Skip to main content

Full text of "Newton's London Journal of Arts and Sciences: Being Record of the Progress ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 


THE . V £1^ 



Slttg Kti2r ^^itnrt g ^ 





1 • • 

Original i^ommunitationi^ 










Honiron : 




»• . 

. 4 







I. Beny's Improved Steam Engine ; and on Disc Valvei; 
IL Dakeyne's Hydraulic Engine; Knowles's Axletrees; 

Salmon's Malt Kiln; Payne's Weighing Machine; 


Drake's Tiles 5 and Turner and Shand's Sugar Refining 
. III. Moore's Propelling Apparatus ; Higgins's Improved 
Carriage ; Mencke's Brick Machine ; aud Boase and 
Smith's Swe^ing Machine. 

IV. Roger'» Improved Stopp§rs f<yr Cables i Fowler's Im- 

provements in Circulating HotFluids ; Tippett's Steam 
Engine ; dnd Price's Heating Apparatus. 

V. Roger's Improved Anchors ; Rennoldson's Improved 

S|p|im Engine ; Llanos's Improved Bit ; and Fitz« 
maurice's Improved Pump. 

VI. Parish's Water Valve; Rhodes's Spinning Machine; 

Neale*« Propelling Machinery ; Parker's Carriage Drag; 
Manton's Gun Lock; Poolers Kneading Machinery; 
and Williams's Felting Machine. 

VII. Hancorne's Nail-making Machine; Forbes's Improved Stove 

Grate ; Philip's Distilling Apparatus ; and Nevill's 
Water Whf6el. 

VIII. Osier's Improved Chandelier ; Smith's Improved Rotary 

Engine; and Dickinson's Paper-cutting Machinery. 

IX. Brown's Improved Coach ; Sculthorp's Improved Axles ; 

Daniell's Improved Gig Mill ; Leeson's Improved 
Harness ; Winan's Improved Wheels.; Arnold's Liquor 
Gauge ; Rowland and McMillan's Pavings and Shaud's ' 
Distilling Apparatus. 

X. Wheatstone's Musical Instrument ; and Bock's Improved 

Embroidering Machinery. 



1 5030 


In closing the Ninth Volume of the London 
Journal of Arts and Sciences, the Proprie- 
tors beg respectfully to express their thanks for the 
steady support which this Work has received from 
its commencement, in the beginning of the year 
1 820 ; and for the permanent foundation upon which 
it is now established by a numerous and extended 
circle of scientific readers, as a standard work of 
reference for all improvements in the various branches 
of the Manufacturing Arts. 

Before the commencement of this Journal, the 
details of recently patented inventions were almost 
exclusively confined to the pages of oae respectable 
periodical publication. The Repertory of Arts, 
Manufactures, and Agriculture; a work 
comprehending a considerable range of valuable in- 
formation connected with those branches of science, 
but defective in one point, namely, that it embraced 
only a few, not the whole of the subjects for which 
Patents had been taken ; and consequently, failed in 
the very important feature of representing the actual 
state of improvement in the Mechanical Arts. 

It is known that the ** London Journal of Arts 
and Sciences," commenced with the professed object 
of giving to its readers full descriptions of the prin- 
ciples and details of every invention, for which 

the Royal Grant of Letters Patent, in Ei^land> 
tinder the Great Seal^ should be obtained. Arduous 
as the accomplishment of this task h^ been, and 
attended' with difficulties not anticipated, the Editcy: 
has the pleasure of saying, that in the preceding 
volumes of the "London Journal of Arts and 
Sciences" (consisting of fourteen, forming the first 
series, and nine the second series), will be found 
accurate descriptions of the principles and details of 
EVERY INVENTION, the specification of which has 
been inroUed in Chancery, for which a patent has 
been granted in this kingdom from the beginning of 
the year 1820 to 1830, — in the whole, one thousand 
three hundred and seventy patented inventions. 

The circumstance of associating the Repertory 
OF Arts with the London Journal of Arts, in 


consequence of purchasing the copyright of the for- 
mer work in 1832,* induced the Editor to commence 
the new Conjoined Series^ now in course of publi- 
cation, in which the same prominent and important 
feature, that of reporting the specification of every 

* A periodical, under the title of ^' Repertory of Patent In- 
ventions^" has been subsequently foisted upon the public by some 
anonymous Editor j as a continuation of the original work, but 
with which it has no connexion whaterer ; the entire copy- 
right of the Repertory, Firsts Second, and Third Series, having 
been sold by Mr. W. H. Wyatt to the proprietors of the " Lon» 
^on Journal of Arts/' 



new patent invention^ will be faithfully adhered to, in 
order to render the work a complete Journal and 
Repertory of all the improvements introduced into 
tke yariows branches of the Manufacturing Arts. 

For the purpose of making tlus Work more «x^ 
tensively useful as a magazine of reference, it is in- 
tended to publish, in an appendage to the current 
numbers, portions monthly, until complete, of an 
Analogical Index, arranging the subjects treated 
of throughout the twenty-three volumes of the 
" London Journal of Arts and Sciences," according 
to their respective classifications, denoAinations, and 


objects ; so that, in each of the various branches of 
the Arts and Manufactures, every inviipjtion which 
has been made the subject of patent right, during the 
preceding ten years, may be immediately referred to. 
As a further source of reference, after the comple- 
tion of the above-mentioned Index, it is intended to 
revise the early volumes of the Repertory of Arts y and 
to give, as a Retrospectof the Akts, an epitomised 
report of all the specifications contained therein 
with their original plates, and also such specifica- 
tions as have been omitted in that work, in order to 
form a complete catalogue of all the patent inven- 
tions, with their principles and objects, which have 
been granted in England from the commencement 
of the present century. 

I N D I; X 




Molina, a new musical instru- 
ment, Wheatstone's patent • 189 

Air, on diverging streams of, com- 
prested " - - 36 

■ its application for producing 
locomotion, Poole's patent - 184 

Anchors, improved cat-liead stop- 
pers for, Rogers's patent - 92 

improved construction of, 

Rogers's patent - - 94 

Axletrees for carriages, Knowles's 
patent - - - 24 

improvements for coaches, 
ScuUhorpe's patent - - 165 


"Bankers' cheques, improvements 
in the manufacture of, Joce- 
lyn's patent - - 176 

Baths, improvements in, Gooch's 
patent - - - 211 

Bits for horses, Llanos's patent - 102 

Boilers or generators of steam, 
Berry's patent - - 10 

Tippett's patent - 86 

Bricks, improvements in the ma- 
nufacture of, Mencke's patent- 65 

— improvements in machinery 
for making, Cowderoy's patent 221 


Carding, machinery for preparing 
wool, flax, &c., Ford's patent- 79 

Carriages, improvements in the 
construction of, Higgins's pa- 
tent - - - - 62 

■ for the conveyance of 
passengers and luggage on a 
principle of security, Quetin's 
patent - - - 181 

or coach for passengers 

and luggage, Brown's patent - 164 
Celestial Phenomena - - 56 

Chandeliers of glass and metal, 
an improved construction of. 
Osier's patent - - 158 

Cloths, woollen, improved ma- 
chinery for dressing, shearing, 
&c., Foxwelland Clark's patent 106 
— --— — Daniell's patent - 167 
CoiSb, an improved, for the con- 
veyance of passengers and lug- 
gage, Brown's patent - 164 


Cutting marble aad wood to or- 
namental patterns, Gibbs's pa- 
tent - - - - 209 

Distilling and rectifying appa- 
ratus, improvements in, Philip's 
patent * - - 138 

' Stein's patent - 148 

■ — ^ Shand's patent- 173 

-and evaporation, Shand's 

patent - - - 183 

Dough, improved machinery for 


patent - - - 129 

Drag or apparatus for retarding 

the progress of a carriage, 

Parker's patent - - 127 

Dressing and finishing woollen 

cloths, Daniell's patent - 167 

i Foxwell and Clark's 

patent - - - 106 


Embroidering or ornamenting 
cloths, stuffs, &c., machinery 
for, Bock's patent - - 192 


Felt, for improvements in the 
manufacture of, for covering 
the bottoms of ships, and other 
purposes, Williams's patent - 134 

Fire-arms, improvements in the 
construction of, Manton's pa- 
tent - - - 133 

■ Lawrence and Crund- 

well's patent - - - 206 

Flues for furnaces, stoves, boilers, 
&c., improved, Fraser's patent 147 

Friction, improvements for dimi- 
nishing that of wheeled car- 
riages, Winan's patent -171 


Harness, improvements in and 
additions to, Leeson and Toft's 
patent - - - 170 

Heat, improvements in the means 
of communicating, by means of 
fluids, Price's patent - - 68 

Hot water, improvements in the 
means of raising and circulat- 
ing, for domestic uses. Fowler's 
patent - - - 82" 

Hydraulic engine, for applying 
the power of water to work 
machinery, Dakeyne's patent 19 






Vneading dough, improved ma- 
chinery for, Poole's patent - 129 


Lathes, improvjements in turning, 
Fitsmaurice's patent - -103 

Liquors, apparatus for ascertain- 
ing the quality and measuring 
the quantity drawn, Arnold's 
patent - . - 177 


Machinery, oa the employment 
of, in manufactures - - 1 

Malt- kiln for drying grain, Sal 
mon's patent 

Mechanical agent to he con- 
nected to a steam or other en- 
gine. Smith's patent 

Meteorological Journal - 

Meter for measuring liquors, Ar- 
nold's patent - - . 

Mills, improvements in construct 
ing, M*Curdy's patent 

Music, an improved apparatus 
for turning the leavesof, Louis's 

Musical, improvements in, vrind 
instruments, Wheatstone's pa- 
tent - - - - 189 
instruments, improve- 

- 25 



- 204 

- 145 

ments on» Day and Munch's 

Nails, improved machinery for 
the^ manufacture of, Hancorne's 

Paper, improved machinery for 
making, Dickinson's patent - 
■ in single sheets, Dickin- 

son's patent . . . 

Patents Sealed in England 

■■•■ Scotland 


- 197 

- 135 




Patents, Reports of, Recent. 


ArAold, T., for an improved ma- 
chine or gauge, for denoting 
the quality and quantity of cer- 
tain fluids or spirituous liquors 177 

Barnard, £,, for improvemMatu in 
weaving and preparin^loth 107 

EX Ix 


Berry, M., for improvements in 
steam boilers and engines for 
propelling on land and water - 10 

Boase, J., Smith, T., for imi>rove^ 
ments in machinery for cleans- 
ing and watering streets, &c. - 67 

Brown, T., for an improved 
coach • - - 164 

Brandreth, T. S., for a new me- 
thod of applying animal power 
to machinery - » 187 

Bock, H., fu« improvements ^ 
machinery for embroidering or 
ornamenting cloths, &c. • 192 


Clark, F. and B., Foxwell, P., for 
improvements in machinery for 
shearing and finishing woollen 
and other cloths, &;c. - - 106 

Cochrane, W. E., for improve- 
ments on paddles for propell- 
ing boats, &c. - - 156 

Crundwell, J., Lawrence, D., for 
an apparatus to be applied to 
fire-arms, in place of locks - 206 

Cowderoy, J., for Improvements 
in machinery for making 
bricks - - -221 


Dakeyne, E. and J., for an hy- 
draulic engine for applying the 
power or pressure of water, 
steam, &:&, to the working of 
machinery, &c. •• - 19 

Daniell, J. C., for improvements 
in machinery, applicable to 
dressing woollen cloth - 167 

Day, F., Munch, A., for improve- 
ments on musical instruments 197 

Dick, M., for an improved rail- 
road, and method of propelling 
carriages thereon by machi- 
nery - - - 168 

Dickinson, G., for improvements 
in making paper by machinery 99 

Dickinson, J., for improvements 
in manufacturing paper, &c., 
into single sheets or pieces by 
machinery - - - 149 

Dodgson, W., for improvements 
in slilps' scuppers - 205 

Drake, F. H. N., for improve- 
ments in tiles for building . 28 


Parish, W«, for an improved me- .^ 
thod of cleansing out water- 
courses - ' - - 117 



- 103 

- 140 


Fitsmanrice, L. IL» ^r improve* 
ments <m ship's and other 

Fofbes, J,, for a new method of 
consuming smoke 

Ford, J., for improvements in ma* 
chinery for clearing, opening, 
scribbling, combing, slabbing, 
and spinning wool, carding and 
spinning cotton, flax, &e., and 
spjpning or twisting iaz, &c. 

Fowls', T., for improvements in 
or for raising and circulating 
hot water, hot air, &c. - 82 

Fexwell, P., Clark, W. andB.,for 
improvements in machinery, 
for shearing, cropping, and 
finishing woollen cloths, &c. - 106 

Fraser, J., for a new and im- 
proved arrangement of flues, 
to communicate with the va- 
rious parts of culinary appa- 
ratus - • - 147 


Gibbs, J., for improvements in 
machinery for cutting marble, 
wood, &c. - - - 209 

Gooch, W., for improvements in 
baths - - - 911 


Hancorne, £., for improvements 
in making nails - - 1.35 

Higgins, J. L., for improvements 
in wheel carriages - - 62 


Jooelyn, N., for improvements in 
manufacturing blank forms for 
bankers' cheques, &c. 

Josephs, £., for improvements on 
the wheels and axletrees, and 
other parts of carts, waggons, 

- 176 

- 125 


Knowles, M., for an improvement 
in axletrees for carriages - 24 


Lawrence, D., Cundwell, J., for 
an apparatus to be applied to 
fowling-pieces and other fire- 
arms, in place of locks - 206 

LHbios, v., for improvements en 
bits -. - - 102 

- 65 


Leesott^ W., for (mprovementi in 
harness andaaddlery « * 1^# 

Losh, W., for improvements in 
iron rails for rail-roads • 123 

Louis, A., for a mechanical voiti 
suviCo, to assut the players of 
music quickly to torn thdr 
leaves of mode hooks whilst 
playing - • 145 


Macdougall, D., for improve- 
ments on syringes, applicable 
to garden and other purposes - 21S 

Blanton, G. H., for an improve- 
ment in locks for fire-arms - 13S 

Mencke, W., for improvements 
in preparing materials formak 
ing bricks 

M'Curdy, J., for improvements 
in constructing mills and mill- 
stones for grinding - - 204 

Milne, J., for a machine for dress- 
ing stones used in masonry - 202 

McMillan, C, Roland, J., for a 
new mode of making street 
ways, &c. 

Moore, J., for improved machi- 
nery for propelling carriages, 
ships, &c. ; and apparatus for 
condensing the steam of steam 
engines - - . 

Munch, A., Day,F., for improve- 
ments on musical instruments 197 


Naish, F., for improvements in 
the manufacture of silks •819 

Neale, F., for a combination of 
machinery for propelling ves- 
sels - - - 

Nevill, J., for an improved ma« 
chine for obtaining mechanical 
power from falls and running 
streams of water 

- 174 


- 126 

- 141 


Osier, T., improvements in glass 
and metal chandeliers - 

• 1S8 


Parker, R., for an improved drag 
applicable to wheeled car- 
riages - - - 127 

Payne, B. M., for improvements 
on weighing machines - - 27 

Philip, .£. D., for an improved 
distilling apparatus • -138 



Poolc^ M*, for impMvcaaents B 
. the apparttut used: for extract* 
ing molasses or ^yrup from 
Siliftr ... -61 

Poole, H., for improVed machi- 
neryfor preparing or kneadiog 
dough - - - 129 

Poolci M., for im{«^ivement8 in 
raising or generating steam and 
air, and for the application 
thereof to locomollTe engines, 
&c. - - - - 184 

Price, H. C. and C. F., for an 
improvement upon certain ap- 
paratus for communicating heat 
by means of circulating of 
fluids - - - 68 


Quetin, L., for an improved ve- 
hicle - - * 181 


Bennoldson, G., for improve- 
ments in rotary steam engines 100 

Rhodes, J., for improvements in 
machinery for spinning and 
twisting worsted, &c. - 120 

Roger, W., for improvements in 
cat-head stoppers > . - 92 

Roger, W., for improvements in 
anchors - - - 94 

Roland, J., McMillan, C, for a 
new mode of making streets, 
ways, &c. * - - 174 

Rolfe; T. H,, for improvements 
upon the self*acting piano- 
forte - - - 215 


Salmon, T., for an improved malt- 
kin - - - - 25 

Sculthorpe, G. K., for improve- 
ments on axles and coach and 
other springs - - 1 65 

Shand) ^, Turner, E., for a new 
methdSbf purifying and white- 
ning sugars - - 60 

Shand, W., for improvements in 
distillation - - - 173 

Shand, W., for improvements in 
distillation and evaporation • 183 

Sharp, W., for improvements in 
machinery for spinning cotton, 
&c. - - - - 121 

Sinister, J., for improvements in 
weaving cloth, &c., and its ap- 
plication to the making o^ 
fetftys, &c. ' - • - 147 


Smith, T., Boaie, #«, for improve- 
ments in machinery for dleaas- 
ing and watering streets, &c. • %J 

Smith> T., for an improved piece 
of machinery, which, combined ^l^ 
with steam or other engines, 
will effect an improvement in 
each - - - 152 

Stein, R., for improvements in 
disdliation « - - 142 

Stewart, J., for improvements 4||- 
piano-fortes » - « 319 


Tippett, T., for Improvements 
in the construction and mode 
of working engines with steam 
and air in the boiler, and its 
application to a new method 
of propelling vessels - - 86 

Torrens, R., for an apparatus for 
communicaUng power and mo- 
tion - - - - 2C0 

Turner, E., Shaad, W., for a new 
method of purifying and white- 
ning sugars • - 60 

Tyler, H., for improvements in 
water-closets - - 213 


Wheatstone, C, for improve- 
BHBnts in wind musical instru- 
ments - - . 189 

Williams, T. R., for improve- 
ments in manufacturing felt ap- 
plicable to covering the bottoms 
of vessels, &c. - - 134 

Winans, R., for improvements in 
diminishing friction in wheeled 
carriages used on rail-roads - 171 


Patterns In wood or marble, im- 
proved machinery for cutting, 
Gibbs's patent - - - 289 

Paving, improvements in con* 
structing streets or carriage 
ways, Roland and M'Millan's 
patent - - - 174 

Piano-fottes, improvements on 
self-adRg, Rolfe's patent - 215 

— — — improvements in, 

Stewart's patent - - 2 Id 

Power, engine for exerting by 
means of water, Dakeyne's 
patent - - - 19 

-■ Neville's patent - 141 




Power, anew mcthUdfC applying, 
Brandreth's patent - - 187 

, I improved machinery for 

communicating, and motion^ 
Vorrens's patent - - 200 

Propelling, improvements in ma- 
chinery for, ships, boats, &c., 
Moore's patent - - 57 

, Neale's patent - 126 

. improvements in pad^ 

dim for, Cochrane's patent - 156 

fumps, improvementl in ships 
and other8,Fitzmattilce's patent 103 


Rail-roads, improvements in the 
formation of, Losh's patent - 123 

■ — - an improved, and 
propelling carriages thereon, 
Dick's patent - - 168 

for diminishing the 

friction of carriages thereon, 
Winan's patent - - ^'1 

Roads and streets, improved mode 
of constructing the pavements 
of, Roland and McMillan's 
patent - - - 174 

. machinery for 

scraping and cleansing^ Boase 
and Smith's patent - - 67 


Shearing or cropping the pile of 
woollen cloth, improved ma- 
chinery for,Foxwell and Clark's 
patent - - - 106 

Sheathing ships' bottoms, Wil- 
liams's patent - - 134 

Ships' scuppersjimprovements in, 
Dedgson's patent - - 205 

Silk, improved manufacture of, 
mixed with other articles, 
Naish's patent - - 219 

Smoke, for an improved method 
of, burning and consuming, 
Forbes's patent - - 140 

Spinning, worsted yarns, Rhodes's 
patent - - - 120 

, — and rovingcotton, silk, 

&c.. Sharp's patent - - 121 

— • and scribbling sil^flax, 

and other materials, Forlfi pa- 
tent - - - 79 

Springs, for coaches, &c., im- 
proved, Sculthorpe's patent - 165 

Stays and other articles of dress, 
improved manufacture of, Si- 
pister's patent - ■ 146 

Ste4pboilerf or* generators, im- 
provements in, Berry's patent 10 
. carriages, Report of the 

House of Commons - li|109 

■ engine6,improvementi la, 
Tippett's patent - - 86 

■ Poole'p patent • 184 
— — r^itary, Rennold* 

son's patent • - 100 

_.» mechanical agent 

for. Smith's patent - - 152 

Stones, improved machine for 
dressing, Milne's patent - 202 

Streets, improved method of 
scraping and cleansing, Bease 
and Smith's patent - - 67 

< improved method of p»» 

ving, Roland and McMillan's 
patent - - - 174 

Sugar, improvements in purifying 
and whitening. Turner and 
Shand's patent - - 60 

■ improvements in extract- 

ing molasses from, Poole's pa- 
tent - - - - 61 

Syringes, improvements in, Mac- 
dougall's patent - - 218 


Tiles for buildings, an improved 
construction of, Drake's patent 26 


Valves, peculiar phenomenon of 
high pressure, steam, or con- 
densed air - - 36 


Water-closets, improved method 
of constructing, Tyler's patent 213 

Water- courses, improved method 
of cleaning/ Parish's patent -117 

Water-falls, improved machinery 
for obtaining the power of, 
Nevill's patent - ^ - 141 

Weaving, improvements in ma- 
chinery for, Barnard's pat»it - 107 

WeighinfT machines, improve- 
ments in, Payne's patent - 27 

Wheeled carriages, improvements 
in the construction of,Higgins'8 
patent - - - 62 

Wheels for carts, &c., improve- 
ments in, Josephs' patent - 125 

■ diminishing the friction 

in, Winan's patent - - 174 

Woollen cloths, improvements in 
machiiwry for dressing, Da^ 
nlell's patent - - - 167 



No. XLIX. 


#risittal Communteations. 

On the EMrLOYMENT OF Machinery. 

To the Editor of the London Journal of Arts, &c. 

SiR^-^Tt istebe regfretted that the question of advantage or 
higtinryTiftmlting from the useof machinery, still continues to 
divide the opinion of may classes of persons employed in 
iHanufacftare. Being anxious to remove any unfavourable 
fMpreiisions^ fvbiqh, in some unthinking minds, may have 
arisen from the partial disciEtssion of this subject, I venture 
to take a^n opportunity of 'offering you a few simple and 
obvious thoughts on a question of such vital importance 
to the 4nteres1^ ^of the whole community. 

ImpeUed by ifaematural love of association, men in the 
Mrly «ges of the world, congregated together, and thus 
laid the foundation of that social edifice, which time, Ia« 
bour, and art, has subsequently erected, improved, and 

Vol. IX. Second Sbribs. b 

2 Original Communications. 

In the first formation of society, we must suppose men's 
wants were few; and from the difficulty of satisfying even 
the demands of necessity, they were induced to make 
common cause ; each bringing together such subsistence 
as he could collect, and exchanging his little surplus with 
his companions, for any part of their stores, which he might 
desire to share, and of which they have more than they 
can immediately consume. Thus commences that system 
of barter, or exchange, which, carried on in a more 
extended scale, acquires the name of commerce. 

The bare and actual necessaries of savage life we have 
supposed to be but few ; and in general they are such as 
the bountiful hand of nature gratuitously supplies, viz. 
fruits, roots, herbs, and water. But for desiring man 
these are not long sufficient. He sees the beasts of prey 
feeding upon the small and timid animals around him, and 
naturally concludes that had he skill to catch them, they 
would likewise furnish him wholesome and agreeable 
food. To acquire such means first awakens his ingenuity ; 
and the rude pleasures of the chace soon engage his 
arrested attention. Success crowns his endeavours ; and 
he not only thus obtains food, but warm and substantial 
clothing. In a gradual progression towards a state of 
civilization, man's cunning or ingenuity furnishes him with 
various means to increase the productive power of his 
labour, and every little aid thus derived, awakens in him 
new desires, and suggests further improvements to his 
active mind. 

Every accession of power, beyond that bodily strength 
with which nature has blessed us, is obtained alone by 
combinations of mechanical powers, and every means by 
which such accession of power is converted to useful 
purposes, is a machine. 

We will now suppose man to be in possession, not only 

On the Employment of Machinery, 3 

of the bare necessaries of life, such as food and covering* 
but of even some of the ruder luxuries, which he obtains 
only by hard and incessant labour for six hours per day. 
To be more easy and explicit, we will limit the number 
of individuals, who have agreed to make common cause 
or have entered into a state of society, to one hundred : 
fifty males and fifty females ; all which number of males 
are to be actively employed in providing for their own 
wants, and in contributing their respective shares to satisfy 
the wants of their companions. After the six hours labour 
has been performed by each, their remaining eighteen 
hours may be passed in CBSt, in idleness, or sport. One 
of the fifty, naturally more ingenious than the others, con- 
trives, by the assistance of such uncouth implements as he 
can frame, to render his labour more productive, or to 
obtain the same result from his five hours labour per day, that 
the others obtain from their six. All eagerly copy his inven- 
tion, and possess themselves of similar means; so that 
shortly the whole fifty are required to labour but five 
hours per day, to provide the same quantity of subsistence 
that previously occupied them six hours in procuring- 
One little improvement suggests another, one rude inven- 
tion calls forth further ingenuity, so that in a short time 
the whole fifty individuals can be more plentifully and 
variously supplied with the necessaries of life by one hour's 
daily labour, than they could at first by six hours severe 

Here it may be objected, machinery does not secure si- 
similar advantages to us; for universal practice is op- 
posed to such simple theory. I answer, that its operation 
as here shown is purposely divested of all the accumu- 
lated encumbrances which burden a progressive state of 
society, and which obscure the effects of machinery upon 
industry through the long labrynth of the divisions and 

4 Original Communicaiions., 

subdivisions of labour ; and eontt^d, that the advaii-ts^ges 
which we derive from machinery^ are equally greats and 
far greater in amount^ than those above shown ; but admit, 
that they are not so palpably obvious to every mind^ 
owing to the increased complexity of the. soi^al. states 

We resume our subject, supposing that the fifty bmlIc 
individuals, by aid of the invention of their ing^uiiy^ 
are obliged to labour but one hour per day to provide 
themselves, and their companions, with all the ixecessarws 
of life : a reduction of five hours from the original: 
amount of their time of labour. But this reduction will not 
long continue ; their numbers increase ; each female becomes 
the mother of a child ; and shortly, still further additions 
are made to the rising community During the early and 
tender years of childhood, the £athers must provide their 
ofikpring with subsiiftence, and until the children are able 
to labour for themselves, their paieA<t'« toil W/ill be thus 
ificteased (we will say) from one hour, to two hours pef 
day. The assistance and improvements g£ ari may have 
again reduced their time jof labour to the fifty mw, fisom 
two hours tc^ one hour and a half per day ; when one of 
their numbers becomes studious and wishes to devote him- 
self to thet service of religion. To assist him in his 
priestly duties, we will suppose that four others^ who 
have also become drones under the effect of his example^ 
join him in this new and sacred callipg. Here U tjhe pro* 
ductive power of five individuals to be swept from t^he 
aceount> who with their wives and childiren, are now to 
be supported^in a state of unproductive inaction, by tibe 
additional labour of the remaining forty-five. Thi^, un- 
der tbe^ slow ajid gradual iqapro^ements of the ingenuity 
of uncultivated minds, w,ill agaii», inQi;ea$e to the forty- 
five, their time of laboiir, froia one hour and a half, to 
three hours per diay» 

On the EmplQyment of Machinery. 5 

. Wlfirilst enjoytog the pl^sure^ of the cb^jce, aApth^ p^ 
the re[ivi(Uung^ foi^ty-^five dispovers^ th^t irsk $oal^ disAo^ 
p^rt. of %\kw ^Oi^^try^ tJHi^re 9re niungijbe«$ of otb^r iudivi 
4ual9i wJkQ bavc^ Uk^U«^ fojcia^d themselves intQ ^ rivi^l 
sooietyy whipb may be^ liki^ly to- affect their iotereatt* 
These iviu&t be mmediately/ ^oqu^red^ aod ^iaper^ed. 
Fifteen .qf their ablest men are quickly chosen to set OiVit 
on a murdei^ous expedition of wa^^ leaving their w^es 
and ehildre^ to the care of the reoxaiiuwg' thirty. Of 
the chosen fi$lifien>, fivie^ perh^'PS^. Dev«»T r^liurii;, and of the 
te^> i9thQ> survive^ one half have acqw^d 4^ distaste to re^ 
vert to ^he former drudgery of l^our^ aiM^emj)lQy ti^fmn 
selves for the future, in making M^^eapPD^s of de£enee^ am4 
in preserving order a^d discipline tl^QugliiONA their liable 
don^ais^s, So that; thi]i;y-fivet ^jjq uqw c^a^n^ieUed to per- 
fbrn^ the labour of the fifty> i^ providing sub3istenqei |i^ 
clothing for themselves^ the^ir companions, th;eir wiyes^, 
their widows^ 9iVA their gradually increasing comm(anity. 
Noiwith^i^ndiDg their ingenuity, their invention^, sgid the 
improvements of art^ this diminution, in the number of 
prod^^i^c labourers, will increase the totaj amo.unt ^f 
their time of labour to the industriq^s thi];ty-pfive» fr<pjpa 
three houtra, to five hours per day. 

We will naw suppose, as a very natural consequence, 
that five of the individuals, who had ret urn^ed from their 
hostile expeddtion, and had resumed their Somkw occupa^ 
tion as labourers, being desirous of noyc^lty,^ and dissi^ 
pated by a love of roving, are induced t,9 attempt the 
construction o;f a. vessel, in which th^y i^ay e?(plore the 
banks of the riveri^, and extend their incursions along the 
coastis of the sea. Here are five more to be taken from 
the number of productive laboujpers, as some tioii^ <PM%t 
necejisarily elapse before their ve^s^el can be servioe9.bIy 
employed ; for at first, it can only serve %Q gratify a res^-" 
less curiosity. So that only thirty are now left to pro- 

6 Original Communications. 

duce subsistence for themselves, the remaining fifteen 
males, fifty females, and the whole of their families. 

To perform this without the aid of their simple ma^ 
ehinery would be impossible. Even with the assistance 
of such implements as their. ingenuity may have furnished 
them, with the gradual improvementof those implements, 
and with the invention of new ones, the thirty industrious, 
and productive labourers, would be worse off than ever, 
being now obliged to work not only five hours, but seven 
hours per day, for the maintenance of their fifteen surviving 
companions, who are less productively, or quite unpro- 
ductively employed, and for the maintenance of their 
wives, widows, and children. 

During this period, some of fhe younger members of 
the community would have arrived at years of sufficient 
maturity to render them also serviceable, by adding their 
little stock of labour to the general amount. This 
would in time lessen the burden of the industrious thirty, 
provided their families suffered no farther increase; but 
otherwise, the accession of the labour of the elder chil- 
dren would no more than counterbalance (he increased 
demands occasioned by their still more rapidly increasing 
numbers. As they continued to increase in numbers, and 
as those numbers grew up into manhood, it would be ne- 
cessary for the preservation of peace, good order,and pro- 
per subordination, to select some head or chief to be in- 
vested with suitable authority. Then first commences the 
unavoidable burdens of government. All such additions 
to the unproductive classes will naturally take place in 
every advancing society, each of which, proportionately 
reduces the atnount and the reward of productive labour. 
To render this diminution less apparent and oppressive, 
further inventions, more efficient machinery, must be 
brought inty action. 

On the Employment of Machinery, 7 

Contributions must now be made from the common 
stock to support their government in becoming honour 
and dignity, however simple it may be in form, and inex- 
pensive in operation. To produce a sufficient surplus to 
defray the expenses of their government, would oblige 
the industrious individuals in the community to labour 
nine hours, instead of seven hours per day. 

They will now no longer continue satisfied to make com- 
mon cause without apportioning out the already cultivated 
lands^ and each taking his share under his own immediate 
protection, by increased industry creates a surplus stock, 
which in time, renders him wealthy and independent of 
further labour. Next, laws must be framed for the preser- 
vation and security of their respective properties ; and 
some individuals, more subtle than the rest, after fram- 
ing such laws, will pretend to devote their time to main- 
tain, defend, and explain them. Here again another 
unproductive class of persons spring up, and throw them- 
selves a burden on the industry of the remainder. These 
will shortly render it necessary for the hard-working la- 
bourers to toir ten hours per day. As society proceeds 
in its more complicated form, various other classes of in* 
dolent consumers swell the numbers of the community ; 
such as those which prepare ornaments to please the eye, 
provide amusements to gratify the ear, and delicacies 
to pamper the taste ; but these individuals are more im* 
mediately lost sight of in the throng and bustle of the 
busy crowd ; tliough like noxious vermin, they still con- 
tinue to sap the roots of industry, and undermine every 
foundation of wealth, for they must all be supported out 
of the produce of the labour of industry. 

These constant drawbacks upon the improvement of 
our condition, these incessant reductions of the reward of 
industry, shortly compel the hard working, industrious la- 

S Original Communications . 

boiirers of the country, to toil, not only ten, bot twelve 
and thh-teen h^&ufs per day^ notwithstandiag the introdoc- 
tioo, and eOtitinaed intiproTemeni xif machinery, and t4ie 
con8e<}uent increase of tii<e p^oducti^e (>oWer of labour. 

To tra^e out all the adv^ntatj^eous effects of macbinety 
Iht^Vigh fbe different raMifications and complexities of <a 
risen society, — to bsc^if^iite the extekit of assistance ^i^ 
forded %y machinery "to tfie productive labour of linan^-^to 
«nuili^n5ite the atu'oatot of blessing which k confers upoA 
an indf^Hsed manCifadturing population, would be utterly 
impossible ; but from the brief and hasty sbH^ch here 
giv^n^ irtiicb endeavours to firhow the opemtion o( 'ma- 
chitiety upon a rising society, I hope 4t ^ill be seisn that 
machinery^ instead Of b*eing iiijurious, alone enables tfstd 
b^M'^ill tfa^ 'l^0tig ai3Cumulated burdens of our community^ 
by the facilities ilt affbrds to ou¥ labour 9isA industry in car^- 
rying on the great ^taA indispensable work of production. 

Here then ^i^e see an infant society, whose nUtnbeYs, 
limited to few, for the sake of perspicuity, are enabled, 
by their rude efforts of natural ingenuity^ to obtain all the 
necessaries of life, and that, by the trifling exertioa of 
one hour's daily labour ; yet, as this society farther ad- 
vances t6a state of inaturity, itt^drfeiasing in ingewtiity snd 
fikiU, s^nd assisted mot^ and more by telachitiery atid art, 
its me'mbers are gradually reduced to a state of greater 
hardship and severer toil. How much more heavily does 
this toil and hardship fall on the labour of a matured so^ 
ciety, where not bnly the necessaries of life, but innumer- 
able comforts and luxuries are demanded ; where compe- 
titioti has forfeied itself into every branch of produotidn ; 
and where the endless burdens of increased taxes are to 
be letied from the produce of the industrious, for the 
ttiaintentfnfefe of the likewise increasing numbers of the 
idle and tltoprbductive. Ought we to blame machinery as 

On the Employment of Machinery, 9 

& source of unparalleled injury, when by the increase 
which it effects in the productive power of labour> it alone 
enablei us to bear so many burdens, and to maintain so 
many indolent classes of consumers. If any odium can 
be cast upon machinery, it must arise from its having* fur- 
nished us with the means of supporting the numerous 
burdens imposed upon the labour and industry of the na- 
tion by these unprofitable idlers. To rid our country and 
community of the many classes which belong to the 
drones of our hive of industry, is impossible, many of 
whom furnish those luxuries which we^ by habit, have 
now been used to call the indispensible necessaries of life; 
and however much the introduction and employment of ma- 
chinery may have given life, and added numbers, to these 
unwelcome inmates, we ought, knowing our inability to 
eject them, to feel thankful and grateful to the system which 
enables us to support them without total immediate ruin 
to all. 

Besides the impossibility of providing even the bare 
bare necessaries of life for a pressing population, with- 
out the aid of machinery, how let me ask is any improve- 
ment to be ever effected in our social condition, by the 
addition of conveniences, comforts, and luxuries, unless 
facilities be afforded by ingenuity and skill, to render la- 
bour more productive, and to increase the amount of 
consumable articles beyond what unassisted nature could 
effect. Little do they " who clamour against machinery'* 
consider that every comfort and luxury they enjoy, is 
secured to them (only) by the gratuitous assistance of 
what they deprecate as ruinous to the best interests of 
the community. In short were we blind enough to allow 
their views of the abolition of machinery to be carried 
into effect, from being wealthy, powerful, and civilized as 
a nation, we should irremediably fall at once into, a skite 

Vol. IX. — Sbgond Sertvs. c 

10 Recent Patents. 

of the most abject poverty, and weakness, and soon re* 
lapse into barbarism. As well might the bees of a well 
stored hive (ear off the wings which had borne them 
from flower to flower, collecting honey, merely because 
some worthless drones idly and unprofitably consumed the 
produce cf their toil, and thus increased their total 
amount of labour necessary to replenish the empty cells. 

Trobridge, Wilts, Yours, 

Feb. 1832. 1. A. 

^ttmt patents. 

To Miles Berry, of the Office for Patents, Chancery 
Lane, in the parish of iSt. Andrew Holborn^ in the 
county of Middlesex, engineer and mechanical drafts- 
man, in consequence of a communication made to him 
by Monsieur Jean Nicholas Senechal, ingenieur, des 
ponts et chausses, residing at Versailles, in the king- 
dom of France, for an invention or discovery of 
certain improvements in the boilers or generators of 
steam and other vapour ; and in engines to be worked 
by steam or vapour, for propelling or actuating ma^ 
chinery on lafid, and boats, vessels or other floating 
bodies on water ; and also in the mode of condense 
ing such steam or vapour. — [Sealed 28th September, 

The subjects of this Patent, among other ingenious sug- 
gestions, present two striking novelties viz. a self re- 
gulating mode of abstracting heat from a boiler, in the 
event of the steam rising in temperature or pressure 
beyond that at which it is intended to be worked ; and 
also a mode of effecting the condensation of the educ- 
tion steam, without employing an air pump ; by leading* 

Berry's, for ImpU, in Steam, ^c. 11 

it through tubes into boxes connected with the paddle 
wheels of a boat^ or the fly wheel of a Iai)d engine, 
which in rerolving through water and air^ sufficiently 
refrigerates the vapour to produce a vacuum in the work- 
ing cylinder. The inventor of these improvements is 
Monsieur Galy Cazalat, formerly of the School of Arts, 
now Professor of Mathematical and Physical Science, 
at the Royal College of Versailles in France. The 
following is the substance of the specification: — 

These improvements in the boilers or generators of 
steam and other vapours, and in the engines to be worked 
by steam or vapour, consist in the following general 
features : — First, in connecting certain parts of a boiler 
to a bath containing a dense fluid, by which a portion of 
heat may he absorbed, from the steam if accidentally raised 
above a given pressure, and thereby the possibility of 
explosion prevented, without the necessity of a single 
valve in connection with the boiler ; and which absorption 
expands the dense fluid, and by that means causes a 
mechanical action to take place, which removes the fire- 
grate or furnace, and hence suppresses the quantity of 
heat applied to the boiler. Secondly, in the peculiar 
arrangement and construction of certain parts of the 
engine, viz. the erank shafts which are made hollow, 
for the purpose of carrying away the eduction vapour to 
the condensers : by which the air pumps may be partially 
if not entirely dispensed with ; and the adaptation of 
tubes which convey the condensed vapour away from the 
axle into the receiver below. Thirdly, in the construc- 
tion of a moveable condenser, in connection with, or 
forming part of the paddle wheel of a marine — or fly 
, wheel of a land engine : by the rapid motion of which 
through the water and air, the cooling and condensation 
of the vapour is efiected. 

12 Recent Patents. 

In plate 1. %. 1^ is a longitudinal section of the tubes 
and chambers constituting the boiler or generator, and ita 
flues ; fig. 2, is a transverse section of the same ; a, B^ Cj 
are cylindrical tubes placed lougitudinaliy, and intended 
to contain water, or other liquid from which steam or 
elastic vapour is to be generated. These longitudinal 
tubes are connected together by vertical tubes, in any 
convenient way, and communicate through the necks, a 
and b, with a larger cylindrical tube d, placed iongitudi* 
nally above. The system of tubes a, b, c. which may be 
otherwise arranged and connected, is enclosed within a 
tight casing of iron, or other fit material, formed as a 
boiX E, E, E. This box is divided into passages for flues 
by flanges or partitions extending from the sfides of the 
tubes, and attached to the case ; and through these flues 
the flames, vapour, and smoke from the furnace f, passes 
in the directions shewn by the arrows ; and, after beating 
the tubes, the smoke or vapour ultimately escapes at the 
chimney o. The whole of these tubes, with their furnace 
and flues, are encompassed by an outer vessel of iron, 
or other suitable material, h, h, h,h, open at top, which 
forms another boiler, intended to be filled with water, 
containing the dense fluid, a solution (if potash in 
water. The top of this liquor is to be covered with a 
layer of tallow or oil, in order to prevent the liquor eva- 
porating before it becomes heated to the boiling point, 
which would not take place until its temperature is raised 
to 284 of Fahrenheit's thermometer. On the top of this 
liquor a flat board or cover i, i, floats, and ascends or 
descends as the fluid becomes expanded or contracted 
by variations in its temperature. The tubes a, b, c, are 
to be filled with pure water, which has been exhausted of 
its air ; and this water must also rise or flow through the 
necks a, and 6, into the upper tube d, until it has occu« 


Berry^SyfoT Impts» in Steam, ^c, IS 

pied about one»sixth of that tube's capacity. A force or 
injecting pump may be employed to effect this object. 
The atmospheric air> to support combustion in the far«- 
naqe F> is admitted through a door k, by means of which 
the flames and heated vapours are made to pass through 
the flues^ and round the water tubes as before described. 
The steam generated by these means rises from the seve- 
ral tubes into the upper one d^ and proceeds from thence 
through the small tube l, to the working cylinder of an 
engine placed near it. If it should happen that the tem- 
perature of the steam in the generator at any time rises 
too high, the solution of potash in the outer vessel which 
surrounds the tube D, will absorb a portion of the heiit> 
and it will continue so to do until the solution begins to 
boil^ which will take place at a temperature of 2849 
Fahrenheit. The water in the outer vessel will theOi by 
evaporating/ carry off the surplus heat, and leave thi^ 
solution still at a temperature of 284^ Fah. ; the conse^ 
quence of which is, that if the boiler D^ be made capable 
of resisting the force of the working steam (say 320^ of 
Fahrenheit), the bursting of the boiler will be physically 


it is, nevertheless, advisable at all times to prevent the 

saturated water (which is termed preservative liquor) 

from boiling. To this intent the fire grate F, is mounted 

upon small wheels or pulleys, which roll upon a rail way 

frame, formed by two parfallel rods m, bearing as levers 

upon a knife-edged fulcrum n, behind the furnace ; and 

at the front supported by a perpendicular chain o, 

attached to the end of a long lever p, placed above the 

boiler. The fire grate, by these means, stands upon an 

inclined plane, the lowest part of which is in front, as 

shewn at fig. 1. But in the event of the saturated fluid 

becoming heated beyond the temperature of 266o Fah. 

(at which point it begins to dilate considerably) it will. 

14 Recent PtUenis. 

by its expansive force, raise the floating' board or cover 
I, I, This board is connected by a rod or arm q» to the 
lever, p ; and, consequently, in rising moves the lever 
p, upon its fulcrum joint in the standard r ; this move- 
ment of the lever lifts the chain o, and raises the front 
part of the inclined plane m, so as to cause the fire grate 
to run back by its own gravity into the closed space 
under the boiler as far as the stop s. The flame of the 
furnace will, in this situation, quickly die away, and the 
combustion consequently decrease. As the working 
steam becomes consumed, the temperature which had 
been raised will now diminish, the preservative liquor 
will contract again, and the float i, and lever p, will 
descend, and lower the rods, so as to bring the fire grate 
back to its former position. 

The boiler for a large engine is composed of several 
sets of tubes, arranged as above, and placed one by side 
the other; and. the small chimneys all lead into one 
large chimney. The several sets of boiler tubes cummu- 
nicate with each other by a lateral tube, at T, or in 
any other convenient situation ; and into this lateral tube 
the pump forces the water or liquid from which the 
steam or vapour is to be generated. The several steam 
tubes D, are likewise connected together, and lead to one 
common steam chamber; and lastly, a similar pipe is 
intended to form a communication between the several 
vessels or troughs of preventive liquor, which are at first 
filled by a pump adapted in any convenient way ; and 
by the same means they may be replenished, occasion- 
ally, with water, when it is found to have diminished its 
volume by evaporation through the superincumbent layer 
of tallow or oil. 

By the above described arrangement of apparatus, it 
has been found perfectly practicable and safe to employ 
spirits of different kinds, either alone or mixed wiih water. 

Berry'' s, for Impts, in Steam, ^c. 15 

for the purpose of generating an elastic viapour^ capable 
of working an engine in the same way that steam would 
be employed. Either, for instance^ may be used in lieu 
of water ; by lowering the level of the water in the tube 
D^ to about one tenth of its capacity, and then injecting, 
by means of the pump, about another tenth of either. 
The preservative liquor, in this case, may be pure water, 
or water saturated with any kind of salt, will do equally 
as well as potash ; but a superincumbent surface of oil or 
tallow must, in all cases, cover the preservative liquor, to 
prevent evaporation. 

The novel arrangement of the engine is repre- 
sented, with all its parts at fig. 3, one of the working 
cylinders, with its appendages, being shewn in section, 
and the other in its external appearance. These working 
cylinders a, a, are both fixed upon a strong metallic chest 
B, B, which is desig^ned to be a reservoir, from which the 
pumps feed. A double beam c, c, mounted upon an axle at 
D, vibrates, one on each side, the engines being between > 
as shewn in the plan view, fig. 4. The two piston rods 
are connected to the beams, near the ends, by lateral 
rods E, E, and, of consequence, the piston in one cylinder 
ascends, while that in the other cylinder descends. At 
the extremities of the beams, the crank rods g, o, are 
attached by swivel joints, and the crank shafts are made 
hollow, for the purpose of effecting a condensation of the 
eduction steam, in away that will be hereafter explained. 

The crank shafts turn in bearings at h, h, h, or in any 
other convenient situations, and their extremities are con- 
nected to the stationary sockets i, i, by union joints at K^ 
K ; the piston rods are guided by pulleys L, l, running up 
and down between the standards m, m, fixed on the tops 
of the working cylinders, and to the frames or carriages 
of these pulleys, the upper ends of the lateral rods B, e, 
are attached. The feeding pumps n, n, are worked by 

16 Recent Patents, 

rods connected to the beaTn8 at x, x, and the slide valves 
are worked by excentrics o, o^ upon the crank shaft. 

The steam or vapour generated in the boiler^ either in 
the way above described or by ordinary means^ being 
conveyed by a pipe, enters the steam box at p^ and being 
inducted through the aperture a, into the working 
cy Under > depresses the piston ; at the same time the educ- 
tion steam from the opposite side of the piston passes 
from the aperture 6, into the recess of the slide valve Q, 
and from thence through a passage c, on the side of the 
cylinder, by a pipe to the stationary sockets of the hol- 
low crank axle i^ i, before described^ through which the 
condensation is affected. 

As it may be advantageous to allow the steam or va- 
pour to work by expansion^ the sliding valve in that case 
must be constructed accordingly, and may be made upon 
any of the plans in common use. 

To prevent^ as much as possible^ the eduction steam or 
vapour from becoming chilled while working, the cy- 
linder is enclosed within a jacket or case r, r, filled with 
a dense fluids consisting of a solution of potash or other 
salt. This fluid may be heated by mean$ of a connec- 
tion with the boiler ; — supposing a part of one of the sets 
of tubes described above (of which several sets constitute 
the complete boiler) to be disconnected from the othitr sets 
of tubes, for the purpose of supplying this dense fluid in 
a heated state to the jacket or the engine. 

In this individual boiler^ or rather portion of the general 
boiler, the communication of the upper tube d, and the 
middle tube ^, with the other tubes a^ and c, is cut 
off; these last mentioned tubes are then filled with the 
dense fluid which flows from thence into the jacket^ fill- 
ing it also nearly to the top^ and surrounding the workifig 
cylinder^ on the surface of which there must be a coating or 
layer of oil or tallow, to prevent the evaporation of the 
water, before the temperature of the dense fluid is raised 

Berry's, for Impts, in Steam, S^c, IT 

to the boiling point. This oil or tallow floaiiug at the 
top, mU at the same time grease the rods of the 
piston aofl of the sliding valve. 

The rubbing surface of the piston is formed of tempered 
steely hent into the form of hoops, the ends of which 
are ujoited by a piece of leather, which completes or 
closes the circles, thus allowing them to expand or con- 
tract. These metallic hoops or circles are attached at the 
upper and lower edges, to the circumferences of two 
leather disks, nailed upon a wooden disk of convenient 
thickness, which occupies the solid central part of the 
piston ; and these are pressed together by two outer 
plates or discs of iron. The piston, thus surrounded by the 
metallic hoops^ must fill the interior of the cylinder as 
tightly as possible, withoat producing too great friction. 

The piston is formed with a hollow rod, into which 
melted tallow is poured; this tallow is intended to 
pass by a small internal channel, and to ooze through 
between the wooden disk and the circle surround- 
ing it> for the purpose of greasing the piston in the work- 
ing cylinder ; and in order to give sufficient force to ex- 
pand tb^ metallie ring, the tallow is pressed by a small 
plug OP piston inserted in the top of the hollow piston 
rod at ey and adjuetable by a screw which forces it dawn ; 
w^ the tallow being thus pressed, expands the metallie 
hoop tightly against the interior ^urfeces of the cylinder. 

