa- 
ratus, the results of which he incorporated in his last edi- 

C. F. Matthaei (professor at Wittenberg, then at Mos- 
cow; d. 1811), Griesbach's opponent, ridiculed the system 



of recensions, despised the most ancient authorities, and 
furnished a text from about a hundred Moscow MSS., all of 
Con stan tinopolitan origin, to which he attributed too great 
a value. The result by no means justified his pretensions 
and passionate attacks upon others. His Novum Test 
Greece et Lett, was published at Riga, 1782-88, 12 vols. 8vo ; 
an edition with the Greek text only, in 3 vols. (1803-7). 

The Danish professors Birch, Adler, and Molden- 
hawer collected, at the expense of the King of Denmark, 
a large and valuable amount of new critical material in 
Italy and Spain, including the readings of the Vatican 
MS., published by Birch, 1788-1801. During the same 
period Codd. A, D, and other important MSS. were pub- 

F. C. Alter, in his Greek Test., Vienna, 1786-87, 8vo, 
gave the readings of twenty-two Vienna MSS., and also of 
four MSS. of the Slavonic version. 

The new discoveries of these scholars went far to con- 
firm Griesbach's critical judgment. 

(11.) J. M. A. Scholz (a pupil of Hug, and Roman Cath- 
olic professor in Bonn; d. 1852): Novum Testamentum 
Greece, etc., 1830-36, 2 vols. 4to; the text reprinted by 
Bagster, London, with the English version. 

Scholz was a poor critic, but an extensive collator. He 
examined many new MSS. in different countries, though 
not very accurately, and gave the preference to the Byzan- 
tine family, as distinct from the Alexandrian. He fre- 
quently departed from the received text, yet, upon the 
whole, preserved it in preference to that of the Vulgate 
(which is remarkable for a Roman Catholic). His edition 
has found greater favour in England than in Germany. It 
marks no advance upon Griesbach. 


3. Third Period : The Restoration of the Primitive 

Text. From Lachmann and Tischendorf to West- 

cott and Hort— A.D. 1830-81. 

(12.) Carl Lachmann (professor of classical philology 
in Berlin; d. 1851): Novum Testamentum Greece et La- 
tine, Berol. 1842-50, 2 vols. Comp. his art. in the Studien 
und Kritiken, 1830, No. 4, pp. 817-845. Lachmann had 
previously published a small edition in 1831, with various 
readings at the end. In the larger edition he was aided 
by the younger Philip Buttmann, who added the appara- 
tus of the Greek text, and published also another small 
edition based on the Vatican MS., 1856, 1862, and 1865. 

Lachmann was not a professional theologian, and not 
hampered by traditional prejudice. His object was to re- 
store the oldest accessible text, i. e. the text of the fourth 
or fifth century, as found in the oldest sources then known 
(especially Codd. A, B, C, Itala, Vulgate, ante-Nicene fa- 
thers) ; yet not as a final text, but simply as a sure histor- 
ical basis for further operations of internal criticism. He 
gives, with diplomatic accuracy, even palpable writing er- 
rors if sufficiently attested ; not as proceeding from the 
original writers, but as parts of the textus traditus of the 
fourth century. His range of authorities was limited ; Cod. 
Sinaiticus had not yet been discovered, and Codd. B and C 
not critically edited. But to him belongs the credit of 
having broken a new path, and established, with the genius 
and experience of a master critic, the true basis. He car- 
ried out the hint of Bentley and Bengel, and had the bold- 
ness to destroy the tyranny of the Textus Receptus, and to 
substitute for it the uncial text of the Nicene age. 

Lachmann met with much opposition from the profession- 


al theologians, even from such a liberal critic as De Wette, 
who thought that he had wasted his time and strength. 
Such is the power of habit and prejudice that every inch 
of ground in the march of progress is disputed, and must 
be fairly conquered. But his principles are now pretty 
generally acknowledged as correct.* 

(13.) Constantin von Teschendorf (professor of the- 
clogy at Leipsic; b. 1815, d. 1874) : Novum Testamenium 
Greece, etc., eel. octava critica maior, Lips. ; issued at in- 
tervals, in eleven parts, from 1864 to 1872, 2 vols., with a 
full critical apparatus. 