The moving condenser is formed in connexion with the 
paddle-wheel of a marine engine, or the fly wheel of a 
^nd engine. The steam, after escaping from the educ- 
tion, passes as before said, into the hollow crank shaft of 
the engine, and from thence through hollow rods, or 
arms, extending from the said hollow shaft to boxes at 
the back of the several paddles of the propelling wheel, or 
into chambers in the circumference of the fly wheel, which. 

Vol.. IX. Sacote Sbbibs. d 

18 Recent Patents. 

by passing rounds become cooled by successively dipping 
intu the the water, in which the vessel floats^ or intc a 
pool or reservoir, placed conveniently for the purpose. 

One paddle is shewn at fig. 3, in the situation in which 
it would stand when immersed in the water. The parts 
of the wheel, and the arms by which the paddles may be 
fixed, are here omitted^ as not necessary to the illustra- 
tion. Fig. 5, is a section, or edge view, of the paddles, 
the face of which, or surface that strikes the water, is 
flat, as usual ; but behind there is a box, or hollow space 
w, formed by the back of the paddle, and a corrugated, 
or fluted, sheet of metal attached thereto. This corru- 
gated sheet of metal is designed to expose an extended 
surface to the refrigerating medium, both of cold water 
and air. The pipe from the hollow crank shaft leads 
down into this box or chamber, and conveys the eduction 
steam into the chamber, to be condensed. Every one of 
the paddles is intended to be so furnished with a con- 
densing box, and, in the fly wheel of a land engine, 
similar chambers may be made in or near its periphery, to 
which the eduction steam is to lead through the arms. 

The liquor produced by this mode of condensing the 
eduction vapour, will, when the arm of the wheel rises, 
flow into the hollow axle, and assist the condensation of 
the steam through which it passes. The vapour, wheh 
thus liquified, will flow along the crank axle into the 
reservoir below, by the perpendicular tubes, and from 
thence the feeding pumps are intended to inject it again 
into the boilers. There are two syphons z, connected to 
these perpendicular tubes, the bulbs of which are partly 
filled with mercury ; they are intended as guages, to shew 
the state of condensation, and as escapes to the air in 
blowing the engine. 

By this arrangement of the parts, the engine if employed 
for pi'opelling ships, boats, &c. may be placed trans- 

Dakeyne*s for Impts, in Steam Engines, 19 

versely in the vessels, which allows of considerable sim- 
plicity in its construction^ and^ by the use of the condensing 
boxes, in the way described, the dimensions of' the air 
pumps may be diminshed^ if not altogether dispensed 
with; and^ in using pure distilled water, exhausted of air, 
to feed the boilers, in the way above explained ; their 
surfaces will never become foul, or require cleaning. — 
Inr oiled in the Rolls Chapel Office, March, 1832. 

. Specification drawn by Messrs. Newton and Berry. 

To Edward Daketne, and James Dakeyne, both of 
Darley Dale, in the county of Derby, merchants^ for 
their having invented a machine or hydraulic engine 
for applying the power or pressure of water, steam, 
and other elastic fluids, to the purpose of working 

. machinery, and other uses requiring power ; and ap- 
plicable to that of raising or forcing fluid, — [Sealed 
21st January, 1830.] 

This is a sort of rotatory engine, the centre upon which 
it moves being a ball and socket joint, and the piston a 
flange or broad ring, extending from the equatorial part 
of the ball, but called by the Patentees an ecliptic ring ; 
which is designed to move with a rolling motiop within a 
circular box. The water, steam, or other fluid intended 
to actuate this engine, is admitted into the circular box on 
one side, through an aperture, against a perpendicular 
partition which bisects the ring in a notch, allowing it to 
vibrate ; and the water or steam acting within the box 
upon the surface of the oblique ring, or piston, causes it 
to be depressed on one of the circular boxes, and elevated 
on the other side, thereby moving the ball to which the 

20 Recent Patents, 

ring is affixed upon its central poiot, and: giiFing a tibm- 
tory motion to its pole. 

The construction and operation of this engitte is by i^ 
means clearly made out in the specification. Its descrip- 
tion is of very considerable lengthy and encumbered by a 
multitude of far-fetched expFessions and scientific terms, 
which in their appropriation are more impre^siv^ in sound 
than expressive in sense. We sbalU however, rendet the 
subject as clear as we can, under the ckcunistanees, 
assisting our explanation by figures of the most important 
parts of the machinery. 

Plate II. fig. 1, is an elevation of thecomplete machine 
supposed to be in working order. Fig 2, is a section 
taken vertically through the centre of the nwachine;, shew* 
ing its principal working parts ; of which the Patentees 
commence their description in the following words : -^ 

" The fluid used for the purpose of working the m»ehi-* 
nery, revolves through a circular groofoe or channel a, A, 
formed round the equatorial) cirovmference of a globe b^ 
having ingress and egress through tw<^- narrow openings 
a, by close OIL each side of a stop or partition c, placed 
across the said channel (see the horizontal view fig. 3 ;) 
and the circumition of the fluid gives conical motion to 
the poles of the said globe b^ on the centre o, efifected by- 
pressure on the planes of a circular plate or flange d, 
united to the equatorial circumference of the said globe 
B, which we denominate the ecliptic ring." 

" The said globe b^ beingplaced in an oblique position, 
the said ecliptic ring thereon forms semicircular inclined 
planes longitudinally across the said channel^ the fluid 
pressing on which, causes the said poles to revolve coni- 
cally in orbs or circles on the vertex of the centre c ; and 
by the said conical motion of the poles of the said globe 
B, revolving motion is communicated to machinery by 

Dakeynes\ for Iwtpts. in Steam, Engines, 21 

rneang of dve taptr rod b^ irbieh im feied in ttve vppM 
pole of tbe 0tid globe^ As in fig. 1. Tbe o^poftite poU of 
the saki glob9 nuiy ailtfo act cdtijointly ther^wkfa^ a» 
sImwb in tbe arraiige«iMtit ait fig^ 4, hereafter tlescribed^^' 

The circular box o^ whieb enc^oees tbe ball and itiB 
riog^ is maide in two partay a&d united in the mAdlt by 
two horizontal flai^ea boitedi tiogedker ; th« irerficsl «ec:- 
ttoiiad figure of wbiefa is seen lit fig. 2y its p«viphery 
being turned smooth, and in the form' of the equa'^orial 
part of a concave sphere, against which the periphery of 
the ecliptic ring acts being tightly packed oo tlh<e edges^ 
as^ pistons usually arei 

The speei&cations gpo ou te» descrifbe, in a very teamed 
strain^ '* a ayslem whiteh appertariiiis to the fukram of 
the mdiine'" (die ball and socket joRtt in fil« centre, ^e 
presume ;) connected with which dbere are ** certain 
spaces or soperiwial areas of defthiedi dimension g, h ; 
and g, i, encompassed aa Aie polar surfaces of the 
said globe » ; the safkl surftiees being p«rtially enclosed 
by spherieaJliy concave cups or shells^ emisim<*tfed on 
each drrision of the said case Cr, and their jtmdfures^ to the 
said surfaces being secured by waCer-tight packages nea» 
the poles at h, and i, the said spaces are circumseribed* 
thereby immediately betwi^lt^ die befope«-described 
packages g, on the said surfaces beneath the said' cups or 

** The said stop or parl»tion c, which cuts off the conimu^ 
nication^ or excludes the junction' of the ingress and egress 
fluids andcauses the circumition round the said channel As a, 
consists of a thin piate constructed of wrought iron or brass^ 
or other strong or suitable material^ and is fixed stationary 
in the said channel, in the radios, to the centre of the 
said globe B, and right angularly across the said chn^nel 
A, and made firm and stationary in grooves to the three 

22 Recent Patents, 

internal angular planes e, andftf, and is curved to form 
a juncture to the moveable globe b, and made as nearly 
as possible water or steapi-tight thereto^ by a package of 
leather or other proper material laid into a groove, or 
otherwise^ by any of the known methods." 

'' The said two narrow openings a^ and bj for the in- 
gress and egress of the fluid, are constructed close on 
each side of the said stop or partition, and perforate ; 
the periphery of the said channel a, a, and also the said 
opposite planes f, /, thereof, laterally, on each side of 
the said stop or partition." 

The specification proceeds to explain the ecliptic ring, 
which we have described above, and then its action, as 
follows : — '^ And the said planes of the said ecliptic ring, 
being constructed in the radius to the centre of the globe 
B, and turned true and smooth, form water or steam-tight 
joints, with the similar constructed internal opposite 
planes j^, J^, of the said channel a, a ; and by the incli- 
nation of the poles of the said globe b, the ecliptic ring 
forms a diagonal circular division longitudinally athwart 
the said channel, each of its sides being in contact with 
the internal opposite planes of the said channel, through 
the centre, and circumvolves or rolls in the circle round 
the said channel, with conical motions of the poles of the 
said globe b. The respective definite radii of each plane 
or surface of the ecliptic ring, meeting those of the inter- 
nal opposite planes of the said channel a, a, forming op- 
posite each other, through the centre two water or steam- 
tight radial joints, revolving the said channel A, a; which 
action we denominate the ecliptic circumvolution. And 
in spontaneous succession one or the other side of the half 
circular plane or surface of the ecliptic ring, athwart the 
said channel a, a, the circumition of the propelling fluid 
round the said channel having ingress at one of the said 

Dakeynes\ for Impts. in Steam Engines. . 23 

narrow opening^^ close to one side of the said stop or 
partition^ and egress at the other close to the contrary 
side thereof, impels the described motion by pressure, 
effecting conic revolutions on the poles of the said groove 
B^ with regular impetus impressed from the impelling 
cause continued." 

It is by this, and what follows in the specification, to 
be understood that the ecliptic plane moves round in the 
box, and that the pole of the globe is made to move in a 
course resembling an inverted cone, to give motion to a 
wheel or other machinery connected to its extremity. It 
appears to be unnecessary to pursue the elaborate descrip- 
tion of this machine, as the intention of the Patentee 
must be perceived. 

There is certainly considerable ingenuity^ and, we be- 
lieve, novelty, in this contrivance ; but we are by no means 
satisfied that it would act in the way described, or, at 
least, with any advantage over other constructions of 
steam engines for driving machines. 

In the modification of the machine, shewn in section 
at %. 4, an axis is carried through the globe, and it is 
then proposed to adapt the mechanical power exerted by 
both poles, to the driving of the machine. It is further 
suggested that the same contrivance may be employed as 
a force pump, in which case power must be applied to 
the pole to drive it. — [Inr oiled in the Petty Bay Office, 
July, 1830. 

24 Recent Patents. 

To Margaret Knowles, of LavendermHilly Battersea^ 
in the county of Surrey, Spinster, for her invention 
of an improvement in axletrees, for, and mode of ap^ 
plying the same to carriages, — [Sealed 4th July, 

The object of the Patentee appears to be that of eoa* 
bling a carriage to turn withiu a smaller space than the 
ordinary Qonstructions of the fore axle of a travelling- 
carriage or waggon will allow, \vhich moves round or locks, 
as it is termed, upon a centre pin, fixed in or near the 
perch in the middle of the fore part of the carriage. The 
improvement consists in attaching a distinct best exie on 
eacb ^ide of the carriage, which is mounted in a suitable 
frame, and turn^ horizontally upon a vertical pin. 

Plate II. fig* 5. represents an elevation of the axletree 
proposed ; a, a are the e^ds of the axles, on which the 
running wheels of the vehicle are to be mounted ; 6, 6 are 
elongations of the axles, extending inwards ; c is a ver- 
tical pin, passing through (, which, is fastened to tbe top 
and bottom brackets d^ d^ and e^ e are braces to kiaep the 
axles and pins firmly together ; the two brsickets d^ d, 
being held fast by a block/, bolted to them in the middle 
between the two axles. 

Fig. 0. is a variation of the contrivance, shewn in a ho- 
rizontal view ; a, a are the ends of the axles to receive 
the wheels as before ; b, b their elongated parts ; f, f is 
the axeltree attached to the pole or perch g*. The axles 
a, b, and the axeltree f, are connected together by 
brackets e, e, turning upon pins c, c, the ends of the 
brackets being attached to the pieces 6, by joints at i, i. 
This contrivance is stated to be for the purpose of giving 

Salmon's, for Impts. in an improved Malt-kiln, 25 

play when the body of the carriage is mounted upon 

Fig 7, is another horizontal representation, we suppose, 
of the same construction ; the pole or perch of the car- 
riage being inclined on the side, as in turning, and the 
short axles turned also. 

It must be confessed that this description is insufficient 
in many points, to render the invention evident, or capa- 
ble of being brought into operation. We have^ however, 
given as complete an account of it as the specification will 
permit, and must therefore leave our readers to recon« 
cile the obvious impracticability of the scheme in the best 
way he can. — [Inrolledin the Inrolment Office^ January, 

To Thomas Salmon, of Stoke-Ferry, in the county of 
Norfolk, maltster, for his having invented an im* 
proved malt-kiln, — ] Sealed 9th July, 1829.] 

When malt or other grain is exposed upon a fiat surface, 
to be dried by the application of heat beneath it^ the 
steam evaporated, passing through the bed of grain, be- 
comes cooled, and instead of flying off, condenses, and 
settles upon the upper surface, to the injury of the grain 
and the protraction of the drying process. The Patentee, 
therefore, proposes to apply heat, both to the under and 
upper surfaces of the grain, when spread out to dry, by 
the following means: — 

Plate II. fig. 8, is supposed to represent in perspective, 
a small part of the drying floor of a kiln, formed by 
square tiles, placed side by side, with small perforations 

Vol. IX. Second Sbribs. e 

26 Recent Patents. 

through them, which allow heated air to pass from be- 
low. When this floor is covered with malt, or other 
grain, to the usual height, or thickness, the flues below 
are made hot, and the tiles, through which that heat is 
transmitted, communicate it to the under-layer of grain, 
which becoming heated, sends steam upwards through 
the mass ; and this steam, being partially condensed by 
the wet grain above, and the cold air, falls again upon the 
upper surface, and thereby, greatly impedes the operation. 

In order to heat the upper surface of the grain atthe same 
time as the lower, the Patentee proposes to remove a 
square tile in several parts of the floor, and to introduce 
a pyramidical chimney of sheet iron or other suitable ma- 
terial, into each aperture, as at a. The chimney is open 
on the under side to the flue, and consequently the heated 
air from the flue passes readily through it into the apart- 
ment or chamber, in which the grain is spread to dry. The 
air on the upper surface of the grain, by these means, be- 
comes heated, and prevents that condensation of the 
steam, which would otherwise take place. 

The aperture at the top of the building, under these 
circumstances, may be contracted considerably ; that is, 
an opening of three feet will be amply sufficient 
to discharge the steam from the floor of a twenty-seven 
foot square kiln. 

The chimneys must rise high enoughfrom the floor to be 
quite clear of the upper surface of the grain, and a cap 
or cover to each chimney must be made capable of ris- 
ing or falling, to diff*erent heights, so as to allow of regu- 
lating the delivery of hot air, as may be required by par- 
tially opening or closing the aperture. — [Inrolled in the 
Tnrolment Office, August y 1829.] 

[ 27 ] 

To Benjamin Matthew Payne, of the Strand, in the 
parish of St, Martin-in'the^Fields, and county of 
Middlesex y scale maker, for certain improvements on 
weighing machines. — [Sealed 18th August, 1828.] 

The specification of this Patent does not set forth (be 
particular points which the inventor may consider to be 
new. A drawing is attached, exhibiting a steelyard of 
the ordinary construction, suspended at the fulcrum, 
with a scale pendant at one end, and a sliding weight, to 
be adjusted to any graduation, from the fulcrum, accord- 
ing to the quantity of material to be weighed. A move- 
able graduated piece is also made to slide upon the beam, 
with a small weight appended, to determine fractional 
parts of the whole numbers represented by the larger 
weight ; this small graduated piece is, we presume, the 
proposed novelty. 

Plate II. fig. 9, represents the apparatus as given in the 
specification ; a, a, is the beam of the steelyard, swingmg 
upon its fulcrum pivots at b. The scale c, may be dis- 
placed, and any other mode of suspending the articles to 
be weighed substituted, according to circumstances ; d, is 
the sliding weight to be moved upon the gratuated beam 
as usual ; e,- is a small graduated piece attached to the 
index of the weight, and divided into fractional parts of 
the whole numbers marked upon the beam, having a small 
weight f 

If the beam be designed to weigh hundreds, then the 
small sliding piece may represent quarters and half 
quarters of a hundred; if the graduations of the beam are 
equivalent to pounds, then the small slide will give 
ounces. The Patentee proposes even furtlior^ that in the 

28 Recent Patents. 

event of the larger divisions of the beam representing 
ounces, the sliding* scale may give pennyweights or 

There is a standard g, with a square spring at top, in 
which the end of the steelyard is confined ; this is merely 
designed as a rest, and to prevent the beam from moving 
through too large an angle. — [Inrolled^ in the Inrolment 
Office, February, 1829.] 

To Francis Horatio Nelson Drake, of Clayton House, 

in the county of Devon, Esq. in consequence of a 

communication made to him by a foreigner residing 

abroad, for certain improvements in tiles for covering 

' houses, and other buildings, — [Sealed July 25, 1829.J 

The object of this improvement is to form roofs with 
tiles of clay, properly baked, which shall be so connected 
together that the surface of the whole roof may be per- 
fectly smooth — that is, without any visible overlaps, and 
yet conduct the water away safely, however little ele- 
vated the roof may be. 

Plate II. fig. 10, exhibits one of these improved tiles as 
it would appear detached, and seen on the upper side. 
The part a, is lower — that is, only about half the thick- 
ness of the part b, there being a ledge formed at c, c, 
I for the bottoms of the two next adjoining tiles to fit up to. 

Diagonal grooves are cut at d, d, which lead into lateral 
channels e, e^ for the purpose of conducting the rain- 
water that may insinuate itself through the joints of the 
upper tiles. This water will, of consequence, pass along 
the ledge c, and by that means will ^je carried off by a 

Drake^s, for Impts. in Tiles. 29 

wedge-formed channel y, in .the middle of the part 6, to the 
next tile below^ and so on till it reaches the eaves or 
/Sautter of the roof^ and thus having a ready means of 
escape^ does not lodge on the tiles. These are to be 
moulded in clay, and baked in the ordinary way« and may 
be coloured and glazed to resemble slates. 

Fig. ll^^hews the face and edg'e views of an improved 
pantile^ the form of which enables the tiles to lock iuto 
each other^ when laid upon the roof. 

These tiles are said to possess the following advan- 
tages. — They present a plain surface (referring to the flat 
tile first described^) and are not acted upon by the wind , 
are perfectly immoveable, except when singly raised in 
the order in which they were placed^ as every tile is con- 
fined by those which lie abov« it ; and as respects the 
pantiles, every one is held down by three above it, so that 
they lock each other, and no cement or mortar is neces- 
sary to confine them. When broken, by accident, any 
one can be replaced with the greatest facility. 

A roof constructed of these tiles is impervious to the 
heaviest rain or snow^ and is far more durable than any 
other kind of covering ; when coloured they resemble 
slates, and are much lighter on a roof than the best kind 
of slates ; as 360 of them weigh only one hundred weight, 
and will more than cover a hundred square feet. They 
may also be used, with great advantage, as a coating for 
walls. — llnrolled in the Inrolment Office, January, 

[ 30 ] 

Report of the Committee of the House of Commons. 

(^Continued from Vol. VIII.) 

'* The Committee have throughout their examinations 
been most anxious to ascertain whether the apprehension, 
very commonly entertained^ that an extensive use of these 
Carriages on roads would be the cause of frequent ac- 
cidents and continued annoyance to the public^ were well 

'' The danger arising from the use of Steam Carriages, 
was stated to be twofold — that to which passengers are 
exposed from explosion of the boiler, and the breaking of 
the machinery ; and the effect produced on horses, by the 
noise and appearance of the £ngine. 

'' Steam has been applied as a powerful draught in two 
ways; in the one, both passengers and Engine are 
placed on the same carriage ; in the other, the engine 
carriage is merely used to draw the carriage in which the 
load is conveyed. In either c se, the probability of dan- 
ger from explosion has been rendered infinitely small, 
from the judicious construction of boiler which has been 

'' These boilers expose a very considerable surface to 
the fire, and steam is generated with the greatest rapidity. 
From their peculiar form, the requisite supply of steam 
depends on its continued and rapid formation ; no large 
and dangerous quantity can at any time be collected. 
Should the safety valve be stopped, and the supply of 
Steam be kept up in greater abundance than the engines 
require, explosion may take place, but the danger would 

steam Carriages. 31 

be comparatively trifling, from the small quantity of 
steam which could act on any one portion of the boilers. 

" The danger arising to passengers from the breaking 
of the machinery need scarcely be taken into considera- 
tion. It is a mere question of delay, and can scarcely 
exceed in frequency the casualties which may occur with 

" It has been frequently urged against these carriages, 
that, wherever they shall be introduced, they must effec- 
tually prevent all other travelling on the road; as no 
horse will bear quietly the noise and smoke of the 

'' The Committee believe that these statements are un- 
founded. Whatever noise may be complained of, arises 
from the present defective construction of the machinery, 
and will be corrected as the makers of such carriages 
gain greater experience. Admitting even that the pre- 
sent engines do work with some noise, the effect on 
horses has been greatly exaggerated. All the witnesses 
accustomed to travel in these carriages, even on the 
crowded roads adjacent to the metropolis, have stated^ 
that horses are very seldom frightened in passing. 

*' The Committee, having satisfied themselves that 
steam has been successfully adopted as a substitute for 
Horse Power on roads, proceeded to examine whether 
tolls have been imposed on carriages, thus propelled, so 
excessive as to require legislative interference, and also 
to consider the rate of tolls by which steam carriages 
should be brought to contribute, in fair proportion with 
other carriages, to the maintenance of the roads on which 
they may be used. 

'' They have annexed a list of those local acts, in 
which tolls have been placed on steam, or mechanically 
propelled carriages. 

32 Steam Carriages, 

'* Mr. Gurney has given the following specimens of the 
oppressive rates of tolls adopted in several of those acts: 
On the Liverpool and Prescot road, Mr. Gurney 's car- 
riage would be charged 2/. 8^., while a loaded stage 
coach would pay only 4*. On the Bathgate road the 
same carriage would be charged 1/. 7 s. Id., while a coach 
drawn by four horses would pay 5*. On the Ashburnham 
and Totness road Mr. Gurney would have to pay 2/., 
while a coach drawn by four horses would be charged 
only 3*. On the Teignmouth and Dawlish roads the 
proportion is 12*. to 2*. 

*' Such exorbitant tolls on steam carriages can only be 
justified on the following grounds. 

'^ First, because the number of passengers conveyed' 
on, or by, a steam carriage, will be so great as to di- 
minish (at least to the extent of the differehce of the rate 
of toll) the total number of carriages used on the road ; 
or, secondly, because steam carriages induce an additional 
expense in the repairs of the road. 

" The Committee see no reason to suppose that, for the 
present, the substitution of Steam Carriages, conveying a 
greater number of persons than common coaches, will 
*take place to any very material extent; and as to the 
second cause of increased charge, the trustees, in framing 
their tolls, have probably not minutely calculated the 
amount of injury to roads likely to arise from them. 

'* The Committee are of opinion that the only ground on 
which a fair claim to toll can be made, on any public 
road, is to raise a fund, which, with the strictest economy, 
shall be just sufficient, first to repay the expense of its 
original formation ; secondly, to maintain it in good and 
sufficient repair. 

" The Commitiee would direct the attention of The 

Steam Carriages, 33 

House especially to the Evidence of Mr. Macneil,^ whose 
observations on this branch of the subject/being founded 
on a long course of very accurate experiments^ are pecu- 
liarly interesting and useftTl. He estimates that the feet 
of horses dmwin<g' u fa«t coach, are more injurious to the 
I'oad than the wheels, in the proportion of three to one 
nearly ; that this propoitiou will increase with the velo- 
city ; that by increasing the breadth of the tires of the 
wheels, the injury done to roads by great weights may be 
counteracted. He considers that on a good road, one ton 0h 

may be safely carried on each inch of width of tire of the 

•* Mr. M^Adatn and Mr. Telford have given corres- 
sponding Evidence a6 to the greater wear caused by horses^ 
feel than by wheels of Carriages. 

'* Each of the above Witnesses agrees^, that, adding the 

weight of the horses to that of the coacb, and comparing 

iht iirjdry done to a road by a steam carriage of a weight 

equal to that of the coach and horses (the wheels being 

of a proper width of tire), the deterioration of the road 

will be m(H3b less by the steam carriage than by the 

eMch and horses. 

*' Appreliensioo^llUBelso been entertained, that although 

tbe peculiar action of the wheels^ may not be injurious, 

yet Ifaat, from the great power which may be applied, if 

tbe steam w^re worked at a very high pressure, or if the 

size of the engine were increased, greater weight might 

be carried than tbe sCrenghth of the road could bear. 

Mr. Macneirsevidence before theCommittee shews him to be a man 
of scieuce, coc^ judgment, and a scholar; the minutes of his evidence 
wiU be read with great satis&ction by mathematicians generally, 
but more particularly by those interested in the subject of whed 

Vol. IX. — Second Series. f 

34 Steam Carriages, 


*' Undoubtedly, iii proportion to the advance of the 
science, will be the increase of weight drawn by an 
Engine with a given expenditure of fuel ; but there are 
many practical difficulties to be surmounted before the 
weight so drawn can loaeh the point when it would be 
destructive of roads. There are no theoretical reasons 
.'•gainst the extension of the size of the engines. The 
difficulties, according to Mr. Gurney, are of a practical 
nature, and only in the '' difficulty of management of a 
large engine." In proportion as we augment the power 
of the engines, we must increase their strength^ and con- 
sequently their weight ; the greater weight will be a mate- 
rial diminution of their efficiency. To a certain extent 
the power may be increased in a greater ratio than the 
weight; but, with our limited knowledge of the application 
of Steam, and witii the present formation of the Public 
Roads, the point will be very soon attained, when the 
advantage of increased power will be counter-balanced by 
the difficulties attendant on the increased weight of the 

'* The weight drawn, at the rate of ten miles per hour^ 
by Mr. Gurney's engine, has not, on any extent of road, 
exceeded the weight of the drawing Carriage; nor is it 
likely, with the difficulties to be encountered oa the pre- 
sent lines of road, from their quality and the numerous 
ascents, that the weight drawn will be in excess of the 
strength of the roads. The immense quantity of spare 
power required to surmount the different degrees of re- 
sistance likely to occur, would render the engine too un- 
manageable. This will appear evident from the force of 
traction required to draw a waggon over the Holyhead 
and Shrewsbury road, which varied from 40 to upwnrds 
of 300 lbs. 

" In considering the effect on roads, we must not over- 


Steam Carriages, 35 

look one peculiarity, in which they have a great advan- 
tage over other carriages. In coaches drawn by horses, 
the power being without the machine to be moved, it be- 
comes an object of the greatest importance to «(ive as 
much effect as possible to the power, by diminishing the 
resistance, arising from the friction of the wheels upon the 
surface of the road. For this purpose, the proprietors of 
coaches and waggons have adopted every possible con- 
trivance^ so to reduce the tiers of their wheels, that a 
very small portion of them may press o\\ the road ; in 
some coaches they are made circular in their cross section, 
so that the entire weight of the carriage presses on a mere 
point ; should the materials be soft, such wheels cut their 
way into the road like a sharp instrument. The owners of 
waggons^ too, have adopted a similar plan. Mr. Macneil 
states that the actual bearing part of the tire oP apparently 
broad- wheel waggons, is reduced to three inches by the 
contrivance of one band of the tire projecting beyond the 

" With Steam, oa the contrary, a certain amount of ad- 
hesion to the roads is required to give effect to the action 
of the machinery, or the wheels would slip round, and 
make no progress. It appears of little importance, there- 
fore, so far as relates to the engine, whether the requisite 
amount of friction be spread over a broad surface of tire, 
or be concentrated to a smalk point; but as the wheels, 
by being too narrow, would have a tendency to bury 
themselves in every soft or newly-made road, and thus 
raise a perpetual resistance to their own progress, it 
actually becomes an advantage to adopt that form, which 
is least injurious to the road. The proprietors, who have 
been examined on this point, seem to be quite indiffeVent 
as to the breadth of tire they may be required to use. 

" These considerations have convinced the Committee 

36 Steam Carriage* 

tb«t the tolls ettforced on strain oarriagev im?e« in gtoe* 
ral« far exce^d^d th« rate which their injuriouaness to 
roada^ in comparison with other carriages^ would war- 
rant ; thej^ found, however, considerable difficulty ih 
framing a scale of tolls applicable to all road»> in lieu of 
those authorized by several local acta. 

" Mr, Gurney has delivered in a soale of tolls, gradu- 
ated according to weight and width of tire of the wheeU 
As this has been drawn up by a person interested in the 
success of steam carriages, it might have been expected to 
be more favourable to them. The Committee, however, 
have not adopted it, because of the diffieulties and inter* 
ruptions, which a fluctuating rate of toll would induce. 

The only fair plea for charging tolls on such carriages, 
in proportion to their weighty is to prevent a load front 
being propelled or carried> which would permanently in- 
jure the road. 

Experiments and observations on diverging streams 


{From the TransactUns of tha Literary and PhU9$opiieal 

Society of Manchester, \ 


On the eleventh of October, 1824, Mr.. Roberts i^l^xed a valv« to 
the aperture of a^pipe, used aa a waste pipe, fen the pucpoaa of 
regulating or equaLusiog the force of a blast of air which waa 
blowing a furnace. To hi3 surprise, however, he fou»d that Hie 
valve, instead of being readily blown- off by a strong blast, re- 
mained at a smalt distance from the aperture of the pipe, and 
was removed to a greater distance only by a considerable wer- 

Oil Due Steam Valvet. 97 

tiou of the poww of the band. This nnfulwr ph«ftOfiieiioii was 
witoeased by oaaAy gentlemen, memben of tbi« »ocietyi. la the 
same we^, and appeared to be viewed by them al^ an equally 
new and extraordinary.'^ 

Mr. Roberta made some experiments on his atr-yalTc at tiie 
time, aind varioiiB theoriea were then suggested to aecomit for Hbt 
adherence of the ralve to the pipe. It was not, howerer, imtil 
the month of September in the present year, that I agreed to 
join him in making farther experiments, a pert of which, I now 
pioeeed to give, 

A vertical section of part of the apparatus nsed is given in 
Plate L fig. 6, where a, is a pipe, three inches diameter, with 
tibe* apeitore contracted to 2§ diameter, at b, h, and surrounded 
by a flange e, c, lOf diameter, to form a seat for a valve. On 
tiiis seat was placed a circular disk or valve i, d» nx inches dia- 
meter, vrith a pin in its centre, by means of which it was left at 
liberty to rise or Idl freely, and kept at Ae same time perpendi- 
cular to the aperture. 

The valve was attachied to one end of a scale beam by a string, 
and balanced by vircaghts placed in a scale e, attached to the op* 
poaite end ol the beam. The valve being thus placed on the seat 
without any weight oi its own to press downward, the stream of 
c(Ha»i^esaed air was admitted into the pipe a, when the valve d, 
rose from the flange or seat c, l-32nd of an inch> and there re- 
mained stationary. Thirteen ounces, avoirdupoiae wdgfat, were 
now put into the scale «, wbieb zaiaed the valve bo 1-1 2th of an 
indi above the seat. Twenty-six ounces raised it to l«8tii of an 
ilich^ and thirty-two ounce raised it to l-4th of an inch, but any 
weight beyond this last caused the valve to fly abruptly off. 

It thus appeared, that when the valve was raised from its seat 

' • w '^ ■^^■r'i w »^ 'mwwm I ^- M ■■■ w ^ . ■ ' — *■■■ — ■■-■■ ^ ■ ■ ^wm ^ i ■ ■» -m^— ^^n^^^im^i^^^^ » w > « »■ 

* Monr. Clement, of Paris, was said to be in Mandiester at 
this period, and saw the air- valve adhere to the pipe, yet he 
afterwards* it appeaxi, represented the discovery to have been 
made in France long subsequent to the time he saw it at Mr. Ro- 
berts* Works. 

38 On Disc Steam Valves. 

a quarter of an inch, there was the greatest difference between 
the force of the issuing current of air pressing against the undkr 
side of the valve, and of atmospheric pressure on the upper side 
of the valve. The pressure of the atmosphere was greater than 
the force of the issuing stream of previously compressed air, a 
weight of thirty-two ounces being requisite to establish an 

That we might ascertain what was the state of the stream of air 
under the valve, in different parts of it, four double syphon tubes 
were procured,and properquantities of mercury being piit into them, 
they were inserted id hoh s made through the valve at certain 
distances from each other, as shown in Figs. 6, at 1, 2, 3, 4. 
The inserted limbs of these tubes being thus left exposed to the 
action of the stream of air, the compressed air was again ad- 
mitted into the pipe a, and the valve rose as before, l-32nd of 
an inch. 

The tube 1, in that part of the valve d-^ which was over the 
aperture d, had the mercury in it \\ inches higher in the 
outer than in the inner limb, and consequently shewed a pres- 
sure from the compressed air below it, above atmospheric 
pressure, equal to 1^ inches of mercury. The tube 2, which 
was near to the aperture &, but over the inner edge of the seat 
(?, shewed a rise of the mercury of 3-lOths of an inch in the 
inner limb of the tube, and consequently a pressure from the 
air below it leee than atmospheric pressure by 3-IOths of an 
inch, — or a partial vacuum of 3-lOths of an inch of mercury. 
The tube 3, at the same time shewed a similar vacuum of l-8th 
of an inch of mercury. The mercury in the tube 4, was un- 

The valve with the four tubes in it was now raised above its 
seat from l-32nd of an inch until it was \\ inches above the 
seat, by gradations of l-32nd of an inch each, and the heights 
of the mercury in the tube, were noted at eaish step, distin- 
guishing by a ^, or a v, whether they shewed pressure from 
below, or a partial vacuum, and thus a table of five columns 


On Disc Steam Valves. 39 

was formed. The first column shewed the height of the valve 
above the seat, and the other four columns, the heights of the 
mercury in the four tubes, and whether they indicated pressure 
or vacuum. 

This table shewed, that the pressure from the stream below, on 
tube 1, continued at 1| inches of mercury^ until the valve was 
raised from its seat to l-16tb of an inch above it ; but from that 
elevation until it was raised to 1| inches from the seat, the mer- 
cury shewed a gradually diminishing pressure, and at that height 
the pressure was only 6-lOths of an inch. 

Tube 2, shewed its greatest degree of vactctim, which was 1 and 
8-lOths inches of mercury, when the valve was raised d-32nds of 
an inch ; from which point, as the valve was further elevated, the 
vacuum became less, until at a height of 3-8ths there was no va- 
cuum, — the mercury in the two limbs of the tube being at the 
same level. On raising the valve from 3-8ths to 1 J inches, this 
tube shewed an increasing pressure from the stream of air below, 
and at the least named height the pressure was 4-lOths of an 
inch of merciny. 

The tube 3, shewed its greatest degree of vacuum to be 7-20ths 
of an inch of mercury, and it was when the valve wasupll-32nds 
of an inch. As the valve was raised higher, the vacumn became 
less, until at the height of 1| inches it was nothing. 

In tube 4, the mercury began to shew a small degree of vacuum 
when the valve was raised 3-32nds of an inch ; when it was up ^ 
an inch the vacuum was ^ of an inch, being its greatest degree ; 
from this point the vacuum diminished, and when the valve was 
1^ inches high, there was very little difference in the levels of the 
murcury in the two limbs. 

A similar course of experiments was gone through with a valve 
S inches diameter, with some small variations in the results, which 
were noted in another table ; but the only one worth mentioning 
is, that while the 6-inch valve required a little more than 32 
ounces in the scale e, to detatch it from its seat, the 8-inch valve 
required 48 ounces. 

40 On Disc Steam Valves, 

From a general view of the results thus obtained* it appeared 
that while the valve adhered to the seat, and remained at but a 
small distance from it, a circular stripe or flat ring of attenuated 
air was found between the valve and its seat, and near to the 
aperture b, the air at the same time in the parts further from the 
aperture becoming more dense* untQ close to the periphery, it 
became nearly of atmospheric density; but as the valve was 
raised, the ring of the attenuated air approached the outer part or 
periphery of the valve. 

To find the form and nature of this ring, it now appeared de-^ 
sirable that the different heights of mercury in the same tube, 
indicating degrees of vacuum should be ascertained at small and 
equal distances, beginning at the edge of the aperture, and pro^^ 
ceeding along a radial line to the periphery of the valve. To ac- 
complish this, a moveable slide was dovetailed into the valve, and 
in this slide was inserted the lower limb of one of the double 
syphon tubes with mercury in it as before, shown at Fig. 7, where 
the tube is placed over the aperture, and indicates a pressure from 
the compressed air of 1^ inches of mercury. 

This valve being placed on the seat, the slide /,/, was moved 
until the tube came over the seat, and the distance of the tube 
from the edge of the aperture was noted when the mercury first 
indicated a slight degree of vacuum. From this point the slide, 
and consequently the tube, was drawn outward l-32nd of an inch, 
and the height of the mercury indicating vacuum again noted. 
In this way, by stages of l-d2nd of an inch each, the tube was 
drawn to the outer edge or periphery of the valve, and at the height 
of the mercury noted at each stage. The different heights of the 
mercury in all these stages, with the exact places of the tube at 
the times, were then marked by dots on paper, and these dots 
being connected by lines, we obtained the curve represented in 
fig. 8. In this diagraih g, shews the point at which the vacu- 
um was first indicated, and the line from ^, to 4> represents the 
increase of the degree of vacuum, until at A, it is 1|- inches of 
mercury. From this point the reduction of the degree of vacuum 
is seen by the curve from h, to t. The straight line k, a litQe 

On t)Uc. Steam Valves, 41 

iower down, represents the pressure which the mercury shewed 
when the tube was over the aperture. 

The valve was now raised higher from its seat, and the tube 
moved as before, and data obtained for the formation of other 
curves. When the valve was 3-16ths above the seat, the tube 
being placed over the aperture, shewed a pressure of only one and 
4-lOths of an inch of mercury; but the tube being brought over 
the seat at a distance of 5-d2nds from the edge of the aperture, 
shewed a vacuum of one and 8-lOths of an inch of mercury. 
From that point proceeding outward, the vacuum became less. 

These experiments shewed, that until the valve was raised to a 

certain height above its seat, the under side of that part of the 

valve which was over the aperture, was exposed to a pressure of 

1^ inches of mercury more than atmospheric pressure ; and the 

under side of all the rest of the valve, forming an outer stripe or 

ring, was exposed to a pressure less than atmospheric, or had a 

partial vacuum vaiying from one and 8-lOths of an inch of 

mercury up to atmospheric pressure, The siiperior pressurfe 

against the under side of the centre of the valve, must then have 

been counterbalanced by the inferior pressure against the under 

side of that of the valve which is nearer to the periphery, — and 

more than counterbalanced, for atmospheric pressure on the top 

of the valve was still so superior as to admit of a weight of 32 

ounces being applied, before that pressure could be overcome and 

the valve raised. 

Valves of various smaller sizes were now tried, and it was 
found that one of 4^ inches diameter, was what may be called 
the neutral size over an aperture of 2§ diameter ; as, when it was 
balanced it would just adhere to the seat when the air was 
admitted, but the least weight placed in the scale raised it. 
Valves of any size smaller than this did not adhere to the seat, 
and would therefore be proper valves for such a pipe. 

A conical valve was now procured, the greatest diameter of 

which was 6 inches on the upper side, and its least diameter was 

2§ inches, the same as the aperture, and its thickness 1^ inches. 

This valve being fitted into a proper seat, required as many ounces^ 

Vol. IX. — Second Series. « 

42 On Disc Steam Valves. 

fitted to raise it from its seat as the flat 6 -inch valve did. See 
Fig. 9. 

Another conical valve, whose greatest diameter was the same 
as the flat neutral valve, 4^ inches, its least diameter 2§, and its 
thickness 3 inches, was fitted like the preceding one, into a seat 
of equal thickness with itself. This valve, however, if less than 
six ounces in weight, was blown off by the blast. And thus it 
appeared, that a conical valve, may be less disposed to adhere to 
the seat than a flat valve, the diameter of the upper sides of both 
being the same. See Fig« 10. 

A phenomenon, singular in appearanee, was exhibited while 
using these conical valves. It became necessary to fasten a seat 
with a hollow cone to the flange, and, in the experiments, the 
issuing stream of air was made to pass between the cone and its 
seat. But when this seat was liberated from the flange, and the 
stream of air suffered to flow, one stream rushed between the 
cone and the seat, and another between the seat and the flange. 
And thus the seat of the cone was held in its situation by the two 
streams of air, without being in contact with any thing else. 

During the experiments, burning paper was placed on the 
valves, that the flame and smoke might shew whether there was 
any atmospheric current rushing down upon it. But it was only 
at the periphery that the flame was drawn down, until it came in 
contact with the stream of air issuing from under the valve, 
which cut off the flame as abruptly, as it could have been cut 
through with a knife, apparently from its force and coldness. On 
the valve the flame blazed in the way in which it ordinarily 
does, when their is no current of air acting upon it. 

In endeavouring to account for these phenomena, it appeared, 
that the air in the aperture was projected or driven from the aper- 
ture as from a centre, in radial lines in every direction through 
enlarging circles, and thus became attenuated as it was thrown 
off from the centre, in the way that light is diminished accord- 
ing to its distance from its radiating point. For the purpose 
of ascertaining whether this was a correct view, or not, another 
experiment was made. 

On Disc Steam Valves. 43 

Instead of a circular valve, one of the form of a cross was 
used, six inches in diameter, of which fig. 1 1 is a plan. The cen- 
tre of this cross valve just covered the aperture b, in fig. 6, and 
the four arms /, /, /, /, extended to the diameter of six inches. 
The four angular spaces between them left on the seat of the 
valve were covered with pieces of wood m, m, m, m, fitted to the 
spaces and fastened to the valve seat, leaving the cross valve at 
liberty, to be raised ub 3k we 3 n them. By this contrivance, the 
compressed air, on issuing from the aperture, was confined to four 
separate streams of equal and uniform breadth, which could not 
diverge, but passed under the cross until they escaped at the ends 
of its arms. The tubes with mercury, as in Fig. 6, having been 
inserted in the arms shewed not more than l-8th of an inch va- 
cuum in any part of the arms, and less towards their outer extre- 
mities ; and this small vacuum probably was the result of some air 
making its way under the angular pieces m. 

The cross was now raised enough to leave considerable spaces 
for the stream to expand from its previously compressed state, and 
to become rarified, but no greater attenuation was indicated by 
the mercury. And thus it appeared, that when there was but 
little space, only l-32nd of an inch, under the circular valve for 
the air to be projected into, there was an attenuation, or partial 
vacuum, of If inches of mercury, but when the cross valve was 
gradually raised from l-32nd to the height of half an inch from 
the seat, and when of course there was ample room for expansion, 
not more than l-8th of an inch vaccuum was indicated. 

From these various) phenomeDa it appeared that the vacuum 
under the circular valve was produced by the spreading of the 
air from a smaller to a larger circle, immediately after it left 
the aperture. For on the air being prevented from spreading 
by the pieces of wood, m, Fig. 1 1 , when fastened to the seat oj 
the valve, the vacuum nearly disappeared in the streams niidej 
the arms of the cross valve ; but by attaching the angular pieces 
to the cross valve, and suffering both to rise together, the fulj 
vacuum of If reappeared as with the circular valve. 

44 On Disc Steam Valves. 

When the circalar valve d, in Fig. d, is placed on tbe seat, 
there is stagnaDt atmospheric air within the aperture b. On 
the condensed air being admitted into the pipe a, the stagnant 
air is put into motion, and before it can overcome the inertia of 
the valve, is forced between the onter parts of the valve and its 
seat. The air, while being thus forced, is, however, compelled 
te diverge from a circle, whose diameter is 2 and three-eighths 
to one of a larger diameter, and is consequently dilated and 
attenuated. The impulse given by the compressed air on its 
first admission to the stagnant air in the pipe, causes the stag? 
nant air to commence the process, but the compressed air fol- 
lows instantaneously, and through the force with which it is 
impelled by the original moving power, is projected under the 
valve, an«l there forced to diverge with a velocity proportioned 
Jo the amonnt of the projectile force. 

The projectile force acting through the stream of compressed 
air, and the peculiarly shaped and confined space through 
which the air is drivn, are then the causes of its dilatation, 
until its degree of rarity is beyond that of the atmosphere, 
when atmospheric pressure on the upper side of the valve pre- 

This view will, perhaps, be illustrated, by supposing the com- 
pressed air at the edge of the aperture, to be an elastic ring of 
two 3-8ths diameter, and that every part of ^this ring shall be 
struck with equal force from the centre, in a radiating direc- 
tion to the circumference : by the time that the ring is pro- 


jected to a sufficient distance to be a diameter of, say 4 inches, 
it will be stretched from a smaller to a larger circumference 
and every part of the ring will be equally stretched or attenu- 
ated. A part of such a ring may be supposed to be represented 
in Fig. 12. It is not, however, necessary that the substance pro- 
jected should be elastic, for if the ring' were made of lead, the 
e£fect would be the same ; or if grains of sand, or small lead 
shot, could, in like manner, be thrown from a centre, in al 
directions around, it is clear that as they were removed farther 

On Disc Steam Valves. 46 

from the ceiitri", the grains or shot would be more distant 
from each other, or the stream of them would be more tftte , 

By ft reference to the ciirve^> Fig« 8, representing the degrees 
of vacfuam, it -v^ be secin that thecirdo^ of greatest vaeuum is 
near to the* aperture ; and it may be inferred, t^at this fact is 
exposed to die theory of Ibrced divergence, as on that theory it 
may be thought that we ought to have the greatest vacuum. where 
the divergence was the greatest, and consequeatly near to the 
periphery of the valve. But it should be borne in mind, that the 
issuing stream of air has to overcome atmospheric reeistaaoe ; and 
when, by diverging, it has become rarer than the atmosphere 
against vsrhich it is acting, the momentum requisite to ke^ it so is 
soon expended, and the stream under the outer parts of the valve, 
not having sufficient force to overcome atmospheric resistance 
from without, yields to it, and ia brought to common atmospheric 
density. If the velocities of the stream under the different parts 
of the valve could have been ascertained by stages of Hurty- 
seconds parts of an inch, in the same way that the degrees of 
vacuum were found by the heights of the mercury, it is presumed, 
that this point would have been established by experiment, 
instead of being left dependent on an inference. 

The moving of the circle of greatest vacuum outwards, as the 
valve was elevated, does, however, exhibit evidence of the just- 
ness of the inference. When the valve was but little raised, the 
force of the stream was expended in divei^ing a part of itself, 
near to the aperture , but when the valve was considerably raised, 
the superior density of the stream was not confined to that part 
immediately over the aperture, but shewed itself also between the 
valve and a part of its seat. When it was raised half an inch, the 
same point point, h, which in Fig. 8, shews the greatest vacuum, 
indicated a pressure of a quarter of an inch of mercury, while the 
circle of greatest vacuum, had removed farther from the aperture. 

It has been suggested, that the formation of the vacuum may 
\>e accounted for from th^ known tendency of a compressed spring, 

46 On Due Steatn Valves, 

when liberated, to fly beyond the point at which it will finally 
settle. But this action of a spring is only one instance of the 
operation of a general law of nature which is applicable to all 
bodies. When any body elastic or non-elastic is put in motion, 
its inertia causes it to continue in motion in the direction in 
which it has been impelled until its force is expended, ' The force 
of a liberated metallic spring* is expended in the effort to over- 
come the tenacity of the substance of which it is composed, while 
the force of a cannon ball, fired into an earthen bank, is expended 
on the resistance presented by the earth; but it is projectile 
force that is expended in both instances. 

In a short time after the phenomenon of the adherence of the 
air-valve was observed by Mr. Roberts, he ascertained, by 
experiment^ without knowing that it had been done, before, that 
water, when forced through a conical pipe, with considerable 
velocity, will draw out other water, placed below in an open 
vessel, if one end of a small tube is inserted in the conical pipe, 
and the other end is immersed in the water, in the vessel below : 
thus showing that water, an inelastic fluid, produced the same 
effect that air did, when rushing out in a stream, confined in a 
peculiar manner. And at the time this paper was going to press, 
water was by pressure from a column of considerable height, made 
to issue from a pipe with a valve placed over it, similar to what is 
exhibited in Fig. 6, when the valve, instead of being forced off by 
the issuing stream of water, was found to adhere to the seat, at a 
small distance from it. And when the apparatus was inverted, 
and the value consequently placed below the seat, upon the water 
being permitted to flow, the valve, instead of obeying the law of 
grovity and falling by its own weight, or of being driven off the 
force of the stream of water, adhered, with considerable firmness, 
to the seat. 


[ 47 3 

S^ottj^ ipautito. 

{Continued from p. 341.) 

To Richard Edwards, of Dewsbury, in the county of York, 
leather and flock seller, for the invention of an improvement on, 
or a substitute for glass, sand, emery, and other scouring paper 
or substances. 

To Joel Benedict Nott, of Schenectady, in the State of New 
York, now of Barry Street, St. James's, in the county of Mid- 
dlesex, for the invention, communicated to him by a foreigner 
residing abroad, of certain improvements in the construction of a 
furnace or furnaces for generating heat, and in the apparatus for 
the applicotion of heat to various useful purposes. — ^Feb^ 18. 

To Bartholomew Redfem, of Birmingham, in the county of 
Warwick, gun-maker, for the invention of a lock, break-oflf, and 
trigger, upon a new and improved principle, for fowling-pieces, 
muskets, rifles, pistols, and small fire-arms of all descriptions. — 
Feb. 21. 

To John Wallace, brassfounder in Leith, for the invention of 

an improvement or improvements upon the safety-hearths for the 
use of vessels. — Feb. 23. 

To Joh2 Macdowall, of Johnston, near Paisley, for the invention 
of certain improvements on the pistons, valves, and boilers of 
steam-engines. — March 2. 

To William Morgan, of York Terrace, Regent'^ Park, in the 
county of Middlesex, Esq, for the invention of certain improve- 
ments in steam-engines 

To Jeremiah Grime, jun. of Bury, in the county of Lancaster, 
copper-plate engraver, for the invention of a certain method of 
dissolving snow and ice on the trams or railways, in order that 
locomotive steam engines and carriages, and other carriages, may 
pass over railroads, without any obstruction or impediment from 
such snow or ice. 

To David Napier of Warren Street, Fitxroy Square, in the 
county of Middlesex, engineer, and James and William Napier 

48 Scotch Patents, 

of Glasgow, machinists, for an invention of " certain improve- 
ments in machinery for propelling locomotive carriages." — 

March 14. 

To Robert Stephenson of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in the county 
of Northumberland, engineer, for an invention of ** an improve- 
ment in the axle and parts which form the bearings at the centres 
of wheels for carriages which ar6 to travel upon edge rail- 
ways." — March 24. 

To Henry Pratt of Bilston, in the county of Stafford, miller, 
for an invention of certain kiln-tiles made and manufactured of 
clay, iron, and other metals and materials, for the purpose of 
drying wheat, malt, oats, and other grain, and for various other 
purposes, with the formation of the fire-place and kiln. 

To Thomas Baily and Charles Baily, both of the town of 
Leicester, in the county of Leicester frame-smiths, for an inven- 
tion of certain improvements in mach|inery for making lace, com- 
monly called bobbin-net. — April 22. 

To James Milne, of the city of Edinburgh, brass -founder, for 
an invention of an improvement or improvements on gas-meters. — 
April 27. 

To David Napier, of Warren Street, Fitzroy Square, in the 

county of Middlesex, engineer, for an invention of certain im- 

. provements in printing machinery, with a method of economising 

the power applied to the same, which method of economissing 

power is also applicable to other purposes. — April 11. 

To John Dickson, of Abbots Langley, in the county of Hert- 
ford, paper- maker, for an invention of an improved method of 
manufacturing paper by means of machinery. — April 29, 

To John and James Potter, of Smedley, near Manchester, 
spinners and manufacturers, for an invention of certain improve- 
ments in machinery, or apparatus applicable to the spining or 
twisting of cotton, flax, silk, wool, and other fibrous materials. 
— May 2. 

To William Rutherford, junior, of Jedburgh, writer and bank 
agent» for an invention o\ a combination or arrangement of ap- 
paratus or mechanism, to be used by itself, or applied to locks 

tod other fasteniogs, for more effectually protecting property. — - 
May 3. 



Scotch Patent,?. 


To Samuel Mordan, of Manchester, in the county of Lancas- 
ter, in the kingdom of England, merchant, for an invention of 
an improved stretching machine. — May 18. 

To Andrew Smith, of Princes Street, Leicester Square, in the 
parish of St. Martins-in-the-Fields, in the couiity of Middlesex, 
mechanist, for an invention of certain improvements in ma- 
chinery for propelling boats, vessels, or other floating bodies on 
the water, and in the manner of constructing boats and vessels 
for carrjdng such machinery ; part of which said improvements 
are applicable 'to water-wheels for driving mills or machinery, 
and also to windmills. — May 19. 

To Thomas Knowles, of Charlton Row, in the county of Lan- 
caster, cotton-spinner, for an invention of certain improvements 
in certain machinery, by aid of which machinery spinning ma- 
chines, commonly called mules, are or may be rendered what is 
termed self-acting — that is to say, certain improvements in certain 
machinery, by aid of which machinery spinning machines com- 
monly called mules, are or may be worked by power, without 
requiring the usual application of the strength of the spinners 
to give motion to the handles or wheels, and to such other parts 
of mules as are commonly worked by the strength of the spin- 
ners. — May 20. 

To Samuel Lambert, of Regent Street, in the parish of St. 
James, Westminster, in the county of Middlesex, gold-lace-man, 
for an invention of an improvement in throstle spindles for spin- 
ning and twisting silk, cotton, wool, flax, and other fibrous sub- 

To Sir Thomas Cochrane, Knight, commonly called Lord 
Cochrane, of Regent's Park, in the coimty of Middlesex, for an 
invention of an improved rotatory engine to be impelled by steam ; 
and which may be also rendered applicable to other puposes. — 
June 2. 

To Sir Thomas Cochrane, Kight, commonly called Lord Coch- 
rane, of Regent's Park, in the county of Middlesex, for appa- 
ratus to fecilitate excavating, sinking, and mining. — ^June 4. 

To Andrew Ure, of Finsbury Circus, in the county, of Middle- 
aex, M. D., for an invention of an apparatus for regulating the 
temperature in evaporization, distillation, and other processes. 

Vol. IX. Second Series. 


50 New Patents Sealed. 

To George Stephenson, of Liverpool, civil engineer, for an 
invention of an improvement in the mode of constmcting wheels 
for railway carriages. — ^June 6. 

To Alexander Craig, of Ann Street, St. Bernard's, in the pa- 
rish of St. Cuthbert, and county of Mid-Lothian, in consequence 
of a communication made by a certain foreigner, residing abroad, 
of an invention of certain improvements in machines or ma- 
chinery for cutting timber into vineers or other useful forms. 
— June 6. 

To Michael Donovan, of the city of Dublin, druggist, for an 
invention of an improved method of lighting places with 
gas. — June 10. 

To John Aitchison of Clyde Buildings, in the city of Glasgow, 
and county of Lanark, merchant, for an invention of certain 
improvements in the concentrating and evaporating cane juice 
solutions of sugar, and other fluids, — June 10. 

N^tD i9«ait0 SraUh* 

To George Freeman, of Tewkesbury, in the county of 
Gloucester, lace manufacturer, for his having inveDted 
certain improvements in machinery for ornamenting and 
producing devices upon lace. — Sealed 22d Feb. — 
6 mouths, for Inrolment. 

To Alexandre Beattie Shankland, of Liverpool-street, 
in the city of London, in consequence of a communication 
made to him by a foreigner resident in America, for a 
new method of cutting, working, and planing of wood, 
minerals, and metals, by means of machinery. — 23d Feb. 
6 months. 

To William Crofts, of Lenton, in the county of Not- 
tingham, frame smith, for his having invented or found 
out certain improvements in machinery for making lace 
or net, commonly called bobbin-net lace. — 23d Feb. 
6 months. 
: To Ralph Watson, of York-place, Port man-square, in 

New PatenU Sealed. 51 

the county of Middlesex^ Esq. in consequence of a com- 
munication naade to him by a certain foreigner residing 
abroad, for an invention of a certain improved lamp. — 
23d Feb. 6 months. 

To Thomas De La Rue, of Crown-street, Finsbury- 
square, in the county of Middlesex, card maker, for his 
having invented certain improvements in making or manu- 
facturing, and ornamenting playing cards. — 23d l^^eb. 
6 months. 

To William Church, of Bordesley Green, near Bir- 
mingham, in the county of Warwick, gentleman, for his 
having invented or discovered certain improvements in 
machinery for making nails. — 25th Feb. 6 mouths. 

To Samuel Walker, of Millshaw, near Leeds, in the 
county of York, clothier, for his having invented or dis- 
covered certain improvements in gig machines for dressing 
woollen cloths. — 1st March, 6 months. 

To John Joyce, of Portland-road, in the parish of St. 
Mary-le bone and county of Middlesex, gentleman, in 
consequence of a communication made to him by a cer- 
tain foreigner residing abroad, for an invention of a cer- 
tain improvement or improvements in machinery for 
making nails of iron, copper, and other metals. — 1st 
March, 6 months. 

To Charles Beard, of Coggleshall, in the county of 
Essex, ironmonger, for his having invented or found out 
an improvement in the construction of cocks for taps for 
drawing off liquids. — 1st March, 2 months. 

To George Oldland, of Hillsley, in the parish of 
Hawkesbury, in the county of Gloucester, cloth worker, 
for his having invented or discovered certain improve- 
ments in machinery or apparatus for shearing, dressing, 
and finishing of woollen cloths, and other fabrics — 3cl 
March, 6 months. 

52 New Patents Sealed. 

To William Wells, of Manchester, in the county of 
Lancaster, machine maker, for bis having found out and 
discovered a new and improved method of making* and 
constructiog gig machines, otherwise called raising 
machines, or machines for raising the nap or pile of, and 
brushing and dressing woollen and other cloths. — 8th 
March, 2 months. 

To Thomas Petherick, of Penpelleck, in the parish of 
Tydwardrestle, in the county of Cornwall, mine agent, 
and John Filmore Kingston, of Islington, m the county 
of Devon, gentleman, for their having invented improve* 
ments in certain machinery and apparatus for separating 
copper, lead, and other ores from earthy and other sub- 
stances, with which they are or may be mixed; the said 
improvement being applicable to the machinery for which 
a patent was granted by his late Majesty to the petitioner 
Thomas Petherick, bearing date the 28th day of April, 
1830.— 8th March, 6 months. 

To Frederick Collier Bakewell, of Haropstead, in the 
county of Middlesex, gentleman, for his having invented 
certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for 
making or manufacturing soda water, and other aerated 
waters or liquids. — 8th March, 6 months. • 

To Joseph Gibbs, of the Kent Road, in the county of 
Kent, engineer, and William Chaplin, of the Adelphi, 
in the county of Middlesex, coach maker, for their 
having invented certain improvements in wheeled car- 
riages, and in the means of constructing the same. — 8th 
March. 6 Months. 

To Henry Warner, of Loughborough, in the county 
of Leicester, hosier, Charles Hood, of the same place, 
framesmith and setter-up, and Benjamin Abbot, also of 
the same place, framework knitter, for their having in- 
vented certain improvements upon machinery now in\ use 

New Patents Sealed. 63 

for makiog or maDufacturifig stockings^ stoojking net^ or 
framework knitting, warp web, warp net, and point net. — 
8th MajTQh. 6 monthd. 

To John Day, of Birminghaai, in the county of War- 
wick, brass founder, for bis having invented an improve -> 
ment in the manfacture of cocks, used for the stopping 
and drawing off gass and water, and for other purposes for 
for which cocks are new used. — 15th March. 6 months. 

To Henry Brewer, of Surrey-place, Old Kent Road, 
in the parish of Saint George Southwark, in the county 
of Surrey, wire weaver, for his having invented or dis- 
covered certain improvements in machinery or apparatus 
for making paper. — I5tb March. 6 QK>ntbs. 

To John Walmsley, of Manchester) silk winder, for 
bis having invented a machine for cutting off fur or hair 
from heaver and other skins.— l5th March. 6 months. 

To Matthew Towgood, of Dartford, in the county of 
Kent, paper maker, for his having invented certain im- 
provements in cutting paper. — 15th March. 6 months. 

To William Day, of Gate-street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, 
ni the parish of Saint Giles in the Fields^ inthe county of 
Middlesex, lithographic printer, for his having invented 
or discovered certain improvements in the construction of 
printing presses. — ^22nd March. 6 months. 

To Bennet Woodcroft, of Manchester, in the county 
palatine of Lancaster, printer, for his having invented 
or discovered certain improvements in the construction 
and adaptation of a revolving spiral paddle, for propelU 
ing boats and other vessels on water.-^22nd March. 6 

To William Alexander Brown, of Liverpool, in the 
countv of Lancaster, merchant, and Herman Hendricks, 
of Passz, near Paris, in the kingdom of France, but 
now residing in Russel-street, Covent Garden, in the 

54 New Patents Sealed. 

county of Middlesex, gentleman, in consequence of a 
communication from a certain foreigner residing abroad, 
by which they are in possession of an invention of an 
improved method or methods of manufacturing the prussi- 
ates of potash and soda, and the prussiate of iron, also 
for the construction of certain apparatus, vesst^ls, or ma* 
chinery, to be used in the said manufacture, and a new 
or improved method of employing the said prussiate of 
iron, or other prussiates of iron, as a substitute for indigo, 
in dying all sorts of wools, and whether in the fleece, 
skin, spun, or woven into cloth, stuffs, or otherwise ; 
also in dying silks, cottons, or linens, and in fact, all 
other sorts and descriptions of textile or other substances 
fit for the purpose of receiving colour of a blue^ blue- 
black, black, greens, bronze, or any other colours for 
which indigo has hitherto been used, either as a ground 
work or auxiliary; and also for an improved arrangement 
of certain utensils and machinery, to be used in the said 
dying process. — ^22nd March, 6 months. 

To Benjamin Cook, of Birmingham, in the county of 
Warwick, brass founder, for his having invented an 
improvement in the application of a material hitherto 
unused in the manufacture of paints, varnishes, and for 
various other purposes. — ^22nd March, 6 months. 

To Peter Young, of Fenchurch-street, in the city of 
London, rope and sail maker, in consequence of a com- 
munication made to him by a foreigner residing abroad, 
for an invention of a new mode of manufacturing mangel 
wurzel, for the purpose of producing certain known 
articles of commerce. — 22nd March, 6 months. 

Chancery Lane, Newton & Berry 

London. Office for Patents, 

Meteorological Journal , 1832. 







in in — 












111 lU' 































37 i 29 


























42 30 

























48 , 35 












46 as 










4« 3^ 
































































































































29,40 Stat. 























































































Charles Henry Adams. 


CELESTIAL PHENOMENA, for April, 163'i. 

D. H. M. 




1 22 11 




3 li 

4 M 




8 34 






9 40 


18 49 

7 21 










13 20 13 






12 46 

17 22 


18 19 68 

19 14 36 



20 19 46 

Clock before the Q 8 m. 66 s. 

$ in perihelio 

Q rises 5 h. 33 m. sets 6 h. 

27 m. 
Q passes the meridian 
2Z passes the meridian 
9 in conj. with 2/ lowPT- 14. 
in Aquarius, ^ lat. 1. 17. 
S. Iat.58S.diff. oflat. 20. 
^ passes the meridian 
rises 6 h. 25 m. sets 6 h. 

36. m. 
Clock before the (7) 2 m. 44s. 
P passes the meridian 
J) in perige 

^ in conj. with H long. 14 in 
Cap. ^lat. 1.16. S. y lat. 
40 S. diff. of lat. 86. 
T^ passes the meridian 
i in D or firet quarter 
passes the meridian 
in Aphelio 
alias R. A. 22 h. 47 m. Decl. 
3. 14. N. 
Clock before the Q 1 m. 18 s. 
rises 6 h. 16 min. sets 6 h. 

45 min. 
occult, of Saturn, Im. 3 h. 26m. 
Em. 4t> h. 10 m. mean time. 
S passes the meridian. 
S passes the meridian. 
Ecliptic oppos. or Q full m. 
Clock after the 1 m. 
rises 5 h. 6 m. sets 6 h. 
54 m. 

passes the meridian 
in conj. with ^ in Oph. 
esta R. A. 8 h. 27 m. Decl. 
25. 6. N. 

passes the meridian 
enters Taurus 
lock after the Q 1 m. 11 s. 
rises 4 h. 56 m. sets 7 h. 

4 m. 
(C passes the meridian 


D. H. M. 

21 3 ([ in Apo^e 

21 10 23 ^ passes the meridian 

22 16 12 ^ in D or last quarter 

22 Juno R. A. 9 h. 52 m. Decl. 

11.23. N. 

23 22 in conj. with ^ lon^. 18. in 

Cap. ([ lat. 55 S. y lat. 40. 
S. diff. of lat. 15. 

24 ^ Stationary near ( in Aries 
36 52 2 passes the meridian 

25 Clock after the 2 m. 10 s. 

26 ([ in conj. with ^ long, i in 

Aqnanus ([ lat. 1. 57. S. 

S lat. 1.32. S. diff. of lat. 

25 rises 4 h. 47 m. sets 7 h. 

13 m. 
25 20 8 ^ pa&ses the meridian 

25 22 80 9 passes the meridian 

26 Juno R. A. 9 h. 54 m. Decl. 

11.30. N. 
26 10 14 ([ in conj. with 2/ long 19 m 
Aquarius ([ Ut 8. 17. S. 1. 2. S. diff oflat. 

26 21 30 ([ passes the meridian 

27 32 5f in conj. with J in Aries. 

28 7 50 C inconj. with 9 long. 14 X 

([ lat. 4. 36. S. $ lat. 1. 

32. S. diff. of lat. 3. 4. 
30 Ceres R. A. h. 56 m. Decl. 

2. 46. S. 
80 Clock after the 2 nl. 66 s. 
80 rises 4 h. 38 m. sets 7h. 

22 m. 
30 28 ^ passes the meridian 
SO 3 40 Ecliptic conj. or # new moon 
80 15 28 ([ in conj. with $ long. 17. 

in Aries, ([ at. 4. 56- S. 

Merc. lat. 1.29. N. diff. of 

lat 6. 25. 

None of the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites 
are visible in London this month. 

The waxing moon ]) . — the waning moon ([ 





No. L. 

[second series.] 

^ttmt Hj^ntmtfi, 

To John Moore, of Broad Wier, in the city of Bristol ^ 
gentleman, for certain new or improved machinery for 
propelling carriages ; also for propelling ships , 
vessels J or other floating bodies, and for guiding 
propelled carriages, and apparatus for condensing 
the steam of the steam engines after it has propelled 
the steam engine piston. — [Sealed 30th Sept. 1829.J 

The subjects of this Patent are divided into two heads; 
first, an apparatus for actuating and guiding the running 
wheels of a locomotive carriage, or driving the paddle 
wheels of a steam vessel ; and, secondly, the employment 
of an air valve in the eduction tube of the steam engine, 
for the purpose of promoting the condensation. The 
manner in which these improvements are described in 

Vol. IX. — Second Sbribs. i 

58 Recent Patents. 

the specification, render it very difficult to discover the 
whole of the Patentee's inventions ; we shall^ however, 
give the best explanation we are enabled to aiake under 
these citcum stances, observing", that in our opinion, those 
parts of the invention, which are intelligibly shewn, do 
not appear likely to become practically useful for the 
purposes proposed. 

Plate III. fig. 1, is a horizontal representation of the 
locomotive engine ; a, a, a, is a square or oblong frame 
through which the axle b, of the running wheel c, c, 
passes, and at right angles to this is the perch d, d, of 
the carriage ; e,/, and g, h, are vibrating levers, turning 
upon the perch d, as their fulcrums or axle ; the ends of 
these levers are attached by joints to the lateral levers 
/, and k, which turn upon the axle of the running wheels 
as their fulcrum. At the ends of these lateral levers 
2, and Ar, clips I, m, n, o, are affixed, which are severally 
designed to take hold occasionally of the periphery of 
the running wheels, in order that, by depressing one end, 
and raising the other end of the lateral levers i, k, the 
clips having hold of the wheels, may force them round. 

The driving powers, which may be that of a steam 
engine mounted in the carriage, is to be connected by a 
rod to one of the arms e,/^ g, or A, and by its recipro- 
cating action these arms will be alternately raised and 
depressed, and the lateral levers i, and k, consequently 
be made to vibrate upon their fulcrums on the axle /. 

This vibratory action of the lateral levers i, and Ar, will, 
it is said, cause the clips /, m, n, o, to take hold of the 
periphery of the wheel, and to drive it through part of a 
rotation, and it is by a succession of these vibratory 
strokes, that the wheels are to be pushed round, and the 
carriage or vessel to be propelled forward. 

Mooters, for Impts, in Propelling Carriages* 69 


Such is the scheme proposed^ but it must be confessed^ 
that the drawing does not exhibit a practicable method of 
accomplishing the intended motion^ and, if really accom- 
plished, it is quite obvious that the movement must be 
too slow for any such purpose, as that of propelling the 
running wheels of carriages, or the paddle wheels of 
steam vessels. 

The mode of steering or guiding carriages, is not more 
intelligibly made out in the specification than the pre- 
ceding. A rectangular fmine p^p^p, p, which is placed 
before the carriage already described, at fig. 1, is 
mounted upon two moving wheels q, q, which constitutes 
the fore carriage ; r, is the steering cross, upon the axle 
of which there is a pulley or roller with a cord or chain 
s, s, Sy s, passing round it, and over pulleys at the angles 
of the frame ; and after embracing a pulley at t^ the ends 
of this cord or chain are made fast to the frame of the 
hinder carriage. 

Thfere is no explanation given of the way in which this 
is to turn or guide the carriage, and we are left in a very 
unsatisfactory way to conjecture it. 

Fig. 2, is intended to exhibit the improvements for con- 
densing steam after it has passed from the working cylinder ; 
a, isa section of the working cylinder, with its piston; 6,6, the 
boxes with the induction and^duction valves, from whence 
a tube c, c, c, passes from a boiler to convey the steam 
into the cylinder, and the tube d, d, d, carries off the 
steam from the eduction ; /*> is a box with a valve, open- 
ing to admit atmospheric air, for the purpose of aiding 
the condensation, the water being discharged by the pipe e. 
There is another plan proposed, shewn at fig. 3, which, it 
is said, will answer equally well. All that we can make 
out of this, is, that cold water is to be poured down the 

60 Recent Patents. 


tube g, g, to aid the condensation, and the water to 
run oflF at bottom. — [Inrolled in the Petty Bag Office, 
March, 1830.] 

To Edward Turner, of Gower-street^ in the county of 
Middlesex, M. D. and Willlam Shand, of the Burn, 
in Kincardineshire, in that part of the United King' 
dom called Scotland, Esq. for their having invented 
a new method of purifying and whitening sugars, or 
other matter, — [Sealed 26th June, 1830.] 

The removal of the colouring matter from sugar is 
usually effected by filtering water through the sugar in a 
conical vessel. The broad end of the vessel is placed 
uppermost, and being filled with the moist sugar, its sur- 
face is covered with wet clay, from which the water 
descends through the sugar, and carrying with it the 
colouring matter in solution, passes off at bottom through 
a hole in the apex of the inverted cone. 

The plan proposed by the Patentees is not materially 
different from that above described, excepting that they 
propose to force the water through the sugar, instead of 
allowing it to descend slowly by its own gravity. 

Plate II. fig. 12, represents a vessel a, formed as the 
frustrum of a cone : it is proposed to be made by staves 
of wood, combined as a cask, with iron hoops round it, 
having a bottom perforated with small holes. On the 
top edge of this vessel there is a flange or flat rim b, b, 
into which the plate c, of fig. 13, is intended to fit. 

The vessel is placed in a tripod stand for convenience, 
and when filled with sugar fresh from the boiler, it is 
allowed to get cold ; then the plate c, is placed over it. 

Turner and Strand* s, for Impts. in Sugar. 61 

and the two are made fast together by screws or bolts 
passed through the flanges. Water is then poured into the 
funnel z, which^ when the stop cock is opened^ paisses 
down the perpendicular pipe or column e, into the ves- 
sel a, and there descending through the sugar by its 
gravity^ passes out at bottom^ bringing the colouring 
matter from the sugar with it in.<soIution. 

A coarse cloth should be laid upon the surface of the 
sugar, to prevent its being disturbed by the descending 
water ; and leather should be introduced between the 
flanges to prevent the water oozing out at the joint. 

Syrup or molasses may be used^ or other fluids^ instead 
of water^ as the invention consists in applying a column 
of liquor of any suitable kind, on the top of a vessel 
containing sug'ar, for the purpose of carrying ofl* the 
colouring matter in its descent through the sugar with 
greater expedition than is effected by the ordinary means 
of clarifying. — [Inrolled in the Inrolment Office, Decem- 
ber, 1830.] 

To Moses Poole, of Lincoln* s Inn, gentleman^ in con^ 
sequence of a communication made to him by a certain 
foreigner residing abroad, for an invention of cer» 
tain improvements in the apparatus used for certain 
processes of extracting molasses or syrup from 
sugar. — [Sealed 26th June, 1830.] 

The object of this invention is precisely the same as the 
preceding, but the mode of effecting it is different. 

An open vessel is to be made with what is called a 
false bottom, that is, a double bottom, the inner one being 

62 Recent Patents. 

perforated with many holes; this false bottom is to be 
concave as a basin^ and to be covered mth a horse hair 
clothe to prevent the materials passing through. 

When filled with the sugar frdm which the colouring 
matter is to be extracted, an exhaustion is to be produced 
in the vessel under the false bottom, which will cause the 
liquid matter above to pass rapidly through by the su- 
perincumbent pressure of the atmosphere, and thereby 
carry off the colouring matter quickly, which may be 
occasionally drawn from the bottom of the vessel, by 
opening a stop cock for the purpose. 

The exhaustion to be produced under the false bottom, 
is proposed to be effected by condensing steam. No draw- 
ings accompany the specification, though the Patent is 
granted for ^'improvements in the apparatus used for 
certain processes of extracting molasses, &c." We 
should rather say improvements in the process of ex- 
tracting, &c. It is, however, said that a jet of cold 
water is to be thrown into the vessel filled with steam, or 
rather a shower by a rose head distributor, which by 
cooling and condensing the steam, will produce an ex- 
haustion of the air under the false bottom of the vessel 
containing the sugar without employing an air pump. — [In- 
rolled in the Inrolment Office, December, 1830.] 

To John Lanb Higoins, of Oxford- street, in the county 
of Middlesex , gentleman, for certain improvements 
in wheel carriages, — [Sealed 1 1th August, 1828,") 

The intention of the Patentee is to construct an improved 
apparatus for locking the fore wheels of a carriage, in 
which, instead of thej axletree turning upon a centre pin. 

Higgins\ for Impts, in Wheel Carriages. 63 

fixed in for part of the axletree, as in the ordinary way, 
it is here made to move round horizontally upon a 
changeable centre in the following manner : — 

Plate III. fig. 4, is a horizontal or plan view of the 
carriage running upon three wheels, the body being re- 
moved to shew the parts more clearly ; fig. 6, is an eleva- 
tion of the fore wheels and axle taken transversely; 
a, a, are the fore wheels ; b, the hind wheel ; c, c, c, c, 
the fore carriage for supporting the body of the vehicle, 
having springs under it affixed to the axletree as usual ; 
e, is called the sway bar, which is connected to the fore 
carriage under the perch ; /, f, is a double perch, formed 
through and secured to the transome g. The bed of the 
fore carriage is at e, fixed upon the axletree ; i, i, is an 
iron staple, firmly fixed to and standing up from the bed, 
seen best at fig. 5, the ends of which staple form the 
double or changeable centres. 

The double perch /, /*, bears upon the bed A, under 
the staple i, i, in the fore carriage, add upon the springiSi 
or axletree of the hind wheels. Two curved pieced kj k, 
are framed into the transome g, and made fast to the 
ends of the perch. These pieces k, ky are segments of 
circles, the radius of which is equal to thie length of the 
staple t. There is a bolt fixed at I; intended to work 
against the bent piece m, when the carriage is on (he 

/The perch is drawn forward by the ends of the staple 
i, bearing against the segment piece A:, k^ and when it is 
upon the lock, as shewn by dots in fig. 4, one end of the 
staple becomes the centre of motion, while the other end 
moves round within the arc of the segment piece by 
which it is confined. 

The Patentee says, a body being fixed upon the fore 
carriage, and turning with it between the wheels in the 

64 Recent Patents, 

same manner as a two wheeled carriage, the driving is 
rendered much safer and easier than an ordinary four 
wheeled carriage ; a great advantage is also gained by 
this construction of carriage, when backing or going 
down hill. The two ends of the staple bearing against 
the transome, the hind wheel is kept parallel with the 
fore wheels, except when the driver wishes to alter his 
course. Another body seat or boot may be placed over 
the hind wheel, with a recess for that wheel to work in. 

The carriage may be made of any of the usual mate- 
rials, and the form and proportions may be varied acr* 
cording to the kind of body or seat , for which it is 

Tb^ Patentee concludes by sayipg, *' My invention 
does not consist in any specific form or construction of 
the wheel, axletrees, springs, or other parts in a detached 
state ; but my improvements consist in combining and 
i^rranging those parts in such a manner as to form three 
wheeled carriages with double centre perches. The 
figures of the drawing shew how the parts are to be 
combined to form a carriage of the above kind, but the. 
arrangements, forms, dimensions and proportions of the 
parts may be greatly varied to render carriages of the 
above description suitable for various purposes of plea- 
sure or utility ; such va,riations will be obvious jto any 
competent workman who may construct carriages accord- 
ing to my improvement." — [InroUed in the Inrolment 
Office, Feb. 1829.^ . 

[ 65 ] 

To William Mencke, of Park-place, Peckhdm, in the county of 
Surrey^ gentleman, for certain improvements in preparing mate- 
rials for and in the making or manufacturing of bricks, — [Sealed 
11th August, 1828.] 

There are two objects proposed under this Patent ; the first is, to 
improve the quality of bricks by the admixture of chalk with the 
clay; and, secondly, the employment of a peculiar construction of 
press for forming or moulding the bricks in a more perfect and 
expeditious manner, than by hand moulds. 

In the first instance> the clay is to be prepared with chalk, by 
grinding the two substances together in an ordinary pug mill. 
The mass of material, after having been ground, is to be mixed 
with a considerable quantity of water ; and when it has been al- 
lowed to settle, the water is to be drawn off from the top by a 
portable pump, the trunk of which must be gradually lowered 
into the fluid, so as not to disturb the mixture, or become itself 
clogged by the clay. When the water has been sufficiently 
withdrawn, a quantity of sulphuric acid is to be poured upon the 
clay, which will caiise the materials to mix more perfectly to- 
gether. The proportions of clay and chalk are not stated, nor 
the quantity of sulphuric acid, but these will probably require 
to be varied, according to the qualities of the material. 

When the chemical action of the acid upon the earthy matters 
has sufficiently operated, and the materials have been properly 
incorporated together, the plastic stuff is to be spread out to dry 
in Slabs, and when dry, is to be fed by hand into the press or ma- 
chine, in which the bricks are to be formed. 

Plate III. fig. 6, represents an elevation of the brick-making 
press, consisting of two strong iron pillars a, a, which are the 
main supports ; b, is the cross beam at top, through which the 
screw c, passes; and d, the crossbeam at bottom, having a reser- 
voir of water with the plug or stem e, working in it, as an ordi- 
nary hydraulic press. 

Vol. IX. Second Series. k 

66 Recent Patents. 

The box or mould in which the bricks are made, is shewn at 
/,/, fixed to and supported by the standard pillars. It consists 
of a rectangular frame with partitions, dividing the box into any 
number of spaces corresponding to the form and size of the in- 
tended bricks, of which eight, twelve, or any other desired num- 
ber may be moulded at one time. This box is open both at top 
and bottom; the under side is to be closed when the machine is in 
operation by a flat board g, supported by the flat table, called the 
follower h, which is mounted on the stem e, of the hydraulic 
press; and the force pump being worked as usual in other hydrau- 
lic presses, the water will be forced through the pipe t, and raise 
up the follower h, and board g, to the under side of the mould; 
the screw c, is attached to the plunger k, having a number of 
blocks on its under side, corresponding to the number of bricks 
intended to be made at one operation in the mould, which blocks, 
are designed to compress the material, and to force the bricks out 
of the mould when formed. 

The clay and other material compounded as above stated, is to 
be thrown into the mould/, in a dry state, by a labourer, and 
when the mould is solidly fQled, the material is to be spread level 
with the top of the frame/; the lever /, of the fly press being 
now swung round, the blocks of the plunger k, vnll descend into 
the compartments of the mould, and press the material into a 
compact form. The valve of the hydraulic press may now be 
opened, which will cause the follower h, to descend, when by 
further turning the lever /, of the fly press, the brick will be dis- 
charged from the moulds through the bottom on to the board g, by 
which they may be removed from the press to be dried, and ano- 
ther batch of bricks made in the machine in the like way. 

The bricks after having been thus formed, are to be dried, 
ready for burning, by piling them in open ranges, in an arched 
oven. The construction of the oven for drying is not very ma- 
terial, but it is proposed, to make a series of long narrow ovens, 
with arched roofs, the furnace of each being in front, and the 
chimney at the back, by which means> the. heat will be conducted 

Rouse" Si for Impts. in watering Roads, 67 

through the stacks of bricks, and the moist vapour be carried off 
by the chimneys. 

When the bricks have been sendered sufficiently dry by these 
means, they are to be removed from the ovens, and are to be 
again stacked within the same ovens with fiiel ; and in that way 
they are to be burned and rendered fit for use. 

Bricks made in this manner will be found to be of a very su- 
perior quality, more compact, better shaped, and more durable 
than any bricks that have been hei*etofore made by any other 
means or materials. — [InroUed in the Inralment Office^ February , 

To John Boasb, of Albany-street, gentleman, and Thomas 
Smith, mechanic, of Augustus-street, both in the Regenfs-park, 
in the county of Middlesex ^ for their having invented certain 
improvements in machines or machinery for scraping, sweeping, 
cleaning, and watering streets, roads, and other ways, which 
machines or machinery may be applied to other purposes. — 
[Sealed 10th December, 1828.] 

It appears to be the intention of the Patentees to save part of the 
labour of scavengers, by driving a machine, containing a rotary 
brush and scrapers, over the surface of streets and roads, in order 
to bring the mud, without the labour of hand sweeping, to one 
side of the way, where it may be taken up by scoops, and thrown 
into the mud cart by hand labour, as usual, in order to be carried 

Plate III. fig. 7, shews a plan, or horizontal representation of 
'the machine ; a, a, is a rectangular frame, mounted upon a rotary 
axle b, to which the running wheels c, c, are affixed ; d, d, is an 
axle placed diagonally, which has a cylindrical brush fixed upon 
it. This axle turns in bearings in the frame a, and is driven 
round by a bevel pinion on the rotary axle b. 

Horses are to be attached to this carriage by means of the 

68 Recent Patents, 

shafts in front, or it may be drawn by hand as a track. The 
rotation of the running wheels c, c, as the carriage goes forward, 
gives, through the bevel pinions, an opposite rotary movement to 
the cylindrical brush, which sweeps the mud in a diagonal direc- 
tion to the side of the road. 

In order to collect that portion of the mud which has the stiff- 
est consistency before sweeping, scrapers are employed to pre- 
cede the brush ; these scrapers are made by plates of metal e, e, e, 
suspended by rods or chains from the shaft /, which is' placed 
diagonally in the fore part of the carriage. The shaft is made 
capable of turning upon its axis, in order to raise the scrapers to 
any height from the ground that may be desired ; being in many 
pieces, they are enabled to give way if any stone or other obstruc- 
tion comes against them. A tail scraper, of a half-moon shape, is 
affixed to the back part of the carriage at g, to collect and scrape 
the mud into a heap on the side. A tank with water may also 
be placed on the top of the machine, if required, to water the 
ground. — [Inrolled in the Inrolment Office, February, 1829.] 

To Henry Cruger Price, and Charles Fox Price, of the 
city of Bristol, ironmongers, for their having invented or found 
out an improvement in and upon certain apparatus already known 
for the communicating of heat by rneans of the circulating of 
/Mt(fe.— [Sealed 20th August, 1829.] 

The apparatus. to which this improvement relates^ is for.thB 
communicating of heat to air, for the purpose of warming 
the iQterior.of apartments in dwelling houses, or. for shops, 
or manufactories; of churches and public offices; of hot 
houses and ; conservatories. for plants, or other buildings in 
which a moderate degree of artificial heat or warmth -is re- 
quired to be given to the air. therein contained; the com- 

Price'syfor Impts, in communicating Heat. 69 

ttiunication of that heat being effected by means of the 
circulation of hot water through a system of pipes and hollow 
vessels ; one of which vessels is situated at the lower part of 
the apparatus, and is exposed to the heat of fire, in the 
manner of a boiler, in order to give heat to the water therein 
contained ; and other hollow vessels which are situated at the 
upper part of the apparatus, and are surrounded with the air 
which is to be warmed, by communicating to that air a part of 
the heat which the contained water received when the same was 
in the boiler. 

The circulation is kept up in that direction which will al- 
ways cause the water which is heated in the boiler, to flow out 
from the upper part, through ascending pipes, into the other 
pipes or vessels which are exposed to the air ; and as fast as 
the same water becomes cooled, by communicating part of its 
heat to that air, it flows out from the vessels, through descend- 
ing pipes, and returns into the lower part of the boiler, where 
it becomes heated again, and as fast as it is so heated it rises 
to the upper part of the boiler, and passes away again through 
the ascending pipes to the upper hollow vessels, so as to keep 
up a continual circulation of all the water that is contained in 
the apparatus, through every part of the system of pipes and 
hollow vessels ; for the water goes out of the boiler as soon as 
it is heated by the fire that is applied thereto, and it returns 
back into the said boiler, after it has become cooled within 
the vessels which are exposed to the air that is to be warmed 
by the apparatus. > 

The said circulation results from the ' manner in which the 
said boiler and pipes and hollow vessels are disposed, arranged 
and combised one with another, into a system, whereof that 
part where the fire is applied is on a lower level than the other 
parts which are surrounded by the air that is to be warmed : 
and the ascending and descending connecting pipes between 
one part' and 'the other of the apparatus are so arranged, that 
the columns of water contained in each of the said pipes 

^ • 

70 Recent Patents. 

respectively shall be of equal vertical height ; but nevertheless 
that the water constituting the column within the boiler (and 
the pipes ascending from it), shall be hotter than the water 
constituting the column within the vessels that are exposed to 
the air that is to be heated (and the pipes descending from 
them) : in short, the apparatus must contain two distinct 
columns of water, one hotter than the other, which com- 
municate freely at their respective lowest levels, where the 
boiler is situated, and also at their highest levels, where the 
vessels that are exposed to the air are situated. 

The two columns are of equal vertical heights, or altitudes, 
but the water in one column being colder, and consequently 
heavier than the hotter water in the column, will preponderate, 
and weigh up that other column, so as to cause motion and 
circulation of the water through the apparatus, by virtue of 
those alterations of specific gravity which take place in water, 
or other fluids, whenever they are heated or cooled. 

For instance, when heat is communicated to water, so as to 
raise its temperature, the water expands ; that is, its bulk or 
volume increases, and consequently, the specific gravity of the 
water is diminished ; for any given measure of it will weigh less 
than it would have weighed when the temperature was lower. 
Or on the other hand, when heat is withdrawn from water, so 
as to lower its temperature, that water shrinks or contracts in 
bulk, and consequently its specific gravity is increased. On 
this principle, if one of the columns of water in the apparatus 
is always kept hot by the application of fire to the lowest 
part of it (that is, under the boiler), and if the other column 
is always kept cool by the communication of part of its heat 
to the air that is to be warmed (that cooling taking place at 
the upper part of the column), then the greater specific gravity 
of the cold water in the latter column will outweigh the hotter 
water in the other colunm, so as to displace the hot water out 
of the boiler, and drive it upwards through the ascending 
pipes into the vessels which are exposed to the air, as fast 

Price* Si for Itnpts. in communicating Heai. 71 

as the cooler water runs out therefrom through the descending 
pipes into the boiler ; and the ' heated water so entering 
those upper vessels^ being cooled in its turn by communicating 
part of its heat to the surrounding air, becomes heavier, and 
then descends, forcing up out of the boiler a fresh quantity of 
water which has become heated again therein, and consequently 
lightened ; and thus the water in the boiler, at the bottom of 
the two columns, being continually heated by the fire, and the 
wiiter in the upper vessels being continually cooled by warming 
the air with which they are surrounded, a constant circulation 
of the water is produced through all parts of the apparatus, 
whereby that water becomes a vehicle for the conveyance and 
distribution of heat from the fire to places at a distance, where 
that heat is required to be communicated to air. 

And whereas apparatus of the above description is already 
known, and is not of our invention, it is not necessary to de- 
scribe the same more minutely : what is hereinbefore stated 
being sufficient to explain the kind of apparatus to which our 
improvement is to be applied : and our improvement consists 
in a certain arrangement and combination of pipes and vessels 
(hereinafter described) to be connected with the upper part of 
the ascending pipes from the boiler, which ascending pipes 
contain the column of heated water, in order to receive the in- 
crease which takes place in the volume of the water that is 
contained in the apparatus as it becomes heated. Our improve- 
ment operating in such manner as to avoid overflowing by that 
increase, and yet to keep the boiler and the vessels which are 
exposed to the air, which is to be warmed, (as well as the 
ascending and descending pipes connecting between the same), 
always full of water. 

And further, our improvement consists in constructing the 
aforesaid vessels, which are exposed to the air that is to be 
warmed, in a particular manner (hereinafter described), with 
several cylindrical vessels of different diameters, which are put 
one within another, in pairs, the upper and lower edges of each 
pair being joined together, in order that the space left vacant 

• .ViT 

T2 ttecent Patents. 

between the two cylinders may form a vessel to coDtain the hot 
water. A series of such Cylindrical vessels are disposed one 
within another, leaving narrow cylindrical spaces between them 
for the passage of the air that is to be warmed by the hot 
water, which is contained within the vessels ; consequently, the 
said air will be eitposed, or spread out in thin layers, which 
are situated between extensive surfaces of the vessels contain- 
ing the hot water ; and, conversely, the hot water so contained, 
will be spread out in thin layers, between the said extensive 
surfaces of the vessels exposed to the air ; and that air is 
caused to ascend in a continuous current through the narrow 
cylindrical spaces allotted for it betweeen the said cylindrical 
vessels, at the same that the hot water flows downwards 
through the interior of the cylindrical vessels, whereby the 
heat of the water will be rapidly and completely communicated 
to the air. 

And for the full explanation of our improvement we have 
hereunto annexed a drawing, which represents so much of an 
apparatus for the communicating of heat to air, by means of 
the circulation of hot water through the apparatus, as is re-^ 
quisite for the full explanation of our improvement, and the 
adaptation thereof to the apparatus already known. 

Plate IV. flig. 1. is an elevation of the apparatus with our 
improvement. Figs. 2, 3, and 4, are horizontal sections of 
what we term our water stove, being our aforesaid series of 
vessels, one within another, by which the' heat is communicated 
from the hot water to the air : and ^g, 6, is a vertical section 
of the same stove. The . same letters of reference are used to 
denote the same parts in all the figures ; a, represents the 
boiler, which is of the kind commonly used for steam engines; 
and the only difference in the use of it is, that it is quite filled 
with water. The boiler is heated by applying fire to it in any 
of the modes in use for steam boilers ; but the furnace is much 
smaller, in proportion to the boiler, than is usual in steam 
boilers. The construction of the boiler forming no part of our 
invention need not be further described. 

Price* Sy for Impts, in communicating Heat, 73 

b, is an ascending pipe, joined to the upper part of the* boiler, 
to convey the hot water therefrom up to the cylindrical vessel c ; 
the ascending pipe b, is no part of our invention. The vessel c, 
with the pipes and vessels marked d, e,/, g, k, i, and k, we term 
bur safety reservoir, and we claim the whole thereof as part of 
our invention. The cylindrical vessel c, is of such size as will 
facilitate the \mion of those pipes with it ; and it also serves as 
a reservoir, which contains an extra quantity of water beyond 
what would be absolutely necessary for the performance of the 
apparatus, and thereby allows hot water to be drawn off from the 
apparatus (when required for any useful purpose), without inter- 
rupting the operation of the apparatus ; e?, is a pipe joined to the 
top of the vessel c, and to the bottom of the upper vessel e, in 
order to convey the increased and superfluous quantity of water 
(whether arising from the expansion of the water by heat, or 
otherwise), from c, into e. 

The pipe e?, is curved, or looped down and up again, to form 
an inverted syphon, which will prevent the circulation of water 
that might otherwise take place between c, and e, in conse- 
quence of the water contained in c, (which is the lowest) being 
hotter than that contained in e, (which is higher) ; e, is a vessel in 
the form of a frustum of a cone, open at top, and the pipe d, joins 
it at bottom. It receives the water that may 'proceed from c, 
in consequence of the increase of the volume of the water con- 
tained in the apparatus when it becomes heated. As the vessel e, is 
provided to allow for that expansion, its capacity should be made 
suitable to the increase of bulk consequent upon the application of 
heat. When the fluid employed is water, the capacity of the vessel 
e, should be one twentieth part of the quantity of water contained 
in all the other parts of the apparatus, because water, at the 
mean temperature of 52 degrees of Faht. expands about one 
twentieth of its volume when it becomes heated to 212 degrees, 
or the botLiug point. The vessel e, is made conical, in order that 
as the water rises within it the extent of surface it exposes to 
the atmosphere may be diminished, and the evaporation propor- 

V«L. IX. — Second Sbribs. l 

74 Recent Patents, 

tionably lessened ; /, is a cylindrical vessel, within which the 
conical vessel e, is contained as it were within a case. The ves- 
sel/, is open at top, and its use is to receive such part of the 
water as may overflow the top of e, in consequence of the gene- 
ration of vapour in the boiler, or any other cause. The waste 
of water from the apparatus, whether by evaporation or by being 
withdrawn for useful purposes, or from other causes, may also be 
supplied by pouring water into the vessel/; and g, is a pipe de- 
scending from / to c, with a stop cock in it at ^, to let down the 
water from/, into c ; t, is a short pipe joined to the lowest part 
of tlie loop in the pipe d, and to the pipe g, where it joins to 
the top of the vessel c ; it has a stop cock k, in it. When the 
cock ky is opened, it allows the loop of d, to empty itself of water 
which might otherwise obstruct the escape of the air from the 
apparatus when it is to be filled, preparatory to working ; /, is a 
pipe from the bottom of the vessel c, to the bottom of our stove 
m. The pipe /, is no part of our invention ; m, (see also figs. 
2, 3, 4, and 5), is our stove, which we do claim as part of our 
invention ; n, is a pipe descending from the bottom of the 
stove m, to the bottom of the boiler a ; it serves to conduct the 
water down from the stove m, (as it becomes cooled therein) ta 
the boiler, that it may be heated again. The pipe «, we do not 
claim as our invention. The vessel c, should never be entirely 
empty ; and to ascertain the height of the water within it, a 
small vessel s, is joined at the lower part of it, by the pipe r, 
and cock t, to the bottom of the vessel c ; therefore, when the 
cock t, is opened (the cocks h, or A, being also opened to esta- 
blish a free communication with the atmosphere), the water will 
rise within the vessel 5, to the same height as it stands within c. 
The vessel s, is open at top, and that top is on a higher level 
than the top of c ; s, may be made of glass, to see the height of 
the water within it. The parts r, s, t, we do not claim as part 
of our invention. The stove m, is made of concentric cylinders, 
placed one within the other, leaving narrow spaces between the 
cylinders, which are united in pairs at top and at bottom, so that 
the space left between each pair, will serve as a vessel to contain 

Price s, for Impls, in commuvicalivg Heat. 75 

iKrater, as shewn by the spaces d, e, in figs. 3 and 5. 
The spaces or intervals /,/,/, between the several cylinders 
c, d, e, that contain the water, are left vacant for the passage of 
the air that is to be warmed by the hot water that is contained 
within the vessels c, d, e. The cylindrical vessels rf, e, of the 
stove, are each composed of two cylinders of metal, which enter 
one within the other, leaving a space of about two inches wide 
for water between the two cylinders ; and they are united to each 
other by flanges, at top and bottom of each ; viz. the flange at 
the bottom of the smallest or interior cylinder projects outwards 
from the base thereof ; whilst the lowest flange of the larger or 
external cylinder projects inwards therefrom ; and the under 
surface of the latter flange applies upon the upper surface of the 
before mentioned flange. Suitable packing is interposed between 
the flanges, and they are united by screws put upwards through 
the lowest flange, and screwed into the other. In like manner 
the flange at the top of the inner cylinder projects outwards ; 
whilst the upper flange of the outward cylinder projects inwards ; 
but those upper flanges fit one into the other to form one plane, 
the outside circumference of the flange of the inner cylinder 
being of the same size and figure as the inside circumference of 
the flange of the exterior cylinder ; and the crack between those 
two circumferences is covered by a flat circular ring applied over 
the top surface of the two flanges, with suitable packing under 
the ring, which is fastened down by screws put down througli 
the ring, and tapped into the flanges. 

Note, — It is obvious, that in order to put the cylinders toge- 
ther, the lower flange of the outer cylinder must be large enough 
within side to drop over the upper flange of the inner cylinder ; 
but ears may project within the interior circle of the said lower 
flange of the outer cylinder to receive the screws, and corre- 
sponding indentations being made in the exterior edge of the 
upper flange of the inner cylinder, will allow one cylinder to drop 
over the other ; also the interior of the upper flange of the outer 
cylinder must have ears projecting inwards, to fill up the said 


76 Recent Patents. 

£ach of the vessels so formed of two cylinders, has two necks 
projecting from it, viz. one at the bottom, projecting downwards, 
to connect with the branches m, m, of the pipe n, to convey the 
water away from the stove ; and the other neck, projecting up- 
wards from the top, to connect with the branches x, x, in order 
to introduce the hot water into the vessel : for this purpose the 
pipe /, is joined to the bottom of a large pipe c, which stands 
up in the centre of the smallest of the vessels. That large pipe 
may be considered as a continuation of the pipe /, only enlarged 
in diameter, to form a small vessel, and expose more surface ; an 
interval is left all round it, for the passage of the air that is to 
be heated ; and at the top of the vessel c, the branch x, x, is 
joined, to connect with the upper necks of the concentric ves- 
sels e?, and e, in order to introduce the hot water freely and 
equally into both of them. 

'Note, — The upper neck of each vessel, where the hot water 
is introduced into it, should be situated at that part of its inte- 
rior capacity which is the most remote from the lower neck, by 
which the same water makes its exit from the same vessel, in 
order that the water may be compelled to pass through every 
part of the interior of the vessel. 