Prof. Teschendorf is by far the most industrious, en- 
terprising, and successful textual critic of the nineteenth 
century. He visited the principal libraries of Europe in 
search of documents ; made four journeys to England, and 
three to the Orient ; discovered, collated, copied, and edited 
many most important MSS. ; and published, between 1841 
and 1873, no less than twenty -four editions of the Greek 
Testament (including the reissues of his stereotyped eelitio 
acaelemica). Four of these — issued 1841, 1849, 1859, and 
1872 — mark a progress in the acquisition of new material. 
The catalogue of his publications, most of them relating to 
Biblical criticism, covers more than ten octavo pages. In 
1873 he hoped to attend the General Conference of the 
Evangelical Alliance in New York, and to read a paper on 
the influence of the Apocryphal Gospels on the formation 
of the Roman Catholic theory and worship of the Virgin 

* Tregelles (p. 99): "Lachmann led the way in casting aside 
the so-called Textus Beceptus, and boldly placing the New Tes- 
tament wholly and entirely on the basis of actual authority." 
Reuss calls him (Blblioth. p. 239) l( mr eloctissimus et Kjomrcwraroc;." 
Scrivener (p. 422 sqq.) depreciates his merits. 


Mary. I had transmitted to him, in the name of the Amer- 
ican branch, two free tickets for himself and his son, and 
provided comfortable- lodgings, when a fatal stroke of apo- 
plexy suddenly arrested his earthly labours, May 5, 1873, 
although he lingered till Dec. 7, 1874.* 

Teschendorf started from the basis of Lachmann, but 
with a less rigorous application of his principle, and with a 
much larger number of authorities. He intended to give 
not only the oldest, but also the best, text, with the aid of 
all authorities. His judgment was influenced by subjec- 
tive considerations and a very impulsive temper; hence 
frequent changes in his many editions, which he honest- 
ly confessed, quoting Teschendorf versus Tischendorf, but 
they mark the progress in the range of his resources and 
knowledge. In his last and best edition he returns again 
to the uncial authorities, after a temporary departure to 
later documents, and gives full credit to his own greatest 
discovery, the MS. from the Mount of Legislation. 

* See J. E. Volbeding, Oonstantin Tischendorf in seiner 25-jdh- 
rigen schriftstellerischen WirksamTceit, Leips. 1862; Dr. Abbot's 
article on Tischendorf in the Unitarian Bevieio for March, 1875; 
Dr. Gregory's article in the Bibliotheca Sacra for January, 1876 ; 
and for his moral and religious character, the addresses of his 
pastor, Dr. Ahlfeld, and his colleagues Drs. Kahnis and Lu- 
thardt, Am Sarge Tischendorf s, w T ith a list of his writings, Leips. 
1874. These addresses bring into prominence his noble quali- 
ties, which were somewhat concealed to the superficial observer 
by a skin disease — his personal vanity and overfondness for his 
many and well-earned titles and twenty or more decorations 
from sovereigns which were displayed in his parlor. He took 
a prominent part in the united deputations of the Evangelical 
Alliance to the Czar and Prince GortschakofT, at Friedrichs- 
hafen, in behalf of the persecuted Lutherans in the Baltic prov- 
inces, in 1871, at the risk of his popularity at the Russian court. 


The Latin Prolegomena to this edition have been pre- 
pared, since 1876, by an American scholar, Dr. Caspar Rene 
Gregory, residing at Leipsic, with the efficient aid of Dr. 
Ezra Abbot, of Cambridge, Mass., and will soon be pub- 
lished. Thus America is permitted to take an important 
part in this great work of restoring the purest text of the 
book of books by completing the noblest monument of 
German scholarship in the line of textual criticism.* 

(14.) Sam. Prideaux Tregelles (1813-1875): The 
Greek New Testament, edited from ancient authorities, tuith 
the Latin Version of Jerome from the Codex Amiatinus, 
London ; issued in parts from 1857 to 1879, 4to. He had 
previously edited The Booh of Revelation in Greek, 1844. 

Dr. Tregelles devoted his whole life to this useful and 
herculean task, with a reverent and devout spirit similar to 
that of Bengel.f He visited many libraries in Europe, col- 

* See an article by Dr. Abbot in the Harvard Begister, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 1881, pp. 322, 323. We learn from this that the 
Prolegomena will give the fullest description of the critical ma- 
terial and a key to the multitudinous abbreviations of Tischen- 
dorf 's apparatus, w T hich to ordinary readers are about as intel- 
ligible as a hieroglyphic alphabet. The ' ' Addenda et Emen- 
danda " will contain a formidable list of errors in the text and 
apparatus which scholars have detected, and additional refer- 
ences to new sources. I regret that I could not avail myself of 
these Prolegomena, but I had the benefit of Dr. Abbot's valu- 
able suggestions and aid in reading the proof of this Introduc- 
tion, which I was obliged to prepare within a few w T eeks. 

f Dr. T. was of Quaker descent, and associated for a time with 
the "Plymouth Brethren." He edited The Englishman's Greek 
Concordance to tlie JS~. T. (1839), The Englishman's Hebrew and 
Chaldee Concordance of tlie 0. T. (1843, 2 vols.), a translation of 
Gesenias's Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon (1847), and other useful 
books. He was very poor, but in his later years he received a 


lated the most important uncial and cursive MSS., and pub- 
lished the palimpsest Codex Zacynthius (on Luke). He 
was far behind Teschendorf in the extent of his resources, 
but more scrupulously accurate in the use of them."* He 
followed Lachmann's principle. He left behind him a 
monumental work of painstaking, conscientious, and de- 
vout scholarship. But it needs to be corrected and sup- 
plemented from the Codex Sinaiticus, and the critical edi- 
tion of the Codex Vaticanus, which he was not permitted 
to inspect in Rome by the jealous authorities. Like Tesch- 
endorf, he was prevented from completing his work, and 
was struck down by paralysis while engaged in conclud- 
ing the last chapters of Revelation (in 1870). He never 
recovered, and could not take part in the labours of the 
English Revision Committee, of which he was appointed 
a member. The Prolegomena w T ere compiled and edited 
four years after his death by Dr. Hort and Rev. A. W. 
Streane, 1879. 

(15.) Westcott and Hort : The New Testament in the 
Original Greek, Cambridge and London, Macmillan & Co. ; 
New York, Harper & Brothers, 1881. 

Of this, the last and the best critical edition of the Greek 
Testament, which was begun in 1853 and completed in 
1881, we have said enough in the beginning of this Intro- 

Simultaneously with this edition there appeared two 
other editions of the Greek Testament, which make no 

pension of £200 from the civil list. His belief in verbal inspira- 
tion made him, like Bengel, a verbal critic. 

* Dr. Scrivener remarks (p. 431): "Where Tischendorf and 
Tregelles differ" (in collation), "the latter is seldom in the 


claim to be independent critical recensions of the text, but 
have a special interest and value in connection with the 
Westminster or Anglo-American Revision, and supplement 
each other. They were carefully prepared by two mem- 
bers of the New Testament Company of Revisers, but it is 
distinctly stated that "the Revisers are not responsible" 
for the publication. They were undertaken by the English 
University Presses. 

Dr. Scrivener, in his edition published by the Univer- 
sity Press of Cambridge, gives The New Testament in the 
Original Greek, according to the Text followed in the Au- 
thorised Version (i. e. the Textus Receptus of Beza's edition 
of 1598), together with the Variations adopted in the Re- 
vised Version. He puts the new readings at the foot of 
!the page, and prints the displaced readings of the text in 
heavier type. 

Dr. Palmer, archdeacon of Oxford, in The Greek Testa- 
ment, with the Readings adopted by the Revisers of the Au- 
thorised Version, published by the Clarendon Press, Ox- 
ford, 1881, pursues the opposite method: he presents the 
Greek text followed by the Revisers, and puts the discarded 
readings of the Textus Receptus and of the version of 1611 
in foot-notes. The Revisers state, in the Preface from the 
Jerusalem Chamber (p. xiii., royal-octavo ed.), that they did 
not esteem it within their province " to construct a contin- 
uous and complete Greek text. In many cases the English 
rendering was considered to represent correctly either of 
two competing readings in the Greek, and then the ques- 
tion of the text was usually not raised." Dr. Palmer, with 
the aid of lists of readings prepared by the Revisers in 
the progress of their work, has constructed a continuous 
text, taking for the basis the third edition of Stephens 


(1550), and following it closely in all cases in which the 
Revisers did not express a preference for other readings; 
even the orthography, the spelling of proper names, and 
the typographical peculiarities or errors of Stephens are, 
with a few exceptions, retained. The chapters are marked 
as in Stephens's edition of 1550, the distribution into 
verses accords with that in the Authorised Version, and 
the division into paragraphs is conformed to the English 
Revision of 1881. 