The bottom of the stove is raised up from the floor of the 
apartment in which the stove is placed, by supports, in order to 
admit the external air beneath the bottom, that it may pass 
freely up into the spaces left vacant for it* passage upwards, be- 
tween the several water vessels c, d, e. The top of the stove is 
a dome a, covering all the cylindrical vessels of which the stove 
is composed, and receiving all the air that rises through the 
spaces /, /, /, /, between them : at the top of the dome a, is a 
turning register, of the same kind as usually applied in other 
air stoves ; that register serves to regulate the exit of the warm 
air from the stove, according to the quantity that is required to 
be discharged into the place where the stove is situated ; h, is 
a small tube, joined to the highest part of the top branch x, x, 
which connects the three vessels c, d, e, ; the tube h, passes up 
through the centre of the turning knob of the register, at the 

P rice* s, for Impts. in communicating Heat. 77 

top of the dome a, and has a small air cock m, at the top, which 
is opened to allow the air to escape from the spaces c, d, e, when 
they are to be first filled with water, but when they become 
full the air cock m, is to be shut. 

To fill the apparatus for action, all the stop cocks h, k, t, fig. 1, 
and m, fig. 5, must be opened, and water being introduced mto the 
upper vessel /, fig. 1, it will flow through the pipe g, and cock 
h, into the vessel c, and firom thence by the pipes h, I, and n, it 
will run down and fill the boiler a, and the stove m, until every part 
thereof is full. When the water begins to issue at the cock an, fig. 5, 
that cock must be closed, and also when the height of the water in 
the transparent or other vessel s, fig. 1, indicates that the vessel c, 
is full to the top, all the other cocks h, k, and t, must be shut. 

Note. — ^This mode of filling the apparatus from the vessel/, 
is that which may be commonly practised, though it is by no 
means essential that the water should be introduced at/. If 
convenience requires, the water may be introduced (either by 
a pump, or by a pipe from an elevated reservoir) into any part 
of the apparatus, even into the boiler a, the only condition being, 
that the whole apparatus shall be completely fitted up to the 
level of the top of the vessel c. 

The fire is then to be lighted beneath the boiler a, and as the 
water within it becomes heated (and consequently becomes spe- 
cifically lighter than the water in the other parts, which have not 
been heated), the circulation vdll begin, by the colder and heavier 
water in the descending pipe /, n, overbalancing the hotter and 
lighter water in the ascending pipe b, and therefore the colder 
water vyill force its way into the lower part of the boiler a, and 
displace and force therefrom a corresponding quantity of hot 
water up the ascending pipe b, and into the vessel c ; it is ob- 
vious that a corresponding quantity of water will at the same 
time run down the descending pipe /, and pass through the stove 
m, where it will communicate part of its heat to the air that is 
contained in the spaces /, /, /, /, fig. 5, and the water thus be- 
coming cooled (and consequently heavier), will descend through the 
descending pipe «, fig. 1, into the bottom of the boiler, forcing up a 

78 Recent Patents. 

like quantity of heated water by the ascending pipe 6. and so the 
circulation will go on. The fire under the boiler continues giving 
heat continually to the water that is within it, and the stove 
always communicates part of the heat of the contained water to 
the air that is passing through it, and which surrounds it. Hence 
the difference of specific gravity, which causes the circulation, is 
continually kept up so long as the fire is continued, and the ap- 
paratus kept at work. It is obvious, that the heat given to the 
water should never be accumulated so much as to produce steam 
in the boiler. ' 

Note. — ^The ascending pipe h, and the vessel c, should be 
covered with wrappers of non-conducting substance, to avoid 
loss of heat by radiation and contact with the air, because the 
ascending column of water in a, b, c, must be kept hot, whilst 
that in /, m, n, is cooled. If more convenient, the ascending 
pipe b, may be carried up within the chinmey of the furnace for 
the boiler. The above apparatus is represented with only two 
of our stoves m, but the same boiler and pipes, and our safety 
reservoir (consisting of the vessel c, with the pipes and vessels 
marked d, e,f, g, h, t, k), may supply several of our stoves, 
situated either in different places, or together in the same place, 
according to the distribution of heat and heated air that is re- 
quired to be effected by the apparatus. It is advisable to place 
the stoves m, on a level, as much higher than the boiler a, as 
convenience will allow, because the circulation will be the more 
rapid, and consequently the communication of heat will be more 
effectual. The water which has passed through one of our 
stoves, may afterwards be conducted through another stove, as 
shewn by the figure, so as to serve both. 

The dimensions of the apparatus, and the form and disposition 
of the several pipes and vessels, must be adapted according to 
the situation in which the apparatus is to be fixed, and the space 
which is to be heated thereby ; few situations being alike in all 
respects, no rule can be laid down for dimensions, but the same 
must be left to the judgment of the artificer who is to construct 
the same, and he must adapt it according to the local circum- 

Ford*s for Impts, in spinning Silk, 8^c. 79 

stances of each particular case ; and as to the materials of which 
the parts of the apparatus are to he composed, we prefer cast 
iron for the large pipes and reservoirs, and for the stoves ; and 
wrought iron for the boiler. The smaller pipes and cocks may- 
be of copper and brass, and although the vessels of which the 
stove is composed are stated to be cylindrical, they may be made 
square, or of any other form that is preferred for giving them an 
ornamental appearance. — Inr oiled in the Petty Bag Office, 
February, 1830. 

To John Ford, of Wandsworth Road, Vauxhall, in 
the parish of Lambeth, and county of Surrey, 
machine maker, for his invention of certain improve- 
ments in machinery for clearings opening, scribbling, 
combing, stubbing, and spinning wool, and for card* 
ing, roving, or stiffening and spinning cotton y short 
stapled flax, hemp, and silk, either separately or 
combined ; and for spinning or twisting long stapled 
flax, hemp, silk, mohair, or other fibrous substances, 
and either separately or combined, — [Sealed 13th May, 

However extensive the pretensions of this Patent may 
appear from the all-engrosslDg title above recited, yet 
the specification extends greatly beyond even the limits 
prescribed, branching into subjects which could scarcely 
have been contemplated as connecting themselves in any 
way with the business of clearing, opening, scribbling, 
combing, carding, stubbing, roving, twisting, or spinning, 
of any of the substances alluded to. 

The inventions referred to are displayed by elaborate 
drawings in no less than one hundred and three figures, 
and of course these are very scientifically explained by a 

80 Recent Patents. 

voluminous description of the parts, pointing out all the 
particulars of process and construction, but scarcely 
hinting* at the beneficial object which all this is intended 
to effect. 

Out of so much matter it might be expected to find at 
least some features of novelty ; we have not however 
been fortunate enough to discover them. 

Taking up the subjects seriatem, we find, first, an ap- 
paratus for beating, breaking, or opening wool ; one of 
those machines which are commonly called a deviL It 
consists of two rotary fan-formed beaters, each turning 
upon a horizontal axle within a close box, the under part 
of which box is an open grating. The wool to be operated 
upon is conducted into the machine, or as it is termed, fed 
in by a creeping cloth, and is delivered to the beaters 
between a pair of feeding rollers, where it becomes 
opened or separated by the rapid rotary action of the 
beaters as it is discharged from the rollers. 

The progress of the wool through the machine is as- 
sisted by a blowing apparatus, consisting of a box, con- 
taining a rotary fan, the air being received into the box 
by openings near the axle, and expelled through a nar- 
row channel close beneath the delivering rollers, by which 
means the wool, when opened, is carried in the current 
of air through the machine^ and the dirt allowed to fall 
down through the grating. 

The creeping cloth or endless web by which the wool 
is fed in, is distended upon two rollers, which are pro- 
posed to be cut on their peripheries with longitudinal 
ratchet flutes, which, it is said, will cause the cloth to 
move on much more evenly than if the rollers were plain ; 
and the novel feature is a rack and pinion under the feed- 
ing frame, which, it is said, allows of regulating the 
supply of material to the beaters ; and which contrivance 

Pord^s, for Impts, in spinning Silk, ^c. 81 

may also ,be usefully adapted to carding and scribbliug 
engiues, and to drawing and roving frames. We have 
examined this contriTance^ but cannot comprehend how 
it is to effect the object proposed. 

The next improvement is in covering the pressing 
rollers of a drawing or roving frame with leather cut in 
a particular way, and wound upon a roller in a spiral 
form. This, it is said, will prevent the filaments of wool 
from adhering to the top rollers, which is frequently a 
matter of great inconvenience and loss. 

Instead of pressing down these top rollers by weighted 
levers, it is proposed to place flat brushes, bearing upon 
their upper surfaces. These brushes are to be made with 
thin bristles standing parallel to each other, not diverge 
ing; and to accomplish this, a very long dissertation is 
given, describing the Patentee's method of manufacturing 
these brushes, the mode of tying up the bristles, of 
cutting them off in tufts, of attaching them to leather 
and wood as holders, of the materials to be used for the 
purpose, and the implements to be employed, and so on. 

After wading through this mass of irrevelant matter^ 
we come to the improvements proposed in the twisting 
and spinning machinery, which are so indefinitely described, 
that we can only say, the filaments of wool, or other mate- 
rial^, are, conducted from, the drawing rollers horizontally 
through spinning boxes> which carry their flyers round in 
vertical directions^ and that the thread is ultimately taken 
up upon bobbins turning horizontally ; in all of which 
we do not perceive any novelty. But one particular 
feature, as connected with the spinning apparatus, is 
dwelt upon at great length, which is the mode of mould'- 
ing and casting the frame work of the machinery, involv- 
ing a treatise upon sand and loam, and the Patentee's 

Vol. IX.— Second Series l 

S2 Recent Patents. 

own particular views and mode of proceeding in pre« 
paring to make the castings for the spinning machine. 

It will be unnecessary for us to labour further through 
the labyrinths of this specification, as our readers may 
rest assured that we Lave given the essence, if such it 
may be called, of the above recited invention. — [Inrolled 
in the Inrolment Office, Nov. J 828.] 

To Thobias Fowlbr, of Great Tdhrington^ in the county 
of Devon, stationer, for his invention of certain 
improvements in or for raising and circulating hot 
water, hot oils, and other hot fluids, for domestic and 
other purposes. — [Sealed October 2, 1828.] 

The Patentee states in his specification, that his invention 
consists in causing water, oil, or other fluids, to circulate 
through the medium of a bent tube, or tubes, by raising 
the temperature of the fluid contained in a vessel at one 
end of such tube, or syphon, so that it may be of a less 
density than the fluid contained in a vessel at its other 
end ; consequently, it will rise up through that end of the 
tube, and after parting with a portion of its heat to the 
surrounding atmosphere, descend down the other end 
into the opposite vessel, thus keeping up a constant cir- 
culation of heated fluid in the pipes. 

Also in such an arrangement of apparatus for that pur- 
pose as renders this invention applicable to domestic and 
other purposes. Fig. 6, Plate IV. is a view of an appa- 
ratus which will sufficiently explain the nature of this 
invention ; a, b, are two open vessels placed upon the 
same level, each containing water or other fluid, con- 

Powler^s^for Impts. in raising Hot Water, S^c. 83 

nected together at their lower extremities by the pipe c, 
haying a stop cock in it ; d/\a the bent tube called the 
Thermo-syphoD> having two stop cocks near its ends 
next the vessels a, and b ; and also the funnel e, upon its 
highest part, with a stop cock upon its connecting tube. 
The Thermo-sypbon is suspended so that its ends may be 
immersed about half way in the fluid contained in the 
two vessels, the end immersed in a, being bent upwards, 
as shewn in the iSgure, to prevent any air which may be 
disengaged and rise from the fluid as it becomes heated 
entering the syphon. 

In order to put this apparatus into operation, a fire is to 
be made in the furnace under the vessel a, and the air re- 
moved out of the Thermo-syphon by shutting off the 
cocks near its ends, and introducing water into it through 
the funnel e, its cock being open. When the air in the 
tube has been completely removed, the cock of the funnel 
is to be shut off, and those on the extremities of the sy- 
phon opened, as also the one on the tube e, when the 
apparatus will be ready for operation, which will com- 
mence as soon as the fluid in the vessel a, becomes suf- 
ficiently heated. 

Fig. 7, is a more simple apparatus, which may be 
made to act on the same principle, having only one 
vessel ; and the lower end of the Thermo-syphon a, an- 
swering the purpose of the vessel 6, and the connecting 
tube c, at the same time ; the water always passing up 
that leg of the Thermo-syphon which is the warmest, and 
down the other. 

The Patentee states that having described the principle 
of his invention, it is only necessary to shew how it is 
applied to domestic and other purposes ; and prefaces his 
description of the next two figures by observing, that in 
order to apply his principle, it is always necessary that 

84 Recent Patents. 

the object to be heated by the circulation of hot floidf 
caused by the means aforesaid (whether the same be a 
bath or greenhouse^ or any other matter), should always 
be situated somewhere between the highest point of the 
Thermo-syphon and its ooldest end. 

Fig. 8, represents this invention applied to the purpose 
of heating a bath, supposed to be on the first floor in a 
private dwelling-house ; a, is an open vessel, as before 
described, two-thirds full of water, and supposed to be 
placed on the kitchen fire ; 6, is the ascending leg of the 
Thermo-syphon ; c, is the bath, having a double casing 
at the back and bottom ; d, d,iB the descending leg of 
the syphon ; and e, is the funnel on the highest point. 
It will be seen that the bath, which is to be heated, is 
situated between the highest point and the lowest, which 
is the coldest part of its descending leg ; /, is one of the 
walls of the house ; and as the Thermo-syphon may be of 
almost any shape, however tortuous, of course the arrange- 
ment may be adapted to the premises. 

It is only necessary to state, that the highest point of 
the Thermo-syphon should not in any respect exceed 
thirty feet, as it acts in this respect on the principle of 
the torricellian column, and the Patentee prefers it not 
to exceed twenty feet. 

Care should be taken also at all times to exhaust the air 
completely when filling the Thermo-syphon, air-plugs 
being placed where necessary to petmit the air to escape 
when filling, and to prevent its return. 

Fig. 9, represents another application of the said 
invention for heating what is called a hot plate for cop- 
per-plate printers ; for this purpose, it is only necessary 
to introduce a shallow metal box, as part of the descend- 
ing" leg of the Thermo-syphon as here shewn. 

When this invention is to be applied to the purposes of 
heating hothouses, greenhouses, conservatories, or other 

Foufler*s, for Impts* in raising Hot Water, 8^c. - 85 

places where the heat is required on the ground or in low 
situations, the apparatus may be varied according to 
circumstances^ and a greater or less number of boilers, 
with their connecting tubes, be used as required^ each 
boiler having a separate furnace ; or they may all be 
placed over one fire^ and their connecting tubes commu- 
nicating^ to various shaped vesseli placed in different 
parts of the building ; the Thermo-syphon must always 
communicate from one of the boilers^ or a vessel nearest 
in connection with them^ to one of the vessels most 
remote from them; so that the circulation of the hot 
fluid from one boiler to another may be kept up through 
their connecting tubes to the vessel from which the 
syphon receives the hot fluid. • • 

The great difficulty of making syplions act regularly 
for any considerable time^ and the tendency the water 
has to find its equilibrium in all the vessels, will prove a 
great hindranoe to this inveotion ever being made lO'ttCt 
a^ desired ; besides which, the Patentee, has made 00 little 
differende in the length of the receiving and dise^harging 
leg9 of the Thermo-syphotiy t\M> it cannot be supposed 
he intends to avail himself of any assistance from the con- 
struction of the syphon, but depends upon the greater 
density df the fluid contained in one of its legs to oause 
it to descend, and the hot or lighter fluid to rise in the 
other end, and thus keep up its circulatioik<^[/nfo2/€c{ 
in ihe Inrolment Office^ Nov. \9i&,'\ 

86 Recent Patents. 

To Thomas Tippbtt, of Gwennap, in the county of 
Cornwall, engineer, for certain improvements in the 
construction and mode of working engines with steam 
and air, and in the boiler or generator of steam, and 
in the application of such improved engines to a new 
method of propelling of vessels and other floating 
bodies.— {Sealed 2d October, 1828.] 

The Patentee states, in his specification of the aboye 
invention, that the improvements in engines to be worked 
with steam and air, or atmospheric pressure, and in the 
boiler; and also in the application of such improved 
engines consist the following heads : — 

First, the improved engine is constructed by erecting 
two working cylinders (furnished with pistons, valves, 
pipes of communication, and other parts, usually em- 
ployed with the working cylinders of steam engines) ; 
one of these cylinders has four times the internal 
capacity of the other, and is open at one end to the 
atmosphere, the other or smaller cylinder being closed 
at both ends ; the piston rods of both cylinders are con- 
nected at the same end with the beam of an engine in the 
usual manner, the piston rod of the larger cylinder being 
farthest from the centre of motion of the beam. 

After blowing out the air from these cylinders, by 
the admission of steam from the boiler, the steam is 
allowed to pass from the boiler by a proper steam pipe, 
to the upper internal part of the smaller close cylinder 
above its piston, and at the same time cause the valves 
to open, which permit the steam to pass from the lower 
part of this cylinder, and from the lower part of the 
large open cylinder, beneath their pistons, through pipes 
to a condenser, in the usual manner ; by which means an 





Tippetfs,for Impts. in working Engines with Steam, 87 

approximation to a vacuum will be formed b'eneath the 
said pistons, and the larger piston will be pressed down- 
wards, or towards the closed ends of its cylinder, by the 
pressure of the atmosphere acting on the upper side ; 
while the piston of the smaller cylinder will be also 
pressed downwards, or in the same direction with the 
other, at the same time, by the pressure of the steam 
from the boiler. The communication between the lower 
extremities of both the cylinders and the condenser is 
then closed by the usual means, and at the same time a 
communication is opened through a pipe properly ar- 
ranged for the purpose, between the upper end of the 
smaller closed cylinder and the lower end of the larger 
open cylinder, beneath its piston, while a communication 
is likewise opened between the boiler and the lower ex- 
tremity of the smaller cylinder beneath its piston ; the 
effect of which combined operations will be, that the 
pistons of both cylinders will be forced upwards, the 
piston of the smaller cylinder, by the force of the steam 
from the boiler, and the piston of the larger open cylin- 
der, by the difference or excess of the pressure of the 
steam beneath it, acting on its larger surface, above that 
of its pressure on the piston of the smaller cylinder in 
the contrary direction, which latter piston has only a 
fourth of the area of the other piston, and which excess 
will be farther aided by the effect of the steam acting 
expansively, in passing from the upper part of the smaller 
cylinder to the lower part of the larger open cylinder 
beneath its piston ; an effect well known to experienced 
engineers, and long since calculated and used by Mr« 
James Watt, in other modes of application, by which be 
proved, that, in some instances, a given quantity of dense 
steam would perform double the work in the same time^ 
that it would if employed with an uniform pressure. 

88 Recent PatfinU, 

An air pump is used with the condenser, of the eommpn 
construction, but the Patentee prefers that its rod should 
be connected with that part of the engine beam which 
lies at the opposite side of its centre of motion, from 
that to which the piston rods of the two before described 
working cylinders are united. The valves of the engine 
are opened or closed as required, and perform all other 
operationiB necessary for the engine, by any of the ap- 
proved means commonly used for such purposes. The 
connecting rod, by which the engine is to be made to 
operate on a fly wheel, or momentum wheel, for turning 
machinery, or on pumps for raising water from mkij^s and 
other depths, is connected in the usual^ manner to the 
end • of the beam, that is most remote from the .worlwg 
cylinders i and the wotking of the eni^ine is continued 
as . Iqng as is necessary, by reiterating the above Qpe- 
rations. ■ ' - 

Second, the improvements on the boiler or generator 
of steam, are efiected by placing a aemi-cylindrical ves- 
sel above and parallel to a cylindrical boilc^r^ with its flat 
Side downwards, and connecting the. two by several yer« 
tical tubes, which are arranged in three rows, between 
the top of the bylbdrical boiler and the bottom of the 
senEU-cylindrical addition ; one of which rows of tubes ii^ 
to range along the summit of the cylindrical boiler; and 
the other two rows to be disposed at equal distances 
from it, at its opposite sides. The Patentee prefers having 
the fire place made within the cylmdrical boiler, in the . 
manner usual for those of this kind ; and having an ad- 
ditional smaller preparatory boiler, of the same depth 
as the cylinder, and the same breadth, but of very little 
length, placed upright, near the farther end of the cylin- 
drical boiler, from its fire place, and connecting the 
upper parts of the two together by a horizontal tube. 

TippeU*s, for Inipis, in working Engines by Steams 89 

the heated vapours and flame are passed from the fire 
plaee through the cylindrical boiler, and then to ascend 
to the bottom of the semi-cylindrical additioUi and after 
passing along its whole length;, in a direction contrary 
to the first progress, the flame and vapour then descend 
by external flues along the sides of the eylindrical boiler 
near its front, and pass beneath its bottom, as in their 
first direction, to the lower part of the preparatory boiler, 
behind which they again ascend^ as far as the top of the 
semi-cylindrical addition^ along the whole extent of which 
dxe flame and vapour pass to the chimney, erected imme- 
diately over the front of the boiler ; the flame and hot 
vapours are made to circulate as mentioned, by a proper 
arrangement . of the brick work, in which the whole is 
inclosed, by means sufficiently well known to the erectors 
of furnaces, to need more particular description. The 
combmed boiler, thus constructed, is to be supplied with 
water by a forcing pump, worked by the engine ; the 
9upply of water enters the bottom of the preparatory 
boiler, through a pipe ; from the force which the boiler, 
after receiving some heat, it will pass into the cylindrical 
boiler, and from thence will rise up the vertical tubes, 
into the s«mi-eyUn^ical addition, amd a sufficient height 
to admit of a targe part of k being heated there, though 
not so high as to prevent the semi-cylindricat addition 
from also serving as a steam reservoir, by occupying too 
much of its interior. By constructing the boiler in this 
Bsanner, the Patentee conceives that he will be able to 
heat the water in it much quicker, and with less expense 
ef fuel, than by a caramon boiler, on account of the 
mnch more extensive surface of water that is in it^ ex- 
posed to the action of the fire. 

Vol. IX. Secqnd Series. ^ 

90 Recent Patents. 

Lastly: — The new method of propelling vesselB, to 
which the power of the new engine hereinbefore described 
is to be applied, is effected, first, by having two or more 
hollow cylinders placed horizontally within each vessel, 
at its stern, beneath the level of the water, with one of 
the ends of each opening into the water, but properly 
secured all round, so as to prevent any water from run- 
ning into the vessel, between its sides and the planks and 
timbers of the latter; in the cylinders pistons are placed 
to work forwards and backwards by means of cranks, or 
other fit modes of effecting the operation, by the primary 
power of the steam-engine, which means or modes are 
well known to most engineers, regulating the motion, 
however, in such a manner, that the velocity with which 
the water is driven out backwards from the vessel, shall 
be considerably greater than that with which it enters the 
cylinders : the Patentee also causes strong metallic rods 
to be moved backwards and forwards horizontally, through 
stuffing boxes in the stern of the vessel, beneath the level 
of the water, by means similar to those by which the mo- 
tion of the said pistons is effected above mentioned ; and 
to the outer ends of these rods are attached, by proper 
joints, vanes, or flat plates, capable of shutting close to 
the rods, or in their line of direction, when the said rods 
are drawn inwards, and of opening outwards from the 
rods again when they are thrust out backwards from the 
vessel, to a position extending at right angles to the rods; 
this may be easily effected by stops, faistened to the said 
vanes, or constructed in the joints, by which (hey are 
attached to the rods ; and these vanes, by pressing against 
the water with their extended surfaces, when the rods are 
driven outwards, will impel the vessel by their reaction, 
while, on the other hand, by being folded up as men- 
tioned^ they will present but a comparatively small surface 


Tippetfs, for Impts. in working Engines by Steam. 91 

to the resisted water^ and thereby make but little resist- 
anoe to the way of the vessel^ when they are retracted* 
preparatory to another protrusion. 

To farther explain the nature and intent of the before 
described improvements, the Patentee annexed drawings of 
one of the methods in which his improved engine worked 
t>y steam and air, or atmospheric pressure is arranged, 
and also of one of the methods in which the improved 
boiler or steam generator is formed, according to the 
foregomg descriptions. 

Fig, 7> Plate IV. is a representation of one of the im- 
proved engines, worked by steam and air, or atmospheric 
pressure, in which is the beam of the engine ; 6, the 
large cylinder, open at its top to the atmosphere ; c, the 
smaller closed cylinder ; d, the pipe of communication 
between the top of the smaller cylinder and the bottom 
of the larger cylinder ; e, the valve box, at the upper 
end of the smaller cylinder ; f, the valve box, at the bot- 
tom of the same cylinder ; g, the valve box, at the bot- 
tom of the larger or air cylinder ; h, h, the eduction pipes, 
from both cylinders to the condenser ; t, the condenser ; 
k, a pipe leading from the condenser to the air pump ; 
/, a valve in said pipe, opening towards the air pump ; 
m, the air pump ; n, the rod of the air pump ; o, the plug 
rod, by which the gear or apparatus for working the 
valves is moved ; p, the orifice for the steam pipe that 
communicates with the boiler; q, the head of the beam, 
to which a connecting rod is to be attached, for turning a 
fly wheel to work machinery, or for working pumps for 
raising water from mines or other depths ; and r, r, the 
piston rods. 

Fig. 8, represents the side of one of the improved 
boilers ; a, denotes the semi-cylindrioal st^am generator ; 
c, the cylindrical boiler ; d, d, d, d, the vertical pipes 

90 Recent PnUenie, 

whieh connect tb« cylindrical boiler with the temi-cyliDdri'- 
cal steam generator ; e, the preparatory or feeding 
boiler ; f, the pipe that connects the preparatory with the 
cylindrical boiler ; g, the feeding, pipe of the prepaimtory 
boiler ; h, the main passage in the boiler ; i, the safety 
Talve; k, part of the pipe that leads to the engine. 

Fig. 9, is a representation of the front end of the boiler ; 
a, the semi-cylindrical steam generator; £j the fire-tube 
that contains the fire-place and ash receptacle ; d, d, d, 
the vertical tubes which connect the cylindrical boiler 
with the semi-cylindrical steam generatcu'. 

To William Rogbr^ of Norfolk-street, Strand, in the 
county of Middlesex, Lieutenant in the Roy cU Navy, 
for certain improvements in the construction of cat' 
head stoppers.— [Sealed 30th Sept. 1829.] 

TfiBss improvements in cat^head stoppers for anchors, are shewn 
in Plate IV* fig. 13, which is a general representation of part of a 
ship's bow end cat's-head, with an anchor suspended to h, by 
lieutenant Rogers's improved cat-head stopper, the particular 
construction of which is shewn on an enlarged scale in figs. 
J4* 15, 16, &c. 

Before pmceedii^ with the description of this invention, it 
may be as well to state that the stof^er commonly used, con- 
sisfs of a chain or rope, one end being fastened to the cat<headi 
and the other passed or reeved through the ring of the anchor, 
and then made fast to the timber head placed for that purpose. 
These improved cat-head stoppers consist of a chain with a pair 
of jaws, formed like a pair of forceps, attached to its end* 
Fig. 17, is a front, and fig. 18, an edge view of one 

Rogers, for ImpUk in Cat-heads.. 93 

limb or jaw of the forceps. Fig. 14, id a firap^t view df the iot* 
C6jpsw with the jawB o|>e]i« refftdy to take hokL «f the sing <)f the 
anchor. Fig. i5» is a view of the forces d9sed> aliber haliiig 
taken hold qf the rm% of the anchor^ and fig* 16» is lui«dge view 
of the same ; Oj is th^firooit pia ox bolt« ^hitb is peased tiurbugh 
the limbs of the forceps* and coiiaeGts the$» togetb^ 3 1^ holt . 10 
also passed Hirough the eyes of a shad^e b^ and livetted, as shewn 
in the figs. 14 « 15, and 16 ;. c, c, are two other shaokles» whidli 
connect the stopper chain d, by the two short pieces of chain 
Cy e, with the upper ends of the limbs of. the fcnrcepi^ as shewn 
in the figs« ; f, is another piece of chain, called fte slip 
chain* having one end Qonoected Wi& the shackle b, and its 
otiier joined to the eyebolt f, fig. 1, hj^ a shackle, which ey<* 
bolt is fiared securely into the cat-head< 

The Patentee th^i proceeds to explain the method of using 
these improved stopp^s* when the anchor is to be' cattdd in the 
usual manner. The jaws or forceps are to be lowered by the chain 
J, so as to allow of their laying hold of the ring of the anchor. 
This is effected by opening them sufficiently wide to receive the 
ring, and as shewn in fig. 14 ; the chain d, is then to be pulled 
tight enough to dose the jaws of the £orceps» and then £Mtened 
to the timber head in the usual manner^ see ^, 1. The jaws or 
forceps wiU then be seen, as in figs. 15, and 16. On reference 

t • • • 

to fig. 1, it will be perceived, that the chain d, is reeved 
or passed through the hole in the cat-head, that is generally used 
for the standing part <^ the commdn steppe ; and in order to 
prevent it being t^hafed or cut by the Motion oi the chaiil> 
it is protected by a cast iron socket, with a fiange let into the 
iq)per part of the cat-head, and firmly secured thereto, as shewn 
in fig. 1. Fig. 19, represents a top view, and fig. 20, a section 
of this socket on an enlarged scale. When the anchor is to be 
let go, it IS only necessary to slack the stopper chain d, until the 
strain comes upon the slip chain/, which relieves the forceps, 
and lets the ring of the anchor open the jaws, and dip out of 

94 Recent Patents. 

It will be perceived, that the heavier the anchor is, the greater 
will be the compression of the limbs of the forceps, so that the 
anchor cannot be released from them, unless the stopper chain d, 
be slackened, so as to allow the strain to come upon the slip chain 
/, which is made sufficiently long, to prevent that taking place, 
unless the stopper chain be slackened intentionally, in order to 
let go the anchor. The size, length, and strength of the for- 
ceps and the chains, are of course to be regulated by the weight 
of the anchors. The* anchor must be fished, and its flukes 
secured in the usual manner. 

The Patentee states, he does not intend to claim as his inven- 
tion, the various parts herein shewn and described, which are 
already known, but claims as his invention the application of the 
forceps, as shewn and described in connexion with the chains 
and tackle necessary to enable them to answer the purpose 
intended. — [InroUed in the Inrolment Office, March, 1830.] 

To William Roger> of Norfolk-street, Strand, in the 
county of Middlesex, Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, 
for his invention of certain improvements in the con- 
struction of anchors. — [Sealed 21st August^ 1829.] 

The invention described by the Patentee in bis specifica- 
tion, consists of certain improvements in the construction 
of anchors, partly consisting of improvements upon a 
former patent granted to the said William Roger, 13th 
March, 1 828, for certain improvements on anchors, for 
a descri|)t:on of which, see the Seventh Volume, Second 
Series, of this Journal, page 29. The Patentee states 
that the present improvements are the result of experi- 
ments made by him, with a view to determine the best 
and strongest forms which could be given to anchors. 

Roger^Sy for Impts, in Anchors. 95 

made upon the principle of his patent ; and that he ha^ 
found it advisable to alter the form of the iron plates^ 
of which the shanks of the anchors were made^ in order 
to give additional strength to them when formed of com- 
binations of wood and iron ; and also to introduce several 
additional plates hereinafter described, and to combine 
them together, with or without a central piece or core 
of wood, as it is only used to facilitate the operation of 
combining them, and not with a view to give an addi- 
tional strength to the shank, but which core will serve 
to prevent water from entering the shank if it were made 

The whole of the parts of the anchor are to be bound 
together by means of iron bands or hoops, in place of 
bolts, or pins and hoops, as described under his former 
patent ; and likewise, in order to strengthen the arms or 
flukes, the inventor has adopted another method of con- 
necting or uniting them to the iron plates of which the 
shanks are formed. 

Fig. 1, Plate V. is a side view of a complete anchor, 
formed upon the present improved construction, and 
fig. 2, a plan of the same ; fig. 3, an end view of the 
crown and flukes, or arms ; fig. 4, represents the two 
principal iron plates a, a, a, a, of which the shank is 
constructed, bent so as to form parts of the stump arms 
to which the flukes are to be connected ; the method of 
forming the shank pieces is as follows : — ^The fig, 5, is a 
view of one of them previous to bending ; it is notched 
at 6, in order to afford a facility in bending or curving 
it, as in fig. 6. The gap occasioned by bending it, is to 
be afterwards filled up with iron, as shewn by the dotted 
lines, and firmly welded therein, so as to form the knee 
of the anchor. 

The shank plates being ready for joining together. 

96 Recent Fatents. 

tbe Patentee proceeds to describe the centre pi^ce with 
which they are to be united. Fig. 7, is one of two thin 
iron plates^ of which the centre piece is partly composed. 
Pig. 8, shews two plates combined. Pig. 9, one of two 
other thin iron plates, which tare to be united to the two 
former. Fig. 10, is a section of the four iron shank 
plates^ by which it will be seen that the centre piece is a 
hoHow square frame> which it is desirable to fill with 
iron for the reasons already mentioned. 

The two ptates c, c, have their ends thickened, asshewn 
in fig. 8^ and are to be welded together. The two other 
plates d, are then to be placed within the former ones, 
and to be welded firmly to them at their ends ; previously 
to placing the plates d, within the plates c, c, a core or 
central piece of wood should be introduced between 
them^ to kee^ the plates f, in their proper places, and to 
prevent -their collapsing during the operation of welditig. 
This wooden core or central piece> which should be made 
of African oak, or other desirable woad> should not ap- 
proach so near to the ends as to be liable to be burnt 
when welding them. The centre piece is then to be 
placed between the {dates a, a, see figs. I and 4> and to 
be confined by thin temporary loops of iron. The ends 
of the iron plates a, a, are then to be welded t9o the 
centre piece, and also to each other at the end j, 
through which end the hole for the shackle pin, and also 
ibe hole for the forelock k^y to pass through are made. 
The crown piece, shewn in %s. 5 and 6, ig to be welded 
to the stump c, c, fig. 4, as well as to the end i, of the 
centre piece h, h, and as shewn in fig. 1, and thescarphs 
M, ir, are to be cut to receive the arms or flukes, figs. 
10 and H, and which are also to be scarphed tbcon- 
respond therewith. Previously, however, to uniting or 

Rodger*^, for ImpU. in Anchors. 9^ 

connecting the anns or flukes with the stump armsj the 
crown and throat of the anchor are to be Btrengthened 
by the application of the crown slabs n^ fig. A» which 
are to be welded on each side of the crown^ over- 
lapping the end of the centre pillar K and the throat or 
knees of the stump arms and the crown piece. The 
stiimp arms are then to be strengthened in a similar man- 
ner by the thin flat peices p, p, which are to be welded 
on each side. 

The palms are united to the flukes by welding in the 
usual way^ and the flukes are also united to the stump 
arms by means of the long scarphs m,m\ and when the 
rfiank of the anchor has been thus formed and united 
with the flukes^ the anchor-smiths' work may be said to 
be complete. 

The temporary hoops are now to be removed^ and to 
be replaced by other permanent hoops^ as shewn in figs* 
1 and 2 ; and in order to prevent the hoops from shifting 
their places in the event of the shank being strained^ 
small pins are driven through the holes formed in the 

Another of the improvements in the construction of 
anchors claimed under this patent, consists in a new me* 
thod of affixing the stock upon the shank of the anchor, 
which is effected in the following manner : in fig. 2, the 
stock is shewn affixed to the anchor ; in fig. lit, it is 
shewn detached. It may be made either of one or two 
pieces of timber as may be found most convenient. It is 
however to be observed, that the stock is to be completed 
before fitting on to the shank. After the stock is shaped, 
a hole is to be made through the middle of it to fit' that 
part of the shank to which it is to be affixed. Two stock 
plates are then to be let in, one on each side of the stock. 

Vol, IX.— Second Sbbixs, o 

Recent Patents. 

d made fast by countersunk nails and straps or hoops ; 
her straps or boops of iron are also to be placed round 
e stock as usual. 

In place of nuts formed upon the shank of the anchor, 
is proposed to secure the stock by means of a hoop x, 
id a key y. By this contriraiice, the stock is prevented 
am goinjT nearer to the crown of the anchor than it 
ight to do, and the key prevents it from sliding towards 
le shackle. 

As fitting the stock to the shankjof an anchor by this 
ethod, prevents the use of a ring:, as in the ordinary 
anner, the Patentee says, that he in all cases substitutes 
shackle for the ring-, and which is [all that is required 
ir a chain cable, but when a hempen cable it to be used, 
e connects a ring to the usual shackle, by means of a 
>ining shackle, as in figs. 1 and 2. 

The specification concludes with these words, " I do 
ot mean or intend hereby, to claim as my invention, any 
f the various parts herein shewn and described, which 
ave already been included in my former patent, or which 
lay be known, or in use ; nor do I claim the manner of 
trengthening the crown of the anchor, by means of the 
rown piece, or the manner of connecting the arms or 
lukes as shewn, such having been already practised ; but 

claim the. peculiar method of forming and combining^ 
he different parts of which the shank of the anchor 
onsists, as heretofore described, which by combining the 
laid shank with the other parts in the manner described, 
iroduces an improved anchor on this new construction. 

I also claim the method of fitting the stock upon the 
hank of the anchor, in the manner described and shewn, 
vhich admits of its being put on, and taken off without 
■emoving the hoops to separate it into two parts as usual. 

Rodger^Si for Itnpts. in Anchors. 99 

and consequently without the assistance of a carpenter.—^ 
[Inrolled in the Inrolment Office^ February, I830.J 

Note — ^By mistake in the foregoing pages, the name of the 
Patentee has heen put Roqbbs, whereas it should have heen 


To Georgb Dickinson^ of Buckland Mill, near Dover, 
in the county of Kent, paper manufacturer, for his 
invention of an improvement or improvements in mak- 
ing paper by machinery. — [Sealed 21 st Feb. 1828.] 

In the machinery employed for making a continuous 
sheet of paper^ as originally patented by Mr. Henry Pour- 
drinier^ the endless web of wire gauze constituting the 
mould on which the semi-fluid pulp is first poured out, 
must be submitted to a lateral shaking motion in a hori- 
zontal position^ for the purpose of getting rid of the wa- 
ter, and enabling the fibres of the pulp to settle and be- 
come firm paper. This lateral shaking motion of the 
web is stated to be injurious to the fabric of the paper, 
by bringing its fibres more closely together breadthwise 
than in length, and by that means tending to produce 
long ribs or thick streaks in its substance. 

To obviate this inconyenience, the present Patentee 
proposes to give a rapid up and down movement to the 
wire gauze web as it conducts the pulp along, by which 
means the water will be sufficiently shaken out, and the 
pulp left in a compact, undisturbed, and smooth sub- 

Various methods might be devised of effecting this 
up and down movement of the endless web of wire 
gauze, all of which the Patentee considers to come within 

/tecent Patents. 

of bis invention, viz. that ol 
aod down moTement to the web| 
Kontal movement, as heretofore, 
escribes, which is that of roounti 
luct the horizontal endless wet 
1 a vibrating frame. The fore p 
:hed to the standards of (he i 
and the hinder part, or that on 
lOured out, is supported by vertici 
!Tank on a shaft below. Rapid ro 
to this crank shaft, the hinder 
tri]y receives a quick up uid dow 
hich causes the water to be shaki 
carries the pulp forward in th 
its the object of setting; the fit 
ch greater equality than in the 
I. — InroUed in the Inrolment O. 

tENHOLDSON, of South Shields in 
I, miller for his having invented 
t in rotary steam engines. — [Sea! 


of this patent are some peoulia 
and mode of working a rotary ste 
el ; that is a hollow cylinder in v, 
' a central axle, b made to travel n 
>rce of steam, and by so doing tc 
f power, capable of driving o 

g 13, is an end view of the cylim 
verse seclioD of the same, taken i 

Rennoldson*s, for Impts, in Steam Engines^ 101 

its ends, in which the mode of working the sliding steam 
tops is shewn ; the cylinder may be of any desirable 
len^h (the Patentee proposes about four times its diam- 
eter^) and a long box or recess is made, extending the 
whole length of the cylinder^ on each side, to receive the 
sliding steam stops when they recede. 

In fig. 14, a, a, is the circular race of the piston 6. The 
axle c, to which the piston is aiBxed, is hollow, and the 
steam passes through one of its ends, and through an 
aperture d, into the circular race, where, by exerting its 
force the piston is driven round in the direction of the arrow ; 
the stop e, acting as the fixed point of resistance, and the 
axle c, is thereby made to revolve. 

At each end of the revolving axle c, a wheel is fixed, 
represented by the dotted circle f,f, in fig. 13. In the 
face of each of these wheels, there is a groove formed, 
shewn by dots at g> g> g ; part of this groove is concen*- 
trie with the axle, and the other part excentric, which is m^ 
tended to receive rollers at the end of the levers A, h, as 
the wheel goes round, for the purpose of moving the steam 
stops in and out. 

In the position of the parts shewn at fig. 14, it will he 
seen that the stop e, is projected across the steam way, 
and in that situation acts as a resistance to the steam as 
above said, while the other steam stop «, is slidden back 
into its recess, allowing the piston to pass. The levers 
h, h, are fixed upon short axles in the boxes k, k, and 
upon those axles within the boxes are also fixed similar 
levers /, I, the ends of which will be seen in fig. 14, taking 
into a notch in each slider. Now it will be perceived that 
when the rotary axle c, has been carried round to a cer« 
tain point, the excentric part of the groove g, will cause 
the lever h^ to move outwards, by which act one of the 
steam stops e, cr t, will be drawn back out of the steam 

103 Hecent Patents. 

race, and the other projected forward across the st 
race. By these moTeneota of the steam stops, the [ 
of resistaDce against which the steam acts, become 
sessively changed, and the piston being allowed b^ 
recedmg of the stops to pass freely, a continued re 
motion of the axle is the eonseqneDce, as long as the si 
is supplied. 

After each active volume of steam has expended it 
the projecting of the stop forward cuts off its commui 
tion with the induction, and allows itto escape throug 
aperture into the opposite end of the axle, and so to 
away. Though the above construction of a rotary st 
engine b fully set out, yet the novelty claimed bj 
Patentee in (his specification appears to be very iucc 
derable ; as it is limited in the first place to the mod 
tightening the piston to prevent the escape of steam 
placing hemp or gaskins behind the metallic packings, 
pressing them outward, hy wedge formed pieces or 
dined planes; and, secondly, in making the joint of 
caps or ends of the cylinder as frustrums of cones, w 
will admit of their being tightened up as occasion maj 
quire. — [fnrolled in the Petty Bag Office June, 1821 

To Valentine Llanos, of Hampstead, in the count- 
Middlesex, gentleman, in conseguence of a comm 
cation made to him by a person residing abroad, 
an invention of ctn improvement or improvementt 
bits.— lSea.\ed 15th December, 1828.] 

Tub object of this invention is to construct the bit 
a horse's mouth in such a manner as to protect 
palate and the tongue from injury, and at the same I 

Llanos' s, for Impts, on Horse^s Bits, 


to retain perfect command over his actions. Plate V^ 
fig. 15^ shews the improved form of the mouth piece, 
which is made with a peculiarly formed bow a, in the 
middle. The cheeks of the bit are intended to turn upon 
the necks b, by but are to have a small pin in each, which 
shall work in the recesses or grooves at the end of the 
mouth piece. These grooves are formed one quarter 
round the ends of the mouth piece, and consequently the 
cheeks of the bit are limited in their action, to ninety 
degrees of circular range. 

The particular advantages of this contrivance are not 
very intelligibly set out in the specification, excepting that 
it is said, a horse may be fed without removing this bit 
from his mouth, which will be very advantageous to 
cavalry soldiers when in action. 

The novel features claimed by the Patentee are, the 
particular shape of the mouth piece, which protects the 
palate and the tongue from injury; the method of con- 
necting the mouth piece with the cheeks, so as to 
limit their action to ninety degrees ; and the joint which 
allows of feeding the horse, without removing the bridle 
from his head. — [InroUed in the Petty Bag Office^ June, 

To Lewis Roper Fitzmaurice, of Jamaica-place, Com* 
mercial Road, in the county of Middlesex, master 
mariner in the Royal Navy, for improvements on 
ship's and other pumps, which improvements are also 
applicable by certain alterations to turning lathes and 
other purposes. — [Sealed Uth August, 1828.] 

The subject of this invention is an apparatus resembling 
in principle a rotary steam engine or steam wheel ; that 



Recent Patents. 


is, there are a series of radial pistons attached to a rotafy 
whed, which, by passing round in a cloae circular cham-* 
ber, produce a vacuum behind. 

Plate V. fig. 16, represents a rectangular box a, a, a, cat 
through the middle in vertical section, with the rotary 
wheel within ; b, is the axle of the wheel ; c, e, e, the 
circular recess or chieiiBber, in which the pistons d, d, d, 
are intended to act, their edges touching the surface of the 
chamber that is fitting closely as they pass round, and the 
whole enclosed and packed air tight. 

Each piston is mounted upon a radial arm or axle, and 
is enabled to turn round with its axle, which it is made to 
do on coming against an inclined plane, that places it 
edgewise. This inclined plane is shewn at e, e, in the 
lower part of the circular chamber ; and it will be Been, 
that the pistons as they arrive successively at this inclined 
plane are turned edgewise, and pass round in that position 
through a narrow channel in the box, until they reaoh the 
part f, where the circular chamber opening to its broad 
area, the piston is by the coiled spring upon its axle forced 
round again into its former position. 

The construction of the machine being understood, it 
remains to explain its operation. If a winch be applied 
to the axle of the wheel, and it is turned in the direction 
of the arrow, the air will become exhausted, and water 
will flow up the syphon pipe g, the lower end of which is 
supposed to be immersed in a reservoir of water, such 
for instance, as the hold of a ship, and the water 
thus drawn up will be discharged as the wheel goes 
round, at the tube h, in the lower part of the box. 

Another plan, which the Patentee calls a modification 
of the foregoing, is shewn at fig. 17, which represents 
a vertical section of a circular box or chamber having 
a series of flaps or pistons attached to a wheel and car- 

Fitzmaurice^s, for Impts. in Ship^s Pumps. 105 

ried round a ring^ formed chamber rendered air tight ; 
a, a, a, are the flaps or pistons attached by hinge joints 
to the wheel 6, which turns upon an axle in the centre ; 
c, is a cam fixed to the side of the box^ for the purpose of 
gtiiding the pistons or flaps by means of their tail pieces, 
vrhich act against the periphery of the cam as the wheel 
goes round. 

At the lower part of the circular chamber there is 
a curved ledge d, projecting from the side of the box, 
vrhichy as the flaps or pistons come round in the direction 
of the arrow, cause them to fall back into the periphery 
of the wheel, and e, is a block, or stop, which closes up 
a- part of the ehamber. 

When the wheel is driven round by a winch> or other 
power applied to its axle, the flaps or pistons fitting 
closely to the surfaces of the chamber, produce a vacuum 
or exhaustion of the air behind them, which causes the 
water to rise in the syphon pipe g, as in the former instance, 
and which > descending with the rotation of the wheel, 
is discharged at the aperture or tube h. 

The flaps or pistons having fallen into the periphery of 
the wheel, as they proceed along the lower part of the 
chamber, when they have respectively passed the stop or 
block e, the cam c, takes hold of the tail of each flap, and 
turns it over upon its hinge joints into its former position, 
where it again becomes a piston, carrying on the pumping 
or exhausting operation, and drawing the water up the 
syphon pipe from the reservoir below. 

It is considered that this apparatus may be made to 
drive machinery where only a small power is required, as 
in turning laths, and other operations of that kind. In 
this case the syphon pipe is removed, and a perpendicu- 
lar pipe attached to the aperture g, through which a des* 

Vol. VUF.^Seoond Series. p 

106 Recent Patents. 

cending column of water is to pass from a reservoir at 
the top of the building, in which the machinery is placed 
By these means the pistons will be carried round with a 
power equal to that of the weight of the descending 
column of water, and that power communicated from the 
axle may be employed to drive the lathes or other 
machinery. — [Inrolledin the Inrolment Office, February, 

To Philip Foxwell, clothier, William Clark, cloth- 
dresser, and Benjamin Clark, cloth dresser, all of 
Dye House Mill^ in the parish of Minchin-hampton, 
in the county of Gloucester^ for certain improvements 
in machinery for shearing, cropping, or cutting, and 
finishing woollen, and other cloths, and cassimeres, — 
[Sealed 19th August, 1828.] 

The subject of this Patent applies to a machine for 
shearing or cropping the pile from woollen cloth. The 
general construction of the machine to which these 
improvements are adapted, does not appear to differ 
materially from the shearing machines formerly made by 
Mr. O. F. Davis, of Nailsworth, and against whonti 
several actions at law were maintained by Mr. Lewis in 
18^8, for an infringement of parts of their prior patent 
rights ; a particular account of which, with accurate 
representations of the machines are introduced in the 
Second Volume of the Second Series of this Journal. 

In this machine the cloth tightly distended by hooks, 
or what are called habits, travels breadthwise, that is, 
from list to list, under the shears, and the pile of the 
cloth becomes cropped or shorn as it passes, by a vibrat- 
ing blade, acting against a fixed ledger blade ; there is 
also a transversing brush for raising up the pile, previously 

Foxwetl, ^fV.^B. Clark'*, /or cutting Cloths, ^c. 107 

to its comiug under the operation of the shears, which 
brush is worked to and fro by a crank. 

There does not appear to be any novel features in the 
construction of the parts or movemeqts of the machinery, 
but the claims of invention are, first, the adaptation of a 
japanned or varnished cloth, as a bed for]the shears to act 
upon, and second, a shaft with ratchet wheels and palls, 
for drawing up tightly the habits and lists. — [Inrolled in 
the Inrolment Office, February, 1829.] 

To Edward Barnard, of Nailsworth, near Mtnchin^ 
hampton, in the county of Gloucester, clothier, for 
certain improvements in weaving, and preparing 
c/oM.— [Sealed 1 9th, August 182S.] 

Thbrb are two objects proposed under this Patent; the 
first is, an apparatus for keeping the selvages or lists of 
cloth uniformly distended, while weaving in the loom; 
the second is, a contrivance for raising the pile or nap of 
the cloth, previously to shearing it. 