The year 1881 is fruitful above any other in editions of 
the New Testament in Greek and the Revised English Ver- 
sion ; and the demand for the latter in Great Britain and 
the United States is beyond all precedent in the history of 
literature. We may well call it the year of the republi- 
cation of the Gospel. The immense stimulus thus given 
to a careful and comparative study of the words of Christ 
and his apostles must bear rich fruit. The first printed 
edition of the Greek Testament in 1516 w T as followed by 
the great Reformation of 1517. May the numerous edi- 
tions of 1881 lead to a deeper understanding and wider 
spread of the Christianity of Christ ! 

New York, August 1, 1881. 


The notation adopted in this work is used to draw attention 
to three classes of passages : 

(1.) Passages where it has been found impossible to decide 
which of two or more various readings is certainly right. 

(2.) Passages containing readings in regard to which some 
suspicion is entertained by the editors. 

(3.) Passages where interpolations of special interest occur in 
certain documents. 

In connection with all passages of the first class, alternative 
readings are given, which have a reasonable probability of be- 
ing genuine. Of these alternative readings, those which on the 
whole are the more probable, or the better attested, are printed 
in the text as the primary readings ; the secondary readings 
being distinguished by a notation which varies according as 
they differ from the primary readings by omission, addition, or 


[ ] These marks indicate that the word or words enclosed in 
them are omitted in secondary readings. Thus, in Matt. 
vii. 24 (p. 17), tovq Xoyovg tovtovq is the primary read- 
ing, tovq \6yovg, without tovtovq, the secondary read- 

f (1.) Without any accompanying mark in tlie margin. This 
mark indicates the place where secondary readings add 
the word or words printed in the margin opposite the 
primary reading. Thus, in Matt. xxiiL 38 (p. 56), 6 oIkoq 
vfiutv is the primary reading, 6 oZkoq vfiwv iprj/xog the sec- 
ondary reading. 
(2.) Accompanied by the marks -\ (- in the margin, it indicates 
that certain ' Western' documents contain, in places thus 
distinguished, interpolations embracing some apparent- 
ly fresh or distinctive matter, but having no sufficient 




intrinsic claim to any form of incorporation with the 
New Testament ; such interpolations being printed oppo- 
site to it in the margin between the special marks H h 
See Matt. xx. 16 (p. 47), where some ' Western ' docu- 
ments interpolate, after Zgxcltoi, the clause ttoXXoI yap 
daiv icXtjtol oXiyoi dk IkXektoi. 
r ~ l These marks enclose portions of the text to which the con- 
tents of the opposite margin refer. They are used in 
the following cases : 

(1.) Without any accompanying mark in the margin, to in- 
dicate words and passages for which secondary readings 
are printed opposite in the margin. Thus, in Matt. xvi. 
20 (p. 39), iweTifJinvev is the primary reading, SbEcrrdXciTo 
the secondary reading. 

(2.) Accompanied by ( Ap. f ' in the margin, to indicate por- 
tions of the text which, in the judgement of the editors, 
probably contain some "primitive" error, that is, an 
error affecting the text of all existing documents, and 
thus incapable of being rectified without the aid of con- 
jecture; such places being the subject of notes in the 
Appendix. See Matt. xv. 30 (p* 37), xuikovg, kvXXovi;, 

TV(pX0VQ, K(0(j)QVQ. 

(3.) Accompanied by the marginal marks H h, to indicate por- 
tions of the text for which ' Western ' documents substi- 
tute the word or words printed opposite in the margin 
between the special marks -\ h ; such substitutions being 
similar in character to the ' Western ' interpolations al- 
ready mentioned. Thus, in Matt. viii. 12 (p. 18), some 
' Western ' documents substitute k^eXevaovrai for U/3X?j- 
9t](tovtcu of the text, 
f f These marks indicate that the word or words enclosed 
within them are apparently right, and are attested large- 
ly, though not by the best documents ; the better attest- 
ed readings being printed in the margin with 'Ap. ' and 
noticed in the Appendix. Thus, in Heb. vii. 1 (p. 469), 
o is apparently right, dg the better attested reading. 
| These marks enclose (a) a few very early interpolations 
in the Gospels, omitted by ' Western ' documents alone, 
as in Luke xxii. 19, 20 (p. 177), or by 'Western' and 
' Syrian ' documents alone, as in Matt, xxvii, 49 (pp. 68, 
69); (b) a few interpolations in the Gospels, probably 


'Western' in origin, containing important matter ap- 
parently derived from extraneous sources, as in Matt, 
xvi. 2, 3 (p. 38). 


[ ] Used in the margin with the same significance as in the 
text (see above), to distinguish two or more marginal 
readings which differ from each other merely by the 
omission or addition of words. Thus two alternative 
readings are indicated in the margin at Matt. viii. 18 
(p. 19), one being 7roWovg ox^ovg, the other 6x\ovg with- 
v. out ttoWovq. In other cases, two or more marginal read- 
ings are separated by v. See marg. Matt. xiii. 30 (p. 32). 

Ap. (1.) When attached to marginal readings or punctuations, 
this indicates that such readings or punctuations are ex- 
amined in the Appendix. 

" (2.) Accompanied by ff in the text. See f f above. 

" (3.) Standing alone, toithout any corresponding mark in the 
text, it indicates places where occur miscellaneous re- 
jected readings which, having some special interest, are 
noticed in the Appendix. See Matt. xvii. 20 (p. 41). 
Ap.\ Accompanied by r 1 in the text. See r 1 (2.) above. 

H h Accompanied by ^ or r ^ in the text. See "*" (2.) and r "* 
(3.) above. 
* This mark indicates that the marginal note, being too 
long to be conveniently inserted in the usual place, has 
been printed at the foot of the page, where it is distin- 
t guished by a corresponding *. When two notes of this 
kind occur on one page, the second is indicated by J. 
See Acts xviii. 21 and 27 (p. 290). 


Uncial type is employed for quotations from the Old Testa- 
ment, including phrases borrowed from some one place or a 
number of places. 

Metrical arrangement is chosen for poetical and rhythmical 

Short spaces indicate sub-paragraphs. 

The orthography is taken from the best MSS. 







i BIBA02 yej/e'crecos 'Irjcrov Xpiorou vlov AaveiS vlov 'A/?paaju.. 

2 iyivvrjcrev tov 'icractK, 
Icraa/c Se iyivvrjcrev tov Ia/cu/?, 

'IaKw/3 Se iyivvrjcrev tov 'lovSav koll tovs abe\cj>ovs olvtov, 

3 'louSa? Se iyivvrjcrev tov <£apes /cat roV Zapa ck Trjs ©a/xap ; 
<£apes Se iyivvrjcrev tov 'Ecrpw/x, 

'Ecrpco/x Se iyivvrjcrev tov 'Apati, 

4 'Apa/x Se iyivvrjcrev tov 'A/uraSa/?, 
'A/xtvaSa/3 Se iyivvrjcrev tov Naacrow, 
Naao"(jojr Se iyivvrjcrev tov ^aXjAutv, 

5 ^olXjjluv Se iyivvrjcrev tov Boes €K t^5 'Pa^a/3, 
Boes Se iyivvrjcrev rov 'I(o/3t}S e/< r^s e Pov#, 

IwfirjS Se iyivvrjcrev rov 'Iecro-ai, 

6 Ieoro-ai Se iyivvrjcrev tov AauelS tov [SacnXia. 

AaveiS Se iyivvrjcrev tov %oXojxiova €K ttJs tov Ovptov, 

7 2oXop,aji/ Se iyivvrjcrev tov 'Po/3oa/x, 

Fofioafji Se iyivvrjcrev tov 'A/?ia, 
A/3ia Se iyivvrjcrev tov 'Acra<£, 
Acracj) Se iyivvrjcrev tov 'I(ocra<£aT, 

8 lu)cracf)aT Se iyivvrjcrev tov 'Iwpa/x. 

Icopa/x Se iyivvrjcrev tov '0£eiW ? ^4/. 


'0£etas Se Zyivvrjcrcv tov Ia)a#d/x, 9 

3 Ia>a#a/x Se Zyivvrjcrev tov "A^as, 
'A^as Se Zyivvrjcrev tov e E£e/aW, 

e E£e/aas Se Zyivvrjcrev tov Wavacrarj, id 

Mai/aorcnjs Se Zyivvrjcrev tov 'A/xws, 
'A/xcds Se Zyivvrjcrev tov Iwcreiav, 
^4/. 'Iwcretas Se Zyivvrjcrev tov *leypviav koX tovs dSeX<£cug it 

carrel e7rl ttJs jxeTOLKeatas Ba/?iAaVo9. 