The figure shewn below represents one of the appara- 

tus for distending the cloth. The frame a, is to be 
fastened to the breast beam, or to the side of a loom, by 
screws, or any other convenient means ; the two indented 
wheels b and c, extending into the loom, so as to allow 
the list or selvage to pass between the an^le of. the two 
wheels, and to be taken hold of by the parts in contact. 


Recent Patents, 

The teeth of both wheels are made extremely obtuae; to 
that they may only take hold, not enter into Ant l»t or 
edge of the cloth. 

The wheel c, is pressed up into contact with the wheri 
b, by a weighted lever d, or by a spring, which acts mider 
a shoulder in the stem or shaft of the wheel c, and by 
that means tbe teeth of the two wheels are kept in con - 
tact at one point. 

At the back of the wheel b, there is a circle of teeth i 
into which a pinion e, works, and this pinion being driven 
by a band and pulley on its axle, turns the wheel round, 
and draws the list or selvage of the cloth to the desired 

It will of course be understood that one of these appa- 
ratus is to be placed on each side of the loom, taking hold 
of the list or selvage of the cloth as it passes, and thereby 
keeping it distended ; but as the progress of the cloth is 
slow, so must be that of the wheels b, e, the pinion e, 
therefore is made to turn very slowly, by an occasional 
movement of the pulley, actuated by the advance of the 
slay, through the agency of a ratchet and click, or by any 
other convenient means. 

The contrivance by which the pile or nap of cloth is 
proposed to be raised, when about to be shorn, consists 
in a series of brushes, made to travel across the cloth while 

the clotl|^9 {fLssing through the shearing machine. The 
figure above represents the cloth a, a, a, tightly distended 

Barnard* Sy for ImpU. in preparing Cloth. 109 

%ad it«pp<isedto be .pasfiiAg through a sbeariiig machine . 
two pulleys b, b, are mminted ui the maey«e> and aiade 
to revolve upon their axles, by aay suitable bontrtv^aUce ; 
oiper those pullies an endless bamd is passed^ wfaicfa car- 
f4es a series of broshes c, c, €, and on the wheels i, iy, 
tttrning, the brushes are made to travel across the eloih^ 
and to raise the pile ready to be taken hold of and eroped 
by the shears, which are in operation behind the brushes, 
but not shewn in the figure. 

From aboard d, d, two arms extend^ which support a 
rod 6, e. This rod is intended to press upon the surface of 
the cloth, for the purpose of keeping it smooth as it ad- 
vances through the machine. 

This last described piece of mechanism is mounted on 
anns or levers extending from the front of a shearing frame, 
axid is enabled to rise or £^11 on hinge joints^ for the con- 
venience of beixig readily raised up from the cloth« — [/n- 
roUed in the Inrolmeni Office, February, 1829.] 

Report of the Committee of the House of Commons on 

(CctUinuedfiom p* 36.^ 

" The only fair plea for charging Tolls on steam Carriages in 
proportion to their weight, is to prevent a load from being pro- 
pelled or carried which would permanently injure the road, Within 
this limit it would be as injudicious to interfere with their pro- 
gressive efficiency, (which can only result from the improvements 
of the machinery and the system of generating and applying Steam), 

110 On Steam Carriages, 

as it would be to tax Garriagea drawn by large and well bred 
horses more heavily, than such as were drawn by horses in worse 
condition* and of smaller size and power. 

" To charge a Toll according to the number of passengers oon- 
yeyed, is scarcely less objectionable. If a fluctuating Toll be in- 
tended, it would be as inadmissible as to propose a similar mode 
of charging for fiast Coaches, and would be open to all the ca- 
vil and interruptions to which a fluctuating Toll would be liable. 
If the Toll were fixed according to the number of passengers the 
Carriage were capable of conveying, it would imply the necessity 
of a licence, limiting the number of passengers, and cramping the 
progress of improvement of a machine, the capabilities of which 
can only be ascertained slowly and by continued experiment. 

" The trustees of the Liverpool and Prescot road have already 
obtained the sanction of the Legislature to charge 'the monstrous 
Toll of U. 6d. ' per horse power,' as if it were a national object 
to prevent the possibility of such Engines being used. Besides 
they have supplied no standard of their own conception of horse 
power ; engineers have differed very much in their estimates oi 
this power ; there is not, therefore, much probability that the op- 
posite interests of a Steam Coach proprietor and Toll collector 
would lead to any agreement as to the meaning of the term. But 
suppose the Legislature were to settle this point, and to arrange 
that a certain length of stroke and diameter of cylinder should 
represent a certain power, we still fail to ascertain that whidi 
alone it is essential to know ; viz. the actual efficiency of the 
Engine. Can we regulate the density of Steam at which an 
En^e of a given size should be worked ? To be effectual, it 
would be also necessary to ascertain the quantity of water con- 
sumed, and even this check would be inadequate with an Engine 
on Mr. Trevithick's principle. If the toll be left as at present on 
' horse-power,' it would be the obvious interest of the proprietor 
to work with the smallest nominal power, but to increase as much 
as possible the force of his Steam, thereby increasing the proba- 
bDity of explosion. 

" Some Trustees have placed the Toll upon the number of 

On Steam Carriages, III 

wheels. The Committee would object to this mode of charge, if 
only because it interferes between the rival modes of Steam tra- 
velling, and gives a bounty in fieivour of that, in which the Engine 
is placed on the same carriage with the passengers. The opposite 
plan, of separating the Engine firom the Carriage, is that which 
probably the public will prefer, until the safety of the mode of 
conveyance shall have been fully ascertained. 

** There is still a more serious objection to this mode of charge ; 
it tends to discourage the use of separate Carriages ; although it 
must be evident, that if a certain weight be carried, it will be 
much less injurious to the road when divided over eight wheels, 
than when carried on four only. On this point the Committee 
must again refer to Mr. Macneil's evidence. They cannot, there- 
fbre, recommend the House to adopt a scale of Toll, which shall 
increase in inverse proportion to the injury done to the road. It 
will be seen in Mr. M' Adam's evidence, that the Toll on Steam 
Coaches imposed by the Metropolitan Roads Act, is liable to this 

" Some of the local Acts have placed an unvarying Toll on 
Steam Carriages. This, if moderate, would be unobjectionable ; 
but the Committee could not propose any sum which would adapt 
itself to the necessary varieties of expence in keeping up different 
roads, by which the Tolls on common Carriages have been regu- 
lated. A fixed ToU has, too, this disadvantage, that light 
experimental Carriages, or such as are built solely for speed, 
would be liable to the same toll, as Steam Carriages heavily 

" The Committee do not anticipate that, for a considerable 
period. Steam will be used as a propelling power on common 
roads for heavy waggons. It appears to have been the general 
opinion of the witnesses, that in proportion as the velocity of 
travelling by*Steam on common roads is diminished, the advan- 
tages of Steam over horse power are lost. The efficiency of 
horses in draught is rapidly diminished as their speed is increased ; 
while, on the contrary, the weight which could be carried or 


On Steam Carriages, 

propdled, at any great velocity, by Steank, could not be more 
cheaply conveyed^ were the speed decreased to that of the slowest 

'* As speed, therefore, is the cause of greatiy increased expense 
where horses are nsed, while with Steam it is comparatively 
unimportant, it is probable that the latter will be chiefly resorted 
to when rapidity of conveyance is required. Mr. Gumey con- 
aders, that, under four miles per hour, horses can be used in 
draught more economically than Steam. Should it, however, h^ 
dieemed profitable to convey heavy goods by Steam Carriages, the 
Committee recommend that tiiere should be as little interference 
as possible with ^e ninnber of carts employed; as ^e effect on 
the surfiace of roads would be infinitely more injurious if heavy 
loads were placed on a single cart, than if tibe same weight were 
divided over several. The Committee recommend that where 
Carriages, containing heavy goods alone, are propelled by Steam, 
the weight of the load should be charged, without reference to 
the number of carts on which it may be carried. 

"In cottdusion, the Committee submit the following Summary 
of liie Evidence, given by the several witnesses, as to the pro- 
gress made on the application of Steam to the purposes of 
draught on common roads. 

'^Suffident evidence has been adduced to convince your Com- 
mittee, — 

1. That Carriages can be propelled by steam on common 

roads at an average rate of ten miles per hour. 

2. That at this rate they have conveyed upwards of fourteen 


3. That their weight, including engine, fuel; water and atten- 

dants, may be under Usee tons. 

4. That they can ascend and descend hills of considerable ^ 

inclination with feunlity and safety. 

5. That they are perfectly safe for passengers. 

6. That they are not (or need not be, if properly construct- 

ed) nuisances to t^e Public. 

On Steam Carriages, 113 

7. That they will become a speedier and cheaper mode of 

conveyance than Carriages drawn by horses. 
8 That, as they admit of greater breadth of tire than other 
Carriages, and as the roads are not acted on so injuriously 
as by the feet of horses in common draught, such Car- 
riages will cause less wear of roads than coaches drawn 
by horses. 
9, That rates of Toll have been imposed on Steam Carriages i 
which would proliibit their being used on several lines 
of road, were such charges permitted to remain un- 
Mr. Gumey, in commenting upon this Report, observes'Colonel 
Torrens' arguments are so conclusive, in regard to the effects of 
Steam Carnages to agriculture and commerce, that any further 
remarks here will be unnecessary and presumptuous. I would, 
howevei, call to mind, as a practical illustration of the truth of 
these arguments, the immense benefit which has already accrued 
to agriculture in particular, by the substitution of wheel carriages 
for pack horses. The state that society, and agriculture especially^ 
would be in, had not this introduction of machinery taken place, 
may easier be conceived than pointed out« In short, the number 
of horses necessary to do the work which is now done by wheel 
carriages, would consume almost all the produce of the country • 
This improvement, with the substitution of the Steam Engine for 
horse power in stationary situations, has alone enabled this coun# 
try to support its increased population. 

The advantaged of machinery are too well know to require any 
observation; but the propable effects on society, so far as this 
particular machine is concerned, viz., the Steam Carriage, I 
would extract from the minutes my evidence given before the 
Committee of the House of Commons. 

I said *' generally, in regard to the main improvements on 

Steam Engines, by which this country has been so much1)ene-' 

fitted, and the prospective advantages to be derived from Steam 

Carriages, that they always have been and will be in direct ratio 

Vol. IX.— Second Series q 



On Steam Carriages, 

with the removal of horses. The great and splendid improve- 
ments of Mr. Watt have generally heen supposed to be principally 
connected with the separate condenser of the Steam Engine ; but 
before Mr. Watt's day, we could draw off the water from our 
mines in Cornwall, and we could do a variety of other simple 
work by the Steam Engine : and so far the improvement of Mr. 
Watt was simply productive of a saving of fuel. I consider that 
the great national advantage arising from Mr. Watt's improve- 
ment> has been his application of the Steam Engine to machinery; 
and the extent of that advantage to the community has been in 
direct proportion to the removal of horse po^er: a most unpro- 
ductive labourer and a dead expense to the countr}\ 

" If this view of the subject be entertained, the application of 
steam to propelling carriages on common roads will be as im- 
mportant above its application to machinery, generally, as the 
number of horses employed in locomotion, exceed those neces* 
sary to machinery, which bears no smaU proportion with respect 
to each other. At Hounslow alone, there are at this moment 
upwards of 1,000 horses employed in stage coaches and posting. 
On the Paddington Road, a distance of five miles only, there are 
upwards of 1,000 horses employed at this moment. Throughout 
Great Britain it is almost impossible to say how many horses are 
employed, but I shoidd perhaps be within bounds if I were to say 
millions, in posting and stage coaches. If it is possible to remove 
those horses by an elementary power (which I firmly believe is 
practicable), the national advantage must be in proportion to the 
number of horses so removed ; and if it is shown that one car- 
riage horse can be removed from the road by the present state of 
steam, carriages, I see no reason why every horse so employed 
should not be so removed. 

" It has been decided that the consumption of a horse, from 
the produce of the land, is equal to that necessary for eight indi* 
viduals, so for every horse that is removed and is supplied by 
elementary power, we make way for the maintenance of eight 
individuals. If it is possible, and I see no objection to it, to do 

On Si earn Carriages, 115 

the principal work of horses by steam, or other elementary power, 
the Committee may imagine to what extent we may provide for 
our increasing population. We may do much by political laws, 
but natural laws will do more, and when pointed out by the 
finger of Providence, may be made thus to provide for his wise 

" I firmly believe that the introduction of steam carriages will 
do much for this country ; I have always had this impression ; I 
left an honourable and lucrative profession, in which I was exten- 
sively engaged, in order to attend to this subject, because I was 
convinced of its importancs and practicability; I have always 
entertained the same idea as I do at present. Imperfections may 
exist in the machinery ; but I conceive that the main points of 
difficulty have been removed by the experiments I have made, 
and that all those now remaining are practical difficulties, which 
will be removed by further experience ; and if there is no cause 
opposed by the Legislature, or any other source, I will be bold 
to say, that in five years, steam carriages will be generally em- 
ployed throughout £ngland. I have not hesitated, having these 
feelings, to devote all my time for the last six years to the sub- 
ject, and am mentally recompensed by the present state of the 

These sentiments are, however, but a matter of individual 
opinion, although, I believe, no impartial person can question 
their truth. The Report of the Committee of the House of 
Commons expresses the sentiments of a body of men constituting 
the most able and competent tribunal ; and is conclusive, so far 
as the decision of men can be, whose opinions have been governed 
by the best evidence. The following document, however, is still 
more important and conclusive, because it states the results of 
actual work ; it is therefore positive, and admits of no exception. 

This, with other valuable documents of a practical nature, was 
not submitted to the Committee, because immediately after I had 
given my evidence I left London, and the only subject before 
them then was that of Tolls. The Committee, in the course of 


On Steam Carriages, 

their inquiry, impressed with the importance of the subject, had 
extended their report to the " probable utility which the public 
may derive from steam carriages/' I had no agent or person to 
represent my interest in London ; and, consequently, when, on 
this latter inquiry, these documents ought to have been laid be- 
fore them, there was no one to do so. I have the greater satis^ 
faction now in making them public, because they practically con- 
firm a most important part of their report, and shew the value to 
be attached to the other views entertained by them. 

*' The principal document in question, is an exact amount of 
the time of each journey, during the four months the carriage 
continued to run between Cheltenham and Gloucester, the num- 
ber of passengers taken in every Journey, the monies received for 
fares, the monies expended in power, and the wear and tear of 
the machinery. These heads com])rehend all the points which 
affect comparative value. I am indebted for these particulars to 
Mr. Stone, who has had the management of the Steam Carriages 
of Gloucester, and who has superintended most of my experiments 
from the commencement. 

" It is said in the Report of the Committee, that " Mr. James 
Stone states that the Engine drew ^v^ times its own weight 
nearly, at the rate of from five to six miles per hour, partly up' 
an inclination." As the fact appears only in the minutes of evi-' 
dence without the particulars, I shall first give here, in Mr. Stone'9 
own words, the particulars of an experiment wliich I have no 
doubt is the one, or one similar to that, alluded to. They were 
written the day of making the experiment. 

\^Tahe continued.} 




No. LI. 



Emnt patents. 

To WiLUAM Parish^ of Cambridge, Jacksonian pro/es' 
€or in the University, for his having invented an 
improved method or methods of cleaning out footer 
courses. — [Sealed 4th December, 1828.] 

The principle of this invention is the employment of a 
vessel suspended upon pivots, to receive water by any 
slow drainage, which vessel when filled to a certain height 
shall, by the preponderating weight of the water accumu- 
lated on one side of its axis, immediately tip over and 
discharge the whole of its contents in a copious flood, the 
force of which flood is intended to carry away ietny filth 
that may have deposited in the drain. There is also a 
contrivance for applying the same apparatus as a moving 
power, to open a sluice for the occasional discharge of a 

Vol. IX. — Second Series. r 


Recent Patents, 

large body of water from an embanked pond or reserToir, 
the rapid current of which water is intended to wash away 
the sediment from the ditches or drains connected there- 

Plate VI, fig. 1, represents a tray or shallow vessel, 
suspended upon pivots; one end of the tray having a 
shoot or bevelled edge. This vessel is intended to receive 
water by means of a pipe, or a drain delivering into it. 
When the vessel is filled to a certain height, the weight 
of the water towards the shoot end will preponderate, and 
cause the vessel to tip over and discharge its contents 
suddenly ; which will produce a powerful flow of water, 
calculated to wash away any deposits in the drain into 
which it is discharged. 

Fig. 2, is another modification of the same contrivance, 
in which a cylindrical vessel suspended upon pivots is em- 
ployed, having a iip formed as a tangent to the cylinder. 
If water be allowed to run into this vessel until it rises to 
the top of the lip, a preponderating weight will by that 
means have accumulated on the lip side of the axis, which 
will turn the vessel over, and cause it to discharge its con* 
tents at the lip part into the drain below. 

Fig. 3, represents the section of an embanked pond or 
reservoir, the contents of which are required to be dis- 
charged occasionally with considerable force through the 
drain below. An apparatus similar to that last described, 
is enclosed within a water tight box jsr, z, at the bottom of 
the pond, and a perpendicular pipe y, extends upwards 
from the top of this box. When the water in the pond 
has risen to the level of the upper orifice of the pipe y, 
it then flows down the pipe, and is conducted into the cy- 
lindrical vessel, by means of a trumpet mouthed tube. 
The vessel having become filled with water to the height 
of the lip, the preponderating weight on that side causes 

Parish's, hnpts. in cleaning Water Courses. 1 19 

it to turn upon its pivots^ in doing which it also carries 
round the toothed wheel x, affixed to its side ; and this 
wheel taking into a rack on the edge of the horizontal 
rod w, draws that rod, and with it the sliding valve v, from 
the aperture or mouth of the drain u, hence the contents 
of the pond immediately flow down the drain, and wash 
away the filth which may have settled there. 

The water discharged from the cylindrical vessel into 
the box z, runs off by the small drain t, and the cylinder 
being furnished with a counter-poise weight, is, when 
empty, brought back to its former position, and the valve 
r, sliden back over the mouth of the drain, allowing the 
pond to fill again gradually. On the water rising to the 
aperture at top of the pipe, the same effects take place 
again, and thus the apparatus occasionally empties the 
pond, discharging the water with great force, for the pur- 
pose above described. 

The Patentee states, that he does not intend to confine 
himself to the apparatus described, but claims the appli* 
cation of every sort of contrivance by which an inter- 
mitted flow of water may be effected ; and he further 
states, that the Patent is taken at the suggestion and for 
the use df Mr. Jowett, of Great Queen Street, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields, and that the apparatus is to be called 
JTowett's apparatus for cleansing out water courses. — 
[InroUed in the Inrolment Office, March, 1829.] 

[ 120 J 

To Joseph Rhodes^ the younger^ of Alverthorpe, in the 
parish of Wakefield, and county of York, worsted 
spinner, for his having invented certain improvements 
in machinery for spinning and twisting worsted, yam, 
and other fibrous substances. -^^esX^A, 18th Sep- 
tember, 1828.] 

Neither the novelty or the advantage of these ^' improve- 
ments in machinery for spinnings &c.'* appear to be pointed 
out in the Specification, and we are at a loss to discover 
what tne merits of the invention consist in — a small part 
of a spinning machine is represented, for the purpose of 
explaining the kind of apparatus employed. 

Plate VI. fig, 4, is an end view of a portion of the ma- 
chine, showing the operative parts, with one spindle and 
flyer. The cop of worsted, or other yarn intended to be 
spun, is placed upon the frame at a, from whence the yam 
passes through drawing rollers b, b, b, to the interior of a 
hollow tube c. This tube is mounted in bearings in two 
fixed horizontal bars d, d, and is made to revolve by 
means of the pulley e, and cord passing round the driving 
drumy*. At the lower end of this tube is affixed the 
%^i* g» A^d the spindle h. 

The thread or yarn proceeds through the tube c, and 
through the arm of the flyer g, at the end of which it 
passes on to the bobbin L The end of the spindle which 
carries the bobbin, protrudes through the rail k, and it is 
by the rising and falling of the rail k, that the bobbin 
is slidden up and down upon the spindle, so as to enable 
the yarn to wind progressively upon the bobbin in uniform 

The rail k, is supported by arms /, one of which arms 
extend from the lower end of the lever m, the fulcrum of 

Sharp's, for Impts. in Spinning, ^c. 


this lever being a pivot at n. The periphery of a heart 
wheel or cam o, driven by a toothed wheel p, affixed to 
its axle, acts against a pin in the lever m, and as the heart 
goes round the lever is made to vibrate^ by which means 
the rail k, and the bobbin i, are progressively raised 
and depressed^ for the purpose of laying the yarns evenly 
upon the bobbin« 

When the bobbin is full of spun yam it must be remo- 
ved from the spindle, or as it is termed doflTd, by lowering 
the rail k. This is done by shifting aside the lever m, 
so as to withdraw the pin from the periphery of the heart, 
and throw it into the position shown by dots. The elastic 
city of the lower parts of the lever allows of this side 

As we have above said, the invention, or novelty, is not 
evident from thid Specification; the Patentee distinctly 
disclaims every part of the machine as already known 
and in use, but claims the arrangement of the whole as 
exhibited. — [Inrolled in the Inrolment Office, March, 

To WiLUAM Sharp, of Manchester, in the county palatine 
of Lancaster, cotton spinner, for certain improvements 
in machinery for spinning or roving cotton, silk, wool, 
or other fibrous substances. — [Sealed 19th August, 


These improvements apply to that description of machi- 
nery commonly called the '^ bobbin and fly frame." The 
object of the inventor is to enable a machine to spin and 
wind upon bobbins, rovings, or yarns, of various qualities 


Recent PcUents. 

of fineness, by occasionally removing the driving pinions 
of the machine, and supplying others with different num- 
bers of teeth. 

The Specification, which is of very considerable lengthy 
describes all the minutiae of a bobbin and fly frame of the 
ordinary construction, with tbe addition of two pinions 
united together, and fixed on tbe axle of the front drawing 
rollers, which pinions have dissimilar numbers of teeth. 
These pinions, or rather this double pinion, takes into two 
trains of wheels, tbe one train actuating the spindles 
which give the twist to the filaments of yarn, the other the 
bobbins, upon which the twisted yarns are to be wound; 
and the proportions of the diameters, and numbers of 
teeth, on the two parts of the double pinion, are accurately 
calculated to effect the taking up or winding on, according 
to the degree of fineness of the twisted yarn. 

The differential movement which regulates the rotary 
speed of the bobbins, according to their increasing dia- 
meters — or, in other words, that causes the bobbins to turn 
slower as they augment in bulk by the accumulation of 
the yams, so as to take up or wind on at all times a given 
length of yarn on to a corresponding extent of surface, is 
effected 4)y a rack, as in other spinning or roving frames, 
which rack being moved progressively, shifts tbe conduc- 
tor of a strap that embraces a conical drum, and by pas- 
sing this strap to the larger diameter of tbe drum, causes 
it to turn slower, and consequently to drive the bobbins 
(which it actuates) with less speed. 

This rack, however, in the improved machine, is to be 
moved by a pinion of like diameter, and a number of teeth, 
to that pinion which regulates the winding on already 
mentioned ; this pinion being driven by means of connec- 
tion with the other moving parts of the machine. When 
it is required to vary the speed the double pinion first 

Losh*s, for Impts, in Rails for Roads. 123 

described^ and also the pinion last described, must be re- 
moved, and other pinions of suitable numbers of teeth 
substituted in their place ; which adaptation of pinions for 
the purpose above stated, appear to constitute the whole 
matter of the present invention. 

The Patentee says, he claims '' the contrivance for 
giving to the taking up motion of the machine, a distinct 
and separate motion from the twist, which are to bear a 
relative proportion to each other," and also the ''pro- 
perty by which the rack is moved, without requiring to 
be changed for different qualities of yarn;" and the Spe- 
cification concludes, by saying, that the inventor does not 
confine himself to the mode above described of perform- 
ing the object, as it may be varied, and effected by many 
other contrivances.— [/nro/Zed in the Inrolment Office, 
February y 1829.] 

To William Losh, of Benton House, in the county of 
Northumberland, esq. for his having invented certain 
improvements in the formation of iron rails for rail 
roads ; and in the chairs or pedestals, in or upon 
which, the rails may he placed or fixed. — [Sealed 18th 
September, 1828.] 

This invention is said to consist in two particulars : first, 
a mode of giving additional strength to the iron rails of 
the road in those parts which have been found most 
likely to give way, by the pressure of the heavy carriages 
passing over them ; and secondly, a particular mode of 
joining the ends of the rails, so as to cause them to lock 
into and confine each other, and thereby prevent the 
shifting of any of the rails from their proper situations. 


Recent PcUents. 

The Patentee employs a rail of the ordinary sectional 
form, that is with a top edge like the rail of a stair-case 
bannister, slightly rounded on the upper side with 
orer-hanging edges. The bar which constitates the lower 
part of the rail, is increased in depth toward the middle 
of its length, for the purpose of preventing it bending. Its 
ends, which are to bear upon the chains, or sleepers are 
formed with ears of a semi-cylindrical shape, resting in 
cast iron blocks as chairs, which have corresponding 
concavities, and the ends of the bars are made with lateral 
indentations, as mortices and tenons locking into each 
other, the joints being secured by wedges or keys. 

The rails, if of malleable iron, are proposed to be made 
by passing bars in a red hot btate between indented 
rollers, as in the ordinary way of rolling bars to any parti- 
cular figure ; but the increased depth of the rail in the 
middle is to be produced by making the groove' of the 
roller excentric ; and the ends are to be formed by forging 
or any other convenient means. 

The claim of novelty, consists in giving the additional 
depth to the middle part of the rail to afford strength, 
and the mode described of forming the junctions at the 
ends of the rails, and supporting them in cast iron chairs, 
fastened to the sleepers for the purpose of preventing 
ihem from shifting from their situations.— [/nroZZecI in 
the InrolmeHt Office, March, 1829.] 

[ 125 ] 

To Bdward Jos&phs, of Haydon Square, Middlesex, 
merchant, for his having invented certain imptove* 
ments on thefoheels, d^letreeSy and other parts of carts, 
waggons, and other convet/ances.-^lSeal&d 18th De- 
cember, 1828.] 

The Patentee considers^ that by the employment of large 
runnings wheels for carriages^ the draft will be very consi- 
derably relieved, as the peripheries of such wheels would 
roll over hollows in the rdad^ whereas smaller wheels 
would sink into those hollows and cause repeated obstruc- 
tions and concussion. 

As, however, the axles of such large wheels would be 
higheif than it might be found convenient to raise the bed 
or bottom of the cart or waggon, it is proposed to form 
the axletree as a ci'ank, tlie boxes or naves of the wheels 
fitting on to the ends of the cranks, some distance above 
die bed of the cgftt or waggon, which is to bear upon the 
lower or receding part of the axletree. 

In this mode of mounting a carriage upon crank axles, 
the bed may be brought very near the ground, which will 
afford considerable convenience to the loading and un- 
loading of heavy goods. For the convenience of locking, 
the front wheels must be smaller, and may be allowed 
to pass under the bed of the waggon much in the usual 

The Patentee says, that he " does not claim any of the 
parts as new, but he claims the general arrangement ot 
the whole ; *' a claim not very easily maintained or even 
to be understood, if none of the parts in themselves are 
new. — [Inr oiled in the Inrolment Office, June, 1829.] 

Vo^ IX. — Second Sbrivs. 

[ 126 ] 

To Francis Nealb, of the city of Gloucester, barrister 
at law, for his having invented a certain machine, ap- 
paratus, or combination of machinery for propelling 
vessels. — - [Sealed 7th January, 1829 .J 

This is another adaptation of the well-known mechanical 
contrivance called the "lazy tongs," consisting of a series 
of levers jointed together, to the extremities of which series 
the paddles are to be appended that act in the water ; and 
by the expanding and contracting of the lazy tongs or 
jointed levers, the paddles are worked to and fro in the 
water, for the purpose of propelling the vessel. 

Plate VI, fig. 5, represents the side of a vessel to which 
the series of jointed levers is attached. A crank a, sup- 
posed to extend from the main rotary shaft of the engine 
within the vessel, is connected by a joint to the central 
pair of levers at their upper ends; the opposite joint of 
the central counter levers being upon a fixed stud below, 
at b. 

"To the extreme arms or outer levers of the series are 
connected the horizontal frames c, c, which carry the 
paddles. One or .more paddles d, may be attached to 
each frame c, and they may be suspended upon swinging 
axles, bearing between two horizontal bars, with cross 
bracings, which constitute the frames. 

Two sweep rods e, e, turn upon fixed studs or pivots 
aty,/i and, at their reverse ends, are jointed to the outer 
levers of the series. 

It will be perceived, that if the crank a, be made to re- 
volve, it will cany the upper joint of the central levers 
round in the dotted circle ; and as all the levers must pre- 
serve their parallelism to each other when the crank has 
arrived at the highest point of its ro^tation, the series of 


Necde^s, fw PropeUing Vesteh. 127 


levers will be drawn up into the position shown by dots^ 
causing the paddles d, d, to approach the centre^ in which 
movement one paddle will be in ction and the other out 
of action. 

Behind the joint of each paddle there is a stop^piece 
with a bevel edge, which, as the paddle advances pre- 
viously to giving its stroke, allows it to fall into an in- 
clined position, and to slide through the water without 
obstruction ; but as the paddle recedes for the purpose 
of giving its stroke, the resistance of the water throws it 
into a perpendicular position, when it bears against the 
stop : and now is brought into operation the force exerted 
by the machinery, through the agency of the paddles 
against the resisting fluid, and the vessel is propelled in 
the Opposite direction. — llnrolledin the Inrolment Office 9 
July, 1829.T 

To Robert Parker, of Hackney, in the county of Mid- 
dleseXy lieutenant in the Royal Navy, for his having 
invented an improved drag or apparatus which is 
applicable to stage coaches and other wheeled carria^ 
ges, and whereby the motion thereof may be retarded 
and stopped when required, — [Sealed 31st January, 

The Patentee says that his apparatus consists of a mecha- 
nical contrivance resembling in principle the structure of 
the human leg, having the knee joint and the ankle joint. 
It is constructed by an iron lever, which may be ealled 
the leg, attached to the axle* tree of the carriage by a 
knee joint, which'enables it to be raised or lowered. At 
the bottom of this lever is a broad piece held by the 


Recent Paien$e* 

ankle joints called the &koe ; wbicti^ wb^n ibf ^ttsig in 
brougt^t into operation^ glides upoa the gromidji and lifta 
the running ijrheel up from its beihring. 

Plate VI^ fig. 6^ shows the apparatus drawn up under 
the carriage^ apd of eourse not in operatian ; di^ wtieel 
is reprei^ented by tbe dotted segment of q. circle as juur 
ning upon the ground. Fig. 7, shows the drag iu operas 
tiouj the i^oe being iq coataet with the ground^ and the 
running wheel of the carriage raised up off the ground ^ 
the weight of the vehicle b^ng supported by the drag 
instead of the wheel, and consequently as the shoe slides 
along the ground^ a very considerable friction ta|ces placoj 
and the progress of the carriage is consequently im* 

The axle of the bind wheel of the carriage is repre* 
sented at a, and immediately below it is the knee joint or 
pivot of the leg'6/ affixed to the axle tree. This leg is a 
straight bar of iron, at the lower end of which the foot 
or shoe c, is a<ttached by the ankle joint. At the back of 
the foot or shoe piece c, there is an elongation d», tbroug;h 
which the pin or swivel joint of the eye piece e, is pro- 
truded. A bent lever f, turning upon a fulcrum pin in the 
leg, is passed through the eye piece, and is confined in 
the elevated situation shown at fig. 7, by a loop g, which 
drops over its end. 

Thus it will be perceived that the bent lever /*, wh^n 
confined by the loops g, holds up the eye piece e, and 
the elongated part of the foot d, and by tha.t meaaft 
l^eeps the foot or shoe in the propier pos^ioi^ for the so^, 
to bear against the ground, in which pp^itipa it is still fur- 
ther held by the drag chain A, suspended! ft^om tbe undey 
part of the carriage. 

When it is required to bring the dia^ in^ operation, a. 
person seated at the hinder pajrt oC the coach> on the outi 

Poolers, for Impis. in preparing Dough. It9 

sidQ, lets down the apparatiit from tht po«ittoa shown 
at fig. 6, by rQleasing the €hEiDt> which are all comieeted 
together above> and by drawing the ehain tV powerfully, 
the h^o.% lever is raised, bringing tha eye piece, and 
with it the foot, ii^o the poaition shown at fig. 7, at vriuok 
time the loop g> folk ov^ the end of the bent lerer, aadi 
confines it securely in the poaitton for dragging* 

In order to raise the drag frooi die ground, and allow 
tbe wheel tc^ eowe again into action, the chain or Awd k, 
attached to the loopa g, is to be first drawn up, which 
causes tbe loop to slip off tbe end of the bent leYer« 
when the lever immediatiely falls and allows the eye pieca 
to fall also, and the foot to turn up as the periphery of 
the wheel comes into contact with the ground. The drag 
may then be drawn up by means of tfie chain into the 
position shown at fig. 7, and he there made fast to a hook 
or staple on the side of the ^BLrmge^-^lInrolttd im Me 
Inr^lment Office, July, 1829.} 

To Moses PoauB, of Lincoln^r Inux m the county q/ 
Middlesex^, gevttleman, in con^e^^c^ of a communis 
eation made to him by a foreigner r^eiding abro^^ 
for an invention^ of certain improved machinery foir 
preparing or kneadiKkg dipugA.-^ Sealed 19th Jun^, 

There are three different constructions of machinery 
proposed under this patent^ either of which are to be enif* 
ployed for kneading doughy for the making of bread or 

In tbe first machine described in this Specification, the 

130 Recent PaienU. 

dough passes to and fro under a heavy roller mounted in 
a trough, which roller has a reciprocating rotary actiou 
given to it, by means of a wheel, pinion, and winch, driven 
by hand on the outside of the trough. The second con- 
trivance is a trough with several compartments for knead- 
ing different kinds of dough at the same time ; which 
trough is mounted upon pivots, and is made to revolve 
upon standards by a wheel, pinion, and winch connected 
to it's pivot, the kneading of the dough being principally 
effected by the rolling over of a heavy ball in each com- 
partment as the trough revolves. The third contrivance 
is a series of arms and oblique hoops or rings attached 
to an axle, which is made to revolve within a semi-cylin- 
drical trough, for the purpose of stirring up the 6our and 
water and kneading it into dough. 

Plate VI, fig. 8, represents the section taken trans- 
versely of a trough for kneading, made of wood; it 
should be lined with hard wood or with smooth plates of 
iron. The lower part of this trough is curved to prevent 
the dough from lodging in any corners. An iron or hard 
wood roller a, extending the whole length of the trough, 
is mounted upon an axle, the pivots of which pass through 
the ends of the trough. This roller is intended to revolve 
near the bottom of the trough, but may be raised or 
lowered at the pleasure of the workmen when in use, the 
bearings of the pivots being in sliding-frames attached to 
levers moved by racks and pinions. 

Above the roller a, there is a fixed wooden partition b, 
extending the whole length of the trough, which partition 
is beveled on its lower edge, and nearly meets the peri- 
phery of the roller : it is intended as a scraper, and to 
prevent the dough from passing over the roller. 

Upon the end of the axle of the roller a, a toothed 

Poolers, for Impts» in preparing Dough. 131 

wheel is fixed, shown by dots; this takes into a pinion on 
the axle of the fly-wheel c, to which a winch is attached 
for driving the machine by manual labour, or a rigger 
may be placed upon the same axle for working the ma- 
chine by any other motive- power. 

The fly-wheel being put in motion^ the roller a, is made 
to revolve, and the flour and liquor having been previously 
introduced into the trough and covered by the lid, the 
materials are drawn through the space between the bottom 
of the trough and the roller, and become partially 

When this operation has gone on for a short time, the 
dough partially formed will have been nearly all drawn to 
one side of the trough, the rotation of the wheel n, and 
roller a, must then be reversed, and the dough will pass 
back again under the roller to the other side of the 
trough. Thus, by a reciprocating action of the roller a, 
the materials will be properly mixed and kneaded into 
dough ready for the oven. 

Fig. 9, represents the second construction of machinery; 
a, is a long box or chest made of wood, with iron bind- 
ings, of which this fig. is an end view. This box or chest 
is divided into any number of compartments, and the 
whole is covered with a lid fastened down by hoops or 
staples. The ends of the box or chest have pivots in the 
position of an axis, upon which the chest is balanced in 
standards, and it is made to revolve upon those standards 
by means of a toothed wheel, pinion, fly-wheel, and 
winch, or by other convenient means. 

The flour and liquor being introduced into the several 
compartments of the box or chest, a heavy iron ball, like a 
cannon ball, is placed in each compartment, and attached 
to the side of the chest by a chain : the chest is then 


Recent Patents. 

elosed 0M;ttrely by its Kd, attd being tdm^ found upM its 
pivots the ball rolls ctet and over and from side to side 
amoD^ the materials, and eauses them to mix ; and when 
80 mixed into doagh, the wei<^ht of the ball, as it con« 
tinues to roll, kneads the dough perfectly, and brings it 
into a state fit for baking. 

By dividing tb# rotary chest into several compartments, 
the Patentee considers that he shall be enabled to mix 
and knead different kinds of meal at the same time, and 
by one operation of the machme. 

The third kind of kneading apparatus is shown at figs. 
10 and II; it consists of a semi^ylindrical trough, 
shown in section at fig. 10, in which a series of oblique 
rings and radial arms are attaciied to a rotary axle. A 
portion of tliis rotary apparatus is shown detached from 
the machine at fig. II. 

The semi'cylindrical troi!igh a, a, is intended to extend 
for a considerable length, perhaps ten or twelve feet long. 
It is to be stationary and mounted upon legs, and has a 
lid or cover 6, which being turned over on to the trough 
a, a, incloses the rotary axle. 

Flour and liquor being introduced into the trough, and 
the lid closed down, the rotary axle is to be put iu mo- 
tion, which will cause the arms and oblique rings of the 
axle to pass through the materials in the trough, and to 
stir them up so as to produce a perfect mixing, or incor- 
poration of the meal and the liquor, and hence to knead 
it into dough ready to be made up into loaves of bread. 
llj^oUed in the Inrolment Office, December, 1829,] 

[ 133 J 

To George Henry Manton, of Dover-street, Picca- 
dilly, in the county of Middlesex, gun maker, for 
his invention of an improvement in the construction of 
locks for all kinds of fowling pieces and fire arms. — 
[Sealed 2d September, 1829.] 

This improvement applies solely to guns and pistols 
which are to be fired upon the detonating principle^ the 
object being a means of allowing the fulminating powder 
to escape readily from the touch hole when exploding ; 
as it has been found that by the employment of detonating 
primings^ the force of the fulminating powder in the 
touch hole not being allowed to escape readily, has caused 
the piece to kick. 

The Patentee proposes to remedy this inconvenience by 
opening the side of the touch hole at the same instant 
that the cock strikes the nipple, which will allow the ful- 
minating powder to blow out. 

Plate VI. figs. 12 and 13, show the side of a fowling 
piece, with a lock for firing by percussion ; a, is the cock ; 
b, the nipple upon which the detonating Cap is to be 
placed ; c, and d, is a double armed lever turning upon a 
pin in the bridge piece e, 

A flat disc at the end c, of the lever, covers a lateral 
opening in the side of the touch hole, as seen at fig. 12, 
and thus keeps the touch hole closed and protected from 
the intrusion of wet to the priming. At the other end d, 
of the lever, there is a small friction roller, which bears 
against the edge of the cock, the lever being kept up to 
its bearing by a small spring. 

On discharging the fowling piece, the descent of the 
cock forces the lever into the position shown at fig. 13, 
which shifts the disc c, from the aperture of the touch 

Vol. IX. — SecoKd Series. r 

134 Recent Patents. 

hole, and allows the ignited priming to blow away with- 
out causing the gun to recoil. 

The Patentee says that the opening and closing of a 
lateral aperture from the touch bole may be effected in 
several other ways beside that which he has shown, and 
he therefore claims the exclusive right to every mode of 
letting off or relieving the exploded priming from the 
touch hole at the time that the piece is discharged. — 
[Tnrolled in the Inrolment Office, November^ 1829.] 

To Thomas Robinson Williams, of Norfolk-street, 
Strand, in the county of Middlesex, Esq, for his 
having invented improvements in the making or manu- 
facturing of felt, or a substance in the nature thereof, 
applicable to covering the bottoms of vessels, and 
other purposes, — [Sealed 23d May, 1829.] 

In sheathing the bottoms of ships it was found desirable 
to place between the wood work and the copper plates, 
sheets of brown paper steeped in tar, for the purpose of 
protecting the wood work from the anger worm ; latterly 
sheets of felted wool, steeped in tar, have been em- 
ployed for the same purpose, and the object of this 
Patent is to prepare such sheets of felt by means of 

Plate VI. fig. 14, represents the section of an appara- 
tus to be employed for this purpose ; a, is a vat or vessel 
containing tar ; b, b, are two cylindrical rollers mounted 
in suitable bearings, over which rollers an endless web of 
wire gauze is passed. This web is conducted also over 
two guide rollers above the tar in the vat, and beneath a 
roller d, immersed in the tar; c, c, are two similar cylin- 

Hancorne*Si for Impts^ in making Nails, 135 

drical rollers carryiag another endless web of wire gauze^ 
which passes under a weighted guide roller e, and also 
under the roller d, in the vat. 

The loose wool which should be first prepared by car- 
ding, is to be spread out evenly of a sufficient thickness 
upon liie inclined surface of the wire gauze, between the 
two front rollers b, and c, and the rollers being* then made 
to revolve, the thickness of wool is drawn in by the two 
webs between the front rollers b, c, and is thence con- 
ducted down into the vat, where it becomes saturated with 
the tar, and being further carried between the two webs, 
it passes upwards beneath the pressing roller e, which 
gives it firmness, and is then led off and discharged from 
the webs in a stiff sheet on to the table g, where it may 
be cut into suitable sijsed pieces. After this the pieces 
are hung up to dry, and are then fit to be used for cover- 
ing the bottoms of ships to protect the wood work.-— 
{InroUed in ike Inrolment Office^ November, 1829.] 

To Bdward Hancorke, of Skinner^street, in the city 
of London, nail manufacturer, in consequence of a 
communication made to him by a foreigner residing 
abroad, for an invention of certain improvements in 
making naih. — [Sealed 16th October, 1828.] 

This is a machine for manufacturing nails by cutting, 
pressing, and stamping' rods, or slender bars of iron. 

The rods or bars having been prepared eith^^r by roll- 
ing or hammering, or by cutting them from sheets or 
plates of iron, called slitting, are then to be made red 
hot, and in that state passed through the machine to be 
cut into suitable lengths, — pressed into wedge forms for 

136 Recent PatenU. 

pointings and stamped at the end to produce the bead. A 
longitudhial view of the machine is shown in Plate VII. 
at tig, 1 ; but^ as it is very complicated in its details^ and 
its principles appear to have beenpreviously embodied in 
the machinery for making nails, patented by Mr. Thomav 
Tyndell, of Birmingham^ in 1827 (see London Journal 
of Arts, Second Series, Vol. III. page 184), we do not 
consider it necessary to describe all its minutia, as the 
general operations of the machine may be very v^ell 
understood from this figure. 

A strong iron frame work, one side of which is shown 
at a, a, supports the whole of the mechanism ; 6, is a table 
capable of sliding to and fro. Upon thb table lying hori- 
zontally are the clamps, which take hold of the sides of 
the rod as it advances, and also the shears which cut the 
rod into short lengths, suitable for making from each 
length a separate nail. 

These clamps or holders consist of a fixed piece and 
a movable piece, the latter being brought into action by 
a lever. The shears or cutters are situate and perform 
much in the same way. 

The rod or bar of iron showi^ at c, having been heated 
to a red heat, is passed into the machine by sliding it 
forward upon the table 6, when the table is in its most 
advanced situation ; rotary motion is then given to the 
crank shaft d, by means of a band passed round the rigger 
e, which causes the table b, to be drawn back by the 
crank rody*; and as the table recedes the horizontal lever 
is acted upon, which closes the clamps. By these means 
the clamps take fast hold of the sides of the heated rod 
and draw it forward, when the movable chap of the 
shears, also acted upon by a lever, slides laterally, and 
cuts off the end of the rod held by the clamps : the piece 
thus separated being intended to constitute one nail. 

Hancorne*$j for Impts, in making Nails. 137 

Let it be supposed that the nail situate at g, having been 
thus brought into the machine and cut off^ is held between 
clamps^ pressing it sideways^ but which are not seen in the 
figure: in this situation it is about to be headed and 
pointed. — The header is a steel die h, intended to be 
pressed up against the end of the nail by a cam i, upon 
the crank shaft, which cam at this period of the operation 
acts against the end of a rod k, forming a continuation of 
the die k, and forces up the die so as to compress the 
solid metal into the form of a head. 

The process of pointing the nail is performed by two 
rolling snail pieces l^ L These snail pieces are some- 
thing broader than the width of the nail, and turn upon 
axles supported in the side framing. As the table b, 
advances, racks m, on the edge of the table take into 
toothed segments n, n, on the axles of the snails^ and 
cause them to turn. 

The snails at first pinch the nail close under its head 
with very little force, but as they turn over the longer 
radius of the snail coming into operation upon the nail, 
its substance is then very considerably pressed, and forced 
into a wedge form. This completes the nail, and it is imme- 
diately discharged from the clamps or holders ; the car- 
riage is then sent forward again by the rotation of the 
crank shaft, and another portion of the rod c, is brought 
forward, cut off, and formed to the desired shape of a 
nail, in the way above described. — [Inrolled in the Inrql- 
ment Office ^ April, 1829. J 

[ '38 3 

J EuwiEi) Dakih Philp, of Regent-street, Sai*t 
James's, in the city of Westminster, and county of 
Middlesex, ehemitt, for his having invented an im- 
proved distilling and rectifying apparatus. — [Sealed 
S9lh November, 1828.] 

us h an apparatus to be placed upon a Btill head, for 
J purpose of sepaiatin^ the aqueous from the alcoholic 
pours, which it professes to do with better «ffect than 
s been accomplished by any other contrivance hereto- 
■e employed. 

Plate VII, fig. 2, exhibits the external appearance of 
i apparatus placed upon a still ; fig. 3, shows its inter- 
l arrangement in section upon a larger scale ; a, is the 
ad of the slili, from which a cylindrical tube b, b, b, 
ea as a head. This tube is divided into several com- 
rtments c, c, c, c, (four are proposed) by horizontal par- 
ous d, d, d, d, d. All communications from one 
mparlment to the next is cut off by these partitions, 
cept through the apertures e, e, e, e, e, and these are 
arded by water joints. 
Within the compartments c, inner chambers are formed 

inverted cylindrical boxes /, /, /, f, and the vapour 
litted from the still, after entering the lower compart- 
mt c, passes from thence into the interior of (he box/, 

apertures at the lower parts of the inverted box, or 
3 boxes may stand within the compartments upon legs, 
3 object being to make the way free for the flow of the 
[>our from the lower part of each compartment into the 
'erted box within it. 

Ekich compartment is circumscribed by a cylindrical 
isel g, g, containing water for the purpose of refrige- 
ing the vapour, and promoting its condensation, and 

Philp's, for Impts. in distilling Apparatus, ^-c. 139 

the water is supplied to the upper vessel by a pipe h, 
from whence it flows into the lower resseU by other 
pipes i, i, i, and is discharged ultimately at k. 

The construction of the apparatus having been de- 
scfibed^we proceed to explam the mode of its operation : — 
The vapour rising from the still passes^ through the 
lower aperture e, in the head b, into the lower compart- 
ment e, as shown by the arrows. In this compartment 
the vapour becomes partially cooled by the surrounding 
vessels of water^ and its aqueous parts become condensed^ 
which fall to the bottom of the compartment^ and flow 
away into the still again by the descending pipe I, while 
the alcoholic vapour rises through the apertures m, tn, 
at bottom into the box f, /, and thence proceeds from 
the box f, up the tube e, as shown by the arrows into 
the second compartment c. Then the vapour becomes 
again cooled by the surrounding vessel of cold water^ 
and is further condensed^ the aqueous part falling to the 
bottom of the compartment, and flowing away through 
the water joint to the lower compartment, and the 
alcoholic vapour rising as before through the aparture e, 
to the next compartment and so on, until it reaches the 
top of the still head, whence it proceeds in a highly rec- 
tified state by the pipe n, to the worm tub, or ultimate 
refrigerator^ where the alcoholic vapour becomes condensed 
into a pure spirituous liquor. 

The Patentee does not confine himself to any particu- 
lar dimensions or number of compartments, boxes, and 
vessels c,y, and g, nor does he define the precise features 
of his invention, but states that he does not claim any of 
the parts of the apparatus which may have been so em- 
ployed before. 

After his indefinite claim, we feel ourselves bound to 
refer our readers to the patented inventions of Mr. Saint- 

140 Recent Patents. 

mare, applicable to distilling apparatus, (see the first 
Series of the Londou Journal of Arts Vol. X. page 77 » and 
Vol. XIII. page 198,) in which the more perfect conden- 
sation of the vapour emitted from a still, is sought to be 
effected by passing it through a succession of chambers 
in connection with refrigerating liquor, until the vapour is 
discharged at top in a highly concentrated state ; also, 
the flow of water through the surrounding vessels g, g, 
hj/ which the coldest medium is applied to the most 
highly concentrated portions of the vapour, is an adap- 
tation of the same principles as those claimed under 
Yandal's Patent, refrigeration, (see also Vol. XIII. page 
95.)— [/wroMed in the Inrolment Ojfficey May^ 1829.] 

To John Forbes, of Cheltenham, in the county of 
Gloucester^ architect and surveyor^ for his new 
invented method of burning or consuming smoke. — 
[Sealed 15th December, 1828. 

The principle feature of this invention is placing one fire 
grate immediately under another, by which the smoke 
emitted from the lower fire will pass up through, and be 
consumed by the upper fire. 

The object of the invention, we presume, is to cure 
smokey chimnies, but upon what principle the additional 
fire is to effect this, we do not perceive. 

Plate VII, fig. 4, is a section of the fire place and 
chimneys ; a, is the upper or ordinary grate ; 6, is the 
lower grate. The smoke and combustible vapours from 
the fire of the lower grate 6, is intended to pass through 
the fire of the upper grate a. A blower c, is made to 

NievilVsy for obtaining Mechanical Power, ^e. 141 

slide up and down in the frame at top^ which is proposed 
to be suspended by weighted chains passed over pulleys, 
as shown by dots. 

To an aperture in the back of the grate the pipe d, is 
connected^ which leads the smoke of the fire up the 
chimney ; it has a cap at top to guard against the descent 
of wind ; a recess e, is formed by plates of iron in the 
back of the grate^ into which the smoke of the lower fire 
passes^ and by it is conducted into the upper fire to be 
consumed. This throws a considerable heat into the part 
y, behind the grate^ and the air thus heated in ascending, 
greatly promotes the draft of the chimney. 

On the sides of the grate there are hollow chambers ; 
formed by the bevelled faces or surfaces marked g, through 
which the atmosphere of the room passes ; and there 
becoming heated^ is returned into the room for the pur- 
pose of warming it. 

The claims of the Patentee are^ firsts the employment 
of two fire grates ; second, the recess e^*, and, third, the 
back chamber y*, for promoting the draft. — \Inr oiled in 
the Inrolment Offices, June, 1889.] 

To James Nevill, of New Walk, Shad Thames,' in the 
county of Surrey, engineer, for his having invented 
an improved machine or apparatus for obtaining 
mechanical power from falls and running streams of 
water.— [Sealed 25th September, 1828.] 

This invention is called a water wheel, but we should 
rather describe it as a chain pump, acting by he weight 
of water depressing its buckets. 

Vol. IX. — Sbcond Series. > 

142 Recent Patents. 

Plate VII, [&g. 5, shows one mode of adapting the 
apparatus for obtaining mechanical power from the fall of 
a running stream, which is called an undershot water 
wheel ; it consists of a series of buckets a, a, a, attached 
to an endless chain that moves vertically, which is passed 
over two drum wheels b, b, commonly called lantern 
drums, their peripheries being formed by rods, leaving 
open spaces between every two for the buckets a, a, to fall 

A shaft or well is formed for the chain and buckets to 
descend through, and the water flowing over at top, fills the 
baskets successively, and causes them to descend, which 
turns the drum wheels 6, 6, and from the axles of these 
revolving wheels the mechanical power is to be derived. 

Fig. 6, shows another arrangement of the same con- 
trivance, but adopted to an overshot water wheel, in 
which the buckets a, a, travel diagonally, or in an inclined 

The endless chain carrying the buckets, pass over simi- 
lar drum wheels 6, ft, and the water flowing over the 
upper drum fills the buckets successively, and causes them 
to pass down the inclined plain on the outside, and hence 
to give the rotatory impulse to the wheels.— [/nro/Zerf in 
the Inrolment Office, March, 1829.] 

To Robert Stehi, of Regent-street, Oxford-street, in 
the county of Middlesex, gentleman, for his having 
invented certain improvements in distillation.— [Sealed 
4th December, 1828.] 

The subject of this Patent is a still, or rather a distilling 
apparatus of a very complicated construction, the leading 
object of which appears to be that of presenting the wash 

Stein's, for Impts. in Distillation. 143 

or fermented liquor to the heat in an extremely attenuated 
form or finely divided state, that is^ in jets^ or a shower, 
or, as the Patentee expresses it, in the state of a mist. 

The wash descends from the vat by a pipe, which con* 
ducts it through several vessels called baths, as they are 
surrounded by hot chambers formed by casings or outer 
vessels, which constitute' the passages for the steam or 
vapour emitted from the still to pass to the refrigerator. 
By these means the wash becomes heated, and the vapour 

In describing this invention, we must commence at two 
opposite ends of the apparatus at the same time, namely, 
at the reservoir, on the right hand, from whence the cold 
liquor flows through the heated vessels into the still, and 
at the boiler on the left, from which steam is passed 
through the still and round the wash vessels to heat them. 

Bearing in mind these two prominent features, let it be 
observed that the still itself stands about midway between 
the boiler on the one hand, and the wash vat on the other : 
and is totally unlike stills in common use, being a long 
cylindrical vessel placed horizontally, and divided into 
several compartments by vertical partitions made of thick 

The wash, after passing through three several vessels, 
each surrounded with a casing filled with steam or hot 
vapour, is conducted in a heated state by a series of pipes 
leading respectively to a small force pump, connected to 
each of the compartmentsof the cylindrical still. These 
pumps are all acted upon by one large piston working in 
a cylindrical vessel, into which the wash is delivered by 
the pipes, and from whence it is ejected through the 

Here one important feature is to be remarked : — each 
pump has an air vessel connected to it, by which an elas- 

144 Recent Patents. 

tic pressure is exerted upon the surface of the wash as iC 
rises in each pump barrel^ and by that means^ when the 
piston is, set to work> the wash is thrown into the several 
compartments of the still in continued jets. In order^ 
however, to divide the wash into the most minute particles-^ 
as a shower or a mist, a plate is placed a little distance 
above each jet within the still/for the purpose of distri- 
buting the wash when it strikes upwards, and causing it to 
be scattered widely over the still, and thereby become 
greatly exposed to the action of the heat. 

Having explained the manner in which the wash is dis- 
tributed in a shower or mist within the still, we proceed 
to show the mode by which it becomes heated ; this is 
effected by the passage of steam through the still. 

As before said, a boiler is placed at the left hand end 
of the apparatus, from whence steam rises, and is intro- 
duced into the left hand extremity of the cylinder. Thi^re 
it mixes itself with the heated wash in the finely divided 
state described, and carries away those portions which are 
reduced by the heat to an alcoholic vapour. The cloth 
partitions of the cylinder are close enough to prevent the 
passage of the wash from one compartment to another, 
but yet allow the steam and vapour to pass on to the end 
of the cylinder, and thence to escape through a pipe to 
the jacket of one of the wash vessels, when it becomes 
partially condensed ; but that portion which remains in a 
state of vapour, proceeds onward to the jacket of the 
second wash vessel, and from thence to the third : and 
ultimately the most volatile parts of the vapour passes 
down into the worm or refrigerator, and are then condensed 
in the form of concentrated spirit or alcohol, from whence 
it is taken for rectification. 

Referring again to the consideration of the wash, it is 
to be observed that it flows first from the reservoir placed 

Louis* Sy for opening Leaves of Music Books, 146' 

at an elevation^ into a vessel surrounded by a jacket con^ 
taining the heated vapour virhich passes from the stilly as 
before described^ and the effect of this is^ that the vapour 
becomes partially condensed by the cold wash, and the 
wash heated by the hot vapour. 

The wash on flowing into the second and third vessel^ 
and the vapour passing round them^ in like manner effects 
a transmission of the heat, which assists in condensing 
the vapour prior to its reaching the worm, and of heating 
the wash before it is injected into the still. — [Inrolled in 
the Inrolment Office, May, 1829.] 

To Abraham Louis, of DeaU'Street, Birmingham^ in the 
county of Warwick, mechanic, for his having invented 
a mechanical volti suvito to assist the players of music 
quickly to turn their leaves of music books whilst play" 
jng.— [Sealed 10th December, 1828.] 

The inconvenience which a performer experiences in turn- 
ing over th^ leaves of the music book while playing, has 
induced the Patentee to construct an instrument which, 
by a slight touch, shall turn over one leaf at a time. 

The instrument is attached to one corner of a square 
board, which is to stand nearly upright, as a back to the 
book. The parts that are to turn over the leaves may be 
called long fingers or arms ; they are jointed to the board 
much in the same way as a pen-knife is attached to its 
handle.; and when prepared for operation, the fingers are 
turned down severally over the top of a leaf. 

To each of the fingers or arms a spring is connected^ 
called a volti, and a lever which is to be touched when 
a leaf requires turning over, acts upon a sort of trigger. 

l46 Recent Patents* 

and lets off the arm, which, in rising, turns the leaf of 
the book over with it. — [^Inrolled in the Inrolment Office^ 
February, 1829. J 

[This apparatus bears a close resemblance to one pro- 
posed for the same purpose, and for which a Patent was 
granted to Mr. John Chancellor, of Dublin, in Novem- 
ber, 1828.] 

To James Sinister, of Bull-street, Birmingham, in the 
county of Warwick, for his new invented improve^ 
ments in weaving, preparing, or manufacturing a cloth 
or fabric, and the application thereof to the making 
of stays and other articles of dress.^^l^SedAed 18th 
December, 1828.] 

The object of this invention is to prevent the necessity of 
cutting out pieces of cloth, and sewing them together for 
the purpose of forming long bags, to receive strips of 
whalebone, steel, or wood, for women*s stays ; which is to 
be effected by weaving two thicknesses of cloth at the 
same time, and connecting the thicknesses together iu cer- 
tain places. 

The Patentee has described this invention by particular 
reference to such threads of the work as are to be raised 
or depressed at certain times, but these are subject to vary 
according to the forms of bags intended to be made. 

The only material feature to be observed, is that two 
warps are to be employed, each wound upon a separate 
beam ; that they are to be passed through separate reeds 

Minister's, for Impts. in Cloth for Stays, 147 

in a double race slay, and that two shuttles are to work 
together, one above the other, the warps being drawn to- 
gether at certain intervals by the operation of the healds 
or headles ; and by that means the double web in certain 
places becomes woven into one. 

Fabrics or cloths by these means may be produced with 
different colours on opposite sides, and they may have, 
variously formed bags suited to receive padding, wadding, 
whalebone, steel, wood, or any other materials as springs 
or stifienings for stays, riding belts, braces, and other 
articles for dress ; and the same contrivance will also 
apply to the making of purses, and various other goods of 
the like Vix^d.^^Unrolled in the Inrobnent Office, June,' 

To Jaihes Eraser, of Limehouse, in the county of 
Middlesex, engineer, for his having invented or 
found out a new and improved arrangement of a 
flue or flues, to communicate with the various parts of 
culinary apparatus, such as steam^ soup, or water 
boilers, oven or ovens, hot plate or plates, hot closet 
or closetSy and stewing stove or stoves, to render them 
more compact ; and to appropriate parts of the said 
apparatus to effect other useful purposes — [Sealed 
27th January, 1829.] 

The subjects of this Patent^re divided into '>Uwo series,^* 
as the Patentee expresses it; that is^ the adaptatio^n of 
the ixxvention^ first, to a Ipoitable cooking apparatus, as a 
ship's hea,rth, atid secondly^ to a permanent cooking range^ 
with oven and boiler to be fixed in the kitchen of a 

The features -of novelty, if there are any, connected 
with thi6 invention, consist in the precise construction. 


Recent Patents, 

arrangement^ and disposition of the fire place^ flues, 
boiler^ oven, hot plate^ air veut^ &c. as set forth in a series 
of figures accompanying the specification. As^ however^ 
these several parts of a cooking apparatus have been so 
variously contrived as to form a disposition in the many 
inventions for similar purposes which have formed the 
subjects of previous Patents^ we find ourselves^ in the ab- 
sence of any definite claim, unable to point out any pecu- 
liar features which we should consider to be new. 

The flame and heated vapour passes from the fire in the 
grate under a hot plate for stewing, and then partly round 
an oven, and partly under a boiler, and from thence 
through flues, pi-oceeds to a chimney, after having com- 
pletely exhausted its heating powers. 

There are dampers for shutting off the current of heat 
from the boiler if desired, and for directing it to any other 
part of the apparatus, but none of these appear to be 
capable of producing any new or superior effect ; and the 
only part which is particulary insisted upon as of import- 
ance in the arrangement, is a tube or chimney for con- 
ducting the steam and hot air from the stewing plate, 
which does not communicate with the chimney, and 
therefore prevents the possibility of smoking the victuals 
while cooking. 

The forms of the ship's hearth, or portable cooking stove 
and the stationary stoves for the kitchens of mansions, of 
course differ considerably in form and external appearance, 
but a similar arrangement of the parts occur in both, and 
the same apparent want of novelty presents itself ; we 
therefore deem it unnecessay further to describe this in- 
vention, — [Inrolled in the Petty Bag Office, March, 


r 149 ] 

To John Dickinson, of Nash Millj in the parish of 
Abbots hanglej/y in the county of Hertford^ paper ma' 
nufacturery for his having invented a new improvement 
in the method of manufacturing paper and other ma- 
terials into single sheets or pieces^ by means of ma- 
chinery. — [Sealed 14th January, 1829.] 

There are three subjects embraced by this patent : first, 
a mode of expressing the water, and compressing the 
fibres of the pulp of the paper immediately on its coming 
from the machine mould, by passing the fresh- made sheet 
between rollers, previous to its reaching the drying 
apparatus ; secondly, introducing threads of flax, cotton, 
or silk, or lace, or web of a fibrous character into the 
substance of the paper when making ; and^ thirdly, the 
construction and employment of a machine for cutting 
the length of paper when finished into separate sheets. 

The apparatus to be employed for expressing the water, 
from the new made sheet of paper, is to be adapted to 
one of those machines constructed upon the principle of 
Fourdriniers patent for making endless paper, the par-, 
ticular features of which are well known, and therefore 
need not be here described. 

The present invention consists in adapting to a con- 
venient part of the machine two pairs of pressing rollers 
made of metal, between which the endless sheet of paper 
immediately from the mould, is to be conducted by end- 
less webs. The pulp is in a great measure freed from 
the water in which it floated by the shaking of the wire- 
gauze strainer, but by passing with its felt between these 
pressing rollers, not only is the water expressed and 
more perfectly discharged from the sheet, but the paper 
becomes more compact and firm. 

Vol. IX.— Second Series. t 

l&O Recent Patents. 

It is proposed that one of the rollers of each pair 
should be made hollow and be heated by steam passed 
into it through its axle, and the surface of the sheet being 
brought in contact with the periphery of this heated roller, 
that side of the sheet will become smooth and glossy. 
In passing the sheet from the first to the second pair of 
pressing rollers* it is to be turned over by changing the 
direction of the endless belt, in order that the other side 
of the sheet may be exposed to the heated surface of the 
pressing roller, and thereby become glossy also. 

In order to introduce threads of flax, cotton, or silk or 
lace, or other fibrous web into the substance of paper, the 
patentee forms the sheet of paper of two thicknesses of 
pulp, the one being moulded upon the horizontal wire 
web as usual, the other on t^e periphery of a wire drum ; 
and these two thicknesses bting brought into contact, are 
(as it is technically termed) couched together, with the 
threads or other fibrous material between them. 

The construction of a machine capable of effecting this 
object in the way described, is not claimed as new, but 
its application to that particular purpose is claimed. 

The threads of flax, cotton, or silk, intended to be in- 
troduced into the paper, are to be wound upon bobbins, 
placed in a frame at the end of the machine, and these 
threads being conducted thence are made to pass over a 
guide roller, having grooves round it at an inch or any 
other desirable distance apart, the threads severally lying 
in the grooves, for the purpose of being conducted in 
parallel lines. 

The ends of the threads are all to be brought under 
the wire drum, and as the drum goes round, the pulp 
forming upon its periphery partially imbeds the threads 
in the surface of the endless sheet of paper, which by the 
travelling felt is brought up to meet the other endless 

Dickinson's^ for Impts. in Manufacturing Paper, 151 

sheet coming from the horizontal mould. The surface of 
the two sheets of paper are thus united or couched to- 
gether with the threads between them, and their adhesion 
may be made more perfect by passing between them 
pressing rollers, as described above. 

Lace, or any other fibrous material, may be employed 
instead of threads; in which case the material must be 
tightly wound upon an even roller, and carried forward in 
a distended fdrm under the wire drum, from whence it 
will, with the sheet of paper, be conducted by the travel- 
ling felt to meet the other sheet, and then the two will be 
couched together in the way described. 

The patentee has not stated the object for which such 
a combination of paper and threads, or other fibrous ma- 
terials, are by him intended to be employed. About a 
year before the date of this patent, the same contrivance 
was proposed by Mr. R. J. Routledge as a mode of 
making paper for bank notes, in order to render forgery 
more difficult ; we had some of the paper, but the intended 
patent was not proceeded with. 

The machine for cutting lengths of paper into separate 
sheets is shewn in Plate VIII. at fig. 1 . The paper pre- 
viously made in a very considerable length, is in the first 
instance wound upon a cylindrical roller, a, mounted upon 
an axle, supported in an iron frame or standard. Prom 
this roller the paper in its breadth is extended over a c(mi- 
ducting drum, 6, also mounted upon an axle turning on 
the frame and standard, and after passing under a small 
guide roller, it proceeds through a pair of drawing or 
feeding rollers, c, which carry it into the cutting machine. 
Upon a table, rf, rf, which is firmly fixed to the floor of 
the building, there are a series of chisel-edged knives, 
€y e, e, placed at such distances apart as tfie dimensions 
of the cut sheets of paper are intended to be. These 


152 Recent Patents, 

knives are made fast to the table^ and against them a 
series of circular cutters, /, fy fy mounted in a swinging 
frame^ g*, g", are intended to act. The length of paper 
being brought along the table over the edges of the 
knives^ up to the stop, h ; the cutters are then swung for- 
ward, and by passing over the paper against the stationary 
knives, the length of paper becomes cut into three separate 

The frame, g",g-, which carries the circular cutters, /,/'j/; 
hangs upon a very elevated axle, in order that its swing 
may move the cutters as nearly in a horizontal line as 
possible, and it is made to vibrate to and fro by an ex-* 
centric, or crank, fixed upon a horizontal rotary shaft 
extending over the drum, 6, considerably above it, which 
may be driven by any convenient machinery. 

By a suitable connection of gear work, the paper might 
be fed into the machine ; but it is proposed that the work- 
men should draw the paper from between the rollers, c, 
and bring it up to the stop, A, in the intervals between the 
passing to and fro of the swinging cutters .^[//iro/fed in 
the Inrolment Office^ Jult/, 1829.] 

To Thomas Smith, of the borough of Derby y in the county 
of Derby y engineer^ for his having invented or found 
out an improved piece of machinery y which being com* 
bined with parts of the steam-engincy or other engineSy 
such as pumpsy fire^engineSy water wheelsy air pumpsj 
condensersy and blowing engines will effect an im- 
provement in each of them respectively, — [Sealed 14th 
January, 1829.] 


The subject of this patent is a rotary engine, to be 

Smith' s^ for Impls. in Steam-engines , Sfc. 153 

actuated by steam or by water, or any other fluid, as a 
first mover for driving machinery ; or, by reversiag its 
action, it may be employed as a pump for raising or 
forcing water, or of injecting air as a blowing machine. 

The apparatus consists, first, of a hollow drum or 
cylinder, within which two quadrant-shaped pistons are 
made to revolve, but with dissimilar speed ; that is, the 
one piston moves rapidly round the cylinder, the other 
following it slowly. The consequence of this dissimi- 
larity of movement between the two pistons is, that the 
face of the slowly moving hinder piston operates as a stop 
or surface, by which the pressure of the steam or other 
fluid is resisted, and made to force the advanced piston 

By the time that the first piston has arrived close up 
against the back of the second piston, the last mentioned 
will have advanced far enough to have opened a commu- 
nication between the induction pipe aud the narrow space 
between the back of the second piston aud the face of the 
first. The first piston now in its turn becomes the stop, 
and advances slowly, while the force of the steam or 
other fluid drives the other piston forward with speed, 
until it comes up to the back of the former, and so on : 
the two pistons moving fast and slow reciprocally. This 
alternation of speed is regulated by a peculiar mode of 
connecting or gearing the two pistons together by means 
of a pair of elliptical wheels, or by some such contrivance, 
which will be hereafter explained. 

Plate VIII. fig. 2, is a view of the interior of the cylin- 
der, the end place being removed to shew the pistons 
within. Fig. 3 is a longitudinal view of the axis, with 
the two pistons attached threto, shewing the face of one 
piston and the back of the other : a is the axle passing 
horizontally through the centre of the cylinder, 6, i, b, 



Recent Patents. 

which is made fast to the ground ; c, and d, are the two 
pistons respectively fixed upon those portions of the axle 
marked a, c, and a, rf, the two portions of the axle being 
united by a pin and socket, shewn by dots in fig. 3, which 
allows a, c, and a, rf, with their respective pistons, to 
turn independently of each other. 

If steam or any other fluid be allowed to pass into the 
engine at the induction aperture, e, it will proceed along 
the groove or channel, /, formed round the edge of the 
piston c, and will flow into the space, g, between the 
two pistons, and there exerting its force, either elastic or 
gravitating, it will force the two pistons asunder, and the 
face of the piston, d, operating as a stop or resistance, 
the piston, c, will consequently be driven forward rapidly 
in the direction of the arrow. The piston, d, at the same 
time moving slowly onward, will open the eduction aper- 
ture, A, to its groove or channel, /, by which channel the 
steam or other fluid will then be enabled to escape from 
the lower portion of the cylinder, marked k, leaving that 
part of the cylinder in a state of vacuum. 

Before the piston, e, in its rotary course, has overtaken 
the piston, cf, the latter will have so far advanced in its 
rotation as to have brought its groove or channel, i, mto 
communication with the induction aperture, e, in the 
same way that c, appears in fig. 2, and the piston, c, will 
then be about to open the eduction passage, A, for the 
purpose of letting oflF the steam or other fluid which forced 
it round. In this way, by the succession of the recipro- 
cating actions of the two pistons, the two parts of the 
V axle, «, c, and a, rf, will be made to revolve with inter- 
rupted or varying speed; but this varying speed being 
communicated to one general shaft, through the agency 
of two pair of elliptical wheels, the interrupted motions 

Smith's J for Impts, in Steani'engines. 155 

will resolve themselves into a uniform rotary motion of 
the shaft so driven* 

The manner of gearing by elliptical wheels being well 
understood, it is not necessary to explain their construc- 
tion 5 but the peculiar contrivance proposed by the paten- 
tee, of obtaining an interrupted gear motion, for the pur- 
pose of giving a slow movement to the following piston 
derived from the quick movement of the advancing one, 
will constitute the concluding part of this subject. 

Fig. 4 exhibits a wheel with two circumferences of 
teeth, Zy and ^, the one having a greater radius than the 
other, and upon an axle, placed parallel to that of the 
wheel, two toothed segments of different radii, x^ and w, 
are fixed, which segments respectively take into the teeth, 
2, and ^, of the wheel. Supposing the shaft, d, of the 
wheels, z,y, to be the general shaft above mentioned^ into 
which the varying speed of the two pistons are to be 
resolved, for the purpose of driving it with a uniform 
rotary motion, and the segments, a:, w, to be fixed upon 
the end of that portion of the axle marked a, c, in fig. 3. 
The piston, c, being now driven forward in its cylinder 
by the force of steam or other fluid, and the segment, x, 
taking into the larger radius of the wheel, 2, the general 
shaft, Vy will revolve with a speed commensurate to 
that of the piston, c, as long as the segment, or, remains 
in gear with it ; but when the segment, Wy comes into 
gear with the wheel in the circle of teeth of smaller radius, 
y, then a dijfferent speed would take place. 

Let it now be supposed that a wheel similar to s, y, is 
fixed upon the axle of the other piston, as a, d, fig. 3, 
and that two toothed segments, as x, Wy are fixed upon 
the general shaft, v, and in an opposite direction to the 
former, so as to take into the last-mentioned wheel in 
the way above described; it will then be perceived that 



Recent Patents. 

the moment the segment, x^ of the first axle, a^ c, has 
ceased to act in the circle of teeth, z, on the first men- 
tioned axle, the corresponding segment, Xy on the general 
shaft, r, will begin to gear in with the corresponding 
circle of teeth, x, in the wheel fixed on the axle, a, rf, of 
the other piston. Hence, the general shaft, r, will, by 
the two pistons alternately acting, be kept in constant 
rotary motion. But on the segment, w, alternately 
coming into gear with the wheel, y, of the smaller diame- 
ter, the pistons connected to them respectively will be 
retarded and carried forward on the cylinder slowly, in 
the way and for the purpose explained above in reference 
to fig. 2. 

Another contrivance for producing an interrupted gear 
movement from a uniform rotary motion, is shown at 
fig. 5, which is to be employed in a similar way to the 
mechanism last described, by mounting the wheel, t/, 
upon the axle of one of the pistons, as a, c ; and the 
pinion, t, upon the. general shaft, v^ or vice versd, and 
when either of the concave portions of the wheel are act- 
ing upon the pinion, the shaft of the pinion will revolve 
slowly, but when the convex parts of the wheel are in 
gear, the pinion will turn rapidly. — [_Inrolkd in the 
Inrolment Office^ July^ 1829.] 

To William Erskine Cochrane, of Regent Street^ in 
the county of Middlesex^ for his having invented an 
improvement in, or on, paddles for propelling boats 
and other vessels. — [Sealed 14th January, 1829.] 

This is a contrivance, by which the paddles of the pro- 
pelling wheel of a steam vessel are made individually to 


Cochrane' s J for Impls. on Paddles. 157 

turn round upon centers, in order that they may enter the 
water and leave it edgewise. A similar object has re- 
peatedly been made the subject of a patent, more or less 
resembling in detail the scheme herein suggested, which 
may be described in a very few words : — 

Instead of fixing the paddles (or float-boards, as they 
are sometimes called) firmly to the rims of the wheels, as 
in the ordinary construction, the improved paddles have 
each two axles, the one mounted in the outer rim of the 
wheel upon which the paddle turns, the other axle con- 
necting the paddle to a ring, which is placed in an 
eccentric situation with reference to the axle of the 
wheel. By this arrangement the several paddles are 
always kept in perpendicular positions in every part 
of the wheel's rotation, and consequently enter the 
water and leave it edgewise, passing through the water 
when making the propelling stroke, with their faces 
perfectly at right angles to the surface of the stream, 
by which the greatest possible propelling effect is at- 

This mode of constructing paddle-wheels is so well 
known that a representation of it is unnecessary; 
precisely the same contrivance formed the subject of 
a patent granted to Samuel Lambert, dated 4th April, 
1819, for the specification of which see the first volume 
of the London Journal of Arts y first series, page 341. — 
[InroOed in the Inrolment Office, June, 1829. j 

ToL, IX.— Second Series. u 


158 Hecenl Patents. 

To Thomas Osler, of Birmingham^ in the county of 
fVarwick, chandelier furniture manufacturer, for kis 
having invented or fbund out certain new improve metits 
in Ike construction of glass and metal chandeliers and 
other articles of ornamental lighting. — [Sealed 10th 
November, 1 829. J 

Tma invention of improvements in chandeliers consiste 
in a method of combining separate and detached prismatic 
and other pieces of flint glass, hereinafter descrilied, in 
Buch a manner as to produce various ornamental and 
refractive forms and substances not hitherto used, and 
applying them to the manufacture of glass and metal 
handeliere, or other articles employed in ornamental 

The pieces of glass selected for this purpose are either 
irisms, by which I mean pieces of glass cut into different 
blong surfaces, the sides of which are parallelograms 
lyramidal, having their respective sur&ces convergent 
Qwards a point. I have found those prisms produce the 
lest effect which are tri-tateMl and equi-lateral, by 
rhicb I mean such as have equi-lateral triangles for their 
lases, and the same observations will apply to pyramidal 

These separate pieces being cut to the dimensions 
equired, and very accurately polished, are to be ar- 
anged, combined, and fastened together by methods 
rhich will be readily understood with the assistance of 
lie figures represented in Plate V-III. 
Having manufactured or procured such pieces of flint 
lass as are before described, and two of which are 
hewn in figures 1 and 2, I next cut away a small portion 
rom each end, in the manner exhibited in figures 3 and 4, 

Osler^Syfor Impts. in Chandeliers, 159 

leaving a small portion on one side as a projection or 
ledge (see a^ a^ a^ a^) to be fixed into light metallic frames^ 
which purpose will be best effected by some strong ce- 
menting substance. 

These frames may be made of almost any metal, but 
for economy and facility of working, experience has 
led me to prefer fine brass of the best quality, which is 
afterwards plated with silver, and preserved from dis- 
colouration by any transparent and colourless varnish. 

The frames consist of two circular grooves of any 
required diameter, which being carefully turned out with 
a strap or bar across each (see b, b^ figures 5 and G), 
are united to each other by a hollow or solid rod or pillar 
from centre to centre (see c, c, figure 7)> ^nd have a notch 
or opening, d^ dy into the groove, of such a 6iz€ as will 
easily admit the glass projection or ledge before spokeu 
of, and represented at a, /i, a, a, in figures 3 and 4. 
This aperture may be cut in one or both of the circular 
grooves, for although one opening will in general be 
found quite sufficient, I am not aware of any practical 
objection to the use of one in each groove. 

When it is intended to apply one of these combinations, 
as a covering to the reservoir of a lamp, or for the con- 
cealment of any thing unsightly, two, three, or more slips 
of metal, fixed at each end, and at equal distance, to the 
inside of the circular grooves (see e^ f , figure 8) are sub- 
stituted for the central rod or pillar which I use in other 

It can be scarcely necessary to observe that when 
these circular grooves are connected by slips or pieces of 
metal, as is here shewn, to their inner surface, that the 
strap or bar across the centre (see figures 5 and 6, b, fr,) 
is also rendered unnecessary. I would here observe, 
that it is not essential that openings shall be made on 


160 Recent Patents, 

either side of the said strap, or bar (seef^f, in the same 
figures); but I recommend them, on account of the con- 
venient access thej give to the inside of the cylinder or 
truncated cone, for the purpose of cleaning it, and because 
it is desirable that the whole should be as light as is 
consistent with stability. 

The frames being thus prepared, the several pieces of 
glass, cut to either of the forms before mentioned (see 
a, a, a, a, figures 3 and 4), are to be successively passed 
tiirough the aperture, </, figure 7> within the grooves^ and 
then secured with any tenacious cement ; I have, hitherto, 
found no cement more useful or efficacious than good 
plaster of Paris. 

In this manner it will be at once evident that cylinders 
(see fig. 9 and section)^ truncated cones (figure 10 and 
section), inverted truncated cones (figure 1 1 and section), 
as well as any combinations of these, and of so great a 
variety of diameters, may be easily produced, that it would 
be difficult to assign a limit to them ; and by accurately 
adapting these forms to others constructed on the 
same principle (see figures 12 and 13), a very consider- 
able degree of length or height is also readily at- 

An effect almost exactly similar may be obtained by 
several other methods of uniting the pieces of flint 
glass before mentioned to metallic grooves, hoops, rings, 
or plates ; all which I have carried into effect, and worked 
to, and a part of which I shall enumerate ; but after much 
experience of their respective facilities or objections, I 
decidedly prefer the method already specified, with one 
exception, which consists in cutting a groove across the 
largest end of the pyramidal pieces, or across either end 
of the prismatic pieces (see figures 14, 16, 16), which 
groove so cut in the glass is to include either one side 


Osier Sy for Impts, in Chandeliers, 161 

of a metallic groove as at g", figure ]7j or a part or the 
whole of a single metallic ring (see h^ fig. 17)) the smaller 
end being secured in an inclined groove^ the bottom of 
which is formed by a moveable plate or plates screwed 
to its or their position after the prisms are arranged, as is 
shewn by a sectional cut line (see i, i, in the same figure) 
and the interstices of both ends being filled with cement^ 
as was stated in the method first mentioned. 

In constructing forms of extensive size, or forms 
having such an outline as require the pieces of glass to 
be placed in a position approaching the horizontal, I 
prefer this method to that recommended in the construc- 
tion of other forms already specified; first, on account 
of the difficulty of making circular metallic grooves of a 
large size, yet of so light a substance or weight as would 
be desirable ; and secondly, because the metallic groove 
pr rim, which it is always better to keep out of sight, is 
in a considerable degree hidden by its inclosure within 
the grooves in the glass pieces. 

At figure IB, I have exhibited a very slight variation 
from the method iUustrated by figure 17, shewing, how- 
ever, no other difference than is required by the form 
of the pyramidal piece employed, the larger end of which 
is slightly notched in the manner represented by figure 
16, and the smaller end cut to a slope, as at fig. 19. 

A third method of combining and securing the glass 
pieces before mentioned, and the only one which I em- 
ployed for several weeks, is to cut a deep notch, trian- 
gular, square, circular, or elliptical in the projection or 
ledge already described (see a, a, a, a, fifgs. 3 and 4); 
and fastening them to a circular, or any other metallic 
substance, by a broad-headed screw, the head of which 
may be of cut glass (see fig. 20), or used with the ad- 
ditional ornament of a flower or rosette, also of glass, as 


162 Recent Patents. 

in fig. 21, or a hole through the projection or ledge may 
be substituted for the notch (see fig. 22), using the screw, 
or screw and rosette, in the same manner. 

A fourth method of binding and securing the pieces of 
glass before mentioned, and which I have also practised 
occasionally, is to cut a shallow groove or notch in the 
projection or ledge (see fig. 23), of each piece, and 
binding the whole series to a circular or other metallic 
groove or plate, with a band of fine catgut or wire gra- 
dually and cautiously tightened so as to hold the several 
pieces of glass in their proper places. I may here also 
observe, that though I consider the circular to be far the 
most convenient and advantageous form for the metallic 
grooves or plates to which the glass pieces are to be 
affixed, yet it is by no means an indispensable one, in- 
asmuch as a polygonal groove or plate (see fig. 24), the 
angles of which correspond with the pieces of glass to^ 
be attached to it, will produce as good an effect as a cir- 
cular one 3 and I did in fact work to these polygonal 
grooves or plates for many weeks, but discontinued 
using them on finding the circular ones so much more 

A fifth method of combining and fastening the pieces of 
glass before mentioned, which' I have likewise practised 
before the use of the aperture in the grooves (see d, . 
fig. 7)9 And which may be effected either with or without 
the assistance of the hollow or solid central pillar, c, c, 
fig 7 9 or the slips of metal e, e^ fig. 8, is that of inserting 
the several projections or ledges of the pieces of glass at 
the one end into the lower groove, with a sufficient 
quantity of cement to enable them to retain their position 
for a short interval, and then placing the upper groove 
(previously filled with cement over them like a cap), see 
fig. 25, pressing it gently but firmly downwards, and 


Os/er's^ for Impts. in Chandeliers. 163 

continuing the pressure till the cement has become hard 
and tenacious. 

In this manner I have repeatedly constructed cylinders 
of considerable strength^ but when truncated cones are 
to be formed in this way, the several pieces require to be 
supported by a block of proper shape and size on the 
inside till the upper groove is securely fixed. I mention 
this as a method of accomplishing my object, which, in 
the earlier stages of my invention, I have repeatedly and 
successfully had recourse to ; but since easier and more 
secure means have been devised^ I cannot recommend 
it to other manufacturers either for convenience or sta- 


The]several forms or outlines herein-before described, 
or any combinations or varieties of these or of any part 
of them being thus completed, the beauty and richness of 
their appearance will certainly be much improved by 
covering, or in any other manner concealing, as far as it 
is practicable^ the metallic parts, which are essential to 
their construction. This is to be effected in a great 
variety of ways, and especially by enclosing such metallic 
parts within circles of glass, richly cut to such designs or 
patterns as individual taste may suggest ; but these are 
altogether distinct and separate from any thing which I 
claim as an invention; and must therefore be left entirely 
to the discretion of the manufacturer. — [InroUed in the 
Inrolment Office^ May^ 1830.] 

Specification drawn hy the Patentee. 

164 Recent Patents. 

To Thomas Brown, of Birmingham, in the county of 
Warwick, coachmaJcer, for his having invented an 
improved coach, particularly adapted for public con- 
veyance and luggage. — [Sealed 5th August, 1829.] 

The Patentee commences his specification in the follow- 
ing words. 

The subject of this invention is an improved coach, 
comprising a new combination and arrangement of the 
various parts which have been heretofore used in carriages 
of different descriptions ; but which parts being combined 
together and arranged in this improved coach, in the 
manner exhibited in the Plate, and which will be herein- 
after described. 

It possesses the united qualities of lightness and con* 
sequent ease of draught, safety from overturning or 
breaking down, steadiness of motion, and great capacity 
of carrying luggage *, and the luggage being on springs, 
and locked up under cover, secure from loss and damage 
from weather, or by jolting. And the Patentee further 
states, that it will be found on trial to possess all these 
qualities to a greater extent than any coach now used for 
public conveyance of passengers and luggage. This 
improved coach is constructed without a perch or frame, 
whereby much weight is saved, and, consequently, much 
ease of draught is gained ; and the coach is built much 
lower, or nearer to the ground than any heretofore used ; 
and the whole of the springs of this improved coach are 
placed lengthwise of the coach, and none crosswise, as 
heretofore, thereby another saving of weight is effected. 

Bcull1i&fpe*s, for Impts, on Axks and Springs. 165 

, Plate IX, fig. 1^ is a side elevat^ of the ipoipray^d 
"Coach^ in which there does pot app>|^r \q be apy peciilif^ 
features of novelty. It is^ as before s^^ ^i^hout a perdti^ 
The ioce pcirt of the (x)ac|i is suppf^ed t^poi^ eUipticol 
«{Tis(^ fiffi3&«d to the fote axletr-ee^ a^^d the Ipcking i§ as 
usual. The hinder wheels are mpuated upon what \fi pom- 
monly called a crank aide : that is^ the a^e instead of 
being straight is depressed in the midiBei, being bent at 
Tight angles on eadi side within the wheels^ for th^ purpose 
of enabling it to pass under the hind boot of the coach, 
which is designed to be very ^ear the ground. This 
arrangement, it is said^ affords considerable safety and 
steadiness^ and as the S{»:ings are all in one direction^'^none 
of them being placed crosswise, the carriage will by those 
means not be liable to sufing <>r rock^ and may be made 
much lighter as to the substance of its materials^ and atiU 
afford sufficient strength. 

The claim of the Patentee is to the general arrangement 
of the parts of a travelling carriage as rejuresentedi and 
not to any of its parts separately. — [^Inrolkd in th& 
Inrolment Office, Februarj/, 1830,] 

To. Gedrge King Sculthorpb, of Rohert-sfrett^ 
Chelsea^ in the (iounty of Middlesex^ gentleman^ /qv his 
having invented certain improvements oh axles or 
axhtrees, and coach and other spring*.— [Sealed 4th July^^ 
1829.] . 

There are three improvements proposed under this Patent, 
the first is, the employment of short axles for the wheels 
of carriages ; one portion of each axle is to be fixed into 
the nave of the running wheel, and the other part to turn 


^ely in a box attached' to the under part of the carriage. 

Vol. IX. — Second Series. x 

166 kecent Patents. 

The second improvement is the introduction of a wedge 
between the axle and its box, for the purpose of increasing 
friction when the progress of the carriage is required to be 
impeded, as in descending hills. The third improvement 
1s^ the adaptation of a forked spring acting within a hollow 
frustrum of a cone^ which spring is increased in tension 
by the resistance of the sides of the box as the superin- 
cumbent weight depresses the fork into the contracted part 
of the cone. 

■ Plate IX, fig. 2, shows the short axle a, b, attached by 
a frame c, to the under part of a carriage ; fig. 3, repre- 
sents the same, as it would appear if viewed on the upper 
side. The part a, of the axle is made square for the purpose 
of being fixed into the nave of a wheel; the part b, is near- 
ly cylindrical, and turns in the bearings, which form parts 
of the frame c, fixed on each side, under the carriage. An 
adjusting screw </, is employed to tighten the axle and pre- 
vent its having too much freedom endwise in its bearings. 
The rotary part of the axle and its frame may be enclosed 
within a box or casing, to protect it from dirt and dust and 
also to contain oil for lubrication. 

The second feature of improvement, viz. the wedge for 
producing friction upon the axle, is seen at e, in both figs. 
2, and 3. A lever f^ is attached to the smaller end of the 
wedge e, which lever moves upon a fulcrum joint at g. 

When the chain or cord A, passed over a pulley up to 
the seat of the driver is drawn forcibly, the lever will be 
made to bring the wedge forward between the axle ft, and 
the frame r , which by the great friction it produces upon 
the axle will impede or stop its rotation, and when the 
chain or cord is released, the spring i, acting against tl^e 
smaller end of the wedge, will force it back and relieve the 

Fig. 4, represents in section a conical box a, a^ aflSxed, 

DanielPsy fot Impts. in Woollen Cloth- \W 

fo the framing of a carriage; Within this box a perpen- 
^Gular rod b, slides up and down through an aperture 
withpacking, at the lower end of which rod there is a forked 
spring attached, or two blades of steel c, c» These blades 
press against the inclined sides of the box, and according 
to the force of the weight supported by the top of the rod, 
so will the springs be brought into tension. 

This construction of spring .is designed to support^'car- 
riage bodies, and it is contemplated by the Patentee that it 
may be applicable to other situations«—^[ //iro//ed iu the 
Jnrolment Office ^ January^ 1830.} 

To Joseph Cliseld Daniell, of Limpley Stoke^ in 
the county of Wilts, clothier, for his having invented 
certain improvements in machinery applicable to dressing 
woollen c/o/A.— [Sealed 8th July, 1829.] 

The subject of this Patent is represented to be a further 
improvement upon the machine called a gig-mill, for which 
several former Patents have been granted to the same in- 
ventor, see Vol. IV. of our Second Series. 

It is stated, that for the purpose of enabling the teasles 
to act with greater delicacy upon the face of the cloth 
under the dressing operation, it was foimd desirable to in- 
troduce rollers between the respective boards of teasles in 
order that such rollers might support the cloth as it passed 
over the surface of the gig barrel, this was the subject of 
one Patent; and, that the teasles might be made to act 
^against the cloth with an elastic force, the teasle boards 
were mounted upon joints with springs, this was the sub- 
jiect'of another Patent. The present is precisely the same 
contrivance as the last mentioned, adapted to gig boards, 
oh which wire cards are mounted* 

166 Recent Faientv. 

Pkile IX^ fig. 5, xepcesents 8 wBgment of the gig bsfrel^ 
on which is mounted a bbatd a, with a fillet of caods or 
wite brush ; b,b,tm the two guatd tolfers mentiotrad 
^hoH ; ty c,is a portion of doth under opeeuihUy agsaost 
tiie fece of whi'eh^ thfe toids ard acting aa the barrel goes^ 
round in the direction c^ Ih^ arc6w. 

The board that the cal?i& are noioliniled ujpoa is ^tlached; 
to the gig baQrdl hj a hinge joint at d, dn which it moves 
up ahd down ; e^ is a pbt^, screwed into the boatd^ the 
height of which ^ limits the depvessioi^ of the boards and 
is capable of adjustment ; round this pin there is a spiral;, 
spring which raises the bo»?d^ai»d thereby keeps the points 
of the cards in contact with the face of the clpth^ and 
affords the elastic pressure. 

The only difference between this and the preceeding iiK 

vention above alluded to^ appears to be^ that in one in- 

srfance^ teasles were used for dressing the face of the cloth^ 

in the other wire cards.— ^[/nro/Zecf in the Inrolmimk 
Office^ Jan wary, 1830.] 

To Maxw£:ll Dick^ g/ the town of Irvine, in the county} 
of Ayr, North Britain j bookseller and publisher, for his 
having iftvenied an improved railroad and method qfpro- 
felling carriages thereon by machinery for the purpose of 
conveying passengers^ letters, intelligence, packets, and 
other goodi with great velocity, — [Sealed 21st May, 

Til£ Pateifitee ptopd&es to propel catriages, as be exptesses 
it, by *' suspensioti lines of railroad, by meftns of ^hieh a 
velocity of conveyance by vtrheeled carriages iaay be gained,, 
hitherto unknown in the annals of commerce*" 

Palmer^s suspension rail-rc^d is alluded to, (see Vol. V. 
of our First Series, page 66) but the inventiOn'<^ the pre- 
sent Patentee is stated to be on a very different princiide. 




Dick*¥y for Jmpts. in Railroads. 169 

For our part we consider that if any principle can be made 
out from the confused and uniatelligible specification before 
us. Palmer's principle of a railroad elevated upon posts or 
pillars^ is indisputably inyolved in the present invention. 

It appears that the Patentee proposes to employ four* 
lines of rails or rods placed parallel to each other, and all 
affixed at their ends to posts^ pillars, or piers elevated from 
the ground ; by means of which contrivance, however un- 
dulating the surface of the earth may be over which the 
Une of rails are to pass, or whatever obstruction may inter- 
vene, as rivers, brooks, ponds, pits, cross-roads, buildings, 
&c., the line of rails may be made horizontal and straights 

Two lines of rails are to be placed in horizontal coinci- 
dence for the running wheels on each side of the carriages 
to travel upon, and the other two lines are to be placed 
parallel to the former at a little distance below, which 
appear to be for the purpose of guiding the carriage, and 
preventing it from jumping off the rails. There are anti- 
friction rollers attached to the undei* part of the earriages,^^ 
which run against the last mentioned line of rails. 

The pillars or supports are to be placed at considerable 
distances apart, dependent upon ^their height and the 
strength of the rods or lines of rail. The carriages, if we 
understand right^are to be attached in some way by frames 
to yokes, but the mode of attachment is not shown, neither 
does it appear by what means the yokes are to pass the 
supporting pillars. 

The great propelling power which is to drive with such 
extraordinary velocity, is to be obtained by the employ- 
ment of toothed wheels and pinions, and these are to be 
put in action, if we understand right, by steam enginesr 
placed at certain distant stations on the line of way.— 
llnroUed in the Inrolmeni Office, November, 1829.] 


^ I 

E 170 1 

To WiLLiAH Lbeson, of Birmingham, in the county <gf 
Warwick, in consequence of a communication made to him 
btf his late partner, William Toft, of the same place, 
deceased, for an invention of certain improvements in, or 
(additions to, harness and sadlery, part or parts of which 
improvements are applicable to other purposes. — [Sealed 
8th July, 1829.] 

The subjects of this Patent are spring fastenings to be 
attached to harness. The first is called a spring stop hook, 
to he employed for connecting the traces to the harness of 
a gig horse ; the second is called a spring shaft tug for 
attaching the shafts of a gig to the horse's saddle. 

Plate IX., fig. 0, is a side view of the spring stop hook, 
consisting of a box a, or hollow piece, the side of which is 
removed to show the parts within. The end of the box is 
made solid, and forms a hook h. This hook is closed so as 
to constitute a ring by the sliding stop piece c, which is 
capable of moving up and down in a groove formed by the 
sides of the box. There is a notched lever d, whioh is 
attached to the sides of the box by a pivot, and a sprinjg 
behind it throws the lever outwards. 

In the figure the ring part of the hook is shown closed, 
by the stop piece c, being slidden up, and the notch of the 
lever d, keeping it there secure. When it is required to 
open the ring of the hook, as in taking off the traces, the 
notched lever d, must be pressed ^back, the sliding stop e, 
may then be slidden down, as shown by dots, which will 
open the hook; and on sliding the stop c, up again a& 
before, the notched lever d, will hold it securely. 

The spring shaft tug shown at fig. 7, is made with a 
jointed clasp c, which is held by the spring catch <^ sto{^ 


Winaui^ jor Impts, in $team Carriages. 171 

leveir d* In order to loosen the tug from the shafts of a 
gigy the spring catch must be pressed back^ when the clasp 
€, may be raised. — [InroUed in the Inrolment Office^ 
January, 1830.] 

Ta Ross Win A us, of Vernon, in the county of Sussex ^ 
€ind State of Netv Jersey, in the United States of North 
Americay at this time resident in London, for his invention 
xf certain improvements in diminishing friction in wheeled 
tarriages to be used on rail roads, and other roads, and 
which improvements are applicable to other purposes. — 
[Sealed 28th May, 1829.] 

Tf4EREare two objects proposed under this patent; the 
first is to relieve the friction of the axles of rail-road wag'- 
gons and carriages, by preventing the rubbing of the axles 
against their bearings, or within the boxes or naves of the 
wheels ; the second is a means of preventing the friction 
caused by rubbing the peripheries of rail-road waggon 
wheels upon the rails when travelling over curved lines. 

The first of these objects is intended to be effected by 
substituting, in place of fixed bearings for the axles, anti^- 
friotion wheels, in which the ends of the axles run. Plate 
IX., fig, 8, represents one of the running wheels u, of a 
raiWoad waggon. This wheel is affixed to the axle b, and, 
consequently, turning with it, the outer part of the axle 
being elongated as at c* The body of the waggon is sup- 
ported by a frame-work d, which extends round it, and 
two blocks e, e, are affixed to the under part of the frame- 
work which carry the axle of the anti-friction wheel y*: 
these parts are shown in section in the figure. 

The anti-friction wheel f, has a groove within it into 
which the end of the axle c,^:protrude6, and by these means. 

172 jRecetU Patents. . 

the end of the axle running against the internal circle of 
the anti-friction whe«el, bears the weight of the waggoa 

aj[)d its load. 

It will now be perceived that as the end of the ai^le c, 
does not run against a fixed bearing, but a moveable one, 
that any rubbing or friction, which might arise from the 
contact of the axle and its bearing, will be relieved by the 
antifriction wheel being driven round by the friction of 
the rotary axle. 

As the end of the axle and the groove of the anti-»friction 
wheel are much exposed to dirt and dust, it is proposed, 
under some circun^stances, to enclose those parts by a close 
iron box or casing. The manner of effecting this is shown 
at fig. 9^ which represents the anti-friction wheel ./, and 
its box or casing g, in section. The end of the axle r, is 
passed through an aperture in the casing, which aperture 
is guarded by a collar on the axle. 