Merd Se r^v jxeTOtKecriav Ba/3iAaVos 'Ie^o^tas Zyivvrjcrev 12 

roV ^aXaOurjX, 
'ZaXa6tr]X Se Zyivvrjcrev tov Zopo/3d/3eX, 
Zopo/3d/3eX Se Zyivvrjcrev tov 'A/3lov8, 13 

\A/?ioi>8 Se Zyivvrjcrev tov EXia/cei/x, 
*EXia.KeijU, Se Zyivvrjcrev tov 'A£a>p, 

'A£wp 8 e Zyivvrjcrev tov SaSw/c, 14 

2a8co/c Se Zyivvrjcrev tov 'A^ct//, 
'A^ei//, Se Zyivvrjcrev tov 'EXiouS, 

EXiouS Se Zyivvrjcrev tov 'EXed£ap, 15 

'EXed£ap Se Zyivvrjcrev tov M.a68dv, 
M.a69dv Se Zyivvrjcrev tov IaK(x>/3, 

'laKcu/3 Se Zyivvrjcrev tov 'Iaxr?7<£ toi/ avSpa Mapia?, e£ 16 
97s ZyevvrjOrj 'Irjcrovs 6 XeyojJLevos Xptcrros. 

Hcurai ow at yeyeai a7ro A/3paajJL ews AavelS yereai 17 
SeKarecrcrape?, /ecu, a7ro AauelS ews 717s jxeToiKecrias ~Ba/3v- 
Xcovos yeveai SeKarecrcrapeg, Kat ct7ro r/Js /xeroiKecrias Ba- 
/?vX(5vos ecos rov )(piCTTOv yevecu SeKarecrcrape?. 


18 TOY AE r [IH20Y] XPISTOY" 77 yiv&rvs ovtcds yv. Mvrj- xpt™0 'i W ov 
(Trcv9ei(T7]% rrjs jArjTpos avTOv Map tag tw 'Iwo"7y<^), irplv f] 
avveXOetv avrovq evpidr] iv yacrrpl e^ovaa e/c Tn/eu'/xaro? 

19 aytov. *I(o<Trj<j> Sc d av?}p avr^s, St'/catos wv /cat /xt) #c- 
Xan/ avrrjv SeLyjJLOLTLO-ai, ifiovXyjOrj XdOpa diroXvo-ai avT7]V. 

20 Tavra Se aurou iv6vjJLrj8£vTOS tSoi) ayyeXos "Kvptov kolt ovap 
i<f>avr] avTU) Xeycov 'Ia)0"7yc/> utds Aauct'8, /at; <f>oj3r}6fj<; irapa- 

Xa/Seiv r Maptav~ I rrjv ywat/ca o~ov, to yap iv avrrj ytvvrj- Mapia/A 

21 6ev €K TrvevjuLaTOS £o~tlv dyiov TC^CTat Se vlov koX /caXc- 
crcts to ovofia avrov 'Irjo-ovv, auros yap crcoo-ct rov Xaov 

22 auToO aVd Ta>v a/xaprtwv avrwv. Touto 8c oXop ycyo- 
vci/ tva TrXrjp(x)6r] ro p r rj6ev V7rd YLvpiov Sta tou irpo^rjrov 

23 'Iaoy h HAp0eNOC eN r^CTpi elei kai Te^eTAi yio.M, 
KAi K^AecoyciN to onoaaa <xyTof 'EmmanoyhA* 

24 o eo"Ttv /JL€0€piJir]V€v6jJL€VOV Metf HMOON 6 Oedc. Eyep#ct? 
Se [d] 'Ia)o-^c/> aVd tov UTrroi; iiroirjo-ev <os 7rpocrcrafci/ aura) 
o ayyeXos K.vpiov Kal rrapiXafiev rrjv ywat/<a avrov ■ 

25 /cat ou/c €ytVa>cr/cev aur?;i/ ea)? [ou] ctc/cci/ vioV /cat c/caXccrei' ^. 
to ovofxa avrov Irjaovv. 

1 Tov 8c 'I^croi; yevvrjOevTOS iv Bt^Xcc/x tt/s 'IovSatas 
cV 7]fJL€paLs HpwSou to{) /SacrtXeaJS, tSov /xayot a7ro ava- 

2 toXwi/ irapeyivovro cts 'lcpocrdAi;/xa Xcyorres IIou ccrrtj/ 
d Tenets /3acnX€vs r<2v 'IovSatW ; ctSo/xcv yap a^Tou toi/ 
ao"Tepa cV T77 avaroXrj Kal TjXOofxev irpco~KVvrjo~ai aura). 