This iroi^ box, \yhich parries the antifriction wheel and 
its axle /, may form part of an iron framing, extending 
round the waggon in placQ of the wood framing e, described 
^above, and the box being made tight, may contain oil for 
lubricating the rotary parts^ 

In reference to the second part of the invention, it is 
proposed (hat the periphery of the running wheels should 
be made conical, in order that on such parts of the line of 
railway as may be curved, the larger diameter of the wheel 
on ope side may run upon the more extended line of curve, 
while the smaller diameter of the opposite wheel may pass 
along the shorter line or lesser curve. 

It is lastly stated that the above mode of diminishing 
friction in wheeled carriages will apply to carriages gene- 
rally for the conveyance of goods and passengers on ordi- 
nary roads, and that the same is also applicable to mule 
carriages employed for spinning. — [Inrolled in the Inr^l^ 
ment Office, November y 1829.] 

t 173 3 

To William Sra}^d, of the Burn, in Kincardineshire^ in 

that part of the United Kingdom called Scotland, Esq^ 

Jm' his having invented a certain improvement or imr- 

provementsih distiUation. — {Sealed 10th August, 1829.3 

The subject of this Patent is a peculiar arrangement of 
apparatus for distilling spirituous liquors. 

Plate IX, fig. 10, is an elevation of the entire apparatus; 
iij is a still or alembic placed over a fire. In this vessel 
the wash or other materials intended for distillation are to 
be placed) and when heated, the vapours will rise up to the 
«till-head b, and proceed by the pipe c, into the fi^rst recti- 
fying vessel d: 

In the bottom of this vessel there is a central aperture 
closed by a dish e, below, which dish is to be filled with 
water, and the pipe c, having a bell-formed extremity, 
<lescends into this dish, and deposits there the vapour 
emitted from the still, which by the water becomes con- 
densed in the dish. 

As this first condensation necessarily produces only a 
weak spirit, a cock and pipe f, is placed at the bottom 
of the vessel d, for the purpose of drawing off this weak 
spirit and cS,rrying it back again into the still. But the 
more volatile parts of the spirit which may be evolved 
from the dish, pass upwards in the vessel d^ and strike 
against the top and dome head g. 

This dome head being exposed extemally to a eolder 
temperature than within, causes a further condensation of 
the vapour to take place, which, falling to the bottom of 
the vessel, may be drawn off likewise by the cock and 
pipe f^ and passed into the still. 

Such portions of the vapour as contain the spirit in a 
more highly concentrated state pass from the dome head of 
the vessel d, by the pipe A, into a second rectifying vessel i, 

Vol. IX. — Sbcond Sbribs. y 



174 Recent Patents. 

where a similar operation goe9 on, and from thence to a 
third rectifying vessel k^ and thence into the refrigerating 
and condensing worm enclosed in the tub /. 

The water intended to occupy the lower part of the rec- 
tifying vessels and the dish below^ may be introduced by a 
funnel in each dome head, and the water may be drawn off 
by small cocks in the bottom of each dish, and the spirit 
condensed in the rectifying vessels may be led from one 
vessel to the other through pipes with stopcocks, as shown 
in the figure. 

The Patentee does not confine himself to the employ- 
ment of any precise number of rectifying vessels, as a 
greater or less number of vessels may be used, according to 
the required strength of the spirit, neither does he feel it 
necessary to make the rectifying vessels in distinct vats, 
as they may be formed in one vessel with partitions, having 
communications by pipes one into the other ; and in order 
to increase the condensation^ the upper part of each recti- 
fying vessel may be covered with cold wash or low wines ; 
and if any spirit should be likely to be evolved, the tops of 
the vessels might be closed, and a pipe from each lead off 
into the still.-— [/nro/Zeci iVi the Inrolment Office^ February^ 

To James RoLAiiD,of Heneage-street, Brick-lane, SpUal" 
fields, in the county of Middlesex^ and Charles 
M' Mil LAN, of the same place, engineers and mill" 
iorights, for their having invented a new or improved 
process or mode of constructing, forming, or making 
streets, ways, carriage roads, and highways in general. 
—[Sealed 11th August, 1829.] 

The inconvenience of occasional partial sinking of the 
paving stones in streets, lanes, and other highways, have 

Roland ^ M*Millan*iyfor Impts. in Roads^ Sfc. 175 

induced the Patentees to construct a framfng of iron* to 
be laid upon the ground^ previously prepared and levelled, 
for the purpose of receiving the paving stones, which must 
be all squared and trimmed to a similar size. 

The form of the iron framing is shown in Plate IX. > 
at fig. 11, which represents the horizontal appearance oi 
upper surface of one portion of the framing; fig. 12, is a 
vertical section of the same. 

The frame consists of a rectangular rim with cross and 
diagonal bars of cast iron. Two blocks a, a, are fixed at 
two of the corners, which are intended to overlap the end 
of the next frame connected thereto. A rib b, passes 
along the middle of the bar on the upper side, as a bearing 
for the line of paving stones, and diagonal ribs c, c, on the 
under side, are designed to give strength and to support 
the frame-work. 

Fig. 13, shews a series of these frames connected to- 
gether in one range by bolts or screws passed through the 
blocks a, a, at their ends, forming a cross section of the 
road. The ground, made of hard materials, as gravel or 
broken stone, is to be levelled and then pecked, and the 
frames- placed in connexion, the diagonal ribs bearing 
upon the ground, which should be slightly sloping towards 
the sides. 

A provision for hollow gutters is to be made at the sides 
of the road by iron troughs d, d, shown in the last men* 
tioned figure, these troughs being supported on one side 
by the frame-work, and on the other side by a line of stones 
placed upon the hard ground, so connected and extended 
over any space or area in breadth and length. 

Upon this frame-work the paving stones are to be placed 
in rows as shown, the joints crossing or blocking, and 
wedging up tight against each other, and they may be 
slightly rammed, to drive them to their bearings. The small 


176 Recent Patents. 

interstices between the stones are then to be filled up witfr 
fine gravel or cement^ made with sand and lime, or any ol' 
the usual materials. 

By the employment of this contrivance^ the paving 
stones will not be liable to sink in hollows^ and the road 
will be found to be extremely durable.— [/wo//ed in the- 
Petty Bag Office, February, 1830.1 

!Fe Nathanijsl Jocelyn, of Newhaven, State of Cew* 
necticut, in North America, now residing in the city of 
London^ artist, in consequence of a communication from 
foreigners residing abroad, and from much study of AiV 
oton, for an invention of certain improvements in the 
preparation or manufacturing of blank forms for bankers^ 
cheques, bills of exchange, promissory notes, post bilh^ 
and other similar instruments or securities for the exchange- 
or payments of monies, by which forgeries and alterations^ 
in the same are prevented or de^ec^ed. —[Sealed 3d 
August, 1829.} 

It is with very great difficurty that we have been enablec); 
to collect a single idea of the Patentee's intentions from 
the specification now before us. 

The Patentee expatiates upon the manner in which 
bankers' cheques and bills of exchange are usully drawn^ 
and the facility of fraud being practiced by dishonest 
persons in altering the sums expressed in such cheques 
•and bills. To obviate this, the Patentee would induce the 
bankers to mark their blank pheques^ before delivering them 
to th^ir customers, with sorne private sigo, to be knowiv 
Qif\y to the banker and the drawer, by which blanks with^ 


Arnold* $^ for Impts in Liquor Apparatuses. 177 

eertain signs should be appropriated to ceritam sums oQly, 
and hence if any other Aum was expressed upon the 
cheque, the forgery or alteration would be immediately 

Anpther suggestion is, that in the ^vent of seireral 
blank cheques being printed upon one sheet, that stamps 
with some marks, such as scroll work, should be printed 
upon tlie spaces between every two, so that the marks 
might be cut through when any cheque was cut off, and 
these and the number of the cheque being compared by 
the banker before payment, any fraud would be instantly 

It a waste of time to say any more upon thi» 
subject, as the absurdity of the suggestions must be 
obvious to every reader. — [Inrolled in the Pettj^ Bag 
Office, December, 182^.] 

To Thomas An^otu, of Hoxton, in the county of Middle^ 
sex, tin plate worker, for his invention of a new or im" 
proved machine or gauge for the purpose of denoting the 
quality or strength of certainfuids or spirituous liquors, 
and for measuring or denoting the quantity of fluid or 
spirituous liquors withdrawn from the vessel or receptacle 
in which the same are contained, and which machine or 
gauge may be so constructed as to effect either of the above 
objects without the other if required. — [Sealed 26th May^ 

This is an apparatus designed to show the quantity of 
liquor which has been drawn from a vat or cask in any 
eexttun space of time, and also to show the strength of the 




178 R^:ent Patents. 

spirit or specific gravity of the liquor contained withiit. 
It is^ we presume, intended to be empldyed as a check upon 
the person who is entrusted to draw the liquor for retail 
trade from the pipe in the lower part of the apparatus, a#, 
upon inspection^ it will indicate the quantity that has 
passed through the feeding cock into the receiver, and con* 
sequently that which has been drawn out^ as the feeding 
cock and the discharging cock act simultaneously* 

The manner in which these objects are proposed to be 
effected is by the employment of a hydrometer to be immers- 
ed in the fluid, and a hollow wheel or drum having parti* 
tions dividing the drum into compartments, which, as they 
successively become filled » denote the quantity. 

Plate IX., fig. 14, represents the apparatus partly in sec-^ 
tion ; a, is a cock, which, by the screw &, is to be inserted 
into the vat from whence the liquor is to be drawn. The 
key of the cock is shown at c, having a lever handle ; 
df dy is a vessel intended to receive the liquor as it is drawn 
off, having a cylindrical part e, e, with a conical bottom 
and discharge cock in the lower pipe f. 

The measuring wheel g, turns upon an axle, and on the 
outside is connected to a set of counting wheels, with an 
index and dial plate, to denote the same number of rota* 
tions of the wheel, which will give the quantity by measure 
of the liquor delivered into and discharged from it. 

It is proposed that the capacity of each chamber of the 
measuring wheel shall be equal to half a quarter of a pint^ 
As the liquor flows from the cock a, it falls into one of . 
the chambers of the wheel or drum, and when the liquor 
rises up to a certain height in the chamber, its weight 
causes the wheel to turn and discharge the liquor into the 
vessel d, from whence it runs down to the cylinders, below*. 

When the drum or wheel has made one third of a revo- . 
lutipn, a small click stops its progress ; and as the next > 

Arnold's J for Impts. in Liquor Apparatuses, 179 

chamber gradually Als, the wheel passes a little way round, 
and by so doing raises the click so as to allow the wheel to 
move onward without impediment, another third of a 
rotation on the next chamber becoming filled. 

In this way the successive chambers of the drum, filling 
and discharging, give rotary movement to the drum, and 
the number of rotations made in any space of time being 
indicated by the index upon the dial, shows the quantity 
of liquor passed from the cock. 

A glass float h, is introduced into the liquor in the cylin- 
drical vessel e, and a wire or thin rod i, is inserted into a 
cork in the neck of the float, the upper end of the rod 
being attached by a slot and stop pins to the lever or key 
of the cock c. When the liquor in the cylindrical vessel e, 
is low from the quantity drawn off, the float, of course, is 
depressed, and the rod descending with the float h, brings 
down the lever and opens the way of the cock, at which 
time the liquor flows into the chamber in the wheel g, 
which, as before said, keeps revolving as long as the liquor 
is (delivered into it from the cock. But as soon as the 
quantity discharged into the cylindrical vessel is sufficient 
to raise the glass float up to its highest position, the rod t, 
will have lifted the lever and closed the cock. No more 
liquor can, therefore, be delivered from the cock into the 
chambers of the drum g, until a quantity has been drawn 
ofi* below. Such is the operation of the measuring part 
of the apparatus. 

In order to indicate the strength of the spirit and detect 
its fraudulent dilution, a cylindrical glass tube k, is placed 
in the lower part of the apparatus connected with the 
pipe /; when the cock /, of this tube is opened, liquor 
will be allowed to flow into the tube ; and when that has 
been done, a hydrometer may be introduced into the glass 

180 Recent Patents. 

tube, by the floating posititian of vvnich the strength of 
the spirit will be indicated. 

The principles and construction of the measuring wheels 
with curved chambers are well understood^ particularly in 
their application to gas meters ; and also th6 construction 
and mode by which the counting wheels are connected to 
and made to indicate the number of rotations of the mea- 
suring wheel, is well known ; it is not, therefore^ necessary 
to describe them more particularly. The principal con- 
struction and mode by which a hydromet,er indicates the 
strength of spirits is also understood ; there is, therefore, 
no need of explaining' it move fully ; ari<l as these things 
are not new in themselves, it is to be understood that the 
Patentee clainis only their adiaptation in the way showh to 
the construction of an apparatus which shall indicate the 
quantity of spirits or other liquors that have been drawn 
from a particular vessel in a certain space of time, and 
also show its specific or spirituous strengths — ^Inroiled in 
the Petty Bag Offke^ November, 1829.] 




No. LII. 

[second series.] 

Utttnt ^attnttt. 

To Louis Quetin, of Great Winchester»street, in the city 
of London^ professor of mathematics^ in consequence of 
a communication made to him by a certain person residing 
abroad, for an invention of a new or improved vehic/e, 
or combination of vehicles, for the carriage or conveyance 
of passengers, and also luggage and goods, constructed 
npon a principle of security against overturning or up^ 
setting, and possessing other advantages which he conceives 
will be of public utility. — [Sealed 25th July, 1829.] 

This is an extraordinary project for obtaining safety, and 
preventing a carriage from overturning, consisting of a 
plan for running the carriage upon a single wheel. 

A broad wheel, or rather a bowl-shaped roller, is provided 
with an elongated axle extending at both ends. To this 
axle a strong rectangular horizontal frame is attached, with 
uprights, called a cage, circumscribing the wheel on which 
carriage bodies, with suitable boxes or boots, are fixed by 
the sides of the wheel, before and behind it, and also on 
the top. These carriage bodies and boots are to be so 
exactly balanced, that the whole weight may be supported 
and poised upon the wheel or roller in the centre. 

Vol. IX, — Second Sbries, i 


Recent Patents. 

The construction of such a ponderous vehicle may be 
readily conceived. The framework or cage that is to cir« 
cumscribe the central wheels must be made exceedingly 
strong in order to support the carriage bodies^ which may 
be formed agreeable to the taste of the builder, or in the 
usual appearance of carriage bodies suited to receive pas- 
sengersy having capacious boxes or boots as magazines 
beneath for the stowage of heavy goods and luggage. On 
the tops of these carriage bodies cabriolas are to be placed 
for outside passengers ; and the whole, that is, the carriage 
bodies^ boots, or magazines^ and cabriolas, are to be so 
mounted upon springs connected with the framework or cage, 
that any concussions caused by passing over obstructions on 
the road may be neutralised. 

As the vehicle may be subjected to some vibratory or 
swinging action in its travelling upon roads, there are to be 
an ti- friction rollers attached under the carriage magazines 
or boots at the sides, which come in contact with the 
ground in case of any preponderance of either side of the 
vehicle, allowing the carriage to roll on without ob- 

The vehicle is to be drawn by horses, as other car- 
riages, having a pole in front ; and we presume that the 
bowl shape of the wheel will allow of its turning, without 
much difficulty, to the right or left, out of the straight 

A variation of this scheme is also described, but the 
precise construction of which we do not exactly perceive. 
It is proposed that a broad wheel of large diameter without 
spokes shall be employed, within which a carriage body is to 
be suspended by some means which are not intelligibly 
explained. We presume that the carriage body is to hang 
upon something like gimbles or universal joints, within the 
wheel, as it is stated, that its erect position is to be pre- 


Shanes, for Impts. in Distillation^ 183 

served by weighting the under part of the carriage body, 
which, as the wheel goes round, will preserve its position 
by means of its gravity. — [Inrolled in the Petty Bag 
Office, January, 1830«] 

To William Shand, of the Burn, in Kincardineshire, in 
that part of the United Kingdom called Scotland, Esq,, 
for a certain improvement or improvements in distillation 
and evaporation, — [Sealed 21st August, 1829.] 

This invention applies both to a still and to a boiler, 
wherein the syrup is to be evaporated for the crystallisa- 
tion of sugar, in which the heat from the fire is communi- 
cated through the medium of an oil bath to the bottom of 
the still or evaporating vessel. 

The employment of oil as a medium of heat for the pur- 
pose of evaporation, has been preferred to that of water or 
steam, because oil is capable of being raised to a higher 
degree of temperature than water before it is passed off in 
vapour. But it having sometimes happened, or has been 
supposed to have happened, that highly elastic gas has 
been given off from the oil bath, which, by its explosion, 
has been productive of very serious injury, the Patentee 
proposes by this invention to condense any such gas as it 
may arise, and thereby to render thS apparatus perfectly 

The form of the still or of the evaporating pan consti- 
tutes no part of the invention. Its bottom is to be im- 
mersed in the oil bath, which is placed over the fire. One 
part of the top of the vessel containing the oil bath is to 
be open, and communicate with a serpentine channel, like 
a flM> which passes round the sides of the still or evapo* 


Recent Paienii. 

rating pan ; and this channel is enclosed at top by a vessel 
of cold water, which circumscribes the upper part of the 
still or pan. Any vapour which may arise from the heated 
oil will pass up this serpentine channel and at top strike 
against the under part of the vessel containing the cold 
water,, by which means the vapour will become condensed, 
and fall down again into the bath in the liquid form of oil. 

As the water in the upper vessel would rapidly imbibe 
beat, it is necessary to keep a constant current pasiking 
through it, which is proposed to be done by feeding it 
through a pipe from a reservoir of cold water above, and 
allowing the heated water to flow away by a waste pipe 
below into a discharging gutter. 

The furnace, flues, and boiler, whether for a still or for a 
sugar pan, or any other evaporating vessel^may, of course^ 
be constructed in any convenient form or way ; but the 
Patentee claims the exclusive use of the ^'serpentine 
channel by which the vapour is allowed to rise ; the water 
channel at top by which the vapour is condensed ; and tlie 
water gutter which receives the overflow, as the chief 
means of performing the improvement/' — [Inrolltd in the 
Inrolment Office^ February, 1830,] 

To Moses Poole, of Lincoln'$ Inn, in the county of 
Middlesex,^ gentleman, in consequence of a communication 
made to him by a certain foreigner residing abroad, for 
certain improvements in the apparatus for raising or 
generating steam and currents of air^ and for the appU^ 
cation thereof to locomotive engines, and other purposes* 
—[Sealed 8th July, 1829.] 

The two features of improvement proposed in the title of 
this patent, consist in a peculiar construction of steam 

Poolers, for Impis. in generating Steam. 185 

boiler, and in a mode of promoting the draught of a chimney 
or flue. 

The boiler in which steam is proposed to be generated 
is formed by a series of small tubes like gun barrels, placed 
horizontally, and connected together by the open ends of 
the tubes being inserted into coupling boxes, so as to pro- 
duce a zig-zag continuation of tubeing from the beginning 
to the end of the range. 

'The form of the boiler may be assimilated to a cage, as 
the series of small tubes are to be nmged round the sides of 
the furnace, and at the top and bottom, the fire being in the 
middle; and the tubes are to be affixed to the boxes. at 
their ends by a rod passed through each tube, with screw 
nuts at its extremities, which will allow of the tubes being 
readily opened and.cleaned when required* 

The water is to be supplied, to these tubes by a force 
pump through a pipe leading in at the commencement of 
the range, and the steam is to pass off at the other extre- 
mity into a cylindrical vessel constituting a steam chest, 
where any water which may be carried over will become 
deposited by its gravity, and return to the reservoir of the 
force pump while the steam proceeds onward to the indue* 
tion aperture of the engine. 

This construction of boiler is proposed, as particularly 
eligible for focomotive engines, to which it is shown 
adapted, though in a very imperfect manner, in several 
figures of drawings accompanying the specification ; but 
as there is nothing claimed as new in the construction of 
the engine or carriage, and there is obviously no novelty in 
the boiler, we do not consider it necessary to give engravings 
of the figures. 

It is stated that as the internal diameter of the tubes 
which form the boiler are very small, and would soon burn 
through if the water became evaporated, whenever the 



186 Recent Patents. 

carriage is stopped the engine must be still kept at work^ 
in order that water may be constantly pumped into the 
tubes, so as to keep the boiler always charged. 

As the hinder wheels of the carriage are connected by 
gear to the engine, it will, whenever the carriage is in- 
tended to stop, be necessary to raise the hinder wheels off 
the ground. This is proposed to be done by letting down 
a lever from behind the carriage, which is to act as a prop' 
having a broad foot or drag slipper at its end, which is to 
be brought under the periphery of the wheel. This prop 
lever, when required, is to be forcibly draw into a perpen^ 
dicular position by means of a drag chain connected to the 
rod of a piston in a small auxiliary cylinder fixed under 
the perch of the carriage. 

To bring this apparatus into effective operation, a volume 
of steam must be let into the small cylinder at such times 
as the drag or prop is required to act, when the pressure of 
the steam forcing up the piston causes the chain to draw 
the prop lever, and bring it nearly into a perpendicular 
position by the side of the wheel, the drag slipper being 
then in contact with the ground beneath the periphery of 
the carriage wheel. This auxiliary piston and steam 
cylinder, it is proposed, shall be employed to bring the 
drag into operation whenever the velocity of the carriage 
requires to be retarded, as in passing down steep descents. 

Thest^im discharged from the eduction aperture of the 
engine passes into a cylindrical vessel placed parallel to the 
steam chest, above described, which vessel is intended to be 
a partial condenser. The eduction steam is conveyed into 
this vessel by a groove in a jecket round the working 
cylinder, in which, we presume, the slide valves are 
intended to act; but this part of the apparatus is so 
imperfectly described, that its construction and mode of 
operating is altogether teyond our comprehension. 


BrandretVsf for Impts. of Power «.b Machinery* 187 

The concluding part of the Specification stet^^^at the 
uncondensed steam is to be blown off from the cylindrical 
vessel last described into the flues or chimney of the boiler^ 
for the purpose of creating by the velocity of its exit a 
strong current or air draught through the furnace, which may 
be regulated by a suitable stop cock, as the draught shall 
require lu^ casing or diminishing. This application of a 
current of steam is also proposed generally for all situations 
in which a powerful draught of the flues and chimney of a 
furnace is required. — [^Inrolled in the Inrolment Ojffice, 
January, 1830.] 

To Thomas Shaw Brandketh, of Liverpool, in the 
county of Lancaster, barrister at law, for a new method 
or methods of applying animal power to machinery. — 
[Sealed 9th September, 1829.] 

The subject of this Patent is one of the varieties of loco- 
motive machinery in which a horse or other animal is placed 
within the vehicle for the purpose of exerting his muscular 
strength by pushing with his feet against a receding floor, 
connected by gear to the running wheels of the carriage. 

Upon this principle the power has usually been obtained 
by the horse or other animal walking upon an inclined 
plane, or upon the descending part of the periphery of a 
rotary drum as a treadmill ; in which cases the gravity of 
descending weight of the animal principally produced the 
power by which the machinery was to be actuated. In the 
present instance, however, the muscular exertion alone is 
brought into operation, the weight of the animal not being 
made conducive to the production of power. 

The present machine, which is denominated aC«ci,o* 
PED, is intended to be the agent for drawing a serittef 



188 Recent Patents. 

loaded carriages behind it upon a railway. Four running 
wheels, like those usually employed for railway carriages, 
are affixed, two to the fore axles and two to the hinder 
axles of the cycloped, the axles turning in bearings secured 
to the under part of the horizontal frame of the carriage. 
Two cylindrical barrels are also mounted upon axles sup- 
ported by the frame, round which barrels an endless band, 
or two parallel endless chains, are passed. To this endless 
band or chains a series of transverse battens or rails of 
wood, placed close together, are attached, which being 
supported by a series of small rollers, mounted transversely 
in the side frames of the carriage, form a horizontal plat- 
form for the horse or other animal to stand or walk upon. 

The axles of the running wheels, and those of the cylin- 
drical barrels, are connected together by toothed wheels 
and pinions, so that any rotary motion being given to the 
barrels will be communicated to the running wheels, and 
cause them to carry the cycloped forward. 

On the top of the horizontal framework of the carriage 
upright posts and side rails are erected, forming a sort of 
stall to enclose the horse, with a trough or manger in front, 
that the animal may feed as it goes on. A collar is placed 
round the horse's neck, with traces or chains attached to 
the harness, which traces are hooked to staples in the 
side rails. 

The horse being now made to pull by his collar, the 
traces draw from the staples in the side rails, and in making 
this effort to advance, the horse's feet act as levers against 
the rails of the moveable floor or platform, which being by 
these means slidden back, causes that rotary movement of 
the drums connected to the platform, and of the toothed 
pinions upon their axles, which turn the axles of the run- 
ning wheels, and impels the carriage forward upon the 
railway, drawing the train behind it — [/nrolled in the In- 
raiment Office, March, 1830,] 

[ 189 ] 

To Charles WnEATSTon^^formerli/ of the Strand, but 
now of Conduit-street , in the county of Middlesex, mu- 
sical instrument maker ^ for his having invented a certain 
improvement or improvements in the constrtiction of wind- 
musical instruments, — [Sealed 19th June, 1829.} 

Tii E subjects of this patent are several highly ingenious 
methods of constructing and of adapting keys to the Ger- 
man musical instrument called the Molina. This instru- 
ment is formed by a scries of sonorous metallic springs 
something like the tongues of Jews-harps, which are 
mounted in a box, and are made to vibrate and give out 
musical tones by the pressure of wind either from the 
breath of the perfornier, or from a small portable blowing 

The improved instruments are denominated Sympho- 
NiONs; they are constructed in several different shapes, 
and are played upon by the fingers something in the 

way of a flagelet, that is, the mouth is applied to the 
embouchun, and the fingers touching small projecting pins 
raise the keys, which allow the sounds to be emitted 
through the apertures, or if adapted to a small round 
bellows, the keys are touched in like manner by the fingers 
of the performer, as the bellows are expanded or com- 
pressed, and the passage of the wind through the aper- 
tures, as the keys are opened, cause the metallic tongues 
to vibrate, and to emit the sounds of notes in tuneful suc- 

One form of the Symphonion intended to be inflated by 
the mouth is represented in plate X, consisting of a metal 
box with apertures in the sides in each of which a metallic 
tongue is placed, but the apertures are closed at the back 
by lever keys, and the interior of the box being filled 

Voj., IX. — Second Srri^is. % a 

190 Recent Patents* 

with wind by the breath of the performer through a 
mouthpiece, whenever one of the keys is raised the wind, 
in passing through the aperture, puts the spring or me- 
tallic tongue in a state of vibration, which produces the 
sound of a musical note. 

Fig. 1 , is an external representation of the box in which 
the levers and keys are seen. Fig. 2, is an edge view of 
the same, showing also the mouthpiece. Fig. 3, exhibits 
the interior of the box, the face plate on the mouthpiece 
side of the box being removed. Fig, 4, is a section taken 
across the box, showing the positions of the several opera- 
tive parts. 

The frame and. box a, a, a, is made of any shape con- 
venient for being held by the fingers ; b, is the mouth- 
piece through which the performer blows into the 
interior of the box ; c, c, c, are the springs or metallic 
tongues mounted in front of the apertures made in the 
face plate ; d, d, t/, are the pins or keys to be played upon 
by the fingers, which are connected to the lower valves 
e, e, e, covering the apertures. 

The box a, being filled with wind through the mouth- 
piece b, by the breath of the performer, on depressing any 
one of the keys d, by the finger, the lever connected with 
that key will open its valve at e*, fig. 4, when the spring 
c, will by the passage of the wind be made to vibrate, and 
consequently give out the tone or musical note. 

The metallic tongues or springs must be so formed and 
attached to the plate of the box, as to be capable of. 
severally producing the tones of common chords. This 
will be understood by musical instrument makers, as well 
as the modes of tuning them, and the means of obtaining, 
sharp or flat notes. 

It is unnecessary to show all the modifications ^s to 
shape, under which the Patentee proposes to construct the 


Wheatstone's,for Impts* in Musical Instruments. 191 

SymphonioM; the leading principles of construction being 
the same as those above described. 

One other construction of the instrument, however, 
is proposed, varying considerably from those already 
described, which is stated to be a modification and im- 
provement of the Chinese organ. It is formed by pipes 
having vibratory metallic tongues at their ends. Two of 
these pipes are shown in different positions at iigs. 5, 
and 6 ; a, being the aperture at which the wind is ad- 
mitted, and by the vibratory tongue from whence the sound 
is given out. 

Any required number of these pipes may be arranged 
and attached to a board, as fig. 7, their lengths and also 
their tongues being adjusted and tuned as organ pipes. 

This series of pipes it is proposed to place withih a 
bellows, as fig. 8> which being expanded and collapsed by 
the hands of the performer, will cause the required pres- 
sure of wind to be forced into the unstopped apertures 
or mouthpieces a^ of the pipes and the fingerg of the per- 
former, at the same time pressing in succession upon the 
keys on the outride, will open such of the pipes as may 
be required to produce the tones. 

The Arrangements of the musical springs or tongues, 
and also of the keys in the instrument, will be dependant 
upon the convenience with which the fingers of the per- 
fofmer may be enabled to touch them so as to play any 
tune upon the instrument with facility. — Ifnrolled in the 
Inrohnent Office^ December, 1829.] 

[ 192*] 

To Henry Bock, 0/ Ludgate-streeiy in the city of Lon» 
don, Esq., in consequence of a communication made to 
him bj/ a certain foreigner residing abroad, for improve- 
ments on machinery for embroidering or ornameiUing 
cloths, stuffs, and other fabrics. — [Sealed 2d May, 

This is a machine which, however ingenious in its con- 
struction, must be considered to be more curious than 
useful. It is designed to conduct a series of needles with 
threads to and fro through a distended sheet of muslin or 
other material, for the purpose of producing upon the face 
of such material the kind of raised needle-work called 

Plate X, fig. 9, is a front view of the machine complete; 
fig. 10, is a longitudinal section of the same, showing the 
positions and operations of the several parts. 

The Patentee has described this invention under three 
distinct heads. First, the manner in which the frame hold- 
ins: the sheet of muslin or other material to be worked 
upon is to be shifted when in operation, for the purpose of 
bringing different parts of the sheet into proper situations 
for the needles to pass through according to the pattern or 
device intended to be worked thereon. Secondly, the 
means by which the machinery carrying the holders of the 
needles is to be moved in order to conduct the needles to 
and fro, and pass them through the interstices between the 
threads of the sheet of muslin or other material about to 
be embroidered. And, thirdly, the method by which the 
respective series of fingers, pincers, or holders, are closed 
or opened in order to take hold of the needles for the pur- 
pose of carrying them, and to release the needles when 
they have been protruded through the material. 

The machinery is supported in an outer stationary frame- 

Bock's, for Impts. in Ovnamenting Cloths. 1 93 

work of iron a, a, within which are mounted two movable 
frames b, 6, and c, c, connected together. The frame b, b, 
carries two rollers d, d, on which the muslin or other 
material e, e, intended to be embroidered is rolled, and by 
these means is tightly distended in a vertical position in 
the middle of the machine. Two series of pincers or fingers 
ff fi are fixed upon each of the carriages g, g, which 
carriages respectively run to and fro upon lateral rails A, h, 
at the back and the front of the machine. 

The second set of pincers mounted in the lower part of 
each carriage, are to be considered only as repetitions of 
the upper series, the additional holders being introduced 
for the purpose of performing a greater extent of work, 
that is, causing a double series of needles to operate upon 
two parts of the sheet of muslin at the same time. 

The needles are formed as shown upon an enlarged 
scale at 5, fig. 11, having two points, and the eye in the 
middle; and the pincers or fingers which hold the needle 
are also represented in this figure considerably enlarged. 
These pincers or fingers are placed in opposite positions 
on the back and front carriages, as seen in the section, fig. 
10, that is, the opening of the chaps face each other so 
that the respective needles, conducted toward the muslin by 
the one set ^of holders on the advance of the carriage, are, 
after their points have been passed through the muslin, 
taken ho.ld of by the opposite set of holders, and are 
drawn through the muslin by the retiring of the other 

The general objects of the machine being stated, we 
proceed to explain the particular construction of its parts, 
and the manner of their operating. 

The muslin or other material' having been rolled, as 
above said, round the rollers rf, d, the axles of those rollers 
are mounted in bearings in the frame b, b, and the muslin 

194 Reeent Patents. 

ifl drawn tight by turning the winches of worm pinions, 
acting iit the oblique teeth of the wheels t, t, on the ends 
of the rollers d, d. 

As the approaching and receding movements of the car- 
riages g, g, are upon stationary horizontal planes, the 
needles would be brought to the same spot upon the muslin 
at every advance of the carriages, if the frame in which 
the muslin is distended remained stationary ; it is there- 
fore necessary, in order to work a pattern or device upon 
the muslin, that the frames carrying it should be moved a 
little distance after every passage of the needles. For this 
purpose, therefore, the frame 6,holding the rollers, is enabled 
to slide upwards, and the frame c, to which 6, is connected, 
to slide laterally. 

By reference to the front view of the machine, fig. 9, 
the manner of moving the sheet of muslin in working a 
pattern will be perceived. The outer frame c, c, mounted 
upon the standards, is enabled to slide to and fro horizon-^ 
tally by means of anti-friction wheels running upon a 
transverse rail A, fixed to the standards and the inner 
frame 6, 6, in which the rollers rf, rf, are mounted, being 
suspended by a counterpoise weight and cord /, passed over 
pulleys, is enabled to move vertically by itsguidesm,97?,f;2,m, 
sliding against straight edges attached to the outer movable 
frame c, c. 

The movements of both these frames b and c, are regu- 
lated by a piece of machinery composed of jointed levers 
w, n, n, called by the Patentee a pentagraph. The fulcrum 
of this pentagraph is a joint o, attached to the standard, 
and it is balanced by a counter weight and cord passed 
over pulleys. 

The frame b, is connected to the pentagraph by a joint p, 
and at the reverse extremity of the pentagraph there is a 
handle and tracing point q, which, being passed over the 

Bock's, for ImpU. in Ornamenting Cloths. 186 

face of a pattern t;ard r, affixed by a bracket to the 
ttandard, causes the frames b and e, to be moved both 
fertically and horizontally. 

The subject drawn upon the pattern card is that which 
is to be worked or embroidered by the needles on the sheet 
of muslin ; and by shifting the tracing point of q, from 
place to place previous to each passage of the needles, the 
pentagraph will cause the situation of the sheet of muslin 
to be shifted in a corresponding degree, and the different 
parts brought opposite to the points of the needles, so that 
they may enter a different part of the sheet at each move- 
ment, and by a succession of stitches produce a spreading 

The means by which the needles are passed to and fro 
through the muslin is now to be considered. The longitu- 
dinal section, fig. 10, will best illustrate the manner of 
working the needles. Carriages g, g, are mounted upon 
bevel-edged wheels running upon longitudinal bars A, b. 
These carriages support the series of fingers, pincers, or 
holdei'sy,/,/,y, extending across the machine, each of 
them being designed to take hold of one end of the needle, 
as shown upon an enlarged scale in fig. 11. These carriao-es 
are made to travel to and fro upon the lateral rails by means 
of hands passed over the puUyes tt, tt, tt. 

The operator, when he has adjusted the point of the 
tracer g, upon the pattern board, draws the band, and 
brings one of the carriages, with the pincers holding the 
needles, up to .the sheet of muslin, as shown at the right 
hand of fig. 10, the points of all the needles being by this 
means protruded through the muslin. The other carriages, 
with the chaps of its pincers, open as at the left hand in 
fig. 10, is then advanced in like manner, and brought up so 
that the opposite points of the needles may stand within 
the open chaps of the pincers. This being done, the chaps 
of the holders are then closed by means which will be 

96 Recent Patents, 

described hereafter ; and the needles being thus held fast 
by the back series of pincers, the chaps of the front or 
right hand series of pincers are then opened. The left 
hand carriage being then made to retrograde, the needles 
will by that means be drawn through the muslin^ and the 
stitch of embroidery be formed. 

Previously to the next advance of the left hand carriage, 
the situation of the muslin must be shifted a trifling 
distance by moving the point of the tracer as above 
described, which will cause the points of the needles to 
be introduced in other parts of the muslin, and so extend 
the stitches, by which the embroidery is to be worked. 

The specification does not point out the mode in which 
the thread is to be supplied to the needles. There is some 
thread represented by the drawing in the centre of the eye 
of the needle, which may possibly be a very small bobbin 
carrying the thread ; but this we only conjecture, and 
conceive that it would be scarcely possible for it to pass 
through the muslin. 

There are curved surfaces called shields v, v, v, t?, placed 
across the middle of the macliine, as shown in the section 
fig. IO5 which are covered with plush for the purpose of 
taking hold of the loose threads from the needles as they 
pass, and causing them to be drawn tight at every stitch. 

The third feature of the invention is the contrivance by 
which the series of pincers or fingers are opened and shut 
at the proper periods for releasing the needles from one 
series, and taking hold of them by the opposite series. 

To the hinder part pf the upper chap of every one of 
the holders there is a small chain attached, which leads 
down to a crank t/, u, extending across the machine under 
each of the carriages. This crank is moved up and down 
by an arm or lever w, w^ fixed to its axle, which lever is 
acted upon by a rotary cam x, x. 

When the operator wishes to open the chaps of one 

r • 

Dai^ 4 Munches, for Impis. in Musical Instruments. 197 

of the series of holders f, he presses upon one of the 
treadles y, which, by means of a band or cord passed 
round the pulley on the end of the longitudinal shaft z, 
causes that shaft to revolve ; and in so doing, by means of 
one of the bevel toothed wheels, to turn one of the cams 
jr, into such a position as shall act against the arm or 
lever w^ when the carriage passes it, and thereby cause the 
crank u, to which the tail chains of the pincers are 
attached^ to draw down those chains, and consequently to 
open the chaps of that series of pincers which are advanc- 
ing, in order to receive the points of the needles. As 
soon, however, as the open chaps of the pincers have 
arrived at the situation of the needles^ the lever w, slips 
away from the cam x, and the spring beneath the upper 
chap (see fig. 11,) then forces up the tail lever of each of 
the pincers, and causes the needles to be held fast. 

The cams and levers by these means opening and 
closing the chaps of the pincers, cause the series of needles 
to be taken hold of and held fast by the pincers, or to be 
released at certain periods ; and hence, by the traversing of 
the carriages to and fro, the needles are conducted through 
and through the fabric stretched upon the vertical frame, 
and the embroidery is effected. — {JnroUed in the Inrohneni 
Office, November, 1 829.] 


3V) Francis Day, of the Poult rj/, in the city of London, 
optician, and Augustu Munch, of the same place, 
mechanic^ in consequence of a communication made to 
them by a certain foreigner residing abroad^ and improve^ 
ments by themselves, for an invention of certain improve- 
ments on musical instruments. — ^[Sealed 19th June, 1829.] 

This invention applies to wind musical instruments of the 
organ kind, or organised piano-forte, and like the iuven- 

VoL, IX. — Second Skribs. t b 


IdB Reeeni VatenU. 

tion which forms the subject of the preceding patent, con* 
sists in the adaptation of metallic spring tongues like thd 
tongue of a Jew's harp, which, by their vibrations, gi?a out 
musical tones. 

The Patentees describe the invention as a new substitute 
for the pipes of an organ forming a stop, that is, an addi- 
tional series of notes on tha organ technically denomi- 
nated a stop. 

These metallic tongues have been applied to organs and 
other wind musical instruments in Germany, and are found 
to produce very fine and rich effects of tone ; it is for the 
adaptation of them to similar musical instruments in 
England that the present patent is obtained. 

Over the aperture of the wind chest in place of one of 
the ordinary organ pipes, a wooden box is fixed, the 
under part of which box has a metallic plate with a long 
slot or opening in it suited to receive the metallic tongue 
or spring, from the vibrations of which the musical tone or 
note is to be produced. The upper part of this box is 
open for the free discharge of the sound ; but in order to 
ciTect variable modulations of tone, a wooden fiap or valve 
is placed upon the top of the box, by means of which the 
open end can be more or less closed, as may be desired. 

The tongue or sonorous spring may be flat, and fastened 
by its root to the metallic plate, allowing it to vibrate in 
the slot or lower aperture of the box, or it may be of a 
bent form, its root or fulcrum being fixed, and its spring 
part allowed to play freely in the aperture. The metal at 
the vibratory end of the tongue should be thicker than at 
the root for emitting grave notes, but of thinner substance 
for high notes. The wooden valve at top of the box may 
be raised or depressed by a rod connected to a pedal, or 
by any other means ; or the valve may be formed by a 
slider instead of a flap, if preferred ; and the box itself 
may be square, or of any other convenient form. 

Duy'syfor Impts, in Musical Imrtumentv 109 

A series of these boxes with metallic tongues or springs 
below, and valyes above, are to be mounted over the several 
apertures of the wind chest of a common organ, or other 
similarly constructed instrument^, and the keys of the 
instrument being as usual connected by levers, with valves 
to the apertures of the wind chest, those apertures are 
opened by the depression of the keys, as the fingers of the 
performer act upon them ; and hence the wind, in passing 
from the chest through the lower apertures of the boxes, 
puts the tongues into a state of vibration, producing the 
notes or musical tones required. 

It is obvious that this simple contrivance of adapting 
musical springs or metallic tongues to organs, instead of 
pipes of large magnitude, will admit ot the construction of 
very powerful musical instruments of small dimensions 
compared to ordinary organs ; and as the mechanism by 
which organs are usually worked, or as it is more 
technically called played, is well understood, and of course 
admit of some variety in construction, it is not intended 
by the Patentees to limit themselves to any particular 
arrangement of mechanism. They therefore define the 
claim of exclusive right of adaptation in. the following 
words : — 

"The formation of a new substitute or stop for the 
pipes of an organ by the combining of metal tongues or 
springs, with wooden boxes fitted with regulators or modu- 
lators of the tone ; also the application of pallets or 
valves to the tops of the said boxes, and the remova 
thereof from the insides of the wind chests of the organ> 
to which this latter form of our new stop may be applied ; 
and also the manner of raising or lifting the said regulating 
pallets or valves." — [^Inrolled in the Inrolment Office^ 
December, 1 829 J 


200 Riceni Patents, 

To Robert Torre ns^ of Croydon, in the countjf of 

Surrey, a lieutenant-colonel in the Royal Marine$, far 
certain apparatus for the purpose of communicating 
power and motion. — [Sealed 9th September, 1829.] 

The subject of this invention is an engine to be worked 
by the force of elastic gas instead of steam. The general 
mechanism is the same as that usually employed for con- 
densing engines^ but the generator, and also the working 
cylinder, are surrounded by hot mediums of oil or water 
contained in vessels which enclose the generator and 
working cylinder. The condenser is, in like manner, sur- 
rounded by a medium of cold water contained in a vessel 
which encloses the condenser. 

The gas in the generator is intended to be rendered 
elastic by the heat transmitted from the medium of hot 
oil or water which surrounds it; and having been so ren- 
dered elastic, it passes by means of a pipe to the working 
cylinder of the engine, in a similar way to that in which 
steam is conducted in an ^ordinary steam engine. 

The heating mediums are kept under pressure in close 
vessels for the purpose of allowing the heat to be increased 
to a degree of intensity/and also to prevent the fluid from 

The working cylinder being surrounded by a medium of 
heated oil or water, increases the elastic force of the gas 
by further expanding it ; and having forced the piston to 
the end of the cylinder, the gas then passes off by an 
eduction valve, as usual, to a condenser. 

The condenser is formed of thin metal, in order that the 
heat of the gas when passed into it may be readily trans- 
mitted to the surrounding water, which, by means of 
pumps, is to be kept in a continued current for the purpose 


Torrens^Sffor Impts* in Power atid Motion. 20i 

of carrying off the accruing heat from the generator^ and 
receiving a supply of cold water to keep up the refrige- 
rating Btate of the medium. 

When the eduction gas has been lowered in its tem- 
perature in the condenser^ it is from thence forced up by a 
pump again into the generator^ to be heated and expanded 
as before. 

Safety valves and air vessels are provided ; and in 
putting the machine to work^ the gas is allowed to blow 
through by means of lateral pipes, for the purpose of 
driving out any atmospheric air which may previously 
have occupied the vessel. 

Tbe specification does not state what material is to be 
placed in the generator from which gas is to be evolved, 
nor can we comprehend the Patentee's intention, as in the 
drawing of the engine which accompanies the specification^ 
a liquid is represented as occupying the lower part of the 
generator, and that is written upon ^' condensed gas." 

It is quite evident that the whole is a very crude and 
undigested project, full of incongruities, which, though 
elaborately described in the specification, is very far from 
being intelligibly explained. The principal features claimed 
appear to be that of enclosing the generator and the work- 
ing cylinder within vessels of heated oil or water, and 
keeping those medii under pressure. There is no feature 
of novelty proposed in the construction of any parts of 
the mechanism of the engine, and therefore we do not con- 
sider a figure representing it at all necessary. — [^Inrolhd in 
the Inrolment Office, March j 1830.] 

► 1 »■,-■:-:.■■*.■■ I 


C «« 3 

To John Milne, o/* Edinburgh, architect, for a machine 
or engine for dressing of stones used in masonry, by the 
assiitance of a steam engine, a wind, a horse, or a water 
power, whereby a great quantity of manual labour wilt 
ftc saved.— [Sealed 15th September, 1829.] 

A MACHINE for picking and dressing stones by attaching^ 
the tool to a falling lever, worked like a tilt hammer, the 
stone being placed upon a movable carriage below, formed 
the subject of a patent granted to Alex. Dallas, in AprtJ^ 
1824. — (See the first series of our journal, vol, ix*, p. 301.) 
The invention of the present Patentee is for the same ob- 
ject ; but in this instance the tools (for there are many) are 
attached to the periphery of a rotary drum or barrel, and- 
the block of stone is progressively carried along upon a 
sliding frame under the rotatry drum. 

The barrel or drum is proposed to be of from eighteen to 
thirty-sixinches in diameter, and from eighteien to forty-eight 
inches long. Round the periphery of this drum the tools, 
whether pecks, chisels, addices, or droves, are to be placed 
in several series spirally, that is, winding round the peri-* 
pbery of the drum like a screw, so that the several tools 
may in succession be brought into operation one after the 
other, upon different points of the stone. 

The stone intended to be dressed, is id its rude form ta 
be fastened upon the sliding carriage by cramps, and as. 
the drum goes round the carriage is intended to move on 
slowly) so that the points of the tools may strike against and 
chip off portions of the surface. 

When the stone has passed once under the operation of the 
tools on the rotary drum, it is to be slidden back again upon 
its carriage ; and the frame of the carriage with the stone 

Milne* 8, for Imptt, in Dressing Stones. 203 

oeing then raised a trifling distance by means of segment \ i 

racks and pinions beneath, the carriage wi^^ the atone is i 

again passed under the rotary drum^ and t^ . »tf«ls, pecking 
aa before, chip off further portions of the irregular sur- 
face. This operation is to bo repeated, and the position 
of the stone shifted until the surfaces are worked down 
or dressed to the desired figure. 

The rotary drum carrying the working tools is proposed 
to be driven by toothed gear connected with a steam engine 
or other first mover; and the progressive motion of the car- 
riage on which the stone is supported may be produced by 
connecting it with the rotary motion of the drum, or the 
carriage may be moved independently by hand. If the 
former contrivance is adopted^ it is obvious that any desired 
speed may be given to the carriage by changing the wheels 
of the gear which connect the drum and the carriage to- 

It is proposed when bevels are desired to be worked 
upon the surface of the stene that the rotary barrel should 
be'shaped accordingly, and the tools adapted both in posi- 
tion and figure to produce such surfaces. In a similar way 
it fs proposed that grooves may be cut in the stones, and 
that after pecking, the surface may be rendered smooth by 
the tools called droves; 

The Patentee does not confine himself to any particular 
forms, dimensions, or positions of the parts, but claims a 
rotary drum or barrel, carrying the dressing tools, and a 
carriage beneath for conducting the rough stone along for 
the purpose of bringing it under the operation of the rotary 
drum— [Jwro/Zed in the Inrolment Office, March, 1830.] 

t 204 ] 

To John M'Curdy, of Great James-street, Bedford-row, 
in the county of Middlesex, gentleman^ in consequence of 
a communication made to him by a foreigner residing 
abroad, by which he is in possession of an invention or 
discovers/ of certain improvements in the method of con- 
structing mills and mill-stones for grinding. — [Sealed 
2d November, 1829.] 

Thbr£ are three principal features claimed under thi» 
patent ; the* first is adopting a bolting apparatus to the 
mill in such a way, that the flour, in descending from the 
stones, may pass immediately into the bolting drum, for 
the purpose of having the bran and other husky matters 
separated from it. 

The second feature is, cutting peculiarly formed grooves 
or recesses in the faces of the stones, and filling up holes 
or faulty places in the faces of the stones by a cement. 

The third is a method of hanging the top stone in such 
a way, that it may be readily adjusted to any required dis- 
tance from the bed-stone. The bed and also the running 
stones being mounted in a strong framework of cast-iron 
or other material, the bolting apparatus is placed beneath^ 
and is actuated by the same moving power that drives the 
revolving stone of the mill. The particular arrangement 
of the parts, however, is not claimed, but only the adap- 
tation generally; and there does not appear to be any 
novel features in the mechanism, but the same contrivances 
are used as are employed in driving ordinary corn-mills, 
and ordinary bolting machinery. 

T e peculiarly formed indentations made in ithe faces of 
the burrs or grinding stones are, — a series of spiral or con- 
volute grooves, cut from the circumference to the centre in 
the face of the uppe r stone, and an arrangement of straight 

DodgsotiSf for Impts. in Ships* Scuppers. 206 

angular grooves in the face of the bed-stone, which, act- 
ing together, it is considered will break the corn more 
effectually than the form of grooves usually cut in the faces 
of raill-s tones. 

In order to fill up any small holes which may and often 
do occur in the faces of these stones, it is proposed to 
break up portions of French burr stone into small pieces, 
and also to pulverise some portions of these burr stones, 
and with them to mix a quantity of alum. These materials 
being placed in a ladle over a fire, will, by the alum melt- 
ing, become a sort of fluid ; and being applied as a cement 
to the holes in the faces of the stones, those holes will be 
effectually filled up, and the surfaces at those parts made 

The new mode of hanging and adjusting the upper 
Stone does not appear to be very clearly described in the 
specification ; there seems to be a cross-bar, through 
which the spindle passes, with a screw on the spindle, by 
which the stone may be raised or lowered at pleasure. 
The contrivance appears altogether to be designed for 
portable mills, or for small mills for grinding and preparing 
flour for private families. — [^Inrollei in the Inrolment Office^ 
January, 1830.] 

To William Dodgson, of Lower Shadwell^ in the 
county of Middlesex, pump and engine maker ^ for his 
invention of certain improvements in ships* scuppers, and 
which may be applied to other purposes. — [Sealed 17tli 
November, 1829.] 

The scuppers or apertures on shipboard, by which water 
is discharged, are proposed by the Patentee to be furnished 
with valves or flaps o()ening outward, in order that the 

Vol. IX.— Second Sbhies. 3 c 


Recent Patents. 

water may run off freely from the interior of the vessel, 
but that no water may be allowed to enter through the 
same aperture. 

When the scupper hole is in a horizonal position, the 
flap or valve which closes it must be fumishet "^th a 
counterpoise or loggerhead behind its hinge joini^ _ nhe 
purpose of balancing its weight and keeping the flap up 
against the hole ; but when the flap hangs perpendicularly, 
its own weight will keep it to its seat. — llnrolled in the 
Inrolment Office, May, 1830,] 

To David Lawrence, q/' Stroud, and John Crund- 
WELL, of Ashford, both in the county of Kent, gun-- 
makers, for certain improvements in apparatus to be 
applied to fowling-pieces and other Jire-arms in place of 
locks — [Sealed 15th September, 1829.] 

We should call this invention a gun-lock of a peculiar 
construction, certainly not a substitute for a lock, because 
without a gun-lock the improved apparatus vyould be useless. 

The improved contrivance applies to those kind of 
fowling-pieces or other fire-arms which are primed by 
detonating compositions, and discharged by percussioar 
The detonating composition may be placed in a cap, as 
usual, or be employed in the form of small balls ; a very 

Lawrence 4r CrundtveWs, for Jmpts. in Fire-arms. 207 

slight variation in the construction of the apparatus render- 
ing either mode applicable. 

Fig. 1, shows a portion of a fowling-piece, with the 
improvement adapted thereto : cr, represents the breech 
part of the barrel ; b, the butt; c, the lock plate ; rf, a lever' 
which forms the principal feature of the improvement. 


The lever is shown detached in a horizontal view at 
fig. 2; it is attached to the lock plate by a hinge joint 
at e, and is opened by a thumb piece f, the part g, being 
designed to receive the detonating composition. 

The internal construction of the works of the lock forms 
no part of the present improvement : the kind of lock 
employed is one in which the stroke is given by the smart 
thrust forward of a plunger against the breech at the end 
of the barrel where the touch-hole is situate, and at the 
mouth of which touch-hole the detonating composition 
must be exploded. This blow may be produced by various 
contrivances, which are well known as applicable to gun- 

In fig. 2, the piece h, i, inserted at g, represents the 
nipple, which is perforated longitudinally. The broad end 
h, is intended to lie against the orifice of the touch-hole, 
and the small cylindrical part i, to receive upon it the deto- 
nating cap. In order to prime the gun, the lever d, must 
be thrown open from the lock plate by turning upon its 
hinge joint; and when the detonating cap has been placed 
upon the nipple i, the lever is then to be closed, as at 
fig. 1, which will bring the part h, up against the touch- 
hole, as described. The trigger being then drawn in the 
ordinary w^y, the plunger of the lock will be let off ; and by 
striking with a smart blow against the detonating cap 

.(if. ': 

208 Recent Patents. 

placed upon the nipple at i, the explosion will take place ; 
and the fire passing through the nipple, will proceed 
through the touch-hole into the barrel, and discharge the 
contents of the gun. 

In the event of small detonating balls being employed 
instead of detonating caps, those balls may be placed in a 
small magazine or box shown at /c, in fig. I, aflSxed to the 
lock plate. This box is conical within ; and through a 
small hole at its under part one priming ball is enabled to 
descend whenever the lever rf, is thrown open. To receive 
this priming ball a recess is made in the part g, of the 
lever; which recess, when the lever stands open, is brought 
immediately under the delivering hole of the magazine. 
Hence on the opening of the lever d, a priming ball 
descends into the recess, and on the closing of the lever 
the longitudinal aperture is brought into coincidence with 
the touch hole. A sliding pin or piston must in this 
instance be introduced in place of the nipple at i, against 
which the blow of the plunger striking when the trigger is 
drawn, the ball will be exploded and the contents of the 
barrel fired. This piston, after each discharge, may be 
forced outward again by a small helical spring embracing it^ 

At the outer end of the lever d, the thumb piece f^ has 
a joint, and also a tooth or catch intended to bear against 
a stop when closed, for the purpose of keeping the lever 
fast against the lock plate. 

In order to prevent the gun being discharged accident- 
ally, a contrivance is applied which bolts the trigger. Thia 
contrivance is shown at /, in fig. I ; it is a bent lever 
mounted upon a fulcrum pin at w,the reverse end of which 
lever acts as a bolt against the trigger. When the 
gun is brought to the shoulder for firing, the hand, as it 
approaches the tail of the trigger, presses against the lever 
/, and forces it upwards, which brings the bolt end of 

Gil.h's, for Impis, in cutting Marhk* 209 

the lever opposite a notch in the trigger, and thereby sets 
the trigger free; but without thus acting upon the lever /, 
the trigger would remain locked, and the gun could not be' 
discharged.] — Inrolled in the Inrolment Office, March, 

To Joseph Gibbs^o/" Gray ford Mills, in the county of 
Kent, timber merchant , for his invention of improvements 
in machinery for cutting marble, woody and other sub- 
Seances. — [Sealed 12th November, 1829.] 

This is a machine in which ornamental devices in bas- 
relief, are to be wrought in wood, metal, stone, or other 
material from patterns or models; the operating part of 
the machine working in the manner of a vertical drill. 

There are two flat tables fixed one above the other, and 
perfectly parallel to each other; upon the lower of which 
tables, the piece of wood or other material intended to be 
cut or carved in bas-relief is to be made fast ; and im- 
mediately over this, on the upper table, the bas-relief pat- 
tern or model of the device is to be securely fixed. 

The working drill is mounted in a swinging frame, and 
is driven by a band from a rigger, passed round a pulley 
upon the drill ; and in the same swinging frame, immedi- 
ately above, and precisely coincident with the axis of the 
drill, a smooth-pointed pin is fixed, the pin and the drill 
being so adjusted in the frame, as to their distance apart, 
that when the point of the pin above touches any part of 
the surface of the bas-relief, pattern, or model, the point 
of the drill below shall touch a corresponding part of the 
material to be carved or wrought. 

The frame carrying the drill and the guide point is 
mounted upon a vertical shaft, fixed to a standard, or to 
the side of the apartment or building in which the work is 

210 Recent Patents. 

to be performed. The frame is enabled to turn or swing 
round horizontally upon its shaft, so that the point may 
be passed over the surface of the model ; add it is also 
enabled to advance or recede by adjusting screws. 
Besides swinging round horizontally, the frame carrying 
the point and drill is enabled to slide up and down verti- 
cally, in order that the guide point and the drill may 
together, that is simultaneously, be raised up, the one from 
the surface of the model, and the other from the work ; 
which is to be done by a lever, or treadles and rod, con- 
nected to the frame, over which the attendant workman 
has command* 

In this way the guiding point is intended to be shifted 
to every part of the surface of the model in succession, and 
in so shifting, to bring at the same time the operating drill 
below, over a corresponding part of the piece of wood, 
metal, stone, or other material about to be wrought to a 
similar pattern or device. 

According to th6 subject to be cut or carved, so must 
drills, wjth different sorts of points or heads, be employed 
and shifted, as occasion may require, from the drill stock, 
and others applied in their stead* Some of the drills are to 
have rose heads, others spear heads, and various forms 
suited to the excavation intended to be made in the mate- 
rial under operation. 

Let it now be supposed that the guide point, by means 
of the swinging frame, is brought over the model, and that 
the drill is made to revolve by means of the strap and pulley, 
as before described, the point or head of the drill will, as it 
revolves, penetrate into the surface of the material fixed on 
the lower table, until the guide point above has descended 
to the surface of the model fixed on the upper table, then 
the drill will be prevented from cutting further, and the 
frame must be raised by the workman bearing upon the 

Gooch*s,for Impts. on Baths. 211 

lever. The point being then brought over another part of 
the model, the drill will be allowed, as before, in like man- 
ner to cut away the surface of the wood, metal, stone, or 
other material. The guide point Being thus shifted from 
place to place, the drill will, by a succession of operations, 
cut or carve out the complete copy of the model over which 
the guide point has been conducted. 

Thus copies of ornamental scrolls, foliage, and devices, 
of a variety of kinds, principally for decorating buildings, 
may be cut or carved in wood, metal, stone, and other 
materials from models, by the different sorts of drills, 
guided by the parallel guide point, in a machine of the sort 
described ; and which operation may be performed with 
considerable expedition and cheapness. 

Tliere are several sheets of elaborate drawings accom- 
panying the specification, exhibiting this machinef in differ- 
ent positions and in detached parts, which we cannot, 
with any convenience, compress into our present limits : 
nor do we consider it at all necessary to exhibit these 
figures, as the general features and operation of the machine 
may be easily understood from what has been said; and it 
does not appear that any novelties in the mechanism are 
claimed, but only the arrangement and adaptation of the 
whole to the purpose described. — \^Inr oiled in the InroU 
ment Office, May, 1830.] 

To William Gooch, of Mount-street, Berkley^square, 
in the county of Middlesex, for his having invented 
certain improvements on baths of different descriptions, 
which improvements are applicable to other purposes. — 
[Sealed 7th November, 1829.] 

The invention w^hich forms the subject of this patent, 
consists merely in combining in one apparatus several well 


212 Recent Patents. 

known contrivances which have been heretofore commonly 
used separately ; as a portable shower bath, a vapour batb, 
and a slipper bath. These are proposed to be adapted 
together so as to constitute one apparatus, in which all 
these several operations may be performed in succession 
without removing the patient. 

Supposing one of the upright shower bath closets re- 
sembling a sentry box be employed, in the* upper part of 
which the vessels and other apparatus are suspended in the 
ordinary way for producing a shower. In the lower part 
of this closet, that is, upon its floor, a pot or other vessel is 
to be placed containing aromatic herbs or medicinal 
materials, which pot is covered with a lid pierced full of 
holes like a colander. A pipe from a small boiler, on the 
ordinary fire of a bedchamber, is to be passed through the 
side of the closet into the pot containing the medicinal 
materials, for the purpose of condu.cting steam into the 
vessel, which steam, acting upon the herbs, will cause an 
aromatic vapour to be evolved, and to be passed upwards 
through the perforations in the lid of the vessel into the 

The person intending to be operated upon by the vapour 
bath, is to be enclosed within the closet, covered with 
a cloth hood, as usual, having an aperture in the top to 
pass the head through ; and in this way the steam atmo- 
sphere which rises from the vessel below will be made to 
act upon the body, or upon any part of the body, without 
affecting the respiration. 

When this sudorific operation has been continued a 
sufficient length of time, the steam may be shut off, and 
the patient may receive a shower bath without quitting* 
the closet. 

Another arrangement of the invention is designed for 
giving the vapour, the shower, and also immersion to 
a patient, by one apparatus. 


Tyler* $f for Impts, in Water-closets. 213 

A vessel generally knowa as a slipper bath is to be '?) 

employed^ having a partially perforated bottom^ through 
which, from a chamber below the bath, the steam and 
aromatic vapour from a pot or vessel, as above described, 
is to be allowed to pas> upward to the patient reclining in 
the slipper and coveted by a hood of cloth. When the 
sudatory has operated as long as maybe thought necessary, 
a shower of cold water may be let fall upon the patient 
from a suitable apparatus above, and after this the slipper 
may be filled with water so as to immerse the patient. 

The claim of invention is the combination of these con- 
trivances in one apparatus, and not the contrivances them- 
selves taken separately.— Liwro/Zed in the Inrolment Office, 
May, 1830.] 

To Hayward Tyler, of Warwick-lane, in the city of 
London, brass-founder {being one of the people called 
Quakers), for certain improvements in the construction of 
water-closets. — [Sealed 23d September, 1829.] 

In this improved construction of water-closets it is not pro- 
posed to deviate materially from the general arrangement 
of the ordinary parts of a water-closet, but to adapt certain 
appendages for the purpose of forming air-tight valves, 
which shall prevent the passage of offensive effluvia up the 
discharge pipe. 

It will not be necessary to describe all the parts of the 
mechanism of a water-closet, as they are sufficiently known : 
we shall, therefore, merely point out the proposed improve- 

Immediately under the discharging aperture of the pan or 

basin of the water*closet a horizontal sliding valve is intro- 
VoL. IX.— iSscoND Sbrus. <o 

21^ Recent Patents. 

duced^ which closes the aperture perfectly air-tight when the 
closet is not in use, and which is to be opened by a lever 
when the soil is required to be discharged. 

This valve is formed by a circular plate or disc of metal, 
mounted upon a pivot or centre*pin, the plate being packed 
BO as to be perfectly air-tight, but yet allowed to turn freely 
in a horizontal direction. 

The disc or plate of metal forming the valve has an ez- 
centric circular hole through it^ in such a situation that as 
the disc is turned round upon its pivot, this hole may be 
brought into coincidence with the discharging aperture at 
bottom of the basin. When that is the case, the soil and 
water will be allowed to pass down into the discharge pipe; 
but when the disc is so turned that the solid part of the 
metal is immediately under, and intercepts the discharging 
aperture of the basin, then the passage is so completely 
closed that neither water can pass down nor effluvia up ; 
the packing in which the disc or plate slides being suffi- 
ciently close to constitute an air-tight valve. 

It will readily be perceived that this disc may be turned 
round by a variety of mechanical contrivances : that which 
the Patentee prefers is a segment rack fixed to the axle of 
the disc, and acted upon by a pinion connected to a lever^ 
which is worked by a handle rising above the seat. 

The other contrivance applies to a dish valve ; that is^ 
a dish or hollow vessel hung upon a hinge joint under the 
discharging aperture of the basin^ which 13 intended to 
contain water sufficient to form a water valve that is to 
close the aperture of the basin, and by means of the water 
to prevent the offensive effluvia rising from the discharge 

But as it may sometimes happen that the water will ea^ 
cape from the dish, and thereby leave the cQmmunieatioa 
open, it is proposed, as the improvement, that the edge of 


Rolfe^s^for Impts. in Piano-fortes. 215 

the dish all round shall have a rim of leather fitting exactly 
against the lower edge of the basin^ and being kept up 
thereto by a balance weight, the valve will be tight, and 
the effluvia be prevented from passing, even though the 
water may have discharged itself from the dish. — \_lnrolled 
in the Inrolment Office, March, 1830.] 

To Thomas Hall Rolfe, of Cheapside, in the city of 
London, musical instrument maker^ for his new invented 
improvement or improvements upon the self -acting piano^ 
/arfe.— [Sealed 11th August, 1829.] 

The specification of this patent would fill a volume : its 
extraordinary length, therefore, obliges us to give only the 
leading features of the invention. 

These improvements apply to a self-acting piano-forte ; 
that is, an instrument in which the keys are- worked by a 
revolving barrel, the periphery of the barrel being studded 
with wire staples as tappets, which, as it revolves, depress 
the keys in succession, and cause the hammers to strike 
the strings, and give out the tones as when played upon 
by hand. 

The objections which are stated to have presented them- 
selves in the construction and performance of the self-play- 
ing piano-fortes heretofore made are the difficulty of shift- 
ing the barrel in order to change the tunes ; the labour 
which the barrel has to perform in producing the forte and 
piano gradations of tone ; and the monotonous sounds result- 
ing from the too sudden action of the dampers. 

To remedy these defects certain novel contrivances are 
proposed to be adapted to the instrument, which are 



216 Recent Patents. 

described under three several heads : first, a simple and 
easy mode of shifting or sliding the barrel laterally for 
the purpose of changing the tunes, that is, bringing other 
sets of staples or tappets upon the barrel to act upon the 
keys ; secondly, an improved method of producing the 
forte and piano tones by an auxiliary barrel and levers ; 
and, thirdly, the adaptation of an additional set of dampers 
applicable to the self-acting part of the instrument, and 
independent of those dampers which are connected to the 
keys worked by the fingers. 

Under the first head the revolving barrel is described as 
being pressed toward one side of the frame or case by 
a powerful spring coiled round its axle, which spring keeps 
the barrel up to a certain bearing. This bearing, however, 
is capable of being moved by means of a wedge or inclined 
plane situate behind it, by which inclined plane the barrel 
may be forced back, the spring giving way. Hence it will 
be perceived that the position of the wedge or inclined 
plane will govern the situation of the barrel, and that by 
sliding the wedge which moves the barrel, the tappets, for 
any tune desired, may be brought into operation. 

On the upper edge of the inclined plane or wedge a rack 
is formed, which is acted upon by a toothed sector, the 
sector being moved by a pinion and train of wheels above. 
Connected to this train of wheels there is an index or 
pointer to be turned upon a dial plate on the outside of the 
case ; which index, on being brought to point to any tune 
named in the dial plate, causes the toothed gear to slide 
the wedge so as to bring the barrel into the proper position 
for acting upon the keys as the barrel goes round to pro- 
duce the desired tune. 

In producing the forte and piano tones upon the instru- 
ment heretofore, high staples inserted into tha periphery 


RolfeU, for Impts. in Piano-fortes. 217 

of the barrel have been employed ; but these high staples^ 
haying to bear very considerable weight and pressure, im- 
peded the operation of the instrument. An apparatus is 
therefore proposed, under the second head of this invention , 
which shall produce the effect with g.^ater facility* 

An auxiliary shaft, connected by wheel work with the 
going fusee or spring barrel, carries certain tappets, intended 
as they go round to act upon sliders which communicate 
with levers that raise or depress the parts called the forte 
and the piano keys, for the purpose of opening or closing 
those keys at such particular parts of the tune as may be 
required to be expressed either with particular force or 
peculiar softness. 

The third head of the invention applies to an additional 
set of dampers connected to those keys, which are worked 
by the rotation of the tappet barrel, and having no con- 
nexion with the dampers of those keys which are played 
by the iSngers. 

It is stated that when the dampers are allowed to strike 
the strings suddenly, as in the self-playing pianos here- 
tofore made, the notes finish with so much abruptness as 
to destroy the desired effect of expression and feeling in 
the music. To remedy this defect the Patentee attaches 
to the hinder part of each damper a weight, in order that 
as the damper rises in returning to stop the vibration of the 
string after every note, the gravity of the weight may par- 
tially retard its approach toward the string, and thereby 
cause the vibration to be gradually discontinued. — llnrolled 
in the Petty Bag Office, February, 1830.] 

[ 218 ] 

To Daniel Macdougall, of Edinburgh, horticulturist, 
for his invention of certain improvements on, or additions 
to syringes, applicable to garden and other purposes.-^' 
[Sealed 1 0th November, 1829.] 

The subject of this patent is a syringe, intended to be 
employed for washing the branches of shrubs in order to 
remove insects. It consists in attaching to the extremity of 
the syringe a bent tube with a perforated cap, by which 
water may be forced in the form of a shower upwards or 
sideways, for the purpose of washing the under parts of 
the branches and recesses between them, to which access 
might by any other means be difficult. 


I I MIII I l l l i I ||| | | |_[^-*"-»J»-^JJ-I^UIL>LimilJJLILILL».ULI. 

The above fig. represents a longitudinal section of the 
syringe, the cylindrical barrel and the piston of which are 
of the ordinary form and construction : a, is a bent tube 
attached to the end of the barrel, having a perforated cap- 
plate bj with a small valve in the middle opening outwards. 

By introducing this end of the tube with the valve into 
a vessel of water, and drawing the piston back, the barrel 
will become filled with water ; and then, by forcing the 
piston forward, the water will be expelled through the 
small holes in the perforated cap in the form of a shower, 
at an oblique angle to the direction of the piston. 

The claim of invention is the bent tube at the end, and 
the introduction of the valve in the cap or rose head.— 
{Inrolled^in the Inrolment Office, May, 1830.] 

C 219 ] 

To John Stewaet, of George-street, Eust on-square , in 
the county of Middlesex, piano-forte maker, for Ms 
having invented certain improvements on piano-fortes.^--^ 
[Sealed 2d November, 1829.] 

The improvement proposed under this patent is a slight 
variation in the form of some of the rods or levers which 
constitute what is called the action part of a piano-forte, 
and the introduction of a horizontal rail, upon which the 
fulcrum joints of such levers are intended to be supported. 
The advantages proposed from this variation or peculiarity 
of construction, are not pointed out in the specification, 
and are by no means obvious from an inspection of the 
drawing ; and as it would be impossible to give a just idea 
of the plan without exhibiting a section of the interior of 
ihe piano-forte with all its working parts, we trust that this 
notice of the invention will, in tlus instance, be considered 
suflScient. — Unrolled in the Inrolment Office, January, 

To Francis Naish, of Stoneaston^ near Wells, in the 
county of Somerset, gentleman, for his having invented or 
found out certain improvements ir^ the manufocture or 
application of silks, mixed or combined with other articles^ 
[Sealed 2d November, 1829.] 

The object of the Patentee is to combine soft waste silk 
with cotton or wool, or other fibrous material, for the pur- 
pose <rf^ manufacturing it into articles of wearing apparel 
and other fabrics. 

The refuse or floss silk rejected by the spinner is to be 
cut into short lengths by any convenient hand implement. 


Recent Patenis. 

and having been picked and sorted as to its colours, 
it js then to be chopped into short staple by a chopping 
machine of a particular construction* 

After this the silk is to be passed through another 
machine called a breaker, and then to be mixed with a 
suitable quantity of cotton or wool, or other fibrous mate- 
rial, in the machine called a tucl^er or devil, usually em- 
ployed for opening or separating the fibres of cotton and 

When the silk and other materials have; been thus mixed, 
they are ready to be operated upon by the scribbling and 
carding engine, and then by the slubbing billy and spinning 
jenny or throstle in the ordinary way of preparing yarns 
for the weaver. 

The onlv feature of novelty, however, which the Patentee 
proposes to claim under this patent, is the machine for 
chopping the silk into short staples, and that for breaking 
it afterward, bothiof which are so very imperfectly exhibited, 
in the rudely sketched perspective views which accompany 
the specification, that we are utterly unable to describe them. 

The apparatus called the chopping machine has a 

straight knife, intended to be moved up and down, as we 

-suppose, with a quick vibratory action ; but the means of 

.actuating it is not shown, neither is there any bed or bench 

.represented upon which the material is to pass under the 

knife, or any thing against which the knife is to chop. 

The representation of the breaking machine is equally 

defective ; we can simply understand that there is to be a 

revolving barrel with teeth or combs as it is expressed ; but 

in what manner these rotary teeth are to be brought into 

operation upon the material we are unable to explain. — 

[Inrolled in the Petty Bag Office^ January, 1830.] 


[ 221 ] 

To John Cowderoy, of Britannia-street ^ City-road, in 
the county of Middlesex, gentleman^ for his having in- 
vented certain improvements in machinery for making 
ftiicA:^.— [Sealed 2d November, 1829.] 

The general constroctiou of this bric^-making machinery 
resembles in its leadingjfeatures most of the other machines 
which have been projected for the same purpose, but the 
present has some peculiar parts designed for particular 
objects^ which we shall presently describe. 

The machine or engine consists of substantiaLside frames 
or standards of cast iron, in which are mounted the axles 
of transverse rollers carrying an endless chain, whereon a 
series of moulds are mounted^ in which the clay is to be 
pressed for forming the bricks. 

This endless chain, as the rotation of the rollers carries 
it forward, slides upon a. flat table firmly secured to the 
frammrork, ihe* table constituting the resisting surface 
against which the force is exerted in pressing the earth into 
the moulds. 

Above the series of travelling moulds^ a box or hopper is 
placed containing the brick earth, supplied thereto from a, 
barrow occasionally, which falls down into the moulds as 
they move onward, and, in their progress, passing under an 
inclined surface, the clay or brick earth becomes pressed 
firmly into the moulds, and is made smooth on their upper 
surfaces by a horizontal scraper. 

As the moulds travellii^ with the. endless chain arrive 
successively at that part of the machine ^here they pass 
down over the roller, the bricks are intended to drop out 
of their respective moulds on to an endless band, or creeping 
cloth extended over a pair of rollers, which creeping 
cloth is made to move progressively forward by gear, or 

Vol. IX. — Second Seribb. 2e 

222 Recent Patents. 

other suitable connexion, with the moving part of the 
engine ; and from this creeping cloth the bricks are suc- 
cessively taken by boys, and carried to the drying ground. 

The above shows the general construction and move- 
ments of the machine or engine for making bricks ; the 
following are the particular features of improvement. 

As there has always been found considerable difficulty^ 
from the adhesive nature of the clay, of discharging the 
bricks from the moulds, it is proposed that each mould 
shall be formed pf several pieces jointed together, which 
pieces are confined and held tight while the clay is preyed 
into the moulds, but are made to open when the moulded 
brick is to be discharged. The ends of the moulds there- 
fore are formed by pieces standing up perpendicularly from 
the joints of the chain, anji the sides of the moulds by 
pieces connected to the long links of the chain by hinges. 

When the moulds are passing along the horizontal table 
under the clay trough, the parts of the tnoulds are confined 
and held firmly together, but when they arrive respectively 
at that part where the chain passes down over the roller 
the ends of the moulds open radially, and the side pieces 
of the moulds fall back on their hinges. The new-moulded 
bricks are by these means released from their adhesion to 
the sides and ends of the moulds, and at the same time a 
small plunger in the bottom of each mould rising up, 
pushes the brick from its seat, and causes it to fall down 
on to the creeping cloth, as' before described. 

As it is necessary, in order to carry away the soft new- 
moulded bricks without injuring their form, to deposit 
each of the bricks as they fall from the mould upon a small 
square board, a considerable number of these square 
boards are placed one uppn another in an upright trough, 
from which they are to descend one at a time through the 

iJowderoi/s, for Impts. in making Bricks. 223 

bottom on to the endless band or creeping cloth, into 
suitable situations for receiving the bricks as they fall from 
the moulds. 

For the purpose, therefore, of delivering these boards 
singly and with regularity on to the creeping cloth, a square 
block is made to revolve under the trough which has a 
spring upon each of its four sides. These springs, as the 
block goes round, each take hold of a board as it descends 
and conduct it to an inclined plane, upon which the boards 
respectively slide down on to the creeping cloth. In this 
manner the boards are all regularly ranged upon the creep- 
ing cloth, ready, as the cloth moves on, to receive the 
bricks successively falling from the moulds. 

For the purpose of clearing the moulds from any por- 
tions of clay which may adhere to them, an apparatus is 
placed beneath the machine, by which water is thrown up 
against the interior of the moulds as they pass along after 
discharging the brick, and by which the moulds are 
wiped out. 

This apparatus consists of, first, a spring scoop placed 
in a vessel of water under the travelling moulds, against 
the outer end of which scoop a tappet wheel acts. As this 
tappet whfeel goes round, the end of the spring scoop is 
occasionally depressed, and then being suddenly let go, 
a portion of water is by the recoil of the scoop thrown 
upwards into the moulds. Immediately behind this a 
wheel carrying a series of sponges is kept in constant 
rotation ; which sponges, as the wheel revolves, wipe the 
interior of the moulds clean from any. clay that may have 
attached itself to their interiors. 

After each successive mould has proceeded beyond the 
washing and cleansing apparatus just described, a similar 
spring scoop is adapted for the purpose of throwing up dry 
sand from a sand box below against the moulds as they 


Recent Patents. 

pass ; which sand is intended to attach itself to the interior 
of the moulds for the purpose of preventing the adhesion 
of the clay thereto, when the moulds again pass under the 
hopper, and become charged with the material in continuing 
the operation of moulding the series of bricks in the way 
first described,— [/i?ro/fc<i in the Petty Bag Office, May, 

Here ends the Reports of all the Specifications of Patents 
for Inventions, granted previously to the year 1830. 

The whole number of Patents for Inventions granted in 
England from the beginning of the year 1820 to 1830, 
amounted to one thousand four hundred and forty-one ; 
and of ^these, from accident, or other causes, known only 
to the Patentees, the Specifications of seventy-one have 
not been inrolled in Chancery, as directed in each grant ; 
consequently, no accounts of those inventions can be 
given. The Patent rights, in those instances, have become 
null and void. 

The following are the numbers of Patents granted in 
the several years : — 

Specifications not inrolled 7 

. 5 

. 4 

. 2 

- 8 

- 15 
. 7 
. 6 
. 6 
. 11 



- 95 



- U5 



- 106 



. 136 



- 179 



. 2a: 



- 131 



- 150 



- 152 



. 130 

Cunning^bain and Salmon, Printers, Crown-court, FIeet*street» 



[ 225 ] 

Of IMftliDt 

That have passed the Great Seal in Ireland from the beginning of 

the Year 1820 to 1830. 

To Francis Fox, the younger, for a new improved method of facili- 
tating and ensuring the discharge of 6re-arms, — 12th January. 

— Israel Grundy and Edward and Josiah Neave, for an application 
of various gases to certain useful purposes. — 12th April. 

— William Brockedon, for an invention of certain improvements 
in wire-drawing. — 12th April. 

— William Mallett,for his invention of a lock with sliding guards.— 
23d May. 

— James Bristow Frazer and George Lilly, for improvements in 
propelling boats and other vessels. — 9th August. 

— William Kendrick, for improvements in tanning hides. — Hth 

— Samuel Fletcher, for improvements in saddles. — 14th August. 

— John Rider, for improvements in steam-engines. — 17th August. 

— Apsley Pellalt, for incrusting devices in glass. — 24th August. 

— Honourable William Erskine Cochrane, for improvements in the 
construction of lamps. — 9th September. 

— Robert Frith, for an invention of dyeing and printing colours 
on linen, calico, &c., so as to make the same permanent.-^ 10th 


— William Bruntin, for certain improvements in fire-grates. — 10th 

— Joseph Main, for improvements in preparing and spinning wool, 
cotton, silk, flax, &c. — 23d March. 

— «• Ilario Pellafinet, for an improvement of machinery for breakings 
bleaching, preparing, and spinning yarn, hemp^ flax, &c. — 18th 

— William Frederick CoUard, for an improvement in piano-fortes, 
— 4th May. 

Vor. IX., Second Serifs. 2 f 


S86 Irith Patents. 

To John Winter, for an tii||iirQv«aiilnt in chiiniiey tops.-^llth March. 
— - Phillips London, junior, for an improvement in the applicatipn of 
heat to coppers and other utensils. — 22d May. 

— John Leigh Bradbury, for a new method of engraving and 
etching metal rollers used for pnnfing, &c. — 15th June. 

— Samuel Hall, for an improvement in the manufacture of starch.-^ 
6th Augudt, 

— ftbben Satteon, Ibf &b kbptmwutm in th« coft^tmetidti of insini- 
iMnfil kfi the t^i^ ot hem^k and pr&klp6is.^-^h A^ti»t. 

— - John LetMbrridge^ for k new and improved method of d^tni«g 
gM ftom oil, &c. — 3ltft October. 

— Marquis of Chabannes, for a new tffode of attractmg lllid ttffebliig 
fiA.*— 8th Noveoiber. 

-» Thotftas M^st^rmim, foi^ maehtnery to he ta^^ed bjr steatn with^ 

out cylinder, pi^ft, tcc.-^26fh JsiiCisry. 
-^ tllomsil Morton, for a niethod of dtftggring sbip^ out of iv^ter on 

land. — 1st February. 

— Benry Robkison PaleMif, fcf iwiprotemcfiit^ ift (lie cotstfuction of 
rftihrays ot tom*road($, and of the catfiftges to be used thereon.*- 
1st February. 

— DoDftinique Pierre Deurtwrocq, for aft appartrttis for condenslmg 
the alcoholic steams arising from spiritaotts Hquof 6.— 26th June. 

— * John Toole, for improvements in plating iron or steel whh 
brass, copper, &c. — 26th June. 

— William Erskine Cochrane, for improvements in the construc- 
tion of lamps. — 26th June. 

— Pierre Erard, for improvements on the pedal hafp ISth 


— Bichavd Ormrod, for improvements in fte mode of heating 
liquors in boilers. — 18th October. 

— Pietre Erwd, ftjr impr overaents in piano-fortes and other keyed 
jusCraniatts^ — 1 4th December. 

— Wiffiam Oekid, fcr an improved apparattts for evaporating 
liquors, — ^Janaary. 

Irish Patmf9. 987 

To Sir Anthony Perrier^ for a^ af^paratus for distilliDgf*-*!^^ 

-^ John Barlowy for improvements in the mtnn&cture of gajt, but 

particularly from peat or turf. 
-^ James Foic, % improvement^ in apparatus for di8tiUatiop*-^6tb 

-« Jacob Perkins, for improvements in steam-engities.—- 6th June. 

— William Lister, for improvements in spinning wool, siUc, mo* 
hair, &c. — 6th June, 

— Robert Winter, for an improved iibethod of conducting the pro- 
cess of distillation* — Ist August. 

— Joseph WooUamsy for an improvement in wheeled carriages. — 
1st August. 

— Robert Mushett, fqr an improvement in copper for sheathing of 
ships. — 1st August. 

— Philip Chelly for improvements in drawing and roving and 
spinning hemp, flax, &c.— 7th August. 

— Charles Mackintosh, for rendering flaxi wool, cott4>ni silk, 
leather, kc, impervious to water. — 15th August. 

— John Leigh Bradbury, for improvements in printing, pointing, 
and staining ulks, cottons^ &c. — 27th September. 

— William Wigston, for improvements in steam-engine9«~-^th 

— John Greene, for improvements in machines for fovitig and 
spinning cotton, flax, silki and other fibrous sub9tancos.?-*-5th 

-^ Samuel HaU« for improyementa in lace^ nets muslin, &c.— »8th 

— Richard Roberti^ for improvements in machines for weaving 
plain and figured cloths. — 12tb December. 

— Joseph Rogerson Cotter, for improvements on musical instru- 
monts.-r-24th December. 


-rr Thomas Bewley» for improvements in wheel(»d carriag^.**^5tb 

888 Irish Patents. 

To Louis John Pouche, for improvements in casting and making 
metal type. — 19th February. 

— Charles Anthony Dean, for an apparatus for extinguishing fire 
or extricating property therefrom. — 25th February. 

— John Foster Gimson, for improvements in doubling and twist- 
ing cotton, silk, &c. — 25th February. 

— William Fumival and Alexander Smithy for an improved boiler 
for steam-engines and other purposes. — 19th April. 

— Francis Gybbon Spilsbury, for improvements in farming.-^ 
29th April. 

— John Malam, for improvements in gas apparatus. — 29th June. 

— Jean Jacques Saintmairc, for improvements in distilling. — 10th 

— Thomas Gethan, for improvements in metallic plates, rollers, 
pipes, &c. — 12th July. 

— Daniel Tonge, for improvements in reefing sails. — 12th July. 

— John Crossby, for improvements in the construction of lamps 

and lanterns, for the better prevention of li^ht against wind. 


— John Viney, for improvements in water-closets.— 27th Sept. 

— Jephtha A^pry Wilkinson, for improvements for manufacturing 
weavers' reeds by water and other power. — 2d October. 

— Robert Lloyd and James Rowbotham, for improvements in hats. 
— 2d October. 

— John George Bodmer, for improvements in cleansing, carding, 
&c., cotton. — 7th October. 

— George Vaughan, for improvements in steam-engines. 7th 


— James Easton, for a machine for breaking, scutching, and pre*^ 
paring fiax, &c. — 5th November. 



— William Busk, for improvements in propelling ships' boats, 
&c. — 7th March. 

— Josiah Parfcs, for a certain method of manufacturing salt. 7th 


Irish Patents. 239 

To Pierre Jean B. V. Gosset, for improvements in looms for 
weaving.— 22d March. 

— John Heathcoat, for improvements in manufacturing silk^ for 
weaving. — 22d March. 

— William Weston Young, for improvements in the manufacture 
of salt.— 30th March. 

'- — John Bellingham, for improvements in the use of gas for illumi- 
nation. — 16th April. 

— Thomas Masterman^ for an apparatus for bottling wine, beefi 
&c. — 16th April. 

— John Masterman, for an improved method of corking bottles. — 
15th April. 

— John Phipps and Christopher Phipps, for improvements in 
machinery for making paper. — 16th April. 

«- David Gordon, for improvements in the construction of portable 

gas lamps. — 2d May. 
— - James Hanmer Baker, for improvements in the art of dyeing 

and calico printing. — 16th May. 

— William Furnival, for improvements in the manufiaicture of 
salt. — 16th May. 

— James Surrey, for a new method of applying hefct for the pro- 
duction of steam. — 20th April. 

— John Potter, for improvements in looms to be impelled by me- 
chanical power. — 14th June. 

-— Charles Mackintosh, for a new process in making steel. — 14th 

-— Abraham Henry Chambers, for improvements in paving horse 

and carriage ways.— 18th June. 

— Simeon Broadmeadow, for improvements in manufacturing and 
purifying inflammable gas, by the introduction of atmospheric air. 
— 18th June. 

— Samuel Browne, for an engine for effecting a vacuum for 
raising water, and for putting machinery in motion. — 18th 

— William Chell, for improvements in drawing, roving, and spin- 
ning flax, wools, &c.*-18th June. 


99Q IrUh PatenU. 

To WiQiam HarringtoOf for an improyed raft for transferring tim- 
ber. — 20th June. 

'wr lUchard Badnfdly for improvements in windings doubliDg» %^ 
silk, W00I9 cotton, &c. — 20th June. 

— * George Augustus Lamb, IX^D., for a new composition of m^t 
hops. — 30th June. 

-»*< John lieigh Bradbury, for a new mode of twistbg, spinning^ pr 
throwing silk, cotton, &c.— 1st July. 

^^ Charles Ogilvy, for an apparatus for storing gas. — 15tb July. 

— Benjamin Rotch, for an improved fid for upper masts of ships* 
vessels, &c.— 22dJMly. 

— Cornelius Whitehouse, for improvements in manufacturing 
tubes for gas, &c. — 6th August, 

— Timothy Burstall and John Hill, for a locomotive or steam car- 
riage. — I6tb August 

— Walter Hancock, for improvements in pipes or tubes for the 
passage of fluids. — 16th August. 

— William Grimble, for improvements in the construction of an 
apparatus for distilling of spirituous liquors. — 20th August. 

— James Tullock, for improvements in machinery for sawing 
marble,-— 7th September. 

— Ralph Cordner, for the combination of an apparatus for washing 
and bleaching by steam, with other agents. — 7th September. 

— John Charles Christopher Raddatz, for improvements in, or 
. connected with steapci-engines.— 33d September. 

— William Mason^for improvements in axle-trees. — 23d SepteiQ^r. 
•*^ Edmond Jordin, for a new mode of obtaining power appligaUe 

to machinery. — 30th September. 
«-^ Maurice de Jongby for improvements iq spinning machines* 
-p-30th September. 

— Richard Roberts, for improvements in machmery for spipning* 
— ^SOth September. 

-r— Thomas Dwyer, for improvements in the manufiwJture of but- 
tons. — lOlh October. 

— John Wilks and John Baroyd, for an engine for cutting naili^ 
sprigs, and sparables, — 1st Ifovember. 


tb CteorgS HtttUa^i f^ \fkptm(Uikt\aL\& in th« edtuttitieti6& ilft^ dp- 
plication of wheels.— 32d Nortistobei'. 

^ John Mftrliii H iuiohett and Jdii^h Deli^e^ ^ i6)prb¥«»]^nts 
in loo(MI.^^2&th N<Hr«ixber. 

•^ Bimjaoiifl Anders, lb# iitij^vefoents in oi>nsH*ndtihg dr making 
buttons. — 29th Decemb^. 


— Jc^it Bowkfr and Thotnas Gibdon, f&c ah impi^iittietit iti the 

manufacture of hats. — 17th January. 

— James Bjrthe Waynman, for impfo^elnefita in the matiufacture 
of hat bordei9.-^9th February. 

-^ George T)ionipM>a» for improirem^ftt» in the constmction of 
riding saddles, — 1 1th February. 

— Thomas Steely for imptovements in th« construcmm! of divitig 
bells. — 24th February. 

— Alexander Lamb and WiUiam SoCtd), fbr iffiprovements m 
machinery for preparing, roving, drawing, &e.9 dax, heffip, silk, 
ftc— 22d March. 

— John Harvey Sadler, for an improved power loom for weaving 
^Ik, cotton, &d. — 21M March. 

•— Jean Jacques Saintmairc, for improvements in th« proees6 of 
distilling.— 22d March. ' ' 

— John Frederick Smithy for improvements in madrbiery for cord- 
ing, roving, drawing, &c., wool, cotton, Stc. — 22d March. 

-^ ifenry Ik^kiswortb, junior, for improvements in winding bob* 

bins, &c.— 22d March. 
-^ Francis Molineux, for improvements in machinery for spinning 

and twisting silk, wool, &c — ,20th May. 
^^ NidiokLs Hegesippi Maniclor, for anew preparation of fktty ^ab^ 

stance for the purpo8«f d afiording bgliA. — 30th Marjr. 
^ John Stephen iJKigtcm, for a new mode of seasonteg timber and 

other wood. — 14th June. 
--* Joseph Alexander Taylor, for a new^ polishing appsrattis for 

hoosehDld purposes.-^ Idth Jnly. 
•«« Tinotby BnnrtaQ «nd John E^ fbr ^ locofoottfe iiid^m«eti^« 

232 Irish Patents, 

To Marquis de Combio» for improvementls in the cot^lmctioii of 

rotatory steam-engines.— 4th Septemiber. . 
•— Thomas Cooke, for improvemeiits in the coihstriiction:of car- 

riages and on harness to be used therewkh, ' whereby gi^ter 

safety to the persons riding in siaeh carriages and other ad^n-. 

tages will be obtained. — 4th September. 

— Edmund Luscombe, for a method of manufacturing or prepar- 
ing an oil or oils extracted from certain vegetable substances, 
and the application thereof to gas light and other purposes. — 
4th September. 

— - Richard Mee Raike^ for a metliod of applying steam without 
pressure to pans, boilers, coppers, stills, pipes, and. machinery, in 
order to, produce, transmit, and. regulate various temperatures of 
heat in the several processes of boiling, distilling, evaporating, 
inspissating, drying, and warming, and also to produce power. — 
7th November. 

•— Samuel Browne, for certain improvejuents on his former patent 
for an engine or instrument for effecting a vacuum, and thus pro- 
ducing a power by which water may be raised and machinery 
put in motion. — .8th December. . . 

— James Kay, for improvements for ^spinning hemp, &e. — 9th 



— Theodore Jones, for an improvement or improvements on- 
wheels for carriages. — 8th January. 

— John Oldham, for certain improvements in the construction of 
wheels designed for driving machinery, which are to be im- 
pelled by water or by wind, and H^ich said improvements are 
also applicable to propelling boats and other ves^ls.— •2d April. 

-— John Frederick Daniel, for. certain improvements in the manu- 
facture of gas for, the purposes of illumination. — 1st May. 

— Hf nry Charles Lacy, for a new apparatus on which to suspend 
carriage bodies. — 1st May. 

-r Dominique Pierre . Deurbrocq, for an apparatus adapted to cool 
worts or must, previous to its being sent to undergo the process of 
fermentation, 4Lnd also for the purpose of condensing the steam 
arismg #om stills during the process of distill9tion.-*-7th May. 


Irish Patents. 233 

To William Mallett, for portable iron beds. — 21st May. 

*— John FoUock, for a method of manufectaring gas, lit for illumi- 
natifkg purposes from rosin, and producing a residuum, from 
which spirits of turp<^tine and pitch are extracted.— 2nd June. 

-^ William Nicholson and Charles Barwell Coles^ for a new 
method of constructing gasometers or machines, or apparatus, 
for holding and distributing gas for the purpose of illumination, 
— 16th June. 

— Robert Stirling and James Stirling, for certain improvements 
in air-engines for the moving of machinery.— 20th June. 

— Morton William Laurence, for an improvement in the process 
of refining sugar. — 24th J URe. * 

— Francis Halliday, for certain improvements on engines or ma- 
chinery, to be actuated by steam ; which improvements^ with or 
without the aid of steam, are applicable to the raising or forcing 
of water.— 24th June. 

— William Wilmot Hall, for an engine for moving and propelling 
ships, boats, carriages, mills, and machinery of every kind. — 
11th July. 

— Robert Moore, for certain improvements in the process of pre- 
paring and cooling worts or wash from vegetable substances for 
the production of spirits. — 13th September. 

— ^ Robert Moore, for certain processes for rendering distillery 
refuse productive of spirits. — 13th September. 

— John Patterson Reid, for an improvement or improvements on 
power-looms for weaving cloth of v&rious kinds.— 21st Sept. 

-i^ Walter Hancock, for an improvement or improvements upon 
steam-engines. — 23d October. 

— Joseph Tilt, for certain knprovemenis in the boilers used for 
making salt, commonly called sail-pans, and in the mode of ap- 
plying heat to the brine. — 10th December. 

— Solomon Robinson, for improvements in machinery for hackling 
or dressing and ekaning hemp, flax, and tow. — 10th December. 

. Lambert Dexter, for certain improvements in machinery for the 

purpose of spinning wool^ cotton, and other Rbrous .substances. — 
10th December* 

Vol. IX.^Secomd Sebxbs. to 

931 . Irtsh Patents. 

I f 


To Count de la Garde» for improvement in machinery hr oreaKing 
or.preparinf^ hemp, flax, and other fbrouB materiaifs, wtitcii he 
denominates ^*The Rural Mechanical Brake."*^4th January. 

«-« Bennet Woodcroft^ for certain processea and apparatus for 
printing and preparing for manufacture 3ranit of linen, cotton, 
•ilk, woollen, or any other fibrous matwiaL — 11th Februiaty- 

— Thomas Bonnor, for certain improvements on Bafety-lainps.— 
, 29th February. 

— Peter Humphrys, for an apparatus or mode for the aaving of 
fuel in U^ boiling and heating df liquids.— -3d April.* 

— Robert Stein, for an ibiprovement in applying heat to the pur- 
pose of distillation. — 22d July. 

.. — John Bay lay Hatnniet, fpr certain improvements in ibur- 

, wheeled carriages iq a new application of springs ^above or below 
the axle-trees, and has invented a newly<-constructed hindermost 

, and fore*<jarriage.— 22d July. ^ 

^ — Sir J^es Anderson and William Henry James, for certain im- 
provements in the construction of steam -carriages^ and in the 
apparatus or machinery for propelling the said carriages ; part 
of which improvements are applicable to other useful purposes. 
— 22d July. 

;-— Mathew Bush, for certain improvements .on the machinery or 
apparatus for printing calicoes and other fabrics. — 22d July. 

— Joshua Jenour, junior, for a cartridge or case, and method of 
more advantageously enclosing therein shot or other missiles for 
th^ pp{)Qse of loading fire-arms and guns of different desorip-* 
tions. — 25th August. 

7— James Beaumont Neilson, for an iavention of the improved ap« 
plication of air to produce heat in *fir^, forges^ and furnaces, 
where bellows or other blowing apparatus are reqttired«-^22d 

. 1829. 

^ • • • 

-^ William Strachanj for an imprcureju^ent in. the making or. maiu*- 
factur^ of alum^;-;^24tb Mgrc^ . ; .> • / ./ . 

— G)unt de la Garde, for a method of making paper ofv vaUiiMLis 

,t .: . « 'i, : . < . , la / 

Irish Patents 235 

descriptions from the bullen or ligneous part produced from 
certain textile plants, and in the process of preparing the same 
textile plants by the rural mechanical brake, and which sub- 
stances are to be employed alone or mixed with other suitable 
materials in the manufacture of paper. — 24th March. - 
To Granville Sharp Pattison, for a new and improved method of 
applying iron in the sheathing of ships and other vessels, and of 
applying iron bolts, spikes, nails, pintles, braces, and other 
fastenings, used in the construction of ships and other vessels. — 
8th April. 

— Maurice de Jongh, for an improvement or improvements in ma- 
chines, adapted for spinning, doubling, twisting, roving, and 
preparing cotton and other fibrous substances. — 25th May. 

— Samuel Hall, for a method and apparatus for generating steam 
aud various gases to produce motive power, and for other useful 
purposes. — 8th July. 

— John Lihou, for an improved method of constructing ships' 
pintles for hanging the rudder. — 18th August. 

— Joshua Bates, for a new process or method for whitening 
sugars. — 18th December. 

— Joshua Bates, for an improved method of constructing steam- 
boilers or generators, whereby the bulk of the boilers or gene- 
rators and consumption of fuel are considerably reduced. — 18th 








\ /•#.* 


















■^.:/„,„„^. //.,///,^^ 

"1^ '/ ''b^--//\^ 

» y ^f " »l / / A 

l^»», /feyu(;w^ UU,,,', 


■ .!-2o^M. y^..-Aj//u-:/i^mi.^^/ti'i'i' 

,-^^<.t,> i(->Wu/i«y J^yi '■■ 

.__7U-u^)/uJ^-- /uiA '"^'^'^^^:^' 

yi L,.^ . 

JC^^^ ■ M^^.Jf^r^: 



#* -I 


d£,M^ cJLa /f 








c/)i^?^cfz^ .Jy>^L 


^ i^^^vj 



' n^^ 

.* • •*■ 

w 6 w 


I t