3 Afcovcras 8c d /2ao-tXci)s 'HpwS^s irapd^Orj Kai Trdaa 

4 lepoo-oXvfxa per avrov, /cat owayayoov 7ravra5 tous ap^t- 
epets Kat ypa/x/xaTets tot; Xaou iirvvQav^ro Trap avrunr 



ttov 6 ^ptcrros ycvvarai. ot Se €t7rav avTio Ev B^Aeep, 5 
tPjs 'IovSaias* oi!to)5 yap yiypairraL Sta tov 7rpo<f>rJTOV 

Kai cy, BuGAeeM pn 'loyAA, 6 


eK cof r*p eleAeyceTAi HroyMeNOC, 

OCTIC TTOIMANG? TON Aaon moy ton Mcp^HA. 
Tore 'HpwS^s XdOpa /caAccras rous fxdyovs TjKpifidicrev ira- 7 
p clvt&v tov \povov tov <patvojxivov aoT€po5, koll 7T€//H^as 8 
avrovs ei5 B^Acep, eT-irev Hopev0€VT€S c^eracraTe aKpt- 
/3o)5 7T€pl rov 7rat8toir eVaV 8e €vpr]T€ aVayyctAaTe /xoc, 
O7ro)5 Kayo) lX9wv 7rpoo~KvvT]cru) aww, ot Se aKovcravTes 9 
tov /3ao"tAeo)5 l7rop€v6r](Tav, koll iSov 6 dcrTrjp bv elSov iv 
rrj avaroXfj irporjyev avrovs, €0)5 iXOojv icrraOrj cVavo) ov 
7]v to TraiStov. ISovres Se tov acrrcpa i^dprjaav ^apav p,c- 10 
yaXrjv o~<£d8pa. koll iXOovTts els Trjv olklolv eTSov to 7ratSt- « 
ov /xeTa Mapias t^s fxrjTpos clvtov, Kat 7T€owt€5 Trpoo~eKvvq- 
Ap. crav avTijo, Kai dvoi£avTe<z tovs Orjaavpovs avT&v Trpoo-rjvey- 

kolv glvt<2 Siopa, ^pvcrov Kat Xtj3avov ko1 ajAvpvav, Kat XP 7 ]' 12 
fJLCLTLcr6£vTe<; kolt ovap pur} dvaKajjaj/at 7rpo5 'HpwS^v St' aA- 
Xrjs 6Sov dvex<*>pr]o~av els Trjv ^copai/ clvtwv. Kva- 13 

Kar ovap ZQdvri x ixi P 7 ] cr( ^ VT0iV ^ glvtojv ISov dyyeXos "Kvptov r <^atVcTat /ca- 
r cvap 7(3 luio-rjcfi Xeywv Ey€p0€i5 7rapdXa(3e to 7ratSt'ov 
/cat t^i/ fjirjTepa olvtov kcli tfcevye els AlyviTTOv, kclI l<t6l 
e/cet €0)5 ctv ct7ra) cror /xeAAet yap 'HpwS^s tflTtiv to 7rat- 
Otov tou a7roAecrat avVo. o 8e iyepOels 7rapiXaj3e to 14 
Tratotov Kat tt^i/ fxrjTepa auroi; FfKro? Kat avc^cop7yo"cv ets 

AtyU7TTOI/, Kat ^V €K€t €0)5 T^5 TcAcVT^S 'HpwSoV U'a TrA^- 15 

3 El AirynToy eKAAec<\ ton yion Moy. Tore 16 

Hpo)8^5 tSojj/ OTt €V€7raLx6r) V7r6 twv /xayo)i/ iOvpLwOr) Xiav, 
/cat a7rocrTetAa5 avetAev 7rdVra5 T0O5 7rat8a5 tovs iv 1Byj6- 
Aeep, /cat €V 7racrt Tot5 optots avTrjs a7ro 8t€To{;5 Kat Karo)- 
Tepo), KaTa tov yj}° vov uy r ] K P^ w(jr€V ^apd twv p.dyu>v. Totc 17 


i7rXrjp(o6rj to prjOlv Sid 'lepefitov tov 7rpocf>r]TOV Acyorros 

18 4>CONH 6N 'PaMA HKOYC0H, 

kAayOmoc kai oAypMoc noAyc* 



19 TeXcvTtfcravTos Se tov 'Jlp&Sov iSov ayyeAos Kvpiov <£ai- 

20 verat kolt ovap tw 'Ia)cr>7<£ cV Aiyu7nra> Acycov Eyep#cis 
7rapdXa/3e to 7ratSiov /<ai rryv firjrepa avTOv /ecu iropvu- 
ov ct? y?Jv 'Io-pa^A, TedvrjKaaiv yap ol ZpfjTovvTCS tyjv 

21 \\/vyrjv tov iraihiov. 6 8c iyepOels TrapiXajBe to 7raiSiW 

22 Kac t^v fJLYjTepa avrov kcu elcrrjXOev cts yrjv IcrparjX. clkov- 
eras Sc ore 'Apx*Xao<; /JacriAeuec t^9 'louSaias avTt tou 
TraTpos avrov 'HpwSov l^ofirjOr] c/ccc a7reA0cti/* xprjfxaTL- 
o-^ets 8 e Kar ovap av€\<ipy]cr€V cts Ta /xcp'ty T^s TaAtAata?, 

23 /cat iXOwv KariOKYjo-ev cts 7rdAu> X^yofxivrjv Na£apeV, oVoos 
7rXr)p(i)6fj to prj0€V r Sid twv 7rpo<j>r]7wv on Na£copaios kAt;- 
Orja-erai. * 

1 EN AE TAIS HMEPAIS ckciWis TrapayiWai 'IwaV^s 

2 d ^Sa7TTto-T7/s KYjpvo-o-aiV iv tv) €pY]fx<^ ttj<s 'IorSaias Acyaw 

3 McTavociTC, r)yyiKCV yap rj /Jao-iAcid tcV ovpaiw. Ovtos 
yap corn/ d prjOels Sid Ho-aiov toi; 7rpo(f>rjTov AcyovTOS 


eyGeiAc noieiTe tac TpiBoyc AyTof. 

4 Autos Se d 'lwdvrjs ci^ci/ to cVSu/za auTou aVd Tpi^cav 
KafirjXov Kal £<jivrjv SepfJLaTtvrjv 7repi t^v 6crcf>vv avrov, 

5 "7 8e Tpo<f>r) rjv aurou aKpi'Ses kol /xe\i dyptov. To'tc 




i£eirop€vtTO 7rpds avrov I^pcaoXvfia koll Trdcra yj lov- 
8ata koX 7racra rj Trept^wpos tov lopSavov, koll e/3a7rrt- 6 
£,qvto iv ra> 'lopSdvrj 7TOTa/xa> t>7r avroO i£op.oXoyovpxvoi 
ras a/xaprtas airrcov. iSwv 8e 7roAA.oi>9 toJi/ ^aptcratan/ 7 
/cat SaSSouKtuW ip)(op<£VQVS eVt to jSaTTTio-fxa eT-irev av- 
Tots rcvvT^/xaTa e^tSvwj/, rts viriSeL^v vplv cj^vyelv aVo 
Tys fieWovo-rjs opyrjs; TroirjaaTe ovv Kapirov a$tov rrjs 8 
/xeravotas* koll pLrj $6£r)T€ Aeyetv iv carrots Ilarepa e^o/xev 9 
toV 'A/Jpaa/x, Aeyoo yap v/xu/ on Swarat o #eos ck tw 
XlOwv tovtqjv eyetpat reKva tw 'AjSpaap,. ^877 Se 97 d^ivq xa 
7rpos t>}^ pt£av twi/ 8eV8pa)V Ketrar 7raV o?i> SevSpov jxrj 

7TOLOVV KOLpTTOV KaXoV €KK07TT£Tat Kat €tS 7ri)p fidXXeTOLL. 

iyu> [lev vjJLas /3a7rrt£to cv i!Sart cis /xeraVotav 6 Se oVtcra) n 
/xou ep^d/xcvos tcr^porepos /xou Zcttlv, ov ovk et/xt t/cai/os 
toc v7ro8rjpaTa /^acrTacrai* airrcs i>/Aa? /^aTrrtcra iv ttvzv- 
fxoiTL ay to) Kat irvpi' ov to tvtvov iv rrj X 6t P^ ai/rov, 12 
Kat StaKa#aptet Tfyy aAxova ai;rov ? Kat crwafct tot/ ottoi/ 
airrou cts r^f d-TroOrjKrjv 1 \ to Sk dyypov KaraKaucrct 7ri;pt 
acr/JeWa). Tore TrapaytVcrat o I^o-ous a;ro t^s 13 

TaXtXat'a? eVt tov *Iop8dvrjv irpos tov 'Iojolvtjv tov /3a7TTt- 
o~9rjvaL vir avTOV. 6 8e Sl€K(o\v€V olvtov Xiyo)V 'Eyco 14 
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